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Historic, Archive Document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 




UNITED STATES 

DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 
LIBRARY 



Reserve 

BOOK NUMBER A96.49 

P692 


5. P. 1.-112^ 


. 

Issued September 26, 1914. 

// 


United States Department of Agriculture, 




BUREAU OF PLANT INDUSTRY^ 

Office of Congressional Seed Distribution. 
WASHINGTOr^D. C. 


3 


DISTRIBUTION OF TULIP AND NARCISSUS 


BULBS IN 1914 




DIRECTIONS FOR PLANTING. 


The bulbs sent herewith are of two kinds — (1) tulip and (2) nar- 
cissus. (Figs. 1 and 2.) 

These bulbs should be iDlanted immediately in light, rich soil that 
has been dug to a depth of at least 10 inches. The tulip bulbs should 
be set 5 inches apart and d inches deep and the narcissus bulbs about 
10 inches apart and 5 inches deep. 



Fig, 1. — Bulb of tulip. 



Fig. 2. — Bulb of narcissus. 


1 


If they are to be grown in pots or window boxes, light, rich soil 
should be used. Place 1 to 2 inches of cinders or broken pots in the 
bottoms of the pots or boxes to insure good drainage. After plant- 
^^§5 place the pots or boxes out of doors and cover them with about 4 
inches of ashes or sand ; or they may be placed in a dark, cool room 
or cellar for a few weeks until the bulbs have formed a quantitv 

60791° — 14 




2 


TULIP AND NARCISSUS BULBS. 


of roots. They may then be brought into the light and heat for | 
flowering. Keep the soil well moistened, but avoid overmoistening, | 
for if kept too wet the bulbs will decay. | 

CULTIVATION. 

If planted in beds the surface of the soil should be loosened after 
each rain and the bed kept free from weeds. In the late fall or 
early winter months it is well to cover the beds with a light mulch | 
of straw or leaves to prevent injury to the young roots from the alter- j 
nate freezing and thawing of the soil. The bulbs are quite hardy 1 
and are not injured by severe cold if the soil is well drained. 

LIFTING AND DIVIDING. 

Tulip and narcissus plants are perennial, and if given proper care ' 
and grown under suitable soil and climatic conditions will increase 
and multiply from year to year. The bulbs may remain in the 
ground two or three years, or until the clumps begin to crowd. After ' 

blossoming in the spring, from four to six weeks should elapse to 
allow the foliage to die partially down, when the bulbs may be lifted 
Avith a spade or fork. Shake the soil from the roots and store the 
bulbs in a cool, shady place where they will ripen and cure. When 
the old leaves and roots are thoroughly dry they may be easily rubbed i 

off and the clusters of bulbs divided. The bulbs may then be planted ' 

in the same manner as the original bulbs. In this way the stock may 
be increased in a few years. The plants succeed best in a sandy soil I 
and a moist climate. i 

NATURALIZING THE NARCISSUS. 

The narcissus often becomes naturalized when planted in the sod I 
or partial shade, where it will continue to grow, blossom, and multi- 
ply for many years without further attention. Simply make a small 
hole in the soil 5 or 6 inches deep, insert the bulb pointed end up, i 

press the soil over the top, and nature will do the rest. For natural- | 

izing, avoid planting in roAvs or rigid geometrical figures. A good 
plan is to scatter the bulbs like seed and plant Avhere they fall. This 
method of planting is extensively followed in the home grounds and 
parks of England and other countries in Europe. In portions of 
North Carolina, on large estates along the James River in Virginia, 
and in old gardens in New England, narcissuses that Avere planted 
over half a century ago are still groAving Augorously and every spring 
produce beautiful displays of blossoms. 

VARIETIES. 

Several hundred A-arieties of both tulip and narcissus are listed in 
the catalogues of florists and seedsmen. Narcissus is the botanical 
name for the genus of Avhich the daffodil and the jonquil are species. 


TULIP AND NARCISSUS BULBS. 


3 



The narcissus with large trumpets and flat leaves is commonly 
called the daffodil. Jonquils have glossy, dark-green, very narrow, 
three-cornered, or rushlike leaves. Most of the intermediate forms 
are hybrids. New varieties are originated by growing bulbs from 
seed resulting from crossing one type with another. This is a slow 
process, as several years are required to produce a mature bulb from 
seed. 


Fig. 3. — Blossom of tulip. 

DESCRIPTION OF VARIETIES. 

A brief description of the Holland bulbs included in the congres- 
sional distribution follows. 

TULIPS. 

Artus. Single, early, bright deep scarlet. 

Chrysoloea. Single, early, very large, widely opened flower. Color 
a pure golden yellow. 



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TULIP AND NARCISSUS BULBS. 


CoTTACJE Maid. A sing’le early tulip with a large pink and white 
blossom. 

Duchess de Parma. A single early tulip of blended orange and red 
color. 

I\osE Gins DE Lin. One of the finest dAvarf earl}^ tulips. Color rose, 
fleshed AAuth pink. A splendid tulip for forcing or bedding. 



Fig. 4. — Blooms of Emperor (a), Barrii Conspicuus ih), and Poeticus Ornatus (c), repre- 
senting the three principal types of narcissus, with large, medium, and small crowns or 
trumpets. 


NARCISSUSES. 

Poeticus Ornatus (pheasant’s-eye or poet’s narcissus; the true 
narcissus). Blossoms pure white, perianth Avith red, flat, 
saucer-shaped cup or crown. Very fragrant. 

Barrii Conspicuus. Large soft-yelloAV perianth; short or interme- 
diate form of cup, edged Avith orange scarlet. 

Emperor. Pure golden yellow, very large, with immense trumpets. 
Empress. Pure Avhite jierianth with a large rich-yellow trumpet. 

WHERE DUTCH BULBS ARE GROWN. 

Tulips and narcissuses, as Avell as hyacinths, are known generally 
as Dutch bulbs, because the growing and marketing of these bulbs 
is one of the principal industries of the Netherlands. Bulbs are 
also grown extensively in southern France, in England, Ireland, and 
the island of Guernsey. Most of the bulbs sold by florists and seeds- 
men in the United States are imported directly from the Nether- 
lands, the annual importations amounting to nearly a million dollars 
in value. These bulbs can be propagated and grown successfully 
along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts and in the region of the Great 
Lakes, but owing to the cost of labor only limited areas have been 



TULIP AXD NARCISSUS BULBS. 


5 


j^lanted. The largest areas devoted to bulb growing on a commer- 
cial scale in this country are to be found in the vicinity of Ports- 
mouth and Richmond, Ya., Xewbern, X. C., Bellingham, Y^ash., 
and Santa Cruz, Cal. A single grower near Portsmouth, Ya., has 
65 acres in narcissuses, and during the blooming seasons ships daily 
2 tons or more of blossoms to eastern markets. Comparative tests on 
the trial grounds of this Department indicate that American-grown 
tulip bulbs are freer from disease and blossom from five to seven 
days earlier than the same varieties imported from Europe; also, 
that the flowers from Bellingham-grown bulbs are on longer stems 
and of better color and quality than those from foreigm- grown bulbs. 

In order to encourage the growing of Dutch bulbs in this country 
on a commercial scale and to provide American-grown bulbs of supe- 
rior quality for congressional distribution, the Department of Agri- 
culture has established a bulb-propagating garden near Bellingham. 
lYash., where the conditions of soil and climate are similar to those 
in the Xetherlands. Bulletin Xo. 28 of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, entitled “ Experiments in Bulb Growing at the 
United States Bulb Garden at Bellingham,” by P. H. Dorsett, issued 
Xovember 11, 1913, gives in considerable detail the results of the 
work at Bellingham up to that date. This bulletin can be obtained 
without cost upon application to the Secretary " ‘ ‘ re. 



Agronomist in Charge. 


Approved : 

IYm. a. Taylor, 

Chief of Bureau. 

August I, 1911. 


WASHINGTOX : GOVERX.MEXT PRIXTIXG OFFICE : 1914