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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  July 26, 2015 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> sreenivasan: on this edition for sunday, july 26: as his trip to africa continues, the president vows to stand by kenya in its fight against terrorism. >> president kenyatta and i spent a lot of time discussing the serious threat from al- shabab that kenya faces. >> sreenivasan: in our signature segment: pressed into service. tunisian fishermen saving the lives of migrants stranded at sea. >> so i was just thinking two things, that i will survive, or i will die. this is it. >> sreenivasan: and, altered images and the dilemma for photojournalism.
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next on pbs newshour weekend. >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios in lincoln center in new york, hari sreenivasan. >> sreenivasan: good evening and thanks for joining us. president obama has arrived in the ethiopian capital of addis ababa, continuing his mission to boost u.s. trade and ties with africa. earlier sunday, the president completed his visit to his father's homeland of kenya, with
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a stadium speech to an enthusiastic crowd of 4,500 people. the president criticized kenya's history of corruption and gender inequality but praised its budding democracy. his half-sister, auma introduced obama, who called himself the first kenyan- american president. with a growing economy in kenya the president said there was no limit on what young kenyans could achieve. >> you don't need to do what my father did and leave your home in order to get a good education and access to opportunity. because of kenya's progress, because of your potential you can build your future right here, right now. >> sreenivasan: his address was less than 10 miles from the location of the 2013 nairobi mall attack that left more than 60 people dead. the islamic militant group responsible for that attack, al- shabbab carried out a car bombing sunday in neighboring somalia, killing at least 13 people outside a mogadishu hotel. president obama promised the u.s. will help kenya fight the ongoing threat. >> we are proud of the efforts
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that we are making to strengthen kenya's capabilities through our new security governance initiative. we are going to stand shoulder to shoulder with you in this fight against terrorism for as long as it takes. >> sreenivasan: we'll have more on the president's africa trip in a moment. in syria, president bashar al- assad is vowing to win his country's devastating civil war. in his first public speech in a year, assad acknowledged his government troops have surrendered control of some towns and cities to rebel groups, he said, in order to defend other territory. >> ( translated ): we must define the important regions that the armed forces hold on to so it doesn't allow the collapse of the rest of the areas. >> sreenivasan: after four years of fighting, assad-allied forces are thought to control less than half of the country. one of assad's strongest allies iran, is hoping to convince its persian gulf neighbors to support the nuclear deal approved last week by the u.n. security council. in kuwait, iranian foreign minister mohammad zarif called for arab unity and said no country can solve regional problems without the help of others. zarif is also visiting qatar and iraq. some gulf states worry lifting
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economic sanctions on iran will free up money for iran to fund militant groups that pose a threat to the region. the boy scouts of america are expected to lift a ban on openly gay adult leaders tomorrow, but not completely. the scouts' national executive board says it plans to ratify a new policy allowing local units to select adult leaders without regard to sexual orientation. a big exception: churches that sponsor scout units may still reject gay adult leaders and volunteers. more than 70% of scout units are sponsored by churches. >> sreenivasan: president obama is in ethiopia tonight, the first sitting u.s. president to visit that country. his stop comes after a three-day visit to kenya. one goal of the trip: strengthening trade between sub- saharan africa and the u-s. another: fighting terrorism. to discuss those and other issues i'm joined by former
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u.s. ambassador to nigeria, john campbell, now the ralph bunche senior fellow for africa policy studies at the council on foreign relations. so let's start with the terror one. how is fighting terror in africa in i guess the u.s. interests today? >> terrorism in africa is a direct threat, not to u.s. security, but to u.s. interests. oonla fundamental u.s. interest in africa is there be continued progress towards democracy towards development towards stability. terrorism is active in the sahel, these are alt areas where the u.s. has been working for a long time. >> let's look at the economic impact as well. there seems to be almost a race here to perhaps counter the
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influence that china has already in africa as a trading partner as a country that is making significant investments there. >> my view that that can be overemphasized. china has economic interests in africa. the real interest is that chinese economic interests in africa be responsible. and that particular in peace and security questions, that china play a role, commensurate with its economic position in particularly east africa. >> and so when the president lays out this sort of entrepreneurial forums, how possible is that? >> well, it will take some time obviously but the population of subsharonsubsaharan africa is approaching 1 billion. there are all sorts of hurdles
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to overcome. subsaharan he africa is very little intraafrican trade. so there is a lot of development to be done. >> clinton and bush as well, pepfar, emergency aids relief. there were announcements for a new initiative focusing on adolescent girls too. >> there was indeed. also very important u.s. initiative that's been overlooked can ma layer is malaria. simple programs such as providing bed nets for people, can greatly reduce the mortality rates especially for children. >> president obama leaving
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behind a different because of his background? >> really in two broad areas for one thing because of his background, i think africa has willy-nilly been introduced to some americans who otherwise never would have thought about it. similarly, the fact that the president of the united states is an african american that is of particular interest and indeed even pride straight across the african continent. so yes, both in the united states but also in africa. >> all right john campbell, thanks so much for joining us. >> thank you so very much for having me. >> sreenivasan: read more about president obama's trip to africa, including his call for greater equality for women and minorities, online at >> sreenivasan: our signature
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segment tonight looks at the crisis of migrants from africa and the middle east risking their lives on the mediterranean sea in search of a better life. for many, they take to the water from libya, where the lawlessness of civil war allows smugglers to easily launch desperate refugees hoping to land in europe. the journey often starts in the coastal town of zuwara libya. the goal: to reach the shores of italy, some 300 miles away. but when the currents are rough, or the boats get lost, the migrants sometimes end up stranded in the waters off neighboring tunisia. special correspondent lisa desai reports from tunisia with the story of local fisherman who are saving lives. >> reporter: it's just after sunrise in the coastal town of zarzis in southern tunisia. tourism and fishing are the staple of the local economy. and the fishermen sell their catches of dorado and tuna, in the early hours of the morning. here on the mediterranean sea, a problem plagues europe and many
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african countries-- and it's been growing since the civil war began four years ago in neighboring libya. a mass exodus of migrants and refugees from the middle-east and africa have been drawn to libya, where a lack of central government authority allows human smugglers to operate freely. the migrants make the dangerous journey on the mediterranean with one goal in mind: landing on european shores. wooden boats and inflatable plastic rafts often overflowing with migrants, have been sinking one after another, claiming thousands of lives. and these men have found themselves on the frontlines of a humanitarian crisis. we're on a tunisian fishing boat in the mediterranean sea. the fishermen here say that over the last six months alone they have rescued more than 500 migrants on the verge of drowning. >> ( translated ): one time we rescued 10 migrants. when they got on the boat two of them started praying. it gave me chills, all over my body.
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we are fisherman. we are here to make a living. we are not here to rescue people, but we have a feeling of humanity. so if i find someone on the sea, i will save him. >> reporter: but even without the right equipment, the fishermen say they can't turn away from migrants lost at sea. they stop their work to bring them to safety on the tunisian shore, and pay for extra fuel to get them there. sometimes these untrained fisherman risk their own lives pulling people out of the water, and spend all night waiting for help from the tunisian coast guard. >> ( translated ): it's a powerful feeling to see someone helpless, hungry and being burned by the sun. it's very hard, you are in front of someone who is calling for help. >> reporter: mongi slim is the head of the zarzis office of the tunisian red crescent; the red cross in muslim countries.
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at the local fishing association he coordinates rescues... in zarzis and other nearby port cities like ben gardane. >> those people are fighting each one wants to go. >> reporter: and i see some pictures here of the bodies washed up? >> yes, this, this here is in ben gardane. these are syrian people. here is in il kitif, the port of ben gardane. we received this day 54 bodies from syria. >> reporter: photo after photo shows overcrowded boats-- men and women fighting to stay alive-- and migrants desperately flagging ships for help. when the fishermen find the sinking boats, if they are close enough to european waters, they call the italian authorities but sometimes the italians don't show up. >> he had to rescue them himself, because nobody come. and he waits a long time and nobody come, and people are crying in the sea, and he must help them.
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>> reporter: the lucky ones who make it to zarzis alive get help from the red crescent. mongi earns his living as a pharmacist, and has made it his volunteer mission to provide the migrants with shelter, food, and support to survive. can you tell me how many people live here? >> in this house, we have four. >> reporter: 18-year-old tuba-- on the right-- is from senegal. how did you end up here in tunisia? >> ( translated ): we were trying to go italy. we left zwara to go to lampedusa. >> reporter: do you remember the day that you were rescued? what happened? >> ( translated ): we saw lots of boats. we were trying to call them, but they didn't respond. >> reporter: there are now several hundred migrants and refugees from africa and the middle east living in the area around zarzis. many fled war, poverty, or persecution in their home countries. some stay only a few weeks, before walking 80 miles across
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the border to libya, to board boats bound for europe. one more time. ousman kebbeh is from gambia. he journeyed by sea to europe three times. the first two times, he didn't get far-- he was rescued and returned to libya. during his final attempt, he was saved by tunisian fishermen. >> we just waiting for our deaths, no options. you just inside the boat waiting for our time to die. >> reporter: the fishermen sent us this cell phone footage that shows ousman's rescue. he was onboard a plastic raft, crammed with 90 other people heading to italy. eventually, the boat sprung a leak and slowly began to fill with water. >> the water is entering inside and the waves is coming again, the water is coming up. so the water is coming different directions. you don't know where exactly water is entering the boat. so it's a terrible situation. some people are vomiting, some
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people are crying, some people are fighting because you become crazy on the sea. you become different man. so i was just thinking two things, that i will survive, or i will die. this is it. >> reporter: like most migrants, ousman had put his fate in the hands of human smugglers who typically leave the migrants to drive the boats themselves. the journey can take more than 24 hours, they have few tools to navigate, sometimes relying on just a compass to find their way to europe. in zarzis it is common knowledge that one of the ways that smugglers lure migrants is by advertising on social media with posts like these: featuring pictures of cruise ships, they promise a safe journey, with children riding free. this post, which was recently taken down, lists the price per adult: $1,000 to be ferried from libya to italy. ousman is one of thousands of migrants who have flocked to the
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war torn country based on the promise of making it to europe. but once they arrive in libya, they are caught in violence and lawlessness, and no choice but to risk their lives on the mediterranean. >> you cannot live in libya. people in libya, they just keep on harassing black people, keep on beating them, keep on lock them. some of them kidnap you in your houses, lock you. you have to pay money for them otherwise they'll kill. so the only thing you have to go, you have to cross to italy. this is a problem. libyan situation is worse, because there is no government nobody is control. >> reporter: last year, the tunisian red crescent took in 700 migrants, and so far this year the number has already doubled. mongi slim is worried about how to handle the growing number of migrants ending up in the port city of zarzis. >> nobody now is helping enough this people. our government also, we don't have any shelter here to this people. when they arrive, we have a big problem to resolve the shelter.
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>> reporter: the dream is to make a better life than they have in there country. their country, they want to support their family. but i think that they cannot get it. the fisherman say they will continue rescuing migrants. >> ( translated ): it is risky for us, because there's bacteria, disease. and people are afraid. but it is a humanitarian duty and we do it willingly. >> they are good people, they love the sea, so they can't just see people die and leave them like that. they save many lives in the sea. not only us, but many people. and i hope they are still doing it.
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>> sreenivasan: photographs are a fundamental part of how we document current events. but in the digital age, the tools to edit and doctor photos are accessible to anyone with a computer or smartphone. an exhibit in new york explores prominent cases of images altered by journalists and asks: if seeing is believing, how often are you, the viewer or reader, being misled? the newshour's saskia de melker reports. >> reporter: when you don't like those people or objects in the background, you just remove them. using a filter, after the snap, to make a regular photo look vintage, is as easy as a mouse click. so is removing a light post that seems to be shooting out of someone's head by using photoshop. but in the world of photojournalism, these alterations are the subject of intense debate. and using photoshop can land you in hot water. like it did for "the economist"
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when it removed people from this beach photo of president obama. or for an orthodox israeli newspaper when it cut out the female leaders in this photo. >> people do that all the time on their facebook page. that's fine. we're the professionals. we have to maintain standards and ethics. we have to make sure that these photos are an accurate representation. >> reporter: photographer michael kamber has covered conflicts around the world for the "new york times." his latest project, though, is curating an exhibition at the bronx documentary center called“ altered images,” which explores news and documentary photos that have been manipulated. >> the more we looked, the more we found, especially lately especially in the digital age. it was actually hard to bring it down to these 40 photos. >> reporter: the exhibit spans photojournalism history and includes examples of staging: directing subjects like the boy in this image. or misleading captions: this man was not a sniper. and yes, photoshopping: john kerry was never at this anti - vietnam rally with jane fonda.
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one of the first cases of controversial digital photo manipulation occurred in 1982 with the great pyramids of egypt. >> national geographic took a horizontal photo and wanted to put it on a vertical cover. and they moved the pyramids closer together. that was something that really got people's attention. another really egregious example of manipulation is the los angeles times photo from 2003, where a photographer took two photos. they were both quite dramatic. there was a british soldier in the photo and there was an iraqi civilian. in one photo he liked the way the soldier looked. and in the other photo he liked the way the civilian looked. so he decided to just combine the two photos in photoshop. and it was actually printed all over the world. >> reporter: when the inconsistencies were noticed the photographer lost his job. photo manipulation is as old as photography itself. take this photo of president lincoln. it's actually lincoln's head on senator john calhoun's body.
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or this portrait of general ulysses grant. it layers three separate images from different times and locations. even before photography went digital, the media altered photos. in this famous image of the kent state massacre, the fence behind the grieving teenage girl was removed. in 1994, "time magazine" ignited a firestorm for making football hero o.j. simpson, then accused of murdering his wife, look darker and blacker than he really was. newsweek didn't. in 2006, the reuters news agency yanked a photo of the israeli- bombed beirut skyline after it learned the photographer used photoshop to clone and darken the smoke to make the damage look worse. two years ago, the associated press fired the photographer who edited out a video camera seen in the foreground of the image of this soldier. >> once we start removing things from photos then pretty much everything is on the table for negotiation. we can't be negotiating this. we can't be negotiating what is
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inside the frame. it has to be what was actually there when you took the photo. >> reporter: still, in this year's coveted world press photo contest 20% of the finalists were disqualified for significant alterations to their photos. >> you've got technology, and a public that knows it's there, which creates all kind of room for doubt. >> reporter: columbia journalism school professor bruce shapiro says the internet magnifies the consequences of manipulated images. >> powerful images of current events, of controversies, of abuses have been an important driver of social change and public policy. if the public, if the news consuming, image consuming, picture drenched public loses confidence in the ability of photographers to tell the truth in a fundamental way, then the game is up.
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>> this is pbs newshour weekend, sunday. >> sreenivasan: the recent 20% drop in crude oil prices might be saving you money at the gas pump, but it's now prompting job layoffs by u.s. energy companies. joining me now via skype from houston, is lynn cook of the wall street journal. captioning sponsored by wnet >> how bad is it for the energy industry? >> it's pretty bad because energy companies were expecting a rebound in the oil price. they thought it would go from 60 to 70 or $80 during the second half of the year and it's now dropped below $50 a barrel. so companies are having to figure out what do they have to do to weather this, not just this year but all of next year too. >> is this partly because the industry has become more productive all the time? >> it is, because american drillers have drilled a lot. they've become more efficient, pumping more oil and gas out of
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the ground even though they're drilling less and it's not just in the u.s. there are a lot of really big oil producers in the world that are putting more and more crude into an already saturated market. sreenavasan: how many people are we talking about when it comes to layoffs? >> estimates i've seen about 150,000 people laid off so far. and those have been typically blue collar type workers and now we're looking at thousands more between now and the end of the year. those may be white collar very educated highly skilled people like engineers and geologists. sreenavasan: there are going to be people that say look these are big profitable companies and they should have planned better. >> when oil is $100 a barrel you just hire people, you don't have to be efficient. now the budget looks very, very bloated.
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sreenavasan: lynn cook, joining us live from houston thank you. >> thank you. finally tonight british psych list chris frume has won the you'retour de france. 21 day, 2,000 mile race by one minute, 12 seconds. tomorrow on the newshour a report from turkey's bother with syria? the fight against i.s.i.s. intensifies, where u.s. and coalition aircraft is tart using a key turkish air base. i'm hari sreenivasan.
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captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh >> pbs newshour weekend is made possible by: corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we are your retirement company. additional support is provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you.
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