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tv   PBS News Hour Weekend  PBS  November 3, 2018 5:30pm-6:01pm PDT

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captioning sponsored by wnet >> thompson: on this edition for saturday, november 3: one week after the deadly massacre at a pittsburgh synagogue, a national call for unity and to stand-up against anti-semitism. brazil's new far-right president and what it means for that uruntry. and inignature segment, a border fence in hungary, where populism reigns. next on "pbs newshour weekend." >> pbs nehour weekend is made possible by: rnard and irene schwartzr sue and edchenheim iii. seton melvin. the cheryl and philip milstein family. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelos. the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter. barbara hope zuckerberg.
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corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual and group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporation for public broadcasting, and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. from the tisch wnet studios at lincoln nter in new york, megan thompson >> thompson: good evening and thank you for joining us. s pittsburgh, the first shabbat services were hece the mass shooting at the tree of life synagogue. exactly a week ago a gunn entered just as services were beginning, shot and killed 11 people and injured six others. from love ♪ a group of about 100 people gathered at a flower-filled memorial outside the synagogu this morning. former tree of life rabbi chuck
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seamond held a "healinice" and vigil. la night the nearby rodef shalom congregation welcomed members of the tree of life to shabbat services. hundreds came to mourn, and to observe the sabbath together. around the world, using the hashtag "show up for shabbat,"le pef all faiths were welcomed at synagogues. two women, 61-year-old nancy van vessem, and 21-year-old maura binkley, were killed and four others were injured yesterday when a man opened fire in a hot yoga studio in tallahassee florida.on one other persas pistol- whipped by the assailant. -othorities identified the shooter as 40-ye scott paul beierle of deltona, florida today. he reportedly acted ale and died from an apparent self- inflicted gunshot wound. the police chief said there is evidence people in the studiok fought bring the attack. tallahassee's mayor andrew gillum briefly suspended his campaign for governor yesterday to return to the city.
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a u.s. service member was killed and another was wounded in kabul, afghanistan today in whis eing called an insider attack. in a statement, an official for the u.s.-led nato coalition said thheattacker was a member of afghan security forces who was killed by other ghan troops. this is the second insider attack on coalition forces inan aftan in less than two weeks. rs october 22 an afghan commando opened fire on memf the military coalition in western afghanistan, killing one and wounding two others. it is the final weekend before tuesday's midterm election and leaders of both political parties are on the road, lookin for vo some of the tightest races. president trump landed in belgrade, montanthis afternoon, pressing for votes for republican senate and house ndidates. he headed for florida next where vice presidentence is expected join him after finishing stumping for candidates in wisconsin. it was former vice president joe biden on stage for democrats in ohio today. yesterday former president
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barack obama campaigned in miami. mr. obama will be back on the campaign trail tomorrow in indiana and illinois and presidt trump will head to georgia and tennessee. while tuesday's midterm elections have consumed attention in this country, an extraordinary election took place last sunday in bzil. far-right candidate jair bolsonaro was elected as that untry's next president. known for his extreme views and history of racist, and homophobic remarks, bolsonaro's election is part of a larger rise of far-right politicians around the globe. ernesto londoño is "the new york times" brazil bureau cef. he joins me now via skype from rio de janeiro. so, i understand that until recently, few people thought that jair bolsonaro cbeld be electeuse he is so extreme. can you tell us a little bit him. >> jair bolsonaro is a former army captain. he has been in congress for three decades and within congress he was a pretty
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marginal figure. was somewhat of a provocateur known for sainyincendiary, offensive, and politically incorrect things. >> thompson: talk to me a little b more about the struggles brazil has seen in recent years? i mean what, are the things thah led to election? >> last year, brazil had a record number o hmicides. 63,000 people were killed here violently last year. that is an extraordinary figure. and it has come to really shape the way brazil thinks about their future and thinks about their options. on the other hand, much of the political elite, many of the parties that have become, you know, sort of ruling class, if you will, for the past couple of decades, bee snarlesnarled in this massive corruptionio investigthat exposed brazilian congress and many of the top companies in the country entiallyknow, ess pervasively and institutionally corrupt. jair bolsonaro kale out and said, "look, you know, what, how many lawmakerses tan claimhat they have absolutely no
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allegations graft to their name?" you know,"i am clean, ani am not going to spare anybody in my quest to restore order in brasilia. >> thompson: in terms of the violent crime problem, what are the types of this he's adadvocated doing? >> rio de janeiro and many of the larger cities in brazil are enties where's the police is extraordinarily vi where there has historically been a "shoot first, ask questions later" approach. in rio de janeiro, so far thishl year, roone out of four persons killed violently has been killed at the hand of the police. jair bolsonaro and his allied governors and his allied lawmakers are saying we're just going to ratchet up that a couple ofch not further. >> thompson: i understand there have been protests since his election last wetekend. me about those. >> the incoming president said
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he is no fan of affirmative action, and he has a lon history of speaking critically and derisively about members of the gay ands transgender community, of women, of indigenous communities. so neem those groups, many of them saying, you know, you who are we going to prouotect elves in this era and our rights that have been hard ught over the past few decades going to be safe in this administration? >> thompson: brazil, as you reported, is dealing wth a migrant crisis on its border th venezuela. did that play a role in jair jar bolsonaro's election? >> he was running against a leist rifa rifal and he told vos a vote for his ral amounteto putting them on the path they are in. one thing we can expect in the jair bolsonaro administration is a far harder line of the government in venezuela, whh had been a ally of the brazilian government.
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just what shape that's going to take and just what he will be willing to able to do to squeeze the maludo adminisigation in the oring country, remains to be seen. but if he sticks to his rhetoril and his picy matches his rhetoric, i think we're going to see some real friction and hetension in the monthses . >> thompson: what other indications are there of what to expect from him in his first weeks as president? >> i think one thing that is fascinating and remarkable is the u.s.-brazil relationship for manyrseaas been strained by one, two, or three thornz that alwaysheeem to get inay of a better and in jair bro you have somebody who is remarkably aligned with president trump, both temperamentally, and in terms of hisorld view. so i think we can expect somebody who is going to work very collaboratively with the trump administration and is going to want to position himself as an ally, you know, on a range of matters. for instance, taking a more skeptical view of the role of
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china in the region, and, perhaps, take a harder look at the trade relationship displms ernesto londono of "the new york times," thank you so much for joining us. my pleasure. >> thompson: will the end of affirmative action help asian americans with college admissions? an associate professor at harvard weighs in on our website at a self-styled nationalist elected to lead a democratic country. a fear that islam isle incompatith that country's culture. a border fence to keep out migrants. does that all sound familiar? it does in hungary, where prime minister viktor orban has been taking that eupean union country in a decidedly populist direction. newshour weend special correspondent chris livesay has our report from budapest. >> reporter: from its magnificent parliament building d its castles, churches, neoclassical statues, hungary is a country with history on full display. it's also being called a harbinger of europe's political future.
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hungary is a member of the european union and nato, but politics here have ste become more nationalist, led by primminister viktor orban, considered to be the most influential populist leader in europe today. the most visible symbol of nationalist hungary? this new electrified fence on the country's southern border "th serbia, built to protect what orban call"christian europe" from "invaders." zoltan kovacs is hungary's government spokesperson. >> we truly believe that in europe christianity has a ecial role. islam and christianity are not going to integrate because they e different. many have accused us of islamophobia. this is not the case. we all know that the clash of cultures and civilizations is indeed existing and when it comes anew as it happened back in 2015, it was really alarming. >> reporter: the 2015 crisis, when hundreds of thousands of mostly muslim migrants and refugees fled north into europe, was a tipping point says kovacs. while other governments debated what to do, hungary acted. b
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>> we havelt a fence, a physical barrier. we have reinforced our border control, thousands oarian policemen and soldiers are securing the border. over 400,000 cross the borders into hungary and passing through hungary that year. today ese numbers are basically down to zero. many say there is no need for the fence becange nobody's cote >> reporr: but you're saying they're not coming because we have a fence. >> sure, but the reason is the other way around. c they are ning because there's the fence. >> it is something that the hungarian government is extremely proud of. it's extrely proud of it's very harsh immigration policy. it's basically a policof deterrence, exclusion, and detention. >> reporter: marta pardavi is co-chair of the non-profit watchdog organization, hungarian helsinki committee >> look at pictures from the transit zones that we got. r orter: she says the government recently changed the laws to make it virtually impossible for refugees to get asylum and accuses it of human rights abuses. earlier this year she took the
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government to court afr it stopped food distribution to rejected asylum seekers in the couny's transit zones. >> so we had to take emergencyme ures and turn to the european court of human rights to get an emergency or the court saying hungarian government you have to give these people food. >> reporter: but refugees aren' the only peounwelcome by viktor orban, who wathre-elected foird term in a landslide last april. orban has singled out one particular man as an enemy,an amerillionaire philanthropist george soros.-y the r old soros, who was born in budapest, supports democracy and human rights causes around the world. atban considers him a foreign influence and thso much so that this summer he enacted a package of laws called "stop soros," aimed at further confronting illegal immigration. pardavi says it impacts her work directly. >> n we have legislation tha makes it a criminal offence to assist asylum seekers in hungary in filing an asylum applicion. >> reporter: isn't that the kind
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of work that you do? >> it's exactly the kind of work that the helsinki committee does or an asylum lawyer, an immigration lawyer would do. this since july, just a few months ago, this is a criminal offense. you can be prosecuted for it ane you could ne year in prison for this. >> reporter: the hungarian paaliament also passed a spe 25% penalty tax on all non- government organization revenues that promote migration. it's all had a chilling effect on n.g.o.s., including george soros' own open society foundations, o.s.f. this used toe their offices. until this summer. they packed up and moved to berlin the reason: they say they no longer feel safe in viktor orban's hungary.'s ot just n.g.o.s. higher education is also being targeted in this new politicalel battle >> i can't predict what the outcome of what i like to ca," our little local difficulty with government" is going to be. >> reporter: michael ignatieff president of central european
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university, c.e.u. it's a small, ll-respected graduate school, founded by george soros, which has been operating in hungary for 25 years. but another new orban law requiring foreign universities to have campuses in their home t untries, threatens to force c.e.u. to move m its programs out of hungary. ignatieff says he's facing a december 1 deadline. nt if i don't get an agree with the hungarian government, i can't accept new students. i got a gun pointed at my head here. mr. orban thinks we are trying to run some type of campaign agait his government. it's ridiculous. he won an election. he's a democratically elected leader. i got no question abuet that. my is about academic freedom. staying here. eak out for c.e.u. andable toh. other academic institutions that do rely on the government for money. >>ehe government has just g after the academy of sciences here. it said we're going to decide who is gng to get the scientific money, not the
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academy. they've stopped gender studies. they have penalized anybody who tries to teach refugees and asylum seekers. so it's not just us that are under the squeeze. >> reporter: press freedom in hungary has also been compromised, according to the committee to protect journalistu and a recentparliamentary report. they say pro-orban oligarchs have been buying up tions and newspapers, and that state- funded advertising is going largely to outlets loyal to the government. civil ciety groups accuse orban's government of trying to silence dissent. kovacs says at's nonsense. >> we have over 65,000 civil organizations in ts country. we are quarreling with maybe two dozen or three dozen of them. they believe in an activist democracy. >> reporter: but doesn't activism play a role in democracy? >> yes, indeed. the problem is when they cross the red line. most of these very loud and effective civil organizations
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are being financed from abroad and they come into the field of politics, vindicating that theyt are entitltell hungarians and others what directions their legal system, their behavior, their values should be taken and this is what we are trying to refute here. so we are trying to reinstate the very fundamental values and rules of democracy in hungary. >> in a democracy this is exactly the kind of sentiment that you should be fighting against. you should tell people that it's fine to speak out publicly. you should do it. >> let's be careful here. this is not a totalitarian state, this is not a fascist state. l it's nothie that. this is a democracy, but it's a damaged democracy.te >> rep the changes in hungary have alarmed its neighbors so much that ineu september thpean union's parliament took the extraordinary step of onting to sancungary for flouting e.u. rules on democracy and civil rights. theoretically under article seven the country ould be strippits e.u. voting rights, though that is unlikely
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because poland has promised to veto such a move.ha orbacondemned the e.u. vote calling it a political witch hunt. t >> it's most hatred against this center right hungarian government. >> reporter: hatred against this govement? >> yes, that's probably the best word that we can use. line here isidin who is for migration and those who would like to reinstate law and order at the borders of europe and who believes that the future of europe is not or shouldn't be built on migration, but should be built on the interests of the european people. >> reporter: and what about american "inrests?" in budapest's freedom square there's a bronze statue honorinr former presideald reagan for the help he gave hungary to break free of the communist soviet union in 1989. at the time, one of the politicians at the forefront praising reagan for standing up for freedom was none other than viktor oan. that was then, this is now. politician with superb presentational skills, a terrific ear for the fears, resentments, and anger of hispo
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lation. he uses the social media, he uses government controlled a medi he basicallypu dominates thic discourse 24/7. mr. trump does that in the united states. mr. orban does that here. and there are other people whonn think are beg to follow him. poland, the czech republic, turkey. in all of these places you have strong single-party regimes that are using democratic institutions to consolidate their power. so, far from being a kind of far-away place that doesn't matter, i think hungary is a potential symbol of where the world may be headed for a while. and so it would repay americans to pay some close attention to what happens in budapest.
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>> thompson: the past year has ntrfaced countless tales of workplace harassbut there's a correlation between these events and gender inequalities that have long existed in the working world. the findin are part of the fourth annual women in the workplace survey of more than 64,000 workers across nearly 300 companies. the "wall street journal" has been publishing a series of reports about women, men and work. editor lyncook joined newshour weekend's hari sreenivasan to discuss. >> sreenivasan: one of the things that struck out from the survey is more than a third of women reported that they had been harassed at some point in their careers. and w this is a svey that goes out probably, mostly to white-collar workers,y so this might be under-reported. that's a staggering number. >> it's a staggering number, and you're right, cause thi survey was companies that participated care about this issue, and it ten ded to bmore white-collar workers than a lot of, say, hotel or retail or restaurant workers that we
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already know experience harassmentt greer rates. but even among those mostly white-collar workers at big companies that tend to take gender diversity seriously, 35% y were harassed. >> sreenivasan: this is the fourth year that this survey has been coming out? what is the difference between now and the "me, too" climate. >> this ishe first year they asked the sexual harassment question. if you're a woman in a male-dominated role, like a technical role, it's even more. 45% of those tmen sayey've been harassed. and senior leadership, like women in executive roles, 55%, said they have been harassed. there's a company cal conversant that runs these hot lines where people can call in their complaints, and the calls jumped by 72%s in thist year. there was a huge uptick. >> sreenivasan: one of the survey questions you asked, "needing to provide more evidence of my competence than
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others do." 44% of women said yes. nonly 13% of me said yes. >> right. >> sreenivasan: regardless of how fia they are, they have to do more. >> that's the feeling that-- that's at least when this data is showing that, you know, sexual harassment aside, there are other kinds of discrimition that women are constantly struggling again. it's man more subtle, and aot of it might be unintended. but women often get mistaken for more junior people. they feel they have to set, you know, really fight to be heard in meetings. ently feeling like they have to -- >> especially if they're one of the fewer women that are in these meetings where thesi des are being made. >> right. that's another-- that's another piece of the data that was really interesting teas year this, hat if you're the only one in the room, the only one on your team, the only one in your building in some cases -- for black won pecially-- you experience work in a very negative way. and it might not be ouright
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harassment but again these more subtle forms of discrimination. so when you're the only one in the room, those women said ey were less likely to even stay say job. they actually think a lot more about leaving. so companies in the survey, you know, were kind of surprised tor hat because all the talk about recruiting, getting mor people of color, more women in the doors actaiually retng them and getting them to stay is a whole different equation. sreenivasan: and there's also almost a men are from mars, women are from convenience, perception of how th state of work is playing out. "my gender played a role in missing out on a raise, promotion or a chance to get ahead." only 8% of men suggested that and 24% o s womid yes to that. >> there's a huge disparity. it is like there are two different workplaces going on in the workplace where men frequently feel like things fine and women feel they are not fine. >> sreenivasan: it's a fascinating story and there are several stories in the w about it.
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look, thank you for joining us. >> this is "pbs newshour weekend," satuay. >> thompson: there has been a lot of talk this election about young voters. pbs newshour's student reporting labs checked in with ttudents arou country and asked them for their ideas on how to motivate young people to vote. >> in order to get more kids to vote, i think we can focus on issues that are more local or at the state level because i think those are going to impact people the most. >> i think the only way to get ople to vote more is making voting required. >> lower the voting age to around 16 because i feel like if we start voting at a younger age or becoming routine then it'll just be a thing that we do that we remember to do. instead of getting caught upn all this college work and all the school work that usually 18- >> the argument of people being able to drive and having jobs at 16-- i don't think that's a valid reason for them to be abls to vote bea lot of people
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still cannot take care of themselves and they still rely heavily on other influences in life. >> i've been pushing my friends to vote and those that can register to register and i'm going to bdriving my friends on election day to election polls and boothsso absolutely if age was 16 i'd be voting. >> if the school really encourages it and the teachers encourages it and in fact ma it a part of the class, part of the course, part of the curriculum it can be really encouraging. >> i don't think efforts like rock the vote or celebrities trying to influence young peop on voting is a good idea because since these celebrities are so influential they're really not giving information on politics.t they're ind of giving their opinions out there. ib i think that celebrities-- it's their respoity as the public figures of and role e models of people to promod behavior and participating in political process is good behavior as a citizen. it's a responsibility, it's not a requirement. but you should always do it and people suld always be
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promoting that. thompson: last weekend we talked with "new york times" reporter declan walsh about his report the growing famine in yemen and the photographs by his colleague tyler hicks documenting the starvation of yemeni civilians, many of them children. this past thursday, seven-year-l old ussain, one of the starving children shown in the story, died. the united nations is warning that 14 million people-- about half of yemen's popuontion-- could eed emergency rations to survive. that's all for this ition of" pbs newshour weekend." i'm megan thompson. thanks for watching. have a good night. captioning sponsored by wnet captioned by media access group at wgbh >> pbs newshour weekend is made ssible by:
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bernard and irene schwartz. sue and edgar wachenheim iii.n selvin. the cheryl a philip milstein family. dr. p. roy vagelos and diana t. vagelos. the j.p.b. foundation. rosalind p. walter. barbara hope zuckerberg. corporate funding is provided by mutual of america-- designing customized individual d group retirement products. that's why we're your retirement company. additional support has been provided by: and by the corporati for public broadcasting, and byri cotions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. be more. pbs.
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milan's monumental cemetery. while there are many ocative cemeteries in europe, this one -- with its emotional porayals of the departed and their heavenly escorts -- in the melodramatic art styles from the late and early 20th centuries -- is in a class by itself. it's a vast garden art gallery of proud busts and grim reapers, heartbroken angels and weeping widows... soldiers too young to die. acres of grief, hope, and memories.
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what we see as standards of beauty haved een so heavily colonir so long given to us by white culture. there's really a bamboceiling. diversify your bonds, america. there are winners and there are losers. i want to win. it's very frustrating for me to know that i'm judged by something that i can't control. when we drive a wedge between us and other communities, i find that unacceptle. i want the world to understand that we are beautiful too. whoever you are, you could be filipino, chinese, vietnamese, you are what you are. don't even let nobody take that from you because you're doing it your way. announcer: funding for take on america with ozy, provided in pa