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5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 
106012 


5e. TASK NUMBER 

5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 


12. DISTRIBUTION AVAIL1BILITY STATEMENT 
Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 

13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 
The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official Department 
of the Army position, policy or decision, unless so designated by other documentation. 

14. ABSTRACT 

This award was used to acquire an Instron ElectroPuls E3000 (EP) for Mechanical Testing. This is an 
electrodynamic instrument for slow static tests and high-frequency dynamic fatigue testing for materials such as 
polymers, nanocomposites, metals for microelectronics, and soft materials. It can be used to perform tests such a 
tensile, compressive, fracture, fatigue, and flexural in a large range of materials and components, and a variety of 
environmental conditions. The accessories include an environmental chamber for fatigue testing in air to 

-+—„„ — +„ tenor „ it,— :a -+ —„ innor —a „ u„vu 

15. SUBJECT TERMS 
Mechanical testing, Instron, Electropuls 

17. LIMITATION OF 115. NUMBER 
ABSTRACT OF PAGES 

UU 

Standard Fonn 298 (Rev 8/98) 
Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 


19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON 

Barbara Calcagno _ 

19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER 
787-413-2325 


16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 

a. REPORT 

b. ABSTRACT 

c. THIS PAGE 

UU 

UU 

UU 


7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 

University of Puerto Rico at Mayaguez 
R & D Center 
Call Box 9000 

Mayaguez, PR _ 00681 -9000 _ 

9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS 
(ES) 

U.S. Army Research Office 
P.O.Box 12211 

Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 


8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT 
NUMBER 


10. SPONSOR/MONITOR'S ACRONYM(S) 
ARO 

11. SPONSOR/MONITOR'S REPORT 
NUMBER(S) 

64688-MS-REP. 1 


5d. PROJECT NUMBER 


3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 
12-Feb-2014 - 11-Feb-2015 

5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 

W91 INF-14-1-0089 _ 

5b. GRANT NUMBER 


2. REPORT TYPE 

Final Report 

4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 

Final Report: Acquisition of an Instron Electropuls E3000 
Instrument for Mechanical Testing 


6. AUTHORS 
Barbara O. Calcagno 


1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 
17-04-2015 



































Report Title 

Final Report: Acquisition of an Instron Electropuls E3000 Instrument for Mechanical Testing 

ABSTRACT 

This award was used to acquire an Instron ElectroPuls E3000 (EP) for Mechanical Testing. This is an electrodynamic instrument for slow 
static tests and high-frequency dynamic fatigue testing for materials such as polymers, nanocomposites, metals for microelectronics, and soft 
materials. It can be used to perform tests such a tensile, compressive, fracture, fatigue, and flexural in a large range of materials and 
components, and a variety of environmental conditions. The accessories include an environmental chamber for fatigue testing in air to 
temperatures up to 350°C, a liquid nitrogen cooling unit for tests to temperature down to -100°C, and a bio-bath for the testing of hydrogels, 
biological tissues, polymer films, and metals in a temperature range from ambient to 40°C. A standard video extensometer and software to 
measure strains at micro-level without specimen contact are also included in the system. The installation of the system at the Soft Matter 
Characterization Laboratory located in the Chemical Engineering building was completed in January 2015. Basic and advanced training 
ended in March 2015. The EP will support research in nanotechnology, materials science and engineering, and bioengineering the 
Departments of Chemical, General, and Mechanical Engineering, and Chemistry as well. 


Enter List of papers submitted or published that acknowledge ARO support from the start of 
the project to the date of this printing. List the papers, including journal references, in the 
following categories: 

(a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


Number of Papers published in peer-reviewed journals: 


(b) Papers published in non-peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


Number of Papers published in non peer-reviewed journals: 


(c) Presentations 






Number of Presentations: 0.00 

Non Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


Number of Non Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): 

Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 


Number of Peer-Reviewed Conference Proceeding publications (other than abstracts): 

(d) Manuscripts 


Received Paper 


TOTAL: 






Number of Manuscripts: 


Books 


Received 


TOTAL: 


Received 


TOTAL: 


Patents Submitted 


Patents Awarded 


Awards 


Graduate Students 


NAME 

PERCENT SUPPORTED 

FTE Equivalent: 

Total Number: 



Names of Post Doctorates 


NAME 

PERCENT SUPPORTED 

FTE Equivalent: 


Total Number: 















Names of Faculty Supported 

NAME 

PERCENT SUPPORTED 

FTE Equivalent: 


Total Number: 


Names of Under Graduate students supported 

NAME 

PERCENT SUPPORTED 

FTE Equivalent: 


Total Number: 



Student Metrics 

This section only applies to graduating undergraduates supported by this agreement in this reporting period 

The number of undergraduates funded by this agreement who graduated during this period:. 0.00 

The number of undergraduates funded by this agreement who graduated during this period with a degree in 

science, mathematics, engineering, or technology fields:.0.00 

The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and will continue 

to pursue a graduate or Ph.D. degree in science, mathematics, engineering, or technology fields:.0.00 

Number of graduating undergraduates who achieved a 3.5 GPA to 4.0 (4.0 max scale):.0.00 

Number of graduating undergraduates funded by a DoD funded Center of Excellence grant for 

Education, Research and Engineering:. o.OO 

The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and intend to work 

for the Department of Defense.0.00 

The number of undergraduates funded by your agreement who graduated during this period and will receive 

scholarships or fellowships for further studies in science, mathematics, engineering or technology fields:.0.00 

Names of Personnel receiving masters degrees 

NAME 

Total Number: 

Names of personnel receiving PHDs 

NAME 

Total Number: 


Names of other research staff 


NAME 

PERCENT SUPPORTED 

FTE Equivalent: 


Total Number: 



Sub Contractors (DD882) 




























Inventions (DD882) 


See Attachment 


Scientific Progress 
Technology Transfer 



SUMMARY 


The acquisition of the ElectroPuls E3000 is fundamental for the development of novel materials 
at UPRM in structural and bioengineering applications as well. As stated in the proposal, 7 research 
projects of faculty members from the Departments of Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, 
General Engineering, and Chemistry at UPRM will immediately benefit from the acquisition. These 
ongoing research projects require determination of mechanical properties of a wide variety of materials 
under demanding ambient conditions. Based on this base user group it is estimated that more than 9 
graduate students, 15 undergraduate students, and 2 high/middle school teachers, will benefit immediately 
from the acquisition of the EP. The Instron ElectroPuls E3000 Instrument for Mechanical Testing, will 
allow room for expansion of research interests and collaboration with other researchers interested in 
mechanical behavior in general, as well as the particular applications listed below. 

The projects that have priority in the use of the equipment are: 

Development and Testing of Magneto-Thermally Healable Polymer Nanocomposites for 
Structural Applications; B.O. Calcagno (Department of General Engineering). 

Composite Liquid Crystalline Elastomers for Sensing Applications; A. Acevedo, B.O. Calcagno 
(Departments of Chemical and General Engineering). 

Fabrication of Wires Treated with Diboride Nanoparticles; O.M. Suarez (Department of General 
Engineering). 

Solder Based Nanomanufacturing Using Three Dimensional Nanotemplates; R. Valentin 
(Department of Mechanical Engineering). 

Bone Regeneration using Biomimetic Peptide-Hydrogel Scaffolds; J. E. Ramirez-Vick 
(Department of General Engineering). 

Dynamic strain response of Type I collagen fascicles under cyclic loading; P. Sundaram 
(Department of Mechanical Engineering). 

Factors Influencing Formation or Inhibition of Protein Amyloid Fibrils in Hydrogels; S.P. 
Hernandez-Rivera (Chemistry Department). 

Summary of On-going tests 

Composite Liquid Crystalline Elastomers for Sensing Applications (one graduate student, one 
undergraduate student) 

Liquid crystalline polymers and their elastomers are structurally anisotropic materials capable of changing 
their mechanical and optical properties, amongst others, when exposed to applied external fields (flow, 
electric or magnetic) or due to molecular binding events at their interfaces. Responsive composite LCEs 
with chemically functionalized magnetic nano-particles have been created (MLCE). Their dynamic 
response to an external magnetic field is been investigated to find the coupling amongst internal structure 
and mechanical performance, which provides information on particle-matrix compatibility and adhesion, 
orientation, dispersion, and stress propagation mechanisms. Mechanical properties of these novel 
materials are been determined using dynamic and tension tests with a video measurement system for 
accurate determination of strains. (See Fig. 1 and 2) 


Figure 1. Stress-strain curves for neat LCE, and 
MLCE with 0.5w/o with stress applied along the 
director (n), and for neat LCE with stress applied 
perpendicular to the director. Young moduli for 
all of them are included in the graph. 


200 - 

- 


t LCE neat, extension parallel to n 

180 - 

MLCE 0 5 wt% extension parallel to n 


-tr- LCE neat, extension perpendicular to n 

160 - 

j 

140 - 

Strain rate a 1 mm/min 


I Ambient temperature 

120-! 

Young's moduli: 


# LCE neat, 108 3 kPa 


MLCE 0 5 wt%. 382 73 kPa 

100 - 

LCE perpendicular 


extension to the director. 18.57 kPa 

80- 

J 


■ / 

60 A 

J M 


a m j* 


$ M 

40- 

J / j#** 


I § 

20 “ 

y 

0 - 



1. 

2 . 

3. 

4. 

5. 

6 . 
7. 





LCE neat 


MLCE 0.5 wt% particle loading 




Figure 2. Creep curves for LCE neat and MLCE with 0.5w/o particle loading at various stresses applied 
along the director. 


Dynamic strain response of Type I collagen fascicles under cyclic loading (One undergraduate student) 
The goal of this project is to determine the strain response of collagen in the form of Type I fascicles 
obtained from rat-tail tendons under dynamic loading conditions. A controlled tensile sinusoidal load 
function will be applied to sample fascicles and the corresponding strain response will be measured over a 
frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 2.5 Hz which covers the physiological range of many cyclic human 
activities. The viscoelastic behavior of the fascicles under sinusoidal tensile loading will be characterized 
in terms of models developed specifically to explain the observed results. 

Fatigue tests of fascicles from rat-tail tendons have been done under load control (0.4 ± 0.3 N) at 0.5, 1, 
2.5 and 5 Hz (see Fig. 3) 



Figure 3. Snapshot of an ongoing fatigue test at 2.5 Hz. 












































DESCRIPTION 



PRICE 

ElectroPuls E3000 All-Electric Dynamic Test Instrument, Dell Precision T3400 
PC, 19” flat screen monitor. Includes load frame, linear motor, displacement and 
force transducer set, advanced digital controller and Console software, 
WaveMatrix Software for Fatigue Testing and Bluehill Materials Software for 
Static Testing. It has a dynamic capacity of 3kN and 2,100 N static capacity, and 
Two Self-identifying Load Cell (250 N & 10 N). On-site hardware installation, 
and training, ASTM Load Cell Calibration, and Displacement and Speed 
Calibration Post Installation Sales Engineer Visit 

$122,000 

High stiffness support table, and Safety guard made of polycarbonate . 

$8,290 

Pneumatic grips and fixtures (ambient temperature): (1) ±3 kN pneumatic 
fatigue-rated wedge action grips; (1) fatigue adaptors to use these grips with the 
250 N load cell; (1) flat serrated jaw faces 25 mm wide for flat specimens; (1) vee 
jaw faces for round specimens; (1) pneumatic air kit to control the pneumatic 
grips; (2) compression anvil (10k N); (1) Dynamic extensometer for direct strain 
measurement; (1) Flexure fixture, 3-point bend, capacity 5 kN; (1) Thin film grips 
and adaptors; (1) Fiber clamps; (1) Wire snubbing grip 

$22,580 

BioPuls Bath and Accessories for use with distilled water or saline solution with 
accurate control of bath temperature at 37°C. Submersible grips and compression 
platens (250N). 

$20,000 

Environmental Temperature chamber supplied with digital temperature controller, 
observation window, removable wedges with temperature range from ambient to 
350°C. Cooling module with a temperature range down to -100°C. 

$22,000 

Manual Fatigue grips for use inside temperature chamber (3kN, 250°C) 

$15,800 

Video Extensometer and BlueHill software with mounting brackets. Includes a 
Firewire digital camera, electronics, and accesories 

$26,000 

Fracture Mechanics grips and software (3kN capacity) 

$17,800 

Total Equipment Cost 

$254,470 

One day of advanced training (8 hours) 

$1,755 

Installation cost for upgrade of facilities (compressed air) 

$483.93 

Total Project Cost 

$256,708.93 



Figure 4. Images showing the Instron ElectroPuls E3000