Rolling fatigue tests of 0.45 percent carbon steel rollers were carried out using a four roller type rolling contact fatigue tester. Tangential traction and surface roughness of the harder mating rollers were varied and their effect was studied. The results indicate that the fatigue life decreases when fraction is applied in the same direction as that of rolling. When the direction of fraction is reversed, the life increases over that obtained with zero traction. The roughness of harder mating roller also has a marked influence on life. The smoother the mating roller, the longer the life. Microscopic observation of specimens revealed that the initiation of cracks during the early stages of life is more strongly influenced by the surface roughness, while the propagation of these cracks in the latter stages is affected mainly by the tangential traction.