tv PBS News Hour PBS May 9, 2019 6:00pm-7:01pm PDT
captioning sponsored by newshour productions, llc >> woodruff: good evening. i'm judy woodruff. on the newshour tonight: "fear in the classroom."he anshooting in colorado brings into focus the trauma caused by gun violence in schools. then, "standoff." congressman jerry nadler chairman of the u.s. house judiciary committee, on the tiuse's escalating fight with the trump administ. and, "to kill a mockingbird." one of a adapted for broadway.s >> this was no longer an exercise in nostalgia. this wasn'a field trip to a museum. it wasn't an homage to one of america's favorite books. it was something new. >> woodruff: all that and more on tonight's pbs newshr.
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committee. senators want to ask him about a meeting with a russian lawyer, in 2016.sp ial counsel robert mueller's report cited contradictions in trump jr.'s statements, but did not bring charges. the president spoke today at a white house event. >> frankly, for my son, after aing exonerated, to now get a subpoena to go aga speak ouagain, after close to 20 woof telling everybody thad listen about a nothing meeting, yeahi'm pretty surprised. >> woodruff: the president also said that he will let attorney general william rr decide whether mueller should testify before congress. the white house already invoked executive privilege, blocking the release of mueller's full report. house speaker nancy pelosi reacted to that today, blasting mr. trump for rejecting congressional oversight. >> the president is almost self-impeaching, because he is
every day demonstrating more obstruction of justice and disrespect for congress' legitimate role to subpoena. >> woodruff: we will talk to the chair of the house judiciary committee, congressman jerry nadler, later in the program. president trump plans to nominate patrick shanahan to be secretary of defense.an the white housunced it today. shanahan became acting secretary in january, after jim mattis quit over mr. trump's call to withdraw from syria. the president said today that he is not happy wafh north korea r it fired short-range missiles for the second time in five days. south korea says two w were launched today near kusong, north of pyongyang. they flew up to 270 missil out to sea.
meanwhile, the u.s. formally seized a north korean cargo ship that has been detained in indonesia for a year. it allegedly was used to violatc ons. european union leaders are urging iran to adhere to its 2015 nuclear deal. but, the e.u. said today that it will continue trading with iran nespite u.s. sanctions. tehran has threato abandon key parts of the agreement, unless the e.u. helps make up for damage done by the sanctions.re the u.s. witfrom the nuclear deal last year. pope francis today mandated that priests and nuns report sexual abuse and cover-ups to church authorities. the new law also inclu procedures making it easier to investigate bishops. a senior vatican prosecutor said it shows no one is above the law, including bishops. experience sws us that either a closed-shop mentality or a misplaced interest in protecting the institution was hindering disclosure. i think the law is veryan
impo because it makes disclosure as the main policy oh thch. >> woodruff: some abuse victims called the law a step forward.pl others cned that it does not require reporting abuse to police. akback in this country, las in alabama delayed voting on a bill that bans abortions at any stage of pregnancy. democrats and at least one republican shouted objections when other republicans stripped t exceptions for rape an incest. debate resumes next week. federal prosecutors in san diego have filed 109 hate crimes charges in last month's. synagogue atta 19-year-old john earnest already faced state charges of murder and attempted murder. he allegedly killed one person and tried to kill dozens. the federal counts coury the death penalty. u.s.-china trade talks resumed this evening in washington, hours before the u.s. imposes
new tariffs. to 25% on friday, affecting $200 billion in imported goods from china. the tensions with china kept wall street off balance. the dow jones instrial average lost 139 points to close at 25,828. the nasdaq fell 32 poind the s&p 500 slipped eight. still to come on the newshour: exploring the trauma caused by school shootings. congressman jerry nadler on the house's feud with the trumpra adminion. "surging prices." uber prepares to make its initial public stock offer dg. "the truide." when winning athletes are invited to the white house. and, much more. >> woodruf the school shooting in colorado this week has focused our attention again on
tragedies happening on campus, and periodically in the classroom. it is an unfortunately familiar story, particularly in colorado, raising questions not just of what needs to be done to stop thstviolence, but also, how to prepare and whether that has its own costs for children, teachers and parents. ( sirens ) another american school plunged into terror by gun violence this week. on tuesday afternoon, two students at the stem school highlands ranch in the denver, colorado suburbs, are alleged to have opened fire during class. >> i just kind of saw, like, flashes, and we heard bangs. p >> woodruff:ice descended on the k-12 school. students were evacuated, and anxious parents waited outside. >> the children ate texting you they're hiding under a desk and bullets are hitting their window, or things are hitting their window. it's a horrible feeling.f: >> woodrnside, three students charged at one of the s,nmen and tackled him.
one of those studeendrick castillo, was shot and killed. a classmate, who also rushed the shooter, described castillo's final moments of heroid . >> he chare shooter and then was immediately on top of him, complete disregard for his own safe. he was immediately there to respond, he was immediately on the shooter and he was ready to end the threat. >> woodruff: castillo was a senior, just days away from graduation. both shooters-- an 18-year-old male and a juvenile -- are in police custody. one attack hit the denver area hard, one already on edge, roughly a month after the 20th anniversary of the massacre at columbine high school. schools across therea were locked down last month in reaction to threats related to the anniversary. tuesday's attack is the second u.s. school shooting in as many weeks. last week, a gunman at the university of north carolina, charlotte, killed two and wounded four.
he was also tan down by a student who charged him. these recent shootings come amid a nationwide debate about arming teachers. classrooms across the country are already taking other safety measures, such as operatingot active s drills more frequently.la year saw the highest number of school shootings in recent i yearluding two dozen that left 35 people dead. three of the four deadliest shootings u.s. modern history, in an elementary and secondary school, have happened since columbine. let's talk about how communities and school systems are responding to all of this, including in colorado. t john ferrugia news anchor and managing editor with rocky mountain pbs in denver. and, eviblad is a reporter who covers this for "education week," a newshour partr. and evie blad is a reporter whr covers this ucation week, a "newshour" partner. welcome to the program john
ferrugia, tell us how the community dealing with all of this especially with a history going back to columbine? f yes, judy, there's an overwhelming sensedness here, i think. another school shooting, nine peyole shot, onung man not coming home to his family again, another funeral. there's just an overwhelming sadness about thiin the community. i think, also, there is anger. i was just talking with a columbine survivor who saw her iends murdered in 1999. she now has children of her own e says why in the world can't we keep kids safe in school? i think that's a overwhelming feeling here in this state and around the country andco, of se, that brings up the issues around access to guns which is being debated >> woodruff: you were telling us the denver area in these counties, theyave alrea instituted a number of assessments, taken security measures, south not as if nothing's been done over these years. >> no. in colorado, a coup of examples, safe to tell is a hotline where people call andt
report er someone they're fearful could commit suicide or a threat. in the last school year, there were 16,000 calls to that hot line and about 600 threats reported, around 2800 suicideer co. so people are reaching out, kids mostly, this is aimed at kids to call. secondly, in douglas county where the stem shooting took place, they have what are called threat assessments. last year more tn 200 threat assessments of individual kids who were concerned to them through tips, whatever, 184 of those kids were put on an individualafety plan where their parents were involved, where they could be searched when they came intl,o sch where they're monitored. so there's a lot of vigilance goinon in the school districts in colorado. just one final thing, you know, john mcdonald, the safety director in jefferson county where columbine is, he sys, today, if we see on social media you've got a gun or you're going shoot somebody or you've got a bornlings we're going to
believe you and be at your door right away doing a safety checka >> woodrufd evie blad, how is what they're doing in the denver area, how is that similar or not to what's happening in o the re the country? >> there's been a big emphasis on prevention laty. these shootings are still statistically rare but, when they happen, they have a big efect, obviously, and re a very emotional thing for folks. so there's been a reali drve to say what can we do to ensure that a student who may be struggling, a student who may have some of these risk factors can have the pport and resources that they need that they don't act on those things. there's also a lotore emphasis on preparation around the country. we've seen sinnece columhe number of schools that do active shooter drills have increased dramatically. so while not eveudent will experience a shooting, in ct statistically students in america won't, most of them have an awareness of them because they practice these routines
that would kp them safe in the event of an emergency. >> woodrufd you're telling us these routines are in elentary school for young children. >> yes, and some young children do -- drills have been modified. they won't talk about a bad guy o assailant. they talk about stay in your classroom like you would if a dog was in the hallway and you don't know the dog and we want to give you safe. psyc modify these things so children aren't traumatized by this. >> woo act because you want to be prepared and be on the lookout, but you don't want to frighten children, you don't want children traumatized before anything happens. one of the other things, the dilemma is how do yo keep child or a kid who comes into the school, who belongs in the school, has a backpack, walks in and gets into the school lke in the stem shooting and then
reveals having a gun in the backpack and starts shooting. so it rely is prevention, and it's identifying these kids in the situation at stem, these kids weren't on the radar. the sheriff says, look, we have y idea who tre. they didn't have any social media postings that were concerning, nobody saw this coming. >> evie blad, is there a sense in theducation wor that they've made progress in understanding which children, which students might be at risk of trying to do something? >> well, there's set profile of a school shooter, even though there are som se things e in common in news reports. and, so, the idea is to giv students the support that they need, while also respecting their vil rights. we want students to have due process. we don't want to intervene in the situation and stigmatize them. but some of those things you s would do tpport a student who might be at risk are things inat are best practices to help students in all of
situations. these tip lines like ey have in colorado more often are about bullying and suicide than school shootings. so some of the practices of making school supportive, of cohiecting adults to cldren, are good, preventative, protective factors for all kinds of things. >> woodruff: coming back to what you said earlier, john ferrugia, you're saying there are still, even with all the preparation being done, there is anger, understandably, that thig kind of thcan still happen. >> yeah, there is, judy. i'll tell you, part of the sadness in colorado is that, you know, we just noted the 20t 20th anniversary of columbine, this terrible, terrible event, and, 20 years later, many ofar these victim saying, you know, we're now on the journey, on a continuing journey of recovery, and now wew knoery time there is one of these shootings, we havte a new se of people on this recovery road agn, and that's what pens over and over and over again. and that's the anger, that's the
sadness, that's the frustration that people are feeling, and that's the drive, i think, at least here in colorado and i think around the country withm teachers, inistrators, law enforcement, of trying to identify this early and prevent it. t> woodruff: evie blad, gets back to what you said erlier that even though the shootings are not cmmon, the happen often enough, they get a lot of media attention, and people, you know, the sense ofs terror- can be in the air. >> yeah, certainly the public polling has showed that about three times as many people report they fear for their y did's safety now than the after the newtown shooting in 2012, and that kind of fear can often drive policy-makers to do by anecdote to look at the circumances of the last shooting and say what can we do differently. >> wdruff: evie blad with education week, john ferrugia with rocky mountain pbs, ank you bot >> thank you.
>> woodruff: president trump's decision to defy the house >> woodruff: there's a lot of interest around the initial public offering of uber, which is expected to be one of thegg t i.p.o.s in years. william brangham looks at why that is, the questions around its business model,nd some of the wider controversies around the company. >> brangham: when uber hits the market tomorrow, it'll be th largest public stock offering in the u.s. since 201 the ride-sharing giant-- and the rivals it inspired-- changed driving and commuting around the world. its opening day market value may be well above $80 billion, which would make it bigger, for example, than the market value the big winners? uber's founders and early investors, who own big chunks of stock. former c.e.o. travis kalanick resigned in 2017, after reports of a corporate culture rife witn sexual haras but he still owns 9%, and will easily make
billions. some veteran uber drcould get cash bonuses to buy shares. buethe company itself, and prospects of big paydays, remain highly controversial. there are worries about ho i.p.o. could exacerbate already- huge wealth gaps in silicon valley. and many uber drivers-- and those atts competitor, lyft-- say they don't get paid nearly enough. this week, many went on short strikes in citiearound thed, worlrotesting low wages and their status as independent contractors rather than official employees. while uber performs more than 15 million passenger trips ery day, the company has also grown to include mobile scooters, a long-haul trucking service, and "uber eats," a food delivery service. but revenue growth has continued to slow, and it's still burning through a lot of cash. uber lost more than $3 billion last year. its competitor lyft went public weeks ago, but is now trading
below its initial prices. for more on uber's initial stock offering, we turn to farhad manjoo. he's an opinion columnist for the "new york times." and, amir efrati, senior reporter at "the information,"ks who trhis sector closely. wntlemen, welcome to you both. amir, to you firshy so much expectation? i mean, i haven't heard people mlking about an i.p.o. h as they are about uber's in a long time. why all the fuss? >> this isn important consumer brand now, it's a utility.of it's parll our lives, so this is going to raise the profile of the company that muc. mo it's also going to be an important barometer for the public market and appetite for other big money moving companies that are going to go public in the near future. i've with got postmates comg up, flack coming up, we work going public as well, and this is actuallya very important
barometer for whether investors are okay with that. so far, we've seen skittishness when it comes to the uber i.p.o. >> reporter: uber's had a raft of bad p.r., laissues, do you think any of those clouds are going to going the rain on morrow's parade? >> they already v. the company did want to price its i.p. valuing the company at $120 billion or at lea bst $1lion. the exefnghts who currently run the company are heavily incentivized to get that t valuation at level. they get massive bonuses if the company reaches. buthe expectations ray affidavit eted down and uber had thworst qarter ever, lost more than a billion dollars overall. the questions continue to mount, and the company is saying, look. trust the competition that we face currently in the united states and around the world, it will abate and be able to make money
it's very difficult to see that path at the moment. >> farhad manjoo, you wrote a blistering piece in the "new york times" recently whereadou tted optimism about the idea of uber and it as a company but you've obviously changed your mind and referred to this i.p.o. ture moral stain on the cul of silicon valley. what is your biggest complaint?u >> i think ter idea and the idea of ride sharing was this -- it could have been this beautiful dynamic where the company and its founders won, but also you could have had this compy working away where drivers and cities and the way we all wok could have, you roved.imp instead, what's happened is the latest numbers show that, in many cities where these companies operate, affic is up, traffic is up in large part fecause of these kinds o companies, and they've also created this massive worcekf
of drivers who get and are allowed to get paid under the minimum wage because of how they are classified as conactors rather than employees. meanwhile, you know, after a long history of recklessness,he lawlessness,nsiders of this company, the people who founded it and were reckless in creating that cultury are going to get huge rewards from this i.p.o. i think it's a bad model, but, unfortately, a more common template for what silicon valley does in the world and its affect on the world. this could have been a much better idea, a moe eqitable idea and one that worked for more parties, and how it ended up is winning for a few people, while a whole lot of oters lose in the process. >> i'm curiousthough, to press you a little bit on that point because, to be more eqitable -- i mean labor is one of the big
issues here -- if they were paying their drivers more, wouldn't that again negatively impact the company? i'm trying to ask is the modelen itself poally viable? and you simply think uber is not doing it well, or is the siness model itself not financially viable? >> i mean, p we will see. wathink that thera way that you could have had more expensive uber rides but better incentivized labor force, one that wasn't a template of this new model of working for an ap that chooses your pay and how you work with an algorithm. and i also think there may wit a universe where treating drivers better would have led to a better company that didn't have the brand issues and other proboms. i think point out and amir ssinted out the kind of fundamental busiodel of
this company, even in the inequitable way it's structured now, is still in question. i think one of the reasons we ih valley have been watching this company for a long time is because it's been this mys whether it sort of ultimately works. we've had other companies like this in tech. amazon for a long time was m losiey and bent on expansion, but amazod-- an uber has tried to compare itself to amazon, but i think this is a different kind of company, it'sh g sort of new boundaries and new -- and a whole new kindf business model. >> amare, what do you make of is tsiness model where a that? company could be successful and its employees feel like they're getting a fair shake, is that viable? >> it can be. it's going to require a lot of work and a lot of mergers and acquisitions potentially as oell, but i think it's very important to talk the net benefits that uber and lyft and other riding companies have s
provided tciety. they've really modernized the taxi market. if you askbed lgtq people what lo was like to hail taxes, they will tell you of horror stories and that's is it case ir sacisco. for wheelchair-bound people, this has been a huge gift. so i think the product is incredible, it works very well, for the most par and that's something we should keep in mind. farhad is right, there is congestion, drivers should be paid more but i think its a benefit so far. drivers are doing it for a reason, nobody's putting a gun to their head. i do think they need to gi drivers better information and poteially better pay. >> amir efrati and farhad manjoo, thank you very much. >> anytime. oo >>uff: sports champions frequently visit the white
house, but in this dividedime, and with bitterly polarized attitudes about president trump, it is no longer a rout practice. as yamiche alcindor reports, many famous players are taking action off the field. >> alcindor: a moment of a celebration for some of the boston red sox. for others, it was a white house boycott. that's because some members of the 2018 world series championship team did not show up for the traditionalvi white houst. even red sox manager alex cora o,oose not to attend. he's from puerto rnd today, he told a radio show, he's troubled by presidentsp trump's se to hurricane maria. >> i'm the guy who has lived there, i the guy who lives there in the off-season. i understand how it goes. gjust don't feel right go and celebrating when people are struggling back home. >> alcindo on display today: a stark racial divide. most white players came, b all but one team's black and latino
players, like star pitcher david price and m.v.p. mookie betts, did not. the event cos after president trump awarded the presidential medal of freedom to tiger woods on monday. events like today's have long been a bipartisan white house tradition. >> thanks for salvaging my bracket. >> alcindor: but president trump's past statements- especially tied to race-- have led to deep divides among athletes about attending. some still come to white house ceremonies, but many of the most well-known players in sports have not. in 2017 the president publicly criticized quarterback colin kaepernick for kneeling during the national anthem. that same year the reigning n.b.a. champions, the golden state warriors, said they would boycott the white house visit. president trump claimed hedi nivited them, prompting and, a visit by the 20 superbowl champions, the philadelphia eagles, was canceled, after of number er plsaid they would not attend. itt's explore this divide a bit deeper, not onlythe red sox today, but how some athletes are responding to president
trump more broadly. kevin blackistone is a national orts columnist for the "washington post," a regular contributor to espn, and professor of journalism at the univsity of maryland. thanks so much, kevin, for being here. there is a rlit here. so sox players showed up to the white house, others chose not to come. at does it say about whatand these sports events at the white house have become und president trump? >> well, you know, just when president trump was elected, i did a video column over at "the washington post" about this very issue, aboa the trdition of sports teams and champions coming to the white house, and i said then and i think i would certainly amplify it agoainw that, if you believe that sports are so sort of elixir for all the ills that are in our society -- racism, sexism, misogyny, homophobia -- then it wod beisingenuous for you as a portsman or sportswoman to
accept an invitation to congratulate you for a championship from ths president, and i think that's what you saw borne out more historically in this boston red sox event than any other because, in oter instances, either teams have not gone or either teams have been disinvited, but, this time, half the team showed up and half the team dinot, basically in protest, and the racial divi son was ark that it just couldn't be ignored. >> earlier in the clear, thei clemson versity football team, most to have the black players didn't show up, most toe have t white players did. whato you make of that gien the history of the united states? >> i think the president returned us to a tme when we thought about how divisive things were between black folks and white folks in this country or maybe, in this case, expand it to all ople of color and white folks in this country. and i think if you look at what
happened with clemson, or certainly if you looked at what happened with the red sox, it's very clear. i think it's important to point out people oflor because a lot of people talk about baseball n havg as many black players as it used to, but do you know who didn't come to this white house? the prodigy of enslaved afrsic from this country, the prodigy of enslaved africans from the caribbean and south africa, they all didn't come, so, in one way, it created some un iit think, amonnblack american players black players from the caribbean and om south america, but it also, oncegain, unerscored how divisittive the politics are under this particul administration. you heard alex talking about his concern about puerto rico an what's happened to puerto rico under this presidency after it
was struck by the hurricane, and we know how many black players have felt about this presidcy's approach to matters concerning thettblack lives " movement. so all of this has really come to a head in this event.>> here's also this issue of tiger woods. he got honored at the white house earlier this weeatk. s him being honored mean for this issue going forward >> we know president trump and tiger woods have a long history ton golf course and -- on the golf course and, so i tnk president trump saw this as an opportunity to wrap himself in the glow of the ment of tiger woods, and we know that tiger woods has had a very spotty record when it comes to speak out on political matters. whher it was about wombeing admitted to augusta or whether it was about other issues. in fact, he didn't stand up for president obama until after president obama was elected.s
so that this was an isstiue for woods and for the president that i think a lot of people understood the ramifications of. >> well, thank you so much fo joining us, kevin blackistone. >> thank you. >> woodrf: president trump's decision to defy the house judiciary mmittee's subpoena for the unredacted mueller report puts the administration and house democrs on a collision course. democrat jerry nadler chai that committee, and issued a stark warning this week that the country is in a constituonal crisis. chairman nadler joins us now from capitol hill. chairman nadler, thank you for being here. my question is -- >> thank you. >> woodruff: --re we at an impasse i? the president saying i'm not
going along with any subpoenas. the whsse house preecretary saying what you did in holding the attorney general in contempt sun lawful. >> we are in a constitutional crisis because to have the administration's contempt for law, their reusal to obey the law, whether the refusal to hand er the president's tax returns to the chairman of ways andhe means,the law says they must do that, whether it's their family separation-- eparation at the border, whether they're opposing the constitutionality of the affordable care act in court, and now the president's obstruction of justice as documented in the mueller report, and now the president's announced decision that he's going to defyll subenas from the house. >> woodruff: right. that means he is denying the role of the house of representatives as a coordinate branch o government and trying to establish the presidency as a dictatorship. you ca't have a democratic
government if the executive denies all information and de mes all lawful h as, it's a complete defiance of law, and that's a crisis. itthe other part of s that they've turned the justicehi department is supposed to enforce the law into an agency for defyinge th law as the personal property of the president against the laws of the united states. that's the cry s. > woodruff: but, congressman, what recourse does congress have realistically? if all of this ends up in the court, aren't you looking at weeks and months of wrangling in the court with no resolution here? >> well, we are certainly looking at weeks, maybe months in court, but we have no alternative because we have to vindicate the rule of law and we ve to insist tha the president -- no president is above the lawno american is above the law, no president is above the law, or dictator.
>> presidents have to respect coming as the american people and have to be willing to give information requested by a congre behalf of the american people. simply to say you're not going to obey any subpoenas is flat-out defiance of law. in is going to be found wrong courts. the courts are not going to sustain that, there is no basis for it, but tere being totally lawless and a lawless administration is a tyrannical administration. >> woodruff: what does that mean, congressman nadler, in terms of what you can do? alur committee has voted to hold the attorney genn contempt. my understanding is that citation exres attend of this term of congress. what recourse do you the other -- >> well, the recourses -- >> woodruff: -- have to make the administration cooperate? >> the only recoue we have is to cite the attorney general and i'm sure others -- i'm sure other committees will be citing other officials in themi
stration for conservative shortly -- administration for contempt shortly. we'll pass those on the floor of the house and have togo to court. >> woodruff: what does that lead to? >> hopefully swift courtrder with compulsion behind it. >> woodruff: i'm sorry. could you repeat that again. >> is this what it lads to, hopefully, are swift court orders saying you must apply this information or do this or that, as the case may be, with a court ordered compulsion behind it. the court can finen a official 40-, 50-, $100,000 a day until he does what is necessary. >> woodruff: my understanding is the law around so many of these isss are not black and white, are not clear.>> disagree. the law is quite clear on most of these issues. for example, y subpoena must be adhered to, the inf must be supplied unless you have a legal reason not to do so, and presidential privilege which
they're claiming has certain limits and the supreme court in this case said even the mos closely held privilege where the president was talking to his own advisoh is not valid you're talking about potential wrongdoing by the administration. secondf all, it is very clear, black-letter law, at once you give any information to thi party, to the press, to mebody's wire, to the mural investigation, i've waived the privilege --eou've waived th privilege. all the information we've and inned is of thatct cha. >> woodruff: congressman, as you know the administration is 9 pointing o% or more of the mueller report has already been made public. so what mos it that you and others in congress need see? >> the other 8%. you can't judge the importce of information from percentages.
and in every previous case, whether it was the nixon case oh iran contra case, or the clinton case or other cases, congress or at least the judiciary committee have seen all the information and the underlying mat.eria we agree that some of that information cannot be made public but that decision is up for the engress, for th judiciary committee, not for the president and not for the attorney general. >> woodruff: so, finally, congressman, sounds like you're not backing down. >> we cannot back down. to back down would be to admit that the administration may hold all material secrets frm congress and congress might as well go home, then you have the president as a dictator abo the law. we cannot admit that. we rebelled against george iii, 250-odd years ago, andt can admit it's all a waste of time.
>> woodruff: jerry nof the judiciary committee, thank you. >> you're welcome. >> woodruff: and now, a new movement that is bringing b togeth businesses and environmentalists, with the goal of rethinking the value of waste.ow jeffrey reports from amsterdam. it's part of our weekly segment on bus ess and economics, "making sense." >> brown: away from amsterdam'sc iconals and museums, a different kind of attraction. a place whe the offices and hotel are made out of old boats, solar panels power most of the buildings, and t herbs used at thpopular cafe are grown using fish waste. and that's not all that's helping th. >> this column, it's connected through the piping that's on the wall to urine that we've collected from the dry urinals in the cafe, and also from our building. we can add some chemicals, and then we get these crystals that
are actually fertilizer. >> brown: welcome to de ceuvel. quirky and off the beaten path-- its own lile neighborhood in the midst of the larger city. it's a laboratory to test a new approach to waste-free, sustainable living. eva gladek, an american who's lived here for more than ten years, is founder of metabolic, the company that spearheads the project. >> we took a bunch of old houseboats, we eco-retrofitted them to make them as sustainable and energy-efficient as possible.no there's ing dug into the ground. the boats don't have sanitation so they ve-- they all have compost toilets and grey water treatment systems using bio- filters. the soil is being cleaned using plants, and we have a lot of different experiments on managing urban resources. >> brown: small experiments for now-- but based on big ideas. >> cities e functioning as global resource drains.
the metabolism of cities is linear. there is all thi, stuff coming 's getting processed, turned into waste, and then it gets spit out. and actually, weeed to create a circular metabolism. >> brown: de ceuvel is rooted in the so-called "circular economy"-- a radically new way of thinking about the future that's built on a relatively simple idea: maximize the use of raw materials, turn waste into a valuable, reusable commodity, so that nothing, in the end, is really wasted. the goal: a healthier planet, and economy. and while the models are speculative, some studies suggest potential benefits are massive. for example, by getting more value out of existing materials, europe could see an annual benefit of up to $2 trillion by 2030.an carbon emissions could be nearly halved. t same time, it's a massive undertaking. >> i would say we're in the first third, if you want to pinw
me dinto an estimation. i would love, in 2020, we move into the next transition. >> brown: harald friedl is the ace.o. of circle economy-- a research and advgroup based in amsterdam. >> i think, our way of thinking, soetimes we believe big cha isn't possible. >> brown: how do you change a mindset? >> i think how we go about it is practical, practical, practical solutions. >> brown: to that end,ircle economy has partnered with a number of dutch businesses. one example: black bear carbon.5 inutes outside amsterdam, the company has tried to apply circular economy principles to the tire industry. martijn cardozo lopes is the c.e.o. >> there's almost two billion tires that reach t end of their life. most of them actually get burned or landfilled. so, this is a big envinmental problem. >> brown: at kar-gro recycling, workers sort tires that are then shredded.
their base components-- steel, rubber and a powder called carbon black-- are separated and then reused to make new tires or other common household items. cardozo lopes says they're able to extract about 70% of the raw material from old tires, and they're now looking to build nee fact >> in order to make the circular economy work, you not only have to do something good, but also create real business. it has to have good economic returns. >> brown: still, it can be hard work convincing would-be investors. >> typically, the answer you get is, "oh, martijn, we love your concept. once you have ten factories up and running, we'll buy number 11." so there's always thisisk you're acting in a very traditional industry. >> brown: he says 1,500 plants could process all of the world's used tires, but it would require a capital investment of roughly $15 billion. and that's just for tires. further: it's not ly about
convincing investors, but changing consumer habits as ll. for example, not throwing away your old jeans, so they don't end up in landfills. mud jeans, another dutch company, uses about 40% recycled cotton, and in addition to giving customers a discount for returning their old jeans-- in a new twist-- it lets them lease new ones.s bert van sons founder. >> leasing a washing machine is understandable. leasing a pair of jeans is maybe more difficult, because you wear it, it's yours. okay, i can understand that. but still, the thought behind-- ive me back your old jeans, i will use the cotton again, recycle it, tear it, apart and mix it with new tton-- i have to mix it with new cotton-- and reuse it, so that we don't have to grow so much cotton every year. >> brown: another big question for the circular economy: who ends up benefiting? as new technology andre infrastrucill be at a premium, big corporations, at
least in the near future, appear to hold a significanvantage.ou and, the desire to make profit derail the process altogether? again, eva gladek: >> that's where governlants come into there has to be an alignment with government, saying, okay, this is wherwe want to go to. this is the vision for it. we're going to support businessescreate new financing mechanisms, and change policy to support that. >> brown: at the moment, all these businesses are far from being completely ciular. at black bear carbon, tires ly go through the process once, and the trucks that get them to factory still rely on traditional fossil fuels. likewise, mud jeans ships their clothes around the world and uses about 60% new cotton. still, harald friedl of circle economy is optimistic. >> if we have supported, in five years from now, we said we have provided tools for cities to change and we have provided tools for businesses to change, than i think we have made a big
step forward to enable others to make the change. >> brown: and for eva gladek, there's no alternative. >> i guess you can think it's a utopian pipe dream, but if we don't make certain drastic changes to how we're operating, we're really going to run intome erious existential problems. and i think striving for a utopia is a really great thing to do with your life >> brown: a journey to utopia? come aboard. for the pbs newshour, i'm jeffrey brown in amste >> woodruff: finally, something old is new again and still n levant to these times. it has been more tlf a century since harper lee penned "to kill a mockingbird."
our well-traveled and multi- tasking jeffrey brown is back again, reporting on the re-worked "to kill a mockingbird" staged on broadway and up for a handful of tony awards next month. it's part of our ongoing arts and culture series, "canvas." ui>> the defendant isn't glty, but someone in this building is! >> brown: it's a new take on one of the most beloved and well-known stories in american literature: "to kill a mockingbird," in aaron sorkin'sy broadw adaptation of the harper lee classic. sorkin is creator of the hit tv show "the west wing," and writer of films including "a few good men" and "the social network," which won him an oscar. when we met recently at the famed sardi's restaurant, he said he'd had two distinctti res when the opportunityin came to "mockingbird" to broadway. >> my heart sank, because is thought, "thissuicide mission-- i'm never going to get out of this alive."
and i was thrilled, because of the opportunity to be doing a play, be back in the theater, my first draft of the play reflected the heart-sinking part. i simply wasrying to swaddle the book in bubble wrap, and gently transfer it to a stage. the result was, that first draft was tepid. >> brown: the play he finally did write, starring jeff danis, still focuses on atticus finch, the small-town lawyer in maycomb, alabama tasked with defending tom robinson, an african american man wrongly accused of assaulting a white woman. the story, set in the 1930s, is told from the point of view of finch's young ughter, scout, who learns important lessons about race, class and morality. the book was first published in 1960. two years later, it was made into an academy award-winning movie starring gregory peck as atticus. jeff daniels called sorkin's version a "rethink."
after getting the part, he read the book and re-watched the film. >> i wanted to see how he, you know, he chose to do that that way, that that hat that way, and you go, "okay, thank you." clocked it. again.di different , different script. >> brown: different time. >> different time.er >> brown: dit time, because one of the big questions is doing "to kill a mockingbird" today. >> ihink harper lee went as far as she could. peck was-- it was written as the great white ro, savior, and that's what he played. that washe book, that was the movie. >> brown: how much change is alwed? that became a question last year when lee's estate sued, saying sorkin's script unacceptably altered characters. the suit was ultimately settled, and the show went on. sorkin argued "mockingbird" today should reflect an increased awareness of racism, then and now. that meant a more meaningf role for the african american characters: the defendant,
tom robinson, and finch's maid, calpurnia, who's played by latanya richardson jackson. >> i don't want 'em hatin' people they disagree with. >> ya gotta give maycomb time, cal. this is the deep south. you gotta give maycomb time. well, how much time woul maycomb like >> i didn't want her to be the magical negro. neither did i want her to just be scenery. my coming to it was filled with what i would alwkns hope that i about these women, that i knew about people who were ine. serv and if that was going to happen, then i was in.s but if that t what was happening, the truth of who they really were, of their stngth, of how philosophically they fill the void of living for most people then, then i wasn't in.
>> brown: sorkin dolided the leadof atticus finch had to shift, too, with more of an arc from the play's beginning to its en >> is he a bad lawyer who becomes a good lawyer? a bad father who becomes a good father? a racist, to become someone who believes in justice and equality? of course, not any of those. i saw that i didn't have tgive atticus a flaw. that, reading the book today, instead of back when i read it, he already had a couple. it's just that we were taught that they were virtues. atticus says, "you can find goodness in anyone-- it's yourjo b to get around inside their skin." >> brown: that assertion, sorkin said, had an echo int presidenump's remarks after the 2017 white nationalist rally rlottesville, virginia. violence erupted, leaving one woman dead.es the ent famously said there were "very fine people on both sides." hought, "wait, atticus-- suddenly i have some questions
for atticus." this was no longer an exercise in nostalgia.a this wasn'eld trip to a museum. it wasn't an homage to one of america's favorite books. it was something new. >> so let's hasten the change. let's hasten the end of the beginning, let's do it right now, in maycom let's begin by restoring this man to his family. let's begin with justice. >> it isn't enough for atticus to lose the case and go back to his porch, get a bourbon or a tea, and then solve the boo radley mystery and go to bedat you've got, re you going to do? you're the hero. what are you going to do? what are you going to do about it? and he tries to stand for his beliefs, and then he finds out that maybe we can't wait for people to find the goodness in themselves. >> brown: for celia keenan bolger, who plays scout, the
play is still squarely harper a lee's "to kiockingbird." but, she said, sorkin tugged at the themes most in need of examination today. >> i think it feels very freshno while, you- harper lee wrote it i1960 about the '30s. and here we are doing it in 2019, lo looking back on 1930. i me, i think we-- it's old and new all at once, and that, that's part of what makes it-- it's an enduring piece of literature, but it's also something that can withstand a production like this, which dares, i think, to draw out the relevancy of the themes that harper lee put down, you kno in the first place. >> brown: lia keenan bolger is one of nine tony award nominations the new "to kill a mockingbird" received. also included: jeff daniels for best actor in a leading role.s for the wshour, i'm jeffrey brown on broadway.
>> woodruff: old and new all at once. and that is the newshour for tonight. i'm judy woodruff. join us online, and again here tomorrow evening, with mark shields and david brooks. for all of us at the pbs newshour, thank u, and we'll see you soon. >> major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> babbel.la uage program that teaches real-life conversations in a new language, like spanish, french, german, italian, and more. babbel's 10-15 minute lessonsas are available an app, or online. more information on babbel.com.a >> bnsf way. >> consumer cellular. >> financial servicefirm raymond james. >> and with the ongoing support of these institutions
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