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Author of “Sick Nursing at Home” “Desnwnd” “Avencle” and Papers on Needlework in “The QEwen," “Girl's Own Papery 

“Cassell's Domestic Dictionary “ Ac, 



Author of “Church Festival Decorations,'' and Papers on Fancy and Art Work in “The Bazaar f “Artistic Amusements, 11 

“Girl's Own Paper," Ac. 










In Acknowledgment of the Great Services which, by Means op Her Cultivated 
Taste and Cordial Patronage, She has Rendered to the Arts oe 
Plain Sewing and Embroidery. 


J OHN TAYLOR, in Queen Elizabeth’s time, wrote a poem entirely in praise of Needlework; we, in a 
less romantic age, do not publish a poem, but a Dictionary, not in praise, but in practice, of the Art. 
It is true that many books dealing with distinct varieties of both plain and fancy work have 
been published from time to time, but there has not been any that has dealt exhaustively with both subjeots, 
and combined in one volume not only descriptions of ancient and modem Laces, plain and fancy stitches 
and work, and the manner of working, but also particulars of the various stuffs and materials used for the 

It has been our object to produce such a comprehensive work — to bring within the compass of a single 
volume full instructions in working any and every kind of plain and fancy Needlework, to give information 
concerning the various materials and implements used, to explain the meaning of the terms and technical 
phrases which are now so generally employed in describing Needlework operations, and, in short, to make 
The Dictionary op Needlework so complete in all respects that anyone may be certain of finding in its 
pages information on every point connected with Needlework. 

To many who are not workers, the Lace portion of the Dictionary will, it is hoped, be especially 
interesting, as there will be found full particulars and numerous engravings of the various makes, both ancient 
and modern, and in very many instances the most minute instructions for working them — for even some of 
the most prized of old laces can be successfully copied by all who have patience, leisure, and eyesight. In 
this branch of our subject we have derived much assistance from a series of papers published in The Bazaar , 
many years ago, under the title of “ Old Laces, and How to Make Them,” written by a lady using the nom 
de 'plume of Santia Barnabas. 

It is not in the scheme of the present book to include other work than that done wholly, or in 
part, by the aid of the needle, and the materials used; and mere patterns of fancy work are also necessarily 
excluded — except so far as they may be required as examples — as they are already multitudinous, and are 
being added to day by day, for they change with the fashion of the hour. Besides, anyone with The 
Dictionary op Needlework at hand can readily master the principles and details of a given work, and 
can then at will apply that knowledge to any suitable design which may be possessed, or which may be given 
in the pages of the various journals which devote space to such matters. But beyond these two exceptions, 
we have endeavoured to follow out Lord Brougham’s maxim, that a good index can hardly be too prolix, 
and have introduced every possible stitch, work, and material; feeling with John Taylor of old, that 

All these are good, and those we must allow ; 

And these are everywhere in practice now. 

S. F. A. 0. 
B. 0. S. 


In Crocliet, Knitting, and Tatting patterns, the same stitches are frequently repeated in the same round of 
the work. To save the recapitulation thus necessary, the following signs are adopted to indicate where the stitches 
already given are to be repeated or in any way used again. 

The Asterisk or *. — Where an asterisk is put twice, with instructions between, they indicate that the 
part of the pattern enclosed between them is to be repeated from where the first asterisk is inserted, thus : 3 Chain, 
* 1 Double Crochet, 5 Chain, 2 Double Crochet, repeat from * twice. This, if written at full length, would read 
as follows : 3 Chain, 1 Double Crochet, 5 Chain, 2 Double Crochet, 1 Double Crochet, 5 Chain, 2 Double Crochet, 
1 Double Crochet, 5 Chain, 2 Double Crochet. 

The Square Cross or + is used in Knitting and Crochet to indicate the place to which a row is worked 
and then repeated backwards. For example : 1 Double Crochet, 5 Chain, 3 Treble Crochet, + ; if written at full- 
length this would be — 1 Double Crochet, 5 Chain, 6 Treble Crochet, 5 Chain, 1 Double Crochet. The letters A and 
B sometimes take the place of the cross, as follows : A, 1 Double Crochet, 5 Chain, 3 Treble Crochet, B. 

The St. Andrew’s Cross or X is used in instructions to help a worker in a difficult pattern by enclosing a 
particular part of a design within two of these crosses, thus : 4 Chain, 5 Treble, x 12 Chain, 1 Purl, 12 Chain, 
5 Double Crochet, 6 Treble, x 4 Chain. 

The Long Cross or Dagger (t) is used in conjunction with the asterisk in instructions when a repetition 
within a repetition has to be made, as for example : 1 Chain, f 4 Double Crochet, 5 Chain, * 3 Chain, 5 Treble 
Crochet, 1 Purl, repeat from * twice, 4 Chain, 3 Double Crochet, repeat from f; if written out fully would be — 
1 Chain, 4 Double Crochet, 8 Chain, 5 Treble Crochet, 1 Purl, 3 Chain, 5 Treble Crochet, 1 Purl, 3 Chain, 
5 Treble Crochet, 1 Purl, 4 Chain, 3 Double Crochet, 4 Double Crochet, 8 Chain, 5 Treble Crochet, 1 Purl, 
3 Chain, 5 Treble Crochet, 1 Purl, 3 Chain, 5 Treble Crochet, 1 Purl, 4 Chain, 3 Double Crochet. 

Words in Small Capital Letters. — In the explanations of the manner of working the various 
Embroideries, we have endeavoured to facilitate the references by printing in small capital letters the 
designation of any stitch or movement when first mentioned that is of sufficient importance as to require a separate 
heading. The worker will understand from this that she can, if necessary, refer to a fuller explanation of the 
stitch or movement than is supplied in that particular place. The same stitches being used in totally different 
branches of Needlework, a description of them under one heading, once for all, docs away with the necessity of 
continual repetitions. When a stitch or movement is only required in the particular work where it occurs, it is 
only referred to in the main part of the Dictionary, and is described in a separate paragraph under the heading 
of the work it is used in. 


Page 331, column 2, line 10. For “figures” read “fingers.” 



a practical J6nc\>clopaeMa. 

ABACA. — The native name far the Manilla hemp, 
produced by one of the Banana tribe. Tins fibre was 
introduced into France for the manufacture of dress 
materials, as well as of tapestry and articles of uphol- 
stery* In India it is made into the finest muslins and 
linen cloth. For these delicate stuffs, only the inner 
fibre of the leaf-stalk is employed- while canvas, as well 
as cordage, is produced from the coarser kind outside. 
The Abaca plant is a native o! the East Indian Islands; 
and the well-known Manilla straw hats are plaited from 
its coarser fibres* 

Abb- — From the Anglo-Saxon ab-ob. The yarn of 
which the warp of any textile is composed, of whatever 
material it may be. Thus tbo term “ Abb- wool,” as 
employed by weavers, signifies the wool of wbioh tbe 
warp of any stuff may be woven, 

A Bout. — A phrase denoting one complete riumd made 
in knitting. Bee Knotting. 

Abrasion. — A technical term denoting the figuring of 
textiles by means of weaving down the surface. 

Adding Bobbins. — Extra Bobbins are often required 
in Pillow lace while in progress of making. To add : 
Hang them on in pairs to the pin nearest the working 
Bobbins, and cut close and wind out of the way tbe knot 
that joins them together, to prevent tbe ends getting 
entangled with the Bobbin threads. Pass the new thread 
under two working Bobbins, and continue as usual, 
Adrianople Twill, — Tbe French name synonymous 
with Turkey Heb Twill, which see. 

Aficdt. — French name of instrument for polishing lace, 
and removing small hard scraps of cotton or thread. 

Agrafe.— The word is derived from the early Norman 
term Ag grapes, and is the modem French for a clasp or 
hook. It is also applied to gimp fastenings. The ancient 
Aggrapes included both the hook and eye which fastened 
mediaeval armour. 

Aida Canvas, — This material, introduced under the 
French name To He Colbert, is a description of linen cloth. 
It is also called “ Aida Cloth,” and Java Canvas (which 
see), as well as “ Fancy Oatmeal.” It is made in widths 
varying from 18 inches to 54 inches, and can bo had in 
white, cream, grey, and gold colour; and is also pro- 
duced in a woollen coloured material. A cotton cloth of 
the same make is known by different names, those most 
employed being Basket Cloth and Connaught, 

Aigrette, — A French term employed in millinery, 
denoting an upright tuft of filaments, grapes, or feathers 
as a decoration to the headdress, hat, or bonnet* 

Aiguille.— Tbo French for needle. 

Aiguillette. — A trimming of cords terminating in 
tags of gimp, silk, gold, silver, or black metal. 

Alaska Seal Fur, — A comparatively inexpensive de- 
scription of Seal-skin. It is of a pale brown or fawn 
colour, and is employed for tippets, muffs, and trimmings. 

Albatross Cloth . — A soft fine bunting; it is known 
also as K Satin Moss,” (t Llama Croise,” “ Vienna ” (the 
stoutest make), “ Snowflake ” (which is flecked), u Antique 
Cloth,” &c., 25 inches in width. 

Albert Crape. — A variety of crape composed of a 
union of silk and cotton; that called Victoria Crape 
being of cotton only. Tbe widths of all descriptions of 
crape run from 32 inches to I yard. Bee Crape. 

Alen$on Bar, A Needle 
Point Bar, chiefly used for 
filling up irregular spaces 
in Modern Point lace. To 
make, as shown in Fig. I; 

Pass a thread backwards 
and forwards over the open 
space to be covered as a 

Herringbone. Cover this Fl0 ‘ lp Alek< * on Bar ' 
thread with Buttonhole, as shown in the illustration. 




Ale upon Grounds * — These grounds were first made 
as Beide and then as Reseau. Those worked in 
Argent an lace were similar, except that AIcngou excelled 
in the extreme fineness and regularity o £ its Rescan 
grounds, while Argentan was justly considered superior 
in its Bride, The Bride was the plain Bride, and the 
Bride Picotee or Bride Ornee. The Grande Bride was 
formed of a six-sided mesh covered with buttonhole. The 
Rescan was worked after the pattern, and served to join 
it. It was worked all one way with a kind of knotted 
stitch, the worker commencing always on the same side, 
and placing her needle between each stitch of the row 
just formed. Sometimes the plain ground was formed 
with a thread thrown across, and others intersecting it. 
The Alengon grounds are of the same hexagonal shaped 
mesh as the Brussels, but the Argentan are coarser. The 
Ecaille de Poisson ground is found in both laces. It is 
a Re scan ground very much resembli ng the overlapping 
scales of a fish. 

Alenpon Point, — This beautiful French lace is one of 
the glories of that nation. It is, with the exception of 
Argentan, which is allied to it, the only Needle Point lace 
executed in France. It was known in England as Point a 
1* Aiguille for many generations, while from the date of its 
manufacture in France, 1665 to 1720, it was there called 
Point de France. The chief seat of its manufacture at the 
present time is at Bayeux, but in olden times the making 
of the lacc did not extend beyond a few miles round 
Alen^on, and yet gave employment to from 8000 to 9000 
hands, chiefly women and children, but old men also worked. 
The town of Alen^on, before the time of Colbert, made the 
lace called Point Coupe, and when that energetic minister 
conceived the idea of establishing a Venetian school of 
lace in France, he fixed upon his chateau of Lonray, close 
to Alon^on, as its seat. The enormous sums spent by the 
nation in the purchase of Venetian and Spanish points 
induced Colbert to take this step, and, obtaining a royal 

edict, he established a small school of 200 workmen for 
the purpose of producing Point de Venice In France, and 
thus directing into French hands the money that was spent 
In foreign countries. The old Point Coupe workers it first 
rebelled against the monopoly of Colbert, but the lace was 
ordered to he worn at court, and soon became fashionable, 
as much on account of its intrinsic beauty as for royal 
favour. Enormous quantities were sold, and it was sent 
to Russia, Poland, and England, and even to Venice. 
At this period, Alen^on was but a copy of Venetian and 
Spanish Point ; the patterns were the same, and the stitch 
confined to the Buttonhole; the grounds were the Bride 
and the Bride Ornee, the flowers in relief, and trimmed 
with Picots and Fleurs Yolantes. In 1678 a slight change 
appeared in the lace, the ground was dispensed with, and 
the patterns so formed that they connected themselves 
together with long stems and small branching sprays, but; 
still in high relief, and chiefly made with Buttonhole 
stiteh, During the reign of Louis XIV., Aien^on was 

made of these two descriptions; but after his death, and 
that of Colbert, a great change was introduced. The 
ground was made with a honeycomb mesh, called Roseau, 
and the pattern filled up with numerous open stitches, 
called Jours, Fellings, or Modes. In the first part of the 
eighteenth century, this Roseau ground was made of 
various sizes and thicknesses, and the pattern flowing and 
undulating; latterly, the lace patterns partook of the 
bizarre rage, and were stifle and formal. They then again 
changed to the Roseau ground, which was sewn over with 
small dots or sprays, and the pattern worked as a solid 
border (see Fig. 2). During the Revolution, the manufactory 
at Aient^on became almost extinct; but Napoleon I. assembled 
the old workers that remained, and gave a new Impetus with 
magnificent orders, amongst them the layette for the King 
of Rome and the bed hangings of Marie Louise. With the 
abdication of Napoleon the trade again almost disappeared, 
but was revived by Napoleon III,, and still exists, although 




the greater part of its glory has departed. The Yrai 
Roseau ground, for which Alcn^on was so justly famous, is 
now rarely worked, and only for such orders as royal 
marriages, as its production by hand labour is so expen- 
sive, and the work is confined to the pattern formed with 
the needle and applique upon bobbin net. The use of 
Alengon during the reigns of Louis XI Y, and XY. was 
universal, and it was then at the height of its fame. The 
prices given were enormous, and yet every article of attire 
was trimmed with it, and such large furniture as bed- 
hangings, and vallances to cover baths composed of it. 


the pattern upon separate pieces of parchment, which 
number, so that no error in the joining occurs. These 
pieces of parchment prick with little holes along the out- 
lines of the design, and follow the outline with a doubled 
thread, called Fil de Tka.ce, caught down to the parch- 
ment at regular intervals, as shown in Fig. 3. The ground 
make either with the Bride — thus : Throw a thread across 
a space from one part of the pattern to another, and 
cover it with a line of Buttonhole stitches worked close 
together — or with the Honeycomb Reseait or Alen^qn 
Ground, and finish by filling up the pattern either with 

Fia. 3. ALEN^ON LACE, showing Roseau Ground and HI do Trace* 

The lace hangings of the bed at the baptism of the Duke 
of York, 1763, cost £3783, and a single toilette 6801 livres. 
When we consider the time that Alen^on took to make, and 
the number of hands it passed through, these prices are 
not surprising ; and we must also take into account that 
the fine Lille thread of which it was composed cost 1800 
livres the lb. The lace is made as follows: Draw the 
pattern upon copper, and print it off on to parchment, 
from the use of which its name Yilain is derived, that word 
being a corruption of vellum* Place small sections of 

thick rows of Point de Bruxelles or with Point he 
Grecque or other open Fillings. In the oldest speci- 
mens of this lace, these Fillings were all Buttonhole ; in the 
more modem, they were remarkable for their lightness 
and beauty, the Alen^on workwomen excelling all other 
lace makers in these fancy stitches. The CORDON NET, or 
outer edge, of the lace is always thick, and horsehair 
is introduced into it. This renders the lace firm and 
durable, but is heavy, and Is the reason that Alengon 
is considered a winter lace. It also causes the Cor- 

B 2 




donuet to shrink when cleaned. The Footing and 
Picots acid after the piece of pattern is joined to the 
whole design. ‘When the pattern is so far completed, it 
is unpicked from the parchment, and is joined by the 
cleverest workwomen. The lines of the joins are made 
to follow the pattern as far as possible, and form part 
of it. The finish to the lace give by polishing all the 
parts in relief with the Aficot, and adding the Picots 
and Footing. Each workwoman takes a separate portion 
of these protracted processes, and is known by one of the 
following names; Piquciisc, or pricker; traceuse, or out- 
liner ; reselense and fondeuse, ground makers ; rempliss- 
cuse, the flat pattern worker; brodeuse, raised pattern 
maker; modeuse, those who work the fillings; assembleusc, 
the joiner; mignonneuse, those who add the footings ; picofc- 
euse, the picots ; while the toucheuse, brideuse, bouclcuse, 
gazeusc, help the joiners. The Alen^on lace now made is 
not passed through so many hands, but is executed by one 
person, and the pieces joined together or Afrlique on to 
machine net. Two flounces made at Mons. Lefe bares, at 
Bayeux, and exhibited in 1867, are one of the finest ex- 
amples of modem work. They cost £3400, and engaged 
forty women for seven years in their making. The ground 
is the Yrai Keseatt, hence the time spent over them. The 
price x*f the Alenin, upon machine net ground, now is 
about 6s, 6d. the yard, width 2 in, to 2$ in, In the Report 
of the Commissioners at the Great Exhibition, Alcngon 
is classed fifth, Brussels, Mechlin, Yalenciennes, and Lille 
being ranked above it. At the same exhibition a new kind 
of Alen^on was exhibited, which was made and patented 
by a Madame Hubert, It consisted of flowers and fruit 
made with the needle, and so much in relief as to approach 
in form and outline to the natural ones ; in fact, a perfect 
imitation of [Nature without the colour* 

Algerian Lace, — A gimp lace made of gold and silver 
threads. See Greek Laces* 

Algerian Stripe. — A mixed cream-coloured material, 
so called because made in imitation of the peculiar Moorish 
cloth, manufactured in. alternate stripes of rough knotted 
cotton web, and one of a delicate, gauze -like character, 
composed of silk. It is employed for the making of 
women's burnouses, in imitation of those worn by the 
Arabs. It used to be produced in scarlet and cream- 
white, as well as in the latter only. The price varies from 
6s. 6d, to 10s, 6d. ; the width, 52 inches, 

Algerian Work.— Sec Arabian Embroidery* 

Allah Haik. — The original Moorish striped material, a 
mixture of gauze and cotton, unbleached, and of a cream- 
white, made in stripes of silk gauze and cotton in equal 
widths, the former plain, the latter rough, with a knotted 
nap on the right side. It is employed for turbans, and 
measures about a yard wide* An imitation is made in 
England and elsewhere, of not quite so rough a make, 
which is much employed in making burnouses. The 
threads running the long way of the material are the 
knotted ones, and are much coarser than those running 
across them, which are but sufficiently strong to keep 
them together. 

Alloa Wheeling. — A Scotch yarn, made in the town 


of that name. It is to be bad in black, drab, grey, and 
white, as well as in heather shades, and is employed for 
knitting men’s thick riding gloves. The price in England 
varies from 3s. to 4s. per lb., but the fluctuations in the 
market must be allowed for in the purchase of these goods. 

Aloe Thread Embroidery. — The peasants of Abbis- 
sola and the mms of Oldivales were accustomed to make 
lace from the fibres of the aloe, and recently an em- 
broidery with aloe threads, instead of silk, has been intro- 
duced into England. The colour of the thread is a pale 
straw, but, apart from the novelty of the material, the work 
has little to recommend it, although it is believed to retain 
its tint better than silk. To work, as shown in Fig. 4 : 
Select an ordinary satin stitch embroidery pattern, and 


chief amongst the varieties of cloth made of the wool are 
called alpacas, fancy alpacas, lustres, silk warp, alpaca 
lustres, twilled alpaca mixtures, alpaca and mohair linings, 
and umbrella and parasol cloth. What are mostly sold 
as alpacas now are really a fine make of Orleans cloth, 
which is a mixture of wool and cotton, dyed in all colours, 
and varying from 24 to 38 inches in width ; but the first 
quality of real alpaca runs from 30 to 38 and up to 54 
inches. Nearly all the wool is worked up at Bradford, and 
the several varieties arc most commonly to be had in 
black, white, and grey. In its natural state it is black, 
white or brown, yet from these an almost endless variety 
is produced. The pure vigogne measures 48 inches in 


trace it out upon silk or serge ; lay down over the outline 
of the chief flowers, or other prominent parts of the design, 
a pad of wool, and work in Satin Stitch over this 
padding with the aloe fibres. 

Alpaca Cloth. — This name is derived from the original 
Spanish, denoting a species of llama or Peruvian goat, 
the Vicuna or Vigonia , producing the most expensive 
quality of hair. These animals are of the tribe Camclina , 
and are the camels of South America. The hair is fine, 
woolly, and longer and finer than that of the Cashmere 
goat. The manufacture of it into textiles w T as introduced 
into England by Sir Titus Salt. The wool is mixed with 
silk or cotton, producing a thin and durable cloth of 
various degrees of fineness, suitable for wearing apparel 
for men and women, as well as for other purposes. The 

Alpaca Yarn. — A very valuable description of yarn, 
and much superior to the ordinary qualities of sheep’s 
wool. In its natural state it is black, white, or browm, but 
a great variety of shades are produced from the three 
colours. It is spun so finely that the thread may be used 
either alone or in combination with silk or cashmere in 
the manufacture of fabrics of the lightest description. 
The seat of the English trade is at Bradford. 

Alphabet. — The word alphabet is derived from Alpha 
and Beta, the first and second letters in the Greek 
language. The embroidery of letters entered largely into 
the instruction given in needlework in ancient days, no 
girl being considered a proficient in the art until she 
could work in cross stitch all the letters of the alphabet 
upon a sampler. In modern times this proficiency is not 



so much required, as linen marking is done with ink, hut 
ornamental alphabets are still used. The Irish peasantry 
are celebrated for their skill in embroidering letters upon 
handkerchief corners, and French ladies display much 
taste in working with silk upon silk tablecloths and 
cushions. English ladies use alphabets more for initials 
upon saddle cloths, rugs, and cambric. The designs for 
these letters are taken from well-known characters, such 
as Gothic, Roman, Renaissance or Cuneiform, the pre- 
ference being given to the letters that are clear in form, 
however much ornamented. To work: Trace the pat- 
tern upon stiff paper and lay it under such materials 
as allow of the lines showing through, or for thick stuffs 
iron it off. The letters look better placed across the 
material than straight. Embroider them with lace 
thread, embroidery cotton, silk, floss, gold and silver 
thread, or with human hair. For the stitches use Satin, 
Feather, Overcast, and Rope for solid thick materials; 
and Point de Pois, Point Russe, Point d’Or add to 
the first mentioned for cambrics, Japanese silks, and 
other light foundations. The illustrations (Fig. 5) show 
the capitals and small letters of an alphabet much used 
in embroidery; work these in Satin Stitch, Point de Pois, 
and Herringbone. Where the dark lines of the illus- 
trations are, cut out the material and Buttonhole it 
over, and fill in the open space thus made with Herring- 
bone stitches. 

American Cloth. — A stouter material than the French 
Toile ciree. It is an enamelled oil-cloth much employed in 
needlework for travelling and toilet " necessaries,” “ house- 
wives,” and numerous other useful articles. It possesses 
much elasticity, and is sold in black, sky-blue, white, and 
green, silver and gold, by the yard. It is a yard and a 
half in width, and is enamelled on one side only. 


American Patchwork. — A work well known in Canada 
under the name of “ Loghouse Quilting,” but only lately 

introduced into England. It is a variety of patch- 
work, into which strips of coloured ribbon are intro- 
duced. To work : Take a five-inch foundation of strong 
calico, tack to the centre of this a piece of silk or satin 
an inch and a half square. Round this centre square, 
run on seven rows of narrow ribbon, so that their edges 
overlap. Run on round two sides of the square dark 
shades of ribbon, and on the other sides light colours, 
and make the corners square — not dovetailed (see 
Fig. 6). Form several of these large five-inch squares, 
and then sew together like ordinary patchwork pieces, 
so that the light side of one square is next the light 
side of the next square, and the dark next the dark, 
giving the look of alternate squares of light and dark 
colour. The effect of this work depends upon the 
judicious selection of the narrow ribbon as to its shades 
of colour and their contrasts with each other. The 
centre squares of piece silk should always be of a dark 
shade, but not black. This Patchwork is more com- 
monly known as Canadian Patchwork (which see). 

Andalusian Wool. — This is also called Victoria Wool, 
and is a fine, soft, warm make of woollen thread or yarn, 
employed for knitting a superior description of stockings 
and socks. It is the same wool as the Shetland, but is 
thicker, being spun with four threads instead of two. It 
is to be had in all colours as well as white and black, and 
also ingrain; the price in Great Britain varies from 
68. 6d. to 8s. 6d. the lb. 

Angleterre Bars. — These are used in Modem Point 
lace. To work : Fill in the space between the braids with 
lines of crossed threads, and at every junction make a 
spot, as shown in illustration (Fig. 7). To form these 
spots, run the thread along one of the horizontal lines 
until it comes to one of the upright cross lines, twist the 
thread over and under the two lines alternately until a 

sufficiently handsome knot is formed, then carry it along 
the horizontal line until another upright cross line is 
gained, and repeat. 

Angleterre Edge. — A Needle Point edging to braid 
or Cordonnet, and made with one line of Point de 
Bruxelles loops. To work : Make a Point de 
Bruxelles, and into it work a tight Buttonhole, and 
repeat to the end of the space. Identical with Point 
d’Angleterre Edging. 



Anglo-Saxon Embroidery. — The earliest English 
embroidery known, consisting of patterns in outline, 
worked either with gold thread, silk, or beads, and used 
for borders to garments. The outlines were generally laid 
upon the surface of the material, and caught down, as in 


couching, while any fillings were of an open description, 
as shown in illustration (Fig. 8), which is a modem imita- 
tion. This embroidery must not be confounded with the 
celebrated Opus Anglicanum of a later date, or with 
the embroidery upon muslin with untwisted thread. For 
manner of working, see Saxon Embroidery. 

Angola Cashmere, or Angora Cloth. — Names em- 
ployed in the trade to denote a certain cloth made in 
imitation of the camels’ hair cloth ; said to be made of 
the long white hair of the Angora goat of Asiatic Turkey, 
which rivals that of Cashmere. This cloth is of a light 
quality, and the widths run to 27, 48, and 54 inches. 

Angola Cloth. — A pretty diaper- woven cotton cloth, 
with a fine rough face, somewhat resembling the character 
of Shagreen. It is of a cream colour, is 54 inches in width, 
and is employed for embroidery. 

Angola Mendings. — So called from a semblance in 
quality to that of the wool of the Angora goat. This 
yarn is composed of a mixture of wool and cotton, and 

may be had in many shades and tints of colour. It 
is sold on cards and reels, and also in skeins, and is 
designed for darning merino and woollen stockings. 

Angora Cat Fur. — This fur is remarkable for its 
length and beauty, and is of a very light shade of grey, 
or white. The hail* of the tail measures about five inches 
in length. A large trade is carried on in these skins. 

Angora Goat Fur. — Otherwise called Angona and 
Angola. This fur comes from Asiatic Turkey, and the 
goat is called after a city of that name, in the neighbour- 
hood of which it abounds. The size of the skin measures 
27 inches by 36 inches, and is valued at from 18s. to 35s. 
It is employed for jackets, hats, and trimmings. 

Angora Wool. — This wool is supplied by the goat after 
which it is named, grows long, is silky in appearance, and 
is employed in the making of shawls, braids, lace, and 
for other decorative purposes, besides dress materials of 
various makes. The Angora wool is also called mohair, 
and is now being extensively produced in California, as 
well as in the east. 

Antwerp Edge. — A Needle Point edging to braid or 
Cordonnet, and made with a line of open Buttonhole 
caught with a knot in each loop. To work, as shown in 

Fig. 9. Antwerp Edge. 

Fig. 9: Make a Point de Bruxelles loop, and secure it 
with a Buttonhole made as a knot round the lower 
part of it. Work each Point de Bruxelles i of an inch 
apart. It is identical with Point de Bruxelles edge. 

Antwerp Lace. — A manufactory was founded at 
Antwerp for the making of pillow lace in the seventeenth 
century, and the lace made was, with that of Mechlin, 
indiiferently known as Flanders lace. Savary mentions 
that lace was made there of two kinds, one without ground 
and the other with patterns attached with Brides; but 
the Roseau ground was also made, and Antwerp lace had 
the effect of embroidery given to it, as that of Mechlin, by 
the plait thread that outlined the design. The Antwerp 
lace was larger as to design, and was chiefly exported into 
Spain ; and, when the market for it ceased there, it would 
have quite decayed, had it not been for the lace shown in 
Fig. 10, which w f as used so much by the peasants as to 
buoy up the production for some time. This pattern is 
called Potten Kant, and is the sole remnant of a design 
once worked in lace, representing the Annunciation. The 
angel, the Virgin Mary, and the lilies were gradually 
omitted, until nothing but the vase for holding the flowers 
was worked. Antwerp at present produces Brussels lace. 
(See illustration on following page.) 

Antwerp Lace. — A Needle Point edging identical with 
Escalier Lace, which see. 

Appliqug. — A French term, signifying the sewing of one 
textile over another. This work was anciently known aa 



Opus Consutwm or Cut work, Passementerie, and Di Com - 
mcsso. Of these names, the first is the most ancient ; but, as 
it is also used to denote some of the early laces, it has been 
succeeded by Applique, which is derived from the Latin 
appUcare, to join or attach, and the French appliquer, 
to put on* The Li Commcsso is a name given to the work 
by Vasari, who claims the invention of it for Sandro 
Botticelli, a Florentine; hut, as some Applique is still In 
existence that dates back before Botticellis birth, this is 
incorrect, and the origin of it is lost in antiquity. It was, 
however, most practised from the thirteenth to the seven- 
teenth centuries, and numerous specimens of the early 
times are still extant. The work has been known in India 
and Persia for many hundreds of years, and was probably 
invented there ; the Italians, Germans, and French use it 
largely for household decorations, the English more for 
altar cloths and vestments. The word Applique has a 

oentury, destroyed in 1870 ; and the Biazonment of Cleves 
arc the best known old examples. It is not unusual to find, 
amongst mediaeval woven materials, spaces left open when 
weaving, into which figures of saints and other devices were 
inserted by the method known as Inlaid Applique and 
finished with fine needle stitching either in Opus Pin ma- 
num (or Feather stitch) or Opus Anglicanum (Split stitch)* 
At other times the fine linen or canvas inserted for the 
faces and hands only of figures would be simply painted, 
Applique is divided into Inlaid and Onlaid, and from these 
heads spring many adaptations of the work, the best known 
being gold embroidery, used in ecclesiastical work ; Applique 
proper, used for all ordinary purposes ; Broderie Perse, or 
Applique with cretonne ; and Applique upon muslin and net 
Inlaid Applique has more the effect of woven brocade of 
various colours than of needlework, uni ess used, as described 
above, for letting iu needlework into loom made materials. 


wide meaning, and many varieties of needlework come 
under its designation* Being originally introduced as 
an imitation of tbc earlier and more laborious raised 
embroidery, it embraces every description of work that 
is cut or stamped out, or embroidered, and then laid upon 
another material. It is therefore possible to Applique 
in almost every known material, as in feathers, skins of 
animals, gold and silver, mother o' pearl, and other foreign 
substances, the motive being to produce effect with varied 
and bold materials and without the labour of close embroi- 
dery. The most curious English example of the materials 
that may be artistically Applique together was exhibited in 
the Paris Exhibition iu tbe Prince of Wales’s Pavilion, and 
consisted of a series of Chinese fowling scenes, in which the 
human figures were clothed in silk and velvet, the animals 
in their own furs, and the birds in their own feathers. The 
Baldachino of Grsanmichele, worked in the fourteenth 
century; the Banner of Strasburg, worked in the fourteenth 

To make: Carefully design the pattern upon a foundation 
material, and cut away from that the various flowers or 
motifs that make up the design. Replace these pieces by 
others of different colour and textures, accurately cut so 
as to fit into the places left vacant by the removal of the 
solid material, and lay these in to the foundation without 
a margin or selvedge overlapping either to the front or 
back of the work. Stitch them into position, and conceal 
the joins and lines of stitches by Couching down a line 
of gold cord, narrow ribbon, or floss silk over those places. 
Great nicety is required in the cutting out and fitting into 
place of the various pieces, and sewing them down. The 
materials used in Inlaid Applique should match as to sub- 
stance, or a thinner one be backed with linen when used with 
a thicker, otherwise the finished work will strain and 
wrinkle. Inlaid Applique was much used in Italy during the 
eleventh century, and specimens of it can he seen at South 
Kensington; it is also used in Indian embroideries and Cash* 



mere shawls, but it is not much worked by modem ladies, 
Onlaid Applique is the true Applique, and is divided 
into two descriptions o£ needlework — one where the solid 
pieces of stuff are laid down upon the material and 
secured with a cord stitched round them, and the other 
where materials of various kinds are laid down and en- 
riched with many stitches and with gold embroideries. 
True Applique is formed by laying upon a rich foundation 
small pieces of materials, varied in shade, colour, and 
torture, and so arranged that a blended and coloured 
design is formed without the intervention of complicated 
needle stitches. The stuffs most suitable for the foun- 
dation are velvets, cloths, plush, cloth of gold and silver ; 
for applying, satin, silk, plush, cloth of gold and silver, 
satin sheeting and velvet. Velvet and plush only make 
good foundations when gold embroidery is laid upon 
them, as they are too thick for lighter weights; hut 
they are admirable for applying gold and silver cloth 
upon, but the cost of the latter precludes their being 

most prominent shades of the work; if single, let them 
match the foundation colour; they should not contrast 
with the work, or be obtrusive by their colouring, they 
rather enrich by their beauty and depth of tone. Much 
of the beauty of Applique depends upon its design, but 
combination of colour is an important item in its 
success. Badly designed patterns are coloured with the 
aim of attracting attention by the brilliancy produced 
by contrasts between material and applied work, but such 
is not true art, and is never used by good designers, ex- 
cept when bold effects are to be produced, and large 
spaces covered; the brilliancy of the colouring is then 
lost in its breadth and richness. Smaller work requires 
to be restful in tone and harmonious in colour, and all 
violent contrasts avoided. Shades of the same colour, 
but of different materials, have a pleasing effect. Ancient 
work presents many examples of this variety of material 
and sameness of colour, hut it consists chiefly in the 
amalgamation of two colours, and derives its effect from 


used with freedom. Velvet, plush, satin and silk are the 
materials chiefly employed for applying, the aim of this 
work being to lay one handsome material upon another as 
though it were a raised portion of the same. To work : It 
is necessary that each separate piece should lie flat and 
without a wrinkle, therefore the materials to be applied 
to the foundation must be first backed (see Backing). 
Carefully cut out the pieces to be applied, after having 
traced their outline upon the Backing, and keep them 
ready, then stretch their background or foundation in a 
frame, and trace the outline of tlie pattern upon it by 
means of tracing and blue carbonised paper. Lay the 
cut-out pieces in position one at a time, and secure them 
by sewing down their edges. Conceal these sewn edges 
by a handsome gold or silk cord, which lay over them, and 
Couch down by a stitch brought from the back of the 
material and returned to the back. Make these fasten- 
ing stitches of a silk of a different colour to the cord 
they catch down. Lay on the cords either as single or 
double cords; if double, select the colours of the two 

the difference of material used for the grounding and 
the applied. Numerous shades of colour and various 
tints are more the result of the revived Applique thau 
strictly old work; but as long as these arrangements in 
colour are formed of soft harmonious tones, they are 
an advancement of the work. Fig. 11 is an Applique 
pattern one-third its original size. It represents a 
scroll, the centre of which is filled by a dower show- 
ing its hack and front alternately. To workr Select a 
deep peacock blue or dark red- brown satin for back- 
ground, pale blue plush for the turned-over flower, 
and citron coloured petals, with orange centre, for 
the fully opened one. Work over tendrils and stem 
in Crewel Stitch and in brown shades. Applique 
leaves in green, and vein the flowers and leaves with 
Satin Stitch. A less elaborate Applique is made 
with fine ecru linen laid upon satin sheeting or silk 
grounds. This kind is generally continuous as to de- 
sign, and the ecru linen is cut out and applied to the 
ground a§ one piece. The linen Is strong enough to 



need no backing, and the groundwork only requires to be 
stretched in a frame while the two materials are stitched to 
each other. The 6cru linen is not pasted, but stitched to 
the foundation, and the stitches concealed by Feather or 
Buttonhole wide apart stitches worked over them. Of 
this kind is Fig. 12. Work the ecru oranges round 
with a sober orange- tinted filoselle, the flowers with cream 
colour, and the leaves with pale green, the stalk with 
brown, and the veinings in satin stitch with pale green 
filoselle. Deep brown- red is the best foundation colour. 

the same. In true Applique plain self-coloured stuffs are 
amalgamated, and the effect obtained by the variety and 
beauty of these tints; in Broderie Perse tbe applied pieces 
are shaded and coloured pieces of chintz or cretonne, 
representing flowers, foliage, birds, and animals in their 
natural colours. These require no backing, and are 
simply pasted upon a coloured foundation and caught 
down with a Feather or open Buttonhole Stitch. Broderie 
Perse was practised 200 years ago, and then fell into 
disuse. It is capable of much improvement from the 


In Fig. 13 we have another design suitable for velvet 
application. The animals and scrolls, cut out in brown 
velvet and lay upon golden-coloured satin or sheeting, 
and secure their edges either with Feather Stitch or a 
plain gold cord of purse silk ; the same design can be cut 
out of ecru linen and laid upon an art blue background. 
The Feather stitching must then be in the same tinted blue 
silk. When the Applique materials of various shades and 
enriched with silk, floss, and gold threads, are laid down, 
the stitches used are chiefly Feather, Long, Basket, 
Cushion, Tent, and all the various Couciiinos. Being 

patterns ordinarily sold, and though, by reason of its 
attempting to imitate round objects in nature, it can 
never attain an art value, still it could be made a more 
harmonious decoration than it is at present. The faults 
of ordinary cretonne and chintz work are too great a 
contrast between background and design as to colours, 
and too lavish a use of brilliant flowers or birds in the 
pattern. The worker should bear in mind that the set- 
ting of one or two brilliant colours among several subdued 
ones will produce a much better effect than the crowding 
together of a number of equally bright shades. Much 


worked as embroideries of gold and silver, and chiefly 
used for church purposes, the description of the latter 
will apply to this kind of Applique in the manner of 
design, colouring, and execution. See Embroidery. 

Applique, Baden. See Baden Embroidery. 

Appliqu6, Broderie Perse. — A modem work, founded 
upon ancient and true Applique, but differing from it in 
the nature of the material used and the labour bestowed ; 
but the word Applique is common to both, as the essentials 
of the work, that of laying one material upon another, are 

will depend upon the selection of flowers, &c. The best 
come from old pieces of chintz manufactured before 
the days of aniline dyes ; their shades mix together with- 
out offence, and their outlines are generally clear and 
decided. When not procurable, select bold single modern 
chintz or cretonne flowers of quiet tone and conventional 
design. Avoid bright colours, and choose citron, lemon, 
red, red-browns, lavenders, and cream -whites. Sunflowers, 
tulips, hollyhocks, crown imperials, foxgloves, chrysanthe- 
mums, peonies, sweet peas, anemones, thistles, are all good 


flowers. Palm leaves or Virginia creeper leaves make 
good designs alone, but not amalgamated, and ferns are 
not used at all. Only one to three different kinds of 
flowers are grouped together. Backgrounds for Broderic 
Perse can be of any material but velvet, and should 
match the darker tints of the flowers applied to them. 
Black and white arc never used, being too crude in 
colour and too great a contrast. If dark backgrounds are 
wished, invisible green, deep peacock blue, garnet brown, 
will give all the depth of black without its harshness; and 
if light, lemon and cream-whites will tone better than 
pure white. Sunflowers are applied upon brown-red, red 
hollyhocks upon deep red, peonies upon deep maroon. 
Before commencing to work, cut out the flowers and leaves 
that make the design, and group them upon a sheet of white 
paper; run a pencil round their outlines, and disturb them 


only when they are required. Stretch the background 
upon a frame or clothes horse, and paste the chintz flowers 
into position upon it. Transfer the outline of the design 
to the material with the aid of a carbonised tracing 
paper, if required. When the pasting is finished and dry, 
take the work out of the frame and Buttonhole loosely 
all round the leaves and flowers. Make this Buttonholing 
as little visible as possible, and let the colours used for the 
filoselle or cotton match the medium tint of the flower 
or leaf that is secured. Feather Stitch can be used 
instead of Buttonhole. Enrich the veinings of the leaves 
and flowers with Satin Stitch and sometimes work 
this enrichment so as to cover the larger part of the 
chintz, but the character of the work is much altered 
by so doing, and the filoselle enrichments make brighter 
what is already sufficiently prominent. The illustration 

T r 

(Fig. 14) is a design for Broderie Perse of storks and water 
plants. To work : Cut out the storks from Cretonne ma- 
terials and lightly Buttonhole them round, also treat the 
bulrushes and flags in the same manner. Use Crewel 
Stitch and Long Stitch to form grasses and other por- 
tions of the design that are too minute to be Applique, 
and enrich the chief high lights and greatest depths in the 
plumage of the birds with filoselle, worked in in Satin 

Applique, Broderie Suisse. — This is a modern variety 
of Applique, and consists of a design embroidered on 
white cambric or muslin laid upon satin or silk back- 
grounds. To work : Trace out a pattern upon pink calico, 
lay this under muslin cr cambric, embroider the pattern 
lines seen through the muslin with Chain Stitch, and 
then cut out and lay the design upon a coloured back- 
ground, to which affix it with an open Buttonhole or 
Feather Stitch worked in coloured filoselles. The 
veinings of the sprigs in the embroidery, and any pro- 
minent parts in that work, fill and ornament with fancy 
embroidery stitches, such as Herringbone, Satin, Tete 
de Bceuf. These fancy stitches work in coloured filoselles. 

Applique Lace. — Much of real lace now being made is in 
two parts, the sprigs separate from the ground; it is there- 
fore necessary to learn the method of joining them together. 
To work : The spPigs of lace being ready, draw a rough 
outline of the design upon paper, whose size is the width 
and breadth of the lace when finished. Upon the outline 
tack the sprigs loosely, right side downwards. The tacking 
should only be strong enough to prevent the sprigs turn- 
ing up their edges before the net is laid on them. Cut the 
net length-ways of the material, lay it over the sprigs and 
tack down to the paper, so that no part drags or puckers. 
Sew the sprigs to this net with fine thread round all the 
outer and inner edges, Overcasting, and not Run- 
ning them to it. Cut away the net from under the solid 
parts of the lace, Overcasting all the raw edges so made. 
All light fancy stitches in the lace require the net cut 
from under them, while outer edges or borders require a 
double Overcasting, as at those places there is more likeli- 
hood of the net tearing than in the body of the work. 
Then unpick the lace from the paper with care, the net 
foundation being neither cut nor dragged. Iron the lace 
on the wrong side, placing a piece of tissue paper between 
it and the iron. After ironing, pull up any raised part 
of the sprigs, such as Fleurs Volantes, with the small 
ivory hook used for that purpose in lace making. 

AppliquS upon Net. — The manner of joining together 
two thin materials differs somewhat from that employed 
upon solid foundations, and forms a separate branch of 
fancy work. To Applique with net, muslin, or cambric was a 
favourite work in England during the latter part of the last 
century and the first years of the present, and the work so 
made was largely used in the place of lace, the foreign laces 
of that period being subject to so heavy a duty as to render 
them only within the reach of the wealthy. The em- 
broidery is partly an imitation of Indian work and partly 
of lace ; it is durable, gives scope for individual taste, has 
a soft and pleasing effect, and is again finding favour 

c 2 



among fancy workers. The materials used are book or 
mull muslin or cambric, best Brussels net, and white em- 
broidery cotton. In olden times, the foundation was gene- 
rally muslin, and the net applied or let in ; but the reverse 
plan, though not so durable, has a better appearance. 
To work the pattern : When muslin is the foundation, trace 
upon the muslin ; when net, upon oiled paper. Strengthen 
both with a brown paper back. Tack the net to the 
muslin, or vice versa , and run both materials together 
wherever the design indicates. Do this running care- 
fully, and pass the threads well through the materials. 
Out away the net wherever it is not run to the mus- 
lin, and in any centres of flowers that are to be filled, 

few places. Darn these lace stitches into the net, and 
make the various tendrils and sprays by running lines 
about the net and Overcasting them. Work detached 
dots on the net. The edge is a narrow straight lino 
of Buttonhole, with a bought lace edging as a finish. 
Another variety of cambric on net is, after the cambric 
is sewn down, to put a line of Chain Stitch in coloured 
silks round it, instead of Buttonhole, and to work with 
the coloured silk instead of the embroidery cotton. The 
illustration (Fig. 15} is of fine cambric applied upon 
net. To work : Trace the design upon the cambric, and 
surround that with the very finest Buttonhole line, or 
with a line of Chain Stitch, and cut away both net 

. v. v. V .w.'' , w c/.w, W-V* . v.w: 

fa#:#:**:#:*:#:*:#:#:*:#:* v « = :=:m :wM 

»« && :•:#*#.*:©:* :*#.« ; *:«: ®# 
p ; :*:#:# :#:# ; #, f 


make Wheels. Surround the whole design with But- 
tonhole, and scallop and Buttonhole the edge, adding 
Pi COTS to enrich it. Finally untack the pattern from, 
the brown paper, and cut away the muslin foundation 
from under the not wherever the not has been left* 
and cut away both materials from under the Wheels, 
When the net is the foundation and the cambric applied, 
a lacc thread is run all around the cambric outlines 
and caught down with a finer thread firmly sewn, so 
that the cambric may not fray when cut away. The 
Buttonholing is of the lightest, but close, lacc stitches arc 
introduced in many parts of the design, hut with the net 
always retained as foundation, as that is only cut in a 

and cambric in two places ; fill in the one with a wheel, 
to form the centre of the flower, and leave the other 
entirely open. The thick filled- in part next the wheel 
make with Satin Stitch, to give solidity to the work. 
Applique Patchwork* — Sec Patchwork. 

Appret. — A French term, used to signify the stiffening 
or duping employed in the finish of calicoes and other tex- 
tiles. It is used to describe any finish to a head-dress* 
Arabesque Designs. “Patter ns in the style of the 
Arabian flat wall decorations, which originated in Egypt, 
where hieroglyphics were made a decoration for monu- 
ments and other buildings. Subsequently the idea was 
carried out by the Saracens, Moors, and Arabs, by whom 




! 3 

it was introduced into Spain ; and during tlie wars in Spain 
in Louis XIY.’s time it was adopted by the French, who 
gave the style the name Arabesque. Applique lace work is 
often executed in designs of this character. 

Arabian Embroidery. — A work executed from time 
immemorial by the Arab women, and after the conquest of 
Algeria by the French known as Ouvroir Mussulman. It 
was brought prominently to European notice some forty 
years ago, when, for the purpose of relieving the destitute 
Algerian needlewomen, Madame Lucie, of Algiers, founded 
a school in that place, and reproduced there, from good 
Arabian patterns, this embroidery. The designs, like all 
Mussulman ones, are purely geometrical, are very elaborate, 
and are done with floss silk upon muslin or cloth. They 
are worked in a frame, and when the embroidery is upon 

with gold and silver thread and floss silk upon velvet, 
satin, cashmere, or muslin, which has the peculiarity of 
presenting no wrong side, the pattern being equally good 
upon either. Like all oriental embroidery the work is 
distinguished for brilliancy of colouring, quaintness of 
design, and elaborate workmanship. Arabian embroidery 
and Algerian are of the same description. 

Areopliane, or Arophane. — A description of crape, 
but considerably thinner than the ordinary kind. It has 
been much used for bonnets, trimmings, and quillings, and 
also for ball dresses. It is made in most colours, and is 
cut, like crape, on the bias, width 27 inches. See Crape. 

Argentan Point. — Although the date of the com- 
mencement of lace-making in Argentan is unknown, as 
its manufactory is mentioned in the Colbert Corre- 


muslin, only Satin Stitch is used; when executed upon 
cloth the design is traced upon the material, and all centres 
and fillings laid down with floss silk in a long satin stitch 
across the whole space, while over this foundation, wide 
apart, satin stitches in floss are taken at right angles to 
those first embroidered. These upper satin stitches are 
stitched or couched down to the material by securing 
threads that are taken right through the material, and this 
couching has to be executed with great precision and neat- 
ness. When the centres and thick parts are filled they 
are surrounded with Chain-Stitch outlines, and all stalks, 
tendrils, &c., are also done in chain stitch. The Arabian 
embroidery brought to England consists chiefly of the orna- 
mental towels worn by Arab women on their heads when 
going to the baths, and these towels make excellent chair- 
backs. Besides this work there is another kind embroidered 

spondence, we may conclude it was established about the 
same time as that of Alen^on, and probably by some 
workers from that town. No royal edict protected it until 
1708, but the lace obtained a good market, and rivalled, in 
some ways, that produced at Alenin. The two laces are 
often confounded together, and frequently sold as of the 
same manufacture, but they differ in many points, though 
both are needlepoints, and the only needlepoints produced 
in France. The patterns of the Argentan lace (Fig. 1G) 
are bolder than those of Alen^on, and are in higher relief, 
the fillings are less fanciful and much thicker, retaining 
much of the close buttonhole of Yenice point; but the 
great difference between the laces lies in their grounds, 
that called grand bride being almost essentially Argentan. 
It was made by first forming a six-sided mesh with the 
needle, and then covering it on all sides with buttonhole, 



the effect of which was extremely hold, and which rendered 
the lace almost imperishable. This ground was also called 
bride ep ingle, and was marked out upon the parchment 
pattern., and pins put in upon every side to form the 
meshes exactly the same size throughout. Besides this, 
grand bride, the bride picotee and the plain bride were 
made at Argcntart, and from old patterns recently dis- 
covered at the same period. The art of making these 
brides grounds died out when the reseau, or net -patterned 
ground, took their place; but the lace flourished during the 
reigns of the Louis, and was only extinguished at the 
revolution, since which period efforts have been made to 
re-establish it, but without success, the peasantry having 
turned their attention to embroidery, Iu the old bills of 
lace Argentan is mentioned with Brussels and Alenpon, 
and Madame du Barry, in 1772, gave 5740 francs for a set 
of it. At present it only exists as specimens, so much of 
it having been destroyed, and as it is no longer manu- 
factured, its price is large, and only limited by the collector’s 
eagerness* For grounds see Aletc^ON Grquxls* 

Argontella Point, — A needle -made lace, of which 
but few specimens remain, and at. one time considered to be 
of Genoese origin, but lately found to be a variety of 
Alcn^on* The beauty of this lace consists in a reseau 
ground resembling the Mayflower ; the pattern of the 
lace is simitar to A ten 90m 

Armazine, or Arrnozeen. — The name is derived from 
the French Armosin. It is a strong make of thick plain 
black corded silk, a kind of taffeta, employed for scholastic 
gowns, and for hatbands and scarves at funerals. It is 
24 inches in width. From the time of Queen Elizabeth to 
that of George III. it was used for women’s dresses and 
men’s waistcoats* 

Armorial Bearings *' — See Heraldic Devices* 

Armure.— This is a silk textile ; plain, striped, ribbed, 
or with a small design* Sometimes it is made of wool and 
silk. There is also Satin Armure and Armure Bosphore, 
this latter being a reversible material. The width run from 
22 to 24 inches. Armure is a French term apidied to either 
silk or wool, signifying a small pattern* 

Armure Victoria. — A new and exceedingly delicate 
textile, semi-transparent, and made of pure wool, designed 
for summer or evening dresses. It is manufactured in 
Paris, on special steam power looms, and lias delicate 
patterns woven in the cloth, which is black, and without 
lustre, wdience it has been given the name Armure by 
its French manufacturers* The width of this beautiful 
material is 44 inches, and the price varies from 5s, to 
tis* 6d« a yard. It is especially suited for mourning* 

Arras, — In the capital of Artois, in the French Nether- 
lands, one of the first looms was set up for weaving 
tapestries, and hence the word Arras became a common 
term for tapestry, and was applied to needle-made and 
loom -made tapestries indiscriminately. It is mentioned in 
Shakespeare’s Hamlet, 

Arras, — A lace made at Arras of the same description 
as that made at Lille and Mirecourt, hut generally known 
as Lille lace. The factory was established in the latter 

part of the seventeenth century, and flourished until 1804* 
At present the lace made at Arras, though white and 
of good texture, canuot compete with that of Lille and 
Mirecourt, as the lace makers introduce no new designs, 
and are content with the simplest patterns. For illustra- 
tion and description, see Lille Lace* 

Arras ene. — A kind of woollen, and likewise of silk 
chenille, employed for the purpose of embroidery. The 
wool is coarse, and the needle used has a large eye, 
Arras ene of both kinds is sold by the ounce* The centre 
cord of the arras ene is visible through the wool or silk 

Arrasene Embroidery- — A variation of Chenille em- 
broidery of recent invention, and suitable for curtain borders, 
mantel borders, parasol covers, and other posi lions where 


tbc pile of the Arrasene is not injured by friction. Materials : 
Arrasene either of wool or silk, No. 1 Chenille needles, can- 
vas, velvet, silk and serge* To work upon velvet or silk : 
Stretch the material in a frame and apply the Arrasene as 
in canvas work in Text Stitch* Use short strands of 
Arrasene, and draw them backwards and forwards through 
the material without twisting. The chief part of the design 
work with the wool Arrasene, the silk use to indicate the 
bright lights, and work the fine lines of a flower or leaf in 
ordinary embroidery silks. Some workers prefer to treat the 
Arrasene as Chenille, and lay it along the surface, catching 
it down as in Co u chi Ha, hut the few shades that can be em- 
ployed in ibis manner of working detract from its beauty. 
Arrasene can be worked upon serge and canvas without a 
frame ; the material is then held in the band, a Chenille 
needle used, and the work executed in Stem or Crewel 
Stitch. "When so done, great care is necessary in passing 
the Arrasene through the material so that it lies with its 
pile uppermost, and does not show the woven centre line 
from which the soft edges proceed* Broad and velvety effects 





are obtainable from Arrasene embroidery, and it is capable 
of good art work, as it gives scope for individual taste. 
Arras ene is not suitable for a background; these are made 
either of solid material or in Tent Stitch, To work Fig, 17: 
A group of forget- me- nots, worked upon a deep russet red 

Arrasene. After the embroidery is completed, lay it face 
downwards on a cloth, and pass a warm iron over the back 
of tbe work. 

Arrow Stitch. — So called from the slanting position of 
the threads forming it. Identical with Stem Stitch. 


ground of cloth. Work the forget-me-nots with two shades 
of pale blue silk Arrasene, and fill in their centres with 
maize Arrasene; work the leaves and stalks with three 
shades of subdued greens in wool Arrasene, and the orna- 
mental border surrounding the flowers in two shades of 
russet red colour, lighter than the ground, and of wool 

Art Embroidery or ITeedlework,— A name recently 
introduced as a general term for all descriptions of needle- 
work that spring from the application of a knowledge of 
design and colouring, with skill in fitting and executing. 
It is either executed by the worker from his or her design 
or the patterns are drawn by a skilled artist* and mueh 



individual scope in execution and colouring is required 
from the embroiderer. The term is chiefly used to denote 
Inlaid and On laid Applique, embroidery in silk and 
crewels for ordinary domestic purposes, and embroidery 
with gold, silver, and silk, for church work ; but there is 
no limit to its application. 

Artificial Flowers —See flowers employed in mil* 
linery and evening dress, and in room decoration. 

Asbestos. — A mineral substance, of a fibrous texture, 
of which there are several varieties; all alike resisting 
the action of fire. It is found in this country, in 
Canada, India, and various parts of Europe \ the best 
being that obtained in Italy. The lumps of fibre require 
much soaking in water to separate them; and when 
moistened with oil and mixed with cotton, the filaments 
are spun and woven into cloth, and the latter subsequently 
fired to consume the oil and cotton. Thread, ropes, net, 
millboard, and flooring felt are likewise made of it, and 
woven sheeting, or I£ packing,” and tape, are both pro- 
duced in combination with indiarubber* The Italian 
Asbestos cloth (or packing) is sold in continuous rolls, 
up to 50yds. in length, and 36 inches or 40 inches wide, 
or else in sheets 1 yard or 40 inches square. The tape 
is sold in 50 feet or 100 feet rolls, from f inch to 
inches wide. The cloth is employed for suits of clothing 
for the use of furnace and firemen* 

Astrakhan Fur. — This fur is the wool of the sheep of 
the Russian province of Astrakhan, It is of a greyish 
brown, and is dyed black. It is erroneously supposed to 
be of two descriptions, one of the sheep and the other of 
the dog ; hut no furrier sells dog fur. It is also confounded 
with the curly wool of the Persian Iamb, which is of a 
much softer and finer quality, and far more costly. The 
skins measure from about 12 by 14 Inches, and are valued 
in London at from Is, to 5s, Imitations of this fur are 
also made for trimmings, and are generally sold at from 
3s. to 4s. a yard. 

Attachments.—' The adjuncts of the sewing machine, 
intended to serve various purposes, such as quilting, 
hemming, tucking, gauging, felling, buttonholing, binding, 
and braiding, &c. These names vary with different 
makers, as well as the method of their employment* Every 
one purchasing a sewing machine should take the trouble 
to become thoroughly acquainted with the attachments; 
the most simple in their application will be found the best. 
They are as follow: the tuck marker, spindle, cradle, or 
boat- shaped shuttle, which holds the bobbins (or spools), 
the bobbins, braider, bemmer, quitter, needles, and needle 
wrencker, screwdriver, spanner, and oilcan. To this 
list may be added tf The English Embroiderer and Fancy 
Worker,” a recently invented appliance of the sewing 
machine. Oriental and other artistic work may be pro- 
duced by it— embroidery with gold and silver thread, 
beads, and jet bugles ; and on net, to produce lace ; also 
with wool, worked on canvas, for mats and rugs. The 
yarn is arranged on hooks, according to the design 
required, and then sewn down. 

Attalea Cloth, — A washing material, much employed 

for the trimming of sailors 1 suits. It is twenty- seven 
inches in width. 

An Fuseau. — A term given to Roseau grounds w T hon 
used in Pillow Lace making. See Reseau and Pillow 

An Pass 6. —A flat Satin Stitch, worked across the 
material, with no raised foundation, This stitch Is also 
called Point Passe, Long Stitch and Satin Stitch, It 
is used In all kinds of embroidery upon linen, silk, satin, 
and velvet, and is much employed in church work* Any- 
thing that can be threaded through a needle will embroider 
in Au Passe. In Pig. 18 is given an illustration of embroi- 
dery upon silk, In which Au Passe forms the chief stitch, 
surrounded in some places by a border of Stem or Crewel 
Stitch ; in others it forms its own outline, hut in all cases 
follows the curves and lines of the arabesque fruit and 
foliage it delineates; Point de Riz is the other stitch 
used in this pattern. The following illustration (Fig. 10), 

Fig* 19. AU PASSE, 

represents a group of flowers embroidered in Au 
Pass 6, with coloured silks upon satin ; it should be worked 
in a frame, and the satin backed with muslin. To work : 
The materials required are— a silk or satin foundation, and 
embroidery silks ; colours — shades of olive green, art blues, 
and yellow pinks, with gold thread. Make the stitch by 
bringing the needle from back of the frame np in the 
centre of the leaf or inner part of petal, and putting it 
hack again at the outer side. These long stitches must 
follow the curves of the leaf or flower. 

Auriphrygium “The earliest term applied to the gold 
fringes that bordered the garments of the ancients, and 
that are supposed to have given the idea of lace. The 
Phrygian embroiderers in gold and silver were world-famed, 
and hence the word, though the work was not necessarily 
executed by them. Canon Brock derives the more modern 
lt Orphrey” from Aurifrisia and Auriphrygia, and considers 
that these borders to cope or alb were the combined work 
of goldsmith and embroiderer, 



Austrian Pillow Lace. — At Vienna, in 1880, the 
Austrian Government opened a lace school partly to 
relieve the distress prevalent in Erzgebirge in the 
Tyrol, and partly to improve the manufacture. The 
lace made is an imitation of old Italian Pillow Lace, 
and the school is flourishing. 

Ave Maria Lace.— A narrow kind of Valenciennes 
lace, made at Dieppe, and go designated by the peasants. 

Fia* SO* Ave Maria Lace. 

The ground is a plaited ground, and the border a Cloth 
Stitch, with the threads running all the way* The waved 
line beyond the plaited ground is made with threads, 

Fia. 21 . Ave Maria Pattern* (Pricked Pattern for Fig* 20)* 

which are cut where not required (Fig* 20)* The pricked 
pattern, as shown in Fig, 21, will indicate the manner of 
working. For stitches, see Valenciennes. 


Baby Lace. — An English Pillow Lace, formerly made in 
Bedfordshire and Buckinghamshire, and called English 
Lille, from its patterns being the same as those of Lille 
(which see}* The name Baby Lace was given, as, on 
account of the narrow width of the lace, it was chiefly 
used for trimming babies* caps* 

Babylonian Embroidery.—' The art of embroidery is 
believed to have been first known to the Phrygians, and 
from them imported into Egypt and India, Even before 
the time of Moses, embroidery was known to the Medcs and 
Persians and to the Egyptians, and the work executed at 
Babylon was celebrated throughout the then known world* 
This Babylonian work maintained its pre-eminence until 
the end of the first century after Christ, when it gave way 
before that of other countries* Josephus mentions that the 
veils of the Temple were of Babylonian work Pliny cele- 
brated the Assyrian embroideries, and Hetellus Seipio 
reproached Caesar for his luxury in having furniture covered 
with it, although a kind of embroidery had been known in 
Rome in the time of Aristotle, 325 me. It was the thick- 
ness and richness of the embroidery, not the materials 
used, that made the work prized. This embroidery by 
hand must not he confounded with the cloths of divers 
colours that the Babylonians excelled in weaving. 

Backing*— A method of strengthening Applique and 

other embroideries when the materials applied are not of 
the same texture and strength as the foundations they 
are to be laid upon. Backing is necessary for cloth of gold 
and silver, satin, silk, broeatines, and other slight materials, 
when they are to he laid upon heavy backgrounds* - When 
velvet has to be richly embroidered it should he backed like 
other materials ; when only laid upon ground work, it will 
be sufficient to back it with very fine linen or even tissue 
paper* To back : Unbleached linen and fine holland are 
the usual hacking materials; stretch these in an em- 
broidery frame, and firmly and evenly strain them. 
Then trace out, upon the wrong side of the framed holland, 
outlines of all the various pieces required* These pieces 
of the pattern need not be arranged with any symmetry, 
but all should go the same way of the etufE they are 
to be cut from, and sufficient space left between them 
to allow of a good margin* The holland being stretched, 
paste the material on to it* When cloth, serge, and plush 
are being backed with holland, they are made to adhere by 
paste, made as follows ; Take three tablespoonfuls of flour, 
and as much powdered resin as will lie on a shilling* Mix 
them smoothly with half-a-pint of water, pour into an iron 
saucepan, and stir till it boils* Let it boil five minutes, 
and use cold* The cold paste is evenly laid over the 
holland on the right side, and the material laid upon it 
back downwards, and smoothed and pressed .with a soft 
cloth to the holland. It should be allowed to dry gradually, 
and no haste used in commencing to cut out. To cut out, 
follow the lines traced at the back of the holland, and use 
a very sharp pair of scissors. Never go beyond the traced 
lines on the inside, rather keep a little on the outer side of 
them. Foundations arc backed as above without the cut- 
ting out* 

Background or Darned Embroidery .— See Darned 

Back Stitch.— Knitting term, indentical with Pearl, 
Rib, Seam, and Turh. See Pearl. 

Back Stitch.— In making a running, a stitch is taken 
back into the material beyond where the thread was last 
drawn through, after the manner of stitching ; but this 
method of strengthening a running is only adopted from 
every second stitch to greater intervals, as may he deemed 
expedient, in plain sewing* 

Back Stitch*— It is identical with Hem Stitch, and 
is used for embroidery and Berlin wool work* Illustrated 
(Fig* 22). See Hem Stitch. 

Back Stitch Embroidery.— One of the simplest 
kinds of work* Trace the design upon fine leather, silk, 
satin, cloth, or linen materials, and then follow it with 
Back Stitch round every line ; no filling in of pattern 
is necessary, as the work is done in outline* Illustrations 
(Figs* 22, 23) show the hack stitching upon leather and 
upon silk, and are good samples of this kind of em- 
broidery. This work is now often done with the sewing 
machine, and can he brought by this means to great 

Baden Embroidery* — A species of Appliqttje of 
modem invention* The design is traced upon one 
material, sewn to another, and the edges worked round 




with Chain Stitch. The peculiarity of the work consists 
in the stitches worked on to connect the design to the 
background after the former has been attached by the 
Chain Stitches and the 
super duo us material cut 
away. The stitches used 
are any long irregular 
kinds, the most effective 
are wide Herringbone, 

Double Coral, Fea- 
the a, and Satin Stitc i i . 

The spiky and irregular 
lines of these stitches 
blend the two materials 
used in the embroidery 
together. For the back- 
ground and pattern ma- 
terials, oatmeal cloth of 
all shades, red and blue 
T u rkey twi 1 Is, and sateen s 
are employed ; for the 
embroidery, flourishing 
thread, ingrain cottons, 
unbleached flax Luxem- 
burg thread, and while 
flosette , T he mo s t eff ec * 
tive patterns are made 
with dark blue laid on a 
red ground, or red upon 
ecru gro ends. To work : 

Upon a piece of blue 
twill, or oatmeal cloth, 
trace an outline de- 
sign of a conventional 
flower spray, such as a 
sunflower and its leaves. 

Lay this piece of cloth, 
without cutting it. On to 
some red Turkey twill, 
and tack both together. 

With blue ingrain cot- 
ton, or white flourishing 
thread, work in Chain 
Stitch round all the 
outlines of the pattern, 
and mark out the divi- 
sions between petals and 
the veining of leaves m 
the same way. Stitch 
the two materials to- 
gether with the Chain 
Stitches, Cut away 
from beyond the out- 
lines of the pattern the 
superfluous upper ma- 
terial and the centres 
of the sunflowers; but 
leave enough margin to 
prevent the material 

frayingout. Work stems, 2 %. Bics &mcu Emhuouje&t* 

tendrils, and light sprays on the background in Crewel 
Stitch, Work cross bars in Chain Stitch in the centres 
of the sun flowers, and fill their spaces up with French 
Knots, Work all round every outline of the pattern 
with wide and pointed Herring LONE; work the stitch 
half on the pattern and half on the background. 

Bagging, — The fabrics employed for the purpose of 
bag making comprise baize (green, blue, and black), black 
and unbleached linen (or boll and), American cloth, gutta- 
percha, oiled silk, black alpaca, calico prints, twine, plaited 
rushes, leather, canvas, and coarse sacking. 

Baize. — Possibly derived from base r of little value* A 
coarse, open-made woollen stuff, or flannel, Laving a long 
nap, and faced like a Lancashire flannel. First introduced 
into England by the Flemings, It is generally dyed green, 
bine, or red, but it can be obtained in other colours. It is 
used for linings, cuttings, floorcloths, bags, Ac,, and is 
made m various widths, from one yard to two* A superior 
quality has latterly been made which is employed for table- 

Balayeuse, or Sweeper.— A French term to signify the 
frilling of material or lacc which lines the extreme edge of 
a dress skirt to keep the train clean as it sweeps along the 
floor* The balayeusc is allowed to project beyond the edge 
of the dress, so as to form a decorative as well as a useful 


Baleine— The French word for whalebone, employed in 
the stiffening of stays and dresses. It is sold in strips of 
Hyd* in length, and is also to be had ent into short 
lengths ready for the dressmakers* use. It is sold by the 
gross sets. That designed for stay makers is cut into suit- 
able lengths, which varies between 3-IGths and 11 inch* 
It is sold by the pound* 

Bale rin o. — This is otherwise called a Balayeuse, or 
Sweeper (which sce)w It is a frilling of material, muslin, 
or lace, either in white or black, sewn under the edge of 
a dress skirt to preserve it from wearing out, and from 
being soiled from sweeping the floor. 

Ball Cottons* — These include the 2 drachm balls for 
tacking, and the ioz. balls for sewing, together with smaller 
ones for marking cither red or blue. Some crochet cotton 
and Maltese thread are also wound in balls, occasionally 
: taking the shape of eggs* 

Balls. — Useful for using up skeins of wool left from 
single Berlin work, and made either with knitting or upon 
card. To make in Knitting, use pins 11, and colours 


either 3, 6, or 9, as 18 sections make up the Ball, and the | 
colours are repeated. Cast on 39 stitches, and work in the 
Brioche Stitch, Knit 1 row, and for the 2nd row Knit all ; 
but three stitches, leaving these on the needle, and putting | 
in a white thread where left as a marker. Turn the work 
and Knit back until the 3 end stitches on that row are 
reached; leave these unknit, and mark as in 2nd row; con- 
tinue to Knit, leaving each row with 3 stitches unknit on 
the needle, and carrying the marking thread along until 
the two threads come within 3 stitches of each other in 
the centre, and 7 distinct ridges appear on each pin. Turn 
and Knit all the stitches up, putting in a new colour for 
last stitch ; continue to work in tln3 way until the 18 sec- 
tions are made, then cast off, draw up one end of the ball, 
and sew up the side; stuff the ball with shreds of wool, and 
sew up the last end. Larger Balls may be made by in- 
creasing the number of stitches Cast on, taking care that 
they divide by three ; or smaller ones by decreasing. To 
make Balls of skeins of wool, cut 2 circles of cardboard 
with a hole in the centre. For a Ball 4 inches in diameter 
the cardboard should be 6 inches round, and centre hole 
1£ inch ; for a 3-inch Ball the cardboard should be 5 
inches round, and the hole in the centre 1.1 inch. Place 
the two cardboards together, and wind your wool tightly 
round them until the centre hole is filled up ; then cut the 
wool at the outer edge with sharp and large scissors, and 
pass a piece of fine, but strong, twine between the two card- 
boards, knotting it strongly ; then cut the cardboard away 
and snip the wool with scissors until it is fluffy and the 
ball quite circular in shape. 

Ball Silks. — Principally prepared for Knitting purposes, 
and include the French, Swiss, Chinese, and Imperial, &c. 

Ball Wools. — These are prepared either for Crochet or 
Knitting, and are well known under the names of Rabbit, 
Orkney, Bonne Mere, French Pompadour, Connaught, and 
Burmah, & c. Besides these there are the crewels and the 
eis wool, in plain and parti-colours, tinselled, coral, &c. 

Balzorine or Balzarine. — A French name for a light 
mixed material, composed of cotton and worsted; manu- 
factured for women’s dresses. It was succeeded by Barege, 
which superseded it likewise in public favour. It measures 
40 inches in width. 

Bandana Handkerchiefs. — Indian washing silk hand- 
kerchiefs, having white or coloured spots or diamonds on a 
red, yellow, blue, or dark ground. They were a yard square, 
and were both plain and twilled, and kept their colours to 
the last. Other patterns have long been introduced into 
their manufacture, and they are extensively imported plain 
and printed to this country, being solely manufactured for 
export to the United Kingdom. Imitation Bandanas are 
largely made in England and elsewhere, but are mostly 
composed of cotton. They can now be purchased by the 
yard, and are made into dresses, aprons, and caps. 

Bande. — A French term for the English name, Band. 
Employed by dressmakers, and applied to any kind of 
material. See Bands. 

Bandeaux. — French. A term to denote arrangements 
of flowers or other materials in bands as a sort of diadem 
headdress. It is a term employed by milliners. 


Bandoulidre. — A French term to signify a scarf worn 
over one shoulder and under the other. 

Bands. — (French Bandes .) A term employed to denote 
a strip, more or less narrow, of any material used in the 
making of any garment or other article, whether necessary 
to its completion or merely decorative, and whether of the 
same material or of another. Thus there are waist, neck, 
and wrist Bands, and Bands of insertion embroidery let 
into underclothing, and infants’ dresses. In making linen 
Bands, the stuff should be cut by the thread, having pre- 
viously drawn out a single strand. Bands may be made 
of either bias or straight material ; if of the latter, they 
should be cut down the selvedge, as being the strongest 
way of the stuff. Bias Bands are sometimes used for the 
necks of dresses, but are more especially in vogue for 
trimmings, being sown on both sides with the sewing 
machine. Great care is requisite in cutting them at an 
exact angle of 45 degrees. The waist-bands of dress skirts 
are sometimes of Petersham, a strongly-made ribbon 
(which see). Bands sometimes require to be stiffened, in 
which case buckram, or stiff muslin, is used to back them. 

Band Work. — A term used in Needle-made Laces to 
denote the open and fancy stitches that fill in the centres 
of lace. The word is identical in its meaning with Fillings, 
Jours, Modes. The different stitches filling in these spaces 
are named after various laces, and described under their 
own headings. The illustrations are 
of two handwork stitches, and are 
worked as follows : Fig. 24. — Work 
three rows of thirty-three close Button- 
hole, as a foundation. First row — work 
15 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 15 close. 

Second row — 12 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 
3, miss 3, work 12. Third row — 9 Button- 
hole, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 3, miss 
3, work 9. Fourth row— 6 Buttonhole, 
miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, 
work 3, miss 3, work 6. Fifth row — 9 
Buttonhole, miss 3, work 3, work 9, 
miss 3, work 9. Sixth row — 6 Button- 
hole, miss 3, work 15, miss 3, work 6. 

Work two rows of close Buttonhole, and repeat the pattern 
from first row. In Fig. 25, commence first pattern with 
three plain rows. First row — work 6 Buttonhole, miss 3, 
work 3, miss 3, work 9, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 6. 
Second row — 9 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 9, miss 3, work 3, 
miss 3, work 9. Third row — 6 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 3, 
miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 
6. Fourth row — 15 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 
3, miss 3, work 9. Fifth row — 6 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 3, 
miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 12. Sixth row 
— 9 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, 
work 15. Seventh row — 6 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 3, miss 
3, work 3, miss 3, work 18. Eighth row — 15 Buttonhole, 
miss 3, work 6, miss 3, work 12. Ninth row — G Buttonhole 
miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work G, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 
9. Tenth row — 9 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 12, miss 3, work 
12. Eleventh row — 6 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 
24. Work one row all Buttonhole, and repeat. The second 
pattern (Fig. 25) is worked thus : First row — 21 Buttonhole, 

D 2 

Fig. 24. 
Band Work. 



miss 3, work 15, Second row — miss 3, 3 Buttonhole, miss 3, 
work 12, mi sa 3, work 3, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 3, 
mss 3. Third row — 3 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 12, miss 3, 
work 3, miss 3 S work 3, miss 3, work 3. Fourth row — miss 

Fig, 25, Band Wore. 

3, Buttonhole 3, miss 3, work 6, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, 
work 9, miss 3, work 3, miss 3. Fifth row — 12 Buttonhole, 
miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 21, Sixth, row — miss 3, 3 
Buttonhole, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 15, miss 3, work 
3, miss 3. Seventh row— 3 Buttonhole, miss 3, work 6, 
miss 3, work 21, miss 3, work 3. Eighth row — miss 3, 3 
Buttonhole, miss 3, work 18, miss 3, work 3, miss 3, work 
3, miss 3. Repeat the pattern from first row. In the illus- 
tration the open spaces are white, and the Buttonhole 
stitches black, as they are easier for the worker when so 

Bar* — The connecting .threads thrown across spaces in 
all Needle-point Laces, whether imitation or real, and known 
as Brides, Bride Claires, Coxcombs, Pearls* Legs, and Ties, 

These threads are ar- 
ranged so that they con- 
nect the various solid 
parts of the lace to- 
gether, and are made by 
passing two or three 
strands across, and either 
cording them or covering 
them closely with But- 
tonhole, Bars can be 
made of any form, the 
ones shown in Fig. 26 
being intended to fill in a large space, and to form a 
kind of wheel* To work: Throw a thread across from 
G to H, Co k b this back to I, then take it to J, L, N, 
& c*, and cord it hack half way again until B is reached, 
when Cord the centre all round, and fasten the thread oh 
at G. 

Bar. — In Honiton and Pillow Laces, make these either 
by rolling the top bobbins round and round, drawing one 
up through the pinhole, passing a bobbin through the loop 
lower end first, and drawing up the loop, or else by work- 
ing in Cloth Stitch, when no pins arc required, except 
where Pin Work: is added. 

Bar, — Portions of the pattern of Macrame* Made of 
one to three threads, according as single, double, or treble 
Bar is required, and consisting of a succession of Ma- 
crame Knots w T orkcd alternately over right and left- 
hand threads. The number of knots depends upon the 

length of Bar required, nine knots being tbc usual length 

Bar.— Derived from the old English word harre t the 
Welsh tar, French barre. A term in plain work to signify 
the sewing made, in Buttonhole Stitch, across a buttonhole 
to prevent its being torn. See Buttonhole Stitch. 

Barathea. — A mixture of silk and worsted, with a 
diaper dike appearance. It is about 42 inches wide, and 
is used for mourning. This is one of the new designa- 
tions under which bombazine is now known. There is a 
variety called Barathea cloth, a soft, durable, woollen 
textile, having a small diaper pattern. It is 24 inches in 
width. There is also a fancy Barathea, having a crape 
ground and brocaded spots, and a diagonal Barathea, 
which is woven with fancy stripes. The woollen kinds 
measure 42 inches in width. 

Barcelona Kerchiefs.— So called from the Spanish 
province from which they originated. At present they are 
all made in England, and are of four kinds — in black, 
plain colours, checks, and fancy. The black measure from 
26 inches square to seven quarters. Turban checks used 
originally to be made for head-dresses. They measure 
about 20 inches square. 

Barcelona Lace. — This stitch is used in ancient 
Needle-point and in Modern 
Point. To make : First row — 
work 4 Buttonhole Stitches 
close together, then miss the 
space that would take 4 more, 
and make 4 others, leaving a' 
loop between the close stitches ■ 
continue until the end of the 
row. Second row — work 3 But- 
tonholes into the loops left in last row, and make loops 
under the close work of that row. These two rows, 
worked alternately, form the lace. See Fig* 27, 

Barege. — A name derived from the valley so called 
in the Pyrenees, where the textile was first manufac- 
tured in the village of Arosons. It is now chiefly made 
at Bagneres di Bigorre. It is a kind of gauze, composed 
of silk and wool, or else of wool only, in warp and woof; 
and at first made in all colours. It has been called by 
many names as the manufacture has improved — such as 
woollen gauze, woollen grenadine, Slc * The width of the 
material is 26in, The Bareges made in Paris have a warp 
of silk. Cheap sorts are made with a cotton warp* 

Barege Yarn.— A hand-spun yam employed in manu- 
facture of a very fine gauze cloth, aud chiefly for men's 
veils. The seat of industry is at Rheims, in France, 

Barnsley Crash, or Linen. — A name indiscriminately 
used to denote the narrow crash employed for round towels. 
For the latter it is made in four different widths, viz., from 
16 inches up to 25 inches. See Crash* 

Barnsley Linens. — A description of linen especially 
made for the purpose of embroidery. It is to be had both 
bleached and unbleached, and in different degrees of fine- 
ness and of width, from narrow to a double width of 
80 inches. One kind of Barnsley Linen is designated 
Brand — a brown textile, 38 inches wide, and likewise 

Fig. 26. Kails, 



made for crewel work decoration. These linens are com- 
monly, but improperly, called “ crash,” arising from the 
fact that the first examples of crewel embroidery were 
worked on crash. 

Barracan. — (Latin Barracanus , French Bouracan.) A 
coarse, thick, strong stuff, somewhat resembling camlet, 
used for external clothing. A garment made of camels’ 
hair is called in the East “ barak,” “barik ” being a camel. 
It was formerly employed for cloaks. Barracan is now 
made with wool, silk, and goats’ hair ; the warp being of 
silk and wool twisted, and the woof the hair of the Angora 
goat, when purely oriental. 

Barragon, or Moleskin. — A description of Fustian 
(which see) of a coarse quality, strong and twilled, and 
shorn of the nap before dyed. It is a cotton textile, and is 
employed for the clothing of the labouring classes of men. 
The width of this material runs to 27 inches. 

Barratee. — A silk stuff, being a variety of barathea, of 
21 inches in width. 

Basket Cloth, or Connaught. — A fancy cotton cloth, 
made after the manner of Aida Canvas, or Toile Colbert, 
the French name under which it was first introduced. It 
is employed as a foundation for Embroidery. See Aida 
Canvas and Toile Colbert. 

Basket Stitch. — One of the handsomest stitches in 
embroidery, and much used in ancient and modern 

church needlework. It is 
a variety of Couching, 
and its particular beauty 
arises from the raised ap- 
pearance given to the 
threads composing it by 
rows of whipcord or 
cotton cord laid down 
upon the foundation be- 
fore the work is com- 
Fia. 23 . Basket Stitch. menced. See COUCHING. 

Basques. — A French term, designating that part of the 
dress bodice below the waist. They may be cut in one 
piece with the bodice, or added to it, all in one piece, or 

Basqnine. — The French term to denote a bodice of a 
dress having a basque finish to it depending from the waist. 

Basse Lisse. — The French for low warp ; a term used 
in tapestry work. 

Basting, otherwise called Tacking.— -Derived from 
the old German bastan , to sew, or besten , to bind. This 
term is chiefly employed by tailors, while Tacking is used 
by women. The term is used to signify the light runnings 
made by taking up a stitch at long distances successively, 
to keep the separate portions of a garment or other article 
in position, preparatory to their being sewn together. A 
lining is said to be basted on the material for which it is 
designed. Knots may be used in Basting threads, as they 
are not for permanent use. See Tacking. 

Bath. Coating, or Dufifl. — A light cloth or baize, with 
a long nap, which is generally made in wide widths, both 
coloured and w T hite, and is used for thick flannel petticoats, 
and blankets for babies’ cots. Bath blankets are also 

made of it, embroidered at the edges. It is also used for 
men’s greatcoats. It varies in width from 48 and GO to 72 
inches. See Flannel. 

Batiste. — A description of cotton muslin, having a 
good deal of dress in it, to be had in all colours, as well as 
in white and black. Its chief use is for summer dresses, 
and it is also employed for linings and trimmings. The 
price varies with the quality, and it measures about a yard 
in width. 

Batiste. — The French name for cambric. A fine linen 
muslin made in France, in various colours, and used for 
dresses, dress linings, and trimmings; so called from its 
inventor Baptista, at Cambray, who was a linen weaver in 
Flanders in the thirteenth century; or because this fine linen 
was used to wipe the heads of young infants who had just 
received baptism. The width runs from ISin. to 36in. 

Batswing. — A thick, rough description of cloth of a 
grey colour, woven into the shape of a petticoat without a 
seam, and having only the band or the yoke, for the waist, 
and the binding to be liandsewn. This material is a 
description of Felt (which see). 

Battlemented. — A manner of embroidery upon white 
materials or ticking so as to form an indented line in imi- 
tation of the battlements that crowned ancient fortresses. 

To work, as shown in Fig. 29 : Trace the outlines of the 
design upon the material, and work in Point Russe for 
the Battlemented line. Fill in the rest of the design with 
Satin Stitch. 

Battlemented. — The ornamentation of any border of 
a garment or other article, either by means of a trimming 
laid upon it, or by cutting out the material, in the pattern 
known in architecture by that term, and forming the 
parapet of a castle or church; the open portions being 
called embrasures. 

Batuz Work. — A manner of ornamenting embroidery 
now obsolete, but much used by the earliest workers with 
the needle. It was technically known as “ silk beaten with 
gold and silver,” and was sometimes called “ hammered-up 
gold.” Batuz work was very prevalent in mediaeval times, 
and often mentioned in ecclesiastical inventories and royal 
^lils from the eleventh to the fifteenth centuries. It con- 
sisted of sewing upon silk, as a part of the pattern em- 
broidered, very thin plates of gold, silver, or silver gilt. 
These plates were frequently hammered into low relief, and 
were formed either to represent animals, flowers, or heraldic 
devices. Batuz work was largely used in England, but was 
also known on the Continent, the banner of Strasbourg 



being so ornamented. At one time in Italy these costly 
gold and silver plates were imitated with metal ones, which 
were glued, not sewn, to the material ; but the metal, not 
being pure, speedily turned black. A specimen of this 
work was seen when the tomb of Edward I. was opened in 
1774, in the quarter-foils on his robe. The lions on the 
Glastonbury cope are in hammered-up silver. 

Baum Skin Fur, or Fine Marten ( Mustela abietum). 

specimens of needlework extant in a good state of preser- 
vation, and is highly prized for the illustrations which it 
gives of the dress and customs of the times and the labour 
it must have entailed. It is 214 feet long and 20 inches 
wide, including a border top and bottom, and contains 530 
figures. The material is fine linen, which has turned brown 
with age, and the stitches are Chain and Long. It is not 
rightly tapestry, but rather embroidery with crewels, as 

— A description of sable, imported under this name from 
the forests of Germany, of which the baum is a native, and 
is distinguished from the stone marten by the yellow colour 
of the throat, while the rest of the skin is brown. When 
dyed the fur rivals in appearance that of the best sable. 
It is the wood marten of British America, and is used for 
muffs, tippets, and trimmings. See Pine Marten. 

Bayeux Tapestry. — This celebrated piece of needle- 
work is believed to have been executed by Matilda, queen of 

the material is left exposed in many parts, and the design 
indicated with Chain Stitch. Thus the faces of the figures 
are left bare, and the features rudely indicated with Chain- 
Stitch. The embroidery is in two-strand worsteds or 
crewels, and the colours of the wool limited to eight, two 
blue, two green, a buff, pink, red, and yellow. The em- 
broiderers have not attempted to give the natural colouring 
to animals, & c., frequently working a yellow or blue horse 
with legs of a widely different colour, and from the limited 

William the Conqueror, and her ladies, after the conquest 
of England, 1066. There is, however, no authentic record 
of the fact, and some maintain that it was worked by three 
Bayeux men in London during the reign of William, and 
sent by them as an offering to their native cathedral. This 
claim rests on the poorness of the materials used. Other 
authorities believe it to be the product of the twelfth, and 
not of the eleventh century. Whatever its exact origin, it is 
undoubtedly of great antiquity, and is one of the earliest 

number of colours used there is little variety in the 
shading. The original, after being for many years hung in 
Bayeux cathedral, was removed to Paris in the time of the 
first Napoleon, and is now preserved in the public library 
at Bayeux. A coloured photograph of the whole is to be 
seen in the South Kensington Museum. The work is 
divided into compartments, the subjects of wdiich are ex- 
plained by an embroidered Latin inscription and com- 
mence with Harold swearing fealty to William of Nor- 



manJy over the relics of saints, which is followed by 
Harold returning to England, the death and burial of 
Edward the Confessor in Westminster Abbey, the as- 
sumption of the crown by Harold, the landing of William, 
the battle of Hastings, and death of Harold. The border 
is chiefly occupied with grotesque animals, griffins, dragons, 
birds, except in the compartments devoted to the battle of 

Bead Mosaic Work.— This work, popular in England 
in 1855, consists in uniting together beads without any 
foundation. The beads used are large, long, transparent 
ones, variously coloured, which are formed by this process 
into hanging baskets, lamp shades, and dinner rings. 
To work : Thread the beads upon linen cotton in order as 
to colour and pattern for the first row ; in the next, and 


Hastings, where the bodies of the slain are worked instead. 
Part of this tapestry is shown in Figs. 30, 30a, 306, and 30c. 

Beaded or Jetted Stuffs. — These textiles are divided 
into two kinds, those hand-embroidered and those having 
the beads woven into the texture. The latter is an art 
newly discovered in France, and is accomplished by an 
ingenious adaptation of certain machinery. Beading was 
first applied to elastic cloths, but afterwards to silk grena- 

in all other rows, thread each bead singly, and pass the 
cotton through the bead above and beyond it in the 
preceding row. Ho * bead can be placed under this 
threaded one, so that only half the number of beads 
are used in the rows after the first one, and the 
work presents a battlemented appearance while in 
progress. Always commence the work in the centre of 
the pattern, whether the design is round or square ; and, 


dines, having stripes of brocaded velvet. These fabrics are 
exceedingly costly. 

Beading, or Bead Edge. — A simple heading for Pil- 
low Lace, and also known as Beading. To make it : Hang 
on seven pairs of bobbins and a Gimp, the latter runs 
along the Plain Edge side. Work in Cloth Stitch, 
and, at the end of each bead-head, twist the gimp twice 
round all the bobbins excepting the two pairs lying at 
the plain edge. See illustration (Fig. 31). 

one side finished, return to the middle, and from there 
work the other. The pattern is sometimes varied by 
holes or open spaces being left in the close lines; these 
manage by passing the needle and cotton through the 
same bead in a given place for several rows, with no 
beads attached. Make fringes to these pieces of bead- 
work of long loops of beads attached to the outside row 
of beads. The designs are all geometrical. Unless lined 
with velvet or other soft foundation, this work is not 



suitable for mats placed upon woodwork, as the beads 
scratch the varnish. In Germany and on the Continent, 
Mosaic Beadwork is executed with small and beautifully 
shaded beads, in designs representing flowers or land- 
scapes. These elaborate pieces of work are large, and 
are made in a frame. The lines of beads are stretched 

Fig. 31. Bead Edge. 

across the frame from right to left, and supported by 
perpendicular lines of very fine silk, which arc arranged 
close together and of a set number, and fastened tight 
to the top and bottom of the frame before the beads 
are inserted. The pattern, which is coloured and divided 
into squares like a Berlin wool pattern, clearly indicates 
the colouring of each bead in each square, and each bead 
when laid across rests between two perpendicular threads, 
not on one thread. To work: Count the number of 
squares in the work, and glue firmly to a piece of linen 
two more silk threads than there are squares. Stretch 
these threads and glue their other ends on to a second 
piece of linen, being careful to lay each thread in order 
and at even distances. Sew these prepared threads to a 
frame in an upright position. Fasten a thread of fine 
silk to the right side of the frame and thread on it a whole 
row of beads, putting the last bead on first. Lay this 
straight across the frame, so that each bead drops in 
between an upright thread. Secure the silk firmly on the 
left side, and recommence the work on the right side. 
Large pieces of work are used for fire and candle screens, 
small for bracelets. When working such narrow pieces as 
bracelets, instead of fastening the thread off every time on 
the left side, secure it firmly there and run it back through 
every bead to the right side, where fasten it before 
beginning a second line. 

Beads. — These may be had for the purposes of decora- 
tive needlework in all varieties of colour, sold by the dozen 
bunches; and also in varieties of chalk, crystal, and 
alabaster, sold by the ounce. 

Bead Watch Chains. — To form these chains, small 
shiny black beads are required, and black purse silk. A 
whole skein of silk is taken, and on to this a number of 
beads are threaded. A four chain Crochet is then worked 
and united, and rounds of double Crochet are made until 
the required length is attained, dropping, a bead into every 
stitch as it is formed. 

Bead Work. — (From the Anglo-Saxon beade , a prayer.) 
—The small globules or balls now called beads, either made 
of iron, pearl, garnet, amber, or crystal, were used as 
ornaments in pre-historic times, while glass beads were 
made almost as soon as the art of making glass was dis- 
covered. The Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans made use 
of them as ornaments, and the Druids, before the conquest 
of Britain, used annulets, or large perforated balls of 
glass, in their religious rites. The English name of bead 

came from the practice of using these strung balls for 
telling off the number of prayers recited, but this custom 
is not exclusively a Roman Catholic one, as Mahommedans 
and some heathen tribes do the same. The greater number 
of beads used in Bead work are made at Murano, near 
Yenice, but there are also manufactories in Germany and 
England. Large quantities of coarse beads are sold to the 
natives of America and Africa, for embroidering their 
garments, &c., and the taste these savages display over 
their work puts to shame that of more civilised nations. 
For a long time the beads used for needlework purposes 
were made with but a few varieties of colour, and could 
only be employed for groundings or simple patterns, as 
seen on the work of the time of Charles II. ; but, during 
the last 100 years, many additional colours and sizes 
have been manufactured, thus giving great scope for in- 
genuity in their arrangement. Thirty years ago, the art 
on the Continent was carried to great perfection, the 
beads were beautifully coloured, most minute, and worked 
as flower patterns of great delicacy. These fine beads 
are difficult to procure in England. The beads are 
generally sewn upon canvas (see Fig. 32), but cloth, fine 

Fig. 32. Bead Work. 

leather, and velvet are also used as foundations. To 
work : Attach the beads singly to all materials with fine 
waxed sewing silk, in long straight lines, with a Tent 
Stitch across two threads of the canvas on the slant. 
For patterns, use the Berlin ones, which generally con- 
sist of large or small white flowers, worked with opal 
and opaque beads for high lights, and shading from 
black to grey for the darker portions, or the same in 
golden and amber beads, shading to brown. Work the 
leaves either in beads like the flowers, or in woolwork, 
and in Cnoss Stitch; and make the groundings with 
beads of one shade, or with fine Berlin wool. The diffi- 
culty of all large pieces of Bead work is in procuring beads of 
a uniform size, as all irregularities show upon a smooth 
surface of glass. A great improvement in an art point of 
view would be gained if the patterns used in this work 
were geometrical instead of impossible florid ones, and the 
articles embroidered were of a kind suitable to the applica- 
tion of glass. The work is of a lasting kind, neither heat 
nor damp affects it, and the colours never fade, and it is 
easily cleaned with a damp sponge; therefore, with different 
execution, it could be raised from its present low position. 
Groundings in Bead work are not always attached bead by 
bead to the foundation canvas, though they are far stronger 
when so treated ; but six or eight beads are strung upon a 



thread, which is laid along a line of the canvas and caught 
down at regular distances by a thread coming from the 
hack of the material and returning to it; in fact, a species 
of Couching. The work so done is more raised and quicker 
of execution ; but is not so lasting, and, unless well done, 
the rows of laid beads are not flat. Bead work, when used 

F10. 33* Bead Turn mi no for Dresses, &c. 

as a trimming, as shown in Fig. 33, is made of flue round 
black beads, selected all of the same size. The only 
foundation required is a narrow strip of braid upon each 
side* Thread five heads together, and pass a needle 
through the centre head of the stitch above it in the pre- 
ceding row. String together twenty -two beads for the 
first row, and commence the pattern by putting a needle and 
thread, on which five heads have been strung, through 
every sixth head. 

Bead Work on Net .—' This work Is largely used for 
trimmings, and looks well executed in white or black 
bugles, as well as with fine beads of any colour* A bold 
and well- defined arabesque pattern is the best to orna- 
ment. Mark the design out upon a strip of pink calico, 
which stiffen with a paper lining, and tack net, the colour 
of the heads, firmly over it* Thread the heads singly 
upon fine sewing silk, and sew upon the net so as to fill in 
tke pattern under the net. "When finished take the net 
off the pattern, and lay a fresh piece on the design. 

Bead Work on Velvet . — For this work fine and well* 
shaped beads are required, and good velvet. The velvet is 
either stamped out with a stamping machine in scroll 
or ivy leaf patterns, or the same designs marked out 
with transfer patterns on to the material, and then cut 
out, and the fine heads thickly sewn over every part. 
The work is only used for trimmings, and is very 

Bearskin Cloth. — A coarse thick woollen cloth, with a 
shaggy nap, manufactured for the making of overcoats, 
and very durable* A variety of this material is commonly 
called Dreadnought* 

Bearskin Fuv*“(l/rsus.) The several furs of the Mack, 
brown, white, and grey hears are all employed for either 
clothing, trimmings, or rugs, &c. That of the brown, or 
Isabella hear, lias often come much into fashion in this 
country for women’s dress ; that of the black bear is made 
into military caps and accoutrements, hammer cloths, 
wrappers, and rugs; that of the grey bear is used for 
trimmings and coat linings, and so is the skin of the 

cub black bear, which, in Russia, is always very much 

Beaver Cloth.— A stout make of woollen cloth, milled, 
and compact, with only one face shorn* A kind of fus- 
tian, having a smooth surface, and resembling a West of 
England cloth, such as arc manufactured in Glouces- 
tershire (see Fustian). It is of double width* 

Beaver Fur. — (Castot Artier icawus.) This animal is a 
native of British America, as well as other parts of that 
continent. The fur Is of a chestnut brown until plucked, 
when it is of a grey colour. It is beautifully fine, soft, and 
glossy* The long hairs arc plucked from it and the surface 
cut smoothly, and It is much employed for hats, bonnets, 
muffs, tippets, cuffs, and trimmings, and also as linings, 
being warm and durable. The white fur underneath the 
body is largely exported to France, where if is employed 
for making bonnets. A medium- sized skin measures IS 
by 22 inches* The skins are imported to this country 
by the Hudson’s Bay Company. (Anglo-Saxon Be/or, 
Danish Baev or.) 

Eeaverteen. — One of the varieties of fustian. It is a 
coarse twilled cotton, manufactured with a nap, and it Is 
first dyed and then shorn. The chief seats of this manu- 
facture arc Bolton and Manchester. It was originally a 
mixture of cotton and linen, but is now made entirely 
of the former. Like all fustians it is both strong and 
durable. This material may be had In three different 
widths— 27, 48, and 54 inches* See Fustian. 

Bedford Cloth*— A description of ribbed cloth, drab 
coloured, and of great strength ; made as a dress material* 
It is a kind of Bass el cord, all wool, and is a variety of 
French woollen poplin* 

Bedford Cord. — A strong thick cloth, made for men’s 
riding breeches* It is to be had in three sizes, the large, 
medium, and fine cord. The width is 27 inches. 

Bedfordshire Lace. — Queen Catherine, of Arragon, 
is believed by some people to have introduced Pillow 
Lace making into England, and particularly into Bedford- 
shire, Buckinghamshire, and Northamptonshire; hut, 
as pins were not known in England until 1543, and 
she died in 153G, it is more probable that the lace making 
she fostered was a Necdlc-made Laee, or a coarse lace made 
with fish bones instead of pins* It seems to be pretty 
well decided that Pillow Lace was brought to England 
in Elizabeth’s reign by the French refugees from the 
persecutions of Alva (I56S), as the patterns of the old 
laces arc of Flemish origin, and the lace was often 
known as English Lille* Many pieces of it were pre- 
sented to Queen Elizabeth, who encouraged its manufac- 
ture, and, in 1060, it obtained so large a sale that a 
mark was placed upon it when exported to foreign 
countries, to distinguish it from the true Lille. The 
ground was a Roseau, and the pattern a wavy description 
differing but little from Lille Lace* The manufactory 
flourished during the whole of the seventeenth and eigh- 
teenth centuries, and the character of the lace up to the 
earlier part of the present century did not materially alter. 
The Regency Feint is a specimen of a more complicated 



kind of Bedfordshire Lace witli a thick edge (see illustra- 
tion, Fig. 31), and was much made in the first part of the 


nineteenth century, hut was succeeded by lace of plaited 
instead of Roseau grounds, with raised patterns more 
resembling the old Maltese Laces than the Lille, and this 
last lace has destroyed the hands of the workers for the 
more delicate kinds. The demand for white lace having 
failed of late years, black lace is now taking its place ; but 
the lace makers are so wretchedly paid for their work, that 
few are now learning the art, although specimens of the 
lace have been sent to the English exhibitions, and 
received praise from the judges, it, however, being re- 
marked by them, that English lace failed in elegance 
and beauty when compared to those of foreign manufac- 
tories, and seemed rather to arrest by the apparent amount 
of labour bestowed upon it, than by the just lines of 
ornament and delicacy of design. 

Bed Lace. — A description of binding, of white cotton, 
twilled or figured, and employed for binding dimities. It 
is likewise made in chintz colours, and in a diamond 
pattern for furniture prints, and striped with blue for 
bed ticking and palliasses. It is sold by the gross in 
two pieces of 72 yards each. 

Beggars’ Lace. — A name given 
of Torchon, made at Guese. It 
was made in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and was so called ns it 
was cheap and easily executed. 

It is now obsolete. 

Beginner’s Stem.— In noni- 
ton and other Pillow Laces.* this 
stem is formed by plaiting to- 
gether the threads that have been 
used to form detached leaves 
and flowers. To make: Divide 
into three the number of bob- 
bins that have been employed 
in the leaf, and then plait these together for a short dis- 
tance, so as to form a stem to the leaf. The illustra- 
tion (Fig. 35) shows a finished leaf w T itk its threads thus 
plaited up as a finish. 

Beige, or Bege. — A French term to denote wool in its 
natural state. Beige is made of undyed wool, is an ex- 
tremely soft textile, graceful in draping, and employed lor 
morning and out-door wear. This material measures from 
25 to 28 inches in width. There is a description of this 
textile, called Snowflake Beige, of a neutral ground, hairy 
in texture, to be had in grey-brown, light green, and drab ; 
the wool being interwoven with threads of silk of a 
brightly contrasting colour. 

Belgian Laces. — These include Brussels Lace, Mechlin, 
Antwerp, and Yalcnciennes, and all the varieties executed 
in the neighbouring towns. The manufacture of lace in 
Belgium dates back to the fifteenth century, and by some 
is considered to have been made there before the Italian 
laces. The making of lace in Belgium still continues, and 
is a flourishing trade. The chief employment is Pillow 
Lace making, with the exception of the modem needle 
Brussels Point Gaze, and at present the grounds are 
made of machine net, and the patterns on the pillow. See 
Antwerp, Brussels, Mechlin, and Valenciennes 

Belgian Tapestry. — A very stout handsome new cloth, 
to be had in every colour. It is made of jute, or with a 
mixture of linen, at the Glasgow jute manufactories, 
although given a foreign name. It has designs in colours, 
and is 52 inches in width. It is employed for covering 
furniture, and for hangings of all kinds. 

Belgian Ticking. — These cloths are composed of linen 
and cotton, are stout, have a satin face, and are 64 inches 
in width. They are manufactured in various colours and 
patterns for purposes of upholstery, and especially for 

Belgravian Embroidery. — This is a modern nauie 
given to braid and bugle work. Patterns of leaves, &c., 
are traced upon braid, and filled in with solid masses of 
bugles fastened to the braid w T ith filoselle. The braid 
may be cut to represent leaves, with edges Overcast or 
turned down and then bugled. For trimmings this is 
handsomer than when the braid is left as a straight edge. 
To work : Take a piece of broad braid, lay over it an open 
design of leaves (such as ivy leaves) and their stems, and 
cut out the braid to that. Overcast over the raw edges 
of the braid, then cover every part of it over with bugles 
stitched firmly down. 

Bell Pattern. — This is a design for a sleeve trimming, 
and is made of Damascene Lace. This lace is a modem 
adaptation of Honiton Pillow Lace. Draw the pattern 
upon pink calico, then tack the sprigs (which are bought 
ready made) into position, and run on the braid, which is 
either made on the pillow or by machine. Wherever the 
braid touches another piece of braid in its various curves 
Overcast the two together, and Overcast the whole out- 
side edge. Nothing now remains to be done but to tack 
on a lace edging as a finish, and to connect the sprigs to 
the braid. Do this by means of Corded Bars and 
Wheels of various shapes, as shown in Fig. 36. For full 
description, see Damascene Lace. 

Belt. — (Anglo-Saxon Belt.) Derived from the Latin 
balteu8 , a girdle. The Belt may be made of leather, ribbon, 

to a braid lace, a species 

Fiq. 35. BiGiKKEh’s Stem. 




silk, satin, or velvet, or of the material of the dress with 
which it is worn, and is fastened by either a band, rosette, 
or buckle. If made to match the dress, it must be made 
with buckram or stiff linen. Cricketing Belts are worn 
by gentlemen, and form a favourite present. There are 
several ways of making them, but the most general is 
embroidery applied to webbing, leather, cloth, or flannel. 
They may be also knitted or crocheted. 

Bengal. — A thin stuff, made of silk and hair, originally 
brought from the Indian province of that name; also an 
imitation of striped muslin. 

Bengaline. — A corded silk of Indian make, and possibly 
origin, slight in texture, manufactured in all colours, con- 
sidered most appropriate for young ladies’ wear in France. 

Bengaline. — A French made silk textile, exceedingly 
soft, and made of silk and wool. It bears some resem- 
blance to poplin, but has a much larger cord, and more 
silk in its composition. Different qualities are sold, but 
they all measure 24 inches in width. 

Bengal Stripes. — A kind of cotton cloth or gingham, 
woven with coloured stripes. It was so called after the 
cottons formerly imported from Bengal, the name referring 
only to the pattern, but is also to be had in a mixture of 
linen and cotton. It resembles the French Percale and 
Millerayes (which see), but is softer, and is made of 
English cotton, or cotton and wool. The cotton stripe 
measures 34in. inches in width, and linen stripe about 24 
inches. It was first manufactured in this country at 

Bergamot. — A common description of Tapestry, pro- 
duced from goat and ox hair, mixed with cotton or hemp. 
It derives its name from Bergamo, in Italy, where it is 
supposed to have been first manufactured. 

Berlin Canvas, — Every two strands in this textile are 
drawn together, thus forming squares, and leaving open 
spaces for the wool, with which it may be embroidered. 
It is more easily counted and worked than the ordinary 
sorts, and is a great improvement upon the old Penelope 
canvas, the threads of which were woven in equal distances 
throughout, taking, of course, much more time to count 
and separate them. It may be procured in almost all 

widths and all degrees of fineness, and is usually made of 

Berlin Wool, otherwise called German Wool and 
Zephyr Merino. — Manufactured for the purpose of 
knitting and embroidery. It is to be had in two sizes, the 
single and the double. Keighley, in Yorkshire, is the chief 
scat of the manufacture, and the Wool is sold either in 
skeins or by weight. A quantity of real German Wool is 
brought into Great Britain in a raw state, and is combed, 
spun, and dyed, chiefly in Scotland, but that dyed here is 
less perfect and durable than that imported ready for use, 
excepting those dyed black, which are cleaner in working. 
The English-grown embroidery lambswool, though harsher, 
is in some respects superior, the scarlet dye quite equalling, 
if not surpassing, the German ; as also several shades of 
all the other colours and neutral tints. It is best suited 
for use on coarse canvas. Berlin or German Wool is the 
finest of all descriptions, and is produced from the fleece 
of the Merino breed of Saxony sheep, and of neighbouring 

German States. The principal seat of its manufacture into 
thread for needlework is Gotha, whence it is sent to Berlin 
and elsewhere to be dyed. Wool of the same breed of 
the Merino is largely exported from Australia and Yan 
Dieinan’s Land. Berlin Wool for embroidery may be had 
in all colours, also shaded and partridge-coloured, and in- 
grain at different prices, both by the skein and by weight. 

Berlin Work. — A modern name given to the Opus 
Pulvinarium of the ancients, and also known as Cushion 
Style and Point de Marque. Opus pulvinarium was well 
known to the Phrygians and Egyptians, and its principal 
stitch (Cross Stitch) was used in the curtains of the Taber- 
nacle. The work w T as prevalent during the thirteenth and 
following centuries, but then chiefly used for kneeling mats 
and cushions in churches, as it was more durable than 
embroidery. From this application it owed its name of 
Cushion style; but that it was not only confined to the 
baser uses is apparent in the fine example of a church vest- 
ment still left us, the Sion cope, date 1225, the border of 
which is worked in Cross Stitch upon canvas, exactly as the 
present Berlin work is done. During the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries Tent Stitch was more used than Cross 

E 2 




Stitch for this work, and it was called Canvas Work until 
the present century, when the production of Berlin coloured 
paper patterns, in 180 1, procured for it the title of Berlin 
Work, though this last name was not finally adopted until 
1820, the date of the introduction of Berlin wools, which 
took the place of the crewels, lambswools, and silks, that 
had been used up to that period. The patterns worked 
until the Berlin ones were printed were drawn directly on 
to the canvas, and the places to be coloured were painted 
in their various shades, so that but little variety could be 
marked out, and more was left to individual taste. The 
first coloured patterns upon paper were inferior in design 
and shading to the present ones, but in 1810 a printseller at 
Berlin, named Wittich, produced a series of these patterns, 
which were copies from celebrated pictures. These were 
drawn upon “ point paper ” by good artists, and cost £40 
for the original. These picture patterns were first copied in 
Tent and Tapestry Stitches and in silks, then in beads, and 
finally with Berlin wool. The Berlin wool was superior in 
texture, and ia the varieties of its dyes, to the English 
wool, but with it was introduced large- sized canvas 
and Cross Stitch, innovations that rendered the figured 
designs coarse and inartistic. These were gradually dis- 
placed by the impossible parrots, animals, and groups of 
flowers known in the present day as Berlin patterns, which 
have done so much to debase the public taste as far as 
fancy work is concerned. The work in itself is capable of 
good results, and is strong and lasting ; but when it 
degenerates into the mere copying of patterns conceived 
in defiance of all true art principles, it helps to degrade, 
and not elevate, the mind. Happily, during the last 
few years the public have been taught to distinguish and 
appreciate good from false designs, and as long as this 
is so, there is no reason why Berlin work should not take 
its ancient position among needlework. The stitches 
formerly used w r ere Cross, Cushion, Satin, Tapestry, and 
Tent, but these have been considerably added to in the 
last few years, and now include Back, Damask, German, 
Herringbone, Irish, Plush, Leviathan, Single, Double and 
Treble, Raised and Rep, and varieties of these known by 
the general name of Fancy Berlin Stitches. The size of 
the canvas used for Berlin wool work must depend upon 
whether single or double wool is to be used, the space to be 
covered, and ^whether the stitch is to be taken over one or 
two threads. The patterns state the number of stitches 
they cover, therefore there is no difficulty in fitting them. 
The canvas used is tightly stretched in a frame, so that 
the selvedges come on the braced sides. Commence the 
pattern, when a floral one, from the centre stitch ; so that, 
should any errors in counting or working occur, the whole 
design will not be thrown out. In figures and landscapes, 
an accustomed worker will commence at the bottom and 
work upwards : the sky and lighter parts of the design are 
thus worked last, and kept unsoiled. The grounding re- 
quires to be as carefully done as the design, as uneven and 
pulled ground will destroy the good work of the rest. It 
is begun at the bottom of the canvas, on the left side, and 
is worked in rows, short needlefuls of wool being used, 
and the ends run in, not knotted. Care is taken before 
commencing to ground that sufficient wool is ready to 

finish the whole, as nothing looks so bad as two shades in 
the grounding, and the exact tint is rarely dyed twice. 
The selection of shades of wool for the design that harmo- 
nise is essential to the success of Berlin Work, and the 
placing in juxtaposition of several brilliant and contrasting 
colours is especially to be avoided. Discard large double 
flowers, figure, and animal patterns, also coarse canvas. 
The best patterns are single flowers worked in Tent 
Stitch upon fine canvas, or with Cross Stitch over one 
thread, also intricate geometrical designs. Berlin wool 
patterns, worked upon cloth or silk, are done by these 
materials being stretched in the frame under the canvas, 
and when the pattern is worked, the canvas either drawn 
out thread by thread, or cut short off close to the work. 
No grounding is required when the threads are thus 
drawn away, and only the few stitches left in the inter- 
stices between the work when they are cut away. Silk 
canvas is often used for Berlin work — it is a substitute for 
grounding ; when used, the back of the w T ork must be neatly 
finished off, and no loops of wool carried from one shade to 
another across open spaces, as they will be visible in the 
front. Silk canvas is backed with satin of its own colour 
when the work is completed. Before taking the ordi- 
nary filled Berlin Work from its frame, it requires to 
have a coat of embroidery paste or thin starch passed 
over it at the back, to keep the wool well stretched and in 


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Fiq. 37. Berlin Work. 

its right position. In the illustration (Fig. 37) of Berlin 
wool work, the different shades used are marked with 
various shaped crosses and stars, so that the worker will 
have no difficulty in placing them in their right order. 
The pattern is a suitable one for a cushion, and is worked 
as follows: Work the ground, shown by the thin black 
cross upon a white square, in grey wool, and in Cross 
Stitch; the bands across (shown by the white cross upon 
a black square, and squares filled with black lines) with 
two shades of old gold colour, the darkest outside ; and 
the round bosses in three shades of deep crimson and two 
shades of violet. The following are the principal stitches 
used in Berlin wool work. 

Back Stitch. — This stitch is made like the Back 
Stitch (which see) used in plain needlework. See also 
Back, Satin , and Raised (Fig. 52), and Slanting Gobelin, 
Back, and Satin (Fig. 57). 



Cross Stitch. — The principal stitch now used for Berlin 
wool work, and known as Point de Marque, Gros Point, 
and Kreuzstich, as well as Cross Stitch. It is used not 
only for working upon canvas with wools, but for em- 
broidering with any material that will thread upon cloth, 
silk, satin, and velvet. It was much used in the Phrygian, 
Egyptian, and Hebrew embroideries, and is occasionally to 
be met with in the work done between the first and six- 
teenth centuries (the Sion cope being partly worked in 
Cross Stitch). In the middle of the nineteenth century, a 
few years after the printing of the Berlin patterns, they 
began to be solely executed with Cross Stitch, and that 
work is often called after the name of the stitch. Cross 
Stitch is worked either in a frame or upon the hand, the 
work in the frame generally turning out the best. The 

stitch is a double one, taken 
over two threads of canvas in 
height and width, or more 
KBIT than Wo threads, the object 
being always to form a perfect 
square. To work, as shown in 
Fig. 38: Take the wool in a 
slanting direction across the 
square, from left to right. 
Bring the needle up on the 
lower left-hand corner, put it 
in at the upper right-hand corner, bring it up at the 
lower right-hand corner, and cross it back to the upper 
left-hand corner. When grounding in Cross Stitch, work 
the first part of the stitch in rows along the canvas, and 
cross these when returning. When working a pattern, 
finish each stitch at once, and commence from the bottom 
on the left-hand side. 

Cross Stitch Double. — See Double Stitch. 

Fig. 38. Cross Stitch. 

Fig. 39. Long Cross Stitch. 

Cross (Long) Stitch. — This is a variation of Cross 
Stitch, the two stitches forming it not making a perfect 
square, as in ordinary Cross Stitch, but a Long Stitch 
crossed. To work : Take the wool over a greater number 
of threads in height than in width — four threads in 
height to two in width being the correct proportion. 
This stitch was more used in Berlin wool work thirty 

years ago than at the present time; it is suitable for 
geometrical patterns. To work, as shown in Fig 39: Take 
a dark and light shade of the same coloured wool and 
some gold coloured filoselle. Work six Long Cross 
Stitches with light wool and six with dark w t oo1 alter- 
nately to the end of the line, and repeat for two lines, 
putting a darker and a lighter shade in the centre of 
the light part in the middle liue. Vary the design by 
altering the positions of the dark and light shades, so 
as to form alternate squares, and finish by working 
silk Cross Stitches over two Long Cross Stitches in 
the dark squares. 

Cross (Persian) Stitch. — A variety of Cross Stitch, and 
known also by the name of 
Rep. To work: Make the 
first half of the stitch a 
Long Tent Stitch, which 
take over six horizontal 
threads in a slanting direc- 
tion, and two in height, and 
make the second part of the 
stitch like the last half of 
Cross Stitch; take this 

over the two centre threads 
Fig. 40. Fbrsian Cross Stitch. f .. T 

of the Long Tent Stitch 
from right to left, as shown in Fig. 40. 

Cross (Slanting)' Stitch. — This is a variety of Cross 
Stitch, and i3 but little used in work. Make the first 
part of the stitch the same as Cross Stitch, but make 
the return like a Straight Gobelin. It can only bo 
worked upon fine canvas, as the stitch, not being carried 
over the whole of the foundation, requires that founda- 
tion to be of the finest. 

Cushion Stitch. — One of the ancient names for Cross 
Stitch. It must not bo confounded with the Cushion 
Stitch used in embroidery. 

Damask Stitch. — This i3 a variety of Long Stitch. 
Take it over four horizontal threads of canvas, or two 
stitches in a slanting direction and over tw6 upright 
threads. The variety is, that all the remaining second 
lines of Damask Stitch are taken over the two lower 
threads of the upper line and two new threads, instead 
of all the threads being new. 

Double Stitch. — This stitch is also known by the name 
of “ Star Stitch,” and is in reality but a variety of Tent 
Stitch as worked by the Germans. To work: Take a 
square composed of four threads of canvas; cross its 
centre with a Tent Stitch. Work from the bottom of 
the left-hand comer to the top of the right-hand comer of 
the square, then fill in on the right and left of this stitch 
with two smaller Tent Stitches. Double Stityh, as worked 
by the Italians, is a centre Cross surrounded by a square 
made with four stitches, each stitch crossing from point 
to point of the arms of the Cross. Double Stitch, worked 
in the Italian style, is used in Kreuzstich and in Russian 
embroidery more than in Berlin work. This stitch is 
only used with others in fancy patterns, and is illustrated 
in Star f Cross f and Leviathan (Fig. 55). 

German Stitch. — This stitch is formed from a Tapestry 



and a Tent Stitcli being worked alternately in a diagonal 

line across the canvas. To 
work, as shown in Fig. 41 : 
Pass the Tapestry over four 
threads of canvas, the Tent 
over two. In the succeeding 
line, place the Tent under 
the Tapestry, and the Ta- 
pestry under the Tent, but so 
that the canvas shows. This 
stitch is only useful where 
the foundation material, like 
silk or gold canvas, can be left exposed, and is rarely 
employed for patterns. Is also employed when working 
in chenille upon silver and gold cardboard. 

Fig. 41. German Stitch. 

Gobelin Stitch. — A stitch that has derived its name 
from its use in ancient tapestries, being known also under 
the title of Tapestry Stitch. It is used in embroidery as 
well as in Berlin work. As shown in Fig. 42, the stitch is 

Fio. 42. Gobelin Stitch. 

raised from the canvas by means of a padding of braid ; 
this padding is a great improvement to Gobelin, as other- 
wise it i3 quite a flat stitch, not being crossed. To work : 
Pass the wool over two horizontal threads of the canvas, 
and into every space left between the upright threads. 

Herringbone Stitch. — See Plaited Stitch. 

Irish Stitch. — This is used for groundings, or for 
patterns formed with shades of colour in Vandykes cross- 
ing. Irish stitch is a long stitch, taken over five or more 
threads of canvas, in an upright direction, and it requires to 
be worked on fine canvas. Its only peculiarity consists in 
its being alternately started from the last row of canvas 
and from the third. This allows the stitches to end in one 
line where the centre of the next line comes, and gives a 
pleasing variety to ordinary groundings. To work : Make 
a Long Stitcii over five upright threads of canvas for 
the first stitch ; for the second, commence the work two 
threads of canvas above the bottom part of first stitch, but 
cover five threads of canvas as before. Repeat these two 
stitches to the end of the row ; and, for the second row, 
work in the same way, thus making an irregular line of 
stitches, but one that fills up the spaces left in the first 

Leviathan Stitch. — A modern Berlin stitch, sometimes 
called Railway Stitch, because it is considered to cover the 
canvas quickly. It requires large-sized or leviathan 

canvas, as is shown in Fig. 43. To work: Take four 
squares of canvas for one stitch, and make a Cross Stitch 
into the four corners of this square ; then carry the wool 

across the centre of the 
stitch.from top to bottom, 
and then from left to 
right, so that it passes 
through all the outside 
holes of the square form- 
ing the stitch. Work all 
together, and make each 
stitch exactly the same as 
to crossings, or an even 
appearance to the wholo 
will not be given. A greater 
quantity of wcol is used in this stitch than in other 
grounding ones, but it is considered quicker in exe- 
cution. Varieties of Leviathan are formed by work- 
ing over six or eight threads in height, and as many in 
width; these require a double crossing at top and side 
for the six-thread, and a double crossing and a straight 
stitch top and side for the eight. They are called 
Double Leviathan and Treble Leviathan Stitch. 

Leviathan (Double) Stitch. — A variety of Leviathan 
worked over eight square threads or four square stitches. 
To work : Make a Cross Stitch into the four corners of 
the square, then a Long Cross Stitch to fill in the holes 

Fig. 41. Double Leviathan Stitch. 

on each side of the Cross Stitch, and lastly an upright 
Cross Stitch into the middle stitches in length and 
width of square. Fill in all the squares in the same 
order, or the uniformity of the pattern will be de- 
stroyed, and put a single Long Stitch between each 
square, to fill up the part of the canvas that is left 
bare. See illustration (Fig. 41). When commencing a 
new line of stitches on the canvas, make a half-stitcli to 
begin, so that the centre of the second line of stitches does 
not come under the centre of the first line. Commence 
with a half stitch at each alternate row. Double Leviathan 
is worked upon leviathan canvas; it consumes more wool 
than plain Berlin stitches, but gives a raised appearance 
to the design. It is only used for geometrical designs, 
and is not suitable for groundings. 

Leviathan ( Treble ) Stitch. — This stitch is worked upon 
leviathan canvas, and is used for covering large surfaces 



with a raised and showy pattern, hut is not suitable for 
groundings. To work : A square of eight threads of four 
stitches is required. Commence from the centre, take the 
wool from there to one of the corners, passing, in so doing, 
over four upright threads and four lengthway ones in a 
slanting direction. Place the next two stitches one on 
each side of the first, crossing over four lengthway threads 
and two upright ones, and vice vcrsd t and finishing in 
centre hole. Work the four corners thu3 ( see Fig. 45), and 
complete the stitch with a Cross Stitch over the centre 
hole, and one in the centre of each side of the square {see 
Fig. 46). When repeating the stitch only work these 

Fio. 45. Treble Leviathan Fio. 46. Treble Leviathan 

Stitch. Stitch. 

outside Crosses in every alternate square of eight, as there 
is no room for them to every stitch. They should be 
worked with silk, or with a contrasting shade of wool. 

Long Stitch. — See Satin Stitch. 

Plaited, Stitch. — This stitch is an imitation of the 
ordinary Herringbone, and is frequently called by that 

Fio. 47. Plaited Stitch. 

name. To work as shown in Fig. 47 : Take the wool over 
six threads of canvas or three stitches in height, and two 

Fio. 48. Berlin Plush Stitch.— Detail 1. 

threads, or one stitch, in width, and repeat to the end of 
the row. The number of threads gone over can be enlarged 

or decreased without detriment to the stitch, as long as 
the relative height and width are maintained. 

Plush Stitch. — This stitch is chiefly used in raised 
wool work, but is also required to form borders or fringes 
to plain Berlin work. To work : Fasten the wool at the 
back of the canvas, bring it to the front and put the 
needle in again two threads above where it came out, and 
bring it back to the front in the same hole it started from 
(Fig. 48). Draw the wool up, but only so that it forms 
a loop of the length required, which is usually an inch 
(Fig. 49). Hold this loop in the left hand, and make a 

Fio. 49. Berlin Plush Stitch.— Detail 2. 

Tent Stitch. This completes the stitch. Work several 
rows in this manner (Fig. 50), commencing from the 

Fio. 50. Berlin Plush Stitoi.— Detail 3. 

bottom of the canvas and working upward. Every loop is 
of the same length, and is passed over a mesh for this 
purpose if necessary. The stitch is cut and combed 
out in raised wool work, but it is generally left in 
loops for borders to mats, &c. Raised and Tassel 
Stitches are but slight varieties of Plush. 

Railway Stitch. — See Leviathan Stitch. 

Raised Stitch. — This is sometimes called “ Velvet,” 
and is but a variety of Plush Stitch. It is suitable for 
raised wool work, and can be worked to any height by 
using various sized meshes, and then cutting and combing 
until the wool attains the softness of velvet pile. Any 
sized bone knitting-needles or wooden meshes are used, 
but a No. 4 knitting-needle is the most suitable. To 
work: Make the first stitch a Tent Stitch, then bring 
the needle up where the stitch commenced, push the knit- 

3 2 


ting -needle oyer the Tent Stitch* and make a Gobelin 
Stitch over it, the wool needle being put in two threads 
above the place it came out from. Bring it out at 
the bottom of the nest stitch to he made, work a Tent 
Stitch, and repeat the process described above* The 
work is commenced from the bottom, and the knitting- 
needle left in the lowest row until the row above it is 
completed, to prevent any dragging of wool. Cut and 
comb out the loops when all the work is completed* The 
stitch is worked with the Gobelin over the knitting- 
needle, and without the securing Tent Stitch; hut when 
this is done leave the knitting-needles in the rows, and 
paste a strong pieee of ticking at the back of the work 
before they are withdrawn* and the stitches cut and 

Hep Stitch , — See Cross {Persian) Stitch * 

Satin Stitch . — This stitch is used in embroidery as 
well as in wool work, and under the latter is equally 
called Long and Slanting. To work: Make a Tent 
Stitch in a diagonal direction across the canvas, the 
length being varied according to the design; the width* 
whatever number of threads of canvas, is covered with 
the wool. Shown in Slanting Gobelin , Bach, arid Satin 
(Fig* 57), 

Slanting Gobelin Slitch^A name sometimes given 
to Long or Satin Stitch. 

Star Stitch. — See Double Stitch « 

Tapestry Stitch. — See Gobelin Stitch* 

Tassel Stitch . — This stitch is used iu Berlin wool 
work for making fringes, and is but a variety of Flush, 
It requires to be worked with a mesh* and with the wool 
doubled. The stitch requires sis: threads of canvas in 
length, and four in height. To make: Pass two loops* 
formed of four strands of wool, over the mesh* and put 
the needle into the centre of four threads of canvas in 
height* and along six in width* and secure with a Cross 
Stitch. Pass this Cross Stitch over them, and into 
the outer holes of the Stitch, binding the loops firmly 
down together with it. Paste the hack of the canvas 
before these loops are cut, as they are not so secure as 
those made with real Plush Stitch. 

Tent Stitch.— Thin stitch is also known as “Petit 
Point ” and ri Forlen stitch,” and in all ancient needle- 
work it was more used than Cross Stitch. Tent Stitch 

Fro, 5L Tent Stitch* 

requires much finer canvas than that used in Cross 
Stitch, the wool being only laid on the canvas once 
instead of twice, necessitating a fine background, and 

therefore more labour. To work, as shown in Fig. 51 : 
Cross the wool over one or two threads of canvas iu a 
diagonal direction from left to right. 

Various Fancy Stitches (1). — In the fancy pattern given 
iu Fig* 52 the stitches are Back, Satin, and Raised* The 

Fro, $2, Back, Satin, akd Raised Stitches, 

work covers a square of eight stitches, or sixteen threads, 
and when complete has the appearance of lines radiating 
from a centre rosette of raised work, the outer part of the 
design being surrounded with a line of Back Stitch, To 
work : Leave a centre square of eight threads, bring the 
wool up from the hack, and pass it over three stitches, or 
six threads* in a straight upright direction, so that it 
finishes on the line that forms the outer square. Repeat 
this Satin Stitch all round the four centre stitches 
that are left bare, place the wool once into every outer 
stitch of the square, and twice into every inner* Pill the 
four centre stitches with raised stitches* Wind the 
wool several times round a hone crochet-hook, and then, 
secure it by a needle run through the loops* while still 
on the hook, and pass it through the im worked canvas; 
these loops are made until the centre is well filled with 
them ; they are cut or not, according to fancy* The lines 
of Back: Stitch in the pattern are worked in filoselle; 
two shades of crimson, or two of blue, with amber filo- 
selle, are the best colours. 

(2)*-—In the arrangement shown in Fig. 53, Cross 
Stitch is used to catch down upon the canvas hori- 

Fro. 53* Cross Stitch, 

zontal lines of wool. The Gross Stitches form diagonal 
lines, crossing each other at equal distances, while they 
catch down the wool in some rows at every other stitch* at 
others missing two stitches* The pattern is a very effective 
one and easily worked, as so much of it is only laid upon 
the surface. Work the Cross Stitches all in one shade 





Fid. 5G. Fumr, Herringbone, and Cross Stitch. 

of the two outer lines. To work : Make the first and fifth 
rows of Cross Stitch in a dark wool, the three centre 
ones in a lighter shade of the same colour. The plaits are 
sometimes divided with one row of Cross Stitch, sometimes 
with three, and sometimes with five. Arrange the Plaited 
Stitch lines as to colours, as two of one colour, and one 
of a lighter shade of the same; they should harmonise 
with the shade used for the Cross Stitch. Finish the 
pattern by Herringbone Stitch lines in purse silk, 
which pass over three of the Cross Stitch lines, 

(6)* — In the pattern given in Fig* 57, the manner 
of grouping three Berlin Stitches together, to form a 
design, is shown* The stitches are Slanting Gobelin, 
Satin, and Back Stitch. To work : Divide the pattern 

of colour, but vary the horizontal lines, three lines of each 
colour being sufficient* A pattern useful for any Berlin 
work that is not subject to hard wear, and upon which 
short lengths of wool can be turned to account* 

(3). — A fancy pattern, showing how Cross and Long 
Cross and Leviathan stitches can be formed into a design. 
Form the groundwork of the pattern with Cko&s Stitches 
worked in one shade of colour ; work the Long Cross over 
eight threads of canvas in height and two in width, and 
with five shades of one colour* Work each pattern or 
arrangement of Long Cross in distinct colours, the five 
shades of each being always necessary* Make with 

Leviathan Stitch made with purse silk. Make the plain 
Cross Stitches of four different shades of one colour, but 
any number of colours can be used about them, as long as 
four shades of each are worked* The Double Stitches not 
crossed with the Leviathan are all one colour throughout 
the pattern, the four crossed with the Leviathan are dark 
in colour, and of the same colour throughout the pattern, 
as is also the purse silk. The pattern is a good one for 
using up short lengths of wool, and is worked either upon 
a leviathan or plain canvas* To work : Commence by 
working the Double Stitches, work the four that make 
a square and that are not crossed over with Leviathan 
Stitch in pale blue wool, the four that are afterwards 
crossed in dark bine. Work the Cross Stitches in four 
shades of crimson, and finish by making the Leviathan 
Stitches with old gold filoselle* 

(5). — This is a pattern showing the Plaited and 
Cross Stitch together* The Plaited Stitch is too heavy 
to work alone upon canvas, so is always arranged with 
some other stitch to lighten it* The illustration (Fig- 56) 
is on Berlin canvas, and the plaits are there separated 
with rows of Cross Stitch, the three centre ones of which 
are, when worked, covered with a light Herringhoning in 
silk, the Herringbone being taken in every alternate stitch 

Fig* 5i, Cross, Long Cross, and Leviathan Stitch. 

Leviathan Stitch the dividing lines between tbc designs, 
using black wool, with the last two crossings formed of 
bright filoselle* Bee Fig* 54. 

Fig. 55, Star, Cross, and Leviathan Stitch, 

(4). — 1 The design given in Fig. 55 is of a pattern 
formed by grouping together Double or Star Stitch and 
Cross, and by taking over four of the Double Stitches a 



into strips of unequal breadth, the narrowest taking up 
six threads in width, or three stitches ; the widest twelve 
threads, or six stitches. Fill in the latter strips with 

Fia. 57. Slanting Gobelin, Back, and Satin Stitch, 

Gobelin being carried over six threads of canvas, the 
shortest over two ; the width never varies. It should be 
worked in lines of colour that harmonise, and completed 
with a Back Stitch in filoselle. 

Fig. 59. Slanting Gobelin and Back Stitch. 

three rows of Slanting Gobelin, taking each stitch over 
four threads. When the wool work is complete, Back- 
stitch these over with a bright filoselle. Form the 
narrower strip of Satin Stitch arranged as rays of 
seven stitches to a ray; commence each ray from its 
centre, and let it cover six threads of canvas. When 
finished, outline with Back Stitch, formed with a contrast- 
ing colour. This design is worked upon leviathan or 
ordinary canvas, and is suitable for most Berlin work. 

(7). — A pattern formed of Satin Stitch so as to 
make squares upon the canvas. (See Fig. 58). To work : 
Make the squares over six threads of canvas, or three 
stitches in length and breadth, and fill this in with unequal 

Fig. 58. Satin Stitch in Squares. 

length Satin Stitches. The direction of the stitches is 
altered in each alternate square. It makes a good design 
for cushions and footstools, and is worked with many 
shades of colour, or only one, according to the worker’s 
fancy. Requires Berlin canvas. 

(8). — A pattern illustrating Slanting Gobelin, or 
Long Stitch, and Back Stitch. It is used upon fine 
canvas, the wool not being crossed. The stitch, as shown 
in Fig. 59, can be varied in length, the longest Slanting 

(9). — A pattern illustrating an arrangement of Satin 
and Cross Stitch. It is worked with Berlin, single or 
double, or with fleecy wool, and upon Berlin canvas, and 
is suitable for footstools, and curtain and table borders. 
To work : Make the dark lines in the illustration (Fig. 60) 
in Satin Stitch, which work over six threads of canvas, 
rising two threads a time and falling in the same manner, 

Fig. 60. Satin and Cross Stitch. 

to form the wavy line across the work. Divide the light 
lines in the middle, and pass over four threads each of 
canvas, excepting the two long middle ones, which pass 
over six threads. When completed, cross the centre light 
lines with a line of filoselle, purse silk, or gold cord, 
but leave the outside line on each side free, and work 
a Cross Stitch beyond it over the junction of the dark 
wavy line. 

Velvet Stitch. — See Raised Stitch. 

Berne Embroidery. — A work executed with white or 
gold beads, or silver or gold wire, upon black velvet. 
Berne Embroidery takes its name from the Canton of 
Berne, where it is used to ornament the gala dresses of 



the peasantry. The designs used are all small detached 
sprays o£ conventional flowers and leaves. The best em- 
broidery is that where the centre part of the leaves or 
flowers is filled up with rows of beads, either raised over a 
stuffed foundation, or lying flat on the surface, and the 
outlines, tendrils, stalks, and ornaments too minute to be 
worked with beads, formed with gold thread. The second 
kind of patterns are made only of gold or silver thread. 
To work : Trace a small flower spray on black velvet, and 
fill in the petals of the flowers and the leaves with rows of 
beads laid flat across the space and very close together. 
The rows of beads are not caught down as carried over 
the space, but taken plainly across from side to side ; they 
are, however, laid cither slanting or straight, in the best 
way to follow the natural curve o£ the design. Work the 
gold thread outlines in Satin Stitch, and the stems, 
tendrils, and buds in the same stitch. 

Be tweens. —A description of needle shorter than those 
called ground-downs, and longer than blunts. They are 
strong, and thicker made than the ordinary sewing needles 
known as sharps. 

Bias. — A term derived from the French biais, used to 
denote a line taken, either in folding or cutting a material, 
diagonally across the web. To fold or cut a square hand- 
kerchief on the Bias, would mean from one corner to that 
opposite it, when folded shawl wise, so as to make three 
corners. To cut any stuff on the Bias is vulgarly called 
(Hampshire and Kent) “ on the cater,” but this is only a 
provincialism in use amongst the lower orders. It ap- 
pears in Webster’s (American) Dictionary, and may be 
in more general use in the United States. 

Binche Lace. — At Binche, a town in Hainault, Brussels 
Lace has been made since the seventeenth century, and 
even in Savaiy’s time obtained a high reputation. For 
some years Binche Lace was considered superior to that 
made at Brussels, and it is continually mentioned in the 
inventories of tlie eighteenth century, and called " Guipure 
de Binche.” Another lace also made at Binche partook 
more of the heavy pattern of old Dutch Lace, while its 
ground, instead of being confined to the mesh pattern, was 
varied with the spider and rosettes grounds seen iu old 
V alenc tonnes, and illustrate dun de r Y ale nciennes Lace, 
but never the plait ground. The making of Binche Lace 
has now degenerated into sprigs of Pillow Lace, which are 
afterwards Applique on to machine net. 

Binding. — (Derived from the Anglo-Saxon bindan .) A 
term used in plain sewing to denote the encasing of the 
edge of any material, garment, or article if made of a 
textile, in the folded band of tape, braid, ribbon, or of any 
other stuff cut on the bias, so as to hide a raw edge, or to 
strengthen or decorate the border of a dress, coat, or 
other article. It may be Back stitched through on both 
sides at once ; run one side, and turned back over the 
edge on the inside and hemmed j or laid flat, and sewn 
on the inside of a skirt. 

Binding.— A term used in Knitting. 

Bindings. — These consist of some fourteen different 
descriptions of braid, and ribbons of various materials 
respectively. The chief amongst them are as follow : — 

Bag Strapping, a Binding employed by upholsterers, to 
preserve selvedges, and resembling very broad stay-tape. 
The widths arc known as Nos. 1, 2, and super. The measure 
given is usually short ; and there are twenty-four pieces, of 
9 or 12 yards to the gross. Bed Lace is a twilled or figured 
white cotton binding, used for dimities. It is made in 
chintz colours for furniture, also in a diamond pattern, and 
in blue stripes for bed tick and palliasses. The piece runs 
to 72 yards, two pieces forming a gross. Carpet Bindings 
are made in plain and variegated colours to match with 
carpets. The best qualities are all of worsted ; the cheaper 
are a mixture of cotton and worsted. The pieces measure 
36 yards, four forming a gross. Cocoa Bindings are manu- 
factured in two widths, 2i and 3 inches. They are used 
to bind cocoa-nut matting. The pieces contain from 18 to 
24 yards. Cotton Ferrets are like unsized tape. Grey and 
black are principally used. They were originally intended 
to be stouter than tapes, but have sadly decreased in value. 
Italian Ferrets are made entirely of silk, and are used to 
bind flannels and dressing gowns. They are made in white, 
black, scarlet, blue, crimson, &c., of one width only, 36 
yards going to the piece. Galloons were formerly used 
for boot bindings and shoe strings. They are now out of 
date for the former purpose. They are a mixture of cotton 
and silk, and are now chiefly in use for binding oilcloths, 
Ac. Statute galloons are narrow ribbons employed for 
binding flannel, composed of cotton and silk. The piece 
consists of 36 yards. There are five widths, respectively 
called twopenny, fourpenny, sixpenny, eightpenny, and ten- 
penny. These old-fashioned names do not refer to the 
price of the galloon, but to the fact of the old penny 
piece having been taken as a gauge. This ancient plan is 
also still in use by ribbon inaufacturers. Fads is the 
technical name for watered galloons, used for watch and 
eye-glass ribbons. Petershams are belt ribbons, used com- 
monly for dresses. Prussian Bindings have a silk face 
and a cotton back. They are twilled diagonally, and are 
used for binding waterproofs, mantles, and sometimes for 
flannels, instead of the more suitable Italian ferret and 
statute galloon. The piece contains 36 yards, sold by the 
gross in four pieces. Stay Bindings are used for binding 
women's stays, and can be procured in black, grey, white, and 
drab. They are of widths, running from £, and f of an 
inch ; or from Nos. 10 to 30. They are sold by the gross in 
lengths of 12 — 12, 8 — 18, or 6 — 24. Venetians are nsed for 
several purposes in upholstery. Their chief use, however, 
is at present for Venetian blinds; they vary iu width 
from & to I inch, and from 11 to If inches. The colours 
arc dyed ingrain, and arc green, blue, yellow, and white ; 
they are now sometimes used for embroidery. Worsted 
Bindings are employed by saddlers and upholsterer®, and 
they have also come into use for embroidery, and can be 
had in many widths, and in nearly every colour. They 
are called by many people webbing, and as such are 
frequently named in descriptions of work. Binders and 
Bindings used in needlework may be either on the bias or 
the straight way of the material when they are placed 
round the necks and cuffs of garments or round the waists. 
They are usually sewn on, and then turned over and 
hemmed down on the wrong side. The gathered part 



should be held next to the worker. Binders should be 
cut the selvedge way of the material as being the strongest. 
Bias bindings are best sewn on with the machine when 
used to trim dresses and skirts. 

Bird’s-eye Diaper. — A cloth made both in linen and 
in cotton, named after the small design woven in its 
texture. See Diaper. 

Birds’ Nest Mats. — These mats are made of Combed- 
out Work and Knitting. To make : Cast on sufficient 
stitches to make a width of five or six inches of Knitting, 
and cut a number of pieces of soft wool into 8-inch lengths. 
First row — Plain Knitting; second row — Knit the 
first stitch, * take one or two of the cut lengths, according 
to size of wool, and put them once round left-hand needle, 
hold so that their ends are equal, knit these with the next 
stitch, and bring their ends well to the front, knit one, and 
repeat from # ; third row — Plain Knitting ; fourth row — 
same as second, except commencing with two Plain 
Stitche3 rather than one, to allow of the inserted pieces 
mixing flatly with those on the second row ; continue 
second and third rows until the length required is ob- 
tained, changing only the first stitches of the second row 
as shown. Cast off and join, and comb out the inserted 
pieces until they cover the whole of the Knitting with a 
soft and thick layer of wool, and sew this on to a round 
cardboard foundation by one of its edges, allowing the 
other to stand erect. Turn this edge inside, and catch it 
down to the back side of the Knitting at a depth of two 
inches. Shaded greens are the best colours for these 
mats. Wool — single or double Berlin, or fleecy. 

Bisette Lace. — An ancient Pillow Lace, made in the 
villages round Paris during the whole of the seventeenth 
century. It was coarse and narrow, but it obtained a 
ready sale among the poorer classes. Some better kinds 
are mentioned in old inventories ; these seem to have been 
made of gold and silver thread, or to have been orna- 
mented with thin plates of these metals. 

Black Mohair Cords. — These were formerly used for 
binding coat edges, but are now employed for looping up 
dress skirts. They are to be had of various sizes, but the 
most useful are numbered 2, 4, and 7. They are sold by 
the gross of four pieces of 36 yards each, but short lengths 
can be obtained. See Cords. 

Black Silk Cords. — Fine round Cords, employed for 
binding coat eelges, making button loops, and for watch- 
guards and eyeglasses. There arc many numbers, but the 
most useful sizes are 3, 5, and 7. They are made up in 
knots of 36 yards, and sold by the gross, but short lengths 
may be purchased. See Cords. 

Black Silk Stuffs. — These are to be had in many 
varieties of make and of richness for dresses. The quality 
of the plain kinds may be judged of by holding them up 
to the light and looking through them, when the evenness 
of the threads may be seen, and superior quality of the 
material shown by a certain green shade in the black dye. 
The widths vary from 22 to 26 inches. 

Blanketing. — This name is derived from that of the 
first manufacturer of this description of woollen textile, 

Thomas Blanket, -who produced them at Bristol, temp. 
Edward III. Yorkshire Blankets, for servants, and to put 
under sheets, measure from 2 by 11 yards to 3i by 3 yards, 
so do the Witney. Austrian Blankets have gay coloured 
stripes, and are much used as portieres ; their size runs 
from 2 by li yards to 3 by 21 yards. Scarlet Blankets 
have the same proportions, as well as the grey and brown 
charity Blankets. Crib Blankets average from 1 by I 
yards to If by II yards, and the very best bath make are 
not sold narrower than 21 yards. The same name is 
applied to a kind of towelling in white cotton; the 
cloths measure 48 by 80 inches to 72 by 96 inches. 
Brown linen bath Blankets are manufactured only in 
the latter dimensions. 

Blanket Stitch.— See Embroidery Stitches. 

Bley. — A term especially used in Ireland to denote 
unbleached calico. See Calico. 

Blind Chintz. — These are printed cotton cloths, plain 
made, and calendered, produced in various colours and 
patterns, chiefly in stripes and designs resembling Vene- 
tian blinds. Their narrowest width is 36 inches, running 
upwards, by 2 inches, to 80 or 100 inches. 

Blind Cords and Tassels. — These are made of linen 
or cotton thread, and of flax covered with worsted. Ihey 
are sold in lengths of 72 yards, two pieces to the gross, and 
may be had in amber, blue, crimson, green, and scarlet. 
The Tassels are made of unbleached thread, to match the 
several colours of the Cords. 

Blind Ticking. — This is a stout twilled material, made 
of a combination of linen and cotton in all coloura and 
stripes, from 36 to 60 inches in width. 

Block-printed Linen. — The art of printing linen 
owes its origin to Flanders, and dates back to the four- 
teenth century. Ancient specimens are rare ; the earliest 
sample can be found in the Chapter Library, Durham, 
and a sample of Block Printing on a fine sheet w r rapped 
round the body of a bishop in the cathedral was dis- 
covered in 1827. The Indian method of Block Printing 
has recently been revived in England, the blocks being 
lent for the purpose by the authorities of the India 
Museum to a firm in London, and used for printing 
on silk. 

Blonde de Caen . — See Blonde Net Lace. 

Blonde de Fil. — A name sometimes applied to Migno- 
nette Lace, which see. 

Blonde Net Lace. — A general term for black and 
white Pillow Laces made with a network ground. The 
best is made at Caen, Chantilly, Barcelona, and Catalonia. 
The patterns of Blonde Laces are generally heavy — thick 
flowers joined together with a wide meshed ground. The 
Blondes de Caen were celebrated for their delicate and soft 
apppearance. Blonde Laces were first produced in 1745 
from unbleached silk, and were known as Blondes. See 
Chantilly Lace. 

Blond Quillings. — These resemble bobbin quillings, 
but are made of silk and highly sized and finished. 
Mechlins are also of silk, but are both unfinished and soft. 
Each of these Quillings is made in various widths ; they 
are used for frills and ruffles. 



Blue Bafts, “A description of coarse muslin, manu- 
factured at Manchester, designed for wearing apparel, and 
for export to Africa. 

Blunts* — A description of needle, short, thick, and 
strong, employed by stay makers as being the most suitable 
for stitching jean or eoutille, especially when doubled ; and 
used likewise by glovers and tailors. 

Bobbin*— (French, Bobine.) A cotton cord employed by 
needlewomen for making a ribbed edge to any garment, or 
other article, by enclosing it in a strip of the material cut 
on the bias* Bobbin is likewise called cotton cord. It is 
to be had in white and black, varying in size, and done np 
in half bundles of 51b., mixed sizes or otherwise, also in 
single pounds ready skeined. Bobbin is a term likewise 
employed to denote the small reel on which thread is 
wound in some sewing machines, and also a circular pin 
of w T ood, with a wide cutting round it, to receive linen, 
silk, or cotton thread for weaving. 

Bobbin Lace. — Used to designate Pillow Lace, and to 
distinguish it from Hcedle-made Lace during the sixteenth 
century. It was a better kind than Bone Lace, and sup- 
posed to be of gold or silver plaited threads. 

Bobbin Wet* — A kind of bTet made by machinery, the 
stocking frame being adapted to that purpose. The cotton 
of which it is made is chiefly spun in Lancashire, and the 
superior kinds are known by the elongation of the meshes 
near the selvedges. The first attempt to make Net by 
machinery was in 1770, when a stocking frame 
was employed, and success attained in 1810. The width 
of this Net runs from 30 to 72 inches. Quillings are 
made of it. 

Bobbin Quillings. — Plain cotton net, made in various 
w i d th s, an d nee d for fr ill e. Br u s sel s Quillin g s arc superior 
in quality, having an extra twist round the mesh. 

Bobbins. — The thread that is used in Pillow Lace is 
wound upon a number of short ivory sticks, called Bobbins, 
and the making of the lace mainly consists in the proper 
interlacing of these threads. The Bobbins are always 
treated in pairs, with the exception of the Gimp Bobbins, 
and are divided into Working and Passive Bobbins. Hang 
the number required for the commencement of a pattern 
upon a lace pin into the top pinhole of the pattern, and 
unwind the thread from them four inches. Spread out 
the Passive Bobbins or Hangers in a fan shape, and allow 
them to fall down the pillow ; work the Workers or 
Runners across these from side to side, alternately. 
Place no mark upon the Bobbins to distinguish them, as 
they change too often to allow* of it, hut number them in 
the mind from one to eight, &c., as used. Hover look 
at the Bobbins when working, but watch the pattern 
forming, and use both hands at the same time. Wind 
the thread upon the Bobbins by holding them in the left 
hand, and wind with the right; keep the thread smooth, 
and never fill the Bobbin. When finished winding, secure 
the thread by holding the Bobbin in the left hand turned 
upwards, the thread in the right; place the middle finger 
of the left hand upon the thread, and tarn the wrist to 
bring the thread round the finger ; transfer the loop thus 
formed to the Bobbin by pulling with the right hand 

while putting the loop over the head of the Bobbin with 
the left finger* This keeps the Bobbin from running 
down, and is called a Bolling or Half Hitch. Lengthen 
by tightening the threads, at the same time gently turn- 
ing the Bobbin round towards the left, or shorten by 
lifting the loop with the needle pin, and winding up the 
Bobbin. When wound, tie the Bobbins in pairs by fasten- 
ing the ends of the two threads together; cut off the ends 
of the knot as closely as possible, wind one Bobbin a 
little way up, and unwind the other in the same 
degree ; this puts the knots out of the way for the com- 
mencement. Winding by a machine is preferable to hand- 
winding when the thread is very white, as the baud is 
apt to discolour it. 

Bobbin Tape. — Made in cotton and in linen, both 
round and flat; the numbers being 5, 7, A, 11, 13, 15, 
17, 19, and 21. Bee Tapes. 

Bobs. — These are used in Pillow and Hccdle Laces to 
ornament the connecting Bars between the lace patterns, 
and are identical with Crescents, Crowns, Spines, and 
Thorns. To make a Boh : Twist the thread six or seven 
times round the needle, draw it up tight, and make a 
loop with it upon the Bar or Bride Ornee. 

Bocasine.— (Old French, Boccasin.) A kind of fine 
buckram or calamanco, made of wool. 

Booking. — A coarse woollen material, resembling baize 
or drugget, called after the town where it was manufactured* 

Bodkin*^( Anglo -Saxon for a dagger; also designated 
tape needle.) A small metal Instrument, combining in 
appearance a needle and a pin, having a knob at one end to 
prevent its piercing the hem through which it is passed to 
convey the ribbon, cord, or tape, and two eyes at the 
other end — one long, and one near the extremity, small 
and ova! shape* They arc sold by the gross or singly. 

Body Linings* — These may be had in linen, union, and 
calico ; in white, grey, black on one side, aud grey the 
other ; plain and figured materials. They usually measure 
about 3i inches in width; some plain made, and others 
with a satin face. 

Bolting* — A kind of canvas, so called because made 
originally for the bolting or sifting of meal aud flour. It 
is a very fine kind of woollen canvas, chiefly made In 
Bngland, and employed for samplers. There is also an 
inferior description, of a yellow colour, known as sampler 
canvas. Bolting is woven after the manner of gauze of 
finely-spun yarn. It maybe had also in silk, linen, and hair. 

Bolton Sheeting. — Otherwise W orJchouse sheeting, or 
twilL A thick coarse twilled cotton, of the colour techni- 
cally called grey— really yellow, being unbleached ; much 
employed for crewel embroidery, and washing better each 
time it is cleaned, A suitable material for ladies" and 
children’s dresses and aprons, as well as for curtains and 
other room hangings. It is to be had in various widths, 
from 27 to 86 and 72 inches* There are two makes of this 
material, the plain and the snowflake. It is much employed 
for purposes of embroidery, and often in combination with 
Turkey- red twill, 

Bombazet.—Thls is one of the family of textiles de- 
nominated Stufis, or those worsted materials introduced 



into England by the Dutch settlers in the reign of 
Henry I. It is a plain, twilled, thin worsted fabric, 
with a warp of a single thread, pressed and finished with- 
out a glaze. The width varies from 21 to 22 inches. 

Bombazine. — (Latin, Bombacinium , French Bombasin.) 
A combination of silk and worsted, the warp being of 
the former, and the weft of the latter ; formerly made 
at Norwich and Spitalfields, &c., in various colours, but 
now chiefly black. A manufacture introduced by the 
Flemings in 1575, which has no glaze, and is manu- 
factured both plain and twill, of about 18 inches in width. 
Nearly the same fabric is now sold in different widths, and 
under various names. It has a twilled appearance, as the 
worsted -weft is thrown on the right side, is easily tom, 
and ravels out quickly. In the time of Queen Elizabeth 
it was also made of silk and cotton. Bombazine had its 
origin at Milan, and was then a twilled textile, so named 
from bombyx, the Latin for silkworm. It was first made 
of a mixture of cotton and wool at Norwich in 1575. 

Bomb6 (French). — A term signifying puffed or rounded, 
and employed in dressmaking as well as in embroidery. 

Bone-casing. — The covering made for strips of whale- 
bone, designed for the stiffening of dresses and stays. 

Bone Points — The first Pillow Laces made in England 
in the sixteenth century were all called Bone, by reason 
of the bobbins being formed from the bones of animals, 
and sometimes the pins made of fish bones. The word 
Point is, however, an incorrect term to use for Pillow 

Boning. — A term used by staymakers and dressmakers 
to signify the insertion of strips of whalebone into stays, 
or into casings in the bodices of dresses. 

Bonnet Cotton. — A coarse kind of thread, consisting 
of eight to sixteen strands twisted together. Calico 
bonnets are made with it, and it is employed in upholstery. 
See Sewing Cottons. 

Bonnet Wire, or Wire Piping. — A small, pliant wire, 
covered with silk — black, white, Leghorn, or straw colour, 
&c. ; or with white cotton. The numbers are 2, 3, 4. 

Boot Elastics. — This material may be had in silk, 
thread, col ton, or mohair, small cords of indiarubber being 
enclosed and woven into the fabric. They are made from 
3 to 5 inches in width, and arc sold in lengths to suit the 
purchaser. Sec Elastic Webbing. 

Book Muslin, more correctly written buke muslin, is 
a plain, clear description of muslin. It is either “lawn 
buke,” stiffened to imitate the French clear lawn; or 
hard, bluish, and much dressed; or else it is soft, in 
imitation of the Indian buke. It is woven for working in 
the tambour. See Swiss Muslin. 

Bordd (French). — Edged with any description of trim- 
ming, and Bord6 ci Cheval , a binding of equal depth on 
both sides of the material. 

Borders. — Any description of muslin, net, or lace 
frillings, whether embroidered or plain, employed for 
women’s caps and bonnets, and the bodice of outer or 
inner garments, and usually attached to the neck and 

Borders. — That part of the pattern in lace that forms 
the rim or outer edge. In Needlepoints this edge is 
button-holed, and, when raised, called the cordonnet, and 
profusely trimmed with picots and couronnes. In Pillow 
Laces it forms part of the pattern, and in the working is 
ornamented with pinholes. 

Botany Wool Cloth. — A fine woollen textile, having a 
small woven design on the surface like herringbone in 
appearance. It measures 25 inches in width, and is a new 
description of material for women’s dresses. 

Botany Tarn. — A description of worsted yarn em- 
ployed for the knitting of coarse stockings. 

Bourette (otherwise known as “Snowflake” and 
“Knickerbocker”). — A French term employed to signify 
a method of weaving by which the small loops are thrown 
up to the face of the cloth. It measures 24 inches 
in width. 

Bourre (French). — Stuffed or wadded. A term fre- 
quently applied to quilted articles; also used in em- 

Bourre de Soie, Filoselle. — A French term to denote 
that portion of the ravelled silk thrown on one side in 
the filature of silk cocoons, and afterwards carded and 
spun, like cotton or wool. It forms the spun silk of 

Bowline Knot. — Useful for fringes, also for Netting 
and Knitting, Crochet, and for any work where double 
threads require joining together securely without raising a 
rib. To make : Take a loop of one thread, and hold it in 
the left hand, pick up the other thread in the right hand, 
pass one end of it under and through the loop, and out at 
the lower side, then under both the ends held in the left 
hand, then over them and under its own thread after it 
comes out of the loop, and before it goes under the threads 
held in the left hand. Pull tight right and left-hand 
threads at the same time. For fringes, the right-hand 
threads are arranged to fall down ; for knots or joins, the 
ends will work in flat. 

Bows. — Ornamental loopings of ribbon or other silk, 
satin, and other material. They are made in several 
forms, such as the “Alsatian,” two large upright ones w r orn 
by the peasants as a headdress ; the “ Marquise,” so called 
after Mine, de Pompadour, made with three loops and two 
ends, seen on the dresses of that period ; the “ Butterfly 
bow,” made in imitation of that insect’s wings; the well- 
known “ True-lover’s knot,” “Nceuds (lots,” a succession of 
loops so placed as to fall one over the other, like waves, 
being one of the present modes of trimming dresses. For 
an ordinary Bow, two loops and two ends, three-quarters 
of a yard of two-inch ribbon will be found sufficient. 

Box Cloths. — These are thick coarse Melton cloths, 
dyed in all colours, although usually in buff. They are 
designed for riding habiliments, measure 14 yard in width, 
and vary in price. 

Box Plait or Pleat. — Two Plaits made side by side, 
reversewise, so that the edges of the respective folds should 
meet, leaving a broad space of the double thickness between 
each such conjunction of the Plaits (or Pleats). The name 
is taken from the box-iron employed for pressing them. 



Fig h G2. Plain Braid upon Cloth, 

in British barrows, and ornaments of braidwork are seen 
upon the pictured dresses of tbe ancient Danes. In the 
sixteenth century, in Italy, lace was formed of braids 
made upon pillows, and the Asiatics, Greeks, Turks, and 
Indians have always used it largely for decorations. 
Modem Braiding in England is confined to ornamenting 
dress materials, the simpler kind of antimacassars, and 
mats with mohair and silk braids ; but tbe natives of 
India still embroider magnificently with gold and silver 
and silk braids. Braids, of whatever kind, can be laid 
upon velvet, leather, cloth, silk, or fancy materials, and 
are Back stitched to these materials with strong silk or 
thread. To work : Trace the pattern upon the material 
or draw it out upon tissue paper, which pull away when 
the design is worked. Thread a needle with silk and 
lay the braid upon tbe traced outlines, and Backstitch 
it down to the foundation. The beauty of the work 
depends upon stitching the braid even and keeping the 
stitching to its centre, turning all corners snarp ; either 
twisting the braid or carefully settling it; and in making 
the braid Ho flat on the material without a pucker. 

Fig. 61. Fancy Braid ON White. 


Ftq G3 Gold Braid on Cloth. 

front. Damp the material, and iron at the back, when 
the work is finished. Figs. 61, 02, and 03 are the 
ordinary Braiding patterns used in England. The first 
is worked with a fancy coloured braid on white mar- 
cella, or other washing ground, and is suitable for 
children's dress, nightgown cases, comb bags, <&c. Fig, 62 
is a blaok ijlain braid upon cloth, and is suitable for 
ladies 1 dresses and jackets. Fig. 03 is a gold braid 
upon cloth, useful for mats, tea cosies, and other small 
articles. Fig, 64 is an illustration of Indian Braiding, 
and is a nmeh more elaborate and beautiful design than 
is attempted in England. It is entirely executed with 
gold and silver braid, and is worked upon cloth This 

Br abandon Xace, — A name given to Brussels Lace, 
so called because Brussels is the chief town of South 

Brabant Edge. — Used in ancient Needle Point and 
Modern Point. A combination of 
Brussels and Venetian edge worked 

Braid (Anglo-Saxon Bred an ), — A 
woven string, cord, or thread of any 
kind, employed for binding tbe edges 
of materials and articles of wear, 
or other use and for purposes of 

Braiding. — (From the Saxon hre- 
don t to braid or plait together.) 

Braiding has for many centuries 
been a form of ornamental needle- 
work, gold plaits having been found 

To prevent the latter fault, fasten one edge of the 
material to a weight cushion wdiile working, Take both 
ends of the braid through to tL e back and fasten off 
there, as no joins or frayed edges are allowable to the 



cloth is of different colours, joined as in Applique. 
The outside border is black, also the dark centre line; 
the rest of the ground is scarlet, except in the centres 
of the pine -shaped ornaments, which arc pale buff and 
soft green alternately. 

Braids, — (Derived from the old English brede, and the 
Anglo-Saxon bredan, to braid, bend, weave,) There are 
twelve or more varieties of Braid. The alpaca, mohair, and 
worsted Braids, for trimming dresses, may be had in many 
colours, as well as iu hlack. These are sold in pieces of 
3d yards each; also in small knots hy the gross, and by the 
yard. Their numbers run 53, 57, 61, 65, 73, 77, 81, 89, 93, 
97, and 101. The blaek glace Braids, made of cotton, 
though pretty when new, are not durable. The numbers 
are 41, 53, 61, 65, 73, 81, 93, and 101; and there are four 
pieces of 36 yards each to the gross. Crochet Braids, also 
called Cordon, are very fully waved, and are used for work- 

former being rarely more than 16 or 18 yards in length, 
instead of 24. Skirt Braids of alpaca and mohair are sold 
in lengths sufficient for the edge of the dress, and are tied 
in knots* In the t( super ” and r( extra heavy,” the numbers 
are 29, 41, and 53. The lengths vary from 4 to 5 yards, 
and are sold by the gross pieces. All black Braids should 
he shrunk before being put on the dress, by pouring boiling 
water on them, and hanging them up, to allow the water to 
drop from them until dry. Hercules Braid is a corded 
worsted Braid, made for trimming mantles and dresses, 
the cords running the length way, not across. Grecian 
Braid is a closely woven article, resembling a plait of eleven 
or thirie en , There are also waved whi te cotton Brai d s, u sed 
for trimming children’s dress, which arc sold hy the gross, 
cut into lengths. The numbers are 11, 17, 21 s 29, and 33. 
There are also waved worsted Braids for children’s use, 
which are sold in knots of 4 to 5 yards each, and sold by 


ing edges with crochet cotton : they are a heavy article. 
Fancy cotton Braids are made in different colours and 
patterns, and a chintz Braid in many colours is included 
amongst them, suitable for cuffs, collars, and children's 
dresses. There are also thin narrow ones, which are em- 
ployed in hand- made lace. French cotton Braids, made 
more especially for infants’ clothing, are loosely woven, 
plain, and fine. The numbers in most request are 13, 15, 
17, 19, 21, and 39 ; but they ruu from 5 to 77. They are 
cut into short pieces, and sold by the gross. The mohair, 
Bussia, or worsted Braid is to he had in black and in 
colours, and consists of two cords woven together. The 
numbers run from 0 to 8 ; they are cut into short lengths, 
and sold by the gross. The wide makes are in lengths of 
36 yards each, four pieces to the gross. The Bus si an silk 
Braids are of similar make, and are employed for embroi- 
dering smoking caps, their colours being particularly 
bright. They are sold in skeins, six making the gross, the 

the gross pieces. The numbers are 13, 17, and 21. White 
cotton Braids, employed for trimming print dresses, run in 
the same numbers as the worsted Braids. Gold and silver 
Braids, employed for uniforms and court and fancy dresses 
and liveries, &c., form a distinct variety, and are called 
lace. Every season produces new varieties, either desig- 
nated by some fashionable name of the current time, or 
some distinct term connected with their make, such as 
basket, or mat braid. Church Lace, composed of silk, and 
sometimes with gold and silver thread, is another make of 
Braid, The real Cordon Braid is made without any wave, 
and is edged with picots. Most of the coloured cotton 
Braids will wash, excepting the pink, hut they shrink. 
The broad are sold cheaper by the dozen yards, or piece of 
36 yards ; the narrow are sold by the knot. The Stab 
Be aid (which see) is coloured. To every sewing machine a 
braiding foot is attached, by which narrow Braid can be 
put on in a pattern. When wide ones are employed they 






need very careful tacking to keep them flat during tlie 
process of sewing on. Since the introduction of machine 
sewing, wide Braids have been more extensively used 
than ever before. 

Braid Work. — The variety of Braids used in Tape 
Guipures is great, and the manner of forming them is the 
first step to Pillow Lace making. They form the Engre- 
lures and edgings, and are really the chief stitches in the 
lace ; they arc easier understood when learnt as a Braid, 
where all the various interruptions necessary to form 
patterns are laid aside, than in the regular patterns, until 
the stitch lias been thoroughly mastered in straight rows* 

Cloth or Whole Braid .— Some of the old Guipures 
are entirely worked with this Braid, the stitch of which 
resembles weaving. Buie two parallel lines on the Passe- 
ment a quarter of an inch apart, and, with a fine needle, 
pierce an even row of holes on each line, about as wide 
apart as the width of a coarse needle (the pricking is 
guided by the coarseness of the thread used); the holes 
should be opposite each other, and quite even. Take twelve 
pairs of Bobbins, tie in a knot, put a pin through it, and 
pin it to the pillow, putting the pin in up to its bead. 
Six of tbe Bobbins should have a distinguishing mark, and 
are called Rust kerb ; they run from side to side, and 
answer to the woof of the cloth; the remaining eighteen 
are called Hangers, and hang down upon tbe pillow 
without moving, and answer to the web. Bun a pin into 1st 
hole of pattern of left band side of pillow, and w ind up all 
the bobbins to a distance of four inches from the pin to head 
of bobbin. Take two pairs of the runners, twist each pair 
three times outside the left hand pin, working with the left 
hand, and twisting towards the left; leave one pair of 
runners hanging behind tbe pin (and name the others 
1st and 2nd, the 1st being on left hand}, # take up 2nd, 
and pass it with the left hand over the 1st hanging bobbin 
towards the right hand; then take up the 1st hanging 
bobbin in the left hand between tbe thumb and first huger, 
and the 2nd hanging bobbin in the right hand between 
the thumb find first finger, and lift them to the left, 
so that each passes over one of the running bobbins; 
then take the 1st running bobbin and lift it to the right 
over the 2nd hanging bobbin; the two bangers will 
now be together; leave them resting by the loft hand pin, 
and take up the 2nd runner, and pass it to the 
right over the 3rd hanger; take up the 3rd and 4th 
hangers, and pass them with both hands backwards 
to the left, each over one of the two runners ; take the 
1st runner and lift it over the 4th hanger to the right, 
bringing the hangers and runners together again; leave 
the 3rd and 4th hangers by the side of the 1st and 2nd 
hangers ; take 2nd runnel' and pass it over the 5th hanger 
to the light ; take the 1st and 2nd hangers in both hands, 
and pass them backwards, as before, to the left, over the 1st 
and 2nd runners ; take the 1st runner and pass it over the 
Gth hanger to the light ; leave the 5th and 6th hangers next 
to the 3rd and 4th on the left ; take the 2nd runner and 
pass it over the 7th hanger to the right ; take up the 5th 
and 6th hangers and pass them back to the left over the 
two runners ; take the 1st runner and pass over the 8th 

hanger to the right, and leave the 7th and 8th hangers by 
the 5th and 6th on the left hand ; take 2nd runner and 
pass over 9th banger to the right; take 9th and 10th 
hangers and pass backward to the left hand over the two 
runners ; take 1st runner and pass over 10th hanger to the 
right ; take 2nd runner and pass over 11th hanger to the 
right ; take 11th and 12th hangers and pass backwards to 
the left, over the two runners ; take 1st runner and pass 
over 12th hanger to the right, leave the 11th and 12th 
hanger by the side of the 9th and 10th ; take 2nd runner 
and pass over 13th hanger to the right ; take 13th and 14th 
hangers and pass back wards to the left, over the two runners ; 
take 1st runner and pass ever the 14th hanger to the right, 
leave 13th and 14th hangers by side of 11th and 12th, on 
the left side ; take 2nd runner and pass over 15th hanger ; 
take 15th and 16th hangers and pass backwards to the left, 
over the two runners ; take 1st runner and pass over 16th 
hanger to the right, then leave the 15th and 16th hangers 
on the left, by the side of the 13th and 14th ; take 2nd 
runner and pass over 17th hanger ; take the 17th and 18th 
hangers and pass backwards to the left ; take 1st runner 
and pass over 18th hanger to the right. Having now come 
to the end of the line, and worked in all the hangers, take 
the two runners in right hand quite across the pillow, put in 
a pin opposite to the one which was placed in pattern on 
left hand side, twist the two runners three times to the right. 
The 3rd pair of marked runners will now be hanging 
behind the pin which has just been placed in the pattern, 
twist these three times towards the left ; then take the 
2nd runner of the pair just brought across, and pass it to 
the right over the 1st runner of the pair found behind the 
right hand pin ; take these two runners and pass them back 
to the left over those runners used in working across; 
take the 1st runner of those brought across, and pass it 
over the 1st runner of the new pair. The pair which has 
been brought across is now left behind the right hand pin, 
and those found must be twisted three times to the left and 
worked back the reverse way by taking the 1st hanger and 
passing it to the right over the 2nd runner ; take the two 
hangers and pass over the 1st and 2nd hangers to the left ; 
take the 2nd hanger and pass over 1st runner ; leave 1st 
and 2nd hangers on the right, and take 4th hanger and 
pass over 2nd runner to the right ; take the two runners 
and pass over 3rd and 4th hangers to the left ; take 4th 
hanger and pass over 1st runner to the right ; leave 3rd 
and 4th runners on the right, and take 5th hanger and pass 
over to the 2nd runner to the right ; take both the runners 
and pass over 5th and 6th hangers to the left ; take 6th 
hanger and pass over 1st runner to the right ; leave 5th and 
Gth hangers by the side of 3rd and 4th on the right ; take 
7th hanger and pass over 2nd runner to the right, and 
take both the runners and pass over 7th and 8th runners 
to the left ; take 8th hanger and pass over 1st runner to the 
right ; leave 7th and 8th on right by 5th and Gth; take 9th 
hanger and pass over 2nd runner to left, and take both the 
runners and pass over 9th and 10th hangers to the left, 
aud take 10th runner and pass over 1st runner to the right; 
leave 9th and 10th hangers on the right by 7th and 8th; 
take 13th hanger and pass over 2nd runner to the right ; 
take both runners and pass over 13th and 14th hangers to 



the left; take 14tli hanger and pass over 1st runner to the 
right; leave 13th and 14th on the right by lltli and 12th ; 
take 15tli hanger and pass over 2nd runner to the right ; 
take both runners and pass over 15th and 16th hangers to 
the left; take 16th hanger and pass over 1st runner to the 
right; leave 15th and 16th hangers on the right beside 
13th and 14th hangers; take 17th hanger and pass over 
2nd runner to the right ; take both runners and pass over 
17th and 18th hangers to the left ; take 18th hanger and 
pass over 1st runner to the right ; leave 17tli and 18th on 
the right by the 16th and 17th ; take the runners across 
the pillow, and put up pin in the pattern, Twist three 
times, and make the same stitch with the pair of runners 
which are waiting behind the left-hand pin; leave the 
pair just used in working across, and work back with the 
pair that has been waiting, commencing from 

Cucumber Braid. — Rule the Passement to a quarter 
of an inch between two parallel lines, as before, and 
prick twelve pinholes to the inch. Put up six pairs of 
Bobbins, work two rows of Cloth Stitch, putting up 
pins on right and left ; divide the bobbins into fours, and 
begin with the four middle ones; make a Cloth Stitch, 
and pass the bobbin nearest the right hand over the next 
bobbin towards the left hand. Take up the right-hand 
pair of centre bobbins and make a Cloth Stitch, pass 
the left-hand Runner over towards the right-hand 
runner, make a Cloth Stitch, put in the pin, and Twist 
each pair once, make a Cloth Stitch, and leave the right 
side. Take up the left-hand pair of the four middle 
bobbins, make a Cloth Stitch with the next pair towards 
left hand, pass the right-hand runner over the left-hand 
runner, make a Cloth Stitch, set up the pin, make 

Fiq. G5. Cucumber Bkaid. 

a Cloth Stitch, and pass the right-hand bobbin over the i 
left-hand bobbin. Now return to the middle four, and 
make a Cloth Stitch, pass the 1st right-hand bobbin 
over the 2nd towards the left-hand side ; then pass the 
3rd from the right hand over the 4th towards the left : 
work the right-hand pair back to right pin, as before, and 
the left-hand pair to the left-hand pin; continue to do 
this until perfect. See Fig. 65. 

Cucumber Braid as an Edging with an Inner Pearl 
Edge. — Hang on the Bobbins in two sets, five pairs and a 
Gimp for the Plain Edge side, four and a gimp for the 

Fig. 03. Cucumber Braid. 

Pearl Edge. Begin at the Plain Edge, work into the 
middle with Cloth Stitch, pass the gimp, and make the 
inside pearl by Twisting the runners six times ; stick a pin 

into inside hole, and work back ( see Fig. 66). Return to 
the middle, Twist the runners twice, and work the other 
side the same, but adding the Pearl Edge. Fill the 
centre with a Cucumber Plaiting, then Twist 1st and 
2nd runners twice; stick a pin in pillow to hold these 
threads, Twist 3rd and 4th runners, and work to the edge 
with them ; then return, and take 1st an 1 2nd runners to 
other edge. Make Inside Pearl as before, and repeat. 

Diamond Hole Braid. — Make a Hole in centre of 
braid, then work two Cloth Stitch rows, make a 
Hole upon each side, and Plait the four bobbins under 
the upper Hole with Cloth Stitch; work two Cloth 
Stitch rows, and make a Hole in the centre under the 
four bobbins which make the Cloth Stitch. Work Holes 
that go straight across the braid as follows : Begin from 
the left ; having put up a pin in the left hand, bring one 
pair of bobbins towards the right hand, making a Cloth 
Stitch with the first pair, leave all four hanging; take 
the next four bobbins and make a Cloth Stitch ; leave 
these four hanging, and take the next four and repeat ; 
this brings the work up to the right-hand pin. Put up 
a pin, and work back to the left hand with Cloth Stitch, 
having thus formed three small holes across the braid. 

Half or Shadow, or Lace Braid. — Prick the Passe- 
ment as in Cloth Braid, and put up twelve pairs of bob- 
bins. The Runners in this stitch are not brought in pairs 
across the braid. One goes straight across and the other 
slanting down the work. Put up six pairs of bobbins; 
work one row in Cloth Stitch across from left to right 
and back again ; make a Cloth Stitch, place the pair on 
one side, and give the running bobbins one Twist to 
the left; take the next pair, which is already twisted, 
pass the centre left-hand bobbin over the centre right- 
hand bobbin; Twist both pairs once to the left; bring 
forward the next pair, centre left hand over centre right 

Fiq 67. Half or Shadow, or Lace Braid. 

one Twist with both pairs, and continue this to the last 
pair, when make a Cloth Stitch without Twisting ; Twist 
three times, and put up pin for the Plain Edge ; return 
in the same way, making one Twist after the Cloth 
Stitch, as, unless the worker does this, and is very 
careful to bring only one runner across, the work will go 
wrong. This stitch is not drawn tightly, but a firm puli 
at the heads of all the bobbins must be occasionally 
given to keep the threads straight and even, and present 
a perfect open braid, as shown in Fig. 67. 

Hole Braid, or Flemish Stitch. — Prick the Passement 
as in Cloth Braid, and put up twelve pairs of bobbins. 
The holes are always made in the same way, although 
their arrangement, and the number of bobbins used, can 
be varied. Work across from left to right in Cloth 
Stitch six times, putting up the pins each side in holes 
pricked for them ; then divide the bobbins equally, and put 
a pin in the centre, having six pairs on each side. Take 



up left-hand bobbins and work with sis pairs in Cloth 
Stitch, which brings the work to the pin in the centre; 
then work back to the left, without twisting or putting up 
a pin, with the same six pairs, Twist and put up a pin and 
leave the bobbins* Take up those on the right baud, and 
work up to the pm in Cloth Stitch, and hack without Twist 

Fra. &i. Hoik Braid, on Flemish Ktixoh, 

or pin ; put up a pin and work across the whole twelve 
bobbins to the left hand, and so enclose the centre pin, 
which thus makes the Hole the Braid is called after. A 
badly- shaped Hole will disfigure the lace, but a well-made 
one requires practice and care. To avoid making it too 
large, do not draw the bobbins tight after dividing them, 
and keep the hanging bobbin drawn towards the centre 
pin. See illustration (Fig. 68). 

Ladder Braid . — Hang on twelve pairs of bobbins, 
divide the Hangees in halves, leaving two pairs of 
Runnees on left-hand side of pillow, and one pair of 
runners on right-hand side. Begin from left-hand side, 
work in the pin, and work with Cloth Stitch up to the 
middle of the hangers; Twist the pair of runners twice. 

Fig. 60. Ladder Braid. 

and work Cloth Stitch up to right-hand hangers ; work 
in the pin on the right, and return to the middle of the 
bangers ; Twist the pair of runners twice, and work 
Cloth Stitch to the left; repeat from side to side until 
the stitch is perfect, as shown in Fig. 69. 

Lattice Braid,- — Hang twelve pairs of bobbins on the 
pillow. Work in the pin on the right-hand side, and give 
one Twist to each pair of bobbins; take the pair of 
Runnees and make a Cloth Stitch with the 1st pair of 
Hangees; then take the bobbin nearest the right-hand 
pin, and pass it over the bobbin towards ^the left-hand pins 
then pass the 3rd bobbin over the 4th towards the left 
hand ; make a Cloth Stitch with the next pair of hangers, 

Fig, 70. Lattice Braid. 

and pass the right-hand bobbin over the one next to it 
towards the left-hand pin; then the 3rd over the 4th to the 
left hand, and continue until the left band of the Braid 
is reached. The same pair must ivork right across, and 
should he distinguished with a mark, j Sec Fig. 7G, In 
this stitch work the bobbins in a slanting direction 

instead of taking them straight across. Fig. 71 will show 
their direction. One side has its pin put 
in three pins in advance of l lie oilier. In 

Fig, 71, the dots down the side are the 
pinholes, the square ones between arc the 
finished stitches, the falling lines show 
He N iSli [ * 10 direction of the work. Keep the 
hangers tight down while working the 
H9E pair of ninuerc! across, which manage by 
continually pulling the hangers, and 

Fig, 71 . Lattice pressing down their heads to keep them 
Braid. , , , _ . . 

even, and to prevent the threads rising 

up when a pin is put in. This stitcli is much used for the 
inside or centre of flowers. 

Open Braid . — Hang on twelve pairs of bobbins. Make 
one row of Stem on each side, and keep the Run nee 
bobbins at the inner edge ; Twist each pair twice, make a 
Cloth Stitch, stick a pin in the centre hole, Twist twice, 

Fig, 73. Opoj Braid. 

and make the stitch about the pin, then Twist three times, 
and once more work Stem on each side for the space of 
two holes, and repeat centre stitch, as shown in Fig. 72. 

Open Cross Braid. — Fig. 73 may be worked with 
different numbers of bobbins, bat the illustration only re- 
quires eight pairs, and the usual she prickings on Passe- 
men t. Stick in pin right and left; divide the eight pairs 
of bobbins into three sets — that is, leave two pairs in the 
centre, two pairs to the right and the left, one pair 
behind the left-hand pin, and another pair behind the 
right-hand pin. Make a Cloth Stitch with the two 

Fig. 73. Open Cross Braid. 

centre pairs, cross the right-hand bobbin nearest the pin 
over the next bobbin towards the left hand, and cross the 
3rd bobbin from the right over the 4th towards the left 
hand. Make a Cloth Stitch with the left-hand pair of the 
centre four ; cross them as before ; make a Cloth Stitch, 
crossing the pair only with which the Cloth Stitch is to be 
made ; set up pin, cross each once, and make another Cross 
Stitch, crossing the runner once. Take the four middle 
bobbins, make a Cloth Stitch, and cross the bobbins as 
before, once; take up the pair on the right-hand side, and 
make a Cloth Stitch with the nest pair, but crossing the 
one pair only that is required to set up the pins ; haviug 
set up the pin, cross both pairs and make a Cloth Stitch; 
leave them, return to the middle bobbins and make a Cloth 
Stitch, cross, and return to the left, and so continue, always 
working from the centre alternately from left to right. 

G 2 



Plain Braid. — Made with eight pairs of bobbins in 

Fig, 71. Flaih Be aid. 

Cloth Stitch and a Plain Edge, as shown in Tig. 74. 

Slanting Hole Braid * — Begin from wliere the hole 3 are 
to commence, immaterial which side ; put in a pin, make 
a Cloth Stitch and a half with the first two pairs of 
bobbins, work back to the pin and leave them; take up 
the bobbins from tbe place worked on the opposite side 
of Braid, put up a pin and work right across, tighten the 
bobbin with a twitch, and upon reaching the hole return 
with a Cloth Stitch right across, leave these and begin 
from opposite side ; now work to the second set of four 
bobbins, make Half Stitch and return; take up the 
bobbins as before and work to the opposite side, and return 
right across and back again ; this must be repeated until 
the Braid is worked right across, taking four more bobbins 
from the side worked from each side, so that the holes are 
each time one stitch nearer the opposite side. A dice 
pattern, as shown in Fig. 75, can be formed by working 
from both sides of the Braid to form the hole ; it requires 
twelve pairs of bobbins, and, when not formed us a Braid, 
is either used as open work to other stitches, or for the 
half of a Stem when the other half is in Cloth Stitch ; take 
the four bobbins on the right hand, and work in tbe pin, 
leave them hanging, take the two 1st pair after the pin, 
Twist these twice and leave ; take the 2nd pair, twist 
thrice and leave, and continue in the same way up to the 
last pair on the left-hand side ; now return to the right 

Fig. 75. Sjanting Hole Braid, Dice Pattern, 

hand four behind the pin, work them over to the left side, 
give the runners a twist twice between each stitch until 
the pin is worked in, twist the pair in front of the pin 
twice and leave; twist each pair twice, then take up the 
left hand bobbin behind the pin, work in the pin, and, 
twisting the runners twice between each pair of bobbins, 
work back to the right hand* Fig. 75 illustrates this 
stitch as a square with Cloth Stitch. The square is begun 
from pair in the middle of the Braid, and increased each 
time until it reaches either side, then decreased until it 
becomes a single pair; the rest of the bobbins are used 
for Cloth Stitch, In working this Braid, each pair of 
bobbins must be Twisted the same number of times, so as 
to make the open work look in small squares. Some- 
times tbe hangers are Twisted four or sis: times, and tbe 
runners only twice. This makes a long stitch, and is 
chiefly used for the stalks of flowers. 

Branching Fibres. — In Hon i ton and Pillow Laces, 
where sprigs are formed separately from tbe ground, the 
sprigs are often diversified by adding to the chief stems 

in tbe leaves some indication of the fibres that run to right 
and left. Fig, 76 gives an ex- 
ample of these Branching Fibres 
on a close worked leaf. In working 
from this illustration use No. 9 
thread. Hang on six pairs of 
Bobbins, and commence with the 
stem and work to first fibre, then 
leave two pairs and w'ork the 
fi br e wi th f on r p airs, com i n g 
back with Return Rope; con- 
tinue the main stem, picking up 
the bobbins that were left, make 
another fibre with four pairs, coming back with Return 
Rope, do the opposite fibre in the same manner, and con- 
tinue up the main stem, picking up the left bobbins. 
Work these double fibres three times, and the stem to 
the end of the leaf. Half Stitch fills in the leaf, the 
tips of the fibres being connected to it as they touch; 
extra bobbins will be required for this part of the work. 
See Half Stitcii. 

Brandenbourgs. — Synonymous with " Frogs.” A 
button formed somewhat in the shape of a long and 
narrow barrel, smaller at the ends than the middle, and 
made of silk on a wooden foundation ; also, according to 
Fairholt, * f the ornamental facings to the breast of an 
officer's coat.” So termed from the place where the 
fashion originated, 

Brazil Lace, — Consists of two kinds, both probably 
remnants of the early Italian and Spanish Laces, The 
lace formed with drawn threads is good, but that made 
on the pillow has no pretension to beauty, and is only 
in use among the natives. 

Breadth, — (Anglo-Saxon Braed, or broad ; Old English 
Bredth , or Brcdetke.) A term employed in drapery and 
dressmaking to denote an entire piece of textile of any 
description, measuring from one selvedge to the other. 
Thus a skirt or an under garment said to contain so 
many Breadths, means lengths of material running the 
width way that it was manufactured in the loom. 

Bretelles, — A French term to signify an ornamental 

Breton Lace, Imitation. — A lace made with machine 
net and lace cotton, in imitation of the Run Laces, To 
work : Draw out the design upon pink calico, and upon 
this tack a good open meshed net. Work the outlines 

Fm, 77, Breton Lace. 

of design in Satin Stitch or Run, and fill in the 
thicker parts with Stem Stitch and Point Feston. 
To edge this Lace, lay a cord along it and Over- 



cast it ; ornament the cord with Picots, or finish 
it with the edging sold for Modern Point Lace. 
This edging must not be at all heavy, or it will detract 


from the light appearance of the Lace; it is frequently 
only Run with a double line of thread and the net cut 
straight beyond the running, as shown in Fig. 77, which 

is only Breton Lace Run with silk without lace stitches. 
Breton Lace can be worked in coloured silks or floss, 
and the foundation made of coloured net, or it may be 
fabricated of good Brussels net and cream coloured lace 

Breton Work. — An ancient Embroidery, long practised 
in Brittany, and still to be found on the best garments of 
the peasants. Like most ancient work Chain Stitch forms 
the chief motif, but Satin Stitch, Point Lance, Point 
Russe, &c., can also be introduced. The foundation 
material is either of cloth or silk, the embroidery in 


coloured silk3 and gold and silver thread. The work is 
usually made for borders to garments, and the two illustra- 
tions given are for that purpose. To work the flower one 
(Fig. 78) : Trace out the outline upon cloth or silk, and go 
over every thick line with Chain Stitch, and make the 
buds with Point Lance and with bright- coloured silks. To 
work the geometrical pattern (Fig. 79) : Trace the design 
upon cloth, and work it over with Satin Stitch, Point 
de Pois, Point Russe, and Stem Stitch, with gold and 
silver thread and coloured silks. Besides these border 
designs, Breton Work is also used for ornamenting necktie 
ends, book markers, &c., and then the patterns represent 



Breton peasants. Draw these to size upon paper, and 
transfer to silk ribbon. Cut the faces of the figures 
out of cream silk or sticking plaistcr, and ink in the 
feat uves, work them in Satin Stitch, as likewise the 
hands and legs; work the drapery in Chain Stitch. The 
costume of Breton women varies as to colour, but con- 
sists of a dark skirt or petticoat, with bright overskirt, 
white or black apron, embroidered with colour, dark body, 
with yellow, green, or scarlet handkerchief pinned across 
it, wide, but not high cap, with flapping sides, heavy gold 
earrings, chain and cross, sabots large and heavy, either 
of pale brown or black. Breton man — wide flapping black 
hat, short black jacket and breeches, ornamented with 
gold buttons and braid, bright w T aistcoat, white shirt, 
grey stockings, black sabots, and blue umbrella. The 

work is also known as Brittany embroidery. 

Brick Stitch. — Deed in Embroidery, but chiefly for 
Ecclesiastical w f ork ; a variety of Couching, and made 
with floss silk, Dacca silk, purse silk, or gold or silver 

Fig. 80. Binds. Sr ITCH. 

thread. The name is derived from the appearance of 
the stitches, representing regular courses of brickwork, 
as in Fig. 80. See Couching. 

Bridal Lace- — A Be tic ell a, or Drawn Lace, fabricated 
during the sixteenth and commencement of the seven- 
teenth centuries, in Italy, The peculiarity of this lace 
was that it was made for weddings, and the patterns were 
the coats of arms and other distinctive badges of the 
families about to be united. 

Brides, — See Baks. 

Brides Clair e&.—See Baes. 

Brides Oruees. — These are Bars ornamented with 
Picots, Pin Works, Half Wheels, and used to connect 

Fig, El # Pride Opnee, 

together the heavier portions of Needle- made Laces, These 
Brides Ornees can be made of any shape according to the 
spaces that require filling and the fancy of the worker. 

Fig. 82, Ornee. 

The illustrations (Figs. 81, 82, and 83) are some of the 
most effective. To work; Make the Bars of Button- 

holes, and for the Picots wind the thread while making 
a Buttonhole eight tones round the needle, and then 
draw it up tight; for the Coukonnes make a loop from 
one part of the Bar to the other, and return the thread 
to the point started from ; cover this loop ■with Button - 

Fro. S3. Bride Orn£e. 

hole, and make Picots upon it where indicated in the 
pattern. See Cobronnes and Picots. 

Brighton, Towelling Embroidery. — Modern work 
upon honeycomb, linen, or Java canvas, and upon 

Fig. 85, Fig. 83. 

Brighton Towelling. (Designs for Panama Canvas.) 
such washing materials as are woven so that the threads 
cross each other at equal distances, and are coarse enough 
to be counted. Any fancy stitches can be embroidered, 
the square threads of the material being counted and 
used to keep the designs apart and even in size. To 
work: Bun lines in squares over the canvas, and fill in 
these squares with crosses or devices, as showm. Work 
Fig. 84 with darned lines only, For Fig. 85 work a 



diamond with Backstitching and fill that m with 
Dots. For Fig. 83 work another diamond pattern, cover 
the outside with Dots, and fill in with Satin Stitch. 
Form borders with Drawn Threads, and make fringes 
of the material by drawing out all the threads one 
way of the material together, and knotting together or 
Buttonholing those left, to prevent the work fraying* 

Briliiante Lace Work. — A manner of colouring and 
ornamenting black lace used as edgings to small tea 
tables, mantel borders, &c. The foundation is broad 
and coarse Yak lace, and this is ornamented with 
stitches made in coloured filoselles, and with black bugles. 
To work : Select a piece of Yak lace with a star, rose, 
or some decided pattern; tack this to a brown paper 
foundation. Stitch coloured beads, or small black beads, 
to the centre part of a flower, or ornament, and work 
in coloured filoselles, either in Crewel Stitch, or Run- 
nings, round all the outlines of the pattern. Make 
rosettes, crosses, and little devices on the lace with 
different coloured silks, and finish off the outer edges 
of both sides of the lace with Buttonhole. Remove 
the lace from the paper back, and sew it on to crimson 
or blue cloth as a background to it, 

BrilHantines.— Dress fabrics composed of mohair or 
goats’ wool. They are to he had in all colours, and are 
called by various names, according to the fancy of the 
several firms producing or selling them. They are very 
silky looking, and are equally durable and light. 

Brilliants.— Muslins with glazed face, and figured, 
lined, or crossharrcd designs. 

Brioche Stitc h-Soe Knitting. 

British Point Lace,— A Thread Lace, formerly made 
in and near Loudon. Black Lace is the only variety now 
made, and that in very small quantities, 

British Raised Work. — This is also known by the 
name of Cut Canvas Work, and is worked upon leviathan 
canvas with four* thread fleecy wool, and the wool cut and 
combe d, giving it the appearance of velvet pile. To work : 
Trace the pattern wdth black wool and in Cross Stitch 
Take a skein of wool, fold it three times, and cut ; again 
fold each thread three times and cut, then tie once in 
the centre with fine string, whose ends pass through the 
canvas and firmly secure. When these tufts are thus 
made fast to the canvas, comb them out. The success 
of the work consists iu completely filling up the canvas 
with tufts and in arranging them in pretty coloured 
patterns. British Raised Work differs but little from 
Leviathan Raised Work. 

Brittany Embroidery— See Breton Work. 

Broadcloths. — So called because exceeding 29 inches 
iu width. The stoutest and best descriptions of woollen 
cloths. These, of course, vary in quality, and are termed 
superfine, second, and inferior. Broadcloth is seven 
quarters in width, Narrow Cloths being of hall the 
width named. All our superfine cloths are made of either 
Saxon or Spanish wool, an inferior kind of superfine 
being manufactured from English wool, as well as the 
seconds, of which liveries are made, and all the coarser 
kinds of various quality and price. The texture should 

not only he judged of by the fineness of the threads, 
but by the evenness in the felting, so that when the 
hand is passed over the surface against the Lie of the 
nap there should be a silkiness of feeling, uninterrupted 
by roughness in any part. To judge of the quality, a 
considerable portion should he taken into the two hands, 
a fold pressed strongly between the thumb and forefinger 
of one hand, and a sudden pull given with the other, and 
according to the peculiar clearness and sharpness of the 
sound, produced by the escape of the fold, the goodness 
of the cloth may he judged. There should not he a 
very satin-like gloss upon it, or it would he spotted by 
rain. Broadcloths, single milled, run from 52 to 63 inches, 
in wool -dyed woaded colours (blue, black, medleys, Oxford, 
and other mixtures}. In wool- dyed common colour and 
unwoaded there are black, medleys, Oxford, and other 
colours. Piece- dyed ivoaded colours are iu black, blue, and 
fancy colours ; and the piece-dyed unwoaded are in black, 
scarlet, gentian, and other colours, double milled, which 
run from 52 to 57 inches; medium cloths, from 54 to G3 
inches; ladies’ cloths, 54 to 63 inches (otherwise called 
habit cloths), which are of a light and thin make; 
Venetians, 54 to 58 inches ; army cloth, 52 to 51 inches ; 
beavers, pilots, mohair, 51 to 58 inches; cloakings, 54 to 
58 inches ; weeds (single, double, and treble milled), 
China striped cloths, piece- dye dy &e., 60 inches wide; 
India cloths, piece-dyed, 72 to 81 inches ; elastic glove 
cloth, 54 to 70 inches ; union cloths, cotton warps, picce- 
clycd, 52 to 54 inches wide; double colours, piece- dyed, 
51 to 63 inches. See Narrow Cloths. 

Broad Couching, — A variety of Couching. Floss silk, 
Dacca silk, sewing silk, purse silk, gold mid silver cord, 
used for the laid lines, and purse silk of different shades 
of colour for the securing. The stitch is tie same as 
Couching, and is illustrated in Fig. 87. See Couching. 

Eia. 87. Bug ad Couching. 

Brocade. — (Derived from the Latin Brocare , and French 
B rocker, to figure, prick, emboss, and stitch textiles.) Iu 
the present day all silk or stuff materials woven with a 
device are said to he brocaded; hut in olden times this 
term was applied to a costly silken fabric of stout make, 
having an embossed design woven in it in gold or silver 
threads, and sometimes enriched with gems and otherwise. 
It is named in the inventory of the wardrobe of Charles 
II,, where the price is given of different examples; the 
%i white and gold brocade at two pounds three and sixpence 
per yard, and Cohere du Prince at two pounds three 
shillings per yard.” Chinese and Indian Brocade have 
been famous from very remote times. The richest varieties 
have been made in Italy, and there was a considerable 
manufactory of them at Lucca iu the thirteenth century. 

Brocade Embroidery, — Modern work, consisting in 
covering over or outlining the various flower or geome- 
trical designs woven into brocaded materials. These 
patterns are outlined in Stem or Crewel Stitch, or a 



double piece of wool or silk cord is Couched along the 
chief edges of the design, as shown in illustration, Fig. 88. 
Greater effect may, however, be obtained by covering 
over the whole of the brocaded design, and leaving only 
the foundation material visible; when so treated Long 
or Satin Stitch is used, as in Satin Stitch Embroidery, 
for filling in the centres of the design, and gold or silver 
thread, or purse silk, to outline. Where the design is 
good and the colours judiciously blended, the work is 
mediaeval in appearance. The brocades are of silk or 
stuff; the embroidery in crewel wools, floss silk, purse 
silk, and gold and silver thread. To work, as shown in 
Fig. 88: take a thick strand of wool or silk and lay it 
down, following the outline of the design. Couch this 

Brocli6. — A French term denoting a velvet or silk 
textile, with a satin figure thrown up on the face. 

Broder and Broderie. — French terms for embroidery. 

Broderie Anglaise. — An open embroidery upon white 
linen or cambric, differing from Madeira work in being 
easier to execute, but of the same kind. True Broderie 
Anglaise patterns are outlines of various sized holes, 
arranged to make floral or geometrical devices. To work : 
Run embroidery cotton round the outlines, then pierce 
the holes with a stiletto, or cut with scissors and turn 
the edges under and Sew over with embroidery cotton* 
The art in the work consists in cutting and making all the 
holes that should be the same size to match, and in taking 
the Sewing over stitches closely and regularly, as shown in 


strand to the material with small stitches made with 
purse silk, and put in at regular intervals. Work the 
stitches in the centre of the pattern with Satin Stitch. 

Brocat. — A variety of brocade of rich quality, composed 
of silk interwoven with threads of gold and silver. 

Brocatelle. — A French term for linsey-woolsey. A silk 
material used for drapery, the linings of carriages, &c. It 
is also made of silk and cotton mixed, or of cotton only, 
after the manner of brocade. 

Brocatine. — A term employed to signify broche; that 
is, a method of weaving by which a raised pattern is pro- 
duced. Thus, there are silk Brocatines and woollen Bro- 
catines, or textiles having a raised design thrown up in 
the weaving. 

Fig. 90, on opposite page. When used as an edging, a 

Fig. 89. Bkodebie Anglaise, Scalloped Edge. 

scalloped or vandyked border is worked in Buttonhole 



Stitch, as shown In Fig, 89, the outer lines of the border 
being run in the same manner as the holes, and the centre 
frequently padded with strands of embroidery cotton. Do 
not cut away the waste linen outside the Buttonhole until 
the wort has been once washed, as it will then wear 
longer, and there is less fear of cutting the embroidery 
cotton in the process. When Broderie Anglais e is used 
for an insertion, it requires no edging. The work is 
adapted for trimming washing dresses or underlines 
Broderie de Malines. — A name given, in olden times, 
to Mechlin Lace, originating in the look of embroidery 

and draw the braid together at the edges to mate them 
flat, as in Modern Point Lace. For thick portions of 
the work the stitches are in Escalier or close Button- 
hole, while lighter parts require Point de Bruxelles or 
Point de Venise. Bars connect the braids together, as 
in real lace, when there is no filled pattern to be worked, 
while a twisted stitch, like Point d'Alen^on, fills up 
narrow spaces where greater lightness than that given by 
bars is required. 

Broderie Perse. — See Applique. 

Broderie Suisse. — See Applique. 

Fis. 90. BRODBR 

given to the lace by the peculiar thread that was worked 
in it, and that surrounded all the outside of the pattern. 

Broderie de Nancy. — Identical with Drawn Work 
and Punto Tirato. See Drawn Work. 

Broderie en Lacet*— An Embroidery upon satin with 
Silk Braid and Point Lace Stitches, useful for mantelpiece 
and table borders, Ac, To work : Draw the pattern upon 
the satin, and stitch the braid on to the lines, a thread of 
silk drawn from the braid being the best to use for sewing 
it down, as it matches exactly. Wherever the braid ends 
or commences, draw the ends to the back of the satin, so 
that no joins show in front of the work. Fill in the rounds 
and centres made by the braid with Point Lace Stitches, 


Broken Bobbins.— In Pillow Laces, when the runners 
or workers are broken, and require replacing, tie the new 
bobbins in close behind the pin nearest the runners, and 
work them into the lace before the knot joining them is 
cut close. Twist up broken hangers or passive bobbins 
behind the pin, and there tie. 

Brown Holland. — A kind of linen, so called because 
it is only half or altogether unbleached, and also because 
the manufacture was at one time peculiar to Holland. 
The half-bleached kinds are sized and glazed. ' There 
are also Hollands in black and in slate colour, and there 
is a light make of the unbleached brown called Sussex 
lawn, much used for women's dress* The glazed are 




employed for lining trunks and covering furniture. All 
linen textiles were anciently called Holland in England, 
as we learned the manufacture from that country, which 
was in advance of our people in the art. See Linen. 

Bruges Lace. — The Lace made at Bruges is of two 
kinds, one similar to Valenciennes, and the other called 
Guipure de Bruges. The former was not considered of 
much value, the Reseau ground being a round mesh, the 
bobbins of which were only twisted twice. The Guipure 
de Bruges is a species of Honiton Lace, with the sprig 
united with Brides Oraees. It is held in high esteem. 

Brussels Dot Lace.— See Brussels Lace. 

Brussels Edge. — This stitch is used to ornament the 
Headings or Footings of Needle Laces, and also in Modern 

Fio. 91. Brussels Edge. 

Point lace. Make it of a series of loose Buttonholes, 
secured with a Point de Bruxelles Stitch, as shown 
in Fig. 91. 

Brussels Grounds.— In modem Brussels Lace the 
net ground is made by machinery, but in olden times 
this was worked by the hand, either for the Pillow or 
Needle Lace. The Needle Lace Grounds were of two kinds 
— the Bride and the Reseau. The Bride is formed of the 
connecting threads already described in Bars ; the Reseau 
is a series of honeycomb-shaped hexagonal s formed with 
the needle, or upon the pillow, with the pattern of the 
lace, the manner of working which is shown in Fig. 92, 
and which is used for most of the neb grounds of old 
Needle Lace. The fine flax used for these Needle-made 

Fig. 92. Brussels Ground Roseau. 

Grounds often cost £240 per lb., and this rendered the 
lace very expensive. It required to be spun in a dark 
underground cellar, as air and light caused it to split, 
and the worker was obliged to feel, not see, the threads 
in the course of making. This fine flax is not used in 
machine net, a Scotch cotton thread being substituted, 
which renders the lace much cheaper, but not so durable. 
The Needle-made Ground is more expensive than the 
Pillow, as it takes four times longer to execute. The 
Pillow Reseau, introduced early in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, is called Au Fuseau, and is made in narrow 

strips upon the parchment pattern, and united together 
by an invisible stitch, known as Raccroc. This stitch 
requires a magnifying glass to detect it. The Au Fuseau 
most used is a Mechlin ground, and is made upon a parch- 
ment pattern, being a six-sided mesh, with pins inserted 
into the pattern at set distances, to form even meshes; 
round these pins the worker turns and tw T ists the threads, 
over and round each other, until the desired mesh is 
formed, two sides of which are plaited and four twisted. 
The threads for Brussels Grounds are four in number, 
and the worker carries the line of mesh from side to side 
in a perpendicular line. Rosette and star grounds were 
also made like those used in Valenciennes and Normandy 
Laces ; and, indeed, for variety of pattern and beauty of 
execution in ground work, Brussels Lace has no rival. 
See Reseau. The Brussels wire ground is formed with 
silk, and is a partly arched, partly straight mesh; the 
pattern is worked with the needle separately. 

Brussels Net. — Of this textile there are two kinds — 
Brussels Ground and Brussels Wire. The former is 
made of the finest flax, having a hexagonal mesh, four 
threads being twisted and plaited to a perpendicular line 
of mesh; the latter of silk, the mesh partly straight 
and partly arched. It is sold by the yard for women’s 
evening dresses and other articles of wear, being double 
width, and the best description of net that is made. 

Brussels Point, Imitation.— A lace formed with 
braid laid on net and ornamented with lace and darning 
stitches. The work is much easier of execution than most 
imitation laces, cleans well, and the w f orker has ample 
scope for taste from the number and variety of stitches 
with winch the net can be adorned. The materials are : 
best cream-coloured net of a clear honeycomb, cream- 
coloured braids of various kinds, the usual lace thread, 
also cream-coloured lace edging. The different braids 


Fig. 93. Fig. 94. Fig. 95. Fig. 96. 

are shown in Figs. 93, 94, 95, and 96. Fig. 96 is founda- 
tion braid, and the one most used; Fig. 94 a variety of 
the same, generally put as the Engrelure; Fig. 93 for 
small flowers, Fig. 95 for larger. A variety of Fig. 95 
is shown as forming the flowers in Fig. 97. The 
manner of working is as follows: Trace the pattern of 
the lace on pink calico, and back with brown paper. Take 
Fig. 97 as pattern (which is intended for a flounce, and 
reduced to half-size). Tack on to the pattern a straight 





piece of well-opened net, run on the top braid, and the 
braid forming the scallops, which narrow where so re- 
quired by turning it under itself. Then tack on the 
braid that forms the heading. None of these braids are 
more than tacked to their places, and their ends are 
not cut, but rolled up, so that the flounce can be finished 
without joins. Cut the fancy braid (Fig. 95) where it 
narrows, and tack the pieces singly on to form the 
flowers. Now secure these braids, the single sprays first, 
by Overcasting* their edges on to the net. Where cut 
at the points Buttonhole them down, but only enough 
to prevent them from unravelling and to give a pointed 
finish. Give a little turn of the thread round one 
honeycomb of the net beyond their other points, to make 
them look light. After they are secure, Darn the 
thread in and out of the net to form stalks and tendrils, 
and make the Dots that finish the work by Buttonholing 
round one honeycomb for the larger ones, and by thick 

neater to sew it on after the lace has been unpicked 
from the pattern, but more difficult than when the lace 
is still in position. 

Brussels Point Laoe. — This name is given as a 
general term, with that of Brabant Lace, Point d’Angle- 
terre, and Point de Flandre, to the laces made at Brussels, 
classing together the Needle and the Pillow made Laces. 
Brussels is equally celebrated for her Needle and Pillow 
Laces, and for centuries has maintained without rivalry 
the highest position in lace making. Her Needle Laces 
are known as Point d’ Aiguille, Point d’Angleterre, and 
Point Gaze, and her Pillows as Point Plat. The manu- 
facture of these kinds of lace is earned on to the present 
time. The making of Brussels Lace seems to have com- 
menced in the fifteenth century, when laces in imitation 
of Spanish and Venetian Point were made, as well as 
Genoese Guipures, and to have been upheld in the country 
through all its wars and persecutions during the following 


Overcasting for the smaller ones. Then Overcast all 
the remaining braids, taking the stitches in their outer 
edges. Fill the interior of the scallops with fancy darn- 
ing stitches, Buttonholed Spots, and lace Wheels. The 
darned stitches are easily made by taking advantage of 
the honeycomb of the net, and present a good field for 
the display of individual taste. Thus, the thread may 
be run across the net with an occasional loop round a 
honeycomb, or down it as a Herringbone, or transverse, 
ending as a Spot, or a combination of lines. Herringbone, 
and Spots made. The lace stitches should be simple 
Point de Bruxelles, Point d’Alen^on, and Point 
d’Angleterre, and should be worked adhering to the 
net. The little spots over the surface of the net work 
simply over and over until a sufficiently thick knob is 
made. They are a great help to the lace, and should 
never be omitted. The pearled edge is Overcast on the 
scallops when the rest of the work is finished; it is 

three centuries. The Pillow Laces were manufactured 
under the supervision of the nuns, and were largely used 
as Bone laces on the Continent by those lace wearers who 
could not afford to purchase the more expensive Needle 
Lace. The Needle Lace, or Point d’ Aiguille, made in 
Brussels during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
was so much imported into England, that in 1065 the 
native laces were protected by an Act of Parliament, and 
from that date Brussels lace was known as Point d’Angle- 
terre, being smuggled to England and sold under that 
name, by which it was called in a few years’ time all 
over the Continent. The earliest Point a l’Aiguille 
patterns were taken from the ancient Point de Venise, 
and were made like the earliest Alen^on and Argentan 
Laces, with Raised Work, and a thick Cordonnet, 
except their grounds, which were simple open button- 
holes, known as Point de Bruxelles, neither with Brides 
or net patterned meshes. The flowers of the patterns 

u 2 

5 * 


were fine, and the Fillings open, without many picots, 
all that were used being made on the Cordonnet, The 
net-patterned Roseau ground succeeded the earlier lace, 
and the patterns, like those of Alen^on, followed the 
fashion of the age, changing from Renaissance to Rococo, 
and from that to dotted ; in fact, they degenerated from 
their old beauty, although the workmanship was as 
excellent as ever* The illustration (Fig* 08) is of a 
Brussels needle point of the earliest part of the present 
century, and is taken from a piece formerly in possession 
of Queen Charlotte* The patterns of the lace have much 
improved of late years, and the kind that is worked with 
the Yrai Rescan ground is the most valuable lace that 

together, as in Fig- 99; the grounds were made in narrow 
strips upon the pillow, joined together with the invisible 
Raceme Stitch, and the sprigs finally attached ; but, at the 
present day, the ground is machine -made net, and the 
sprigs only of real lace. Many specimens of Brussels Lace 
display flowers made both with the needle and on the 
pillow mingled together; and these patterns are remark- 
ably good. The making of Brussels Lace, like that of 
Alen^on, is not confined to a single worker, but many 
hands are engaged in forming one piece, a plan originally 
adopted to hasten the execution of the numerous orders 
for the work. With the pattern the real workers have 
no concern ; their pieces are distinct, and are put together 


can be obtained. The flowers are first made and the 
ground worked from one to the other, as in illustra- 
tion, Fig. 3, page 3, The best lace is made at Binche 
and Brussels, although other towns also manufacture it, 
and one reason of its great cost is the fine flax thread, 
which is grown in Brabant, and spun by hand* The use 
of this thread for the grounds of Brussels Lace is now 
confined to orders for royal weddings, &c,, and the 
ordinary Brussels Lace is made of sprigs which are laid 
upon machine net made of Scotch thread* The Brussels 
Pillow Lace, though not so good as that made with the 
needle, was more used on the continent, and a greater 
article of commerce than the Needle Lace* Pillow Lace 
was formerly made in one piece, flowers and ground 

by the head of tlie establishment: thus the platteuse 
makes the pillow flowers, the point euse the needle -made 
ones, the dmchcleuse the Yrai Reseau ground, the 
formeuse the open stitches, the denteli&re the footings, 
the attacheuse unites the portions of lace together, and 
the striqueuse attaches the sprigs to the machine net. 
These machine nets have made a vast difference in the 
trade at Brussels, and with the exception of the modern 
Point Gaze, the lace makers now limit their work to the 
making of the needle or pillow flowers* Real Brussels 
Lace, with the Yrai Reseau, costs in England 42s. 
the yard, 2 £ inches wide ; the same, with machine ground, 
2s. Gd. the yard. Point Gaze, the modem Brussels 
Lace, so called from its needle ground or Fond Gaze, which 



is an open gauze-like mesh, is made in small pieces, 
like the other Brussels Laces, the ground and flowers at 
one time, and the joins carefully arranged so as to be 
hidden by the pattern. The Cordoimet is not a Button- 
holed edging, but is a thread caught round by others. 

mentioned by old writers. It received the first prize for 
Bone Laces in 1752. The Baby Lace before mentioned was 
chiefly made in Buckinghamshire, though it was not 
unkno wn In Be Jib rdshi re . T he grouu d s w ere th e Re scan , 
net- patterned and wire, the design shown In Fig. 100 

S O 


The stitches are varied and raised in some parts. It 
requires three people to make it — one to make the flowers 
and ground, another the fancy stitches, and the third the 
Cordoimet. The habit of whitening the Brussels Lace 
sprigs, after they are made, with a preparation of white 
lead, is most injurious, causing the lace to turn black when 


being called Buckinghamshire Trolly, from the outline 
of the pattern being accented with a thick thread, 
known as trolly hy the workers. The finer Roseau 
grounds bare now been displaced by plaited Maltese 
patterns in black lace. These are the flat Maltese pat- 
terns, and are not raised like the black lace produced 


put away near flannel or woollen materials, and producing 
a disease among the striqueuses. 

Buckinghamshire Lace.— This is of the same date 
as Bedfordshire Lace, and shared witli it the name 
of English Lille during the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. The lace produced in Buckinghamshire was 
considered superior to that of Bedford, and was more 

in Bedfordshire, the stitches being similar to those used 
in Iloniton Laec. The industry is reviving, and some 
good specimens of modern Buckinghamshire were ex- 
hibited in 1SS4, at the Health Exhibition. 

Buckle Braid * — See Braids. 

Buckle Stitch. — This stitch is used in Honiton and 
other Pillow Laces as an open braid, for open fibres down 

5 + 


the leaves of sprays, or for stems. It requires eight pairs 
of bobbins — -four workers or Hungers, and four passive 
or Hangers, but the number of the latter can be in- 
creased according to the width required. To work : First 
row, work from left to right into the middle across the 
two pairs of hangers, Twist the runners once, and also 
the next pair (which will now become the fourth work- 
ing pair) ; make a Cloth Stitch, Twist both pairs once, 
continue across to other side with the first workers, make 
the edge stitch, and bring them back into the middle. 
Twist once, and leave them. Take up fourth runners, 
work to the left edge, back into the middle, Twist once. 
Two pairs of runners will now be in the middle and both 
twisted ; make a stitch with these pairs, Twist once, 
then work with each of these to the edges, and back 

into the middle. In the illustration of the convolvulus 
spray (Fig. 101), Buckle Stitch is shown as a braid 
to the flower, as stems to the leaves, and as open fibre 
down the centre of the leaves. 

Buckram, — (Latin Buchiranus, French B aura can or 
Barracan.) This textile was originally manufactured at 
Bokkara, in the Middle Ages, and was also called Farms 
Tartarian #, and afterwards Baker am. It was then a fine 
and costly stuff, and much esteemed. The material now 
known as Buckram is a coarse linen or cotton cloth, 
stiffened with glue. It is strong, though loosely woven, 
and is used for the making of bonnet shapes. A variety 
of it is placed by tailors between the cloth and the 
lining of a garment in which some degree of stiffness 
is required. It is made both in white and black, and 
is sold in lengths of 10 or 12 yards. Buckram, with a 
highly-sized paper face, is employed for making labels for 

luggage, and is called ticket-buckram. It was originally 
as costly as the richest silks, and in Louis XY/a time 
was used for stays. 

Buckskin. — A kerseymere cloth of very fine texture, 
embroidered with silk by children. It is remarkably 
beautiful, is designed for waistcoatings, and is manu- 
factured at Bradford, Yorkshire. See Kerseymere. 

Buckskin Cloth* — A species of closely -woven woollen 
cloth, designed to supply the place of buckskin leather, 
and of a cream* white colour, It is preferred to corded 
cloth for riding, being fine, smooth, thick, and firm in 
its texture, and measures 27 inches in width. 

Buckskin Leather, — This leather is dressed with oil, 
after the method of chamois leather, and is employed for 

the use of cavalry soldiers. It was substituted for woollen 
cloth by the selection of the Duke of Wellington, with the 
exception of the two regiments of Life Guards, The 
greater part of the deerskins employed are imported from 
the United States of America. 

Budge, — (Old English). Lambskin, with the wool 
dressed outwards. Formerly used as an edging and 
decoration, more especially for scholastic habits. It is 
still employed as a trimming on the City liveries. Budge- 
row was so named after this fur, as the dressers of it 
used to reside there. It is mentioned by Chaucer, and 
also by Milton — 

** Oh, foolishness of men, that lend their ears 
To those budge doctors of the Stoic fur! 

Buff Leather, — This is a preparation of the skin of 
the buffalo, so named from its colour. It is durable and 
strong, and is employed for military accoutrements and 




*: v 


' » 

s , ' •. 






uniforms. In earlier times, it was used to supply the place 
of armour. Imitations are made of the skins of oxen. 

Bug! es . — ( L a ti n, B ugulus.) An ornament worn by 
women, consisting of an elongated glass bead, sold in 
various colours, but chiefly in black, and much used for 
trimmings of bonnets, mantles, and dresses* 

Bute Muslin . — See Book Muslin, 

Bulgur e Pleat, — A double box pleat, employed at the 
back of a dress skirt at the waistband, to produce an 
extra fulness* 

Bulgarian Needlework, — A description of oriental 
needlework executed in Constantinople by the refugees 
from Btilgaria. The material upon which the em- 
broidery is executed is worked in hand looms by the 
workers, and resembles coarse unstlffened black or white 
muslin. The embroidery is especially beautiful, being 
firm, compact, and even, and is the same on both sides- 
It is made with gold or silver thread and silks of 
different colours ; both threads and silks are much finer 
in texture than those used in England, and are capable 
of being passed in and out of the work without raising 
the pattern from the muslin foundation. The stitches 
used are not named in England ; the one most employed 
is a rem line worked over with a line of stitching, 
while lines of gold or silver thread are made by Over- 
casting in a slanting direction, and leaving no space 
between each stitch* The value of the work is judged, 
by the Bulgarians, by the amount of gold thread 
employed in each pattern, and very little attention is 
paid to the labour of the execution and the time 
spent over bringing it to perfection. The designs, before 
the Countess Dufferin took the work under her protec- 
tion, were of no particular art value; but since a com- 
mittee has been formed to help and encourage the 
development of the trade, good arabesques and oriental 
patterns are worked, and the result is much superior in 
execution and colouring to the ordinary oriental em- 

Bullion Embroidery*— As ancient as Embroidery with 
gold thread, and dates hack to the time of the Phrygians, 
By early writers it is called embroidery with gold wire, and 
as such mentioned as being used about Aaron's garments* 
It was known to the Egyptians, Hebrews, and Romans in 
very early times, and by them embroidery, when wrought 
in solid gold wire or gold thread, was distinguished by the 
name of “ Auriphrygium,” even as embroidery with silk was 
called Phrygio or Phrygian work, from the first workers. 
From Auriphrygium the old English word “ Orphrey ” is 
derived* Much of the celebrated Opus Anglieanum of the 
eleventh and following centuries was ornamented with 
bullion work. It is now but sparingly used In ecclesiastical 
embroidery for monograms and work in relief, and is 
chiefly employed for ornamenting uniforms or for heraldic 
devices* The work is difficult of execution ; the twisted 
gold wire being so formed that it will pull out to any 
length, and has therefore to be laid on with the greatest 
exactitude so as to fit the place it has to fill without being 
unduly drawn out or pressed together. The patterns are 
the same as used in ordinary ecclesiastical embroidery, 
and the bullion is laid on for stems, works in relief, and 

letters. To work : For raised work and letters, cut a card- 
board foundation to the design, and lay this over the 
holland backing ; upon this sew down a stuffing of yellow 
carpet threads, and lay the bullion over all* The work is 
done in a frame and Applique to the proper foundation* 
First cut the lengths of bullion to their various sizes with 
a sharp pair of nail scissors, and lay them upon an extra 
piece of cloth, and place on the frame for the worker to 
select from ; when required, pick them up with the needle 
without touching them with the hand* Use Walker's 
needle No* and strong yellow sewing silk, waxed and 
doubled, for working with. Bring the sewing thread 
through from the back of the linen foundation, pick up 
the bullion and run it down like a bugle, and pass the 
needle through the linen on the opposite side to where it 
came out, leaving the bullion upon the raised surface* 
The hand, while working, keeps a strong and even hold of 
the silk, firmly drawing it through and laying down each 
twist of bullion side by side, regulating its position with 
the flat end of the piercer, but never touching it* The 
bullion is always better cub a little longer than required, 
so as to lay down without dragging over the raised surface, 
and so that it may completely cover the sides* The five 
sorts of bullion (rough, check, pearl, wire, and smooth) are 
often worked in together, and make a species of diaper 
pattern, with judicious intermixture* The check is all 
glitter, and should therefore he used with greater caution 
than the others, one line of check to three of rough being 
the right proportions* Bullion embroidery, when used for 
letters and large pieces, is applied to the material, as in 
Applique ; but when worked upon a piece of silk em- 
broidery that has already to he applied, it can be worked 
in the frame with it. 

Bullion Knot. — Useful in Crewel and Silk embroideries, 
and largely employed in ancient embroideries for the 
foliage of trees and shrubs, and the hair of figures* It is 
made of a number of rings of silk or crewel, obtained by 
being rolled round the working needle, and this roll laid 
fiat along the surface of the work, instead of being raised 
up and knotted together, as in French Knot* To make : 
Put the needle into the material where one end of the 
Bullion Knot is to come, and bring the point out at the 
other end, and round this point wind the silk and the 
wool ten or twelve times (according to the space to he 
covered) and then carefully draw the needle through, while 
keeping straight the knots or rolls upon it, by holding 
them down with the left thumb* Still holding down the 
rolls, insert the needle into the other end of the space 
where it was first put through, and gently pull the thread 
until the knots lie all along the intervening space as a 
long roll* A quantity of these long rolls laid together, 
and of various lengths, form a variety in the trees in 
ancient landscape embroideries with French Knots, 

Bullion Lace. — A Lace made of gold and silver thread, 
and of great antiquity, the earliest laces being made of 
gold threads* The patterns are simple, and like Greek 
and Maltese Laces, It is much used in the East for orna- 
menting robes of state, and is found in Italian and French 
churches upon the priests' vestments and saints' rooes. In 
England, owing to the climate, it is rarely seen. An in- 



ferior Bullion Lace is used for footmen’s cloth es, although 
such was the extravagance of the ancient nobility, that in 
the time of Queen Anne the most expensive hind was 
employed for this purpose. 

Bullion Lace or Braid (Latin Bidlio, a mass of gold 
or silver; old English Bully on).— Officers’ epaulettes are 
made of a large gold wire, which is called “bullion, 5 * a 
smaller hind is called "frisure,” a Hat gold ribbon is 
called “cliquant,” and all are classed under the name of 
“ cannetille.” 

Bundle, or Bomal, Handkerchiefs. — These arc 
made in dark blue plaids, in both cotton and linen. The 
former measure 34 inches by 39; the latter 37 inches 
by 41, 

Bunting (German Bunt, i.e *, variegated, streaked, or 
of different colours)*— A thin open-made kind of worsted 
stuff, employed for flags, and, of late years, for women's 
dresses* The width runs from 18 to 36 inches. 

Burano Lace, — In this island a considerable quantity 
of lace was manufactured during the eighteenth century, 
and the art lingered in the nunneries until 1845, Within 
a few years the making of lace in Burano lias revived, hut 
the new patterns are not as delicate as the old ones. 
Burano Lace was a hand-made Venetian Point, with a 
Roseau and not Bride ground ; it resembled both Alengon 
and Brussels Needle Laces. The thread used was fine, 
and of extreme delicacy. 

Fig* 102 . Buttonhole, Ornamental. 

Burden Stitch, — A variety of Cushion Stitch and 
Plain Couching, called “ Burden,” as it was used by a lady 
of that name, at the South Kensington Needlework School, 
for working flesh, but dating from the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, when German, Flemish, and Italian 
schools used it for grounding, and for working flesh in 
embroidery. The beauty of the stitch consists in every 
thread being laid evenly down, and caught or secured in 
exact lengths* To work : Lay the floss silk forming the 
ground straight across the foundation, and bring a small 
fastening stitch through from the back, return it to the 
back, and there secure it. Keep these fastening stitches 
at even distances from each other, hut do not begin at the 
same place for each row, but at every Other row, as in 
Plain Couching. 

Burlop, — An arrangement at the top of a dress im- 
prover, so termed in certain shops* 

Busks. — Broad flat steels employed by stay makers to 
stiffen the fronts of stays. These are often covered with 
chamois leather before they are inserted in their outer 
casing* In former times these busks were made of wood* 
Buttonhole, Ornamental.— The illustration (Fig* 102) 
is of an ornamental Buttonhole. Work the spray of leaves 
in raised Satin Stitch, the stem and battlemented out- 
line surrounding the Buttonhole in Overcast, and the 
dots in Point be Pois* 

Buttonhole Stitch. — One of the chief stitches in all 
Needle-made Laces, and equally known as Close Stitch and 
Point None. It is used for the thickest parts of all 
patterns, and called Oordonnefc when outlining or raised. 


J ■ 

Fig. 103 . Buttonhole in Lace Wore* 

The manner of working is identical with Buttonhole 
Stitch ; but, as a number of rows are required instead 
of the ordinary single Buttonhole, the loops of each row 
are used for the foundation of the next, and the needle is 
passed through every one of them. The effect of this is 
that no raised ridge is left on the surface of the stitch, 
hut it has the appearance of a solid mass of upright close 
lines. Worked as follows: Throw a foundation thread 
across the space to be filled from right to left, and 

Fig. 104 . Button hole Stitch forming Thick Part of Lace, 

firmly secure it; put the needle into the Cordon net 
or other already made part of the lace, and then down- 
wards behind the foundation thread; and pass the 
working thread to the right, under the needle, to 
form a loop upon the foundation thread when drawn 
up tight, as shown in Fig. 103. Continue these loops 



to the end of tlie space, and pull all up to the same tight- 
ness and work close, hut do not overcrowd. At the end 
of the line secure the thread, then throw it back again 
to the left to form a foundation line, and repeat, using the 
raised edge of the buttonhole this time to pass the needle 
through instead of the Cordonnet or already formed lace. 
Fig. 104 shows the important part in lace that this stitch 
plays, all the solid part of the pattern being formed by it. 

Buttonholes. — In linen or calico cut the hole with the 
thread of the material, using the proper scissors, exactly 
the diameter of the button ; insert the needle four or five 
threads from the edge on the wrong side, and bring out 
on the right, holding the material so as to let the button- 
hole lie along the forefinger (Fig. 105). When the thread 
is drawn through ready for use, hold it down with the left 
thumb, so as to make a loop at each stitch ; and in passing 
the needle through the material, bring it likewise through 
the loop, leaving a sort of Chain Stitch along the edge, A 
bar of Buttonhole Stitching should be made across each 
end of the hole. This work must be done from left to 
right. One or two loose strands 
of thread should he kept along 
the edge, over which sew, and 
when the Buttonhole Stitching 
is finished, thread the loose 
strand on the needle and pull 
it slightly, and thus draw the 
hole even ; then fasten off, dinn- 
ing in the ends of thread under- 
neath, In working on thick 
cloth, cut the bole like an elon- 
gated V, the wide part at the edge* The silk employed 
is tailors’ twist. The bar at each end of the Buttonhole 
is called by some a “bridge,” The needle should be 
brought through the loop of thread, which the engraver 
has failed to do in the illustration* Tbe bar at the end 
has not been given. 

Buttonhole Twist. — This is employed to bind and 
strengthen buttonholes in cloth stuffs. It is sold by lose, 
and 2oz. reels, and by the yard wound in twelve strands. 

Buttons* — (French Bouton, Welsh Botwm*) These sub- 
stitutes for hooks are made in every variety of stuff, 
depending on the material of the garment or article of 
furniture requiring them. Linen ones, and those of silk 
and cotton, can be bought machine-made, but they can be 
hand-made by covering a wooden mould designed for the 
purpose, or a round fiat bone foundation* The strongest 
fourfold linen buttons are sold by tbe dozen or the gross, 
and are measured by lines, from 6 to 3G. Some kinds are 
covered in hand crochet, netting, and gimp. Other varieties 
can be had in ivory, hone, jet, mother- o’- pearl, leather, 
glass, and metals of all kinds— those of polished metal 
covered with a thin coating of gold or silver being the 
most durable. They are made with and without shanks, 
those of bone, horn, and mother -o’ -pearl being drilled with 
holes necessary for their sewing on, when there is no 
shank, and when uncovered by any textile* The most 
ancient form of button was a short cylinder, which was 
sewn at the middle upon the garment* 

Byzantine Embroidery.— A modem wort, dating from 

Fig, 105, Buttonhole Stitch* 

1878* It is a combination of Onlaid Applique, Couching 
outlines, and fancy stitches, and useful for ornamenting 
leather, cloth, and such materials as are too thick for 
the needle to be easily taken through them. Geometrical 
and arabesque outlines are traced upon cloth or fine 
leather, and strands of filoselle, double crewels, or worsted, 
laid down upon these lines, and secured by a fastening 
thread coming from the back of the material, and return- 
ing to it as in Applique and ecclesiastical embroidery* The 
beauty of the work consists in selecting suitable colours 
for these strands of filoselle, &c., upon their raised appear- 
ance, and upon the catching down threads being put in at 
regular distances. Tlieir ends must be brought from the 
back, as in braiding. Byzantine Embroidery is enriched 
by applying to the design pieces of cloth, silk, or satin 
of varied colours. These are surrounded with a thick 
strand of filoselle or cord, as in Applique* Fancy stitches, 
such as Satin Stitch, Feather Stitch, Wheels, and 
French Knots, are worked over such applied pieces or on 
to the leather or cloth in vacant spaces. To work : Trace 
out the pattern upon fme cloth and cut this out* Lay the 
cloth upon a different coloured foundation, and slightly 
tack it down. Then take a strand of filoselle or some 
fine braid, and Couch it down along the edge of the 
cloth, so as to connect that firmly to the material. Work 
In with filoselle and with Satin Stitcii any parts of the 
design that require filling in. 


Cable Knitting.— See Knitting* 

Caddis* — A variety of worsted lace or ribbon. 

Cadis*— A kind of coarse serge, 

Cadiz Lace. — A stitch used in old needle point and 
modem point laces* It takes two lines to make, and is 
one of the numerous varieties of Point de Bruxelles. 
It is worked as follows : First row— work 6 Poiut de 
Bruxelles close together, * miss the space that 2 would 
take up, work 2 Point dc Bruxelles, miss the space of 2 
and work 6, repeat from # to end of row. Second row — * 
work 2 Point dc Bruxelles into every loop left in first row, 
missing all tbe thick stitches of whatever number. Third 
row — work like the first, commencing with the 6 close 
Point de Bruxelles stitches. Fourth row as second* Re- 
peat to end of space. 

Caen and Eayeux Lace. — In the department of Cal- 
vados, Bayeux and Caen are justly celebrated for their 
black silk blonde laces, which are identical with those made 
at Chantilly, Before 1745 the lacemakers at Caen made 
a white thread lace of Venetian design, the needle point 
flowers being surrounded with a heavy thread called lf fil 
de crin,” instead of the ordinary thick cordonnet of Venice 
points. The Blondes de Caen were first made in 1745 from, 
a silk of an ecru colour brought from Nankin, which after- 
wards gave place to a beautiful white silk brought from 
Cevennes, and which established the reputation of the lace* 
Blonde de Caen was made of two descriptions of silk, one 
used for the pattern, and the other for the ground* The 
manufacture of this beautiful white blonde was destroyed 
by the machine blondes made at Nottingham and Calais* 
The Blonde Matte, which resembles Chantilly lace, is 



described under that beading. At the present time, Caen, 
with Chantilly and Bayeux, produces black silk laces, and 
this city is considered to excel in the making of piece goods, 
such as veils, scarves, and dresses. {See Fig. 106.) These 
large pieces of lace are joined with the celebrated raccroc 
stitch, and so beautifully as to be almost imperceptible. 
The workers cam about 50 sous a day, and more than 
25,000 are engaged in the trade. 

Calamanco, or Callimanco. — (Spanish, Calamaco , a 
kind of worsted stuff ; French Calmande.) This material 

the art of printing upon ootton textiles. In 1712 the 
printing of these goods in England, exported plain from 
India (on account of a prohibitory Act passed at one time 
against the importation of printed cottons and chintzes), 
was introduced, and England now carries on the largest 
trade in the world. America produces the next in quantity, 
France and Switzerland follow, but produce goods far 
superior in quality to the American. The introduction of 
the manufacture of cotton into Europe was effected by the 
Arabs or Moors of Spain, who brought the cotton plant to 


resembles Tammies and Durants. It is highly glazed, and 
can be had plain or twilled, raised in stripes or brocaded, 
the width ranging from 27 to 36 inches. It is employed for 
women’s petticoats. 

Calfskin. — Calfskins, which are imported from the 
Baltic, are taken from younger animals than those killed 
in this country, and are employed in the manufacture of 
gloves and ladies’ shoes, as well as for bookbinding. 

Calico. — The name of this textile is derived from Calicut, 
a seaport town on the coast of Malabar, the birthplace of 

that country, from the fleecy wool of which the yam for 
calico is spun. It is made into hanks containing 810 yards 
each. It was brought to England in the year 1631, but not 
manufactured here until 1772. The various makes of 
calico are known respectively under the following names : 
Cotton Cloth, Croydons, Derries, Double Warp, Dacca 
Twist, Longcloth, Loom Sheeting, Madapolams, Power- 
loom Sheetings, Swansdown Unions, and Wigans. There 
are also printed calicoes. The widths rarely measure above 
33 inches, and those numbered 33 or 36 inches seldom reach 



that standard. “ Fents ” are ends of calicoes of different 
descriptions. Calico should have an even selvedge, fine 
and close in the woof and warp, without kncts and flaws. 
Cheap sorts are dressed with a coating of lime and china 
clay, to detect which a comer should be rubbed together in 
the hands, when it will fall off in powder. Unbleached 
calico of a coarse description goes by the name of “ bley ” 
in Ireland. ( See each make under its own heading.) The 
cotton plant is grown in Egypt, the United States, and 
Brazil, as well as in the East Indies. 

Calico Prints —See Cotton Prints. 

Calico Shirting. — Otherwise known as Twine Cloth. 
A very evenly made cotton material, supplying a good 
imitation of linen, and employed for shirt making. It rims 
from 32 inches to 36 inches in width, and is made both in 
single and double warp. 

Californian Embroidery. — The natives of California, 
before that land was discovered, in the sixteenth century, 
by the Spaniards, were unacquainted with silk and other 
ordinary embroidery materials ; but they managed to twist 
into fine cords the entrails of whales, and covered their 
garments with needlework made with these threads. Their 
needles were shaped fishbones. 

Cambric. — (German Kammerich ; Dutch Kammeraclc ; 
French Toile de Cambrai and Batiste.) The name of this 
textile is derived from Cambrai, a town in the department 
du Nord, France, whence the manufacture was originated 
by Baptista. It is a beautiful and delicate linen textile, of 
which there are several kinds. Its introduction into this 
country dates from the reign of Queen Elizabeth. That 
made in Lancashire is, perhaps, on a par with that made in 
Ireland and France. The Scotch are mere imitations in 
cotton. See French Cambric. 

“ Come, I would your cambrick were sensible as your finger, 
That you might leave pricking it for pitie.” 

— Coriolanus , Act i., sc. 3. 

Cambric Muslin. — This is an imitation of cambric, 
being made of cotton instead of flax. It may be had in 
most colours, as well as in black and white. These varieties 
are figured, striped, corded, and twilled, and sometimes 
have a glaze. Cambric muslin is much employed for 
linings. They run from 34 inches to a yard wide, at 
various prices. 

Camelina. — A woollen material with very small basket 
pattern and loose upstanding hairs. It measures 25 inches 
in width, and is a species of the material called Vicuna. 

Camelote. — A coarse kind of fustian of inferior quality, 
employed for the dress of labouring men. It is 27 inches 
in width. See Fustian. 

Camels’ Hair. — This is long and silky hair spun 
into textiles, tents, ropes, shawls, carpets, fine stockings, 
&c. The hair clipped from the animal furnishes three 
qualities, distinguished by the colour. Black is the 
dearest, red the next, whilst grey fetches but half the 
value of the red. 

Camels' Hair Cloth, or Puttoo. — Sometimes known 
as Casligar cloth. This material is thick, ’warm, light, 

full of electricity, and has a fine gloss. It is unshaved, 
and the long hairs are of a paler colour than the close 
substance of the cloth. The price varies according to its 
quality, and the widths are respectively from 42 to 48 
inches. It is French made, and is employed for costumes, 
mantles, and other articles of dress. This material is 
generally considered to be manufactured from the inferior 
qualities of shawl wool in India, whore the material is 
known as Puttoo. 

Camera Work. — A modern embroidery of recent 
invention. It consists of Photographs expressly designed 
for the work, attached to linen or cream sheeting 
materials, and surrounded with sprays and groups of 
flowers. The photographs (Watteau landscape and figure 
subjects) are sold ready fixed to the material, and the 
worker is only required to embroider the already traced 
flower design. 

Camlet. — The name of this textile was due to its manu- 
facture of camels’ hair, being of Eastern origin. By a 
strange coincidence, the subsequent manufacture of a 
similar kind of stuff had its rise in Montgomeryshire, 
and was named after the river Camlet in that locality. 
Subsequently to the employment in the East of camels* 
hair, that of the white glossy hair, growing in spiral 
ringlets, of the Angora goat of Asia Minor, has been sub- 
stituted. In certain districts of that country the whole 
of the population is engaged in the manufacture and 
commerce of camlets. The best European article is made 
at Brussels, where woollen thread is mixed with the hair. 
The imitations are made of closely twisted worsted yarn 
or worsted and silk, hair being sometimes added. Camlet 
is thick and warm, and admirable for winter wear. It 
turns off rain better than any other unprepared article, and 
measures 25 inches in width. It is sold at various prices. 

Camp an e Lace. — A narrow pillow lace made in France 
in the sixteenth century, which was used as an edging to 
wider laces. The Feston was ornamented with grelots and 

Canada Lynx Pur. — {Felix Canadensis.) This fur is 
chiefly employed in British America and the States, but 
is prepared, as all furs are, in this country. The animal 
much resembles the cat, but has longer ears, and a short 
thick tail. The fur is long, soft, and of a greyish colour, 
and is sometimes covered with brown spots. Under the 
body it is white, silky, and at times spotted with black. It 
is dyed, and exported largely to America, and being very 
soft and light, it is well suited for cloaks, facings, and 

Canadian Embroidery.— The natives of Canada were 
at one time celebrated for their skill in embroidery with 
porcupine quills, and with the skins of reptiles and animals. 
Their skin work was particularly ingenious, as they cut the 
skins into minute pieces and formed from them designs 
representing trees, plants, and animals, using their own 
hair for thread. The porcupine quill work was of two 
kinds — a coarse kind, executed upon bark or leather, with 
split quills arranged in devices according to length and 
size, and sewn together; and a much more elaborate 
work, shown in Fig. 107, kept to ornament their dresses, 

6 q 


tobacco pouches, &c. 111 these the quills were split so fine 
that they became flexible, and could be threaded through 
a coarse needle. They were dyed various colours, and 
worked upon scarlet and other bright toned cloths in the 
same way as Satin Stitch embroidery. The quills were 
dyed such pure colours as yellow, green, scarlet, blue, and 
amber, and great ingenuity was exercised in bending 
to shape them into flowers and leaves. The illustra- 
tion is upon scarlet ground, the flowers are amber and 
white, the white being in the centre ; the leaves, steins, 
and tendrils are of shaded greens, terminating in bright 
yellow. The desigu is part of a tobacco pouch, the whole 
of which is hand made, the scarlet cloth being sewn to a 
dark foundation, and the stitches concealed^ by a row of 
■white quills couched down. At the present time Canadian 
embroidery is no longer worked by the natives, hut is exclu- 
sively executed in the French nunneries, and the true spirit 
of the old designs is dying out, the nuns having intro- 
duced into the work many fancy stitches and dyes unknown 

Fia. 107, Canadian Embroidery. 

to the real native patterns. The work made by the nuns 
can be recognised by the elaborate French Knots that form 
the chief part of the devices, by these devices being bad 
imitations of natural flowers, and not so conventional as 
the old ones, and also by the quills being dyed magenta, 
pink, mauve, and other aniline colours. Bundles of these 
split quills are procurable, and the work is easy of execu- 
tion ; therefore English, ladies could embroider in Canadian 
work without much trouble, and it would form a pleasing 
variety to other fancy needlework. To work: Procure 
bundles of split quills. Trace out upon thin leather or 
scarlet cloth a design similar to the one given. Thread 
the quills upon a large- eyed needle, and work with them 
with irregular Satin Stitches to fill in the pattern. 
Change the colour of the quills used, so as to represent 
flowers, leaves, and stems, in their natural hues. 

Canton. Crape.— One of the many varieties of crape- 
woven fabrics. It is a dress material, measuring 27 inches 
in width, and is made in various plain colours. 

Canto on. — A kind of fustian, having a fine cord visible 
on one side, and a satiny surface of yams, running at right 
angles to the cords, upon the other. This satiny side is 
sometimes made smooth by means of singeing- It is a 
strong stuff, has a good appearance, measuring 27 inches 
in width, and is employed for the dress of labouring men. 

Canvas.— Derived from, the Latin Cannabis, hemp; 
and the name literally means Hempen Cloth, There 
are four distinct kinds of Canvas — the silk, thread of flax 
or hemp, cotton, and woollen. They are to he distin- 
guished by numbers corresponding to their several sizes. 



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Fia. Ill, Java Canvas. 

The finest Canvas, whether of silk, thread, or cotton, is 
denominated Mosaic. Amongst those in use for em- 
broidery are the Berlin or Penelope Canvas (Fig. 108), 
Check Canvas (Fig. 109), Flattened French and Flax 
Canvas (Fig, I1G), the Java and Japanese (Fig* 111), 
Painters 1 Canvas, and coarse descriptions such as Scrim, 


6 1 

made of hemp, for tent curtains and sails, upholstery, 
papering, and sieves. The scat of the home manufacture 
is at Dundee. ( See Berlin, Doltino, Cotton, Flat- 

tened, Silk, Thread, and Woollen Canvas.) With 
the exception of silk Canvas, four sizes only are gene- 
rally manufactured, which number about twenty-one, 
twenty-nine, thirty-four, and forty threads to the inch 

Canvas Work. — Before the introduction of Berlin 
patterns, in 1835, all wool work upon canvas was called 
by this name, which has now, however, become almost 
obsolete. Besides the Canvas Work described under 
Berlin Wool Work, there are four other kinds. For 
the first: Paint in shades matching the wools to be 
used; then take the wools and work in Cross or Tent 
Stitch over the painted surface, commencing with the 
darkest shade and ending with the lightest. To work the 
second, in which the ground is of cloth or satin, and the 
pattern painted upon the canvas : Work in Tent Stitch, 
and pull away the threads when the design is finished. 
To work the third : Sew gold or silver braid upon canvas 
in outline patterns, and fill in the grounding with Cross 
or Tent Stitch. The fourth is the Raised Canvas 
Work. Ancient Canvas Work was done upon very fine 
canvas :n Tent Stitch, and was really Tapestiy Work. 
The works of Miss Linwood, during the last century and 
the beginning of the present, are the most remarkable 
examples of modern Canva3 Work. They are large 
copies of celebrated pictures, sixty-four in number, and 
were drawn upon closely woven canvas, or tammy, by that 
lady’s own hand, and embroidered by herself in coloured 
worsteds, or what are now called crewels, dyed expressly 
for the purpose. These works were exhibited to the 
public, and one is now in the South Kensington col- 
lection. All the stitches enumerated in Berlin Wool 
Work are suitable for Canvas Work. 

Raised Canvas Worlc . — This is a work that is executed 
from Berlin flower designs upon silk canvas with Plush 
Stitch, and which, when completed, is raised above the 
foundation, and has the appearance of velvet pile. The 
Plush Stitches forming the pattern are made in single 
Berlin wool, taken over a mesh, as described in Plush 
Stitch. Begin the work from the bottom, and complete 
each line before the next is commenced, holding the mesh 
on the first line of stitches, until the second line is worked, 
when it is withdrawn, and ready for using in the third 
line. From this manner of working, a number of shades of 
wool are required at one time. To prevent delay, have 
them ready threaded and arranged before commencing. 
When the pattern is completed, cut the loops made on 
the surface by the withdrawal of the meshes, and be 
careful that they arc cut quite evenly, and then turn 
the work, and paste a piece of tissue paper at the back of 
the Plush Stitches to prevent any of the cut threads 
coming out. Raised Canvas Work is only suitable for 
mantel boards and fire screens. 

Cap. — Anglo-Saxon, Cappe ; Greek, Shepo, to cover. 
A generic term for a head covering. See Millinery. 

Capitonn€. — This is a French term, signifying drawn 
in at intervals, as a stuffed sofa, chair, or pincushion, 

which is buttoned down at each attachment of the double 
material, at the front and back. 

Cap Springs. — These appliances are made of steel, and 
in either round or flat form. They are sold by the gross. 

Carbonised Linen and Paper. — These are required 
for tracing patterns upon thick materials, and are used in 
Braiding, Crewel Work, Silk, Linen and Cloth Em- 
broideries. The best is the linen, which is sold in two 
colours, white and blue. It is durable and clean. The 
paper is sold in black, blue, white, orange, and red ; but 
the black rubs off upon the material, and is not good. A 
new piece of linen or paper is either rubbed with bread 
or tissue paper laid between it and the work, as the car- 
bon, when quite fresh, is liable to come off. The white 
is used when tracing on dark materials, the blue for light. 
To trace : Lay the material upon a sheet of plate glass, 
then place the carbonised linen, and then the pattern. 
See that the pattern is over the part it is to be traced 
upon, and pin all three together. Take a blunt bone 
crochet-hook or steel knitting-needle, and carefully go 
over every line of the pattern with a firm, even pressure 
upon the needle. Look under the carbonised linen now 
and then to see if the marks are right, and continue until 
the whole design is thus transferred. Carbonised linen 
is warmed with a moderately-heated iron, when, after 
much using, the marks are becoming faint ; or it can be 
entirely renewed by the maker. 

Carmelite. — A woollen textile, almost identical with 
beige. So called because adopted as the dress of the 
order of Carmelites. It is 25 inches in width. 

Carnival Lace. — A Reticella Lace, used in Italy, Spain, 
and France, during the sixteenth century, and differing 
only in its pattern from the ordinary Reticella. This 
particular lace was ornamented with the badges of the 
families who possessed it, and was given as part of the 
trousseau to the bride, and worn by her during the wed- 
ding ceremonies and upon state occasions, such as car- 
nivals, during her life. See Bridal Lace. 

Carpet. — Derived from the Latin Carpeta, woollen cloth. 

Carpet Bindings. — These are manufactured in dif- 
ferent qualities, the best being made entirely of worsted, 
and the inferior kinds of a mixture of worsted and cotton 
thread. They are to be had in plain colours and also in 
chintz designs, so as to match carpets of every colour. 
They are sold by the gross, four pieces of 36 yards each. 
They may also be purchased by the yard from a few 
pence upwards, according to the width and quality. 

Carpet Thread. — A heavy-made three-cord sewing 
thread. It may be had in black, drab, green, brown, 
yellow, and red, as well as unbleached, and is made 
with a soft and satin-like finish. Sold by the ounce and 
the pound. 

Carpet Worsted. — A very coarse kind of sewing 
thread of worsted yarn, made in various bright colours, 
and done up in balls. Sold in paper bags containing 31b. 
or 61b. each, and used for darning and renewing carpets. 

Carrickmacross Point. — A lace made in Ireland since 
the year 1820, Miss Reid, of Allans, founding a school for 
instruction before. There are two kinds of lace known as 



Carrickmacross, the first resembling Bruxelles Applique 
Lace, except that the design is cut out of fine cambric, 
and applied to net, with Point Lace stitches worked with 
a needle. The second lace is a Guipure, and is quite dis- 
tinct from the first kind. A design is traced by a thread 
on cambric, and connected with Point Stitches, and w r orked 
round with Overcast. Brides and Brides Ornees 
connect the various parts of the pattern together. 

Casbans. — Cotton textiles of similar make to jaconets, 
only of a stouter quality, some being twilled and having a 
finished surface, resembling sateen. They are chiefly used 
for linings, the widths running from 30 to 36 inches. 

Cascade. — The method of laying down a trimming of 
lace folded in a zig-zag form, first one way and then back 
again, taking a broken diagonal descent down the front 
of a dress. 

Casing. — A term used to denote a cover of material, 
of whatever description, through which a ribbon is to be 
passed, laid on separately from the foundation stuff. 

Cashmere des Indes, or Goat Cloth. — A variety of 
casimir, made of the soft wool of the Thibet goat, mixed 
with Australian wool. It is exceedingly fine in texture 
and twilled, measuring 42 inches in w r idth. The seat of 
the manufacture is at Itheims, and those French made 
are much superior to our own. Many imitations and 
varieties of this cloth are made in Eu gland. One descrip- 
tion is produced at Bradford, the weft of 'which is spun 
from the fur of the Angola rabbit, which is an exceedingly 
soft material, and much resembles cashmere. There is 
also a variety made at Huddersfield, called the Tigre cash- 
mere; a variegated cloth, having a cotton warp, figured, 
and shot with goats’ hair. Ordinary French cashmere is 
sent to England unwashed and undyed, is of a delicate 
6cru or cream colour, and is made entirely of wool, either 
of the finest Saxon or the Australian. 

Casimer, or Cassimere, or Kerseymere.— A twilled 
woollen cloth, remarkable for its pliability, so that when 
pressed it does not become creased. One third of the 
warp is always above and two-thirds below each shoot of 
the weft. It is either single or double milled, and is 
usually woven of the width of 31 or 36 inches, and reduced 
by milling to 27 inches. Cassimerette is another variety 
of this stuff. 

Cassinette. — A cloth made of cotton warp, and the 
woof of very fine wool, or wool and silk. It differs from 
toilinette and Valentia in having its twill thrown diagon- 
ally, and measures 27 inches in width. 

Cast off. — A knitting term, used to describe the 
finishing of the work in any part. 

Cast on.— A knitting term, used to describe the first 
putting of the wool upon the needle to form stitches. 

Castor. — A heavy broadcloth, used for overcoats. 

Cast over. — A knitting term, used when the cotton is 
brought over the needle and quite round it. Identical 
with “ Round the Needle.” See Knitting. 

Caterpillar Point. — A Needle-made Lace, resembling 
flat Venetian point, made in Italy during the seventeenth 
century, and distinguished by this name from other 
varieties of Venetian Lace. The reason it was so called 
was the resemblance of the narrow, curling, and inter- 

lacing sprig that formed its pattern to the bodies of cater- 
pillars when in motion. These sprigs are surrounded with 
a fine Cordonnet closely Buttonholed, and are filled with a 
variety of thick stitches, such as Escalier and Braba^on. 
They are connected together with fine Brides, trimmed 
with Cockscombs and Picots, and the effect of the whole 
design is peculiarly rich and delicate. A different kind of 
Caterpillar Lace has lately been made at Munich by a 
gentleman of that place, who has trained a large hairy 
species of caterpillar to unconsciously become lace- 
makers. The process is as follows : A paste is made of 
the food the caterpillars most like, which is thinly spread 
upon a smooth flat stone. A lace design is then traced 
upon this with oil, and the caterpillars arranged at the 
bottom of the stone, which is placed in an inclined posi- 
tion. The caterpillars eat their way from the bottom to 
the top of the stone, avoiding any parts touched with oil, 
and spinning a strong web as they go, which serves to 
connect the uneaten parts together. This lace finds a 
sale because of the peculiarity of its make, and it is 
distinguished from real lace by its extreme lightness, a 
square yard of it only weighing 4$ grains, while the same 
quantity of net would weigh 262 grains. 

Catherine Wheel. — This wheel is also known by the 
name of Spider Wheel or Spider Stitch, and is chiefly 
employed to fill up round holes in embroidery on muslin. 
It is made as follows: Outline the round to be filled by the 
Wheel with embroidery cotton, and closely Buttonhole ; 

Fio. 112. Catherine or Spider Wheel.— Detail A. 
then work a row of loose Buttonhole under it, and from 
this the cords that form the centre of the wheel proceed 
(see Fig. 112, Detail A). Take these across the space in 
the order shown ; the figures 1 to 2 being the first line ; 

Fio. 113. Catherine or Spider Wheel.— Detail B. 

Cord back 2 to the centre, and put the needle in at 3, 
which Cord back to the centre, and so on until all the 
lines are completed. Form the boss to pass the thread 
under and over the threads until a round is made of the 
size indicated in Fig. 113, Detail B, and Cord the thread 



up No. 1 to finish. Take a line of Overcast round the 
second line of Buttonhole when the branching lines are 
formed, which will tend to strengthen and to stiffen the 
work. Cut away the under muslin from the first Button- 
hole line, when the Wheel is complete. 

Catskin Pur ( Felts catus). — The fur of the wild cat of 
Hungary is of a brownish grey, mottled, and spotted with 
black. It is soft and durable, and is employed for cloak 
linings and wrappers for carriages. The domestic cat of 
Holland is bred for its fur, fed on fish, and carefully 
tended until the coat has arrived at its full perfection. 
The fur is frequently dyed in imitation of Sable. 

Caul Work. — The ancient name for Netting, which see. 

Centre Fibre. — This Centre Fibre is required in 
Honiton Lace making and other Pillow Laces, when a 
raised appearance is to be given to the centre of the 
leaves. This is shown in Fig. 114, and worked as follows : 
Hang on five pairs of bobbins at the stem of the leaf; 
work up the middle of the first leaf, and when last pin 
is stuck, work to the Turning Stitch and back; then, 
with the pair lying at the pins, make a Rope Sewing, 
and this, which is termed a Return 
Rope, is made, not upon the stem, 
but at the back of it. Work the 
next two fibres in the same manner, 
the middle one last, and when each 
is finished, run a piece to its head 
in the end hole, and take out the 
rest. Now carry the Raised Work 
to the tip of the middle leaf, hang F ‘°* 1U * C£NTRE FiBRE * 
on two pairs, work back in Cloth Stitch, and when 
the fibre is reached, take out the pin, stick it three 
or four holes lower down, insert the hook into the top 
hole, and make a Sewing with the centre stitch of 
the work to the cross strand; this will secure the fibre, 
and it can now be worked over. The other leaves arc 
done in the same manner. 

Ceylon PiUow Lace. — A lace of Maltese design, 
made in Ceylon by the native women, and probably 
imported there by early European settlers. It is of no 
commercial value, and only remarkable because of its 
semblance to that of European manufacture. 

Chain Boulee. — A short rough cord, made in macrame 
lace with two threads. Hold one in each hand, and keep 
the left tight while looping the right-hand thread over it, 
and running it to the top of left-hand thread. The right- 
hand thread is then held tight, while the left-hand thread 
is looped over it. In this manner a rough cord of any 
length can be made. See Macrame. 

Chain Fork. — This instrument is usually made of 
ivory, bone, or boxwood. It is shaped something like an 
ancient lyre, but flat, and the braid is fastened round 
the two horns, and when made into a chain is passed 
through the round hole in the middle of that portion of 
the fork which resembles the sounding-board. 

Chain Stitch. — A stitch used in Embroidery, Tambour 
Work, and Crochet. The manner of working it for em- 
broidery (shown in Fig. 115) is as follows : Bring the 
needle, threaded, from back of material, and form a loop 
on the right side, and keep this loop steady with the 
left thumb, return the needle close to where it came out; 

bring the needle up again in the centre of the loop, 
and pull the thread evenly up ; then form another loop 
and return the needle as before, and 
so on for the whole of the pattern. 

Gold thread, silk, and cotton are all 
used for Chain Stitch. 

Chain Stitch Crochet. See 

Chain Stitch in Tambour Work 
(of which it is the only stitch) is 
formed with a crochet hook, and 
can only be worked upon fine linen, 
cambric, or muslin, that will allow 
of the work passing through it with 
ease. To work : Stretch the material 
in an open frame, draw the thread 
through from the back to the 
front by the hook in a succession 
of loops, the second loop formed 
catching or securing the first ; and FiG (embk(?ideuy) STITCI 1 
so on for the remainder. 

Chain. Stitch Embroidery. — One of the most ancient 
of embroideries, and first brought from the East, where it 
is still practised by the Persians, Indians, and Chinese. 
It was known to the workers in Europe of the Middle 
Ages, and much of the celebrated Opus Anglicanum was 
simply Chain Stitch’. When worked with a hook, and 
not with a needle, it was known in later times as 
Tambour Work. The imitation of Chain Stitch Em- 
broidery by machinery has caused it to fall into 
discredit ; but although machinery may do much in 
reproducing the appearance of hand work, it can never 
give such an amount of varied shades and minute 
curves and embellishments as hand work. The embroi- 
dery is worked upon any material, and with anything 
that can be threaded ; it is chiefly worked in filoselle or 
gold thread upon cloth or silk, or in bright-coloured 
washing silks and cottons upon white materials, for 
ornamenting washing dresses and household linen. 
Fig. 116, p. 64, is an example of this kind of embroidery, 
and is done with red ingrain cotton, upon flax or Kirrie- 
muir twill, and used for a tea table cover. The same 
pattern would look well as a border to a Japanese silk 
tablecloth. The pattern is traced with the aid of car- 
bonised paper and tracing linen, or ironed off. Chain 
Stitch Embroidery is now more used for embellishing 
Church linen than for anything else; the corporal, chalice 
veil and cloth, used at Communion, should all be em- 
broidered with designs in Chain Stitch, either in white or 
coloured washing silks. The Communion cloth is generally 
of a fine damask woven expressly for the purpose, and is 
made so as to fall over the table to the depth of em- 
broidery, should there be no super-frontal. The chalice 
veil is of fine cambric or silk, from 9 inches to 18 
inches square ; the corporal of fine lawn. The only colours 
allowed in this embroidery are red, blue, lilac, and green ; 
but the first two are the ones chiefly used. The Chain 
Stitch, though forming the chief part of the design, can be 
varied with Satin Stitch fillings, or with enrichments 
of Dots and Bosses worked in dotting cotton; but the 
character of the work should be that of an outline, or it 



will be too heavy for the purposo. To work, as shown in 
Fig. 116 ! Trace the outline of the design upon fine 
cambric. Thread a fine needle with scarlet ingrain cotton, 
and work with it the centre part of the design in Chain 
Stitch. Take blue iugrain cotton, and work the two 
borders with that, also in Chain Stitch. 

Chain Work Cloth. — A peculiar style of textile, em- 
ployed for tambouring and hosiery. 

Challis, or Chalis. — A thin textile, made of silk and 
wool, and having a good lustre; employed for women’s 

whether Reseau or Bride. It is identical with Fond and 
Trielle. Sse Fond. 

Chantilly Blonde Lace. — No other country can sur- 
pass France in its black and white silk Blonde Laces. They 
were first made at Chantilly, about the year 1740, and, 
though produced at Caen and Bayeux, the mother town 
was considered to manufacture finer patterns and textured 
laces, though it did not produce such large pieces. The 
old white and black Pillow Blondes were made of floss 
silk, with flowers of large size, and with a fine open 


dresses. It is twilled and printed in coloured flowers on a 
white ground, which has the effect of velvet painting. 
The material was introduced into this country about the 
year 1832. It is made on a similar principle to the 
Norwich crape, but is thinner and softer, and without a 
gloss. The width measures about 30 inches. 

Chamois Leather. — The skin of the Alpine goat of 
that name, which has been “ efflowered ” or deprived of 
the epidermis. It is dressed without tan, salt, or alum, 
and is brought to a state of pelt by liming and washing. 

ground. These cost twenty guineas a yard, and were 
much used in the court of Marie Antoinette. Fig. 117 
is an illustration of one of them, copied from one of 
the old order books of that date; but is much reduced 
in size, in order to take in its design. The flowers and 
ground of this lace are worked in the same silk, and 
the pattern has more open stitches than some of the laces. 
The manufactory at Chantilly was broken up during 
the French Revolution, and most of the lace-makers 
were guillotined, as the popular fury could not dis- 


That dyed buff colour is dipped in tan ooze. The skin 
is strong, soft, elastic, and warm in wear, is used for tight 
riding breeches for both sexes, as it does not wrinkle, 
and is otherwise suitable for that purpose, as well as for 
under- vests, linings of petticoats, and other garments, 
which are perforated to make them more wholesome 
wear. Chamois leather is used by jewellers in cleaning 
trinkets and plate, and is also employed for cleaning 
carriages. It is sold by the skin. Much leather, im- 
properly called chamois, and rightly named w ash-leather, 
is the skin of deer, sheep, and ordinary goats prepared- 
with oil. 

Champ.— A term used, in lace work, for the ground, 

tinguish between the wearers and makers of a costly 
fabric, and classed them both as royalists. It was, how- 
ever, restored in 1805, when the white Blondes were eagerly 
bought, and the trade flourished more than at any other 
period of its history. The large-patterned Blondes Mattes 
were then made. The machine laces spoilt the trade in 
white Blondes, and black are now chiefly made. The flow r ers 
of the modern laces are not so heavy and so distinct as 
those of the old blondes; they are slighter in form, and 
thoroughly dispersed over the lace, and cannot be trans- 
ferred from the ground like the ancient ones. Another 
variety has been brought to great beauty. It is a close 
pattern with deep borders of irregular outline, flowered 







in most patterns, and contrasts with the fine filmy Rescau 
ground upon which it is worked. It is too expensive to 
be an article of commerce, and the Chantilly laces now 
in the market are nearly certain to be productions of 
either Caen or Bayeux. See Caen. 

Check-Mohair. — Dress material, so called from the 
pattern woven in it, and measuring 21 inches in width. It 
is much employed for children’s dresses; the cross-bars 
being of small d pensions, like the shepherd’s plaid and 
the “ Louisine silks.” The price varies according to the 
quality. It may be had in pink, blue, brown, red, and 
black “ shepherd’s plaid” checks; all on a white ground. 
It is plain made, i.e., not produced in any fancy style of 

Cheese Cloth. — An open-make of fine canvas, employed 
for drawn work embroidery. It is 42 inches in width, and 
is inexpensive, but varies in price in different shops. 

Chemise. — A loose under-shirt of linen, longclotli, or 
calico, worn next to the vest ; sometimes called Shift. Sec 
Cutting Out and Dressmaking. 

Chemisette. — A plain or ornamental under-bodice, 
with fronts and backs unconnected at the sides. See 
Cutting Out and Dressmaking. 

Chenille. — The French for Caterpillar. A beautiful 
description of cord employed for embroidery and decora- 
tive purposes. The name denotes the appearance of the 
material, which somewhat resembles that of a hairy cater- 
pillar. It is usually made of silk, is sometimes a com- 
bination of silk and wool, and has been produced in wool 
only. There are two sizes; the coarse is called Chenille 
Ordinaire, the small Chenille a Broder. There is a new 
kind of Chenille called Pomponet, having a very long pile, 
boa-shaped, and employed for neckties. For the purposes 
of millinery it is mounted on fine wire ; the fine soft silk 
Chenille is that used for embroidery, and sold in art 

Chenille Cloth. — Also known as Moss Bege. This 
material is made with a fringed silken thread used as weft 
in pile-weaving, in combination with silk, wool, or cotton. 
When woven, the fringed threads protrude through the 
interstices of the material, and produce a fur-like sur- 
face. Many varieties are made, since the recent great 
demand for the cloth, both in millinery, dress, and flower 
making. It was appropriately named by the French 
Chenille (caterpillar), from its great resemblance to the 
insect’s velvety coat of fur. It is 27 inches in width. 

Chenille Embroidery. — A work originating in France, 
and deriving its name from the resemblance its round fluffy 
threads have to the bodies of caterpillars. During the 
eighteenth century, Chenille Embroidery was the fashion 
at the French Court ; and many specimens of it executed 
by Marie Antoinette and her ladies are still preserved. 
From France it passed over to England, and was popular 
for years, and never entirely disappeared in this country. 
The taste for the work has now revived ; and, when well 
executed, it has all the softness and beauty of painting 
upon velvet, and well repays the time and money spent 
upon it. It looks particularly handsome when made up 
as curtain borders, in which form it has been lately 

employed at the South Kensington School of Art Needle- 

Chenille is of two kinds : Chenille ii Broder, which is 
soft and not on wire, is the one used in old, and in the 
better sorts of modern, work. This Chenille a Broder comes 
from Paris, and is extremely fine in texture. The other 
kind is called Chenille Ordinaire, a coarser Chenille, 
adapted for being either Couched upon the surface of the 
material, or darned through large-holed silk canvas net, or 
gold and silver perforated cardboard. The fine Chenille 
costs about 3d. the yard, and the greater the number of 
shades required in the design the greater the expense. 
Simple Satin embroidery patterns are the best to work 

To work : Outline the design upon the material before 
it is framed, and use a coloured pattern to work from. 
Use for the needles large-eyed, sharp-pointed rug needles, 
and thread the Chenille in short lengths, as every passing 
backwards and forwards deteriorates its pile. If the work 
is upon canvas, stretch it in a frame, and only work the 
design in Chenille; make the ground in Cross or Tent 
Stitch with filoselle or wool. The stitch used is Satin 
Stitch. Thread many needlefuls of various coloured 
Chenille before commencing the work, and put in each 
shade of colour following the line preceding it, not the 


whole of one shade before another is commenced. Fig. 
118 (Detail A) is of fine Chenille worked upon thin silk. 
Frame the silk after the outline of the design is traced, 
and fill the needles with Chenille, bring these up from the 
back of the frame, and push them down again as in 
ordinary Wool Work. Each thread of the Chenille can 
also be laid on the surface in lines, and secured with silk 
of the same colour, as in Couching. When this is done at 
the commencement and end of the thread, make a hole 
through the material with a stiletto, and pull the Chenille 
through to the wrong side, and there secure it; but, 
unless the foundation is thick and heavy, the first manner 
of working is the best. 




Clienille Ordinaire can be worked as shown in Fig. 119 
(Detail B), upon large open-meshed canvas. To work : 
Pass the Chenille backwards and forwards through the 
open-meshed canvas. Use but few shades. The stitches 
for the rosebud are Satin ; for leaves and points of bud, 
Tete de Bceuf ; for the stem, Crewel. Upon a closer 

Fio. 119. Chenille Embroidery upon large Canyas.— Detail B. 

material the Chenille is laid in lines close together for 
the leaves of a pattern, while loops of Chenille, mounted 
upon fine wire and sewn to the material with purse silk, 
make the flower petals. Make the centres to the flowers 
by loops sewn flat, and form the stems of Chenille plainly 
Couched down. 

Fig. 120 (Detail C) is an illustration of Chenille Ordi- 
naire used upon perforated gold and silver cardboard, 
and very pretty devices and patterns are worked by 
simple arrangements of the stitches to form crosses, 
stars, and wheels. The work is useful as an ornamen- 
tation for sachets, blotting cases, dinner rings, and other 

Fig. 120. Chenille uroN Gold Cardboard.— Detail C. 

fancy articles suitable for bazaars. To work: Back the 
cardboard with linen, to prevent its breaking away in 
the process of working, and thread the Chenille into 
large-eyed needles, which pass backwards and forwards 
through the cardboard, as if it were canvas. Two or 
three distinct contrasting colours are the best to use for 
this kind of Chenille embroidery. 

Chenille Lace. — A peculiar kind of Lace made during 
the eighteenth century, in France. The ground of this 
lace w r as silk honeycomb Roseau; the patterns were 
poor, and chiefly geometrical, filled with thick stitches, 
and outlined with fine white Chenille; hence the name. 

Chenille Needles. — These Needles resemble in form 
the ordinary rug needle, but are sharp at their points, 
and to avoid rubbing the Chenille they are very wide 
in the eye. 

Chenille Rolio. — A twisted silk Chenille cord stiffened 

by wire ; used, according to its width, either to surround 
glass shades for clocks, boxes, &c., or to be twisted into 
flowers. It is sold by the yard and by the piece. When 
passed through an iron tube the Chenille becomes the 
silky compact roll, appropriately nicknamed “ rats’ tails,” 
employed in rich mantle fringes. 

Chenille Travailleuse. — The French name to desig- 
nate the fluffy silk thread employed in embroidery, fringes, 
and gimp ornaments. 

Chequer Stitch. — This Stitch is used for working 
berries in Honiton Lace designs, and is illustrated in the 
Poppy and Briony Design. (See Honiton Lace.) To 
work : Hang on six pairs of bobbins, and begin at the 
base of the lower berry, work the Stem all round, leave 
the three outer pairs of bobbins to carry on the Stem 
afterwards, hang on six more pairs. There being Stem 
on both sides, there will be one pair of workers to pass 
backwai’ds and forwards across eight pairs; work one, 
Twist the workers thrice; work two, Twist thrice, work 
two, Twist thrice; work one, and Sew to the Stem. 
Repeat this row three times, then Sew the workers to 
the next pinhole, Twist all the passive pairs three times, 
and repeat the three rows; then Sew to two pinholes 
in succession, and Twist the passive pairs. Be careful 
to draw each stitch well up. This Stitch is used for 
fillings to flowers as well as berries. 

Cliequ6t6. — A French term employed in dressmaking, 
to denote “ pinked out,” or cut by means of scissors, or 
a stamping instrument having teeth, which produces a 

Fio. 121. ChequktS. 

decorative bordering in notched scallops, or diamond 
points, to a silk ribbon, flounce, or other trimming. 
See Fig. 121. 

Chessboard Canvas. — A handsome thick white cotton 
Canvas, designed as a foundation for embroidery. Each 
chequer is upwards of an inch square, and made in 
alternate honeycomb pattern, and simple Egyptian cloth 
mat. The width is 26J inches. See illustration (Fig. 122) 
on page 67. 

Cheveril.— Soft leather, made of kid-skin. 

Cheviot Cloth. — A rough description of Cloth, made 
both for men and women’s dress, twilled, and coarser 
than what is known as Homespun. This Cloth is 27 inches 
in width. The Cheviot Homespun measures 25 inches 
in width, and Cheviot Tweed 27 inclie 3 . 

Chiffon Work. — A modem variety of Patchwork, which 
consists of laying on to a foundation straight lines of 
black velvet alternately with stripes made of pieces of silk 
and satin. The advantage of Chiffon Work is that it uses 
up pieces of silk too small for ordinary Patchwork, and 
pieces that are cut upon the cross. To work : Cut out and 
arrange bits of silk as in Patchwork, but upon the 



cross ; lay down a line of velvet, and then Tack a piece of 
silk to it, so that it will turn over on the right side. Con- 
tinue to tack pieces of silk together cut into the forms 
of crosses, wedges, rounds, and other devices, but keep 
them within the margin of a broad straight band. Add 
more velvet and more coloured stripes until the founda- 
tion material is quite covered, then stuff the velvet with 
wadding to give it a raised appearance, and ornament the 
scraps of silk with Coral, Feather, Herringbone, 
and other fancy stitches in filoselle, after the rest of the 
work is finished. The foundation should be of ticking or 
coarse canvas. 

China Crape. — A beautiful variety of Crape, but 
thicker in texture than the ordinary kind, remarkably 
fine, but weighty in substance. It is generally sold at 
Indian warehouses, being made in white and various colours, 
exquisitely dyed, and is employed for women’s dress. It 
is made of raw silk, gummed, and twisted on the mill, and 
woven without crossing. The width is 24 inches. 

China Grass Cloth. — A beautiful and delicate, as well 
as a very coarse description of Cloth, having its origin in 
China. It is produced from the fibres of a species of 
nettle (Urtica nivea), which the natives split into lengths 
and unite together at the smaller ends. Exquisite hand- 
kerchiefs and fine linens are also made from China Grass, 
and of late years it has been united with silk and cotton 
for coloured textiles, having a brilliant appearance. It 
is employed in Canton, and has been utilised at Leeds 
with much success. Very beautiful textiles are produced 
in China Grass with a silk warp. One of the chief 
seats of the manufacture as a yarn is to be found at 

China Ribbon. — A very narrow Ribbon, of about one- 
eighth of an inch in width, woven with a plain edge, and 
to be had in one colour, or shaded gradually from a dark 

to a light tint of any colour. This description of Ribbon 
was much in fashion about forty years ago, but the best 
qualities are now only to be had at first-class embroidery 
shops in town, and sometimes in country places. In- 
ferior kinds arc procurable elsewhere. China Ribbon 
is often used for book markers in the best bound books 
(especially Prayer-books), being attached in the process of 

China Ribbon Embroidery. — This work was largely 
employed for decorative purposes during the earlier part 
of the present century, and has lately reappeared under 
the title of Rococo and Ribbon Embroidery. Ancient 
designs were floral and of the Renaissance style, and 
differed but little from those used at that period for 
silk embroidery upon dresses, waistcoats, &c. The 
materials required are China ribbon of various colours, 
shaded and self-coloured ; thick cotton canvas, silk, satin, 
or velvet foundations, and embroidery silk. Shaded 
China ribbons, being now out of date, are sold only at 
some of the first class embroidery shops; but the plain 
can still be met with at linendrapers’. 

The work, which is very durable, is done in a frame ; the 
background being generally selected of a dark colour, as 
the ribbons look best upon dark foundations. When the 
material is stretched in a frame, trace the design upon it, 
and apply the ribbon to it as follows : For all sprays 
intended for leaves * or grasses, thread shaded green 
China ribbon upon a large crewel needle, and work in 
Satin Stitch. Bring the needle up from the back of 
the material at the outer line of the spray, hold the 
ribbon in the left hand, to prevent its twisting, and put 
the needle into the material in the centre of the spray or 
leaf in a rather slanting direction. Form all one side of 
the leaf, and then work the other side in the same manner, 
always bringing the ribbon from the outer edge and 
finishing in the centre. By this means the appearance of 
a centre vein is given to the leaves and sprays. The 
flowers are variously worked : small ones with unshaded 
ribbon in Satin Stitch worked to their centres, and a 
knot of different coloured ribbon put over the Satin Stitch 
as a finish ; while large ones make more raised, thus : Run 
the ribbon at one edge, and gather it closely together, 
and then sew it to the background in enlarging circles, 
so that the unrun edge of the ribbon stands up from the 
material in a thick round mass. Make the centres of 
these rounds of shaded ribbon, and of a different colour 
to the shaded ribbon used in the first part of the rounds. 
Make the buds of Satin Stitch, with ribbons of two 
colours, but not shaded; or all of the same tint, and 
finish with stitches of embroidery silk, and work the 
stems and other light parts of the work with the same 
silk in Chain, Crewel, or Long Stitch. The best 
patterns are those that introduce flowers of the forget- 
me-not size, small roses and bluebells, as, although this 
work does in no way attempt to be natural, it should 
never offend by being executed in large designs; when 
worked in small patterns, it has a quaint, old-fashioned 
look which it cannot retain when enlarged. 

Fig. 123 is an illustration taken from a piece of work 
fifty years old, and intended for a sachet or hand-bag. 

K 2 



The foundation is of black satin, and the colours used 
are as follows : Commencing from the top left-hand 
comer, the spray there is formed of pink and white ribbon 
intermixed, the large flower, of amber-coloured shaded 
ribbon, with buds of a deeper tone, and the small bunch of 
flowers beneath it, blue with yellow centres. On the 
right hand, the small flowers at the top are yellow, the 
rose of gathered ribbon of a plain crimson shade, and the 
bunch of small flowers above it, white with pink centres. 
The rose in the centre is formed by the ribbon being 
closely gathered as before described, the colour a varie- 
gated deep red ; the little two-petal flowers over it are rose 

threads being drawn out easily, and is useful for table- 
cloths and chair backs, and very simple in execution. 
To work : Cut the material to the size, and then draw 
out its threads in wide lines at equal distances from each 
other, and wider than the width of the ribbon. Into 
these drawn lines run ribbon which has previously been 
threaded into a rug needle. Darn the ribbon down the 
space left by the Drawn Threads, going over six and 
under six of the threads still remaining. An inch and 
a half space is generally sufficient to leave between the 
lines, and this should be ornamented with a pattern in 
Holbein or Cross Stitch. Various coloured ribbons 


colour, and at its left side are yellow and white ; the four- 
petal flowers underneath rose pink with white centres ; 
leaves throughout of shaded yellow greens. Form all 
stems, rose thorns, and other fine parts of the pattern of 
green purse silk, and work in Stem or Crewel Stitch. 
The above are the shades used upon this old piece of work, 
and, as none of them are produced from aniline dyes, they 
amalgamate extremely well. 

China Ribbon Work. — A modern name given to a 
kind of Drawn Work, into which coloured China ribbons 
are run instead of crochet cotton. It is suitable for any 
linen or cotton materials coarse enough to allow of the 

are used in one piece of work ; their ends being allowed 
to form the fringe with the Drawn Threads of the mate- 
rial. Check and other drawn patterns are adapted to 
China Ribbon Work, the ribbons being crossed in the 
open spaces. The ribbons when forming check pattern 
are sewn on the wrong side of the material, to keep them 
from moving; and care is taken that they are run in flat 
and are not twisted. Letters forming the initials of the 
worker are made by darning the ribbon into the back- 
ground, to form their outlines. These initials are placed 
in a corner. 

Chinas. — Ribbon composed of a common kind of satin, 



designed for rosettes, book markers, and dyed in 
white, black, and all colours. They are made in narrow 
widths, and are trifling in price. 

China Sewing Silk.— This Silk 13 of a pure white 
colour. One quality is much used by glove-makers, and a 
coarse two or three cord by stay- makers. The best Sewing 
Silk is sold on reels, containing one ounce. 

China Stripe Cloth,— A description of Broadcloth 
(which see). 

Chinchilla Par, — Of the animal producing this 
Fur there are two varieties, both of South America. 

broideries. But little of ancient needlework now re- 
mains, the dampness of the Chinese climate being in- 
jurious to the preservation of materials, and the long 
civil wars proving destructive to much that had escaped 
the action of the climate; but the ancient designs are 
continually reproduced with extreme fidelity, the Chinese 
mind being averse to novelty an 1 change, and preferring 
what is already pronounced good to any innovations. 
Tooehow was the ancient seat of embroidery, but at 
Canton and King-po a great deal is now worked, particu- 
larly large screens, fan cases, and robes, which are the 


That giving the best Fur is a native of Buenos Ayres 
and Arica, and is of a silver grey, the darkest and 
best in colour coming from the latter place. Those 
from Lima are short in the Fur, and inferior in quality. 
The For is extremely soft and delicate, and lies as readily 
in one direction as another. The skins measure 6 
inches by 9 inches, 

Chinese Embroidery, — The Chinese appear to have 
learnt the art of embroidery from Persia at a very 
early date, and became celebrated for their productions, 
which display an amount of labour and delicacy of exe- 
cution almost unsurpassed, save by the Japanese em* 

principal articles in request. Men embroider as well as 
women, and the patience with which they entirely cover 
a state robe, curtain, or screen with elaborate needle- 
work, is remarkable. Under the late dynasty, robes 
embroidered with floss silk, and with gold and silver 
thread, were worn much more universally than they are 
at the present time, as it is now considered sufficient 
to indicate a mandarin's rank by a small square of em- 
broidery containing his device, instead of repeating the 
same, combined with dragons, ribbons, and flowers, all 
over the dress, as was universal during the Ming dynasty. 
Chinese ladies are also now content with embroidery in 



bilk instead of floss about tbeir dresses, and the costly 
floss and gold embroideries are found more upon screens 
and actors’ costumes than upon ordinary wearing apparel. 
The Chinese embroider in several ways. 

In one, both sides of the work are^the same; this is 
done by painting the pattern upon transparent material, 
stretching it, and working in Satin Stitch backwards 
and forwards, so that there is no wrong side. 

Another kind is crepe work, a3 borders to crepe shawls. 
In this, large showy flowers are worked in Long and 
Feather Stitch, or in Chain Stitch. The beauty of the 
last-named consists in the dexterity of its execution, the 
lights and shades of the pattern being shown, not by 
varying the shades of colour, but by working the Chain 
Stitch open and wide apart for light, and close and thick 
for dark parts, the effect being further enhanced by the 
soft tones of the oriental colours. 

Feather work, in which real feathers are introduced, is 
another kind of embroidery they execute ; the designs in 
the parts where the feathers are to be laid are stamped 
upon metal, to which the feathers are glued, and the rest 
of the pattern finished in silk work. But their most 
famous embroidery is with floss silk and gold and silver 
threads. The patterns for these, though numerous, 
exhibit but little variety, the sacred dragons, various S 
monsters, figures, jars, ribbons, asters, and cherry blossom, i 
mixed with birds and butterflies, being repeated and accu- j 
rately copied as to colours in most of the designs. Pattern I 
books for these are sold in China for a penny. 

Fig. 12 1 is an example of this kind of embroidery. It j 
is taken from the border of a mandarin’s robe, which is j 
covered from top to bottom with embroidery in floss silk, j 
gold and silver thread, and purse silk, representing ; 
dragons, quaint animals, flowers, ribbons, and jars. It is j 
worked as follows: The foundation material is of dark I 
blue silk, and the dragons are constantly repeated all over | 
it. Make these of gold thread, laid upon the surface and i 
Couched down with coloured silks. Where the animal i 
has scales, arrange these threads as half curves, but upon ! 
the head, feet, claws, and tail make the lines to follow the \ 
undulations of the parts they represent. Pad the eyes 
and make them very prominent, and work with coloured | 
floss silk ; decorate the mouths with long white moustaches, | 
which allow to trail and curl over the background. The 
flower shown in Fig. 124 is taken from the border of the 
robe; surround every petal with a fine white silk cord, 
and fill with French Knots in purse silk, colour deep 
crimson, shading to pale silk in centres; make the half- 
opened flowers of the same colours, work them in Satin 
Stitch, with leaves of a deep green; finish the large 
centre one with veins of gold thread ; work the ribbons in 
dark blue; where turned under in light blue, or green 
turned under yellow silk ; the outline knot of ribbon with 
white cord, and fill with crimson French Knots. Work 
the animal at the side in red and white, without any inter- 
mediate shades. None of the colours blend imperceptibly 
into each other; all are sharply defined, and three distinct 
shades used when any shading is employed, but the 
greater part of the design is in Satin Stitch worked in one 
colour. The effect is in no way bright and vulgar, as 
the tints are all subdued and blend together. 

Chinese Silks. — Although there are several varieties 
of Silk, satin, and brocaded textiles, the Silk stuff most 
known, and having a large sale in this country, is the 
Pongee. It is manufactured from the silkworm feeding 
on the leaves of the Ailanthus oak, and made in the 
mountain ranges of the province of Shantung, bordering 
on the Yellow Sea. Sec Shantung Pongee Silk. 

Chinese Tape, India or Star. — This Tape is of 
superior strength, and is made both soft and sized. It is 
sold in any lengths desired, or on blocks. The numbers 
run from 00 to 12. 

Chine Silk. — So called because the patterns upon 
them have the appearance of having run from damp. 
The name is derived from the origin of the style in China. 
The threads are coloured in such a manner before being 
woven that when worked up into the silk textile, the 
peculiar appearance of the shading is produced. The 
silk measures 36 inches in width. 

Chintz. — This word is the Persian for spotted, stained 
or variegated. It is a term employed in this country to 
denote a fast-printed calico, in which several, and gene- 
rally five, different colours are applied to small designs 
and printed on a white or yellow ground, highly glazed. 
Originally of Indian manufacture, and known by the 
names of Kheetee and Calum-koarce, or firm colour, it 
is now made in this country, and is of great beauty. 
Chintzes measure from 30 inches to a yard in width. 

Chintz Braid. — A cotton galloon resembling dimity 
binding, but having a minute chintz pattern, and printed 
in all kinds of colours to suit the dresses for which 
they are designed. They are much employed in the 
making of collars and cuffs. Chintz Braid is sold in 
pieces, or by the yard ; and the price varies according to 
the width. 

Chip . — Wood split into thin filaments, for bonnets. 
See Millinery. 

Chromo Embroidery. — This is a modern work, invented 
by Mrs. Mee, and consists of coloured paper patterns of 
flowers or geometrical designs laid upon silk, satin, or 
coloured cloth foundations, and then worked over in Satin 
Stitch with filoselles or fine crewels, so that the colours 
on the pattern are reproduced upon the work. To work : 
Trace out a design upon thin coloured papers, cut this 
out, and then lay them upon the material. Work over 
them in Satin Stitch in the natural colours of the 
design until the whole is filled in. The paper pattern is 
entirely covered with the Satin Stitch, and need not be 
removed. Chromo embroidery is especially useful to 
workers who arc diffident about their powers of shading 
leaves and flowers naturally ; the design being so close to 
the eye, they cannot fail to match the colours painted 
upon it, and by following it out, line by line, need be 
under no apprehension about the result. 

Church. Embroidery. — Some of the finest specimens of 
needlework ever produced are those that were consecrated 
to the use of the Church during the centuries between 
the tenth and the sixteenth. In them are displayed 
both elaborate workmanship and good design, and we are 
the more impressed at their production when contrasting 
their excellence and refinement with our knowledge of the 



rude manners and customs of tlie times in which they were 
made* The work is, verily, picture painting, tlie colouring 
and the symbolical meaning attached to the ornaments 
depicted matching with the famous illuminations of the 
time. Many reasons combined to produce this perfection* 
Thus, artists were employed to sketch out the patterns 
(some of them lay claim to being those of St. Dun st-an’s), 
and an embroiderer was content to labour for a lifetime over 
one piece of work, which frequently was too elaborate to be 
finished even then, and was handed reverently down from 
one generation to another until completed. Such labour 
was looked upon as a service particularly pleasing to the 
Creator, nor was there any fear of its not being used when 
completed. In the gorgeous ritual prevailing before the 
Reformation, every altar required a different frontal and 
appendages for each festival or fast; and curtains, known 
as Tctravcla, were placed at the sides of the altar and 
drawn in front of it, while priests and choristers had 
as many various vestments, and all required rich and 
elaborate embroidery. The Anglo-Saxons were not behind 
other nations in this particular, and mention is made of 
gifts of needlework to the Church as far back as 708 ; 
while Pope Innocent and Pope Adrian collected from 
England, for St. Peter’s, much of the celebrated Opus 
Anglicanum ; and a good deal of the old needlework now 
preserved on the Continent is undoubtedly of English make. 
William I, enriched Normandy with it, audit is constantly 
mentioned in the “ Roman de Rose” and “De Garin; ” and 
in 1315 the Bishop of Marseilles made a special bequest 
of Ms English alb to his church* The early Anglo-Saxon 
embroidery was distinguished by its lightness and freedom 
from overloaded ornaments. The designs were chiefly m 
outline, and worked as borders to garments, &c. ; they 
were all symbolical, and conceived and executed under true 
art principles* These outlines were altered later, when 
more elaborate work was achieved* The work executed in 
Europe from the tenth to the twelfth centuries is of Eastern 
origin, and possesses many of the features of the early 
Phrygian and Babylonian embroideries ; but the workers 
of Europe developed its sacerdotal character, and clothed 
each individual ornament with symbolical meanings, 
while they executed the designs with the minuteness and 
untiring patience that now only survives in Japanese 
and other oriental works. The magnificent embroidery 
produced wus a mass of gold and silver threads, pearls, 
spangles, precious stones, and silks* A few specimens 
still remain; but at the time of the Reformation much 
was burnt for the sake of the gold, while copes and 
frontals were made into carpets and put to other base 
uses. The Sion cope (1250), the cope of St, Guthbert, in 
Durham Cathedral, the maniple of Sfc. Stephen and St* 
Blaise, the palls of the Vintners* and Fishmongers 5 
Companies, are still in good preservation, and are the 
best-known specimens extant. In the earlier Anglo-Saxon 
works, which were chiefly in outline, the symbol of the 
Gammodian is frequently used, but it is not found often 
in later examples. It had the appearance of the Greek 
letter Gamma, and four of these letters are either en- 
twined together, so as to form a square cross, or two of 
them, arranged to make the figure S» are used with 
Church roses and leaves as outline embroidery. This 

Gammodian was of Indian origin, and was known to the 
worshippers of Buddha, 600 B,c.; it was brought by the 
Orientals to Romo, and adopted by the early Christians 
as an emblem of Christ crucified. The celebrated Opus 
Anglicanum of the twelfth and thirteenth centuries is 
not an outline embroidery, but consists of the most 
elaborate filled- in figure designs, the stitch used for the 
faces and garments being considered to be an invention 
of the English, and therefore its name* It is an 
exceedingly fine Split Stitch, which has the appearance 
of Chain Stitch, and it is so worked that it follows the 
curves and lines of the face and drapery, and gives the 
appearance of relief to a flat surface without any 
great change of colouring. This relief was further 
heightened by those parts that were intended for hollows 
in drapery or flesh, being depressed by a heated knob, 
thus throwing into bolder relief those places which were 
arranged to be in the light* Some fragments of this work 
can be seen at South Kensington, so carefully executed, 
and with such exactness, that we can understand the 

Fjg. I £5, Altar Cloth from Steeple Astox, Oxon* 

admiration it gained from the whole world. The Opus 
Anglicanum is not confined only to this stitch; the 
Opus Plumarium, or Feather Stitch, is largely used; also 
Crewel Stitch, Long Stitch, and many varieties of Couching* 
Of the raised work formed with different kinds of Couch- 
ing an example is shown in. Fig. 125, taken from an altar 
cloth at Steeple Aston, Oxon, time Edward III* The 
grotesque animal (an emblem of power) would not be in- 
troduced in the present age upon such a covering, hut 
figures of this description were not then considered irre- 
verent; witness the representation of the Deity (Fig* 126) 
taken from the same cloth. To work Fig* 125 ; Form the 
chief parts of gold threads, which CotJCH over various 
thicknesses of whipcord, and raise by this means above the 
level of the flat embroidery ; the direction the gold threads 
take copy from the design. For Fig. 126, work the face of 
flesh-coloured silk, with the features rudely indicated, and 
surround the silk with a thick gold cord* Work the 
leaves above and below the face in floes silk embroidery. 


' 4 


surround them by a dark cord, and clearly define the 
veins in the leaves. liaised work was not always in good 
taste when applied to faces of the Holy personages, as the 
embroiderer frequently imparted a grotesque expression 
to the figures instead of the agonised suffering intended 
to be conveyed by the contorted features; but nothing 
could exceed the beauty produced by the backgrounds 
formed with these raised Couchings or the flat floss em- 
broideries of the figure* and pow derings. In Fig. 127, 
taken from a pulpit cloth at Forest Hill, is shown one of 
the favourite devices of early embroiderers. It is the 
winged and crowned angel resting upon a wheel, and is 
a symbol of eternity, power, and swiftness. This device is 
frequently scattered over altar frontals, and is found 
worked in every variety of colour; for this one, work the 
wings in shaded blues and crimsons and in floss silk. 
Couch each leaf round with a thick cord; make the 
nimbus of silver or gold, outlined with a gold cord ; the 

Fio. 126. Altab Cloth prom Steeple Aston, Oxoh. 

wheel of silk, finished with gold cord; work the face and 
hair of the angel in floss silk. In the rays proceeding 
from the wheel and at the side of the device introduce 
spangles, which are always largely used about ancient 
embroidery, but never laid upon it; they either form 
separate rays or small devices, as in this design, or are 
used upon each side of rays, as sliowm in Fig. 131. Always 
catch them down to the foundation material, and never 
Applique them, and fasten them down with bright-coloured 
silk. The devices used in ancient work from the thirteenth 
to the sixteenth centuries are noticeable for their con- 
stant repetition ; and, considering the very large amount 
of embroidery that w f as then executed, and the ingenuity 
and care expended upon it, this fact indicates that variety 
in those days was not looked upon as essential, the aim 
of the w r orker being excellence in execution. Thus, 

although the figure scenes were varied, and ranged through 
incidents in both Old and New Testaments, and through 
the lives of numerous saints and martyrs, the symbols 
that surrounded the subject embroidered as a centre, or 
that were scattered separately over the foundation (and 
called powderings in that position), were almost limited to 
the following : Angels, with or without wheels, the Star of 
Bethlehem (the rays of which are waved like flames), fleur- 
de-lys, winged eagles, leopards, lions, -white harts with 
crowns and gold chains, grittina, dragons, swans, peacocks, 
moons, crowns, lilypots, thistles, roses, and black trefoils. 
Secular subjects were not wholly excluded, and the coats 
of arms of the donor of the frontal are occasionally met 
with worked upon some part of it. Towards the close of the 
fifteenth century Church embroidery became, overloaded 
with ornaments, and more mixed with secular subjects. 
The work may be said to have died out in England in 

Fio. 127. Pulpit Cloth from Forest Hill. 

the reign of Henry VIII. ; and, although it continued for 
another century on the Continent, it gradually became 
confined to the nunneries, and was no longer the universal 
labour of the ladies of the land ; whilst, even among the 
nuns, the embroidery produced was much inferior to that 
of earlier times. The taste for it has during the last twenty 
years revived, old specimens are eagerly sought for, and 
the stitches carefully copied; and the productions of 
the present age can vie in minuteness and beauty with 
the most elaborate old work, for, with the exception of 
a few alterations, it is identically the same. In modem 
work, even the sprays and minor parts are Applique, and 
laid upon the material when worked; while in old em- 
broideries, although the chief parts were worked upon 
double flax linen that had been boiled to take out its 
stiffness, the lighter were frequently embroidered directly 



on to tlie foundation, and the lines laid over to conceal the 
junction were stitcifed on after the two were together. 
Now these cords are worked on the Applique, and a small 
second cord laid to conceal the edges, as by this means 
the larger cord is more likely to be evenly stretched and 
laid down. The linen foundations are no longer doubled, 
it being evident that a double foundation is more trouble- 
some to work through than a single; and the linens now 
used, being expressly woven for the work, are made of the 
right thickness. In old work, gold lace is often cut into 
the shape required for a small filling and inserted instead 
of needlework, but this practice has not been revived. 
Requiring great attention and much labour to bring to 
perfection, Church Embroidery should not be attempted 
by anyone who cannot devote a large portion of her 
time to it; but its difficulties are soon overcome by an 
earnest worker. 

The materials necessary are : Embroidery frames of 
various sizes and shapes; good strong unbleached linen, 
boiled to take out the stiffness and used single (bleached 
and cotton materials are injurious to the gold work, 
and have a nap on them, so should be avoided); best 
English made Genoa velvet, 13s. the yard ; rep silk, 22s. 
the yard, or broadcloth, 21s., for foundations, which 
are always of the best; piercer, for helping to lay on 
floss or pick up gold bullion; stiletto, for puncturing 
holes; two thimbles, one for each hand; nail scissors; 
round-eyed needles of many sizes ; carpet needles, Nos. 2, 
0, 10, for gold and silk cord; packing-needles to pull 
twist with ; the various floss silks, Dacca, sewings, purse, 
Mitorse, gold and silver threads, pearl purl, coloured 
cords, spangles, bullion, &c. Floss is the most used of 
all; the thick floss is split and subdivided into many 
pieces, or a finer floss used that needs no splitting ; both 
are laid on or worked in Long Stitch over all the various 
powderings and chief parts of the embroidery. Dacca silk 
is used in the same parts of the work ; sewings for tacking 
edges down ; purse silk for all parts requiring strength, and 
frequently for Couchings ; Mitorse for leaves when floss is 
not employed; twist, purse silk, gold and silver thread, 
for Couchings and for ornamental sprays; spangles for 
ornaments, and bullion of five kinds for raised work. 
Cloth of gold and silver is inserted into the devices 
instead of the embroidery, and sometimes brocades, the 
“bawdkin” of the ancient chroniclers. All materials 
must be of the best, and bought at the best shops, it 
being worse than folly to execute such laborious work 
with materials that quickly deteriorate; cheap gold and 
silver thread, or inferior floss, quickly betraying them- 
selves. The hands of the worker must also be smooth, 
and should be rubbed daily with pumice stone. Plain 
needlework, or anything that causes the flesh to grate 
or peel, should be put on one side for the time, as the 
floss silk catches in everything, and soon spoils. The 
hands also should be dry ; people who have moist hands 
cannot work with silk and gold, as they quickly tarnish; 
and the left hand must be as ready and expert as the 
right, as it is constantly employed under the frame 
where the needle, without the help of eyesight, has to 
be put accurately up to the front in perfect lines of 

Before commencing the embroidery, draw a full-size 
design of it upon paper, and tint it as the colours are 
to come. The design when representing a large piece 
of needlework, such as an altar cloth, curtain, or pall, 
is too large and too heavy to be worked in one frame; 
portions of it are therefore selected and worked 
separately, and afterwards united, and Applique upon 
the velvet or silk background; but the full-size design 
gives a just idea of the whole, and enables the worker 
to fit the various pieces correctly together. Stretch the 
linen foundation in a frame, and pounce the outline 
of the part to be worked upon it with charcoal, and 
set or paint this outline with Indian ink. Carefully 
tack in any pieces of enrich- 
ments, such as gold tissue or 
brocade, and commence the 
work with raised Couchings 
or with the laying down of 
gold threads. Work these 
lines of gold thread so as to 
follow the wave of the part 
they are ornamenting. Thus, 
the flower shown in Fig. 128 
is entirely executed with lines 
of gold or silver, placed as 
the shading of the pattern 
indicates. Fig. 128 is much 
reduced from natural size; an ornament so small as 
it is represented rarely has threads laid down. Use wavy 
lines of gold more than straight ones ; they are shown in 
working detail in Fig. 129, and are managed in two ways, 

Fig. 128. Church Embroidery.— 
Working Detail. 

Fig. 128. Church Embroidery.— Working Detail. 

thus : For the first, through a hole made by the 

stiletto in the foundation linen, bring to the front of the 
work from the back two pieces of gold twist of equal 
size and thickness, and make a bend or curve in them 
by cui-ling them once round the stiletto, and then lay 




them on the foundation with the curve still in them, 
and catch them down with the holding thread thrown 
across both at once. For the second, use very fine gold 
twist, and, instead of putting the ends through to the 
back of the work, stitch them securely down on the 
front part. Lay the gold twist so curved between each 
securing stitch {see Fig. 129, c) on the space it is to cover 
in an upright direction, then turn and bring it down, 
turn again and bring it up, and so on until the space 
is quite filled. These lines need not be laid close together, 
but with a space between them equal to one line in width, 
and this space may be filled inwith a line laid afterwards ; 
the gold twist lying flatter on the surface when so 
arranged than when laid down in consecutive lines. Turn 
the twist wherever possible, but in many places this 
cannot be done, and it must be cut and fastened, and 
again commenced. When angles and curves are being 
laid, it is a task of dexterity and patience to lay the 
lines and turn them so as to fill the paces with the fewest 
breaks. The fastening threads are of bright-coloured 
purse silk. 

In Fig. 129 these fastening threads are shown worked 
in two w r ays. To work : Arrange them in the space 
marked c so as to form open diamonds, while in the 
long narrow space marked d make every other fastening 
thread form part of a straight line arranged across the 
work. An illustration of the two ways of using floss 
silk is also given in this working detail. In a lay it 
in flat lines across the surface of the foundation, and catch 
it down with lines of purse silk of a contrasting colour 
to the floss, and laid in a contrary direction. Fasten 
these above the floss silk by catching stitches of silk 
brought from the back of the work and returned there. 
Lay the lines of purse silk over the floss silk at nearly 
equal distances from each other, to imitate the veinings 
of a leaf, and make the threads that catch them down 
of a silk matching them in colour, or a contrasting shade. 
The space marked b shows the manner of working the 
floss silk when it is passed through the foundation and 
not laid upon the surface. It is Long Stitch j but work 
it so that each stitch is placed in a slanting direction, 
and does not follow the preceding one with the regularity 

Fig. 130. Church Embroidery.— Stitch in Floss Silk. 

of a straight line. The Long Stitch is more fully illus- 
trated in Fig. 130, where it is considerably enlarged. 

Fill the small space with black silk lines, which catch 
down by three lines, two of gold tambour, and one of 
silk. Make the border to the detail of two lines of thick 
silk cord of harmonising colours, and catch both down 
with the same stitch. The single cord that surrounds the 
piece of work between c and b is a silk cord, round which 

twist a fine gold thread, and Couch this down with a silk 
thread. This working detail is an extremely useful piece 
for a beginner to try her 
hand upon, as it combines 
several of the stitches that 
must be known. 

The powdering, from an 
ancient chasuble, given in 
Fig. 131, is another suitable 
working detail, and should 
be carried out as follows : 

Lay gold tambour in waved 
lines, as at A A A A, and 
catch these down with even 
rows of purse silk. Lay 
down the head of the seed 
pod with gold tambour, as 
at A, but make the lines 
straight. Fill the stalk bbb 
with green floss silk of three 
distinct shades, work in 
Long Stitch; the leaves 
are of the same, except the 
veins E E, which make of 
yellow floss silk; d d re- 
present the soft hairs on stalk, and are in green 
floss silk; k, the centre of the seed pod, which work 



Fig. 132. Church Embroidery.— Powdering prom Hardwicke Hall. 

with two shades of pinky red floss in upright lines, 
and surround with a silk cord; work H h with silver 



thread twisted round it and caught down with pale 
blue silk ; in the inside of the cord place a narrow black 
cord, and catch it down with black thread. The two 
succeeding oval cords laid upon the gold tambour are of 
yellow silk, one thick, L, and one thin, M y but both with a 
silver twist round them. The outside cord, Q, is also of 
yellow, hut thicker than either of the others, and caught 
down with black. Fig. 132, p. 74, is a powdering, taken 
from some ancient work at Hard wick e Hall. To work : 
Fill the centre with lines of gold thread laid horizontally, 
catch them down with stitches arranged as broad diagonal 
bands, and surround with a line of black crochet twist. 
Lay gold thread down, to form the calyx, in perpendicular 
lines, and catch it with stitches arranged in a reverse 
direction to those worked in the centre part of the powder- 
ing. Make the leaves surrounding the centre in Long 
Stitch, of floss silk, in three distinct shades of green, and 
edge them with crimson cord. Fill the pine- shaped head, 

Fra. 133, Church Embroidert.—Cuktain or Frontal. 

as to its centre, with dark crimson floss silk, and secure 
this with lines of silver twist, forming diamonds; as to 
the half leaves on each side, in their upper parts work 
Long Stitch in pink, shading to crimson floss, and their 
lower with light blue floss, shading to dark, also in Long 
Stitch; divide the crimson stitches from the light blue 
ones with a line of black crochet twist; outline the whole 
powdering with a gold cord caught down with crimson 
silk. Work the sprays, proceeding from the powdering, 
with gold thread, and ornament the upper ones on each 
side with spangles caught down with crimson silk. 

The next illustrations are for more advanced work, and 
therefore are shown in smaller sizes, so as to give some 
idea of a whole design. Fig. 133 is a border and pow- 

derings suitable either for altar f rentals or for altar 

curtains. Work the large fleur-dedys in Long Stitph, 
with green floss of three distinct shades, and edge it with 
bine purse silk. Fill the baud in the centre of the fleur- 
de-lys with crimson floss laid in perpendicular lines, and 
secure these lines either with gold passing or with gold 
tambour, and edge them with black crochet silk. The 
various tendrils or sprays springing from the fleur-de-lys 
should be made of gold thread, laid in lines, and caught 
down with crimson silk. These lines of gold thread re- 
quire a line of floss silk laid close to them, and following 
their outline; this is not shown in the illustration, but is 
always worked when gold thread ie laid over an unorna- 
mented spray. Work the smaller powderinga in Long 
Stitch with floss silk; their colours are alternately crimson 
and green, the crimson shading to pink, the green from 
dark to light. Surround them with black crochet silk, 
and with branching fibres of gold thread and floss silk. 
The rounds are spangles, four to each round, caught down 
with red or green silk. Work the border upon a band of 
silk of a darker shade of colour to that nsed for the 
large surface ; work the wheels or stars upon it in gold 
thread or yellow purse silk, canght down with black; 
work the leaves in shades of blue in Long Stitch, with 
stems and tendrils of gold cord, and add small spangles 
where shown. The three shades of blue, green, and rose 
colour used should be perfectly distinct from each other, 
not chosen, as in ordinary embroidery, so that one shade 

Fig, 13 i. Church Emuroideky.—Bqebeil yob Surra Frontal* 

blends imperceptibly into the other; but, although har- 
monising, every one must be distinct from the shade 
above and below it* Fig. 134 is another border for an 
altar frontal or super altar. This is worked upon the 
same coloured velvet as the rest of the embroidery. Form 
the chief stem with several lines of gold tambour, caught 
at intervals across with coloured purse silks. Work the 
flowers with shaded silks, and further enrich them with 
lines of gold bullion laid over them, and tiny spangles ; 
while the little buds should be made of yellow purse 
silk, surrounded with black cords, ornamented with 
sprays of red cord, and crossed with the same. Straight 
and battlement ed lines of various coloured cords finish 
the work. Work these on the material, the set centre 
only being Applique. The colouring of the flowers 
in this pattern will depend upon the colour of the 
foundation, which should always be introduced to a 
certain extent in the embroidery, but not forming the 
prevailing tint. Work the flowers alternately in colours 
that harmonise and introduce the shade of the founda- 
tion, and in those that contrast with it. 

L 2 



The centre cross for altar frontal. Fig* 135, is more 
elaborate tlian any previously shown, and requires very 
good workmanship. The difference in this design to those 
previously given, is that some of the parts forming it are 
worked directly on to silk, and others Applique on to velvet, 
of a different colour to either the foundation or to those 
used in other parts of the same design. The stitches on 
the cross work are upon white silk ; the round enclosing 
the four arms upon deep crimson silk* on to which the 
floriated ornaments are Applique ; and the boss forming 
the centre of the cross, and containing the centre jewel, 
first work on to a linen foundation, and then Applique on 

Couching in yellow silk or gold thread. Partially cover 
the ends of the cross that appear beyond the round with 
embroidery, leaving visible the foundation of blue velvet 
of the same colour as used round the centre boss; make 
the crowns finishing these ends of gold thread, laid upon 
the velvet, also the thick line from which they proceed* 
Work the leaves in crimson silk, shading to pink. The 
round inclosing the cross is of crimson silk, on to which 
the floriated ornaments that proceed from the cross are 
Applique after having been worked upon a linen founda- 
tion ; work the outside leaves of these ornaments in Long 
Stitch in three shades of green floss, the space they 


to deep blue velvet, which lay over the white silk founda- 
tion* The cross is shown as it would be worked in the 
embroidery frame* When removed and applied to the 
foundation, rays of gold thread or yellow silk surround its 
outside circle, and branching fibres proceed from the four 
limbs, with spangles carried up each side of them. Make 
the five bosses of jewels; surround each with gold thread 
and w T ith rays of green floss silk, shading to light green. 
Form the body of the cross with white silk, which orna- 
ment with lines of gold thread laid in diamond patterns 
caught down with spangles and red silk, and with straight 
lines in floss silk; arrange the outside lines in Brick 

inclose fill in — the lower part with crimson silk, worked in 
Long Stitch, and ornament with Bobs or knots formed of 
gold coloured silk; above this lay lines of gold thread, 
and catch them down with crimson silk ; the points which 
finish the ornament work in Long Stitch with, pale blue 
silk. Cany pale blue cords round the edges of the orna- 
ments, to hide the stitches connecting them to the silk 
foundation. The scrolls that fill in the rounds, form of 
lines of gold threads, terminating with spangles, and 
catch them down with blue silk* 

The designs given illustrate all the various ways of 
using floss silk in fiat Church Embroidery, Thus, it is 



either laid down in even lines of one shade of colour 
and kept in position with gold or silk cords placed in 
devices over it, or it is worked in Long Stitch with 
three shades of colour. These shades are distinct from 
each other, and are worked with the lightest upper- 
most; they never blend together, but they match in 
tint. If contrasts are used, such as pink and blue upon 
the same leaf, they arc divided either by a line of black 
crocket twist, or gold thread. In Church Embroidery 
no regard is paid to copying any device in its natural 
colours; the designs are never intended as realistic, 
but as conventional ornaments, and blue, lilac, crimson, 
and yellow are used about leaves and other floral orna- 
ments as well as green ; though, in examining old 
work, it will he seen that green and gold are more used 
about the powdering b and border mgs than brighter hues, 
which are found in all their glory in the picture centres. 
The faces of figures are worked in Satin Stitch, in one 
or two shades of flesh colour, or in Split Stitch; the 
shade and contour of the features are managed by the 
direction given to the stitches, which follow the lines 
that would indicate them in an engraving. The manner 
of embroidering the various raised and flat Couching 9 
is described under that heading. The raised are as 
diversified as the flat, and were particularly popular as 
backgrounds during the fourteenth and fifteenth cen- 
turies; the cords that raise them are laid under floss 
silk, or Dacca silk, as well as under gold and silver 
threads, with blndiug threads worked in almost endless 
varieties, A very rich and favourite raised Couching 
for backgrounds is the Spider or Wheel pattern. In 
this fine whipcord is laid upon the foundation in rays 
like the spokes of a wheel, only curved (each wheel 
being about an inch in size); the gold floss silk is laid 
over them, and the catching threads put in on each side 
of every cord, so that when finished the appearance is 
like raised spiders’ webs. Upon rich materials open 
Couch ings are frequently laid for borders. These are 
made of diagonal lines of gold caught down with crosses 
of coloured silk, and the centre of the diamonds formed 
by lines filled in with spangles, beads, or French Knots ; 
in fact, the variety that can be made by laying down one 
colour and attaching it to the material with stitches of 
a different shade is almost endless, 

Having worked the various parts of the design upon 
frames and on linen foundations, it now remains to attach 
them to their proper backgrounds. This, when the article 
is an altar frontal or curtain, and large and heavy, is 
better done for the lady worker at a shop where they 
possess the necessary large sized frames to stretch the 
foundation in when applying the embroidery, as, unless 
that is perfectly tight, no work can he properly laid upon 
it. First stretch the background, and then transfer the 
various outlines of the traced pattern to it by dusting 
pouncing powder through pricked holes. Upon these lines 
lay the various detached worked pieces after they have 
been carefully cut out from their frames with very sharp 
scissors, leaving a small edging of about the sixteenth of 
an inch of linen round them,. Stretch and hold down these 
pieces in their proper positions with a number of fine pins, 
and then secure them all round with fine stitching of 

waxed silk or sewings. The large cord that always finishes 
these detached pieces, sew on to them before they are cut 
out \ it will nearly cover the stitches, and is caught down 
over them; but, when in their right positions, a fine outline 
cord is run round them, and entirely conceals any joins. 
After the Applique work is arranged, sew spangles and 
other ornaments on the foundation; also sprays made of 
lines of gold thread. When not otherwise enriched, these 
gold thread sprays require the finish of a line of floss silk 
following their outline. Lay the floss silk as a line close 
to the gold thread, but not touching it, and catch it down 
with a silk matching it in colour, A fringe is generally 
added to an altar doth; it is made of silk, the colours 
used in the embroidery, as well as the background colour, 
being represented, It is always knotted together in a 
cross pattern at the top, and should be exceedingly rich 
and good, 

A less laborious kind of Church Needlework, useful for 
pede mats, altar cushions, and other Inferior Church uses, 
is made upon canvas, and the threads either drawn away 
and the embroidery left upon velvet or cloth foundations, 
or the whole filled in with needlework. Brown canvas is 
generally used. To work : Stretch the materials in a 
frame, and select geometrical designs of ecclesiastical 
symbols ; work these in Tafestky or Ckoss Stitch, 
partly in Berlin wool and partly in coloured filoselles. 
Cross Stitch makc^ the embroidery coarse, unless worked 
entirely with silk; therefore Tapestry Stitch is the best 
to use. Damask and diaper patterns are suitable, while 
the Church rose, lily, and passion flower, treated conven- 
tionally, are good. Attempt no design that does not fit 
easily and with a good margin into the space intended for 
it, nothing looking so bad as work that is evidently too 
big for its surroundings. Work cburch carpets, &c«, in 
squares, so as to fit into the embroidery frames, and after- 
wards join them together with a pattern edge placed 
round them. This work, being similar to Berlin Work, 
requires no further explanation. Crewel Work is also 
used for Church Embroidery, and adapts itself admirably 
for many purposes; but it can never vie with the true 
Church work of gold threads and floss silks. 

Church Work over Cardboard . — This is a kind of 
Church Needlework which was not known in olden times, 
and has only been introduced since the revival of interest 
in church decoration. All ancient need' e work was in flat 
embroidery, and was raised from the ground, when neces- 
sary, by means of twine and cord; but the cardboard 
foundations forming this variety are used for sacred 
monograms and emblems, and are found invaluable when 
clear, distinct, and slightly raised work is required. This 
work over cardboard is only employed in church furniture 
for such minor details as the emblems on stoles, burses, 
alms bags, mats, book markers, sermon eases, &c* ; it being 
considered too severe in outline, and too mechanical of 
execution, for altar frontals and the vestments of the 
Church* Being worked with silk of one shade of colour 
throughout, and over rigid outlines, it requires no artistic 
taste In execution, but it must be arranged with precision, 
and the stitches laid down with great neatness, or it will 
entirely fail of effect; therefore patience and knowledge 
should be bestowed upon it. The designs are simple, 

7 8 


clear in outline, and correct as to ecclesiastical forms. 
The usual ones are the Latin cross, the initials of our 
Saviour and patron saints, triangles, circles, and other 
unfloriated devices. Some of these are shown in Figs. 
136, 137, 138, and 139, in their plain cardboard founda- 
tion. Fig. 136, the double triangle, is an emblem of the 
Trinity, as is also Fig. 137, the circle. Fig. 138, the Latin 
cross, combined with the anchor and the circle, an emblem 
of atonement and patience ; and Fig. 139, the Greek cross, 
surrounded by triangle and trefoil combined, a symbol of 
the Godhead. The manner of working is as follows: 
Select the design, and trace it out upon paper ; prick this 
outline thoroughly, and transfer it to thin Bristol board 
by pouncing charcoal through it. Colour the design 
yellow, and cut it out carefully, leaving little supports, 
that are called “stays/’ to any part of the letter or emblem 
that is too fine to support itself before it is caught down 
in its position. The stays in the designs given would 
only be required to keep the extremities of the Greek 
cross (Fig. 139) in position. Tightly frame a piece of 

great nicety; the thread or purse silk is kept evenly 
twisted, and each line laid down with great regularity, as 
the whole work is spoilt with one irregular stitch. When 
the cardboard is covered, outline the letters or emblems 
with a Couched line of gold, blue or red cord, or gold 
thread, as shown in Fig. 140. This Couched line will take 
away any unevenness of outline that may have been made 
in the working. Cut the material away from the frame, 
and the holland from round the edge of the embroidery 
at the back, and the work is finished. Fig. 141 is an 
illustration of a single letter worked in this manner. 
Cut out the exact shape and size required in cardboard, 
and lay the cardboard on the foundation, and carefully 
sew it down; the arm of the “r” requires very delicate 
adjustment. Then lay a line of carpet thread down the 
centre of the letter and fasten it, and cover all the card- 
board over with lines of yellow purse silk. Fig. 140 shows 
the manner of working interlaced letters and adding the 
Couched line round them. Cut these out in one piece, 
lay them on the foundation, and cover with lines of yellow 

Fig. 136. Church Work over 
Cardboard.— Double Triangle. 

Fig. 137. Cuurch Work over 
Cardboard.— Circle. 

Fig. 13a Church Work over 
Cardboard.— Latin Cross, 
Anchor, and Circle. 

Fig. 139. Church Work over 
Cardboard.— Greek Cross 
Triangle, and Trefoil. 

grey holland, sold expressly for the purpose, and secure 
the material to be embroidered to it. If velvet, or a large 
piece of plush, paste it down ; if silk, sew on with great 
care, and sew round the centre when the emblem is 
arranged. Then lay the pricked outline of paper on to 
the velvet or silk, and pounce it through over with pipe- 
clay; this will show where the cardboard is to come, 
which put on and then carefully tack down into position, 
and as soon as every part is secure, cut away the stays. 
Fix a strand of yellow twine or carpet thread down the 
middle of all the straight lines or the middle of rounds of 
cardboard, to give the work the appearance of relief ; this 
adds to the effect, but is not absolutely necessary. Now 
commence the embroidery. Do this either with yellow 
purse silk or with gold twist of short lengths, and follow 
the manner of working shown in Fig. 140. Bring the 
needle up from the back of the frame on the left-hand 
side, and pass the thread over the cardboard. Use the 
point of the piercer to lay it flat, and insert the needle 
on the right side in a line parallel to where it came up. 
This operation, though seemingly an easy one, requires 

purse silk; put on no centre cord of carpet thread to 
raise them, tlieir forms being too intricate, and no stays, 

Fig 140. Cardboard Embroidery. Fig. 141. Cardboard 


as the cardboard foundation is not disjointed. Add 
the Couched line, and the work is complete. A variation 



in colouring devices is allowable, but there is no shading 
necessary. Thus, in Fig. 142, if I, FLO/* placed upon a cross, 
and which can be used for a sermon case, bookmarker, 
or alms bag, is worked as follows: Work the cross 

in gold purse silk or gold thread, and Ootjch it round 

Pio. 142 * Cardboard Embroidery. 

with a line of black silk; work the U I*H.(V* in crimson 
silk, and Couch it round with pale blue silk, and place 
the device upon green or blue velvet. The large X.H.S.” 
of Fig. 143 is arranged for a banner. Work the “I” 
in gold silk, the (t S ” in blue, and the " H " in red ; 

Fig, 143 * Cardboard Embroidery, 

outline all the letters in black, and make the foundation 
of white silk; work the wreath in Satin Stitch and 
in flat embroidery. 

The chief nse of this embroidery being for such furni- 
ture as ladies can make without the assistance of shops, 

the lengths and widths of these various ornaments will be 
welcome. For book-markers a very thick ribbed ribbon 
is required, from one to three inches in width, according to 
the size of the book, and a yard and a quarter in length 
if a double marker, which should then have an ivory 
barrel dividing it in the middle to keep the ends even. 
These barrels cost 3s. 9d. to 4s. 6d., according to their 
make, some being covered with a network of silk, others 
with gold twist* Tack the ribbon to be embroidered down 
to the framed holland, and put on the 'device at its lowest 
part six inches from its end, so as to allow of five inches 
or more turning up at the back to hide the lining* The 
length of the book-marker is regulated by the size of the 
book ; a yard and a quarter being the longest required. 
The opposite sides of the ribbon are embroidered, or the 
work will not fall properly when used* The fringe, which 
requires to be very handsome, is either of gold thread or 
knotted silk, double the width of the marker and an inch 
over, so as to turn in* Sew one side on and then turn the 
work, and fix the other side so that both may be neat; 
hem the ends of the ribbon that turn up, and tack down 
with frays from the ribbon to render the stitches invisible. 
For alms bags there are two shapes : one, a regular bag 
hung upon a ring or hoop of brass, and made of a straight 
piece of velvet eleven Inches wide and nine inches deep, 
joined, gathered, and sewn into a circular velvet bottom, 
stiffened with cardboard; and the other, the ordinary 
handbag, nine inches in length, six in width, with a front 
flap of six inches long upon which the motto or emblem 
is embroidered. Line tbe bag with white silk, but cover 
any part that shows with coloured velvet surrounded with 
an ornamental cord of gold and silk. The upper part of 
the alms bag is shaped, and is either curved or pointed* 
Make the alms mats to fit the plate, and work the mono- 
gram ornamenting them so as to be contained in a square. 
The ornament upon a stole consists of Greek crosses in 
gold silk. The length of the stole is to the knees of the 
wearer, and it is a narrow piece of silk that slightly widens 
at the ends where the cross is placed, and is finished with 
a handsome fringe or lace. Work a small cross at the 
back of the stole in the centre. Make sermon cases of 
velvet, lined with silk ; strengthen with a cardboard foun- 
dation. The burse is used to keep the corporal and 
smaller eucharistic linen in. It is a kind of pocket 
made of silk, strengthened with cardboard and ornamented 
with needlework, and is in the shape of a portemonnaie 
without the fiap, being a square of from ten to eleven 
inches. The colours of these ornaments vary with, those 
used upon the altar, which are as follows : White for 
festivals of our Lord, the Virgin, and saints (not martyrs), 
and for Easter; blue for week days after Trinity, and 
indifferently used with green on ordinary Sundays; 
red, all Feasts of Martyrs, Evensong of Vigil, and of 
Pentecost, to the following Saturday ; violet for Advent, , 
Lent, Rogation Lays, Ember week, and vigils; black 
for Good Friday* 

Church Lace.— An Italian JTccdle Lace made in the 
seventeenth century expressly for trimmings to altar 
cloths and priests 1 vestments. It was a thick coarse Lace, 
the ground of which was first made and the pattern added 
afterwards, and worked entirely of thick Buttonhole 



Sbitclies. The patterns were chiefly figure subjects illus- 
trating passages in the Old and New Testaments, or the 
chief events in the history of the Church. 

Cinq Trons, on Mari age. — A lace made at Puy and 
in other parts of France, with five-sided mesh, similar to 
the Reseau grounds of some of the old Dieppe Lace. 

Circles. — When working Pillow Lace it is often neces- 
sary to form Circles and curves with the threads for the 
proper delineation of the design. In the inner part of a 
Circle there will be fewer pinholes than on the outer, so 
that it is necessary to work back in this part without set- 
ting up a pin. To work : Upon reaching the end of the 
pins, make a Cloth Stitch and a half with the Runners 
that will be waiting ; give a Twist to the outside pair, and 
return to the pins on the outside. If pins are put up on 
both sides, the worker will have to miss every other on the 
inside ; and, if that does not give room enough, two stitches 
are worked into the 6ame pin on the inner side. This is 
called making a False Pinhole. Take the runners 
across to the inside, Twist three times, put up a pin; do 
not take up the pair that will be waiting behind the pin, 
but return with the same pair, and put up the pin on the 
outer edge; finish the stitch, and return with the pair 
behind the pin. When they arrive at the inner pin, take 
it out and stick it in again, so that it holds the row just 
worked, putting it in the same hole as before; work the 
Plain Edge with the pair left behind. By this plan 
there are two outer pins to one inner. In a very sharp 
curve it is better to only Twist twice, as otherwise it 
would give the lace a heavy and puckered appearance. 
To keep the lace firm while it is being curved, occasion- 
ally drive a pin down to its head. 

Clavi. — These are bands of embroidery that were worn 
by Roman senators, and, at a later period, by knights, on 
their robes of state. These bands were embroidered with 
thick silk or gold, and frequently ornamented with jewels. 
The orphrey of the priests’ robes were similar in make. 

Cleaning Woolwork. — If the Woolwork is not much 
soiled, stretch it in a frame and wash it over with a quart 
of water, into which a tablespoonful of ox- gall has been 
dropped. If much soiled, wash with gin and soft soap, in 
the proportions of a quarter of a pound of soap to half a 
pint of gin. When carefully washed, stretch the work out 
to dry, and iron on the wrong side while it is still damp. 
If the Woolwork is only faded, and not dirty, stretch it in 
a frame, and sponge with a pint of warm water, into which 
a piece of soap the size of a walnut, and a tablespoonful 
of ox-gall, have been dropped. Wash out the mixture by 
sponging the work over with clean warm water, and 
leave in the frame until it is perfectly dry. 

Clear Point. — A lace made at Puy, in Haut Loire, 
after Valenciennes pattern. The lace is of durable make, 
but coarse, and of low price. 

Clew (Anglo-Saxon Cleow ). — A ball of thread. 

Clocks. — These are ornamental embroidered finishes to 
the leg and instep of knitted stockings and socks, and are 
worked with filoselle or washing silk of a colour that 
either matches or contrasts with the stocking they adorn, 
or with two shades of one colour. They are embroidered 
before the foot is Knitted and after the heel is finished. 

The name given to this decoration is considered to have 
originated in the resemblance to the pendulum of a clock. 

To work : No tracing is required, but rim a guiding line 
up the foot from the point where the heel joins the foot; 
the height of this line for a stocking is seven inches, for a 
gentleman’s sock three inches. The Clock consists of a 
plain line and an ornamental finish. Work the plain line 
as follows : Overcast the two stitches in the stocking 
that run up the leg from the point where the heel joins 
the foot to a height of four inches, then Overcast two 
more inches, but only over one stitch of the stocking. 
The plain line thus made will be six inches in height. 
The ornamental finish to this is varied to suit the worker’s 
taste, the simplest being the fleur-de-lys and the arrow- 
head. Make the fleur-de-lys by thickly Overcasting the 
three leaves that form the well- 
known conventionalised copy of 
that flower ; for the arrow-head, 
take the plain line already formed 
up another inch of the stocking 
and add to it on each side six 
diagonal lines graduating in 
length ; those nearest the end of 
the line, or the tip of the arrow, 
make the shortest, and the last, 
half - an - inch in length, the 

Fig. 144 is an illustration of 
a much more elaborate final to 
a Clock than the two described 
above ; it is worked in two 
shades of one colour, the darker 
forming the centre, and the 
diamonds on each side. Make 
these diamonds of raised dots 
formed with Overcast ; the 
rest of the design is simply Overcast. Overcast a line 
along the side of the foot of the stocking or sock three 
inches in length, after the foot is nearly knitted and 
before commencing to narrow. 

Close Cord.— The thick lines in Macrame are called 
Close Cords. 

Close Knitting. See Knitting. 

Close Leaf. — In Honiton Lace the Close Leaves of the 
sprigs are worked in Cloth Stitch, which is illustrated in 
Figs. 145 and 146, as a leaf with a Plain Edge half finished 
and completed. To work : Commence by first running the 
lace pin down to its head to hold firm the twelve pairs of 
bobbins required to make the leaf ; Twist the outside pair 
on each side 3 times to the left, put the left-hand pair 
aside, and take the next two pairs, numbering them 1 and 
2, and 3 and 4. 1 and 2 are the Runners, and will work 
across, taking the other bobbins as they come. First stitch — 
put 2 over 3 with the left hand, then with both hands 
put 4 over 2, and 3 over 1, 1 over 4 with left hand, push 
away 3 and 4 with left hand, and bring forward 5 and 
6 with the right. Second stitch — 2 over 5 with the left 
hand, 6 over 2 with the right, 5 over 1 with the left, 
1 over 6 with the left, push away 5 and 6 with the left 
hand, bring forward 7 and 8 with the right. Third stitch 



Fia. 145. Close Leaf— ITalp 

First stitcli — 3 over 2 left Land, 2 over 4 left Land, 1 over 
3 riglit Land, 4 over 1 left Land, put away 3 and 4 witL 
tLe right Land, biing forward 5 and 6 with tLe left. 
Second stitcL — 5 over 2, 2 over 0, 1 over 5, 6 over 1. Third 
stitch — 7 over 2, 2 over 8, 1 over 7, 8 over 1. Fourth 
stitcL — 9 over 2, 2 over 10, 1 over 9, 10 over 1. Fifth 
stitch — 11 over 2, 2 over 12, 1 over 11, 12 over 1. Sixth 
stitch — 13 over 2, 2 over 14, 1 over 13, 14 over 1. Seventh 
stitch — 15 over 2, 2 over 16, 1 over 15, 16 over 1. Eighth 
stitch — 17 over 2, 2 over 18, 1 over 17, 18 over 1. Ninth 
stitch — 19 over 2, 2 over 20, 1 over 19, 20 over 1. Having 
now reached the edge where the pair of bobbins were put 
aside at commencement of row, twist 1 and 2 thrice 
to the left, stick a pin in the first left-hand pinhole in 
front of the Twist ; make the stitch about the pin 21 over 
2, 2 over 22, 1 over 21, 22 over 1, Twist both pair thrice, 
and pull Twist up. Repeat these two rows until three 
rows near the end are reached, then cut off a passive pair 
in each row close up to the work, and when the three rows 
are finished, plait the threads into a beginner’s stem. See 
Finished Leaf Fig. 146. 

Close Stitch.— In Needle-point Lace the Close Stitch 
is a simple Buttonhole worked without any openings. 

Close Trefoil. — A Honiton Lace sprig, as in Fig. 147, 

—2 over 7 with left hand, 8 over 2 with right, 7 over 1 
with left, 1 over 8 with left, push away 7 and 8 with left 
hand, bring forward 9 and 10 with right. Fourth stitch — 
2 ove r 9, 10 over 2, 9 over 1, 1 over 10. Fifth stitch — 2 
over 11, 12 over 2, 11 over 1, 

1 over 12. Sixth stitch— 2 
over 13, 14 over 2, 13 over 1. 

1 over 14. Seventh stitch — 

2 over 15, 16 over 2, 15 over 
1, 1 over 16. Eighth stitch 
— 2 over 17, 18 over 2, 17 
over 1, 1 over 18. Ninth 
stitch — 2 over 19, 20 over 2, 

19 over 1, 1 over 20. Having 
now worked across the leaf 
to within one pair of bob- 
bins, do the plain edge. 

Twist 1 and 2 three times 
to the left with the left hand, 
while the right is taking a 
lace pin from cushion; then 
holding both bobbins in the 
left hand, stick the pin in 
front of the twisted thread 
into the first pin hole on the 
right !iand,give a small pull 
to draw the twist up; this 
had better be done after the 
twist. Two pairs are now 
outside the pin. The right- 
hand pair will be found 
twisted as it was done in 
commencement. Make the 
stitch about the pin 2 over 
21, 22 over 2, 21 over 1, 1 
over 22. Twist both pairs 
three times to the left, using 
both hands at once ; pull the 
Twist up gently. The first 
pair have now worked across, and are put away, the last 
pair becoming 1 and 2 in their turn. In the first row the 
bobbins were taken as they came ; in arranging them so as 
to make the knots belong to the Hanging bobbins they 
were, of necessity, twisted over each other. This is imma- 
terial at the commencement, but each bobbin must now have 
its own place, and every twist will be a defect. In putting 
down a pillow the bobbins run together, and become 
twisted, and half a beginner’s time is taken up in dis- 
entangling them. It is a tiresome process, but it has its 
uses, as it gives facility in handling, and accustoms the 
eye to detect wrongful twists. In the 2nd row the bobbins 
must be numbered from right to left, 4 and 3, 2 and 1, the 
latter being the active pair. The stitch is apparently 
reversed, but the theory is the same. There are two pairs 
of bobbins used, a right and a left-hand pair; the middle 
left-hand bobbin is always put over the middle right-hand 
one ; each of the latter pair is put over the one nearest to it, 
and the middle left-hand again over the middle right-hand 
one. In working from left to right the Runners begin and 
end the stitch, in returning, the Hangers begin and end it. 

Fig. 147, Close Tbkfoil. 

the leaf being worked in Lace Stitch, and the petals in 
Cloth Stitch. Commence at the end of stem, and hang 
on six pairs of bobbins ; work straight up the stem and 
round the inner circle of flower, make a Sewing when 
the circle is crossed. In the petals, which are next 
worked, there are more pinholes round the outside edge 
than there are on the inside, therefore false pinholes 
will here be required ; and as the petals require a greater 
number of bobbins to form them than the inner circle 
and stem, they will have to be added. Work the first 
two rows of petal in Cloth Stitch with the six pairs, 
and, before putting in the second pin on the outside, 
hang on a new pair of bobbins, winding the knot well 
out of the way; pass the new thread well underneath the 
two workers, and run it close up to the hanging bobbins ; 
stick a pin, and complete a Plain edge. The pair just 
added will count as the seventh pair, and will hang on to 
the threads which come across; work two rows in Cloth 


S 2 


Stitch, and hang on an eighth pair in the same manner. 
When the eighth pair is added it will he necessary to 
make a false pinhole, in order to keep the enter and inner 
edges level with each other. This is done as follows : Work 
across to the inside in Cloth Stitch, Twist the bobbins 
thrice, and stick a pin in; hut instead of completing the 
edge, come back with the same pair, and again to the outer 
edge; then return to the inside edge, take out the pin, 
re- stick it in the same hole, and finish the Plain Edge with 
the idle pair left. Two pins, by this arrangement, are 
stuck in the outer edge to one in the inner, and a curve 
is thus smoothly made. When the pins are pnt np close 
together, Twist the bobbins twice instead of thrice at 
the edges to prevent any puckering. The false pinholes 
must be repeated until the petal is rounded and the 
thinner part arrived at, when a single pair of bobbins 
is cut away. When turning the corner of the first petal 
and commencing the second. Sew twice to the circle, 
and hang on two pairs o£ bobbins in two following rows, 
and ent them cif when the petal is rounded and the 
thinner part of it reached ; the middle petal being wider 
than the others requires an extra pair of bobbins ; the last 
petal will only require one additional pair of bobbins, 
hung on where it widens ; the first and third petals require 
eight pairs of bobbins to work them, and the middle nine. 
When working, turn the pillow as the work turns, so as to 
keep the hanging bobbins straight in the front; and 
when the third petal is finished, Sew at each side; tie 
all the threads np inside one of the working pairs, tie these 
working pairs separately, and cut quite close. The leaf 
requires eigh t pairs of bobbins, and two gimp bobbins ; the 
latter will take the place of the Streak Stitch, the gimp 
being passed through the working pair on each side, but 
in all other respects the loaf is worked in Half Stitch. 
When the leaf is nearly finished, tie up two pairs of bob- 
bins in successive rows, and cut off, Sew to the stem on 
each side, cut the gimp close, tie the remaining bobbins 
inside the working pair, tie those separately, and cut oiL 

Cloth. — '(Derived from the Saxon Clath, signifying any 
woven textile, whether of silk, wool, flax, hemp, cotton, 
arras, or hair.) A woollen material of several descriptions, 
as also a generic term applied equally to linen and cotton. 
Broadcloths are the best and stoutest, and are seven 
quartern wide. They vary in fineness ; there is the super- 
fine, second, and inferior. Harrow Cloths are half the 
width of the last, or three-quarters, or seven- eighths. 
Habit cloths are a thinner and lighter description of 
material, generally seven quarters wide. Royal cashmere 
is used for summer coating, being a fine narrow cloth, 
made of Saxon wool, in worsted weft. The best superfine 
is made of Saxon or Spanish wool ; the inferior superfine 
of the English, as also the seconds, which is used for 
liveries, beside coarser sorts. The excellence of the cloth 
depends on the quality of the wool, the permanence of 
the dye, and the degree of perfection attained in the 
processes of manufacture. In judging the quality of 
broadcloth, the fineness of fibre and closeness of texture 
have to be observed ; and the hand should be passed along 
the surface against the lie of the nap, when the fineness 
of the wool will be made evident by the silkiness of the 

feeling, A portion being taken up loosely in both hands, 
a fold pressed strongly between the fingers of one hand, 
and a sudden sharp pull given by the other, the peculiar 
vibrating clearness of the sound produced by the sudden 
escape of the fold indicates, to the experienced ear, the 
goodness of the cloth. The gloss on cloth should not look 
very satiny. 

Cloth AppliquA — A modern imitation of the Cloth 
embroidery so largely worked by Eastern nations. It 
consists of cutting out and arranging upon a coloured 
cloth foundation variously coloured and shaped pieces of 
the same material, and securing these by fancy stitches 
worked in silk or wool. 

To work i Select a dark coloured cloth as a foundation, 
trace upon it a geometrical design, and then stitch it in an 
embroidery frame. Prepare pieces of cartridge paper by 


cutting them into the shapes that fit the various parts of 
this design, and lay these upon the coloured cloths selected 
to form the pattern. Cut out these shapes accurately in 
the coloured cloths, pin them on to the cloth founda- 
tion in their right positions, and secure them by working 
round their edges either with He hr I nob one or Point 
Lance stitches. Use fine Pyrenean wool or filoselle for 
these fancy stitches, and further enrich the work by 
others, such as French Knots, Tete de Boiiuf, and 
Satin Stitch, worked over the pieces of coloured cloth, 
or made to form tendrils, bosses, and other ornaments 
to the pattern. 

Cloth Embroidery. — A kind of needlework exten- 
sively practised by the natives of India and Persia, and 
other Asiatic nations, who excel in joining together 
coloured pieces of cloth in handsome designs, and covering 
them with various fancy stitches made in fioss silk or 
gold and silver thread. The work is a species of Inlaid 
Applique, tiie pieces of cloth not being laid on any 
foundation, but sewed together continuously. 



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Fig, 14$ is a mat of this description. To work : Make 
the centre of crimson or deep blue cloth, and the outside 
edge of cream white, pale blue, or grey. Hide the parts 
where these two pieces join with a row of Point Lance 
stitches worked over the overcasting. Make the em- 
broider j upon the light cloth with Wheels and Point 
Lance, cut and turn down the outside edge to form 
Vandykes, and om ament with a coloured silk tassel 
in every hollow. The beauty of the embroidery depends 

paper, and go over the lines so made with water colour 
mixed with gum to render them permanent. Work the 
whole pattern in Satin Stitch, with the exception of 
the centres to the dowers, which either £11 in with French 
Knots or with Leviathan Stitch, Work the large 
flower in three distinct shades of one colour, using the 
lightest as the outside colour and for the innermost circle, 
and fill the centre of the flower with French Knots made 
of the medium shade of colour. Work the small flowers 


upon the judicious colouring of the floss silk fancy 
stitches, which should be bright and distinct, like all 
Eastern colouring, but not of bues that become gaudy 
by reason of their violent contrasts. 

Fig. 149 is of another description of Cloth Embroidery, 
worked upon a dark -coloured cloth, such as maroon, 
peacock blue, or invisible green, and is useful for valances, 
tablecloth borders, and other purposes. Trace the out- 
line of the design upon cloth with white carbonised 

in two shades of colour, place the darkest shade inside, 
and finish the centres with a Leviathan Stitch made 
in the lightest shade used. Work the buds and leaves 
in two shades of colour, also the small forget-me-not 
shaped flowers; but in these last, keep each individual 
flower to one shade of the two colours employed. In the 
small pattern that forms the border of this design, use 
two shades of one colour, and work all the under stitches 
(m Fig> 149) in the light shade, and the stitches that fill 

8 4 


in the centres, and that arc worked so as partly to cover 
the first made ones, in the dark- A handsome design is pro- 
duced when the whole pattern is worked with a red brown 
filoselle as the darkest colour, and orange gold as the 
lightest, upon a cloth of a medium brown shade. Shades 
of blue upon peacock blue foundation, and cinnamon 
upon russet red, are good, as the embroidery worked 

ing cushions and footstools- Materials required : a frame, 
skeins of various coloured filoselles, No. 2 gold braid, and 
Berlin canvas. To work ; Stretch the canvas in a frame, 
and stitch the gold down upon it, line by line, until the 
canvas is completely covered. Select an easy geometrical 
pattern of those printed for Berlin wool work, and work 
out tlie design in Gqbelix Stitch over the gold braid 


out in shades of one colour is more artistic than when 
many bright colours are used. The border in the illus- 
tration is of chenille gimp, but a soft hall fringe of the 
colours used in the work would look equally well. 

Cloth of Gold Embroidory.^A modem work, formed 
with gold braid and filoselle silks, and useful for cover* 

with coloured filoselle, take each thread over one strand 
of the gold braid foundation, and count it as one stitch. 
No shading need he attempted, and two colours, such 
as red and grey, are sufficient to work the whole design, 
the foundation of braid being already bright enough for 



Cloth Patchwork. — This is Patchwork of the ordinary 
kind, but made with pieces of bright cloth instead of 
scraps of silk. See Patchwork. 

Cloth Stitch. — The close stitch used in most Pillow 
Laces, and consisting of simply weaving the threads like 
those of a piece of cloth. It is fully described in Braid- 
work ( Cloth or Whole Braid) and in Close Leaf. 

Cluny Guipure Lace. — One of the Darned Net Laces 
whose origin is lost in antiquity, and which were 
known as “Opus Filatorium ” in early times, “Opus 
Aranum,” or Spider Work, in the Middle Ages, and 
“ Filet Brodc,” or Guipure d’Art, in more modern 
times. Numerous patterns of these laces arc to be 
seen in the pattern books of Yinciola, sixteenth century, 
and much mention is made of them in the inventories 
of lace from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries. 
The groundwork is plain Netting, commenced with one 
stitch, and increased and decreased like ordinary Netting, 
and upon this is worked the pattern with counted stitches, 
darned in and out like the modern Guipure. The name 
“Point Conte,” generally given to Guipure, is derived 
from this counting of stitches. Cluny was only a 
variety of this Darned Netting, but into it were intro- 
duced raised stitches, wheels, circles, and triangles, which 
distinguished it from the plain darned Guipure. A 
shiny glazed thread was also introduced about parts of 
the lace as a contrast to the unglazed thread forming 
the rest of the pattern. 

Fig. 150 is a reproduction of a piece of Cluny 
Guipure formerly ornamenting a bed quilt belonging to 
Louis XIII., and is a good example of the quaint kind 
of patterns that were anciently worked, and that have 
been lately revived in French and Irish lace manufac- 
tories. In this the glazed thread forms the raised 
feathers of the bird, the stars and the circles, and also 
surrounds what is intended for a tree in the design. In 
many designs the glazed thread is worked as an outline 
round every part of the pattern, and Buttonhole Stitch 
used; but here Point Passe, Point do Toile, and Point 
Feston are employed, and there is no Buttonhole. This 
lace requires its foundation to be stretched in a frame 
while the pattern is worked upon it. Its stitches and 
manner of working them are similar to those used in 
Guipure d’Art. 

Coatings. — Black or blue cloths, in checks, stripes, or 
diagonals, manufactured for men’s wear. The widths 
comprise both the narrow and wide, and their several 
prices vary according to quality and width. 

Cobble. — (Danish Cobbler , to mend coarsely; the 
Welsh Cob being a round stone, making a rough street 
pavement; descriptive of the puckering of work; old 
French Cobler, to knit or join together.) A term em- 
ployed in needlework to denote coarse and unevenly 
drawn work or mending. 

Cobnrgs. — These stuffs are composed of wool and 
cotton, and in their make resemble a twilled Orleans 
or French merino. Some of the varieties have a silk 
w’arp and woollen weft. They can be had in all colours, 
and measure from 30 to 36 inches in width, varying 
in price according to their quality and width. They 

are chiefly used for coat linings and for dresses by the 
lower orders, who always employ them for mourning. 

Cockscombs. — A name given by laceworkers to the 
uniting threads known in Needle Laces as Bars and 
Brides. See Bar. 

Cocoa Bindings. —These are to be had of 2£ inches and 
3 inches width, and are sold by the gross. The lengths 
run from 18 to 21 yards. They are employed for sew r - 
ing round cocoa-nut mattings as bindings. 

Coins. — A French term signifying the clocks of a 
stocking; that is to say, the decorative embroidery, 
consisting of a mere line made with floss silk, with 
a finish more or less ornamental, running from the foot 
to about half way up the leg of the stocking, on both 
sides of the ankle and calf. These are sometimes of 
a uniform colour with the stocking and sometimes con- 
trast with it. See Clocks. 

Coive. — A French term to designate the lining of a 
bonnet, of whatever material it may be made. 

Colberteen Lace. — A lace made in France in the 
seventeenth century, and named after Colbert, the King’s 
Minister, the founder of the French lace manufactories. 
There is no accurate record of its make, but it is con- 
sidered to have been a coarse network lace of an open 
square mesh, and to have been used for ordinary 
occasions. It is frequently mentioned by English and 
French authors and poets of the seventeenth century, 
as a common and gaudy lace. 

Coloured Handkerchief Embroidery.— A modern 
embroidery that imitates Indian embroidery. The 
materials required are all shades of filoselle silks, gold 
thread, and a large cotton handkerchief, such as worn 
by peasants in France and Switzerland round the 
shoulders. The handkerchief is selected for its oriental 
design and colouring, and for its good border. To work : 
Back the handkerchief with a piece of ticking, and 
Run lining and material together. Work round the 
chief outlines of the pattern with Crewel or Rope 
Stitch, then Couch down a line of gold thread out- 
side the outlines. Fill up the centres of the pattern 
and the groundwork with Crewel and Satin Stitch 
worked in filoselles that match the colouring; in fact, 
reproduce the whole design in rich materials. Finish 
with a border of plain velvet or plush, and use for a 
banner screen or a table cover. 

Coloured Twill. — A stout cotton material, made in 
all the principal colours and employed for linings of 
curtains and embroidery; it will not bear washing. 
It is 1J yard in width. 

Combed Out Work.— This is of two kinds : The first 
consists of inserting loops of wool an inch and a half 
in length into alternate rows of plain Knitting during 
the process of making, and, after a sufficient length has 
been knitted, cutting these loops and combing them 
out with first a large toothed comb, and then a small 
one, until the w T ool assumes the texture of hair, aud 
entirely conceals the knitted foundation. This is fully 
explained in Bird Nest Mats. In the second, detached 
flowers are formed of combed out wool and bits of 
velvet. This latter kind is illustrated in Fig. 151, which 



shows two different coloured and shaped pansies, and 
the manner of finishing them at the back. 

The materials necessary for this Combed Out Work are 
different shades of single Berlin wool, pieces of good 
velvet, fine green wire, and gum. Each petal is made 
separately, thus: Wind single wool of a light colour six 
times round two fingers of the left hand, then take the 
wool off the fingers without disturbing it, and run a piece 
of fine wire through the loops at one end, and fasten the 
wire firmly by twdsting it so that it secures all the wool at 
that end. Cut the loops at the end where they arc not 
secured with the wire, and proceed to comb out the wool; 
use a coarse comb to commence with, and then change to 
a smaller toothed one until the ^vool is as fine as floss silk, 
then snip the edges of the wool to the shape of a pansy 
petal. Carefully drop a little pure gum in and about the 
w'ool forming the petal, to keep the combings from getting 
out of place, and also use gum to fix on to the petal the 

Detail C. 

Fig. 151. Combed Out Wool Work. 

light fibres of different coloured wool that form the mark- 
ings in Details A and B. Comb these out before they arc 
laid on the petal, and fix them to their places with the 
points of scissors, not with the hands. Make the eye of 
the pansy and the dark outside lines of Detail A with pieces 
of velvet cut to shape and caught down with long stitches 
of coloured silk, but gum the edges of the velvet into 
position. As each petal is made, crook the end of the wire 
supporting it, and hang it up by this crook to dry ; when 
all are finished, combine the separate wires, cover them 
with green wool, and finish off the back of the flower 
quite neatly, to present the appearance of Detail C. The 
colours of Detail A are a foundation of white wool with 
dark ruby velvet forming centre spots and edges, and light 
bits of combed out ruby wool put on the petals, to shade 
the velvet into the white in the centre of flower and at 
the edge. The silks used are yellow purse silk. Detail B 
has an amber ground, with violet markings, with a deeper 
violet velvet used for the eye of the flower, and violet 

purse silk used for the lines. Pansy leaves are generally 
formed like those used in 'Wool Work Flowers, or they 
can be made of various shades of green wool combed out 
and fastened as the pansy petals. 

Commence a Loop. — A term used in Tatting. 

Common Heel.— Sec Stocking Knitting. 

Cone. — A term sometimes used in Guipure d’Art for 
Point Pyramid. 

Confection.— A French term applied to any kind of 
ready-made article of dross. 

Connaught. — A species of cotton cloth, otherwise 
known as Basket Cloth, made after the manner of Aida 
Canvas or Toile Colbert, the French name by which 
it was first known. It is employed as a foundation for 
embroidery. Java Canvas and Fancy Oatmeal are 
names applied to the same cloth. 

Connaught Yarns. — An Irish yam recently produced 
by the peasants of Valencia Island. The fibre of the wool 
employed is fine, soft, and elastic ; and the staple being 
longer than that usually spun for the purpose of knitting 
or weaving, it is durable in wear. Connaught Yarns 
are thinner than the Blarneys produced in the same 
island, and arc more loosely twisted. The Fingerings are 
to be had in 3 ply and 4 ply. They may all be had in 
black, white, grey, heather, ruby, navy-blue fancy mix- 
tures, &c. See Blarneys. 

Continuous Inner Pearl. — Used in Honiton and other 
braid laces as an ornament to the inner side of any leaf 
that is not filled in with stitches. It is shown in the left- 
hand leaf of Fig. 152. To work : Hang on ten pairs of 

Fig. 152. Continuous Inner Pearl. 

bobbins and two gimps at the tip of the hollow leaf and 
do Cloth Stitch to the place where the opening begins ; 
work to the centre, stick a pin in the top hole, hang on a 
pair of gimps round it, Twist the two pairs of working 
bobbins twice, make a stitch about the pin and work first 
down one side of the opening and then down the other. 
The stitch at the inside edge is the Inner Pearl, made 
thus: Work to the inner gimp, pass it through the pair, 
Twist the workers six times, stick a pin, pass the gimp 
through the pair, and work back, Twist the workers six 
times, stick a pin, pass the gimp through again and work 
back. When both sides are finished all but the lowest 
hole the two working pairs of bobbins will meet in the 
middle; make a stitch, stick a pin, tie the gimps and cut 
them off, and let one of the working pairs merge into the 
passive bobbins; finish the leaf, cut off all but six pairs of 
bobbins, work the circle, and then work the other leaf in 
Lace Stitch. 

Contract an Edge. — A term used in Crochet. 



Coques. — A French term to denote bows of ribbon 
arranged in loops as a decorative trimming. 

Corah. Silk. — A light Indian washing textile, of a 
cream white, lighter in shade than 
any of the other undyed silks, 
either Indian or Chinese. It is 
much used by young ladies for 
evening dress, and is very econo- 
mical in wear. Sold in pieces of 
7 yards or 10 yards each, and 
running from 30 inches to 31 
inches in width. Corah silk is one 
of the class called “cultivated,” 
in contradistinction to the Tussore, 
or “ wild silk,” produced in India. 

Coral Stitch. — See Em- 
broidery STITCHES. Fio. 153. Double Coral Stitch. 

Cord. — In Needle-made Laces the fancy and thick 
stitches that form the centres of the flowers and sprays 
are surrounded with a raised rim closely Buttonholed, and 
called either a Cord or Cordonnet. This rim varies as to 
thickness and size in almost all the laces, a peculiarity 
particularly noticeable in the old Spanish and Venetian 
Rose points. It never, however, varies as to being 
finished with close lines of Buttonhole, the difference in 
its shape and size being attained by the larger or smaller 
amount of padding (made of coarse thread) that is run 
in under the Buttonhole. For manner of working, see 

Cord— Part of Macram6. 

Cord, and Fancy Check Muslins. — These are cam- 
bric muslins, with stripes and cords placed across each 
other, in plaid fashion; thick threads being introduced 
into the warp and weft. They are a yard wide, and are 
employed for children’s dresses and servants’ aprons. 

Corded Muslin. — This muslin is also known as “ Hair- 
cords,” having a thick hair cord running one way only. 
It is made a yard wide, and is employed for infants’ 
dresses, and otherwise. 

Cording.— Sec Cord Stitch. 

Cordonette. — The French term to signify an edging, or 
small cord or piping to form an edging. It is also the 
name given to French netting silk, which is finer than 
our crochet or purse silk, and is sold wound on reels. 

Cordonnet. — The raised rim in Needle Laces, identical 
with Cord. 

Cordova Lace. — This is the name of a stitch or filling 
used in ancient Needle Point Lace and in modern Point. 
There are two ways of working it, one like the Point de 
Reprise of Guipure d’Art, and the other as follows : Com- 
mence by throwing three threads across the space to be 
filled in a horizontal direction, putting them in as near 
together as they can be, worked. Twist the needle and 
thread round the third or under thread twice, so as to 
carry the thread along the third line for a short distance 
from the commencement of the stitch, and Darn a flat 
spot over the three lines by working up and down them 
twice. Twist the thread again round the third line twice 
and darn another spot, and continue in the same manner 

to the end of the row. For the next row leave an interval 
the width of three threads between it and the first, and 
work like the first. Continue to work the second row to 
the end of the space, and then throw three threads per- 
pendicularly across the space to form a square with the 
horizontal threads, passing them one over and one under 
the horizontal threads and between the spots already 
worked. Dam spots on these as upon the others, and 
continue the perpendicular lines to the end of the space 
requiring to be filled. 

Cordovan Embroidery. — A modern Embroidery 
founded upon Applique. The materials used are gold or 
silver American cloth, Serge and Filoselles. To work : 
Trace a bold but conventional pattern, either of flowers 
and leaves, or a flowing arabesque that is continuous, 
upon the back or under side of a piece of gold-coloured 
American cloth. Cut this out, and lay it upon thick 
brown liolland or coarse canvas, and paste the two 
materials together. Cut out the canvas to the pattern 
shape when the paste is dry. Stretch a piece of dark 
blue, green, or crimson serge, tack the gold American 
cloth to that with long stitches taken over, not through 
the cloth. With gold-coloured filoselle Buttonhole the 
cloth to the serge round the outer edges, and with crimson 
and green filoselle work on the cloth in Satin Stitch, 
the centre of the flowers, veins of the leaves, or any detail 
that will mark out t tie design. On the serge background 
work detached sprays, tendrils, and stems in Crewel 

Cords. — These are of various kinds. Black silk Cords, 
employed for watch guards, and for button loops and coat 
edging, sold in knots of 35 yards and by the gross. The 
numbers run from 2 to 10; 3, 5, and 7 being the most 
useful. Black mohair Cords, formerly employed for coat 
edgings, are now much used for looping up dresses ; the 
numbers run up to 8 ; 2, 4, and 7 being the most useful. 
They are sold by the gross — four pieces, 36 yards in each. 
Blind Cords are of cotton thread, linen thread, and flax 
covered with worsted, and can be had in various colours — 
scarlet, crimson, amber, blue, green, &c. — sold in lengths 
of 72 yards, two pieces to the gross. Cotton Cords, in black 
and white, are extensively used by dressmakers for pipings, 
and in upholstery ; they are sold in bundles of 51b., mixed 
sizes or otherwise, and in single skeins. Picture Cords, a 
heavy-made article, are sold in lengths of 36 yards, and 
may be had in scarlet, crimson, green, amber, and other 
colours, so as to correspond with the walls. There are, 
besides, silk mantle Cords, also heavy-made, and much in 
use, having four pieces of 35 yards to the gross; the 
numbers run from 1, 1 £, 2, 21, 3 and 4: Nos. 1, 2, and 3 
being most employed in black or colours. 

Cords, Cloth. — A fancy woollen material, ribbed after 
the maimer of a rep, only in vertical lines instead of 
horizontal ones. It measures 28 inches in width. 

Cord Stitch. — A decorative needle stitch, sometimes 
called Cording, formed by interlacing two lines of silk or 

Fio. 151. Cord Stitcii. 

thread in the manner shown in Fig. 154. Cord Stitch is 



also used in working Bars in Modern Point lace and Dama- 
scene lace, wlien the Bars are not finished with Buttonholes. 

To work : Throw a line of thread across the space to he 
filled, and secure it tightly to the braid. Return the 
thread to the spot it started from by winding it round and 
round the tight line made as described. 

Corduasoy. — A thick silk, woven over a foundation of 
coarse thread. 

Corduroy. — (From the French, Cord du JRoi.) A de- 
scription of fustian. It is made of cotton, having a pile, 
but has a cut, ribbed, or corded surface. The best kinds 
are twilled, and they may be had in grey or slate colour, 
and in drabs. There is likewise a very superior make of 
Corduroy, especially made for ladies’ jackets and for the 
trimmings of warm cloth dresses, which has a very broad 
rib and high pile, is soft and pliable, and has no smell. 
It is three-quarters of a yard in width. 

Cord Work. — This is nufde with a needle, and is a 
kind of coarse Needle Lace executed with black or coloured 
purse silks, fine bobbin cord, or strong linen thread. It 
loses its character unless worked with thick materials, 
but it is immaterial whether silk or linen threads are 
used. It is made in the form of rosettes (see Fig. 155), 

Fig. 155. Cord Work. 

or in squares, and the patterns are taken from Crochet 
designs. Mark out the patterns upon tracing linen, and 
back with Toile Cire. The only stitch is the ordinary 
Buttonhole, the varieties in the patterns being attained 
by either working these Buttonholes close together in com- 
pact masses, or separating them by carrying the working 
thread plainly along the pattern over a certain fixed space. 

The rosette shown in the illustration is worked as 
follows: First row — work into a small loop eighteen 
Buttonholes. Second row — work a Buttonhole, miss the 
space of one and work another, continue to the end of the 
row, making nine Buttonholes and nine spaces. Third 
row — work two Buttonholes, one on each side of the one 
in the previous row, and carry the thread plainly along in 
the spaces. Fourth row — as second, but working three 
instead of two Buttonholes. Fifth row — as third, but 
working five Buttonholes instead of three. Sixth row — 
make nine loops, commencing each loop from the final 
Buttonhole of the pattern and fastening it to the first 
Buttonhole on the next pattern, so that the loop is situated 
over the spaces in the rosette, and not over the Button- 

holes ; run the thread across the thick parts of the rosette 
between the loops. Seventh row — work nine Buttonholes 
into each loop, and two over the thick part of the pattern. 
Rosettes, of whatever design, are commenced from the 
centre with a circle made of cord, and Buttonholed round. 
They are increased by two to four extra stitches being 
worked in every round of Buttonhole. In working squares, 
commence at the top with a line of close Buttonhole 
worked upon a cord foundation, and from this work either 
a plain square Crochet pattern or a simple modern point 
stitch, such as Cadiz or Escalier ; if the latter, see that 
it is enclosed on every side with a line of close Buttonhole. 

Another Variety of work with the same name is 
formed over bodkins, and is suitable for quilts and couvre- 
pieds, but not for flat articles, as when finished it has 
the appearance of raised stars or wheels formed into round 
or diamond- shaped patterns. It can be worked with 
worsted, single Berlin or fleecy wool, or coarse, but soft, 
knitting cotton, and each wheel is made separately and 
joined together. 

To work : Commence by taking three equal sized large 
steel bodkins, and tie them firmly together in the middle 
with the wool, opening them out to form a six-pointed 
wheel with equal distances between each spoke, and with 
their eyes following each other, as shown in Fig. 156. 
Pick up the wool that tied the bodkins together and loop 
it round the nearest bodkin, pass it on to the next, and 
loop it round that, and so on round all six spokes, as shown 

Fio. 156. Cord Won* —Detail A. 

in Fig. 156, detail A. Work twelve rows in this way; the 
space between the spokes will be wider in each row, and 
the wool will have to be kept at even lengths, and 
untwisted; fasten off by running the wool into the wheel. 
Thread the bodkins with a long double piece of wool, 
and pull them through and out of the wheel, filling in 
their places with the doubled wool. Work other wheels 
in the same way and thread them together. It will 
require some practice to place these wheels together into 
designs of diamonds and squares, so as to secure them 
firmly, but the principle of all will be the same. Pass 
a diagonal thread in one wheel horizontally through 
the next wheel, and vice versa, and when no spoke of 
the next wheel touches a thread, run it underneath 


the work until it can be drawn through another wheel. 
The manner of doing this is shown in the illustration, in 
which the doubled thread is drawn through the top wheel, 
and then taken under the part of the work where the 
side wheels join. The manner of connecting these wheels 

Fig. 157. Cord Work— Detail B. 

together is shown in Fig. 157, detail B. When all are 
firmly drawn together into a solid body, work a row of 
Double Crochet round their outer edge, and draw and 
work into this line all ends of threads, so as to secure 
them without knots. 

Corfu Lace. — A coarse Greek lace or Reticella, still 
made by the natives of that place, but of no commercial 

Cork Lace .— See Irish Lace. 

Cornet. — A French term used in dressmaking to signify 
the open, trumpet shape of a sleeve at the wrist. 

Coromandels. — A description of Manchester made 
cotton stuffs, chiefly made for the African export trade. 

Corsage. — A French term to signify a bodice. 

Corset. — The French term to signify a pair of stays. 

Corset Cord. — This cord is made both of linen and 
of cotton. It is sold either by the dozen yards or by 
the yound. 

Costume. — A French term to signify a complete dress. 

Cdteline, or Cdtelaines, — A kind of white hair cord 
muslin, printed in all kinds of patterns and colours. It is 
of French manufacture and designed for a dress material. 
The width measures 31 inches. The printing and shading 
of these goods are considered remarkably good. 

Cotton. — (Latin Coctona , Welsh Cottivn, French Coton.) 
The soft white downy pods of the Gossypium , or cotton 
plant, which is spun and woven into a great variety of 
textiles, and also employed for sewing thread. This plant 
is a native of India and America, &c., and grows best near 
the sea. 

Cottonade. — A description of cotton cloth, in black and 
white, of very inferior quality for wear, made for women’s 
skirts and suits for boys. It is 27 inches in width. 

8 <> 

Cotton-backed Satin. — This material is comparatively 
a new manufacture in England, but is inferior in one 
respect to those Indian-made, under the name of Musliroo, 
as the latter, in every variety of coarse and fine, wash well, 
while our home-made examples and the French do not. 
Our cotton-backed satins vary in width from half a yard 
to three-quarters. 

Cotton Bullion Fringes. — These are heavily made, 
the widths running from 3 inches to 12. The lengths run 
from 24 to 36 yards. 

Cotton Canvas. — This textile is both home-made, and 
also manufactured in France and Germany; the French, or 
patent, being the best in its firmness, regularity, and clear- 
ness of each thread, the meshes being remarkably square. 
German cotton canvas is inferior, but may be had both 
limp and stiffened. The French and German are made in 
all sizes and widths ; the latter will not bear much tension. 
That made in imitation of silk soon soils. They have 
produced a kind especially for tapestry-stitch. The 
| German cotton canvas is generally made with every tenth 
| thread dyed yellow, for the assistance of the embroiderer 
; in counting. It is made both limp and stiffened. 

Cotton Cords. — These are made in white and black, and 
are extensively used in dressmaking, as well as in up- 
holstery. They are made up in half-bundles of 51b., in 
mixed sizes, or otherwise; they may also be had in skeins, 
in single pounds. -The numbers run from 1 to 0, 00, 000, 
0,000, and 00,000. 

Cotton Crape Cloth. — An imitation of the woollen 
Crape Cloth; it is employed for children’s wear. 

Cotton Damasks. — Made in imitation of the linen; 
cheaper, less durable, requiring frequent bleaching, and not 
much in request. Cotton damasks having a linen face have 
been, and are, in use for table linen ; these being decorated 
with coloured borders in ingrain red and blue designs. 
Table cloths may be obtained in a variety of lengths. 
Cotton damask is also the name given to a beautiful 
material woven in different colours for curtains, and the 
other purposes of upholstery. It is 54 inches in width, 
and varies in price; is most durable, and bears almost 
endless cleaning. It has, however, been much superseded 
by Cretonne. 

Cotton Ferrets. — A description of binding resembling 
unsized tape. They are chiefly employed in black and drab 
colours, and are made up in rolls of nine pieces, containing 
16 yards; numbers 8-18, or 6-24. 

Cotton Prints, or Calico Prints. — Calico cloths 
printed in various colours and patterns to serve for dresses. 
Specimens of cotton fabrics sent out of the country, from 
Manchester alone, have shown upwards of 1,500 different 
kinds, varying in strength and pattern, from coarse cloths 
to the finest muslins, and from the richest chintz to the 
plain white. 

Cotton Quilting. — A material made for waistcoat 
pieces, resembling diaper, strong and thick in quality. 

Cotton Reps. — Handsome cloths dyed in all colours, 
35 inches wide, and at lid. a yard. They are chiefly em- 
ployed for the linings of cretonne curtains. 


9 ° 


Cottons for Sewing. — These are of several kinds — the 
white ball, distinguished by letters or numbers ; and balls 
in every colour. Reel cotton is superior in make, and to free 
it from the projecting fibres, it is passed rapidly through 
the flames of coal gas. Darning cotton, used for repairing 
stockings, is composed of two threads but little twisted, 
and can be had in black, white, and colours. Embroidery 
cotton, a loose soft make, which can be bought in skeins, 
by the pound or gross ; the numbers run from 4 to 100. It 
is used for decorating all kinds of white cotton or muslin, 
wearing apparel, and for handkerchiefs. Trafalgar, or 
Moravian cotton, is quite soft, and is employed for working 
nets, muslins, and cambrics. Knitting cotton is twisted 
less hard than sewing cotton, and is used for gloves, 
mittens, &c. Bonnet cotton, a coarse thread, consisting of 
eight or sixteen strands twisted together, employed for the 
making of seaside, and countrywomen’s calico bonnets, and 
also in upholstery. Crape cotton is unsized, of quite a 
dull black, and only made in five numbers ; it is used for 
sewing crape. Crochet cottons may be had in reels, skeins, 
or balls, the numbers running from 8 to 50. Marking 
cotton is dyed before being twisted, and is sold both in 
balls and on reels. Lace thread is made expressly for re- 
pairing lace or bobbinette. Gimp thread is soft in quality 
and make, and is used for embroidery on muslin ; and 
glazed cotton, otherwise called glace thread. 

Cotton Sheetings. — The best make in cotton sheetings 
varies from two yards upwards to three in width. There 
are also intermediate widths, and prices vary accordingly. 
They can be had twilled, double warped, and plain made. 

Cotton Ticking. — This material is made in stripes of 
white and blue, ingrain colours, both in twill and plain 
made. It is employed both for bedding and other pur- 
poses of upholstery, and also for embroidery. The price 
varies, and the ticking measures from 30 to 36 inches. 
See Belgian Ticking. 

Cotton Velvet. — A material made in exact imitation of 
silk velvet, both in plain colours, and printed in patterns. 
It was employed for a dress material, but has been for 
some years almost entirely superseded by a better de- 
scription of fabric, composed of silk and cotton, called 
Velveteen. Ribbon is also made of cotton velvet, an 
article inferior in quality, being cut in strips from piece 
velvets, and thus having raw edges. The fraying of the 
edges is to some extent prevented by sizing. They may 
be had in various colours, and in rather short lengths of 
12 yards each. The numbers run from 1 to 40, and 
the widths from 1 and 1$ to 10 inclusive, consecutively, 
and every even number to 24, inclusive; then passing 
over those intervening, to numbers 30 and 40. There are 
also fancy velvet ribbons partially of plain silk, as well 
as of velvet, produced in various colours and patterns, 
and very commonly in plaid designs. 

Cotton Wool. — The raw cotton, after having been 
passed through the “ willow,” “ blowing,” and “ scutching ” 
machines, is spread out into broad, soft, fleece-like wadding, 
when it is wound on a roller. It is employed for lining 
garments, quilts, &c., being placed between the material 

and its lining, and then sewn and kept in position by dia- 
gonal runnings at even distances, called “quilting.” We 
obtain cotton wool from Cyprus. 

Couching. — A term signifying the various ways, in 
Church Embroidery, that materials too thick to pass 
through the linen foundations as stitches are formed into 
patterns. All ancieut Church needlework was profusely 
decorated with Coucliings, which although of endless 
variety of names and designs, are of two descriptions only, 
the Flat and the Raised. They are formed with gold or 
silver thread, passing, gold braid, pearl purl, tambour, 
purse silk, three corded silk, Crochet twist, floss silk, 
mitorse, and Berlin silk. Gold twist and gold thread are 
costly, as is also passing (which is partly silk and partly 
gold); therefore gold silk frequently takes their place when 
expense is an object of consideration. The silk is also less 
likely to suffer from damp and gas than the gold threads, 
which are not now manufactured as pure as in the oldeu 
times, and are therefore liable to many changes, some kinds 
of silks acting deleteriously upon them, while the vapour 
of incense and the touch of a warm hand affect them. Flat 
Coucliings are formed of threads of silk or gold laid 
smoothly down upon the linen foundation, and caught to 
it with small stitches brought up from the back of the 
work, and returned to it. Raised Coucliings are the same 
threads laid upon the linen, but over whipcord that has 
been previously arranged upon it in a set design, the laid 
lines of thread being secured in the Raised in the same 
manner as in Flat. The names given to Coucliings are 
taken from the direction of these securing stitches ; they 
are called Basket, Battlemented, Brick, Broad, Diagonal, 
Diamond, Diaper, Plain, Shell, Spider, Vandyke, Wavy, 
Wheel. The manner of working them all only differs in 
the patterns formed by the securing threads, and the 
direction of the whipcord in the raised designs. 

To work the plain Flat Coucliings: Take threads of 
floss, mitorse, or purse silk, and lay them smoothly down 
from side to side in the space to be filled, either in hori- 
zontal, diagonal, or perpendicular lines ; then thread an 
embroidery needle with fine purse silk or sewings, and 
catch the laid threads down; bring the needle up from 
the back of frame, put the silk in it over two or more laid 
lines, and the needle again through the foundation to the 
back ; work over the laid lines until all are secured, and 
form the stitches into a pattern by altering the distances 
between them. 

There are two ways to work more elaborate Flat 
Coucliings. The first : Lay the floss silk down as before 
mentioned, then lay over it, one at a time, lines of purse 
silk or gold thread, and catch these down upon the floss 
with a stitch brought from the back of the work, and 
returned to it as before described. Each line of purse silk 
must be laid with reference to the pattern that it is helping 
to form over the floss foundation. The second manner 
of arranging the stitches is as follows : Lay two or more 
threads of floss or gold upon the foundation linen, and 
at once secure them with a stitch. Bring this stitch 
from the back of the work, and work it at equal distance 
down the two laid threads ; then lay two more threads and 
secure them in the same manner. 


Work Raised Coucliings as follows : Sew securely down 
to the linen foundation a number of strands of whipcord 
as straight or waved lines, or form them into a set pattern ; 
over these lay floss silk or gold thread, and secure this with 
a stitch brought from the back and returned there as 
already described. On each side of the raised pari formed 
by the whipcord that is underneath the floss, work a con- 
tinuous line of these securing stitches so as to distinctly 
outline the whipcord ; in the intervals between these raised 
parts work the securing stitches up and down as in Flat 
Couchings, and make them into any pattern that may be 
required without reference to the raised design. When 
Couching in various devices, hold the laid threads in one 
hand and regulate them with that or with the piercer, 
and bring up the securing threads with the other, and 
do not change the position of the hands until the work 
is finished. Outline the Couching with a cord of silk or 
gold, and sometimes with more than one, according to 
the design. Use the Raised Couchings for backgrounds, 
the Flat for the centres of the various devices used as 
Powderings ( see Church Embroidery) and for the 
centres of altar frontals and embroidered vestments. 

Basket Stitch. — (Fig. 158). This is a Raised Couching. 
To work : Lay down perpendicular lines of whipcord upon 
the foundation, and Sew them firmly into position. Take 
four threads of purse silk, gold thread, or floss silk, and 
Stitch them down with purse silk of the same colour 
brought through from the back of the material and 

Fig. 158. Basket Raised Couching. 

returned to it. Place these securing stitches between 
every second strand of the cord. Form the next line with 
fom* threads laid over the whipcord and stitched down ; 
but, in order to prevent the lines of stitches all coming 
directly beneath each other, the first line must secure the 

Fig. 159. Basket Raised Couching. 

floss silk over one cord only, the rest over two cords as 
before. Repeat these two lines until the space is filled in. 

Fig. 159, also of Basket Couching, is worked as 
follows: The whipcord and the floss silk lay down as 
before described, but over them lay short lines of fine 
gold thread or purse silk. Bring these from the back by 


making a hole with the stiletto for them to pass through, 
and return them in the same way. 

Fig. 160 is a Flat Couching with securing threads, 
arranged as Battlemented lines. Lay the floss silk in 

Fio. 160. Church Embroidery— Battlemented Flat Couching. 

diagonal lines across the foundation, and then work the 
securing stitches to imitate the design. 

Brick Stitch , illustrated in Figs. 161 and 162, is 
worked in two ways. For the design shown in Fig. 161 : 
Lay down lines of floss silk in a diagonal direction, and 
secure them with stitches from the back, pass each stitch 
over two lines of floss, and work it in at an even dis- 
tance from the stitch preceding it to the end of the 
pattern. Work the next line of securing stitches over 

Fig. 161. Brick Flat Couching. 

two laid lines of floss, not directly under the stitches in 
the preceding row, but between them. It will be seen 
on reference to the illustration that these securing 
stitches are not taken over the whole of the foundation, 
but are arranged to form Vandykes. Fig. 162 is Brick 

Fig. 162. Brick Flat CoucniNo. 

stitch differently worked : Lay down two threads of purse 
silk, and catch these down with a stitch from the back 
also of purse silk, and placed at regular distances along 
the line ; work the second line as the first, but place the 
fastening stitches in it between those of the previous row. 
Broad Couching , Fig. 163 : Work like the Brick Couch- 
ing last described, but with the securing stitches slightly 

Fig. 163. Broad Flat Couching. 

draw the foundation floss together where they stitch it 



Diagonal Couching is a Flat Diagonal Couching. 
Make with lines of securing stitches worked through the 
material in a diagonal direction, or lay threads over the 
floss silk in a slanting direction, 

Diamond Coaching , — A Flat Couching (shewn in Fig. 
104) worked as follows : Lay down lines of floss silk, and 
above them lay lines of purse silk or gold thread singly, 
but in a diagonal direction, and at equal distances apart. 

Fig. lfli, Diamond Flat Core sung. 

Secure each single line with a stitch brought from the 
back. Lay all the lines in one direction first and secure 
them, then lay the lines that cross them, and wherever the 
two meet and form one of the points of a diamond, work 
a pearl or a spangle in at the junction. 

Diaper Couching is the same as Plain Couching, the 
securing stitches in it being worked so as to form zigzag 
lines, diamonds, and crosses. 

Plain Flat Couching , — Lay down floss silk evenly 
over the foundation, and secure it with stitches brought 
from the hack. Take these over two threads of silk and 
return to the back again. Arrange these securing stitches 

Fra, 165, Plain Flat Concilia; a. 

to form straight or curved hues or diamonds across the 
space covered. The Couched lines (shown in Fig. 165) are 

not placed close together, but allow the material upon 
which they are laid to show between them when so 
arranged ; the foundation must be of silk, not linen. 
Fig, 166 is a variety of plain Couching. It is worked 
thus : Lay down perpendicular lines of floss silk close 
together, then horizontal and wide apart single lines of 

purse silk or gold thread, and secure these at even dis- 
tances by a stitch from the back; wherever the stitch 
from the back is made, work in a spangle or a bead. 

Shell Couching, — A Flat Couching, in wb ich tbe 
securing stitches are arranged in half curves, and bear 
some resemblance to the shape of a scallop shell. 

Spider Couching , — A Raised Couching, Upon a linen 
foundation fasten down short pieces of whipcord. Cut 
these of equal length, and arrange them like the spokes of 
a w T keel or the chief threads of a spider's web. Fill in the 
whole of the foundation with threads so arranged, place 
the wheels they make as near together as they can be. 
Then lay lines of floss silk over the whipcord and secure 
it by stitches from the back of the work. Work these 
stitches in lines on each side of every raised cord, so that 
the shape of each wheel or spider’s web is clearly indicated, 

Vandylce Couching , — A Raised Couching. Form with 
lines of whipcord laid on the linen foundation in the shape 
of Vandykes; lay floss silk over them, and secure it, and 
outline the whipcord with securing stitches from the hack. 

Wavy Couching . — This is a Raised Couching, and is 
illustrated in Fig, 167. To work i Arrange upon the linen 
foundation curved lines of whipcord ; lay a medium sized 
purse silk over them and the foundation, two strands at 
a time, and secure the silk as In Broad Couching, omitting 

Fig. 161 Wavy Raised Couching. 

the stitches wherever the raised part formed by the cord 
underneath is approached. When the Broad Couching 
is finished, lay a thread of gold or silk cord on each 
side of the waved line, and catch it down with securing 
stitches from the back, or work the line on each side of 
the raised part with a continuous line of stitches brought 
from the back. 

Wheel “Similar to Spider, 

Cou&re. — The French term signifying to sew* 

Coulant Nattee. — See Macrame Lace. 

Coulisse. — (French.) A small slip-stitched pleating, 
sewn upon a dress by means of slip stitches. 

Coulisse.— A French term denoting the gathering, by 
fine runnings and drawing, so as to pucker up any mate- 
rial, and to form Irregular wrinkles, yet so as to pre- 
serve a general uniformity of hollows and puffings. See 

Counter-Hemming,— -To execute this description of 
plain sewing, place two edges of material together, one 
overlying the other, so as to form a flat joining. The 
wrong side of one piece should overlap the right side of 
the other to the depth of an ordinary seam. If the pieces 
so united have selvedges, nothing should be turned in ; 
hut if cither piece have a raw edge, it must be once folded. 



The flat seam should then be tacked down throughout its 
entire length, and afterwards felled (or hemmed), and as 
soon as one side has been finished, the second, or 
“counter-hem,” is made in the same way. This is an 
untidy method of working, inferior to the ordinary plan 
of simply “ running and felling.” 

Couronnes. — An ornament to the Cordonnet, used in 
Needle Point laces, and identical with Crowns. To make : 
Work tiny loops of thread along the outer edge of the 
Cordonnet, and Button-hole these over with a close 
line of buttonholes, and finish with small Bobs placed, 
at equal distances along the outer edge of the loops. 
The Couronnes are either worked as a decoration to the 
Cordonnet that forms the edge of the lace, or round 
any raised Cordonnets in the body of the pattern ; when 
in the latter position they, with Spines and Thorns, are 
known as Fleurs Volantes. 

Coutille. — A French word to denote a description of 
jean used for stays. It has a small kind of armure 
pattern all over it, woven in the material, like a succession 
of small chevrons or zigzags. It is of a lighter make 
than English jean, is usually employed without a lining, 
and measures 27 inches in width. 

Coutrai Lace. — In Belgium, at a town of this name, 
Valenciennes is made. It is known as Coutrai Lace, and 
commands a ready sale in England, being worked in 
wider widths than the Valenciennes produced in other 
Belgian cities. See Valenciennes. 

Cover Cloths. — All pillows used for the purpose of 
laccmaking require three Cover Cloths. Make the 
largest, known as the under cloth, the size of the pillow, 
of washing silk or fine linen, and use to cover the pillow 
entirely. Place it on the pillow before the Passe ment 
pattern is adjusted, it cannot be removed until that is 
detached ; but as the lace is worked upon it, it must be 
taken off and washed whenever it looks at all soiled 
The other cloths are detached from the pillow and 
altered at will as to their positions. They are made of 
silk or linen, in size 18 inches by 12 inches. Pin one 
over the top of the pillow to protect the finished lace, 
which is there rolled up out of the way, and pin the 
other down over the lower part of the Passement and 
under the bobbins, to prevent the lace threads becoming 
entangled with the pricked holes in the design. When 
the lace is not being made, throw this cloth over the 
pillow to keep it clean. 

Cradle, or Shuttle.— An appliance (otherwise called 
an attachment) belonging to a Sewing Machine 

(which see). 

Crankey. — A bend or turn, significant of the descrip- 
tion of ticking employed for beds, composed of linen 
and cotton, the patterns on which are irregular or zigzag. 
It measures 54 inches in width. 

Crape. — A delicate transparent crimped gauze, made 
of raw silk, sized with gum, twisted in the mill, and woven 
without dressing. It may also be had both crisped and 
smooth, with or without a twill, the former being of 
double width, and generally ranging from 23 inches to 42 
inches in width. White crape is manufactured for a dress 
material, and for trimmings. The production of coloured 

varieties originated at Bologna, thence introduced at 
Lyons, where those of Areophane and Crepe Lisse are 
largely made. Our own manufactures at Norwich and 
Yarmouth are likewise of superior make. The best sorts 
are entirely of silk, but a new kind, called Albert Crape, 
is composed of silk and cotton, and another, called Victoria 
Crape, is made of cotton only. There is an improved variety, 
of recent manufacture, having a small indented pattern, 
which resists the influence of rain and a damp atmosphere. 
The dyeing and dressing of crape are performed after 
it has been woven. See China Crape and Yokohama 

Crape Cloth. — A woollen material, woven in imitation 
of crape, dyed black, and employed for mourning in the 
place of real crape. It is made of double width, in dif- 
ferent qualities, and varies in price accordingly. It bears 
washing, and wears well, and is known in the various shops 
by several different names. 

Crape Cotton. — An unsized cotton of a dull black, 
employed for sewing crape, and made only in five 

Crash. — Called also Russia Crash, and round towelling, 
the width running from 16 to 22 inches. This material 
was utilised in the early days of crewel work for embroi- 
dery, on which account that species of work was called 
Crash Work. In process of time various makes of un- 
bleached linen, copied from ancient examples of crewel 
work textiles, have been misnamed Crash. These are to be 
had in various degrees of fineness, width, and make. See 
Barnsley Linens. A description of linen misnamed 
Crash is a closely woven cloth, even in grain, rather fine, 
and unbleached, which is employed as canvas for the pur- 
poses of embroidery. It is 37 inches in width. Another 
description of Crash, also used in embroidery, is known as 
Buckingham’s hand-made Crash, having a chessboard pat- 
tern, and made after the style of Huckaback. It is of 
double width. The real Crashes are only two in number, 
Russian and Barnsley. Russia Crash, which is not used 
for embroidery, is unbleached and unpressed, and varies 
from 16 to 18 inches in width ; Barnsley Crash may be 
had at 16, 18, 20, and 22 inches in width, and it is this 
material that is employed for embroidery. It is beautifully 
bleached and pressed. 

Crazy Patchwork. — This method of forming Patch- 
work is otherwise, and more correctly, called Applique 
Patchwork. (See Patchwork.) 

Cream-twilled Linen. — A description of linen cloth 
employed for purposes of embroidery, of 2 yards in width. 

Cr6nele. — (French). Battlemented, or cut in square 
scallops, producing that effect, as a bordering of a dress. 

Crepe. — The French for Crape (which see). 

Crdpe. — A French term to signify crimped, after the 
style of crape. 

Cr6pe de Dante. — A combination of silk and wool, 
and silk and Lisle thread and wool, woven together. 

Cr6pe de Lahor. — A washing material designed for 
women’s dresses, and made in various colours. Its width 
is much narrower than that of Crepe Lisse, measuring only 
26 inches. 

Crdpeline.— Crepon, or Crape Cloth. A dress material, 



having a silken surface, much resembling crape, but con- 
siderably thicker. It is 24 inches in width \ and is to be 
had in wool and in silk tmmixed with wool. Those of 
mixed materials have the warp twisted much harder 
than the weft* Crepon made at Naples is of silk only. 
It is chiefly manufactured in black, but is also to be 
bad in colours, Norwich is the chief seat of the manu- 
facture in England, and Zurich and Naples abroad, 

Cr&pe Lisse. — A thin description of crape, like gauze, 
chiefly employed for making frills and ruffles. It may be 
bad in white, cream, and other colours, and is 36 inches 
in width. 

Crepe Work. — This work consists of forming imitation 
flowers or leaves of crepe, and either sewing them to the 
silk or satin backgrounds, or making them up upon wire 
foundations as detached sprays. When attached to "wire, 
they are used for wreaths and dress or bonnet trimmings ; 
when sewn to backgrounds, for ornamenting sachet cases 
and necktie ends. They are formed for the last- mentioned 
as follows: Select crepe of a colour matching the satin 
background; cut out the size of the flower petal to be 
made upon paper 1 , and cut to it a piece of doubled 
crepe ; turn in the raw edges, and draw the crepe together 
at one end to form the narrow part of the petal ; then sew 
this end to the foundation, and allow the other to stand 

Fra 103. Cutre Woke* 

up. To form the flower, five petals are made as described, 
and sewn down as a round, their raw edges being well 
tacked down and concealed by Feench Knots made either 
of gold and silver thread or floss silk. The shape of the 
flowers made of crepe cannot be much varied ; their centres 
may, however, be filled up with three or four small petals 
made like the outside ones instead of French knots ; the 
number of flowers will depend upon the space available. 

Make the leaves of pieces of doubled crepe cut and notched 
to the shape of leaves, Applique these to the backgrounds, 
and surround them with wide apart Buttonhole 
Stitches of filoselle that matches the crepe in colour. 

The detached crepe flowers can be made of fine muslin in- 
stead of crepe, and, this latter material being the stiffest, 
they last in shape better when formed of it. Tire materials 
required for them are muslin or crepe, green wire, beads 
or spangles, and embroidery silk. Fig. 1(>8 is of this kind 
of Crepe Work ■ the flowers in it are formed of gold coloured 
muslin or crepe. To work : Cut the petals out to shape 
upon a flat but doubled piece of cr&pe, and then Button- 
hole them round with a line of wide apart stitches (this 
may be done before cutting out). When all are shaped, 
flew them round a gold coloured pad, which should be 
wadded and attached to the top of a piece of wire ready 
to receive them. Form the stamen lines of yellow* purse 
silk, and lay them over the petals after the latter are 
attached to the pad, and finish them with a bead. Make the 
back of the flower neat by winding green purse silk round 
the wire to conceal the ends of the crepe. Form the 
leaves like the petals, with veins marked out in Satin 
Stitch. When a large bunch of flowers is being formed, 
and not a single spray, so much care need not be taken 
over each individual part, the flower petals not requiring 
Buttonholed edges, but being made of double cr&pe turned 
in at the sides, and the leaves of a straight piece of 
material, 2 inches wide, and a quarter of a yard long, with 
edges cut to Vandykes. This piece of crepe is box pleated, 
and doubled, so that both edges turn to the front, and is r 
then sewn close to single flowers and in and about groups, 
forming bouquets. These leaves should be dafker in tint 
than the flowers, but of the same colour. 

Crescents “These crescents are raised Cordonneta 
that enclose the fiat stitches of needle point laces or join 
the separate pieces of w T ork together. Their use adds 
immensely to the effect of the lace, and gives it strength 
and beauty at the same time. They are of various shapes, 
lengths, and thickness, according to the pattern of the 
lace, but are all worked alike. 

To work : Prick the shape o£ the Crescent out upon a 
leather foundation, being careful to prick two holes close 
together, and to make the same number of holes on the 

FIG. 103, CltSSCKN T— PfUCIIlS d . 

inside as upon the outer edge (see Fig. 169). With a 
needle threaded with No. 12 Mecklenburg thread, outline 



the crescent thus bring up the needle from the back 
of the Leather through the first of the two holes close 
together and put it back through the second, thus 
making a short stitch upon the surface and a long 
one underneath. Continue in this way all round the 
crescent, then fasten off by tying the two ends of the 
thread together at the back of the pattern. Fill the 
needle with No. 7 Mecklenburg thread and commence to 
work by making a foundation for the padding that raises 
the Cordonnet. Bring the needle up from the back and 
slip the thread under thf small stitch already made 
between the two holes, then take the thread across the 

Fig. 170. Crescent— Manner op Working. 

crescent and slip it under the two holes opposite, and 
continue to pass it backwards and forwards under the 
holes opposite each other, never pulling the thread up 
fully until it has been run through all the stitches. Upon 
these crossed threads Darn in soft Moravian thread until 
a handsome raised foundation is formed (see Fig. 170), the 
centre of which is thicker and higher than the pine 
shaped end. Now work an even close line of Button- 
hole Stitches over the padding. 

Fig, 171 is a piece of Spanish rose point that illustrates 
tlie use of a raised crescent, The stitch in the centre 
of the crescent is worked before the outline* and is a 
close Buttonhole, with open spaces left systematically 

Fig* 17L Crescent, with Fleurs Yolantes. 
unworked to give the appearance of veins or tracery. 
Make these open stitches by missing three Buttonholes 
wherever they occur. The pieces of lace shaped like 
wings work separately and tack on to the leather 

foundation and the outer edge of the Crescent in such 
a manner that they join together in the process of 
Buttonholing the padding over. The trimming to the 
outer edge of the Crescent work last ; make it of 
Couronnes edged with Thorns or Spines, which, when 
arranged round the edge of a Cordonnet, are called 
Fleurs Yolantes, Unpick the work from the leather 
foundation by cutting the outline thread that was tied 
at the hack, and join the piece of lace on in its place 
in the pattern# 

Crete Lace. — An ancient pillow lace, of the Torchon 
description, made in the island of Crete, The grounds 
were either formed of coloured silks or flax, and the dis- 
tinctive feature of the manufacture consisted in embroi- 
dery being worked upon the lace after it was made. This 
embroidery was executed with coloured filoselle in Chain 
Stitch, which was made to outline the pattern, like Fil de 
Trace. The designs of Crete laces were chiefly geometrical, 
and the colours used in ornamenting them so varied and 
bright as to give an Oriental appearance to the handiwork. 

A modern imitation of the ancient Crete laces, with 
their coloured silk embroideries, and made by working a 
pattern in coloured filoselles and gold cord over thick 
lace, la easily produced. It is a kind of embroidery that 
most ladies find easy and effective, and is adapted for 
furniture lace, if executed in coarse lace, and suitable for 
chimney -board covers, and for small round tea tables. 
For dress trimmings, the lace used is fine, and of a colour 
to match the dress it is placed on. The lace used ia 
either black or white Yak or Torchon machine lace, a 
crochet imitation of these, or blonde or Breton lace. The 
design selected is distinct and rather open, and, when 
selecting, especial attention is given to the ground, as a 
light open ground is more effective than a close, thick one. 

To work : Commence by cutting a strip of coloured cloth 
or serge to the exact width of the lace, and lay it under that 
as a background. Tack the two together, and proceed to 
work Embroidery Stitches on the lace, taking them 
through the cloth background. Work these stitches in 
two or more coloured filoselles, and make Satin, Feather, 
or Chain Stitch, Work them upon the thick parts of 
the lace, leaving the open parts bare, so that the coloured 
cloth background is seen through. The following arrange- 
ment of the stitches produces a good pattern : Make a 
number of festoons, either of Feather or Satin Stitch, 
along the whole length of the lace, commence a festoon 
at the top of the lace, and carry it down to the edge, each 
festoon taking up the width of 4 inches; then fill in the 
spaces left by the curves with stars, rosettes, or rounds, 
worked in variously coloured filoselles, and in Satin 
Stitch. Any shades of colour are used in one pattern, 
provided they are not violent contrasts; the ancient Crete 
laces* of which this work is the imitation, being em- 
broidered with many colours. The colour of the back- 
ground cloth should be rich and dark, such as deep plum. 
Indigo blue, sap green, or maroon; the filoselles amber, 
sky blue, sea green, and crimson. 

Cretonne .“A French name for a cotton fabric which 
has latterly superseded, to a considerable extent, the use of 
chintz for upholstery work. It is to be had in every colour. 



both of ground and floral design ; is twilled, but unglazed 
(or calendered), and is made from 30 inches to a yard wide. 
It is manufactured in England as well as in Fiance. The 
original material, called Cretonne, or Cretonne chintz, was 
originated by the Normans two centuries ago, and was made 
at Lisieux, being woven with flax and hemp, and in dif- 
ferent qualities, for the purpose of body linen. 

Cretonne Appliqug. — See Applique, Broderie 

Creva Drawn Work.— This is a lace made in Brazil 
by the negroes. It is a drawn lace, and evidently copied 
from the Italian drawn work. Some of it was exhibited in 
England at the late Exhibition. 

Crewel. — In early times known as Caddis , Caddas , or 
Crule . Derived from the Anglo-Saxon Cleow , afterwards 
changed to Clew (a ball of thread), and subsequently called 
Cruell, or Krewel , old German Kleuel. Worsted yam 
loosely twisted, employed in the sixteenth century for 
embroidery on linen textiles, curtains, and household fur- 
niture, and also for decoiating the dresses of the lower 
orders; but now extensively for embroidery. It is to be 
had in every colour, and is made in three sizes, and 
known as tapestry crewel, very soft and even, sold in 
cuts of about Is. 4d. the oz., or by the hank ; medium crewel, 
sold in upwards of 300 art shades ; and the fine crew r el, 
by the cut, or the hank. 

Crewel Stitch. — One of the old embroidery stitches, 
and w r ell known in earlier times as Stem stitch; but since the 
revival of Crewel work, of which it is the most important 
stitch, its original name has become superseded by that of 
the embroidery now associated with it. 

To w T ork : Put the needle into the material in a slanting 
direction, as shown in Fig. 172, and keep the crewel upon 

Fio. 172. Crewel Stitch. 

the right hand side of the needle. Work to the end of the 
line, every stitch being made in the same manner ; then 
turn the material and place a line of stitches close to the 
one already made, keeping the wool always to the right of 
the needle. If the crewel wool is allowed to slip to the left 
of the needle the stitch is not properly made, although it 
appears so to the inexperienced. When using this stitch, 
except for stems and outlines, the regularity of each suc- 
ceeding stitch is not kept so perfectly as shown in the illus- | 

tration, but is more carelessly done, although the stitch is 
not otherwise altered. This is particularly the case when 
forming the edges of serrated leaves ; the irregular Crewel 
Stitch will give them the notched appearance of the natural 
leaf, while the regular one makes the edges straight and 
formal. Leaves and dowel's of various kinds are worked 
in Crewel Stitch with regard to their broad natural out- 
lines. A small narrow leaf, such as that of a carnation or 
jasmine, requires no veining, and is -worked up and down. 
Put the needle in at the base <$f the leaf, take a line of 
stitches up the right hand side to the point, then turn the 
work, and take the same line down the left side (now the 
right) to the base of the leaf. Then work the centre up 
and fill in the two sides afterwards in the same manner, 
turning the work at every line. To save this constant 
turning of material, good workers put their needle back- 
wards down the line, but this is not so easy for a beginner 
to accomplish. With a large leaf, such as an orange, or a 
smaller leaf with deeply indented veins, a different plan 
is necessary. In such a case take the stitches, instead of 
upwards and downwards, in a slanting direction down- 
wards from the outside to the centre of the leaf, all the 
stitches tending from both sides to the middle By this 
means a deeper indented line is given to the centre vein ; 
afterwards work up the centre as a finish, and work the 
side veins over the other Crewel Stitches, but in a different 
shade of colour, and in the direction the natural veins 
would follow. A rose leaf requires another modification : 
Work from side to centre like the last-named, but with a 
long stitch and a short one alternately at the outside 
edge, so that the deeply indented sides may be properly 
rendered. Work rounded flower petals as shown in Fig. 
173, the stitches following each other, but decreasing in 

Fio. 173. Crewel Stitch— Petal. 

length as they approach the end of the petal, while in pointed 
petals, like the jasmine, simply take the stitch up and 
down, or cross the whole length with a Satin Stitch. 
Work in Satin stitch any flower petal that is small enough 

Figs. 174 and 175. Crewel Stitches-Improperlt made stems. 

to allow of a Satin stitch carried across it; large ones 
require Crewel Stitch. Use French Knots or Bullion 





Knots for the centre of flowers , as they add to their 
beauty. When the centre of a flower is as large as that 
seen in a sunflower, either work the whole with French 
Knots, or lay down a piece of velvet of the right shade and 
work sparingly over it French Knots or lines of Crewel 
Stitch, A Marguerite daisy is sometimes so treated, hut 
after that size French Knots alone are worked, and no 
velvet foundation added. 

Always work stems in Crewel Stitch and in upright 
lines; Figs, 174, 175 illustrate two ways of making stems 
that should he avoided, hat which are constantly seen in 
badly worked embroidery. The rounded appearance given 
to them by the direction of the stitches serves to raise 
them from, their backgrounds, and gives, instead of the 
decorative flat design that is desired, one in relief. Stems 
should he simply worked up and down in Crewel Stitch in 
the manner shown in Fig. 173- 

Crewel Work, — This is work that claims to be raised 
from the level of ordinary fancy to an art work. The 
name is but a modern one for embroidery with worsteds or 
u Iv row els ,J upon plain materials. Ancient Crewel Work 
was Indifferently classed with embroideries of silk and gold 
or work upon canvas, as “wrought needlework” in old 
chronicles, therefore it is difficult to separate one particular 
kind by hard and fast lines of demarcation from other 
embroideries. The proper definition of Crewel Work is 
embroidery upon linen, twilled cotton or stuffs, the founda- 
tion material being in most cases left as an unworked back- 
ground, or, when covered, only partially concealed with open 
Diaper or Darned Fillings. The employment of crewels 
in needlework was the first form of embroidery known, and 
worsteds mingled with thin plates of gold, or the latter 
pulled into fine wirj?, ornamented all the fine needlework of 
the earlier times before silk was used. The art came from 
the East, thence spread into Egypt, acquired there by the 
Hebrews, Greeks, and Romans, and taken by the latter 
wherever they carried their conquests ; and though by their 
time embroidery with silk had become prevalent and super- 
seded the plainer worsteds, still working with crewels in 
various forms never entirely died out until the present 
century, when the introduction of the new Berlin wools, in 
1835, with their softer texture and more varied dyes, sup- 
planted it for a time ; but in 1875 it was reinstated by 
artists who found it the best vehicle for the expression, 
through embroidery, of design and colour. Amongst the 
earliest examples of this needlework are the curtains of the 
Tabernacle, the coloured sails of the Egyptian galleys, and 
the embroidered robes of Aaron and his priests. These are 
worked with gold and worsted, and though the stitch used 
on them is believed to be Gross Stitch, yet from the 
foundation material of fine linen, and the workmen 
forming their own designs, they undoubtedly rank among 
art as Crewel Work. In latter times the Baycux tapestry 
and the productions of Amy Robsart and Mary Stuart are 
witnesses to the industry of the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries, while most of the hand- made tapestry of that 
time consisted simply of crewel stitches entirely covering 
coarse linen backgrounds. In the eighteenth century large 
quantities of Crewel Work were done, much of which is 
still extant, and gives evidence of the individual energy 

and taste of that period. The great merit of the work 
and the reason of its revival lies in the capability it has of 
expressing the thought of the worker, and its power of 
breaking through the trammels of that mechanical copy- 
ing and counting which lowers most embroidery to mere 
fancy work. Lifted by this power into a higher grade, 
it ranks with laces and ancient gold and silver embroi- 
deries that arc in themselves works of art, and which 
were done in times when the best part of a life was sj)ent 
in the effort to give to the world one new type of beauty, 
Crewel Work has also the inestimable advantage of being 
adapted to homely decoration, the cheapness of its material, 
the ease with which it is cleaned, and its strength to resist 
rough usage, Justly making it the chosen vehicle in the de- 
coration of all common home objects of beauty. Partaking, 
as Crewel Work does, of the general nature of ancient em- 
broideries, it will be sufficient under this heading to point 
out its characteristics and manner of working. In it good 
work is known by the design and colouring being treated 
as a decorative, and not as a realistic, copy of nature. It 
is well ascertained that the materials capable of producing 
embroideries are not of a kind that can imitate nature in 
her glories of form and colour, and that any copy will 
he a failure ; therefore all work claiming to be good must 
he conventionally treated, the design being represented flat 
upon a flat background, and no attempt made, by means of 
shadows and minute shadings, to raise and round it from its 
surface as in painting, and in correct Crewel Work this rule 
is followed. Many unthinking persons object to this, proud 
of the idea of only copying from nature; but let the 
effect be tried of flowers worked as they see them, and the 
same treated dccoratively, and a short experience will soon 
convince them that one group can he looked upon for ever 
with rest and repose, while the other offends by the bad- 
ness of its copy, and the harshness of its colouring. 

Crewel Work is a difficult embroidery, because it de- 
pends for its success not upon the exact putting in of 
stitches, and their regularity, or upon the time and labour 
bestowed upon reproducing a pattern, but upon the abso- 
lute necessity there is for the mind of the worker being 
more than a copying machine, possessing the power of 
grasping and working out an idea of its own, and of 
being able to distinguish between a good or bad design or 
system of colouring. The technical difficulties of the 
work are so few and so simple that when described they 
seem to be trifles, for after the broad rules of what 
to do and avoid are stated, a written instruction is of 
little help, as it cannot give the subtleties of form and 
colour upon which the work depends for its perfection, 
nor can it convey to an inartistic mind the power of 
light selection between conflicting colouring. What can 
be learnt from instruction, is the manner of forming the 
various stitches used in the work, while practice will give 
a free use of the needle, and the power of setting the 
stitches so that each is put in with regard to its place 
in the whole design, and is neither worked too close 
to its neighbour nor too far from it, but by its direc- 
tion expresses the contour of a line or the form of a 
leaf. Just as in painting no master can inspire his pupil 
with his own gift of colouring unless the power of seeing 




and delineating is already possessed* and only requires to 
be brought out and strengthened by instruction* so in 
Crewel Work the learner must have an innate taste for 
what is true in form and colour to profit hy the rules that 
are exemplified in the best examples of needlework* 

One of the great advantages of this work over other 
descriptions of embroidery is its usefulness for everyday 
needs, as, from the nature of its materials, it is adapted 
to almost all kinds of household decoration, and is not 
out of keeping with either homely or handsome fur- 
niture, provided the stuffs it is worked upon are selected 
with regard to the ornaments and purposes of the room* 
The selection of such suitable materials must be particu- 
larly borne in mind when the work is employed to decorate 
such permanent articles as wall hangings, friezes, portieres, 
and window curtains* In a handsomely furnished sitting 
room for winter use, these should be either of plush, 
Utrecht velvet, velveteen, waste silk, velvet cloth, diagonal 
cloth, or serge, according to the richness or simplicity of 
the accompanying furniture, and the ground colour in 
all cases dark and rich, with the embroidery upon it In 
lighter shades of the same, or in a light shade of a 
colour that harmonises with the background. Plush is 
the handsomest of all these materials, as it dyes in such 
beautiful tones of colour; its disadvantages lie in its 
expense, and that the pattern traced upon it is not perma- 
nent, and, unless worked over, at once wears off ; it also 
requires a lining, and is therefore more used to work upon 
as a bordering to curtains of velvet cloth or diagonal cloth 
than as whole curtains, but if the above defects are not 
objected to, there is no doubt about the softness and 
beauty of a portiere or chimney curtain worked in plush. 
Utrecht velvet is harder to work through than plush, and 
is more used for curtain dados than for a whole curtain 
or curtain borders. Velveteen of the best quality works 
well, but is more suitable for screens and chimney curtains 
than large hangings ; it looks best when embroidered with 
coarse filoselles, Velvet cloth is a soft, handsome material, 
warm looking, and falling in easy folds ; it is a good tex- 
ture to work upon, and takes the tracing lines perfectly* 
Diagonal cloth, felt cloth, and serges are soft materials, 
easy to work upon, and artistic in colouring, their only 
defects being that they do not take the tracing lines well, 
and require to be worked at once, or the pattern lines run 
with fine white cotton as soon as marked out* 

Summer curtains, &c., for sitting rooms, are either made 
of waste silks, silk sheeting, China silk, Erriemeer Twill, 
real Russian Crash, and the superior makes of Bolton 
Sheeting. The cheap sheetings and crash are not recom- 
mended for large surfaces of embroidery ; they are too 
harsh in texture and too coarse altogether to he used 
when so much time and labour is expended over their 
decoration* Waste silks and China silks are either 
worked with filoselles or crewels, but the crashes and 
twills being washing materials, should only be worked 
with crewels. 

In such articles as chair tidies, bed valances, toilet covers, 
aprons, &c., cleanliness has to be the first object, and for 
these the washing materials known as Flax, Smock Linen, 
Oatcake and Oatmeal Linens, Kirriemeer Twill, Crash, and 

Bolton Sheetings are used, while the work upon them is 
limited to one or two shades of colour* 

The embroidery upon ail large objects is worked upon 
the material, and not applied to it, it being always better, 
in an art point of view, to distribute the work in such 
cases over the whole surface than to confine it to certain 
limited spaces, such as a line of bordering, or a strip 
placed across the background. The material is cumber- 
some to hold, but the heaviness is much mitigated when 
curtains, &c., are made with dados of a different colour, 
hut of the same material, the embroidery being done before 
tbe two are sewn together. Embroidered hangings of any 
kind are never made either long or full; and wall panels 
and friezes are laid flat against the wall. Portieres and 
curtains are allowed sufficient stuff in them to admit of a 
little fulness when drawn across, and they should not do 
more than just touch the floor to exclude draughts. All 
large pieces of needlework require patterns that convey 
the feeling of breadth without the work being too fine 
to be appreciated upon such objects. The best designs for 
these articles are rather large flowers in outline, with long 
upright steins and leaves starting from the bottom of the 
hanging, and branching stiffly over the surface of the 
material, or decorative or geometrical designs, such as are 
familiar in Italian wall paintings or outline figure subjects. 
The colours chosen for the embroidery when upon dark 
handsome backgrounds are lighter in shade than the back- 
grounds, and of little variety; but when the embroidery 
is upon light backgrounds, greater variety of tint and 
contrasts of colour are allowable in the decoration. 

The patterns known as Outlines will be found sufficient 
for most decorative work, hut where the design is to he 
filled in, select flowers that are large and bold in outline 
and that are single, and discard small and double ones. 
Employ but few shades of colour to work together, and 
do not include more than two primary colours in one 
piece, filling in the rest of the design with those that 
harmonise with the primaries, and with half tints of the 
two chief colours. Avoid those that contrast with each 
other, and choose harmonies— it is one of the chief faults 
of Berlin work that violent contrasts of bright primary 
colours are introduced together — he careful that the same 
fault does not creep into crewels. Avoid all aniline dyes, 
firstly, because they never blend with other colours, and 
always make the object they are attached to harsh and 
garish, and, secondly, because they fade sooner than the 
other hues, and, instead of fading with the quiet tones of 
softer dyes, look utterly dead and worn out. 

The question of the colour of backgrounds to work 
upon is most important* Avoid pure white or black, as 
both are crude; cream or lemon white are good, but 
not blue white. Most colours will look w T ell upon 
a cream background, but the brightest shade of any 
colour is not worked upon white. Reds and crim- 
sons of a yellow tinge harmonise together better 
than blue shades of red; yellow and sage greens agree 
with other colours better than vivid blue greens ; yellow 
blues better than sky blues; citrons and lemon yellows 
better than orange coloured yellows. In working upon 
coloured backgrounds the same attention to harmonious 


colouring must be exorcised* It will be generally correct 
that the background colour is repeated for the work 
if lighter and deeper tones of the colour are selected 
for the chief parts of the needlework than for the back- 
ground, with a few needlefuls of the exact tint of the 
background used in the embroidery* Thus, upon a blue 
green ground, work a pale pure blue shade of crewels ; 
yellow green backgrounds allow of yellow crewels, and 
brown, gold colours; while maroon backgrounds allow 
of scarlet crewels, The great thing to remember is that 
the eye to be pleased must be contented by harmonious 
colouring ; therefore the tints selected, although they can 
be bright, must never be vivid, and must assimilate with 
their surroundings, and not oppose therm 

The materials, as already said, upon which crewels are 
worked, are plush, velvet, satin, silk cloth, serge, unbleached 
linens, cheese cloths, crash, oatmeal cloths, and the 
numerous varieties of these ; in fact, there is hardly any 
limit to the stuffs that are capable of being so ornamented. 
Upon the crewels used much of the durability of the work 
depends* Those knowrn as “ Appleton’s/* and used at the 
School of Art, are smooth and fine, without much twist, 
and work in without roughness; they are dyed in fast 
colours and of correct shades* Unfortunately these crewels 
are not generally used, their place being taken by those 
that are fluffy in texture, harsh to the feel, tightly twisted, 
and dyed in brilliant aniline shades, and it is owing to the 
use of these and printed designs that the Crewel Work 
generally seen does not come up to the true standard of art 
needlework, the patterns being defective in drawing and 
the colouring too bright. There are three kinds of crewels 
made— the coarse, used for large pieces of embroidery ; the 
medium, the one generally required ; and the very fine, 
used for the faces and hair of figures and for fine outlines 
upon d’oylcys and oilier small work* This fine crewel is 
giving place to undressed silks, but it is still used. Silk 
embroidery in Crewel Stitch is so similar to other flat silk 
embroideries that it is described under that heading. 

None of the stitches used in Crewel Work are exclusively 
crewel work stitches ; they are all used in embroidery or 
church needlework* They comprise Crewel Stitch, which 
is really Stem Stitch; Feather Stitch, the Opus Plxt- 
marhim of the ancients; Satin or Long Stitch, Chain 
Stitch, Bullion and French Knot, besides fancy 
embroidery stitches used to ornament parts of tlie w r ork, 
where the foundation is left exposed, and for borders, 
which, being only accessories, are not counted as belonging 
to Crewel Work proper* Stem Stitch is the chief crewel 
stitch, although the others are all used, and Satin Stitch 
employed when the design is executed with silks* The 
manner of working these stitches is given under their own 
headings. Crewel stitch is used for leaves and stems; 
Feather and Satin mainly for the petals of flowers ; French 
and Bullion knots for centres to flowers and to imitate 
shrubs and trees in landscape designs. Flowers worked in 
silk are done in Satin stiteli* Chain Stitch iu silk is used 
equally with Satin stitch to fill in the faces, &c,, of figure 
designs, while draperies are executed with crewels in Crewel 
stitch* Faces are worked like those already described in 
church embroideries, the lines of stitches being made to 

follow the contour of the features, and an appearance of 
shade thus imparted to a flat surface* Ancient Crewel 
Work was either done in this manner, or in the style of the 
celebrated Opus Anolicanunu Chain Stitch was more used 
in outline embroideries in olden days than it is now, the 
introduction of it into machine work having led to its 
being discarded by hand workers. During the last century 
nearly all Crewel Work was done upon light linen or cotton 
surfaces, and was used for much larger kinds of ornament 
than the shortness of time enables ladies of the present 
day to accomplish. The hangings for four-post bedsteads, 
with heavy curtains, valances, and other appendages, are 
some of the most frequent specimens of old work met 
with, also portieres, room hangings, and bed quilts* These 
large embroideries are not spread over all the foundation 
material, much being left plain; and their designs are 
necessarily holder than arc those in use now. Yine trees 
with large stems, with each leaf separately formed, birds, 
animals, rocks, water, flowers, and fruit, are the finest 
specimens. These large patterns arc worked in double or 
coarse crcwols, watli ratlier long stitches, and the colours 
used arc of little variety and of subdued tint* The main 
parts are filled with close Crewel Stitch, but a great variety 
of fancy stitches, such as Herringbone, Feather, and 
Point Lance, are allowed in the minor details. Birds are 
always worked in Feather Stitch, so arranged that a few 
individual feathers are completely defined. Leaves have 
one side in Crewel Stitch, the other filled with French 
knots or wdth open fancy stitches. Bushes and other 
groundwork are entirely of Bullion knots. 

Crewel Work includes, besides working a filled- in 
pattern upon an unomamented background, another 
variety, which is filling in the background with a fancy 
stitch, and only outlining the real design and its principal 
parts. The effect of this depends upon the stitch which 
fills in the ground being chosen so as to give an appear- 
ance of relief to the outlined pattern. 

The simplest background is the plain darned lines, 
formed with silk or worsted, darned in and out as in 
ordinary darning in perpendicular lines about the six- 
teenth of an inch apart over the whole background, 
missing, of course, any part of the design. Again, these 
darned lines are taken diagonally or horizontally, or are 
made so as to form diamonds. 

Another background stitch is given in Fig* 176, and 










Fig. 17S. Crewel Wouk— B iCEGROtOfu. 

is worked thus: Fig, 176 — Trace the background design 

0 2 

' 'too 


e r. C f i ij i • : . * t 

upon the material, bein g careful not to mark it out upon 
any part of the pattern ; take fine crewels or raw silk of one 
colour and darn the long lines of the crosses, bub work the 




small lines in Satin Stitch* In Fig, 177, darn the long 
lines forming the broad arrow part of design, and work 
the short lines in Satin Stitch* In Fig* 178— Trace the 

Fig. 178* Crewel Woke— Background* 

long diagonal lines that form diamonds where they inter - 
sect, and darn them down with three rows of fine crewels 
or raw silk* Then cross the lines where they meet with 
a Gross Stitch worked in a different coloured crewel or 
silk to that used in the darned lines, and work a Bullion 
or French Knot in the centre of the diamond* 
Background stitches are numerous, those used iu 
Darned Embroidery all being available, the most 
effective are those containing continuous lines, such as 
the following s A straight darned line, followed by 
a laid line caught down with a fastening thread con- 
cealed with a French Knot; Tandy ke lines laid and 
fastened with knots; two perpendicular straight lines 
caught across at intervals with three short horizontal 

Fig* 170* Crewel Wore— Curtain Border. 

ones; lines intersecting each other and forming stars; 
lines like waves and Basket Couchin^s, &c. Filled-in 
backgrounds with outlined designs all require founda- 
tions of coarse linen, silk, or cloth, the coarse linen being 
the most used, as the threads in that assist in forming 
the d aimed lines at right distances from each other. An 
ornamental border should finish these various stitches* 

The example shown in Fig, 179 is worked as follows : 
Draw threads out of the material as a guide for the two 
horizontal lines, and work one line over with three rows 
of Crewel Stitch and the other with one row; then 
make half circles at equal distances apart with lines of 
Satin Stitch arranged to form that device, and fill 
in the spaces between them by lines of Satin Stitch 
arranged like the mark known as the broad arrow* 

Fig. 180 is a finished style of Crewel Work. It is 
intended for a curtain border, and is a design of lilies 
and their buds worked upon claret coloured plush. Work 
the lilies in cream white silk, shading to grey and yellow, 
with stamens and pistils of deep orange, buds with grey 
and white crewels, leaves and stems with olive green 
crewels of four shades* 

The illustration (Fig* 181) of sweet peas is Intended as 
a working design in Crewel Stitch for a beginner, and is 
therefore given the right size* To work ; Trace the outline 
upon fine linen or oatmeal cloth with tracing cloth and 
carbonised paper, and commence by working all the 
stems of the design* The colours used for the flowers are 
either a yellow pink and cream white or shades of red 

Fig. ISO. Crewel Work— Curtain Border* 

J • r“- : ' !,j- v 

purple and soft blue; for the leaves and stems, three 
shades of yellow green; for the seed pods, one of the 
greens and a russet yellow* Work in Crewel Stitch in 
the directions depicted in the illustration, and be caref ul 
to follow the lines indicated, as much of the effect of the 
pattern depends upon so doing. For one blossom and the 
buds, use the pink and white crewels, the upright petals 
are pink, the drooping w T kite ; work the other flowers red 
purple for upright petals, soft blue for the drooping. 
Make the stems in the darkest green, the leaves in the two 



other shades, and mix green with the russet yellow of the 
seed pod. Work loosely, and do not draw up the material 
more than can be helped ; a little does not matter, as it will 
come straight when the work is damped and ironed. Make 
each stitch with regard to its proper place in the formation 
of the design, and hold the work over the fingers rather 
tightly, so that the stitches are looser than the ground. 
Work with a needle with a large eye, and use short pieces 

any parts drawn up by the stitches. Crewel Work upon 
satin, silk, velvet, or plush is smoothed out as follows: 
Make ready a basin of cold clean water, a soft linen rag, 
and a hot iron. Have the iron firmly held by a second 
person, its flat part uppermost, then take the linen rag, dip 
it in the water, and lay it smoothly over the flat surface of 
the iron. While the steam is rising, quickly draw the 
embroidery, right side uppermost, over the iron, and, as 

of crewel, as the wool becomes thin if frayed by the eye of 
the needle, or pulled frequently through the material. 

When a crewel work pattern is finished, slightly damp 
it at the back, and pin it, fully stretched out, upon a flat 
board, or iron it on the wrong side with a warm, but not 
hot, iron. All Crewel Work upon w-ashing materials 
that is not worked in a frame requires this damping and 
straightening to restore the fresh look to the material lost 
in the process of embroidery, and also for flattening out 

soon as the steam ceases, take the work away, wet the rag 
again, and draw the work again over the iron; use both 
hands to hold the work, and be careful that no lines or 
wrinkles are made. 

Crewels upon satin or silk backgrounds are finished with 
a wide hem of the material, or w’ith a ball fringe made 
of the same colours that are used in the embroidery; 
crewels worked upon linen textures have the threads, 
one way of the material, drawn out to a depth of from 



two to three inches, and where the drawn threads finish 
a line, wide apart, of Buttonhole stitch e3 made with 
crewels. The threads are also drawn out above this line, 
to form open squares and other fancy patterns. These are 
described in Drawn Work. 

Washing Crewel Work . — Crewel work done upon 
cotton and linen materials, and in constant use, requires 
to be occasionally washed or sent to a cleaner's. The 
process is one that requires care, as if the work is sent 
in the ordinary way to the laundress, or washed hastily 
at home, the colours will run and the work be spoilt; 
while if extra care is given, the embroidery can be 
washed over and over again without losing its colour. 
The great matters to avoid are hard boiling water, rub- 
bing with soap, exposure to the sun while wet, and a 
hot iron. To wash: Buy a pennyworth of bran, sew it 
up in a muslin bag, and put it into a saucepan with a 
gallon of soft rain water; boil, and pour out into an 
earthenware pan; take the bran out, and leave until the 
water is tepid. Put the material in and rub with 
the hands, using as little friction as is consistent with 
cleaning the background, and rubbing the Crewel Work 
itself very little. Rinse out twice in clean cold rain 
water, and expel the water, not with hard wringing and 
twisting, but by passing the hands down the material; 
then roll the work up in a towel so that it does not 
touch itself, and leave in a warm room until nearly 
dry. When ready, pin it out upon a board until it is 
dry, or iron it on the wrong side with a warm (not hot) 
iron. The pinning out is the safest plan, as the heat of 
the iron will sometimes cause the colours to run. Should 
they do so, rinse out again in clean rain water several 
times. The bran is only required at the first washing 
to set the colours of the crewels; warm rain water is 
sufficient afterwards. If the article is very dirty, a little 
hard white toilet soap is required. 

Cricketings. — A superior quality of flannel, twilled, 
and resembling cloth. It is of the same colour as the 
Yorkshire flannels, and is employed for cricketing and 
boating costumes. The widths run from 32 to 36 inches. 
See Flannel. 

Crimp. — To make very fine plaitings with a knife, or 
machine designed for the purpose, called a crimping 
machine, in the borders of a cap, or frill, or in ruffles. 
The machine for that purpose consists of two fluted rollers. 

Crimped Plaitings.— See Plaitings. 

Crinoline. — A plainly woven textile, composed of hair- 
cloth, and employed for expanding certain portions of 
women’s dress, as well as for other purposes. It is made 
in two widths, one of 18 inches, and the other of 22. 

Crinoline Steels. — Flat narrow bands of steel covered 
with a web woven upon them. They are manufactured 
in widths ranging between Nos. 1 and 16, and are made 
up in lengths of 36 yards, and sold by the gross. 

Crochet. — The word crochet is derived from the French 
croches, or croc, and old Danish krooke, a hook. This art 
was known upon the Continent in the sixteenth century, 
but was then chiefly practised in nunneries, and was in- 

differently classed *as Nuns’ work with lace and embroidery. 
It was brought into Ireland at an early date, and there, 
under the name of Irish Point, attained to great perfec- 
tion, the patterns from which it was worked being evidently 
taken from those of needle lace. It was known in England 
and Scotland, but never attracted much attention until 
about 1838, when it became fashionable, and numerous 
patterns were printed and cottons manufactured. Since 
that date it has taken a prominent position among fancy 
works, which it is likely to sustain. Simple crochet is well 
adapted to the wants of everyday life, as it requires little 
skill in execution, will resist wear and tear, and costs a 
comparative trifle for materials. The finer kinds, known 
as Irish Point, Raised Rose crochet, and Honiton crochet, 
though costing little for material, require greater skill and 
patience, and are chiefly made for trade purposes by the 
peasantry of England and Ireland. 

Crochet is done with almost any thread materials. 
Thus, all kinds of fleecy and Berlin wrnol, worsteds, netting 
silks, and cottons are used; also gold and silver cords, 
chenilles, and ornamental fine braids. According to the 
requirements of the article so is the material selected. 
Warm heavy couvrepieds require double Berlin wool or 
thick worsted ; light shawls, Shetland and Pyrenean wool ; 
comforters, &c., fleecy or single Berlin; antimacassars, 
purses, &c., and other fine w’ork, netting silks; washing 
trimmings, &c., Arden’s crochet cotton or Faudall and 
Phillips’, or Brooks’ Goat’s head. 

The chief stitches in crochet arc Chain, Slip, Single, 
Double, Treble, Cross Treble, Hollow and Open 
Spots, and Picot, with fancy stitches founded upon these 
plain ones, and made by passing the thread round the 
hook several times, crossing it, and manipulating it in 
various ways. The method of working these various 
stitches will be found under their respective names. 

The foundation of all crochet work is the Chain, or 
Tambour stitch, and the various combinations that 
form crochet are simply caused by either taking cotton 
over the hook before making the loop of the Chain 
stitch, or inserting the hook into the foundation by draw- 
ing the made loop of the Chain stitch through tw T o or 
more chains, or leaving it on the hook unworked, or by 
missing a certain number of chains; therefore, there is 
nothing in the work that cannot easily be understood from 
written instructions. 

The work, being a series of small stitches worked over 
and over again, requires the names of the stitches to be 
abbreviated, and certain marks made to show where the 
lines and stitches can be repeated, or the explanations 
of the patterns would be both long and tedious. The 
principal mark used in crochet is the asterisk (*), two of 
which are placed in the explanation of the pattern at par- 
ticular parts ; this means that the stitches placed between 
the two are to be repeated from where they end at the 
second asterisk, by commencing them again from the first 
asterisk and working them to the second as many times as 
are directed. The following is an example — work 5 treble, 
3 chain, * miss 3 on foundation, work 3 double, and repeat 
# three times, would, if not abbreviated, be written thus : 
work 5 treble, 3 chain, miss 3 on foundation, work 3 double 



miss 3 on foundation, work 3 double, miss 3 on foun- 
dation, work 3 double, miss 3 on foundation, work 3 
double. Occasionally letters are used, as, for instance, 
when a row is worked to a certain stitch and is then 
repeated backwards. The letter B is then put at the 
commencement of the row, and A where the stitches are 
to commence being worked backwards. Repetitions will 
sometimes occur within each other, and when this is so, 
the piece of work to be repeated within the other part 
is marked off between two asterisks, and the second repe- 
tition placed within plain crosses. 

Before commencing, be careful to select a hook suitable 
in size to the cotton or wool, and one that is firmly 
made and smooth. Hooks that have been used are much 
preferable to new ones, and only those fitted to their 
handles should be employed. Wool crochet is done with 
bone hooks, and cotton and silk crochet with steel hooks. 
Make a certain number of Chain stitches for the founda- 
tion, holding the work in the left hand between finger 
and thumb, with the thread over the first and second 
fingers of that hand. Take the hook up between thumb 
and first finger of the right hand, throw the thread round 
it with a jerk of the wrist of the left hand, and commence 
to make the stitch required. Good crochet is known by 
the work being loose, even, and firm, while every stitch cor- 
responds in size, and takes its proper space in the pattern. 
From one end of the foundation chain to another is called 
a row , and the work is done backwards and forwards, so 
as to form no right side, unless it is especially intimated 
that the crochet must all commence from one end. For 
shawls and other large pieces of square work, commence in 
the centre, work all round, and increase at the corners ; 
this is done in order that they should have a right and a 
wrong side; but work ordinary crochet in lines backwards 
and forwards. 

To add fresh cotton during the progress of the work, make 
a Reef Knot, and work into the crochet one end of the two 
on one side of the knot, and the other on the other, so 
that there is no thick part in one place. When different 
colours are used on the same line of crochet, work in the 
threads not in use along the line, as in joining cottons, the 
old colour commencing a stitch, and the new finishing it. 

Leaves, stars, and points are often required to be joined 
to the main work in Honiton and other fancy crochet 
patterns. They are managed thus : Slip the hook with the 
loop last made on it through the extreme point of the 
piece of work to be joined to the one in progress, and 
make the next stitch without considering this extra loop. 
Passing from one point to another in Rose and Honiton 
crochet is often advisable, without breaking the thread or 
leaving off the work ; therefore, when one part of the pat- 
tern is complete, make a Chain corresponding to the stitch 
that commences the next point, draw this up by putting 
the needle into the first chain, and it will form the first 
stitch of the new pattern. Make a chain at the back of 
the work with Slip Stitch to where the second point com- 
mences, should it not be opposite the point of the finished 

Contract edges in crochet work by working two stitches 
as one, thus : Put the cotton round the hook, insert it into 

the foundation work, and draw it through one loop; 
put the cotton round again and the hook through tho 
next foundation stitch, draw through, and work up all 
the loops on the hook; continue imtil the part is suf- 
ficiently contracted. 

Increase crochet by working two stitches into one hole, 
or by workiug two or four stitches on the regular founda- 
tion line, with Chain stitches between them. 

When working from the centre of a piece of crochet and 
forming a number of close rounds, it is often difficult 
to trace where the last round ends and the next begins, 
and the errors caused by this uncertainty will throw the 
work out. To prevent this, tie a needleful of a bright 
and different coloured thread in the last stitch of the 
second row made, and draw it through every row into the 
stitch above it while working, until it arrives as a perfect 
line at the end of the work. 

When using beads in crochet work thread them before 
the work is commenced and run them singly down at each 
stitch. The bead will fall on the reverse side of the work, 
so that when crochet with beads is being done, take the 
reverse side as the right side. 

As examples of crochet work we give details of a few 
good patterns 

Baby's Boot . — Worked in single Berlin wool of two 
shades, either blue and white or pink and white. Make 
Foundation Chain of coloured wool of 36 stitches, and 
work backwards and forwards in Ribbed Stitch for ten 
rows, increasing a stitch every row at one end, and 
keeping the other edge straight. Cast off 20 stitches, 
commencing from the straight end, and work backwards 
and forwards with the 16 stitches left for seven rows; 
at the end of the last row make a chain of 20 stitches, and 
work all stitches for ten rows, decreasing at the same end 
that was increased before, and keeping the other straight, 
and cast off. This forms the foot of the boot. Take white 
wool and tie it in the centre where the rows are short, 
and pick up nine stitches which rib backwards and 
forwards, increasing once on each side ; then carry 
the white wool along the coloured to the back and 
round again, and rib backwards and forwards until a 
sufficient length is made to form the leg of the boot, 
decreasing twice on each side for the instep. Make a 
heading of an Open Chain, 1 Single and 3 Chain into 
every other stitch, fasten off, and sew up the coloured 
or foot part of the boot. 

Ball Pattern . — Work with double Berlin wool and a 
good sized bone crochet hook. Make a Chain the length 
required, wool over the hook, and insert the hook in the 
fifth Chain from the hook, draw the wool through and 
raise a loop, wool over the hook, and raise another loop in 
the same stitch, wool over the hook and raise another loop, 
wool over the hook and draw it through all the loops which 
thus form a kind of ball, as shown in the illustration, 
Fig. 182, in which the hook is about to be drawn through 
the loops, then draw the wool through the two stitches on 
the hook ; * 1 Chain, w T ool over the hook, miss one Chain, 
and raise another ball in the next stitch. Repeat from * 
to the end of the row; fasten off at the end. Second 
row — beginning again at the right hand side, wool over 



the kook, and raise a ball as described above under the 
Chain at the commencement of the preceding row, 1 
Chain, then a ball into the space formed by the 1 Chain 
of last row. Continue working in the same way all along, 
to keep the work straight. This row will end with 1 
Treble after the Chain stitch, the Treble to be worked 
oyer the ball of last row, fasten off. Third row — com- 
mence with a Single Crochet over the ball at the 
beginning of the last row, then 4 Chain, and make a ball 

Fig, 182, C no CH ET — B all Pattern. 

under the first space in the preceding i*ow, * 1 Chain, 
1 ball in the next space, repeat from *. Repeat the second 
and third rows alternately, taking care to keep the same 
number of balls in every row, 

Rordm \ — Useful for trimming shawls and hoods, and 
looks well when worked in wool if formed with two shades 
of one colour. First row— make a foundation Chain the 
length required for trimming, and on that work one long 

Fig. 183, Crochet Louder. 

Treble Crochet and one Chain into every alternate stitch. 
Second row— take up the second colour and work 1 long 
Treble and 1 Chain into every Chain of preceding row, 
five of these rows make the width of the border, three of 
one shade and two of the other. To form the ornamental 

edging, hold the work side uppermost (see Fig, 183), join 
the wool into first loop, make a Chain, and work a long 
Treble into same place, * 6 Chain, 1 long Treble, put into 
the first Chain of the 6 and worked np to where 2 loops 
are left on the hook, then put the hook into the same 
space, and work another long Treble with all the stitches 
on the liook worked into it (see Fig, 183), Put the hook 
into the next space, repeat from # to end of border ; work 
the other side the same. 

Cable Pattern . — To be worked in double Berlin wool 
in stripes of constrasting colours, four shades of each. 
Commence with the darkest wool with 16 Chain, in 
which work 15 Double Crochet, Fasten off at the 
end of this, at every row, beginning again at the right 
hand side. Second row — Double Crochet, Third row — 
3 Double Crochet, * wool over the hook and Insert the 
hook In the fourth Double Crochet of the first row, 
bringing it out in the next stitch (the fifth stitch of the 
first row), draw the wool through very loosely, wool over 
the hook, and raise another loop in the same place, wool 
over the hook again and raise another loop, draw through 
all the loops together, then through the two stitches that 
are on the hook, miss 1 Double Crochet of last row, and 
work 3 Double Crochet in the three next consecutive 

stitches. Repeat from *. Fourth row — Double Crochet 
with the next lightest shade of wool. Fifth row — 3 Double 
Crochet, # wool over the hook and insert the hook under 
the bunch of raised loops that were formed in the third 
row, raise 3 loops in the same manner as there directed, 
miss 1 Double Crochet of last row, and work 3 Double 
Crochet in the three next consecutive stitches : repeat 
from *. Sixth row — Double Crochet with the next 
lightest shade of wool. Seventh row — the same as the 
fifth row. Eighth row— Double Crochet with the lightest 
shade of wool. Ninth row — 3 Double Crochet wool over 

the hook and insert the hook under the hunch of raised 
loops that were formed in the seventh row, raise 3 loops 
and draw through all the loops together, wool over the 
hook, raise another bunch of 3 loops in the same place, 
draw the wool through them, and then through the 3 

stitches that are on the hook, miss 1 Double Crochet of 
last row* and work 3 Double Crochet In the three next con*- 
secutive stitches ; repeat from Tenth row— with the 
same shade of wool, 3 Double Crochet # wool over the 
hook, and insert the hook so as to take up the first bunch 
of loops formed in the last row, and also the thread of 
wool that lies across between the two bunches, raise 3 loops 
and draw through all the loops together, wool over the 
hook and insert the hook under the second bunch of loops 
formed in the last row, raise 3 loops here, and draw the 
wool through all the loops together, and then draw 
through the 3 stitches that are on the needle, miss 1 
Double Crochet of last row, and work 3 Double Crochet 
in the three next consecutive stitches; repeat from *. 
Eleventh row — plain Double Crochet, the same shade as the 
sixth row. Twelfth row — the same as the fifth row, only 
inserting the hook under the double bunch of the cable. 
Thirteenth row — plain Double Crochet with the next 
darkest shade of wool. Fourteenth row T — the same as 
the fifth row* Fifteenth row — plain Double Crochet with 



the darkest shade of wool. Sixteenth row — the same 
as the fourteenth row. Seventeenth row — the same as 
the fifteenth row. Repeat from the third row for the 
length required. 

Couvrepied (1). — This design, which is worked in 
Tricot Ecossais and in Tricot, the centre strip in Tricot, 
and the sides in Ecossais, is shown in Fig. 184. Wool 
required, 8 ply Berlin, with No. 7 Tricot hook. Colours 
according to taste. Work the centre of the strip in 
the lightest colour, the Vandykes next to it in a middle 
shade, the outside in the darkest, and the little crosses and 
stars in filoselle after the Crochet is finished. The Couvre- 
pied looks well made in three shades of crimson wool with 
yellow-green filoselle for the crosses and stars. To work : 

same way for four rows. Work the green filoselle in 
Cross Stitch over the junction of the colours, and 
form the stars with 8 Chain Stitches for each loop, 
catch them together in the centre with a wool needle, 
and also at each of the eight points. The outside strips 
are in Tricot Ecossais, and require a foundation of 11 
stitches. The centre and outside strips are joined to- 
gether with rows of Slip Crochet; five rows on each side 
are worked up the selvedges, in alternate rows of black 
and sea green wool. 

Couvrepied (2). — The Couvrepied shown in Fig. 185 is 
worked in wide and narrow strips of Cross Tricot, and 
consists of eight broad and nine narrow strips, which 
are joined by being crocheted together with Slip Stitch, 


Make a Foundation Chain of 22 stitches with medium 
shade. First row — miss the first stitch and work 7 
stitches in Tricot, then tie the lightest shade on, and leave 
the medium shade at the back of the work, and raise 8 
stitches, put on another ball of medium wool, leave the 
lightest at the back, and work the remaining stitches. 
Work back with the medium shade of wool first through 
the first stitch, and then through 10 loops, which will 
leave 2 loops of its colour un worked; take up the light 
colour, pass it through them and through 1G loops, then 
drop it, pick up the medium colour that was left at the 
back at the commencement, and finish with it. Work the 
whole strip in this style, the only alteration being in 
making a Vandyke with the light wool by increasing it a 
stitch at a time for five rows, and decreasing it in the 

the outer corresponding stitches in each strip being thus 
drawn together. The wool used is of three shades^ 
crimson, green, and grey, and is either Berlin Tricot or 
4 thread fleecy ; hook No. 13. For the broad stripes make 
a Chain of 12 stitches in grey wool, and work a row of 
common Tricot and a row of Cross Tricot (see Fig. 185). 
Third row — work with the crimson wool in Cross Tricot 
reverse the cross stitches by working and crossing the 
loops that are separated, and not those close together. In 
this row pass over the first perpendicular stitch, or the 
crosses will not fall right. Fourth row as second, continue 
working second and third row to the end of eight rows, 
counting from the commencement of the crimson; then 
work two rows in grey wool, eight in green, two in grey, 
and return to the eight crimson rows, and so on until the 



pattern and strip is complete. Always finish with the two 
grey lines, and be careful to keep twelve stitches on the 
hook, and neither to increase nor decrease in working. The 
narrow strips are in grey wool : Make a chain of 4 stitches 


the 2 outside being left unworkcd at commencement of 
rows; in this strip there will be only one Cross Tricot, 
which always cross in the way shown in the illustration. 

A knotted fringe of the three colours completes the 

Darning . — An imitation of Netting and Darning. 
The designs used are those printed for Cross Stitch 
Berlin work, or for plain square Crochet. The foun- 
dation is of square Crochet formed with 2 Chain and a 
Double. Work the double of the second row over the 
double of the first row, and so on throughout the work. 
The edge is formed thus : First row — work 6 Chain, and 
loop into the middle stitch of the outer line or every 
second line on foundation. Second row — Work 8 Slip 
Stitches over the 6 Chains of the last row. Third row — 
work 8 Chain and a Double into the middle of the loops 
of the last row. Fourth row — 2 Double, 8 Treble, 2 
Double, into every 8 Chain of the last row. When the 
foundation and edging are complete, form the pattern on 
the work by darning soft knitting cotton in and out the 
squares to make a design. Fig. 186 illustrates Crochet 
Darning when used as a furniture lace. 

Edging. (1). — This pattern is useful for trimmings to 
pinafores and underlinen. Work with a fine hook and 
Evans’s Crochet cotton No. 30. Commence with a 7 Chain, 
work 1 Treble into 4 Chain from the hook, 5 Chain and loop 
into the last stitch on the Foundation Row, turn the work, 

2 Chain, 3 Treble, and 5 Double into the 5 Chain of the last 
row, 3 Chain and loop into the last stitch of the last row*, 

turn the work, 1 Treble into the last stitch, 3 Chain looped 
into the last Double on preceding row, 5 Chain looped into 
the Treble of the preceding row next the Doubles, turn 
work, 2 Chain, 3 Treble, and 5 Double into the 5 Chain 
loop, 3 Chain and loop into last stitch of pre- 
ceding row. Repeat from * until the edging is 
complete as to length, then turn the plain side 
uppermost, and work 1 Treble and 1 Chain into 
every other side stitch of the edging, so as to 
create a straight foundation. Fig. 187 illus- 
trates the edging when finished, and will assist 
workers in following the instructions. 

Edging. (2). — A useful pattern for trim- 
mings. The work is commenced from the centre, 
the Foundation Chain forming the waved line. 
To work: Make a Foundation Chain a third 
longer than the required length. First row — 
miss first Chain, and work 18 Double Crochet 
along chain, then make 5 Chain, and, turning this 
back to the light, join it with a Single to the 
eleventh stitch of the 18 Double Crochet on this 
chain, work 4 Single Crochet, repeat the 18 
Double Crochet to the end and fasten off. 
Second row — commence at the fourth stitch of 
the Double Crochet on last row, work 2 Double *, 
then 3 Chain and 1 treble in the centre of the 
4 Single of last row — 2 Chain and 1 Treble in 
the same stitch as last Treble, 3 Chain and 2 
Single in the centre of the 10 Double Crochet 
of last row, repeat from * to the end. Third 
row — *, work 5 Double Crochet into 5 consecu- 
tive stitches of last row, make 3 Chain, and form a 
Picot or loop upon the fifth Double Crochet, and repeat 
from * to end of row. Fourth row — *, work 5 Chain, 
looping the fifth into the third to form a Picot, and then 

Fig. 186. Crochet Darning. 

3 Chain, miss 5 stitches of last row, counting the one with 
the loop upon it as the centre stitch, and fasten the Chain 
to work with a Single, and repeat from # . To form the 
edge : First row — turn the work so as to Crochet on the 


Foundation Chain made at the beginning of the pattern, 
and commence at the first of the 9 stitches, which form a 
half circle, and on it work 1 Chain and 1 Treble alternately 

Fig. 187. Crochet Edging. 

9 times, then 1 Chain, and missing 9 stitches between the 
half circles, repeat the Chain and Treble stitches. Second 
row — commence on the third Treble stitch of the last row% 
* make 5 Chain and loop back to third to form a Picot, 
then 2 Chain, then miss 1 Chain on the foundation row, and 
work 1 Treble on the next Treble stitch of last row, repeat 
from * until 5 Treble stitches are made; then miss between 

Fig. 188. Crochet Edging. 

the scallops and work 1 Treole on the third Treble of next 
scallop ; repeat until the edging is completed. The effect 
of this edging is shown in Fig. 188. 

Fringe. — Work a 
Chain the length re- 
quired, take up the first 
stitch, * draw the cotton 
through to double the 
distance the width the 
fringe is to be, keep the 
cotton on the hook, and 
twist the cotton round 
(see Fig. 189) ; when 
twisted give a turn up- 
wards in the middle of 
its length, take up the 
stitch on the hook again, 
and work a Double Crochet, working in the end of the cot- 
ton on the hook; repeat from # to end of Foundation Chain. 

Hairpin Crochet . — So called as the work is made 
between the prongs of an ordinary large hairpin, though 
bone imitations of the same are used. The crochet can be 
done with fine black purse silk, coloured silk, and Arden’s 
crochet cotton No. 26. When worked with silks it makes 
pretty mats, gimp headings, and lacey looking trimmings; 
when worked with white crochet cotton, capital washing 
edgings, as it is strong. To commence : Hold the hairpin 
in the left hand, the round part upwards, twist the cotton 
round the left prong, pass it over the right prong to the 
back of the hair pin, and lay it over the left forefinger. 
Take up a crochet hook and draw this back thread to the 
front under the first crossed one, and make a Chain by 
taking up fresh cotton and pulling it through. Take the 
hook out and turn the hairpin ; * the cotton will now be 


in front ; put it over the right hand pin to the back, hook 
into loop, and make a Chain by drawing the cotton through, 
then put the hook through the twist on the left hand 
prong, and make a Chain having two stitches on the 

hook, make a stitch drawing 
cotton through these two 
loops, so that only one loop 
is left. Take out the hook, 
turn the work, and repeat 
from # . When the hairpin is 
filled with work slip it off; 
to steady the prong ends put 
them through some of the 
last loops, and continue to 
work as before (see Fig. 190). 

Work that is well done has 
all the large open loops at 
the sides of a uniform length. 
The example shown is an 
edging. To form rosettes 
fasten off after sixteen or 
eighteen loops on each side 
are made, tying one side of 
them together to form a 
centre, and when several are 
thus prepared make a crochet 
Foundation with two rows of 
Double Square Crochet, and 
catch four or six of the loops 
in each rosette to it. When 
the first set of rosettes are 
thus secured, another set be- 
yond them is added by sew- 
ing the loops together where 
they touch, or form Vandykes 
by sewing rosettes above and 
between every second one of the first set. Scalloped and 
Vandyked braid is often used for foundations to these 
ornamental trimmings instead of Square crochet. 

Honeycomb Crochet. — White single Berlin wool; 
medium size bone crochet hook. Make a Chain the 
length required for the shawl. First row — 1 Treble in the 
sixth Chain from the needle, # 1 Chain, miss 3, 1 Treble, 
3 Chain, 1 Treble in the same loop as the other Treble, 
repeat from *, turn. Second row — 1 Double Crochet, 
5 Treble, 1 Double Crochet under every loop of 3 Chain 
of last row, turn. Third row — 4 Chain, * 1 Treble between 
the two Double Crochet stitches of last row, 3 Chain, 
another Treble in the same stitch as the last, 1 Chain, 
repeat from # , 1 Chain, 1 Treble at the end of row. 
Fourth row — 1 Double Crochet, 5 Treble, 1 Double Crochet, 
under every loop of 3 Chain of last row; at the end of the 
row work 1 extra Double Crochet in the comer loop. 
Fifth row — 6 Chain, 1 Treble between the 2 Double 
Crochet at the corner of last row, * 1 Chain, 1 Treble 
between the next two Double Crochet stitches of last 
row, 3 Chain, another Treble in the same place as the 
last, repeat from *. Repeat from the second row accord- 
ing to the size required for the shawl. 

Honiton or Point Crochet — An imitation of Guipure 

P 2 



Lace, in the making of which the Irish peasantry excel. 
It should only be attempted by skilled workwomen, as it 
is difficult and troublesome. It requires Brooks’ Goats- 
headj No* 48, crochet cotton, and a fine crochet hook. To 
simplify the directions for working Fig. 191, the various 
sprigs (which arc all made separately and joined together) 
are named as follows : The sprig in the top left hand 
corner of the pattern is called a Rose, the one beneath it 
a Feather, the one by its side a Curve, the five Sprigs with 
five loops Daisies, the two of the same make, but with 
3 loops, Trefoils, and the one with a trefoil centre a Bud. 

For the Daisies, work three with stems, and join 
them to the fourth, which is without a stem ; work 1 with 
a stem ready to be worked into position ; work one Trefoil 
with a stem, and two without; work the Feather without 
a stem, and the Rose with a stem, joining it to the Feather 
in working. The illustration shows how the Curves and 
Trefoils are joined. 

Daisy. — Take a coarse knitting needle, Ho. 1, and 
wind the crochet cotton thickly round it ten times, slip it 
off and crochet 40 Single (this forms the raised centres of 

most of the sprigs). First row — 10 Chain, miss 6 single, 
and slip into seventh, repeat four times, then make 15 
Chain and a Single into every Chain ; for the stem turn the 
work and work a Single into the other side of the 15 Chain 
until the end is reached, when fasten off or join to another 
sprig. Second row — return to the centre round and work 
18 Single into the 10 Chain; repeat four times. This 
completes the daisy; for the ones without the stem, leave 
out the 15 Chain. 

Trefoil. — Hake a centre round over the knitting 
needle as before, and work 40 Single. First row — ■* 10 
Chain, miss 7 Single and slip into eighth stitch, slip 5 
Single, and repeat twice. Second row — crochet 15 Single 
into every 10 Chain, Slip Stitch the 5 single on first row. 
Third row — crochet 15 single over the Singles in last row, 
and work Singles over the Slip stitches of last row. This 
completes the trefoil with a round centre; the others 
make with 3 loops of 8 Chain each, cover with 20 Singles 
for the first row, and with 26 Singles for the last row. 

Curve. — First row — 8 Chain, join and work 24 Single, 
but do not close up the round when 24 Single are made. 

work 8 Chain for the stem from curve and 8 Single upon 
it, connect it to the centre round and work back upon its 
other side with 8 Single, and fasten the stem into a trefoil 
and fasten off. Second row — return to the centre round 
and commence on one side of stem 1 Chain, 1 Double info 
2 stitch on foundation, # 1 Chain and 1 Treble into fourth, 
repeat from * twelve times, then 1 Chain, 1 Double into 
stitch close to stern. Third row — work a chain underneath 
stem and 3 Single Into every space in the last row, orna- 
ment every third Single with a Picot made of 3 Chain. 
Upon reference to the pattern it will be seen that one 
curve has a thick stem and one an open; for the last the 
8 Chain forming it cover with 8 Single, and the open work 
in 2 row continue down it, also the thick work and Dicots 
of third row* 

Bud. — Hake 3 loops of S Chain each, and cover these 
with 20 single, make a chain of 15 to form the stem, and 
cover on each side with Singles and fasten off. Second 
row — commence on the point of first loop, work 8 Chain 
and slip into the centre of next point, 8 Chain and slip 
into the centre of 3 point, then work Singles, all along the 

side of last loop* Third row— turn the work, and work a 
Single into every stitch. Fourth row — turn the work, 
work a Single into every stitch, and occasionally 2 Single 
into the same stitch, and make a Picot with 3 Chain into 
every fourth stiteli, and also upon the outer edge of stem. 

Feather. — Make the centre round over the knitting 
needle, as before described, and work 40 Single into it* 
First row — m 10 Chain and a Single into every Chain, 
connect the last with the centre round and repeat from m 
twice* Cover 8 stitches on the round with these three 
points ; Slip stitch 4 and repeat ; Slip stitch 4 and again 
repeat ; Slip stitch 10 and commence. Second row— work 
Singles up the first point of 8 Stitches, and work down from 
the point to the centre round with a Chain caught in at 
the back of the work ; * join the point finished to the one 
next it by slipping the hook first info a stitch upon the 
edge of the finished point, and then into the edge of the 
next point, and make a loop by drawing both together; 
work in this way up three-quarters of the length, and then 
Slip stitch round the point of the unfinished feather, and 
work Singles down it to the centre round ; repeat from # 




for the third feather. Commence the next three feathers 
from # , and work two sets. 

Rose. — Make the centre round over the knitting 
needle, and work 40 Single into it ; make each petal at 
once. First row — *, 8 Chain, 2 Chain, 1 Double into last 
Chain but one; 1 Treble, 1 Chain into every other Chain 
of the last row three times ; turn the work, and work 1 
Chain, 1 Treble three times, and 1 Chain, 1 Double once 
upon the other side of 8 Chain. Second row — work Singles 
into every stitch. This completes a petal — repeat from # 
four times. Each petal takes up the space of seven 
stitches on the centre round, the five remaining .form the 
foundation for the stem. To work the stem: Slip stitch 
along the foundation 2 stitches, make a Chain of 24, join 
this to the feather sprig in the middle of the place left to 
receive it, work 24 Singles back to the Rose fasten, into the 
Rose and work back upon other side of Chain 24 Single, 
and fasten into the feather. 

Join each sprig to the others where shown in the 
illustration with bars made with Chain Stitch, work back 
in Slip stitch where necessary with occasional Picots, 
made by working 3 Chain and joining them by slipping 
the hook back into the first of the three Chain, and 
drawing the Chain stitch that continues the bar through 
that. Ornament the square straight crochet lines en- 
closing and joining the flowers at top and bottom of lace 
with the same description of Picots, making the last line 
on both sides in Double Crochet. The point edging is not 
crochet work, but is made with an ordinary needle and 
crochet cotton in thick Buttonhole. Form loops of cotton, 
Buttonhole them over, and ornament them with Picots. 
Make the three loops connected together in the pattern at 
one time, the two on the line first, and add the third on 
the top of the others when they are completed. 

Insertion . — This pattern is worked with Boar's head 
cotton No. 18, and hook No. 4. It commences in the 
centre, and half the circle, half the diamond, and one oval 
is formed first, and the work is then turned and the other 
halves and the headings added. The first side : First circle 
—make 13 Chain, turn, miss the last 8 Chain, and work 1 
Single in the ninth stitch, so as to form a round loop, and 
leave 4 Chain, turn, and in the round loop work 8 Single, 
which should cover half of it. To work the oval at the 
side and half the centre diamond, make 10 Chain, miss the 
last 4 Chain, and work 1 Slip stitch in the fifth stitch, 
leaving 5 Chain ; this forms the first Picot ; and for the 
second Picot make 5 Chain and work 1 Slip stitch in the 
first stitch of these 5 Chain. Then for the third Picot, 
make 5 Chain and 1 Slip stitch in the first stitch; and 
for the fourth Picot, 5 Chain and 1 Slip stitch in the 
first stitch. To join the Picots, work 1 Single in the 
last stitch of the 5 Chain left before the first Picot; 
repeat the circle and oval until the length required is 
made, ending with the 8 Single in the circle (see Fig. 
192). The second side : To finish the circle — work 8 
Single in the half left plain, then on the next stitch of 
the 4 Chain left between the circle and Picots work 
Slip stitch ; and for the first Picot make 9 Chain, and 
missing the last 4 Chain, work 1 Single, leaving 4 
Chain ; and for the second, third, and fourth Picots make 

5 Chain, and work a single stitch in the first stitch of the 
5 Chain three times. To join the Picots — work 1 Single 
on the last stitch of the 4 Chain left before the first Picot; 
make 3 Chain and work 1 Single on the first Chain stitch 
before the next circle; repeat from the commencement of 
the second side. The heading : First row— commence on 
the centre of the 8 Single of the first circle, and work 

Fig. 192. Crochet Insertion. 

1 Long Treble, then 5 Chain and 1 Single between the 
second and third Picots, 5 Chain and 1 Long Treble on 
the centre of the next circle, repeat to the end, fasten off. 
Second row — commence on the first stitch of the last 
row, make 2 Chain, miss 2, and 1 Treble, repeat to the 
end; work the heading on the other side to correspond. 

Knitting . — By working strips of Knitting and join- 
ing them together with bands of Crochet, a greater 
variety is given to large pieces of work, such as counter- 
panes and couvrepieds, than when the whole is made of 
one description of fancy work. The knitted strips can 
be in any raised fancy knitting stitches, the crochet 
strips in open square Crochet or in Treble Crochet. The 
Knitting should be twice as wide as crochet. 

Lace Crochet. (1). — This is a light and graceful trim- 
ming, formed of a combination of Crochet and Point lace 
stitches, and makes a pleasing variety to ordinary crochet. 

Fig. 193. Crochet Lace. 

In Fig. 193 the edging is given when completed. It is 
commenced as follows : Make a foundation Chain of 

the length required (say a yard), and work an open 
row of one Treble into every other Chain on foundation 

Fig. 19k Crochet Lace— Detail A. 
row, and one Chain between ( see Fig. 194, Detail A); 
thread a sewing needle with the crochet cotton, fasten, 
and make a loose twisted stitch into every open space 
of last row. Arrange these stitches as scallops, six to 
a scallop, the centre loop being the longest. Com- 
mence from same place as last row, and work close 

i ro 


Buttonholes into the spaces between the loops (see Fig, 
195, Detail B)* The next two rows are a repetition of the 
looped and the Buttonhole row, hut the loops are shorter 

Fie. 105, Crochet Lack— Detail B. 
than on the scallops, and worked between every third 
Buttonhole (see Fig. 193, Detail C). The next row after 

Fig, ID?, Crochet Lace— Detail C* 
the Buttonhole is formed of three twisted loops close 
together, the space that three more would have filled being 
missed, and another three then worked, and so on to 
end of row. The last row consists of Buttonholes, with 
Vandykes made at equal distances, thus — work four 
Buttonholes, return the thread to first one, and work four 
more, the first four being the foundation * return the 
thread and work three Buttonholes above the four, and 
lastly work one as a point, run the thread down through 
the Vandyke, and continue the Buttonhole row until 
another Vandyke has to be formed (see Fig. 197, Detail D). 


Fig, 137* Crocitet Lace— Detail B. 

Place these Vandykes above the open spaces in the last 
row, and not above the stitches. The cotton used is 
Brooks’ Goat's head No* 48, hook No* 5, 

Lace Crochet , (2). — Make a Foundation Chain of length 
required, into which work 1 Chain and 1 Double Crochet 
into every 2 stitch. Second row — 5 Chain and 2 Treble, 
missing 3 Chain on foundation for the whole row. Third 
roiv — 1 Chain, 1 Double into every other stitch, and fasten 
off. Make half stars separately, work a 14 Chain, form a 
round, and surround it w r ith Slip Stitch ; into the upper 
half of round work 7 loops, putting them into the stitches 
one after the other. The first loop requires 24 Chain, 
second and third lfi each, middle loop 24, repeat the first 
three loops, reversing their order ; unite the plain part of 
the round to the holder, crocheting them together, and 
fasten the stars in at a distance of 48 stitches from each 
other. Fourth row— commence at the 22nd stitch from 
centre of star,* work 3 Chain, and pick up first loop, 

6 Chain, pick up second loop, 6 Chain, pick up third 
loop, 8 Chain, pick up middle loop, repeat backwards 
for throe loops, and fasten into the twenty- second stitch 
from the middle of the star, slip the cotton along four 
stitches, and repeat from/** Fifth row— work a Double 
into every Chain except the one in the centre loop : in 
this one the increase is managed, and requires I Double, 
2 Chain, 1 Double. For the open lattice part ( see 
Fig. 197), work 4 Chain, catch it into three > row, and 
then 4 Chain. Repeat fifth row eleven times, always 
increasing at the pointed stitcli ; and for the lattice 
part work a plain 8 Chain alternately with 4 Chain 
caught into third stitch of the previous row and 4 
Chain* Work the border without the straight lines 
which are put in by mistake in the pattern close to 
the thick Vandykes, and make it of a number of 
Picot Chains interlaced, as shown in the illustration, 
which is easier to follow than complicated written 

Mignardise. — This is a variety of Crochet, formed by 
inserting narrow fine braids into the design as the 
heavy part of the pattern, that would otherwise be 
formed by continuous stitches of Treble or Double 
Crochet* The braid is woven into various sizes and 
forms, and with an edging of fine loops, and the crochet 
stitches connect it by passing the hook and the crochet 
cotton through these loops* Mignardise is used almost 
entirely to form narrow edgings for underlinen and 
children’s dresses. The cotton used is sometimes white 
and blue, sometimes white and pink, the colour working 
one row of the centre, and one of the extreme edge 
of a pattern* 

Simple edging. — Take the braid, hold it in the left 
hand and work an outside edge to it thus — join the 
braid to the cotton with a Double Crochet through 
the first loop # six Chain, put the hook into the second 
Chain and make a Picot of the vest, 1 Chain, and a 
Double Crochet ; repeat five times from *, 3 Chain, 
and miss one loop on the braid, gather together the 
four next loops, and work a Single Crochet, 3 Chain 
and miss a loop, and work a Double Crochet* This 
forms a pattern which is to be repeated until the 
length required is worked* Second row — the edge 
being finished, turn the other side of the braid upper- 
most, and fasten the cotton into the braid in the 
centre above the four loops fastened together in last 
row work 1 Chain and a Single into next loop, and 

then 12 Chain, miss the loop on the opposite side of 
the loop missed in first row, and pick up the seven 
loops that are opposite the five ornamented with Picot s, 
make a Chain between each loop, and draw them all 
together to form a circle, and connect them to the last 
twelve Chain; work 3 Chain, and draw that through 
the seventh Chain to form two lines above the circle; 
work 6 Chain, and miss the loop opposite the one missed 
Upon last low; work a Single, 1 Chain, 1 Single, repeat 
from the third row 1 Treble and one Chain into every 
other stitch upon last row. 

Scalloped edging. — Formed of two rows of Mignar- 
dise braid. Each scallop requires eleven loops of braid 


i r r 

upon the inside, and twelve upon the outer. Pick up 
the braid, and hold it in the left hand, and commence 
by making the crochet upon the inside of the scallop ; 
this consists of four Vandykes radiating from a half 
circle, the points of the Vandykes being the loops upon 
the braid* First row — 1 Single Crochet into first loop 
of braid, * 10 Chain, miss one loop, work Single into 
nest loop, t uni the work, and make the Vandyke, work 
2 Single into the first, 2 Chains, then 2 Double, and 1 
Treble into the next three Chains, making 5 stitches, 
then 5 Chain and 1 Single in the third loop on braid, 
missing one loop; turn the work, 2 Single, 2 Double, 
and 1 Treble upon the 5 Chain, 5 Chain 1 Single into 
the second loop from one last worked (missing one); 


turn work, 2 Single, 2 Double, and 1 Treble on the 5 
Chain, 5 Chain 1 Single into the second loop on the 
braid from last worked loop; turn work, 2 Single, 2 
Double, 1 Treble on the 5 Chain ; turn the work, £ Chain 
1 Single on the second loop from the one last worked, 4 
Chain 1 Single into next loop. Repeat from * to length 
required and fasten off. Second row — 1 Single upon first 
Single of last row upon the 5 Chain, 2 Single, 2 
Double, 1 Treble, 9 Chain, miss out all the 4 Vandykes, 
and work 1 Treble 2 Double and 3 Single upon the 
chains in last row. Repeat from * and fasten off. In 
the next row the second piece of braid (which is worked 
as a straight line) is inserted. Third row — 1 Double 
Crochet upon last stitch of last row 2 Chain, insert 

the hook into loop of braid and make a stitch, 2 Chain, 
miss two stitches on foundation and work I Double 
Crochet, repeat from # to end of the row and fasten 
off. Fourth row— Turn the work, and form the edge 
to the scallop upon the unfastened side of braid # 2 
Chain, 1 Single into first loop, repeat from # and fasten 
off. Fifth vow — commence by drawing the 3 loops to- 
gether that are over the 4 Chain of first row, and work 
a Double Crochet, then 3 Chain and 1 Double Crochet 
in the loop following, repeat to end of the row* Sixth 
row — over every 3 Chain of last row work 1 Double 
Crochet, 5 Treble, and 1 Double. 

Crochet Netting , — A variety of Crochet founded upon 
Hair-pin. Crochet, The Wetting is worked with a Crochet 
hook, and large wooden shuttles 
terminating in four or two prongs 
resembling the large teeth of a 
comb. The prongs are of dif* 
f event sizes* the lower one of a 
shuttle with four prongs being 
either twice or three times the 
width of the other three, but all 
are placed at equal distances from 
each other* A shuttle fitted with 
two prongs resembles the old 
wooden lyres used for making 
chains, and its two prongs are 
set at a considerable distance 
from each other. The different 
widths of the prongs are intended 
for the making of looped fringes 
to the work, the double prougs for 
a narrow strip of Netting, with 
loops at each side of equal sizes, 
and the four- pronged shuttle for 
making broader and thicker centre 
lines of work between the loops, 
the stitches being placed on each 
side of the second prong and over 
it, instead of only as a centre line* 
The work consists of long narrow 
strips finished at both edges with 
loops. These loops give the ap- 
pearance of open Netting, and are 
used to join the various strips 
made by being fastened together 
with lines of Crochet* Varieties of Crochet Netting are 
made by the Crochet -work designs that join them to- 
gether, or by passing the stitches over the centre prongs 
of the shuttle, or by simply working them in one of the 
spaces between the prongs. The shuttles are to be ob- 
tained at 131, Edgwar e-road* 

2b work a narrow strip of Crochet Netting , — Take a 
shuttle of four prongs; hold it in the left hand by the 
widest prongs with the three small prongs uppermost. 
Take a skein of single Berlin wool, or of fine Arrasene ; 
make a loop near the end; pass a medium- sized Crochet 
hook through the loop, and hold the hook in the space 
between the top and second prong, and the waste piece of 
wool in the left hand* Throw the working end of the 

I 12 


wool over tlie top prong and commence. Draw the wool 
from the back of the prong through the loop on the hook, 
and make a stitch thus* ; turn the shuttle in the left hand 
until the broad prong is uppermost; throw the wool round 
the two small' prongs from the front of the shuttle to the 
back, and make a stitch as before by drawing it through 
the one on the hook, which still hold in the space where 
the first stitch was made; put the hook with the stitch still 
on it over the top and through the loop made by the first 
stitch on the first prong (which is now the one held in the 
left hand). Put wool on the hook and draw it through 
this loop ; wool on again, and draw it through two of the 
stitches on the hook; wool round, and draw it through the 
remaining two stitches; turn the shuttle round, throw the 
wool over the top prong, make a stitch, put the hook 
across the top thread of the loop on the second and third 
prongs, through that loop, wool on hook, draw through 
the loop, wool on hook, draw through two loops, wool on 
hook, draw through two loops, repeat from *. When the 
shuttle is filled with the Netting, take off the loops, re- 
adjust the last two on the prongs, and continue the work. 
The strip made with the above will have loops at one 
edge longer than the loops at the other ; if even size edges 
are needed, work over but one prong on both sides. 
Fringes are made as above, one set of loops being made on 
the broad prong of the shuttle. 

To work a thick broad centre line of Netting . — Hold 
the shuttle in the left hand by the broad prong; loop and 
hook in the space between the top and second prong 
waste wool held down with the left thumb, and working 
wool over the top prong. Make a stitch by drawing the 
wool from the back of the shuttle through the stitch on 
the hook. Pull this stitch out with the hook until it 
stretches over the second prong, and is in the space below 
it ; draw the wool from the back of the shuttle through 
this stitch*; turn the shuttle in the left hand until the 
wide prong is uppermost, and turn the hook in the stitch 
at the same time ; throw the thread over the prong next 
the wide one from the front to the back, bring it through 
the last stitch, lengthen out the loop so obtained until it 
reaches below the second prong ; make a stitch with the 
thread from the back of the shuttle; put the hook into the 
already made loop on the bottom prong, not over the top 
thread of it as in the last pattern, but through the loop 
and out under the left or under thread of it ; take up wool 
on the hook, draw it back through the loop on the prong 
and to the front ; take up wool, and draw it through the 
two stitches on the hook, turn the shuttle, throw the wool 
over the top prong, make a stitch as before, draw this out 
over the second prong, make a stitch with the wool at the 
back, put the hook into the loop on the bottom prong, 
bringing it out under the under thread, wool on the hook, 
drawn through the loop, wool on the hook, and through 
the two stitches on the hook. Repeat from *. 

Attention to the holding of the shuttle and the right 
manipulation of the Crochet-hook is important, otherwise 
the Netting comes apart when removed from the shuttle. 

On Net . — This work is an imitation of Honiton and 
Brussels lace. It is made with Raised Rose Crochet 
sprays or simple Crochet edging, fastened down upon net. 

There are two ways of working on the net : in one, over- 
cast detached sprigs of crochet upon Brussels net, and 
connect them together with Brides. In the second, work 
a simple flower pattern edging, and connect this to the 
net with Chain stitch worked to form tendrils and 
sprays. As these Chains are worked take up portions 
of the net on the crochet hook so that they are in- 
corporated into it. 

Over Brass Bings. — For a Mat. — Thirty-seven curtain 
rings, and four shades of one colour, either of wool or 
silk, are necessary. Cover one ring for the centre with 
the lightest shade of wool, work fifty Double Crochet 
over the ring, making the edges of the stitches on the 
outer edge of the ring. Cover six rings with the next 
shade, twelve with the third shade, and eighteen with 
the last. Place the light ring in the centre, the six rings 
round it and sew them to the centre ring. Arrange the 
twelve rings round the six, and the eighteen round the 
twelve. The side of the mat where the rings are sewn 
together will be the wrong side; keep it still upon that 
side, and finish the rings with working an eight-pointed 
star in filoselle in the centre of each. Make a fringe 
of beads round the mat, and ornament the rings with a 
cross of white beads in their centres. 

To form a Bag. — One hundred and one rings are 
required, covered with Double Crochet in colours accord- 
ing to taste. Sew the rings together in the shape of 
a cup. First row or centre — 1 ring; second row — 6 
rings; third row — 12; fourth row — 16; fifth row — 20; 
sixth row — 22 ; seventh row — 24. Above the last row 
of rings work a row of Crochet, 3 Trebles into the top 
of a ring, 5 Chain and 3 Trebles into next ring; repeat 
5 Chain and three Trebles to the end of the row. 
Second row — 1 Treble and 2 Chain into every third 
stitch on the foundation. Repeat second row eleven 
times. Fourteenth row — 2 Long Trebles and 3 Chain, 
missing 3 foundation stitches for the 3 Chain. Line 
the bag with soft silk, run a ribbon in and out of the 
last crochet row to draw it up, and finish the lower 
part with a silk tassel. 

Point de Chantilly. — To be worked with double Berlin 
wool and a rather large bone Tricot hook. Commence 
with 16 Chain, insert the hook in the second Chain 
from the hook, raise a loop, and work a Chain stitch 
in it, then raise another loop and work a Chain stitch 
in that, and so on to the end of the row, keeping all 
the Chain stitches on the hook, work back as in ordinary 
Tricot. Second row — 1 Chain, insert the hook in the 
first perpendicular loop and also through the Chain 
stitch belonging to it, raise a loop, and work a Chain 
stitch in it, * insert the hook in the next perpendicular 
loop and through the chain belonging to it, raise a loop 
and work a Chain stitch in that, repeat from #, keeping 
all the Chain stitches on the hook, and work back as 
in ordinary Tricot. Every succeeding row is the same 
as the second row. 

Raised Marcella Cherries and White Narcissus Flower . 
— Materials required : Single Berlin wool, red, grey, green, 
yellow, black, and white; a fine bone crochet hook. 
For the red strip work 23 Chain, 1 Double Crochet in 





the third from the hook, and Double Crochet all along, 
21 Double Crochet in all; two more rows of plain Double 
Crochet, viz., 1 Chain to turn and 21 Double Crochet along, 
take up both front and back loops. Fourth row — 1 Double 
Crochet, insert the hook through at the bottom of the 
third Double Crochet in the last row, draw the wool through 
and raise five loops, draw the wool through the five 
loops, and then through the 2 stitches on the needle, * 
3 Double Crochet on the three succeeding Double Crochet 
of last row, then insert the hook at the distance of four 
stitches from the place where the preceding cherry was 
raised, draw the wool through, and raise five more loops to 
form another cherry, repeat from *, and end the row with 
three Double Crochet. Fifth row — plain Double Crochet. 
Sixth row — 3 Double Crochet, insert the hook through at 
the bottom of the fifth Double Crochet of the last row; 
and raise a cherry as directed above, 3 Double Crochet, 
another cherry at the distance of four stitches, 3 Double 
Crochet, a cherry, 3 Double Crochet, a cherry, 5 Double 
Crochet at the end of the row. Seventh row— plain Double 
Crochet. Repeat from the fourth to the seventh rows twice 
more, then leave a space where the narcissus flower is 
to be placed, omit the middle cherry in the sixteenth row, 
the two middle cherries in the eighteenth row, and three in 
the twentieth row, working instead plain Double Crochet; 
in the twenty- second, twenty -fourth, and twenty-sixth rows 
bring these cherries gradually back again, and then repeat 
from the fourth row for the length required for the antima- 
cassar. For the narcissus flower, white wool, work 7 Chain, 
1 Double Crochet in the first from the needle, 4 Treble along, 
6 Treble in the top stitch, 4 Treble and a Double Crochet 
along the other side, and a Single Crochet to fasten off ; 
secure the ends firmly. v Work six of these white leaves, 
then a dot of yellow for the centre of the flower, 4 Chain, 
join round, work 2 Double Crochet in each chain, and a 
Double Crochet on each of these, tack the six leaves together 
in the shape of a flower, the wrong side of the Crochet 
uppermost, and place the yellow dot in the centre, arrange 
it by means of a few stitches in the middle of the flat 
space that is left among the cherries. For the grey stripe, 
work 15 Chain, 1 Double Crochet in the third from the 
needle, and Double Crochet all along, 13 Double Crochet 
in all. Two more rows of plain Double Crochet, viz., 1 
Chain to turn, and 13 Double Crochet along. Fourth 
row — 1 Double Crochet, a cherry, 3 Double Crochet, 
a cherry, 3 Double Crochet, a cherry, 3 Double Crochet. 
Fifth row — plain Double Crochet. Sixth row — 3 Double 
Crochet, a cherry, 3 Double Crochet, a cherry, 5 Double 
Crochet. Seventh row — plain Double Crochet. Eighth 
row — 1 Double Crochet, a cherry, 3 Double Crochet; a 
green cherry, 3 Double Crochet, a cherry, 3 Double 
Crochet; compose the green cherry of 5 loops of green 
wool worked in without breaking off the grey wool, 
which draw through the two stitches (1 green and 
one grey) on the needle, leaving the green wool at the 
back. Ninth row — plain Double Crochet. Tenth row 
— the same as the sixth row, both the cherries to be 
green ones. Eleventh row — plain Double Crochet. 
Twelfth row — the same as the eighth row. Thirteenth 
row — plain Double Crochet. Fourteenth row— the same 

as the sixth row, and the same colour. Fifteenth row 
— plain Double Crochet. Sixteenth row — same as the 
fourth row. Seventeenth row — plain Double Crochet. 
Eighteenth row — the same as the sixth row. Nineteenth 
row — plain Double Crochet. Repeat from the fourth 
row until the stripe is the same length as the red one, 
work a double Cross Stitch with yellow wool in the centre 
of every group of four green cherries. It will take three 
of the red and two of the grey stripes to make a good 
sized antimacassar. With black wool work a row of 
Double Crochet round all the stripes, and join them 
together with a row of white Double Crochet. For the 
border : First row — white wool, 1 Double Crochet, 6 Chain, 
miss 4, repeat the whole way round, but do not miss any 
stitches between the Double Crochet at the corners. 
Second row — black, 1 Double Crochet over the Double 
Crochet of last row, 6 Chain, repeat. Third row — black, 

1 Double Crochet, 4 Chain, 2 Double Crochet, 4 Chain, 

2 Double Crochet, 4 Chain, 1 Double Crochet, under every 
scallop of six Chain. 

Raised Rose in Crochet Cotton. — For the mat shown 
in Fig. 199, and consisting of a large Raised centre rose, 
surrounded by eight smaller Raised roses, use Evans* 
crochet cotton No. 10. For the large centre rose — Com- 
mence with 8 Chain, join round, and work 16 Double 
Crochet in the circle. Second round — 1 Double Crochet* 

3 Chain, miss 1, repeat (there should be eight loops of 
three Chain). Third round — 1 Double Crochet, 4 Treble, 
1 Double Crochet under every loop of three Chain. Fourth 
round — 1 Double Crochet at the back above the Double 
Crochet in the second round, 4 Chain. Fifth round — 1 
Double Crochet, 5 Treble, 1 Double Crochet under every 
loop of four Chain. Sixth round— 1 Double Crochet at the 
back above the Double Crochet in the fourth round, 5 Chain. 
Seventh round— 1 Double Crochet, 7 Treble, 1 Double 

Crochet under every loop of five Chain. Eight round 

1 Double Crochet at the back above the Double Crochet in 
the sixth round, 6 Chain. Ninth row— 1 Double Crochet, 
9 Treble, 1 Double Crochet under every loop of six Chain. 
Tenth round — 1 Double Crochet at the back, above the 
Double Crochet in the eighth round, 7 Chain. Eleventh 
round— 1 Double Crochet, 11 Treble, 1 Double Crochet 
under every loop of seven Chain. Twelfth round— 1 
Double Crochet between the two Double Crochet of last 
round, * 7 Chain, 1 Double Crochet upon the sixth Treble, 
7 Chain, 1 Double Crochet between the next two Double 
Crochet of last round, repeat from* ; fasten off at the end 
of the round. This completes the large rose. 

For the small roses— Begin with 6 Chain, join round, 
and work 12 Double Crochet in the circle. Second round 
—1 Double Crochet, 3 Chain, miss 1, repeat (there should be 
six loops of three Chain). Third round— 1 Double Crochet, 

4 Treble, 1 Double Crochet under every loop of three 
Chain. Fourth round — 1 Double Crochet at the back above 
the Double Crochet in the second round, 4 Chain. Fifth 
round— 1 Double Crochet, 5 Treble, 1 Double Crochet under 
every loop of four Chain. Sixth round— 1 Double Crochet 
at the back above the Double Crochet in the fourth round, 

5 Chain. Seventh round — 1 Double Crochet, 7 Treble, 1 
Double Crochet under every loop of five Chain. Eighth 



round — 1 Double Crochet between the two Double Crochet 
stitches of last round, * 3 Chain, 1 Double Crochet on the 
second Treble, 3 Chain, 1 Double Crochet on the fourth 
Treble, 3 Chain, 1 Double Crochet on the sixth Treble, 3 
Chain, 1 Double Crochet between the two next Double 
Crochet stitches, repeat from * j fasten oft at the end of 
the round. 

It requires eight small roses to complete the circle, 
and they are to be joined to the large rose by a Single 
Crochet taken from the first stitch of the second group of 
Chain of the fourth leaf, into the third Chain from the 
centre of one of the leaves of the large rose, and again by 
a Single Crochet taken from the first stitch of the next 
group of Chain into the corresponding third Chain on the 
other side of the same leaf of the large rose, and they are 
also to be joined to each other by a Single Crochet on each 
side, as shown in the illustration (Fig. 199). 

For the outside edge — 1 Double Crochet over the 
Single Crochet between the roses, * 8 Chain, 1 Single in 

Fig. 199. Crochet— Raised Rose in Cotton. 

the fourth from the hook, 8 Chain, 1 Single again in the 
fourth from the hook, 3 Chain, 1 Double Crochet above the 
Double Crochet in the middle of the next leaf, 12 Chain, 1 
Double Crochet above the Double Crochet in the middle of 
the next leaf, 8 Chain, 1 Single in the fourth from the hook, 
8 Chain, 1 Single in the fourth from the hook, 3 Chain, 1 
Double Crochet above the Single Crochet at the joining of 
the roses ; repeat from *, and fasten off at the end of the 
round. Last round — 1 Double Crochet between the two 
Picots, * 4 Chain, 1 Double Crochet in the next Picot, 7 
Chain, 4 Double Crochet under the 12 Chain of last round, 
7 Chain, 1 single into the last of the four Double Crochet, 
and 4 more Double Crochet under the 12 Chain, 7 Chain, 
1 Double Crochet in the next Picot, 4 Chain, 1 Double 
Crochet between the two Picots, 7 Chain, 1 Double Crochet 
between the two Picots in the next rose, repeat from *, 
and fasten off at the end of the round. 

Raised Rose in Wools . — These raised roses are much 
used for wool antimacassars. They are made separately, 

and joined together. For a wool rose use single Berlin 
wool, work a 6 Chain, and form into a round. First row — 
8 Chain,* 1 Treble under nearest stitch of round, 5 Chain. 
Repeat from * three times, then 5 Chain, and loop on 
the third of the first 8 Chain. Second row — * 1 Double, 
8 Treble, 1 Double, under all the succeeding 5 Chain 
scallops. Third row — * 6 Chain, 1 Double, putting hook 
in between the two next leaves; the stitches of the next 
6 Chain place behind the next leaf in the same way, and 
all the rest in following rows. Repeat from * 4 times. 
Fourth row — 1 Double, 10 Treble, under next 6 Chain, 
repeat four times. Fifth row — 7 Chain, 1 Double behind 
leaves of preceding row. Repeat four times. Sixth row 
— 1 Double, 12 Treble, and 1 Double in the next 7 Chain. 
Repeat four times. Seventh row — 8 Chain, 1 Double, 
worked in from behind between two next leaves. Repeat 
four times. Eighth row — 1 Double, 14 Treble, and 1 Double 
in the next 8 Chain. Repeat four times. Ninth row — 9 

Fig. 20u. Crochet— Raised Rose in Wool. 

Chain, 1 Double, hook from behind as before. Repeat four 
times. Tenth row — 1 Double, 16 Treble, and 1 Double in 
the next 9 Chain. Repeat four times. Eleventh row — 10 
Chain, 1 Double, hook from behind. Repeat four times. 
Twelfth row — 1 Double, 18 Treble, and 1 Double in the next 
10 Chain. Repeat four times. Thirteenth row — Double 
stitches over Doubles and Trebles of preceding row. Four- 
teenth row — commence at fourth Treble of leaf, work 2 
double Trebles and 7 Chain all round, making three of 
these stitches into every rose leaf {see Fig. 200). Fifteenth 
row — work a Double into every Chain of preceding row. 
Sixteenth row (not shown in illustration) is 1 Double, 1 
Chain into every other stitch of last row. Seventeenth 
row — 1 Treble and 2 Double into every alternate stitch. 
Eighteenth, and last row, is a looped chain ornamented 
with Picots to form an edge, 2 Chain, 12 Chain divided 
into 3 Picots, and 2 Chain, into every other space between 
Trebles of last row. For an antimacassar make the roses 
separately, and join when all are finished, as then they will 
be fresh and clean. 



Sequin Lace . — A modern name given to a work 
formed with coloured braid and coloured crochet cotton, 
formed into various easy patterns, and worked like Mig- 
nardise waved braid and crochet. It is suitable for 
furniture lace and dress trimmings. 

Shawl . — There are two ways of commencing to work 
a large crochet shawl. One, to commence from the centre, 
and work round and round until the right size is attained ; 
the other, to make a Foundation Chain of the full length 
of the completed shawl, and to work backwards and for- 
wards, as in a large quilt, until the width is the same as 
the length. For a square shawl worked in most crochet 
stitches, the number of rows worked will be one half 
more than the number of crochet stitches cast on for the 
first row. Thus, if 300 stitches are cast on, 450 rows will 
make a square, with perhaps the addition of three or four 
rows, if the crochet is tightly worked. Fig. 201 represents 
the commencement of a shawl begun from the centre, the 
first part of which is the only difficulty, and with that 
explained the rest is easily accomplished. Square shawls 
should be made of fine Shetland or Pyrenean wool, which 
are both extremely light in texture and yet warm. The 
needle should be of bone, medium size. Make a Founda- 
tion Chain of nine stitches, join it up, and work for 
first row 3 Treble and 3 Chain four times. Second row 

3 Chain, and 3 Treble into the first corner stitch, * 3 
Chain and 3 Treble into every space until the next 
corner is reached, repeat *, and work in this manner 
until the shawl is a yard and a quarter square. Different 

Fig. 201. Shawl in Square Crochet. 

coloured wools can be used near the end as border, and 
a closer shawl made by working 2 Chain and 2 Double, 
instead of the 3 Chain and 3 Treble, into every space. 


— into the space of every 3 Chain work 3 Treble, 3 Chain, 
and 3 Treble. This second row turns the round loop of 
that foundation into a small square, and commences the 
increasing at the four corners of the square, which con- 
tinues throughout the work. Third row — work 3 Treble, 

Square for Quill . — Use for this pattern Strutt’s knit- 
ting cotton, No. 6. Commence with 43 Chain, 1 Double 
Crochet in the third from the work, and work Double 
Crochet all along, making 40 Double Crochet in all ; turn, 
1 Chain, miss the first Double Crochet of preceding row, 



1 1 6 

and work 40 Double Crocket along, working upon the back 
of the stitches so as to form a ridge. Third row — 1 Chain 
to turn, 3 Double Crochet, pass the cotton twice round 
the hook, insert the hook to take up the fourth Double 
Crochet of the first row, and work a Double Treble, but 
leave the stitch belonging to the Double Crochet stitch on 
the needle, work 2 more Double Treble in the same place, 
and, having finished them, draw the cotton through the last 
and through the Double Crochet stitch ; this forms a ball ■ 
3 Double Crochet, and another hall, 3 Double Crochet., a 
ball, 3 Double Crochet, a hall, then 9 Double Crochet, a 
ball, 3 Double Crochet, a ball, 3 Double Crochet, a hall, 3 
Double Crochet, a ball, 3 Double Crochet ; 1 Chain to turn, 
and work back in plain Double Crochet, having 40 Double 
Crochet in the row. Fifth row — 1 Chain to turn, 5 
Double Crochet, 3 balls with 3 Double Crochet between 
each, plain Double Crochet across the centre, and corre- 
sponding balls at the other side, ending with 3 Double 
Crochet ; 1 Chain to turn, and work back in plain Double 
Crochet- The centre diamond begins in the ninth row, 
and the 3 Double Treble are to be worked into the twenty- 
first stitch of the seventh row ; increase the diamond until 
there are 11 balls along the side, then decrease, gradually 
bringing it again to 1 ball. The comers begin in the 
row where there are four balls in the centre diamond. 
Having completed the square, work a row of 1 Treble, 1 
Chain all round it, putting 3 Chain at each comer ; then 
a round of plain Double Crochet. {See Fig. 202,) 

Stitches. — The various Stitches used in Crochet are 
described at length, in their Alphabetical order, after the 
article upon Crochet. 

Tatting Crochet.— This is a variety of Crochet used to 
ornament ordinary Crochet with rosettes, and worked with 
any materials suitable for Crochet. The stitch has the 
appearance of Tatting, and is a double loop connected 
together at the base with a cross thread, and is made by 
forming two different loops or knots on the hook, The 
chief art in making these loops is the manipulation of 
the left hand, the thread being held firmly between the 
thumb and second finger while the twists to it are being 
given. To commence : Work 2 or 3 Chain, then make a 
loop round the left hand forefinger as shown in Detail A 
(Fig. 203), insert the hook over the front thread and under 
the back, and draw up the thread on to the hook as a 
knot, change the arrangement of the loop with a twist of 
the left hand, and insert the hook this time under the first 
thread and over the second and draw up the loop on to the 
hook (see Detail B, Fig. 204) as another knot ; this com- 
pletes the stitch. Work 9 Double Knots and then thread 
round the hook, and draw it right through every loop 
on the hook, casting them off in this manner (see Detail C, 
Fig. 205). Thread again round the hook, and draw it 
through the loop left (see Detail D, Fig. 206), thus com* 
pie ting the rosette show n in Detail E (Fig. 207), w hich 
represents three of these tatted rosettes connected by 3 
Chain. These rosettes can be formed into a pretty 
border, like Detail F (Fig. 208), by working the rows 
alternately in different colours. Work the first row 
as already shown, and reverse the rosettes in the second ; 
begin this row with a Long Treble, as shown, which 

takes through the middle of first rosette ; work for rosette 
4 Double Knots *, and the first half of the fifth, and with 
the second half join the rosette to first stitch in the 3 

Fro. 203 . Crochet Tatting— Detail A 

Fig. 204. Crochet Tatting-Detail B. 

Fig. £0$, Crochet Tatting— Detail C. 

Fig. £06. Crochet Tatting -Detau. D. 

Chain, placing the hook as shown by arrow in Detail F 
(Fig. 208); carry the thread down in front of the hook, 
pass it back under the hook, and then through the stitch 


J1 7 

just taken upon the hook ; this forms the second half 
of fifth Double Knot. Pass over 1 Chain and repeat 

Fig. 207. Crochet Tatting — Detail E. 

working into the third, instead of 1 stitch of Chain, 
4 Double Knots, draw up loop, 3 Chain, repeat to the end 
of the row. All the rows are made like the second row, 
except that the Long Treble commencement is only made 
in every alternate one. 

cotton Ko, SO is used instead of crochet cotton. Com- 
mence with a Chain of 4, join and work 2 Double Crochet 
into each stitch. Second row — 3 Double Crochet in first 
stitch, 1 Double Crochet, 3 Double Crochet in third 
stitch, 1 Double Crochet in fourth, 3 Double Crochet 
in fifth stitch, 1 Double Crochet in sixth, 3 Double 
Crochet in seventh, 1 Double Crochet in eighth stitch, 
1 more Double Crochet; the last side of the square 
will always have an extra stitch on the side, which mark, 
as all the rows commence from it. Third row — 3 Double 
Crochet in comer stitch *, 3 Double Crochet on side, 
3 Double Crochet in corner, repeat from Fourth row 

Fig. 209 is a square of Crochet, being part of a counter- 
pane ornamented with Crochet Tatting as tiuy rosettes. 
Fig, 210, Detail A, gives the commencement of the square 

Fig. 208 . Crochet Tatting— Detail F, 

and manner of working the rosettes into the plain Crochet, 
The foundation is in Double Crochet, and knitting 

— 3 Double Crochet into every corner, and 5 Double 
Crochet on every side. Fifth row — 3 Double Crochet in 
corner stitch # , 3 Double Crochet on side, and work 
rosette, making 4 Double Knots, and then secure the 
loop by passing the hook and thread through the loop in 

Fig. 2io. Crochet Tatting— Detail A or Counterpane. 
the second row, finish and draw up the rosette ; 1 Double 
Crochet In next stitch, working the stitch on the hook 
from the rosette as a Double Crochet, 3 Double Crochet 
on the side, 3 Double Crochet in the corner, repeat. Sixth 
row — plain Double Crochet, w T ork 3 into each corner, and 

i iS 


miss the stitch made by the rosettes. Seventh and eighth 
rows — 3 Double Crochet in every corner, an increase of 2 
on each side in each row. Ninth row — * 1 Double Crochet 
in the corner, then a rosette in the same corner,, and 1 
Double Crochet, 15 Double Crochet at the side, repeat 
from # . Tenth row — plain Double Crochet 3 in each 
corner stitch. 

Having thus commenced the corners, and shown 
how the increase is managed and the rosettes are secured, 
the worker will follow the rest of the square from the 
illustration, being careful always to work 3 Double 
Crochet in every corner, with a rosette in every alter- 
nate row, and to count and work that stitch as a Double 
Crochet next time, while the rosettes that ornament the 
other part of the design are treated like those on the 
fifth row and the stitch they make passed over in the 
plain line that follows them. The square is completed 
in thirty-four rows. 

Tatting and Crochet Edging . — This edging is com- 
posed of Tatting and Crochet, and is used to slide ribbon 
through, as shown in Fig. 211. It is worked with cotton 
No. 20, a fine steel crochet hook, and a tatting shuttle. 
The little diamonds in the centre work first; these are 

Fio. 211. Cbochet and Tatting Edging. 

Tatted. First diamond: First oval— 6 Double Crochet, 
1 Purl, 3 Double, 1 Purl, 3 Double, 1 Purl, 6 Double, draw 
close. Repeat this oval 3 more times, then join the two 
ends of the cotton neatly together. Work as many 
diamonds as are required for the length, join them to 
one another by the centre Purl in the last oval of the 
first diamond and the centre Purl in the first oval of the 
second diamond. When all are worked, join the thread 
to the centre Purl of the first oval at the side; work in 
it 1 Double Crochet *, 6 Chain, 1 Single Crochet in the 
next Purl of the same oval, 3 Chain, 1 Single in the Purl 
connecting the two diamonds together, 3 Chain, 1 Single 
in the first Purl of the next oval, 8 Chain, 1 Single in 
the fourth Chain of the first six Chain worked, 3 Chain, 
1 Single on the 7 Chain of eight Chain just worked, 1 
Single on the sixth Chain, 3 Chain, 1 Single on the fifth 
Chain, 1 single on the fourth Chain, 3 Chain, 1 single 
on the third Chain, 1 Single on the second Chain, 3 Chain, 
1 Double Crochet in the next Purl, repeat from * ; work 
each side in the same manner, then work loops of Crochet 
Chain at the back of each point to connect the top and 
bottom point together, and in these loops run a coloured 
ribbon the width of the work. 

Watch Guard in Crochet . — This is made with the 
finest purse silk and a small steel crochet hook. Work a 
round of 6 Chain, and work round and round in Single 
or Double Ribbed crochet until the right length is 
formed. The guard is ornamented, if wished, with a bead 

dropped into every stitch. Thread these beads on the 
skein of purse silk before the work is commenced. 

Waved Braid Crochet. — A variety of Crochet in which 
waved tape braid is used instead of Mignardise braid 
to take the place of the thick stitches in a Crochet 
pattern. The use of this braid saves much time, and 
it can be introduced into either Crochet edgings or into 
rosettes for antimacassars. The braid is woven in 
various widths, but the medium size, with Evans’s 
crochet cotton, No. 14, is the best to use. To work an 
edging for linen or children’s frocks: First row — work 
1 Treble into the first point of the braid, 3 Chain, and 
a Treble into the next point of the braid, repeat until of 
sufficient length, and fasten off ; this forms the plain edge 
which is sewn to the material. Second row — turn the work 
and commence upon the other side of the braid, 2 row, * 
work 1 Single into first point, 1 Chain 1 Treble into next 
point, 3 Chain 1 Treble into the same, 1 Chain, and repeat 
from * to end of row, and fasten off. Third row — Slip 
Stitch into the one Single on last row, * cotton over the 
hook, 4 treble into the 3 Chain between the 2 Trebles 
of the last row, 6 Chain slip the hook through the second, 
so as to make a Picot with the 5 Chain, 1 Chain, 4 Treble 
into same, loop Slip Stitch into next Single, and repeat 
from * to end of row and fasten off. 

To Form a Rosette. — 8 Chain, join and work 16 
Double into it. First row — 4 Chain, * miss 1 stitch on 
foundation and work 1 Treble into the next stitch, 2 
Chain, repeat from * to end of row. Second row — 4 Chain, 
* 1 Treble, 2 Chain, 1 Treble first loop on last row, 2 Chain, 
repeat from * to end of the row. Third row— 5 Chain, then 
take the waved braid in the left hand and pass the hook 
through a point while niakiug the next Chain, then 1 
Chain, 1 Treble into the loop of the last row, * 2 Chain, 
pick up the next point of the braid, 1 Chain, 1 Treble into 
the next loop on the foundation, repeat from * to the end 
of the row; when finished, sew the ends of the braid 
together neatly, so as not to interfere with the round. 
Fourth row — 3 Chain up to point of the braid and fasten 
into it, 6 Chain 1 Treble into the same point, * 2 Chain, 
1 Treble into the same, repeat from * end of the row. 
Fifth row — take up the braid again, work 4 Chain, put 
the hook through the point of the braid, 1 Chain, and make 
a Double into the first loop, * 2 Chain, hook through the 
next point, 2 Chain, 1 Double into the next loop, repeat 
from * to the end of the row, sew the points of braid 
together as before. Sixth row — same as the fourth. 
Seventh row — * 1 Treble into Chain between the 2 Trebles 
on the last row, 6 Chain, put the hook into the second 
Chain to form a Picot, 1 Chain, 1 Treble into the same loop, 
3 Chain, and repeat from * to end of row, and fasten off. 

Wool Aster in Crochet. — Materials required : Yellow, 
black, and three shades of crimson double Berlin wool, 
and medium-sized bone crochet needle. Commence with 
the yellow wool, with 5 Chain, join round, and work 12 
Double Crochet in the ring. Second round — yellow, 
1 Double Crochet, 1 Chain, twelve times. Third round — 
darkest shade of red, 1 Double Crochet, 2 Chain, 1 
Treble, a Picot (viz., 4 Chain, 1 Double Crochet in the 
first of the chain), 1 Treble Chain, 1 Double Crochet, 


all in the front loop of every Chain stitch of the last 
round, thus making twelve petals. Fourth round — next 
lightest shade of red, 1 Double Crochet in the back loop 
of every Double Crochet stitch of the second round, and 

1 Chain between each Double Crochet. Fifth round — 
same colour, 1 Double Crochet, 2 Chain, 1 Double Treble, 
Picot, 1 Double Treble, 2 Chain, 1 Double Crochet, all in 
the front loop of every Chain stitch of the last round, 
again making twelve petals. Sixth round — lightest shade 
of red — 1 Double Crochet in the back loop of every 
Double Crochet stitch of the fourth round, twenty-four 
Double Crochet in all. Seventh round — same colour, 1 
Double Crochet, 2 Chain, miss 1, repeat. There should be 
twelve loops of 2 Chain. Eighth round — Same colour, # 1 
Double Crochet on the Double Crochet of last round, 

2 Chain, 1 Double Treble, Picot, 1 Double Treble, 2 
Chain, all under the 2 Chain of last round; repeat from *. 
This will again make twelve petals. Ninth round — black, 
1 Double Crochet in any Picot, 2 Chain, 1 Double Treble 


next Treble, and another Picot, as just described; repeat. 
There should be 10 Double Crochet stitches and 10 Picots 
in the round. Third round — next lightest shade of red, 
1 Double Crochet over the Double Crochet of last round, 
insert the hook in the next Chain stitch, draw the wool 
through and work 5 Chain, draw the wool through the 
chain and through the stitch on the hook; repeat, in- 
creasing 1 Double Crochet and 1 Picot in the course of 
the round. Fourth round — lightest shade of red, the 
same as the third round, making 12 Double Crochet and 
12 Picots. Fifth round — the same colour, and to be 
worked the same as the fourth round. Sixth round- 
brown, 1 Double Crochet, 4 Chain, miss 2, repeat. There 
should be 8 loops of 4 Chain. Seventh round — work 5 
Double Crochet under every 4 Chain. Eighth round — 
brown, 1 Double Crochet on the first of the 5 Double 
Crochet of last round, 1 Treble on the next, 1 Double 
Treble on the next, four Chain, 1 Double Crochet in the 
first of the Chain, 1 Double Treble on the same Double 


on the Double Crochet stitch of last round, 2 Chain, 
repeat. Tenth round — same colour as the fifth round, 
1 Double Crochet on the Double Crochet stitch of last 
round, 3 successive Picots, repeat. Twelve of these asters 
will make a good sized antimacassar, and to fill up the 
spaces between each aster, work the two rounds as 
directed for the yellow wool, and a third round in black 
of 1 Double Crochet, 3 Chain. 

Wool Dahlia in Crochet . — Materials required: double 
Berlin wool, brown, black, and three shades of crimson, 
and medium-sized bone crochet hook. Commence with 
the brown wool, with 3 Chain, join round, and work 10 
Treble in the ring. Throughout the dahlia take up both 
the top loops of preceding row. Second round — darkest 
shade of red, 1 Double Crochet, insert the hook in the 
same stitch as the Double Crochet is already worked in, 
draw the wool through, and work 5 Chain, draw the wool 
through the last of the Chain and through the stitch on 
the hook to form a Picot, 1 Double Crochet on the 

Crochet as the other Double Treble, 1 Treble on the next 
Double Crochet, and 1 Double Crochet on the last of 
the five Double Crochet of last round; repeat. There 
should be eight leaves in the round. Ninth round — black, 
1 Double Crochet under the four Chain, 3 Chain, 1 
Double Treble in between the 2 Double Crochet of last 
round, 3 Chain, repeat. Tenth round — darkest shade of 
red, 1 Double Crochet on the Double Crochet of last 
round, 1 Treble, 1 Double Treble, 4 Chain, 1 Double 
Crochet in the first of the Chain, 1 Double Treble, 
1 Treble, all under the next three Chain of last round; 
repeat. There should be sixteen leaves in this last round. 

Yak Lace , Crochet . — This is a description of crochet 
that is a copy of real Yak and Maltese lace, and is worked 
in either fawn-coloured or black Maltese thread, with a 
medium-sized hook. It is illustrated in Fig. 212. Make a 
Chain the length required. First row — work 1 Long 
Stitch, make 1 Chain, miss 1 loop, work 1 Long Stitch, 
make 3 Chain, work a stitch of Single Crochet into the 

r 2o 


first of 3 Chain, miss 1 loop. Second row— wort 3 extra 
Long Stitches into the first Chain % mate 0 Chain, wort 
1 stitch of Single Crochet into the third from hoot, 
repeat f rom * once, mate 2 Chain, miss 4 loops of first 
row, work 1 stitch of Double Crochet into the next Chain, 
make 10 Chain, work a stitch of Single Crochet into the 
third from the hook, making the loop of Chain, turn 
under the third Chain, work 1 stitch of Single Crochet 
into the first, making the loop of 3 Chain over the 3 
Chain, work a stitch of Double Crochet in Chain after 
the next 4 Long of first row, make 6 Chain, work a stitch 
of Single Crochet into the third from hook, make 3 Chain, 
work 1 stitch of Single into the first stitch, make 7 Chain, 
work 1 Single stitch into the third from the hook, make 

3 Chain, work a stitch of Single into first, make 3 Chain, 
work a stitch of Double Crochet into same loop as last, 
make 6 Chain, work a stitch of Single Crochet into third 
loop, the loop of three Chain over, make 3 Chain, miss 

4 loops of first row and repeat third row, make 1 Chain, 
work a stitch of extra Long Crochet into first Chain 
after three extra Long stitches, make 8 Chain, work a 
stitch of Single into the third, the loop of 3 to be under* 
make 3 Chain, take up the third, and fasten the loop of 
three Chain over, make 3 Chain, work a stitch of Single 
Crochet in the third Chain under* 1 stitch of Double 
Crochet into fourth loop of ten Chain in last row, make 
7 Chain, turn, miss the first from the hook, work I 
Double Crochet into each, make 1 Chain, work 1 Double 
Crochet into each loop on the other side of 6 Chain* 1 
single at point, make 2 Chain, work 2 Double Crochet 
into central loops of four Chain, between the loops of 
three Chain in first row. This forms the centre of 
festoon; work the remainder to correspond. Fourth row 
— work 5 stitches Double Crochet into successive loops, 
beginning on the first Chain in last row, make 3 Chain, 
work 2 Double Crochet* beginning on the Single at the 
point of leaf, make 4 Chain, continue the row to corre- 
spond. Fifth row — work 1 Double Crochet over the first 
in the last row, make 1 Chain, miss 1 loop, work 10 of 
Double Crochet into the next, make 1 Chain, miss 1 loop, 
work 1 Double Crochet, make 3 Chain, miss 3 loops, work 
1 Double Crochet, make 3 Chain, miss 3 loops* work I 
Double Crochet* make 4 Chain, miss 4 loops, work 2 
stitches of Double Crochet, and continue the row to 
correspond. Sixth row — work 3 stitches of Double Crochet 
into successive loops* beginning on the first loop of the 
last row, make 13 Chain, work a leaf the same as in 
third row, work 2 stitches of Double Crochet* beginning 
on the second of 4 Chain* make 6 Chain, work a stitch 
of Single Crochet into the third from the hook, make 
3 Chain, work 1 stitch of Single Crochet into the first, 
make 12 Chain, work a stitch of Single Crochet into 
third from the hook, make 3 Chain, work a stitch of 
Single Crochet into first, make 1 Chain, work a stitch 
of Double Crochet into second loop of 6 Chain, make 
1 Chain, continue the row to correspond. Seventh row — 
work a stitch of Single Crochet over the Double in the 
last row* work 5 stitches of Single, beginning on the 
first of 13 Chain, 1 stitch of Single Crochet in the point 
of the leaf, make 12 Chain, work a Double Crochet into 

fifth loop of 9 left between the loops of 3 Chain in last 
row. Eighth row — work 3 stitches of Single Crochet, 
beginning on the first of last row, miss 3 loops, # , work 
1 Long stitch into the next loop, make 1 Chain, miss 
1 loop, repeat from # five times, * work 1 Long stitch 
into the next loop, make 1 Chain, repeat from * eight 
times* continue the row to correspond* Ninth row — * 
make 4 Chain, work an extra Long stitch single, miss 
1 loop, work 1 Long stitch, miss 3 loops, work 1 Long 
stitch, make 3 Chain, work 1 Long stitch into the same 
loop as last, # make 3 Chain, miss 3 loops, w r ork 1 
Long stiteli, make 1 Chain, miss 1 loop, work 1 Long 
stitch, repeat from ^ once* make 5 Chain, continue the 
row to correspond. Tenth row — work 4 extra Long 
stitches in the fourth Chain at the beginning of the 
last row, miss 4 loops, work 3 stitches of single Crochet, 
* make 4 Chain, work a stitch of Single Crochet into the 
third from the hook, repeat from * twice, make 1 Chain, 
miss 3 loops, work 3 stitches of Single Crochet, work 
another loop of 3 loops of Chain, join the crochet, miss 3 
loops, work 3 stitches of Single Crochet, work a loop of 
5 loops for the centre, each made of 3 loops as before. 

Chain Stitch . — All the stitches of Crochet are formed 
of varieties of Chain Stitch. It is a loop drawn through 
an already formed loop, a single loop counting as one 
Chain. To work : Hold the crochet hook in the light hand, 

Fig, 215. Crochet— Chain Stitch* 
the work in the left, with the cotton thrown over the 
forefinger of that hand. Hitch the cotton round the hook 
by a movement of the right hand and draw it through 
the loop already upon the hook (see Fig. 213). A given 

Fjq. 214. Crochet— Cross Stitch. 

number of these Chains form the foundation of Crochet 
patterns, and open spaces In the work are always passed 
over with a given number of these loops. The abbreviation 
is < f ckn” in Crochet Instruction, Sec Foundation Chain, 


12 1 

Cross Stitch. — Commence with a Double Founda- 
tion, and then work as in Slanting Stitch, except that 
the hook is put through both loops of the Foundation. 
To work : Put the hook through both the loops on the 
line beneath and round the cotton, as shown by the arrow 
in Fig. 214, draw the cotton through as a loop, put the 
cotton round the hook, and draw it through the two 

Cross Stitch , Open. — A useful stitch for light shawls 
or petticoats. Make a Foundation Ciiain of width 
required. Put the wool twice round at the back of the 
hook, exactly contrary to the usual manner of putting 
it round, and pass the hook downwards through the next 
stitch (as shown in Fig. 215 by the left-hand arrow) 

Fio. 215. Crochet— Oten Choss Stitch. 

at the back. Bring the wool in front, take it up with 
the hook, and draw it through the three loops that are 
already on the hook. This stitch is shown by the right- 
hand arrow. Continue to the end of the row, and in 
the return row work in the same way. 

Cross Stitch , Raised. — This stitch is used for couvre- 
pieds and other large pieces of Crochet. The wool used 
is four-thread fleecy or double Berlin, and the work is 
formed in stripes of various colours. The ground is 

Fio. 210. Crochet— Bused Cross Stitch. 

in Double Crochet, the crosses in Treble Crochet. 
To work : Make a Foundation Chain with any number 
of stitches that will divide into five, and work back to 
the right-hand corner of strip. Second row — 2 Double 

Crochet and 1 Treble put into the lowest part of the 
first stitch in first row, * 1 Treble into the fourth stitch 
in first row, put in as the first Treble, 3 Double Crochet, 
1 Treble worked into the stitch on the first row next 
to the last-made Treble, repeat from *. Third row — ■ 
all stitches in Double Crochet. Fourth row — commence 
with Treble, put one into the top part of the Trebles 
in second row, 3 Double Crochet, * a Treble taken back 
to the last one, and looped into the same stitch, then 
a Treble into the top part of the Treble in the second 
row (as shown in Fig. 21G), 3 Double Crochet, repeat 
from *. Fifth row — like the third. Sixth row — like 
the second row ; and so on to the end of the pattern. 
The Trebles should be worked loose. 

Cross Treble. — See Treble Crochet. 

Cross Tricot Stitch . — See Tricot Stitch , Cross. 

Doable Crochet. — To work: Twist the cotton round 
the hook and draw it through the Foundation, take 

Fig. 217. Crochet— Double Stitch. 

the cotton on the hook again, and draw it through 
these two loops, as shown in Fig. 217. Abbreviation in 
Crochet Instructions, " D. C.” 

Doable Crochet, Long. — A variety of Double Crochet 
Stitch. To work: Take the cotton round the hook, and 

Fio. 218. Crochet— Long Double Stitch. 

insert the hook into Foundation, draw the cotton 
through this as a loop, which will make three loops 
upon the hook (see Fig. 218); take the cotton round 
the hook again, and draw it through the three loops 
on the hook at once. 

Fig. 219. Crochet— Raised Double Stitch. 

Double Crochet , Raised. — A variety of Double Crochet. 



Work tlie first row with Double Crochet, and for the 
rest of the pattern work Double Crochet, but instead of 
putting the hook through the top part of the loop of the 
preceding row, as in ordinary Crochet, put it over the 
whole of the loop and into the middle part of the stitch 
under it in the preceding row, as shown in Fig. 219. 

Double Knot. — Used when imitating Tatting -with 
Crochet. Work 3 Chain, then make a loop of cotton 
round the left forefinger, insert the hook over the 
front thread and under the back, and draw up the thread 
on to the hook as a knot, change the arrangement of the 
loop with a twist of the left hand, insert the hook under 
the first thread of the loop and over the second, and 
draw up the loop on the hook as another knot. 

Edge Stitch. — The first stitch of a row. Work as the 
other stitches in the pattern, unless attention is especially 
drawn to the Edge Stitch by a direction to work it plain. 
To work plain : Retain the loop of the last stitch of the 
previous row on the hook ; do not work it, but count that 
loop as the first stitch on the new row. 

except the last one, which only requires 1 Double Crochet 
into it; work back as follows : Work the first stitch, 
shown in pattern as a and b , draw the wool through the 
three stitches on preceding row, and then through the 
loop that has run through them. This is illustrated 
in Fig. 220. Draw the stitch thus made through the 
next three loops on preceding row, make as before, and 
so on to end of row. Long loops will be formed with 
the wool, and these must be loosely worked and pushed to 
front of work. The next row consists in working 3 Double 
Crochet into the three stitches drawn through. Work 
these behind the loops that are shown by the figures 1, 2, 
3 in design. The made stitch in last row is not worked ; 
only the ones the work was drawn through. These last 
two rows form the pattern, and are worked alternately 
to end of strip. Be careful, in working this pattern, to 
count the stitches every second row, so that none are 
left unworked. 

(2). — A suitable stitch for couvrepieds when made 
in thick fleecy wool and with a large No. 8 bone hook, but 


Fancy Stitch (1). — A pretty stitch, used for making the 
strips of couvrepieds or antimacassars when worked with 
fine fleecy or single Berlin wool, and with a small bone 

Fia. 220. Crochet— Faxcy Stitch. 

hook. Make a Foundation Chain of an uneven number 
of stitches. Work 2 Double Crochet into second stitch 
of Chain, and continue working 2 Double into every Chain 

which does not look well worked with fine cotton. Make a 
Foundation Chain of an even number of stitches, work 
a row of Tricot, and work back. Second row — Work 
the first stitch plain, and then put wool round the hook, 
bring it out at front, push the hook through the next two 
long loops, still keeping the wool before the work, put 
wool round hook, as shown in Fig. 221, and draw it through 
the two loops. Put wool again round hook, thus making 
a stitch for the one lost in the work, and continue 
to end of row; work last stitch plain. Draw the wool 
back through the Edge Stitch, and then through two 
stitches, a3 in Tricot. The second row is repeated 

Fool's Crochet. — See Tricot Stitch. 

Foundation Chain. — There are three ways of making 
a Foundation to Crochet, all of which are varieties of 
Chain. The simplest and most used is the plain Chain 
Foundation illustrated in Chain Stitch ; the others 
are Double and Purl Foundations. The Double Founda- 
tion is made with two Chain stitches instead of one, and 


is illustrated in Fig. 222* It is "worked thus : Make 2 
Chain, put the hook into first Chain, draw the cotton 
through it, take up more cotton, and draw it through both 
loops on the hook, put the hook into left loop of the 
work, draw cotton through so as to have two stitches on 
the hook, then draw the cotton through both to have 
but one, put the hook through the left loop of the work, 

Fiej. 221 Crochet—! Double 


and continue until the length of Foundation is made* 
Purl Foundation (Fig. 223) : Commence with making a 4 
Chain, make a Treble into the first of the 4 Chain, 
make another 4 Chain, and another Treble into its first 
Chain, and repeat to end of length required. Tim line 
just worked in any part of Crochet is known as Founda- 
tion, and into it place the stitches of next row. 

Half Stitch. — When tw'o stitches are worked as one 
in contracting an edge they arc called Half Stitch* To 
work : Put the hook with cotton round through Foun da- 
tion and draw through as a loop, and then put the cotton 
round the hook again, insert into next stitch on Foundation 
row, and this time the stitch is completed by all the loops 
that are upon the hook being worked up. 

Hollow Spot StUch: — Sec Spot Stitch, Hollow. 

Idiot Stitch * — Sec Tricot Stitch. 

Josephine Tricot Stitch. — See Tricot Stitch , Josephine * 

long Double Stitch.— Double Crochet, Dong. 

Long Treble Stitch. • — Sec Treble Crochet , Long. 

Loops Stitch, Raised. — See Raised Loop Stitch. 

Open Crochet Stitch. — Tbc name given to either 
Double or Treble Crochet, or their varieties when 
worked in squares with spaces missed to correspond with 


the height and number of stitches worked* Thus, to form 
two Double Crochet stitches into a square of Open Crochet, 
follow them by 2 Chain, which pass over 2 stitches on 
Foundation Chain, or if three or four Treble Crochets 
are to be made as a square, work four or five Chain, and 
pass four or live Foundation stitches over. 

Op on Cross Stitch . — Bee Cross Slit eh, Open . 

Open Stitches Tricot. — -See. Trirol Stitches, Open. 

Picot. — This is a Crochet stitch skuilar in appearance 
to the Picot formed In needle-made .laces. In fine Crochet, 
such as Irish and Honiton, it Is used to finish the Bars 
that connect the detached sprigs together, as well as to 
ornament the edge of the sprigs and design. In coarse 
or ordinary Crochet it is used to give an appearance of 
a lace finish to the edge of the design. To make : Foiun a 
Chain of fi or 4 stitches according to the thickness of the 
cotton, and put tlic hook back and through the first Chain, 
and draw the cotton through that and through the loop 
upon the hook at once, so that the stitches between them are 
formed into a round or knob. It is sometimes called Purl. 

Point de Tricot Stitch.-r&m Tricot Stitch, Pond de. 

Point Heige Stitch , — An extremely effective stitch, 
suitable for children’s jackets or petticoats, also for 
couvrepieds and quilts. When worked in a round the 
thread can remain unbroken, but for straight w r ork it must 
be fastened off at the end of each row and commenced 
from the starting point* To start with : Calculate that the 
first stitch will take five of the Foundation Chain 
to make, and the rest only two, so make Foundation Chain 
accordingly. First row — Make a Foundation Chain the 
length required, put the hook into the Chain next the last 
one, and draw the weed through, then into the next three 
Foundation Chain in succession, draw the wool through 
each and leave all on the hook ; five loops will bo now 
on the hook ; draw the wool through them all at once and 
make 2 Chain; this completes the first stitch. Second 
stitch — * put the hook through the first of the last two 
Chains just made, and draw the wool through, then push 
the hook through the loop on the last stitch on to which 
the five loops were cast off, and draw the wool through it, 
and then return to Foundation, and draw the wool 
successively through the two next Chain on it, to again 
have five loops on the hook, make 2 Chain, and repeat 
from # to the end of the row, work the last stitch plain, 
fasten off, and return to the other end* When the last 
mentioned row is finished, each stitch will have a point 
rising up above the line of work* Second row — Fasten the 
wool into the side of the w'ork, make 3 Chain, draw the 
loops through the second and first of these singly, then 
through the stitch that makes the point mentioned above, 
and lastly through the first or farthest away loop of the 
five cast off together in the last row. The five necessary 
loops being now on the hook, cast them off together by 
drawing the wool through them, and then make 2 Chain. 
Second stitch— put the hook through the 1 Chain, take up 
the loop at the back upon which the five last loops have 
been cast off, then the loop that forms the point in the 
previous row, and the stitch farthest away of the five 
loops in the last row, and draw these five loops through as 
one ; continue this last stitch to the end of the row, and 



make all the previous lines as tlie second. (See Fig. 224.) 
“When using Point Ncige as au edgings make a border of 

Fig. 22 A. CnOCHEr—PojNT Neige Stitch. 

a Single Crochet on each side before comm cueing the 
regular stitch. 

Purl Stitch . — A useful stitch for edgings to Crochet, 
and worked in three ways. The first, and the one that 
most imitates Tatting or lace edgings, is shown in Fig. 225, 
and is formed thus : # Work a Double Crochet, and 
pull up the loop, as shown, take out the hook, and put it 

Fig, £3j. Crocket— Purl Stitch* 

through that part of the Double Crochet through which 
the loop comes out, take the cotton round the hook and 
make a loop, work one Double, and repeat from # * The 
second Purl edging, which is shown in Fig. 226, work 
as follows; One Treble, * 7 Chain, pass the hook 
downwards into the second stitch of 7 Chain, put the 
cotton put round it in that position and draw it through, 

Fig. 226, Crochet— Purl Stitch, 

so that the Furl thus formed with the 5 Chain is 
turned upwards and forms an edging; work 1 Chain, and 
make a Treble into the fourth stitch on the Foundation 
from the last stitch, and continue from The other 
variety of Purl is to turn this loop downwards, so 
that a straight, an 4 uot a Purled, edge is formed. It is 

worked like Fig* 226; but when the 7 Chain is made, 
take the hook out and put it into the top part of the 
second Chain, and the loop of the seventh Chain and 
the fresh cotton draw through upwards* This brings 
the purl below, and not above the row that is being 
made* Also see PlCGT* 

Railway Stitch. — Another name for Tricot Stitch 
(which see), 

liaised Cross Stitch .— See Cross Stitch, 

Raised Double Stitch * — See Double Crochet . 

Raised Loop Stitch, — A pretty stitch for making 
Crochet borders and edgings that are executed with 
wool. It should be done separately from the main work, 
and sewn to it when finished. To form the design shown 
in Fig, 227, malm a Foundation Chain of eight, and 
work two Tricot rows ; the third row will be a return 
row, and upon this the loops are formed* Make a five 
Chain at every alternate stitch, and loop it in to the next 
plain stitch* Leave the Edge Stitch plain. The next 
row is Tricot; pick up the loops as usual, taking care to 
take up those close behind the loops, keep the latter to 
the front, and count the stitches before working back ; in 
this return row T the loops will be taken alternately to those 
of the third row* In the design shown in Fig. 227 two 

Fig. 227, Crochet— Raised Loop Stitch. 

colours are used in the border, and the loops are arranged 
to form a diamond shape pattern. The colours are 
red and white* The Foundation is all in red, and when 
any white loops arc made, bring the white wool from 
the back of the work, instead of the red through the 
stitch preceding it* Make the 5 Chain with it, aud draw 
it through the next loop, but draw the red through with 
it; then drop tbe white wool until again required. A 
reference to the pattern will show where it is inserted. 
The scalloped edging is added when the border is finished. 
First row— Double Crochet with red wool. Second 
row — a white and red Double Crochet alternately, finish 
each stitch with the colour to he used in the next one* 
Third row — like first. Fourth row — with rod wool, I 
Double Crochet # o Chain, 1 Long Treble in the first of 
5 Chain, and fasten with 1 Double Crochet, put into the 
fourth stitch of Foundation row; repeat from # * 

Raided Open Tricot Stitch*— -See Tricot i Stitch, Open 
Raised * 





Raised Spot Stitch. — See Spot Stitch , Raised. 

Ribbed Stitch. — This stitch is also called Russian 
stitch. It is much used for babies’ socks and muffatces, 
and is also a good stitch for crochet counterpanes when 
worked in various coloured wools. It is ordinary Double 
Crochet, to which the appearance of ribbing is given by 
the hook being put into the back part of the Foundation 
every time a stitch is worked instead of into the front pari. 
Provided the rows are worked backwards and forwards, 

Fig. 22S. Crochet— Fibbed Stitch. 

by always leaving the front loop and taking up the back 
one, a rib is formed ; but if they are worked as a con- 
tinuous round, a loop line only is the result. To work : 
Put the cotton round the hook, put the hook through the 
back loop of the Foundation Chain as shown in Fig. 228, 
put the cotton round the hook and draw it through the 
two loops, continue to the end of the row, turn the work, 
and repeat. 

Russian Stitch. — Another name for Ribbed Stitch 
(which see). 

Single Crochet. — A stitch used in close Crochet. To 
work: Push the hook through the Foundation Chain, 
draw the cotton through as a loop, place cotton round hook 
and through both loops upon the hook. Abbreviation in 
crochet instructions “ S. C.” 

Slanting Stitch. — A variety of Double Crochet. Com- 
mence by putting the hook into the Foundation as 
shown by the arrow in Fig. 229 ; do not take any cotton 
upon it, but pass it over the cotton after it is through the 

Fig. 220. Crochet— Slanting Stitch. 

Foundation, and then draw the cotton through the Founda- 
tion as a loop ; then put the cotton roimd and draw the 
two Foundation loops through into one. By this arrange- 
ment a slanting appearance is given to the stitch. 

Slip Stitch. — A stitch much used in Raised Crochet, 
both in joining together detached sprays, and in passing 
from one part of a pattern to another at the back of the 
work. Put the hook through the Foundation at the back 
part, and draw the cotton back with it through the loop 

already on the hook, as shown on Fig. 230, where the 
Foundation is slightly turned up to show where the hook 

Fig. 230. Crochet- Slip Stitch. 

should go through, the arrow marking the direction. 
Abbreviation in crochet instructions " S.” 

Spot Stitch , Hollow. — A stitch made with a Founda- 
tion of Double Ccrohet wutli spots upon it in Treble 
Crochet. A useful stitch for counterpanes, couvrepieds, 
and antimacassars, and worked with fleecy or double Berlin 
wool. Commence with a Foundation Chain of length 
required, upon which work a straight row of Double 
Crochet. First row — work five Double Crochet stitches, 
insert the hook into the bottom front part of the stitch 
of the preceding row, and work four Trebles without 
touching the loop on the hook left from the Double Crochet, 

Fig. 231. Crochet— Hollow Spot Stitch. 

always putting the hook into the same stitch in preceding 
row. For the fifth Treble put it into the same stitch as 
preceding four, then take up the cotton and w T ork off the 
three loops on hook, as in Treble Crochet. ( See Fig. 231, 
which illustrates this last stage of the Hollow Spot.) Work 
five Doubles, missing the stitch of preceding row under 
the spot. The second row will have the spots worked as 
above in it, but they w r ill be placed so as to come alter- 
nately with the ones first w r orked. Must be w r orked all on 
right side, each row being fastened off, the next com- 
menced at the opposite end. 

Spot Stitch , Raised. — This stitch is useful for large 
pieces of w r ork, such as counterpanes, couvrepieds, &c., and 
is generally worked in strips of various colours, and sew n 
together w f hen finished, as the return Double Crochet row 
allows of this. Berlin or fleecy wool required. It is formed 
with a Foundation of Double Crochet, upon which 
dots made wdth Treble Crochet are worked, and so 
raised. Work tw*o rows of Double Crochet, and for third 
row commence with 2 Double Crochet, * put the cotton 
round the hook and jnsert into the third stitch of the first 
row, passing over the second row ; take up the cotton and 



work a Treble up to where two loops are left on the hook, 
work 2 more Treble into the same stitch up to the same 
length ( see Fig. 232, which shows the stitch at this stage); 
take the cotton on to the hook, and draw it through the 
four loops, leave the stitch of the preceding row under 

Fig. 232. Crochet— Raised SrOT Stitch. 

first part made is the uppermost; put the hook into the 
first hole formed with the Chain stitches, draw the wool 
through and make a Chain stitch as an outer rib, continue 
up the line of holes left with the Chain stitches, draw the 
wool through every hole, and make the Chain or Tambour 

Fig. 233. Crochet— Tambour Stitch. 

the spot unworked, work five Double Crochet ; and repeat 
from # . Fourth row — a row of Double Crochet. Fifth 
row — work seven Double Crochet, and then commence the 
Raised Spot so that it may not come under that last 

Square Stitch . — This is made either Close or Open. 
A Close Square contains 2 Double Crochet and 2 Chain, 
or 3 Double Crochet and 3 Chain; an Open Square requires 
2 Chain and 1 Double Crochet, or 3 Chain and 1 Treble, 
missing the same number of stitches on the Foundation 
Chain as the Chains worked. Example : To form a Close 
Square in Double Crochet, * work 2 Double Crochet 
into the 2 following Chains on Foundation, 2 Chain, 
miss 2 stitches on Foundation, and repeat from *. To form 
a Close Square with Treble Crochet, work as in Double 
Crochet, but work three Trebles into the three following 
stitches on Foundation, 3 Chain, and miss 3 Foundation 
stitches. To form an Open Square in Double Crochet, * 
work 1 Double Crochet, 2 Chain, and miss 2 stitches on 
Foundation ; repeat from *. To form an Open Square in 
Treble Crochet, * work 1 Treble, 3 Chain, and miss 3 
Foundation stitches ; repeat from *. In Close Squares the 
Doubles or Trebles forming them arc worked in the second 
row, upon the Chain stitches, and not above the Doubles or 
Trebles of first row; in Open Squares they are worked 
above those made in preceding row. 

Tambour Stitch . — For straight Crochet this stitch 
requires the wool to be fastened off at the end of each 
row, but for round articles it will work correctly without 
the wool being fastened off. In Fig. 233 two shades of 
fleecy wool, one for Foundation and one for Tambour, are 
used. To work : * Make 1 Double Crochet, 1 Chain, 
miss one stitch on Foundation row, and repeat from * 
to end of row. In the return row work Double Crochet 
put into each Double Crochet of the preceding row, shown 
by arrow in Fig. 233. When a sufficient length of Founda- 
tion has been worked, fasten off and commence the Tambour 
with another coloured wool. To make the Tambour stitch 
over the Foimdation, join the new wool with 1 Chain on to 
the first Chain in the last row of Foundation, keep the wool 
at the back of the work, and turn the work so that the 

above each one at the end of the line, and work Slip stitch 
to the next hole; turn, and work up, and continue these 
lines of Tambour (three of which are shown in Fig. 233), 
until the entire set of holes are ornamented with the raised 
Chain. The work can be diversified by using several colours 
instead of one in the Tambour lines, but the Foundation 
should be all of one shade of wool. 

Fig. 231 is a variety of the same stitch. In this the 
Foundation is all worked in Double Crochet, and the raised 
lines worked at the same time as the Foundation. The 
design of this pattern is to imitate square tiles. To work: 
Commence with a row of Double Crochet in dark wool, 

Fio. 234. Crochet— Tambour Stitch. 

then work 7 rows of light wool and commence the eighth 
with the dark, work 5 Double Crochet and then # , run the 
hook downwards through the loops on the sixth stitch of 
the seven preceding rows (see Fig. 231); put the w r ool round 
the hook, draw it through the last loop on the hook and 
make a Chain, put the wool round the hook and draw 


1 27 

through the next loop and make a Chain, and continue 
until all the loops are worked off and a raised Chain is 
made, then continue the row of Double Crochet with the 
dark wool, work 7 Double Crochet, and repeat from *, 
work 7 plain light rows of Double Crochet and repeat 
the eighth row, but in this make the lines of Chain Stitch 
not above the previous ones, but in the centre stitch of 
the 7 of last line. 

Treble Crochet.— Put the cotton once round the hook, 
which insert into Foundation, put cotton again round, 
and draw it through, having now three loops on the hook 

Fig. 235 . Crochet— Treble Stitch. 

(see Fig. 235), place cotton again round hook and pull it 
through two of the loops, leaving two on the hook, place 
cotton again round and pass it through the two left on 
the hook. Abbreviation in Crochet Instructions , " T. C.” 
Treble Stitch, Cross. — Take the cotton twice round 
hook, and put it into the Foundation next to stitch 
last worked, take cotton once round hook and draw it 
through as a loop, take on more cotton and draw it through 
two loops on the hook, which will leave three still there, 
wind cotton once round the hook and put the hook into 

Foundation, 2 stitches from last insertion (see Fig. 236) 
and draw it through, forming a loop, thus having five 
loops on hook ; take up cotton and work off two loops at a 
time until only one remains, make 2 Ciiain and make 
1 Treble into the upper cross part of stitch, and 
repeat for the next Cross Treble. 

Treble Stitch, Double Long. — A variety of Treble 
Crochet, but where the cotton in Treble the first time 
is wound once round the hook, in Double Long Treble 
it is wound three times, and cast off with the worked 
stitches one by one. It is but little used in Crochet, 
as the stitch formed by so many castings off is too long 
for anything but coarse work. Abbreviation in Crochet 
Instructions, “ d. 1. t.” 

Treble Stitch , Long. — A variety of Treble, in which the 
cotton is wound twice round the hook, and cast off with the 
worked stitches one by one, thus making a longer stitch 
than ordinary Treble. To work : Wind cotton twice round 
hook and insert into Foundation Crochet, draw 
through, wind cotton once round and draw through 
two loops, wind cotton once round and draw through 

two loops, wind cotton once round and draw through 

two loops, wind cotton once round and draw through 

last two loops. Abbreviation in Crochet Instructions, 

“L. T.” See Treble. 

Treble Stitch, Raised. — Work three rows of Ribbed 
Stitch. Fourth row — work 2 Ribbed Stitches, and make 
a Treble for next, putting the hook into the stitch under- 
neath it of the first row, work 2 Trebles in this way, then 2 

Fig. 237 . Crochet— Raised Treble Stitch. 

Ribbed Stitches, then 2 Trebles, and continue to the end 
of the row. Fifth row — turn the work and work a row of 
Ribbed Stitch. Sixth row — commence with the 2 Trebles, 

Fig. 233 . Crochet— Raised Treble Stitch. 

putting them into the third row beneath the stitch, and 
continue to work 2 Ribbed and 2 Trebles to end of row, as 
shown in Fig. 237. Seventh row — like fifth. Eighth — like 
sixth ; and go on to end of the pattern. By working the 



Ribbed between the Treble row tlie raised part of the 
work is always kept on the right side. 

A variation of this stitch is shown in Fig. 238, in 
which one Raised Treble is taken up the work in diagonal 
lines. As this arrangement does not allow of the work 
being turned, commence each row on the right-hand side, 
or work the whole round. Commence with Foundation 
Chain and two rows of Double Crochet. Third row- 
work Treble Crochet between every third Double 
Crochet ; take it over the lines already made, as described 
in the first pattern, and put it in, as shown in Fig. 238, 
by the arrow ; in the next row work as before, only putting 
the first Treble in the stitch beyond the one worked in the 
previous row. Always work 3 Double Crochet between 
each Raised Treble. 

Tricot Stitch. — Also known as Tunisian Crochet , 
Railway , FooVs, and Idiot Stitch . The easiest of Crochet 
stitches, but only suitable for straight work ; it is usually 
worked with Berlin or fleecy wool, and a wooden hook, 
No. 4, and is suitable for couvrepieds, counterpanes, muffa- 
tees, mufflers, and other warm articles. The hook must be 
sufficiently long to take the length of the work upon it 
at one time, and when large pieces are required work them 
in strips and sew together, to render them less cumber- 
some while in progress. To work: Make a Foundation 
Chain of the required length, with 1 Chain over for second 
row, put the hook through the second Foundation Chain, 
and make a stitch, leave it on the hook, pick up the third 
Foundation Chain, make a stitch, and leave on the hook ; 
continue until all the Foundation stitches are picked up, 

Fig. 239 . Crochet— Tricot Stitch. 

made, and on the hook. Third row — wool over the hook, 
which draw 7 through 2 loops, wool over and draw through 
the next 2, and so on to the end of the row. Fourth row — 
upon the work will now be visible a number of long upright 
loops, put the hook through the first of these and make a 
stitch, leave it on the hook, and continue to pick up loops, 
make them and keep them on the hook to the end of the 
row. The rest of the work is third and fourth row alter- 
nately. Be careful to count the number of stitches on 
the hook from time to time, as the end loops are frequently 
overlooked. The work is increased in any place by a 
stitch made at the end, and narrowed by tw r o stitches being 
looped together. The stitch is shown in Fig. 239, which 

is a Tricot of 14 Chain as Foundation, and worked with 
shaded wools. 

Tricot Stitch, Cross. — This stitch, worked with a fine 
bone hook and in single wool, is a close, useful one for 
comforters and muffatees, and with a large hook and fleecy 
wool makes good couvrepieds or crossover shawls. It is a 
variation of ordinary Tricot, in which the second stitch 
is crossed under the first and worked before it. To w r ork : 
Make a Foundation Chain of width required, and work a 
row of Tricot, which take back in the usual manner. 
Second row — work the Edge Stitch plain, then take 
out hook and draw the second loop through the first, 
as shown in Fig. 240, by the direction of the arrow and 

Fig. 210. Crochet— Cross Tricot Stitch. 

the figures 2 and 1, work the loop number 2, and retain 
it on hook and then the loop number 1, which also retain 
(see illustration) ; continue to the end of the row, 
working the last stitch like the Edge stitch plain, return 
back as in Tricot. In the next row the Cross stitches 
will not come under the ones below them, but will be 
altered in position. Work the first loop on the row 
without crossing it, and turn the loop next to it over 
the first loop of the second cross, thus working together 
the two stitches away from each other instead of the two 
close together; these two lines constitute the whole of 
the work. 

Tricot Stitch , Ecossais . — Commence by making a 
Foundation Chain of eleven stitches, keep the loop on the 
hook, the wool being at the back of it, bring the wool over 
the hook to the front and leave it at the back, put the hook 
into the last Chain stitch but one, and bring the wool 
through in a loop. There will now be three loops on the 
hook, put the hook into the next Chain stitch, bring the 
wool through in a loop, put the hook into the next Chain, 
and bring the wool through. There will now be five loops 
on the hook. Hold the second of these five loops with 
the finger and thumb of the left hand, turn it over 
the other three loops at the back, and raise three loops 
from the three upright stitches of those which appear 
tied together. These three stitches are marked in Fig. 241 
by an arrow and the figures 1 and 2. Then turn the 
loop made on the hook over these three loops, repeat 
from the commencement of the row twice more, and at 



the end put the hook into the last stitch and raise one 
loop ; work back as in the first row. Repeat the second 
row until the length is made. 

Fio. 241. Crochet—Ecossais Stitch. 

Tricot Stitch , Fancy (1). — An arrangement of Tricot 
by which perpendicular loops are formed. It is worked 
with the usual Tricot wooden hook and with fleecy or 
Berlin wool, and is useful for comforters and petticoats, 
as it makes a warm, close stitch. Make a Foundation 
Chain of the width required, and work a line of Tricot, 
which take back, first stitch through one loop and the 

Fio. 242. Crochet— Fancy Tricot Stitch (No. 1). 

without taking the wool on the hook again, take up the 
next small stitch above a long loop (the wool should be 
still in front), insert the hook from the back between the 
next two long loops, draw the wool to the back, and pass 

Fid. 213. Crochet— Fancy Tricot Stitch (No. 2). 

this stitch into the last raised, continue to the end, 
work back in the usual way very loosely, and repeat 
the second row. The arrow in Fig. 213 shows how the 
wool should cross the loop, not where the hook is to be 

(3). — This stitch is useful for petticoats and muffa- 
tees, as it is thick and close It requires a bone hook 
and single Berlin or fleecy wool. ( See Fig. 241.) To work : 
Make a Foundation Chain 8 inches long, take up all 
the loops as in Tricot, and work back. Second row — take 
up the Chain between the first and second perpendicular 
loops, draw the wool through, put the hook through the 
second long loop (see the arrow in Fig. 244) into the 

rest through two. Second row — instead of picking up the 
loops, as in Tricot, push the hook through the stitch below 
the horizontal line and out at the back, as shown by the 
arrow in Fig. 242; take up the wool, draw it through 
to the front, and leave it on the hook. Repeat to the end 
of the row, and work back as described before. 

(2). — This is a pretty stitch for handkerchiefs, 
shawls, &c., or as a stripe for a blanket. Cast on a 
Foundation Chain the length required. First row — raise 
all the loops as in Tricot, and work back very loosely. 
Second, or pattern row — keep the wool to the front of 
the work, take up the little stitch at the top of the long 
loop without drawing the wool through, put the hook from 
the back of the work between the next two !oops, draw 
the wool through to the back across the long loop, pass 
the stitch thus formed into the one above the long loop 

Fia. 244. Crochet— Fancy Tricot Stitch (No. 3). 

third loop (see dot), and draw the third loop through the 
second which crosses them; then draw the wool through 
the third loop, which is now on the hook, * take up the 
next Chain after the third loop ; then cross the two next 
long loops, and draw the wool through the last ; repeat to 
the end of the row; work back in Tricot. Third row — 
Tricot. Fourth — like the second. Continue these two 
rows to the end of the work. 

(4). — A variety of Tricot, and worked thus : Make a 
Foundation Chain the width required, and take up all 
the stitches, and work them off one by one for first row, as 
in Tricot. Second row — * thread round hook, pick up two 
stitches together, repeat to end of row from * until the last 
stitch, which pick up singly; this is the row shown in 


I 3° 


Fig. 245 ; work back, making a separate stitch of each one 
in last row. Third row— thread round hook, do not work 
the first loop of last row, so as to keep the edge of the 
work smooth, * pick up nest two long loops, thread round 

Tricot Stitch, Open . — A fancy arrangement of Tricot 
so that an open stitch is formed. Work with fine Shetland 
wool and with a wooden Tricot hook as large as can he 
used with the wool First row — make a Foundation 
Chain, and work the second and third rows as in Tricot. 
Fourth row — put the hook in between the two perpendi- 
cular threads that look like a plain knitting stitch, and 
push it through to the back of the work under the 
straight Chain [see Fig. 247 and arrow), draw the wool 

Fra. 245. Crochet— Faxcy Stitch, 

hook, and repeat from *, work the last loop by itself, and 
making a loop before it, return back as before. The work 
when seen on the wrong side looks like Treble Crochet. 

Tricot Stitch, Josephine *' — This stitch, which is shown 
in Fig. 246,13 used for shawls or antimacassars. Commence 
by making a Chain of the full length as a foundation. 
First row — insert the hook in the fourth Chain stitch, draw 
a loop through it, draw another loop through the newly 
formed stitch, which loop must be retained on the hook, 
repeat this once more in the same stitch, insert the hook 
again in the same stitch, and draw a loop through. There 
will now be three loops on the liook as well as the loop, 

Fig. Crochet— Josephixe Tricot Stitch. 

which was there at the beginning. Draw a loop through 
the three loops, and let that loop remain on the hook ; repeat 
in every stitch of the row. Second row — work off as in 
ordinary Tricot. , Third row — make 2 Chain stitches, work 
in the same way as for the first row, with the exception of 
working under instead of into the stitches. Work off as 
the second row, continue to repeat the third row and 
second row until the work is the length required. Only 
work the two Chain stitches at the commencement of the 
rows to make them even. 

Fro, 247. Chochet -Tricot Open Stitch. 

through and make a loop, which keep on the hook, and 
repeat to the end of the row. Fifth row — like the return 
row of Tricot, Sixth row — as the fourth. The work should 
look, as shown in the illustration, like a number of open 
loops with a horizontal chain as a Foundation. If the wool 
used is very fine, stretch the work out when finished on a 
board, wet it, and press it with a warm iron, protecting it 
from the iron with a handkerchief. This will draw the 
work into its right position. 

Tricot Stitch, Open Raised, — A handsome raised 
stitch used for crossovers, petticoats, and comforters. It 
should be worked in double Berlin or four thread fleecy 
wool. Make a Foundation Chain of the width required, 
and work a row of Tricot, and then back. Second row- 
work the first stitch plain, then bring the wool in front of 
the work and put the hook into the hollow between the first 

Fig. 2 IS. Crochet— Opes Raised Tricot Stitch. 

and second loop, allow this to catch hold of the wool at 
the back, the wool passing from the front to the back 
over the work, bring the hook back again to the front with 
the wool on it, put it into the hole between the second and 
third loops, and let it catch the wool, returning with it on 
the hook, where there will now be three loops for the one 
stitch, draw the last made loop through the other two ( see 
Fig. 248), and retain it on the hook. For the next stitch 


put the wool forward, and the hook into the same space 
as before, between, the second and third loops, and repeat 
from Work the last stitch as the first stitch, and work 
back in Tricot* 

Tricot Stitch, Point de — A pretty stitcli, suitable for 
children's quilts and couvrepieds, worked with double or 
single Berlin wool, according to taste and the size of the 
article to be made* It should he worked in strips for large 
couvrepieds of various colours, or in shaded wools in one 
piece for children's quilts. Make a Foundation Chain 
of the width required* First row— wool round the hook, 
pass the hook through the third Chain and draw the wool 
through, leave it on the hook, wool round the hook and 
again into the same third Chain, draw the wool through, 
wool round the hook and pass through the first two loops on 
the hook, then round and through three loops on the hook ; 
(there will now be two loops left on the hook) ; # wool 
round the hook and pass it through the second Chain from 
last on the Foundation, draw the wool through, and leave it 
on the hook, wool round, and again pass the hook through 
the second Chain and draw the wool through, wool round 
and through the first two loops on the hook, wool round 

Fid. 2 Crochet— P orsT be Tricot Stitch* 

and through the next three, leave three loops on the hook ; 
repeat from * to the end of the row, always increasing the 
stitches left on the hook ; work the last stitch by putting 
the wool through and drawing it up to the length of the 
rest. Second row — work back, wool tb rough the first 
loop, * 1 Chain, wool round and through the loop of Chain 
and one on the hook ; repeat from # to end of the row. 
Third row— 1 Chain, # wool round the hook, put the hook 
through the long loop and through a horizontal thread 
that will be seen between the stitches of the last row 
beneath the line made in working back, draw the wool at 
once through these two loops, wool round the hook, and 
this time put into the horizontal thread, only putting the 
hook under and through it, not over it; draw the wool 
through, then wool round the hook and through the two 
first loops on the hook, tvooI round tbe hook and through the 
nest three loops, and leave two on the hook ; repeat from 
# to the end of the row, always leaving after each stitch a 
fresh loop on the hook. Repeat second and third rows 


throughout the work. Fig. 249 shows the stitch fully- 

Tunisian Crochet . — See Tricot Stitch. 

Crochet Braid, or Cordon Braid.— A description of 
cotton braid, very fully waved. It is heavy -made, and 
is employed both for braiding and as a foundation for 
crochet work; hence its name. 

Crochet Cottons. — So called because manufactured 
expressly for crochet work* They can be had on reels, 
in balls, or in skeins* The numbers run from 8 to 50* 

Crochet Heedle, or Hook. — A name derived from the 
French Crochet f a small hook* It consists of a long 
round bone or gutta percha needle, having a hook at 
one end, or a steel one fixed into a handle. 

Crochet Silk.— {Sole Mi-serrc). This silk is so called 
by the French because only half tightened in the twisting. 
It is a coarse description of Cordonnet, varying only from 
that material in the mode of twisting, hut more brilliant 
and flexible than tbe usual purse and netting silks, and 
thus distinguished from them by the name of the work 
for which it is intended* A finer twist in black for 
Russian stitch is to be had. There is also the ombre 
crochet or purse silk. 

Crochet Twist.— Otherwise called Getting Silk and 
Purse Twist* A more tightly twisted cord than that 
called Soic Mi-serrc. It is sold in large skeins of eight to 
the ounce, by the single skein, or by the dozen. 

Cross Bar, Open.— A stitch nsed in pillow laces for 
Braids, or to form an open side to a leaf where the thick 
side has been made in Cloth Stitch. Tlie manner of work- 
ing is described in Braid Work* (See Open Cross Braid,) 

Cross-Barred, or Cheeked Muslin.— Also called 
Scotch Checks* These muslins are all white and semi- 
clcar, having stripes of thicker texture and cords to form 
the pattern, either in checks or stripes* The widths run 
from 32 inches to a yard, and the prices vary much. They 
are employed for curtains and covers of furniture, as well 
as for dresses, aprons, and pinafores. There are also 
Hair Cord and Fancy Muslins of the same description of 

Crossing.— See Knitting* 

Cross Stitch* — The manner of making CROSS STITCH 
in Berlin Work and Crochet is described under those head- 
ings, but the stitch is also largely used in various fancy 

Fig* 250 . Cross Stitch* 

embroideries upon silk, cloth, and linen materials, and is 
formed with all kinds of purse and other embroidery 
silks, and coloured linen threads. The stitch is made as 
shown in Fig* 259. Its beauty consists of its points being 
enclosed in a perfect square. To work ; Take the first 
part of the stitch from the left-hand bottom side of tb© 
square across to the right-hand top side, and the second 

B 2 



from the right-hand bottom side to the left-hand top side, 
crossing over the first stitch. 

Cross Tracing. — Cross Tracing is used in Honiton 
Pillow Lace as a variation to Vandyke tracery and Cloth 
and Shadow Stitches for leaves. It requires to be exe- 
cuted with extreme attention and care, as it is not marked 
out with pins, and, as two arms of the cross are in pro- 
gress together, two twists have to be attended to. The 
two arms arc commenced at different sides, brought down 
to meet in the middle, and carried again to the sides. In 
making a Cross Tracing it is advisable to put a pin into 
the middle hole, to mark it. The directions given arc 
for working a Cross Tracing over ten pairs of Bobbins, 
and in a small space; in a large space the twist can be 
thrice instead of twice, and the work taken over a greater 
number of Bobbins. The workers are twisted twice as 
they pass to and fro, and the passive Bobbins on each of 
the strands thus formed only once ; the pattern is made by 
varying the place of the twist. First row — work 1, twist, 
work 8, twist, work 1. Second row — work 2, twist, work 
6, twist, work 2. Third row — work 3, twist, work 4, twist, 
work 3. Fourth row — work 4, twist, work 2, twist, work 4. 
Fifth row — work 5, twist, stick a pin, work 5. Sixth row 
— work 4, tw T ist, work 2, twist, work 4. Seventh row — 
work 3, twist, work 4, twist, work 3. Eighth row — work 
2, twist, work 6, twist, work 2. Ninth row — work 1, twist, 
work 8, twist, work 1. 

Crowns. — These are used in needle-point laces to 
ornament the Brides and Cordonnet, and are identical 
with Couronnes. 

Croydons. — A description of cotton sheeting, from two 
to three yards wide; also a make of calico varying from 
27 to 36 inches in width. They are stout, and have a 
slightly glazed finish. 

Crumb Cloths. — A heavy Damask, made in grey and 
slate colour, of all sizes, in squares and widths, the latter 
varying from 14 to 36 inches. The designs on these 
Cloths are adopted for the purposes of embroidery, being 
worked over in outline with coloured wools, silks, and 
crewels. For stair coverings they can be had in grey and 
slate colour, and also with borders, varying from 18 
inches to two yards in width. 

Crystal Silk Wool. — A knitting yam, composed of a 
mixture of wool and silk, of fine texture, and very durable. 
When knitted it shows more silk than wool, and has a 
brilliant lustre. It may be had in twenty distinct varieties 
of colour, as well as in plain black, in 8oz. packets. 

Cubica. — A very fine kind of Shalloon, used for lining 
coats and dresses. It is made of worsted, and varies in 
width from 32 to 36 inches. See Shalloon. 

Cucumber Braid. — See Braids. 

Cucumber Flaitings.— See Plaitings. 

Cuir. — The French word to signify Leather (which 

Curragh Point.— See Irish Lace. 

Curtain Serge. — This is a new material, produced in 
several “ art colours.” It is a stout all-wool stuff, employed 
for portieres and other hangings. It is 54 inches in width, 
and is a handsomc-looking fabric. 

Curves. — These are made in pillow laces, with the false 
pinhole3, in the same manner as Circles (which sec). 

Cushion. — A term sometimes given to the pillow upon 
which pillow laces are made. See Pillow. 

Cushion Stitch.— Cross Stitch has become confounded 
with Cushion Stitch, in consequence of its having been 
so called when used in ancient Church embroidery to 
ornament kneeling mats and cushions; but the real Cushion 
Stitch is of almost as ancient an origin, and is a flat 
Embroidery stitch largely employed to fill in backgrounds 
in old needlework. It was sometimes worked very minutely, 
to fill in the faces and hands of figures, before the intro- 
duction of the peculiar Chain Stitch in Opus Anglicanum 
work. As a background stitch it is well known, and 
is to be found in many pieces of needlework executed in 
the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. After Church em- 
broidery fell into disuse, Cushion Stitch was formed with 
worsteds upon canvas that was slightly open, but woven 
with the same distance between each thread; it then 
formed both pattern and background. It is now worked in 
a frame upon an evenly woven, close, coarse canvas, the 
threads of which serve as guiding lines. It is a variety 
of Satin Stitch; its peculiarities are its forming regular 
Vandykes, curves, and half-circles, one above the other, on 
the background, instead of being taken from end to end of 
the space without variation. To work : Keep the em- 
broidery silk entirely on the surface of material, bring the 
needle up from the back at one end of Vandyke or curve, 
and put it down at the other in a straight line from where 
it came out. Bring it up close to where it went down, a 
thread of the material being sufficient to hold it, pass it 
back across the space to the side it first came from, and 
put it through the material, to form another straight line. 
Continue until the space is covered, and lay the lines of 
stitches with the evenness and precision of weaving. 

Cut Canvas Work. — This is similar to British 
Raised Work. 

Cut Cloth Flower Embroidery. — A fancy Embroidery 
that is now out of date. It consists of producing upon 
a flat surface garlands and groups of raised flowers 
in their natural colours. Cut out of fine cloth that 
matches them in tint, the petals of the flowers and the 
various leaves. To work : Lay these upon the foundation, 
and either fasten them to it with Buttonhole Stitch 
in filoselles, as in Broderic Perse, or with long Satin 
stitches. Fill in the centres of the flowers with French 
Knots and various fancy Embroidery stitches, and or- 
nament the leaves and form tendrils and sprays that 
are too fine to be cut from the coloured cloth with Coral 
and Feather Stitch worked upon the background. 

Cutting off Bobbins. — Lift the pair to be tied and cut 
in the left hand, and place the scissors, closed, under the 
threads, which bring round over them ; then turn the scis- 
sors, the points facing the pillow, open the blades wide, and 
draw the upper threads in between them as high as the 
hinge; close the scissors gently, and the threads will not 
be cut. Now draw the scissors down out of the encircling 
threads, and a loop will come through on one point of the 


13 3 

scissors ; snip this, and the bobbins will be cut off and yet 
tied together for future use* 

Cutting Out. —Cutting-out is tho art of dividing a 
piece of material into such forms, and agreeably to such 
measurements, as that, when sewn together according to a 
due arrangement of the several pieces, they shall form the 
garment or other article desired* To do this correctly and 
without waste of the material, lay the patterns upon it, in 
various positions, so as to utilise every spare comer, taking 
care to lay each piece the right way of tho grain, and to 
leave the ** tumings-in ” sufficiently deep not only to allow 
for the stitching, but also for enlarging tbc article if found 
to need alteration. The various pieces of the pattern 
having been fitted to the stuff, tack them down and 
then cut out* If the material be carefully doubled, the 
two sides may be cut out simultaneously ; but take care 
to make no mistake as to the right and wrong sides, if 
there be any difference, or both may be found cut for 
the same side. The following are a few general and essen- 
tial rules applicable to the cutting out of every article of 
wear or use, more or less* 

All linings should be cut out first. If about to 
prepare a Bodice ^ for example, lay the rolled lining on the 
table in front of you, the cut end towards you, having first 
pinned a smooth cloth tightly across the table, on which 
to fasten the work when necessary* Along the selvedge of 
the lining on the left side place the right front of the 
bodice pattern (the side with the buttonholes or eyes), and 
pin along the edge of the pattern parallel with the selvedge, 
allowing an inch and a half for turning in. The whole 
pattern must be smoothed out well, and pinned down* 
Then place the left hand side (where the buttons are 
placed) on the front, on the opposite side of the lining, 
and pin it down likewise at the selvedge, running or 
tacking down the whole model upon the lining, following 
the outline throughout* Then the two backs should be 
laid upon the lining, the centres being laid parallel with 
the selvedges, one inch being allowed from them ; pin them 
down and tack the outlines* Then follow the sleeves, 
which must be so turned that the upper part ill front is 
placed straight with the material, which will throw the 
under portion a little on the bias. This done, eut out each 
outlined piece half an inch beyond the outline, to allow 
for turning in; but the fronts must be left uncut to 
preserve the selvedge edges* You should then chalk, or 
run in cotton, the letters “It*” and ** JjT on the right and 
left sides of the bodice, and also on the two sleeves, 
adding a " T* ?s to distinguish the top of each of the latter* 
After cutting out the lining, the material itself is to be 
tacked to it, and cut out likewise, having previously been 
laid smoothly on the table and pinned down* Supposing 
the article to he a. bodice, as soon as prepared, and the 
material and lining arc tacked together, try it on inside 
out, tightening it in at the “ darts ,J by means of pins run 
in successively along them. 

In cutting out side-gores, side-pieces, and back-pieces 
of a polonaise or bodice, be careful to lay the grain of the 
material in an exact line parallel with the line of the waist. 
The bodice will he drawn aside if the cutting out be at all 

on the bias* Cut the fronts the long way of the stuff, If 
the material be striped, or a plaid, the matching of the 
several parts of the pattern should be carefully attended 
to* There should be a perfect stripe down both the front 
and back of the bodice* 

Silk materials are sometimes too narrow for a large 
sleeve to be procured from a breadth of it. I11 this case 
the joining of two selvedges would he advisable, making 
the union underneath the sleeve* A little of the latter 
should be sloped out in front at the top, to make it less 
deep there than at the back, where room is required, 
remembering always that the sleeve must be cut on 
the straight in front, the crosswise part of the same 
falling behind. Make no mistake as to cutting them in 
pairs* The length of the sleeve on the upper part of the 
arm should be about 2 inches longer than that of the 
underneath portion, where it has been cut out* In shaping 
out the shoulder-pieces and arm pieces, which stand in lieu 
of sleeves on mantles such as dolmans, remember to cut 
them with tlie bias down the middle* When cutting any 
piece of stuff on the bias, such as trimmings, flouncings, 
&c., it should be correctly and completely so done, other- 
wise the work wull be drawn awry* 

In cutting out a Skirt, the front sides of tlie gores 
must always be straight, and the bias sides towards the 
back* The same rule applies to overskirts and trains* 
Seams in the middle of either the front or back of a 
skirt should be avoided. Figured materials and those 
having a nap or pile need careful attention, so that the 
several portions of the cloth should be cut to lie in the 
same direction, the flowered designs running upwards, tlie 
ordinary nap of the cloth running downwards, and the pile 
of velvet or plush whichever w T ay may be preferred, 
provided that uniformity be observed ; but as sealskin — 
which supplied the original idea of plush — is always laid 
with the fur lying upwards, so it is usually thought that 
velvet looks more rich when laid thus, than downwards. 
Ho incision in the material should be made until every 
portion of the pattern has been laid in its proper place. 

The method of cutting out a Bodice lias been given, 
because a more complicated undertaking than that of a 
skirt, while the general rules of tacking on the pattern, and 
then cutting out the lining, and then the material, applies 
equally to all parts of a garment* It is usual, however, to 
cut out the skirt first, then the polonaise or bodice and 
overskirt if there be one* The sleeves might be made up 
underneath by means of joinings, were there a scarcity of 
material, and the trimmings should be left to the last, 
as scraps might be utilised for them* When there is any 
deficiency in stuff it may be economised by facing the 
fronts, or adding a false hem, instead of turning down the 
hems, also by adding small pieces under the arms, as well 
as piecing the sleeves, and often both fronts of a bodice 
may thus be obtained out of one breadth. 

When cutting from a pattern , take the right side of 
the bodice, and when you have cut another right side from 
it, turn it on the other side, the reverse side now being 
; uppermost* 

Should there he a floral design on the material, take 
care not to cut it double, without first taking note of the 



position of such design, that the flowers, pines, or other 
such pattern ma y not be turned upside down on one of tlie 
two pieces. 

Frills, to be sufficiently full, should be cut twice the 
length of the piece of stuff (cap front or collar) on which 
they are to be sewn when whipped, and 

Linings of hats, bonnet fronts, tippets, and other round 
forms should be cut on the cross, and so should strips for 
pipings and linings for broad hems. 

To cut cloth of any kind on the cross or bias, that is, 
diagonally with the grain, fold the end of the stuff comer 
over, like a half handkerchief, so as to lay the raw edge 
along the selvedge. Then cut off the half square, and from 
this obliquely cut piece take the strips for piping if 
required. To take off a yard crosswise, measure a yard 
along each of the selvedges, after the half square has been 
removed, crease the material carefully across obliquely, 
let someone hold it in place, and cut it iu the fold* 
Satins, velvets, and silks may be purchased cut either 
on the bias or straight. In order to save the trouble 
of measuring each bias length to be taken off, it is a had 
habit of some workers to place the first -cut piece on the 
material, and cut by it. This causes the bias to be untrue 
throughout, and the flounces to hang badly. Experienced 
workers begin by cutting the edge of the material very 
straight, and then folding it cornerwise, so as to lie on the 
selvedge* A perfect bias line is thus formed. The required 
widths of the fabric should be marked at each side of the 
selvedge with chalk when measured; they can then be kept 
to the bias line* It must be remembered that a flounce of 
4 inches wide must be measured on the selvedge 6 inches 
and so on. In cutting willed fabrics and crape, the right 
side of both materials must be laid down on the tabic, and 
the left-hand comer tinned over. This brings the twilled 
lines to the perpendicular, keeping the right side always 

So various are the patterns of underclothing, and so 
different the sizes required, that it would be impossible to 
supply hard and fast directions for the cutting out of 
special articles for infants, children, and adults. Thus a 
few general rules respecting them alone can be given, but 
these will be found sufficient to guide the needlewoman, 
and enable her to avail herself of the paper patterns in 
every style, and of any dimensions which she can procure* 

All linens and calicoes should be washed prior to being 
cut out* All linens, including lawn, cambric, and Holland, 
should be cut by the thread, one or two strands being 
drawn to guide the scissors* All calicoes, muslins, and 
flannels may be torn, but to do so the material should be 
rolled over on each side at each tear that is given* All the 
several portions of underclothing which are liable to be 
stretched in wearing, such as skirts, sleeves, wristbands, 
shoulder straps, collars, and waistbands, should be cut 
with the selvedge, or straight way of the stuff* Frills and 
pieces gathered or fulled between bands and flounces 
should be cut across the material, from selvedge to 

For the cutting out of ordinary Underline®, for adults 
the following are the average quantities that will be 
required. For a Chemise of longcloth, from yards to 

3i yards, and from to 3i yards of embroidery edging. 
For a Combination Garment about 3 yards of longcloth, 
2 % of embroidery for the neck and arms, and 1 yard 4 or 
6 inches of ditto for the legs. For Drawers yards of 
longcloth and 24 yards of frillings. For flannel Knicker- 
bockers yards* For a square-cut Petticoat Bodice , cut 
the same behind as in front, 1\ yard of longcloth, and 
yards of trimming for the neck and armholes. For a 
Digit Petticoat Bodice cut down T shape in front, I \ yards 
of longcloth, and If yards of trimming* 

To cut out a Nightdress of ordinary length and propor- 
tions 4 yards of longcloth will be required, and tho 
quantity of trimming depends on the pattern and the 
fancy of the wearer* Those intended to be made w ith a 
yoke at front and back, should be cut 5 inches shelter ; or 
if with a yoke at the back only, the back alone should be 
cut shelter, because the yoke drops it off the shoulders at 
that part. The yoke must always be cut double, and on 
the straight way of the stuff, to allow the gatherings of 
the skirt depending from it to be inserted between the 
sides of the double yoke, and to be stitched down* 

A White Petticoat of longcloth, of walking length, 
will require about 41- yards, supposing that the front 
breadth be slightly gored, one gore on each side, and one 
plain breadth at the back* 

Having given the quantities required for several under 
garments, the order of cutting out the same follows ; but 
the rules in reference to certain amongst them will be 
given in extenso , such as — for adults, a shirty chemise, 
nightdress, and drawers ; and an infant's barrow, shirt , 
stays, petticoat, and nightgown. 

Shirt — To cut out an ordinary medium sized shirt, 
like the annexed pattern at Fig. 251, allow 37 inches in 
length for the back and 3G in front, cutting from a 
piece of linen or calico 33 or 34 inches in w idth. About 
three yards of this width would suffice for one shirt* 
Were half a dozen required, an economical and experienced 
cutter could procure them out of 17 yards of material* 

Fits. 251 * Bugeajt Of MEEiuar-SiZED Han's Shirt* 

So place the back and front pieces of the body together as 
to leave the difference in their length or "tail” at the 
lower end* Mark off at the side, from the top, the 9 inches 
in depth for the armhole, and divide the remainder below 
it into tw o equal parts. At the upper half the back and 
front pieces must be sewn together ; the lower must be 



left open and tlie front corner rounded. Next slope out 
tlie armhole. Mark off 2 inches at the top, and cut down 
to within 2 inches of the bottom, which is to be curved out 
to a point. From the armhole, along the shoulder, mark 
6 inches, taking off a slope of 1 inch in depth, cutting from 
the armhole, gradually decreasing in depth towards the 6 
inch mark, finishing in a point, and preserving a straight 

The neck piece is measured and cut as follows : Draw 
the line A inches long, and dot at 3i inches from the 
bottom. Draw with a square the lines 0, D, and B. Mark 
2 inches on B, 4£ on D, and 2h on C, and draw line E, as 
indicated in the diagram, then, with a piece of chalk in 
the right hand, draw a half circle, or small arc from D to 

4 ; 

Fig. 252. Neck Piece op Shirt, 

B to give the proper curve for the neck. The pattern for 
half of the neck piece being completed, it should be 
arranged on the material so that the neck piece may be cut 
on the bias, from shoulder to shoulder, tlie seam uniting 
the two halves being in the centre of the back. The neck 
pieces must always be double. (See Fig. 252.) 

The breast of the shirt has now to be made. Mark 
the centre of the front at the top of the body, and cut 
out of it a piece G inches on each side of the point 
marked to the extent of 14 J inches. The piece to re- 
place this should be cut 15 inches long, that when 
inserted it may be 8 inches in width. If it be desired 
to make the breast quite plain on each side of the 
centre plait, the linen must be doubled ; otherwise, the 
fulness allowed for the plaiting must depend on the 
current fashion or individual fancy. The neck band must 
be 17 inches long and 11 inches in depth at the centre 
of the back, gradually sloping to £ of an inch in front, 
and should likewise be of double linen. For the sleeves 
take 22J inches of the material, cut it on the bias, 14 
inches, broad at the wrist, and 20 inches broad at the 
shoulder. One width of 31 inch linen or calico will be suffi- 
cient. But should the material be narrower, a small gore 
placed at the top of the sleeve on the straight side will 
give the necessary width. The wrist should be 8£ inches 
in length, and may be 3 J inches or more in depth, accord- 
ing to the fashion of the time or personal fancy. If 
intended to turn over, and lie back on the wrist, a 
single lining will be sufficient, as the thickness should be 

For a man’s night shirts a greater length must be 
allowed than for day shirts, and the collars and wristbands 
wider. Strong calico should be employed instead of linen 
or calico shirting. Otherwise there is little difference 
between the two garments. To make half a dozen of full 

size about 21 yards of yard wide linen or calico will be 
required. Lay aside 15 yards for the bodies of the shirts, 
dividing the piece into six. Each will then be 2£ yards 
long. Then cut from the remainder of the piece 3| yards 
for the sleeves, which subdivide again into six parts. 
Each will then be about 20 inches long, which, when cut 
lengthwise into two parts each, will make a pair of sleeves. 
For the collars cut off 1 yard and 4 inches from the 
original piece of calico, subdividing the width of the 
collar piece into three parts, and each piece into two in 
the length. This division of the 1 yard and 4 inches will 
give six collars of 20 inches in length; 20 inches more 
will be wanted for wristbands, subdividing it so as to 
allow 10 inches in length for each. The sleeve gussets 
will require 12 inches of the calico, the shoulder straps 
10i inches, and the neck and side gussets 9 inches. 

For cutting out an ordinary Chemise in the old 
fashioned, and but slightly gored style, suitable for poor 
persons, the following are the leading rules : Take 2 J yards 
of calico of ordinary width, and cut off a strip 7 inches in 
depth for the sleeves. Double the remaining length. On 
the centre crease, or fold, measure off from the selvedge 
3£ inches for the width of the side gores, and from this 
point measure 4 inches for the length of the shoulder, 
marking at the corresponding points for the opposite 
selvedge. Cut each gore down, sloping gradually from the 
point, Sh inches from the selvedge, to a point at half the 
length of the chemise. The straight side or selvedge of 
each gore is to be joined to that of the chemise, the 
selvedges being sewn on the right side. Oversew and 
fell the sides, leaving 11 inches open for each of the arm- 
holes. Cut out a piece 4 inches in depth for the neck at 
back and front, and from the point marking the length of 
shoulder, to the corresponding point on the opposite 
shoulder, rounding out the comers. The half of this 
piece which has been cut out will serve to make the neck 
band, which latter may be about 3G inches in length and 
2 in depth. Into this band the neck of the chemise must 
be gathered, stroked, and stitched. Cut the sleeves 
14 inches in w r idth, and each gusset 4 inches square. 
These latter can be obtained from the remainder of the 
pifece cut out of the neck part of the material. Unite the 
gussets to the sleeves, run or stitch and fell the latter, 
stitch the ends of the sleeves, stitch and fell them into 
the armholes, stitch or hem the skirt, and trim the neck, 
sleeves, and skirt according to taste. 

The rules for cutting out a Night Dress resemble in 
many respects those for a shirt. The alterations requisite 
will be too obvious to the needlewoman to require any 
notice here, and the same diagram supplied for the neck 
piece of the shirt will suffice for a night gown or night 
shirt. See Gored Underlinen. 

To cut out women’s ordinary Drawers the following 
arc good general rules, always remembering that differ- 
ences in size, both width and.length, and certain variations 
in cut, may be made from this pattern to suit individual 
convenience. From a piece of calico 2$ yards in length 
cut off one-eighth for a w aist band. Then fold over half 
of the remaining length from the centre of the width, so 
that the two selvedges shall be even, one lying exactly over 



tlie other. At the lower end mark a point 12 inches from 
the centre crease, and on the selvedge another at 21 inches 
from the lower end of the leg, or ankle. At the top make 
a mark on the crease at a point 2} inches from the waist, 
and on the selvedge likewise one at the same distance from 
the waist. Below this point mark one at 5$ inches from 
the selvedge, and on the waist at 3 inches from the 
latter. Cut from point 12 inches at the extremity of the 
leg to point 21 inches on the selvedge, forming a well- 
curved line, and from thence to 5J on the waist line. 
Then turn back the upper fold, and cut the single mate- 
rial from point 21 to that at 3 
if inches at the waist, and proceed 
to cut along the under fold from 
this point, 3 inches, on the waist, 
to the point on the crease marked 
2J inches in a straight line, 
crossing the material obliquely. 
From this point cut straight 
along the upper fold to the 
point marked at 5} inches, and 
thence on to the 21 inch point, 
making a cutting parallel with 
that of the waist; this completes 
the half of the drawers. If 
many tucks be desired, the 
length given must be aug- 
mented, and insertion, or 
Fig. 253. Woman's Drawees. edgingg of wbite embroidery 

may be added at pleasure. See Fig. 253. 

The making of infants* clothing is usually learnt at 
an early age, and is almost too simple to need description, 
but two or three garments may be made an exception, 
and general rules given. 

To make an infant’s Barrow a yard of flannel will be 
required. Make three box pleats in the centre, down the 

each other, so dividing the bodice portion of the barrow 
into three equal widths, the armholes being sloped out 
so as to bring the centre of each to the outer line of 
Herringboning. The whole barrow should be bound round 
with flannel binding, and four strings attached on either 
side, placed on the edge on one side, and further inwards 
on the other, so as to make the fronts overlap. There 
should be a crossbar of double stitching where the box 
pleating opens free from the herringboning. See 
Fig. 254. 

To cut out an Infant's Shirt , about 22$ inches of cambric 
or lawn will be required. Fold it so as to overlap across 
the chest, and then fold it back again straight down the 
centre of the piece at the back. Allow for the width of 
the shoulder-strap, and cut through the four folds of the 
cambric to a suitable depth — say 2} inches for the front 
and back flaps, which are to be turned over the stays. 
Then cut down from the top of the shoulder on each side 
to a depth of from 2 $ to 3 inches for the armhole. The 
depth of the shirt, cut down the selvedge, should be 11} 
inches. If sleeves be not worn, frills round the armholes 
supply their place. 

For an Infant's Stays , about a quarter of a yard of a 
corded cotton material will be required ; or, if not made 
of this, stitchings should be worked at even distances, in 
doubled piqtie from the top downwards. A band of linen, 
doubled, should be stitched down at each side for the 

Fig. 255, Infant’s Stays. 

Fig. 251. Infant’s Barrow. 

lengtli-way of the stuff, tack or pin them securely, and 
then Herringbone them down on each side to a depth of 
about six inches. The pleats should be so regulated in 
width as to make the Herringboned back of the same 
width as each of the fronts, which are to fold across 

buttons and buttonholes, and a cutting made for the arms 
(see Fig. 255), the shoulder-straps to which may be of 
white or pink elastic. The stays should measure about 18 
inches in width, and be bound round. 

For an Infant's Petticoat , two yards of fine flannel and 
a quarter of a yard of longcloth will be required. The 
latter will be needed round the body ; it should be doubled, 
and left about 20 inches in length at the waist. The 
flannel should be cut in two and joined, so as to leave two 
breadths in width for the petticoat. It should then be 
gathered into the deep bodice band, and bound all round. 
The former should be stitched and bound, and tapes sewn 
to it, two on each side, but one pair within the edge, that 
it may lap slightly over the other side. 

The Bronze Medal was awarded by the National 
Health Society, at their Exhibition, 1883, for a new design 
in the cutting-out of infants’ clothing, each article of 
which is fastened in front. The clothes are shorter, the 
skirts fastened to the bodice by buttons, so as to be 
quickly removed, without denuding the child completely ; 
an elastic knitted “ body-belt ” being substituted for 
the old flannel binder, and flannel shirts for lawn or 
linen ones. 



Cut Work. — The name given by English writers to one 
of the earliest known laces that shared with Drawn 
Work and Darned Netting in the general term of Laces, 
and one by which all laces was designated by ancient 
writers: but known individually as Point Coupe, Opus 
Seissum, and Punto Tagliato. 

The first mention of the lace occurs in chronicles dating 
from the twelfth century. The manufacture was then 
confined to the nunneries, and kept a secret from the 
general public. The work was used to adorn priests’ 
sacramental robes and the grave clothes of saints. From 
the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries it was univer- 
sally made, and formed the chief occupation of high-boni 
ladies, who ornamented all their fine linen with it, and 
made costly gifts of palls and altar cloths ornamented 
with the lace to the Church, while in the pictures of those 
centuries it is often represented as borders and trimmings 
to dresses. The pattern books of those times, particularly 
those of Yinciola, published in 1587, are full of numerous 

the frame close together, in others leave open spaces 
between them, and cross and interlace them where neces- 
sary. After these threads are arranged take a piece of fine 
lawn (that used in olden time was called Quintain, from 
the town in Brittany where it was made), 'gum it on at 
the back of the fastened threads, and tack them to it. 
Wherever the pattern is to be left thick, shape the fine 
lawn to form the design, and Buttonhole round the 
edge of that part, and where the pattern is left open inter- 
lace and draw the threads together, and, when the work is 
finished, cut away the fine lawn from underneath these 
parts. Form an edge to the lace with Buttonhole, and 
ornament the Buttonhole with Picots and Couronnes. 
Ornament the parts of this lace where large portions of 
lawn are left with embroidery in coloured silks and gold 
and silver threads. 

The lighter kind of Cut Work is made thus : Fasten 
into the frame a number of unbleached threads and tack 
underneath them a parchment pattern. Where the pattern 

Fio. 25G. CUT WORK. 

geometrical designs for this work. Two kinds of Cut 
Work were made — the most ancient, a thick kind in which 
the threads were backed with linen; and a light sort, 
where the threads were embroidered without a foundation. 
This was the commencement of needle made lace, and 
was elaborated in Venice into the celebrated Venetian 
Point, while in other parts of Italy it gradually merged 
into Reticella, and in the Ionian isles into Greek Lace. 
The making of Cut Work has gradually been superseded 
by the finer and more complicated lace making, but in 
Sweden it is still to be met with, and in England and along 
the coast of France during the last century it was occa- 
sionally worked. The stamped open work decorations 
used inside coffins, and known in the trade as “ pinking,” 
owe their origin to the trimming of grave clothes in olden 
times with this lace. 

The thick Cut Work is made as follows: Fasten a 
number of fine and unbleached threads in a frame, and 
arrange them to form a geometrical pattern by their 
crossing and interlacing. Fasten them in some parts of 

is to be thick, Buttonhole these threads together to 
form a device. Buttonhole together a larger or smaller 
number of threads, according to the width of the part to 
be made solid. Ornament the edge of the lace with fine 
Buttonhole and with Picots and Couronnes. Fig. 256 is 
one of Vinciola’s patterns, and is intended to be worked 
in both kinds. Back the cross forming the centre of 
the right hand scallop with lawn, and Buttonhole its 
edges round; make the star surrounded with a circle, 
in the left hand scallop, entirely of threads Buttonholed 
together. Form the light edgings with Buttonholed 
threads ornamented with Picots. 

Cyprus Embroidery.— In the twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries the Island of Cyprus was celebrated for its 
embroideries with gold and silver thread, an art the 
natives had probably acquired from the Phrygians and 
Egyptians. • The work was of Oriental design, but has 
long ceased to be manufactured in the place. 

Cyprus Lace. — The lace known under this name was 




identical with so me kinds o£ Out Work, and was of very 
ancient manufacture. It formed a great article of com- 
merce during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and is 
mentioned both by English and French winters as having 
been used in their countries* It was made of gold and 
silver threads. A coarse lace is still made by the peasants, 
but it is not valuable* 

Cyprus, or Cyprus Lawn, or Cyprus Crap© Cloth. 

— A thin, transparent, elastic stuff, somewhat resembling 
crape, and exclusively designed for mourning attire* It is 
known by the three names given above. It is 26 inches in 
width, and w as formerly manufactured in both white and 
black, the latter being the most common: — 

Lawn as white aa driven anow, 

Cyprus black ns any crow* 

— Winter's Tate. 

Cyprus used to he worn wound round the hat as a hat- 
band in the time of Elizabeth and James I. In <£ Gull's 
Hornbook ” (1609) Dekkcr speaks of “ him that wears a 
trebled Cyprus about his hat.” 


Dacca Muslin* — In Sanscrit the word Dacca appears 
as Daalcka, signifying the H hidden goddess,” the town in 
Bengal being so named because a statue of Burg a was 
found there. Dacca muslin is an exceedingly filmy and 
fragile textile, manufactured at Dacca, in Bengal, and 
much used by women for dresses and by men for necker- 
chiefs in England about 100 years ago. The Dacca Muslin 
now employed resembles the modem Madras Muslin, 
and is used for curtains. The figured is made 2 yards in 
width, and the plain 1J yards* 

Dacca Silk.— Dacca silk is called by the French sole 
ovale , It is employed for embroidery, and is sold in 
knotted skeins. That which is now in ordinary use is not 
Indian made, although it is so-called from having had its 
origin at Dacca, 

Dacca Twist. — A description of calico cloth, produced 
at the so-called “ Dacca Twist Mills ” in Manchester. It 
is made both twilled and plain, but woven after a peculiar 
method, by which the threads of the warp are “ drawn ” or 
“twisted” in — that is to say, threaded through the 
ft healds ” — or, where it is possible, twisted on to the rem- 
nants of the old threads* As many as a hundred varieties 
of calicoes are produced at these Mills, and amongst them 
the finer qualities of sheeting, twills, and shirtings, and 
much of the work is so fine that a square yard of calico 
will require 6000 yards of yarn. Dacca Twist Calico 
is suitable for underlinen, and measures 36 inches in 

Daisy Mat. — A wool mat, made In a wooden frame, 
and called Daisy from the likeness the round, flu if y balls 
of which it is composed are supposed to bear to the buds 
of daisies. The frames used are of various sizes, ranging 
from a square of Sin. to 6in,, and are grooved at intervals 
on their outer edges. The number of skeins of wool 
required to make the mat is regulated by the number of 

grooves in the frames. Thus, for a frame with ten grooves 
upon each side twenty skeins of wool are required, and for 
one wi th twelve grooves twenty-four skeins. 0 hoo s e si ngle 
Berlin wool, either of two shades of one colour, or of five or 
six i the most effective colours are deep shades of crimson, 
blue, or green. When more than two shades are selected, 
four skeins of each shade will be required, except for tho 
lightest, when only two skeins will he necessary. Provide 
also purse silk, matching the wool in colour, and a netting 
mesh* Commence with the darkest shade of w r ool, and wind 
each skein of it on the frame into the four outside grooves, 
then pick up the next shade of colour and wind that upon 
the grooves, next the outside ones, and continue until all 
the grooves on the frame are filled. Each skein must 
keep to its ow n groove, and cross with the others in the 
centre of the frame. Wind the purse silk upon the netting 
mesh, and commence to secure the wool, wherever it crosses 
in the centre of the frame, by cross loops or knots, made 
thus : Fasten the silk on to the wool in the centre of the 
mat, put the mesh through the frame at the place where 
two skeins cross at the left-hand side at the bottom, bring 
it up in a diagonal direction oil the right-hand side, loop 
it through the silk in the front, put it again down on 
the left-hand side this time at the top, bring it out on the 
light-hand lower side at the bottom, loop it through the 
silk, and thus make a knot which forms a cross at the back of 
the frame. Full these knots very tight, and never make a 
straight stitch, always a cross one. Enclose the whole of 
the two skeins of wool that cross each other at that par- 
ticular place, hut not a strand of any other. Work from 
the centre stitch in squares, carrying the silk from one 
knot to the next along the wool. When all the wool is 
secured, turn the frame hack to front, and cut the w t oo! in 
the spaces left between the knots, hut not entirely through, 
only that part wound upon the upper side of the frame, the 
wool wound upon the lower being left as a foundation* 
In cutting the wool be careful never to cut the knots or 
cross threads of silks, as these are the chief supports of 
the fluffy balk, while on the outside row of balls only cut 
the two sides, or the fringe will be destroyed* As each 
space is cut round the knots, little square fluffy-looking 
balls or Daisies will rise up. Hold the mat over steam, when 
the wool will rise round the knots and conceal them, then 
fluff the balls so made with scissors, and cut them round, 
should they not form good shapes. The last operation is to 
take the mat out of the frame by cutting the wool in the 
grooves ; it should be cut quite straight, as it forms the 

Dalecarli&a Lace*— A lace still made by the peasants 
of Dalecarlia (a province of Sweden) for their own use, and 
not as an article of commerce. It is a kind of coarse 
Guipure lace, and is made of unbleached thread* Its 
peculiarity lies in its patterns, which have remained 
unchanged for two centuries. A specimen of the lace can 
be seen at South Kensington* 

D'Alen^on Bar*— Identical with Alen^on Bar, and 
used as a connecting Bar in Modem Point lace. It is 
showm in Fig. 257. To work : Pass a thread as a Her- 
ringbone backwards and forwards across the space to be 
covered, and either strengthen the thread by covering it 




with Buttonhole Stitches or by Cording it. The 
thread is covered with Buttonholes in the illustration. 

Fio. 257. D’Alen^on Bar. 

Damascene Lace. — An imitation of Honiton lace, 
and made with lace braid and lace sprigs joined together 
with Corded bars. The difference between Damascene and 
Modern Point lace (which it closely resembles) consists 
in the introduction into the former of real Honiton 
sprigs, and the absence of any ncedleworked Fillings. 
The worker can make real Honiton Lace braid 
and sprigs upon the pillow, and is referred to the 
instructions on Honiton Lace for them, or can purchase 
the sprigs and the braid at good embroidery shops. 
The cotton used is a fine Mccklenburgh thread (No. 7). 
The method of uniting together the sprigs and the 
braid is as follows: Trace the design upon pink calico, 
tack the braid and then the sprigs into position, keeping 
the tacking threads well in the centre of the braid and in 
the middle of the sprigs. Overcast all the edges of the 
braid, and wherever it crosses or in any way touches another 
piece, or is turned under, firmly stitch the parts down 
and together. No fancy stitches or Fillings being required, 
it only remains to join the braid to the sprigs by a variety 
of Corded Bars (see Cord Stitch), Hexagons, and 
variously shaped Wheels. Commence a Bar by joining 
the lace thread with a loop instead of a knot, as in 

Fio. 238. Fig. 259. 

Damascene Lace. 

Fig. 258, as the edge of the braid is too open to hold a 
knot. Form the connecting bars with a treble thickness 
of thread, as illustrated in Fig. 259, thus : Commence the 
bar at A, fasten it to B, return the thread to A, and back 
again to B, fasten the Bar firmly in position with a 
Buttonhole Stitch, shown in Fig. 260, and then Cord 
it back to where it commenced. The Bars need not all be 
straight, but they can be Corded part of the way and then 
divided into two lines, as shown in Fig. 261. Throw a 
loose thread across, as shown by the dotted line in Fig. 
261, from D to C, and tie with a Buttonhole Stitch, Cord 
to X, tighten the thread and draw it up, and begin the 
arm by throwing a third thread from X to E, tie, and 
draw the Bar up to its proper position at F; Cord up from 

E to F, and throw the thread across to D; Cord back 
again to the centre and return to D, or Cord every lino 
again should they look thin. 

Fio. 260. Fio. 261. 

Damascene Lace. 

Hexagons are composed of a number of Bars arranged 
as in Fig. 262, and worked as follows : Commence w T ith a 
loose thread throwm from G to H, tie the cord to T, and 
throw the thread across to J, and Cord up to K ; throw the 
thread to L, tie, and Cord to M ; thread to N, tie, and Cord 
to O; thread to P, tie, and Cord to Q; thread to R, and 
Cord over all the Bars. The Bar X is not part of the 
hexagon, being added afterwards. 

Fig. 262. Fig. 263. 

Damascene Lace. 

Wheels arc made in various ways, and can be worked 
with any number of bars. To w ork Fig. 263 : Throw threads 
across the space to be covered, tie them to the braid, and 
Cord back to the centre, taking care that all meet there ; 
unite them in the centre with a backward Buttonhole 
Stitch, and run the needle round under one thread and 
over the other until the Wheel is of the desired size. To 

Fio. 264. Fig. 265. 

Damascene Lace. 

work Fig. 264 : Throw five threads across the space, tie, and 
Cord back to the centre as before; run three threads 
loosely round the centre, and Buttonhole these tightly 
over, taking care that the circle thus formed is an open 
one, and that the centre of the Wheel is not closed up. 

To work Fig. 265 : Throw four lines across the space, tie 

T 2 



and Cord back to the centre, secure with a backward 
Buttonhole Stitch, then Cord a little way down one of the 
bars, make a Buttonhole Stitch, and throw the thread 
across the space to the next Bar at the same distance from 
the centre as the first Bar, make a Buttonhole Stitch, and 
repeat until a transparent Wheel is formed. 

Having secured all the sprigs to the braids with the 
various Bars and Wheels, untack the lace from the pattern, 
by cutting the tacking threads at the back of the pattern 
and unpicking, and then slightly damp and stretch the lace 
if at all drawn in any part. 

To work design for necktie end, shown in Fig. 266 : Tack 
on the lace and braid, and make the Hexagons, Wheels, 
and divided Bars as indicated. Work the six Bars con- 

century it flourished in the City of Abbeville. The designs 
were Oriental in character, and usually represented birds, 
quadrupeds, and trees. Royal and noble personages 
much affected the material. Its introduction into England 
was due to the French weavers, who took refuge here in 
the time of Queen Elizabeth. Damask is now made of 
silk, intermingled with flax, wool, or cotton, the warp being 
of the first named. These mixed Damasks are chiefly 
employed for furniture. Some of the patterns require 
upwards of 1200 changes of the draw-looms for their com- 
pletion. There is also a species of Damask solely made of 
worsted, employed in upholstery. Damask Linen is a fine 
twilled fabric, manufactured for table-linen, which is 
chiefly made at Belfast and Lisburne, and also at Dun- 


nected together with a centre line upon the right hand 
side of the pattern, thus : Always Cord back the Bars to 
the centre, there make firm with a Buttonhole and a few 
turns of the thread to form a spot, and take the thread 
straight down the centre for a little distance between 
every divided line. 

Damask. — A twilled stuff, decorated with ornamental 
devices in relief, woven in the loom, and deriving its 
name from Damascus, where the manufacture had its 
origin. The ancient textile so manufactured was of rich 
silk, the threads being coarse, and the figure designs 
executed in various colours. The Normans found this 
industry already established at Palermo in the twelfth 
century, and carried it on there, while in the following 

fermline. It is made both single and double. The Cotton 
damasks, made in crimson and maroon, for curtains, 
measure from 30 inches to 54 inches in width ; the Union 
Damasks for the same purpose 54 inches, and the Worsted, 
in all wool, in blue, crimson, and green, the same width. 
See Linen Damask. 

Damask Stitch. — A name given to Satin Stitch 
when worked upon a linen foimdation. To work : Bring 
the thread from the back of the material, and pass it in a 
slanting direction over the space to be covered; put the 
needle in, in this slanting direction, and bring it out close 
to where the thread was brought up from the back. Con- 
tinue these slanting stitches, keeping them all in the same 


four horizontal threads of canvas in a slanting direction, 
and over two upright threads. See Berlin Work. 

Damass6. — A French term applied to all cloths manu- 
factured after the manner of damask, in every kind of 

Dame Joan Ground. — This is a Filling used in 
Needlepoint lace, and also in Pillow lace, where sprigs and 
patterns are made upon the Pillow and connected together 
with a ground worked by hand. It is of hexagonal shape, 
with a double thread everywhere, and must be begim in a 
corner of the design, otherwise the pattern will work out 
in straight lines, and not in honeycombs. To work: 
Fasten No. 9 lace thread to the side of the lace in a 
corner, and make a loose stitch nearly a quarter of an inch 
off. Examine Fig. 267 carefully, and two threads will be 
seen in it, one that runs up and one that comes down ; the 
thread that is working is the latter. Insert the needle 
between these threads, and make a tight Point de 
Brussels stitch on the first, that is, on the thread 

Fio. 267. Dame Joan Ground. 

belonging to the loop just made ; this makes the double 
thread on one side of the stitch. Fasten the thread firmly, 
and work back for this row. Continue the loops and the 
Point de Brussels stitch until the space is filled in suc- 
ceeding rows. For the return row : Make a Double 
Point de Brussels stitch into the centre of each loop, 
and also over the tight stitches in the centre of each loop. 
Dame J oan Ground requires to be worked with great care 
and exactitude, every loop in it must be of the same 
length, and the Filling, when finished, lie flat upon the 
pattern, as the effect is spoilt if perfect uniformity is not 
maintained throughout. 

Danish Embroidery. — This is an embroidery upon 
cambric, muslin, or batiste, and is suitable for handker- 
chief borders, necktie ends, and cap lappets. Trace the 
design upon the material, then tack it to a brown 
paper foundation, and commence the stitches. These are 
partly Lace and partly Embroidery stitches. Work all 
the parts of the design that appear solid in Fig. 268 
in thick Satin Stitch, with a very fine line of Button- 
hole round their edges, and thick Overcast lines to 


mark their various divisions, and make the Wheels, 
Stars, and Bars that fill open parts of the work as in 
Modern Point Lace (which see). Surround the embroi- 
dery with a fine lace edging, and connect it with Bars. 

Another Kind.— -A variety of the work only useful 
for filling in spaces left in Crochet, Tatting, and Em- 
broidery. It consists of a variety of Lace stitches, 
worked upon Crochet or Tatting foundations, and is made 

Detail A. Detail B. 

Fm. 263. Danish Embroidery. 

as follows: Make a round of Tatting or of Double 
Crochet size of space to be filled, and ornament its edge 
with Picots, tack this round upon Toile ciree, and fill it 
in with various lace stitches. These arc shown in Fig. 269. 



To work Fig. 269, Detail A: Fill a round of Tatting 
with seven long loops, which draw togetlier at their 
base, to form an inner circle. Take the thread through 
them in the manner shown. Then mm the thread up to 
where one of the loops commences, and darn it hack* 
wards and forwards, as in Point de Reprise, to fill in 

Detail B. Detail C* 

Fig. 270. Danish Embroidery. 

Fill in all the loops, and then work seven short loops 
in the centre of tlie circle, and draw them together wdth 
a line looped In and out at their base, as shown in Fig. 269. 

For Fig. 270, Detail A : Fill a Tatted round with thirty- 
two small interlaced loops, and draw together with a 
thread run through them at their base. Work sixteen 

Detail A. Detail B» 

Fig. 271. Danish Ebi broidery. 

interlaced loops into this thread (see Detail B), and draw 
the lower part of the sixteen loops together with a thread 
through their base. Finish the round by working a line 
of thick Buttonhole stitches into the last thread {see 
Detail C), 

To work Fig. 271, Detail A: Into a Tatted round 
make a Wheel ; form it of seven long loops interlaced as 
worked, thus : Fasten the thread into the Tatted round, 
and carry it as a loose thread to the seventh part of 
the round. Fasten it into the Tatting and return down 

it, twist the cotton round the straight thread for three- 
quarters of the distance down. Then carry the thread to 
the next division of the round, and repeat until the Wheel 
is formed, twisting the thread round the first stitch 
made as a finish (see Detail A). To finish : Make an oval 
of each arm of the Wheel, and -work it over with Button- 
hole stitch. Form the foundation of the oval with a 
thread, which pass through the top and bottom part of 
twisted thread (see Detail B), and work in the twisted 
thread as one side of the oval. 

Darn. — A term generally used to signify the method 
employed for the reparation of any textile, w hether of loom 
or hand manufacture, hy substituting a web by means of a 
needle. This reparation is die etc d in various ways, viz., 
by the common Web darning, hy Fine drawing. Cashmere 
twill, Damask darning, Grafting, Ladder filling, and Swiss 
darning. For the repairing of all linen textiles (< Flourish- 
ing thread’* should he used. 

In the ordinary Web darning every alternate thread is 
taken up by the needle, and these runnings, when made in 
a sufficient number, crossed at right angles hy similar 
runnings, thus producing a plain web or network. By 
this method a hole in the material may be refilled. The 
thread should not be drawn closely at any of the turnings, 
when running backwards and forwards, because it may 
shrink in the washing. The darn should he commenced 
and finished at all four sides at some distance from the 
beginning of the hole, a little beyond the w^orn or thin 
portion requiring to be strengthened. The toes and heels 
of socks and stockings, if not of extra thickness, should 
ho darned one ’way, hut not across the grain, ivhen new ; 
and the knees of children 1 s stockings strengthened in the 
same way. 

Cashmere Darning *— The method of replacing the web 
of any twilled material, such as Cashmere, is to employ the 

Fig. 272. Cashmere Darn. 

ravellings of the cloth itself ; and having tacked the latter 
closely to the hole, on a piece of Toile ciree, begin as in 



ordinary darning, by running threads across the hole to 
form a warp. Then take up two threads and miss two ; 
and in every succeeding row raise two together, one of the 
threads being taken up in the preceding row, and the other 
missed. This will produce the diagonal lines of the twill. 
The foundation must now be crossed on the same principle 
as the border darning, working from right to left. Our 
illustration, Fig. 272, is taken, like many others, from worked 
specimens produced in the Irish schools of needlework. 

Corner-tear Darn . — The darning of a corner-shaped or 
triangular tear in any textile must be effected as illustrated, 
thus : Draw the edges together, having tacked the material 
all round the tom square to a piece of Toile ciree. Then 
dam backwards and forwards, the runnings extending 
double the length and width of the rent ; and afterwards 
turn the work and repeat the process, until, as represented 

fourth row — leave 3, take 3, leave 5, take 1 three times, 
leave 5, take 3, leave 3. Fifth row — leave 4, take 3, leave 
3, take 1 three times, leave 3, take 3, leave 4. Sixth row — 
leave 5, take 3, leave 1, take 1, leave 5, take 1 twice, leave 
5, take 3, leave 5. Seventh row— take 1, leave 5, take 3, 
leave 5, take 1 twice, leave 5, take 3, leave 5, take 1. 
Eighth row— leave 1, take 1, leave 5, take 3, leave 3, take 1, 
leave 5, take 1, leave 5, take 3, leave 5, take 1, leave 1. 
Ninth row — leave 2, take 1, leave 5, take 3, leave 5, 
take 1 twice, leave 1, take 3, leave 5, take 1, leave 2. 
Tenth row — leave 3, take 1, leave 5, take 3, leave 5, take 
1, leave 5, take 3, leave 5, take 1, leave 3. Eleventh row- 
leave 4, take 1, leave 5, take 3, leave 5, take 1, leave 3, 
take 3, leave 5, take 1, leave 4. Twelfth row — take 1, leave 
5 twice, take 3, leave 1, take 5, leave 3, take 1, leave 5 
twice. Thirteenth row — take 1, leave 5 twice, take 3, leave 


Fio. 274. Damask Darn*. 

in the wood-cut (Fig. 273), taken from a worked specimen, 
the former opening shall form two sides of a square of 
crossed darning. 

Damask Darning needs close examination of the 
woven design to be restored by means of the needle and 
“ Flourishing thread,” and to supply directions for the re- 
production of one design will be sufficient as a guide to the 
needlewoman to enable her to copy others, after the same 
method of darning. The pattern (Fig. 274), showing a 
St. Andrew’s Cross, of which we have given an illus- 
tration, taken from a specimen of the work, may be repro- 
duced in the following way : For the first row take 3, 
leave 5, take 1 four times successively, leave 5, take 3. 
Second row— leave 1, take 3, leave 3, take 1, leave 5 four 
times, take 3, leave 1. Third row — leave 2, take 3, leave 
5, take 1 four times, leave 1, take 3, leave 2. For the 

5, take 3, leave 5, take 1 twice. Fourteenth row — leave 1 , 
take 1, leave 5, take 1, leave 5, take 3, leave 3, take 3, 
leave 5, take 1 twice, leave 1. Fifteenth row — leave 2, 
take 1, leave 5, take 1, leave 5, take 2, leave 1, 
take 1, leave 1, take 1, leave 1, take 2, leave 5, take 1 twice, 
leave 2. Sixteenth row — leave 3, take 1, leave 5, take 1 
twice, leave 3, take 1, leave 5 twice, leave 3. Seven- 
teenth row — leave 4, take 1, leave 5, take 1 twice, leave 1, 
take 1, leave 5, take 1 twice, leave 4. Eighteenth row — 
leave 5, take 1 five times, leave 5. The nineteenth row is 
a repetition of the seventeenth, and the twentieth of the 

Filling a “ Ladder ,” formed by a stitch being dropped 
in the stocking-web, should be effected thus: Insert in 
the stocking the Darning Ball employed in darning, 
pass the eye of the needle from you upwards through the 



loop, which has slipped from its place, and run up ; thus 
leaving a “ladder” or line of bars, as in Fig. 275. Insert 

Fig. 275. Ladder in Stocking-web. 

the needle between the first and second bars of the ladder, 
bringing it out through the loop, and under the first bar. 
The needle will thus have brought the first bar through 

authorities in plain needlework direct that the loops made 
at each turn of the thread, at the ends of the runnings, 
should be cut ; but it might be more secure to draw the 
needle out at the back, and to pass it through to the front 
again, for every fresh running, leaving the loops out of 
sight at the back. This style of darning is called in French 
a Reprise perdue. In former times the art of fine drawing 
was much cultivated, and brought to such extraordinary 
perfection in this country, that extensive frauds were 
practised on the Government, by sewing thus a heading of 
English cloth on a piece of foreign importation, and vice 
versa, in such a dexterous manner that the union of the 
two edges and the threads that united them were not to be 
discerned. Thus the whole piece was nefariously passed 
off as being either home made, or foreign, so as to escape 
paying the duties imposed or the penalties due for in- 
fringement of the law. All fine drawings are supposed to 

Fig. 276. Square for Insertion. 

Fig. 277. Grafting Knittino. 

the loop, which is to be pulled sufficiently far through it to 
form a new one, through which the second bar is to be drawn 
after the same method. Be careful to avoid splitting any of 
the threads, and when you have filled the ladder, fasten off 
the end of the thread, as in grafting. A crochet needle or 
hook may prove a more convenient appliance than an 
ordinary needle for the purpose of filling a “ladder.” 

Fine Drawing is a method of darning cloth or stuff 
materials of a thick substance. A long fine needle, per- 
haps a straw needle, will be required, and the ravellings of 
the stuff employed when available. In the event of there 
being none, as in the case of cloth or baize, very fine 
sewing silk may be used to repair the latter, and the 
ravellings of Mohair braid for the former, the exact colour 
of the material being carefully matched. The runnings 
should not be taken quite through the cloth, but the needle 
should be run straight through the nap, so as to be quite 
concealed from view in the thickness of the stuff. Some 

Fia. 273. Graft Completed. 

be indicated by the manufacturer by a piece of packthread 
tied to the selvedge, that the draper may allow for that 
blemish when he sells to the tailor. 

Grafting . — This term signifies the insertion of a sound 
piece of stocking-web into a space from which an unsound 
piece has been cut out, and is illustrated in Figs. 276 and 
277. Out the unsound portion exactly with the thread, 
on either side, the long way of the web; and rip, by 
drawing the thread, which will at once run out, at top 
and bottom of the square to be filled. The piece for inser- 
tion should be prepared in a similar way. The square 
formed should correspond with the dimensions of the hole 
cut, only rather wider across, to allow for turning in the 
sides (Fig. 276). Hold the two parts to be joined in juxta- 
position very firmly between the left hand thumb and fore- 
finger, so that the rows of loops left in unravelling may 
stand out clearly, running from right to left, the thread 
having been secured on the wrong side, at the right hand 



corner. Bring the needle through, and pass it through the 
first loop of the stocking, pointing the needle to the left, 
then through the first and second loops of the patch of 
web, drawing the thread gently so as not to disarrange 
the two rows o£ loops, then insert the needle again 
through the first loop of the stocking, only taking with it 
the second loop also; draw the thread gently again, then 
pass the needle through the second loop of the patch last 
taken up, take with it the loop next to it, and thus 
continue, so that, by this process, the separate pieces may 
be completely joined, as in Fig. 278. 

Machine Darning must also be named, as a perfectly 
new idea, carried out by means of a “mending attach- 
ment/* employed on a sewing machine. Hips, tears and 
holes in table linen, underclothing, or silk and cotton 
goods, men’s clothing, and every description of article, may 
be effectually repaired, the rente, &c ., at the same time 
being scarcely discernible, by an arrangement attached to 
the middle of the machine, while no skill is required in 
the needlewoman for its attachment or use* The repairs 
thus executed are not patchings, but bond fide darns* 

Swiss Darning is the method of reproducing “stock- 
ing-web ” by means of a darning needle and thread of yarn 
worked double. The warp must first be made with a single 
thread, as in plain darning, and, when formed, place a 
darning ball inside the stocking, and begin with the double 
thread at the left-hand side, securing it in the unbroken 
part of the stocking, at about four stitches from the bole 

Fig. 279 Swiss Darkixg, 

to be filled. Run the needle through these stitches, as in 
plain darning, until the first thread of the warp is reached* 
Then insert it between the first and second threads of the 
warp, bringing it out under the first thread, then pass it 
between the second and third threads, bringing it out 
under the second j that is, between the first and second, 
and proceed to insert it between the third and fourth, 
bringing it out under the third. Continue thus until the 

last thread of the warp is crossed, always pointing the 
needle towards the left hand* As soon as the last thread 
is crossed, plain darn a few stitches into the stocking, then 
turn the needle, and darn back again to the hole, the 
threads being kept as closely together as possible, and a 
loop left at each turning, to allow for contraction in wash- 
ing. Cross the threads of the warp from right to left in 
the same way as at first. Bee Fig. 279* 

Darned Crochet.— Make the foundation of this work 
of Square Crochet, upon which work a pattern in soft 
netting cotton* Darn the netting cotton in and out of 
the Crochet so as to form a design. The patterns are the 
same as used for Crochet. Bee Crochet Darning. 

Darned Embroidery. — An art needlework, practised 
in Europe during the sixteenth and two following cen- 
turies, but originally of Oriental origin, and still worked 
in India, the natives of that country executing, without a 
pattern, upon almost any material, elaborate designs 
formed of Darned lines. The Darned Embroidery most 
practised in Europe has been chiefly worked upon cotton, 
linen, and other washing materials, and is well fitted 
for the wear and tear such articles are exposed to. The 
patterns used in the earlier centuries are diaper arrange- 
ments as backgrounds to more important work, and 
these diaper patterns are much the same as the designs 
found in the missal painting of the same period; but in the 
seventeenth century D aimed Embroidery received a greater 
impetus from the East, and was made in intricate designs 
and carried over the whole material. Some elaborate 
specimens of English, Italian, and Indo-Portugiiese work 
of this date are still extant, and should be objects of study 
to anyone seeking to bring the work again to perfection* 
Tu one, upon a curtain of white linen, a pattern of yellow 
silk is executed in Darned lines, representing in compart- 
ments a fleet in full sail; while upon another, on a red cotton 
ground, darned with red silk, are hunting groups, in which 
elephants, lions, and various wild animals are chased by 
Indian officers, who arc mounted upon horses and elephants* 
The Darned lines in these designs partially filling in the 
figures are run so as to take the direction of the limbs and 
clothes of the object, and are so beautifully curved and 
arranged as to give all the appearance of shading. Small 
portions of the design, such as saddlecloths, are enriched 
with very minute diaper patterns, while the manes of lions 
are arranged as curls, made with a number of Knots, and 
the bodies of leopards ancl stags spotted with the same* 
During the reign of Queen Anne, Darned Embroidery 
returned to its earlier patterns, and it is this kind that is 
now attracting attention* The eighteenth century patterns 
are all of large conventional flowers, worked in outlines, 
with their backgrounds run with horizontal lines, as shown 
in Fig. 280, p. 146* The effect of this partially filled in 
groundwork is most artistic, softening, as it docs, the em- 
broidery info the material, and throwing up the pattern 
with a boldness hardly conceivable from such simple 
means* The Darned lines are generally run parallel to 
each other, in one given direction ; but this rule is not 
absolute, and much variety is gained by altering the 
direction of lines and introducing fancy stitches. The 
following are the best known Darned Backgrounds ; 




Point minuscule a darned line, one thread taken and one 
left, and both sides of the material alike ; Point sans 
evers t a Cross Stitch surrounded with four stitches in- 
closing it in a square, or a number of Cross Stitches— in 
both varieties the back and front of the stitch alike j 
Point de Carreau and Point Droit , lines forming a design, 
both sides being alike; Point de Rosette* or Pcijii d'Moile, 
isolated stars, worked so that both sides are alike* 

To imitate Indian work, the lines are curved, either 
making complete circles or flowing along in rising and 
falling waves. 

It will be understood that a clearly woven back- 
ground is a great assistance to Darned Embroidery, but 
other materials can be made to conform to the design. 
The colours for tins Embroidery are few aud har- 
monious* They are selected to contrast without being 


Combinations of stitches make good background 
designs* Thus, a number of waved and run lines filling 
the space and crossed by horizontal run lines; stitches 
dividing the background into a number of small squares, 
with stars worked in the alternate square; Vandyke lines, 
made with Chain Stitch, alternating with Holbein Stitch* 
To work these fancy stitches, see Embroidery 

in violent opposition — that is to say, if Yellow and 
Blue are chosen for the same embroidery, the tint of 
the Yellow should be what is called a Blue Yellow, and 
the tint of the Blue a Yellow Blue* Pink, if selected, 
choose of a Yellow shade, and not a Blue Pink; and 
when using Crimson or Green, the Crimson should shade 
to Yellow, not to Blue, and the Green to Yellow, not to 
Blue. The best combinations are dull Yellow with dull 



spent over a pattern being doubled when silk is used 
instead of worsted. To work : Traee the design upon the 
material with tracing paper and tracing cloth, and then 
embroider the background lines. Work up and down the 
pattern ; take up only a small portion of the material in 
the needle, and make the design evenly. 

When the ground is finished, outline the pattern in 
Crewel Stitch, and wort two rows of Crewel Stitch, if 
the pattern is hold and requires to he outlined with a 
broad line* 

The pattern of Darned Embroidery shown in Fig, 280 is 
worked thus : Trace out the design, Darn in the background 
lines with yellow pink silk, and work the outline of the 

the background. Another ground: Work a series of 
parallel Vandykes across the material, and work seven 
lines of one shade of colour, and seven of another, alter- 
nately. Another ground : Form circles upon the back- 
ground, all of an equal size, and fill these either with 
lines arranged as lessening circles, or with curved lines 
radiating from the centre like the spokes of a wheel. 

Darned Laces, — The Darned Daces are amongst the 
oldest of all lace work, and the term is a general one to , 
denote Embroidery upon a Retted ground. The various J " 
laces so made are described under Filet Erode, Guipure 
d'Art, and Spider Work. 

Darned Muslin. — An easy and effective kind of fancy 

Fink and Green, Blues arc better used by themselves 
than with other colours. Yellows, when used alone, 
should shade into chestnut. 

The materials now used for Darned Embroidery are 
unbleached cottons and linens, Huckaback towellings, 
Java canvas, and twilled and diaper linens. The 
old work was done upon Indian cloth \ but, as long as the 
material chosen is w'oyen with distinct and straight 
threads, any kind is suitable. The work is executed with 
Vegetable and Raw silks and fine Crewels, Vegetable 
silk is the best for small pieces of work, hut large cur- 
tain borders, Ac,, require Crewels, the time and labour 

flowers with a double line of Crewel Stitch, using dull 
crimson silk. Fill the centres of the flowers with Satin 
Stitch, worked in a medium shade of crimson. The 
same pattern can he used with a different ground, thus r 
Darn lines at even distances in a parallel direction, and 
intersect them with similar lines that cross them, and so 
form open diamonds. Fill the centre of each diamond 
with a French Knot, Another ground: Make similar 
lines upon the foundation, and, wherever they cross each 
other, work thick pointed stars. Another ground : Run a 
diagonal, but straight line, then a line of French Knots 
only, and repeat these lines alternately over the whole of 



work, used for ornamenting white muslin dr esse s, aprons, 
or for antimacassars. It consists of working with fine 
darning cotton in floral patterns upon good, clear white 
muslin, and is illustrated in Fig, 28 L To work that 
design : Draw out the pattern upon pink or white calico, 
hack this with brown paper to stiffen it, and tack the 
muslin on to it. Commence with the stems, branching 
sprays, and tendrils. Work them up and down as in 
ordinary Darning until of sufficient thickness, then 
work the leaves. Begin each leaf close to the stem, and 
work a series of Herringbone ; take up hut little of the 
muslin, and increase and decrease the length of the 
stitches according to pattern. The point of the leaf 
being reached, Hem Stitch back to the stem, work up 
the centre of leaf, and secure the loops made with the 
Herringbone. Work the berries in Satin Stitch, and 
Darn the little points and connecting lines. The work 
should be very neat ; some people turn it when finished, 
in order that the herringbone stitches may show through 
the muslin; but this is entirely a matter of taste. When 
soiled, have the work cleaned, not washed. 

Darned ITet. — A very effective and fashionable imita- 
tion of lace, and used for all kinds of dress trimmings, and 
for table and cushion borders. It can he worked with fine 
face thread, with coloured purse silks, or with floss and filo- 
selles, either upon white, coloured, or black nets. Darned 
net is carried to great perfection in the lace that is known 
as Imitation Brussels Lace, and a very great variety of 

stitches can be formed if Guipure d’Art and Modern 
Point Lace Stitches are taken as guides. When 
used as trimmings to ball dresses, black net is usually 
selected for the foundation, and the embroidery worked 
in bright- coloured floss or filoselle. The designs for Darn- 
ing upon net are extremely varied, those that are suitable 
for embroidery in Satin Stitch being the best ; but simple 

geometrical designs, such as a series of Vandykes, crosses, 
diamonds, or spots, are also used. The embroidery is done 
in Satin Stitch or in plain Darning. To work Fig. 282 \ 
Trace the design upon pink calico, tack the net down with 
the honeycombs in straight lines, with its wrong side 
uppermost upon the calico, and thread a long lace needle 
with the Embroidery cotton or silk. Fill in all the centres 
of the leaves or flowers, by Darning the silk in and out of the 
honeycombs in the various directions shown in illustration, 
and work the spots over the net. Thread the needle with 
another coloured silk, and double it, and Darn tbis doubled 
silk as an outline all round the outer edge of the leaves and 
flowers, and form the steins and sprays with it. The double 
thread is run 111 and out of the net as in plain Darning. 
Join and fasten off the silk on the upper side of the net, the 
right side of the work being underneath. Unpick and turn 
the work, and finish the edge of the lace with a series of 
scallops made in Buttonhole Stitch. 

Fig. 288 Is intended for a border* The net is laid upon 
a background, but a traced pattern is not necessary. Work 
the design with six slanting upward and downward Satin 
Stitches, the commencement and end of the stitches 
forming straight lines up the net. Pass each stitch over 

Fig. 2SL Louder, in Darned Net. 

three honeycombs, and put the silk Into the first and fifth 
honeycomb. Commence the next line of stitches in the 
honey combs-tlie first line finished in. and work this line 
either upward or downward, but slanting in a contrary 
direction to the last. 

Fig. 2St is formed with a series of Diamond- shaped Satin 
stitches. To form a diamond : Loop the silk through two 
honeycombs for the first stitch, over three, five, and seven 
honeycombs for the three next, and then decrease by 

reversing the stitches thus — five, three, and two. Continue 
to work iu this way down the not for its length, and then 
commence another row. Work the centre stitch over seven 
honeycombs of these Diamonds beneath the first stitch of 
the previous row. Work to the end of the net, and work a 
third row of Diamonds like the first. 

Figs. 285 and 286 arc fillings for the centre of any designs 
that are not w orked in Satin or Darning stitch. Fig. 285 
is given in its natural size, and upon net the size it should 
be placed upon, Tn Fig. 286 the stitch and net are enlarged 



to more plainly show the manner of working. Run el 
fine lace thread in curves over three lines of honey combj 
pass entirely over the centre line, and loop the curves at 

Fig. 285v Fillings in Darned Net* 

even distances into the first and third lines. In the second 
line, run the thread through the same honeycomb as the top 
curve of the first line, and continue running these curved 

Fig. £8 e. Fillings in Darned Net, 

lines backward and forward, until the space is filled. The 
little loop upon the ends of the lines shows how the thread 
is carried from one line to the other in an ornamental 
manner, without any join, This loop corresponds to the 
curve on the lines. 

Fig* 287 is a pattern for embroidering coarse nets in 
imitation of Darned Netting or Filet Erode* To work ; 
Darn the thick lines up and down in Point be Reprise 

Flo. 287* Pattern in Darned Net. 

or plain Darning stitch, and leave every alternate honey- 
comb plain : work in Overcast Stitch, and run the thread 
into the thick Hue to carry it down, without showing, to 
the next honeycomb that is to be Overcast. 

Fig. 28 S is another pattern to be worked upon coarse net* 
The Embroidery for this design is worked with purse silks 
of different shades of colour* To work : Leave the centre 
honeycomb line un worked; upon each side of it work in 

Overcast one honeycomb, miss two honeycombs, pass the 
silk over these, and work the third in Overcast, continue 
to the end of the row, pass the silk alternately over the 

Fig* 238. Darned Net* 

upper and lower part of the honeycomb line* (See Fig. 
287.) The lines upon each sides of these two centre lines 
work as Darned lines, and catch the silk alternately over 
and through every honeycomb upon the line* 

Darned Wetting. — This work is an imitation of the 
ancient Point Conte, Spider Work, or Darned Laces, and 
consists of a plain netted foundation, upon which a pattern 
is worked in a stitch known as Point de Reprise in 
Guipure d’Art, but which is simply plain Darning* 
It is much used for making summer curtains, window 
blinds, and other washing articles, as it is very durable, 
and, when a suitable pattern is selected, extremely hand- 
some* It is worked either with ingrain cottons, raw silk, 
or plain darning cotton. The netted foundation is either 
coloured or plain* To work: Commence the Netted 
foundation with one loop or mesh, and increase one stitch 
in every row until the desired width is obtained. To form 
a square article, decrease a stitch every row until one loop 
only is left, but for a pattern that is longer than its width, 
such as are required for curtains or window blinds, Net a 
certain number of plain rows and then decrease. Slightly 
starch the Netted foundation, and pull it out to its proper 
shape, pinning it upon a board until dry* Upon this 
foundation work the pattern* Take this either from a 
Cross stitch Berlin Work pattern or a square and open 
Crochet design. Thread a coarse darning needle with 
soft knitting cotton, and fill in the meshes, counting each 
mesh as a square in the Crochet or a stitch in the Berlin 
pattern. Work from left to right, and Dam in and out 
of the meshes four threads of cotton, two going one way 
and two the other* Work the stitches as continuous lines 
where possible, pass the cotton up and down until the 
meshes are filled, and then commence tlie next line. 
Always commence on the line that contains the smallest 
number of stitches, and work the lines with the greatest 
number of stitches second, as, unless this rule is attended 
to, the cotton passing from one line to another will bo 
visible. Work detached stitches by themselves, fasten off, 
and commence them in the stitch. Make a Weaver's 
Knot, and Darn the ends in when fresh cotton is required, 
fasten off, and commence by running the cotton at back 
of work, and not with a knot* 

Darners. — Long needles, with considerably elongated 
eyes, somewhat like the long eye in a bodkin, intended to 
receive the coarse, loosely- twisted strands of darning 

* 5 <> 


yarn, either of wool or cotton. They are to be had in 
various sizes. They are sold, like all other needles, in 
papers containing a quarter, half, or a hundred needles. 
They may also be purchased separately. 

Darning Balls. — Egg-shaped balls, made of hard wood, 
ivory, cocoanut shells, and glass, and employed as a substi- 
tute for the hand in the darning of stockings. Instead of 
inserting the hand into the foot of the stocking, and draw- 
ing the latter up the arm, one of these balls is dropped into 
the foot, and the worn part of the web is drawn closely 
over it ; and, being firm, smooth, and rounded, it forms a 
better foundation than the hand to work upon. Sometimes 
these balls are hollow, and can be unscrewed in the middle, 
the darning cotton being kept inside. 

Dart. — A term employed in needlework, denoting the 
two short seams made on each side of the front of a 
bodice, whence small gores have been cut, making the 
slope requisite to cause the dress to sit in closely under 
the bust. These should be firmly stitched on the inside, 
sufficient edge being left to allow for letting out the 
waist part of the bodice if required. If the bodice be 
turned inside out, during the fitting upon the figure, the 
darts will be the better adjusted. 

De. — The French word for a thimble. 

Decorative Darning. — A general term, including 
Darned Crochet, Darned Embroidery, Darned Net, 
and Darned Netting. 

Decorative Needlework. — This name includes, under 
one head, all needlework that is intended as an orna- 
ment, and is not a necessity upon the article that is being 

Decrease. — A word used in Crochet, Knitting, Netting, 
Tatting, and Pillow Lace, to intimate where parts of the 
pattern are to be diminished. To decrease in Crochet: 
Work two stitches as one, or pass over one foundation 
stitch without counting it. To decrease in Knitting : Knit 
two stitches together as one. To decrease in Netting : Net 
two stitches together as one. To decrease in Tatting : W ork 
a fewer number of stitches in a given space. To decrease 
in Lace: Plait the threads closer together for narrow 
parts, but, where a marked difference in the widths is 
required, tie the Bobbins together in pairs and cut them off. 

De Laine. — A common abbreviation for Mousseline de 
Laine, a thin woollen fabric, but sometimes of a mixed 
material. See Mousseline de Laine. 

Delhi Work. — An Indian Embroidery, so named 
from the work being done chiefly in the neighbourhood of 
Delhi. It is an embroidery in Chain and Satin Stitch, 
worked in silks and gold and silver threads, upon satin 
and other materials. The patterns are extremely rich, the 
ground being in many places entirely concealed with 
various coloured silks, while gold and silver thread are 
profusely worked into the material. See Indian Em- 

Demyostage. — A description of Taminy, or woollen 
cloth, formerly used in Scotland, but now superseded, or 
known under a different name. {See Taminy.) The name 
Demyostage appears to indicate that the textile was only 
partially stiffened with dressing. 

Denmark Satin.— A kind of worsted stuff employed 

in the making of women’s shoes, measuring 27 inches in 

Dentel€. — The French term denoting that a border is 

Dentelle. — The French word for lace. Laces were 
known by this name in the latter part of the sixteenth 
century; before that time they were known as Passe- 

Dentelle a la Heine. — The name given to a Needle- 
point lace manufactured for a shor: period in Amsterdam, 
by French refugees, after the revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes, 16S5. The lace was not peculiar to this particular 
band of workers, having been made in France before that 
time, but it gained a certain popularity during the short 
time it was made in Holland. 

Dentelle d, la Vierge. — A double-grounded Normandy 
lace, made at Dieppe, and so named by the peasants. See 
Dieppe Point. 

Dentelle an fuseau.— One of the ancient names for 
Pillow lace. 

Dentelle de fil. — A name by which simple patterned 
Thread laces are known. 

Dentelle de Moresse. — A coarse, geometrical pattern 
lace, made in the sixteenth century in Morocco, the art of 
making which w*as acquired either from the Spaniards 
or the Maltese. It is no longer manufactured, but may 
still be bought at Tetuan. 

Dentelle des Indes. — A name sometimes applied to 
Drawn Work. A machine-made Yak lace, made in the 
Jacquard looms at Lyons, is also called Dentelle des 

Dentelle Irlandaise.— The name by which Modem 
Point lacc is known in France. See Modern Point 

Dentelle Nette. — A coarse net having a lace pattern, 
employed for window blinds, and for walls at the back 
of washstands. It may be had both in 6cru or coffee 
colour, as well as in white; both descriptions are made 
from 1£ ynrds to 2 yards in width. 

Dentelle Volants. — A term for lace in relief, whether 
made upon the pillow or by hand. 

Dents. — A French term employed to denote either 
pointed or square scallops, cut as a decorative bordering to 
a flounce or frill of a dress. 

Derries. — A description of coloured woven cotton 
cloths, manufactured in blue and brown, and employed for 
women's dresses. It measures 31 inches in w T idth. 

Design. — Since the revival of taste in the matter of 
Embroidery, great attention has been paid to the pattern 
or Design of the work, and various rules have been laid 
dowm as to what constitutes a good Design ; the following 
are the most important : Patterns of needlework should 
be drawn with reference to the articles they will orna- 
ment, and neither in form nor colour attract attention 
from the main harmony of the room they help to decorate. 
Simplicity of pattern, breadth of tone, and harmonious 
colouring, arc all essentials to a good pattern, w hile great 
contrasts between light and shade, loudness of colour, and 
marked peculiarity, are to be deprecated. Natural objects, 
wdien imitated, except in very fine Church Ecclesiastical 



HM i H pi 








V^SWfe. v r ,i r i»ii. -Imt, * 'X£ r * ■ ? >M> ■ \'t*s> . 





embr cider j t or fine silk work, are not shaded to throw 
those objects up in relief from their ground, as in picture 
painting, but are conventionalised, and depicted as lying 
flat upon a fiat ground, as in wall painting* 

Devonia Ground. — A ground used in Duehesse iaee, 
and as a variety when making Ho niton lace. It is worked 
as follows ; Hang on four pairs of Bobbins at the place 

Fig, 269. Devonta Ground. 

where a lino is to be commenced {See Tig. 289), and, to 
avoid pulling the lace while working, stick a pin on each 
side of the hole to be sewn to, and several in the lace 
already formed. First row — work Stem Stitch thus j 
Give three twists to the outside pair of bobbins, and put 
them aside, and with the next pair work across until the 

T 5 1 

to the right. Fifth row — make a Purl to the left, which 
differs from the right Purl, thus : In the right Purl the 
loop is formed by placing the pin under the thread, and 
carrying the other thi'ead round the pin after it is stuck 
from the lower side, moving the thread first to the right. 
In the left Purl, place the pin upon the thread, and bring 
the bobbin over it with the left band, then stick the pin, 
and bring the other bobbin round the pin from the lower 
side, moving first to the left. Sixth row-turn stitch to 
the right. Seventh row— turn stitch to the left. Eighth 
row — purl to the right. A Purl is made every third row 
on alternate sides. The more irregularly the lines are 
arranged the better, and when a fresh one is made to 
start from some part of the line being worked, bang on 
four pairs of Bobbins at that place before doing the Purl 
stitch, and leave them there until the original line is 
finished. Three or four sets of Bobbins may he left 
behind in this manner, and afterwards carried on in 
different directions. Where a line is crossed make a 
Sewing, and commence, where possible, with a Rope 
Sewing. Fasten off with great care. 

Devonshire Dace .—At one time the hulk of the female 
population of Devonshire was engaged in lace making, 
and many were the varieties produced in that county, 
all which, with the exception of the celebrated Honiton, 
were copies of Belgium, French, and Spanish laces. A 





last pair are reached, then make a stitch and a half, or 
Turn Stitch, on the left side, thus : Work a Cloth or 
Whole Stitch, give each pair of bobbins one twist to 
the left, put the middle left-hand bobbin over the middle 
right bobbin, lift the two pairs with each hand, and give 
a pull to make the inner edge firm,, and put aside the 
inner pair of bobbins. Second row— work back with the 
other, making a Purl on the right side, thus i Twist the 
worker bobbins seven times to the left, lift one of them 
in the left hand, take a pin in the right hand, and place it 
under the thread, give a twist to bring the thread round 
tlie pin, stick it, lay down the bobbin, and pass the other 
one round the pin from the lower or nearest side, twist 
once, and make a Cloth stitch. Third row — work to the 
Turn stitch, left side. Fourth row — make a Turn stitch 

coarse kind of Bone lace was made prior to the sixteenth 
century, at which period the immigration of the Flemish 
and French Protestant lace makers to England improved 
the manufacture, while in the seventeenth century a certain 
John Bodge, of Honiton, discovered the secret of working 
the fine stitches used in Brussels and Flemish Lace. Fine 
flax thread and Flemish patterns were introduced, and the 
lace made from these during the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries was so beautiful as to rival the far- 
famed Brussels lace. Fig. 290 is a specimen of this work, 
the pattern being decidedly Flemish, although the lace 
is Devonshire make. Besides this description of lace, 
Venetian and Spanish Fee die- point, Maltese, Greek, and 
Genoese laces have been successfully imitated by these 
workers. For the last hundred years the lace makers 

■ 5 * 


have chiefly turned their attention to the making of 
Honiton lace, hut during the French war the making of 
Devonshire Trolly lace, coined from Normandy lace, was 
successfully carried on, Honiton Lace is now the chief 
lace made, but since the revival of interest in this 
English manufacture, Spanish, Italian Guipure, and To- 
ne ti an Point Laces are worked. 

Diagonal Cloth, — A soft, woollen, twilled material, 
made in various colours, without any pattern. It 
measures 52 inches in width, and is much employed for 
purposes of decorative embroidery. 

Diagonal Couching , — A flat Couching, and one of 
the numerous varieties of that stitch. It is chiefly em- 
ployed in Church Work, To make: Lay lines of floss 
silk flat upon the foundation, and close together, and to 
secure them ill position bring up a thread of silk through 
the foundation, pass it over one or two strands of floss 
silk, and return it to the hack of the foundation material. 
Arrange the direction of these securing stitches so that 
they form diagonal lines across the floss silk. A variety 
of Diagonal Couching is formed thus : O ver the floss silk 
foundation lay a line of purse silk or gold twist in a 
diagonal direction, and catch this down with the securing 
stitch, brought from the back of the material as before 
described ; continue to lay down diagonal lines of purse 
silk, keeping them at an even distance from each other 
until the floss silk is covered. 

Diamond Couching.— One of the Fiat Couching s used 
in Church Work, illustrated in Fig. 201, and worked 
as follows : Lay down lines of floss silk upon a flat founda- 
tion, and above them single threads of purse silk or gold 
twist, at equal distances apart, and in a diagonal direction. 
Lay each line singly, and secure it with a thread brought 

Fig. SOI. Diamond Couch inO. 

from the back of the material and returned there. The 
lines running in one direction first lay and secure, then 
cross them with lines laid in an opposite direction, so as 
to form, with the ones already secured, a number of 
diamonds; catch these down to the material in the 
manner already described, and ornament the points of 
the diamonds with a bead, pearl, or spangle. 

Diamond Holes* — The Fillings in the centre of 
Honiton lace sprigs are made in various fancy stitches, 
the various arrangements of open squares or holes which 
form Diamond Holes, Straight Rows, Chequer stitch, 
being some of the most used. To form Diamond Holes : 
Hang on twelve pairs of Bobbins, and work across from 
left to light in Cloth Stitch six times, putting up the 
pins on each side in holes pricked for them, then divide 
the bobbins into two equal numbers, and put a pin in the 

centre. Take up left-hand bobbins, and work Cloth stitch 
with six pairs up to pin in the centre, work hack to the 
left without twisting or putting up pin with the same six 
pairs, twist and put up a pin, and leave bobbins hanging, 
take up those on right hand ; put up a pin and work right 
across the whole twelve bobbins to tlie left hand, and so 
enclose the centre pin. Work a couple of Cloth stitch 
rows, and then make a hole upon each side, dividing the 
bobbins into fours, and working the two sides as men- 
tioned above. Plait the four bobbins under the upper 
hole in Cloth stitch, work two Cloth stitch rows with the 
twelve bobbins, and make a hole in the centre under the 
one first made. 

Diamond Lace*— A stitch either worked as open or 
close Diamonds, and used in Modem Point and in Aucient 
Needle-points. In the first row, for making the open 
diamond, work 6 thick Butto^iiole stitches, leave the 
space of two open, work 14 Buttonhole, leave the space of 
two open, work fi Buttonhole, Second vow — work 4 
Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, work 2 Button- 
hole, leave the space of two open, work 10 Buttonhole, 
leave the space of two open, work 2 Buttonhole, leave the 
space of two open, and work 4 Button hole* Third row — 
work 2 Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, work 2 
Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, work 2 Buttonhole, 
leave the space of two open, work 8 Buttonhole, leave the 
space of two open, work 2 Buttonhole, leave tho 
space of two open, work 2 Buttonhole. Fourth row — 
work 4 Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, work 2 
Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, work 10 Button- 
hole, leave the space of two open, work 2 Buttonhole, 
leave the space o£ two open, work 4 Buttonhole. Fifth 
row— work 6 Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, 
work 14 Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, and 
work G Buttonhole. Sixth row — w r ork 19 Buttonhole, 
leave the space of two open, and work 19 Buttonhole* 
Seventh row — work 17 Buttonhole, leave the space of 
tw T o open, work 2 Buttonhole, leave the space of two 
open, and work 17 Buttonhole, Eighth row — work 
15 Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, work 2 
Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, work 2 Button- 
hole, leave the space of two open, and work 15 Button- 
hole* Ninth row — work 17 Buttonhole, leave the space of 
two open, work 2 Buttonhole, leave the space of two open, 
and work 17 Buttonhole* Tenth row — work 19 Button- 
hole, leave the space of two open, and work 19 Button- 
hole. Repeat, and work the ten rows in the same order 
to end of the space. 

Diamond Linen,— This is also known as Diaper, and 
tlie name includes several varieties of the latter, such as 
Bird’s-eye, Fish-eye, and Russian Diaper, See Diaper. 

Diamond Netting,— See Netting. 

Diamonds, — A stitch used in Macr&mc lace to vary 
the design. It consists of Mageame Knots made over 
slanted threads, that are called Leaders. There are three 
ways of making Diamonds : The Single, which is composed 
of a single Leader from right and left hand, slanting out- 
wards to a certain distance, and then returning to the 
centre to form a Diamond. The Double, made with 
a greater number of threads, and with two Leaders on 


r 53 

each side ; and the Treble , with more threads, and with 
three Leaders on each side* To Worh a Single Diamond : 
Take twelve threads and divide them, make the seventh 
thread into a. Leader, and slant ifc down from left to right 
in an angle; make a Macrame Knot upon it with the 
eighth thread, then with the ninth, and so on to the 
twelfth. Pin it down to the Pillow, and pick np the 
sixth thread* Turn this over the first threads from left 
to right, In a reverse direction to the other Leader, and 
make Macrame Knots upon it ; commence with the 
fifth thread, and work all np. Pin it to the Pillow, and 
slant ifc hack in a diamond shape to the centre* Use the 
same thread as Leader, and work Macrame Knots upon it 
with the others in their order; then take the Leader left 
at the right hand, slant it to the centre, and work it over 
with Macrame Knots; when the two Leaders meet tie 
them together. To Worh a Double Diamond : Double the 
amount of threads, so that there are twelve upon each 
side, and make two Leaders on each side. With twelve 
threads on each side, the two right-hand Leaders will he 
the first and second threads of the second set of twelve ; 
commence by knotting the threads round the second 
thread first, and then knot them round the first* The two 
threads for Leaders on the left hand are the eleventh and 
twelfth of the first twelve threads, counting from left to 
right* Work the eleventh as a Leader first, and knot upon 
ifc all the other threads, then knot them all upon the 
twelfth. To Worh a Treble Diamond , sixteen threads and 
three Leaders upon each side are necessary. The Leaders 
are the first three on the right hand and the last three 
on the left hand, and the work is similar to that in the 
other Diamonds* 

Diaper, — A term originally denoting a rich material 
decorated with raised embroidery* It is now generally 
employed to denote figured linen cloth, the design being- 
very small, and generally diamond -shaped. It is also 
used to signify a towel: 

Let one attend him with a silver basin, 

Another bear the ewer, tho third a diaper* 

— Shakespeare * 

Diaper is a damask linen, manufactured in Ireland and 
Scotland ; there is a kind called Union, composed of 
linen and cotton* There are also cotton ones, in- 
cluding Russia Diaper* The finest linen Diapers, with 
the smallest Diamond, Fish, or Bird's-eye patterns, are 
chiefly used for infants’ pinafores, and other articles of 
their dress. The name of this material is derived from 
that of the city in Flanders where the manufacture 
originated being formerly called d'ipre — or, Yprcs* The 
Birds 5 - eye may be had in either linen or cotton, the 
former measuring from 34 inches to 44 inches in width, 
the latter 34 inches ; Pheasant- eye or Fish- eye measures 
from 3G inches to 44 inches in width. Russia linen Diaper 
may be had in four varieties — the cream-coloured at 
21 inches* the half-bleached Irish at 24 inches, the Basket- 
pattern (Barnsley) at 26 inches, and the Fancy Barnsley 
(which is an extra heavy cloth) at 32 inches in w r idth. 

Diaper Couching. — A variety of Couching used in 
Church work, and made as follows : Lay down upon a fiat 
foundation, even and close together lines of floss silk. 

Secure these by bringing a thread of purse silk from the 
hack of the material, pass it over two, three, or four 
strands of floss silk to form a succession of Crosses, 
Diamonds, or other Diaper patterns, and return to back 
of material* 

Diaphane. — A w f oven silk stuff, having transparent 
coloured figures, and for some years past out of use, and 
scarcely to be procured. 

Dice Holes,— This is a stitch, shown in Fig. 232, used 
in Honiton and other Pillow-made !ace, as a Filling 

Fig. 232. DICE HOLES. 

or a straight Braid. The manner of working it is 
fully explained in Braids, as ifc is easier to learn to 
make it as a Braid than a Filling. See Braids, 


Dieppe Point, — The tw r o centres of the Normandy lace 
trade are Dieppe and Havre, and the manufacture in both 
towns is very ancient, dating hack to before the introduc- 
tion into France of Alcn^on. Normandy laces are among 
those enumerated in the “ Revolt des Passe mens,” a poem 
written upon a protest made to Colbert by the original 




lace workers against the manufacture of Alen^on. 
Brussels, Mechlin, Point de Paris, and Valenciennes were 
all made during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
in Normandy, but the true Dieppe Point was a kind of 
Valenciennes, made with three instead of four threads, 
which received many local names, the narrow make 
being known as Ave Maria and Poussin, the wider and 
double-grounded as Dentelle a la Vierge, of which Fig. 
293, p. 153, is a specimen. The laces of Havre were con- 
sidered superior to those of Dieppe, but the manufacture 
of both was nearly destroyed at the time of the Revolution ; 
and though the Dieppe lace manufactures were restored 
in 1820, and afterwards encouraged by Napoleon III., 
the trade ha3 almost disappeared, owing to the cheap 
machine laces. 

Dimity. — A cotton fabric, originally imported from 
Damietta, the Dimyat of the Arabs. It is made both 
striped and cross-barred, plain and twilled, and is stout in 
texture, being made of double thread, with the pattern 
raised. The designs are various, and some are not only 
embossed, but printed. This fabric is employed for bed- 
room hangings and furniture, for other articles, and 
was in old times utilised for women’s petticoats. It is 
made in two widths, 27 inches and 32 inches. 

Dimity Binding. — This i3 also called Bed Lace, and is 
a kind of Galloon, having plain edges, and a pattern 
raised in the weaving down the centre of the braid. It 
may also be had twilled and in diamond patterns. It 
is sold by the gross, in two pieces, of 72 yards each. 

Distaff. — An implement formerly employed in spinning 
flax, tow, or wool. It consisted of a staff, round which 
the yarn was wound; in early times it was held under 
the arm of the spinster, and subsequently placed upright 
in a stand before her. The distaff was introduced into 
England, by the Italians, in the fifteenth century. 

Doeskin Clotli. — This cloth is distinguished by having 
a smooth dressing on the upper surface. It is made of 
different qualities in thickness and colour, and employed 
for clerical garments and riding trousers. The single- 
milled doeskins measure from 27 inches to 29 inches in 

Doeskin Leather. — This leather, being softer and 
more pliant than buckskin, is employed for riding and 
driving gloves. It is thick, durable, and, being dressed 
in a particular manner, w T ashes Veil. The seat of the 
manufacture of doeskin gloves is at Woodstock, Oxon. 

Doeskins. — These woollen stuffs are classed among 
Narrow Cloths, and so distinguished from Broad 
Cloths (which see). 

Domett. — A plain cloth, of open make, of which the 
warp is of cotton and the w eft of wool. It is a description 
of Baize, and resembles a kind of white flannel made in 
Germany. It is manufactured both in white and black, 
the former of 28 inches in width, the latter of 36 inches, 
and there are 46 yards in the piece. Both kinds are used 
as lining materials in articles of dress, and in America to 
line coffin caskets. 

Dornick. — This is also written Darnev and Vorneh. A 

stout Damask linen, made at Tournay, or Doornik, or 
Dorneck, in Flanders, for hangings, as well as for table 

Domock. — Also known as DorrocJc. A coarse linen 
cloth, closely resembling Diaper, decorated with a pattern 
of checkers in the weaving. It is made for household 
purposes, and chiefly for table cloths. It takes its name 
from the town, in Sutherlandshire, on the Firth of 
Domock, where it is manufactured. It is also made at 
Norwich ; the weaving of “Dornick” was a pageant 
paraded before Queen Elizabeth on her visit to that 

Dorsetshire Lace. — From the time of Charles II. to 
the middle of the eighteenth century Dorsetshire was 
celebrated both for its Bone and Point laces, which were 
considered the best productions of the English market, 
and were not inferior to the laces of Flanders. Blandford, 
Sherborne, and Lyme Regis were the towns that produced 
the best kinds. No specimens of the lace seem to have 
been preserved, but it is believed to have been a kind 
of Point d’Argentan. After the trade declined, no lace 
seems to have been made in Dorsetshire, but at the present 
time, along the coast, and at Lyme Regis, Honiton lace 
sprigs are manufactured. 

Dorsonr. — A species of cloth, made in Scotland, ex- 
pressly for the wall-bangings of halls or chapels, to supply 
the place of Tapestry. The name is probably a corruption 
of Dorsal, derived from the Latin Dorsum , the back. 
These hangings were probably placed behind the altar 
or the seats, or employed as portieres, to preserve the 
people from draughts behind them at the entrance doors. 

Dot. — An Embroidery stitch used in all kinds of 
fancy work, and known as Point de Pois, and Point d’Or. 
To make: Outline a small round, and Overcast it. 
Work in the stitches all one way, and fill up the round 
space with them. 

Dotted Stitch.— Dot is the right term. 

Double Bar. — A stitch used in the making of Macrame 
lace. To work : Work with three or four strands of 
thread, according to the thickness of the Bar required, 
and tie these together with a succession of Macrame 

Double Coral Stitch. — An Embroidery stitch much 
used in Ticking Work and for ornamenting linen. It is 
composed of a straight centre line, with long Button- 
hole stitches branching from it on each side, in a 
slanting direction, and at even distances. To work : Bring 
the thread up in the line, hold it down in a straight line, 
and at a short distance from where it came up, put the 
needle in on the right side of this line, in a slanting 
direction, bring it out in the straight line and over 
the thread held down, and draw up thread; repeat the 
stitch on the left side, then on the right, and continue 
working stitches on the left and right of the centre line. 
See Embroidery Stitches. 

Double Crochet. — A stitch used in Crochet, and 
made as follows : Put the cotton round the hook, and 
draw it through the foundation; cotton again round hook, 
and draw it through the two loops. See Crochet. 



Double Cross Stitch.— An Embroidery Stitch used 
in Cross Stitch Embroidery when both sides of the 
work are required alike. See Point Sans Evers, Em- 
broidery Stitches. 

Double Diamonds. — A stitch in Macrame Lace, made 
with a slanting thread covered with Macrame Knots, 
worked like Single Diamonds, but with twelve threads 
upon each side and two Leaders. See Diamonds. 

Fig. 201. DOUBLE CROSS STITCH. -Detail A. 

Another Kind. — A fancy Embroidery Stitch used 
to ornament cloth, linen, and silk materials, and worked 
with fine No. 100 embroidery cotton or purse silk. 
To work: Make a series of evenly-placed Herring- 
bone stitches across the space to be filled, and as wide 
apart as shown in Pig. 294, Detail A. To finish the stitch 
as a plain Double Cross, make a return line of Herring- 
bone in between the points of the Herringbone already 
worked. To finish the stitch as a Double Cross Stitch 
ornamented with Knots, as shown in Fig. 294, Detail A, 
wdiicb is the stitch usually made, return the thread at the 
side of the line already made, so as to make a double line, 
and cross it twice with ornamental Knots. Hold the 
fixed and working threads together, and cross them wdth a 
foundation of Buttonhole stitches, over wdiich work 
Overcast Stitch until a Knot is formed. Secure the 
second line close to the first with a Herringbone (sec Fig. 
295, Detail B), and continue the double line to end of space. 

Double Feather.— A variety of Feather Stitch, and 
worked thus : Hold the material 
in the left hand, bring up the 
cotton, and hold it under the 
left thumb ; put the needle into 
the material on the left side, 
on a level with the place where 
the cotton w T as brought up, but 
one-eighth of an inch away from 
it; make a stitch, slightly slant 
the needle in doing so from 
left to right (see Fig. 296), 
and draw the cotton up, keeping 
the thumb upon it and the 
needle over it. Again insert the 
Fig. 296. Double feather needle to the left on a level 
with the lower part of the last 
stitch, but one-eiglith of an inch from it, and in a 


Fig. 295. DOUBLE CROSS STITCH.- Detail B. 

Then make a single line of Herringbone between the 
points, as in plain Double Cross (Fig. 295, Detail B), 
and ornament the plain line with a double thread 
and Knots. 

slightly slanting direction. Draw up as before. To 
return : Put the needle in to the right of the last stitch, 
as shown by the figures 1 and 2 on Fig. 296, hold the 
cotton with the thumb, and draw it up as before, and 


* 5 6 

repeat tlie stitch to the right. Continue to work two 
stitches to the right and two to the left until the 
space is filled, The beauty of Double Feather consists 
in the perfect Vandyke line it makes down the material 
when worked with regular and even stitches* 

Double Knitting - .^ A stitch in Knitting, which, pro- 
ducing a double instead of a single web, is especially 
useful when light and yet warm articles are to he knitted, 
or stocking heels are to be strengthened* The double 
web is formed by every other stitch of a row being a Slip 
stitch and the intermediate one a Flain stitch; the Slip 
etitcli is worked in the next row, while the Plain stitch, 
worked in the first row, is slipped in the second. To 
knit : Cast on an even number of stitches, miss the first 
stitch, knit one, wool forward, slip the next stitch, pass 
the wool back, knit the next stitch, and continue slipping 
and knitting for the whole of the row; work last stitch 
plain. Second row— knit the slip stitch and slip the 
knitted. To make loose Double Knit tin g, put the wool 
twice round the needle instead of once when knitting. 
£ee Knitting. 

Double Knot. “A knot used in Tatted Crochet, and 
made as follows : Commence with 3 Chain, make a loop 
with the cotton round the left forefinger, and nold it 

down with the thumb (see Fig. 297). Insert the hook 
over the front thread and under back, and draw up the 
thread on to the hook. Now change the arrangement of 
the loop on the left hand with a twist of that hand (see 

Fig. 298, Detail A), and insert the hook, this time under 
the first thread and over the second, then draw the loop 
on to the hook. See Crochet, p. 116, 

Double Long Treble.— A stitch used in Crochet as 
a variety to Treble Crochet, To work : "Wind the 
cotton three times round the hook, put the hook 
through the Foundation, and draw the cotton through 
as a loop, # take cotton on the hook and draw through 
2 loops, and repeat from # 3 times. The stitch is a 
long one, and one not often required, See Crochet. 

Double Overcast Stitch. — This is Buttonhole Stitch 
worked in a straight line. To work : Trace the outline, and 
run along it a straight line of embroidery cotton. Over 
this work an even and continuous series of Buttonholes, 
using the run line as a guide to keep the Buttonholes per- 
fectly even. See Buttonhole Stitch. 

Double Point de Brussels. — A stitch used in needle- 
point laces as a Filling. To work : Make a Buttonhole 
stitch at a distance of one-eighth of an inch from the com- 
mencement of the space to be filled, then a second close 
to it ; miss one- eighth of an inch, carry the thread along 
it as a loop, and work 2 Buttonholes, and continue to 
miss a space and work 2 Buttonholes to the end of the 
row. To work back : In the loops made in the last row 
work 2 Buttonholes, and make loops under the Button- 
holes of the first ro;v. Repeat the second row to the end 
of the space, and work loosely. 

Doubles. — Thick, narrow, black ribbons, made for shoe- 
strings. They arc supposed to he entirely of silk, hut are 
mixed with cotton, and are done up in rolls of 36 yards 
each, four to the gross. The widths are known as two- 
penny, threepenny, sixpenny, and eightpenny. Watered 
Doubles are called Fads. See Bindings. 

Double Satin Stitch. — A Satin Stitch worked over a 
p repared foundation, and similar to Raised Satin Stitch. 

Double Square*— An Embroidery stitch, also known 
as Queen Stitch. It is formed of Long or Satin 
Stitches, arranged as squares, one within the other. To 
work : Make the outside square first, with four Satin 
stitches, then work a smaller square inside it, with four 
shorter Satin stitches. 

Double Stitch.— Used in Berlin Work and in 
Tatting, In Berlin work it is a variety of Tent stitch, 
and made thus : Cross a square of four threads of canvas 
in the centre with a Tent Stitch, and fill up the square 
with a small Tent stitch placed on each side of the first 
made and long Tent stitch. See Berlin Work. 

In Tatting, pass the thread to the back of the hand, 
push the shuttle upwards between first and second finger, 
and draw up, then work the usual Tatting Stitch, See 

Double Warp .—A cotton cloth in which the warp and 
weft are of a uniform size. This kind of calico,’ being 
stout and heavy, is in much request for sheetings. The 
width varies from 2 to 3 yards, 

Doublures.— A French term to signify Linings, 

Dowlas. — A strong, coarse, half unbleached, linen cloth, 
made for sheeting, chiefly manufactured in Yorkshire, 
Dundee, and Forfarshire. It is now almost superseded 
by calico. It is also made and used by the peasantry 
in Brittany for common shirts, aprons, and towels. It 



varies in width from 25 inches to 35 inches, and is to 
be had of various qualities. The threads are round, like 
Russian Crash. See Linen. 

Mistress Quickly.— I bought you a dozen of shirts. 

Falstaff.— D owlas, filthy dowlas ; I have given them away, Ac. 

—Merry Wives of Windsor. 

Down. — The soft and almost stemless feathers of birds, 
such as swans, geese, eider ducks, Ac., and employed in 
needlework for quilting into skirts, quilts,' tea coseys, 
dressing-gowns, Ac. Before using, the feathers undergo 
a process of washing and purification, so as not only to 
cleanse, but to free them from any unpleasant odour. 
Down is sold by the pound, the white being regarded as 
superior to the grey. That of the eider duck is the best 
to be procured for raffs for the neck, muffs, linings of 
hoods, and trimmings for infants’ cloaks. Opera cloaks 
are also made of the white swan’s down. 

D’Oyley. — This was once the name of a woollen stuff, 
but is now that of a small article of Napery (which see). 
It is usually produced with fringed edges, for use at 
dessert, or for the toilet. D’Oyleys are woven in both 
cotton and linen ; in white and in ingrain colours. The 
name appears to be derived from the Dutch dwaele, sig- 
nifying a towel. 

Drabbet. — A description of coarse linen material or 
duck, made at Barnsley. It is heavy in quality, and 
twilled, and is made both undyed and in colours. It may 
be had in widths of 27 inches and 30 inches respec- 

Drab Cloth. — A dun-coloured woollen cloth, woven 
thick, and double-milled; it is employed for overcoats, 
and is manufactured in Yorkshire. 

Drafting. — The drawing or delineating a pattern or 
diagram; it is a technical term employed in reference 
to the execution of outline plans for needlework, and 
the cutting out of materials employed for the same. 

Drap. — The French term signifying Cloth. 

Drape. — A term employed in dressmaking and up- 
holstery, signifying the decorative arrangement of folds. 

Drapery. — A comprehensive term denoting cloth of 
every description. It seems to be derived from the 
French word drap. 

Drap Sanglier. — A loosely made, all-wool French stuff, 
44 inches in width. It is of a rather coarse grain, plainly 
woven, and has a good deal of nap or roughness on the 
face. It is more especially designed for the purposes of 
mourning, and w ill be found lighter in wear, as a spring 
or summer travelling dress material, than its appearance 

Drawbays. — A description of Lasting, being a double 
warp worsted material, employed for making shoes and 
boots, chiefly for women; it. is 18 inches in width. See 

Drawing. — A term employed in reference to the making 
of Gathers, by means of Running or Whipping, when the 
thread used for the purpose must, of course, be drawn 
through the material, in and out of the stitches taken, 
leaving a number of small folds or gathers compressed 

together. This thread is called a Drawing Thread. Rib- 
bons and tapes employed within casings, for the same 
purpose, are called Drawing Strings. 

Drawn Work. — One of the earliest and most ancient 
forms of open work Embroidery, and the foundation of 
Lace. It was known in the tw r elftli century as Opus 
Tiratum, and Panto Tirato, and later as Hamburg Point, 
Indian Work, Broderie de Nancy, Dresden Point, Tonder 
Lace, and Drawn Work, and seems at one time to have 
been known and worked ail over Europe, being used 
largely for ecclesiastical purposes and for the ornamenta- 
tion of shrouds. The ancient specimens of Drawn Work 
still to be seen are of such fine material as to require a 
magnifying glass. They were formed of fine liuen, the 
threads being retained in the parts where the pattern was 

Fig. 290. DRAWN WORK. 

thick, and, where it was open, cut, or drawn aw T ay, so that 
only a sufficient number of warp and woof threads were left 
to keep the work together, and these were Buttonholed 
together (three to each stitch) so as to form a groundwork 
of squares like Netting. The edges of the pattern were 
also Buttonholed over. Fig. 203 is of a later description 
of Drawui Work, and would be known as Indian Work, as 
its foundation is muslin. It is two hundred years old, and, 
as it is unfinished, shows how the threads were drawn away 
an'd those retained for the thick parts of the pattern and 
Buttonholed round. The ground of Fig. 290 is not worked 
in Buttonhole squares, but is made in the Honeycomb 
Reseau ground of lace. The leaves and sprays forming 
the pattern are outlined round with a thread, and then 
Buttonholed before any threads are drawn away. The 
threads going one way of the stuff are then carefully cut 
for a short distance and pulled away, and the Honeycomb 
ground, made with the threads that are left, Overcast 



together in that shape. This kind of Drawn Work is now 
quite obsolete, as is likewise the geometrical, which suc- 
ceeded these grounded flower patterns. In the geometrical 
the threads that were retained were Overcast together, and 
formed patterns without grounds. 

In Fig. 300 is given a pattern of Drawn Work in the 
Reticella style, which has been revived. It is worked as 
follows : Take a piece of coarse linen, and draw warp and 
woof threads away, to form a succession of squares (this 
process has to be very carefully done, or the squares will 
not be perfect). Leave six threads each way between the 
squares to form a support, and commence the work by 
covering these threads. Divide the six threads in the 
centre, and work Point de Reprise thickly over them; 
first throw the thread over the three to the right and bring 

Drawn Work was frequently enriched with Embroidery 
and Lace stitches made with coloured silks. Broderie de 
Nancy, Dresden Point, and Hamburg Point were of this 
description of Drawn Work. Fig. 301 (p. 159) is a modern 
adaptation of this kind, and is made thus: Draw the squares 
out as in the last pattern, leaving sixteen to twenty threads 
between each. Buttonhole round the outer edge of the 
drawn part of the work with coloured silk, and then work 
the Lace stitch. Thread the needle with coloured silk, 
fasten it firmly to the edge, and loop it tw r ice into the side 
of one square ; when it comes to where the threads are 
left, divide them in half, and loop it through one half of 
them ; cross the thread over the thick undrawn parts, and 
continue to loop it twice in every side of the square until 
all the squares are worked round and all the left threads 


it back to the centre, and then over the three to the left 
and bring it back to the centre, as shown in the illus- 
tration. Work until the threads are quite covered. Fill 
the open squares with Buttonhole stitches. Throw a 
thread across the space as a loop, and cover it thickly with 
Buttonholes ; leave it as one line, or continue to throw 
threads and Buttonhole them over and down to the first 
line until the pattern is formed. Where this is done is 
amply shown in the illustration, in many parts of which 
the Buttonholed lines are given half-finished, in others 
completed and ornamented with Picots, while dotted lines 
indicate where other fillings, formed of Buttonholed lines, 
are to come. For the bordering, draw out threads, leave 
an undrawn space between, and work Hem Stitch first on 
one drawn-out line, and then upon the other. Take up 
four threads in every Hem stitch. 

secured. Then work the ornamental Wheel in the centre 
of the open squares upon the loops. Make the Wheels of 
three Buttonholes close together, with a space left between 
the ones made and the next to be worked. Three Button- 
holes are worked in every loop, eight forming a Wheel. 

When Drawn Work is done upon fine linen, muslin, or 
cambric foundations, it is tedious pulling out the threads 
before any design is commenced ; but upon such materials 
as cheese cloth and open linen canvas the whole of the 
material can be drawn without trouble and embroidered. 
The pattern shown (Fig. 302) is intended to be worked 
upon coarse linen, and is made as follows : Draw out a 
succession of squares, leaving sixteen threads between each 
open square. Take coarse knitting cotton or coloured silk, 
and -work down each square, twisting the left threads 
thus : Pick up the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth threads 



upon the needle, and twist them over the first four threads ; 
draw the needle and silk through them, and pick up the 
thirteenth, fourteenth, fifteenth, and sixteenth threads 

coarse cheese cloth. It is ornamented with fine chenille 
or wool instead of silk, and is worked thus : Draw out 
squares on the material, leaving eight threads between 


and draw them over the tenth, eleventh, twelfth, and 
thirteenth threads \ work in this way all down the left 
threads, then turn the work, and work from the side in 

each square. Make Lono Ckoss stitches as in Berlin 
Work, with various coloured chenilles or wools, to 
secure the threads that are left. Work the under or dark 
line of stitches first, fasten the dark coloured chenille into 
one of the open squares, miss the open square upon the 

Fig. 303 h Drawn Work, 

Fig* 302, Drawn Work* 

the same manner, knotting the silk together where it 
meets, as shown in the illustration* 

Fig. 303 is a pattern intended to be worked upon 

next row, and loop into the square on the right in the third 
row, making the first half of a Cross Stitch. Bring the 
needle out to the left through the open space on that side 
and finish the Cross stitch by returning it back to the first 
row into the space on the right hand to where it first 



began. Continue to make this Cross stitch until all the 
spaces are filled or covered over. Then take liglit 
Chenille, and work with it over the dark Chenille in 
the same stitch, looping it into the squares that were 
only covered in the first row. 

The borders that can be made with Brawn Work are 
very numerous, and arc much used as ornamental finishes 
to Embroideries upon linen and other washing materials, 
not only in needlework coming from India, Turkey, and 
Arabia, but by English ladies for Ecclesiastical linen and 
Crewel Work. The first of the stitches used is Hem 
Stitch, to secure the threads, but after that Fancy 
Stitches are worked to embellish them. Fig. 301 shows 

Fig. SOi. Dhawn Woke, 

two stitches much employed for borders. To work the one 
on the left hand : Draw out the thread one way of the stuffs 
to the width of three-quarters of an inch, and commence 
the work on the wrong side of the material, holding it so 
that the left threads are in a horizontal position, and work 
in a straight line down them and close to the undrawn 
material. Secure the thread, and make the Hem stitch, 
thus : Take up eight threads on the needle, and loop them 
with the thread, as if making a Buttonhole Stitch : 
Draw up tight, make a short stitch into the material 
to secure the thread, and make another Hem stitch ■ then 
take up eight more threads on the needle and repeat. 
Work down one side and then down the other, at the 
top and bottom of the drawn-out space. Insert a centre 
line made of crochet cotton, twist the threads round it; 
take four threads from the first Ilem stitch and four 
from the nest for each twist, to give the plaited look 
to the threads shown in the illustration. For the 
stitch upon the right-hand side of Fig, 301, Draw out 
threads to the w idth required, and work at the back of 
the material, holding it as before- mentioned \ Hemstitch 
as before at the top and bottom of the space, but 
inclose four threads instead of eight in every Hem stitch. 
Cover with a line of Button hole the threads composing 
every seventh Hem stitch, and make a narrow slanting 
line running across the six Hem stitches between the ones 
Buttonholed, with four Buttonholes worked across every 
two stitches. 

Fig, 305 is worked thus : Draw out the threads length- 
ways of the material. First draw out six, then leave three, 
draw out another six, leave three, draw out twelve, leave 
three, draw out twelve, leave three, draw out six, leave 
three, draw out six, and leave three. Then Buttonhole 
the top and bottom edges of the drawn space (use 
fine lace cotton for so doing), and secure the left threads 
together in loops at the same time, making six threads 
into one loop. Make a loop by twisting the cotton twice 
round the six threads and drawing it up. Turn the 
work, and hold it as before mentioned. Work the second 

line in Hem Stitch as before described, and for the 
third line make a Chain Stitch line with cotton down 
the centre, drawing up twelve threads in every Chain 
stitch. Repeat the Chain and Hem Stitch lines for the 
remaining spaces. 

To work Fig. 303: Draw out threads of the material 
one-eighth of an inch deep, leave three threads, draw out 
threads for a space of half an inch, then leave three 
threads and draw out for one -eighth of an inch. Work at 
the back of the material from left to right. Take up six 
threads on the needle, and make them into a loop by 
twisting the thread twice round them, run the needle 
slantwise through the three threads left undrawn, then 
take three of the threads just secured, and three in front 

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Fig. 30EL Brawn Work. 

of them, and make a loop of them, upon the side of the 
three undrawn threads nearest the centre of the work. 
Continue to work these two loops, one upon each side of 
the left three threads, until the line is finished. Work the 
line similar to this, and opposite it before the centre line. 
For the centre line : Take one cluster of six threads and 
three threads from the cluster upon each side, and Qvek- 
cast them together, keeping the Knot thus made in the 
centre of the line. Finish each Knot off, and do not carry 
the cotton from one to the other. 

To work Fig. 307 : Draw out an inch of lengthways 
threads on the material, and leave at equal distances 
apart in this space. Work at hack of the material 
with lines of Hem Stitch at the top and bottom of 
the space, and along lines made with the centre lines; 
the threads that are left use as a groundwork for the 
three centre lines of Hem Stitch. Secure six threads with 
every Hem stitch, take three from one stitch and three 
from the next in the second line. Work the original 



six together for the third line, and repeat the second and 
third line for the fourth and fifth. The Hem stitching 
being finished, ornament it by Overcasting two stitches 

Fig. 307 , Drawn ^Vatle, 

together with coloured silt, and work these Overcast 
stitches in a Vandyke line over the whole of the inch of 
Drawn threads, as shown in Fig. 307. 

To work Fig. 80S ; Draw out six threads of the material, 
and leave three threads, then draw out threads to an inch 
in depth of the material, then leave three threads, and 
draw out six threads. Work lines of Buttonhole down 
the upright threads in the centre space upon the right 

Fia. S03. Drawn Work, 

side of the material, and take in four threads into each 
line. When all the threads are Buttonholed over, take a 
narrow piece of ribbon, and run it through the lines thus : 
Take up the third line and twist it over the first, put the 
ribbon over it, and pass the ribbon through the second 
line, twist the first line over the second and third, and pass 
the ribbon over it. Treat all the Buttonholed lines in 
this way. 

Dresden Point. — The exact date of the introduction 
of lace making into Germany is still a matter of dispute, 
hut there is no doubt that the movement owed much of its 
success to the labours of Barbara U ttmann (born 1514, 
died 1575), who, with the hope of lessening the poverty of 
her countrywomen, founded a lace school at Annaberg, 
and, with assistance from Flanders, taught Pillow lace* 
making to 30,000 persons. To her labours may be added 
tbe kelp given to the manufactory by the constant passing 
over into Germany of French and Spanish refugees, many 
of whom brought with them tlie secrets of their various 
trades. For some time the laces of Germany were simply 
copies of the common peasant laces made in France and 
Spain, and were only known to, and bought by, the non- 
weal thy classes, but gradually copies of better kinds of 
laces were attempted, and Silk Blondes, Plaited Gold 
and Silver Laces, Point d'Espagne, Brussels and Mech- 
lin laces produced. Dresden became celebrated during 
the last part of the seventeenth century, and for the whole 


of the eighteenth, not for a Pillow lace, hut for a Drawn 
lace, an imitation of the Italian Punto Tirato, in which a 
piece of linen was converted into lace by some of its 
threads being drawn away, some retained to form a 
pattern, and others worked together to form square 
meshes. This Dresden Point was likewise embroidered 
with fine stitchery, and was largely bought by the wealthy 
during the time of its excellence. Its manufacture has 
now died out, and Dresden only produces either coarse 
Pillow lace or imitations of old Brussels. 

Dressed Pillow. — A term used by lace makers to 
intimate that all the accessories necessary for tbe art are 
in their proper positions. These are : A Pillow (for 
Honiton lace this is fiat, for Brussels round, for Saxony 
long), (see Pillow), three covers for the same ( see Cover 
Cloths), a hank of lace thread, a hank of shiny thread 
known as a G imp, four dozen pairs of bobbins, lace plus 
and common pin% a small soft pincushion, a needle pin or 
darning needle with a sealing wax bead, a fine crochet 

Fra, 30EC DRESSED PILLOW, with Lack in Process of Mae iso. 

book, a bobbin bag, a pair of sharp scissors in sheath, and 
a passement pattern. The bobbin hag is made shorter 
than the bobbins, and stitched up in compartments, so 
that each division holds twelve pairs of bobbins; it is 
finished with a little tongue by which to pin it to tlie 
Pillow, as arc also the pincushion and the scissor sheath. 
The fine crochet hook is required to make the Sewings, 
and is stuck into the pincushion, with the pins and the 
darning needle, the latter being required to prick patterns 
and wind up thread. 

The Pillow is dressed as follows : Lay the under Cover 
Cloth on the Pillow before the passement is adjusted, then 
the passement, over whose lower end pin a second cover 
cloth, to lie under the bobbins and protect them from 
getting entangled in the pricked pattern. Tim pin- 
cushion, the scissor sheath, and bobbin bag, pin on to 
the right-hand side of the pillow, to be out of the way 
of the work ; the Pillow is then ready to receive the 
bobbins and commence the lace. Fig, 309 illustrates a 




Dressing Frame. — A frame shaped like the trunk of 
a human body to the waist, and thence extending outwards 
like the skirt of a dress. It is made of steel wires, and 
upon it dresses and skirts are placed for the purpose of 
draping, and otherwise arranging the costume in making it. 

Dressmaking. — The first step to be taken in Dress- 
making is to cut out the material. For all rules of general 
application, as well as for certain notes having especial 
reference to Dressmaking, see Cuttinq-out. 

Dressed Pillow, with a piece of Lace Braid in making upon 
it. The first Cover Cloth is tied on with ribbons ; the 
second at the lower end of the Pillow is shown white. The 
passement is covered with the Lace already made, which is 
secured to it by the pins pushed through its pricked holes 
in the process of working. The tuft of threads at the top 
of the Pillow show where the bobbin threads are tied 
together and pinned on to the pattern, the Passive Bobbins 
are laid down over the second Cover Cloth, while the 


Workers are pinned up on each side of the passement, 
not to become entangled. 

Dressing. — The stiffening, or glaze, applied to silk, 
linen, or cotton fabrics, to give an artificial substance 
and firmness. It is made of china clay, starch, or gum. 
In the selection of Calico and Longcloth for underlinen, 
it is expedient to rub the end of the piece to remove the 
Dressing, so as the better to ascertain the real quality 
and substance of the cloth, which is sometimes much 
disguised by it, and thus given a fictitious excellence. 

The above diagrams (Fig. 310) will indicate to the dress- 
maker the exact method of taking measurements by means 
of a measuring-tape, thus obviating the necessity for 
supplying further directions. The tape marks show the 
manner in which the measurements are to be taken from 
point to point. 

Commencing with the shirt , the following may be 
regarded as the order in which the work is to be carried 
out : Always run the seams down from top to bottom, 
so that if any unevenness should occur it may be pared off 



from the latter edge, but if cut out accurately there will be 
nothing to spare. When a gored edge is put next a 
selvedge, take great care that it be not stretched, nor 
too loosely fixed to the other piece. Begin by uniting 
the gores on either side nearest the front width, then the 
next gores to those right and left, and so on to the back. 
The stitching should be \ inch from the edges, the placket 
hole opening left unjoined in the scam of the back width 
on the left hand side, which is the usual place for it, if the 
skirt or tunic be separate from the bodice. If the dress be 
unlined, sew over each edge of the scams separately, using 
fine cotton, and neither work too closely, nor pull the 
thread tightly. When all are over-sewn, press open the 
joins with an iron, by laying a wooden roller longwise up 
the joins underneath them, on the right side of the dress, 
and ironing up the centre of the separated edges on the 
wrong side. Very stout or springing materials need a 
damp cloth laid over the scam to be pressed. A broom 
handle is the best roller, and it is well w'orth while for 
one to be kept for the purpose, covered with two or 
three layers of ironing cloth sewn round it. By using 
a roller the heater only presses on the actual stitching 
of the scam, and not on the turnings, the marks of 
w r hich always show through on the right side, if the 
seani3 be pressed open on a table. With silk it is better 
to lay a dry cloth over the seam to be ironed on, instead 
of rubbing the heater immediately upon the silk. The very 
delicately tinted, such as French grey, dove, and lavender, 
must not have a very hot iron applied; and it is better 
not to rest the seam on a roller, but to get tw r o persons 
to hold the scams, at the top and bottom, pulling firmly, 
while a third shall pass the iron up and down the parted 
edges of the join. Cotton and other washing skirts do not 
need the turnings quite so wide as \ inch, and the two edges 
are sewn over together instead of being opened. Gauze, 
thin barege, or any yielding, flimsy material, is usually 
joined by a Mantua Maker’s Hem, and, whenever possible, 
the selvedge of it is used for the turning which is hemmed 
dowm, thus saving an extra fold of the stuff. 

If the dress be gored, but not lined, and a shaped facing 
used, tack it smoothly round the bottom after the seams 
have been pressed, and then Hem the cover and lining 
up to the 1£ inches allowed in the length when it w r as cut, 
of course only putting the needle into the hem and the 
lining, not taking it through to the face. The top edge 
must be hemmed with small stitches taken very far apart, 
and with fine silk or cotton. 

With petticoats, or round skirts that are little gored, it 
is quicker not to stitch up the hem after the. facing is 
tacked in, but to place the right side of the facing against 
the right side of the skirt, and projecting beyond it as 
much as the hem of stuff which has been accounted for ; 
then run the dress stuff against the facing, \ inch within the 
edge, and afterwards turn the facing over on to the inside 
of the skirt, and hem down the upper edge. Pull the lining 
up a little higher than the actual depth of the hem, so as 
to make the extreme edge of the dress of double material. 

Whatever trimming, in the way of flounces, &c., has 
been prepared, is now put on the skirt. Begin with the 
bottom row in horizontal trimming, and fix it by having 

the hem, and not the waist, of the skirt over the left arm 
while the running is executed ; the trimming being first 
fixed in its place with pins. Work diagonal and longi- 
tudinal puffs, quillings, or ruches from the waist to the 
feet, and be careful that the fulness of puffs decrease 
tow r ards the top. These trimmings, however, mostly apply 
to ball dresses, and in making transparent skirts, it is 
more convenient to leave a join (one of those next the 
train) open, until after the trimmings have all been put 
on, and join it up subsequently; for if they be of net, 
tarlatan, grenadine, tulle, or gauze, the running on of such 
flounces or puffs should be done from the inside of the 
skirt, as the drawing threads and pins are as plainly visible 
from that as the right side, and there being then nothing 
in which the sewing cotton can be caught, the work is more 
rapid, and becomes les3 tumbled. Always use a long straw 
needle, No. 5 or G, and avoid coarse cotton. 

After the trimming, make the placket hole, which needs 
a facing on the right-hand side, and a false hem on the 
left, when the placket fastens behind. Cut the facing and 
false hem on the bias or the straight, according to the 
breadth to which they are attached, and the false hem 
ought to be quite 1$ inches w r ide. 

Next sew on the waistband, and let it be as much 
longer than the wmist, as the placket hole’s False Hem i3 
wide. Turn dowm the waist edge for the % inch allowed in 
the cutting, and sew the top of the False Hem for its width 
to the left end of the band, and stitch two eyes on in a 
line with the sewing of the false hem. Pin the band with 
its right side to that of the skirt, and hold it with the 
band towards you, w r hile sewing the two together strongly. 
The fulness, which is either pleated, or gathered at the 
back of the waist, must also be kept from you while being 
sewm to the belt. The size of the gathers depends on the 
quantity of the skirt to be gathered into a certain space, 
but the stitches arc usually made an inch long on the 
wrong side, and very small on the right, so that when the 
gathering thread is drawm up, the inch is folded in half, 
and makes Gathers I inch deep. Sew these to the band at 
their threaded edge, and then sew them over at the oppo- 
site one, so as to keep all the corners regular, and make 
the Gathers set in uniform folds. Sew r the hooks a little 
way in from the right hand end of the band, and a third 
one, with eye corresponding, to keep up the lapped piece 
which holds the false hem. Sixes arc the best sized hooks 
for w T aistbands. 

Make the pocket from the -same stuff as the body 
lining, the sides sloped off to a point at the top. Face the 
opening for the hand with dress material, and put a 
strip of the same on the inside of the pocket opposite 
the opening, so as not to show the w r hite lining when the 
pocket-hole bulges. Dot the edge of the pocket either with 
a Mantua Maker’s Hem, or stitch it on the inside close 
to the edges, turn it inside out, and stitch it round again, 
so as to inclose the raw turnings. The top of the pocket 
should be about 9 inches from the waist. 

Put the braid on last of all, and it looks and wears 
better if folded in half, width way, and so used double. 
Hem it on, and slightly ease it if coloured, as it shrinks 
from damp. Black, and some chirk shades will bear 

Y 2 



shrinking prior to use, and whenever the shade will stand 
the process, it is better to plunge the braid in boiling 
water, that the scalding and subsequent drying may 
prevent the necessity of easing it in hemming. 

In making the bodice , Tack the lining, which has been 
cut and fitted on, to the covering material near the edge 
all round, including both sides of the darts, but the hem 
tacking should be further in than the others. When every 
part of the lining is Basted to the material, and cut out by 
it (leaving no margin beyond the lining, unless it be of a 
stuff that frays greatly), turn down the fronts, and Run 
them near the folded edge, to keep them in shape until 
the buttons and buttonholes be added, which will then fix 
the front Hems, the turnings of which are not actually 
hemmed down. After Tacking down the fronts, stitch the 
seams, doing so closely, and being cautious to hold both 
edges with equal firmness. Join down the centre of the 
back next, then attach the side pieces to it, by stitching 
the edges together on the inside, if there be two or more 
side pieces ; but when there is only one on each side, they 
are sometimes stitched on from the outside, the edge of the 
side piece being tacked down and Basted in place on the 
back, and then stitched very near the folded edge; but this 
is not an unalterable rule, and depends on whether the 
taste of the day be to make seams conspicuous, or as little 
observable as possible. The under arm seams follow, after 
the side pieces are done, and then the shoulders. Always 
begin the stitching of joins and darts at the top, and so 
work downwards. Shave off any ravellings, and then 
oversew the cover and lining together, on cither side of 
each seam, and press them open. The seam from neck 
to arm is not opened, but the four layers are oversewn 
together, and the piece turned towards the back, when 
the sleeve and neckband are added, which then confines 
the ends of this shoulder seam. With a clear bodice, such 
as Swiss, book, or organdie muslin, join the shoulders 
by a Mantua Maker’s Hem, if both fronts and back be 
plain ; but if the fronts be full and the back plain, tack 
a piping cord, laid in a crossway casing, on the back 
parts, and stitch the fronts to it. When a very thick 
cord is laid lip all the bodice seams, to act as a trimming, 
cut away the ends of the cord, when it reaches the 
seam into which it has to be stitched, like a pencil point, 
until only enough of its centre remains to be held securely 
in the stitching. If this thick cording be used for the 
backs of bodices in which there are side pieces, which 
run into the shoulder seam, that seam is then turned 
forwards, instead of backwards, when the collar and sleeves 
are put in. 

Now make the buttonholes on the right front hem, 
and mark their relative positions, each being sewn over 
with fine cotton before it is worked with the twist. 
Buttonholes with “bar” ends are nicest for silk, 
washing, and thin stuff dresses; but real cloth ought to 
have proper tailors’ buttonholes. If silk, velvet, or other 
buttons without shanks be used, in sewing them on take 
up so much of their base through the dress at the back 
that the buttonhole, when extended over it, will not spread, 
causing a looseness between each buttonhole. Thus, in 
order to leave room for the shank of the button, a little of 

the hole should be cut away. A buttonhole, thus wider one 
end than the other, must be worked roimd both ends 
radiatingly, instead of with bars. “ Medium ” twist (there 
arc three sizes) is best for most dress materials, but 
“ coarse ” is best for extra thick serge or cloth. 

If there should be any trimming over the shoulder, or 
down the fronts, ending at the basque edge, waistband, or 
throat, it must now be put on, so that the ends may be 
enclosed. When those parts are finished off, put on the 
bodice, and button it up, and place a tacking thread where 
the trimming is to go, as it is almost impossible to 
obtain a correct square, or equidistant Brctelles, &c., by 
sight alone, when the bodice is in the hand. It is quite 
easy for the worker to do this for herself by standing 
before a mirror, placing pins where the trimming is to be, 
and winding a cotton from one to another of those pins. 
The back, being a Hat surface, can be marked for the 
trimming when the bodice is taken off. While it is on, see 
that the neck is of a right height, particularly where the 
shoulder seams end, and quite at the back, for if at all too 
high there it will drag into creases. Put the neck band 
on next. If a straight one of even height, cut it from 
the straight of the material, and used it double, stitch one 
edge on at the right side, and Fell the other down on 
the wrong, but if very stout or rough, it must be of one 
thickness for the outside, and a strip of silk run to 
its top edge, and Felled down for the inside, over the 
stitching made by the exterior of the band. Should the 
neck band be one of those that stand out from the throat, 
and are deeper at the back than the front, cut it of that 
shape in book muslin, and cut the muslin (used as a 
stiffener), the material, and its inner lining, with the direct 
cross of the stuff at the centre. In sewing on neck bands 
or collars, do not draw them in the least degree. 

Cord the armholes now, if desired. Lay the cord in 
the centre of a f inch bias casing and tack it there, so as 
to use the cording ready made round the armhole, instead 
of embedding the cord at the same time as tacking it on 
the dress. Commence it immediately under the arm, not 
at the seam, and cross the beginning and ending of the 

The lower edge of the bodice has next to be seen to. 
If one with a waistband, first run the tapes for whalebones 
down the opened and pressed seams, at the darts and 
under the arms, leaving the tops of the tapes (which 
should not reach the armhole by 2k inches) open for the in- 
sertion of the bones, when everything else has been done, 
for v r hen stitching in the sleeves it is easier to handle if 
it be limp. Cut the bodice the right length, and i inch 
additional in the first place, and then tack up the J inch, and 
put a w ide (1 inch) twilled tape on the inside, stitching it 
from the outside close to the edge, and afterwards 
hemming up the top of the tape. 

A basque should be corded or faced on the inside, but 
must never be itself hemmed up. Cut the facing on the 
cross, 1 \ inches wide, and run it with its right side on that 
of the basque about 4 inch from the edge, and afterwards 
turn it over to the inside and hem it up. Before running 
on the facing, pull its edge so as to stretch it, to make it 
take a better curve for the first running ; by doing so the 


inner edge can be hemmed tip flatly, without having to 
make any pleats, unless the basque describes a point, or be 
deeper in the middle than the sides, or vice versa , 

The sleeves are put in last. If of a plain coat shape, 
lay the right sides of the linings together, and place 
this on the top of the exterior stuff, which is also put face 
to face ; then stitch all four through together, the hand 
ins eiied between the two linings, so as to draw the sleeve 
through, and thus turn the top layer of lining over to the 
under side of the stuff, when the sleeve, though inside out, 
will he completely lined, and the raw edges hidden by 
being under the lining. If the coat sleeve be so tight as 
to require pleats at the elbow, to give the arm play, the 
joining ought not to be done in the foregoing way, but the 
linings should he tacked to the stuff, and the halves 
stitched together and Oversewn* With sleeves so fitting 
the arm as to need pleats, care must he taken not to leave 
the lining in the least degree loose, or the strain then put 
on its cover will make it ravel out at the seams. The 
margin beyond the joining should not be more than | inch. 
Transparent materials, such as gauze or grenadine, are 
sometimes lined, and then the stuff and lining should be 
all closed together in the way first mentioned. While the 
sleeve is inside out, run a band 2 inches wide on the edge 
of the sleeve, by putting the band against its right side, 
and so farthest from you. Begin it at the inner seam 
of the arm, and on reaching the outer one, ease in the 
baud a little, and when again arrived at the inner seam, 
fasten off, and then turn the waist facing down on the 
sleeve lining, and Fell if there, before closing the opening 
at the seam with blind or Slip stitches* These are 
made by inserting the needle under the fold of the hem, 
and running it in and out between the two inner sides, 
out of sight, so as to form an invisible connection be- 
tween them* When a sleeve is to be trimmed by straight 
rows of braid at the cuff, leave the inner seam undone 
till the last, so as to lay the sleeve out flat for the 
trimming, and when the seam is closed, stitch in the 
ends of the braid. The ouff should be made up sepa- 
rately, and applied to the sleeve by Slip -stitching the 
two at the waist, letting the cuff project the smallest 
possible degree beyond the edge. AU cuff's should be made 
on book muslin, whether deep and plain, ornamental, or 
only a band dividing two frills. Sleeves that are in puffs 
downwards, take the same extra length as do puffs that go 
round— viz., about half as much again for opaque materials, 
but net or tulle requires rather more, and these filmy 
tissues arc made on a foundation of the same, to keep the 
puffs in place. Begin the runnings at the shoulder end, 
commencing at the middle first (that where the elbow 
seam is), and bring the rest nearer together towards 
the wrist, so that the puffs may not be as large there 
as at the top, then secure all with pins to regulate the 
fulness, and run down with fine cotton. For puffs that 
go round the arm run a cord at the required distances, 
for a thread alone does not give sufficient support. The 
same rule applies to muslin, gauze, or grenadine, when 
puffed longitudinally without a foundation. To prevent 
their falling to the wrist w T hen the sleeves are gathered 
across, and are unimed, sew a cord, the length of the 


arm, from running to running, at the seam, and put a 
second cord in more immediately under the arm. With 
net or tulle, whether the puffs go up or round makes no 
difference to the lay of the material ; they must he laid in 
the direction of the selvedge from shoulder to hand. For 
short sleeves for ball dresses cut the deepest part directly 
on the cross of the lining, and when covered by a little 
puff, make this by a bias strip, and pleat fully as long again 
as the lining. Single puff it rather than gather, doing the 
top edge first in small single pleats all turned one way, 
and then the lower edge, but turn the pleats there in 
the opposite direction to those at the top. The mouth of 
the sleeve may he faced with a narrow ribbon, or corded. 
For long hanging sleeves cut the longest part on the 
straight way of the material. Transparent bodices with 
low linings, have long transparent sleeves over short thick 
ones, the edge is piped, and short and long sleeves arc 
tacked together, that they may be attached to the arm- 
hole by one stitching. The stitching must be very firm, 
and with stout thread, and the raw edges should be sew T n 
over. When no cording is put round the armholes, take 
care not to pull it on the sleeve, and in addition to firm 
stitching, Hem a silk ribbon over the turnings, the ribbon 
being of the precise width to allow of hemming each 
edge on the line of stitches made by putting in the 

Low bodices may be finished at the neck in two ways. 
Sometimes the edge is turned down, and a A inch wide 
sarsenet ribbon hemmed over it on the inside, the ribbon 
being used as a runner for a string (silk lacc) to draw the 
top to the figure ; the other plan is to cord the edge ivith 
a fine piping cord, as the neck can be drawn in a little 
when this is being done. If a low body be fastened behind 
and have a seam up the front, place a bone up the join, 
from its extreme eud to within 2 inches of the top, and put 
a bone in every gore seam, but do not carry it high, for 
if so the tops of the bones w ill press outwards and push 
through. In most cases the scams of low bodices are 
so shallow, that they do not need opening, but will in 
themselves act as bone cases. If the lower edge of a low 
body be peaked or basqued, cord it either single or double, 
and take great care to turn the peak point well, by taking 
two or three secure stitches, when the centre is reached, 
after going down one side, before turning the piping to 
go up the other, and do not allow any easiness in the 
piping at the bend, or it will not be a sharp turn. 

For double cording, lay a cord under each edge of a 
crossway strip, then fold It so as to inclose the raw edges 
in the middle of the casing, allowing one cord to lie below 
the other, and run them together close to the lower. Then 
place this face downwards on the edge to be piped, and fix 
it to that part with an occasional Back Stitch, using 
the last row of running as a guide to sew by. The folded 
edge of the piping is then ready to he hemmed to the 
lining without making a turning. This is a quick method, 
and answers for straight lines, hut it will not do for curves, 
as the outer cord would have to describe a wider circle 
than the inner one, and so would be strained. For proper 
double or treble cording, tack each into its own casing, 
and run on separately by first putting on the one nearest 


1 66 

to the dress, then run the second cord over the first, so a3 
to project beyond it, and the third beyond the second, in 
the same way, finally laying a crossway piece over the 
last cording, and turning it over to be Felled up on the 
inside, and so hiding the numerous raw edges. 

Square necks should be piped, and sharp turning at the 
comers is essential ; but while in turning a peak there will 
be a piece to fold over there, when felling up in the corners 
of a hollow square it will be reversed, and the casing of 
the piping must be snipped in a precise line with the 
corner, quite up to the cord itself, that the angle may be 

Polonaises , dressing gowns, mantles, and such like long 
garments are frequently made to meet, but not lap at the 
front, and, when so, use hooks and eyes to connect them, 
placing a hook and an eye alternately on either side, 
so as to prevent their coming undone. After they are 
6ewn on, lay a sarsenet ribbon over the shanks, leaving 
only the ends of the hooks, and two-thirds of the eyes 

In reference to the many varieties of form, and of trim- 
ming, which the fashion of each season may prescribe, the 
dressmaker must be guided by the illustrations provided in 
the periodicals of the current time, and by the paper 
patterns of the same. The method of making various 
descriptions of trimmings, and the signification of the 
terms employed in the construction of dresses, such 
as Box Pleating, Flouncing, Fringing, Gathering, 
Gauging, Honeycombing, Pleating, Puffing, Quil- 
ling, Quilting, Reeving, Ruching, Slashing, &c., 
will be found described under their respective headings. 

Drills. — A very stout linen twilled cloth, having a treble 
cord; it may be had unbleached, white, and in colours, and 
is used for summer trousers. It is less thick and heavy 
than Duck, and somewhat resembles thick twilled Holland, 
and is suitable for men’s wear in India and other hot 
countries. It is much used in the navy and army, and is 
also useful for boys. 

Droguet. — A French term for a worsted Rep-made dress 
material, not much known at present, or else under a 
different name. 

Dropped Stitch. — In Knitting, a stitch is frequently 
slipped off the needle without the knitter being aware of 
the mistake, and speedily runs down through the rows, 
and, unless picked up, destroys the whole work. This is 
called a Dropped stitch, and is detected by the loop head- 
ing the line which a stitch forms in the Knitting becoming 
disconnected from the rest of the work. The number of 
stitches should be constantly counted during the progress 
of Knitting, and when a stitch is found short, the work if 
fine and complicated, unpicked until the loop is reached, 
or if in plain Knitting the stitch picked up thus : Take a 
medium sized Crochet hook, put it through the Dropped 
loop, stretch the Knitting out straight and Chain Stitch 
the loop up the line of threads above it until the last row 
of Knitting is reached, when slide it on to the Knitting 
needle in its proper place in the work. 

Drugget. — A coarse cloth made of Felt, and printed in 

various patterns and colours, not only employed as a carpet 
and to underlie carpets — to preserve them from being cut 
and worn, and to render them softer to the tread — but also 
employed as linings for rugs made of skins. They should 
measure 1J yards in width, but are rarely found to exceed 
li yards. 

Ducliesse Lacc. — A beautiful Pillow lace, a variety of 
Point dc Flandrc or Brussels lace made in Belgium, and 
similar in workmanship and design to Honiton Guipure 
Lace, the patterns of which originally came from abroad. 
Ducliesse Lace is worked with a finer and different thread 
to that of Honiton, and the leaves, fiowers, and sprays 
formed are larger and of bolder design, the Primrose 
flower and leaf of Brussels Lace being the design chiefly 
worked. It contains a greater amount of the Raised or 
Relief work, that distinguishes the best Honiton, but the 
stitches and manner of working in both are the same, and 

Fig. 311. Duchesse Lace. 

a reference to the instructions for Honiton Lace will teach 
the worker how to form the sprays of Duchesse Lace. 

When working Duchesse Lace unite the large sprigs 
together with the ground described as Devonia Ground, 
and fill in other open places with the same ground. Work 
nearly all the leaves and Flowers in Cloth Stitch {See 
Braid Work, Close or Whole Braid and Close Leaf), 
and make Rope Sewings for veins and stems when they 
are in Relief, and Cross Tracings and Cucumber 
Plaitings when they are open work. Work a few leaves 
and sprays in Half or Lace Stitch, but generally use 
this stitch for the foundation to Relief work, working 
leaves, tendrils, and stems in Cloth stitch in Relief over 
the parts in the body of Lace filled with Half or Lace 
stitch. Make a Plain Edge round the sprays with a 
Gimp, except on the outside edge of the design, when 
make a Pearl Edge with a Gimp. 

The illustration of Duchesse Lace given in Fig. 311 has 
no complicated Raised work in it. It is of a flower and leaf 



frequently met with in Duchesse patterns, and shows a 
peculiar manner of working a Rope Sewing, and one often 
met with in the Lace, Fig. 312, Detail A, illustrates the 
leaf part of the design, and is worked as follows : Hang on 
six pail's of bobbins at a t and work in Cloth Stitch with 
Plain Edge on both sides and without a Gimp to b ; here make 
a Pearl Edge on the outer side, hut continue Plain Edge on 

Fig. 312. Dutches be Lace— Detail A* 

the inner. At c collect ibc bobbins together, and with the 
exception of the two used for the edge, and shown detached 
at e t return all the bobbins to d over the Plain Edge on 
the inner side of the leaf, making a Hope Sewing over 
them with the two threads and two Pearls close to c. From 
d work down to e in Cloth Stitch with a Plain Edge on the 
inner side; make a Pearl Edge on the other, hanging 031 the 

Fio. 313. Duchesjse Lace— Be tail B. 

bobbins where the leaf parts. Work back to /, as before 
described, and continue until all the divisions of the leaf are 
filled. The flower in Fig. 313, Detail B, is an enlargement 
of the pattern to show Devonia Ground and the working of 
the flower. The stitch used is similar to the one described 
in Plain Braid (see Braid Work,) Work in Cloth Stitch 
with a Gimp and Plain Edge on the outer side, and a Plain 
Edge, without Gimp, on the inner, for piece of braid. For 

the flower, work a plain Braid with Plain Edge on both 
sides from a to b, then continue the Plain Edge, and 
Cloth Stitch round the outer circle of the flower, but 
detach the threads forming the inner edge and carry them 
from b to c t fasten them there into the Lace, and then 
cany them to the next curve, and so on until the outer 
part of the flower is made- Then finish the centre with 
Cloth Stitch. 

Dnchesse Satin.— A thick, plain satin, exceedingly 
durable, and made of extra width. It is to he had in all 
colours, the white and cream being much used for wedding 

Duck. — A white fabric made of flax, finer and lighter 
than canvas, and used for trousering, and small sails. Irish 
Ducks are made In white, or unbleached, and in black, 
brown, blue, grey, and olive colours. They are used for 
labourers? blouses. The cloth Is strong, plain, and very 
thick, having a glazed surface. It varies in width from 
27 inches to 3G inches. 

Duffels, or Dufficlds, — A species of stout, coarse, 
wool] in cloth, having a thick nap or frieze, resembling 
small knots, on the face. It is 52 inches in width, and is in 
much use for the cloaks of poor persons and children, and 
employed for charitable purposes. Reference is made to 

Good Duffel gray, and flannel fine/ 1 by Wordsworth. 

Dunkirk Dace. — In the districts round Dunkirk during 
the seventeenth century a Pillow lace with a flat thread 
was manufactured, which, with the laces produced at 
Bruges and Ypres, was indifferently classed as Mechlin 


Duns ter. — The old name for Kerseymere, for the 
manufacture of which the ancient towm of Duns ter, m 
Somersetshire, was once famous. The industry, w r ith 
which the wooden market -house is associated, is mentioned 
in an Act of James L, where the stuff is called “ D misters M 
(sec Casimik), 

Durants, or Durance. — A stout, worsted cloth, 
formerly made to Imitate buff leather, and employed for 
dress. It is now made In various colours, and in three 
widths, 27 Inches, 36 inches, and 40 inches, and Is employed 
for covering coloured stays, and also for window blinds. 
Tins stuff is a description of Tammy, or Everlasting. 

Ia not a buff jo rk in a most sweet robe of I) urance p 

— Shakespeare. 

Duratee, or Durety.— This cloth is more generally 
known under the name Durants (which see). 

Dusters. — These are made in squares, each bordered ; 
in various sizes, checked or tw illed, and arc made of linen 
and cotton combined. They can be bought by the yard, 
the material being i yard in width. Those sold separately 
measure 20 inches by 24 inches; 24 inches by 24 inches; 
24 inches by 27 inches, or 27 inches by 30 inches square. 

Dutch.— A kind of tape made of fine linen, the numbers 
running as in the Imperial, from 11 to 151. See Tape. 

Dutch Corn Knitting, See Knitting. 

Dutch Heel, See Knitting, 

1 68 


Dutch Lace. — Although for many years the finest and 
best flax thread for lace making was supplied to France 
and England from Holland, being grown in Brabant and 
steeped in the rivers near Haarlem, the inhabitants of 
the country have never become celebrated for their lace 
manufactories. At various epochs lace schools have been 
established in Holland, particularly one about 16S5, by 
French refugees, for making a Needlepoint known as 
Den telle a la Heine, and another for plaited Point 
d’Espagne, while the native manufactories were pro- 
tected by the Government and foreign laces forbidden to 
be imported in the eighteenth century, still the industry 
has never really flourished. Home manufactured lacc was 
largely worn at the Dutch Court, and was also used to 
trim house linen, &c., but it was not of a fine description 
or make. Fig. 314 is an example of real Dutch lace. It is 
a kind of coarse Valenciennes, made with a thick ground, 

throughout the world. Climate has much influence on the 
success of certain dyes, and the scarlet produced on cloth 
in this country is considered the finest in the world. Wool 
has generally the strongest affinity to colour. Next to 
wool, silk and other animal substances receive it best ; 
cotton is the third, and hemp and flax follow successively. 
As a rule, pigments and dye-stuli*s do not produce perma- 
nent colours, and some substance is required to produce 
an affinity between the cloth and the colouring matter. 
The substances that are employed to act as this bond of 
union arc called “Mordants/* the principle being known to 
the Egyptians and other nations of remote antiquity. The 
use of aniline dyes is one of recent date, and a great 
variety of colours have been introduced into the “ dry 
goods ” trade. More recently still the Oriental shades of 
colour have superseded them in favour, and are known by 
the name of “ Art Colours.” 


and of a heavy design, and though substantial and good, 
it is not equal to the laces of France and Belgium. 

Dyeing. — Anglo-Saxon Dectgan and Deagian, to dye, 
tinge, or stain. The art of dyeing is one of great antiquity. 
Moses speaks of stuffs dyed blue, purple, and scarlet, and 
of sheepskins dyed red ; and the Israelites derived their 
acquaintance with it from the Egyptians, but doubtless 
the art was of much earlier date. The Greeks preferred 
their w T oollen stuffs to remain in their natural colour, but 
the external dresses of the wealthy were dyed, scarlet 
being in great favour, and Tyrian purple the colour 
reserved for princes, which dye was procured from a shell- 
fish (a species of the Murex) found on the shores of the 
Mediterranean, and very costly, owing to its scarcity. 
Amongst the Romans, also, purple w T as restricted to the 
use of persons of the highest rank. A great advance 
has latterly been made in the art, both in England and 


Ecaille. — A French term, which, as applied to needle- 
work, signifies pieces of flattened quill cut into the form 
of fish scales. This is effected by means of a punch, whilst 
the quill is in a soft condition, and which, at the same 
time, pierces little holes, through w r hich it is sewn to the 
material to be thus decorated. 

Ecaille Work. — This is an imitation of Nacre, or 
mother-of-pearl work, and consists of sewing quills upon a 
velvet or silk foundation and forming w ith them patterns 
in relief. To work : Take small pieces of soft and flattened 
quills, and with a punch or pair of scissors cut these so 
that they fit into and make some device. When the usual 
punch is used to cut the quills into shape, it will at the 
same time pierce a small hole large enough for a needle to 



pass through* Make tins hole with tlie point of the 
scissors, when they are used* When the pieces of quill 
arc ready, arrange them upon the foundation, and sew 
them down to it, passing the needle through the pierced 
holes* Having Used the quills, take gold thread or cord 
and outline them with it- lay the cord upon the sur- 
face of the wort, and Conch it down with a securing 
stitch, brought from the back of the work, as in 


Ecclesiastical Embroidery* — A term used for needle- 
work dedicated to the service of the Church, better known 
as Church Work* 

Echevau. — A French term, denoting a Skein (which 

Ecru* — A French term, denoting the colour of' raw 
silk or unbleached linen and cotton* Much lace is sold 
of this colour, a hue which may be more fully described 
as Cafe an lait. 

Fig, 315. ECRU LACE. 

Ecru Eace. — A modern lace made with two kinds of 
braid, connected together with various Wheels and Bars, 
To work Fig* 315 : Procure a plain braid coarsely plaited, 
and of ecru colour ; also a crinkled or Honiton braid of 
the same colour* Trace the design upon pink calico, back 
it with brown paper, and tack the braid to the calico. The 
crinkled braid will not require to be cut in the upper part 
of the pattern ; where it forms tlie medallions, make the 
narrow connecting lines between the centre parts by turn- 
ing the braid over itself, sewing it firmly together, with 
one of the outside edges uppermost. Cord the Bars that 
connect the upper Braids together, Buttonhole the ones 
between the medallions, ornament these with Pioots, and 
work the pyramid-shaped Bars in Point de Reprise. 
Fill the centres of the medallions with an open Wheel, 
and finish off the scalloped edge of the lace with a narrow 
bought edging. 

Edge. — There are two edges to lace: the outer rim, 

which is either scalloped or plain, and is ornamented with 
PicoU, and called the Cordonnet in needle-made laces, 
and the Engrclure, or Footing, which is used to sew the 
lace to the material* See Cordonnet and Engrei/ure* 

Edge Stitch* —In Crochet, Knitting, and Netting, 
the first stitch upon a row is sometimes called by this 
name* Treat it as the rest of tlie pattern, unless special 
notice is drawn to it, when either do not work it at all, or 
work it according to the instructions set forth. When 
it is not worked, keep the loop of the last stitch in the 
last row upon the needle, and, without working it, count it 
as the first stitch in the new row (this is known as Slip- 
ping a Stitch in Knitting or Netting). By not working 
this first stitch when making straight lines of Crochet, 
Knitting, and Netting, a uniform edge is attained, and the 
strip kept more even than it is when the first stitch is 

Edgings. — Narrow lace or embroidery, used to trim 
cambric and muslin frills, or to sew as a finish on net in- 
sertions* Those of real lace are made chiefly in Bucking- 
hamshire, those of imitation Valenciennes at Nottingham. 
Coventry is famous for its machine-made and cheap em- 
broidery edging* Edgings are sold by the yard and by 
the piece* 

Efflle. — A French term signifying Fringed, usually with 
reference to a narrow width of fringe. 

Egyptian Cloth* —A basket -woven cotton cloth, em- 
ployed for crewel embroidery. It is otherwise called 
“ Momie Cloth, n being made in imitation of that in which 
Egyptian mummies are found enwrapped. It is from 
32 inches to 3i inches in width, 

Egyptian Needlework * — The Egyptians (800 b.c.) 
were distinguished for their beautiful Bead work, of 
which head dresses and other handsome ornaments were 
made, besides its being used for fringes and borders to 
garments. Their embroidery in coloured silks was used 
to elaborately ornament their garments* The designs, as 
gathered from the mural paintings still perfect, are chiefly 
borders* Some of these are of distinctly coloured and 
wide apart horizontal lines, finished as a heading with 
diagonal lines* Conventional flowers and plants, placed 
[n separate compartments, and finished with wide borders, 
are amongst the specimens, the flowers being arranged 
without any set pattern, but with great spirit* Mytho- 
logical figures and subjects are worked on the robes used 
in a royal enthronement. Amongst these are visible 
eagle-headed figures, winged divinities, the sacred tree, and 
gryphons* The stitches used resemble Satin, Chain, 
and Overcast, but as no actual piece of embroidery of 
the date when Egyptian art most flourished is preserved, 
the nature of the stitches can only be surmised. 

Eiderdown.— The fine down taken from the nests of 
the Eider ducks of Iceland and Greenland, which nests 
are so lined by the female bird from her own breast. The 
down is light, warm, and soft, and is sold by the pound 
weight, and likewise by the skein. The down plucked from 
the living bird possesses much elasticity, but taken from it 
when dead is deprived of this characteristic to a consider- 
able extent* It is much employed as wadding for quilts 
and petticoats, being both lighter and warmer than any 



other material so used. The Eider is twice the size of the 
ordinary duck, and frequents the shores of solitary islands. 

Eider, or Eyder Yam.— Tins yam is made of the 
wool of Merino sheep, and is employed for knitting shawls 
and other articles of wear. It may he had in black and 
white, in scarlet, blue, and violet, and other colours, and is 
sold by the pound, ounce, and half ounce. 

Eis Wool (sometimes written “Ice Wool A very fine 
glossy description of worsted wool, made of two -thread 
thickness, and employed double for making shawls. It 
may be had in all colours, and also shaded, and is sold by 
the one ounce ball. 

Elastic Belting. — This material is stout and firm in 
texture, made as the Elastic Webbing (which see}. It 
has a plain edge, and is to be had in black, drab, white, 
and fancy- coloured stripes, of half an inch, three-quarters 
of an inch, one inch, and upwards in width, and is sold in 
pieces of 12 yards and 1G yards. It is employed for chest 
expanders, belts, garters, &c. 

Elastic Flannel. — This description of flannel is 
woven iu the stocking loom, and has a pile on one face, on 
which account it is styled Veleurs de Laine , and by other 
names, according to the fancy of the several manufacturers, 
The chief seat of the industry is in Wales. These 
flannels measure from 32 inches to 30 inches in width, 
and are principally employed for women's dressing- 
gowns and jackets. They are usually made either in 
coloured stripes on a white ground, or else in plain rose 
or blue colour. 

Elastic Textiles, — These consist of bands, garters, 
braces, elastic stockings, kneecaps, ribbons employed for 
articles of women's dress, surgical bandages, &c. The 
waip of this material is made of in diar ubber, and the woof 
of silk, cotton, mohair, or worsted thread. It was first 
made at Vienna, having been invented by a major in the 
Austrian service, who afterwards removed to Paris, and 
erected a large factory at St. Denis. It is now manu- 
factured in this country. Boot elastics are made from 
3 inches to 5 inches wide, and may be had in silk, 
mohair, and thread. Methods of weaving are adapted to 
produce the quality of elasticity, as in the various kinds 
of Laine Elastiqtte (which see), as also in knitting, a 
lib being made in stockings and vests, enabling them 
to cling closely, and yet to expand in proportion to the 
size to be fitted. 

Elastic Webbing.— This material consists of india- 
rubber covered with cotton, mohair, or silk. The india- 
rubber is spread out into very thin, flat sheets, and cut 
with a knife, by means of machinery, into square threads 
no thicker than a fine pin, if so desired. The width is 
decided by the number of these cords— 1 to Id, or upwards. 
These narrow and single cords are turned out in two 
lengths of 72 yards to the gross ; and the wider, iu four 
pieces, of 3G yards each. 

Elephant Towelling. — Although primarily designed 
for towelling, this cloth has latterly been much used for 
crewel embroidery. It is a variety of the Huckaback 
and Honeycomb (which see). 

Elephant Towelling Embroidery.— This is a com- 
bination of Dkawn Work and Em be gibe by, and takes its 

name from the material upon which it is executed. It is 
suitable for making antimacassars and mats. To work : 
Take a piece of Elephant Towelling the size required, 
allowing for a fringe all round. Trace out in its centre a 
sixteen pointed star, or a Vandyke, or Cross, and work 
over this iu flat Satin Stitch with coloured Pyrenean wool 
Make a wide border round ibis centre ornament thus: 3 
inches from the edge of the material draw out inch squares 
of threads, leaving a plain square between each drawn 
out square. Buttonhole round the drawn out squares 
and fill them with Wheels, and fill in the plain squares 
with an eight -pointed star, worked with fine Pyrenean wool 
of the same colour, but of a different shade to the wool 
used in the centre star. To make the Fringe : Draw out 
the threads round the edge of the material for the depth 
of If inches, and ornament with a line of wide apart 
Buttonhole in Pyrenean w r ool of the same shade as that 
used in the centre star. 

Eliottine Silk. — A description of knitting silk which 
is the especial manufacture of a particular firm, and so 
called after a popular writer on the subject of Needle- 
work, This knitting material is a composition of silk 
and wool. 

Ell. — A standard measure of length, employed for 
textiles. It measures 45 inches, or 3 feet 9 inches, or If 
yards. It was fixed at 45 inches by Henry I,, a .IX 1101, 
A French ell is Ij yards, or 54 inches $ a Flemish ell is 
only equal to 27 inches. The English ell to the Flemish is 
in proportion as 5 to 3. The Scotch ell comprises 37*% 
English inches. The term is one which also is used pro- 
verbially to denote an indefinitely long measure. 

Ely see Work. — An arrangement of two coloured cotton 
materials after the manner of Applique, and an easy 
and inexpensive kind of Embroidery. The designs are 
florid, and are cut out of light coloured sateen cloth, laid 
upon dark sateen cloth, and ornamented with Embroidery 
Stitches in coloured filoselles. To work : Select a con- 
tinuous running pattern, chiefly composed of sprays of 
leaves and tendrils. Trace this upon pale green sateen 
cloth, and cut it out with a sharp pair of scissors. Frame 
a piece of olive green or ruby coloured satceu cloth, in an 
Embroidery Frame, paste the sea-green leaves, &e., on 
to it, and leave it to dry. Then unite the leaves together 
with stems of Chain Stitch, made of various shades 
of green filoselles. Vein the leaves with green and ruby 
coloured filoselles in Stem Stitch, work the centres of 
flowers with French Knots, and fill m any open or 
bare spaces with tendrils in Stem Stitch, made with ruby 

Emboss. — A term employed in Embroidery to signify 
the execution of a design in relief, either by stuffing with 
layers of thread or succession of stitches underneath the 
Embroidery, or else by working over a pad made with 
thick materials* 

The formation of ornamental figures iu relief entered 
largely into all ancient Embroideries, and was considered 
as a distinguishing mark of good workmanship. The 
taste for it has not been encouraged with the revival 
of needlework, it not now being considered true art 
to detach from the surface of a material a representation 



of natural objects which should, when copied in 
needlework, never be treated save in a flat and conven- 
tional manner. Figures were slightly raised from their 
grounds and padded out in the earlier centuries, but it was 
during the seventeenth century that this padding attained 
its greatest relief, and became known as Embroidery in 
the Stamp, as well as Emboss, as the latter term includes 
all raised parts, whether made by Paddings or Raised 
Couchings, or by sewing to various parts of the design, 
hammered up plates of gold and silver, or bullion, tinsel, 
spangles, paillons, mother-of-pearl, beads, precious stones, 
and other materials. To Emboss : Pad out the surface 
of the material with wool or hair, and confine this padding 
to its right place by sewing white or coloured silk tightly 
down upon it. Lay the bullion over it, as described in 
Bullion Embroidery, or fasten the other materials to 
the work by sewing them on through holes expressly 
drilled in them for that purpose. 

Embossed Plusli, or Velvet Embroidery. — A hand- 
some work, very fashionable at the present date. The 
materials used are stamped plush or velvet, Japanese 
gold thread, filoselles or floss silks, and very narrow silk 
cords. To work : Select a bold conventional flower design, 
clearly stamped out on its material. Couch down on to 
the flat parts either the narrow silk cords or the gold 
thread, outline with these the chief parts of the pattern, 
cut off the cord or gold thread where each outline 
finishes with care, and Sew it down on the right side 
of the material until it is quite secure. The outline 
finished, take the floss silks and work in Satin stitch 
with them, fill up the small parts of the pattern, and 
make the veins of leaves, and the centres of flowers or 
buds, with the silks, using several shades and varieties 
of colour over the various parts. 

Embroidery. — An art which consists of enriching a 
flat foundation, by working into it with a needle 
coloured silks, gold or silver thread, and other extraneous 
materials, in floral, geometrical, or figure designs. The 
origin of embroidery is lost in antiquity, but it is known 
to have existed before painting, and to have been the 
first medium of reproducing natural objects in their 
natural colours. The work came from the East, and 
was first called Phrygium, or Phrygian work, while an 
embroiderer was called Phrygio, and designs worked 
entirely in gold or silver thread, Auriphrygium ; and 
these names seem to indicate that it was first brought 
to excellence by the Babylonians, although Sir J. G. 
Wilkinson has discovered upon Egyptian monuments 
painted in the Eighteenth Dynasty, before the time of 
Babylon, designs in arabesque Embroidery upon the 
garments and furniture of the Egyptians. There is no 
doubt that both the Assyrians and the Egyptians were 
particularly lavish in their needlework decorations, not 
only in their temples, houses, and garments, but even for 
the sails of their boats; and it was from them that the 
Jews learnt the art, and considered it worthy of express 
mention in Exodus as part of the adornment of the 
Tabernacle, and of the sacred robes of their priests. From 
the Egyptians and the Hebrews, and also from Eastern 
nations, the Romans and the Greeks became acquainted 

with its higher branches, and the latter appropriated the 
honour of its invention to their goddess Minerva, while 
Homer introduced into his writings descriptions of the 
Embroidery executed by Helen, Andromache, and Penelope. 
The Romans, after their conquests, became possessed of 
much spoil in the way of Embroidery, and the needlework 
of Babylon, which retained its reputation until the first 
century of the Christian era, was highly prized by them. 
The veils given by Herod to the Temple came from Babylon, 
and Cicero describes the magnificence of the embroidered 
robes of Babylonian work worn by Tarquin the Elder. 
Gradually the Romans learnt to Embroider, and after the 
introduction of Christianity into Europe and the founding 
of religious houses, the art became of great importance and 
almost a science, the designs being contributed by artists 
and a lavish expenditure of time and money bestowed to 
bring it to a high state of perfection. At one time only 
the borders of garments were worked, and as the name 
of Phrygium gradually died out, the Latin words Brustus , 
Bmdatus, Aurobrus, were substituted to denote needle- 
work, and from these the French Broderie and the English 
Embroidery are derived. From the first to the end of 
the sixteenth century, Italy was looked upon as the centre 
of Embroidery, the Popes of Rome collecting from all 
countries the most beautiful specimens, and ordering that 
costly presents of needlework should be made by the 
faithful to the churches and religious houses. As the 
knowledge of needlework increased, its varieties were no 
longer classed under one name, but were each distinguished 
with separate titles : Thus, OpU3 Consutum meant two 
materials applied to each other, like our modern Applique; 
and also Cut Work, OpusPlumarium, Embroidery in Satin 
or Long stitch, in which the stitches are laid over each 
other, like the plumage of a bird; Opus Pulvinarium, or 
work upon canvas in Cross, Cushion, or Tent Stitch, like 
our modern Woolwork; and Opus Anglicum, a name given 
to an English needlework that attained great celebrity 
both at home and abroad, from the thirteenth to the 
sixteenth century, from the peculiarity of a stitch used 
in its manufacture. Up to the time of the Wars of 
the Roses English Embroidery was justly famous, but 
it then languished, and when the taste for it revived, it 
was never again executed with the same amount of 
gorgeous simplicity, the patterns becoming too over- 
loaded with ornament for true taste. On the Continent 
during this period the work flourished with increased 
vigour, and in Paris the Embroiderers formed themselves 
into a guild, and were in esteem, grants of land being 
frequently given for their handiwork. The Reformation 
may be said to have given the death blow to Church work 
in England, and, through it, to the finer sorts of Embroidery. 
Churches were no longer allowed to be decorated with altar 
cloths, priests’ robes were almost abolished, and the 
convents (the great schools of the art) were destroyed. 
During the reigns of James I. and Charles I., besides work 
with crewels, very fine Embroidery was done upon silk and 
satin foundations for secular purposes, but this never 
attained the dignity and costliness of the Church work. 
The chief patterns were heraldic devices, portraits, and 
flower scenes. During the wars between Charles I. and 

z 2 



Lis Parliament, Royalist ladies were fond of embroider- 
ing miniatures of the King, anti working into them the 
real hair of tliat monarch; and mention is made in old 
chronicles of the granting of hair for that purpose. After 
the King's execution these miniatures were treasured as 
sacred relics, and many of them can still be seen in a good 
state of preservation. A peculiar kind of Raised Embroi- 
dery, known as Embroidery on the Stamp, was much in 
vogue at this period, and for a century afterwards* During 
the reign of Queen Anne the patterns for Embroidery 
were extremely good and well considered, and the work, 
chiefly in flat Satin Stitch upon flat grounds, was essen- 
tially artistic, both in design and in colouring. This fine 
Embroidery flourished during the reign of that queen and 
that of the Georges, the patterns becoming gradually more 
refined, and consisting of light garlands of flowers, or 
delie ate sprays, and groups or figures in the Watteau style, 
all shaded and worked in imitation of the most minute 
of paintings. In the earlier part of the present century 
fine Embroidery was succeeded by a coarser kind, into 
which large figures were introduced, whose hands and 
faces were not w r orked, but painted, while their dresses and 
surroundings were either worked in silks or crewels. 
Etching Embroidery, or Print work, was then also much 
the fashion* To this period the works of Miss Linwood 
belong, which are full-size copies from Guido, Carlo Dolei, 
Opie, and Gainsborough. Embroidery then sank to its 
lowest ebb, Church work had entirely disappeared, the 
fine silk work became out of date, and the only work that 
at all flourished was the mechanical copying of Berlin 
patterns, first in Tent, and finally in Cross stitch ; but the 
revival of the taste for design fostered by the Exhibition 
of 1851 produced a favourable change in needlework, and 
f rom that date old work lias been hunted up and copied, 
and artists have emulated each other in pointing out the 
differences between bad. and good designing, and in fresh 
patterns ; and at present both Church work and Embroi- 
dery for home uses are carried to as great a perfection as, if 
not actually surpassing, the needlework of the Middle Ages. 

During all these changes in the history of European 
needlework, the art of Embroidery in the East may he said 
to bays remained in its original state* True to their 
Oriental character, the Eastern nations have continued 
steadily to reproduce the ancient patterns without in- 
venting new ones ; and, as they possess in a high degree 
the most magnificent conceptions of colouring, they execute 
needlework of the most gorgeous tints, yet of such har- 
monies as to be in perfect good taste. Tltc Chinese, 
Persians, Indians, and Japanese are all remarkable for 
their skill, and the modern Egyptians, Bulgarians, and 
Algerians are not far behind them, embroidering head veils 
and towels with gold and coloured silks, and frequently 
enriching these with precious stones, and executing the 
whole with great taste ; in fact, until the introduction into 
the East during the last few years of our meretricious 
aniline dyes, and the inharmonious colouring produced by 
them. Eastern needlework continued to be as beautiful as 
it was in the time of Moses, 

Embroidery is divided into two chief heads : that worked 
upon white with washing materials, and that worked with 

coloured materials upon a coloured foundation. The latter 
of these is the original Embroidery, and embraces most of 
the finest kinds of work, and it is again subdivided under 
three heads — Guimped Embroidery t Embroidery on the 
Stamp, and Low, or Plain Embroidery. 

Gu imped Embroidery consists in cutting out shapes 
in vellum and laying them upon the surface of the material, 
or raising the groundwork with cords and then covering 
these parts with gold or silk threads* It also includes the 
hammering out of very thin plates of metal and attaching 
these to the surface of the material. It survives in our 
modem Church work. 

Embroidery on the Stamp is formed by raising in 
high relief from the groundwork figures, animals, and 
other objects* It is done by outlining the figure upon 
the groundwork, and then padding it up with horsehair 
and wool to a great height, and covering this with thick 
white or coloured silk and satin. Above and upon this 
most elaborate Embroidery stitches are worked; some- 
times the figures are entirely clothed with the most 
delicate of needle-made laces, at others with the finest 
of Embroidery, and with real jewels, such as pearls and 
garnets, interwoven into the pattern. This work 
flourished in the seventeenth century; it has no counter- 
part in modern times* 

Low , or Plain Embroidery f includes all the Embroi- 
dery in Satin and other stitches upon a plain found- 
ation, whether worked alike upon both sides or slightly 
raised from the surface by run lines (not by padding), or 
worked as the usual Embroidery with coloured silks upon 
satin, velvet, cloth, or linen foundations. 

White Embroidery, so called from its being worked 
upon white or other light materials with cotton or ingrain 
silks, was imported from the East, particularly from 
India, whose natives still excel in it, as do the Chinese m 
Tambour work, one of its varieties. It gave the first idea 
of 3 ace, and may be looked upon as one of the foundations 
of lace work. The Guipure Carrickni across lace is a fine 
white embroidery on cambric connected with Lace 
Stitches, For a very long period in Europe it was only 
worked in nunneries, and used for sacerdotal purposes, but 
it at length became more universally practised, and the 
natives of Saxony were the first who were particularly ex- 
pert in making it* It does not seem to have been intro- 
duced into France until the middle of the eighteenth 
century, into Scotland and Ireland at the end of that time, 
and into Switzerland at the beginning of the present 
century. Wherever it becomes established, it adds con- 
si derably to the comfort of the poorer classes, as it forms 
the staple occupation of the women and children in those 
districts. It is of two descriptions, the Open and the Close , 
In the Open, the pattern is produced by the disposition of 
the boles cut and Overcast, and includes Erode lie Anglaise, 
Madeira, and Irish work, besides other kinds differing but 
little from these ; in the Close, the stitches arc worked 
upon the cambric or muslin foundation in the same 
manner as in fiat Embroidery, and the stitches arc 
described alphabetically under the heading of Stitches, 
which will be found after the Embroideries. 

Embroideries. — Embroidery alike upon both sides 0 / 



material * — This Embroidery requires to be worked In 
a frame* The patterns are the same as used for flat 
Embroideries, and the work is executed in Satin Stitch, 
with filoselles on floss silk. To work : Trace a design con- 
sisting of small flowers and leaves upon a material, and 
place in a frame* Bring the needle up upon one side of a 
traced flower or leaf, and put it down again on the opposite 
side, and in a slightly slanting direction ; return it along 
the back of the material to the place it first came up at, and 
bring it out there, close to the last stitch and on the right- 
hand side. Put It down close to where it went in in the 
last stitch and on the right-hand side, and continue this 
manner of working for the whole design. Shade by work- 
ing leaves or petals in different colours, not by blending 
colours in one leaf, and fasten off, and commence threads 
by running them in, so as to show neither at back nor 
front of work* 

Embroidery, an Pa$&£* — Bee Embroidery in Batin 

Embroidery, Beau Ideal , — -This is a machine-made, 
imitation of Brodcrie Anglaise, and consists of strong 
and well made strips for trimmings, varying in width from 
three-quarters of an inch to 1| inches. It is an extremely 
clever imitation of hand made Embroidery, the edges being 
finished with plain and scalloped lines of Double Over- 
cast, and the holes forming the design worked over in 
Overcast* A thread is run in readiness to draw the 
trimming up into gathers, so that it can be sown on to 
a foundation with little trouble* 

Embroidery in Batin Stitch . — This work was 
anciently termed Low or Plain Embroidery, to distinguish 
it from the G lumped Embroidery or Embroidery on the 
Stamp, and it is now sometimes called Embroidery an 
Passe* The work, though named after one particular 
stitch, induces all flat Embroideries clone with coloured 
silks, filoselles, or wools upon coloured satin, silk, velvet 
or linen foundations, and these materials may either be 
worked into the foundation as shaded embroideries or as 
needlework executed in one colour. Satin Stitch Em- 
broidery, when the designs are shaded, is capable of pro- 
ducing the most beautiful results, and is equal in effect to 
painting. It was this branch of the art that was brought 
to such perfection in the time of Queen Anne and the 
Georges, when sprays and garlands of flowers were worked 
upon light silk or satin grounds in tints that matched 
their natural colours to the minutest detail* The Satin 
Stitch Embroidery in one colour is much easier and more 
quickly executed than the shaded, and is adapted for 
many purposes that the shaded is too good for, such as 
mats, tabic -borders, 1ft gs, sachets, slippers, and other 
articles of daily use* To work a shaded pattern : Draw 
upon light silk or satin a delicate pattern consisting of 
flower sprays, and tint this design in natural shades with 
water-colours* Then frame it in an Embroidery Frame 
and commence to work* Let the right hand he always 
above the frame, ready to receive the needle when pushed 
through, and the left beneath the frame ; bring the needle 
out to the right hand and put it in to the left* Do not 
handle the silk at all, and make the stitches rather long 
and of unequal lengths, as in Feather Stitch, and be 

careful that the outlines of all the filled- in design shall be 
clear and distinct, and blend the various shades of one 
colour into eacli other by running the stitches one into the 
other* Arrange that the lightest shades of silk shall ho 
worked in so as to show where the light falls most promi- 
nently, and see that these lights all fall from one side of 
the work to the other. Use eight shades of silk in a 
medium sized flower, and work flowers of the same kind in 

Fus, 31(3* Embroidery is Satin Stitch* 

the same shades, but make some darker and some lighter 
than the others, by leaving out the lightest or the darkest 
shades in these, and so altering their appearance, and 
make the stitches of different lengths in the petal of a 
flower, as in Feather Stitch* Fill in the centres with 
French Knots, and also work these as finishes to the 
stamens. Work the leaves in eight or ten shades of green, 
using greens shading to yellow and brown, and green 
shading to blue, upon different leaves* Make the edges 

Em. 317. EMHttoiDEitT in Satin Stitch, 

of the leaves lighter than the centres, but preserve the 
fall of light; shade one side of the leaf differently to 
the other, and vein with light or dark veins, accord- 
ing to the position of the leaf* Work the veins in Split 
Stitch; work the stems and tendrils of the design 
in Rope Stitch. Make no knots in the embroidery silk, 
but run the ends in on the right side of the work, both 
when commencing and fastening off a thread. 

1 74 


Embroidery in Satin Stitch in one shade need not be 
worked in a frame. The design is traced upon the founda- 
tion, and then worked in various Embroidery Stitches. 
Several distinct tints of colour can be used upon the same 
patterns, but there must be no shading or blending of 
shades of one tint into the other. The appearance of the 
work is dependent upon the judicious selection of primary 
colours and the amount and precision of the Embroidery 
stitches. Fig. 31(> is intended for a border of this kind of 
Embroidery, and is worked as follows : Trace the design 
upon olive green satin or silk, work the petals of the 
flowers in Satin Stitch in orange gold silk, and fill in their 
centres with French Knots of a deeper shade of orange 
silk. Work one side of the leaves in Satin Stitch of an 
olive green shade of filoselle, Overcast round the outer 
edge of the other side of the leaves, and fill 
in with Point de Pois worked in a light 
olive green shade; work the small leaves in 
the same shade, and the stems in a brown 
filoselle and in Crewel Stitch. 

To work Fig. 317 : Select a light- coloured 
silk foundation, and work the Embroidery in 
three contrasting tints; outline the battle- 
dores in Double Overcast, and raise them 
with a padding of run lines; work their 
centres in Point Russe, and surround with 
a line of Chain Stitch. Work the shuttle- 
cocks in two shades, and in Satin Stitch, 
their feathers in Point Russe. Work the 
rose with Satin Stitch, petals and centre in 
French Knots, the leaves in Point de 
Plume and Satin Stitch, the grapes in 
Point de Pois, the ribbon outlines with 
Chain Stitch in a light colour, and till in 
with Satin Stitch in a dark colour. 

Embroidery on Canvas . — The chief 
ancient Embroidery upon coarsely woven 
canvas or unbleached materials i3 known 
as Tapestry, and when this became out of 
date it was superseded by Crewel Work, 
and then by patterns drawn and painted by 
hand upon an open-meshed yet fine canvas, 
and executed in Tent Stitch with English 
worsted or crewels. This fine canvas allowed 
of every stitch being worked of the same 
size and length, but as it was a tedious operation to fill 
in large pieces of work with such fine stitches, a coarse 
canvas with wide apart meshes was introduced, and Berlin 
patterns executed upon it, first in Tent and then in Cross 
Stitch. The old-fashioned Canvas Work allowed of 
some display of the worker's taste and ingenuity in draw- 
ing the design and shading it, and patterns so drawn 
could be shaded without the tedious attention to counting 
stitches necessary when executing Berlin patterns, but 
since the introduction of the last named it ’ has almost 
entirely fallen into disuse. See Berlin Work, Canvas 
Work, and Tapestry. 

Embroidery on Chip . — The material upon which 
this work is executed is manufactured abroad, and is made 
either of fine plaited chips or wood shavings. Rushes dried 

and plaited together would form the same kind of founda- 
tion, and would have the same appearance of coarse Java 
canvas, and are as suitable as the chips to form the mats 
and other articles for keeping heat and wet from furni- 
ture for which this work is used. The Embroidery is 
executed in bright coloured silks, and the designs and 
stitches are extremely simple. The design given of this 
work in Fig. 318 is a mat with its four coiners filled in with 
sprays of flowers, and the centre ornamented with a star. 
To work : Make the centre a star of twenty-four points 
and of three shades of a bright-coloured silk, and where the 
points meet in the centre of the star, work one Cross 
Stitch in the medium shade of silk. Work the cornflower 
spray in blue and green silks, the cornflowers in Picot, the 
leaves in Satin, and the stems in Crewel Stitch. Work 

the rosebuds in rose colour and green silk, the buds in 
Picot and Satin Stitch, the leaves in Satin, and the stems 
in Crewel stitch. Work the pansies in shades of purple 
silk with amber centres, leaves and flowers in Satin Stitch. 
Work the ragged robin in whito and green silks, the 
flowers in Picots of white silk with a French Knot as 
centre, the principal leaves in Picot, the stems in Crewel 
Stitch. Edge the mat with a double Vandyke line in 
Point Russe worked with the darkest shade of colour 
used in the centre star. 

Embroidery on Lace . — A modern work made with 
a foundation of machine-made laces, selected for their 
bold designs, and worked -with coloured filoselles, tinsel, 
and gold cord. The lace, when ornamented, is used for 
dress trimmings, and curtain or table cloth borders. 







Coloured, white, or black laces are used* To work : 
Select a coarse lacc w T Itk an effective pattern, outline 
the chief parts of the design with gold cord or tinsel ^ 
sew this down on the material, as in Couching, with a 
coloured silk. Work over the centre parts of the pattern 
with variously coloured silks, using colours that contrast 
but yet blend together. Work in the silks with Crewel, 
Herringbone, or Satin Stitch* Use Japanese gold 

lin, and rub powdered blue through the holes, and then 
back the muslin with brown paper. Outline the pattern 
with a run thread of Embroidery cotton. Work the stems 
in Rope Stitch, the leaves, with the veins left unworked, 
in Point pe Plume, the rest in flat Satin Stitch, the 
flower by itself in Satin Stitch, with a centre of French 
Knots, the two flowers together in French Knot centres, 
surrounded by Satin Stitch, with outer leaves made with 


thread and raw silks for mantel borders ; tinsel, filoselle, 
or crewel wools for less permanent work. Leave the 
lace background untouched* 

Embroidery on Leather.— The patterns for this 
Embroidery are the same that are used for Embroidery 
in Satin Stitch, and the foundation is either of kid or 
very fine leather. To work : Trace the design upon thin 
leather, and prick holes for the needle to pass through, 
or buy a pattern already traced and pricked. Work the 
design in Satin Stitch, with various coloured filoselles, 

Point de Pois, and finished with Overcast, and work 
the large balls as raised Dots. 

Embroidery on Net— Thin work is a combination 
of Lace stitches, Embroidery stitches, gold thread, and 
Braid, and is suitable either for Insertion or Edgings in 
Dress Trimmings. To work as an Insertion, and as 
shown in Fig, 32(1 : Draw out the Design upon pink calico, 
and tack fine black or white net upon it. Take the black 
or white lace braid that is made in loops, cut it, and 
tack each loop separately in its place on to the pattern. 

and when the work is finished, paste the back of the 
leather upon thin linen to keep it from splitting. 

Embroidery on Muslin .— This is a fine kind of close 
white Embroidery, and is also known as Irish, Saxony, or 
Madeira work, from the skill exhibited in its manufacture 
by the peasants of those countries. The work is illus- 
trated in Fig* 319, and is done upon fine cambric or 
muslin, with Embroidery cotton, Walter and Evans* Ko. 40. 
Trace the design upon thin cartridge paper, prick it round 
with a number of pin pricks, lay this pattern on the mus- 

Where the design shows large stitches in the centre of 
these loops, Bach Stitch them to the net with coloured 
filoselles, and where they are left plain, Overcast their 
edges on to the net with the same coloured filoselles* 
Fill the centres of the flower with Wheels, and work 
the stems by darning coloured filoselles in and out, or 
by couching gold thread down on them. 

Embroidery on Net with Silks . — Worked without 
braid, with ecru or coloured net, filoselles of various 
shades, and gold and silver threads. To work: Trace a 

i 7 6 


group of flowers, or a "bold Arabesque pattern, upon pink 
calico, tack: the net to it, and outline all the design with 
lines of gold thread, Couched down, or with Button- 
hole worked with filoselle. Finish by Darning the silks 
in and out of the net, to All in the leaves, or thick part 
of the design. Work the centres of flowers, and other 
light parts, with open Point L&ee stitches, using the net 
foundations as a background, or cut them away and 
secure with Buttonholes. 

To work the Edging shoivu in Fig. 321 : Trace the 
design, and lay the net over; tack the Braid down, and 
make the Bars. Buttonhole the net where left as an 
edging, and Overcast the braid to the net where it is 
to he cut away. Work the sprays in Satin Stitch, 

Fig. 32L Embroidery ox Net. 

untack the pattern, run the net on the wrong side to 
the braid, close to where it is to be cut, and cut it away 
from underneath the Bars. 

Embroidery on Netting. — A name given to Darned 

Embroidery on Silk . — This Embroidery is executed 
in any of the usual Embroidery stitches, but Satin, 
Feather, Crewel, and French Knots are most selected. 
To work Fig. 322 ; Trace the design upon olive green silk, 
and frame it in an Embroidery Frame. Back Stitch 
down. * gold braid, and work w ith Pearsall's silks, the 
cornflowers and poppies in their natural shades, and in 
Satin Stitch, except the centres of the poppies, which 
work in French Knot, and the diamond crossings over 
the calyx of the cornflowers. Work the leaves in shades 
of olive green, and in Satin Stitch, the steins in Crewel 
Stitch, and the barley in Satin Stitch. 

Embroidery on ike Stamp, — Also called Kaiscd 
Embroidery. The figures in this work were raised in high 
relief from their backgrounds by means of pads formed 
of wool or hair being placed under the needlework, as 
already described in the general introduction to this 
article (see p. 172). 

Embroidery on Velvet . ■ — There are two descrip- 
tions of this work* Tho first, or true Embroidery upon 
Velvet, is an imitation of the celebrated Benares work, and 
is made as follows : Frame the velvet, and back it with a 
thin liolland foundation (see Embroidery Frame), and 

then trace the design upon it with white chalk. W6rk 
this over with Satin Stitch, French Knots* and other 

• 1 ■ \ w w si a! lb 


Embroidery Stitches, using bright coloured floss silk, 
and a large quantity of gold and silver thread. Should 





the velvet foundation be of light gold colour, work the 
pattern with dark and brilliant shades of floss silk only ; 
but should it be cream or white, work with gold and silver 
thread only; should it be of rich and dark velvet, use both 
gold and silver thread and bright floss silks. Use the 
primary colours, and carefully avoid all colours obtained 
by aniline dyes. 

The second description of Embroidery upon velvet is an 
Applique. To work : Cut the pattern out upon velvet, 
which must be previously framed and backed with Lolland, 
and paste it upon a silk foundation. Lay two lines of gold 
thread or purse silk round the velvet outlines, secure them 
as in Couching, work the stems and tendrils of the design 
with gold bullion, ornament the centres of the flowers with 
French Knots made with embroidery silk or filoselle, 
and mark out the veins of leaves and other parts of 
design with long Satin Stitch, in filoselle or floss silk. 

Embroidery with Gold and Silver. — When gold 
and silver threads are used for Embroidery, they are 
generally associated with coloured silks and filoselles, and 

when used with these materials for Ecclesiastical purposes 
the work is called Church Work. The same kind of 
work is, however, notwithstanding its expense, occa- 
sionally used for secular purposes, such as table borders, 
cushions, and chimney vallances. To work : Stretch the 
material in a frame, and draw the design; cut out little 
pieces of parchment to fill in any raised parts, such as the 
flowers and leaves, shown in Fig. 323, and tack these down 
into their position. Make small holes through the 
material with a stiletto, run the gold or silver thread into a 
large-eyed needle, and bring it up from the back of the 
material, cross it over the parchment, and return it to 
the back through one of the holes. Fill in the centres of 
the flowers, the lower part of the buds, and the points of 
the stamens, with spangles crossed with coloured silks, and 
ornament the centres of the leaves with laid rows of these 
spangles. Make the open net pattern, the small spray- 
shaped leaves, the stamens, and the stems, with gold purse 
silk. Work the two lines of the border with gold thread, 

raised over vellum, or laid flat and CoucnED, and fill in 
the border with spangles and long shaped beads crossed 
with coloured silks. 

Stitches. — The stitches used in Embroideries are 
distinguished by name3 selected, as far as possible, to 
indicate their appearance when worked. They are as 
follows : 

Arrow Stitch. — A name sometimes given to Stem 
Stitch, because of its slanting direction. See Stem 

Au Passe Stitch. — Also known as Point Passe, Passe, 
and Long. It is a name given to Satin Stitch when 
worked across the material and without any padding. See 
Satin Stitch. 

Bach Stitch. — A stitch also known as Hem Stitch, 
and used in fancy Embroideries, and in plain needlework. 
To work : Bring the needle up upon a traced line, 

and insert it into the material, a little behind where it 
came up, and bring it out a little beyond, both putting it 
in and bringing it out upon the straight line. Put the 

needle down again in the same hole made when it first 
came up, and bring it out again on the line a few threads- 
forward. Continue to make email even stitches in this 
way along the line. The beauty of the work consists in 
every stitch being made of the same size, and kept in an 
even line. 

Barred Witch Stitch. — See Herringbone Stitch. 

Bashet Stitch. — A Raised Couching Stitch chiefly 
used in Church W ork, but occasionally in silk Embroideries. 
To work : Lay down perpendicular lines of fine whip- 
cord upon the material, at even distances apart, and secure 
them with tacking threads. Upon this foundation lay 
down three or four strands of purse silk or gold cord. 
Pass these threads over two lines of whipcord, in a hori- 
zontal direction, and secure them with a stitch brought 
from the back, pass it over them, and return it to the back, 
and repeat this stitch until the four strands of silk or 
gold cord are stitched down between every two pieces of 
whipcord. For second row — Lay down the four threads 

A A 


i 7 8 


of silk or gold over the wliipcord, and close to those first 
laid, and secure them with stitches brought from the 
back of the material, and returned there. Make the first 
securing stitch over one strand of whipcord, so as to 
prevent the securing threads forming a line down the 
work, then secure the threads over two strands of whip- 
cord as before. Repeat these two rows to the end of 
the space. 

Battlemented Stitch. — An arrangement of Overcast, 
Holbein, or Point de Russe, to imitate in Embroidery the 
indented line of battlements upon castles, &c. The stitch 
is used in Ticking and other ornamental Embroidery, and 
is shown in the centre line of Fig. 324. To work in Hol- 
bein stitch with both sides alike : Run the thread first 
over, then under, and then over the traced line, so that 
every alternate stitch fills up a marked space. In the 
second running, work over the plain spaces and under the 
ones already filled in. To work in Overcast : Trace a 
battlemented line on the material. Bring the needle up 
from the back, and cover the line with fine and even Over- 
cast stitches, working from left to right. To work in 

Fia. 324. Battlemented Stitch, 

Point de Russe : Trace a battlemented line. Bring the 
needle up from the back of the material, at one end of the 
short line forming the top of one Battlement, put the 
needle back at the end of this line, only take up a few 
threads of material, and bring the needle out, at the top of 
the short upright line, put it down at the end of the line, 
take up a few threads of material, and bring it up ready to 
make the next line in the same manner. Work from right 
to left, and continue to the end of the traced line. The three 
diverging lines at the top and bottom of each battlement 
(See Fig. 324) work in Long Stitch, as also the diamond 
border above and below the Battlemented; they are inserted 
as an ornamental finish to the work, and have no con- 
nection with the stitch. 

J Blanket Stitch. — This stitch is employed to form an 
ornamental finish to cloth, serge, and other thick materials, 
when they are used as the foundation for embroidered 
counterpanes, tablecloths, &c., whose substance is too 
thick to allow of their edges being turned in and hemmed 
over. The stitch derives its name from its having ori- 
ginally been used as an edging to blankets, but its foun- 
dation is Buttonhole worked in various patterns, all of 
which can be used upon one edging if desired, the only 
essential to Blanket Stitch being that it is formed of 
wide-apart Buttonhole, and is worked with coarse crewels 
or filoselles. To work : Make a Buttonhole upon the 
edge of the material, take up a quarter of an inch of the 

material in the length of the stitch, and slant it from right 
to left; make another Buttonhole of the same length, but 
an upright stitch, and close to the first one, then a third, 
slant this from left to right; miss the space of half an 
inch, carrying the filoselle along the edge of the work, and 
repeat the three stitches. 

Another kind : Make an upright Buttonhole one-eighth 
of an inch long, miss the space of one-eighth of an inch, 
and make a Buttonhole a quarter of an inch long, miss 
the same space, and make a Buttonhole half an inch long, 
miss the same space, and make a Buttonhole a quarter 
of an inch long, miss the same space, and make a Button- 
hole one-eighth of an inch long, miss the space of half an 
inch, and repeat these five stitches. 

Another kind : Make a Buttonhole a quarter of an inch 
long, then four half an inch long, and one a quarter of an 
inch long, miss one-eighth of an inch between each Button- 
hole, and half an inch between every group of six stitches. 

Brick Stitch. — A Flat Couching, and used in silk 
Embroideries. To work : Lay down two strands of floss 
silk or filoselle upon the material, and to secure these 
bring a stitch up from the back of the material, pass it 
over them, and return it again to the back. Secure the 
whole length of the strands with these stitches, at even 
distances apart; then lay down two more strands, and 
secure them in the same manner, but arrange that the 
stitch that secures them shall come exactly between two 
in the last row, and not opposite to them. Fill in all the 
space with second row. 

Broad Couching Stitch. — A Flat Couching, and made 
as follows : Lay down three or four strands of filoselle 
or floss silk on to the material, and secure them with a 
fastening stitch brought up from the back, pass it over 
them, and return it to the back. Make these stitches at 
set intervals down the laid threads, then lay down more 
threads and secure them, also at set intervals, but so that 
they come between, not opposite, the ones already made. 

Bullion Knot Stitch. — Used in silk Embroideries, 
Crewel Work, and Church Work, forming a raised roll 

Fia. 325. Bullion Knot. 

laid along the surface of the work. To make : Secure the 
thread at the back of the work, and bring it through to 
the front. Put the needle into the material, and bring it 
out so that the point is close to the thread, and take up 
from a quarter to half an inch of material on the needle, 
according to the length desired for the Knot. Wind the 
thread round the point of the needle from ten to twelve 
times ( see Fig. 325) ; hold the needle down with the left 
thumb, and wind with the right hand. Still holding the 


r 79 

needle down, pull it through the material, pull up tlie 
thread to where the needle was inserted, and let the Knots 
lie evenly along the surface ; then put the thread through 
to the hack at this place, and repeat for a second Bullion 
Knot, In the illustration two Bullion Knots are arranged 
as an oval, hut they can he laid down upon the material 
as single Knots, or in any other device. 

Burden Stitch . — A Flat Couching, and used in silk 
Embroideries. To work : Lay down a line of doss silk 
or filoselle, and, to secure it, bring up a thread from the 
back of the material, on one side of the filoselle, and 
put it hack again on the other. Arrange these securing 
stitches at even distances along the line of filoselle. 

Buttonhole Stitch * — In Broderie Anglaise and other 
ornamental Embroideries this stitch is chiefly used to 
form an edging to the work, and is then known as 
Feston, or Double Overcast. When used in Point Lacc 
work, of which it is the chief stitch, or as a filling to the 
various parts of Fancy Embroidery, it is called Close Stitch, 
Point do Brussels, or Point None. To work as a Feston 
or Double Overcast : Eun a straight or scalloped line at 
the edge of the material, and commence to work from left to 
right. Bring the needle up from the hack of the material, 
put it down into the material over the run line, and bring 
it up under that line, and draw up with the needle over the 
working thread, so that a loop is formed on the material. 
Continue to make these loops along the line, put the needle 
down above the run line, and close to the stitch last made, 

Pis. 32$, Buttonhole Stitch. 

bring it up under the run line, and take up the same 
amount of material at each stitch. To work as Point 
None, Ac., and without a foundation (sec Fig, 326) : Throw 
a thread across the space to he filled, from right to left, and 
secure it firmly upon each side. Commence to work from 
left to right, put the needle into the piece of lace or 
material above the thread thrown across, and then down- 
wards behind the foundation thread. Bring it up on the 
other side of the foundation thread and over the working 
thread, so that it forms a loop. Continue to make these 
loops to the end of the row. Then throw another foundation 
thread across, and cover this with Buttonhole ; put the 
needle into the first line of Buttonhole instead of into 
the material. Continue to throw threads across, and cover 
them with Buttonholes until the space is filled. 

Chain Stitch . — This stitch is also called Point de 
Chainette and Tambour Stitch, It is largely used in 
all Fancy Embroideries, particularly in Indian and other 
Oriental work. Upon fine cambric or muslin Chain or 
Tambour Stitch is worked with a Crochet hook thus: 

Thread In the front of the work, put the hook through 
the material, and bring it out to the front, thread round 
the needle, and draw it up as a loop through the piece 
of material on the hook hook through the mate- 
rial, thread round the hook, and draw through the 

Fig. 337, Chain Stitch, 

material and loop upon the hook; repeat from # to make 
every Chain. To work Chain Stitch with a Needle; 
Bring the needle from the back of the material up in the 
line to he embroidered, put the needle down close to the 
place it came out, but on the right side # ; hold the thread 
down with the loft thumb, and bring the needle out upon 
the line, one -eighth of an inch below where it was inserted, 
and over the thread held down. Draw up, and the stitch 
will be formed, Put the needle down on the right side, 
close to where it came up, and in the Chain already made 
(see Fig. 327), and repeat from # for the whole of the 

Close Stitch * — Bee Buttonhole Stitch. 

Chain Twisted Stitchs — See Twisted Chain Stitch, 

Coral Stitch . — A stitch worked either Double oi* 
Single. It is much used in Ticking and other fancy 
Embroideries, and also to decorate plain linen. To 

Fig, 323. CottAL Stitch. 

work Single Coral: Bring the needle up in the centre 
line, hold the thread down with the left thumb one- eighth 
"of an inch beneath where the needle came out. Insert 
the needle on left side of the line (see Fig. 328), even to 

a a 2 



where it came lip, hut a short distance away, and bring it 
out in a slanting direction, so that it comes up in the 
centre line, and over the held down thread* Draw up, and 
repeat this stitch to the right of the line, and work on the 
left and right of the line until the space is covered. 

Pits, 320. Double Coral Stitch* 

To work Double Coral : The beauty of Double Coral 
consists in the perfect Tandy ke line it makes down the 
material when properly worked. The stitch is the same 
as Coral, but is worked twice to the left and twice to 
the right, as in Fig, 323, where the needle is inserted 
in the second left-hand stitch, and the numbers 1 and 2 
indicate the place the needle is put through to make the 
stitch on the right hand. 

Cord Stitch . — -A stitch used in Embroidery to cover' 
straight threads thrown across spaces, and not run into the 
material ; also known as Twist Stitch. To work : Throw 
a line of thread across a space and fasten it firmly. 
Return the thread to where it first started from, by 
twisting it over and over the straight and tight line 
first made. 

Couching Stitch . — The stitches that arc classed under 
the head of Couching are more used in Church work than 
in other kinds of Embroidery* They rank amongst the 
best and most difficult of Embroidery stitches, and 
require to be worked in frames* Couch lugs are used to 
embroider with materials that are too thick to thread upon 
needles and pass backwards and forwards as stitches, or 
that arc of a texture that such constant friction would fray 
and destroy. They are divided into two kinds, Elat 
and Raised, The chief varieties of Flat Couching are 
Brick, Broad, Burden, Diagonal, and Diamond ; of Raised, 
Basket, Tandy ke, and Wavy. The Flat Couching a 
are laid straight down upon the foundation material; 
the Raised have paddings of various cords put between 
them, and the foundations are laid over these raised sur- 
faces. The principle of all Couching stitches is as follows : 
Lay down two or more threads of floss silk or gold cord 
upon the foundation as horizontal or perpendicular lines, 
and close together, and to secure these bring tip a needle 
threaded with silk from the back of the material on one 
side of the laid threads, pass it over them to the other, 
and return it to the back from there. Make a series 
of these securing stitches at even distances along tlie laid 
threads, and then lay down more threads and secure 
them in the same manner* The varieties in Couching are 

formed by the designs made by these securing stitches 
being arranged in patterns, the Raised as well as the Flat. 

Crewel Stitch (also known as Rope and Stem Stitch)* 
— This stitch is much used in Crewel Work, being the chief 
one in that Embroidery, and is also 
used in Brodcric Anglaise, and other 
kinds of Embroidery, to form thick 
stems to flowers, tendrils, and branch- 
ing sprays. To work : Bring the needle 
up from the back of the material, and 
insert it above where it came out in 
a straight line, but slightly slanting 
from right to left (see Fig. 330)* 
Keep the thread upon the right side 
of the needle, and draw up. Insert the 
needle in the same way above the last 
made stitch in an upright, but slightly 
slanting, direction, and so work until 
the line is finished. Work in this 
manner backwards and forwards for 
a thick stem, always turning the ma- 
terial at the end of a line* In curved 
sprays and tendrils follow their traced outlines and make 
the same stitch. See Crewel Stitch for Crewel Work, 
Crewel Reversed, see Twisted Chain* 

Cross Stitchr — This stitch is also known as Point de 
Marque, and is used for fancy Embroideries, and parti- 
cularly in work known as Kreuzsfciekeri, and for marking. 
Its beauty consists of the two lines of which it is formed 
crossing each other, so that their points form a perfect 
square. To work : Take the first part of the stitch from 

Fig. m 
Ckewrl Stitch. 

Fig* 331. Cross Stitch, 

the left-hand bottom side of the square across to the 
right-hand top side, anil the second half of the stitch from 
the right-hand bottom side to the left-hand top side, 
crossing over the first half, as shown in Fig* 331, To 
work both sides alike sec Point de Geoix sans eyebs* 
To work a cross inside a square sec Spanish Stitch* 

Cushion Stitch . — The name given to Satin Stitch 
when that stitch is arranged in a series of geometrical 
Tandy kes or half circles across a material as a background. 
The stitch is more used in Berlin Work and Church 

Work than in fancy Embroidery, but is occasionally 
required in the latter* To work : Trace out on the material 
two parallel Vandyke or curved lines, an inch apart from 
each other. Bring the needle from the hack of the work 
up in the lower line, and put it clown in the upper line 
exactly above where it came out. Bring it out on the 
upper line, with but a thread of the material separating it 
from the first stitch, and put it down in the lower line* 
Continue to work the stitch with the precision and evenness 
of weaving until the lines are filled in. To work Cushion 
stitch alike on both sides ; When the needle is put down to 


the back of the work, bring it up again close to where it 
was first brought out, instead of close to where it was put 
down. This will Jill the back of the flower or leaf with 
the same straight stitches that it fills the front part with* 

Cru mb St lie h , — Si m ilar to Do l Sti tell . 

Dmnask Stitch.— A name given to Satin stitch when 
worked upon linen for household purposes. To work : 
Bring the needle from the back of the material to the front, 
and make a slanting stitch over the part to be embroidered. 
Bring out the needle close to where it first came out, but 
on the right side, put it down close to where it was put 
hack, and continue to make these slanting stitches across 
the material until the space is filled in. 

Diagonal Stitch . — A Plat Couching. To work : Lay 
down two threads of floss silk or gold cord upon a linen 
foundation. To secure these into position bring u stitch 
from the. back of the material, pass it over the threads, 
and return it to the back. Lay dawn repeated lines of silk 
and secure them, and arrange the securing stitches so that 
they form diagonal lines upon the work. 

Pio. 333. DOT STITCH, 

Diamond Stitch . — A Flat Couching, To work : Lay 
down lines of floss silk over the whole of the foundation 
to he covered, and, to secure these, take a single thread of 
purse silk and gold cord, lay it in a diagonal direction 
over the floss silk, and secure it with a stitch from the 
back at set intervals. Continue to lay down diagonal 
lines over the silk, at equal distances apart, and all in one 
direction, and to secure them until the space is filled. 
Then cross these lines with other diagonal ones, so as to 
form a diamond- shaped pattern upon the surface of the 
floss silk. Secure these last lines at the points of the 
diamonds, and ornament the stitch by introducing a pearl 
or bead at tbe Junction. 

Dot Stitch.— A stitch also called Point de Pois, Point 
d’Or, Point de Paste, and Dotted, and used in all kinds 
of Embroidery, either to fill in the centres of leaves 
and flowers, or to trace out a pattern with a number of 
single lines made with a series of small Dots. To work : 
Bring the needle up from the back of the work, outline 
a tiny round, and work Overcast over it until a small 


raised knob is formed. Fig. 332 is au illustration of a piece 
of Embroidery intended for the corner of a handkerchief, 
iu which the name is worked in the centre of a leaf. The 
name, the outline of the leaf, the fibres, and the stein are 
worked in Satin Stitch, the tendrils in Overcast, and the 
body of the leaf filled with Dots. These Dots arc too 
small to outline with a run thread, and are made of two 
Overcast stitches. 

Doited Stitch * — See Dot Stitch. 

Douhh Cross Stitch , — A fancy stitch used in Ticking 
Work and other Embroideries upon materials where the 
foundat ion is allowed to show. To work a plain Double 

Tig. 333. DOUBLE CROSS &TITCII-Bbta» A. 


Cross: Pill the space to be worked with a line of wide 
apart Herringbone stitches (see Fig, 338), and make a 
return line of Herringbone between the wide apart first 

To work an Ornamented Double Cross : Make a line of 
wide apart Herringbone, return the thread close to the 
stitches just made, so as to make a double line, and cross 
this while in progress with ornamental knots. Hold the 
fixed and working thread together, and cross them where 
a knot is to be made with a Buttonhole to secure them 
together. Then make a knot or knob with Overcast. 
Work two knots upon every Herringbone, and continue 
to make the double line to the end of space. Then 
make a single line of Herringbone between the stitches, 
as in plain Double Cross, and as shown iu Fig. 334 
(Detail B) on p. 181. 

Double Cross Stitch (a variety )* — A name sometimes 



given to Point cle Oroix Sans Evers, and described under 
that heading. 

Bauble Overcast Stitch . — See Buttonhole Stitch, 

Double Square Stitch . — See Queen Stitch. 

En CtMchure Stitch . — The French name for Couch- 
ing (which Bee). 

J En Monde Bosse Stitch , — A term occasionally met 
with in descriptions of old needlework, and intended to 
denote that the Embroidery Stitches are raised from the 
foundation, either in low or high relief. 

Eyelet-hole .— This is used in Broderie Anglaise, and 
in all hinds of Embroidery where the material is cut 
away and the edges of those places sewn oven Ey let- 
holes are generally round, but they are also formed as 
ovale and Vandykes, their shape depending upon the 
pattern they are to make. To work : Trace the design 
upon cambric or other thin material, and tack this to 
Toile Circ. Outline each hole by running a thread of em- 
broidery cotton round it, and then, if it is an oval, cut it 
with a sharp pair of small scissors down the centre ; or if 
a round, push a stiletto through it, turn the material 
under until the outline thread is reached, and then work 
round the hole in Overcast from left to right. Put the 
needle in on the hole side of the running, and bring it out 
on the other, so that the Overcast Stitch is worked over 
the run line. Work close, and make each stitch of the 
same size. Eyelet-holes are sometimes worked with 
Buttonhole instead of Overcast* To work ; Trace a 
double line round the hole, and fill in between the two lines 
with runnings of embroidery cotton. Cut out the centre, 
turn under the material until the inner traced line is 
reached, and then work a succession of evenly -made 
Buttonholes round the Eyelet-hole, 

Fia. 335, Fancy Stitch Tig. 336, Fancy Stitch. 

Fancy SHtch . — These stitches are used in Embroidery 
to fill in and enrich parts of the design. To work Fig. 335 : 
First make a line of Dots, formed of two loops at equal 
distances apart, and then make a second line of Dote in a 
similar manner a quarter of an inch from first line. Loop 
through a Dot upon each line with a thread carried three 
times through, and when all the Dots have been filled, 
work a third line of Dots, and loop these through, taking 
the threads through the second line of Dots to form part 
of the stitch. When all the space is thus filled in, work 
Dots upon each side of the stitches to correspond with the 
ones already made. 

To work Pig, 336 : Arrange lines in Diamonds across the 

space, and catch these down at the points of the Diamonds. 
Then make flat loops over them with three coils of thread, 
and when all are filled in finish by catching these flat 
loops in four places. 

Fancy Ilem Stitch . The varieties of Fancy Hem 
Stitch are used in Open Work Embroideries of all kinds, 
but more particularly in Drawn Work, where they arc 
employed either to catch together and secure the threads 
left in the material after the others are drawn away, or to 
fill up spaces that the drawn away threads have left quite 
bare. To work Fancy Hem to secure threads: Having 
drawn out the threads necessary, turn the work to the 
wrong side, hold the material so that the threads are 
horizontal, and w T ork in a straight line down them and 
close to the solid material. Take up six or eight threads 
on the needle, and hold the working thread down, the 
point of the needle over it. Then draw up, making 
a Buttonhole Stitch. Pull up tightly the six or 
eight threads well together, and then secure them by 
taking a short stitch underneath them into the material. 
Eepeot, until all the threads are drawn together. 

To fill in open spaces : Make a series of loops upon each 
side of the space, opposite to each other (see Fig. 337), and 
join them together thus ; Fasten the thread to the first 
bottom loop, and run it into the middle [ put the needle 
into the loop opposite on the top line, and back again 

Fig. 337, Fancy Hem Stitch* 

into the bottom loop, and make a Buttonhole of this 
stitch. Then pass the thread backwards and forwards 
between the two loops several times, but do not make any 
more Buttonholes. Pass on to the next two loops, and 
make the first stitch a Buttonhole, and fill in the rest with 
the plain backwards and forwards thread. Work all the 
loops together in this maimer* 

To work Fig. 338: Commence by making a Bach Stitch 
in the upper part of the space, taking up only sufficient 



material to hold the stitch. Cross the thread to the other 
side of the space, and make another small Back Stitch 
there. Cord up the thread for a short distance, and make 
a Back Stitch into the upper part of the space; Cord this 
up a short distance, and make a Back Stitch into the lower 
part of the space, and continue to the end, being careful 
to make every stitch the same distance apart. 

Feather Stitch (1). — The Opus Plumarium of the 
ancients, and so called from the likeness this stitch has, 
when arranged as long stitches, radiating from a centre 
or from a straight line, to the feathers of a bird. It is 
largely used in Ancient Embroideries and in Crewel 
Work, and is either worked in a frame or on the hand. 
The stitch consists of a number of Satin Stitches of 
irregular length and size, worked in between each other 
in rows, some long and some short, but so arranged as 
to fit into each other without showing any foundation, 
and so that the outline and contour of the design are 
followed. To work in a frame : Bring the needle up 
from the back of the material, and put it down again in 
a slanting direction, make a stitch a quarter of an inch 
long, bring it out again close to the first stitch, and put 
it down to the back in a slanting direction, making the 
stitch one-eighth of an inch long. Make this long and 
short stitch alternately for the first row; for the next, 
fill in the spaces with the same kind of stitches, work 
them long and short where the design will allow, but 
arrange so that they follow the line of the outline. 
To work on the hand: Make the same irregular Satin 
Stitch, but bring the needle up in the commencement 
of the second stitch when put down at the end of the 
first stitch. 

(2). — A stitch also known as Point d’Epine, used 
in Ticking w T ork, and to ornament children’s dresses and 
underlinen. It is worked either as a Single or Double 
Feather. To work Single Feather : Trace a straight line 
down the material, bring the needle up in this line, and 
hold the thread down under the left thumb on the line, but 
a quarter of an inch below where it came out. Put the 
needle in in a slanting direction on the right side, and 
bring it out in the traced line, over the thread that is held 
down, as shown in Fig. 339. Draw up, and commence 
another stitch, keeping all the slanting lines on the right 
side of traced line. 

To work Double Feather (the variety of the stitch most 
in use) : Bring the needle up in the traced line as before, 
make the slanting stitch described on the right side, and 

then make a similar stitch on the left-hand side into the 
same spot on the traced line, or hold the thread down 
on the traced line for a quarter of an inch, and then make 
a slanting stitch to the left. Again hold the thread down, 
and make a slanting stitch to the right, hold the thread 
down, and make a slanting stitch to the left, and con- 
tinue to form stitches on each side of the line to the end 
of the work. 

Feston Stitch. — See Buttonhole Stitch. 

French Knot Stitch. — A stitch much used in Em- 
broidery of all kinds for filling in with raised Knots the 
centres of Flowers, Stars, or Circles. French Knot 
requires to be worked with a thick and not a thin thread, 
purse silk, filoselle, or crewel being the materials with 
which it is usually made. To work : Bring the needle up 
from the back of the material, hold the thread between 
the left thumb and forefinger, twist it once round the 
needle, turn the needle round, and put it back into the 
material a little behind where it came out. 

French Plumetis Stitch. — A name given to Raised 
Satin Stitch. See Satin Stitch. 

Gobelin Stitch. — A short upright stitch, also called 
Tapestry. It was largely used in ancient Tapestry work, 
from which it derived its modern name, and it is now 
employed only for very fine Embroideries executed with 
silks, or work upon canvas. It requires to be made in a 
frame, as its beauty consists in every stitch being made 
of the same length and height. To work: Bring up 
the thread from the back of the work, and put it down 
again at a short distance from w'liere it came out, and 

Fia. 340. Gobelin Stitch, 

quite upright. The length of the stitch should be twice 
its width. Bring the needle up again close to where it 
was first brought out, and put it dow f n again close to 
where it was put dowm, and continue to make even row's 
of these stitches, one row above the other, until the space 
is filled. Begin to work from the left-hand side at the 
bottom of the material. Gobelin stitch is sometimes 
worked as a raised stitch in Ticking and other ornamental 
Embroideries; it is then padded with braid ( see Fig. 
340), and the upright stitches taken over every line of 
braid, either concealing the padding, or allowing it to 
show in places according to the braid used. 

Hem Stitch. — The ordinary Hem Stitch is identical 
with Back Stitch (w'hich see), but the Hem Stitch used 
in Drawn Work, and for other fancy purposes, is made 
as shown in Fancy Hem Stitch. 

Herringbone Stitch. — A stitch used in plain needle- 



work to join flannel stuffs together, and also as an orna- 
mental stitcli in Embroidery. It is sometimes called 
Witch Stitch. The beauty of Herringbone depends 
entirely upon the execution. Every stitch requires to be 
put in at an exact distance from the last made, and the 
amount of material taken up upon the needle should 

Fio. 311. Herringbone Stitch. % 

always be the same; without this uniformity of execution 
the work is spoilt. To work : If the worker’s eye is not 
straight enough to judge the distances without a guide, 
make two parallel lines, a quarter of an inch apart, upon 
the material, with a succession of dots, hold the material 
in the left hand, with the part to be worked along the 
first finger, bring the needle up from the wrong side in 
the top line, put it into the bottom line in a slanting 
direction, take up only a small quantity of material, 
and put the needle in with the point to the left hand 
( see Fig. 341). Draw up the cotton, and put the needle 
in the top line in a slanting direction, the point of the 
needle towards the left. Draw up, and the cotton of the 
last stitch will cross over the cotton of the first. Con- 
tinue to cross the cotton in this manner until the lines 
are filled. 

Herringbone ( Fancy ) Stitch . — A Fancy Herringbone 
stitch, also known as Barred Witch stitch. To work : 
Commence with a line of Herringbone, and work the 
Herringbone more upright and less slanting than in 
ordinary Herringbone. Then take a new thread, bring it 

Fia. 312. Herringbone Fancy Stitch. 

from the back, and twist it over the cross of the Herring- 
bone, run it down under the slanting line to the next 
cross, twist it over that, and continue running the 
thread up and down the slanting lines and over the 
crosses until a barred appearance is given to each cross. 
See Fig. 312. 

Holbein Stitch . — This stitch is also called Italian, 
and derives its name of Holbein from being the stitch 

Fig. 343. Holbein Stitch. 

employed in that work. Upon open canvas materials it 
can be worked as squares or Vandyke lines, both sides 
alike. When this effect is not required, it is either a 
Satin Stitch or Back Stitch, worked as an outline stitch. 

To work as shown in Fig. 343: Trace the outline of 
the design, and then cover every line with a long or 
short Satin Stitch, according to the length of the 
traced line. If the work is to look the same upon both 
sides, for this pattern cover the outline with Back 

To make Holbein Squares with Both Sides of the Work 
Alike : Bring the thread out on the right side of the 
material, pass it over four perpendicular threads of the 
canvas, and under four horizontal right-hand threads, 
over four perpendicular threads below the horizontal 
ones, and under four left horizontal ones, bringing out 
the thread on the same line as the first stitch made, 
but four threads below it. Continue these stitches if a 
long line of squares is required; if only two are wanted, 
turn back, and fill in the squares thus: Make a stitch 
upwards over the four perpendicular threads, under the 
first made stitch, and out where it commenced, over the 
four horizontal threads on a line with it, under four 
perpendicular threads, over four horizontal threads on the 
left, under four perpendicular threads concealed with an 
already made stitch, across the horizontal threads, under 
four perpendicular threads in an upward direction, and 
over the four last threads that require covering. Two 
perfect squares on both sides of the material are now 

To make a Vandyke Line Both Sides Alike: Take the 
thread over four perpendicular threads, under four hori- 
zontal threads to the right, over four perpendicular 
threads, and under four horizontal threads to the right 
for the length; return by running up this line over the 
horizontal threads and under the perpendicular. A waved 
line is made in the same manner. 

Honeycomb Stitch . — This stitch is used to draw 
together in an ornamental pattern the gathers upon the 
neck and sleeves of smock frocks, and also for all kinds 
of decorative gathering. It requires to be executed with 
great care and exactness, so as to form the cell-shaped 
cavities that give it its name, and should be worked upon 
materials that are fine in texture, and yet sufficiently 
stiff to form even and straight folds. The best mate- 
rials are cambrics, hollands, and stiff muslins. To work : 
Take a piece of holland, and draw out horizontal threads 
the distance from each other the honeycombs are to be ; 
set it in gathers that are perfectly even. Draw these 
up, and stroke them down with a knitting needle in 
straight lines the length of material to be ornamented. 
Thread a needle with black or dark coloured purse silk. 
Commence at the right-hand side of the work, bring it up 
from the wrong side of the material, and catch the 
first two gathers together with a Back Stitch, about 
a quarter of an inch from the line of gathers, and on 
one of the drawn-out threads (see Fig. 341). Put the 
needle down at the back of the material a quarter 
of an inch, bring it up at the third gather, and 
catch the third and second gathers together with a 
Back Stitch. Return the needle to the back, and to 
the height of the first made stitch, and catch the 
fourth and third gathers together with a Back Stitch; 
put it back in a line with the second stitch, and catch 




BACK-STITCH EMBROIDERY Copied From a priests si ole of the 17 ^ century 

'^ vw 




the fifth and fourth gathers together, and continue work- 
ing in this way, first in one line and then in the other, 
catching a new gather and an old gather together with a 
Back Stitch every time, until all are secured. Work the 
third line as the first (commencing at the right-hand side 
of work), and the fourth as the second line, catching the 
gathers together in these lines in the same order as the 
ones already worked, and keeping them straight with 
the drawn out threads. The illustration (Fig. 344) shows 
Honeycomb Stitch commenced, with the run thread, two 
lines of Honeycomb finished, and two lines in progress, 

Fia. 344. Honeycomb Stitch. 

with the gathers stroked, ready to fasten together. 
A variety of Honeycomb is formed by treating each 
gather as a laid thread, and forming a pattern over it, as 
in Couching, with a thread brought from the back of the 
material. The material is gathered very evenly, put into 
an Embroidery Frame, and stroked down. Each gather 
is then caught down singly with a Back Stitch, and these 
securing stitches are arranged in parallel diagonal lines, 
or as open diamonds. When forming open diamonds the 
number of gathers must be counted, and a tiny pencil 
line drawn over the work, so that each diamond is made 
of the same size. 

Indots Stitch. — This is similar to Dot Stitch. Out- 
line a small circle and Overcast it, working the stitches 
all one way. 

Italian Slitcli. — See Holbein Stitch. 

Jacob's Ladder Stitch. — See Ladder Stitch. 

Japanese Stitch. — Used in Crewel work and in Em- 
broideries upon silk to represent water, and made with long 
Satin Stitches. To w r ork : Bring the needle from the back 
of the material, carry the thread along in a straight line 
the distance of tw T o inches, and then return it to the back. 
Bring it up again underneath where it first started, one- 
eightli of an inch to the right, and make a long two-inch 
stitch, and continue to make these long stitches in parallel 
lines one-eighth of an inch shorter on the left hand, and 
one-eightli of an inch longer on the right, until the space 
is filled in. 

Knot Stitch. — This stitch is also called Knotted, 
and is used in ornamental Embroideries to form lines 
decorated at set distances with Knots, and in Drawn 
Work to tie threads together in variously arranged 

patterns. Lines ornamented with Knots are made in 
several ways ; the simplest is worked 
as follows: Work along the line to 
be covered, and at even distances, a 
succession of raised dots {see Fig. 345). 
Make each dot by working two Back 
Stitches over each other, and run the 
working thread at the back of the 
material between each Knot. 

To w T ork Fig. 346: Bring the needle 
from the back of the material into the 
spot where the stitch is to be formed, 
put it down to the back, and bring it 
out again, only taking up a fcw r threads 
Wind the cotton twice round the point 
of the needle, and keep the cotton tight. Draw out the 
needle, and then put it back into the material at the 

Fia. 310. Knot Stitch. 

spot where it w f as first inserted, drawing the two threads 
wound round the working thread up tight, so that they 
stand up upon the work. Bring the needle up where the 
next Knot is to be made, and repeat. 

Fig. 347 is made as follow's : Carry the thread along 
the surface of the work for a short distance, and hold it 
down with the left thumb, then twist it once round the 
needle, insert the needle into the material, and bring it 
up again. Twist the cotton twice round the point of the 
needle, and draw up until the thread is quite over the 

Fia. 347. Knot Stitch. 

first twist, put the needle dowm into the material at this 
place, and bring it out again at the other side of the Knot. 
Then take a long stitch, commence to twist the thread 
round the needle, and make another Knot. 

To make a Knot upon the surface of the w r ork, i.e., the 
Knot that is called a French Knot : Bring the needle up 
from the back of the material, hold the thread between 
the left thumb and finger, twist the thread once round the 
needle, and put it back into the material a little behind 
where it came out. Work this Knot with coarse thread 
or silk. 

To make a Knot with drawn threads: Hem Stitch a 
dozen drawn threads together for the first row. For the 
second, take 6 threads from one Hem stitch, and 6 from the 
next, and Overcast them together at the distance of an 
eighth cf an inch from the first row {see Fig. 348). Fasten 

B B 

Fia. 345. 

Knot Stitch. 

of the material. 


1 86 

oif or run the thread along the drawn threads and com- 
mence another Knot, take 6 threads from one stitch and 
6 from the other, and work until all the stitches 
are divided and knotted. For the third row, divide the 
first stitch, and make a Knot with 6 of its threads. Then 

Fio. 318. Knot Stitch with Drawn Thread. 

make a Knot with the 6 threads left from the first stitch 
and 6 taken from the second stitch, and take 6 stitches 
from one stitch, and 6 from the other, and Overcast them 
together for all tbe row. Work the fourth row like the 
second, and the fifth row like the third. 

Knotted Stitch . — See Knot Stitch. 

Ladder Stitch . — There are two kinds of this stitch, 
the open, called Ladder Point, or Point d’Echelle, in which 
the bars forming the stitch are taken across an open 
space; and the closed, known as Jacob’s, and Ship Lad- 
der, in which the bars are worked on to the material 

To work Fig. 349, an Open Ladder : Trace out upon the 
material two parallel lines an inch apart. Take a thread 
and run it down the top line for a quarter of an inch, then 
carry it across to the bottom line as a bar (see b), loop 
it into the material, and run it along the bottom line for 
a quarter of an inch, loop it in at c, and carry it across as 

Fia. 349. Open Ladder Stitch. 

a bar to top line to d, loop it in, carry it across to 1, run it 
along to 2, cross it to 3, and run it along to 4. When the 
bars are thus made, run a plain line over each parallel 
tracing, and work over in Double Overcast, turning the 
edges of the stitches to the inside. Cut away the material 
between these two Overcast lines, and leave the bars 
crossing it. 

To work Fig. 350, an Open Ladder: Trace out two 
parallel lines, with an inch and a half space between them, 
Herringbone from one to the other with a wide apart 
line. Then return a line of Herringbone in between the 
one first made. Run a line of thread down each parallel 
line, and work over in Double Overcast, turning the edges 
of the stitches to the inside, and cut away the material 
between these lines. Then take a thread down the centre 
of the space and Knot the two lines of Herringbone 

together with it in the centre, thus: Put the thread 
under the two lines where they cross, and bring it 
out, make a loop with it, put the needle in under the 

Fio. 3>0. Open Ladder Stitch. 

two lines, and bring it out over the loop and draw up, 
then pass on to where the two next lines cross, and 
Knot together in the same way. 

Fig. 351 is an Open Ladder stitch, surrounded with 
padded lines of Overcast. To work: Trace the outline 
and run the bars of the ladder as shown in Fig. 351, then 

Fio. 351. Ladder Stitch and Overcast. 

pad the outside and inside circle, and work them thickly 
over in Overcast. Work the centre star in flat Satin 

To work Fig. 352, an Open Ladder : Make a number of 
stiletto holes as a curved line across the space. Work 

Fio. 352. Open Ladder Stitch. 

over the material left between the holes with Overcast. 
The stiletto holes will form the open part of the stitch, 
the Overcast the bars of the Ladder. 

To work Jacob, or Ship Ladder : For this close Ladder, 
trace a straight line down the centre of the material, take 
a stitch down it, a quarter of an inch in length, put the 
needle in, and bring it out on the right-hand side, a little 
above where it went in, and a quarter of an inch off. Then 


make a slant stitcli from left to right, turning the needle 
so that the point comes out on the 
traced line (see Fig. 353); draw up 
thread, and put the needle in where 
marked 1 on illustration, bring it out 
at 2, put it in at 3, and bring it out 
at 1 ; repeat to the end of the traced 

Lance Stitch. — Identical with 
Point Lancd Stitch (which see). 

Lattice Stitch. — A stitch used 
in Ticking work and other ornamental 
Embroideries for borders, and formed 
of straight interlaced lines. To work : 

Traee along the edge of the border 
two straight lines, half an inch apart, 
and in between these lines work the 
Lattice Stitch. Carry five straight but slanting lines 
of silk across the space and close together. Cross these 
in a contrary direction with five other lines, interlacing 
these with the first laid by passing each thread over 

Fio. 353. 

Ship Ladder Stitch. 

Fio. 354. Lattice Stitch, 

one line and under one line as they cross (see Fig. 354). 
Miss the one-eighth of an inch, and commence to throw 
the five lines again across the space, and interlace these 
as before mentioned. 

Leaf Stitch. — An ornamental stitch resembling an 
ear of barley when complete. It is a combination of 
Chain and Picot Stitch. To work : Work a Chain in the 
centre line, a Railway Stitch slanting to the right of 
the Chain, and a Picot Stitch to the left, then return 
to the centre line, and repeat the three stitches. 

Long Stitch. — Also known as Point Passe, Passe, 
and Au Passe. It is a name given to Satin Stitch when 
worked across the material without any padding. See 
Satin Stitch. 

Loop Stitch. — See Picot. 

Opus Phimarium Stitch. — See Feather Stitch. 

Outline Stitch. — This stitch can be made of Back, 
Holbein, Overcast, Crewel, or Point Russe. It merely 
consists in covering the traced outline of a design with 
a line of single and narrow stitches made of one of these 

Overcast Stitch. — A stitch used in Broderie Anglaise 
and in all kinds of Embroidery. It is U6ed to work round 
parts of the material that have been cut away to form an 
open pattern, as in Eyelet-hole, or to form outlines to 
stems, flowers, or leaves worked in Satin and other stitches 
when they are to be raised from the surface of the 
Embroidery, or to w T ork the entire design in. There are 
several varieties of Overcast. The Plain, which is worked 
over a run line and called Overcast; Slanting Overcast, 
similar to Rope and Stem Stitch; Raised Overcast, better 
known as Point de Tigre ; and Double Overcast, which is 
a plain Buttonhole Stitch. 


To work Plain Overcast : Run a foundation line along 
the part to be embroidered, from right to left. Bring the 
needle out in the work just beyond the end of the line, put 
the needle into the material over this line, bring it out 
under it, and in an upright position, and keep the working 

Fio. 355. Overcast Stitch. 

thread away from the stiten (see Fig. 355). Cover the 
foundation thread with a series of small close- together 
stitches so made, and put the needle in each time at 
the same distance from the stitch last made, and quite 
straight dow r n. 

To work Slanting Overcast : Trace a line on the material, 
but do not run a foundation thread. Cover this traced line 
with small evenly made slanting stitches. Put the needle 
in over the traced line and bring it out under the line, 
letting the needle slant from left to right to give a slant- 
ing direction to the stitch. 

To work Point de Tigre, or Raised Overcast: Over the 
traced outline of the design tack a fine cord. Work 

Fio. 356. Raised Overcast, or Point de Tigre.' 

a series of close Overcast stitches over this cord (see 
Fig. 356, which is a design entirely worked in Point de 
Tigre, or Raised Overcast). 

To work in Overcast for Stems : Trace the design, and 
run one or two lines of embroidery cotton over it, accord- 
ing to the thickness of the design. Fasten the thread 
to the back of the work, bring it out beneath, and put 
it down over the lines, so that it takes up the material 

B B 2 


1 88 

covered by them, and no more, Work stitches close 
together, until the whole outline is filled in. 

To make Eyelet-hole in Overcast, See Eyelet hole. 

To work double Overcast, See Buttonhole, 

Passe Stitch . — Sec Satin Stitch. 

Persian Cross Stitch . — A stitch used in Ticking and 
other fancy Embroideries, and largely employed in Persian 
and other Oriental embroideries ; It is also called Vienna 
Cross, It consists of a long slanting stitch, crossed with 
one half its size, and used irregularly about the work to 
fill in spaces, and not formed into rows. It can, however, 
he worked in rows, and then forms a line resembling 
Herringbone, with one of the vandyked lines longer than 
the other. 

To work as a separate stitch : Take a slanting stitch 
across the material, a quarter of an inch long, and cross 
it in the centre with a stitch one- eighth of an inch long. 

To work in rows : Take a long stitch across four per- 
pendicular threads, and cross it with a stitch taken over 
the two last of these threads. Commence the next stitch 
thus : Cross over the two last threads of the first stitch 
and over two new ones, and cross hack over the last two 
threads. Work this last made stitch until the line is 
filled in. 

Petit Point Stitch . — The French name for Tent 


Picot Stitch. — Also known as Loop Stitch, and used 
in Ticking work and other fancy Embroideries, and to 
ornament plain linen. It is formed of a loop made like a 
Chain, and secured with a short stitch holding down the 
loop at its broad end. To work : Bring up the thread from 
the back of the material, hold it down with the left thumb, 
put the needle in to the right, and close to where it came 

Fig. 357, Picot Stitch* 

up, and bring it out one- eighth of an inch below, in a 
straight line over the held down thread (see Fig. 357), 
Draw the thread up, and put the needle down through 
the material a short distance below the chain. Fig. *357 
illustrates a cross formed with four Picot Stitches, The 
Chains form the arms of the cross, and the short stitches 
the body. 

Fig, 358 is an arrangement of Picot Stitch in a pattern. 

Fig. 358* Picot Stitch. 

The straight centre line of Pieot is worked first, and the 
branching Picots on each side afterwards. 

Fig, 353 is composed of a centre line of Coral Stitch, 

Fig. 350, Picot and Coral Stitches, 

broken at set intervals with stars formed with six Picot 

Point a la Minute Stitch . — An Embroidery stitch 
worked like Bullion Knot, and used to fill in small stars, 

Fig. 3t0. Point A la Minute, 

leaves, and other devices. To work Fig. 360 ' Trace an 
outline of the star, put the needle in at 2, where one of 
the arms is commenced, bring it out at 1 (the end of that 

Fig. 361. Point A la Minute Stitch. 

arm), wind the cotton several times round the point of the 
needle, and hold that down with the left thumb ; draw up 
the thread, and put the needle down, at 2 again, where it 

Fig, 362. Point a la Minute Stitch, 

first came out. Cover the other jside of the arm with a 
similar stitch, and work all the arms of the cross ill the 
same way. Fig, 3G1 gives an arrangement of Point a la 


Minute as an eight-pointed star, with the centre left 
unworked ; and Fig. 362 is a pattern composed of a star 
surrounded by triangles, all made in this stitch. 

Point Anylaise Stitch . — One of the French terms 
for Feather Stitch. 

Point Cheviin de Fer Stitch. — See Railway Stitch. 

Point Croise Stitch. — A variety of Back Stitch that 
forms an interlaced pattern at the back of the material and 
two straight rows of Back Stitches at the front. To work : 
Trace two straight lines on the right side of the work, and 

at even distances from each other. Insert the needle as 
if to make an ordinary Back Stitch in the top line, and 
put down into the bottom line in a slanting direction ( see 
Fig. 363). Turn the needle and make a Back Stitch, 
and bring the needle out upon the top line a short distance 
from where it first appeared (see Fig. 363). Put it down 
again to the bottom line and repeat. The interlaced 

Figs. 3Gland365. Point Croise Stitch, back and fbont. 

threads at the back of the work are shown in Fig. 364, 
while Fig. 365 gives the appearance of the stitch in the 
front, when the back threads are seen through muslin, 
and Fig. 363 when the material is thick, and only the 
lines worked in the front are visible. 

Fig. 366 is an illustration of this same stitch, formed with 
two threads. The only difference is : Work a row of Back 
Stitch from one line to the other, as before, but leave 

Fig. 3G6. Point Croise Stitches. 

the space that one stitch would take between each stitch. 
Then work another row of Back Stitch with a differently 
coloured thread to fill in the spaces left in the first row. 

• Point d'Armes Stitch. — A stitch also known as Point 
de Sable, and used in Embroidery upon muslin or fine 
Cambric, to fill the centres of leaves and flowers, and to 


make a variety with Satin Stitch. It has all the 
appearance of Back Stitch, but is worked differently, 
and forms a series of interlaced lines at the back, which 
show through to the front of the work in transparent 
materials. To work : Run round the outline of the design 
upon the back of the material, and fasten the thread at 
the back. Commence by taking a short slanting stitch 
through to the front of the work and out again at the 
back, and then cross over the piece of work with a slanting 

Fio. 367. Point d’Arme3 Stitch, Showing Right Side. 

thread, taking two small stitches through to the front in 
each line (see Fig. 367) ; then cross these lines in a 
contrary direction with the same kind of stitches, and 
interlace the threads in the working. The appearance of 

Fio. 368. Point d’Armes Stitch, Showing Wrong Side. 

this stitch at the back, and manner of working, are shown 
in Fig. 368, while in Fig. 367 it is illustrated as it looks 
upon the right side of the material. 

Point d y Attache Stitch. — A term given to the stitch 
that secures fancy materials, such as braid or cord, to the 
main work. Point d’Attaehe can be worked as Back 
Stitch, or as plain Running, or as in Couching, thus : 
Bring the needle up from the back of the foundation, 
pas 3 it over the material to be secured, and put down again 
to the back of the foundation stuff. 

Point de Biais Stitch. — A fancy Embroidery stitch, 
used in Ticking work, and consisting in filling in a square 
piece of material with five slanting Satin Stitches of 
unequal length. To work : Trace out a square, and to 
commence, make a long Satin Stitch from the left-hand 
bottom corner of square to the right-hand top corner. 
Make a shorter stitch on each side of this, to fill in the 
sides of the square, and then two short stitches, one on 
each side of the two last made, to cover over the left-hand 
top point and the right-hand bottom point of square. 

Point de Cable Stitch. — See Rope Stitch. 

Point de Carreau. — A name given to Holbein Stitch 
when worked both side3 alike, and used to form tendrils, 
sprays, or waved lines in flower designs. To work : Take 
the silk or crewel up the traced line as a running, make 
each stitch and each reverse of the same size. Finish by 
running another thread of silk over the first, and with it 
fill in the spaces left on the last line on both sides of the 



Faint de Chainette 8Utch t - — See Chain Stitch. 

Faint cVEchelle Stitch, — The French term for Ladder 
Stitch (which see). 

Faint de Cote Stitch. — See Hope Stitch . 

Point de Croix Stitch. — See Cross Stitch. 

Point de Croix Sans Evers.— A stitch made in two 
ways : In one, a cross appears on both sides of the ma- 
terial ; in the other, a cross is made on one side, and a 
square of stitches, enclosing an nn worked space, on the 

To work a Cross on both sides : Take a square o£ canvas 
with four threads each way. Make a half-stitch over 
two horizontal and two perpendicular threads from the 
bottom left-hand corner to the middle, bring the needle 
back to the left-hand corner, and make a Tent Stitch 
from there to the right-hand top corner. Return the 
needle to the middle of the stitch, and work a half- stitch 
to the top of the left-hand comer, bring it out at the bot- 
tom of the right-hand corner, and make a Tent Stitch 
crossing the first one. 

To work a Cross and a Square: Make a Tent Stitch 
from the right bottom to the left top corner of a square 
of eight or four threads. Pass the needle at the back of 
the material from the left to the right top corner, and 
make a Tent Stitch across the first ; pass the thread at 
the back of the material into the top left-hand corner. 
Make a Tent Stitch into the bottom right-hand comer, 
over the one already there, and work the thread at the 
back up into the right-hand top corner, ready for another 
cross to be made above the one finished. 

Point de Diable Stitch , — This is a stitch that is 
formed with eight lines meeting in the centre of a square. 
To work; Make a St, Andrew’s Cross from corner to 
comer of the square, and overlay these lines with a 
Greek or even -armed cross, the arms coming from the 
centre of each side of the square. 

Point de Jours Stitch. — The French name by which 
those parts of Embroidery are indicated where the 
material is cut away, the sides Buttonhole or Over- 
cast* and the centres filled in with. Wheel, Star, 
La doer, or Point de Reprise stitch. 

Point de Marque Stitch. — See Cross Stitch. 

Point d'Epine Stitch , — One of the Frcneh terms for 
Feather Stitch. 

Point de Plume Stitch, — A variety of Raised Satin 
Stitch, in which the veins of leaves and flowers are left 
un worked, and the rest of the leaves padded. See Satin 

Point de Pois Stitch^ — See Dot Stitch. 

Point dc Paste Stitch, — Sec Dot Stitch, 

Point de Meprise Stitch, — A stitch resembling the 
one bearing the same name used in Guipure d’Art. 
It is employed in Embroideries upon linen, to ornament 
open spaces in the work from which the threads have been 
drawn or cut away. Fig, 360 shows Point de Reprise 
arranged as bars ; Fig 370, the same stitch formed into 

To work Fig. 360: Work a row of thick Button- 
hole round the open space, and then a second row of 
open Buttonhole. Throw a horizontal thread across 

the space to be filled, a quarter of an inch from the 
top, and secure it into the open Buttonhole line. Cord 
this thread back for a short distance, then take the cotton 
in an upright direction, secure it into the material, and 
bring it back to the horizontal thread with a distance of 
an eighth of an inch between the lines* Secure it to the 
horizontal thread with a knot, and throw it up again to 

Fin, 369, Point de Kepfjse Stitch* 

the top of the two lines. Work it down to the horizontal 
thread with an interlaced stitch, working in the last 
thrown up thread as one line with the knotted one 
(see Fig, f369). To Interlace: Put the needle over one 
thread and bring it out between the two and draw up, then 
put it over the opposite thread, bring it out between the 
two, and work in this way until both lines are covered. 
Cord the horizontal line for a short distance* and then 
commence another bar, made of Point dc Reprise* * 

To work Fig. 376 : Loop a thread from side to side of 
the open space, and then fasten off. Take a fresh thread, 
and commence at the first loop. Work the new thread 
in and out of the loop, first from the right thread into 
centre, then over the left thread into tlic centre. Allow 

Fig. 370. Point de Reprise Si itch, 

the interlacing e to widen at each twist, and when the 
centre of the open space is reached, pass the thread on 
to the loop opposite the one just worked over* and work 
over this in the same way, but commence with the widest 
stitch, and narrow to a point as a finish. Work over all 
the loops in this manner. 

Point de Itiz Stitch , — This stitch should be worked 
so as to resemble grains of rice loosely scattered over a flat 
surface. To work : Bring the thread from the back of the 
material, and put the needle down again, so that it makes 
a stitch one-eighth of an inch long, in a slant ing direction, 
upon the surface of the work. Continue to make these 
short slanting stitches until the space is covered, and 
arrange them so as to be carelessly thrown over the work* 


and not in any design. Fig. 371 is a flower with its centre 
filled with Point de Riz, surrounded by Point de Cable, 

or Stem Stitch. The thick parts of the flower are worked 
in Au Passe, and the sprays form part of the Au Passe 
design, shown in Fig. 371. 

Point de Bose Stitch. — A variety of Feston or 
Buttonhole, and used to fill in the petals of flowers, 
particularly of roses, hence its name. The difference 
between this stitch and ordinary Feston consists in the 
stitches being worked over a padded surface, and being 
broader. To work for ordinary edgings : Commence by 
running a plain curved line to mark the inside of a wide 
scallop edging, then run another line, at the distance of an 
eighth of an inch from the first. Make this line of a 
number of small curves, allowing four or five of these curves 
in the space of the one wide scallop. Pad the space 
between the two lines with lines of embroidery cotton, 
and Buttonhole over them, scalloping the outer edge 
of the line of Buttonholes to suit the curves made in the 
second line. When using Point de Rose for flower petals, 
commence by tracing the outlines of the petals with a 
double line, and fill in the spaces between these traced 
lines with a pad of embroidery cotton, run or darned in 
between them. Then, for the petals that fill in the centre 
of the flower, Buttonhole over the pad and work the outer 
edge of the line of Buttonhole stitches towards the centre 
of the flower, and not towards its edge. Work the outer 
petals with the Buttonhole edge to the outside, as in 
ordinary Feston. 

Point de Bosette. — Made like Point de Smyrne 
(which see). 

Point de Sahle Stitch. — A name given to. Point 
d'Armes Stitch (which see). 

Point d y Escalier Stitch. — See Ladder Stitch. 

Point de Smyrne. — A name given to Point Lance 
when the stitches are arranged as a star, and are alike 
upon both sides of the material. To work as shown in 
Fig. 372 : Bring the needle up from the back, on the 
extreme edge of one of the star rays, put it down in the 
centre of the star, and briug it out at the edge of the next 
point. Continue the work until all the rays are covered. 


Point de Tigre Stitch. — A name given to Overcast 
Stitch (which see). 

Point d'Etoile. — A stitch similar to Point de Smyrne. 

Point d'Or Stitch. — The French term for Dot Stitch 
(which see). 

Point Lance Stitch. — A simple stitch, also known as 
Lance, much used in Ticking and other fancy Embroidery 
work. It consists of short straight lines, arranged in 
various designs upon the surface of a material, and can 
be made with purse silk, coloured filoselle, and white or 
ingrain cotton. To make : Trace an outline of the pattern 
to be worked upon the material, bring the needle, threaded 
with silk, up from the back, at one of the points of the 
design, and insert it again into the material at the finish 
of the line at whose point it came out, then bring it out 

Fia. 372. Point de Smtrne. 

again at the point of a fresh line, and draw the thread 
up. Continue to cover the drawn lines w ith lines of silk 
thus made until all are worked over. 

Point Mexico Stitch. — A name given to Buttonhole 
Stitch w r hen used as an outline stitch in Mexican Em- 
broidery. To w T ork : Trace an outline of the design, and 
then, with fine black or coloured silk, work over this outline 
with an even row of Buttonhole, placed one-eighth of an 
inch apart. 

Point Minuscule. — A fine stitch, used in Background 
or Darned Embroidery. To work : Darn the cotton or 
silk as a line into the material, taking up one thread and 
leaving one thread alternately. The new American 
Tapestry, known as the Wheeler Tapestry, is worked with 
this stitch. 

Point NattS Stitch. — A Satin Stitch arranged to form 
branching lines. To work *. Trace the lines upon cloth 

materials, or if for linen ma- 
terials, draw out a centre and 
two outside threads for guid- 
ing lines. Bring the needle 
up from the back of the 
material on the right-hand 
side line, insert it in a down- 
ward slanting direction in the 
centre line (see Fig. 373), and 
bring it out in a straight line 
to where it w T as put in, but 
upon the left-hand side line. 
Return it to the centre line 
at the spot marked 1, and 
bring it out on the right- 
hand outside line at the spot marked 2. Work in this 
manner down the centre line, make the stitches one- eighth 
of an inch apart, and let their points be always exactly 
opposite each other. 



Fio. 374. Point Russe Stitch. 

Point None Stitch. — See Buttonhole Stitch. 

Point Nouc Stitch. — See French Knot Stitch. 

Point Passe Stitch. — See Satin Stitch. 

Point Perle Stitch. — One of the names given to 
Satin Stitch. 

Point Plumetis Stitch. — A name given to Raised 
Satin Stitch. See Satin Stitch. 

Point Russe Stitch. — This stitch is much used in 
all kinds of fancy Embroideries upon linen, cloth, or 
silk materials. It is very quickly worked, and is easy of 
execution, consisting of covering a traced outline with lines 
of long straight stitches. The patterns intended to be 
worked in Point Russe should be arranged with reference 
to the manner of working, and should contain no lines 
of any great length, but short straight lines, Vandykes, 
angles, sprays, diamonds, and crosses, and not rounds and 
curves. To work : Trace the design upon the material, 
bring the needle up from the back of the work, at the end 
of one of the traced lines, and put it through to the back of 

the work at the 
other, covering 
the straight line 
with the cotton 
or silk. Bring 
the needle up 
again at the end 
of next line, re- 
turn it to the 
same spot that the first stitch ended at, and put it 
through to the back of the material there. Continue to 
work lines in this way until all the outline is worked 
over, taking care that no part of it is left uncovered. 
Should a traced line be too long to look well covered with 
only one stitch, divide it into two or three equal parts, and 
make that number of stitches upon it. To work Fig. 374 : 
Trace the outline of the Vandykes and crosses, and com- 
mence in the centre of the cross. Work one bar of the 
cross, and put the needle down into the Vandyke at the 
spot marked 1, and bring it out at 2. Draw it up, and 
put it down into 1, then bring it out again at 2, and 
make another stitch in the Vandyke, and then one in the 
cross. Continue to the end of the pattern. 

Point Tare Stitch. — See Ladder Stitch. 

Queen Stitch. — Also known as Double Square. To 
work : Trace upon the material two squares, one within 
the other; work over the outside square first with four 
Satin Stitches. Commence and finish them at the points 
of the square; then work the inside square with four 
smaller Satin Stitches, arranged in the same way. 

Railway Stitch. — Also known as Point Chemin de 
Fer, and given these names because of the rapidity with 
which Embroidery patterns can be executed when worked 
with it. The designs for the Embroidery should always be 
of small flowers and leaves, such as forget-me-nots, and 
arranged in detached sprays dotted about the surface 
of the material, and the stitch executed in coarse white 
embroidery cotton, Pyrenean wool, or filoselle. To work : 
Trace a small spray of forget-me-not flowers and leaves, 
but do not outline the design with a run thread. Com- 
mence to work from the centre of the flower, and make 

each petal with one stitch. Bring the needle up from the 
back, hold the thread down with the left thumb, put the 
needle in close to where it came out, and bring it out at the 
point of the petal, and over the thread held down by the 
left thumb. Draw up, making a kind of long loop, held 
down in the centre with the drawn up thread. Put the 
needle down again just outside the loop, making a very 
small stitch at the end of the petal, run the needle out 
again in the middle of the flower, and commence to work 
another petal. Finish off the centre of the flower with 
French Knots, or Buttonhole it round, or pierce it 
with a stiletto, and Overcast round the hole so made. 
Each leaf will only require one Railway stitch to fill it. 
Overcast the stems of the sprays. 

Rice Stitch. — See Point de Riz stitch. 

Rope Stitch. — This stitch is similar to Crewel and 
Stem Stitch in appearance, and only differs from those 
stitches in being worked from the top of the material 
downwards, instead of from the 
bottom upwards. It is also known 
as Point de Cable and Point de 
Cote. To work : Trace an outline 
of the line to be covered, bring the 
needle from the back of material at 
the top of the line on the left side, 
put it in slightly slanting on the 
right-hand side, and bring it out 
on the left-hand side a little below 
the last stitch made ( see Fig. 375); 
slightly slant it to the right, and 
continue to cover the traced line 
with these slanting stitches. Rope Stitch is worked as a 
perfectly even and regular line of slanting stitches, and 
closer together than Crewel Stitch. 

Satin Stitch. — The needlework executed with Satin 
Stitch, in combination with other stitches, ranks amongst 
the most beautiful and the most difficult of Embroideries, 
and, upon white materials, great proficiency has been at- 
tained in its execution in China, Japan, Ireland, Madeira, 
and Saxony, while upon dark silk or cloth foundations the 
work is almost universal. It is executed upon silk, satin, 
fine cambric, and muslin, and is largely used to embroider 
handkerchiefs, or to work designs upon satin with fine em- 
broidery silks. It should be worked in a frame, and requires 
great knowledge of the art, as well as patience. Satin Stitch 
is of two kinds, the Flat and the Raised. The Flat Satin 
stitch is also called Damask, Long, Au Passe , Point Perle , 
Point Passe, and Passe, and is an easy stitch, worked, with- 
out any padding, straight upon the material. To work : 
Trace the design upon the material, and arrange so that 
none of the petals of flowers or parts of the work are of any 
size. Bring the needle up from the back of the material on 
one side of the traced petal, and put it down exactly oppo- 
site where it came out upon the other side, leaving the 
thread lying flat across the intermediate space. Work a 
number of stitches in this way perfectly flat and even, until 
the traced petal is filled in. The stitches may be slanted 
instead of straight, but must always follow each other in 
the same direction, and with perfect regularity. Flat Satin 
is used by itself, or to fill in parts of Raised Satin designs, 


■ c . ■' ; • 

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and it is sometimes varied in the manner illustrated in 
Fig, 37l>, where it fills in with interlaced stitches one side 
of the leaf, of which the other 
is worked in Back Stitch, the 
outline is Overcast, and the 
centre vein in a series of Eye- 
let-holes. To work: Work a 
row of Satin Stitch, and 
miss the space one stitch 
would fill between every 
stitch. For the nest row, 
fill in these spaces with a 

Satin Stitch, and carry each Figl 370, Fiat Satin, Over cast, 
>♦, x 1 1 ji ■, Err let. aki> Back Stitched 

stitch beyond the ones made 

in the first row. Fill in the spaces left in the second 
row with a third row of stitches, carried hey on d as before, 
and work in this manner until the leaf is filled in. 

Another variety of Satin Stitch is made by working a 
long and a short Satin Stitch alternately. This Is used 
for working small rose leaves, or any loaves that are 
slightly irregular in outline. 

Raised Satin Stitch, also known as Point Plumetis and 
French Plumetis, is more difficult of execution than flat 
Satin Stitch, It is worked over a padded foundation, thus : 
Trace the outline of the design, run it round with a thread, 
and fill in the parts to he raised with a padding of run 
threads. Run these so that they are thick and solid in the 
centre of the Embroidery, and graduate down on both 
sides; or run them so that they are raised on one side and 
graduated down upon the other, according to the design, 
and work in these lines in an opposite direction to the 

Fig. 377. Raised Satin Stitch, 

stitch that is to cover them . Fig, 377 shows a Raised Satin 
petal with the padding raised on one side and sloped down 
to the other, and with horizontal runnings worked over 

Fig. 37S. Raised Satin Stitch* 

w T Ith a slanting stitch taken from left to right; while Fig. 
378 illustrates a padded petal raised m the centre and 
graduated to the sides, the runnings put in horizontally, 
and the covering stitches in an upright direction. Raised 
Satin Stitch is rarely used to fill in the whole of a 
design, but is combined with other Embroidery stitches. 

Fig, 379 gives a leaf executed in three stitches : Back, 
Overcast, and Raised Satin. To work : Outline the leaf 
in Overcast, run a cord as a pad under the veins of the 
leaf, and Overcast this cord; then work the right-hand side 

of the leaf in rows of large Back Stitches, and pad 
the left hand with perpendicular runnings, giving the 
greatest height near the centre 
veins. Work horizontal lines of 
Satin Stitch over this padding. 

The handsomest manner of using 
Raised Satin Stitch is in Relief 
Embroidery executed with it in 
combination with other Embroi- 
dery Stitches, This consists in 
Embroidering detached pieces of 
material, and attaching these to 
the main part of the work, so that 
they stand out and above the flat 
Embroidery. Fig. 380 is a design 
of a Bluebell so worked, when 
finished, and the Details A and 
B (Figs, 381, 382) show the manner of execution, which 
consists of embroidering the material, and sewing over 
that an extra piece of work. To work ; Trace the out- 

Fift. 379. Raised Satin, 
Back, and Overcast 

Fig. 3^0. Raised Satin Stitch 

Fig* 331. Raised Satin StitcB 
—Bluebell— Detail A* 

line of Detail A upon the main work, and Overcast the 
petals and their points, as shown in that illustration. Trace 
upon a detached piece of material the outline of Detail B, 

and Buttonhole all the 

outline in very fine stitches; 
work the petals and the two 
horizontal lines in Raised 
Satin, and pad them so that 
they are most raised in the 
centre* In the detail one 
petal is left unfinished, to 
show the lines of padding; 
the rest arc covered with 
Overcast* Fill in the body 
of the Bluebell with large 
Back Stitches worked in 
even rows* Cut out the piece of Embroidery, and stitch 
it on to the main part of work where the dotted lines are 
shown in Detail A, The piece of detached Embroidery 
is larger than the flat part of the flower, and will stand 
up from the rest of the work where not attached to the 
main body of it. 

Fig. 3S2* Raised Satin Stitch— 
Bluer ell— Detail B. 

C C 



A variety of Raised Satin is known as Point de Plume. 
It is used in combination with Satin and other stitches, 
and consists of leaving unworked upon the petals of 
flowers and leaves the parts intended to indicate the 
veins; it is illustrated in Fig. 

383. To work: Trace the de- 
sign, but leave out the markings 
of the veins. Fill in the petals 
with run lines, leave the veins 
quite clear, and run the padding 
in so that the parts nearest the 
veins and centre of flower are 
the most raised. Work straight 
lines of Satin Stitch over 
this padding, and vary their 
direction to follow the contour 
of the petals. Fig. 383 repre- 
sents a flower worked in Point 
de Plume, with the veins marked with a black line; the 
centre of the flower is filled with three Eyelet-holes 
for stamens, and the calyx is enclosed with fine Over- 
cast, and filled in with Back Stitch. 

Ship Ladder Stitch. — See Ladder Stitch. 

Spanish Stitch. — This stitch is of two kinds, one 
where a Cross Stitch is worked on the face of the 
material and a square on the back ; and the other, where 
a cross enclosed in a square is at the front, and a square 
at the back. They are only worked when both sides of 
the material are required to be neat. To work the Cross 
Stitch: Make an ordinary Cross Stitch, making the 
back stitches the top and bottom lines of a square. Re- 
cross the first stitch, and bring the needle out in front, 
ready to begin the next stitch ; three lines of the square 
at the back are made with each Cross, but they fit into 
each other, so as to form squares as the work proceeds. 
To work the second kind : Make a square of stitches in 
the front of the material, and work a Cross Stitch in 
the open space, passing the thread in horizontal lines 
from one point to the other at the back of the material. 

Split Stitch. — A stitch much used in ancient Church 
Embroidery, and in silk Embroideries, to work the faces 
and hands of figures. It has the appearance of Chain 
Stitch, but lies flatter on the surface, and is more capable 
of forming the small half-curves, rounds, or lines that 
follow the contour of the figure, and give the appearance 
of shading to Embroidery only executed in one colour. It 
requires to be worked in a frame, and is made as follows : 
Bring the silk up from the back of the frame, and make a 
short stitch on the surface, and return the needle to the 
back. Then bring it up again to the surface through the 
middle of the first stitch, dividing or splitting the strands 
of silk of which it is formed by the passage of the needle. 
Put the needle down again to the back of the work, a short 
distance above where it came out, and bring it out again 
to the front in the centre of the second stitch, splitting 
the strands as before. 

St. Andrew s Stitch. — An Embroidery Stitch made of 
four Satin Stitches arranged in the form of a St. Andrew’s 
cross. To work : Mark out a square of the material, and 
commence the first stitch from the top left-hand corner of 

the square, and finish it in the centre of the square ; work 
the next stitch from the top right-hand corner of the 
square into the centre, and take the two remaining stitches 
from the two bottom corners of the square into the centre 
in the same manner. 

Stem Stitch. — See Crexoel Stitch. 

Tambour Stitch. — See Chain Stitch . 

Tapestry Stitch. — See Gobelin Stitch. 

Tassel Stitch. — A stitch used to make a looped fringe 
as an edging to Embroideries. To work: Double the 
thread and bring the needle up from the back, hold the 
thread down with the left thumb to the length of an inch, 
put the needle in on the right-hand side of where it came 
out, but on the same line, make a horizontal stitch from 
right to left at the back, bring it out under where it first 
came up, and draw up, keeping the left thumb on the 
thread, so as not to draw it up beyond the inch held down. 
Make a Cross Stitch over the top of the loop. When 
the edge is covered with a line of loops cut their ends. 

Tent Stitch. — Also known as Petit Point, and used 
in Berlin Work, and in Embroidery upon solid materials, 
such as silk and cloth. It is a succession of small Satin 
Stitches worked in even lines, and in a slanting direction, 
from left to right. To work : Trace a horizontal line upon 
the material, bring the needle up from the back upon this 
line, and put it down again to the back, slightly above the 
line, and in a slant from left to right. Continue to make 
these small slanting stitches close together, and all of the 
same height, until the line is filled; then draw a line 
underneath the first one, a short distance from it, and 
fill this line in the same way; work the top of the new 
line of stitches on the bottom of the first line, and in 
between those first made. 

Tete de Bceuf Stitch. — The name of this stitch is 
derived from its shape, the two upper stitches having the 
appearance of horns, and the lower ones of an animal’s 
head. It is a useful stitch in Ticking and other Orna- 
mental work. To make : Draw a line 
that can be rubbed out down the 
centre of the space. Commence by 
making two slanting stitches apart at 
the top and meeting in the line at the 
bottom. Bring the thread out in the 
line a little above the bottom of tbe 
slanting stitches, insert the needle 
close to it, and bring it out a quarter 
of an inch below and upon the line, 
making a Loop or Buttonhole. 
Draw the thread up, and put the 
needle through the material to tbe 
back on the line, and a little below 
tbe loop. Fig. 384 shows tbe working 
of Tete de Boeuf. In this illustration 
tbe two slanting stitcbes are already 
formed, and tbe loop is in progress. When drawn up, 
after tbe loop is made, tbe needle is inserted into tbe 
bole marked 1 for the last stitch, while 2, 3, 4, and 5 
mark the places where the needle is inserted and brought 
out for the two slanting stitches that commence the next 
Tete de Bceuf. 

Fig. 383 . Point de Plume 



Thorn Stitch. — A line of interlaced loops resembling 
Single Coral Stitch, and made in the same way, except 
that the loops are closer together, not so large, and the 
needle is put in on a parallel line to where it came out. 
To work : Bring the needle to the front of the material, 
hold the thread under the left-hand thumb, make a loop 
with it, put the needle down on the right side of where 
it came up, and exactly on a line, and bring it out lower 
down over the loop of thread, and quite in its centre. 
Repeat the stitch, putting the needle in on the left-hand 
instead of the right, and continue workiDg these two 
stitches to the end. 

Twisted Chain Stitch. — Bring the thread out on the 
right side of the material, and hold it down with the left- 
hand thumb; put the needle in to cross this held down 
thread from left to right, draw up the thread, letting the 
held down piece go in the final pull. 

Twist Stitch. — Identical with Cord Stitch. 

Vandyke Stitch. — A raised Couching. To work : Lay 
down whipcord upon a linen foundation, in the shape of 
Vandykes, and tack this firmly down. Over this lay down 
lines of floss silk or gold cord, and to secure, bring a stitch 
from the back of the material, pass it over the threads, 
and return it to the back, and with a number of these 
stitches mark out the vandykcd outline of the cords upon 
each side. 

Vandyke Stitch.— Used in Ticking work and em- 
broidery upon thick materials. It forms a vandyked line, 
with its points at even distances apart. To work : Make 
a slanting Chain Stitch from left to right of the material, 
then a slanting Chain from right to left, bringing this 
one back under the commencement of the first stitch; 
continue these two stitches for the length, taking care 
that they are all of the same size, and that their points 
come under each other. 

Vienna Cross Stitch— See Persian Cross Stitch. 

Warp Stitch. — An Embroidery Stitch used when 
threads are drawn away from the material to form the 
pattern. Warp stitch consists of drawing away the 
threads that form the weft, or cross the material, and 
leaving the warp, or lengthways threads. These arc 
secured together with ornamental Hem Stitch. 

Wavy Stitch. — A raised Couching. To work : Lay 
down upon a linen foundation lines of whipcord arranged 
in curves, and tack these into 
position. Over these lay down 
floss or purse silk, or gold cord, 
and to fasten them down, bring 
a stitch from the back of the 
material, pass it over two strands 
of silk, return it to the back, 
and outline the curved and raised 
lines on both sides with these 
securing stitches. 

Wheatear Stitch. — This stitch 
is a combination of Point Natte 
and Chain Stitch. It is used in 
Ticking and other fancy Em- Fl6 * 385 * Wheats Stitch. 

broideries, and also instead of Coral and Feather stitch, 
for ornamenting children’s dresses and underlinen. It 

can be worked in two ways : — First way : Make a series 
of Point Natte down the space to be covered, and then 
work over their centres a line of Chain Stitches, taking 
care that the loop of each Chain Stitch begins at the spot 
where the Point Natte met in the centre of the work. 
The second way is to complete the stitch in one line (see 
Fig. 385), thus : Make a Chain Stitch down the centre, and 
then a slanting stitch to the right and a slanting stitch 
to the left, both finishing in the Chain Stitch. 

Wheel Stitch. — A stitch resembling a spider’s web, 
and worked into the material, and not over an open space, 
like English wheel and other lace Wheels. To work : 
Trace out a perfect circle upon the material, and divide it 
into four quarters. Make three long stitches in each 
quarter, at equal distances apart, and all ending in the 
centre of the circle. Bring a thread up from the back of 
the material in the centre of the circles, and interlace 
it; work it under and over each thread in succession 
(see Fig. 386). Run this thread in circles nearly to the 

Fig. 3S6. Wheel Stitch. 

top of the long stitches, but not quite, and then fasten 
it off. Fig. 386 is a pattern formed with Wheels and 
diamonds ; the centres of the diamonds are crossed with 
diagonal lines, forming a Lattice Stitch. 

Whipcord Couching. — See Couching Stitch. 

Witch Stitch. — The name given to Herringbone when 
used in Fancy Embroidery. See Herringbone Stitch. 

Embroidery Frame. — All the best kinds of Em- 
broidery, such as Church Embroidery, Crewel Work, 
Embroidery with silk, Tambour Work, and Berlin Work, 
require that their foundations shall be stretched in frames, 
as the stitches are apt to draw the material together 
when the work is embroidered in the hand, whereas the 
frame keeps the foundation evenly and tightly stretched 
in every part, and renders it almost impossible to pucker 
it, unless the Embroiderer is very unskilful. Frames are 
of two makes : the best are those upon stands, as their use 
prevents habits of stooping being acquired by the worker, 
leaves her hands free, and gives unimpeded access to the 
back part of the work, without the artificial aid of slant- 
ing the frame from the comer of some piece of furniture 
to her hands, or the holding that is necessary with the 
other kind. But as these stand Frames are cumber- 
some and expensive, the second kind is most used; 
these are Frames made of four equal sized pieces of wood 
(see Fig. 387), or with the two horizontal pieces longer 
than the two upright, held together with nuts or pegs. 
They vary in size from 4 inches to 3 yards in length. 
The oblong Frames are used for long and narrow pieces, 
and the square for large pieces of work; and the same 
Frame is used indifferently for Church, Satin, and Crewel 
Embroideries, and for Berlin Work. The frame for 
Tambour Work differs from the others ; it is made of 
two circular wooden hoops, one smaller than the other. 

c c 2 



Both the Logics arc covered with velvet cut on the cross, 
and exactly fit one into the other* The material to he 
embroidered is fastened to the smaller hoop, and kept 
tight by the large hoop being passed over it. The 
ordinary frames arc made of four pieces of wood* The 
two upright pieces are called Bars; on these are nailed 
stout pieces of narrow webbing, to which the material 

is attached. The two horizontal pieces are called 
Stretchers; these are bored through with holes placed 
at equal distances, through which metal or wooden pegs 
are run to fasten the pieces of wood together. In the 
stand Frames these holes and pegs are not used, the 
wooden supports being lengthened or shortened hy the 
aid of screws* 

The fastening of the material into the frame is called 
** dressing a frame,” and requires to be done with great 
nicety, as, if it is rucked, or unevenly pulled in any part, 
the advantage of the stretching is entirely destroyed* 
Slight variations in the manner of framing are necessary 
according to the materials worked upon; they are as 
follows : 

For Canvas and Cloth and Serge Materials.— -Select a 
frame long enough to take in the work in one direction, 
turn down the canvas or cloth about half an inch all round, 
and sew it down. If the length of the material will not 
allow of all of it being placed in the frame at once, roll it 
round one of the bars of tlie frame, with silver paper put 
between each roll io prevent it from getting lined. Sew 
the sides of the canvas to the webbing with strong linen 
thread, and put the frame together, stretching the material 
to its fullest, and fastening the pieces of wood together 
through the holes with the pegs* Then take a piece of 
twine, thread it through a packing needle, and brace the 
material with it to Die stretchers* At each stitch pass it 
over the stretcher and into the material, and make the 

stitches close together. Brace both sides of the material, 
and then draw the twine up upon each side evenly and 
quite tight. Commence the Embroidery from tlie bottom 
of the material for canvas, and count the stitches and regu- 
late the position of the pattern by them ; and for cloth, 
see that the design is laid evenly upon it before tracing* 
To Stretch Camas and Cloth Together , — This is re- 
quired when a Berlin pattern is to be worked with cloth, 
for the ground. If the cloth foundation does not require 
to be bigger than the frame, cut it half an inch smaller 
every way than the canvas, as it stretches more. Turn 
the clotli down, and tack it to the canvas, right side upper- 
most, then tack them both together, and hem them where 
the raw edges of canvas arc* If the cloth has to be rolled 
over the frame, put soft paper in between the rolls of 
cloth, and as the edges of the cloth arc turned under, and 
are therefore thicker than the centre parts, lay more silver 
paper in the centre of tlie rolls than at the outside, or a 
line will appear upon the cloth on each side of the frame* 
Having sewn the two pieces of material together, attach 
them to the frame in tlie ordinary manner, and put them 
in, with the canvas uppermost. When tlie pattern is em- 
broidered, cut the canvas from tlie cloth, and draw the 
threads away before the cloth is taken out of the frame* 

To Stretch Velvet . — When tlie size of the velvet to be 
embroidered does not exceed that of the frame, and the 
work is not for Church Embroidery, hem it round, and sew 
it to the webbing of the bars by its selvedge* When it 
is larger than the frame, stretch Holland, as in canvas 
framing, and tack to this Holland with tacking threads 
just the parts of velvet that are to he embroidered. 
Work tlie Embroidery through the hoi Land, and when 
finished, cut the refuse Holland away from the back of the 
material, only leaving that part that is covered by the 
stitches. Tel vet that is used as a background in Church 
Embroidery requires to be entirely backed with Holland, 
in order to sustain the weight of the Embroidery laid upon 
it. Frame the Holland (it should be of a tine description) 
as in canvas framing, and then paste it all over its surface 
with Embroidery Paste; over this, by the aid of three 
p&rsons, lay the velvet. Take the velvet up, fully stretched 
out, and held by two people, and lay it down without a 
wrinkle upon the Holland ; keep it fully stretched out, and 
hold it firmly. Then let the third person, with hands 
underneath the frame, press the Holland up to the velvet, 
so that the two materials may adhere together without the 
velvet pile being injured. 

To Stretch Satin or Silk . — Stretch a piece of fine 
Holland in the frame, and paste the silk down to it with 
Embroidery Baste, but only tack the satin to it* 

To Stretch Leather or Kid . — Stretch a piece of un- 
bleached cotton in the frame, and paste the leather to i t 
with Embroidery Baste, or tack the leather firmly down 
at the parts it is to be worked ; cut the calico from 
underneath when tlie Embroidery is finished. Do not 
stretch tlie leather or kid in the frame ; merely see that 
it lies flat, and without wrinkles* 

To Stretch Crepe . — Sew it to Book muslin, and frame 
that in the usual way. 


Embroidery Efeedles. — There are two or three descrip- 
tions of Needles for Embroidery, For canvas work they 
are short, thick, and blunt, and the eyes wide and long, 
For Chenille embroidery they are wider still in the eye, 
and sharp at the point. For use on cambric and muslin, 
as in the Irish close and cut-work, and that called 
“ Madeira ” embroidery, a “ between ” is employed. For 
Art work on close materials, stick as cloth, the needle has 
a long eye and sharp point, and resembles a darning 
needle, but is neither as tong nor as thin. For Tambour 
and Crochet work they are thick, and have a hook at the 
end instead o! an eye. 

Embroidery Paste. — Embroidery paste is used for 
two purposes in needlework; first, to effect the adhesion 
of two materials; secondly, to strengthen and stiffen 
Embroidery at the back. 

For Pasting Materials Together : Take loz. of the best 
gum, loz. of sugar candy, and a small piece of alum; 
reduce this to fine powder, lay in a shallow vessel, 
just cover it with cold water, and leave it to dissolve for 
four hours. Then take loz. of flour, and mis: it smoothly 
in water. Put the mixed flour into an earthen vessel, 
add the mixture above-mentioned, place the vessel 
in a saucepan, and surround it with water. - Put 
the saucepan on the fire, and let the mixture simmer 
(not boil); stir it, to prevent its getting lumpy, keeping 
the saucepan on the fire until the mixture is as thick 
as cream ; then take it off the fire, but continue to stir 
until it is cold. Put the paste in a bottle, as it will 
keep for some time. Should it thicken after keeping, 
add a little cold water. Another recipe : Take three 
tablespoonfuls of flour, and as much powdered resin as 
will lie on a shilling ; place these ingredients in half a 
pint of water, and boil for five minutes ; stir until it 
boils, and afterwards, and use when cold. To this a tea- 
spoonful of essence of cloves enn be added as a preserva- 
tive, while the paste is boiling; but this is not necessary. 

For Strengthening Embroidery ; Use size instead of the 
gum or resin of the above recipes. 

Emery. — This is a variety of Corundum , and, with the 
exception of the diamond, is the hardest substance known. 
It is produced in the island of Naxos, in the Grec ian Archi- 
pelago, It is imported in lumps, and has to be reduced 
to powder for use by means of stamping mills ; it is 
then sifted into different degrees of fineness, and ren- 
dered available for grinding down surfaces by moisten- 
ing with oil or water. It is also made to adhere, by 
the use of size, as a coating on paper or thin calico, 
and thus rendered available for polishing steel. For the 
purpose of needlework, the powder is placed in very small, 
closely- compressed cushions, into which ncedtes arc 
rapidly inserted and pulled out several times, for the 
removal of damp and rust. For children learning plain 
sewing these emery cushions are very essential, especially 
if the material be thick and stiff. 

Eu bias. — The French term for fl On the — that 

is to say, folded or cut diagonally across the web of any 
textile iii a slanting manner, 

Eu. Ch&le.— A French term to denote trimmings laid 


upon dresses, and formed with a comer point at the