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tv   Focus on Europe  PBS  March 28, 2017 12:30am-1:01am PDT

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>>hello and welcome to focus oneurope. we live in an age whee established democratic valueslike freedom of expression and freedom of the press suddenlyseem to be under threat. in turkey, journalists riskimprisonment to have their voices istanbul, the german-turkish journalist deniz yud-shel wasrecently arrested. he is charged with propaganda insupport of a terrorist organization and incitingviolence. protests against his detainmenthave been staged all across germany."of course, it is very important that the german governmentintervenes massively and supports german citizens andensures justice", says this
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woman.deniz yud-shel is only one of many journalists caught up inthe government crackdown. since last summer's failed coup,more than 150 reporters hae been put in the name of national security, hundreds were removedfrom their jobs, and many media companies shut a result, their families are being forced into yonca, whose writer husband has been in detention for threemonths. >>yonca is worried: since theend of december, her husband, journalist ahmet sik has beenincarcerated. he's accused of having spread'terror propaganda' via statements made online and inreports for the opposition daily newspaper 'cumhuriyet'.for example, he interviewed a leading member of the kurdistanworkers' party, the pk, a terror organization. >>he knows he has beenimprisoned for political makes them very angry.
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>>sik is an investigativejournalist who does not mince words. in 2011 and 2012, he wasimprisoned for 13 months. the reason?he had written a book about the influence the movement ofislamic preacher fet-hullah gulen had on the turkishgovernment. >>well, in this book, you cansee that he's a harsh critic of the gulen movement, and in thisbook, he wrote how members f the gulen network have beenorganizing themselves within the police and also the state.that's why he was convicted. >>back then, gulen and turkishpresident reccep tayyip erdogan were still, erdogan accuses the islamic preacher of being behindthe july 2016 coup attemp. even though sik clearly warnedagainst gulen, he's now in jail once again.his wife,who grew up in germany, now worries whether or not hewill ever be freed.
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more than 150 journalists arecurrently in prison in turke. hundreds are in financialdifficulties. faruk eren was a televisionjournalist until recently. an active unionist, he is nowcharged with terrorist propaganda.he is still free, but cannot work.the family man now has serious financial problems. >>my wife used to teach at theuniversity, but she's been laid off.we try to get by, but the money isn't enough. we have debts.relatives are helping us, but now we have to sell our house. >>at the opposition dailynewspaper "cumhuriyet," we visit the paper's attorney, torapekin, together with ahmet sik's wife, yonca.pekin is fighting for sik's freedom.but because the trial is ignoring due process, theattorney says there's hardly anything he can do right now.pekin described a bizarre
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initial hearing with the stateprosecutor. >>ahmet asked the stateprosecutor which of his statements were 'terrorpropaganda'. this was not answered.instead, the prosecutor claimed it was perceived as 'terrorpropaganda' as a whole." it's unclear what will happenwith ahmet. since he's been in prison, yoncadoesn't have a high opinion about turkey.then she reminds herself that all her friends and family livehere. she does not want to give up. >>we don't know of any otherlifen except to fight this and for democracy.the light shines within us. and we should believe in it.after all, we're right. >>in fact, even though manyturkish opposition supportes believe they're right, they fearthat only one man in the country will soon decide on whetherjustice will prevail. >>this mass jailing ofjournalists comes as the turkish
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people have a referendum inapril to grant more executive powers to the presidentat a time when a free and vigilant press is needed morethan ever. lida is proud of her country andwilling to do what she thinks is necessary to fight for itsfreedom. even if that means overthrowinga democratic government. the 24-year-old is part of agrowing number of young women n ukraine who are frustrated atthe ongoing conflict with pro-russian separatists in theeast. she and others have chosen tojoin one of the most famous volunteer battalions, the azov.the group is known for ther fierceness and ultranationalistviews. ukraine above all! death to our enemies! >>the azov movement holding aprotest march outside the justice building in kyev,calling for the dismissal of corrupt judges.among the protesters is
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24-year-old lida pyetsela, whojoined azov relatively recently. she was attracted by themovement's aggressive stance in its fight for political goals.lida is from donetsk, but fled to kyiv when the war broke outin 2014. she had a patriotic up-bringing.she was first introduced to azov while at a youth vacation camp.lida: i was working with children at a was run jointly by the government and azov. >>and now, lida works for azovin their youth activities department."azov" was founded in the spring of 2014 after conflict eruptedin the donbass region. with the regular army soonout-gunned by the pro-russin separatists, volunteer militiasformed in support. azov came to prominence aftertaking back the port city f mariupol from pro-russianforces. since then, its members haveenjoyed a reputation as touh
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fighters -- with ultra-rightaffiliations. lida hears from a colleague thata new batch of recruits will be beginning training today. >>offen stehen lassen! >>the chants glorify theirrace, and celebrate the call of blood.the new arrivals go through their first exercise drills onthis training ground in kyiv. azov has a fighting force ofaround 1500 men. the battalion has since beenincorporated into the ukrainian national guard -- and as suchtakes orders from the interior azov hq, fascist symbols also previously used by the nazis,such as the black sun, are everywhere you look.lida isn't bothered, insisting the icons are actually a lotolder. lida: where did they get thosesymbols from in the 1940s? they weren't all new.sometimes it's easier to adopt something that already exists.
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>>an exercise in beingeconomical with the truth. the founder of azov likewisevehently denies that his organization has far-righttendencies. andriy: to left-wingers andliberals in the west, just having basic conservative valuesis enough to be classified as a be honest, i really don't care what my enemies call me. >>"enemies" is also how he sumsup the entire political establishment in ukraine.azov has also founded its own party -- officially distinctfrom the batallion. right-wing parties and groupsmarching to parliament in the capital, to vent their anger atthe government. azov's founder is the undisputedleader of the movemen. azov intends to unite allright-wing elements in the country -- regardless of howextreme.
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and in parliament, which he waselected to in 2014, biletsky has threatened other parties.andriy: we will summon up the courage, strength anddetermination to dissolve ths parliament. take my word for it!we have gathered here to begn the fight for power. >>political scientist andreasumland has been following the rise of the neo-nazi scene inukraine. a coup by ultra-right militias,he says, is not currently a threat.andreas: some of these groups have retained their earlierfar-right symbolism and probably the ideas too -- and that is aproblem. if and when peace should return,it should be possible to change that. >>but by then the militantright may well have seen their ranks swell.lida organizes holiday camps for children and teenagers -- wherethey are also exposed to
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far-right literature.lida: the ten rules of ukrainian nationalists focus on ukraine,spirit, and brotherhood -- the 12 characteristics of aukrainian. among them -- bravery, a heathlylifestyle, discipline, ad hatred of enemies.the azov movement's principles appeal to young women and menalike with an interest in working out and fighting fortheir country. fertile breeding ground for theazov leadership and its radical political goals. >>do you ever dream of owningyour own farm? of having the pick of thefreshest produce? but could you withstand the backbreaking work that comes wih it?now you can play a role in the farm to table process withouthaving to leave the comforts of home.thanks to a pair of brothers in valencia, spain, that dreamcould come true. ♪ >>orange trees as far as theeye can see -- this is the
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naranjas del carmen plantationon spain's mediterranean coast. this plantation lay fallow formany years. many citrus farmers in thevalencia region had thrown in the towel.but in the middle of the financial crisis, gonzalo andgabriel urculo ventured a new beginning.they call it their orange revolution.gonzalo: in europe today, we waste about 100 million tons offood a year. that's a third of the totalproduction. that's why we harvest only inaccordance with demand. the oranges we pick from thetrees today will be in the homes of the people who ordered themin two days. >>the two brothers sell onlydirectly to consumers, through the internet.with a cell phone or computer, customers all over europe canorder oranges right off the
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tree.that sounds easy, but it isn't always. gabriel: in agriculture,everything proceeds slowly. you can't force nature to makethe fruits bigger or make them ripen faster.but the internet is a fast sales channel and people are used togetting things from one day to the first, it was quite a challenge for us to connectthese two worlds. >>they've now got their routinedown pat. at harvest time, the urculossend 10,000 kilos of oranges a day to customers in eucountries. and sales are increasing.germany is the brothers' most important market.the two spaniards have now taken another step forward.anyone can become part of their orange revolution by buying asapling by mouse click.
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they've patented thiscrowdfarming idea. each virtual farmer has a claimto part of his or her trees yield and can follow the tree'sgrowth on the farm's website. gabriel: crowdfarming allowspeople who live in big cities far away from nature to live outtheir inner farmer or gardener. through us, they own their ownlittle piece of nature in spain. >>but the brothers' new ideashaven't only made them friends. the big supermarket chains seethe crowdfarming in the orane grove as a threat.gonzalo: it's obvious that some see us as an irritant.we are still small, but this direct connection betweenconsumer and grower already angers some companies that maketheir money as middlemen.
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but i think there is room foreveryone. >>operations are expanding fastat the naranjas del carmen plantation, which now has ayoung team of 30 employees from 9 different countries.and the orange revolution has only just begun. >>we are still in the midst ofwinter here in europe. and in greece, refugees livingin ill equipped camps are suffering more than exception is camp inofeeta. whose inhabitants are warm, haveplenty of food and jobs. what sets this camp apart fromthe others? here, the refugees are incharge. >>an industry is developing atthe oinofyta camp -- slowly, but surely.around 600 people have been living and working here for 9months. here they're not called 'refugees', they're 'residents'.oinofyta is like a little
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village.adam land has come from the uk to teach carpentry to the peoplehere. but he says they're alreadybetter at it than he is. adam: people have been buildingstuff for their food distribution, for their tailor'sroom, for the sewing room. people have been building thingsfor their own rooms. so i try to encourage people toimprove their own space rather than relying on buying things. >>then we meet nesar radin.the trained microbiologist fled afghanistan with his wife andfour children after they were threatened and persecuted.he's been here for half a year. his wife and two of his childrenmanaged to get to germay recently.nesar works as a coordinator and interpreter at oinofyta.he proudly shows us the camp's 100 hens. nesar: it's raining.they are maybe in their home. they are laying eggs when theweather is warm. >>whether it's looking afterthe chickens or distributing
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food, the residents look afterthemselves. everyone here is expected toassume some responsibility. nesar says it gives them a senseof purpose. nesar: when they come and givetheir papers to be registerd in the camp, we ask them: what didyou do? what's your profession? what's your job. >>this old factory has beendivided into small living the end of the hall is the sewing's run by a young afghan. niaomh convery, from the uk, isjust helping with the coordination.niaomh: but when we started to work on them people's attitudescompletely changed. i mean, we just love doing it.i love working with them and everyone's really the momen,t we're, like, working too much and we're like:come on everyone, it's time to go it's a really great feeling, yeah. >>these young men hope that theskills they're employing here will help them create new liveselsewhere.
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ka-ees from afghanistan saysthat he's happy just to have something sensible to do withhis time. kais: because the countries needtailors, doctors, and they'e even built a school for thechildren. >>if qualified teachers becomeresidents here, they'll be expected to give instructionthemselves. two of nesar's sons are pupilshere. he's considering teaching farsihimself. he knows the value of a goodeducation -- and tries to convince others.nesar: i advise them, i tell them that you should send yourchildren to school. but it's >>so there are parents whodon't want to let them. nesar: they want, but someparents in every country thy are a little bit lazy. >>oinofyta is co-managed byamerican non-profit organization "do your part."lisa campbell, one of its founders, is in charge offundraising. the group aims to help peoplehere retain their dignity and become self-sufficient again.lisa: it's a concept that i've
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tried to spread to other areas,but you know bureacracy ad people's ideas.they want to build camps. and, for me, i want to build acommunity. >>nesar's work day is done.he lives here with his sons said and sohail.many things in this room remind him of his wife.for the past few weeks, she's been living with the couple'stwo youngest children in trier. nesar, said and sohail dream ofjoining them in germany, they're diligently learning german. >>das fenster ist auf.stefanie ist hier. stefanie is here. >>nesar radin likes the wayoinofyta is run. he enjoys being a role model andassuming responsibility -- in the camp and for his two sons.but sometimes he still feas for his family's future.nesar: i'm afraid if they return
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my family back to greece, idon't know what to do. if i go back to afghanistan,it's impossible. i mean, i can't parents, friends. >>are your parents still inafghanistan? nesar: yes. >>a feeling of ownership is thefirst step in transforming refugees into residents who feelincluded in their new society. ♪ >>in today's segment of ourseries on europe's mountains, we take you to russia.high up in the urals, a david versus goliath battle is takingplace.
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a small buddhist monastery hastaken on a steel corporation. the monks fear that they willdestroy their way of life bt locals say the planned miningwill provide much needed jobs. our reporter, juri reschetotalks to both sides. >>in shad chup ling, morningbegins with meditation. in a cloister high on mountkatchkanar, we meet with young buddhists, men and women wholive in accordance with buddha's teachings.this guy has been peacefully meditating here for 20 years.but the peace and quiet could soon be disturbed, because themountain here contains iron ore and the lure of profits for thesteel industry at the foot of mount katchkanar.the temple, and the whole mountain, is in danger.michail: this mountain is five
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and a half billion years one has the right to own it. i've been living here for solong. so i'm staying here. up to now, only blocks of iceare crushed here daily -- for water to make tea.but soon machines could be brought here to demolish thebuddhist temple and dig for iron.the monks and nuns are resolved to remain calm.especially this man, whom they respectfully call lama.michail sannikow founded this holy spot 20 years ago.but the congregation is not officially recognized.[murmuring] >>most buddhists in russia arepart of the ethnic community of
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the buryats in siberia or livein the altai range at the mongolian border, but not herein the urals. the authorities regard theresidents of shad chup ling s illegal squatters who will haveto leave mount katchkanar soon. master sannikow responds to thisas his faith teaches him. michail: buddhism teaches us toaccept things as they are. so if you encounter a badperson, maybe you only think he's bad.he could be a good family man. a great dad.or a fantastic lover. or simply have really snazzyshoes! something about him has to begood. >>but the monks and nuns don'tthink it would be a good thing to destroy mount katchkanar.they say the iron ore deposits
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aren't rich enough to feed the40,000 residents of the city of katchkanar at the foot of themountain for years. the steel manufacturer and thelocal government disagree. minerals have been mined in thisregion for more than fifty one here can imagine a life without mining.konstantin: when i was still in hope to keep it.otherwise, i'd have to leave the city or turn to crime to getmoney. i don't have any other choice.i have to feed my family.
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>>the mined ore is immediatelycrushed, separated, concentrated, and sent to thegigantic steel plants in nizhni tagil in the central uralmountains. without freshly mined ore,production ceases, and with it revenues and jobs.that's why the steel industry regards the disappearance of thebuddhist temple as a done deal. anatolij: we think in purelymaterial categories. we don't have anything againstthe people up there! they're simply illegal.that's all. >>in only a few weeks, thatcould mean the end of buddhism here. the monks and nuns aren'tconsidering moving. they believe in the holy paththat leads to their temple. they believe they mustn't leaveit, but must keep calm and carry on meditating.michail: there is nothing more
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valuable than our ideas, ourthinking. and there are the buddhistteachings. the buddhist teachings help usput things together and understand things. >>for now, buddha is stillgazing peacefully into the distance, but a storm is brewingand will soon be here. >>they say that faith can movemountains. in this case, we will see if itmoves mountains or keeps them as they are.thank you for watching. in the meantime, goodbye.
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steves: gibraltar stands like a fortress, a gateway to the mediterranean. a stubborn little piece of old england, it's one of the last bits of a british empire that at one time controlled a quarter of the planet.
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the rock itself seems to represent stability and power. and as if to remind visitors that they've left spain and entered the united kingdom, international flights land on this airstrip, which runs along the border. car traffic has to stop for each plane. still, entering gibraltar is far easier today than back when franco blockaded this border. from the late 1960s until the '80s, the only way in was by sea or air. now you just have to wait for the plane to taxi by, and bob's your uncle. the sea once reached these ramparts. a modern development grows into the harbor, and today half the city is built upon reclaimed land. gibraltar's old town is long and skinny, with one main street. gibraltarians are a proud bunch, remaining steadfastly loyal to britain. its 30,000 residents vote overwhelmingly to continue as a self-governing british dependency.
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within a generation, the economy has gone from one dominated by the military to one based on tourism. but it's much more than sunburned brits on holiday. gibraltar is a crossroads community with a jumble of muslims, jews, hindus, and italians joining the english, and all crowded together at the base of this mighty rock. with its strategic setting, gibraltar has an illustrious military history, and remnants of its martial past are everywhere. the rock is honeycombed with tunnels. many were blasted out by the brits in napoleonic times. during world war ii, britain drilled 30 more miles of tunnels. the 100-ton gun is one of many cannon that both protected gibraltar and controlled shipping in the strait. a cable car whisks visitors from downtown to the rock's 14,000-foot summit. from the top of the rock, spain's costa del sol arcs eastward,
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and 15 miles across the hazy strait of gibraltar, the shores of morocco beckon. these cliffs and those over in africa created what ancient societies in the mediterranean world called the pillars of hercules. for centuries, they were the foreboding gateway to the unknown. descending the rock, whether you like it or not, you'll meet the famous apes of gibraltar. 200 of these mischief-makers entertain tourists. and with all the visitors, they're bold, and they get their way. yeah? you can have it. you can -- you can -- you can -- here on the rock of gibraltar, the locals are very friendly, but give them your apples. legend has it that as long as these apes are here, the british will stay in gibraltar.
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