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tv   PBS News Hour  PBS  February 9, 2011 6:00pm-7:00pm EST

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captioning sponsored by macneil/lehrer productions >> lehrer: good evening. i'm jim lehrer. egypt's foreign minister told margaret warner today that u.s. advice has been not at all helpful. >> ifill: and i'm gwen ifill. on the "newshour" tonight, also in that interview, foreign minister ahmed aboul gheit suggested the u.s. should ease up its pressure on the mubarak regime. >> i hope that we are all rational enough to go on a gradual change. an abrupt sudden change might entail very deep risks for egypt.
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chaos. violence. i detest-- i hate to see the country being engulfed in that kind of violence. >> lehrer: and lindsey hilsum of "independent television news" reports on today's protests in cairo and elsewhere. >> ifill: then, we examine a new study that could well change the way doctors treat breast cancer. >> lehrer: spencer michels looks at a california program on mental illness in young people. >> identifying pre-psychotic individuals and treating them early seems to be working in a unique san francisco mental health program. >> ifill: and jeffrey brown has the real-life story of an american diplomat arrested for murder in pakistan. >> lehrer: that's all ahead on tonight's "newshour." major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by:
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>> and by the bill and melinda gates foundation. dedicated to the idea that all people deserve the chance to live a healthy productive life. and with the ongoing support of these institutions and foundations. and... this program was made possible by the corporation for public broadcasting. and by contributions to your pbs station from viewers like you. thank you. >> lehrer: the protests in egypt showed no sign of abating today, after 16 days. but the country's foreign minister charged the u.s. is trying to impose its own solution. ahmed aboul rate made the accusation in an interview
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with the newshour's margaret warner in cairo. >> warner: prime minister abbuell gheit, thank you for having us. >> thank you, thank you for coming. i'd like you to define the spelling i got. is this an uprising? a movement? a revolution. >> it is an uppooefl, upheaval that is transforming egypt from one era to another era. we are moving into a new era, no doubt about it and the country has changed tremendously since the 25th of january. that is it in a nutshell. >> warner: now, the united states has had a lot to say about all of this. and just yesterday vice president biden called your vice president suleiman and asked for a prompt and meaningful change, immediate progress. how do you take that? i mean, do you regard that as helpful advice from a friend? >> no, not at all. why is it so?
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because when you speak about prompt, immediate, now, as if you are imposing on a great country like egypt, a great friend that has also maintained the best of relationship with the united states, you are imposing your will on them. egypt and the president of egypt the government of egypt have already started and the egyptian president laid down a road map and allowed or asked the vice president to engage in discussions on the road map with the different opposition groups. and the road map is moving forward according not only to stages and steps but also to a time span specific times to do this, to this, to do this.
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so for the americans to come and say "change is now" but already we are changing or "you start now" or "we start last week but not now" so better understand egyptian sensitivities. and better encourage the egyptians to move forward and to do what is required to. that is my advice to you. >> warner: but the americans say-- and these wikileaks cables show-- that for years privately they've been saying to you all thrift emergency law, make sure the elections for parliament are fair and... >> the emergency law as vice president biden stated yesterday when i read it today, this morning, i was really amazed because right now as we speak we have 17,000 prisoners loose in the streets, out of jails that have been destroyed. how can you ask me to disband
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the... that emergency law while we have this difficulty? give me time. allow me to have control, to stabilize the nation, to stabilize the state, and then we would look into the issue. because you have... off country in transformation and what we are right right now, supposedly, we imagine ourselves in a boat in the midst of the nile moving from one bank to the other. give us the time to row and go with the current and see how we reach that point. >> warner: do you feel you're getting a consistent message from washington and do you feel at this point that the obama administration is standing behind your government's view that president mubarak and vice president suleiman should manage this process?
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>> the first four or five days it was confusing message and i was often angry. but through discussions with the administration i think now we have an administration that understands exactly the difficulties of the situation and the dangers and the risks that are entailed in a rush towards chaos without end. so the administration's message now is much better. >> warner: so what is at stake now for the u.s./egypt relationship? do you think that however this turns out it's been unalterably changed? >> it shouldn't. we have to maintain a good relationship and we have to work together egypt and the united states for a simple reason.
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the united states is the global power. the major power in the world. but egypt is one of the most important if not the most important arab country in the arab region. then we have to help egypt in order to regain its status and its standing and then we continue working together to stabilize the region, to stabilize the region. >> warner: you've worked closely with the mubarak government for two decades. you've been foreign minister for nearly seven years. give us a little insight into his thinking. i understand you met with him this morning. >> the thinking of the president? >> warner: the president himself. >> the president is an honest person who takes the well-being and the stability of the country. he believes strongly in stability. stability that would ensure development and progress. >> warner: has he even
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considered stepping down as the demonstrators are demanding? >> he believes and he publicly said so. he believes that if he steps down or relinquishs his authority or nominates somebody else then first that is unconstitutional but second he thinks that it would entail chaos. and it would entail violence. and it would entail also opportunities for those who would wish to act in a manner to threaten the state, the stability of the country and society. he has a constitutional responsibility to defend the constitution and to defend the national security of egypt. >> warner: so does he feel that he's indispensable then? >> a president, not as a person. as a president. >> warner: was your government
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caught by surprise by this? >> i think, yes. all of us. i think yes. and we have to admit. however, i have to tell you that egypt is not tunisia. tunisia is a smaller society ruled by strict behavior internally. egypt was for many, many decades an open society in terms of press and media and t.v. and discussions and we have the institutions. if we were not so, we wouldn't have had that kind of discussion internal discussion amongst us all for the last two weeks since the upheaval started. >> warner: all of the world has been watching now these pictures on television. what do you think this has done to the image of egypt? do you think it's tarnished the image of egypt internationally. >> for a while, yes. it looked bad. that wednesday when two groups in thousands of people,
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thousands of people clashing with stones, that looked not only bad, it was ugly. that is not the civility of egypt or the civilized society of egypt. >> warner: so what explains that day? this is just last week with camels and authorizes and thugs going into tahrir square in which really had been a peaceful demonstration. you don't hold the government responsible for what happened that day? >> i have to tell you, i saw them coming and they were not thugs, they were people coming to demonstrate against other people. i do not think the government was responsible for that and as i was telling you and my office overlooks the nile, i saw them coming and hundreds and then in thousands and i felt that they should be stopped but we didn't have enough forces to stop them from coming into the square and the president yesterday established a commission to get
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particularly that incident. >> warner: now, meanwhile, if we go back to the reality in the streets, the reality in the streets is you've got hundreds of thousands atta rear square still demanding that president mubarak must go now. >> and then chaos. >> warner: and then chaos? >> absolutely. then chaos. >> warner: explain. >> because when you have a president who is stepping down, you have one of two possibilities. the administrators and the opposition insisting that they compose a government unconstitutional and then maybe the armed forces will be compelled to intervene... in a more drastic manner. do we want the armed forces to assume the responsibility of stabilizing the nation through imposing martial law and an army
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in the street? the army is in defense of the borders of the country and the national security of the state. but for the army to rule, to step in, to put its prints on the scene, that would be a very dangerous possibility. >> warner: so each step that vice president suleiman makes-- and they do appear concessions-- is being dismissed by the people in the street as being too little and too late. how do you get ahead of this? >> there has to be some rationality with the people in tahrir square. we have to rationalize their actions and the wise men of the of egypt it would have come together together and to decide that that is the course we would take. >> warner: and finally, though, what is the danger that if this situation continues, this
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standoff, that something could ignite it again to violence? >> very much so. very possible and stupid fellow would throw a molotov bomb against a tank or a soldier and it explodes. so we have to be careful. this is our country. and not only we have to be careful, we have to move step by step according to a road map where we would reach some time in june a stabilized, have changed, have transformed, changed constitution, change parliament or restructured parliament and then we proceed for presidential elections and we allow the new president who would be outgoing sometime october, we allow him to disband parliament, to change parliament, to do whatever with
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the country. >> warner: and you think the people will accept that? >> i hope. i hope that we are all rational enough to go on a gradual change. an abrupt, sudden change might entail very deep risks for egypt. chaos. violence. i detest, i hate to see the country being engulfed in that kind of violence. >> warner: mr. minister, thank you. >> thank you very much. thank you. thank you very much. >> ifill: the foreign minister's words brought a sharp response from the obama administration. at the state department, spokesman p.j. crowley said, "we're not trying to dictate anything..." >> with all due respect to the foreign minister, he should not be amazed if that is the word he used at our call for rescinding emergency law. we have been calling for that for years, if not decades.
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so again, we let's go from back to front. what we want to see for egypt, we think it's vitally impossible to egypt's future is free fair and credible elections. and we want to see a broad based open process that allows egypt to move fwd and advance to reach that objective. >> ifill: at the white house, press secretary robert gibbs reinforced that message. he said vice president suleiman and the egyptian regime must do much more than they've done so far. >> i think it is clear that what the government has put thus far put forward has yet to meet the minimum threshold for the people of egypt. and i think unless and until that process takes hold, i think you're going to see the continued pictures that all of us are watching out of cairo and out of other cities throughout
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egypt. >> lehrer: amid the diplomatic exchange today, the unrest in egypt spread to more of cairo and beyond. and there was word of more protesters being killed. we have a report from lindsey hilsum of "independent television news." >> reporter: a new front in egypt's unfinished revolution. this morning, we found protestors marching up and down the streets between the parliament and the prime minister's office. others were still sleeping. they'd spent the night on the pavement. the parliament, they say, has no legitimacy anymore. the protestors have now blocked off the street to parliament and the cabinet office. there are very many of them, although they're very noisy but it's significant because this means the protests have gone beyond tahrir square. this is the heart of government,
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it's a new challenge to the authorities. this man planted himself in front of the gate. his wife and three children had come with him from an industrial town 100 miles away. trait. >> ( translated ): last night i decided to come here because i heard that changes in the constitution will be decided here in the people's assembly. and we don't accept the legality of this place anymore. when we have a revolution, the constitution no locker applies. >> reporter: "long live the egyptian army" they shouted as a general and his officers were mobbed as they pushed their way through the crowd. it will be hard for the government to get the army to move against the protestors now even as unrest spreads across the country: amateur video has emerged from this desert outpost. on monday, people set the police chief's car on fire because, they say, he tortured prisoners.
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they marched on the police station and were met with tear gas and live fire. >> ( translated ): the police opened fire. one got a bullet in his chest, another in his side, and the sand? the sand got a bullet between the eyes. >> reporter: hospital pictures bear out his story. the government has said that four have now died and about a hundred have been injured. in port sayyid, protestors gathered outside the governor's office to complain about housing conditions. he refused to see them so they occupied the building and then set it on fire. suez canal workers were on strike for a second day, protesting about working conditions and low pay and demanding that the canal chief step down. other industrial workers in suez joined them. ships are still passing through the canal unaffected but the protests are costing the egyptian government an estimated
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200 million pounds a day in lost revenue. late this afternoon, more had gathered at the parliament. vice president omar suleiman has warned that if this civil disobedience doesn't stop there will be a coup in egypt but the protestors were readying themselves for another night sleeping on the pavement. and they're talking of multiple demonstrations on friday. >> ifill: still to come on the "newshour": new findings on breast cancer treatment; mental illness in young people and the american detained in pakistan. but first, with the other news of the day. here's kwame holman. >> holman: iran issued a warning today as opposition groups planned a monday rally supporting protesters in egypt. the state prosecutor said, "the people of iran are vigilant, and if necessary, they will respond." instead, he said people should attend an officially sanctioned rally this friday. iranian authorities crushed mass protests that erupted in 2009. a chain of bombings in northern iraq killed seven people and
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wounded nearly 80 others. the attacks centered on a kurdish security headquarters in kirkuk, 180 miles north of baghdad. the first explosion was captured on camera, as a suicide truck bomber slammed into a wall. minutes later, two more bombs went off, ending a six-month lull in violence there. there was no immediate claim of responsibility. in afghanistan, two british soldiers were killed on a patrol in helmand province in the south. that made ten nato deaths so far in february. meanwhile, general david petraus-- the top u.s. and nato commander in afghanistan-- warned taliban attacks likely will get worse this spring. he said, "they have to fight back, they're losing momentum that's quite clear." the u.s. house will try again to extend key parts of the patriot act. republican leaders fell just short of a two-thirds majority last night, under a special procedure that allowed no amendments. they plan to raise the issue again next week. the security provisions would
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renew authority for extensive wiretaps, among other things. they expire at month's end. the chairman of the u.s. federal reserve ben bernanke got a grilling today on inflation worries. republicans at a house hearing charged the fed's interventions to boost the economy will send prices higher. budget committee chairman paul ryan said he's worried the fed will be slow to react. >> you're going to see inflation after it's already been launched. and given that you have a huge balance sheet, given that we are basically in uncharted territory, with respect to the great recession and the responses that you put out there, that we're going to catch it after it's too late. >> it is always an issue, as you know, mr. chairman, that in a recovery period you have to pick the right moment to begin removing accommodation, taking away punch bowl. and we, of course, face that problem as the central bank always does. and we are committed to making sure that we do it at the right time. >> holman: bernanke also said again that unemployment may stay
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high for several years. that news did little to boost wall street. the dow jones industrial average managed a gain of six points to close near 12,240. the nasdaq fell nearly eight points to close at 2,789. a greek supertanker loaded with up to $200 million in oil was seized by pirates today, after leaving the persian gulf. the attackers were believed to be somalis. their target-- the "irene s.l." was bound for the u.s. when it was waylaid east of oman. 25 crew members were on board the ship. the supertanker was one of the largest vessels attacked by the pirates in recent years. another u.s. senator has announced plans to retire after 2012. democrat jim webb of virginia said today he will not run for a second term. he gave no reason. his retirement means democrats will have at least three open senate seats to defend next year. u.s. congresswoman gabrielle giffords is beginning to speak
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again, after being shot in the head a month ago. a spokesman said today the arizona democrat uttered her first words this week, since the attack in tucson. and he said, she's now speaking more and more. giffords is recovering at a rehabilitation hospital in houston. there may be new hope for children with spina bifida. the national institutes of health reported a clear benefit today to operating in the womb to fix a hole in the spine of the fetus. spina bifida babies who had the surgery were more likely to walk without help than when the operation is performed after birth. they were also less likely to need a tube to drain fluid from the brain. those are some of the day's major stories. now, back to gwen. >> ifill: and to the first of two health stories. for decades, treatment for breast cancer has often included surgically removing lymph nodes from underneath a woman's arm where the disease might have spread. but a new study of 900 women finds that such invasive surgery does not necessarily improve survival rates in women with early stage cancer.
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dr. monica morrow is a co-author of the study and a surgical oncologist at memorial sloan-kettering cancer center. welcome, dr. morrow. >> thank you. >> ifill: what did your studies show in the end that is different from what practice has been so far on this? >> well, what practice has been in recent years is that we do a sentinel today in biopsy. that is identify the first today in where cancer cells would go if they have spread and if that today in is normal we don't take out the lymph nodes. but it has been standard practice if there's cancer in the sentinel today in to remove them. what our studies showed was that in women who are having lumpectomy and radiation to the breast that if you have cancer in just a few sentinel nodes-- less than four-- it's not necessary to remove them and you still have a very high rate of control of cancer under the arm and it doesn't influence survival and it saves a lot of side effects.
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>> ifill: talk about the side effects. what's the down side to just taking everything out to be on the safe side. >> well, the down side is that removing all those lymph nodes under the arm is associated with a lifetime risk of arm swelling or lymph edema, which is at least 20%. it can also cause numbness in the skin in the upper inner aspect of the arm. it can decrease the mobility of the arm and the ability to use the army and it's a bigger operation with a longer surgical recovery. so if it doesn't do any good, it's not being safe, it's just unnecessary side effects. >> ifill: so how many women who are in this category you talk about-- women who are candidates for lumpectomy fairly early on, it has not spread to more than one or two nodes-- would be affected by this change in procedure? >> it's a little bit hard to say because of the way we collect data. but i would say somewhere between 15,000 as a low estimate and 30,000 women a year could potentially be affected by this.
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>> ifill: is it fair also to say that if you are a candidate for a mastectomy-- the full removal of the breast-- that you are not a candidate for this kind of reduced approach? >> yes, that's a very important point. we think part of the reason that this works is because if you have a lumpectomy you get radiation to your breast which treats part of the lower armpit. if you do a mastectomy, radiation is not routine and it remains standard practice to remove involved lymph nodes in women who are having a mastectomy. >> ifill: the question many patients have about all cancers but certainly with breast cancer is the question of recurrence. so if you take this approach. this mortar confined approach, targeted approach, is the likelihood of recurrence reduced? >> the likelihood of recurrence isn't reduced, but it's also not increased and i think one of the really great pieces of news from this study was that weather you have the lymph nodes removed or not, the risk of cancer recuring
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in your armpit is less than 1% and with modern treatment, drug therapy, surgery, and radiation, the risk of cancer recurring elsewhere in the body-- at least for the first five years-- is less than 10% which is a remarkable improvement compared to, say, 20 years ago. >> ifill: you're a practicing oncologist at memorial sloan-kettering. how would this kind of finding affect the work that you do? >> well, this has already changed our practice. we consider this to be a practice-changing study and so our entire group-- the surgeons, the medical oncologists, the radiation oncologists, our pathologists and breast imagers-- got together after this study was presented in june and reviewed the literature, talked about the data and, as of september, 2010, we stopped removing all the lymph nodes in women who meet the criteria for this study; namely, small cancers, no abnormal lymph nodes to feel and undergoing lumpectomy and breast radiation. >> ifill: and the reaction has
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been among patients? >> actually, the reaction among patients has been astonishingly positive. women are, obviously, and appropriately quite concerned about making sure that they treat their cancer in such a way as to minimize the risk that it will come back but when we have presented this to women because of the fear of arm swelling in particular is so great-- at least in my practice-- they have been uniformly accepting of this change and actually think it's a great thing. >> ifill: okay, so that's in your practice. what about doctors who have been practicing the more invasive procedure as standard protocol, the way of doing business all of these years and now you come and say to them "do it differently and do it less exhaustively" i suppose. are doctors likely to embrace this new approach? >> well, you have to remember if we could embrace it at memorial sloan-kettering which is one of the homes of aggressive cancer surgery where we've been doing it for years, i suspect that
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other people can, too. change is always difficult, but we moved from doing radical mastectomies to doing lumpectomy and radiation to treat breast cancer with excellent results. and this is just part of that evolution and i think it's important for patients to understand it doesn't mean they're getting less treatment. the cancer is being killed with radiation and with drug therapy which allows us to use smaller surgery with fewer side effects. but i think it will take a while for physicians to change their practice but now that the paper is out for everyone to review, it's time for that change to begin. >> ifill: you talk about evolution and the move, for instance, from mask ekt mif to lumpectomy. give us a better sense of that. are we in the middle of a moment which treatment in general is changing on breast cancer? is this a very discrete specific break through that is not going to affect that many them? >> no, i think we are in the
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midst of a very important and appropriate change in breast cancer therapy which many people have described with the somewhat overused term "personalized medicine." so we are moving from what we used to do, which was the same operation on every single woman with breast cancer-- a mastectomy-- to tailoring the amount of surgery in the breast to the amount of cancer that's there. this study shows that you can tailor lymph today in surgery in the same way. and then we're looking at drugs, not just giving everyone chemotherapy, for example, but selecting drugs that target specific aspects of the cancer. the her-2, for example, the estrogen receptor. and by putting these kinds of individualized therapies together, we're getting better results. >> ifill: dr. monica morrow, thank you for the good news. nice talking to you. >> thank you. >> lehrer: our second health story is about identifying young
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people with mental illnesses before their problems become worse. it comes after the tucson shootings and when other states have already cut their budgets. "newshour" correspondent spencer michels reports from california. >> reporter: andrew-- a high school senior in san francisco whose last name we're withholding for privacy-- was 15 years old when he realized something was wrong. first it was insomnia, then confusion and anxiety, and before long extreme paranoia. >> i was deeply, deeply, deeply convinced that i was being followed by the police or by the fbi, and that i had done something terribly wrong, and i had no idea what i did, but that i'd done something bad and that the people were looking for me, and people were trying to follow me around, and i thought my computer was hacked. >> reporter: his mother, simone, could see the changes in her son.
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>> you were very upset, and to the point of tears, and i hadn't seen andrew cry in several years, and not prone to hysteria or tearfulness. by the end of the week, he had a complete psychotic break. >> reporter: the onset of andrew's symptoms was very fast. soon, he began hearing voices. >> mainly in music, i don't know how to explain it, but the song, the song lyrics would change, and they would say hateful things, racist things, homophobic things, they would tell me to harm people, they would talk about harming people. >> reporter: andrew says he resisted those messages. >> my parents brought me up well, and i knew that this is something that's totally unacceptable in society, to hurt anyone. >> reporter: but it was more than just his upbringing. both andrew's parents and he,
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agree that today, two years later, his symptoms appear under control. and they give credit to a pioneering program designed to identify and treat young people showing early signs of psychosis or schizophrenia. the program called prevention and recovery in early psychosis, or prep is run by the non-profit family service agency of san francisco, whose c.e.o. is bob bennett. >> there's a lot of schizophrenia in my family. one of our family members was actually client number one for our early psychosis program. and i can tell it transformed our lives. >> reporter: the national institute for mental health says that one in four adult americans suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in any given year and one in 17 have a serious mental illness. but sometimes, finding and treating those people is challenging; traditional psychotherapy often doesn't work.
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bennett adapted an approach that has been used abroad, but that is only now being tired in the u.s. its goal is to identify schizophrenic patients early, before major symptoms develop and to treat the disease as manageable and chronic. >> we actually believe that medication is more effective if you don't overmedicate, and if you use only one drug. beyond that though, the goal is to train people in lifestyle changes that can minimize the effects of the disease and make it manageable. >> reporter: the prep approach is one of several new programs mostly funded by a statewide initiative called proposition 63, passed by california voters in 2004. the campaign to increase mental health funding was intense. >> how? by taxing only the super rich. prop. 63 imposes a new 1% surcharge on personal income of
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over $1 million. >> reporter: the money goes to pay for increased treatment, and innovative approaches to early intervention. it has raised more than $6 billion so far. california stands in contrast to most other states, which have cut mental health programs more than $2 billion since 2009. and this year, 10 states are looking to slash mental health budgets. >> reporter: the homeless mentally ill were the original targets of prop. 63, according to rusty selix, a lobbyist who represents california mental health agencies and was co- author of the initiative. but as we were developing it... it became obvious to everybody. why do they have to become homeless and hospitalized, and incarcerated before they can get help? why can't we try to do the things that we know would work of identifying their mental illness early in their onset, when they're still living a normal life, but are showing the early signs of mental illness?
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>> reporter: selix says that the actions and words of jared loughner, the alleged assailant from tucson, had attracted attention, but as far as is known he didn't get treatment. >> there's no question that he fits the profile of the kind of person that our systems have not been able to get to. obviously, he's the extremely rare exception, go out and commit a violent act like that. that is not a normal thing, but the fact is there are plenty of people who look just like him in terms of obviously showing signs of being disturbed, not getting help, no one around them really knowing exactly what they need and how to go about it. so when you call our intake worker, she'll talk with you: how do you approach the family? how do you talk to the kid? >> reporter: one way family service agency and its prep program tries to connect with disturbed individuals is by talking with clinicians and teachers who may run into people
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with early symptoms. >> kids say people are against me at school, it's hard to tell what's real. >> reporter: rachel loewy a psychologist on the faculty at u.c. san francisco is also clinical director for the prep program. >> a lot of times kids are scared by those experiences, or they're embarrassed or ashamed, and they don't tell anyone, so some of our outreach is trying to encourage kids directly to be more comfortable talking about these things. >> reporter: loewy, like many mental health workers, believes the jared loughner case is relevant to her own work. >> people at school knew something was going on. they were noticing his very bizarre behavior, but they really didn't know what to do about it. so from what i understand, they kicked him out, but it doesn't sound like he really got treatment that was effective. >> reporter: what is effective in early psychosis, loewy and others say, is something called cognitive behavioral therapy, especially a model developed in england.
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it's one key part of the approach used in san francisco. >> it helps people look a their thoughts, and be able to differentiate between what's reality and what are their distorted thoughts, as well as look at their behaviors that can increase some of the symptoms. it helps them cope with things like voices, or other early symptoms. >> you look a little anxious. >> yeah, i'm a little anxious... >> reporter: in training sessions for clinicians, family service agency uses an actor playing a pre-psychotic patient, and an actual therapist, to show how cognitive behavioral therapy works. >> there was this man sitting in the back of the bus who had like a nice suit on, you know, and he had these sunglasses, and he was looking forward and he was looking at me. i thought he was going to grab or something... >> sounds like it was really
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scary. >> reporter: the psychologist explains how the patient can change his viewpoint laying it out on a white board. >> so the "a" stands for activating event, the "b" is for belief, and the "c" is for consequences. so in this case, do you know what the activating event would have been? >> i got on the bus.... >> reporter: and by changing the viewpoint, the theory goes, the behavior changes. >> so if we change the belief from "he's out to get me", or "he wants something from me" to "he likes my clothes, he's checking out my clothes.... >> okay. >> would that change the consequences at all? >> reporter: like many patients, andrew was reluctant to start such therapy, but his parents insisted. >> right off the bat, we started with the relapse prevention plan and we decided what the early warning signs of those were, and if i was experiencing those early warning signs, what would i then do to combat these symptoms.
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she would put notes up on the whiteboard. we would say if i'm feeling like this, instead of doing this, i would do something that would probably benefit me. >> reporter: family service agency ceo bennett says the early identification program has had tremendous success. >> our hospitalization rate is probably 10% of what you'd expect from the population we have. almost three-quarters of our clients are in school or work. we have only a 7% dropout rate. >> reporter: though it's too early for an independent evaluation of the model, andrew and his family say the program has worked for him. >> it's been probably a year or more than a year since i heard the last voices, but as of now, no voices, no paranoia, normal energy and i don't have to even
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take my medication. i have a good social life, i play sports, i'm interested in listening to and making music, like going to school. >> going to college. >> yes, i'm going to college next year with the rest of my graduating class. >> reporter: with california's budget in bad shape, the governor is proposing taking some money from the prop. 63 mental health fund. the legislature will begin to debate the issue shortly. meanwhile, mental health advocates say they may have to fight save a program showing early signs of success. >> ifill: finally tonight, the story of the american man who killed two people in pakistan and the new tensions it's created between islamabad and washington. jeffrey brown has that story. >> reporter: this bullet-ridden car is at the center of the
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brewing diplomatic incident. at the wheel on january 27, former u.s. special forces soldier raymond davis. he says two pakistanis on a motorcycle tried to rob him in dense traffic in lahore and he shot and killed them in self- defense through his car windshield. a third pakistani, a bystander, was struck and killed by a car from the u.s. consulate, rushing to the scene. pakistani police arrested davis and he appeared in court for the first time the following day. but almost immediately, the state department insisted pakistan has no right to hold him at all. >> reporter: u.s. officials
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first said davis works for the u.s. consulate in lahore, but then, said he's actually employed at the u.s. embassy in islamabad. the exact nature of his work and why he was in lahore remains unclear. this week, in washington, leading congressional republicans upped the stakes, suggesting billions of dollars of aid to pakistan could be at risk, if davis is not released. and there was talk that a state visit by president asif ali zardari to washington at the end of march may also be in jeopardy. anti-american sentiment in pakistan has further complicated matters. it's especially intense in punjab province, where lahore is the capital. >> ( translated ): the american citizen who killed three pakistanis, he tried to take the law into his own hands. he should be punished very severely. >> ( translated ): the american who killed the three innocent pakistanis, he should be punished, and he should be hanged. why did he commit this crime, and why was he carrying the weapons here?
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would any pakistani be allowed to carry a weapon in the u.s.a.?" >> reporter: adding to the tensions, on sunday, the widow of one of the men allegedly killed by davis committed suicide. she reportedly said she feared davis would be allowed to go free, and justice would be denied. davis is expected to appear in court in lahore again on friday. >> brown: for more on all of this we turn to pamela constable, a longtime reporter on pakistan for the "washington post." her forthcoming book is "playing with fire"-- a study of pakistan's struggle with islamic extremism. the first mystery here is who is raymond davis and what exactly he does. what is known? >> it's still not exactly clear. what his function has been for the u.s. government in pakistan... there have been five or six different descriptions of his job title and his responsibilities, but it's been a bit different each time. it's been said that he worked out of the consulate in lahore, it's been said he worked at the embassy inist bad. he's been described as a
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security expert, as a technical advisor, as someone who vetted visas. clearly he was a person who was carrying weapons. i still... i think it still remains to be clarified exactly what his job was. >> brown: carrying weapons, carrying a camera, carrying some sort of telescope. so the mystery continues as to what happened exactly on january 27. >> yes. well, of course, he has stated i believe in court as well as to the authorities the he shot himself n self-defense, that there were men following him who somehow confronted him. it's clear they were armed because i believe that on at least one of their bodies a weapon was found and ammunition as well. but i have heard or seen nothing to indicate that there was actually any sort of armed confrontation or that he was shot or that anyone with him or in his vehicle was shot so it's still, again, unclear exactly what provoked him to fire. >> brown: the obvious conjecture here or speculation is some sort of espionage. we don't know. >> on both sides, there have
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been statements by officials in pakistan that... acknowledging the men were following him, they were somehow involved in some intelligence operations. it's very common for pakistani intelligence services to follow people of interest such as this man. that would not be unusual or surprising. what would be very unusual or surprising would be for them to attack him or try to rob him if they were, in fact, agents. >> brown: now this question, part of the dispute here is over diplomatic immunity. between two national governments-- the u.s. and pakistan-- but low local authorities have a big role here. local courts in punjab. >> yes, at this stage it's up to both the lower and higher court in punjab province. they have him and the case before them. the federal government is not directly involved at this point
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i spoke somebody at the embassy in washington who said "it's out of our hands, it's up to the court many punjab to decide whether he has diplomatic immunity. >> brown: they say it's out of their hands but the u.s. is pushing them directly, right? >> very much so, yes. obviously this is something the administration would like to have this guy home. >> brown: we saw some bites on people that played here. how big a deal is this in in the media, on the streets. there is a lot of history here, right? >> it is a big deal in terms of public opinion in pakistan and as you say there's a lot of baggage there. there have been a number of incidents over the past year or even two years of security contractors, people either working for or either... americans or pakistanis working for americans in a security capacity, gotten involved in incidents in the street, there have been a couple of cases of shootings, there have been people arrested with weapons.
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there's been a lot of unhappiness in this relationship. there was an incident several months nag which the identity of a c.i.a. official in pakistan was revealed by pakistanis and he had to leave the country as a result of that. so there has been a lot of unhappy history in terms of the intelligence and security functions of americans in pakistan. >> brown: and this play into pakistani politics, presumably, because there's great pressures i suppose on the president, on president zardari, his government, but also on the local punjab authorities. >> i would say mostly on the federal government because it's a weak government, it's not a very popular government. it's very closely allied with the united states so you've got islamabad officials under very important pressure from a very important ally, partner, and donor to bring back an american citizen whereas you have opposite pressure essentially from the public and for pakistani public opinion and opinion makers to bring him to
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justice in pakistan. >> now the extent that it turned into a diplomatic stufl here, can you tell how much the u.s. is willing to push here? how hard we're willing to push the pakistanis? >> i don't know the answer to that. i think as you showed in the clip and we've been hearing a lot this week there have been a lot of noises out of congress to do something about aid. obviously we have a huge aid program in pakistan and there are members of congress who would like to see that suspended if this situation is not resolved. there are a number of key meetings coming up. you've got a meeting with the president who's supposed to be coming here. there's an important bilateral meeting on security. there's an important tri lateral meeting on afghan/pakistani there's lots of stuff going on that could be jeopardized by this case. >> brown: all along the way. and in the meantime, what is known about the circumstances of how he is being held? i saw the u.s. officials have said they're concerned about his
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safety. >> i think... i'm sure they're concerned but i'm sure that's probably more of a pro forma concern. i would be very surprised if the pakistanis would not treat him properly since he's known to be an american official. he's not believed to be some sort of rogue spy. he clearly worked for the u.s. government so i would think they would be quite careful with him. >> couric: and the next step here? i mentioned in our clip a court hearing. do you know what that means exactly and what happens that have? >> not exactly but i know there's supposed to be a hearing on the 11th, which is friday. the pakistani officials say that at that hearing he will be there. he will be produced in court. he will be there expected a ruling to be made on whether or not he has diplomatic immunity and depending on the nature of that ruling we'll see what happens after that. >> brown: pam constable of the "washington post," thanks very much. >> you're very welcome. >> lehrer: again, the major developments of the day:
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the protests in egypt showed no sign of abating after 16 days. but the foreign minister told the "newshour" that the u.s. is trying to impose its own solution. the obama administration rejected the charge. a state department spokesman said, "we're not trying to dictate anything..." and there was word that arizona congresswoman gabrielle giffords has begun to speak again, a month after being shot in the head. and to kwame holman for what's on the "newshour" online. kwame? >> holman: we have more of spencer's interview with andrew, the young man being treated for a mental disorder and spencer filed a blog post about the subject. on "art beat," we profile an artist who makes his living drawing portraits of commuters on the washington, d.c. subway. and can the world's smartest machine beat the best human minds? that's the subject of tonight's edition of "nova," as scientists prep i.b.m.'s watson supercomputer for a challenge against "jeopardy" champions. "nova" airs on most pbs stations. the "newshour's" science correspondent miles o'brien faced off in his own trial match
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against watson. he reveals the outcome in an exclusive online interview. >> miles, how did you do? >> well, let's just say hari, it wasn't elementary, my dear watson. it was really ugly. watson absolutely creamed me and scraped me off the floor. >> holman: you can watch that interview online and tune in for miles o'brien's story on man versus the machine on monday. all that and more is on our web site, gwen? >> ifill: and that's the "newshour" for tonight. on thursday, we'll have the next of margaret warner's reports from egypt. i'm gwen ifill. >> lehrer: and i'm jim lehrer. we'll see you online and again here tomorrow evening. thank you and good night. major funding for the pbs newshour has been provided by: >> i mean, where would we be without small businesses? >> we need small businesses.
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