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Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Near Earth objects (NEOs) are attractive targets for spacecraft missions with the purpose of obtaining greater insight to the nature of the original bodies from which the terrestrial planets formed, without having to visit the Main Belt itself. Greater knowledge of NEOs directly sheds light on the origin and evolution of the asteroid belt, the formation of planets, and the history of the solar system. This report describes a search for NEOs that would be accessible for missions launching in...
Topics: Asteroids, NASA, Decadal, Trajectory Opportunities, Survey, Near Earth Asteroids, NEOs
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Steven A. Hauck, II, Douglas A. Eng and George J. Tahu
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The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a landed mission to Mercury. It was conducted by the JHU/APL Space Department in partnership with Marshall Space Flight Center, Glen Research Center, and Steven Hauck from Case Western Reserve University. This was conducted as a concept maturity level (CML) 3 study focusing on feasibility trades and options for concepts with a goal of determining whether such a mission could be accomplished within a Principal Investigator (PI)-led...
Topics: Mercury, Concept Study, NASA, Lander, Mission, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by John Spencer
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Titan is a high priority for exploration, as recommended by NASA's 2006 Solar System Exploration (SSE) Roadmap (NASA 2006), NASA's 2003 National Research Council (NRC) Decadal Survey (NRC Space Studies Board 2003) and ESA's Cosmic Vision Program Themes. Recent revolutionary Cassini-Huygens discoveries have dramatically escalated interest in Titan as the next scientific target in the outer solar system. This study demonstrates that an exciting Titan Saturn System Mission (TSSM) that explores two...
Topics: Titan, Saturn, Titan Saturn System Mission, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The Enceladus Orbiter (EO) mission would explore Saturn's moon Enceladus, investigating the following in order of priority: -The nature of Enceladus's cryovolcanic activity -The internal structure and chemistry of Enceladus -The geology of Enceladus -The interaction of Enceladus with the Saturn system -The surfaces and interiors of Saturn's moons Rhea, Dione and Tethys -Preparation for potential future landing on Enceladus
Topics: Enceladus, NASA, MIssion Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The National Academy of Science's Decadal Survey (New Frontiers in the Solar System: An Integrated Exploration Strategy, 2003) recommended that NASA develop a medium-class mission to return a comet surface sample to Earth for laboratory analysis. NASA tasked the Applied Physics Laboratory to refine the concepts described in the Decadal Survey. As stated in the task guidelines: The study results will include a pre-phase A fidelity plan to implement the mission concept, evaluating the cost,...
Topics: Comets, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The Moon's regolith contains vast resources of helium-3 an ideal fuel for terrestrial fusion power systems. Development of plans for private sector investment in obtaining helium-3 and its by-products requires detailed definition of that isotope's selenographic distribution.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Elizabeth Turtle
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The Jovian moon Io is likely the most geologically active body in the solar system, offering insight into tidal heating, volcanic processes, and other phenomena. However, its location within Jupiter's radiation belt presents significant engineering challenges that must be addressed to enable future missions to Io. Under the direction of NASA, and with direct guidance from the National Research Council's (NRC's) Satellites Panel, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL's) Advanced Project Design...
Topics: Io, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Marc Buie, Joe Veverka
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The National Research Council's Planetary Science Decadal Survey: Primitive Bodies Panel has commissioned NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) with a rapid architecture study conducted under NASA Headquarters leadership. The purpose of the study is to determine whether a mission to orbit the Centaur Object Chiron can be achieved within a New Frontiers cost range with a limited supply of Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generators (ASRGs). Guidelines include a launch between 2015 and 2025, a...
Topics: Chiron, Orbiter, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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This paper discusses the capability of currently available TPS and the availability of heritage carbon phenolic used on the Pioneer-Venus probes. A prime conclusion is that there are important issues regarding the availability of the TPS required for future Venus entry probes.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Dr. Martha S. Gilmore, Dr. Lori S. Glaze. Charles L. Baker, and George J. Tahu
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The National Research Council's 2010 Planetary Decadal Survey Inner Planets Panel commissioned the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Architecture Design Lab (ADL) to do an enhanced rapid mission architecture study, conducted under NASA Headquarters leadership. The charge was to conceive a Venus mission architecture capable of safe landing in one of the mountainous tessera regions of the planet on a budget comparable to New Frontiers. Using the ADL's five step process (see Appendix), the...
Topics: Venus, Venus Intrepid Tessera Lander, VITaL, NASA, Mission, Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Georgiana Young Kramer
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The lunar swirls are high albedo curvilinear surface features coincident with regions of strong remanent magnetism. Investigating the lunar swirls is important to understand the Earth-Moon system the interaction of planetary surfaces with the solar wind and how to best explore our solar system.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a Lunar Geophysical Network (LGN) mission to the Moon. It was conducted by Marshall Space Flight Center's, Robotic Lunar Lander Development Project team in partnership with the Johns Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL). This study was documented based on previous trades, analysis and options for concepts developed by the team over the last 18 months, with a goal of determining whether such a mission could be...
Topics: Lunar Geophysical Network, (LGN), NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal, Lunar, Moon
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The purpose of this study was to define a preferred concept approach along with the risk/cost trade space for a Uranus or Neptune Mission launched in the 2020-2023 time frame and within a cost range of $1.5B-$1.9B in FY15$. The study was conducted by a team led by William Hubbard with members of both the Giant Planets and Satellites Panels working with the JHU/APL Space Department as the design center. NASA Glenn Research Center's COMPASS team made significant contributions as part of the...
Topics: Uranus, Neptune, Moons, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Funding for astrodynamics research has been largely limited to the development and operations phases of missions. Early funding for astrodynamics research would produce new techniques prior to formulation of missions, which could lead to novel and exciting concepts.
Near-infrared imaging spectrometers capable of mapping hydrous minerals on the surface of Mars at meter-scales from orbit as well as hypespectral NIR imagers on landed rovers not only enhance the scientific return of orbital and rover missions but will be critical in guiding future rover operation
Paper describes how a single launch Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission could potentially be enabled by using of Electric Propulsion with Hall Thrusters: a well established, off-the-shelf technology commonly used on communications satellites today.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Martian soil is a microcosm of the mineralogical history of the planet, and it exerts a primary influence on atmospheric, geological, and periglacial properties. We propose an increased emphasis on microanalysis in future Mars surface exploration.
This paper identifies the top-level science issues mission priorities research and technology needs and programmatic balance for the exploration of Comets. This paper was organized by the Small Bodies Assessment Group.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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EM methods can sense subsurface structure from meters to a thousand kilometers. This white paper gives a tutorial on material sensitivities, exploration depths, sources, and particularly what measurements must be made for different target bodies, without specific mission endorsements.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The purpose of this White Paper is to highlight areas of knowledge of our Solar System that will be important in interpreting future observations of exoplanets especially giant exoplanets and also how the diversity of exoplanets can inform our understanding of the Solar System.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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At the request of the Satellites Panel of the Planetary Science Decadal Survey, a Rapid Mission Architecture (RMA) study of possible missions to Saturn's moon Enceladus was conducted at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in January and February of 2010. Fifteen mission architectures were examined that spanned a broad range of potential science return and total estimated mission cost. This report documents the findings of that study.
Topics: Enceladus, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
This paper discusses the opportunity to search for and exploit lava tubes on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars as a means of enabling ambitious planetary science missions. [FINAL VERSION]
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The Mars Sample Return (MSR) concept is a campaign of three missions: a sample acquisition/caching rover mission, a lander mission to fetch the cache and deliver it to Mars orbit via a rocket, and an orbiter mission that would capture the orbiting sample (OS) container and deliver it to Earth via an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV). A fourth component is the Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH) element that would include a sample receiving facility (SRF) and a curation facility. These elements are...
Topics: Mars, NASA, Sample Return, Mission Concept Study, Decadal, Lander
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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This whitepaper describes how the next generation of lunar laser ranging addresses four key gravitational science questions. In addition we discuss the current state of retroreflector technology and describe ways in which further advances can be made in laser ranging technologies.
This revised white paper lists our recommendations for mission concepts and instruments to accomplish the science objectives for future exploration of Jupiter's moon Io for the decade of 2013-2022 and beyond. (Final version with additional coauthors).
Topics: Io, NASA, Decadal
The purpose of this white paper is to urge consideration of a groundbreaking sample return from Mars from a previously well characterized site that requires a simple mission architecture to minimize cost and engineering risk while gaining substantial scientific return.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Wendy Calvin
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Architectural survey study sessions were conducted to explore the degree to which science objectives, related to the study of the Martian climate via the record preserved in the polar-layered deposits, could be pursued by small (Discovery-class) to moderate (New Frontier's class) missions.
Topics: Mars, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal, Polar Climate
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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This study found it might be possible to implement a Saturn probe mission in which a flyby carrier-relay spacecraft (CRSC) would deliver a single probe within the resource constraints of NASA's New Frontiers Program. Achievement of this goal would require a small and focused set of science objectives. The mission's science objectives, specified by the study science team, are divided into two groups: "Tier 1," essentially the science floor objectives that must be addressed to make the...
Topics: Saturn, Atmosphere, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by J. Hunter Waite
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This study focused on an in-situ examination of a hydrocarbon lake on the Saturnian moon Titan -- a target that presents unique scientific opportunities as well as several unique engineering challenges (e.g., submersion systems and cryogenic sampling) to enable those measurements. Per direction from the National Research Council (NRC) 2012SS Planetary Decadal Survey Satellites Panel, and after an initial trade-space examination, study architectures focused on three possible New Frontiers' class...
Topics: Titan, Lake, Probe, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Dr. Lindy Elkins-Tanton
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The science objectives of the Mars Geophysical Network (MGN) mission study were divided into two categories: primary (the science floor that would need to be addressed to justify the mission) and secondary (additional goals that prospective principal investigators would reasonably add, given sufficient resources). By request from the Planetary Science Decadal Survey Mars Panel, this study addressed only the primary objective -- to characterize the internal structure of Mars to better understand...
Topics: Mars, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Mars has been an extremely compelling exploration target. The Decadal Survey is re-evaluating the priority of different sectors of the planetary exploration program. Based on the data collected since 2002, our conclusion is that the exploration of Mars is even more compelling now than it was then.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Numerous studies agree that Titan is of outstanding scientific interest and Montgolfiere balloons ideal for its exploration. This paper examines balloon operations weather and steering. It suggests novel concepts that may encourage radical thinking about Titan balloon designs.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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In this white paper I argue that Titan provides a strict test for the Copernican hypothesis that life is a ubiquitous cosmic phenomenon. Planets with environments like Titan may be common in the cosmos as they correspond to a roughly 1 AU orbit around M-dwarfs.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) is guided by the overarching theme: the emergence of habitable worlds around gas giants with goals to determine whether the Jupiter System harbors habitable worlds and to characterize the processes within the Jupiter system.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of a mission to investigate the possibility of volatiles in permanently shadowed areas of the lunar poles -- the Lunar Polar Volatiles Explorer (LPVE). The overall science goals and objectives were provided as guidelines by the Decadal Survey Inner Planets Panel, with the goal of determining whether such a mission could be accomplished within a Principal Investigator (PI)-led mission cost cap (i.e., New Frontiers). This study was...
Topics: Moon, Lunar, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Volatiles, Polar
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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It is the purpose of this White Paper to draw attention to and summarize the important role that planetary exploration and research with a comparative planetology focus have played and should continue to play in our understanding of climate and climate change on Earth.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The Mars Sample Return (MSR) concept is a campaign of three missions: a sample acquisition/caching rover mission, a lander mission to fetch the cache and deliver it to Mars orbit via a rocket, and an orbiter that would capture the orbiting sample (OS) container and deliver it to Earth via an Earth entry vehicle (EEV). A fourth component is the Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH) element that would include a sample receiving facility (SRF) and a curation facility. These elements are represented...
Topics: Mars, NASA, Sample Return, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The Trojan asteroids of Jupiter lie at the crux of several of the most interesting outstanding issues regarding the formation and evolution of the Solar System. We present science questions centering on the Trojans are lay out recommendations for their future study and exploration.
This report documents the results of a study commissioned by the 2012 Decadal Report Primitive Bodies Panel to provide inputs to six key technological issues that need to be addressed to facilitate a Cryogenic Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) mission and that will likely not be solved by other primitive bodies missions.
Topics: Comets, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
This paper demonstrates the need to support laboratory investigations related to the surface composition of planetary bodies
This paper discusses the declining state of laboratory studies that are essential to support and enable remote sensing of planetary bodies. Five recommendations are given to improve this situation.
Whipple is a Discovery class mission to explore the outer Solar System. A small telescope will compile lightcurves of ~40,000 stars sampled at 40 Hz. Small bodies from the Kuiper Belt to the Oort Cloud will occult targeted stars, revealing their distances, sizes, and abundances.
We propose an integrated strategy to implement missions of high scientific priority, as recommended by the last decadal survey, while still responding to new discoveries. The proposed step-by-step approach to sample return would provide a credible path and conduct important in situ science.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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This paper describes the science rationale for the next steps beyond Cassini-Huygens of exploration of Saturn's moon Titan.
Deep space reconnaissance and sample return missions will require a range of technology developments for maximum science return. These technologies include propulsion; telecommunication; remote sensing; guidance navigation and control; sampling; onboard processors; and autonomy.
Argo an innovative concept for a New Frontiers 4 mission will yield significant advances in our understanding of evolutionary processes of rings and small bodies in the outer Solar System by executing a flyby through the Neptune system then going on to a scientifically-selected KBO.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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A precis of planetary protection policy concerns their history and the role of the SSB and NASA internal advisory activities in ensuring progress and appropriate implementation of the policy.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The Moon is an extreme type of atmosphere - a surface bounded exosphere - and may represent the final ‘ground state’ of any geologically dormant body. Neutral gas and dust are emitted from its surface via universal processes believed to be occurring at all near-airless bodies.
We present recent findings about Ceres stressing its unique nature. Outstanding remaining science questions are discussed along with recommendations for the next steps in Ceres research in the Dawn and post-Dawn era.
Argo is an innovative pragmatic concept for a New Frontiers 4 mission which exploits an upcoming launch window that permits a close Triton encounter during a flyby through the Neptune system and then continues on to a scientifically-selected Kuiper Belt Object.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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We advocate the placement of a geophysical network on Mars to investigate the deep interior using seismic, heat flow, precision tracking and electromagnetic sounding measurements. These stations should also support meteorological atmospheric boundary layer experiments.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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This white paper makes the case that sample return from selected locations on the Moon in the coming decade will provide extraordinary advances in lunar and Solar System science.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Thomas Ruedas, Nick Schmerr, and Natalia Gómez Pérez
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This paper explains the importance of investigating the deep interior of Mars by seismological methods. Seismometers on Mars can bring insights to questions concerning planetary structure, tectonics, mantle and core dynamics, dynamo and mantle chemistry. The technical feasibility is assessed.
This paper summarizes the long term Lunar Exploration Roadmap that has been developed by the lunar community and coordinated by the Lunar Exploration Analysis Group.
We propose that the needs of planetary science for event-detection and time-critical observations could be well-served by a global network of low-cost remote-controlled (or autonomous) telescopes optimized for high-resolution visible light imaging of solar system targets.
This white paper describes the planetary science objectives to be achieved by ARTEMIS, a two-spacecraft constellation en route to the Moon and presents recommendations pertaining to future lunar science. ARTEMIS will be captured into lunar orbit in April 2011.
Topics: Moon, ARTEMIS, NASA, Decadal
Understanding processes that have occurred on the Moon provide a framework for understanding the origin and evolution of the other terrestrial planets. The SCEM science goals and priorities remain fundamentally relevant to our understanding of the solar system and central to its exploration.
We describe 7 areas where greater attention should be paid to data returned from planetary missions, beyond minimum “mission success”. The alternative is duplication of efforts and greater chances for errors, thereby diminishing the cost return and scientific potential provided by planetary data.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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We outline atmospheric science goals and requirements for Jupiter in the next decade exploration (Juno, EJSM, Observatories, probes) in 5 themes: formation and evolution, weather-layer dynamics, coupling with the interior, interactions with the external environment and time-variable phenomena.
Mars' two moons Phobos and Deimos are D-type small bodies that may be remnants of the population that delivered volatiles to the inner solar system. A Discovery class mission can address key science questions at the moons and prepare for future human exploration.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Krishan Khurana
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As part of NASA's support to the National Research Council (NRC) and its current Planetary Decadal Survey, JPL was assigned the task of developing a mission and flight system architecture suitable to perform a scientifically viable Ganymede Orbiter (GO) mission responsive to science traceability matrix (STM) requirements formulated by NASA's science panel. This report documents the results of that study. The results support the following conclusions: -The Ganymede Orbiter mission would offer a...
Topics: Ganymede, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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This white paper describes the scientific goals objectives instruments and mission architecture and design for a Flagship class mission to Venus.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Neptune and its captured moon Triton are unexplored with modern spacecraft instrumentation. Observations of these objects are urgently needed to address planet formation and the evolution of ice giant planets, icy satellites, Kuiper Belt Objects, and the solar system itself.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Astrobiology provides a lens through which all of planetary science and solar system exploration, as well as life on Earth, can be viewed. Astrobiology, like planetary science, is a systems-level science. In planetary science, one must understand connections be
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Analysis of samples returned from unexplored areas of lunar volcanism such as the Gruithuisen Domes will (1) increase our knowledge of the history of the Earth-Moon system, (2) advance theories of lunar magmatic evolution and (3) provide valuable points of comparison with other terrestrial planets.
Many of the questions remaining to be addressed after the Cassini-Huygens mission require both remote and in situ exploration. Our understanding of the lower atmosphere, surface and interior of Titan will benefit greatly from detailed investigations by a montgolfiere, reaching a variety of locations
Topics: Titan, In Situ, NASA, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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(Taken directly from Jupiter Europa Orbiter Mission Study 2008: Final Report [1], Section 1.) Some 400 years ago, discovery of the four large moons of Jupiter by Galileo Galilei changed our view of the universe forever. Today Jupiter is the archetype for the giant planets of our solar system, and for the numerous giant planets now known to orbit other stars, and Jupiter's diverse Galilean satellites -- three of which are believed to harbor internal oceans -- are central to understanding the...
Topics: Jupiter, Europa, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
The determination of Saturn’s atmospheric noble gas abundances are critical to understanding the formation and evolution of Saturn and giant planets in general. These measurements can only be performed with an entry probe.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The purpose of the Mars 2018 Sky Crane Capabilities Study was to "explore the full range of science capabilities that could be delivered to the surface of Mars in 2018 by an MSL-derived Sky Crane EDL system" [1]. NASA commissioned the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) to perform this study. The Planetary Science Decadal Survey Mars Panel was particularly interested in the following science pathways: a surface field geology/astrobiology pathway, a subsurface geology/astrobiology pathway...
Topics: Mars, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal, Sky Crane
The Outer Planet Assessment Group (OPAG) recommends the DS support the JEO and EJSM flagship endorse the Cassini Solstice Mission support technology to enable a major mission to Titan/Enceladus examine small flagship missions and assess the feasibilty of a defined set of NF candidates.
This paper describes the scientific goals and implementation design of the Comet Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CCRSR) mission one of the concept study missions funded by the recent NASA DSCME Program.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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Study of primitive asteroids is fundamental to understanding the origin, distribution, and evolution of volatile and organic compounds in the early Solar System. This paper outlines six major research focus areas and recommends three mission concepts, which are listed in priority order.
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Mike Brown
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The purpose of this study was to define a preferred concept approach along with the risk/cost trade space for a Trojan Tour Mission launched in the 2019-2023 time frame and targeted to be within the New Frontiers mission class envelope of less than $900M in FY15 dollars. The study was conducted by a team led by Mike Brown with members of the Primitive Bodies Panel working with the JHU/APL Space Department as the design center. NASA Glenn Research Center's COMPASS team made significant...
Topics: Trojan Tour, Asteroids, NASA, Mission Concept Study, Decadal
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
by Michael L. Adams, Lori S. Glaze, Michael J. Amato, Charles L. Baker, and Gabriel Karpati
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NASA Headquarters commissioned the Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Architecture Design Lab with a rapid mission architecture study to support the National Research Council's 2010 Planetary Decadal Survey Inner Planets Panel. The purpose of the study was to determine whether a Venus mission with surface, or near surface, mobility and realistic operational lifetime could achieve meaningful surface science at two or more independent locations separated by several kilometers on a budget...
Topics: Venus Mobile Explorer, Venus, Concept, Mission Study, Decadal, NASA
Planetary Science Decadal Survey
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The Mars Sample Return (MSR) concept is a campaign of three missions: a sample acquisition/caching rover mission, a lander mission to fetch the cache and deliver it to Mars orbit via a rocket, and an orbiter mission that would capture the orbiting sample (OS) container and deliver it to Earth via an Earth Entry Vehicle (EEV). A fourth component is the Mars Returned Sample Handling (MRSH) element that would include a sample receiving facility (SRF) and a curation facility. These elements are...
Topics: Mars, NASA, Sample Return, Mission Concept Study, Decadal, Lander