In this article, we consider the classification of single-component sentences by factors. The classification of one-component sentences by factors is more convenient and scientifically substantiated, since the classification is carried out sequentially and according to one common basis. In addition, such a classification allows us to introduce the concept of typological equivalent into typology. This article also considers four factors of one-component sentences in Russian and Uzbek languages. The following factors of one-component sentences (OP) were identified: contextual speech factor, communicative and informative factor, lexico-structural factor, morphological and constructive factor.