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The Bell System Technical Journal (1922-1983)

The scientific discoveries and technological innovations produced by Bell System research and engineering were critical not only to the evolution of global telecommunications but, more widely, they had a considerable impact on the technological base of the global economy and, indeed, on our daily lives.



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Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 5. May-June 1969 pp 1249-1292. The Chirp z-Transform Algorithm and Its Application. (Rabiner, Lawrence R.; Schafer, Ronald W. ; Rader, Charles M.)
Topics: fourier, transform, chirp, discrete, algorithm, samples, frequency, contour, fast, magnitude,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 379-423. A Mathematical Theory of Communication. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: log, probability, channel, entropy, source, probabilities, sequences, symbols, discrete, sequence,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1899-1904. UNIX Time-Sharing System: Forward. (McIlroy, M.D.; Pinson, E.N.; Tague, B.A.)
Topics: unix, system, operating, programs, bell, programming, software, tools, language, program, operating...
Bell System Technical Journal, 39: 4 July 1960 pp 745-808. The Theory and Design of Chirp Radars (Klauder, J.R.; Price, A.C.; Darlington, S.; Albersheim, W.J.)
Topics: signal, chirp, pulse, frequency, network, weighting, amplitude, radars, output, linear, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 3. July 1929 pp 435-465. Magnetic Alloys of Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt. (Elmen, G.W.)
Topics: alloys, magnetic, permeability, alloy, permalloy, hysteresis, cobalt, cent, annealed,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 1. January 1949 pp 59-98. The Synthesis of Two Terminal Switching Circuits. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: functions, variables, function, theorem, switching, network, elements, circuits, circuit,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 446-472. Spectra of Quantized Signals. (Bennett, W.R.)
Topics: signal, frequency, quantizing, quantized, signals, band, distortion, sampling, input, spectra,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 24: 1. January 1945 pp 46-156. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise . (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: noise, probability, random, function, sin, journal, spectrum, frequency, density, band, random...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 1. January 1953 pp 63-73. Intermodulation Interference in Radio Systems: Frequency of Occurrence and Control by Channel Selection. (Babcock, Wallace C.)
Topics: channels, products, interference, intermodulation, consecutive, band, order, operating, operating...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 4 October 1948 pp 623-656. A Mathematical Theory of Communication (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, log, ensemble, probability, functions, power, noise, theorem, function, continuous,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 34: 5. September 1955 pp 1045-1079. A Method for Synthesizing Sequential Circuits. (Mealy, George H.)
Topics: circuit, circuits, input, method, table, rule, combination, sequential, equivalence, synthesis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 23: 3. July 1944 pp 282-332. Mathematical Analysis of Random Noise. (Rice, S.O.)
Topics: random, noise, probability, function, average, theorem, spectrum, interval, density, mathematical,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 3. July 1928 pp 535-563. Transmission of Information. (Hartley, R.V.L.)
Topics: transmission, selections, symbols, wave, steady, transmitted, system, frequency, technical journal,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 2. April 1924 pp 324-346. Certain Factors Affecting Telegraph Speed. (Nyquist, H.)
Topics: wave, current, signal, rectangular, telegraph, voltage, frequency, codes, morse, sine, technical...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 29-68. System Design for the North Atlantic Link (Lewis, H.A.; Tucker, R.S.; Lovell, G.H.; Fraser, J. M.)
Topics: cable, repeater, system, frequency, repeaters, loss, atlantic, undersea, noise, design, north...
Bell System Technical Journal, 27: 3. July 1948 pp 510-588. The Evolution of the Quartz Crystal Clock. (Marrison, Warren A.)
Topics: quartz, frequency, crystal, resonator, oscillator, clocks, pendulum, clock, bell, accuracy, quartz...
Bell System Technical Journal, 46: 4. April 1967 pp 797-834. Phase and Amplitude Modulation in High-Efficiency Varactor Frequency Multipliers of Order N = 2n - Stability and Noise. (Dragone, C.)
Topics: circuit, multiplier, output, doubler, impedance, frequency, stability, input, frequencies,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 4: 1. January 1925 pp 15-25. The Limitation of the Gain of Two-Way Telephone Repeaters by Impedance Irregularities. (Crisson, George)
Topics: repeater, impedance, wave, amplifier, irregularities, gain, irregularity, repeaters, frequency,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 1905-1929. The UNIX Time-Sharing System. (Ritchie, D.M.; Thompson, K.)
Topics: file, system, unix, user, program, files, directory, command, device, programs, operating system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 20: 4. October 1941 pp 415-433. The History of Electrical Resonance. (Blanchard, Julian)
Topics: resonance, electrical, patent, circuit, spark, leyden, condenser, alternating, discharge, current,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 245-276. Repeater Design for the Newfoundland-Nova Scotia Link (Brockbank, R.A.; Walker, D.C.; Welsby, V.G.)
Topics: repeater, amplifier, cable, repeaters, scotia, design, submerged, resistors, electrical, output,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 38: 3. May 1959 pp 611-656. Probability of Error for Optimal Codes in a Gaussian Channel. (Shannon, Claude E.)
Topics: probability, sin, code, error, bound, exp, gaussian, asymptotic, bounds, cone, solid angle, code...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 163-188. Electron Tubes for the Transatlantic Cable System (McNally, J.O.; Metson, G.H.; Veazie, E.A.; Holmes, M.F.)
Topics: tubes, cathode, tube, cable, transatlantic, repeater, anode, heater, thermionic, volts, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 62: 7. September 1983 pp 2127-2146. Total Network Data System: Environment and Objectives. (Barrese, A.L.; Parker, D.E.; Robbins, T.E.; Steele, L.M.)
Topics: network, data, traffic, system, center, operations, bell, switching, cac, equipment, data system,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 47: 6. July-August 1968 pp 957-1000. A Statistical Theory of Mobile-Radio Reception. (Clarke, R.H.)
Topics: mobile, antenna, spectrum, frequency, signal, random, autocovariance, function, equation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 217-244. System Design for the Newfoundland-Nova Scotia Link (Halsey, R.J.; Bampton, J.F.)
Topics: cable, repeater, repeaters, system, clarenville, transmission, link, frequency, sydney, scotia,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 41: 2. March 1962 pp 387-410. Resistivity of Bulk Silicon and of Diffused Layers in Silicon. (Irvin, John C.)
Topics: average, conductivity, layers, resistivity, gaussian, diffused, impurity, silicon, error,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 19: 1. January 1940 pp 1-39. The Physical Basis of Ferromagnetism. (Bozorth, R.M.)
Topics: magnetic, magnetization, electrons, atoms, nickel, ferromagnetic, electron, atom, ferromagnetism,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 28: 3. July 1949 pp 435-489. The Theory of p-n Junctions in Semiconductors and p-n Junction Transistors. (Shockley, W.)
Topics: current, holes, transition, diffusion, equation, potential, recombination, hole, electron,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 69-101. Repeater Design for the North Atlantic Link (Gleichmann, T.F.; Lince, A.H.; Wooley, M.C.; Braga, F.J.)
Topics: repeater, cable, gain, network, tube, feedback, design, coupling, voltage, capacitors, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 32: 2. March 1953 pp 406-424. A Study of Non-Blocking Switching Networks. (Clos, Charles)
Topics: crosspoints, array, switching, equation, intermediary, outputs, inputs, switches, switch, input,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 103-138. Repeater Production for the North Atlantic Link (Lamb, H.A.; Heffner, W.W.)
Topics: repeater, inspection, capacitors, operations, manufacturing, repeaters, manufacture, required,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 293-326. Route Selection and Cable Laying for the Transatlantic Cable System (Jack, J.S.; Leech, Capt. W.H.; Lewis, H.A.)
Topics: cable, repeater, laying, cables, repeaters, route, submarine, clarenville, system, miles, cable...
Bell System Technical Journal, 16: 1. January 1937 pp 35-44. The Physical Reality of Zenneck's Surface Wave. (Wise, W. Howard)
Topics: wave, surface, zenneck, asymptotic, series, sin, tilt, plane, vertical, dipole, wave antennas,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 35: 4. July 1956 pp 917-926. A New Interpretation of Information Rate. (Kelly, J.L., Jr.)
Topics: bets, gambler, log, transmitted, exponential, probability, rate, symbol, transmission,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 50: 9. November 1971 pp 2979-2995. Analysis and Design of Elementary Blinders for Large Horn Reflector Antennas. (Thomas, David T.)
Topics: antenna, sidelobe, blinder, horn, aperture, reflector, radiation, blinders, edge, sin, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 7: 4. October 1928 pp 639-707. The Practical Application of the Fourier Integral. (Campbell, George A.)
Topics: coefficient, exp, fourier, integral, pairs, cisoidal, unit, pair, erfc, impulse, bell system, unit...
Bell System Technical Journal, 37: 3. May 1958 pp 711-718. Measurement of Sheet Resistivities with the Four-Point Probe. (Smits, F.M.)
Topics: resistivities, resistivity, probe, infinite, voltage, finite, measurement, sheet, sample,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 4. July 1964 pp 1469-1475. B.S.T.J. Briefs: A Lens or Light Guide Using Convectively Distorted Thermal Gradients in Gases. (Berreman, D.W.)
Topics: helix, focusing, refractive, lens, convective, gas, aberration, temperature, convergence, axis,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 57: 6. July-August 1978 pp 2087-2101. UNIX Time-Sharing System: UNIX on a Microprocessor. (Lycklama, H.)
Topics: system, lsx, unix, file, memory, floppy, programs, user, program, software, user programs, unix...
Bell System Technical Journal, 30: 1. January 1951 pp 50-64. Prediction and Entropy of Printed English. (Shannon, C.E.)
Topics: entropy, prediction, text, frequencies, probabilities, probability, letters, letter, rectangular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 46: 6. July-August 1967 pp 1055-1133. The Si-SiO2 Interface - Electrical Properties as Determined by the Metal-Insulator-Silicon Conductance Technique. (Nicollian, E.H.; Goetzberger, A.)
Topics: interface, bias, surface, density, capacitance, oxide, conductance, silicon, frequency, measured,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 3. July 1950 pp 295-342. Principles and Applications of Waveguide Transmission. (Southworth, George C.)
Topics: wave, force, electric, transmission, waves, waveguide, lines, magnetic, vector, reflection,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 56: 3. March 1977 pp 355-366. Photon Tube - An Optical-Fiber Time-Domain Reflectometer. (Personick, S.D.)
Topics: fiber, optical, echo, gating, scattering, pulse, scan, rayleigh, photomultiplier, trace, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 48: 9. November 1969 pp 2909-2947. Coupled Wave Theory for Thick Hologram Gratings. (Kogelnik, Herwig)
Topics: holograms, grating, diffraction, gratings, equation, dielectric, wave, absorption, bragg, angular,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 8: 2. April 1929 pp 286-308. A Braun Tube Hysteresigraph. (Johnson, J.B.)
Topics: magnetizing, hysteresis, magnetic, condenser, flux, field, current, coil, amplifier, apparatus,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 50: 8. October 1971 pp 2607-2645. Optical Modulation at High Information Rates. (White, Gerard)
Topics: optical, modulator, modulation, system, bandwidth, multiplexing, transmission, beam, rod,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 53: 6. July-August 1974 pp 1179-1183. B.S.T.J. Briefs: Stripline Downconverter with Subharmonic Pump. (Schneider, M.V.; Shell, W.W. Jr.)
Topics: fiber, stripline, transmission, ribbon, diode, ribbons, frequency, fibers, connector, pump, system...
Bell System Technical Journal, 60: 6. July-August 1981 pp 1109-1129. No. 4 ESS: Network Clock Synchronization. (Metz, R.; Reible, E.L.; Winchell, D.F.)
Topics: phase, oscillator, synchronization, error, program, ess, digital, frequency, comparator, clock,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 4. October 1930 pp 760-769. Transients in Parallel Grounded Circuits, One of Which is of Infinite Length. (Peterson, Liss C.)
Topics: values, sin, voltage, transients, grounded, circuits, wire, induced, integrals, cot, large values,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 3: 4. October 1924 pp 531-549. "The Stethophone," An Electrical Stethoscope. (Frederick, H.A.; Dodge, H.F.)
Topics: sounds, stethoscope, frequency, stethophone, heart, filter, electrical, transmitter, receivers,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 40: 2. March 1961 pp 489-508. Confocal Multimode Resonator for Millimeter Through Optical Wavelength Masers. (Boyd, G.D.; Gordon, J.P.)
Topics: resonator, confocal, diffraction, mode, maser, reflector, modes, losses, reflectors, field, bell...
Bell System Technical Journal, 44: 10. December 1965 pp 2245-2269. Computer Solutions of the Traveling Salesman Problem. (Lin, Shen)
Topics: optimal, tour, tours, traveling, cities, links, problem, computation, locally, reduction, optimal...
Bell System Technical Journal, 1: 2. November 1922 pp 1-32. Physical Theory of the Electric Wave-Filter. (Campbell, George A.)
Topics: artificial, impedance, impedances, formulas, lattice, bands, frequencies, iterative, attenuation,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 3. July 1939 pp 502-537. The Dielectric Properties of Insulating Materials, III Alternating andDirect Current Conductivity. (Murphy, E.J.; Morgan, S.O.)
Topics: conductivity, dielectric, polarization, frequency, constant, current, anomalous, ion, dispersion,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 51: 2. February 1972 pp 461-485. The Design and Embodiment of Magnetic Domain Encoders and Single-Error Correcting Decoders for Cyclic Block Codes. (Ahamed, S.V.)
Topics: magnetic, cyclic, block, domain, bubble, encoders, encoder, data, codes, bits, bell system, access...
Bell System Technical Journal, 56: 10. December 1977 pp 1829-1848. WT4 Millimeter Waveguide System: The WT4/WT4A Millimeter- Wave Transmission System. (Alsberg, D.A.; Bankert, J.C.; Hutchison, P.T.)
Topics: waveguide, repeater, transmission, system, protection, channel, mode, loss, switching, ghz,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 29: 2. April 1950 pp 147-160. Error Detecting and Error Correcting Codes. (Hamming, R.W.)
Topics: code, error, codes, positions, minimum, single, correcting, parity, check, detecting, code points,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 189-216. Cable Design and Manufacture for the Transatlantic Submarine Cable System (Lebert, A.W.; Fischer, H.B.; Biskeborn, M.C.)
Topics: cable, core, attenuation, armor, conductor, capacitance, jute, measurements, manufacture, diameter,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 50: 6. July-August 1971 pp 1859-1876. Antenna Spacing Requirement for a Mobile Radio Base-Station Diversity. (Lee, W.C.Y. )
Topics: antenna, spacing, antennas, incoming, broadside, diversity, signal, correlation, base, runs, mobile...
Bell System Technical Journal, 51: 10. December 1972 pp 2227-2228. Contributors to this Issue.
Topics: bell, university, mathematical, engaged, american, institute, optimization, society, engineering,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 54: 10. December 1975 pp 1681-1692. Material Structure of Germamium-Doped Optical Fibers and Preforms. (Presby, H.M.; Standley, R.D.; MacChesney, J.B.; O'Connor, P.B.)
Topics: fiber, preform, optical, cladding, germanium, refractive, deposition, fibers, steps, center,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 59: 2. Feb 1980 pp 161-168. Reliable, High-Speed LEDs for Short-Haul Optical Data Links. (Dawson, L.R.; Keramidas, V.G.; Zipfel, C.L.)
Topics: gaas, optical, leds, led, transmission, data, growth, substrate, doping, degradation, data...
Bell System Technical Journal, 13: 2. April 1934 pp 301-308. System Adaptation, Symposium on Wire Transmission of Symphonic Music and Its Reproduction in Auditory Perspective. (Bedell, E.H.; Kerney, Iden)
Topics: auditorium, reverberation, orchestra, frequency, sound, academy, microphones, loud, reproduced,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 36: 1 January 1957 pp 277-292. Power-Feed System for the Newfoundland-Nova Scotia Link (Thomas, J.F.P.; Kelly, R.)
Topics: equipment, voltage, equipments, current, output, link, power, cable, slave, master, power...
Bell System Technical Journal, 62: 8. October 1983 pp 2479-2492. High-Power Lasers and Optical Waveguides for Robotic Material-Processing Applications. (Lin, Chinlon; Beni, G.; Hackwood, S.; Bridges, T.J.)
Topics: laser, arm, optical, lasers, robot, waveguide, fiber, waveguides, fibers, articulating, slave arm,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 3. July 1930 pp 483-486. Transmitted Frequency Range for Telephone Message Circuits. (Martin, W.H.)
Topics: frequency, articulation, cutoff, range, trunks, syllable, circuits, cycles, transmission, upper,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 9: 3. July 1930 pp 429-447. A General Switching Plan for Telephone Toll Service. (Osbourne, H.S.)
Topics: toll, switching, circuits, center, intermediate, plan, circuit, transmission, repeaters, centers,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 18: 4. October 1939 pp 645-723. The Quantum Physics of Solids, I. The Energies of Electrons in Crystals. (Shockley, W.)
Topics: energy, electrons, quantum, atoms, atom, lattice, band, electron, magnetic, theory, wave functions,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 2: 1. January 1923 pp 1-46. Theory and Design of Uniform and Composite Electric Wave-filters. (Zobel, Otto J.)
Topics: impedance, impedances, transmitting, frequency, equivalent, frequencies, shunt, series, constant,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 51: 9. November 1972 pp 1933-1955. The Static Stability of Half-Bubbles. (DeBonte, W.J.)
Topics: stability, domain, cylindrical, magnetostatic, model, magnetic, platelet, energy, stable,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 43: 4. July 1964 pp 1311-1338. Electron Tubes for the SD Submarine Cable System. (Holdaway, V.L.; Van Haste, W. ; Walsh, E.J.)
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Topics: tube, tubes, cathode, cable, heater, amplifier, voltage, electron, system, reliability, amplifier...
Bell System Technical Journal, 50: 7. September 1971 pp 2421-2448. Crosstalk in Outside Plant Cable Systems. (Foschini, G.J.)
Topics: crosstalk, cable, capacitance, matrix, stochastic, data, simulation, unbalance, brownian, model,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 54: 1. January 1975 pp 17-45. Quasi-Ray Analysis of Crosstalk Between Multimode Optical Fibers. (Cherin, A.H.; Murphy, E.J.)
Topics: crosstalk, fiber, optical, transmission, fibers, thickness, fext, cladding, micrometers, power,...
Bell System Technical Journal, 60: 9. November 1981 pp 2235-2258. Fault-Simulation Methods - Extensions and Comparison. (Levendel, Y.H.; Menon, P.R.)
Topics: simulation, logic, values, deductive, faults, concurrent, signal, fault, lists, faulty, signal...