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Grade 4 





Grade A 


The present series covers all areas of Islamic 
studies: tafseer, hadeeth, tawheed, fiqh, seerah, and 
general etiquette relating to different areas and 
situations. Every effort has been made to ensure that 
the material presented in the series is authentic, and 
most of the terms are presented in their original Arabic 
script, along with the transliteration and the translation 
of their meanings. This also applies to supplications 
which have to be memorised in their Arabic version. 
The aim here is to help the reader read the original text 
and understand its meaning. Each lesson is followed by 
exercises covering questions about the lesson. 

One striking feature in the series is the colourful 
artwork used in it that certainly appeals to children. This 
is certainly bound to attract the young readers' 
attention, stimulate them, amuse them as well as 
educate them. 

The series aims to acquaint the student with the 
teachings of Islam in every aspect: beliefs, practices and 
moral conduct. The series, with its unique features, 
certainly fills a gap in this area which has long been 
partially neglected. 

ISBN: 9960-0801 '9-7 

3 739960 1 900195 



Riyadh Jeddah AE-Khobar Sharjah Lahore 
London Hoys ton New York 

Back Nfr 47 

eumg u P^iur'd 



Grade 4 -HU 4 - 

Given the dire need for Islamic studies material in 
schools incorporating the subject in English, 
Darussalam has endeavoured to publish an Islamic 
Studies series covering all the grades, from grade 
one through grade twelve. 

©Mataba Dar-us-Salam, 2011 

King Fahd National Library Catalo gin g-in -Publication Data 

Abdul Aziz, Moulavi 

Islamic Studies - grade 4. Moulavi Abdul Aziz -2. Riyadh, 2011 
182p; 17x24cm 

ISBN: 978-603-500-124-3 

1 -Islamic education - Study and teaching 
1 -Title 

377.107 dc 1432/5208 1432/5208 
ISBN: 978-603-500-124-3 


No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, 
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording or by any information 
storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the publisher. 

Supervised by: Abdul Malik Mujahid 


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Publisher's Note 

All praise belongs to Allah; we praise Him and 
seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in 
Allah from the evil of our own selves and from our 
sinful deeds. Whomever Allah guides, there is none 
to misguide him, and whomever He leads astray, 
none can guide him. We bear witness that there is no 
god worthy of worship except Allah, alone, and we 
bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and 
Messenger. We pray to Allah the Almighty to bestow 
His peace and blessings upon Prophet Muhammad, 
upon his good and pure family, as well as upon all the 
noble companions and those who follow them in 
righteousness until the Day of Judgement. 

Given the dire need for Islamic studies material 
in schools incorporating the subject in English, 
Darussalam has endeavoured to publish an Islamic 
Studies series covering all the grades, from grade one 
through grade twelve. 

The series will cover all areas of Islamic 
studies: tafseer, hadeeth, tawheed, fiqh, seerah, and 
general etiquette relating to different areas and 
situations. Given the importance of authentic Islamic 
knowledge, every effort has been made to ensure 
that the material presented in the series is authentic. 
Also, given the importance of Arabic Islamic terms, 
most of the terms are presented in their original 
Arabic script, along with the transliteration and the 
translation of their meanings. This also applies to 
supplications which have to be memorised in their 
Arabic from. The aim here is to help the reader read 
the original text and understand its meaning. Each 
lesson is followed by exercises covering questions 
about the lesson. 

One striking feature in the series is the 
colourful artwork used in it that certainly appeals to 
children. This is certainly bound to attract the young 
readers' attention, stimulate them, amuse them as 
well as educate them. 

Publisher's Note 

The series aims to acquaint the student with 
the teachings of Islam in every aspect: beliefs, 
practices and moral conduct. The series, with its 
unique features, certainly fills a gap in this area which 
has long been partially neglected. 

The present breathtaking work was initiated by 
an expert in the field of education, Maulvi Abdul Aziz, 
MA. English literature, who held different posts in the 
field including that of Senior Administrative Officer in 
the Department of Private Education, Ministry of 
Education, Dubai, UAE, from 1 982 to 2002. 

The current project also owes its existence in 
its present form to a number of people who made 
informative suggestions, particularly Al-Arabee Ben 
Razzouq, College of Languages and Translation, 
Imam Muhammad ibn Saud University, Riyadh, who 
undertook the painstaking task of checking the 
authenticity of the material presented in the series, 
proofreading the text as well as adding references to 
certain quotations from the Qur'an and the hadeeth. 
Special thanks also go to Sheikh Abdul-Qawiy 
Luqman, Al-Madeenah University graduate, for his 
interesting suggestions and to Mr. Zulfiqar 
Mahmood who conscientiously applied his expertise 
in the field of graphic design to produce the series in 
a superb shape. 

We pray to Almighty Allah to reward our 
endeavours and to make the present series 
abundantly beneficial to students in all stages of 
education as well as to any one who reads them. 

Abdul Malik Mujahid 

Sha'aban, 1429 AH. 

August 2008. 
































Page Number 

There is Only one God-Allah 


Allah Has Knowledge of All Things 


Ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem 


Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 


Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 


Excellence of Surat al-Faatihah 


The Qur'an 


Zakah - the Purifying Dues 


Reward and Punishment 


Fasting (Sawm) 


The Fast of Ramadan 




Hajj and Eed-ul Adh-haa 


Halaah Foods and Drinks 


Haraam Foods and Drinks 


The Greeting of Islam 


Tahaarah-Ritual Purity 




Conditions of Salah 


The Pillars of Salah 


The Obligatory Acts of Salah 


The Sunan Acts of Salah 


Remenbrance of Allah after Salah 


The Islamic Calendar 


Surat an-Nasr (The Help) 


Surat al-Kawthar 


Surat al-Asr 


Surat al-lkhlaas 


Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Naas 


Surat al-Masad 















Page Number 

Surat al-Feel (The Elephant) 

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (1) 
ProphetMuhammad (pbuh) (2) 

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (3) 

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (4) 
ProphetMuhammad (pbuh) (5) 

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (6) 

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) (7) 

Said the Prophet (pbuh) 

Zayd ibn Haarithah 

Fatimah bint Muhammad (pbuh) 

Umm Ayman (anha) 














1 There is Only One God - Allah 


r „ * 


Oneness of Allah, or Tawheed, is the foundation of 
Islam and one of the essential articles of faith. The best 
known expression of the Oneness of Allah is that 
contained in laa ilaaha illallaah. It is made up of four 
words. These words, which are commonly translated as 
‘There is no god but Allah’, convey the meaning that 
there is nothing which deserves to be worshipped except 
Allah. It is the confession which, when combined with 
Muhammadur-Rasoolullaah, admits a person into the 
fold of Islam. Oneness of Allah, according to the Qur’an, 
means that Allah is One in His Person, One in His Attributes 
and One in His actions. His Oneness in His actions implies 
that no one can do the actions which Allah has done, or 
which He may do! The principle of Oneness of Allah is 
beautifully summed up in one of the shortest and earliest 
surahs of the Qur’an - al Ikhlaas. 

Chapter _ r _^ -- ^ 

1 There is Only One God - Allah 


Allah is the only God. He is the Creator of everything 
and everyone. No one is like Him. No one shares His 
Power. He created men, women, the angels, the jinns, the 
heavens, the earth, the animals, vegetables and fruits, 
and everything else. 

Humans are the best of His creation. Humans and 
jinns are created to worship Him. He is the Creator. He is 
the Sustainer and the Nourisher of the universe. He is the 
Sustainer of people. He is the Giver of guidance to them. He 
gives meaning and life to everything. He is the Light of the 
heavens and the earth. He guides to His Light whomever 
He wills. 

Allah is the Lord and Master of the universe. He is the 
Rabb of the universe. We should, therefore, worship only 
Allah as our Lord. We should obey Him. As Allah is the only 
One Who provides for us and He Alone is our Protector, we 
should seek only His help. Above all, He should be 
praised and thanked for all the bounties that He provides. 
His bounties are all scattered around us. Just as a child 
turns to his mother for nourishment, so human beings 
should turn to their Lord and Sustainer for help and 

Allah sent many messengers to guide people. He 
sent messengers to teach them good things and to forbid 
them from doing evil things. Allah’s Last Messenger is 
Prophet Muhammad (^). Allah gave Books to His 
Messengers. Prophet Muhammad (^) was given the 



There is Only One God - Allah 

Qur’an. The Qur’an is Allah’s Last Book. It is Allah’s final 
message. We should follow the message of the Qur’an. 
We should follow the teachings of the Prophet ( |§ ). 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What is Tawheed? 

2. What does it mean when we say that Allah is One in His actions? 

3. Why should we seek Allah’s help? 

B. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . Tawheed is one of the essential articles of . 

2. is the best of creation. 

3. Allah’s last Messenger is . 

C. Do-It-Yourself 

Read the text again and as you read along, underline the attributes 
of Allah when you come across them. 



0/ ■ 1 

Allah created the heavens and the earth. He 
created all things that are in the heavens and the earth. 

Allah has knowledge of everything. He gives life and 
causes death. He has power over all things. 

He is the First and the Last. He has knowledge of all 
things. He knows what goes into the earth and what 
comes out of it. He knows what comes down from heaven 
and what goes up into it. He is with us in His Knowledge 
wherever we are - Allah sees what we do. 

Allah knows what is good for us 
and what is bad for us. He wants us to 
eat and drink things that are best for 
our health. Allah provides the foods 
and drinks from heavens and the 
earth. Foods and drinks are gifts from Allah. Most foods 
and drinks are good for us. Such foods and drinks are 
permitted [Halaal] by Allah. We should eat good food 
provided by Allah and be thankful to Him. If we are 
thankful to Allah He will increase His blessings for us! 




Allah has Knowledge of all Things 

Answer these questions. 

1 . From the lesson, write down at least five things that Allah knows. 

2. From where does Allah provide food and drink? 

3. What happens if we are thankful to Allah? 


Ar-Rahmaan ar-Raheem 

According to a hadeeth, Allah’s Messenger ( $§) said, 
‘There are ninety-nine names of Allah; whoever recites 
them will enter Paradise.’ [Al-Bukharee and Muslim] 

These names are known as Al-Asmaa’ al-Husnaa [The 
Most Beautiful Names]. These names express the Attributes 
of Allah. They lend us the proper understanding of our 
relationship with our Creator. They also help us shape our 
lives accordingly. 

However, the most repeated names of Allah are 
ar-Rahmaan (The Most Compassionate) and ar-Raheem 
(The Most Merciful). They form part of Bismillaah with 
which all the surahs of the Qur’an, except Surat 
at-Tawbah (surah nine), begin with. Both these words come 
from the root word ‘rahima’. It means to show mercy. Thus 
these attributes of Allah are often translated as the Most 
Merciful Most Compassionate Beneficent Most 
Gracious, Mercy Giving, or the Caring. However, these 
translations do not convey the full meaning of the terms. 
They do not show the deep differences between the 
meaning of ar-Rahmaan and ar-Raheem. 

The word ar-Rahmaan shows overflow, outburst and 
strong feeling. While the word ar-Raheem denotes 
permanence and everlasting qualities of mercy. Hence, 
ar-Rahmaan is the One whose mercy is overflowing, 
whereas ar-Raheem is the One whose Mercy is 
continuous and permanent. 

We live in Allah’s Mercy. His Mercy and knowledge 
cover everything. Were it not that Allah is Forgiving and 
Merciful, our acts of disobedience would have destroyed 

Allah is Most Kind and Most Merciful. If we commit a 
sin or make a mistake and feel sorry, He forgives us. He 
rewards us for our good actions many times over. 

1 . al-Asmaa’ al-Husnaa 

2. Rahima 

B. Bring out the differences between these two attributes of Allah - 
ar-Rahmaan and ar-Raheem. 

C. Why do you think Allah forgives us when we turn to Him after 
committing sins? 

D. Complete the following sentences. 

1 . There are names of Allah. 

2. The most repeated names of Allah are 

and . 

We live in Allah’s 


r — — ; 1- 


Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 
(Revealed in Makkah) 

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The translation of the meaning of the surah 

1. In the name of Allah, the Most Kind, the Most Merciful. 

2. All praise is due to Allah, the Lord of all the worlds; 

3. The Most Kind, the Most Merciful; 

4. Master of the Day of Judgement. 

5. You alone we worship, and to You alone we turn for 

6. Guide us to the Straight Path. 

7. The path of those on whom You hove bestowed Your 
Groce; not of those who earned Your anger, nor of 
those who hove gone astray. 



Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 



The Aayah u-^P* ^ (Bismillaah- 

irrahmaan-Nirraheem) occurs in the Qur’an before every 
surah except Surat at-Tawbah, that is, surah nine in the 
Qur’an. This aayah has two of the most beautiful names of 
Allah: ar-Rahmaan and ar-Raheem. Both these names of 
Allah show how Kind, Merciful and Caring He is! The word 
Allah in <d)i (Bismillaah) is the personal Name of Allah. 

The word ‘hamd’ means praise and thankfulness. 
Al-Hamd means pure praise of Allah. It also includes praise 
for the gifts and blessings He has given us. And finally it 
expresses thankfulness for all the good, which comes from 
Him, and all the favours we receive from Him. We start the 

day, for example, by 
Allah who has 
after causing us 
death), and to 

One who 
praised and to 

saying, Praise be to 
brought us to life 
to die (sleep is like 
Him is the 
Allah alone is the 
deserves to be 
whom we should be 

The Lord of all the worlds means that He is the Master 
of every single aspect of Life of this world and the afterlife, 
of everything seen and unseen. A world (aalam) is 
something other than Allah, and everything other than Allah 
is completely subject to Him and in need of Him. Everything 

Chapter M- v 

4 Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 

other than Allah is His slave and the result of His blessing. 

The ‘Most kind, The Most Merciful.’ We live in Allah’s 
Mercy. His Mercy, knowledge and forgiveness encompass 
everything in existence! 

‘Master of the Day of Judgement.’ Allah is the Master 
both in this life and on the Day of Judgement. On that day, 
He alone will be the Master, and no one will be allowed to 
speak without His permission. 

On that day, those who do right actions will be 
rewarded, and those who do wrong actions will be 
punished. The belief of accountability in the Aakhirah 
(Hereafter) is the central part of imaan. This gives courage 
and support to the believers. They suffer untold miseries and 
injustices in this life and remain steadfast. They do not 
deviate from the path of doing well. They always remain 
hopeful of receiving the reward in the afterlife. Besides, it is 
a warning for the wrongdoers that Allah is well aware of their 
misdeeds. They may escape justice in this world, but they 
will not escape the punishment they deserve on that day. 
Allah will reward those who have iman and do right actions 
with Jannah (Paradise). He will also punish the wrongdoers 
with Jahannam (Hellfire). 

‘You alone we worship, and to You alone we turn for 
help.’ O Allah! We worship You alone. We seek Your help. 
We do not seek the help of anyone else. Everything other 
than You is in need of You. 



Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 

‘Guide us to the Straight Path. The 
path of those on Whom You have 
bestowed Your Grace.’ A straight line is 
the shortest path between two points. All 
the prophets Allah sent to their people 
called to the Straight Path of Allah. Its 
foundation is: There is only one God and 
all the dwellers of this earth and heaven 
are in need of Him, subject to His 
Judgement and Command in this world 
and the next; and so they should worship 
Him alone. 

‘Those on Whom Allah bestowed His 
Grace’ are, according to the Qur’an, the Prophets, the 
truthful, the martyrs and the righteous. Once the Prophet 
( M) explained the straight path by drawing a straight line in 
the sand and then on each side of this he drew some 
crooked lines, saying, ‘The Straight Line is the way of Allah 
and the crooked lines are the pathways, and on each of 
them there is a devil inviting people to it’. This is why Muslims 
are instructed to pray for guidance and remain constant on 
the Straight Path. Allah has made it obligatory to recite this 
surah in every prayer. In fact, it contains great truths, and it 
is the earnest supplication of a slave seeking the pleasure of 
his Lord. 

Chapter ^ 

4 Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 


‘...not of those who earned Your anger, nor of those 
who have gone astray’. 

We repeat this surah in our lives in the same way that 
we bathe and wash ourselves. We never stop to do so. Is 
it enough to wash the human body once or twice in a 
lifetime? Of course not! The washing must be repeated 
continually. It is the same with the repetition of 
al-Faatihah. Human nature will not be perfected by one 
or two prayers. It is necessary to stand in the presence of 
our Lord time and again. The heedlessness of the self and 
the whisperings of Satan never stop. So the prayer must 
be repeated continually. 





Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening 




A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Write three meanings of ‘hamd’. 

2. We say ‘Bismillaah’ before we take up any task. Explain from the 
lesson the reason for this. 

B. With a coloured pencil, circle those whom Allah has favoured. 













C. Activity 

Belief in the Day of Judgement makes us do good actions even 
though we may get laughed at. Write an incident when you did 
something for Allah’s Pleasure even though others laughed at 


5 j 


Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 

Some Names of the Surah 

Al-Faatihah is the first surah of the Qur’an. It was sent 
down to our Prophet ( % ) while he was in Makkah. This is 
why it is called a Makkan surah. It consists of seven 
aayaat, or verses. 

This surah is known by various names. The first is 
al-Faatihah (The Opening) because the Qur’an opens with 
it, and with it the prayers begin. 

It is also known as Umm al-Kitaab (Mother or Essence of 
the Book) because it contains the summary of the Qur’an. It 
is the summary of all the teachings of the Qur’an. It is also 
called as-Sab’ al-Mathaanee wal Qur’aan al-Adheem. 
‘The seven oft-repeated verses and the Great Qur’an’ 
because it is repeated several times in each of the five 
daily prayers. According to Imam Al-Bukharee, the name 
Umm al-Kitaab was given to it by the Prophet ( M ) himself. 
This was in view of the fact that it contains, in a short form, 
all the fundamental principles laid down in the Qur’an. 

Some of these principles are: 

A. The principle of Allah’s Oneness and Uniqueness 

B. The principle that Allah is the Originator and Carer of 
the universe, the One to whom man is ultimately 

Chapter^: a ; .. 

5 Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 

C. The principle that Allah is the Only Power that can 
guide and help. 

D. The principle of guidance through Allah’s 

It is for this reason that this surah has been formulated 
as a prayer, to be constantly repeated and reflected 
upon by the believers. 

Some other titles of the surah are: al-Hamd (the 
praise), as-Salaat (the prayer), al-Waaqiyah (the one that 
protects) and al-Kaafiyah (the sufficient one). 

Al-Faatihah is the greatest surah of the Qur’an. 
Whoever performs any prayer without reciting in it the 
‘essence of the Qur’an’, his prayer will not be accepted. 




Surat al-Faatihah (The Opening) 

A. Circle the correct answer. 

1 . Al-Faatihah is the surah of the Qur’an, [third, 


2. Al-Faatihah is a surah. [Makkan, Madinan] 

3. It consists of aayaat. [seven, nine] 

4. The name Umm-al-Kitaab was given by . (Angel 

Jibreel (<&»), the Prophet ( H ) 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Give any three names of surat al-Faatihah along with their 

2. What are some of the fundamental principles in the Qur’an. 



Excellence of Surat al-Faatihah 

Sjjmi (J 

A hadeeth concerning Surat al-Faatihah 
Allah’s Messenger ( M ) said: 

Allah says, ‘I have divided the prayer between Myself and 
My servant into two halves, and My servant will have what 
he has asked for.’ 

When the servant says: tp ^ 

Allah says, ‘My servant has praised Me.’ 

And when he says: tp ^ 

Allah says, ‘My servant has extolled Me.’ 

And when he says: 

& * 

Allah says, ‘My servant has glorified Me.’ 

^ 'Ttl- 

And when he says: 

* i xix 

Allah says, ‘This is between Me and My servant, and my 
servant will have what he has asked for.’ 

And when he says: 


.1 rOjji J, 

Allah says, ‘This is for My servant and My servant will have 
what he has asked for.’ 

[Reported by Abu Hurayrah in Saheeh Muslim] 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . According to the hadeeth, into how many parts is surat 
al-Faatihah divided and between whom? 

2. Does Allah answer the du’aas we do in this surah? 

B. Think-up 

Do you think Allah will reject any du’aa if He is asked sincerely? 



The Qur'an 

When Allah created man and woman, He showed 
them the way to live. As the time went by, the people fell 
into evil ways and ignored Allah - their Creator. Allah sent 
His Prophets Nuh, Ibraaheem, Daawood, Musa, Isa and 
many others to bring the people back to the Straight 

Allah revealed His Books to many of these prophets. 
He gave the Tawrah to Prophet Musa (M), the Zaboor to 
Prophet Daawood and the Injeel to Prophet Isa ($a). 
Eventually, Allah gave His final message, the Qur’an, to 
His last Messenger, Muhammad ).The Qur’an is Allah’s 
most precious gift to mankind. 

Allah’s Messenger ( ) was once alone in the Cave 

of Hira. He was forty years old. It was the month of 
Ramadan in the year 610 CE. 

Suddenly, Angel Jibreel ( ) appeared to him and 

said, ‘Read!’ 

‘I cannot read,’ he answered. 

Later, describing what had happened, he said, ‘He 
seized me and squeezed me as hard as I could bear and 
then let go of me and said, “Read!” 

“I cannot read,” I said. 

Then he squeezed me as hard as I could bear a 
second time and let go of me. Again he said, ‘Read!’ 
Then he squeezed me a third time and let go of me and 

"Recite in the name of your Lord Who created; 
created man from a clot of blood. Recite, and your Lord 
is the Most Gracious, Who taught by the pen, taught 
man what he did not know. ( 96 :isj 

The Qur’an contains Allah’s final and most perfect 
revelation. Its teachings offer guidance for every aspect 
of life from how to pray to what food to eat, from how to 
run a business to the way to govern. In this way the deen 
(religion and way of life) is not separate from everyday 
life. The laws and the teachings of the Qur’an are 
guidelines not only for individuals but also for the whole 
world at all places and times. 

The Qur’an is the most complete and perfect 
revelation of Allah. The text of the Qur’an is divided into 
1 1 4 surahs, and each surah is made up of aayaat (plural: 
aayah). There is a flow and rhythm in the Arabic text 
giving the Qur’an a special power and beauty. Muslims 
should live their lives according to the teachings of the 
Qur’an. The Qur’an is the last revealed Word of Allah. It is 
a message for all times and places and for all mankind. 



The Qur'an 

Some Facts about the Qur’an: 

★ The Qur’an is the Word of Allah. 

★ It was sent down upon the last Prophet Muhammad 
( M ) through Angel Jibreel ( ). 

★ The revelation of the Qur’an began in the month of 
Ramadan [the 21st night] after the Prophet ( had 
passed the fortieth year of his life (in the year 610 CE) 
in the Cave of Hira in Mount An-Noor. 

★ The first revelation that the Prophet ( % ) received was 
the first five verses of Surat al-Alaq (96: i-sj. 

★ The second revelation of the Qur’an sent down to the 

Prophet ( ) was the beginning of Surat 

al-Muddath-thir (74: i-5). 

★ The Qur’an was revealed in stages over a period of 
about 23 years. 

★ The message of the Qur’an is very simple and clear. 

★ Anyone who seeks guidance (hidaayah) with an 
open mind will be guided. 

The Qur’an is the Word of Allah. We should therefore 
treat it with respect. It is a well-protected Book. No 
one may touch it except the purified. 

★ The Qur’an should be read and studied with the 
intention of seeking Allah’s Pleasure. 

★ Allah’s Messenger ( ) said, ‘The best among you 

are those who learn the Qur’an and teach it to 

others.’ (Al-Bukharee) 

★ The believer should always be conscious that when 
he recites or reads the Qur’an, he in fact does so in 
the presence of Allah. 

★ The Qur’an is a universal book which Allah took 
upon Himself to preserve. The purity of its text has 
never been changed, not even a syllable, not even 
a word, in the last 1 400 years, and will remain so until 
the end of time. 



The Qur'an 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why do you think Allah sends prophets to mankind? 

2. The Qur’an is the most precious gift to mankind. Explain. 

B. Name the following: 

1 . The first revelation to the Prophet ( ): 

2. The Angel of revelation: 

3. The number of surahs in the Qur’an: 

4. The language of the Qur’an: 

5. The time taken for the Qur’an to be completely revealed: 

Chapter J , _ ^ ... 


Zakah - the Purifying Dues 

1 sucjji ]«P 

Zakah, or the purifying dues, is the most important 
pillar of Islam after salah. The Qur’an makes the 
importance of zakah very clear! In fact, it is one of the five 
pillars upon which the edifice of Islam rests. 

Meaning of the Word Zakah 

The word zakah means purity and growth. Islam uses 
this very word for setting aside a portion of your wealth for 
the needy and the poor. This is very important if it means 
that it is by giving to others that your wealth grows and 
becomes pure. If a rich Muslim does not give to the poor 
and the needy what is their due, his wealth remains 
impure, and his inner self also remains impure. Such a 
person is very selfish and very greedy! Zakah has in itself 
great blessings! 

Once Abu Bakr (*$&), the first Caliph, said, By Allah! If 
people hold back the purifying dues (zakah) they used to 
give during the time of the Prophet ( M ), even if it be a 
rope by which a camel is tied, I will raise my sword 
against them.’ Keep clearly in mind that zakah is no less 
important than offering salah. 

Indeed, those who refuse to give zakah fall outside 
the fold of Islam. You should also remember that zakah is 
not a tax like the tax taken by governments. It is the basis 
of Islam. Zakah is Islam’s lifeblood. The giving of zakah 
tests a Muslim’s faith. 


Chapter J 

Zakah - the Purifying Dues 


The giving of zakah is a form of worship. The giving of 
zakah, therefore, cleanses and purifies the giver by 
making him aware that he should not be selfish with the 
wealth Allah has given him. That is why we translate the 
term zakah as ‘the purifying dues’. Zakah benefits the 
whole society. It helps to distribute wealth among all its 

On whom is Zakah due? 

1 . A Free Muslim, man or woman, pays zakah when his 
wealth reaches a certain amount, called the nisaab. 
If his wealth is below that limit, he pays nothing. 

2. In the case of gold, silver and money (banknotes), 
the nisab must have been in the person’s possession 
for one complete year. 

The Things on which Zakah is Due 

Zakah is due on gold and silver, on the produce from 
the earth, on trading goods, camels, cows, sheep and 
goats. The nisaab or scale (amount or limit on which 
zakah becomes payable) of some kinds of wealth is 
given on the next page. 



Zakah - the Purifying Dues 



Trading goods: 


Goats or Sheep: 

85 grams 
595 grams 

Equal to 85 grams of gold or 595 
grams of silver. 

5 camels 
40 goats or sheep 
30 cows 

Keep clearly in mind that whoever remains in 
possession of the above amounts or quantities for a 
period of one full year must pay zakah on them. 

For wealth, the rate is 2 Vfe percent. 

Zakah is payable on gold and silver if their quantities 
reach the nisaab. 



Zakah - the Purifying Dues 


Who should receive Zakah? 

There are eight categories of people who are 
entitled to receive zakah, according to the Qur’an (Surah 
9: 60). They are: 

1 . The poor 

2. The needy 

3. Those employed to collect the zakah 

4. Those whose hearts are to be reconciled. This 
includes new converts to Islam. 

5. The freeing of slaves 

6. Those in debt 

7. In the way of Allah 

8. The stranded travellers 


8 Zakah - the Purifying Dues 

I iSJJT ]«p 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why is zakah known as the ‘purifying dues’? 

2. Mention some of the items on which zakah is due. 

3. What is the ‘nisaab’? 

B. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . The word zakah means and 

2. Zakah is as important as . 

3. Zakah is to be given to eight categories of people: 


( 2 ) 

(3) Collectors of zakah. 

(4) Those whose heart are to be reconciled 

(5) The freeing of slaves. 

( 6 ) 


( 8 ) 


9 / 

Reward and Punishment 

4 ^ } / X / 

Allah created Adam ( & ) and Hawwa and gave 
them guidance to worship Him alone. As time passed, 
the world became filled with people who forgot about 
Allah’s commands. They began to worship false gods. 
They became liars and ill-mannered. 

Allah wanted to call the people back to the Straight 
Path. He sent prophets to these people from among 
them. One of them was Nuh ( ). Nuh ( M ) reminded 

his people that there is only one God, Allah, and that they 
should worship Him alone. He warned them not to bow 
down before idols and false gods. He said, ‘My people! I 
am a clear warner to you; worship Allah and obey me. He 
will forgive you your wrong actions.’ He called his people 
night and day. Every time he called them to Allah’s 
forgiveness, they put their fingers into their ears and 
wrapped themselves up in their clothes. Nuh (>&£*) called 
them openly and publicly and talked to them privately, 
but they did not listen to him. They refused to obey him. In 
fact, they made fun of him. They called him a liar and a 

r f 

* 9 / ^ / 6 / 

i ljUjjJIj ljI^UI 

For many years, Nuh (%s\) tried to turn the people to 
Allah, but only a few people followed him. He was 
dismayed to see the arrogance and stubbornness of his 
people. Finally, in despair, Nuh (sags) asked Allah for help. 
Allah told him to build a ship which took a long time to 
build. All the people laughed at him. They said he was 
crazy to build the ship far away from the sea. 

Nuh warned his people that Allah would punish 
them if they refused to obey Him. They only mocked him. 
They did not pay any attention to his warnings. When the 
ship was ready, Allah told Nuh (s&gs) to take on board one 
male and one female of every kind of creature. Then he 
and his followers boarded the ship and they were safe. 

Heavy rain began to fall. The floods covered the 
land. Wicked people were drowned. All evil was washed 
away from the face of the earth. There was floodwater 


9 Reward and Punishment 

After many days, when Allah gave His Command, the 
skies cleared up and the rain stopped. The ship came to 
rest on Mount al-Judee. Nuh («a) and his followers came 
out of the ship. They settled on the new land and filled it. 

After Nuh (W), Allah sent many messengers. They 
called the people back to the Straight Path. The last of 
those messengers was Prophet Muhammad ($g). He 
received the last message from Allah in the form of the 
Qur’an. The Qur’an gives us guidance about everything. 
Without Allah’s guidance, people stray and turn to evil. 
Allah has shown men and women the Straight Path. 
However, Allah has given everyone the choice either to 
do what is right or to do what is wrong. 

Islam teaches us that there will be a day called the 
Day of Judgement at the end of time. On that day, 
everyone will be judged according to his or her good 
and bad deeds in life. Allah will reward those who believe 
in Him, do good actions and obey His messengers. He will 




Reward and Punishment 


also punish those who do not believe in Him, do bad 
actions and reject His messengers. This life is a 
preparation for the life to come. The Qur’an teaches us 
that those who submit to the Will of Allah will find Paradise. 

The first surah of the Quran, Surat al-Faatihah, is a 
prayer for guidance to the path that leads to Paradise in 
the life after death. Life after death is called Akhirah. It is 
one of the most important beliefs of Islam. Disobedience 
and wickedness will be punished in the next life and 
obedience and goodness will be rewarded. But Allah is 
Merciful. He is Forgiving and likes to forgive! He will 
certainly forgive those who give up the life of wickedness 
in this world and turn to Him. He will guide them to the 
Straight Path. 

The Qur’an says that Allah has appointed over each 
one of us two angels who record what we do in this world. 
The truly good will be in perfect happiness, but the 
evildoers will be in a blazing fire. 




Reward and Punishment 

} s % s 

ljLaxJIj UjljjJI 

A. Complete the following sentences. 

1 . The first man Allah created was 

2. The place Prophet Nuh’s ship rested was 

3. The last message of Allah is 

4. The surah for guidance is 

5. The Arabic name for life after death is 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why do you think Allah sent messengers to people? 

2. What will happen on the Day of Judgement? 

3. Write few words on the 'Recording Angels’. 

4. Whom will Allah punish and whom will He reward? 



Fasting (Sawm) 

Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar. 
During Ramadan, Muslims fast from dawn to sunset. 

What is Fasting? 

Fasting in Islam means to abstain from eating and 
drinking from dawn until sunset. 

The fast should begin with the intention of fasting, 
making it clear whether it is the compulsory fast of 
Ramadan, a voluntary fast or a fast for a special reason. 
This intention should not be expressed loudly. 

The purpose of Fasting 

Muslims fast to seek nearness to Allah and His 
Pleasure. They fast because Allah wants them to do so. 
Fasting means keeping one’s ears, eyes, tongue, hands 
and feet - and all other organs - free from sins. Fasting 
means to keep the head clean of useless concerns and 
thoughts. Lying and backbiting lower the value of fasting. 
Allah’s Messenger ( ^ ) said, “Fasting is a shield, so when 
one of you fasts he should not use foul or foolish talk. If 
someone attacks him or insults him, let him say, ‘I am 
fasting, I am fasting.”’ (Al-Bukharee and Muslim) 




Fasting (Sawm) 

He also said “Many are those who fast but get 
nothing from their fast but hunger...” (Ibn Majah) This has 
been taken to mean those who break their fast with 
unlawful food. Some say it refers to those who fast but do 
not keep away from backbiting, lying and other evil acts. 
It is therefore necessary for a Muslim to avoid all shameful 
acts, such as quarrelling, backbiting and telling lies. 

Kinds of Fasting 

Generally, fasting is of two kinds: 

( 1 ) Compulsory Fasting 

Fasting is compulsory for all adult Muslims throughout 
the month of Ramadan. Those who are allowed to break 
their fast because of a valid reason include the sick and 
the traveller. These people should fast an equal number 
of missed fasts on other days after Ramadan when they 
are able to do so. An insane person is not allowed to fast. 

(2) Voluntary Fasting 

It is recommended to fast on any other day of the 
year, except on days when fasting is not allowed. Days 
when fasting is not allowed include the days of Eed-ul-Fitr 
and Eed-ul-Adh-haa. 



Fasting (Sawm) 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What does fasting mean? 

2. Why do you think Muslims fast? 

3. Why do some people get nothing from their fast but hunger? 

4. Write a short note in your own words about compulsory fasting 
and voluntary fasting. 

B. Activity 

Ruqayyah is the only Muslim girl in her class who keeps 
Ramadan fasts. Her classmates tease her and drink in front of her. 
What advice would you give to Ruqayyah? 


V The Fast of Ramadan 

The Fast of Ramadan begins on the day following the 
sighting of the new moon of the month of Ramadan. 

Intention to Fast 

A Muslim must make his formal intention to fast before 
dawn. He may make the intention to fast the whole month 
of Ramadan, or he may make the intention to fast for a 
day every time. If a Muslim’s fast is interrupted for some 
days for any reason, he must renew the intention before 
he starts fasting again. This intention, however, must not 
be expressed in any way, because the place of the 
intention is the heart 


It is recommended that a Muslim should take some 
food and drink before dawn, before he begins his fast. 
This pre-dawn meal is called sahoor and helps reduce 
the hardship of fasting during the day. One should wake 
up early enough to eat and finish the sahoor before 
dawn so as to avoid any chance of eating after the 
break of dawn, which would spoil the day’s fast. 

The Prophet ( J|) encouraged his companions to take 
this meal even if it is only a drink of water. He said, ‘Take 
sahoor, for surely there is a blessing in sahoor.’ (Al-Bukharee 

and Muslim) 




The Fast of Ramadan 



A Muslim should break his fast as soon as the sun sets. 
It is strongly recommended to do so. Allah’s Messenger 
($|) said, ‘People will remain prosperous as long as they 
hasten to break the fast.’ (Al-Bukharee) The meal taken at the 
time of breaking the fast is called iftar: breaking the fast. 
Iftar should be light, for example, a few dates and water 
or any other fruit. A Muslim should take it before 
performing the Maghrib prayer with Jamaa’ah. He may, 
however, have any other heavy meal after the Maghrib 

He is strongly recommended to offer the Taraaweeh 
prayers after the Isha prayer. You will learn about the 
Taraaweeh Prayer later, Inshaa Allaah! 

Du’aa for breaking the Fast: 

4Jbt £ L j| Ou il Q L-L&l 

Dhahabadh-dhama’u, wabtallatil-’urooqu, wa 
thabatal-ajru inshaa-Allaah 

The thirst has gone, the veins are moistened and the 
reward is confirmed, if Allah wills. 

Chapter J| 

1 1 The Fast of Ramadan 


1 . 

Answer the following questions. 

What are the two different ways of making the intention for 
fasting in Ramadan? 

2. Why is sahoor so important? 

B. Explain these terms: 

1 . Sahoor 

2. Iftar 

C. Think-up. 

What do Muslims normally break their fast with? 





' The Fast of Ramadan 


D. Activity. 

1 . Many of you may have started to fast at least a few days in 
Ramadan. Write ten lines on ‘The Day I Fasted’. 

2. Ahmad is late in breaking his fast because he wants to show off 
to others that he can fast longer than them. Is he right? Why? 

j al\ Juuz 

The Islamic calendar is based on the movements of the 
moon. The Islamic year is eleven days shorter than the year 
based on the movements of the sun. 

The month of Ramadan is very important for Muslims. It 
is a time of very strict fasting during the hours of daylight. 
Muslims are forbidden to eat or drink. The end of the month 
of Ramadan is marked by a festival called Eed-ul-Fitr, which 
means the festival of breaking the fast. It is a day of 

Eed-ul-Fitr is held on the first day of the month of 
Shawwal following Ramadan. Ramadan ends with the 
sighting of the new moon of Shawal. 

The first day of the month of Shawwal is Eed-ul-Fitr. It is a 
time for thanksgiving and joy. Families get together to share 
their happiness and to exchange greetings and give 
presents to one another. So the children get very excited as 
the day draws near. 

On the last day of Ramadan great excitement is seen 
in Muslim countries. People hope for sighting the new 



But before the celebrations begin, Muslims must pay 
zakaat-ul-Fitr. This requires believers to give one saa’ (four 
handfuls) of the types of food people mainly eat in the 
regular diets, such as wheat, rice, dates and barley to the 
poor. This ensures that all Muslims, rich or poor, are able to 
break their fast at the end of Ramadan and share in the 
festivities. It also reminds Muslims that all are equal in the 
sight of Allah. The shared fasting and shared giving make 
the feelings of togetherness among Muslims strong. When 
the new moon is sighted, celebrations begin. 

Food plays a major role in the festival of breaking the 
fast. Special food is prepared and is shared with families 
and friends. New clothes add a sense of occasion to the 
event. Muslims wash and attire themselves in preparation 
for the celebrations. 

It is really something to celebrate when a difficult task 
has been successfully completed. Keeping a month-long 
fast is not an easy task. 


ti JLa 

'V ^ *♦ / 


The Eed prayer is the Sunnah of the Prophet ( #f ). The 
Eed prayer is held to celebrate the most important Islamic 
festivals - Eed-ul-Fitr and Eed-ul-Adh-haa, or the festival of 

The Eed prayers are usually performed in a large 
mosque or in an open space so that all the people of the 
locality can gather to pray together. The Eed prayers are 
held a little after sunrise. 

The Eed prayers have no adhan and no iqamah. They 
consist of two rak’ahs. They follow the form of the ordinary 
two rak’ahs. The only difference is that after the intention of 
the Eed prayer, the imam and the followers open the 
prayer by saying Allaahu Akbar, pronounced seven times, 
which includes the Takbeeratul-lhraam. When they stand 
up for the second rak’ah, they also say Allaahu Akbar five 
times after saying Allaahu Akbar pronounced for standing 
after the prostration. 

The prayer is followed by a sermon (khutbah) given by 
the imam. At other times, most of those attending the 
mosque are male, but on the occasion of Eed-ul-Fitr 
women and girls also join in the worship. Mosques become 
very crowded so much so that people often gather in the 
open area outside to pray. There is a great sense of 
togetherness on this occasion. 

After the khutbah they depart. After leaving the 
mosque, Muslims visit their friends and relatives. Presents 
and sweets are given to the children. Greetings are 

Eed-ul-Fitr is not just a time for eating, drinking and 
having lawful fun. It is also a time for remembering Allah. It 
is a deeply religious occasion when Muslims remember 
their duty to Allah. It is also a time for forgiveness. It is a time 
when Muslims are reminded to treat others as brothers and 

It is also a time to thank Allah the Almighty for helping 
them complete the fast of Ramadan. 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What does Eed-ul-Fitr mean and when does it come about? 

2. What special things happen on the day of Eed? 

3. Where is the Eed prayer performed? Why? 

B. Are these statements true or false? 

1 . Zakaat-ul-Fitr may be given after the Eed prayer. 

2. Zakaat-ul-Fitr falls on the first day of Shawwal. 

3. The Eed prayer is held before sunrise. 

4. The Eed prayer has four rak’ahs. 

5. The Eed prayer has neither adhan nor iqamah. 

C. Activity 

Act out the scene of the Eed prayer in your class with the help 
of your teacher. 

Hajj is the pilgrimage to the Ka’bah in Makkah; it is 
the fifth pillar of Islam. 

Allah says in the Qur’an: •• 

“Hajj to the House is a duty to Allah for mankind, for him 
who can find a way to do it.” (3:97) 

The main purpose of the hajj is to show obedience to 
Allah. The hajj is a way of worshipping Allah. It is the duty 
of each Muslim to go for hajj at least once in their lifetime 
as long as they can find a way to it and the family left 
behind is properly provided for. 

In the centre of the Grand Mosque - al-Masjid 
al-Haraam - in Makkah is the building known as the 
Ka’bah: the House of Allah. This was built by Prophet 
Ibraaheem and his son Isma’eel. It was the first place for 
the worship of Allah on earth. We face the Ka’bah in 
Makkah in our prayers five times a day. 

Chapter ^ 

1 3 Hajj and Eed-ul-Adh-haa 

L j>uA 

0 a . o / 

iVljUAJ jiJ! 

The Ihram 

Ihram is the intention to perform hajj or umrah. Before 
entering Makkah, each pilgrim takes a bath and puts on 
a special dress for ihram. For men the ihram clothing 
consists of two unstitched pieces of cloth to cover the 
upper and the lower parts of their bodies. Women wear 
clothes which cover everything except their faces and 
hands. In fact, ihram clothing for ladies consists of their 
simple daily clothes. They are required to keep their faces 
and hands uncovered while in the state of ihram. 

As all the pilgrims dress alike, many differences 
between them vanish. They are all equal. During the hajj, 
pilgrims must not cut their hair, wear perfume, or hunt or 
harm any living thing in any way, while in the state of 
ihram. They must make efforts not to get angry with others. 

The Arabic term miqaat means the place around 
Makkah from which a pilgrim assumes the state of ihram. 
The pilgrim changes into ihram clothing at the miqaat 
and pronounces his intention to perform hajj or umrah. For 
people living inside the miqaat permanently, their place 
of residence is their miqaat. Once the pilgrim assumes the 
state of ihram, he becomes a muhrim. He offers two 
rak’ahs and pronounces his intention to perform hajj or 
umrah as the case may be. He then starts reciting the 
talbiyya loudly and frequently and continues to do so until 
he arrives at the Masjid al-Haraam. Women recite the 
talbiyyah silently. 


5 Hajj and Eed-ul-Adh-haa 

Now the first thing to do 
is to walk around the 
Ka’bah, saying prayers, 
seven times. This act is 
called ‘tawaaf’. As each 
person gets to the Black 
Stone, he touches or kisses it 
while saying Allaahu Akbar 
just as Allah’s Messenger 
( $g ) did. Pilgrims who are 
too far away to do so raise 
their hands in its direction 
and say Allaahu Akbar. 

After performing the tawaaf, pilgrims run or walk at a 
pace between two hillocks near the Ka’bah called Safa 
and Marwah. This act is called sa’ee. It reminds Muslims 
of the time Isma’eel and his mother Haajar had been left 
in the desert by Prophet Ibraaheem ( & ) at Allah’s 
Command. When their stock of water ran out and the 
child was thirsty, Haajar ran frantically between these two 
hillocks in search of water. Returning to Isma’eel, she 
found that a spring of water had gushed forth near him. 
This spring, called Zamzam, is now found underground, 
beneath the courtyard of the Ka’bah. Pilgrims go to drink 
some of the water before beginning the sa’ee. 

After the sa’ee, halq (having 
the head shaven) or taqseer 
(having a haircut) follows. Pilgrims 
now shower and change into 
everyday clothes, depending on 
the type of hajj they perform. This completes the pilgrims’ 
umrah. All restrictions of the ihram are now temporarily lifted 
from the pilgrim. He will now wait for the 8th of Dhul Hijjah to 

start the other rites of hajj. 

On the 8th of Dhul-Hijjah, most 
pilgrims pronounce a new niyyah 
at their place of residence to 
perform hajj. There is no need for 
them to go to the miqaat for this 
reason. The pilgrims change into 
ihram clothing and proceed to 
Mina soon after the Fajr prayer. On the 8th day of 
Dhul-Hijjah, the first day of hajj, Muslims travel to Mina, 
about 8 kilometres from Makkah. Here they spend the night. 

The next day (the 9th of Dhul-Hijjah), they travel to the 
plain of Arafah, about 22 kilometres from Makkah. They halt 
for the day in this plain and pray to Allah. They ask His 
forgiveness. It is a moving experience to join together with 
as many as three million other pilgrims in the same 
place for one purpose: to worship Allah. This gathering 
reminds the pilgrims of the day when everyone will be 
brought before Allah for judgement. 

At sunset, the pilgrims 
travel to Muzdalifah. This is a 
bare rocky place back in the 
direction of Makkah, midway 
between Arafah and Mina. 

The pilgrims spend the night 
there. They combine the Maghrib and Isha prayers 
together and shorten the Isha prayer to two rak’ahs. They 
also offer the Fajr prayer there and collect pebbles ready 
for the next day when they reach Mina. 

At Mina, there are three stone 
pillars called jamraat. The 
jamraat are located within a few 
hundred feet of one another in a 
line. They remind Muslims that it 
was here that Shaytan hopelessly 
tried to tempt Ibraaheem ( ym ) 
not to perform the sacrifice Allah 
wanted. Pilgrims pelt the Aqabah pillar with the pebbles 
they have already collected from Muzdalifah. This 
symbolic action shows that it was not only Ibraaheem 
( ) and Isma'eel ( & ) who had to reject Shaytan. 

Everyone has to struggle against evil. 

After stoning the jamraat, many pilgrims sacrifice an 
animal in memory of Prophet Ibraaheem’s sacrifice of 
a sheep instead of his son Isma’eel. They now have a 
haircut or have their heads shaven and proceed to 


1 3 Hajj and Eed-ul Adh-haa 

Makkah to perform Tawaaf Al-lfadah and then the Sa’ee 
if they have not performed Sa’ee after performing Tawaf 

Pilgrims stay in Mina for another two or three days to 
pray, stone the jamraat pillars and remember Allah. They 
return to Makkah for tawaaf of the Ka’bah again. At the 
end of the hajj, large numbers of pilgrims go to Madinah to 
visit the Prophet’s Mosque: 
al-Masjid an-Nabawee. 

Eed-ul-Adh-haa: The Festival 
of Sacrifice 

One night Prophet Ibraaheem 
($S) had a dream. He saw that he 
sacrificed his son Isma’eel Ibraaheem was a truthful 
Prophet. His dream was a true dream. Ibraaheem (M) 
decided to do what Allah had commanded him to do in 
the dream. Ibraaheem (?&b) asked Isma’eel (%si), ‘My son, 

I saw in a dream that I must sacrifice you, what do you think 
about this?’ To this Isma’eel («s ! ) replied, ‘Do as you are 
ordered, Allah willing, you will find me resolute.’ 

When Ibraaheem [<m] reached Mina, he made ready 
for the sacrifice of Isma’eel (>&a). Isma’eel laid down on the 
ground and Ibraaheem (>sa) put the knife to Isma'eel’s 
throat. By doing this, Ibraaheem ( m ) showed that he 
loved Allah more than his son. When Ibraaheem (j&ja) had 
passed the test, Allah sent Jibreel (s&B) with a ram to spare 




Hajj and Eed-ul-Adh-haa 

Isma’eel’s life. Allah was pleased with Ibraaheem (^\). So 
He commanded the Muslims to make a sacrifice of an 
animal in remembrance of this incident. 

Eed-ul-Adh-haa comes on the tenth day of the 
month of Dhul-Hijjah. This is the festival of sacrifice which 
marks the end of the great time of hajj. Eed-ul-Adh-haa 
lasts for four days and is celebrated much in the same 
way as Eed-ul-Fitr with big congregational prayer - 
Salaat-ul-Eed - and exchange of gifts. Its special feature 
is the sacrifice of an animal in memory of the story of the 
Prophet Ibraaheem ( ) and his son Isma’eel ( ). The 

purpose of this festival is to remind Muslims of their duty to 
submit to the Will of Allah at all times! 

The slaughtered animal then is divided into three 
portions. One is kept for the family itself, one is given to 
relatives, neighbours and friends, and the third is given to 
the poor and the needy, for whom this may be the only 
time in the year that they eat meat. Eed-ul-Adh-haa is a 
period of joy and remembrance of Allah. 



Hajj and Eed-ul-Adh-haa 


1 . 


Explain these terms in brief. 

Ihram 2. Miqaat 3. 

Halq 6. Jamraat 


B. What is the miqaat for the permanent resident of Makkah? 

C. Rearrange the following words to indicate the procedure of 

I . Ihram 
3. Miqaat 
5. Mina 

7. Halq/Taqseer 
9. Sacrifice 

I I . Shaving the head 

2. Jamraat 
4. Sa’ee 
6. Tawaaf 
8. Muzdalifah 
10. Arafah 

D. What is the special feature of Eed-ul-Adh-haa? 

E. How many portions is the sacrificed animal divided into? 

Halaal Foods and Drinks 

There are various foods and drinks which Allah allows 
us to have. These are called halaal foods and drinks. 
Halaal is an Arabic word which means ‘allowed’, 
‘permitted’ or ‘lawful’. Most foods and drinks are halaal. 
Allah wants us to eat and drink only those things which 
are halaal. Halaal things are good for our health. 

Some of the halaal foods are fruits, vegetables, 
eggs, meat, fish, rice, and milk. Keep clearly in mind that 
eating and drinking is a form of Ibaadah. Ibaadah is an 
Arabic word which means worship. We must obey Allah 
and drink and eat only those things which are halaal. We 
must eat to live, to be healthy and strong and to worship 
Allah better. We must eat to do good deeds. We must eat 
to become strong and fight evil. 

Chapter . ::: 

1 4 

Halaal Foods and Drinks 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Explain the Arabic word halaal. 

2. Give at least three examples each of halaal foods and drinks, 
other than those mentioned in this lesson. 

3. Why do you think Muslims should eat only halaal food? 

B. Activity 

Write down the halaal foods and drinks you had yesterday. 

Chapter ^ 

1 5 

Haraam Foods and Drinks 



There are certain foods and drinks which Allah does not 
allow Muslims to take. These are called haraam foods and 

Haraam is an Arabic word which means ‘not allowed’, 
‘prohibited’ or ‘unlawful’. Allah does not want us to eat 
haraam foods or drinks. Only a few foods and drinks are 

These are five kinds of haraam foods and drinks: 

(1) Swine is an animal whose 
meat is not allowed. It is 
unlawful for Muslims. 

Anything that contains any 
part of the haraam animal is 
also haraam. 

(2) Blood of any animal or bird. 

(3) The meat of dead animals 
and birds. 

(4) The meat of animals that are 
slaughtered in the name of 
any other than Allah. 

(5) Alcohol and intoxicating 
drinks and drugs. 

It is a sin to eat or drink haraam things. 


apter m . ^ ; 


Haraam Foods and Drinks 


Always buy and eat halaal foods and drinks. Every 
food is made up of one or several food ingredients. 
Ingredient means any of the things or qualities of which 
something is made. In our times, food packages come 
with an ingredient list on them. This ingredient list contains 
everything the food is made of. Therefore, always read 
the ingredient label before buying food. Haraam 
ingredients in the food make the entire food haraam. Do 
not buy or eat food containing one or more haraam 

Some haraam ingredients are: 







chocolate liquor 


' ' ' J 

A. Answer the following questions. 


1 . Explain the Arabic word haraam. 

2. What is an ingredient label? 

3. Write down a few foods that Muslims should be careful of. 

B. Activity 

1 . Read this ingredient list: 

Fresh bread 

Wheat flour, sugar, bread improver, water, lard. 

Can we eat this bread? Why or why not? 




Haraam Foods and Drinks 

5 1 . nil,* 



2. Read this ingredient list: 

Tasty Toast 


Wheat flour, water, salt, sesame seeds, 100% vegetable 

Can we eat this toast? Why or why not? 

3. Bring from home a few ingredient labels and discuss the 
ingredients in class, whether they are halaal or haraam. 




The greeting of Islam is salaam, which means peace. 
It is Sunnah to begin this greeting but obligatory to return 

A Muslim should greet another Muslim by saying: 
as-Salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh. 
He should not add anything further to this. 

A man once came to the Prophet ( M ) and said, 
‘as-Salaamu alaikum (Peace be with you).’ He returned 
his greeting and the man sat down. The Prophet ( M ) 
said, ‘Ten.’ Then another man came along and said, 
‘as-Salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullaah (Peace and the 
mercy of Allah be upon you). He returned his greeting. 
The man sat down and the Prophet ( ^ ) said, ‘Twenty,’ 
meaning (you have earned the merit of twenty good 
deeds). A third one came and said, ‘as-Salaamu alaikum 
wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh (Peace and the mercy 
of Allah and His blessings be with you).’ The Prophet ( ) 

returned his greeting and the man sat down. The Prophet 
( M ) then said, ‘Thirty.’ (Al-Bukhaaree) 

The recommended Sunnah is for the person who 
comes walking by to give the greeting to someone who is 
sitting down, and for the rider to greet the person who is 
walking or sitting. The greeting of one member of a group 
on behalf of the rest is enough and it is likewise enough 
for a single member of a group to return a greeting. 

16 i 


The Greeting of Islam 

' — ; — r~r y — f 

A Muslim should return the greeting of another Muslim 
by saying: wa alaikum-us salaam if the first one says 
as-Salaamu alaikum. It is preferable, however, to add the 
words ‘wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh’. If, however, he 
says, as-Salaamu alaikum wa rahmatullaahi wa 
barakaatuh, he must reply by saying, wa 
alaikumus-Salaamu wa rahmatullaahi wa barakaatuh. 

Greeting youngsters is recommended because this 
will teach them good manners. It is also commendable 
for someone who gets up to leave a meeting to greet 
those sitting and to greet them in a similar manner when 
he returns to join them. The same applies if some barrier 
comes between him and them, such as a wall or a tree. 
If a person comes across a man again he has already 
greeted, he is recommended to greet him again. 

A Muslim is also recommended to shake hands with 
his Muslim brother. If he has initiated the handshake he 
should not withdraw his hand until the other withdraws his. 
It is permissible for Muslim brothers to hug each other and 
to kiss each other on the head. 




The Greeting of Islam 

A. Say whether these manners are ‘good’ or ‘bad’. 

1 . Not replying to salaam greeting. 

2. Being the first to greet one’s elders. 

3. Greeting youngsters is recommended because this will teach 
them good manners. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Whom did the Prophet ( H ) say would get the reward of 20 
good deeds? 

2. What is the best reply to ‘as-Salaamu-alaikum’? 

C. Activity 

Learn the beautiful Sunnah of greeting and practise it in your daily 
life to increase your good deeds. 

M $ 



Water is pure. It 
purifies ritual impurity 
(hadath) and impure 
matters (najaasah). 
Purification does not take 
place with any other 


Pure water remains pure unless it is made impure by a 
change of its colour, taste or smell. Apart from this, water 
mixed with impure matter becomes impure. 

When a person is not certain which place on a garment 
or other object has become impure, he must wash it in such 
a way as to be certain he has removed the impurity. 

Wudhu - Ablution 

Like all other acts of worship, wudhu is only made valid 
with the intention. Allah’s Messenger ( M) said, Actions are 
only judged according to their intentions and a person will 
have only what he has intended.’ (Muslim) 

One should first say Bismillaah (In the Name 

of Allah), then wash the hands up to the wrists three times, 
rinse the mouth three times and snuff water into the nostrils 
and give the nose a good blow three times. One then 
washes the face three times from the hairline to the chin, and 
from ear to ear. A man combs out his beard with wet fingers 
if it is thick. One then washes the forearms up to the elbow 



Tahaarah - Ritual Purity 

three times the right forearm first and then the left one, all 
including the hands. One then rubs the head with both wet 
hands, going from the forehead to the nape of the neck and 
back and rubs the ears. One then washes the feet three 
times, with ankles, passing the fingers between the toes, 
beginning with the right foot. At the end one says, 

a d\ jL&zij cti V iitl VI 4JI V 01 

ash hadu an laa ilaaha ill-Allaahu wah dahu laa shareeka 
lahu, wa ash hadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluh 

I testify that there is no god but Allah alone, without a 
partner, and I testify that Muhammad is His sen/ant and 

The obligatory acts in wudhu 

1 . Intention - its place is the heart. 

2. Washing the face from the hairline to the chin and from 
ear to ear. 

3. Washing the forearms to the elbow including the hands. 

4. Wiping the entire head including the ears. 

5. Washing the feet up to the ankles. 

6. Observing the correct sequence of all these parts of the 

7. Not waiting between the washing of the required parts in 
wudhu for a long time. 





6 . 


8 . 




Tahaarah - Ritual Purity 


These are some Sunan acts in wudhu 
Tasmiyah: This means saying: Bismillaah 4Jbl the 

Name of Allah) when one is about to use water. 
Cleaning the teeth with siwaak. The siwaak is a small 
stick, softened at the tip by chewing or beating to form 
a kind of toothbrush. 

Washing the hands three times at the beginning. 
(Washing the hands before dipping them into the water 

Rinsing out the mouth and snuffing water up the nostrils 
and then blowing it. 

Running one’s wet fingers through the beard. This is for 

Rubbing between one’s fingers and toes. 

Repeating each washing three times. 

Beginning with the right side before the left one when 
washing the hands and the feet. 

Rubbing the parts required for washing with water. 
Reciting the du’aa after the completion of wudhu. 

These are a few things that break wudhu 

1 . Ritual impurities like 

(a) passing urine (b) passing stool (c) breaking wind 

2. Deep sleep 

3. Fainting 




Taharaah - Ritual Purity 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . When does water become impure? 

2. Explain the word ‘najaasah’. 

3. Name some of the things that break wudhu? 

B. Mention whether the following are obligatory or sunan parts of 

1 . To begin washing with the right side 

2. To make the intention 

3. Wiping the head and the ears 

4. Repeating each washing three times 

5. Washing the face 




/ / ^ / 

Brush your teeth regularly! 

Allah has given you a set of teeth covered with a 
hard white shiny substance called enamel. The bones 
into which the teeth are fixed are covered with a firm pink 
flesh called the gum. 

A lot of tooth decay 
is caused by the food 
you eat which has sugar 
added to them to make it 

After you have eaten 
something sweet, its 
sticky substance is left on 
your teeth. The tiny living things called bacteria which live 
in your mouth begin to feed on this substance. They form 
a harmfull substance called plaque on your teeth. The 
teeth begin to decay. 

If the teeth are very badly decayed, you may have 
to have them out, but the dentist will try to save them, if 

You can stop yourself form getting tooth decay by 
looking after your teeth regularly. 







f s • 

You must brush your teeth at least twice a day, in the 
early morning and before you go to bed. Brushing your 
teeth helps to remove plaque and to keep your gums 
healthy. It also gets rid of the tiny pieces of food that are 
stuck between your teeth, keeps your mouth fresh and 
stops you from getting bad breath. 

You may use toothpaste, which contains a 
substance called fluoride that helps prevent tooth decay. 
Allah’s Messenger ( used to clean his teeth regularly 
with a siwaak. When Allah’s Messenger ( M ) got up from 
sleep, he would clean his mouth with this stick. Using the 
siwaak is a Sunnah. The Prophet ( ^) said, ‘Siwaak cleans 
the mouth and is pleasing to the Lord .’ ( Ahmad and 


Wash your body once a day! 

When you get hot, do hard 
work or exercise, your body sweats. 

Sweating helps your body keep 
itself at the right temperature. 

Your underarms are likely to 
sweat heavily during a hot day. 

When that happens bacteria grow. 

It is the bacteria mixing with the 
sweat that causes your body to 
smell. So you need to wash your 
underarms everyday to get rid of the smell of sweat. 

/ / ^ / 

43 Haiti 

A good wash is usually enough to keep you 

Keep your clothes clean. A clean body will soon 
get smelly if you do not keep your clothes clean. Try to 
change the clothes that you wear close to your skin 
everyday. Always make sure you wash your hands 
properly before you eat, after you go to the toilet, and 
whenever they become dirty. 

Look after your hair 

You should comb and brush your hair everyday. 
It is important to use a suitable comb with good teeth. 
Hair gets dirty very quickly. So you should wash your hair 
once a week at least. This will get rid of dirt and will help 
to get rid of grease. 

Regular brushing or combing and washing of hair 
helps protect you against lice. Head lice are small insects 
which live in the hair. By looking after your hair, you will 
help protect yourself against lice. 

Once Allah’s Messenger (^S) saw a man with unkempt 
hair and he said “Doesn’t this man have anything to 
make his hair tidy?” (Abu Daawood) 



Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why do teeth decay? 

/ / 6 / 


2. Write a few lines on how you can take care of your teeth. 

3. What is the siwaak? What is the importance of using it? 

4. How often should one take a bath and why? 

5. What are the Prophet’s thoughts on dirty hair? 

B Are these statements true or false? 

1 . It’s OK not to brush one’s teeth regularly. 

2. Cleanliness is good for you. 

3. Islam encourages cleanliness. 


C. Think-up 

Why do you think so much importance is given to cleanliness of 
teeth, body and hair in Islam? 

D. Activity 

Try to get a siwaak and use it before you do wudhu. 



Conditions of Salah 

> m l 

Salah is a duty that must be performed by every 
Muslim, male or female, at work, at school, at home, on a 
journey and even in wartime. If a Muslim is too ill to stand 
or bow down, he can go through the movements of salah 
in his heart while sitting or lying down. It is not a burden to 
do so. In fact, it is a great comfort. Muslim children should 
be ordered to perform salah when they are seven years 
old to get used to it. By the time they reach puberty, it is 
expected of them as a duty. Puberty means a child 
develops into an adult. 

Conditions of Salah (Prayer) 

1. Islam - Allah does not accept the actions of 

2. Sanity - This means that one has to have a sound 
mind, not mad. 

3. Reaching the age of puberty; but children must be 
ordered to pray at the age of seven. 

4. Ritual purity - Allah’s Messenger ( ) said, ‘Allah does 
not accept salah without purity.’ (Muslim) This includes 
purity of the body, the clothes and the place where 
one intends to pray. 

5. The time - Salah is due only when its time has started. 

6. Covering the awrah, or the parts of the body that have 
to be covered. 




Conditions of Salah 


f J v ' t 

7. Having the intention in the heart to perform the 

8. Facing the qiblah - This means facing the direction 
of the Ka’bah in Makkah. 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Is it okay for a Muslim not to pray when he is ill? Why? 

2. What should one do when one cannot perform the normal 
movements of salah? 

3. Write down in brief the various conditions of salah. 

1 . It’s OK to pray without having the intention. 

2. The prayer of naked people is valid. 

3. One can sometimes offer salah before its actual time starts. 

4. Allah does not accept salah without purity. 

C. Think-up 

What is the meaning of the conditions of salah? 

Find out about the awrah for both men and women. 




The Pillars of Salah 


Once the conditions of salah are fulfilled, one can 
then start salah. 

The salah, however, has some acts that are 
conditional to it, and omitting one of them would make it 
invalid. These acts are called arkaan, or pillars. Other acts 
are waajibaat, or obligatory, and others are sunan, 
following the practice of the Prophet ( % ). 

The obligatory pillars of salah are: 

1 . The intention, or niyyah. Its place is the heart. This 
means to intend to perform the required salah. 

2. Pronouncing the opening takbeer (Takbeeratul- 
Ihraam), by saying ‘Allaahu Akbar’. 

3. Standing in an upright position [qiyaam] for the 
Takbeeratul-lhraam, for those who are able to do so. 

4. Reciting the opening surah of the Qur’an - Surat 
al-Faatihah, in every rak’ah. 


20 / 

The Pillars of Salah 

5. Bowing (ruku). 

6. Standing up straight again after bowing. 

7. Prostrating (sujud) with seven body parts touching the 
floor (the forehead with the nose, the palms of the 
hands, the toes, and the knees). 

8. Sitting with calmness after sujud. 

9. Sitting between the two prostrations. 

10. Being calm and at ease while bowing, prostrating, 
standing up and sitting. 

1 1 . Performing all these pillars in order. 

1 2. Reciting the final tashahhud and sitting down for it. 

1 3. Sending salat (blessings) upon the Prophet (M)- 

14. Tasleem (saying ‘Assalaamu alaikum wa 
rahmatullah’, turning one’s head to the right, and 
then saying the same, turning, one’s head to the left. 

siL^Ji jisjt 


Under each picture write down 
the pillars of prayer being performed and 
number them according to their proper sequence. 


20 The Pillars of Salah 


•»/ Jt () 


21 The Obligatory Acts of Salah 

The obligatory acts (waajibaat) of salah are those 
acts that will make the prayer invalid if someone leaves 
them out intentionally, but if he forgets to perform one of 
them, he may make up for it by performing the 
prostrations of forgetfulness (sujud as-sahw). 

There are eight obligatory acts of salah. They are: 

1 . Saying 'Allaahu Akbar 1 ids* (Allah is Most Great) to 
move from one act of the prayer to the next, such as 
for bowing and prostrating. 

2. Saying 'Subhaana Rabbiyal-Adheem 1 

(Glory be to my Lord, the Supreme) while bowing. 

3. Saying 'Subhaana Rabbiyal-A'laa 1 uli 

(Glory be to my Lord, the Most High) while prostrating. 

4. Saying 'Sami' Allahu liman hamidah' ai**. Abi 
(Allah hears the one who praises Him) while raising the 
head from bowing for the imam and the one who 
prays alone. 

5. Saying 'Rabbanaa wa lakal-hamd' jJ^J\ iifj Liuj (O our 
Lord! All the praises are for You) while standing after 
bowing, for the imam, the one (or ones) following him 
and the one who prays alone. 

6. Reciting the supplication between the two 

prostrations, such as saying Rabbigh-fir lee, 

(My Lord, forgive me) once. It is recommended to say 
this three times. 


7 . 

8 . 


The Obligatory Acts of Salah 

The first tashahhud. 

Sitting down for the first tashahhud. 

State whether the following statements are true or false. 

1 . The first tashahhud is not important. 

2. If I leave out one of the obligatory acts of salah on 

purpose, my salah is still valid. 

3. I can perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness if I leave 

out one of the obligatory acts on purpose. 

4. Only the imam can say Jnj dij 'Rabbanaa wa 

lakal-hamd' (O our Lord! All the praises are for you) while 
standing, not those behind him. 

5. The word waajibaat means pillars. 

fc'TZr S 

h~ ■ 



The Sunan Acts of Salah 


The sunan acts of salah are those sayings which the 
Prophet ( M) said or the actions which he did. If a person 
leaves one of them out, there will be no sin upon him, but 
it is better not to leave them out so we follow the sunnah of 
the Prophet [M] and get a lot of rewards for doing so. 

The following are some of the sunan acts of salah: 

1 . Raising the hands while saying ‘Allaahu Akbar’. The 
hands are raised close to the shoulders or close to the 

2. Placing the right hand on the left hand on the chest. 

3. Reciting the opening supplication (Istiftaah). 

Allah’s Messenger (H) used to say certain opening 

supplications before reciting Surah al-Faatihah. The 
following is one of these supllications: 

In vj ^4in 

Subhaanok-Allaahumma wa bihamdiko, wa tabaaraka- 
smuka, wa ta ‘aalaa judduka, wa laa ilaaha ghairuk. 

Glory be to You, O Allah and Praise. Blessed is Your Name 
and High is Your Majesty. There is no god but You. 

T - 

4. Seeking refuge with Allah (ta’awwudh). After saying 

the opening supplication (Istiftaah), Allah’s Messenger ($§) 
would quietly say ^ A’oodhu 

billaahi minash-Shaitaanir-Rajeem ‘I seek refuge in Allah 

from Shaytan the accursed’. 

5. Reciting Bismillaahir- 

Rahmaanir-Raheem ‘In the name of Allah, Most Kind, Most 
Merciful’ quietly before reciting surat al-Faatihah. 

6. Saying ‘Ameen’ after reciting surat al-Faatihah. 

7. Reciting a surah or verse of the Qur’an after 

al-Faatihah in the first two rak’ahs of every compulsory 

8. Reciting the Qur’an aloud in the two rak’ahs of Fajr, 
the first two rak’ahs of Maghrib and Isha and the two 
rak’ahs of Salatul Jumu’ah, the Eed prayers and the prayer 
for rain, and quietly during the rest of the rak’ahs and the 

9. Placing the hands on the knees while spreading the 
fingers apart during ruku. 



22 The Sunan Acts of Salah 

1 0. Looking at the ground at the place of sujud. 

1 1 . Saying the statement of glorification of the Lord 
(Tasbeeh) more than once in ruku and sujud. 

1 2. Making one’s back straight during ruku while making 
one’s head parallel to one’s back. 

1 3. Sitting on the left foot and propping up the right one 
on one’s toes between the two prostrations and the first 
tashahhud; and pushing the left foot forward and keeping 
the right foot propped up on one’s toes while sitting on 
one’s buttocks in the last tashahhud. 

14. Invoking blessings on the Prophet ( M ) in the final 
tashahhud and then making supplications (du’aa) using 
expressions taught by Allah’s Messenger ( M ) before 

15. Turning to the right and to the left when making 


22 * 

The Sunan Acts of Salah 



A. State whether the following statements are true or false. 

1. A Muslim is recommended to perform the sunan acts of 


2 . If one leaves out one of the sunan acts of salah o n purpose, one 
has to perform the two prostrations of forgetfulness. 

3. If a Muslim performs the sunan elements of salah, he will get a 
lot of rewards. 

B. With the help of your teacher, practise the sunan acts of salah 
and make them a part of your five daily prayers. 


1 Jp 


I-L -i . _ it — it 




Remembrance of Allah after Salah 


jJu jlftt 

After completing any obligatory prayer, Allah’s 
Messenger ( M ) used to remember Allah, and he strongly 
recommended this to his companions. It is better for you to 
memorize some of these supplications and practise them 
in your daily life. Some of these supplications are as follows: 

1 . The Prophet ( % ) used to say (astagh firullaah ) 

three times after he ended any of the prayers. He would then 

Allaahumma antassalaam, wa minkassalaam, 
tabaarakta yaa dhal-jalaali wal ikraam 

O Allah! You are Peace and from You comes Peace; 
You are Blessed, O Lord of Glory and Honour. 

2. 4 jbi j \ - Subhaan-Allaah Glory be to Allah, 33 times 

dJb Al Hamdulillaah Praise be to Allah, 33 times 

idbi Allaahu Al<bar Allah is Most Great, 33 times 

After this he would say, 

Z.aa ilaaha illallaahu, wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, 
lahul-mulku, wa lahul-hamdu, wa huwwa ‘alaa kulli 
shai’in qadeer. 

S^Ull diu jlfii 

There is no god but Allah. He is One. He has no partner. His 
is the Kingdom; and for Him is all praise, and He has power over 


It is also reported that Allah’s Messenger ( ) used to say 

at the end of each obligatory prayer: 

^ a ‘>j C.UUU3 UJT Cj-dzxL] U-t £-31d» 

JiL* jl^JI iS 

* x * 

Allaahumma laa maani’a limaa a’tayta, wa laa miitiya 
limaa mancfta, wa laa yanfa’u dhal-jaddi minkal-jaddu. 

O Allah! There is no one to withhold what You give, and no 
one to give what You withhold; and the might of the mighty 
person cannot benefit him against Your Will. 

4. Allah’s Messenger ( it ) would also recite Surat al-lkhlaas, 
Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Naas once at the end of Dhuhr, Asr 
and Isha prayers, and three times after Fajr and Maghrib 

5. Allah’s Messenger ( ) would also recite Ayat Al-Kursee 

after each obligatory salah. 

Memorise the various supplications and recite them after your 
five daily prayers. 

Islam has its own calendar. It dates from the hijrah 
(migration) when Allah’s Messenger ( M ) and his companions 
left Makkah for Madinah in the year 622 CE. 

The Islamic calendar is based on the movement of the 
moon. It is called a lunar calendar. The lunar year is roughly 1 1 
days shorter than the solar year. Its months have 29 or 30 days. 

In relation to the Western calendar, the Islamic calendar 
moves backward every year. This means that Islamic festivals 
including the month of Ramadan fall at different times of the 
Western year. They bear no fixed relation to the changes of 

The months of the Islamic Calendar 

1 . 





Rabee al-Awwal 


Rabee ath-Thaanee 


Jumaada al-Ulaa 


Jamaada ath-Thaaniyah 







10 . 



Dhul Qa’dah 

12 . 

Dhul Hijjah 

The Islamic Calendar 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . When does the Islamic calendar date from? 

2. Why do Islamic festivals fall at different times every year? 

B. Find suitable answers from the lesson and fill in the blanks. 

1 . The Islamic calendar is based on the movement of the 

2. It is also known as . 

3. It is about days shorter than the solar calendar. 

C. Do-it-yourself. 

Find out today’s date, month and year according to the Islamic calendar. 

Chapter ^ ; / ; - 

25 Surat an-Nasr (The Help) 






'jj i'j ^ 

> f <Tf" *f> ^ ^ 

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In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful. 

(1 ) When Allah’s help comes, and the victory, 

(2) And you see people entering Allah’s religion in masses, 

(3) Then praise your Lord and ask Him for forgiveness. Surely, 
He is always ready to forgive. 


Surat an-Nasr consists of three aayaat and was the last 
complete surah of the Qur’an to be sent down. In fact, it was 
revealed during the Prophet’s Farewell Pilgrimage in the tenth 
year of the Hijrah in Mina, about three months before the 
Prophet’s death. 

This surah indicates that the mission of the Prophet ( ^§) had 
been completed. It was a sign of the approaching end of the 
life of Allah’s Messenger ( M ). 



Surat an-Nasr (The Help) 

Only two years before, the holy city of Makkah had been 
taken over peacefully by an army of 10,000 believers. The 
Ka’bah and the city had been cleansed of idolatry and of all 
evil practices. Now, about 1 24,000 believers accompanied 
the Prophet ( M ) on his Farewell Pilgrimage. Islam now had 
spread beyond Makkah and Madinah to include all of Arabia. 
Tribe after tribe came to offer their pledge to the Prophet ( ). 

The mission of the Prophet ( M ) had become victorious. 

It is reported that from the time this surah was sent down 
until the Prophet’s death, he used to repeat over and over, 

‘subhaanak-Allaahumma wo bihamdika, 


Glory be to You O Allah, and praise; forgive me O Allah! 

Whenever a person is successful in any field of his life, no 
matter how much he has done or sacrificed, he should always 
try to remain humble before his Lad and thank Him for His help. 


25 Surat an-Nasr (The Help) 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . When was this surah revealed? What is so special about this 

2. What message does the surah want to give? 

3. What important lesson do we learn from the du’aa of the 
Prophet ( H )? 

B. Activity 

Why did the Prophet ( H) recite the du’aa over and over again? 
(Clue: Read the English translation of the surah again) 



Surat al-Kawthar 

's'. * '' 

In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful. 

(1 ) Truly, We have given you al-Kawthar. 

(2) So pray to your Lord and sacrifice (to Him alone). 

(3) Indeed, it is the one who hates you who will be cut 

This is the shortest surah of the Qur’an. It consists of 
only three brief aayaat. As is well known, all the sons of 
the Prophet ( % ) died during his lifetime and only his 
daughters survived. 

Some leaders of the Quraysh made fun of the 
Prophet [M ) when his young son Abdullah from Khadijah 
( t|i) died. They said he no longer had any sons to carry 
on his name. They also said that he would be soon 
forgotten after his death. In the tribal society, it was 
important for every man to have a son to carry on his 
name of honour. After the birth of his first son, a father 
would be given a title: Abu (father of) followed by the 
given name of his son. 



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Allah promised the Prophet ( ) in this surah that it 

would be those who insulted the Prophet ( M ), and not 
him, who would leave behind no one to remember them. 
Now more than fourteen centuries later, millions of 
Muslims around the world ask Allah to shower His blessings 
on the Prophet ( s ) and his family in every prayer as well 
as on many numerous occasions. 

The term al-Kawthar means much good in this life 
and in the hereafter. It is also the name of a river in 
Paradise. The water of al-Kawthar is whiter than milk and 
sweeter than honey. Those who drink from it will not feel 
thirsty again! 

This surah promises that the enemies of the Prophet 
( M ) are indeed cut off both in this world and in the 


Surat al-Kawthar 

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son of 


Surat al-Kawthar 


pond or river in Paradise 




father of 




shortest surah of the Qur’an 


daughter of 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Describe the pond of al-Kawthar. Do you think we can perfectly 
describe it? 

2. What special feature does the pond of al-Kawthar have? 

C. Think-up 

In how many different ways do people remember the Prophet 
(H) even after fourteen centuries? 

Chapter j 


Surat al-Asr 



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In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful. 

(1) By the time, 

(2) Man is definitely in loss, 

(3) Except those who have faith and do right actions, 
and urge each other to the truth, and urge each 
other to patience. 

This surah affirms that each human being is in a state of 
loss, except those who engage themselves in four 
activities. The first is holding or keeping the faith in Allah - 
iman. The second is doing good actions. The third and 
fourth is advising one another to follow the truth and to 
remain patient against all odds. 

This surah was revealed in Makkah and takes its title 
from the first word of the first aayah. This surah presents a 
complete reality of life and history. It is related that every 
time two of the Prophet’s companions met, they would 
not leave each other until one of them recited this surah 
and greeted his fellow with the greeting of peace, that is 

One scholar used to say that he understood the 
meaning of ‘wal asri innal insaana lafee khusr’ when he 
heard an ice-seller in the marketplace calling out, ‘Have 
mercy on a man whose wealth is melting away!’ meaning 
please buy my ice before it melts away, or I will lose it and 
have no money with which to feed myself and my family. 

Our lives are like blocks of ice; they are passing away 
with each second, never to return! We will be losers if we 
don’t make the best use of our time by doing good 
things, which will be rewarded in the hereafter. 



Surat al-Asr 


A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What four activities make a person successful? 

2. What are the actions of a good believer? 

3. How does the surah take its title? 

B. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . Surat al-Asr was revealed in . 

2. Our lives are like blocks of . 

C. Think-up 

1 . Why do you think that man loses with the passage of time? 

— — * 

C ha pte r M .;-:v 

28 Surat al-lkhlaas 


In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful. 

(1 ) Say: He is Allah, who is One. 

(2) Allah is the Eternal Refuge. 

(3) He does not give birth; nor is He born. 

(4) And there is nothing at all like Him. 

The Lord of the universe is One. He has no wife. He 
has no children. Allah has no son. There is no other god 
besides Him. Tawheed, or Oneness of Allah, is the 
mainspring of Islam and the core of the Qur’an. 

There is nothing at all like Him. It is ridiculous to 
suppose that the sun is a god, the earth is a goddess, or 
that animals or plants are gods. In fact, there is no god 
but Allah alone with no partners. Everything belongs to 
Him and He deserves all Praise. He has power over 




Surat al-lkhlaas 

Surat al-lkhlaas is one of the most important surahs of 
the Qur’an. This short surah teaches us Tawheed, or 
Oneness of Allah. Allah’s Messenger ( M ) described it as 
being equal to one third of the Qur’an. It is one of the 
most beloved portions of the Qur’an. A Muslim should 
recite this surah as often as he can! 

Answer the following questions. 

1 . What does surat al-lkhlaas teach us? 

2. What is surat al-lkhlaas equal to? 

3. Write a paragraph on what you learned about Allah in this 




Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Naas 

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Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Naas are known as 
al-mu’awwidhatayn - the two surahs for seeking Allah’s 
refuge. These two surahs especially have been used to 
ward off evil. The Prophet ( M ) himself recommended that 
they be recited as protection against envy and the evil 

These two surahs together consist of eleven aayaat. 
They are prayers for protection against all forms of human 
or non-human evil. 

Surat al-Falaq 



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In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful. 

(1 ) Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of daybreak, 

(2) From the evil of what He created, 

(3) And from the evil of the darkness when it settles, 

(4) And from the evil of those who practise witchcraft 
when they blow in the knots, 

(5) And from the evil of the envious one when he envies. 


‘I seek refuge’ 

‘I seek refuge’ means ‘I seek Allah’s protection’. Allah 
answers anyone who asks Him. He gives shelter to anyone 
who seeks shelter with Him. Al-Mu’awwidhatayn - the last 
two surahs of the Qur’an were sent down to teach us how 
to seek Allah’s protection from all kinds of evil. Life has so 
many things which can be evil. But these two surahs 
provide strong protection for anyone who desires to seek 
the protection of Allah. 

Daybreak is the morning or the light that expels 
darkness. The sources of evil are many - reptiles, insects, 
wild animals and evil men. When darkness thickens, it 
provides opportunities to evil people and creatures to do 
evil things. 

‘Those who practise witchcraft’ 

They are magicians who blow in knots and do similar 
acts for evil purposes. Magic is a reality. The devils 
among men and jinn use it. But if we seek Allah’s 
protection, sorcery will lose its evil effect. The Qur’an 
forbids the leaning of magic and provides the means of 
protection against it. 




Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Naas 

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‘The evil of the envious one when he envies.’ 

Envy is a sickness of the soul. It disturbs the life of an 
individual and society as a whole. Envy is the pain felt 
when you see that another person has something good 
or good moral qualities, and you do your utmost to 
destroy his qualities. Envy was the first sin committed when 
Iblees envied Adam (sga). 

An envious person is a mean enemy who cannot 
fulfill his wicked desire except by wishing harm to others. 
Envy is one of the most widespread human vices. 

This surah can protect us by Allah’s Will from evil that 
comes from outside ourselves. 

Surat an-Naas 

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In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful. 

(1 ) Say: I seek refuge with the Lord of mankind, 

(2) The King of mankind, 

(3) The God of mankind, 


Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Naas 

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(4) From the evil of the whisperer who disappears [after 

(5) Who whispers (evil thoughts) in the hearts of mankind. 

(6) From among the jinn and humans. 

There are 1 14 surahs in the Qur’an. Surat an-Naas is 
the last surah in the Qur’an. In this surah we seek refuge 
with Allah from the evil of the whispering Satan who 
whispers evil thoughts in the hearts of people. Satan 
whispers pride, envy and other vices. Taking refuge is a 
form of continuous dhikr or remembrance. This dhikr 
allows us to resist the suggestions of the whisperings, 
whether they are from men or jinn. 

Shaytan is our sworn enemy because he tries hard to 
lead us away from the Right Path by whispering evil 
thoughts to us. 

We should always remember Allah and seek His 
protection from Shaytan. 





Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Naas 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Explain the term ‘al-mu'awwidhatayn’. 

2. What is envy? If we see someone who is better than us, must we 
envy him? If not, then what shall we do instead? 

B. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . Allah has connected darkness with evil and daybreak with 

is our sworn enemy. 

2 . 




Surat al-Falaq and Surat an-Naas 

(J) I rt 1 1 

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C. Activity 

1 . Besides pride and envy, what other faults does Satan whisper 
into our hearts? 

2. These two surahs give protection to us by Allah’s will. There are 
many evils. Some of them are mentioned in the lesson, like 
reptiles, insects, etc. Can you think of some more evils we need 
Allah to protect us from? 


30 Surat al-Masad 

jllLLLoi \ 3 4 ^ 

This surah is about Abu Lahab. The real name of 
this uncle of the Prophet (H) was Abd al-Uzzaa. He 
was popularly nicknamed Abu Lahab because of 
the brightness of his face. He was very rich. He was 
the Prophet’s next-door neighbour. 

Abu Lahab and his wife Umm Jameel did many 
terrible things to the Prophet ( M ) and his 
companions throughout their lives. Abu Lahab tried 
very hard to make the Prophet’s life miserable. His 
wife used to get up early in the morning to collect 
thorns to scatter them on paths she expected the 
Prophet ( it ) would take. 

Allah’s Messenger (%) once climbed the hillock of 
as-Safa in Makkah. He called all those who could 
hear him from among his tribe, Quraysh. After they 
had gathered, he asked them, ‘If I were to tell you 
that the enemy was about to attack you from 
behind this hill, would you believe me?’ 



Surat al-Masad 


They answered, ‘Yes, we would.’ He then said, ‘I am 
here to warn you of a severe punishment that is about to 
happen.’ Abu Lahab said, ‘Was it for this purpose that you 
have summoned us? May you perish!’ 

Abu Lahab had two sons, Utbah and Utaybah. They 
were married to the Prophet’s two daughters, Ruqayyah 
and Umm Kulthum. He ordered his sons to divorce the 
Prophet’s daughters and they obeyed. 

Allah revealed this powerful short surah of the Qur’an 
mentioning Abu Lahab by name and warning him and 
his wife of their approaching doom. 


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In the name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful. 

1 . May the two hands of Abu Lahab be ruined, and 
ruined is he. 

2. His wealth and what he has gained will not benefit 

4. And his wife (as well), the carrier of firewood; 

5. Around her neck is a twisted rope of palm fibre. 

What Abu Lahab gained were his children and his 
wealth. Abu Lahab was a leader of the Quraysh. His 
power, wealth and his children could not save him 
against Allah’s punishment in this life and the hereafter. 

‘The carrier of firewood’ is Abu Lahab’s wife, Umm 
Jameel. Her name was Arwah bint Harb ibn Umayyah. 
Her hatred of Allah’s Messenger [M) and his followers was 
so intense that she would often, under the cover of 
darkness, scatter thorns on the Prophet’s paths to cause 
him harm. She used to slander him and his message. 
‘Carrier of firewood’, also denotes someone who carries 
backbiting and gossip from one person to another so as 
to light the flames of hatred between them. 

Al-masad: The palm fibre rope. The wife of Abu 
Lahab used to tie the thorny wood with twisted rope to 
carry it to the Prophet’s door. On the Day of Judgement, 
her neck will be tied by a twisted rope made of fibre. She, 
like her husband, will be thrown in the blazing Fire. 

Al-masad also means collar of iron. 

Surat al-Masad 


Name the following: 

1 . The real name of Abu Lahab: 

2. The meaning of Abu Lahab: _ 

3. Abu Lahab’s wife: 

4. Her kunyah: 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why was Abu Lahab so called? 

2. How did Abu Lahab’s wife mistreat the Prophet (it)? 

3. How did Abu Lahab behave when the Prophet (it) invited him 
to Islam? 

C. Think-up 

Where was this surah revealed? 



Surat al-Feel (The Elephant) 

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In the name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful. 

1 . Did you not see how your Lord dealt with the 
People of the elephant? 

2. Did He not make their plan astray? 

3. And He sent against them birds in great flocks. 

4. Which hurled at them stones of baked clay. 

5. And He made them like eaten straw. 

This surah was revealed in Makkah. It takes its title 
from the reference to the army accompanied by a huge 
elephant. It is the main subject of this brief surah. 

The surah has five aayaat. It describes the plight of 
this army which Allah utterly destroyed. Abraha was an 
Ethiopian ruler. He ruled Yemen. He erected a great 
church in San’a. He hoped to divert the annual 
pilgrimage from the Ka’bah to the new church. 

Chapter^ - - 

3 1 Surat al-Feel (The Elephant) 

When this did not happen, he was determined to destroy 
the Ka’bah. He set out for Makkah at the head of a large 
army which included a huge war elephant. This was 
unknown and very surprising to the Arabs; they, therefore, 
called this year in which this incident happend ‘The Year 
of the Elephant’. 

Abraha’s army was totally destroyed on its march. 
Abraha himself died on his return to San’a. The nature of 
the doom that overtook the invading army was certainly 
miraculous. It brought a sudden, totally unexpected 
rescue to the distressed people of Makkah. As the army 
encamped outside the sacred area around the Ka’bah, 
Allah destroyed them with a flock of birds, which pelted 
them with stones of clay. These made them bleed 
heavily. Their wounds became infected with pus and they 
died in a short time. Allah the Almighty saved His House. 

The purpose of this surah is to show Allah’s favour on 
the tribe of Quaysh of Makkah and His protection of His 
Sacred House. 

This incident took place in the year 571 , the year in 
which the Prophet Muhammad [§i) was born. 


Choose the answers from the box below 
and fill in the blanks. 

1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 


This surah was revealed in . 

is a city in Yemen. 

Abraha ruled . 

He wanted people to perform pilgrimage to his . 

Abraha died on his return to . 


What new mode of warfare did Abraha use to attack the Ka’bah? 

1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 



Describe how Allah protected His House. 


32 Prophet Muhammad it(1) 

The Call to Islam in Makkah 

Allah’s Messenger ( % ) now began to preach 
Tawheed [Oneness of Allah] as he received the 
command to do so. He started the task of keeping 
people away from idol worship and inviting them to 
Tawheed right from his own household. The result was that 
Khadijah ( % ) was the first woman to accept Islam. Ali ibn 
Abee Talib ( 4 & ) and Zayd ibn Haarithah ( ) also 

embraced Islam the very first day. They all belonged to 
his household. 

Abu Bakr ibn Abu Quhafah ( ) was the Prophet’s 
friend. He also accepted Islam the same day. The people 
who became Muslims on the first day knew the Prophet 
(It) well. They had been aware of his qualities and noble 
character for a very long time. No part of the Prophet’s 
life was hidden to them. Their acceptance of Islam the 
very first day was a clear proof of his truthfulness. 

In the beginning, the Prophet ( $g ) kept his call to 
Islam quiet. He limited it to his relatives and friends. 




Prophet Muhammad M (1 ) 

In the early period, Abu Bakr (4&) offered his services 
most prominently. He had a very wide circle of friends. 
This brought Uthman ibn Affan (4&), Talha ibn Ubaydullah 
(4H Sa’d ibn Abee Waqqas (4®), Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf 
(4&) and az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam (4&) to the fold of Islam. 

Uthman ibn Madh’un (4s>), Qudamah ibn Madh’un (4®), 
Sa’eed ibn Zayd (4®). Fatimah ( 14 ), the sister of Umar ibn 
Al-Khattab and wife of Sa’eed ibn Zayd, were next to 
enter the fold of Islam. 

Another group to embrace Islam were individuals like 
Umayr ( 4 ® ), the brother of Sa’d ibn Abee Waqqas, 
Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ( 4&>) and Ja’far ibn Abee Talib (4® )• 
Thus came into being a small group of Muslim men, 
women, youths, old men and children. The believing men 
would go beyond Makkah in the mountain pass to pray 
to Allah. 





Prophet Muhammad M (1 ) 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why did the Prophet ( M ) start preaching Tawheed? 

2. What different types of people accepted Islam? 

3. Where would the new Muslims pray to Allah? 

B. Think-up 

1 . Why did the Prophet’s household accept Islam so quickly? 

2. Why did the Prophet ( $6 ) keep calling people to Islam quietly? 



Prophet Muhammad ^(1) 

C. Circle the correct answer. 

1 . This person accepted Islam on the first day of the Prophet’s 

a. Abu Bakr 

b. Sa’eed ibn Zayd 

2. He had a large circle of friends. 

a. Abu Bakr 

b. AN ibn Abee Talib 

3. AN ibn Abee Talib was the Prophet’s 

a. nephew 

b. cousin 




Prophet Muhammad it (2) 

Islam and the Quraysh 

Three years passed quickly. Allah’s Messenger ( M ) 
called people to Islam quietly. People began to give up 
idolatry and came to the told of Islam. Men and women 
accepted the new faith and everyone in Makkah was 
talking about it. 

The Quraysh, at the outset, gave no importance to 
the movement of Islam. It did not look like causing them 
any harm and putting them in danger. They, therefore, 
did not go beyond poking fun at the believers, jeering at 
them, and hurting them with their tongues. However, in 
some cases, mischief-mongers among the Quraysh also 
attacked individual Muslims physically. Once Sa’d ibn 
Abee Waqqas ( 4&) was performing prayer in a mountain 
pass along with a few Muslims. A few pagans passed by 
them and tried to stop the Muslims from praying by force. 
Sa’d ibn Abee Waqqas ( 4® ) rose against them, and a 
disbeliever received an injury from his sword. 

Once Allah’s Messenger ( M ) and AN ( 4 ® ) were 
performing prayer in a mountain pass. Abu Talib arrived 
at the scene. He kept silent, watching them. When the 
prayer was over, he said, ‘What is this faith that you have 
adopted?’ ‘This is the faith of Ibraaheem,’ they said and 
added, ‘You should also accept it.’ ‘I will not give up the 
religion of my ancestors,’ and said, turning to Ali ( 4 ®), ‘My 
son! I’m sure he will lead you to nothing but good.’ 



Prophet Muhammad M (2) 

A. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . The Prophet ( ^ ) preached Islam for years. 

2. A disbeliever was hurt from the sword of 

3. Islam is also known as ‘the faith of .’ 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . How did the Quraysh behave towards the believers? 

2. Did Abu Talib accept Islam? 




Prophet Muhammad M (3) 

The Call to Islam from Mount Safa 

Allah’s Messenger ( ^ ) kept his mission quiet and 
private for three years. 

Then Allah commanded him to proclaim His religion 
openly. The revelation (Wahy) came, ‘Proclaim openly 
what you are commanded, and turn away from the 
mushrikoon (the polytheists).’ ps: 94 ] 

Allah also commanded, ‘And warn your near 
relatives and lower your wing (show kindness) to those 
who follow you of the believers.’ [26:214-215] 

With this order, Allah’s Messenger ( ) ascended the 
Mount of Safa in Makkah and gave a call to each and 
every tribe by name in a raised voice. He called out as 
loudly as he could, ‘Yaa Sabaahaahl’ This was a 
well-known cry used to gather together the people in 
times of danger. When there was any danger of an 
enemy attacking the city or a tribe, the call ‘Yaa 
Sabaahaah’ would be raised! The Quraysh were always 
quick to respond. They gathered round Allah’s Messenger 


Chapter^ ^ = 

34 Prophet Muhammad;! 


The Prophet [M] asked them, ‘O Quraysh! If I were to tell 
you that enemy warriors are about to attack you from 
behind the hill, would you believe me?’ They answered, 
‘yes, we would.’ The Arabs were practical. They had 
always found the Prophet ( M ) truthful and trustworthy. 
There was in front of them a man noted for his truthfulness 
and sincerity. 

Allah’s Messenger ( M ) then said to them, ‘Well, I am 
here to warn you of a severe punishment.’ 

Hearing this, they burst into laughter. Then suddenly 
they became silent. Abu Lahab was in the gathering. He 
was one of the uncles of the Prophet ( ) and was one of 
the bitterest enemies of Islam. He said to the Prophet (is), 
‘May you perish. Was it for this purpose that you have 
called us here?’ Following this the people disappeared. 

Shortly afterwards, Surat al-Masad was revealed. It is 
surah number 1 1 1 in the Qur’an. 




Prophet Muhammad H (3) 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why did the Prophet ( % ) cry out ‘Yaa Sabaahaah’ and not 
anything else? 

2. Did the people accept the Prophet’s message? 

3. How did Abu Lahab react? 

B. Think-up 

Find out what connection Surat al-Masad has with Abu Lahab’s 
reaction to the Prophet’s message in this lesson. 



Prophet Muhammad M (4) 


Abu Talib’s Support and Concern 

A few days later, Allah’s Messenger [M) asked Ali ibn 
Abee Talib to give a feast and invite his relatives. About 
forty people attended it. At the end of the feast, Allah’s 
Messenger ( M ) rose to say something but the 
mischievous utterances of Abu Lahab took away from 
the Prophet [ M ) a chance to warn them and to call 
them to Islam. 

After a gap of a few days, Allah’s Messenger (^) 
arranged another feast and as his relatives finished their 
meal, the Prophet ( ^ ) rose to say, ‘Look! I have come to 
you with something that no one else ever brought for his 
tribe. I bring you the best of this world and the next. Allah 
has commanded me to call you to Him. Tell me who will 
lend his support to me in this work.’ They sat in silence. 

No one made any response. But when the silence 
remained unbroken, thirteen-year-old Ali spoke out, ‘O 
Prophet of Allah, I will be your helper in this.’ Abu Talib, too 
assured the Prophet ( $$ ) of his support. 




Prophet Muhammad St (4) 

Enmity of the Quraysh 

When Allah’s Messenger ( ) openly proclaimed the 

call to Islam and called out people to Tawheed (Oneness 
of Allah), his people did not distance themselves from 
him, nor did they reject him. But when he criticized their 
false gods and idols, they regarded him as a threat and 
they united in opposition against him. In assemblies and 
gatherings, in fairs and marketplaces, and by reaching 
out to people in their homes, the Prophet (H) would teach 
people the virtues of Tawheed and warn them against 
worshipping idols, gambling, lying, fraud, theft and all 
kinds of vices. 

The Quraysh were so proud. It was not easy for them 
to tolerate insulting remarks against their ancestors’ faith 
and practices. They were also very particular about the 
difference between slaves and their masters. But Islam 
taught the equality of both of them. All the tribes in Arabia 
respected the Quraysh and the Makkans. 

This was due to the idols they used to come to 
Makkah to worship. Islam, on the other hand, was the 
enemy of idolatry. The heads and noblemen of Makkah 
could not step down from their arrogant positions and 
follow the Prophet ( ^ ). Most of the tribes had a feeling 
of hatred towards Banu Hashim, so they could not accept 
a man from a rival tribe to guide them. Thus, open 
preaching ignited the fire of hostility all over Arabia. It 
turned into a blaze during the fourth year of Prophethood. 



Prophet Muhammad it (4) 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . How did the Prophet ( fg ) arrange to spread the word of Islam 
to his relatives? 

2. Who from the gathering at the Prophet’s house gave him 

3. When did the Prophet’s people start rejecting him? 

B. Think-up 

Why do yu think the Quraysh did not accept Islam? 

First Centre of Education 

About the same time, 

Allah’s Messenger ( ) used 
the house of Al-Arqam at the 
bottom of the Mount of Safa 
as a centre for education. 

Every new Muslim would 
come to this centre to learn 
the teachings of Islam. 

Gradually, this centre 
became a crowded place. 

The Prophet ( % ) himself 
would lead the prayer there. Al-Arqam’s house served as 
the centre for all Islamic activities. The last person to 
accept Islam in Dar Al-Arqam (the House of Al-Arqam) 
was Umar ibn al-Khattab (<$&). His acceptance of Islam 
was a turning point in the history of Islam. 

Enmity of the Quraysh 

Among the new Muslims some were slaves. Some of 
them had no powerful tribes or relatives to defend them. 
Such weak and defenseless people became the easy 
victims of the disbelievers and suffered a great deal of 
torture. Muslims in general were put to ridicule. The 
Quraysh treated them most unkindly so that other people 
would not dare to join the new faith. 




Prophet Muhammad IS (5) 

Bilal (#->) was the slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf. He put 
Bilal ( ) to great torture. He used to bring him out at 

about noon time in the hot sun. He would then throw him 
on his back on the burning sand and would order a 
heavy rock to be placed on his chest. At times both his 
arms were tied behind his back and he was lashed 
mercilessly. Sometimes he was kept hungry. Sometimes 
he was handed over to street urchins with a rope tied 
round his neck. They would pull him through the streets 
and lanes and to the hills beyond the city. But Bilal (4&) 
would bear all these miseries with patience, saying Ahad, 
Ahad ( Allah is One, Allah is One). 

Ammaar ( ) embraced 

Islam along with his father Yaasir 
( ) and mother Sumayyah ( 14). 

Abu Jahl tortured them 
mercilessly. The wicked Abu Jahl 
stuck his spear in Sumayyah’s 
body and killed her. She was the 
first martyr in Islam. Abu Jahl 
once gave Zanirah ( 4 ) such a 
severe beating that she became blind. It makes one’s 
hair stand on end to think of the cruelties of the 
disbelievers against the slaves and the weak. But Islam is 
such a powerful force that nobody turned away once 
accepting it because of these tortures. 



Prophet Muhammad M (5) 

Uthman ibn Affan (<#>) was a wealthy man of the 
Umayyah tribe. On becoming Muslim he was tied with a 
rope, thrashed severely and put to many physical 
tortures. Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwam’s uncle tried to control 
him by wrapping him in a mat. 

Abu Dhar al-Ghifaree was so mercilessly beaten that 
he fell unconscious. Abdullah ibn Mas’ud was also 
beaten to unconsciousness. Khabbab ibn al-Aratt was 
once made to lie down on burning embers. A man sat on 
his chest so that he could not move or change sides. The 
result was the flesh and the skin on his back and waist 
were burnt off. 




Prophet Muhammad M (5) 

A. Name the following. 

1 . The centre the Prophet ( ^ ) set up for education: 

2. The last person to accept Islam in the centre: 

3. The slave of Umayyah ibn Khalaf: 

4. The parents of Ammar: 

5. A wealthy man of the Umayyah tribe: 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . The centre served many uses. Explain. 

2. Describe the different ways in which Bilal ( 4 ? ) was tortured. 

3. How was Sumayyah, Uthman ibn Affan and Khabbab ibn 
al-Aratt tortured? 



Prophet Muhammad $ (6) 

Once Allah’s Messenger ( M ) was offering his prayers 
at the Ka’bah. Uqbah ibn Abee Mu’ayt twisted his neck 
with a piece of cloth until the Prophet ( ) was nearly 

strangled. When Abu Bakr heard of it, he rushed to the 
spot and saved the Prophet ( M ) from this mischief. He 
then asked the Quraysh, ‘Would you kill a person simply 
because he says that Allah is his Lord?’ So they left the 
Prophet ( M ) and fell on Abu Bakr. They treated him very 

On another occasion, Allah’s Messenger ( H ) was 
performing prayers in the courtyard of the Ka’bah in the 
presence of the Quraysh. Abu Jahl said, ‘A camel has 
been slaughtered at such and such a place. Its intestines 
are lying there. Someone should fetch them and put 
them on Muhammad.’ Uqbah ibn Abee Mu’ayt got up. 
He fetched the intestines and put them on the back of the 
Prophet ( M ) when he prostrated. The disbelievers were 
overtaken with laughter. Fatimah ( % ) who was then of 
tender age, removed the intestines from the back of her 
father. She scolded them in strong words. 

They also used to throw stones, filth and rubbish at his 
house. Once the Prophet ( M ) said, ‘O Banu Abd Manaf, 
how well you are at fulfilling the rights of a neighbour!’ The 
Prophet ( M ) was sometimes called a poet. At times, he 
was called a sorcerer, a soothsayer, or a madman. In 
short, the disbelievers left no stone unturned in putting the 
Prophet ( H ) and his companions to the utmost harm. 




Prophet Muhammad St (6) 

They did everything to block his mission. But the Prophet 
( M ) was determined to fulfil his duty with unshakable 

When the Quraysh felt that their opposition to the 
Prophet’s mission would bear no fruit, they adopted 
another plan. 

Answer the following questions. 

1 . In what different ways would the Prophet ( ) be tortured while 

performing prayers? 

2. What different names was the Prophet ( H ) branded with? 




Prophet Muhammad M (7) 

The Quraysh ’s Offers and the Prophet’s Reply 

The Quraysh consulted with each other and sent 
Utbah ibn Rabee’ah to the Prophet (^t) with offers. He said 
very politely, ‘Muhammad, you are noble and belong to 
a noble family. But you have created divisions among 
your people. Tell me what you want. If you want wealth, 
we will collect enough of it for you till you become the 
richest of all of us. If you desire to be a leader, we will 
make you our chief. We are ready to accept your rule. If 
you want kingship, we will readily give you that. If you are 
under the power of an evil spirit which seems to haunt you 
and dominate you so that you cannot get rid of it, we will 
surely call in skilful physicians to cure you.’ 

When Utbah had finished, Allah’s Messenger ( H ) 
asked, ‘Have you finished Abul Waleed?’ ‘Yes’, came the 
reply. The Prophet ( $|) said, ‘Now listen to me.’ The Prophet 
( M ) began to recite Surat Fussilat. Utbah listened 
attentively. When the Prophet ( ) reached the verse that 

requires prostration he prostrated. After that, he turned to 
Utbah and said, ‘Well, Abul-Waleed, you have heard my 
reply. You are now free to do whatever you want.’ 

Utbah left the place and went back to the Quraysh 
and said, ‘Take my advice and leave this man alone. Be 
neutral in his case. If he brings Arabia under his control, 
his success will be your success because he is your 
brother. If he meets his doom, you are happily safe.’ 

Hearing this, the Quraysh said to Utbah, ‘It appears 
Muhammad has cast a spell on you.’ Utbah replied, ‘You 
say whatever you like. I have given you my opinion.’ 


A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Who was sent to make offers to the Prophet ( H )? 

2. Was Utbah successful in his mission? 

3. Why did the Quraysh make fun of Utbah? 

B. Think-up. 

1 . Do you think Utbah was an ordinary person? 

2. What is the Kunyah of Utbah? Find the answer in the text. 


What is the number of Surat Fussilat in the Qur’an? 

1 . “Say Bismillaah, eat with your right hand and eat 
from your side (of the dish).” (Al-Bukharee and Muslim) 

2. “Tahaarah is half of faith...” (Muslim) 

3. “Fear Allah wherever you are...” (Al-Tirmidhee) 

4. “Say, ‘I believe in Allah,’ and then stand firm.’” (Muslim) 

5. “Paradise lies under the feet of mothers.” (Muslim) 

6. “There is a cure for every disease.” (Muslim) 

7. “Be mindful of Allah, and Allah will protect you...” 


8. “...Do not hate each other...” (Al-Bukharee) 

9. “None of you will truly believe until he loves for his 
brother what he loves for himself.” (Al-Bukharee and Muslim) 

1 0. “Modesty is a part of faith...” (Muslim) 


Memorize the sayings of the Prophet ( ^ ). 


He was Zayd ibn Haarithah al-Kalbee. His mother’s 
name was Sawdah bint Tha’labah. She belonged to the 
famous tribe of Tayy. 

Zayd (4&) was captured in a raid and sold as a slave. 
Hakeem ibn Hizam ibn Khuwaylid bought him for four 
hundred dirhams. It was a lot of money at that time. 
Hakeem gave Zayd as a gift to his aunt Khadijah bint 
Khuwaylid ( t^), the Prophet’s wife. Zayd was happy in the 
house of Khadijah (&) because she was a very kind lady. 
When Khadijah married the Prophet ( M), she gave him 
Zayd ibn Haarithah as a gift. 

When Zayd’s father Haarithah and his uncle Ka’b 
came to know that Zayd lived with a man in Makkah as 
his slave, both of them came to Makkah and requested 
the Prophet ( M ) to set Zayd free. The Prophet ( M ) 
accepted their request at once and said that Zayd was 
free to go with them if he so desired. 

Zayd (4&) turned to his father and uncle and replied, 
‘I do not want to go with you.’ Zayd’s father scolded him 
and said, ‘Do you prefer slavery to freedom?’ Zayd (<#>) 
replied, ‘I have seen in Muhammad ( M ) such noble 
qualities that I prefer no one in the world to him.’ 

Having heard Zayd’s reply the Prophet ( $g ) got up, 
took Zayd ( ) with him to the meeting place of the 

Makkans and said in a loud voice, ‘O people! Be witness 
to it that today I have set Zayd free and taken him as my 
son.’ This delighted both the father and uncle of Zayd, 

and they went away, leaving their son in the company of 

the Prophet ( $t). 

From that day on, the boy came to be called Zayd 
ibn Muhammad instead of Zayd ibn Haarithah until 
Allah’s command came to the contrary. So he returned to 
the name Zayd ibn Haarithah. But he enjoyed the love 
and affection of the Prophet ( ^ ). 


A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . How did Zayd become Khadijah’s slave? 

2. Why do you think Zayd preferred to live with the Prophet ( |§ )? 

3. As a result, what did Allah’s Messenger ( H ) do? 

B. Circle the correct answer. 

1 . Zayd was the son of (Khadijah, Sawdah). 

2. Zayd’s mother belonged to the tribe of (Tayy, Daws). 

3. Zayd was bought for (600, 400) dirhams. 



41 Fatimah bint Muhammad (fe) 

Fatimah was the youngest daughter of the Prophet 
Muhammad [MY She was born in the year when the 
Ka’bah was rebuilt and Allah’s Messenger ( M ) put the 
Black Stone in its place. 

When the Prophet ( M ) received the first revelation, 
she was five years old. She grew up learning about Islam 
as it was revealed. Fatimah’s mother, Khadijah ( & ), died 
when Fatimah (kfe,) was about fifteen years old. It was a 
tremendous loss to her. It was, however, the presence of 
her father that truly influenced her life. She loved him and 
he loved her. The Prophet ( M ) once said of her, ‘Fatimah 
is a part of me, and whoever offends her offends me.’ 

A’ishah ( % ) said that the Prophet ( M ) called his 
daughter Fatimah and told her something in secret, and 
she wept. He spoke to her again in secret, and she 
laughed.’ A’ishah ( &) asked her about it and she said, ‘The 
Prophet ( M ) spoke to me in secret and informed me that 
every year Jibreel ( w) used to recite the Qur’an with him 
once, but that year he had done so twice and he thought 

that meant he would die in that year and that she would 
be the first of his family to follow him and so she wept. Then 
he said to her, ‘Don’t you like to be the chief of all the ladies 
of Paradise or the chief of all the believing women?’ and 
she laughed. 

Fatimah ( &) was married to Ali ibn Abee Talib (4&) in 
Madinah. They had five children - Al-Hasan, Al-Husayn, 
Umm Kulthoom, Zaynab and Muhsin. 


Fatimah bint Muhammad (^) 

f — <■ > 

bfe. tf'' J «* / fc |* 

bU>-4 UUJ 

: ' J 

The Prophet ( |g ) loved them all very much. Fatimah ( &) 
often brought them to visit him. He would let them ride on 
his shoulders or back while he was offering salah. 

A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What was so special about the year in which Fatimah ( ) was 


2. What secret news made Fatimah weep and then laugh? 

B. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . The Prophet ( H ) received revelations when Fatimah ( ) was 

years old. 

2. Khadijah (i^) died when Fatimah ( &) was years old. 

3. Fatimah ( % ) had children. 

4. Fatimah ( & ) was married to . 



Umm Ayman 

Umm Ayman ( & ), whose real name was Barakah, 
was a slave inherited by the Prophet (^ ) from his father. 
She had nursed him in his childhood. He freed her on his 
marriage to Khadijah ( & ). She then married Ubayd ibn 
Zayd and bore him a son, Ayman. Who later became a 
companion of the Prophet ($g). After her first husband’s 
death, she married Zayd ibn Haarithah, the Prophet’s 
freed slave. She bore him a son, Usaamah ibn Zayd. The 
Prophet ( % ) always regarded her as a member of his 

Once Allah’s Messenger ( ) said of her, ‘He who 
would like to marry one of the dwellers of Paradise, let 
him marry Umm Ayman.’ She knew the Prophet ( $g) more 
than anyone else. She knew him when he was a boy and 
through his adulthood. She lived close to him throughout 
his life. Umm Ayman lived a long life. 

The Prophet ($|) loved and regarded her highly; his 
companions also treated her with great respect. 





* Umm Ayman i& 


A. Match A to B 

A B 

1 Umm Ayman’s real name a Usaamah 

2 Her son from Zayd b Barakah 

3 Her son from Ubayd c Muhsin 

e Ayman 

1 2 3 

B. Activity 

From the lesson, write down the wonderful words that the Prophet ( $g ) 
said about Umm Ayman ( t& ).