tv Global 3000 LINKTV August 25, 2019 2:30pm-3:01pm PDT
what kind of weed would you likeke? a fairly normal question in ururuguay, where the sale and recreational consumption of marijuana is legal. have you eaten chocolate today? if so, chances are you've consumed cocoa from ghana. it's a crop that provides a livelihood to many farmers. but first we go to turkey, where hundreds of thousands of children are forced to work in the farming sector. every child is entitled to happiness, health, and an
educucation, but that's deniedo many girls andnd boys. instead of going to school, they are forced to work to he support theieir families.. despspite the factct that childd labor is officially banned in almost all countries, images like these are widespread. according to the united nations children's agency unicef, there are 152 million child laborers worldwide. more than 70% of them work in the agricultural sector, as well as in the service sector and industry. nearly all the world's nations have agreed to aim to end all forms of child labor by 2025. 2025. that's just six years from now. reporter: it's 10:00 in the morning in the harran plain, in southeastern turkey. nurula is 11 years old and should be in school, just like most of his nine brothers and sisters. but every year, they miss
several weeks of school because their family needs them to go out and harvest cotton. later in the school year, in may, they'll miss another month of school becacause their help will be needed to harvest apricots. nurula: the work is quite hard. we have to pick cotton for the entire day. it's tough. reporter: nurula's older sister zehra is 16 years old. she tells us she hasn't been to school at all since she was in the fifth grade. zehra: i dreamed of becoming a doctor. it was very important to me. i really wanted to go to school. i'm very sad that i can't
fulfill my dream. i'm sad that because of this cotton i can't go to school. reporter: turkish law actually bans most forms of child labor. children are required to be in school up to the age of at least 15. but here in the harran plain, the authorities have never really clamped down on child labor. nurula and zehra's father muhsin cakirbey sends all his children to work in the fields over the course of the school year. money is tight, and he sees no alternative. muhsin: what other solution is there? if the state would help us out it would be different. but as it is, if we don't all work, we won't get by. reporter: those on very low
incomes can get state help in some cases, but the amount varies and it doesn't necessarily increase with the size of the family. as a result, tens of thousands of families are forced to put their children to work. regional development expert sedat benek has spent years studying the problem. he says many families simply have no choice. he warns muhsin chakirbey that he could be fined for not sending his children to school. muhsin: if we don't all work, how can i provide fofor the children and send them to school at all? how could i buy food for them? where would we get breread? rereporter: benek asasks if he s about the penalty for child labor. muhsin: yes, i know about it, but we have no choice. what else can we do? reporter: the chakirbey family is no exception. one turkish labor union estimates that around two
million children are forced to work on a regular basis just to survive, half a million of them in agriculture. the chakirbey's have no land of their own. they have to give 30% of their income to o the landowner. even once they get home, the children's work is still not done. zehra's father appeaears to hae told her o off for talkikingo s so openly out in the field.. perhaps s he's worrieded becaue was warned he might have to pay a fine. now she tells us she does go to school, but she still has tears in her eyes. sedat: these chihildren don't spend their childhood and adolescence in school where they belong, but out in the fields working. temperatures can rise to 50 degrees celsius. doctors have diagnosed child workers with sunburn and sicknesses contracted from insects out in the field. then there are the psychological
problems because of the heavy workload. and it's not just this generation. the e parents and grandparenenf these children experienced the same thing. reporter: we contacted turkey's governing akp party to ask what is being done to tackle the problem of child labor, but we got no answer. for years, president recep tayyip erdogan has touted turkey's economic upturn, citing wage increases and the building of new roads. and turkey is indeed one of the g20 states. but it has yet to stamp out child labor. host: these images also show forced labor under inhumane conditions. they date back more than a century to colonial africa, an era in which land, resources, and artworks were plundered from much of the continent.
colonial administrators and ethnologists brought huge numbers of african cultural treasures to europe. london's british museum has 200,000 artworks from africa in its collection. the royal museum for central africa near brussels has 180,000 works. and berlin's new humboldt forum will feature 75,000 african art objects. but what should be done with the looted artifacts? reporter: europe's ethnological museum collections are full of objects that werplundered om africa, simply taken or gained througunderhand means. other items were bought or bartered by european explorers. some 80% of afafrica'sistoriril art is thought to be in rope, includg sosomef the most iciconicuseum m eces.. should it be given back?
yes, a lot of it, works tatakn withouout consent. that's t the conclusioion of a grgroundbreakingng stu of eueurs coloal-era a auisitions. the proposalpuput forwd byby french art h historian bénedice savoy y and the senenegalese scr felwine sarr could have far-reachihing consequenences. their report was commissioned by frenench president emmanuel macron. he's's pledged to begn rerepatriatiting stolen artworo africa witithin five yearsr. bénedicte: we realally hope e t macron's a announcncement andr report wonon't just be empmpty s but will have real consequences. felwine: it doesn't only apply to france, but to many european countries. they are also invited to look at their cocolonial past and aboe all l at theirir present relats with africa, which are still shaped by colonialism.m. in my eyes, thisis is absolutey
fufundamental. reporter: france is leading the way. but what about the other former colonial powers? belgium, too, has a problematic legacy. the famous royal museum for central africa, just osiside brbrusse, rececent reopenene after unundergoing an n extene makeovover. was l lonoverdue.. the museum features a magnificent collection of artifacts, but it was long criticized for being an exhibitionon of colonial propopaganda. now it reflects the african point of view and highlights the atrocities of belgium's colonial past. the museum's director-general is not ruling out r returning artitifacts to afrfrica. guido: obviously i agree with president macron when he says that it's not normal that 80% of the african cultural heritage is in europe. so we have to open the debate. i mean, clearly the moral owners of these objects are the african countries themselves and it's their historory, it's their culture, it's their identity, so
we need to ensure access to it. but let's take things step by step and not fall into the trap of saying that all of the 125,000 objects from tervuren should return to congo, i don't think that anybody's asking for it. congo does not have a national museum so far, but it will have one probably that will open at the end of next year. at that moment it's a different situation, so we can discuss. reporter: critics say it's all just delaying tactics. they want to get things movingg now. they argue that for too long it's been the former colonial powers who have dictated what happens, acting as though they were superior ratherer than tatg responsibility for the sins of the past.. the report could also have repercussions s for germany.y. berlin's bode museum i rrenently owing g hilights o o the germanan capital's collectn of african art.
soon the works are set to move to the newly rebuilt berlin ty palaceor humboldt forurum. but here, too, there's growing public debate over the exhits. thhehead of ththe fountion t ta runs berlin's museums believes more research is needed to ascertain which objects were obtained illegally. hermann: do we just want to wawh our hands of it, or do we want to develop a new kind of cooperation? reporter: he has called for new international guidelines for the restitution of artifacts. one thing seems clear -- action is needed. the question is whether france's initiative will prompt europe to now begin to redress some of the injustices of past. host: chchocolate has s becoma global indusustry. many of f us eat it every day. but not many peoe know where chocolatate comes fromom and ur what c conditions ththe cocoa d
to make it is grown. our reporter gerlind vollmer was in ghana, the world's second biggest exporter of cocoa. for our global ideas series, she and her team travelled to bia district, where cocoa farmers have to grapple with a number of problems. reporter: it's with a heavy heart that orlando osmanu is setting to work. he's cutting down cocoa trees in one e part of his plantation. orlando: they have pods that never ripened properly because of the virus. this is no good for harvesting, we can't process it. it's spoiled. reporter: swollen shoot virus is the name of the disease that's affecting his trees. but it's not his only problem. orlando: all this is part of my farm.
i planted plantain, cocoa, and other crops here just like elsewhere on the farm.m. but the timber contractors have cleared everything and they didn't even compensate me. reporter: many timber companies in ghana are involved in illegal deforestation. charles brefo-nimo from the ngo snv is working with the farmers to at least ensusure they dont further exacerbate the problem. charles: we are telling farmers to rehabilitate their farm, doing intensification and stuff like that so that they can really benefit from their own small parts of land and not to move into the forest. but the other aspect of it is what we are saying about big timber companies also trying to degrade the forest and doing this cutting of logs without really replacing them. repoporter: hihis dutch ngo has rented farmland on the edge of the forest. for the past two years they've run a tree nursery here. orlando osmanu was among those
who were given seedlings from the nursery. orlando: let's pass here. reporter: the ngo has given him tips on how to boost the growth of his trees. damp sections of banana trunks for example can help to strengthen the roots. he's also learned how to treat the stumps of the diseased trees that he's chopped down. orlando: i used herbicide to kill off the stump, so that it can't regenerate. otherwise it could infect the new trees that i've planted. you have to use herbicide to kill the entire system. i didn't realilize that t bef. reporter: but it's not been easy for the ngo. at first, many farmers were skeptical about the experts from the city. but that changed as the ngo won some powerful allies. kwasi awuah is a respected and successful cocoa farmer. a few years ago he gave his plantation an overhaul, chopping down the older trees and
planting new ones. even though he's an expert when it comes to cocoa farming, he's not thatat fond of chocolate. he'd rather have a a plate of re to eat. kwasi: the reason why i prefer food, because when you eat it, you work about 8:00 to 1:00, let's say you are strong. but for chocolate it's a one hour, two hours food. reportrter: in the capital acc, this company is trying to change that view. they're hoping to inspire ghanaians with exotic creations like hibiscus s chocolate. kimberley: these small machines are very helpful for us to experiment. and that's how we end up developing a lot of our flavors. it first goes to this process and then we have people who taste our test products. reporter: but the handmade
chocolate produced here is more of a luxury product that will sell mainly in the capital or go straight to export. two sisters set up the company about two years ago. since then, they've faced many challenges, ranging from constant power outages to corrupt officials who madede le difficult for the small company. but they're determined to keep on with their luxury chocolate and not just leave the field to the big multinational food companies. kimberley: it takes a lot of endurance to definitely run a chocolate business here in ghana. and just it represents using our resources at home to actually produce a finished good here. reporter: back to western ghana and orlando osmanu with his family. this year, one kilo of dried cocoa beans will earn him the equivalent of 1 euro 30, but only if the quality is right, as in the case of this pod.
orlando: so many of the pods in my harvest havave been spoile. the gogood ones like this are w and far between. if you look at pods like this one, you think you have a lot, but actually you haven't. reporter: orlando osmanu is in a difficult position. his new trees aren't yetet bearg fruit. and the more established ones are either diseased or no longer producing good cocoa pods in sufficient quantity. but his farm is at least on the road to recovery. once harvested, the beans are left to ferment for week under banana leaves at the plantatati. then they spend another week laid out on stands in the village to dry in the sun. the farmers pack up the beans in 64-kilo sacks and sell them to
companies licensed by the state. everything is regulated centrally, including the amount of money they get for each sack. solomon: for this year there was no change of price, because the world market price was falling. fortunately the government didn't reduce the producer price of cocoa. so that cocoa, the money has been kept at the same rate as of last year. reporter: but the challenge for farmers is to keep up their supply. company workers check the moisture content of the sacks and grade them according to the size and weight of the beans. all the sacks stored here are destined for export, which commands much higher prices. back in orlando osmanu's village, there's bad news. the ngo's project, which has helped the farmers so much, is due to end. the farmers have come together for a meeting at the local church.
charles: welcome you to nsowakrom community. repoporter: they all want the developmenent project c contin. charles: i take your concerns very seriously. i understand that you want the project to be extended for one or two years. i will forward this information to our donors. i hope that something can be done, but unfortunately i can't promise you anything right now. reporter: at least the ngo is promising to contitinue advisig the farmers. host: from cocoa to another popular plant -- marijuana, or hehemp, known byby its latin e cannnnabis. some 200 million p people ououd ththe world consumume it. so m many ask, whyhy not legae itit? afafter all, cannabis s s a log hihistory. it was smoked in china 5000 years ago. in ancient egypt, the pharaohs swore by its medicinal effects.
in the middle ages, the crusaders brought hemp to monastic gardens in europe. from there, it spread to the americas.. in uruguay, the sale of cannabis was illegal, until 2017. reporter: martín colazo does not want us to say exactly where we are. behind this electrified fence is the marijuana plantation he tends with the other members of his cannabis club. growing and consuming recreational cannabis, under strict conditions, has been legal in uruguay since 2017. martín: more and more people here accept cannabis. as consumers, we now have the same rights as everyone else who consumes other drugs, such as alcohol and tobacco.
reporter: the secure store room of his cannabis club contains last year's harvest. more than a 120 kilos, sorted by variety. some mild, some strong. they're for the exclusive use of the 45 members of the club. that's the law. he's going to deliver a batch of the home-grown weed to the club, in the capital montevideo. a laboratory analyzes samples, and the individual packs arere clearly labeled as to o contet and strength. martín: it is a radical change that we can now grow it legally. we used to have to buy cannabis smuggled in from paraguay illegally from dealers. it was extremely unhealthy. the quality was terrible. reporter: a crowd watches a soccer match on screens in the
heart of the city, sippiping me tea and smoking weed. these days it's a common scene in uruguay. the police don't bat an eyelid. consumers who don't grow their own weed, either by themselves or in a club, buy it at a pharmacy. alongside the meds and healthcare products you'd expect to see here, there's waterpipes and cigarette papers and other cannabis paraphernalia. users first have to register with the authorities before they can actually buy marijuana. >> this is my first time buying dope at a pharmacy. i'm going to enjoy it straight away. >> we used to have to go to shady dives to get weed on the black market. it wasn't easy and it was dangerous. reporter: the pharmacists have to do an i.d. check on anyone
who wants to buy cannabis. a thumb scan links to the official database of registered users. they are allowed to buy up to ten grams a week. purchases are recorded. >> they wouldndn't givive me . i mustst have already bought se thisis week, thougugh i cant remember. funny, i must have forgotten. i'm a bit absent-minded. reporter: this is one of the few pharmacies in the countrtry tht have agreed to sell marijuana. sergio: amongst the general public, the legalization of marijuana has been widelyy accepted, even among conservatives. but of course there's been opposition. still, uruguay has stuck to the policy. reporter: it was the first country to legalize pot. and the move hasn't led to mayhem or chaos, though some people still think it's dangerous. >> the dopeheads are totally out of it all the time. they might kill or steal or rape. things are totally out of
control. >> they changed the law, but i don't see what is so good about that. reporter: the national drugs council is a division of the presidential office. its secretary general says opinion polls indicate that when it comes to legalilizing marijuana, more people are in favor than opposed. diego: the decision was absolutely democratic. drug dealing on the black market remains illegal. what is now legal is cannabis consumptption with thehe helpf state-registered producers and users, whom we as a state monitor closely, also with respect to money-laundering. reporter: but the black market in weed and other drugs has not yet been wiped out. martín colazo used to campaign
for legagazation, asas did oths at his cannabis club. for some of them, that led to tensions at home. martín: my parents grew up under the military dictatorship. i grew up in a democracy. but i've s seen over the past 5 years how the conflict between the generations has declined. >> my family were all outraged when cannabis was legalized. i was thrilled, but i didn't tell them. reporter: uruguay led the way in legalizing marijuana.
narratoror: around thehe world, disasters are oththe inease.. in the past 10 yearars, eartuauakes, heawawaves, fods, hurricanes, fires,ndnd volcaes hahave killed ovover a millionon people, affefected anotherer two billion, and caused $4. trillionon in damage.. woman: i just never saw that much water. this street was probably t this high. second woman: the fir w words i said is, "oh, mgogod, everybody'y's dead,d," 'cauausee was nobobody coming ouout. was nobobody coming ouout.