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Full text of "Citizenship [with bibliography], prepared under direction of chief of staff; Nov. 30, 1928."

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No. 2000-25 ' ) WASHINGTON, November 30, 1928. 


Prepared under direction of tlie 
Chief of Staff 

This manual supersedes Manual of Citizenship Training 

The use of the publication "The Constitution of the United States, " by Harry 
Atwood, is by permission and courtesy of the author. 

The source of other references is shown in the bibliography 



SECTION I. Introduction 1-7 

n. Mission of course 8-11 

m. Time allotted 12 

rV. Method of instruction 13-20 




National defense 1 

Citizenship training 2 

Individual initiative 3 

Foundation of citizenship 4 

Social phase of citizenship 5 

Economic phase of citizenship 6 

Philosophy of American Government 7 

1. National defense. — Under the national defense act as amended 
in 1920. the War Department, among its many other duties, is 
charged with the task of recruiting and training the young men of 
our Nation through enlistments in the Regular Army, voluntary en- 
listment in the Reserve Officers' Training Corps of high schools, 
colleges, universities, and in the 30-day training period in citizens' 
military training camps throughout the nine corps areas of the 
United States. The combined average yearly strength of these 
various units approximates some 260,000 young men between the 
110BS4'— 38 1 

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ages of 16 and 25 years, the most critical period in the determina- 
tion of their real value as citizens of our country. 

It is. therefore, essential that the training of these young men 
embody, with their instruction in military science, at least a basic 
course in the science of government and the privileges, duties, and 
responsibilities of the individual citizen, in order that they may be 
returned to civilian life better equipped as the defenders of the insti- 
tutions of our Government in time of peace as well as in time of war. 

2. Citizenship training. — Training in citizenship is the most 
vital of all subjects to that nation whose system of government, 
security of property, and full power to express individual initiative 
are based upon the intelligence, education, and character of each 
individual citizen. 

3. Individual initiative. — Individual initiative is the product 
of slow progress in the development of the idea and ideals of self- 
goveinment. It was cherished in the minds of the early Germanic 
tribes, transmitted by them in the fifth century to the conquered 
British Isles, there developed and finally transferred in principle 
to the shores of America 300 years ago. 

From the landing of the first settlers through the slow and perilous 
years of colonial development, the struggles of the Revolutionary 
days, the hardships and privations following the adoption of our 
Constitution, the winning of the Great West, the fight to save our 
Union, and the tremendous accomplishments in the development of 
agricultural and industrial resources, individual initiative, coupled 
with community cooperation, has been a determining factor, a spur 
to our achievements, and a guaranty to our national security. 

The protest of the Colonies against usurpation of the rights of 
citizens, the Declaration of Independence, the Revolutionary War, 
the writing and adoption of the Constitution of the United States, 
and the ever-increasing development in population, industry, wealth, 
and security, denoting the achievements of the United States, would 
not have been possible lacking the spirit of individual initiative and 
the talent for self-government. The United States worked out its 
own destiny by the simple process of hard labor inspired with the 
knowledge of full opportunity in the exercise of individual ability, 
and sure reward and protection in the possession of the fruits of 
their labor. 

4. Foundation of citizenship. — In any instruction in citizenship 
productive of lasting results, there must be woven into the study the 
story of the faith, sacrifice, service, and achievements of the pioneers 
of America from the landing of the Pilgrims to the settlement of the 


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Great West and the development of our vast national resources. 
This story, pregnant with hope, faith, courage, and the will to work, 
is the rock foundation upon which to build the structure of citizen- 
ship in the youth of to-day that the future may be assured in per- 
petuity of the institutions, principles, ideals, and traditions the 
development of which has made the United States great among the 
nations of the world. 

A study of the census reports of the United States, particularly 
during the past 50 years, reveals a condition that to every thinking 
man and woman is fraught with grave danger to the continuation 
and maintenance of our constitutional form of government and the 
blessings of liberty which we enjoy. We must be prepared to recog- 
nize this situation and find the solution of the problem. 

6. Social phase of citizenship. — As the result of the changing 
life stream of America, there has arisen one of the greatest prob- 
lems of our national life. Up to 30 years ago approximately 90 per 
cent of all immigration to America was of Anglo-Saxon origin, that 
race of people which has been working out the problem of self- 
government for nearly 2,000 years. Due to the remarkable impetus 
given to industrial development following 1890, opportunity for 
employment was offered and every inducement made to secure the 
immigration of European common labor, resulting in an immediate 
change in the type of immigration to America, by which central, 
eastern, and southern Europe increased their totals by over fifty 
times in the 50 years from 1870 to 1920. 

The history of the nations from which this later immigration 
originated is that of large cultural advantages in art. literature, and 
science, enjoyed by the ruling and favored minority, while oppres- 
sion, privation, and suffering were endured by the great majority of 
their subjects. 

This latter class, without knowledge of self-government, denied 
the opportunity for self-development, eagerly responding to the call 
of American opportunity, emigrated to our shores, here to enjoy 
full participation in the rights of American citizenship without a 
proper Understanding of the meaning of liberty or the nature and 
value of our free institutions, the very foundation of which is laid 
in intelligent and active participation in government by our in- 
dividual citizens. 

A course of instruction in citizenship to be effective must develop 
the social phase of citizenship and be particularly directed to the 
native and foreign-born youth, setting up a clear understanding of 

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this great problem of assimilation and amalgamation of the bloods 
of all nations into the virile life stream of America. 

6. Economic phase of citizenship. — The industrial achieve- 
ments of America have become the marvel of the world. Therefore 
the economic phase of citizenship must be developed with careful 
study and with all the wisdom we possess that we may assure con- 
tinued progress to the welfare, tranquillity, and enrichment of our 
own citizens and at the same time steer a safe course for our ship of 
state in the maelstrom of world envy engendered by a knowledge of 
our wealth and power. 

In the accomplishment of our industrial achievements the United 
States has reinvested its profits in the development of horsepower, 
automatic machinery, labor-saving devices, transportation, commu- 
nication, organization, administration, and, since the World War, 
has given further impetus to its accomplishments by sharing more 
and more the fruit of her industries with the wage-earning class. 
In the progress thus made the demand for brains to replace brawn 
has been an ever-increasing factor in the production of our goods as 
to quantity and quality in order to maintain our sense of well-being, 
high standards of living, and to meet the competition of the world 
at large. 

A course of instruction in citizenship must emphasize the neces- 
sity of the education of our masses as an economic measure in sup- 
plying the great need of modern industry. 

7. Philosophy of American Government. — The philosophy of 
government, as set up under our Constitution, finds its keynote in 
individualism as opposed to that misguided philosophy of govern- 
ment, collectivism, which makes the State paramount in its demands 
over the inalienable rights of its individual citizens. Incompre- 
hensible as it may seem, the political problems of America and of 
the world at large are embodied in this question of individualism as 
opposed to collectivism as the philosophy of government for the 
future development and welfare of nations. 

Emphasis must be laid upon the benefits and advantages accruing 
to each individual citizen of our country under the form of govern- 
ment set up as the supreme law of the land in the Constitution of the 
United States of America. 


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General purpose 

Knowledge, the safeguard of our Repubhc- 
Character building 

National defense 



8. General purpose. — This course in citizenship is designed to 
teach the fundamental principles upon which our Government is 
founded, including an insight into the social and economic elements 
upon which our civilization stands. Special emphasis is laid upon 
the meaning of "liberty," as interpreted by the founders of this 
Republic, and the larger relationship of the individual citizen to 
others and to his Government, defining loyalty and national respon- 
sibility in terms of citizenship, recognizing that an intelligent and 
informed people is a greater asset than are the unintelligent, unin- 
formed, or misinformed, and that no government can exist upon a 
plane higher than the moral character of its people. 

9. Knowledge, the safeguard of our Republic. — Because of 
the rapid increase in our population, largely made up of immigrants 
from all parts of the world, the tendency within the family and the 
school is to neglect the training of our youth in the knowledge of his 
Government and his individual responsibility. It can not be expected 
that foreign-born parents, lacking knowledge or inspiration of Ameri- 
can ideals, will be either fitted or inspired to give such instruction to 
their own children. 

The indifference or the neglect of native-born citizens concerning 
the training of their children to meet the responsibilities of citizen- 
ship is largely caused by lack of information and proper tinder- 
standing of the history, ideals, and underlying principles of our 
political institutions. 

The remarkable development of industry in America has caused 
a congestion of population in our large cities, creating social, eco- 
nomic, and political problems that materially affect the structure of 
our Government. 

The solution of the problems of citizenship lies largely in the edu- 
cation of the youth of America in the principles of representative 
government and their personal responsibility in perpetuating and 
improving her free institutions. 

10. Character building. — The ever-increasing wants as com- 
pared to the needs of humanity, the added individual burdens and 
problems of modern civilization, emphasizing material rather than 

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ethical and spiritual attainment, are tending to break down the 
character of our youth. 

It is the mission of this course to specially emphasize the moral 
aspects of citizenship — to build up home discipline, reverence for 
religion, and respect for constituted authority. 

11. National defense. — Education and training in citizenship 
form a vital part of national defense. It will be the mission of this 
course to interpret national defense through a broad and compre- 
hensive instruction in citizenship, stressing the responsibility of the 
individual citizen to become fully prepared for the defense of his 
country in any emergency that may arise, whether of domestic or 
foreign import, in peace or in war. 



Time allotted 12 

12. Time allotted. — In this course of citizenship adequate time 
will be allotted for instruction, arranged in a number of short periods 
of not more than 40 minutes' duration each, which may be supple- 
mented by addresses and travelogues illustrated with stereopticon 
slides, covering outstanding phases of American history, given to 
combined groups at such time and frequency as directed by the camp 
ctmnramider, uriiltb special reference to rainy-day schedules. 



Outlined topics 


Subject matter suggestive - 

Plan of instruction- 
Selection of instructors- 





Suggestions for instructors 18 

Supplemental instruction 19 

Efficiency 20 

13. Outlined topics. — This course will be given under a series 
of outlined topics briefly presented by the instructor, preceded by a 
few succinct historical statements bearing upon the development of 
our country. 

14. Questionnaire. — Brief questionnaires, containing a number 
of questions pertinent to the subject matter contained in each lesson, 
are given as an aid to the instructor in guiding the general discus- 
sions by the students. 



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15. Subject matter suggestive. — This course is not intended to 
teach the details of American history, but to give special emphasis 
to pertinent facts and principles associated with the foundation, 
development, and preservation of our Government as to its social, 
economic, and political phases. The instructors should briefly ex- 
plain the historical and psychological aspects to the various forms 

of government. ' 

The subject matter and illustrations are suggestive only and are 
given as guides in teaching the fundamental principles of govern- 
ment and citizenship. The instructor will make application of 
these principles in such a manner as to stimulate individual thinking, 
leaving it to the student to reach his own conclusions based upon the 

facts and situations discussed. 

18. Plan of instruction. — In the presentation of this course it 
is necessary for the instructor to give certain definite and concise 
information concerning the outstanding characteristics of our coun- 
try; the fundamental principles of our Government; the spirit and 
will to do by which it attained its present position; emphasizing the 
encouragement, assistance, and protection granted every individual 
citizen as guaranteed in our Constitution as the supreme law of the 
Nation; developing the idea of individual responsibility and intelli- 
gent participation in government as an economic necessity as well as 
an evidence of patriotism and loyalty to our country. 

The didactic method concerning facts of history, social changes, 
economic development, and basic principles of our Government will 
be used without discussion and without argument, special emphasis 
being given to the fact that the United States is a Republic, not a 


Group discussions will be led by the instructor covering the cardinal 
points of each lesson as outlined in the text, care being exercised to 
confine the discussion to the limits of the lesson. 

17. Selection of instructors. — There shall be designated a direc- 
tor of citizenship training for each Citizens' Military Training Camp. 
Under his supervision company officers carefully selected by the camp 
commander will act as instructors in this course. 

18. Suggestions for instructors. — Instructors are particularly 
cautioned to confine instruction and discussion in each study period 
not only to the lesson text but also to keep it within the scope of the 
general division (social, economic, political) to which that particular 
lesson is related. The tendency is to wander away into a discussion 
of all three phases of citizenship, because of the close interrelation- 
ship existing in- all the lessons. Clarity of instruction can be had 
only through close observance of this suggestion. 

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The instructor must use language simple enough to be readily 
understood by all. 

The text of these lessons is so arranged as to permit additional time 
for study and discussion when such opportunity is available through 
accommodation to rainy-day schedules. 

19. Supplemental instruction. — At the discretion of the camp 
commander, instruction may be supplemented by addresses given by 
selected speakers to the combined student body on subjects related to 

As a part of this course historic facts and brief statements taken 
from the speeches and writings of distinguished Americans may be 
projected on the screen immediately preceding the feature picture at 
all motion-picture shows. 

20. Efficiency. — To secure the most efficient results, the officers 
detailed as instructors should be thoroughly trained in the method of 
using the various studies in citizenship and the questionnaires. 

A refresher or normal course will be conducted in each camp for tho 
instruction of the designated instructors in subject matter and method 
of presentation, with the view of having the classes in citizenship 
faced by instructors as alert, competent, and as confident as are the 
platoons in the military drill. 




SECTION I. Lesson 1. — The American citizen 21-30 

II. Lesson 2. — Independent relationships 31-44 

III. Lesson 3. — Character, the greatest asset of 

America 45-52 

IV. Lesson 4. — Great Americans and their achieve- 

ments 53-71 


V. Lesson 5. — Economic development of America 72-92 

VI. Lesson 6. — Individual initiative 93-102 


VII. Lesson 7. — Liberty and independence 103-112 

VIII. Lesson 8. — The purpose of government 113-117 

IX. Lesson 9. — Representative go vernment 1 18-135 

X. Lesson 10. — Personal responsibility 136-144 


XI. Lesson 11. — Self-preservation 145-158 

XII. Lesson 12. — The American flag 159-172 



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Definition of citizenship 21 

Origin of citizenship 22 

Source of American citizenship 23 

Acquisition of American citizenship 24 


Immigration and naturalization. 

No dual allegiance 525 

Dual citizenship 26 

Right of suffrage 27 

Guaranties as to person and property 28 

Obhgations of citizenship 29 

1 am an American 30 

21. Definition of citizenship. — Citizenship is that membership 
in a nation which includes full civil and political rights, subject to 
such limitations as may be imposed by the government thereof. 

22. Origin of citizenship. — Citizenship as we understand it 
to-day is the result of centuries of social, economic, and political 
experiments, in which improvement in human relations has slowly 
developed the idea of the benefits of governmental rules and restric- 
tiens f«f the protection of the rights of persons and property. 

Ancient Greece was composed of a number of city states, each one inde- 
pendent of the other and conferring certain privileges upon its subjects. The 
greatest advantages of citizenship among these city states was conferred by 
the Athenians, limited, however, to native sons of native fathers and mothers, 
excluding from such privileges foreigners and slaves The Athenian idea of 
citizenship was philosophical rather than practical 

It was loft to the Romans, in succeeding centuries, to develop the more 
practical phases of citizenship, i.e., safety of the Republic, public service, stern 
simplicity, devotion to duty. 

Above all other duties and obligations was placed that of unselfish 
duty to the state It was this Roman virtue of loyalty to public duty, 
this devotion on the part of the citizen to the interest of the state, that, 
more than any other quality of the Roman character, helped to make 
Rome great. 
Roman citizenship was confined to a privileged class, native or adopted. 
In the Anglo-Saxon races there was slowly developed the idea and ideals 
of self-government and of individual worth, in contrast with the earlier Greek 
and Roman domination of the state over the individual 

Out of these experiments in government and human relations there has been 
evolved the ideals and principles of American citizenship. 


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23. Source of American citizenship. — The source of American 
citizenship is found in the Constitution and subsequent Federal 

24. Acquisition of American citizenship. — American citizen- 
ship is acquired in two ways: 

By birth. 

By naturalization. 

Birth. — For 150 years following the first settlement of the American 
Colonies their inhabitants were citizens and subjects of a foreign 

With the successful conclusion of tho Revolutionary War, termi- 
nating with the treaty of peace, 1783, all persons born in the United 
States before the Declaration of Independence could be regarded as 
American citizens. 

By the civil rights act of 1866 it was provided that — 

All persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, 
excluding Indians not taxed, are declared to be citizens of the United States. 

By the fourteenth amendment to the Constitution — 

All persons born or naturalized in the United States and subject to the juris- 
diction thereof arc citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they 

It has been decided by the Supreme Court of the United States 
that the children of domiciled aliens born in the United States are 
citizens under the fourteenth amendment. This is also true of the 
children of alien parents ineligible to citizenship through natural- 

Immigration and naturalization. — Under the Constitution, Con- 
gress is given the power over both immigration and naturalization. 
In order to determine their fitness to enter the United States, each 
immigrant, on his arrival, is subjected to a physical and mental 
examination by officers of the Public Health Service. 

Under the immigration act the following classes of persons are 
excluded from entering the United States: 

Paupers and persons likely to become a public charge. 
Professional beggars. 
Persons suffering from tuberculosis or other dangerous or 

loathsome contagious diseases. 
Persons physically or mentally so defective as to be unable to 
making a living. 



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Persons convicted of a crime or misdemeanor involving moral 

Women or girls imported for immoral purposes and persons 

aiding in their importation. 
Contract laborers — that is, those induced to migrate by offers 
or promise of employment or by agreement, except artists 
and professional men. 
Children under 16 years of age unaccompanied by their 

With certain exceptions no alien ineligible to citizenship is 
admissible to the United States. 
All aliens brought into the country in violation of the law are, if 
possible, immediately sent back to the country whence they came on 
the vessel bringing them, at the expense of the vessel owners. 

There is also a heavy fine upon the transportation company or 
vessel owner for unlawfully introducing immigrants into the United 


Because of the great influx of nonassimilable people, which tended 
to lower American standards of living, and to better develop a homo- 
genous body politic. Congress, in 1923, passed the immigration 

restriction act. 

The abnormal immigration to America is shown in the census 
returns of 1900, 1910, and 1920, as follows: 

1000 3,687,564 

1910 8,795,386 

1920 5,735,81 1 

The law governing immigration provides that the annual quota 
from each country until July 1, 1927, is 2 per cent of the number of 
foreign-born persons of such nationality resident in continental 
United States as shown by the 1890 census, but the minimum quota 
of any nationality shall be 100. 

The quota for each fiscal year thereafter will be based on a total 
immigration of 150,000. 

The annual quota of any nationality for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1927, 
and for each fiscal year thereafter, shall be a number which bears the same 
ratio to 150,000 as the number of inhabitants in continental United States in 
1920 having that national origin (ascertained as hereinafter provided in this 
section) bears to the number of inhabitants in continental United States in 
1920, but the minimum quota of any nationality shall be 100. — Immigration 
laws, 1927. 


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Under the Articles of Confederation the power of naturalization 
was in the States, thereby creating confusion through the lack of 
uniformity in conferring citizenship. 

The authority for naturalization is to be found in the Constitution 
and Federal laws. 

The Constitution has accordingly, with great propriety * * * authorized 
the General Government to estabhsh a uniform rule of naturalization through- 
out the United States. — Madison. 

Constitution, Article I, section 8, paragraph 4, fourteenth amendment. 

Naturalization Laics. 

Under the Constitution two methods of naturalization have grown 

(1) By the general act of Congress conferring citizenship upon a 
whole class of persons, such as tribes of Indians, and the inhabitants 
of a new territory, like Hawaii, acquired by the United States. 

(2) The general and more usual method is prescribed by the 
Revised Statutes, which requires the fulfillment of certain conditions 
before final admission into citizenship. 

R. S. 3S1. Oath renouncing foreign allegiance and to support constitution and 
laws. — He shall, before he is admitted to citizenship, declare on oath in open 
court that he will support the Constitution of the United States, and that he 
absolutely and entirely renounces and abjures all allegiance and fidelity to any 
foreign prince, potentate. State, or sovereignty, and particularly by name to the 
prince, potentate. State, or sovereignty of which he was before a citizen or 
subject; that he will support and defend the Constitution and laws of the 
United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic, and bear true faith and 
allegiance to the same. — June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, sec. 4. 34 Stat. 596. 

R. S. 382. Evidence of residence, character, and attachments to principles of 
Constitution; evidence of witnesses. — It shall be made to appear to the satis- 
faction of the court admitting any ahen to citizenship that immediately pre- 
ceding the date of his application he has resided continuously within the United 
States, five years at least, and within the State or Territory where such court 
is at the time held one year at least, and that during that time he has behaved 
as a man of good moral character, attached to the principles of the Constitution 
of the United States, and well disposed to the good order and happiness of the 
same. In addition to the oath of the applicant, the testimony of at least two 
witnesses, citizens of the United States, as to the facts of residence, moral 
character, and attachment to the principles of the Constitution shall be 
required, and the name, place of residence, and occupation of each witness shall 
be set forth in the record. — June 29, 1906, ch. 3592, sec. 4, 34 Stat 596. 

25. No dual allegiance. — Every alien should become a citizen 
in order that he may vote and hold office, and in all ways take an 
active part in developing, building and maintaining the Govern- 
ment — national and local — that protects him. 



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There can be no divided allegiance here. Any man who says he is an Ameri- 
can, but something else also, isn't an American at all. Wo have room for but 
one flag, the American flag, and this excludes the red flag, which symbohzes 
all wars against liberty and civilization, just as much as it excludes any 
foreign flag of a nation to which We are hostile. 

We have room for one soul loyalty and that is loyalty to the American 
people. — Roosevelt. 

26. Dual citizenship. — The Supreme Court declares that there 
are two kinds of citizenship. State and National. 

Citizens of the United States residing in any State enjoy the 
rights of both State and United States citizenship. 

In the protection thereof we look to the National Government if 
the source of such rights lies in the Constitution and laws of the 
United States; and to the State government if such rights are based 
upon the constitution and laws of the State. 

Dual citizenship does not imply a divided allegiance. While a 
State commands allegiance of its citizens the paramount allegiance 
is to the Union. 

Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable. — Webster. 

27. Right of suffrage. — Under the Constitution, the National 
Government confers American citizenship, but it is left to the 
States to determine who may vote at both its own and national 

Constitution, Article I, section 8, paragraph 4; fourteenth and fifteenth 

In America public opinion is the ultimate force of Government. 
It is the expression of the mind and conscience of the whole Nation, 
without respect to sectional or partisan alliances. 

Under the Constitution, voting is the only means provided for the 
expression of public opinion — it is the exercise of the will of the 
citizen in the protection of his rights. 

28. Guaranties as to person and property. — The United 
States is composed of 48 sovereign States, each State having its indi- 
vidual constitution and laws. Yet no State may discriminate against 
the rights and privileges of the citizen of any other State as to person 
or property. 

Among these guaranties are — 

Opportunity for education and individual improvement. 
Unrestricted possession of property. 

Joint rights to interstate commerce, communication, and trans- 
Public utilities. 


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Freedom of residence and choice of occupation. 
Care or protection on the high sens or abroad through passport 
privileges and international law. 
29. Obligations of citizenship. — Active citizenship is gained 
only by becoming an enfranchised citizen of a State. This carries 
with it the obligation of a clear understanding of the principles of 
government and the courage to demand that these principles be not 

Andrew Jackson said that every good citizen makes his country's honor his 
own. and not only cherishes it as precious, but sacred. 

Lincoln declared: "1 must stand by anybody that stands right; stand with 
him while he is right; and part with him when he is wrong." 

It is essential that the individual citizen — 

Exercise his right of franchise — vote — as his paramount duty 

at all elections. 
Uphold the Constitution as the one assurance of the security 

and perpetuation of the free institutions of America. 
Practice self-government to assure good government for all. 
Respect the rights of others, to assure the enjoyment of his 

Contribute to the maintenance of his Government by the pay- 
ment of taxes. 
Obey the law as the first essential to law enforcement. 
Place service to country above service to self. 
Conform his conduct to the best interests of society. 
The opportunities and privileges of the American citizen are lim- 
ited only by his individual ability, his personal habits, and con- 
formity to necessary legal regulations. 
It is your obligation to exercise — 

Care in your choice of occupation. 
Diligence in preparation for your task. 
Thrift to insure advancement and prosperity. 
Judgment in selection of companions. 
Integrity, honor, initiative, self-reliance, self-control. 
80. I am an American. — 'T am an American" is a challenge 
to the highest ideals and aspirations of mankind; to self-sacrifice 
and devotion: to loyalty and patriotism; to joyful work and 
courageous achievement; to magnanimity and charity to all and 
malice to none; as we seek to uphold and perpetuate the principles 
of our great Republic. 

1 hve an American; 1 shall die an American; and 1 intend to perform the 
duties incumbent upon me in that character to the end of my career. 1 mean 



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to do this with absolute disregard of personal consequences. What are the 
personal consequences? What is the individual man, with all the good or 
evil which may betide him, in comparison with the good or evil which may 
befall a great country, and in the midst of great transactions which concern 
that country's fate? Let the consequences be what they will. 1 am careless 
No man can suffer too much, no man fall too soon, if he suffer, or if he fall 
ill the defense of the liberties and Constitution of his country — Daniel Webster. 
In the days of the Caesars "1 am a Roman citizen" was a proud exultant 
declaration. It was protection. It was more — it was honor and glory. 
Twenty centuries of advancing civilization have given to the declaration "1 
am an American" a higher and nobler place. It stands to-day in the forefront 
of earthly titles. It proclaims a sharing in the greatest opportunities. It is a 
trumpet call to the highest fidelity. It is the diploma of the world, the highest 
which humanity has to bestow — Judge Brewer of the Supreme Court. 


Define "citizenship." 

Describe the development of the idea of "citizenship." 

What is the source of "American citizenship"? 

How is "American citizenship" acquired? 

What is the status of the children of domiciled aliens born in the 

United States? 
Who has power over immigration and naturalization? 

To what examination is the immigrant subjected on his arrival? 

What classes of persons are excluded from the United States by 

the Immigration Act? 
What disposition is made of immigrants belonging to the 

restricted classes? 

To whom is the execution of the Immigration Laws entrusted ? 

What was the significance of the immigration to America by the 

census returns of 1900, 1910, and 1920? 

What has Congress done to limit immigration? Why? 

What is the source of the authority for naturalization? 

Explain the provision for naturalization under the Articles of 
Confederation. Under the Constitution. 

What is the attitude of the United States toward "dual 

Explain the meaning of "dual citizenship." 
What is the function of "public opinion"? 
Who has power over the right of suffrage? 
What guaranties, as to person and property are provided the 

citizen by the Federal Government? 
Name several obligations of citizenship. 
Why ought an alien become a citizen? 
Why should every citizen vote? 


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Development of civilization — — — 31 

Mutual relationships 32 

Community relationships 33 

Coordinated action. 
National relationships 34 

Articles of Confederation. 


Interstate commerce. 
International relationships — . — — 35 

The State Department. 
Beneficial to person and property 36 

Law: Uniform acceptance and observance. 
Beneficial to production 37 

Accumulation of capital. 

Relations between management and men 

Results in progress 38 

A Nation of specialists 39 

Interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer 40 

The telephone 
Public utilities 41 

Beneficial to peace 42 

CosmopoUtan character of population 43 

Full privileges of citizenship. 

Resultant duties. 

Class consciousness. 

Immigrant not all problem. 
Our opportunity 44 

31. Development of civilization. — Civilization had its begin- 
ning in the establishment of the family, then in the grouping of 
families, tribes, states, and nations. 

Through these various stages there was developed a crude order 
of society based primarily upon the will of an outstanding individual 
with power to enforce that will by control of physical forces and 
the means of livelihood. Thus was established the basis of society, 
imperfect in its form, inadequate in its results, yet containing the 
essential elements for refinement and progress, viz, social intercourse, 
protection, and advantages. 



TM 3000-35 


32. Mutual relationships. — In the beginning, lacking means of 
communication and transportation and confining efforts principally 
to the production of mere necessities of life, individuals and groups 

lived largely independently of each other. 

With increasing wants, the result of enlightened intellect, with 
increasing facilities in transportation and communication, with devel- 
opment of ability for invention and improvement, independence gave 
way to interdependence to such a degree that to-day the welfare of 
every individual is woven into the fabric of modern society. 

33. Community relationships. — If you destroy the dam builded 
by a colony of beavers, they set about its reconstruction, using the 
identical plan, method, and tools common to their species throughout 
all generations. Animal intelligence contains no quality that enables 
improvement beyond the inherited abilities or instincts of its kind. 
Herein hes the marked distinction between the highest type of animal 
and the lowest type of human intelligence. 

Man possesses the ability to profit by the accomplishments of the 
past, to improve, and to develop. Upon this ability the development 
of past civilizations has depended. Upon this same ability the civili- 
zations of the present and future are predicated. Out of this have 
grown community relationships established in ordered society upon 
the law of reason, supplanting the law of will, and ever increasing in 
its benefits to all, with the growing understanding of the rights and 
worth of the individual member of society. 

Coordinated action. — Coordinated group action has strength in so 
far as its members work together for the attainment of a common 
purpose — the subordination of self for the good of all. Only by 
helping others can we help ourselves. 
"He profits most who serves best." 

In the development of her strength, wealth, and accomplishments 
America is founded upon the establishment of successive communities 
bound together individually and collectively, by interdependent re- 
lationships created and coordinated in home, school, church, and 
local self-government, as expressed in town meetings in which each 
individual member contributed his part to that greatest of all forces 
by which the character of the people of our Nation is sustained and 

developed — pub lie opinion. 

34. National relationships. — In the development of our colo- 
nies the need of protection for person and property, of cooperation in 
the development of resources, of exchange of products and labor in 
the creation of comforts and wealth, of consolidated action in resist- 
ing oppression and establishing rights, created a national relation- 

110834' —28 2 


Flic 8000-29 


ship binding communities and States in a federation designed for 
the welfare of all. 

Articles of Confederation. — Under the Articles of Confederation, 
trade rivalries separated the new States from each other. There was 
an emphasis of State over National interests: One State lost its sup- 
ply of cheap manufacturing material; industries suffered from want 
of coal, factories from lack of material, markets were limited; eco- 
nomic barriers were set up, no cooperation existed, exclusiveness 
prevailed. . , 

Constitution. — Grown now to a union of 48 States, working in a 
spirit of harmony and cooperation, restricted yet greatly benefited 
by our Constitution and statutes, we have come to be in point of 
wealth, attainment, and influence one of the outstanding nations of 
the world. 

Under our Constitution the departments of government are set up 
for the express purpose of coordination and cooperation for the gen- 
eral welfare of the Nation. 

Interstate commerce. — Notwithstanding the sovereignty of each 
of the States composing our Union, great freedom is enjoyed as to 
residence, travel, trade, and property rights among their citizens 
which has developed an interstate commerce of tremendous volume 
and worth. , 

Commerce among the States embraces navigation, intercourse, communica- 
tion, travel, the transit of persons, transmission of messages by telegraph. — 
Justice Harlan. 

Railways, air transports, postal service, telephones, telegraph, ra- 
diograms, help to unite the Nation by an exchange of goods or in- 
formation, so that each citizen may know and profit by what the 
others are doing. 

The Interstate Commerce Commission contributes to the develop- 
ment of "a more perfect union," which is an active association for 
cooperative effort. This commission touches the various interests 
of all of the people. Its benefits of regulations are in the interest of 
public necessities. It provides for a quick settlement of labor dis- 
putes affecting interstate trade and transportation, the control of 
which is lodged in the Federal Government. ' 

35. International relationships. — In the development of those 
international relations which are in accord with the principles of 
interdependence, each nation must assume a larger responsibility and 
take a more active part in world affairs. 

Due to the remarkable progress of civilization, isolation is no 
longer possible. International problems developing from ever- 



TU 3000-25 


changing economic and political conditions demand consideration 
and application of the principles of interdependent relationships as 
the means of securing the general welfare of mankind. 

I demand that the Nation do its duty and accept the responsibility that must 
go with greatness. — Roosevelt. 

The State Department. — The State Department is the "friendly 
relations department" of our Government; by treaties and diplo- 
matic negotiations beneficent relationships with foreign counties 
are secured and insured, establishing a spirit of accord and amity 
without which it would not be possible to carry on our part in world 
affairs to the good of all concerned. 

36. Beneficial to person and property. — The efficacy of our 
Constitution lies in the fact that it contains a statement of fundamen- 
tal purposes relating to human associations and plan for their accom- 
plishment, susceptible of such interpretation as to make them appli- 
cable to changing conditions. 

Among the purposes set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution 
are "domestic tranquillity" and "general welfare." The accomplish- 
ment of these purposes is based upon observance of the principles of 
interdependent relationships. 

Law: Uniform acceptance and observance. — The security of per- 
sons and property is one of the inherent rights of mankind. It is 
guarded and guided by statutory laws, uniform in their restrictions 
and benefits, so that every citizen is fully protected in his rights. 

Uniform laws are valuable in their benefits in proportion to uni- 
form acceptance and observance. May a man have complete personal 
liberty? May a man do as he pleases? He may provided he is not a 
member of organized society. To attempt such action as a citizen 
constitutes him an outlaw in such ratio as his independence interferes 
with the rights of others and breaks down the structure of govern- 
ment. AMaatii)iii©^,iig|B]atantlly(m-\«Hilli5iiffl a violation of the piiodpI@ 
of interdependent relationships. 

Experience has revealed the necessity for united action to assure 
the greatest protection to the individual. Neither in person nor 
property will the individual find security without the assistance of 
his neighbor, community. State, and Nation. The higher the value 
we place upon human life and welfare, and the greater our accumula- 
tion of property, the more we must rely upon interdependent rela- 
tionships based upon justice and inspired by mutual confidence and 
reciprocal endeavor. 

37. Beneficial to production. — Industry is essentially the sub- 
jection of natural forces — the manipulation of natural material to the 


M 2000-25 



uses of mankind; it brings into action the worker, the engineer, the 
inventor, the organizer, the administrator, the combined energies of 
whom are liberated and set in motion by finance. 

Accumulation of capital. — Thrift is the foundation stone of effec- 
tive economic interdependence. The individual must practice fru- 
gality, engage in hard work, and acquire the habit of wise spending — 
so living within his means as to enable a saving of a portion of the 
product of his labor. 

In industry wealth is the product of saving; it is secured in part 
by the elimination of waste and the corresponding conservation of 
materials and labor practiced by both individuals and groups, and 
saving or the accumulation of capital is as much the duty of the 
employee as of the employer. 

Relations between management and men. — To derive the great- 
est value from linieffdqpeniBEaitt re]ationsIii]p lastsc^n employer nnd 
employee there must be created a spirit of good will and coopera- 
tion in which there is a recognition of mutual worth and mutual 

The atmosphere surrounding the relationship between management 
and men must eliminate fear, apprehension, and uncertainty. Only 
by the establishment of mutual understanding, confidence, and respect 
can effective cooperation and teamwork be secured. That employee 
renders best service who has an intelligent understanding of the 
relation of his part to the whole. 

88. Results in progress. — Bound together by the ties of com- 
mon interest and mutual benefits, society has advanced from — 

The crude hieroglyphic to the printed page. 
The smoke signal of the Indian to the radio. 
The tallow candle to the electric light. 
The hollowed log canoe to the Leviathan. 
The ox-drawn prairie schooner to the airplane. 

89. A Nation of specialists. — We are a Nation of specialists 
because experience has taught us that greater benefits will accrue to 
one and all through each individual learning to do one thing well. 

The physician looks after our health. 
The teacher gives instruction. 
The farmer grows the grain. 
The lawyer attends to legal matters. 

Others specialize in providing all the comforts and conven- 
iences of home. 
No one citizen builds his own house, manufactures the plumbing 
equipment, generates the electricity, constructs the heating plant, or 



TiK 3000-25 

provides the fuel for its operation. He does not pave the street, put 
in his own waterworks, provide police and fire protection, establish 
his own school, church, hospital, or theater. 

40. Interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer. — Indi- 
vidual necessities, comforts, and conveniences as now enjoyed are the 
product of accumulated capital and labor, represented in modern 
organization, transportation, great factories, distant farms, tropical 
plantations, the trappers of the frozen northlands, tho fishermen of 
the seas, and delivered daily to our homes by an army of tradesmen 
who administer, to our wants and are in turn dependent upon us for 
their livelihood. 

The telephone. — No better illustration of interdependence can be 
found than in the story of that all-necessary convenience, the tele- 
phone) It is difficult to imagine the diversified labor, the problems 
of transportation, the world-wide accumulation of materials, and 
the tremendous outlay of capital required in the manufacture of 
this marvelous instrument which receives and transmits the human 
voice regardless of distance. 

Men toiling in the mica mines of India, in the platinum fields of 
the Ural Mountains, in the forests and jungles of far-off Asia, 
Africa, and South America, in the great forests of the Northwest, 
in the iron, copper, and lead mines, and the great steel works of the 
United States, produce the materials that go into the making of your 
telephone and the exchange controls. 

The following raw materials, gathered literally from the four 
corners of the world, are used: Platinum, gold, silver, copper, zinc, 
iron, steel, tin, lead, aluminum, nickel, brass, rubber, mica, silk, 
cotton, asphalt, shellac, paper, carbon. 

With the assembling of raw materials, and their fabrication in 
great factories into the completed instrument, there is added the 
work of organization and administration required in obtaining capi- 
tal, franchises, building lines and conduits, installation of switch- 
boards, and training personnel. Your telephone call to all points 
of the compass is made possible by these materials and the labor of 
nearly 1400,000 employees in the United States alone. 

41, Public utilities. — Public utilities corporations build great 
hydroelectric plants in one State for distribution of power to many. 
Coal, copper, iron ore are mined and transported to places of greatest 
advantage to industry. Railroad, telegraph, and telephone com- 
panies invest billions of dollars in properties and conduct their 
affairs to the benefit and profit of the Nation. Great dams are 
constructed and the desert lands of many States made fruitful by 


TM 2000-25 


the vast irrigation systems treated. Capital is consolidated and 
labor employed, farms enriched, cities builded, and our citizens 
bound together in one cooperative, prosperous, happy union by the 
magic power of interdependent relationships. 

Business. — Business, to insure success, must keep in closest touch 
with the ever changing affairs of social, economic, and political con- 
ditions. Vast sums of money are spent on new products, improved 
equipment, research laboratories, inventions, in creating new appe- 
tites and new markets. 

42. Beneficial to peace. — In America a degree of independence 
is developed out of which is born the idea in the minds of many 
that a citizen of the United States may be a law unto himself, re- 
taining, however, the disposition to regulate the other fellow. If 
he does not like the law he seeks a way to evade it, at the same time 
shouting vociferously over the increase of crime and the lessened 
influence of our courts. He demands the highest wages obtainable 
and complains at the prices he must pay for the product of his 
fellow laborer. He insists upon his right to independence and 
liberty, yet is ever ready to restrict such action on the part of others. 
That citizen who has not developed the spirit of cooperation, under- 
standing and tolerance is at war with his fellow man. 

The unity of good men is a basis on which the security of our internal peace 
and the establishment of our Government may safely rest. It will always 
prove an adequate rampart against the vicious and disorderly. — Washington. 

Unselfishness. — Every American citizen must guard against the 
spirit of selfishness, the inordinate desire for material gain, the 
temptation to live beyond his means, and the tendency to find the 
easiest way to obtain the most in satisfying his constantly increasing 

Honesty — individual and collective, national and international — 
inspiring confidence wherein there is neither room for trickery nor 
unfair practices is the basis of the principle of interdependent rela- 
tionships. Such honesty rests not so much upon legal rights as 
upon the Golden Rule. 

43. Cosmopolitan character of population. — The United States 
in her philosophy of self-determination emphasizes the ideas and 
ideals of human rights and human associations. In the fulfillment 
of this policy she opened wide her gates to the peoples of the earth, 
inviting them to share with her the blessings of liberty. 

Somewhat less than half the racial stock of America's 108,000,000 
white inhabitants are of British blood. Of the 95,000,000 whites, 



TM 2000-2J 

in 1920, 14,000,000 were born in foreign countries and 23,000,000 
were of foreign or mixed parentage. There are 1,672.000 Germans, 
1,600,000 Italians, 1,250,000 Russians, 500,000 Czechoslovakians, 465,- 
000 Austrians, 370,000 Hungarians. There are 1,500,000 foreign born 
over 10 years of age unable to speak the English language. This 
foreign population supports over 1,000 newspapers published in 30 
different languages. 

There are no more untapped racial reserves. 

Full privileges of citizenship. — The immigrant to America is par- 
ticularly favored under the laws of the United States. Before the 
native-born youth can exercise the right of franchise he must live 
under the influence of our system of Government, acquire his educa- 
tion, and enlarge it through associations and experience for a period 
of 21 years from his birth to his majority. It is possible for the 
immigrant (18 years or over), subject to certain restrictions to 
issuance of first papers, with little education, without that knowl- 
edge of our Government, association and experience, obtained only 
through years of residence, to have granted to him the full privileges 
of citizenship five years after his arrival. 

Resultant duties. — In return for the opportunities and privileges 
established through her own sacrifices and paid for with the enor- 
mous exactions of treasure and human life, she expects — and has the 
right to demand that those who accept her hospitality shall respect 
her principles — that those who elect to live in the security and com- 
fort of her homes and institutions shall give due honor and award 
full allegiance to her Constitution and shall in no instance, either 
by choice or through ignorant acquiescence, seek to despoil the land 
in which were bred freedom, equality, and opportunity. 

The cosmopolitan character of the population of America empha- 
sizes the burden which rests upon every citizen to become fully 
informed in the underlying principles and ideals of our republican 
form of Government. 

Class consciousness. — Class consciousness and class activity is the 
result largely of the intrusion of ideas of government entirely out- 
side of the fixed principles set forth in our Constitution and should 
be no more tolerated in our country than we would expect our prin- 
ciples, if introduced by expatriated Americans, to be accepted by 
another nation. 

Immigrant not all problem. — The immigrant is not all problem. 
He has been one of the outstanding assets in the development of 
America. Slowly, but surely, there is being assimilated and amalga- 
mated in this country the bloods of practically all nations, in the 


TM' 0000-35 



development of a racial stock of exceptional worth in 'its vigor, 
ability, and character. 

44. Our opportunity. — One of our greatest problems is the edu- 
cation, assimilation, and amalgamation of these various and numer- 
ous foreign groups into an understanding, harmonious, loyal, and 
upstanding American citizenship. 

To this and succeeding generations is given the opportunity to 
develop from our homogeneous character an outstanding race ex- 
pressive of the highest principles, ideals, and traditions to which a 
God-loving, humanity-loving, liberty-loving people can aspire. To 
accomplish this great work there must be a composition of all dif- 
ferences which tend to create class consciousness and class hatreds. 
Tolerance, born of knowledge, understanding, respect, sympathy, and 
harmony, engendered by the spirit of a common cause and purpose, 
are essential in the interpretation of the principles of interdependent 


Why did independence give way to interdependence? In what did 
it result? 

Upon what has the development of civilization always depended? 

What is the value of coordinate action ? 

State some of the principal causes that led to the creation of 
national relationships. 

How did trade rivalry under the Articles of Confederation sepa- 
rate the new States from each other? 

In what way was this situation changed by the Constitution? 

How does interstate commerce assure a more perfect union? 

How did railways, postal service, telephones, telegraph, and radio 
help to unite the Nation ? 

What is the attitude of the United States toward the problem of 
international relations? 

What is the principal duty of the State Department? 

In our complex civilization, may any individual live in complete 

Could any State maintain itself upon its own resources? Explain. 

How are "domestic tranquillity" and "general welfare" accom- 

In what way does the individual find security in person and 
property ? 

What relations between management and men are essential to 
successful production? 


TM 2000-25 


What are some of tho results in human progress that have been 
caused by the ties of common interest and mutual benefit? 

What led the United States to become a nation of specialists? 

Describe the interdependence of capital, labor, and consumer. 

In what way does the telephone illustrate the principle of inter- 
dependence? Business? Public utilities? 

What is the foundation of peace and prosperity? 

What principal race stocks have contributed to American life? 

what is the duty of America to our cosmopolitan population? 
Is patriotism wholly selfish ? 


TM 2000-25 







The greatest asset of America 45 

Cooperation 46 

Character 47 

National character 48 

The ideals of the American colonists. 

Community life, church, and town meeting. 

The pioneer spirit. 

Tenacity of purpose. 

Individual character 49 

Moral worth. 

Deeds an expression of character. 

Public spirit. 

No collective morality. 

Desire for education and religion. 

Foundation of character. 

Daily performance necessary. 
Physical character 30 

Great resources. 

Developed by pioneers. 

Visions become realities. 

Spirit of improvement and invention. 

Success possible to every citizen. 
Ethical character 31 


High standards of commercial life. 

Spirit of cooperation and compromise. 

No class domination. 

Spirit of benevolence. 

Not materialistic. 
Political character 32 


45. The greatest asset of America. — Diversity of opinion as 
to what is America's greatest asset creates a discussion which leads 
into every section and every activity of our country. Each individual 
is governed by the interest that lies closest to his heart. 

The doctor declares: "The greatest asset of America is found in 
our medical schools, hospitals, and our great accomplishments in 



TM' 2000-2! 

saving life and insuring the health of our people, for without health 
there could be no other great achievement." 

The teacher asserts: "Our common-school system, our colleges, 
universities, and our press constitute our greatest asset, for without 
education industry would stop and our Government disintegrate." 

The captain of industry states: "Industry is our greatest asset. 
What would America be without New England, New York, Pitts- 
burgh, Detroit, Chicago, and the thousands of other industrial 
centers giving employment to millions while they supply the needs 
of the world?" 

Likewise the inventor, the chemist, the scientist, each makes the 
claim that the fruit of his labor is the greatest asset of America, 
for what great things in America would have been possible without 
the creative genius ? 

The farmer insists that the doctor, the teacher, the industrialist, 
the scientist, and all the others would not get very far if he failed for 
a single season to provide the means for clothing and food — to him 
the greatest asset of America. 

They all are right; there are elements of greatness in all the 
varied endeavors of bur country, the coordination of which has 
brought prosperity and wealth in such measure as to make us envied 
of all people. 

46. Cooperation. — Forty-eight States, extended between the At- 
lantic and the Pacific, independent, self-governing Commonwealths, 
rich in resources, engaged in their own affairs; congested industrial 
areas of our great cities, pouring out their products to the enrich- 
ment of the Nation; millions of farmers providing food and cloth- 
ing; teachers, preachers, merchants, laborers, lawyers, and clerks, 
contributing their part; all are working together in the spirit of 

47. Character. — What unites a people composed of all the racial 
stocks of the world? What composes our differences, harmonizes 
our relationships? What inspires confidence, insures credit, and 
promotes organization? What, in the last analysis, guarantees 
protection of person and property, gives assurance of peace and 
prosperity, and inspires America to greater adventures and larger 

The answer is not to be found in the sum of all her natural 
resources, factories, farms, homes, schools, hospitals, and churches. 
These are created by man and by man can be destroyed. 

The security of our property, the continuation of our institutions, 
the increase of our possessions and the perpetuity of the principles 


TH 2000-25 


of individual rights, justice, and freedom, the observance of which 
has made America, lie in character — the greatest asset of America. 

48. National character. — The ideals of the American colo- 
nists. — The national character of America is grounded in the Puri- 
tan stock of the early colonies. From these original settlers, num- 
bering in 1640 a total of 26,000, there has descended to the present 
time nearly one-fourth of our total population. Up to 50 years ago 
their descendants and immigrants from the same racial stock com- 
posed over 80 per cent of our population. 

The outstanding traits of their stalwart characters were defined in 
the commonplace affairs of their daily lives. They made no play 
for heroics, were not primarily seekers of fame nor fortune. Lovers 
of liberty, they boldly fought to maintain their rights: Their domi- 
nant trait was the worship of God, a God to be feared, yet a God of 
justice. A God who punished, yet a God who loved. Bigoted and 
narrow to the verge of superstition, intolerant of all faiths save 
their own, they builded a character which to following generations 
will ever prove their richest heritage. 

A stern will born and bred of necessity, hard as the "stern and 
rock-bound coast" near which they lived, deep and cold as the seas 
that beat upon their rugged shores, they knew no compromise with 
duty — it must be done. No easy way was sought nor excuse 
accepted for duty unperformed. 

Community life, church, and town meeting. — They established 
schools, churches, and town meetings, always dominated and often 
ruled with the iron rod of church authority. In time, bigoted reli- 
gious intolerance gave way to religious liberty, yet not with the 
slightest change in the high standards of moral and spiritual recti- 
tude required of every member of the community. 

Possessing pride of race, proud of their ancestry, they inspired in 
the hearts of their children a reverence and respect for family and 
race which left no room for lax conduct or easy habits. Severely 
disciplined within their homes, carefully supervised in their educa- 
tion, the children were taught the obligation of participation in com- 
munity affairs and were obliged to submit to the severe restrictions 
imposed by their elders through the laws enacted by the local town 

The restrictions of these laws and the severity of punishment 
imposed for the slightest infraction are cause for astonishment in 
these days of easy morals and lax law observance, yet their value as 
conducive to upright living, strict morals, and honest endeavor is 
strikingly evidenced by the pronounced influence of the New England 



TM 3000-25 

48 • 

community, the church and town meeting, in molding the national 

character of America. 

The New England town was founded for and grouped about the church, which 
was the clubhouse of the time. But the glory of the New England town was 
its town meeting, a combination of neighborhood, society, caucus, legislature, 
and council meeting. This was the most successful political institution of the 
time, served as a private school in debate, and a nursery of American states- 
men. — National Ideals Historically Traced — A. B. Hart. 

The pioneer spirit. — In defining the character of America we find 
one trait so strong and pronounced as to manifest itself in every 
period and department of our national development — the "pioneer 

spirit. " 

Mixed motives inspired immigration to America. Regardless of 
why they came, the spirit of the pioneer seemed quickly to possess 
them with its urgent demand to go forth and conquer the wilderness. 

In that spirit the New England pioneers, and those from the 
Middle Colonies and the South, peopled in succession the States 
beyond the Alleghenies and the Cumberlands, advancing by succes- 
sive steps until they reached the boundaries of the continent. 

The pioneer from New England and his cousins, the Scotch-Irish 
in Virginia and North Carolina, loved a struggle. To them the 
wilderness held no terror too great nor hardship too severe to hold 
them back. Life was a joyful adventure and the dangers were entic- 
ing. Life held the stern duty of making provision for family and 
posterity. Life was work, and the great forests were there to be 
cleared. Life was full of promise; there were the vast free lands — 
theirs for the taking. Life was the gift of God and. never forgetting, 
they set the stamp of their God-fearing character upon each succeed- 
ing community, in school, church, and local government. 

People from New England, the Middle Colonies, and the South, flowed together 
to form neighboring or joint communities, and thus varied the Colonial farmer 
typo. This mixed population produced interesting combinations of local govern- 
ment; Michigan, settled largely by New England people, set up the town meet- 
ing ; in Illinois, first reached by southerners, the county system was established 
in 1818, and later an option was allowed between town and county. — National 
Ideals Historically Traced — A. B. Hart. 

Tenacity of purpose. — The very compelling forces of hardship, 
privation, danger, and isolation bred a spirit of unrestrained freedom 
which has had a pronounced influence in forming our national char- 
acter. Compelled to rely upon individual effort in providing and 
protecting his means of livelihood, the early American quickly 
acquired the knowledge of individual rights and the determination to 


TM 2000-25 



maintain them. What was his, won by honest toil or by right of 
discovery, he was ever ready to defend against all odds. 

Their tenacity in what they undertook has never been surpassed by any 
people, not even the Romans. 

1 remember that half the Plymouth colonists died the first winter, and that 
in the spring, when the long waiting Mayflower sailed again homeward, not one 
of the fainting survivors went with her — and 1 glory in that unflinching forti- 
tude, * * * our stiffest muscle is limp and loose beside the unyielding 
grapple of their tough wills — Doctor Storrs. 

This tenacity went far in possessing and saving to America the 
whole region west of the Mississippi River. The future welfare of 
the Nation, the preservation of representative government, and the 
principles for which it stands lie largely to-day within the hands of 
the citizens of the West, for into that section has traveled the center 
of our population, and there is to be found over one-half of the 
descendants of our Colonial forefathers. 

Experimental self-government. — Our national character is em- 
phasized in our ability to govern ourselves. Such ability did not 
develop over night; neither can it be acquired for the asking. No 
other nation has attained self-government in equal measure with the 
United States. The Colonies struggled 150 years before they had 
established a sufficient foundation to take the step that led to the 
"Great Experiment." 

Our present form of government would never have been possible 
without this long period of preparation, involving study, experience, 
mistakes, and a growing measure of success, exemplified in the wise 
legislation inaugurated by several of the colonies, and in the increas- 
ing spirit of independence prior to the War of the Revolution. Suc- 
cess was made possible due to the collective fitness of the colonials 
for the task of self-government. 

The colonial was "a good farmer, an excellent schoolmaster, a 
very respectable preacher, a capital lawyer, a sagacious physician, 
an able editor, a thriving merchant, a shrewd peddler, and a most 
industrious tradesman," able to comprehend the full measure of 
human associations. Hence, with these qualifications, when inde- 
pendence was Avon, a committee of chosen representatives called to 
the arduous task of revising the Articles of Confederation, found 
within themselves a collective knowledge which enabled them to pro- 
duce that document, the Constitution of the United States, which, 
Mr. Gladstone said, "is the greatest piece of work ever struck off 
in a given time by the brain and purpose of man." 

49. Individual character. — Moral worth. — In the discussion of 
moral worths, it is primarily true that we weigh and evaluate the 




actions of the individual. However, individual acts do not form a 
haphazard aggregate of unrelated deeds', for back of the act are 
dominant principles that assure a certain continuity in human action. 
With knowledge of the temperament and trend of mind of a given 
man, his action under given circumstances may be fairly predicted, 
due to the fact that behind the shifting play of emotions found in 
the mental life of everyone there is a background of permanent 
emotional associations and processes which change slowly, if at all. 
This stable background of the moral life is character. 

Deeds an expression of character. — Upon groat impulse one may 
commit an act foreign to his nature. However, in the long run of 
life, his deeds are an expression of his character. We base our esti- 
mate of character upon known performance; we catalogue the indi- 
vidual as good, bad, reliable, unstable, trustworthy, worthless. His 
worth to society is assessed. We judge what measure of reliance 
can be placed in him; how far he may be trusted; wherein lies his 

weakness, and wherein his greatest strength. 

Public spirit. — The secret of the remarkable progress of America 
in the first 100 years of constitutional government lies in the fact that 
her public-spirited men were striving to put the best into government, 

not to take the most out of it. 

No collective morality. — In the very nature of our Government, 
the responsibility for its social, economic, and political standards 
rests absolutely upon the character of its individual citizens. There 
can be no collective morality, integrity, honor, that is not the sum of 
the principles of the individuals of the community. State, or Nation. 
If the majority are mercenary, the character of the Nation will be 
ruthless. If the growing tendency to irreligious thought persists, 

the Nation will become irresponsible. 

Desire for education and religion. — Desire is, perhaps, the great- 
est force in the determination of individual character. It overrules 
the handicaps of environment, poverty, and physical defects. It 
asks no favor of race, creed, or color. It has no determinate end. Its 
power is to ennoble or debase — "As a man thinketh in his heart, 

so is he." 

The desire of our forefathers for education and religion, intensified 

with each succeeding generation by the ever-increasing facilities for 

intellectual development, has fixed the American character upon a 

high plane of moral worth and honorable attainment. 

Knowledge is being extended with a rapidity and scope never 

before known in human history. By the magic of the facilities of 

modern communication, its voice is carried to the uttermost coiners 

TK 2000-25 



of the earth, challenging the present generation to newer and greater 
fields of adventure and achievement. The right to education is our 
heritage, established by our forefathers, guaranteed by the law of 
the land, enriched by our free institutions. 

Notwithstanding this privilege illiterates form a large proportion 
of our electorate. The National Education Association tells us that 
4,300,000 illiterate citizens were qualified to vote in the last presi- 
dential election. Over 4,000.000 ignorant voters, unable to read any 
discussion of issues or candidates! 

The last census disclosed that 1,400,000 children between the ages 
of 7 and 13 years were not in school during the period from Septem- 
ber 1, 1919, to January 1, 1920. 

Because of universal suffrage, the modern complexity of our na- 
tional life, and the acknowledged principles of the right of private 
judgment — an open-mindedness receptive of the revelation of truth, 
a "thoughtful" citizenry is necessary. 

On the diffusion of education among the people rests the preservation and 
perpetuity of our free institutions. — Daniel Webster. 

Foundation of character. — The character of the individual and 
the Nation is founded upon religion and education — which, united 
with that force we call "will," give to every individual the means 
for high attainment. 

Submitting yourself to these impelling influences, resourcefulness 
and unconquerable energy take command. By their power you win 
self-mastery. The joy of work becomes a reality. Labor is dignified 
by the pride of accomplishment. Obstacles and handicaps are but a 
challenge to greater effort. Discipline becomes self-imposed. 

Religion laid the foundations of our American Government. It neither seeks 
nor claims any justification for its existence save righteousness. It had its be- 
ginning, it found its inspiration, in the reUgions beUefs of the men who settled 
our country, made it an independent Nation, and maintained its institutions and 
laws. If it is to endure it will be through the support of men of Hke mind and 
Uke character. — President Coolidge. , 

Daily performance necessary. — Expressed in terms of unselfish 
devotion to ideals, our attitude to others, our sense of responsibility, 
our willingness to give full service, loyal cooperation, our faithfulness 
to each other, and our reverence for religion, embodied in the daily 
performance of every task, "character" is the greatest asset of 

50. Physical character. — Great resources. — Napoleon asked 
Talleyrand, "What is America?" To which reply was made, "It 



TM 3000-25 


is a body without bones." An American adds: " The bones have 
been developed, and they are bones of steel." 

Possessed of a raw continent, millions of square miles in area, 
composed of boundless prairies, vast forests, mighty rivers, great 
plains, and rugged mountains, containing fertile soil, rich natural 
resources in minerals, timber, and water power, the American, lack- 
ing tools, supplies, and capital, was forced by the very nature of 
his task and environment to a life of hard labor, long hours of toil, 
frugal living, and self-dependence with attending hardships and 
dangers. Out of these combined conditions was developed a type of 
hardy pioneer unequaled in the history of mankind. 

Developed by pioneers. — In her commercial life America has 
stepped boldly forth to the great task set before her. Slowly at 
first, groping her way along great rivers and through deep forests, 
she began the work of conquering the wilderness, which won as the 
fruit of her enterprise, first, the full possession of this great domain, 
and then, for her 300 years of toil, the greatest treasure house among 
the nations of the earth. 

Visions become realities. — Forced to work by the very necessity 
of finding the means of existence, accepting danger and hardship, 
privation and suffering as a part of the task, America gave herself 
to creating material wealth. 

Gaining strength and wisdom with succeeding years, America has 
builded achievement upon achievement. No enterprise has been 
too great for her aggressive spirit. Her dreams and visions have 
become realities by the force of her will and the magic of her creative 

Spirit of improvement and invention. — Ever willing to adopt new 
ideas, to develop and improve, to tear down and rebuild, to scrap the 
machine of yesterday for the improved equipment of to-day, oppor- 
tunity was never neglected to find a better way to do a larger 

Success possible to every citizen. — Driven first by necessity, the 
joy of accomplishment became the spur to greater achievements. 
The way to comfort, to competency, to wealth was open and free to 
every citizen, limited alone by individual ability, courage, and de- 
termination. Out of great opportunity, with freedom to all, there 
has been bred a race of men and women of sterling character and 

51. Ethical character. — Confidence. — American business is 
based upon the character of its people. J. Pierpont Morgan used to 
say he banked more on a man's character than on his money. Char- 

110834'— 28 3 


CTC 2000-25 



acter is the basis of confidence. Confidence is the basis of credit. 
Credit, above any other element, is the source of stability in commer- 
cial life. Our building industry, amounting to hundreds of millions 
annually, is dependent upon borrowed capital from the time of the 
first drafted plan to completion of each structure. The vast commer- 
cial enterprises of the United States are made possible by our system 
of credit based upon confidence in the integrity of the people. 

The ethical character of our commercial relations is based upon 
respect for and confidence in the nobler things of life and the unfail- 
ing observance of business ethics. 

High standards of commercial life. — America is a nation of cor- 
porations. Every enterprise of any consequence is incorporated. 
Founders or owners of a given business invite employee and public 
to share the risk and the profit. The workingman as a shareholder 
is rapidly becoming a capitalist; in number they have increased to 
several million and their investments are assuming astonishing pro- 
portions. By this means, adjustments of differences between capital 
and labor are becoming easier as differences arise. The employer in 
recognizing the employee as a fellow man and not as a commodity 
opens the door to mutual understanding and square dealing. 

As a stockholder, the employee feels the interest and responsibility 
of a partner. Greater attention is paid to the work, quality is 
improved, waste eliminated, and profits increased to the mutual 
advantage of all. The fact that labor is being less exploited and more 
fairly treated with each succeeding year is not only indicative of 
economic evolution but also a marked evidence of the high character 
common to our commercial life. 

Spirit of cooperation and compromise. — One of the most en- 
couraging signs of continued prosperity in America is the constantly 
growing tendency toward compromise and cooperation in the affairs 
of capital and labor, based upon mutual confidence. Such differences 
as are bound to arise are, as a rule, disposed of to the general good 
of all. 

No class domination. — No class is permitted to dominate in 
America. Public opinion, which is always representative of public 
character, will not permit the assumption of power. Whether it be 
capital, labor, farmer, group, or section, public character in its 
dominant sense of fair dealing defeats the effort to acquire unfair 

Spirit of benevolence. — Nothing is more characteristic of modern 
American life than the pouring out of private wealth for public 
service. Nowhere are so many philanthropic agencies at work. 



TM 3000-35 

There is that in American democracy which creates the spirit of 
public service through gifts to the public. 

In respect to aid and contributions in world disasters America is 
one of the first in the field of distress and one of the last to leave. 

Not materialistic. — The Old World, looking upon the intense ac- 
tivity of this New World, seeing us ever engrossed in material affairs, 
with little time for leisure, even making hard work of our play in our 
overanxiety to win at any game, whether it be work or play, has 
scoffed at our lack of art, literature, and culture and called us a 
nation of dollar chasers. 

Our justification for our so-called gross materiality lies in the fact 
that we were a new nation — new in a wilderness to be conquered; new 
in a land without homes, towns, or cities, without schools or churches, 
without transportation or communication. Under these circum- 
stances there was neither occasion nor opportunity to write music, 
paint pictures, or sculpture in marble. Our music was in the sweet, 
sonorous song of the mighty forests and the rushing streams; our 
pictures were painted daily in the mists of the morning and the 
waving fields of grain. Our monuments and memorials were carved 
from virgin forests, builded in great cities, in rambling farmhouses 
set in emerald fields. We were kept too busy providing the necessi- 
ties of life to find time for the finer accomplishments. 

Now, lasting monuments depicting the strength, the majesty, and 
the beauty of our country are being erected; our large and well-kept 
parks are ornamented with beautiful sculptures; our colleges, uni- 
versities, and institutions of music and art are comparable with those 
of any other part of the world; our public galleries and museums 
possess priceless works of art. 

52. Political character. — Diplomacy. — America is slowly ret 
surely winning the confidence of the nations of the world. The 
desire to arbitrate rather than resort to armaments has distinguished 
America in her international policy, desiring to adjust all differences 
within the principles of justice and equity. Her commercial treaties 
are written in terms of square dealing. Backed by the guaranty of 
the American character, her obligations and her dollars are eagerly 
accepted wherever they may be offered. 


What is the result of the coordination of the "varied endeavors" 
of our country? 

In what manner has the spirit of cooperation influenced the 
development of America ? 


XU 2000-25 


Upon what does the perpetuity of our fundamental principles 

What are the main elements in the Puritan character? 

What place in our early colonial life was occupied by the "town 
meeting"? What was its later influence? 

State the chief characteristics of the pioneer. 

Upon what is our estimate of character based ? 

What was the secret of our remarkable progress in the first 100 
years of the constitutional Government ? 

What depends upon the character of our individual citizens? 

Name several factors upon which our national character is based. 

Why is religion an essential characteristic of the American people? 

Are all American citizens educated? Explain. 

How does public education affect American political institutions? 

Why, under our form of government, is a "thoughtful" citizenry 
necessary ? 

In what manner is the gospel of hard work related to the American 
character ? 

Upon what is the ethical character of our commercial relations 

To what is the success of our vast commercial enterprises due? 

Why is the spirit of benevolence characteristic of America? 

Is America materialistic ? Explain. 

In what is the political character of America expressed? 


TM 2000-25 




The value of biography 53 

Fields of achievement 34 

George Washington 55 

Military leadership. 

Political leadership. 

Farewell address. 

The Nation's gratitude. 
Benjamin Franklin 66 

Printer, publisher, philanthropist. 


Political philosopher. 


Member of Constitutional Convention. 
John Marshall 57 


Member of assembly. 

Ratification of the Constitution. 

Member of Congress. 

Interpretation of the Constitution. 
Thomas Jefferson 58 

Declaration of Independence. 

President of the United States. 

Louisiana Purchase. 

Daniel Webster 59 

Tampering with the Constitution. 

Representative government. 

Reply to Hayne. 
Abraham Lincoln 60 

Limited education. 



Preservation of the Union. 

The nation incarnate. 
The winning of the West 61 

Northwest Territory. 

Slow development. 

Daniel Boone. 

Settlement of Kentucky. 


TM 2000-2S 


George Rogers Clark 62 

Military expeditions. 
His monument. 
Lewis and Clark 63 

The expedition. 

Claim of United States to territory established. 

The new country. 
Rev. Marcus Whitman 04 

Western emigration 

Sterling qualities of racial stock. 

Boundary adjustment. 
Gen John C. Fremont 65 

Exploration of the Southwest. 

Mexican War. 

A contemporary. 

Territorial acquisition. 
Eli Whitney, a pioneer of modern industry 66 

Invention of cotton gin. 

Development of cotton industry. 

Influence on country. 

Interchangeability of mechanical parts. 
Robert Fulton, a pioneer of steam navigation 67 

Other inventors. 

Legislative grant 

The "submarine." 

The Clermont. 

Progress in water transportation. 
Samuel F. B. Morse, a pioneer of modern communication 68 

Opening of the Erie Canal. 

Invention of the telegraph 

Appropriation from Congress. 

Improvementand amplification. 
Capt. John Ericsson, pioneer of the modern battleship 69 

The Monitor. 

The navy and merchant marine 

Maj. Walter Reed, conqueror of yellow fever 70 

Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas, conqueror of malaria 71 

53. The value of biography. — The history of any nation, in its 
ideals and achievements, its motives and spirit, invariably reflects 
the character of its leaders. The stories of the lives and accomplish- 
ments of its great men are the windows through which is revealed 
the soul of the nation. 

The biographies of the leaders of America should be carefully 
studied as the means of best understanding the controlling factors 
in the development of our country in any given period. In these 
stories are revealed the combat of minds, the clash of opinions, the 
cunning of politicians, the ruthlessness of self-seekers, and the saving 



TM 2000-25 


forces of those dominant leaders who inspired the people to follow 
them in the establishment of the ideals out of which have been created 
the splendid achievements of our people. 

In the lives of our great men are to be found the elements of right- 
eousness, courage, justice, unselfish devotion to duty, self-reliance, 
initiative, and stubborn determination, the ingredients from which 
was brewed the virile, aggressive, and generous spirit of America. 

With each succeeding period of our progress in government, indus- 
try, agriculture, education, medical science, we have had the leader- 
ship of men and women devoted to public service with little thought 

of personal gain. 

In this spirit our Government was estabhshed. They who had 

power to assume control dared to commit that control to a free people, 
knowing that the ideals of liberty, justice, and individual right had 
been indelibly stamped upon the very souls of their countrymen. 

In like spirit succeeding generations have responded to the call of 
their leaders for the preservation of our Nation. Creative and 
destructive forces are in eternal conflict. The experience of the 
past gives us wisdom to accomplish the tasks of the present. 

Eternal vigilance is the price of liberty. 

64. Fields of achievement. — The ideals and accomplishments 
of our great Americans were to establish a government that was 
fit to be intrusted with all the powers that a free people ought to 
delegate to any government as the safe and proper depository of 
national interests, controlled not by the passions but by the reason 
of the people, to develop the natural resources of the country, and 
to open up the way of opportunity to all. 

However, great Americans have not confined their achievements 
to the field of government and protection of our institutions Many 
of the great industries, much of medical science, communication, and 
transportation found first expression in the keen minds of our 
pioneers. In the biographies of these men are incidents as thrilling, 
full of daring, and productive of rich achievements as are revealed in 
the lives of the mighty army who conquered the wilderness and won 
for the United States in succession the Colonies, the Northwest 
Territory, Louisiana, the Oregon country, Texas, California, and 

the great Southwest. 

55. George Washington. — This noble first citizen of America 
is the outstanding character in the history of our country. From his 
early youth he demonstrated those qualities of leadership which, 
with the experience gained in his great achievements, made him the 
dominant personality of his time. 


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Military leadership. — At the early age of 23 years he was placed 
in command of the Virginia Rangers. He became the hero of Gen- 
eral Braddock's ill-fated campaign against the French and Indians. 
After General Braddock's failure to accept his advice, which caused 
his death and the defeat of his troops, it was the superior ability of 
Washington which saved the British from rout and possible an- 
nihilation. As commander in chief of the Continental Army, he took 
command of a disorganized, undisciplined yet loyal body of raw 
provincials. Ragged and starved, half frozen, and poorly equipped, 
by the force of his character he brought them to a condition of train- 
ing and discipline that gave final success to the Colonial cause. 

By the charm and strength of his personality he won the admira- 
tion and enthusiastic support of tli@ grtat ^mmam ^neral. Von 
Steuben; the brilliant Frenchman, Count de La Fayette; and the 
gallant Pole. Kosciusko. 

Political leadership. — The conclusion of the war found General 
Washington so exalted in the hearts of his countrymen as to make 
him the virtual ruler of the new nation, created largely through his 
military genius and indomitable will. Foregoing all personal ambi- 
tions other than that of molding a free people into an enduring 
nation, he gave himself with equal faithfulness to the work of peace 
and orderly government. 

Serving without pay in all his public career, his life of unselfish 
devotion rightfully won for him the title of "Father of His Coun- 
try." When charged by an unfriendly Congress with usurpation of 
power, he replied: "A character to lose, an estate to forfeit, the ines- 
timable blessings of liberty at stake, and a life devoted, must be my 

Inspired by the influence of his character and his qualities of 
statesmanship, such men as Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, Randolph, 
King, Marshall, Monroe, and the venerable Franklin addressed them- 
selves with him to the task of constructing a new government, which 
in the following generations was destined to become an ever-growing 
memorial to their wisdom and patriotic devotion to the ideals and 
rights of humanity. 

Farewell address. — The wisdom, sagacity, and vision of Wash- 
ington gave the United Colonies a republican rather than a demo- 
cratic form of government. In the almost inspired words of his 
"Farewell Address" — in the framing of which he undoubtedly had 
the assistance of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison, two of 
the finest minds of that period — he gave counsels concerning the 
pitfalls which have destroyed other popular governments of history. 



TM 2000-35 


As far as these counsels have been observed the Nation has enjoyed 
peace, prosperity, and happiness. 

The Nation's gratitude. — George Washington, born February 22, 
1782, died September 14, 1799. Within the scope of his 67 years he 
was surveyor, farmer, soldier, statesman, commander in chief of the 
Continental Army, and twice President of the United States of 
America. ' 

More than to any other, we owe our everlasting debt of gratitude 
to George Washington for American independence and the Consti- 
tution of the United States. 

58. Benjamin Franklin. — Benjamin Franklin manifested the 
qualities characteristic of the American. Genius he possessed, but it 
was the genius of hard work. He was a self-made man. At the age 
of 17 years, he came from Massachusetts to Philadelphia, which 
became his lifelong residence. 

Printer, publisher, philanthropist. — A journeyman printer by 
trade, he ultimately became the author and printer of Poor Richard's 
Almanac, a publication of homely philosophy which contains many 
gems of wisdom and good advice as applicable to-day as in his time. 

Franklin was identified with the Pennsylvania Gazette. He 
founded the Saturday Evening Post, the University of Pennsylvania, 
and the Philadelphia Public Library. He was the first postmaster 
general of the Colonies. 

Scientist. — With all these activities he still found time to devote to 
science. The flash of lightning in a thunderstorm caused him to 
wonder rather than to fear. In it he recognized a mightly force; 
his philosophic mind concluded that in some way the flash of lightning 
(electricity) could be controlled and brought into the service of man- 
kind. It pays to think. Creative minds, as exemplified in Franklin, 
rather than manual labor, have produced the great achievements of 
all time. 

Political philosopher. — Benjamin Franklin was too busy to be 
idle. Absorbed with the affairs and welfare of the Colonies, he 
proposed in 1754 that the Colonies be formed into a Union. Franklin 
believed that had this proposition been accepted, a separation from 
the British Empire would never have taken place. Twenty years 
later a call for a general congress of the Colonies was issued by 
Virginia, at the instigation of Franklin, and held in Philadelphia 
in May, 1774. 

Benjamin Franklin took an active part in framing the Declara- 
tion of Independence, of which he was one of the signers. 


TU 2000-25 



Diplomat. — Two years later he went to France, where, in fur cap 
and homespun clothing, he, the typical American commoner, created 
a wave of enthusiasm which won the French to the cause of the 

Member of Constitutional Convention. — At the age of 81 years 
this old young -hearted philosopher took a most prominent part in 
the deliberations of the constitutional convention held in Philadel- 
phia from May to September, 1787. His wisdom and counsel often 
prevailed in those long and stormy sessions. His love of country 
and faith in democracy gave him a vision of the future greatness of 
America that few in his time possessed. 

67. John Marshall. — The life work of John Marshall is inti- 
mately blended with the Constitution. He ranked high as a soldier, 
legislator, diplomat, historian, and statesman. As a jurist and 
magistrate, he ranks first. For 34 years he served as Chief Justice of 
the Supreme Court of the United States, leaving a record for con- 
structive results in the Government of the United States second only 
to that of Washington. 

Soldier. — He began the study of law at the age of 18 years, but 
soon left his studies to enter the Revolutionary Army. His experi- 
ences, with their heroisms and hardships, "broadened his views and 
quickened his insight in governmental questions." He said, "I 
entered the Army a Virginian and left it an American." 

Member of assembly. — After the war he was elected a member of 
the Virginia Assembly. During his remarkable career he served in 
the legislature for eight sessions. He continually emphasized his 
conviction that for efficiency a strong central government was 

Ratification of the Constitution. — As a member of the State con- 
vention, in 1788, which met to discuss the ratification of the Con- 
stitution of the United States, through the power of his convincing 
logic, the ratification of the Constitution was accomplished over the 
determined opposition of its enemies. 

Member of Congress. — At the urgent request of Washington, he 
became a candidate and was elected to Congress, where he became 
the greatest debater on constitutional questions. 

Interpretation of the Constitution. — In 1829, through his wisdom 
and moderation, he did much to prevent radical changes in the State 
constitution of Virginia, thwarting the attempts of politicians against 
the independence of the judiciary. Because of his exceptional under- 
standing of the philosophy of the Constitution of the United States, 
his counsel was of prime importance. 



TM: 2000-25 


His deep convictions and illuminating arguments contained in his 
decisions concerning constitutional questions, at a period when the 
powers of the Constitution were ill defined, were of inestimable value 
in the formation of a well-organized Federal Government. "He 
made the Constitution live. He imparted to it the breath of immor- 
tality. Its vigorous life at the present time is due mainly to the 
wise interpretation he gave to its provisions during his term of 

The most notable products of Marshall's unprecedented judicial career may 
be summed up under two heads In the first place, he established the supremacy 
of Federal law within the entire circle of its jurisdiction, no matter whether it 
was opposed by the Congress or by a State legislature in the form of unconstitu- 
ttona) @Ba@tnisntiii m ^ tue ftmdmt giving ''iu^nuMnss ntffl wiaiDomiftsi \y 
law"; or by State supreme courts attempting to resist the mandates of the 
Supreme Court; or by the governors of States attempting to resist such 
mandates; in the second place, in defining the character of "the American 
Constitution." — Origin and Growth of the American Constitution — Hannis Taylor. 

68. Thomas Jefferson. — By reason of his ability as a thinker 
and speaker, Thomas Jefferson quickly gained a place of leadership, 
first in Virginia, then in the Colonies, where he was constantly em- 
ployed in fighting oppressive British regulations and interference 
in the affairs of his country. Staunch in his defense of the rights of 
the people, he caused Virginia to pass many laws of a revolutionary 
character, among which was the abrogation of the rights of nobility, 
entailed estates, and the absolute right of religious liberty. 

Declaration of Independence. — He was a member of that famous 
group which, upon call of the resolution proposed by Richard Harry 
Lee, wrote the Declaration of Independence. Although the young- 
est, his dominant personality and exceptional ability caused him to 
be chosen chairman of that committee, which included such stalwarts 
as John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman, and Robert R. 
Livingston. The instrument practically as written by Jefferson was 
unanimously adopted to become for all time one of the immortal 
documents relating to human rights and self-government. 

President of the United States. — In the trying days during and 
following the Revolutionary War Thomas Jefferson was a member 
of the Continental Congress, Governor of Virginia, ambassador to 
France, succeeding Franklin, and recalled to become Secretary of 
State in President Washington's Cabinet, where he bitterly opposed 
the policy of Alexander Hamilton in his endeavor to extend the 
powers of government over the people. 

On a platform baaed upon his ideas and policies, he was elected 
the third President of the United States as a Democratic-Republican 


TM 2000-35 



over his opponent, who as a Federalist espoused the principles of 

Louisiana Purchase. — During the first, years of his two terms as 
President, he completed the negotiations with France for the pur- 
chase of the vast domain, over 900,000 square miles, lying west of the 
Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, known as "the 
Louisiana Territory." The purchase price of $15,000,000 was, at that 
time^ considered exorbitant and created much adverse criticism in 
which Jefferson was denounced as an "imperialist," and as having 
forsaken his democratic principles. The reasons for this action on 
his part were that he saw the advantage of gaining control of the 
Mississippi River and the port of New Orleans, and that by this pur- 
chase the United States would be left unhampered by foreign coun- 
tries in developing her republican form of government. 

Achievements. — The outstanding events of his public life are to be 
found in (1) the writing of the Declaration of Independence; (2) 
enactment of the statute for religious liberty; (3) founding the 
University of Virginia; and (4) the purchase of the Louisiana 

69. Daniel Webster. — Daniel Webster belongs to the first gen- 
eration of Americans who knew no other form of government than 
that established by the Federal Constitution. So intimately is his 
name associated with that great document that he has become known 
to history as the greatest expounder of the Constitution. 

Tampering with the Constitution. — When but 20 years old, he 
delivered an address which contained the following: 

The experience of all ages will bear us out in saying that alterations of politi- 
cal systems are always attended with a greater or less degree of danger. The 
politician that undertakes to improve a constitution with as little thought as a 
farmer sets about mending his plow is no master of his trade. If the Constitu- 
tion be a systematic one * * * its parts are so necessarily connected that 
an alteration in one will work an alteration in all, and the cobbler, however 
pure and honest his intentions, will in the end find that what came to his hands 
a fair, lovely fabric goes from them a miserable piece of patchwork * * *. 

Representative government. — As a further caution against a pro- 
nounced tendency, he declared: 

The true definition of despotism is government without law. It may exist in 
the hands of many as well as one. Rebellions are despotisms, factions are 
despotisms, loose democracies are despotisms. These are a thousand times more 
dreadful than the concentration of all power in the hands of a single tyrant 
The despotism of one man is like the thunderbolt which falls here and there, 
scorching and consuming the individual on whom it lights; but popular commo- 
tion, the despotism of the mob, is like an earthquake, which in one moment 
swallows up everything. It is the excellence of our Government that it is placed 



TM 3000-2! 

in a proper medium between these two extremes that it is equally distant from 
mobs and from thrones 

Webster clearly understood our representative form of government 
and the importance of avoiding the dangerous extremes of either 
hereditary (autocratic) government or direct (democratic) govern- 

Reply to Hayne. — Webster's replies to Hayne in the United States 
Senate are considered as the greatest debate that has ever occurred in 
any legislative body in the history of the world. His second reply 
began with the following words: 

Mr President, when the mariner has been tossed for many days in thick 
weather and on an unknown sea he naturally avails himself of the first pause 
in the storm, the earliest glance of the sun, to take his latitude and ascertain 
how far the elements have driven him from his true course. Let us imitate this 
prudence and before we float farther on the waves of this debate refer to the 
point from which we departed that we may at least be able to conjecture where 
we now are. 

This indicates a wholesome state of mind with which to approach 
important discussions concerning the philosophy of our Government 
as expressed in the Constitution. Before we drift farther toward 
direct action and socialistic tendencies, we should return in study and 
thought to the work of the men who wrote the Constitution and ascer- 
tain how far we are departing from the course therein laid down. 

60. Abraham. Lincoln. — George Washington gave us the Union. 
Abraham Lincoln saved the Union. 

Log cabins were common in this country 100 years ago. It was not 
a log cabin that gave distinction to Abraham Lincoln, although he 
was born in the poorest of such cabins on February 12, 1809. 

Limited education. — His honors were not. conferred upon him be- 
cause of a university education. Two short terms in a Kentucky 
school, followed by three in Indiana, less than a year in all, does not 
give much foundation for scholastic attainments. 

Handicaps. — To study the life of Lincoln makes one almost believe 
God purposely placed every conceivable handicap upon him just to 
prove his staying qualities, and to set an example in purpose, prin- 
ciple, and perseverance that would act as an inspiration for young 
and old possessed of the ambition and endurance, the vision and 
character, necessary to success. 

Abraham Lincoln was homely, yet he possessed the beauty of soul 
dedicated to relieving the burdens and sorrows of humanity. 

He was a rail splitter. In his rugged physical strength he was as 
gentle as a woman. 




His was a lowly birth, yet "his spirit is the richest legacy of the 
United States." 

Lawyer. — He was a "saddlebag" lawyer, yet, with a copy of Black- 
stone, a Webster's Dictionary, and the fundamental law of God and 
human rights in his heart and head he won his way to the respectful 
consideration of all opponents. 

With his sense of humor and ability as a story teller there was in 
him a supersense of justice, and he often fitted a story to emphasize a 
truth that otherwise might have been forgotten. ' 

Preservation of the Union. — "A house divided against itself can 
not stand." Upon that issue — the preservation of the Union — Abra- 
ham Lincoln was elected President of the United States. Tolerant 
with all who opposed, kind to all who hated, charitable to those who 
denounced, he held firmly to the single purpose of saving the Union, 
in the belief that in union only could our Nation endure. 

Tho beauty of diction, the reverence, sympathy and love, the mag- 
nanimity and charity, and the vision of the worth of the price paid 
for the preservation of our Union, as set forth in his Gettysburg 
speech, will make him acclaimed after all other orators are forgotten. 

The nation incarnate. — He was the nation incarnate. In all its 
struggles, its doubts, its agony, and in the solemn days of victory 
Abraham Lincoln lived alone for his country. 

No one man has ever rendered greater service nor paid a greater 
price for faithful performance. As he has given us a rich legacy 
in his spirit and example, so he has left us a great responsibility — 

That we highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain; that this 
Nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom; and that government 
of the people, by the people, and for the people shall not perish from the 

81. The winning of the West. — In a brief space of time, 50 years, 
was accomplished the stupendous task, entitled by President Roose- 
velt "the winning of the West," an accomplishment made possible 
by the sturdy character of the men and women who so fearlessly 
and laboriously carried on once they set their faces toward tho 
golden West. 

Accustomed to frugality and hard labor, inured to hardships and 
privation, stern in self-discipline and faith, mighty in determination 
and self-reliance, they not only left to posterity an inheritance of 
fertile land, virgin forests, great water resources, and untold mineral 
wealth, but, greater than the sum of all material gain, they passed 
on to this and succeeding generations the principles and traditions 
of independence, liberty, and justice, an example of the worth of 



TM 2000-S5 

clean living, high purpose, and great faith that should be an inspira- 
tion to every loyal American. 

In the original grant of charter to the several Colonies by Great 
Britain, the western limits were practically undefined. Several of 
the Colonies claimed territory extending westward as far as the 
Mississippi River and north of the Ohio to the Great Lakes. 

Northwest Territory. — In the compromises made, composing the 
differences between the Colonies, it wag agreed to define the western 
boundaries of such Colonies to more restricted areas, dedicating the 
disputed territory to the United States, to be known as the "North- 
west Territory," which at the time was occupied by French and 

British trading posts. 

This area included what are now the States of Illinois, Indiana, 
Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin. All territory lying west of the 
Mississippi River and east of the Rocky Mountains, from the Gulf of 
Mexico to an undetermined northern limit, was then a possession of 
Spain known as the "Louisiana Territory," transferred by Spain to 
France and then sold in 1803 to the United States. 

With the exception of a few venturesome spirits who found their 
way across the mountains south of the Ohio River and as far west 
as the Mississippi, this land of ours was an unknown wilderness to 
the settlers of the Colonies. Alive with deer, buffalo, and small 
game, rich in timber, fertile of soil, watered by numberless rivers 
and lakes, America at the close of the War of the Revolution still 
awaited discovery. 

Slow development. — The thrilling story of the winning of the 
West is a series of events accomplished not by military force but 
rather by the efforts of a host of hardy pioneers who, with indom- 
itable fortitude and incredible labor, won in succession the swamps, 
rolling prairies, forests, plains, rugged mountains, and the fruitful 

Pacific slope. 

No single individual dominated this vast domain. It was the rank 
and file who conquered in this battle of the wilderness. Its conquest 
was not quickly accomplished. As in all great movements, leader- 
ghij^ w%^ ^^oped, with hem and flKoeesaimaiix^thoHKitainKit&Diiffled 
with some particular period or section. 

Daniel Boone. — A native of North Carolina, born and developed 
tinder conditions' that gave him physical strength and endurance 
beyond the average, courage, daring, and self-reliance, he was pecul- 
iarly fitted for what he declared to be the mission of his life — 
"ordained of God to settle the wilderness." He was the highest type 
of wilderness explorer. Living to the age of 86, he will continue to 



live throughout the annals of our history as an outstanding type of 
the earliest American. He exemplified in his life the value of clean 
living, high principles, and hard labor. 

Settlement of Kentucky. — Undaunted by the unknown dangers of 
great swamps and forests, matching wits and woodcraft with the 
roving bands of hostile Indians, he led the first group of settlers 
across the Blue Ridge Mountains into the rich country of Kentucky. 
Here, amidst untold hardships, privations, and danger, there was 
set up the beginning of what has grown to be a mighty State, rich 
in natural resources and richer still in the treasure of its manhood 
and womanhood, descendants of the sturdy stock of Daniel Boone 
and those who followed him. These hardy pioneers bred into the 
succeeding generations that strength of purpose, endurance, initia- 
tive, and determination which has contributed so much to the 
richness and virility of American character. 

62. George Rogers Clark. — Capt. George Rogers Clark saved 
the settlers in Kentucky from massacre by the Indians and was the 
hero of the conquest of the Northwest Territory, now represented 
by Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Michigan, and Wisconsin. 

Military expeditions. — He led his small force of less than 200 men 
against the French outposts of southern Illinois. With their capture 
he turned his attention to the British garrison at Fort Sacksville on 
the Wabash River at Vincennes, Ind. 

In the capture of this fort Captain Clark and his sturdy band 
accomplished one of the most difficult marches in military history. 
Crossing the "drowned lands" of southern Illinois in the month of 
February, 1779, they carried on through water oftentimes above their 
waists, without provisions or supplies other than that carried upon 
their backs. Through a wilderness untraveled and unknown by 
white men, this small band of backwoodsmen took the British by sur- 
prise, demanded and received the unconditional surrender of the gar- 
rison. By this remarkable exploit America was forever rid of 
foreign domination, and title to this region was given to the United 

His monument. — Capt. George Rogers Clark was among the great- 
est of the forefathers of the mid-West. By the inspiration of his 
spirit, fortitude, and courage, this handful of men acquired posses- 
sion of this inland empire of America. By acts of heroism, serving 
without pay, and assuming the debts contracted in this campaign. 
Captain Clark magnified his devotion to his country. The memorial 
to his self-sacrificing service is not to be found in tablets or statues 
of bronze, but rather in the great Commonwealths that now comprise 
this territory — the heart of America. 



TM 2000-25 


63. Lewis and Clark. — In May of 1804, Capts. Meriwether 
Lewis and William Clark proceeded to St. Louis, Mo., in obedience 
to the following order issued by President Jefferson by authority of 

Go up the Missouri to its sources; find out, if possible, the fountains of the 
Mississippi and the true position of the Lake of the Woods: cross the stony 
mountams, and having found the nearest river flowing into the Pacific, go down 
it to the sea. , 

The expedition. — Outfitting in St. Louis, Captain Lewis and Cap- 
tain Clark, with four sergeants and twenty-three privates of the 
Regular Army, and an Indian interpreter, began the long, tedious 
journey up the swift current of the Missouri, reaching its headwaters 
approximately one year later. Crossing the Rocky Mountains, 
through the Bitter Root Range, they found the Clearwater River. 
Proceeding down its course through exceedingly rough country to 
tho Snake River, in what is now Idaho, they continued on to the 
Northwest to the junction of the Snake with the lordly Columbia. 

Launching their canoes upon the broad reaches of this most beauti- 
ful stream in October, 1805, they drifted down to the Pacific Ocean, 
reaching their destination November 7, one month later. Returning 
from there to St. Louis, with their surveys and maps of the regions 
explored, they completed the required journey in a little over two 
years' time. 

Claim of United States to territory established. — How little was 
known of the great domain secured to the United States in the pur- 
chase of the Louisiana Territory is revealed in part by the wording 
of the President's order. How much was learned and its importance 
to the Nation was contained in part in the report those two intrepid 
Army officers gave upon their return. The most important result 
obtained was the firm establishment of the claim of the United States 
by overland exploration, its first claim being made through the 
earlier discovery of this north Pacific country by Capt. Robert Gray, 
of Boston, who sailed his ship from the Pacific Ocean up a great river 
in 1792, naming it the Columbia, in honor of the three hundredth 
anniversary of the discovery of America by Columbus. 

The new country. — The Lewis and Clark expedition gave the peo- 
ple their first idea of the vast area, enormous natural resources, and 
grandeur of the Pacific Northwest. They were the forerunners of 
what soon became a mighty host of emigrants into the land of the 
setting sun 

64. Rev, Marcus Whitman. — Thirty years after the Lewis and 
Clark expedition Rev. Marcus Whitman packed all his earthly 
possessions in a wagon and, with his bride, trekked across the plains 

110834 •—28- 



-and mountains, over what became known as the Oregon Trail, to the 
Walla Walla country as a missionary to the Indians. 

Impressed with the beauty and richness of the country, he seemed 
to have lost sight of his special mission, as seven years later he took 
the trail back to civilization, there to urge his countrymen to follow 
him in the possession of this new land. 

Western emigration. — Acting as guide for this band of emigrants, 
recruited largely in New England, he led them ever westward in the 
all but impossible journey of nearly 4,000 miles. The story of the 
hardships and perils, the labor, sickness, and starvation, the fight 
with Indians and nature, serves again to prove the sturdiness, self- 
reliance, and courage of the pioneers of America. 

Sterling qualities of racial stock. — Every advancing step in the 
progress of our Nation emphasizes the sterling qualities of the racial 
stock that, handed down to succeeding generations, has given the 
urge and the will to do, the fruits of which are to-day enjoyed by 
a prosperous and happy posterity. 

Boundary adjustment. — These men and women, who BO bravely 
followed Whitman over the Oregon Trail, saved that great country 
to the United States. The cry in 1846 was "The British must go — 
The whole of Oregon or none — 54-40 or fight." In the spirit of fair 
play and justice, the differences with Great Britain were adjusted, 
the boundaries were fixed, and another great step in the expansion 
and settlement of our Nation was accomplished. 

85. Gen. John C. Fremont. — As a junior officer of the United 
States Army, at the age of 29 years, Fremont was designated by the 
Secretary of War to explore a route from western Missouri to the 
"South Pass." 

Exploration of the Southwest. — In accomplishing his mission he 
followed the Arkansas River to its source in the Rocky Mountains. 
On a later expedition he made his way through Utah to the Great 
Salt Lake and then through the deserts of Nevada and across the 
Sierra Nevada, where he found his journey leading through the 
mammoth trees and along the roaring torrents of the California 
country, reaching the Mexican city of Monterey, some 130 miles 
south of San Francisco on the Pacific Ocean. 

Mexican War. — Through exercise of diplomacy he was able to re- 
main in this vicinity until after the outbreak of the Mexican War, 
when he headed a revolt against that Government and freed the 
territory of California from Mexican authority, becoming the gov- 
ernor of the territory which was ceded to the United States by treaty 
following the conclusion of the war with Mexico. 



TM 3000-35 

A contemporary. — Contemporary with Fremont, another brilliant 
young Army officer. Colonel Kearney (afterwards brigadier general), 
fought his way across the plains of Texas to Santa Fe, N. Mex., and 
after its capture continued across the deserts of New Mexico, Ari- 
zona, and southern California to a union of his small army with 
Fremont in California. 

Territorial acquisition. — As a result of the splendid work of these 
men coupled with the success of Generals Scott and Taylor in old 
Mexico, there was added to the domain of the United States the 
last of the great southwestern area, a territory of nearly 1,000.000 
square miles, a section of our country which within one year there- 
after became the goal of the adventurous spirits of the world due 
to the discovery of fabulous gold deposits along many of the water 
courses flowing to the Pacific Ocean from the western slopes of the 
mountains bordering eastern California. 

66. EH Whitney, a pioneer of modern industry. — Invention 
of cotton gin. — A school-teacher from Massachusetts living in 
Georgia in 1793 invented a machine called the cotton gin, by use 
of which a negro could easily clean 300 pounds of cotton a day, 
demonstrating thereby, as no previous invention had done, the value 
of machinery in replacing or augmenting manual labor. The whole 
question of cotton production and cotton manufacture was changed 
through the use of this invention. 

' Previous to the invention of the cotton gin, cotton yarns were spun 
and woven into cloth by hand in private homes. Necessarily, by this 
slow method of manufacture, but small quantities of cotton were 

Development of cotton industry. — So rapid was the development 
of the industry, stimulated by this new "gin," that within the next 
20 years exports of cotton to Liverpool increased tenfold. 

As a result of this invention a cotton factory was erected in Massa- 
chusetts to produce cloth like that made in England. Here was 
constructed the first loom operated by water power in America. In 
1814 there was builded at Waltham, Mass., the first cotton mill in the 
world, in which the raw material direct from a Whitney cotton gin 
was spun into thread, woven into cloth, and printed with colors, all 
under one roof. 

' Influence on country. — The production of cotton was stimulated 
and made one of the leading industries of the country. Cotton ex- 
ports enormously increased; allied industries developed; communities 
grew rapidly into cities. 





The invention of the cotton gin created unforeseen social, economic, 
arid political conditions; it largely put a stop to the discussion of 
slavery; the southern planters and northern manufacturers of cotton 
found it to their mutual interest to keep the negro in bondage, since 
by his labor they were rapidly growing rich. 

Due to climatic conditions the manufacture of cotton goods was 
carried to New England, thus opening a new channel of employment, 
causing in following years a radical change in the nationality of tho 
citizens of these Northern States. 

Interchangeability of mechanical parts. — While Whitney was 
the inventor of the cotton gin, because of the theft of his model and 
tools from the shed in which he conducted his experiments, he was 
not enabled to perfect his invention. 

He instituted the interchangeability of parts which has greatly 
influenced modern industry. In 1798 he secured a contract from the 
Government for the manufacture of firearms, being "the first to 
effect the division of labor by which each part was made separately." 
It was from this invention that he made his fortune. 

67. Robert Fulton, a pioneer of steam navigation. — It is 
proper and fitting to designate Robert Fulton as the pioneer of 
modern transportation by reason of his success in driving the Cler- 
mont, in the year 1807, against the current of the Hudson River from 
New York City to Albany. 

Other inventors. — It is true that no less than eight men had at 
various times and places propelled boats by steam power prior to 
this accomplishment by Robert Fulton, yet none of them carried out 
their experiments to a successful issue. 

Fulton's success was largely due to his cleverness and ingenuity 
coupled with the fortunate circumstance of a partnership formed 
with Robert Livingston, a man of wealth, also interested in solving 
the problem of steam navigation. 

Legislative grant. — Livingston was so sure of final success through 
his own various experiments as to induce the Legislature of the State 
of New York to pass a bill granting exclusive right to navigate tho 
waters of that State by steam power upon condition that a boat of 20 
tons be driven by steam at a minimum speed of 4 miles an hour 
against the current of the Hudson, this feat to be accomplished within 
one year from the date of grant. He failed in his effort. Later ho 
was appointed minister from the United States to France. 

The "submarine". — In 1803, while in Paris, Fulton demonstrated 
his "submarine" in the River Seine. Encouraged by the success of 
this experiment, Fulton and Livingston ordered a steam engine from 



TM 2000-25 

Watt & Boulton in England, to be shipped to America, where Fulton 
found it on his return in 1806. 

The "Clermont." — In the following year the Clermont was built 
and launched in East River. Its successful trip opened the way to 
a complete revolution of water transportation. Within the next few 
years, so rapid was the adoption of this new method of travel, steam- 
boats came into use upon the principal rivers and the Great Lakes, 
rendering splendid assistance in establishing easy communication 
between distant sections of our country traversed by the great 

Progress in water transportation. — To fully appreciate the value 
of tho contribution made by Fulton and Livingston to the economic 
development and enrichment of America, one has only to review 
the remarkable progress made in water transportation, contrasting 
the present accomplishments with those of 100 years ago. 

Through his vision, patience, and persistence he found success 
where others had failed, and in so doing opened the way to the rapid 
development of this mighty agency in the advance of civilization. 

68. Samuel F. B. Morse, a pioneer of modern communica- 
tion. — Without our present facilities of communication, modern 
civilization could not continue. Deprived of telegraph, telephone, 
and radio, the wheels of industry would be stopped and the economic 
welfare of nations destroyed. We can not too greatly emphasize this 
benefaction conferred upon all people through the accomplishment 
•of Samuel Morse and the brilliant men who followed him with im- 
provements upon his basic invention, the telegraph. 

Opening of the Erie Canal. — Morse trained himself to think. Of 
all the thousands whose attention was engaged by the opening of 
the Erie Canal in 1825, he alone caught the significance of the passage 
of time in relaying the message heralding that event. The signal was 
delivered by cannon placed at intervals between Buffalo and New 
York City, the successive reports of which, conveyed from one em- 
placement to the next, consumed one and a half hours of time in de- 
livering the message a distance of 500 miles. 

Invention of the telegraph. — Reason and logic compelled him to 
believe that electricity made to travel many miles over a copper wire 
in an instant of time could by some method be interrupted in its 
passage so as to produce certain signals susceptible of interpretation. 

Busy in his profession as an artist in London, Italy, France, and 
at home, the idea of the control of electricity ever persisted in his 
mind. With the passage of years his patience was rewarded with the 
invention of a crude telegraphic instrument and a system of dot and 



dash signals to be used therewith. Forming a partnership with 
Alfred Vail, they labored together in the perfection of the device 
until their funds were exhausted. 

Appropriation from Congress. — Undismayed, their persistent 
appeal to Congress for assistance was finally rewarded with an appro- 
priation of $80,000 for the erection of a telegraph line a distance of 
40 miles between the cities of Baltimore and Washington. With the 
completion of its construction, on the morning of May 24, 1844, in 
the presence of the chief officers of the Government, in the Supreme 
Court room of the Capitol, Professor Morse, operating the key of 
his instrument, successfully transmitted to the wonder of all present 
that first and memorable message, "What hath God wrought?" 

Improvement and amplification. — Morse was a man of vision. 
He predicted the day when telegraph lines would span the earth and 
bridge the seas, yet even his far-seeing mind could never have en- 
compassed the stupendous results which have come from his creation 
as a rich boon to all mankind. 

Men great in scientific accomplishments have followed with im- 
provements and amplifications upon his invention. Alexander Bell 
and associates applied his principle in perfecting the telephone; 
Thomas Edison improved the technique as telegraph operator and 
inventor, following his own powers of deduction into still broader 
fields. Marconi and others enriched his creative efforts in the field of 
wireless communication. Each passing year witnesses other improve- 
ments and accomplishment, all a living testimonial to Samuel Morse, 
the man of vision, who, standing apart from the crowd, sold himself 
to a great idea, persisted against all odds until his efforts were 
crowned with success. 

69. Capt. John Ericsson, pioneer of the modern battle- 
ship. — John Ericsson, a native of Sweden, directed his inventive 
genius to improvements in steam navigation. He claimed the inven- 
tion of the screw propeller but was unable to prove priority. 

Coming to the United States in 1839, he built the first screw 
propeller warship, the Princeton. This was the first steamship ever 
constructed with her boilers and engines below the water line, and 
was the beginning of the steam marine of the world. 

The "Monitor. " — Ericsson would probably have remained un- 
known to the nation at large had it not been for his achievement 
during the Civil War. Using the revolving turret patents of Theo- 
dore Ruggles Timby, he combined a structure with all machinery 
below the water line, leaving the turrets alone exposed to attack. 
This small vessel, known as the Monitor, called in derision "The 



TM 2000-25 


Yankee Cheese -Box," in its victory over the Merrimae made Ericsson 
famous in a day. 

The navy and merchant marine. — This caused a revolution in 
naval development among the world powers, increasing the effective- 
ness of fighting ships, thereby greatly strengthening the offensive 
and defensive forces of nations in proportion to their naval tonnage. 

Through the genius of John Ericsson, the modern navy and mer- 
chant marine has become one of the greatest factors in the develop- 
ment and security of nations. 

70. Maj. Walter Reed, conqueror of yellow fever. — Maj. 
Walter Reed, a surgeon in the United States Army, conducted a long 
series of experiments in Cuba and discovered the source of yellow 
fever to be in the Stigomyia mosquito. The dream of his youth had 
been to bo permitted to alleviate in some degree the sufferings of 
humanity, and all his efforts, without a thought of self, were spent 
in striving toward this goal. Within a few months after this dis- 
covery, Habana, which had been ravaged by this disease for more 
than 150 years, was cleared of the disease. 

71. Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas, conqueror of malaria. — 
Through the efforts of Maj. Gen. William C. Gorgas, who was in 
command of the medical and sanitary organizations of the United 
States Army in Panama, this pestiferous district was converted into 
a healthy region. The French enterprise on the Isthmus of Panama 
was completely wrecked by the fevers common to that region; 75 per 
cent of the employees from France died from the disease within a few 
months after they had landed on the Isthmus. As a result of the 
intensive efforts of Doctor Gorgas the situation was conquered and 
Panama has become one of the healthiest spots on the continent. 


What is the value of biography? 

What in general were the ideals and accomplishments of the great 
Americans i 

Describe briefly the influence of George Washington on the Nation. 

Who was Benjamin Franklin and in what way did he influence the 
development of the country ? 

In what way did John Marshall contribute to national welfare? 

What advantages did Thomas Jefferson secure for the United 
States by making the Louisiana Purchase ? 

Against what modern movements did Daniel Webster counsel? 

To what principal task did Abraham Lincoln set himself? 

Who was Daniel Boone, and what did he accomplish ? 




As the result of the expedition of Capt. George Rogers Clark in 
the Northwest Territory, what States were added to the Union? 

What was achieved by the expedition of Lewis and Clark? 

How did the efforts of the Rev, Marcus Whitman terminate in 
reference to the Oregon country ? 

Who was Gen. John C. Fremont and of what value were his 


Who were the real conquerors of the West? 

What were the main steps in our national development accom- 
plished by far-seeing American statesmen? 

What principal changes were brought about by Whitney's inven- 
tion of the cotton gin ? 

What was Whitney's greatest invention? Why? 

What were the principal contributions of Robert Fulton in modern 

Who invented the telegraph? 

Who improved and amplified this invention? 

For what are we indebted to Capt. John Ericsson? 

Who made the discovery that stopped the ravages of yellow fever 

the world over ? , 

Who eradicated tropical anemia and malignant malaria from 




TM 2000-35 



^, . • . • • Paragranb 
The colonial spirit 72 

Colonists largely representative 73 

A continent to conquer 74 

Limited facilities. 

Chief pursuits, agriculture and seafaring. 
The federation of the colonies 75 

Encouraged by constitutional provisions 76 

The money clause. 
The post-office clause. 
The commerce clause. 
The taxing clause. 
The naturalization clause. 
Fixed terms of office. 

Free land and opportunity 77 

"Westward Ho!" 

Influence of the Civil War 78 

Capital control 79 

Need for cheap labor. 

The new immigration. 

Citizen control 80 

Adaptation to abnormal conditions 81 

Labor advancement 82 

Mass production and high wages 83 

Steady employment 84 

Intensive efforts of industry 85 

The rreditor Nation 86 

Production the basis of wealth and wages 87 

Mechanized industry 88 

Higher self-appreciation 89 

Employee becomes employer 90 

High standards of living — — — 91 

Ability to purchase. 

Is America worth saving? 92 

72. The colonial spirit. — Three hundred years ago America was 
a wilderness. Her total white population consisted of a few hundred 
men, women, and children, established in several small communities 
along the Atlantic seaboard. For the most part they were a God- 
fearing people, led to America by the vision of a new land in which 
they could work out ideals and visions inspired by their deep re- 
ligious convictions. Along with these groups were others of more 


TMi 2000-25 



worldly persuasion, who came in the spirit of adventure or to escape 
political conditions, which, in the changing reign of the rulers of 
England, made their move advisable. 

73. Colonists largely representative. — As a whole the colo- 
nists were largely representative of the life, thought, and aspirations 
of that period; they were not supermen and women any more than 
they were of the vicious type. They were moved by the impulses 
common to humanity, chief of which is always that of self-pres- 

74. A continent to conquer. — Here they found a vast and 
unknown continent in the possession of roving tribes of Indians; a 
wilderness of great forests, mighty rivers, and boundless prairies. 
Their's for the taking, if they possessed the ability and courage to 
conquer the all but insurmountable obstacles and dangers. 

Limited facilities. — Forced by lack of any other means than those 
contained in hand and brain; lacking all facilities of communication, 
transportation, or manufacture, other than such contrivances as the 
sailing vessel, the ax, spinning wheel, wooden plow, and flint-lock 
rifle, their progress in the first 150 years was necessarily slow and 

Chief pursuits, agriculture and seafaring. — The colonists labored 
under the burden of heavy restrictions imposed by the mother country 
which prevented the establishment of home industries. As their 
first occupation they engaged in tilling the soil that they might have 
food and clothing. 

During her first 150 years of existence, America grew to be a 
people of some 3,000,000 souls and was forced to confine her develop- 
ment to agriculture and seafaring pursuits. Building up a sea- 
faring trade, she transported the raw material of the new land 
to England, France, Holland, and Spain, there to be exchanged for 
the necessities of life not produced by their own handicraft. 

75. The federation of the colonies. — Industrial progress came 
with the establishment of the new Nation, "The United States of 
America." Lacking capital, other than that of character, courage, and 
concentrated labor, the bankrupt colonies were welded into a union 
of action which has led our Nation by successive stages to its present 
attainments, the marvel and wonder of modern time. 

76. Encouraged by constitutional provisions. — In the Gov- 
ernment set up under the Constitution provision was made for a 
freedom of action which gives full play to every citizen in the exer- 
cise of his rights and powers. The wisdom of the law of our land 
is emphasized with each passing year. The remarkable economic 



TM 3000-35 

development of America is based upon the liberties and restrictions 
granted as the equal right of all her citizens. Outstanding among 
these provisions are — 

The money clause. — The money clause establishes credit through 
the sole power vested in the Federal Government to coin money, 
incur national obligations through issue of bonds or notes of in- 
debtedness, establishment of our national bank, and later our Federal 
reserve bank system, forbidding any State from incurring financial 
obligations with foreign powers or other States. 

The post-office clause. — The post-office clause, through which com- 
munication is regulated between the States and with the world at 
large, is a duty alone of the National Government. In this clause 
are found the rules and regulations governing mail, telegraph and 
telephone lines, and the radio. Strict regulations hold all account- 
able for matter transmitted by mail, as to its truthful or fraudulent 
character; rates are fixed by the Government with equal application 

to all. 

The commerce clause. — The commerce clause set up an agency of 
exceptional worth by reason of the freedom granted in interstate 
traffic, the elimination of barriers, duties, or restrictions which might 
otherwise be created in exchange, sale, and shipment from State to 
State. Citizens of any State have equal rights as citizens of the 
United States, subject only to such local laws as apply to all citizens 
of the State within which business is transacted. 

The taxing clause. — The taxing clause permits taxes to be levied 
for the requirements of government only; such taxes to be uniform 
in application and subject to revision as necessity governs. 

The naturalization clause. — The naturalization clause establishes 
one class of citizens only; with equality to all and privilege to none. 
Under this and the immigration acts our Nation is assured a strength 
and unity of purpose and action and an equality of citizenship that 
could not otherwise be attained. 

Fixed terms of office. — Fixed terms of office: Our system of gov- 
ernment by which definite terms of office are assured gives stability 
to business in the fact that in no crisis can an administration be 
overthrown in a day, through dissolution of Congress or the resigna- 
tion of the Cabinet. Parties may rise and fall without serious effect 
upon our economic life. 

77. Free land and opportunity. — Other important factors in 
our economic development were free land and diversified natural 
resources. In these America has been particularly blessed. Lack 
of capital prevented none from making progress in America. For 


TM '2000-25 


the first 250 years the immigrant to our shores knew that the door of 
opportunity was wide open. Landing with barely enough money to 
pay transportation to this chosen destination, and with no hindrance 
other than that of being a stranger in a new country, both land and 
employment were to bo had for the asking. 

Westward Ho! — Through the liberality of our Government and 
the vast and areas open for settlement there was established and 
developed the largest and richest agricultural territory now under 
cultivation in the world. For nearly 100 years following the War 
of Independence the cry was "Westward Ho!" By families and 
by groups the creaking ox-drawn schooners wended their way slowly 
toward the setting sun. Driving the Indians and wild game before 
them, they cut the forest, broke the sod, planted, harvested, built 
home, school, church, and town, preparing the way for tho next step 
in our progress — the railroad. 

78. Influence of the Civil War. — Before any great railroad 
development had taken place the peaceful life of our country was 
interrupted by the Civil War. It is questionable if that struggle, 
with its frightful loss of life and treasure, would ever have taken 
place had railroads been constructed linking the North and the 
South. In 1860 there were only some 30,000 miles of railroad in 
America, nearly all of which ran east and west, by reason of the fact 
that our great rivers flow from the north to the south, and our rail- 
roads could not then compete with river transportation. In 1860 no 
railroad was built farther west than the Mississippi River. West of 
that stream the country was almost entirely given over to the great 
herds of buffalo and roving Indians. 

With the close of the Civil War the impetus given industry by the 
necessity of making war materials, the development of steel, and a 
growing appreciation of the value of rail transportation caused a 
marked advance in our economic life. Tho acquaintance of masses 
of men from every section of tho country and the close ties formed 
by their association through the war added its force to the awakening 
of a new era. 

79. Capital control. — Capital saw great opportunity for profit 
through development of our vast natural resources. Foreign capital 
was attracted. Combinations were formed. These groups were able 
to obtain concessions and rights, quickly developing a power of con- 
trol over industry which placed in the hands of a comparative few 
the economic life of America. 

Need for cheap labor. — With capital consolidated, only labor was 
required for this exploitation of our natural resources. America was 



TM 3000-25 

too vast in area and too small in population to furnish the labor. By 
then-existing immigration laws the doors were open — the world 
might enter. Capital needed labor, and it must be cheap labor. 

The new immigration. — "The man with the hoe" was invited and 
urged to find in free America his great opportunity. He came by 
thousands, then tens and hundreds of thousands. 

The former class of immigrant had come to America to take up 
land and become farmers and builders of homes and communities. 
They were followed by the thousands who worked in the noise and 
sweat of our great steel mills, in our coal mines, and in the factories 
which quickly built up within our cities large congested areas, with 
great sections almost entirely composed of single nationalities. Labor 
was exploited, voted, worked, or left unemployed. 

80. Citizen control. — Following the war with Spain in 1898 a 
change was inaugurated. Led by far-seeing men who recognized the 
danger to our free Government in the increasing power of capital, 
the people developed a system of control through Congress which 
broke or checked its combinations. Industry had greatly developed 
during this period. Wealth had been amassed as never before. Yet 
(he economic life of America had suffered — equality of opportunity 
was largely restricted and classes with intense class hatred were 

81. Adaptation to abnormal conditions. — In 1917 there came 
a national emergency. One class alone — the "American citizen" — 
took precedence. America astounded the world with her ability to 
adapt herself to abnormal conditions, converting her peacetime fac- 
tories and equipment to war-time requirements. 

82. Labor advancement. — During the World War the wage 
earner learned to put his excess money into Liberty bonds. He 
caught the idea of investment, acquired the habit of systematic saving, 
discovered the strength that lies in consolidating the small savings of 
the many. He began to understand the meaning of capital, lost his 
fear of it, and found a way to have a part in its benefits. 

83. Mass production and high wages. — The conclusion of the 
war found America committed to mass production, mass cooperation, 
and mass saving. These were some of the blessings that accrued out 
of the hell of war. Industry awakened to the astonishing fact that 
high wages to labor increased rather than diminished profits, by the 
simple process of increasing the buying power of millions of em- 

84. Steady employment. — Industry learned the value of steady 
employment. It sought ways of regulating production to give work 


m. eooo-39 



the year around. Seasonal employment ate up savings, weakened 
buying power, destroyed credit, increased cost of production caused 
by idle equipment and accumulated stocks. 

85. Intensive efforts of industry. — Industry set up research 
bureaus, stimulated inventors, chemists, and scientists to greater 
efforts in a search for better machines and methods, the elimination 
of waste in materials, and in developing by-products therefrom. 
Through these intensive efforts production per man power has been 
largely increased, new products created, markets enlarged, and indus- 
try stimulated. 

86. The creditor Nation. — In the earlier history of American 
industry foreign capital was invested by millions of dollars in our 
great enterprises. We were a debtor Nation. To-day we are the 
creditor Nation. 

87. Production the basis of wealth and wages. — There is 
no actual wealth in materials, metal, or money until they are adjusted 
to the use, needs, or wants of mankind. Production is the basis of 

In no other country do wages approach the sum paid the individual 
workman of America. The contributing factors to this highly satis- 
factory situation are summed up in the word "production." Ameri- 
can production per man power ranges from two and one-half to thirty 
times that of other nations. 

88. Mechanized industry. — Industry in America is mechanized 
and specialized to a degree not approached by any other country. 
Our automatic labor-saving and power-driven machinery is the 
wonder of Europe. Our mass production, made possible by special 
machinery and highly trained operators, astounds the world with its 
magnitude, quality, and low cost. 

89. Higher self-appreciation. — Modern methods of industry 
discipline the lazy, wasteful, and disloyal workmen; speed up pro- 
duction; work out short cuts; improve quality; and eliminate waste; 
thereby contributing largely to lower costs through greater efficiency. 
At the same time there is engendered a higher appreciation in the 
employee of his worth to himself, his employer, and his country. 

90. Employee becomes employer. — A keener sense of pride 
awakens ambition, a quickened intellect inspires study, a broader 
view of life reveals opportunity, creates hew desires expressed in 
higher living standards and a rapidly growing participation in in- 
dustry as a partner thranngh puschase of stock in difSaRmtteoritaprisos. 
Through quickened intelligence and systematic saving, the employee 
of to-day becomes the employer of to-morrow. At a dinner in New 



TM 3000-25 


York given in 1927 to a group of British workers investigating 
American industry, every American captain of industry present save 
one came up from the overall stage. 

91. High standards of Uving. — Human needs are few by com- 
parison with human wants. Were it not for ever-increasing desires 
for the comforts, conveniences, and luxuries of life, modern industry 
would be unable to sustain itself. Civilization is the result of 
human demands, the combination of spiritual and material aspira- 
tions. In no other nation have these aspirations been so fully 

The standard of living established by any group or nation is based 
upon the distribution of wealth. The closer together we bring the 
extremes of wealth and poverty, the higher the attainments and 
general welfare of the people. 

Ability to purchase. — Power of consumption is based upon the 
ability to purchase and pay for the desired commodities. In Amer- 
ica the employee receives 72 per cent and the employer 28 per cent 
of the income of industry, constituting a range of wealth distribu- 
tion which fixes our living standards at the highest point known in 
the world. 

92. Is America worth saving? — The remarkable development 
of American industry has proven beneficial to all — not only to 
employer and employee, but also to the world. 

America has amassed unbelievable wealth which is being spent for 
the good of mankind. In its large range of distribution it has fixed 
our standards of living at the highest point known to civilization. 

We may therefore answer — Yes! America is well worth saving! 


What facilities for economic development were available to the 
early colonists? 

What were their chief pursuits? Explain. 

In what manner did the Government, set up under the Constitution, 
encourage economic development? 

Name other important factors in our economic development. 

Describe the impetus given to our industries by the Civil War. 

What led to the demand for "cheap labor"? 

In what way did "the new immigration" compare with the 

How did the people control industry? 

Explain America's adaptation to abnormal conditions during the 
World War. 


TU 2000-25 


Describe the benefits to labor through high wages and steady 

How do research bureaus aid industry? 

What is meant by the "creditor nation"? 

Upon what does prosperity depend? Explain. 

Is mechanized industry beneficial to the people? 

How do modern methods of industry affect labor ? 

What are some of the benefits of mechanized industry ? 

How do America's standards of living compare with those of other 

What is the range of wealth distribution in America? 

What conditions and qualities have made possible the creation of 
the great wealth of America? 

What can you do to assist in the further economic development of 

Is America worth saving? Why? 



Tar 2000-25 




Mankind a mass of individual ego 93 

Two forms of government 94 

Collectivistic government 95 

"Equality of condition." 

Denial of personal rights. 

Confiscation of private property. 

Religion outlawed. 

Abolition of the family. 

"SociaHsm" kills. 
Individualistic government 96 

"Equality of opportunity." 

Right to private property. 

Economic freedom. 

Political rights. 

Protection to home and family. 

Respect for religion. 

An American institution 97 

Constitutional guaranties 98 

Aristocracy of brains 99 

The four fs 100 




The price of success 101 



The citizen's privilege 102 

93. Mankind a mass of individual ego. — Psychology and 

social science have discovered that mankind is made up of a mass of 
individual ego, each revealing similar characteristics of instincts, 
idiosyncrasies, and manifestations of selfish interests — in the control 
of which his intelligence has developed forms of government. 

From earliest childhood self-assertion, self-determination, self- 
preservation manifest themselves. 

It is human nature for the strong to take advantage of the weak, 
whether it be strength of body, strength of mind, or strength of a 

110834°— 28- 


TU 2000-2S 


group; that group may be a minority in numbers, yet all-powerful 
by reason of the forces under its control. 

The chief purpose of government is that of controlling this instinct 
and directing it into channels through which society will gain the 
greatest benefit. 

94. Two forms of government. — One form of government gives 
the State the supreme control and places all its citizens upon a 
common level of "equal condition"; the other recognizes the rights 
of the individual as greater than the government, and emphasizes 
the superiority of "equality of opportunity" in contrast with "equal- 
ity of condition." 

95. CoUectivistic government. — "Equality of condition". — 
In this system of government stress is laid upon the proposition that 
"all men are created equal," meaning that no man has a right to 
that which is denied to another; that any system of government fail- 
ing to meognize fflmdl sQnf&rnnttotMEs""i^^P is liinrong, and there- 
fore an enemy of society and a foe of mankind. 

The ignorant, illiterate, physically and mentally deficient, the 
lazy, improvident, and reckless have equal right with the alert, 
aggressive, busy, educated, high-minded, orderly citizen who aspires 
to the best and is willing to pay the price of attainment through 
self-discipline, hard work, and careful management. 

It is not in human nature to recognize "equality of condition" 
except to acquire a personal advantage. One may be willing to 
divide another's property with the third and fourth individual pro- 
viding the share remaining to him is something more than he 
formerly possessed. 

Denial of personal rights. — "Collectivism" is the denial of per- 
sonal rights. The State (community) becomes the chief concern of 
all. It claims that the "law of equality," once applied, would destroy 
every human desire for individual dominance, making society safe, 
content, comfortable, and happy. 

This "ideal" is to be accomplished by the application of force 
under the direction of leaders, in the selection of whom the people 
will have little or no choice. It is necessary, at first, to enforce 
the will of community interests until the people become educated and 
submissive to the new order. 

Denied all personal rights "collectivism" gives its "instructions" 
where to live, where to work, what to do, what to think, and what to 
say. for the State is the law. 

Confiscation of private property. — "Collectivism" declares that 
the possession of property has developed protection of property 



TM 2000-35 

through governments, courts, police power, and public opinion, 
making it difficult for one to acquire private property except by 
work. Private property must be abolished so that all will live on a 
plane of "equal condition." As a matter of fact, however, "human 
nature" will see to it that the "equal condition" will very quickly 
become an equal condition of misery, want, and discontent. 

Religion outlawed. — The collectivistic government proceeds 
against "imperialism" by outlawing the church. The church at the 
behest of capital "fed the people the opium of religion," making 
them willing slaves to do the will of their capitalistic masters. In the 
interest of the new order there must be left no place for religion, lest 
the people gain courage to throw off the yoke of their new-found 

Abolition of the family. — With personal rights, private property, 
and tho church abolished, to make subjection complete "the state" 
declares that in pure "collectivism" there can be no family ties, for 
children, like all other property, are an asset of the community and 
must be robbed of family love and obligation as a necessary step to 
loyalty to the state. Marriage may be practiced if conscience insists, 
but is not demanded in the interest of the new society, for with the 
abolishment of personal rights, private property, church, and home, 
society no longer possesses a moral, ethical, or spiritual code. 

"Socialism" kills. — The doctrine of "socialism "is "collectivism." 
It tears down the social structure, weakens individual responsibility 
by subjection to or reliance upon the state in all material, social, and 
political matters. It compels the thought that at his best man is no 
better than the worst; he loses his self-respect and his keener sense 
of moral and ethical values. Ambition is nullified by restriction of 
choice in occupation and reward of attainment. Initiative, the very 
backbone of all progress, is smothered in the morass of impersonal 
service, mass servility, and mob inertia. 

"Socialism" aims to save individuals from the difficulties or hard- 
ships of the stmggle for existence and the competition of life through 
calling upon the state to carry the burden for them. 

"Equality of condition," the ruling law of "collectivism," is the 
death knell alike to individual liberty, justice, and progress through 
the destruction of individual and national character. 

When the citizens of a nation, seeking comforts and pleasures, find 
no joy or satisfaction in hard work, the years of that nation are 
numbered. Free bread and the circus marked the declining days of 
Home. A surfeit of food, clothes, comfortable homes, and much time 




for idleness can easily become the first step to the overthrow of 
civilization. ' 

96. IndividuaUstic government. — "Equality of opportu- 
nity" — "Equality of opportunity" carries with it the absolute right 
of every man to keep what is his own. There can be no confiscation 
of property without due process of law and just recompense to the 
rightful owner. Upon this foundation have been based most of the 
great accomplishments of the pastas well as assurance for still greater 

Right to private property. — Each citizen enjoys the right to pri- 
vate property. Granted the privilege of working for one's self ambi- 
tion is ffiied, initiatihpe is endQunageiS^ Udbnr is nott mg^jiticted, and the 
hard thinker and hard worker gets the reward denied the lazy and 
indifferent, creating thereby classes, caste, poverty, and wealth. 

Economic freedom. — The individualistic form of government, pro- 
motes and guards the individual amid the difficulties and hardships 
of his struggle for existence and in the competitions of life. 

The workman is protected because the nation needs his labor and 
the employer is protected because the nation needs his industry. 

The productive power of free initiative has full play and a sure 
reward. Under its protection he finds joy and satisfaction in the 
fruits of his labor. There is incentive to invention, improvement, and 
the establishment of families and homes. 

Political rights. — It protects the citizen in his personal freedom. 
Equal political rights are assured. He has a voice in the Govern- 
ment which is "of the people, for the people, and by the people." 

When a people are free to undertake things and take advantage of 
the opportunities open to them wealth, character, and national 
strength are developed. 

Protection to home and family. — The social unit of civilization is 
the family. Under this form of government the institution of mar- 
riage and the rights of childhood are respected, the home and the 
family are protected, and womanhood is inviolable. 

Respect for religion. — The "individualistic" form of government 
believes in the exercise of religious freedom and shows tolerance 
toward and respect for all religious beliefs. 

The American Government rests upon the deep religious convictions 
of her people. If it is to continue it will be through unceasing respect 
for and confidence in the nobler things of life. 

97. An American institution. — In the governments of the Old 
World, conditions which built up a fixed caste system and created an 
impassable barrier between certain groups of society gave exceptional 



TM 2000-25 

advantages to the favored and denied to the masses all but a bare 

The early settlers of America, who came to escape the oppression 
of this order of society, at first incorporated into the local govern- 
ments of the Colonies the policy of religious intolerance and class 
mle. It required 150 years of local experiment in colonial govern- 
ment before the inalienable rights of mankind were sufficiently under- 
stood and evaluated to develop the necessary public opinion and 
power to change the prevailing form of "State" government to that 
of a "Republican" form, under which "equality of opportunity" 
became an American institution. 

"Individualism," an experiment in government, was unknown 
prior to the independence of America, and has proved its worth by 
its marked achievements. 

It tolerated no restriction, recognized no exceptions, and demanded that the 
son of the farmer or frontiersman have the some opportunity as the son of the 
merchant prince or land-owning aristocrat. 

98. Constitutional guaranties. — The American citizen knows 
that he and his children may attain any goal to which intelligence, 
courage, and ability may lead. No overlord will ever bother or 
hinder their advancement. No succession to power or property is 
vested in titles of nobility to be transmitted through succeeding gen- 
erations to favored families. The rich of to-day may be the wage 
earners of to-morrow, while the story of the rise of the exceedingly 
poor to affluence and power is as common as it is true. 

The young American's future depends upon himself. He may in- 
herit a fortune; his sense and ability alone will enable him to keep it. 
He may be born in the cabin of the miner or the shack of the 
mountaineer, yet if within him there burns the unquenchable fires of 
ambition, courage, and indomitable will there are none who may stop 
him on the road to success. 

No person shall * * * be deprived of life, liberty, or property without 
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use without 
just compensation. — Constitution of the United States. 

99. Aristocracy of brains. — The only aristocracy that America 
will ever recognize is that of "brains" — "the tools to him who can 
handle them." The tribute in honor and the reward in wealth 
accorded to brains in this land of opportunity are not equaled in any 
other country. Brains ask for no "equality of condition," want 
only "equality of opportunity." 

100. The four "I's." — Socially, economically, politically, the 
world is rapidly changing and in its evolution it requires for its 


OM 2000-25 


leadership men of individuality, independence, initiative and intelli- 

Individuality. — Under the guaranties given by the Constitution 
there has been developed in the American character a striking indi- 
viduality, which stamps him an American wherever he may be 
found. It is that quality which inspired him to the conquest of the 
great American wilderness and the development of her resources. 
The urge of individuality has driven him in every undertaking 
not only for pecuniary reward but for the equal reward of stamping 
his achievement with his own personality. This distinctive bearing 
of the American commands attention and wins the confidence of all. 

Conscious of his own strength, he asks no other favor than 
equal opportunity. When he marries he seeks no dower with his 
bride. He accepts his place in life with dignity born in the con- 
sciousness of his own power to better it. Be it ever so humble, 
his home is marked with his personality. His children bear the 
impress of his character, giving assurance that life can contain no 
difficulties too great for them to master. His is the consciousness 
of the free born, whether born in the crowded tenement of a con- 
gested city, the lonely prairie home of a western farmer, or within 
the sumptuous palace of a millionaire. Imbued with the spirit of 
the Nation, he stands upon his own feet and gladly enlists as a 
soldier in the battle of life. 

Independence. — The American is the personification of independ- 
ence. He asks no favors of government or men. He demands his 
rights and is always ready to uphold them. He has cultivated the 
habit of self-reliance and is ready to undertake any legitimate enter- 
prise which, in his judgment, has a reasonable chance of success. 
Resourceful and unafraid, he has ventured into every field of en- 
deavor, cheerfully paying the cost of his failure and as cheerfully 
sharing with others the rewards of his success. In the spirit of 
independence America has won her way to leadership in times of 
peace, and in times of war to a place of honor and respect among the 

Initiative. — Out of independence has grown a force of individual 
initiative which has made our great achievements possible. Initia- 
tive might well be termed the generator from which has come the 
power for all our accomplishments. Tradition looks always to that 
which is old in habits, customs, culture, government, institutions, 
families, and structures. Initiative is forever putting off the old 
and putting on the new. It is the mother of creative genius, ex- 
pressed in science and invention. 



TM 2000-35 


Without initiative, civilization would first stagnate, then fall 

rapidly into dissolution. 

In no community in the world is freedom of initiative enjoyed as 

fully as in America. Government, laws, customs, traditions operate 

to enhance that freedom. 

Intelligence. — So far our minds have grasped each successive prob- 
lem afld IflHfld fis fe thi means ef maesdang eaeh ada§9 gSffl]^lg51^ 
of modern civilization. With multiplied wants and ever-expanding 
fields of endeavor, the demand for intelligence increases. Machines 
are taking the place of hands, increasing production, shortening hours 
of labor, eliminating the exhaustion of toil, giving more time to self- 
betterment, recuperation, and recreation. 

Markets become world-wide, competition grows keener, interna- 
tional affairs demand care and diplomacy; nations are awakening; 
tho magic of science in transportation and communication has made 
us largely a family of nations with divergent aspirations, varied 

needs, and growing demands for self-expression. 

lOI. The price of success. — The price of success, whether of 
individual or nation, is found in work, education, and ideals. 

Work. — The world grows more busy with each passing year. Its 
machinery is never idle. Its burdens are too great to be encumbered 
with dead weight. Backward individuals and backward nations 
will surely be crushed beneath the Juggernaut we call civilization, 
unless they take a more active and intelligent part in its affairs. 

There is more and greater work to be done with each succeeding 
generation. The achievements of individuals in the past are a chal- 
lenge to the youth of to-day. There are still further fields of explo- 
ration, adventure, and accomplishment, and a multitude of past 
achievements to be perfected. Every man possessed of the will to 

work finds his opportunity awaiting him. 

Education. — Education he must have. The time is past when hope 
of success can be offered to the ignorant. With each succeeding year 
the necessity for special accomplishments and particular fitness is 
more pronounced. Science has so far advanced as to become broken 
into many divisions, each requiring special training. Applied to 
every branch of government, industry, and even society, the demand 
is for education, that intelligence may be developed and applied to its 
full capacity; for in no other way may progress be assured, and 

progress is the purpose of life. 

Ideals. — Work and education are not sufficient to equip either the 
individual or nation for the accomplishment of the purposes of life. 
There must also be the inspiration and governing force of ideals. 


ITU 2000-25 



Without ideals there Can be no lasting achievements. Without ideals 
there can be neither understanding, tolerance, justice, nor brother" 
hood between individuals or nations. Without high ideals there can 
be no worth-while aspirations, no true nobility of character, no spirit 
of unselfish service, all of which are essential to real progress. 

102. The citizen's privilege. — Emerson said, "Hitch your 
wagon to a star." The citizen should demand of himself and for 
himself tho best that life affords, and devote his energies in an ever- 
growing measure to public service, for the real joy of life is service 
to our fellow men. 

This is the land of "equality of opportunity." The citizen alone 
can determine the measure of his participation in freedom's field. 
What he does and how he does it will be dependent upon his will to 
work, the thoroughness of his education, and the quality of his ideals. 

' We are a country of 118,000,000 people, speaking one language, having an 
enormous consuming power and an adequate transportation system for prompt 
distribution. We are not restricted within our wide limits by artificial barriers. 
We produce where it is most advantageous and distribute to the consumer 
where he may live. Here in the East we may eat the apples and use the 
timber from the Northwest, and the Pacific slope may buy cotton cloth from the 
Carolinas and motors from Detroit. Nowhere in the world does there exist 
so large, so varied, and so unrestricted a market as the United States. 

There is a force underlying these factors and one which to me is all im- 
portant. I mean the initiative and energy of the American people. We are 
wilHng to work. We have that divine restlessness which will not permit us to 
accept things as they are but drives us to find something better. We are con- 
stantly improving our machinery, our methods, ourselves. Here no man accepts 
the level into which he has been born as fixing his status for life. Ability is 
quickly recognized; to rise is easy. * * * There is movement, not fixation, 
in our life in America. — Andrew W. Mellon, Secretary of the Treasury. 


What is the chief purpose of government ? 

What is the fundamental principle of "coUectivists" government? 

Describe four of the principal elements of "collectivism." 

What is the general effect of "socialism"? Describe. 

Should the government provide the means of livelihood? State 

Has any government the right to restrict the exercise of the power 
of individual initiative? 

What is the fundamental principle of "individualistic" govern- 


TM 2000-25 


Name and describe five of the principal elements of "individual- 
istic" government. 

Explain tho origin of "individualism" as an experiment in gov- 

In what manner does the Constitution guarantee political, eco- 
nomic, and social freedom for the American citizen ? 

Name four characteristics of the American character. 

What determines the success either of an individual or a nation? 

In what way are high ideals essential to real progress ? 

State the synonym for "America." 

What responsibility does freedom of initiative place upon the 
American citizen? 


Ot 2000-35 

1 103 




Historical background 103 

Slow development of necessary knowledge 101 

The Declaration of Independence, a protest 105 

Independence of the Colonies. 

Its enemies. 

Liberty defined 106 

Fundamental law. 

Personal liberty 107 

Freedom of action. 
Religious liberty 108 

Separation of church and state. 

Religion and national defense. 
Freedom of speech and press 109 



Restriction of abuses. 
Economic liberty 110 

Property rights safeguarded. 
Political liberty HI 

Equal participation. 
Safeguards to our liberties 112 

103. Historical background. — The historical background of 
liberty and independence is the story of the human race in every stage 
of its development and in every corner of the earth. It is told in the 
ages-old pyramids of Egypt, builded upon the backs of human 
slaves; in the philosophies of Plato and Socrates; and uncovered 
in the catacombs of Rome. In the German forests it was planted 
deep in the hearts of Saxon and Norman, and there given its first 
real semblance of form. 

England, in the days of the Saxon and Norman conquest, in the 
time of Cromwell and Elizabeth, laid a still broader foundation upon 
which to build the structure of self-government. 

Slowly there was evolved an appreciation of government incorpo- 
ration of the rights of individuals into fixed laws or practices. Yet 
there remained the iron heel of government to crush those whose 



TM 3000-J15 

demand for independence and liberty exceeded that granted by the 
will of the ruling King or Parliament. 

104. Slo-w development of necessary kno-wledge. — It re- 
mained, however, a work still to be accomplished at the time of the 
first settlements in America, where in the next 150 years slow progress 
was to be made in developing the necessary knowledge upon which 
liberty and independence could safely rest. 

105, The Declaration of Independence, aprotest. — The Dec- 
laration of Independence was a protest against the abridgment of 
such rights as the colonists claimed as subjects of the British 
Crown. Their anger was directed against Parliament rather than 
the King because restrictions were placed by law upon the colonists 
which were not imposed upon citizens of Great Britain residing in 
the mother country. These operated solely for the benefit of the 
long-established home government and institutions. Spurred by the 
spirit of independence engendered through the bitter experiences and 
necessary self-reliance required in their century-and-a-half battle 
to conquer the American wilderness, and fired by the indignities and 
injustice to which they had long been compelled to submit, they 
threw off the yoke of oppression and set up a government that would 
forever guard them against tyranny, however it might seek to 
impose its will. 

When in the Course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people 
to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and 
to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to 
which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitled them, a decent respect 
to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which 
impel them to the separation — We hold these truths to bo self-evident, that 
all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain 
unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of 

And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm reliance on tho protec- 
tion of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our 
Fortunes and our sacred Honor — Declarationof Independence. 

No man sought or wished for more than to defend his own. None hoped 
to plunder or spoil * * * and we all know that it could not have lived a 
single day under any well-founded imputation of passion. — Webster. 

Independence of the Colonies. — The American Colonies did not 
become free and independent until they were strong enough to 
throw off the yoke of the oppressor; strong enough to set up and 
control their own Government through the voice of the people; 
strong enough to protect and defend their country from aggression 
whether from within or without. 


TM 8000-25 



Its enemies. — The "enemies within" who would make the Declara- 
tion of Independence a mockery play one group of Americans against 
another. They fan the flames of prejudice. They magnify fancied 
evils of injustices to the ignorant. They distort its language to suit 
their own ends so cleverly that many of the less informed follow them 
in the name of Americanism. 

Its survival. — Every American citizen must be constantly on guard 
if the principles set forth in the Declaration of Independence are to 

106. Liberty defined. — There are two kinds of liberty — absolute 
liberty: That of the savage, in which any individual may act as he 
pleases; and civil liberty: That of a civilized community in which 
human actions are regulated by law for the good of all — subject only 
to such restraints as a solemn and tolerant judgment determines to 
be essential. 

Political liberty is no other than natural liberty so far restrained by human 
laws and no further, as is necessary and expedient for the general advan- 
tage of the pubHc. — Blackstone. 

Liberty does not free the people from the necessity for control, but 
it places a heavy burden of responsibility upon the individual for 
self-control. It is not license to do as one pleases. Through devel- 
oped "intelligence" man has power to control his baser and more 
selfish instincts, compelling their exercise and restriction in the in- 
terest of society. 

Minority control exercises its will until such time as general in- 
telligence becomes sufficiently informed to establish an order of so- 
ciety with a larger and more even distribution of benefit to all, and 
the law of will (force) is supplanted by the law of reason. 

As defined in the Preamble to the Constitution, liberty is the ab- 
sence of arbitrary human restraints upon personal conduct other than 
those imposed by the authority of just laws, obedience to which is an 
essential part of it. 

Fundamental law. — The rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of 
happiness are beyond the right of any government to legally usurp 
or infringe. 

To secure this (liberty) is the main business of governments and the reason 
for their institution. If they fall in this they have failed in all. — Blackstone. 

These principles were written by our fathers into a constitution 
of government, for the first time in human history, when they wrote 
the Constitution and it became the fundamental law of a new nation 
dedicated to the proposition that "all men are created equal" and 



TM 2000-25 


that "government derives its just powers from the consent of the 


Equality. — What is meant by "equality" is clearly defined by 

Lincoln in his debate with Douglas. 

In responding to Douglas's question, "What do you mean — 'all men are 

created equal?'" Lincoln replied: 
I think the authors of that notable instrument intended to include all men, 

but they did not intend to declare all men equal in all respects. They did not 
mean to say all were equal in color, size, intellect, moral development, or social 
capacity. They defined with tolerable distinctness in what respect they did 
consider all men created equal — equal with "certain inahenable rights, among 
which are Hfe, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." This they said and this 
they meant. They did not mean to assert the obvious untruth that all were 
then actually enjoying that equality, nor yet that they were about to confer it 
immediately upon them. In fact, they had no power to confer such a boon. 
They simply meant to declare the right, so that enforcement of it might follow 
as fast as circumstances should permit. 

107. Personal liberty. — Freedom of action. — Every citizen is 
on an equal footing as to privileges and opportunity. Any denial 
of such rights results from either the limited ability of the indi- 
vidual to take full advantage of opportunity, or because of prejudices 
in no way a part of the ruling law of our land. 

Born free citizens, or acquiring that right through naturalization, 
we have full freedom of action — without infringement upon the 
rights of others — to reside or travel at home or abroad under the 
protection and with all privileges accorded by our Government, 
regardless of race, color, religion, or social station. 

Full opportunity is here given to every citizen to work out his own 
ideals and ideas. To the native born this privilege is accepted as a 
matter of no great significance, for he is wholly unfamiliar with the 
laws, traditions, and customs that direct and restrict individual 

action of citizens in foreign countries. 

The American citizen frequently changes his occupation. His 
very liberty keeps him on the alert for an opportunity to better his 
financial or social status. The change is one of occupation, not of 
personality; his pride and self-respect are not involved. 

108. Religious liberty. — No greater liberty was ever conferred 
on a people than that of freedom to worship according to the dictates 

of one's own conscience. 

The first amendment to the Constitution declares that "Congress 
shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibit 

the free exercise thereof." 

All persons have the privilege to entertain any religious belief, 

practice any religious rite, teach any religious doctrine, which is not 


TM 8000-25 



subversive of morality and does not interfere with the personal rights 
of others. 

However, this liberty can not be "invoked as a protection against 
legislation for the punishment of acts inimical to the peace, good 
order, and morals of society," because professed doctrines of religious 
belief are not superior to the laws of the land. No person is per- 
mitted to become a law unto himself, nor may he in the name of 
religion, or through a religious ceremony, violate the law. 

Religious liberty does not include the right to introduce and carry out every 
scheme or purpose which persons see fit to claim as a part of their religious 
system. While there is no legal authority to constrain belief, no one can law- 
fully stretch his own Hberty of action so as to interfere with that of his neigh- 
bors, or violate peace or good order. — United States Supreme Court 

Laws are made for the government of actions, and while they can not inter- 
fere with mere religious behefs and opinions, they may with practices. — United 
States Supreme Court 

Separation of church and state. — The separation of church and 
state is a fundamental principle of American Government. Neither 
is permitted to dictate to or exercise power over the other. In no 
other way can religious liberty be preserved. 

Religion and national defense. — There is no place for the doctrine 
of "noncooperation." Religious beliefs will not excuse any citizen 
from rendering service in the defense of the country, although Con- 
gress has power at its discretion to exempt him. 

109. Freedom of speech and press. — The right to act, to think, 
to speak, to print, is the surest way to protect the liberties, and con- 
tinue the full measure of independence which America so richly 
possesses. In these rights lies the means of creating a public opinion 
representative of the entire Nation. This liberty is indispensable to 
further social, economic, and political development. Clash of 
opinions creates interest and thought on all public questions. A 
realization of the force of public opinion expressed by the ballot, 
awakens a sense of responsibility that compels the best minds to give 
careful study to any subject that vitally concerns our Nation. 
Through the present means of communication, the people are daily 
informed in every matter of national or international import. 

Abuses. — This privilege does not permit the publication of libels 
or other matter injurious to public morals or private reputation. 
Like all liberties granted under the broad principles of the Constitu- 
tion, these rights are abused to the detriment of the best interests of 
the people. 

Propaganda. — Propaganda floods our country from every con- 
ceivable source. Active and vociferous agencies have been organized 



TM 3000-25 

for the express purpose of advancing doctrines absolutely not in 
accord with the fixed principles of our Nation. In the most persistent 
manner they seek to tear down rather than build, to destroy rather 
than improve. One of their most subtly dangerous features is that 
it is so camouflaged as to make it appear to have an innocent purpose. 

To prevent such activities during the World War, Congress found 
it necessary to pass the espionage act of 1917 for the safety of the 
State and the successful outcome of the struggle. 

We carefully supervise every agency whose business may in any 
degree affect the physical health of our people. Equal care should 
be exercised over all agencies which in any manner may affect our 

social, economic, or political life. 

Restriction of abuses. — There is no law in any state or nation that 
prohibits freedom of speech or press, but there are laws against the 
abuse of this right. Restrictions may be necessary for the preser- 
vation of public order and the protection of the State. While Con- 
gress is forbidden by the Constitution to abridge the freedom of 
speech or the press, the punishment of those who violate every prin- 
ciple of loyalty and patriotism modifies in no manner the constitu- 
tional provision. The law punishes because of the crime against the 
country and its citizens. 

The first amendment "can not have been, and obviously was not, intended to 
give immunity for every possible use of language." — Justice Holmes. 
Blackstone's maxims, which help to interpret the present limitation on speech 

and press: 

(Ij Between pubHc and private rights the pubHc rights must prevail. 

(2) Liberty to all, but preference to none. 

(3) Those offenses should be most severely punished which are most difficult 
to guard against 

110. Economic liberty. — Property rights safeguarded. — 
Under no other government are property rights of the individual so 
provided with safeguards' for their full protection. Property is at 
the base of civilization. Without incentive of right to its private 
possession and full protection against confiscation no progress would 
be made in material betterment. 

Economic liberty, the power of initiative, and the protection of 
property rights have developed a philosophy of life peculiar to 
America — the "dignity of work." Every American is expected to be 
a worker. 

Based upon the constitutional assurance of the security of prop- 
erty, finance and labor have joined in the creation of industry, mak- 
ing America the richest nation in the world. Her wealth has been 
distributed to the enrichment of her entire population. 


TM 2000-25 


111. Political liberty. — Equal participation. — The list of pub- 
lic-office holders in city, State, and Nation reveals the measure of 
political liberty granted in America. There are found representatives 
of practically every race in the world. They have been elected by the 
people as their able and honorable representatives. 

Every citizen enjoys the protection and benefits of our municipal. 
State, and National Governments. 

Any suggestion of racial or religious differences is frowned upon. 
It is the sincere wish of the majority that tolerance and understand- 
ing weld our people of all nationalities into a social, economic, and 
political unity for the purpose of developing a strong national char- 
acter and a race of men and women whose ideals and attainments 
shall be an inspiration and help to the peoples of all the earth. 

The greatest degree of political liberty is secured by wise laws 
properly enforced. Anarchy destroys liberty because it is lawlessness 
and confusion, and utter disregard of all government. 

112. Safeguards to our liberties. — By clinging to the ideas and 
ideals which animated the framers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, we can assure not only peace within, but national security 
and respect from other nations. 

When we fail to adequately comprehend the principles incident 
to our Government, its fundamental ideals which have made our 
Government, the United States of America faces anarchy and 

Let our object be our country, our whole country, and nothing but our country, 
and by the blessing of God may that country itself become a vast and splendid 
monument, not of oppression and terror, but of wisdom, of peace, and of liberty, 
upon which the world may gaze with admiration forever. — Webster, 


Describe the historical background of human liberty. 

What foundation is necessary for liberty and independence ? 

What was the Declaration of Independence? 

When are a people free and independent? 

How do the "enemies within" show disrespect for the Declaration 
of Independence? 

How, only, can the principles set forth in this document survive? 

Name and describe the two kinds of liberty. 

Does liberty mean freedom from control? Explain. 

How is liberty defined in the Preamble to the Constitution? By 
whom and when? 

Define personal liberty. 


TM 2000-35 


What is meant by religious liberty? 

Do religious beliefs excuse a citizen from rendering service in 

defense of the country? Explain. 
What is the relation of church and state? 
Is freedom of speech and press beneficial to our national life? 

What are some of its abuses? Describe. 

Can these abuses be restricted? How? 

State Blackstone's maxims which help interpret the present limita- 
tions on speech and press. 

What safeguards are given to property? 

What is meant by political liberty? 

By what instrumentality can the greatest degree of political lib- 
erty be secured? 

110834"— 28- 


rM 2000-25 





Progress of government 

Government by autocracy. 

Government of laws. 

Sources of the Constitution 

The purpose of government 

The Preamble to the Constitution 

"We, the people." 

"A more perfect Union." 


"Domestic tranquillity." 

"Common defense." 

"General welfare." 

"Blessings of liberty." 
The American philosophy of government- 





113. Progress of government. — In the beginning of human 
history, with needs and wants limited to food and shelter, man's 
dominating impulse was the preservation of life. 

His social instinct led to the establishment of families, groups, and 
tribes. Transmitting habits, traditions, customs, and superstitions 
to succeeding generations, there came to be formed definite and dis- 
tinctive racial types with fixed governing principles. 

Governments of a kind were set up, order was created, but with 
the accumulation of property, and increasing wants, conflicts oc- 
curred, the strong despoiling the weak. Alliances for defense and 
offense were formed. Agreements between rulers and subjects and 
forms of treaties with nations brought about a more or less defined 
code of conduct and law, invariably enforced to the benefit of those 
who held the power. 

Government by autocracy. — Selfish and often cruel leaders preyed 
upon the weak and ignorant in the accomplishment of their ambitious 
designs. Autocracy held power through appeal to the emotions 
engendered by pomp and glitter of the court, or by fear created 
through control of military forces and the means of livelihood. 

By various methods the rights of citizenship were confined to the 
prescribed limits dictated by "will" (force) until increasing intelli- 
gence within the ranks of the people began to exert a counteracting 



TM 2000-25 

The - historical development of the "ancient liberties" of the 
English people, establishing individual rights, began with the meet- 
ing of King John and the Barons on the field of Runnymede in 
1215 A. D., where the Magna Charta was signed, which guaranteed 
rights beyond the power of the king to take away. By successive 
steps, in protection of these rights, came the act of Parliament 
(1295), Petition of Rights (1628), habeas corpus act (1679), Bill of 
Bights (1689), and the act of settlement (1701). 

These liberties did not originate with charters, but were simply 
confirmed by them and made the "fixed principles of freedom." 

Restrictions of government on the life of the people created caste, 
favoritism and taxation became oppressive, and men left Europe and 
came to America. 

Government of laws. — Until the adoption of the Constitution, 
government was imposed by the will of the minority and enforced 
by absolute control of economic institutions and military forces. 

Under the Constitution a "Government of laws and not of men" 
was formulated out of the experiences of the centuries in which 
feudalism, despotism, autocracy had given form to the ruling forces 
of government. 

114. Sources of the Constitution. — The underlying principles 
of the Constitution were not formulated in a day. The three great 
American charters of liberty contained the fundamental principles 
of American government: "Bill for establishing religious freedom 
in Virginia," "Virginia Bill of Rights," and "Declaration of Inde- 
pendence." Before the Constitutional Convention met in Philadel- 
phia, many plans and suggestions were drafted and presented to the 

In addition to this careful preparation after more than a century of self- 
government, there were in the convention men of extraordinary natural ability 
and wide experience, like Washington, Franklin, and Hamilton. There were 
men who had studied law at the Inner Temple in London, who had been edu- 
cated in the University of Edinburgh, who had been graduated from American 
colleges, who had been governors of States, chief justices of supreme courts, 
and men who had achieved distinction at the bar and in business life. Ed- 
mund Burke stated in the House of Commons in March, 1776, that more books 
of law were going to America than any other kind. Of the 55 members of the 
Constitutional Convention, 31 were lawyers. Blackstone's Commentaries were 
taught by Chancellor Wythe in William and Mary College before the Decla- 
ration of Independence. John Marshall, Thomas Jefferson, and James Mon- 
roe were among his pupils. 

When our Constitution was written Harvard College (1636) had been sending 
out, educated young men for just a century and a, half, William and Mary 
College (1603) had been graduating learned youths for almost a century, Tale 


TH 200<Mi5 


College (1701) had been contributing to the education of the people for more 
than three-quarters of a century, and Princeton (1746) had been teaching for 
half a century. The people were well prepared for their great endeavor. — 
Thomas James Norton. 

115. The purpose of government. — A correct understanding of 
the purposes of government furnishes a remedy for erroneous and 
dangerous ideas threatening this country. 

Government is instituted for the common benefit, maintaining 
order, and protecting life, liberty, and property. 

To secure liberty is the main business of governments and the reason for 
their institution. — Blackstone. 

Paternalism. — The paternalism of communism which provides both 
property and subsistence for the individual is not a proper function 
of government It results only in individual irresponsibility. 

116. The Preamble to the Constitution. — The Preamble to the 
Constitution is a most accurate and comprehensive statement of the 
purpose of government. It explicitly sets forth the fundamental 
purposes for which government is primarily organized. The brevity, 
simplicity, and directness of its original draft, after 150 years of 
experience, require no change. 

We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, 
establish Justice, insure Domestic Tranquility, provide for the Common Defense, 
promote the General Welfare, and secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves 
and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United 
States ofAmerica. — Preambleto the Constitution. 

"We, the people. " — The convention, which met in Philadelphia in 
1787, adopted a Constitution based upon the proposition that a people 
are able to govern themselves. 

Under the Articles of Confederation the State assumed control. A 
single State might exercise veto power over the will of all the others. 

In the government set up under the new Constitution the power 
and rights of the people are the source and final authority. It de- 
rives its "just powers from the consent of the governed." For the 
first tune in human history "the people" assumed control and gov- 
ernment became subject to their will. 

Nowhere is American independence and self-reliance better exem- 
plified than in the words, "We, the people." 

The people, the highest authority known to our system, from whom all our 
institutions spring and upon whom they depend, formed it. — President Monroe. 

Its language, "We, the people," is the institution of one great consolidated 
national government of the people of all the States, instead of a government 
by compact with the States for its agents. — Patrick Henry. 



TM: 2000-25 

"A more perfect Union." — In the original federation the States 
were but loosely joined. The Constitution was a demand for more 
effective control of the Union by the Government. 

In the efficacy and permanency of your Union a government for the whole is 
indispensable * * *. You have improved upon your first essay (Articles of 
Confederation) by the adoption of a constitution of government « » » for 
the efficacious management of your common concerns. * * * Indignantly 
frown upon the first dawning of every attempt to ahenate any portion of our 
country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties which now fink together the 
various parts. — Washington — Farewell Address. 

In the course of the Civil War the Southern States sought to dis- 
solve our Union; President Lincoln sought to preserve our Union. 

The States have their status in the Union, and they have no other legal status 
* * *. The Union, and not themselves separately, procured their independ- 
ence and fiberty. * * * The Union is older than any of the States and, in 
fact, created them as States. — Abraham Lincoln — Message to Congress, July 4, 

The right of secession was forever settled by the fourteenth amend- 
ment to the Constitution, which declares, "AU persons born or natu- 
ralized in the United States and subject to the jurisdiction thereof are 
citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside." 
The National Government is not an assemblage of States, but of 

To refuse allegiance to the United States is to be a traitor to the 
Nation. However, in the dual capacity of citizenship, we render 
service as citizens of both the State in which we hold legal residence 
and the United States. Each of our 48 States retains its own sov- 
ereignty in all matters relating exclusively to State affairs, in which 
it is protected by its own constitution. In all interstate, national, or 
international affairs both the citizen and the State owe allegiance 
to the Union. 

"Justice." — Our Government, assures "justice" in that it is a 
government of laws, not of men. In the heat of passion or sectional 
interest, in clashes between groups or questions of policy, no minority 
or bloc may enforce its will. Should a majority seek to injure the 
rights of an individual citizen, the power of veto resting in the 
President, or the power of the Supreme Court as an unbiased tribunal, 
will insist that justice be done. 

A series of checks and balances, which prevent the selfish interests 
of either individuals or groups from exercising their will to the in- 
justice of another, is provided by the Constitution. 


TM 3000-25 



Wherever there is an interest and power to do wrong, wrong will generally 
be done, and not less readily by a powerful and interested party than by a 
powerful and interested prince. — James Madison. 

In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but 
bind him down from mischief to the chains of the Constitution. — Thomas 

"Domestic tranquillity. " — At the conclusion of the Revolutionary 
War the Colonial States were bankrupt. Foreign credit was ex- 
hausted and could not be reestablished until a responsible central 
government was created. Soldiers remained unpaid long after the 
war was ended. Colonies quarreled with each other over duties im- 
posed upon the goods sold or bartered. Chaos and anarchy, disillu- 
sion, and despair prevailed, all because of lack of proper organization 
and power in government. 

The Government established under the Articles of Confederation 
"defrayed all expenses out of the common treasury" to which each 
State was supposed to contribute, but this was done in full only by 
New York and Pennsylvania. All nonenforceable obligations were 
left to conscience, individual or collective. 

"Domestic tranquillity" requires a measure of enforced responsi- 
bility, mutual faith, and harmonious and prosperous conditions. 
These are provided under the Constitution through the powers con- 
ferred upon the National Government regulating interstate affairs, 
making interchange of commodities, communication, transportation, 
and freedom of residence, occupation, and industry equal to all. 

"Domestic tranquillity" is further assured by religious freedom, 
free speech, and free press, thereby establishing interchange of 
thought which results in the creation of a national public opinion 
and brings within its influence every citizen, regardless of race, 
religion, financial condition, or social qualification. 

"Common defense." — A country worth fighting for to establish 
was worth fighting for to preserve. 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts' 
and Excises, to pay the debts and provide for the Common Defense and Welfare 
of the United States. * * * fg declare War, grant letters of Marque and 
Reprisal, and make rules concerning captures on Land and Water; to raise and 
support Armies, but no appropriation of money to that use shall be for a longer 
term than two years. * * * To provide and maintain a Navy; To make 
rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval forces; To 
provide for calling forth the Militia; to execute the laws of the Union, to sup- 
press Insurrections and repel Invasions; To provide for organizing, arming and 
disciplining the Militia. * * * — Constitution, Article I, section 8. 

Attention is especially called to the limited period of two years as 
the length of time to be covered by any appropriation of money for 




the military forces. Without the consent of the people through their 
Representatives in Congress, any army created would fall to pieces 
for lack of funds. A great deal is said about the effort to "mil- 
itarize" America through carrying out the provisions of the national 
defense act of 1920. This act was created by the people, for the 
people, to be paid for by the people. It can be killed by repeal or 
by refusal to make necessary appropriations. In the last analysis 
the people are the military force of the United States; their em- 
ployees, the Regular Army, National Guard, and Organized Reserves, 
are working for them, and in absolute obedience to rules and 
regulations laid down by their agent, the Congress. 

The United States is not soHcitous, it never has been, about the methods or 
ways in which that protection shall be accomplished; whether by formal treaty 
stipulation or by formal convention, whether by the action of judicial tribunals 
or by that of military force. Protection, in fact, to American lives and property 
is the sole point upon which the United States is tenacious. — William M. 
Evarts (1878). 

"General welfare." — The United States is a family of Common- 
wealths. Each State is possessed of its own natural resources, in 
the development of which it is necessary for its own best interests to 
have the full cooperation of every, other State in exchange of raw 
materials, finished products, and farm produce. Its great land 
areas and mighty rivers are frequently the concern of several States 
or of the entire Nation. 

It is within the power of Congress to appropriate funds for con- 
structing canals, river and harbor development, and control irriga- 
tion projects where more than one State is interested, hard roads, 
and Postal Service; to regulate communications and transportation; 
and, through its various departments, perform such other services as 
will result in benefit to all citizens. This is not paternalism, but that 
protection of person and property which enables the citizen to obtain 
the greatest possible returns in the exercise of his own initiative. 

"Blessings of liberty. " — To secure the "blessings" of liberty was 
the fundamental purpose of the makers of the Constitution and its 
subsequent adoption. They include all the rights and privileges that 
a citizen of this country enjoys — a voice in the Government; freedom 
to worship according to the dictates of the individual conscience; 
freedom of speech and of the press; the lack of restriction upon all 
inherent individual rights. 

The liberty of America is not that which permits the individual 
citizen to do as he pleases. He may so long as he does not interfere 
with the liberty of others. The liberty of the individual ends where 
the rights of others begin. 


TM 2000-25 


We all declare for liberty, but in using the word we do not all mean the same 
thing. With some the word liberty may mean for each man to do as he pleases 
with himself and the product of his labor; while with others the same word 
may mean for some men to do as they please with other men and the product 
of other men's labor. Here are two not only different but incompatible things 
called by the same name — liberty. And it follows that each of the things is, 
by the respective parties, called by two different and incompatible names — 
liberty and tyranny. The shepherd drives the wolf from the sheep's throat, 
for which the sheep thanks the shepherd as his liberator, while the wolf de- 
nounces him for the same act as the destroyer of liberty. — Abraham Lincoln. 

The "blessings" which the citizen enjoys under our form of gov- 
ernment are secured through "liberty under law," the enforcement 
of which is their only safeguard. 

The purpose of our Government is to protect (not to provide) the 
property of its citizens; to guard his person (not to provide his sub- 
sistence) while he acquires the means of livelihood; to give every 
citizen equal opportunity in his chosen work and assure him of equal 
standing before the law. 

Our Government is the most nearly perfect of all in securing indi- 
vidual rights and insuring the blessings of liberty. In no other 
nation is equal opportunity and equal protection assured, with such 
equal division of reward for labor and services rendered. 

117. The American philosophy of government. — The Ameri- 
can philosophy of government emphasizes that — 

(1) Individual rights are sacred and it is necessary to establish a 
government in the protection of these rights. 

(2) All the powers of government are derived from the people, 
who retain the supreme authority over all delegated powers of 

(3) Individual rights are not permitted to be exercised in the 
contravention of the rights of society. Individual liberty is always 
bounded by social obligations. 

(4) Government is exercised for the purpose of protecting the 
individual in his rights. 

(5) Governmental powers are delegated to the National, State, or 
local authority, and are limited in their exercise by provisions of the 
Constitution as interpreted and defined by the Supreme Court. 

(6) All rights not thus delegated are recognized as the inviolable 
right of the individual citizen and can not be usurped by any 
governmental power. 

(7) The Government of the United States is not a democracy but 
a Republic. 



TM 3000-35 

At the time of the adoption of the Constitution what was the usual 
form of world government? 

What was the principal distinction between "government of laws" 
and "government of men"? 

What were the sources of the American Constitution? 

What led the colonists to leave Europe and come to America? 

Describe the doctrine of paternalism. 

Is the paternalistic form of government efficient? 

Define the true purpose of government. 

Why is a correct understanding of the purposes of government 


What is the Preamble to the Constitution? Quote it. 

What is the source and final authority of government? 

What is the meaning of "consent of the governed"? 

How did the "Union" under the Constitution differ from that 
under the Articles of Confederation? 

Does "dual capacity" of citizenship affect loyalty to the Nation? 

How does the Constitution assure "justice" to the individual 


How can "domestic tranquillity" become possible in a nation com- 
posed of all races? 

Who provides for the "common defense" of the Nation? How? 

What is meant by "general welfare"? 

What "blessings of liberty" are secured by our Constitution? 

In general what is the American philosophy of government? 

TM 2000-25 



Early forms of government 118 

Representative government 119 

The American experiment. 
Comparative analysis 120 




Superior to all others 121 

No direct action 122 

Methods of representative government 123 

An unwritten constitution. 

A written constitution. 

Consent of the governed 124 

"American Bill of Rights" 125 

Enumeration of constitutional rights 120 

Government by representation 127 

Compromises - 128 

Separation of powers 129 

Checks and balances 130 

Federal judiciary 131 

Delegated national powers 132 

Powers reserved to state and people 133 

Dangers to representative government 134 


Sectional and class legislation. 

Multiplicity of laws. 

Socialism, communism, anarchy. 

Ignorance of citizens. 
Safeguards 135 

Direct responsibility to the people. 


Knowledge concerning the Constitution. 

118. Early forms of government. — Until the eighteenth cen- 
tury the world had little experience with republics. In the ancient 
world Greece and Rome furnished early examples of attempts to 
form democratic governments. In Grecian cities popular govern- 
ment was practiced, the free people directly making the laws. In 
Rome the townsman passed laws to his own advantage. And in the 
so-called Venetian republic the power was vested in a few nobles. 



TM 2000-25 

After the failure of many experiments in free government the 
ancient world turned to monarchy, believing that the people were 
unfit to govern themselves. For centuries, political revolutions were 
struggles for better government, rather than self-government. 

At the time of the Revolutionary War the republican form of gov- 
ernment was discredited throughout the world, monarchy and oli- 
garchy being considered the proper forms of good government. 

119. Representative government. — The American experi- 
ment. — A few races qualified themselves for self-government. To 
establish that form of government was a long, hard struggle which 
culminated in the great American experiment. 

The United States set up a distinct and different form of govern- 
ment, the product of distinct racial stocks and centuries spent in 
learning the principles and art of self-government. In practice, our 
form of government is the most nearly perfect in securing individual 
rights and ensuring the blessings of liberty. 

It differs from previous forms in certain vital and fundamental 
principles which have come to be known as "American institutions." 
Among these is that of self-government by representation, which is 
"the golden mean between autocracy and democracy." 

120. Comparative analysis. — The following comparative analy- 
sis shows the principal characteristics of the three forms of 


Authority is derived through heredity. 

People have no choice in the selection of their rulers and no voice 
in making of the laws. 

Results in arbitrariness, tyranny, and oppression. 

Attitude toward property is feudalistic. 

Attitude toward law is that the will of the ruler shall control, 
regardless of reason or consequences. 


A government of the masses. 

Authority derived through mass meeting or any other form of 
"direct" expression. 

Results, in mobocracy. 

Attitude toward property is communistic — negating property 

Attitude toward law is that the will of the majority shall regulate, 
whether it be based upon deliberation or governed by passion, preju- 
dice, and impulse, without restraint or regard to consequences. 

Results in demagogism, license, agitation, discontent, anarchy. 


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Authority is derived through the election by the people of public 
officials best fitted to represent them. 

Attitude toward property is respect for laws and individual rights, 
and a sensible economic procedure. 

Attitude toward law is the administration of justice in accord with 
fixed principles and established evidence, with a strict regard to 

A greater number of citizens and extent of territory may be 
brought within its compass. 

Avoids the dangerous extreme of either tyranny or mobocracy. 

Results in statesmanship, liberty, reason, justice, contentment, and 

Is the "standard form" of government throughout the world. 

A republic is a form of government under a constitution which provides for 
the election of (1) an executive and (2) a legislative body, who working 
together in a representative capacity, have all the power of appointment, all 
power of legislation, all power to raise revenue and appropriate expenditures, 
and are required to create (3) a judiciary to pass upon the justice and legality 
of their governmental acts and to recognize (4) certain inherent individual 

Take away any one or more of those four elements and you are drifting into 
autocracy. Add one or more to those four elements and you are drifting into 
democracy.— A /wo ofif. 

121. Superior to all others. — Autocracy declares the divine 
right of kings; its authority can not be questioned; its powers are 
arbitrarily or unjustly administered. 

Democracy is the "direct" rule of the people and has been re- 
peatedly tried without success. 

Our Constitutional fathers, familiar with the strength and weak- 
ness of both autocracy and democracy, with fixed principles definitely 
in mind, defined a representative republican form of government. 
They "made a very marked distinction between a republic and a 
democracy * * * and said repeatedly and emphatically that 
they had founded a republic." 

Madison, in the Federalist, emphasized the fact that this govern- 
ment was a republic and not a democracy, the Constitution makers 
having considered both an autocracy and a democracy as undesirable 
forms of government while "a republic * * * promises the cure 
for which we are seeking." 

In a democracy the people meet and exercise the government in person. In a 
republic they assemble and administer it by their respective agents. — Madison. 



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The advantage which a republic has over a democracy consists in the substi- 
tution of representatives whose enlightened views and virtuous sentiments render 
them superior to local prejudices and to schemes of injustice. — Madison. 

The American form of government is the oldest republican form 
of government in the world, and is exercising a pronounced influence 
in modifying the governments of other nations. Our Constitution 
has been copied in whole or in part throughout the earth. 

122. No direct action. — Under the representative form of gov- 
ernment there is no place for "direct action." The inherent charac- 
teristic of a republic is government by representation. The people 
are permitted to do only two things; they may vote once every four 
years for the executive and once in two years for members of the 

legislative body. 

123. Methods of representative government. — Constitutional 
government may be set up under either a written or an unwritten 

An unwritten constitution. — An unwritten constitution consists 
largely of customs, precedents, conditions, and understandings, and is 
constantly changing; any party in power may enact legislation ma- 
terially affecting the methods of government and the political rights 
of citizens. 

A written constitution. — In the United States the rights of the 
people are fully protected and the functions of government strictly 
defined in a written document — the Constitution. It is called a 
"rigid Constitution" because tho legislative power has no authority 
to change it. It is subject to amendment only by the authority and 
action of the people through their representatives in Congress. 

The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, 
shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the apphcation of the 
legislatures of two-thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for pro- 
'posing amendments, which in either case, shall be valid to all intents and pur- 
poses, as part of this Constitution, when ratified by the legislatures of three- 
fourths of the several states, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as one 
or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided 
* * * that no state, without its consent, shall be deprived of its equal 
suffrage in the Senate. — Constitution, Article V. 

Since the adoption of the Constitution our Nation has increased 
in population from 3,000,000 to more than 125,000,000 and has de- 
veloped from a wilderness to the greatest industrial nation in tho 
world. The adequacy of our Constitution is evidenced by the adop- 
tion of only 19 amendments to modify the principles set forth in the 
original document. 


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As a wall of protection our written Constitution stands between 
the people and those who, through lust for power, or the temporary 
passions of the moment, or for any other reason, would trespass upon 
the rights of person or property. 

124. Consent of the governed. — The original desire of the 
colonists was "only to hare a voice" in the affairs of the Government. 

Governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the 
consent of the governed * * *. We have petitioned for Redress in the most 
bumble terras: Our repented Petitions have been answered only by repeated 
tyranny. — Declaration of Independence. 

The situation so developed that the colonists totally dissolved "all 
political connection between them and the State of Great Britain," 
and established a new form of government based upon the "consent 
of the governed." "Consent" in the drafting and approval of the 
instrument of government and its subsequent amendment was a new 

125. "American Bill of Rights." — When the Constitutional 
Convention was drawing to a close several members who opposed tho 
adoption of the Constitution suggested a number of amendments, 
which, they declared, "would make the Constitution acceptable to 

While the Constitution already contained many provisions for the 
protection of the rights of the individual citizen, various States 
desired that it contain further written stipulations that would remove 
every possibility of doubt and prevent disputes by "leaving no 
matters to inference, implication, or construction." 

It was contended that the provision of the suggested Bill of Rights 
contained "various exceptions not granted * * * Why declare 
that things shall not be done which there is no power to do?" 

The tyranny of legislature is a most formidable dread at present, and will be 
for many years. That of the Executive will come in its time, but it will be at 
a remote period. — Madison. 

Subsequently, many of these features were incorporated in the first 
10 amendments, adopted in 1791 as supplements to the Constitution, 
and are called the "American Bill of Rights." 

The first 10 amendments embodied "guaranties and immunities which are 
inherited from our Engtish ancestors." — Supreme Court (1897). 

128. Enumeration of constitutional rights. — Individual 
rights formally guarded by original constitutional provisions: 
No ex-post facto laws. 
No bill of attainder. 
No suspension of privileges of habeas corpus. 



TM 2000-25 

Trial by jury and at places where the crimes were committed. 

Definition of treason and limiting punishment. 

Guaranty of immunity and privileges of all States to the citizens 

of each State. 

No religious test before admission to public office. 

To which the Bill of Rights added: 

Right of peaceable assembly and petition to the Government for 

redress of grievances. 

Freedom of religion, speech, and press. 

Right of the people to keep and bear arms — militia. 

Quartering of soldiers only as provided by law. 

Protection against unreasonable searches. 

Right of accused to indictment by grand jury with certain 


No compulsory testimony against self. 

No deprivation of rights without due process of law. 

No confiscation of private property for public use without just 


Right of a speedy and public trial by an impartial jury. 

Right to demand information concerning the nature and cause of 


To be confronted with witnesses against him. 

Compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor. 

Have assistance of counsel for defense. 

Right of trial by jury in suits of common law where value and 
controversy shall exceed $20. 

Protection of verdict of said jury. 

No excessive bail required. 

No imposition of excessive fines. 

No infliction of cruel and unusual punishment. 

Rights retained by the people shall not be denied nor disparaged. 

Powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor 
prohibited by it to the States are reserved to the States or to the 


127. Government by representation. — The framers of the 

Constitution were opposed to direct government. The remedy sought 
was to be found in representative government. Madison declared that 
the object to which their efforts wore to be directed was how to pre- 
vent a majority rule and to preserve the spirit and form of popular 
government. The representative form of government was their 



TM 2000-25 


The United States shall guarantee to every State in the Union a repubhcan 
form of government. — Constitution, Article IV, section 4. 

Sovereignty was placed in the hands of the people. No authority 
was delegated to any department either of National or State Govern- 
ment except by the people through the provisions contained in the 

There could be no question but that by a republican form of government was 
intended a government in which not only would the people's representatives 
make laws and the agents administer them, but the people would also directly 
or indirectly choose the Executive. — Cooky. 

128. Compromises. — In the establishment of our dual form of 
government a spirit of compromise prevailed. The instrument offered 
by the makers of the Constitution was the result of compromise, espe- 
cially in regard to the matter of representation; the smaller States 
demanded equal representation with the larger. The compromise 
established two Houses of Congress: the Senate, in which each State 
was given equal representation; the House of Representatives, in 
which the membership was apportioned to the population. The func- 
tions of the two Houses of Congress were specifically stated and their 
powers definitely limited. 

129. Separation of powers. — Members of the convention of 
1787 feared the oppression of highly concentrated power, whether on 
the part of an individual or the ascendency of a parliamentary ma- 
jority. Any suggested scheme to be satisfactory must limit the power 
of government rather than expand it. 

Their plan of government provided for the division of power into 
three departments: 

A legislative body working together in a representative capacity 
having power of appointment, power of legislation, power to raise 
revenues, power to appropriate funds for public expenditure. 

An executive department whose duty was law enforcement and 
administration of the departments. 

A judicial or law -interpreting department, at the head of which 
stands the Supreme Court. 

130. Checks and balances. — These departments were separated 
from each other as far as possible, cooperating when necessary. 
Checks were placed upon each, preventing anyone from becoming 
absolute or despotic. They wore likewise balanced against each 
other in such a manner as to preserve the equilibrium of govern- 
ment : States are balanced against the Central Government; House of 
Representatives is balanced against the Senate; Senate is balanced 
against the House of Representatives; executive authority is bal- 
anced by the legislative; legislative department is balanced by the 



Tat 2000-25 

executive; judiciary is balanced against the legislative, executive, 
and State governments; Senate is balanced against the President 
in all appointment to offices and all treaties; people hold a balance 
against their own representatives through periodical elections. 

Among the curbs and restrictions on the powers of the Central 
Government, the strongest checks are: Establishment of a smaller 
legislative body with less changing personnel and longer terms based 
on equality of representation, having coordinate legislative authority, 
with the exception of revenue bills, which originate in the House of 
Representatives, and treaties and appointments, which are committed 
to the President and the Senate; the public sentiment of an intelli- 
gent and conservative people; popular elections; short terms of office. 

131. Federal judiciary. — To accomplish the uniform interpre- 
tation of the Constitution a Eederal court system was necessary, and 
it was provided that the judges should be appointed by the Presi- 
dent, "with the advice and consent of the Senate." 

Through the system of checks and balances the safeguarding of 
the Constitution is charged to the Supreme Court. However, every 
judge in the land is also bound, under oath or affirmation, to support 
it and declare void any enactment which violates its provisions. 

When a State court fails to fulfill this obligation "its action is 
reviewable and reversible by the Supreme Court of the United 

Tills system which makes the judges the guardians of the Constitution pro- 
vides the only safeguard which has hitherto been invented against unconsti- 
tutional legislation. — Dicey. 

The courts keep each authority within its proper sphere, but they 
have the power to interfere only when a concrete case is brought 
before them for judicial consideration. 

One method of assault may be to effect in the form of the Constitution 
alterations which will impair the energy of the system and thus undermine 
what can not be directly overthrown. — Washington — Farewell Address. 

A Constitution may be undermined by the passing of laws which, without 
nominally changing its provisions, violate its principles. — Dicey. 

One of the exceptional features of our republican form of govern- 
ment is the independence of the Federal judiciary whose jurisdiction 
extends to all cases arising under the Constitution itself; cases aris- 
ing under the Federal laws and treaties; cases affecting ambassadors, 
consuls, etc.; cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; cases in 
which the United States is a party; controversies between States; 
cases commenced by a State against the citizens of another State; 
controversies between the citizens of the same State under land 

1)0834°— 28- 


TM 2000-S5 


grants from different States; cases between American citizens and 
foreign states, citizens or subjects. 

The balance of power has been preserved. The Constitution as a 
whole stands unshaken with but slight encroachments of one depart- 
ment upon the other. 

132. Delegated national powers. — Under the plan set up under 
the Constitution certain definite powers are delegated to the three 
departments of government. 

Among the powers delegated to Congress are to — 

Levy taxes. 

Coin money. 

Pay national debts. 

Regulate commerce. 

Establish uniform naturalization laws. 

Establish the post office. 

Provide for the common defense. 

Declare war. 

Raise and support armies. 

Provide a navy. 

Among the limitations placed on the powers of Congress are — 

Apportionment of representation and direct taxes among the States 
is determined by population. 

No money can be paid except by law. 

All orders, resolutions, and bills must be sent to the President for 
his consideration. 

Privilege of habeas corpus shall not be suspended except in case 
of rebellion or insurrection. 

Among the powers delegated to the President are — 

Execute the laws. 

Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy. 

Commission all officers of the United States. 

Grant reprieves and pardons. 

Make treaties by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 

Nominate judges of the Supreme Court. 

Give information to Congress in formal messages. 

Sign or veto orders, resolutions, and bills received from Congress. 

133. Powers reserved to state and people — The President and 
Congress can exercise only those powers directly granted them by the 
Constitution. All powers not so delegated are reserved to the people. 

The enumeration of certain rights shall not be construed to deny or disparage 
others retained by the people. — Amendments to Constitution, Article IX. 



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The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution nor pro- 
hibited by it to the States are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the 
people. — Amendments to Constitution, Article X. 

134. Dangers to representative government. — Whenever the 
republican form of government has not achieved success the difficulty 
has not been with the system but with its faulty application. 

Several dangerous experiments have been proposed, such as the 
initiative, referendum, recall, and the election of judges. Departures 
from constitutional principles threaten to impair the efficiency of our 
representative form of government, and if continued, will ultimately 
destroy it. 

Centralization. — Originally "every influence favored the suprem- 
acy of the State as the center of gravity in government." Conferring 
strong powers on the proposed central government was feared and 
avoided. With the development of industry, invention, business, and 
transportation, tho different sections of the country were brought 
into such intimate and immediate contact that "the knell of State 
sovereignty was sounded and the supremacy of the Union became 

New and practical problems confront the Government, such as — 
increase of governmental business; rise of technical questions in 
government; popular demand for greater speed in Government 
action, and increased size and unwieldiness of legislative bodies. 

Opposition to centralization of power in the National Government 
rests upon the general dislike of concentrated power, and its destruc- 
tive influence on our philosophy of government. 

Sectional and class legislation. — Nothing is more repugnant to 
the American citizen than special or class legislation. The founders 
of our Government sought unity rather than differentiation. The 
Civil War settled for all time the question of the indissolubility of 
the Union. The general welfare of the Nation forbids sectional or 
class legislation. There must be no preference to the North, East, 
South, or West. Our motto should be "America for all, and all for 

Multiplicity of laws. — The modern tendency of government is to 
create innumerable laws as corrective or restrictive measures; ap- 
pointment of special officers for their enforcement, with the conse- 
quent restriction of State, community, and personal rights, without 
regard to the fact that the majority is unprepared or not willing to 
accept or respond to the restrictions imposed. Relief from encroach- 
ment upon the rights of the people will come when each citizen better 
learns the art of self-government and exercises his right of franchise. 


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Socialism, communism, anarchy. — The problems of capital and 
labor, employer and employee, can not be solved by unrepublican 
methods. The suggestion of special legislation is socialistic and 
communistic in its theory and wholly repugnant to the American 

Socialism or communism which negates property rights; anarchy 
which negates law; the substitution of "direct action" for represent- 
ative government; a government ownership — all should be avoided 
as perils that threaten the very foundation of this Republic. 

Ignorance of citizens. — Webster said, "On the diffusion of educa- 
tion among the people rests the preservation and perpetuity of our 
free institutions." In the early Colonies one of the first buildings to 
be erected was the schoolhouse. Here was laid, developed, and sub- 
sequently spread the ideals of liberty. One of the foundation stones 
of representative government is education. 

An intelligent and informed citizen is an asset to the Nation. The 
great educational system of America makes it possible for every 
citizen to best fit himself for the tasks of life. In the common schools 
all are taught a common language, a knowledge of American tradi- 
tions, ideals, and philosophy of government. 

Through education the barrier that separates the citizen from the 
greater enjoyment of his freedom is removed, a better understanding 
of American ideals is established, and the influence of subversive 
propaganda is in large measure destroyed. 

135. Safeguards. — In order to assure perpetuity to our form of 
government, certain safeguards are necessary against encroachments 
both from within and without. 

Direct responsibility to the people. — Having derived its "just 
powers from the consent of the governed," tho Government of the 
United States is directly responsible to the people as the highest 
authority. The United States is governed by public opinion — by the 
ideas and feelings of the people at large. The frequency of elections 
and the short terms of office give the people control. By reason of 
this our representatives are slow to attempt any official action over- 
stepping the bounds of their authority or beyond the approval of 
their constituency. 

Restricted immigration. — Immigrants who enter the United 
States to exploit her resources without a thought of contributing a 
share to the general welfare are a menace to our country. Many 
seeking a haven of relief from the oppressions of poverty, ignorance, 
and restrictions, a place where gain is made easy and burdens made 
light, come in the spirit of the belief that America owes them a good 



TM 2000-25 


living, security, and peace, without a thought of the price that has 
been paid to obtain these blessings or the cost of their maintenance. 
Against these America acclaims the fundamental right to close the 
door, for this is our home and we have the right to select whom we 
will to enjoy its privileges and bounties. 

America is basically made and refuses to any the right to alter the 
plans, destroy any part of the structure, or rebuild it to their liking. 

Knowledge concerning the Constitution. — For a proper appre- 
ciation of our Government the citizen should know what the Consti- 
tution is and what it contains. 

The selection and combination of these elements was a master achievement of 
vision, abiUty, and governmental genius on the part of the delegates to the 
convention. — Atwood. 

He should thoroughly understand the purposes of government as 
set forth in the Preamble to the Constitution; that the Constitution 
established a strictly representative form of government; and the 
general provisions in regard to amending the Constitution, when 
"necessary." All of this is essential to his proper "regard for the 
sterling worth of our beneficent heritage." 

The only antidote to the erroneous and dangerous ideas of govern- 
ment now rampant through the world and threatening America is a 
better understanding of the meaning, value, and importance of our 
American philosophy of government as set up in the Constitution. 

This will most effectively meet the propaganda of communism in 
its attack on our social, economic, political, and national institutions, 
which aims to destroy the family as the foundation of society, our 
system of capitalism which has produced the great economic success 
of America, our republican form of government, and our spirit of 

The preservation of the sacred fire of liberty and the destiny of the republican 
model of government are justly considered as deeply, perhaps as finally, staked 
on the experiment entrusted to the hands of the American people. — Washington. 

If in our case the representative system ultimately fail, popular governments 
must be pronounced impossible. No combination of circumstances more favor- 
able to the experiment can ever be expected to occur. The last hopes of man- 
kind, therefore, lest with us; and if it should be proclaimed that our example 
had become an argument against the experiment, the knell of popular liberty 
would be sounded throughout the earth. — Webster. 


Name three kinds of world governments. 
What is an autocracy? 




What are the principal characteristics of autocracy? 

What is a democracy? 

What are the principal characteristics of a democracy? 

What is a republic? 

What are the principal characteristics of a republic? 

Which form of government did the makers of the Constitution seek 
to establish? 

Name the methods of representative government. Describe them. 

What new feature of government was incorporated into the 

Describe the "American Bill of Rights." 

What "individual rights" are formally guarded by the original 

What "rights" were added by the first ten amendments? 

How was majority rule prevented and popular government pre- 

How were the differences as to representation compromised by the 
framers of the Constitution? 

What is meant by "separation of powers"? 

Explain "checks and balances." 

Describe the Federal judiciary. 

Enumerate the national powers delegated to Congress. 

What limitations were placed on the powers of Congress? 

Name and define several dangers to representative government. 

Name and define the main safeguards of representative government. 

How does restricted immigration benefit — 

(1) The social life of America? 

(2) The economic life of America? 

(3) The political life of America? 



Tm 2000-35 





Responsibility of the present 136 

American civilization dynamic 137 

Individual responsibility 138 

Education 139 

High standards 140 

National character. 

Community and home. 
Importance of active citizenship 141 


Pubhc service. 

Law and order. 

Public opinion 142 

Responsibility can not be transferred 143 

Our example of individual responsibility 144 

136. Responsibility of the present. — Civilization is builded 
upon the experiences of the past. Any improvements that have 
been accomplished are the results of human achievement. No system 
of living has yet been devised that relieves the individual of his 
personal responsibility for the improvement of human society. By 
personal effort each individual should pass on to posterity a civiliza- 
tion better than he found. 

The sense of personal responsibility increases with the advance- 
ment of civilization. Not only have desires and wants multiplied, 
but with the advance of physical science there is also a quickened 
moral sentiment and spirit of philanthropic sympathy; an increasing 
recognition of the responsibility of each man for his fellow citizen. 

137. American civilization dynamic. — American civilization 
is expressed in "power," the power of the individual citizen in 
the driving force of his initiative, adventurous spirit, self-reliance 
and dogged energy. To the American, life is a great adventure. 

Human wants, desires, ambitions, spur mankind to achievements. 
Never satisfied, ever progressing, civilization has constantly improved 
and with the improvement have come burdens and complexities which 
add more and more to the problems of human society. 

Through equality of opportunity America gives each individual 
citizen an equal chance, yet his ability, intelligence, and character 
distinguish and classify him as progress is made. 





When America was new. she called upon the racial stocks of the 
world to give their best. Out of these she has built a great nation. 

The intelligent, though uneducated foreigner, might have con- 
tinued to live in his native land without the slightest mental awaken- 
ing. Once landing upon American soil, he quickly catches the spirit 
of his new environment, takes advantage of the free institutions, and 
finds opportunity for development to his fullest capacity. 

In modern progress America leads the world. The American citi- 
zen, whether native or foreign born, must recognize his obligations 
and assume his responsibilities not only to America but also to the 
entire world. 

138. Individual responsibility. — In the very nature of the 
organization and form of our Government, our free institutions, and 
the lack of all authority and order other than that created by the 
dictum of the people, the security and perpetuity of America rests 
upon the individual responsibility of her citizens. 

139. Education. — It is the duty of every citizen to obtain the 
best possible education. To shirk this responsibility is to be un- 
worthy of the "blessings of liberty" and untrue to his own best 
interest. Every new device, discovery of science, enlarged market, 
added production, facility of communication and transportation, 
carries with it a demand for an educated citizenry. Society, eco- 
nomics, local and foreign politics, add their demands for educated 
leadership and participation. Greater opportunities await the edu- 
cated and fewer the uneducated with each passing year. It is the 
responsibility of every citizen to become fully informed, for through 
education is found the only sure means of perpetuating and improv- 
ing our social structure. 

140. High standards. — Civilization is not a circle but a pyra- 
mid. At its base is found the constantly increasing mass of humanity. 
Out of this common material the world has been busily engaged in 
building the structure of civilization. 

No one is compelled to remain at the base of the pyramid who has 
within himself the ability to find his way up. From that base have 
come most of the great men in history. Few born in riches or high 
social position have ever achieved greatness. 

By her system of Government America is at the mercy of those at 
the base of the pyramid. If through individual initiative and proper 
leadership they win their way toward the apex, they lift America 
also. If they remain inert, ignorant, indifferent, they become the 
common prey of unscrupulous leaders who seek to weaken or destroy 
the structure of our Government. 



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National character. — National character is the sum of every citi- 
zen. The Nation has a right to expect each citizen to maintain high 
ideals, and he has a right to expect the same of his neighbor. The 
resulting measure of satisfaction should spur any right-thinking 
individual to such attainment. The actual worth of a citizen to 
himself, his community, his country, regardless of any other accom- 
plishment, is based on the high quality and standard of his thinking. 
Obedience to higher impulses builds up self-respect without which no 
true success is possible. 

Community and home. — The United States has been developed by 
a succession of communities, independent of each other, yet closely 
related in their social, economic, and political interests. The char- 
acter of the community is determined by the character of its homes 
and the character of its homes is determined by the character of the 
individual citizen. He is the only person upon whom responsibility 
for community and home can be placed. 

141. Importance of active citizenship. — Good government is 
the particular responsibility of the individual citizen in whom final 
authority is vested. It will be no higher in its ideals nor just in its 
administration than the sum of our national character. 

The first and paramount duty of every citizen is to have a first- 
hand knowledge of the Constitution of the United States. He should 
learn the accurate, comprehensive, and masterly statement of the six 
principles of government as contained in the Preamble, and the plan 
for setting up and maintaining our representative form of govern- 
ment. It is in this document that individual rights and fundamental 
duties are set forth. 

American citizens are stockholders in a great corporation — the 
Government of the United States. They annually spend three and 
one-half billion dollars in the cost of government. One citizen out 
of 13 gainfully employed works for this corporation. Its operation 
requires understanding, supervision, and skillful management. 

The citizen is the governor of this Republic through the exercise 
of his right to vote — the most sacred right of a free people. He 
selects its rulers and decides its issues. The proper exercise of this 
right requires honesty and intelligence, and a knowledge concerning 
the dangerous tendencies that are threatening our republican form 
of government. He should weigh the merits of both men and issues, 
feeling himself responsible for the selection of proper persons as the 
representatives to whom are intrusted the affairs of government. 

Vote. — To preserve American institutions a bigger and better vote 
is required — citizens must perform their political duties on election 


rffi 2000-25 


The entire electorate must be taught not only to vote but to vote 
according to principle and informed opinion. Our institutions are 
endangered and are well worth saving. In the presidential years of 
1920 and 1924 scarcely half of the voters of the country went to the 
polls. In 1926 only 33 per cent of the electorate participated. The 
ultimate result of such indifference upon a government based upon 
the principle of the majority is disastrous. 

In 1928 more than 7.000.000 young citizens became eligible to vote 
for the first time. While the vote, and the whole vote, should be 
attracted to the polls, it must be remembered that an unintelligent 
vote safeguards nothing and is harmful in its effect. 

Public service. — Many citizens are so engrossed in their personal 
affairs that they are not willing to devote sufficient time to the busi- 
ness of government, leaving most important matters to be decided 
by a minority. 

The functions of citizenship are not confined to the enjoyment of 
personal rights — they also involve the protection of those rights. 
Unless the obligations of the individual citizen are fulfilled, our en- 
tire governmental structure, with all of its rights and privileges, is 
endangered. The indifference of individual citizens threatens the 
destruction of the "blessings of liberty." 

Opportunity for patriotic service calls for leadership and ability, 
and too many citizens fail to respond to this obligation. Every citi- 
zen should assist in the administration of law and justice by willing- 
ness to render jury service — nothing is more imperative. He should 
bear a proportionate part of the burden of taxation without an 
attempt at evasion. He should respect the rights of others both by 
precept and example. He should be willing to assume the duties 
of any public office to which his fellow citizens may call him. He 
should be useful and loyal, aiding in all public undertakings through 
a whole-hearted cooperation for the welfare of all. 

In every national emergency the people have produced their 
leader — George Washington, Abraham Lincoln. When diplomacy 
has failed, as in the World War, the people have "volunteered." 

Law and order. — The best government is that in which justice is 
most evenly administered. The better our Government, the more 
prosperous and contented the people. Every time the citizen assists 
the administration of justice he makes a material contribution to the 
welfare of all. 

Every citizen should observe and respect the law. It is no excuse 
that if a certain law interferes with his personal habits, desires, or 
beliefs he should disregard it. Absolute acquiescence in the decisions 



TM 2000-25 


of the majority when legally expressed is the vital principle of 


It is your personal responsibility not to contribute to the defeat 
of justice either by evading the law or consenting to its evasion by 
others. Statutory laws are presumed to be just and for the benefit 
of all law-abiding citizens. No greater responsibility rests upon the 
citizen than to demand just laws and their enforcement. There is 
nothing more degrading, more destructive in its effect upon personal 
honor and character, than evasion of law, bribery of officers, or con- 
tributing to the delinquency of others. 

Respect for its authority, compliance with its laws, acquiescence in its meas- 
ures, are duties imposed by the fundamental maxims of true liberty. The basis 
of our pohtical systems is the right of the people to make and alter their 
Constitution and Government. But the Constitution which at any time exists 
till changed by an explicit and authentic act of the whole people is sacredly 
obligatory upon all. The very idea of the power and the right of the people to 
establish government presupposes the duty of every individual to obey the estab- 
hshed government. — George Washington — Farewell Address. 

The highest test of good citizenship is obedience to all laws. We can not 
develop and keep alive the high sense of civic duty and pride by half-hearted 
allegiance to the Constitution. There should be no such thing as an oath to 
support the Constitution with mental reservation. — W. B. Sicaney. 

The law of the State of Illinois provides that every male person 
above the age of 1 8 years must respond to the call of the police officer 
in securing and apprehending an offender, and provides a penalty 
for failure to do so. A good citizen will never hesitate to inform 
an officer of any criminal act of which he has knowledge and to assist 
in apprehending a criminal and aid the officer in his prosecution. 
Under the laws of Illinois a person who has knowledge of a crime 
and conceals it is also a criminal. 

142. Public opinion. — Within each community there is an invisi- 
ble, government which we call "public opinion." Without this force 
our courts and police would be powerless in their effort to control. 
Only in proportion as public opinion backs the law can it or will it 
be enforced. To protect the land from the overflow of our great 
rivers we erect dikes along their banks. The moment a "sand boil" 
appears behind a dike a crew is rushed to the place, and repairs are 
made to prevent a break that might bring disaster to thousands. 

Public opinion, expressing the true character of home and com- 
munity, is the dike that protects America from the overflow of crime, 
immorality, irreligion, and injustice, which, if allowed to break 
through, will do an irreparable damage to the free institutions of 


tar 3000-25 



Public opinion reaches an uncommonly high level because every 
citizen is called upon to express his own judgment in community 
and national affairs, and to work for the betterment of his town, 
county. State, and country. 

It is your personal responsibility to mold and control public 

143. Responsibility can not be transferred. — "Responsibili- 
ties gravitate to the man who can shoulder them and power flows to 
the man who knows how." The recognition of the inequality of 
ability and the equality of moral obligation makes individual re- 
sponsibility distasteful to the defective citizen. Efforts are being 
made to supplant the individual responsibility of American citizens 
with "State responsibility" which destroys self-respect, ambition, and 
national character. It demands "State control" which not only 
promises to relieve the citizen of his individual responsibility but it 
also deprives the individual citizen of his personal liberties. 

It is the duty of every American citizen to prevent the destruction 
of our Republic and individualistic form of government by any such 
destructive pohtical philosophy. 

144. Our example of individualresponsibility. — The closing 
words of the Declaration of Independence reveal the seriousness with 
which the signers fulfilled their personal responsibility: 

For the support of this Declaration with a firm reliance on the protection of 
Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, 
and our sacred honor. 


In what manner is the American civilization dynamic? 

Upon what does the security and perpetuity of America rest? 

In what way does education affect the responsibility of the Ameri- 
can citizen? 

Is the Government of America at the mercy of the people? Ex- 

Upon what is national character based? 

What determines the character of the community and the home? 

What is the first obligation of an American citizen? 

Name several political responsibilities that test upon every citizen. 

What does the successful operation of our Government require? 

What two things are necessary for the preservation of our Ameri- 
can institutions? 

To what degree have our citizens availed themselves of the right 
to vote? 


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Are the functions of citizenship confined to the enjoyment of per- 
sonal rights? Explain. 
How has personal responsibility in times of national emergency 

been met? 

Does personal responsibility require respect for and obedience to 
all of the provisions of the Constitution? 

What should be the attitude of the individual citizen in reference 
to the observance of the law? Of Federal laws? Of State laws? 
Of municipal ordinances? 

Why is public opinion of such a high standard? 

Can individual responsibility be transferred? Explain. 

What would be the effect of "State responsibility"? 

How seriously did the signers of the Declaration of Independence 
assume their personal responsibilities? 


M 2000-25 





Self-preservation the first law of nature 145 

Preservation of life and property 146 

National defense the bulwark of self-preservation 147 

Freedom not a gift. 

Preservation of philosophy of government 148 

Preparedness a necessity 149 

America not militaristic 150 

America not imperialistic 151 

Destructive idealism 152 

Prepared leadership 153 

Military policy of the United States 154 

The State Department 155 

National defense act 156 

Regular Army. 



Preparedness an agency for peace 157 

Moral qualities essential to self-preservation 158 

145. Self-preservation the first law of nature. — Possessed at 
first with a slight intelligence man's reliance was upon his physical 
powers; though brutal in quality, they were necessary for the preser- 
vation of life. 

By the successive steps of groups, tribes, and small states, man- 
kind evolved better means of protection: cultivated intelligence; 
developed habits, customs, and laws, which in a measure abridged 
the need of physical force. 

146. Preservation of life and property. — To insure the pres- 
ervation of life and property America has written into her Consti- 
tution absolute guaranties. In no other country is life and property 
so hedged about with protective laws — all securing the inalienable 
rights of the individual citizen. 

The preservation of these rights is a dominant principle of the 
American philosophy of government. It limits that government, in 
writing, to certain definite powers, and the right is reserved to dis- 
charge any and all governmental servants who infringe upon the 
written will of the people. 

By the system of government set up by our Constitution the people 
have been able to regulate the agencies of government and control 



Tm 2000-25 


and direct corporations, capital, and labor. Mighty as is their 
power they must not infringe upon the rights of any private citizen. 
Neither must the individual citizen infringe upon the rights of 

Self-preservation for every citizen is guaranteed by the Constitu- 
tion and guarded by the Supreme Court of the United States 

147. National defense tho bulwark of self-preservation. — 
That which preserves our rights has the right to be preserved. The 
Declaration of Independence was a "scrap of paper" until made 
immortal by tho blood and sacrifice of our patriotic ancestors. The 
sufferings of Valley Forge, the courage of Washington, the victory of 
Yorktown, secured American liberties and wrote this great docu- 
ment into the hearts of liberty-loving people. 

This colony (Massachusetts) is ready, at all times, to spend and be spent in 
the cause of America. — Warren — Message to Continental Congress. 

When the Constitution of the United States was adopted, with 
the exception of a small area along the Atlantic coast, America was 
a wilderness. She had a population of approximately 3.000,000 

By the liberties granted and with unrestricted opportunity the 
colonials and pioneers conquered the wilderness, converting it into 
a land of fertile fields, great industries, and contented homes, an 
achievement of little more than 100 years. 

Freedom not a gift. — Freedom is not a gift. It has been bought 
and paid for in the sacrifices of peace and war. It is laid in long 
hours of toil, the swing of the ax in the forest, the campfire of the 
lonely pioneer, the sod house of the early settler, the community 
stockade and the frontier Army post. Freedom has traveled a long, 
hard road. None but the strong and courageous have possessed it 
and by none others can it be retained. 

148. Preservation of philosophy of government. — Some in- 
terpret American liberty as the opportunity to exploit the Nation's 
resources and people by propaganda that aims to destroy American 
institutions. Under the guise of freedom of speech and press every 
possible effort is being made to undermine and destroy the blessings 
of liberty. The problem of national defense deals not only with the 
question of elements but it is also the question of the preservation of 
that philosophy of government devised by the founders of this 

149. Preparedness a necessity. — With our growth of popula- 
tion, wealth, and standing among the nations, we have learned that 


TM 2000-25 


lack of adequate preparation in time of peace was the most certain 
way to encourage attack by other nations. 

The security of the Nation has been endangered and lives unneces- 
sarily sacrificed because of insufficient training and an inadequate 
number of trained officers and soldiers to give instruction or assume 

Wars have been begun which would never have been declared had 
America been prepared. Wars have been prolonged through lack 
of material and trained men to carry them rapidly forward to a 
successful issue. Hardships have been suffered by lack of supplies. 

Our lack of preparedness, with its rush of preparation, a personnel 
inadequately trained, lack of materiel or its means of manufacture, 
plus the immediate danger to national existence, not only created all 
the elements required for hasty and extravagant expenditures of 
money, but caused the criminal sacrifice of many of our best 
American citizens. 

The Preamble to the Constitution states that one reason for its 
establishment is "to provide for the common defense," assigning that 
duty to the Federal Government. The "people," through their rep- 
resentatives in Congress, declare war; the task of carrying on the 
struggle devolves on the Army and Navy. 

A million men springing to arms overnight would evidence patriot- 
ism; but an army of a million untrained patriots in this advanced 
day of scientific warfare means annihilation. 

150. America not militaristic. — Our Government, from its 
inception, has opposed the idea of militarism. So determined were 
the colonials to prevent any possible military dominance they placed 
a positive check upon such control by making the constitutional 
provision that money for maintaining the Military Establishment 
could not be appropriated for a period longer than two years, thereby 
placing in the hands of each succeeding Congress the power to control 
through holding the purse strings of the Nation. 

Military training is not militaristic. On the contrary, it is greatly 
beneficial to the youth of America. It builds men physically, 
morally, and intellectually, and inculcates obedience, self-control, 
leadership, and loyalty. 

151. America not imperialistic. — The United States has ac- 
quired a clear title to every square inch of land which has been 
added to that of the original thirteen Colonies. All territory an- 
nexed to the United States since 1803 has been acquired either by 
treaty or purchase, except Texas and Hawaii, which were admitted 



TM 2000-35 

to the Union by their own request. In the latter instance, however, 
$200,000 was paid as a compensation to Liliuokalani. 

152. Destructive idealism. — The attempt to undermine the 
Nation from within is more serious than the threat of armed force 
from without. 

An impractical and destructive idealism called internationalism 
is being propagated by certain foreign agitators and is being echoed 
and reechoed by many of the Nation's "intellectuals." Its efforts are 
to combat the spirit of patriotism, to destroy that spirit of national- 
ism without which no people can long endure. History teaches that 
in proportion as nations lose their sense of nationalism they become 
decadent. Having lost their sense of pride in the traditions of the 
past, their respect for national standards, their love for country, their 
spirit of patriotism — the end is near. 

Pacifism creates a spirit of compromise with the very factors which 
operate to weaken the American Government. It attempts to force 
the Government into poses of internationalism and false altruism, 
destructive of the real interests of the American people. 

Pacifism is baneful in its influence. It promotes distrust of 
country; debases the spirit of nationalism; is destructive of patriot- 
ism; undermines the policy of national defense; cooperates with 
destmctive forces for the overthrow of national ideals and insti- 

Experience has taught us that neither the pacific dispositions of the American 
people nor the pacific character of their poHtical institutions can altogether 
exempt them from that strife which appears beyond the ordinary lot of nations 
to be incident to the actual pride of the world, and the same faithful monitor 
demonstrates that a certain degree of preparation for war is not only indis- 
pensable to avert disasters in (he onset, but affords also the best security for 
the continuance of peace. — Madison. 

153. Prepared leadership. — Leadership is as difficult to develop 
in the Army as in business. The methods that insure success in one 
are applicable to the other. One of the aims of military training is to 
produce leaders. The more competent they become the higher the 
position they are sure to attain. So efficient is the training received 
by the officers in the Regular Army that many are invited to resign 
and accept positions of grave responsibility in the business world. 
In comparative measure efficiency in leadership is also developed in 
enlisted men, in students of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps, 
and in trainees of the citizens' military training camps. 

Business invariably gives preference to the young man who has had 
training in military leadership. Many industries provide their 

110834''— 28 8 


TM 2000-35 



employees with 30 days' vacation on pay for the purpose of attendance 
at a summer training camp, knowing that they will return to their 
employment better equipped, better disciplined, and in every way 
much more valuable to themselves and their employers. 

All the wars of the future will include science and machinery. 
Trained men will be needed to efficiently use these materials, for ef- 
ficient leadership, education, skill, technique, training, and thorough 
discipline are as necessary as loyalty and willingness to serve. 

154. Military policy of the United States. — The military 
policy of the United States is defensive, not offensive. America will 
go to war only in defense of the Nation, and no other nation need 
maintain a ship or a soldier as protection against a war of aggression 
instituted by the United States. America desires no territory belong- 
ing to other peoples. She seeks only self-preservation and the priv- 
ilege of self-determination in peace with all the nations of the earth. 

Safety from external danger is the most powerful dictation of national con- 
duct.— ffami'ton. 

The genius and character of our institutions are peaceful * * * and the 
power to declare war was not conferred upon Congress for the purposes of 
aggression or aggrandizement, but to enable the General Government to vindicate 
by arms, if it should become necessary, its own rights and tho rights of its citi- 
zens. — United States Supreme Court. 

165. The State Department. — By the means of arbitration and 

treaties the State Department endeavors to settle international dis- 
putes. It is only after such methods have failed that the United 
States enters into war to enforce or protect its principles. 

America has always endeavored to maintain peaceful relations with 
other nations. Yet practically every generation has been compelled to 
take up arms either in defense of the Nation or the principles set forth 
in her Constitution. 

The attitude of the American Government toward other nations 
is — 

To cherish peace and free intercourse with all nations having corresponding 
dispositions; to maintain sincere neutrality toward belligerent nations; to 
prefer in all cases amicable discussion and reasonable accommodation of differ- 
ences to a decision of them by an appeal to arms; to exclude foreign intrigues 
and foreign partiaHties, so degrading to all countries and so baneful to free 
ones.— Madison. 

166. National defense act. — The national defense act of 1920, 
amended to include March 4, 1927, provides: 

That the Army of the United States shall consist of the Regular Army, the 
National Guard while in the service of the United States, and the Organized 
Reserves, including the Officers' Reserve Corps and the EnHsted Reserve 



TM 3000-25 

Except in time of war or similar emergency when the pubHc safety demands 
it the number of enlisted men in the Regular Army shall not exceed 280,000, 
including the Philippine Scouts. 

The total authorized number of enlisted men, not including the 
Philippine Scouts, is at present fixed at 125,000. 

Regular Army. — The Regular Army consists of approximately 
118,000 enlisted men and some 11,500 officers. A large part of this 
force is used for garrison purposes at home and abroad. Those at 
home spend about eight months of the year in their own training and 
in intensive preparation for the work required of them in summer 

training camps. 

The Regular Army also conducts the training of the Reserve 

Officers' Training Corps, the Organized Reserves, and the National 

Guard. Officers and men of the Regular Army are qualified to 

impart physical, mental, and moral training of the highest character. 

The very nature of their work makes them specialists in this field. 

No business or profession demands stronger character and ability. 

No group is more carefully disciplined, and nowhere will be found 

greater loyalty and honor. To train with and serve under the 

officers and enlisted men of the Regular Army is to be afforded an 

opportunity for personal betterment which any wide-nwake young 

American should be eager to accept. 

National Guard. — The second amendment to the Constitution pro- 
vides that — 

A well-regulated Militia being necessary to the security of a free State, 
the right of people to keep and bear Arms shall not be infringed. 

Prior to the national defense act of 1916 it was left to the States 
to provide an organized militia adequate in numbers, equipment and 
training to police the State in time of riot or insurrection; it was 
also to be used by the National Government in time of war with a 
foreign power. With the addition of a small standing Army the 
forces thus provided were presumed sufficient for national defense. 

Under the national defense act of 1920 the National Guard, in time 
of peace, is under the command of officers appointed by the governor 
of the State, but their training and administration is supervised by 
officers of the Regular Army assigned for that purpose. In time of 
war the National Guard, as a component of the Army of the United 
States, is immediately called into national service. Together with 
the Regular Army, it serves as the first line of defense while the 
reserve forces are being organized and equipped. 

An efficient Militia is authorized and contemplated by the Constitution and 
required by the spirit and safety of free government. — Madison. 


TM 3000-3S 


Organized Reserves. — The Organized Reserves, together with the 
other components of the Army, form the basis for a complete and 
immediate mobilization for national defense in any national emer- 
gency declared by Congress. Each reserve unit is now organized 
with its officers and a few enlisted specialists. In time of Avar these 
units will assemble at points designated, there to be equipped and 
trained. Every member of the Reserve Officers' Training Corps and 
all graduates of the citizens' military training camps who have 
qualified for leadership and have been commissioned would be 
required to report to his proper station on the designated day. 

To expose some men to the perils of the battle field while others are left to 
reap large gains from the distress of their country is not in harmony with our 
ideal of equality. — President Coolidge. 

157. Preparedness an agency for peace. — The desire for peace 
is the spirit of America, but that peace must be dynamic, not a peace 
characterized by weakness of purpose or lack of courage. 

"Common defenselessness" is in opposition to the spirit of the 
Constitution. The best guaranty of peace is a physically fit people 
inspired by the spirit of the Constitution and strong enough to 
defend themselves against any foe. 

True Americans should be prepared to defend our Nation against 
those influences that will not only destroy all patriotic ideals that 
have been acquired through years of struggle but which advocate 
the overthrow of our Government by force. Our very freedom 
allows enemies within to operate with appalling boldness. They have 
powerful allies in the persons of those who would abolish all of our 
defenses — who would have peace at any price. 

The writings and utterances of the men who laid the foundations 
upon which posterity has been called to erect the superstructure of 
this Nation continually remind the citizen of the necessity to provide 
for an adequate defense of the blessings of liberty that, to insure 
them for future generations, we must be strong enough to protect 
and defend our country and our institutions from any hostile aggres- 
sion, whether from without or within. 

By diffusing through the mass of the Nation the elements of military disci- 
pline and instruction; by augmenting and distributing warlike preparations 
applicable to future use; by evincing the zeal and valor with which they will 
be employed and the cheerfulness with which every necessary burden will be 
borne, a greater respect for our rights and a longer duration of our future 
peace are promised than could be expected without these proofs of the national 
character and resources. — Madison. 



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168. Moral qualities essential to self-preservation. — The 
American citizen must emphasize those qualities of character which 
mark him as truly worthy of the privileges of independence and 
liberty. His claim to self-respect is sound only as he upholds the 
self-respect of his fellow citizens. His honor is sacred only as he 
protects the honor of his country. He values liberty and independ- 
ence only in so far as he is willing to pay the price for its protection. 

It takes more than eloquent speeches and hot words to accomplish 
sublime purpose — it takes risk; it takes sacrifice. It takes the spirit 
of a Nathan Hale, who, having been sent by General Washington to 
bring intelligence concerning the British in New York City, was 
captured within the British lines and executed as a spy by order of 
Sir William Howe, the British commander. His last words were: 
"1 only regret that 1 have but one life to lose for my country." This 
is the spirit that won our liberties. It takes the same spirit to pre- 
serve our liberties. 

We mutually pledge our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor. — Signers 
of the Declaration of Independence. 

The moral qualities essential to self-preservation are — 

The will to win. 

The courage to endure. 

The willingness to die. 


How is the preservation of life and property assured? 

What is the bulwark of self-preservation? Explain. 

How can the American philosophy of government be preserved 1 

Why is preparedness necessary? 

Who declare war? 

Is America militaristic? Explain. 

How does military training benefit the youth of America? 

Is America imperialistic? Explain. 

What is meant by "internationalism"? 

What are some of the baneful influences of pacifism? 

What are the essential qualifications of leadership? 

How can we best provide for the peace and security of our Nation? 

Describe the military policy of the United States. 

How does the State Department contribute to peace? 

What is the national defense act? 




What are some of its provisions? 

Name and describe the three components of the Army of the 
United States. 

In what way is preparedness an agency for peace? 
What moral qualities are essential to self-preservation? 
What provisions for national defense are contained in the Consti- 

Why should military service in time of war be determined by the 
National Government instead of the State or the individual? 



TM 2000-35 





Design accepted 159 

Significance of elements 160 

Progress of the flag 161 

Allocution of the stars 162 

Inspiration of the flag 163 

The future of the flag 164 

Kinds of national flags 165 

Federal laws 166 

Method of displaying the flag 167 

When flown with other flags. 

International usage. 

General uses. 

Reveille and retreat. 

Memorial Day. 

Unveiling statues. 

Military funerals. 

Patriotic occasions. 

Signal of distress. 

Disposition of worn-out flags 168 

Mihtary salute to the flag 169 

National anthem 170 

National salute 171 

Initial events of the American flag 172 

159. Design accepted. — Gen. George Washington, Robert Mor- 
ris, and Col. George Ross were appointed a committee by the Conti- 
nental Congress to produce a flag for the United States of North 
America. Their report was approved and the design adopted on the 
14th of June, 1777. By resolution Congress decided that the flag of 
the 13 United States should be 13 stripes, alternate red and white, 
and that the Union be 13 white stars on a blue field. 

160. Significance of elements. — In describing its design Wash- 
ington said: "We take the stars from heaven, the red from our 
mother country, separating it by white stripes, thus showing that we 
have separated from her, and the white stripes shall go down to 
posterity representing liberty." 

The Continental Congress defined the special significance of the 
chosen colors to be: White, suggesting purity and innocence; red, 
hardness and valor; blue, vigilance, perseverance, and justice. 

The stars of the Union were not merely a collection but a new con- 
stellation representing a new ideal in political and governmental 


TH 2000-25 


affairs. The newly formed States were to develop under the control 
of laws, not independently nor indifferent to each other — but a 
Union, one and inseparable. 

161. Progress of the flag. — After 1812 the flag moved west with 
the pioneers who explored the vast regions beyond the Alleghenies, 
the Mississippi Valley, the Rocky Mountains, to the shores of the 
Pacific Ocean, and the islands of the sea. Representing the United 
States, the flag flies to-day in Alaska, Hawaii, the Philippines, Porto 
Rico, Guam, Tutuila, Panama, and at the North Pole. 

To be born tinder the American flag is to be the child of a king and to build 
a home under the Stars and Stripes is to estabUsh a royal house. Alone of all 
flags it expresses the sovereignty of the people, which endures when all else 
passes away. Speaking with their voice, it has the sanctity of revelation. He 
who Hves under it and is loyal to it is loyal to truth and justice everywhere. 
He who lives under it and is disloyal to it is a traitor to the human race every- 
where. What could be saved if the flag of the American Nation were to 
perish? — President Coolidge. 

162. Allocation of the stars. — President William H. Taft on 
October 25, 1912, by Executive order designated the specific location 
of the stars and their definite representations. They were to be 
arranged in six rows of eight stars, each star to symbolize a State in 
the order of its ratification of the Constitution: 

25. Arkansas. 

26. Michigan. 

27. Florida. 

28. Texas. 

29. Iowa. 

30. Wisconsin. 

31. California. 

32. Minnesota. 

33. Oregon. 

34. Kansas. 

35. West Virginia. 

36. Nevada. 

37. Nebraska. 

38. Colorado. 

39. North Dakota. 

40. South Dakota. 

41. Montana. 

42. Washington. 

43. Idaho. 

44. Wyoming. 

45. Utah. 

46. Oklahoma. 

47. New Mexico. 

48. Arizona. 





3. New Jersey. 










South Carolina. 


New Hampshire. 




New fork. 


North Carolina. 


Rhode Island. 

















22. Alabama. 







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163. Inspiration of the flag. — Like the cross, the flag is sacred. 
It represents the living country and is itself considered a living thing. 
It flies not only as the symbol of organization and protection, it also 
calls to duty. To the flag of the United States, and all that it repre- 
sents, every citizen of America should render respect, reverence, and 

As you feel about your flag, so you feel about your Nation. 
Your flag, my flag, our flag! May we honor her as she honor? us ! 

164. The future of the flag. — This flag, the emblem of justice 
and government, stands for the just use of undisputed national power. 
No nation is going to doubt our power to assert its rights. 

It is henceforth to stand for self-possession, dignity, for the assertion of the 
right of one nation to serve the other nations of the world — an emblem that 
will not condescend to be used for purposes of aggression and self-aggrandize- 
ment; that it is too great to be debased by-selfishness; that has vindicated its 
right to be honored by all nations of the world and feared by none who do 
righteousness. — Woodrow Wilson. 

165. Kinds of national flags. — There are four kinds of national 
flags: Flags which are flown at military posts or on ships and used 
for display generally; small flags or ensigns which are used on small 
boats; colors which are carried by unmounted regiments; and stand- 
ards which are carried by mounted regiments, and are, therefore, 
smaller in size than colors. 

There is prescribed in Army Regulations a knotted fringe of yellow 
silk on the national standards of mounted regiments and on the 
national colors of unmounted regiments. However, there is no law 
which either requires or prohibits the placing of a fringe on the flag 
of the United States. Ancient custom sanctions the use of fringe on 
the regimental colors and standards, but there seems to be no good 
reason or precedent for its use on other flags. 

166. Federal laws. — There is no Federal law now in force per- 
taining to the manner of displaying, hanging, or saluting the United 
Stales flag, or prescribing any ceremonies that should be observed in 
connection therewith. 

There are but four Federal laws on the statute books that have any 
bearing upon this subject: 

(1) The act of Congress approved February 20, 1905, providing 
that a trade-mark can not be registered which consists of or com- 
prises "the flag, coat of arms, or other insignia of the United States, 
or any simulation thereof." 

(2) A joint resolution of Congress approved May 8, 1914, author- 
izing the display of the flag on Mother's Day. 


TM 3000-25 


(3) The act of Congress approved February 8, 1917, providing 
certain penalties for the desecration, mutilation, or improper use of 
the flag within the District of Columbia. 

(4) The act of Congress approved May 16, 1918, providing, when 
the United States is at war. for the dismissal from the service of 
any employee or official of the United States Government who criti- 
cizes in an abusive or violent manner the flag of the United States. 

Several States of the Union have enacted laws which have more or 
less bearing upon the general subject, and it seems probable that 
many counties and municipalities have also passed ordinances con- 
cerning this matter to govern action within their own jurisdiction. 

No present Federal statute punishing the desecration or abuse of the flag, in 
time of peace or in time of war. — Attorney General John G. Sargent. 

A majority of States have passed acts designed to punish the desecration of 
the National flag and to prevent its use for advertising purposes. The consti- 
tutionality of such State legislation was upheld by the Supreme Court in 
Halter v. Nebr., 205 U. S. 34. 

There is a Federal statute similar in terms to many of the State laws which 
punishes the improper use of the flag in the District of Columbia — act February 
8, 1917, chapter 34 (39 Stat. 900), but there is no Federal enactment which 
punishes such use outside the District. 

167. Method of displaying the flag. — There are certain funda- 
mental rules of heraldry which indicate the proper method of dis- 
playing the flag. There are also certain rules of good taste which, 
if observed, would insure the proper use of the flag. 

(1) The union of the flag is the honor point; the right arm is 
the sword arm and therefore the point of danger and hence the 
place of honor. 

(2) When the national flag is carried, as in a procession, with 
another flag or flags, the place of the national flag is on the right — 
i. e.. the flag's own right. 

(3) When the national flag and another flag are displayed together, 
as against a wall from crossed staffs, the national flag should be on 
the right, the flag's own right — i. e., the observer's left — and its staff 
should be in front of the staff of the other flag. 

(4) When a number of flags are grouped and displayed from staffs 
the national flag should be in the center or at the highest point of 
the group. 

(5) When the national flag is hung either horizontally or verti- 
cally against a wall the union should be uppermost and to the flag's 
own right — i. e., to the observer's left. When displayed from a staff 
projecting horizontally or at an angle from a window sill or the 
front of a building, the same rules should be observed. 



TM 3000-35 

(6) When the flag is suspended between buildings so as to hang 
over the middle of the street, a simple rule is to hang the union to 
the north in an east and west street or to the east in a north and south 


When flown with other flags. — When flags of States or cities or 
pennants of societies are flown on the same halyard with the national 
flag, the national flag must always be at the peak. When flown from 
adjacent staffs the national flag should be hoisted first. There is 
a chaplain's flag authorized in Army Regulations, but there is no 
church pennant prescribed. Neither the chaplain's flag nor any other 
flag or pennant is authorized to be placed above or to the right of 

the national flag. 

International usage. — The display of the flag of one nation above 
that of any other nation in time of peace is forbidden. When the 
flags of two or more nations are to be displayed they should be flown 
from separate staffs or from separate halyards, of equal size and on 

the same level. 

General uses. — There is no Federal law governing the subject, but 

it is suggested — 

That the national flag when not flown from a staff be always hung 
flat, whether indoors or out. 

It should not be festooned over doorways or arches nor tied in a 
bowknot nor fashioned into a rosette. 

When used on a rostrum it should be displayed above and behind 
the speaker's desk. It should never be used to cover the speaker's 
desk nor to drape over the front of the platform. For this purpose 
as well as for decoration in general, bunting of the national colors 
should be used, arranged with the blue above, the while in the middle, 
and the red below. 

Under no circumstances should the flag be draped over chairs or 
benches, nor should any object or emblem of any kind be placed above 
or upon it, nor should it be hung where it can be easily contaminated 
or soiled. 

No lettering of any kind should ever be placed upon the flag. It 
should not be used as a portion of a woman's costume nor of a man's 
athletic clothing. A very common misuse of the flag is the practice 
of embroidering the flag on cushions and handkerchiefs, and the 
printing of the flag on paper napkins. These practices, while not 
strictly a violation of any present Federal law, certainly are lacking 
in respect and dignity and can not be considered as evidence of 
good taste. 


TM »000-SS 



There is no objection to flying the flag at night on civilian 
property, provided it is not so flown for advertising purposes. 

Reveille and retreat. — It is the practice in the Army, each day in 
the year, to hoist the flag briskly at sunrise, irrespective of the condi- 
tion of the weather, and to lower it slowly and ceremoniously at 
sunset, indicating the commencement and cessation of the activities 
of the day. 

Memorial Day. — On Memorial Day (May 30) at all Army posts 
and stations the national flag is displayed at half staff from sunrise 
until noon and at full staff from noon until sunset. 

When flown at half staff the flag is always first hoisted to the peak, 
the honor point, and then slowly lowered to the half-staff position in 
honor of those who gave their lives to their country, but before 
lowering the flag for the day it is raised again to the head of the 
staff, for the Nation lives and the flag is the living symbol of the 

Unveiling statues. — When flags are used in connection with the 
unveiling of a statue or monument, they should not be allowed to fall 
to the ground, but should be carried aloft to wave out, forming a 
distinctive feature during the remainder of the ceremony. 

Military funerals. — When the national flag is used on a bier or 
casket at a military funeral, the rule is the reverse of that for hang- 
ing vertically against a wall. The union should be placed at the 
head of the casket and over the left shoulder of the soldier. The 
casket should be carried foot first. The flag should not be lowered 
into the grave and in no case should it be allowed to touch the 

When a body is shipped to relatives by the War Department for 
private burial, the flag which drapes the shipping case is turned over 
to relatives with the remains for use at the funeral, and may be 
retained by them. 

Patriotic occasions. — It is becoming the practice throughout the 
country among civilians to display the national flag on all patriotic 
occasions, especially on the following days: Lincoln's Birthday, 
February 12; Washington's Birthday, February 22; Mother's Day, 
second Sunday in May; Memorial Day, May 30; Flag Day, June 14; 
Independence Day, July 4; Armistice Day, November 11. 

In certain localities other special days are observed in the same 

Signal of distress. — The flag should never be hung nor displayed 
union down except as a signal of distress at sea. 

168. Disposition of worn-out flags. — Old or worn-out flags 
should not be used either for banners or for any secondary purpose. 



TJI 2000-35 


When a flag is in such a condition that it is no longer a fitting emblem 
for display, it should be destroyed, preferably by burning or by some 
other method lacking in any suggestion of irreverence or disrespect 
to the emblem representing our country. 

169. Military salute to the flag. — When officers and enlisted 
men pass the national flag not incased or when the national flag is 
carried in a parade or procession, they will render honors as follows: 
If in civilian dress and covered, they will uncover, holding the 
headdress opposite the left shoulder with the right hand; if in uni- 
form, covered, or uncovered, or in civilian dress uncovered, they will 
salute with the right-hand salute. 

170. National anthem. — The musical composition familiarly 
known as the Star-Spangled Banner is designated as the national 
air of the United States of America. When played all officers and 
enlisted men present and not in formation are required to stand at 
attention, facing the music, except when the flag is being lowered 
at sunset, on which occasion they are required to face toward the 
flag. If in uniform they shall render the prescribed salute at the 
first note of the anthem, retaining the position of salute until the 
last note of the anthem. If not in uniform and covered, they are 
required to stand and uncover at the first note of the anthem, holding 
the headdress opposite the left shoulder until the last note is played, 
except in inclement weather when the headdress may be held slightly 
raised. The custom of rising and remaining standing and uncovered 
while the Star-Spangled Banner is being played has grown in favor 
among civilians. 

The Star-Spangled Banner should be played through without repe- 
tition of any part not required to be repeated to make it complete. 
It should not be played as part of a medley nor for dance music, nor 
at any point in a program or performance except at the beginning or 
the end. It is the practice in the Army to play the Star-Spangled 
Banner at the end of a musical program. 

171. National salute. — The national salute to the American flag 
requires one gun for every star. 

NOTE. — It is not within the province of the War Department to force upon 
persons not in the military service the regulations governing the use of the flag 
within the Army. 

172. Initial events of the American flag. 

June 14, 1777: The first American flag, made by Betsy Ross, was 
adopted by the Continental Congress as the flag of the United States 
of North America. 

1787-1790: The Stars and Stripes first carried around the world by 
the ship Columbia. 


TM 2000-25 



August 2, 1777: An improvised Stars and Stripes hoisted at Fort 
Stanwix, N. Y. 

November 1, 1777: The American flag was first flown at sea by 
Capt. Paul Jones. He sailed to cany the news to France that 
Burgoyne had surrendered. 

February 14. 1778: The first salute given the American flag, at 
Quiberon Bay, France, when the French Admiral La Motte Piquet, 
saluted the flag on the Ranger, commanded by Capt. Paul Jones. 

September 11, 1777: The American flag first went into battle, 
receiving its baptism of blood at the Brandywine. 

September 13. 1814: Francis Scott Key wrote the Star-Spangled 
Banner during the battle at Fort McHenry, in Baltimore Harbor. 
It was later officially designated as the national anthem. 

July 24. 1866: First American flag manufactured from American 
material hoisted over the Capitol at Washington. Previously the 
bunting had been manufactured outside the United States. 


Explain the significance of the "elements" in the American flag. 

Describe the "progress" of the flag. 

Which star is allotted to your State? Why? 

What is meant by the "inspiration of the flag"? 

What is its message to you? 

There are how many kinds of national flags? Name them. 

What Federal laws relate to the flag? 

Should the American flag ever be used as an advertising device? 

Describe the methods of displaying the flag. 

When flown with other flags what is the position of the American 

What is the international usage? 

What suggestions are made as to general uses? 

How is the flag flown on Memorial Day, and what is its signifi- 

In unveiling statues, how should the flag be used? 

Describe the use of the flag at military funerals. 

On what special occasions is it customary to display the American 

What is the position of the flag when used as a signal of distress? 

Describe the military salute to the flag. 

How should the national anthem be played? What should the 
audience do? 

What is the national salute to the flag? Explain. 


TM 2000-25 




Edited by HARRY. ATWOOD 

Showing all portions of the original Constitution which have become obsolete 
inclosed in brackets in bold type, and all portions which hare been modified 
or supplanted by amendment in bold itahcs, with notes indicating the 
amendments by which the changes were made 


Our Constitution is the foundation upon which this Republic rests. 
It is now the oldest written constitution functioning in the world 
and is quite generally conceded the wisest plan of government ever 

Under its beneficent influence we began to solve problems and 
secure individual comforts and privileges that had baffled philoso- 
phers and statesmen for ages. We have harmonized into a splendid 
and loyal citizenship people of many nationalities coming to our 
shores with varying ambitions and ideals, and have made orderly 
progress unparalleled in history until we have become the leading 
nation of the world. 

In studying the Constitution, it is essential to have clearly in mind 
what portions have been modified or supplanted by amendment and 
what portions have become obsolete. The changes are clearly indi- 
cated in this edition. 

When the Constitution was written our country was in a condition 
of bankruptcy, chaos, and anarchy. Within three years after its 
adoption a most favorable condition for orderly progress had been 
estabhshed. That beneficent transformation wrought by the Con- 
stitution is one of the most amazing facts in all history. 

The men who wrote the Constitution had great mental acumen, 
political understanding, and moral courage. Their lives had been 
devoted largely to study and thought concerning government and 
to rendering public service. They were politically minded in the 
sense that Edison and Marconi are electrically minded; that Lind- 
bergh and Chamberlain are aviation minded; that Socrates and 
Emerson were philosophically minded; that Newton and Kepler 
were scientifically minded. 


TM 2000-35 


To regard the Constitution merely as a statement of principles 
and an enumeration of rights and guarantees results in confusion 
and a false concept. It is a statement of the purposes of govern- 
ment, and the statement of a plan for setting up and administering 
a Federal representative government in harmony with the purposes 
to which it was dedicated. 

Every proper activity of government can be classified under one 
or more of the six great purposes set forth in the Preamble. The 
plan for the division of powers into legislative, executive, and judi- 
cial departments, combining proper independence with means for 
helpful cooperation between those departments under well-balanced 
restraints, makes possible a scientific administration of government. 

The Constitution is very much the kind of a plan for handling 
the problems of government that the alphabet is for handling the 
problems of language; that the scale is for handling the problems 
of music; that the ten digits are for handling the problems of 

Notwithstanding the vital importance of the Constitution to the 
well-being of this Republic, the number of persons who know much 
about it is tragically small. Increasing knowledge of its meaning 
and value will bring increasing desire for better understanding. 

H. A. 



"We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more per- 
fect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for 
the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the 
blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and 
establish this Constitution for the United States of America. 



Section 1. All legislative powers herein granted shall be vested 
in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate 
and House of Representatives. 


Sec. 2. (1) The House of Representatives shall be composed of 
members chosen every second year by the people of the several 



TM 3000-35 

States, and the electors in each State shall have the qualifications 
requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State 


(2) No person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained 
to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the 
United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of 
that State in which he shall be chosen. 

(3) Representatives and direct taxes (except income) shall be 
apportioned among the several States which may be included within 
this Union according to their respective numbers, — which shall be 
determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, in- 
cluding those bound to service for a term of years — and exclud- 
ing Indians not taxed, — three-fifths of all other persons.' The 
actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first 
meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every sub- 
sequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. 
The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty 
thousand, but each State shall have at least one Representative; 
[and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New 
Hampshire shall be entitled to choose 3; Massachusetts, 8 
Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, 1; Connectictit, 5 
New York, 6; New Jersey, 4; Pennsylvania, 8; Delaware, 1 
Maryland, 6; Virginia, 10; North Carolina, 5; South Carolina, 
5; and Georgia, 3.]"* 

(4) When vacancies happen in the representation from any State, 
the Executive Authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill 
such vacancies. 

(5) The House of Representatives shall choose their Speaker and 
other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment. 


Sec. 3. (1) The Senate of the United States shall be composed 
of two Senators from each State, chosen by the — Legislature — 
thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. 

(2) Immediately after they shall be assembled in consequence of 
the first election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into 
three classes. The seats of the Senators of the first class shall be 

, See Amendment XIV, section 3 
3 Insert. See Amendment XVI.. 

See Amendment Xlll and sections 1 and 2 of Amendment XIV. 
j Obsolete since 1793 

See Amendment XVll, paragraph 1, 

110834"— 28- 





vacated at the expiration of the second year, of the second class at 
the expiration of the fourth year, and of the third class at the expira- 
tion of the sixth year, so that one-third may be chosen every second 
year: — and if vacancies happen by resignation, or otherwise, 
during the recess of the legislature of any State, the Executive 
thereof may make temporary appointments until the next meet- 
ing of the legislature, which shall then fill such vacancies. 

(3) No person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the 
age of thirty years, and been nine years a citizen of the United States, 
and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that State for 
which he shall be chosen. 

(4) The Vice-President of the United States shall be President of 
the Senate, but shall have no vote unless they be equally divided. 

(5) The Senate shall choose their other officers, and also a Presi- 
dent pro tempore in the absence of the Vice President, or when he 
shall exercise the office of President of the United States. 

(6) The Senate shall have the sole power to try all impeachments. 
When sitting for that purpose, they shall be on oath or affirmation. 
When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice 
shall preside; and no person shall be convicted without the concur- 
rence of two-thirds of the members present. 

(7) Judgment in cases of impeachment shall not extend further 
than to removal from office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy 
any office of honor, trust, or profit under the United States; but 
the party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to indict- 
ment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law. 


Sec. 4. (1) The times, places, and manner of holding elections 
for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State 
by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by 
law make or alter such regulations, — except as to the places of 
choosing Senators. 

(2) The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and 
such meetings shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they 
shall by law appoint a different day. 

Sec. 6. (1) Each house shall be the judge of the elections, returns, 
and qualifications of its own members, and a majority of each shall 
constitute a quorum to do business; but a smaller number may ad- 

j See Amendment XVll, paragraph 2. 
3 SeeAmendmentXlV, lection 8. 
See Amendment XVll. 



TJII 2000-25 

journ from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the attend- 
ance of absent members in such manner and under such penalties 
as each house may provide. 

(2) Each house may determine the rules of its proceedings, punish 
its members for disorderly behavior, and with the concurrence of 
two-thirds expel a member. 

(3) Each house shall keep a journal of its proceedings, and from 
time to time publish the same, excepting such parts as may in their 
judgment require secrecy; and the yeas and nays of the members of 
either house on any question shall, at the desire of one-fifth of those 
present, be entered on the journal. 

(4) Neither house, during the session of Congress, shall, without 
the consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to 
any other place than that in which the two houses shall be sitting. 

Sec. 6. (1) The Senators and Representatives shall receive a com- 
pensation for their services, to be ascertained by law, and paid out 
of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all cases, except 
treason, felony, and breach of the peace, be privileged from arrest 
during their attendance at the session of their respective houses, and 
in going to and returning from the same; and for any speech or 
debate in either house they shall not be questioned in any other 

(2) No Senator or Representative shall, during the time for which 
he was elected, be appointed to any civil office under the authority 
of the United States which shall have been created, or the emolu- 
ments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no 
person holding any office under the United States shall be a member 
of either house during his continuance in office. 

Sec. 7. (1) All bills for raising revenue shall originate in the 
House of Representatives, but the Senate may propose or concur with 
amendments, as on other bills. 

(2) Every bill which shall have passed the House of Representa- 
tives and the Senate shall, before it becomes a law, be presented to 
the President of the United States; if he approve, he shall sign it, 
but if not, he shall return it, with his objections, to that house in 
which it shall have originated, who shall enter the objections at 
large on their journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such 
reconsideration two-thirds of that house shall agree to pass the bill, 
it shall be sent, together with the objections, to the other house, by 
which it shall likewise be reconsidered; and if approved by two- 
thirds of that house it shall become a law. But in all such cases the 
votes of both houses shall be determined by yeas and nays, and the 


TM 2000-23 



names of the persons voting for and against the bill shall be entered 
on the journal of each house respectively. If any bill shall not be 
returned by the President, within ten days (Sundays excepted) after 
it shall have been presented to him, the same shall be a law in like 
manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their adjourn- 
ment prevent its return; in which case it shall not be a law. 

(3) Every order, resolution, or vote to which the concurrence of 
the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except 
on a question of adjournment) shall be presented to the President 
of the United States; and before the same shall take effect shall be 
approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed 
by two-thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, accord- 
ing to the rules and hmitations prescribed in the case of a bill. 


Sec. 8. The Congress shall have power: 

(1) To lay and collect taxes, duties, imposts, and excises, to pay 
the debts and provide for the common defense and general welfare 
of the United States; but all duties, imposts, and excises shall be 
uniform throughout the United States. 

(2) To borrow money on the credit of the United States. 

(3) To regulate commerce with foreign nations, and among the 
several States, and with the Indian tribes. 

(4) To establish an uniform rule of naturalization and uniform 
laws on the subject of bankruptcies throughout the United States. 

(5) To coin money, regulate the value thereof, and of foreign 
coin, and fix the standard of weights and measures. 

(6) To provide for the punishment of counterfeiting the securities 
and current coin of the United States. 

(7) To establish post-offices and post-roads. 

(8) To promote the progress of science and useful arts by secur- 
ing for limited times to authors and inventors the exclusive right to 
their respective writings and discoveries, 

(9) To constitute tribunals inferior to the Supreme Court 

(10) To define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the 
high seas, and offenses against the law of nations. 

(11) To declare war, grant letters of marque and reprisal, and 
make rules concerning captures on land and water. 

(12) To raise and support armies, but no appropriation of money 
to that use shall be for a longer term than two years. 

(13) To provide and maintain a navy. 



TM 2000-35 

(14) To makes rules for the government and regulation of the 
land and naval forces. 

(15) To provide for calling forth the militia to execute the laws 
of the Union, suppress insurrection, and repel invasions. 

(16) To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the mili- 
tia, and for governing such part of them as may be employed in the 
service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively the 
appointment of the officers, and the authority of training the militia 
according to the discipline prescribed by Congress. 

(17) To exercise exclusive legislation in all cases whatsoever over 
such district (not exceeding ten miles square) as may, by cession 
of particular States and the acceptance of Congress, become the seat 
of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like au- 
thority over all places purchased by the consent of the legislature 
of the State in which the same shall be, for the erection of forts, 
magazines, arsenals, dock-yards, and other needful buildings; And 

(18) To make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for car- 
rying into execution the foregoing powers, and all other powers 
vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, 
or in any department or officer thereof. 


Sec. 9. [(I) The migration or importation of such persons 
as any of the States now existing shall think proper to 
admit shall not he prohibited by the Congress prior to the 
year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty 
may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten 
dollars for each person.] ^ 

(2) The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be sus- 
pended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety 
may require it. 

(3) No bill of attainder or ex post facto law shall be passed. 

(4) No capitation or other direct tax (except income)'" shall be 
laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration hereinbefore 
directed to be taken. 

(5) No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any 

(6) No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or 
revenue to the ports of one State over those of another, nor shaU 

'obsolete since 1808. 
Insert. See Amendment XVI. 


rM 2000-25 
Art 1-8 


vessels bound to or from one State be obliged to enter, clear, or pay 
duties in another. 

(7) No money shall be drawn from the Treasury but in consequence 
of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account 
of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published 
from time to time. 

(8) No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States. 
And no person holding any office of profit or trust under them shall, 
without the consent of the Congress, acceptofany present, emolument, 
office, or title of any kind whatever from any king, prince, or foreign 

Sec. 10. (1) No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or 
confederation, grant letters of marque and reprisal, coin money, emit 
bills of credit, make anything but gold and silver coin a tender in 
payment of debts, pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law 
impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility. 

(2) No State shall, without the consent of the Congress, lay any 
imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what may be abso- 
lutely necessary for executing its inspection laws, and the net produce 
of all duties and imposts, laid by any State on imports or exports, 
shall be for the use of the Treasury of the United States; and all 
such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the Congress. 

(3) No State shall, without the consent of Congress, lay any duty 
of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into 
any agreement or compact with another State, or with a foreign 
power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded or in such imminent 
danger as will not admit of delay. 


Section 1. (1) The executive power shall be vested in a President 
of the United States of America. He shall hold his office during the 
term of four years, and, together with the Vice-President, chosen for 
the same term, be elected as follows: 

(2) Each State shall appoint, in such manner as the Legislature 
thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to the whole number 
of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in 
the Congress; but no Senator or Representative, or person holding an 
office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an 
elector. '^ 

See Amendment XIV, Section 3. 



TM 3000-25 

(3) The electors shall meet in their respective States and vote 
by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall not be an 
inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall 
make a list of all the persons voted for, and of the number of 
votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and trans- 
mit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, 
directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the 
Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be 
counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall 
be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole 
number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one 
who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, 
then the House of Representatives shall immediately choose by 
ballot one of them for President; and if no person have a ma- 
jority, then from the five highest on the list the said House shall, 
in like manner, choose the President. But in choosing the Presi- 
dent the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from 
each State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall 
consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the States, 
and a majority of all the States shall be necessary to a choice. 
In every case, after the choice of the President, the person hav- 
ing the greatest number of votes of the electors shall be the 
Vice-President. But if there should remain two or more who 
have equal votes, the Senate shall choose from them by ballot 
the Vice-President. " 

(4) The Congress may determine the time of choosing the electors, 
and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be 
the same throughout the United States. 

(5) No person except a natural born citizen [or a citizen of the 
United States at the time of the adoption of this Consti- 
tution]'^ shall be eligible to the office of President; neither shall any 
person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age 
of thirty-five years and been fourteen years a resident within the 
United States." 

(6) In case of the removal of the President from office, or of his 
death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers and duties of 
the said office, the same shall devolve on the Vice-President, and the 
Congress may by law provide for the case of removal, death, resigna- 

'^ Supplanted by Amendment Xll. 
See Amendment XIV, Section 3. 


oar 2000-35 

Art, a 


tion, or inability, both of the President and Vice-President, declaring 
what officer shall then act as President, and such officer shall act 
accordingly until the disability be removed or a President shall be 

(7) The President shall, at stated times, receive for his services a 
compensation which shall neither be increased nor diminished during 
the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not 
receive within that period any other emolument from the United 
States or any of them. 

(8) Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the 
following oath or affirmation: 

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the 
office of President of the United States, and will, to the best of my 
ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United 

Sec. 2. (1) The President shall be commander-in-chief of the 
Army and Navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several 
States, when called into the actual service of the United States; he 
may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of 
the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of 
their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves 
and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of 

- (2) He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the 
Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the Senators present 
concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and con- 
sent of the Senate shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers 
and consuls, judges of the Supreme Court, and all other officers of 
the United States whose appointments are not herein otherwise pro- 
vided for, and which shall be established by law; but the Congress 
may by law vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they 
think proper in the President alone, in the courts of law, or in the 
heads of departments. 

(3) The President shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may 
happen during the recess of the Senate, by granting commissions 
Which will expire at the end of their next session. 

Sec. 3. He shall from time to time give to the Congress informa- 
tion of the state of the Union, and recommend to their consideration 
such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on 
extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and 
in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of 
adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think 



TM 2000-25 
Art 2-3 

proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he 
shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, and shall com- 
mission all the officers of the United States. 

Sec. 4. The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the 
United States, shall be removed from office on impeachment for. and 
conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misde- 



Section 1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vested 
in one Supreme Court, and in such inferior courts as the Congress 
may from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the 
Supreme and inferior courts, shall hold their offices during good 
behavior and shall, at stated times, receive for their services a com- 
pensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in 


Sec. 2. (1) The judicial power shall extend to all cases, in law 
and equity, arising under this Constitution, the laws of the United 
States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their au- 
i^^itj^;; <K^ ^U (&csm af^cting anilbaissadgn%, wfSwv y^^Mc immst£TS, 
and consuls; to all cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction; to 
controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to con- 
troversies between two or more States; — between a State and citi- 
zens of another State; — between citizens of different States; 
between citizens of the same State claiming lands under grants of 
different States, and between a State, or the citizens thereof, and 
foreign states, — citizens or subjects. 

(2) In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public ministers, and 
consuls and those in which a State shall be party, the Supreme Court 
shall have original jurisdiction. In all the other cases before men- 
tioned, the Supreme Court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as 
to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as 
the Congress shall make. 

(3) The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall 
be by jury; and such trial shall be held in the State where the said 
crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within 
any State, the trial shall be at such place or places as the Congress 
may by law have directed. 

Sec. 3. (1) Treason against the United States shall consist only 
in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving 

See Amendment XI. 


t 3000-35 
Art, 8-4 


them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless 
on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confes- 
sion in open court. 

(2) The Congress shall have power to declare the punishment of 
treason, but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, 
or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted. 




Section 1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each State to 
the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other State. 
And the Congress may by general laws prescribe the manner in which 
such acts, records, and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect 

Sec. 2. (1) The citizens of each State shall be entitled to all 
privileges and immunities of citizens in the several States. 

(2) A person charged in any State with treason, felony, or other 
crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in another State, 
shall, on demand of the Executive authority of the State from which 
he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State having jurisdiction 
of the crime. 

(3) [No person held to service or labor in one State, under 
the laws thereof, escaping into another shall, in consequence 
of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such 
service or labor, but shall be delivered up on claim of the 
party to whom such service or labor may be due.] 





Sec. 3. (1) New States may be admitted by the Congress into 
this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within the 
jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by the 
junction of two or more States, or parts of States, without the con- 
sent of the Legislatures of the States concerned, as well as of the 

(2) The Congress shall have power to dispose of and make all 
needful rules and regulations respecting the territory or other prop- 
erty belonging to the United States; and nothing in this Constitu- 

'" Obsolete. 



TM 2000-25 
Art. 4^ 

tion shall be so construed as to prejudice any claims of the United 
States, or of any particular State. 

Sec. 4. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this 
Union a republican form of government, and shall protect each of 
them against invasion, and, on application of the Legislature, or of 
the Executive (when the Legislature can not be convened), against 
domestic violence. 




The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both houses shall deem it 
necessary, shall propose amendments this Constitution, or, on the 
application of the Legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, 
shall call a convention for proposing amendments, which in either 
case, shall be valid to all intents and purposes, as part of this Con- 
stitution, when ratified by the Legislatures of three-fourths of the 
several States, or by conventions in three-fourths thereof, as the one 
or the other mode of ratification may be proposed by the Congress; 
provided [that no amendment which may be made prior to 
the year one thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any 
manner affect the first and fourth clauses in the Ninth Sec- 
tion of the First Article; and]'' that no State, without its con- 
sent, shall be deprived of its equal suffrage in the Senate. 



(1) All debts contracted and engagements entered into before the 
adoption of this Constitution shall be as valid against the United 
States under this Constitution as under the Confederation. 


(2) This Constitution and the laws of the United States which 
shall be made in pursuance thereof and all treaties made, or which 
shall be made, under the authority of the United States, shall be 
the supreme law of the land; and the judges in every State shall be 
bound thereby, anything in the Constitution or laws of any State 
to the contrary notwithstanding. 




SI 2000-35 




(3) The Senators and Representatives before mentioned, and the 
members of the several State Legislatures, and all executive and 
judicial officers, both of the United States and of the several States, 
shall be bound by oath or affirmation to support this Constitution; 
but no religious test shall ever be required as a qualification to any 
office or public trust under the United States. 


The ratification of the conventions of nine States shall be sufficient 
for the establishment of this Constitution between the States so 
ratifying the same. 

Done in Convention by the unanimous consent of the States present 
the seventeenth day of September in the year of our Lord one thou- 
sand seven hundred and eighty-seven and of the independence of the 
United States of America the twelfth. In witness whereof we have 
hereunto subscribed our names, 

George Washington, President 

and delegate from Virginia 






John Langdon 
Nicholas Oilman 

Nathaniel Gorham 

William Samuel Johnson 
Roger Sherman 

Alexander Hamilton 

William Livingston 
David Brearley 
William Paterson 
Jonathan Dayton 

Thomas Mifflin 
Robert Morris 
George Clymer 
Thomas Fitzsimmons 
Jared Ingersoll 
James Wilson 
Gouverneur Morris 








George Read 
Gunning Bedford 
John Dickinson 
Richard Bassett 
Jacob Broom 

James McHenry 

Daniel of St. Thomas Jenifer 

Daniel Carroll 

John Blair 
James Madison 

William Blount 
Richard Dobbs Spaight 
Hugh Williamson 

John Rutledge 

Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 

Charles Pinckney 

Pierce Butler 

William Few 
Abraham Baldwin 

TM 3000-25 
Art 7 

Delegates Edmund Randolph and George Mason of Virginia and 
Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts were present on the last day of the 
Convention but refused to sign the Constitution. 

The following delegates were not present on the last day of the 
Convention, but a goodly portion of them were in favor of the Con- 
stitution: W. Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut; William Churchill 
Houston of New Jersey; John Caleb Strong of Massachusetts; Wil- 
liam Pierce and William Houston of Georgia; William Richardson 
Davie and Alexander Martin of North Carolina; James McClurg and 
George Wythe of Virginia; Robert Yates and W. John Lansing 
of New York; and John Francis Mercer and Luther Martin of 

Many people seem to have the impression that John Han- 
cock, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, and Patrick Henry 
were delegates to the Constitutional Convention, but none 
of them were. 


Iff 2000-25 


(The first ten, proposed September 25, 1789; adopted June 15, 1790) 


Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of re- 
ligion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the 
freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peace- 
ably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of 


A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free 
State, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be 


No soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any house with- 
out the consent of the owner; nor in time of war but in a manner to 
be prescribed by law. 


The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers 
and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be 
violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, sup- 
ported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place 
to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. 


No person shall be held to answer for a capital or otherwise in- 
famous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand 
jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the 
militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor 
shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in 
jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case 
to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or 
property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be 
taken for public use, without just compensation. 


TM 2000-35 


AwncLi! VI 

In aU criminal prosecutions the accused shall enjoy the right to 
a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and 
district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district 
shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of 
the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the 
witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining 
witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his 


In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed 
twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no 
fact tried by a jury shall be otherwise re-examined in any court of 
the United States than according to the rules of the common law. 


Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, 
nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. 


The enumeration in the Constitution of certain rights shall not 
be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. 


The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, 
nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States 
respectively, or to the people. 


(Proposed September 6, 1794; adopted January 8, 1798) 

The judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to 
extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against 
one of the United States by citizens of another State, or by citizens 
or subjects of any foreign state. 

(This amendment modifies paragraph I, section 2, of Article III.) 


tlSS. 2000-35 



(Proposed December 12, 1803; adopted September 25, 1804) 

The electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by 
ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom at least shall 
not be an inhabitant of the same State with themselves; they shall 
name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in. 
distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-President; and they 
shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of 
all persons voted for as Vice-President, and of the number of votes 
for each, which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit, sealed, 
to the seat of the Government of the United States, directed, to the 
President of the Senate; the President of the Senate shall, in the 
presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the 
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; the person having 
the greatest number of votes for President shall be the President, 
if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors ap- 
pointed; and if no person have such majority, then from the persons 
having the highest numbers, not exceeding three, on the list of those 
voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose 
immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the Presi- 
dent, the votes shall be taken by States, the representation from each 
State having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a 
member or members from two-thirds of the States, and a majority of 
all the States shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of 
Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right of 
choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March 
next following, then the Vice-President shall act as President, as in 
the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President. 
The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-President 
shall be the Vice-President if such number be a majority of the 
whole number of electors appointed, and if no person have a 
majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list the Senate 
shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for the purpose shall 
consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a 
majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But 
no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall 
be eligible to that of Vice-President of the United States. 

(This amendment supplants paragraph 3, section 1, of Article II.) 


TflC 2000-25 



(Proposed February 1, 1865; adopted December 18, 1865) 

Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a 
punishment for crime, whereof the party shall have been duly con- 
victed, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to 
their jurisdiction. 

Sec. 2. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 

(Proposed June 16, 1866; adopted July 21, 1868) 

Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, 
and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United 
States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or 
enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities 
of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any 
person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor 
deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the 

Sec. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among the several 
States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole 
number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But 
when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for 
President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives 
in Congress, the executive and judicial officers of a State, or the 
members of the legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male 
inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age and citizens 
of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participa- 
tion in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein 
shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male 
citizen shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one 
years of age in such State. 

(Sections 1 and 2 of this amendment modify paragraph 3, section 2, of 
Article I.) 

Sec. 3. No person shall be a Senator, or Representative in Con- 
gress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any office, 
civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, 
having previously taken an oath as a member of Congress, or as an 
officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature. 

110834°— 28 10 




or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the 
Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection 
or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies 
thereof. But Congress may, by a vote of two-thirds of each house, 
remove such disability. 

(Section 3 of this amendment supplements paragraph 2, section 2, of Article 
I; paragraph 3, section 3, of Article I; paragraph 2, section 1, of Article II; 
and, paragraph 5, section 1, of Article II.) 

Sec. 4. The validity of the public debt of the United States, 
authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions 
and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, 
shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State 
shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insur- 
rection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the 
loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and 
claims shall be held illegal and void. 

Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate 
legislation, the provisions of this article. 


(Proposed February 27, 1869; adopted March 30, 1870) 

Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall 
not be denied or abridged by the United States, or by any State, on 
account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. 

Sec. 2. The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by 
appropriate legislation. 

(This amendment supplements paragraph 1, section 2, of Article I.) 


(Proposed July 31, 1909; adopted February 25, 1913) 

The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, 
from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the 
several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration. 

(This amendment modifies paragraph 3, section 2, of Article I, and para- 
graph 4, section 9, of Article I.) 


(Proposed May 15, 1912; adopted May 81, 1913) 

(1) The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two 
Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof for six years, 


TM 2000-35 


and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall 
have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous 
branch of the State legislatures. 

(Paragraph 1 of this amendment modifies paragraph 1, section 3, of Article I, 
and paragraph 1, section 4, of Article I.) 

(2) When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in 
the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of 
election to fill such vacancies: Provided, That the legislature of any 
State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appoint- 
ments until the people fill the vacancies by election, as the legislature 
may direct. 

(Paragraph 2 of this amendment modifies paragraph 2, section 3, of Article I.) 

(3) This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the 
election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as 
part of the Constitution. 


(Proposed December 19, 1917; adopted January 29, 1919) 

Section 1. After one year from the ratification of this article the 
manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, 
the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the 
United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for 
beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

Sec. 2. The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent 
power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. 

Sec. 3. This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been 
ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of 
the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years 
from the date of submission hereof to the States by the Congress. 


(Proposed June 6, 1919; adopted August 26, 1920) 

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be 
denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account 

of sex. 

Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate 


(This amendment supplements paragraph 1, section 2, of Article I.) 


I 2000-^5 


On October 22, 1787, a little over a month after the Constitution 
was adopted by the Convention at Philadelphia, the hard-headed and 
many-sided Benjamin Franklin, when he was nearly 82 years of age, 
wrote a suggestion to a friend in Europe, which is still worthy of 
consideration, as follows: 

"/ send you enclosed the proposed new Federal Constitution 
for these States. I was engaged four months of the last sum- 
mer in the Convention that formed it. It is now sent by Con- 
§r«9f to the geveral States fm- i!JMr conftrnmtimt. If it aueeeeth, 

I do not see why you might not in Europe form a Federal Union 
and one grand republic of all its different states and kingdoms; 
by means of a like convention; for we had many interests to 
reconcile. " 

"Whatever may be the judgment pronounced on the compe- 
tency of the architects of the Constitution, or whatever may be 
the destiny of the edifice prepared by them, I feel it a duty to 
express my profound and solemn conviction, derived from my 
intimate opportunity of observing and appreciating the views 
of the Convention collectively and individually, that there never 
was an assembly of men, charged with a great and arduous trust, 
who were more pure in their motives, or more exclusively or 
anxiously devoted to the object committed to them. " — James 

"Hold on, my friends, to the Constitution of your country, and 
the government established under it. Perform those duties 
which are present, plain and positive. Respect the laws of your 
country, uphold our American institutions as far as you are able, 
consult the chart and the compass: as if our united constitu- 
tional American liberty were in some degree committed to your 
charge, keep her, so far as it depends on you, clear of the 
breakers" — DanielWebster. 

Francois Guizot, the French philosopher, historian, and prime 
minister, once asked James Russell Lowell, noted author and 
poet, "How long do you think the American Republic will 
endure?" Lowell replied, "So long as the ideas of its founders 
continue to be dominant. " 


TM 2000-25 


"The Federalists" Hamilton, Madison, Jay. 

"The Constitution Explained" Harry Atwood. 

"Formation of the Union of the American 

states" superintendent of Documents, 

Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 

"The Constitution of the United States, Its 

Sources and Application" Thomas J. Norton. 

"History of the United States" McMaster. 




Allegiance 12 

Amendments. (See Constitution.) 


Ideals 14, 22, 28-30, 71, 114-117 

Development 28-32, 105 

Natural resources 32 

High standards of living 63 

Not militaristic 112 

Not imperialistic 112 

American Bill of Rights 94 

American flag: 

Significance of elements 119 

Progress of flag 120 

Allocation of stars 120 

Kinds of national flags 121 

Laws regarding 121 

Method of display 122 

International usage 123 

General uses 123-124 

Salutes to flag 125 

Army — Regular 1-115 

Articles of Confederation 12, 18 

Atwood, Harry 92, 101, 127-128 


Blackstone 76-79 

Boone, Daniel 47 

Brewer, ludge 14-15 


CaKfbrnia 50^1 

Capital 20-22,60 

Character 27-32, 71 

Ethical 33-35 

Foundation of 32 

Greatest asset of America 26 

National 105 

Physical 32 

Political 35 

Checks and balances 96-97 






Foundation of 
Origin of 



5, 9-12 




PoUtical phase 4, 68 

Privileges of 23, 33, 72 

Social phase 3, 68 

Responsibilities of 1, 5, 14, 23, 31, 103-108 

Rights of 2-3, 18 94-95 

Suffrage 13, 105 

Training 2-6 

Civil War. (See Rights.) 
CiviUzation, development of 16-17, 20 

Clark, George Rogers 
Class consciousness 
C. M. T. C. 

Chief pursuits 
Federation of 


23, 34 




.27-32, 60, 


Ideals of 28 

Independence of 75, 94 

Commerce 18, 33-35, 58 

Communism 66, 75-84, 93, 99-101, 113 

Abolition of family 67 

Denial of personal rights 66 

Equality of condition 66 

Propaganda 78 

Religion outlawed 67 

(See Pacifism.) 

Community relationships 17 

Constitution 12, 13-14, 18, 

42, 43, 44, 58, 69, 76, 77, 78-79, 93, 94, 94-96, 98, 1 1 1, 1 16, 127 

Compromises 96 

Guaranties 13, 19, 68, 78, 110 

Knowledge of, necessary 101 

Preamble 84-88 

Sources of 83 

Superior to all other forms of government 92 

Unwritten 93 

Written 93 

Constitutional Convention 42-84-88 

Cooley, Judge Thomas N 96 

Coolidge, Calvin. 32, 116 

Cooperation 27, 34 

Coordinated action 17 

Cotton gin 51 



D Page 

Declaration of Independence 43, 75, 77, 83, 94, 108, 117 

Dicey, Prof. A. V 97 


Economicdevelopment 58-63 

Education. (See Illiteracy.) 

Emerson, Ralph Waldo 72 

" '■ 77 





Erie Canal 

Ericsson, Capt. John 
Evarts, Wilham M 
Executive Department. 

(See Government.) 

Franklin, Benjamin 

Free land 

Fremont, Gen. John 
Fulton, Robert 



Gorgas, Gen. William 

American philosophy 

Comparative forms of. (See Representative government.) 

Constitution of the United States. (See Constitution.) 

Early forms of 

Executive department 

Judicial department 

Legislative department 


Guizot, Francois 







Hamilton, Alexander 


Hart, A. 

Henry, Patrick 

Holmes, Justice 

House of Representatives 


88, 111 


.2, 3, 30, 61 





Immigration , 

(See Revised Statutes.) 

(See Declaration of Independence.) 

Individual initiative 

Individual responsibility 




. . . 5, 32, 100 
10, 22, 24, 60, 100, 104 

70, 74 

2, 65, 73 




Individualistic government: 

An American institution 

Economic freedom 

Political rights.: 

Property rights 

Protection to home and 

Respect for religion 

Industry .4, 19, 21, 51, 59, 60-64, 

(See Labor.) 



Refresher course 


Time allotted 

Interdependent relationships 


International relationships. (See State Department.) 
Interstate commerce 



70, 71, 72 



Jackson, Andrew 
Jefferson, Thomas 
Judiciary, Federal 

Kearney, Colonel 








Labor. (See Industry.) 

Law and order 106 

Lewis and Clark expedition 49 

Liberty 74-80, 111 

Blessings of 87 

Political 80 

Safeguards. (See Declaration of Independence ) 

Lincoln, Abraham 14, 46, 77, 85, 88 

Louisiana Purchase 44 


Madison, James 12, 92, 93, 94, 113, 114, 115, 116, 148 

Magna Charta 83 

Marshall, John 42 

Mexican War 60 

Military policy of the United States 114 

Militia. (See National Guard.) 

Monroe, James 84 

Morse, Samuel F. B. 63 

Mutual relationships 17-18 



N Page 

National defense. (See National Guard; Organized Reserves.) 

National defense act 1, 87, 114 

National Guard 115 

Naturalization 10 

Navy 55 

Northwest Territory 47 

Norton, Thomas J 83-84 

Organized Reserves 


Pacifism 113 

Peace 19, 22, 35, 116 


Spirit 29,30,33 

Achievements 39, 47-50 

Population of United States 
Powers of President of United States 
Powers delegated to Congress 
Powers reserved to State and people 


Agency for peace 

Moral qualities 

Preparation for leadership 

Public opinion 

Public service 

Public utilities 

22, 93 





66, 63, 72, 

15, 24, 35, 

I 101, 108, 117, 12^ 


Reed, Maj. Walter 55 

Religion 31, 32, 67, 68 

Religion and national defense 78 

Representative government 90-101 

Dangers to 3-4, 44, 99 

Safeguards 5, 76, 100 

Revised Statutes 12 





Roosevelt, Theodore 




13, 19, 46 



S Pago 

Sargent, John G 122 

Senate 96 

Separation of church and State 78; 

Separation of powers 96 

Sociahsm. (See Communism.) 

State Department 19, 35, 114 

Steam navigation 52; 

Storrs, Doctor 30i 

Supreme Court .42, 78, 94, 122 

Swaney, Judge W. B lOT 


Taylor, Hannis 43 

Telegraph 53 

Telephone 21 



Bill of Rights 83 

Statute of religious liberty 83 

Vote, f See Suffrage.) 


Warren (Massachusetts) Ill 

Washington, George: 

Leadership 39 

Farewell Address 22, 40, 85, 97, 101, 106 

Webster, Daniel 13, 32, 44 75, 80, 100, 101, 148 

Reply to Hayne 45 

Whitman, Rev. Marcus 49i 

Whitney, EH 51 

Winning of the West 46, 51, 60 

Work. (See Winning of the West) ^ 30,57,66 71,79: 

[A.G.01433(4-28-28).]i ' . . ^ 



Major General, 
Chief of Staff.. 


Major General, 

The Adjutant General.