Skip to main content

tv   Democracy Now  LINKTV  November 22, 2016 8:00am-10:31am PST

8:00 am
11/22/16 11/22/16 [captioning made possible by democracy now!] juan: : from pacicifica, thisiss dedemocracy now! g generation,past it was a white country designed for ourselveses and our posteri. it is ourr creation.n. it is ouour inheritance, and it belongs to us. juan: as hundreds of white suprememacists celebrate dononad trump's victctory, some e raise their r arms in traditional nazi salute. we'll look at the growing
8:01 am
so proclaimed alt-right movement in the united states. then there is growing resistance to trump's vow to detain and deport millions of people from the united states. mayors from new york to chicago to seattle say they will refuse to cooperate even as trump promises to cut funds from so-called sanctuary cities. meanwhile, the movement is growing for a sanctuary campus.. make e our school is into eric campus. and also protect the financial aiaid and their ability to work. juan: we'll speak with several immigration activists. we will hear from the father of three u.s. children facing deportation. and we'll look at a sweeping new report that reveals ties to slavery and the displacement of the native americans at one of the country's top colleges -- 250-year-old rutgegers universi all that and more, coming up.
8:02 am
welcome to democracy now!,, the war and peace report. i am juan gonzalez, in for amy goodman. amy is on assignment. president-elect donald trump released a youtube video monday outlining how he plans to immediately withdraw from the transpacific partnership, promotote oil and gas extraction in the united states, and roll back r regulations. mr. trtrump: i have asked myy transition team to develop a listst of executive actitions wn take on day one to restore our laws and bring back k our jobs. it is about time. these include the following -- on trade, i'm goining to issueua notification of intent to withdraw from the transpacific partrtnership. insteaead, we will negotiate fa, bilateral trade bibills thatat g jobs and indndustry baback onto
8:03 am
american s shores. on energrgy, i will cancel job killing rerestrictionsns on the production of amamerican energy, includuding shale e energy and n coal, creaeating many y millionf high-paying jobs. that is whatat we want. that i is what we h have beenn waititing for. on r regulatioion, i will l fore a rolole wch says f for every oe nenew regutionon, two old regulations must be eliminated. juan: despite trump's focus on creating more jobs in the united states, an investigation by the "washington post" reveals how trump and the republican-controlled congress are, in fact, drafting up plans to eliminate government jobs and erode worker protections. among a few of the proposed changes that could affect federal workers are hiring freezes, cutting worker benefits and pensions, and eliminating automatic raises to keep pace with inflation. meanwhile, trump's release of the youtube video monday as he -- video came as he met with top
8:04 am
corporate television anchors and executives, including lester holt, charlie rose, george stephanopoulos, wolf blitzer, martha raddatz, and david muir at trumpmp tower. the meeting was off the record, and the anchors and reporters who attended it have refused to comment on it. but leaked details about the meeting suggest trump chastised the journalists for their coverage during the campaign, which he has complained was biased against him. the networks have also been criticized for giving trump an overwhelming amount of free exposure early in the campaign in order to boost ratings. erik wemple of the "washington post" criticized the networks for agreeing to the off the dust agreeing to the terms of the off the record meeting saying -- monday, "they learned nothing over past 18 months of covering trump." trump is slated to meet with editors and reporters at the "new york times" building today. suddddenly, it was canceled in a tweet earlier today. the united nations is warningg nearly 1 million syrians are living under siege, double the number last year. the vast majority, 850,000
8:05 am
people, are being besieged by syrian government forces. on monday, u.n. aid chief stephen o'brien said civilians trapped in besieged eastern aleppo, whwhere the final hospitalals have been destroyedy sysyrian government bombing, are facicing annihilation. this is o'brien. >> i call on all with influence -- that is the phrase and diplomatically required to use -- but you know around this table and beyond who you are, to do their part to end the senseless cycles of violence once and for all. to putan end to the slaughter house that i is aleppo. juan: in j japan, thousands were ininstructed to o evacuate frorm fukushima a monday afteter a 7.4 magnitude earthqhquake triggered fears s of a tsunamimi hitting e area and the fukushima nuclear power plant. the tsunami advisory was lifted early this morning, and officials say the power plant was not damaged by the quake. in 2011, a massive earthquake and tsunami hit the same area,
8:06 am
killing 20,000 people and causing the world's worst nuclear disaster since chernobyl. hundreds of rohingyas have arrived in bangladesh monday after fleeing violence and the destruction of their homes in neighboring myanmar. rohingyas are muslims who have long faced persecution and violence in myanmar, including being denied citizenship. in recent weeks, the myanmar military has killed as many as 100 rohingya civilians, sparking hundreds more to flee into neighboring bangladesh. human rights watch says more than 400 rohingya homes have also been burned. these are two rohingya refugees, speaking after they arrived in bangladesh. >> military killed my husband. set fire to our house, so we did not get any help to save us. we fled overland and have come here. >> as we cannot tolerate their
8:07 am
tortures, we as a group crossed the river by boat at night. 4:00 we entered banangladesh. juan: in minneapolis, 21-year-old activist sophia wilansky is in critical condition and has been undergoing a series of surgeries after reportedly being hit by an concussion grenade during the police attack against water protectors fighting the $3.8 billion dakota access pipeline in north dakota sunday night. sunday's attack at standing rock included police firing rubber bullets, mace canisters, and water cannons in subfreezing temperatures. the standing rock medic and healer council reports as many as 300 people were injured in the attack, with the injuries rangnging from hypothermia to seizures to loss of consciciousness s to impaired vn asas a result of beingng shot a rubber b bullet in t the face. water r protecto sayay aleast 26 people w were evacuauated from e areaea by ambulalances and hospitalized. sophia wilansky was s evacuated
8:08 am
and airlifteted to a m minneapos hospital. after hours of surgery, she posted on facebook early this morning that her arm has not been amputated, but she will not know for another week whether amputation might be required. the morton county sheriff's department is claiming the police are not responsible for her injury. wilansky is from new york city and has organized against the construction of pipelines, including the aim spectra pipeline in new york and across the east coast. a prayerer vigilil is slated for 4:00 em -- 4:00 today outside p.m. the hennepin county medical center in minneapolis. a new investigation by the guardian reveals self-induced abortions may be on the rise in the united states as women struggle to access abortion services amid a wave of anti-abortion restrictions imposed in recent years. since 2008, online searches for information on how to induce one's own abortion nearly doubled across the united
8:09 am
states. another study suggests more than 4% of women in texas -- that's at least 100,000 women -- have tried to self-induce their own abortion. the guardian investigation also draws on emails sent by women in the united states to the dutch organization women on web, which provides abortion drugs in countries where the procedure is banned outright. despite abortion being legal in the u.s., the group received hundreds of emails from women across the country last year alone. one women in missouri wrote that she had gone to the state's only abortion clinic but "the protestors shamed me into going back. i'm not a citizen and its a little scary coz i feel very lonely." many wrote they could not afford an abortion. another woman wrote -- "i cry and pray every night that the lord take this child from me somehow." in news on climate change, scientisists are warning unprecedentedly high temperateses in the ararctic are preventing ice from freezing and may lead to record low levels of
8:10 am
sea ice at the north pole. scientists say the air temperature is a staggering 35 degrees fahrenheit above average. rutgers university research professor jennifer francis said -- "these temperatures are literally off the charts. there is nothing but climate change that can cause these trends." meanwhile, bolivian president evo morales has declared a state of emergency as residents of la paz and other major cities struggle with extreme water shortages amid bolivia's worst drought in a quarter century. on sunday, protesters gathered outside the chinese embassy to protest mining projects they say are exacerbating the water scarcity. scientists say the retreat of bolivian glaciers caused by global warming is also responsible for the lack of water, as 2 million people in the area rely on glacier melt as their water supply. this is bolivian president evo morales.
8:11 am
>> the current supreme decree declares a state of national emergency due to the droughts and water shortage in different regions of the national territory provoked by adverse climate phenomenon. therefore, due to the supreme decree, mayors, governors, and national government have the obligation to mobilize economic resources to meeeet a human rigt -- thahat is water. juan: and in new haven, connecticut, yale college dean jonathan holloway has announced he's leaving yale to become the provost of northwestern university next year. holloway is the first african american dean in yale's history. he was at times at the center of racial justice protests by students on campus last year, with many students of color looking to holloway for leadership and with some
8:12 am
criticizing him for not doing more on racism on the campus. he said he was not leaving yale because of the protests, saying instead -- "even though the protests were profoundly uncomfortable and at times heartbreaking, i'd rather be at a place where the students cared enough to speak up and take action." and those are some of the headlines. this is democracy now!,, the war and peace report. i am juan gonzalez, in for amy goodman. amy is on assignment. we begin today with a look at movement in the united states that calls itself the alt-right. on monday, a video was leaked from an alt-right conference that took place over the weekend in washington, d.c., where hundreds gathered to celebrate donald trump's victory. in the video, alt-right leader richard spencer recites s nazi propaganda in original german, as some attendees raise their arms inn the traditional nazi salute. >> hail trump. hail our people.e.
8:13 am
hail h hail victory. striverr,e is to be a the crusader, and explore and a conqueror. we build, we produce, we go up word. and we recognize central light of american race relations. we do not exploit other groups. fromn't gain anythingng their presence. ththey need uss and not the othr way around. was, untitil this p past generation, a white country designed for ourselves and our posterity. it is our crereation. itit is ourur inheritance. and itit belongs to us. that is alt-right leader richard spencer speakiking over the weekend. when asked by the "new york times" about donald trump, spencer said -- "i do think we have a psychic connection, or you can say a
8:14 am
deeper connection, with donald trump in a way that we simply do not have with most republicans." leaders of the alt-right movement have been emboldened since trump's election, particularly since he named steve bannon to become his chief strategist after first being his cacampaign managerer. bannon is the former head of the right-wing outlet, news outlet, breitbart media. well, for more we are joined by deborah lipstadt, a jewish historian and the dorot professor of holocaust studies at emory university. when asked about bannon's appointment, shehe told politico -- "i find that the most depressing of almost anything i've heard thus far." lipstadt is also the subject of a feature film now in theaters called "denial," which is based on a court case in which she was sued by a leading holocaust denier. welcome to democracy now! professor, can you hear me?
8:15 am
i think we're having a little problem with the connection. we will take a break and come back. ♪ [music break]
8:16 am
juan: this is democracy now!,, the war and peace report. i'm juan gonzalez, in for amy goodman. deborah lipstadt is the dorot professor of holocaust studies at emory university. the film "denial," based on the court case in which she was sued by a leading holocaust denier, is currently in theaters. she joins us now to discuss the growing alt-right movovement. welcome to democracy now!, professor. >> thank you for having me. juan: tell us about your concerns, especially, first, about the appointment of donald
8:17 am
trump of steve bannon as his strategist. >> let m me say at the outset, i do not know steve bannon personally. i know very little of him personally. so i have no idea if his personally racist or any of his personal feelings. but whwhat i do know is that he has facililitated the rise of alt-right -- maybee not the ris, but the entry of alt-right into more of the mainstream through breieitbart news. that, he has a longer record than just that, but i will poioint to one example whih was the fifinal ad that the trup campaign put out and he was either campaign manager or strategist -- he was a top person of the campaign. the final ad with donald trump's voice in the background talkingg ababout globalal interests, takg control of our economy, they
8:18 am
work for people who don't care about you, they have their own interests, he saw four people on the screen -- hillary clinton and george soros, janet yellen and lloyd blankfein. juan: if i can, let's go to that ad. we have a clip of it here so our viewers and listeners can see and hear what you're talking about. this is the ad. >> the establishment has of dollars at stake in this election. for those who control the levers of powower in washington and for those dust the global special interest, they partner with thesese people and don't have yr goodod in mind. the e litical esestablishmhmentt is trying to stop usus is the se group responsible for our disastrorous trade deals.. massive,e, illegalal immigratio, and economic and foreign policies that have bled our country dry.
8:19 am
the political establishment has brought about the destrtructionf our factoriries and ouour jobs they flee to mexico, to c china, and d to other c countries all arouound the world. ththe globalal power structure t is resesponsible f for the ecocc decisions that hahave robbed our working-class, strippeped our coununtry of its well,l, and put of amoney into the pockets handful of large of a handful of large corporations and political entities. one code that was the ad. it was an extended ad. your response to that, professor? we're having problems with her again. in response to the ad, something greenblatt, the ceo of the anti-defamation league tweeted -- "whether intentional or not, the images and rhetoric in this ad touch on subjects that anti-semites have used for ages.
8:20 am
this needs to stop. in the final days before the election, tensions are extremely high. it's a time when all candidates need to be especially responsible and bid for votes by offering sincere ideas and policy proposals, not by conjuring painful stereotypes and baseless conspiracy theories." that was the anti-defamation league. we are again having problems with the connection to emory university. we would like to go to this other clip of howard dean who is running for chair of the democratic national committee, a position he has held previously. he spoke with canada's ctv about donald trump and his picks for senior officials. >> is a complicated guy. he appoints original person that is much more conservative than i -- his senior advisers are a nazi.
8:21 am
>> you're talking about the chairman of the repubublican national p party. now chief of staff. steve, who ran something called breitbart news -- >> is a far right anti-semitic publication. on to ourl him a next segment.
8:22 am
we turn now to a sweeping new report that reveals ties to slavery and the displacement of the native americans at one of the country's top colleges.we tw report that reveals ties to slavery and the displacement of the native americans at one of the country's top colleges. the findings about 250-year-old rutgers university were published in a new book, "scarlet and black, volume 1: slavery and dispossession in rutgers history." it reveals the history of some of the institution's founders, presidents and trustees as slave owners, anti-abolitionists and participants in slave trading. the report, which is the culmination of eight months of research that spanned the mid-18th through mid-19th centuries, also brings out of the shadows those whose slave labor laid the foundation of the university. rutgers new brununswick chancelr richard edwards said of the findings -- afraid to lookok at ourselves ad our early history. we are a large public university that is one of the most diverse in the country and we think we need to understand our history and not be ashamed of it, but to
8:23 am
and not be ashamed of it, but to be able to face it in a forthright way." the project was part of an initiative by edwards and the committee on enslaved d and disenfrancnchised populations in rutgers history, which grew out of a meeting with a group of students concerned about imimproving the racial and cultural climate on campus. rutgers is one of several colleges and universities across the united states now grappling with their historical ties to slavery, including georgetown, yale, and harvard. for more we are joined by marisa for more we are joined by marisa fuentes, associate professor of women's & gender studies and history at rutgers. she is director of research for the team that produced "scarlet and black." welcome to democracy now! >> she is director ofof research fr the team that produced "scarlet and black." welcome to democraracy now! >> thank you so much. juan: tell us firsof a all how this p project originated and wt you attempted to cover in your research. that has not already become public. >> part of yoyour introductction
8:24 am
>> p part of your inintroduction covers that in we as an institution have been celebrating 250
8:25 am
8:26 am
8:27 am
8:28 am
8:29 am
8:30 am
8:31 am
8:32 am
8:33 am
8:34 am
8:35 am
8:36 am
8:37 am
8:38 am
8:39 am
8:40 am
confronted w with the reality of this person. juan: the daday after the recent election, you tweeted "i feel like i'm in complete morning today." can you u talk about thehe resne of the elelection on yourr camp? understand student protest of late? can you talk a about the reactin on c campus of the election?
8:41 am
>> therere's s a large student walkout lalast week,k, wednesda, and the stutudents from all over campus -- rutgers is a spreadout, whether it is differerent campuses in a largee area. students gatathered and a rallyn the marched downtown anand largy shut down the city of new brunswick in the traffic. there are definitely a l large group of students who are very, veryry concernrned about t the , about what a t tmp presidency means to them, to their families , their safafety. we havave actually had some graffiti on campus ththat is targeting undocumented popopulations and populatitionsf , we are going to deportrt you, and really hatefu, hateful graffiti.
8:42 am
so t the students are actually, and rightly so, fearful of their safety and certatain they have gotten, as we have all gotten, the reportrts of the violence against pepeople of color and te muslim population. so i think there''s definitely tension. and i think the students and faculty are calalling for the university to sort of take a stand on this issue him a whether it means having a century campus where undocumeed students can feel safe and protected by the institututn, or really makakinga ststatement a against hatate sph and violencece. juan: professosor, we have to leave it there. associatentes professor of women's & gender studies and history at rutgers university. she is dirirector of research fr the team that produced "scarlet and black, volume 1: slavery and dispossession in rutgers history." her first book is "dispossessed lives: enslaved women, violence and the archive."
8:43 am
thank k you very much for being with us. when we return, we will look at the issue e of century citieiesd sanctuary -- sanctuary cities and sanctuary campuses. ♪ [music break]
8:44 am
juan: como dios manda "as god sends" by la santa cecilia. this is democracy now!,, the war and peace report. i'm juan gonzalez, in for amy goodman. amy is on assignment. we turn now to look at the growing resistance to president-elect donald trump's vow to detain and deport millions of people from the
8:45 am
united states. during the presidential campaign , trump vowed to end sanctuary cities that protect undocumented immigrants. funding forlock century cities. we block the funding. no more. cities end the sanctuary that have resulted in so many needless deaths. cities that refuse to cooperate with federal authorities will not receive taxpayer dollars and we will work with congress to pass legislation to protect assist federal authorities. juan: since his election victory, trump has maintained his promise, telling "60 minutes" he will immediately deport some 3 million people once in office. but mayors from new york to chicago to seattle say they will refuse to cooperate. this comes as a memexican imimmigrant who is the father of three u.s.-born children has
8:46 am
sought sanctuary from deportation in a philadelphia church and called on president obama to stop his deportation and others. the day before he was slated to be deported, javier flores made the choice to go into sanctuary. before then he had been detained for 16 months in the pike county detention center. he says he was charged with reentering the country after he received bad legal advice about how to regularize his residence status. in this video interview shared with democracy now!, flores sits with his five-year-old son junior, who saw him arresteded , during the home raid that sent him to detention, and was recently diagnosed with ptsd. >> this is all very sad. he was recently diagnosed with ptsd by the time i was detained at the pipe county detention center, and my oldest daughter, she had to get therapy for 10 days.
8:47 am
i have threeee u.s. citizen children. i made the decision to go into sanctuary for my children and for my family. juan: meanwhile, students at as many as 100 colleges and universities across the united states held protests last week demanding their schools become sanctuary campuses. trump vowed to immediately deport up to 3 million people. during his campaign, trump also said he'd reverse president obama's executive orders, which include the program daca -- deferred action for childhood arrivals -- which has shielded 750,000 young people from deportation. well, for more, we are joined by three guests. here in new york, denise vivar is a member and former president of the lehman dream team, the first undocumented student club at the city university of new york or cuny. she drafted the petition for one of its campuses, lehman college, to be a sanctuary cacampus. in philadelphia, olivia vazquez a recipient of daca -- deferred action for childhood arrivals --
8:48 am
and a youth organizer at the immigrant rights group juntos. with her is miguel andrade, also with juntos. he is an immigration paralegal who has been working with the philadelphia mayor's office to declare philadelphia a sanctuary city, or 4th amendment city. i want to welcome you all to democracy now! i woululd like to start with miguel andrade. what is it precisely philadelphia promising to do in terms of creating sanctuary city? >> thank you so much for having me. basically, what philadelphia stands for is the fourth of them is that he is our mayor must recently announced, is that a sickly immigration and local law enforcement will no longer be working in conjunction. what was happening before with dust was if someone was undocumented in connection with local law enforcement, they were handing them over to immigration, to ice.
8:49 am
basically what the community worked for and fought for in so many localities around the country was that we wanted to break that tie because we were seeing there was a lot of fear and mistrust from immigrant communities to local law enforcement and people were not coming forward and reporting when they were victims of crime or when they were witnesses to a crime. what sanctuary city is, or a fourth amendment city, basically, a city will not hand over somebody who is undocumented over to immigration unless immigration provides a judicial warrant. we want the federal government to actually go out on the streets and do the work that needs to be done instead of relying a local police officers to do their work for them. juan: what do you expect will be the response of the city as a trump administration begins to attempt to cut off federal funds, as the president-elect has vowed to do? >> that is a good question.
8:50 am
we were in a meeting last night that was held by the office of immigrant affairs here in philadelphia and the city is ready to stand by its immigrant community. we know it is immigrant communities that has made our cities flourish and grow and prosper. it is also about protecting the human rights of our community. it is not just immigrant rights or a legal issue, but a human rights issue. we need to protect our communities and we need to see that everybody is a human being. immigration is not just a legal issue. it is a human issue. juan: : olivia vazquez, you area 750,000ipient, one of young people who have temporary relief as a result of president obama's executive order. president-elect trump has said he will prioritize deportations of people who have been convicted of felonies. that was indeed indicate he is not running to go after the daca young folks. but if he does resend the
8:51 am
executive order, what does that mean for you? >> good morning. thank you for having me. so i think, in my case, like everyone else, it will mean that a lot of us will probably not be able to work. a lot of us support our families . we need drivers license to drive around. but we also know that the community is ready to resist. we know it is going to take time for him to revoke daca and we know our communities will try to fight as hard as we can to keep it. , you havese vivar been leading the movement to create a sanctuary campuses. student protests around the country last week. talk about your petition, what you're trying to do at lehman college in the bronx. >> i started the petition after
8:52 am
president elect trump the kim the nominee -- became the nominee for presidential. many of the students were worried. it was not just they were worried for themselves, but many of them were worried for their parents, worried that the fact that daca, that he vowed to revoke daca, and they did not know what their campuses were going to do for them. it was the uncertainty of not knowing what the future holds. many of them have to plan their lives in two years because that is how much protection daca grant the students. and many are so frustrated and don't know what the future could be about. it made me frustrated and it may be overwhelmed and made me angry that i decided to write a petition to lehman college president so he could proclaim lehman college as a sanctuary wills -- which means ice
8:53 am
not be allowed on campuses. they will not be allowed to conduct raids on students. since we do not know what a donald trump presidency means for daca students, they are in the system, many are afraid that they will use it for mass deportations. we want our campuses to protect us. bit about me a little yourself. are you undocumented yourself and where did you come from originally? i am not undocumented. my family and i migrated to the u.s. when i was seven years old. from mexico. i recently received my green , which is granted to victims of violence. i was undocumented for 14 years. it is just been a year since i received my green card. i don't believe that your visa should be the way people fix
8:54 am
their status is. is the climate among your fellow students, especially those who are undocumented since the election? >> many are worried , especially atcuny where we do not receive financial aid. many of the scholarships apply not only for daca, but there are restrictions like yet to be graduated from high school to qualify for it or you have to be a transfer student from a community college. many were worried that their work permit by not allow them to work. cuny is one of the most affordable public universities in the u.s., without the work permit, means they have to focus on education and now the fear of deportations which really affects their mental health. , i want toandrade
8:55 am
ask you in terms of the dissipation of faith groups in the movement on sanctuary cities in philadelphia -- that is the center of the quakers who have always been involved in the sanctuary movement for years, what has been the participation of the churches and other institutions as well? seenr many years we have faith institutions have been very strategic and very willing to participate and help marginalize people in this country, specifically in immigrant communities. i think it is also -- i heard one of the local pastors say when we were having a meeting maybeot many years ago, 2000 years ago, there was another empire trying to tear apart families. it is people who are driven by faith to keep the family unities together and toroct the human rights of people. we've seen that so many people have been n coming up from faith
8:56 am
communities to support communities and to offer sanctuary, which is what we're seeing here in philadelphia w wh javier flores. juan: i want to go back to javier flores, seeking sanctuary in the arts strtreet united methodist church in philadelphia. -- arch street united methodist church in philadelphia. >> we have overcome so much. we have risk their lives for better future for our children. i think it is worth it to key fighting, to keep moving forward will defeatday we all of the obstacles and be free with our family. juan: miguel andrade, the importance of this particular this first test case of javier what are you hoping to accomplish in support of him? javier comes in a long line of people sort of taking up an act of resistance against the oppression of systemic systems turn part our families. javier has said himself he is
8:57 am
demeaning president obama to end his deportation, to put it moratorium on the other deportations happening to the immigrant communities out here. and dismantle and disassemble the deportation machine that this administration has sort of built and maintained. for many people in the immigrant committed to, president obama will be going down in history as the deporter-in-chief and he needs to address this and know that he is still our president right now, even though we're president-elect trump. obama needs to dismantle the deportation machine before handing it over to somebody who has run a campaign based on summit xenophobia and raracism. juan: olivia vazquez, a daca recipient, a message to fellow daca recipients and other college students as trump assumes the presidency? >> so i think that my message would be that to stand up and
8:58 am
fight back as we chant on the streets. thisnk more than ever election has brought a lot of communities together. we know the immigrant community is not the only one under attack. we know we also have our black brothers and sisters under attack and muslim brothers and sisters were lgbt communities, women are being under attack. so as we say, i think it is time now that all of us unite and stand up and fight back, fight for our rights, fight for our freedom. juan: ok. i want to thank you all, denise vivar, student organizing for things where he campus at cuny, olivia vazquez and miguel andrade in philadelphia with juntos, the group t that is working that sanctuary city and campuses there. that does it for today show. we will be celebrating democracy thiss 20th anniversary
8:59 am
december 5 in new york city. visit for details. democracy now! is looking for feedback from people who appreciate the closed captioning. e-mail your comments to or mail them to democracy now! p.o. box 693 new york, new york 10013. new york, new york 10013. [captioning made possi
9:00 am
man: well, can you see anything? second man: yes, wonderful things.
9:01 am
j. carter brown: for over 3,300 years, the pharaoh tutankhamun has gazed serenely at eternity, confident in his ability to conquer death. everlasting life was his by right of birth. he was pharaoh, king of egypt, the mightiest empire of the ancient world. he was a god. nothing was beyond his means. when tutankhamun sat upon his throne, thousands of years of history and achievement had already preceded him.
9:02 am
surely a nation that could bring itself into being and create wonders like the great pyramids could overcome man's final enemy--death. and overcome death tutankhamun has--at least according to the ancient egyptian funerary beliefs, for the very act of speaking his name provides magic to infuse tutankhamun with everlasting life. names were important to the egyptians. a name symbolized one's personality and even one's very existence. to remember the dead was to make them live again. and so tutankhamun must, for the whole world has known his name ever since that day in november of 1922, when archeologist howard carter and his patron, lord carnarvon, turned a forgotten pharaoh into a legend.
9:03 am
the story of tutankhamun's treasures begins here in the secret valley of the kings in egypt, across the river from the ancient capital of thebes. the valley of the kings is hot and very dry. in the summer, the temperature can go up to 120 degrees. it would be a terrible place to live, but what a marvelous place to keep things for eternity. pharaohs' tombs, equipped with all the necessities for a voyage into eternity, were hidden here. this is hundreds of miles from the great pyramids. the problem with the pyramids was that they were too conspicuous to robbers. in this valley, the idea was that no one would know. this fascination with the afterlife, and the state of mind of the ancient egyptians in general,
9:04 am
can be best understood by learning something about their environment-- which basically means... the river nile. all activity centered on its water and its fertile banks. ( sheep and goats bleating ) the desert, literally a footstep away, was a constant reminder to the egyptians that, without the nile, there would be no life. the nile offered ancient egypt more than just its life-giving water or the transportation lifeline
9:05 am
that unified an empire. it offered the gift of renewal. every year about july, the floodwaters of the nile would gradually rise, carrying fertile silt down from the headwaters until the farmland had been renewed as the floodwaters receded. not surprisingly, the ancient egyptians living with this cycle soon came to equate the regular pattern of the nile and its gift of rebirth with the universe itself. their most important philosophical principles stemmed from that equation. it was the idea of maat-- roughly "rightness" or "order." everything about the egyptian way of life had a pattern, a rhythm, a sense of orderly beginning and end. so too, the egyptians believed, this must be the way of man.
9:06 am
man's end on earth was merely a beginning in the next world. when a pharaoh asked, "how long is life?" he was told, "thou art destined for millions of years, for a lifetime of millions." ( ship's horn blowing ) when howard carter returned to the valley of the kings from england in 1922, it was his last chance to find the elusive tomb of the pharaoh tutankhamun. for six years he had searched, but now his support from his sponsor, lord carnarvon, was almost exhausted. each morning, carter rode into the valley-- as tourists still do--and continued his work undaunted. the search, as always, had to be done slowly and painstakingly by hand, the tons of earth and stone moved by small baskets.
9:07 am
then, five days after the beginning of the season's dig, the work stopped. howard carter recounted the story in his book the tomb of tutankhamun: howard carter: "hardly had i arrived on the work "than i was greeted by the announcement "that a step cut in the rock had been discovered." brown: but what had carter found? just another empty tomb? some unimportant storeroom? howard carter: "with trembling hands, i made a tiny breech "in the upper left-hand corner of the doorway. "as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, "details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist. "surely, never before in the whole history of excavation "had such an amazing sight been seen "as the light of our torch revealed to us: "strange animals, statues, and gold. "everywhere the glint of gold.
9:08 am
"we had seen enough. "we reclosed the hole, mounted our donkeys, "and rode home down the valley, strangely silent and subdued." brown: the discovery of tutankhamun's tomb in 1922 had an instantaneous and shattering effect on the world's imagination that continues to this very day. extraordinary numbers of visitors descended upon the tomb--sometimes to the point where the excavators were unable to function.
9:09 am
egyptian motifs swept through the world of fashion and design. as the whole world thrilled to the find, death and the supernatural seemed to begin to prey upon the excavators. lord carnarvon died first--from the bite of a mere mosquito. as death closed over him in april of 1923, only a few months after the opening of the tomb, the lights of cairo extinguished with him. stranger still, at the same instant in england, his dog gave a terrifying howl and died. then georges benedite, the head of egyptian antiquities
9:10 am
at the louvre museum, died of a stroke after leaving a tomb. still another death occurred-- that of arthur c. mace from the metropolitan museum in new york, who was assisting carter. the bizarre events surrounding the opening of tutankhamun's tomb appear today to have been merely coincidental. the unextinguishable legend of the mummy's curse had begun. who was this king? what was he like? what did he achieve in a life lived 34 centuries ago? we don't know for sure. all we have are images. even with its discovery, the tomb still refuses to yield many of its secrets. we know only that the young boy king, tutankhamun, grew up during one of the most turbulent periods in egypt's long history.
9:11 am
it was a time when the stability of egypt had been wracked by a religious and political revolution that for the first time in history eliminated all gods but one: aten, the sun. the precipitator of the crisis was the pharaoh akhenaten, in whose court tutankhamun was raised. akhenaten was a strong-willed genius who has been called the first true individual in history. rather than portraying himself as the all-conquering pharaoh as egypt's kings had done for 1,700 years before, akhenaten revealed himself in human terms, with his family gathered about him. instead of worshipping the enormous and confusing galaxy of egyptian gods in their human and animal form, akhenaten swept them all aside to make the sun,
9:12 am
with its life-giving rays, the symbol of his universe. the shock of such determined and rapid change to a system that had always been extraordinarily conservative was just too much. egypt shook. while tutankhamun's predecessor was creating a terrifying political and religious situation on the one hand, on the other he was able to infuse egyptian art with a revolutionary human warmth. akhenaten's ideas were strong enough to echo down through the next few kings. tutankhamun's reign, shortly thereafter, was to bear witness
9:13 am
to this great flowering of artistic achievement. while there were many tombs larger than his, filled with vast arrays of objects, it has been argued that no tomb--other than akhenaten's-- would have contained objects of a higher creative quality than tutankhamun's. howard carter had this to say about the art found in tutankhamun's tomb: howard carter: "among the immense quantities of material "in tutankhamun's tomb-- as also exhibited "in the beautiful reliefs of his reign "in the great colonnade of the temple of luxor-- "we find extreme delicacy of style, "together with character of the utmost refinement. "in the case of a painted scene, vase, or statue, "the primary idea of art is obvious. "but in utilitarian objects, art-- "as we know too well today-- is not a necessity.
9:14 am
"here in this tomb, the artistic value "seems to have been always the first consideration. "what are the great qualities of egyptian art? "they are the sense of pure feeling "that creates an element of serene dignity-- "and herein lies its supreme essence-- "and the extraordinary degree of truth, form, and character "portrayed within such absolute simple and minimum line "by which it stands alone." brown: egyptian art was not immune to outside influence. in the shape of a pomegranate, this vase is witness to egypt's absorptive power. for one thing, silver was extremely rare in egypt. but for another, more importantly, pomegranates were not native to egypt at all,
9:15 am
but to western asia. the egyptians adopted foreign designs and styles of workmanship and applied them to their own needs. whatever the sources of egypt's art, the results continue to this day to fascinate travelers and museum visitors around the world. the archaeologists began their search for the pharaoh here. where i'm standing, they found a flight of stone steps leading down to a sealed doorway. in the plaster were the seals of the ancient necropolis officials. inside the doorway they found this sloping passageway filled from top to bottom with stones and rubble. clearing this took time because, mixed in with all the filling, were numerous objects. one of these was the head of tutankhamun as a young child. this rather extraordinary sculpture
9:16 am
has a very specific purpose and meaning. tutankhamun is seen emerging from a blue lotus, just as the sun god did at the moment of the earth's creation. through this recreation, tutankhamun, too, would be able to be reborn as the sun god every day throughout eternity. when a second sealed doorway at the end of the passageway was removed, the archaeologists finally gained entrance to the actual tomb. this first room they called the "antechamber." it was crammed with objects. their minds could barely cope with the profusion. just inside the door, where i'm standing, the archaeologists found a cup abandoned by some rather unsuccessful tomb robbers back in the days of the pharaohs.
9:17 am
the cup is carved from one piece of alabaster and takes the shape of a white lotus. carter called this "the wishing cup," for the chalice carried an inscription that was the essence of the tomb's intention. it says, "may you spend millions of years, you who love thebes, sitting with your face to the north wind, your two eyes beholding happiness." on top of a large couch in the room stood a beautiful storage chest. inside the box was found a leopard's head made of wood covered with gesso and then overlaid with gold. quartz eyes give it a haunting, realistic touch,
9:18 am
and the details are made with colored glass. tutankhamun's throne name, nebkheperure, is emblazoned on the leopard's forehead. the head belonged to a leopard-skin mantle being worn here in the tomb by ay, who took over as chief priest in the burial ceremony known as "the opening of the mouth." ay then took over as pharaoh. gold was used liberally in the tombs of egypt. as a wealthy nation, she could afford the use of the metal, but, more than that, gold was used in the belief that its immutability could be transferred to the deceased. this shrine, also found in the antechamber, is wood covered with a layer of gesso and then overlaid with sheet gold. the scenes on its sides are highly reminiscent of akhenaten's period, with warm family groupings
9:19 am
which convey a sense of true emotion rarely evident in the more stylized art of other periods. between two of the animal-form beds was found a cache of alabaster vases. almost all of them had had their contents of unguents removed by thieves. precious oils must have been extremely valuable in tutankhamun's time, inasmuch as the tomb robbers choose them over many other objects in the tomb. this vase is impressive for its carving, but it is also interesting for its symbolic reference to the unification of egypt. at one time, egypt was two countries: the delta area called lower egypt and the southern region called upper egypt. when the two countries were united in 3100 b.c., the concept of unification became a theme, which continued throughout egypt's long history.
9:20 am
tied together, symbolizing unity, are the lotus of upper egypt and the papyrus of lower egypt. it took the archaeologists seven weeks to clear this antechamber. now they were ready to open a third sealed door in their search for the pharaoh. carter and carnarvon had no idea of what to expect when they broke down the doorway. what they saw was beyond their imagination. it looked like a solid wall of gold before them. as the wall came more into view, they discovered it was, in fact, an enormous golden shrine. this might be what they were looking for. they entered the room, and their hearts sank. there was no seal on the door to the shrine. but then, when the door was opened, their spirits soared. the door to the second shrine was sealed
9:21 am
with a mark of the necropolis officials. they had found their king. the shrine turned out to be not one shrine, but a whole series of shrines, one inside the other. it took carter two years' more work to reach the pharaoh at last.
9:22 am
the strange object belonging to the ritual of mummification was found over in this corner here. nearly six feet tall, it represents a headless animal skin hanging from a pole. as abstract and modern as the emblem may appear, it was in reality probably as old to tutankhamun as he is to us. tutankhamun's body was found covered with jewelry. aesthetically, many of the pieces are rare treasures in and of themselves.
9:23 am
but jewelry had a greater purpose in ancient egypt. bracelets, rings, and necklaces served as amulets to protect and aid both the living and the dead in their journey through this and the next life. next to the burial chamber here was an open doorway
9:24 am
to a room that howard carter came to call "the treasury." and an apt name it was because it contained some of the most extraordinary objects imaginable. the foremost object to catch carter's eye was a great shrine six feet tall surrounded by four beautiful goddesses. these goddesses were protecting the dead king's viscera, which were preserved separately during mummification. extremely elegant in form, the carved-wood figures were first covered with gesso and then gilded. on their head is placed the hieroglyphic symbol representative of each goddess. in this case, we see selket with her symbol and ally, the deadly scorpion. inside the great shrine, protected by selket and the other goddesses, were four small mummiform cases containing the pharaoh's internal organs.
9:25 am
intricately inlaid on the outside with colored glass and carnelian, the inside as well was finished with chased gold designs and inscriptions. another remarkable sculpture from the treasury is the pharaoh tutankhamun harpooning. ordinarily, egyptian sculpture in the round rarely portrays a king or queen in motion. this piece does so with incredible realism-- a style previously believed to have originated only with the coming of the ancient greeks. the treasury was filled with objects both magical and beautiful. there were miniature boats, statues of gods, servants who would come to life to serve the king, and personal articles like mirror cases.
9:26 am
there was even a box in the shape of tutankhamun's name. the oval shape enclosing the king's name was a symbol reserved for royalty. it is actually a loop of rope tied at one end and means that the pharaoh was lord of all the sun encircled. how does one put into perspective a civilization that was most ancient yet extraordinarily sophisticated and able to maintain itself over a span of 3,000 years? french art historian elie faure suggests that ancient egypt, through the solidarity, the unity, and disciplined variety of its artistic products, through the enormous duration and sustained power of its efforts, offers the spectacle of the greatest civilization that has yet appeared on the earth.
9:27 am
who can say? in any case, the artistry that has come down to us speaks for itself.
9:28 am
(narrator) the quest for immortality-- the desire to extend th certainties of life
9:29 am
beyond the grave-- is as old as egypt itself. the pyramids at giza, the wonders of the ancient world, were not just designed as the pharaoh's last resting-place. they were the first stop on a long night's journey to everlasting life. by 1550 bc, power had shifted to a n kingdom 500 miles south in the ancient city of thebes, now called luxor. to the west, in the hills beyond the nile's west bank, the royal tombs of the valley of the kings were cut into limestone cliffs. their interiors are richly decorated with hieroglyphs and paintings-- signs and symbols that detail the necessary steps to attain immortality.
9:30 am
egypt's power and the grandeur that came with it were well-established by 2500 bc when the great pyramids at giza were built. the sphinx was a philosophy of government set in stone. it depicted the king as fearless, cunning and brave as the lion. and as crucial to egypt as the nile itself. the king was not just a political leader but a religious leader too. in the minds of the ancient egyptians, the pharaoh's power and authority as a king stretched far beyond the boundaries of his country-- and into the cosmos itself. after death, he would escape the earthly bounds of his tomb, board a solar boat and sail into immortality. this vision became material in objects and images found in the tombs and temples as a way of pre-ordaining a central idea: after a perilous and carefully prescribed journey
9:31 am
through the night, the king would become one with the sun god re. the king becomes associated with re in particular because of the idea that the sun is born every day out of the womb of the sky, and then comes into the world and goes into the body of the sky at night. and the king in his cycle, in his daily comings and goings, is seen to be like the sun. (narrator) the idea that the pharaoh would be reborn as the sun god re is described in paintings and hieroglyphs in countless royal tombs. it runs like a spine through the theology and philosophy of egypt for more than two thousand years. a clear development begins in the old kingdom
9:32 am
in the third millennium before christ. there, at the time of the pyramids, the beyond was located in the sky-- the celestial beyond was always the royal beyond to wch the king wanted to rise. arrator) e vision of a cestial heaven continueinto the new kingdoera and was depicted in the tomb of ramses the sixth, who died in 1136 bc. but the concept of an afterlife in the netherworld had begun to replace it by the beginning of the new kingdom, around 1550 bc. in the second millennium a change took place. the main focus shifted from the sky to the netherworld because egyptians believed that there, the actual regeneration, the coming back to life took place in the world of osiris. (narrator) osiris, ruler and judge of the dead in the underworld...
9:33 am
a powerful figure in ancient egyptian cosmology... his origins rooted in an ancient legend. through some horrible machinations he was killed and torn asunder and brought back to life as the world's first mummy, and magically brought back through the help of his sister and wife, isis. osiris, because he was brought back from the dead and because he was put back from pieces and made to live again, became the symbol of regeneration and particularly was associated with the dead and with the land of the west, the place where most of the burials are, including the valley of the kings. (narrator) the cosmological landscape of the life after death was rich with deities-- hundreds in number. the falcon-headed horus god of the sky and the embodiment of divi kingship.
9:34 am
hathor, sky goddess,-- protector of the sun at night. the jackal anubis, guardian of the body, its divine embalmer and protector. the versatile isis, goddess of fertility, patroness of magic and healing and queen of the sky. thoth, a lunar god often represented as a baboon... an ibis... or an ibis-headed human... patron of knowledge and writing, and protector of the scribes. great and small, the gods took different forms-- usually human or animal in shape, and often both-- all of them familiar to the ancient egyptians. when we talk about the hundreds of egyptian gods, each and every one of those is a manifestation of something they associate with the notion of deity or god.
9:35 am
for example, the crocodile god, whose name is sobek. the egyptians did not worship crocodiles, they worshipped in this case the force that they associate with the crocodile, who is one of the most fearsome and powerful enemies that they have in their world. so they want to control that particular essence, and they turn it into a deity that they can worship and offer to and then get back what they want from it. (narrator) the nile's fertile banks and the hills just beyond were home to birds and animals that fed the egyptian imagination. they integrated them into their vision of the world that would follow. like the sun, the sun god re was believed to die each night.
9:36 am
he is rejuvenated each day in the form of the scarab beetle. the beetle seemed an apt symbol of rebirth because its eggs were laid in dung, the ultimate form of death and nothingness-- and nonetheless sprang into the preciousness of new life. the egyptians hoped and prayed for certainties-- thatacday the sun wod rise, that each mm e nile would flood, that each winter the crops would ripen. that yearng folirhhmfe evd in cplyste cms and pra. itsenh in the new kin a period of great expansion of egyptian power. the charismatic king thutmose the third aggressively expanded egypt's borders. he pushed north into syria and palestine... and south, tightening control over nubia and securing its gold mines. that gold was a source of wealth
9:37 am
that would fill the coffers and enrich the tombs of the new kinom wld ao finae great blic wks like the festival hall, also known as a temple of millions of years, and embellish the public image of thutmose the third. thutmose the third ruled from 1479-1425 bc, and embodied the strong central authority that characterized the new kingdom. the pharaohs of the new kingdom were just as intent on establishing order and certainty in thefterlife. across the nile from thebes, due west, they found the perfect staging area for their quest for immortality. the west side of the nile is for the egyptians of course where the sun sets. where the journey to the next world starts. to be on the west side is directly related to the fact that the sun's journey is what we're following.
9:38 am
at the end of each day, the sun sets in the west and then travels backwards to the eastern horizon to rise the next morning. (narrator) tucked beneath a peak called el-qurn that may have appealed to them because of its resemblance to a pyramid, the pharaohs of the new kingdom began to construct a cemetery of royal tombs carved into the limestone hillsides. preparations for the tomb began just as soon as the king assumed power, permitting time for the elaborate construction throughout his reign. nearby, a set of smaller tombs began to take shape-- final resting place for nobles whose service to the king was acknowledged by close access to their master for eternity. the tombs of the nobles were less elaborate, but they also displayed a desire to retain their status in the next world... and they were cut just as deeply into the hillsides.
9:39 am
the tomb of sennefer, mayor of thebes, depicts sennefer and his wife united eternally in the afterlife. on the ceilings, arbors heavy with ripening grapes evoke the vineyards of osiris a source of vitality and regeneration in the next world. deir el-medina, a village constructed for artisans who worked in the valley of the kings, contains a scattering of smaller tombs they built for themselves. wall paintings in the tomb of sennedjem, overseer of the artisans, display the piety of sennedjem and his wife, as they worship the gods of the underworld. the sarcophagus of sennedjem's son khonsu attests to that yearning for the continuation of life after death. the surfaces of the sarcophagus are richly covered in hieroglyphs and images,
9:40 am
a detailed account of the pieties and rites necessary for passage to an eternal life. khonsu himself is pictured worshipping two lions, images representing the past and the future. the journey to immortality began with mummification-- an attempt to preserve the bod as an eternal vessel for the soul. these practices continued for centuries. in the mid fifth century bc, the greek historian herodotus detailed the process of embalming. first with a crooked iron tool they draw out the brain through the nostrils... after this they make a cut along the side and take out the whole contents of the belly... then they fill the belly with myrrh, and sew it together again...
9:41 am
they keep it covered up in urade adalts for seventy days. one each for the liver, lungs stomach and intestines. the jars were then placed in a chest. ornamental plaques made of precious metal might be placed over the incision where the vital organs were removed. after embalming, mummies of kings and the upper echelons of egyptian society were elaborately dressed with mummy nets and the upper echelons of anattian society epicted laboborately dressed thdsboardmummy nets as symbols of kingly power. the mummies were often adorned and protected with precious metals-- their fingers and toes sheathed in gold, their faces covered with luminous masks.
9:42 am
(narrator) color carried special significance in ancient egyptian funeral rituals-- the red granite used in this sarcophagus was also associated with the sun... black stone, the color of the fertile soil of the nile valley, carried with it associations of resurrection and rebirth, and often referred to eternal life. fully prepared and adorned, the mummies were then placed in coffins. they were made from precious metals or carved d giedoods. coffs housed the deceased and provided another vessel for their spirit. they were inscribed with images of deities--
9:43 am
another layer of protection to ensure safe passage into the netherworld. the mummy was now prepared for its westward journey across the nile. judging by the scenes of funeral processions in the tomb of the noble ramose, the bereaved dealt with the expression of grief much as we do today... but there was a major difference... egyptians bearing offerings-- food, wine, clothing, furniture-- joined the funeral procession. representations of these provisions weren't just pictures... egyptians believed what they depicted would come into being. i think it's important, when you look at objects from an egyptian tomb, including the decorations on the walls and the mummy itself and even the elements of food and furniture, to remember that all of it was functional.
9:44 am
functional not in the way that we would think about used in daily life. now some of those pieces indeed are elements, items of tomb equipment could indeed be used in daily life and then be reused in the burial. but everything was intended to function magically in the next world. (narrator) the royal tombs were hidden from view. there was generally a series of descending shafts, some richly decorated, followed by an antechamber, and then the burial chamber. the coffins were placed into monumental sarcophagi. these massive containers protected the pharaoh from grave robbers in this life and his enemies in the netherworld. the tombs also included ushebtis-- small lifelike figures that performed work for the deceased, acting as servants in the afterworld. by around 1000 bc,
9:45 am
it was common to find hundreds of these ushebtis-- one for each day of the year and a team of supervisors to oversee their work. boats to carry the king through the netherworld, were also common in royal tombs. funerary texts, guidebooks to the land beyond life, were a long tradition in egypt. the book of the dead was a collection of spells, sometimes inscribed on coffins and sarcophagi, to help the deceased overcome the perils of his journey. the most famous spell centers on the weighing of the deceased's heart, prid over by the jackaleaded ubis. the het bance with the feather of truth, the symbol of maat, goddess of truth, justice and harmony. in a declaration of innocence, the deceased must demonstrate
9:46 am
that he has not sinned in his past life. (reader) i hai have not killed,s. i have not damaged the offerings in the temples, i have not added to the weight of the balance, (narrator) declared worthy of iortality, the deceased could expect to reside in the ideal world after his death. the egyptian had a fixed idea of the landscape. he had his nile valley with its canals and the bordering desert and of course he imagined that in the beyond it would look about the same. but he imagined the possibilities in the beyond to be simply greater. that, for example, all the flaws connected with the body would be smoothed out, that the grains would grow much taller. therefore it would be an improved life, really. imperfections in this life would be healed in the afterlife. (narrator) the excavation of the tombs in the valley of the kings by archaeologists beginning in the early 19th century provided the clearest idea of the new kingdom's addion
9:47 am
to the funerary literature-- a text called the amduat detailing the pharaoh's long nighttime journey into oneness with the sun god re. the amduat-- literally translated it means "that which is in the netherworld"-- is a guidebook to the afterlife. and a secret text primarily reserved for the use of pharaohs. it was reproduced in full on the walls of the tomb of thutmose the third, who died in 1425 bc. the black script written against a lighter background suggests a giant papyrus wrapped around the burial chamber walls. it tells the story of a journey through uncertainty where time and space merge. (dr. betsy bryan) for the egyptians, the notion of trying to turn time, that is, twelve hours of night into space is very complicated, both for them and for us, without any question.
9:48 am
but the way they did it was to identify each hour with a particular region. they would even name the hour as the name of a town in those geographical regions and then describe those geographical regions. so that as you move through your hour you were moving through a particular area associated with it, and then you'd move into the next hour and be in a different geographical region. so it is confusing, but it is how they perceive movement during the nighttime, through space. (narrator) to begin his journey the pharaoh unites with the sun god and boards t solar boat. during t twe nocturnal hours, they sail from dusk to dawn, from death to resurrection. in hour one, the god appears as a ram-headed figure
9:49 am
symbolizing the soul othe sun and as a beetle, a symbol of the hoped-for dawn... he's greeted in the netherworld with jubilatio- deities raise their arms as he brings light into the underworld. the voyage begins in earnest in hours two and three, as the sun god travels across the water of the netherworld, bringing civilization and order to the afterlife. but trouble is on the horizon. in the fourth hour, the water dries up and he finds himself in his sun boat on sand. he's also confronted by a strange-looking zigzag that runs through this fourth hour very much like a descending shaft from a tomb from above. but in any case, it's blocking his way, as is the sand. and so at this point we find that the sun god is challenged
9:50 am
as to how he's going to proceed to move through the hours of the night. (narrator) the sun god overcomes this by turning his boat into a snake. as a snake, you can move across sand. snakes don't need water obviously. so he is able to proceed, by means of slithering as a snake boat. (narrator) the amduat contains images that are also present in the tombs. the protective wedjat eyes allow the pharaoh as sun god to literally keep an eye out for danger. the message, that vigilance is vital to the journey, is reflected in objects of all kinds that are included in the tombs of royals and nobles. in the hours to come, there would be much to keep an eye on. hour five takes the sun god into the very maw of the underworld. the channel is narrowed by the secret cavern of the god sokar. the falcon-headed god clutches the wings
9:51 am
of a multi-headed serpent. together they hold back the hidden chaos that threatens to block the sun god's passage. the sixth and seventh hours are the dark side of the egyptian psyche-- the point where the sobering thought that salvation is a perilous journey is driven home with frightening clarity. these dangers waiting and lurking in the dark for the deceased were pointed out again and again in the amduat. the egyptian tried to shield himself from these dangers in all kinds of ways, mainly with magic words. there is a threat to the sun. the giant snake apophis tries to stop the course of e sun, but happily he doesn't succeed. d so there was hope for everyone. (narrator) ottive goddesses bind, cut, and punish the enemy apophis. now under the control of the sun god, the snake becomes an ally. e most dangerous moment has passed. a growing sense of calm and order isalpablin thehthmoment and hours..
9:52 am
rerrth pearlo in -- all forces seem to protect the pharaoh as the sun god re. the elevth houars tns to the grizzly of the sun god's triumph over his enemies. the falcon-headed re is seen before a row of fire pits in which his enemies are incinerated. goddesses, with terrifying nicknames-- "the one who injures" and "the one who is over her slaughtering block," spew fire and clutch weapons to ensure the total annihilation of the enemies-- a brutal necessity for re's rejuvenation. in the twelfth and final hour of the amduat the journey through primeval darkness ends, as the sun rises in the east and the sun god is reborn. the fully-fledged re emerges as a beetle, flying into the arms of the god shu, who will lift the sun up to daylight.
9:53 am
the dense texture of storytelling created by the combination of images and text makes the amduat a uniquely egyptian phenomenon... together with other funerary texts, mummy wrappings, coffins, sarcophagi, and tombs, the amduat protected the deceased and guided them through the afterworld. the pharaoh's successful navigation of the netherworld resulted in more than his own rebirth as the sun god. by ensuring that the life-giving sun would rise each dawn, the journey promised all egyptians that day would follow night and that life as they knew it would continue.
9:54 am
9:55 am
9:56 am
9:57 am
9:58 am
9:59 am
10:00 am
annenberg media ♪ by: narrador: bienvenidos al episodio 41 de destinos: an introduction to spanish. primero vamos a ver algunas escenas de este episodio. raquel, es mejor que entres sola primero y hables con él. de acuerdo. se va a poner muy feliz. sí, claro. carlos: la verdad es que... gloria juega. ¿quieres decir, por dinero? pero, ¿qué necesidad hay de vender el apartamento? nos criamos en ese apartamento. en este episodio, vamos a aprender un poco
10:01 am
sobre otra gran ciudad de méxico guadalajara: la plaza de los laureles la plaza de la liberación y la plaza tapatía. un empresario de los estados unidos quiere comprar la gavia. nos ha hecho una oferta. ¿dígame? ¿me podría decir cuál es el número de la habitación de la licenciada raquel rodríguez? ¿cómo no? arturo, no está. ¿cómo? don fernando no está. ila habitación está vacía! captioning of this program is made possible by the annenberg/cpb project and the geraldine r. dodge foundation.
10:02 am
en el episodio previo le dejaron a roberto salir del hospital. no ha sufrido más que unas pocas magulladuras. ¿entonces? entonces ya puede dejar esta cama para alguien que la necesita de veras. como querían verse bien para el encuentro con don fernando todos decidieron ir de compras. mientras roberto y los demás se ocupaban de su apariencia física en nueva york pati tenía problemas graves con manuel domínguez el productor del teatro universitario. este es un teatro de y para adultos y no pienso cambiar nada de la obra y voy a seguir ensayando con los actores. manuel quería que pati hiciera unos cambios
10:03 am
porque la obra es muy controvertida pero pati dijo que no. diles a tus patrocinadores que son ellos los que deben pensarlo bien. más tarde... se ha enojado conmigo a causa de esta obra. pati le contaba a su amigo de sus problemas matrimoniales. en méxico, la familia castillo recibió las noticias de que don fernando tendría que ir en seguida a guadalajara para ver al especialista. su papá viajará bien a guadalajara en avión. lo hacemos con frecuencia. ¿y es tan urgente? sí. me tomé la libertad de hacer los arreglos. lo esperan en la clínica de guadalajara esta tarde.
10:04 am
está bien, carlos. ahora puedes explicarme, ¿qué pasa con gloria? hay muchas cosas que platicarte, pedro. ¿te parece si lo hacemos en tu casa? está bien. ( sirena ) raquel, es mejor que entres sola primero y hables con él. de acuerdo. se va a poner muy feliz. sí, claro, pero es mejor que no se emocione demasiado. no te preocupes. bien, aquí es. ay... ipor fin conoceremos al abuelo!
10:05 am
sí. estoy... ¿nerviosa? sí, pero muy contenta. entiendo perfectamente. yo también. raquel: arturo, no está. ¿cómo? don fernando no está. ila habitación está vacía! ¿ven? no está. no hay nadie. lo habrán llevado a hacerle algún examen. vamos a averiguar. sí. ienfermera! ¿mande? disculpe, pero... vinimos a ver al señor fernando castillo y no hay nadie en la habitación. ¿el señor castillo? claro, ya se fue. ¿cómo que se fue? ¿adónde? pues, a guadalajara. ¿a guadalajara? vamos a preguntar en la recepción. vengan. sí.
10:06 am
guadalajara... ciudad de los tapatíos el nombre de los habitantes de esta gran ciudad. situada en el estado de jalisco al oeste del distrito federal guadalajara goza de uno de los mejores climas de las américas. aquí en esta ciudad se encuentran numerosas muestras de la rica tradición cultural de méxico. la catedral... el palacio de gobierno...
10:07 am
el hospicio cabañas... y numerosas plazas: la plaza de los laureles... la plaza de la leración... y la plaza tapatía. ♪ soy pura mexicana ♪ nacida en este suelo ♪ en este hermosa tierra ♪ que es mi nación...
10:08 am
la música de los mariachis nació en guadalajara y en esta ciudad se oye tocar y cantar en cualquier calle o plaza. ♪ iviva méxico! ivívalo! ♪ iviva américa! ivívala! los grupos de mariachis cantan los "corridos" una de las canciones tradicionales mexicanas. los cantan en los lugares públicos y también en cualquier celebración. ♪ soy pura mexicana ♪ y siempre estoy dispuesta... por toda la ciudad se pueden encontrar los mejores murales de josé clemente orozco.
10:09 am
también en guadalajara está el mercado libertad uno de los mercados más grandes del mundo. aquí se vende de todo y como es la costumbre en los mercados mexicanos uno debe regatear con los vendedores para que bajen los precios. ¿y varios de éstos? ¿en cuánto me los dejas? el último precio. veinte mil pesos. ¿un poco más bajo no puedes? está bien. ¿qué precio tienen éstos? veinte y dos mil. ¿en veinte no me los dejarías?
10:10 am
está bien. esta es la universidad de guadalajara. aquí es dónde han mandado a fernando castillo con esperanzas de que el especialista le pueda ayudar. iesta comida está espantosa! mercedes, ¿cuánto tiempo más vamos a estar aquí? papá, ya te dije, regresamos pasado mañana. iquiero conocer a mis nietos! ¿comprendes? claro que comprendo. mira, ahora tienes que ser un buen paciente ayudar a los médicos. y pasado mañana regresamos y podrás conocer a tus nietos. te lo prometo. está bien. pero si pasado mañana me salen con que falta esto o lo otro
10:11 am
iyo mismo tomo el avión de regreso a casa! de acuerdo, papá y no seas tan rezongón, ¿quieres? vaya, señorita, por fin, esta comida es incomible. ¿y qué esperaba ud.? eso es lo que les damos de comer a los pacientes gruñones pero a los que me caen bien les guardo unos tamales para cuando no está la supervisora. ivaya! iesa sí que es una comida decente! bueno, si se porta bien... ¿sabe cuándo vendrá el doctor? no estoy segura. ¿pero sabe que uds. están aquí? ahorita pregunto. muchas gracias. ( gruñe ) ino lo puedo creer! después de tanto trabajo, de tantos problemas
10:12 am
ifinalmente llegamos aquí y se han llevado a don fernando a guadalajara! ¿por qué a guadalajara? angela, en guadalajara hay una escuela de medicina muy moderna. un amigo mío estudió allí. ¿y ahora qué hacemos? iay, angela, me olvidaba! me dijo tu tío jaime que lo llames por lo del apartamento. ¿el apartamento? sí, alguien ha hecho una oferta. ¿una oferta? ¿lo estás vendiendo? sí. ipero creo que habíamos hablado de esto ya! pensé que sería mejor venderlo. he visto otro, muy bonito, cerca de la playa. pero no me consultaste. no pude, no hubo tiempo. iangela, que yo soy tu hermano! ¿y qué si yo no quiero venderlo? tengo tanto derecho como tú. roberto, no creo que esta discusión sea apropiada en este momento.
10:13 am
señor, llamó una señora. es la señora virginia lópez de estrada. ahorita no estoy para llamarla. dejó un número de teléfono. ya le dije, ahorita no estoy para llamarla. ¿desean algo para tomar? sí, ¿cómo no? ¿cervezas? sí, una cervecita. si, señor. ramón: voy a telefonear a raquel y a los otros. hace calor. gracias. gracias. bien... supongo que todos están esperando una explicación. no estaban en el hotel. dejé un mensaje para que no se preocupen. carlos: la verdad es que... gloria juega. pedro: ¿juega?
10:14 am
¿quieres decir, por dinero? carlos: sí, es... como un vicio y... no para. ( teléfono suena ) ¿entonces se ha ido a jugar? debe estar en las vegas. ¿quién llama? es otra vez la señora, lópez de estrada. ¿quién es? una agente de bienes raíces. un empresario de los estados unidos quiere comprar la gavia. nos ha hecho una oferta. ¿comprar la gavia? ¿y desde cuándo está en venta? ila hacienda es lo que más quiere papá! es verdad. pedro: posiblemente fernando dejó algo incluído en su testamento sobre la venta de la gavia.
10:15 am
pero tú eres su abogado. ¿no leíste el testamento? por supuesto que no. le pedí a un colega que lo hiciera. déjenme hablar. yo sé que soy el culpable de estos problemas... y por mi culpa se plantea la necesidad de vender la gavia. pero, ¿qué necesidad hay de vender el apartamento? nos criamos en ese apartamento. está lleno de recuerdos. precisamente. a mí me dan tristeza los recuerdos. ¿quieres decir que no tienes otros motivos? ¿qué otros motivos podría tener? sabes bien a qué me refiero. ipues no, no lo sé! idímelo tú! esto ya lo hablamos hace una semana. angela quiere darle parte del dinero a su novio, jorge. ¿y acaso no es legítimo el motivo de angela? que pienses distinto de tu hermana no quiere decir que ella esté equivocada. ambos tienen el mismo derecho, ¿no es cierto?
10:16 am
miren. todos hemos pasado por momentos difíciles. ahora debemos contentarnos con que estemos sanos y vivos. ¿entienden? esto del apartamento lo pueden discutir más tarde cuando estén más tranquilos. además, no dejen que una sola oferta los tiente. tienes razón, tío. lo siento, roberto. creo que debemos hablar de esto después. de acuerdo. ...y lleva varios años haciendo esto. cada tanto se va a las bahamas, a atlantic city, san juan. no puede evitarlo. creí que... había que protegerla y darle tiempo. empecé a pagar sus deudas. pero sus escapadas cada vez son más frecuentes
10:17 am
y cada vez más costosas: cinco mil dólares en una ocasión diez mil en otra. finalmente, tuve que sacar el dinero de la empresa para poder pagar. creí que podría devolverlo antes de que se descubriera y no pensé... ¿por qué no acudiste a la familia? pues... por verguenza. todos son tan honorables, tan distinguidos. yo haría cualquier cosa por ayudar a gloria, cualquier cosa. y ahora, ¿qué piensas hacer? ¿cómo encontrarás a gloria? ella regresará. siempre regresa después de uno o dos días...
10:18 am
después de que ha perdido todo. o me llamará para que yo vaya a buscarla. les pido que me disculpen. yo sé que en este momento carlos necesita la ayuda de todos pero es muy poco lo que yo puedo hacer. yo tengo mis propios problemas que resolver. necesito salir a nueva york inmediatamente. pero, juan... déjalo, déjalo. no es el momento. bien. sigue contándonos del problema de gloria. itaxi!
10:19 am
raquel: en cuanto lleguemos al hotel, veré si hay noticias. buenas noches. buenas noches. gracias. disculpe... ¿dígame? ¿me podría decir cuál es el número de la habitación de la licenciada raquel rodríguez? ¿cómo no? es la habitación trescientos dieciséis.
10:20 am
perfecto. gracias. señorita rodríguez, hay un mensaje para ud. gracias. es de ramón. aquí explica lo de don fernando. dice que pasado mañana regresará de guadalajara. son sólo unos exámenes como decían en el hospital.
10:21 am
bueno, no hay de qué preocuparse. angela, parecés cansada. ay, lo estoy. no dormí nada en toda la noche. sí. y yo tengo que descansar. buenas noches. hasta luego. ¿y vos? si es una invitación a cenar antes debo subir a mi habitación. bueno, nos encontramos abajo en quince minutos. media hora. bueno. en unos minutos voy a salir con arturo a cenar. me gustaría estar a solas con él... tranquilos sin que nadie nos moleste. hoy, fuimos al hospital para ver a don fernando. yo entré sola. ¿recuerdan por qué? raquel, es mejor que entres sola primero y hables con él.
10:22 am
de acuerdo. se va a poner muy feliz. sí, claro, pero es mejor que no se emocione demasiado. no te preocupes. bien, aquí es. ay... ipor fin conoceremos al abuelo! arturo pensó que sería mejor que yo entrara primero. me pareció una buena idea. así, yo podría hablar con don fernando... prepararlo. todos creíamos que la visita le causaría una gran emoción. bueno, yo entré al cuarto de don fernando pero, ¿qué pasó en ese momento? ¿qué encontré al entrar? don fernando no está. ila habitación está vacía! raquel: cuando entré, vi que don fernando no estaba.
10:23 am
luego, una enfermera nos dijo que lo habían llevado a guadalajara. iqué desilusión! habíamos pasado por tantas cosas para que don fernando se reuniera con angela y roberto y no estaba. bueno, más tarde mientras caminábamos, recordé que angela tenía que hacer algo. tenía que llamar a alguien. ¿a quién tenía que llamar? me dijo tu tío jaime que lo llames, por lo del apartamento. angela tenía que llamar a su tío jaime. jaime había recibido una oferta para vender el apartamento en san juan. ¿cómo reaccionó roberto al oír esto? a roberto no le gustó. más tarde, en el café
10:24 am
angela y roberto siguieron hablando del apartamento. roberto sabía que si vendían el apartamento angela le daría a jorge, su novio, parte del dinero de ella. mientras raquel escuchaba la conversación entre angela y roberto en la casa de pedro carlos le revelaba su secreto a la familia, ¿recuerdan? gloria juega. pedro: ¿juega? ¿quieres decir, por dinero? carlos: sí, es... como un vicio y... no para. carlos les dijo que no sabía dónde estaba gloria pero que creía que regresaría después de uno o dos días.
10:25 am
bueno. ya estoy lista. como les dije tengo muchas ganas de estar a solas con arturo. tenemos mucho de que hablar y quiero pasar una noche tranquila. no quiero más problemas hoy.
10:26 am
captioned by the caption center wgbh educational foundation
10:27 am
annenberg media ♪ by: for information about this and other annenberg media programs call 1-800-learner and visit us at
10:28 am
10:29 am
funding for crossroads cafe was provided in part... by the departments of education of the states of...
10:30 am
california, florida, illinois... and new york. and by the united states department of education... and the united states immigration and naturalization service.


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on