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AD-A173 MS A CAPSULE OF CIVIL NORKS RESEARCH AND DEVELOPHENT 

1977-1986CU) ARNV ENGINEER NATERHAVS EXPERIMENT STATION 
VICKSBURG NS OFFICE OF TECHNICAL PROGRAMS AND PLANS 
UNCLASSIFIED A H FORD OCT 86 HES/HP/O-GE-l F/G 1372 




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MISCELLANEOUS PAPER 0-86-1 


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iVLVl 


A CAPSULE 
OF 

CIVIL WORKS RESEARCH 
AND DEVELOPMENT 
1977-1986 

by 

Alfred W. Ford 

Office of Technical Programs and Plans 

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY 
Waterways Experiment Station, Corps of Engineers 
PO Box 631, Vicksburg, Mississippi 39180-0631 

DTIC 

^|ELECTE 
VoCT 16 1986 


D 


October 1986 
Final Report 


Approved For Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 


Prepared for 

Office, Chief of Engineers 
Directorate of Research and Development 
Corps of Engineers, US Army 
Washington, DC 20314-1000 


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REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 


lb. RESTRICTIVE MARKINGS 





1*. REPORT SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 
Unclassified 


it SECURITY CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 


2b. DECLASSIFICATION / DOWNGRADING SCHEDULE 


4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMSER(S) 
Miscellaneous Paper 0-86-1 


6a. NAME OF PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 

USAEWES, Office of Technical 
Programs and Plans 


Sc. ADDRESS (City. SUM. and ZIP Cod*) 
PO Box 631 

Vicksburg, MS 391806631 


6a. NAME OF FUNOING/SPONSORING 
ORGANIZATION 

US Army Corps of Engineers 


8c. ADDRESS (CRy, Scat*, and ZIP Cod*) 
Washington, DC 20314-1000 


11. TITLE (Mud* Security Cltssifkttion) 

A Capsule of Civil Works Research and Development, 1977-1986 


12 personal author($) 
Ford, Alfred W. 


13a TYPE OF REPORT 
Final report 


16 SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION 

Available from National Technical Information Service, 5285 Port Royal Road, 
Springfield, VA 22161. 


17 COSATI CODES | 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Conrtnue on reverse/fnacetsary and KMntiiy by Mock number) 

T Tmtnci Qfotoe Ammi nrrinoom’mrr loKnvatntnoo. 


J DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY Of REPORT 

Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 


S. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER(S) 


7a. NAME OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION 


7b ADDRESS (City, State, *nd ZIP Codt) 


8b. OFFICE SYMBOL I 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER 
(If tppUctbh) I 


10. SOURCE OF FUNDING NUMBERS 


PROJECT 

NO 






United States. Army. Corps 
of Engineers-Civil functions 
k Public works research y 


‘Engineering laboratories; 
Engineering research. __ 


19 ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necesury tnd idtntify by block number) 


-* Civil Works Research and Development Programs seek solutions to national, regional, and local problems 
related to water and water-related resources management and development. Typically, the Corps of 
Engineers has undertaken numerous projects, such as (1) improved flood control and damage mitigation by 
constructing dams, reservoirs, levees, floodwalls, channel improvements, and diversions; (2) improved 
commercial and recreational navigation in harbors, channels, canals, and inland, intracoastal, and coastal 
waterways; (3) improved erosion control and shore protection, including inland and coastal beaches, and 
river channel and bank stabilization; (4) improved water-oriented recreational opportunities; (5) improved 
municipal and industrial water supplies; (6) pollution abatement; and (7) preservation and enhancement of 
fish, wildlife, and aesthetic, cultural, and other environmental values. 

Research and development by the Co'ps of Engineers provides essential support to these Civil Works 
missions by finding solutions to the many technical, safety, environmental, and economic problems which 
arise during the life of a project from its planning and design to its construction and operation and 
maintenance. ICt-G-.lAOrcds. 

The progress of tne Corps of Engineers in attaining these objectives over the last ten years is measured in 
this report. 


20 DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY OF ABSTRACT 

H UNCLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED □ SAME AS RPT □ OTIC USERS 

21 abstract SECURITY CLASSIFICATION I 

Unclassified f 

22a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL 

22b TELEPHONE (include Area Code) 

22c OFFICE SYMBOL | 


All other editions are obsolete 


Unclassified 























































PREFACE 


Civil Works Research and Development Programs seek solutions to national, 
regional, and local problems related to water and water-related resources 
management and development. Typically, the Corps of Engineers has undertaken 
numerous projects, such as (1) improved flood control and damage mitigation by 
constructing dams, reservoirs, levees, floodwalls, channel improvements, and 
diversions; (2) improved commercial and recreational navigation in harbors, 
channels, canals, and inland, intracoastal, and coastal waterways; (3) improved 
erosion control and shore protection, including inland and coastal beaches, and 
river channel and bank stabilization; (4) improved water-oriented recreational 
opportunities; (5) improved municipal and industrial water supplies; (6) pollution 
abatement; and (7) preservation and enhancement of fish, wildlife, and aesthetic, 
cultural, and other environmental values. 

Research and development by the Corps of Engineers provides essential 
support to these Civil Works missions by finding solutions to the many technical, 
safety, environmental, and economic problems which arise during the life of the 
project from its pl an ni n g and design to its construction and operation and 
maintenance. 

The progress of the Corps of Engineers in attaining these objectives over the 
last ten years is measured in this report. 

This report was written by Mr. Alfred W. Ford, Office of Technical Programs 
and Plans, US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES), Vicksburg, 
Miss. Mrs. Jamie W. Leach of the WES Information Technology Laboratory 
(ITL) edited this report. Mrs. Loriece M. Beall of ITL designed and composed the 
layout. 

COL Dwayne G. Lee, CE, is the Commander and Director of WES. Dr. Robert 
W. Whalin is the Technical Director. 





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CONTENTS 


PREFACE 


Parti: INTRODUCTION 


Part II: SAVINGS THROUGH CIVIL WORKS RESEARCH 


Part III: RESEARCH AREAS AND PROGRAMS 


Materials. 

Soils . 

Rock . 

Concrete . 

Structural engineering 
Electrical/mechanical 


Coastal Engineering.. 

Coastal flooding and storm protection .. 
Harbor entrances and coastal channels 

Shore protection and restoration. 

Coastal structure evaluation and design 


Flood Control and Navigation 
Flood-control hydraulics .. 
Navigation hydraulics 
Hydrology of cold regions . 
Ice engineering . 


Environmental Quality .. 
Environmental impact 
Wetlands. 


Water Resources Planning Studies 

Planning methodologies . 

Analytical techniques. 

Water supply and conservation 
Risk analysis. 


Surveying and Satellite Applications 

Surveying and mapping. 

Remote sensing. 


Part IV 


Construction, Operation, and Maintenance . 

Operation and maintenance management . 

Energy. 

Improvement of operation and maintenance techniques 

Long-term effects of dredging operations. 

Natural resources. 

Water quality. 

1 : CONCLUDING REMARKS . 



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Parti 

INTRODUCTION 


Research and development (R&D) underpins the Civil Works program by 
improving the Corps of Engineers’ capability to accomplish its water resources 
mission and program with optimum effectiveness, economy, and safety, and with 
effective concern for protection or enhancement of environmental and social 
values. Some of these evolve from new Executive Orders, legislative requirements 
levied through other agencies, and regulatory standards imposed against projects 
constructed prior to the establishment of such standards. With comprehensive 
planning and with concern for mitigation of environmental impact and energy 
conservation, the Civil Works research program is strongly addressing problems 
generated by these concerns. Because of the increasing age of more and more 
Corps water resource facilities, greater emphasis is being placed on R&D 
concerning the repair, evaluation, maintenance, and rehabilitation of these water 
resource facilities. 

The R&D effort is a highly applied effort, utilizing in part products and 
techniques developed by industry and universities, and adapting them to Civil 
Works needs. This R&D effort is essentially a “problem solving” process by which 
the Corps systematically examines new ideas, approaches, and techniques, with a 
view toward improving the efficiency of its planning, design, construction, 
operations, and maintenance activities. In considering the Civil Works R&D 
program against the background of the overall mission it supports, it should be 
noted that this mission is the most widespread and varied of the several Federal 
water resources programs. Yet, in comparison to many other Federal agencies 
and private industry, the Corps of Engineers spends very little on R&D. 

The Corps manages and conducts Civil Works R&D through its four research 
centers: the Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory at Hanover, 
New Hampshire; the Construction Engineering Research Laboratory at 
Champaign, Illinois; the Waterways Experiment Station at Vicksburg, Missis¬ 
sippi; and the Engineer Topographic Laboratories at Fort Belvoir, Virginia. Some 
elements of Civil Works R&D are also assigned to the Corps’ Institute for Water 
Resources at Fort Belvoir, Virginia, and the Hydrologic Engineering Center at 
Davis, California. Approximately 65 percent of the current research effort is 
accomplished in-house and the remainder is performed by universities, other 
government agencies, or private firms. 

If the Corps is to take advantage of rapidly developing technologies and 
techniques which offer the possibility of significant monetary savings and 
greater reliability, safety, and overall effectiveness, it must pursue an aggressive 
R&D effort. The added complexities of environmental and social considerations, 
the mounting concern with urban problems, and the urgent requirement to 
balance the Federal budget and get the maximum return for every Federal dollar 
















US Army Corps of Engineers research and development community. 


spent necessitate, more than ever, increased emphasis on new approaches and 
methods. 

The US Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory 
(CRREL) conducts R&D in support of a broad range of Civil Works mission 
areas which include ice engineering, river ice management, Civil Works remote 
sensing, and cold regions hydrology. 

The US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory (CERL) 
is engaged in R&D of building materials, utilities, and structures; integrating 
technological developments into construction; and developing and evaluating the 
principles of systems engineering and applying the systems approach to the life- 
cycle requirements of facilities and their management. The life cycle includes all 
the processes from planning, design, and construction, through operation, 
maintenance, and replacement. 

The US Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) is the 
largest R&D and testing complex of the Corps. The functional organization of the 
WES includes six engineering laboratories: Hydraulics, Geotechnical, Structures, 
Environmental, Coastal Engineering Research Center, and the Information 
Technology Laboratory. Its Hydraulics Laboratory is large and well equipped 
with approximately 60 active models of river basins, dams and reservoirs, 
navigation locks, estuaries, and harbors. In addition, extensive capabilities exist 
in numerical hydrodynamic modeling. These models have resulted in improved 
methods of flood control, safer navigation facilities, conservation of water 
resources, safer and cleaner harbors and waterways, more efficient and less 
costly hydraulic structures, protection and improvement of the environment, and 


































other related benefits. WES is also engaged in R&D, engineering investigations, 
and other testing and studies in the fields of soil and rock mechanics, earthquake 
engineering, foundations, engineering geology and geophysics, Portland cement 
and bituminous concrete, aquatic plant control, dredging technology, water 
quality improvement, and environmental sciences. The prevailing mild climate at 
this facility permits almost uninterrupted outdoor testing throughout the year. 
The Coastal Engineering Research Center (CERC) has recently been moved from 
Fort Belvoir, Virginia, to WES. This move has achieved economies and 
strengthened the Corps’ coastal engineering research program. As one of the 
laboratories at WES, CERC will continue to conduct R&D to provide a better 
understanding of shore processes, winds, waves, tides, surges, currents, and 
materials as they apply to navigation improvements, flood storm protection, 
beach erosion control, recreation, and protection of structures in the coastal zone. 

The US Army Engineer Topographic Laboratories (ETL) accomplishes 
research, development, testing, and evaluation of systems, equipment, procedures 
and techniques applicable to the terrestrial and topographic sciences. 

The US Army Engineer Institute for Water Resources (IWR) is 
concerned with comprehensive river basin and regional planning, formulation, 
and evaluation of proposed projects and project-systems, including consideration 
of nonstructural alternatives as well as identification and evaluation of 
applicable economic, social, and environmental factors. IWR also evaluates 
education and training needs and capabilities for water resources planners, 
develops and administers training programs for planners, and monitors 
utilization of trained planners throughout the Corps. 

The US Army Engineer Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC) 
concentrates on four functional areas: R&D, training, methods systematization, 
and technical assistance and advice to field offices. Hydrologic engineering R&D 
conducted or administered by HEC supplements relevant research in universities 
and other organizations to meet the practical needs of Corps field offices. 
Training activities, primarily in the form of short-course modules, are designed to 
provide Corps employees with information on both basic and advanced 
techniques in hydrologic engineering. The development of a library of generalized 
computer programs in hydrologic engineering, and the development of procedures 
for expanding the use of statistical analyses and stochastic variations in 
planning, design, and operation of water resources projects and systems, are 
major components of the methods systematization program. Under its technical 
assistance program, HEC advises Corps field offices on the application of new or 
unfamiliar procedures for the solution of hydrologic problems in multipurpose 
projects, the estimation of flood frequency and flood magnitude, and the analysis 
of hydrologic and economic consequences of channel improvement. 






Part II 

SAVINGS THROUGH CIVIL WORKS RESEARCH 


One of the most meaningful measures of the value of research is the benefits, 
both monetary and intangible, which accrue through applications of the 
knowledge developed. 

Not every research project will produce savings that are easily translated into 
dollars; some will serve to augment existing confidence in current techniques or 
designs, and others will better establish the degree of safety vital to large water 
resources development structures. Some may result in increased project con¬ 
struction or operational costs, although the safety or service life will be enhanced. 

Results of research studies which were applied to the planning, design, 
construction, and operation of actual structures or projects were evaluated by the 
District offices of the Corps of Engineers, and the composite benefits are shown in 
the following tabulation. The monetary values represent savings realized only 
during the 1977-1986 decade. Benefits cited are limited to those directly applicable 
to Civil Works functions, and no attempt was made to incorporate instances where 
results were possibly utilized by the military or other governmental agencies or by 
industry. 

Even though the cited cost savings in the following paragraphs exceed $500 
million, no attempt was made to include all of the Corps’ Civil Works Research 
Program results which have produced cost savings for this period. Only a few 
examples have been cited that significantly demonstrate the fact that not only 
does each program have a cost-benefit ratio that has provided a substantial return 
on investment to date, but they also provide savings on a continuing basis at a 
rate conservatively estimated to exceed $82 million per year. These savings have re¬ 
sulted from a total research investment of $185 million for the cited 10-year period. 

Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 
Problems Addressed Solution Savings 

Research Area: Materials 
Program: Soils 

Design and construction of Developed methodologies for $1.270.000 on one 

embankments on soft and failed analytical, quality control, and prototype structure 

foundations performance monitoring. 

Liquefaction of soils during Improved physical and analytical $20,000,000 failure 

earthquakes testing procedures for evaluating prevented at one 

liquefaction susceptibility structure 

Inability to predict earthquake- Improved testing procedures for $15,000,000 

induced sliding of dams and analyzing possible sliding elimination in 

embankments displacements dynamic analyses at 






Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed Solution Savings 


Program: Soils 

Uncertainties in methods for Improved laboratory and field $750,000 on one 

compaction control of soils procedures to account for effects of project 

containing oversized particles oversized particles on moisture- 

density relationships 


Intangible Benefits Realized 

If these capabilities had been available in the 1958-1960 period, the failure of Waco Dam could have 
been prevented with realizable costs savings of $11,000,000. These improved technologies provide 
greater reliability with respect to performance and safety, reducing the potential for similar or more 
catastrophic failures. 


Program: Rock 


Safety of life and functional 
capability of large engineering 
projects, particularly major dams, 
susceptible to earthquakes 

Reliable stability assessment of 
new and existing structures under 
expected prototype loading 
conditions 

Inadequate testing equipment and 
procedures for determining the 
permeability of rock masses 


Provided state-of-the-art methods Intangible 
for evaluating seismic hazards 


Developed procedures for selecting Intangible 

design shear strengths for sliding 
stability assessments 

Developed new equipment and $120,000 annually 

procedures which greatly improve 
the understanding of water flow in 
rock masses 


Intangible Benefits Realized 

Specific savings are intimately correlated with probabilities of earthquake occurrence near 
structures incorporating design features and modifications. To date no Corps of Engineers dam has 
failed because of an earthquake but to put some perspective to the consequence of a dam failure, the 
cost associated with a major failure is estimated to be several hundred million dollars with an 
associated loss of scores of lives. Replacement cost is also estimated to be several hundred million 
dollars. 


Program: Concrete 


Lack of economical mass concrete Developed procedures for using 
dam construction methods roller-compacted concrete (RCC) 


$2,000,000 on Willow 
Creek Dam 


Determination of the earliest time 
that form work can be safely 
removed from concrete 


Construction and repair of stilling 
basins 


Developed methods for the early 
removal of concrete forms based on 
concrete temperature exposure 
equated to strength gain 

Developed methods for using high 
strength silica fume concrete 


$500,000 annually 


$100,000 annually per 
application (there are 
20 stilling basins 
requiring repair 
currently) 









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Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


.. 


Problems Addressed 

Solution 

Savings 


Program: Concrete 


Determination of the spacing and 
size of dowels needed to anchor 
replacement concrete to vertical 
walls of navigation locks 

Developed design procedures which 
use one fourth as many dowels as 
before 

$1,200,000 annually 

Inability to inspect stilling basins 
and lock chambers while filled 

Developed a high-resolution 
acoustic mapping system for 
assessing underwater structures 
without dewatering the project 

$250,000 per 
application 

Lack of use of high-range water- 
reducing admixtures 

Developed methodologies for using 
these admixtures in certain classes 
of concrete 

$750,000 annually 

Lack of an evaluation of 
nonmetallic water stops 

Standardized Corps specifications 
for the use of nonmetallic water 
stop and joint material 

$175,000 annually 


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Intangible Benefits Realized 

Intangible benefits result from an improved understanding of concrete construction materials and 
techniques which translates to safer and more economical and durable structures. 


Program: Structural Engineering 


Unavailability of computer-aided 
structural engineering techniques 
for Civil Works projects 

Developed and released 39 
structural engineering computer 
programs 

$6,000,000 annually 

Unavailability of guidance and 
simplified analytical procedures for 
designing and analyzing hydraulic 
structures 

Developed computer programs to 
analyze two-dimensional geometry, 
shallow foundation problems, and 
soil-structure interaction of sheet 
walls and axially loaded piles 

Intangible 

Lack of design guidance for gravity 
dams subjected to seismic loads 

Developed a simplified procedure 
for the seismic design of 
nonoverflow monoliths 

Intangible 

Intangible Benefits Realized 

Indirect monetary savings will be realized throughout the design life of concrete gravity dams as 
these methods are used to assess the safety of massive concrete structures. 

Program: Electrical/Mechanical 


Lack of adequate design criteria for 
pumping stations sumps and 
discharge outlets 

Developed new design guidance for 
sump geometry, pump location, and 
pump intake shape to achieve 
improved performance 

$500,000 annually 

Corrosion-related failures at locks 
and dams 

Determined cause of failures and 
recommended corrosion-resistant 
materials for five specific- 
installations 

$6,300,000 


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Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed. 


Solution 


Savings 


Research Area: Coastal Engineering 
Program: Coastal Flooding and Storm Protection 


Inability to predict shallow water 
waves 

Lack of laboratory simulation of 
directional spectral waves in 
physical models 


Instituted a long-term data $2,500,000 annually 

collection program and developed 
numerical models for natural waves 

Used the new directional spectral $3,000,000 annually 
wave generator to improve ability 
to simulate “real world” waves 


Lack of sufficient high-quality, 
long-term field data 


Instituted a long-term $300,000 per 

meteorological and oceanographic application 

data collection program for use in 
model evaluation 


Inability to determine the cause of 
the hurricane-induced forerunner 
surge 


Developed a numerical model to $500,000 annually 

determine the magnitude and 

extent of the forerunner surge 

which resulted in less costly coastal 

structures 


Unavailability of coastal numerical Developed a user-friendly model $9,000,000 annually 
models system which provides solution 

algorithms for various coastal 
numerical models 


Intangible Benefits Realized 

Damage and morphological changes to coastal areas are most pronounced during severe episodic 
events. Heretofore, acquisition of prototype data were rarely successful because available 
techniques were inadequate. Development of new techniques and equipment have made data 
acquisition possible resulting in a better understanding of the physical processes occurring during 
severe events. 


Program: Harbor Entrances and Coastal Channels 


Lack of knowledge for predicting 
wave conditions and interactions in 
harbor entrances and inlets 


Developed hybrid numerical models $4,200,000 annually 
to predict wave conditions and 
wave interactions in harbor 
entrances and inlets 


Lack of information for 
determining the stability of natural 
and dredged channels and ebb tidal 
delta evolutionary sequences 


Standardized methods for $7,000,000 annually 

predicting shoaling rates; 

developed analytical techniques for 

predicting shoaling rates in tidal 

inlets 









Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed 


Solution 


Savings 


Program: Shore Protection and Restoration 


Inadequate design criteria for 
determining the stability of beach 
fills 


Inadequate design criteria for 
groins, offshore breakwaters, and 
other shore protection structures 

Inability of existing engineering 
formula to predict long-shore sand 
transport rates 


Developed methods for determining $1,800,000 annually 

optimum borrow material, overfill 

factors, and berm elevations and 

widths for shore slopes, and for 

determining feeder beach location 

Developed numerical models to $5,000,000 annually 

determine shoreline responses to 
various coastal structures 

Used advanced instrumentation to $3,500,000 annually 
provide more accurate estimates of 
sand transport rates 


Intangible Benefits Realized 

Research has provided guidance for evaluating existing beaches in terms of expected storm erosion. 
This guidance provides a rational basis for estimating both sand replenishment needs and 
quantities. It also permits rapid estimates of storm damage for emergency planning. Better design 
of the Grand Isle, Louisiana, hurricane protection dune system could have saved an estimated $2.5 
million (one fourth the project cost) of the damages caused by Hurricane Juan in 1985. 


Program: Coastal Structure Evaluation and Design 


Lack of design criteria for detached 
breakwaters 

Developed design guidance for 
detached breakwaters 

Intangible 

Lack of economical techniques to 
inspect and evaluate the condition 
of coastal structures 

Developed methodologies for 
evaluating coastal structures using 
a side-scan sonar 

$600,000 annually 

Inadequate computational and 
design methods for use on coastal 
projects 

Produced four editions of the Shore 
Protection Manual and numerous 
technical reports, Coastal 
Engineering Technical Notes, and 
Microcomputer Applications for 
Coastal Engineering to update 
engineering guidance and to 
improve computations and 
consideration of alternate designs 

$3,000,000 annually 

Determination of internal 
structural load-carrying 
requirements of concrete floating 
breakwaters 

Developed improved structural 
design criteria 

$1,720,000 for two 
projects 

Determination of stability 
coefficients for various types of 
breakwater armor 

Improved design criteria for 
existing armor and established 
coefficients for new armor designs 

$500,000 annually 







Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed Solution Savings 


Research Area: Flood Control and Navigation 
Program: Flood-Control Hydraulics 

Inadequate state-of-the-art Developed and disseminated design $1,250,000 annually 

hydraulic design guidance and guidance in several formats: 

procedures Hydraulic Design Criteria (HDC), 

engineer manuals, engineer 
technical letters, computer 
programs for the computer-aided 
design system CORPS, and 
miscellaneous papers 

Inadequate guidance for Developed guidance concerning the 5% of project cost 

designating stable flood-control applicability and limitations of 
channels channel improvement methods and 

analysis techniques 

Inadequate riprap design guidance Developed practical riprap design $300,000 annually 

using known or easily calculated 
variables. Determined stability of a 
wide range of riprap gradations and 
thicknesses 

Unavailability of a design Developed design guidance for $75,000 annually/ 

procedure for spillway crests spillway crests including discharge project 

applicable to a wide range of heads, coefficients, crest pressures, and 
approach depths, and upstream water-surface profiles. Data 

slopes provided for crests with and 

without piers for a wide range of 
conditions 

Abrasion at outlet works stilling Developed improved design $150,000 annually 

basins caused by low flood eddies guidance which adds inverted “V” 

downstream from outlet on 
trajectory 

Unavailability of necessary data to Incorporated instrumentation $200,000 annually 

use prototype testing of hydraulic capabilities in selected Corps 

structures to improve design projects to acquire needed data 

guidance and to solve operational 

problems 

Nonexistent hydraulic design Developed a numerical simulation $400,000 annually 

guidance for selective withdrawal tool which can be used to determine 

intake structures to satisfy flood- optimal number and elevation of 

control project objectives in an multilevel intakes 

environmentally compatible 

manner 

































Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed 


Solution 


Program: Navigation Hydraulics 


No knowledge of the amount of air 
to introduce downstream of filling 
and emptying valves to prevent 
erosion or cavitation of lock 
culverts 

Inadequate design criteria for locks 


Inadequate guidance for bendway 
channel width relationships in 
inland waterways 

Lack of simulation techniques to 
aid in the design of deep- and 
shallow-draft waterways and 
harbors 


Developed design guidance for lock 
culvert valve ventilation system 


Developed design criteria which 
eliminated the necessity of 
modeling each low-lift lock 

Developed specific design guidance 
for channel width with varying 
velocity, bend radius, distance 
between banks, and tow size 

Developed a ship-tow simulator to 
provide guidance for the 
determination of channel and 
harbor dimensions for deep- and 
shallow-draft navigation projects 
including elimination of existing 
hazards to navigation 


Program: Hydrology of Cold Regions 


Inadequate guidance on sediment 
transport and bank erosion 
processes in cold regions 


Inadequate guidance on the effects 
of permafrost on bank erosion 


Inadequate guidance on the nature 
of glacierized river basins 


Inadequate instrumentation for 
monitoring snow water equivalent 
soil moisture and winter flows 


I 

Inadequate computer models for 
; predicting runoff and routing for 

> cold regions 


Provided guidance and assistance 
on sediment transport and bank 
erosion to Alaska District for groin 
placement for flood prevention 

Provided guidance and assistance 
on the effects of permafrost or 
frozen ground on bank erosion to 
Alaska, St. Paul, and Rock Island 
Districts 

Provided guidance on nature of 
glacierized river basins to Alaska 
District 

Provided guidance and assistance 
on methodology or techniques for 
winter measurements and 
observations to various Districts 
and Divisions 

Improved Corps model capabilities 
by modifying run-and-routing 
forecast models to account for cold 
regions effects 


Savings 

$25,000 annually 

$220,000 annually 

$3,700,000 annually 

$4,000,000 annually 


$250,000 annually 

$300,000 annually 

$75,000 annually 
$300,000 annually 

$200,000 annually 






Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed Solution Savings 


Program: Ice Engineering 


Floating brash ice entering lock 
chambers 


Uplifting ice forces acting on 
marine structures 


Developed a high flow air bubbler $75,000 annually/ 
system to deflect floating ice out of lock 
the lock approach 

Developed a plastic jacket which $50,000 annually 

effectively reduces uplifting forces 


Downstream ice jam flooding 
resulting from rapid, peak power 
water releases 


Installed bubbler system to move $75,000 annually 
warm water to intakes to decrease 
the formation of ice 


Inadequate ice boom design and Developed design guidance for 
performance improving ice boom designs 


$4,403,000 annually 
at seven sites where 
ice booms have been 
installed 


Research Area: Environmental Quality 
Program: Environmental Impact 


Effects of beach nourishment on 
shore-zone animals 

Compaction caused by beach 
nourishment 

Inadequate guidance for 
revegetating construction sites 


Inadequate management for 
wildlife resources 


Developed assessment strategies 
and field study procedures 

Demonstrated effectiveness of 
tilling to reduce compaction 

Prepared and demonstrated 
procedures for improving planting 
techniques 

Prepared manual of improved 
management techniques 


$300,000 annually 


$250,000/project 

$2,500,000 


$30,000 annually 


Intangible Benefits Realized 

Intangible benefits include reduced costs for preparing impact assessments and for monitoring 
projects, improved project operation, and enhanced realization of project benefits. 


Program: Wetlands 


Inadequate preliminary guidance to Produced eight preliminary $300,000 annually 

Corps field inspectors on wetland regional guides that describe 
types in their region wetland types and dominant 

species in each 


Inadequate procedures for 
identifying and delineating 
wetlands subject to Section 404 of 
the Clean Water Act 


Developed multiparameter $800,000 annually 

approach, providing a method for 

achieving standardized wetland 

determinations throughout the 

nation. Documented the approach 

in a “Wetlands Delineation Manual” 


Unavailability of a standard Adopted, modified, improved, and $2,000,000 annually 

procedure for assessing wetlands computerized a method developed 
functions and values by the Federal Highway 

Administration 







Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed 

Solution 

Savings 


Program: Wetlands 


Unavailability of a wetlands 
functions and values database 

Cooperated with US Fish and 
Wildlife Service in developing a 
wetlands functions and values 
database. The database contains 
more than 5,000 technical articles 

$1,100,000 annually 


Research Area: Water Resources Planning Studies 


Program: Planning Methodologies 


Unavailability of methods to 
identify regional economic impact 
of water resources projects 

Lack of techniques which 
incorporate nonstructural measures 
into the flood mitigation planning 
process 

Lack of methods for assessing 
employment opportunities 
associated with the construction of 
Civil Works projects 

Unavailability of procedures and 
models for assessing the benefits of 
including recreation facilities at 
Corps projects 


Developed regional economic 
assessment computer models for 
navigation planning studies 

Developed nonstructural 
alternatives to traditional flood- 
control methods 

Developed procedures for 
measuring employment 
opportunities for Corps 
construction projects 

Prepared a manual for evaluating 
recreation opportunities at Corps 
projects 


$5,000,000 

$9,500,000 


$15,000,000 


$8,600,000 


Intangible Benefits Realized 

Intangible benefits include integration of social considerations into the planning process as 
required by law and regulation, and reduced adverse social consequences of construction activity. 


Program: Analytical Techniques 


Lack of documented flood 
emergency planning methods for 
Federal and non-Federal dam 
safety 

Lack of automation for flooding, 
flood routing, hydrologic, 
hydrodynamic, reservoir operation, 
and other flood damage reduction 
measures 


Developed guidance for preparing 
flood emergency plans for 
evacuation of downstream 
communities 

Developed over 70 computer 
programs to respond to various 
water resources related inquiries 
and emergencies 


Intangible—mostly 
increased capabilities 
to respond to 
emergency operations 

Intangible 


Intangible Benefits Realized 

Intangible benefits include provision of more efficient use of manpower and computational 
resources, and provision of improved, more economical, and faster analyses. 






Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed Solution Savings 


Program: Water Supply and Conservation 

Lack of evaluation techniques and Developed procedures manuals, $2,800,000 

procedures to enable Corps handbooks, and technical reports 

planners to incorporate water on drought management measures; 

conservation features into water determined the effect of price on 

supply planning, engineering, and water demand; and determined the 
design long-term effects of conservation 

measures. All of these are now used 
by the Corps and others involved in 
water supply and conservation 
planning 

Lack of a modern disaggregated Developed a state-of-the-art water $3,600,000 

water demand forecasting model to demand forecasting model, IWR- 

provide accurate estimates of future MAIN, and adapted model to 
water supply needs provide the Corps with the 

capability to make accurate water 
needs assessments. A mainframe 
and personal computer version of 
the model are available 

Lack of methods and models to plan Developed ground-water models $1,700,000 

and design water supply systems and conjunctive use planning 
incorporating ground-water models framework which describe the 
and conjunctive use measures economic and institutional aspects 

of surface—ground-water systems 

Lack of technical and cost Developed and adapted models $2,800,000 

optimization tools for water supply which allow planners to determine 
system planning maintenance and least cost alternative water system 
rehabilitation design and to stage the 

development of water supply 
systems 

Intangible Benefits Realized 

Intangible benefits include manpower savings from computational efficiencies and savings to the 
nation in the form of reduced resource requirements to meet the water demand of the future. 


Program: Risk Analysis 

Lack of risk analysis methods for Made available the specific $100,000/application 

dam spillways consistent with analytical techniques, models, and 

current policy on retrofit of reports of case studies to Corps 

hydrologically deficient dams personnel engaged in rehabilitation 

problems 



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Savings of Civil Works Research, 1977-1986 (Continued) 


Problems Addressed 

Solution 

Savings 

Research Area: Surveying and Satellite Applications 

Program: Surveying and Mapping 


Unavailability of effective and 
efficient hydrographic surveying 
methods 

Developed cost-effective and 
efficient hydrographic surveying 
methods 

$12,000,000 

Unavailability of highly accurate 
topographic surveying methods 

Developed airborne laser 
topographic surveying method; the 
global positioning system has been 
tested and has proved feasible for 
various surveying applications 

$1,500,000 annually 

Program: Remote Sensing 


Unavailability of techniques for 
using satellite data to prepare land 
cover maps 

Developed techniques for preparing 
land cover maps using Landsat 
multispectral scanner data 

$20,000/application 

Unavailability of instrumentation 
for making real time water 
resources management decisions 

Developed and tested sensors to 
obtain hydrometeorological data in 
near real time 

$1,000,000 annually 

Inability to monitor economically 
shoreline erosion resulting for 
reservoir and locks and dams 
operation 

Developed conventional photo¬ 
interpretation and digital image 
processing techniques to monitor 
shoreline recession rates 

$500,000 annually 

Lack of snowmelt runoff data 

Developed procedures for using 
airborne and satellite 
instrumentation to obtain spatially 
distributed snow, rainfall, and soil 
moisture data 

$1,000,000 annually 

Inability to economically monitor 
deep-draft channels and deepwater 
dredged material disposal areas 

Implemented multiple electronic 
positioning and hydrographic 
survey systems to measure channel 
geometries and to ensure accurate 
placement of dredged material 

$1,000,000 annually 

Inability to define accurately the 
extent of flooding during 
emergency operations 

Developed techniques for using 
National Oceanic and Atmospheric 
Administration satellite imagery 
instead of using conventional data 
collection for producing flood 
location maps 

$50,000 annually 


Research Area: Construction, Operation, and Maintenance 
Program: Operation and Maintenance Management 

$45,000/application 


Lack of reliable means of providing 
accurate cost estimates 


Developed a computer program for 
updating and tracking estimates in 
process 


16 







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Part III 

RESEARCH AREAS AND PROGRAMS 



This section presents a more detailed view of the type and diversity of the 
Corps of Engineers’ Civil Works research activities and accomplishments. It will 
not only elaborate on the work and benefits presented in the preceding section but 
will also summarize recent accomplishments of each Program without regard to 
evaluation of its economic significance. 


Materials 


Soils 


Based on Civil Works R&D, assistance related to problems encountered with 
dispersive clay, granular and geotextile filters, earth-rock mixtures, cracking of 
embankments, instrumentation, compaction control, planning and conducting 
seismic stability analyses of dams, design of embankments for overtopping, in 
situ testing, and pile foundations was provided to various offices. Significant 
accomplishments were: 


1. Methods for obtaining maximum/minimum density of large-particle soils 
using 18- and 36-in. molds were developed. 

2. A theoretical model for shear band formation was formulated and 
validated. 


3. A small-scale test apparatus was designed and fabricated for measuring the 
performance by similitude of in situ testing devices (one-fourth and one-half 
scale); a contract report, “Field Evaluation of SPT Energy, Equipment, and 
Methods in Japan Compared with the SPT in the United States,” concluded 
a cooperative study with the US Bureau of Standards. 


4. Under cooperative support by the Corps and others, the National Academy 
of Science Committee on Earthquake Engineering prepared a workshop 
report, “Liquefaction of Soils During Earthquakes,” to be used as a primary 
reference for forthcoming regional seminars, “Hazard at Saturated Soil 
Sites: Evaluation and Mitigation.” 


Rock 


This research encompasses interdisciplinary efforts involving geology, 
seismology, geophysics, rock mechanics, and foundation and structural 
engineering. The design and the economical and safe construction of major Corps 
structures, and the assessment of existing Corps structures for structural 
integrity are dependent upon a thorough knowledge of the before-mentioned 
disciplines. Such considerations necessitate methodologies for designing 
structures for local flood protection and floodplain management, waste treatment 
facilities, flood control, and navigation. 

Through research, improved and standardized methodologies have been and 
continue to be developed for the field agencies. Assistance provided for the Fort 
Peck Dam, Dickey-Lincoln School, Richard B. Russell Dam, Barkley Dam, Ririe 




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Dam, and Patoka Dam projects are excellent examples where research has 
contributed significantly to the successful construction of Corps projects. 

Concrete 

Concrete research primarily focuses on the development and evaluation of new 
technologies for making, placing, and testing concrete and includes: (1) 
evaluation of various types of concretes containing numerous admixtures 
following exposure to severe ambient conditions at mean-tide level at Treat 
Island, Maine; (2) evaluation of cracking phenomenon of massive concrete 
structures and establishing standards and construction practices which should 
minimize such occurrences; (3) evaluation of various cementitious materials other 
than portland cement so that acceptable specifications can be established for 
their use; (4) evaluation of the alkali-silica reaction potential of various 
aggregates which were previously considered nonreactive; (5) evaluation of 
current specifications for curing compounds to determine if the stricter Corps of 
Engineers requirements are necessary and economically acceptable; and (6) 
evaluation of a high-resolution acoustic mapping system for assessing underwater 
structures without dewatering the projects. 

Usable products generated as a direct result of this program have been many 
and varied. A partial listing of recent significant accomplishments includes: (1) 
revision of the Handbook for Concrete and Cement ; (2) evaluation of high-range 
water-reducing admixtures for concrete construction; (3) evaluation of the Rapid 
Analysis Machine (RAM) for rapidly determining cement content of freshly 
mixed concrete; (4) evaluation of roller-compacted concrete testing and 
construction techniques; (5) evaluation of techniques and materials currently 



Cracking of concrete structures. 




















































being used in the repair and rehabilitation of erosion-damaged structures; and (6) 
the continuing evaluation of alkali-silica reactions with certain types of 
aggregates. 

Structural engineering 

This program has produced many results which have been quickly put to 
practical application by District and Division Offices. Foremost among these 
products is a growing collection of user-friendly computer programs to analyze or 
design common types of hydraulic structures. Other notable achievements are 
simple procedures for seismic analysis which incorporate the effects of the most 
significant dynamic variables. Interim strength design criteria suitable for the 
peculiar problems of Corps hydraulic structures have also been developed under 
this program. 



Lock and Dam 26 (replacement) design of cellular cofferdam, group pile 
foundation, and tainter gates. Three-dimensional stability analysis 
done using Computer-Aided Structural Engineering techniques. 


The Computer-Aided Structural Engineering projects have generated over 39 
computer programs for field use. The Soil-Structures Interaction Studies program 
has provided guidance for developing analytical and testing procedures for the 
design and analysis of hydraulic structures. Products from this work have 
resulted in four computer programs being released to the field. 




Electrical/mechanical 

This program provides improved design guidance for small hydraulic 
pumping station pumps, for paints and other high-performance protective 
coatings, and for mitigating the effects of corrosion at all Corps projects. Results 
from small pumping station research have been utilized by the Huntington, St. 
Louis, ami Memphis Districts. The Department of the Army has signed an 
exclusive licensing agreement with an Ohio firm to manufacture and market the 
Corps-developed, plasma-sprayed ceramic anode which has proven to be less 
expensive and has a longer economic life than the solid niobium or tantalum 
anodes currently used. 

Coastal Engineering 

Coastal flooding and storm protection 

Research from this program includes theoretical and numerical studies, 
experimental laboratory and field investigations, and prototype data collection 
and analysis. This program has developed complex numerical models that predict 
water-level rises caused by hurricanes and other large storms, models that 
transmit storm surge from the open ocean through inlets into back bays, models 
that estimate the transformation of waves in shallow water, comprehensive data 
sets from the Field Research Facility and Hurricane Surge Data collection 
network, and improved laboratory simulation techniques. 

Recent significant accomplishments include: 

1. The spectral wave generator was completed and is now in operation. 

2. With numerous participants from the academic community and foreign 
countries, experiments designed to measure nearshore coastal processes 
such as currents and sediment transport were conducted at the Field 
Research Facility in North Carolina in 1985 and 1986 including wave, 
current, and water-level measurements during Hurricane Gloria. 



The directional spectral wave generator is now in operational use for both research and 

mission support studies. 















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1200 1600 2000 MIDNIGHT 0400 0600 1200 

26 SEPTEMBER 1985 27 SEPTEMBER 1985 

WAVE HEIGHT AND PERIOD 
TIME HISTORIES 


Wave, current, and water-level 
measurement programs yielded a 
wealth of data including invaluable 
data during the passage of Hurricane 
Gloria. 


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CALENDAR DATE 






































































3. For the first time, quantitative, time-dependent simulations of the hurricane 
forerunner can now be performed, and results of simulations for historical 
storms can be used to initialize regional storm surge models. Hurricane 
surge data were collected during several storms and a numerical model for 
computing hurricane waves developed. 

Harbor entrances and coastal channels 

This research includes theoretical and numerical studies, experimental 
laboratory and field investigations, and prototype data collection analysis. 
Currently, the majority of emphasis and resources is placed on theoretical and 
numerical investigations and data collection and analysis. 

Shoaling of inlet bars is a continuing problem in the Corps’ effort to maintain 
adequate navigation depths, and a better understanding of the physical processes 
responsible for this shoaling is basic to developing design criteria aimed at 
reducing costs of project maintenance. Literature on inlet shoaling rates and 
patterns and on techniques for predicting shoaling rates was evaluated. An in- 
depth report on the state of the art was prepared. Field data were collected at the 
Field Research Facility on sediment transport outside the breaker zone. No 
comprehensive source of information or guidance is available which describes 
planning and selection procedures for sand bypassing systems. Such systems, 
used to pass sand across tidal inlets or harbor entrances, rely primarily on 
intensive project development. Work on compiling a systematic approach to the 
design and selection of sand bypassing systems will reduce project costs 



Removal of sand from harbor entrance channels remains a significant Corps problem. 
Guidance for development of sand bypassing systems is being readied for publication to 
provide the field with state-of-the-art methods to solve this problem. 


























Interaction of waves, currents, sediment, and structures at coastal entrance channels 
produces complex shoaling and scour problems, and dangerous navigation problems. 
Research is under way to develop a numerical model to predict wave and current 

patterns in these complex systems. 


considerably. Initial steps in the work were completed, including a methodology 
for characterizing the problem, a description of the basic concepts of sand 
bypassing systems, and definition of data and data analysis requirements. Wave- 
current interactions at entrances to tidal inlets and harbors can produce 
dangerous conditions for both small crafts and ships attempting to navigate 
through these entrances. Wave-current interactions have a major influence on 
sedimentation in entrance channels and adjacent coastal areas. Development of a 
large grid mesh numerical model to study wave-current interactions is under way. 
A complementary two-dimensional numerical model for wave propagation at 
entrances was completed and a user’s manual prepared. A comprehensive 
knowledge of the nearshore waves and currents in the vicinity of harbor 
entrances and coastal channels is basic to developing improved guidance to 
minimize channel shoaling. The lack of reliable and quantitative methods for the 
prediction of nearshore waves and currents was partially alleviated by 
completion of a literature review and state-of-the-art report on nearshore currents. 



















Results of this report were used to develop a preliminary numerical model for 
prediction of nearshore waves and currents. This technology was transferred to 
field personnel by means of a workshop. An extensive field experiment was held 
at the Field Research Facility in conjunction with investigators from the US 
Geological Survey and Oregon State University to collect quantitative current 
and wind stress data, which will be compared with model predictions. 

Shore protection and restoration 

This research includes theoretical and numerical studies, experimental 
laboratory and field investigations, and prototype data collection and analysis. 
Currently, there is a balance of research with slightly more emphasis being 
placed on experimental field investigations and data collection and analysis. 

A set of 16 historical (since 1850) shoreline change maps for the Delmarva 
Peninsula of Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia was published under a 
cooperative agreement with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminis¬ 
tration, National Ocean Survey. A major field collection effort involving surface 
and subsurface sediment samples and bottom profiling was conducted at Ocean 
City/Assateague, Maryland, to study barrier island evolution in the presence of 
navigation structures. Historical shoreline change analyses were also conducted. 
A field study of sediment transport characteristics and the geomorphic history of 



Research on barrier island systems continues with development of shoreline change 
maps, collection of geologic data, and analysis of barrier island response to structures. 









Isles Dernieres, Louisiana, was conducted. The engineering implications of sea 
level rise were investigated through participation with the Marine Board, 
National Research Council. 

A report was published documenting a wave propagation model that 
determines combined refraction-diffraction of waves over a complex bathymetry. 
The model was transferred to District offices through a workshop and was used in 


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A refraction-diffraction model is required to make accurate 
estimates of wave conditions in complex beach areas. This 
model has been transferred to District offices for use. 




















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several District studies. A shoreline response numerical model developed in 
Japan was tested and its capabilities expanded by adding the ability to consider 
sea walls. Postfill conditions at Delray, Florida, were monitored to assess whether 
compaction contributes to apparent losses of fill material. A user’s manual for the 
Interactive Survey Reduction Program and a report describing use of a Dutch 
technique for estimating dune erosion were published. Technical reports were 
completed on sand transport distribution over weir jetties, statistics of energy 
flux, and visual wave observations. 

Research continues in the development of improved methods to model 
sediment transport in the laboratory. Extensive data sets collected at the Field 
Research Facility are being used to verify a movable-bed model. Development of 
this technology will allow more accurate prediction of many problems involving 
shoaling or scour and erosion. 

Coastal structure evaluation and design 

This research includes experimental laboratory and field investigations and 
prototype project performance monitoring. This research program provides the 
funding for some of the major technology transfer mechanisms in the entire 
Coastal Engineering area. 

Nine microcomputer programs were completed for Microcomputer Applications 
for Coastal Engineering. Documentation was published in a technical report and 
in Coastal Engineering Technical Notes (CETNs). Contracts were initiated for 
assistance in preparing Microcomputer Applications for Coastal Engineering, 
and three people were employed under Intergovernmental Personnel Act (IPA) 
appointments. A total of 18 CETNs were published. A technical report, “Cost 
Effective Optimization of Rubble-Mound Breakwater Cross Sections,” was 

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Design formulae and simpler methods have been incorporated into a 
series of microcomputer programs that are distributed to District offices. 
Not only do these programs decrease man-hours required to complete 
designs, the results are also more accurate because nomograms are 
replaced with explicit equations. 


completed. Work continued on two instruction reports. These instruction reports 
are more detailed than other reports and can stand alone as authoritative texts on 
their subjects. An improved method was developed to calculate overtopping rates 
for naturally occurring storm wave conditions. A draft technical report, “Review 
and Comparison of Methods for Estimating Irregular Wave Overtopping Rates,” 
was prepared. A final draft of the engineer manual, “Design of Breakwaters and 
Jetties,” was prepared. Tests were completed and a draft report was prepared on 
percent damage and wave transmission heights for dolosse and stone-armored 
breakwater trunks using waves greater than the design wave height. Trunk tests 
continued on breakwater heads and angular wave attack on breakwater trunks, 
and tests were initiated using spectral waves. A simple relation for defining 
initiation of armor stone movement of overtopped rubble mound structures was 
developed. Comprehensive models were developed for reef breakwaters to predict 
stability, wave transmission, wave reflection, and energy dissipation, and a draft 
technical report was prepared. Tests were initiated for riprap stability using a 
minimum layer thickness on 1:1.5 slopes. The Floating Tire Breakwater 
Workshop was held at Niagara Falls, New York. A draft report on the Floating 
Breakwater Prototype Test Program was completed, and a draft engineer 
technical letter was prepared. Data analysis continued and the comparison, 
verification, and calibration of existing numerical models was initiated. A 
floating tire breakwater monitoring effort was performed at Pickering Beach, 


































































Floating breakwaters can offer cost-effective wave protection in areas with short- 
period waves. Detailed information gathered during the Corps’ major field data 
collection effort is now being used to provide design guidance and to verify models of the 

structures. 


Delaware. Draft reports were prepared on design of detached breakwaters for 
shore protection and comparisons of coastal survey techniques. Cooperative 
monitoring and evaluation continued on detached breakwaters at Lakeview Park 
and Lakeshore Park, Ohio, and Colonial Beach, Virginia, and on jetties at 
Murrells Inlet and Little River Inlet, South Carolina. Research continued on the 
application of airborne laser mapping techniques, and a report was prepared on 
an application of side-scan sonar technology. 

Flood Control and Navigation 
Flood-control hydraulics 

This research program develops and disseminates timely guidance for solution 
of priority mission problems in the area of flood control. Currently, the field 
indicates a high-priority need for research and prototype studies to develop 
improved guidance for cost-effective design, construction, rehabilitation, 
operation, and maintenance of flood-control channels and structures. This 
information and technology is vital to the accomplishment of the overall national 
objective of obtaining maximum multipurpose use of our water resources. Recent 
accomplishments in this program are summarized below. 

A major revision (18th Issue) of Hydraulic Design Criteria has been completed 
and is undergoing internal review. The revision includes material related to 
spillway design using the approved elliptical shape including crest shape, 
discharge coefficients, pier contraction coefficients, water-surface profiles, crest 
pressures, and cavitation safety curves. Guidance for design of two-way drop inlet 














Computer-aided design procedures for hydraulic structures. 


structures and drop intake structures is included along with revisions to several 
other Hydraulic Design Criteria charts. Corps computer programs associated 
with some of these topics have also been developed and documented. A draft of a 
miscellaneous paper comparing four methodologies for riprap design was 
completed along with a proposed computer program which will assist with riprap 
design. A draft revision of the engineer manual on hydraulic design of navigation 
locks has been completed. 

Recent projects reflect a major emphasis on small, local-cooperation flood- 
control projects. Under this research effort, data pertaining to channel 
improvements and stabilization measures for various types of streams 
encountered in the Corps of Engineers’ flood protection projects are being 
collected. These data are being analyzed, correlated, and used to help develop 
technical guidance. Initial work was directed toward developing Hydraulic 
Design Criteria providing guidance for making a qualitative analysis, for 
defining data requirements for project analysis, and for planning and analyzing 
selective clearing and snagging improvement projects. Corps computer programs 
to help in predicting flow resistance and river regime have also been developed. A 
nationwide inventory of flood-control channel projects was conducted to develop 
information which will help define guidance and select projects which may be 
analyzed to determine the effectiveness of various channel improvement 
methods. 

Improved guidance concerning riprap protection is urgently needed to reduce 
the high annual maintenance and repair costs experienced by field offices. 
Physical model investigations are being used to determine the basic flow 
mechanics of controlling parameters. Tests to determine the effects of gradation 




























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on riprap stability in straight channels have been completed in existing small- 
scale facilities, and interim results have been summarized in a draft report and 
presented in training courses related to hydraulic design of flood-control 
channels. Additional tests in the small-scale facility are investigating riprap 
stability in curved channels. However, since larger test facilities are needed to 
study riprap at rock sizes more representative of the prototype, a larger riprap test 
facility is under construction and will be completed and in operation in the near 
future. 

In the interim, because of the urgency of the need for improved guidance, other 
research avenues are being pursued. Colorado State University completed a third 
series of tests addressing the effects of riprap blanket thickness on stability. A 
draft technical report has been prepared summarizing the results of the three 
series of tests at the University. 

A continuing effort is being made to plan for and/or conduct prototype tests 
which will provide data and information needed for the development of improved 
design and operational guidance. Field testing of some hydraulic phenomena is 
required since the phenomena cannot be adequately treated analytically nor can 
they be accurately scaled in the laboratory. In these cases, the field data are used 
to confirm model or analytical predictions or to provide information which cannot 
be otherwise obtained. A continuing review of proposed new structures is made to 
identify projects where future tests could provide such data. During FY 85, 
prototype tests were conducted at Bay Springs Lock, Mississippi; Bloomington 
Dam, Maryland; Chief Joseph Dam, Washington; Garrison Dam, North Dakota; 
and St. Stephens Powerhouse, South Carolina. Plans and specifications were 
prepared for the Crater Lake, Arkansas, powerhouse tunnel instrumentation and 




Prototype tests to confirm performance and to ensure safe operating 
conditions for fixed-cone valves at New Melones Dam, California. 


35 







the Summersville Dam, West Virginia, valve hood modifications. FY 86 tests are 
anticipated at Stillhouse Hollow Dam, Texas; Gillham Dam, Arkansas; 
Taylorsville Dam, Kentucky; and Warm Springs Dam, California. All of these 
tests provide valuable design or operational guidance not otherwise obtainable. 

Both flood-control and navigation projects include channel stability and 
maintenance in their design. These are related to cross-section shape, channel 
alignment, and stream profile slope, but no systematic method exists for 
calculating the proper width of channel to convey a prescribed hydrograph of 
water/sediment. Work was initiated in FY 84 to provide a systematic way for 
establishing channel width. The work involves analysis of various proposed tech¬ 
niques to determine which one is best supported by field data. Results of this work 
will be implemented in Corps of Engineers design procedures for field use and will 
significantly improve numerical sediment transport modeling. Techniques have 
been identified for evaluation and field data sets accumulated for the tests. 

Navigation hydraulics 

This program combined research being conducted for navigation locks and 
dams and channels to provide improved criteria and procedures for design, 
construction, operation, maintenance, and rehabilitation of various types of 
navigation locks and channels associated with multipurpose navigation projects. 

A channel dimension and alignment study was completed, and results were 
included in the “Deep-Draft Channel” engineer manual. Research is continuing 
on the effects of bends on deep-draft navigation dimensions; the results are 
expected to be available for inclusion in the “Deep-Draft Channel” engineer 
























Test reach on Hydraulic Design of River Training Structures. Present tests are 
concerned with spacing between dikes within a system. Optimum design would be the 
maximum spacing providing a satisfactory navigation channel alignment and adequate 

depth. 

manual this year. The results will include guidance for safe widths on 30-, 45-, and 
60-deg bends. Determination of the effects of wind, waves, and currents on 
navigation at entrance channels is under way using a new computer simulation 
concept. Development of the basic analytical and mathematical models is under 
contract. Development of the mathematical model for vertical vessel motion has 
been completed, and formulation of the mathematical nodel for horizontal vessel 
motion has been completed. A final report and user’s manual on vertical ship 
motion were completed in FY 85. The development of the computer code for 
horizontal motion will be completed in FY 86. 

Work is progressing to develop design criteria which can be used to select the 
type of dike needed for particular application to constrict or stabilize the low- 
water navigation channel for maximum efficiency and minimum environmental 
effect. Such parameters as the most effective dike profile, height, angle, and 
spacing in river crossings are being investigated. Base structures studies and 
testing to determine the effect of dike height, crest profile, and angle were 
accomplished. Investigation of the effect of dike spacing on development of 






































navigation channel depths in crossings is planned for completion in FY 86. All 
findings of the work unit will be included in Chapter 7 of the “Layout and Design 
of Shallow-Draft Waterways” engineer manual next year. 

Additional research is being conducted to integrate the velocity and current 
direction mathematical models, tow maneuvering models, and real time tow 
simulation into an overall simulation of pilot, tow, and flow interactions to 
supplement and complement the physical modeling effort concluded earlier. This 
brings the pilot into the control loop and allows a rational approach to evaluate 
the effect of the human element in the determination of safe and efficient shallow- 
draft navigation channel design. A video tape describing the simulator and its 
applications was prepared and distributed in FY 85. Tug and fender forces 
modeling capabilities were added to the simulator to allow the modeling of lock 
walls, bridge fenders, and helper boats. Prototype maneuvering tests were 
conducted in conjunction with the Coast Guard to refine the coefficients for barge 
tows used in the simulator. This model has already produced very realistic results, 
increasing our knowledge of ship maneuvering and navigation channel design. 
The fully refined tow simulator model will result in considerable cost savings and 
improvement of safety of navigation channels for the Corps and its Districts in 
the area of navigation channel design. 

Research is required to develop criteria to ensure the most economical and 
stable channel alignment for both navigation and flood purposes. The RIVERS 
’83 conference was held, and the proceedings, containing papers on various 
aspects of meandering, were published. Several useful concepts and theories have 
been formulated from a review of these proceedings and other technical papers. 



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(a) CONFINED 
STRAIGHT 
REACH 



SINUOUS 

REACH 


LEGEND 

A_ . DISTANCE BETWEEN 
2 " CROSSINGS 
A = MEANDER LENGTH 
R c = RADIUS OF CURVATURE 
8 = CENTRAL ANGLE 
W = WIDTH 
A = AMPLITUDE 
X = CROSSING 


Planform parameters which affect stable channel alignment. 












Tow navigating into the lock approach with a steady-state powerhouse 

discharge. 


The validity and usefulness of the various theories are being checked by an 
analysis of prototype data. Contracts are being let to several universities to aid in 
the prototype data analysis, and to look at the theoretical mechanics of flow in 
alluvial river and the relationship to channel geometry. 

Work is ongoing which addresses the critical need for design guidance in 
locating hydropower plants at both existing and proposed Corps projects. A 
1:70-scale physical hydraulic model is being used to develop design criteria for 
location, orientation, auxiliary structure requirements, and operational procedures 
to minimize the effect of hydropower generation on navigation. The testing 
facility, including all appurtenances and instrumentation, has been completed. A 
three-phase testing procedure will be conducted on each of three selected channel 
cross sections. The three-phase testing will determine the maximum safe surge 
height from a powerhouse station; the relationship between powerhouse release, 
channel cross section, and surge height; and the effect of powerhouse releases on 
sediment deposition in the lower lock approach. Maximum safe powerhouse 
releases for the first channel size and one powerhouse location were determined in 
FY 85. Completion of all phases of testing will be completed in FY 87. A final report 
presenting study results and the guidelines derived will be published in FY 88. 

Hydrology of cold regions 

Cold region hydrology considers those aspects of northern hydrology which 
deal with the influence of snow, seasonal and perennial ice, and freezing, 






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thawing, and frozen soils upon the spatial and temporal patterns of the 
hydrologic cycle. 

Present R&D includes: 

1. Development of techniques to measure and monitor soil moisture beneath 
snow cover and in frozen-unfrozen ground, and to monitor the water 
equivalent of the snowpack, river stage, and environmental parameters 
such as snow water equivalent. 

2. Watershed research in Alaska to quantify the influence of frozen ground 
and organic soil covers upon snow and liquid precipitation runoff processes. 

3. Development of field procedures and measurement of data on sediment 
transport and aggregation and degradation in northern rivers. 

4. Development of modeling capabilities for mobile bed rivers. 

A radio frequency soil moisture sensor, a soil tensiometer/transducer, and an 
improved snow pillow system have been designed and laboratory and field tested 
under freezing, thawing, and frozen conditions. Soil moisture, snow water 
equivalent, and precipitation data are being incorporated into the SSARR model 
using the Sleepers River watershed in northern Vermont. Hydrometeorological 
sensors have been interfaced with Landsat and GOES satellites and Meteor Burst 
telemetry data relay systems. The following parameters have been received from 
the GOES system at 4-hr increments over the past 3 years: soil temperature, soil 
tension, snow water equivalent, and wind speed. The snow triangle method to 
obtain snow water equivalent data has been placed at two sites in New England. 
Sensors to measure river stage under ice cover have been evaluated. These new 
data bases provided by the near-real-time capabilities for data collection are 
resulting in modifications of existing models and field methods that will 
contribute to improved costs savings and benefits on Corps projects. In Alaska, 
snowmelt runoff, winter base flow, and water storage in icings are being 
measured under different types of ground conditions. 

Ice engineering 

The Ice Engineering Program addresses four major problem areas: 

• Hazardous winter inland navigation. 

• Severe winter floods. 

• Loss of hydroelectric-generating capacity in the winter. 

• Ice damage to shorelines and shore structures, which includes Corps 
structures and plant. 

The Ice Engineering Facility has proven to be exceptionally valuable for 
conducting ice engineering research. Complex natural icing phenomena are 
modeled in the laboratory permitting detailed study of ice under controlled 
conditions. Such laboratory studies lead to deeper understanding of basic ice 
processes, leading in turn to the development of fieldable ice control measures. 

A physical model study of Cazenovia Creek was completed in FY 85, and the 
model is still being used for ice jam and ice retention studies. Ice engineering 
research has produced air screens to keep floating ice out of navigation locks, air 
bubblers to minimize ice formation on lock walls, protective devices for 
underwater intakes, ice booms to minimize ice jam flooding, and improved design 
criteria for structures that must withstand ice forces. 









The “Ice Engineering Manual” was completed and published 15 October 1982. 
It has had two printings and an appendix added. Currently is it undergoing major 
rewrite. 


Environmental Quality 


Environmental impact 

Environmental impact research includes field studies of environmental 
effects, evaluations of existing data and information, demonstrations of resource 
management and protection techniques, development and verification of 
assessment and predictive techniques, development of environmental resource 
classification schemes useful in impact assessment, and preparation of field 
guidance. 

The final product of the work concerned with habitat evaluation methods is a 
looseleaf notebook containing information on method selection and application; 
model availability, construction, modification, and testing; sampling methods; 
software availability; and sources of assistance. In developing methods to 
evaluate the impact of changes in estuarine circulation on water quality, test 
application of a two-dimensional, laterally averaged model in the Savannah 
River estuary was completed and test application of a multiple-box model to the 
Mobile Bay/Mississippi Sound area was initiated. A draft of a visual impact 
assessment procedure was completed under contract; it was reviewed and field 



Environmental monitoring activity at a Corps project. 








Habitat quality—a factor in impact assessment. 



Erosion processes at reservoir shorelines in cold regions studied in the 

New England area. 


tested in four Districts. Results of an August 1984 workshop to plan a course of 
action to develop an environmental monitoring procedure was compiled into a 
report containing a draft plan of study, and this was circulated for review and 
comment. To predict erosion potential of shorelines in cold regions, five reports 
were prepared during FY 85 on bank erosion measurements and processes. Field 
studies of erosion rates and processes continued at three sites. 




The study of the effect of channel deepening and jetties on aquatic species 
involved publication of five new species profiles, two workshops for Corps 
personnel, and initiation of a field study at a small boat harbor in Alaska. Results 
achieved in FY 85 in the study of the ecological effects of rubble structures were 
similar: publication of a technical note, presentation of research results at a 
workshop, and surveys/sampling at two field sites. The work on beach and 



Physical and biological effects of commercial navigation activities in 
waterways are being assessed. 



Rubble jetties usually have beneficial impacts on biological resources. 





foredune ecology involved a field study in Florida addressing the problem of 
effects of beach nourishment on sea turtles and seven other prenourishment or 
postnourishment field studies in Florida, North Carolina, and Washington State. 
Technology transfer was also accomplished through workshops and seminars. 

A major user’s manual was published providing extensive guidance to the field 
on techniques for vegetatively restoring problem soils at Corps construction sites. 
An interim manual on wildlife resource management, containing about 70 
reports, was completed and submitted for review. Several technical papers were 
presented on the work unit and three issues of the information exchange bulletin 
were published. To determine techniques for preserving cultural sites, an interim 
manual was prepared under contract using results from previous studies by the 
contractor, a literature review, and results from an extensive interagency survey 
at the Federal and state levels. The manual will be published early in FY 86. Still 
another manual was prepared providing guidance on seagrass planting, and in 
this subject area, a field study was initiated to investigate fertilizer effects. 
Findings to date were reported at a coastal ecology workshop. At CRREL, two 
field sites were established to study plant establishment on sandy soils in cold 
regions, and field and greenhouse studies were continued to evaluate various 
plant species. Review comments were received from field offices on draft 
guidelines for revegetating construction sites in cold regions. 

Wetlands 

This research has identified the need to develop improved and standardized 
techniques to (a) assist field personnel in the identification and delineation of 
wetlands subject to jurisdiction under the Section 404 regulatory program, (b) 
assess and quantify wetland values for use in the evaluation of permit requests, 
and (c) meet Corps needs in planning, construction, and operational activities in 
wetland areas. 

Between FY 78 and FY 82, research on wetlands identification and delineation 
was sponsored primarily by Operation and Maintenance General Funds, with 
additional funding provided on a case-specific basis by Corps Districts. 



Provision of habitat—an important wetland function. 









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in wetland delineation. 


Soil is another wetland delineation factor. 


Research has provided a legally defensible technique for the delineation of 
wetlands that has subsequently reduced time that might otherwise be spent in 
litigation. This technique, based on field identification of vegetation, soil, and 
hydrologic features, improves the efficiency of field inspectors and minimizes 
time spent in field determinations. The technique has been documented in a draft 
wetlands delineation manual that has been field reviewed and is now being 
revised. 






















Water Resources Planning Studies 



Planning methodologies 

Activities in this program address problems facing Corps planners in the 
performance of their mission. Economic analysis techniques, forecasting, data 
use, spatial data management, and water transportation analysis techniques are 
emphasized. Products include technical reports, guide manuals, computer 
programs, user manuals, and documentation. 

Prior accomplishments include the development of three regional impact 
computer models and their associated user’s manuals applicable to navigation 
projects. An industrial location/community attribute computer model with 
associated user’s manuals is operational and is available for use. A survey of 
construction workers has been completed and procedures for estimating 
employment benefits have been developed and disseminated to the field. 

Work also includes development of techniques for estimating external 
economies at Corps projects, development of a “National Economic Development 
Evaluation Manual” for recreation, and development of a manual for deep-draft 
navigation. An evaluation of the commercial and industrial flood damage 
assessment procedures has been completed. The economic procedures for 
floodplain evacuation and relocation have been developed. A questionnaire and 
test of the contingent valuation technique and user manual were developed. 

Additionally, a needs assessment for a forecasting system package was 
performed, and a framework for constructing a forecasting system was developed. 
A small area forecasting model is operational. A land use analysis model using 
spatial data is operational. Methods for assessing the expected cumulative 
environmental impacts associated with induced development have been 
formulated. Spatial data management software and analysis models have been 
developed and applied in planning studies. Spatial data bank creation and 
management software have been tested and documented. A triangular terrain- 
based data capture system has been implemented. 

Analytical techniques 

The improvement of basic methods of evaluating hydrologic phenomena and 
analytical techniques in the planning process is the objective of this research 
program. Continual improvements are being made in the basic techniques as 
required by the field office projects. Evaluation of today’s many alternatives 
demands accurate and efficient procedures capable of processing large amounts 
of data. Effective utilization of the computer makes it possible to assemble, store, 
retrieve, and analyze the data required for these hydrologic and planning 
analyses. 

Analytical planning techniques are being developed to relate hydrologic, 
economic, and environmental parameters directly to geographic data such as 
land use. Such techniques provide a continuing medium for use by Corps and 
local planners and engineers to analyze the impact of management measures. 
The energy problem is being addressed through new and improved techniques for 
sizing hydropower plants, allocation of reservoir storage to competing demands, 
and operation of reservoir systems to best meet multiple objectives. Hydrologic 


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and hydraulic analysis techniques are being developed to assess dam safety and 
develop dam failure evacuation plans for those dams which are a threat to life 
and property. 

Water supply and conservation 

With the development of the water conservation procedures manual came new 
requirements for application handbooks and better forecasting procedures. Three 
publications were produced relating directly to the manual: an annotated 
bibliography with specific references to the steps of the manual, an assessment of 
forecasting techniques, and a bibliography on forecasting techniques. A 
computer-based set of forecasting techniques was chosen for use by Corps 
planners and installed on the Corps’ central computer library. The model, known 
as IWR-MAIN, will become the Corps’ standardized procedure for forecasting 
water demands. To aid planners in producing better water supply forecasts, two 
publications were completed: 

• A handbook of methods detailing how to obtain acceptable forecasts under 
varying data conditions. 

• An interactive user’s guide and manual for IWR-MAIN. 

To further aid in evaluating the benefits of water conservation and to ensure 
that water is available during drought conditions, three new reports were 
published and distributed to the field: 

• A study describing the influence of price and rate structure on future water 
demands. 

• An evaluation of drought management measures for municipal and 
industrial water supply. 

• A prototype application of the drought management optimization procedure. 
A handbook demonstrating how to apply the procedure described in the 
water conservation evaluation manual was completed. The IWR-MAIN 
system was converted to run on an IBM-PC. 

Major products through FY 86 include, “Guide Manual for Preparing Water 
Balances,” “Survey of Conjunctive Use,” “Comparative Analysis of Groundwater 
Formulations,” and “Water Supply Simulations Using HEC-5.” 

Another significant activity centered on developing the MAPS program to 
provide the capability of evaluating water supply source alternatives with cost 
modules. A water conservation subroutine has been added, and the program was 
modified to improve a number of existing applications. Cost-estimating routines 
have been verified against actual construction costs. An engineer manual on 
planning and designing small water systems was completed. A method for 
estimating the costs of surface water intakes was developed. Techniques for 
determining when to repair or replace pipes were identified and evaluated and an 
engineering technical letter prepared. Work was completed on development of an 
algorithm for estimating water reductions resulting from implementing water 
conservation measures. 

Risk analysis 

This is a new study, initiated in FY 85, for which relatively little formal 
research had been conducted, other than the initiation of a literature survey. This 







survey was part of an inquiry designed to provide guidance and workable risk 
analysis methods in evaluating dam safety problems in a manner compatible 
with sound engineering practices and risk-cost evaluation principles. 

_ Surveying and Satellite Applications _ 

Surveying and mapping 

This program includes work for improving land, hydrographic, and airborne 
surveying and mapping capabilities within the Corps of Engineers. Most of this 
work is performed in the coastal regions and navigable waterways of the nation. 

In the coastal zone, survey data are required in the beach, nearshore, and 
offshore areas. Coastal surveys are costly, time-consuming, frequently difficult or 
impossible to obtain, and often lack sufficient accuracy in the surf and nearshore 
zones for many coastal engineering applications. Therefore, a significant need 
exists for alternative means of obtaining coastal survey data that accurately 
handle the entire profile, are rapid and inexpensive, and that utilize a datum 
other than the water surface. The estimated annual hydrographic surveying and 
mapping workload of the Corps is approximately $41 million. The cost of 
surveying is one of the major expenditures in any coastal project or monitoring 
program. 

Hydrographic surveys are routinely performed along the nation’s waterways 
in order to compute the volume of material removed by dredging contractors. This 
volume is then used as a basis for payment to the contractor. The computational 
method used is the average-end-area method, or some adaptation of this 
technique. Quite often the data collection procedures do not coincide properly with 
the computational method. The objective of this work is to develop the best 
method for determining the volume of material removed by channel dredging. 

Efforts are also continuing to monitor technological advances in hydrographic 
surveying for possible adaptation to Corps needs. Recent emphasis includes 
preparation of a report on available methods for heave correction and 
development of a fully automated small boat survey system. 

Remote sensing 

There has been a tremendous advance in the state of the art in the remote 
sensing field over the past 10 years. Many of the sensor systems that have been or 
are being designed measure terrain and hydrologic and environmental conditions 
more accurately. With trends of ever decreasing funds and manpower, remote 
sensing technology probably provides the only opportunity of managing and 
analyzing the nation’s water resources. 

The Atlantic Remote Sensing Land-Ocean Experiment (ARSLOE) was 
successfully completed. This field experiment developed a data base for 
comparing remote sensing techniques versus in situ measurements. The 
preliminary results of the Remote Orbital Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) demon¬ 
strated the detection of surface currents. The High Frequency Radar (CODAR) 
demonstrated potential for gathering two-dimensional wave spectra and current 
vector data. (This field experiment involved over 30 organizations for 2 months of 
coincident remote sensing and in situ systems wave data. The evaluation of 58 











aircraft missions of four ground-based radar systems was accomplished.) Several 
papers were presented at the OCEANS ’82 Conference on ground truth 
experiments during the ARSLOE experiment. 

Data were analyzed from an experiment at the Corps’ Field Research Facility 
with a coherent wave radar to test the feasibility of measuring surface currents in 
the surf zone. Coastal Engineering Technical Notes were written on surface 
current measurement using a microwave scattermeter and on sensor selection for 
wave data. 

In FY 84-85, a successful field demonstration of the CODAR surface current 
mapping capability was conducted on the Delaware Bay in a joint experiment 
with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Ocean 
Survey. A workshop on radar detection of waves was presented for District 
personnel. A CODAR field test for wave measurement was conducted at the Field 
Research Facility. 

A literature review of state-of-the-art in situ measurement techniques for 
hydrologic and environmental monitoring was prepared, and a subsequent report 
was completed. A sensor package complete with interfaces for measurement of 
wind speed and direction, solar radiation, air temperature, barometric pressure, 
relative humidity, soil moisture, precipitation, and snow water equivalent was 
developed and installed at sites in the New England Division and the Detroit 
District. 

Construction, Operation, and Maintenance 

Operation and maintenance management 

This program supports command goals to provide modern, integrated, 
automated office systems to a diminishing workforce, thereby improving 
productivity and efficiency. The Corps-developed automated budget system, 
EDITOR, was installed at over 30 Districts for use in the FY 86 budget 
preparation. 

Energy 

This program was initiated in FY 83 with an ongoing study of techniques to 
reduce petroleum energy consumption in Civil Works operations. To date, the 
Civil Works petroleum-consuming activities have been identified by mission area 
and the present level of consumption determined. Overall, petroleum consumption 
accounts for about 90 percent of Civil Works energy consumption. A survey of 
potential alternate fuels was completed, and candidate alternate fuels were 
identified for Civil Works activities where feasible. A report describing these 
alternate fuels and usage considerations was written in FY 84. A further study of 
these fuels as applied to large, medium-speed diesel engines, such as used by 
Corps floating plant, was completed by the Army Fuels and Lubricants Research 
Laboratory. Initial steps were taken to begin an alternate fuels usage 
demonstration. A report was also written in FY 84 outlining energy conservation 
technologies applicable to Corps dredges. The Civil Works Energy Data System is 
intended to provide District engineers with a microcomputer-based tool to 
manage energy consumption at the District level. Software has been written to 



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manipulate project and District level energy consumption data and to facilitate 
Defense Energy Information System (DEIS) input. Application of alternate 
energy technologies to Civil Works processes and facilities was initiated in mid- 
FY 84. The goal of this work is to reduce energy consumption of nonpetroleum¬ 
consuming Civil Works activities through the use of alternative energy 
technologies. 

Improvement of operation and maintenance techniques 

The magnitude and complexity of the Civil Works O&M activities which now 
exceed $1 billion annually demand that the program be managed with maximum 
efficiency. To reduce the annual O&M fund requirements, it is imperative that 
positive action be taken to effect maximum economy with minimum use of energy 
in all activities. These objectives can be attained only if rigorous and direct 
research and development effort is continued in several critical fields of activity 
using state-of-the-art scientific and engineering knowledge to develop systems, 
techniques, and improvements to ensure maximization of operational and 
maintenance efficiences. There are several areas associated with present 
operation and maintenance activities where efforts are being made to develop and 
adapt new operational techniques to effect significant savings in the program. 
Approximately one third of the annual O&M activities are in dredging of material 
deposited in navigation channels and harbors and 40 percent is for all dredging 
activities. Any methods to prevent or reduce the shoaling have the potential for 
significantly reducing the cost of dredging. A need exists for inexpensive 
evaluation procedures for projects where relatively small amounts of O&M funds 
are involved. Large O&M projects can be reduced in cost through the use of more 
elaborate procedures to evaluate alternatives accurately. 

The availability of definitive impacts of structural alternatives can be used to 
reduce maintenance dredging. Improvements and increased knowledge can be 
used to decrease dredging requirements. An improved understanding of alter¬ 
natives for dredging will allow the most cost-efficient approach to be chosen. 
Environmental concerns can be addressed with new equipment, new techniques, 
and an understanding of the behavior of existing dredging systems. Improvements 
to dredging systems can have a direct impact on reducing dredging costs. Several 
areas of O&M activities can be reduced in cost through a better understanding of 
present procedures and development of new procedures and equipment. 

Laboratory testing of high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe was completed, 
and field testing on a dredge was initiated. A 30-in. HDPE pipe was installed on 
the Port of Astoria’s dredge OREGON where it will be subjected to a season of 
sand pumping. A draft engineer technical letter on the use of HDPE was 
completed and sent forward for review. Several Environmental Effects of 
Dredging Program Technical Notes were prepared documenting both laboratory¬ 
testing procedures for predicting potential contaminant release during dredging 
and methods for dredging contaminated sediments. Prior evaluation of resuspen¬ 
sion by hopper dredges was extended by use of data from a recently completed 
Japanese study. A classification system for rating dredges according to their 
ability to dredge contaminated sediments with the least environmental impact 
was completed. A third volume of an annotated dredging bibliography was 
published. 





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pipe. 


Field and laboratory tests of fine sediments have revealed important 
information concerning the way that these materials form shoals. Research 
results have been successfully applied to site-specific studies of shoaling in 
Corpus Christi Harbor and open water dredged material disposal in San 
Francisco Bay. New expressions for settling and consolidation of sediments were 
developed for implementation in the TABS-2 and TABS-3 numerical modeling 
systems. Research into new techniques to measure in situ density of bed 
sediments resulted in creation of a new work unit to complete that research. Work 
began on evaluating resuspension of fine sediments under waves. Material was 
supplied for a new engineer manual on sedimentation. Past work in advance 
maintenance dredging has resulted in several technical reports and other 
technology transfer, including an engineer technical letter (ETL 1110-2-293, 
“Shoaling Predictions in Offshore Navigation Channels, Analytic and Empirical 
Methods”). Two additional draft engineer technical letters and a technical report 
on advance maintenance were completed in FY 85. TABS-2, a complete system of 
numerical models for two-dimensional numerical modeling of navigation channel 
flows and sedimentation, has been developed and released to the Corps offices. 
This system, which includes a 700-page user’s manual, has been enthusiastically 
received by the field offices and is already in use at five locations in addition to 
WES. It has already been applied to nearly two dozen sites. Telephone support to 
non-WES users was provided on a continuing basis. Two Huntsville Training 
Division courses were conducted on the system’s use. A set of three-dimensional 
numerical models was developed and successfully applied to New York Harbor for 
the New York District. A survey of existing estuarine training structures was 
completed and results were compiled for analysis. A draft engineer technical 
letter on present use of training structures was prepared. 












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Long-term effects of dredging operations 

The Corps is legislatively required to evaluate and minimize the environmental 
impacts of dredged material disposal and/or placement of fill that are associated 
with the Corps’ dredging and environmental regulatory programs. Dredging 
operations to maintain the nation’s approximately 25,000 miles of Federal 
channels, over 100 commercial harbors, and over 400 small boat harbors comprise 
the largest single line item in the total Corps budget and account for 
approximately 39 percent of the general budget. (The Corps’ dredging mission 
requires the annual disposal of 250 to 300 million cubic yards of dredged 
material.) 

Research conducted during the Dredged Material Research Program and the 
Dredging Operations and Technical Support Program has established that the 
mere presence of a contaminant in a sediment c oes not indicate that environ¬ 
mental harm to the aquatic system will result from dredging and aquatic disposal 
of the sediment. Therefore, chemical analysis or inventory of sediments cannot be 
used as a basis for predicting potential impacts but can only indicate the presence 
of potentially harmful contaminants. First-generation methods have been 
developed to provide the field with reliable indicators of potential harm. 
Consequently, first-generation biological testing procedures were developed to 
identify and to assess the environmental impacts. These evaluative procedures 
were based on limited laboratory and field data; consequently, the accuracy of the 
procedures with regard to actual field conditions/effects must be more definitively 



Laboratory bioassay test of effectiveness of capping contaminated 

dredged material. 


































established. Because different data interpretations exist among the various 
environmental resource and regulatory agencies (e.g., Corps of Engineers, Fish 
and Wildlife Service, Environmental Protection Agency, National Marine 
Fisheries Service, and state agencies), no single technical procedure is acceptable 
to all regulatory agencies for interpreting test results. Comprehensive methods 
for evaluating cumulative effects of continuing disposal at one or several disposal 
sites do not exist. The Corps has conducted limited field tests of procedures to 
eliminate or minimize adverse impacts of dredged material disposal through 
capping contaminated material with noncontaminated material in conformance 
with the legal provision for capping contained in the international London 
Dumping Convention. Laboratory studies of the biological, chemical, and 
physical aspects of capping were initiated along with a survey of the engineering 
aspects of capping. Studies on the bioaccumulation, environmental interpretation 
of consequences of bioaccumulation, and biomagnification of toxic substances in 
aquatic organisms were continued with work on the biomagnification of toxic 
substances in aquatic organisms completed in FY 84. 

Additionally, methods were developed to size containment areas to minimize 
the discharge of suspended solids in the effluent. The sizing procedure was not 
designed to predict contaminant concentrations in the effluent, nor did it account 
for geochemical changes that will occur with time within the containment areas. 
Studies were initiated to predict effluent quality from diked containment areas. 
Under the Dredging Operations and Technical Support Program, limited work 





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was initiated to predict the potential mobility of toxic substances into plants from 
contaminated sediments. Laboratory studies were initiated and generally limited 
to site-specific projects, and first-generation tests procedures were developed that 
require verification. Contacts have been made with foreign researchers in this 
area for incorporation of their data bases into the work unit on toxic substances 
bioaccumulation in plants. In FY 84, a modified elutriate laboratory test was 
developed that provides an indication of contaminant levels in effluent from 
confined disposal areas. Field studies were continued to verify the procedures for 
determining contaminant levels in effluerts. Development of an interim 
technique for predicting contaminant levels in disposal area effluents was 
completed in FY 84 along with initial mixing zone guidance. Additionally, in FY 
84 work on the freshwater and saltwater plant bioassay test for determining toxic 
substances bioaccumulation was continued. 

In FY 85, draft technical guidance on the development of predictive techniques 
for estimating effluent quality in diked containment areas was completed. Initial 
mixing zone guidance was refined. 

Natural resources 

The Corps of Engineers is mandated to provide recreational opportunities for 
the general public and to maintain the natural resources for future generations at 
its water resource development projects. Carrying out these requirements, while 
adhering to new directives regarding reductions in budgets and personnel, has 
fostered an even greater need for research. Visitation to these projects has 
continued to increase, indicating the public’s acceptance of these developments. 
The increasing significance of recreation area development and operation 
associated with the Corps’ existing projects has focused attention on the need for 
improved methodology in the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and 
operation of Corps-controlled recreation and related natural resource areas. 



Marine facilities at Corps projects. 









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Plant-growth regulator reduces mowing in a recreation area. 


To assist resource managers and planners, a handbook on computing cost- 
effectiveness of alternative sanitary facilities was developed and distributed. 
Program-developed performance standards, useful in developing O&M contracts, 
have assisted Districts in their contracting endeavors and in determining hired 
labor needs. A system of cost tracking for recreation area maintenance has been 
developed which enables managers to determine costs for conducting various 
maintenance tasks. Once costs are determined, this information can be used to 
increase efficiency or to estimate potential contract costs. 

One of the methods used in managing recreation and natural areas is 
communicating with the using public. Guidelines for the use of interpretation as a 
management tool have been well received at Corps water resource projects. As a 
result of feedback from project personnel, a number of supplements to the original 
guidelines were distributed. Implementation of various interpretive tools will lead 
to lower maintenance costs and improved visitor relationships. Requests from 
other Federal and state agencies have indicated a wide interest in this 
accomplishment. In addition, several universities are using the guidelines as 
resource materials. Efforts in the area of visitor safety and security have led to the 
development of improved administration of law enforcement contracts. Weak¬ 
nesses in the design of recreation areas which contribute to increased incidents of 
crime have been isolated, and techniques to overcome some of these flaws have 
become available. This study also revealed situations which contribute to the 
public’s perception of security. Where appropriate, findings were tested within the 


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Corps recreation campground facilities. 


recreation research and demonstration system for suitability for Corps-wide 
adoption. 

Increased emphasis on recovering O&M costs through user and entrance fees 
is being addressed. Close coordination with other Federal and state agencies is 
being maintained to prevent a duplication of effort. Benefits of this effort will 
include optimal methods of collecting fees which have been developed by other 
agencies and are adaptable for use by Corps management. The amount of revenue 
produced will depend upon the options implemented and the authority for 
implementation. 

The increased use of microcomputers at the project level has produced the need 
to increase efficiency in the software programs developed by reducing duplication 
of effort. Savings in manpower and funding will be evident as this effort 
progresses. Upcoming accomplishments within the next 3 years will enable the 
Corps to economize on the management of their recreation areas through more 
efficient scaling of developed areas, better data for determining park consolidation 
and/or closures, and more efficient vegetation management. 

Water quality 

The water quality program is a new R&D initiative for FY 86. Because of its 
broad mission, there has been extensive coordination during its initial planning 
to minimize overlap and eliminate duplication of effort. During the formulation of 
this program, the Wastewater Management Program, which was concerned with 
analytical methods, was incorporated into the Water Quality Research Program. 
Previous accomplishments of this work include automation of water quality 
laboratories from both a hardware and software standpoint, a survey of Corps 
water quality laboratories, and guidelines on chemical systems information 
networks and laboratory operations. 













Part IV 

CONCLUDING REMARKS 


§m 


In the short term, the Corps of Engineers does not expect any significant 
mission changes in its Civil Works functions and responsibilities. However, it is 
expected that there will be a continuing strong R&D emphasis: 

1. On Corps operations and maintenance related research and development to 
provide Corps field offices with improved methods and technologies and cost 
savings. 

2. On dredging operations to achieve cost reductions and improvements in this 
important activity. 

3. To explore and apply a wide variety of remote sensing techniques to Corps 
Civil Works missions to achieve greater efficiency and cost saving. 

4. On navigation and flood control activities. 

5. To continue improvement of Corps capabilities in coastal engineering. 

6. To improve the environment with emphasis on management and conservation 
of natural and cultural resources. 





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