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Ponge’s library

This collection has been created to make available to everybody old papers (journal articles and book chapters) gathered during the 50 years of my scientific career and not digitalized until now. This collection embraces a wide array of publications in the various fields of soil science, but not only, ecology and evolution being also present.



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Millipedes permanently transport large amounts of hydrophobic, mostly not ornamented (smooth) conidia of many species of Streptomyces adhered to the tarsal region of their legs. On the latter Streptomyces spp. are only passive travellers, using the animal as vector to their dissemination, and, in general, they do not occur actively either on external or m internal (gut-) habitats of the millipedes' body at all. The fresh faecal pellets of Ch. projectus always contain dense populations of...
Topics: Diplopoda, gut-actinomycetes, Promicromonospora
The aggregated horizontal distribution of earthworms was investigated in 200 fields on 100 farms throughout Scotland using Taylor's power law. Results indicated that the index of aggregation b was relatively consistent for juvenile and adult earthworms from both pasture and arable fields. It is suggested that before statistical analysis the most appropriate transformation for these populations would be a cube-root transformation.
Topics: aggregation, earthworms, Taylor's Power Law, transformation
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Ectomycorrhizae were formed by pond pine after 4 months in monoxenic culture with Amanita muscaria, Cenococcum graniforme, Laccaria laccata, Pisolithus tinctorius, Suillus brevipes, S. cothurnatus, S. granulatus, S. hirtellus, and S. pictus. Phylloporus rhodoxanthus formed a fungal mantle but no Hartig net. Macroscopic characteristics which were used for distinguishing among species of fungi forming mycorrhizae in this study were type of branching, color of mycorrhizae, and production of...
Topic: Soil science
The assimilation rates of 8 central European species from different diplopod families were measured by feeding with natural leaf litter. Furthermore, the fine structural features of the mandible's gnathal lobe and the faeces of the mentioned species were examined by SEM. The average values of the assimilation rates show a linear dependence on the tooth density of the pectinate lamellae on the gnathal lobe. The teeth of the pectinate lamellae most likely determine the food size. The highest...
Topics: assimilation, Diplopoda, fine-structure, gnathal lobe, mandible, pectinate lamellae
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by Jean-François Ponge
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The distribution of British millipedes and centipedes in relation to soil type and soil stratum is briefly reviewed. The presence of water in the soil, in creating problems of endosmotic uptake, oxygen lack and immobilization by surf ace tension, is considered an important factor determining this distribution. Geophilomorph centipedes have solved these problems by waterproofing their cuticle with a superficial film of lipoid; Iulid millipedes are similarly waterproofed but, unlike...
Topic: Soil science
Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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Leaf litter was incubated in a mineral soil in the presence or absence of mature Porcellio scaber. The invertebrate caused an increase in the numbers of bacteria, ammonifying bacteria, actinomycetes and protozoa in the soil. The decomposition of 14C-labelled Lemna gibba was significantly increased by the presence of P. scaber as determined by the total label remaining in the soil and the changes in sugars. 14C-labelled faeces derived from L. gibba decomposed at a slower rate than the plant...
Topics: 14C-Lemna gibba, decomposition, faeces, Porcellio scaber, woodlice
Inspection of the gut contents of 106 symphylans (Symphvlella sp.) collected from 7 grassland sites in the central United States revealed that, of the 58 animals with food inclusions, 94.8 % had been feeding on animal prey. Most gut contents were comprised of soft-bodied arthropods (prostigmatid, acarid, and nymphal oribatid mites, collembolans, and symphylans) and nematodes. Fungal material was a minor component of gut contents, typically single spores or small packets of fungal material with...
Topics: Arthropoda, gut content, Nematoda, omnivore, predators, Scolopendrellidae, Symphyla, Symphylella
Groups of Porcellio scaber were allowed to choose between leaves of the same age and the same tree species but from differents sites. For these choice experiments chips of 1cm2 were cut from senescing leaves of Acer platanoides and from litter leaves of Fagus sylvatica. The consumed parts of about 850 chips were determined gravimetrically and used as a measure of food preference. P. scaber was able to identify not only senescing leaves from the same tree individual but also chips from the same...
Topics: Acer platanoides, Cd, Cu, decomposition, Fagus sylvatica, food-choice-experiment, fungi, heavy...
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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A review of available techniques for sampling populations of earthworms was made and the primary methods experimentaly compared over a three year period. The accuracy of these techniques varies with: species, season, stage of earthworm development, activity level, physical nature of the soil, particulary soil temperature and humidity, method of handling the soil sample, and the correction of the data and final computation of numbers. Most estimates of community dynamics are biased and, though...
Topic: Soil science
Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
Journal article
Topic: Soil science
The gut contents of 224 specimen of Pterostichus oblongopunctatus and of 64 specimen of Pterostichus rnetallicus were analyzed and quantified. The carabid beetles were captured in 1969 with pitfall traps in the ca. 125-years old beech forest (Bla) of the Soiling research area of the German IBP/PT project. The results show that (1) P. oblongopunctatus und P. rnetallicus are mainly carnivorous. Their diets differ only slightly. (2) No preference for special food items can be observed. (3) The...
Topic: Soil science
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Journal article
Topic: Soil science
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The ability of Populus tremuloides Michx. to form ectomycorrhizae with identified species of fungi was investigated using a pouch technique. Twenty-nine out of 54 fungus species formed ectomycorrhizae on aspen seedlings. Aspen seems to display little specificity for ectomycorrhizal fungi. Only epidermal Hartig nets were observed in the synthesized ectomycorrhizae and periepidermal ones were frequently encountered. Structural and morphological characteristics of ectomycorrhizae are presented by...
Topic: Soil science
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In a forest ecosystem experimentally tagged with Cs-137, the trophic dynamic aspects of arthropod food chains are being investigated using radiotracer techniques. Cesium-137 concentrations in organisms in isotopic equilibrium with food have shown progressive reduction during dispersion through food chains, although the fractional transfer between food and consumer increased with each successive trophic level. The distribution of other alkali metals in arthropod food chains varied from that of...
Topic: Soil science
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Feeding activity of the diplopod Rossiulus kessleri Lohm. (Julidae, Diplopoda), predominating in the steppe zone of the European part of the USSR is considered. Diplopods are found to utilize a number of leaf and grass litters and show clarly expressed food preferenda. Growth rates and terminal sizes of diploids differ widely on separate food sources under experimental conditions. Distribution of R. kessleri, their population densities and biomass in relation to the composition of...
Topics: assimilation efficiency, diplopods, food preferenda, growth rate
Crustacea Oniscidea have been studied in a deciduous forest of Quercus sessiliflora of the West of France. Among the five species of this sub-order, Philoscia muscorum and Oniscus asellus are found in the greatest proportion. The biomass of each species changes seasonally while the total biomass remains steadily close to 20 kg ha-1. The annual consumption of dead leaves has been estimated at about 7 per cent of the mass of dry leaf litter; a corresponding amount of 5 per cent of this initial...
Topics: biomass, faecal pellets, forest ecosystem, Oniscida, soil litter degradation
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When rearing Oniscus asellus L. on maple leaves (Acer platanoides L.) it was observed that the isopods fed on different parts of a leaf in the order: 1. parts with colonies of the fungal tar spot disease (Rhytisma acerinum Fr.), 2. parts without visible fungal colonies (referred to as "plain surface"), 3. veins. The C/N ratio was lowest in the colony parts, and highest in the veins. The numbers of fungi and bacteria developing on agar plates were about 1/3 in samples from the colony...
Topics: food selection, isopod, maple leaf, metabolism, microorganisms, Oniscus asellus
Bacteria associated with the hepatopancreas of the woodlice Oniscus asellus L. and Porcellio scaber Latr. are gram positive and non-acid fast rods. They occasionally attain lengths up to 37.5 µm, although the majority are much shorter having a mean length of 3.20 and 2.00 µm, respectively, and a diameter of 0.3 µm. Bacteria are associated with the microvillous layers of the hepatopancreas cells. Not all the individual woodlice examined possessed bacteria and there was a considerable...
Topics: endosymbiont, gutflora, hepatopancreas, Oniscus asellus, Porcellio scaber, woodlice
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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The abundance and species composition of earthworms have been studied in the soil of different vegetation types in coniferous forests. The study is a continuation of a similar study on Enchytraeidae previously published. The abundance varied from less than 10 to ca. 40 individuals per sq.m in iron podsol and from ca. 60 to 260 in semipodsols and brown earth. The dominating speeies were Dendrobaena octaedra and Lumbricus rubellus. The former species was most abundant in semipodsol, the latter in...
Topic: Soil science
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
Rhizosphere microfloras of Cenococcum graniforme (Sow.) Ferd. and Winge mycorrhiza of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco), of one type of ectotrophic mycorrhiza of red alder ( Alnus rubra Bong.), and of nonmycorrhizal suberized roots of both tree species were investigated. Microbial populations and the most probable numbers of ammonifying and nitrate-reducing microbes differed qualitatively and quantitatively between rhizosphere microhabitats. In manometric studies, homogenized...
Topic: Soil science
The neurosecretory and retrocerebral systems of Collembola are very similar to those of other Insects, especially of Pterygota: 10 to 15 neurosecretory cells are divided in lateral and central groups in every half of the brain; the nervi corporis cardiaci I have a chiasma as in other insects; the neurohemal organs are in relation with the aorta or with a cephalic blood sinus; the corpus allatum is composed of a few cells and innervated by a nerve which arises from the subesophageal ganglion....
Topic: Evolution
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Millipeds are among the more common land animals found preserved in the late Paleozoic (Pennsylvanian or Permian) limestones exposed in quarries at Hamilton, Kansas. One milliped, a euphoberiid diplopod, is known from more than 20 specimens. This milliped ranged in length to about 27 cm in life. Disarticulated portions of this euphoberiid have been found in a coprolite. An indeterminate fossil, perhaps representing a juliform diplopod, has also been found at this locality.
Topic: Evolution
The diameter of pores contained in aggregates and colonized by bacteria was mesured in three different soils: a rendzina, an acid brown soil and a chernozem. Results confirmed the hypotheses of Hattori (1976): the mean diameter of pores is close to 2 µm. The size of bacteria, although variable according to the soil, was always less than 1 µm: between 0.60 and 0.75 µm; but the d/D ratio (mean diameter of bacteria/mean diameter of pores) was constant, viz. 1/3. In the third part of this study,...
Topic: soil science
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Journal article
Topic: Soil science
The theoretical and practical limits of the problems concerning the analysis of the gut contents of earthworms are presented in their ecological context. A new method of analysis is described. The preliminary results on six Lumbricidae species reveal important variations according to species, variety, growth stage, physiological state and weather, and point out the need for parallel studies in matter of functional ecology.
Topic: Soil science
Gut extracts of various arthropods were incubated with different oligo- and polysaccharides. After hydrolysis the different monosaccharides were analyzed photometrically (glucose) or by Thin-layer chromatography. The quantity of the monosaccharides was assessed with regard to temperature and pH values. The spectrum of disaccharide-splitting carbohydrases is comparable to that of other known saprophages. Among the polysaccharides only starch was hydrolyzed by Oniscus asellus, whereas cellulose,...
Topic: Soil science
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Samples of carabid beetles were collected monthly between April and October 1986 in 68 deciduous woodlands selected on the basis of their vegetation composition and their geographical locality. Habitat selection patterns of the woodland carabid fauna were determined by a two-step procedure: (1) multivariate analysis of species abundance in each sampling site and (2) measurement of relations between carabid abundance and environmental descriptors. Results show the main influences on woodland...
Topics: carabid beetles, deciduous woodland, habitat selection, multivariate analysis, species communities
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A method for identifying plant cells in egesta of invertebrate soil detritivores is described. Its application to some species from the Western Desert of Egypt (an isopod, a dictyopteran and 2 snails) and another mesic isopod from a Cairo garden shows that the density and frequency of plant cell types in egesta can serve to compare digestibility. It can be a useful basis to establish quantitatively the relationship between consumption of various types of food (especially litter) and...
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Hadentomoides dwykemis, gen. et sp . nov. (Paraplecoptera: Hadentomidae) is the oldest recorded insect in the southern hemisphere. It is similar to Hadentomum americanum from the Upper Carboniferous of North America. The close relationship between these two species tends to support the view that at least part of the Dwyka Series extends below the Permian into the Upper Carboniferous.
Topic: Evolution
Investigations into mycotrophism of beech communities started a year earlier in Poland and were continued by the authors in 1959 in France. In the latter country investigations were but of a preliminary character aiming at selection of most adequate beech trees for carrying out subsequent thorough studies. In the course of these preliminary investigations the authors determined the chief mycotrophic characteristics of beech trees derived from 11 sites given herein. The sites were selected in...
Topic: Soil science
Thin sections were studied with a point-to-point counting method. Organic and mineral components and porosity were characterized, according to their optical properties, and compared each other in their relative frequency. Two burnt high heathland stations were compared in order to determine the influence of fire intensity or humus damages. These investigations showed that the Cap Frehel site humus which was intensively burnt in autumn, has been largely affected by fire; all organic matter was...
Topics: fire, heathland, humus, thin sections
Early Triassic coals are unknown, and Middle Triassic coals are rare and thin. The Early Triassic coal gap began with extinction of peat forming plants at the end of the Permian (ca. 250 Ma), with no coal known anywhere until Middle Triassic (243 Ma). Permian levels of plant diversity and peat thickness were not recovered until Late Triassic (230 Ma). Tectonic and climatic explanations for the coal gap fail because deposits of fluctuating sea levels and sedimentary facies and paleosols commonly...
Topic: Evolution
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Book chapter
Topic: Evolution
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
The influence of food and rearing temperature on the activities of digestive enzymes amylase (EC 3.2.1.1), xylanase (EC 3.2.1 .8) and cellulase (exo- and endo-beta-1,4-glucanases) were measured in the gut wall of both sexes of the millipede Glomeris hexasticha during spring period. Specific chromolytic substrata (S-Tests, Lehnice, Czechoslovakia) were used for the determination of enzymatic activities and investigated enzymes were largely of animal's own origin. The males of Glomeris hexasticha...
Topics: amylase, cellulase, digestive enzymes, food preference, millipede, sex, temperature, xylanase
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During its life cycle Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull passes through four phases: pioneer, building, mature, and degenerate. In each phase Calluna varies as to cover, biomass, and net productivity; the phase of Calluna affects the associated plant species, microclimate, and arthropod populations. In the pioneer phase, when the microclimate is most extreme, arthropods are numerous and spiders are at a maximum, but numbers for total Arthropoda are not as high as in the degenerate phase. In the...
Topic: Soil science
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Adsorption of ions in natural systems is quite complex and at present not completely understood. The complexity is due to the fact that natural systems are mixtures of various reactive surfaces. This in itself leads to chemical heterogeneity that affects ion adsorption. An extra complicating effect is that the sorbent components present in nature, like metal oxides or natural organic .matter are heterogenous in itself. The combination of various types of heterogeneity, with variable charge...
Topic: Soil science
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Ninety-nine species of wood-rotting basidiomycetes in the family Polyporaceae are reported to occur on eight species of North American spruces.
Topic: Evolution
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Following his experiments the author discusses the concepts of: - supplementary artificial light, - optimal photoperiod concerning coniferous seedlings, - relationships between soluble carbohydrates content and mycorrhiza-formation. The main results, concerning Cedrus atlantica, Pinus pinaster and P. silveslris are the following ones: - total length of long roots and total number of short roots have been found to vary much as does photoperiod, - percentages of mycorrhizal short roots increase...
Topic: Soil science
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Five soils representing some of the more important variations in the drumlin belt of north-central Ireland are studied. Three of the soils, aquepts, occur on drumlins and two, an aquept and an orthod, occur on associated rockland. Both groups of soils occur on corresponding parent materials but have contrasting morphological characteristics. Differences in chemical, physico-chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological properties are discussed. A tentative explanation for the varying...
Topic: Soil science
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Freshly collected isopods kept in the laboratory for 50 days on a natural wood diet maintained a rather constant population of about 18 X 10(4) platable microorganisms per gut. Aerobes and facultative anaerobes were prevalent, but no obligate anaerobes were recovered. Starvation or treatment with antibiotics drastically reduced this population, suggesting that microorgarrisms must be growing to maintain their population against digestion and elimination. Microbial growth during passage of food...
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Book chapter
Topic: Evolution
Swaby claims that amino acids, present as linking molecules between quinonoid structures in humic acid, are recoverable on acid hydrolysis. Evidence is given in this paper in support of this contention, for not only are amino acids released on acid hydrolysis, but, after electrolytic reduction, phenolic substances are found in the hydrolyzates both of natural humic acid (from peats and the clay fraction of a soil) and of a model catechol-glycine oxidation polymer. The presence of sugar...
Topic: soil science
The species composition of the bacterial microflora on partly decomposed leaves, in the intestinal tract of Oniscus asellus starved for 12 days, and on the 2-3 week old faecal pellets from Oniscus asellus was determined. The dominating elements in the intestine and on the faeces were the coryneform bacteria in contrast to the leaves, where pseudomonads formed the major group. These bacteria, known as suppliers of extracellular enzymes and essential amino acids, seem to be involved in...
Topics: bacteria, coprophagy, feces, intestinal tract, nutrition, Oniscus asellus
Journal article
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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A tuberculate mycorrhiza formed by two fungi in combination commonly occurs on Pseudotsuga menziesii vars. menziesii and glauca in the western coastal states and British Columbia. One fungus is a white Basidiomycete that infects a rootlet to form a compact, prolifically branched, ectotrophic mycorrhiza consisting of 20 to 2,000 mycorrhizal tips. The other is a Phycomycete that covers the aggregate of mycorrhizal tips with a dense, dark sheath. The two fungi spread together by means of...
Topic: Soil science
Journal article
Topic: Soil science
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In this review the interactions between plant, animal and microbial components of the soil biota are represented by a model which allocates a pivotal functional role to the large, abundant invertebrates which ingest or manipulate both organic and mineral material, forming long-lasting microstructures. These invertebrates are designated soil ecosystem engineers and it is argued using data on numerical and biomass densities, geographical distribution and known functional roles, that earthworms...
Topics: climate change, earthworms, ecosystem engineers, fertility, intensification, land use, restoration,...
Actinomycetes show a very characteristic distribution pattern in litter and millipede habitats. In the litter itself, streptomycetes predominate but they have only a subordinate role in the total bacterial community of the litter. Conidia of Streptomyces spp. tend to adhere to and accumulate on the hydrophobic surface structures of the exoskeleton of millipedes, where they can constitute more than 90 per cent of the total microbial passengers. In the digestive canal of millipedes there is an...
Topics: actinomycetes, Diplopoda, gut-flora, Promicromonospora
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by Jean-François Ponge
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The authors have almost always succeeded in identifying with certainty mycorrhizae produced by eight species of hypogeous fungi from among twenty eight fungal species found near the roots of various forest trees (pines, spruces, birches, oaks, hornbeams, hazelnuts, chestnuts, beeches, poplars, limes). Most of the samples were obtained in Piedmont localities. These mycorrhizal associations have been determined precisely: Elaphomyces muricatus with Fagus sylvatica and Castanea sativa, Genea...
Topic: Soil science
Journal article
Topic: Soil science
In the deciduous forest, litter is a fundamental part from a qualitative point of view as well as from a quantitative point of view. Predators such as ground-beetles influence the turn-over of organic matter when their prey are decomposers. The ecological role of carabid beetles has been studied at La Tillaie (Fontainebleau forest), an Asperulo-Fagion settled on a washed soil: we trapped 1079 Caraboidea belonging to four families and 12 species. Those captured showed a precise pattern of...
Topic: Soil science
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The main object of the research is directed towards the problems of forest site description and mapping. The authors give, in the FIRST PART of this paper, after a short description of the Ardennes, the pedological description of the sites studied. This research has a double purpose, first of all to present a set of observations on a series of little degraded beechwood sites which will be used as reference sites in further research; the final aim has in view the determination of the edaphic...
Topic: Soil science
The authors obtained mycorrhizal synthesis of Tuber maculatum with Pinus Strobus seedlings. In addition to an abundant production of the distinctive ectomycorrhizae peculiar to this fungus, young ascocarps of Tuber maculatum formed in inoculated pots before the third growing season. The experiment was carried out in two substrata: 1) calcareous sail + peat, 2) calcareous soil + peat + vermiculite. Mycorrhizae and ascocarps were formed in both substrata, though in the vermiculite substratum...
Topic: Soil science
ln the Bh horizons of podzols developed on the Vosgian sandstones, clay accumulations can be interpretated as a result of simultaneous podzolization and clay illuviation. Field experiments by lysimeters do verify the present reality of the two processes: dispersion and migration of fine clay minerals (smectites of degradation) translocated with percolating waters downward the spodic horizons, no clay particle migration in the acid brunified soil. As it is generally admitted that aluminous ions...
Topic: soil science
Journal article
Topic: Soil science
The chemical and biological characteristics of surface horizons of five forest soils (France) were measured at regular intervals of time for two years. Data were interpreted through the factor analysis method. Some variables showed significant seasonal variations; but others did not, the absence of signification being attributed to the involvement of uncontrolled factors. In spite of different types of variation which affected the biological characteristicsstudied here, surface horizons could...
Topic: soil science
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Book chapter
Topic: Soil science
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Samplings of the L-, FH-layers and mineral soil layers were carried out in the mature Scots pine stand at Ivantjärnsheden. The L-layer samples were sorted into different litter components and live roots were removed from the FH-layer samples. Analyses were thereafter made for carbon and the nutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium and sulphur. Analysis of organic components concerned water- and acetone soluble substances, Klason lignin, cellulose and...
Topic: Soil science
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Succession has been studied by various specialists, e.g. botanists, zoologists, pedologists, and others. It has been found out that plant succession depends on the soil development. It is also known that the development of soil types depends on certain soil animals. The present paper deals in more detail with the xeric succession of soil animals in connection with the general picture of the whole ecosystem succession. The xeric succession of soil animals begins with water-fauna, continues with...
Topic: Soil science
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by Jean-François Ponge
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Book chapter
Topic: soil science
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A carbon-nitrogen model has been constructed for some soil processes taking place in the FH-layer of a pine forest. It includes processes as decomposition, respiration, mineralisation, immobilisation and decomposers biomass formation. Most of the data used to construct the model was taken from the literature and a few from own measurements. A number of runs have been carried out. One of them is defined as the standard run. The other deal with the sensitivity of the model to changes in chosen...
Topic: soil science
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Nutrients in soil organic matter (SOM) are present within complex polymers and mineral-organo associations. Investigations into the chemical composition of SOM and the nutrient elements within it have only been partially successful and have not been linked to biological processes. Particle-size and density fractionation studies have provided insight into the architecture of soils and on the distribution and stability of SOM and nutrient elements. Such studies should be continued. Modern...
Topic: soil science
A comparative investigation on the humus located under a stand of Brachypodium silvaticum and under adjacent surfaces without herbaceous stratum, in a beech grove of Fontainebleau Forest, was. conducted on the following physical, chemical and biological characteristics: porosity, organic matter, C/N ratio, exchangeable bases, pH, mineralization of carbon, urease activity, mineralization of nitrogen in situ and in the incubator. Related to a higher porosity, a lower C/N ratio, a less acid pH, a...
Topic: soil science
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The morphological, physical, and chemical properties of nine, important, broadly defined Newfoundland forest soil types are described in this paper. The soils of the Avalon Peninsula are generally stonier, more compacted, and richer in silt and clay than those of western Newfoundland. Gleysols and gleyed podzols are the common soils on the Avalon Peninsula whereas orthic and peaty podzols are the common soils in western Newfoundland. In both sample areas the growth of balsam fir and black...
Topic: Soil science
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Journal article
Topic: Evolution
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Book chapter
Topic: soil science
We conducted a laboratory study using soil cores to determine whether anecic earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) burrow linings (the hydrosphere) are sites for enhanced carbon and nitrogen mineralization and increased microbial biomass and nematode abundance. We compared microbial biomass C, C mineralization rates, metabolic quotient, levels of inorganic N (NO3- and NH4+), and nematode abundance over the course of 11 weeks in soil from earthworm burrows, bulk soil away from burrows, and a control...
Topic: soil science