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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  June 2, 2015 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: hundreds missing after a cruise ship capsizes on the yangtze river in china. the race against time to rescue survivors. good evening, i'm judy woodruff. and i'm gwen ifill. also ahead this tuesday: he's out. the embattled president of fifa resigns, days after his re-election failed to lift a cloud of controversy. >> woodruff: then, righting a wrong. once overlooked soldiers receive the medal of honor nearly 100 years after fighting on the front lines of world war one. >> ifill: plus, media for and by those who are homeless, from newspapers to the silver screen, empowering people who live on the streets.
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>> one of the things is the powerful transformation that self expression has on our lives. cause you've got to first believe in yourself to claw yourself out of this hold that is homelessness. >> ifill: those are some of the stories we're covering on tonight's pbs newshour. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> lincoln financial-- committed to helping you take charge of your life and become you're own chief life officer. >> and the william and flora hewlett foundation, helping people build immeasurably better lives. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions and... >> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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>> woodruff: a frantic rescue effort continued all day in china, for hundreds of people on a river cruise out of nanjing. their ship rolled over during stormy weather last night, and so far, only 15 people have been found alive. john sparks, of independent television news, has our report. >> reporter: from the murky depths of the yangtze river, a woman appears surrounded by atúoeam of professionalñr divers.ñiñiçóñiñr she's weakñor on herxdçóñf)ññçó feet.ñr but verym((r alive.ñrçóçóñrçóñi!p/okxd?oúñi theñi woman, 65 yearsñi old, one of a small number ofñi survivors from aa cruise ship calledñr tr/ eastern star which cap sized in a storm overnight. the divers foundñr her nearlyñra5" air pocket 15 meters below the
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surface.ñr thereçóçóñ than 400 people unaccounted for. the vast majority retirees on añsb)p&c @&c personnel kq, ship this morning. this man responding by tappingñiçm through the ship's hull, but poor weather and strong currents have hampered their efforts. tonight, the head of the rescue effort said his team were in a race against time. the incident happened very suddenly, he said but we'll give it 100%. the chinese prime minister also on tv today taking charge of the rescue effort. it's a public relations gesture in partñ+uçeíf55(sññazf:,qy( worriedñi about howñip, uje public andñi theq
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t5%rda5zo7 desperate relatives, thereñr was little information to be had. in nanjing, the travel companyxdwa the accident site.ñr >> we don't know if they're alive. >> reporter: and the authorities have a maritime catastrophe on their hands. still, details from the scene will be tightly controlled with journalists being kept away from the site. >> ifill: in the day's other news, the senate approved legislation to re-shape the national security agency's surveillance. the n.s.a.'s legal authority to collect bulk phone records, under the old patriot act, expired sunday night. in its place, the u.s.a. freedom act will impose new limits on collection and access to the records. senators passed it, 67 to 32, after house leaders warned against making any changes. the house overwhelmingly approved the measure last month. that demand aggravated senate majority leader mitch mcconnell.
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>> we were not going to simply just roll over and accept the house bill without debating it and attempting to amend it. we hear various members of the house saying don't change the bill at all. you'd think it was the ten commandments. the senate is entitled to change the bill. >> ifill: mcconnell favored extending the expired patriot act, along with its tougher surveillance provisions, but republican rand paul, a presidential candidate, blocked that last week. today, illinois senator dick durbin and other democrats said the g.o.p. mishandled the whole issue. >> senate republicans wasted precious time as the clock ran out on key national security authority, putting their own political interests ahead of the national interests. well, enough is enough. we as senators are not here to serve as extras in a presidential campaign commercial. >> ifill: the surveillance bill now goes to the president's desk.
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he's expected to sign it into law. >> woodruff: in paris today western and arab nations pledged new support to help iraq fight a growing islamic state threat. foreign ministers and others convened at the french foreign ministry. the gathering was organized after isis fighters captured ramadi in iraq and palmyra in syria. iraqi prime minister haider al- abadi said isis fighters are using enormous truck bombs that explode like a mini-nuclear bomb. he complained the coalition's air campaign is not enough and said he needs far more help. >> ifill: suspected islamist militants have struck again in nigeria. witnesses and medics report up to 50 people were killed in a series of bombings today. it happened in the northeastern city of mayduguri where an explosion ripped apart a crowded meat market. >> woodruff: greece submitted a proposal to its creditors today, hoping to unlock more bailout funds. details were not made public but eurozone leaders warned the two sides are still a long way
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from agreement. greek prime minister alexis tsipras said it's up to those leaders to decide what happens now. >> ( translated ): we have made concessions, because a compromise demands concessions. we know these concessions will be difficult but we have submitted a realistic plan for greece to exit the crisis, a realistic plan, which acceptance by the institutions, our lenders and our partners in europe will mark the end of the scenario of divisions in europe. >> woodruff: without new rescue funds, greece may default on its debts at the end of this month. >> ifill: back in this country, police in boston shot and killed a man under surveillance in a terror investigation. cnn and others reported he'd become an islamist radical and recently posted online threats against police. boston's commissioner says when officers and federal agents moved in today, the man pulled a large knife and came at them, so they opened fire. >> woodruff: amtrak's boss vowed
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today to get new technology up and running, so it can stop speeding passenger trains. the train that wrecked in philadelphia last month wasn't using positive train control, or p.t.c. it hit a curve, doing more than 100 miles an hour, and derailed killing eight people. at a house hearing today, an emotional joseph boardman said he's focused on the northeast corridor. >> i still believe that the single greatest contribution that my generation of railroaders can make to this industry is to implement p.t.c. as rapidly as possible. and i promise you that by the end of this year this system which will dramatically enhance safety will be complete and operational on the northeast corridor. >> woodruff: the national transportation safety board is still investigating the may 12 accident. >> ifill: the acting head of the transportation security administration has been
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reassigned over security failures. melvin carraway was ousted in the wake of tests overseen by the agency's inspector general. agents smuggled fake explosives, weapons and other banned items past t.s.a. screeners, in 67 out of 70 attempts. >> woodruff: the california state senate voted today to allow immigrants here illegally to buy insurance on a state health exchange. california would be the first to take that step, under the affordable care act, if the state assembly and the governor go along. the immigrants would not be eligible for insurance subsidies. >> ifill: and on wall street, the dow jones industrial average lost 28 points to close back near 18,010. the nasdaq fell six points, and the s&p 500 slipped two. still to come on the newshour: the most powerful man in sports steps down amid corruption investigations. lawmakers want answers on car safety after massive recalls of
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defective air bags. honoring the valor and service of overlooked world war one veterans. an f.b.i. secret air force. the low-flying planes on missions for domestic surveillance. documenting the stories of homeless people on newsprint film and in song. plus, educating pakistani children in failing schools, surrounded by violence and instability. >> woodruff: just four days after he won re-election to a fifth term as the head of soccer's international governing body, sepp blatter stunned nearly everyone today when he announced he would resign as president of fifa. top fifa officials were arrested last week. the department of justice uncorked a 47-count indictment alleging bribery and widespread corruption. and yesterday published reports
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said blatter's top deputy had been linked to wire transfers involving bank payments believed to be bribes related to world cup bids. at a hastily called news conference today, blatter did not address the specifics but acknowledged the mounting scandal undercut the votes and the mandate he said he reced last week. >> ( translated ): this mandate does not seem to be supported by everybody in the world of football, supporters, clubs, players, those who inspire life in football, as much as we do at fifa. that's why i will call an extraordinary congress and put at disposal my function. it is going to be held as soon as possible and a new president will be elected to follow me. >> woodruff: let's look at the sudden resignation and the circumstances around it. declan hill is an investigative journalist and the author of a book about fifa's problems with corruption. it's called "the fix: soccer and organized crime." i spoke with him a short time
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ago from ottawa. declan hill, welcome. so why the sudden reversal? sepp blatter said just on friday he was glad to be reelected and this was going to be a new era for fifa. >> it really is extraordinary. i mean, today's events starting early zurich time dawn all the way to right now is an epic-shaping time in international sports. it reminds me of a game of thrones, meeting at king's landing. a bunch of king-makers, people behind the throne we don't see in public i think phoned up sepp blatter this morning and said enough is enough. >> woodruff: what precipitated that? as you and i are speaking, as we tape this interview, abc news is reporting that the f.b.i., u.s. prosecutors are now investigating blatter himself.
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>> yeah, and you have an extraordinary scenario here. as you can see i'm speaking to you from ottawa canada where the women's world cup be in a few days. the second command today early in zurich discovered he had crucial business that he couldn't fly to canada. maybe what may be going on, a lot of people are talking about this, is he's afraid of landing in canada, canadian extradition laws with the united states are excellent, and if you guys want people arrested our police services generally arrest and extradite them right way unlike switzerland or other countries. there's a fear that the top executives couldn't attend the women's world cup without fear of being arrested. this is likely extraordinary. >> woodruff: is there a sense declan hill of who else may be implicated before this is over? >> yeah, i looked at the f.b.i. indictment that came out as you know, under loretta lynch, the attorney general last week and it's an extraordinary picture.
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what they really paint is a deliberate, clear, informal organized crime syndicate operating inside international sports. so you have the public face of how to market these tv, all these ticketing things, and then you have these really meticulous, well-planned scams that are going on inside that organization. so really, if you're getting a second in command afraid of getting on a plain to fly to canada, it really could be anyone. >> woodruff: so for blatter to step down and be replaced by someone else, how much of a change is that in and of itself? >> i think it's really an era-making change. there's a whole bunch of national sports federations around the world or soccer federations who are deeply deeply worried. look, fifa has a track record of, when national governments, be they iran greece, kenya, nigeria, look at their soccer and say hang on, this is too
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corrupt, we're going to clean it up, fifa will go in and stop those government investigations or stop those police investigations and they will say, hearings you know, you can't investigate our people because that's politics interfering with sport. so you have sports, soccer federations around the world that have been essentially protected by blatter and the people in zurich. that day seems to be over now, and that's going to shake the soccer world in a tremendous way. >> woodruff: declan hill, we thank you very much for talking with us. >> thanks for having me on, judy. very much appreciate it. >> ifill: millions of car owners face a dilemma. there's a nationwide recall for defective airbags that affect vehicles made by most of the major manufacturers. but they could be facing long waits as demand grows with a bigger recall. that was just one of several issues takata executives had to deal with today at a congressional hearing.
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it's now the largest auto safety recall in u.s. history, nearly 34 million vehicles. and today, company officials were called before congress again. executive vice president mark kennedy. >> it is unacceptable to us and incompatible with our safety mission for even one of our products to fail to perform as intended and to put people at risk. >> ifill: there've been repeated incidents of chemical inflators in takata air bags exploding with so much force that they spray metal fragments. the problem is linked to six deaths and more than 100 injuries worldwide since 2003. >> we deeply regret each instance in which a takata airbag inflator has ruptured especially in those cases where someone has been injured or killed. >> ifill: kennedy said takata now plans to change the design of its driver-side air bags. but lawmakers worried about how long it will take.
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republican congressman fred upton pressed mark rosekind head of the national highway traffic and safety administration. >> what is the timetable, what is the goal, the timetable for completely resolving the issue? being able to identify which vehicles have these defective airbags, getting them replaced, making sure the owners are there, what's your hopeful timeframe for this to be resolved and we can move to the next issue? >> at this point, i believe if anybody gave you a number, they don't know what they're talking about. >> ifill: rosekind warned his agency is under-funded and already has more than 1,200 other recall campaigns to oversee. let's get more about the questions asked at this hearing...and the problems consumers are running into with this recall. david shepardson of the detroit news covers the auto industry. david, do we know anything more about the cause of these defects in the airbags, whether it's chemical or design or whatever? >> i think the answer is all of
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the above. in fact tacta and n.h.t.s.a. in an independent testing group by the major auto companies think there are a variety of factors. number one, the propel pt, ammonium nitrate and if fact that under high humidity circumstances, it appears to be more likely to completed -- or exit a hiring heat than other propellants, as well as the design of these airbags. as you pointed out tacta is ending its use of one of these major driver side air bags. then issues like the tape used actually attach the influter to the air bag. so you've got a lot of different causes, and the fact you have 53 million vehicles worldwide, six deaths and injuries, trying to figure out the needle in a haystack why are such a few number failing but when they do, it can be with deadly consequences. >> ifill: big number, 53 million worldwide. how many models are we talking
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about in the u.s.? in the past when recalls happen, it's been the actual manufacturer to have the vehicle who did the recall. is that what's happening leaving everyone scrambling? >> you have 11 major auto companies recalling 34 million vehicles in the u.s. only seven of the eleven companies notified the government as to the identities of the new vehicles being added to the recall, and within that you've got dozens and dozens of models. so to get to the, you know the end point where we know all the vehicles the administrator will say will take weeks if not months, then you have the issue of building all the parts. >> ifill: assume you were driving one of these cars with the suspect abag and go to the government web site, compare your vin number do, all the things right to find out indeed yours is a car under recall so then how long will it take you to get that fix made? >> the answer really depends likely on where you are, because
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the auto companies in tacta are prioritizing the high humidity areas. because right now they've only built 4 million replacement kits, they have 30 million more to build, and only going to get up to 1 million build per month by september it could take two years to build up parts. if you're in a high humidity area, channels are you could get it fixed immediately. check with your dealer. depending on the stock you may be able to get your vehicle fixed immediately, and some companies are offering loaner vehicles as well. no good answer. could take up to 60 days for all the vin numbers to get input. if you don't see your vehicle recalled, as the administrator said, keep checking for a every couple of weeks for up to a couple of months. >> ifill: is this something that should be taken out of the hands of the individual auto companies and be handled by the government instead by n.h.t.s.a.? >> it's a rare example where the
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auto companies agree the government should take over as both republicans and democrats on the committee because you have a lot of decisions to make. who gets one first, what if one company's air bags are more dangerous than others. the companies want n.h.t.s.a. to take over and decide the sticky decisions and act as an advocate for the u.s. because you have 20 million vehicles abroad and the u.s. could be jockeying with the other countries to see who gets the replacement parts first. >> ifill: n.h.t.s.a. says they're underfunded. how do they handle something this big? >> they're handling a lot of issues. they're in a chrysler rerecalls and overseeing g.m., budget is down 20%, affects real dollars over the decade. they want more money to triple budget and double staff but so far congress has not moved on it but the top republican on the committee today said if n.h.t.s.a. made a bitter request they'd reconsider but it's an uphill battle for congress to give them more money or
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authority. >> ifill: david shepardson, detroit news, thank you. >> thanks gwen. >> woodruff: nearly a full century after they fought in world war one, the president gave the nation's highest military award, the medal of honor, posthumously today to a pair of veterans whose heroism had never been fully recognized because of discrimination. one recipient was african- american, the other was jewish. william brangham has the story. >> they both risked their own lives to save the lives of others, they both left us decades ago before we could give them the full recognition that they deserved, but it's never too late to say thank you. >> brangham: for one of the men honored by president obama today, recognition for his acts of valor were a long time coming. in 1917, henry johnson joined
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the all-black 369th regiment known as the harlem hellfighters. at the time, most black soliders performed menial labor, not combat operations. but the hellfighters were deployed to france and fought under french command. pvt. johnson was stationed in france on the western front. on sentry duty one night, he and another pvt., needham roberts, came under fire from at least a dozen german soldiers. after a long fight, both men were wounded. roberts was unconcious, and the germans advanced. he took down one enemy soldier, then the other, finally reinforcements arrived and the last enemy soldier fled. >> reporter: for his extraordinary acts >> brangham: for his extraordinary acts, johnson was given france's highest miltary honor, the crois de guerre. johnson and the hellfighters were welcomed home by adoring crowds in harlem and across new york. his image was even used on recruitment posters. and in a private letter, general
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john pershing, the top american commander during the war, recognized johnson. but neither johnson's bravery nor the 21 wounds he sustained that night were noted in his military records back home. yohuru williams, a history professor at fairfield university in connecticut, said that was no simple oversight. >> when the french began to recognize and celebrate acts of valor, like we see with the henry johnson case. pershing's reaction was not to celebrate these troops but to actually try to introduce jim crow segregation into the french government, and into the army, and into the war itself. >> brangham: but after decades of advocacy by fellow veterans and others, johnson was posthumously awarded the purple heart by president clinton in 1996, and the medal of honor today by president obama. another world war i veteran received the nation's higest military honor today, sargeant william shemin. while shemin did receive the military's second highest award
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in 1919 the president said his accomplishments never got the full honor they deserved in part because he was jewish. shemin's daughters were on hand to accept his award today. >> the allies were hunkered down in one trench, the germans in another, separated about 150 yards, just a football field and a half, but the open space was a blood bath. soldier aftersoldier ventured after and were mode down. so those still in the trenches were left with a terrible choice. by trying to rescue your fellow soldier or watch him die knowing that part of you will die along with him, william couldn't stand to watch. he ran out into the hell of no man's land and dragged the wounded comrade to safety, and then he did it again, and again.
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three times he raced through heavy machine gunfire. three times he carried his fellow soldiers to safety. >> brangham: at a press conference earlier this week, elsie shemin-roth said her father was one of many overlooked heroes. >> this supreme honor is the name of william shemin, but it would please him if it were also dedicated to the fallen the survivors and their families who did not have the proper paperwork or representation depicting their valor. >> brangham: professor williams says recognizing soldiers like shemin and johnson today reminds us that the failure to acknowledge the contributions of minority soldiers is an ugly but undeniable theme of american history. >> ultimately what happens is, you go from this moment where johnson is celebrated by his own community, and yet has to deal with the reality that the united states government, those who hold power. those who are in power, are not doing anything to meet not only his needs but the needs of other
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soldiers who fought bravely for their country. >> brangham: because of his wounds, henry johnson could not work after returning from the war. and because those wounds went undocumented, he was ineligible for military benefits. he died in 1929, penniless and ravaged by alcoholism. the president said today's ceremony was a small way to right the wrongs done to johnson and his fellow servicemembers. >> ifill: even if congress rand in government surveillance powers evidence of a different privacy concerns surfaced this time at the f.b.i. the associated press reported that the f.b.i. operates a fleet of undercover planes shielded by fake company names that flew surveillance over at least 30
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cities and eleven states in a 30-day period. equipped with video cameras that sometimes watch cell phone area. the f.b.i. says they target specific criminals and in most cases a warrant is not necessary. jack gillum is one of the reporters on the story. describe the fleet you wrote about. >> most often if you look at the tail number emblazenned on the back of the plane you might go to the f.a.a. database of aircraft, might say it belongs to jack gillum, a corporation, google microsoft or a corporate jet of sorts, but all these aircraft belong to these sort of strange-looking companies, m.g. research being one of them, a mix of letters sometimes research, sometimes other names that trace back to a bunch of p.o. boxes. now, this came to light after this aircraft was spotted and reported by "the washington post" early may during civil unrest following the death of
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freddie gray in baltimore. we wanted to see if there are more aircraft like this and started digging through records and other air flight radio patterns to see. >> ifill: despite of the dummy corporations, what's the point of shielding the owners of the planes? >> the f.b.i. says when they want to do this fictitious company it's they don't want to give criminals on the ground a heads up when they look at the sky above they're going to see a plane that belongs to the f.b.i. or the u.s. government. they also say they want to keep it operational security. so if you know it's an f.b.i. plane you know where it takes off and lands you may be able to sabotage it. that doesn't sit well in the minds of a lot of people for whom these planes are circling above overhead and sometimes they get concerned calling 911 asking what is this guy doing above my house. >> ifill: what is the f.b.i. saying they're looking for?
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>> leading up to this report until we spoke to law enforcement officials is they largely told in either local news reports or when them asked they largely remained silent. the federal aviation administration which registers the planes also largely remained silent in. this case, u.s. government officials said no, we're behind these, we set up these dummy corporations to keep secrecy or at least to not let people know what these planes are but that indeed the program is also not secret. >> ifill: so this is an issue hiding in plane sight. people saw the planes, knew something was up but the government never confirmed it till now? >> that's right. it was the volume of the flights that stood out to us so we're able to look at lot of flight radar data going -- following these flights from seattle, houston dallas boston area. we were able to stitch the flights together initially but not just looking at the registrations back to the dummy companies in rural virginia, but also the aircraft registration
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records which had what appeared to be fictitious c.e.o.s. one man signing his name at least three different ways across several of the companies set up. >> i think the name is robert ludly and he doesn't exist? >> and the f.b.i. will not confirm if he's an employ. >> ifill: this doesn't require a court, a judge. we were talking about the patriot act. that required a secret court to sign off on some of the surveillance. this doesn't? >> law enforcement officials will say that when you're viewing somebody from the sky there's no fourth amendment protection here. the question really becomes as technology evolves is just how specific can a technology be. ten years ago, 15 years ago, a pair of binoculars might have been all that does the trick. now you have h.d. video. you can zoom in closely and the concern for civil libertarians and privacy advocates is if you're up there and recording video and it gets more granular over time, what's going to be used with the video and how can
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you rewind your life. >> ifill: there is actual equipment attached to the planes that can track cell phones from tower to tower? >> right, and the f.b.i. says this practice is extremely rare a rare occurrence, but this technology, which has been used in some criminal cases, trick cell phones below to thinking it's a cell tower and coughs up basic subscriber data effectively allowing police in this case the f.b.i. to know who's down below. >> ifill: if you're barbecuing down your back, have your cell phony your pocket, it's possible a plane above knows what you're doing. >> if they capture the surveillance and tie the cell phone to your name they probably could do that. >> ifill: theoretically a terrorist could be caught the same way. >> possibly too. >> ifill: possibly. jack gillum, associated press. thank you. >> woodruff: as homelessness has grown in cities across the
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country, more so-called street papers have cropped up to help tell the story. we went back to look again at how one newspaper in the nation's capital is doing 10 years later. the newshour's anne davenport found it is expanding its mission. >> reporter: when you think of red carpet film premieres, this is not the customary scene. among this group are developing filmmakers who appear in their own documentary about homelessness. they are or have been homeless in the nation's capitol and are now seeing their work on the big screen. three short films were produced by capturing hope, part of an organization called street sense. the team members are eager to get out their story and learn valuable cinematic production skills.
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street sense also publishes the only newspaper by and for the homeless in washington, enabling sellers to make $1.50 for every two dollar paper sold. the twice-monthly newspaper also trains participants in journalism and a variety of forms of writing. 12000 issues are sold each addition. ♪ now, in a novel approach, the street sense organization is expanding more heavily into arts education and digital media, as well as journalism, in order to help homeless people get a toehold in diverse creative careers. workshops and apprenticeships are led by volunteer professionals. in addition to the film making, there's theater...
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interactive art, digital photography, where one participant shared a first- person piece and photography documenting his heart condition. >> our vision is that we're a full spectrum media company that we're spreading the word about homelessness. >> reporter: brian carome leads street sense which is housed here at the episcopal church of the epiphany in downtown washington. 50% of its support comes from individual contributions, 25% from newspaper sales and 15% from foundations and corporations. >> we have two missions here. one is economic opportunities for men and women who are homeless. you can walk in the doors today and be out working today even if you don't have a penny in your pocket, even if you just got to of jail even if you slept outside last night, even if you're still struggling with serious disabilities. and then our second half of our mission is public education, the
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content of our media is meant to impact hearts and minds in this community and the new media that we're doing is also we believe creating avenues for much higher paying employment than you can experience selling a newspaper on a street corner. >> reporter: sasha williams, who was raped at gunpoint earlier in life, has been homeless off and on for a number years. she has just landed stable housing enabling her to move out of a shelter with her two-year- old daughter, eboni, and is now documenting the conditions there for a future film. sasha is the main videographer for the "cinema from the streets" films that debuted in the professional theater and wants to pursue a career in this craft. >> i still have to re-do my resume which i like to do because it shows the stuff that i have been doing with myself which is a good look for me to think about the positive stuff.
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it's really helping me to build up myself, being a good mom, being a woman. they treat me like i'm a genuine colleague, they don't treat me like i'm a client. >> reporter: james davis is training a new street sense vendor on the do's and don'ts of selling the paper on the street, and representing the organization. davis would know. he had recently joined street sense when the newshour interviewed him 10 falls ago. he was a homeless engineer, laid off from his security-clearance job and in the midst of a divorce and deepening depression. >> it's more than just a newspaper. it's more giving back in a sense of helping people. >> reporter: davis was also contributing poetry to the paper. >> hope turns to despair when they gather at a place called some. the men with worn look of life on their faces. >> reporter: and today? in addition to counseling new vendors, he advocates on behalf
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of the national coalition for the homeless in forums and works at metro part time. he lives independently, and still writes and sells papers for street sense, pocketing an average of $100 a day, with the possibility of a few hundred dollars a day around holidays. >> i have a customer base that's already in place. i believe we put out a good product and people really look forward to reading the paper. maybe this was my purpose to go through homelessness, so i can know what i'm talking about so i can help others. >> reporter: currently in washington, d.c. proper, there are almost 7,300 homeless people in the city and close to 12,000 in the d.c. metro area, though many think that count may be low. most recent statistics show 41,000 households active on the waitlist for d.c. housing. more than 20,000 listed themselves as homeless. nancy burnett works with an angel investor organization and runs a financial educators group. >> if i was given a choice for the same price, let's say to
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have a videographer who has a lot of experience, a lot of awards, i would take them at the same time i would take this population of learners. they have a different eye, a different ear and their soul is different. >> one of the things is the powerful transformational effect that self-expression has on our lives. that changes a sense of self, you've got to first believe in yourself to claw your way out of this deep hole that is homelessness. >> reporter: so, as james davis and sasha williams and others continue their efforts for a more stable existence, they help each other in this collaborative workshop environment. in washington, d.c., i'm anne davenport for the pbs newshour . >> ifill: go online to see a link to the recently-released films about homelessness, and to
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hear from a street sense filmmaker and his mentor. and we'll be back with a look at a new approach to schooling in pakistan. but first, it's pledge week on pbs. this break allows your public television station to ask for your support. and that support helps keep programs like ours on the air. >> ifill: for those stations not taking a pledge break, we take a second look at how san francisco is using public libraries to support its homeless. newshour's cat wise reports. >> reporter: a line of people recently stood outside san francisco's main public library waiting for the gates to open. when the doors opened, the crowds streamed in. the library draws patrons from all walks of life. but on a typical day, about 15% of the 5,000 visitors are homeless.
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in that regard san francisco isn't unique: many urban libraries serve as safe havens during the day for the homeless. but here's what is unique about san francisco's library. meet leah esguerra. the nation's first full-time library social worker. esguerra was hired in 2009 to do outreach to patrons in need of social services. >> one of the advantages of having been here for six years is i've become a familiar face at the library so people know me. and its interesting even on the streets they say you're the library lady or the social worker. >> reporter: esguerra is well acquainted with the citys large homeless population, many of whom hang out near the library which is steps from city hall, and the gritty tenderloin neighborhood. before coming to the library, she worked at a nearby community mental health clinic. these days, she seeks out many
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of the same kinds of people she helped in the past, but in a very different setting, amid books. >> i always say that its easier to do outreach on the streets because its a neutral territory, you can just approach people. but here its their safe place, its their sanctuary, so i try to be very respectful. my way in is "hi, i don't know if you know that there's a social worker at the library." i don't say that i think they're homeless, but i just 'say we have these services if you think you might, you know, want to know more about it, i'm available, i'm always here. >> reporter: much of esguerras job entails providing information to people about where they can access services like free meals, temporary shelters, and legal aid. but when she encounters an individual who meets specific criteria, including being chronically homeless, with a physical or medical condition esguerras role changes: >> i sit down with the person, that's when my being a clinical social worker comes in, i do the
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full clinical assessment, and then i make a presentation to my colleagues at the san francisco homeless outreach team, they provide case management, and also housing. >> reporter: in fact, since the program began, about 150 formerly homeless library patrons have received permanent housing, and another 800 have benefited from other social services. but not everyone, even in liberal san francisco, is supportive of the homeless presence at the library. one particularly irate patron recently wrote a review on the main librarys yelp page: >> reporter: inappropriate use of library facilities by some patrons, including the homeless, has long been an issue in san francisco. last year, after encouragement from the city's mayor, the library implemented a new code of conduct with tougher penalties. but some advocates feel the code
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unfairly targets the homeless such as rules against emitting strong odors and bringing large carts or luggage into the library. >> there are times where security, or whatever, the library police, they're not always that friendly. >> reporter: brian andrews is one of those upset by the tougher enforcement. he says he's been homeless for ten years and often comes to the library to use the restroom because he doesn't have other options. >> i need to go to the restroom, and granted, the library has signs posted saying that you can't shower, bathe, whatever, and i understand it and appreciate that, but at the same time its like i'm on the street, and what can i do? >> reporter: luis herrera is the chief of san francisco's libraries. he says the new rules are not targeted at any one group of patrons, and the library wants to support everyone who walks
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through the doors. >> urban libraries are one of the most democratic intuitions that we can have, and we welcome everybody. 99% of the individuals come in here, use the library respectfully, for it's intended purpose, but were always going to have that small percentage that obviously has some problems or some issues. >> reporter: one of the ways the library is trying to make it work better for everyone is by putting more eyes and ears on the floors. >> i had an outreach i didn't tell you about yesterday. he's 35 years old and he's been homeless for two years but no chronic illness or nothing like that. >> reporter: on the day we visited the library, esguerra was meeting with jerry munoz and two other staff she hired who are known as health and safety associates. all three are formerly homeless library patrons themselves, and now, after turning their lives around, they are trying to help others do the same. >> this is our basic community here. we deal with all kinds of people.
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a lot of retired people come here and stuff. but like i said, i look for people with a lot of bags or people who are asleep. >> reporter: munoz, who is 54, lost his job and home six years ago when his son passed away unexpectedly, and depression set in, followed by substance abuse and health complications from diabetes. he spent nine months homeless on the streets of san francisco, but he now lives in subsidized city housing. and after receiving special training from esguerra, he patrols the library floors during his three hour shift, five days a week, looking for anyone he thinks may need help. >> excuse me brother, you're not allowed to sleep in the library right? >> oh sorry. >> that's alright, you know, here is a place where you can sleep during the day. >> i talk to them, and i go oh, i slept under the bridge, i did everything, you know what i mean, and i let them know i know where they're coming from. it makes them feel comfortable then they know that they have one person they can connect with.
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>> reporter: for her part, esguerra is soon planning to hire two new formerly homeless outreach workers. and the program will be expanded into san francisco's neighborhood libraries in the coming year. >> woodruff: now to one woman's efforts to find answers in one of the world's most distressed school systems. special correspondent fred de sam lazaro reports from karachi, pakistan, part of his series "agents for change." >> reporter: 11-year-old aqsa has high ambitions. >> first i want to be a public speaker and then i want to be the president of pakistan to change. >> reporter: to change things? how do you harness the energy and the enthusiasm of young children? if you became president of pakistan, what would you like to do? >> first i will clean the litter
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because the biggest problem is litter. >> reporter: in lyari, one of karachi's toughest neighborhoods, aqsa is part of an experiments started six years ago called the kiran school. the children here are encouraged to think big, to use their imagination. but the reality of violence, of terrorism, just outside these walls looms large. >> there are many people who are like, they are heartless, they kill people and all. >> reporter: what kinds of terrorism do you see in lyari? >> in side of my house they killed one man at night. it was late, 2:00, they came and they killed and went. >> reporter: 11-year-old hammad also has witnessed killing first hand. he wants to be a robotics scientist when he grows up. >> robots will like do everything. they will stop terrorism. not kill them but they will stop terrorism. >> he said that, "why can't we have robots in lyari as
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policemen?" >> reporter: sabina khatri is the school founder. >> nobody can kill the robots. the bad people will be defeated. >> reporter: a mother of grown children, khatri lived in europe for many years before returning to karachi. she started the kiran school six years ago, based on the montessori learning model admitting just 20 students each year. the goal: prepare them to attend top private, english-language schools, alongside children from karachi's tiny upper class. she's raised scholarships and donations in a foundation for her social enterprise. the children have thrived, she says, even become harvard material. >> we are actually looking at the future of these kids. they can make it to harvard, this was one of the principals who told me, that this kid can make it to harvard. >> reporter: problem is, the vast majority of children in lyari and pakistan will go- nowhere. just two percent of the government's budget goes to
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education and much of that is squandered. public schools are in decrepit condition. 50% lack electricity, 40% have no toilets. many are stripped of furniture. and it gets worse. it's not uncommon for public schools to exist only on paper. the money's been allocated but no building's been built, no children enrolled. the only thing up and running is the payroll for so-called teachers. most are just beneficiaries of political favors. khatri says the government is starting to face facts, and its invited outsiders to take over failing schools. a few months ago, khatri adopted this myari middle school. her first task was to hire new teachers and tell most of the old ones, tenured so they could not be fired, to just stay away >> they come and create troubles. >> reporter: so you'd just as soon have them be absent. >> yeah. >> reporter: her next step: rearrange classes to cluster
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students by ability not grade level. >> although they do say that they are in the eighth grade or ninth grade, they don't even know how to write their name in urdu, let alone in english. >> reporter: some 250 students have been put in an intense remedial curriculum. >> does it float or sink. >> reporter: there's strong emphasis on inquiry and critical thinking, instead of the more common rote learning. the school also teaches islamic values that khatri says are too often neglected, like tolerance and respect. its a challenge in a conservative-and in many ways isolated-society. >> biggest criticism and concern was that it would be very modern. that they feel that we teach our children music and dance and we are making them broad-minded. >> reporter: and she's poised to take a controversial step. >> we are actually taking permission for a co-education school. we are going to open up for
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girls next year. >> reporter: regular meetings with parents and the community are also part of the job. when one woman at a recent open house worried the school was teaching liberal values, she asked an 11-year-old from the kiran school to respond. >> she actually said: "bismillah, we believe in god. the way we have learned about god is that god is love. but that is not the way other children are taught. it's always taught that god will punish you." god loves you. they were quiet. >> reporter: and accepting? >> it was a wonderful, yes they were, i think so because then after that the same lady said "i want an admission form." >> reporter: one parent was assuaged but khatri says intolerance remains a threat. so community service projects are another way to win the neighborhood over. but in a country wracked by instability, there is no guarantee. >> anything can happen to me anytime, especially in the
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situation i am, especially the kind of things that have been happening in our country, because social workers have been targeted lately in the past two or three years. anyone who's trying to help out people, they just kill them. >> reporter: still khatri, who recently was joined by a prominent business leader, plans to persist with what she calls a promising prototype to fix a broken school system. she and many others say it's where intolerance and most of pakistan's social and economic problems have their root. i'm fred de sam lazaro for the pbs newshour in karachi, pakistan. >> woodruff: fred's reporting is a partnership with the under- told stories project at st. mary's university of minnesota >> ifill: a bird fossil that is so well preserved, its long tail feathers may have even retained some of their original coloring. considering it's roughly 115 million-years-old, that's quite a find.
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read about the discovery, and see an artist's rendering of its colorful plumage, on our home page. that's at >> woodruff: miles o'brien kicks off a series, "cracking ebola's code." miles travels to sierra leone and trails local and international doctors searching for the origins of the virus, testing possible vaccines, as they try to end the worst outbreak of the virus in history, and prepare for the next one. that starts thursday on the pbs newshour. i'm judy woodruff. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. we'll see you online, and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us here at the pbs newshour, thank you and good night. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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>> this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh
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this is "nightly business with tyler mathisen and sue herera. auto sales remain on track for the best year in almost a decade making this one part of the economy that seems toe firing on all cylinders. security failures. despite bill yoz being spent on our nation's airports a new report shows it is way too easy to get past security. >> raise the retirement age, that the best way to save social security. all of that tonight on "nightly busine for tuesday, june 2nd. good evening, everyone and welcome. auto sales are hot and that says a lot about a luke warm economy. the industry is on track now for the second best year ever for car and light truck sales as