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tv   Frontline  PBS  July 24, 2018 10:00pm-11:01pm PDT

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>> narrator: tonight... >> some of the world's mostle vulneren, women and children have been exploited by un peacekeepers who were supposedo be protecting them. >> narrator: united nationsrs peacekeeccused of sexual abuse. correspondent ramita nai investigates the global crisis. findg the victims... >> can you describe the men to me? >> narrator: confronting those responsible... >> did you feel ilty? >> narrator: and pressing the on what it's doing for the abused. >> but it took our producer a day to track quite a few of th'm down - what'happening there? >> i'll have to fout - i'll have to find out. >> i tnk there has been a
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culture of impunity, i think that's eroding. >> t fundamental issue in al these cases of sexual exploitation and abuse is criminal if th't go to jail, nothing else matters. >> narrator: "the un sex abuse scandal", tonight on frontline. >> frontline is made possible by contributions to your pbs station from vwers like you. thank you. and by the corporation for public broadcasting. major support is provided by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation, committede to building a ust, verdant and peaceful world. more information is available at the ford foundation: working with visionaries on the frt lines of social change worldwide. at ford foundation dot org. on addi support is provided by the abrams foundation:xc committed tolence in journalism. the park foundation, dedicated to heighning public awareness of critical issues. the john and helen glessner family trust. supporting trustworthy urnalism that informs and
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inspires. and by the frontli journalism fund, with major support from jon and jo ann hagler.di and onal support from the ruggles family foundation. ♪ (annie speaking):
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>> ramita navai: annie lives in the democratic republic of congo, a country torn apart by warring factions. four years ago, after seeing her parents murdered by rebelsshe says she was gang-raped. she then fled for her life. annie, what happened after you left your village? navai: then, annie says, she met united nations peacekeep from south africa. he'd been sent as part of a mission to protect the local. populati (annie speaking):
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>> navai: annie, why did you think this soldier wou be different? >> navai: annie's story is not unique. on she'of over 2,000 young women and children alleged to have been sexuallyxploited or abused by u.n. peacekeepers-- uniformed and civilian-- in missions around the world sie the early 1990s. from camdia to mozambique, and from bosnia to the
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democratic rublic of congo. ♪ for over a decade, the united nations has been trying to end the abuse. but even today, it keeps happening. in the past year, the u.n. has introduced new measure stamp it out. i've come to africa to try and understand why the problem has persisted. we're right in the middle of africa, in an area that's beence at the eer of sexual abuse allegations against the u.n. the democratic republic of congo has more alleged victims than any other country. it's here my investigation begins. (people spking indistinctly) almost 20 years ago, u.n. peacekeepers were stationed in the democratic republic of congo amid aloody civil war. tl
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(gunfire rat) in 2004, valerie says, she met a member of the u.n. mission in the city of goma. (valerie speaking):
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>> navai: didier bourguet was working at the u.n. peacekeeping mission in goma, in charge of transport and logistics, earning $7,000 a month. he was 40 at the time. (valerie speaking): >> navai: valerie says she only told her mother about bourguet, and they never reported it to the u.n. do you know if didier was doing thisyone else? >> navai: investigators would later discover bourguet paid go-betweens to proving girls for him. he was arrested by the congoleso
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police i after a sting operation in october 2004, before being handed over to french authorities and charged with rape. bourguet was not the only u.n. employee accused of sexual misconduct. there were 72 allegations of exploitation and abuse in the u.n.'s congo mission between may and september 2004. >> all of this is utterly immoral and complete at odds with our mission. >> navai: u.n. secretary-general kofi annan sent his special adviser, zeid ra'ad al hsein, to investigate. wh he was shocked b he found. >> sitting and listening to what victims were saying was reallydi urbing. i said it was akin to a liguard jumping into a poo and instead of saving someone who was drowning, to actually drown them, almost.
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i mean, it seemed to be as cruel as that. >> navai: five months later, zeid published a report that criticized the u.n.'s own investigations into alleged sexual abuse.e but he said in reason offenders often evaded justice was that the u.n. d no criminal jurisdiction over its peacekeepers. >> the u.n. is not a sovereign body. at the most, the u.n. can dismiss someone from service, buit could not conduct its own trials. that is for the governments themselves to do. and if the member state does nothing or shields the individual, then impunity exists. so, it was these sorts of issues which i found astonishing at the time. >> navai: those issues had also caught the attention of anthony banbury, who spent more than 20 years inside the u.n. overseeing relief and peacekeepingns miss >> the fundamental issue in all these cases of sexual exploitation and abuse is
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criminal accountability, thas the only thing that really matters. someone who rapes a woman, a girl, should go to jail. if they don't go to jail, nothing else matters. d toavai: zeid's report tr address this. emr military peacekeepers, he recommended thatr states hold courts martial in the country, making it easier to access witnesses and evidence. for civilian peacekeepers, he recommended an international agreement to ensure those accused of abuse wld face criminal prosecution. but there's been no widespread effort by u.n. member states to adopt the measures >> it is very simply the truth that the decision-making authority rests with the member ates, rests with the 193 governments of the united nations. and the u.n. secretariat, the civil servan working in
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that headquarters on first avenue, cannot impose on the member states a new judicial system. >> now an investigation that is sure to send shock waves around the world. >> navai: by early 2005 the international media had got hold of the didier bourguet story. >> scores of young gir in the congo were somehow lured into sex with a senior u.n. logisticf cer named didier bourguet. >> navai: french authorities charged bourguet th the possession of hundreds of child pornographic images and the rape of at least 20 young girls in congo. despite the many allegations, the french judge ruled there was only enough evidence to convict him of the rape of two minors and sentenced him to nine years in jail. valerie, how do you feel now you know that didier has been punished for what he did to children in congo?
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>> navai: bourguet is theex ption, not the rule. he remains the only civilian peacekeeper to have been jailed for sexual abuse while working abroad for the u.n. most civilian peacekeepers don't even end up in court, and to pois day, member states have resisted the prols aimed at changing that. >> the u.n. itself doesn't have the ability to try these people. it is dependent on the home country to try. nt and the home c often doesn't have the ability to collect the evidence or to have s process, and that's, tha catastrophic loophole.
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>> navai: after the scandal in congo, and despite the u.n.'s attempts to deal with the issue, allegations of sexual exploitation and abuse continue in peacekeepssions around the world. soi,h sudan, ivory coast, ha and the central africa republic-- the next stop on my journey. ♪ ( shouting) >> navai: in late 2013, e president of the central african republic had been deposed, and rival militias were battling for power. (guns fire) to stop a potential genocide, france sent peacekeepers under a u.n. security council ndate. their mission was named eration sangaris. (guns firing) half a million people had been made homeless. many sought refuge in a camp at the airport, run by the french.
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(horn beeps) i met a girl who'd fled to that refugee camp her name is daniella. we're protecting her identity. (daniella speaking):
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>> navai: can you describe then me me? what did they look like? >> navai: daniella says twodi french ss raped her inside the airport camp. her father told us she was bleeding heavily, and he took her a charity-run medical center, where she was given antibiotics.n' but they dknow what more they could do. >> navai: daniella's family didn't report her rape, so it remained unrecorded by the u.n. i also met a boy, who asked to
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be called alexi. w at the same camp and says he was abused by french peacekeepers, too. ai
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(navpeaking french): (alexi speaking): >> navai: word of the abuse soon spread around the camp. when the news reached the localt u.n. missionent one of its human rights investigators to interview six childr, four of whom were alleged victims; the other two were witnesses. the investigatorompiled an internal report based on the children's testimony. the report detailed allegations against around 20 peacekeepe, some of whom were identifiedos from their tatnd other physical descriptions. >> there wera number of absolutely stunning revelations just reading this-- it can't have been more than six pages long. >> navai: paula donovan held senior positions withithe u.n. over a number of years. she set up code blue to campaign against u.n. sex abuse.
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>> the united nations treated this as though it were simplyot r report from the field, and for months and months, they just went, went about their g business without address in any way. >> navai: almost a year afterge the alleabuse, news of the report leaked to the international medi the u.n. secretary-general set up an independeninquiry to examine what had gone wrong. a decade on from zeid raad al hussein's rort, the new inquiry was even more damning. >> this was a serious failure. most importantly, the lack of coordination between policies leaves most victims unattended and vulnerable. >> navai: the inquiry said this amounted to "an abuse of authority" on the part of three top u.n. officials.
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d the u.n. fired the head of mission in the central african republic. isobel coleman was a u.s. ambassador to the u.n. at the time. >> i must say from my perspective as a diplomat, looking at this all unfolding, it seemed that it was not a high-water mark for the u.n., to put it mildly. it's incredible to me that people had that report in their hands and didn't act upoit. >> navai: by now, the frenchs prosecutorre investigating the allegations. in may 25, they launched a irfull-scale criminal inquinto the rape of minors. the investigation centered on four members of the 152ndeg infantiment, who'd been identifi by the victims. enicknamed the red devils regiments based in colmar in the east of france; a 30-foot
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statue honors th in their hometown. but after more than three years examining the claims, the prosecutors finally threw out the case against the four soldiers. they said the testimony of the children was inconsist questioned whether they might have been manipulated by adults seeking financial compensation from the french. (marie grimaud speaking french): >> navai: one of the reasons the case was dismissed is that the french investigators fnd, i'm quoting, "contradictions and implausibilities." what are they referring to? (grimaud speaking french):
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>> navaimarie grimaud is appealing the decision to abandon the case against the. soldie the boy that we spoke to hadn't spoken to french investigators.r i toldhe boy alexi's story and also asked her about the the soldiers who daniella says raped her. she gave us description of where it happened and of the soldiers. so she said that one of them was white, had a snake tattoo. have you got a description of a man like this? fr
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>> navai: the ch military declined to speak to us about the allegations or put us inf touch with anye accused soldiers from the 152nd regiment. we tried to interview prosecutors, but they also declined, saying the appealai agt their ruling is still being considered.
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nw do you feel about the that did this to you? (daniella speaking): >> (speaking local language) >> (speaking french): t navai: in response to the french scandal, summer of 2015, the u.n. appointed a new headf peacekeeping in the central african republic to reace his predecessor. >> i found a very demolized staff. they were all, you know, in shock. we were just... realizing, open our eyes to a very big, you know... scandal, call it, let's call it a scandal. >> navai: new commander of
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troops followed that november. >> we realized that ing got to be done and fast enough to stop this. because it's just... it was just so shameful, for all of us. sexual exploitation and abuse was about to kill ace operations and particularly our mission. to kill us with, really, not bullets, like the armed group, but with shame. ♪ >> navai: even as the u.n. struggled with the abuse scandal, fighting in the central rican republic was spiraling out of control. it was particularly desperate in the town of bambari, around 250 d les north of the cal. tens of thousands fled their homes to escape killings and rapes by militias. the u.n. needed to get more
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peacekeepers on the ground fast. >> if you're in a crisis situatio and you think you've got genocide erupting in the central african republic, and you're looking for troops to come and save tens, hundreds of thousands of lives, you know, maybe u're not asking so many questions about how they've been vetted and what their, you know, training has been on sexual ploitation and abuse. you want troops on the ground yesterday, you know, to save lives. >> navai: facing an emergency, the u.n. deployed around 800 congese soldiers who were already stationed nearby. but the congolese army had recently been accused by the u.n. of rape and sual violence against its own population. what did you think of congolese troops serving as peacekeepers, knowing that congolese troops
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came from the army that has a terrible record for human rights abuses? >> i believe it was a mistake to put the troops from the drc into the u.n. mission in c.a.r. >> navai: anthony banbury was in charge of field support to peacekeepers. he says he expressed concerns about the congolese soldiers at the time, but had no direct sayt decision to deploy them. >> if there are allegations that a unit that has been deployed to a peacekeeping mission has been involved in human rights abuses back home, that's a huge cause for concern, a hugred flag, and should be immediately investigated. >> navai: the congolese troops pacified bambari-- but left new allegations of sexual violence and exploitation in their wake. (manda speaking):
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>> navai: manda-- the name s asked us to use-- was an 11-year-old schoolgirl at the time.
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>> navai: manda told her mother, but they didn't report the rapeo he u.n. but towards the end of 2015, many new allegations began to emerge against troops from five different peacekeeping nations, including the congolese. the u.n. official breaking the news to the press was anthony banbury. e it's hard to imagine the outrage that peorking for the united nations and for the causes of peace and security feel when these kinds of allegations come to light. >> navai: a week later, on the fifth of february 2016, he resigned, saying that u.n. was faing its mission. >> i worked on it for six years, and on the one hand, i wasery
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proud of it. but the bottom line was, there s still a big lack of criminal accountability, and that was persally very distressing. >> navai: the u.n. responded to the abuse scandals in the central african republic byic puing the names of countries whose troops were accused of abuses, and passed a resolution giving the secretary-general the right to send peacekeepers home. by the end of february, f the contingentm the democratic republic of congo had been expelled. ♪ two months later, in t country's capital, kinshasa, 14 soldiers were put on trial for rape. (man speaking french) >> navai: the hearing took place in a court room set up in the prison grounds and filmed by news crews at the time. (man speaking french): bu
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>> navaithe trial has stalled, and there have only been two brief hearings in over two years. government officials told us they couldn't afford to fly in witnesses to givevidence. the congolese thorities say they're serious about trying their peacekeepers. but the process is dragging on, two years and counting. and here's where the system consistently fails. ibe u.n. says it's up to the countries that cone troops to punish perpetrators. but that rarely happs. the alleged rapists remain loed up, awaiting trial. meanwhile, victims are left waiting, too. (manda speaking):
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♪ >> navai: in january 2017, a new secretary-general took office-- antónio guterres. he announced that fighting sexual abuse was a top priority. >> we are determined tre that the voices of victims are heard. victims must be at the center of our response if we want our zero-tolerance policy to be successful. s' navai: guterres introduced a new role of victimights advocate. and he made an early visit to the central african republic. >> we know that the good worktr and thendous sacrifice of peacekeepers around the world has been tarnished bthe appalling acts of some u.n. personnel who have harmed the people they were meant to serve. ♪ wh >> navai we were in the central african republic soon afterwards, the u.n. invited us
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to see their latest attempts to deal with the problem, not just sexual abuse but what th call exploitation. so we're on this night patrol with the u.n. military police, and they're going ound from barracks to barracks, mostly ecking that soldiers are observing the curfew and also checking that there are no women and children anywhere near the barracks. although to be honest, you can see it's a really big convoy, and i'd be surprised if there are any women or children anywhere near the barracks, because you can see em from a mile away. >> navai: and this is the s.e.a., the sexual exploitation and abuse training? >> yeah. >> navai: uh-huh, and then you
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said that... the first question you asked, were any women, children outside? so you're checking. >> navai: right. to prevent peacekeepers from even paying women for sex the secretary general has forbidden un personnel here from socializingal with locwhen off duty. nk so the tg is that if they're bored, they may be tempted by women, may be temptex by is that the thinking? (speaking foreign language) >> the tour of duty is one year. that's why to some of the countries, they said, "it's too much." >> navai: to ask for a soldier not to have sex for a year >> yeah. difficult, but this is.., i mean, i say to the soldiers, even though it is humanly
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difficult, there is no other way out. i'm just being honest. we have very good pewe have people that are so-so, we got bad people, and we got very bad people. ♪ av >> nai: in the same month as the secretary-general's visit to the central african republic, the u.n. received a report of a new rape case in bambari. a young woman was found half- naked and barely conscious right here, at the foot of these stairs she says she was walking home after a funeral, and the last thing she clearly remembers is being offered a cup of tea byce u.n. pepers at this checkpoint here, just behind me. (jean-gaston endjileteko speaking french):
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>> navai: the alleged rapists were mauritanian peacekeepers. the young woman who says she was raped is called mauricette. we found her living with hermi on the outskirts of town. (mauricette speaking):
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>> navai: after the rape was reported by the hospital, mauricette was interview by a local representative from the u.n. her family then wanted to know wh had happened to the mauritanian soldiers. (man speaking french): >> navai: the mauritanian mission at the u.n. didn't respond to our repeated requests for comment. we also wanted to know if
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mauricette had heard anything from the u.n. following her inial interview. (mauricette speaking): >> navai: how long hbeen? auricette speaking): >> navai: in bambari, we spoke to a 17-ar-old girl. she told us that she hasn't heard anything from the u.n. or its partners for two months. she doesn't know what'sg happenom her case. >> this is unacceptable. i hope, you know, through you,o we may be ableach out to that person and make sure that she gets, you know, what ir due toand that our lyrvices will reach out. but it is absolu unacceptable. >> navai: we came to new york to try to interview the secretary-u general what we'd found during our investigation.he eclined.
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instead, we were offered an interview with the woman he'd appointed as hispecial coordinator on sexual exploitation and abuse. >> you know, the job of aac eeper is to protect, first and foremost. >> navai: jane hl lute has been working on the issue for years, and held a senior position in the u.n. at the time of the 2005 zeireport. >> our watchword is zero lerance. what does it mean? it means zero complacency and zero impunity. >> navai: in bambari, a town in the central african republic, a young woman said that she'd been gang-raped by mauritanian peacekeepers; this is logged on your own system. sawhen we spoke to her, sh that she hadn't had any contact from the u.n. in two months. she was never told about her case. >> part of the reason that secretary-general appointed a victims' rights advocate at such a senior level is to crect those kinds of shortcomings. >> navai: but do you think it's acceptable that a woman who was .n recently raped has initial
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contact with theand then doesn't hear for two months? >> no, of course, of course i don't think it's acceptable. and of course i think what needs to be done is that she ts the support she need any and all cases. >> navai: you yourself havsaid that the problem of sexual exploitation and abuse is either le ongoing or potential pr "in every single one of our missions." why should we believe that ecis is something that can be fought, when fores, it's an ongoing problem, and peacekeepers are still raping? >> it is an ongoing problem everywhere, and do we have to fa the reality that there nothing we can do about it? no. we have to ask ourselves, "are we doing everything we can?" you know, we're... there's no wand-waving here, you know? there's no mag swish and flick, and it goes away. ♪ >> navai: back in congo, the i u.n.ited us to see how it's reinforcing its zero-tolerance message.
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(woman translating) >> navai: and they also invited us to attend an event they were hosting in bujavu, one of goma's poorest neighborhoods. (dance music playing) adama n'dao is in charge here. she and her team encourageor victims to rsexual exploitation and abuse, and promise them support. (n'dao speaking french): we are doing a lot of outreach, educating the communities, providing them with all the support that they need in order to make sure that once they see the situation is worsening, to
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alert us. ♪ chop-chop in the bando ♪ i don't want to look like >> navai: i wanted to know whether adama's efforts to get victs to report abuse were working. ♪ francine got a job as a housekeeper for a civilian peacekeeper in goma to support her family. tee says it soon became clear that she was expto have sex with her boss. (francine speaking):
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(alice kasemwana speaking french): at navai: alice kasemwana works for a local ngo rovides social and psychological support for ctims of sexual abuse li francine. (kasemwana speaking): ♪ >> navai: soon after francine becameregnant, the man she says is the father of her child disappeared. (francine speaking): >>
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avai: since 2010, the u.n. has recorded 194 paternity thaims-- and these are jus seses it knows about. in 2016, the u.nup a trust fund to provide support for, among other things, young mothers and their peacekeeper babies. but francine didn't benefit. this is becausthe u.n. didn't know of her existence-- or many others like her, who don't report their cases. this box that i'm standing in front of is the complaints box,h e young women are supposed to drop off allegations ofexual abuse and exploitation, but of course look at it. i mean, it's a load of acronyms, what does that mean? and it's not in the local language, it's in english and french. i've never met any young woman
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here, and i've spoken to sove many, whnown of this box's existence. (speaking french): >> non. >> navai: non. (navai and man speaking): >> navai: is there anything in it? shall i have a look in this? can't see. empty. hewanted to put our findings to the u.n.'s acting of mission in congo. when we spoke directly to men and girls, they wanted to tell somebody. they didn't know how t does this surprise you? >> well, as i said, i'm not surt that we'vethat we have identified everybody, so it doesn't surprise me that you have fou such cases. what we are trying to do is to carry out our communication activities in the areas in which we work, and we'll continue tow learn do it better, and we just have to do it better. >> navai: the u.n. has also
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pledged to find and ort victims from the past-- women tch as valerie, who was j 14 when she says didier bourguea begang her for sex. back in 2005, the u.n.'s head of ssion in congo had made direct promise to bourguet's victims. >> we will make an effort to find them, and we will make an effort to include them under our victim support program. that's, that's, that'swe have to do. >> navai: and nobody from the u.n. has ever talked to you about this or interviewed you about this? >> navai: i put this to the u.n. official now in charge of tracking victims. adama, we und a woman who had
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been abused as a child by didier bourguet. >> (gasps) >> navai: yeah. she said nobody ever spoke to her from the u.n. she didn't even know that he was imprisoned. so these children that were abused, raped by didier, was there ever any follow-? >> no, we could not trace them. >> navai: but we'd been able to find them through our local producer within days of arrivi in goma. we heard of several of his victims who are around living in ma who never heard from the u.n. do you think that's acceptable? no. i will correct it. you've identified them, so we will correct that. >> navai: and why hasn't the u.n. tracked any of hiims down? >> well, that's a history that goes back many, many years, more than a decade. i can't explain all of that. but i think it's helpful that you've identified theseha individuals sowe can do
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so. >> navai: but it took our congolesproducer a day to track quite a few of them down. >> mm-hmm. >> navai: so what's happening there? >> i'll have to find out. um... i'll have to find out. ♪ >> navai: it's now more than ten years since id ra'ad al hussein wrote his report about tackling u.n. sexual abuse. successive secretaries-general have supported his recommendations to improve criminal accountability. but so far, the u.n. has been unable to persuade member states to adopt them. why are the member statesgh fing this? why won't they adopt it? >> you have to ask the member states. i mean, you put me... >> navai: why do you think? >> i don't know, because for me... >> navai: but you must have an idea. >> no, i don't, i don't know.ho i don't knowstly, i don't know.if >> navai: but ou can't explain this to me, you know, the man who saw this on the
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ground ten years ago, who wrote the seminal report, who spent time thinking about this and time thinking about solutions--f ou can't tell me why, who can? >> the member states.o you haveterview them. >> navai: we approached the u.n. representatives of numerous member states whose personnel have been accused of abusend exploitation, including france, cong and mauritania. none of them agreed to be interviewed. on the issue of accountability, ultimately, where does the buck stop? is it the secretary-general? is it the member states? w >> well, t it, i mean, it's both right now. i mean, the secretary-general has a big microphone and should be using it on these issues. but member states, of course, have their bit to do. it's their, you know,
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parliaments, theiregislatures, that need to pass these laws. it's their militaries that need to provide accountability. >> the reality is today, there is no guarantee of criminal accountability for someone who commits rape inside a eeping mission. despite a lot of effort by a lot of people and a strong commitment by the top reaches of the u.n., the systems in place now are full of holes. o>> navai: for all the ta reform, the numbers remain stark. there have been more1,700 allegations since the u.n. began making them public 15 years ago, but its only recorded 53 uniformed peacekeepers being sent to jail for sexual offenses. and only one international civilian-- didier bourguet. bourguet, i discovered, has now
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completed his prison sentence and is a free man. in june 2018, i tracked him down to the south of france. (birds chirping) he told me he's homeless and keeps his possessions in the woods. although he was convicted of just two rapes, i wanted to know about his many other alleged victims. how many children did you have sex with in congo? >>aavai: how easy was it fo u.n. employee to find children and young girls to have sex with?
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>> navai: how old were the children you were having s with? >> navai: but you were convicted of having x with a 12-year-old. >> navai: did you know what you re doing was wrong? >> yes. >> navai: did you feel guilty? not much. >> navai: asked the french prosecutors about bourguet's admission that he's had sex witu iple children, and our discovery of a new alleged victim. they told us they had passed the information on to police to inveigate. for bourguet's alleged victims
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like valerie, the scars main deep. ♪ >> navai: the women and children in this film reqsted we pass on their details to the united nations. daniella was later contacted by the u.n. and has received counseling. manda has also heard from the u.n. in the central african republic. valerie has been in touch with the u.n. team in congo, as has francine. they're both still waiting to hear back. mauricette has had no further contacfrom the u.n.-- four months after we brought her case to their attention. so far this yearthe united
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nations has recorded 32 new allegations of sexual exploition and abuse against peacekeepers. ♪ >> 2300 children have been taken from their parents. reporting on theline has been border for over a year. >> under pressure, president trump said he would keep families together. >> but the border is going to bt jus tough as its been. >> narrator: correspondent martin smith investigathe policy decisions. >> plenty of confusion, both on the border a inside the beltway. >> narrator: and the impact on children and families. >> go to for q&a with correspondent ramita navai about w she tracked down new victims. >> we found her living with her family on the outsrts of town. >> and read more about what the un is now doing for them. >> we have to ask ourselves arei we everything we can?
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>> and read the latest on the ry.ier bourgueil s >> did you know what you were doing was wrong? >> yes. >> connect to the frontline community on facebook and twitter, and sign up for o newsletter at >> frontline is made possible by contribuons to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. and by the corporation for public broadcasting. major support is provided by the john d. and catherine t. macarthur foundation, committed to building a more just, verdant and peaceful world. more infmation is available at the ford foundation: workingio with vries on the front lines of social change worldwide. at ford foundation dot org. additional support is provided by the abrams foundation: committed to excellence in journalism. the park foundation, dedicated to heightening public awarenessc tical issues. the john and helen glessner family trust. suorting trustworthy journalism that informs and by the frontline journalism fund, with major support
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from jon and jo ann hagler. and additional support from the ruggles family foundation. captioned by mediaccess group at wgbh >> for more on this and other frontline programs, our website at ♪ e"frontline's" "un sex ab scandal" is available on dvd. to order, visit or call 1-800-play-pbs. "frontline" is also available for download on itunes. ♪
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you're watching pbs the liit's time to select america's favorite book, in the gre american read! come to the website and see our collection of america's 100 best-loved novels. is your favorite on the list? u vote forbook, then share your choice so y r friends and family c the voting is open now! i'm meredith vieira. help us choose america's favorite book, on the great american read. come to and voay for your favorite t
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(birds chirping) - as a teenager growing up in macon, georgia, jasoaldean dreamed of a futu as a country music superstar. but after years of driving big rigs and playing small town gigs, jason all but gave up that dream. how close did you - i was tremely close. - [carlos] so what pushed this country kid to challenge the very genre he loved, , grind out a career of and come back from witnessing a national tragedy in las vegas, (gun banging) all ile maintaining his urse to breaking big? (crowd cheering) - houston! - what makes people succsful? what are the unexpected turns in life propel people to greatness?