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by Joncph It. F.antman, nirector 
Office ot Oeien»e Trannportation 

The vast majority of America’s millions of motor trucks are in 
the hands of individuals owning one or two trucks. For every 
large fleet of a hundred and more trucks, there are thousands of 
individually owned trucks. This means that millions of people 
are either owners or drivers. Each and every one has an impor- 
tant part to play in conserving the Nation’s existing supply of 
motor trucks to the day of victory. 

As a truck owner or driver, your part is to see that your truck is 
kept in good mechanical condition to prolong truck life, conserve 
gasoline, oil, and parts, and to see that your tires are checked fre- 
quently and properly cared for. Your truck may be working 
harder and longer hours now than ever before, which makes it even 
more necessary to give it special maintenance attention. 

As the President points out, in his letter on the page opposite, 
your cooperation is your patriotic duty. 

Some of the information in this booklet you already know. It 
has been compiled from authoritative sources as a complete, handy 
guide to enable you to adopt a definite plan of truck and tire 




l our Patriotic Duty itt to Make Sure ... 

That your truck receives a thorough mechanical check-up at regular 
intervals. (See Preventive Maintenance, page 6.) 

That your truck is never overloaded. (Overloading shortens both 
truck and tire life.) 

That your drivers turn in daily forms reporting on the mechanical con- 
dition of their trucks. (See page 3.) 

That only thoroughly instructed, competent drivers are allowed to 
operate your trucks. 

That broken or worn-out parts are immediately disposed of to a scrap 
dealer, if they cannot be salvaged for future use. 

That you thoroughly familiarize yourself with the suggestions in this 


Your Patriotic Duty Mh to Make Sure ... 

That you take every precaution to avoid accident; one careless moment 
can spoil a year of caution. 

That you remember that “easy does it” when you start and stop. Other- 
wise, you waste tires and gasoline, strain the clutch, brakes, and other 
mechanical parts. 

That you report, conscientiously, on the condition of your truck at the 
end of each day. 

That you avoid unnecessary delays because loss of truck time slows the 
war effort. 

That you check tires daily for inflation, cuts, nails, glass, bruises, and 
any indication of unusual wear. 

That you thoroughly familiarize yourself with the suggestions in this 

To truck owners : Since copies of this booklet are not available for all 
drivers it is suggested you pass these ideas along to your drivers by 
letters, posters, or other means. 



The use of a “Driver’s Daily Report” is mentioned on the page opposite 
and cannot be too strongly urged. “A stitch in time saves nine.” Con- 
venient forms are available from truck manufacturers, oil companies, and 
other sources. Drivers like to use them because they know that a safer, 
easier operating truck is well worth the few moments spent in making 
out the form. Even in ordinary times, efficient operators found them 
indispensable because this practice tends to prolong truck life and to 
reduce their accident rate and maintenance costs. The check list below 
is a useful guide. Copies can be made for your daily use. Be sure to 
inspect all points listed; check those needing attention. (Owner-drivers 
will find it equally profitable to keep a daily — written — record of this 
type for their own guidance in maintenance matters.) 



Driver's name 

Truck No 


Speedometer reading 


Oil pressure 
Water temperature 
Lights and horn 
Windows and doors 

Engine noises 
Spark control 
Choke control 
Fuel control 

Gear shift and transmission 
Foot-brake system 
Hand-brake system 

Tires, rims, and wheels Steering 
Windshield wiper Power take-off 

Rear-vision mirrors Leaks — Oil, fuel, water 


Ruined by Aegleet! This valve 
cannot be salvaged. It was ruined because 
the engine was permitted to run without 
attention long after a valve grind was 
needed. The need for valve reconditioning 
would have been quickly determined if a 
compression gage had been applied to the 
engine during a routine inspection. 

.1 T wist of the Wrist Would 
Have Sured $50! This radiator 
worth approximately {50 should have lasted 
the life of the truck. It lasted less than half 
the truck’s normal life. Someone neglected 
to tighten the nut holding the fan in adjust- 
ment. A routine inspection would have 
shown the fan to be loose and consequent 
adjustment would have saved this radiator. 

Iaposc Spring Clips Cost $25! 

The broken leaves in this spring were caused 
by loose spring clips. If the truck had been 
inspected, a competent mechanic would have 
detected the loose clips instantly. Thus, 
this spring would have been saved for indefi- 
nite service and an expense of approxi- 
mately $25 would have been prevented. 

Too Much Heat Cracks 
R runt! The brake shoe adjustment was 
faulty, causing the drum to overheat and 
crack. It should have given many more 
miles of service as is indicated by the fact 
that its mate is still running. This case of 
neglect cost the operator $31. 

Inexcusable Waste of Rub- 
ber! This tire gave less than half of its 
normal mileage. The edges show that it has 
not worn out in the normal way. Wheels 
out of line were responsible. A routine 
inspection would have disclosed this and 
many precious pounds of rubber would have 
been saved for useful mileage. 


This Xeglect Cost the O truer 
$200! The rings on this piston were 
stuck, ruining the cylinder walls and making 
a complete rebuilding necessary. This condi- 
tion was caused by faulty oil and could have 
been prevented by an oil change or a filter 
cartridge replacement. A routine inspection 
would have saved the overhaul job which 
cost $200. 

Another Waste of $200! This 
filter cartridge is completely plugged up and 
useless — not only beyond the point of clean- 
ing the oil, but also so dirty that it clogged 
the oil line, resulting in a complete engine 
failure. Under a Preventive Maintenance 
Plan it would have been changed long before 
and the owner saved a repair bill of approxi- 
mately $200. 

Overheating Caused This 

Waste! This piston .is scored beyond 
repair. The damage was caused by running 
an overheated engine. If the radiator had 
been flushed at reasonable periods, it would 
not have happened. The driver could have 
prevented this extreme damage had he shut 
off the engine when it began to overheat. 

Wrong tAibricant Costs $SO! 

This ring gear is worthless because the 
mechanic on the job did not think it neces- 
sary to determine the correct lubricant to use 
for this rear axle. The wrong kind com- 
pletely ruined the rear axle gears. Cost: 
Approximately $80. 

Slipping Clutch Means 
Trouble! There is only one cause for 
a clutch pressure plate to be scarred and 
worn as this one is — the driver continued to 
operate his truck with a slipping clutch. An 
adjustment requiring only a few moments 
would have saved the entire clutch for an 
indefinite period. But nobody bothered to 
check the clutch until it gave out entirely. 


Preventive Maintenance is not a new idea. Large fleet owners 
have practiced it for years. Their systems are not all alike as to details, 
but the purpose is the same — to provide a means of thorough inspection 
at regular intervals for the purpose of detecting mechanical trouble at the 
outset and correcting it before it has a chance to develop into a costly 

(timers of One and Tiro Trucks. As a general rule, owners of 
one or two trucks have not shown the same interest in Preventive Mainte- 
nance as large fleet owners. In the present emergency, it is their patriotic 
duty to do -so because the millions of trucks they own far outnumber the 
trucks in large fleets. America needs every mile of service its trucks 
can give. 

Preventive Maintenance Inspection. To begin an intelligent 
Preventive Maintenance program, you must first see that your truck is 
put in reasonably good condition. After that is done, an inspection every 
1,000 miles (or 30 days, whichever occurs first), covering the points listed 
in detail on the following pages of this booklet, will enable any good 
mechanic to keep your truck operating efficiently and prolong its life. 

Keducing Parts Failures. Preventive Maintenance does not in- 
clude all the service work needed by a truck during its life. It does 
include all the routine adjustments and inspections which prevent exten- 
sive repair and shows what additional work is required. Doing the addi- 
tional work at the time the inspection is made will save money because 
it will prevent further damage which may injure parts beyond repair. 

Put Trucks in Hood Condition .Voir. It is suggested that you 
get your truck in good operating condition as fast as you can before parts 
stocks become further depleted. You may not he able to have all of the 
work done at once. It may be necessary for you to spread the work over 
a period of time. When it is completed, you can apply Preventive 
Maintenance to your truck and it will save a great deal of time and money. 


Kegularitg of Inspection. The preventive maintenance system 
given in detail on the following pages of this booklet is based on an 
inspection every 1,000 miles, or 30 days, whichever occurs first. At each 
1,000 miles of the truck’s life, the 1,000-mile inspection should be fol- 
lowed. In addition, at each 5,000- and 15,000-mile interval, a more 
complete inspection should be made as outlined on the pages beaded 
5,000-mile inspection and 15,000-mile inspection. When the truck 
reaches 16,000 miles, the mechanic should begin all over again, using 
exactly the same inspections in the same order. 

Send Truck to llcliable Mechanic. If you have not been 
trained in this kind of work, seek out a reliable mechanic and take your 
truck to him. Show him this booklet and tell him what you want done. 
Tell him to follow the booklet inspection closely unless you have a truck 
manufacturer’s recommended inspection system that is satisfactory. The 
main thing is not to permit your truck to be neglected. 

Truck Manufacturer's llcconnnendations. All adjustments 
should be made to the truck manufacturer’s recommendations. If not, 
they are not adjustments at all and they may do more harm than good. 
If you do not have a service manual for your truck or your mechanic does 
not have one, get one. You can get it from your truck branch or dealer 
or by writing to the truck manufacturer. 

Trailer Inspection. In the case of tractor-trailer operations, 
trailers should be as regularly inspected as the trucks themselves. 




The success of any Preventive Maintenance Program hinges upon com- 
plete and regular inspections. To make sure that inspections are com- 
pletely and regularly made, “check lists” are needed. Truck manufac- 
turers’ branches and dealers as well as many oil companies will furnish 
supplies of these charts upon request. The form below covers all essen- 
tial items and copies can be made of it for your own use. As each item is 
taken care of, a check mark should be made opposite it. 


Truck Ho. Make Mileage 

1. Lubricate according to manufac- 
turer's recommendations. 

2. Check crankcase oil level. 

3. Check differential and trans- 
mission lubricant level. 

Examine for leaks. 

4. Fill radiator with water. Check 
antifreeze if necessary. 

Tighten all hose connections. 

5. Check distributor points. Clean 
and adjust if necessary. (See 
manufacturer's* manual for spac- 

6. Clean and adjust spark plugs. 
(See manufacturer's manual for 

7. Check Ignition timing and oil- 
distributor wick and fill dis- 
tributor grease cup. 

8. Adjust fan and compressor belts. 
Replace belts when necessary. 

9. Tighten water-pump gland nut. 
Replace pump packings when 

10. Clean fuel-pump strainer, bowl, 
and carburetor strainer. 

11. Adjust carburetor (with vacuum 
gage if possible). 

12. Inspect for gas, oil, or water 
leaks, examine with engine hot 
and running. 

13. Take hydrometer reading of all 
battery cells. Add distilled 
water when necessary. 

14. Adjust clutch pedal for clear- 
ance and travel. Check hand 
brake, connections, and travel. 

15. Check oil pressure and ammeter 
charging rate. 

16. Check all other instruments. 

17. Check steering wheel for play. 

18. Inspect universal joints for 

19. Tighten brake connections and 
check brake-pedal travel, drain 
water from air or vacuum tanks, 
check master cylinder fluid 
level (hydraulic). 

20. Inspect radius rods. 

21. Test all lights, check reflec- 

22. Tighten all wheel nuts. 

23. Inflate tires and spare. Check 
front wheel toe-in. Adjust if 
necessary. Check tires for cuts 
or bruises. Repair immediately. 

24. Check tractor-trailer brake and 
light connections. 

25. Check tractor-trailer fifth- 

26. Road test truck. 



Date Truck Ho. 

1. Lubricate according to manufactur- 
er's recommendations. 

2. Check crankcase oil level. Remove 
and clean crankcase ventilator. 
Clean or replace oil filter car- 
tridge. Tighten oil-line connec- 

3. Check differential and transmis- 
sion lubricant level. Examine for 

4. Fill radiator with water. Check 
antifreeze if necessary. Tighten 
all hose connections. 

5. Check distributor points. Clean, 
adjust, and synchronize if neces- 
sary. Clean rotor and cap. (See 
manufacturer's manual for spacing.) 
Test coll and condenser. 

6. Clean and adjust spark plugs. 

(See manufacturer's manual for 

7. Check ignition timing and oll-dis- 
trlbutor wick and fill distributor 
grease cup. Adjust valves accord- 
ing to manufacturer's recommenda- 

8. Adjust fan and compressor belts. 
Replace belts when necessary. 

9. Tighten water-pump gland nut. Re- 
place pump packings when necessary. 
Tighten radiator hold-down bolts 

10. Clean fuel-pump 3tralner, bowl, 
and carburetor strainer. Test 
pump outlet pressure. 

11. Adjust carburetor (with vacuum gage 
if possible). Clean air cleaner, 
check choke adjustment, tighten 
manifolds, carburetor flange, 

and adjust throttle linkage. 

12. Inspect for gas, oil, or water 

Make Mileage 

leaks, examine with engine hot and 

13. Take hydrometer reading of all 
battery cells. Add distilled water 
when necessary. Clean and tighten 
connections. Tighten battery in 

14. Adjust clutch pedal for clearance 
and travel. Check hand brake, 
connections, and travel. 

15. Check oil pressure and ammeter 
charging rate. Adjust charging 
rate if necessary. 

16. Check all other instruments. 

17. Check steering wheel for play. 
Align front wheels and make all 
necessary adjustments. 

18. Inspect universal Joints for 

19. Tighten brake connections and 
check brake-pedal travel, check 
for leaks, check line pressure, 
drain water from air or vacuum 
tanks, check master cylinder fluid 
level (hydraulic). Adjust brakes. 

20. Inspect radius rods. 

21. Test all lights, check reflectors. 

22. Tighten all wheel nuts. Inspect 
differential carrier and cover 

23. Inflate tires and spare. Check 
front wheel toe-in. Adjust if 
necessary. Check tires for cuts 
or bruises. Repair immediately. 
Retread bald tires. 

24. Check tractor-trailer brake and 
light connections. 

25. Check tractor-trailer fifth wheel. 

26. Inspect springs, spring clips, and 

27. Road test truck; check governor. 

Upon completion of each 5,000 miles of serv ice, your truck should receive 
an inspection covering all 1,000-mile inspection items PLUS a few addi- 
tional ones. The latter are items which it is not necessary to check as 
frequently as every 1,000 miles, but they are highly important and 
should not be postponed beyond the 5,000-mile interval. The list above 
will serve as a guide or standard formg may be obtained as suggested on 
Page 8. Follow these instructions as in many items they differ from the 
1 ,000-mile instructions. 



W.tO felW I»S £ECTI W 

The inspection you make at each 15,000-mile interval completes the cycle 
of Preventive Maintenance Inspections. It includes a number of highly 
important items not covered at either the 1,000- or 5,000-mile intervals. 
After this inspection and when your truck has covered another 1,000 
miles, you start again to use the inspection form suggested on Page 8 and 
continue, as before, through another 15,000-inile cycle. 



The tires on your truck were designed and constructed to deliver far more 
service than the average truck owner has ever obtained. By observing 
a few simple rules of tire operation and maintenance, you can add 
thousands of miles to the life of every tire. Rubber is scarce. It is the 
patriotic duty of every truck owner to see that none is wasted through 
his neglect. 

Iteduee Speed. Speed is the 
greatest enemy of tire mileage. For 
maximum tire life no truck should 
ever be operated in excess of 40 
miles an hour and every effort should 
be made to operate at lower speeds. 

As speed goes up, excessive, damag- 
ing heat is generated and tire slip- 
page and vehicle sway increase. The 
result : precious rubber is scuffed off 
rapidly and is wasted. 

Don't Overload. Next to exces- 
sive speed, nothing ruins a tire faster 
than to force it to carry loads beyond 
the limits for which it was designed 
and built. An overloaded tire gen- 
erates terrific internal beat, which 
quickly weakens the tire body. 
Tread wear is rapid and uneven. 
For best results, have an experienced 
truck or tire man advise you on the 
maximum load your tires should 
carry. Do not attempt to make up 
for overloading by increasing the air 
pressure beyond the recommended 
inflation level. This will not work. 

^Assuming 30,000 miles is normal wear. 

rrcT or load o 


i.w — 

i — 

\ 1 " 


• , | 

«r Deere a te 
in Mileage 


Underloaded 30% 
Underloaded 20% 
Underloaded 10% 
Normally loaded 
Overload 10% 
Overload 20% 
Overload 30% 
Overload 40% 
Overload 50% 

+ 100% 
+ 61% 

+ 29 o| 

= s 

- 42% 

- S2% 

- 60% 










Inflate Properly. When a tire 
is overinflated or underinflated, it 
is subjected to abnormal strains for 
which it was not designed and wears 
rapidly. Underinflation has much 
the same effect as overloading. 

Overinflation causes the tire to “ride 
high” on the center of the tread, re- 
sulting in rapid wear on that area 
and considerably shortening the life 
of the tire. Be sure you know the 
correct pressure for your tires. 

Then have them checked often. 

Match Duals Properly. When dual tires are mismated, the larger 
tire carries most of the load and the smaller tire is just “along for the 
ride.” This produces fast tread wear on the overworked tire and the 
excess heat produced usually results in early failure. As a general rule 
to follow, tires which 
differ more than % inch 
in diameter should not be 
mounted on the same set 
of dual wheels. But, 
again, we recommend 
consulting an experienced 
truck or tire man for 
his specific recommenda- 
tions. The outer wheel 
should always get the 
newer tire (due to the 
crown of the road). Unequal inflation can cause the same condition. 

These Mechanical Defects in Your Truck 
Cun Rob You of Many Tire Miles 

Misalignment. One-half-inch misalignment grinds as much rubber 
off a truck tire as dragging it sideways 87 feet in every mile! Excessive 
toe-in and toe-out are the most frequent causes of misalignment and a 
complete check-up by a competent mechanic with proper equipment 
should be made every 1,000 miles. Faulty wheel alignment is usually 
responsible for “cupping,” a form of excessive tread wear that is easily 
recognized. Bent or sagging axles throw dual tires out of line, resulting 
in improper load distribution and abnormal tread wear on the shoulders 
of the inside dual tires. 

JtJ „ H? „ 

100% 80% 70% 60% 


Don't trust appearances. Use a 
gage and be sure it is a tested, 
accurate one. 


Faulty Brakes. Brakes out of adjustment or drums out of round 
cause excessive and spotty tire wear. On rail vehicles you can hear this 
condition, known as a “flat wheel.” If brakes are not properly equalized, 
tests show that % inch of rubber can be ground off in one stop, even at 
moderate speeds. 

Otunaged Biins. Rims with bent or damaged 
flanges do not permit the tire to seat itself properly. 

This condition results in excessive chafing and early 
failure in the bead area of the tire. Faulty rim 
equipment should be replaced at once to save rubber. 

Bepair Small Cuts and Bruises at Once. In normal times, 
when rubber was plentiful, little was done, as a rule, about small tread 
cuts and bruises. During the emergency it will pay you to watch for 
them and repair them at once. A small cut — even though it does not go 
entirely through the fabric — lets in dirt, water, and other foreign mate- 
rial. The constant flexing action of the tire as it revolves progressively 
increases the size of the cut until the tire is beyond repair. 

Betreading Saves Bubber. It is real conservation as well as 
economy to get your tires retreaded just as soon as the original non-skid 
design is worn smooth. You actually waste rubber when you run a tire 
to the fabric because in most 
instances these tires cannot be 
retreaded and the rubber remain- 
ing in the sidewalls and tire body 
is no longer usable except for re- 
claiming. If you are eligible 
under the Tire Rationing Regula- 
tions apply for retreading in time 
and save all the rubber possible. 

Use Special Caution 
in Hot Weather 

Heat is the archenemy of rubber. When generated in a tire by speed, 
wheel misalignment, improper inflation — or excessive friction from any 
cause — it cuts tire life tremendously. In hot weather, it is especially 
important to reduce speed, be sure your wheels are in alignment, and in 


Everyday Driving Rules to Save Rubber 

He Patriotiel Start now to put and keep your truck in good condi- 
tion. Follow the suggestions in this booklet. They are easy to do, once 
the habit is formed, and time-proved in helping to make trucks and tires 
last longer. 

TruckM have been known to run a million miles or more ! 

Tires have gone over 100,000 miles! 

Certainly, these are unusual records, but with care y our truck and tires 
can be made to last longer. 

Start IV owl Adopt the suggestions you have read here. 

1. Start slowly. 

2. Avoid bad roads. 

3. Avoid “scuffing” curbs in 

4. Drive slowly. 

5. Turn corners and take 


curves slowly. 
6. Stop slowly. 

7. Guard inflation. 

IT’S UP TO YOU . . . 

“Keep ’Em Rolling — Longer! ” 



To Keep ’Em Rolling Longer 

Realizing that motor trucks are vital to our 
national transportation welfare, that the existing 
supply is all but irreplaceable, and that every 
extra mile each truck can be made to serve in 
safety is a direct help to the war effort ... I 
hereby pledge that 1 will regard it as niy patri- 
otic duty to do all in my power to prolong tbe 
life of any truck in my ownership or care. 

1 will cooperate in a Preventive Maintenance 

I will do my part to see that frequent mechanical 
inspections are made and that all necessary 
adjustments and minor repairs are promptly 
taken care of to prevent major repairs, with 
consequent waste of parts and materials. 

I will see that my truck is driven properly to 
avoid accidental damage, excessive tire wear, and 
gasoline waste. 

( Signed ) 

This booklet, prepared by the Vehicle Main- 
tenance Section, Division of Motor Transport, 
Office of Defense Transportation, should 
serve as a guide to every truck owner, opera- 
tor, and mechanic in the proper maintenance 
of America’s trucks. 

Every American should realize that serious 
failures in our transportation system may not 
cost the lives ordinarily lost in highway acci- 
dents, but may cost the lives of whole com- 
panies of men at the front because they were 
not supplied with the implements of war nec- 
essary to protect themselves. A breakdown 
of the transportation system of any country 
at war may easily cost that country the war. 
Ours must not break down. Do your part to 
keep America’s trucks rolling! 


America needs every extra mile of service that can be 
got from its existing supply of motor trucks and tires. 


As a truck owner, driver, or mechanic, it is your patriotic duty to act NOW. 
Read the suggestions herein and start today on a definite plan to help. 



5 § 

Washington, D. C. 

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America's trucks : keep 'em rolling. 

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