Connections: 6 -- Thunder in The Skies
- Publication date
- Time Life Education / Turner Learning / Time Life Video PO Box 85026 Richmond VA 23285-5026 USA (800)449-2010 (804)261-1300 http://www.timelifeedu.com
Details the changes in building construction and energy usage which occurred when the climate of Europe changed dramatically in the 13th century. ./ia mhow the scarcity of firewood contributed to the invention of the steam engine, which was the predecessor of gasoline - powered engines.
- 2015-07-13 23:43:04
- Thank. The. In seven hundred seventy three the French army. Ask an English I'm a called John group is that if you could solve the from the instead of firing their cannons kept on doing this. Country good for morale. It was probably the French connection. Bird Wilkinson to develop this a new way of boring cannon bottles and it is in the seventeenth of the for any diet works in stuff that you're back in England now much of what he did wasn't near he took a fall and costs on tandems on the grounds that if you make a gallon in one piece less likely to blow up the firing and the mounted horizontally and then using horsepower was an I hate funny. That was a new wants. What was new was that a screw in Congress the advancing a bar. To. Cutting head on the end of the Baths enters the cannon center and then boarded out. Now if you can do that. By this time. Just James what has been waiting long. In some things and the five thousand delivered the first to what works. It's. You know. It's a beautiful example of how innovation happens. Minding problems. The Brewers boiler condemned. One man. James what. Does. Not. Come together but the final form of the steam engine and. When it does that's when it causes widespread change to occur. This is the standard view of the industrial revolution the tonic machine. These machines in the industrial age. They did something else something new. Steam power began by changing the shape of the countryside with the mines and the factories it went on to change the people themselves. Genetically. Because when it was used for transportation on the new railway people started marrying much further afield not just go next door to Pavel bug hit everybody who's. Thanks to John Wilkinson cylinders steam power was to take people all over the world and now it would no longer matter to a ship's captain which way the wind was blowing with steamship likely he's still running on the Italian lakes. Why are we on an Italian lake. Well that's something else that has to do with work. Now the dynamic world of iron and the made a lot of people a lot of money including of course John Wilkinson the man from whom everybody bought their dimension summit which is just as well because he needed the cash but he didn't his brother in law did you see at the impressionable age of eighteen is Sister Mary married a man called Joseph Priestly a Protestant minister who failed in the pulpit because he had a stammer a bit of an amateur scientist who discovered oxygen and to judge by his letters. A real creep because he married Mary for her money and when he discovered she didn't have any Hispanic to her brother. Well been seventeen sixty seven. He in their refund selves living in Leeds. Look sort of Buri square priestly divided his time between preaching and sniffing scientifically around the place next door. Now during this scientific sniffing he discovered that there was a nine inch layer of gas floating about the beer in a vat and it does a mysterious things like plan doesn't open it and my diet is ether didn't seem to do very much a tall but before we had a chance to find out why it dropped a little bit into the beer and the birds fly him out but not before he had also discovered that if you pour the water one glass into another back and forth in the gas the gas went into the water and made sure he bubble. Tasted great. Priestley had invented soda water. The fact of the Navy refused to try it out as a possible cure for scurvy only whetted briefly that tight. By seven hundred seventy he was using gun barrels made by brother in law John A free of charge of course and heating substances up in them and exploding the gases it came off using the new electric spark that was around at the time when he got so excited about these banks he was making that he wrote to a fellow investigator that it begins over to just receive your tool that is because apparently they were sent with an Italian thing it was only just got here and then goes on to detail the rest of his new discoveries. And this letter is why we are on a lake in northern Italy because it was sent to a man called Alexandra Volcker who lived here. Income and quite by accident the letter arrived in just the right place at just the right time it. Was the right place. Because coma was surrounded by marshland and what happened next has to do with the fact that marshland can be very honest Illsley. Just the right time because one precludes letter arrived. Valda had just finished inventing a new way of making the spark that Priestley was using to explode is gas is where it was a kind of portable electricity generator and it were to turn out to be absolutely vital in the business of identifying bad smells. Let me explain. Priestley's letter sent vulgar off on a trail that everybody else is on of the time investigating what kind of gas is all mixed up in air that some people like Priestley got substances burned them and exploded the gases that came off other people. But acid on metal and looked at a few. Volta Well he went fishing in seventeen seventy six. His boat was in a an area of read in a marsh a part of Lake majority when I couldn't help noticing that some bubbles are coming up with a lot. I say he couldn't help noticing it because the smell practically made him throw up. But in true investigative style he approached the mysterious stuff with a lighted taper. Much get me things only volatile called it. Inflammable air when I was at this point he got out his portable electricity machine. Pretty much all that was known about electricity at the time was that if you rub certain substances they gave off sparks now. Valter chose this substance it's a cake made of three parts. Turpentine and one part wax and if you rub it with a CAT scan. Briskly like this. And then put this lid on top of it and then make contact between the maid and the Middle Bass like that that live now has a fairly stiff charge of static electricity in it and it will retain that charged almost permanently which is why vote to call this is eternal and interested in machine. Now Voltaire used to carry this charge later on as a power source for is next invention which was very stiff on proof these idea of using an electric spark to explode gas it's only vulture did it with style. He had himself a glass perform aid the two wires from the outside run in to the inside where they almost meet what you do is you fill the purple up with inflammable there put a cork in the end of it then very carefully. Earth that wire and bring the lid over until it touches the other wire at which point the current runs down the wire jump across the gap forms a spark ignites the inflammable air and. Vulgar. Had two great ideas immediately the first was to turn this into the new terror weapon the electric blast bomb never got anywhere of course but the second was that this was an excellent instrument for finding bad air because he's already proved that bad air exploded at the time everybody thought that malaria came from bad air marshal Ardea Italian for bad air so for the next thirty years people went around poking the new instruments that of cesspits bugs dung heaps. Sewers you name it it was indescribably awful they'd sniff it. Now the bad air brigade became really rather fashionable Napoleon and his North African campaign. Ordered a bad smell map of Egypt to be made now there's a thought because they were on the wrong trail. Malaria had nothing at all to do with bad air so in the long run the electric Crystal was a bit of a flop and there it might have ended. Except for what happened about eight hundred fifty in the Arctic Ocean. By then these Yankee whaling ships were having to go up to the north Pacific to find wild the Atlantic was almost pushed out so the price of oil oil for lamps was rocketing. And eight hundred fifty nine a bogus Army Colonel dug a hole in Pennsylvania and found the amps are. All our hero's name was Edwin Drake and thanks to him that be only lamps forever well what else could you do with it. Now I'm sorry to do this to you but do you remember priestly any soda water. Well and guess where he's going to water went over very big Germany in the health resort full of people taking their punishment I mean cured with Teutonic current gallons of sulphur water forced down with every mouthful of letters no wonder they went for precisely that you ever tried straight sulphur water anyway it was that one of the spot that something got on to that all they discovered in America something that involves priestly yet again. This is a funny little workshop and I got it in a spot on in Germany. It's called BUT hundred stocks and it's in what is now a suburb of modern Stuttgart. And it was here with a couple of men called got blue diner and Vilhelm may bar found another use for all that was to produce one of our modern world most vital and most commonplace events and both men and up until he needed to work for the company that made auto emissions they were used to power everything from sewing machines to to saws you had a cylinder with a piston it as the person went down it sucked in a mixture of town gas and air. Then the person can back up again and compress the mixture you let the mixture it exploded it pushed the piston down again just going back up yet again this time pushing the exhaust fumes out and then when it went down again. It brought in a new fresh mixture and the cycle continues. There are two things wrong with that one way to turn and two you couldn't go anywhere with it because you have to stay connected to supply of time get at what time and may bark did was to replace the town gas air mixture with a byproduct of oil called gasoline which explodes easily too easily. This was their first attempt here in a generic three Maybach designed a system to pass. Hot air which came in here over the top of gasoline which is being pumped up from a reservoir down here and as a hot air passed over it picked up the gasoline fumes and the mixture went on round and into the engine cylinder. Now the other end of that hot too but their dicks into the cylinder and it's the other end of that hot tube that causes the mixture to explode. Now the strength of the explosion depends on the mixture and you said that pretty well once and for all with this air valve here and then you try to laugh at your one and only speed. It was eight hundred ninety two but may bark made his really great invention and this is where Christie comes back into the story to see Priestley's work on various kinds of air instead of water and so on excited a great deal of interest among the medical circles and they decided that bad there cause disease and in order to get rid of the bad air they've turned to spent sprays to fumigate places like hospital rooms now the since brain works very simply uses bald here to pump air through a tiny nozzle in the middle of that nozzle it narrows for a moment after that precise point the air speeds up and its pressure drops at that point you injected just a perfect now because the air is at low pressure the per few atomizes into tiny droplets and you get a spray like that. And that is precisely what made Buck did. With his invention with the gasoline. This is it it's called a copywriter. Now the great thing about the Congress that is it was it you can regulate the mixture. Exactly and since it's in a very fine spray the explosion is a very efficient ones and that's why it was the carburetor that gave the Dana Motor Company its head start over every other rival. I said Dame about I had stopped well in a manner of speaking because I still left the custom of the problem of getting any kind of stuff. Still if you press a V. and of me. By eighty nine to find anybody who was anybody had one of the new horseless carriage. By eighty ninety six the new friends I even stopped making you have a guy with a tank but the flag. By one thousand nine hundred nine it became obvious that igniting the mixture was a matter of great precision especially when a person was going up and down the thousand times a minute and the old hot tube method just wasn't good enough more often than not it just stayed red haunt and it ignited the mixture premise you only when the piston was in the wrong position and sometimes it blew up because it was one of Daimler's distributors a man called yella Nick who pushed hard for a new form of ignition and in one thousand nine hundred nineteen are adopted a system that was the direct descendant of bulk as possible because in this engine the ignition happens because I'm an electric spark in the fans and everything comes together. New commands piston Drake's all the scent spray and vultures pistol. And it was such an amazing success when they rested on tracks like the but the company was so pleased that they called it after the daughter of the distributor who had the idea in the first place and Hyundai M. was misstated. Now. Daimler's engines didn't just go into cars he did an awful lot of demonstrations with the engine in in boats so it didn't come as a surprise to the company went in nineteen hundred and one they got an order from a fellow who was living on the edge of a lake in Austria. Humph. This is a short story of one village own craft show because he didn't offline He was a piano maker who gave up tickling the Ivory's in favor of designing a new terror weapon for the Austrian Navy took the idea to be honest and sold it to the Emperor in spite of the fact that O.C. and didn't actually have an easy at the time. Back home only to the lake outside town crest started assembling his infernal machine and ordered a Daimler engine which he said had to be of an absolutely exact power and exact weight. Unfortunately somebody at the factory blue and sent him an engine twice as heavy as horrible crimes I don't pull. Out in one thousand nine hundred one crest launched his contraptions and a massive engine to massive chunking he splattered along far too slow to skip over some dead bodies the suddenly soft posting this half the after I asked the rewards of G.-D.. Is. Still a lot of people did take up the idea of using an engine the way Chris had well not quite. It was to be another thirty years or so before the gasoline motor car engine was dropped in favor of another one and even then the new one still use Maybach fuel system on the fence spray idea the latest versions of that engine cruise along carrying hundreds of people that speed that Chris could never of thought possible they crossed the oceans of the world without a thought for floating debris. Turning holiday making into the world's fastest growing industry with ports of call in every country so that's where this train of events has brought us to our present day invention. Capable of annihilating different of people the direct modern descendent the peaceful variety of Villa held press its failure is that. The Congo the modern jet aircraft and all that that implies because we're filling home Cress is trying to do was to get a seaplane off the water of that lake in Austria and how do you done so it would have beaten the Wright Brothers first flight by two years. And instead of a couple of American bicycle mechanics all the glory all the blame would have gone to an Austrian piano make a good current he could fly. With. It's the we saw. The for. Private little place in it. There used to be like everybody used to sleep in the hall but with separate fireplaces sleep and then dressing and six became things you only did in private. Our modern preoccupation with privacy. Starts Here. So discipline in a hot fire hot water. Bath. Over got too cold to go to the toilet outside Well you could always try one of these indoor portable varieties no padded seat or when to use or you could build yourself one of those rather rude. Half inside half outside affairs like that for the bridle. In the fourteenth century you could eat in your private dining room by the fire and hygiene. Began to affect table manners you washed your hands before didn't you use the fork there were separate table settings and there were separate chairs instead of benches and their used table in it already is remarkably modern. And of course the kitchen again. Thanks to the fireplace a separate room. Via the fifteenth century they knew enough about hot air going up the flute to put turbine engine and run roasting spit split them via gears and the drive train on a bicycle and after the fire boss of the turbine spin quicker than me turn doesn't get that pleasure. I. Must admit it is a very nice piece of property. But why it matters so much to our story is that in every single one of its heated rooms it had this I'd last window. But it had so many more glass windows than anybody else. But at the time this place was known as hard to recall more glass than Wall. Now this is just one of the places that got built in the great sixteenth century property boom and as the housing went up before it came down. To. It and these guys were the villains of the piece the people cutting down trees to make charcoal for fuel for their glass making furnace is to make the windows everybody wanted so much what was going up in smoke the government passed laws to try and save the forest for the people who'd be really without words the Navy. By the beginning of the seventeenth century thing that got different that had to be somewhere else the glass negatives go and chop their firewood. And then they found the ideal place. See glass making needs fanned and would mainly And that's just what it was tons of here and in sixty eight it was all absolutely free. The one year old colony at Jamestown Virginia was built on a forest you could see the wood for the tree so the master plan was to send glass make it over here to get on with it. By the boatload. If you think about it. Things must have been pretty far gone to try have brains key MARGARET I mean four thousand miles in a leaky boat to make glass surrounded by Indians and wild animals. Well they managed to talk and grand total of eight. Idiots into coming to blow bubbles in America but one hard winter and they all gave up. The plot now shifts from glass to Iran for one of the oldest reasons in the world. We come now to one of those deeply meaningful moments in history when things change because of the basic drives in mankind you know I believe in progress. Fundamental insight into the nature of things a dog and persistence in making ideas work and joy of discovery that's one thing the extraordinary change over to happen because of the failure to bring But the blast make it here the job done was the result of one of those visions people have in this case the desire to make as much as possible as fast as possible of the stuff. Money. So if you're ready for a devious tale of the upper crust on the mic it goes about fifty years before Jamestown Queen Elizabeth was desperate to make. Their own canon. For the defence of the realm and to be because you've got a cost and the profit now you need copper to make bras and we in England didn't have very much of that so some German miners was an idea what they might because it came over and in fifteen sixty six sound copper Now the other thing Elizabeth want to do is to get the world market back on its feet. So she could tax it but she didn't have enough brass to make these Canyon terms essential in the production of oil. So some more German miners with an eye to financial gain. Came over and in fifteen sixty six they found. Calamine one of the essential ingredients in making brass near Bristol now the middle making boom that followed. Used wood for furnace feel just as fast as the glass make is that and then in sixty nine hundred eleven and Sir Edward that a crusty courtier with an eye for a fast buck. Says me and my partners of come up with an absolutely brilliant solution. Let's use coal to make bluffs so that's gives the King one thousand pounds and in return the king gives out some of the police are using a new conference to make less well than doubt runs out of money and along comes a certain So Robert Manne fellow who gets what and coal mines. Who gives out some more money to bail out these debts and buys them out. One year later. Menthol gets the king and midstream as of bribery. To make it illegal to make glasses in the thing but the cold and then he really starts pointing it. Brilliance of people did two men so gets hauled up before a court by his competitors and listening to him on the jury as a certain Vikrant Grandison who hearing all about these things immediately goes into the lucrative business of coal furnace is well his grandson eventually sets up using coal to smell. Lived in the Bristol and then one day when he doesn't pay his partners and what he owes them one of them leaves him and goes off and starts nothing comparable. Also near Bristol. So by now and Bristol is a great deal of copper and calamine and brass begins to look very profitable so in the sixteen ninety nine a young Quaker called Abraham Darby turns up he knows about bras because he's been making most bills for the people who make. The beer so he decides as a lot of money to be made in brass household utensils which he make until it is as adults making a great deal more out of iron pots so he goes into that in seventy nine hundred nine he moved to nearby Colebrook Dale but he said there's a lot of good cold to be has not very much money now because these old mates in the brewing business used coke to dry them all. He tries. Coke in his furnace and because a coke is pure he makes I am without impurities in it and everybody but everybody wants to buy it so here we are at a totally new way of making Iran thanks to inventive genius. And of course that that that that that that that that a lot of that film with the story. All this mining activity in England have created a totally new kind of problem and Abraham Dobby clever resourceful Rich was just amount of solving. The problem. Dobbie didn't really come first appeared here of the Cornish cut. Most of the mines. Southwest to Bristol went out into the sea so they flooded. By seventeen hundred the funding was so bad the mining industry here within a state of crisis. The crisis is resolved by a couple of fellows having in start whose livelihood depended on the mine one was an Iron Monger called Thomas Newcomen and the other one was this partner song Caylee who was a plumber now. Newcombe and knew about the flooding in the mines because he did business with them so what he did was to put together a few ideas that I know a dozen people had tried before and failed with interviews one new major components and haven't suffered disaster thanks to them and said I'm exactly how to make the thing work properly. Part of why it worked was because of the bridge they were boiling up among in foreigners made of copper which would take plenty of heat and pressure so you can grab that idea to help him with his idea. This is a result the Newcomen engine. But new Common did was to build a cylinder with a piston inside it and then underneath that he put a boiler of the kind of the local brewery. Is new component was that fixing the top of the facility to a show and tricky little chain for the great beam says it as it pleased or up and down the aisle or any less of the water up from the mine. How we made it work was like this around the cylinder. He built a jacket. With cold water inside it keep the temperature of the cylinder doubt right the theme comes up from the boiler into the coal cylinder where it condenses that makes a vacuum and the atmospheric pressure on top of the piston then person to person down into the vacuum when it's right at the bottom the weight on the other end of the beam. Lips a person back up again. More Thing comes in and the cycle continues. I didn't work all that well and then one day the cylinder develop the league and the water in the jacket went through the lake into the cell and the precise moment it was full of steam causes them to condense instant failure made such a good vacuum that the president came rolling down the cylinder went to the bottom of that under very tough on the boiler and the minute you came and saw that he knew were going to deny my bottoms of another senator know just as the sun was a system that permitted a controlled the just of cold water to go in for the cylinder each time filled with see the lid on it cycles he got a good vacuum and a faster stroke. The engine went into the minds of for the first time in seventeen twelve and it was an instant and total success everybody wanted one. I'm not going to come in a really big headache because they've been making the cylinders out of brass and in those days brass was way too expensive. So somehow somewhere a keeper cylinder had to be found. You remember the fellow I told you about Abraham Darby gone off to make I am parted Colebrook tale near Bristol. Well this is where he comes back into the story because this is co-director by the time you come and was looking for a cheaper metals and Brock for his cylinders Darby's crowd here at come up with the answer. Remember Darby used coke fire and melted on coke clean hoax humans don't see the melting on and furnace so it comes up pure and strong enough to make cheap cylinders for new command engine. Well you can guess where we go next for a minute or two anyway the steam engine. But to get their took to coincidence. The first one happened when the Newcomen engine had been working happily all over the place for about fifty years in seven hundred sixty three there was a a model of the Newcomb an engine like this one in Glasgow University and it broke down so they asked the university repairman to fix it. While he was fixing it he realized that the new committee in June was really not as efficient as it could have been for this reason. As the jet of water came into the main cylinder to condense the steam it also called the cylinder down so the next time his team came into the cylinder it began to cadenza little bit early and that repeated each time the cycle occurred in the still got colder and colder. He realized that what you have to have a cylinder that would do two jobs at once said to be boiling hot so the stream wouldn't start going to internally and it had to be cold enough when necessary to condense the steam and you can't do that with one cylinder so he built another one connected to the mains of and it was a tomb around that second cylinder he ran cold water to keep the temperature down and he had a pump there in order to get a vacuum and senator. OK this team comes into the main cylinder and it sucked immediately into the second cylinder where it condenses instantaneously the vacuum them form through the whole system and the main person comes down the man who developed that separate condensor was called James Watt and he now had a machine that was so efficient that the precision with which the cylinders were made just wasn't up to it. They first and then have a good fit Lee wobbled around it took one more step before what could say that he had a full blooded efficient steam engine and that next step. Happened because of some trouble. Artillery Regiment were having in front. Of. You. All right. This is many people's vision of the world of the future. In many ways it represents the world we already live in massive complex. The end product of everything technology can do a structure that depends for its existence on the production line in the world the production line has generated that production line has done many things to it by giving everybody everything everybody else the same house he's the same daily routine of work the same cost to go to that work the same dependent on the clock the same cities crisscrossed by roads that fill up twice a day the same view of the world from the same television set the same hopes dreams and passions because of the production line the world we live in has two faces one is of immense for right to travel anywhere from eight food from the other side of the world see the world from the comfort of your own living room dressed like a peacock. All you need is money. The other space to our life isn't very to talk because erm that only works if you have the energy unit and everybody's energy comes from the same limited source. This planet. That energy is a common file that warns us all as the world is becoming more and more interdependent. More people rely on the same file from the same well the same electricity grid the same boiler in the basement we take it for granted and we use it as if it were on limited because we like to be warm. Happen to us if it runs up how we manage it's the cold comes again. As it did once before. Why. Take a self back in two years to another common fire burning in the isolated from steads of northern New York. In their manor houses the Saxons at the gathering and at night. Everybody including the animals. Slept together huddled around that fire the population was small scattered in lonely communities across the land. Each man are making its own closing too. Sharing but that alone was. Not alone. That guy may sound a bit weird to you but the travelling. Oh it was a kind of wondering newspaper bringing Tories of the outside world into their lives. Few people ventured our pastor local field beyond those fields lay nothing but forests full of bogeyman you knew that because the story teller told you so. No houses. No companionship. No people. Above all no consume and share work and food on the fire. One of the reasons these tiny communities went on existing atoll was because I had plenty to eat because the weather was warmer than the now so the growing season was longer. It didn't last. Thanks to something extraordinary that happened after. And the incredible thing is it started here in the frozen north. Another one of those totally unforeseeable events unfolding things change in this case the trigger was either something that happened on the surface of the sun or deep in the ER. Because it was either luck and sunspots or a lot of volcanic activity the cause of the weather to change. Everything changed. Its He never knows for sure but there appears to be a connection between some spots and the weather left but less heat. And volcanic eruptions. Beulah vast veils of dust that hangs over about thirty miles up in the atmosphere and effectively screen out the sun's heat. Whichever it was that was suddenly white Christmas time where I hadn't been before. Let me give you a small meteorology lessen the temperature drops that makes more ice up here in the frozen land north of the Arctic Circle and when that happens. Blast years like this one I'm on now. Start expanding and start to move stuff. That's what happened in the thirteenth century and there's these cold regions expanded so too did the pack ice out of the growing moving south by Toll fifty there were icebergs in the Atlantic where none had ever been seen before and land that had been fertile for solid That's when Greenland stop being green and started being the color it is today. This color. Now all this ice and snow here in the frozen north. Cause the track of the Atlantic depressions to swing stuff and that's when the rest of Europe got it did he get it. All those monastic chroniclers stop spreading rumors about what you have it was up to and started writing things like but I got it cold by thirty eight hundred if you had buttons you know buttoned up the rivers and lakes froze solid everywhere it was like you were suddenly living five hundred feet higher up than you had been. Worst of all the bad weather hit the food supply. The wheat it was either too wept for you to throw it or you have the harvested unfolding read and then without adequate drying systems that we went mostly on you. Now why that was bad news but because this bread with King of the diet. Everything else you Ed was quite literally known as only something that goes with bread. But for my money but was infinitely worse with this. It got too cold. To go vines north of France and that was the end of the shuttle bottle fruit a little numbers from England. I said a change in the weather had a widespread effect but not because of the food and drink because it got too damn cold to stay alive in winter unless something pretty serious was done pretty quick. That something may well be in your home today but when it originally appeared the first thing it did was to change the shape of the old manor house remember for good. Thanks to the weather in this part of the world the kicked off the Medieval I say. Only about six generations after the mini ice age thirteen the upper classes in England were living in places like this. Hardly call Darvish are built for the Countess of Shrewsbury on money from her three has been in fifteen ninety seven. Percent of lesson it amazingly modern I mean buildings hardly changed since that and it is very different from that man a house you just saw. You could probably pick up a place like this for about a million bargain really. Let me show you what you'll get for your money. Most of it because of that big freeze up back in the fourteenth century the very first thing I did when it started raining a lot. Was still a paving to save themselves from you know walking in a sea of mud outside the houses. I know we can't integrate all featuring an invention which you probably take for granted but which back in the twelfth century with the very latest improvement think about it it's snowing a blizzard outside. You've got to keep warm but how do you fix the fire has its own dropped so that you don't have to keep the doors open all the time and freeze to death what do you give a file so that it has its own draft beer a chimney and nobody knows where they got the theory from to build the chimney from metal work as or smoothie but what a difference it made. Look at this. That's the plan of the old man of all you saw just now and this is a plan of this as one of those rooms now you don't build those rooms unless you can keep them. The idea was that if you put a fire up against the wall like that why not put a fire on the other side of the wall they could both use the same flu you get to fires for the price of one. Well the first major change the chimney caused with the separation of a Class A lot of the ladies left the bedding down here in the great hall to the dogs in the servants and passing strangers and cleared off to live in their own private apartment and the upper and lower classes never came close again. Cozy little offices to think this is the next kind of room they put a fireplace into so that the scribes could do all their work right through the winter without the the ink freezing in their own quells which it had done before. That did the European economy a real favor you know I mean being able to conduct your business. Right the way through the year. But. I don't like a staircase. What's new about that it is she with fires in every room you could build up just as well as you could build out. Kept downstairs of course up to warmer it was getting so cold that even the painters noticed it. Tell you we're going to broil frozen pond snow everywhere. Little Village with the chimney pots working see now that was only worth printing because it was a totally new experience being that cold. Indoors they hung clock on the wall the key about the draft and later on they turn into these fancy tapestry and they put rugs everywhere even on the table. The kept their bodies warm with two major thirteenth century inventions is a bit of that instant Riyadh very nice too but look at the virgins doing see one of those two inventions. Knitting. The second invention also kept people pretty snug. Buttons and a lot of people died of cold. And now we come to the High great chamber. Not bad for living with it and everything again done from all the world are massing on the floor on Look here under the tapestry would always getting good against drugs and a virus you will this very beautiful plasterwork That's the original in a mini ice age idea the first place I put it around the chimney because it was fireproof and they put it on the walls to block up the truck to crack then finally they molded it painted it like that. And as peoples into all I've got warmer the habits change and started playing more games like backgammon draft shuffle board there's a lot more music a lot more reading a lot more intellectual activity in general. More furniture. But the place where the biggest change took place was here in the bedroom. Private little place in that there used to be like everybody is asleep in the hole.
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