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Full text of "Regulations for the order and discipline of the troops of the United States : to which is added, an appendix, containing the United States militia act, passed in Congress, May, 1792 ; and the act for forming and regulating the militia in New-Hampshire"

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Pafled in Congrefs, May, 1792. 

A new EDITION, illuftrated by eight Copperplates, 

accurately engraved. 

. t 

by BARON de S T U JLi. E N, 

La'.e Major General and Jnfpeclor General of the Arm} of the 

United States. 


printed at e^eter, 

Fault's Statue, No. 46, Newbury-Strcet, Boflon. 


In CONGRESS, igth March, 1779. 

CONGRESS judging it of the great eft import- 
ance to prefcribe fome invariable rules for tht 
Order and Difcipline of the Troops, efpecially for the 
purpofe of introducing an uniformity An their forma- 
tion and manoeuvres, and in the fervice of the camp : 
Ordered, That the following Regulations be ob~ 
ferved by all the troops of the United States, and 
that all general and other Officers caufe the fame to 
be executed with all poffible exaclnefs. 

By Order, 

JOHN J AT, Prefident. 


Charles Thompson, Sefry. 

Extra ft of an AB for the Regulating and Governing . 
the Militia of the Commonwealth of Majfachu- 
JettJ. Pajfed June 11, 1 7 93. ' 


^JlND be it further ena£kd by the au- 
thority afore fa id, That the rules of difcipline ap- 
proved and efiabli/Jjed by Congrefs, in the.refolutions 
of the twenty -ninth day of March, one thcufand fe- 
ven hundred and J evenly -nine, fhall be the rules and 
regulations of difcipline, to be obferved by the Mili- 
tia of this Commonwealth ; except fuch deviations 
from faid rules, as may be neceffary by the requifi- 
tions of this ail, or fome other unavoidable circum- 
Jlances ; and every Officer receiving a commijfton in 
the Militia, Jhall immediately provide himfelf with 
a b. ok containing thofe rules." 


CHA P. I. 

-Of Jke^Arms and Accoutrements tf the- Offictrs, 
Non-commiffioned Officers] and Soldiers. 

THE arms and accoutrements of the officers, non- 
commiffioned officers, and foldiev&yfhould be uniform 

The officers who exercife their fun&ions on horfeback, 
are to be armed with fWords, the platoon -officers with 
fwords and efpontoons, the non-commiffioned officers wifn 
fwords, firelocks, and bayonets, and the foldiers with fire- 
locks and bayonets. 


Objects with which the Officers and Non-commiffion- 
ed Officers Jhould be acquainted. 

T k H E officers and non-commiffioned officers of each 
regiment, are to be perfectly acquainted with the 
manual exercife, marchings and firings, that they may be 
able to inftrucl their foldiers when jieceflary ; they mull 
alfo be acquainted with die drefs, difcipline, and police of 
the troops, and with every thing that relates to the fervice. 
The commanding officer of,each regiment is to be an- 
fwerable for the general inftru<fHon of the regiment, and is 
to exercife, or caufe to be exercifed, the officers, non-com- 
miffioned officers, and foldiers, whenever he thinks proper. 


Of the Formation of a Company. 

(Plate I. Figure i.) 

A COMPANY is to be formed in two ranks, at one pace 
diftance, with the tailed men in the rear, and both 
ranks fized, with the fhorteft men of each in the centre. 
A company thus drawn up is to be divided into two fec- 
tions or platoons ; the captain to take poft on the right of 
the firft platoon, covered by a ferjeant : the lieutenant 
on the right of the fecond platoon, alfo covered by a fer- 
jeant ;the enfign four paces behind the centre of the com- 
pany ; the firft ferjeant two paces behind the centre of the 
firft platoon, and the eldeft corporal two paces behind 
the fecond platoon ; the other two corporals are to be on 
the flanks of the front rank. 

" " ■ " ' ' ■■ ii Mill 

CH A P. IV. 

Of the Formation of a Regiment. 
(Plate I. Figure t. and 3.) 

A REGIMENT is to confift of eightcompanies, which 
are to be polled in the following order, from right 
to left, 

Firft captain's* 


Fourth captain's. 


Third captain's. 

Lieutenant colonel's. 

Fifth captain's. 

Second captain's. 
For the greater facility in manoeuvring, each regiment 
confuting of more than one hundred and fixty files, is to 
be formed in two battalions, (fig. 2.) with an interval of 
twenty paces between them, and one colour poftcd in the 
centre of each battalion ; the colonel fifteen paces before 
the centre of the firft battalion ; the lieutenant-colonel 
fifteen paces before the centre of the fecond battalion ; 
the major fifteen paces behind the interval of the two batt- 
alions ; the adjutant two paces from the major j the drum 

and fife-major two paces behind the centre of the firft batt- 
alion ; their places behind the fecond battalion being 
fupplied by a drum and fife ; and the other drums and 
fifes equally divided on the wings of each battalion. 

When a regiment is reduced to one hundred and fixty 
files, it is to be formed in one battalion, with both colours 
in the centre ; the colonel fixteen paces before the col- 
ours ; the lieutenant colonel eight paces behind the col- 
onel ; the major fifteen paces behind the centre of the batt- 
alion, having the adjutant at his fide ; the drum and fife 
major two paces behind the centre of the battalion ; and 
the drums and, fifes equally divided on the wings. 

Every battalion, whether it compete the whole, or 
only half of a regiment, is to be divided into four divi- 
fions and eight platoons ; no platoon to confift of lefs 
than ten files ; fo that a regiment confiding of lefs than 
eighty files, cannot form a battalion, but muft be incorpo- 
rated with fome other, or employed on detachment. 

In cafe of the abfence of any field officer, his place is to 
be filled by the officer next in rank in the regiment ; and 
in order that the officers may remain with their refpe&ive 
companies, if any company officer is abfent, his place mall 
be fupplied by. the officer next in rank in the fame com- 
pany ; but mould it happen that a company is left without 
an officer, the colonel or commanding officer may order 
an officer of another company to take the command, as 
well for the exercife as for the difcipline and police of the 
company in camp. 

When the light company is with the regiment it muft be 
formed twenty paces on the right,on the parade, but muft 
not interfere with the exercife of the battalion, but exercife 
by itfelf ; and when the light infantry are embodied, every 
four companies will form a battalion, and exercife in the 
fame manner as the battalion in the line. 

Of the InJlruHion of Recruits. 

THE commanding officer of each company is charged 
with the inftruclion of his recruits ; and as that is 
a that requires not only experience, but a patience 
and temper not me; with in every officer, b* is to make 

A -> 

choice of an officer, ferjant, and one or two corporals of 
his company, who, being approved of by the colonel, are 
to attend particularly to that bufinefs ; but in cafe of the 
arrival of a great number of recruits, every officer without 
diftinclion is to be employed on thatfervice. 

The commanding officer of each regiment will fix on 
fome place for the exercife of his recruits, where himfelf 
or fome field-officer muft aitend, to overlook their inftruc- 

The recruits rnuft be taken fmgly, and firft taught to 
put on their accoutrements, and carry themfelves properly. 

The Pojition of a Soldier -without Arms, 

He is to ftand ft rait and firm upon his legs, with the head 
turned to the right fo far as to bring the left eye over the 
waiftcoat buttons ; the heels two inches apart ; the toes 
turned cut ; the belly drawn in a little, but without con- 
ftraint ; fhe breaft a little projected; the moulders fquareto 
the front, and kept back ; and the hands hanging down 
:he_fuks, with the palms clofe to the thighs. 

Attention ! 

At this word the foldier muft be filent, ftand firm and 
fteady, moving neither hand nor foot, (except as ordered) 
but attend carefully to the words of command. 

This attention of the foldier muft be obferved in the 
ftrideft manner, till he receives the word 


At which he may refrefh himfelf, by moving his hands 
or feet ; but muft not then fit down or quit his place, un- 
lefs permitted fo to do. 

Attention ! 

To the Left—Drefs ! 

At this word the foldier turns his head brifkly to the left 
fo as to bring his right eye in the direction of his waiftcoat 

To the Right Drefs ! 

The foldier drefTes again to the right ; as before. 
The recruit muft then be taught 

The Facings. 
To the Right — Face ! Two motions. 

I ft. Turn brifkly on both heels to the right, lifting up the 
toes a little, and defcribing the quarter of a circle. 

2d. Ering back the right foot to its proper pofition, without 

To the Left, — Face ! Two motions. 

ift. Turn to the left as before to the right. 

2d. Bring up the right toot to its proper pofition. 

To the Right about, — Face ! Three motions. 

I ft. Step back with the right foot, bringing the buckle op- 
pofite the left heel, at the fame time feizing the 
cartridge-box with the right hand. 

2d. Turn brifkly on both heels, and defcribe half a circle. 

3d. Bring back the right foot, at the fame time quitting 
the cartridge-box. 
When the recruit is fufficicntly expert in the foregoing 

points, he muft be taught the different fteps. 

The common Step 
Is two feet, and about feventy-five in a minute. 

To the Front,— March ! 

The foldier fteps off with his left foot, and marches a 
free, eafy and natural ftep, without altering the pofition 
of his body or head, taking care to preferve a proper bal- 
ance, and not crofs his legs, but to march without conftraint 
in every fort of ground ; The officer muft march fometimes 
in his front and fometimes at his fide, in order to join ex- 
ample to precept. 

Halt ! 
t At this word the foldier flops fhort, on the foot then ad- 
vanced, immediately bringing up the other, without 

The Quick Step 

Is alfo two feet, but about one hundred and twenty in a 
minute,and is performed onjthe fame principle as the other. 

The recruits having been exercifed fingly, till they have 
a proper carriage, and are well grounded in the different 


fteps ; the officer will then take three men, and placfxr 
them in one rank, exercife them in the different fteps, and 
teach them 

The March by Files, 

Which, being of great importance, muft be carefully 
attended to ; obferving that the foldier carries his body 
more forward than in the front march, and that he doe-s 
not increafe the diftance from his file-leader. 

The Oblique Step 

Muft then be pradlifed, both in the quick and common 

In marching obliquely to the right, the foldier fteps 
obliquely with the right foot, bringing up the left, and 
placing the heel direclly before the toes of the right foot, 
and the contrary when marching to the left ; at the fame 
time obferving to keep the fhoutders fquare to the front, 
efpecially that the fhoulder oppofed to the fide they march 
to does not projecl, and thai the files keep clofe. 

The recruits being thus far inftrutfed, mull be again 
taken feparately, and taught 

The Pojition of a Soldier under Arms. 

In this pofition the foldier is to ftand ftralght and firm. 
tipon his legs, with the heels two inches apart, the toes a 
little turned out, the belly drawn in a little without con- 
ftraint, the breaft a little projected, the moulders fquare 
to the front and kept back.the right hand hanging down the 
fide, with the palm clofe to the thigh, the left elbow not 
turned out from the body, the firelock carried on the left 
fhouJder, at filth height that the guard will be juft under 
the left breaft, the fore-finger and thumb before the fwell 
of the butt, the three laft fingers under the butt, the flat of 
the butt againft the hip bone, and pre/Ted fo as that the 
firelock may be felt againft the left fide, and ftand before 
the hollow of the ftioulder, neither leaning towards the head 
nor from it, the barrel almoft perpendicular. When ex- 
ercifing, he is to be very exacl in counting a fecond o£ 
time between each motion. 



Poife — Firelock ! Two motions. 

I ft. With your left hand turn the firelock brifkly, bringing- 
the lock to the front, at the fame inftant feize it with 
the right hand j uft below the lock, keeping the piece 

3d. With a quick motion bring up the firelock from the 
fhoulder direclly before the face and feize it with the 
left hand juft above the lock, fo that the little finger 
may reft upon the feather fpring, and the thumb lie 
on the ftock ; tke left hand muft be of an equal height 
with the eyes. 


Cock — Firelock ! Two motions. 

ift. Turn the barrel oppofite to your face, and place your 
thumb upon the cock, railing the elbow fquare at this 

ad. Cock the firelock by drawing down your elbow, im- 
mediately placing your thumb upon the breech-pinV 
and the fingers under the guard. 

Take Aim f One motion. 
Step back about fix inches with the right foot, bringing 
the left toe to the front ; at the fame time drop the muzzle, 
and bring up the butt-end of the firelock againft your right 
fhoulder ; place the left hand forward on the fwell of the 
ftock, and the fore-finger of the right hand before the trig- 
ger ; finking the muzzle a little below a level, and with; 
the right eye looking along the barrel. 


Fire ! One motion. 

Pull the trigger brifkly, and immediately after bringing 
up the right foot, come to the priming pofition, placing 
the heels even, with the right toe pointing to the right, the 
lock oppofite the right breaft, the muzzle dire&ly to the 


front and as high as the hat, the left hand jufl forward of 
the feather-fpring, holding the piece firm and fteady ; 
and at the fame time feize the cock with the fore-finger and 
thumb of the right hand, the back of the hand turned up. 


Hatf-Cock— Firelock ! One motion. 
Half bend the cock brifkiy, bringing down the elbow to 
the butt of the firelock. 


Handle — Cartridge ! One motion. 
Bring your right hand fhort round to^ your .pouch, 
flapping it hard, fti&e the cartridge, and bring .it with a 
quick- motion to your mouth, bite the top off down to the 
powder, covering it inftantly with your thumb, and bring, 
the hand as low as the chin, with the elbow down. 


Prime! One motion. 
Shake tile powder into the pan, and covering tbe car- 
tridge again, place the three laft fingers behind the- ham- 
mer, with the elbow up. 


Shut — Pan t Two motions. 

lft. Shut your pan brifkiy, bringing down the elbow to 
the butt of the firelock, holding the cartridge faft in 
your hand. 

ad. Turn the piece nimbly round before you to the loading 
pofition, with the lock to the front, and the muzzle 
at the height of the chin, bringing the right hand up 
under the muzzle ; both feet being kept fail in this 

Charge with Cartridge ! Two motions. 

lft. Turn up your hand and put the cartridge into the 
muzzle, fhaking the powder into the barrel. 

»d. Turning the flock a little towards you, place your 
right hand clofed, with a quick and ftrong motion, up- 
on the butt of the rammer, the thumb upwards, and 
the elbow down. 



Draw — Rammer ! Two motions. 

ift. Draw your rammer with a quick motion half out, 

feizing it inftantly at the muzzle back-handed. 
2cL Draw it quite out, turn it, and enter it into the muzzle. 


Ram down — Cartridge ! One motion. 

Ram the cartridge well down the barrel, and inftantly 
recovering and feizing the rammer back-handed by the 
middle, draw it quite out, turn it, and enter it as far as the 
lower pipe, placing at the fame time the edge of the hand 
on the butt-end of the rammer, with the finger extended. 


Return — Ravimer ! One motion. 

Thrufltlie rammer home, and inftantly bring up die 
piece with the left hand to the flioulder, feizing it at the 
fame time with the right hand under the cock, keeping the 
left hand at the fwell, and turning the body fquar-e to the 


Shoulder' — Firelock ! Two motions. 

ijft. Bring down the left hand, placing it ftrong upon ,the 

2d. With a quick motion bring the right hand down by 

your fide. 

Order — Firelock ! Two motions. 

j ft. Sink the firelock with the left hand as low as poffible, 
without conftraint, and at the fame time bringing up 
the right hand, feize the firelock at the left lhoulder. 

2d. Quit the firelock with the left hand, and with the 
right bring it down the right fide, the butt on the 
ground, even with the toes of the right foot, the thumb 
of the right hand lying along the barrel, and the 
muzzle being kept at a little diftance from the body. 



Ground — Firelock ! Two motions. 

ift. With the right hand turn the firelock, bringing the 
lock to the rear, and inftantly ftepping forward with 
the left foot a large pace, lay the piece on the ground, 
the barrel in a direct line from front to rear, placing 
the left hand on the knee, to fupport the body, the 
head held up, the right hand and left heel in a line, 
and the right knee brought almoft to the ground. 

2d. Quitting the firelock, raife yourfelf up, and bring back 
the left foot to its former portion. 


Take up — Firelock ! Two motions. 

i ft. Step forward with the left foot, fink the body, and 
come to the petition defcribed in the firft motion of 

2d. Raife up yourfelf and firelock, ftepping back again 
with the left foot, and as foon as the piece is per- 
pendicular, turn the barrel behind, thus coming to 
the order. 


Shoulder — Firelock ! Two motions. 

ift. Bring the firelock to the left fhoulder, throwing it up 
a little, "and catching it below the tail-pipe, and inftant- 
lv feize it with the left hand at the butt. 

2d. With a quick motion bring the right hand down by 
your fide. 


Secure — Firelock ! Three motions. 
I ft. Bring up the right hand brilkly, and place it under 

the cock. 
2d. Quit the butt with the left hand, and feize the firelock 

at the fwell, bringing the arm dole down upon the 

lock, the right hand being kept'faft in this motion, and 

the piece upright. 
3< J, Quitting the piece with your i ight hand, bi ing it dc wn 

by your fide, at the fame time with your left hand 


throw the muzzle direiffly forward, bringing it with- 
in about one foot of the ground, and the butt clofe 
up behind the left fhoulder, holding the left hand in 
a line with the waift belt, and with that arm covering 
the lock. 


Shoulder — Firelock ! Three motions, 
ift. Bring the firelock up to the (houlder, feizing it witk 

the right hand under the xock. 
2d. Bring the left hand down ftrong upon the butt- 
3d. Bring the right hand down by your fide. 


Fix' — Bayonet ! Three motions. 
1 ft and 2d motion the fame as the two ftrft motions of the 

3d. Quitting the piece with your right hand, fink it with 

your left down the left fide, as far as may be without. 

conftrarnt, at the fame time feize the bayonet with the. 

right hand, draw and fix it, immediately flipping the 

liand down to the flock, and prefling in the piece to 

the hollow of the fhoulder. 


Shoulder — Firelock ! Three motions. 

1 ft. Quitting the piece with the right hand, with the left 
bring it up to the fhoulder, and feize it again with the 
right hand under the cock, as in the fecond motion 
of the fecure. 

2d. Bring the left hand down ftrong vrron the butt. 

36*. Bring the right hand down by your fide. 


Prefent — Arms ! Three motions. 

1 ft and 2d motion the fame as in coming to the poife 
3d. Step briikly back with your right foot, placing it a 
hand's breadth diftant from your left heel, at the fame 
time bring down the firelock as quick as poflible to the 
reft, finking it as fir down before your left knee as 
your right hand will permit without conftraint, hold- 
ing the right hand under the guard, with the fingers 


extended, and drawing in the piece with the left hand 
till the barrel is perpendicular; during this motion 
you quit the piece with the left hand, and inftantly 
leize it again juft below the tail-pipe. 


Shoulder — Firelock / Two motions. 

ift. Lift up your right foot and place it by your left, at 
the fame time bring the firelock to your left moulder, 
and feize ehe buttend with the left hand, coming to 
the pofition of the firft motion of the fecure. 

2d. Bring the tight hand down by your fide. 



Charge Bayonet ! Two motions. 

i£. The fame as the firft motion of the feenre. 

2d. Bring the butt of the firelock under the right arm, 
letting the piece fall down ftrong on the palm of the 
left hand, which receives it at the fwell, the muzzle 
pointing directly to the front, the buttprsfled with the 
arm againft the fide ; the front rank holding their 
pieces horizontally, and the rear rank the muzzles of 
theirs fo high as to clear the heads of the front rank, 
both ranks keeping their feet faft. 


Shoulder — Firelock ! Two motions. . , 

i ft. Bring up the piece fmartly to a flioulder, feizing the 

butt with the left hand. 
2d. Bring the right hand down by your fide. 


Advance — Arms ! Four motions. 

i ft and 2d the fame as the two firft motions of the poife. 

3d. Bring the firelock down to the right fide, with the 
right hand as low as it will admit without constraint, 
flipping up the left hand at the &me time to -the fwell, 
and inftantly fhifting the pofition of the right hand, 
take the guard between the thumb and forefinger, and 
bring die three laft fingers under the cock, with the 
barrel to die rear. 


■4th. Quit the firelock with the left hand, bringing it down 
by your fide. a 6 


Shoulder— Firelock ! Four motions 
lit. Bring up the left hand, and feize the firelock at the 

potion! 1 n yI]lifCi;igthe «S W t0 itS f0 ™ 
2d. Comefmartly uptoapdife; 
3<b and 4th. Shoulder. 

Explanation of Priming and Loading, as perform- 
ed in the Firings. 

. JPrmeand Load ! —Fifteen motions. 

i it. Come to tne recover, throwing up your firelock with 

ESfiSSF ° f "" l^ hand ' d '^Iy ' befo" the 1 ft 
l;^ *™* *• barrellmwards ; at that mo- 
X? i h . itWUhthe , ri S ht hand below the lock, and 
^vbng.nguptheleMand, with a rapid mo- 

tion,re, z t he piece clofe above the lock, the little fe. 

be Vanl? .^V^^-rprmgj the left hand to 

be a, an equal height with the >M ^« hutrof tb . 
. frdpck clofe to the left breaft, but notpreffed, and he 

barrel perpendicular. - 

^. Bring the firelock dovm with a bride motion to 'th<- 

SMS? as ; direc \ d Inthe -* word of «* 

aTahftth,f y fra*^ thumb °f the right hand 
eC a tf ? ° f th / fteel > thefi *gers clenched and the 

of ^thlcol tur out ' that the wria ™y ** *™ 

^' motio^nf 1 ,^ h /, throwIn ? !>4<* tbe M with a 
Se left hand " S "H ^ *' £rel ° Ck W * 
4th. Handle cartridge. 
5 th. Prime. ° 

oth. Shutpa*n. 
.7th. Caft about. 
8fb\ and 9th. Load. 
i oth. and 1 1 th. , Draw rammer, 
mh. P.ara down cartridge. 
13 th. Return rammer. 
14th. and f5th, Shoulder. 


N. B. The motion of recover, coming down to the prim- 
ing fofition, and opening the pan, to be done in the ufual 
time, the motions of handling the cartridge to Shutting the 
pan,to be done as quick as poffible ; when the pans are (hut, 
make a fmall paufe,.and call about together ; then the load- 
ing and mouldering motions are to be done as quick as pof- 

Pojition of each Rank in the Firings. 

Front Rank ! Make ready / One motion. 

Spring the firelock briflcly to a recover, as foon as the left 
hand feizes the firelock above the lock, the right elbow is to 
be nimbly raifed a little, placing the thumb of that hand 
upon the cock, the fingers open by the plate of the lock, and 
as quick as poffible cock the piece, by dropping the elbow, 
and forcing down the cock with the thumb, immediately 
feizing the firelock with the right hand,clofe under the lock ; 
the piece to be held in this manner perpendicular, oppofite 
the left fide of the face, the body kept ftraight, and as full 
to the front as pofiible, and the head held upjlooking well te 
the right. 

Take Aim I Fire!' 

As before explained. 

Rear rank ! Make ready ! One motion. 
Recover and cock as before directed, at the fame time 
ftepping about fix inches to the right, fo as to place yourfelf 
oppofite the interval of the front rank. 

Take Aim ! Fire ! 

As before explained. 

The recruits being thus far inftrucred, the officer muft 
take twelve men, and placing them in one rank, teach them 
to drefs to the right and left ; to do which the foldier muft 
obferve to feel the man on that fide he dreffes to, without 
crowding him, and to advance or retire, till he can juft dif- 
cover the breaft of the fecond man from him, taking care 
not to ftoop, but to keep his head and body upright. 

When they can drefs pretty well, they muft be taught te 
wheel, as follows ; 

To the Right,-— Wheel ! 

At this word of command the men turn theirheads bri/k- 
ly to the left, except the left hand man. 

Fig. r 



March ! 
The whole ftep off, obferving to-feel the hand they wheel 
to, without crowding ; the right hand man, ferving as a 
pivot for the reft to turn on, gains no ground, but turns on 
his heels ; the officer will march on the flank, and when the 
wheeling is finifhed, command, 
On which the whole ftop fhort on the foot then forward, 
bringing up the other foot, and dreffing to the right. 

To the Left— Wheel ! 
The whole continue to look to the right, except the right 
hand man, who looks to the left. 

March ! 

As before explained. 

N. B. The wheelings mud firft be taught in the common 
ftep, and then practifed in the quick ftep. 

When the recruits have praclifed the foregoing exercifes, 
till they are fufficiently expert, they muft be fent to exercife 
with their company. 


The Exercife of a Company, 

Article I. 

Of opening the Ranks. 

Rear Rank ! Take — Dijiance ! 
March ! 

THE rear rank fteps back four paces, and dreffes by 
the right; the officers at the fame time advancing eight 
paces to the front, and dreffing in a line ; the ferjeants who 
covered the officers, take their places in the front rank ; 
the non-commiffioned officers who were in the rear, remain 
there, ftepping back four paces behind the rear rank. 

Rear Rank ! Clofe to the Front ! 
The officers face to the company.. 

March ! 
The rear rank clofes to within a common pace, or two 
feet j and the officers rtturn to their former pofts. 
B i 


Article II. 
Of the Firings. 

The captain will divide his<company into two or more 
fa&ionc, and teach thorn the fire by platoons, as directed 
in chap. mi. art. 1,2. • ' 

The officers muft give the words of command with a 
.loud aad (diftinct voice ; obferve that the foldfers ftep off, 
and place theirfeet, as dirddled 'in the manual exercife'; 
and that they level their pieces at a proper height ; for 
which purpofe they muft be accuftomed always to take 
fight at fame object. 

The Officer will afcen command, As you werel 
to accuftom the fold ier not to fire till he receives the word 
of command. 

Jn alliexercifes m Hetail the men will xife a piece of 
wood, inftead of a flint:: and< each foldier fhould have fix 
■ pieces of wood, in the form of cartridges, which thefer- 
-jeant muft fee taken out of the pieces when the exercife is 
finifhed. When the company exercifes ■ with powder, The 
-«epta4»4^U14nfpect-the company, and fee that -all -the car- 
tridges notufed are •returned." 


Of the March. 
In marching to the front, the men muft be accuftomed to 
drefs to the centre, which they will have to do when exer- 
cifmg in battalion ; and for this purpofe a ferjeant muft be 
placed fix-paces in front of the centre, who will take 
forne object in front to fefve as a 'direction for him to 
march ftraight forward ; and the men muft look inwards, 
and regulate their march by him. 

The captain muft exercife his company in different forts 
of ground; and when, by the'hadnefs of the ground, or 
any other accident, the foldier lofes his ftep, he muft im- 
medlately'take it again from the ferjeant in the centre. 
The officers muft -not fnffer the'leaft inattention, but pun- 
ifh CYGry man guilty of it. 

The Oblique March 
Muft be praclifed both in the cruick and common ftep, 
agreeably to the inftiucTions, already given. 

The March by Files 

Is as Important as difficult. In performing It, the officers 
muft be attentive that the foldiers bend their bodies a little 
■forward, and do not open their files. 

The leading file -will be conducted. by the officer ; whg 
•will pod himfelffor that purpofe on its left, when they 
march by the 'right, and the contrary when they march 
by the left. 

The Coimter March. 

Note. This march muft never be executed by larger por- 
tions of a battalion than Platoons. 


Take Care to 'counter march from Hfth Right, ly 

Platoons ! 

To the Right,— efface ! March ! 

The whole facing to the right, each platoon wheels by 
files to the right about ; and when the right hand file gets 
on the ground where the left flood, the officer orders, 

Halt !— To the Left— Face ! 
and the company will be formed with their front changed. 

Article IV. 

Of Wheeling, 
The captain will exercife his company in wheeling en- 
tire, and by fedtions or platoons, both in the common and 
quick ftep, taking care that the men in the rear\ v rank in- 
cline a little to the right or left, according to .the hand 
they wheel to, fo as always to cover exactly their file-leaders. 

Article V. 

Of Breaking off, and Forming by the chlique.Step. 

The captain having divided his company into two fee- 
tions, will give the word, 

Set! ions — Break off ! 

Upon which the ie£Hon on the right inclines by the 
oblique ftep to the left, and that on the left, following the ' 
former, inclines to'the right, till they cover each other A 
when they march forward. 


Form Company ! 

The firft fecVion inclines to the right, fhortening Its ftep, 
and the fecond to die left, lengthening its ftep, till they are 
uncovered, when both march forward, and form in a line. 

Two or more companies may be joined to perform the 
company exercife, when they have been fufficiently exercif- 
ed by fingk companies, but not till then ; the inattention 
of the foldiers, and difficulty of inftru&ing them, inereafing 
in proportion with the numbers. 


Exercife of a Battalion. 

WHEN a battalion parades for exercife, it is to be 
formed, and the officers ported, agreeably to the in* 
ftruclions already given in the third and fourth chapters. 

The battalion being formed, it is then to perform the 
manual exercife, and the wheelings, marches, manoeuvres 
and firings defcribed in this and the following chapters, or 
fuch of them as fhalL be ordered. 

N. B. When a battalion performs the firings, the fix 
centre-files (viz. three, on each fide the colours) are not to 
fire, but remain as a referve forth* colours ; and the offi- 
cers of the two centre platoons are to warn them accord- 

The battalion will wheel by divifions or platoons, by 
word of command from the officer commanding. 

March ! 
When the battalion wheels, the platoons are conduced 
by the officers commanding them ; the fupemumeraries 
remaining in the re;s.r of their refpe<£Kve platoons. 
[See plate I. Figure 4 and 5.] 
The colours take poll between the fourth and fifth 

The wheeling finilhed, each officer commanding a 
platoon or divifion, commands 

Halt ! Drefs to the Right ! 
and pods himfelf before the centre, the ferjeant who covet- 
ed him taking his place on the right. 


Fortudrd 9 -~March f 

The whole ftep off, and follow the leading divifionor 
platoon ; the officer who conduces the column receiving his 
directions from the commanding officer. When the bat- 
talion wheels to the right, the left flank of the platoons 
muft drefs in a line with each other, and the. contrary when 
they wheel to die left. 

Battalion ! Halt ! 

By Platoons ! To the Left—Wheel ! March ! 

The wheeling finifhed, each officer commanding a plat« 
•on> or divifion, orders 

Halt ! Drefs to the Right ! 

dreires his platoon, and takes pod in the interval, the bat- 
talion being now formed in a line. 


Of the Points of View. 
fJPlate II. Figure i.] 

THE ufe of thefe is a mod effential part in the ma- 
noeuvres, which,' without them, cannot be executed 
with facility or precifion. They are ufually fome diftant 
obje&s (the moft confpicuous that can be found) chofen 
by the commanding officer, to determine the direction of his 
line, which otherwife would be mere hazard. 

The command ng officer having determined onthe di- 
rection of his line, and his points of view B C, fends out 
two officers, D E, to feek two intermediate points in the 
fame line ; the officer E advances ; when D finds him in 
a direct line between himfelf and the point of view B, he 
advances, taking care to keep E always between him and 
the point B, which he muft do by making him fignals to 
advance or retire ; when E finds D in the direct line be- 
tween him and C, he makes him the fignal to halt, and 
they will find themfelves in the intermediate points D E. 



Vf the Formation and Dijplaying of Columns, 
. with the Method of changing Front. 

Article I. 

The c'lofe Column formed on the Ground 'by the 

Right, the Right in Front. 

[Plate I L Figure 2.] 

Caution by the commanding officer. 

Take Care to form Column by Platoons by the Right j 
.'•..,• the .Right in Front ! 

To the Right-~~Face ! 

THE whole face to the right, except the right platoon x, 
at the fame time the leading file of each platoon breaks 
tfff> inTJrdeT to march in the rear of its preceding platoon. 
March I 
The whole ftep off with the quick flep, each platoon 
marching clofe in tfie rear of that preceding it, to its 
place in the column. 

The. officers commanding_platoons, when they -perceive 
thefr leading file drefTed with that of the platoon already- 
formed, command 

Halt ! Front f Drefs ! 
end: the platoon fronts and dreffes to the right. 

Article II. 

Dfplay of a Column formed by the Right, the Right 
in, Front. 

.[Plate II. Figure 2.] 

Caution by the commanding officer. 

f Take: Care to d if play -Column to the Left ! 

The'ofRcers commanding platoons go to the left, in or- 
<ler to <condu& them. 

To the Left — Face ! 
The whole face to the left, except the front platoon. 

March ! • 

The platoons faced, ftep ofr,and march obliquely to their 
place2 in the line ; when the feconi platoon has gained its 
proper diftance, its officer commands 

Halt ! Front ! To the. Right,— Dr eft I 
drefles his platoon with that already formed, and takes his 
pofton the right: the other platoons form, in the fame 

Article III. 

The clofe Column formed on the Ground by. the Left^ 
the Left in Front. 

[Plate II. Figure 3.] 

This is formed jn the fame manner as the preceding 
column, only facing and marching to the left inftead of 
of the right. The officers will conduct their platoons, 
and having dreffed them, return to their polls on the right. 

Article IV. 

Difplay cf a Column formed by the Left, the Left w 


[Plate II. Figure 3.]. 

This column is ufually difplayed to the right, on the 
fame principles as the column formed to the right is dif- 
played to the left. 

Article V. 

The clofe Column fornud on the Centre, or Fifth 

Platoon, the Right in Front, 

[Plate II. Figure 4.] 


Take Care to form Column on the fifth Platoon, the 

Right in Front! 

To the Right and Left — Face! 

The fifth platoon (lands fad ; the others face to the 
centre; the officers poll themfelves at the head of their 
platoons, and break off j and on receiving the Word, 
March ! 


conduct them to their pofts in the column ; the four plat- 
oons on the right forming in the front, and the three plat- 
oons on the left forming in the rear of the fifth platoon. 

When this column is to be formed with the left in front, 
the four platoons on the right form in the rear, and the 
three on the left form in front. 

In all formations and difplayings, the officers whofe 
platoons march by the left, fo foon as they have drefTed 
their platoons in the line or column, return to their pofts 
on the right. 

Article VI. 

Difplay of a Column having the Right in Front, 

from the Centre, or fifth Platoon, 

[Plate II. Figure $.] 


Take Care io difplay Column from the Centre I 

At this caution the officer of the plaloon in front ports a 
ferjeant on each flank of it, who are to remain there till 
the platoon on which the column difplays, has taken its 
poft in the line, when they retire along the rear of the , 
battalion to their platoon. 

To the Right and Left — Face ! 

The four front platoons face to the right, the fifth ftanis 
faft, and the fixth,ieventh and eighth face to the left. 
March J 

The four platoons of the right march to the right, the 
firft platoon taking care to march ftraight towards the 
point of view ; fo foon as the fourth platoon has unmafked 
the fifth, its officer commands, 

■Halt ! Front ! March ! 
and it marches up to its port: in the line ; the third and fe- 
cond platoon, as foon as they have respectively gained their 
diftances, proceed in the fame manner; and then the firft 
halts and drefTes with them ; the fifth platoon in the mean 
time marches to its poft between the two ferjeants ; and the 
three platoons of the left form by marching obliquely to 
their pofts in the line, as before explained. 




* feg"— "1 

U ti4 

G. I. 



Article VII. 

The chfe Column formed by the Right, the Right in 
Front , dif played to the Right. 

[Plate III. Figure i.] 

When a column is formed by the right, and the nature 
of the ground will not permit its being difplayed to the 
l«ft, it may be difplayed to the right in the following man- 
ner : 

Take Care to dif play Column to the Right ! 

The two fcrjeants are to be ported, as before, on the 
flanks of the front platoon. 

* To the Right. — Face ! 

The eighth platoon (lands faft, the reft face to the right, 
and march, the firft platoon keeping the line ; fo foon as 
the eighth platoon is unmaiked, it marches forward to its 
poll between the two ferjeants of the firft platoon left there 
for that purpofe ; thefeventh platoon, having gained its dif-, halts, fronts and marches up to its ground } jhe oth- 
er platoons proceed in the fame manner, as explained in the 
difplay from the centre. 

Article VIII. 
The chfe Column formed by the L'ft, the Left in 
Front, difplayed to the Left. ' 
[See Plate III. Figure 2.T 

This is performed on the fame principles as thVdifplay 
of the column in thefeventh article. 

. A column formed either by the right, left or centre, 
ma;/, according to the ground, or any other circumftance, 
be difplayed on any particular platoon on the principles be- 
. fore explained. 

Article IX, 

Open Column* 
Arc formed by wheeling to the right or left by platoons 5 
and, ntibcn indifpsnfahly r.c:ej}~ary, by marching the platoons 
by riles, in the following manner : 



Take care to form open Columns by ike Right f 

[Plate III. Figure 3.] 

To the Right, Face ! 

The right platoon (lands fait, the reft face to the right, 
and break off to the rear. 

March 1 

Each platoon marches to its place in the column, the of- 
ficers taking care to preferve the proper diftances between 
their platoons. 

Open columns may in the fame manner be formed by 
the left, centre, or on any particular platoon, the officers 
taking care to preferve their proper diftances. 
£See Plate III. Figure 4.] 

Open columns are formed again in line, either by 
•wheeling by platoons, or by doling column and difplay- 
ing, as explained in the articles on clofe columns. 

If the commanding officer chufes to clofe the open col- 
umn, he will command 

Clofe — Column ! March ! 

'On which the platoons march by the quick ftep, and 
-clofe to within two paces of each other ; when the com- 
manding officer of platoons fucceffively command 

Halt ! Drefs to the Right ! 
.and the column is clofed. 

When the .commanding officer chufes to open a clofe 
column, he commands 

Open — Column ! 

On which the front platoon advances, followed by the 
others fucceflively, as faft as they have their diftances. 

The different manners of forming and difplaying col- 
umns being the bafis of all manoeuvres, require the greateft 
^attention, of both officers and men in the execution. The 
officers muft by frequent practice learn to judge of diftances 
with the greateft exaefnefs; as an augmentation or dimi- 
nution 01 the proper diftance between the platoons, is at- 
tended with much confufion in forming a line- They muft 
alfo be very careful not to advance beyond the line, in 
forming battalion, but drefs their platoons carefully with 
the points of view. 

PI. IV. 

Fig. I. 



vx v^. 

FIG ff 

J >«tf ■■ " Wff "" ' - l ^3 ^^ ■ SBg^uA.L ■ ^ 


Article X. 

Of changing the. Front of a Line. 

The changing the front of a platoon, divifion, or even a 
battalion, may be performed by a fimple 'wheeling ; that 
of a brigade muft be performed by firft forming the open 
column, then marching it into the direction required, and 
forming the line. 

If it be neceflary to change the front of a line confiding 
of more than a brigade, the fimpleft and fureft method is 
to form clofe columns, either by brigades or battalions, 
march them to the direction required, and difplay. 

C H A P. X. 

Of the March of Columns. 

THE march of columns is an operation fo often re- 
peated, and of fo much confequence, that it muft be 
confidered as an eflfential article in the inftruction of both- 
officers and men. 

Article I. 
The march of an open Column. 
Column ! March ! 

The whole column muft always begin to march, and 
halt, at the fame time, and only by order of the command- 
ing officer. After the firft twenty paces he fhcjuld com- 

Support — Arms ! 
When the men may march more at their eafe, but 
keeping their files clofe. Before the column halts, he 
ihould command 

Carry — Arms ! Column I Halt ! 
Drcfs to the Right ! 
When marching in open column, the officer command- 
ing will often form battalion, by wheeling to the right 
or left, in order to fee if the officers have preserved the pro- 
per diftances between the platoons. 

Article II. 
Columns changing the Direction ofth'.ir March. 
When a clofe column is obliged to change the direction 
of its march, the front platoon muft not wheel round on 


its flank, but advartce in a direction more or lefs circular, 
according to the depth of the column, that the other pla- 
toons may follow. 

fSee plate IV. Figure i.] 
An open column changes the direction of its march by 
wheeling the front platoon, the others following ; in doing 
which, the officers commanding plotoons muft be particu- 
larly careful that their platoons wheel on the fame ground 
with the front platoon ; for which purpofe a ferjeant lhould 
be left to mark the pivot on which they are to wheel. 

Article III. 

Pajfage of a Defile by a Column. 

A column on its march coming to a defile, which obli- 
ges it to diminifh its front, the officer commanding the firft 
platoon commands 

Break off ! 

On which thofe files which cannot pafs, break off, face 
inwards, and follow their platoon by files, and as the de- 
file narrows or widens more files will break off, or join the 
platoon : The fucceeding platoons proceed in the fame 

If the defile is difficult or long, (6 foon as the front have 

palled and gained fufficient ground, they will halt till the 

whole have paffed and formed, when they will continue 

the march. ( 

Article IV. 

A Column croffivg a Plain, liable to be attacked 
by Cavalry. 

When the commanding officer thinks himfelf in danger 
of being attacked by cavalry, he muft clofe the column, 
and on their reproach, halt and face outwards ; the front 
platoon Handing faft, the rear platoon going to the right a- 
bout, and the others facing outwards from their centres. 

In cafe of attack, the two firft ranks keep up a fmart 
running fire, beginning as well as ending by a fignal from 
the drum. 

The foldiers muft be told, that under thefe circumftan- 
ces, their fafety depends wholly on their courage ; the ca- 
valry being only to be dreaded when the infantry ceafe to 
refWl them. 

When the column is to continue its march, .the officer 

Column ! To the Front, Face ! March I 

The platoons face to the front, and march. 

Article V. 
A Column marching by its Flank. 

Column ! To the I R ^ 1 Face ! 

If the column marches by the left, the officers go t» 
the left of their refpective platoons. 
March ! 
The column marches, drefflng by the right. 

Column ! Halt ! Front ! 
The column faces to die front. 


OJ the March in Line. 

Article I. 
The March to the Front. 

Battalion ! Forward ! 

AT this caution the enfign with the colours advances 
fix paces ; the ferjeant who covered him taking his 
place. The whole are to drefs by the colours. The com- 
mandant of the battalion will be ported two paces in front 
oi the colours, and will give the enfign an objecl to fervc 
as a diredion for him to march ftraight forward. 
March ! 

The enfign who carries the colours will be careful to 
march ftraight to the objeel given him by the colonel; to do 
which, he muft fix on fome intermediate objetf. 

If many battalions are in the line, the eniigns muft drefi? 
by the enfign in the centre ; if only two, they will drefs by 
each other. They muft be very careful not to advance 
beyond the battalion they are to drefs by, it being much 
eaiier to advance than to fall back. 

Should a battalion by any caufe be hindered from ad- 
vancing in line with the reft, the enfign of that battalion 


muft drop his colours as a figtial to the other battalions 
(who might otherwife ftop to drefs by them)not to con- 
form to their movements ; the colours to be raifed again 
when the battalion has auvanced to its poft in the line. 

The commanding officer of each battalion mull be care- 
ful that his men drefs and keep their riles clofe, and to pre- 
ferve the proper diftances between his own battalion and 
thofs on his flanks ; and when lie finds that he is too near 
the one or the other, muft command 

Obliquely r~To the < ^f t \ ' 

When the battalion will march by the oblique ftep,as or- 
dered, till they have, recovered their diftance, apd receive 
the command 

Forward ! 
Upon which the battalion will march forward and the en- 
£gn take a new object to march to. 

If the diftance is augmented or diminiffied only two or 
three paces, the com-Tianding officer will order the colours 
to incline a little, and then march forward ; the battalion 
conforming to their movement. § 

The officers commanding platoons will continually 
have an eve over them, immediately remedying anydefe#| 
carefully 'dreffing with the centre, and keeping ftep with 
the colours. • ., ' ■ •' . 

The officers in the rear muft take care of the fecond 
rank, remedying any defeat in a low vo-.ce, and with as 
little noife as pofiible. . 

The foldicr muft not advance out of the rank the lnoul- 
der oppofite the fide he dreffes to ; he muft not crowd his 
risht or left hand man, but give, way to the preflure of the 
centre, and rcfift that of the wings ; he muft have his eyes 
continually fixed on the colours, turning his head more or 
lefs, in proportion to his diftance from them. 

Battalion ! Halt ! 
The- whole ftop Qiort on the feet then advanced. 

Drefs to the Right ! 
The men drefs to the right, and .the colours fall back 
into the ranks. 


Article II. 
Of the Charge with Bayonets. 
The line marching,the commanding officer, on approach- 
ing the enemy, commands 

March ! March ! 
On which the whole advance by the quick ftepi 

Charge — Bayonet ! 
The line charge their bayonets, and quicken their ftep j 
the drums beat the long roll ; and the officers and men 
muft take care to drefs to the centre, and not crowd or o- 
pen their files. 

Battalion / Slow Step ! 
The battalion fall into the flow ftep, and carry their 

Halt f Drefs to the Right ! 
The battalion halts and drefles to the right. 

Article III. 
Method of paffingany Ob facie in Front of a line. 
When an obftacle prefents itfelf before any divifion, plat- 
oon, or number of files, the officer commanding the plat- 
oons, &c. commands. 

Break off! 
on which the files obftructed face outwards from their cen- 
tre, and follow by files the platoons on their right and left ; 
if the platoons on the wings are obftrutfed, they will face 
inwards, and follow in the fame manner. 

In proportion as the ground permits, the files will march 
up to their places in front, drefs, and take ftep with the 

Article IV. 
Paffage of a Defile in Front, by Platoons. 
A battalion marching and meeting with a bridge or de- 
file, over or through which not more than the front of a 
divifion can paft at a time, the commanding officer orders 

and then to the two platoons before whom the defile pre- 
feats itfelf 

March ! 
on which they pafs the defile in one divifion. As fcorvas 


thofe two platoons hate marched, the commanding officer 

To the Right and Left, — Face f 
The platoons on the right face to the left, and thofe on the 
left face to the right. 

March ! 
They march till they join, fronting the defile ; whsn the 
commanding officer of the two platoons commands 

Halt ! Front ! March ! 
and they pafs the defile,the reft following in the fame manner. 
As foon as the front divifion has pafled, it will halt ; 
and the other divifions, as faft as they arrive in the rear, 
face outwards, and -march by files till they come to their 
proper places in battalion ; when the officers commanding 
the platoons order 

Halt ! Front f Drefs ! 
and the platoons drefs in line with thofe already formed. 

Article V. 

Paffage of a Defile in Front, by Files. 

If the defile will not permit more than four files to pafs,. 

the four files before which the defile prefents itfelf enter 

without any word of command ; the reft face inwards, and 

follow them ; the whole marching through by files. 

As foon as the files which firft entered,have paffed,they 
halt ; the others, as fall as they pafs marching to their pla~ 
ces in battalion. 

Article VI. 

Of the March in retreat. 
Battalion ! To the Right about, — Face f 
The whole face to the right about ; the officers keeping 
their pons. 

Forward, — March ! 
The colours advance fix paces, and the whole ftep off, dref- 
fing by them. 

The paffage of any obftacle in retreat, is the fame as in 
the march to the front. 

Article VII. 
Paffage of a Defile in retreat, by platoons. 
If it is at any time neceffary to pafs a defile in tofae rcar,In 


prefence of an enemy, the line muft march as near as pof- 
iible to the defile ; when the commanding officer orders 

To the Fronts — Face ! 
From the Wings,— By Platoons'— Pafs the Defile 

in the Rea,r ! 
The two platoons on the wings face outwards. 

March ! 
The two platoons wheel by files, and march along the rear 
of the battalion to the entrance of the defile; where joining 
their officers command 


The platoon of fch* right wing faces to the left ; the other 
platoon faces to the right ; and both pafs in one divifion ; 
the other platoons following in the fame manner, except 
thofe of the centre. 

When all have entered but die two centre platoons, "that 
oh the right faces to the right about, and marches twenty 
paces into the defile ; when the officer commands 
Halt I To the. Right about, — Face f 
The officer of the other platuon, when he fees them faced 
will retire in the fame manner ; and having pa/Ted twenty 
paces beyond the platoon halted in the defile, comes alfo to 
the rightabout; they continuing in this manner to cover 
each other's retreat till they have paffed, when they face to 
the front, and cover the defile. 

The three platoons of the right wing wheel to the left ; 
thofe of the left wing wheel to the right, and having gained 
their proper diftances, the commading officer orders 

Halt / Platoons ! 

To the Right and Left,— Wheel! March ! 
# The r'f^ht wing wheels to the left, and the left to the 
right ; which forms the battalion. 

If the defile fhould prefent itfelf behind any other part 
of the battalion, the platoons fartheft off muft always re- 
treat firft ; and if the defile becomes narrower than at the 
entrance, the platoons muft double behind each other. 
Article VIII. 
Pajfage of a Defile in Retreat, ly Files. 
■ This manoeuvre is performed in the fame manner as the 


preceding, except that, inftead of forming at the entrance-, 
the platoons pafs by files ; and having paffed, face to the 
right and left, march till they have their proper diftances, 
and then wheel and form battalion. 

The paffage of defiles may be executed at firfl in com- 
mon ftep, for the inftru&ion of the troops, in fcrvice, always 
in the quick ftep. 

The paffage of defiles being difficult in prefence of an 
enemy, the officers muft be particularly careful to keep 
the files clofed ; to be quick in giving the words of com- 
mand ; and not lofe any time in the executior.. 

This manoeuvre flvould always be covered by troops 
pofted on each fide the defile, and on every advantageous 
piece of ground that prefents itfelf, to annoy and keep back 
the enemy. 

Article IX. 

Method of pajfing the front Line to the Rear. 

The firft line being obliged to retreat, will face to the 
right about, and retire in line. 

The fecond line, if not already formed in columns, will 
immediately,on perceiving the firft line retire,forrn in that 
order by brigades or battalions ; and the firft line having 
paffed the intervals between the columns, the fecond line 
will difplay ; or, if too clofely preffed by the enemy, attack 
in columns the flanks of the battalions which purfue,there- 
bygiving timeforthe firftlineto form andtake anew pofition. 


Cf the Difpoftion of the Field-pieces, attached to the 

THE field-pieces attached to the different brigades 
muft always remain with them, encamping on their 
right, unlefs the quarter-mafter general, thinks proper to 
place them on any advantageous piece of ground in front. 
When the ar,my marches by the right, the field -piece 
mu>ft march at the head of their refpe&ive brigades ; when 
it marches by the left, they follow in the rear, unlefs cir- 
cumftances determine the general to order otherwife ; but, 
whether they march in front, centre or rear of their bsi- 

(i/i/tii Guard rdiiin Guard 






Q£ Gudrd 

Fig n 

H i*»taa h 
QT Guard 


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gades they mull always march between the battalions,and 
never between the platoons. 

In manoeuvring they mud alfo follow their brigade/s, 
performing the manoeuvres and evolutions with them ; ob- 
serving that, when the clofe column is formed, they muft al- 
ways proceed to the flank of the column oppofed to that 
fide their brigade is to difplay to ; and on the column's 
difplaying, they follow the firft divifion of their brigade ; 
and when that halts and forms,the field-pieces immediately 
take their pods on its right. 


Of the Firings. 

WHEN the troops are to exercife with powder.the of- 
ficers muft carefully infpecT: the arms and cartridge 
boxes, and take away all the cartridges with ball. 

The firft part of the general will be the fignal for all fir- 
ing to ceafe; on the beating of which the officers and non- 
commifiloned officers muft fee that their platoons ceafe fir- 
ing, load and fhoulder as quick as poffible. The com- 
manding officer will continue the fignal till he fees that the 
<men have loaded and mouldered. 

Article I. 

Firing by Battalion. 


Take Care to Jire by Battalion ! 

Battalion ! Make ready t Take Aim ! Fire f 

If there be more than one battalion to fire, they are to 
do it in fucceflion from right to left; but after the firft, 
round, the odd battalions fire fo foon as the refpeclive bat- 
talions on their left begin to fhoulder ; and the even bat- 
talions fire when the refpeclive battalions on their fight be- 
gin to fhoulder. 

Article II. 

Firing by .JDiviJions and platoon?, 


Take Care to fire by Divifions ! 
Divijionl Make ready \ Take Aim 1 . Firc\ 

They fire in the fame order as i$ prefcribed for battal- 
ions in Article i. 

The firing by platoons is alfo executed in the fame or- 
der in thewingsof the battalion, beginning with the right of 
each, that is, thefirTt and fifth platoons pve the iirft fire, the 
fecondandfixth the fecond hre, the third and feventh the 
third fire, and the fourth and eighth the fourth fire, ; alter 
which they fire as before prefcribed. 

Article III. 

Firing Advancing. 

The battalion advancing receives the word, 

Battalion I Haiti 

Take Care to Jire by Div'Jions ! 

They fire as before. 

Article IV. 

Firing Retreating. 

When a battalion is obliged to retire, it muft marches 

lbng as poffible ; but if prefied by the enemy, and obliged 

to make ufe of its fire, the commanding officer will order : , 

Battalion ! Halt ! 

To the Right about. — Face ! 

and fire by battalion, divifion or platoon, as before directed. 


Gf the March of an Army or Corps. 

TKE created attention on the part of the officers is 
necelfary at all times, but more particularly on a 
march; The foldiers being then permitted to march at 
their eafe, with the ranks and files open, without the great- 
eft care, thefe get confounded one with another ; and if 
fuddcnly attacked, in (lead of toeing able to form immedi- 
ately in order of battle, the whole line is thrown into the 
•titmoft confufion. 

The order for the march of an army being given, the 
adjutant general will appoint the field officers for the 
advanced and rear guards, and iflue orders to the brigade 


majors to have ready their refpective quotas of other 
officers and men for the advanced guard, which will con- 
fift of the number ncceifary for the guards of the new 
camp. Thefe, together with a pioneer of each company, 
and a ferjeant from the regiment to conduct them, muft 
be warned the evening before. 

At the beating of the general, the troops are immedi- 
ately to ftrike their tents, and load the waggons, which 
muft then fall into the line of march for the baggage. 

At thisfignal alfo all general and ftafF officers' guards, 
and thofebf the commiflaries, mull return to their refpec- 
tive regiments. 

At the beating of the afTembly, the troops will afTem- 
ble, and be formed in battalion on their refpective pa- 

The guards ordered, muft then be conduced by the 
brigade majors, or adjutants of the day, to the rendezvous 
appointed for the advanced guard, where the field officers 
warned for that duty, will form them in battalions, or 
other corps, according to their ftrength, and divide them 
regularly into divifions and platoons. The officer com- 
manding the advanced guard, muft take care to have a 
guide with him, and to get every neceflary information of 
the road. 

The camp guards muft at the fame time retire to the 
rendezvous appointed for the rear guard, where they 
muft be formed in the fame manner. 

At the fame time alfo the quarter-mafters and pioneers 
of each battalion muft aflembie on the ground appointed 
for the advanced guard, where one of the deputies of the 
quarter mafter general muft form them in platoons, in 
the fame order as their refpective battalions march in the 

Each detachment will be conducted by its quarter 
mafter, who muft be anfwerable that it marches in the or- 
der prefcribed ; and the quarter mafters of brigades will 
conduct thofe of their refpeftive brigades, and be anfwer- 
able for their behaviour. 

The fignal for marching being given, the whole will 
wheel by platoons or fections, as (hall be ordered, and be- 
gin the march. 

The advanced guard will march at a diftance from the 

main body proportioned to its ftrcngth, having a patrole 
advanced ; and mud never enter any defile, \vood,&c. with- 
out having firft examined it, to avoid tailing into an am- 

The pioneers are to march behind the advanced guard, 
and muft repair the roads, that the column may be obliged 
to file off as little as poffible. 

The advanced gu.rrd, befidcs its patroles in front, mud 
have a Rank guard, compofed of a file from each platoon, 
and commanded by an officer, or noncommiffioned officer, 
to march at the diftance of one hundred paces on the 
flank, and keep up with the head of the advanced guard. 

If it be necefiary to have a flank guard on each fide, 
a file muft be fent from the other flank of each platoon to 
compofe it ; and as this fervice is fatiguing, the men 
lhould be relieved every hour. The like flank guards are 
to be detached from each battalion, in the column. 

For the greater convenience of the foldurs, the ranks 
muft be opened to half diftance during the march. 

When the column meets with a defile, or any obftacle, 
the commanding officer muft ftop till the column has 
pafled it, taking care that they pals in as great order and 
as quick as potable ; and when one half have marched 
through, he muft command the front to halt, till the 
whole have paifed and formed, when he will continue the 

When a column crofles a road that leads to the enemy, 
the patroles or guards on the flanks of the firft battalion 
muft form on the road, and halt till the patroles of the 
next battalion come up, which muft do the fame ; the 
others proceed in the fame manner, till the whole have 

When the commanding officer thinks proper to halt on 
the march, immediately on the column's halting, the ad- 
vanced flank and rear guards muft form a chain of fenti- 
nels, to prevent the foldiers from ftraggling ; and all 
neceffaries, as wood, water, &c. muft be fetched by de- 
tachments, as in camp. 

On the bcauwg the long roll, the whole are to form and 
continue the march. 

On the march no orders are to be communicated oy 
•ailing out, but muft be fent by the adjutants from regi- 


ment to regiment. The fignals for halting, marching 
flower and quicker, mull be given by beat of drum. (See 
Chap, xxi ) 

The commanding officer of the advanced guard being 
informed by the quarter-maflcr general, or'his deputy, 
oi the ground the troops are to encamp on, will go a head 
and reconnoitire it ;and immediately on the arrival of 
the advanced guard, port his guards and fentinels,as dired- 
ed in Chapter xxu. 

March by Sections of Four.- 
The roads being very often two narrow to admit the 
front of a platoon, and the troops being therefore continu- 
ally obliged to break off, which fatigues the men j to pre- 
vent this,when the road is not fufficiently large throu ghout, 
(he battalions may be divided into feclions in the follow- 
in a; manner : 

Each platoon is to be told off into feftions of four files ; 
if there remain three files, they form a feclion j if two files 
.or lefs, they form one rank. At the word, 

By Sett ions of Four ! 

To the Right,— Wheel I March \ 
they wheel by fours and march, the fecond rank of each 
feclion taking two paces diflancc from the front rank. The 
officers commanding platoons take pod on the left of their 
firft feetion ; but on the right, if the fedions wheel to the 
laft. The file-clofers fall in on the flanks. 

The officers mufh take great care that the diftance cf 
two paces, and no more, is kept between the ranks. At the 

Halt \ 

The front rank of each feclion flops fhort, and the fecond 
rank clofes up, which gives the proper diflance between 
the fections ; and by wheeling to the right or left the line is 
formed : or, if the commanding officer choofes, he may 
form platoons by the oblique flep. 

If a column be already on the march by platoons, and 
the road becomes too narrow and inconvenient to continue 
in that order, it may be formed into fections of four, in the 
following manner : 

Caution by the commanding officer. 


Take Care to break off by Sections of Four ! 

Upon which the officers commanding platoons tell thcra 
off as before, but without halting. 

At the word 

Sections of Four ! Break off I. 
the feftions on the right of each platoon incline by the o- 
blique ftep to the left ; and thofe on the left of ea^h platoon 
following theformer,incline to the right, till they all cover ; 
when they march forward, opening the ranks as before di- 
rected. If the number of feclions in a platoon be uneven 
that in the centre is to march ftraight forward ; the feclion 
on the right inclining to the left, and covering it in front ; 
and thofe on the left inclining to the right, and covering it 
in the rear. 

Of the Baggage on a March. 

THE inconveniences arifing to an army from having 
too great a number of waggons, muft be evident to 
every officer ; and it is expected, that for the future each 
officer will curtail his baggage as much as poffible- 

The order of march for the army will always determine 
that for the baggage ; and, whatever place it may occupy 
in the line of march, the waggons muft always follow in 
the fame order as their refpeclive regiments. 

The quarter mafter general, or his deputy, will give the 
order of march for the baggage, and the commander in 
chief will order an efcort, to be commanded by a field of- 
ficer, according to its ftrength. 

An officer of each battalion muft be appointed to fu- 
perintend the ftriking of- the tents, and loading the wag- 
gons: he muft fee that the tents are properly tied up; that 
r.o proviiions or other articles are packed in them : and 
that the tent poles are tied in a bundle by themfelves : he 
muft not faffer the waggons to be overloaded,or any thing 
put into them but what is allowed ; and when the wag- 
gons are loaded, he muft fend them with the quarter-maf- 
ter ferjeant to the rendezvous of the brigade. This fer- 
jeant is to remain with the baggage of his regiment, to fee 
that the waggons follow in order ? and if a waggon breaks 


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down, it mufl be put out of the line, that it may not im- 
pede the march of the reft. 

Each regiment will furnifh a non-commiffioned officer to 
conduct the fick and lame who are not able to march witk 
their regiments. Thefe men are to repair, at the beating 
of the general, to the rendezvous appointed, where a fuf- 
ficient number of empty waggons will be ordered to attend 
for the reception of their knapfacks, and their arms, ifne- 
ceflary. A furgeon of each brigade is to attend the fick 
belonging to it. 

The commanding officer of each battalion will infpeel the 
fick before they are fent from" the battalion, in order that 
none may be fent but thofe who are really incapable of 
marching with their regiments. And the officer command- 
ing the efcort will be anfwerable that no foldiers are per- 
mitedto march with the baggage on any pretence whatev- 
er, except the quarter-mafter ferjeant of each regiment, as 
before directed. 

No waggons are to be permited to go between the bat- 
talions or brigades, except the ammunition waggons. 

The waggons of the park, and Others, are to be conduct- 
ed agreeably to the foregoing directions, . and the neceflary 
officers furnifhed to keep order on the march. 

The manner of laying out a camp, with the order of 

WHEN the quarter-mafters arrive on the ground 
where the troops are to encamp, the quarter-maft- 
er general having fixed hb line of encampment, will con- 
daft them along the line, and give each brigade quarter- 
mafter the ground neceffary for his brigade. 

The qaarter-mafters of regiments will then have their 
ground given them by the brigade quarter-mafters, and 
will mark out the place for each company and tent, and 
for the kitche0s,&c.& defer ibed in the following order. 

Order of Encampment. 

[Plate VII and VIII.] 

The infantry will on all occafions encamp by battalions, 
as they are formtd in order of battle, 


The front of ihe camp will occupy the lame extent of 
ground as the troops when formed j and the intervals be- 
tween the battalions will be twenty paces, with an addi- 
tion of eight paces for every piece of cannon a batulion 
may have. 

The quarter-mafter of each regiment fhall be anfwer- 
able that he demands no more ground than is neceffary 
.for the number of men. he has actually with the regiment, 
allowing two feet fcr each file, exclufivc of the officers, 
and adding fixteen feet for the intervals between the 
platoons. He is alfo to be anfwerable that no more tents 
are pitched than are abfolutely neceflary, allowing one 
tent for the non-commiffioncd officers of each company, 
and one for every fix men, including the drums and fifes. 
The tents of the non-commiffioned officers and privates 
are to be. pitched in two ranks with an interval of fix paces 
betwen the ranks, and two feet between each tent ; the 
tents of the non-commiffioncd officers to be in the front 
rank, on the right of thdr companies, in the right wing, 
and on the left in the left wing of the battalion. Nine 
feet front are to be allowed for each tent with its interval, 
and twenty feet in the centre of the battalion for the adju- 
tant ; but when a regiment forms two battalions, the ad- 
jutant is to encamp with .the firft battalion, theierjeant- 
major fupplyinghis place in thefecond. 

The captains' and fubalterns' tents are to be in one line, 
. twenty feet from the rear of the men's tents ; the captains' 
in the right wing oppofite the right of their refpeclive com- 
. panies, and the fubalterns' oppofite the left ; and the con- 
trary in the left wing. 

The field officers' tents are to be in one line,' thirty feet 
'from the line of officers ; the colonel's oppofite the centre ; 
the lieutenant colonel's on the right ; and the major : s on 
the left. But if the regiment forms two battalions, the 
colonel encamps behind the centre of the firft battalion ; 
the lieutenant colonel behind the fecond battalion, and the 
major behind the interval between the two battalions. 

The furgeon, pay-mafter,and.quarter-ma(ler, encamp in 

one line, with the front of their tents in a line with the 

rear of the field officers' tents; ehe AiVgeon on the right, 

v pay-mafter on the left, ar.d quarter-mafter in the centre. 

The kitchens are to, be dug beiund their refpetfive corn- 


panies, forty feet from the field officers' tentfr.- The fut- 
lers' tents are to be between the kitchens. 

The horfes and waggons are to be placed in a line, twen- 
ty feet behind the kitchens. 

The drums of each battalion are to be piled fix paces in 
front of the adjutant's tent, and the colours planted before 

The camp guards are to be three hundreed paoes in 
front of the fir It line, and the fame diitance in the rear of 
the fecond line. i 

The quarter guard is to be forty feet from the waggons, 
oppofite the interval between the two battalions who fur- 
ni(h it. 

The finks of the iirft line are to be three hundred feet 
in front, and thofe of the fecond line the fame diftanoe in 
the rear of the camp. 

The commanding officers of regiments are to be anf- 
werable that no tents arepitched out of the line- ofencamp- 
•ment on any. account whatever, except for the regimental 

The ground being marked out, the quarter-mafters will 
leave the pioneers, and e;o to meet their regiments, con- 
duel them to their ground, and inform the colonel where 
they are to go for their neceffaries. 

C H -A P. XVI T. 

Manner of entering a camp' . 

THE head of the column arriving at the firft -entrance 
of the camp, the commanding officer of the-firft bat- 
talion will command 

Car ry^— Arms ! 
On which the men carry their arms, and the drum;; 
beat a march ; and the officers will fee that their platoons 
have their proper difiances, clofe the ranks and files, and 
■ each drefs the flank on which his platoon is to wheel, with 
the fame flank i of the platoon preceeding. The other bat- 
talions obferve the fame directions, and keep their proper 
diftances'from each other. 

Tha general or officer commanding mud take great cafe 
to march the troops in a direcl line along the front of the 
camp, and at fuch a diftance as to give fufficient roeni &r 


the large ft. platoons to march clear of the line of tents. 

As the battalions refpe&ively arrive in front of their 
ground, they halt, form battalion (drcffing with the right) 
and order or fupport their arms. 

The adjutants immediately turn out the piquets that 
may have been ordered, form them in front of their refpect- 
ive battalions, and fend them to the rendezvous appointed. 

The piquets being fent off, the commanding officers of 
battalions command their men to pile their arms, and di'f- 
mifs them to pitch their tents. 

As foon as a company have pitched their tents, the 
captain parades them, and they fetch in their arms. 

The tents of the battalion being all pitched, the adjutant 
will form .the detatchments for neceuaries, and ' fend them 

In the mean time the commanding officer of the bat- 
talion, having examined the ground, will, if necefTary, 
order out a party to open the communications on the 
right and left ;:in front for- the troops and in the rear for 
the baggage. 


Nccejfary Regulations for preftrving Order and 
Cleanlinefs in the Camp. 

WHEN a regiment - enters acamp,the field officers 
muft take care that the encampment is pitched 
regularly ; that the finks and kitchens are immediately 
dug in their proper places, and that no tents are pitched I 
in any part of the camp contrary to the order prefer ibed. 

At leaft one officer ot a company muft remain on the 
parade, to fee that the tents are pitched regularly, on the 
ground marked out. 

The tents mould be marked with the name of each regi- 
ment and company, to prevent their being loft or exchang- 
ed, and the tents of each company numbered ; and each 
non-commiflioned officer fhould have a lift of the tents, 
with the mens* names belonging to each.. 

The utenfils belonging to the tents are to be carried al- 
ternately by the men ; and the non-commiflioned officers 
of the fquads are to be anfwerable that they are not loft or 


Whenever a regiment is to remain more than one night 
on the fame ground, the foldiers muft be obliged to cut 
a fmall trench round their tents, to carry off the rain ; 
but great care muft be taken they do not throw the dirt 
up againft the tents. 

One officer of acompany muft every day vifit the tents-; 
fee that they are kept clean ; that every utenfil belong- 
ing to them is in proper order ; and that no bones or other 
filth be in or near them ; and when the weather is fine, 
fhould order them to be ftrucfc about two hours at noon, 
and the ftraw and bedding well aired. 

The foldiers fhould-not be permitted to eat in their tents, 
except in bad weather ; and an officer of a company muft 
often vifit the mefTes ; fee that the provifion is good and 
well cooked ; that the men of one tent mefs together ; and 
that the provifion is not fold or dTfpofedof for liquor. 

A fubaltern, four non-commiffioned officers and a drum* 
mer muft every day be appointed for the police of each 
battalion, who are on no account to be abfent during the 
time they are on. duty. 

The officer of the police is to make a general infpe&ion 
into the cleanlinefs of the camp, not fuffer fire to be made 
any where but in the kitchens, and caufe all dirt to be 
immediately removed, and either burnt or buried. He is 
to be prefent at all distributions in the regiment, and to 
form and fend off all detachments for necefTaries. 

In cafe the adjutant is obliged to be abfent, the officer of 
the police is to do his duty till his return ; and for that 
purpofe he muft attend at the adjutant's tent, to be ready 
to receive and distribute any orders that may come for the 

The drummer of the police muft attend conftantly at 
the adjutant's tent, to be ready at all times to communi- 
cate the neceffary fignals ; nor muft he abfent himfelf on 
any account during the twenty, four hours, without leav- 
ing another drummer to fupply his place till his return, 
nor then, without leave from the adjutant. 

When any of the men want water, they muft apply to 
the officer of the police, who will order the drum to beat 
the neceifarv fignal ; on which all who want water muft 
immediately parade with their canteens before the col- 
ours, where the officer of the police will form and fend. 


them off under the care of the two non commiffioned of- 
ficers of the police, who are to be anfwerable that they 
bring back the whole detachment, and that no exceffes are 
.committed whilft they are out. Wood and all other necef- 
faries rauft be fetched in the fame manner. Except in cafe 
of neceffity, not more than one detachment is to be out 
at a time. 

The quarter-maftcr muff be anfwerable that the parade 
and environs of the encampment of a regiment are kept 
clean ; that the finks are filled up, and new ones dug 
every four days, and nftener in warm weather ; and if any 
horfe or other animal dies near the regiment, he mufk 
caufe it to be carried at leaft half a mile from camp and 

. The place where the cattle are killed mull be at fcaft 
fifty paces in the rear of the waggons ; and the entrails 
and other filth immediately buried ; for which the com- 
mifTaries are to be anfwerable. 

The quavter-mafttrgeneral muft take care that all dead 
animals, and every other nuifance in the environs of the 
camp, be removed. 

No non commiffioned officer or foldier fhall be permit- 
ted to pafs the chain of fentinels round the camp, without 
permiffion in writing frcm the commanding officer of his 
regiment or battalion ; which petmidion lhall be dated 
the fame day, and fhall, on the return of the perfon to 
whom it was granted, be delivered to the adjutant, who is 
to return itao the colonel or commanding officer, with 
his report. 

Every detachment not conducted by a commiffioned 
officer, fhall have a written permiffion from a field officer, 
or officer commanding a regiment, or the officer of the 
police if it be a detachment going for necefftries ; without 
which they are not to be permitted to pafs the chain. 

All officers whatever are to make it a point of duty to 
ftop every non-commiffioned officer or foldier they meet 
without the chain, and examine his pafs : and if he has not 
a fufficient pafs, or having one is committing any excefi", 
the officer muft conduel him to the neareft guard, from 
whence he muft be fent, with hiy crime, to his regiment. 

The'fentinel before the colours muft have orders, in 
cafe he hears any alarm iruramp, or at the advanced pofts, 


to acquaint the adjutant with it ; who vill inform the 
commanding officer of the battalion, or order an alarm 
beat, if the cafe requires it. 


Of Roll Calls. 

THE rolls {hall be called in each battalion at troop 
and retreat beating, at which times the men are to pa- 
rade with their arms; and at the beating of the reveille, 
and at noon, the commanding officers of companies mall 
caufe the rolls ©f their refpeetive companies to be called, the 
men parading for that purpofe without arms, and to be de- 
tained no longer than is necefTary to call the roll. 

Th.~ non-commiffioncd officers are to vifit their refpec- 
tive fquads a quarter of an hour after tattoo beating ; fee 
that they are all prefent and retired to reft ; and make their 
report to the commanding ofTicer of the company. 

No non-commiffioncd officer or foldier is to be abfent 
from roll-call without perniiffion from the commanding 
officer of the company. 

No commiffioned officer is to be abfi.nt from roM-call 
without permifiion from the commanding officer of the 


■Of the Infpeclion of the Men, their drefs, Neccffa- 
ries. Arms, Accoutrements, and ammunition. 

THE oftener the foldiers are under the infpection of 
th?ir officers the better ; for which reafon every 
morning at troop beating theymuft infpecl into the drefs 
of their men ; fee that their clothes are whole and put on 
properly ; their hands and faces wafhed clean ; their hair 
combed ; their accoutrements properly fixed, and every 
article about them in the greateft order. Thofe who are 
guilty of repeated neglects in the-fe particulars are to be 
confined and punithed. The field officers mull pay atten- 
tion to this object, taking proper notice of thofe companies 
where a vifible neglect appears, and publicly applauding 
thofe who are remarkable for their good appearance.' 

Everyday the commanding officers of companies muft 
examine their men's arms and ammunition, and fee that 
tkey are clean and in good order. {See farther Chap, xxiii) 

That the men may always appear clean on the parade, 
and as a mean of preferving their health, the non-com- 
miflioned officers are to fee that they wafli their hands and 
faces every day, and oftener when neteffary. And when 
any river is nigh, and the feafon favourable, the men (hall 
bathe themfelves as frequently as poffible, the commanding 
officers of each battalion fending them by fmall detachments 
fucceffively under the care of a non-commiffioned officer ; 
but on no account muft the men be permitted to bathewhen 
juft come off a march, at leaft till they have repofed long 
enough to get cool. 

Every Saturday morning the captains are to make a ge- 
neral inflection of their companies, and examine into the 
ftate of the men's neceffaries, obferving that they agree in 
quantity with what is fpecified in the company book ; and 
that every article is the man's who (hews it. -For which 
purpofc,and to difcover theft,every man's things fhould be 
marked ; if any thing is deficient, ftricl enquiry muft be 
made into the caufe of it ; and fhould it appear to be loft, 
pledged, fold, or exchanged, the offender muft be feverely- 

That the men may not be improperly burdened and fa- 
tigued, the captains are pot to fuffer them to carry any 
thing which is either ufelefs or unneceffary. 


Of the different Beats of the Drum. ' 

THE different' daily beats fhall begin on the right, 
and be inftantly followed by the whole army ; to fa- 
ciliate which,the drummer's call fhall be beat by the drums 
of the police, a quarter of an hour before the time of beat- 
ing, when the drummers will affemble before the colours 
of their refpeclive battalions ; and as foon as the beat be- 
gins on the right, it is to be immediately taken up by die 
whole army, the drummers beating along the front of their 
refpective battalions, from the centre to the right, from 
thence to the left, and back again to the centre, where they 


The different beats and fignals are to be as follows : 
The General is to be beat only when the whole are to march 

and is the fignal to ftrike the tents, and prepare for the 

The AJfembly is the fignal to repair to the colours. 
The March for the whole to move. 
The Reveille is beat at day-break, and is the fignal 

for the foldiers to rife, and the centries to leave off 

The Troop affembles the foldiers together, for the purpofc 

of calling the roll and infpecting the men for duty. 
The Retreat is beat at fun fet, for calling the roll, warning 

the men for duty, and reading the orders of the day. 
The Tattoo is for the foldiers to repair to their tents, where 

they muft remain till reveille beating next mornin ■ . 
To Arms is the fignal for getting under arms in cafe of alarm. 
The Parley is to defire a conference with the enemy. 

The, Signals. 
Adjutant's call — firjl part of ike troop. 
Firft Serjeant's call — one roll and three flams. 
All non-commiflioned officers' call — tnvo rolls and five flaws. 
To go for wood — poing Jlroke and tenjlroke roll. Water — ■ 

tnvojlrokes and a flam. Provifions — roajl heef. 
Front to halt — tivo flams from right to left, and a full drag 

'with the right, a left hand flam and a right hand full drag. 
For the front to advance quicker — the long ?narch. 
To march flower — thi taps. 
For the drummers — the drummer'' s call. 
For a fatigue party — the pioneers march. 
For the church call — the parley. 

The drummers will practife a hundred pace* in front 
ef the battalion, at the hours fixed by the adjutant gene- 
ral ; and any drummer found beating at any other time, 
except ordered, fhall be punifhed. 


Of the Service of the Guards. 

Article I. 

Of the different Guards, with their Ufe, 

THE different guards of the army will confiflof 
i ft. Out poll and piquet guards. 


2d. Camp and quarter guards. 

3d- General and ftarF officers guards. 

The piquet guards arc formed by detachments from 
the line, and are polled at the avenues of the camp, in 
fuch numbers as the general commanding thinks necciTa- 
ry for the fecurity of the camp. 
^ The camp and quarter guards are for the better fecu- 
rity^or the camp, as well as for preftrving good order and 

Every two battalion? will furnifh a camp and quarter 
guard between them, to confift of 

Su-balt. Serj. Corp. Drumm. Priv. f For the camp 

1 * > x 27 I guard. 

1 - 9 For the quarter guard. 

The camp guard of the front line is to be pofted three 
hundred. paces in front of it, and that of the fecond line, 
the fame djftance in the rear of the fecond line, each oppo- 
fue the interval of the two battalions, who furniih it. 

Each guard will pod nine fentinels, viz. one before the 
guard, two on the right and two on the left; thefe five 
fentinels, with thofe fi om the other battalions, forming a 
chain in the front and rear of the camp; the lixth. and 
feventl. fentinels before the colours ; and the eighth and 
ninth before the tents of the commanding officers of the 
two battalions. 

In order to complete the chain of fentinels round the 
camp, the adjutant general will order uvo fiank guards 
from the line, to confill of a cojnmiffioncd officer, and as 
many men as are neceflary to »rm a chain on the.flanks. 

The intention of the capp guards being to form a chain 
of fentmels round the camp, in order to prevent improp- 
er pcribns entering, or the foldiers going out of camp, the 
commanding officers of brigades will add to, or diminifli 
them, foas to anfwer the above purpofe. 

Ihe quarter guard is to be pofted twenty paces iri the 
rear of the line of waggons, and will furnifh' three fenti- 
nels, viz. cne at the guard, and one bchiad each battal- 

The guards of the general and other officers will be af 






Sub al. Serj. Corp. 
A Major general will have - ► 
A Brigadier general 
Quarter-mailer general (asfuch) 
.Adjutant general 
Commiffary general 
Pay-mafter general 

Judge advocate general 
Mufter mafter general 
Clothier general 
Brigade commiflary 

General hofpital S- according to circumfhinces. 

Provoft guard 

Any additional guard to the quarter-mailer, commiffary 
or clothier general, will be determined by the Ftores they 
may have in poffeffion. 

The different guards are all to mount at one hour, to 
be regulated by the commanding officer for the time being. 

The camp and quarter guards are to parade before the 
interval of their battalions, where they will be formed by 
the adjutant who furnifhes the officer, and immediately 
fent off to their refpe&ive pofts. 

The guard of a major general is to be furmfhed from 
his own divifion, each brigade furnifhing it by turns ; itjs 
to be formed by the major of brigade, and fent from tho 
brigade parade. 

The guard of a brigadier general is to be furnifhed by 
his own brigade, and formed and fent from the brigade 
parade by the major of brigade. The brigade commiffary's 
guard is to be furnifhed in the fame manner. 

The other guards being compofed of detachments from 
thelinc by brigades, each detachment is formed on the 
brigade parade by the major of brigade, and fenl with an 
adjutant to the grand parade. 

All guards, except thofe which are honorary, mould or- 
dinarily be of force proportioned to the number of fenti- 
nels required, allowing three relieves for each poft. 

Article II, 
Of the grand Pttrade. 
As f©on as a detachment arrives on the grand parade, 
the officer having drefTed the ranks, commands, 

5 2 

Order — Firelocks ! 
and then takes port eight paces in front of his detach- 
ment ; the non-commiilioned officers fall two paces into 
the rear, except one who remains on the right of every 
detachment. Each detachment takes pod on the left of 
that preceding it, and is examined by the brigade major 
ef the day as it arrives. 

When the whole are afTembleJ, the adjutant of the day 
drefies the line, counts die files from right to left, and 
takes port on the right. 

The brigade major then commands, 
Attention! Shoulder — Firelock! Support — Arms I 
Officers and non-commiffioned Officers ! 
To the Centre — March ! 

The officers then march to the centre, and form them- 
felves, according to feniority, in one rank, iixteen paces in 
front of. the guards ; the non-commiffioned officers ad- 
vance and form two ranks, four paces in the rear of the 
officers and with the fame diftance between their ranks. 

The brigade major then appoints the officers and non- 
commiffioned officers to their pofts ; the officers in the 
following manner ; 
The j ft on the right of the 

2d on the left of the 

'3d in the centre, on the right of the 

4th on the right of the 2d divifion, or 

5th on the right of the 4th divifion, or 

6th on the right of the 

7th on the right of the 
8th on the right of the 
9th on the right of the 
loth in the rear of tht 
I ith in ihe rear of the 
1 2 th in the rear of the 
1 3th in the rear of the 
14th in the rear of the 
1 5th in the rear of the 
16th in the rear of the 
1 7th in the rear of the 
1 8th in the rear of tRe 
19th in the rear of the 
20th in the rear of the 


5 th 


7 th 


8 th 

5 th 







The non-commiffioned officers are pofted thus ; A fer- 
jeant on the right of each platoon, and one on the left of 
the whole ; the reft as file clofers equally divided to each 

t Whflrt this is doing, the adjutant divides the guard into 
eight platoons, leaving proper intervals between the plat- 
oons for the officers who are to command them. 

The brigade major having appointed the officers, and 
the battalion being divided, he commands; 

Officer* and non-commiffioned Officers ! 
To your pojis ! 
The officers and non-commiffioned officers face out« 
wards from the centre. 

March ! 

They go direcTiy to their pofts in the battalion. 

The brigade rm.jor then advances to the genera} officer 
of the day, informs him that the battalion* is formed, and 
takes his directions relative to the ejeercife. 

The general of the day will ufualty order the manual 
exercife to be performed, and feme manoeuvres, fuch as he 
thinks proper ; the major or" brigade of the- Jay giving th?. 
words of command. 

The exercife being Sniflicd.the major of brigade commands 
Order — Fir docks ! 

The drums then beat from right to left of the parade, 
and paffing behind the officers of the day, take poll en 
their left. 

The major of brigade then orders, 

Shoulder — Firelocks ! Support — Arms! 

Officers and Non-commiJJior^d Officers ! 
' To the Centre- — March ! 

They advance as before to the centre, amd the brigade 
major appoints them to their refpetfive g-iards, takes the 
name of the officer commanding each guard, and gives 
him the parole and countersign. The adjutant having in 
the mean time told off the guards, and divided them 
platoons, the brigade major then command?, 

Officers and Non-commijjioned Officers ! 
To your pojis ! March I 

The officers go to their refpe&ive pods. 

The, brigade major then cc mmands, 

E 2 

Prefent — Arms ! 

And advancing to the general, acquaints him that the 
guards are formed ; and on receiving his orders to march 
them off, he commands, 

Shoulder — Firelocks ! 

By Platoons ! to the Right — Wheel ! March ! 

The whole wheel and march by the general, the officers 
faluting him as they pafs ; and when the whole have pair- 
ed, they wheel off and march to their refpeclive pofts. 

Article III. 

Of relieving Guards and Sentinels. 

The guards in camp will be relieved every twenty four 
hours. The guards without the limits of the camp will 
ordinarily be relieved in the fame manner ; but this muft 
depend on their diftances from camp, and other circum- 
ftances, which may fometimes require their continuing on 
duty for feveral days. In this cafe they muft be previoufly 
notified to provide themfelves accordingly. 

The guards are to march in the greateft order to their 
refpetfive pofts, marching by platoons, whenever the roads 
will permit. 

When the new guard approachesthepoft, they carry their 
trmsi and the officer of the old guard, having his guard 
paraded, en the approach of the new guard, commands, 

Prefcnt — Arms ! 

and his guaid prefent their arms. 

The new guard marches paft the old guard, and takes 
^>Oii three or four paces on its right, both guards fronting 
towards the enemy ; and the officer commands, 

Prefent — Arms ! 
and the new guard prefent their arms. 

The two officers then approach each other, and the re- 
lieving officer takes his orders from the relieved. Both 
efficers then return to their guards, and commands, 

Shoulder — Firelocks ! 

Non Commiffioned officers ! Forward — March ! 
The non-commiffioned officers of both guards, who are 


to relieve the fentinels, advance In front of the new 

The ferjeant of the new guard then tells off as many 
fentinels as are neceffary ; and the corporal of the new 
guard, conducted by a corporal of the old guard, relieves - 
ihe fentinels, beginning by the guard houfe. 

When the fentinel fees the relief approach, he prefents 
his arms, and the corporal halting his relief at fix paces 
diftance, commands, 

Prejent—Arms .'Recover — Arms ! 

Thislaft command is only for the fentinel relieving, and 
the one to be relieved ; the former immediately approach- 
ing with the corporal, and having received his orders from 
the old fentry, takes his place ; and the fentry relieved 
marches into the ranks, placing himfelf on the left of the 
rear rank- 

Front — Fact ! 

Both fentries face to the front. The corporal then orders 

Shoulder — Firelock ! Support-— Arms f ' 
March ! 
and the relief proceeds in the fame manner till the whole 
are relieved. 

If the fentries are numerous, the ferjeants are to be em- 
ployed as well as the corporals in relieving them. 

When the corporal returns with the old fentinels, he 
leads them before the old guard, and difmiffes them to 
their ranks. 

The officer of the old guard then forms his guard in the 
fame manner as when he mounted, and marches them in 
order to camp. 

Asfoon as he arrives in the camp, he halts, forms the 
men of the different brigades together, and fends them to 
their refpeetive brigades, conducted by a non-commiillon- 
ed officer, or careful fol.dier. 

When the old guard march off, the new guard prefent 
their arms, till they are gone, then (houlder, face to the 
left, and take the place of the old guard . 

The officer then orders a non-commiffioned officer t© 
take down the names of the guards in the following man- 


Hours they goon, 10—4,1 6.-4. 12-6, 12-6, 2 — 8, 2— -f. 

Pofl No. 


Men's nam. 

Men's nam. 

Suppofe the guard to eonfift cf twenty four men, and to 
furnifh eight ientinels, they are divided into three relieves, 
and the pofts being numbered, beginning always with the 
guard houfe, each man's name is put down againft the 
number of the poll he will always /land fentry at during- 
the guard,by which mean an officer knows what particular 
man was at any poft during any hour of the day or night. 

The relief of fentries is always to be marched in the 
greateil order, and with fupported arms, the corporal oft- 
en looking back to obferve the conduct of the men ; and if 
an officer approaches, he is to order his men to handte 
their arms, fupporting them again when he has paffed. 

The corporals are to be anfwerable that the fentries, 
when relieving, perform their motions with the greateft 
fpirit and exacinefs. 

A corporal who is detected in having the infolence to 
luffer fentries to relieve each other, without his being pref- 
ent, fhall, as well as the fentry fo relieved, be feverely pun* 

Article IV. 

InjlruFtions to Officers on Guard. 

On the vigilance of the officer depends not only the fafe* 
ty of his guard, but that of the whole army. 

As it is highly nscefTary an officer Ihould have fome- 
knowledge of his fkualion, he muft, immediately after re- 
lieving the-cld guard, vifit die fentinels, and examine the 
ground round his port ; and if he tfrinks the fentries not 
fufficient to fecure him from a furprife, he is at liberty to 
place more, acquainting therewith the general or field 
officer of the day who* vifits his poll ; but without their 
leave he is not to alter any that are already polled. He 


mull caufo the roads leading to the enemy and to the next 
pofts to be well reconnoitred by an officer of the guard, 
or for want of one, by an intelligent non-commiffioned 
officer and fome faithful men, inform himfelf of every 
thing neceffary for hisfecurity, and ufe every poffible pre- 
caution againft a furprife. . He muft permit no ft'ranger 
to enter his port, nor fuffer his men to talk with him. It 
a fufpicious perfon, or a deferter from the- enemy ap- 
proaches; he muft ftop him and fend him to head quar- 
ters,, or to a fuperior officer. He muft on no account 
fuffer the ioldiers to pull off their accoutrements, or ftrag- 
gle more than twenty paces from the guard ; and if wat- 
er or any other necefiaiies are wanted for the guard, they 
muft be fent for by a non commiffioned officer and fome 
men, with their arms if at an out poft, on no account 
fuffering a foldier to go by himfelf ; but never whilft the_ 
fentinels are relieving. He muft examine every relief 
before it is fent off; fee that their arms are loaded and in 
order, and that the men are acquainted with their duty ; 
and if by any accident a man fhould get the leaftdifguifed 
with liquor, he muft on no account be fuffered to go on 

At every relief the guard muft parade, and the roll be 
called ; and during the night, and when near the enemy, 
during the day, the guard muft remain under arms till 
the relief returns. 

During the day the men may be permitted to reft them- 
felves as much as is confident with the fafety of the guard ; 
bufjn the night, no man muft be fuffered to lay down or 
fleep on any account, but have his arms conftantly in his 
hands, and be ready to fall in on the leaft alarrm 

Between every relief the fentries muft be vifited by a 
non-commiffioned officer and a file of men ; and, when 
more than one officer is on guard, as often as poffible by 
an officer. A patrol alfo muft be frequently fent on tha 
roads leading to the enemy. 

During the day, the fentinels on the out pofts mutt (top 
every party of men, whether armed or not, till they have 
been examined by the officer of the guard. 

As foon as it is dark, the countersign muft be given to 
the fentinels of the piquets and advanced pofts, after 
which they are to challenge all that approach them ; an* 


if any perfon, after being ordered to ftarid, fhould con- 
tinue to approach or attempt to efcape, the fentry, after 
challenging him three times, muft fire on him. 

The feminels of the interior guards of the camp will 
receive the counterfign, and begin to challenge, at fuch 
hfiurs as (hall be determined in orders, according to cir- 

A fentinel, on perceiving nny perfon approach, muft 
challenge brifkly, and never fufFer more than one to ad- 
vance, till he has the counterfign given him ; if the per- 
fon challenged has not the counterfign, the fentry muft 
call the ferjeant of the guard, and keep the perfon at a 
little diftance from his poll:, till the ferjeant comes to ex- 
amine him. 

Whenever a fentry dn an out pod perceives more than 
. three men approach, he muft 6rder them to Hand, rtnd Iht-^ 
mediately pafs the word for the ferjeant of the guard ; the 
officer of the guard muft immediately parade his guard* 
and fend a ferjeant with a party of men to examine the 
party ; The non-commiffioned officer muft order the com- 
manding officer of the party to advance, and conduct him' 
to the officer of the guard ; who, in cafe he is unacquaint- 
ed with his perfon, and does net choofe to truft either to 
his cloathing or to his knowledge of the counterfign, muft 
demand his paffport, and examine him ftriclly ; and it 
convinced of his belonging to the army', muft let him 

If a fentry, on challenging, is anfwered relief, patrol or 
round, he muft in that cafe order the ferjeant or corporal 
to advance with the counterfign ; and if he-is then affiired 
of their being the relief, &c. he may fuller them to ad- 

A fentinel muft take the greateft care not to be furprif- 
ed ; he mud never fufFer the perfon who advances to give 
the cour.terfign, to approach within reach of his arms, and 
always charge his bayonet. 

The officers wbo mount the camp guards muft give 
orders to their fentries not to fufFer any perfon to pafs in 
or out of camp, except by one of the guards, nor then till 
the officer of the guard has examined him. 

In cafe one of the guard deferts, the officer muft imme- 
diately change the counterfign, and fend notice thereof 


t© the general of the day : who is to communicate the 
fame to the other guards, and the adjutant general. 

As foon as the officer of a guard difcovers the approach 
of the enemy, he muft immediately fend notice to the 
neareft general officer, call in the fentries, and put him- 
felf in the beft pofture of defence. If attacked on his 
port, he will defend it to the utmoft of his power, nor 
retreat, unlefs compelled by fuperior force ; and even 
then he muft retire in the greateft order, keeping a- fire on 
the enemy, whofe fuperioiity, however great, can never 
juftify a guard's retiring in diforder. Should the enemy 
purfue a guard into camp, the officer muft take care to 
retire through the intervals of the battalions, and form- 
ing in the rear of the line, wait for further orders. 

When an officer is ported at a bridge, defile, or any 
work, with orders to maintain it, he muft defend himfelf 
to the laft extremity, however fuperior the force of the . 
enemy may be, as it is to be fuppofcd that the general 
who gave thofe orders will reinforce him, or order him 
to retire whenever he thinks it proper. 

An officer muft never throw in the whole of his file at 
oqce ; for which reafon evrry guard is to be divided into 
two or more diviiions or platoons, according to its ftrength; 
any number above eight and under feventy-eight mon 
forming two platoons ; the eldeft officer taking poft on the 
right of the firft platoon,the next eldeft on the right of the 
fecond platoon, and the third on the left of the' whole ; the 
non-commiffioned officers cover the officers ; the drum is to 
be on the right of the captain, and the fentinel one pace 
advanced cf the drum. If the guard coniiiis of no more 
than twelve mer, it terms in one rank. 

Article V. 

Method of going and rect iviiig the Grand Romids. 

The general and field officers of the day will vifit the 
feveral guards during the day, as often and at fuch hours 
as they judge proper. 

When the fentry before the guard perceives the officer 
of the day, he will call to the guard to turn out; and the 
guard,being paraded, on the approach of the officer of the 
day prefent their arms. 

The officer of the day will examine the guard j fee that 


none are abfent }»that their arms and accoutrements are in 
order ; that the officers and non-commiffioned officers are 
acquainted with -their duty ; and that the fentinels are prop- 
erly pofted and have received proper orders. 

Not only the officers of the day, but all general officers 
are at liberty to vifit the guards and make the fame ex- 

The officers of the guard (hall give the parole to the 
officer of the day, if demanded. 

During the night, the officers of the day will go the 
grand rounds. 

When the officer of the day arrives at the guard from 
whence he intends to begin his rounds, he will make him- 
feif known as fuch by giving the officer cf the guard the 
parole. He will then order the guard under arms, and 
having examined it, demand an efcort of a ferjearit and two 
men, and proceed to the next poft. 

When the rounds are challenged by a fentinel, they 
"will anfwer, Grand rounds ! and the fentry will reply, 
Stand, Grand rounds! Advance ferjeant ivith the count erfign! 
Upon which the ferjeant advances and gives the counter- 
sign. The fentinel will then* cry, Advance, rounds ! and 
prefent his arms till they have pafTed. 

When the fentry before the guard challenges, and is 
anfwered, Grand rounds ! he will reply, Stand, Grand 
rounds! Turn out the guard I Grand rounds ! Upon the fen- 
tinel's calling, the guard is to be turned out and drawn up 
in good order, with fhouldered arms, the officers taking 
their pofts. The officer commanding ihe guard will then 
order a ferjeant and two men to advance towards the 
round and challenge. When the ferjeafit of the guard 
comes within ten paces of the rounds, he is to halt and 
challenge brifkly. The ferjeant of the rounds is to an- 
fwer, Grand rounds ! The ferjeant of the guard replies, 
Stand, grand rounds ! advance ferjeant with the counter fign ! 
and orders his men to prefent their arms. The ferjeant 
of the rounds advances alone, and giving the counterfign, 
returns to his rounds ; and the ferjeant of the guard calls 
to his officer, The counterfign is right ! On which the officer 
of the guard calls, Advajice, rounds! The officer of the 
rounds then advances alone, and on his approach t] 
guard prefent their arms. The officer of the rounds pafl- 


cs along the front of the guard immediately to the officer, 
who keeps his poft on the right, and gives him the parole. 
He then examines the guard, orders back his efcort, and 
demanding anew one, proceeds in the fame manner to 
the other guards. 

Article VI. 

Honors due from Guards to General Officers and 
To the commander in chief: All guards turn out With 
prefented arms ; the drums beat a march, and the officers 

To major generals : They turn out with prefented arms, 
and beat two ruffles. 

To brigadier generals: They turn out with prefented arms, 
and beat one ruffle. 

To officers of the day : They turn out with prefented 
arms, and beat according to their rank. 

Except from thefe rules a general officer's guard, which 
turns out and pays honors only to officers of fuperior rank 
to the general whofe guard it is. 

To colonels : Their own quarter guards turn out once a 
day with prefented arms; after which they only turn out 
with ordered arms. 

To lieutenant colonels: Their own quarter guards turn 
out once a day with mouldered arms ; after which they on- 
ly turn out and ftand by their arms. 

To majors : Their own quarter guards turn out once a 
day with ordered arms ; at all other times they ftand by 
their arms. 

When a lieutenant colonel or major commands a regi- 
ment, the quarter guard Is to pay him the fame honors as 
are ordered to a colonel. 

All fentries prefent their arms to general officers, and to 
the field officers of their own regiments ; to all other com- 
miffioned officers they ftand with mouldered arms. 

The prefident of congrefs, all govenors in their own 
ftates, and committees of congrefs at the army, fhall have 
the fame honors paid them as the commander in chief. 

When a detachment with arms pafTes before a guard,the 
guard fhall be under arms, and the drums of both beat a 


6 2 

When a detachment without arms pafies, the guard (hall 
turn out and (land by their arms. 

After dark no honors are to be paid ; and when near 
the enemy, no honors are to be paid with the drum. 


Of the Arms' and Ammunition , with the Methods of 
preferving them. 

THE prefervation of the arms and ammunition is an 
object that requires the greateft attention. Com- 
manding officers of regiments mull be anfwerable for thofe 
of their regiments, and captains for their refpeclive compa- 

An officer of a company muft every morning at roll- 
call inipecl minutely into the (late of the men's arms, ac- 
coutrements and ammunition ; and if it mall appear that 
a foldier has fold, or through careleifnefs loft or damaged 
any part of them, he muft be confined and punifhed, and 
ftoppages made of his pay, as hereafter mentioned : For 
which purpofe fuch officers fliall certify to the command- 
ing officer of the regiment the names of the delinquents, 
and the lolfes or damages which (hall appear of their arms, 
ammunition and accoutrements ; and the commanding 
officer, after due examination, (hall order ftoppages to be 
made for whatever (hall appear to have been fold, loft or 
damaged as aforefaid. The ftoppages to be as follows : 
For a firelock, fixteen dollars; 
a bayonet, two dollars ; 
a ram-rod, one dollar ; 
a cartridge-box, four dollars ; 
a bayonet-belt, one dollar ; 
a fcabbard, two thirds of a dollar ; 
a cartridge, one fixth of a dollar : 
a flint, one twentieth of a dollar ; 
a gun-worm, one fourth of a dollar ; 
a fcrew-driver, one twelfth of a dollar ; 
And for arms, accoutrements and ammunition damaged, 
fuch fums as the repairs (hall coll the dates, to be elli- 
mated by the brigade conductor, or, when a corps is de- 
tached, by fuch perfon as its commanding officer (hall 
appoint for that purpofe ; provided that fuch (lop- 


pages do 'not exceed one half the delinquent's pay 
monthly. * 

It is highly eflenttal to the fervice that the ammunition 
Ihould be at all times kept complete ; for which purpofe, 
as often as is neceffary, a return is to be made by each 
company of the number of cartridges deficient, to the 
quarter-mafter, that he may make out a general one for the 
regiment, to be figned by the commanding officers of the 
regiment and brigade, and no time loft in fupplying the de- 
ficiency. The like care is to be takeo that all deficiencies 
of arms and. accoutrements are fupplied without lofs of 

^ All arms, accoutrements and ammunition unfit for fer- 
vice, are to be carefully preferved and fent by the com- 
manding officer of each company to the regimental quar- 
ter-mafter, who (hall deliver the fame to the brigade con- 
ductor, they refpeclively giving receipts for what they re- / 
ceive. The arms, accoutrements and ammunition zf the 
fick and others, when delivered up, are to be taken care of 
in the fame manner. Before the cartridge-boxes are put 
in the arm-chefts, the cartridges muft be taken out to pre- 
vent any lofs or accident. 

A conductor fhall be appointed to each brigade, who 
fhall have under his immediate care and direction a travel- 
ling forge and five or fix armourers, an ammunition wag- 
gon, and a waggon with an arm-cheft for each battalion, 
each theft to hold twenty-five arms, to receive the arms 
and accoutrements wanting repair, or of the men fick or 
abfent : and when the arms delivered in by a battalion {haft 
exceed the above number, the furplus (hall be fent to the 
commiffaryof military ftores. 

The brigade conductor {hall iffite no ammunition but by 
order of the commanding officer of the brigade ; but may 
receive a»d deliver the arms and accoutrements of each 
battalion, by order of its commanding officer. 

The ammunition waggon fhall contain twenty thoufand 
cartridges ; and in order to keep the feme complete, the 
conductor fhall, as deficiencies arife,apply to the field com 
miffary, or one of his deputies, for a fuppiy, or otherwife 
for the neceffary materials of cartridges, and to the major 
of brigade for men to make them up under the direction of 
the conductor ; and for this purpofe the brigade major fhall. 
crder out a party of the moft careful foldiers. 


The non-commiffioned officers of each company will he 
provided with gun-worms ; and every day,at the noon roll- 
call of the company,thofemen who have returned from duty 
are to bring their arms and have their charges drawn ; the 
firft ferjeant to receive the powder and ball,and deliver the 
fame to the quarter-mafter. 


Of the Treatment of the Sick. 

THERE is nothing \\;hich gains an officer the love of 
his foldiers more than his care of them under the dif- 
.trefs of ficknefs ; it is then he has the power of exerting his 
humanity in providing them every comfortable necefiary, 
and making their fituation a9 agreeable as poffible. 

Two' or three tents fliould be fet apart in every regiment 
fof tv,- reception of fuch fick as cannot be fent to the ge- 
neral hofpital, or whofe cafes may not require it. And e- 
very company fhall be conftantly furnifhed with two facks 
to be filled occafionally with ftraw.and ferve as beds for the 
fick. Thefe facks to be provided in the fame manner as 
cloathing for the troops, and finally ifTued by the regimen- 
tal clothier to the captain of each company, who fhall b« 
anfwerable for the fame. 

When a foldier dies,or is difmiffed the hofpital, the ftravr 
he lay on is to be burnt, and the bedding well wafhed and 
aired before another is permitted to ufe it. 

The ferjeants and corporals fhall every morning at roll- 
call give a return of the fick of their refpective fquads to the 
firlt ferjeanr^ who mud make out one for the company, 
and lofe no time in delivering it to the furgeon, who will 
immediately vifit them, and order fuch as he thinks prop- 
er to the regimental hofpital ; fuch whofe cafes require 
their being fent to the general hofpital, he is to report im- 
mediately to the furgeon general, or principal furgeon at- 
tending the army. 

Once every week (and oftener when required) the fur- 
geon will deliver the commanding officer of the regiment 
a return of the fick of the regiment, with their diforders, 
dittinguifliing thofe in the regimental hofpital from ihofe 
out of it. 

When a foldier is fent to the hofpital, the non-com- 
miffioned officer of his fquad fhall deliver up his arms and 
accoutrements to the commanding officer of the company, 
that they may be depofited in the regimental arm cheft. 

When afoldier has been fick,he mud not be put on duty 
till he has recovered fufficient ftrength, of which the fur-- 
geon mould be judge. 

Th« furgeons are to remain with their regiments as well 
on a march as in camp, that in cafe of fudden accidents 
they may be at hand to apply the proper remedies. 

Of Reviews. 
Article I. 
Of Reviews of Parade. 

WHEN a battalion is to be revie\ved,it mud be drawn 
up in the "following manner. 
The ranks at four paces diftance from e?ch other ; the 
colours advanced four paces frorv. the centre ; the colonel 
» twelve paces before the colours ; the lieutenant colonel 
four paces behind the colonel : she major on the right of the 
battalion in the line of officers ; the adjutant behind, the 
centre; the officers commanding platoons eight paces be- 
fore their intervals ; and the other officers on the fame 
line equally divided in front of their refpeclive platoons ; 
the ferjeants who covered officers take their places in the 
front rank of their platoons ; the other non-commiffioned 
officers who were in the rear, remain there, failing hack 
four paces behind the rear rank ; and the drummers ai 
fifers are equally divided on the wings of the battalion, 
dreffing with the front rank. The general officer who' is 
to review them being within thirty paces of the -battaiior, 
the colonel orders 

Battalion ! Prefent—r-Arms ! 
On which the men prefent their arms, and the 
drums on the* right wing falute him according to his 
rank,the officers and colours falute him as he paffes in front 
of the battalion ; and on his arriving at the left, the drums 
beat the fame as on the right. 
The colonel then commands 
F 2. 


Shoulder~~-Firelocks ! 
And when the general lias advanced to the front, 

Rear Rank ! Clofe to the Front ! 
On which the officers face to their platoons. 

March ! 
The rear rank clofes to the front, and the officers ftep- 
ping off at the fame time, thofe comm Tiding platoons take 
their pofts in the front rank, and the others go through the 
intervals to their pofts in the rear. 
The colonel then commands 

Battalion ! 
By Platoons ! To the Right,— Wheel ! March ! 

The whole wheel by platoons to the right, and march 
by the general ; the colonel at the head of the battalion, 
with the major behind him, followed bythe drums of the 
right wing ; the adjutant on the left of the fifth platoon ; 
and the lieutenant colonel in the rear, preceded by the 
drums of the left wing. 

The officers and colours falute when within eight paces 
of the general ; and the colonel having fainted, advances 
to him, 

Thebattalion having marched to its ground and formed, 
the general orders fuch exercife and maaceuvres as he thinks 

Article II. 

Of Reviews of infpetlion. 

For a review of infpection the battalion muft not be told 
off into platoons,but remain in companies,, at open order; 
the drums and fifes on the right, and the enfignswith the 
colours in front of their refpeciive companies. 

The infpector begins with a general review, paffing along 
the front of the battalion from right to left, accompanied 
by the field and ftaff officers. The general review over,the 
colonel commands 

Rear Rank ! Clcfe to the Front ! March ! 

The rear rank clofes to the front, the officers remaining 
in front. 

By companies ! To the. Right,— -Wheel ! March ! 

Each company wheels to the right ; the captains then 
open their ranks, and order 
No/i commijioned Officers ! To the Front — March ! 

The officers take pott: four paces, and the non-commif- 
fioned officers two paces, in front of their companies-. 

The whole then order their firelocks by word of com- ■ 
mand from their captains,except the firfl: company, where 
the infpection begins ; when the firfl; company has been 
infpeifted, they order their firelocks, and the next compa- 
ny moulders ; the others proceed in the fame manner till 
the whole are infpected. 

The field and ftaff officers accompany theinfpector while 
h" infpects the companies; and when the infpection is over, 
the colonel forms the battalion, and caufes it to perform 
any exercife or manoeuvres the infpedor thiaks proper to 


Injlrutlions for the Commandant of a Regiment- 

THE ftate having entrufled him with the care of a re- 
giment, his greateft ambition fhould be to have it at 
all times and in every refpecY as complete as poffible ; To 
do which, he fhould pay great attention to the following 
objects : 

The prefervation of the foldier&health fhould be his firfl 
and greateft care ; and as that depends in a great meafure 
on their cleanlinefs and manner of living, he rnuft have a 
watchful eye over the officers of companies, that 
they pay the necefTary attention to their men in.thofe re.- 

The only means- of keeping the foldiers in order is, fo 
have them continually under the eyes of their fuperiors ; 
for which reafon the commandant fhould ufe the utmoft 
feverity to prevent their ftraggling from their companies, 
and'never fuffer them to leave the regiment without being 
under the care of a non-commiffioned officer, except in ca- 
fes of neceffity. And in order to prevent any man's being 
abfent from the regiment without his knowledge, he muft 
often count the files, and fee that they agree with the re- 


turns delivered him,ftriclly obliging' every man returned 
fit for duty to appear under arms on all occafions } and if 
any are miffing, he mull oblige the commanding officer of 
the company to account for their abfence. In a word,the 
commandant ought to know upon what duty and where 
every man of his regiment is. To thefe points the other 
field officers muft alfo pay attention. 

The choice of non commiffioned officers is alfo an object 
of the greateft importance : the order and difcipline of a 
regiment depends fo much upon their behaviour, that too 
much care cannot be taken in prefering none to that trull 
but thofe who by their merit and good conduct are enti- 
tled to it. Honefty, fobriety, and a remarkable attention 
to every point of duty, with a neatnefs in their drefs, are 
indifpenfable requisites ; a fpirit to command refpect and 
obedience from the men, and expertnefs in performing every 
part of the exercifc, and an ability to teach it, are abfolute- 
ly neceflary ; nor can aferjeantor corporal be faid to be 
qualified who does not write and read in a tolerable 

Once every month the commandant fhould make a ge- 
neral inflection of his regiment, examine into the (late of 
the men, their arms, ammunition, and accoutrements, ne- 
ceffaries, camp-utenfils, and every thing belonging to the 
regiment, obliging the commanding officers (5f companies 
to account flrietly for all deficiencies. 

He fnouldvlfo once every month affemble the fieldofficers 
and the eldeft captain, to hold a council of adminiftration 
in which fhould be examined the booksof the fevcral com- 
panies, the pay-inafter and quarter-mafter, to fee that all 
receipts and deliveries are entered in proper order, and the 
affairs of the regiment duly adminiftered 

All returns of the regiment being figned by the com- 
manding officer,he fhould examine them with the greateft 
care before he fuffers them to go out of his Lands. 

The commandant muft always march and encamp with 
his regiment ; nor muft he permit any officer to lodge out 
of camp, or in a houfe except in cafe of ficknefs. 

On a march he muft keep his regiment together as much 
as poffible, and not fuffer the officers to leave their plat- 
oons without his permiffion ; nor permit any of them, on 
any pretence whatfoeverj to mount on horfeback. — There 


5s no fatigue the foldiersgo through that the officers fhould 
not (hare ; and on all occafions they fhould fet theip ex- 
amples of patience and perfeverauce. 

When a regiment is on a march, the. commandant will 
order a ferjeant and fix men .into the rear, to bring up all 
ftraggiers; and the ferjeant on his arrival in camp or quai> 
ters, muft make his report to him.. 

In a word, the commanding officer of a regiment muft 
preferve the ftricteft difcipline & order in his corps, obliging 
every officer to a ftric"t performance ot his duty, without 
relaxing in the fm ailed point ; puniihing impartially the 
faults that are committed, without difiinclion of rank or 

Injlruttions for the Major. 

THE major is particularly charged with the difci* 
pline, arms, accoutrements, cloatbing, and generally, 
with the whole interior management and economy of the 

He mud have a watchful eye over the officers", and o- 
blige them to do their duty on every occafion ; he muft 
often caufe them to be exercifed in his pretence, and in- 
ftrucl them how to command their platoons and preferve 
their tfiftances. • 

He muft endeavour to make his regiment perform their 
exercife & manoeuvres with the greaieft vivaeiiy and pre- 
cifion, examine often the ftate of the different companies, 
making the captains anfwer for any deficiencies he may 
perceive, and reporting the fame to the colonel. 

He muft pay the greateft attention to have all orders 
executed with the ftri&eft punctuality, fo far as refpe&s 
his regiment; and mould every week examine the adjutant 
and quarter-mailer's books,and fee that all returns,order6, 
and other matters,the objects of their refpe&ive duties are 
regularly entered 

He muft caufe to be kept a regimental book, wherein 
fhould be entered the name and rank of every officer, the 
date of his commiffion,& the time he joined the regiment, 
the name and defcription of every non-commiffioned of- 
ficer and foldier, his trade or occupition, the place of his 
birth and ufual refidence, where, when and for what term 


he was enltfted ; difcharges, furloughs and' courts martial, 
copies of all returns, and every cafualty that happen-, in the 

He mud be at all times well acquainted with the ftrength 
of his regiment and brigade, and the details of the army, 
and fee that his regiment furnifhes no more than its pro- 
poi tion for duty. 

He muft often infpeft the detachments for duty furnifhed 
by his regiment,fee that they are complete in every refpect 
and formed agreeably to the regulation?. 

On a march he muft often ride along the flanks of his 
regiment, fee that the platoons march in order, and keep 
their proper diftances. 

When the regiment is detached, he will poft the guards 
ordered by the colonel, often vifit them, examine whether 
the officers, non-commiffioned officers and fentinels are ac- 
quainted with their duty, and give them the neceflary in- 

InJlruBions for the Adjutant. 

THE adjutant is to be chofen from among the fubal- 
terns, the field officers taking care to nominate one 
the mod intelligent and beft acquainted with the fervice. 

He muft keep an exact detail of the duty of the officers & 
non-commiffioned officers of his regiment, taking care to 
regulate his roller in fuch a manner as not to have too ma- 
ny officers or non-commiffioned officers of the fame com- 
pany on duty at the fame time. 

He muft keep a book, in which he muft every day take 
the general and other orders, and {hew them to the com- 
manding officer of the regiment, who having added thofe 
he thinks neceffary for the regiment, the adjutant muft af- 
femble the firft ferjeants of the companies, make them co- 
py the orders, and give them their details for the next day. 

He muft attend the parade at the turning out of all 
guards or detachments, infpeft their drefs, arms, accou- 
trements and ammunition, form them into platoons or fee- 
tions,and conduct them to the general or brigade parade. 
.When the regiment parades for duty or exercife, he 
muft count it off, and divide it into divisions and platoons, 
and carry the orders of, the colonel where ncceifary. 

The adjutant is to receive -no orders but from the field 
officers and officer commanding a battalion. 

On a march he muft r.'Ie along the flanks of the regiment 
to fee that regularity is obferved, and mult pay attention 
to the ferjeant in the rear, that he brings up all ftraglers. 

On the arrival of the regiment in camp, his fir ft care is 
to form and fend off the guards ; and when the tents are 
pitched.he muft immediately order out the neceffary num- 
ber of fatigue men to dig the vaults or finks, and open 
communications where neceffary. He will then form the 
detichments for wood, water and other neceffaries. 

He muft be conftantly with the regiment, ready to re- 
ceieve and execute any orders that may come ; nor muft 
he go from his tent without leaving an officer to do his du- 
ty, or directions where he may be found. 

InjlruBions for the Quarter- Mafier. 

THE quarter-mafter, being charg-d with encamping 
and quartering the regiment, ihouid be at all times 
acquainted with its Itrength, that. he may require no more 
ground than is neceffary, nor have more tents pitched than 
the number prefcribed ; for both which he is accountable. 

He muft inform the regiment where to fetch their wood, 
water "and other neceffarics, and where to pafture the horfes. 

He muft inftruct the quarter-mafter ferjeant and pioneers 
-in the manner of laying out the camp, agreeably to the 
order prefcribed in the regulations. 

He is anfwerable for the cleanlinefs of the camp, and 
that the foldiers make no fire any where but in the kitchens. 
- When the army marches, he muft conduft the pioneers 
to the place appointed, and order the quarter-mafter ferjeant 
•to take charge of the baggage. 

He is to make out all returns for camp equipage, arms, 
accoutrements, ammunition, provifions and forage, and re- 
ceive and diftribute them to the regiment, taking the ne- 
ceffary vouchers for the delivery, and entering all re- 
ceipts and deliveries in a book kept by him for that purpofe. 

He muft pay particular attention to the prefervation of 
the camp equipage, caufe the neceffary repairs to be done 
when wanting, and return every thing unfit for ufe to tbe 
flores from which he drew them. 


The prefervation of the arms, accoutrements & ammuru- 
tion is of fuch efiential importance, that he rtluft be ftri&ly 
attentive to have thofe of the (ick, of the men on furlough, 
difcharged, or detached on command without arms, taken 
care of and depofited with the brigade conductor, as di- 
reeled in the regulations. 

InJlruHions for the Captain. 

A CAPTAIN cannot be too cnrefttl of the company 
the ftate has committed to his charge. He mtift 
pay the greateft attention to the health of his men, their 
difcipline, arms, accoutrements, ammunition, clothes and 

, His firft object mould be, to gain the Iove-ef his men, by 
treating them with ev*ry poffible kindneA and humanity, 
enquiring into their complaints, and when well founded, 
feeing them redrefled. He mould know every man of his 
company by name and character.) He fhould often vi fit 
thofe who are fick, fpeak tenderly to them, fee that the 
public provifion, whether of medicine or diet, is duly ad- 
miniftered, and procure them befides fuch comforts and 
conveniencies as are in his power. The attachment that 
arifes from this kind of attention to the fick and wounded, 
is almoft inconceivable ; it Will moreover be the means of 
preferving the lives of many valuable men. 

He muft divide his company into four fquads, placing 
each under the particular care of a non-commiffioned offi- 
cer, who is to be anfwerable for the drefs and behaviour 
of the men of his fquad. 

He muft be very particular m the daily and weekly in- 
fpeclions of his men, caufing all deficiencies to be immedi- 
ately fupplied ; and when he difcovers any irregularity i» 
the drefs or conduct of any foldier, he -muft not only pun- 
ifh him, but the non-commiffioned officer to whofe fquad he 

He muft keep a ftritt eye over the conduct of the non- 
commiffioned officers ; oblige them to do their duty with 
the greateft exactnefs ; and ufe every pofnble mean to keep 
up a proper fubordination between them and the foldiers » 
For which reafon he'muft never rudely reprimand tbem in 
prefence oflhe men,but at all times treat them with p; op- 
er refpetf. 



He muft pay the utmoft attention to every thing which 
contributes to the health of the men, & oblige them to keep 
themiclves and every thing belonging to them in the great- 
eft cleanlinefs and order. He muft nevef fuffer a man who 
has any infectious disorder to remain in the company, but 
fend him immediately to the hofpitai, or other place pro- 
vided for the reception of fuch patients,to prevent thefpread- 
ing of the infection. And when any man is fick, or other- 
wife unfit for duty, or abfent, he muft fee that his arms 
and accoutrements are properly taken care of, agreeably 
to the regulations prefcribed. 

He muft keep a book, in which muft be entered the name; 
and defcription of every non-commtflioned officer andfol- 
dier of his company ; his trade or occupation ; the place 
of his birth and ufual residence ; where, when and for 
what term he infilled ; difcharges, furloughs, copies of all 
returns, and every cafualty that happens in the company. 
He muft alio keep an account of all arms, accoutrements, 
ammunition, clothing, neceftaries and camp equipage delU 
vered his company, that on infpecting it he may be able to 
difcover any deficiencies. 

When the company arrive at their quarters after a 
march, he muft not difmifs them till the guards are order- 
ed out, and, if cantoned, the billets distributed, which 
muft be as near together as pofllble ; and he muft ftriclly 
prohibit his men from vexing the inhabitants,and caufe to 
be puniftied any that offend in that refpect. 

He muft acquaint them with the hours of roll-eall and 
going for pnrvifions, with their alarm port, and the hour of 
march in the morning. 

If the company make any ftay in a place, he muft, pre- 
vious to their marching, infpect into their condition, exa- 
mine their knapfacks, and fee that they carry nothing but 
what is allowed, it being a material object to prevent the 
foldicr loading himfelf with unnecefiary baggage. 

InflruBionsfor the Lieuknant. 

TH E lieutenant, in the abfence of the captain, com- 
mands the company, and fhould therefore make him- 
felf acquainted with the duties of that ftation ; he muft al- 
fo be perfectly, acquainted wish the duties of the non-com- 
miflioned officers and foldiers, and fee them performed with 
the greatcft exactnefs. 


He fhould endeavour to gain the love of his men, by 
Jiis attention to every tiling which may contribute to their 
health and convenience. He fliould often vilit them at dif- 
ferent hours ; infpeft into their manner of living ; fee that 
their provifions are good and well cooked, and as far as 
poffible oblige them to take their meals at regulated hours. 
He fliould pay attention to their complaints, and when well 
founded, endeavour to get them redrefTed ; but difcouragc 
them from complaining on every frivolous occafion. 

He muft not fufFer the foldicrs to be ill treated by the 
non-commifhoned officers through malevolence, or from 
any pique or refentment ; but muft. at the fame time be 
careful that a proper degree of fubordinaticn is kept up be- 
tween them. 

Although no officer fhould be ignorant of the fervice of 
the guards, yet it particularly behoves the lieutenant to be 
perfectly acquainted with that duty ; he being oftener than 
any other officer entr lifted with the command of a guard — 
a truft of the higeft importance, on the faithful execution 
of which the'fafety of an army depends ;• and in which the 
officer has frequent opportunities to diftinguifh himfelf by 
his judgment, vigilance and bravery. 

Inftruclions for the Enfign. 

TH Eenfign is in a particular manner charged with the 
cleanlinefs of die men, to which he muft pay the 
greateft attention. 

When the company parades, and whilft the captain and 
lieutenant are examining the arms and accoutrements, th« 
enfign muft infpecT: the drefs of the foldiers, obferving 
whether they are clean, and every thing about them in the 
beft order poffible, and duly noticing any who in thefe re- 
fpe&s are deficient. 

He muft be very attentive to the conduct of the non- 
commiffioned officers, obferving that they dotheir duty with 
the greateft exactnefs ; that they fupport a proper authority 
and at the fame time do not ill treat the men through any 
pique or refentment. 

As there are only two colours to a regiment, the enfigns 
muft carry them by turns, beinw warned for that fervice 
by the adjutant. When on that duty, they Ihould con fide r 
the importance of the truft repofed in them ; and when 


in atfion,refolve not to part with the colours but with their 
lives. Asitisbythem the battalion drefl'es when march- 
ing in line, they fhould be very careful to keep a regular 
flep, and by frequent practice accuftom themfelves to 
march ftraight forward to any given object. 

Injlruflions for the Serjeant Major. 

THE ferjant major, being at the head of the non-com- 
miffioned officers, muft pay the greateft attention to 
their conduct and behaviour, never conniving at the lead 
irregularity committed by them or the foldiers, from both 
of whom he muft exact the molt implicit obedience. He 
mould be well acquainted with the interior management 
and difcipline of the regiment, and the manner of keeping 
rofters and forming details.. He muft always attend the 
parade, be very expert in counting off the battalion. and in 
every other bufinefs of the adjutant, to whom he is an 

InflruHionsfor the Quarter Majler Serjeant. 

HE is an affiftant to the quarter-mafterof the regiment, 
and in his abfence is to do his duty.unlefs an officer 
be fpecially appointed for that purpofe : He ihould there- 
fore acquaint himfelf with all the duties cf the quarter- 
mafter before mentioned. When the army marches he 
muft fee the tents properly packed and loaded, and go 
with the baggage,fee that the waggoners commit no, difor- 
ders, and that nothing is loft out of the waggons. 

InJlruBions for the Firfi Serjeant cf a Company. 

THE foldier having acquired that degree of confident 
of his officers as to be appointed firft ferjeant of th e 
company, fhould confider the importance of his office ; 
that the difcipline of the company,the conduct ci the men, 
their exactnefs in obeying orders and the regularity of 
their manners, will in a great meafure depend on his vi- 

He fhould be intimately acquainted with the character 
of every foldier of the company, and fhould take great 
pains to imprefs upon their minds the indifpenfable necef- 


fityofthc ftricteft obedience, as the foundation of order 
and regularity. 

He will keep the details of the company, and never 
warn a man out of his turn,, unlefs particularly ordered fo 
to do. 

He mud take the daily orders in a book kept by him 
for that purpofe, and fhew them to his officers. 

He mud every morning make a report to the captain of 
the ftate of die company, in the form prefcribed ; and at 
the fame time acquaint him with any thing material that 
may have happened in the company fince the preceding 

He muft parade all guards and detachments furnifhed 
lay his company, examine their arms, ammunition, accou- 
trements and drefs, before lie carries them to the parade j 
and if any man appears unfit, he muft fupply his place 
with another, and have the defaulter punched : For this 
purpofe he muft always warn a man or two more than or- 
dered, to ferve as a referve, who, if not wanted, will re- 
turn to their companies. 

He will keep the oompany book (under the infpection of 
thex^ptain)in which ke will enter the name and defec- 
tion of every non-commiffioned officer andfoldier; his trade 
and occupation; the place of his birth and ufual refidence; 
where, when and for what term he was enlifted; the boun- 
ty paid him ; the arras, ammunition, accoutrements, 
clothing and neceffaries delivered him, with their marks 
and numbers, and the times when delivered ; alfo copies 
of all returns, furloughs, difcharges, and every cafualty 
that happens in the company. 

When each foldier fliall be provided with a fnaall book 
the firft fcrjeant is to enter therein the folder's name,a copy 
•of his inliftment,the bounty paid him, the arms, accoutre- 
ments, clothing and neceffaries delivered him, with their 
marks and numbers : For this purpofe he muft be prefent 
nt all distributions in his company ; and as often as arms, 
clothing; ifjc are delivered, he muft enter them in die fol- 
dier's as well as the company's book. 

The firft ferjeant is not to go on any duty, unlefs with 
the whole company; but is to be always in camp or quar- 
ters, to anfwer any call diat may be made. 

He is never to lead a platoon or iection, but is always 


to be a file clofer In the formation of the company, his du- 
ty being m the company like the adjutant's in the regiment. 

InJlruHionsfor the Serjeants and Corporals. 

IT being on the non-commiflioned officers that the disci- 
pline and order of a company in a great meafure de- 
pend, they cannot be too circumfpect in their behaviour 
towards the men, by treating them with mildnefs, and at 
the fame time obliging every one to do his duty. By a- 
voidmg too great familiarity with the men, they will not 
only gain their love and confidence, but be treated with a 
proper refpecl ; whereas by a contrary conduct they for- 
feit all regard, and their authority becomes de/pifed. 

Each ferjeant and corporal will be in a particular manner 
anfwerable for the fquad committed to his care. He muft 
pay particular attention to their conduct in every refpecl: ; 
that they keep themfelves and their arms always clean j 
that they have their effects- always ready, and put where 
they can get them immediately, even in the dark, without 
confufion ; and on every fine day he muft oblige them to 
air their effects. 

When a man of his fquad is warned for duty, he muft 
examine him before he carries him to the parade, obliging 
him to take all his effects with him, unlefs when Specially 
ordered to the contrary. 

In teaching the recruits, they muft exercife all their 
patience, by no means abufmg them, but treating them 
with mildnefs, and not expect too much precifion in the 
firft leffons, punifhing thofe only who are wilfully negli- 

Thsy muft fupprefs all quarrels and difputes in the compa- 
ny, and where other means fail, muft ufe their authority 
in confining the offender. 

They fliould teach the foldiers of their fquads how to 
drefs with a foldier-like air,how to clean their arms, accou- 
trements, &c. and how to mount and difmount their fire- 
locks ; for which purpofe each non-commiffion?d officer 
fhould always be provided with a turnferew, and fuffer no 
foldier to take his arms to pieces without his permiffion. 

On a march the non-commiflioned officres muft preferve 
order and regularity, and fuffer no man to leave the rank3 
without permiffion of the officer commanding the plat- 
oon. G 2 


A corporal mud teach the fentinels to challenge brifkly 
a"Qd every thing elfe they are to do in their different fitua- 
tions ; and when he relieves them,muft make them deliver 
the orders diftinctly. 

When a guard is relieved, the non-commiffioned officer$ 
take the orders from thofe whom they relieve ; when fent 
to vifit the fentries, they fhoul'd inftrucl them in their duty. 
They fhould reconnoitre the roads they are to patrol in the 
night, that they may not lofe themfelves. They mult 
make their patrol with the greateft filence and atten^on, 
and where neceffary, fend a faithful fcldier a-head to look 
out. If they meet a detachment of the enemy ftronger 
than their own, they muft retreat in order to their own 
port:. In the night they muft flop all ftrangers that ap- 
proach. They muft not fuffer their men to make the lead 
noife with their arms or accoutrements, and every now and 
then ftop and liften. On their return from patrolling, they 
muft report to the officer what they have feen or heard. 

When a non-commi (Honed officer is a file-clofer in action, 
he muft take care to keep the ranks and files properly do- 
led, and when too much crowded,makc them incline from 
the centre. When the files of his platoon are difordered 
by the lofs of men,he muft exert himfelf to drefs and com- 
plete them afrefh, with the utmoft expedition. He muft 
ktc? the greateft filence in the ranks,fee that the men load 
well and quick, and take good aim. He will do all in his 
power to encourage the foldiers, and ufe the moft vigo- 
rous means to prevent any from leaving the ranks, unlefs 

JnflruBions for the private, Soldier. 

THE recruit having received his necelTaries, fhould 
in the firft place learn to drefs himfelf with a foldier 
like air ; to place his effects properly in his knapfack, fo as 
to carry them with eafe and convenience ; how to falute 
his officers when he meets them ; to clean his arms, wafh 
his linen and cook his provifions. He fhould early ac- 
cuftom himfelf to drefs in the night ; and for that purpofe 
always have his effects in his knapfack, and that placed 
Vhere he can put his hand on it in a moment, that in cafe 
of alarm he may repair with the greateft alertnefs to the 

When learning to march , he muft take the greateft pains 
to acquire a firm ftep and a proper balance, practifing 
himfelf at all his leifure hours. He muft accuftom him- 
felf to the greateft. fteadinefs under arms, to pay attention 
to the commands of his officers, and exercife himfelf con- 
tinually with his firelock, in order \ to acquire vivacity in ' 
his. motions. He muft acquaint himfelf with the ufual 
beats and fignals of the drum, and inftantly obey them. 

When in the ranks, he mud always learn the names of 
Ills right and left hand men and file leader, that he may be 
able to find his place readily in cafe of feparation. He 
muft cover his file leader and drefs well in his rank, which 
he may be affured of doing when he can juft perceive the 
bread of the third man from him. Having joined his com- 
pany he muft no longer confider himfelf as a recruit, but 
as a foldier ; and whenever he is ordered under arms, 
muft appear well drefled,with his arms and accoutrements 
clean and in good order, and his knapfaek, blanket, £?«;. 
ready to throw on his back in cafe he fhould be or- 
dered to take them. 

When warned for guard, he muft appear as neat as 
poffible, carry all his effefts with him, and even when on 
fentry muft have them at his back. He muft receive the 
orders from the fentry he relieves ; and when placed be- 
fore the guard-houfe, he muft inform the corporal of all 
that approach, and fuffer no one to enter until ex- 
amined ; if he is polled at a diftance from the guard, 
he will march there in order, have the orders 
well explained to him by the corporal, learn which is 
the neareft poft between him and the guard, in cafe h& 
ihould be obliged to retire, or have any thing t© commu- 
nicate, and what he is to do in cafe of alarm ; or if in a 
town, in cafe of fire & any difturbance. He will never go 
more than twenty paces from his poft ; and if in a retired, 
place, or in the night, fuffer no one to approach within 
ten paces of him. 
Afentinel muft never reft upon his arms,but keep walking 
on his poft He muft never fuffer himfelf to be relieved 
but by his corporal; challenge brifkly in the night.and ftop 
thofe who have not the counterfignj.and if any will not an- 
fwer to the third challenge, or having been flopped Ihould 
attempt to efcape, he may fire on th«m,. 


When on a patrol, h* muft obferve the ftri&eft filence, 
nor make the leaft noife with his arms or accoutrements. 

In action he will pay the greateft attention to the com- 
mands of his officers, level well, and not throw away his 
fire ; take particular care to keep his rank and file, incline 
to that fide he dreflcs to, and encourage his comrades to 
do their duty. 

When ordered to march, he muft not charge himfelf 
with any unneceflary baggage ; he will march at his eafe, 
widioat however leaving his rank or file ; he fliould drink 
as feldom as poffible, and never ftop but when neceffity obli- 
ges him ; in which cafe he muft afic leave of the command- 
ing officer of the platoon. 

When arrived at camp or quarters, he muft clean his 
arms, prepare his bed, & go forneceflaries, taking nothing 
without leave, nor committing any kind of excefs. 

He muft always have a ftopper for the muzzle of his gun 
in cafe of rain, and when on a march ; at which times he 
will unfix his bayonet. 




Of the Arms and Accoutrements of the Officers, Non- 
commiffioned Officers and Soldiers, 3 

CHAP. If. 

Gbje&s with which the Officers and Non-commiiTion- 
ed Officers fhould be acquainted, ib. 

G H A P. III. 

Of the Formation of a Company, 4 

Of the formation of a Regiment, ib. 

C R A P. V. 
Of the InftrucYton of Recruits, 5 

C H A P. VI. 
The Exercife of a.Company, 1 7 

A jit. i . Of opening the Ranks for Intpe&ton* ib. 

2. Of the firings, 18 

3. Of the March, ib. 

4. Of Wheelings, 19 

5. Of breaking off & forming by thft'oblique flep, ib. 

Esercife of a battalion, 20 

C H A P.. VIII. 

Of the points of view, 21 


Of the Formation and Difplaying of Columns, with the 
method of changing Front, 22 

Art. 1. The clofe Column formed on the Ground 

by the Right, the Right, in Front, ib. 

2. The Difplay of a Column formed by the 
Right, the Right in Front, ib. 

3. The clofe Column formed on the Ground 
by the Left, the Left in Front, 23 

4. Difplay of aColumn formed by the Left,the 
Left in Front, ib* 

5. The clofe Column formed on the Centre, or 
fifth Platoon, the Right in Front, «tV 

6. Difplay of a Column having the Right in 
Fxont, from the Centre or fifth Platoon,^ 24 

7. The clofe Column formed by the Right, 
the Ri~ht in Front, difpiayed to the Right, 25 


8. The clofe Column formed by the Left, the 
Left in Front, difplayed to the Left, 2 5 

9. Of opening Columns, to. 
1 o. Of changing the Front of a Line, 2 7 

Of the March of Columns, ib. 

Art. 1. The march of an open Column, ilk 

2. Columns changing the Direction of their 
March, #, 

3. PafTage ofa Defile by a Column* 28 

4. A Column croffing a Plain liable to be at- 
tacked by Cavalry, ib, 

5. A Column marching by its Fiank, 29 

Of the March in Line, # # 

Art. 1. The March to the Front, ib. 

2. Of the Charge with Bayonets, 31 

3. Method of patting any Obstacle in Front 

of a Line, ft t 

4. PafTage of a Defile in Front, by Platoons, ib. 

5. PafTage of a Defile in Front, by Files, 32 

6. Of the March in Retreat, ib. 

7. PafTage of a Defile in Retreat, by Pla- ib. 
toons, jp t 

8. PafTage of a Defile in Reireat, by Files. 33 

9. Method of paffing the fornt Line to the 
Rear, ,* 

Of the Difpofition of the Field-pieces attached to the 

Brigades, #, 

Of the Firings, • * 

Art. 1. Firing by battalion, #. 

2. Firing by Divifions and Platoons, to. 

3. Firing advancing, • a<5 

4. Firing retreating, H, 

Of the March of an Armv or Corp?, /£ 

Of the Baggage on a March, ^o 

The manner of laying out a Camp, with the Order of 
Encampment, „ . 4^ 



Manner of entering a Camp, 43 

NecefTary Regulations for preferving Order and Clcan- 

linefs in the Camp, 44 

Of Roll-Calls, 47 

Of the Infpecuon of the Men, their Drefs, Neceffaries, 

Arms, Accoutrements and Ammunition, ib. 

Of the different Beats of the Drum, 4? 


Of the Service of the Guards, 49 

Art. 1. Of the different Guards, with their Ufe, ib. 

2. Of the Grand Parade, 5 1 

3. Of relieving Guards and Sentinels, 54 

4. Inftructioris to Officers on Guard, 56 

5. Method of going and receiving die Grand 

Rounds, 59 

6. Honors due fromGeneralOfficers &others, 6 c 

Of the Arms and Ammunition, with the Methods 

of prefer vir.g them. 62 


Of the Treatment of the Sick, 64 


Of Reviews, 65 
Art. 1. ,Of Reviews of Parad e i 

2. Of Reviews of Infpe&ion, 66 

Instructions for the Commandant of a' Regiment, 67 

for the Major, 69 

for the Adjutant, 70 

for the Quarter Mafter, 7 1 

for the Captain, 72 

for the Lieutenant, _ 73 

for the Enfign, 74 

for the Serjant Major, 75 

for the Qaarter-Mafter Serjeant, ib. 

for the fir It Serjeant of a Company, ib. 

for the Serjeants and Corporals, 77 

for the private Soldier, 78 

Explanation <9/7/tf Plates. 

Plat* I. Figure i. 2. 3. fhew the formation of a com- 
pany and regiment. Chap. Ill and IV, Fi- 
gure 4. and 5, Wheeling by platoons or di- 
vifions. Chap. Vil. 
Plate II. Figure 1. Forming the line by the points of 

view. Chap. VIII. 
Plate II. Figure a, 3, 4, and 5, and Plate III. fhew 
the different ways of forming and difplaying 
columns, as defcribed in Chap. IX. from Art. 
1. to Art. 9. 
Plate IV. Figure 1. A clofe column changing the di" 
reckons of its march Chap. X. Art. 2. 
Figure 2. Paflage of a defile by a column. 
Chap. X. Art. 5'. 
Plate V.. Figure i. Paflage of a defile in front, by plat- 
oons. Chap. XI. Art. 4. 
Figure 2. Paflage of a defile in front,by files. 
Chap. XI. Art. c. 

Figure 3. Paflage of a defile in retreat, by- 
platoons. Chap. XI. Art 7. 
Plate. VI. Figure t, 2. Method of pafling the front line 
to the rear. Chap. XI. Art. 9. 
Figure 3, The pofitions of the camp and 
quarter guards. Chap. XVI. and Chap. 
XXII. Art. 1. 
Plate VII. The order of encampment of a regiment, 
confiding of two battalions. Chap. XVI. 
Plate VIII. The order of encampment of a regiment 
making but one battalion. Chap. XVI- 

An Act 

To provide for the National Defence, 
by eftablifhing an 


Throughout the United States. 
Pajfedin Congrefs^May 1792* 


An ACT 7?i:rc ejtclually U jprdvidefor the National Dcf.n>e t 
by cftaUifolng an Uniform Militia throughout the 
UniLd States. 

Sec. I. XT ^ ^ ^ ant * eveI T f ree a ^le bodied white 
JL^ male citizen of the refpeclive ftates, refi- 
dent therein,who is or (hall be of the age of eighteen years 
and under the age of forty five ycan(except as is herein af- 
ter excepted) (hall feverally and refpecftively be enrolled in 
the militia, by the Captain or commanding officer cf the 
company .within whofe bounds fuch citizen (hall refide, and 
that within twelve months after the palling of this Act. 
And it (hall at all times hereafter be the duty of every 
fuch captain or commanding officer of a company, to enroll 
every fuch citizen as aforefaid, and alfo thofe who ihal', 
from time to time, arrive at the age of 18 years, or bein«- 
at the age of 18 years, and under the age of 45 years (ex- 
cept as before excepted) (hall ccme to refide within -his 
bounds ; and (hall without delay notify fuch citizen of the 
faid enrolment, by a proper noa-commiffioned officer of 
the company, by whom fuch notice may be proved. 
That every citizen, fo enrolled and notified. (hall, within 
fix months thereafter, provide himfelf with a good' mufket 
or firelock, a fufficient bayonet and b'elt,two fpare flints, and 
a knapfack, a pouch with a box therein to contain not lefs 
than twenty four cartridges, fuited to the bore of his mul- 
ket or firelock, each cartridge to contain a proper quantity 
of powder and ball ; or with a good rifle, knapfack, diet 
pouch, and powder horn, twenty balls fuited to the bore of 
his rifle, and a quarter of a pound of powder ; and (hall ap- 
pear fo armed, accoutred and provided, when called out to 
exercife or into fervice, except, that when called out 011 
company days to exercife only, he may appear without a 
knapfack. That the commiflioned officers (hall feverally' 
be armed with a fword or hanger, and. efpontcon ; and that 
from and after five years from the patting of this .act,.' all 
mufkets for arming the militia as is herein required., (hail 
be of bores fufficient for balls of the eighteenth part of a 
pound ; and every citizen fo enrollec, and providing him- 
felf with the arms, ammunition and accoutrements rcqui 


red as aforefaid,fhall hold the Tame exempted from all fuits, 
diftrefles, executions or fales, for debt or for the payment 
of taxes. ' 

Sec, 2. And be il further enafled, That the vice Prefident 
of the United States ; the officers, judicial and executive, 
of the government of the United States ; the members of 
both houfes of Congrefs, and their refpective officers ; all 
cuftom houfe officers, with their clerks ; all port officers, 
and ftagedrivers who are employed in the care and convey- 
ance of the mail of the poft. office of the United State;; 
all ferrymen employed at any ferry on the poft road ; all 
infpedors of exports; all pilots ; all mariner? actually em- 
ployed in the fea fervice of any citir.en or merchant with- 
in the United States; and all perfons who now are or may" 
be hereafter exempted by the laws of the refpective ftates, 
(hall be and art hereby exempted from militia duty, not- 
withftanding their being above the age of eighteen and 
under the age of forty five years. 

Sec. 3. And be it further e/iaf}ed,Th?it within one year af- 
ter the palling of this act, the militia of the refpective ftates 
fhall be arranged into divifions, brigades, regiments, bat- 
talions, and companies, as the legiilator of each ftate fhall 
direct ; and each divifion, brigade, and regiment, fhall 
' be numbered at the formation thereof : and a record m^de 
of fuch numbers in the adjutant general's office in the 
ftate : and when in the field, or in fervice in the ftate, 
each divilio'n, brigade, and regiment ftiall, refpeftively, 
take rank according to their numbers, reckoning the firft 
or loweft number higheft in rank. That if the fame be 
convenient, each brigade fhall conf:ft of four regiments ; 
each regiment of two battalions ; each battalion of five 
companies; each company of fixty four privates. That 
the faid militia (hall be officered by the refpective ftates, as 
follows : To each divifion one major general with two aids 
de camp, with the rank of major 5 to each brigade, one 
brigadier general with one brigade infpeotor, to ferve alfo 
as a brigade major, with the rank of a major ; to each 
regiment,one lieutenant colonel commandant ; and to each 
battalion ; one major ; to each company, one captain, one 
lieutenant, one enfign, four ferjeants, font corporals, ore 
drummer, and one fifer or bugler. That there ihall be 
•i regimental Raff, to confift of one adjutant, and on« 


quartermafter, to rank as lieutenants ; one paymaster j 
one furgeon, and one furgeon's mate ; one ferjeant major 
one drum mwjor, and one fife major. 

Sec. 4. And he it further enatled y That out of the militia 
enrolled as is herein directed, there fhall be formed for 
each battalion r at leatft one company of grenadiers, light in- 
fantry or riflemen ; and that to each divifton there mail be 
at lead, one company of artillery, and one troop of horfe: 
There (hall be to each company of artillery, one captain, 
two lieutenants, four ferjeants, four coporals, fix gunners, 
fix bombardiers, one drummer, and or.efifer. Theofficers 
to be armed with a fword or hanger, a fuzee, bayonet and 
belt, with a cartridge box to contain twelve cartridges, 
& each private or m.urofsfti illfurnifli himfidf with all the e- 
quipments of a private inthe infantry, till proper ordinance 
andSeldartilleryisprovided. There (hall beto eachtroop of 
.horfe, one captain, two lieutenants, one cornet, four fer- 
.jeants,four coporals, one fadler,one farrier, and one trum- 
peter. The commiffioned officers to furnifh themfelves 
with good horfes, of at lead fourteen hands and an half 
high, and to be armed with a fword, and pair of piftols, 
the holiters of which to be covered with bearfkin caps. 
Each dragoon to furnifh himfelf with a ferviceable 
leaft fourteen hands and an half high,a good faddle,bridle, 
mailpillion and valife,hoftlers, arjd a breaft-plate and crup- 
per, a pair of boots and fpurs, n pair of piftols, a fabre, and 
eartouch-box, to contain twelve cartridges for piilols. That 
each company of artillery and troop of horfe {hall be for- 
med of volunteers from the brigade,at the di r cretion of the 
commander in chief of the ftate,not exceeding on« company 
of each to a regiment, nor more in number than one elev- 
enth part of the infantry, and (hall be uniformly cloathed 
in regimentals, to be furnifhed at their own e::pence ; the 
colour and falhion to be determined by the brigadier com- 
manding the brigade to which they belong. 

bee. 5. . And be it further enafted, That each battalion and 
regiment fhall be provided with the (late and regimental 
colours by the rk-ld officers,, and each company with a 
drum and fife or bugle horn* by the commiffioned officers 
of the company, in fuch manner as the legislature of the 
t^fpeclive fiatps (hall direft. 

Sec. 6. Anil: li further tn<*8ed, That there mail be on 
adjutant general appointed in each ftate, vvhofe duty it 
fhall be to distribute all orders from the commander in 
•chief of the ftate to the feveral corps ; to attend all 
publick reviews, when the commander in chief oi~ the 
ftate (hall review the militia, or any part thereof; to 
obey all orders from him relative to carrying into ex- 
ecution, and perfecting, the fyftem of military difcipline 
eftabliihed by this acl ; to furnifh blank forms of diffenrfit 
returns that may be required ; and to explain the prin- 
ciples on which they fhould be made ; to recieve from 
the feveral officers of the different corps throughout the 
ftate, returns of the militia under their command, rc- 
. porting the adtual fituation of their arms, accoutrements, 
and ammunition, their delinquencies, and every other 
thing which relates to the general advancement of good 
Order and difcipline ; All which, the feveral officers of 
» the divifons, brigades, regiments, and battalions are 
hereby required to make in the ufual manner, fo that the 
faid adjutant general may be duly furnifhed therewith : 
From alt which returns he fhall make proper abftradls, 
and lay the fame annually before the commander in chief 
of the ftate. 

Sec 7. Andbe it further enaftsd ,Thz.\. the rules of difcipline 
ved and eftablifhed by Congrefs in their refolutien, 
•.ty -ninth of March, one thoufand feven hundred 
and ftvenry ninodhall be the rules of difcipline to be obfer- 
ved b ighout the United -States, except 

fuch devia ules as may be rendered neCef- 

fary by the rs< lis a^, or by fome other una- 

voidable circui. hall be the duty of the com- 

manding ofiicei .:t every mufteir, whether by battalion, 
regiment or ftngle c to caufe the militia to be ex- 

ercifed and trained agreeably to the faid rules of difci- 

Sec. 8. And bs it further e?iacled, That all commifnoncd 
ofiio-rs (hall take rank according to the date of their 
comuoiftions ; and when two cf the fame grade bear an 
equal date, then their rank to be determined by lots, to 
It drawn by them before the commanding officer of 
the biigade, regiment, battalion, company or detach- 


Sec. 9. And be it further enatted, That if any perfon, whe- 
ther officer or foldier, belonging to the militia of any 
ftate, and called out into the fervice of the United States, 
be wounded or difabled while in actual fervice, he fhall be 
taken care of and provided for at the publick expenfe. 
Sec. 10 And be it further enaSlcd, Tnat it fhall be the 
duty of the brigade infpecior, to attend the regimental 
and battalion meetings of the militia compofing their . 
feveral brigades, during the time of their being under 
arms, to infpect their arms, ammunition and accoutre- 
ments ; fuperintend their exercife and manoeuvres, and 
introduce the fyftem of military difeipline before defcri- 
bed throughout the brigade, agreeable to law, and fuch 
orders as they {hall, from time to time receive from the 
commander in chief of the ftate ; to make returns to the 
adjutant general of the ftate, at lead once in every 
year of the militia of the brigade to which he belongs, 
reporting therein the actual fituation of the arras, accou- 
trements and ammunition of the feveral corps and every 
other thing which, in his judgment may relate to their go- 
vernment and the general advancement of good order and 
military difeipline ; and the adjatant-general fhall make 
a return of all the militia of the. ftate, to the command- 
er in chief of the faid ftate, and a duplicate of the fame to 
the Prefident of theUnlted States. 

And whereas fundry corps of artillery, cavalry and 
infantry, now exift in feveral of the faid ftates, which by 
the laws, cuftoms, or ufages thereof, have not been in- 
corporated with, or fubject to the general regulations of 
the militia ; 

Sec. if. Be it enafled, That fuch corps retain their ac- 
cuftomed privileges, fubject:, nevertheless, to all other du- 
ties required by this act, in like manner with the other 

Approved, May Sth, 1792. 


Prefident oftfc United States.