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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  March 30, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: down to the wire. iran nuclear weapons talks intensify in the 11th hour. good evening, i'm judy woodruff. gwen ifill is away. also ahead this monday: nigeria on edge. africa's largest economy awaits final results in a presidential election still too close to call. plus, testing for implicit bias and prejudice. a science laboratory studies human instinct to uncover the subtlety of racism. >> sreenivasan: in this test, i had under a second to decide whether or not to shoot the person that flashed on screen- based on just one thing- whether or not they were holding a gun.
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sometimes the men were white, sometimes they were black. >> woodruff: plus... >> the disease has been with us as long as we have been here as human beings. >> woodruff: a monumental documentary on the emperor of all maladies. we sit down with ken burns and doctor sidhartha mukherjee about their new film on cancer. >> this is a kind of state of the world report on answer and you have to know it because it's going to come into your life whether you want to it or not. >> woodruff: and... >> we are now going from probing space to moving away from earth. >> woodruff: what it's like to live out of this world, as the first american kicks off an entire year on the international space station. we talk to astronaut chris hadfield. >> it is really going to help us not only understand space flight for long-term flight, for going from here to the moon and mars and beyond but also just understand the subtle changes that happen within the body and
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teach us inherently about human physiology. >> woodruff: those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: ♪ ♪ ♪ moving our economy for 160 years. bnsf, the engine that connects us. >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer.
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>> and the william and flora hewlett foundation, helping people build immeasurably better lives. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> woodruff: wall street came out of the gate today in a mood to run. stocks surged ahead in part based on upbeat economic reports. the dow jones industrial average gained 260 points to close back near 18,000. the nasdaq rose 56, and the s&p 500 added 25. republican legislative leaders in indiana now say they'll clarify a new religious freedom statute. it's sparked a storm of
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criticism from opponents who say it would permit businesses to refuse to serve gays and lesbians. indiana state house speaker brian bosma said today the new modifying language will make clear that's not the case. >> that should remove the question that has many hoosiers and folks all over the country concerned and that is, is a gay or lesbian individual going to be denied services when they go to a restaurant or when they take their dry cleaning in? that was never the intent, it's not the effect, but we're willing to clarify that. >> woodruff: democrats said there's no way to fix the law. instead, state senate minority leader tim lanane called for outright repeal. >> the republicans still think this is a good idea, that this is a good law. unfortunately, republican leadership has utterly failed in their handling of this situation. the governor and the republican leaders won't say it, but we will: discrimination is wrong
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and it should be illegal. >> woodruff: already, some businesses and organizations are protesting by canceling plans for expansion and for meetings in indiana. there've even been calls for the ncaa to move the coming men's college basketball final four tournament out of indianapolis. a coalition led by saudi arabia stepped up its military campaign in yemen today, with a naval blockade. the saudis said it's aimed at preventing shiite rebels from moving weapons and fighters in or out of the country. meanwhile, humanitarian workers said a coalition air strike killed at least 40 refugees. yemen's foreign minister blamed rebel artillery. iran's revolutionary guard is claiming a u.s. drone strike killed two of its advisors in iraq last monday. the guard says they were aiding an iraqi offensive to retake the city of tikrit from islamic state fighters.
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american-led air strikes are now supporting that effort. u.s. officials dispute the iranian claim. they say there were no coalition air strikes around tikrit on monday. german authorities confirmed today the co-pilot of that doomed germanwings airliner, had contemplated killing himself. it's believed andreas lubitz deliberately crashed the plane in france last week, killing all 150 people on board. we have more from rebecca barry of independent television news. >> reporter: today, we learned the pilot had suffered from serious mental illness. the prosecutor in dusseldorf says, "several years ago before he got his pilot's license, he had extended psychological therapy because he had suicidal tendencies. but, he says, at the time of the crash, there was no evidence that he was suicidal or aggressive." investigators have already found torn up sick notes here at his
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flat stating that he was unfit to work at the time of the crash. people from both his private and his professional life have been questioned and, so far, prosecutors say there's no sign that he told anyone what he was planning or that he left a suicide note. and, they say, there's no evidence of any specific event, either at home or work that could have been a motive. meanwhile, in the french alps they're building a road to help the recovery teams access the remote crash site. >> woodruff: germanwings parent company, lufthansa, said today it had not known of lubitz's medical history because those records were kept confidential under german law. back in this country, the f.b.i. says there's no apparent connection to terrorism in an incident today outside the national security agency, at fort meade, maryland. officials say two men wearing dresses drove a stolen car toward the front gate, and refused to stop. instead, they sped up, officers
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opened fire, and they smashed into a police car. one of the men was killed, and the other was hurt, along with an officer. boston welcomed national leaders of both parties today to dedicate the edward kennedy institute for the united states senate. the center includes a full-scale replica of the senate chamber. kennedy died in 2009 after serving in that body for 47 years. some 1,800 family, friends and others attended today, led by president obama. >> what better testament to the life of ted kennedy than this place, to be left to a new generation of americans. a monument not to himself, but to what we, the people, have the power to do together. >> woodruff: the new institute stands next to the presidential library of the senator's brother, john f. kennedy. and, "comedy central" has chosen the new host of "the daily show."
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31-year-old south african trevor noah will succeed jon stewart who's hosted the satirical news show for 16 years. stewart announced last month he's leaving. it's not yet clear when noah will take over. still to come on the newshour: down to the wire for an iran nuclear weapons deal. the highly anticipated results from nigeria's elections. the week ahead in politics with susan page and margaret talev. testing human instincts for signs of subtle racism. a new documentary series on the emperor of all maladies. and, what it's like to live in space. >> woodruff: the deadline for reaching an interim deal with iran over its nuclear program is in the final hours, and there are new doubts on whether an agreement will be reached in time. a u.s. state department spokeswoman indicated there's
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only a 50/50 chance of it happening by tomorrow, as gaps remain between iran and other parties at the talks in switzerland. indira lakshmanan has been covering the twist and turns at the talks for bloomberg. i spoke to her a short time ago. and, indira lakshmanan joins us now. just down to the wire, a day left. how does it look? >> the only question now to which none of us have an answer is will they have a deal or no deal? seems the minister themselves don't know. the russian menster left talks after less than a day. he's going to moles cow and only will come back tomorrow if he has a sense they're redio to sign. the chinese foreign minister on optimistic note talked about progress. john kerry said there is
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progress but trick issues that need to be resolved. 24 hours we'll know whether they're able to put something together to call a framework accord or go back to the drawing board and extend the deadline one more time. >> woodruff: do you have a ged sense at this point of what the sticking points really are? >> yeah, for the most part it seems iran is most upset about the pace of sanctions release. remember what iran will get in return for the willingness to restrict its nuclear program and having base inspections is to be lifted out from under these economic and banking and oil sanctions that have hit its economy so hard over the last five years. so it wants sanctions immediately and permanently especially from u.n. sanctions as well and the international community has said no way, that that will be a phased sages release and they will not be lifted only suspended so they can be put back. that's one thing. research and development is another question and what happens to airn's program after
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year ten, because they're thinking about a ten-year deal. what happens between 11 and 15 to make sure iran doesn't break out with its nuclear program and go back into big development? >> woodruff: so have they -- is it felt they have agreed on how much enrichment of uranium the iranians should be allowed to do? >> you know, the way that it's been described to us repeatedly and i think this is pretty apt, the it's like a rubrics cube. every piece has to fit together. so you could have agreement on one thing and think that you're done with that. and that is the case with the stockpiles enriched uranium which we thought would be shipped out by iran to a third country, probably russia. iran said last night no, we never agreed to that. and the state department today said, that's right, they had not yet agreed to that. so seems each piece has to come in place. but we think there is more agreement on centrifuges, more agreement on the iraq heavy water reactor to stop it from
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producing plutonium but these other issues like sanctions and research and development are really big and so, if you sort of limit one thing then you can allow a little more in another area. so that's why it matters every piece like a puzzle. >> woodruff: you call ate framework accord if they reach an agreement. is it a piece of paper a joint declaration? what will it look like? >> that's the $60,000 question. the united states would like to have a few pages long of bullet points that really lays out what iran is going to do so they can take that document to congress and the american people and say this is what we got agreement on. we have heard that iran says, no, either we have to have a much longer document which is really not possible the to get or something more brief like a declaration. either way, i think you will still see three more months of really intense haggling over every if, and or but, every line of this agreement of which we have been told by u.s. officials
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until the june 30 deadline for the final accord. >> woodruff: and still more work to be done after this. >> absolutely. >> woodruff: indira lakshmanan i know you will be watching. thank you. "bloomberg news," we breecht appreciate it. >> thanks. >> woodruff: nigeria was on edge today, awaiting the outcome of the closest election since the end of military rule in 1999. it pitted the former military dictator muhammadu buhari against incumbent president goodluck jonathan. with three-quarters of the country's states counted, buhari led by two million votes. jeffrey brown reports. >> brown: hundreds of women in southern nigeria weren't waiting for the results. they rallied in port harcourt, demanding an election do-over. >> we no votes! >> brown: nigerian television broadcast images of protesters
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blocking streets and claiming irregularities. police fired tear gas to break up the rally. the opposition party flatly accused the ruling people's democratic party of rigging the count. >> absolutely what we have here is an attempt to steal the votes of our people with the militias set off by the party to avoid democracy. >> brown: still, turnout was high and the voting itself appeared to be generally smoother than in the past. >> we have seen no evidence of systemic manipulation of the process. "there are disturbing indications that the collation process... may be subject to deliberate political interference.
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assistant secretary of state for african affairs, linda thomas- greenfield, was in the nigerian capital abuja today, watching the process. i spoke to her a short time ago. >> we're getting a lot of calls from around the country of people concerned about the process after the election. i don't think i would go so far as saying that it's rigging but, again people are noticing some issues and they're reporting the issues and i think that's the good thing. >> brown: saturday's election went ahead despite attacks by the islamist militants of boko haram in northeastern nigeria. thousands of displaced nigerians lined up to vote at a camp in the east. >> i'm longing for a change, a positive change to affect the life of humanity, to protect their reputation, their life their property, and to eradicate corruption finally, this is what
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i'm longing and i'm hoping for. >> brown: there were also technical problems that caused officials to extend voting in parts of the country by an extra day. even the candidates ran into trouble. president jonathan had to wait when at least three bio-metric identification readers failed to recognize his fingerprints. still, he insisted all would be well. >> i believe and i'm convinced that elections will be free and fair and extremely credible. >> brown: now, though, as the nation of 170 million awaits the results, there are fears of post-election bloodshed. after the last election in 2011, more than 1000 people were killed in such violence. again, linda thomas- greenfield... >> of course, we can't predict what is going to happen, but we're hopeful that it will be less violent than in previous elections. >> brown: final results in the election are expected tomorrow.
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>> woodruff: now a controversial new law in indiana that permits businesses to refuse service to same-sex couples on religious grounds, is making waves. for that and more we turn to our "politics monday" check-in. tonight margaret talev, the white house and politics correspondent for bloomberg news, and susan page, the washington bureau chief for "usa today," join us. great to have both of you. >> nice to be here. let's talk about indira indiana susan. mike pence, the governor, made a big deal that he was signing this into law defending it including yesterday on the sunday talks shows. do you think he and the people around him knew what they were stirring up? >> i don't think so. what a tidal wave this caused is business leaders and union leaders and democrats really taking the governor an state of indiana to task for this law.
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it's slightly different not significantly different from a federal law passed in 1993 from laws that have been passed in in other states. but the timing and some of the provisions of the law have become part of the cultural debate this this country and part of the changing attitudes we see pardon same-sex marriage in particular. >> woodruff: in fact, you mentioned the public attitude. let's look at these before i turned to you, margaret. there's a pugh poll that was done. you can see this, they polled among young republicans aged 18-29, 61% favor the idea of same-sex marriage, but among republicans overall, 39%, significantly less. what does that say about where the republican party is, the future of the party on this issue? >> this is a generational issue just as among the democratic party and independents. but it's interesting, the question for mike pence is it's good for him politically burks
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it might be difficult for jeb bush, rand paul for republican conservatives who want to appeal to young voters or crossover voters and force them to talk about tissue as well. >> woodruff: how much is this going to be an issue susan? it certainly is getting huge attention right now. >> there's not a big can i vide in the democratic party. democrats support anti-discrimination laws and tend to support same-sex marriage but there's a big divide in the republican party because you have the younger republicans who say what's the big deal? of course we support same-sex marriage but a big part of the republicans are evangelical christians and many are strongly opposed to the idea of same-sex marriage. they're concerned about what they're seeing. we're going to have arguments in the supreme court in just a couple of weeks over what may turn out to be a recognition of a constitutional right to same-sex marriage. you see, evangelical christians are such a powerful force in the republican party being completely alarmed about that.
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>> woodruff: you mentioned the candidates margaret. how is it seen the candidates are going to deal with this and how about mike pence himself in where does he stand now in terms of announcing whether eh's going to run or not? he certainly has hinted at it. >> absolutely, and he beans making the rounds at the republican governor's conferences and all or the r -- all sort of events. he has to be making a decision in the next several weeks to decide whether to run for another term for governor or seek the presidency. the primary will be a litmus test, especially state after state, something like 20 states now, have some version of a law like this that they've got on the books. it's the accumulation of these before the supreme court considers this. so absolutely, a 2015 issue. >> woodruff: susan what about among the, shall we say, the more conservative members of the republican party thinking of running for president why aren't they more send about the
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younger republicans with different attitudes? >> because off to get to the primary before they can think about more general election strategies and they have to think about republican voters, a lot of them older, a lot of them tea party conservatives, evangelical like in iowa and south carolina. i can mike pence defended this law so poorly yesterday, he was on one of the sunday show and was not really responsive to a series of questions of these laws, the impact, would it allow a tblorrist the right to refuse to make flowers for a gay couple getting particle married. we probably will have a candidate that supports religious freedom law. >> woodruff: he kept turning it to stef stephanopoulos and saying you're asking the wrong question. there's questions about the yet
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to be announced hillary clinton campaign for president. torting all righting on the thinking inside the hillary clinton about the role of former president bill clinton. everybody's going to be asking what is bill clinton going to be doing. of course, we got a little taste of that in 2008 when she ran the last time. is it seen that he's a plus, a minus, both is this. >> he's a plus when he's a plus but when he's a minus, man, he can really be a minus. the concern for the soon-to be-announced clinton campaign is twofold, one will he step on her message and contradict her and two, will he overshadow her? it's on both of those. i think we'll see an effort to coordinate the message between his and mer staffers assuming this goes forward and trying to get him always behind the scenes
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to help her get things out and be selective when he's out in front. >> woodruff: they're spending a lot of time thinking about it. >> if they're thinking about how to control bill clinton, good luck. >> woodruff: he is a guy who will defy being crovmentd he wants to be helpful. he supports his wife and is very much a defender of her, but the idea they can prevent him from saying what he wants we'll see. >> woodruff: we saw nito eight, but this time it is hard to imagine him playing the number two role. >> 65% approval rating margaret looked it up before the show, that's better than, you know, hillary clinton or barack obama -- >> his ratings. >> woodruff: it's higher than any other politician running. the other is what an effective campaigner he is. how great is he at explaining complicated things as we saw at the democratic --
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>> judy, the flip side to look for in the campaign, how many reporters get attached to the bill clinton because if there is coverage for bill clinton, it will be difficult for them to control the message about him. >> woodruff: i can't believe the press won't want to cover him. margaret talev susan page, thank you both. >> thank you. >> woodruff: next, research shows that millennials, young people between 18 and 35, compared to their parents, are more racially diverse and more accepting of other races. many were surprised and upset by the university of oklahoma students caught making racist chants on video. hari sreenivasan wanted to learn more about racial bias among millennials, and he brings us a story about his visit to a research lab focused on race. his report is another
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installment in our series "race today." >> i believe that there is less racism in this particular generation. >> sreenivasan: many millennials were shocked this month by the blatant racism shown in this viral video, coming from people their own age. >> in no way shape or form should that video represent my generation as a whole. part of my generation is by no means is racist, by no means houses prejudices, and at least you know if they do carry stereotypes with them, are intelligent enough not to voice them to anybody. >> i feel that our generation is less racist, due to exposure of events and social media and on tv. and like word is spreading and people are becoming more conscious to racism and trying to make a change.
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>> sreenivasan: but it's not always that simple. and millennials themselves will be the first to admit it. >> there is less racism but the racism that does still pervade everyday interactions with people. it's so much more subtle and quiet. it's almost like. 'i don't like black people.' - 'oh hey! shaquan! how are ya!? welcome to the office!' >> sreenivasan: a 2010 report by the pew research center noted that the millennial generation (ages 18-29) was more racially diverse, better educated, and seen as more racially tolerant than their parents and grandparents. but while millennials are more likely to say they're not racist or use racists expressions, some psychologists say that they often show the same subconscious prejudices as their parents. david amodio, a psychologist at new york university, studies racial biases. >> if you're an american, you're exposed to similar culture, similar information in the media, similar social structures. and it seems that all of those
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influences come into the mind. you could be passive and these things will come in. memory is kind of like a sponge. and it gets into your mind. once it's there, it might come out. >> sreenivasan: when these prejudices soak up in the mind, they're what psychologists call implicit biases-- unconscious thoughts that shape our actions. they are harder to observe and study than explicit biases, like a racist chant on a bus. so amodio tests subjects by forcing them to act on instinct, to make quick racial judgments in a controlled setting. it is a way to see just what has been soaked up in that mental sponge, regardless of generation. i decided to give it a try. >> sreenivasan: ok. so 'unpleasant' or 'white' left, 'pleasant' or 'black', right. ok, no problem. first i took the i.a.t. or implicit association test, which is freely available online. it measures how quickly i associate positive and negative words with skin color.
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then i went through a more difficult exam. in this test, i had under a second to decide whether or not to shoot the person that flashed on screen- based on just one thing- whether or not they were holding a gun. sometimes the men were white, sometimes they were black. i'm killing innocent people left and right! oh man! you know i am trying really hard to figure out where the person's hand is. but more often than not, if i do it fast enough, the only thing i'm registering is the person's race. and that's not a very good decision-making process. >> so you experience that. >> sreenivasan: computers in the next room tracked exactly where my eyes were looking on screen to measure what i actually saw before pulling the trigger- or deciding not to. almost all participants, out of instinct, look first to a person's face before seeing
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what's in their hand. >> they go to the face. they get down toward the hand. but this is the decision point. so they're still making a decision, and i don't know if it was to shoot or not on this trial, but they're making a decision before they even get right on to the object. before they fixate on the object itself. >> sreenivasan: so they're deciding to shoot before they even see the gun. >> that's right. >> sreenivasan: or the wallet. >> that's what we find. >> sreenivasan: we'll get to my findings in a minute. other tests track, in real time exactly what parts of the brain are activated when making these race-based decisions. so why does this matter? research finds that implicit biases are not just an issue between whites, and blacks, it exists among all races. in the real world, these biases play out in courtrooms where jurors have implicit biases against defendants, and with doctors and what treatments they prescribe their patients. >> when you look around you see people from all different backgrounds, you have no idea where they're from really or what they're thinking or what they're doing here.
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but we categorize them instantly. >> sreenivasan: how much of it is human instinct, human nature to make that decision? right now i'm not threatened by these dogs that are right behind us, but some part of me as a human being looks out at a street and says, 'am i threatened by that person or am i not?' it's kind of a survival instinct. >> it is. this is going on in the back of your mind all the time. you have to- as a human being to survive you have to be ready for anything at any moment. so it's always there. it's just a matter of trying to stay focused and treating people like humans. >> sreenivasan: and in this increasingly virtual world, our biases, explicit and implicit follow us online, where many millennials spend much of their time >> racism is a thing, sexism is a thing, regardless of whether it's online or offline. >> sreenivasan: christian rudder was one of the cofounders of okcupid, an online dating site that was bought by he also authored dataclysm, a book that dives deep into the human mind using big data to observe, among other things, how
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people found their mates. and there are clear patterns when analyzing hundreds of thousands of heterosexual profiles, including those of millennials. there were three interesting findings. all races were likely to select their own. all women regardless of race had preference for white males. all non-black profiles, both men and women had a statistical dislike of black profiles. >> in dating, you judge people reflexively, the same way you might in a job interview, or a loan interview, or subletting an apartment, it's very much the data of the first impression. >> like i have piercings. people judge me based on that. they think that you know oh i'm a punk, or i don't have a job, or i'm young.
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>> i mean everyone has, you know... >> stereotypes. >> yea everyone has stereotypes. everyone does. >> sreenivasan: similar to the words in the hit broadway musical "avenue q..." >> everyone's a little bit racist. ♪ it's true. >> sreenivasan: ...including, it turns out, me. interestingly enough, amodio's first test results found that my sentiments actually showed a slight preference toward black faces, that i had no problem associating positive words with darker skin. that's not the norm more than half the population who have taken the exam find take less time to put negative words next to black faces. so i'm showing a preference in one way or another according to the test. it's just not the way that 51% are showing it, right? >> yea, that's right. >> sreenivasan: but this is where it gets interesting. in the second test where i had to react almost on instinct and decide whether to shoot or not based on what i thought in someone's hand, i was faster at shooting armed blacks than armed whites and i was far more likely to shoot an unarmed black man than an unarmed white one.
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sadly, that is the national norm, including for millennials. for the pbs newshour, i'm hari sreenivasan reporting from new york. ♪ ♪ ♪ >> woodruff: for more on our series "race today" please visit our homepage, >> woodruff: now, a deep and unique look at the history of cancer, and the battles to end it or slow it. it's the focus of a three-night documentary on pbs that starts tonight and continues through wednesday called "the emperor of all maladies." it's produced by ken burns and based on the book of the same name by doctor siddhartha mukherjee. first, an excerpt from tonight's episode. it's about what happened to olivia blair, a toddler
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diagnosed with an acute type of leukemia that has spread to her brain and spinal column. the film follows her as she and her parents struggle with difficult decisions, including this moment when doctors discuss the option of radiation to her brain. >> so, obviously, the question is what does this mean. >> well, i'm automatically thinking that the leukemia is in her spine in her brain. it's more serious, it's high risk. >> what that means is her therapy will be more intense, that she will get extra chemotherapy and we also will recommend that she gets spine radiation and radiation to the brain. >> i don't want to do radiation. know. so -- >> why are we doing that? because we know that radiation will treat it. but we know that the radiation therapy could potentially have affects on her cognitive
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abilities going forward. >> i just... come on. you're right. >> we gave you the scenarios yesterday. >> she's a smart child. is and she will continue to be smart. she has me and you as parents. >> she won't see me like this, but -- >> i know. need to get this out. she is an extremely smart child. >> how is this going to affect her? you don't know, right? >> right. if olivia was 7 years old, we would not have a big problem radiating her brain. the problem is that because she's 17 months, her brain is not fully developed. it's almost there but not fully
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developed. so one of the things we're very riworried about and thinking about for olivia is the role of radiation therapy. >> reporter: >> woodruff: i sat down recently with ken burns, the executive producer and co-writer of the film, and with dr. mukherjee the book's author, who is also an assistant professor of medicine at columbia university. ken burns dr. siddhartha mukherjee, thank you very much for being here. as we see from that clip, there are moments in this program that are very very difficult to watch. let me ask you first though about why you called emperor of maladies. how did you come up with that? >> it's from a note i found in a surgeon's writings. i found it poetic that there is an empire of disease and we are citizens of that empire and, you know, our struggle against
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cancer is a resistance movement. so there are lots of metaphors i thought worked and i wanted a title that took is backwards in time and talked about sort of, you know, what is it like inhabiting this empire, if you will? it is mostly poetic ideas that i try to bring to this history. >> woodruff: it is a resistance. there's a resistance movement ken burns, that's going on. this is an historical documentary, it's about the science, but it's also very much, of course, about the people, the patients and their families, and we saw that. >> i think that's the important part. it is a very very complicated and fascinating history across all of human history because the disease has been with us as long as we have been here as human beings and it's also a very interesting science, a kind of c.s.i. of discovery and investigation of disappointment and serendipity of mistakes
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turning into great discoveries, but anchoring it all is the fact this is still a human equation and, too often in our larger political discussion, even the personal ones about cancer, we've left out the agency of patients and we've tried to in this film return that agency to them. but these are very tough decisions. you see parents worrying about a 17-month-old girl, wondering what the radiation is going to do to her and we're there. we understand exactly those dynamics. and because either one of us will get carnes or you and judy and margaret will get cancer in your lifetime, these are impossible odds to consider yet we don't talk about it. i think what sid's books have done is bring it to the fore and say it is the emperor and we are entitled to be a part of the resistance movement. >> woodruff: there are moments
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of breakthrough in the story. yes, there are grindingly depressing parts of it but you celebrate the moments when science has made a difference, and the whole picture is there. >> there are epic moments of breakthrough. i mean, the epic moments of breakthrough come throughout the film. it's important to realize that you have to go through grinding moments into the moments of discovery. they are part and parcel of the same thing. you don't get the discoveries for cheap 6789 this is. this is a profoundly human story. the discoveries are so epic. i would say they rank among the great discoveries of human history, even outside science itself. so we wanted you, we wanted viewers to feel them and you don't feel the discovery, i think, unless you live through the grind of that discover. you're not brought to that. there's a catharsis that happens. it's a detective story, but
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you've got to watch the whole -- you know, the whole thing play itself out. >> woodruff: you do come away, ken burns, humbled by this disease because after all the money, after all the effort, it's been centuries since they figured out it wasn't black bile causing cancer and a lot of smart people have been trying ever since then to figure it out but it's still winning in many ways. >> it is indeed and it is wiley and crafty, a kind of elegant versions of ourselves that is destroying ourselves, so yeah, we are humbled by the story that we've tried to retell. it is one in which we're saying there are these wonderful moments of discovery and it seems to be an aha moment. the word cure is put forth then reality comes in, and you have another moment, and it's an inspiration and exhalation as we
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move closer and closer. but the cumulative story is of hope. we are getting closer. we know so much more than even 30 years ago even 10 years ago and when you realize that, then the lives will continue to be lost, this will be deadly, this will be this emperor. we are moving forward and we can see a horizon in the not-too-distant future in which so many of the cancers like a few now are merely chronic. >> woodruff: off doctor at the very beginning saying the next 20 years is going to be the age of discovery and end on a hopeful note about immunotherapy. >> absolutely and already hundreds of thousands of men women and children are being cured and treated in very effective ways because to have the discoveries that have happened in the last ten years. so our general approach is you've got to know this story for your own sake, otherwise, you know, it's going to become part of your own story. it's going to intersect with your life. so we have to anticipate that
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intersection and you've got to know it. this is a kind of app state of the world report on cancer and you've got to know it because it's going to come into your life whether you want it to or not. >> woodruff: we should point out and i want to end with this you both come to this with your own personal experience. ken, it is your mother. >> judy, i would not be sitting here. my mother died when i was 11. she was sick ten years before that. there wasn't a moment growing up and i wasn't aware of her impending death and i spent my life trying to wake the dead and have a conversation with the past and this is in some way a continuation of a conversation with a woman that's been interrupted for years. >> woodruff: for you it was a patient. >> absolutely. for me it begins with a woman asking me i want to know where we're going and, in a sense, ken burns and this documentary
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allows us to tell the story for everyone which is to say where are we going, how do we get here and what happens next? >> woodruff: and you're asked questions like that. patients, they want a final -- they want an explanation that they can take home. >> and the point is it's not going to be a one-line one-word explanation. you have to know the full history, i think to preerpt why we're here today and what's happening next. i think, you know with ken's help, i was thinking you did an amazing job with the civil war but this is a civil war in your body. if you want to be a citizen of this war, you have to know the history of this war to be who you are. >> woodruff: dr. siddhartha mukherjee, ken burns, "the emperor of all maladies." a gift to all of us. thank you.
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>> thank you. >> woodruff: you can watch more of our conversation on adapting cancer from page to screen on our homepage, >> woodruff: finally a conversation about an out of this world experience: living in space. astronaut scott kelly arrived this weekend at the international space station. he'll stay there for almost a year, the longest duration an american has ever spent in space. he's the identical twin brother of former astronaut mark kelly. and both will participate in a study to see the effects of living in space. jeffrey brown spoke after scott kelly lifted off on friday with a former astronaut, chris hadfield, whose final stay on the space station lasted five months. >> brown: chris hadfield welcome to you. the twin study is especially interesting this time, right
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the research on the two brothers, scott and mark kelly, one in space, one on the ground. what kinds overthings are being looked at? >> sounds like science fiction to have an identical twin on a space ship and another one on the ground. it's just luck but, boy, it sure provides some interesting medical and scientific opportunity. you take two people that are as identical as they can be you put them in wildly different environments, one of them that is really brand-new for humanity, living in weightlessness off the planet then you watch how they change over a year. you measure all of subtle things -- bone density, psychology, vision, blood pressure, liver function everything -- and it is really going to help us not only understand space flight for long-term flight for going from here to the moon and mars and beyond, but also just understand the effects on the body of flight itself, the subtle
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changes that happen within the body and teach us inherently about physiology. it's cool. it's never been done before. >> brown: this will be twice as long than any american up to this point. why go longer and let's start to talk about the new difficulties that presents in staying up that long. >> i think the big difference jeff, is we're now going from probing space to moving away from earth, so colonizing space, to leaving earth permanently. this is one of those major steps. not just a one week or two week-long flight or a quick foray to the moon to see if we can do it but a long-term move away from the planet and seeing how we do all things. there is a lot to learn. there is a huge suite of things straight from human
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physiology -- what sort of exercise equipment do we need? how do you keep someone psych lodge can i healthy for that length of time away there the world? what's the right type of person to go to the moon and live on the moon or to mars? all those questions are going to get discussed and looked at. >> brown: well, you know scott kelly has talked about his family, talked about he has a 20-year-old daughter in college, a love of nature talks about the psychological issues. what were the hardest parts for you? start with the psychology of it to keep from boredom, depression? what kinds of things did you experience? >> when we first started cooperating with the russians and sending astronauts to mir, one of the real problems was they didn't have a full plate of activities every day. we hadn't had time to get a full scientific program for them and, so, it was really tough psychologically. they didn't feel there was
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purpose to what they were doing. it's not that way on the space station. it's a busy place. scott will have a plate full of activities every day. so you never get in a state of boredom. it's more a constant scramble to keep up with the demands of all the mission controls around the world. but there is sthaight straight physical separation and a sense of isolation, naturally, so that requires building your crew as a sense of family but also a change of how you communicate with your own family, like our soldiers that are overseas like all of the people that serve a long time away from home. >> brown: lum just ask you -- let me just ask you, finally about the physical adjustments of spending that much time out of graverty and the adjustment to living back on earth. >> scott has been up there
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briefly. there are being changes initially. your body doesn't have gravity pushing fluid to your feet. you have a bad sinus headache, your sung swells, you're dizzy nauseous, but that passes after a week or. so you get into a routine of workout, and you get adapted to weightlessness. it's more fun than gravity but you pay the price when you come home. you're squished when you come to gravity your body has problems push you can blood to your head. your bones have lost density you have to grow your muse musculature, but even more slowly your bone density back. none of that comes tore free. exploration isn't easy. the stuff that we learn from it it teaches us across the board from making space ships safer to understanding how it did body builds bone. there is a lot to learn and
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scott is on on the leading edge of that. >> brown: chris hadfield, we're talking about the troubles, the psychology, the physical issues, but it's an amazing experience right, what you see out there, what you feel? >> scott is going to be orbiting the planet as it goes all the way around the sun, one whole orbit around the sun. he's going around the world 16 times a day. he'll see the entire world go from winter to summer to winter. he'll get to know the planet like almost no one in history ever has. the beauty of it, the sunrise or sunset every 45 minutes just the raw power of the nature of the world, it is a mesmerizing gorgeousness that you never get tired of. so yeah, he's doing a lot of science up there, it's important, but it is such a beautiful, magnificent, personal experience. scott is a privileged guy to be there as a vanguard for us all.
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>> brown: extraordinary. chris hadfield, thank you so much for telling us about it. >> really nays to talk with you, jeff. >> woodruff: finally, to our newshour shares of the day something that caught out eye that might be of interest to you, too. the library of congress recently acquired more than 500 rare civil war-era images from 87- year-old robin stanford, who has been collecting the stereograph photos for five decades. they were mostly made by confederate photographers. the library has already digitized the first 77 and made them available to view online. speaking with the associated press, stanford explained why she decided to donate them now. >> bigger than he is, i swear.
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miscellaneous cards at an antique show and thought that would be fun for the kids. like i said, you know the camel stuck his nose in the tent and first thing you know it's sitting down to dinner at your table. that's how it happened. i liked them. i found them intriguing because they brought pastimes, quality of life, more immediately and i liked history all my life, and this was a real slice of history. i was planning to leave these to my son. he loved history, also. and i lost him a year ago. the urge went out of the bloom. i stopped collecting. that was it. >> woodruff: the images are fascinating and you can see all of them at the library of congress web site,
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>> woodruff: you can view all the images at the library of >> woodruff: again, the major developments of the day: the clock on the iran nuclear negotiations ticked down to just 24 hours, but major differences remained. and in nigeria's presidential election, a former military dictator led president goodluck jonathan by two million votes, with three-quarters of the country's states counted. on the newshour online, 34 years ago today, on the streets of washington, d.c., john hinckley junior tried to assassinate president ronald reagan. i remember the scene vividly, because i was there, working as an nbc white house correspondent. in a split second, the fate of the nation was forever changed. this afternoon, around the time that the first shot was taken, i recalled the event in a series of tweets. you can read the narrative of that somber day, on our home page. all that and more is on our web site a reminder: tune into charlie rose later this evening for his full interview with syria's president assad. and that's the newshour for tonight.
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on tuesday, we'll look at how sending electrical volts to your brain can make you smarter. i'm judy woodruff. we'll see you on-line, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us here at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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>> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer. >> and by the alfred p. sloan foundation. supporting science, technology, and improved economic performance and financial literacy in the 21st century. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions llc captioned by media access group at wgbh
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. this is "nightly business report" with tyler mathisen and sue herera. the bulls are back. stocks jumped to start the week as several health care deals put investors in a buying mood. >> deadline looms. why the oversupplied oil market is paying such close attention to any developments in the iran nuclear talks. >> companies big and small are taking a stand on indiana's controversial religious freedom bill. that and more tonight, on "nightly business report," monday night, march 30th. >> it was the perfect recipe for a rally on wall street. we had deals, a lot of them. we had talk of more stimulus not only in china, but also in europe. and we had a market that's been up but mostly down lately. that combination put investors in a