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TheJapanTimes 

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AN INTEGRATED COURSE IN 

E 



GENKI 



Eri Banno 
Yutaka Ohno 
Yoko Sakane JStBiN’ 1 
Chikako Shinagawa 



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AN INTEGRATED COURSE IN 

ELEMENTARY JAPANESE 




Yutaka Ohno 
Yoko Sakane JSUUtlf 1 ?- 
Chikako Shinagawa pnJII^ 1 ? 



TheJapanTimes 



Copyright © 1999 by Eri Banno, Yutaka Ohno, Yoko Sakane, and Chikako 
Shinagawa 

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a 
retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, 
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written 
permission of the publisher. 

First edition: May 1999 
32nd printing: November 2004 



Editorial assistance: guild 

Illustrations: Noriko Udagawa and Reiko Maruyama 
Cover art and Editorial design: Nakayama Design Office 

Gin-o Nakayama, Mutsumi Satoh, and Masataka Muramatsu 

Published by The Japan Times, Ltd. 

5-4, Shibaura 4-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0023, Japan 

Phone: 03-3453-2013 

http://bookclub.japantimes.co.jp/ 

ISBN 4-7 890-0963-7 



Printed in Japan 



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Preface 



Producing the materials for this textbook involved a long process of 
surveying students’ needs, writing up the results, making detailed 
revisions to the material based on the surveys, and responding to the 
reactions and comments of students who used a trial version of this 
text. It has taken more than four years to complete this project. Our 
labor has been rewarded, however, because this book is based on our 
original plan to produce the ideal textbook — -one that will enable 
students to learn Japanese smoothly, while also enjoying lively games 
and helpful illustrations. 

We have an extensive list of people to thank for the completion of this 
textbook. First, our sincere thanks to Chiaki Sekido of the Publica- 
tions Department of The Japan Times for seeing this book through the 
publishing process. Particular acknowledgment goes to Kyoko Toka- 
shiki who helped in the production of Lesson 11 and following, to our 
colleagues and trainees in the Asian Studies Program of Kansai Gaidai 
University who attempted the trial version and made invaluable sug- 
gestions, to Kaori Tajima for her illustrations in the trial version, to 
Judy Okawa for translating, and to the teachers whose heartfelt guid- 
ance encouraged us throughout the process. Finally, we would also like 
to express our gratitude to the foreign students at Kansai Gaidai 
University for providing us with the opportunity to write this book. 



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o 



Introduction 



I Aim and purpose 



GENKI: An Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese is a textbook for beginners in 
the study of the Japanese language. Students can complete the elementary-level study 
of Japanese in the 23 lessons of this text, which is divided into two volumes. The book 
is designed mainly for use in university and college courses, but it is also effective for 
high school students and adults who are beginning to learn Japanese either at school or 
on their own. Hopefully, students will have at least a basic knowledge of English, 
because grammar explanations are given in English. 

GENKI: An Integrated Course in Elementary Japanese is a comprehensive approach 
to developing the four basic language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing) 
in order to cultivate overall Japanese-language ability. Much emphasis has been placed 
on balancing accuracy, fluency, and complexity so that students using the material 
would not end up speaking accurately yet in a stilted manner, nor fluently yet employ- 
ing only simple grammatical structures. 



I Structure of the textbook 

This textbook basically consists of three sections: Dialogue and Grammar, Reading and 
Writing, and the Appendix. A detailed explanation of each part follows. 

A^Dialogue and Grammar 

The Dialogue and Grammar section aims at improving students’ speaking and listening 
abilities by learning basic grammar and increasing vocabulary. The Dialogue and 
Grammar section of each lesson is comprised of the following components: 

©Dialogue 

The dialogues revolve around the lives of foreign students living in Japan, their friends, 
and their families, presenting various scenes that students are likely to face in their daily 
lives. By practicing natural expressions and aizuchi (responses that make conversations 
go smoothly), students are able to understand how sentences are connected and how 
some phrases are shortened in daily conversation. Because the Dialogue section of each 
lesson covers a lot of new grammar and vocabulary, students may feel it is too difficult 



to understand at first. Don’t be overly concerned, however, because the grammar and 
vocabulary will gradually take root with practice. 

Dialogues are recorded on the accompanying CD. Students are encouraged to practice 
regularly by listening to the CD and carefully noting pronunciation and intonation. 

•Vocabulary 

The Vocabulary section presents all the new words encountered in both the Dialogue 
and Practice sections of each lesson. Words that appear in the Dialogue are marked 
with an asterisk ( * ). Words are listed according to their function in Lessons 1 and 2, 
and by parts of speech in Lesson 3 and following. In addition, all words presented in the 
text are also found in the Index at the end of each volume. 

Words found in the Vocabulary section of each lesson appear frequently in subse- 
quent lessons, thus students are encouraged to learn them little by little each day. After 
Lesson 2, commonly used kanji equivalents of some words (Joyo Kanji) are also listed, 
but students are not required to memorize them. 

This textbook does not indicate a word’s accents. The accent of a Japanese word 
varies considerably, depending on the region, the speaker’s age (including the genera- 
tion gap between speakers), the word’s paradigmatic form, and its connection with 
other words. Therefore, don’t be overly concerned about the accent, but try to imitate 
as closely as possible the intonation heard on the accompanying CD. 

•Grammar 

Grammar explanations are detailed, so that students can easily study them on their 
own. Students at school are expected to read the grammar explanations before each 
class. 

This section also fully explains the items found in the Practice section that follows. 
Necessary explanations for the grammar and vocabulary that are not found in the 
Practice section can be found in the Expression Notes at the end of each Grammar 
section. 

•Practice 

This section includes questions related to what was taught in each section of the lesson, 
providing students with both basic practice and application. By answering the ques- 
tions sequentially, students can naturally build up their Japanese-language ability. The 
exercises with only one answer are marked with and recorded on the CD, allowing 
students the opportunity to practice on their own. 

The last part of the Practice section contains Review Exercises, which incorporate 
aspects of the lesson as a whole. For example, some questions combine various topics 
covered in the lesson, and some call for the creation of new phrases based on what was 
learned in the Dialogue section. 



Introduction 4 



•Supplement 

Finally, some lessons include additional or supplementary information. This includes 
expressions related to the topic of the lesson, as in “Time and age” in Lesson 1, or 
expressions suitable at certain times or places, as in “At the station” in Lesson 10. 
Words introduced in the Supplement section are found in the Index of each volume. 

B^Reading and Writing 

The Reading and Writing section aims to foster comprehension and writing ability by 
learning Japanese characters and by providing opportunities to practice both reading 
and writing. Hiragana is introduced in Lesson 1, followed by katakana in Lesson 2, and 
kanji in Lesson 3 and following. From Lesson 3, each lesson contains the following 
components: 

•Kanji list 

Each new kanji introduced in a lesson is contained in a list, each with about 15 kanji. 
This makes it easy to memorize a few each day, rather than be overwhelmed with so 
many at once. 



©; serial number 



(2) kanji 


(4) reading 


(5) compounds including the kanji 






^ (&>) book 0^ (— Japan 






0 (—4^ Japanese t £A/) 






Mr./Ms. Yamamoto 




(book; basis) 


(5)— t ^ ^ ^ 



(3) meaning 



(7) stroke order 



(6) total strokes 



Among the readings shown in (4) and (5), hiragana indicates the kun’yomi, or Japanese 
readings for a kanji, while katakana indicates the on’yomi, or Chinese reading. Both 
kun’yomi and on’yomi are sometimes altered in compounds of two or more kanji. For 
example, the ordinary pronunciation of ^ is “ gaku ,” which becomes u ga(k)” when the 
kanji is used in the word Such derivative readings are also included in (4) and (5). 

Although some kanji have many readings, only those readings that are useful at an 
elementary level are included. 

Shaded readings and words in each lesson should be memorized. The others are for 
reference, so students don’t need to memorize them. A practice sheet for each kanji is 
provided in the Reading and Writing section of the Workbook. Students should practice 



writing the kanji repeatedly, according to the stroke order shown on the kanji list in the 
textbook. 

•Practice 

GENKI I consists of kanji practice, readings for comprehension, questions about the 
content of the readings, and writing practice. Kanji practice includes various types of 
questions, such as having students reconstruct a kanji from its various parts or make 
new words by combining kanji. By tackling these problems, students will realize the 
goal of practice— to become more proficient in their use of kanji. Basically, the readings 
are short and deal with subjects familiar to the students. They are easy to understand 
if the student has learned the vocabulary and grammar taught previously in the 
Dialogue and Grammar section. When readings include new words, a corresponding 
word list is provided. Finally, composition topics are given for writing practice. 

GENKI II contains readings for comprehension, questions about the content of the 
readings, and writing practice. The readings employ various styles of Japanese, ranging 
from letters and fables to essays and advertisements. With a knowledge of the previous- 
ly learned vocabulary, grammar, and kanji, the readings are easy to understand but 
grow longer and more difficult in later lessons. Word lists are provided for newly 
introduced vocabulary. Finally, composition topics are introduced. 

€► Appendix 

Volumes 1 and 2 both contain an Index. The Japanese- English Index, in hiragana 
order, lists words found in the Vocabulary and Supplement section of each lesson. The 
number next to a word indicates the lesson in which the word was introduced. In the 
English -Japanese Index, English equivalents to Japanese words are arranged in alpha- 
betical order. 

Also included in the Appendix are tables of verb conjugations as well as sound 
inflections of the expressions related to numbers. 



HI Orthography and font 

The basic text is written in kanji and hiragana. Kanji is used for the most commonly 
used characters, those that appear in the official list of Joyo Kanji. Hiragana is used 
instead, however, when the Joyo Kanji equivalent would not be necessary for beginning 
students of Japanese. 



Introduction 



◄ 



o 



So that students can easily study the Dialogue and Grammar section, the pronuncia- 
tion of every kanji is indicated in hiragana. However, to lessen the burden on the 
students and allow them to study on their own, Greetings and Lessons 1 and 2 are 
represented in hiragana and katakana, as well as by romanized forms. It is best not to 
rely too much on the romanizations, but use them only as a learning aid. Students study 
hiragana and katakana in Lessons 1 and 2, respectively, of the Reading and Writing 
section. 

Students study kanji from Lesson 3 in the Reading and Writing section, where 
pronunciations of the kanji already presented are not indicated in hiragana, in order to 
promote the students’ increasing acquisition of kanji. 



The Japanese in the basic text is set mainly in the Textbook font, which resembles 
handwriting and serves as a good model for students. Students will encounter a variety 
of fonts used for Japanese materials, however, and should be aware that the shape of 
some characters differ considerably, depending on the font used. Note especially that 
with some characters, we find two separate strokes in one style are merged into a single 
stroke. 



Example: Textbook font 


Mincho font 


Gothic font 


Handwriting 


$ 


$ 


£ 




£ 


§ 


$ 




0 


0 


0 


l ) 


b 




b 


b 








-> 




< 


<— 


v_ 











01 



C Japanese Writing System J 

There are three kinds of characters in Japanese: hiragana, katakana, and kanji. All three 
characters can be seen in a single sentence. 

t v h* t i ±_± o 

katakana kanji hiragana 
I watch television. 

Hiragana and katakana, like the alphabet, represent sounds. As you can see in the above 
example, hiragana has a roundish shape and is used for conjugation endings, function 
words, and native Japanese words not covered by kanji. Katakana, which has rather 
straight lines, is normally used for writing loanwords and foreign names. For example, 
the Japanese word for “television” is written in katakana as TV tf ( terebi ). Kanji, or 
Chinese characters, represent not just sounds but also meanings. Mostly, kanji are used 
for nouns and the stems of verbs and adjectives. 

(T)H i r a g a n a 

1. Basic Hiragana Syllables 

There are forty-six basic hiragana syllables, which are listed below. Once you memorize 
this chart, you will have the skill to transcribe all of the Japanese sounds. 



h 


\ N 


1 


X. 


£ 


a 


i 


u 


e 


0 




£ 


< 


If 


3 


ka 


ki 


ku 


ke 


ko 


A 


L 


-r 


-tf 


% 


sa 


*shi 


su 


se 


so 


tz 


£ 


O 


X 


z 


ta 


*chi 


*tsu 


te 


to 


+£ 


tc 


& 


fa 


<D 


na 


ni 


nu 


ne 


no 


(2 


Tf 




•'X 


(5 


ha 


hi 


fu 


he 


ho 



1 There is another writing system called romaji (Roman letters) which is used for station names, signs, 
and so on. 



Japanese Writing System 



*The syllables L, %>, and o are 
romanized as shi, chi, and 
tsu, respectively, which is 
closer to the English pronunci- 
ation. 

**£ is also pronounced as “wo.” 
The romanization is given for general pronunciation reference. 

2. Hiragana with Diacritical Marks 

You can transcribe 23 additional sounds by adding diacritical marks. With a pair of short 
diagonal strokes ( ' ), the unvoiced consonants k, s, t, and h become voiced consonants g, 
z, d, and b, respectively. The consonant h changes to p with the addition of a small circle 

C). 



* 


& 


£ 


*b 


& 


ma 


mi 


mu 


me 


mo 


* 




0 




X 


ya 




yu 




yo 


£> 


y 


£ 


tl 


h 


ra 


ri 


ru 


re 


ro 










£ 


wa 








**o 


kj 










n 













$ 


c 


if 




ga 


gi 


gu 


ge 


go 




V 


■f 


Hf 


* 


za 


ji 


zu 


ze 


zo 


tz 


* £ 




r 




da 


ji 


zu 


de 


do 


if 


l f 






if 


ba 


bi 


bu 


be 


bo 



if 


If 




^s. 


if 


pa 


pi 


pu 


pe 


po 



*t> ( ji) and o* (zu) are pro- 
nounced the same as U (ji) 
and -f (zu), respectively, and 
have limited use. 



3. Transcribing Contracted Sounds 

Small V, yp, and X follow after letters in the second column (z -vowel hiragana, except v\) 
and are used to transcribe contracted sounds. The contracted sound represents a single 
syllable. 



£ * 


$ 


$ J: 


kya 


kyu 


kyo 


L V 3 


L 


L X 


sha 


shu 


sho 




% yp 


% X 


cha 


chu 


cho 




(C yp 


(c x 


nya 


nyu 


nyo 


u* 


V' yp 


ux 


hya 


hyu 


hyo 


fr * 


yp 


& X 


mya 


myu 


myo 




l J yp 


V x 


rya 


ryu 


ryo 



ff* 


cf yp 


ffx 


gya 


gyu 


gyo 


c* 


D' yp 


Cx 


ja 


ju 


jo 



xf* 

bya 


Xf yp 

byu 


rfx 

byo 


pya 


Xfyp 

pyu 


xfx 

pyo 



4. Transcribing Double Consonants 

There is another small letter o, which is used when transcribing double consonants such 
as tt and pp. 



Examples: fr^tz 


katta 


(won) cf. fi'tz kata (shoulder) 


$ -Q 


sakka 


(writer) 


lioti: 


happa 


(leaf) 


3To L 


zasshi 


(magazine) 



Note that double consonant n’s, as in sannen (3 years), are written with A/ + a hiragana 
with an initial n sound (&, {-, ab, te, or ri). 

Examples: ^ h fa /v sannen (3 years) 

k/ tx v ' annai (guide) 

5. Other Issues Relating to Transcription and Pronunciation 
A. Long Vowels 

When the same vowel is placed one right after the other, the pronunciation of the vowel 



Japanese Writing System 4 



becomes about twice as long as the single vowel. Be sure to hold the sound long enough, 
because the length of the vowel can change one word to another. 

aa fo (i ' h $ A, obaasan (grandmother) cf. li' $ ^ obasan (aunt) 

ii t? U v ' $ A, ojusan (grandfather) cf. & C $ /v ojisan (uncle) 

iiu tH' suuji (number) 

ee The long ee sound is usually transcribed by adding an t ' to an e-vowel hira- 

gana. There are a few words, however, in which x. is used instead of 

eeg a (movie) 

Jo fa x. $ ^ oneesan (big sister) 

oo The long oo sound is in most cases transcribed by adding an l to an 

o -vowel hiragana. There are, however, words in which the long vowel is 
transcribed with an £, for historical reasons. 

(J T 0 o hooritsu (law) 

£ too (ten) 

B. Pronunciation of /v 

A, is treated like a full syllable, in terms of length. Its pronunciation varies, however, 
depending on the sound that follows it. Japanese speakers are normally not aware of the 
different sound values of A. Therefore, you do not need to worry too much about its 
pronunciation. 



C. Vowels to Be Dropped 

The vowels i and u are sometimes dropped when placed between voiceless consonants (k, 
s, t, p, and h), or at the end of an utterance preceded by voiceless consonants. 

Example: 'T $ 'C'f* s(u)kides(u) (I like it.) 



2 One variety of the L pronunciation merits discussing here. When it is followed by a vowel or at the end 
of an utterance, A indicates that the preceding vowel is long and nasalized. (Nasalized vowels are shown 
here with a tilde above vowel letters. You hear nasalized vowels in French words such as “bon,” or the 
English interjection “uh-uh,” as in “no.”) 
h.A&v-i real (romance) 

{I tv ho (book) 

Followed by n, t, d, s, and z sounds, A is pronounced as “n.” 
onna (woman) 

Followed by m, p, and b sounds, A is pronounced as “m.” 
sampo (stroll) 

Followed by k and g sounds, L is pronounced as “ng” as in “song.” 

£ hb* marjga (comics) 



D. Accent in the Japanese Language 

Japanese has a pitch accent: all syllables are pronounced basically either in high or low 
pitch. Unlike the English stress accent in which stressed syllables tend to be pronounced 
longer and louder, in Japanese each syllable is pronounced approximately in equal length 
and stress. The pitch patterns in Japanese vary greatly, depending on the region of the 
country. 

Examples: £> $ a sa (morning) 

ft i X. nd ma ' e (name) 

i a M i (high) 



(DKatakana 



7 


7 


7 


X. 


* 


a 


i 


u 


e 


0 


il 




7 


7 


X 


ka 


ki 


ku 


ke 


ko 


7 


z/ 


X 


-b 


y 


sa 


*shi 


su 


se 


so 


7 


f* 


V 


T 


b 


ta 


*chi 


*tsu 


te 


to 


t 


~~ 


X 


* 


y 


na 


ni 


nu 


ne 


no 


s \ 


b 


7 




rh 


ha 


hi 


fu 


he 


ho 


y 


5 


A 


7 


•€ 


ma 


mi 


mu 


me 


mo 






SL 




3 


ya 




yu 




yo 


y 


') 


)V 


V 


n 


ra 


ri 


ru 


re 


ro 


7 








7 


wa 








0 


V 










n 











’The syllables S', f", and 'V are 
romanized as shi, chi, and 
tsu, respectively, to give a 
closer English pronunciation. 



Japanese Writing System 4 






b° 


X 


< 


* 


pa 


pi 


pu 


pe 


po 



*1* (ji ) and "/ (zu) are pro- 
nounced the same as S' (Ji) 
and X (zu), respectively, and 
have limited use. 



gya 


gyu 


% 3 
gyo 


V' 

ja 


S? S3. 
ju 


Z? 3 
jo 



-V 


ZL 


3 


kya 


kyu 


kyo 


z/ -V 


Z/ ZL 


Z/ 3 


sha 


shu 


sho 




T=l 


f-3 


cha 


chu 


cho 


— Y 


— S3. 


— 3 


nya 


nyu 


nyo 


b* 


b SL 


t 3 


hya 


hyu 


hyo 


Z, * 


; si 


l 3 


mya 


myu 


myo 


') * 


') Z2- 


') 3 


rya 


ryu 


ryo 



b* -v 


tr si 


If 3 


bya 


bya 


byo 


b° 


b°S3. 


b° 3 


pya 


pyu 


pyo 



The pronunciation of katakana and its combinations are the same as those of hiragana, 
except for the following points. 

(l)The long vowels are written with — . 



Examples: # 


kaa 


(car) 


X* — 


sukii 


(ski) 


x— *y 


suutsu 


(suit) 




keeki 


(cake) 


tf-zi' 


boom 


(ball) 



When you write vertically, the — mark needs to be written vertically also. 

Example: 

'] 

IV 

(2) Additional combinations with small vowel letters are used to transcribe foreign sounds 
that originally did not exist in Japanese. 



Examples: 7 J 


7 >r — > 


harowiin 


(Halloween) 






haiwee 


(highway) 


7* 




miner aruwootaa 


(mineral water) 


V J. 




sherii 


(sherry) 


'S J. 


yx-AX 


jeemusu 


(James) 




fx«y7 


chekku 


(check) 


7r 


7 T "/ '> 3 > 


fasshon 


(fashion) 




7 4 V fc* 7 


firipin 


(Philippine) 


7x 


^7x 


kafe 


(cafe) 


7^ 




kariforunia 


(California) 


T J 


T J “ 


paatii 


(party) 


fl 


fl 73 


disuko 


(disco) 


fa 


T xx — 7 


dyuuku 


(Duke) 



(3) The sound “v” is sometimes written with 7. For example, the word “Venus” is 
sometimes written as h*— or 7' 4 -fX. 




'N ho 



(J) | 

t><D 

*'L\ ft i$Aj l?3 ^ 



Greetings - 



i 1 1 fc 6 OU £=&£:£> New Friends 

X « Y Tf 
Question Sentences 
nouni © noun 2 

* £1/ Time/Age 



Shopping 

Ifl 3btl £'tl 
!©/•?■©/ 3b©/ if© + noun 



titlCO noun 
noun b 

noun C ^ 3b V £ ^ 






In the Classroom 



^ 3 ^ Making a Date 

Verb Conjugation 

Verb Types and the “Present Tense” 
Particles 
Time Reference 
— 

Word Order 
Frequency Adverbs 
The Topic Particle & 



6 



10 



29 



53 

-54 






a 4 » ffl«)r©7=-s The First Date 72 

Describing Where Things Are 
Past Tense 
tz< 3 A, 

-mm 

t 1 ^ 

b 



#f 5 B Locations 94 

#0 • H • ^ ^ Days/Weeks/Months/Years 95 

o- u«>5 z>& a, 

C a 5 * ftmffiri A Trip to Okinawa 96 

— * IS&WoOiiZ^ 



Adjectives 
Degree Expressions 
Counting 



At the Post Office 112 

#>30/u£j;< 

At a Photo Shop 113 

m 6 m pa'-s&A/0-b A Day in Robert’s Life 114 

1,1 1 * U5IC5 



Te-form 

Describing Two Activities 
L i -5^ 

< /ftl.Z.%) Directions 130 






C m 7 r mmomm Family Picture 

■ 1 ■■■ " u*>i^ 

~TV>3 

*>* 

Te -forms for Joining Sentences 
verb stem + i^fr < 

Counting People 

Parts of the Body 
Family 

•?< 

i 8 S JX—^n.— Barbecue 

Short Forms 
Uses of Short Forms 

verb =1 v C'f* 

and 0 b 

i9i <ri 3'® Kabuki 

Past Tense Short Forms 

Qualifying Nouns with Verbs and Adjectives 

#ft Colors 

L'3 

1 0 s $tfc35*0^5l Winter Vacation Plans 

- 1 ^ ,S»U)Y'T «fc ru 

Comparison 
adjective/noun + © 

~ofcD*f 

adjective + & & 

zzfriz/zzizb 

T 

#lRr At the Station 

a.® 



-132 



148 

149 



189 



-190 



208 



*b-xs*/%<u« 



* 1 1 i* j*aMD 35 £ After the Vacation 
noun A ^ noun B 

#0^1 ^(D0z)7-X. In the Japanese Class 

( % 1 2 * J a ? Feeling III 

~©-r' 

~tt i ^ 

Health and Illness 



: 



— B j Expression Notes 



(Dtsliio/ibO^fc o vh^x. v^T^ol^vV 

V^ti 

(Dfe© l±Wx.x. ZvX'-ffr Pronunciation of li Numbers Giving one’s 
telephone number -frA^v* £A, Referring to the person you are talking to 
Japanese names 



@(~£) < ti $ Vi Ut (~£) t* -5 ^ On the pronuncia- 

tion of number words Big numbers 

©ff</3p 

®X0g X.-o/feo ^BfPdg ibit- — 

d)tttw^r^^(^) — 1 

®S< /®Vi fc'o t> 

— 

®~-T5 

<8Hr®ji 

©f£ in negative sentences Aitt (c W 1-li 



6 ) ► 



foi\trz> 


@ 


Greet ings 











◄ 



I© 




c > 



KliX io 


Ohayoo. 


Good morning. 






Ohayoo gozaimasu. 


Good morning, (polite) 




3 A/ {- li 0 


Konnichiwa. 


Good afternoon. 




0 


Konbanwa. 


Good evening. 




$ «t -9 &bo 


Sayoonara. 


Good-bye. 




fc*'***^,, 


Oyasuminasai. 


Good night. 




h 0 


Arigatoo. 


Thank you. 






Arigatoo gozaimasu. 


Thank you. (polite) 




i‘*HtA,o 


Sumimasen. 


Excuse me.; I’m sorry. 




V'V'JC 0 


lie. 


No.; Not at all. 




t^it. 


Ittekimasu. 


I’ll go and come back. 




v'o'C bo L <f> v\, 


Itterasshai. 


Please go and come 
back. 




tztz^io 


Tadaima. 


Pm home. 




0 £$v\, 


Okaerinasai. 


Welcome home. 






Itadakimasu. 


Thank you for the meal, 
(before eating) 






Gochisoosama. 


Thank you for the meal, 
(after eating) 




tiU*bi L-Co 


Hajimemashite. 


How do you do? 




e i ^> L < o 


Doozo yoroshiku. 


Nice to meet you. 


J 



V 




Expressio 



Note 



®| 



► ScB-XSdi 



A 



F! 



siy— s 

U-cfc^ U7u 






JJlicfc 3 /<££)£)'£ 3 ► Ohayoo is used between friends and family mem- 
bers, while ohayoo gozaimasu is used between less intimate acquaintances, 
similarly with arigatoo and arigatoo gozaimasu. The rule of thumb is: if you 
are on a first-name basis with someone, go for the shorter versions. If you 
would address someone as Mr. or Ms., use the longer versions. To give a 
concrete example, the social expectation is such that students are to use the 
longer variants when they speak with a professor. 

There are several good-bye expressions in Japanese, the 
choice among which depends on the degree of separation. Sayoonara indi- 
cates that the speaker does not expect to see the person spoken to before she 
“turns a page in her life”; not until a new day arrives, or until fate brings 
the two together again, or until they meet again in the other world. 

U £?Z 0 Jaa, mata. 

(between friends, expecting to see each other again fairly soon) 
Shitsureeshimasu. 

(taking leave from a professor’s office, for example) 

Vi -o X § £ 'I'o Ittekimasu. 

(leaving home) 




1±A> Sumimasen means (1) “Excuse me,” to get another person’s 
attention, (2) “I’m sorry,” to apologize for the trouble you have caused, or 
(3) “Thank you,” to show appreciation for what someone has done for you. 

UlAx> lie is primarily “No,” a negative reply to a question. In the 
dialogue, it is used to express the English phrase “Don’t mention it,” or 
“You’re welcome,” with which you point out that one is not required to feel 
obliged for what you have done for them. 

Uo Z 6 o U * l VUo Z S * T/fc tz U £/33 A' * D & * U ► Ittekimasu 
and itterasshai is a common exchange used at home when a family member 
leaves. The person who leaves says ittekimasu , which literally means “I will 
go and come back.” And the family members respond with itterasshai, 
which means “Please go and come back.” 

Tadaima and okaeri are used when a person comes home. The person 
who arrives home says tadaima (I am home right now) to the family 
members, and they respond with okaerinasai (Welcome home). 




351 \tl-D4 



fl/ul/i$o Practice 

Act out the following situations with your classmates. 

1. You meet your host family for the first time. Greet them. 

2. It is one o’clock in the afternoon. You see your neighbor Mr. Yamada. 

3. You come to class in the morning. Greet your teacher. Greet your friends. 

4. On a crowded train, you stepped on someone’s foot. 

5. You dropped your book. Someone picked it up for you. 

6. It is eight o’clock at night. You happen to meet your teacher at the convenience 
store. 

7 . You are watching TV with your host family. It is time to go to sleep. 

8. You are leaving home. 

9. You have come back home. 

10. You are going to start eating. 

11. You have finished eating. 



© 



c 














~ N 


iji* 

a i\ uo it 


L 


E 


S 


S 


0 


N 


1 



Wdb\jl New Friends 



/j'Ufo Dialogue 0 

Mary, an international student who just arrived in Japan, talks to a Japanese student. 



0 

t> n i' 

1 s r V - : 




Mearii 


Sumimasen. Ima nanji desu ka. 


2 fdt L : 


Uyp 1 1- U liA/'Ci'o 


Takeshi 


Juuniji han desu. 


3 5 f 1 J - : 




Mearii 


Arigatoo gozaimasu. 


4 felt L : 




Takeshi 


lie. 




*1 »◄ 



® 

ft It L 

Takeshi 



y r v ~ 

Mearii 



felt l : 

Takeshi 



/T'J- 

Mearii 



0 *P t £ ? < -y-v%'C'f^ 0 

Ano, ryuugakusee desu ka. 

X. X.O fv '/Tffv^ < CO £*' < -y:VN-C"to 

Ee. Arizona daigaku no gakusee desu. 

Soo desu ka. Senmon wa nan desu ka. 

Nihongo desu. Ima ninensee desu. 



© 



Mary: Excuse me. What time is it now? 
Takeshi: It’s half past twelve. 

Mary: Thank you. 

Takeshi: You’re welcome. 



© 



Takeshi: Um . . . are you an international student? 
Mary: Yes. I am a student at the University of Arizona. 
Takeshi: I see. What is your major? 

Mary: Japanese. I am a sophomore now. 



ary 






/C hj 


V o 


cab 


h<n 


ano 




ima 




eego 


X. X. 


ee 


*>*'< 


gakusee 




... go 


Z 7 Z 7 


kookoo 


Z' Z' 


gogo 




gozen 




. . . sai 




. . . san 


~u 


. . . ji 




... jin 




sensee 


■y* A/ /v 


senmon 


*-?*ei* 


soo desu 




daigaku 




denwa 




tomodachi 


x. 


namae 


%A,/1£K 


nan/nani 


izlZA, 


Nihon 


~#aA,-£V' 


. . . nensee 


(iv' 


hai 


liA/ 


han 




bangoo 


0 VjJ T < -£ v ' 


ryuugakusee 




watashi 



u I 



@ 



um . . . 
now 

English (language) 
yes 

student 

language ex. IZ&A/Z ( nihon - 
go) Japanese language 
high school 

P.M. 

A.M. 

. . . years old 
Mr./Ms 

o’clock ex. v ' •£> V ( ichiji ) one 
o’clock 

people ex. t-H/v U/v ( nihon - 
jin ) Japanese people 
teacher; Professor . . . 
major 

That’s right. 

college; university 

telephone 

friend 

name 

what 

Japan 

. . . year student ex. v ' fb fa 
V' ( ichinensee ) first-year student 
yes 

half ex. I- U li As(nijihan) half 

past two 

number 

international student 
I 



"\ 




Words that appear in the dialogi 



ifii m< 



ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY 



Countries 



T « ? 


Amerika 


U.S.A. 


T f 'J x 


Igirisu 


Britain 


ii? t ?'! I 


Oosutoraria 


Australia 


A/ 3. < 


Kankoku 


Korea 


T > 


Sueeden 


Sweden 


% VP 1 - < 


Chuugoku 


China 


a j o r s 






< 


kagaku 


science 


T vTttA,* d> 7 


ajiakenkyuu 


Asian studies 


ltv'£v* 


keezai 


economics 




kokusaikankee 


international relations 


> t° 3. — ? — 


konpyuutaa 


computer 


vll C^i* < * 


jinruigaku 


anthropology 


-frV'L' 


seeji 


politics 


h*y|X 


bijinesu 


business 


It/Ltf < 


bungaku 


literature 


L 


rekishi 


history 


ccupations 






tr* 


shigoto 


job; work; occupation 


V'L^ 


isha 


doctor 


iH' L ^ V'X/ 


kaishain 


office worker 


zi zn -^vn 


kookoosee 


high school student 


L ^ 


shufu 


housewife 


< V ' A/'t V ' 


daigakuinsee 


graduate student 




daigakusee 


college student 


^ri 


bengoshi 


lawyer 


a m i 1 y 






& $ A/ 


okaasan 


mother 


*A, 


otoosan 


father 




oneesan 


older sister 


Jd iz v ' $ A/ 


oniisan 


older brother 


V' t> T £ 


imooto 


younger sister 


££ T £ 


otooto 


younger brother 



V 



Grammar 



— x !i y rf 

“It is 12:30.” “I am a student.” “My major is the Japanese language.” These sentences 
will all be translated into Japanese using an appropriate noun and the word desu. 



o It is . . . 



U vp n t: U 0 (It) is half past twelve. 

Juuniji han desu. 

o (I) am a student. 

Gakusee desu. 

(My major) is the Japanese language. 

Nihongo desu. 

Note that none of these sentences has a “subject,” like the “it,” “I,” and my major 
found in their English counterparts. Sentences without subjects are very common in 
Japanese; Japanese speakers actually tend to omit subjects whenever they think it is 
clear to the listener what or who they are referring to. 

What are we to do, then, when it is not clear what is being talked about? To make explicit 
what we are talking about, we can say: 

.T'C'j'o is the Japanese language. 

wa nihongo desu. 

Where stands for the thing that is talked about, or the “topic,” which is later in 

the sentence identified as nihongo. For example, 

^ As i A (2 (- (3 As G" V C1' 0 (My) major is the Japanese language. 

Senmon wa nihongo desu. 

Similarly, one can use the pattern X wa Y desu to identify a person or a thing X as item 
Y. 

XttY Tit o X is Y. As for X, it is Y. 

frtz tti i- • 4 a-C1-„ 

Watashi wa Suu Kimu desu. 



I am Sue Kim. 




■^3: Ci" 0 Mr. Yamashita is a teacher. 



Yamashita san wa sensee desu. 



/ T ') — $ Asli TV V h U /v' Ci~o Mary is an American. 



Mearii san wa amerikajin desu. 



Wa is a member of the class of words called “particles.” So is the word no, which we will 
turn to later in this lesson. Particles attach themselves to phrases and indicate how the 
phrases relate to the rest of the sentence. 

Note also that nouns like gakusee and sensee in the above examples stand alone, unlike 
their English translations “student” and “teacher,” which are preceded by “a.” In 
Japanese, there is no item that corresponds to “a,” nor is there any item that corresponds 
to the plural “-s” at the end of a noun. Without background situations, a sentence like 
gakusee desu is therefore ambiguous between the singular and the plural interpretations; 
it may mean “We are/you are/they are students,” as well as “I am/you are/she is a 
student.” 

M Question Sentences 

It is very easy to form questions in Japanese. Basically, all you need to do is add ka 
at the end of a statement. 

0 vp 7 £*< -frVN*Ci- 0 0 yp n 

Ryuugakusee desu. Ryuugakusee desu ka. 

(I am) an international student. (Are you) an international student? 

The above sentence, Ryuugakusee desu ka, is a “yes/no” question. Question sentences 
may also contain a “question word” like nan (what). In this lesson, we learn how to ask, 
and answer, questions using the following question words: nanji (what time), nansai 
(how old), nannensee (what year in school). Note carefully that the order of words in a 
sentence may be quite different from what you find in your language. 



Tt is not customary to write a question mark at the end of a question sentence in Japanese. 

2 The Japanese question word for “what” has two pronunciations: nan and nani. Nan is used immediate- 
ly before desu or before a “counter” like ji (o’clock). The other form, nani, is used before a particle. 
Nani is also used in the combination nanijin (person of what nationality). 






t> zl.fi) x.vvr -’C-fo 



What is your major? 



Senmon wa nan desu ka. 



(Senmon wa) eego desu. 
(My major) is English. 







Ima nanji desu ka. 

IF/za/ ftwe zs it now? 

Mearii san wa nansai desu ka. 

How old are you, Mary? 

Nannensee desu ka. 

JF/za/ year are you in college? 

X 'AstoHA,?! li KAsX'ti'o 

Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka. 

What is your telephone number? 



03) < U T~f o 

(Ima) kuji desu. 

It is nine o’clock. 

l> 1 ^ j~„ 

Juukyuusai desu. 

I’m nineteen years old. 

Ninensee desu. 

I’m a sophomore. 

I86g07343 -Cto 

Ichi hachi roku no nana san yon san desu. 

It is 186-7343. 



d noun^ noun 2 

No is a particle that connects two nouns. The phrase Toozai daigaku no gakusee means 
“(a) student at Tozai University.” The second noun gakusee provides the main idea 3 
(being a student) and the first one Toozai daigaku makes it more specific (not a high 
school, but a college student). No is very versatile. In the first example below, it acts like 
the possessive (“x’s”) in English, but that is not the only role no can play. See how it 
connects two nouns in the following examples. 



XAsfrlXA,?! 

Takeshi san no denwa bangoo 

daigaku no sensee 

nihongo no gakusee 

tzlZAsd) 
nihon no daigaku 



Takeshi’s phone number 
a college professor 
a student of the Japanese language 
a* college in Japan 



Observe that in the first two examples, the English and Japanese words are arranged in 
the same order, while in the last two, they are in the opposite order. Japanese seems to 
be more consistent in arranging ideas here; the main idea always comes at the end, with 
any further description placed before it. 



3 Here is what we mean by the “main idea.” In the phrase Takeshi san no denwa bangoo (Takeshi’s 
phone number), the noun denwa bangoo (phone number) is the main idea, in the sense that if something 
is Takeshi’s phone number, it is a phone number. The other noun Takeshi san is not the main idea, 
because Takeshi’s phone number is not Takeshi. 



nourii (D noun 2 

t t 

main idea 
further restriction 



A phrase of the form “noum no noun 2 ” acts more or less like one big noun. You can put 
it wherever you can put a noun, as in the following example: 



L3/U) li zn Znf) 

Takeshi san no okaasan wa kookoo no sensee desu. 

Takeshi’s mother is a high school teacher . 



my — b 



ission Notes (^) 



Ano indicates that you have some reservations about saying what 
you are going to say next. You may be worried about interrupting some- 
thing someone is currently doing, or sounding rude and impolite for asking 
personal questions, for example. 

Both hai and ee mean “yes” in response to yes-no questions. 
Compared to hai, ee is more conversational and relaxed. In more informal 
situations, un is used. 

Hai is also used to respond to a knock at the door or to the calling of one’s 
name, meaning “Here,” as follows. ( Ee cannot be replaced in this case.) 



Teacher: X^X§^? 

Sumisu san? 

Student: 

Hai 



Mr. Smith? 



Soo desu ka acknowledges that you have understood what 
was just said. “Is that so?” or “I see.” 



Pronunciation of (£► The particle it is pronounced “wa,” not “ha.” It 
should be written with It. All other instances of “wa” are written with t>. 






g-X^JS 



frfcb© X/v&li/oZvli 37-8667T'1- 0 

Watashi no denwa bangoo wa san nana no hachi roku roku nana desu. 

My telephone number is 37-8667. 

There are a few exceptions, such as konnichiwa (good afternoon) and 
konbanwa (good evening). They are usually written with SA,lZt>li and £ 

Numbers ► Many number words have more than one pronunciation. Refer 
to the table at the end of this book for a general picture. 

0 -b'o and are both commonly used. 

1 V*4j, but pronounced as V^-o in V*Ov£A/ (one minute) and 
Vi (one-year old). 

2 K all the time. When you are reading out each digit separately, 
as when you give your phone number, it may be pronounced with 
a long vowel, as lz Vi. 

3 ^ A. all the time. The part that follows it may change shape, as 
in £A/.£A/, instead of $A/v&>A/. 

4 <£ A/ is the most basic, but fourth-year student is Z. fcAy-ttVi and 

four o’clock is iU. In some combinations that we will later 
learn, it is read as L (as in April). The part that follows 

this number may change shape too, as in i A,-£A,. 

5 all the time. When read out separately, it may be pronounced 
with a long vowel, as ^ p . 

6 h < , but pronounced as 5 •q in 5 o.£A,. 

7 tztz is the most basic, but seven o’clock is Lt>U. 

8 but usually pronounced as H-d in H-d&Tu and (£o£V\ 

9 § ( 9 > v is the most basic, but nine o’clock is < U. 

10 U i$> p , but pronounced as U i 9>-d in C t?> o AS A, and U § V*. 

Giving one’s telephone number ► The particle no is usually placed in 
between the local exchange code and the last four digits. Therefore, the 
number 012-345-6789 is zero ichi ni, san yon go no, roku nana hachi kyuu. 

-e/u-t±iA^ The word sensee is usually reserved for describing somebody 
else’s occupation. Watashi wa sensee desu makes sense, but may sound 
slightly arrogant, because the word sensee actually means an “honorable 
master.” If you (or a member of your family) are a teacher, and if you want 
to be really modest, you can use the word kyooshi instead. 

is hi ► San is placed after a name as a generic title. It goes both with a given 
name and a family name. Children are referred to as chan (and boys in 



particular as kun), rather than as san. Professors and doctors are usually 
referred to with the title setisee. San and other title words are never used in 
reference to oneself. 

Referring to the person you are talking to ► The word for “you,” anata, is 
not very commonly used in Japanese. Instead, we use the name and a title 
like san and setisee to refer to the person you are talking to. Therefore, a 
sentence like “Ms. Hart, are you Swedish?” should be: 

Haato san wa sueedenjin desu ka. 

instead of “Ua, fcfcfctt 

Haato san, anata wa sueedenjin desu ka. 

Japanese names ► When Japanese give their name, they say their family 
name first and given name last. Usually, they don’t have middle names. 
When they introduce themselves, they often say only their family name. 
Here are some typical Japanese names. 



Family name 


Given name 




Men 


Women 


§ fc? 


UZL 


tyy z 


Satoo 


Hiroshi 


Yuuko 


i-rs 




#)<*& 


Suzuki 


lchiroo 


Megumi 


izfrltL 


UA,U 


< &z 


Takahashi 


Kenji 


Kumiko 




# 




Tanaka 


Yuuki 


Naomi 






# i?Z 


Itoo 


Masahiro 


Kyooko 



tl/uU*4o Practice 

(T) If 3 1/ (Numbers) 



@ 















0 


-fefn/tU' 












zero ree 










1 




II 


U vp 7 V ' %, 


30 


ypi 




ichi 




juuichi 




sanjuu 


2 


t- 


12 


U tip 7 K 


40 


J : A, 




ni 




juuni 




yonjuu 


3 




13 




50 


- VvPl 




san 




juusan 




gojuu 


4 


J^/l/U) 


14 


U yp 7 «£ A// 1>U 


60 


^ < U 7 




yon shi (yo) 




juuyon juushi 




rokujuu 


5 




15 


Vyp 1 Z* 


70 


& & U 7 




g° 




juugo 




nanajuu 


6 


% < 


16 


O 7 ^ < 


80 


(3 fb U ^ 7 




roku 




juuroku 




hachijuu 


7 


t£t£/l % 


17 


i: ^ a/ c n> •? l 


90 






nana shichi 




juunana juushichi 




kyuu juu 


8 


fi tb 


18 


U vp 7 (i 


100 


< 




hachi 




juuhachi 




hyaku 


9 


^ yp 7 / < 


19 


U^7^tf>7/C^7 < 








kyuu ku 




juukyuu juuku 






10 


U yp 7 


20 


U ^ 7 








juu 




nijuu 







A. Read the following numbers. @ 

(a) 5 (b) 9 (c) 7 (d) I (e) 10 

(f) 8 (S) 2 (h) 6 (i) 4 (j) 3 



B. Read the following numbers. @ 

(a) 45 (b) 83 (c) 19 (d) 76 (e) 52 

(f) 100 (g) 38 (h) 61 (i) 24 (j) 97 

C. What are the answers? (jjjl 

(a) 5+3 (b) 9+ 1 (c) 3+4 (d) 6-6 (e) 10 + 9 (f) 8-7 (8) 40-25 



(Time) 



SI P^|(ai) 




A. Look at the following pictures and answer the questions. @ 

Example: Q • V ' i ^ /L U 'C'f' £'o Ex. 

lma nanji desu ka. 

A : v^Ufi/L-C-to 

Ichiji han desu. 








B. Answer the questions. @ 

Example: Q: £ T * J: ^ ii ft/tU'CT^o 

Tookyoo wa ima nanji desu ka. 

a : r-tfx s/ur-ei- o 

Gozen sanji desu. 




® (Telephone Numbers) 

A. Read the following people’s telephone numbers, (jjjfll 

Example: til/: 283-9547 -> A, <?) $ V 1 

Yamashita ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana 



1. /7 1 )- 

Mearii 


951-0326 


2. tzlil 

Takeshi 


362-4519 


+ i 

3. X- 

Suu 


691-4236 


h \t k n 

4. n/'f— h 


852-1032 



Robaato 



B. Pair Work— Read the dialogue below with your partner. S 
A : It 

Denwa bangoo wa nan desu ka. 

B : 283-9547t'to 

Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu. 



A : 283-9547^1" fcu 

Ni hachi san no kyuu go yon nana desu ne. 

B : utv\ £ i tto 

Hai, soo desu. 

C. Group Work— Use the dialogue above and ask three classmates their telephone 
numbers. 

name telephone number 

( ) ( > 

( ) ( > 

( ) ( > 

®CBA/2© JfKttU 

Translate the following phrases into Japanese using (D (no). @ 

Example: student of the Japanese language -»■ <?) 

nihongo no gakusee 

1. my teacher 2. my telephone number 

3. my name 4. Takeshi s major 

5. Mary’s friend 6. student of the University of London 

7. teacher of the Japanese language 8. high school teacher 

st> & o u $ to c 

Look at the chart on the next page and describe each person using the cues 
in (a) through (e). 



1. tzVlSAs 

Takeshi san 


2. 


X-S/L 

Suu san 


3. n/N — h $ h 

Robaato san 


4. L 

Yamashita sensee 


(a) nationality 










Example: 


Mearii san 


Mearii san wa 


r/hh L^'Cl’o 

amerikajin desu. 


(b) year in school 
Example: / T 'J 

Mearii s 




Mearii san wa 


ninensee desu. 






(c) age 



Example: / T ’J — ^ ^ 

Mearii san 



U* i $ yp 7 $v>*ci- 0 

Mearii san wa juukyuu sai desu. 



(d) school 

Example: V 7 'J $ /v 

Mearii san 



/ r >; - $ a, n rv v"i- 1£\ < co 

Mearii san wa Arizona daigaku no 

< -£vn-C1- 0 

gakusee desu. 



(e) major 

«h h n 

Example: 

Mearii san 



^7'j — ^ Av<D As t> As H l~ 12 As 'C ~f~o 
Mearii san no senmon wa nihongo desu. 






Hart, Mary 


St?S>fcltL 

Kimura Takeshi 


Kim, Sue 


Smith, Robert 


L/c-dA-a-VN 
Yamashita sensee 


Nationality 


American 


Japanese 


Korean 

kankokujin 


British 

HY'JXUA) 

igirisujin 


Japanese 


Year 


2nd year 


4th year 


3rd year 


4th year 




Age 


19 


22 


20 


22 


47 


School 


U. of Arizona 


Tozai Univ. 


Seoul Univ. 


U. of London 


Tozai Univ. 


Major 


Japanese 


history 

rekishi 


computer 

konpyuutaa 


business 

bijinesu 


(Japanese 

teacher) 



B. Pair Work— Ask and answer questions using the given cues. 
Example 1: -AT') — $ Au/ 7 s* V ft C As 

Mearii san amerikajin 

Q : 7 7 ')-$Asli 7 7 ht/MAsX-ffro 

Mearii san wa amerikajin desu ka. 

A : X.X., £ 1 *Ci “ 0 

Ee, soo desu. 



Example 2: / T ’j — $ k>/ $ A/ fa /✓-£'> ' 

Mearii san sannensee 

$/Ui 

Mearii san wa sannensee desu ka. 

A : v^x., 

lie, ninensee desu. 

1. 5f >j -*L/rh <n 

Mearii san Arizona daigaku no gakusee 

2. 2 f V — 

Mearii san ichinensee 

3. 

Takeshi san nihonjin 

4. felt <r> ^<-frVN 

Takeshi san Nihon daigaku no gakusee 

5. tz It L $ ^/ 

Takeshi san juukyuusai 

+ i T * X C 4 

6. x— ^/x^x— 

Suu san sueedenjin 

7. X — -li’/vt A/ / It ^ ^ N (economics) 

Suu san no senmon keezai 

h II f> Z V f ft T 

8 n/<— i^/Lco x 

Robaato san no senmon bijinesu 

9. f $ A// i ;fa/v-£VN 

Robaato san yonensee 

10. $ Az/l-lTt* 7 v'o $ 

Robaato san nijuuissai 

11. 

Yamashita sensee nihonjin 

12. L/c^^Vn/A7^£V^< <7) 

Yamashita sensee Hawai daigaku no sensee 

A. Look at the chart below and describe each person with regard to (a) and (b). @ 

1. A, 2. 3. v '» £> *) £ 

okaasan oniisan imooto 

(a) occupation/school 

Example: £ t $ /v —* -A 'T io £ t $ /v (i 

otoosan Mearii san no otoosan wa kaishain desu. 






(b) age 

Example: jo£”)$A/ —* jo^^^/vli X /v C *P *) l£^> $ V'v’C“j ~ 0 

otoosan Mearii san no otoosan wa yonjuuhassai desu. 

Mary’s host family 






otoosan 

(father) 


okaasan 

(mother) 


oniisan 

(elder brother) 


V't> 1 Z 

imooto 

(younger sister) 


Occupation/ 

School 


L V'A, 

kaishain 

(works for 
a company) 


L ypX* 

shufu 

(housewife) 


daigakuinsee 

(graduate 

student) 


^ 1 Z 1 

kookoosee 
(high school 
student) 


Age 


48 


45 


23 


16 



B. Answer the questions using the chart above. 



1. 


jo £ ^ $ /v (3 






Otoosan wa 


kaishain desu ka. 


2. 


jo £ 7 ^ A/ IX 






Otoosan wa 


nansai desu ka. 


3. 


jo <fe> ^ Ay (3 






Okaasan wa 


sensee desu ka. 


4. 




o 




Okaasan wa 


nansai desu ka. 


5. 


jo 1- V ' $ h, 


L^VNA^'f'^ 




Oniisan wa 


kaishain desu ka. 


6. 








Oniisan wa 


nansai desu ka. 


7. 


Imooto wa daigakusee desu ka. 


8. 


l't> -9 £ 





Imooto wa nansai desu ka. 



hi m< Q 



(w ^ t l/uU£>*5 (Review Exercises) 

A. Class Activity— Ask five classmates questions and fill in the chart below. 

Example questions: 

• & ft i X. (3 ? (What is your name?) 

Onamae wa? 

• ^ i L fzfi'o (Where do you come from?) 

Doko kara kimashita ka. 

• (occupation) li ft/v' C"i~ 

Shigoto wa nan desu ka. 

Nannensee desu ka. 

Nansai desu ka. 

• V/ii/Ui 

Senmon wa nan desu ka. 



Name 


Nationality 


Occupation/ 

School 


Age 


Major, etc. 





















































B. Self-introduction— Introduce yourself to the class. 



Example: 




LX 0 5 f ') - • A- y X"f 0 

Hajimemashite. Mearii Haato desu. 

f V V"A <0 ^X"fo V ' £ 

Arizona daigaku no gakusee desu. Ima 

*£A,\>A.l± UU ^r-C-to 

ninensee desu. Senmon wa nihongo desu. 

L**? J*? SvN'C'to « ^ i; L < o 

Juukyuusai desu. Doozo yoroshiku. 

J 



C. Class Activity— Ask your classmates what their majors are, and find someone 
who has the following major. 

Example: Q - & /v 

Senmon wa nan desu ka. 

a : i-15/tr-e-to 

Nihongo desu. 

name 

1. Japanese 

2. economics 1 

3. English 

4. history 



5. business 



I • c tils 

Time / Age 



Time 

hours minutes 



1 






1 




II 


CO 7 '''0,1.% 




ichiji 






ippun 




juuippun 


2 


(cU 




2 




12 


CO 7 l-i% 




niji 






nifun 




juunifun 


3 


C 




3 


$ 


13 


OH AO.% 




sanji 






sanpun 




juusanpun 


4 


X c 




4 


X 


14 


CO 7 <£ 




yoji 






yonpun 




juuyonpun 


5 


re 




5 


CO/C 


15 


CO 7 -,i% 




goji * 






gofun 




juugofun 


6 


2> < C 




6 




16 


CO 7 o 




rokuji 






roppun 




juuroppun 


7 


UbU 




7 




17 


CO 7 ^.%'i% 




shichiji 






nanafun 




juunanafun 


8 


ii-fetr 




8 


O ^°/vH tb ^5 


X 18 


CO 7 IH,i%/ 




hachiji 






happun hachifun 


juuhappun 


9 


< c 




9 


^ yp 7 




CO 7 !H,i% 




kuji 






kyuufun 




juuhachifun 


10 


OH' 




10 


C yp -o 


19 


CO 7 £ v*> 7 




juuji 






juppun 




juukyuufun 


1 1 


C H» 7 v X % C 








20 


1 - l> O A °Ay 




juuichiji 










nijuppun 


12 


C ^ 7 f- C 








30 


HOo 2: A/ 




juuniji 










sanjuppun 


Age 




(How old 


are you?) 




Nansai desu ka. 




Oikutsu desu ka. 






The counter suffix ~ 


$ 


V' is used to indicate “-years old.” 




1 




5 




9 ^ tp 7 $ V' 




issai 




gosai 


kyuusai 


2 




6 


h < ^ 


10 CO O * V ' 




nisai 




rokusai 


jussai 


3 




7 




II CO 7 V ' -3 $ V '> 




sansai 




nanasai 


juuissai 


4 




8 


Jio $ v^ 


20 




yonsai 




hassai 


hatachi 



*For 20 years old, (if: f> ( hatachi ) is usually used, although ( nijussai ) can be used. 






* 2 ® 1 E s 

fc'U 1C 

7 ^) N l VfeCO Shopping 



frlAfo Dialogue 



o 



Mary goes to a flea market. 



* r ') - : 

Mearii 

: 

Mise no hito 

/ f 1 J - : 

Mearii 

xitcout: : 

Mise no hito 

XT 1 )- : 

Mearii 

A+tcowz : 

Mise no hito 

th h o i* 

* r »; - : 

Mearii 



Sumimasen. Kore wa ikura desu ka. 

ZtllZ SAs&AsX.As'Q'f* 

Sore wa sanzen en desu. 



Takai desu ne. 



Jaa, ano tokee wa 



V' < b'C't^N 

ikura desu ka. 



&tll£ < Z.AsX"t o 

Are wa sanzengohyaku en desu. 



€ -9 *C'f j&\ 

Soo desu ka. 



fr 0 

Are mo takai desu ne. 



Kore wa senhappyaku en desu yo. 

U**, ZCDZl tV'£ 

Jaa, sono tokee o 



A man finds a wallet on the ground. 



/ 7 1 j - : 

Mearii 



dare no saifu desu ka. 



;b/cLO $v^.-Ci- 0 

Watashi no saifu desu. 

*■)$*£'? ryv>ii - 0 

Arigatoo gozaimasu. 




© 



After shopping, Mary goes to a restaurant. 



i>jl— yvx : v'ko L** v'i-fr,, 

Ueetoresu Irasshaimase. 



£"- 9^0 

Menyuu o doozo. 






2 / f 1 J - : 

Mearii 

i A X. Z H -f 

3 h WX 

Ueetoresu 

4 5 f ') - : 

Mearii 

5 jh t X 

Ueetoresu 

e 2 f 1 ; - : 

Mearii 



to 

Doomo. Kore wa nan desu ka. 



zrtiX'tt'o hh, cto 

Dore desu ka. Aa, tonkatsu desu. 

Tonkatsu? Sakana desu ka. 

{- < *Cl~o &Vn t io 

lie, sakana ja arimasen. Niku desu. Oishii desu yo. 

U*>£>. zti£ £-fo 

Jaa, kore o onegaishimasu. 



7 5 f 1 J - : 

Mearii 

8 h UX 

Ueetoresu 



~f <& i -£/v^ 

Sumimasen, 

h % z -eto 

Asoko desu. 



ZZX'tt'o 

otearai wa doko desu ka. 



© 

Mary: Excuse me. How much is this? 

Vendor: It is 3,000 yen. 

Mary: It’s expensive. Well then, how much is that watch? 
Vendor: That is 3,500 yen. 

Mary: I see. That is expensive, too. 

Vendor: This is 1,800 yen. 

Mary: Then, I’ll take that watch. 



Stranger: Whose wallet is this? 

Mary: It’s my wallet. Thank you very much. 

© 

Waitress: Welcome. Here’s the menu. 

Mary: Thank you. What is this? 

Waitress: Which one? Oh, it is tonkatsu (pork cutlet). 
Mary: Tonkatsu ? Is it fish? 

Waitress: No, it is not fish. It is meat. It is delicious. 
Mary: Then, I’ll have this. 

Mary: Excuse me. Where is the restroom? 

Waitress: It is over there. 






r ^ 





tc ^ 


c_! 


V o 


c a b u 


1 a r y 


Words Tha 


t Point 




* zti 


kore 


this one 


* 


sore 


that one 


* hit 


are 


that one (over there) 


* trti 


dore 


which one 


Z<7) 


kono 


this . . . 


* 


sono 


that . . . 


* h<n 


ano 


that . . . (over there) 




dono 


which . . . 


* &ZZ 


asoko 


over there 


* 


doko 


where 


* tzfl 


dare 


who 


Food 






* t V' 


oishii 


delicious 


* 


sakana 


fish 


* 


tonkatsu 


pork cutlet 


* \z { 


niku 


meat 


* Zt*-~ 


menyuu 


menu 


$ w 


yasai 


vegetable 


Things 






X.A,tA°o 


enpitsu 


pencil 




kasa 


umbrella 




kaban 


bag 


< ^ 


kutsu 


shoes 




saifu 


wallet 


v->X 


jiinzu 


jeans 


fc L i " 


jisho 


dictionary 




jitensha 


bicycle 


L>UfcX/ 


shinbun 


newspaper 


r-r 


teepu 


tape 


* £lK' 


tokee 


watch; clock 


h V—i~ — 


toreenaa 


sweat shirt 



V 



Words that appear in the dialogue 



y-Y 


nooto 


notebook 




pen 


pen 


L 


booshi 


hat; cap 




hon 


book 


Places 






* n X t ' 


otearai 


restroom 




kissaten 


cafe 




ginkoo 


bank 


aj:^ 


toshokan 


library 


tfA, J i < 


yuubinkyoku 


post office 


Countries 






T / i] 


Amerika 


U.S.A. 








4 f ')X 


Igirisu 


Britain 


J&'A/'I < 


Kankoku 


Korea 


t>vpl Z*< 


Chuugoku 


China 


Majors 






(tVN$"VN 


keezai 


economics 


3>£jl-7- 


konpyuutaa 


computer 


t'y|-X ’ 


bijinesu 


business 


hi 1 ’ 


rekishi 


history 


Family 








okaasan 


mother 


nzn 


otoosan 


father 


Money Matt 


e r s 




* V' < b 


ikura 


how much 


* ~£A, 


. . . en 


. . . yen 


* 


takai 


expensive 


Expressions 

* V'b-5 


irasshaimase 


Welcome (to our store) 


* (~£)fc*aj&*V'Urt 


( . . . o) onegaishimasu. . . , please. 


* (~£) < 


( . . . o) kudasai 


Please give me . . . 


* c * h 


jaa 


then . . . ; if that is the 






case, . . . 


* (~S)*r7* 


( . . . o) doozo 


Here it is. 


* if} i> 


doomo 


Thank you. 



(m) 



/S'/uK-p Grammar 
CT zti ?-ti asti ati 

What do we do when we want to talk about things that we do not know the names of? 
We say “this thing,” “that one,” and so forth. In Japanese, we use kore, sore , and are. 

Z fili v \ < How much is this? 

Kore wa ikura desu ka. 

Zfrlli $ /v-tf/v X. L *C"to That is 3,000 yen. 

Sore wa sanzen en desu. 

Kore refers to a thing that is close to you, the speaker (“this thing here”). Sore is 
something that is close to the person you are talking to (“that thing in front of you”), and 
are refers to a thing that is neither close to the speaker nor the listener (“that one over 
there”). 



btz ICO 

Are wa watashi no pen desu. 




Ztuz btz l CO Ztlli btz 

Kore wa watashi no pen desu. Sore wa watashi no pen desu. 

There is also an expression dore for “which.” Here we will learn to use dore in sentences 
like: 

Which one is it (that you are talking about)? 

Dore desu ka. 



In this lesson, we will not explore the full extent to which the word dore can be put to use, 
because there is a slight complication with question words like dore. Question words like 
dore and nani cannot be followed by the particle iva. Instead, you must use the particle 
ga and say: 

Z'tllr h f £tz<7) Which one is your pen? 

Dore ga anata no pen desu ka. 



CM 3©/-£©/39©/£© + noun 

If you want to be slightly more specific than kore, sore, and are, you can use kono, sono, 
and ano together with a noun. (Note here that the re series must always stand alone, 
while the no series must always be followed by a noun.) Thus, if you know that the item 
in your hand is a watch ( tokee ), instead of: 

Zfrll± v \ < How much is this? 

Kore wa ikura desu ka. 
you can say: 

■I CD £ (tv Q3 i? 'CT fro How much is this watch? 

Kono tokee wa ikura desu ka. 

Similarly, if you are talking about a watch that is held by the person you are talking to, 
you can say: 

£gp £ v n H X. /v v Ci" 0 That watch is 3,000 yen. 

Sono tokee wa sanzen en desu. 

And if the watch is far from both the speaker and the listener, you can say: 

h CD £ tt v ' (i $ < X. A/'C'f'o That watch over there is 3,500 yen. 

Ano tokee wa sanzengohyaku en desu. 

If you already know that one of several watches is 3,500 yen but do not know which, you 
can say: 

£'cr> £ Which watch is 3,500 yen? 

Dono tokee ga sanzengohyaku en desu ka. 

Since dono is a question word, just like dore discussed above, we cannot use the particle 
wa with it; we must use ga. 



To summarize: 



3ft (li~) 


3© noun (li~) 


close to the person speaking 




ir© noun (IS—) 


close to the person listening 


£ft aa~) 


<&© noun (tt~) 


far from both people 


£ft U?~) 


«df © noun (1f~) 


unknown 



tztUD noun 

In Lesson 1, we learned how to say things like Mearii san no denwa bangoo (Mary’s 
phone number) and Takeshi san no okaasan (Takeshi’s mother). We now learn how to 
ask who something belongs to. The question word for “who” is dare, and for “whose,” 
we simply add the particle no. 

Zifili tztio 0 ^fiX-Cto 

Kore wa dare no kaban desu ka. Sore wa Suu san no kaban desu. 

Whose bag is this? That is Sue’s bag. 

gB 33 -5-3 35^3 £3 

We will learn just one more ko-so-a-do set in this lesson: koko, soko, asoko, and doko are 
words for places. 



33 


here, near me 


^3 


there, near you 


6^3 


over there 


£3 


where 



You can ask for directions by saying: 

i 42X^ yp 1 If /v ^ X < li 3" 3 'C'i - Excuse me, where is the post office? 

Sumimasen, yuubinkyoku wa doko desu ka. 

If you are close by, you can point toword the post office and say: 

(vp 7 IT As $ X ( l£) &> % Z t"to (The post office is) right over there. 

(Yuubinkyoku wa) asoko desu. 



We will learn how to give more specific directions in Lesson 4. 



ff§2PM (st) 



HEB noun 

In Lesson 1, we learned how to say “Item A is this, item B is that.” We now learn how 
to say “Item A is this, and item B is this, too.” 

tz It t $ A (i l- ti U /v *C"f o Takeshi is a Japanese person. 

Takeshi san wa nihonjin desu. 

t- (5 AsVA, t'"fo Michiko is Japanese, too. 

Michiko san mo nihonjin desu. 

Note that these two sentences are almost identical in shape. This is natural, as they both 
claim that a certain person is Japanese. The second sentence, however, is different from 
the first in that we do not find the particle tv a in it. We have mo instead. Mo is a particle 
that indicates that that item, too, has the given property. One thing that you should watch 
out for is exactly where the particle is placed. In English, the word “too” can be placed 
after the sentence as a whole, as in the example above. Not so in Japanese. In the above 
example, mo must directly follow Michiko san. 



A It 


X Z'to 


A is X. 


E3 fc 


X Vfo 


B to(j is X. 


* 






two items 


shared property 





gjj noun th 

To negate a statement of the form X wa Y desu, where Y is a noun, you replace desu 
with ja arimasen. 

£ f£ $ /L v n U ^ h 0 i A/o Mr. Yamada is not a student. 

Yamada san wa gakusee ja arimasen. 



’We cannot use mo to describe a situation like the following: Our friend, Pat, has dual citizenship; Pat 
is a Japanese, but at the same time, she is an American. To describe the second half of this situation, 
we cannot say, Patto mo amerikajin desu , because the sentence would mean that Pat, in addition to 
somebody that has been mentioned, is an American. Neither can we say, Patto wa amerikajin mo desu. 
(Japanese speakers would say, Patto wa amerikajin demo arimasu.) 

2 In the dialogues, there are two sentences that end with desu, which call for special attention: Are mo 
takai desu ne (That one too is expensive), and Oishii desu yo (It is delicious). These sentences cannot 
be negated by replacing desu with ja arimasen, because takai and oishii are not nouns. Are mo takai 
ja arimasen and oishii ja arimasen are therefore not grammatical. Instead, one would have to say 
takaku arimasen and oishiku arimasen. We will learn about the conjugation pattern of adjectives in 
Lesson 5. 



Ja in ja arimasen is a contraction of dewa. In written Japanese, the uncontracted form 
is more common; thus, the above sentence more likely appears in writing as Yamada san 
wa gakusee dewa arimasen. 



affirmative: 


(X ») Y ?To 


X is Y. 


negative: 


(X«) 


X is not Y. 



UfU ~fe/~cfc 

Statements often end with the tags ne or yo, depending on the way the speaker views the 
interaction with the listener. If the speaker is seeking the listener’s confirmation or 
agreement to what has been said, then ne (“right?”) could be added. 

V “ $ A, <r> % A, £ A, ( J tea Ms. Lee, your major is literature, right? 

Rii san no senmon wa bungaku desu ne. 

Ztl& lz < C h 0 J: -fc>-/C;te 0 This is not meat, is it? 

Kore wa niku ja arimasen ne. 

Another particle, yo (“I tell you”), is added to a statement if the speaker wants to assure 
the listener of what has been said. With yo added, a statement becomes an authoritative 
decree. 

ti 9 ZltAsXo 

Tonkatsu wa sakana ja arimasen yo. 

Let me assure you. “Tonkatsu” is not fish. 

Sumisu san wa igirisujin desu yo. 

(In case you're wondering,) Mr. Smith is British. 



M§2i 




( . . . o) kudasai is “Please give me X.” You can use it to 
request (concrete) items in general. 

( ... o) onegaishimasu too is a request for item X. 
When used to ask for a concrete object, ( ... o) onegaishimasu sounds 
slightly more upscale than ( ... o) kudasai. It is heard often when ordering 
food at a restaurant (“I will have . . ( ... o) onegaishimasu can also be 

used to ask for “abstract objects,” such as repairs, explanations, and 
understanding. 

(~^E)£'5‘?;>- ( . . . o) doozo is used when an offer is made with respect to 
item X. In the dialogue, the restaurant attendant uses it when she is about 
to hand the menu to the customer. It may also be used when a person is 
waiting for you to come forth with item X; a telephone operator, asking for 
your name, would probably say Onamae o doozo. (O is a politeness marker. 
Therefore onamae is “your honorable name.”) 

On the pronunciation of number words ► Note that the words for 300, 600, 
800, 3,000 and 8,000 involve sound changes. “Counters” whose first sound is 
h, like hyaku (hundred), generally change shape after 3, 6, and 8. Some 
counters that begin with s, like sen (thousand), change shape after 3 and 8. 
Refer to the table at the end of the volume. 

Big numbers ► In addition to the digit markers for tens (juu), hundreds 
(.hyaku), and thousands (sen), which are found in Western languages as 
well, Japanese uses the marker for tens of thousands (man). Thus 20,000, for 
example, is niman (=2x10,000), rather than nijuusen (=20X1,000). While 
the next unit marker in Western languages is one million, Japanese 
describes that number as 100x10,000, that is, hyakuman. 

More complicated numbers can be considered the sums of smaller 
numbers, as in the following examples. 

234,567 = 23x10,000 iZVvpo (nijuusanman) 



4X 1,000 
5X 100 

6x 10 
7 



h < C Z> (rokujuu) 



(yonsen) 

< (gohyaku) 



(nana) 







IMrtro P r 

(Numbers) 


a c 


t i C 


e 


@ 


100 


U* < 


1,000 


#X/ 


10,000 


V'-feSX, 




hyaku 




sen 




ichiman 


200 


l-U* < 


2,000 


{--fr/L 


20,000 


K3X, 




nihyaku 




nisen 




niman 


300 


$X,V* < 


3,000 


$X,-t?X/ 


30,000 






sanbyaku 




sanzen 




sanman 


400 


< 


4,000 


«J:X,-e-X, 


40,000 






yon hyaku 




yonsen 




yonman 


500 


rv* < 


5,000 


r^x. 


50,000 


riX/ 




gohyaku 




gosen 




goman 


600 


< 


6,000 




60,000 


£ < £ X, 




roppyaku 




rokusen 




rokuman 


700 


fcfcV* < 


7,000 




70,000 






nanahyaku 




nanasen 




nanaman 


800 


< 


8,000 


(i o 


80,000 






happyaku 




hassen 




hachiman 


900 


J *J> 7 tA-f* < 


9,000 




90,000 






kyuu hyaku 




kyuusen 




kyuuman 



A. Read the following numbers. 0 



(a) 34 

(f) 515 
(k) 8,900 



(b) 67 

(g) 603 
(1) 35,000 



(c) 83 

(h) 850 
W 64,500 



(d) 99 

(i) 1,300 
(n) 92,340 



(e) 125 

(j) 3,400 



B. Look at the pictures and answer how much the things are. 

A, 

Example: Q ! Oli v ' < £> 'C'f* 

Pen wa ikura desu ka. 

A : tefb U yp i x.X/"Ci" 0 

Hachijuu en desu. 



Ex. 'O (1) X.A, V s ^ (2) ;&*$ 



¥80 



¥50 




¥1,000 



ll21lV Q 

(3) 



¥110 



(4) 13 A, 




¥1,500 



( 8 ) 



(5) T-y (6) <0 



¥600 



(9) ULi 



(7) £ltv* 




(10) v — >X (11) UTA/L^ 




C. Pair Work— One of you looks at picture A and the other looks at picture B 
(p. 50). (Don’t look at the other picture.) Find out the price of all items. 

Example: A I i 

Enpitsu wa ikura desu ka. 

B : U* < x.A.'C'to 

Hyaku en desu. 




(42) L> 5 g£.X£g 



Picture A 






¥ 1 \¥_ 



¥8,000 








(DCtlB HhTT# 

A. Items (1) through (6) are near you, and items (7) through (12) are near your friend. 
Your friend asks what these things are. Answer the questions. Pay attention to 
Ztl (j kore ) and {sore). @ 

Example 1: Your friend jUi 

Sore wa nan desu ka. 

YOU : Ctltl O'C'i'o 

Kore wa pen desu. 

Example 2: Your friend : 3 titi 

Kore wa nan desu ka. 

You : Zfrli h C—f- — X'"f 0 

Sore wa toreenaa desu. 







B. Look at the picture and tell what each building is. @ 
Example: Q • <£>>^13 

Are wa nan desu ka. 



A : **iti 

Are wa toshokan desu. 




C. Pair Work— Point out five things in the classroom and ask your partner what 
they are using Ztl ( kore ), (sore), or fetl (are). Refer to the picture on p. 53 

for the vocabulary. 



Example 1: 

A : fotili ft/C'C'fj&'o 

Are wa nan desu ka. 

B : 

Are wa tokee desu. 



Example 2: 

A : Ztiii Ct^« 

Sore wa nan desu ka. 

B : ztili A>-C"t 0 

Kore wa pen desu. 



D. Pair Work— One of you looks at card A and the other looks at card B (p. 51). Ask 
and answer questions to find out the price of each item. Use Z(D (kono), 
(sono), or £GD (ano) appropriately. 

Example: Customer: vn< 

Kono hon wa ikura desu ka. 

Store attendant : < x.A, v Cl~ 0 

Nisen hyaku en desu. 




Part I. You are a store attendant. Tell Part II. You are a customer. Ask for the 
the customer how much each item is. prices of items (l)-(5). 



» 2 »« («) 



®znii fc'tlCD 

Pair Work— Point at each item below (picture A) and ask whose it is. Your partner 
will refer to the picture B (p. 52) and tell you who it belongs to. 

Example: A : Zflli fzM 

Kore wa dare no kasa desu ka. 

B :/T') 

Mearii san no kasa desu. 





®-£#e£SAr& cg/uU/u-err 

Look at the pictures below and describe each picture. @ 



Example: 

C-to 

Otoosan wa nihonjin desu. 

Okaasan mo nihonjin desu. 



Ex. Japanese 



Mother 





(2) ¥5,800 



©I 



► =I 5 -X&*S 



(1) second year 
Mary Tanaka 




a 




(5) vegetable 




(3) 22-years old 

Takeshi Robert 




(6) U. of London students 




A. Look at the chart on the next page and answer the questions. 0) 
Example: Q : 5 T V - $ /LJ3 

Mearii san wa nihonjin desu ka. 

A : KliAsUAsU + b 0 T 2 ') # i; A,X”t 0 

lie, nihonjin ja arimasen. Amerikajin desu. 

1. t,vp n r < VAsX'tt'o 

Takeshi san wa chuugokujin desu ka. 

2 . T* ') XUAsX'tt'o 

Robaato san wa amerikajin desu ka. 

3. L frAsZ < 

Yamashita sensee wa kankokujin desu ka. 

4. oA-h^ j-u/ir- ci-^ 0 

Robaato san no senmon wa nihongo desu ka. 

5. ttV'^vx-C^o 

Suu san no senmon wa keezai desu ka. 

6. £ ■? 3Tv^V\j&*< <Q -y-VN-C'fj&'o 

Takeshi san wa Toozai daigaku no gakusee desu ka. 



fftglM Q 



7. 

Mearii san wa Rondon daigaku no gakusee desu ka. 

Takeshi san wa ninensee desu ka. 

9. VN^fc/C-frVN-e-t^o 

Suu san wa ichinensee desu ka. 

10. nA-h^/Ui 

Robaato san wa yonensee desu ka. 






Hart, Mary 


HSfcin 

Kimura Takeshi 


Kim, Sue 


Smith, Robert 


Yamashita sensee 


Nationality 


American 


Japanese 


Korean 


British 


Japanese 


School 


U. of Arizona 


Tozai Univ. 


Seoul Univ. 


U. of London 


Tozai Univ. 


Major 


Japanese 


history 


computer 


business 


(Japanese 

teacher) 


Year 


2nd year 


4th year 


3rd year 


4th year 





B. Pair Work— Ask your partner whose belongings items (1) through (7) are. Your 
partner will refer to the picture on the next page and answer the questions. 



Example: 




A : Ztiti 2t')~$A,0 o Ex. 

Kore wa Mearii san no saifu desu ka. 

B : VUNX., 2 TV “$//*> o 

lie, Mearii san no saifu ja arimasen. 

A : ztili *)— Sv'-S.-Ci'j&N, 

Kore wa Rii san no saifu desu ka. 

B : jcjc, ’J-S/Lo to 

Ee, Rii san no saifu desu. 






►se-scaai 



@ 




® ^ <L&)(D tl hj \j i0 5 (Review Exercises) 

A. Role Play— One student is a store attendant. The other is a customer. Use 
Dialogue I as a model. 




£2S<|(49) 

B. Role Play— One student is a waiter/waitress. The other student goes to a 
restaurant. Look at the menu below and order some food or drink, using 
Dialogue I as a model. 







Pair Work(T)C.= 

Example: A : vn< b 'Ci"^ , 0 

Enpitsu wa ikura desu ka. 

B : X)'^ < x./,*ei- 0 

Hyaku en desu. 




| ¥100 




Pair Work® D.= 



Example: Customer ZCOl^Asli b 'C'l - 

Kono hon wa ikura desu ka. 

Store attendant : < x./C'C'i' 0 

Nisen hyaku en desu. 



mzm<\ 



Card B 





Part I. You are a customer. Ask for the Part II. You are a store attendant. Tell 

price of items (l)-(5). the customer how much each item is. 






Pair Work®: 



Example: A I 3 ^Ui t£i IX) b' Q 

Kore wa dare no kasa desu ka. 

B : 5 T >J -$^^o fr$X"to 

Mearii san no kasa desu. 





mzm< 



Fn the Classroom 




Useful Expressions 

i] | Ltz 0 1 understand./I understood. 

Wakarimashita. 

fofr ij £ -t ¥ h 0 — 1 don’t understand./I don’t know. 

Wakarimasen. 

i < 0 v\-o X < tz $ Please speak slowly. 

Yukkuri itte kudasai. 

t •? v, ' % v ' -3 X < tz $ V '‘o Please say it again. 

Moo ichido itte kudasai. 

lot < £: $ v ' 0 Please wait. 

Chotto matte kudasai. 



54 



►SB-xsa 



f mg® | L E S S 0 N 3^| 

T 1 ' — Making a Date 



zs iS 

A'U ft 


Dialogue 




@ 


Mary and Takeshi are talking. 






1 tzl tl : 


y7'J-$/U Ut^o 

C«>i3^ i'l: 






2 /7'j- 


^9-ctfco To 


3 


to 






4 it L : 


^tt^ ±^h i '&//*»„ 






5 7 7'j“ 


: iHS0(iti-?£ 






6 fcltl : 


l:>i, a a* b {i ^ 9 fti‘o 

l:%li £7 






7 77'J- 


: vn^tteo 






On Sunday morning, at Mary’s host family’s. 






i 77')- 


mill rjT'lto 






2 


jofii -9 o J fv'>-ctteo 

14* 






3 77'j- 


X.X., f Hii.Jf to fcJLito 






4 


vn^tfco 






s 7 7'J- 


yLB#r^-cto 






6 


? 






7 /7'j- 


o 






8 


^ T tti‘o uotb^U^' 0 






9 /7'J- 


v^-Oito 







S3SM (**) 



© 

Takeshi: Mary, what do you usually do on the weekend? 

Mary: Let’s see. I usually study at home. But I sometimes see movies. 

Takeshi: I see . . . then, would you like to see a movie on Saturday? 

Mary: Saturday is not a good day. (lit., Saturday is a little bit [inconvenient] . . . ) 
Takeshi: Then, how about Sunday? 

Mary: That’s fine. 

© 

Mary: Good morning. 

Host mother: Good morning. You are early, aren’t you? 

Mary: Yes, I’m going to Kyoto today. I will see a movie in Kyoto. 

Host mother: Good. Around what time will you come back? 

Mary: Around nine. 

Host mother: How about dinner? 

Mary: I will not eat. 

Host mother: I see. Well, have a nice day. 

Mary: Good-bye. 





; 56 





t/u 


§£ 

p n | 


V o c 


a b 


u 1 a r y 


Nouns 

Entertainment and Sports 


* £.V\;d* 




movie 






music 


To L 


ftf& 


magazine 






sports 


T— b 




date (romantic, not calendar) 


T-X 




tennis 


rvb' 




TV 


b'f^ 




video tape; VCR 


Foods and Drinks 




mm 


breakfast 


fc$lt 


£;§ 


sake; alcohol 






green tea 


3 — t — 




coffee 


* i 




dinner 






hamburger 


UZ ^ii Ax 


mm 


lunch 


AT 


* 


water 


Places 


'-'X. 




home; house 


* 9 




home; house; my place 


LL 




language lab 




^“5 ^ 9 




school 


Time 






morning 


&LTc 




tomorrow 






when 


* ^ X 1 


T0 


today 


* 




at about 


3 A (if A 




tonight 


* Ut ^ 


a* 


weekend 


* £"<£ -9 U 5 ' 


±B«a 


Saturday 


* tcfbJ: 9 


QBfa 


Sunday 






Words that appear in the dialogue 



A -V 



r 

-^a 

iv'tfA, 

(/-verbs 

* V' < < 

* J)' it Z> 'M %> 

$ < H< 

cot' tfct; 

tift-f t£1* 

i t; fcfr 

Ru-verbs 

* fc-CS lE^S 

;fa £ ft & 

* <& & JL & 

Irregular Verbs 

< £ 

§ 

A,*XitZ M&tZ 

Adjectives 

* vu'* 

* li^V' 4-V' 

Adverbs 

& 5 0 + negative 
-tfX-tf'/C+ negative 

* fz t ' X t 

* %X~oX- 

* £ $ H* * B# *? 

X < 



Expressions 

* £ i -CTte 

* -ci 



A 

even' day 
even r night 

to go (destination 1- / 
to go back; to return 
(destination l-/^) 
to listen; to hear (~ £ ) 
to drink (~ £ ) 
to speak; to talk 
(language £/*C) 
to read ( — & ) 

to get up 
to eat (~ £ ) 
to sleep; to go to sleep 
to see; to look at; to watch 
(~*) 

to come (destination f-/" s 0 
to do (~ £ ) 
to study (~ £ ) 

good 

early 

not much 
not at all 
usually 
a little 
sometimes 
often; much 

That’s right.; Let me see. 
but 

How about . . . ?; How is ... ? 



J 



V 



X Grammar 

<3^ 155 

d Verb Conjugation 

Verbs in Japanese conjugate, or take various shapes. In this lesson, we learn three forms: 
(1) the “dictionary forms,” (2) the present tense affirmative forms, and (3) the present 
tense negative forms. There are two kinds of verbs that follow regular conjugation 
patterns, and an example of each is below. 





ru-verb 


u-ve rb 


verb bases 


tabe 


ik 


dictionary forms 


(to eat) 


fr< (to go) 


present, affirmative 






present, negative 


th 




stems 







§ belongs to the group of verbs called the “ra-verbs.” Ru - verbs are so called, because 
you add the suffix ru to the verb base {tabe, in the above example) to form the dictionary 
form. For the two long forms we learn in this lesson, you simply add the suffixes masu 
and masen, instead of ru, to the bases. We learn four rw -verbs in this lesson: 

ft Z JL3 

| fit f$it JLit 

Another major group of verbs is called the “w-verbs.” The dictionary form of an M-verb 
like ft < can be broken down into the base {ik in the above example) and the suffix u. The 
long forms like ff ^ i t and if ^ i -tf A, then, are formed with the base plus suffixes 
imasu and imasen. You may find the w-verb conjugations slightly more difficult than the 
ru-ve rb conjugations, because of the extra vowel i. We learn six w-verbs in this lesson: 

fti fti Mt M< if < wt 

i£&it m&it Ml it ffl*it if $it WO it 



’The use of the term “dictionary forms” is by no means restricted to listings in a dictionary. They also 
appear in various constructions in actual sentences. We will learn their uses in later chapters. Don’t be 
misled by the names given to the long forms too; the “present tense” in Japanese can indicate both the 
“present” and the “future.” We will return to this issue in Section 2 below. For the moment, we will 
concentrate on the forms, not the meaning of these verbs. 



m am* 






In later lessons, we will have many opportunities to refer to the parts like and ft ^ , 
which come before S t and $ in the long forms. For the sake of ease of reference, we 
will call these parts (same as bases with rw-verbs, and bases plus i with m - verbs) stems. 

In addition to n/- verbs and w-verbs, there are two “irregular verbs.” Note that the vowels 
in their bases are different in the short (dictionary) forms and the long forms. 





irregular verbs 


dictionary forms 


'f'-S (to do) 


< ■§ (to come) 


present, affirmative 






present, negative 


tfv 


th 


stems 


U 


$ 



These two verbs are also used to form compound verbs. In this lesson, we learn the verb 
§ , which conjugates just like the verb h . 

It is important to remember which verb belongs to which conjugation class. It is a good 
idea, therefore, to memorize each verb as a set: instead of memorizing just the dictionary 
form, try to memorize the dictionary form and the present tense affirmative, like ff < - 
ff ^ £ -f. This is especially important with verbs that end with the hiragana 3 , because 
they may be irregular verbs like ~t & and ( 5 , or rw-verbs, or w -verbs whose bases just 
happen to end with the consonant r. If you know the verb classes and the rules that apply 
to them, you know why it is wrong to say x JL 0 £ t and x JJ £ i\ 





(= a ru-verb) 


!)§•£ (= an u-verb that ends with •§>) 




di 


frz. 


verb bases 


mi 


kaer 


long forms 


to & 


moar/motth 

H-X 1*X 


stems 


? 


mo 

tt'Z. 



2 Things are not as bad as you might expect after reading the above paragraph. The key lies in the second 
from the last syllable in a dictionary form. The irregular verbs set aside, if you see the vowels a, o, or 
u right before the final Z , you can be absolutely sure that they are w -verbs. (We have not learned any 
such verbs yet.) Unfortunately for us, the logic does not follow in the other direction; there are ra -verbs 
and m - verbs that have the vowels i and e before the final *. has the vowel e before Z and is a 
rw-verb. ')§ Z , on the other hand, has the same sound sequence, but is an w-verb. 



C&j Verb Types and the “Present Tense” 

In this lesson we learn about a dozen verbs that describe basic human actions. These are 
often called “action verbs,” and the “present tense” of these verbs either means (1) that 
a person habitually or regularly engages in these activities, or (2) that a person will, or is 
planning to, perform these activities in the future. 

Habitual actions: 

&l££ ( T h' t' £ JL J: ~to I often watch TV. 

btz l A 

t T 'J — $ A ‘ ^ A £ Mary sometimes doesn ’t eat breakfast. 

Future actions: 

h L i i" 0 I will go to Kyoto tomorrow. 

^ - Aii^ 0 1 A I-# 1 Sue will not return home today. 

Particles 

Nouns used in sentences generally must be followed by particles, which indicate the 
relations that the nouns bear to the verbs. In this lesson, we learn four particles: ”C, i~, 
and £. 

~C The particle X’ indicates where the event described by the verb takes place. 4 
110 # ft £ fli A i ~to I will read books in the library. 

Z 1 1 fi'A, II A £ 

1 T kt'JILito / will watch TV at home. 

(Z The particle l- has many meanings, but here we will learn two: (1) the goal toward 
which things move, and (2) the time at which an event takes place. 

(1) goal of movement 

I will not go to school today. 

btzL Jii v' 

fA (I -) % 0 i ~f 0 I will return home. 



! In spoken language, particles are often “dropped.” We will learn more about such cases in Lesson 15. 
‘In later lessons, we will be introduced to verbs that require particles other than X to express location. 




(2) time 



0Bf £ -f . 



I will go to Kyoto on Sunday. 



-f, 



/ will go to bed at eleven. 



(Some time words stand alone, without the particle (- tagging along, which will be 
discussed in Section 4 below.) 

Approximate time references can be made by substituting or Zh\- for 1-. Thus, 



/\ The particle too, indicates the goal of movement. The sentences in (1) above there- 
fore can be rewritten using instead of {-. Note that this particle is pronounced e. 

(3^0 ^ 5 I will not so to school today. 



Note that ^ may replace the particle 1- only in the goal-of-movement sense. The particle 
(' for time references and other uses, which we will learn about in later lessons, cannot 
be so replaced. 

^ The particle £ indicates “direct objects,” the kind of things that are directly involved 
in, or affected by, the event. Note that this particle is pronounced “o.” 

3 - 1 — &&& $ “fo 1 drink coffee. 

y- — y p &Y%\b£'to 1 listen t0 tapes - 

T V £' $ t o 1 watch TV - 

gl Time Reference 

You need the particle f- with (1) the days of the week like “on Sunday,” and (2) numerical 
time expressions, like “at 10:42,” and in September. 

0 g iztf * o I will go on Sunday. 

+b#i ^ i -fo I get up at 10:42. 






I will go to bed at about eleven. 



% li n 0 Z 1 * < 



I will return home. 



I will go back in September. 



AJlil# 0 $ to 



You do not use the particle l- with (1) time expressions defined relative to the present 
moment, such as “today” and “tomorrow,” (2) expressions describing regular intervals, 
such as “every day,” and (3) the word for “when.” 

L 7c ^ i 'to / will come tomorrow. 

4|J V t? £ JL 5 -fo / watch TV every evening. 

$ i t^o When will you go? 

You normally do not use l- with (1) the parts of a day, like “in the morning” and “at 
night,” and (2) the word for “weekend.” Unlike words like h t tz and above, how- 
ever, these words are sometimes followed by U, depending on styles, emphases, and 
personal preferences. 

to 

tsj-fro 

0 

You can use X (= the present tense negative verb, plus the question particle) to 

extend an invitation. It should be noted that its affirmative counterpart, i'fb', cannot be 
so used. Thus a sentence like jt? ~fb' can only be construed as a question, 

not as an invitation. 



I read the newspaper in the morning. 
What will you do on weekends? 



vi * 

VU'k'C'f fa 0 



What do you say to having lunch ivith me? 
Sounds great. 



Will you play tennis with me? 

-) — J; o £ 0 Um, it's slightly (inconvenient for me at this moment). 



d Word Order 

Japanese sentences are fairly flexible in the arrangement of elements that appear in them. 
Generally, sentences are made up of several noun-particle sequences followed by a verb 
or an adjective, which in turn is often followed by a sentence-final particle such as b', fc, 
or X . Among the noun-particle sequences, their relative orders are to a large extent free. 



A typical sentence, therefore, looks like the following, but several other arrangements of 
noun-particle sequences are also possible. 

fa a-ttr-e MB L i -f 0 

topic time place object verb 

/ will study Japanese in the library today. 

bt - L L% ’J 

topic frequency time goal verb 

I often go back home at around seven. 



WfiM Frequency Adverbs 

You can add a frequency adverb such as B (everyday), X < (often), and £ ^ ^ ^ 
(sometimes) to a sentence to describe how often you do something. 

fA (i £ ^ ^ ^ i i"o I sometimes go to a coffee shop. 

In this lesson, we also learn two adverbs which describe how infrequent an activity or an 
event is; -tfA-tf/v (never; not at all) and ht 0 (not often; not very much). These adverbs 
anticipate the negative at the end of the sentence. If you use -frX-frX or h & 1 , in other 
words, you need to conclude the sentence with £ -fr/v. 

% 1/ ti £ Jt £ -fr/v o / not watch TV at all. 

7 ^: L, ^ yC ^ Takeshi does not study much. 

The Topic Particle (£ 

As we saw in Lesson 1, the particle li presents the topic of one’s utterance (“As for item 
X, it is such that ...”). It puts forward the item that you want to talk about and comment 
on. You may have noted that the topic phrases in sentences such as * 7 0 — * 

X"i~ (Mary is a third-year student), and Q (My major is Japanese 

language), are the subjects of those sentences. A topic phrase, however, need not be the 
subject of a sentence. We see three sentences in the dialogue of this lesson where 
nonsubject phrases are made topics with the help of the particle li. 

/T'J-S/U Llf^o 

Mary, what do you usually do on the weekend? 



'f a t to 

I’m going to Kyoto today. 



In the above two examples, li promotes time expressions as the topic of each sentence. Its 
effects can be paraphrased like these: “Let’s talk about weekends; what do you do on 
weekends?” “Let me say what I will do today; I will go to Kyoto.” 

U X ft 

How about dinner? I will not eat. 

In this example, ti is used in directing the listener’s attention and thereby inviting a 
comment or completion of a sentence. You may also note that the broached topic, 

A,, does not stand in subject relation to the verb, but is rather its direct object. 



mms — h 

PgjS 1 5hj 



Expression Notesf 



When you move to a place where the hearer is, you say “I’m 
coming.” in English. However in the same situation, fJdifrt* £ i* is used in 

tofcL i> __ 

Japanese. is a movement toward the place where the speaker is. tr< 
is a movement in a direction away from the speaker. 




literally means “a little,” “a bit,” “a small amount,” as 
in % j: o fc < V* (Please give me a little) and % i. -o < tz £ V* 

(Please wait for a moment). It is commonly used for a polite refusal. In this 
case, it means “inconvenient,” “impossible,” and so on. Japanese people 
don’t normally reject requests, suggestions, or invitations with (No), 

because it sounds too direct. 



B : ±®B(L 



Will you see a movie on Saturday? 
Saturday is not convenient. 

(lit., Saturday is a little bit.) 



= 

i 



w 







i g Practice 

tlfa L/9>-5 

t. U J: t'hj 1 SAr ct _ — . 

A. Change the following verbs into and — £i±/v. t£) 



Example: / 


-> 

& — »■ As 






1. 0)t> 


2. ^ < 3. 


4. i-5 


5. te&t 


6. vn< 


7. < Z 8. 


9. 


10. Ifr 


11. to ^ & 


12. J: -9 -f S 







B. Look at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues. @ 
(a) Add the appropriate verbs to the following direct objects. 



Example: fit * 
Ex. §tf& 




library/2:00 




L.L./4:30 



(2) f-X (3) 




(4) n-t- 




coffee shop/3: 00 





(«0 ►SE-XStfi 



(b) Add the place to the above sentences. 

Example: library -*• £ -f 0 



C. Look at the pictures below and make sentences using the cues, f^l 

Example: go to the post office -> {-?r ^ 5 't 0 

Ex. go to the post office (1) go to the library (2) come to school 






(3) come to the coffee shop (4) return home 
Sunday 



8:30 

(5) return to the U. S. 






D. Pair Work— Make questions, using verbs we have learned in this lesson. 

Example: A J- 1ri' 0 



E. Pair Work— Guessing game 

Ask questions and find out the items your partner has chosen. 



1 . Before you start, both of you will choose one item in each row of the table 
and mark it. 

2. In each row, using the verb and one of the four items, make a yes-or-no- 
question sentence and find out which item your partner has chosen. 

3. You can ask at most two questions with one verb. If you have guessed 
correctly the item your partner has chosen, you score a point. Your partner 
will not give away the right answer when you ask a wrong question. 

4. When you have asked questions about all the verbs in the table, switch roles 
with your partner and answer their questions. 

5. Tabulate the score. You win the game if you have scored higher than your 
partner. 



Example: A I ^ 

B i vnvnx.. o 

a : 

B i 'f'o (A guessed what B marked, therefore A won.) 



~{-ff * 


post office 


school 


coffee shop 


library 




TV 


movie 


video 


cartoon (t 




sake 


green tea 


water 


coffee 




book 


newspaper 


magazine 


Japanese book 


Lit 


date 


study 


telephone 


tennis 



t&hj V 35 

A. Look at Mary’s schedule and answer the following questions. 0 



1. 

4*/L L' If Z fz 

4. y T'J “^(3mf-n-t-£f^3-f7fr\, 

tiA, L* (O 

5. 0 iti'o 

6 . 

5tX, L" "^x. Jii 

7. 



Mary’s Schedule 



7:30 a m. 


get up 


8:00 


eat breakfast 


8:30 


go to school 


12:00 


eat lunch 


3:00 p.m. 


drink coffee 


4:00 


play tennis 


5:00 


go home 


6:30 


eat dinner 


7:00 


watch TV 


8:00 


study 


11:30 


go to bed 



B. Pair Work— Ask your partner what time they do the following things. 

Example: A ! 3 irti\ 

B I 3 i~ 0 

lit, L‘ X 

Your partner’s schedule 
time 

( ) get up 

( ) eat breakfast 

( ) go to school 

( ) eat lunch 

( ) go home 

( ) go to bed 



C. Look at the pictures in I-B(p. 65) and I-C (p. 66), and add the time expressions 
to the sentences. @ 



Example: 2:00 






mzm< 



© 



® □— t — fair 

© 

A. Make suggestions using the cues below. @ 



n-h 



Example: drink coffee 

1. see a movie 

4. eat dinner 
7. drink tea at home 



2. come to my house 

5. study in the library 
8. listen to the music 



3. play tennis 

6. talk at a coffee shop 



B. Pair Work— Ask your friend out for the activities in the pictures. 



Example: A : B&iHi £ JL i 

B : vuN-C-fjfeo/'? 7 /U 






(™) 



15 A; d: 

How often do you do the following activities? Answer the questions using the 
expressions below. 



Example: Q ' 1"^' 0 

liA, X 

A ! x. x., X < fli<& i o 



1. 

2 . 

y-j l J: 

3. ||#ff £ I - **, 

4. 

5. =i — t — 

6. £ 1 **> o 

tz 5 

7. $iriiA,££"<£i-**„ 



#0 I 








i< 


r 


£ ^ if J J 




o ) 


f 







(y) (Review Exercises) 

htv lrt>5 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1. WfcfeS il***. 

2 . 

3. 

4. lit^o 

5. Jc1**\, 

Lrsijo l> 

6. JJ, JJfcl^SI**^ 

7. t £ 1***0 

8. 

ii'iu fc/, u 



B. 



Tell your classmates what your plans are today/tomorrow/on the weekend. 
Example: ^ 0 !cLL t-ff * X to H*U@#fr-e0*ti t £ to 

Jii l; f v> ?>C f £ liH t: II A, r 

fete# o ito 



fg3IM (t?) 

C. Class Activity— Find someone who . . . 

name 

1. gets up at 7 o’clock. 

2. eats breakfast every day. 

3. speaks French. 

4 . watches TV at home. 

5. listens to Japanese music. 

6. plays tennis. 

D. Suggest to a classmate that you do something together over the weekend. Use 
Dialogue I as a model. 

Example: A ! B 

B : tiVN 0 

A : 0tfa l £ itAst'o 

!'-*> ii V 

B : £ o 

b : 




f 1 |l | l E S S 0 N 

— h The First Date 



= IS Dialogue 

*'l\ t> 



© Mary goes downtown. 



2 h o^T’C'f io 

l !/•£ a 

3 / r : tu-'ciryi'it. 




@ 



@ 



In the evening, at Mary’s host family’s house. 



i y T 'J - 



2 & 5C $ /v 

3 y tv - 

4 fo 5C ^ /v 

5 yr’j- 

6 

7 yr'j- 



9 : 

10 £#$/<✓ : 
n 



tztz\'io 

&$v\, 

JjL£-£/l-CLfco 

if ■? UWo 

tofr^i^Aso tzfrb. l £ 0 

!ae v fi/t ^ t * i' 



A.**tz < Lfc ** 0 

(ivx 0 

t:t. L-pti £ 







® 



On the phone. 



tztfl : iiv\ fg-Cto 



felt L : LtzXo *'-¥>? "/"/to'®' Ltz 0 



/ittl : r*!>/C&$VN! 



© 



Mary: Excuse me. Where is McDonald’s? 
Stranger: It is in front of that department store. 
Mary: Thank you. 



© 



Mary: I’m home. 

Host father: Welcome home. How was the movie? 

Mary: I didn’t see it. Takeshi didn’t come. 

Host father: Oh, why? 

Mary: I don’t know. So, I went to a bookstore and a temple alone. 

Host father: Were there a lot of people? 

Mary: Yes. I took many pictures at the temple. I also went to a department store. 

Here’s a souvenir for you. 

Host father: Thank you. 

Host mother: Oh, Mary, you had a phone call a little while ago. 



Takeshi: This is Kimura. 

Mary: Hello, is this Takeshi? This is Mary. Takeshi, you didn’t come today, did you? 
Takeshi: I went there. I waited for one hour in front of the Haagen-Dazs place. 

Mary: Not Haagen-Dazs. McDonald’s! 

Takeshi: McDonald’s ... I’m sorry! 




►se-xasa 





tzh 


Dim 

rj DtH 


V o 


cab 


u 1 a r y 


Nouns 

Activities 






part-time job 






shopping 


*7X 




class 


People and Things 






you 


a 


A 


dog 


* 


fcil 


souvenir 


CiTi 




child 


riu 




rice; meal 


* L^LA 




picture; photograph 


o < £ 


#1 


desk 






letter 


tez 


fa 


cat 


/<y 




bread 


* VZ 


A 


person 


Places 


* fctib 




temple 


zn z.L 




park 


x— /n°— 




supermarket 


* r/N°- h 




department store 


/<X-Cv'» 




bus stop 


Vj: ? vn/C 




hospital 


/+' t 




hotel 


* 


*■£ 


bookstore 




®T 


town; city 


l/X h 7 > 




restaurant 


Time 


$<7)1 


B^Q 


yesterday 


* 




a little while ago 


* 


~^Fb1 


hour 


cf. v-»t> U £'A/ 


-«*M 


one hour 



V 



Words that appear in the dialogi 



mm< ( 75 ) 



/ ' \ 



t yp 1 


itm. 


last week 


Z $ 


* 


when . . . ; at the time of . . . 






(~tfO) 


Ifo X 1 Xf 


nma 


Monday 


t'X 1 If 


'X^.B 


Tuesday 


i-v^j; 1 Xf 


ilH 


Wednesday 


±<XiXf 


**10 


Thursday 


$LXiXf 




Friday 


{/-verbs 






tbl 


&1 


to meet; to see (a person) 






( person l~) 


* hz 




there is . . . (~£ i ) 


1 


Ml 


to buy (~ £ ) 


**< 


*< 


to write {person 1- thing & , 


* zz 




to take (pictures) (~ £ ) 


* 


ff-o 


to wait (~ £ ) 


* fri'Z 




to understand (~£ i ') 


R u - v e r b 






* 




(a person) is in ... ; stays at . 






( place (-) 


Adverbs 


and 0 t h e 


r Expressions 






about (approximate measurement) 


* Z'ib A, & ^ v n 




I’m sorry. 


* tzfi'b 




so; therefore 


* tz < $ L 




many; a lot 






together with (a person) 


* if 1 IX 




why 


* XfZ*)X' 


— A"C 


alone 


* & L t> L 




Hello? (used on the phone) 


Location 


Words 




A? 


£■ 


right (~«9) 


Xftz*) 


£ 


left 


* £ z. 


« 


front (~69) 


1 Vh 




back (~£>) 


*** 




inside (~0) 


l Z- 


_L 


on (~<?)) 



v 







Ltz 


T 


under 


(~*» 






near (- 


~4>) 


Z * 0 


» 


next (~£>) 




W 


between 


(AZB <?>) 


£ 3 




there 








here 





S4B-«|(77) 



X ?£ Grammar 

CT xtt&OST/UZ? 

X^ f ^> 0 i T means “there is/are X (nonliving thing).” The particle b* introduces, or 
presents, the item X. You can use h 0 £ 1" when you want to say that there is something 
at a certain location. 

KTTL K b { h 0 I to There’s a McDonald’s over there. 

Note that h 0 £ T is different from other verbs we have seen so far on the following three 
counts. One, it calls for the particle £-, rather than "C, for the place description. Two, the 
place description usually comes at the beginning of the sentence. Three, the thing 
description is usually followed by the particle rather than ii. 

You can also use & 0 £ i" to say that you have or own something. 

£ -£/^ 0 I don’t have a TV. 

b#Fh 1£ ? £> 0 £ -f Do you have time? 

L* 

We also use h 0 £ when we want to say that an event will take place. 

X^B IlfX h 0 £ _ f 0 There will be an exam on Tuesday, 

h L tz B 0 £ -£ /^ 0 There will be no Japanese class tomorrow. 

i: (l/C r 

When you want to present a person or some other sentient being, rather than a thing, you 
need to use the verb ' £ *f. Thus, 



’Note the difference between: 

T V 1 3 -fctA, (I don’t have a TV), the negative version of f V 0 3 T, and 

T U 3b 1 5 /G (It isn’t a TV), the negative version of T V b**CT. 

2 In a minor detail which we will not discuss any further here, when $> 0 3 T is used in the sense of an 
event taking place, the place description is followed by the particle "C, like normal verbs and unlike the 
other uses of h 1 3 T . Note also that some time expressions (such as H *8 H t-) come with the particle 1-, 
and some others (such as h L tz) do not (see Lesson 3). The rule applies to the h 0 3 T sentences as well. 

3 Note that the same verb “is” in English comes out differently in Japanese: 

Z [c@^±**v>3 To There is an international student over there. 

/T ') —iL IJsfitfo Mary is an international student. 
v ' 3 T and £> 1 3 T are strictly for descriptions of existence and location, while "CT is for description of 
an attribute of a person or a thing. 



There’s an international student over there. 



-a-i' 





thing If 


mmt } 


(place («_) 


person If 





There is! are . 



W&A Describing Where Things Are 

We learned in Lesson 2 that to ask for the location of item X, you can use the word if ^ 
(where) and say X liifz *Ci* b\ 

7 K /k K if -I X"~fb' 0 Where’s McDonald’s? 

In response, one can, of course, point and say: 

) |,K i over there. 

% Z \ 'Xrf o McDonald’s is ■ right there near you. 

J [ right here. 



In this lesson, we will learn to describe locations in more detail. More specifically, we 
learn to describe the location of an item relative to another item, as in “X is in front of 
Y.” The Japanese version looks like X If Y 



{^7 K-f IV Kli) feOfV' - h 
It’s in front of that department store. 

Other useful words describing locations are as follows: 



location words 



i b £ 




to the right of 


DtcO 




to the left of 






in front of 






behind 


felf 


Wo X is 


inside 






on/ above 






under / beneath 






near 






next to 



X [t Y <t Z (Dfol^tzTto X is between Y and Z. 



The bank is next to the library. 

T-C-fo 

The umbrella is under the table. 

VTs h h 

The restaurant is between the department store and the hospital. 

One can use any of the above location words together with a verb to describe an event that 
occurs in the place. To use these phrases with verbs such as ^ 5 and tfo, one will need 
the particle X\ 



Ltzo 

Twaited for Mary in front of the Hdagen-Dazs place. 



gj Past Tense 

The past tense forms of verbs look like the following, where ~ stands for the stem of 
verb. 





affirmative 


negative 


present tense 


~i£? 


-2:1 ±h 


past tense 




-2:1 tfvVUtz 



jt y «J — $ Z*Z> n %> i-')§ 0 £ Ltzo Mary returned home at about nine. 

a 5 <r> n & £fe&LJc-frA/*CL£:« I did not study Japanese yesterday. 

bt± " 

The various details of formation of the long forms that we learned in Lesson 3, like the 
ru - verb / u - verb /irregular verb distinctions, all apply to the past tense forms as well. 



4 Another word for “near” that is also commonly used is < . 

s Roth XfiY<0 Z & 0 X't and XliYcoX Z X't describe situations where two items (X and Y) are found 
side by side. For a £ 4 0 sentence to be considered appropriate, items X and Y need to belong to the 
same category; two people, two buildings, and so forth. In contrast, an item can be X Z in relation to 
another item even if they are quite distinct. 

O'tffii M ue oX Z X'-fo The telephone is by the restroom. 

X |fc * £ (2 M V £ ft 0 X-Xo (odd)