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Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation

The studies presented in this collection are related to the area of education in a very broad sense. They comprise experiments based on psychological, linguistic, and information science theories and models, which have been applied to both single individuals and samples.



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Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Abstract   There is a conviction among leading beer historians that Hildegard von Bingen introduced hops as additive in beer, although there exist several skeptical voices about it. The aim of this article is to give a contribution to the elucidation of some facts in this matter. Two texts were analyzed with Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), which captures internal relationships in texts. The first analysis concerned the widely referred translation of chapter 61 about the hop plant in...
Topics: Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), text geometry, translation, Hildegard von Bingen, middle...
This report is a fifth bibliographic account of literature concerning television as a technical aid in education and in educational and psychological research and contains materials published during the period 1971 to 1974. The references are classified according to 8 main categories, each having 4 subdivisions. The bibliography contains references, which are a result of computer search in the files of ERIC, ISI and SSCI. Dissertation Abstracts International and research literature available...
Topics: microteaching, television, computer search, technical aids
New types of information- and documentation systems are developed in most countries of the world. Several types of information have been available, but in spite of highly advanced techniques, no programs are yet handling multi-lingual information. This report presents a program, which separates titles of research documents automatically. The search program is based on the matching of specific cues in six languages, which coincide with patterns in the titles. It is shown that the English...
Topics: computational linguistics, computerbased lexicology, scientific information, language separation,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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Abstract In a quote of A.S. Eddington it is stated that “where science progressed the farthest, the mind has but regained from nature that which the mind has put into nature”. Selecting this kind of observed reality as central theme implies the assumption that present and future belong to the issue of reality. Further, an attempt to place the two German realities, which have emerged after WWII in the context of a new German reality, means defining modern political life in trans-reality...
Topics: Observed reality, German realities, World War Two, Reliability, Shaping, Human Knowledge,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This thematic overview presents some studies on the validation and verification of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA). The first section, containing the validation part, provides evidence for the hypothesis about the capacity of PTA to reflect specificity of ecologically specified observations in text production. The following section presents verification studies within various contexts and focuses on individual prerequisites and constraints that are at work when a person is put in a situation in...
Topics: verification, AaO-model, validity, comprehension, competence, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA),...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk &Jan Mattsson
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Modern behavioural research focuses on the possibility of a direct measurement of value preferences. These are conceived as important casual variables of behaviour. The article presents a method and a procedure for the measurement and representation of human value factors. By means of Perspective Text Analysis mental processes of workers from Sweden, England, West Germany, Italy and the United States were captured and topographically represented elsewhere. In this study, the mental processes...
Topics: axiology, Perspective Text Analysis, value types, Hartman, reference order, multinational company,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This thematic overview presents some studies on the validation and verification of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA). The first section, containing the validation part, provides evidence for the hypothesis about the capacity of PTA to reflect specificity of ecologically specified observations in text production. The following section presents verification studies within various contexts and focuses on individual prerequisites and constraints that are at work when a person is put in a situation in...
Topics: validation, study, laboratory, context, verification, longitudinal, experiment, learning
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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The dictionary base is representing Swedish adjectives and verbs which were assessed of a sample of 40 randomly selected individuals, drawn from a population of 132 researchers, working in the fields of educational and psychological research. Further, the presented source materials are based on a sample of 600 pages of running text drawn from the 4000 pages of the collected interviews. This base provides a new way of building up concepts and conceptual relations. Finally, all units were scaled...
Topics: Multidimensional scaling, Osgood, psychometrics, content analysis
This report, based on an interview study,  presents the views of forty researchers at departments of education on the scien­tific process. The technique used in this investigation is impressionistic , and the analysis includes: motivation, information search, relationships, influences on project plan, interest spheres, personal situation, program budgeting and practical problems, frame of reference, suggested projects and methodology.
Topics: content analysis, education researchers, search strategies, steering strategies, random sample,...
This report contains a description and discussion of self-assessment data obtained from student teachers, who have participated in a self-confrontation experiment. The measurement scale: Assessment and Evaluation Schedule, has been especially devised for this experiment. The report includes a discussion of validity and reliability problems. The self-assessment data have been analysed by means of ANOVA which has been carried out in 3 steps: (1) analysis of the structure of the F-tests, (2)...
Topics: self-assessment, self-confrontation, traditional tutoring, contrast analysis, Anova, precision...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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Because computer-oriented researchers apply cognitive notions such as meaning, symbol and understanding, or concept, cognition and knowledge, it has become mandatory to inquire into the traditional explanatory models of science, including behaviourism. The article outlines the steering and control mechanism that has governed a new outlook in which subjective mental states become functionally interactive and essential for a full explanation of conscious behaviour. The presented model has...
Topics: phase relations, design structure, axiomatic basis, recurrent factorial design
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
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The basic hypothesis of the presented contribution is that mind is an emergent property of the processes that produce natural language expressions. The shape of the mind of a particular person can be discovered through the mechanisms forming the corresponding language space. Although covered by textual surface properties, this space is approachable with VERTEX which is a new version of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA). Due to the Agent-action-Objective (AaO) axiom, it has been possible to...
Topics: functional text geometry, PTA/Vertex, text processiong, AaO model, algorithmic coding
This report contains analyses of the results of student teachers' self-assessment and the assessment by pedagogical experts on videotaped protocol material. The data have been analysed by means of ANOVA and canonical correlations. Further, the ANOVA has been carried out in three steps: Analysis of (1) structure of the F-tests, (2) precision and power and (3) post hoc analyses. Canonical correlations have been analysed with regard to (1) significant bi-variate relations, (2) the relations...
Topics: CCTV-experiment, assessments, educational experts, self-confrontation, contrast analysis, Anova,...
The report presents a research program, the purpose of which is to study (1) the development of the individual's self-cognition and competence in handling interpersonal relations, (2) the individual's sensitivity in observing the course of an event and ability to develop flexible strategies of behaviour in interactions with others. A model for the simulation of interactive behaviour is outlined. The model is based on three behavioural principles and has guided the preliminary construction of a...
Topics: behaviour simulation, model development, interaction strategies, test results
The research projects SÖK and SIR had regular meetings during the academic year 1975-76. The author has summarised the discussions at the meetings with the aid of notes taken. The activities of the projects have been documented, both discussions of research as well as of practical nature. In this report are summarised the main subjects of discussion, the way in which the activities were distributed over the year, and how the activities of the group members have been reflected in the protocols....
Topics: teamwork, research process, policy, protocol data, micro-ecology
Information retrieval systems have been designed for making possible rapid and precise answers to queries. This report contains an analysis and discussion of the applied strategy for manual and computer-based search for literature on the subject: uses of closed circuit television in the behavioural sciences. The results of the manual search have been published 1969 in the series Didakometry, No. 24, but the result of the computer-based search is presented in this report.
Topics: literature search, bibliometrics, search profiles, frequency distributions, computer-based search,...
This monograph contains a description and discussion of self-assessment data obtained from student teachers, who have participated in a self-confrontation experiment. The measurement scale: Assessment and Evaluation Schedule, has been especially devised for this experiment. The report includes a discussion of validity and reliability problems. The self-assessment data have been analysed by means of ANOVA which has been carried out in 3 steps: (1) analysis of the structure of the F-tests, (2)...
Topics: Self-confrontation, teacher, training, experiment, micro-lesson, self-assessment, Anova
For the first time in the history of psychological and educational measurement the Kantian schema has been applied to natural language expression in a rigorous and precise way. The crucial novelty of the approach concerns the way in which the Kantian schema interrelates the analytic with the synthetic mode in the construction of the presented formalism. The main thesis advanced is based on the premise that the synthetic in contrast to the analytic proposition plays the central role in the...
Topics: measuring, change, Kant, AaO system, expression, consciousness, carrier, language, dance, language,...
The significance of a citation of China’s Xi Jinping, incorporating Confucius’ sayings, resides not in its physical reality, but in core values, which imply the Agent [A] of the [AaO] formalism as the intentional force in a relationship to the Objective [O] and thus the idea of self-orientation. It follows that the intention of Xi needs to be mediated through an exchange of properties that are duty-bound with respect to self-cultivation, their family, community and society. Stated in terms...
Topics: Xi Jinping, Asian philosophy, Confucius, self-cultivation, energy landscapes, Family values, AaO...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This article presents and discusses a model for analyzing abstract invariant relationships between concepts and conceptualizations, linguistically expressed in generalized descriptions (scientific titles) of information processing. The model assumes conceptual information to be directly picked up by means of prepositions distinguishing intention from orientation. The precise organizing functions of prepositions have led to the construction of an algorithm which makes possible a generalized...
Topics: intermediate language, AaO paradigm, structure, concept, recognition, prepositions, algorithmic
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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Compared to all other countries, the self-governing organisation of the Swedish Student Union has a unique position concerning its influence on Administration, Government and Parliament. Through the Teacher Union's strike of 1966, its activities have become known in Germany. In particular, the students' ability of organising lessons over an extended period of time has contributed to their popularity among some educators in Germany. Furthermore, all committee work of some import is passed to the...
Topics: student participation, student union, committee work, curriculum formulation
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
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The present report is about the fourth experiment in a series of five. This series concerns a longitudinal study of changing shapes of mind. Based on the assumption that mind is an emergent property of the processes that produce natural language expressions, mental development is discoverable through the Agent-action-Objective (AaO) mechanisms. The present study is focussing on the way in which the evolutionnary process of text production portrays the system of thought that holds that human...
Topics: PTA, AaO model, non-linear, language mechanics, learning strategy, competence, consciousness,...
One of the most frequent mythical figures in the Old Icelandic sagas is the fylgja, which in animal shape tells its owner his destiny in a dream. In the Gunnlaug Saga Ormstungu the fylgja dream of Torstein plays a central role of marking the developments of the whole saga. The essence of a PTA/Vertex analysis of this dream has previously produced the integrated Gestalts of Impetus as the root of the intentional dimension and Virtue as the root of the orientational dimension. These are...
Topics: dreams, destiny, Gunnlaug Saga, Old Norse, Old Icelandic, angular articulation, non-linear...
This report gives a description of the steps in an analysis of the dimensionality in interview texts. By means of cluster analysis techniques the interview materials have been condensed. Based on the results derived from several clusters a discrimination analysis has been carried out. In the final discussion the results are related to (1) the psycholinguistic model and (2) the model of the research process, which have guided this research.
Topics: cluster, probability, group, assignment, discrimination, dendrogram
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This study concerns The Dwarf (Dvärgen) by Pär Lagerkvist. The author wanted to give his tribute to the Renaissance masters by letting the dwarf express his scorn and contempt for humanism. Further, Lagerkvist wanted to characterize the greatness and lowness of Man through the prince and his innate dwarf. It is a general conception that the prince character in this novel has retrieved properties from Machiavelli’s Prince. Thus, the research question is whether Lagerkvist, accordingly,...
Topics: mentality, duality, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA), holophors, language space, perspective...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
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The essence of the present work is based on the Kantian(AaO)-axiom. As a scientific method in its true sense, the Vertex version of Perspective Text Analysis (PTA) represents an alternative approach to text-based studies. The inter-lingual character of Vertex has been tested and established in the context of six different languages, four belonging to the German family and two to the Roman family. The actual presentation concerns the Italian version. Vertex comprises a strict measurement of the...
Topics: Functional text geometry, perspective text analysis (PTA), Kantian AaO-axiom, language space, flow...
Title in English: “Studies in student teachers’ language use in teaching situations”. Subtitle: “Experiments in analyzing stereotypic expressions by three different measures”. When student teachers by videotape technology have been confronted with their own teaching at two teaching sessions to assess their language use, it has been shown that they have done very well in their estimation of themselves. As the “objective” measure educational experts were used. The differences in...
Topics: language use, verbal performance, experiment, educational experts, panel assessments,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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Societies oriented towards the development of high technology, like the Western World, are not only dependent on an unrestricted information flow, but demand more and more investments in education. Therefore, a new and deepening interest in the factors for possible conditions seems to appear in the public. One of the dominating hypotheses is that cultural conditions determine the basic presupposition for the development of competence and professional mobility. Against this background, it will...
Topics: workers, mobility, competence, cultural context
No one has ever been able to look into the language space nor has anyone been able to measure the phenomenon of consciousness without the interference of an observer. This article is changing this situation completely. From now on it is possible to produce measures of consciousness without the presence of classical observation devices. In particular, the observation problem can be bypassed since the “observer” is part of the “observed”. This means that the phenomenon is describing...
Topics: AaO system, string, mirroring, geometry, shapes
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Truncated registers (completed in 1979) have been automatically generated from titles of the scientific documents (ca 1000) that were produced by 40 randomly selected researchers at educational institutions in Sweden during the period 1937-1977. The registers have been compiled from Swedish text materials. A main characteristic of this empirically generated thesaurus is the Problem-Method-Goal model assumed to be basic for an information searcher (user) as well as for the information producer....
Topics: computational linguistics, algorithmic coding, pattern generation, intermediate language, empirical...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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The major assumption made is that language as a natural system is both self-organising and self-referential. Compared to common syntactic-semantic approaches, the present approach is ecological and builds on the unambiguous identification of textual agents and agencies together with their objectives. Because information transaction cannot be studied without an emphasis on the text producerâs text building behaviour, his intended and oriented schematising as unitising activity has been focused...
Topics: AaO system, expression, proposition, text building, behaviour, agent, scale factor, operative...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This seminar paper contains a short principled discussion of the use of prepositions in the interaction of language with information science models. The point of departure is the problems of ambiguity identified in various computer-based approaches to the specification of information. The paper ends up in a proposal for ecological thinking in text analyses where the concept of action range should have the cue function. Examples are taken from the context of the Visual Cliff experiments. The...
Topics: preposition, cognition, element, information, organization, language, ecology
This report describes the development and application of the idea of microteaching in research and education. It presents a cybernetic model for a systematic and controlled study of the way in which the individual makes use of different feedback devices for self-control and self-direction. The model is applied in an examination of an extremely comprehensive collection of research literature. The result of the investigation is studied with regard to its significance for a person's ability to...
Topics: cybernetic model, microsettings, experiments, teacher education
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Three of the most prominent First Ladies in the world, Brigitte Macron, Peng Liyuan, and Melania Trump are in focus of the present study. Its aim was to examine in detail their external and internal style by means of a short statement they have made about education. Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex) is the method applied, whose capacity is to lay bare the flow dynamics of a text as well as its structural dynamics. The study gave insights into the first ladies’ style of approaching...
Topics: First Lady, Brigitte Macron, Peng Liyuan, Melania Trump, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA), Energy...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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The present article is based on the premise that mind is an emergent property of the processes that produce consciousness. Any scientific understanding must necessarily consider the need of an explanation of consciousness. Instead, the non-sense property of traditional scientific modelling appears to hide the phenomenon. In contrast, the explored hypothesis is based on the assumption that the meaningfulness of natural language is the carrier of consciousness. It is assumed that the structural...
Topics: shapes of mind, AaO-axiom, consciousness, non-linear dynamics, awareness, causal loop diagram,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Abstract  In times of political disorder, exceptional personalities are spreading optimism among the public, which has been disillusioned by various circumstances, such as violence, corruption scandals, and ideological confusion. This study focuses on President Emmanuel Macron, who articulates a vision for Europe aiming at placing France in the forefront. Possible outcomes of such a mission are debated in the media, for example, in the form of lines drawn back to French history, primarily to...
Topics: Emmanuel Macron, European Union, image, illusion, empowerment, protectionism, Republic, Nation,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This is the second article on the competence theme, which aims at demonstrating the consequences of a new educational paradigm, namely materials-directedness. By this is meant the conceptual control of the built-in disparity of educational materials. By means of a new method for structural analysis (in a biological sense), it is shown how conceptual relations and dimensions of a literary text are laid bare. The demonstration text, which is a description of the idea of behaviourism, is analysed...
Topics: structure, educational materials, behaviourism, concepts
Within a research project on computer-based content analysis empirically specified content of nouns is assumed to come about through weighted verbs and adjectives  connected with the nouns. Based on this assumption noun clusters have been established. This study tries to find out a method for measuring the function of adverbs within the adjectival structure. It is namely possible that the weight of the respective adjectives could change in connection with modifiers in such a degree that the...
Topics: psycholinguistics, psychometrics, cluster analysis, modifiers, content analysis
The purpose of this paper is to present a linguistic model which can be used for the processing of scientific information. The model has developed through several years of research and experiments in information mediation, structuring, organisation and dissemination in such social and humanistic sciences that have been of interest to Swedish educational research. It has been apparent that a so-called 'information overflow' and 'information explosion' are irrelevant concepts to designate the...
Topics: intermediate language, linguistic model, I&D system, scientific information
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Abstract   In ancient times, sorcery has been associated with the suggestive and rhythmic language of poets and storytellers. The poet could have high standing among the rulers for his praise or be feared by his satires. A person using this kind of malum carmen (vicious song) could be sentenced to death if the honour of another citizen was at stake. Throughout history, the acceptance of sorcery in a society alters depending on whether the magic used is conceived as good or bad. This study...
Topics: Perspective Text Analysis, PTA, angular articulation, nonlineare dynamics, sorcery, defamation,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Classical theories of language concern the establishment of constituents with the purpose of describing the organisation of text within the framework of classical mechanics. The novelty in the approach presented in this article lies in a multiple dynamic pendular system that enforces a strict regime on text building behaviour. The working of this mechanism is demonstrated by means of twenty model typical examples. On the basis of these examples, it is concluded that texture and structure...
Topics: conflict, categories, texture, model, structure, time, text, perspective, array
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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The problem investigated in this study was formulated against the background of the theory of affordances as it was tested with the famous âVisual Cliffâ experiment. The present study is based on the assumption that the perceiver can detect transformational as well as structural invariants not only in the context of the classical âVisual Cliffâ experiments but also when their basic assumptions are transformed into the social realm. On the hypothesis that structural invariants can be defined...
Topics: ecological perception, optical texture, narratives, principal component, varimax rotation,...
This article is advancing the bio-kinematic and demonstrates that the discovered mechanism can capture emergent "AaO" units and track their growth in complexity. It is demonstrated that the textual morphogenesis is generating corresponding informational invariants. On the basis of the translation function, it is made evident that the sequential textual translation of English to Swedish and Swedish to Italian is producing the condition for an effective control of the AaO's within a...
Topics: pertex, vertex, evolution, language dynamics, translation, adaptive landscape, structural distance,...
This report presents the psycholinguistic model underlying the development of a method for a computer-based content analysis, called ANACONDA. A program-flow diagram for the construction of concepts illustrates basic steps in the Semantic Differential Technique. Some metric properties of the scales applied are discussed. The empirical approach of scaling linguistic elements (adjectives and verbs), which are taken out of context, are described. The results of the scaling procedures are given...
Topics: content analysis, Osgood, semantic differentials, discriminant functions, similarity analysis
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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The present chapter is written mainly as a tutorial for those researchers who try to get out something essential from peoplesâ way of reasoning and behaving and who suppose that this is expressed in their spoken and written language. Fundamental to the method presented here is that it gives a synthesis of the perspective that a text producer gives to a text in the moment of its evolvement. Since a perspective cannot be developed within single clauses and sentences but in the co-operation...
Topics: text concept, agent function, text depth, perspective borders, graphical sentence, functional...
Two kinds of perspectives governing the provision and preservation of knowledge, a universal and an ecological, are discussed in the present article. In the first case, scientific observations are represented through a semantic interpretation of facts. This is illustrated with a series of experiments on semantic feature perception in the recall of pictures that were described by descriptor terms. In the second case, scientific observations are conceived as part of a constitutive context....
Topics: document-event involvement, AaO-paradigm, thesaurus, vocabulary, recall, semantic features,...
This report describes the development and application of the idea of microteaching in research and education. It presents a cybernetic model for a systematic and controlled study of the way in which the individual makes use of different feedback devices for self-control and self-direction. The model is applied in an examination of an extremely comprehensive collection of research literature. The result of the investigation is studied with regard to its significance for a person's ability to...
Topics: cybernetic model, microsettings, experiments, teacher education
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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This article presents a critical discussion of the use of the notion "frame", especially by computer scientists, as a theoretical construct to describe the cognitive representation of information. It is argued that an adequate description of "knowledge" requires the utilization of the notion "schema" as the theoretical construct. Based on this discussion, the construction of abstract cognitive models is proposed. Further, the concept of a memory is considered...
Topics: constructive routines, cognitive models, data abstraction, frame, memory, schema
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This article is a discussion of the possibility of changing the view of knowledge producing activities toward a competence directed education. After presentation of the traditional behaviouristic model and its consequences when applied on teaching, a new concept of competence is suggested, which differs from the concept of qualification. An important part of the article deals with the evaluation as an idea and a method for quality control. It is shown that evaluation of teacher effectiveness is...
Topics: competence, evaluation research, goal-directedness
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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  The study reported examines a portion of the short story The Killers by Ernest Hemingway as to its concentration of hot and cold areas. The method applied is Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), which is based on the AaO paradigm and on string rotations in language. It represents a text as the energy landscapes of Agents (A) and Objectives (O). The study uses a graph program that displays two-dimensional contours of the internal landscapes of text as if seen with a thermographic camera....
Topics: Translation, language geometry, Perspective text analysis, angular articulation, non-linear...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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 The Proof on Kant’s proposition on respect requires the processing of textual movement pattern as a holistic property. Since this involves a means for looking at Kant’s energy investment into movement cycles, a stepping function must be applied in the materialisation of strings of graphemes. In departing from the biophysical hypothesis that the Agent-action-Objective AaO-principle takes account of reversibly synthesizing rotary mechanisms, it is suggested that one or more A- and...
Topics: Kant, proof, AaO principle, energy surface, intention root, orientation root, necessity
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk & Bernhard Bierschenk
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Résumé L’essence de ce rapport est basée sur l’axiome (AaO) proposé par Kant. La version Vertex de la méthode PTA (Analyse de la Perspective du Texte) représente une approche alternative quand il s’agit d’études basées sur des textes. Le système Vertex comprend un mesurage objectif des angles de texte, qui sont utilisés pour une description non-linéaire du flux textuel, qui forme un espace dynamique. Le noyau de Vertex est introduit au moyen d’instructions à une procédure...
Topics: functional text geometry, perspective text analysis (PTA), Kantian AaO-axiom, language space, flow...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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In information rich societies like ours there is a demand for a steadily ongoing discussion and research of the way people in various functions develop and maintain their competence. Competence has become a word of fashion and although everybody thinks that they know what competence is, nobody can tell how it may be measured. The traditional definitions of the word rest on properties, which are equal to knowledge and qualifications. Therefore, when it comes to a measuring procedure,...
Topics: Competence, social concern, measuring learning, public sector, private sector, materials...
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The rune stone at the church of Rök in Östergötland, Sweden (about 800), has been subject to interpretations and speculations ever since it was discovered in the early 1600s. The reason for the great interest it has among scholars in various fields is that it is regarded as the world's longest runic inscription and as the start of Swedish literary history. The interpretations of the meaning in the runes and the purpose of the carving have varied, partly due to the researcher's field and...
Topics: Rök, runestones, Viking Age, Old Norse, language technology, PTA-Vertex, text geometry, flow...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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While there are a number of archaeological references to brewing of beer as early as 1200 BC, there are besides picturing drinking-horns, no references to early drinking customs. Fortunately, significant similarities among the Germanic tribes have been noted as early as about 100 AC which suggest commonalty in drinking as a formal ritual activity. Tacitus’ writing about beer drinking can be tested against the hypothesis of Charles Choi (2010) that ‘Beer Lubricated the Rise of...
Topics: Zeitgeist, beer drinking, Germanic rituals, customs, knowledge acquisition, transfer, civilization,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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Abstract  The article reports on a study whose focus is on a mainly American mentality that has been brought to the fore through the kind of movements that stigmatise sexual relations. Women’s resistance and revenge as functioning witchcraft against men’s factual or fictive  abuse has been discussed by a female American author in the light of cases concerning men in power positions. A minor portion of her article was analysed with Perspective Text Analysis (PTA/Vertex), which is based on...
Topics: defamation, abuse, witchcraft, witch hunt, metoo, misogyny, human rights, women's rights, natural...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This study is examining the mood in which young people express their sensitivity to a literary idea in writing. The context is the 19th Century Naturalism. An earlier reported study could show that persons, when confronted with evolutionary determined literary texts, are either consistent in their way of approaching those tasks during three years or are open to change. The latter strategy has been interpreted as sensitivity to instruction. In the present study, the concept of sensitivity was...
Topics: AaO axiom, text geometry, functional, PTA, textual morphogenesis, string movement, PES,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This manual is a result of empirical studies of interview materials. It is based on a model for the formalisation of text,which is developed on research within the fields of psychology and linguistics.With this background a psycho­linguistic model  is outlined on which a computer-based content analysis technique has been worked out. The presentation of the manual follows the stages of the model. The main part consists of the coding rules  together with authentic examples and technical...
Topics: computer-based content analysis, psycholinguistics, computational linguistics, interview data,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
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A simulation model is presented, which has been constructed in such a way that the trainee gets control over the context of her actions. Three types of simulated action-event-sequences are presented in an inductive way The aim is to demonstrate the texture of the simulation process. It is shown that visualised as well as verbalised information has to be processed in a cooperative manner in order to abstract the ecological invariants in the flow of the simulation process. Three analyses are...
Topics: behaviour simulation, closed circuit televison, video-recording, process analysis
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
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This article attempts to prove that an adequate cognition oriented approach to the processing of symbolic information abstracted from verbal expressions must consider a running text instead of scattered sentences. It is argued that the dominant cognition models do not give due consideration to the fact that a valid abstraction of in-formation structures has to be based on an explicit encoding of intentionality and valuation. Following a critical discussion of the foundations of the existing...
Topics: running text processing, semantics, Osgood scaling, verb, adjectives, discriminant functions
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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This study concerns The Dwarf (Dvärgen) by Pär Lagerkvist. The author wanted to give his tribute to the Renaissance masters by letting the dwarf express his scorn and contempt for humanism. Further, Lagerkvist wanted to characterize the greatness and lowness of Man through the prince and his innate dwarf. It is generally assumed that the prince character in this novel has retrieved properties from Machiavelli’s Prince. Thus, the research question is whether Lagerkvist, accordingly, through...
Topics: duality, mentality, Perspective Text Analysis (PTA), holophors, language space, perspective...
This is the last article in a series of three, the objective of which is to describe the fundamental discontinuities of human existence. In the first article: The fundamental concepts of human existence and the relation between the singular and the super-singular, it is shown, among other things, that a number of classic theories have three fundamental concepts of development in common: canalization that encompasses transference of something from one another, correlation that encompasses...
Topics: self-reference, AaO system, human, existence, discontinuity, perspectivation
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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The mental event horizon of law maker can be analysed, based on the Agentaction-Objective [AaO] paradigm. The roots of [A] and [O] are used with the purpose to explain structural novelties, resulting from an approach to Hammurabi’s Epilogue to his code of Law. Though, the particular operations of translating the code into English and the production of corresponding rotations have an influence on the developing spaces of intention and orientation. The concept of a landscape allows for the...
Topics: Perspective Text Analysis (PTA), energy landscape, character, endorsement, law code, Hammurabi,...
Abstract     Human language ability is usually seen as an effect of a sudden leap in genetic mutation that equipped man with a frame of generative rules for language production. Noam Chomsky’s idea implies that communication between people and over time would be a matter of agreeing on what categories shall be put into the framework. Thus, a skeptical attitude towards the depicting ability of language can be found among scholars who adhere to this agreement. However, the premise of the...
Topics: Language geometry, AaO formalism, non-linear analysis, energy landscapes, biology of language,...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Inger Bierschenk
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The assumption in this article is that consciousness can be transferred and transformed over times, over texts, and over cultures, provided that a high-quality medium can perform satisfactorily in order to reflect this consciousness. The assumption implies that consciousness is embedded in a style of writing. When sensing a text from earlier times, a reader must be able to pick up the structural relations of this text and mediate them in its own style of writing. In this study, the medium is a...
Topics: consciousness, writing style, language space, transformation, structural stability, literary...
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk & Inger Bierschenk
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This article presents a study in cognitive economics. It originates from a survey of mechanics  carried out by a Swedish multinational machine industry. The verbal response of seven US and seven Swedish mechanics to three open questions  concerning information needs were analysed with Perspective Text Analysis. Only configurations building on significant groupings, which do not fall below the lower limit  of t. 90 of the t-distribution, are retained in the analysis. The structures embedded...
Topics: cognitve, economics, structure, dimensionality, workers, multinational, industry
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Bernhard Bierschenk
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The significance of a quote of the Gothic King Athaulf resides not in its physical reality, but in its hypothetical mental share, which can be approach on the basis of the Agent-action-Objective [AaO] paradigm. By analysing the quote of the King, important conclusions can be drawn of its significance for present-day politics. However, the explanations can be given only through an account of what is in the links of the corresponding textual expression. Therefore, its underlying intention and...
Topics: German, tribes, Gothic, European, limits, migration, competition, Roman, Empire, strategy,...
The article is advancing the bio-kinetic hypothesis of string rotation. Demonstrated is a stepping function. This function shows that the discovered mechanism is working within single "AaO" units. By attaching a dot to the string, states of rotation can be marked and imaged in real time. In keeping track of the orientation of the dot, sliding over the domains (A, O) is demonstrated and the involved state changes have been made manifest. Textually, it is demonstrated that the...
Topics: movement, rotation, string, language, space, experiment, control, semantic-free, coordination-free,...
The present paper is intended to give an account of the reactions of 19 years old students of a Swedish Gymnasium to some 20 th century ideas and their social implementation. The students were exposed to three potential developments of future societies and thereafter an extended course on modern literature took place. All participating students, in all 90 subjects, were re-tested on the same three videotape societies. The purpose with his test-retest design was to study the possible impact of...
Topics: literature, model society, educational profile, scientific paradigms
When a society plans the upbringing and education of its members, irrespective of age and level, one absolute requirement must be that it develops their ability of self-determination. A psycho-ecological approach to a study of the individual's self-cognition (perception and evaluation) and self-determination (i.e. development of plans of action) focuses on the mutual relations existing between the individual and his environment, and the dynamics of these relations. More concretely, the aim is...
Topics: simulation, behaviour strategies, transition matrix, event design
This report suggests a new approach to quantification of the relationships within a whole sentence and presents a system for the analysis of concepts by data processing (ANACONDA). The psychological model for ANACONDA is outlined and a first measure building up concepts with an empirical root is discussed. Panel assessments have been used for quantification resulting in high reliability scores. By means of cluster analysis the empirical materials concerning researchers' views of scientific...
Topics: psycholinguistics, concept formation, cognition, interview data, psychometrics, regression analysis
The major assumption made is that language as a natural system is both self-organising and self-referential. Compared to common syntactic-semantic approaches, the present approach is ecological and builds on the unambiguous identification of textual agents and agencies together with their objectives. Because information transaction cannot be studied without an emphasis on the text producer’s text building behaviour, his intended and oriented schematising as unitizing activity has been focused...
Topics: perspective, control, agent, integration, entanglement, text building, behaviour, information law,...
The objective of this and the two forthcoming articles is to describe the fundamental discontinuities of human existence. The reason for starting with entrepreneurship is twofold. The entrepreneurial sciences represent a tradition the subject matter of which is change, and the relation between the singular and the super singular constitutes a problem which has frustrated the cognition of human activity. The analysis of some classic theories of entrepreneurship shows that - given a sufficient...
Topics: entrepreneurship, discontinuity, dialectic logic, existence, global perspective
Studies in Consciousness, Intention and Orientation
by Ole Elstrup Rasmussen & Jørgen Aage Jensen
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This report includes a presentation of basic theoretical and methodological assumptions for investigating the relationship between competence and qualifications by means of simulation tasks. An analysis of the types of tasks that have been used in the study of problem solving psychology serves as a background for an exposition of the relationship between competence and qualifications. The vehicle for investigating competence and qualification is the INTOPIA program, which involves a task that...
Topics: problem, solving, competence, intopia, program, pilot, study, behaviour model
An experimental study was carried out at the Malmö School of Education in 1969 and 1970 for the purpose of studying the effects on the self-assessment of student teachers of, firstly, externally mediated self-confrontation processes (via closed-circuit television and video-recording), and secondly, dyadic confrontation processes (in the form of traditional tutoring). Detailed reports on the background, design and result of the experiment have been presented in Swedish. The present report gives...
Topics: microteaching, self-assessment, external, mediation, self-confrontation, CCTV, VR, dyadic...