tv Sophie Co. Visionaries RT December 11, 2020 10:30pm-11:01pm EST
we are discussing a new school of economics alium economics this israeli brought about by negative interest rates means contact with the galactic federation. imagine picking up a future textbook on the early years of the 21st century what are the chapters schools gun violence school shootings. first it was my job it was my bill it was going to save lives i have nothing i have nothing to lose now i go to alou for resources i look for drugs i look for everything i can to make this
. a law in the doing it's. the road to the american dream paved with did refuse to use this very idealized image. makes americans look possed the deaths that happen every single day this is a history of the usa and america. hello welcome to visionaries me selfish ever not sent more than 5 years ago humanity managed to glimpse into the farthest corner of our solar system pluto and the cooper about i asked dr allen implanter a scientist astronaut and had a pluto mission what wonderful discoveries still lie ahead of us.
dr alan stern planetary scientist astronaut had of nasa has played a mission great to have you with us today alan thanks it's just great to be here so you have been the principal investigator of nasa as mission to pluto and the most widespread conception of pluto in the eyes of the public is the ball of ice floating out there in the dark so can you call it scientific wonderland what makes it so special. well it really is a scientific wonder and we really had a pretty good idea of that from studies from the earth. new horizons the nasa mission that explored pluto for the 1st time in 2015 discovered was far beyond their expectations. which is a planet with 5 moods and atmosphere highly active geology and evidence for water ocean in its interior it could even. be of those 4 biology
is just far beyond our wildest imaginations and i think you know that easily well of on this is a scientific. so if i were to set my foot on pluto what would i say there. well it depends on where you go because just like the earth pluto is a very diverse planet with mountain ranges. and great sugar and other kinds of geology so depending upon where you go you would see different strains but one thing you would see everywhere is something that new horizons discovered which is that the atmosphere just blue in color it would look like a version of our sky actually has dozens of these layers stacked up all the way to orbital altitude and that's something unlike anything we had seen anywhere else in the soaps. what's in the new horizons fly by mission has
discovered water rise some pluto and its moon charon can this point out at the possibility of some sort of some form of life in a icy corner of our solar system. and well there on the water is an important ingredient for all biology. on the surface of the earth but you know the ice on pluto water ice and the other ice on pluto are extremely cold temperatures this pluto is 30 times farther away from the sun the sun way to 7000 times weaker when the temperatures are almost absolute 0. the biologists will tell you that they don't know how to make biology that can operate at those temperatures but as i was saying a moment ago deep inside pluto is interior beneath the crust and as the temperatures get warmer and warmer as you go down towards greater greater depths that water ice will flies in becomes room temperature or at least liquid.
water and it's a global ocean in there it's a shallow if you will all around the planet from what we can tell the need across the water and that. got her attention from an asteroid on top of standpoint then later one of the scientists on her team dr dale. discovered through compositional spectroscopy basically gemma consider pretty done by new horizons that there are places on the surface where water pure silver erupted and slid down to the surface interestingly now water is the least with organic compounds so the story gets more interesting should you do recent discoveries on pluto actually give us any hint on how life started here on earth. they don't
but it could be that it was a future missions back to. with the orbiter and midlanders even some baby submersibles that go into an ocean we could learn about the origin biology or where biology was stopped for some reason when pluto eliminate her existing and. how these processes took place long ago on our own. so you and your colleagues call pluto after ns and clue actually of how our solar system is formed if you could sum it up for our viewers who aren't like necessarily astronauts or into astrophysics what exactly does it tell us. well you know in the clipper bill which it orbits of us going into the solar systems free thought by. well i didn't of the fact that it's so far away or to just so. therefore from the sun.
the chemical properties and physical properties of these bodies are very well preserved and that's what makes it so fascinating it's kind of in there only has to do with archaeological dig in the history of horses and this is why army national academy of sciences here in the united states plays such a high priority on going out to the point pre-built and making this 1st their story should that our team in new horizons did. so it's a fly by the only realistic way to explore pluto dowie days will it ever be possible to send i don't know a rover arlette stream wild and manned mission. sure well there are there are many ways to fly mine is just the 1st baby step here in the united states and last year on nasa has funded studies of how to get into the next step which would be
a pluto orbiter which would stay in the system rather than just fly by one very much more sophisticated package of instruments to study pluto and satellites and one of the jobs of the head orbiter would be to scout for a landing sites for future robotic landers or rovers as you're talking about and that's within our technological grasp not sending people all way out there is not yet something that we can confidently do you know it's a big step just to simply that's a mars probably in the 23rd this is 100 times farther then mars is on to have and the technical challenges for a great it's a new your eyes it's almost 10 years and it was the fastest spacecraft there ever want 2 new years to travel out there if we sit people and we would have to develop a much faster propulsion system or it would be
a 20 year journey just to go out and back and i'm not sure we get a lot of volunteers for that yeah much area there so plato correct me if i'm wrong is part of a kuiper belt which is a circle of objects hugging the outer solar system how many planets our planet like objects like pluto could be there inside a kuiper belt yet the quiver belt which was named for a dutch american astronomer names in the mid 20th century postulated it would exist was discovered in 1990 and pluto turns out to be the brightest but also the largest object in the. our current estimates from studies over the last 25 years showed the piper bell has billions of comets and it objects. just a few kilometers across. and it has about a dozen small planets which pluto is the largest and then there's an intermediate
sized objects then or in between a little rocky asteroidal comet like bodies in full fledged planets. so how important can the study of cooper about be to our understanding of solar system and at what kind of cool groundbreaking surprises can the bell tolled for us. us 3 questions in fact the pointer below has already revolutionized our knowledge of ourselves just studying. as we were saying forensic clues about the distribution of objects that are in their properties we have learned for example that when the solar system was 1st born the giant planets. jupiter saturn uranus and neptune under which it changes in their orbit that pushed you're listening to outward by about a 1000000000 miles it's about 1600000000 pluggers and which may have even ejected
another giant planet once we're headed with the 4 that we have now. that's a pretty important. discovery internet itself why didn't the paper built the slowest the dwarf planets even though they're small plate it was only about a record in diameter of the current in the united states that those small planets can be as active as gere washington complex as they are planets like mars era which really almost no one expected and yet that's where pluto is and then after we flew by flew to new horizons with all. another one and a half 1000000000 kilometers over 3 years to study a small quarter built on one of those building blocks that made clear what he called caught in it we learned how these building blocks are for something that was never known before only debate. so when you rise and pass to velocity to leave the
solar system and go into interstellar space like would your answer would just fly off into space at some point or will it stay around the current position until it runs out of just. well new horizons is traveling at a speed of about 500000000 kilometers per year outward on this escape trajectory from the solar system that you just mentioned and we can't stop it we don't want to stop it but it's coasting and leaving with solar system just like the voyager so every year it travels farther and farther and farther now then should run out of power and we will be able to communicate with it in more data from it but that's probably almost 20 years away al we're going to take a short break right now when we're back we'll continue talking dr alan stern planetary scientist officer not head of nest clinton mission talking about what wonderful discover is still lie ahead of us stay with us.
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it's. and we're back with dr alan stern planetary scientist auster not and have of pluto mission alan so let me ask you this for all those ears of astronomical observations we've only known 9 planets in our solar system to be there for sure and you're saying that there are $100.00 more planets to be potentially found. you had sheaves that basically just by changing the definition of what a planet is right so it really just goes. just become semantics doesn't it. actually it is very important science because science is is a reductionist activity where we try to will look at
a one of data and then boil it down to patter and one of the things that. we were limited by in till the 1990 s. was that our telescopes were powerful enough to see far out into the so was so clue looked like kind of a misfit or oddball a small plane it all by itself out there beyond the giant but since the ninety's we've been discovering more and more small planets like this and the reason we call them planets is because they share all of the key properties at worlds like the earth and mars and other planets have and they don't look like asteroids they don't look like comets they don't want light meteors they look like planets with as i said mountain ranges and atmospheres in systems of moons and active geology and so forth and so that's why planetary scientists call the planets because they
fit well in that category terms of their characteristics it's really not semantics it's out of the large ng our view through collecting new data and accepting the fact that the world has changed a little bit they're just more planets than we thought they were and something very analogous to place more than a 100 years ago when it was discovered that the number of stars was not the few 1000 stars that your eye can see how it was number of stars that make up our galaxy in all of the galaxies beyond and this is a similar step for planetary science in a very important i think we finally understand the most populous planet in our solar system it turns out to be the small ones like you know. what pip plate on that tin were discovered on paper 1st is like mathematics and only lay. later we're confirmed as existing by astronomers do we need the same to happen to establish the
existence of many pluto like objects in a keeper belt or will a mission like new horizons will suffice will we go search for a new bodies new objects and that would have been. it's been done from the earth much bigger telescopes. those ground based telescopes that we've spotted these other planets out there means like how many are. in yours. troy. and so these are not directly because these are the worlds that we photographed and studied with around the sun or and. so private space flight is becoming very popular in 2022 nasa is sending you a broader virgin galactic to run experiments space x. through dragon has to sarah carried nasa astronauts to iowa says there's also just blue origin as he did a good thing that space missions are becoming and being outsourced to private
companies. well i think so because. the national space agency. why the russian space agency and nasa here in the united states jack engineered center and even the european space agency. can only do so many things with the budgets they have and just like at sea there are many commercial activities in here that made it commercially to use me more than just what the government agency says the explosion will applications of commercial space and not just space tourism and space research but also it's they had communications saying that earth monetary. reusable rocket launch costs are all the result of this commercial innovation and it's really in my view the way that we begin the journey to the star trek era in the 23rd century so i wonder is this what space exploration could be like in
a future what i mean is like our space agency is sort of laying down the theory and private companies putting the theory to practice or at least bringing scientists into space to do it. i think very much so and you know there's an analogy in my country. the 1st explorations as. the united states starts its standard cross the trumpets the west were government funded explorers like lewis and clark and then the military came to make forts to protect the settlers who then followed in much larger numbers in the industrial estate with the railroads in the mills and the mines and so forth and i think we'll see a similar develop in a commercial space as humans proliferate into arrears spacefaring species industry in earth orbit and then on the moon and then on to the planets and when we become a multi-client species surely these days data could be collected just by robert's
right it's a fair possibly cheaper why is it always better send humans into space to conduct experiments and that is it really i don't know. well it's a good question and humans have many uses besides just doing research but speaking as a research many uses in space besides doing research well just speaking as a researcher an experiment that i'm doing you know virgin galactic in $22.00 is very likely to cost about a 3rd what it would have cost if we tried to automate. so by putting the person in the experiment to conduct it we make it much simpler much faster to carry out and much more while it is a demonstration that you know if you think automation is so great. why is it every university laboratory automated why isn't every research ship the robot ship why
isn't every geological expedition done by robots it's because of all those other things they know they have in the sciences there is simpler more reliable and less expensive than automation now in spaceflight we can join the club with all the other sciences where our researchers actually go to space and do the research and improve on it over what robots to do the case. yeah a scope aeration like this is going to be like the actual bread and butter of commercial spacecraft i mean perhaps tourism was what virgin has in mind but realistically isn't the price tag going to be too much for space tourism to be a viable business anytime soon. you know it's very expensive for an individual if you want to buy a ticket to the international space station. so and so use believe it's about $7000000.00 u.s. dollars if you want to fly on a virgin galactic it's much less expensive to go somewhere really but it's still
hundreds of thousands of dollars and and that's too sensitive for most people but it's the beginning and in the 1920 s. a century ago. air travel was extremely expensive. and only a few people could afford to do it but by scaling and getting economies of scale the prices were ready to drop so were all of us can afford to try when the are you know we have a need to and i think the same will happen in space as well but we're in the very early days that i expect the prices will come down across the twenty's thirty's forty's a much lower numbers than the scene. at mission to mars let's talk about it which is right now pretty much discussed by flamboyant billionaires on earth could end up costing billions of dollars mission like new horizons is cheaper in comparison several $100000000.00 but do you think private initiative in space could result in
sponsoring a probe mission like for instance i don't sending an orbiter to pluto or another probe to saturn etc or will commercial space exploration revolve around you know headline making like send a man to our sensational ideas only so great question we know that in earth orbit the. private companies are sending robotic missions in very large numbers to the space science and study the earth. and we already have companies in the united states in europe. and china for that matter they're already beginning to offer services to fly experiments to venus and morrisons of the asteroids and i think this is just the leading. of what will become. increasingly commercial venture. almost side of the space in science agencies like r s a medicine. i read that the costs of flagship missions like going to mars are
actually so high they may end up under funding other nasa projects a facility aiding one breakthrough perhaps but slowing down others is pace of discovery not only basically decided by a budget i mean do you see a scenario where a person's private space enterprise steps in to help with that somehow or is it too big of a pride to independent agency like nasa no no no we're not limited just by budget because through innovation we can learn to do more with the budgets that we have a good example is that this is near a use in space since rockets that are much lower price for millions or it won't you know as a result every dollar was saved and it's actually tens or hundreds of millions of dollars per mission and save and go into making more machines in addition we have the leverage that private companies are going to give me it's for issues well so we'll get more done than we used to be able to because we we innovated in
a better future and it's very reminiscent of the computer revolution when computers were enormous machines that filled rooms and they were very rare and they were very expensive and not very cowardly. certainly by today's standards and now a generation later computers are not rare routine their prices have dropped dramatically and yet they're more powerful and we're seeing the same revolution is basically and i think the most 2050 s. will be living in a completely different world in terms of spaceflight because it is so me and you are so there may or on to see that thank god hopefully it alan is nothing great to . thank you very much for this wonderful insight and. take.
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you in the best. move for. the. former joint astra zeneca because of russia's job agreed to cooperate in the study of the effectiveness of. vaccine. you know the states sees of records coronavirus their sports figures now supporting the country's fatalities ensuring the 2nd world war. i.v. of a national court drops approach to war crimes by u.k. forces in iraq despite having a reasonable basis to believe the atrocities did take place. across top next examines what the news the new u.s. administration could mean for nations between washington and iraq. will be up next in the studio to bring you up to date on them.
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