The Great Depression and foreign affairs.
- Publication date
- 16mm Film, Educational Film, Depressions, Diplomatic relations, Series: Between the Wars (1978)
- Wilmette, Ill. : Films Inc.
Writer, Anthony Potter; producers, Charles Musser, Anthony Potter; editor, Charles Musser; host narrator, Eric Sevareid
A documentary presentation on America during the Depression and how the economic collapse changed its outlook on the world
- 2015-05-01 19:17:11
- Once I've. Been. A. Railroad. Might and right. Ones I don't know right or wrong. Now it's done. Rather gun use Barrow. Once and talking to. All of that he Anky doodle died. When she logon through and I was like well the drum. Don't you remember. How long. You don't you remember I'm your power. Power this is a story of America in the depression how the economic collapse. Change our outlook on the world at the present challenges that fundamental American belief about itself that it was a land of constant growth and ever present economic a bunch that Americans were people of plenty with not only a unique heritage of natural resources but an infallible economic system. The depression I gave it all that made Americans realize that they were vulnerable and the Pentagon the rest of the world. Oppression after all of the worldwide. I've been selected. The inauguration of. Herbert Hoover. March fourth nineteen twenty nine. I proposed to do so to the extent of my own ability but the measure of the that's that's the government Charlotte they. Work with and the great state of. The Jewish. Open home and abroad. With respect with my father for concern. We'll march through the Great War and the reconstruction following up with him for is the Religious Right. Now has a has. A role as one of the few. It is right. We'll hope. We always had faith in the last rock inviolable but by nineteen twenty nine it was apparent that something was very wrong with the country the story began almost out of sight of most Americans on the farm. That's wanting of the depression could be seen in rural America or farmer after farmer came up against the wall of impossible economic barriers. Supply had outstripped Amanda cost the fine equipment had started fires that have been in families for generations were long. Farmers and their families watched helplessly as they were driven from their homes through the one nine hundred twenty S. farm prices drop sixty percent taxes went up income went down. Interest in mortgage payments content the inevitable result was for closure. But I think looking back one can say that the stagnation in the agricultural sector throughout the period and at the great profits are not being redistributed in the way that we maintain a presence thing about it too much of the profits are kept as a businessman. Use for speculating purpose was to let I want the workers from the farmers in a way that he persists in the night. World War one that caused the crisis. Farmers had bought land and machinery to meet wartime demand the armistice wiped out the market and brought on disaster and I did thirty five three quarters of a million farms would be lost. Earlier in one hundred twenty nine there were other danger sign. Textile workers and gas Tony in North Carolina went on strike protesting low pay and long hours. State Militia private detectives an angry mobs attacked this strike for workers were killed one of them a mother of four children. Communists were blamed for the strike rather than a sick economy. Gas O'Neill was obscured by the general prosperity of the one nine hundred twenty. Don't take it. Oh Madam Chair you use on a new low res all bought you and take your dog when you go oh of repeating it. Was on the Bangla who you know it was a long will often you. Know lower. The ball of. The same optimism brings a all in foreign affairs as President Hoover welcome the delegates to the signing of the Kellogg beyond pact to end all wars. And Herbert Hoover America had her first international minded president in a decade. Going a first world war ii around a food relief program in Belgium is name at groceries for the starving and medicine for the sick. Overs work lasted five years all of a voluntary service reinforced a strong faith in American ideals hard work self-reliance and a prize. During Hoover's presidency economic growth seemed unlimited paper profits on the stock market saw it in the billions of dollars. During the one nine hundred twenty S. Americans around the get rich quick been increased industrial production calling profits for the country leading industries. Higher profits raised corporate expectations and production the cycle accelerated at an incredible rate and through it all speculation in the stock market push prices to dizzying heights. The Because rates Don said. Kember Thirty nine hundred twenty nine then began the long slide that would and on E N one nine hundred thirty two. In one period of five days thirty billion dollars in paper profits and vanished into thin air. The Great Depression had begun. Few people know it at first only a handful were unemployed workers suddenly jobless bought surplus apples on credit then sold them at a profit. This was the America spirited work. Present over admire their enterprise and called for more of the same my concern and then in the problems of the Times has been through a very big hunger are full of amongst those upon whom the blow over fallen was heartbreaking for verily that is our only right. Now we're moving at C. in this battle with the South African American faith and confidence in her things but harbour a doubt though that if you're out there not a complete. Garbage dumps regarded as a new poll or forage for food. The Russians immediate impact on foreign policy was in economic terms every country in the world tried to seal itself. Trying to contain the economic consequences. Confession try to prevent other countries from X. exploiting the depression to it and I have come down in their own troubles so this is near zero economic nationalism of high tariffs. Hoover terror of the small a terrible it was called the one nine hundred thirty senators smote and Congressman Holly had succeeded in closing American markets to the nations that most needed them. Sir tariff bill started a frantic race to get foreign imports into the United States before the trade barriers went up. President Hoover signed the bill in spite of a protest by one thousand a condom ascent twenty four foreign nations which in turn retaliated against American products the resulting terror of war caused international shock waves the whole history then or war history I think. It was very much influenced probably basically determined I think by the were on the pression certain if that's true in a certain extent in Europe I think is a very true in Japan. Agricultural prices down half of one thing and have a Japan is telling agricultural country markets in the world began to be shipped to the Japanese as countries worrying about an impression began to put on restriction is not only for their countries and sells but for the Empire. Japanese the N.S.A. themselves really being shut out of that time if that had not happened much of the rest that happened there they going towards expansionism which finally lead again to a confrontation with the United States and then eventually war I don't think that would have come. See Konami chaos of the Depression. Undermined the democratic government in Germany and paved the way for a don't Hitler's Nazi Party I. In America the public blamed President Hoover for its troubles. Over was called the great engineer. Around his administration was perhaps the best that the government of ever heard but it was like. Every time he did something to feel dreamy deal a bench over him because they were told. Me to just. Give it to the responsibility of the government in the future. Many are affected by the depression number of the it with privation this little minor percentage of our the big cat is not beyond the ability of community organizations to saw Hoover continued his theme of self help get a very clear abstract done attic do you know how to commit murder and it was essentially the old let's say Fairview now to there are going with a fair view of it is willing to have some indifference of the play of market forces but it had to be voluntary and offence if he could get a businessman to agree not to cut wages that was all right but if government should try to have a minimum wage in that one day in and holler a bone island in the workings of the economy and I think this is most important thing. This limitation on the role of the government he was apparently quite content. That hunger spread just so long as the government violating the property restrain them on Israel and therefore you opposed federal relief in your post. Affect the federal support for the farmers. Poll is just one measure after another but he did all this way that many people streaming Self Righteous. Brothers. Great wars and great depressions alter a nation's history for the they alter the Personally as the values the very psyches of the individuals who lived through that my generation and you'll live through but warm it excites you belittle act willing sacrifice and certain knowledge that it would end the Great Depression met a wearing sameness they have today a sense of helplessness. Robbie little sacrifices until a man's clothes and his pride on rival good men were ashamed before their families marriages were slowly poisoned educations were postponed an abandoned adolescence grew up quickly and only the little children felt free it's a middle class especially hard because they went sharply down. Fathers would be gone for months at a time pursuing the phantom jobs. Mothers became seamstresses children more hand me down. For my brothers and me at Met peddling papers at four in the morning of farm job here factory job there washing dishes in restaurants you bought and pressed her own clothes to help with the ram a doctor's bill with a family crisis. Typical of millions of homes. In both people of faith in their government destroy the respect for business leaders. Suddenly America was not a country but as vulnerable as others. It happened after all for everyone but farmers almost as suddenly as a lawyer and right after the greatest ten year increase in material production in our history. America has lost its magic kingdom return no prosperity no one's going to find that the years drag my. Narrow. There was an equal crisis in the intellectual world and by that I don't mean just the academic world among fought from Americans who had viewed progress as a kind of quintessentially American phenomenon that we expected things always to get better and in now found themselves in a Great Depression that was a prolonged as well as vicious. This shook the confidence both of common people and self conscious intellectually people in their country with a curious effect with the crises of the bird with the loss of confidence. Americans tried to find things in the past which seemed to cost to pay they could claim to and regain. Artist like Thomas hard that when examined their American roots and muscular and turbulent farms. Writers in the depression turned a social criticism John Doe's pastors was a passionate polemicist on America's injustices and BEN WILSON The critic embrace communist is track culture and crisis. Indicted American capitalism. Richard Wright one of the America's first great black authors was spawned by Chicago's communist John Reed club liberal causes attracted player I'd sure what Anderson and theater dries or led an expedition to investigate reports of violence against Kentucky minor. Upton Sinclair like many writers was angered by the excesses of the American system. Of course this despair with capitalism which became fairly widespread people thought well this is the sort of a crisis would never occur under a socialist system. This did stimulate a good deal of what you might call socialist thinking. It shook people's faith in the free enterprise system in capitalism. Twelve million unemployed brought the Communist Party into the streets. It's vocal often violent tactics invited angry retaliation from the radical right. Congressman Martin dies of Texas our unemployment problem was prior to the United States or less and if we had. The depression led many Americans feel that they wanted even more isolation from Europe. Because of. The Depression in America because of the American economy but rather that it was a virus that had spread the depression after all the first closure of banks took place. And then there was a spread across Europe which reached the United States later and many people including. An opportunity to argue that the depression had been because of European events and if we could have only been more insulated from. The depression ourselves. Reparations. The French. Plan for two weeks it was too late to restore the confidence. To economic relief. Hoover's solution failed to stop the tide of the economic. Military control of foreign policy. Thirty two. For the first time on any scale or bombs fell on civilian world were shocked. Allies by the depression. The end of Hooverism came during the hot summer of one nine hundred thirty two the During Joan thousands of World War veterans had been streaming in the marsh the they came to lobby for a bill that proposed immediate payment of a veteran's bonus not due and payable until nine hundred forty five the present Hoover opposed paying them in front of the told about the. They call themselves a bonus Expeditionary Force and camped on Washington's Anacostia flights. Veterans bought within their families and the despair that plagued him for two years. One of the observers of Anacostia flaps with the writer John those paths and I got to flatter the ghost of an army camp. He wrote that in the tents in the long time paper barracks the men are sleeping a little lean tos built out of old newspapers cardboard boxes packing crates. Every kind of cockeyed makeshift shelter from the rain. Scrape together out of the city dump the boys a change to the same glass of faces and dialect foreigners beginning leisure lingers on the dust around towns and farming towns we were all youngsters. Now we are getting on a little life. Sunken eyes. Khalid Sheikh soft bread lines in these men's faces as in the pharaoh's dream the lean years of the not the fat years already. The Senate voted on the bonus as veterans waited on the Capitol steps. Their plea failed the bill was rejected. The veterans dispersed but two thousand of them stayed on hopelessly obstinately. On July twenty eighth Washington police were ordered to evacuate to that or White House became uneasy. Present over suspected a communist plot. Subversion one policeman police gun and killed two veteran says the President Hoover then ordered the army under General Douglas MacArthur to ouster that are. General MacArthur personally commanded an invasion force of cavalry tanks and machine gun squad and for infantry companies would tear gas. Veterans were confused and cheered and first. Suddenly there was chaos. Government rolled into the crowd. Soldiers through tear gas bomb women and children were trapped and the troops got into veterans and their families are burning the shacks is a advance ramshackle who reveals were left in flames. The mission was considered a success because no one was killed in Washington was burning that night and Hoover's version of American Individualism was dead forever. A fundamental belief of the American people about what's they supported an isolationist foreign policy in the twenty's was at the United States was inherently too strong for the world a challenge this believe that they should not as a result of war but because of economic that cave. American people learn through the agonies of the Great Depression that foreign affairs meant something more than diplomats armies and treaties the collapse of twenty nine was not only the most serious challenge ever presented to the face of American optimism is also the beginning of an awareness that the United States could not isolate herself in the world that I guess I'll begin to ask whether it was possible for the nation to be self-sufficient and a majority concluded it could not be the Civil War was America's first great failure. The pression was a second. Poor. Book. Breathe. For with. For now it by poor more rare book now Bourque forward with football boots.
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