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' !the POWER that hath 


young piano beginners 



By Josephine Hovey Perry 

This fascinating study book for the 

est student of the piano sw ts as a r< P » g # 

book whecetn the child J U 

selection by rote - f t es it Gradually the 

played, “l^/’^nced until reading and 
young student is a A11 0 f the ma- 
playing are welded 1 into o ^ the book 

terial is presented in story torm a ^ ^ child 
abounds in dlustranons tha PP brochure 

rr 3 »SS .sw— '» 

pre-school piano teaching. 

Price, $1.00 

the house that 



By Josephine Hovey Perry 

This is a 


book for 
helping lit- 
tle children 
of primary 
grade ages 
to learn to 
read music 

— — — notation and 

to olav on the piano keyboard that which 
hev read By means of note, key, and 
finger chans it makes very clear the rela- 
■ o nf the oosition of the notes on the 
U Z he keys of the piano. There are 
anv charming illustrations accompany- 
fne'die attractive little pieces and showing 
ve®y graphically the various interval skips 
in a unique manner. Its handling 
values through rhythm drills and throug 
a suggested "buy and sell game admir- 
ably Covers the teaching of note values to 
children too young as yet to know frac- 
tions. There is great charm in this help 
ful book. 

Price, 75 cents 


By Josephine Hovey Perry 

The obiect of this book is to furnish en- 



work” to stimulate the child s interes . 

Price, 60 cents 

technic tales 

book one 

By Louise Robyn 

technic, building up t e c musi<>teading ability, 
finger dexterity eq ““ ; powers. Each prin- 
ks SLtt^r^ry dement, a feature 

that appeals to the child's imagination and creates interest. 

Price, 75 cents 

Price, 75 cents 

the robyn-hanks harmony 

book one 

By Louise Robyn and Howard Hanks 

A junior course, for students of any age^ in w "j™ hi instruction. A 
mony and ear-training. It is su.table alike torj^e book xhc naturc of the 

lessons N^thaT °^ Cate ^ a i^ l^^^ature 'stud^of^armony 5 ' 

complete the Preparation f or the n i ^ y Mr Howard Hanks, a colleague 

.1 Chicago- 

Price. 75 cents 


for piano beginners 


By Mary Bacon Mason 

A method book designed to meet the needs t of pjano 
Winners from seven to eleven years of age. Nota 
fion rhythm, scales, keyboard harmony, transpos,- 
IL • TB= - tion ’ an d musical form are presented in a most 

and unique *• 

iiS'pC" to*” * <me at ,he .eacheO d.,ee„.« and .he «■ 
of information they contain memorized. 

Price, $1.00 



By Mary Bacon Mason Price, 75c 

keyboard town 

By Louise Robyn 

This book covers a new field in the child's early 
training, for it supplies a link that coordinates 
eves ears and fingers, and enables the child 
actually to read notes fluently within a sur- 
prisingly short period. The book is not an 
experiment— its material and principles have 
been tested and proven for many years. Be- 
ginning with MIDDLE C the note-names are 
introduced with the story-element which per- 
sonifies each note with its own note-name. The 
pedagogic plan avoids the use of counting be- 
cause of the "one-unit" system employed 
throughout. More than seventy-five ittle melo- 
dies are included in this unique book. 

Price, 75 cent* 



By Mary Bacon Mason 

mtt Each classic 
is in simpli- 
fied form with 
verses that 
cot respond to 
the spirit of 
the music and 
accord with 
its rhythm. 
The early 

study of this material lays a foundation 
for appreciation of the best in music. 
The second portion of the book is 
Toted m elementary harmony presented 
through the use of games and cut-out 
cards. This book is a secon y . 
to the author's very successful FoliSog 
and Famous Pmures, or it may be used 
to follow any good first-grade keyboard 
harmony background. Establishes 
best of transposition and creative n 
mony° work. Excellent for ear,^ 
Contains a wide selection of classics 

Price. SI-00 

An attractive Christmas gift for 
little players, with large-size notes, 
full fingering, the text of each of 
the 34 carols, and next to each a 
space in which to paste an ap- 
propriate Christmas card. 

Oliver ^£)its on Co. 

THEODORE PRESSER CO., Distributors, 1712 Chestnut St.. Phila.l.Pa. 



By Josephine Hovey Vern 

The immense success of the ® u *^* n e ts " 

vious book "Busy Work o * 
inspired the publication of t k „ f 0 r 

ing carefully prepared busy ^ FirSt 
pupils who have adv *?“ j especially 
Grade in music. It may nc “ \ p j an o 

in class teaching, with any moder 
instruction book. 

Price. 75 cent* 

tinguished French pian- 
ist and teacher of many 
outstanding pianists, in- 
cluding Guiomar No- 
vaes, Maurice Dumesnil, 
Henri Deering, Emma 
Boyer, and Stell An- 
dersen, celebrated his 
eightieth birthday on 
September 2. M. Philipp, 
who was compelled to flee his native 
Paris on ten minutes’ notice, has been in 
New York since May 1941, where he has 
been teaching and lecturing. He also 
has visited cities in the Middle West. 

Newark, New Jersey, held its fifth an- 
nual institute on October 2. The theme 
for discussion was “Music in the Build- 
ing of Good-Will.” Edwin Hughes, presi- 
dent of the National Music Council; 
William Primrose, violist; Cesare Sodero 
and Lothar Wallenstein of the Metro- 
politan Opera Association; and Roy Har- 
ris, composer, led the various phases of 
the conference. 

nection with its all-out war program, is 
inaugurating a ten-month cultural fare 
of almost continuous weekly recitals, 
shows, lectures, and exhibits for the 
current school year. During November 
a Fine Arts Festival will be sponsored by 
the three departments in the College of 
Fine Arts. A series of organ recitals will 
be given also in November by four of 
the leading artists in this field. In De- 
cember all departments of fine arts will 
assist the University Opera Company in 
the performance of “The Bartered Bride.” 
Other highlights throughout the college 
year will be concerts by the University 
Symphony Orchestra, several produc- 
tions by the Department of Drama, and 
a number of recitals by outstanding- 
artists such as Richard Crooks, tenor; 
and William Primrose, violist. 

FROM STOCKHOLM comes a story of 
how one Peder Morseth “who for years 
had led the singing in a local church” 
inspired a group of eleven Norwegians 
to face a Nazi firing squad with unflinch- 
ing courage. As they stood linked hand 
in . hand in the little village of Selbu, 
outside of Trondheim, awaiting their 
execution, Morseth read a prayer and 
then led the group in singing the hymn, 

0 God, Our Help in Ages Past; following 
which the shots rang out. 


Metropolitan Opera 
baritone, and Edwin 
McArthur, pianist, have 
been “somewhere in 
Australia,” entertaining 
the armed forces. Their 
routine usually included 
the singing of several 
songs by Mr. Hatfield, Lansing Hatfield 
with the accompani- 
ments played by Mr. McArthur on an ac- 
cordion, after which a general “sing” by 
the entire audience was carried on. The 
songs which brought the greatest re- 
sponse from the service men were such 
numbers as Bicycle Built for Two; The 
Band Played On; My Wild Irish Rose; 

1 Want a Girl; I’ve Been Working on the 
Railroad; Down "by the Old Mill Stream; 
and Let Me Call You Sweetheart. 

DR. HANS ROSENWALD, who since 1937 
has been chairman of the Department of 



Musicology of the Chicago Musical Col- 
lege, recently was appointed Dean of the 
school, according to an announcement 
by Rudolph Ganz, president. Dr. Rosen- 
wald is managing editor of Music News 
Magazine and vice-president of the Na- 
tional Composers Clinic. 

a prominent place in the programs an- 
nounced for the new season by the Bos- 
ton Symphony Orchestra, Serge Kous- 
sevitzky, conductor. Three major works 
are listed for first performance— the 
“Second Symphony” of Samuel Barber; 
the “Fifth Symphony for Strings” by 
William Schuman; and a new symphony 
by Roy Harris; with the possibility of 
others to be announced later. 

have no season of its own in 1943, be- 
cause of the difficulty of securing an 
adequate number of singers and actors. 
Fortune Gallo, who had been the gen- 
eral director since 1941, has resigned, 
and no announcement has yet been made 
of a successor. Plans are being formu- 
lated to give a season of six to ten weeks 
of opera in the fall of 1944. 

London, which closed recently, has been 
one of the most remarkably successful 
on record. The concerts have been more 
generously supported than ever before; 
there has been unusual variety in the 
programs; and the composers repre- 
sented have revealed highly interesting, 
if not always enjoyable musical ideas. 
Alec Rowley, B. J. Dale, Thomas F. Dun- 
hill, Eugene Goossens, and Lennox Berk- 
ley were some of the composers whose 
works were given a hearing . 

“The Old Maid and the Thief” by Gian- 
Carlo Menotti; and “Third Symphony” 
by Roy Harris. 

new opera, “L’lncan- 
tesimo,” had its world 
premiere on radio when 
presented by NBC on 
Saturday afternoon, Oc- 
tober 9. This is the third 
radio opera to be given 
a first hearing by NBC. 

Montemezzi, who has Ttalo Montemezzi 
been in this country 
since 1939, makes his home in California, 
and he personally selected the artists 
who sang his new work. They were the 
internationally celebrated baritone, Alex- 
ander Sved, whom Montemezzi heard at 
La Scala in Milan, and the two radio 
stars, Vivian della Chiesa, soprano, and 
Mario Berini, tenor. The opera was con- 
ducted by the composer. 

CATORS GUILD reports a successful rec- 
ord of accomplishment since its organiza- 
tion in 1941. With Herman J. Rosenthal 
as vice-president, it has been active in 
elevating the piano teaching profession 
of the community and has sponsored 
concerts and lectures by outstanding 
artists in their field. 

TWO PRIZES OF $1000 EACH are to 
be given for string quartet compositions, 
by the Chamber Music Guild, Inc., of 
YVashington, D. C., in conjunction with 
the RCA Victor Division of the Radio 
Corporation of America. One of the prizes 
will be awarded for the best string quartet 
submitted from the republics of Latin 
America, while the other prize will be 
given for the best ensemble work sub- 
mitted from the United States and Can- 
ada. The contest closes May 31, 1944, 
and full information may be secured from 
The Chamber Music Guild, Inc., 1604 K 
Street, N. W., Zone 6, Washington, D. C. 

in United States War Bonds are to be 
awarded by the National Federation of 
Music Clubs to federated music groups 
which, during the period from September 
1, 1943 to April 1, 1944, present programs 
which in the opinion of the board of 
judges most significantly serve the nation’s 
war efforts. Donor of the awards is Don- 
ald Voorhees, noted American conductor 
and musical director of a number of out- 
standing radio programs. The first prize 
is $500, with smaller awards down to $25, 
offered “only for public performances of 

ORCHESTRA, under its new director, 
Alfred Wallenstein, will present through- 
out the season at least twenty-four com- 
positions for the first time. Among these 
are “First Symphony” by Paul Creston; 
“A Free Song” by William Schuman; 
“Second Essay” by Samuel Barber; “The 
Four Freedoms” by Russell Bennett; 

etitionA ~ 

music given by amateur musical organiza- 
tions within the specified dates.” Full in- 
formation may be secured from Mrs. Ada 
Holding Miller, Chairman, War Service 
Commitee of the National Federation of 
Music Clubs, 28 Everett Avenue, Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island. 

A CONTEST to give encouragement 
and recognition to young American musi- 
cal artists, both instrumentalists and 
composers, is announced under the joint 
sponsorship of the Southern California 
Symphony Association, radio stations 
KECA— KFI, and the Los Angeles Daily 
News. Winning instrumentalists will be 
presented on the air and given the op- 
portunity to have a debut with the Los 
Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra ; while 
the winning compositions will be per- 
formed by the orchestra. Also there will 
be prizes totaling five hundred dollars in 
war bonds. Entries for the instrumentalists 
will be closed on December 1 ; while the 
entries for the composition contest will be 
closed on February 15, 1944. All details 
and entry blanks may be secured by 
writing to the Director, Los Angeles 
Philharmonic Young Artists’ Competition, 
in care of KECA— KFI, 141 North Ver- 
mont Avenue, Los Angeles 4, California. 

GUILD, organized only a year ago, held a 
most successful convention on Septem- 
ber 24 and 25. The two days were filled 
with lectures and demonstrations by 
some of the leading figures in music 
pedagogy. The new organization, of which 
Carl Tollefsen is president, was fostered 
and is being sponsored by the Brooklyn 
Institute of Arts and Sciences, and their 
aim is “to raise the standard of teach- 
ing, further the cause of music in its 
various phases, exploit Brooklyn com- 
posers and musicians, encourage young 
talent, and in countless other ways make 
Brooklyn a music center on a par with 
any large city in this country or in Eu- 
rope." Bravo, and good luck! 

IEL DETT, noted Negro 
composer, conductor, 
teacher, credited with 
being the “discoverer” 
of the celebrated Negro 
soprano, Dorothy May- 
nor, died suddenly Oc- 
tober 2, at Battle Creek, 

Michigan, where he had 
gone to direct musical 
activities at a USO club- 
house. At the time of his death he was 
working on a symphony which the Co- 
lumbia Broadcasting System had com- 
missioned him to write. Dr. Dett was 
born at Drummondsville, Ontario, Oc- 
tober 11, 1882, and studied at Oberlin 
College. For years he was connected 
with Hampton Institute in Virginia, and 
while there directed a chorus which at- 
tained international fame. On a world 
( Continued on Page 763) 

Dr. Robert 
Nathaniel Dett 




favorite piano folios 

. . by V^ovenyer 


in Song, Verse and Story 

A beautiful collection of sixteen easy | pia™ Leopold 

of the most popular C ^'. 5tm ° tor ies poetry and pictures per- 
W. Rovenger. Also ^ Season. CoMuffy 

illustrated throughou . jm fhis to be 

and music lovers a' c es an excel- 

the "best." This collection , makes a ^ 

lent gift to the young music studen . | 



for Piano Solo 
By Leopold W. 

A choice collection of 
forty-one of the world s 
most beloved religious se 

Carefully edited and 
fingered for players with 
only a limited amount ot 

Will appeal to the 
young performer 
adult player alike. .5 


Arranged by 
Leopold W. Rovenger 

This charming and ever-popular 
work is here intelligently brou 3^ 

to the level of young P'°V* rs \ V ^ . 

pianistic difficulties which an h ° d performers are cleverly cir- 

ZZ&'BXt s? - •••*" c .r 5 

used with good effect in recitals 



738 So. Campbell Aye. 
Chicago, Illi«» is - 

A Teaching Aid and A Reading Delight! 

Chapter Headings of a 
few of the many subjects 
covered in this volume 

Xt^olyphonHr 3 " Was and 
WhaTEarlyTn^a^Gave^o Music 
; Th s e 0 ^° n M^iio® a Wbo Liv V ed at 
the Same Time Violin and 

I Johann Sebastian Bach, the Greatest 

Robert ^Schumann and the Age of 

GreS ^French Composers of the 
The ^Modern 1 Art-song and Its Com- 
Recen! Great Virtuosos of the Piano 
Early Twentieth 

Newer American Musical Lights 


Latest Revised and Enlarged Edition 


The author, who is m^sirslbjects^has drawn 

thority and a 8'“^; ..TLnerience gathered from teach- 
on his rich reservoirs e f e "““ a ? acquaintance with 
ing. research, travel, ana P possible the interest 
world-noted music folk to make posi 11 n m ent of 

content, >d.c.ous scope^and P" ic ^ el f. told ta le. 

this book. In V fulfills its mission to impart a use- 

this book successfully fulmls^its mission^ knoyn 

ful knowledge of mu is J ser$ t0 the epoch-making 


t a o Class members, 'bach chapter is just long enough to 
a Story lesson ass.gnmen “j X°*a nd colored Music 
Slap of Europe are also great teaching aids. It includes 
over ">00 illustrations and phonetically gives the pronun- 
S on f hundreds of names and words of foreign origin. 
Nearly 900 names and well over 100 sublets are indexed, 
making this a superb, permanently valuable reference 
volumt on important composers and vital music data. 

Cloth Bound — Price, $ 1.50 

Theodore Presser Co- 

Everything In Music Publications 

1712 CHESTNUT ST., PHILA. (1), PA. 

ffiOfflSfi® ffi 0 ©®©»S®® 

published 1 “u^ullphia, pa. 


sorrOKMl. HND APV1S0RY stapf 





Dr Henry S. fry 
Harold Berkley W . Gehrkens 

gfSiSSE Douty Elizabeth Gest 
' Edna Fort 

Dr. Guy Ma« clifford Pa gc 



Contents for flouemU, 1943 







Symphonies of Smiles 


The Musician and the l, >703 

Color in Singing Chorie* Id 1 • '* Zfe 

The Importance Of ‘ j Com „oser . . ( | JnroJ 706 

the Music of the Don. 

MUSIC IN THE HOM^m on Master Records AlfredV.mii*' 1 0 '' , °'U a " 708 


£ MSgCtafilr ; vi&r* = gj 

i» the Music fe* — “V .^.WCrlJ^Si VS 

&°n r d as'a'Medium for Symphonic A- . r.U-y 7.9 

The Trafil o/the Tempered Scale • • • • 

Th^Child Who^Hates" Music' '. * - ' 

op .- 

MUSIC _ , . 

Classic and Contemporary Selections Lev- 

On a Spanish Balcony William M 

Valse Pathetique Robert Sehumann Op <•’ 

Little Harvest Song Frederic Chop!", op 

Homeward Trail In’. : 

The Toy Sailboat (Piano Duet) 

l ocal and Instrumental Compositions George LeR"h 

Processional (Medium Voice! ... .. G u : 

Prayer for a Home (Low Voicei R/:lj> 

Twilight Musing (Organ) . riaren. • 

Brown 725 
Felton 726 
No. 24 727 
). NO. 2 728 Bach 730 
ink Grew <31 
podeaka 732 
, Montrose 734 

Klemm 1 3* 
Kinder 740 
M. Cox <42 

i MiMe 
>ert No 

Dunlap 713 
,n Kerr 744 
Arnold <« 
„ Scher 745 

Prayer for a Home ( Low Voice * 

Twilight Musing (Organ) 

Trip Lightly (Violin and Piano > 

Delightful Pieces for Young Players 

Lucita ; • • . 

Little Yellow Bird (Piano with Words* 

Broomstick Parade 


Technic of the Month ...... , rttoTl Guy Mfli€f 

Prelude T. Chopin, Op. 28, No t W nh Leseon op c v 

Fli-abeth Gest 764 



A Bull Market in Pianos 

The Etude Musical Quiz 

Avoiding Stilted Diction 

Don’t Be a Sound Post Jlggler 

Bruckner’s Advice r) 

Voice Questions Answered 

Ten Tips for Beginning Organist- 
Notographs of Wagner Operas 
Organ and Choir Questions Answered . . 

Violin Questions Answered 

How to Teach Your Child Absolute Pitch M 

Making the Organ Talk 

Blending the Registers Herbert i 

Letters from Etude Friends 

Entered at iteond-claii mailer Janaary IS. I8S4. at the P. O. at Pkiia i 
the Act of March }, 1879. Copyttyht, 1 94), hy TheeSrt Preuer < ' 

and Great Britain. 

Dr Hr 

. . Rob< 

.. 702 
s P Pcrice 7g»i40« ‘"7 

F philhP* 
,ola* Dow'lf IS, 

VgBZ 1 


r Marshall 760 

Ander*> n 

l i 




. S. 

"Enow/ adp\ m Avr 

$2.50 a year in U. S. A. and Poisc*sior», Arrf r 
Rica, Cuba. Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador. Gua?? - 1,1 ' 
Paraguay, Republic of Honduras. Spain. Pena and UflfiiV 
foundland, $2.75 a year. All orher countries. $5.50 a year. Smelt copv. * 

L7 11V IT FT 1/7 

THE ET l ' pE 


o nied 

“In came Mrs. Fezziwig, one vast substantial smile’ 

■ Charles Dickens 

T HANKSGIVING is the season for smiles. Someone 
called the late President William Howard Taft a 
“symphony of smiles.” Perhaps that is why those who 
knew him loved him. Once, at a great singing festival, he 
said to your editor, “If we didn’t have music and laughter, 
life just wouldn’t amount to much.” If all the rulers of the 
world, bar none, could echo President Taft right now, peace 
would be very near. Let’s all make a genuine effoit! 

Music and smiles bear a 
curious analogy. Both are 
spontaneous, both are per- 
vasive, both are irresistible, 
both are radiant, both are 
restorative, both are essen- 
tials to happiness and con- 

During the past year many 
of the significant prophecies 
of hopeful dreamers, who 
have endeavored to find ways 
to help man alleviate his 
woes through developing a 
healthy, happy mental atti- 
tude, have been fulfilled as 
demonstrable, scientific 
truths. The results are aston- 
ishing. For instance, stom- 
ach ulcers, according to the 
findings of a group of Ameri- 
can physicians of the highest 
standing, have been found to 
originate, not in the stomach, 
but in the brain. They are the 
end results of hate, worry, 
anger, anxiety, grief, and 
other negative mental atti- 
tudes. “But,” says the reader, 

“these conditions with many people are uncontrollable.” 
That is often true, but you must realize that if your 
thoughts are toxic, your whole body and your whole futuie 
life may be perilously poisoned. 

Mankind has thought of smiles and music as passing- 
superficialities. Smiles affect the face and music affects the 
ears. Both, however, literally saturate the body and soul, 
producing psychological and physiological results of limit- 
less importance. Music, which affects the emotions so defi- 
nitely and directly, is one of the inexplicable benizens of the 
Creator in helping all to regain a personal equilibrium, par- 
ticularly in these days of dreadful strain. How music works 
to accomplish this result is still a great enigma. Some day 

it may be scientifically explained. A relatively short time 
ago, few had any idea what electricity is. Although the force 
had been used in a gigantic manner, its operation was little 
understood. It was the discovery of the electronic theory 
which solved the age-old puzzle. Sir Joseph John Thompson 
(Professor of Experimental Physics at Cambridge Univei- 
sity, England from 1884 to 1908) discovered electrons, 
which are nothing more than fabulously minute particles of 

electric dust which seem to 
exist between atoms and be- 
tween molecules, which are 
groups of atoms. You are 
doubtless familiar with the 
old experiment in the physics 
laboratory in which a glass 
is filled to the brim with 
water and then a teaspoonful 
of alcohol is poured into the 
glass. It does not overflow 
because the alcohol runs in 
between the molecules of the 
water. Well, change the pic- 
ture to a vessel filled with 
molecules, and you can pour 
in an almost equal quantity 
of electrons without making 
it run over. 

At this moment you are 
surrounded by millions of 
electrons, which are even 
passing through your body 
in incalculable numbers. In- 
finitely smaller than any 
atom of any other element, 
they can be put into motion 
to produce light, power, heat, 
and even music itself, as in 

the case of the Hammond Novachord. 

Because electronic innovations and amplifications have 
now become so closely identified with music, and because 
they help in making clear our point in this editorial, we may 
be pardoned for dwelling a moment upon some character- 
istics of their nature with which some of our readers may 
not be familiar. We all are literally saturated with electrons, 
but we know little about them. Formerly an atom was con- 
sidered the smallest conceivable particle of matter. No one 
as yet has seen an atom or a molecule. Water is composed of 
atoms and molecules (groups of atoms). As water flows ovei 
a mill wheel, power is created. If atoms of water or electrons 
w'ere visible, as in the case of falling sand when it pours 

(Continued on Page 752) 


Whose invention ol the three-electrode radio tube has made him 
one of the greatest figures in the history ol the human race 



Music and Culture 

The Musician 

and the Common Cold 

Famous Artists Have Fought lie Most Com- "* 

U, WJMmar ScUehUrntr, W-2>. 

coat of shellac over 
the vocal cords. 
The results must 
have been benefi- 
cial, for according 
to the morning pa- 
pers Madame Tet- 
razzini sang with 
her usual pure and 
beautiful voice. 
Such a method, 
however, should 
not be attempted 

rratrr- arttst MUSICIAN of renown a 

cold which^comp els ^esult^n 

* portant public app that a cold 

very great loss. °* e distre ssing symptoms, some 

which lasted, with its disti ess dollars . 

six weeks cost her over y m sniffle T o 
She used to refer to it a * and tQ the or - 

the teacher, to the kl y inco me may be 

chestral f rf0 ™f^ d 0S may be relatively no less 
quite moderate, a co W rec ognized that colds 
of a calamity. It is ge: nerahy reco^ 

a „rt the comPl. joTto the nation 
them result in an general consensus 

which is staggering. There is a g g are 

of opinion among virus (or 

directly the result o which is so minute 

collection of several vi es *® 

that it Passey through the fln^ "red, al- 

SS £»“£ elceptin ttie hands 

palliatives and help > ^o prevent {rom of a medical ex- 

of the grave condit v contact and through 

colds. The virus is «P r t ea p d , b f .“^tor 1 the cough 
the ah'. The mo* “““S^nn^ered. ma» 

“'‘fflanS’e room «h cold' germs, During the 

spray a large 1001 whe re ” If you are 

cold season “germs axe ev ' y ^ tem is 

U, t^7o',d«”' d«e toCceSIn ea«ng and 
“out of order, au t t of auto-intoxi- 

drinking and resulting ^ hQst t0 mi Ui 0 ns of 
cation, you bec ™ e t in flamed eyes, “aches 
^ 0 ™ ™and ah ^ distressing symptoms are 

all over, auu » romedv for a cold is 

there, we 1 fpwI . There are, howevei, 
at once it yon have afcver. There ^ 

ev ery musician should know in case 
' m t at hand. Today war conditions 

hare^reitac^ tlm^umber^^pHysicmns^for^clvil- 

wttliaWiroved'emergency measures tor the treat- 
ment of colds in their first stages. 

sprayed her throat 

taining, besides oth had to pa nt quickly 

STdlired St stop tor a momenta the 
SSK™ spray acted something 
like a varnish or a 

i.-wtriiunosed” and would not sing. Once 
always in sp ^ sing at a conC ert arranged 
she had to ^ Pruss ia (Emperor William I) . 
f01 ' W next appeared the king asked her what 

When she next app ^ so m she rep iied: “Your 

had Tchmate your Majesty.” Somewhat pessi- 
r0 y al clim d ’ U o Gatti-Casazza, former director 
Sthe SeSpoStan opera, remarked "For ex. 
if S New York, the winter climate is most 

Tameable peculiar, and generally damp; this 
changeable, p throats and nerves of the 

artistS but for this there is no remedy-nor for 

th of fonhe most U famous of English tenors was 
0 6 °ot Tohn Sims Reeves (1818-1900). Reeves 
thC fn organist at fourteen. He made his debut 
wa ® ha ritone in 1839. In 1846 he made his debut 
aS at La Scala in Milan. His voice was 

aS a e pfnuisite beaufv. When nearly eighty he 

wat still a concert favorite and crowds flocked 
was stm accr edited the amazing preserva- 

t0hea b^ voice to the fact that he absolutely 
refused to sing if he had the slightest cold or 
r Throat The result was that he disap- 
pointed” many times and audiences were obliged 

40 For ‘musicians who are susceptible to d-aughts, 

“ is important. In a compartment of a 

train It is hot— and a window is opened. The 

next day one of the occupants may have a cough 

ffhis cough”), a violinist feels rheumatism in 
( his coubu hU rlght hand 



All musicians, 
instrumentalists as 

well as singers, are 
permanently afraid 
of catching colds. 
There is nearly al- 
ways a draught at 
some part of the 
operatic stage and 
in the concert hall. 
Colds are frequent- 
ly caught in over- 
heated, unventi- 
lated halls or 
rooms. Hans von 
Billow once object- 
ed to playing in an 
overheated room 
on the ground that 
he was a pianist— 
not a palm. Slight 

while a third — an 
oboe player — is 
perfectly well and 
is amazed and 
scornful at the 
weakness of the 
rest of mankind. 
Perhaps It was his 
good fortune to 
have been sitting 
In a corner of the 


which was out of 
the draught. 

This picture oi the world's most iamous prima donna 
soprano was taken in the role ol Juliet, irom Gounod * 
iamous opera. Patti was twenty-tour at this time. 



An eternal strug- 
gle exists between 
window -opener 
musicians and win- 
dow-shutter mu- 
sicians— that is to 

say. those who do 

not like draughts 
and others who do 
not care, the gem 
uine draught he 
roes." At least tins 
struggle should 
alleviated by th 

window -opener 

musicians taking 

the draughty sea 
in a compartm 
or a concert hall- 

he was a pianist— . p , ac tual sus- 

not a palm. Slight nortant. Sup~ 

changes in apparel may help to avoid damage, ceptibility of the body to cold i* his day' 6 

resulting from draughts— unless an artist has to pose a musician returns home fro j r ri - 

Various Treatments 

Association with musicians has enabled me to 
»*> of incidents revealing how man, 

unvp sought to combat colds. 

The famous singer, Luisa Tetrazzini, was suf- 
fering from a cold and was worried about the 

H Hnn Of her voice for the evening’s concert, 
condition of her vo have a go od spray! It 

Enrico Caruso unu tilTlp » ji e 

will make your throat well m no time. 

I. may neip tu avuiu uauiagc 

resulting from draughts— unless an artist has to 
circle “with graceful swimming motions round 
the central rock” as scantily dressed as are the 
Rhine daughters. 

time aaugnters. 

Madame Patti never sang a note when she 
had a cold. Neither did she sing when she 
doubtful of the condition of her voice. She sii 


kiuuuincAx cx ,.,v wnwm.. voice. She simply 
went to bed and said there was “r ’ — 

went, i jkj ucu a Hex ocxxvx uxxvxt w ao “no one in.’ Man- 
agers came, besought, and entreated, but she was 

ceptibility of the body to coin is mu da y’s 

pose a musician returns home from art- 
work in a very tired state. The same s bad 
tation which on going out In the mo ^ody 

no effect on him. now gives him a co • sto m- 
may at once be less resistant because so ^ in 
ach trouble has depleted his streng • ^ in , 
some draughty corner, he may con * -tis” > n 
flammation of the throat or even n — 


Music and Culture 

Color in Singing 

An Interview with 

n Ck ar L Ok 


Renowned American Baritone 



ACCORDING to John Charles Thomas the 
Z\ essence of good singing is color. Just as 
the artist secures his effects by blending 
the paints on his palette, so the singer projects 
the meaning of music by varying the color of 
his tones. Further, both artist and singer use 
similar working methods: before they are ready 
to work in color they must know the nature and 
the effect of the various pigments; and they con- 
centrate on color only after the foundations of 
their craft are solidly laid. To the artist, this 
foundation means line and form; to the singer 
it means sound, basic vocal production. 

“While the singer is still a student it is diffi- 
cult for him to realize that the business of vocal 
production which occupies his attention so com- 
pletely, is not really singing at all. It is merely 
the material from which singing is made; the 
foundation upon which it is reared. Neither does 
singing mean the number of new songs or arias 
one learns. It means but one thing: the validity 
with which one is able to project the significance 
of music. This, naturally, involves a number of 
things, ranging from simple rules of health to 
philosophies of interpretation. 

“First of all, the singer should be in robust 
health and should take active and constant steps 
to keep that way. If some singers— especially 
opera singers — peter out early, it is because they 
get into a set routine of coaching, singing, eat- 
ing, and sleeping, without giving the body proper 
care. Perhaps they think that ‘health’ means 
the absence of symptoms. It doesn’t, of course; 
the basis of good health is body tone. And it is 
this tone, precisely, that is so necessary to pub- 
lic work. The singer who stirs his audience con- 
veys an atmosphere of vitality, and this vitality 
demands as much care as any sheerly technical 
department of singing. The singer’s diet is im- 
portant. I cannot tell young singers what to eat 
and what to avoid; those are matters that each 
person must decide for himself according to the 
needs of his body metabolism. But I can tell you 
that the object of diet should be vigorous health, 
and not fashions of slimness. Another important 
thing is exercise. Personally, I prefer outdoor 
exercise that can be cultivated as a hobby as 
well as a health precaution. The positive mental 
reactions that result from the hearty enjoyment 
of a good game like golf (my own hobby) and 


from the consciousness of being close to God’s 
green earth, build up reserves of physical and 
spiritual tone that are drawn upon in future 
work. Just now, my chief vocal problem is im- 
proving my golf swing. I say this in all serious- 
ness. I work at my golf technic every day, partly 
because I like it and partly because I know it 
will serve as a stimulus to my singing. 

Good Teacher Plus Good Student 

“The basic vocal technic upon which all ar- 
tistic projection rests is generally thought to 
depend upon a good teacher. Actually, this is 
only half true. The other half of the truth is 
that it depends on the student. The one who 
learns must be alert to detect whether he is 
being well taught. No teacher can do the job 
alone. The student is responsible for more than 
carrying out day-to-day instructions; he must 
make sure that the teacher’s methods help him. 
A number of singers— some in high places— have 
told me they have had as many as fifteen 
teachers and still don’t feel secure. It is pos- 
sible, of course, that a person might have the 
sheer bad luck to fall into the hands of fifteen 
charlatans, one right after another — but it isn’t 
probable. Out of fifteen established vocal teach- 
ers, at least one would know his business! In 
such a case, the fault is generally the pupil’s. 
After two or three bad breaks, he should be alert 
to know for himself what his difficulties are and 
why continued study fails to solve them. He 
should be able to check up on himself. 

“This is all the more true since basic produc- 
tion habits should be entirely natural. My own 
theory is that no one needs to be taught to 
breathe. He should be taught to correct any im- 
pediments to natural breathing, and he should 
be made aware of what his muscular actions 
and sensations are when he breathes correctly. 
But the correct breathing is there naturally . . . 
unless he is confused by ‘methods.’ As far as 
breathing is concerned, the difference between 
the professional and the amateur is this: the 
former knows what he is doing while the latter 
may do exactly the same thing without being 
able to analyze or control it. I never had any 
instruction whatever in breathing. I was, how- 
ever, singularly fortunate in my teachers, of 
whom I have had only two. My first teacher was 
a woman; Mrs. Blanche Sylvania Blackman, at 
the Peabody Conservatory. When I came to her, 
I hadn’t even a full scale, and I knew very little 
about anything. She placed my voice and taught 
me how to encompass a full, even scale. I had 


heard a lot about ‘learning how to breathe,’ of 
course, and as my lessons progressed and noth- 
ing was said about this prodigious problem, I 
grew worried. Mrs. Blackman told me that I 
breathed naturally and that she was therefore 
unwilling to interfere with my habits. I have 
since learned to be doubly thankful for such 
wise guidance. Breathing should not be made a 
‘problem’; where no definite obstacles show them- 
selves, the singer should be unhampered. He may 
use exercises, of course, to strengthen and en- 
large his breath capacity, but he should be free 
from ‘methods’ that change natural breathing 
into an unnatural problem. 

“The use, as well as the taking, of the breath 
should be natural. In ordinary life we are not 
conscious of breathing adjustments; whether we 
walk, run, play games, or go uphill, our breath- 
ing adjusts itself to our needs without our ‘doing’ 
anything about it. Similarly, natural breathing 
adjusts itself to long or short phrases of song. 
My best advice is to do the thing naturally and 
study the feeling of it afterwards. The secret of 
good breathing (not some sort of acquired ‘sing- 
er’s breathing,’ but good natural breathing) is 
that it must inflate the entire thoracic cavity, 
expanding the back and sides as well as the 

The Problem in Resonance 

“The second vital point in basic production is 
resonance. The problem here is to get the tone 
into the mask and to guard against any guttural 
intonation. Once acquired, guttural tone is the 
hardest to get rid of, and brings on the quivers 
and quavers that mark imperfect production 
habits. Resonance in the mask permits of tone 
control, and keeps the voice free. Another ad- 
vantage of mask resonance is that it permits of 
checking up on production habits — also on teach- 
ing. If the student does not feel vibratory reso- 
nance in his mask, he may be sure that one of 
two things is the matter— either he is not profit- 
ing from his teacher’s guidance, or his teacher 
is a poor one. In either case, he has only him- 
self to blame if he does nothing about it. 

“After I had worked a year with Mrs. Black- 
man, she left Peabody and the new teacher was 
Mr. Adelin Fermin, my only other instructor. Mr. 
Fermin based his vocal approach on color and 
gave me the greatest help in forming my own 
approach. People don’t think enough of the in- 
herent color of tones, words, syllables, vowels — 
not to speak of the natural colors of the differ- 
ent scales. The trick here is to determine the 


Music and Culture 

The Etude Musical Quiz 

into town to he L.1UUK iVluaiLui i 

time, and traveled from my^camp^^ I 

sing one of the setting it, I confess, ^ Charte j / erL 

sang it in the key of D-flat, advant ageous * 


color of the different vowels and to infuse : the 
needed color, in song interpretation, by basing 
the vowel sounds on the one that possesses the 
desired color. By basing one s self on a given 
vowel I mean this: Sing a tone on Ah then, 
keeping the Ah in mind, glide into Ee and thei 
come back to Ah; glide into Oh and come back 
to Ah • glide into Ou and come back to Ah. Your 
£eS>e g wm sound, Ah-ah-ee 
ou-ah-ah. Now do the same thing ^ lth ^ Each 

basic vowel; with Oh; with ^^nd^abase 
exercise vou see, uses one vowel sound as a base 
without’ excluding any of the others. Each sets 
the pattern for giving those other vowel sounds 
the basic color of the first one sang. Now iet me 
show you how this works. In one of my songs 
there is the line, ‘Some days are good, some ill. 
The normal (spoken) sound of the o in some 

approximates an uh. In this P artic ^ r ^’result 
ever I wish to color with a basic Ah. The result 
is that while my hearers are not conscious of 

f vioncrVi thev were written saw-mill. 

“■Correct voweT sounds are as vital to basic 
tone proLtion as they are to the sep^a 
study ot enunciation. A good way to Practice 
ti-iPin is this- Sing a tone on a vowel (your bes 

sort of tiny grace note at the en . , 

S will sound, Ah-ah-ah-ah-ahm. Oh-oh-oh- 
. . and on on This exercise prepares tne 

likely to slip after the initial attack. 

sang it in the key of D-flatf ad ; antage ous 

because that key ga j returned to camp, 

A-flat at the climax. When I (withthep leas- 

musical friend of mme to x had ‘ruined 

. musical friend of mine told me^w ^ , ruined . 
ing bluntness of fnendsb my inter preta- 
the song. Thinking, naturafly. * J ang it in the 

the song. Thinking ^ ng it in the 

tion, I asked what I : had _ done. Y ^ that that 

wrong key!’ he exalted end wants 

type of song with that ^°™ ; ed an d we argued 
the key of C?’ I ^^Cnvfnced; since then, 
about it. In the en , c Unless a listener 

I have sung that song o y even recognize 

has absolute pitch, h inctively he will feel 
the different keys-but ir J ht or wro ng. 

whether the color of the key is b 
B ecause music and singing mean 

T he CONSISTENT and intelligent listener of 
today knows almost as much about music 
as the average musician. Responsible for 
the dissemination of all this musical information 
ovp radio and its commentators, excellent in- 
duction in our public schools, and the increased 
dumber of fine books and articles on music. How 
d0 you remember? Count two points for 
dh correct answer. Fair: 50. Better than aver- 
age 60. Good: 70. Excellent: 80 or higher. 

1 Wagner married the daughter of 
A. Hans von Bulow 
B. Giacomo Meyerbeer 
C. Franz Liszt 

D. King Ludwig II of Bavaria 

A Bull Market in Pianos 

Enunciation and Tone Production 

“ Th tV£ ^Zt^To^BeTS^e 

SSa^iSr *. at a certain <£«£££ 
since he must learn to sing in all languages, 
while the Italian, French, or German singer 
makes chief use of his own tongue J^/mere 
manv languages involves more than the mer 
business of learning them. It involves a thor- 
ough knowledge of the color of each language 
and of the effect that color may have on tone 
Deduction. English, for instance, is a nasal lan- 
guage' French, a chest language; German is gut- 
Italian in the head. Once the singer’s 
basic’ production is in good order, he should have 
no difficulty in adjusting to the individualities 
of the different languages; but the inexperienced 
student must watch these adjustments with 
careful alertness so that the guttural nature of 
a German text, let us say, does not force his tones 

d'ldis my°belief that good enunciation is the 
first step to artistic interpretation. I always base 
my own approach on the poem of the song- 
indeed I never sing a song the text of which 
does not seem moving and (or) beautiful to me. 
The words set the mood for a song and give it 
its color The music emphasizes and enhance 
mood and color. The singing makes mood and 
color come to life. That is why it is important 
to sing songs in their original keys; that is why 
the transposing of operatic anas (to suit the 
range needs of a singer) invariably ruins the 
effect of the scene as a whole. This fact was 
forcibly brought home to me after one of my 

own performances. I was in California at the 

T AKE A LOOK at your piano. It is probably 
S tS AS much as it was a yea. ago 
and the “market” is going u P-^’ UP clever 
In a recent issue of “Time” the following 

ar slid e on P e P womfn firmly: “I want a Steinway or a 

m \Vhen WPB slammed the lid on n ''*^” 0 Ranged 
tion last July, the gloom-wrapped industry chang 
over quickly to making plywood plane parte, de w • 
But it kept one eye on the piano market. That mar 
ket is now hotter than a jump session wfihDuke 

Ellington. The new piano supply is close ^ 
tion; prices of used instruments have soared like an 

upward series of arpeggios. 

In New York, dealers are buying every piano they 
can get their fingers on. They are paying 50 to 100 . 
more than a year ago. After reconditioning, they sell 
at profits ranging from .neat to fabulous. 

In Detroit where showrooms have been bare of new 
pianos for weeks, tone-tired instruments hardly worth 
$40 a year ago are now snatched from dealers for $150- 
In Chicago, the market is boiling. Prices of used 
uprights have doubled to $235, stocks of the popular 
new spinets (small uprights) have dwindled to the 
point where some stores are rationing them, selling 
only one a month. Dealers are scouring attics and 
haunting auctions to pick up stray instruments, are 
selling them by carloads, sight unseen, to Western 
and Southern buyers. 

In Los Angeles and San Francisco, new pianos are 
also rationed. Some dealers refuse to sell used instru- 
ments, will only rent them. One dealer has 450 rented 
pianos now out, a waiting list of 50 names and a tidy 
steady income without the risk of selling himself out 
of business. 

All new pianos are under strict ceiling prices, but 
OPA regulations on used ones are vague as a begin- 
ner’s fingers. Roughly, a used piano must not be sold 
for more than it would have brought in March 1942. 
But there is a loophole: if a dealer has no basis for 
comparison, he must abide by what his nearest com- 
petitor charges. Thus conservative, well-established 
houses with a long sales record are neatly tied. But 
small dealers gaily hop through the loophole, often 
sell used pianos for more than they brought new. 

Feeding the boom are the bulging pay envelopes 
which have given thousands of Americans the chance 
to satisfy the musical urge they have always had. 

WPB’s piano ban was mainly laid down to force the 
highly skilled piano craftsmen into war work. The 

2 Which of the following famous overtures 
was not written to precede an opera? 

A. “Coriolanus” 

B. “Marriage of Figaro” 

C. “La Forza del Destlno" 

D. "Iphigenie en Aullde’’ 

3. One of these oratories is not by Handel. 

A. “Messiah” 

B. “Saul” 

C. “Elijah” 

D. “Jephtha” 

4 The Irish composer and pianist who spent 
much of his life in Russia and who was forerun- 
ner of Chopin— 

A. William Walton 

B. William Byrd 

C. Henry Purcell 

D. John Field 

5 Which of these stringed instruments is not 
placed in its proper order in this list supposedly 
arranged according to size— smallest first. 

A. Violin 

B. Viola 

C. Violoncello 

D. Viola da gamba 

6. Which of the following Is a non-transposing 

A. Trumpet 

B. English horn 

C. Flute 

D. Clarinet 

highly skilled piano craftsmen into war work. The 
shift has been unprofitable, from the management 
view. Payrolls have risen sharply, but earnings are 
down. Recently Rudolph Wurlitzer Co., biggest U. S. 
maker of pianos, reported a net profit of $1.63 per 
share for the last fiscal year, way under the $2.48 of 
1941. Only cheer for manufacturers: the thousands 
of new piano players should make for the greatest 
market in their history at war’s end. 

7. The famous opera by Boito is 

A. “The Damnation of Faust’ 

B. “Mephlstophdles" 

D. “Gretchen am Spinnrade 

8. All of these operas are by Amerleans-Oiw 
does not deal with an American theme. 

is it? 

A. “Natoma” (Victor Herbert > n Uer 

B. “The Man Without a Country ( 


C. “Merry Mount” < Howard Hanson) 

D. “The King’s Henchman" (Deems ^ 

9. The composition with which Igor ® tra '^, aS ’ 
deviated from his natural, individual s y 

A. “The History of a Soldier" 

B. “Apollon Musagete” 

C. “Petrouchka” 

D. The Song of the Nightingale (» 

ANSWER oiou 

a— 6 a— 8 a — i g ® 11 - 

a— 6 a-* a — i o~9 " 1 . -a 

P ub biou aqa uadMiaq paoiqd aq pinoqs^ ^ 3-I ni 
— fr ’ (uqossiapuajv .<q > 0 — E ’ ( buiMP 

Music and Culture 

The Importance of 
Piano Posture 

b Qeor r WacflaU 

Mr. George MacNabb is of Scotch descent. He was born in New Jersey. After being graduated with 
honors from the Music Department ot Syracuse University, he was awarded a post-graduate scholarship. 
Later he was awarded a Juittiard Fellowship. He has appeared with many leading symphony orchestras 
and has won enthusiastic praise from eminent critics. For some years he has been a member ot 
the piano faculty at the Eastman School ot Music of the University ot Rochester.— Editor’s Note. 

C ORRECT POSTURE is as important as any 
requisite of a good pianist. It is impossible 
to render fine playing without it. Posture 
has a definite psychological effect in establish- 
ing confidence, comfort, and ease. It should begin 
in the mind. 

Natural posture is the best posture. It gives 
freedom of motion and coordination of mental 
and physical faculties. The posture which en- 
ables one to accomplish the particular pianistic 
problem of the moment with the greatest sim- 
plicity and economy is the one to be encouraged. 
One must be comfortable to be in command of 
every detail of performance. Numerous playing- 
problems deny one set posture. It is a variant 
and it changes for every pupil. Encourage the 
position which will bring a maximum of results 
with a minimum of effort. Matthay says, “Good 
posture is the resultant but not the assurance 
of correct balance in the forces we use.” 

Muscular energy used in piano playing is not 
produced by the fingers alone, but flows from 
all parts of the body. It is important, therefore, 
that all parts of the body be placed so as to 
cause no obstruction to this flow of energy. Harsh 
tone may easily be due to faulty, cramped posi- 
tion. Since piano playing involves movement, 
and movement always means change of position, 
basic posture rules are general and for the pur- 
pose of orientation only. Correct or natural pos- 
ture means balance, coordination, better circula- 
tion, more careful and concentrated listening, 
and finer playing results. 

A Variety of Ideas 

Some of the early masters had very dogmatic 
ideas on posture. Because they considered the 
fingers the sole source of power and tone, they 
insisted upon a quiet, inactive hand. Moscheles 
demanded passages played with a glass of water 
balanced on the wrist; Clementi used coins on 
the wrist and the back of the hand; Dussek 
urged inclining the body a little to the left be- 
cause of the difficulty of giving power and action 
to the left hand; and Kalkbrenner sat a little 
to the right of the middle of the keyboard to 
accomplish the same effect on the right side. Ap- 
parently these men played well in spite of their 
theories, if not because of them, and they may 
have unconsciously used modern approaches. 
Even Leschetizky insisted upon arched knuckles 
for great muscular development of hands and 
fingers. This muscular strength can be attained 

without greatly arched knuckles, and both are 
often exaggerated. What we really want is not 
sheer muscular strength but an equalization of 
strength, energy, and flowing power. Leschetizky 
developed some of the finest pianists of his day, 
although he disclaimed any particular method. 
He wisely studied the particular needs of each 
pupil and supplied the solution accordingly. Re- 
garding posture he said, “Sit at the piano un- 
constrained and erect like a good horseman, and 
yield to the movements of arms and as far as 
necessary, as the rider yields to the movements 
of the horse.” He was urging pliability and adapt- 

Basic body posture directions are few and sim- 
ple. Sit insistently at the same spot in front of 
the middle of the keyboard with the elbows on a 
general level with the keyboard. This elbow level 
varies with the size, shape, and muscular con- 
ditions of the student. Lean slightly forward in 
the chair. The length of the arms decides the 
distance of the chair and the player from the 
keyboard, but the keyboard 
must be reached comfor- 
tably. Avoid rounding and 
stooping of the shoulders. 
Any leaning forward should 
come from the waist. It is 
important that the feet rest 
on the floor at all times. 
Dangling of the feet is cer- 
tainly not conducive to any 
kind of concentration. Har- 
old Bauer says, “Test this by 
studying on a mantle with 
the feet dangling.” Even 
small children can usually 
reach the floor with the feet 
if they sit near the edge of 
the chair, and if this is not 
possible a footstool should 
be used. The chair height is 
decided by what is natural 
for balance and coordina- 
tion. Chopin said, “If your 
playing looks well it prob- 
ably also will sound well; or 
if you do it well, it will also 

probably look well.” 

The best pianistic hand position is the one 
which is also most natural and comfortable to 
the particular hand. The actual shape of the 
hand and fingers varies with each individual 
and with each passage, but the key never varies. 
Hence the folly of laying down inflexible rules. 
For variations of hand positions and finger ac- 
tions look to the great virtuosi and you will find 
many different approaches with beautiful results 
in every case. Mme. Tina Lerner, contrary to all 
teaching she had had, played with flat hand and 
fingers, claiming it was the only way she could 
play; and she excelled in the performance of 
Mozart, Scarlatti, and the early composers. At 
the same time she begged her students not to 
attempt imitation of her. Her success is no reason 
to allow the grotesque, however, and as teachers 
we must strive for normal, natural hand posture 
and strength before we can allow deviations. 

Hand Posture 

Hand posture, like body posture, is for the 
purpose of orientation, because position changes 
as soon as the hand moves beyond the range of 
five adjacent keys. Normal posture cannot be 
retained while playing, although it should be 
varied no more than is necessary. It takes long 
training to attain control, strength, and flexi- 
bility. No matter how natural, every hand needs 
a certain amount of training. As Paderewski said, 
“Before one becomes a genius, he must first be a 
drudge.” The entire playing apparatus from 
shoulder to finger tips is a leverage system, and 
if one part is out of position the entire system 
will be out. 

Physical variations and shortcomings in stu- 
dents inhibit the easy attainment of simple, 
direct, natural, workable hand position and ac- 
tion. A few problems to be coped with are: stiff 
fingers, muscle-bound conditions (which are re- 
sponsive to massage and exercise) , hyper-exten- 
sion of joints (commonly called double-jointed- 
ness), weak knuckles, malformation of hand and 
joints, and flabby hands. 

Basic hand position directions are simple, gen- 
eral, and sensible. Fingers should be curved (this 
is normal) so that they touch the keys with 





Music and Culture 

when lifted, and particularly whe n pa gsage 

low; and dragging u *j ome by training for 
keys, which may be 0 , tion an d by keep- 

alert finger action and arti ’ above t he 

their tips. The nail hints should be firm and 
vertical and never broken in, even when the 
finger is less curved, as in playing widespread 
chords. Broken finger tips is a weakness pianisti- 
cally and no technical skill can be attained 
with ’weak fingers. The wrist should be level with 
the keys and slightly outward from the body, 
but will vary from this when in motion. Too 
hioh or too low a wrist will inhibit finger action, 
cause tension, and hinder the flow of power from 
shoulder to finger tips. A moderately high 
knuckle arch is desirable, and firmness in the 
arch is essential. This is the main source of 
strength in the hand and should be likened to 
the girders in a bridge. The hand sloping toward 
the little finger makes for weakness. The fingers 
should be well separated and the thumb held 
away from the hand with the tip slightly inward. 
It is wise to present hand posture first at a table 
with full arm from elbow resting on the table. 

to notes of equal value. Then the singer must 
apply po wer on accented syllables to avoid awk- 
ward diction. 

Keeping the lungs well filled to ensure vocal 
nower, the student should practice pronouncing 
the troublesome words till they sound well- 
rounded, clear, and unaffected. 

on ana 

ing the fingers at a normal distance above 

keys^in ^perfect line, especially in the early 

stages of study. ^ must const antly 

Finger Position and Action 

The fingers must be carefully trained for 
strength, control, and independence. Every mo- 
tion needs study and the results must be accom- 
plished gradually. We want quick, free and supple 
movements, actions, and articulation. Too much 
height in finger lift causes tension; too low a 
finger means it must first lift and then diop. 
This is excess motion. We need to conserve en- 
ergy in piano playing, not consume it needlessly. 
Avoid up and down arm movements back of fin- 
ger action. This is invariably the case when the 
fingers are not trained to proper articulation. 
Finger action is finger action only. Faltering, 
sluggish movements interfere with proper tone 
production, velocity, clarity, and rhythmic certi- 
tude. Precision can be gained only when the 
fingers make decided movements. 

The thumb must always keep its place at the 
side of the hand and must move with the same 
freedom and promptness as do the other fingers. 
Its main source of action is in the joint which 
hinges it to the wrist, as the main source of 
action of the other four fingers is in the hand 
knuckle joint. The importance of the thumb can- 
not be overestimated. It increases our ability to 
hold and grasp objects, and is one of the pia- 
nist’s chief technical difficulties and principal 
sources of strength. Correct thumb action is 
necessary for delicacy or brilliance in velocity 
passages and in scales and arpeggios. It must 
work independently of the hand and yet in co- 
operation with it, and must move on its two axes, 
horizontal and perpendicular, with smoothness 
and facility. It must equal the other fingers in 
strength, agility, precision, endurance, and ac- 
curacy. All fingers must act with the same alert- 
ness and promptness when finger movements are 
far apart, as in whole and half notes, slow tempo, 
or when the movements follow in rapid succes- 
sion as in thirty-second and sixty-fourth notes 
in fast tempo. Fingers must take the same defi- 
nite start in all tempi, although in rapid playing 
the action may be mentally and physically im- 
perceptible. This can be mastered only in slow 
practice and playing, and perfect finger execu- 
tion depends upon all of these principles. 

The most common weakness is that of the 
yielding or breaking of the nail joint. Mental 
concentration on this fault is the suiest remedy. 
Every key struck should be an exercise for over- 
coming it. Leschetizky demanded rock-like for- 
mation of the nail joint. It was one of the few 
absolute principles he ever laid down. Other 
weaknesses include straightening of the fingers 

All these errors and weak fingers 

be guarded against. Weaknesses and^ fin _ 

must be given special attentio • J 1 ®. Ks s0 _ 

ger is P roverbially , th ® C t g ldon f which connect 
called weakness is due to tendons musc i e s 

the .onrth Mer musdesw,® tta m» ^ 

of the third and fifth nngeis. res ult, 

Mbit the lift of the. fourth finger. As ^resu^, 

striving for lift of this fingei is 

The remedy is in the deveiopment of the forc 
of stroke, using strength enough to enable thi 
fourth finger to resist the muscular energy ana 
power flowing from the shoulder and also to 
overcome key resistance or the meeting of these 
two forces. Strength of any finger can be attained 
only through its own activity. Extianeous 
mechanical^ devices are dangerous Everyone 
knows the story of Schumann ruining his hand 
for playing by attempting to strengthen the 
fourth finler with the aid of a mechanical 

apparatus. , 

Despite the fact that the sole source of powei 
is not contained in the fingers, this is no argu- 
ment against developing finger strength, since 
fingers control, emit, and transmit this power. 
Therefore, they must be trained carefully to do 
their work. Stress on the use of arm weight often 
leads to neglect of the fingers and their indi- 
vidual capacity. They must be highly developed. 

It is advisable first to present hand and finger 
posture and finger action at a table. Objections 
are that this procedure is unmusical, that it de- 
velops only lift of the finger, and that the ear 
alone controls the striking of the key. At the 
same time some table work is often indispensable. 
Key resistance is too much for a student to ovei- 
come in the beginning and at the same time keep 
a semblance of posture and action. Table work 
done with discretion is profitable and it can be 
made entertaining and appealing. There must 
always be a conscious effort to employ and con- 
trol muscles and actions in a natural way. 

Don’t he a Sound Post Jiggler 
Lf B. phi (tipi 

Avoiding Stilted Diction 

by (jeorcje Brou/nion 

O NE’S everyday diction is apt to become 
slovenly so that when it is corrected, it 
sounds a little exaggerated. For instance, 
better is so often pronounced betta, that when 
one corrects himself and pronounces it better, he 
makes the second syllable awkwardly prominent. 

This awkwardness is easy to overcome when 
one realizes where the fault lies. The key to any 
situation is power, which in singing means 
volume. A singer, or a speaker, simply must have 
power or he cannot lower his voice for the un- 
accented syllables, with the result that the 
should-be-unaccented syllables, being equal in 
power, sound stilted. This is not wholly true of 
the spoken word, since accent in language im- 
plies duration of sound rather than intensity, 
and a weak voice may save itself by accelerating 
unaccented syllables. But in songs, accented and 
concomitant, unaccented syllables are often set 



M any VIOLINISTS, both professional and 
amateur, have told how they moved the 
sound posts in their fiddles and improved 

the tone. . . 

They take quite a chance m moving about that 

harmless piece of wood with the idea in mind 
that they may hit a spot that will give their violin 
the tone of a fine Stradivarius! Without sense or 
reason they endeavor to prove the successful ap- 
plication of their supposed new-found theory, 
seeming to think that, at each new twist of the 
post they are that much nearer to realizing their 
goal’ If only they would stop to consider, they 
would know that they are doing incalculable 
harm to their instrument with the constant push- 
ing around of this small but important part. 

The violin is a sensitive instrument; and much 
as moving the heart of the human body would 
upset the even tenor of its ways, so the moving 
of the sound post or heart of the violin disturbs 
it greatly. 

This is not to imply that all sound posts in 
violins are in their proper places, but to assert 
that they should be adjusted by a competent 
violin maker able to give the tone quality desired 
from your instrument, lf the violin possesses the 
necessary requisites. This done, it should nevei 
be touched, unless it has been dislocated acci- 
dentally, and then only by a violin maker in 
whom you have faith. 

With every shifting of the post position, the 
focal point of vibration changes. The violin can 
never have a settled quality of tone if the position 
of the post is not permanently settled. The sharp 
edges of an ill-fitting sound post cut grooves into 
the top and back, doing irreparable damage by 
thinning out those vital connections where the 
sound post meets the top and back. Many patches 
in the region of the sound post of firm old violins 
are directly traced to the amateur tinkerer, who 
works holes and grooves into the instrument until 
it is so badly mangled that a post cannot be cor- 
rectly fitted until a patch has been placed over 
the scarred parts. This definitely affects the 
market value of an instrument as much as fiftj 

A question frequently heard is, “Why does the 
violin sound so dull, particularly on damp days 
The violin is less sensitive to atmospheric con- 
ditions than one’s eardrums. More than fifty P® r ' 
cent of the dullness or brightness of your violin 
can be directly traced to the expansion and con- 
traction of the eardrums on wet or dry days, 
stands to reason that the membranes of y° ul 
ears are more sensitive to atmospheric changes 
than a piece of wood, no matter how old an 
seasoned it may be. So pause for thought! 
the tone of your violin pleases you less on certan 
days, be sure, before you jiggle that post, that * 
is not the condition of your ears on those P ar 
ticular days, rather than any fault of the instih 
ment. But if you still feel unconvinced and ns 
satisfied, take the violin to a competent man w J 
can be trusted to give the best possible care 
its proper adjustment. 

Music and Culture 



counters many problems and prejudices 
with which yesterday’s composer in America 
was not bothered. Take my great-grandfather, 
Samuel Wakefield, for instance. He was a pioneer 
composer and had no opposition, no problems. He 
made his own way. Possibly his work was sim- 
plified by virtue of the facts that he was one of 
the first hymnologists of the Protestant Church 
in America and that the writing of hymns filled 
a recognized need. But even during his lifetime he 
felt that church music was degenerating. In the 
preface to one of his hymnbooks, “The Minstrel 
of Zion,” published in 1835, he spoke of this and 
of the need for dignified hymns. This he en- 
deavored to remedy. Another of his books was 
“The Harp of Zion.” 

Grandfather Wakefield was born on March 4, 
1799. He lived to be ninety-six and was a Wes- 
leyan theologian, a Methodist circuit rider. The 
first pipe organ west of the Allegheny Mountains 
was built by him. In addition to composing 
hymns, he is credited with inventing what was 
nicknamed the “Buckwheat” system of notation, 
a system of sight-reading in vogue in singing 
schools of the United States. Each note was 
shaped to stand for a degree of the scale: do, re, 
mi, fa, sol, la, si, do. He did for Western Pennsyl- 
vania what certain of the New England hym- 
nologists had done for their particular section 
of the country. 

Here is an example of Buckwheat notes as they 
would appear in the key of C: 


do re mi fa sol la si do 


for the American Composer 

A Conference with 

CUL WaUiM d a cl » 


Mus. Doc. 


Charles Wakefield Cadman Is unusually well qualified to speak on the problems that have confronted 
native composers at various times during our nation's history, for the combined life spans of himself 
and his great-grandfather (also a composer) amount to almost a century and a hah. In addition, he 
is recognized as a serious composer who ranks with the best; and he has gained fame also as a 
writer o f songs which have been both popular and lasting, some of them as fresh and appealing today 
as they were when first written. Dr. Cadman was born December 24, 1881 at Johnstown, Pennsylvania. 
He studied in Pittsburgh with Edwin Walker, Anna Priscilla Risher, and Emil Pour; and i« Austria with 
Luigi von Kunits, a violinist-composer. In 1908 Dr. Cadman become music reviewer for the Pittsburgh 
Dispatch and organist for the East Liberty Presbyterian Church. In 1909 he started the intensive study 
of American Indian music for which he has since won wide renown. In 1910 he established his residence 
in Southern Californio, where he has lived ever since. Dr. Cadman is also well known os a concert 
artist, particularly as an interpreter of his own compositions . — Editor's Note. 

In the key of G they would appear thus: 

4 —^ — 

All of those early American composers were 
singularly fortunate in that they were not at a 
loss for hearings in their own country, nor did 
they have the worry about unfavorable com- 
parisons with foreign composers that came later. 
After great-grandfather, there came many mem- 
bers of my own family who were musical, but who 
were not professional musicians. My grandfather 
was a music-lover; all my mother’s brothers and 
sisters were musical. Though my father was a 
clerk, his two sisters were musical. Nellie sang in 
the choir and played violin and piano, while 
Mabel sang in operettas. My mother, too, sang in 
the choir. Often I was told that I was almost born 
in a choir loft! It was this courageous mother 
who, when the family met reverses, took in sewing 
so that we might have in our house for the first 
time a piano that would enable me to take 
lessons. This happened when I was fourteen and 
it was a momentous event in my life. Even today 
I remember every tiny detail relating to the com- 
ing of the piano! For up to that time I had been 
picking out chords and tunes on the parlor organ. 
I was taught the Jean Mannes Piano System by 
a lady in town. After twelve lessons I composed 
a simple Reverie which my , aunts and uncles 

The quick desire to compose came because I 
had attended a performance of deKoven’s “Robin 
Hood” at the Alvin Theatre in Pittsburgh when I 
was fourteen. It inspired me and made me want 
to write thrilling music. Those were the days of 
the Sousa marches and popular pieces such as 
the Zenda Waltz. How proud I was when, at last. 

I was able to play Mills’ Rastus on Parade! My 
first professional engagement came at the age ol 
fourteen, when the Ladies’ Aid Society in Du- 
quesne engaged me to play The Stars and Stripes- 
Forever (with emphasis on the “Forever”) for a 
flag drill. This was all fun, but it wasn’t long 
before I began to study seriously and to thin! 
definitely of my future in terms of professional 

At seventeen I proudly held the position oi 
organist in the United Presbyterian Church in 
Homestead, Pennsylvania. As I look back upon 
those days now I can realize how much my piano 
and organ training helped me in my composing. 
I also took a few voice lessons in order to learn 
how to write effectively for the voice. Not once 
after I started to learn music did I give up the 
idea of being a composer. This went on through- 
out my teens, and very soon I began to experience 
everything that is the lot of the native composer 

Still excited over hearing the music of deKoven 
and Victor Herbert, I turned first to the writing of 
operettas. At nineteen I wrote two, “The King of 
Molola” and “Cubanita” (the background being 
the 1897 struggle of the island for independence) . 
These I promptly took to New York. There I 
stayed at a small fifty-cents-a-night hotel on 
East 23rd Street for a week while an agent tried 
to place them with such producers as Savage and 
Dillingham. I was thrilled with the thought of 
being a coming composer in a great metropolis, 
breathlessly waiting to hear my works. To my 
dismay, the doors were firmly closed against me 
despite the personal kindness of the musical 
directors. They all told me, however, that they 
found many good tunes in the pieces. Many years 
later I salvaged “Cubanita” and it became “The 
Belle of Havana,” for high school use. 

At that time I was ( Continued on Page 720) 



Music and Culture 


The Original Don Cossacks 
and the Music of the Don 

An Interview with 

^ aro f[ 

Founder and Conductor of The Original Don Cossacks 


F or the PAST twelve years, Serge Jaroff’s 
Original Don Cossack group has ranked as 
an organization that, for all its vigor, color, 
originality, and excellence, was in no sense more 
than a strictly musical organization. Last winter, 
however, events gave the group new significance 
The Donets Basin, scene of the most gallan 
fighting in the history of war, is the home of 
Sese Thirty-two Don Cossack giants. The spirit 
animating Russia’s heroic resistance of aggres- 
sion is the spirit of their music. Their songs and 
their singing convey more than mere entertan- 
menf they reflect the pulsing essence of every- 
thing that comes to mind with “Russia’s winter 
of 1942-43.” Oddly enough, this same winter 
marked an event of which the Don Cossacks are 
as proud as they are of their heritage; most of 
the group received their American citizenship. 

A Happy Accident 

The Original Don Cossack group had its begin- 
nings in a happy accident. About twenty-four 
years ago, a crack Cossack regiment was sta- 
tioned in a lonely camp in Turkey. As was cus- 
tomary in the old Russian army, the men with 
the finest voices were chosen to take part m 
the religious services. Among the group in the 
Turkish camp was young Lieutenant Serge Jaroff, 
of the Machine Gun Corps. Lieutenant Jaroff 
was a gifted musician. Fresh from the famous 
Senodal School (for conductors), where he had 
distinguished himself, Jaroff heard the men 
singing the regimental mass and decided that 
here was material to be welded into a superb 
vocal instrument. Within two years, the Cossack 
choir had won fame. In 1921 the group was 
chosen as the official choir of the Orthodox 
Cathedral of St. Sofia in Bulgaria’s capital, and 
before long, music-lovers from all over the world 
made their way to the great church for the sake 
of the singing. An impresario, who came with 
the eager tourists, decided that he had stumbled 
upon what is perhaps the most oiiginal a 
cappella choir in the world, and urged Mr. Jaroff 
to enter the concert field. Since 1923 the Original 
Don Cossacks have given over five thousand 
concerts in four continents, and in more cities 
than they can keep track of without reference 
to tour-books. 

In the following conference Mr. Jaroff traces 

the significance of the Cossack music, and out- 
lines some of the technical points that make the 
singing of his group unique. 

had him baptized. Thereafter, the Cossacks were 
regarded as Europe’s chief defenders against the 
nagan hordes. In 1582 the Cossacks, under our 
renowned Ataman Yermak, overpowered the 
Tartar Siber and won for the Czar the land now 
known as Siberia. In time, however, the Cossacks 
were deprived of their freedom and their land 
and in defiance of unjust oppression, turned to 
brigandage. Peter the Great, however, realizing 
the power and liberty-loving ardor of these Don 
tribesmen, welded them into a military unit for 
imperial defense. The Cossacks served as officers 
in the first World War and, during the Revolu- 
tion, fought in General Wrangel’s White Army. 
With the victory of the Soviets, we became 
homeless. Throughout our history, we Cossacks 
have been known for our music as well as for 
our ability to ride and fight; the Russian proverb, 
’If we must die, let us die with music, is said to 
be of Cossack origin. 

"Our songs are not written; they are born. 
They live and grow, Just as man does. But the 
songs do not die. They rest for a period of years 
and come back in new forms. Today a ’new’ 
song may be easily recognized by a man of 
seventy as one of the melodies he knew as a 
child. The people of the Don make their songs 
from the stuff of their lives. Today our people 
are mostly farmers, working tire land of our 
flat steppe country. When the harvest is gath- 
ered, the men load it on great farm wagons and 
drive it home, often twenty miles distant. The 
movement of the heavy trucks is slow and the 
trip lasts for hours. And the man who drives the 
horses thinks aloud all the way home. That is, 
he thinks in song. Perhaps he sings a traditional 
air that suits his mood; perhaps he expresses 
his thoughts in simple words which he repeats 
over and over until a tune that fits them comes 
to his mind. Then he has a song of his own. 
He may weave a melody about a single word. He 
watches his horse and notices a nail in a shoe; 
that is enough for a song! The word for nail is 
gvosdik (gwos-dik). He begins to sing the first 
syllable ( gvo-o-o ), elaborating it with turns of 
melody until he sees his house ahead of him; 
then he brings his song to a close and adds 
the final -sdik. The entire process may last 
for hours, and only one word has been sung. 

“Such spontaneous ( Continued on Page 758) 


“Cossack songs are the songs 
of the people. When you hear 
them, you hear more than mel- 
ody and rhythm; you hear the 
very soul of the Cossacks, voicing 
the joys and sorrows of a thousand 
years. The Cossacks, as you per- 
haps know, are the direct descend- 
ants of a tribe of giants which 
galloped across the Urals early 
in the ninth century to the region 
around the Don. When the Rus- 
sian state was formed, these 
tribesmen refused to give up their 
freedom — indeed, the word ‘Cos- 
sack’ (or Kazak) means ‘free 
man.’ These fierce horsemen 
(those of the Upper Don blond 
and blue-eyed, those of the lower 
area black-haired and swarthy) 
were feared from Turkey to 
Sweden. In 1552, Ivan the Ter- 
rible sought their aid in the reli- 
gious war against the Kazan 
Tartars; it was the Cossacks who 
captured the Tartar Khan and 




Music in the Home 

Music, Ancient and Modern, 
on Master Records 

hj j ^eter ^JJucjh l^eecl 

for String Orchestra and Harpsichord) ; 
Arthur Fiedler’s Sinfonietta with Erwin 
Brodky at the harpsichord, direction of Arthur 
Fiedler. Victor set DM-945. 

Telemann, a contemporary of Handel and 
Bach, ranked high as a composer in his time. He 
was one of the most versatile and prolific com- 
posers who ever lived, but unfortunately not one 
of the most critical. One suspects that in his day 
he wrote music for social functions, music of an 
external order which did not ask for great con- 
centration. The present work, a sort of suite in- 
time, suggests that it might have been composed 
for such an occasion. Those familiar with the 
Strauss tone poem on the “Don Quichotte” story 
must not approach this suite with that work in 
mind, for Telemann is not as deeply concerned 
with programmatic realism as Strauss; moreover, 
he writes in a purely superficial manner. It is 
the vivacity and humor of this music that en- 
gages our attention; the fluency of the writing 
and the fact that one can enjoy the music apart 
from its program. 

Telemann evidently conceived the music in 
fun; he did not take the story of “Don Qui- 
chotte” too seriously. Thus, his final section evi- 
dences restlessness for 
the Don’s “repose.” 

Such music as this 
needs to be performed 
in an alert, incisive 
manner, and this Fied- 
ler and his ensemble 
contrive to do. It is mu- 
sic of entertainment, 
and even though its 
humor and sparkle are 
of an external order, its 
appeal is not neces- 
sarily short lived. The 
recording is good. 

Beethoven: Symphony in 
C major (Jena) : The 
Janssen Symphony of 
Los Angeles, conducted 
by Werner Janssen. 

Victor set DM-946. 

Let it be said at the 
beginning that Mr. 

Janssen does as much 
as anyone we have ever 
heard to vitalize this 
music in performance. 

The orchestra he em- 
ploys is a good one, al- 
though evidently not 
large, since the scoring conforms to the eight- 
eenth century. Despite Beethoven’s name as the 
author of the work, one finds it difficult to accept 
this as an authentic work by the great master 
of Bonn. The parts of this symphony were dis- 
covered in 1909 at the University of Jena. On two 
sections of the work the name Louis Beethoven 
was inscribed, so it was decided by a number of 
German scholars that the symphony was by 
Beethoven. And no less an authority than Dr. 
Hugo Riemann seems to have thought it was 
probably genuine, though an early work. A num- 
ber of authorities and writers have since sug- 
gested that Beethoven’s grandfather, Louis, wrote 
the work, but the published score attributes it to 
the great Beethoven. It is claimed the music was 
composed between the years 1787 and 1790, ten 
years before the recognized “First Symphony” of 
the composer. As far as we know, no sketch books 
of the composer exist showing material for this 
work. The work is not dull, and Janssen certainly 
does give it a vital and expressive performance. 

Since the recording is good, that is all that any- 
one can ask. 

Dai-keong Lee: Prelude and Hula; The National 
Symphony Orchestra, Hans Kindler conductor. 
Victor disc 11-8452. 

In selecting to glorify a dance pattern of his 
native country, Mr. Lee 
has shown that such 
material can be distin- 
guished. His Hula bears 
little relationship to 
the sentimental tunes 
turned out for popular 
consumption. What he 
does is very similar to 
what Dvorak did for 
the Slavonic Dance, 
and Brahms for the 
Hungarian. Mr. Lee, a 
young Hawaiian, edu- 
cated musically in the 
United States and now 
serving in the Army, 
knows the value of at- 
mosphere and orches- 
tral sonorities. His Pre- 
lude is effectively and 
persuasively contrived, 
albeit with reminis- 
cences of Ravel (of the 
“Daphis and Chloe 
Suite No. 2”), and of 
Delius. For listeners 
who do not always re- 
quire formal patterns, 
this music will un- 
doubtedly appeal. Kindler plays it with evident 
relish and with plenty of lush effects including 
rubati, which is controversial to the fulfillment 
of the composer’s rhythmic intentions in the 
Hula; but then music like this does not command 
orthodox treatment. The recording is effective in 
its sonorities and orchestral coloring. 

Weber: Concertstiick in F minor. Opus 79; played 
by Robert Casadesus and symphony orchestra, 
conducted by Eugene Bigot. Columbia set X-59. 

This set was originally released in April, 1936. 
Time has not diminished the value of the record- 
ing or the performance. The essential qualities, 
clarity and vitality needed to make a perform- 
ance of this romantic work a success, are happily 
achieved by Mr. Casadesus and Mr. Bigot. Al- 
though the operatic characteristics of the score 


are decried by many as not the sort of material 
recognizable as a concerto, no less an authority 
than the late Sir Donald Tovey says the work can 
hardly be regarded as anything else < see Tovey’s 
“Essays in Musical Analysis, Vol. IV”) . The com- 
poser’s biographers all agree that despite the 
tawdry program, the music of this concerto is 
“one of the greatest achievements that Weber 
ever effected.” 

Beethoven: Sonata in C-sharp minor, Opus 27, No. 
2 (Moonlight) ; played by Rudolf Serkin. Columbia 
set 237. 

Serkin, who is one of the finest ensemble play- 
ers rfow before the public, seems strangely reti- 
cent and unimaginative in his solo playing. Un- 
questionably in disagreement with the romantic 
nonsense which has been promulgated in connec- 
tion with the sobriquet to this sonata, he plays 
it in a wholly pedantic manner. It has been said 
that the pianist’s approach to this music is often 
determined by the acceptance or dismissal of the 
dedication of the work to the Countess Giuletta 
Guicciardi, for whom Beethoven had a tender 
feeling, and various unauthentic stories of how 
the composer wrote the work. 

How many times this work has been recorded, 
we could not say. Of all previous performances, 
our favorites remain those made by Petri and 
Bachaus. Petri treats the music wholly from the 
classicist’s viewpoint, and his first movement has 
been criticized as being rigid; but the uniformity 
of his playing there does not suggest rigidity to 
us. Indeed, there is just cause to believe that 
Petri’s conception and execution of this sonata 
stems from and carries cut the intentions of his 
famous teacher Busoni. 

Mr. Serkin plays the opening movement at a 
lugubrious pace, and in failing to differentiate 
between the upper and lower voices, he makes 
the music take on a funereal character. His best 
playing is to be found in the last movement, but 
here again he does not achieve the tonal coloring 
which Petri and Bachaus bring to their perform- 
ances. The recording is tonally good. 

Mulet: Toccata (Thou Art the Rock), and Vierne: 
Scherzo from Symphony No. 2 for organ; played by 
Virgil Fox on the organ of the Chapel of Girard 
College, Philadelphia. Victor disc 11-8467. 

Mr. Fox’s display of technical showmanship has 
been brilliantly recorded by Victor. Whether or 
not the diffuseness of tone in the recording is 
due to an empty chapel, the organist, or the 
recording, we cannot say. However, we have 
heard both pieces played with more clarity. The 
Toccata permits the recording engineers to 
achieve an usually impressive crescendo. Organ 
recording is by no means perfect as yet, but there 
are evidences in the ( Continued on Page 756) 





Music in the Home 


F, AS COWPER SAYS, “Variety 
is the spice of life,” the new 
broadcasts contain much of 
exciting interest. The popularity 
of the program featuring E. 

Power Biggs, the Arthur Fiedler 
Sinfonietta, and other artists, 
heard Sunday mornings over the 
Columbia Network (9:15 to 9:45. 

EWT) , is such that listeners on 
the West Coast get out of bed to 
tune-in at 6:15 A.M. Mr. Biggs 
has many letters from his West 
Coast admirers, which only goes 
to show that an unusual musical 
program will attract, no matter 
the time of the broadcast. 

There is more than a sugges- 
tion of an anachronism in the 
broadcast of the baroque organ 
and some of the instrumental en- 
sembles which have been heard 
lately on these programs. In the 
first place the organ used by Mr. Biggs is a virtual 
copy of the instrument at Weimar, upon which 
Bach himself played. Although designed and built 
in modern times by G. Donald Harrison of the 
Aeolian-Skinner Organ Company of Boston, the 
structure of the instrument nevertheless adheres 
faithfully to the organ voices of Bach’s time, even 
to the low wind pressure typical of the period 
when organs were hand pumped. Mr. Bigg? con- 
tends that if the great German master of the 
eighteenth century could walk into the Germanic 
Museum at Harvard where the organ is housed, he 
would feel completely at home at the keyboard of 
the instrument. Probably the noted composer 
would receive a major jolt upon finding that the 
instrument played without being pumped by 
hand. But the old familiar stops, the old familiar 
pedals, and many other points of the instrument’s 
structure and sound would assuredly make Bach 
feel at home. 

One Boston newspaper recently pointed out 
that “it would please rather than surprise E. 
Power Biggs if the announcer should say that it 
was Johann Sebastian Bach who radiocasts’ each 
Sunday on a nation-wide network. For the pro- 
grams of organ music of Bach have endeavored 
to capture the authentic feeling and atmosphere 
of their period of composition as “nearly as hands 
may design, build, and play” them. 

The exceptions to the perfect picture, the things 
that would leave Bach spellbound if he could 
either in the flesh or in the spirit mount the stairs 
to the organ loft, are pointed out by Mr. Biggs. 
“Bach never had the electric blowers,” he says, 
“or the electric action which modern organists 
enjoy, nor did he have the ability automatically 
to change stop registrations during the course of 
performing a composition.” So, despite the ana- 
chronistic suggestion in the broadcast of this 
baroque organ playing over the airwaves of mod- 
ern radio, there is nothing occurring out of the 
proper time in these broadcasts. Nor is the organ 
limited to the performance of eighteenth-century 
music; it has the ability to sound modern music 
equally as well. 

These Sunday morning broadcasts, which since 
the first part of July have been presenting works 
for organ and orchestra, various choral groups, 
and instrumental soloistg, have not confined 
themselves entirely to the promulgation of classi- 
cal composers. At Mr. Biggs’ behest, several 
American composers have written works which 
have been broadcast, featuring the organ or a 


A Variety of 







combination of instruments with the organ. 
Among such works have been a “Concerto for 
Organ and Orchestra,” by Howard Hanson of the 
Eastman School of Music; a similar work by Roy 
Harris; a “Prelude and Allegro” for organ and 
orchestra by Walter Piston of Harvard; and Leo 
Sowerby’s “Poem for Violin and Organ.” The un- 
usual quality and character of these Sunday 
morning programs cannot be outlined in a short 
space; one would have to enumerate all the pro- 
grams which Mr. Biggs and his associates have 
devised. There have been works by classical com- 
posers which have long lain dormant, such as the 
“Concerto” by the English composer, the Rev- 
erend William Felton, who was born in 1713. 

Mr. Biggs’ idea to give a series of chamber 
music concerts for organ and small ensemble was 
realized through the aid of that notable patroness 
of chamber music, Mrs. Elizabeth Sprague Cool- 
idge, who made it possible to obtain the support 
of Arthur Fiedler and his Sinfonietta. The Music 
Department of Harvard, headed by Mr. Piston, 
has also lent its support to the project. 

Just how long the series will continue is not 



told us. But Mr. Biggs and his 
baroque organ are scheduled to 
be heard for some time. If the 
series of instrumental concerts is 
interrupted, Mr. Biggs says he is 
seriously thinking of repeating 
his previous all-Bach recitals 
which he has given before on the 
air. Both Mr. Biggs and the Co- 
lumbia Broadcasting Company 
deserve great credit for the qual- 
ity of these Sunday morning 
programs, since there has been 
no over-glorification of the music 
presented or any playing down to 
popular musical taste. To cham- 
ber music fans, these programs 
are an oasis in radio. Is it any 
wonder that West Coast listeners 
get up early to hear them? 

The Philadelphia Orchestra 
concerts scheduled to begin Oc- 
tober 9 on the Columbia Broad- 
casting System were cancelled 
suddenly in the middle of Sep- 
tember. The cancellation an- 
nouncement followed breaking down of negotia- 
tions between the orchestra's board of directors 
and Local 77, American Federation of Musicians, 
concerning the projected broadcasts which had 
been planned as a 26-week, hour-long series of 
Saturday afternoon programs. Last June the Co- 
lumbia Broadcasting System announced the sign- 
ing of an exclusive three-year contract with the 
Philadelphia Orchestra Association calling for 
payment of substantial, yearly amounts to the 
association. Exactly what has caused the break- 
down on the projected plans is not given out by 
CBS. but it is rumored that the American Fed- 
eration of Musicians demanded fees in excess of 
those agreed upon originally. 

If California and Utah listeners arise early in 
the morning to hear a program like the Biggs 
feature from the Germanic Museum at Harvard, 
folks in the East stay up on Friday nights until 
midnight to take in the broadcast of Eileen Far- 
rell and Howard Barlow, which occurs from 11:30 
to midnight, EWT. This gifted young soprano 
continues to supply one of the best vocal recitals 
on the airways, and her programs are unique in 
their mating of old favorites and unfamiliar airs. 

These days musical listeners are often tom be- 
tween tuning-in on a worth-while concert or a 
program of topics interesting to every man in a 
rapidly changing world. A new series of programs 
on post-war issues, called For This We Fight, 
sponsored by the National Broadcasting System 
(heard Saturdays from 7:00 to 7:30 P.M. EWT), 
is just such a series. The idea behind this is to 
offer the whole American people an opportunity 
to discuss the questions that affect every one of 
us. In the programs, outstanding Americans con- 
tribute facts, background, experience. They also 
answer questions and offer suggestions. Every- 
one is urged to participate in these programs, to 
send in questions — the things they would want to 
ask if it were possible for them to meet the speak- 
ers in the street. For This Wc Fight is a presentation 
of NBC’s Inter-American University of the Air, h 1 
cooperation with the 20th Century Fund, and the 
Commission to Study the Organization of Peace. 
Nine broadcasts have been given during Septem- 
ber and October, and suen subjects as “Post-wai 
Jobs.” “What Future for Farmers?” “Tomorrows 
Transportation,” “New Plans for Education. 
“Better Homes — and Cheaper,” have been dis- 
cussed. Noted men from every walk of life have 
spoken on these broadcasts. During November t 
following subjects are (Continued on Page 7 


Music in the Home 

Musical Knight 

If you, are one of those whose conception of a 
knight carries you back to the tales of King Ar- 
thur’s Round Table and the dashing gentlemen 
dolled up in “five stone” garments of steel, peer- 
ing through bonnets which, to the perverse 
youthful imagination, look like some kind of 
kitchen utensil, you may find it difficult to pic- 
ture Sir Thomas Beecham in this group. The 
knights of King Arthur’s day were occupied with 
war, not for gain, of course, but in defense of 
some fair lady’s honor, or when necessary, for 
the King. 

Alas, some of their twentieth century successors 
have been travesties upon British bravery, valor, 
and chivalry. The present war, however, has 
shown that the spirit of knighthood is more far 
reaching than ever in Albion. That England is 
quite as much a democracy as our own country 
is evidenced by the fact that many of the most 
virile of English baronets are not descendants of 
famous title families but of tradesmen and those 
fortifying strains from the “common people” who 
are often the most valuable and unusual of men. 

Sir Thomas Beecham is one of the most repre- 
sentative of the modern British knights, who with 
broad culture, native practical bent, and a spirit 
of adventure has made himself a distinguished 
figure of which his nation may well be proud. His 
autobiography, “A Mingled Chime,” is somewhat 
more sedate than we had expected from one who, 
perhaps unjustly, had won a reputation for 
ascerbic effervescence. He tells, modestly and 
factually, just what he has been able to accom- 
plish as a conductor. Trained in the best tradi- 
tions of the English public school and at Oxford 
University, he does not hesitate to comment upon 
English education thus: “Something like fourteen 
and fifteen years out of a lifetime are spent in 
one unvaried groove of instruction. To my way 
of thinking this is excessive and prompts the feel- 
ing that the average Englishman remains in tute- 
lage far too long.” Then he adds: “I have fre- 
quently wondered why so many of my countrymen 
carry on even into middle life the appearance as 
well as the mentality of the schoolboy, an un- 
changing immaturity which separates them 
sharply from the males of most other nations, 
and if the cause of it is not to be traced to the 
absorption in a monotonous scheme of work and 
play, which to judge by results must proceed at an 
incredibly slow rate of progress.” 

Sir Thomas has been in touch with America 
ever since 1893, when as a boy he visited the 
United States with his millionaire father and 
made his exciting acquaintance with ice cream 
soda. He still thinks that the Chicago Exposition 
of that year was the most momentous and beau- 
tiful of all. 

Sir Thomas’ labors have created new standards 
for musical achievement in Britain. His way has 
been an obstacle race over conventions, and great 
credit is his. The Englishman of the old school, 
who was unable to value music properly, did not 
hesitate to state himself emphatically. The vast 
business interests in which he had been brought 
up were reviewed by the Court of Chancery in 
England. In commenting upon this he wrote: “It 
was disclosed that I had spent a considerable 
amount of money in the cause of music, and the 
wise judge’s instant comment was, ‘What is the 
good of that?’ It was nothing to his childlike 
intelligence that through the use of this sum, 
wisely or unwisely, a goodly part of the wartime 
music of the country had been kept alive. Had 
the objects of my outlay been a group of racing 
stables, a shooting box, and a steam yacht, things 

The Etude 

Music Lover’s Bookshelf 

Any book here 
reviewed may 
be secured from 
MAGAZINE at the 
orice given plus 

Lj B. Wereditli 



in his eyes that were the proper indulgence of 
the manly Englishman, he would probably have 
expressed his approval. But music never. 

“On a later occasion, another legal luminary in 
the course of a hearing heard my counsel refer 
to the musical profession, whereupon he inter- 
polated this stupendous comment: ‘What’s that? 
You don’t call music a profession, do you?’ A 
third instance where a young man I knew hap- 


pened to be a party to a suit and it was men- 
tioned that he was studying to be a musician, the 
arbiter of equity raised his eyebrows, shifted his 
wig, and snorted, ‘Why doesn’t he go into some 
honest trade?’ 


“Of course these pathetic revelations of mental 
singularity and oafish manners, which in most 
other countries would procure the early retire- 
ment of their authors, are hailed with delight by 
that section of the press and public which still 
clings to the conviction that knocking little balls 
into holes or hitting other little balls about a 
green field is almost the only acceptable evidence 
of virility in a great nation.” 

On the whole, Sir Thomas’ work is a valuable 
record, not merely of his personal achievement 
but of the trend of the times in the development 
of musical art through the symphony and the 
opera. In forty years he has lost and made for- 
tunes in the field of music and has been one of 
the most gifted, active, and energetic men in the 

“A Mingled Chime” 

By Sir Thomas Beecham 
Pages: 330 
Price: $3.50 

Publishers: G. P. Putnam’s Sons 

Six Beethoven Quartets 

With the upsurge of interest in chamber mu- 
sic playing, the new and brief analytic work, 
“Beethoven’s Last Quartets” (The Musical Pil- 
grim series), will attract much attention. 

These quartets, written during Beethoven’s 
years of isolation from the world of sound, rep- 
resent the composer’s remarkable power of pene- 
tration. Beethoven in these works was not writ- 
ing for the public which surrounded him, but for 
a public yet unborn. Because of this the quartets 
even today have a modernity which is remark- 
able. They were all composed after the comple- 
tion of the “Ninth Symphony” and were com- 
missioned by the wealthy Russian amateur vio- 
loncellist, Prince Galitzin, who failed to pay for 
the work until after Beethoven’s death, when 
the heirs compelled him to make good his bar- 
gain. Beethoven evidently had depended upon the 
income from these, his last works, and suffered 
because it was not forthcoming. 

“Beethoven’s Last Quartets” 

By Roger Fiske 
Pages: 77 
Price: 85 cents 

Publisher: Oxford University Press 




Music and Study 

Trill Tabs— Fourteen Points 

S O MANY Round Tablers have writ- 
ten for help in trilling that I have 
devised the following for you to 
use as a trill tester: 

1. What trill position of hand and el- 
bow is most comfortable for me? 

2. Which fingers make the best trill 
combination for me? 

3. When I trill rapidly are my fingers 
in contact with the key-tops always? 
(Why hold your fingers in the air when 
such a position prevents swift repeti- 

tion?) . , 

4. To facilitate long trills am X careful 
to trill with proper balance of finger 
stroke and rotational swing? 

5. In long trills do I persist in impulse 
accents? (Three trills, four trills, six 
trills, or eight trills.) 

6. In trill practice do I conscientiously 
work in impulse-rebound groups? That 
is, do I play one, two, three, four, or 
eight rapid trills with my arm rebound- 
ing to my lap afterward to rest there 
an instant before playing again? 

7. Do I practice all trills in both 
directions? viz; 



Ex. 4 


The Teacher’s Round Table 

Correspondents with this Bepart- 
ment are requested to limit. 
to One Hundred and Fifty Wo) os. 

8. Do I practice all ordinary trill com- 
binations, viz; 1-2; 1-3; 2-3; 2-4; 3-4; 
3-5; 4-5; also the “lazy man’s trill,’’ 
1 -3-2-3, thus— 


Do I practice these on all combinations 
of keys; all white, all black, black and 

9. In brilliant trills with 1-3, is my 
elbow tip loose? 

10. Can I play each finger of the trill 
separately in swift repetition, with the 
other finger depressed? 

Ex. 3 

(b) in thirds with R.H. 2-4, L.H. 2-4 



(C) in broken octaves thus; 
Ex. 6 


11. Do I practice “classic” trills 
in crescendo, diminuendo, swell 

li - ■ _ — ) and so on; also with 

left-hand eighth and sixteenth -note ac- 

12. Do I often practice, starting a trill 
so softly and so rapidly (no accent) that 
it is difficult to tell which note begins 
the trill? 

13. Do I practice trills with alternating 
hands (a) in single tones with R.H. 3, 
L.H. 3 thus: 


14. Do I remember always that a trill 
is not simply a regular alternation of 
two or more tones, but an emotional ex- 
pression? In other words, that a trill can 
be a thrill, an ecstasy, a “shiver,” or an 
electric shock? 

Phrasing and Other Matters 

1. What is the best way to approach 
and leave a phrase? 

2. When the arm drops on the first note 
of a phrase should the wrist sink below 
normal playing position? 

3. In legato chord passages should all 
notes, when possible, be played legato with 
the hands, regardless of whether the pedal 
is used? 

• 4. Is the following the best way to teach 
such examples as this? 


(The arrows indicate slight downward 
and upward movements of the wrist.) 

5. Please explain the term “Blind Flying.” 

6. In playing wide keyboard skips is it 
a good policy to find the white keys in their 
relation to the two and three -group black 

7. A pupil, having studied Rachmaninoff's 

Conducted Monthly 


Mus. Doc. 
Noted Pianist 
and Music Educator 

pieces in Grades North Caro i in a. 

1 Depends entirely upon the kind of 
phrases and the quality of tone you plan 
to use. A good, sensible experiment is to 
begin a short phrase with downness and 
finish it with upness; then turn abou 
and begin it with upness and end it with 
downness. Which treatment seems to fit 
the phrase? 

Within the extent of a long, slow 
phrase you must plan small and large 
arm (elbow-tip) curves culminating at 
the top of the phrase; then more curves 
to finish it off beautifully. 

2. Doesn’t matter at all. 

3. If it “feels better” to play the 
chords “detached” while the pedal takes 
care of the legato, it is quite okay. 

4. Yours is an exceUent way to play 
the phrase. 

5. The term “BUnd Flying” is simply 
a fancy title invented for use with chil- 
dren. When you want them to find or 
play anything on the piano without look- 
ing at the keyboard. 

6. You bet it is! 

7. Chord pieces; Coronach, Edgar Bar- 
ratt; Lento, CyrU Scott; The Sunken 
Cathedral, Debussy; Relaxation, Alec 
Templeton; In Deep Woods, and To an 
Old White Pine, from “New England 
Idyls,” MacDowell; To the Sea, from a 
“Wandering Iceberg” and A.D. 1620, from 
“Sea Pieces,” MacDowell; Polonaise in 
C minor, Chopin; Organ Prelude in E 
minor, Bach-Beard; Minuet from “So- 
nata in E minor,” Grieg. 

A Memorizing Problem 

I have a nine-year-old girl who reads 
music rapidly and accurately, but I am 
concerned because when she memorizes a 
piece she plays too fast. She says. “The 
faster I play the more accurate it is," and 
believe it or not, it’s true! She memorizes 
almost everything she plays, but likes to 
have the piece in front of her even if she 
doesn’t need to see the notes. Is that a sign 
of not being sure of herself? She is very 
talented, very sensitive, and has a quick 
mind. I don't like to have her play fast, 
giving that skimming impression. 

— Mrs. HP.. Minnesota. 
Skimming — what a welcome word! Al- 
ready we have too many plodders, grum- 
blers, gripers, and shirkers but not 
enough skimmers! So, as I have said 
many times before in these columns 
Mrs. H. P. ought to thank her lucky 
stars (and probably does!) that she has 



the privilege of guiding the musical des- 
tinies of a child who (1) has a quick 
mind, (2) is talented. (3) is very sensi- 
tive, (4) reads music fluently and well, 

(5) can play fast accurately, (6) is evi- 
dently willing to work at her music. 

Again I exhort Round Tablers not to 
lose any sleep over such talented young- 
sters, for time almost always proves that 
the problems and difficulties which loom 
up mightily at the moment are only 
phases in the normal development of all 
young children. I’ll wager that in a year’s 
time Mrs. H. P. won't even remember 
what that vexatious problem of 1943 
was all about! 

Is there any disgrace in having the 
music on the rack before you as you 
play? What’s music for anyhow but to 
be read? If a pupil prefers it that way, 
what difference does It make? On the 
other hand, It is our sacred duty to 
make our children love and feel their 
music so intensely that they will play it 
clearly and leisurely enough in spite of 
any tendency toward excessive speed. To 
this end I would give your girl plenty of 
pure technic to make her fingers think. 
Also assign lyric pieces with beautiful 
themes, whose effective projection de- 
pends upon long, slow, rhythmic swings. 

Teachers arc too much tempted to let 
facile or spectacular students play only 
rapid, brilliant, display pieces instead of 
“insinuating” slow, songful compositions 
into their repertoire as enrly in the game 
as jiossible. So why not try yovr girl on 
a few of those good arrangements of 
“classic" excerpts and themes with which 
all publishers’ lists abound? Perhaps this 
is all she needs to bring her down to 


I have followed the Battle of Boogie- 
Woogie which has been raging on the 
Round Table page for some time. I stm 
don’t know much about Boogie-Woogie. 0 
my ’teen-age pupils nre asking for it 
persistently that I cannot put them ott 
much longer. Could you give me the name 
of a good "Boogie ” method or some 
"swing" material I might use with these 
students?— D. L. W.. Iowa 

It’s high time now for even the “die- 
hards" to admit; il> that Boogie- 
Woogie has been with us for a long 
while and gives every evidence of ex- 
tending its visit indefinitely; (2) tha 
has plenty of vitality or dynamism 
recommend It, or it would not have s 
vived the abuse it has taken f rora 
hands, boogie-woogietsts as well as a 
boogies; (3) that it offers admirable 
rhythmical and technical training, _ 
that many young people, in their 
natical zeal for B.-W will really 
blood and tears" working at it. 
wild horses couldn’t force them 
tice Bach or Beethoven. 

Finally, may I ask, who is * earn or 
play the piano anyhow, the te « ctl ic 
the youngster? Whatever else it is, ‘ 
should be fun. so if the student begs 
for B.-W. why not give it to him- ^ 
daily if you can combine the 

( Continued on Page 157 ) 


Music and Study 

The Fighting Man 
and His Music 

by Cjustav 


T HE SOLDIERS of the First World War were 
definitely singing soldiers. If you do not be- 
lieve it, go to the library shelves groaning 
under collections of vocal favorites with every 
branch of the service. The definitive collection 
of war songs drawn from the 1914-18 period has 
not appeared as yet — and it probably never will. 
The field is too vast and the categories too many. 
After one has collected the songs the soldiers 
actually sang, one is confronted by the favorites 
of the civilians back home (the treacly sort hav- 
ing to do with “buddies” and “out there”), not 
to mention the trumped-up, pseudo-military 
tunes the civilians thought the soldiers sang. 
(Soldiers, let it be explained, is a generic term 
covering all branches of the service although, 
in all truth, it was the soldier, per se, who really 
did most of the singing.) 

Until recently, this staggering mass of war 
songs had been snoring peacefully under a heavy 
mantle of dust. A quarter of a century is a long 
time and this is a busy world. Let the dead Past 
bury its dead! But on a Sunday morning, eight- 
een days before the Christmas of 1941, some- 
thing happened that woke up not only Honolulu 
but the entire world and, along with it, those 
slumbering war songs. They started tumbling 
out of the attics of memories of fortyish folks 
who welcomed them like old friends, not to be 
compared with the newly coined upstarts on last 
week’s Hit Parade. 

Somehow or other, getting around a piano or a 
guitar or a harmonica — or just “getting around” 
—and singing these old songs does something to 
both singer and listener, especially if they are 
veterans of the last war. For one thing, it bucks 
them up. It seems to give them a perspective 
that the terrific tempo of current events has 
greatly endangered. Bawling out Pack Up Your 
Troubles in Your Old Kit Bag and (yell) Smile! 
Smile! Smile! makes taxes r tires, and their long 
string of bogies seem a little less frightening. 
It sort of gives the singer a background, a feel- 
ing that all this has happened before and he 
can see it through again. 

Anyone who weathered the first cataclysm is 
amazed to find how many of the old songs he 
knows and how readily, with a little help from 
someone else in the crowd, they come back to 
him. And how they come back! “Do you remem- 
ber the one about. . . ?” and “Here’s one we 
used to sing. . . .” Some of them aren’t entirely 
respectable but, if the crowd is mixed, it is pos- 
sible to dub in a few reasonably satisfactory 
substitutes. They may not have the bite of the 
original but they’ll do. Every leader should 


have a working repertory of familiar war songs. 

Hinky Dinky was, of course, the prime favorite. 
There must be a thousand verses. (Tommy al- 
ways signed his versions by making it “Hinky, 
panky” or “Hinky 
pinky”) . We’re in 
the Army Now was 
fashioned out of a 
bugle call and the 
last line packed a 
wallop that the sing- 
ers never missed. 

Over There, There’s 
a Long, Long Trail, 

Tipperary, Keep the 
Home Fires Burning, 

K-K-K-Katy, The 
Old Gray Mare, 

Madelon, The Grass- 
hopper Song, the 
Pay Roll Song, the 
various Coast Artil- 
lery songs, Li’l Liza 
Jane, Smiles, Fur, 

Fur Away and on 
and on and on. The 
list is endless. 

In addition, there 
were those with the 
ironic touch: Your 
Boy is on the Coal 
Pile Now, I Don’t 
Want to Get Well, I 
Ain’t Got Weary Yet. 

Not to mention that 
little gem boasting 
the longest title in 
“pop” song captivity, 

Would You Rather 
be a Colonel With 
an Eagle on Your 
Shoulder, or a Pri- 
vate With a Chicken 
on Your Knee? 

One of the strange things about the most re- 
cent war to end wars was the fact that the sol- 
diers persisted in singing a number of songs that 
were not tailored for the occasion but, in many 
cases, were written decades earlier. The two favo- 
rites with the British, for instance, were Annie 
Laurie and Home, Sweet Home. They made for 
good harmonizing and that’s what the boys — 
Doughboy, Tommy, and Poilu — liked. It was fun 
to pick out a good alto line and hold on to the 
very end where the tenors would join in, higher, 
with some effective barber-shop chords. To get 


it just right meant endless repetitions, and we 
have heard groups of singing soldiers play around 
with a song for an hour or more. 

Our own Marines charged at Chateau-Thierry 
singing — probably yelling — Hail, Hail, the Gang’s 
All Here, likewise a favorite with the Canadians. 
Tommy also liked the American John Brown’s 
Body. All this must have been a bit discouraging 
to the professional song writers who were busy 
manufacturing songs dealing with all the timely 
topics the boys should have been singing about. 

No one, least of all a professional songwriter, 
can tell just what the fighting man is going to 
go for. He seldom, if ever, turns to the tunes that 
are fashioned for him by song-smiths who, a 
well-thumbed thesaurus in one hand and a 
rhyming dictionary in the other, have studded 
their lyrics with such sure-fire words as “free” 
(to rhyme with “libertee”), “right,” “fight,” and 
so on. The fighting man seems to shy away from 
these songs, as well as those of the maudlin, 
drippy sort. In most cases, he divides his singing 
between well-constructed melodies he has loved 
and known since boyhood and strongly rhythmic, 

slightly bawdy 
songs that are not 
above poking fun at 
the soldier himself. 

Different Conditions 

In the last war 
there was much 
singing. The men 
seemed to like to get 
together and shout 
out favorites. A lot 
of years have come 
between, but across 
them we can still 
hear jam-packed 
auditoriums ringing 
with the thrilling 
sound of several 
thousand singing 
voices joining in 
with the band we 
were conducting. We 
were rather proud of 
being “the youngest 
bandmaster in the 
service” and our 
crack outfit of over 
fifty professional 
men missed few 
towns along the 
Eastern Seaboard in 
those days. The con- 
certs were fun, but 
the real thrill came 
in the evenings 
when the men would 
gradually fill the 
wooden, hastily built 
auditorium at our 
permanent camp and drown out the band, sing- 
ing the songs we all liked. 

From all reports, the soldiers of World War 
secondo are not doing so much singing. There 
are a number of reasons for this. For one thing, 
war fell on us so suddenly that, in getting ready 
to beat back the enemy, there hasn’t been so 
much time for singing. A grim seriousness seems 
to mark today’s soldier. He has a job to do and 
he’s doing it. 

What’s more, music is being provided the 
soldiers of today in ( Continued on Page 755) 


“Acme” Photo 


This picture was taken in New Guinea. On a banjo con- 
structed from a wrecked lap Zero, 1st Lieut. Walter E. Moore 
of Baker, Oregon, plays Home on the Range, with loud vocal 
accompaniment. The tuning screws of the banjo are made 
from Jap 25 caliber cartridges, also captured in New Guinea. 

Music and Study 

So You Want to Try Hollywood? 

A Conference with 

Cjeorcf£ cJ-C 


Distinguished Composer nnd Arranger 



S INCE THE ADVENT of the sound-track, not 
much more than fifteen years ago, an en- 
tirely new form of musical career has 
beckoned to composers, orchestrators, and ar- 
rangers. Sound films require music, 
and those who have the knack of 
providing it can find interesting 
and lucrative employment in a field 
so young that its full possibilities 
have scarcely been explored. In the 
following conference, George Less- 
ner tells exactly what is needed to 
get to Hollywood and stay there. 

Mr. Lessner is in a position to know. 

For the past seven years, he has 
been doing distinguished work in 
the studios of Universal Pictures, 

RKO-Radio, and 20th Century- 
Fox, composing background music, 
orchestrating, arranging, and gath- 
ering first-hand data on what is 
what. A native of Budapest, Mr. 

Lessner studied at the Royal Acad- 
emy of Music of that city under 
Dohnanyi, Kodaly, and Siklos. He 
began composing at the age of 
seven, and four years later heard 
his compositions publicly per- 
formed. At sixteen he had a suc- 
cessful one-act opera to his credit. 

Since coming to America he has 
worked in Hollywood and, in addi- 
tion, has had major symphonic 
works played by the Los Angeles, 
the Indianapolis, the CBS and the 
NBC Symphony Orchestras. Recently Mr. Lessner 
won a commission from the National Broadcast- 
ing Company to write an opera for radio, in 
which music alone should make up for the lack 
of visual effects, emphasizing dramatic action 


and thus making unnecessary the constant na - 
rative interruptions of “regular” opera. His 
work, “The Nightingale and the Rose,” presented 
to a national audience with Vivian della Chiesa 
in the leading part, received notable acclaim, 
both for its musical value and for its heralding 
of a new musical form. 

“The most important question, in approaching 
motion picture music, is how to get into it. Most 
musicians know that there are opportunities in 
the film industry, but wonder how to reach them. 
There is a certain element of perseverance in- 
volved, and a certain element of luck. But the 
chief requisite is more than ordinarily solid mu- 
sicianship. Of the thousands of applicants for 
musical work in pictures, only those are con- 
sidered who can demonstrate a one hundred per 
cent competent mastery of musical science, or- 
chestration, composition, types, and forms. It is 

Stars of RKO Radio Pictures' musical "Syncopation" 

most definitely not a field in which an untried 
fledgeling can hope to gain experience. The 
nature of the work and the emergencies that 
can arise in performing it are such that a man 
stands no chance at all unless his musical 



equipment is such that he can furnish ihemes, 
suggest, adjust, bridge over cut spots, and stand 
ready to do practically anything at all in action 
on less than five minutes' notice. For those who 
aim at Hollywood and would spare themselves 
pain in the process of getting there, I cannot 
sufficiently emphasize the fact that picture work 
is no place for 'green' novices, regardless of their 
potential talents. 

Background Music and Songs 

“Hollywood music falls into two categories— 
background music and songs. Songs are gen- 
erally assigned to a words-and-music team whose 
past performances prove their ability to turn out 
hits; and since this work occurs In entirely musi- 
cal shows, the composer has more leeway. Not 
only is the music more important than it is in a 
non-musical, but a song that is good enough to 
promise a hit rating may take 
precedence over preliminary 
plans and find itself the core 
about which much of the pro- 
duction music is centered. Back- 
ground music — the obbligato 
which accompanies dramatic or 
emotional scenes in non-musi- 
cals — is a very different matter. 
As an obbligato, it is necessarily 
relegated to secondary place in 
the picture and may not over- 
shadow straight visual and dra- 
matic values. A song may be the 
center of a scene in a musical; 
background music may do no 
more than underscore or en- 
hance dramatic values in a 
straight drama. This means that 
the composer must focus two 
goals: he must make his back- 
ground music as effective as he 
can within the scope of its func- 
tion— but he may not make it so 
good that it threatens to call 
attention to itself! It once hap- 
pened that a background score 
was too good — it drew notice 
fboth critical and public) away 
from the picture itself. The re- 
suit was that that particular 
composer had a difficult time finding another as- 

“The composer of background music must be 
a competent orchestrator, able to handle scor ’^f. S 
for any size orchestra < Continued on Page 


The Voice Teacher 
and the Speaking Voice 

Lij Qohn WJ. 2 ), (JSriu^n 

W HILE in many respects 
the fields of singing 
and speaking are quite 
diverse, in the aspects of pho- 
netics, articulation, enuncia- 
tion, pronunciation, and good 
diction they own common 
ground. The anatomical and 
physiological mechanisms em- 
ployed in either case are alike. 

Both deal with words, phrases, 
and sentiments originating as 
ideas or emotions in the same 
human mind. Furthermore, 
quite the identical principles 
of technic or method govern 
the right development of the 
singer and the speaker. If 
there are any variations ap- 
parent in this common ground 
these are slight, and have to 
deal with the main basic dif- 
ferences, that singing uses 
pitches more sustained and 
found in wider ranges. Final- 
ly, there is a common cause to 
improve the voices of the 
youths and adults of America, 
a situation that we think is quite badly in need 
of attention. In view of the possibilities for im- 
provement, few can deny that it is poor business 
to attempt to kill a bad bird with two stones. 

If you are a private teacher of singing, not held 
by rules and regulations necessitating differentia- 
tions of function, you have, we believe, every right 
to consider the training of the speaking voice a 
legitimate field of activity, for the very good rea- 
son that you have something useful to contribute. 
True, there is always danger of going so far afield 
that the teaching spreads thinly over too wide an 
area of subject matter. For example, ordinarily 
the coaching of dramatics would not be deemed 
a major project for a teacher of singing except, 
perhaps, in the special aspect of tone production. 
Should this danger of over-extension threaten 
the individual who desires to be a “builder” in 
both departments of phonation, he can, if he 
chooses, find abridgement in other directions in 
view of the larger opportunities for service to the 
average community in developing voices either to 
sing or to speak. 

All in the Same Boat 

What are the utilities involved in this service to 
the community? Already we have suggested that 
the general run of voices in America can stand 
attention with a view to their improvement. We 
take it that the standards at this time may be 
too low. But, very seriously, the question of a good 
speaking voice is not one of mere cultural, aca- 
demic, or social interest. The subject should be 
viewed even more from the standpoint of real 
practical utility. We deal here with a necessity. An 
excellent speaking production has money value. 
For the lack of it sermons can fail, cases be lost 
in the courtroom, and big deals fall through. The 
trouble underlying the meager perception of this 
fact is that most people seem to be quite in the 
same fix with respect to much training of their 
voices in speech, and therefore not very many 
suffer from excessive competition. 

Perhaps we should try to explain why a pleas- 
ant speaking voice has money value. The science 
known as sociology seems to teach that there 
are individuals, not a few, whose unexpressed 
thoughts affset the organs of speech so that the 
words related to their mental ideas are uttered, 
though inaudibly, through the thus stimulated 
speech processes. Words, to the sociologist, are po- 

tential mediums of social communication. In- 
stance the person who reads aloud to himself or 
moves his lips while reading. We may go further 
and assert that the words spoken by other indi- 
viduals in a parallel procedure enter the ears of 
at least some auditors, reach the brain structures 
and then contact the speech processes somewhat 
as we have just described. The point we make is 
that pathology in the voice of the speaker, such 
as nasality or throatiness, can to a certain degree 
produce an unpleasant reaction in the person of 
the hearer and thus succeedingly minimize the 
effect on the mind of a probably excellent thought- 
content which the speaker meant to convey for 
a purposed result. Most people own an innate 
sense of beauty, and poor quality in a speaking 
voice cannot possibly find classification under the 
term “beautiful.” 

We have insufficient space to draw a word pic- 
ture of what can happen when the voice of the 
speaker has been trained to a rich and rare qual- 
ity. Histories and biographies are available to 
prove that in more than one instance great ca- 
rers have been the fruitage, in whole or in part, 
enjoyed by men born to speak well, or who 
through painstaking effort have developed them- 
selves. Read, for example, the life of a classic 
case, that of Demosthenes. Fewer profit-giving 
ventures can be imagined than investment of 
money with an able technician who knows how 
to improve speech. 

“How to go about it” is the next problem we 
shall attempt to solve. 

The first step to be taken by the voice teacher 
contemplating work with pupils in speech is that 
of preparation. Of the fourteen or fifteen princi- 
pal methods of singing taught within the last 
three centuries, according to compilations made 
by this writer, one is the approach from speech, 
or, better stated, the liaison between song and 
speech. 1 To understand and to employ this par- 
ticular method by no means intends that the 
voice teacher who is also to stress speaking must 
give up any other favorite major procedure. Any 

i See “The Oldest Authentic Voice Method,” by the author, 
found on pages 367-368 of The Etude, June, 1938. 


Music and Study 

method that can produce a 
beautiful result either in sing- 
ing or in speaking is to that 
extent correct. The basic prin- 
ciples in such result, from 
methods that would seem di- 
\erse, are quite identical, al- 
though not always understood 
as such. The difference in suc- 
cessful methods is largely that 
of the approach. The teacher 
should read books on the sub- 
ject of song in relation to 
speech, such as: “Resonance 
in Singing and Speaking,” by 
Thomas Fillebrown; “Caruso’s 
Method of Voice Production,” 
by P. Mario Marafioti; “The 
Singing of the Future,” by 
David Ffrangcon-Davies; “Vo- 
cal Exercises on Tone Plac- 
ing and Enunciation,” by J. 
Michael Diack; “Song Studies,” 
by J. Michael Diack; “The 
Voice in Speech,” by Clara 
Kathleen Rogers; “English Diction in Song and 
Speech,” by Clara Kathleen Rogers. 

Methods of advertising suggested are circulars, 
talks to organizations, and success from pupils. 
The mailing lists of the teacher of song and 
speech contemplate every individual who must 
employ his speaking voice in any way to help find 
his sustenance, and whose income will permit the 
affording of lessons. We mention specifically 
lawyers, clergymen, salesmen, saleswomen, sales 
managers, private secretaries, public school 
teachers, college and university professors, and 
any other speakers who broadcast over the radio, 
or otherwise address audiences. Young people of 
good family and social connections often are found 
solicitous about the quality of their speaking. 

Singing teachers have been known to cure, by 
ordinary voice work, such defects as the un- 
changed “falsetto” voice carried over into ma- 
turity, as well as stuttering and stammering. Seek 
out such. But you are wise to do so only with a 
physician’s approval. In talks before organiza- 
tions like civic clubs you will be helped by the use 
of a blackboard on which you can make diagrams 
to explain your principles. If you keep to a state- 
ment of principles both in circulars and talks, you 
will avoid creating opposition in any who in ad- 
vance of their getting help from you are not 
aware of their vocal sinning. If you can succeed 
in developing to a marked degree any persons of 
prominence in the community, they will advertise 
you among their associates. Group classes may be 
arranged for those not well able to pay for private 

The following exercises assume that the pupil 
in speech has not before had instruction and is 
“raw” material. To simplify matters, bear in mind 
two “waves” of tone, one operating through the 
regions located above the iwo palates and the 
other extending from the larynx to the lips. These 
two “waves” in isolation give inadequate tone. 
Their proper combination tends to make for com- 
plete and beautiful tone. 

Projects and Exercises 

Project I. To free the soft palate and give sen- 
sation of the back head, or naso-pharynx. 

Exercise: Near a pitch like Middle-C of the 
piano (men an octave lower) firmly articulate 
' i^ee.” Repeat several times. But do not over- 
practice this syllable or (.Continued on Page 748) 

NOVEMBER , 1943 



Music and Study 

, -i t u_ Sonata that he wrote in this palace? 

Does the picture of Haydn conducting in the Esterhazy Palace give meaning to the per or 

Glamour and Color 
in Music Study 

ow to organize Class and Club Programs that Stimulate Interest 

Itj ^JJelen Ofipliant ligated 

Y OUTH IS HOURLY clamoring for a new 
Bill of Rights. It calls for a fascinating in- 
terest in all its undertakings which seems to 
throw prismatic lights upon the gay hours of 
childhood and the happy “teen” years. 

Miss Carlton handed Jane a new piece. “For the 
next lesson,” she directed, “you may start prac- 
ticing on the first page.” Reluctantly Jane glanced 
at the title: Adagio from “String Quartet in G 
minor,” by Haydn. Stuffing the music indifferently 
into her brief case, she walked listlessly out of 
the room. 

Can you blame her? No, of course not. An 
assignment given in a tone so matter-of-fact and 
devoid of inspirational value will not arouse am- 
bition. How could Miss Carlton have stimulated 
interest in this delightful classic? By helping Jane 
to get into the spirit of the composition before 
asking her to start the drudgery of technical 
mastery. The words Adagio, String Quartet, and 
Haydn, did not create any mental image in Jane’s 
mind. But they could easily be made to do so. 

Most of Haydn’s quartets were written while he 
was Musician to the Court of Esterhazy. An im- 
aginative teacher would describe to Jane the 
candle-lighted music room in the rococo palace 
where musicians under Haydn’s direction played 
to aristocratic audiences dressed in periwigs and 
satin finery. Doesn’t that add color to the dull 
words Adagio, and quartet? 

Let us consider some of the ways a teacher can 
add glamour to assignments. 

Biographical and Interpretative Approach 

It is helpful to tell the pupil something about 
the life of the composer. Not a long, biographical 
lecture consisting of unimportant dates and sta- 
tistics, but interesting human information which 
bears upon the composition to be studied. If his- 
torical or interpretative notes of this kind are 
printed on the edition of the composition being 
used, try to end your remarks with a question, the 
answer of which can be learned by reading the 
editorial comments. Unless you awaken the curi- 
osity of the pupil in this manner, she may not 
bother to read the printed matter. If you do not 
know the circumstances under which a piece was 
created, tell outstanding facts about the com- 
poser’s life, and discuss briefly the character- 
istics of his style found in the music under 

Less important composers present more of a 
problem, because it is difficult and often impossi- 
ble to find anything about them. In such cases, 


you will have to dig deeply into the piece to dis- 
cover for yourself the tonal message. You will find 
much of this color background in “Music Masters 
Old and New,” as well as in carefully outlined 
composer programs. Audiences always like pro- 
grams devoted to the works of one distinctive 
master and appreciate biographical notes. 

Hearing an entire composition before practice 
is begun on sections stimulates the aural appetite 
in the same way that seeing a tempting dish 
makes us wish to eat the food. If you will play a 
piece for a pupil or let him listen to a victrola 
record, or call his attention to a forthcoming radio 
broadcast, his musical being will long to recreate 
the lovely rhythms and harmonies that delight 
his ears. The general impression gained in this 
way will give him a goal toward which he can 
work with zest. 

Other Interesting Methods of Approach 

Rhythmic introductions are effective. If you 
first ask a pupil to tap the rhythm on a tambourin 
or tom-tom as you play the piece, it will be easier 
and more enjoyable for him to learn to play the 

Discussion about a piece will frequently excite 

curiosity. Take the number. The Bees' Lullaby, by 
Frances Terry, in the July, 1938, Etude. What a 
novel title! Start conversation with questions like 
these: “Have you ever seen a bee baby?” "Have 
you ever heard a bee’s lullaby?” Soon interest wifi 
rise and the child will be ready to practice his 
part of this descriptive duet. 

Correlating an assignment with something 
familiar, such as a current happening, increases 
its attractiveness. For example, if a near-by town 
is preparing for a celebration, talk about the 
anticipated event. Then assign A Village Festive . , 
by Frederick Williams. When the circus is coming 
to town, give The Cloion, by Carl Wilhelm Kern- 

Some music teachers make no effort to rela 
their instruction to that of other educators. 
Through this indifference they miss a drama ic 
opportunity, since by collaborating they cmf 
have vivid backgrounds staged for them. T 
music teacher should talk to her friends among 
the public school instructors, and ask pupils a cm 
their school work. When a class in social stu 1 
is busy with a project on Holland, the muS e 
teacher may find it advantageous to assign som 
such piece as Little Dutch Dance, by Helen- 
Cramm. (Continued on Page 7W 


MERIC AN MUSIC LOVERS need to cultivate 
Z\ a concept of style,” said one of our fore- 
<*■ most orchestra conductors recently, in 
addressing a convention. 

All that matters is music and the styles of 
interpretation appropriate for various kinds of 
music. Style has come to be associated, wrongly, 
with individual performers, conductors, instru- 
ments, or groups, rather than with the composers 
whose music is at stake. Crooners drool over mili- 
tary music; conductors distort and romanticize 
Bach; dance-band “maestros” flatten out the 
classics into vulgar “hits,” and all these crimes 
against taste are condoned by saying, “That’s his 
(the performer’s) style!” Now this tendency, has 
reached the world of organs and organists. 

This article, therefore, raises three questions 
regarding style in organ building and organ play- 
ing: First, what is this distinction now made 
between “classical” and “romantic” organs? Sec- 
ond, what is the historical relationship between 
organ and orchestra? And finally, can we not 
apply the same criteria to the organ that are 
applied to other musical instruments? These cri- 
teria embrace the power to interpret all styles of 
music, and the adaptability for mingling with 
other instruments and voices in ensembles, for 
a purpose. 

I. "Classical" and "Romantic" Organs 

Music and Study 

The Modern Organ 
in the Music World 



Sb. MIL 

The Etude is pleased lo present fhe first of a series of articles upon the modern organ by Dr. Warren 
Dwight Allen, famous organist, musicologist, and teacher, Professor of Music and Education, and Chairman 
of Division of Music of Stanford University , California. Dr. Allen was born at San Jose in 1885, and studied 
at Stanford University, the University of California, as well as in Berlin and Paris. He received the degree 
of Ph.D. from Columbia University . — Editor's Note. 

Fundamental Differences 

Today this problem is manifest 
in organ building and organ 
playing as never before. On one 
hand, we have “classical” organs, 
modeled after the instrument 
built by Harrison for the Ger- 
manic Museum at Harvard Uni- 
versity; on the other hand, we 
have the “romantic” organ of the 
radio and movie theater. 

The purely “classical” organ, 
like that of Bach, has all of its 
pipes exposed. No dynamic varia- 
tion is possible as long as the 
organist plays on the same sets 
of pipes. The purely “romantic” 
organ, on the contrary, is en- 
closed in its entirety, with no pipes visible at all. 
The box walls which surround the pipes are of 
heavy construction. When the swell shades are 
closed the tone is pppp, and when open, a grand 
fortissimo “raises the roof.” 

The tones of the classical organ are bright, 
clear, and silvery. The color is “pure organ tone,” 
with no attempt to imitate other instruments, but 
with emphasis on the upper partials rather than 


To say that the classical organ is incapable of 
expression or that the romantic organ is incapa- 
ble of formal beauty would be wrong, or only 
partially true. When a sensitive artist like E. 


Much ink has been used to explain the differ- 
ences between “classical” and “romantic” music. 
Yet music is not worthy of the name unless it is 
both “classical” and “romantic”; that is, unless it 
has what we call “classical” form, together with 
“romantic” expressiveness. When an unimagina- 
tive composer or performer gives us music accord- 
ing to “classical rules” made by pedants, the 
result may be as correct as a skeleton, but it 
will be just as dead. When a very emotional per- 
son makes thrilling crescendos and diminuendos 
with breast- heaving vibratos lus- 
ciously harmonized, the effects 
may be very “romantic”; but un- 
less it all hangs together with 
melodic line and rhythmical bal- 
ance, the result is not music. 

Every work of art must be self- 
contained in form, but at the 
same time productive of emo- 
tional effect. 

on fundamentals and heavy basses. The romantic 
organ is at the other extreme. Not content to be 
an organ, it attempts to imitate the inimitable 
orchestra, with shimmering “strings,” sobbing vox 
humanas, bubbling French horns, flutes of all 
kinds (hooty, tooty, and cutey) ; trumpets, trom- 
bones, tubas, celestas, harps, and all the utensils 
of the orchestral battery and the endless variety 
of gadgets in the sound-effect room. 

Power Biggs or Carl Weinrich plays old music on 
the classical organ, we hear the clarity of singing 
voices, the exquisite curves of well-phrased mel- 
ody, the accents made by long tones preceded by 
short ones which seem softer, and all these are 
highly expressive. To play Bach expressively 
without pumping a swell pedal is an art which 
every organ student should aim to cultivate. Un- 
fortunately, however, the purely classical organ, 
under the hands of the average organist, would 
be nothing but a box of shrill whistles. Even Biggs 
and Weinrich cannot play modern music on it. 
Old polyphonic music is fine on a classical organ, 
because all the voices keep moving. Music in 
chordal harmony is monotonous,' and the solo- 
accompaniment style is well-nigh impossible. 

Artistic Restraint Needed 

On the other hand, the romantic organ usually 
can be played with artistic restraint. By not using 
certain portions of the organ and by selecting 
stops judiciously, a skillful organist can play some 
old music much more effectively than would have 
been possible on Bach’s organs. The master’s 
poetic choral preludes often seem to cry out for 
the colors and dynamic variation of the modern 
organ, which Bach could not command in the 
instruments of his day. And the romantic organ 
at its best is necessary for the colorful organ 
music of modern times, the masterpieces of 
Franck, Vierne, Karg-Elert, Leo Sowerby, Seth 
Bingham, and many others. The “classical” organ 
rules out all this music. Nevertheless, the roman- 
tic organ is usually a sad affair. It moans and 
groans, sobs out melodies which were originally 
intended to be cheerful, and with tremolos work- 
ing at top speed in every swell box, the poor lis- 
tener is kept in a continual dither. In many 
churches the art of serene worship has been lost, 
thanks to the yammer-yammer of continuously 
emotional stops, alternating with the muddy 
lugubriousness of too much 16-ft. tone and sub- 
octave couplers. On purely romantic organs the 
bright clarity of old polyphonic music is as im- 
possible as is modern color on the purely classical 

To understand this ( Continued on Page 750) 




Music and Study 

Your editor is most pleased to present the first 
of two articles by the eminent young choral 
conductor, Dr, Maynard Klein. The work of Dr. 
Klein at Newcomb College and Tulane Univer- 
sity, New Orleans, Louisiana, is nationally rec- 
ognized, not only for outstanding performances 
but also for the excellent repertoire contributed 
to the field of choral literature. 

In this article Dr. Klein discusses program 
building and its effect upon the music education 
choral field. Next month our author will present 
a list of materials for high school and college 
choral groups . — Editor's Note. 

T he PHENOMENAL GROWTH of choral sing- 
ing in our schools and colleges is common 
knowledge. The few choral organizations of 
recent decades have multiplied to the extent that 
every school now has its glee club or chorus. The 
pioneers of music education and those who are 
active in this development are worthy of the 
highest tribute, for without their foresight and 
unwavering interest in the attainment of an ideal, 
this growth would not be possible. It is not at all 
uncommon that choral singing should flourish in 
a country like ours, a nation where unbounded 
youth and enthusiasm make it possible to accom- 
plish the apparently impossible. In music educa- 
tion, as in all other phases of American life, 
success has been secure because there is no con- 
cession made to failure or defeat. 

Now that we have accomplished this apparent 
success in the organization of choral groups in 
our schools and colleges, let us analyze the aims 
and objectives that have been the motivating 
force in most cases. The following statement may 
seem a bit strong, but it is our opinion that in 
many instances the lofty values of choral singing- 
have been diminished to student and conductor 
exploitation, thus banishing all hope of realizing 
the subtle cues to richer life that would be appar- 
ent through the religious study of the great music 
that is our cultural heritage. The choral director 
.must project his thinking beyond a mere concert 
program if any of these values are to be realized. 
Too many of our schools have placed the choral 
groups in the same category with its athletic 
teams; in other words, making their purpose that 
of excelling in their locality, to the educational 
detriment of the students. There is no doubt that 
competition for excellence will do much to moti- 
vate the development of any music group (the 
contests and festivals have proved this point), 
but competition should be considered as inciden- 
tal to the study and appreciation of the master- 
pieces of choral literature, past and present. 

The Point of Departure 

What then should be the point of departure for 
the choral teacher in school and college? The 
answer is MUSIC! This answer can be meaning- 
ful only to those teachers who have a genuine and 
impartial interest in good music and an apprecia- 
tion of our cultural heritage. To realize its import, 
the person who would direct choral music should 
have an insatiable desire to seek out the best 
literature that has been produced by the old mas- 
ters, and should have, as well, a sincere and 
honest approach to the music of our own modern 
production. He should be sensitive to its correla- 
tion with the other arts, and conscious of the 
place it held in the scheme of life at the time of 
its composition. 

It would be dangerous for anyone to feel that 
the mere reading and study of the great master- 
pieces would be sufficient. The choral teacher 
should be competent in many ways. It is abso- 


Music or Show 


lutely necessary that he should be a thorough, 
practical musician, and that his working knowl- 
edge of harmony, counterpoint, analysis, and 
sight-singing is beyond reproach. He should pos- 
sess all the attributes that make possible prac- 
tical musical production. His knowledge of the 
many problems of voice production and choral 
training should be unquestioned. (The various 
successful methods of organizing choral groups 
are dealt with in detail in any number of books 
that are easily accessible to the choral aspirant, i 
If he is sure that he possesses this practical mu- 
sicianship, and if he has also a pleasing approach 
and a love of people, he is ready to go to the 
basis of the whole problem— musical background. 

It is right here that the trouble begins, for the 
apparently talented person described above will 
find it very simple to approach an easy success 
without doing the things that we hold important 
as the greater aim of the choral program of our 
schools. He will present good “shows” that seem 
effective at the moment— he will get an immedi- 
ate response from the choir by selecting music 
that is “catchy” and falls in line with the de- 
mands of entertainment. Arriving so easily at this 
type of success, he is sure to deem it unnecessary 


Edited by W i i I i a m D. Re veil I 


to go deeper into the study of iit era 
ture. But it is only through careful 
research in the field of choral iitera 
ture that this “talented musician" 
will find his true salvation and i n 
turn, the musical salvation of his 
students; for, however well the choir 
may sing, the important question to 
be raised should always be, “What did 
they sing?” And then the question 
“How did they sing?” When the 
choral director possesses this some- 
thing called musical background, he 
may be sure that both questions will 
receive favorable answers. There is 
no substitute for a truly musical pro- 
gram presented solely for music interest. 

How should he go about getting this intangible 
background? It is not to be had from a publisher’s 
catalog! The music catalog is a most important 
device for the choral director only when he has 
the musical background sufficient to use it in the 
proper way. The choral teacher should begin by 
admitting the fact that he know but an inkling 
of the great amount of literature that is available, 
and then he should begin a systematic program 
of historical research and study of materials that 
are so easily procured at this time Study of social 
as well as musical history, study of the allied arts, 
and reading of the literary masterpieces should 
be the point of departure for ai. appreciation of 
the values of great choral music It may seem dis- 
couraging at first; for the teacher will suddenly 
become aware that he knows so little of the great 
music from which he is to choose in building the 
repertoire for his students. This, however, should 
not be the time for despair; it i the redeeming 
realization that makes growth possible. He will 
then gain a proper perspective for a cue to hum- 
bleness before the great. It is only then that he 
will be able to worship great art ns a religion, and 
only then that his love of beauty will begin to be 
felt by the students. This Is no shallow thing, 
such as the presentation of a program before a 
civic group; it is, rather, the unleashing of an 
inner drive to express something greater than 
self, an expression made possible through the 
minds of great masters. 

How will the choral director know when he has 
found music that will call for the best that is in 
him and his students? Only through sincere study 
and an uncompromising love of an ideal. He may 
say, “Good music is the music that I like”— but 
he should try sincerely to evaluate his ability in 
selecting at the moment. He should have faith in 
his judgment, but he should never deem it as 
final, for his taste will develop to a higher plane 
as thoughtful study progresses. 

With the relative attainment of a musical back- 
ground and an urge to sing and teach the works 
that have become the artistic property of the 
choral director, the whole problem of choral or- 
ganization must be treated in a manner different 
from usual. He will no longer say. “I have a gW 
club; what music should I get for them?” Instea , 
he will say, “There is such a great fund of music 
that must be given a hearing that we must ge 
together and sin : ' He Will then gather singers 
to express something greater than themse ve 
through the music rather than merely to prepai 
them for a concert, a trip to a contest, or to 
them with a key or some other trinket that^ 
no bearing on sound music education. These r 
phies should have a place only after the true a 
is realized. For example, he will then gathei 
group of singers to sing madrigals, not because 
is the “fad” at the moment, but because he o 
these works in relation to their meaning to him 
the whole scheme of ( Continued on Po-9 e 

the ETUDE 

Music and Study 

The Band as a Medium for 
Symphonic Accompaniment 


Technician, Fifth Grade 

Arthur Christmann was born in New York City of a long line of musicians, his father having been 
member of the New York Symphony and New York Philharmonic Orchestras. His musical education began 
with the piano at the age of five, and later he studied at the Institute of Musical Art and at the Juilliard 
Graduate School, taking his B.S. and A.M. degrees at Columbia University. At the Juilliard Graduate 
School he held a Fellowship in the Conducting Class under the late Albert Stoessel, and from the Insti- 
tute of Musical Art he received his Artist's Diploma, as well as the annual Morris Loeb prize of one 
thousand dollars for excellence in scholarship. 

Since 1934 he has been on the faculty of the Institute of Musical Art of the Juilliard School of Music, 
where he teaches clarinet, brass and woodwind ensemble, and is conductor of the symphonic band. He 
has played first clarinet with many orchestras in and about New York, including ten seasons with the 
Chautauqua Symphony Orchestra and ten with the Worcester Music Festival Orchestra. In addition, he 
has found time to direct several choruses and community orchestras in New York City. At present Mr. 
Christmann is on leave of absence from his regular duties for military service, serving as solo clarinetist 
in the U.S.M.A. Band at West Point . — Editor's Note. 

S ERIOUS band musicians are endeavoring, 
in every way possible, to increase the dig- 
nity of their medium, to widen the scope 
and literature of the symphonic band movement, 
so that the programs of this type of ensemble 
may compare in musical value with those of 
any other type of symphonic organization. It was 
with this purpose that the following experimen- 
tal work was carried on in the symphonic band 
and in the classes in brass and woodwind ensem- 
ble at the Institute of Musical Art of the Juilliard 
School of Music. 

The basic hypothesis worked upon was the 
idea that a combination of instruments could 
be found, within the limits of the symphonic 
band, which could directly represent the string 
choir of the orchestra. Obviously the clarinet 
section suggested itself here, as this valuable 
choir is already basic in the modern symphonic 
band in which it carries much of the body of the 
orchestral strings. 

In support of the conviction that the clarinet 
section in itself could serve as a complete wind 
orchestra, corresponding to the string orchestra, 
was the success which had been achieved by 
using this section as a complete choir in the 
classes in woodwind ensemble at the Institute 
of Musical Art. In these classes a clarinet en- 
semble had been developed which played music 
written for string orchestra, and in most cases 
played it directly from the original string parts. 
Depending on the original key, the B-flat instru- 
ment players read either just as written, thereby 
transposing the concert key of the piece down 
one whole tone, or transposed themselves, thus 
placing the piece in its correct concert key. 

The Clarinet Ensemble 

The clarinet ensemble, as it was set up in these 
classes, consisted of B-flat clarinets, bass clari- 
nets, and a contrabass clarinet. The first violin, 
second violin, and viola parts were taken by 
B-flat soprano clarinets; the violoncello and bass 
parts by bass clarinets and contrabass clarinet, 
respectively. The alto clarinet was not used, 
although there is no reason why an organization 
which ordinarily uses one or two of these might 
not add them to the viola line. The ensemble of 
clarinets just described was able to render cer- 
tain string orchestra pieces with genuine dis- 
tinction. Naturally the pieces played in this way 
had to be selected with great care, for it is 
obvious to anyone who has the slightest knowl- 
edge of orchestral instruments that not all pieces 
written for string orchestra would be suitable 
for this direct adaptation. The balance was sur- 
prisingly good, even though it was necessary to 
rely on two bass clarinets and a contrabass to 
balance the rather large choir of B-flat soprano 
clarinets. In rehearsal rooms and in the small 
recital hall of the Institute this bass was per- 
fectly adequate. Later, in the large concert hall 
of the Juilliard School, it was necessary to am- 
plify the bass somewhat. With this ensemble, 
supplemented by a piano playing the cembalo 
part, public performances of the “Concerto 
Grosso in G” by Handel, and of the “Christmas 
Concerto” by Corelli were given at the school. 
In class, other works were tried out and played, 
many with a high degree of success. 

The viola line was the one which, as may well 
be imagined, caused the greatest difficulty. It 
was amazing to note how quickly the entire 
section of clarinets improved in the transposition 
of the violin parts. As a matter of fact, we have 
become convinced that if the director grades 
the work properly and proceeds slowly, carefully, 
and with infinite patience, this group method 
is an excellent way to teach transposition and 


to insure sufficient practice in it. The viola part, 
on the other hand, is quite another story and 
requires special treatment. If the piece was to 
be rendered in the original key, the B-flat players 
transposing their own parts one tone higher, 
then the viola part could be read as if it were 
bass clef for the B-flat clarinet, with the proper 
correction for accidentals, of course. Actually the 
player reads bass clef on the soprano B-flat 
clarinet exactly as if he had a bass clarinet in 
his hands; that is, the middle line C of the viola, 

-r.y. - ~-j was fingered like j<> <„ 

on the bass clarinet, with the thumb and first 
two fingers of the left hand. It was found advis- 
able, therefore, to place on the viola part those 
students who were already the most fluent in 
their reading of the bass clef. In cases where 
the B-flat soprano clarinets were reading their 
own parts exactly at the pitch written, thus 
transposing the piece one tone lower in concert 
key, it was found most advisable to write out the 
viola part; otherwise the student who could not 
read viola clef would be forced to read it as 
treble clef, transpose one tone higher and an 
octave lower and make the proper correction for 
accidentals, a process which would be just a little 
too complicated to be comfortable for anybody 
concerned ! 


Edited by William D. Revelli 


A Slight Drawback 

Using B-flat soprano clarinets for the viola 
part has but one slight drawback. It will be noted 
that the clarinet lacks the lowest two semitones 
of the viola, C and C-sharp, concert. It was 
found, however, that these notes occurred very 
infrequently, and when they did it was always 
possible to make a slight alteration or adapta- 
tion which never destroyed the integrity of the 
composition. If this problem should ever become 
acute, as, for instance, in a solo for the viola 
which would be impaired by any change of 
register or notes, it would indeed be a time when 
the use of some E-flat alto clarinets in this 
section would prove a great boon. A few B-flat 
clarinets with the low E-flat key would also help, 
or a few A clarinets in the section, especially 
if one or all happened to have the low E-flat 
and would completely cover the range of the 
viola. In this case the players having the A clari- 
nets could change to them just for this passage 
and immediately thereafter change back to their 
B-flat instruments. 

Out of all this clarinet ensemble work grew 
the idea of experimenting with symphonic ac- 
companiments for practical public performance. 
The first accompaniment attempted was that of 
a concerto for a wind instrument, the “Horn 
Concerto in E-flat,” Kochel No. 417, of Mozart. 
Here, in addition to the string orchestra basis, 
Mozart has scored for the traditional two horns 
and two oboes. These could well have been ren- 
dered in their original instrumentation, but it 
was decided, m so far as the performance was 
to take place in the large Juilliard concert hall, 


Music and Study 

to build up the intensity-scheme one degree, so 
to speak. In accordance with this idea, a flute 
was added to each of the oboe parts, to play with 
the oboe and thicken the sound slightly, and 
trombones were used instead of horns. As the 
horn parts were in E-flat and did not lie very 
high in range, it was easy for the trombones to 
play their parts by reading from the original 
horn music, playing as if the horn parts were 
in bass clef and transposing up one octave. (In 
the light of future experience it is very likely 
that this building up of the intensity-scheme 
would scarcely have been necessary, and the 
wind parts of the original would probably have 
been even more effective in their original in- 

The Mozart “Concerto” thus arranged and 
adapted came off quite effectively at the concert, 
and we have an excellent recording taken dur- 
ing this performance. There were a few places 
where the highest clarinet voice, with the bril- 
liant clarity of that instrument in certain 
registers, tended to obscure the more sober 
middle register of the solo instrument, but this 
was not so noticeable or serious a fault that it 
could not have been easily corrected at subse- 
quent performances by a little more attention to 
balance, and by a reduction of the number of 
players on the upper part. 

For the Larger Concert Hall 

The significant adjustment which performance 
in a large concert hall made necessary was addi- 
tion to the bass line, which was found to be 
insufficient when carried by the two bass clari- 
nets and contrabass clarinets alone. A tuba was 
added to the 16’ bass and a baritone to the regu- 
lar 8' bass. Later, however, the baritone was 
replaced by a baritone saxophone. Strangely 
enough, although it would have been difficult to 
foresee this, the baritone did not blend too well 
with the reeds, although the tuba served its pur- 
pose admirably. Its broad but unobtrusive tone 
gave the ensemble just that breadth and sym- 
phonic richness which it lacked. 

In later performances and experiments it was 
found that almost any bass instrument with a 
blending and unobtrusive tone could be used 
to reenforce the bass and contrabass line. At 
various times bassoons and contrabass viols were 
added, and all served the purpose splendidly. 
The chief requirement is that the bass line be 
built up in volume so that it has parity with 
the upper lines, and that it have sufficient heavi- 
ness and breadth to enrich the entire structure. 
The mere presence in the ensemble of an instru- 
ment of the 16' pitch is some guarantee that the 
latter requirement will not be entirely over- 
looked, but it was found in our case that the 
presence of one tuba, and probably of not more 
than one, was a sine qua non. 

Carrying out the same principle, theoretically 
it would be possible to add other instruments to 
the other lines if desired, provided always that 
no one line become over-prominent and that no 
instrument with a strident or over-reedy tone be 
added. Such instruments will stand out individ- 
ually and will never blend. Saxophones, E-flat 
alto and B-flat tenor, could, for instance, be used 
to reenforce the second violin and viola lines; 
but there is grave danger here, since every sym- 
phonic band leader knows how few saxophones 
are played with sufficient blending quality to fit 
into a symphonic ensemble at all. Flutes can 
form a very good addition to the first violin line, 

especially if there are any passages whic 
especially high for the clarinets. However i 
there are too many of these high passages that 
particular concerto had best be avoided 
purposes of this treatment. In our work at the 
Institute of Musical Art of the Juilliard School 
of Music we always kept the three upper lines 
pure clarinet tone. Experiments were often tried 
at rehearsals, however. One of these was the 
addition of flutes to the upper line, as noted 

(mrnfohla Kilt. t.llP dftVlC6 

nk/virA ffVio vncnl f 

was never used at a public performance. 

In concert accompaniment, a prime requisite 
is that the instruments doing the accompani- 
ment do not cover the soloist. This should be 
especially remembered when dealing with the 
less transparent timbres of wind instruments, 
and in this type of adaptation the conductor 
would never be forgiven if, in rendering the ac- 
companiment on wind instruments, he “snowed 
under” the soloist. This requirement would favor 
a small but competent ensemble. At a subse- 
quent performance of the Bach “D-minor Piano 
Concerto,” only the very best clarinetists in the 
school were used, and only two players were 
placed on each of the upper three parts. The 
bass was kept in proportion. These selected play- 
ers had such highly developed embouchure con- 
trol that, when occasion demanded, they could 

render a tone so soft that the most delicate 
nuances of the piano soloist could be distinctly 
heard. There is no reason why, if the conductor 
is sufficiently demanding, an ensemble consist- 
ing largely of competent clarinets cannot render 
one of the softest sound textures conceivable, 
for the instrument is noted for its ability to do 
this, and many instrumentation treatises bear 
eloquent testimony to this characteristic. At no 
point in the Bach “D-minor Piano Concerto” did 
the soloist have to force his tone in order to 
“come through,” and at no time did the ensemble 
cover him. 

In the case of our work and experiments in 
this field all these accompaniments were played 
directly from the original orchestra parts, the 
players themselves transposing, although this is 
only a secondary feature of the idea. True, our 
students derived from the experience great bene- 
fit in reading and in transposition practice, but 
the chief value and the important thing was 
that we were enabled, with a minimum of 
change, to present some of the great master- 
pieces of earlier concerto literature on a sym- 
phonic band program. Using only the instru- 
ments which seemed desirable, and not feeling 
it necessary to employ all the brass and percus- 
sion of the modern band, we were able to pro- 
duce a consistent texture which at least simu- 
lated the steady body of string tone which was 

so basic in all of these early concertos. The di- 
rector who would like to try this sort of thing 
for himself, but who does not feel that his play- 
ers are up to the transposition involved, can 
easily provide transposed copies for them and 
still do less work than if he were to make a com- 
plete arrangement of the work. This is especially 
true if he takes advantage of one of the nu- 
merous, excellent, modern processes of music re- 
production for duplicating identical parts. 

some Umitations 

There aie, of course, many limitations in thi 
type of adaptation. In the first place, only 
limited number of concertos are practical for thi 
treatment. They must be in certain keys On th 
whole, only works in simple flat keys, and per 
haps the very simplest sharp keys, ought to b 
considered. In this restriction the small ensembl 
is not much worse off than the entire banc 


which is always more comfortable in flat k ev 
However, in the small ensemble there is so much 
more of the transparency of chamber music that 
any passagework muddled because of the p res l 
ence in the signature of too many sharps ( 0 " 
flats) will stand out in ugly nakedness. 1 

Closely related to the consideration of key • 
that of the style of writing for the original 
strings. The conductor will do well to stay awav 
from any concerto in which there is a predomi- 
nance of writing which is strictly idiomatic for 
strings and which cannot possibly be made to 
“come off well” on woodwind instruments. This 
category also includes passages which, in range 
lie well outside the effective upper limits of the 
clarinet. An occasional passage may indeed be 
changed in some minor way to suit the wood- 
wind instruments, or even be transposed to a 
lower octave, but this privilege certainly should 
not be abused. 

Closely related to this question is that of the 
whole general style of the piece selected. The 
method of adaptation which is the subject of 
this article is not at all suited to the more bril- 
liant, modern concertos. If these are to be played 
it would be far better to make arrangements for 
the full band. Its brilliancy and resources are 
needed here. As a matter of fact, full band ac- 
companiments for solos and concertos are noth- 
ing new. Those who have heard the concert 
work of the United . States Military Academy 
Band at West Point will recall with pleasure the 
many excellent symphonic band transcriptions 
of concertos which have been made for the dis- 
tinguished artists who have appeared with his 
organization by its able director, Captain Francis 
E. Resta. This technique of direct adaptation 
of the accompaniment is far better suited to the 
older concerti, in which the strings form the 
main, if not the only, body of accompaniment, 
in which the woodwinds are used conservatively, 
if at all, and in which there is no heavy brass, 
Such composers as Bach, Handel, Mozart, Haydn, 
and their contemporaries are best for this 

Finally, many will object to the monotony of 
color which is inevitable with such a small se- 
lection of wind instruments. The validity of this 
criticism cannot be denied, and the only answer 
possible is that this combination has practically 
the same relationship to the symphonic band as 
the string orchestra has to the full orchestra. 
Lacking all of the contrast of the full orchestra, 
the string choir still possesses a milder beauty 
and a charm of its own, and achieves some va- 
riety within itself. The same may be said for our 
wind-accompanying ensemble. Lacking the va- 
riety of the full band and even the flexibility and 
transparency of the string orchestra, the play- 
ing of an ensemble such as this, if clean, in- 
telligent, sensitive, and eloquent, will still have 
much to recommend it, even to serious lovers of 
music who will see in it one device for extending 
the scope of symphonic band literature. In ad- 
dition, one must not overlook the fact that this 
simple and direct technique of adaptation would 
actually make available many more concertos 
for all types of instruments on symphonic band 
programs, a circumstance which, in itself, woul 
add immeasurably to the variety of these pro- 

With all these limitations just discussed, out 
feeling is that there is still much to be said on 
the positive side. The ease and availability of tn' s 
type of accompaniment should place within t 
range of our better band organizations a practice 
method of expanding the scope of the concer 
program. In addition, the training which the par 
ticipating players or ( Continued on PM e 751 

the etude 


Music and Study 

The First Year 

How It Can be Made Interesting for the Young Student 

by Jdctrold )3edlc 


T ODAY it is realized, as never before, that 
the first five years of a child’s life are of 
extreme importance to his later develop- 
ment, that the influences and environment sur- 
rounding him during this period tend to form 
habits, reactions, and thought-processes which 
remain, with more or less modification, through- 
out mature life. The first year of music study 
bears relationship to a child’s later musical de- 
velopment — a fact which some teachers and far 
too many parents take into little account. This 
lack of perception is one of the main reasons why 
so many children — estimated as high as fifty per 
cent — give up studying before they have passed 
the elementary stages. 

A witty Frenchman once said that a child’s 
first enemies are its parents. The idea may at 
first seem fantastic, but nevertheless it calls for 
some thought; in the field of music, and espe- 
cially of violin study, there is more than a grain 
of truth in it — -though the parents are certainly 
motivated by the best of intentions. No doctor, 
no school, is considered too good for Jimmy; if 
he wants to play the violin, however, his fond 
parents are likely to think that any teacher is 
good enough for the first year or two — the chief 
considerations usually being that the teacher live 
nearby and that his price be low enough. Most 
emphatically it must be said that this is a mis- 
taken idea: if the 
child shows a musical 
instinct and a desire 
to study, the best 
available teacher is 
none too good. This 
does not necessarily 
mean the highest- 
priced teacher ; 
rather, it means one 
who has a gift, inher- 
ent or acquired, for 
arousing the interest 
and inspiring the mu- 
sical imagination of 
children. It may be a 
young woman but a 
year or two out of 
the conservatory, or 
it may be an elderly 
man with years of ex- 
perience behind him. 

Whoever it is, the par- 
ents must seek out 
this teacher by care- 
ful inquiry, asking ad- 
vice of those who are 
familiar with the mu- 
sical life of the town. 

Once the teacher is 
selected, the parents 
should co-operate 
with him as fully as 
possible, giving him 
all the information he 
needs regarding the 
child’s likes and dis- 
likes, traits of char- 
acter, outside inter- 
ests, and so on. They should carry out so far as 
is in their power any suggestions he may make 
regarding help with the child’s home practicing. 
During the first year, parents and teacher should 
see each other fairly frequently for the purpose 
of solving the problems which will inevitably 
arise on both sides. This will bring about a mu- 
tual understanding and confidence which will 
make the tasks of both teacher and parent much 
easier. Moreover, the teacher will want to be kept 
well informed as to the pupil’s attitude towards 

his music study — which at home may be quite 
different from what it is at his lessons. Such 
was the case with twelve-year-old Mary. She was 
very talented and loved her lessons — but she 
hated to practice. One day her mother seriously 
reminded her that her lessons were quite an ex- 
pense and that it was 
her duty to practice 
well so that she could 
get the most benefit 
from them. “Oh dear,” 
said Mary, “I do wish 
I had money of my 
own to pay for the les- 
sons — then I wouldn’t 
need to practice!” 

of the Teacher 

So much for the re- 
sponsibilities of the 
parents. Let us look at 
those of the teacher, 
and examine the 
means by which he 
may best carry them 

Certainly, the basic 
responsibility of the 
teacher is to develop 
to the best of his abil- 
ity the child’s innate 
musical gifts, and 
gradually engender a 
love and understand- 
ing of music. How this 
may best be done 
must vary with the 
temperament and 
training of each 
teacher, and with 
every individual pu- 
pil. Much has been 
written on the sub- 
ject; to do justice to 
it within the limits of a single article is obviously 
impossible. However, a few interesting points 
can be discussed and some suggestions made. 

Notwithstanding the opposition likely to be 
met with from parents who wish their children 
to start immediately on the path that will make 


Edited by Harold Berkley 

them Kreislers or Heifetzes, the teacher should 
insist that from two to four months — depending 
on the quickness and natural ability of the child 
— be spent on preliminary training in the rudi- 
ments of music, and on elementary ear-training. 
This will make the task of the violin teacher 
much easier, and the early violinistic difficulties 
of the pupils much lighter — for he will be able 
to give his mind to playing the violin without, 
at the same time, having to learn notes and 

This preliminary work should be done at the 
piano. The child may be taught to recognize the 
notes on the keyboard, and to play and sing them 
before being shown their pictures on the staff. 
Furthermore, he should learn the difference be- 
tween a whole tone and a half tone; he should 
become familiar, by ear and on the staff, with all 
intervals up to the octave; and, by no means 
least important, he should know the relative 
values of the various note-signs and rests, and 
the elementary rhythmic combinations — such as 
2/4, 3/4 and 4/4. 

The means by which these essentials can be 
taught are many and various; each teacher will 
have his favorite approach. What is important, 
however, is that the teacher avoid committing 
himself to the use of any one method ; every child 
has a pronounced individuality, and the teacher 
must be ready to modify his approach accord- 
ing to the needs of each pupil. In other words, 
he must have method, but not one particular 
method. This applies not only to instruction in 
the rudiments of music, but also to the instru- 
mental teaching which comes later. 

The Game Element 

With very young children, the teaching of ele- 
mentary solfege should be made into some sort 
of a game, for this is the easiest way to hold a 
child’s attention; however, as soon as interest has 
been awakened, the game element should be 
gradually eliminated and the genuine musical 
values substituted. As early as possible the pupil 
should be encouraged to think of musical signs 
for what they actually are, and not merely in 
terms of something else. Notes, at first, may be 
birds perched on telegraph wires, but very soon 
they must be recognized as signs which repre- 
sent actual living sounds. The use of similes is, 
of course, of the utmost value through the whole 
course of teaching, but the simile should be re- 
ferred to the music, and not vice versa. 

Another essential in good teaching is that each 
new term be explained clearly as it comes into use. 
For instance, the pupil should be told that major 


This is a baby picture of Robert Virovai. the Hungarian 
violin virtuoso. Born March 10, 1921 in Daruvar, Jugoslavia, 
he made his American debut at the age of seventeen with 
the New York Philharmonic. Note that in the accompanying 
article Mr. Berkley advocates teaching the third position first 

November, 1943 



Music and Study 

means greater, and minor means smaller, that 
the major scale is so named because of the 
greater interval between the first and third notes; 
and the minor scale because of the smaller in- 
terval between these notes. 

When the time comes to begin lessons on the 
violin, the teacher must decide for himself a 
question which may seem somewhat revolution- 
ary: Should this pupil be started in the first 
position — or the third? 

All teachers know the difficulty most children 
find in attaining a correct shaping of the hand 
in the first position, a difficulty greatly increased 
if the child has short arms and fingers. It is, 
indeed, a highly unnatural shape for the hand 
and arm to take, and both have to be gradually 
trained to it. Discussing the problem some years 
ago with a group of my students who were teach- 
ing beginners, I suggested that they start all 
short-armed pupils in the third position. This 
they did, and favorable results were so imme- 
diate that the question arose whether it would 
not be advisable to start all beginners in the third 
position. Experience has proved that many dolor- 
ous hours can be avoided if this is done. 

So far as I know, there is not in print a book 
of third-position exercises suitable for the pupil 
who is just beginning to play. However, with the 
aid of manuscript paper and a little thought, no 
teacher should have difficulty in producing exer- 
cises sufficient for the needs of his pupils. The 
preliminary open-string exercises can be studied 
from the violin method the teacher intends to 
use, and while studying these the pupil should 
be encouraged to rest his left hand at the shoulder 
of the violin. This angle of the' arm and hand 
brings about fairly naturally the shaping neces- 
sary for the third position. 

First Position After Third 

Practice in the first position may begin as 
soon as the student is able to play (in the third 
position) quarter-notes on all four strings with 
a nicely rounded hand; also— this is important 
—when he can play, slowly, with his first, second, 
and third fingers while holding the fourth finger 
on the next lower string. The value of this exer- 
cise lies in the fact that it train's the hand to 
the extra turning necessary in the first position. 
To start with, the transition from the third po- 
sition to the first should be made with the 
fourth finger, so that the note arrived at may 
be tested at the unison; or with the third finger, 
when it may be tested at the octave. 

One of the best means of encouraging a child’s 
interest in violin playing is to make him aware 
of his tone. Practically all violinists— even young 
ones— find tone the most personally interesting 
element of their playing, and the teacher who 
can develop this interest in his pupils is not 
lkely to find them dropping out for lack of in- 
centive. The imperative need for good intonation 
must always be kept before the student, of course, 
but he must also be trained to realize that a 
note which is played in tune with a poor tone 
is just as much a failure as a note played out 
of tune with a good tone. For this reason, the 
teacher should strive to develop and improve tone 
as soon as a steady bow can be drawn. For the 
same reason, he should make it his business to 
use the best tone at his command whenever he 
demonstrates for the pupil: a child’s ear is very 
sensitive, and the influence of the teacher’s tone 
can have a profound effect. The development of 
a good tone carries with it the necessity for a 
sensitive and relaxed bow technic, for clumsy 


bowing will rarely if ever P roduce a ple ^ 1 " 8 o in „. 
quality. Unfortunately, the teaching of bowing 
is often neglected, after the first ; f J 

in the interests of left-hand technic, 
pity, for if more care were taken with it, there 
would be more satisfied and interested v 

students. . 

The material a teacher uses is an important 

factor in determining the attitude of a studen , 
he should, therefore, have a wide acquaintance 
with the teaching material that is available, 
is by no means a good plan to use the same se 
of books for all young pupils. A child who is sen- 
sitive and self-conscious— the two qualities of- 
ten go together — may at first make quite 
slow progress, and if he finds he is not going 
through his book as rapidly as another (possibly 
less sensitive) pupil is progressing in the same 
book, he is likely, in subconscious self-defense, to 

teacher would be wise to avoid using the same 
book for both pupils. Competition between pupils 
is often a great asset to the teacher, but there 
are times when it becomes a liability. 

Suggested Material 

For general purposes, the best violin method 
is probably that of Nicholas Laoureux. It presents 
each new problem in the simplest manner; the 
verbal instructions are clearly expressed; it is 
well graded, and the exercises and studies per- 
fectly designed to develop the technical point 
that is under consideration. The photographs in 
the first volume indicate a rather old-fashioned 
method of holding the violin and bow, and may 
well be removed before the pupil begins to use 
the book. For little children, the “Very First Vio- 
lin Book” by Rob Roy Peery, Maia Bang’s “Violin 
Method,” and the “Violin Method” by Ann Hath- 
away can be strongly recommended. The “Graded 
Violin Lessons” by Louis Bostelmann have piano 
accompaniments from the beginning — which is 
interesting for the child and a spur to his 

As soon as the pupil has progressed sufficient- 
ly, he should be given a book of specialized 
studies. The “60 Studies” by Wohlfahrt are, of 
course, well known and invaluable, but many 
pupils find them dry and uninteresting. Should 
this be the case, the teacher may well substitute 
the “28 Melodious Studies” by Josephine Trott, 
for they contain much valuable material and 
some of the studies are well adapted to the de- 
velopment of bowing technic. 

Books of elementary pieces are legion, and a 
postcard to any music publishing house will bring 
catalogs from which the teacher can make an 
ample selection. Mention should be made, how- 
ever, of the “Folk and Master Melodies” by Wes- 
ley Sontag, for they are excellently graded and 
every piece is of genuine musical worth. The lat- 
ter point is of great importance in developing 
a pupil’s love of music, for a child often has in- 
stinctively good taste and quickly detects the 
cheap or meretricious. 

Ensemble playing is another ready means of 
awakening interest, and should be introduced as 
early as possible. An excellent ensemble book for 
beginners the duets start with the open strings 
—is Louis Bostelmann’s “Graded Ensemble.” 

Teaching beginners can be, and often is, a 
drudgery and a chore; on the other hand, it can 
be a series of interesting explorations. The oc- 
casional dull pupil who cannot learn is extreme- 
ly trying, there are, however, few youngsters who 
really want to study who are so unmusical that 
nothing can be made of them. And finding the 
right approach to each budding individuality 
that comes for lessons is, or should be, fascinat- 


ing work. If the teacher has within him some 
thing of the enthusiasm of the gardener and th~ 
explorer he will always enjoy teaching, and his 
pupils will enjoy studying with him. Furthermore 
he will have the satisfaction of knowing that 
through him the love and understanding 0 f mu 
sic is being brought to many who will later pass 
it on to others. To accomplish this is surely the 
mark of a successful life in music. 

Opportunities for the 
American Composer 

( Continued from Page 705) 

disheartened and completely discouraged by the 
refusals and I turned to song and ballad writing 
with the help of the poetess, Nellie Richmond 
Eberhart, then living in Homestead, Pennsyl- 
vania. At the time I was teaching nearby at 
seventy-five cents a lesson! Collaboration with 
her was most fortunate for me; it marked a de- 
cidedly favorable turn in my musical life and it 
has continued until the present. Our joint work 
takes up the biggest part of my total output. 

A Modest Beginning 

We first sold a short evangeli tic hymn to a 
Philadelphia publisher of church music. The 
modest payment we received — $2.50 — would 
scarcely appeal to a composer today. At that time 
it meant more than money. It meant a real begin- 
ning. Almost immediately came a bigger oppor- 
tunity when my musical setting of Mrs. Eberhart’s 
The Tryst was sold for ten dollars. During that 
year and the next we sold about lifteen songs for 
similar amounts, most of them of the ballad type 
which was so much in demand at the time. We 
suited our talents to the needs of the current 
market. Youth and Old Age was the ambitious 
title of my first piano piece. It was bought by the 
Theodore Presser Company and honored by John 
Philip Sousa when he played it in band arrange- 
ment at the old Pittsburgh Exposition at which 
his band played every fall. Although I sold many 
compositions, the years from 1903 to 1907 were 
filled with the usual rejection slips from many 
other songs and piano pieces I sent out to Eastern 
publishers. I was alternately discouraged and 
encouraged. Mercifully, At Dawning and From the 
Land of the Sky-Blue Water came along to win 
public approval (over three decades) and there 
were few rejection slips from then on. 

While earlier songs had been sold outright for 
cash, the arrangement made with the Oliver Dit- 
son Company concerning At Dawning marked a 
departure for us. We sold the song to them foi 
fifteen dollars, but then I asked whether, if 
could persuade Bond and John McCormack to 
do the song, they would give us the regular royalty 
contract. They agreed. We have never had cause 
to regret our little deal, for the song became a 
“hit.” Sometimes it seems that I have written 
perhaps too much, and that it would be good o 
buy up some of the compositions and shelve the 11 ^ 
On the other hand, most composers are gran e 
by Fate no more than a few real “hits,” no ma 
how many other compositions sell fairly 
are performed frequently by fine artists. ‘ 
Eberhart and I count ourselves fortunate to ha 
had at least four such songs, the two just 
tioned as well as My Desire and I Hear a 
at Eve. ( Continued on Page 74 

the etude 

Music and Study 

The Trail 

ur S. 

T HE PATH of the tempered scale is a long, 
long trail. It winds out pf the mists of 
antiquity and enters Europe from the 
Middle East. It passes through the glory that was 
Greece and the grandeur that was Rome. It is 
lost in the twilight zone of the Dark Ages, emerges 
again in the Middle Ages, widens out in the 
Renaissance, and finally becomes a broad high- 
way after Bach demonstrated its worth with his 
“Forty-eight Preludes and Fugues for the Well- 
Tempered Clavichord.” 

A tempered scale is any ladder of notes which 
modifies the “chord of nature,” the bugle tones. 
Our diatonic scale has two small steps or semi- 
tones in among the whole tones, but if tuned true 
to nature the whole tones vary in width. The 
chromatic scale has twelve half-steps, but these, 
too, are uneven unless equalized or “tempered.” 
There are other temperings than ours. There are 
Arabian, Persian, and scales more .remote which 
have smaller steps and more of them; scales with 
wider and fewer steps, carefully graded by 
mathematical calculation; and some, such as the 
five-toned pentatonic, which are but roughhewn. 
Hubert Parry says that, while the pentatonic is 
universally found, its steps differ somewhat in 
width in every region where it prevails. 

The trail of the tempered scale reveals an age- 
old conflict between voices and instruments; be- 
tween the human tendency to sing from a high 
tone down and the overtones of nature which 
rise up from a root or “fundamental.” 

A Long Misunderstanding 

The voice is a glider. It soars or dives between 
high tones and low, with no fixed ceiling and no 
permanent landing place. It has no “keynote” of 
its own from which the “steps” of the common 
chord arise, as from a bugle, requiring smaller 
steps between. A scale is a graded howl, and the 
story of the tempered scale tells how it became 

The voice also wobbles and quavers in modula- 
tions and inflections of undetermined pitch, only 
mechanically approximated by our semitones and 
quarter tones. Intuitively, the voice drops about a 
fourth, as from C to G, at the end of a sentence. 
In his “Evolution of the Art of Music,” Parry 
shows how the voice wavered and quavered about 
this lower tone in fluctuations, as wide as a whole 
tone above it, or in narrow waves only faintly 
suggested by A-flat and F-sharp. Its fluctuations 
rose above the C, also, perhaps up to E. Out of 
that grew the pentatonic scale, running down: 
E, D, C, A, G. 

Most primitive scales run downward. So do cul- 
tivated scales, and we now know, after long cen- 
turies of misunderstanding, that the ancient 
Greek modes were sung descending. When Bishop 
Ambrose of Milan tried to revive them in the 
fourth Christian century, he had them ascending. 
The resultant misunderstanding lasted until 
within the last half century, or less. 

The discovery and tempering of scale steps has 
been the province of instruments, not voices. The 
trumpet may have revealed the common chord; 
but the measurement of the steps by mathe- 
matical calculation is derived from the harp: the 
behavior of strings, short or long, thick or thin, 
at various tensions. Thick strings are heavier and 
vibrate more slowly than thin ones. 

Thousands of scholars have contributed to the 
forming and tempering of the scale, but four 
names give us the turning points of its history: 
Pythagoras, the Greek (582 B.C.) ; Claudius 
Ptolemy, the Alexandrian (second century) ; 
Gioseffe Zarlino (1517-1590) ; and Johann Sebas- 
tian Bach (1685-1750). 

Pythagoras made himself a monochord, a one- 
stringed harp with a movable bridge. He found 
that half the string-length, pitched, say at E, 
produced the octave of the whole; two-thirds 
produced a perfect fourth, E-A, and three- 
quarters gave a perfect fifth, E-B. Beyond that 
he did not go, because of a comma or “gap,” a 
little quirk in the scale of nature that may be 
better explained after we have met Claudius 
Ptolemy. The Comma of Pythagoras is what 
causes the need for the tempering of the scale. 

This Greek, however, bequeathed a pretty prob- 
lem to his disciples. If two-thirds of a string- 
produce a perfect fourth, and three-fourths a 
perfect fifth, what will the difference between 
two-thirds and three-fourths, or one-twelfth, 
produce? Call it a “tone.” Can you make an even 
scale of such whole tones between the octave? 
You cannot. Our own whole-tone scale is possible 
only if the scale is tempered. Even then, the scale 
has no perfect fourth or perfect fifth. The vital 
E-AB-E is omitted. The Greeks eventually figured 
out of these notes two descending tetrachords of 
four notes each, with E-B, and A-E as the end 
notes of each. For the middle strings they worked 
out three ways of tuning called genera: the chro- 
matic, enharmonic, and diatonic. The first two 
matter little. The chromatic crowded two half- 
steps immediately above the lower notes of the 
tetrachords, the notes B and A, making E-C2- 
C-B; A-Fj-F-E. The enharmonic dropped the 
sharps, and split the C and F each into two 

quarter tones. This was evidently in deference to 
the afore-mentioned natural drop of the voice 
and its quavering about the lower tone. Inci- 
dentally, they named these strings not according 
to pitch, but according to the way the lyre was 
held with the tone lowest in pitch farthest away. 
Thus the lowest note became the highest, and 
vice versa, to the confusion of good Bishop 

The diatonic form was like our white notes on 
the piano: the descending Dorian diatonic Mode 
running E-D-CB; A-G-FE, with two half -steps at 
the end of each tetrachord. Our ascending major 
mode reverses this: C-D-EF; G-A-BC. From the 
Dorian Mode, the Greeks finally devised a two- 
octave scale as of A-Minor. This they called the 
“Perfect System” and from it all their modes were 
derived, as the church modes were later. It had 
no half-steps, but a later Dorian Mode descending 
from D instead of E, demanded a B-flat: D-C- 
BqA; G-F-E-D. This, ascending, became the first 
of the four Ambrosian Modes, the others begin- 
ning on E, F, G. 

If Pythagoras taught us to derive tetrachords 
by measuring string-lengths, Claudius Ptolemy 
first described in full the bugle-tones or “scale 
of nature” revealed in the harmonics of a single 
string. If the whole string is tuned to C, the har- 
monic series is as follows: 

12 3 456 788 10 11 12 

The numbers reveal both the order of impor- 
tance of the notes and their ratios in string- 
lengths. If No. 1 is the whole string, No. 2 
represents one-half; No. 3 is two-thirds; No. 4 is 
three-fourths; and so on. The string-lengths vary 
inversely. Nowadays we reckon in pulsations. 
These vary conversely, doubling in the octave, 
and the ratios are 1, 1:2, 2:3, and so on. 

We are not here concerned with mathematics, 
however, but with the musical facts revealed by 
Claudius Ptolemy. Namely, that if a scale is 
formed in steps derived from the “scale of Na- 
ture,” its intervals are not in accord with ours. 
We measure intervals in scale-steps, as unisons, 
seconds, thirds, fourths. We modify these into 
major, minor, augmented, or diminished, by the 
addition or subtraction of half-steps. But Mother 
Nature admits narrower intervals than the half- 
step : small or large whole steps or even small or 
large half-steps. The notes in brackets are flatter 
than ours, and the other intervals are crowded 
or expanded accordingly. For present purposes 
this applies particularly to the perfect fifth be- 
tween Nos. 4 and 6, as we shall see presently. 

Nature is not concerned with scale making. 
Every root-tone at any pitch produces its own 
harmonics regardless of all others. Thus, if No. 1 
is F-sharp, then No. 5 would be A-sharp, but it 
would not be in accord with the B-flat derived 
from C as root. Hence the need for “tempering” 
so that one black key will do for both A-sharp 
and B-flat. 

This brings us back to the Comma of Pytha- 
goras. When a tuner tunes your piano, he goes 
round the cycle of twelve fifths: Gb-Db, Db-Ab, 
Ab-Eb, and so on till he comes to B-F# If he tuned 
in pure fifths, the final F-sharp would be one 
quarter of a semitone sharper than the original 
G-flat. That difference is what is meant by the 
Comma of Pythagoras. A Comma is simply a 
separation, a “gap.” 

To avoid the Comma, he tunes each of the 
twelve fifths one-twelfth ( Continued on Page 760) 




Music and Study 

About the C Clef 

Q. Would you please tell me about the 
different clefs? I was taught only two clefs 
and I would like to know about the others. 

— N. M. R. 

Questions and Answers 

A. You are probably thinking in terms 
of playing the piano or organ, so I will 
tell you at once that in playing keyboard 
instruments you need to know only the 
F and G clefs. However, there is also 
the C clef, which is used in the case of 
certain orchestral instruments and 
which is still to be found in much old 
church music. This clef marks Middle C, 
just as the G clef marks the G above 
and the F clef marks the F below. The 
difference is that it is not a fixed clef 
like the other two but is found on dif- 
ferent lines at different times — at least 
it appears so. Actually the C clef is al- 
ways on the same line (Middle C) and 
it is the number of lines above or below 
this line that yaries, Thus, if the range 
of the voice or instrument is mainly 
above C, the three or four lines above 
the Middle C line will be retained, thus: 

Ex.l Ex. 2 

or thus: But if the 

range of the voice or instrument is 
largely below Middle C, then these 
higher lines are omitted and several 
lines below Middle C are used, thus: 

If this is still not clear to you, proceed 
as follows: (1) take a pencil and draw 
an eleven -line staff; (2) place a C clef 
on the middle line; (3) erase the top 
three lines and the bottom three lines — 
and you have the clef on the third line 
of a five-line staff; (4) now restore all 
eleven lines as they were at first; (5) 
erase the top two and the bottom four 
lines, and presto! — the clef seems to 
have moved to the second line. But ac- 
tually it has remained on Middle C all 
the time, and it was the lines that 
changed rather than the clef. Because 
the C clef seems to change its position, 
it is often referred to as the “movable 

Change from Violin to Piano 

Q. In teaching violin beginners, I ask 
them to sing their simple or familiar tunes 
before playing them. Most children ready 
to begin a stringed instrument can do this. 
However, I now have an eleven-year-old 
girl who cannot sing a single note in time. 
Her voice is lovely; but she cannot sing any 
familiar song such as America ; and in tim- 
ing her violin, she cannot tell which of 
two tones is higher. 

At first, I gave her the kind of drill 
given to defective singers in first grade; 
but I never succeeded in getting her to 
match any single tone with her voice, and 
she disliked the singing. Because I wished 
her lesson to be pleasant, I abandoned this 
as an impractical approach to violin. 

Now, I’m trying to give her listening les- 
sons, simple ear training, and tone memory 
work; but it is slow! Am I on the right 
track? In listening, she can now recog- 
nize like phrases and different phrases, 
and can sometimes pick out Do Mi Sol. 
Since she is learning to play Do Mi Sol and 
Do Fa La in her first key, I have given 
her ear training drills on these until she 
can name any note I play. 

For accurate intonation, I have stressed 
finger placement; and after eight months 
she can play her first one-octave major 
scale in tune (and with nice tone) ; also its 


A Music Information Service 

Conducted by 

tonic and subdominant broken chords. Her 
pieces still show faulty intonation to which 
she is oblivious. 

I am so discouraged, especially when 
more experienced teachers tell me I should 
send her home, that I am just taking her 
money. She is so eager, and I still think 
it can be done. Will you help me? — F . G. L. 

A. I wish I could encourage you to 
continue your efforts, but my experience 
has taught me that children of the type 
you describe do better on the piano than 
on the violin, so my advice is that you 
urge your pupil to change to piano. It is 
possible, of course, that I may be wrong, 
but your method of attack is so peda- 
gogically correct, and the results — espe- 
cially her failure to recognize faulty 
intonation — are apparently so meager, 
that it does not seem to me wise to con- 
tinue to have such a child try to master 
so difficult an instrument as the violin. 

How to Play Ornaments or 

Q. 1. When a chord appears thus 
Ex. 1 

Mus. Doc. 

Professor Emeritus 
□berlin College 

music Editor, Webster's New 
International Dictionary 

No question will be answered in THP. ETUDE 
unless accom banied by the full name 
and address of the inquirer. Only initials, 
or pseudonym given, will be published. 

is the grace note played with the four 
notes in the bass only, or with the lower 
seven notes of the chord? 

2. In longer passages of grace notes, as in 
Chopin, would the first three or four notes 
of a group of grace notes be played with 
the bass, 

Ex. 2 

one correct way to render ornaments. 
The examples you give might be played 
one way by one artist and another way 
by the next one. 

Question About Czerny 

Q. Will you please explain the playing 
and counting of the following excerpts, 
both from “Czemy-Germer Vol. I," Part 
II, No. 2? Does the thirty-second note come 
with the last note of the triplet or after 
it? Is this treated as a two-against-three 
rhythmical problem; and how do you play 
the sixteenth note with the dot above it at 
the end of the slur?— F. C. 


chord? — Sr. St. H. P. 

A. I am sorry that I cannot answer 
either of your questions by Yes or No 
because the grace notes could be played 
either of the two ways you mention and 
still be correct. If you have any definite 
piece in mind and will copy the measure 
and send it to me, I shall be glad to give 
you my opinion. Grace notes are some- 
times played before the beat and some- 
times on it. In the days of Bach, Mozart, 
and Beethoven they were usually played 
on the beat, although even then there 
was a difference of opinion as to how 
they should be rendered. Today grace 
notes are probably played before the 
beat more often than on it. There is no 

* A . 3 Cf 3 f 




yr.-ii ft ~ ~j— I— 

! ! -- 

35 ? 

* -«*- 0 


♦ i 

A. I have not been able to find tl 
composition from which you quot 
Czerny wrote almost 1000 composition 
so this is like looking for the proverbi 
needle in a haystack. After this plea 


give the exact title, opus number 
publisher of your composition, as i and 
usually give a better answer if i c 1 ° an 
the questionable passage in its co a “ t see 
Fortunately the answer to this 
tion is obvious. The thirty-second ™ 
comes after the triplet. It i s realh , te 
matter of three against four, not t 3 
against three. Simply p l ay the thin? 
second note after the triplet, and see t 
it that the first note of each group • 
the right hand is played with the fi r « 
note of each group in the left hand 
The phrasing in the first example in 
dicates a slight shortening of the six' 
teenth note, but not abruptly. The 
second excerpt is played like the first 
except that the dotted sixteenth note is 
not separated from the following thirty- 
second. In other words, play this second 
excerpt legato. 

Music Born of Struggle for 

Q. Our Music Club, in discussing various 
subjects for study for 11143-44 has thought 
that “Music Bom of Struggles for Free- 
dom" might be a most enlightening as well 
as timely theme for study. Would you be so 
kind as to list numbers that come to your 
mind ns having been composed In times of 
struggle or stress or in commemoration of 
them? — L. C. 

A. It is hard to draw up a satisfactory 
list of music such as you arc asking for. 
In times of stress few composers turn 
their hands to describing in music the 
immediate events of the day. Such de- 
scriptive music as has been written has 
all too often been done by second-rate 
composers, and Is scarcely worth serious 
study. And when good composers have 
attempted the problem, the results have 
frequently been disappointing. On the 
other hand, the relationship of commem- 
orative music to actual events is often 

But I hope you may be able to get 
some help from the following list. The 
musical value of a few of the listed works 
may be open to question, as also may be 
the appropriateness of others. But at least 
this may serve as a starting point for 



Overtures to "Egmom and“Coriolanus 
"Symphony No. 3 ' Ei oica) ” 
“Symphony No. 5 (V Symphony)” 
“Vittoria Overture" (also called the 
“Battle Symphony") 

Schelling — “A Victory Ball” 
Shostakovich — “Symphony No. 7” 
Sibelius — “Finlandia" 

Tschaikowsky — ‘T812 Overture,” and 
Marche Slav 


Handel — Dettingen Te Deum 
Monteverdi — II combattimento di " an ~ 
credi e Clorinda 

Schumann — The Tivo Grenadiers 

Haydn — “The Emperor Quartet” 
Schumann — Faschingsschwank aus w 


Beethoven — “Fidelio” 

Bellini — “II Puritani” u 

Meyerbeer — “Les Huguenots”; “LePr°P 


Moussorgsky — “Boris Godounow , 

Rossini — “William Tell” 

Verdi— “The Sicilian Vespers” 

National anthems of various co 

the etude 

Music and Study 

The Child Who “Hates” Music 

C ONFRONTED by a child who dislikes music, 
the average music lover is perplexed, baf- 
fled, and a little exasperated at so unnatur- 
al a condition. Too many times such children are 
shrugged aside with the feeling that nothing- 
can be done for them. We have, too, the child 
who likes music but who has no inclination to 
apply himself in learning it. He hates to prac- 
tice. What can be done for such children, and 
is it a condition which occurs rather frequently? 

It comes as a surprise, perhaps, that many of 
the great masters disliked music at first. We know 
that Beethoven hated music until he was about 
eleven years old. His father, quick to see that 
the child had talent, drove him to his practice 
in order that he might earn money from playing. 
The one thing that would have made life toler- 
able — playing tunes of his own — was also for- 
bidden. When his father heard him improvising 
on his violin, he told him roughly to “scrape 
to the notes” or take his punishment. 

Yet we recall how miraculously Beethoven 
changed when he went to Neefe for lessons. This 
good musician taught him to love music, to love 
working- at it, and he encouraged Beethoven to 
compose. No matter where we find excellence in 
a musician we find in that life a friend who held 
him to his best efforts. We know that Bizet as a 
boy did not care for music but that he learned 
to love it through his study, making remarkable 
progress. Even Chopin at first showed an aversion 
to the piano, until lessons with an excellent 
teacher cured him of this. 

Mendelssohn’s mother saw that his practice 
period was not neglected, and his father was 
equally watchful that the talented Felix should 
apply himself diligently. Albert Spalding, the dis- 
tinguished American violinist, pays tribute to his 
mother s fidelity in seeing that all the fascinat- 
ing summer sports did not demoralize his prac- 
ticing. He tells frankly that, had it not been for 
her, he would have been drawn away from his 
regular practice which was building his technic. 

Seeking the Reason 

As we face the child who dislikes music it is 
useful to know first why he dislikes it. We may 
be sure there is a reason. For the natural re- 
sponse to music is one of eager anticipation. 
Somewhere that child has had a disappointing 
experience in music. 

We should never say in that child’s presence 
that he dislikes music, any more than we would 
call attention to the fact that he lisps or that 
his feet are not mates. To be unable to appreci- 
ate a great art shows serious lack. The art is 
not on trial, but we are. We should be earnestly 
concerned about such deficiency and eager to 
correct the unfortunate situation. 

Why do we want the child to study music? 
Isn't ic because we know it will lift the whole 
level of his inner life? Many 
conclude that unless the child 
loves to practice he is not 
fitted to learn music. This does 
not follow. Many things in 
music are learned, not because 
they are so much fun to 
do, but because they are so 
important. Professor Mursell 
says: “We do not have the 
child learn to read and multi- 
ply because these subjects are 
so interesting, but because 
without them he cannot pos- 
sibly be an effective member 
of civilized society.” Necessary 
elements in music are in the 
same class. He points out fur- 
ther that interest alone is not 
a reliable guide, as we may 
be interested in any whim of 
the moment. “We cannot be 
educated without being inter- 
ested,” he continues, “but we 
can be interested without be- 
ing educated.” 

Making the study and prac- 
tice of these worth-while skills 
interesting to the pupil is a 
vital aim. It is done by con- 
necting the study to the 
child’s present activities. Mod- 
ern teachers distrust “going 
through” certain books or 
courses. They prefer to teach 


the child to try to produce beautiful effects; 
then to see his weakness and assign specific re- 
medial studies, such as scales for evenness and 
certain studies for tone. The child has an aim 
that makes sense to him. He isn’t doing exer- 
cises as one takes bad medicine, because it is 
sure to be good for him in a general way. 

One girl who played beautifully was asked 
about her practicing during her school years. 
Did her mother have to make her practice? “No, 
I always rather liked to practice,” she said 
thoughtfully. “Of course I was taking of a fine 
teacher whose rates were so high that I felt I 
must practice.” Back of that girl’s playing stood 
a wise mother who presented a challenge in the 
form of the best available instruction, and it was 
one of the wisest investments she could have 

A boy said that his practice period was routine 
and that he never thought much about it. He 
“hated to stop” after he was started. He men- 
tioned that his mother never expected him to 
give up all other interests, but that his music 
studies were done just as his other subjects. 

Teacher Must be Interesting 

One of the signs of a good music teacher is 
the ability to interest and to educate the pupil. 
If the child isn’t interested perhaps a change 
of teacher is needed. At times personality factors 
as well as efficiency are the cause. Some teach- 
ers deal better with one type than another. 
Whatever the reason, when interest disappears, 
give thought to the teacher, if the child is do- 
ing his part. Likewise the teacher does well to 
prune out the pupils who are making no progress 
and to keep a waiting list of pupils who -will jus- 
tify the time and effort expended on them. They 
can avoid giving the child the feeling that his 
practice annoys others. Many children are sen- 
sitive on this point, dreading to practice for fear 
their efforts will bother others. 

Leopold Auer said that, in spite of the wealth 
of good advice on the subject, too many students 
do not know how to practice. He believed it im- 
portant to keep reminding them that bad prac- 
tice is worse than no practice, since it fixes mis- 
takes. Many children would gain new zest in 
practicing if they were taught to discard “play- 
ing through” assignments. For each repetition 
that child should havo some aim. Intensive, 
quality-practice brings ten times the results. 

Let him see that expression is not something 
that is painted on after the study of the com- 
position is complete. Let him observe the marks 
of expression from the first, let him try in each 
repetition to make the music beautiful. Professor 
Mursell says that the child should see music 
“not as a mechanical problem but as a musical 
opportunity.” That “the accursed thing in music 
educati n is not the pupil’s immediate failure 
to achieve all he hoped for or all we could wish 
in his performance. ( Continued on Page 756) 



Every little one merits an opportunity to hear the best music 


Music and Study 

Music and the Battle of Life 

* WOMAN who read one of my 
articles called “Wake Up Sing- 
■*"ing,” in the American Magazine, 
wrote me that a song saved her from 
suicide. Her husband had been killed 
suddenly, leaving her with four small 
children to support. “There were 
days,” she wrote, “when the ache in 
my heart seemed more than I could 
bear. I longed to go to sleep and never 
wake up. On one of these days th's 
feeling was so strong that I feared I 
might give in to it. In desperation 
I turned on the radio. Someone was 
singing My Creed. It brought back a 
flood of memories. I had sung it in 
school when fourteen years old and always liked 
it. The song did something to me. I sang it fre- 
quently after that, sometimes having to choke 
back sobs to do it. But it helped me, probably 
more than anything else I did, and gave me 
strength and courage to go on.” 

Innumerable inci- 
dents of the power of 
music could be given. 

We recall that in the 
last war, Nurse Edith 
Cavell faced a firing 
squad without flinch- 
ing. She had prepared 
herself to meet this or- 
deal by prayer and song. 

Her favorite hymn. 

Abide With Me. was on 
her lips till the end. In 
the Battle of the Wil- 
derness the lines of a 
brigade of the Ninth 
Army were breaking in 
riot until a Union sol- 
dier started singing The 
Battle Hymn of the Re- 
public. Soon the entire 
regiment joined. The 
lines stiffened and held. 

More incidents could be 
added; that of surviv- 
ors clinging to a sink- 
ing seaplane and sing- 
ing to keep up their 
strength until rescued; 
of the small boy who 
whistles while passing 
the graveyard at night. 

No doubt, you recall 
some from your own ex- 
perience. Probably the 

greatest gift that the priceless heritage of music 
has to offer is courage. 

Music gives us hope to replace hopelessness. I 
am reminded of the famous picture of that name; 
a girl sitting atop a stricken world, strumming a 
harp and bending low to catch its feeble notes. 
Without music, hope would indeed be gone from 
the world. In the bomb shelters of London, human 
beings from tiny tots to very aged men and 
women found music invaluable. 

Music also gives us fortitude to face the “stings 

724 ' 


Why Music Gives Us Courage 

^t)oron sdnlrun 

So many people now are employing music to fortify them- 
selves against the vast number of tribulations brought 
about by world conditions that a survey of its application 
in special cases is of real present interest . — Eoitor s Note. 

and arrows” of life. England especially was made 
aware of this in wartime. When the war started, 
England banned all military bands, feeling that 
the men were needed to carry guns. The idea still 
persists that music is incidental and not a life 
element, such as sunshine and fresh air. But the 

lack of music was felt 
in wartime England. It 
was found necessary to 
bolster morale — which 
is basically faith, hope, 
and courage. As a re- 
sult, over one hundred 
bands were reinstated, 
and England began to 
encourage music mak- 

During the sky-blitz 
in England, the or- 
ganized Flying Music 
Squads gave emergency 
concerts for people who 
lost their homes. Music 
was installed in war 
factories. The British 
Broadcasting Company 
concentrated on uplift 
music, putting on pro- 
grams day and night. 
Such artists as Myra 
Hess gave frequent con- 
certs in London. The 
city was undergoing a 
bombing during one of 
these concerts, but the 
people who packed the 
hail snowed no inclina- 
tion to seek safer quar- 
ters and the concert 
continued as usual. A 
man was buried in the 
cellar of his home and pinned under a beam 
Phonograph music kept up his spirits until they 
dug him out. Children were trained to sing on 
their way to and from safety shelters and panic 
was thus often averted. 

In fact, England has set the world a strikin- 
example of the ability of its people to “take it” 
and to the music program must go much of the 
credit. Instead of getting along with less music 
in wartime, as was at first thought expedient 
England has found it necessary to have more 


P’CturP hn Arf'-hrtftheff 
Courtesy of RCA-Victor 


than ever. As a result of its stepped- 
up music activity, the British Broad- 
casting Company reports, “A great 
revival of interest in music”; “ a re- 
turn to the classics”; and “a greater 
realization of the richness of the na- 
tional heritage in music and its in- 
nate suitability to the rank and file 
of the British people.” 

Why does music give us courage? 
The reasons are physiological and 
psychological. It has been found to 
quicken and steady the pulse beat, to 
induce deeper and more rhythmical 
breathing, to influence the internal 
glands. Psychologically, it substi- 
tutes hope for discouragement and depression. 

But one of the chief reasons is that composers 
invariably put courage into their music. Search 
through the works of the great composers and 
you find few that reflect a negative, pessimistic 
attitude toward life, comparable to the writings 
of Nietzsche and Schopenhauer in literature. 
True, most of the classic composers were none 
too happy. They had their share of money 
troubles and poor health. One thinks especially 
of Beethoven, Schumann, Chopin, Rachmaninoff. 
But their works do not give over unresignedly 
to suffering and despair -rather they show a 
triumph of the spirit over the flesh. . 

Music and Courage 

Beethoven is an especially good example. For 
twenty-five years of his life he was afflicted with 
deafness, which is about the worst calamity that 
can befall a musician. Beethoven tried many cures 
in vain. He once wrote to a friend, "I must live 
like an exile . . if I approach near to people, 
a hot terror seizes me, a fear that I may be sub- 
jected to the danger of having my condition 
observed.” And again later on, “hope — I must 
wholly abandon.” How could a man who had 
abandoned hope write hopeful music? And yet 
Beethoven did his greatest work during the years 
of his deafness. He never heard a note of the 
“Ninth Symphony,” closing with its Ode to Joy. 
Still, one always gets a great lift out of this work. 
It is a complete triumph of the soul over the 

Handel wrote “The Messiah” when his right 
side was paralyzed and his money gone. Creditors 
were hounding him, threatening to put him in 
jail. Did he give in to doubt, despair, and dis- 
couragement? If he had, our pulses would never 
have quickened to one of the most hopeful epics 
in all music literature, the Hallelujah Chorus. 

In the short span of his forty years, Chopin 
was almost never free from the scourge of tuber- 
culosis, He was slight and frail, a weakling physi- 
cally. Yet his music is not tinctured with any 
taint of weakness. Jt is mostly up-curve, tpeming 
with vim, affirmative in its declaration that lif e 
is good. 

Rachmaninoff would occasionally fall into per- 
iods of utter discouragement, induced largely by 
anemia from which he suffered for many years. 
This induced extreme lassitude leading to disin- 
clination to work. At ( Continued on Page 754) 



Much of the charm of the tango type of composition rests in a strict observance of the rhythm of the first half of the measure. If played with care- 
less time values of the notes, the character of the piece is lost. Also observe the staccato marks very strictly. Grade 3. 

Copyright 1943 by Theodore Presser Co. British Copyright secured 

November 1943 




Schumann said that this merry little piece from his “Album for the Young”'was to be played “with joyous feeling!’ In the middle sectionCin the 
thirteenth full measure ol the composition) the acciaccatura note D is generally played with the bass, as though you were playing a chord, reading 
from the lowest note up wards- A, Cl, D, E (tied). The C$ is then played as rapidly as possible. Grade 3. 

Joyfully m M J-ioo ^ , JU. ROBERT SCHUMANN, Op. 68, No.24 


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This, the most popular composition of Chopins, is reprinted by request. It last appeared in The Etude twenty-seven years ago, alt hough it was first print 
ed in this magazine fifty-five years ago. It differsquite radically from the other Chopin Nocturnes in that it partakes more of the nature of a sentimental 
salon piece. It has, however, a dreamy loveliness which is often abused by excessive employment of tempo rubato. The Etude suggests t hat a delightful w av 
of studying this work is to secure, if possible, the.Victor records by Paderewski (V. - 7416) and by Rachmaninoff (V. - 6781), and strive through them 
to make an individual interpretation embodying your own ideas. Grade 5. 

Andante M.M. J ^=120 







Grade 3*. 

Copyright 1943 by Theodore Presser Co. British Copyright secured 

NOVEMBER 1943 731 




Poco allegretto e leggiero m. m. J = 120 Arr ’ by Geoffre Y Montrose 

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British Copyright secured 


Hugh Arnold 

Poco allegretto e leggiero M. M. J = 120 


Arr. by Geoffrey Montrose 



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We are sol-diers brave and strong; Were nev-er,nev-er a - 


Left, right, left we march a-long;We’re 

sol-diers on pa- 


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’^Lis-ten to our 

cheer-y song; We 

whis-tle as we 

tramp a -long. 

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Solo or Unison Chorus 

A stirring, patriotic hymn, the words of which were suggested by Rudyard Kipling’s “Recessional.” The author and composer, t h e Jate Dr.GeorgeL. 
Lindsay, was'Director of Music of the Public School System of Philadelphia. The work is dedicated to “Education for Freedom” and the Educational 
Policies Commission of the National Education Association. Words and Music by GEORGE LE ROY LINDSAY 

Allegro maestoso m.m. J=96 - . . J- JU j 

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1. God of free peo - pies, guide our land In paths of right, hu - mil - i - ty. 

3. March-liig fretn. eoun • try - side, and' town We sail the seas to dis - taut lands, 

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ways of truth to right all wrong, Through ways of truth to right all wroim 

us Thypow-er from a - bove, Send us Thypow-er from a boye 

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mine and mart, shop, home, andfield, 

Copyright 1943 by Theodore Presser Co. 

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We of the lands which Thou hast blessed, Grant us Thylightfrom sun to sun. God of free peo-ples .make us strong, Through 

Weak soulsa nd strong, hold fast th e pace, Ne’er Free-do m’s law to dcs - pots yield. God of free peo-ples, make us strong, Through 




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And lift the Torch of Lib - er - ty,They- giv-ing all-have glo - ri-fied. God of free peo-ples, hear our pray’r, Grant 

us pure hearts, Thy light to share, Grant us pure hearts, Thy light to share 

a tempo 


November 19 13 


Elizabeth Evelyn Moore 

A.s. C.A.P. 


Fervently and with devotion ^ 

gus ™^«m 

Lord, make our Jit-tJe liousea home, 

A place where peo-ple like to come, 

A place where ehil-dren Jiketo 


jVnd iamp-Jight glow when day-light ends. 

Vtf Slightlv faster 

If troub-Jes come, astroub-les 

Make this the place to see them through; 

Give us not fam - ine, nor yet 

Copyright MCMXIIII by Oliver Ditson Company 

International Copyright secured 



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With lesson by Dr. Guy Maier on opposite page. 

the etude 


, ."1 n ~ 

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The Technic nf the Month 

Conducted by (juy Hjtticr 

Prelude in A Minor, Dp. BB, No. 2 

' CL P in. 

l)if fdredet 

H ERE’S an effective trick to play 
on your musical friends, espe- 
cially those who pride them- 
selves on their ability to recognize 
the “style” of any great composer the 
moment they hear one of his com- 
positions . . . Play this strange prelude 
to them without offering a hint con- 
cerning its origin. Then let them 
guess who wrote it. After a long 
pause, someone will hazard “Proko- 
fleff” or “Stravinsky.” Someone else 
will offer “Rachmaninoff” or “Scria- 
bine.” After much hemming and 
hawing they will finally confess 
themselves stumped. Then it’s great 
fun seeing them squirm when you say 

Yes, for Chopin this second prelude 
is an astonishing and baffling piece. 
It has obfuscated every one of those 
"romantic” commentators on Chopin’s 
music (led of course by the redoubt- 
able Huneker) who for a hundred 
years have gone into transports of 
despair over it. They call it “shudder- 
some and sinister,” “desperate and 
exasperating,” and claim that in it 
are concentrated Chopin’s “mor- 
bidity,” his “aversion to life,” all his 
“anti-pathetic qualities.” They find 
in it also a “self-induced hypnosis” 
and a “mental and emotional 
atrophy.” They even go so far as to 
brand the immortal Frederic a “true 
lycanthrope,” which, if you must 
know, is a demented man who 
imagines himself to be a wolf — in 
fact a werewolf! Poor Chopin! 

One of the most famous “Chopin- 
zees” — could it have been Vladimir 
de Pachmann? — described the mood 
of the prelude as “arriving home to 
your bleak, empty house after the 
funeral of your wife and ten chil- 

So, we are told, of depths and dregs 
of despair there is no end in this 
modest little composition. But whether 
or not Chopin intended tp portray all 
the shattering tragedy read into it 
by the romantics, the fact remains 

that the piece is a bitter pill of power- 
ful concentration. Regarding it un- 
emotionally, the pianist finds it an 
effective study in dissonances, a fas- 
cinating example of the piece “with- 
out a key” — its tonality remains 
vague to the end — a curious exhibit 
in melodic expansion and contrac- 
tion, and a good stretching exercise 
for the left hand. Small hands 
tackling the piece will probably have 
to divide the left hand part into two 
hands wherever practicable, some- 
what like this: 

At best it is almost impossible to 
play this left hand strictly legato; so 
to avoid tenseness I advise bringing 
the damper pedal to the rescue when- 
ever necessary. 

Note particularly the Alla Breve 
•§ meter. With two gentle “swings” in 
every measure, Chopin eliminates 
the deadly, dragging, four-four tempo 
which, persisted in, ruins the con- 
tinuity of the piece. Play the melody 
with exaggerated emphasis and with 
large, free arm movement. Each time 
it appears it must ring forth like a 
deep fateful pronouncement of im- 
pending doom. This bell-like sonority 
can be much enhanced by careful 
“echo” treatment of the repeated 
melody tones in Measures 6, 11, 18, 
and 21. The clouded, distantly jangl- 
ing effect of the left hand is achieved 
by an occasional long-held damper 
pedal, as indicated. 

Dragging the tempo is avoided by a 
gentle, full-arm stress of the left 
hand on first and third beats of the 
measure. . . . Hold the vitality of the 
tone right through to the dominant 
seventh chord in the second to last 
measure. Then roll the final A minor 
chord slowly, heavily, and ominously. 

Bruckner’s Advice 

bu 2)r. Cj conge 13 erg 

Many very great musicians when they have attempted to teach 
others have had great difficulty in devising methods of study. 
Even Rimsky-Korsakoff had to write his own book on harmony 
before he was able to teach the subject to his satisfaction. When 
Anton Bruckner closed one of his classes in composition at the 
Vienna Conservatory, he said, “Gentlemen, I have taught you how 
it is to be done. I, myself, do it differently.” 


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November, 1943 



Opportunities for the American Composer 

( Continued from Page 720) 

Strangely enough, it was this very 
success as a song- writer which did the 
most to hold me back when I en- 
deavored to secure the performances 
of larger works. The first major work 
I attempted was an American Indian 
opera in three acts, a pioneer effort. 
This was “Daoma,” as yet unpro- 
duced, though an aria from it has 
won a prize. Mrs. Eberhart and I 
worked on it for six years. The story 
was furnished by Francis La Flesche, 
the Omaha Indian ethnologist. It con- 
tains many genuine American Indian 
tunes, some to be sung just as we re- 
ceived them from their primitive 

Because I was a successful song 
writer, a few unkind critics began to 
say that I was incapable of doing 
other forms of music. This natural- 
ly worked against me when the 
opera was submitted for production. 
Daoma” was definitely turned down. 
The formal reason given was that 
racial subjects were not acceptable, 
though American subjects were wel- 

A New Era Begins 

At the time of the last World War 
there was a patriotic revival during 
which people suddenly became con- 
scious of the American composer and 
wanted to hear more of his music. 
People who formerly had ignored 
him, were now anxious to court him. 
Many of these, however, promptly 
forgot him after the war was over 
and returned to praising exclusively 
the music of foreigners. About this 
time Mr. Gatti-Casazza of the Metro- 
politan Opera House asked A. Walter 
Kramer if he knew of any American 
opera they could produce. Mr. Kramer 
wired me and, fortunately, Mrs. Eber- 
hart and I had just completed what 
was intended to be a chamber opera. 
This was, in a sense, an echo from 
the past, for in our first “ice-break- 
ing” song, The Tryst (which was 
based on an Indian and Western 
idea) the maiden’s name was Shane- 
wis. When we wrote our opera we 
decided to name the heroine Shane- 
wis. It was an auspicious name, for 
to our immense surprise, the Metro- 
politan accepted the opera. It was 
pioduced in 1918 with the American 
cast on which I had insisted. The 
audience gave it a fine reception and 
critics were enthusiastic. There were 
more than a score of curtain calls. 

About 1914 I wrote my first cham- 
ber music: a “Trio in D Major.” I 
claim that the third movement, in 
in which I used idealized ragtime, 
was the first inclusion of such 
rhythms into American chamber 
music. From then on I wrote a great 
deal of chamber and orchestral 

You ask whether conditions have 
changed for the American composer 
since I began to write. I find that I 

still have the same things to contend 
with. By that I mean that almost 
every American composer still has 
to fight to get his better works be- 
fore the public. Foreign conductors, 
though rapidly becoming more toler- 
ant, are still not too inclined to give 
us more than sporadic hearings. The 
situation is improving, for many con- 
ductors are adopting the healthy 
plan of presenting at least one Amer- 
ican work on every program. I also 
boldly make the statement that our 
fine American conductors could do 
more to champion American music. 
It is true that they have done a great 
deal, yet I think they too should in- 
sist upon playing one native work on 
every concert. A policy of this sort, 
consistently followed, would react in 
their favor as well as in ours. 

As for the concert halls, most 
American and European (adopted- 
American) artists are still not very 
enterprising about putting new 
American things into their pro- 
grams. Either through indifference 
or lethargy or lack of courage they 
pass them by and- “cannot seem to 
find,” as they say “good enough 
American things.” That is a ridic- 
ulous statement, for there are plenty 
of splendid American things pub- 
lished and waiting to be bought and 
used. If, as they sometimes declare, 
there are no orchestrations available 
so that these American songs, ballads, 
and art-songs can be sung more over 
the radio in place of the usual arias 
from foreign operas, why cannot 
publishers and radio stations have 
orchestrations made? They do it for 
other compositions. 

Music teachers (those who teach in 
public schools as well as those who 
teach privately) have also an im- 
portant part to play. If American 
money is to be spent on lessons, con- 
certs, buying sheet music for study 
purposes, let it be spent, in large 
measure, on American music. Let our 
children grow up with a full knowl- 
edge of their own heritage. 

During the past ten years com- 
posers in America have become a 
little more aware of their surround- 
ings and have been trying hard to 
bring a refreshing aspect to our 
music. Among the more modern 
writers there is a tendency to avoid 
native characteristics and to write in 
what may be termed a universal 
style. I have always held, even when 
I advocated the use of American 
folk material as the only true Amer- 
ican music (a theory I do not now 
hold) , that it is best not to write too 
consciously in that idiom. By that I 
mean that composers should express 
themselves sincerely in an idiom best 
suited to their particular talents. And 
if any American spirit permeates 
their work, let it come unconsciously 
and not consciously. In that way the 
idea of universal appeal may become 

more potent. Audiences are not too 
interested in analyzing what they 
hear; they simply want it to have the 
necessary appeal as music. 

Now I have no regular hours for 
composing. I feel that a composer has 
a duty to his correspondents and that 
he owes them the courtesy of a per- 
sonal reply, so I try to take care of 
business and personal mail myself. 
This sometimes occupies so much 
time as to interfere with all creative 
urge. But if I plan well I find plenty 
of time for creative work, though I 
never have any set rules. Sometimes 
I start work in the morning, and 
sometimes after my office work is 
finished. Once in a while I work into 
the night, though I consider night 
work physically wearing for creative 
artists. I work both at the piano and 
away from it. Usually I get ideas at 
the piano even for symphonic works, 
and sketch them on from four to 
eight staves, later scoring from those 
sketches with a board on my lap, 
outdoors when the weather permits. 
For example, I did all the scoring of 
my first symphony. “Pennsylvania” 
(conceived and put down first on the 
Island of St. Croix in the Virgin Is- 
lands, West Indies) at the MacDowell 
Colony. At times I worked in the 
quiet studio on a table away from 
any piano, or else out in the little 
fenced-in yard under a pine tree 
on the Colony grounds. 

The Voice Teacher and 
the Speaking Voice 

( Continued from Page 713) 

the tone will begin to be heard as 
that coming from a paper placed 
over a comb through which we speak 
or sing. 

Project n. To cause the front head 
section of the head “wave” to vi- 

Exercise: With some strength of 
articulation say “kee”-“nee” or 

use the same p itch em - 
P oyed in the previous exercise. Con- 

n? f6el much vibra tion 
in the front head. Nasality, “snuf- 
fling, and over-brittleness are met 
by greater emphasis on the mouth 

lncIudin e a slightly lowered 
jaw that owns no tightness. 

mouthTn th' T ° empl0y the front 
mouth in the mouth “wave.” 

ctosed C i™ S ,l”“ ne wlth th « month 

Exercise: Repeat the exercise 
given with “lah” - “L” ?, J ,? St 

“loh” - “looh” Thi* y " Iee - 
vowel * 

5SS?£f the - 


“wave.” ’ mouth 

tion^fiund A f SS ° Ciating the sen sa- 

PhonetfcsTive^s C^fee^! 

“wan," add to them the sen* 
produced by articulating “ a h 
ing meanwhile of the back . 
associated with the other „525 &S 

regions. The particularized 

with the beginner - th 0at 


throatiness. Read poetry and Sh T° te 
peare aloud, employing the ~ 
emotion, the physiological PY J of 
of which begins at the dianhrf° n 
Or speak as though you £e^ 
Italian, who employs an open thrn*! 
and an expansive vowel, such worf 
as “Italia ” “Sardinia,” -BoS^S 

f a L Ur !i l tate ° f the thr °at appear 
to be that of tending toward cE? 

probably Nature’s provision for k een 
ing out foreign substances from 
lungs, especially during the hours o 
sleep.) We must expand the wall 
of the mouth “tube” slightly j ust a 
we inflate the inner tube of an auto 
mobile. This is necessary if the sound 
issuing through the mouth “wave” h 
to contact these walls to secure that 
adequate degree of mellowness which 
offsets the brittle quality of the head 
“wave” so that the two inclusive 
quali.ies of tone combined will be 
heard in their correct proportion-a 
proportion that is probably mathe- 
matical and which should be the goal 
of every singer and speaker who 
aspires to maximum beauty of pro- 

Project V. To secure the full, or- 
ganic tone. 

Exercise: Say "kee”-“nee”-“wan”- 
“ah,” each time allowing the mind 
to attend specifically to the anatomi- 
cal region peculiarly aroused by each 
phonetic. ("Ah,” as explained, must 
not be too much mentally particular- 
ized in the back mouth in disassocia- 
tion from the other regions.) Now 
pause. During this pause think of all 
the anatomical regions as four com- 
partments or rooms whose charac- 
teristic sounds in their full sum 
phonated together as one unit or 
totality give a correlated, coordi- 
nated, organic tone that is complete, 
adequate, perfectly balanced, and 
beautiful. Now with clear enuncia- 
tion say “ah” or “oh” or “ay”— 
with the intention of fulfilling these 
requirements. Success means the 
realization of the two “waves” in cor- 
rect proportion. If you succeed, you 
are ready to proceed with words, 
phrases, sentences, and the several 
qualities of speech used in interpre- 
tation such as the oral, normal, and 
orotund qualities. When the trained 
car of the teacher has become ac- 
customed to the tone characteristic 
of each region, he is then able to 
hear any such characteristic out- 
stand or, what is harder, detect its 
absence or diminished functioning. 
In other words, maximum voice is 
analogous to the cooperative action 
of the cylinders of an automobile. 
If one or more cylinders are inactive 
or only partly active, the burden 
falls on the other cylinders so that 
speed, ease, and power are not fully 
realized. And, as we attend to the 
( Continued on Page 763) 






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No question will be answered in THE ETUDE unless accompanied by the full name 
and address of the inquirer. Only initials, or pseudonym given, will be published. 

Charts of tlio Resonance Chambers 

Q. In The Etude for October , 1940. Jussi 
Bjoerling made the statement that to facilitate 
the proper resonating of the breath, the student 
should study charts that show exactly how the 
air passes into the chambers of resonance. 
Please tell me where I can find such charts. 

2. In singing a succession of fast, staccato 
notes should one take a short breath before 
each note? — R. J. 

A. Many singing books contain charts which 
purport to show the shape of the bones and 
cavities of the head and face. You might look 
at the plates in Proschowski’s "Singing School.'* 
However, if you are really serious in your de- 
sire to thoroughly understand this subject, bor- 
row a human skull from a medical school, and 
study it for an hour or two. Examine its struc- 
ture carefully. Put your fingers into the vari- 
ous cavities and also touch the delicate, bony 
structures in and about the nose. You will see 
for yourself how marvelously it has been 
formed by nature for the purposes of resonance. 
By this method you will learn more about the 
resonance of the bones and cavities in an hour, 
than you will by looking at charts for months. 

2. When singing fast, staccato passages it is 
quite impossible to take a breath before each 
tone. You will not have time enough. The 
staccato is produced by closing and opening 
the glottis rapidly.' Do not use too strong a 
pressure of breath. The quick but gentle mo- 
tions of the breathing muscles can be easily 
felt by placing the hand upon the upper abdo- 

Some Songs by Handel 

Q. When may I use the following arias in 
church: Rejoice Greatly O Daughter of Zion 
from “The Messiah ” and O Had I Jubal’s Lyre 
from “Joshua”? 

2. Send me, please, a list of German-English 
sacred songs for high voice. — V. G. 

A. Both the songs you mention are from ora- 
torios and so may be sung during church serv- 
ices. In spite of its coloratura character. Rejoice 
Greatly from “The Messiah” is distinctly re- 
ligious in feeling. It is usually sung around the 
Christmas holidays, but there is no reason why 
it could not be sung at other seasons. O Had I 
Jubal’s Lyre is another song that requires a 
clear coloratura soprano voice to do it justice. 
Many famous singers use it in concert because 
of its beauty and its brilliant, rather showy, 
character. Even though it is taken from an ora- 
torio, it is not distinctly religious. If you wish 
to use it in church it would be wise to consult 
the minister to find out if it fits in with his 

2. A list of sacred songs with both German 
and English words would be too long to publish 
here. We would suggest Alleluia by Hummel, 
Miriam’s Song of Triumph by Reinecke, My 
Heart ever Faithful by Bach, Sighing. Weeping 
by the same composer, and Maria’s Wiegenlied 
by Max Reger. 

Christmas Songs for a Concert 
Preceding a Midnight Mass 

Q. I have been asked to sing a Christmas 
song in a concert preceding a Midnight Mass 
in a Catholic Church. My range is from Mid- 
dle-C to A two octaves above, and my sweet- 
est tones are from Middle-C to F above. Please 
suggest several songs which are not too diffi- 
cult. I have heard that singing in Latin is 
preferred, but that English is permissible. 

— P. D. V. 

A. There are many beautiful songs usually 
included in the ritual of the Catholic Church, 
such as Ave Maria, especially the setting by 
Bach-Gounod, Veni Creator settings by several 
composers, and Panis Angelicus in Cesar 
Franck’s lovely setting. It might be unwise to 
sing any songs in the concert preceding the 
Midnight Mass without consulting the rector 
of the church, who would be pleased, we feel 
sure, to give you advice and help. 

The Singer Who Tires Easily 

Q. I am fifteen, have studied the piano for 
some time and I have started studying French. 
Some day I want to become a good singer. 
Should I start now? 

2. After I sing for a while I am all tired out 
and out of breath. What is the cause? 

3. Has olive oil and cod liver oil anything 
to do with the voice? 

4. I go to school every day except Saturday 
and I work on Saturday and Sunday. There- 
fore, as I study piano and French, I have little 
time to take a singing lesson every week. Would 
it be all right to take one every two weeks, 
or should I wait? — H. S. 

A. As we have pointed out so often in these 
columns, only an unusually strong and well- 
developed girl is able to stand intensive sing- 
ing lessons at your age. You should start study- 
ing if you can, but you and your teacher should 
be willing to take things easy for a year or two. 

2 and 3. The fact that you have been recom- 
mended to take olive oil and cod-liver oil seems 
to indicate that you are rather slender and not 
very robust. Naturally you tire easily when you 
sing and soon get “out of breath.” It seems to 
us that you should consult your family physi- 
cian, and have him explain carefully just how 
you should live to gain weight, strength and 
endurance, so that you may go on successfully 
with your chosen work. He should also indi- 
cate for you a diet rich in vitamins. 

4. You have outlined a tremendously difficult 
schedule for a young girl, and if you are not 
careful your health may give way under it. 
It is all right to be ambitious, but you must be 
reasonable as well. Can you not find someone 
in your town to aid you, either a person or an 
institution V Certainly one lesson every two 
weeks is better than none, but not nearly as 
good as two lessons each week. You are very 
brave, and we wish you every good luck. 

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November, 1943 



Fhe Modern Organ in the Music World 

(Continued jrom Page 715 ) 

problem and the silly extremes to 
which we go, we must look at the 
classical and romantic orchestra. 

gan, in attempting vainly to com- 

n 0 f 0 i . This important historical fact is 

and millions 6 have'S 2 S 1 fi°S weII ^ h fo ^ otten *** in church ' 

II. Organ and Orchestra 
React on Each Other 

Bach’s classical organ was incap- 
able of dynamic expression because 
his orchestra also was like that. 
The concerto grosso of the early 
eighteenth century was for two 
groups of players comparable to two 
manuals on an organ. The dynamic 
effects were in opposition, echo ef- 
fects, and tuttis. 

The orchestral crescendo and the 
organ swell -box were invented about 
the same time. So, when the orches- 
tra came to be a much more sensa- 
tive medium, in the late eighteenth 
century, the masters, such as Haydn 
and Mozart, found it much more ex- 
citing than the organ. One easy les- 
son in music history is to associate 
the early 1700’s with the organs, 
choruses, and non-dynamic orches- 
tras of Bach and Handel; the late 
1700’s with the singers and sing- 
ing orchestras of Gluck. Haydn, 
and Mozart (usually without organ) . 
Gluck and Haydn wrote no organ 
music, Mozart wrote organ solos only 
for a mechanical instrument. 

In the nineteenth century, the 
organ came back in a bic/ way 
Everything got bigger. The orchestra 
“grew” enormously, reinforced by the 
brass band, and the organ did like- 
wise. Organs blown by machinery had 
big pipes up to 64-foot length, and 
heavy reeds. The organ became to 
the average concert-goer what the 
symphony orchestra is today. Band 
concerts were common, but very few 
people heard symphony orchestras. 
William T. Best (1826-1897) and his 
disciples, such as Edwin H. Lemare, 

and millions have lost sight of its 
real virtues and potentialities. Mu- 
sical snobs, on one hand, extol the 
classical organ, saying, as one did 
recently, “Thank goodness, there isn’t 
one thing in my organ which the 
public will like.” On the other hand, 
ignorant Musikanten and emotional 
debauchees who find no expression 
unless dynamics are exaggerated, 
make the organ a sobbing mon- 

The same strange extremes are 
found in the modern orchestra — on 
one hand the neo-classical, “mechan- 
istic” orchestra of Stravinsky and his 
kind; on the other hand, the sob- 
bing dance orchestras and wailing 
crooners that imitate the old movie 
organ, and vice versa. Hard, uncom- 
promising dissonance in modern mu- 
sic is a reaction against the lush, 
rich sweetness of late nineteenth- 
century romanticism. This roman- 
ticism came to a climax in Tschai- 
kowsky’s last symphonic movement. 
The Finale of his “Sixth (Pathetique)' 
Symphony” is a wail of despair 
which has been transcribed very 
successfully for the romantic organ 
The Adagio lamentoso is a great fav- 
orite still with pessimistic music lov- 
er ® 7? 10 take their pleasures sadly; 
and the gloom of such music is heard 
m our “popular” music as it never 
was in the Gay ’Nineties. 

The romantic organ is practically 
the only one we hear on the radio 
today. While the music for our Aims 
!S no longer organ music, but that 
of the world’s finest orchestras, the 
radio stations seem to be getting 
on with old sob-boxes that were 
thrown out of the movies years ago. 
The electronic organ is used, not for 

porter, or of a “filler-in.” The cri- 
terion for “beautiful” organ-tone 
and for effective playing was for cen- 
turies, therefore, the ability of or- 
gans and organists to be “good 

This important historical fact is 

es where the a cappella choir gets 
along without the organ, and where 
the congregation gets by without 
singing. A few churches maintain 
the folk-spirit by having orchestral 
instruments with choir, organ, and 
congregation. As a rule the last three 
do not welcome the orchestra, and 
very few architects have made any 
place for it in the organ gallery. 
The war is changing this, however. 
On one hand, men and women in 
the service all over the world are 
learning to sing with and welcome 
whatever accompaniments they can 
get, from an ocarina to a military 
band or dance orchestra. On the 
other hand, here at home many an or- 
ganist and director may find it ad- 
visable to bring in a violoncello or 
clarinet, or even a sax, to replace 
the tenor who was drafted last week. 
All signs point, also, to a great re- 
vival of congregational singing. The 
organ and the organist must then 
be ready to support that singing and 
thereby perform the main function 
for which they are needed. It’s high 

, t ™ e .. th , at ,_ the or S an condescended 
to Meet the People.” 

Ten Tips for Beginning 

h Wary 2)e 


C J^= G . CALM ; -d ‘‘remem- 

h remem- 

=s-r S "Sr 

sr&srzs 1 ssss %!?***& 

ing effects on horror programs, 

These transcriptions are unneces- 
sary now, but they performed a great 
service then. I myself never heard 
the music of “Tristan and Isolde” un- 
til my twenties, when Lemare played 
The Prelude and Love-Death at an 

of the super-romantic. LatelyMt teste^h S ? me ° f the foll «wing "tips 
'» spine-chill- help 

combination of poise arnfm” , that 

"• 18 t£E£ M ' aic °' SSi the ha “ matl ‘ of th “S 

poS t r fzzs £ ~ sSKr * £? s. z: 

must see t0 ifc that minutes bPfnL C ^ rChatleast fifteen 

organists’ convention in Asburv Park as a musical getting Be at ' J “ iy aiQ s ror- 

New Jersey- But that gave a greater’ TheaShf haT 866 t0 ifc that «es befSj S? 1 ^ fifteen 

thrill then than the best phonograph classi raFL h “ restored , that ing. A quarter If * l t0 Start P lay ‘ 

record of an orchestra gives now h fth ” d romantic elements are ample time Vo t l h ° ur sh °uW be 
Today the tables are turned The and that mhfuteThUU^ IT ° f last ' 

and shoes ? Ut on y°ur robe 

orchestra gives now. 
Today the tables are turned. The 
symphony has become so common 
and so magnificent that some of our 



orgnn tries neither to toS ™r tob, 

human voice. ^ “ *>» 

rtf, 7 — ~ cnidiige youi 

high schoil orche'stTaV 5 ay” Petto “tT ”n o , ' 5 

than most European orchestras did tr> T R l d classical organ, of are readv tn P re set ’ and you 

in the 1800’s, when great symphonS &nd Baro ^ ue Periods, slow de 6D b rSl’ take two or three 

were written. To Was always bein 8 ' used with orches- w,7wI P breaths - This little UZ 

----- w - en ereat OTPhmles a asi»sr=sK =-■ sr ^ s 

the service to and aler t for 

were written. To hear Bach’s organ 
music, people now listen to tran- 
scriptions for orchestra, with gor- 
geous improvements (?) by Stokow- 
ski, Schonberg, and others. The or- 


- — o uxuxies- 

tral instruments and voices. Even the 
impressive volumes of organ solos 

the service to follow. 

written by Bach and composers be- Nervousnes^l io ° heav y pedal stops 
fore him must not blind us to the usuallv sctn W the youn & organist 
fact that the role of the oraan usually steles in the feet, if font 

(Continued on Page 759 ) 

organ was 

holographs of 

Wagner Operas 

So„eN«abUCha,„ aMslrett 
Wagner s Imagination 

as seen by 
Harvey Peake 




A Valkyrie 


(ry Katklean -fitmout 

Teachers have told us how grateful they were 
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teaching practice, it is no wonder that her 
works gain in popularity every year. Here is a 
partial listing of Kathleen Armour's numbers 
available in Century Edition at 15c a copy. 

3467 Auld Lang Syne 0—2 

3148 Babette, C— 1 

3462 Camptown Races (Foster) C— 1 

3468 Carry Me Back to Old Virginny G — 2 

3155 Darting In and Out C— 1 

3175 Dark Eyes Dm— 3 

3469 Dixie (Emmett) C — 2 

3463 Goodnight Ladies F— 1 

3154 In Rose Time B-flat— I 

3470 Jingle Bells G — 2 

3145 Little Dutch Dance F— 2 

3146 Luise G — 1 

3147 Marietta C — 1 

3156 Moonlight Waltz C — 1 

3471 By Bonnie Lies Over the Ocean C — 2 

3150 Nannette F— 1 

3464 Oh Susanna (Foster) C — 1 

3465 Old Folks at Home (Foster) C — 1 

3466 Polly Wolly Doodle F— I 

3151 Roaming Up and Down C— 1 

3153 Shepherd’s Lullaby. The C — 1 

3144 Singing in the Glen C — 2 

3157 Soldiers All C— 1 

3472 Star Spangled Banner G — 2 

3192 Two Guitars F— 2 

3152 Wandering Minstrel, The C — 1 

A Modern Piano Method for Beginners 

3196 Part I— 

Learning the Lotters on the Keyboard 

3197 Part II — 

Notes, Bars, Measures, Time Signatures 

3198 Part Ill- 

Wri ting Exercises, Five Finger Exercises 

3199 Part IV— The 2/4 Time Signature 

3200 Part V— introducing the 8th Note 

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November, 194 3 



Orgm arid Choir Dijestidris 

-Answered ly HENHY S. FRY, MllS. EoC. 

Ex-Dean of the Pennsylvania Chapter of the A. G. O. 

No questions w m be answered in THE ETUDE unless accompanied by the full 
n , aT ? e . address of the inquirer. Only initials, or pseudonym given, will be pub - 
ts e . Naturally, in fairness to all friends and advertisers, we can express no opinions 
as to the relative qualities of various instruments. 

Q. In a recent issue of The Etude I saw a 
question concerning the construction of an or- 
gan. Can you give me an estimate of how much 
such construction would cost? Is it possible to 
add stops, pedals, and an additional manual to 
an old parlor organ, blown by foot treadles? 
Can you give me an estimate as to the cost of 
a used two-manual organ? Would it be wise to 
take piano lessons followed by organ lessons, 
or begin with the organ at once? I cannot read 
music, but can play a few hymns on the parlor 
organ by ear. How long will it take to learn to 
play the organ? — J. J. G. 

A. The cost of construction of an organ 
would depend on the specification, builder se- 
lected, and so forth. It might be possible to 
make the additions you indicate, but we would 
not recommend the idea as a practical one. As- 
suming that you are interested in two-manual 
and pedal used reed organs, we are sending 
you by mail a list of persons having such in- 
struments for sale. You might communicate 
with them, making inquiry as to price, condi- 
tion of instrument, and so forth. We recommend 
your acquiring the necessary technic and read- 
ing ability by piano study, previous to organ 

Q. We are considering changing the position 
of the organ console and electrifying the action. 
It is also possible that we may rebuild the 
instrument somewhat. The enclosed plan has 
been submitted, but no estimate of the cost has 
been made. Will you please state whether you 
consider the proposed changes advisable, and 
what the approximate cost should be?— A. G. M. 

of Organists headquarters, Room 3405, Inter- 
national Building, Rockefeller Center, 630 Fifth 
Avenue, New York City. Examinations are 
usually held in May. 

Q. Enclosed find specification of unit organ 
to which I have access. I am unable to have an 
organ teacher, so when the organ did not re- 
spond properly I just supposed it was my fault. 
The organist of the church has quit playing 
hymns on the organ for congregational singing , 
as she says she cannot get any volume. I notice 
that if I do not press the pedal note just an in- 
stant before pressing the manual keys that the 
pedal note will not sound. Also if I am playing 
on the full Great organ and do not take the 
stops off I cannot receive satisfaction on Swell 
organ or vice versa. I received a surprise while 
experimenting to see whether I could play 
hymns on the manuals without pedals. I could 
not receive satisfaction with full organ, and 
upon releasing a few of the stops played louder 
with only Bourdon 16 * Quintadena and Stopped 
Flute stops on. Also while playing with Pedal 
and full Great, upon placing my hands on Swell 
manual received a lighter volume without any 
stops on the Swell manual. I took off stops on 
the Great and could receive tones. In playing 
an arrangement of America I have chords for 
both hands — quarter length with passages in 
the pedal of eighth notes, and unless I play the 
hand parts as eighth notes with a rest in be- 
tween, the pedal notes will not sound. Will you 
please send me a registration for the organ 
number, My Faith Looks Up to Thee, and for 
Carillon du Soir by Buddy? — G. M. S. 

A. As a rule, we do not approve of electri- 
fying an old action and suggest that you con- 
sider a new organ, using satisfactory pipes, 
case work and so forth, from your present in- 
strument. We make th^. following suggestions 
on the revised specification you send: in the 
Great organ a soft 16' stop (Dulciana or Gem- 
shorn) instead of one of the two 8' Open Dia- 
pasons suggested, which could also be borrowed 
as a soft 16' stop in the Pedal department. We 
suggest retaining the Octave Quint. The Great 
organ would be more flexible if enclosed. In 
the Swell organ we suggest including a Mixture 
and a bright Cornopean. In the Pedal organ we 
suggest the borrowing of the Great organ 
Gamba (to provide a stop of that color for the 
pedals) and the borrowing from the Great or- 
gan of the soft 16' stop if included as we sug- 
gest. The addition of the couplers included in 
the specification indicates the necessity for 
larger wind supply, as the original specification 
includes only three couplers. You might re- 
quest prices from the builders. 

Q. When should the organist of a church be- 
gin to play the prelude; at the time the service 
is scheduled to begin or before that time and 
brought to a close so that the service may be- 
gin at the appointed time? We have a bell that 
tolls for five minutes previous to the service. I 
feel that the prelude is part of the service 
and should be played after the bell stops 
ringing. What are the requirements for Asso- 
ciate Membership in The American Guild of 
Organists? — B. 

A. The time for the playing of the prelude 
dependent on the arrangement and desires of 
e church being served. However, we do not 
el that the ringing of the church bell and the 
aying of the organ prelude should be going 
1 at the same time. One or the other should 
omitted. At St. Clement’s Church, Philadel- 
lia (where the editor was organist for many 
ars), the prelude is supposed to be finished 
that the choir may start the procession at 
rvice time. Associates of The American Guild 
Organists are first elected as Colleagues and 
ke the necessary Associate examination at 
y subsequent examination time. Examination 
auirements for the current year may be had 

A. We are not surprised that the organist 
of the church cannot get volume from the in- 
strument when we examine the specification 
you send. There is no Open Diapason included, 
the instrument being a three-stop unit — 
Stopped Flute, Dulciana and Salicional. There 
is no remedy for this condition in the specifica- 
tion enclosed. We suggest that you write the 
builders of the organ, stating the other condi- 
tions you name. It may be that you are getting 
the effects of the duplexing, and are not real- 
izing it, and that you have the Crescendo pedal 
in operation. The pedal stops with the excep- 
tion of the 16' appear in the manuals; conse- 
quently, if drawn on the manuals in use, unless 
different notes are played, the pedals will 
simply duplicate the notes played by the hands. 
We suggest the following registration for My 
Faith Looks Up to Thee arrangement by 
Thompson, which we presume is the arrange- 
ment you desire to register: Since you have no 
Chimes you can treat the first part as the solo — 
using the Oboe stop for that purpose (syn- 
thetic stop in your organ) playing the accom- 
paniment on the Great 4' Flute. For the next 
section use Swell Stopped Flute for the right- 
hand part, with accompaniment on the Great 
Dulciana. For the Chimes passage on the sec- 
ond page play the notes on the Swell organ (or 
omit them). For the Duddy Carillon du Soir 
we suggest the following registration: the 
“Chimes” section at the opening can be played 
on the Swell Stopped Flute. The second section 
can be played on the Swell Viola and Tremolo 
(right hand) and Flute 4' on the Great (left 
hand). In the pedal department use the only 
16' stop appearing in that department. For the 
first four measure 3 of the Moderato movement, 
we suggest Swell Stopped Flute for the left- 
hand part and Great Salicional and Flute 4' 
for the right-hand part. Beginning with the 
fifth measure both hands will be played on the 
Swell Stopped Flute. Ignore the direction 
“coupler off” at the beginning of the Moderato, 
since your only 16' pedal stop, consisting of 
reeds, will be enough without the Swell to 
Pedal coupler suggested at the beginning of the 
piece. Use the same registration for the section 
marked Tempo I that w^s used for the second 
section — namely right hand on Swell Viola and 
left hand on Great 4' Flute. For the “Chimes” 
section at the close use the same registration as 
suggested for the opening section. 


^na+ticsulied luf Walter, (lalfe. 

In ever increasing numbers, Rolfe transcrip- 
tions are becoming standard for the better 
teachers; proof indeed, of Century's belief that 
Walter Rolfe is the ideal simplifier of music. 
Without discernible loss of fluency, feeling, and 
musical values, this superb musician brings the 
greatest music to those who are not yet skilled 
enough to play the original versions. 

3213 Amaryllis, C — 2 King Louis XIII 

3382 Andante Cantabile Tschaikowsky 

3383 Andantino, F — 2 Lamare 

3356 Avalanche, Op. 45, C — 2 Heller 

3538 Blue Butterflies, G — 2 Doro 

3357 Butterfly, The, Op. 81, No. 4, C— 2.. Merkel 

3179 Chicadee (Symphony No. 8), F — 2. Beethoven 

3358 Christmas Eve, Op. 43, G— 2 Heins 

3216 Elegie, Em — 2 Massenet 

3388 Finlandia, G — 3 Sibelius 

3386 Fuer Elise, Am — 2 Beethoven 

3545 La Fontaine Bohm 

3363 La Zingana (Mazurka), An;— 5 Bohm 

3364 Le Secret (Inter. Piz. ), F — 2 Gautier 

3176 March Militaire, C — 3 Schubert 

3220 Merry Widow Waltz, F — 2 Lehar 

3221 Military Polonaise, G — 2 Chopin 

3547 Pas Des Fleurs, (Naila), G— 2 Delibes 

3548 Poem, C — 2 Fibich 

3366 Polish Dance, Op. 3, Dm — 3 Schwarenka 

3180 Prayer, A, (Symphony No. 2), G— 2. Beethoven 

3222 Prelude (Cifm), Am — 2 Rachmaninoff 

3395 Priests’ March, F — 3 Mendelssohn 

3223 Rondo Capriccioso, C — 3 Mendelssohn 

3368 Rose Fay, (Mazurka), C — 2 Heins 

3369 Rustic Dance, C — 2 Howell 

3224 Second Mazurka, G — 3 Godard 

3552 Sonata Pathetique, (Exe. ),Dm — 3. Beethoven 
3398 Tales from Vienna Woods, G — 2 Strauss 

3225 To Spring, F — 3 Grieg 

3400 Valse, Op. 64, No. 2, Am — 3 Chopin 

3193 Waltz in A -flat. Op. 39. No. 15, —2. Brahms 

3327 Waltz of the Flowers, F — 2 Tschaikowsky 

3372 Witches Dance, Am— 3 MacDowell 

The above is but a partial listing of Century’s 
transcriptions by Walter Rolfe. We shall be happy 
to send you our complete catalogue listing over 
3600 numbers at 15c a copy. It's free on request. 
Ask your dealer for Century music. If he cannot 
supply you, send your order direct to us. 


254 West 40th Street New York. N. Y. 



Four Chrjstmas Carols 

Arranged for Four Mallets, including “Silent 
Night,” “O Little Town of Bethlehem. - ’ “The First 
Noel” and “O Come All Ye Faithful.” Arranged 
by an Experienced Instructor. 

Price for Four Carols— 50c Postpaid 




All Organists are invited 
to become members of the 


No examination is required for mem- 
bership as Colleagues. Colleagues are 
eligible to take the Associate Examina- 
tions. Associates are eligible for the 
Choirmaster and Fellowship Examina- 

May 3 (Choirmaster) 

May 25 and 26 (Associate and Fellow) 

These may be taken in New York or 
in any other Chapter throughout the 


The Guild has a membership of 6000, 
and 100 Chapters from coast to coast. 
Become a part of this great movement 
for the advancement of our profession. 

For pamphlet, "Are you a Member", 
Examination Requirements, previous test 
papers and any further information, com- 
municate with National Headquarters, 
Room 1708, 630 Fifth Avenue, New 
York 20, N. Y. 


Symphonies of Smiles 

( Continued from Page 699) 

a child’s seashore 
might have been 

over the wheel in 
toy, the mystery 
solved years ago. 

When atoms, molecules, or elec- 
trons are put into motion, power is 
created; and that power when con- 
trolled and directed to some useful 
purpose by man, may be used to the 
advantage of everyone. Music like- 
wise sets free, through its vibrations, 
a marvelous, intangible kind of vi- 
bratory current which may have al- 
most miraculous results upon the 
human soul in the physical body. 
Plato must have had this in mind 
when he wrote in his “Republic,” 
“The man who has music in his soul 
will be most in love with the loveliest 
in life.” You who are engaged in mu- 
sic study, music making, and music 
teaching are concerned with one of 
the most beneficent things in exist- 
ence and may well be proud of your 
labors. To make people happy through 
laughter and song is a great privilege 
and a rare gift. Perhaps that is the 
reason why Gracie Fields, an inter- 
national blessing in these times, is 
one of the highest paid artists in the 
world. Well does she earn it, because 
she creates both music and laughter. 

Electronics are certain to play an 
ever-increasing part in the develop- 
ment of music in the future. Through 
them, sound may be amplified via the 
radio, the talking machine, the tele- 
phone, the sound track, and the mov- 
ies, so that it is now possible to 
magnify the beat of the heart until 
it sounds like thunder. In this strange 
day in human history, physicists tell 
us that vibrations reach out into the 
ether and extend to unknown dis- 
tances. It is conceivably possible that 
our climate and we ourselves are now 
being affected in some manner by the 
explosions of tons of T.N.T. in the 
Mediterranean, in Burma, and in the 
Aleutians. Electronically amplified, 
these vibrations laugh at distance 
and obstructions. They pour through 
brick, stone, and steel as water pours 
through a sieve. The noted electrical 
engineer, David Grimes,* Vice-Presi- 
dent of the Philco Radio and Tele- 
vision Corporation, recently made 
clear to a company of Philadelphia 
business men some of the wonders of 
electrons, including Radar, which is 
now having a startling determinative 
effect upon our military victories. He 
noted that these modern revelations 
of science were the development of 
many minds, but all depended upon 
the invention of the three-electrode 
radio tube by Dr. Lee De Forest, 
which made him one of the greatest 
figures in the history of the human 
race. Dr. De Forest was born at Coun- 
cil Bluffs, Iowa, in 1873. He was grad- 
uated from the Sheffield Scientific 

School at Yale in 1896. Of his three 
hundred and more inventions, the De 
Forest Tube has revolutionized mod- 
ern life and has had a vast influence 
upon the dissemination of music. 

The pervading, penetrating char- 
acter of music, while noticed by 
many, has not been realized in its full 
force until recently. The instanta- 
neous effect of the martial strains of 
a military band marching down the 
street playing a Sousa march, is evi- 
dent to everyone within hearing. It 
does not affect merely the ears, but it 
takes hold of the entire body. Backs 
straighten, chins go up, eyes brighten, 
and we tingle with the thrill of a new 
life. The wonderful current of music 
has been turned on and it flows 
through all who hear. The astonish- 
ing thing about it is its instantaneous 
character, its spontaneity, its irre- 
sistibility. It may be compared with 
laughter, which so often rinses the 
soul of its cares and worries. 

Our good musical friend, Dr. Carl 
Seashore, one of the most widely read 
of modern psychologists, in an im- 
pressive article in the “Household 
Magazine,” tells how smiles affect our 
lives. He gives you a new appreciation 
of the value of a smile. 

We think of the smile as specific- 
ally centered around the mouth, the 
eyes, and the forehead — at any rate, 
restricted to the face. This is large- 
ly because the face is the center of 
attraction and is usually exposed. 
But biologically, the facial smile is 
but one aspect of mind and body 
as a whole. It expresses both our 
conscious and subconscious mental 
life, and our whole body and mind 
join in the expression. With the smile 
we have action in the hands and feet, 
the stomach and the heart, the 
tongue and the sweat glands, and 
countless internal organs which con- 
dition our well-being or ill-being and 
determine our feelings and emotions. 
The same applies in principle to the 
frown, which is a companion piece to 
the smile, always in opposite phase. 

“Do animals smile? Yes, the twin- 
kling eye of a dog is a characteristic 
of a smile, just as is that of a human 
being. True, the dog does not smile so 
distinctively with his face, but for 
good reasons. His body is not covered 
with clothing, so he can smile with all 
his body by wiggling his tail, and in 
the same manner he can frown with 
all his body.” 

Music, like smiles and frowns, does 
not stop in the head after it has been 
received by the ears. It permeates our 
whole being and affects our existence 
in an almost supernatural manner. 
Fine music may become a symphony 
of smiles and add greatly to our joys 
as well as relieve our sorrows, and 

help us to get tne ucsu nwu me 
which the Almighty has given us to 
use for the highest needs of our fel- 
low men. Dickens paid Mrs. Fezziwig 
one of his finest compliments by call- 
ing her “one vast, substantial smile.” 
Let us have more music and laughter, 
more symphonies of smiles. 

* It is with deep sorrow that the editor reports 
that shortly after this editorial was written, 
his valued friend, David Grimes, while on a 
secret mission to the European war front, was 
killed in an airplane crash over Belfast, Ireland. 

Glamour and Color 
in Music Study 

(Continued from Page 714) 

It is also helpful to correlate music 
study with hobbies of boys and girls. 
A wise teacher will make a point of 
finding out the interests of her stu- 
dents, and will keep the various ac- 
tivities of her class members in mind 
when choosing study material. If this 
is done, it will be easy to preface the 
assignment with a friendly inquiry 
like this: “Henry, will your Boy Scout 
troop march in the parade next 

On receiving an enthusiastic an- 
swer in the affirmative, the teacher 
can assign, March of the Boy Scouts, 
by G. A. Grant-Schaefer. 


Projects that Arouse Interest 

The music teacher can learn much 
from the projects sponsored by other 
educators. Read about the clever 
school projects in the newspapers 
and public school teachers’ maga- 
zines, and develop some yourself to 
prepare the way for the study of cer- 
tain compositions. 

Variety can be secured by an occa- 
sional trip outside the studio. The 
excursion” may be only a few steps 
to the next-door garden, but it will 
make a change, and a refreshing way 
to introduce pieces about flowers, in- 
sects, butterflies, and birds. 

Novelty “stunts” are good, provided 
they are not overdone. For example 
rrange with one of your pupils to 
enter your class unexpectedly at a 
given cue, and start juggling objects 
After those present have enjoyed the 
performance, play The Juggler bv 

“ 6lm Kem ’ and ask th e pu- 
pils if they can hear the notes imi- 
tating a juggler. Then let one of the 

work on if° ^ the Pi6Ce be ^ 

th eZ°L n T PUPilS Can walk across 

the studio discussing between them 

o 5r 5, :L 10M the cE 

to hear, the sounds of spring— patter 
of raindrops, rustle of leaves and 

interest m the composition Voices nf 
Svrmg by Johann Strauss, wh h ao 
Peared in the April, -- *’ wnlcna P- 

1943 Etude. 


. 7 Ui «maiized deniM 

mg some custom observed durW .u' 
period when Schubert lived th- the 
make the learning of In Schulef 
Day, by Krentzlin, Op. i 09 , 

1943, Etude) more fascinating 5^ 
glamour tricks of this kind soon , Ce 
their noveity, constant variety J 
needed. Many teachers have a L ri 
fine color interest to their teaching 
season by means of the book of nl a 7 
of the childhood of the masters 
sical Playlets for Young Folks.” 

Appeal to the Five Senses 
Appeal to the five senses In present 
ing study material. Things that we' 
see, hear, touch, taste, or smell be 
come real to us. Compositions about 
unusual objects, places, and people 
offer an opportunity to show pictures 
Display Oriental flower scenes when 
you assign In a Chinese Garden bv 
C. E. Overholt (in The Etude for Au- 
gust, 1934) and see how the lesson 
will become vivid with realistic 

If you have a canary or other caged 
bird, bring it to the studio. Let the 
children watch its movements and 
listen to the singing. Have a pupil 
read the words of Pretty Little Song 
Bird, by George L. Spaulding (in July, 
1935, Etude). Then ask: “Who wants 
to learn this piece about the singing 
bird?” Someone will be sure to an- 
swer: “I do.” 

Tripping Along, by Audelle Alford 
Thompson, also in the July, 1935, 
Etude, offers an opportunity to ap- 
peal to the sense of feeling. Let a 
group of children carry out the action 
indicated by the words. After a child 
has tripped, bowed, and danced to 
these joyful measures, he will have a 
desire to play the piece, too. 

Pupil Participation 

You may argue that you have no 
time to fuss over these numerous 
methods of intriguing pupils. Unless 
you can arrange your schedule so 
that you can give sufficient attention 
to whetting the musical appetite of 
those who come to you for guidance, 
you may find yourself with a dimin- 
ishing class. 

One solution is to shift much of the 
responsibility to your pupils. Let one 
group of students write a skit or reci- 
tation which will introduce a piece to 
another group or individual. It will 
be necessary for you to make sugges- 
tions and direct the research. But if 
pupils hunt up information and make 
plans themselves with an objective 
in view, the knowledge gained will 
be indelibly impressed upon their 

By recruiting the assistance of your 
pupils in this manner you can also 
win their enthusiasm. They will begin 
to ask : “May we write a play for the 
airship piece that Arthur is to study 
next?” Each assignment can be an 
exciting experience. 

(All of the compositions mentioned 
in this article are obtainable in sheet 
music form.) 


Violin Questions 

^Answered by ROBERT BRAINE 

Russian Label Violins 

S. S. — Violins labeled “Rigat Rebus, St. 
Petersburg,” are commonly supposed to be 
Russian instruments, but the fact that your 
violin has a Separate label bearing the word 
“Germany” indicates that the violin is a Ger- 
man “trade fiddle” of no particular reputa- 
tion or value. Trying to find out who made 
one of these “trade fiddles” is like hunting 
for the proverbial needle in a haystack. 


G. H.— Niccolo Paganini was probably the 
most famous of all violinists. The following 
would probably answer for your “thumb-nail” 
sketch of this famous violinist for your club 

“Niccolo Paganini (1782-1842) a giant of the 
violin, towered above all his contemporaries 
and predecessors as a virtuoso of extraor- 
dinary gifts. His marvelous technic, combined 
with a fiery fern ner anient, produced a sensa- 
tion in Europe. Most of his works, which are 
among the most difficult violin compositions 
in existence, were composed during his stay 
in Italy, when he was developing his tech- 
nic prior to his concert appearances, which 
were destined to dazzle Europe. His “Violin 
Concerto in D major” abounds in every diffi- 
culty imaginable, anart from possessing a dis- 
tinctive melodic value.” 

To Re-varnish a Violin 

R. M. — Don’t try to re-vamish your old vio- 
lin yourself, unless you know how to do it 
and have had wide experience in this branch 
of the vtu! ‘fession’. Many a -fine 

old instrument has been ruined by being re- 
varnished by someone who thought that all 
he had to do was to go to the five-and-ten- 
cent store and buy a ten-cent can of varnish 
and a five-cent brush, with which a coat, of 
varnish was smeared on the violin in any old 
way. It takes an expert to varnish a violin 

Counterfeit Labels 

T. N. R. — The childlike faith which people 
have in labels pasted in old violins, purporting 
to give the names of makers, the year when 
the violin was made, where it was made, and 
other details, is simply astounding. People who 
have a scant knowledge of the violin look in- 
side the instrument the first thing and decipher 
the label. They believe everything the label 
says. If the label says "Strad..” then “Strad.” it 
is. I have known of fifteen-dollar Strads. being 
sold for prices in the thousands on the strength 
of a bogus Strad. label. For this reason I advise 
people intending to buy a supposed old violin 
to have it examined by an expert who can tell 
them exactly what the violin is. and what it is 
worth. There is an enormous number 
of “phoney” Strads. on the market, all duly 
ticketed with counterfeit Strad. labels, imitated 
more or less skillfully. The paper, printing, ink, 
and so on are carefully imitated and some of 
them bear a striking resemblance to the orig- 
inal, as they are soiled and “aged” and made to 
ook as much like the original as possible, 
housands of people treasure these “fake” vio- 
‘“Vnthe belief that they own masterpieces, 
made by the great violin makers of history. 

Learning by Hearing 

— You are doubtless aware that the 
q lekest and easiest way to learn a foreign 
nguage is to go to the country where the 
language is spoken. You would hear nothing 
11118 P ar ticular language. By this method 
* earn th© language in a quarter of 
tune it would take if you tried to learn it 
M° Ur native c °untry. 

stanti! 1C L 1S a l so a lan gtmge and one must con- 
Nnt “ ear it to understand and appreciate it. 
sir years a S° it was difficult for the mu- 

woniu Uden ! ; , to 11 ear high-class music which 
Fortimof 6 ? ly further his musical education, 
of th» 9te . m °dern invention came to the aid 
and mus i c student. We now have the radio 
can Phonograph, through the help of which we 
ine nf ar m ,' jsic of the highest class by the tum- 
Unitpri c* button. The music student of the 
otates can hear the greatest orchestras 

and vocal compositions, and can hear them not 
only once but as often as desired, so that they 
can be studied and dissected. 

°f course a vast amount of trash comes over 
the radio, but the serious music student must 
shun this as he would the plague, and listen 
to only the high-class, artistic selections, which 
will improve his musical taste and knowledge 
Let us glance over the high-class music 
which is available to the musical student in the 
United States. He can hear the Metropolitan 
Opera from November to spring, when the 
greatest operas are produced with an orchestra 
of almost one hundred men, and with famous 
stars on the stage. Then there are famous sym- 
phony orchestras such as the New York Phil- 
harmonic, and the orchestras in Philadelphia. 
Boston, Cleveland, Cincinnati, Minneapolis, 
and other large American cities. At their con- 
certs they usually have famous vocal or instru- 
mental soloists. The radio also gives us famous 
miscellaneous programs of high-class music, 
such as that of the Telephone Hour, and the 
Firestone Hour. The Telephone Hour is espe- 
cially noted for its high-class soloists, such as 
Jascha Heifetz, the world’s premier violinist; 
Lily Pons, said to be the greatest living colora- 
tura soprano; and other equally famous stars. 
Then there are concert appearances of many 
famous artists which are available, if music 
students are only on the lookout for them in the 
programs in their daily papers. 

Violin and Mandolin 

N. S. — As you seem to be at present interested 
in learning the violin, I do not see just why 
you should study the mandolin as a prelim- 
'ina'ry. Why riot commence directly on the vio- 
lin? The two instruments are quite different. 
One is a bow instrument, and the other is 
played with a pick. A great musician has said 
that the bow is the “life and soul of the violin." 
It is true that the finger boards of the two in- 
struments are similar, but here again we note 
that one has frets and the other is smooth. You 
will lose valuable time in commencing on the 
mandolin. Better start directly on the violin. 

Gemunder Violins 

M. B. P. — George and August Gemunder 
made violins for many years in New York City. 
Your other violin labeled “Canova Cono" is a 
“trade fiddle.” I cannot set a value on either 
violin without seeing it, nor can I advise you 
as to your getting them appraised. Their value 
will depend a good deal on the treatment they 
have received since they left the maker’s hands. 
If you are going to sell the violins it might be 
well, for you will then know what price to set 
on them. 

The Greatest Violin Maker 

T. H. G. — 1 — Ant. Stradivarius of Cremona, 
Italy, is considered to have been the greatest 
violin maker of all time. 2— Francois Tourte 
of Paris, France, was the greatest bow maker. 

Most Popular Violin Concerto 

H. G.— I think there is little doubt that the 
greatest and most popular violin concerto ever 
written is the “Violin Concerto in E minor.” by 
Felix Mendelssohn. It is not the most tech- 
nically difficult by any means, as the concerti 
of Paganini, Ernst, and other composers are 
more difficult, but for beautiful melodies and 
excellent musical workmanship it is unsur- 
nassed Every good violinist has this charming 
composition at his finger tips, and I believe it 
is played in public ten times to every once of 
any other concerto. It is the “hit” of ah the 
violin numbers when it is played. It is equally 
effective when played with orchestral or piano 


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pass judgment on the pic uie . -• ----- o <xoo Uies the 

the musical staff is ready for three of competent craftsmanship 

days of uninterrupted sleep. other, it deprives the comi, ° n 

So You Want to Try Hollywood 

days of uninterrupted sleep. other, it deprives the'7o*m^ 0n the 

- the full development of S er of 

assures the 

( Continued from Page 712) 

“The routine for putting music — 

into films is definite enough. No one tialities. 

.. - . 11 .. . >T U n 4- mi rlrl An ai f _ * i U nl 1 it 


predict exactly what sudden dif- "Hollywood routines are 

vnn intA mif 1 L. „ . ... c 


Acuities a composer may run into worked out that oddities are t° Wel1 
- i aie rare, ft 

or any combination of instruments; or six experienced orchestrators are during the process. On ^ one ^ assign ^J| e i ^^ h ^PP ens , however, that 

“ a ,3 e must »«*. » ,adle «* «»>“ in. m. composer elves then! M* £, a marked Is cast tor a SnTS S?.»* % 

, * -ii.. . — a . . u ch a song 

flexible creative talent. In one film, 
isked to furnish humor- 
ous music; in another, dramatic, 

ucuicu in. mu cumpusei glVCO 

the most general indications as to with a 

what he wants by way of orchestral inclination *T"“ ’ ”7,'”’ ” ' 'T. “miuaed. i n t 

, — , color, and the orchestrators go to next, he may have ns ins ’ e s ai s speaking voice i. 

lyric, nostalgic, or local-color effects work— often for twenty-four hours a from a director who prefers the carefully matched, as to quality ■ 

" • modern idiom. In either case, the the singing voice of a musical 

£ 4-V.n onmnncpr Viimcplf ctifiifA onrl fKo . 

4Aiwuv Lixvxa.M.i xxxvixvxM-wions as to wiiii a, uucbiui * — - — -- — m wnich a 

he may be asked to furnish humor- what he wantTby w^of orchestral inclination for classical form; on the or two must be included. i n th - 
— J he mav have his instructions case, the star’s sneati ina t 

— and all must be ‘in character.’ day. ' modern idiom. In either case, the the singing voice of a musical' '"T 

Hollywood cannot wait until the “When the score is ready, the re- preferences of the composer himself stitute, and the song scenes are aaV 

proper inspiration manifests itself. cording date is set, and the musical must be subordinated to the de- in two takes. The singer goes through 
Indeed, there is hardly time to director takes over, with the com- mands of the producer who, nat- the songs, each individual syllable 

work out the score! This is the tqu- poser and the orchestrators present urally, has already made a clear which is carefully timed. Than 

..... . . 1 flia imnroccir 

^ _nd the orchestrators present urany, uas aurauj “*<««= «■ *■’ carefully timed. Then th 

tine for turning out picture music, for any possible last-minute changes, mental picture of the impression he star makes the camera take, ‘mouth 
The picture itself is planned, photo- Recording is done in one of two wishes his film to convey. Again, ing’ the words, according to ti 

i.-.. —x x, . . every new musical arrival in Holly- schedule, so exactly that the in us me 

wood runs the risk of being ‘tagged’ of singing is perfect. (Soman™ 

graphed, and cut, and the release ways. Either the silent film is pro- 
date is set. While this work goes on, jected and the musical director re- 

wuiiv guro un, jecceci ana me musical director re- wouu iuub me ui uiggcu u* riect. (Sometime 

the composer is given a copy of the cords the music along with it, thus in a system of musical type-casting, the process is reversed- the actrp S 
plot scenario, from which he mav spmirino- norfonf oTrnr.VirAni- 7 of im. That, is t.n cflv if hp has pampH hi.*? ‘mnnths’ P X SS 

'mouths’ the songs first, and the 
singer times her ringing to match.) 

- xx — — — vviuo uxxvx xtxuoxvx aiuxig wwu x yjj vuuo »»* — —«/ — » i w- 

plot scenario, from which he may securing perfect synchronization im- That is to say, if he has earned his 

derive ideas for basic thematic ma- mediately; or (in cases when this call to Hollywood as the result of a omgci Limes ncr ingmg to match) 

terial. He cannot possibly begin com- cannot be accomplished technically) lyrical hit in waltz time, he may ex- Whatever the > > involved howev ■ 

posing, however, until the picture is the recording is made alone and pect to be asked to turn out lyrical picture music immensely imp” 

done and those scenes for which later fitted to the film by a process hits in waltz time until three-quar- estlng and rec eding. The np® 

music is desired are marked. When of exact timing. This is done by cuing ter rhythms beat into his sleep. If comer will enjo>. it provided hp ' 

the picture is done and cut, both in the score in seconds and synchro- he is ‘tagged’ as a symphonist (my equipped with uffleient mus^i 

its rough and final versions, the com- nizing the recording to the already- own case!), he may find it a difficult background, trm ng, and suretv tn 

poser is called in for actual work, timed seconds of film scenes. It can process to get an assignment for any carry him expr :y t’hroueh all the 

is moment generally occurs some happen that the synchronization is work not involving a seventy-piece possible demar, that HollvwnJ 

three weeks before the advertised re- not perfect. Then a re-take is made, orchestra. On the one hand, musl- can present." 

lease date. Within those three weeks, the musical director speeding up or 

the entire musical setting must be slowing down his playing, as the case 

thought out, written down, ar- demands, to fit the film 

‘When the recording is completed, 

7 '-'vx .. X.X., 

ranged, orchestrated, approved, taken 

through its complex process of re- the music-track is cut. The film is 
cording, and sent out in national reeled through again and the music- 

LL b Lvxxx M.AXVA UAAC ii.AUOi.U- 

distribution, along with the already track, already timed, is matched to 

Music and the Battle of Life 

< Continued from Pajge 724) 

completed film. This routine, I be- the exact feet of film which it must one such time he went to a Dr Dahl looked ud m\ from thp niiinm 

ias zszsr ,or soUd t™. - .» - ■< £ Sis r;: x KS 

musical craftsmanship! 

The First Step 

“The first step in the musical rou- 

lrmcin Worvi-c „„„ . ,. x . ' . . . “ 11,1 '“ ‘i i nei t w;i . aanger ot deatn, 

the whole T^ ^ P hysic ^ n could hel P him to work, and that an < ion was his only 

same nrocess i<f ^ ° ay , af !, er day he would fal1 aslee P chance to save le foot. Could he 

same process is gone through with in the doctor’s office while he heard stand It’’ 

the track of sound effects. Then the the same words dinned into his ears 

— — — — xx xx. ..xv xxx.xoxv.cxx xvxu- v.xxv.vxxo. xucu Luc me same woras amned into his ears -Yes " tt. 1 . ,iiv r^niipri 

tine is viewing the finished picture. work goes to the dubbing-room, that he would beein to whip hT in , . y ! , T d ' 

P w s e H^e fl r zrsssxtszr- r* r v uon - and no ‘ n; 

he has a pencil, a paper, and a stot,- ^ “ S ^ 

x i «iiu a. ouup ^uinuiiicu wiiii not unusual ior accredited hvnnnt 

watch. The scenes needing music Perhaps six reels of music and sound to employ music in tw f 
have been indicate to .the effect tracks already xc-.T „ T° y music ln their seances.. 

have been indicated to him — the pro- 
ducer determines where music shall 
come in; while the composer may 
suggest suitable scenes, he does not 
have final say about it— and his first 
task is to mark down the exact length 
of these scenes, in seconds. The 

effect tracks, already perfectly timed, 
which must be combined into one 

He did begin to write and the work language. 

PC fVin «Ox. .1 

Jnvictus, which contains two of the 
most stirring lines in the English 

was the “Second Piano Concerto 
dedicated to Dr. Dahl. But there is 
no anemia about this piece. It is full 
of richness and vitality. 

I am the master of my fate 
I am the captain of my soul. 
Henley did live, and his poem has 
been set to music by Bruno Huhn. 

The Final Stage 

“Since the dubbing is the final 

— -**- stage, it requires extreme care. The that c , omes to mind ' I get it out every now and then 

romantic scene may need six seconds s °und engineers and the musical that ins™-; , ,, n ey ’ who wrote when I feel that life is not worth 
of suitable music; the cowboy scene staff run through two or three re- Unconauerrri\ Invictus - living. It always bucks me up. 

™ ay need t . en; storm ^enes, hearsals, to make certain that the the foot and^ 3erculosis of I sometimes wonder how composers 

^ r 3 ’ ands ° on - In back - f c ™ ctly tlmed sound tracks are was done m ^ everything are able to write music when faced 

ground music, a scene that runs into faded m and out at exactly the an- tn in» tf * 5 to save lt " he had with a crisis in , ..... how they dare 

minutes of music is considered long. Propriate seconds of time to fit the in? Lp V°°L JuSt as he Was to hope and raii the banner of 

“Then the composer goes away visual film, men enough rehearsal S Z Z to g0lng about on ttotorv ovef desntor ^len l think 

with his time notations, and turns have been had to indicate no pos ! e i \ ? ther f ° 0t became hi- S P 

out suitable thematic types of exact- sible slip-ups, the final take is ff. T He be Sged to be taken to „ ? ' , nf Ms music 

ly the desired length. When the -and all the various musk an d ®? mbur S h w here lived the famous t dedieatodmost ofh.srnu^ 

themes are done, the producer may sound tracks are fitted to toe filrrf Joseph Lister - Lister ex- the g ° ry ?. f God ' T u^ music is 

often wish to hear them, approving, After that, the public is readv to ,/ nined the enflamed foot and told leasons ’ 1 believe - wh y hi d 

condemning, or suggesting altera- 6ady t0 the pal c young man , whose falc S ° timelCSS ’ 50 charged In l 

tions in effect, as his taste inclines. 
By this time, some of the precious 
three weeks has gone by. For this 
reason, the most competent com- 
poser may often lack the sheer phy- 
sical time necessary to complete his 
own orchestrations. In that case, five 

tf[ me genius as Me right 

vitality. Bach was drawing^ on ^ 

power greater than himself; 

right time. We kno^oJcllrTe, toomanvl^ ^ ^ place at Me 
ripe and the place hemr, ° many instances 


ripe and the place being vacant and vn mstaj } ces °t Me time being 
never know of the numbers of ZttTn ^ <0 fiU But ™ shall 
failed because the place and time were not Sy'Z* them™’ ^ 

~ Ralph Vaughan Williams 

power of the spirit in which 

and hope spring eternal, in 

* Otficr 

there is no fear, no death, 
composers, tapping this power, ha 
overcome the world in their mu ' 
And that is why we, on hearing 
music, can do the same. 

the etude 

A Novel and Altogether Different 

of Latin-American Folk Songs 

(Memories of Latin-America) 

Compiled and Arranged by IRMA LABASTILLE 

With original Spanish text and English adaptations. 

Profusely illustrated and complete with valuable historical 
notes. . . Twenty folk songs for voice and piano. 

Price $1.00 Net 

Both Albums At Your Favorite 


Now — For the First Time 
In an American Edition 


For Obtaining A Sure Piano Technique 

This volume of superb study pieces, formerly obtainable 
only in the expensive foreign version and difficult to pro- 
cure, has just been published in a new American edition. 

Price $1.50 Net 

Music Dealer or Direct From 

’ R.C.A. Building * Radio City * New York 

The righting Man and His Music 

( Continued from Page 711) 

quantities and of a quality that 
would have amazed the fighting man 
of the last war. The latest evidence 
of our government’s knowledge of 
the need of our fighting man for 
music is seen in the recent an- 
nouncement that newly designed 
portable entertainment outfits — com- 
bining radio and phonograph— are 
to be sent to troops overseas. These 
units, weighing only two hundred 
and fifty pounds and inclosed in a 
cabinet forty-seven inches long, are 
weatherproof and contain a long and 
short wave radio receiver, a phono- 
graph turntable, fifty records, twen- 
ty-five half-hour radio broadcast 
transcriptions, a collection of song- 
books and — last but not least — sev- 
eral harmonicas. 

Radio, Today and Yesterday 

Radio plays such a vitally impor- 
tant role in our lives today that it is 
hard to believe that during the last 
war, radio, as we know it, did not 
exist. Today, the soldier can keep his 
own portable radio at the side of his 
cot or listen to amplified programs 
of all sorts in the camp auditoriums. 
On his own radio, he can dial for the 
programs of good music that he has 
always liked and can still continue 
to enjoy. Imagine lying in your bar- 
rack cot in 1917 and 1918 and hear- 
ing toe Philadelphia Orchestra and 
the New York Philharmonic-Sym- 
phony and comparing the interpreta- 
tions of such men as Arturo Toscanini 
and Eugene Ormandy, to mention 
only two. Such a fabulous prediction, 
voiced to the soldier of the last war, 
would have seemed the mouthings of 
a shell-shocked victim! 

Also, collections of fine records are 
often available to the soldier, and 
record concerts are given frequently. 
A recent article of ours in The Etude 
drew a chatty letter, seeking fur- 
ther information, from a complete 
stranger, a private with the U. S. A. 

November, 1945 

down in the Canal Zone. In the 
course of his letter, he wrote of the 
fine record albums of string quar- 
tets, symphonies, and so on that he 
had come across in camp down there, 
a discovery that made him, a music 
lover, supremely happy. 

As still another contribution to the 
explanation of why today’s fighting 
man is not doing so much singing, 
one must not overlook the fine con- 
certs being given by world-famous 
artists in camps throughout the 
country. Such artists as Jascha Hei- 
fetz, Albert Spalding, Margaret 
Speaks, Igor Gorin, Nathan Milstein, 
James Melton, and dozens upon 
dozens of others are giving freely of 
' their time and will continue to do 
§0 in increasing numbers. 

All these musical attractions of 
'more legitimate proportions help to 
explain why there isn’t so much 
singing as in toe last war. Do not, 
/however, get the idea from what has 
been mentioned above that the sol- 
dier of today has lost his tongue. 
Far from it! Soldiers of free coun- 
tries will always sing. There are glee 
clubs at most of the camps with good 
musicians at the helm, and camp 
song-fests are regular features. Every 
encouragement is given toe soldier’s 
interest in singing. As for the songs 
themselves, toe prime favorites, as 
in the last war, seem to be those 
the boys have known and have been 
singing for some time. 

Tin-Pan Alley Works Hard 




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The easiest and quickest way to teachi the piano keys^to tinv tots or 
beiginners of any age. is with SPEED DRILLS by Wallace & Winning. 

A System for Teaching Beginners on the Piano to Read Rapidly at Sight 


Speed Drills 

contain material for single note drill, giving the student 
training to play quickly at sight. With SPEED DRILLS 
students learn to play before learning the music alphabet. SPEED DRILLS consists 
of T hirty-ttvo Cards to be placed back of keyboard (on these 
cards is printed the staff and the note corresponding to the key 
on the keyboard), Keyboard Finder and a Book of Com- 
prehensive Instructions for their use. 


Cards in Place 
Back of Keyboard 

For stressing visual 

DRILL No. 2 
For instant recognition 
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DRILL No. 3 
For stressing rapidity 
playing the keys 

DRILL No. 4 
For stressing rapid visual 
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PRICE -SPEED DRILLS E&SI Complete ^'.& u d c F ,l e I 5Dc 

Published By JfnHinS music COfDPPnY Kansas City, mo. 

Buy More War Bonds and Stamps for Victory 

to mention only a few. You have 
heard these and many others on the 
air (toe songs of the last war, with 
no radio to help, had to come up toe 
hard way) but, in most cases, they 
aren’t the songs the boys are sing- 
ing. They still fall back — and always 
will — on Annie Laurie, The Old Gray 
To be sure the opportunists in Mare, The Grasshopper Song, Hail, 
Tin Pan Alley ’went to work an hour Hail, the Gang’s All Here, and other 
or so after the first bombs fell on vocal vets. Like war, these songs, and 
Pearl Harbor. A number of “patri- a handful of others, are eternal, 
otic songs” were rushed through, In addition to the songs mentioned 
among them We Did It Before and above and their various counter- 
We Can Do It Again, Remember Pearl parts, there will undoubtedly emerge 
Harbor You’re a Sap, Mister Jap, a song that the future will definitely 
They Started Something ( But We’re associate with this war. At toe mo- 
Gonna End It') Back the Red, White ment, no one knows what it is. Maybe 
mid Blue Nobody’s Gonna Push Us we have been singing it for months; 
Off the Earth, and Keep ’em Flying, maybe it is still unwritten. Some 


years from now, we shall look back 
to this war (which, incidentally, still 
has no name) and have its memo- 
ries flood around us as we hear this 
song. Maybe it will come from Tin- 
Pan Alley, but we have a deep-seated 
suspicion that it won’t. Maybe some 
inspired Yank in a lonely spot in 
far-off Australia will dream up a 
timely set of words to some such old 
favorite as, say, Pop, Goes the 
Weasel. If it’s the right song, it will 
flash around the world by and with 
the speed of radio. Nothing can 
stop it. 

Meanwhile, our fighting men are 
singing and listening to the music 
they love and need, the music which 
all free fighting men must have to 
carry them to victory. 


The Child Who “Hates” Music 

( Continued from. Page 723) 

The accursed 'thing in music educa- 
tion is the musically unambitious 

The child needs to participate in 
much music with others. He will 
love and benefit by games that really 
teach music. He will work hard to 
make a good showing in those 
monthly recitals for pupils and 
friends. One teacher who had only 
a few pupils occasionally planned 
a musical tea in which the pupils 
played for each other. Pleasant so- 
cial times were enjoyed and the 
pupils had opportunities to gain con- 
fidence before small groups, then 
larger groups. 

Appeal to the child’s imagination 
to give meaning to his playing. He 
can hear the raindrop on the pane, 
the robin in the cherry tree, the 
elves on the stair as painted in the 
music. Encourage that. Let him ex- 
press some of his ideas to keep be- 
fore him continually the conception 
of music as an inner experience 
given outer expression in beautiful 

Be sure that he is ready to learn. 
Then proceed from the known to the 
unknown. If he comes in tired from 
play, or called from play, take a little 
time to interest him in his music. 

Then try to see that he isn’t called 
from play the next time. A regular 
time for practice and for his lesson 
will usually avoid this. Friends will 
come at convenient times. Don’t 
overstrain on practice. To do so only 
produces tension and hampers prog- 
ress. The child should have relaxed 
but thoughtful practice as his aim. 

If the child is to like music study 
he must be given the satisfaction of 
success. See that his music is simple 
enough to be well done, yet give him 
some material that throws down a 
challenge that he is eager to meet. 
From the first his music must be in- 
teresting and worth while to him. 
Let him hear good music. We play or 
sing because we have heard music 
which is so beautiful that we long 
to imitate it. The artist has made it 
approach a high mark, but rather 
than being discouraged we are stimu- 
lated to try to reach the same goal. 

Use your knowledge as you en- 
deavor to share your love of music, 
and watch the change. The child 
who hated music will become one 
who, regardless of the degree of his 
skill, feels a warm, personal re- 
sponse to the beauty in music and 
who sees it with new eyes as the 
friend of a lifetime. 

Music or Show 

( Continued from Page 716) 

musical expression. This love or art 
is contagious and it will not be long 
before his students catch the spark 
that will carry them on to a true 
appreciation of the beautiful. 

Music for the Joy of It 

The redeeming feature of following 
the plan outlined above is that the 
element of “show” is still sufficiently 
present for all the best purposes of 
sound music education. Music does 
not exist in the true sense of the word 
until it is given performance; the 
cycle of composer, performer, and 
listener must be complete if any com- 
position is to be of value as music. 
This performance, however, will be 
one of different caliber; it will be 
raised to a higher level of expression 
in which singers, director, and audi- 
ence alike experience the making of 
beauty beyond their mean, individual 

There is no doubt that many who 
read these lines will feel that this is 
an idealistic philosophy, that it may 
work with a certain select group, but 
that as a general rule it would be 
much better merely to follow the 

crowd and attain the best effect pos- 
sible at the moment. We should like 
to record experiences we have had in 
following the plan suggested in the 
article. At Newcomb College, New Or- 
leans, Louisiana, one-third of the en- 
rollment of seven hundred students 
participate in the glee club. In the 
combined colleges of Tulane Univer- 
sity, over five hundred students par- 
ticipate in the choral groups. They 
sing for the love of singing good mu- 
sic— no academic credit is offered for 
participation, no regular trips are 
taken, and no keys given. The stu- 
dents just love music. The glee club 
trip will soon be forgotten, the key 
will loose its sparkle, and the hours 
of credit will be smiled at; but the 
love of great music will grow and be 
a guide to a richer life. 

At the National Music Camp, Inter- 
lochen, Michigan, a high school choir 
of eighty-five members recently en- 
joyed singing works of Palestrina, 
Pergolesi, Bach, Handel, and many 
other more modern masters with sin- 
cere conviction of expression. There 
were also works of a more popular 
and current demand presented, to 

which the group made an immediate 
response. We were eager to have the 
choir and a special orchestra present 
the cantata “Dona Nobis Pacem” by 
the great contemporary English com- 
poser, R. Vaughan Williams. This is 
not a work that a choir will swallow 
whole at first rehearsal, but rather 
one that will be received only if the 
director has an unshakable belief in 
the musical treatise on War and 
Peace that is so ably set by the mod- 
ern master. The first rehearsal was 
not a success, but as time for the 
performance drew near, the group 
began to feel the effect of a great 

work of art, and at the performs 
rose to a height of exp^es sio n E 
could not possibly be reached by sino 
ing “just another number.” As th 
last bars of the work were sung the 
same students who were skeptical of 
its value at the first rehearsal went 
the honest tears of gratitude in’beinsr 
a part of greatness. A petition was 
signed by three hundred campers to 
repeat the performance, so great was 
the hold which it had on their hearts 
Could there be any stronger argu ’ 
ment for choral directors to uphold 
the ideals of the very best in their 
field of endeavor. 

Music, Ancient and Modern, 
on Master Records 

( Continued from Page 707) 

present disc that advances have been 
made in the reproduction of a large 

Don Cossacks On the Attack; A series 
of Russian folk, army, and other 
songs, sung by the Don Cossack 
Chorus, conducted by Serge Jaroff. 
Columbia set M-542. 

The songs in this album are mostly 
boisterous and rowdy; the sort of 
things an army group would sing. 
Some of the songs were sung by the 
Don Cossacks when they fought in 
the White Army of the Crimea; some 
are sung by the Armies of Russia to- 
day. The present Chorus sings su- 
perbly with a wide range of tonal 
coloring and some impressive, al- 
though obviously theatrical, effects. 
The baritone and bass sections of 
the chorus are particularly impres- 

The title of the album is drawn 
from two songs used by the Don Cos- 
sacks when they were part of the 
White Army. A certain amount of 
this type of singing appeals, but a 
long program, unless very cleverly 
varied, is apt to pall. The present 
program has variety, but not suffi- 
cient, to our way of thinking, for a 

wu hearing ’ However . the fact 
that the words of all the songs are 
given may prove helpful in sustain- 
ing interest for others. If we were 
asked to select one disc from the 

disT vToiT 1 " unhesitatin §ty select 
disc 7401-M, containing two folk- 
songs— A Sailor’s Song, l n the Vil- 
lage and the Caucasian song Lez- 

effefts’ mth itS Unusual or S a n-like 

Mozart: Do n Ciovanni-Or sai chi 
I onore and Non mi dir , be „, ido , 

sung by Rose Bampton with the 
Victor Symphony Orchestra con- 
ducted by Wilfred Pelletier Victor 
disc 11-8466. victor 

Our admiration for Miss Bampton’s 
sterling qualities as a musician are 

not shaken by the fact that she 
seems temperamentally and histri- 
onically unsuited to the role of 
Donna Anna. The passionate inten- 
sity of the character quite evades 
her, and in both airs there is more 
than a suggestion that the tessitura 
is difficult for the singer. All of which 
may be due to the fact that Miss 
Bampton lifted her voiee from a 
mezzo to a soprano. However, since 
this is the only record in the domes- 
tic catalogs, independent of the com- 
plete operatic sets, with these arias 
on it, and since Miss Bampton’s mu- 
sicianship is admirable, the disc will 
no doubt be welcomed by many. 

A Song Program: Miranda (Hage- 
man) ; Serenade (Carpenter) ; A Bal- 
lynure Ballad; The Lozv-Backed Car; 
The Little Irish Girl (Lohr) ; Kitty 
Me Love, Will You Marry Me?; Mah 
Lindy Lou (Strickland) ; and Witness 
'Negro spiritual) ; sung by James 
Melton with Robert Hill at the piano. 
Victor set 947. 

Melton, who began his career in 
radio, is now a member of the Metro- 
politan Opera Company. His singing 
is manly and straightforward; one 
feels he sings because he enjoys it. 
In songs which permit him to be 
cheerful he is at his best, for subtlety 
is not one of this singer’s long suits. 
His diction is admirable and his 
avoidance of sentimental stress laud- 
able; thus his singing of the old 
favorite Mah Lindy Lou is accom- 
plished with a freshness and a nat- 
uralness which are all too seldom 
heard. Admirers of the tenor will un- 
questionably be delighted with his 
first recorded song recital, more 
typical of the final group of a concert 
hall recital than of a regular pro- 
gram. However, undoubtedly the 
choice of material has been made 
with an eye to appealing to the 
majority of his hearers rather than 
the few. 




The Band as a Medium for 
Symphonic Accompaniment 

(Continued from Page 718) 

students are sure to derive from the 
fine art of accompaniment, with its 
many problems of minute balance, 
accurate counting of measures, and 
general ensemble, is of inestimable 
value. Finally, the very insight into 
a literature which, to the minority 
of band players, would otherwise al- 
ways remain foreign territory, is in 
itself of no small importance. The 
presence of works of this type on 
band programs tended to dignify the 
work in Symphonic Band in the eyes 
of all the school personnel, both 

The Teacher’s Round Table 

(Continued from Page 710) 

some excellent discipline without his 
knowing it! And don't forget it, boogie- 
woogie can give discipline a-plenty. Wise 
teachers have long recognized this fact. 

Take a simple B.W. bass, for instance; 

Sit down, play it fast, evenly, inci- 
sively, in ‘perpetual motion” style, 
starting on the first, fourth, and fifth 
degrees of the scale, then add to it all 
sorts of rhythmic gymnastics inter- 
spersed with leaps, octaves, repeated 
tones, and so on in the right hand, and 
you'll get plenty of discipline! How can 
one fail to improve in accuracy, endur- 
ance, brilliance, and rhythmic verve? 
Aren’t those enough virtues for you? 

If teachers will adopt a liberal atti- 
tude toward boogie-woogie, I am sure it 
will pay dividends in the end, and in 
more ways than one. 

The best book I know is “Beginners’ 
Boogie-Woogie,” by Bernard Whitefield, 
an authority in this field. The book is 
by no means elementary (Grade III and 
IV) but it is very clearly written, well 
graded, and chock full of very amusing- 
music. I enjoy playing it myself! And if 
you want some good “swing” transcrip- 
tions of old favorites (Grade III and 
IV) get “Swing Out,” by Stanford King 
What he does to Pop! Goes the Weasel, 
Three Blind Mice, Old Black Joe, and 
others is nobody’s business! These two 
books ought to hold you and your stu- 
dents for a while. 

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rr/iniFion ,1 f 4 VT U II'S/T M MUSIC” 

The Original Don Cossacks and the 
Music of the Don 

( Continued, from Page 706) 

outpourings are important as they re- 
flect the Cossack’s innate need of 
expressing himself in song; but they 
represent only a small part of our 
music. We have songs built around 
every office of life — traditional work 
songs, love songs, dancing songs; 
most characteristic of all, battle 
songs. Some of them are gay and 
hearty and some are reflective and 
brooding— just as life itself is— but 
all reflect the innate strength and 
vigor of the Cossacks and their 
steppe country. In addition to the 
people’s own songs, we have a mag- 
nificent tradition of religious music, 
ponderous and full of sincere fervor. 
Russia’s church music lay dormant 
and obscure for over a hundred 
years; then it was reshaped into its 
present form by men like Gretchani- 
noff, Tschaikowsky, Rachmaninoff, 
Kastalsky, Chesnokoff, and Schve- 
doff. Professor Schvedoff has set 
down and arranged many tradi- 
tional airs for the special use of our 

“We vary our own programs to 
include examples of all the various 
types of national music. Usually we 
begin with church music which, in 
all orthodox services, is entirely 

choral with no instrumental accom- 
paniment of any sort. Next, we use 
a group of classics, including 
choruses from the great Russian 
operas and songs of our great mas- 
ters. In third place, then, come the 
folk and soldier songs that repre- 
sent the life of our people. These are 
the songs that the peasant sings at 
the ‘khorovod’ (village festival) ; 
songs of the earth, the rivers, the 
fox-ests; songs of woi'k and of love; 
and traditional ballads that the min- 
strels intone in the ‘izba’ (peasant 
hut) at night. 

A Different System 

“Our Russian system of singing is 
somewhat different from that of any 
other country. Even professional art- 
singing makes use of the national 
characteristics that may be found in 
the singing of the people. We make 
much use of wordless singing, or 
humming. Also, we accept the use of 
the falsetto as a legitimate part of 
our vocal ensembles. In our own 
work we have six parts, or voice 
choirs, instead of the conventional 
four (although some of our arrange- 
ments call for twelve parts) ; fal- 
setto, first tenor, second tenor, bari- 

tone. bass, and contra-bass. This 
permits of wonderful varieties of 
range, of course, and enables our 
male chorus to offer selections that 
would normally call for the highest 
female voices. There is no ‘trick’ 
about the legitimate use of the fal- 
setto. Although almost any true tenor 
voice can encompass it, falsetto is 
best attempted by an organ which 
is very light and lyric by nature. Its 
use must be based on perfect voice 
placement and depends entirely 
upon head resonance. One often 
hears it said that frequent use of 
falsetto ‘ruins’ the voice. This is not 
so. In our group there are lyric tenors 
who have taken the falsetto part for 
twenty-three years and are still 
‘going strong.’ The danger of the 
falsetto is — like everything else in 
vocal work — its forcing or abuse. No 
one without a perfect command of 
head resonance should attempt it. 

Humming for Resonance 

“Our traditional preference for 
humming is an excellent thing for 
the development of resonance. Even 
singers who make no use of this at 
all in their normal work might do 
well to practice it, in moderation, 
for its value in placing the voice 
forward. The secret of humming, as 
a resonance exercise, is to feel the 
vibration of the tone in the lips and 
in the mask. If this vibration is not 
clearly felt (as a buzzing tickling), 
the voice is incorrectly resonated. 

own system of choral practice Dur 
ing the busy concert season we haw 
little time for more than three Z 
four rehearsals a month. During th 
summer months, however, we p ra 6 
tice hard, both in program buildinr 
and in vocal technic. For six summei 
weeks we practice eight hours a dav 
—four in the morning and four in 
the afternoon. It is then that new 
programs are developed. I choose the 
songs, distribute the music to the 
various choirs of voices, and g0 
through the selections with the en- 
tire chorus, indicating the effects to 
be attained. Next comes the work 
with the separate vocal groups. When 
each of the choirs has sung its 
part five or six times, we close the 
music and work without notes. By 
that time the ultimate effect has 
been understood by the men, they 
know their own parts, and can con- 
centrate on the music without look- 
ing at the notes. Then we begin the 
long task of polishing and cleaning! 

“It is most heartening to note the 
wonderful development of taste in 
American audiences. When we first 
sang here, some dozen years ago, the 
audiences seemed to regard us as a 
sort of ‘show’ and demanded only 
gay, humorous songs and dances. 
Today there is an equal demand for 
our serious national music. Church 
litanies, which are often long and 
difficult, are as popular as the folk 
songs. Also, we have gotten to know 


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the American people through our 
frequent contacts with schools and 
universities where, after our con- 
certs, the local glee clubs come to 
visit us, to ask about our work, to 
compare notes about their own sing- 
ing, and to sing for us. These Amer- 
ican college groups are really re- 
markable in musical insight and 
vocal ability. During the past months, 
too, we have been singing for Red 
Cross rallies and for army and navy 
posts. Now that many of our group 
have been admitted to American 

“T 1 Russian and then back again 
into English as an exercise in lan- 
guage as well as in patriotism), we 
feel a special thrill in bringing the 
songs of our liberty-loving Cossack 
ancestors to our new home. Our tra- 
ditions are different, certainly; but 
we meet on common ground in the 
nature of the ideals we venerate. 
And that these ideals may be clari- 
fied through music is a hopeful step 
toward world understanding.” 

Ten Tips for Beginning Organists 

( Continued from Page 750) 

pedaling does go wrong, stop it un- 
til you have yourself in hand; then 
reduce your pedal volume. Ordinarily, 
releasing the pedal couplers will pro- 
duce the desired effect. 

3. Play in public easier music than 
you have studied. Work up to the 
limit of your technic only after long 
and repeated practice and at least 
a year’s expei-ience. Don’t play your 
most difficult numbers on special oc- 
casions. The combination of the two 
will almost certainly make you nerv- 
ous — and nervousness and good or- 
gan playing are common enemies. 
Never forget that the average con- 
gregation is always more impressed 
by a good melody, tasteful registra- 
tion, and a judicious sprinkling of 
the old favorites through the year’s 
programs than by fast pedaling and 
three or four-part counterpoint. 

4. Check carefully the numbers, 
tunes, and verses of hymns. (Sad ex- 
perience taught me the importance 
of this.) Practice hymns before the 
service. Keep an eye or an ear on 
your verses so you will not wake up 
all of a sudden wondering whether 
you have finished or have one more 
verse to play. Add 4’ and 2’ Flute 
stops (reeds are not so good for con- 
gregational singing) and play all 
parts semi-staccato if the congrega- 
tion begins to drag or to flat. Re- 
member that sudden changes of vol- 
ume during or between verses of 
hymns confuse a congregation and 
make it timid. 

5. Attend two or three services at 
your new church before you start 
Playing. Make a complete outline of 
the procedure with all cues (spoken, 
Played, or sung) , no matter how 

nvial they may seem. Underline all 
musical portions, even if they are 
only chords for the responses. Put 

e sheet on the rack with your mu- 
sic and follow it each time until you 
nd that you are no longer watch- 
! ng it. (Such an outline is particu- 
ar y helpful if your first church 
as an elaborate liturgy — as have the 

faiths 1 ) 411 ’ Episcopal> and Catholic 

November, 1943 

6. Keep your registration simple. 
Try not to shift hands on your man- 
uals or change several stops on dif- 
ferent manuals at once until you 
become adept enough to do so with- 
out focusing your whole attention 
on it. 

7. Don’t repeat numbers too often. 
Mark the date of performance on 
each piece before you put it away, or 
keep a file of programs as a check 
on yourself. 

8. Use Bach sparingly in the aver- 
age small church. Chorales, chorale 
preludes, aria movements, or num- 
bers from instrumental suites are 
safer choices than the big preludes, 
fugues, and toccatos. 

9. Try to keep your embarrass- 
ment under control. When you make 
a mistake (and you will — always 
when you least expect or want it), 
don’t let it weaken the rest of your 
playing — forget it and go on. No one 
will blame you for making a mis- 
take, but you may be blamed if you 
make the same one twice! One way 
to cut down on mistakes is to be 
faithful to your practice time. Re- 
member that your private work is 
just as important as your public play- 
ing in attaining professional poise 
and alertness. So— don’t skimp! If 
you can practice on an organ free 
of charge you ought to make the 
most of the opportunity. 

10. Find the best tempo for the 
service as a whole and adhere to it. 
Never forget that the organist (that’s 
you!) and the minister are the ones 
who set the mood for the whole 
church service. Don’t be afraid to put 
in more time than you are paid for 
or make suggestions to your pastor 
for smoothing out those significant 
details which will make the service 
you play one of quiet, reverent 
beauty. Concentrate on these sug- 
gestions one at a time, and keep 
adding to them. (I’m still working 
hard on 4, 6, and 9.) Long before 
all ten are second nature, your con- 
gregation will be saying that the new 
organist is the best one they’ve ever 



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The Trail of the Tempered Scale 

( Continued from Page 721) 

of a semitone flat. The final outcome 
of this “tempering” is a scale of 
twelve evenly spaced half steps. Our 
chromatic scale is so tuned that the 
same piano key will do for either B- 
flat or A-sharp; or that Middle C may 
also be B~ or even D double-flat. 

With the coming of the keyboard 
instruments, and the encroachment 
of harmony upon counterpoint, the 
need of tempering became impera- 
tive, even though the church author- 
ities frowned. 

Accidentals crept into our music 
chiefly to enable the church modes to 
produce better harmony, especially 
for a final cadence, or “Amen” pro- 
gression, as we use a G-sharp in the 
dominant chord preceding the final 

Modes and Scales 

A scale is not a mode. It is an ar- 
rangement of scale-steps from which 
modes are formed. Our diatonic scale 
has two half -steps in it, and our ma- 
jor and minor modes put them into 
different places in each of their tetra- 
chords: C-D-EF; G-A-BC in the ma- 
jor; A-BC-D; EF-G-A in the relative 
minor. Accidentals permit rearrang- 
ing the position of the half-steps so 
as to transform major modes into 
minor or vice versa. By degrees all 
twelve of the church modes were 
thus whittled down to two, major and 
minor, both better suited for har- 

The church, however, would not 
willingly sacrifice the pure-tone scale, 
natural to voices. But five black keys 
crept onto the keyboard surrepti- 

tiously, forming a very ill-tempered 
chromatic scale. An even-tempered 
scale was suggested by Bartolo 
Rames, a Spanish monk, in 1482, but 
the consequent distortion of the 
pure-tone scale forbade its use. The 
even-tempered scale had to wait the 
further revival of Greek learning and 
the full bloom of the Renaissance. 

The real hero of the battle over the 
tempered scale was Gioseffe Zarlino, 
who preceded Monteverde as organ- 
ist of St. Mark’s, Venice. Opera was 
coming, and keyboard instruments 
demanded their own chamber music. 
Zarlino revived the thesis of Claudius 
Ptolemy, and from it evolved new 
ideas, including the need for an even- 
tempered scale. A terrific storm arose 
between the new harmonists and the 
old modalists. The harmonists won, 
but even then the tempered scale was 
modified into a compromise mean- 
tone scale suggested by Mersenne, a 
French scientist. Music, of course, was 
still chiefly vocal, and the mean-tone 
scale had a minimum tempering, so 
as nearly to preserve the pure-tone 
scale while permitting modulation 
into a few neighboring keys. 

The freedom of the keys, twelve 
major and twelve minor, was not 
established until Bach proved the ar- 
tistic value of the even-tempered 
scale with his “Forty-eight Preludes 
and Fugues.” He opened up immense 
fields of unexplored harmony. Thus 
the old trail of the tempered scale 
broadened into a great highway down 
which we have all traveled ever since 
the genius of Sebastian Bach was 
first recognized. 

effects of damp feet. He did it hu- 
morously, but there was sincere 
counsel in his words. When they 
came to Philadelphia Caruso imme- 
diately bought a pair of rubbers for 
Madame Alda. Caruso himself, how- 
ever, continually abused his throat 
by smoking interminable strong cig- 

It is frequently possible to check 
the progress of a cold when its first 
symptoms appear. Heat is the best 
medicine — whether it be applied ex- 
ternally by means of a hot bath, a 
Roman or Turkish bath, hot com- 
presses around neck and chest, hot- 
water bottles, electric pad, and stay- 
ing in bed; or whether internally 
promoted by hot drinks such as tea 
or lemonade. The usual common tea 
or a medicinal tea may be given. 
Perspiration may be induced in this 
way, but the actual goal is. warming 
up the body. Generally, in these 
days, physicians put the patient to 
bed at once if there is evidence of 
fever, and keep him there until the 
fever is gone. Many singers, includ- 
ing Anna Case, have found that 
colds are the result of dietary in- 
discretions which fill the body with 
toxin. Once, when she was in the 
best of health, she had a bad attack 
of laryngitis as a result of eating 
plum pudding. She tells us that, not 
until she had taken glass after glass 
of hot water and thoroughly washed 
the poison out of her system, could 
she sing again. 

It is true that freeing the system 
from the infection by taking a lax- 

ative or an enema is of assistance in 
checking a cold at its onset. This 
means a detoxication of the bodv 
which consequently will be more 
able to overcome the cold. An ap- 
propriate diet includes fruit and its 
juices, especially the citrus fruits 
(lemons, oranges, grapefruit) and a 
minimum of meat and fish. One 
well-known specialist in internal 
medicine follows this treatment- 
The patient is put on a diet of noth- 
ing but orange juice for three days. 
This is taken at two-hour intervals 
in six or eight-ounce quantities. The 
tall drinking glass holds about six 
ounces. In addition to this the pa- 
tient is directed to take ion an empty 
stomach) a laxative on the first two 
days of the orange-fast diet. The 
treatment is prescribed to detoxify 
the body and increase the alkaline 
condition. The normal state of the 
mucous linings of the throat and 
nose are, however, slightly acid. 

The inhalation of vapors of camo- 
mile tea through nose and mouth 
brings relief and sometimes assists 
in a cure. Others benefit by the in- 
halation of weak acids. Workers in 
vinegar factories and war-gas plants 
seem to suffer little from colds. To 
diminish the swelling of the mucous 
membranes in nose and throat dur- 
ing a cold there are many drugs 
which are administered directly to 
those parts by the doctor. In the case 
of a sore throat, and no physician 
available, relief may be obtained 
through certain lozenges, slowly dis- 
solved in the mouth. 

How to Teach Your Child Absolute Pitch 

by Cither 'I I larihall 

The Musician and the Common Cold 

(Continued from Page 700) 

Cold temperature alone does not 
cause colds. Amelita Galli-Curci said 
that she did not believe in worrying 
about colds. A little cold weather 
may easily irritate the throat, yet it 
seemed useless to her to take too 
many special precautions. She al- 
ways slept with her windows wide 
open — even when the temperature 
was below zero. She considered fresh 
air the best tonic for the voice. 
“Draughts, of course, are danger- 
ous,” she said; “but constant open- 
air breathing hardens the voice and 
offers the best protection against 
colds.” She suffered very little from 

When Nellie Melba studied in Paris 
with Madame Marchesi, she had a 
cold and remarked to her teacher 
that she could not think how she 
had caught it. The teacher looked 
at her with a frown and said; “Have 

you washed your head?” Melba 
nodded. “Certainly,” she said. “I 
washed it two days ago.” Marchesi 
shook her finger vehemently at her 
student. “A singer never washes her 
head,” she said. “She cleans it with 
tonic, she cleans it with a fine comb, 
but she never washes it.” Melba was 
astonished at this revelation which, 
however, she did not take to heart. 
This, of course, is exaggerated, but 
caution is always necessary. 

On a cold, sleety day Caruso saw 
that Madame Frances Alda did not 
wear rubbers on her feet. “You don’t 
wear rubbers in such a climate? And 
you aspire to be a singer!” During 
their common journey he kept on 
lecturing her on the absolute neces- 
sity of guarding the voice from the 

This article is published as it was 
presented to us as a carefully ob- 
served musical human experience of 
an obviously painstaking mother and 
teacher. The Etude has had no op- 
portunity to test the students men- 
tioned. A relative pitch sense can of 
course be readily taught, and it is not 
inconceivable that absolute pitch 

might be developed by training 

Editorial Note. 

in the September 1937 issue of 
The Etude “Can Perfect Pitch 
Be Acquired?”, it occurred to the 
writer that other parents and teach- 
ers might be interested in our ex- 
perience and conclusions on the 

I, myself, am one of those people 
who are called tone deaf, that is, I 
cannot carry a tune when singing, 
although I have a fair voice. When 1 
took piano lessons as a child, I could 
not detect discords. While I have im- 
proved a little in this respect, I still 

have a very poor ear. My husband, a 
professional musician, who has a 
good sense of pitch, does not have 
absolute pitch. Our two children, a 
boy and a girl, aged four and five, 
both have absolute pitch. Evidently 
it was not inherited, as some think it 
generally is. Is it acquired, or is it 

It is recognized by educators that 
almost all small children have the 
ability to learn to speak a foreign 
language without accent. This is 
thought to be due to an unusual sense 
of hearing, by which they are able to 
distinguish variations in tone and in- 
flection that the adult ear does not 
perceive. By the time a child is four 
or five it begins to lose this gift and 
by the time it is ten or twelve, has 
lost it altogether; which explains 
why children in high school do not 
seem to be able to learn a foreign 
language without an accen. Of 
course there are a very few natural 
linguists who are able to learn a 
language at any age and speak it like 
a native, but they are very rare. It is 
my conclusion that this special sense 
(Continued on Page 763) 

All training is founded upon the principle that culture must 
precede proficiency. Herbert Spencer 1 





Making the Organ Talk 

by 1 1 barvin s4ndt 





can make it talk!” sometimes 
is used in referring to a mu- 
sician who produces sensational re- 
sults on his instrument. The clever 
organist, however, can make his in- 
strument talk in a different and 
almost literal sense. 

In listening to the playing of cer- 
tain excellent (not famous) organists 
I have noticed that when they play 
hymns the organ seems to form not 
only the music but also the words of 
the hymn. An analysis of such re- 
sults shows that this effect is pro- 
duced by skillful phrasing and by 
dividing and subdividing each phrase. 
While this, perhaps, is done uncon- 
sciously by some organists, it is a 
skill which can be attained or im- 
proved by deliberate attention to 
certain rules. 

First of all the organist must give 
careful attention to the punctuation 
of the text so that each period, semi- 
colon, and comma is respected by a 
break in the normal, legato move- 
ment of tone. In general it can be 
said that at the end of a sentence 
a complete break in the legato is 
made by releasing all notes of the 
chord, so that a distinct attack can 
be made on the first chord in the 
next sentence. At a comma or semi- 
colon a partial break is made by con- 
tinuing the legato in one voice, prob- 
ably the bass, and making a break in 
the other voices. 

In the case of a familiar hymn the 
organist will be able to watch for the 
punctuation while playing; but if the 
hymn is unfamiliar, and especially if 
the words are not printed within the 
staff, it is helpful to employ a system 
of marking such as the one illus- 
trated. In this example no marks are 
used for the first stanza because it 
is printed where the organist can 

O Zion. He npproacheth. 
o. Fling wide thy portals, Zion. 
4. Give heed, thou sinful people. 

read it while playing. The figure “2” 
wiitten above the treble staff indi- 
cates that at this point there is a 
comma in the second stanza. The fig- 
ure “3'' written below the treble staff 
marks the location of a comma in 
the third stanza, and a “4” written 
above the tenor line locates the com- 
ma in the fourth stanza. The loca- 
jon of the figure does not indicate 
me part in which the break is made; 
each figure is assigned a different 
Position on the staff in order that the 
organist shall not have to hunt for 
e Proper figures. Thus, while play- 

ing the fourth stanza, his eye will 
notice only the figures written above 
the tenor line. 

However, mere phrasing in the 
usual sense will not make the organ 
talk. Each phrase must be divided 
into words and each word into syl- 
lables. The words can be separated 
from each other by continuing the 
legato in two parts, probably the 
tenor and bass, and releasing the 
other parts between the words. Syl- 
lables within the words can be “pro- 
nounced” by playing the melody 
semi-staccato and the other parts 
legato. It must be understood that 
this semi-staccato is used between, 
not within, the syllables. It should 
not be used on each note of a syl- 
lable or vowel which is sustained 
over several different melody notes. 
Such a syllable should be rendered 
extremely legato, with a distinct 
break at the end to separate it from 
the next syllable. 

It is acknowledged that the meth- 
ods described actually are not rules 
but are merely suggestions and 
therefore can be ignored with a light 
heart whenever it seems good to do 
so. Under certain conditions it might 
be desirable to play every chord 
staccato, and on the other hand a 
continuous legato might be prefer- 
able in other cases. By way of excep- 
tion to the suggestions given it will 
be noticed that in the playing of 
chorales it is customary to hold the 
last chord in each line of a stanza 
and to make a distinct break before 
beginning the next line, regardless 
of whether or not there is any punc- 
tuation mark at this point. In 
some cases this may seem ridiculous 
from the standpoint of the words, 
but it is considered in good taste for 
the reason that in the chorale the 
music is not so decidedly subordinate 
to the words as it is in the hymn 
and gospel song. 

Our conclusion might be that suc- 
cessful hymn playing demands a 
sympathy for the words of the hymn. 
Some organists attain this by the 
simple process of singing with the 
congregation while playing. Othei 
organists prefer to listen to the sing- 
ing of the congregation in order to 
gauge its spirit and alter the regis- 
tration and playing accordingly. In 
this case the organist should form 
the words in his mind and at the 
same time try to form them on the 
keyboard. In either case, the system 
of marking which has been described 
will be found of great value. 

A professional music school 

lj k: n fa ■ iv in an attractive college town, 
tn aH bran.-Ue, -f, 

i band and chon <in . ... nrp-mis.etc. ) 


./.f i . ill 111 9 1 

Individual vocal and instrumental instruction. Classes in Theory, Com- 
position, and all branches of music education. 

Courses leading to diploma and B. S. and M. S. degrees in instru- 
mental, singing, and public school music departments. 

Catalog on request. 

Room 122, 120 Claremont Avenue, New York 



• Thorough preparation for careers in 
music. B.Mus. or Diploma in Voice, Piano, 
Organ, Violin, Cello, Brass, Wood-wind 
and Percussion instruments. B.Mus. in 
Composition, Church Music, Musicology. 
B.Mus. and M.Mus.Ed. in Public School 
Music. A.M. through Graduate School. 
Chorus, Glee Club, Orchestra, Band. Fac- 
ulty of distinguished musicians includ- 
ing many Boston Symphony Orchestra 
members and the Stradivarius String 
Quartet. Cultural opportunities of Bos- 
ton. Attractive dormitories. Catalog. 

Alfred H. Meyer, Dean 
53 Blagden Street Boston, Mass. 

f A Revealing New Book in Two Parts 


applied to 


Send for explanatory circular 
East 86th St. (Park Ave.) New York City 

Philadelphia Conservatory 

of Music 

216 South 20th Street 
Maria Ezerman Drake 
Managing Director 
Faculty headed by 

Olga Samaroff, Mas. D. 
Courses leading to Degree? 


84 Riverside Drive 
New York City 


Catalogue on request Special Summer Session 

COMBS COLL -®!i. °L- US,C 

Complete musical education. Preparatory 
department lor children. Teachers’ training 
courses leading to diplomas and degrees. 

1925 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

flKiene XTKeadre ™ 

^ Singers coached for professional Stage, Screen. Radio, 
Acting, Musical Comedy and Opera. Broadway also 
Summer Stock Theatre Appearances assured. Many gradu- 
ates outstanding stars. Spring, and summer course open- 
ings. write Sec’y Schubert. 17R0 Broadway. M. _V. _ 

Holiday-time Entertainment Material 


By Gertrude McRae Price, 75c 

A fine feature in which children from 5 to 14 
years of age may participate. There are 2 parts 
for grown-ups. 2 acts and 5 scenes with lots to 
entertain the audience as everything ends^up in 
a party for Santa, with some penguins and 
Eskimos joining in the party. Time, 1 hour. 


By Norwood Dale Price, 60c 

Gets the holiday spirit “across” in an effective 
manner. The music is bright and melodious, yet 
simple enough for easy performance. A nice 
length operetta introducing Mother Goose and 
Fairyland characters with, of course,. Mr. and 
Mrs. Santa Claus. 


By C. E. Le Massena 
Price, 60c 

A sparkling, entertain- 
ing operetta in which 
children from seven to 
fifteen years of age 
may have a part. The 
music is tuneful and 
easy to sing. The plot 
has to do with jolly old 
St. Nick's good work 
with some young cynics. 


By Geo. F. Root Price, 40c 

This is a good old-fashioned Christmas “show” 
for the young folks. Features some of the 
favorite carols. 


By William Baines Price, 60c 

A worthwhile operetta which children or adults, 
or a combination of both, may present. The 
plot puts forth a real moral. The attractive 
chorus work is all in unison. 


By Elizabeth U. Emerson Price, 35c 

This pleasing Christmas cantata is for chil- 
dren’s voices assisted by a baritone and a tenor 
or soprano. How Santa helps to give children a 
vision of the light that streamed from that 
Star of Bethlehem is brought out in the dialog 
and action. Santa has 2 solos and there is a solo 
for Jack Frost and for one of the school girls. 
Two acts. 


By Charles H. Gabriel Price, 40c 

Even primary tots may help in this veritable 
children’s jubilee with marches or drills, dialog, 
solos and choruses. 


By Geo. F. Root Price, 40c 

An inspiring Christmas message is found in 
this enjoyable entertainment embracing young 
folk of all ages. 


By Geo. F. Root Price, 40c 

An unusually pretty and effective Christmas 
operetta for children, easily prepared for pres- 
entation. Its popularity continues year after 


By Geo. F. Root Price, 40c 

Teaches the beautiful lesson of charity and yet 
is brimful of humorous situations. Three solo 
singing parts, all girls. 


By Gertrude M. Rohrer Price, 60c 

Quite a favorite one-act Christmas musical play 
for children. It runs about one hour and is 
readily produced with a minimum of rehearsing. 


Cantata for Two-Part Chorus 
of Treble Voices 

By William Baines Price, 40c 

Dickens’ beautiful Christmas story is the 
basis of the text of this effective cantata. 
Musically, it is not beyond the capabil- 
ities of the average junior high school 
chorus. This cantata may be sung with 
an accompanying series of tableaux for 
which a Stage Manager's Guide, giving 
full staging directions, is available. 

Send for FREE Folder giving lists and de- 
scriptions of other Christmas. Entertainment 
suggestions, including Recitations with Piano 
Accompaniment, Toy Symphonies, Christmas 
Songs for Child Singers, etc. 


1712 CHESTNUT ST., PH1LA. 1, PA. 

November, m5 



'^KTiLh YOU WRITE a letter to 
a Prisoner of War . . . 

Perhaps he was left behind 
when Bataan fell. Perhaps he 
had to bail out over Germany. 
Anyway, he’s an American, and 
he hasn’t had a letter in a long, 
long time. 

And when you sit down to 
write, tell him why you didn’t 
buy your share of War Bonds 
last pay day— if you didn’t. 
“Dear Joe,” you might say, 
“the old topcoat was getting 
kind of threadbare, so I . . .” 
No, cross it out. Joe might not 
understand about the topcoat, 
especially if he’s shivering in a 

damp Japanese cell. 

Let’s try again. “Dear Joe, 
I’ve been working pretty 
hard and haven’t had a vaca- 
tion in over a year, so . . 
Better cross that out, too. They 
don’t ever get vacations where 
Joe’s staying. 

Well, what are you waiting 
for? Go ahead, write the let- 
ter to Joe. Try to write it, 

But, if somehow you find you 
can’t, will you do this? Will 
you up the amount of money 
you’re putting into your Pay- 
roll Savings Plan — so that you’ll 
be buying your share of War 
Bonds from here on in? 

This advertisement prepared under the auspices of the War 
Advertising Council and the U. S. Treasury Department, 
and space contributed by 


Blending the Registers 

bi i ^Herbert ^lUendcfi ^sduitin 

R EGISTERS are the so-called di- 
visions of the voice which result 
from the readjustment that 
is made in the vocal cords as the voice 
proceeds up or down the scale. The 
trained voice takes its lowest tones 
in the chest register, its medium 
tones in the medium register, and its 
upper tones in the head (falsetto) 
register. As such a voice passes from 
one register to another in the course 
of a song, the blending of the regis- 
ters is so finely done that it is diffi- 
cult for the ear to detect the change. 
This scientific blending of the regis- 
ters makes possible a wide, musical, 
vocal range. 

In the chest register the flow of 
breath is forward and without much 
impact against the parts of the 
mouth. The falsetto voice brings the 
tones forward on the breath and 
places them against the hard palate, 
or upper teeth, for resonance. As the 
falsetto proceeds into its higher 
ranges, there is the sensation that 
the tones are in the head rather than 
in the throat, the resulting tones 
often being called head tones. Stu- 
dents need much practice on the 
registers. At first the breaks between 
the registers are apt to be quite no- 
ticeable, but with patient practice 
the tones will begin to blend together 
until finally the “three voices” will 
sound quite like one. It is a vocal 
achievement worth all the labor in- 
vested in it. 

Let us try an exercise. (Men may 
sing it an octave lower.) 

Ex. I 

Ah . 

Notice where your voice breaks; let 
the readjustment take place and 
proceed up the scale as high as you 
can comfortably go. Don’t strain for 
power on the high notes. Be content 
with small tones. Let the voice di- 
mmish in power if it wants to. 

Having noted the pitch on which 
your voice naturally breaks, practice 
the following exercise, transposing it 
up 01 down to suit your particular 
voice : 



Do not try to smooth up your 
\ oice-break between the registers too 
quickly. But do not leave the above 
exercise until you can move right on 

through the scale, using the regis- 
ters. When this becomes a sort of 
“second nature,” use the first exer- 
cise again and try to blend the regis- 

Now try this, bringing the falsetto 
down as low as possible. Sing softly 

rs fh 




Be sure to observe the rests in the 
next exercise. Where the exercise re- 
peats the same tone, the voice should 
alternate between the falsetto and 
chest register. 

Ex. 4 

Remember that tones grow with 
practice on simple syllables. Do not 
leave these exercises until practice 
thereon has resulted in a gratifying 
use of the registers. When this is ac- 
complished, try some good song. Sing 
the tune to the vowel sounds as indi- 
cated above, concentrating on good 
tone production and a smooth blend- 
ing of the registers. Then sing the 
words. You will be surprised at the 
new ease with which the voice glides 
over the pitches where it used to 

The medium register is between 
the chest register and head tones. It 
merges downward into the deep 
tones of the lower register, and up- 
ward into the thin tones of the fal- 
setto. Men should not hold in dis- 
dain these feminine-like sounds. 

Ex. 5 

Chest Falsetto Chest Falsetto 

Chest Falsetto Chest 

Practice Exercise 5 to develop 
change of power in the register ad- 
justments. Use the same vowel sounds 
as indicated for Exercise 4. This may 
be transposed if necessary. 

him a dnd l lenrl he ™ e( ? alled master °t al1 masters. Go, turn to 
, imth few means, how to produce great effects.” 

— Beethoven. 




How to Teach Your 
Child Absolute 

(, Continued from Page 760) 

of hearing that small children possess 
makes it possible for most children 
to be taught absolute pitch, if it is 
started young enough; and that the 
reason very few people have absolute 
pitch is because only a few are taught 
music at the age of four or five. 

I did not start out to teach our 
daughter absolute pitch. She was 
anxious to learn to play the piano, 
and her father, being a musician, 
wanted his children to have a mu- 
sical education. So, when she was just 
past four I bought her an instruction 
book and started to teach her. I kept 
the piano tuned to International 
pitch. Because of my lack of tonality, 
it was impossible to rely on my own 
singing or playing. Consequently, I 
merely taught her the names of notes 
and how to read music in the same 
way an older child would be taught. 
After a month or two she was read- 
ing the simple tunes in her book, and 
I noticed that she knew when she hit 
a wrong note, although she was not 
looking at her hands. I turned her 
back to the piano and found that she 
could name any note played, within 
the range of notes she had learned — 
something over two octaves. As she 
learned to read more notes, her range 
increased, and as chords were intro- 
duced into her pieces, she learned to 
distinguish two or three notes struck 
together. After a year and a half of 
study, she can name any single note 
on the keyboard and two, three or 
four notes played simultaneously 
anywhere except at the extreme ends 
of the register; probably she will 
eventually hear these. She can recog- 
nize the tones of a violent discord as 
easily as of a concord. She can sing 
any tone within her range on per- 
fect pitch; and can play by ear the 
tunes she learned to sing in kinder- 
garten. These tunes were taught en- 
tirely without a piano. She is also 
able to recognize most tones played 
on other instruments, if they are 
tuned to about the same pitch as our 
piano. While she is a brighter child 
than average, she seemed to possess 
little musical ability until we started 
to teach her. Her sense of rhythm 
was poor, and she did not try to sing 
tunes as many small children do. 

After the foregoing experience, I 
decided that possibly children are 
not born with absolute pitch, but ac- 
quire it. Accordingly, I then proceed- 
e d to teach our son the same ability. 
He does not seem to be any brighter 
than the average child, although he 
displays more musical talent than his 
sister did at the same age. He has an 
excellent sense of rhythm and often 
hums or sings tunes that he has 
heard. At four years of age he did not 

November. 1943 

seem to be ready to learn to read 
music, so I have not attempted that 
as yet, but will shortly. I taught him 
the names of the different keys on 
the piano, starting at Middle C and 
gradually adding new keys in either 
direction as soon as he could name 
these as I pointed to them, or could 
play the ones which I named. This 
was done entirely at the keyboard 
with the child looking at the keys. 
After he knew an octave or more per- 
fectly, I turned his back to the piano 
and found that he could name any 
tone I played. He now knows two 
octaves. He has also been taught to 
play the C scale, one octave, with 
either hand. 

This method of teaching perfect 
pitch could be used with other young 
children. However, if after a child 
has learned an octave or more at the 
keyboard and has not acquired ab- 
solute pitch for these tones, it is 
scarcely advisable to devote more 
time to this method. Although this 
experience shows results with two 
children, a thousand such experi- 
ments would be necessary to estab- 
lish the truth or fallacy of the theory. 

The Voice Teacher 
and the 

Speaking Voice 

(.Continued from Page 748) 

defective cylinders, in like manner 
we can correct the characteristic 
factor sounds of the voice. 

Sometimes the normal speaking 
voice is so badly produced that its 
habitual use will overwhelm the 
remedial operations. In that case try 
to operate these exercises in a pitch 
higher than that ordinarily em- 
ployed. Or, perhaps better, have the 
pupil sustain the vowels, which, of 
course, is singing them. 

World of Music 

(Continued from Page 697) 

it became the first chorus of mixed 
es to sing American music at Salz- 
; cathedral in Austria. He wrote 
■al and instrumental works and was 
Elector and arranger of Negro folk 

HEN VENTRESCA, composer, for- 
est with the Philadelphia Orches- 
td for the past year a member of 
med Forces attached to the 392nd 
Air Force Band, died September 8 
lmington, Delaware. He was a 
0 f a number of musical organ- 
s in Philadelphia and also was 
Y^r*£r the publications of 

J9tilettfc>e Pimo Music 

Attractive Selections for Pupils' Recitals, 

Study Use, or Recreational Playing During 
the Holiday Season. Some Are Suitable for 
Use in Sacred Services. 


Title, Grade, Cat. No., and Composer Price 

Adeste Fideles, March (2) (19447) Martin. .. .35 

Adoration (4) (18483) Borowski 50 

Around the Xmas Tree (2) (16192) Crosby. . . .25 

Around the Xmas Tree (1 V 2 ) ' ( 1 7358) Risher. .25 
Arrival of Santa Claus (3) (2728) Engelmann .40 

Bells of Christmas (3) (8755) Karoly 40 

Cathedral Chimes at Xmas Eve (3) (6380) 

Engelmann 25 

Chimes at Christmas ( 3 V 2 ) (1 1451 ) Greenwald .40 

Christmas Bells (3) (25840) Johnson 35 

Christmas Bells, March (4) (19961) Wyman.. .40 

Christmas Day (2) (1 1822) Spaulding 25 

Christmas Eve (2) (17925) Blake 25 

Christmas Eve (2) (1678) Eyer 25 

Christmas Fantasia ( 3 V 2 ) (23105) Mueller. . . .50 

Christmas Hymn and Bells ( 2 V 2 ) (25103) 
Pitcher 35 


Six First Grade Piano Solos 
By Mabel Madison Watson 

The Christmas Tree (1) (25386) Watson. 

Games and Toys (1) (25387) Watson. . . 

March of the Merry Men (1) (25389) 


Playing in the Snow (1) (25388) Watson 
Snow for Christmas (1) (25384) Watson. 

Song of Sleep and Snow (1) (25385) 
Watson 30 






Christmas Morning (2) (1680) Eyer 35 

Christmas Morning at Home (2) (19090) 

Martin .35 

Christmas Suite (5 characteristic pieces) (2 V 2 ) 

(16781) Armstrong 75 

Coming of Santa Claus (2) (1681) Eyer 40 

Dreaming of Santa (2) (9238) Greenwald . . .35 

Hanging the Stockings (2 V 2 ) (9239) Green- 
wald 35 

Hobby Horse (2) (25832) Clafflin 25 

Holiday Sleigh Ride (2) (26994) Hopkins 25 

Piano Suite By Mildred Weston 

This little book delights young pianists yet in 
the first grade of study. Its eleven little pieces, 
each with text, are Hobby Horse, A Doll That 
Goes to Sleep, The Tinkle-Tinkle Box, In a 
Little White Cradle, The Big Red Drum, 
Wooden Soldiers, Tops, The Little Pop-Gun, 
Jumping Jack, Candle Lighting Time and 
Twinkle, Twinkle, Christmas Tree. Price, 75 

Holy Night, Peaceful Night (2) (13530) 

Greenwald 25 

Hush-a-bye, Dolly (With Words) (1) (26955) 

Stairs 25 

Impromptu (5) (23855) Hanson 50 

In a Manger (With Words) (2) (26752) Strick- 
land 25 

Jack-in-the-Box ( 3 V 2 ) (27010) King 40 

Jingle Bells ( 2 V 2 ) (6863) Lawson 25 

Knight Rupert (2) (4023) Schumann 25 

The Lead Soldiers, March ( 2 V 2 ) (25516) 

Baines 35 


Carols and Songs in Easy Arrangements 
for Piano — By Ada Richter 

Here is a collection that brings the best-loved 
Christmas melodies within the reach of young 
pianists along in the first and second grades 
and yet the arrangements will satisfy older 
pianists of limited playing attainments. The 
book contains thirty-one well-known Christ- 
mas songs and carols with texts for those who 
love to sing them as well. Price, 75 cents. 

Title , Grade, Cat. No., and Composer 
Little Tin Soldiers, March ( 2 V 2 ) (25484) Grey 

March Carillon (5) (23856) Hanson 

March of the Candy Dolls (3) (26224) Renton 

Merry Sleigh Bells (2) (25836) Preston 

On Christmas Morn (With Words) (1) (27178) 


O Holy Night (4) (27414) Adam — Freely 

transcribed by Peery 

O Holy Night (5) (23142) Adam-Hess 

Poinsettia ( 3 V 2 ) (26207) Overholt 

Santa Claus (1) (26051) Stairs 

Santa Claus Is Coming (2) (2354) Hiller. . . . 
Santa Claus Is Coming ( 2 V 2 ) (24802) Varkony 
Santa Claus March (2) (1420) Nuernberg . . . 

Santa On His Way (2) (27407) Thomas 

Silent Night (5) (23949) Kohlmann 

A Sleighride (3) (15046) Clark 

The Sleighride ( 2 V 2 ) (13836) Ashford 

The Talking Doll (IV 2 ) (17359) Risher 

Three Christmas Songs (Jingle Bells, Silent 
Night, Jolly Old St. Nicholas) (1 1 / 2 ) (271 98) 

Arr. Richter 

Three Little Christmas Pieces (1) (23456) 


Tommy's New Drum ( 2 V 2 ) (24405) Risher. . . 
Toy-town Soldiers ( 1 V 2 ) (26253) Richter. . . . 
Toys and Candies (2) (9243) Greenwald . . . . 
Under the Christmas Tree (2) (9244) Green- 


Under the Mistletoe (2 Vi) (7609) Engelmann 

Venite Adoremus (5) (23143) Bernard 

Waiting for Santa (With Words) (1 V 2 ) (27302) 


Yuletide (2) (23148) Williams 

Yuletide Bells (2 V 2 ) (13837) Ashford 































A Story with Music for Piano 
Arranged by Ada Richter 

Young pianists who have reached the point of 
grade 2y 2 to grade 3 in playing ability here 
have brought within their reach some of the 
most charming and most fascinating music 
ever written. The interesting and entertaining 
story that inspired Tschaikowsky’s ballet music, 
runs along through the book and there are 
illustrations. Tschaikowsky often wrote in a 
vein of melancholy and sadness, but the num- 
bers in this suite are bright and colorful and 
fit in with the yuletide mood. Price, 75 cents. 


Title, Grade , Cat. No., and Composer 

Adoration (4) (24373) Borowski 

Arrival of Santa Claus (3) (2664) Engelmann 

Christmas Eve (2) (9377) Hiller 

Christmas Festival (3) (1791) Buttschardt . . . 

Coming of Santa Claus (2) (4763) Eyer 

Message of the Bells (2) (25724) Beer 

A Sleighride (3) (15315) Clark 

Christmas Toy Symphony (Piano 4 hds. parts 

only) (9807-A) Hewitt 

Tommy's New Drum ( 2 V 2 ) (25499) Risher. . . 
Two Xmas Melodies (3) (16076) Garland. . . 
Under the Mistletoe ( 2 V 2 ) (7615) Engelmann 














In Very Easy Arrangements for 
Piano Duet — By Ada Richter 

12 of the favorite carols arranged for first 
grade pupils to play as duets. The texts also 
are given for singing with the four hand ac- 
companiment. Price, 75 cents. 


A Sleighride (3) (15424) Clark 75 | Under the Mistletoe (2y 2 ) (9943) Engelmann .75 


Christmas Fantasy — Introduces "While Shepherds Watched" 
(4) (27415) Kohlmann 

"Adeste Fidel is’ ' 

"Silent Night" 


Everything in Music Publications 

.$ 1-00 



76 3 

Junior Club Outline, No. 11 


Edited by 


American Music 

(Costume Recital or Playlet) 

i, £. .A. q. 

CHARACTERS (in appropriate 
costume) : 






Present-Day Group 
Scene: Interior with piano. All en- 
ter in procession and seat them- 
selves on chairs, stools, cushions, and 
so on. 

Present-Day Girl (walking around 
room and observing costumes) : 
Dear me! Who are all these people? 
Am I dreaming or something? Real 
Indians! Pilgrims and everything! 

x A Pilgrim (bowing low) : Yea, for- 
sooth, here we are and all real 
Americans, forsooth. Methinks it 
would be fitting and proper for us 
all to become acquainted, one with 
another. Mayhap we could sing a 
hymn of praise that we are all true 
Americans, and thus acquaint our- 
selves unto each other. 

Present-Day Girl: Oh, but my musi- 
cal history says you Pilgrims do 
not favor music! 

Pilgrim: Aye, aye, but there is music 
and music. It would be the music 
of hymn-sing and psalmody we 
would favor, but not the music for 
dancing or merry-making. That 
would be unbecoming to our way 
of life. But now let us join in the 

(All groups join in singing, ac- 
companied at the piano by one of 
the Pilgrim group. Other hymns 
may be added.) 

Indian Boy: Hi-yi! Hi-yi! Sound 
plenty good. Indian sing, too. In- 
dian sing plenty good, too. Him 
dance Buffalo Dance. 


Present-Day Girl: Oh, a real Indian 
dance. Please do! Oh, please! (In- 
dian group walks around in small 
circle, with shuffling, rhythmic mo- 
tion, heads bent toward the floor 
as one of the group plays an ar- 
rangement of a genuine Indian 
Tribal Melody.) 

Present-Day Boy: Wonderful; Do 
another one, please! (Another 
player or the same one plays an- 
other Indian melody as the dance 
is repeated.) 

Colonial: Interesting, indeed. And 
to think of it! Had we but known 
how to move the feet in Indian 
dance and how to raise the voice 
in their songs, mayhap they would 
not have frightened us to betake 
ourselves to the stockades so fre- 
quently. Albeit we have dances of 
our own, too. It well becomes our 
ladies in crinoline and our gentle- 
men with silver buckles and lace 
to dance in a stately manner. 
Surely the Pilgrim fathers would 
not have objected to the courtly 
dignity of our minuets, had they 
but beheld them. 

Present-Day Girl: We would love to 
see a minuet. Who wrote the music 
for your minuets? 

(Continued on Next Page ) 

a. Liszt, during his lifetime, was con- 
sidered the world’s most brilliant 
pianist. When and where was he 
born? When did he die? 

b. He used many folk tunes in his 
rhapsodies. These tunes were from 
what country? 

c. He donated a large sum of money 
to erect a monument to a famous 
composer in Bonn. Who was this 

d. Another famous composer married 
Liszt’s daughter. Who was this 


e. What is a rhapsody? 

f. What is meant by con bravura? 

Keyboard Harmony 

g. What is a passing tone? (Refer to 
last month’s outline.) Do you re- 
member how you formed chords 
last month, using passing tones in 
the melody? Passing tones are 
used the same way in the bass. 
Play the following pattern in 
three major and three minor keys. 

Notice the second note in the bass 
is a passing tone, progressing from 
C, the root of the chord, to E, the 
third of the chord, and passing 
through D as it progresses. 

Musical Program 

Since Liszt’s piano compositions 
are nearly all of extreme difficulty, 
your program would be made up of 
simplified arrangements. Try to hear 
some of Liszt’s compositions through 

recordings made by some of the 
world’s greatest pianists. If you do 
not have any Liszt arrangements in 
your repertoire, you may make up 
the program this month from pieces 
you have learned, regardless of who 
the composers are. 

Instrument Game 

If JUL n jU,„ 

Fill in the blanks with musical instruments 

The “prima donna of the strings” 
is often said of me, because I take 
the leading part in everything, you 
see. My ancestors lived long ago; the 
zithers are my kin; the lyre and 
harp were fashioned first, and then 
the . 


I m often heard in orchestras, or 
in a string quartette; I like to join 
the violin, or harp, in a duet. My 
color is a shiny brown; my tone is 
deep and mellow ; my proper name 
is rather long; for short I’m called 
a — . 


I’m very popular in Spain, I’m used 
for dance and song; in olden times 
the troubadours would carry me 
along. We felt at home at castle 
gates; we traveled near and far; I’m 
still a favorite to-day; now guess, 
I’m a 

I helped the shepherd boy of old 
to pass the time away; on me he 
played his melodies that cheered his 
lonely day. To-day in the finest or- 
chestras, my place none can dis- 
pute; I lead the wood wind section, 
and my name is short, a . 

Answers: 1, violin; 2, ’cello; 3, 
guitar; 4, flute. 

Red Cross Afgh ans 

Thanks again, knitters, for the 
squares you have sent in for our 
Red Cross afghans. (Incidentally, 
some of you are very good knitters.) 
As you know, these afghans are 
much needed, so send in all the 
squares you can (four-and-one-half 
inches) . One military hospital has 
requested nearly five hundred of 
these afghans, and, of course, the 
Junior Etude is very glad to be able 
to contribute a few for the use of 
the wounded soldiers. 

Squares have recently been 
received from: 

Shirley Day; Mary Olive Chandler; Margaret 
Fields; Evelyn Fields; Ola Grace Gardner; 
Mary Blair Shirley; Dorothy Jones; Verona 
Owens; Jean Parker; Janie Margaret Hinnant; 
Ramona Rouse; Anne Hicks; Emogene Red- 
dick; Doris Wheeler; Edna Earle Halloman: 
Frances Moore Dixon. (List will be continued 
next month.) 



American Music 

( Continued ) 

Colonial: A veritable good question 
it is. As it fell out we were not 
fortunate enough to have many 
me n skilled in the art of musical 
composition in the Colonies. Wil- 
liam Billings and Francis Hopkin- 
son were our most important mu- 
sicians, but we made use of the 
music of Haydn and Mozart. Our 
worthy ships brought books of 
their fair tunes with many other 
imports from Merry England. (Co- 
lonial group dance minuet to the 
melody of Don Juan or Minuet in 
E-fiat by Mozart.) 

Present-Day Boy: That’s swell! I 
think one of you should play a 
tune by Billings or Hopkinson for 
us. I like early American stuff. 

Colonial: I can play My Days Have 
Been So Wondrous Free by Hopkin- 
son, but it was really a song, you 
know. (Plays.) 

Present-Day Girl : That is beautiful. 
My book says that Hopkinson was 
a signer of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, I believe. 

Colonial: The book brings forth the 
truth, but over and above that 
he could turn a pretty tune on the 
harpsichord, write a pretty rhyme 
of poetry, yet all the while he was 
a fine lawyer and statesman. 

Old Negro: My old Massa, he war 
a lawyer and a statesman, too. 
Dat’s just what he war. Down in 
old Kentucky. Dat’s whar he lived. 
Down in My Old Kentucky Home. 
Dat war his home and dat war my 
home, too. (Group sings My Old 
Kentucky Home by Foster, accom- 
panied by solo or duet arrange- 
ment on the piano.) 

Present-Day Girl: I love the songs 
of Foster. Please sing another. 

Negro: We shu is glad, Honey. We’ll 
sing Swing Low, Sweet Chariot. It 
warn’t written by Foster, ’caise 
nobody know who done writ dat 
song, Honey. (Group sings, accom- 

hoofsteps. And when we don’t 
know any more words we make 
some up. Come on, boys, let’s give 
hem a song. (Group sings Rusty 
igs or some other cowboy tune, 
accompanied on piano by one of 
the group. Piano solos may also be 

Present-Day Boy: That’s great stuff. 
I love cowboy songs. I wish I could 
be one— -a cowboy I mean. I bet no 
bronco could throw me. 

Cowboy: Maybe. But remember, that 
depends on the bronco. Now see 
here, we have all been putting on 
our song and dance acts for you. 
Now it’s your turn. What kind of 
music dc you play? 

Present-Day Group play several 
solos, including compositions by 
MacDowell, Cadman, or any Amer- 
ican pieces they have prepared. 
After the final number the groups 
applaud. Then two of the group 
play a duet arrangement of the 
march. Stars and Stripes Forever, 
by Sousa, as each character brings 
forth a small American flag which 
has been concealed in the costume. 
Groups fall in line and exit, wav- 
ing flags. 


My Musical Progress 

(Prize winner in Class B) 

When I was six my mother taught me to 
read music. As we lived in Africa then, there 
were no piano teachers available, so she gave 
me lessons for three years, until I was nine. 
Then a teacher came to the mission and he gave 
me lessons for a year. When I was ten we came 
to America. There was a piano on board the 
boat but I could not use it very much because it 
was so much in demand. When we came here 
I lived in a house with a piano for a year, and 
that summer my grandmother gave me a few 
lessons. Then in the fall we came to live in Wis- 
consin where I started taking piano and viola 
lessons. Soon I progressed so that I could join 
our orchestra and now 1 occupy second viola 

Anna Lois Reuling (Age 12), 

(Send answers to letters care of Junior 

Dear Junior Etude: 

I think music is a fine morale builder. Our 
boys in camp enjoy music. Just think how a 
soldier, sailor or marine would feel if he did 
not have a song to sing. Music is a sort of 
pepper-upper when we are sad, and no matter 
where the boys may be, a song will build up 
his morale. 

From your friend, 

Ronald Parker (Age 10), 

Melody Wheel Puzzle 

Take the second letter in the title 
of No. 1; the third letter in the title 
No. 2; the sixth in the title of No. 3; 
the third in No. 4; the first in No. 5; 
the second in No. 6; the second in 
No. 7; the third in No. 8. 

The letters will spell a musical 
term. What is the term and what are 
the titles? 

Prize Winners for August Last- 
Letter Puzzle: 

Class A, Dorothy Okoniewski (Age 
16) , New York. 

Class B, Julia Colby (Age 14), 

Class C, Barbara May (Age 9) , New 

panied by solo or duet arrange- 
ment on the piano.) Piano solos, 
such as Oh, Susanna, by Foster, 
may be included. 

Cowboy: We used to sing that tune. 
You see, we never get many 
chances to sing and dance together 
because we have to ride the range 
all night long by our lone selves. 
Our horses, they get weary, and so 
we just sing, and sing, and sing, 
eeping time to the horse’s steady 

The Junior Etudf. will 
award three worth while 
prizes each month for the 
most interesting and orig- 
inal stories or essays on a 
given subject, and for cor- 
rect answers to puzzles. 

Contest is open to all boys and girls un- 
der eighteen years of age, whether a Ju- 
nior Club member or not. Contestants 
are grouped according to age as follows . 

Class A, fifteen to eight- 
een years of age ; Class 

B, twelve to fifteen ; Class 

C, under twelve years. 
Names of all of the prize 
winners and their con- 
tributions will appear on 

this page in a future issue of The 
Etude. The thirty next best contributors 
will be given a rating of honorable men- 


Junior Etude 

My M usical Progress 

( Prize winner in Class A) 

In September, 1938, I merely knew that a 
whole note and a quarter note existed. This 
month I am playing Chopin’s Nocturne in F- 
sharp major and the first movement of Bee- 
thoven’s “Sonata Pathetique” in a piano recital. 

If I have progressed rapidly it is not because 
of musical genius, nor on account of very favor- 
able working conditions. It is due to three main 
factors: first, I had a competent teacher: sec- 
ond, I laid special emphasis on scales and stud- 
ies in daily practice: third, I have availed my- 
self of the opportunity to hear lots of good 
music on the radio and to make use of the 
musical material in a local puolic library. I 
believe that, to progress rapidly, one should 
have a good instructor, practice regularly, and 
develop his musical appreciation through read- 
ing of and listening to the master works of 
musical art. 

Mary Rosemina Shaw (Age 16), Mo. 

Dear Junior Etude: 

Our music club, called The Etude Music Club, 
has twenty-five active and forty -six associate 
members, each of whom wears our Etude Music 
Club button proudly. These we secured from 
the Theodore Presser Company, and we have a 
very nice picture of Beethoven on them. Be- 
sides our officers we have many chairmen of 
committees, including social, program, games, 
concerts; and tran’srrortation. We are much in- 
terested in the study of composers and their 
music. Each month a composer is studied, 
papers are read, pictures of the composer, his 
heme, and so on are exb’bit-.d. Then the follow- 
ing month a “spot quiz” is given; students must 
recognize themes given on recordings, and 
prizes are given. 

We frequently attend the concerts at our Art 
Museum, the club going in a group. We are now 
writing words for our club song, the music be- 
ing composed by our president, Dick Williams. 
The Etude is read each month and forms the 
basis of many interesting discussions. 

From your friends, 

Ruth Hawkins and M. Harding, Ohio 

My Musical Progress 

(Prize winner in Class C) 

I think that some people do not want to learn 
music because they bebeve it is going to be too 
hard. I thought so too when I started nine 
months ago, but now 1 do not think it is hard. 
So if you people who hear my story, think that 
music is hard, keep on and pretty soon you will 
find it easy. I can play a few things out of the 
June, July, and August Etudes and I can play 
a few hymns from memory, and I can play 
some things from other books, too. The reason 
I n ade so much progress in a short time, even 
though I only practiced a half hour a day. is 
because I have a very good teacher. So if you 
want to make good progress in music, the most 
important thing is to get a very good teacher. 

Joseph Irving Karch (Age 10), 


Zona Lillian Gogel (Age 5) 
Washington, D. C. 

or r 


Honorable Mention f 

hf)fi 0 in b ''Barh amb li l: Veryl Haggerty: Colleen 
!>3raR„?J M ra . M *F kland : Evelyn Yeide: Bar- 
^ondern- M^f arie )?' ley ' Marie Cestero: Angela 
! '!cCormi’r^ an el n ^nietter; Ar >ne Leach; Louise 
stein ■ r„u L ® arak Orcutt; Leonard Finkel- 
Annfioodl, , ies «G Carol Thorpe; Margaret 
Mary r.J,!' a V udson M oss: Agnew Foreman; 
Alice Ram ’ „ Black: Brenda Hopewell; 
Ward- cSr Russel Bums: Mav Welch: Ruth 

Jan >«: Gladys Hender!on rieyEfEerSOn: M,Wred 

November. 7943 


x eve ideS 

. • .1 ... 1 lip lunior Elude Office, 1712 Chestnut Street. Philadelphia (1), Pa., not 

All entries must be i""' 22. Winner, will appear in the February issue. 


1. Contributions must conum not o,tr one bu j upper left corner and your address in 

2 - Na The :S>e a r rigi, eo^Ai your papcr.Tf you need more than one sheet .1 paper, bo 

3 . W J,Ton 0 on. 0 s'ide of” p^per^nly'^do^o^use a typewriter. 

4. Do not have anyone ’°“. r "°e ol( j a preliminary contest and to submit not more than 

5. Clubs or schools are 

6. En.lfc.~w5l C .hese a requiren.en.s will no. be eligible tor prizes. 

Honorable Mention for August 

Antoinette Pollock: Eleanor Abel; Muriel 
Embergcr: Teddy Okoniewski; Dorothy Szin- 
yava: Nellie Andrews; Claire Bruner: Ann 
Robertson: Jackie Moller; Dolor-s Kmiec: 
Francis Parsons; Anna May Francis; Rutti 
Mickleson; Agnes Ribner: Nolla McMurtrle; 
Edna Roberts; Mollie Ann Hilton; Patsy 
Painter; Marjorie Bowman; Ellen Stone; An- 
gela Petrie; Albertine Bower; Paula French; 
Mary Mason: George Chetwood; Billy Rove- 
ner: Stella White; Nancy Gross; Judy Mason; 
May Belle Cox. 



the great holidays nationally observed 
have great religious significance, and it 
is deserving of particular note that they 
are given special attention by many 
active music workers throughout the 
country. These holidays for which choir 
directors, organists, Sunday School chor- 
isters, school music educators, and mu- 
sic club workers plan special music are 
Christmas, Easter, and Thanksgiving. 

As our cover on this issue reminds us 
of our national Thanksgiving Day, its 
musical quotation from our National An- 
them also reminds us that in many writ- 
ings, American patriots of earlier days 
turned heavenward to the Creator of 
all mankind. This reverent spirit which 
our forefathers wove into the founding 
of these great United States of America 
and which Francis Scott Key was in- 
spired to voice in the third stanza of 
“The Star-Spangled Banner” should be 
cherished by every true American. 

In these days when many American 
lads, as Lincoln expressed it, have given 
“the last full measure of devotion,” it is 
fitting that we “Praise the Power that 
hath made and preserved us a nation.” 


If you are a choirmaster or organist, or 
have in charge in school or community 
groups the presentation of musical pro- 
grams, don’t delay too long in preparing 
your Christmas program for this year. 
Music dealers everywhere are endeavor- 
ing to serve music folk just as if these 
were not war days, but many of them 
have had to sacrifice to the call of war 
the efficient co-workers who have as- 
sisted them in giving this service in years 
past. Then, too, our public transporta- 
tion systems are taxed to the limit to 
carry troops and supplies, and delays in 
freight, express and parcel post ship- 
ments of non-essential goods may be 

Last month, in these Publisher’s Notes, 
we gave a complete list of the new 
Christmas publications that have been 
added this season to the catalogs of 
Theodore Presser Co. The John Church 
Co., and Oliver Ditson Co. Among these 
were the new cantata especially appeal- 
ing to volunteer choirs entitled Tidings 
of Joy by Louise E. Stairs, and Danforth 
Simonton’s clever arrangement for jun- 
ior or intermediate choir, or choir with 
a reduced male membership, of Louise 
E. Stairs’ popular Christmas cantata. 
The Child, of Bethlehem. The latter, as 
you may remember, can be performed 
either by a junior choir singing in two 
parts (S.A.) or it may be sung in three 
parts (S.A.B.) with all of the men’s 
voices singing the baritone part. 

To our piano-teacher readers we sug- 
gest an examination of Rob Roy Peery’s 
brahd-new arrangement of the famous 
Christmas Song, O Holy Night! by 
Adolphe Adam (50c) , and the clever 
original composition for young students 
by J. J. Thomas entitled Santa on His 
Way (25c) . For those teachers who plan 
a Christmas recital and have available 
two pianos, there is the new Christmas 
Fantasy for two pianos, four hands by 
Clarence Kohlmann ($1.00), which in- 
troduces well-known Christmas carol 

Those who are planning school music 
programs will be delighted with the 
beautiful little two-part song composed 
by Ralph Federer entitled The Star on 
the Christmas Tree (12c) . A choral num- 

/ lovemoet' 1943 


All of the books in this list are in 
preparation for publication. The 
low Advance Offer Cash Prices ap- 
ply only to orders placed NOW . 
Delivery ( postpaid ) will be made 
when the books are published. 
Paragraphs describing each pub- 
lication appear on, these pages. 

Album of Marches for the Organ 60 

Ballads of Paul Bunyan — Choral Cycle 

Strong .40 

The Child Haydn Coit-Bampton .20 

Favorite Hymns— Piano Duet Richter .35 

Finger Fun Adler .20 

Gems of Masterworks for the Organ 

Tonner .60 

More Concert Transcriptions of Favorite 

Hymns. Kohlmann .45 

Nutcracker Suite — Piano Duet 

Tschaikowsky-Felton 1.00 
Our Latin-American Neighbors. . . Richter .40 

Reverential Anthems Baines .25 

Second Piano Part to Bach's Fifteen Two- 

Part Inventions Vene .35 

Second Piano Part to Thompson's Tuneful 

.Tasks Benford .35 

Sixteen Short Etudes Lemont .25 

Thy God Reigneth — Cantata Keating .40 

ber for more advanced singers new this 
season is J. Henry Francis’ original 
Spiritual De Lil’ Lor’ Jesus Sleep 
(S.A.T.B.) (10c). 

THIS YEAR-With the dearth of con- 
sumer goods throughout the country 
available for Christmas gifts, shoppers 
are going to find unusual difficulty in 
selecting suitable gifts for their friends 
the coming Christmas season. The War 
has created a scarcity of many lines of 
merchandise ordinarily used for gifts, 
but The Etude offers you an opportunity 
to solve this problem inexpensively and 
conveniently by taking advantage of the 
Annual Christmas Gift Offer. 

A subscription to The Etude is not a 
“cheap” gift oy any means, even though 
it is comparatively inexpensive. When 
v ou stop to consider that a year’s sub- 
scription will bring the recipient ap- 
proximately $50.00 worth of fine music, 
in addition to the many inspiring, fas- 
cinating editorial features, it can 
scarcely be said that “this is just one of 
those gifts that I must get” — without 
regard to its real value. 

A single year’s subscription will cost 
just $2.50 and a handsome two-color gift 
card will be sent to the recipient in the 
name of the donor. Two one-year sub- 
scriptions ordered as gifts will cost $4.00, 
and any additional subscriptions above 
two, at the rate of $2.00 each. 

Finally, The Etude offers its own gift 
to those of its many loyal and interested 
friends who will order three or more gift 
subscriptions, in the form of a fine mu- 
sic album entitled “Themes from the 

Great Concertos” compiled by Henry 
Levine. This volume in itself will be a 
most acceptable gift for any music lover. 

Let The Etude wish your musical 
friends a Merry Christmas — not only on 
Christmas morning— but twelve times 
during the year. 

DELIVERY— That same spirit of friendly 
understanding that has always existed 
between the readers of The Etude and 
its publishers makes us wish that you 
might peep behind the scenes in these 
War days and see some of the many un- 
predictable delays that affect the prompt 
delivery of our magazine. 

Of course our ambition is to have every 
issue come to you as promptly as pos- 
sible and delays are more of an irrita- 
tion to us than they are to you. 

Fortunately each Etude is filled with 
values not affected by delays. There- 
fore, when your Etude does not come on 
time, please favor us with your in- 
dulgence and remember that as in your 
own case, in printing plants and binder- 
ies handicapped by labor shortages, the 
support of War projects must always 
come first. 


Even though the War has created a 
scarcity of merchandise suitable for 
premiums, workers need not despair that 
they cannot still secure very attractive 
premiums for selling Etude subscriptions. 

The following is a list of interesting 
articles that are still to be had in this 
convenient and inexpensive way of fill- 
ing out your gift list: 

Three-piece Crystal 

Salad Set Two subscriptions 

Comb and Brush Set One subscription 

Porcelain Music 

Master Plate One subscription 

f? e . y father One subscription 

S'?* 11 -^ e ^ er Leather One subscription 

2 Two subscriptions 

Handifold Purse — 

Mmre Silk . One subscription 

Dinner Set Ten subscriptions 

Cigarette Case one subscription 

Correspondence Case One subscription 

Gentleman’s Leather " 

Wallet Two subscriptions 

THE CHILD HAYDN— Childhood «„,* „f 

Famous Com posers by Louie Ellsworth Coit 
and Ruth Bampton-This, the third book 
in a new series of music appreciation 
books for children, gives the childhood 
story of the father of the symphony," 
Franz Joseph Haydn, along with some of 
his early music. Added to the delightful 
story of “Papa Haydn,” there will be in- 
teresting pictures of his boyhood and 
easy arrangements of music as piano 
solos and one duet. Although simplified 
these compositions contain the essential 

qualities of Haydn’s music and enable 
the child, while still at a young and 
formative age, to become real friends 
with this great master. 

Educational and program possibilities 
are offered in this book through a list- 
ing of Haydn recordings, suggestions 
for dramatizing the story, and directions 
for making a miniature stage and set- 
tings— all of which appeal to the imag- 
ination of youngsters and give them a 
better understanding of the composer 
A single copy of The Child Haydn may 
be ordered now at the special Advance 
of Publication cash price of 20 cents 
postpaid. Delivery of the book will be 
made as soon as published. 

FAVORITE HYMNS For Piano, by Clarence 
Kohlmann— So many thousands of copies 
of Clarence Kohlmann’s Concert Tran- 
scriptions of Favorite Hymns For Piano 
published about a year ago, have been 
sold that perhaps the best description 
of this new book is to say that here are 
additional hymns similarly presented. 
These transcriptions do not run off into 
embellishments and variations such as 
would destroy, the religious mood, but 
they do provide smoother renditions for 
the piano than is possible when the 
notes for the four voices of the usual 
hymn score are played on the piano. 

These transcriptions may be used as 
piano solos in any part of the Church 
or Sunday School service, or they may 
be used to accompany solo or congrega- 
tional singing of the hymns. This album 
also will provide an excellent means of 
home enjoyment of the favorite hymns 
it presents. Some of the hymns included 
are Fairest Lord Jesus; Softly and 
Tenderly Jesus Is Calling; Lead On, O 
King Eternal; Beneath the Cross of 
Jesus; O Love That Will Not Let Me 
Go; and a generous number more. A 
single copy of this book may be ordered 
in advance of publication at the special 
Advance of Publication cash price of 45 
cents, postpaid, delivery to be made as 
soon as published. Sale limited to the 
United States and its possessions. 

Compiled by Henry Levine— Few piam 
collections published in recent years have 
been more successful or more widely 
acclaimed than Themes from the Great 
Concertos and Themes from the Great 
Symphonies, both compiled and ar- 
ranged by Henry Levine. It is therefore 
with particular pleasure that we are 
able to announce a third book in this 
important series. Themes from the Great 

Choice selections which appear in new 
transcriptions by Mr. Levine include 
Vesti la giubba by Leoncavallo, the 
famous Barcarolle from Offenbach’s 
"The Tales of Hoffmann,” My Heart at 
Thy Sweet Voice from “Samson and 
Delilah” by Saint-Saens, Habanera and 
Toreador Song from Bizet's “Carmen,” 
Knoivest Thou the Land from “Mignon” 
by Thomas, Like a Dream from “Martha" 
by von Flotow, the celebrated Waltz 
from Gounod’s “Faust,” and three 
transcriptions from Verdi, Celeste Aida 
and Triumphal Chorus ana March from 
“Alda” and the Quartet from “Rigo- 
letto.” Verdi is also represented with the 
Anvil Chorus and Miserere from “R 
Trovatore.” Other composers included 
are Donizetti, with the Sextette from 

7 66 

" forward MARCH WITH MUSIC’ 


“Lucia”; Mascagni, with the Intermezzo 
from “Cavalleria Rusticana”; Mozart, 
with the Minuet from “Don Juan”; and 
Wagner, with To the Evening Star and 
pilgrims’ Chorus from “Tannhaiiser,” 
Bridal Chorus from “Lohengrin,” and 
the Prize Song from “Die Meistersinger.” 

The Advance of Publication subscrip- 
tion is now open at the low price of 40 
cents per copy, postpaid. The sale is lim- 
ited to the U. S. A. and its possessions. 


Piano, Compiled and Arranged by Ada 
Richter- There always has been a color- 
ful appeal to young people in the United 
States and Canada in the things and 
people of the Central and South Amer- 
ican countries. This is particularly true 
of the melodious and rhythmic music of 
the songs and dances of these countries. 
Mrs. Richter, whose ability to make ar- 
rangements of favorite melodies so that 
young pianists have no difficulty in play- 
ing them, has taken a carefully se- 
lected and generous number of Latin- 
American songs and dance rhythms and 
so arranged them for this book. 

They are not for the young beginner’s 
first year, but young pupils along in the 
second grade as well as grown-up piano 
beginners will find these arrangements 
delighting and satisfying. The songs 
carry between the staves the words of a 
verse, and in general the presentation is 
similar to the manner in which Mrs. 
Richter’s very successful books Songs of 
My Country, My First Song Book, My 
Own Hymn Book, and Play and Sing 
have been produced. 

A copy of Our Latin-American Neigh- 
bors may be ordered prior to publication 
at the special Advance of Publication 
cash postpaid price of 40 cents a copy. 


Baincs-William Baines is well-known to 
organists and choirmasters all over the 
country as a dependable composer of 
singable anthems, which, by reason of 
their melodious appeal and musical 
worth, merit the interest and warrant 
the attention of choir and congregation 

This book, in which a fine selction 
of Mr. Baines’ successful anthems will 
be presented, is to be called Reverential 
Anthems and it will be well named. Mr. 
Baines makes use of Scriptural texts 
as a general rule. A generous number of 
dignified and cliurchly general anthems 
and a few special numbers for Christmas, 
Lent, and Easter will make up this col- 
lection. Several of the anthems have 
never before appeared in print, having 
been written especially for this book. 
Advance of Publication cash price, 25 
cents, postpaid. 

AND PHRASING, by Cedric W. hmonl- 
The Publication of these attractive and 
musical studies will mark the addition 
c a particularly useful work to the 
amous “Music Mastery Series,” which 
j® ma de up of piano teaching material 
y contemporary composers. We say 
is with assurance, for we are well 
amiliar with the special qualities which 
^7 ac * e this composer’s writings and 
n the successes his teaching works 
hav e attained. 

refu f 6 stu dies by Mr. Lemont again 
c his awareness of the needs of 

N OVEMBER. 1943,, tT rourtn grades of 

fmnnrJ ty ’t th 5 are designed to cover the 
important phases of keyboard work most 

TWn 01 ^ 1 t! 0 the younger student. 

i oughout the collection the more fam- 
iliar major and minor keys have been 
used to set forth engaging and melodic 
studies in scale playing for left and 
right hands, broken octaves, legato thirds 
and sixths, repeated notes, chords, and 
melody work sustained against an ar- 
peggiated accompaniment. 

During the period when these Sixteen 
Short Etudes are in preparation for 
publication, a single copy may be re- 
served at the low Advance of Publica- 
tion cash price of 35 cents, postpaid. 

These Second Piano Parts will be pub- 
lished with the original Bach music 
above them (in score) in small notes. 
Not only will professional two-piano 
artists find them important additions to 
the literature, but teachers also will 
find them invaluable, for they will prove 
constantly useful in the teaching of the 
Inventions. On the other hand, the 
student will derive keen pleasure and 
good instruction from playing them to 
a well-rounded second piano background. 

While this work is in preparation, a 
single copy may be ordered at the 
special Advance of Publication cash 
price of 35 cents, postpaid. Delivery will 
be made immediately after publication. 


THY GOD REIGNETH— ,4 General Cantata 
for the Volunteer Choir, by Lawrence Keat- 
ing— This is a fine non-seasonal cantata 
for the average volunteer choir of un- 
trained voices, with interesting variety 
in the various numbers for solo voices 
and chorus. The text, which includes 
Scriptural passages to be read by the 
pastor or a special narrator, has been 
selected and written by Elsie Duncan 
Yale. A single copy of this new cantata 
may now be ordered at the special Ad- 
vance of Publication cash price of 40 
cents, postpaid. Delivery will be made 
upon release from the press. 


FINGER FUN for the Little Piano Beginner , 
by Myra Adlcr-A surprising amount of 
technical development is provided the 
kindergarten and primary grade piano 
beginner in this attractive book of twelve 
very easy exercises. Similar in style to 
the familiar "Hanon” studies for more 
advanced pupils, these exercises are lim- 
ited to the five finger position. Both 
clefs are used from the beginning, and 
all exercises are in common time, and in 
the Key of C. 

The book is being published in the 
oblong format and engraved in large, 
easily-read notes. Rhymes are used to 
accompany the music, giving rhythmic 
aid and also providing directions for 
playing and reading the notes. The cash 
price at which a single copy may now be 
ordered in Advance of Publication is 20 
cents, postage prepaid. 


SECOND PIANO PART to the Fifteen 
o-Part Inventions of BACH, by Ruggero 

le— The ever broadening interest in 
isic for two pianos has prompted the 
Olication of these scholarly adapta- 
ns to the Bach Two-Part Inventions, 
use at a second piano while the 
ginal works are played at a first in- 
ument. Their faithfulness to the orig- 
[1 Bach structures in feeling and mood 
1 delight the most devoted followers 
the master, and will mark them as 
inite contributions to the serious 
lertoire for two pianos, 
n preparing his amplifying back- 
lunds for second piano, Mr. Vene has 
lered rigidly to the harmonic and 
hhmic patterns of these remarkable 
its of genius. Yet, while they are 
ended to afford substantial support, 
•v have been devised so as to not 

FAVORITE HYMNS— in Easy Arrangements 
for Piano Duet— Compiled and arranged 
by Ada Richter— Another of Mrs. Richter’s 
wonderfully useful compilations for young 
pianists will appear with the publication 
of this book. Suggested by the amazing 
popularity of her My Own Hymn Book, 
and including twenty of the most popu- 
lar hyms, it already is assured an out- 
standing success by virtue of the care- 
fully selected contents and their splendid 
adaptations to four hand uses. 

Easy grades will prevail throughout 
this new collection, and a point of spe- 
cial interest will be the fact that the 
primo and secondo parts will be of about 
the same difficulty, with the result that 
it will be possible to interchange them 
between the players at will. An added 
feature will be the inclusion of a verse 
with each hymn. 

Prior to the publication of this useful 
collection, an order for a single copy 
may be placed at the low Advance of 
Publication cash price of 35 cents, post- 
paid. The sale, however, is limited to 
the United States and its possessions. 


-Every organist will appreciate this 
new all-march album. What busy or- 
ganist cannot find use for a good march 
in connection with church festivals, pa- 
triotic occasions, school and community 
gatherings, weddings, and the worship 
service? It is in recognition of this fact 
and in answer to many requests that 
we take pleasure in introducing this 
book to fill what we believe is a definite 
need. The collection, when published, 
will include a lot of splendid marches 
among which there will be some sea- 
sonal marches suitable for Thanksgiving, 
Christmas, and Easter. 

The music lies well under the hands, 
does not go beyond a moderate grade 
of difficulty and is, therefore, well 
adapted to the requirements of the av- 
erage organist. Suitable registration has 
been supplied for the Hammond organ, 
as well as for the standard organ, thus 
making the book available for either 
Church or home use. — Advance of Pub- 
lication cash price, 60 cents, postpaid. 

ORGAN— ivifli Hammond Organ Registration 
-Compiled and Arranged by Paul Tonner 
— We believe that in Gems of Master - 
works for the Organ, by Paul Tonner, 
we are offering a book distinguished for 
several reasons: — 

1. Its special typography. Only two 
staves are used and the lower staff in- 
cludes, in a different size than the notes 
for the left hand, the pedal part notes, 


which is of real assistance to beginning 
organists who are not yet skilled in 
reading three lines. 

2. Effective registration. This has been 
provided with great care by Mr. Tonner, 
including Hammond Organ indications, 
which greatly extend the usefulness of 
the book by making it available also 
to players of electronic instruments both 
in the Church and in the home. 

3. Interesting and unusual numbers — 
such as, Postlude by the 18th century 
composer, Rolle; the Andante from 
Brahms’ “First Symphony”; the lovely 
Prelude in E-minor by Chopin; an In- 
terlude by Hassler; the Prelude from 
Bizet’s “L’Arlesienne Suite”; the Largo 
from Dvorak’s “New World Symphony”; 
and other compositions by Bach, Handel, 
Franck, Mendelssohn, Mozart, Schu- 
mann, and Tschaikowsky. Advance of 
Publication cash price, 60 cents, post- 
paid. Sold only in the United States and 
its possessions. 

SECOND PIANO PART— by Robert T. Ben- 
ford-To TUNEFUL TASKS-by John 
Thompson — The frequently-used set of 
studies entitled Tuneful Tasks by this 
well-known American educator presents 
excellent foundational material for fu- 
ture musicianship. This musical devel- 
opment now may be furthered even more 
by the use of a second piano part that 
can be played by the teacher in the 
studio, or by a parent, brother, sister, 
or friend in the home. 

The unique feature of this Second 
Piano Part to Tuneful Tasks is that 
it is written in the same grade as the 
twenty tunes in the study book. Thus, 
it is possible for the teacher to switch 
parts with the pupil giving the latter 
valuable preliminary experience in 
piano-ensemble playing. The advantages 
of these arrangements as sight-reading 
material readily are apparent. 

In advance of publication, teachers 
may order a single copy of Robert T. 
Benford’s Second Piano Part to Tune- 
ful Tasks at the special Advance of 
Publication cash price of 35c, postpaid. 


NUTCRACKER SUITE by P. I. Tschaikow- 
sky, Arranged for Piano Duet by William 
M. Felton— In response to repeated re- 
quests from lovers of piano duet playing, 
we are pleased to be able to supply one 
of the most popular orchestra suites ever 
written hi a special transcription for one 
piano, four hands, prepared by the late 
Mr. William M. Felton, whose superior 
work has been many times demon- 
strated to readers of The Etude. In the 
duet medium, the arranger has been 
able to reduce the harmonic structures 
and variated “colors” of the original or- 
chestral version with most effective re- 
sults. The grade of difficulty ranges from 
four to six. 

Opportunity to possess a copy of this 
book as soon as it is published is now 
offered to those who will send in an Ad- 
vance of Publication order at the special 
price of $1.00, postpaid. 

WITHDRAWN — During the current 
month, our Mechanical Department 
promises to have ready for delivery to 
advance subscribers one of the interest- 
ing new publications that for several 
months past has been described in these 
( Continued on next page) 


Publisher’s Notes. Directors of choral 
organizations and school music groups 
who are familiar with Miss Strong’s 
successful cantata for treble voices, The 
Slumber Songs of the Madonna, no 
doubt have been looking forward with 
considerable interest to this new work 
from her talented pen. This note will 
serve as an announcement that the 
special advance of publication price is 
now withdrawn on Ballads of Paul 
Bunyan — Choral Cycle for Mixed Voices 
and Narrator ; Ballads by Ethel Louise Knox, 
Music by May a. Strong, is a typically 
American choral work based upon two 
favorite excerpts from the published ex- 
periences of the legendary Paul Bunyan. 
Almost every school child is familiar with 
these fascinating tales, and their pre- 
sentation in the form of a music program 
should prove interesting to the average 
audience. This is not a work for begin- 
ning choral groups, but the well-trained 
adult or high-school chorus seeking pro- 
gram novelties should not overlook Bal- 
lads of Paul Bunyan, Price, $1.00. 

Send IO(! Today for Your Copy of . . . 


Includes The Stars and Stripes Forever, 
Come On, America, The Star-Spangled 
Banner, and a dozen other stirring patri- 
otic songs for home, school, and community 
singing. Handy 6" x 9" size. 

SI. 00 a Dozen — $8.00 a Hundred 


- - - - r _ 

OF AUGUST 24, 1912, AND 
MARCH 3, 1933 

Of The Etude, published Monthly at Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania, for October 1. 1943. 
State of Pennsylvania 
County of Philadelphia 

Before me, a Notary Public in and for the State 
and county aforesaid, personally appeared 
Henry E. Baton, who, having been duly sworn 
according to law, deposes and says that he is 
the President of the Theodore Presser Com- 
pany, publishers of The Etude Music Magazine 
and that the following is, to the best of his 
knowledge and belief, a true statement of the 
ownership, management, etc., of the aforesaid 
publication for the date shown in the above 
caption, required by the Act of August 24, 
1912, as amended by the Act of March 3, 1933, 
embodied in section 537, Postal Laws and 
Regulations, printed on the reverse of this form 
to wit: 

1. That the names and addresses of the pub- 
lisher, editor, managing editor, and business 
managers are: 

Publisher Theodore Presser Company, Phila- 
delphia, Pennsylvania. 

Editor James Francis Cooke, Llanberris Rd., 
Bala-Cynwyd . Pennsylvania. 

Managing Editor None. 

Business Manager None. 

2. That the owners are : 

Theodore Presser Company , Philadelphia , 

The Presser Foundation, Philadelphia, Penn- 

Estate of Theodore Presser, Philadelphia, Penn- 

James Francis Cooke, Llanberris Rd.. Bala- 
Cynwyd, Pennsylvania. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, 
and other security holders owning or holding 
1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities are: None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giv- 
ing the names of the ov/ners, stockholders, and 
security holders, if any, contain not only the 
list of stockholders and security holders as they 
appear upon the books of the company but also, 
m cases where the stockholder or security 
holder appears, upon the books of the company 
as trustee or in any other fiduciary relation, 
the name of the person or corporation for whom 
such trustee is acting, is given; also that the 
said two paragraphs contain statements em- 
bracing affiant’s full knowledge and belief as 
to the circumstances and conditions under 
which stockholders and security holders who 
do not appear upon the books of the company 
as trustees, hold stock and securities in a 
capacity other than that of a bona fide owner; 
and this affiant has no reason to believe that 
any other person, association, or corporation 
has any interest direct or indirect in the said 
stock, bonds, or other securities than as so 
stated by him. 

(Signed) Henry E. Baton, President. 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 1st 
day of October, 1943. 

seal Alberta M. Allen, 

Notary Public 

(My commission expires Jan. 5, 1947). 

WkcdJIUd Wusic 
WLntke War£ n Js? 

“There never was c bad Peace and {here 
never was a good War!“ exclaimed Napo- 
leon. All wars are temporary, and all 
over America blue prints are being made 
for our activity after Peace is declared. 
Let us pray that it may come with the 
New Year. 



Dr. James Rowland Angell, the distinguished 
ex-president of Yale University and now edu- 
cational counsellor for the National Broadcast- 
ing Company, known for his keen, sane, 
penetrating vision, has given miE Etude his 
views upon the musical future that awaits all 
of us in the Americas. 


Your piano today is a precious possession, be- 
cause even good second-hand pianos are often 
hard to get. Lucien Wulsin, president of the 
Baldwin Piano Company, allegedly in pre-war 
days the world’s largest manufacturer of 
P. 1 * 1 . 11 . 08 ’ stops in the midst of his huge respon- 
sibilities in war production to tell what may 
happen to the piano after the war. Mr. Wulsin 
is a Harvard graduate and a well-known elec- 
trical engineer. 


Carroll Glenn, attractive young American 
violinist, whose meteoric success has been a 
surprise even to her friends, tells of the diffi- 
culties which young violinists are likely to 
encounter. The accelerated pace of modern 
concert life makes extraordinary demands upon 
tne young artist, and Miss Glenn indicates how 
she has met them. 


The dramatic rise of the magnetic Igor Gorin 
Russian bass-baritone, is another instance of 
American appreciation of distinctive interpre- 
tative ability. His practical advice to singers 
is timely and sensible. 


A line of four thousand youngsters stood in 
front of New York’s Paramount Theatre from 
dawn to opening time, in order to listen to a 
jazz band playing at the theater. But this 
dance craze is not new. It has bobbed up many 
nmes in history. The article by Raymond W. 
Thorp and Weldon D. Woodson describes other 
amusing outbreaks of this mania. 


Edwin Prankq Goldman, in a “right from the 
shoulder article on “Patriotic Music and the 
Band gives timely and tactful hints on band 

Besides the above-named features there will 
l»e other interesting articles, special depart- 
ments and the usual variety of interesting 
pieces in the DECEMBER 1943 issue of 

A Variety of 
Master Broadcasts 

(Continued from page 708) 

I scheduled: “Getting Goods to the 
Consumer” (Nov. 6) , “Better Health 
Care” (Nov. 13) , “Security For E very - 
I one” (Nov. 20), and “What Political 
Parties Plan” (Nov. 27) . 

Mutual’s Chicago Theatre of the Air, 
which is heard on Saturdays from 
9:10 to 10:00 P.M., EWT, has a new 
and augmented season of operas and 
operettas planned. In response to 
I listeners’ demands for more opera 
I condensations, several scores not 
I presented up to this time will be 
I added to the repertoire. Among 
I operas scheduled for early broad- 
I casts are “Faust,” La Boheme,” 
“La Tosca,” “Lohengrin,” “Carmen,” 
“Mignon,” and “Hansel and Gretel.” 
Thomas L. Thomas, Metropolitan 
Opera baritone, has been heard re- 
cently with the company, which is 
headed by Marion Claire. Other na- 
tionally prominent singers will be 
selected weekly to support Miss 
Claire. The symphony orchestra re- 
mains under the direction of Henry 
Weber, and the chorus under Robert 
Trendler. A dramatic cast separate 
from the singers is used in each pro- 
gram. The broadcasts are all pre- 
pared and directed by Jack La 

Alec Templeton, blind pianist, 
composer, and improviser, has joined 
the Cresta Blanca Carnival, Morton 
Gould’s show (Wednesdays, 10:30 to 
11:00 P.M., EWT — Columbia net- 
work) . Alec Templeton is best known 
as the creator of musical novelties 
and for his ability to clown with the 
works of the masters without ridi- 
culing them, and this is the sort of 
thing he is expected to do on the 
Cresta Blanca Carnival. Morton Gould 
continues to direct his fifty-piece or- 
chestra in special arrangements of 
his own of familiar popular pieces, 
as well as some of his own original 

The twenty-four-week winter series 
of the NBC or General Motors Sym- 
phony Orchestra concerts officially 
opened on October 31. Maestro Ar- 
turo Toscanini is scheduled to con- 
duct the opening concerts, then Leo- 
pold Stokowski will take over. Just 
how the division is to be made was 
not forthcoming at the time of writ- 
ing. This is Toscanini’s sixth full 
season with the NBC Symphony, and 
Stokowski’s third. 

This month’s musical program on 
the American School of the Air (Colum- 
bia network — Tuesday mornings) will 
present varied programs, embracing 
wide ranges of history. On November 
2, “Bach and His Family” is the sub- 

ject of the broadcast; on November 
9, it is “Down Mexico Way”; 0 n No- 
vember 16, it is “Through the Opera 
Glass”; on November 23, it is “In the 
Days of Paul Revere”; and on No- 
vember 30, it is “Liszt and Chopin— 
Magicians of the Keyboard.” 

Woodwinds— Hot or Cold 

To The Etude: 

In the article, “The Men of the Orchestra," 
by Mishel Piastro, published in your January 
issue. 1939, the statement is made regarding 
the intonation of the woodwinds, "The colder 
it is, the higher they sound; the warmer, the 
lower.” Although this is true of the string in- 
struments, woodwinds are affected in just the 
opposite way by weather conditions, and play 
flat when cold and sharp when warm. 

Also in the same issue, the article. Expand- 
ing the Violinist’s Repertoire," by Samuel Ap- 
plebaum, states in regard to violin concertos 
"Mozart wrote seven, but Handel, Schubert] 
Schumann. Wagner, and Chopin did not write 
any.” Evidently Mr. Applebaum has overlooked 
the fact that Schumann did write the "Con- 
certo in D minor” for violin which Yehudi 
Menuhin brought to the attention of tin- public 
in 1938.— Laila J. Storch. 

A Successful Choral Project 

To The Etude: 

During the several years that The F,tude has 
been a musical guide in our family, I have 
noticed that a number of cities have reported 
the presentation of this or that cantata or 

Thirty years ago we could always have a 
band, but to get a mixed group for singing was 
next to impossible. The men were self-con- 
scious, or felt that to sing in public was only 
for those who had studied voice. However, a 
change has come gradually during the last few 
years. Our school has hired well-trained, com- 
petent musical directors, and the male of the 
genus homo has seen what can be done with 
group singing. 

In 1937 a mixed group of fourteen voices 
sang “The Messiah.” The group was increased 
to thirty-five, and the next year they again sang 
“The Messiah” and other compositions. Then 
our chorus was disbanded because the women 
in the ensemble were practicing three to five 
times a week, while the men were getting only 
one hour each week, and consequently were 
not progressing with the women. 

In November, 1941, a men’s chorus was or- 
ganized. Primarily it was organized to enter- 
tain people periodically, to make them forget 
their war jitters. There were thirty men in the 
original group. 

A public-spirited citizen donated money to 
buy our first song books. The director of the 
public school music department was engaged, 
and, with the blessings of all concerned, she 
proceeded to “wade in” and bring forth a men’s 

Five months later, twenty-four men had 
made sufficient progress to sing two numbers 
on the Music Week program. They “stole” the 
show and were thus encouraged to go on. They 
appeared once during the summer, at a fire- 
men’s convention. 

When Fall came with a resumption of activ- 
ities, they decided on two public appearances; 
one in conjunction with the City Band, and 
one as part of a mixed group. In February a 
concert was given, the chorus singing the 
second half. As an indication of how far the 
chorus had advanced, Edward Elgar’s Land of 
Hope and Glory was given a creditable per- 
formance. Immediately following this, work 
was begun upon “The Seven Last Words of 

By this time the men of the chorus belonged 
to the several choirs of the city. This group of 
sixty voices was brought together, and after 
six weeks of rehearsal of three or four nights 
each week, we gave a wonderful musical 

— Howard Barrett, Minnesota 





This advertisement, prepared by the War Advertising Council, 
by this magazine in cooperation with the Magazine Publishe 

theee folks to 

NA/lTH p 



Seven things you should do: 

1. Buy only 

2. Pay no more 

3. Pay off old 

4. Support 

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the future with 

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prices . . . buy 

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adequate life 

for goods you 

you can afford — 

rationed goods 
only with stamps 

new ones 


and savings 

sell or 
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and keep them 

Keep prices down . . . use it up, wear it out, make it do, or do without 


Charles Wakefield C adman 



• Important, indeed, are the contributions of this versatile composer to American music. Prac- 
tically his entire musical education was obtained in this country. In the field of American Indian 
music he is well-known here and abroad for his lecture recitals and for his compositions in the 
idiom of the American Indian. Probably best known to teachers and music students through the 
delightful melodies of his popular songs and piano pieces , a few of which are listed on this 
page 9 Dr. Cadman 9 s composing efforts have by no means been limited to the smaller forms. 
Orchestras and instrumental ensembles frequently feature Cadman compositions , especially in 
radio broadcasting. His well-known Indian opera “ Shanewis 99 was originally produced at the 
Metropolitan , and his typically American opera “The Witch of Salem 99 was produced by the 
Chicago Grand Opera Company. Dr. Cadman was born in Johnstown , Pa. (1881) 9 but since 1916 
has made his residence in California. 


Absent (d - E) 

At Dawning (E-flat - g) 

At Dawning (d-flat - F) 

At Dawning (b - D-sharp) 

At Dawning (c - E) 

The Banshee Song (from "The Witch of 

Salem") (E-flat - a) 

The Birthday Star of the King (Christmas) 

(F - g) 

The Birthday Star of the King (Christmas) 

(d - E) 

The Call of the Nile (F - g) 

The Call of the Nile (d - E) 

Candle Light (d-g) 

Candle Light (b-flat - E-flat) 

Carabo Bells (A Love Song of Java) (d - g) . 

Celtic Love Song (F - a-flat) 

Could Roses Speak (d - F-sharp) 

Could Roses Speak (b-flat - D) 

Golden Sunset (F - F) 

The Heart of Her (F - g) 

The Heart of Her (d - E) 

I Hare a Secret (F-sharp - g) 

Indian Summer (E - g) 

Indian Summer (c - E-flat) 

Innisfail (E-flat - a-flat) 

In a Garden (d-g) 

In a Garden (b - E) 

In a Garden Filled With Roses (d - F, opt. g) 
In a Garden Filled With Roses (b - D, opt. E) 

In the Garden of Sahara (G - a-flat) 

In the Garden of Sahara (d - E-flat) 

In the Moon of Falling Leaves (E-flat - F) . . . 

Lilacs (c - F) 

Lilacs (a - D) 

The Little Road to Kerry (d-g) 

The Little Road to Kerry (b-flat - E-flat) 

A Little While (c - F) 

The Lotus and the Moon (E-flat - F) 

The Lotus and the Moon (c - D) 

The Lore Path (G -g) 

The Lore Path (d - D) 

The Lyric Rose of Love (The Legend of Venus 

and Adonis) (d-sharp - a) 

Magic (F-sharp - a) 

Magic (d - F) 

The Meadows of the Lord (d-g) 

Memories (E-flat - a ) 

Memories (d-flat - F) 

Memories (b-flat - D) 

Memory (d-g) 

Moon-Flower (F - a) 

Moon-Flower (d-flat - F) 

My Gift For You (with Violin) (E-flat - b-flat) 
My Gift For You (with Violin) (b-flat - E-flat) 

My Heart (c - E-flat) 

My Lovely Rose (c-F) 

My Lovely Rose (a - D) 

My Universe (E-a) 

My Universe (c-F) 

O Bird In the Dawn (d - a) 

O Bird In the Dawn (b - F-sharo) 

The Pearl Lies In the Sea (E-flat - g) 

The Pearl Lies In the Sea (c - E) 

Reeds (d-g) 

The Shrine (c - C) 

The Shrine (E - E) 

Starlit (d-g) 

The Song of the Mountains (d - E) 

The Song of the Mountains (b - C-sharp) .... 

To-Morrow (d-g) 

To-Morrow (b-flat - E-flat) 

To What Mcnr Love Be Likened (c - g) 

When Loris Smiles On Me (d - F-sharp) 

Where You Are (E-flat - g) 

The World's Prayer (d-g) 


$0.35 At Dawning (High & Medium) 50 

.50 At Dawning (Medium & Low) 50 

.50 Lilacs (Sop. <S Alto) 50 

.50 My Gift For You (Sop. & Ten.) .50 

.50 My Gift For You (Alto & Bar.) 50 


.50 The Hymn Triumphant 20 

A Psalm of Gratitude (With Sop. Solo) .15 

.50 The World's Prayer 10 



.50 After Shipwreck (Three Part) 10 

.50 At Dawning (Three Part) 12 

.40 Butterflies (Three Part) .12 

.50 The Call of the Lark (Three Part) 10 

.50 Candle Light (Three Part) 12 

.50 Chinese Flower Fete (Four Part) 15 

.50 Egyptian Bridal Procession (Four Part) .15 

.50 Fickle (Three Part) 12 

.50 He Gave Me a Rose (Three Part, a Cappeliaj .10 

.50 I Have a Secret (Three Part) 12 

.50 Indian Mountain Song (Four Part) 15 

.50 Lilacs (Two Part) .10 

.50 Little Papoose On the Wind-Swung Bough 

.50 (Three Part, a Cappella) .12 

.50 Maid of the Mist (Three Part, with Ten. or 

.50 Sop. Solo) .15 

.40 Memories (Three Part) .15 



At Dawning (Arr. by Greely) 12 

‘cn At Dawning (Arr. by Gibbs for Boys' Glee 
40 Clubs) 10 

[50 Awakel Awakel 12 

[50 “Cornel" Says the Drum (Indian Chorus) . .15 

'cn The Evening Dusk Is Falling (For Boys' Glee 

50 Clubs) 10 

The Heart of Her 10 

cn Memories .15 

.50 My Gift For You [[[ .12 

*50 Sacrifice of the Aryan Rose 15 

■jg Venetian Boat Song .10 


'5? Candle Light \2 

The Song ot the Mountains *.12 



*f2 Across the Table (Gr. 3y 2 ) $0.35 

[jq At Dawning (Gr. 3) 50 

[g0 Belle of Havana. Cuban Dance (Gr. 31/2) .50 

’cn Blandishments. Caprice (Gr. 31/2) .40 

cn The Coy Princess (Gr. 3) .45 

.50 of the Midgets. Air de Ballet (Gr. 3) . .35 

.50 from the Land of Poppies (Gr. 31/2) 50 

.50 In the Forest of Arden (Gr. 4) 30 

.35 In the Palace Garden (Gr. 4) 40 

.30 In the Pavilion. Intermezzo (Gr. 3) 35 

.30 Independence Day. Military March (Gr. 2 l A) *35 

.50 Indian Love Song. On an Indian Melody 

.5° , i Gr - 31/2) • - 25 

.50 A June Rose. Reverie (Gr. 3) 35 

.60 J ust a Little Walts (Gr. 4) 30 

.60 Marche Grotesque (Gr. 4) .50 

.40 Music Without Words (Gr. 31/2) ’ .35 

.30 On the Plasa. Spanish Intermezzo (Gr. 3y 2 ) . .30 

.40 Revellers. Intermezzo (Gr. 3) 40 

.60 Romance In G (Gr. 5) .60 

PIANO SOLOS — Continued 

Song at Dusk (Gr. 3 l / 2 ) 35 

Stately Lady. Menuet a l’Antique (Gr. 3) . .40 
To a Comedian. From Hollywood (Gr. 6) .40 

To a Vanishing Race (Gr. Vfo) .40 

Twilight Thoughts. Reverie (Gr. 3) .40 

Where the Lotus Blooms (Gr. 3) 40 

Whitemania. A Jazz Novelty (Gr. 3) .35 

Youth and Old Age. Caprice (Gr. 3) .40 

From Hollywood — Suite for Piano, 

Op. 80 (Gr. 6). 

June On the Boulevard 
To a Comedian 
Twilight At Sycamore Nook 
Easter Dawn In Hollywood Bowl 


Three Moods — Suite for Piano, Op. 47 

A Nubian Face On the Nile (Gr. 4) $0.50 

To a Vanishing Race (Gr. 31/2) -40 

The Pompadour's Fan (Gr. 6) 50 


A Saturday in Town — Set of Ten 

Piano Pieces, Op. 35 

Seven O'Clock In the Morning. Over- 

ture (Gr. 2) $0.35 

Scrubbing Sona. Galop (Gr. 2) .35 

In the Hammock. Swing Song (Gr. 2) .35 

The Fountain. Study (Gr. 21/2) .35 

A Day Dream. Reverie (Gr. 2) .30 

A Trip to the Park. Descriptive (Gr. 2) .40 
Bulbul. Persian Fantaisia (Gr. 2) .35 

Evening Frolic. Gavotte (Gr. 2) 35 

Mister Policeman. March (Gr. 2) 35 

The Curfew. Berceuse (Gr. 2) .35 


A Visit to Grandma's — Set of Ten 

Piano Pieces, Op. 34 

Awakel Awakel Juvenile Overture 

(Gr. 2) $0.30 

Birds Jnthe Orchard. Caprice (Gr. 2) .*35 
The Milkmaid's Song. Waltz (Gr. 2) .35 

The Circus Parade. Descriptive 

(Gr. 2) * 3s 

1116 ,5, ea l Funeral March 

(Gr. 2) 

Water-Lilies. Barcarolle (Gr. 2) . . .*30 

An Indian Camp. Grotesque Dance 

(Gr. 2) 3 q 

Dan =® °( the Sunbeams. Gavotte 

(Gr. 2) 

A Sudden Shower. Descriptive 

(Gr. 2) .35 

Evening Primrose. Reverie (Gr. 2) . .35 


Theodore Presser Co. 


Distributors tor 

Oliver Ditson Co. and The John Church Co. 



Dance of the Sunbeams (Gr. 3) 40 

In the Pavilion. Intermezzo (Gr. 3) .50 

Indian Love Song (Gr. 3) .25 

Mister Policeman (Gr. 2) 50 


Dance of the Sunbeams (Arr. by Osborn) 

(Gr. 3) .70 

Easter Dawn In Hollywood Bowl (Gr. 5) In Tress 


vmng (Arr. 

March In C 50 

Memories .50 


At Dawning (Transcribed by Rissland) 

(Gr. 5) 50 

At Dawning (Simplified Arr. by Rissland) 

(Gr. li/ 2 ) 50 

Indian Summer (Transcribed by Rissland) 

(Gr. 3) 50 

Just a Little Walts (Gr. 3) 35 

June on the Boulevard (Gr. 3) .50 

Memories (Transcribed by Rissland) (Gr. 4) .50 

My Gift For You (Transcribed by Rissland) 

(Gr. 2V»> 50 


At Dawning (Transcribed by Rissland) 

f (Gr- 3) .50 

Indian Summer (Transcribed by Rissland) 

(Gr. 3) .50 

Memories (Transcribed by Rissland) 

(Gr. 21/2) 50 


At Dawning (Arr. by Rissland) 50 

Memories (Arr. by Rissland) .50 

My Gift For You (Arr. by Rissland) .50 


To a Vanishing Race .60 

Score .60 


At Dawning Song Orchestration .75 

Concert Ed. Small 1.05 
_ Concert Ed. Full 1.50 

Awakel Awakel (Easy) Small .75 

Full 1.00 
Full Score 1.25 

Festal March In C . . Small .75 

Full 1.00 
Full Score 1.50 

Heart of Her (Arr. by Borch) Small 1.05 

Full 1.50 

A Nubian Face On the Nile . .Small .55 

Full .95 


At Dawning Concert Ed. .75 

Festal March In C Small 2.50 

Full 3.50 
Symph. 4.50 

Heart of Her .75