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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  August 21, 2017 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening and welcome to this special newshour. tonight, president trump is expected to address the nation, laying out his strategy for the war in afghanistan. for all those solar eclipse fans, nova's "eclipse over america" will begin immediately after our live coverage of the president's speech for our east coast and central time zone viewers and later this evening for everyone else. the united states longest war is now consumed nearly 16 years becoming the burden of three
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different presidents. last friday president trump held a meeting with his national security team at cam david where a new strategy was reportedly discussed and agreed on. tonight the president has traveled to fort myer, virginia, just awe process the potomac river from the whitehouse, military personnel and other invited guests will join him as he makes his presentation. correspondence nick schifrin has been covering this war extensively so he joins me now. nick, quickly, they say this is a strategy about south asia. >> the only solution of afghanistan is a regional one and that means not only will the president announce some troop increases inside afghanistan but talk about a political solution to the problem that means engaging pakistan and inside of afghanistan trying to cackle comion go after the afghan economy, perhaps talk about a politically negotiated end with the taliban. the headline of course judy will be more troops to afghanistan. >> woodruff: nick schifrin. lets now turn to president trump
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at fort myer, virginia. . >> thank you very much, thank you. please be seated. vice president pence, secretary of state tillerson, members of the cabinet, general dunford, deputy secretary shannon and colonel dublin, most especially, thank you to the men and women of fort myer and every member of the united states military at home and abroad. we send our thoughts and prayers to the families of our brave sailors who are injured and lost after a tragic collision at sea, as well as to those conducting
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the search in recovery efforts. i am here tonight to lay out our path forward in afghanistan and south asia. but before i provide the details of our new strategy, i want to say a few words to the service members here with us tonight, to those watching from their posts and to all americans listening at home. tblowsh sincsince the founding r republic we begin a special class of heroes whose selflessness, courage and resolve is unmatched in human history. american patriots from every generation have given their last breath on the battle field for our nation and for our freedom. through their lives and though
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their lives were cut short, in their deeds they achieved total immortality by following the heroic example ofthose who fought to preserve our republic, we can find the inspiration our country needs to unify, to heel and to re-- heal and to remain one union under god, operation as one shared mission and one shared sense of purpose. they transcend every line of race, ethnicity, creed and color to serve together and sacrifice together in absolutely perfect cohesion. that is because all service members are brothers and sisters. they are all part of the same
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family. it's called the american family. they take the same oath, fight for the same flag and live according to the same law. they are bound together by common purpose, mutual trust and selfless devotion to our nation and to each other. the soldier understands what we as a nation too often forget, that a wound inflicted upon a single member of our community is a wound inflicted upon us all. when one part of america hurts, we all hurt. and when one citizen suffers an injustice, we all suffer together. loyalty to our nation demands loyalty to one another. love for america requires love
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for all of its people. when we open our hearts to patriotism, there is no room for prejudice, no place for bigotry and no tolerance for hate. the young men and women we send to fight our wars abroad deserve to return to a country that is not at war with o itself at hom. we cannot remain a force for peace in the world if we are not at peace with each other. as we send our bravest to defeat our enemies over seas, and we will always win, let us find the courage to heal our divisions within. let us make a simple promise to the men and women we ask to fight in our name, that when they return home from battle, they will find a country that has renewed the sacred bonds of
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love and loyalty that unite us together at one. thanks to the vigilance and skill of the american military and of our many allies throughout the world, house on the scale of september 11th, nobody can ever forget that, have not been repeated on our shores. the knowledge, the reality i am here to talk about tonight. nearly 16 years after the september 11 attacks, after the extraordinary sacrifice of blood and treasure, the american people are really at war without victory. no where is this more evident than the war in afghanistan, the longest war in american history, 17 years. i share the american people's
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frustration. i also share their frustration over a foreign policy that has spent too much time, energy, money and most importantly lives trying to rebuild countries in our own image instead of pursuing our security interests above all other considerations. that is why shortly after my inauguration, i directed secretary of defense mattis and my insur national security teamo take a comprehensive review of all strategic options in afghanistan and south asia. my original instinct was to pull out and historically i like following my instincts. but all my life i've heard that decisions are much different when you sit behind the desk in
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the oval office. in other words, when you're president of the united states. so i studied afghanistan in great detail and from every conceivable angle. after many meetings over many months, we held our final meeting last friday at cam david with my cabinet and generals to complete our strategy. i arrived at three fundamental conclusion about america's trusts with afghanistan. first our nation must seek an honorable and enduring outcome worthy of the tremendous sacrifices that have been made, especially the sacrifices of lives. the men and women who seven our nation in combat deserve a plan for victory. they deserve the tools they need
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and the trust they have earned to fight and to win. second, the consequences of a rapid exit are both predictable and unacceptable. 9/11 the worst terrorist attack in our history, was planned and directed from afghanistan because that country was ruled by a government that gave comfort and shelter to terrorists. a hasty withdrawal would create a vacuum of the terrorists, including isis and al-qaeda will instantly fill just as happened before september 11. as we know in 2011, america hastily and mistakenly withdrew
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from iraq. as a result one game slipped back into the hands of terrorists enemies. our soldiers watched our cities they had fought for and to deliberate and won were occupied by a terrorist group called isis. created by leaving too soon gave safe haven for isis to spread, to grow, recruit and launch a pact. we cannot repeat afghanistan by our leaders made by mistake with iraq. thirdly and finally i concluded the security threats we face in afghanistan and the broader region are immense. today, 20 u.s. designated foreign terrorists organizations active in afghanistan and pakistan, the highest concentration in any region
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anywhere in the world for its part pakistan often gives safe haven to agents of chaos, violence and terror. the threat is worse because pakistan and india are two nuclear arm states whose tense relations threaten to spiral into conflict and that could happen. no one denies that we have inherit a challenging and troubling situation in afghanistan and south asia. but we do not have the luxury of going back in time and making different or better decisions. when i became president, i was given a bad and very complex hand. but i fully knew what i was getting into, big and intra can you tell problems. one way or another these problems will be solved. i'm a problem solver.
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in the end, we will win. we must address the reality of the world as it exists right now the less we face and the confronting of all of the problems of today and extremely predictable consequences of a hasty withdrawal. we need look no further than last week's via vile vicious atk in barcelona that terrorist groups will stop at nothing to commit the mass murder of innocent men, women and children. you saw it for yourself, horrible. as i outlined in my speech in saudi arabia three months ago, are committed to stripping terrorists of their territory, cutting off their funding and exposing the false allure of of
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their evil ideology. terrorists who slaughter innocent people will find no glory in this life or the next. they are nothing but thugs and criminals and predators and, that's right, losers. working alongside our allies, we will break their will, dry up their equipment, keep them from crossing our borders. and yes, we will defeat them and we will defeat them handily. in afghanistan and pakistan, america's interests are clear. we must stop the resurgence of safe havens that enable terrorists who threaten america. and we must prevent nuclear weapons and materials from coming into the hands of terrorists and being used against us or anywhere in the world for that matter. but to prosecute this war, we will learn from history.
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as a result of our comprehensive review, american strategy in afghanistan and south asia will change dramatically in the following ways. a core pill ea pillar based appo one based on conditions. i said it many times how counterproductive it is for the united states to announce in advance the dates we intend to begin or end military options. we will not talk about numbers of troops. there are plans for further military activities. conditions on the ground, not arbitrary time tables will guide our strategy from now on. america's enemies must never know our plans or believe they can wait us out. i will not say when we are going to attack. but attack we will.
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another fundamental pill irof -- pillar economic power, diplomatic and hil military towa successful outcome. some day after a military evident, perhaps it will be possible to have a political sent many that includes the elements of taliban or afghanistan but nobody knows if or when that will ever happen. america will continue its support for the afghan government and the afghan military as they confront the taliban in the field. ultimately, it is up to the people of afghanistan to take ownership of their future, to governor their society and to achieve an ever lasting peace. we are a partner and a friend but we will not dictate to the
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afghan people how to live or how to govern their own complex society. we are not nation building again. we are killing terrorists. the next pill ea pillar is our h on how to deal with pakistan. we can no longer we silent with pakistan's safe haven for terrorists organizations, the taliban and other groups that pose a threat to the region and beyond. pakistan has much to gain from partnering with our effort in afghanistan. it has much to lose by continuing to harbor criminals and terrorists. in the past, pakistan has been a valued partner. our militaries have worked together against common enemies. the pakistani people have suffered greatly from terrorism
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and extremism. we recognize those contributions and those sacrifices. but pakistan who has also sheltered the same organizations that try over single day to kill our people. we have been paying pakistan billions and billions of dollars at the same time they are housing the very terrorists that we are fighting. but that will have to change and that will change immediately. no partnership can survive a country's harboring of militants and terrorists who target u.s. service members and officials. it's time for pakistan to demonstrate its commitment to civilization, order and to peace. another critical part of the south asia strategy for america is to further develop its strategic partnership with india, the world's largest
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democracy and a key security economic partner with the united states. we appreciate india's important contributions to stability in afghanistan, but india makes billions of dollars in trade with the united states and we want them to help us more with afghanistan, especially in the area of economic aw assistance d development. we are committing to pursuing our shared objectives for peace and security in south asia, and the border endo pick region. pacific region. the brave defenders of the american people will have the necessary tools and rules of engagement to make the strategy work and work effectively and work quickly. i've already lifted restrictions the previous administration placed on our war fighters that prevent the secretary of defense
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and our commands in the field from fully and swiftly waging battle against the enemy. micromanagement from washington d.c. does not win battles. they are one in the field upon the judgment and expertise of war time commanders and frontline soldiers acting in real time with real authority and with a clear mission to defeat the enemy. that's why we will also expand authority for american armed forces to target the terrorists and criminal networks that sows violence and chaos. they have no where to hide but no place is beyond the reach of american might and american arms. retribution will be fast and powerful as we lift restrictions and expand authorities in the
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field, we are already seeing dramatic results in the campaign to defeat isis, including the liberation of mosul in iraq. since my inauguration we've achieved record-breaking success in that regard. we will also maximize sanctions and other financial and law enforcement actions against these networks to eliminate their ability to exploit terror. when america commits its warriors to battle, we must ensure they have every weapon to apply swift, decisive and overwhenning force. our groups will the fight to win. we will fight to win. from now on, victory will have a clear definition attacking our enemies, obliterating isis, crushing al-qaeda, preventing the stal ban from taking over
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afghanistan and stopping terror attacks against america before they emerge. we will ask our native allies and global partners to support our noon strategy with additional troop and funding increases in line with our own. we are confident they will. since taking office, i have made clear that our allies and partners must contribute much more money to our collective defense. and they have done so. in this struggle, the heaviest burden will continue to be borne by the good people of afghanistan and their courageous armed forces. as the prime minister of afghanistan has promised, we are going to participate in economic development to help defray the cost of this war to us. afghanistan is fighting to defend and secure their country against the same enemies who
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threaten us. the stronger the afghan security forces become, the less we will have to do. afghans will secure and build their own nation and define their own future. we want them to succeed. but we will no longer use american military might to construct democracies in far away lands or try to rebuild other countries in our own image. those days are now over. instead, we will work with allies and partners to protect our shared interests. we are not asking others to change their way of life but to pursue common goals that allow our children to live better and safer lives. this principled realism will guide our decisions moving forward. military power alone will not bring peace to afghanistan or stop the terrorist threat arising in their country. but strategically applied force aims to create the conditions
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for a political process, to achieve a lasting peace. america will work with the afghan government as long as we see determination and progress. however, our commitment is not unlimited and our support is not a blank check. the government of afghanistan must carry their share of the military political and economic burden. the american people expect to see rereal reform, real progress and real results. our patience is not unlimited. we will keep our eyes wide open in abiding by the oath i took on january 20th, i will remain steadfast in protecting american lives and american interests. in this effort, we will make
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common cause with any nation that chooses to stand and fight alongside us against this global threat. terrorists take heed, america will never let up until you are dealt a lasting defeat. under my administration, many billions of dollars more is being spent on our military and this includes vast amounts being spent on our nuclear arsenal and missile defense. in every generation we have faced down evil and we have always prevailed. we prevailed because we know who we are and what we are fighting for. not far from where we are gathered tonight, hundreds of thousands of america's greatest patriots lay in eternal rest at arlington national cemetery. there is more courage, sacrifice and love in those hallowed grounds than in any other spot
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on the face of the earth. of those who have fought and died in afghanistan enlisted in the months after see september , 2001, they volunteered for a simple reason. they loved america and they were determined to protect her. now we must secure the cause for which they gave their lives. we must unite to de23e7bd americ --defend america from its abroad. we must instill the bonds of loyalty among our citizens at home. and we must achieve an honorable and enduring outcome worthy of the enormous bryce that so many have paid. our actions and in months to come, all of them will honor the sacrifice of every fallen heroux, every family who lost a loved one and every wounding
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warrior who shed their blood in defense of our brate nation. with our resolve, we will ensure that your service and that your families will bring about the defeat of our enemies and the rival of peace. we push on to victory with power in our hearts, courage in our souls and ever lasting pride in each and every one of you. thank you. may god bless our military and may god bless the united states of america. thank you very much. thank you. >> woodruff: with that, president trouble has one cluded what he called a new strategy for the united states and afghanistan and south asia. it amounts to keeping american troops there, adding more troops for an indefinite period.
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he would not say how long. the president has said the u.s. is there to win. he said what's new about this strategy is that the u.s. will combine military with diplomatic and an economic approach, and he also said the u.s. intends to work with other countries in the region including pakistan and india. we'll have much more on this later this evening on the newshour. for viewers of most stations in the east and central time zones, stay tuned for nova, eclipse over america. that's coming up next. for those on the west coast, we'll return in just a moment with the analysis of the president's speech and the rest of this day's news. i'm judy woodruff in washington. thank you for joining us.
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(people cheering) (people cheering) >> narrator: today, millions of eyes looked to the skies as americans from coast to coast witnessed their first total solar eclipse since 1979.
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a total eclipse is one of nature's greatest spectacles. it has filled people with wonder since earliest times. >> well, it's just tremendously exciting to be outside while the universe darkens all around you. (cheers) and that's a primeval thrill. >> narrator: scientists seize these precious seconds of darkness to explore a region of the sun normally invisible-- its outer atmosphere, the solar corona. >> it's this crown around the sun, this beautiful halo. >> narrator: the corona is also the source of huge solar storms that can strike earth with enough energy to plunge cities into darkness. >> all of our technology is susceptible to these storms. >> narrator: can we learn to predict when they will occur? these dangerous solar storms are just one of the mysteries that a total solar eclipse can help
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scientists to solve. while millions enjoyed the spectacle, scientists were among the most avid eclipse chasers, on the ground and in the air. their goal: to better understand our most important celestial neighbor. "eclipse over america." right now on nova. major funding for nova is provided by the following. >> major funding for nova is provided by the following. >> do people tell you that you've got your mom's eyes, or your dad's toes? is a genetic service that provides personalized reports about traits, n afghanistan. he does have to address that, it's not clear that it is. it's not clear frankly state departments and other agencies have officials in place to do but he gave to that. not only that judy he gave a nod to a political sentiment.
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perhaps this is not surprising but president thumb said elements of the taliban will have to be part of the political settlement. and that is something that i think frankly most people in the region would agree with. that does not mean the same thing as we will kill the terrorists when we go in. so that juggling act, if you will, between trying to figure out how to get to a political solution at the same time presenting yourself strong in the military is something that this administration will have to figure out. >> woodruff: andrew wilder, what is the incentive for the taliban to participate. they've been making gains on the ground in recent months. they've advanced their position without cooperating in any way. what would be the incentive for them joining into a diplomatic process? >> well it's ultimately would u.s. transleave. w troops leave perhaps president trump and taliban can agree we
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want troops to leave 9 region. there's some room to negotiate on so of these issues but it was positive that i think there was some mention of the negotiation. on the other hand, there's also a sense we have to actually defeat them a bit more militarily before we can get to that point. we need to fight and talk at the same time and this is where i think i'm supportive of increasing our troop presence there and our military capabilities but to me it only makes sense if it's defined to put more pressure on the taliban to come to the negotiating table. so where there was mention of an integrated strategy, we heard a lot more about the military aspect of that strategy than what would be a very different and very important political aspect to the strategy. >> woodruff: it is a case nick that the president, yes he did leave the door open as both of you have said to some sort of diplomacy. but he spoke about we're going to win and we're going to give our military everything they
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need to win. so the battle is still it seems to me is still very much the focus even with what is it, we've got 10,000 troops there, we another 4,000. how much 2keu6r7bsis that going- difference is that going to make. >> it's not going to make much of a difference when it comes to winning the war which is why the phrase is wrong. for president trump that's the rhetoric flourish he chose and perhaps his base wants to hear we're going to win in afghanistan which by the way remember secretary defense james mattis says we're not leaving afghanistan. that's the flip of this. there's no winning in afghanistan on the battlefield let's just be very clear about that. it's a very controversial statement. what does that mean. that means a very look term focus and dead indication and loyalty to the afghan government and to the political group that has to happen, the talks have to happen at the same time that they will be fighting afghanistan and we'll see if they can do it. >> woodruff: finally, andrew wilder, did you hear what you
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want to hear tonight in order to see a way forward in afghanistan. >> just on that last one i do think we can win on the war with terrorist groups like isis and al-qaeda. i think the challenge can we win a war of the taliban and there i don't think we can. >> woodruff: you're making a distinction. >> the focus should be how to win peace in afghanistan with a political strategy. what i did hear that i liked that there was no mention of troop members and there's no mention of time frames. those are problems with the obama administration which helped contribute to the policy there when we search troops but the deadline announced to the world and the taliban when are we going to pull them out, all our troops out. i think that set us back. so he thought it was a positive aspect of president trump's speech today, it's going to be based on conditions on the ground. >> woodruff: he was very clear about that. he said he didn't plan to telegraph ahead of time how many troops and when. andrew wilder from the u.s. in
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the substitute for peace and nick schifrin, thank you both. >> thank you. >> woodruff: people gathered across the country for a historic event today, a total eclipse of the sun in a 70 mile- wide band, crossing from the pacific to the atlantic coasts. with special eyeglasses or homemade boxes, tens of millions looked to the sky to witness a sight not seen in most people's lifetimes. our science correspondent, miles o'brien, was in idaho to watch for us and in partnership with our colleagues from the pbs program, "nova." miles gets us started and then, he and william brangham discuss the day's celestial and earthly events. >> reporter: it is the first coast to coast american eclipse in a century. millions had front row seat for a celestial minuet of moon and sun. >> we got to charleston
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yesterday morning and came up because this was in our path and we could come and when you can, you should, so we came to see the eclipse because it's a once-in-a-lifetime deal. >> i'd never seen an eclipse so i figured this was my chance since i was so close to chicago. >> reporter: beneath a 70-mile wide path from salem oregon to charleston, south carolina day turned to night for two minutes or more. it thrilled the public and the experts alike. williams college astronomer jay pasachoff was among them. he has traveled the world for years chasing eclipses. this is his 66th. no one has seen more. pasachoff is drawn by the beauty, and the scientific opportunity, when the moon appears to swallow the sun. >> and then this white corona appears all around you. it's dark and it's just a wonderful experience to have.
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and there's great science that you can do. only on the days of eclipses do we see the corona appear, and so we want to take advantage of that as much as possible. >> reporter: understanding the sun's corona is a priority for scientists. among the mysteries: why is it hotter than the surface of the sun itself? but there are practical reasons as well. sometimes, the corona breaks free of the sun's magnetic field, causing a coronal mass ejection-- billions of tons of hot plasma moving at 2,000 miles per second. normally, the earth's magnetic field deflects most of the highly charged particles. but every now and then a large coronal mass ejection can overwhelm our defenses disabling satellites and causing power outages. bill murtagh is among the scientists watching this space weather for the national oceanic and atmospheric administration
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in boulder, colorado. the biggest event they ever saw came in 2012. >> and this is what we saw. all of a sudden that flare occurs, the eruption occurs and that blast was tremendous. very big. very, very fast. >> reporter: fortunately, it did not hit earth, as it would have caused widespread power outages. a total eclipse is one way scientists try to better understand coronal mass ejections. >> we would love to improve our capability to predict. if we can better model what the magnetic field might look like within an eruption, then we would be in a great place. >> reporter: nasa and the european space agency have sent several craft to study the sun over the years. the next big mission, the parker solar probe, is slated for launch next august. it will fly through the corona itself gathering data. but no spacecraft can match the
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teaching opportunity provided by a total solar eclipse which occurs when the earth, moon and sun are perfectly aligned, so the moon blocks the sun's light. the moon is 400 times smaller than sun. but also 400 times closer to the earth. so from our vantage point, they seem to be the same size. but this happens rarely because the moon's orbit is tilted five degrees. and it is elliptical, so sometimes it is too far away to completely obscure the sun, causing a so called annular eclipse, with its distinctive ring of fire. the last total solar eclipse visible in the continental united states happened in the northwestern corner of the country in 1979. of course, jimmy carter was president back then. that eclipse was in the northwestern u.s., ideally suited for washington state.
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this time around, washington, d.c. wasn't a bad place to watch. president trump did so, briefly forgetting to put on protective glasses before he finally did the right thing. william? >> so, miles, you were there in the actual shadow cast by the moon on the face of the united states. for those of us who were here outside that shadow, what was it like? >> you know, william, i've never seen the total eclipse of the sun before. this is my first experience with this. we've all seen the pictures in the films. the experience of being in it is surreal. it's the combination of all the senses that are involved, the temperature dropping. the light becoming this ethereal kind of blue and suddenly darkness at noon for a brief period of time. i stopped looking through the willedders glass and looked at what was the sun, this disk with this amazing aura around it, and i was truly gob smacked, i was
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at a loss for words. we all the we're so advanced and evolved, but i think it appears to us in a fundamental, lining limbic brain place, it's difficult to put into words but spectacular. >> i understand you were with a unique brand of scientists. >> it was like the knackings of astronomy here. people from five nation here. some operators of planetariums, some professional astronomers, some astrophysicists, some doing science here. what i like about covering science in general is it affords opportunity that bring us together. we live in a time when things that bring us together seem to be in short supply. so it was really nice to see us in this particular place come together and really in many respects the country kind of savor this moment together. >> brangham: you reported how crucial this day was for
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science. i was wondering why do we have to wait for an eclipse to do these measurements? can't we put a filter on the telescopes or devices to measure the sun? why do we have to wait for the moon to block it? >> you can cover the sun with your thumb right and maybe get the same thing. doesn't work that way. it's important to have something in space that does the blocking because the atmosphere gets in the way of the science. if you have something -- coincident ri, the moon being 400 times smaller than the sun yet 400 times closer makes it a perfect disc to occult the sun creating the clean view of the corona which you likely can't get unless you're in space. so this is an opportunity for science. there are probes that have gone to the sun and will go to the sun that will get all other types of science but this gives scientists a great opportunity to further understand the corona
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and its behavior. >> the last one was in the late 1970s. today was an historic event for the u.s. when's the next chance we might have to get a gander at something like this? >> april of 2024, seven years away. by quirk, this is happening, roughly, as we said, about every 18 months, that eclipse happens somewhere. any given place observe the planet, the odds are one in 65 years you will see a total eclipse. put that into the rubrics cube and you get another american eclipse from texas into pennsylvania, new york and maine in seven years' time. i haven't done this one and seen it in person. i can tell you, william, if i'm around, i will be there seven years from now to see it in person. >> brangham: fantastic. we are always grateful for our miles o'brien especially on days like today. thank you so much. >> you're welcome, william. >> woodruff: and remember to stay with pbs tonight for nova's special, "eclipse across
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america." in the day's other news, here on earth, spanish police shot and killed the fugitive suspected of plowing a van through a crowd in barcelona last week. they caught up with younes abouyaaqoub about 30 miles west of barcelona. police said the 22-year-old moroccan was wearing a fake bomb belt when officers confronted him and opened fire. >> ( translated ): the continuation of the investigation can be extended to but the 12 people that we have always referred to in the cell have been all accounted for. now we can say the 12 people that were part of the group are all dead or detained. >> woodruff: the death toll rose to 15 today, in the barcelona attack and one that occurred hours later. the count includes a man stabbed to death by the fugitive who was killed today. there's been yet another car ramming attack in europe, this time in marseilles, france. police say a man drove a van into two bus stops about three miles apart today. one woman was killed. the driver was captured later.
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officials say the suspect has psychological problems, and they've ruled out terrorism. the u.s. fired a new diplomatic broadside at russia today. the american embassy in moscow stopped issuing non-immigrant visas for eight days, and three u.s. consulates stopped indefinitely. the move could affect hundreds of thousands of would-be russian tourists. in moscow, foreign minister sergey lavrov denounced it as a bid to stir discontent. >> ( translated ): my first impression is that the american authors of this decision have embarked on another attempt to provoke the displeasure of russian citizens with the actions of russian authorities. this is a famous logic. it's the inertia of the obama administration in its purest form. >> woodruff: the visa action is retaliation for moscow's order that the u.s. cut diplomatic staffing in russia by hundreds of employees. the u.s. and south korean
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militaries began annual war games today, amid heightened tensions with north korea. some 17,500 u.s. troops are taking part in the drills. they began with computer simulations of a north korean invasion. back in this country, at least eight people were killed and more than 50 others injured in chicago over the weekend, in a new spate of shootings. the "chicago tribune" reports the violence unfolded in a 13- hour period ending sunday evening. the city has recorded more than 450 homicides this year. there's word the secret service's budget is stretched to the brink, again. it's partly because agents have to protect 42 people under the trump administration, up from 31 under president obama. the director says some one thousand agents have already hit salary caps for the entire year. he says it's been a recurring problem in recent years. a los angeles jury has ordered
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johnson and johnson to pay $417 million to a woman who says talc in baby power caused her ovarian cancer. the company says there's no scientific basis for the claim, and it plans to appeal. hundreds of similar lawsuits are pending nationwide. on wall street today, the dow jones industrial average gained 29 points to close at 21,703. the nasdaq fell three points, and the s&p 500 added two. and, finally, from london, the famed clock tower "big ben" chimed its last today, for the next four years. ( bells chiming ) "big ben" had been in service since 1859, but now, it's undergoing renovations that will keep it mostly silent until 2021.
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>> woodruff: a serious drought has swept southern europe this summer. some farmers in italy and spain are predicting the worst yields in 20 years. agricultural damage and loss are expected to be in the billions. newshour special correspondent christopher livesay and bring us this report from italy. >> reporter: for three generations daniel granieri and his family have farmed olives in the tiny hilltop town of nerola, producing extra-virgin olive oil from these fields outside rome. this summer, things took a turn, and for the worst. >> ( translated ): i started to get very worried. from being worried, that turned into being absolutely certain about the drought. there's never been anything like this, not in 20 years. this is the worst it's ever been. >> reporter: granieri is also the regional president of the italian farmers association, coldiretti. he shows me some of the damage
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up close. >> ( translated ): look here, there's hardly anything compared to the olives that should be on this branch. raising the price won't offset the loss. but we'll have to raise them at least 10 to 15%. we've lost up to 70% of our harvest in the region. >> reporter: the drought is so relentless, that his town now rations water. for eight-hour blocks every day, they can't turn on their taps. and they aren't alone. so far 20 nearby towns have had to follow suit. roughly $200 million in crops have been lost in the central lazio region alone. and two billion dollars have gone up in smoke nationwide, due to drought and related brush fires, according to coldiretti. conditions have gotten so dire that even rome, the city of aqueducts, has warned it too may have to ration water for a million and a half rome residents, and the tourists who flock there.
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rome has nearly 3,000 drinking fountains like this one, and there's a trick to getting a good sip. but that may soon become a thing of the past. the city is currently turning off 30 fountains a day. romans call them nasoni, or "big noses" for their curved spigots. the water utility says it's the first time in history they've had to turn them off, a radical move in a city where water plays such a central role, from the trevi fountain, to the tiber river. >> rome is where it is because of this water. >> reporter: tom rankin is a professor of urbanism at rome's la sapienza university. >> the romans were smart. they started removing the groundwater where it was undesired, using it for their water source, wells. >> reporter: the ancient romans were master engineers of water. >> they really were. the sewer system was certainly in place in the 4th century b.c. and it's still functioning today.
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it's probably the most cost- effective public works project ever built. >> reporter: but modern city planning has fallen short. the drought is one thing, he says. but long-term mismanagement is also to blame. officials from both the city and the water utility declined requests for an interview. >> rome, of all the european capitals, is the only city that has a fully sustainable water supply. meaning that the water table is recharged faster than the city can use the water. the real problem isn't that it can't provide for the population, it's the waste of water. the water system is damaged. at least 25%, some say up to half of it leaks out before getting to its destination. >> reporter: leaks like this one, that's caused foliage to overgrow a path along the river.
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and this one, which has formed stalactites. the water utility says it's working to repair city pipes in order to avoid rationing water. but the lingering threat frightens roman shaved-ice vendor, maria di pascale. >> ( translated ): it would be a tragedy. because without water you can't survive, you can't work. it's essential for humans to survive! but especially for us, since we need it for our business. >> reporter: the threat is especially acute for some of rome's most vulnerable. the red cross says turning off public fountains poses a serious risk to the city's thousands of homeless, which include a growing number of migrants. volunteer marzia di mento distributes food and water to migrants and refugees outside rome's tiburtina train station. >> ( translated ): we need those fountains. we use those that are closest to the camp. we use this pipe for the people to bathe in. we're afraid it could be turned off at any moment.
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it's their only water source. it would be a huge loss. many of the migrants have skin diseases from the trip over here by boat. they need water to clean those wounds. water is fundamental. >> reporter: for the moment, rome says it's averted water rationing by tapping lake bracciano, about 30 miles outside the city. but that's caused still more problems, as water levels plummet to alarming lows, threatening local plants and wildlife. back in the rome countryside, farmer daniel granieri survey's his olives. this year he'll have to pick them early in order to save what isn't already lost. >> ( translated ): drought has absolutely become a recurring event. a farm like mine now has to decide either to change business, or make some serious changes in infrastructure. if this happens again next year, farms will go out of business. >> reporter: for urbanism
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professor tom rankin, rome's drought is a wake-up call, not just for the eternal city, but for cities around the world coping with a changing climate. >> if rome, which is by definition a great water city, can no longer manage its abundant resource, then how can we expect places which have a very limited supply of water to survive? on the other hand, if rome were able to demonstrate its ability to engineer a solution, providing fresh, clean water for free to a growing population, then it would set a model for the rest of the world. >> reporter: is that what we're seeing, rome rising to the occasion? >> not yet. >> reporter: for the pbs newshour, i'm christopher livesay, in rome.
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>> woodruff: and that's the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online and again here tomorrow evening. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank you and see you soon. captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc captioned by media access group at wgbh
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♪ -today on "america's test kitchen," julia shows bridget how to make the best cast-iron steak, adam reviews paper-towel holders with bridget in the equipment corner, and dan makes julia the ultimate crisp-roast butterflied chicken. it's all coming up right here on "america's test kitchen." "america's test kitchen" is brought to you by the following -- fisher & paykel. since 1934, fisher & paykel has been designing