tv European Journal PBS September 22, 2013 1:00pm-1:31pm PDT
nasty germany launched its attack on the soviet union in the second world war, ukrainian cities were among the first to be bombed by hitler's troops. ukraine was part of the soviet union at the time. thousands of jews fled to escape the not sees -- nazis and their ukrainian helpers. it is a dark chapter in the country's history. few people talk about it. an american researcher has shed light the story of two jewish families that survived the war by hiding in a cave in western ukraine. preparations are underway for a cave tour in the western ukraine. he is from the u.s. and cannot get enough of the cave. he comes back every year. >> in 1993, i was here on my first trip. i noticed evidence of human habitation in the cave.
most of the information i could get came from old farmers in the area in the 1980s and 1990s. they whispered that they thought some jews lived in the cave. >> a documentary shows the scene when he found the objects while exploring the giant cave systems. after 10 years of research, he discovered the truth. 38 jews hid underground from the nazis for one and a half years and survived. chris is not alone on this trip. five of the survivors grandchildren are with him. all of the jewish families that hid in this cave immigrated to north america after the war. some of the descendents have returned to visit the cave for the first time. one of them is a budding new york lawyer. >> this is a dream come true for me.
this is something i've wanted to do since i first heard the story as a young child. knowing that i am seconds away from walking into one of the caves that helped my grandfather survived. >> half an hour later in the cave, this was the first place the jews hid. the visitors are shocked. it is 10 degrees celsius and mud covers the ground. it is said saul spent 511 days in this cave with no shoes or code. he slept in this corner. >> my grandfather was 13 when he was down here. at 13, i was afraid to sleep in the dark. you turn off the lights and there is nothing here. it is just rock and mud. above you are nazis holding machine guns. >> in spring of 1943, the gestapo discover the first
hiding place and arrested five. the others managed to stay hidden. relatives tried to buy the freedom of the detainees by bribing ukrainian police holding them with gold, but it was not enough. [gunfire] joe wexler's great-grandfather and his grandmother's brother who was still a child were shot. >> we are here for their memory. for my grandfather. we were in there with heavy hearts, to say the least. >> the next morning, the group visits their grandfather's hometown. >> when he was there, there was
no help from the locals at the time. what we have been told by chris is people in their older age want to cleanse their souls, t's so to speak, and get things off their chest. >> that may be true of the older people. most of the younger residents do not want to be reminded of the betrayal. we often hear, "i do not know." only this person, a child back then, can remember. >> jewish neighbors used to live in this house. over there, is a house that jews used to live in. >> later that afternoon, the group enters the priests grotto. they are spending the night here, 70 years after their grandfather left for the last time produced by the modern equipment, they find the darkness threatening and the mud
repulsive. chris is here for the 19th time and is still amazed they survived. >> the question i ask is how they explain they survived against all odds. they give different answers print some will say someone was watching or luck. the one answer they all say is family. >> saul wexler's grandchildren go off to their sleeping quarters led by their experienced guide. the next morning, they are still overwhelmed. >> good morning. >> down there is concrete evidence you can never forget. that is written in stone. who was down there and what they did will never be forgotten because that is my family's story and i will tell it. my kids will tell it.
>> at last, say the grandchildren, they can pay homage to the site of survival. >> sweden is one of the most sparsely populated countries in europe. in the rural areas of the north, going shopping can mean hours on the road. that is one reason why swedes are moving south, for the action and the jobs. the eu is trying to support the northern provinces by pumping in money to pay for new tracks and fiber-optic cables. france is giving money to preserve the small general stores. they are vital to community life in sweden. >> locals love to sing the praises of this part of sweden. as lovely as it is, many people
are moving away. he is one of those who planned to stay, who see a future for themselves here. he owns a general store, a dying breed in modern sweden. he and his wife have been running the shop for over two decades. in the summer, they like to eat breakfast here. >> this is my world, my life. >> in the morning, he bakes bread and stocks shelves. he does it every day. in the high season, he employs three people. >> i would likely not find other work. it is good the story exists. >> it is more than a place to buy groceries. people can borrow and return books, pick up their mail, and send packages.
they can even purchase pre- ordered medication. they enjoy a long tradition in sweden. the general store now boasts a small café. he dreamed of opening one for years. >> i had only had the café fort two years. we are still finding the right balance, but we now have a real kitchen and serve lunch. >> the café has become a meeting place for women in the area. here they can find most everything they need. >> we can even order schnapps and pick it up. >> they are among the few who have managed to keep their stores afloat. most of the small factories or workshops closed their doors long ago. the general stores are usually the last to shut down. this one went out of business
earlier this year. the lochs in the center of town draw tourists in the summer. otherwise, there's not much happening here. in remote sweden, people need to travel long distances to do shopping. it is not unusual to spend one hour driving to a store. he offers a special delivery service. once a week, he makes the rounds. many of his customers are senior citizens like this 91-year-old. >> i have pain in my legs and shoulders and cannot drive a car anymore. it is good he comes to me.
>> over the last decade, one in three of these stores in sweden have closed. now eu money and fiber-optic cable are to transform them into digital service centers. at the shop, customers can do banking or apply for a building permit. she has a summer job here. she doubts it will be enough to keep the young people here. >> many leave the area because there are not any jobs. a few worked over in norway and at least come home on the weekends. >> he is not giving up. next year he plans to open a small bed and breakfast in a scrapped railway car. he is full of ideas. >> if i can convince young people this place is important and worth hanging job and been
truly successful. >> h knows why he goes to all of this trouble. life is beautiful here. >> ♪[singing in native language] ♪ >> croatia has been a member of the eu since july and now benefits of the advantages of single markets. no more border checks and more consumers. but the eu has strict regulations in place when it comes to food and product safety. poor croatian traditional trade partners, that has become a challenge. in bosnia-herzegovina, the official work is hampered by the power struggle between different ethnic groups. bosnia-herzegovina still does not have a joint ministry of agriculture, but that is the only ministry that can control
goods to be exported. >> he and his production supervisor are angry. he is a bosniak who works for the food production business. one of the biggest products is chicken patch i -- pate. it is one of the biggest employers but the new factory is standing idle. the 10 million euro facility was meant to boost exports to neighboring croatia, but since july business has come to a crashing halt. >> every day we are getting customers asking about our products that they cannot get anymore. it was a great product at a great price. >> croatia joined the eu in july. now it is subject to import
regulations, especially on food. europe insists on common controls with all trading partners including croatia. >> it did not prepare everything. he did not prepare papers or the stamp that will guarantee our products are ready for the european community. that is why. >> sarajevo, the bosnian capital. the hom city is home to three different ethnic factions. do they plan to ignore rules that apply to 500 million consumers in the eu and risk damaging business in their own country? we try and find out. the serb is the director of the state veterinary office. he is in charge of stamping exports that meet the eu standards, but he says he cannot. >> of course we should have begun work a few years ago.
but laws in bought siena -- bosnia-herzegovina have to be approved by the serbian and bosnian-croat representatives. all of this complicates the situation. >> it is all about chicken products needing documentation for export to the eu. it is the farmers who are worst- hit. he is a bosniak who breeds poultry to supply the factory. he is frustrated. >> farmers work as hard as we can, but the state institutions do not do their job. >> the farmers feel they are getting a raw deal. he says he recently tried to get state subsidies for his farm. he says he spoke to a party official in the agricultural ministry who spelled out the terms of a written agreement. >> it says you will get your
money if you divert half of the funds to the party. the other half will be years. from that, i would have had to pay 15% to the middleman. >> a clear case of corruption. he rejected the offer and instead build his new chicken breeding facility without state money. in the village, i made -- a neighbor approaches him. >> try some fresh blueberries. six euros for the pale. >> it is possible to live without corruption. we take his claims to the agriculture ministry. the croat denies the whole thing. >> people are accusing me to discredit my work. these allegations have gone nowhere because i have made
everything transparent. >> but what about the export problems? >> we could solve this problem in the day. the cabinet and parliament could pass laws to that effect within a day, but there is no political will to do that. >> then the minister shows us a campaign carried out by his ministry last year. it is for homegrown products like the ones his own companies conveniently sell, especially in the bosnian croat region. these ethnic differences are not as visible in the countryside. there is a serbian flag here. that is important to vladimir. the dairy farmer has a decals and automated milking facilities -- 80 cows and automated milking
facilities. his stalls are half empty and there are export problems just 50 kilometers away. >> it is a problem our politicians do not manage to meet conditions. >> the european union does not force them to do that either. should the eu to the work bosnia's ethnically divided people and politicians cannot so that bosnian farmers can continue to export to new eu member state croatia? it sounds like a far-fetched hope. the bosniak food production manager is not optimistic things will change soon. >> we have fights in politics. we still have two or three sides. people that do not want to live
together. it is difficult to find compromise for a new future. >> a new future free from ethnic and political divisions and detentions they provoke still seems a distant dream in bosnia- herzegovina. >> 500 million years ago, our planet looked different from today. there was no life on land yet. but jellyfish were already around. today there are more jellyfish in our oceans. the mediterranean oceans are seeing a virtual invasion. but the french have found creative solutions to tackle the problem. >> they are breathtaking. there are millions of them. people do not realize how much they could change our world.
the invasion of the jellyfish. some try to lock them out. others say harvesting them for food is the only way to quell their numbers. the marine biologist has been observing jellyfish for years. the biologist from france describes them as an increasing plaguing the world oceans. >> you cannot say jellyfish want to conquer the world because they are basically simple organisms with no free will. but humans have created conditions that have done a great hill to encourage their -- a great deal to encourage their expansion all over the globe. >> that is certainly clear in the mediterranean where swimming is not the carefree pastime is to be.
in the past, the jellyfish used to be cited only every few years. now it is a constant problem. >> i have been stung by one of those jellyfish. it is incredibly painful and leaves small scars. it is like a burn. >> it is worse when the kids get stung. it can ruin the entire holiday. you have to find a drugstore to buy cream and stay off the beach. >> there are so many jellyfish. it is good they have set barriers up. it spoils the view but it is better than getting stung. >> barriers are one response to the stinger. there is a permanent one in the riviera resort of cannes. a yellow hose swimming on the surface carries a net to keep the animals out and the tourists in. cannes spends thousands of euros
every year to set up and maintain the jellyfish barrier. he has observed a continual increase in jellyfish numbers and says humans are to blame for the invasion. the rising numbers are not just due to global warming, claims the marine biologist, but also to overfishing. >> the fewer fish there are in the mediterranean, the more room there is for jellyfish. normally fish eat the small jellyfish. we are systematically removing the jellyfish's natural predators from the sea. then the jellyfish start spreading. off japan, all across the world, because we take too many fish out of the sea. >> the fishing industry could help solve the problem.
his boat looks big, but all he has caught today is a small bucket of fish. a barracuda and a lot of jellyfish, but he always throws them back. >> we are not chinese. they eat stuff like that. we are french. we prefer sausages from strasburg. we have great fish soup. the chinese can have the jellyfish. >> the question is whether that attitude needs to change. instead of jellyfish nets, the world food program rest -- recently recommended specifically hunting the jellyfish. experts say to safeguard the food chain, the invertebrate needs a natural predator. in other words, people need to eat them. >> jellyfish could be an interesting and important source of protein for humans. jellyfish are nutritious.
instead of traveling further to chase fewer fish, it would make more sense to catch jellyfish. >> jellyfish for dinner, anyone? they are served in this chinese restaurant in paris. here it is, fresh from the market. a bit like thick leaves of cabbage. >> it is an everyday food in china. they are cheap, not like lobster. they cost just five to eight euros a kilo. most people can afford that. >> preparation is easy, says the chef. just chop them up. in china, people eat jellyfish with cucumber, ginger, and soy sauce. presented nicely, it is already health-conscious parisian could desire. plenty of protein and little fat. the restaurant sells about 30
chinese style jellyfish salads and a -- a day. >> the salad has a natural fresh taste. the jellyfish does not have much taste itself. it is mostly water. people do not need to worry. even if the word jellyfish does not sound appetizing. >> the reporter can only confirm that. the jellyfish is quite firm and not wobbly, a bit like a thin slice of carrot but with the fantastic taste of the sea. can the jellyfish invasion be halted by eating them? should we take on the role of predators? maybe it is time to reconsider what is washed up on the beaches every day. to view it not as an unappetizing mess, but instead is a fresh and natural food source. >> that report wraps up this edition of "european journal."