Skip to main content

Full text of "Islamic Education Series Grades 1-12 (Set of 12 eBooks) - Dar-us-Salam"

See other formats

Grade 6 

Molvi Abdul Aziz 

MA, English Literature 


Islamic Studies 

Grade 6 


The present series covers all areas of Islamic 
studies: tafseer, hadeeth, tawheed, fiqh, seerah, and 
general etiquette relating to different areas and 
situations. Every effort has been made to ensure that 
the material presented in the series is authentic, and 
most of the terms are presented in their original Arabic 
script, along with the transliteration and the translation 
of their meanings. This also applies to supplications 
which have to be memorised in their Arabic version. 
The aim here is to help the reader read the original text 
and understand its meaning. Each lesson is followed by 
exercises covering questions about the lesson. 

One striking feature in the series is the colourful 
artwork used in it that certainly appeals to children.This 
is certainly bound to attract the young readers' 
attention, stimulate them, amuse them as well as 
educate them. 

The series aims to acquaint the student with the 
teachings of Islam in every aspect: beliefs, practices and 
moral conduct. The series, with its unique features, 
certainly fills a gap in this area which has long been 
partially neglected. 

ISBN: 9960-9930-0-0 

9 789960 993003 



Riyadh Jeddah Al-Khobar Sharjah Lahore 
London Houston New York 


Book No. 49 



Grade 6 

Given the dire need for Islamic studies material in 
schools incorporating the subject in English, 
Darussalam has endeavoured to publish an Islamic 
Studies series covering all the grades, from grade 
one through grade twelve. 

Darussalam Contects 


No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, 
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording or by any 
information storage and retrival system, without the permission of the publisher. 

© Maktaba Dar-us-Salam, 2007 

King Fahd National Library Catalog-in-Publication Data 
Molvi, Abdul Aziz 

Islam education: Grade 6./Abdui Aziz Molvi- Riyadh 2007 
247p, 17x24 cm ISBN: 9960-9930-0-0 

1 -Islamic education - Study and teaching (Primary) 11-Title 

377. Idc 1428/2972 

Legal Deposit no.1428/2972 ISBN: 9960-9930-0-0 

Supervised by: Abdul Malik Mujahid 


RO. Box: 22743, Riyadh 11416 K.S.A.Tel: 0096 -1-4033962/4043432 Fax: 4021659 

E-mail:, Website: 

K.S.A. Darussalam Showrooms: 


Olaya branch: Tel 00966-1-4614483 Fax: 4644945 
Malaz branch: Tel 00966-1-4735220 Fax: 4735221 
Suwailam branch: Tel & Fax-1-2860422 

• Jeddah 

Tel: 00966-2-6879254 Fax: 6336270 

• Madinah 

Tel: 00966-503417155 Fax: 04-8151121 

• Al-Khobar 

Tel: 00966-3-8692900 Fax: 8691551 

• Khamis Mushayt 

Tel & Fax: 00966-072207055 

• Vanbu Al-Bahr Tel: 0500887341 Fax: 04-3908027 

• Al-Buraida Tel: 0503417156 Fax: 063696124 


• Darussalam, Sharjah U.A.E 

Tel: 00971-6-5632623 Fax: 5632624 


• Darussalam, 36 B Lower Mall, Lahore 
Tel: 0092-42-724 0024 Fax: 7354072 

• Rahman Market, Ghazni Street, Urdu Bazar Lahore 
Tel: 0092-42-7120054 Fax: 7320703 

• Karachi, Tel: 0092-21-4393936 Fax: 4393937 

• Islamabad, Tel: 0092-51-2500237 Fax: 512281513 

• Darussalam, Houston 

P.O Box: 79194 Tx 77279 

Tel: 001-713-722 0419 Fax: 001-713-722 0431 
E-mail: houston 

• Darussalam, New York 486 Atlantic Ave, Brooklyn 
New York-1 1217, Tel: 001-718-625 5925 

Fax: 718-625 1511 



• Darussalam International Publications Ltd. 

Leyton Business Centre 

Unit-17, Etloe Road, Leyton, London, E10 7BT 
Tel: 0044 20 8539 4885 Fax:0044 20 8539 4889 

• Darussalam International Publications Limited 
Regents Park Mosque, 146 Park Road 
London NWS 7RG Tel: 0044- 207 725 2246 
Fax: 0044 20 8539 4889 


- Darussalam: 1 53, Haldon St, Lakemba (Sydney) 
NSW 2195, Australia 

Tel: 0061-2-97407188 Fax: 0061-2-97407199 
Mobile: 0061-414580813 Res: 0061-2-97580190 


• Islmic Books Service 

2200 South Sheridan way Mississauga, 

Ontario Canada L5K 2C8 

Tel: 001-905-403-8406 Ext. 218 Fax:905-8409 

• Peacetech 

A2, 4/F Tsim Sha Mansion 
83-87 Nathan Road Tsimbatsui 
Kowloon, Hong Kong 

Tel: 00852 2369 2722 Fax: 00852-23692944 
Mobile: 00852 97123624 


• Darussalam International Publication Ltd. 

No. 1 09A, Jalan SS 21/1 A, Damansara Utama, 
47400, Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Darul Ehsan, Malaysia 
Tel: 00603 7710 9750 Fax: 771 0 0749 


• Editions & Librairie Essalam 

135, Bd de Menilmontant- 75011 Paris 
Tel: 0033-01- 43 38 19 56/44 83 
Fax : 0033-0 1 - 43 57 44 3 1 
E-mail: essalam@essalam com- 


• Muslim Converts Association of Singapore 
32 Onan Road The Galaxy 
Singapore- 424484 

Tel: 0065-440 6924, 348 8344 Fax: 440 6724 


• Darul Kitab 6, Nimal Road, Colombo-4 
Tel: 0094 1 1 5 35871 2 Fax: 115-358713 


• Islamic Books International 
54, Tandel Street (North) 

Dongri, Mumbai 4000 09, 

Tel: 0091-22-2373 4180, Fax: 0091-22-2373 0689 


• Islamic Da'wah Movement (IDM) 

48009 Qualbert 4078 Durban, South Africa 
Tel: 0027-31-304-6883 Fax: 0027-31-305-1292 

Publisher's Note 

All praise belongs to Allah; we praise Him and 
seek His help and forgiveness. We seek refuge in 
Allah from the evil of our own selves and from our 
sinful deeds. Whomever Allah guides, there is none 
to misguide him; and whomever He leads astray, 
none can guide him. We bear witness that there is no 
god worthy of worship except Allah, alone, and we 
bear witness that Muhammad is His servant and 
Messenger. We pray to Allah the Almighty to bestow 
His peace and blessings upon Prophet Muhammad, 
upon his good and pure family, as well as upon all the 
noble companions and those who follow them in 
righteousness until the Day of Judgement. 

Given the dire need for Islamic studies material 
in schools incorporating the subject in English, 
Darussalam has endeavoured to publish an Islamic 
Studies series covering all the grades, from grade one 
through grade twelve. 

The present series covers all areas of Islamic 
studies: tafseer, hadeeth, tawheed, fiqh, seerah, and 
general etiquette relating to different areas and 
situations. Given the importance of authentic Islamic 
knowledge, every effort has been made to ensure 
that the material presented in the series is authentic. 
Also, given the importance of Arabic Islamic terms, 
most of the terms are presented in their original 
Arabic script, along with the transliteration and the 
translation of their meanings. This also applies to 
supplications which have to be memorised in their 
Arabic version. The aim here is to help the reader 
read the original text and understand its meaning. 
Each lesson is followed by exercises covering 
questions about the lesson. 

One striking feature in the series is the 
colourful artwork used in it that certainly appeals to 
children. This is certainly bound to attract the young 
readers' attention, stimulate them, amuse them as 
well as educate them. 

Publisher's Note 

The series aims to acquaint the student with 
the teachings of Islam in every aspect: beliefs, 
practices and moral conduct. The series, with its 
unique features, certainly fills a gap in this area which 
has long been partially neglected. 

The present breathtaking work was initiated by 
an expert in the field of education, Maulvi Abdul Aziz, 
MA. English literature, who held different posts in the 
field including that of Senior Administrative Officer in 
the Department of Private Education, Ministry of 
Education, Dubai, UAE, from 1982 to 2002. 

The current project also owes its existence in 
its present form to a number of people who made 
informative suggestions, particularly Al-Arabee Ben 
Razzouq, College of Languages and Translation, 
Imam Muhammad ibn Saud University, Riyadh, who 
undertook the painstaking task of checking the 
authenticity of the material presented in the series, 
proofreading the text as well as adding references to 
certain quotations from the Qur'an and the hadeeth. 
Special thanks also go to Sheikh Abdul-Qawiy 
Luqman, Al-Madeenah University graduate, for his 
interesting suggestions and to Mr. Zulfiqar 
Mahmood who conscientiously applied his expertise 
in the field of graphic design to produce the series in 
a superb shape. 

We pray to Almighty Allah to reward our 
endeavours and to make the present series 
abundantly beneficial to students in all stages of 
education as well as to any one who reads them. 

Abdul Malik Mujahid 

Jumaadaa ath-Thaaniyah, 1428 AH. 
July 2007. 























The Ka'bah: The First House of Worship 
The Prayer (As-Salah) (1) 

The Prayer (As-Salah) (2) 

Surat Al-A'laa (The Most High) 

Remembrance of Allah and Supplications 
The Taraaweeh Prayers 
Surat al-Ghaashiyah 
Sawm (Fasting) 

Surat al-Fajr (The Dawn) 

Zakah : The Purifying Dues 
Good Moral Character 
Perfecting our Character 
Surat al-Balad (The City) 

Kindness to Animals 

Some Good Habits that a Muslim Must Cultivate 

Surat Ash-Shams (The Sun) 

Etiquette of Conversation 
Prophet Muhammad ( 

Prophet Muhammad ( 
Prophet Muhammad ( 
Prophet Muhammad ( 
Prophet Muhammad ( 
Prophet Muhammad ( 
Prophet Muhammad ( 
Surat Al-Layl (The Night) 

) ( 1 ) 
) ( 2 ) 
) ( 3 ) 
) ( 4 ) 
) ( 5 ) 
) ( 6 ) 
) ( 3 ) 

























29 Prophet Nuh (>&S) (3) 

30 Surat Adh-Dhuhaa (The Bright Morning Light) 

31 Prophet Hud (,%S\) 

32 Prophet Salih (,%D\) 

33 Surat Ash-Sharh (The Expansion) 

34 Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ( tfe ) 

35 Abu Dharr al-Ghifaaree ( 

36 Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah (^) 

37 Bilal ibn Rabaah («$&) 

38 Surat al-Alaq (The Clinging Substance) 

39 Talhah ibn Ubaidillah ( 

40 Umm Sulaym ( i^,) 

41 Surat Al-Bayyinah (The clear Evidence) 

42 Islam and Science 














The Ka’bah: 

The First House of 


The Ka’bah: The First House of Worship 

The Ka’bah is the oldest house of worship on earth. Every year 
more than two and a half million Muslim pilgrims from all over the 
world come to Makkah to perform the rites of hajj. They do tawaaf 
around the Ka'bah with devotion and hope of Allah’s mercy. During 
the month of Ramadan, more than a million Muslims journey to 
Makkah’s Grand Mosque for Umrah. In fact, people go to Makkah for 
Umrah all year round. 

The Building of the Ka’bah 

Some scholars believe that it was Adam ( m ) who first built the 
Ka’bah in Makkah. Later, Prophet Ibraaheem ($sa) came to Makkah 
with his wife Haajar and their son Isma'eel (>&a), recovered the 
foundation of the Ka’bah and rebuilt it, at Allah’s Command. The 
Ka’bah in its present form owes its origin to him. 


Haajar and Isma'eel ( m ) 

Leaving his wife Haajar and their son Isma'eel ( m ), Ibraaheem 
(«a) left Makkah, on Allah’s Command. During those days, Makkah 
was barren. Nobody lived there. There was no source of water in it. 
Prophet Ibraaheem ( m\) left them there with a bag containing dates 
and a water-skin filled with water. When Ibraaheem ( ) prepared 

to leave, Haajar followed him and asked impatiently, "To whom are 
you leaving us in this barren valley?" She repeated the question but 
Ibraaheem ( m \ ) did not answer. She then asked, "Has Allah 
commanded you to do this?" He replied, "Yes." She said, "Then surely 
Allah will not neglect us!" Prophet Ibraaheem ( m \ ) left, and Haajar 
looked after her son, suckled him and drank the remaining water. 
Soon, however, both suffered great thirst and the child began to cry. 
She looked at him suffering from thirst and could not bear to see him 
in that condition. She ascended the nearby mount, as-Safa, hoping 
to find someone around, but she found no one. When she came 
back down into the valley, she raised the hem of her garment and 
began to run. She feared for the life of her son. She ran and climbed 
mount al-Marwah on the other side. She looked anxiously if there was 
someone to help her. She ran seven times back and forth between 
the two hillocks. This is why pilgrims walk between these two hillocks 
during the Hajj and the Umrah. 


Haajar walked back and forth in 
desperation until Angel Jibreel ( ) 

appeared, struck the ground with one 
of his wings, and the spring of Zamzam 
gushed forth. Henceforth Makkah was 
blessed with a source of water, which 
has continued to this day. It was because of the Zamzam that the 
Jurhum tribe from northern Yemen came to settle in Makkah. 
Isma'eel ( ) learnt Arabic from them and, when he grew up and 

reached the age of puberty, he married a woman from amongst 

Prophet Ibraaheem ( &y ) Rebuilt the Ka’bah 

When the time came, Prophet Ibraaheem ($£§1) called upon his 
son Isma'eel ($$£1) to help him in the construction of the Ka'bah. Allah 

revealed to them the foundations of the 
Ka’bah, and so they started rebuilding 
the House. Isma'eel (ggj) handed him the 

Prophet Ibraaheem ( ) stood on a 

stone while building the Ka'bah. This 
Ibraaheem' (the station of Ibraaheem). 

The Kiswah: The Cover of the Ka’bah 

The black cloth, which covers the Ka’bah is called Kiswah. It is 
woven from a mixture of silk and cotton and is embroidered with 
verses from the Qur’an in gold thread in bands around the top. 

The Kiswah, which is changed every year, used to be woven in 
Cairo, but now it is made in Makkah, in a factory located in Umm 
aj-Joud, a suburb of Makkah. 

stone is called ‘Maqaam 


The Kiswah consists of 450 kilograms of 
pure silk, which is dyed black and 
embroidered with gold and silver threads. 
The Kiswah is tied to the ground with copper 
rings. These days the Ka’bah is washed twice 
with perfumed water, once in Ramadan, and 
once before the Hajj season. 

The Black Stone: Al-Hajar al-Aswad 

The Black Stone is set in the southeast corner of the Ka’bah 
about 1 .5 meters from the ground. It is black with reddish tones and 
yellow particles. It is 28 cm wide and 38 cm high. It is set in a silver 

casing. During the tawaaf of the Ka’bah, 
pilgrims kiss the stone or make a gesture in its 
direction and say Allahu Akbar. A hadeeth of 
the Prophet ( ^ ) says that it came down from 
heaven. Once Umar ibn al-Khattab ( ) said 
during Tawaaf, “I know that you are only a 
stone, which does not have power to do good 
or evil. If I had not seen the Prophet ( ^ ) kissing 
you, I would not have kissed you.” 


The area adjacent to the Ka’bah on its west side enclosed by a 
low semicircular wall is called al-Hateem 
or al-Hijr. Following the Sunnah of the 
Prophet ( ), the pilgrim may offer 

Sunnah prayer and supplicate to Allah in 
this area. However, this is not a part of 
the prescribed rites of hajj. 


The Well of Zamzam 

The well of Zamzam is located about 20 meters southeast of the 
Black Stone corner of the Ka’bah, near the Station of Ibraaheem 
(M)- To drink the water of Zamzam is a rite for both hajj and umrah. 
The well is closed at the surface. Earlier, one could reach the area of 
the well of Zamzam by a flight of steps, where numerous taps 
supplied water to scores of pilgrims at a time. Today, however, the 
steps are covered and access to the well’s 
surroundings is totally closed. Numerous taps 
around the mosque satisfy pilgrims’ thirst. 

Zamzam: A Healing from Sickness 
The Prophet ( ^ ) said, "The water of 
Zamzam serves the purpose for which it is drunk." (ibn Maajah) 

Once Abu Dharr ( lived solely on Zamzam water for a whole 
month and he put on so much weight and did not feel hungry at all. 
When he mentioned this to the Prophet ( ^ ) he said to him, "It is 
blessed and it also serves as nourishment." (Muslim) 


Miqaat is the location around Makkah specified by the Prophet 
( ) from where those coming to Makkah for Hajj or Umrah must 

enter the state of ihraam. The Prophet ( ^ ) specified different 


mawaaqeet (plural of miqaat). Some of these mawaaqeet are: 
Dhaat Irq, 80 km to the northeast of Makkah; Dhul Hulayfah, 250 km 
north of Makkah and 9 km away from Madinah; Al-Juhfah to the 
northwest of Makkah at 1 80 km distance; Qarn ul-Manaazil 50, km to 
the city’s east; and Yalamlam 60 km to the southeast. 

The House of Allah 

Although we refer to the Ka’bah as ‘Baytullaah’ or the House of 
Allah, we believe that Allah does not dwell in it, nor is the Ka’bah itself 
an object of worship. 

It is the fundamental part of our Islamic faith that we do not 
associate partners with Almighty Allah. It is, therefore, unthinkable to 

the believing Muslim that 
act of worship to other 
whether this act of 
or anything else, 
worship the 

indicates the 
which Muslims 
offering salah. If 
were completely 
Muslims would still 
Qiblah. It is not the 
the Ka’bah only that is of 

he or she directs any 
than Almighty Allah, 
worship is salah 
Muslims do not 
Ka’bah. It only 
face while 
the Ka’bah 
destroyed, we 
face the same 
physical structure of 
concern to the believers, 

but what it represents - Oneness of Allah! The Tawheed! 

It is interesting to note that the Karamatians stole the Black Stone 
during the tenth Century CE. It remained away from the Ka’bah for a 
period of twelve years. This did not have any effect on the function 
of the Ka’bah in Islam. Muslims performed the pilgrimage and did 


tawaaf as usual. In fact, it is not necessary to kiss the Black Stone in 
order for one’s Hajj to be valid. One can simply touch or point to it 
upon beginning each round of the tawaaf while saying Allahu 

The Ka’bah: The Emblem of Faith in One God 

The Ka’bah is the emblem of faith in Allah the Almighty. It is a 
proof that the Tawheed, which it stands for, is the true and the 
original belief. All else that stands at odds with the Oneness of Allah 
is falsehood and deception, which will eventually disappear! The 
only thing that will remain is the truth. 

The Ka’bah stands in the centre of the Grand Mosque in 
Makkah. It is a large cubic structure, covered with a black cloth. In 
one corner, the Ka’bah contains the Black Stone. The Black Stone is 
not an object of worship, nor is the Ka’bah itself. They merely 
represent a sacred place devoted to the worship of Allah. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . The Ka’bah in its present form owes its origin to 

2. tribe settled in Makkah because of the well of Zamzam. 

3. To drink Zamzam water is a rite for both and 

4. The well of Zamzam is located about southeast of the Black 


5. stole the Black Stone in the 1 Oth century CE. 

B. Explain these terms. 

1. Maqaam Ibraaheem 2. Tawaaf 3. Kiswah 

4. al Hajar al-Aswad 5. al-Hateem 6. miqaat 


C. Answer the following questions. 

1 . According to some scholars, who built the Ka’bah first? 

2. What kind of a place was Makkah when Ibraaheem ( ^ ) took his family 

3. What did the Prophet ( M ) say about Zamzam being a healing? 

4. Which two prophets built the Ka’bah? 

5. What is the importance of the Black Stone in the tawaaf? 

D. Think-up 

Non-Muslims often wrongly think that Muslims worship the Ka’bah. How 
can you reply to them? 

E. Activity 

Draw the Ka’bah and write its dimensions 


The Great Importance of the Prayer 

Allah the Almighty says, "Prayers have been prescribed for the 

believers at set times." (Surat an-Nisaa 4:1 03) 

Here, Allah commands Muslims to perform the prayer (salah) at 
its prescribed times. In fact, the prayer was the first obligatory duty 
upon the Prophet ( ^ ) and his followers. It will also be the first action 
Allah the Almighty will question us on the Day of Judgement. Indeed, 
the salah is the 'supporting pillar 1 of Islam. If someone believes it is not 
obligatory and abandons it, he becomes a disbeliever. The Prophet 
( it ) said, "The covenant between us and them (i.e. the disbelievers) 
is the prayer; so if anyone abandons it, he has become a 

disbeliever." (Ahmad, At-Tirmidhee and An-Nasaa'ee) 

1 0 

The Merits of Offering the Obligatory Prayers at their Stated 

Allah’s Messenger ( ) said, "There are five prayers which Allah 
has prescribed for His servants. For those who perform them properly, 
without disrespectful omissions, there is a guarantee from Allah that 
He will admit them into Paradise. For those who do not observe them, 
however, Allah offers no such guarantee; He may punish them if He 
so wills, or He may forgive them if He so wills." (Ahmad and others) 

He also said, "If there was a river at the door of anyone of you 
and he took a bath in it five times a day, would you notice any dirt 
on him?" They said, "Not a trace of dirt would be left." Then he said, 
"That is the example of the five prayers with which Allah removes sins." 


When the Prophet ( $jg ) was asked, "Which deed is the best?" He 
replied, "Performing salah at its due time." (Muslim) 

The Merits of the Congregational Prayer (Jamaa’ah) 

Allah’s Messenger ( H ) said, "The congregational prayer is 
better than the individual prayer by twenty-seven degrees." 

(Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

Allah’s Messenger ( H ) also said, "Whoever performs the Isha 
prayer in congregation, it is as if he prayed half the night; and 
whoever performs the Fajr prayer in congregation, it is as if he 
prayed the whole night." (Muslim) 



2 . 

3 . 

The Times of the Obligatory Prayers and the Number of their 

The obligatory prayers are five in number. They are: 

1 . The dawn prayer (salaat-ul-Fajr): consists of two 
rak’ahs, starts with the coming of dawn until the sky 
starts to become yellowish. The time for the Fajr 
prayer lasts until sunrise. 

The noon prayer (salaat-udh-Dhuhr): consists of four 
rak’ahs, starts from after midday until mid-afternoon, 
when an object's shadow is about the same length as 
the object itself. 

The afternoon prayer (salaat-ul-Asr): consists of four 
rak’ahs begins from the time when the length of one’s 
shadow is equal to one’s height, until the sun begins 
to change colour before sunset. The time of Asr 
prayer lasts until just before sunset. 

The sunset prayer (salaat-ul-Maghrib): consists of 
three rak'ahs begins immediately after sunset. The 
time of the Maghrib prayer lasts until the twilight 
disappears. The twilight is the soft glowing light from 
the sky when the sun has already set. 

The late evening prayer (salaat-ul-lsha): consists of 
four rak'ahs, begins with the disappearance of the 
twilight and continues up to half the night. 

The number of rak'ahs to be performed in each of the five daily 
obligatory prayers adds up to a daily total of seventeen rak'ahs. Fifty 
prayers were made obligatory on Muslims on the night when the 
Prophet ( ) was taken on his heavenly journey (the Mi’raaj). The 

number was then brought down to five, due to Allah’s Great Mercy 
and Wisdom. 

As-Sunan Ar-Raatibah: 

These are the established voluntary prayers which the Prophet 
( M ) regularly performed in combination with the five obligatory 
prayers. They are: 

a. Two rak'ahs before the Fajr prayer. 

b. Four rak'ahs before the Dhuhr prayer. 

c. Two rak'ahs after the Dhuhr prayer. 

d. Two rak'ahs after the Maghrib prayer. 

e. Two rak'ahs after the Isha prayer. 

The Witr Prayer 

Al-witr prayer is a necessary Sunnah, and a Muslim should not 
leave it at all. The time for al-witr extends from the Isha prayer until 
shortly before the Fajr prayer. It is better to perform it in the last part 
of the night, unless one fears one would not be able to wake up late 
to do it. 

The Sunnah of the Prophet ( ) is to pray two rak'ahs at a time 

after the Isha prayer, up to ten rak'ahs, then to pray the witr which 
consists of one rak'ah. In performing this prayer, a Muslim has two 
options: if he so wishes, he may perform it with a single tasleemah at 
the end of the third rak'ah. If he prefers, he may split it into two parts: 
making one tasleemah after two rak'ahs, and another after the 
single rak'ah that concludes the witr. (The word tasleemah refers to 
the act of turning the head to the right and saying 'Assalaamu 
alaikum wa rahmatullaah' then turning the head to the left and 
repeating the same words.) 

In the rak'ah of the witr, the Prophet ( H ) frequently recited Surat 
al-lkhlas (Surah 1 1 2) after Surat al-Fatihah, and only occasionally 
recited Surat al-Falaq (Surah 113), and Surat an-Naas (Surah 114) 
along with Surat al-lkhlaas. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 




was the first obligatory duty to be made incumbent upon 

the Prophet ( M )• 
2. Thesalah is the 

pillar of Islam. 

3. The salah will be the first action about which we will be accounted for on 

the . 

4. On the night of the Heavenly Ascension, Allah the Almighty prescribed 

prayers a day. 

prayers; then He reduced them to 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Is a person who believes that the prayer is not obligatory and abandons 
it a Muslim? 

2. What is the reward for the congregational prayer as compared to the 
prayer performed individually? 


3. What are As-Sunan Ar-Raatibah? What is their number and when are they 

4. List the five daily prayers and write the number of their raka’hs. 




The Prayer 

(As-Salah) (2) 

Conditions of Salah (Prayer) 

1 . Islam: Allah does not accept the actions of non-Muslims. 

2. Sanity: This means that one has to have a sound mind, not mad. 

3. Reaching the age of puberty; children, however, must be 
ordered to pray at the age of seven. 

4. Purity: Allah’s Messenger ( ) said, “Allah does not accept salah 
without purity.” (Muslim) This includes purity of the body, the clothes 
and the place where one intends to pray. 

5. The Time: Salah is due only when its time has started. 

6. Covering the awrah, or the parts of the body that have to be 
covered: The arwah of a man is all that is between the navel and 
the knees, and that of a woman is every part of her except the 
face and hands. 

7. Having the intention in the heart to perform the prayer. 

8. Facing the Qiblah: This means facing the direction of the Ka’bah 
in Makkah. 

As for the intention (niyyah), its place is the heart. It means being 
firmly convinced that Allah has prescribed salah as one’s duty to 
perform that specific prayer, and to carry out His commandment 
without seeking to make an impression or acquire a reputation. The 
heart must then be present until one has completed the prayer. 


The expression of one's intention aloud and according to certain for- 
mulas was not the practice of the Prophet ( ^ ) or his companions. 
In fact, it is bid'ah and so one must avoid doing so. 

The tayammum (dry ablution) can be performed in the 
following way: 

1 . A Muslim intends to perform the tayammum without expressing 
the intention aloud and says bismillaah "In the name of Allah". 

2. He strikes the earth with his hands once. (It is permissible to blow 
on the hands slightly if there is excessive dust on one's hands). 

3. He passes the palms over the face once. 

4. He rubs his hands up to the wrists once; the back of his right 
hand with the palm of his left hand and then the back of the left 
hand with the palm of the right hand. 

The Obligatory Elements of Salah 

There are eight obligatory acts of salah. They are: 

1 . Saying 'Allaahu Akbar 1 j£\ Ibi (Allah is Most Great) to move 
from one act of the prayer to the next, such as for bowing and 

0 x 

2. Saying 'Subhaana Rabbiyal-Adheem' 

(Glory be to my Lord, the Supreme) while bowing. 

3. Saying 'Subhaana Rabbiyal-A'laa' 

(Glory be to my Lord, the Most High) while prostrating. 

4. Saying 'Sami' Allahu liman hamidah' *4^ oM 4iii 

(Allah hears the one who praises Him) while raising the head 
from bowing for the imam and the one who prays alone. 



Saying 'Rabbanaa wa lakal-hamd' dnj u|j (O our Lord! 
All the praises are for You) while standing, for the imam, the one 
(or ones) following him and the one who prays alone. 

6. Reciting the supplication between the two prostrations, such as 

saying 'Rabbigh-fir lee, rabbigh-fir lee' (My 

Lord, forgive me; my Lord, forgive me). 

7. Reciting the first tashahhud. 

8. Sitting down for the first tashahhud. 

The Sunan Elements of Salah (Masnunaat) 

The following are some of the sunan elements of salah: 

1 . Raising the hands while saying ‘Allaahu Akbar’. The hands are 
raised close to the shoulders or close to the ears. 

2. Placing the right hand on the left hand on the chest. 

3. Reciting the opening supplication (Istiftaah). 

Allah’s Messenger ( M ) used to say certain supplications before 
reciting Surat al-Fatihah. The following is one of these 

t-£liL^i ui 

Subhaanak-Allaahumma wa bihamdika, wa tabaaraka- 
smuka, wa ta ‘aalaa judduka, wa laa ilaaha ghairuk. 

Glory be to You, O Allah and Praise. Blessed is Your Name and 
high is Your Majesty. There is no god but You. 

4. Seeking refuge with Allah (ta’awwudh). After saying one of the 
above du’aas, Allah’s Messenger [M) would quietly say 

ol l aj J i f i ^4 ^5*1 ‘I seek refuge in Allah from Shaytan 
the accursed’. 

4JI TSTJ aku,! iljlajj ^1 


5. Reciting 1 quietly before reciting surat 


6. Saying ‘Ameen’ after reciting al-Fatihah. 

7. Reciting a surah or verse of the Qur’an after al-Fatihah in the first 
two rak’ahs of every compulsory prayer. 

8. Reciting surat al-Fatihah and any other surah aloud in the first 
two rak’ahs of Fajr, Maghrib, Isha, Salaatul Jumu’ah, the Eed 
prayers and the prayer for seeking rain, and quietly during the 
rest of the salah. Silent recitation in Dhuhr and Asr prayers. 

9. Placing the hands on the knees while spreading the fingers 
apart during ruku. 

1 0. Looking at the ground at the place of sujud. 

1 1 . Saying the statement of glorification of the Lord (tasbeeh) more 
than once in ruku and sujud. 

12. Making one’s back straight during ruku while making one’s 
head parallel to one’s back. 

1 3. Sitting on the left foot and propping up the right one on one’s 
toes between the two prostrations and the first tashahhud; and 
pushing the left foot forward and keeping the right foot 
propped up on one’s toes while sitting on one’s buttocks in the 
last tashahhud. 

14. Invoking blessings on the Prophet ( ^ ) in the final tashahhud 
and then making supplications (du’aa) using expressions 
taught by Allah’s Messenger ( j|g) before tasleem. 

1 5. Turning to the right and to the left when making tasleem. 


Sujud As-Sahw: (Prostrations for Forgetfulness) 

The two prostrations for forgetfulness are normally offered to 
make up for the shortcomings that occur due to forgetfulness or 
error. There are three cases where these prostrations are required: 
addition, deletion and doubt. 

If one omits a necessary element because of forgetfulness, va- 
lidity can be restored by performing the prostrations of forgetfulness 
(sujud as-sahw), but if the omission is deliberate, the salah will be null 
and void. 

We are forgetful by nature. It is not surprising if we forget some- 
thing while offering salah. Allah’s Messenger ( ) used to make the 

sujud at the end of the salah if he made a mistake while offering it. 

There are two main occasions when sujud as-sahw becomes 

1 . When one adds or omits anything of importance to or from the 
acts of salah. 

Examples of additions: praying five rak'ahs instead of four, per- 
forming three prostrations instead of two, or sitting for tashah- 
hud at the end of the first or the third rak’ah. 

Examples of omissions: praying three rak'ahs instead of four 
and performing only one sajdah instead of two. 

2. When one forgets the number of raka’hs, becomes doubtful 
whether he is in the third or the fourth rak’ah. 

Sujud as-sahw can be performed in the following two ways: 

1 . It can be done immediately before tasleem at the end of the 
prayer, or 

2. It can be done after the tasleem. 


In the first form, after completing the tashahhud, the 

salaat-ul-lbraahimiyyah and the du’aa (supplication) before 

tasleem, we say Allaahu Akbar and then make the first sajdah 

(prostration), in which we recite the usual tasbeeh - Subhaana 

rabbiyal a'laa - three times at least. We then say Allaahu Akbar 

again and return to the posture of jalsah, that is sitting between the 

two sajdahs. We say our usual du’aa (Rabbighfir-lee) in the jalsah. 

We then make the second sajdah as we have done in the first, 

saying Allaahu Akbar. We then finally say Allaahu Akbar and return 

to the sitting posture and do the tasleem (while turning our head to 

the right and to the left). * > 

4Jbl jhlaJl 

In the second form, sujud as-sahw is done in the following way: 

After completing the prayer with the tasleem, remain seated; 
Prostrate, saying Allaahu Akbar with the intention to amend the 

Raise your head, saying Allaahu Akbar and sit again as 
described above; 

Repeat the prostration with the same words and sit again; and 
* End the prayer with the tasleem. 

However, if someone leaves his place where he prayed before 
he remembers the omission or lapse, it is too late to amend it. The 
prayer is considered invalid, and he should repeat it. 

It is, however, much disliked for someone to be absentminded 
and heedless during prayer. So it is essential to try to avoid anything 
that may cause one’s thoughts to wander during prayer. 

The Prophet ( || ) said, "If a man prays two cycles of prayer 
without the distraction of any worldly thought, all his previous sins will 
be forgiven." (Muslim) 


He also said, “A person finishes his salah and only a tenth of it is 
recorded for him, or a ninth, or an eighth, a seventh, a sixth, a fifth, a 
fourth, a third or a half.” (Abu Dawood) 

Hence, when entering into prayer, you should know that you 
are in the Presence of Almighty Allah as you will be on the Day of 
Reckoning. When you have raised your hands and said ‘Allaahu 
Akbar’ to start the prayer, then let nothing remain in your heart 
except His Remembrance, and let nothing be in your mind at the 
time of His Remembrance other than the Glory of Allah Most High. 


A. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . The place for the intention is the 

2. If one adds or omits anything of importance to or from the acts of salah, 
he has to perform 

3. Qiblah is the direction of the . 

4. Tayammum means . 

B. Answer these questions. 

1 . List the preconditions for the performance of Salah. What happens if 
even one of these conditions is missed? 


2. Write briefly how tayammum is performed? 

3. What is sujud as-sahw? 



What is tasleem? 

C. Think-up 

Maryam was praying Dhuhr, but after the end of the third rak'ah she 
recited the tasleem and returned to her work. Soon she realized that she 
had offered only three rak'ahs. What should she do in this situation? 

D. Activity 

1 . Practise sujud as-sahw with your teacher. 

2. Go through the preconditions of salah as well as the obligatory elements 
of salah and see if all of them are a part of the salah which you usually 


Surat Al-A’laa 
(The Most High) 


In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 

1 . Glorify the Name of your Lord, the Most High, 

2. Who creates then gives form, 

3. Who determines, and then guides, 

4. Who brings out the pasture, 

5. Then makes it dark stubble; 

6. We will make you recite [the Qur'an], and you will not forget, 

7. Except what Allah wills. Surely, He knows what is declared and 
what is hidden; 

8. We will make easy for you the easy way, 

9. So remind, if the reminder benefits; 

1 0. He who has fear will be reminded, 

11. But the wretched will avoid it, 

1 2. The one who will be thrown into the Great Fire, 

1 3. Where he will neither die nor live; 

1 4. Indeed, he who makes himself pure will succeed, 

1 5. Who remembers the Name of his Lord and performs the prayer. 

1 6. But no, you prefer the life of this world, 

1 7. Even though the Hereafter is better and more lasting; 

1 8. Indeed, this is in the earlier Scriptures, 

1 9. The Scriptures of Ibraaeem and Musa. 


This surah, which was revealed in Makkah, consists of nineteen 
verses and may be divided into five parts: 

1 . The first five verses of this beautiful surah describe Allah’s 
qualities as the Lord, the Sustainer and Cherisher of the whole 
universe. He is the Most High, the Exalted and Most Powerful. 
Man’s capabilities are limited. He cannot fully perceive His 
Greatness. Allah created everything in perfect harmony. He 
provides everything for His creation in suitable measures, and 
He guides everything to its final destiny. We should glorify His 

Allah’s creation has an order and a plan. He has not 
created anything in vain. He has provided guidance for human 
beings through His Messengers and has set a natural law for His 
creation. He brings forth beautiful green pastures from the dead 
earth; he sends down water from the sky and the plants of the 
earth come into being. Then these green fields turn into stubble 
and straw - dry chaff scattered by the winds. Allah has absolute 
power over everything., (verses i-5) 

2. The Prophet ( ^ ) is asked to remind people of Allah’s Message 
the Qur’an. Allah assures and comforts the Prophet ( gjjg ) that 
although he did not know how to read and write, the words of 
the Qur’an will be engraved on his memory. Allah assures him 
that he would not forget anything from the Qur’an. Allah has 
made the Qur’an easy to remember. He knows what is apparent 
and what is hidden. He is All-Seeing. He is All-Hearing. He is 
All-Knowing. Man may hide things from others and from himself, 
but Allah knows these hidden, most intimate details. He knows us 
better than we know ourselves. Allah wants things to be easy for 
US and not difficult. (Verses 6-8) 


3. This surah mentions that people are of two kinds: 

(1 ) Those who fear Allah, and 

(2) those who do not fear Him and are heedless of His 
commands. In fact, these are the most wretched people 
because they reject Allah’s Messengers and do not follow 
the Truth. 

The role of Allah’s Messenger ( || ), however, is to remind 
people of the truth. The Prophet's message will be heeded by 
those who fear Allah and are mindful of Him. However, the 
wretched disbelievers will stubbornly reject it. Their final place 
then will be the Fire of Hell where they will neither die nor live. 
They will suffer in it a tremendous and a lasting punishment. 

(Verses 9-1 3) 

4. However, those who purify themselves by following what Allah 
revealed to the Prophet ( H ), give the purifying dues (zakah), 
remember the Name of Allah and perform the prayers will 
indeed be happy on the Day of Judgement. Here this surah 
mentions that most people prefer this life to the life to come 
although the Hereafter is better and never-ending, (verses 14-17) 

5. Finally, the surah ends by saying that this message is not new. 
The central message of the Most High is the same one that was 
revealed to Prophet Ibraaheem (M) and Musa (M). 

It is related that the Prophet ( ) used to recite this surah in the 

first rak’ah and Surat Al-Ghaashiyah in the second rak’ak of the two 
Eed prayers and the Friday prayer. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . The Qur’an declares people to be of two kinds: 

and . 

2. The Message of Allah is the same as that revealed to 


3. The place for those who reject the message of Allah is . 

4. The Prophet ( ^ ) used to recite Surat Al-A'laa and Surat 

in the two Eed prayers and in the Friday prayer. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Mention the various attributes of Allah that the first five verses of this surah 

2. What assurance does Allah give to the Prophet ( ) in verses 6-8? 

3. What does the Qur’an say about people who do not fear Allah? 


4. Who will be happy on the Day of Judgement? 

C. Memorisation 

Learn Surat Al-A'laa by heart. 


7 7 

of Allah and 

1 . Allah’s Messenger (^ ) said, "Whoever says: 

: JliiJI ciiUjI AJ <4l lZ±j>JSj X 5l>j 4131 j 4JI 

/.aa ilaaha illallaohu wahdahu laa shareeka lahu, lahul-mulku 
wa lahul-hamdu wa huwa ‘alaa kulli shai’in qadeer 
(There is no god but Allah Alone; He has no partner, His is the 
dominion and His is the praise, and He is Capable of all things) 

ten times, will have the same reward as that given for freeing ten 
slaves; one hundred rewards will be written in his account, one 
hundred sins will be removed from his account, and this saying will 
be a shield for him from Satan on that day till night, and nobody will 
be able to do a better deed except the one who has done more 

than him." (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 


2. Abu Hurairah ( ) narrated that Allah's Messenger ( ) said, 

"Whoever says, „ ✓ ✓ j . : { ' • > 

Subhaanallaahi wa bihamdihee „ O 

(Glory be to Allah, His is the Praise) 

one hundred times a day will be forgiven all his sins even if they 
were as much as the foam of the sea." (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

3. The Prophet ( % ) said, "[There are] two statements which are 

light for the tongue, heavy in the scales [of deeds] and dearer to the 

Most Merciful: r , ✓ » > • * ' . > 

pj 4 Jl)I jL>u.m Lb i 41)1 (jl ( tit 

Subhaan-Allaahi wa bihamdihee, subhaan-Allaahil-'Adheem 
(Glory be to Allah, His is the praise; glory be to Allah, the Most Great) 

(Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

4. Allah's Messenger ( ^ ) said, "For me to say 

J&S 4i)!j 4i)l $1 411 4b 4bl jLkLZ 

Subhaanallaahi, wal hamdulillaahi, wa laa ilaaha illallaahu 
wallaahu akbar 

(Glory be to Allah, Praise be to Allah, there is no god but Allah) is 

dearer to me than that over which the sun has ever risen." (Muslim) 

5. Allah’s Messenger ( % ) said, "Is any one of you incapable of 
getting one thousand good deeds every day?” One of those who 
were sitting with him asked, "How can any of us get one thousand 
good deeds every day?" He replied, "say: a , , 0 , 

Subhaan-Allaah (Glory be to Allah) 

one hundred times, for by reciting them one thousand good deeds 
are recorded [to your credit] or one thousand sins are removed." 



6. Abu Musa ( said, "Allah's Messenger (^) said to me, ‘Shall I 
not direct you to one of the treasures of Paradise?’ I said, ‘Yes, O 
Allah's Messenger.’ He said, * * 

♦ * 

/ / 

Laa hawla wa laa quwwata illaa billaah 
(There is neither power nor might except with Allah.)”’ 

(Al-Bukharee and Muslim) 

7. Allah’s Messenger ( H ) said, “The master Prayer for forgiveness 

^ blj bij ail Vi <ai V ^ ail 

Allaahumma anta rabbee, laa ilaaha illaa anta, khalaqtanee 
wa anaa ' abduka , wa anaa 'alaa 'ahdika wa wa'dika masta-ta'tu, 
a'oodhu bika min sharri maa sana'tu, aboo'u laka bini'matika 
alayya, wa aboo'u laka bidhanbee, faghfir lee, fa innahu laa 
yaghflrudh-dhunooba illaa anta. 

(O Allah, You are my Lord, there is no god but You. You have 
created me and I am Your servant, and I am keeping my pledge to 
You and my promise to You as much as I am able. I take refuge in 
You from the evil that I have done. I admit to You Your favours on me, 
and I admit to You my sins, so forgive me, for there is no one who 
forgives sins other than You.) 

Whoever recites this prayer during the night and dies that night 
will enter Paradise: and whoever recites it in the morning and dies 
that day will enter Paradise.” (Ai-Bukhaaree) 


8. The Messenger of Allah ( ^ ) used to say, “There is no servant (of 
Allah) who says on the morning of each day, and on the evening of 


f o * # 

each "ight^j^ ^0*11 cdJUi 

Allaahumma innee as'alukal-hudao wattuqao wal-'afaafa 

(O Allah, I beg of You the right guidance, safeguard against 
evils, chastity and freedom from want.) (Muslim) 

9. The Messenger of Allah ( ) said, “When anyone gets 

somewhere and then says, 

l_4 ju _4 LjLoLcll 4jb I CA <0 iS*. 1 

A'oodhu bikalimaati-llaahit-taammaati min sharri moo khalaq. 
(I seek refuge in Allah's perfect words from the evil He has 
created, nothing would harm him until he leaves that place.)” (Muslim) 

1 0. Anas ( ) reported that whenever the Prophet ( % ) went to 
bed, he would say, 

(jLo£>^ IjLL uja LL^jtlat jQt 4Jb 

*• / / 

Vj aJ V 

Alhamdu lillaahilladhee atdmanaa wa saqaanaa, wa 
kafaanaa, wa aawaana, fakam mimman laa kaafiya lahu wa laa 

(All praise is due to Allah Who has provided us with food and 
drink, satisfied us and sheltered us; for many are those who have 
none to suffice them or shelter them.) (Muslim) 


1 1 . When A'ishah (t§0 was asked about the supplication the Prophet 
( ) used to make, she replied, "He used to say, 

Allaohumma innee a'oodhu bika min sharri moo 'amiltu wa min 
sharri maa lam a'mal. 

(O Allah, I seek refuge in You from the evil of what I have done and 
from the evil of what I have not done.)” (Muslim) 

12. Qataadah asked Anas about the supplication which the 
Prophet ( $jg ) frequently made, he replied, "The supplication that he 
frequently made is: 

jUil ljIjLC 4-u.ujv 3^3* Vl / 

uiLai ^ 

Allaahumma aatinaa fid-Dunyaa hasanatan wa fil-aakhirati 
hasanatan wa qinaa ‘adhaaban-Naar 

(O Allah, give us good in this life and good in the next life and save 
us from the Fire.)” (Muslim) 


A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What are the two statements which are light for the tongue, heavy in the 
scales [of deeds] and dearer to Almighty Allah? 

2. How can one get one thousand good deeds every day? 

3. Mention from the supplications one of the treasures of Paradise. 

B. Memorisation 

Memorize the du’aas in this lesson and use them in your daily life. 


jtjjGin s5i«* 

The Taraaweeh 

The Arabic word tarweehah (of which 
Taraaweeh is the plural form) means ‘a 
pause for rest.’ At the conclusion of each 
four rak'ahs, the worshippers sit and pause 
for a rest for a little while. 

Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh (the Taraaweeh 

prayers) is a special form of prayer 
performed at night in the month of 
Ramadan, in sets of two rak’ahs each, after the 
Ishaa prayer and before the witr prayer. 

Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh is a Sunnah of the Prophet 
( ), both for men and women. Allah’s Messenger ( ) 

offered this prayer in the mosque during one night of Ramadan and 
some people joined him. The next day he did the same and more 
people prayed behind him. The same thing happened during the 
third night. The believers expected the Prophet ( % ) to lead them in 
this prayer again on the fourth night, but he did not show up until Fajr 
prayer. To explain why he did so, he told them later, "I was afraid it 
would have become obligatory on you, and you may not be able to 
carry on with it." (Al-Bukhaaree) 


Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh was eventually established as a regular 
congregational practice throughout the month of Ramadan during 
the Caliphate of Umar ibn al-Khattab ). In fact, Umar («^) was 
the first to gather people behind one imam to perform this prayer. 

The Prophet ( ) said, "Whoever stands in prayer during the 
nights of Ramadan with a firm belief and hooping for reward [from 
Allah], all hiS past Sins Will be forgiven." (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

It is considered preferable to perform the Taraaweeh prayers in 
congregation (jamaa’ah). The Qur'an should be recited in a clearly 
audible voice in this prayer. This is how Allah’s Messenger ( ) 

performed this prayer during these nights in the month of Ramadan. 

The recitation of the complete text of the Qur'an in Taraaweeh 
is recommended in the course of the month of Ramadan. This will 
enable people to listen to the whole of the Qur'an and become 
aware of all of the commandments, prohibitions, teachings and 
warnings contained in it. 

It is considered appropriate to postpone the night prayer called 
witr until after the Taraaweeh has been completed. The witr prayer is 
performed in congregation after the Taraaweeh. 


A. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh is a Sunnah, both for and 

2. was the first to organise Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh 
as a congregational prayer. 

3. Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh begins after the prayer. 

4. Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh generally consists of rak'ahs each. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Explain the Arabic term ‘tarweehah.’ 

2. When is Salaat-ut-Taraweeh performed? 

3. How did the performance of Salaat-ut-Taaraweeh start? 

4. Describe how Salaat-ut-Taraaweeh is performed. 




In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 

1 . Has the news of the overwhelming event reached you? 

2. Some faces will on that day be humbled, 

3. Labouring, toiling endlessly; 

4. They will enter an intensely hot Fire; 

5. They will be given to drink from a boiling spring; 

6. For them there will be no food except from a poisonous, thorny 

7. Which will neither nourish them, nor avail them against hunger. 

8. [Other] faces on that day will radiate with bliss, 

9. Well pleased with the fruit of their striving, 

10. In a sublime garden, 

1 1 . Where they will hear no empty talk, 

1 2. Therein there is a flowing spring, 

1 3. Therein will be couches raised high, 

1 4. And cups set at hand, 

15. And cushions arranged, 

1 6. And rich carpets spread around. 

17. Do they not then look at the camels how they are created? 

1 8. And the sky, how it is raised high? 

1 9. And at the mountains how they are fixed firm? 

20. And the earth how it is spread out? 

21 . So remind [O Muhammad]; for you are only one who reminds; 

22. You are not set in authority over them; 

23. As for him who turns away and rejects the Truth, 

24. Allah will punish him with the most terrible punishment. 

25. Indeed, to Us will be their return, 

26. Then indeed, upon Us will be the account. 


This surah was revealed in Makkah. It takes its title from the word 
al-Ghaashiyah, which occurs in the first verse. This surah consists of 
twenty-six verses and may be divided into four sections: 

1. The surah begins with a question concerning the Day of 
Judgement, which is here called al-Ghaashiyah, the overwhelming 
catastrophe, which will overwhelm all creatures. It offers a glimpse of 
the Day of Reckoning which will overwhelm people so that they 
would feel surrounded by a catastrophe from which they cannot 
escape. This day will be an extremely hard day for the rejecters of 
the Truth. 

The faces of the disbelievers on that Day will be gloomy and 
humble; weary and labouring. They will be cast into the burning Fire 
of Hell, where they will drink only boiling water and eat only Dharee’. 
Dharee’ is said to be a bitter, thorny plant in its dried state, which will 
give them neither strength nor will it avail them against hunger. 

(Verses 1-7) 

2. The surah then goes on to mention the situation of the righteous 
believers who will be pleased with their good actions. Pleasure will 
be noticeable on their faces, and they will be secure in their 
dwellings in Paradise where they will be in total happiness, (verses 8-i6) 


3. The surah then draws our attention to some of Allah's wonderful 
creations. It calls us to reflect on the wonderful creation of the 
camels, the amazing heaven over us and how it is raised in such 
magnificence, the mountains and how they are firmly affixed so the 
earth does not sway with its dwellers, and the earth and how it is 
spread out, extended and made smooth for us. (Verses 17-20) 

4. Finally, the surah ends with Allah’s Command to the Prophet (H) 
to remind people of this day and of their ultimate return to Allah. 

Man is by nature forgetful. By habit and preoccupation, he is 
caught up in the concerns of the world, which makes him miserly 
and unjust. One form of purification is the performance of the five 
daily prayers which break the preoccupation of the day and help 
orient us towards the message of the Qur’an. Another form of 
reminder is the regular recitation of the Qur’an, (verses 21-26) 



Complete the following sentences. 

1 . This surah consists of verses and may be divided into 


2. One of the forms of purification is 

3. The basic duty of the Prophet ( M ) is to . 

B. Explain these terms 
1 . al-Ghaashiyah 

2. Dharee’ 

C. Answer the following questions. 

1 . With what question does the surah begin? 


2 . What will the state of the disbelievers be, and what will they eat and drink? 

3. What are some of the blessings the righteous believers will enjoy in 

D. Memorisation 

Learn this surah by heart. 



Sawm, or siyaam, is an Arabic word which means ‘keeping away 
from something.’ In Islam, it means to abstain from eating, drinking 
and other things from dawn until sunset with the intention of getting 
closer to Allah. 

The fast of Ramadan was made obligatory on Muslims in the 
second year of the Hijrah. When the month of Ramadan comes, 
Muslims must fast it because of Allah’s Command: 

"So whoever of you witnesses the month (of Ramadan) must fast it." 

( 2 : 185 ) 


Fasting also makes one realize, through one's own experience, 
how it feels to be hungry and thirsty, and thus to gain a true 
appreciation of the needs of the poor. 

For whom is the Fast Obligatory? 

Fasting in the month of Ramadan is compulsory for every Muslim 
who has reached physical maturity, is healthy and sane. Fasting is not 
obligatory on small children. 

Those who are Exempted from Fasting Altogether 

1 . The permanently ill who are not likely to recover from their illness. 

2. Those people who are too old and feeble to fast at any time of 
the year. 

3. Those in similar situations who find it difficult to fast, no matter the 

These people do not have to make up for the missed days, but 
they are required to feed a poor person a mudd of food for each day 
they missed. A mudd is a measure of approximately two-thirds of a 

Those who are Allowed to Postpone Fasting 
The following are allowed to break the fast and are required to 
make up for the missed days: 

1 . The ill people who are not terminally ill, if the fast is likely to make 
their illness worse or delay recovery; 

2. The traveller, if he travels as far as the distance requires 
shortening the obligatory prayers. If he is able to fast while 
travelling, then he can do so. 


Some Virtues of Fasting 

Fasting has a large number of virtues including the following: 

O The smell of the mouth of a fasting person is more pleasant to 
Allah than the smell of musk. (Ai-Bukhaaree) 

O Fasting is for Allah alone and He alone rewards for it. (Ai-Bukhaaree) 
O The fasting person has two moments of joy: (1) when he breaks 
his fast and (2) When he meets his Lord. (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

O Fasting is a form of protection (from Hellfire). (Ai-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 
O When the month of Ramadan comes, the gates of Paradise are 
opened, the gates of Hell are locked and the devils are 
chained. (Muslim) 

O In Paradise there is a gate called ar-Rayyaan, through which 
only those who fast would enter. (Muslim) 

O Whoever fasts Ramadan with firm faith and seeking reward (from 
Allah) will be forgiven his past sins. (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

Benefits of Fasting 

The main reason behind fasting is to attain taqwaa, or piety, as 
the Qur’an says: "O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you as 
it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become pious." 

(Surat Al-Baqarah, 2:183) 

Fasting provides protection and strength for both the soul and 
the body. It is a sure cure for many illnesses and a wonderful tool for 
strengthening the soul in the love of Allah and His obedience. 

Fasting also provides an exacting exercise in discipline. Allah’s 
Messenger ( jjjjg ) said, "Fasting is a shield; so when one of you is fasting 
he should not use foul or foolish talk. If someone attacks him or insults 
him, let him say, 'I am fasting, I am fasting. 1 " (Ai-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 


Pregnant and Nursing Women 

A pregnant woman is allowed to break the fast if fasting is likely 
to harm her health or that of her unborn baby. 

A nursing mother is also allowed to break the fast if fasting is likely 
to harm her health or prevent her from having enough milk for her 

Pregnant women and nursing mothers must, however, make up 
for the missed days. 


The Pillars of Fasting 

1 . An-Niyyah (Intention) 

This means one has to have the intention to fast to fulfil Allah's 
Command and to get closer to Him. If the fast is obligatory, one must 
have the intention to fast at any time during the preceding night. The 
Prophet ( f§ ) said, "Those who do not intend to fast during the 
(preceding) night will have no fast at all." (At-Tirmidhee) 

However, if the fast is voluntary, one can intend to fast at any time 
even during the day, provided one has not eaten, drunk or done 
anything that breaks the fast. 

It is worth mentioning here that the intention should not be verbal. 

2. Al-lmsaak 

This means to abstain from those things which break the fast, such 
as eating and drinking. 

3. Time 

Fasting starts at dawn and ends at sunset. 


The Sunan (Recommended Acts) of Fasting 

1 . As-Sahoor: The Pre-Dawn Meal 

As-Sahoor is the meal a Muslim takes before dawn with the 
intention of fasting. The Prophet ( M) said, "Eat sahoor, for indeed 
there is a blessing in sahoor." (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

2. Delaying the Sahoor and Hastening to Break the Fast 

The Prophet ( ^ ) said, "My followers will remain upon goodness 
as long as they hasten to break the fast (at sunset) and delay 
eating the sahoor." (Muslim) 

3. Breaking the Fast with Dates or Water 

Allah’s Messenger ( ) used to break his fast with fresh dates 

before offering the Maghrib prayer. If there were no fresh dates, 
he would break it with dry dates. If there were no such dates, he 
would take some sips of water. 

4. Invoking Allah upon Breaking the Fast 

The Prophet ( ) said, "Three supplications are accepted: The 

supplication of the fasting person, that of the oppressed and that 
Of the traveller." (Al-Baihaqee) 

Things that Break the Fast 

The following are some of the things that spoil the fast. Anyone 
who does any one of them is required to make up for the fast: 
j Intentional eating and drinking 
U Intentional vomiting 

Swallowing water because of exaggerating while rinsing the 
mouth or nose during wudhu. This type includes allowing food to 
reach the stomach by any means, such as taking injections that 
nourish the body. 

Intending to break the fast even if one has not eaten or drunk. 
Reverting from Islam. 


If someone vomits against his will, his fast is still valid. Likewise, if 
he eats and drinks out of forgetfulness his fast is valid but he has to 
stop eating or drinking as soon as he remembers. 

Supplication When Breaking the Fast 

One of the supplications the Prophet ( ) would make upon 
breaking the fast was: 

aIm t\2u‘o\U?%\ 

Dhahabadh-dhama’u, wabtallatil-’urooqu, wa thabatal-ajru 

(The thirst has gone, the veins are moistened and the reward is 
confirmed, if Allah wills.) 

cjcuij ru&ii ^ 


♦♦ v . 

Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

Fasting was made obligatory in the year of the Hijra h. 

Fasting is not obligatory on 

If a traveller travels as far as the distance requires shortening the obligatory 
prayers, he may his fast. 

The odour of a fasting person's mouth is sweeter to Allah than 
In the month of Ramadan, the gates of are opened, the gates of 

are locked and the are chained. 

The Prophet ( *!>) broke his fast with or . 

Eating or drinking out of does not make the fast void. 

Match these Arabic terms to their correct meanings. 





To abstain from things that break the fast. 




Breaking the fast 








Measure of about two-thirds of a kilogramme 




Pre-dawn meal 





C. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What is the Islamic meaning of sawm? 

2. On whom is fasting obligatory? 

3. Who are completely exempted from fasting? 

4. A fasting person has two joys. What are they? 

5. Which people will enter through ar-Rayyaan Gate? 

6. Write any three benefits of fasting. 

D. Think-up 

It is Ramadan and sixteen-year-old Sara is very ill. What should she do 


Surat Al-Fajr 

(The Dawn) 



4 '<$k^£KSV$w^^ 

•"'>? '•'4 V< >'£" >"ZX > ^>, / I''’h / i<i' > , / -\M 

iy*j^ 1 d3j <J>^ * j • 13 -*Ajj 4jJlio I U i £ ' 

s'i »'*>/' >C* <""+'* V» 1 \'\<C\A'lf£% 

'Xi_) >££jj £sc, jSj& AUJji L4 1 j|L4 

#£&<<>£&% $ ^&p3S& 

0 12 teJ &$^zj kJs; 0 jg±j\ 

i 4 ? >,(h u i^ ^ i^> <, x rf ^ ^ 

|^p ll^L>-J LJ ' A^jC^- j 
• 1 ^ ^ WAV W'X" i^ 

X^A y> 1^1 uLv^ \jl^p dl)tJ >J c£Ajj *U-j |^J D •> 


/// # 

<✓-* >✓ 

^ > -.-> ? -/r ^ ^ >' 

-A^-l jAjIaPc-j^jo j 

/f>?T >*»'" >& >w'»^ 

|^P r? ■AJ I I l^iu U^fSp -^" ' jA3 Bj 

* x ^ • ,-f ** ^ i^ i*' <, 

In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 

1. By the dawn, 

2. And [by] the ten nights, 

3. And [by] the even and the odd, 

4. And [by] the night when it runs its course! 

5. Is there not an oath in this for men of understanding? 

6. Are you not aware of how your Lord has dealt with Aad - 

7. Iram - who had lofty pillars? 

8. The likes of whom has never been created in all the land? 

9. And [with] the Thamoud who carved out rocks in the valley? 

1 0. And [with] Pharaoh, owner of the stakes? 

1 1 . [All of] whom rebelled in the land, 

1 2. And increased corruption in it. 

13. So your Lord poured on them different kinds of severe 

1 4. Indeed, your Lord is Ever Watchful. 

15. As for man, when his Lord tries him with generosity and bounty, 
he says, "My Lord has honoured me." 

16. But when He tries him by restricting his provision, he says, "My 
Lord has humiliated me." 

1 7. But no! You do not honour the orphans, 

1 8. And you do not encourage one another to feed the poor, 

1 9. And you eat up inheritance, devouring it with greed, 

20. And you love wealth with exceeding love. 

21 . No! When the earth is levelled - pounded and crushed - 

22. And your Lord comes, and the angels, row after row, rank upon 

23. And brought [within view], that Day, will be Hell - That Day man 
will remember, but what will that reminder avail him? 


24. He will say, "Oh I wish that I had sent ahead [some good] for my 

25. So on that Day none will punish [as severely] as His punishment, 

26. And no one will bind [as severely] as His binding (of the 

27. [To the righteous it will be said,] "O reassured soul, 

28. Return to your Lord, well-pleased and pleasing [to Him], 

29. And join the company of My [righteous] servants, 

30. And enter my Paradise." 

This surah, which consists of thirty verses, was revealed in 
Makkah and may be divided into five sections. 

1 . In the first section, Almighty Allah swears by four things: the 
dawn, the ten nights, the even and the odd and the night when 
it departs. The dawn, or the daybreak, is known. The ten nights 
refer to the first ten nights of the month of Dhul-Hijjah - the 
season of pilgrimage to the House of Allah in Makkah. The odd 
refers to the Day of Arafah (9th day of Dhul-Hijjah) and the even 
refers to the Day of Sacrifice (10th of Dhul-Hijjah). There are 
other interpretations of these words, and Allah knows best! (Verses 

1 - 5 ) 


2. The surah then speaks to the disbelievers, reminding them of the 
fate of some of the arrogant peoples who rejected Allah’s 
guidance, such as the Aad, the Thamoud, and the arrogant 
Pharaoh of Egypt. 

The Aad were those to whom Allah sent Prophet Hud ( ) to 
guide them. They used to live in trellised houses that were raised 
with firm pillars. They were the strongest people of their time. The 
Thamoud were powerful people who used to hew in the 
mountains houses with great skill. Allah sent them Prophet Salih 
( ) to guide them. The arrogant Pharaoh used to torture 

people by binding them to stakes. Upon all these Allah sent 
down a severe punishment, for He watches and sees what 
people do and therefore He rewards them in this life and the 
hereafter based on what each of them strives for. (verses 6-i4) 


3. The third section is a reminder that the life of this world is a test. 
Allah tests man by His Generosity and letting him live a life of 
ease. Likewise, He tries him by straitening his means of 
livelihood. Richness and poverty are both forms of trials. The 
Qur’an then mentions some of the bad things man does such as 
not caring for the orphans, not feeding the poor, devouring 
inheritance through lawful and unlawful means and loving 
wealth a great deal. Man does not, as a rule, think of the 
Hereafter. He remains concerned with this world and what 
promises to be of immediate benefit to him. (Verses 15-20) 

4. The fourth section describes the Day of Judgement when the 
earth will be flattened, and people will be raised from their 
graves to stand before their Lord for judgement. On that Day, 
Jahannam will be brought close, and people will remember 
their past deeds on earth, but how will remembrance benefit 
them? The disobedient people will be sorry for the acts of 
disobedience they had committed, and the obedient will wish 
they had done more acts of obedience. On that Day, none will 
punish the wicked and the disbelievers as Allah will punish, and 
none will bind them as He will. (Verses 21-26) 

5. The surah ends with a moving consolation for the soul of the 
pious who abide by the truth. It will be said to it to return to its 
Lord who will admit it into Paradise in the Company of His faithful 
servants; well-pleased within itself, pleased with Allah and He 
will be pleased with it. (verses 27-30) 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . On the Day of Judgement, will be brought close. 

2. and are both trials. 

3. Allah swears by the dawn. Here, dawn refers to . 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What are the four things by which Almighty Allah swears at the beginning 
of the surah? 

2. What does ‘even and odd’ mean? 

3. What old civilizations does Allah speak to the disbelievers about in this 


4. In what different ways does Allah test man? 

5. What is in store for the reassured soul of the pious people with Allah? 

C. Memorisation 

Learn this surah by heart. 



The Purifying 


The Arabic word zakah has various meanings including 'purity', 
'honour', 'growth' and 'blessings'. In Islamic terminology, it is the 
amount required from Muslims to pay to those who deserve it, when 
their wealth reaches a certain amount called the nisaab, and which 
satisfies the required conditions. 

The zakah is meant to purify a person’s wealth and his income 
from that taint of selfishness, hence the expression 'purifying dues'. 

Zakah is the Third Pillar of Islam 

Zakah is the third pillar of Islam that 
comes immediately after salah. Indeed, 
it is a form of worship. Paying it is an 
obligation on every Muslim who owns the 
least amount (called nisaab) that 
requires its payment and that satisfies the 
rest of its conditions. Allah commands the 
believers to pay it: 

"Establish regular prayer and give zakah." 
( 73 : 20 ) 

Refusal to Pay Zakah 

Those who refuse to pay zakah, believing that it is not 
obligatory, are considered disbelievers. Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq ), 
the first caliph, had no hesitation in taking up arms against Muslims 
who believed in Allah and the Messenger ( || ) and performed salah 
but refused to pay zakah. He said, "By Allah! If they refuse to give 
away a female goat that they used to give to Allah's Messenger ( 

I will surely fight them for that." (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

Allah warns those who do not pay zakah thus: 

£ f . ^ . . // > . > < ' < ^ . ff/ /- ' i t f 

L ^ \j Jjl ^ \ 3 

"Those who hoard gold and silver and do not spend them for the 
sake of Allah - warn them of a painful punishment. On that Day when 
[the hoarded wealth] will be heated in the Fire of Hell and with it will 
be branded their foreheads and their sides and their backs, [and it 
will be said to them,] This is the treasure which you have hoarded for 
yourselves. Now taste of what you used to hoard. 1 " (9:34-35) 

The Prophet ( ^ ) also said, "Every owner of gold or silver who 
does not pay its zakah, when the Day of Judgement comes, plates 
of fire would be beaten out for him; these would then be heated in 
the fire of Hell and his side, his forehead and his back would be 
cauterised with them. Whenever these cool down, [the process is] 
repeated during a day the length of which would be fifty thousand 
years, until judgement is pronounced among [Allah's] creatures, and 
then he would see whether his destination would be either Paradise 
or the Fire." (Muslim) The Prophet ( ) went on to mention all types of 

property on which zakah is due and how those who own it but do not 
pay zakah due on it will be punished. This includes camels, cows 
and sheep. 


Some benefits of Zakah 

Zakah has a number of benefits including the following: 

1 . It strengthens the ties of brotherhood between the rich and the 

2. It blesses one's wealth and purifies the heart from selfishness 
and thirst for wealth. 

3. It purifies the heart of the recipient from envy and hate towards 
those who give it and encourages him to show kindness and 
love for them. 

4. It brings about public advancement that leads to the 
happiness of all members of society. 

Conditions for the Payment of Zakah 

1 . The assets like money, livestock, property, etc. are subject to 
zakah. These assets are of growing types. They have the 
potential to generate income. 

2. One full lunar year should pass since the ownership of the 
wealth for zakah to be due. This condition does not include 
vegetables and fruits. 

3. The wealth must be at or above a certain limit called the 
nisaab. There is a different nisaab for different types of wealth. 

The nisaab or amount on which zakah becomes payable of 
some kinds of wealth is as follows: 



Trading goods 

595 grams 
85 grams 

Equal to the price of silver (595 grams) 
5 camels 
40 sheep 
30 cows 


It is, however, important to note that the assets should be in 
excess of basic needs. What is needed by an individual to satisfy the 
basic necessities for him and his family is not subject to zakah. If the 
owner is burdened by debt that exceeds the nisaab or brings the 
wealth’s worth to below the nisaab, then zakah is not due. All debts 
are therefore deducted from the zakatable wealth. 

Zakah is obligatory only on Muslims, regardless of whether they 
are adults or minors, sane or insane. Legal guardians should pay on 
behalf of the minor children and the insane. 

Those Entitled to Receive Zakah 

There are eight categories of people who are entitled to zakah. 
These are as follows: 

1 . The poor 

These are those who do have some money but not sufficient to 
meet their needs and the needs of their dependents. 

2. The needy 

These are those whose level of poverty is more or less the same 
as that of the poor; they have a pressing need, such as when 
they require two-hundred of a certain currency, for example, 
but have only one hundred. 

3. Those employed to collect the funds of zakah, distribute it, 
record it in its register and maintain it 

These will be paid their salaries from zakah funds whether they 
are rich or poor. 


4. Those whose hearts are to be reconciled 

These are those new Muslims whose faith is still weak and need 
the zakah to strengthen their faith. They are also those 
disbelievers whose hearts may be inclined towards Islam if they 
are given the zakah, or those influential disbelievers whose 
conversion to Islam is desired or their evil is to be restrained. 

5. For freeing slaves 

A slave who wants to free himself from slavery should be given 
zakah so that he can pay the necessary money to his master to 
set him free. 

6. The debtors 

Debtors mean those who are burdened with debts, which have 
not been spent for something that Allah does not like, and who 
cannot pay them off. 

7. In the way of Allah 

This means anything that is pleasing to Almighty Allah such as 
Jihad in order to elevate the Word of Allah and any other form 
of work that is done in the cause of Allah and from which 
Muslims will derive benefit, such as the construction of mosques, 
schools, hospitals and shelters for the orphans. 

8. The travellers 

A traveller may be rich in his home, but if he is in need of money 
while travelling, he may be given zakah. 


2. Zakah 

B. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1. Zakah is a form of 

2. One being a Muslim depends on one's paying . 

3. The payment of zakah is an expression of to Allah. 

4. The nisaab of gold is grams and that of silver is grams. 

C. Answer these questions. 

1 . How did Abu Bakr react towards those people who refused to pay 

2. Why, do you think, zakah is translated as the purifying dues? 


3. Write down the benefits zakah has in society. 

4. List the categories of people entitled to receive zakah. 

5 . Mention other benefits o f zaka h . 


Good Moral 

Good moral character is the most excellent of all virtues. In fact, 
it reveals the essential nature of people. Once Allah’s Messenger 
( ), said, "The most excellent believers in faith are those who have 

good moral Character." (Al-Tabaraanee) 

Allah has distinguished His Messenger Muhammad ( H ) by 
blessing him with certain miracles and exceptional virtues. Yet He 
has not praised him of any of his special qualities to the same extent 
as He has praised him for his great moral character. Allah says, 


"And indeed, you are of a 
splendid moral character." (68:4) 

The Arabic term ‘khuluq’ actually describes a person’s 
‘character’, inner disposition or nature. It also means habitual 
behaviour, which becomes, as it were, one’s second nature or ‘way of 
life’. The Prophet’s ‘way of life’, his character was the Qur’an. 

One of the aspects of good character is to have a cheerful face, 
to be generous and to harm no one. Allah’s Messenger (H) once said, 
"I was only sent to perfect the noble moral character." (Ai-Baihaqee). 

Good character in Hadeeth 

When A'ishah (fcfe) was asked about the Prophet's character, she 
replied, "His character was the Qur'an." (Muslim) 

The Prophet (||) said, "The heaviest thing to be placed in the 
balance of the believer on the Day of Judgement will be good 
character, and Allah hates the [person who uses] abusive and 
obscene [language]." (At-Tirmidhee) 

"Let him who believes in Allah and the Last Day either speak 
good or keep silent, and let him who believes in Allah and the Last 
Day be generous to his neighbour, and let him who believes in Allah 
and the Last Day be generous to his guest." (Muslim) 

"The dearest to me and the nearest among you to me on the 
Day of Judgement will be those who have good moral character." 


"Fear Allah wherever you are, and follow up a bad deed with a 
good one and it will wipe it out, and behave well towards people." 


The Prophet ( ^ ) also used to say, "O Allah! You have made 
good my creation, so make good my character." (Ai-Bukhaaree) 



Explain these terms. 

1 . Bad character 

2. Good character 

3. Khuluq 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Which of the believers is the most excellent in faith? 

7 1 

2. In what words has Allah praised the Prophet ( H)? 

3. What does goodness of character mean? 

C. Activity 

Make a list of good qualities a Muslim should have, and then write down 
their opposites. 


Allah’s Messenger ( gg ) said, "The 
best among you are the best in good 
moral Character." (Al-Bukhaaree) 

Perfecting our character, however, 
requires a great effort and a strong 
determination. It requires rigorous 
self-discipline, struggle, exercise and a 
good education. What is good 
character? How can we acquire it? The 
best and the simplest way to answer these 
questions is to look at the Messenger of 
Allah ( i ) as a role model. He is the 
perfect example of good character. The 
Qur'an says, "You have indeed in the 
Messenger of Allah an excellent example 
for whoever hopes for Allah and the Last 
Day and remembers Allah much." (33:2i) 

The only way to live by the Qur'an is to live as Allah’s Messenger 
( M ) lived b Y it- His life was the Qur'an in practice. The best way to 
understand the Qur'an and follow its message is to learn what the 
Prophet ( % ) said and did. We must follow in the footsteps of the 
Prophet ( H ). If you want to know what type of person the Qur'an 
wants you to be, you only need to study the life of the Prophet ( ) 

and copy his example in your life. 


By only knowing, however, would not be enough. We need 
inner strength and drive to follow the teachings of the Qur'an. This 
strength will come out of the love that a believer must have for Allah 
and His Messenger ( ). 

Some of the Prophet’s Qualities 

One important aspect of the Prophet’s character was 
perfection. He sought perfection in everything he said or did. He was 
the best father, the best husband, the best leader, the best teacher 
and the best friend. 

He was the most honest, patient, trustworthy, gracious, 
compassionate and merciful person who has ever lived. The lesson 
for us is to seek perfection in whatever we do, however small it may 
be as best we can. 

He was the most just, the most decent and the most truthful. He 
would visit the poor and the needy and entertain them. He would 
always sit among his companions as though he was an ordinary 
person among them. When he walked, he would walk as though he 
was going down a hill or a slope. He walked in a dignified manner 
and walked easily and swiftly. When he turned to address 
somebody, he would turn his whole body completely. He was the 
most modest and the first one to cast his eyes down. He would look 
downwards more than upwards. He spoke first to his companions. He 
was the first person to greet anyone he met. He only spoke when it 
was necessary. He spent long periods in silence. He began and 
ended what he said correctly. His words were comprehensive. He 
had a mild temperament. He was neither harsh nor stern. He valued 
a gift even if it was small. He never criticised food. If he liked, he 
would eat, but if he didn’t like it, he would leave it. 


When he pointed at something, he would do so with his whole 
hand. When he was angry, he would turn away and avert his gaze. 
His laughter was no more than a smile. When he retired to his house, 
he divided his time into three parts - one for Allah, one for his family 
and one for himself. Then he divided his part between his people 
and himself. Some people needed one thing, some needed two, 
and some had many needs. He concerned himself with them and 
kept them busy doing things that were good for them and the 
community. He brought people together and did not split them up. 
He praised what was good and encouraged it. He disliked what was 
bad and discouraged it. 

Allah’s Messenger ( % ) was always cheerful, easy-going, 
good-tempered and lenient. He was never rude or rough. He did not 
shout nor utter bad words. He never tried to find fault with people or 
flatter them. 

He would not sit down, stand up or do anything else without 
mentioning Allah's name. He would not reserve a special place for 
himself and he forbade others to do so. When someone asked him 
for something he needed, either he gave it to him or he talked to him 
with consoling words. He was the kindest of all the people and had 
the best behaviour. 

He spoke only about things for which he expected a reward 
from Allah. When he spoke, the people sitting with him would be as 
still as if there were birds on their heads. He would not interrupt 
anyone who was speaking until that person had stopped talking. He 
would laugh at what they laughed at and show surprise at what 
made them surprised. He was patient with a stranger who was rude 
to him. He said, "When you find someone asking for something he 
needs, then give it to him, and never ask for a reward except from 
the reward-Giver (i.e. Allah)." (At-Tirmidhee) 


Although Allah’s Messenger ( ^|) was a leader of all the Muslims, 
he was always humble. He never belittled his companions. When he 
shook hands with someone, he would grip with his whole hand and 
never was the first to release the grip. When speaking to someone, 
he would never be the first to look away. When he walked into an 
assembly, he would never demand to sit at the centre or near the 
front. He would just sit wherever he found space. 

The life of the Prophet (^) teaches us that we should be kind to 
people, as much as we can, with sincerity even to those who are not 
nice to us. 

The way to establish good moral character is to clear our hearts 
of bad ideas. We should teach ourselves better ways to analyse 
ideas and situations we come across in our life. This, however, 
requires intense training and effort. 

Let us look at this situation. We are 
walking along a street and a homeless 
person stops us and asks us for money or 
food. Some of us will completely ignore 
this person or call him a habitual beggar. 

But enter our new and improved code of 
conduct: we can either give the person 
money for the sake of Allah and ask him to 
buy food with it or we can go to the 
nearest fast food restaurant and buy this 
person a meal. The lesson is never to turn 
away a person who asks you for help. This 
was the character of our beloved Prophet 


Let us consider another situation. Four pupils find a wallet with 
£500 inside it. There is also a slip of paper in it, which gives the name 
and address of the owner. The pupils know the man 
but don’t like him. Two from the group think they 
should return the wallet to the owner. The third thinks 
they should take it to the police station. The fourth 
says they should divide the money among them. 
Think about the incident from the owner’s point of 
view. Would it have made a difference to the fourth 
pupil if it had been his wallet? 

What guidance do we get from the life of the Prophet ( J$g)? 

Here is another story! 

Abdullah goes to your school. He is your friend but he is in 
another class. He does not come to school 
everyday. You assume that he must be ill. At 
dinnertime, you drop in on him to see how he is. 

You find him sitting in the living room reading 
something. He seems all right, but when you ask 
him how he is, he bursts into tears. He tells you that 
another boy in his class is making his life miserable 
- calling him names, making snide remarks, hiding 
his things and hitting him. He is so upset that he 
stayed away from school. Can you help Abdullah? Decide what 
advice you would give him in the light of the Prophet's noble 


The last situation is concerning a secret 
between two friends. A friend of yours trusts you with 
a secret that he thinks is important. You promise him 
not to tell anyone. Shortly afterwards, you are 
speaking with a close friend and you think his secret 
would make a nice topic of conversation. After all, 
you are also not fully aware why your friend is 
making such a big deal out of his little secret. 

Besides, you are going to ask the person to whom 
you are disclosing the secret to promise you not to 
tell anyone, just like you did. 

Enter your moral code and you stop reminding yourself that a 
promise is a promise. The lesson here is to be trustworthy, whether it is 
with feelings, thoughts and emotions or with material possessions. This 
is also one of the Prophet’s great characteristics. Before we act or 
react to anything, we should form a habit of asking ourselves what 
guidance we can get from the life of the Prophet ( ) concerning 

this situation. 

Once we develop a more positive and truthful Islamic 
approach on the events that occur in our daily life, we will gradually 
perfect our character. 



Complete these sentences. 

1 . "The best among you are the best in 

2. "You have indeed in the an excellent example." 

3. The Prophet's life was in practice. 

B. Answer these questions. 

1 . Perfecting our character is hard work. Explain. 

2. What manners do we learn from the Prophet ( ^ ) regarding talking? 

C. Think-up 

Discuss a few of the Prophet’s qualities that you would like to have in your 
pursuit of better character. 


Jju3\ 3j jjm 

Surat Al-Balad 

(The City) 

/// // s* / J>S / / f-i / /V»/* / ✓" > Hf'T'T 

Jo' v~^' © 1 


t '*// / 

jo_y o' t^M^\ fp ' jJ j U C-SsJLib ' Jj*iCp A»-' 

// / y / > / ?/ / y /^\ 

p| 4j^'U(iil>jilUj^pX ; ^'|V>ci3''^^p(ly-WJl 

- "Z y /. \S -'<£% ~". •.» ^ t’, >\ir^\ -'C' **{l 

jtLA O La-Jo Qp A*Sjtf-b 

fa' •"?'{. S Air& 

\y& \j>j jj'o^OO J*-J |p) ^ 

oaS 'j ijp j' ^ A*JJ 1* ' ^ Jj JJ 1? 

Ep Q-Ugy* 

In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 


2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 

9 . 

11 . 

12 . 

13 . 

14 . 

15 . 

17 . 

18 . 

19 . 


I swear by this city, 

And you are free of restriction in this city, 

And by the father and which was born [of him]; 

We have certainly created man into hardship. 

Does he think no one has power over him? 

He says, "I have spent plenty of wealth. 1 
Does he think no one sees him? 

Have We not given him two eyes, 

And a tongue and a pair of lips? 

And shown him the two ways? 

But he has not attempted to 
ascend the steep uphill path, 

And what could make you 
understand what the steep uphill 
path is! 

It is the freeing of a slave, 

Or feeding on a day of severe 

An orphan of near relationship, 

Or a needy person in misery, 

And then being among those 
who believe and urge one 
another to patience, and urge one another to compassion. 
These are the companions of the right. 

But those who disbelieve in Our signs - these are the 
companions of the left. 

Over them will be fire closed in. 

This surah, which consists of twenty verses, was revealed in 


1 . In the first four verses, Almighty Allah swears by the secure city of 
Makkah, especially while the Prophet ( ) is in it and swears by 
Adam and his progeny. Allah swears by these that man was 
created in hardship and difficulty. 

2. The surah goes on to scold man for his arrogance, boasting that 
he has spent a great deal of wealth on his desires. Then it warns 
him that Allah is Ever Watchful of what he does and that He will 
question him about everything on the Day of Judgement. It also 
reminds him of some of the bounties Allah the Almighty has 
bestowed on him, namely the faculties of speech and sight and 
the mind with which to distinguish between the ways of good 
and evil. (Verses 5-10) 

3. The Qur'an encourages man to 'ascend the steep uphill path'. It 
then explains that this can be done by freeing slaves for the 
sake of Allah and feeding the poor on a day of severe hunger; 
giving to the orphans of near relationship and the poor who are 
in a state of destitution; and along with these good 
characteristics, one has to be one of the righteous believers 
who do good deeds, advising one another to be patient with 
Allah's decrees and also by being patient while doing acts of 
obedience and avoiding acts of disobedience. They also 
advise one another to show mercy towards the poor and the 
needy. The Qur'an then describes people who do such good 
things as 'the companions of the right', which is a sign of 
happiness. (Verses 1 1-1 8) 


The surah ends by telling us who 'the companions of the left' are 
and what their destination will be in he hereafter. In fact, they 
are the disbelievers who will end up in Hell out of which there will 
be no escape for them. (Verses 19-20) 



Match the following. 


1 This city 

2 The companions of the right 

3 ‘You’ in the second verse 

4 The companions of the left 


a Prophet Muhammad (3|) 1 

b Those who reject the truth 2 

c Madinah 3 

d The people of faith 4 

e Makkah 5 

B. Answer these questions. 

1 . According to the surah, why was man created? 

2. Why does Allah scold man? 

3. What must we do in return for Allah’s favours? 


Learn this surah by heart. 


Allah the Almighty is the Creator of everything. 

Everything belongs to Him. He created animals for 
our benefit, and so we have duties towards them. 

We will be accountable to Allah on the Day of 
Judgement for their proper treatment. 

Animals Have Rights 

Animals have rights in Islam. Allah created human beings for a 
purpose and created animals for a purpose. Part of our duty towards 
animals is to treat them kindly. Allah allows us to use some of these 
animals for our benefit, but this does not mean that we can treat 
these animals cruelly or make them work beyond their capacity. 

Allah’s Messenger ( ) forbade the killing of animals or birds 
except for food. He said, "Whoever does not show mercy will not be 
shown mercy." (Ai-Bukhaaree and Muslim) He also said, "Have mercy 
towards those on the earth, and the One over the Heavens will have 
mercy on you." (At-Tirmidhee) 


Showing Mercy to Animals 

The Prophet ( M ) said, "While a man was 
walking he felt thirsty and went down a well and 
drank water from it. On coming out of it, he saw a 
dog panting and eating mud because of 
excessive thirst. The man said, 'This (dog) is 
suffering from the same problem as that of mine. 

So he [went down the well], filled his shoe with 
water, caught hold of it with his teeth and climbed 
up and gave the dog to drink. So Allah 
appreciated this act of his and forgave him." The Companions asked 
him, "O Allah's Messenger, is there for us a reward even for [serving] 
such animals?" He replied, "Yes, there is a reward for service to every 
living animal." (Ai-Bukhaaree) 

Allah’s Messenger ( ) said, "A woman was punished because 
of a cat which she confined until it died, and so she entered Hell fire 
because of it. She had not given it anything to eat or to drink when 
she confined it, nor did she set it free so that it would eat the insects 

Of the earth." (A-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

Once, while the Prophet ( ) went 

away to answer nature's call during a 
journey, some of his companions caught 
the young of a female bird; when it came 
back, it started beating the earth with its 
wings in distress. When the Prophet ( ) 

returned and saw what was happening, he asked, "Who has put this 
bird to distress by taking its young away from it? Return them to it." He 
also noticed a mound of ants which they had burnt down, and so he 
asked, "Who set fire on this? None can punish with fire except the 
Lord of the fire." (Abu Dawood) 


A Muslim, therefore, should have mercy and 
compassion towards animals. He should not use 
them as targets. Once, Abdullah ibn Omar («|b) 
passed by some boys who had tied a bird and 
used it as a target for their arrows. When they saw 
him they dispersed. Ibn Omar (4&) said, "Who has 
done this? May Allah curse whoever has done this. 

Allah's Messenger ( H ) cursed anyone who makes 
a living Creature a target." (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

A Muslim must put the animal at ease when 
he is about to slaughter it. The Prophet ( ) said, "Indeed, Allah has 
prescribed excellence in all things. So if you kill, kill in a good 
manner; and if you slaughter, slaughter in a good manner. Each of 
you should sharpen his blade and spare suffering to the animal he is 
slaughtering." (Muslim) 

He also said, "Whoever shows mercy, even while slaughtering a 
sparrow, Allah will have mercy on him on the Day of Judgement." 


A Muslim should never torture an animal. He should never beat 
it, nor inflict pain on it, nor make it carry more than it can bear, nor 
mutilate it. Once, a donkey with a brand on the face happened to 
pass before the Prophet ( % ), so he said, "May Allah curse the one 
who has branded it." (Muslim) 

The killing of animals by using nails is forbidden. This causes the 
animal too much pain. Using stones or a catapult is also forbidden. 
Allah’s Messenger ( 3gg ) said, "Throwing stones will neither hunt the 
game nor kill an enemy. It may, however, break a tooth or gouge 
out an eye." (Al-Bukhaaree) 


Beasts of Burden 

Beasts of burden are animals such as donkeys, horses or oxen 
which are used to carry or pull things. Allah’s Messenger ( ) said, "Fear 
Allah in treating dumb animals." (Abu Dawood) 

Once the Prophet ( ) saw a 
camel that started weeping with a 
yearning sound, so he went to it 
and went on wiping its head until it 
became silent. Then he went to its 
owner and said to him, "Will you 
not fear Allah with respect to this 
beast which Allah has given you? It 
has complained to me that you 
keep it hungry and load it with heavy burdens that tire it out." (Ahmad and 

Abu Dawood: saheeh) 

A Muslim must take care not to overload a beast of burden. He 

should not stay mounted for a long time 
while the animal is kept standing. He 
must only use it to fulfil his needs and 
alight once his needs are fulfilled. The 
Prophet ( H ) said, "Do not treat the 
backs of your animals as chairs. Surely, 
Allah has subjected them to you to take 
you to places which you would not have 
otherwise been able to reach except 
with difficulty and hardship. He has subjected the earth for you, so fulfil 
your needs [but do not overburden them]." (Abu Dawood: saheeh) 


A. State whether these statements are true or false. 

1 . Animals have rights. 

2. Muslims are allowed to kill animals for sport. 

3. Allah shows mercy to those who show mercy to animals. 

4. It is OK to treat animals in a cruel way sometimes. 

5. Branding animals on the face is not allowed in Islam. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Allah has created animals for our benefit. What must we do in return? 

2. Mention some animals that help us and in what way they extend their 
help to us? 

3. What did the Prophet ( M ) say about those who kill animals for sport? 


4. Why did the camel complain to the Prophet ( ), and what did the 

Prophet ( M ) do for it? 

C. Think-up 

Is a Muslim allowed to kill animals or insects that can do us harm? Why or 
why not? Work in groups and find out about this point, then discuss it with 
your teacher. 





Good Habits 
that a Muslim 
Must Cultivate 

There are many good habits that a Muslim must train himself to 
adopt. Some of these good habits are as follows: 

1 . A good Muslim does not make a habit of swearing by Allah all 
the time, truthfully or otherwise. If he exercises this kind of 
self-control and trains his tongue accordingly, this will lead him 
to break the habit altogether, with or without intention. 

2. He does not tell lies, whether in jest or in earnest. If he practises 
self-control and his tongue gets used to truthfulness, Allah will 
purify his mind and heart and reward him greatly for doing so. 
He will eventually reach a point where telling lies will strike him 
as unbearable. 


3. He never promises something to someone without fulfilling his 
promise. If he promises someone, he does his best to keep it. He 
knows that breaking a promise is equal in effect to lying. 

4. He does not curse anyone or anything; nor does he hurt 

5. He does not direct his attention and interest towards any form of 
sinful acts of disobedience. He restrains all his limbs and organs 
from any act that is not pleasing to Almighty Allah, even though 
he feels like doing it. Such efforts will bring him the quickest 
reward to his heart and body in the present life of this world and 
in the Hereafter. 

6. He keeps himself away from inflicting any burden or 
inconvenience, be it small or great, on any of his fellow 

7. He keeps a cheerful expression on his face and avoids 
scowling. He avoids being argumentative and quarrelsome. He 
is tolerant towards people when they disagree with him and 
shows patience with their annoying behaviour. He does not 
harbour any bad feelings towards any one of them; he does 
not have the inclination to cheat and double-cross them. He 
conceals his brothers’ faults as far as he possibly can. He does 
not backbite any one of them when he is absent from their 
company; and when he is present among them, he does not 
speak ill of any absentee. If one of them falls ill, he visits him. He 
does not boycott those who boycott him; he gives to those who 
deprive him, and pardons those who wrong him. He does not 
borrow anything from anyone, if he can possibly manage 
without it. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 


1 . Breaking a promise is equal to . 

2. A good Muslim keeps a expression on his face. 

3. A good Muslim never promises something to someone without 
his promise 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1. What should someone who knows he is not able to fulfil his 
promise do? 

2. What rewards are in store for those who refrain from cursing 

C. Activity 

Write down five good qualities you have learnt from the lesson 
and try to make them part of your nature. 



Allah the Almighty says about thankfulness: 

"If you are thankful, I will surely give you more; but if you are 
ungrateful, My punishment is terrible indeed." (i 4:7) 

In another place, Allah tells us that only those who are grateful to Him 
truly worship Him: 


"And be grateful to Allah if it is indeed Him that you worship." ( 2 :i 72) 

Allah has mentioned thankfulness along with faith. He has made it 
very clear that He gains nothing from punishing people if they give 
thanks to Him and believe in Him. 


p -* — ^ ’ * 3 

"What would Allah gain from your punishment if you are grateful and 
believe? And ever is Allah Appreciative and Knowing." (4:147) 


We should therefore always be grateful to Allah for everything 
that He has given us. We should recognize that our very existence 
and our continuing sustenance are dependent on Allah. Allah’s 
bounties and blessings are countless. In many places in the Qur'an, 
Allah compares the terms Shukr and Kufr. Imaan implies shukr, or 
gratefulness as opposed to kufr, or ungratefulness. A disbeliever who 
does not believe in Allah and His Messenger ( % ) is ungrateful. He is 
ungrateful to Allah Who has given him everything, whereas a 
believer is ever thankful for all that Allah has given him. He 
recognizes that his Lord is Merciful and Loving. 

If you are grateful, then you have taken the first step towards 
becoming a true believer. Allah creates, distributes and administers 
everything in the universe. He governs and sustains all that is in the 
universe. Not even a leaf falls without His knowledge. Being grateful 
is the cornerstone of our faith. If you learn this lesson well, you will 
begin the process of getting closer to Allah. ^ — ■>. 

The true nature of thankfulness is the acknowledgement of the 
bounties of the Giver, Allah, with a sense of humility. Allah describes 
Himself as the Most Thankful One (ash-Shakoor). He rewards His 
servants for their thankfulness. The servant’s thankfulness to Allah is 
therefore expressed through the praise he offers to Him. 


Gratefulness to Allah can be expressed in three ways: 

1 . Thankfulness expressed by the tongue. This consists in the 
acknowledgement of the gifts of Allah with an attitude of 

2. Thankfulness expressed by the body and the limbs. This is the 
indication of loyalty and readiness to serve and help fellow 

3. Thankfulness expressed by the inner feelings of the heart. 

To put it simply, thankfulness means that you do not disobey 
Allah by misusing His favours. Thankfulness is expressed through the 
believer’s devotion to Him in all his states and conditions. It is 
expressed through his firm belief that whatever is good in his 
existence, worship, remembrance of Allah is entirely due to His 
enabling guidance (tawfeeq), His gracious favour and His Help. 

The Prophet ( ^ ) and Gratefulness 

Allah’s Messenger (^) would stay up all night standing in prayer 
until his feet became swollen. When he was asked, "Why are you 
doing this when Allah has already forgiven all your past and future 
sins?" He replied, "Should I not be a grateful slave?" (Muslim) 

He once said, "How wonderful the case of a believer is! There is 
good for him in whatever happens to him, and this is not the case of 
anyone except that of the believer. If he receives some prosperity, 
he expresses thankfulness to Allah and that is better for him. And if 
some adversity befalls him, he shows patience and that is [also] 
better for him." (Muslim) 

The Prophet (S§) once said to Mu’adh ( 4 #b), "By Allah, I love you, 
so do not forget to say at the end of each salah, 


Allaahumma a’innee 'o/oo dhikrika, wa shukrika, wa husni 

"O Allah! Help me to remember You and give thanks to You and 
to worship You well (Ahmad, Abu Dawood and An-Nasaa’ee: saheeh) 

Thankful People Show Appreciation 

You should always thank people for personal help. One of the 
basic rules of good manners is that every favour or kindness, no 
matter how small or who it comes from, should be acknowledged 
and appreciated. 

There exists no situation in which 'Thanks’ cannot be given. It 
takes only a few seconds to say a heart-warming ‘Jazaakallahu 
khayran’ to a fellow Muslim. You can thank even total strangers with 
a nod of the head, a gesture of the hand, a thankful glance - in 
crowded streets, on buses or trains, in the quiet mosque, anywhere 
at all. 

Remember the old expression: "I felt sorry for myself because I 
had no shoes until I met a man who had no feet." People who live in 
small houses should not feel sorry for themselves after they meet 
people who live in even smaller houses. 

Thank Allah for whatever you have. Being grateful soothes the 
mind and the heart. Count your blessings! You will soon discover that 
you have more than you think! 

Whenever Almighty Allah is thanked for any of His blessings, He 
provides another blessing, which in turn makes one to thank Him 
again! So one can never stop giving thanks to Allah, because giving 
thanks for blessings is in itself a blessing! 


Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 



1 . Allah has mentioned thankfulness along with . 

2. People are divided into two categories: the people of and 

the people of . 

3. To give thanks for blessings is in itself a 

B. Who said the following, to whom and when? 

"Should I not be a thankful servant?" 

C. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Who, according to Allah, truly worships Him? 

2. How is a disbeliever ungrateful to Allah? 


3. What is the true nature of thankfulness? 

4. In what different ways can you show appreciation? 

D. Think-up 

In what way, do you think, can a poor and hard-pressed person be 
thankful to Allah? 


Uj!>£- ^ © 4 ^ ^ J O^J G 

> ^ - • ra/) - ' x /»< 9 ''f7%\',(?: ' Tl 

^j(^-«_o |^| >4-^^ O^uU-isj^l 

-M > ^*>r <,'< '1 -" ^fr. , t" 

4ii 1 j-*-» (J ULa (L^L| *■ '-A-‘“ JJ ' d-Ot-j > 3 l *$7*? '-^- J _^*-^ 

// ,/ < / >< x < >>*? ^ ^st ,^r> ^ *\~ '\1 

^JL>« .A S L_Jbj)_yl_jt5 d_^Ajs^ 3 SL^i! l^i-jL-dj4Aii A3u 

jSp l Cp 


In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 

1 . By the sun and its brightness, 

2. And by the moon when it follows it, 

3. And by the day when it shows up (the sun's brightness), 

4. And the night when it veils it, 

5. And by the sky and He Who built it, 

6. And by the earth and He Who shaped it, 

7. And by the soul and He Who perfected it, 

8. And inspired it with what is wrong for it and what is good for 

9. Surely, he has succeeded who 
purifies it, 

1 0. And he has failed who corrupts 

1 1 . The people of Thamood denied 
the Truth through their 
overwhelming arrogance, 

12. When the most wretched of them was sent forth [to hamstring 

The Messenger of Allah said: Do not 
harm Allah’s she-camel or [prevent 
her from] her drink [of water]. 

But they denied him and hamstrung 
her. So their Lord brought upon them 
destruction for their sin and made 
them equal in destruction. 

And He does not fear the 
consequences of doing so. 

the she-camel]; 


Surat Ash-Shams begins with a series of oaths. It is important to 
note that the Arabic word for sun 'ash-Shams' is feminine in Arabic. It, 
therefore, takes the feminine pronoun ‘haa’. This Qur'anic tone gives 
pleasure to the reciter of this surah. One enjoys repeating it and 
drawing closer to Allah. 

Verses 8, 9 and 1 0 reveal a great psychological fact. Allah has 
given everyone a conscience or inner voice. This conscience 
enables man to distinguish between what is right and what is wrong. 
The person who learns to listen to his inner voice finds that this voice 
becomes louder and audible; such a person achieves success, 
while the person who stifles this voice and remains unmindful to it 

The second part of the surah evokes the civilization of Thamood 
and the ruin of its great city. The Qur'an attributes the destruction of 
Thamood to their rejection of the call of their Prophet Salih (^), a 
rejection that led to the destruction of other peoples before 
Thamood as well. 

The people of Thamood disobeyed their Prophet Salih ( & ). 
They rejected the truth that he came with, as the she-camel of Allah 
was his miracle, which Allah had brought forth from a rock as a sign 
for them and a proof against them. They transgressed against her in 
her drinking, for she had been allocated a day to drink and they 
had been allocated a day to drink. They slaughtered Allah’s 
she-camel. Nothing was more sinful for them than the unjustified 
killing of the she-camel. By slaying her, they disobeyed Allah and 
rebelled against Him; this of course led to their destruction. Modern 
civilizations have valuable lessons to learn from the ruined tribe of 



Complete these sentences. 

1 . Allah sent Prophet to the people of Thamood. 

2. Allah brought forth the she-camel from a , 

3. The people of the Thamood rejected the that Prophet 

Salih (^Si) came with. 

B. Answer these questions. 

1 . How can man become successful in this life? 

2. Who is Allah’s she-camel? What does her slaying mean? 

3. Why were the Thamood destroyed? 

4. What did the most wretched of the Thamood do? 



Learn this surah by heart. 


Cambridge Dictionary defines 
conversation as a talk between two 
or more people in which thoughts, 
feelings and ideas are expressed, 
questions are asked and answered, 
or news and information are 

Islamic Manners Concerning Conversation 

While conversing with others, a Muslim must keep away from 
falsehood, slander, backbiting and shameful talk. He should protect 
his tongue from all that Allah and His Messenger (|§) have forbidden. 

Silence is sometimes a source of safety and security. The 
tongue is like a beast of prey. If you do not control it, it will surely land 
you in trouble. The Prophet (|§) said, "Those who keep quiet will be 

Safe." (At-Tirmidhee : saheeh) 

This means that a Muslim is required to keep quiet especially to 
avoid evil speech to be saved from evil in this life and the Hereafter. 
He should not talk about things that do not concern him, nor should 
he engage in any kind of speech from which he may not get any 
benefit. Failure to control the tongue is the fastest way to Hellfire. 


The Prophet’s excellent qualities in eloquence and fluency of 
speech are well known. He was fluent, very concise and very clear. 
He used meaningful words and his speech was free from affectation. 
He never used too few or too many words. It was as if his speech 
consisted of threaded pearls. He had a loud voice which was 
melodious. His speech was so clear that all those who listened to him 
understood him. 

The Teachings of the Prophet ( H ) Concerning Conversation 
Sufyan ibn Abdullah once asked the Prophet ( ), "Messenger 

of Allah, tell me something that I should adhere to." He replied, "Say: 
My Lord is Allah, then remain steadfast." Sufyan then asked, 
"Messenger of Allah, what do you fear most for me?" The Prophet ( ^ ) 
took hold of his own tongue and said, ‘This!’” (At-Tirmidhee) 

Even the slightest carelessness by the tongue can make all the 
other organs suffer. The Prophet ( ) said, "When the son of Adam 

gets up in the morning, all the organs (of his body) humble 
themselves before the tongue and say, 'Fear Allah for our sake 
because we are with you. If you are straight, we will be straight, but 
if you are crooked, we will also be crooked. 1 " (At-Tirmidhee) 

The Prophet (^t) also said, "It is great treachery that you tell your 
brother something he accepts 
as truth from you when you are 
lying." (Abu Dawood) 

He also said, “Woe to him 
who tells lies to make people 
laugh; woe to him; woe to him!” 



The Impact of Words 

Words have a great impact. A person might utter a word without 
thinking about it being pleasing or not to Allah, and so he might ruin 
his life and bring Allah's 1 punishment upon himself in the Hereafter. 
On the other hand, he might utter a word because of which Allah will 
undoubtedly raise his degrees in Paradise. 

The Prophet ( H ) said, "Truly, a person says a word that is 
pleasing to Allah and though he does not give it any importance, 
Allah raises him a number of degrees because of it. And truly, a 
person says a word that is displeasing to Allah, and though he does 
not give it any importance (when he says it), he will sink because of 
it into Hellfire.” (Al-Bukhaaree) 

Speak Good or Keep Silent 

A Muslim should weigh his words before he speaks. If he feels 
that what he is about to say is pleasing to Allah, then he should surely 
speak; otherwise, he should remain silent. The Prophet ( H ) said, 
"...Let him who believes in Allah and the Last Day either speak good 
Or keep Silent.” (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

In another hadeeth he mentioned that saying a good word is 
an act Of Charity. (Al-Bukhaaree) 

Remember that being talkative often leads to sinning, and 
carelessness in the choice of words often leads to mistakes. Once 
the Prophet ( ) asked his companions, "Do you know what 

backbiting is?" They replied, "Allah and His Messenger know best." 
Then he said, "Backbiting is talking about your brother in a way that 
he dislikes." Someone asked, "What if my brother is as I say?" The 
Prophet ( H ) replied, "If he is as you say, you have backbitten him; 
and if he is not as you say, you have slandered him." (Muslim) 


Do not Interrupt Someone while He is Speaking 

It is bad manners to start to speak in 
the middle of another person's speech. A 
wise person does not speak until there is an 
interval of silence. Avoid interruption unless 
it is very important and unavoidable, and 
then quickly apologize for doing so. 

Gossip and Cattiness are Signs of Bad Manners 

It is also bad manners to discuss other people’s affairs that are 
damaging or harmful to them. Only jokes that are in good taste and 
free from lies should be told. A good Muslim does not engage in 
vulgar, crass or cruel jokes. 

Speaking in a Low Voice 

The Qur’an says, "The most disagreeable of all sounds is the 
voice of donkeys." (3i:i9) 

By keeping your voice low, you not only show good manners 
with people but also obey Allah's commands. 

Speaking with a loud voice is bad 
manners. When a person speaks in a loud, 
harsh voice, he shows that he has no 
manners and he has no respect for others. 


A. Match the following: 






is like a beast of prey. 



Being talkative 


have a great impact. 



The tongue 


leads to safety and security. 





leads to Heaven. 



often leads to sinning. 

5 _ 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why shouldn't one interrupt others when they are speaking? 

2. Define backbiting and slandering. 

3. What does speaking in a loud voice show? 


4. Who said, "This"? To whom did he say it and when? 

5. Mention some of the bad things a good Muslim must keep away from 
when talking to others. 


The Year of Grief 

Khadijah bint Khuwaylid ( ) and Abu Talib died in the same 

year: the tenth year of Prophethood. The Prophet’s grief was deep. 
He was keenly aware that he was left not only without a caring wife, 
but also without a protector. His pagan enemies saw in the death of 
Abu Talib an opportunity to harm and persecute him. The neighbours 
of the Prophet ( ) who were opposed to him, under the leadership 
of Abu Lahab and his wife Umm Jameel, intensified their attacks 
against him. The Prophet ( ^ ) used to remove the dirty refuse, which 
they repeatedly threw into his courtyard and in front of his door. 


The year in which Khadijah (fcf*,) and Abu Talib died became 
known as Aam al-Huzn (the Year of Grief) because of the great loss 
to the already persecuted Prophet ( j£g). 

The believers shared in the Prophet’s sorrow, but they were too 
weak and too oppressed to provide the kind of protection Allah’s 
Messenger (i|g ) had lost due to the death of Abu Talib. 

The Prophet ) soon renewed his efforts to proclaim his Lord’s 
commands to "rise and warn". But the Quraysh were adamant. They 
refused to have anything to do with Islam. The stubbornness of the 
Quraysh continued to increase. Some other place had to be found 
now where people would be more responsive to Allah’s Call. 

The TriptoAt-Taif 

The Prophet’s hope for support was directed to At-Taif, which 
was a green, beautiful city, not very far from Makkah. Accompanied 
by Zayd ibn Haarithah, his freed slave, Allah’s Messenger ( ^ ) left for 
At-Taif, only a few weeks after the death of Khadijah ( i& ) and Abu 
Talib. It was the month of Shawwal in the tenth year of Prophethood. 

At-Taif, whose people worshipped idols, was populated by the 
Thaqeef, the second largest tribe in Arabia. As he began his journey, 
the Prophet ( ) was full of hope. 

Once he went straight to a 
leading family in the city. They were 
Abd Yaleel, Mas’ud and Habeeb the 
sons of Amr ibn Umayr. The three men 
were extremely rude in their rejection 
of the Prophet’s call to Islam. The first 
one said, "I will tear the covering of 
the Ka’bah if it was true that Allah had 
chosen you as His Messenger." 


The second said, "Did Allah not find 
anyone else to be His Messenger?" The 
third said, "I do not want to talk to you. If 
it is true that you are Allah’s Messenger, 
you are too great for me to speak to 
you. If you are lying, then you are not 
worth answering." 

He stayed there for ten days calling 
people to Islam, but without success. To hasten his departure, 
people among the rabble of the city hurled abuse at him and 
even threw stones at him until his feet began to bleed. Zayd did 
his best to shield him. He received a painful wound in his head. 
The mob continued to chase the Prophet (H) and his companion 
until they were driven to the outskirts of the city. There the Prophet 
( H ) and Zayd («|b ) took shelter in a vineyard which belonged to 
Utbah and Shaybah, who were the sons of Rabee'ah. There he 
prayed to Allah for help and support, using touching words. 

When Utbah and Shaybah saw the Prophet ( ^) weary 

and bleeding, they were 
their slave Addaas with a 
Addaas was a Christian 
Nineveh. He was deeply 
noble character of the 
his prayers when he 
grapes. When the Prophet 

moved to pity. They sent 
tray of fresh grapes, 
and belonged to 
impressed by the 
Prophet (H) and by 
received and ate the 
( ) learnt that 

he mentioned the 

Addaas was from Nineveh, 

Prophet Yunus ( ). The mention of the Prophet Yunus ( ) 

completely won the heart of Addaas so much so that he kissed 
the Prophet’s hands. 


The Long Journey Back Home 

Heart-broken, the Prophet ( H ) and 
Zayd (4&) set out on the way back to 
Makkah. When he reached Qarn 
Al-Manaazil, Allah sent Jibreel along 
with the Angel of the Mountains, who 
asked his permission to bury Makkah 
between Al-Akshabayn, the two 
mountains flanking Makkah. The kind-hearted Prophet (|| ) replied, 
"No, I hope Allah will bring forth from them those who will worship 
Allah alone and will not associate anything with Him." 

The Prophet ( ) proceeded to Waadee Nakhlah where he 
stayed for a few days. One night, when he stood up to offer the night 
prayer, a huge crowd of jinn, who were attracted by the beautiful 
verses of the Qur’an, gathered to listen to his recitation of the Qur'an. 
Completely lost in this recitation, he was 
unaware of the extraordinary gathering 
around him. 

Angel Jibreel ( y0\ ) gave him the 
news of the extraordinary event that 
was taking place in Waadee Nakhlah. 

Surat al-Jinn (Surah 72) was revealed to him. Allah had caused a 
company of jinn to come to the Prophet ( % ) and listened to the 
Qur’an. When it was finished, they returned to their folk and asked 
them to believe and follow what they had heard from Allah’s 
Messenger ( H ). 

After leaving Waadee Nakhlah, the Prophet ( ) stopped at 
Hira. He sent a message to Mut’im ibn Adi, a notable in Makkah, and 
asked him if it was possible to give him his protection. Mut’im instantly 
agreed. He called his sons and asked them to take their weapons 


and assemble near the Ka’bah. When they had assembled, Mut’im 
called out loudly that he had given protection to the Prophet ( ) 

and that whoever harmed him would have to face the consequences. 

So the Prophet ( ) managed to enter Makkah safely. After 
visiting the House of Allah, he went home in peace. 

A. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . 


, the sons of Rabee'ah showed kindness 

2 . 

to the Prophet ( % ) after the persecution. 
The people of At-Taif worshipped 


offered protection to the Prophet ( H ) after the death 

of Abu Talib. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . When did khadijah ( %, ) and Abu Talib die? 

2. What did the death of Abu Talib cause? 


3. Describe one incident of persecution that the Prophet ( ^g) faced. 

4. Who was Zayd (4& ) and how was he related to the Prophet ( M )? 

5. What strange thing happened in Waadee Nakhlah? 

6. What is the year in which Khadijah ( 1^) and Abu Talib died known as? 


The Israa’ and the Mi'raaj 
(The Night Journey and the 

It is in this period that the 
Prophet’s night journey (Israa’) 
from Al-Masjid al-Haraam in 
Makkah to Al-Masjid al-Aqsaa 
in Jerusalem, and his ascension 
(Mi'raaj) from there through the 
heavens took place. He was 
accompanid in this journey by 
Angel Jibreel ( ), and was taken on a wonderful animal called 
al-Buraaq, which was bigger than a donkey and smaller than a 
mule, and whose stride reached as far as his eye could see. 

The Night Journey and the Ascension were physical 
experiences, of both the body and the soul. Arriving at al-Aqsaa, he 
fastened his mount at the gate, entered the mosque and led the 
Prophets in prayer. Then Jibreel ($$) took him through the heavens. 
He reached the first heaven. He spoke to Adam ( $£$ ), whom he 
found in the company of the souls of the dead, divided in two 
groups: the good and the bad. 


In the second heaven he met Prophet Zakariyyaa (;%£!), Prophet 
Isa ( ) and Prophet Yahyaa ( M ). In the third heaven he met 

Prophet Yousuf ( M ). In the fourth heaven, he met Prophet Idrees 
(SSUl ). In the fifth heaven, he met Prophet Haroon (g$@i ). In the sixth 
heaven, he met Prophet Musa ( ) and in the last heaven he met 
Prophet Ibraaheem ( M). 

Every time they reached a heaven, Jibreel ( asked for the 
gate to be opened and so it 
was. Each Prophet greeted him 
and expressed faith in his 

After that the Prophet ( M ) 
was carried to Sidrat 
al-Muntahaa (the farthest lote 
tree) and was shown Al-Bait 
al-Ma'moor (the much 
frequented House). He was also 
presented to the Divine 
Presence. There Almighty Allah 
enjoined on him and his 
followers fifty daily prayers. On 
the advice of Prophet Musa ($$3) 
who was in the sixth heaven, the Prophet ( ) kept praying to Allah 

to make them fewer in number until they were reduced to five 
prayers a day. 

On this journey, he also met Maalik (M), the angel in charge 
of Hell with a cheerless face. He also saw the Hellfire and some 
terrible sights in there, including the following: 

1 . He saw the people who take ribaa (usury) with bellies far too big 

to be able to move around. 


2. He saw those who unjustly eat up the orphans' property with 
lips similar to those of camels, swallowing large stones that 
issue out of their backsides. 

3. He saw people who were eating rotten, smelly meat and 
were throwing away cooked and wholesome meat. Jibreel 

) said, "They are the adulterers who had wives but had 
illicit relationships with women who were not their wives." 

4. He saw some people who were eating rotten human flesh. 
These were those who engage in slurs and slanders, 
defaming others by spreading vicious rumours about them. 

5. He saw women being hung by their breasts. Jibreel told 
him that these were married women who bore and gave 
birth to children of men who were not their husbands. 

The Prophet ( ) then returned to Makkah, having been 
absent for a part of the night. He returned just before dawn. He 
was taken on this unique journey from the house of his cousin 
Umm Haanee, where he was staying that night. It was to her 
house that he returned. He told her about his journey. A firm 
believer, she accepted and believed what the Prophet (^ ) had 
said to her. 

The People of Makkah and the Night Journey 

The next morning, the Prophet ( J$g) told this incident to the 
Makkans, but they accused him of lying and used this incident as 
another reason to make fun of him. The Prophet (H) gave many 
proofs of the truth of his account. He told them of a caravan he 
had met on the way to Jerusalem and back, and of a stray 
camel of some Makkans and how he had directed them to where 
it was! He also described Al-Aqsa Mosque in great detail! 


The believers were very impressed and rejoiced. The wonderful 
event deepened their faith. When the news was first broken to Abu 
Bakr ), he asked, "Did he really tell of these things?" "Yes," they 
replied. “If he reported this news,” he said, “then he has told the truth, 
because he never tells lies.” 

Because of this response, Abu Bakr ( ^ ) was given the title of 
as-Siddeeq, the sincere believer - the one who affirms the truth. 


A. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . The Arabic word tor the 'Night Journey' is and that for 

the 'Ascension' is . 

2. The Night Journey and the Ascension were physical experiences, of 

both the and the soul. 

3. was bigger than a donkey and smaller than a mule. 

4. The Prophet ( $$ ) was taken on the Night Journey from the house of 

5. believed in the Night Journey as soon as he heard of 

it and was given the title . 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . When did the event of Israa and Mi’raaj take place? 

2. Where was the Prophet ( ) taken during his Night Journey? 

3. How was the Prophet ( M ) transported during this journey? 


4. List the different Prophets that the Prophet ( M ) met and mention the 
heavens where he met them as well. 

5. What punishment did the Prophet ( ^ ) see for those who take ribaa 
(usury) as well as for those who engage in slandering and backbiting? 

6. What act of worship was the Prophet ( ) commanded, as well as his 
followers, to perform during this journey? 

7. What did the Quraysh think of the Night Journey and the Ascension? 


Preaching Islam to Different Tribes and in Different Places 

The disbelievers of Makkah continued to ill-treat the Muslims. 
The Quraysh continued to plot against the powerless in the city. But 
the Prophet {$&) did not lose heart. Back from Taif, he resumed 
preaching Islam to the tribes, which stayed around Makkah. He also 
preached Islam among the caravans that came to Makkah from 
outside during the days of hajj. Abu Lahab always tried to interrupt 
the Prophet’s missions. He would tell the people not to pay any 
attention to what the Prophet ( ) was saying. 


Islam Spreads in Madinah 
It was the habit of the 
Prophet ( M ) to go to gatherings 
and fairs to invite people to Islam. 

The Arabs gathered in Makkah 
every year for the hajj. A group of 
six people came to Makkah for 
pilgrimage from Yathrib, the city 
now known as Madinah. They 
belonged to the important tribe of 

Khazraj. The people of Khazraj had known about the coming of a 
Prophet. Many Jewish tribes lived in and around Madinah. They were 
the followers of Prophet Musa ($&n) and read the Tawrah. The people 
of Madinah had learnt from the Jews about the coming of a prophet 
who would bring peace to mankind. The Jews had been eagerly 
waiting for him to come! 

H ) met these six people of the Khazraj and 
invited them to Islam. Unlike the pagan 
Makkans and the people of Taif, they 
listened to the Prophet ( $jg ) with great 
respect. The teachings of the Qur'an 
and the truthfulness of the Prophet ( 3 j ) 
convinced them that he was the 
Prophet foretold in the Tawrah. They 
argued, "If he is the true Prophet, then 
we should be the first to believe and accept him before the Jews 
recognize him!” They embraced Islam and accepted his teachings. 
They returned to Madinah with the thrilling news that there was a new 
Prophet in Makkah whom they had met and believed in. This proved 
a turning point in the history of Islam. 

Allah’s Messenger ( 


The entire population of Madinah was divided between the 
Jews and idolaters. The Aws and the Khazraj were the two 

well-known and powerful tribes 
of the idolaters. They had been 
in conflict for many years. They 
were, on the other hand, bitter 
rivals of the Jews, who lived in 
and around Madinah. 

The Aws and the Khazraj 
had often heard from the Jews 
about the coming of an 
unlettered Prophet in the near 
future. They had also heard about his dominance over all. They, 
therefore, lost no time to embrace Islam. 

The Jews were the People of the book, while the Khazraj 
were idolaters. The Jews used to threaten them, whenever they 
were in conflict, with the appearance of a prophet who would 
destroy them as Aad and Iram, the two ancient tribes, had been 
destroyed. When the Prophet ( ) talked to them about Islam, 

they said to each other, "O people! He is indeed the Messenger 
with which the Jews had been threatening us." So they responded 
to the Prophet ) most favourably. 

The two secret pledges which the Aws and the Khazraj made 
and in which they agreed to accept Islam and to extend support 
and protection to Allah’s Messenger ( % ) and his oppressed 
companions came to be known as the First and Second Pledges 
of Aqabah. 


The First Pledge of Aqabah 

Aqabah is a place in the valley of Mina. It is not very far from 
Makkah. Mina was used and is still used as a halt for the pilgrims. The 
activities of the new six Muslims of the Khazraj brought more people 
from both the Aws and the Khazraj to Makkah to seek the famed 
Messenger of Allah ( H). 

The First Pledge of Aqabah involved twelve men, ten from the 
Khazraj and two from the Aws. They met the Prophet ( jjjfg ) and 
pledged themselves to follow Islam. The terms of the pledge were as 

This is called the First Pledge of Aqabah. 

In fact it was a very significant development. Those who made 
it were the influential men of Madinah. The twelve men returned to 
Madinah. Allah’s Messenger ( ) sent Mus’ab ibn Umayr ( ^ ) with 

them to teach people about Islam. 


Mus’ab bin Umayr («fe) was a noted companion of the Prophet 
( M )• He was a leading figure in Makkan society before the rise of 
Islam. He was very handsome and belonged to a wealthy family. He 
was extremely popular in the aristocratic circles of Makkah. He was 
popular for his refined taste in clothing. He was an early convert to 
Islam. He was noted for his knowledge of the Qur’an and his 
dedication to the cause of Islam. His tactfulness, good manners, 
diplomacy and hard work won the allegiance of many leading men 
of the Aws and the Khazraj in Madinah. 

Islam began to spread among the people of the Aws and the 
Khazraj. Not a household of the people of Madinah remained in 
which some men and women had not accepted Islam. The Aws and 
the Khazraj later came to be known as the Ansaar (Helpers) in the 
Islamic history. 

The Pledge of Aqabah is one of the most significant events in 
the life of the Prophet ( H ) and in the history of Islam. 


A. State whether the following statements are true or false. 

1 . The Prophet ( M ) stopped preaching as the Quraysh were ill-treating the 


2. The former name of Madinah was Yathrib. 

3. Abu Lahab helped the Prophet ( M ) spread Islam. 

B. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . The Jews were the people of the , while the Khazraj were 

2. people of Khazraj came to the Prophet ( H ) to meet him. 

3. The people of Madinah were divided into and . 

C. Answer the following questions. 

1 . How did the people of Madinah know about the coming of a prophet? 

2. How were the people convinced that Muhammad ( ) was indeed a 



3. What was the First Pledge of Aqabah? How many people attended it, 
and what were its terms? 

4, Who was Mus’ab ibn Umayr? Why did the Prophet ( % ) send him to 

D. Think-up 

1 . Why do you think the Aws and the Khazraj resolved their difficulties when 
they heard of the coming of a new prophet? 

2. Why do you think was the special name ‘Ansaar’ given to the Aws and 
the Khazraj? 





( 4 ) 

The Second Pledge of Aqabah 

The Second Pledge took place a year after the first one, which 
was concluded in the twelfth year of Prophethood. That year during 
the hajj season, many of the people of Yathrib, Muslims and 
non-Muslims alike, came to Makkah. The Muslims had decided that 
they would not leave the Messenger of Allah ( ^ ) in Makkah to be 
expelled and persecuted. Seventy-three men and two women, 
Nusaybah bint Ka’b and Asmaa 1 bint Amr, contacted him in secret 
and agreed to meet him in secret at night in the mountain pass that 
is next to Jamrat al-Aqabah. 

Allah’s Messenger ( ^ ) came out at night, took his uncle 
Al-Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib with him and reached the mountain 

pass of Aqabah. The believers 
from Madinah were waiting for 
him. When they expressed their 
desire to take Allah’s Messenger 
(H ) to Madinah, Al-Abbas rose 
to say, "O assembly of the 
people of Madinah! You all 
know the position that 
Muhammad holds among us. 
We have protected him as much as we could. He is honoured and 
respected among his people. He refuses to join anyone but you. If 
you think you can fulfil what you promised to do for him while inviting 


him and you can defend him against his enemies, then assume the 
burden that you have taken. But if you are going to surrender him 
and betray him after taking him away with you, then leave him right 
away because he is already respected and well -protected in his 
own place." 

Al-Abbas demanded an unwavering pledge for the support and 
protection of the Prophet ( *jjg ). He warned them that if they were not 
sure that they could keep the terms of the pledge and provide effective 
protection for him should he migrate to their city, they should not take 
the pledge! 

The Prophet ( H ) then rose to speak. He recited some verses of the 
Qur'an, called people to Allah, exhorted them to embrace Islam and 
said, "I give you my pledge that you will protect me from whatever you 
protect your women and children." 

Al-Baraa’ ibn Ma’roor, who was the spokesman for the group, said, 
"Yes, by the One Who has sent you with the truth, we will most certainly 
protect you from what we protect our women and children. So take our 
pledge, O Messenger of Allah! By Allah, we are skilled fighters and 
reliable in war; this is a trait passed down to us from our ancestors." 

Then Abu Al-Haytham ibn At-Taihan, an elderly Muslim from 
Madinah, interrupted Al-Baraa’ saying, "There are agreements 
between us and them (i.e. the Jews) which we would then sever. Do you 
think if we support you and Allah makes you victorious, you would return 
to your people and leave us?" 

Allah’s Messenger ( H ) smiled and said, "No, But your blood is my 
blood, your war is my war. I am of you and you are of me; I fight whom 
you fight and I make peace with whom you make peace." 


Then they asked, "Messenger of Allah! 
What would be our reward if we fulfil our 

"Paradise," he replied. Then all the 
members of the delegation stretched their 
hands for the pledge whose principles were 
as follows: 

To listen and obey in all sets of circumstances; 

To spend in times of ease and hardships; 

To enjoin good and forbid evil; 

To serve the Cause of Allah in all circumstances 
without fearing the blame of anyone; 

To support the Prophet ( ) when he came to them 

and to protect him against whatever they would 
protect themselves and their spouses and children 

They all swore allegiance and Al Baraa’ ibn Ma’roor ) was 
the first to extend his hand to the Prophet ( % ). The two women took 
the pledge orally, as the Prophet ( ) never shook hands with a 
strange lady. 

Allah’s Messenger ( |§ ) appointed twelve deputies who would 
be responsible for the affairs of the rest. They were given the duties of 
providing leadership and guidance for their respective groups. The 
duty of the deputy was manifold: he was the leader of the prayer, 
the teacher of the Qur'an, the arbiter in disputes, the adviser and 
commander on the battleground. They had the example of Mus’ab 
ibn Umayr ) and his leadership to guide them. 


Nine of them were from the Khazraj and three were from the Aws. 

The Muslims of Madinah now made the pledge to support and 
defend the Prophet ( ^ ) at any cost. They were prepared to go to 
war if that was necessary to defend him. It is however very important 
to note here that the pledge of going to war was purely defensive. 
Warfare would be defensive in the sense that it would be used for 
defending the Prophet ( ^ ) if someone attacked him. 

There was no hint in the pledge to wage an offensive war 
against the Quraysh or anybody else. You will learn later, Inshaa 
Allah, that Allah’s Messenger ( H) asked special permission of the 
Ansaar (Helpers) - the people of Madinah - when he had to fight the 
Quraysh in the battle of Badr, which took place after the Prophet’s 
emigration to Madinah. 


A. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . The Second Pledge of Aqabah took place in the year of 


2. was the spokesman for the group from Madinah. 

3. of the deputies were from the Khazraj and were 

from the Aws. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . How many people entered Makkah for the second pledge? 

2. Why did the people of Madinah come to the Prophet ( )? 

3. What did Al-Abbas require of the group? 


4. What are the duties of the deputy? 

5. What did the group from Madinah pledge to do? 


Makkah were quick to realize the significance of Abu Talib’s death. 
They intensified their attacks on Muslims. They sought to eradicate 
the Muslims and Islam. Muslims had no security and no rights in 
Makkah. Their lives were under threat. Their property was a fair game 
for the Quraysh. 

The Prophet ( H ) then directed those who had returned from 
Ethiopia and other Muslims to emigrate and head for Madinah. 
Quietly, they began to move out. In a few months, more than a 
hundred families left their homes and emigrated to Madinah. 

After the Second Pledge of Aqabah, the Quraysh’s persecution 
of Muslims had crossed all limits. The emigration of the Prophet ( $|) 
and his companions was very harmful to them. They were on their 
guard. They were determined to prevent it at all costs. The 
emigration of the Muslims from Makkah, therefore, was not easy. The 
Makkans caused the emigrants considerable stress. But the Muslims 
were determined to leave. They did not want to remain in Makkah. 


The Plight of Abu Salamah and many Other Muslims 

Abu Salamah ) belonged to the prominent Quraysh clan of 
Makhzum. He was the first Muslim to migrate to Madinah. Although 
he was under the protection of Abu Talib, he suffered much 
ill-treatment at the hands of the disbelievers from Quraysh. 

After the death of Abu Talib, Abu Salamah’s sufferings became 
intense. When Abu Salamah decided to emigrate to Madinah, he 
saddled his camel and mounted his wife Umm Salamah on it with 
their son Salamah. He took hold of the camel’s halter and went 
ahead. When some of the men belonging to their clan saw them, 
they came and snatched away their son Salamah. They forced Umm 
Salamah ( &) to dismount the camel. Abu Salamah was separated 
from his wife and son. He had to emigrate to Madinah alone. Thus 
Umm Salamah (&), deprived of both husband and son, was left 
behind alone, weeping and lamenting. When she was ultimately 
allowed to leave for Madinah a year later, she set out on a journey 
of about 500 kilometres by herself! 

Like Abu Salamah, many other Muslims were forced to leave 
their wives and children and to 
travel alone. Some had to • 

IB *• v 

abandon all they had earned in 
their lifetime. Suhayb Ar-Roomee 
) was among those who lost all 
their wealth. When the Quraysh 
learnt that Suhayb Ar-Roomee (4^) 
was about to leave for Madinah, 
they came to him and said, "You 
came to us poor and you had 
nothing. Now that you have 
collected great wealth while being 


amongst us, do you think we will let you move away with it?" Suhayb 
did not hesitate at all to give away all his wealth to them. When the 
Prophet (^§) heard how Suhayb (-4&1 had sacrificed all his wealth for 
the sake of Allah, he said, "Suhayb has won; indeed, Suhayb has 

After Abu Salamah, among those first emigrants to Madinah 
was Aamir ibn Rabee'ah, accompanied by his wife, Layla. Also, all 
the household of Abdullah ibn Jahsh, including Abdullah ibn Jahsh 
himself migrated to Madinah. As the whole family departed, their 
house was locked up. The migration of the Jahsh family, who were at 
the centre of the city’s social life, inspired other Muslims to follow their 

Omar ibn al-Khattab, Talha, Hamzah, Zayd ibn Haarithah, 
Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf, Az-Zubayr ibn Al-Awwaam, Abu Hudayfah, 
Uthman ibn Affan and others also emigrated. When Hishaam ibn 
Al-Aas decided to emigrate, the disbelievers caught him and put 
him in captivity and tortured him. Ayyaash migrated to Madinah but 
Abu Jahl pursued him and deceitfully brought him back to Makkah 
and made him a captive. But despite these impediments, the 
believers kept emigrating to Madinah until none remained with the 
Prophet ( H ) except for those who were taken captives, apart from 
Ali ibn Abee Talib (4*>) and Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq (4*>)- They both were 
waiting for the permission of the Prophet ( j|g ) to emigrate. 

All the emigrants were the guests of the Muslims in Madinah. The 
migrating Muslims were called Al-Muhaajiroon and their helpers in 
Madinah were known as Al-Ansaar. Allah’s guidance to His Prophet 
( H) to turn to Madinah and its people was indeed part of His Mercy 
and Loving Care for His Prophet and his companions. 


A. Decide whether these statements are true or false. 

1 . Makkah was no longer a safe place for Muslims. 

2. The Muslims did not want to leave Makkah. 

3. The non-Muslims intensified their attacks on Muslims after Abu Talib’s 


4. Mus’ab (4&) was the first Muslim to emigrate to Madinah. 

B. Answer these questions. 

1 . Where did the Prophet ( H ) ask people to go after leaving Makkah? 

2. Describe how Abu Salamah was persecuted. 

3. Why did the Prophet ( M ) say, "Suhayb has won; indeed, Suhayb has 


4. What was so special about the emigration of the Jahsh’ family? 

5. What special names were given to the emigrants and the people of Madi- 

C. Think-up 

1 . Why do you think the Muslims’ emigration was harmful to the Quraysh? 

2. What does the word ‘al-Muhaajiroon’ mean? 


The Quraysh’s Plot to Assassinate the Prophet ( ^ ) Fails 
The Quraysh were very upset by the emigration of the Muslims to 
Madinah. When they saw that the Prophet (^g ) and his companions 
had helpers in Madinah, over whom they had no power, the 
Quraysh were alarmed by the emigration of the Muslims. They knew 
that if that happened, then they would have no means to stop it. 
They held a meeting at Dar An-Nadwah, their assembly place. 
Formerly, in that meeting, the Quraysh nobles consulted with one 
another on what to do concerning the Prophet (|§ ). The emigration 
of the Prophet ( |g ) and his companions to a rival city was very 
harmful to them. 


Satan, who was in the guise 
of a venerable elderly man 
introduced himself as a man 
from Najd and attended their 
meeting to help plot against the 
Prophet ( ). Several proposals 

were put forward: Expulsion from 
Makkah, life imprisonment and 
assassination. Satan suggested 
that these proposals were of no 
use and supported Abu Jahl's 
proposals to send a band of young men, one from each tribe, to 
strike the Prophet ( ^ ) at the same time with their swords so that the 
blood money would be spread over them all and that Banu Abd 
Manaaf would not be able to fight them all. 

When the iniquitous plot had been hatched, Almighty Allah sent 
down Angel Jibreel ( ) to the Prophet ( ^ ) to reveal to him the 
Quraysh's evil plot and to give him his Lord's permission to migrate. 
He fixed to him the time of migration and asked him not to sleep on 
the night of migration in his usual bed. Ali («|b) would sleep in his bed 
in order to deceive the Quraysh who had become aware of the 
Prophet’s intention to leave Makkah. 

The Migration of the Prophet ( H ) to Madinah 

At that time no Muslims were left in Makkah, except the Prophet 
( H ), Abu Bakr ( ^ ), Ali ibn Abee Talib ( ) and those who were 
kept captives by the Quraysh. Abu Bakr ) was ready to migrate, 
but the Prophet ($g ) asked him to wait for a while. So Abu Bakr 
postponed his departure for the sake of the Prophet ( ^ ) so that he 
might keep his company. 


The Prophet ( ) in the House of Abu Bakr 

The Prophet ( j|g ) used to go to Abu Bakr’s house everyday in 
the morning or evening, but never at noon. That day when the 
Prophet ( ) was given permission to migrate, he went to the house 

of Abu Bakr (<4b) at around midday. This was an unusual visit at the 
hottest hour of the day. 

When the Prophet ( ^jjg ) entered, Abu Bakr ( 4*>) offered him his 
seat. The Prophet ( M ) then explained that Allah had given him 
permission to migrate to Madinah. "Together, O Allah’s Messenger?" 
Abu Bakr [4*>) asked anxiously. "Together," replied the Prophet ( ^ ). 
Abu Bakr’s eyes were filled with tears of joy. He informed the Prophet 
( ) that he had long since bought two she-camels for the journey. 

The two she-camels were very well looked after by him. The Prophet 
( M ) P aid the price of one of the two she-camels whose name was 

Abu Bakr’s daughters made quick preparations for their journey. 
They put into a leather-bag some provisions for them. Asmaa ( ), 

the daughter of Abu Bakr ( ), cut 
a girdle into two pieces and used 
one piece to tie the mouth of the 
leather-bag. She was, therefore, 
named Dhaat an-Nitaaqayn (the 
one with the two girdles). 

The Murderous Plot Fails 
Towards midnight, the 
murderous plotters gathered round 
the Prophet’s house, waiting for a 
suitable moment to strike. Ali ( ) 

stayed behind to deceive the 


Quraysh who had become aware of the Prophet’s intention to leave 
Makkah. Allah’s Messenger ( ^ ) asked AM ( ^ ) to sleep in his bed 
and cover himself with the Prophet’s mantle. The Prophet ( jijjg ) 
assured him that nothing unpleasant would happen to him. Ali’s 
other duty was to make sure that all the things given to the Prophet 
( ) by the people of Makkah for safekeeping had been returned 

to their owners. 

The Prophet ( ^ ) quietly left the house. As he approached the 
plotters, he took a handful of dust and threw it at their heads, reciting 
the first nine verses of Surat Yaa Seen. This had a mysterious effect on 
the plotters; it prevented them from seeing the Prophet ( M )• In the 
early morning the plotters discovered that the Prophet [M) had 
already left the house during the night. 

The Prophet ( ^ ) and Abu Bakr («fe) Leave Makkah 

Allah’s Messenger ( $i), having avoided the besieging Quraysh, 
made his way to the house of Abu 
Bakr. Abu Bakr had obtained the 
services of a trustworthy guide, 

Abdullah ibn Urayqit, in readiness for 
the journey. 

To avoid the watchful Quraysh, 
they left Makkah under the cover of 
darkness. They made their way 
southward, instead of northward, 
the true direction of Madinah. 

They avoided the main streets 
of the city, walking rather than riding, so as not to be seen. Once 
outside the city, they headed towards Mount Thawr, where they hid 
in a cave. Things were planned in advance. They were to hide safely 


in the cave for three days. The period of three days was sufficient for 
things to calm down and to remove the pursuers off the road. 

Abu Bakr (4&) had asked his son Abdullah to bring them news 
of the Quraysh. He had also ordered his freedman Aamir ibn 
Fuhayrah to graze the family flock around the cave so as to remove 
the footprints made by Abdullah and Asmaa, his sister, as they came 
to the cave with news and fresh provisions. 

When the Quraysh discovered that the Prophet ( ijfe ) had left 
leaving Ali in his bed, concealed behind his mantle, they became 
very angry. They offered a reward of a hundred she-camels to 
anyone who brought the Prophet ( ^ ) back dead or alive. Their 
horsemen set out searching along every tract, every direction and 
every nook and corner of Makkah. The search for them intensified, 
as the news of the reward of a hundred she-camels became known. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 


1 . The Quraysh held a meeting at . 

2. revealed the Quraysh’ secret plan to the Prophet ( ), 

through . 

3. Abu Bakr (4&) postponed his departure for the sake of the . 

4. The Prophet’s camel was called . 

5. was called ‘Dhat an-Nitaaqain’. 

6. The Prophet ( ) and Abu Bakr ( ) took shelter in Mount . 

7. was asked to bring the news of the Quraysh. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why did the Quraysh hold a meeting? What was its conclusion? 

2. What smart plan did the Quraysh come up with ? 

3. Why did Ali (4&) stay behind? 


4. Why was the Prophet’s visit to Abu Bakr’s house unusual? 

5. Describe how the plot of the Quraysh failed. 

6. What offer did the Quraysh set for capturing the Prophet ( M )? 

C. Reference to context 

"Together, O Allah’s Messenger?" 



>4 4 / > 



( 7 ) 

When the Quraysh found out that the Prophet ( ) had 

departed, leaving only Ali ( ) in his bed, covered with his mantle, 
they became very angry. They offered a reward of a hundred 
she-camels to whomever brought the Prophet ( H ) back dead or 


A reward 
of a HUNt>m> SHB-CAMIS 
to wt>o(*ever brought Proj>f>et ( 
back dead or a(Tve« 



r J' K fYYu^j 

The prize of one hundred she-camels was so tempting that 
young men were in pursuit on every tract. At one time a band of 
them climbed Mount Thawr and actually came to the cave. They 
passed by when they saw no signs of any human footprints 
anywhere around. Abu Bakr ) was filled with fear for the safety of 
the Prophet ( % ). If anyone had looked down below his feet, he 
would surely have spotted them. Allah’s Messenger ( ) said to Abu 

Bakr ( ), "What do you think of the two with whom Allah is the third?" 

The Prophet ( ^ ) thus quieted the fear of Abu Bakr ( )■ Yet, 

strangely, even though the pursuers came to the mouth of the cave, 
they did not enter, nor did they even look inside. It was a miracle 
from Almighty Allah to save them. 



Three Days and Nights in the Cave 

Abdullah, the son of Abu Bakr, was a wise and smart young man. 
He used to stay with them overnight. He 
would leave them before daybreak so 
that he was with the Quraysh in the 
morning in Makkah as if he had spent the 
night there. Whenever he heard of any 
evil plan concerning the Prophet ( ^ ) 
and Abu Bakr ( ), he would reach them 
under the cover of darkness and inform 
them; Aamir ibn Fuhayrah kept providing 
them with plenty of ewe’s milk during their stay in the cave. 

The Journey Begins 

After the third night in the Cave of Mount Thawr, Abdullah ibn 
Urayqit brought the camels, two, which belonged to the Prophet ( ) 
and Abu Bakr ( ). and a third one for himself. The Prophet 
( M ) mounted first, Abu Bakr and his freedman Aamir ibn Fuhayrah, 
rode on the second camel. 

The three lonely travellers thus began their long journey to 
Madinah. They avoided the usual route as much as possible and 
their expert guide, Abdullah ibn Urayqit, was very useful in helping 
them. They had to ride fast for almost all the night and most of the 
day. News of the Prophet’s emigration (Hijrah) spread across the 
desert like wild fire. 

The guide led them along the road by the seacoast. In the 
beginning, they went by by-paths, as the Quraysh were still in search 
of them, in the hope of getting the reward of a hundred she-camels. 
They did not take the ordinary beaten track to Madinah. The journey 
was very hard. The weather was very hot. 


Abu Jahl Slaps Asmaa bint Abu Bakr 

The news of the Prophet’s hijrah made the Quraysh very angry 
and frustrated. The search for the 
Prophet ( ) and Abu Bakr (<4&) was still 
going on. Abu Jahl, accompanied by 
other Quraysh leaders, went to the 
house of Abu Bakr He knocked on 
the door furiously. Asmaa ( ) opened 

the door. "Where is your father?" yelled 
Abu Jahl. "I do not know," replied 
Asmaa ( & ). So Abu Jahl slapped her in 
the face so severely that one of her 
earrings was sent flying in the air. 

The Story of Suraaqah ibn Maalik 

Suraaqah ibn Maalik was a Bedouin of the Kinaanah tribe of 
Banu Mudlij. He was a warrior and a poet. He lived mostly in his tribal 

village Qudayd near Makkah. 

One day, he was sitting in one of the 
assemblies of his tribal people when, in 
the early morning, a traveller came and 
revealed that he had seen three riders 
on camels far away on the seacoast. Suraaqah thought they must 
have been the Prophet ( ^ ) and his companions. He remained in 
the assembly for a while, and then he rose quietly and went home. 
He hoped to win the reward of one hundred she-camels. 

He took his lance, and left by a back entrance of his house. He 
mounted his mare and made her run fast until he approached the 
Prophet ( ^ ) and his companions. But suddenly his mare stumbled 
and he was thrown off. He remounted his mare and let her go 


speeding again till he could hear the Prophet ( ) recite the Qur'an. 
Suddenly, the forelegs of his mare sank up to the knees into the 
ground, and again he 

The mare 
out her forelegs 
stood again, 
out that the 
nothing to 
stopped. He 
( ) that the 

put a price on 
told them what 
Makkah had made 
Suraaqah was overawed by the presence of the Prophet 

( M )■ He was glad to get away safely, promising that he would not 
disclose the whereabouts of the Prophet ( ^ ) and his companions. 

Ever since they had heard about his setting out for Madinah, the 
people of Madinah had been waiting, on the outskirts of the city, 
eagerly. As the Prophet (^g ) spent about eleven days on his journey 
to the city - three concealed in the cave and eight on the little-used 
road - they must have waited 

It was almost midday when the 
Prophet (^§) and his companion Abu 
Bakr ( ) reached Qubaa on the 
outskirts of the city. That day was 
1 2th Rabee al-Awwal of the 
thirteenth year of the Prophet’s 

was thrown off. 

pulled up, dragging 
with difficulty, and 
Suraaqah called 
travellers had 
fear and so they 
told the Prophet 
Makkans had 
his head. He also 
plans the people of 
concerning them. 



Name the following: 

1. The reward for capturing the Prophet (H): 

2. The cave in which the Prophet ( ) hid. 

3. The guide of Allah’s Messenger (H ) and Abu Bakr (4&). 

4. The companion who emigrated with the Prophet ( % ) and Abu Bakr 

( )• 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What kind of help did Abdullah, Abu Bakr’s son, extend to the Prophet 


2. How long did the Prophet ( ^ ) stay in the Cave of Thawr for? 

3. Why did Abu Jahl slap Asmaa ( tfe )? 


4. Who was Suraaqah, and why did he pursue the Prophet ( )? 

C. Think-up 

1 . Why did the Quraysh not even peep inside the cave? 

2. Why did Suraaqah not succeed in capturing the Prophet ( ^ )? 


y>ff ^ , ^*>Tt»-o 

^u^-uijJjj |^| L*|_J |y| 

u^j].Qp l£-> y 1 a IjJd U JC^yo l»j Qp ^p^otlj .QjZSl^ Qy 

A ^// / /> '^'fl fr/ yj. X ^ V/// ^///^ -Ja 

s / 4 / / y^fes, ^ /// / ^ ' ^'l »* ^ S' ^ S ' 


ajffl -Ux: -WV l»j Qp <3_Ai^U(J._y^jj'^p (/VI 

/ ,x / ^/// ff x ''T^ *f ^ ij^^t ^ 

© cs^jJ^b El <\^/ ' 4>j ^»-j *v*?»J j iQp C£yf 


In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 

1 . By the night when it covers; 

2. And [by] the day when it appears; 

3. And [by] He who created the male and female; 

4. Indeed, your efforts are surely diverse! 

5. As for him who gives and has taqwa 

6. And believes in the best [reward], 

7. We will pave his way to ease. 

8 . But a s f or h e who i s tig ht-f isted and considers h i mself free of need , 

9. And denies the best [reward], 

1 0. We will pave his way to hardship. 

11. His wealth will not help when he falls [into Hellfire]. 

1 2. Indeed, guidance is up to Us, 

1 3. And indeed to Us belong the hereafter and the first [life]. 

14. So I have warned you of a Fire which is blazing. 

1 5. None will enter it but the most wretched one, 

1 6. Who rejects the truth and turns away. 

17. But the one who has taqwa will be far removed from it; 

18. He who gives what he owns to purify himself, 

1 9. Not as repayment for favours received, 

20. But only to seek the Countenance of his Lord, the Most High; 

21 . And, surely, he will be satisfied. 


Surat Al-Layl was revealed in Makkah. It consists of twenty-one 
verses. The surah begins with a series of oaths. The night and the day 
are the two signs frequently evoked in the Qur’an. The male and the 
female - like the day and the night - are two opposite elements and 
point to their Creator. 

This surah gives a brief summary of the basic choices placed 
before man. The sharing of wealth, taqwa (fear of Allah) and the 
belief in the best reward in the hereafter are basic virtues. Allah 
eases the way of the true believers to the good life and the way of 
the disbelievers and wrongdoers to the life of hardship. 

If a person becomes aware of the right thing but continues to 
do what is wrong, then Allah eases his way to hardship. For example, 
a young man who tells lies will gradually become mature in telling 
lies and one day he will turn into a compulsive liar. He would not 
even be able to distinguish between falsehood and truth. On the 
other hand, if a person gets into the habit of doing good, Allah will 
ease his way to doing more and more good deeds, and ultimately 
he will earn Allah’s Pleasure. 



Complete these sentences. 

1 . Allah eases the way of the true believers to the and 

eases the way of the disbelievers and wrongdoers to the life of 

2. This surah consists of verses. 

B. Answer the following questions 

1 . Where was Surat Al-Layl revealed? 

2. Which two signs are frequently evoked in the Qur’an? 

3. What does the word 'taqwa' mean? 

4. According to the surah, who will surely be satisfied? 


C. Activity 

Give an example each to show how Allah eases the way of the mindful 
and the unmindful. 

D. Memorisation 

Learn this surah by heart. 


After Prophet Adam [i$M ) 

Allah blessed the descendants of Adam (^). His children and 
grandchildren spread and multiplied. Adam’s descendants founded 
many villages. They built houses, ploughed the land, grew crops and 
lived in comfort. They worshipped only Allah. They did not worship 
anything else besides Him. 

Satan’s Envy 

Satan refused to bow down to Adam ( 3&£n ) when Allah 
commanded him to do so. So he was cast out and damned forever. 
He, therefore, decided to take revenge on the progeny of Adam 
( SfM ) so that they would go to the Fire with him. 


Satan’s Tricks 

Because people were worshipping Allah alone, he decided to 
call them to worship idols, so that they would go to the Fire and never 
get to Paradise. He knew that Allah never forgives people 
worshipping other things besides Him. So he started calling them to 
associate other things with Allah. People fell into his trap. He inspired 
them to erect statues of the pious men among them in the places 
where they used to sit and to name these statues after them. They did 
so, but they did not worship them. 

However, after that generation had gone, the following 
generations did not know the reason behind the erection of such 
statues. Satan tried to convince them by saying to them, "Your 
forefathers used to worship them and through them they sought rain." 
So they began worshipping them. 

They bowed down and prostrated themselves before them. 
They even asked these lifeless statues that can do neither harm nor 
good for things. They sacrificed animals to them. 

They had plenty of these idols. Allah mentions some of them in 
Surat Nuh: "And they said, 'Do not leave your gods, and do not leave 
Wadd or Suwaa 1 or Yaghooth or Ya’ooq or Nasr." 1 (7i:23) 


Nuh ( $£9 ), the Messenger 

Allah willed to send them a 
Messenger and so He chose Nuh 
( ) who was among them, to 

speak and give them good advice. 
There were wealthy people and 
leaders among the sons of Adam, 
but Allah alone knows who should 

carry His Message and who could 
bear His Trust. Nuh ( &gn) was a pious 
and generous man. He was 
intelligent. He had patience. He was 
compassionate and sincere. He was 
truthful and trustworthy. He was well 
known for giving good advice. 

Allah revealed to Prophet Nuh ($gg| ), "Warn your people before 
a terrible punishment comes to them." (7i:i) So Nuh ) stood up 
among his people and declared, "Indeed, I am a faithful Messenger 
tO yOU." ( 26 : 107 ) 

What Answer did Nuh Receive? 

When Nuh ( $$ ) began to call his people to Allah, some of 
them answered back. They said, “When did this man become a 
Messenger of Allah? Until yesterday he had been one of us. Today he 
says, 1 am Allah’s Messenger to you.” They also said, “He used to play 
with us when we were young. He used to sit among us everyday. 
When did he become a prophet?” The wealthy and the proud said, 
“Could Allah not find anyone else? He found only a poor man from 
among us to become a prophet?” 


Nuh ( ) and His People 

Nuh’s people wrongly believed that worshipping idols was the 
truth. They considered anyone who did not worship idols as stupid. 
They argued, "Our fathers worshipped idols. Why does this man tell us 
not to worship them?" Nuh ( ) told them, "My people, worship 

Allah; you have no other god but He! I fear for you the punishment of 
a dreadful day." (7:59) “I convey to you the messages of my Lord and 
I advise you; and I know from Allah what you do not know." (7:62) 

Only a Few Ordinary People Believed Him 

Nuh ( ) tried very hard to make his people give up 

idol-worship, but only a few ordinary people believed him. 

The wealthy among his people were too proud to believe. Their 
false pride kept them from listening to Nuh ( $ 0 \ ). Their wealth and 
their children turned them away from thinking about the next world. 
When Nuh ($£§i) called them to Allah, they said, "Should we believe 
you while you are followed by the lowest [class of people]?" (26:iii) 
They asked him to drive the poor away, but he refused and said, "I 
am not going to drive away the believers. ..lam only a clear warner." 
They said, "Nuh, if you do not desist, you will be stoned." He said, "My 
Lord! Indeed, my people have denied me, so judge between me 
and them with a decisive judgement and save me and the believers 
who are with me." (26:ii4-ii8) 


A. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . Satan wanted the progeny of Adam to go to the with him. 

2. Some of the idols Nuh's people worshipped were Wadd, 

Yaghooth, and . 

3. people believed in Nuh’s message. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . How do we know that Satan will definitely go to Hell? 

2. What is Satan’s main job on earth? 

3. How did Nuh's people start idol-worship? 


4. Write down a few qualities of Nuh ( JSsgn ). 

5. Nuh’s people did not believe in his sudden prophethood. What did they 
say in this regard? 

6. Why did the wealthy people not accept Islam? 

C. Think-up 

What sin does Allah not forgive? 


Nuh (^Si) went on calling his people to Allah. He tried hard to 
advise them, but they would not believe him. In fact, they put their 
fingers into their ears to avoid listening to him. 

Nuh’s Supplication 

Nuh (M) stayed with his people for nine hundred and fifty years 
calling them to Allah! But his people refused to believe. They 
rejected him. They would not stop worshipping idols. They refused to 
turn to Allah. How long could Nuh wait? Nine hundred and fifty years 
was a very long period of time! 


Finally, Nuh ( ) called out to Allah, “My Lord, indeed I have 
invited my people [to the truth] night and day, but my invitation has 
only made them turn away even more. Indeed, every time I called 
them to Your forgiveness, they put their fingers into their ears, 
wrapped themselves up with their clothes, persisted and were very 
arrogant. Then I invited them openly. Then I announced to them and 
[also] confided to them secretly and said, Ask forgiveness of Your 
Lord. Truly He is Endlessly Forgiving. He will send down on you 
abundant rain. He will give you more children and more wealth. He 
will provide for you gardens and provide for you streams of water. 
What is the matter with you that you do not hope for reward from 
Allah?"' (71:5-13) 

Nuh ($£)) Seeks Allah's Help 

One of the most amazing aspects of Prophet Nuh’s experience 
is that he spent nine and a half centuries teaching and guiding his 
people, but many of them resisted and rejected his advice. Such a 
long time was more than enough to reform whole nations. But they 
chose to persist in their ignorance. It happened that every passing 
generation told the succeeding one not to believe Nuh ( & ) or 
follow him. The only thing left for Nuh ( $$ ) was to turn to Allah for 
help and guidance. 

After these long years, Nuh ( <%M ) despaired of his stubborn 
people and so pleaded, "My Lord, do not leave a single disbeliever 
on the face of the earth. If You spare them, they will lead Your 
servants astray and they will breed none but wicked and ungrateful 
offspring." (7i:27) 



A. Complete these sentences. 

1 . Nuh (ass ) preached Islam to his people for years. 

2. Each passing told the succeding one not to believe 

Nuh (^ii) . 

3. The disbelievers put their into their to 

avoid listening to Nuh (>&a). 

B. Answer these questions. 

1 . What was the most amazing aspect of Nuh’s life? What was its result? 

2. What did Nuh's people do to show their persistence in rejecting his 




( 3 ) 

Nuh (j-jgUl) Builds the Ark 

Allah answered Nuh’s supplication. He willed that the fate of the 
arrogant disbelievers would be drowning in a great flood. 

Allah wanted to save Nuh ( ) and the believers, and so He 
commanded him to build a huge ship with no precedence, the ark. 
Nuh immediately began building the ark. Every time the leaders of 
his people passed by him, they ridiculed him. They said, "You are 
making a boat in the desert. How would it float?" Nuh would say, "You 
will learn soon!" they would mockingly say, "Nuh, you have become 
a carpenter after being a prophet! Where is this ship going to sail? 
The sea is a long way from here. Who is going to pull the ship?" 

Nuh (M) heard all that patiently. He had always been patient. 
Sometimes he would say, "If you ridicule us (now), we will ridicule you 
just as you ridicule (us)." (ii:38) 


The Great Flood 

After Nuh ( ) built the great ship, Allah commanded him to 
take with him a pair of every animal and creature, a male and a 
female. Nuh did as he was commanded to do. With him in the ship 
were those of his people who believed him and a pair of every 

The Promise of Allah came. The 
fountains of the deep began to flow 
and the gates of the heavens 
were opened. Allah caused the 
earth to gush forth with springs. 

Raging torrents of water turned 
the earth into springs. Between the 
time Allah sent the water and the ship 
floating on the water were many days and nights. The water rose 
higher and higher. The ship carried Nuh ( $$) and those with him on 
waves like mountains. The water rose above the tops of the 

The people outside the ship climbed onto every high place and 
every mountain, fleeing from Allah’s punishment. But there was no 
refuge from Allah except in Him. 


Nuh’s Son 

Nuh ( >&gi ) had a son who was with the disbelievers. He saw his 
son in the flood and called out to him, "My son, come aboard with us 
and do not be with the disbelievers." The son said, "I will take refuge 
on a mountain to protect me from the water." 

Nuh ( gga) said, "There is no protector today from the decree of 
Allah except for whom He gives mercy." The waves came between 
them, and he was among those who were drowned. Nuh (>ggi) was 
sad for his son. He wanted to save him from the Fire on the Day of 
Judgement, so he called upon His Lord, saying, "My Lord, my son is 
of my family. Your promise is the truth, and You are the most just of 
judges." Allah said, "Nuh, he is not of your family; indeed, he is [one 
whose] work was other than righteous, so do not ask Me about that 
which you have no knowledge..." Nuh ($i£l) said, "My Lord, I seek 
refuge with You from asking that of which I have no knowledge. 
Unless You forgive me and have mercy on me, I will be one of the 

Allah does not look at people’s families from which somebody is 
descended. He looks at their actions and their intentions. An 
idol-worshipper is not part of a Prophet’s family, even though he may 
be his own son. 


The Flood Recedes 

After what Allah had willed had occurred and the disbelievers 
had perished, the rain stopped and the water receded by Allah's 
command: "Earth, swallow your water! Sky, withhold [your rain]." 

The water then subsided, the matter was concluded and the 
ship came to rest on Mount Judi. It was said, "Nuh, come out of the 
ship in peace from Us, blessings upon you and upon nations 
[descending] from those with you." 

Nuh and those with him left the ship and walked on the 
earth in peace. Allah blessed the descendants of Nuh (M). They 
spread in the land and filled the earth. There were several 
communities among them. There were prophets and kings among 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 


1 . Allah commanded Nuh ( j£3) to build an . 

2. The ark rested on . 

3. Allah caused the earth to gush forth with . 

B. Answer these questions. 

1 . How did Allah decide to punish the people of Nuh ( >&!)? 

2. Who boarded the ship? 

3. What was the plight of Nuh’s son? 

4. Why did the disbelievers drown? 

C. Think-up 

Why did Allah say, "Nuh, he is not of your family. . ." even though he was 
Nuh’s own son? 



£>lj/cj 7 AtJJVDhUlncJcJ 

(The Bright 

Morning Light) 


1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 


7 . 

8 . 
9 . 

In the Name of Allah, Most 
Kind, Most Merciful 
By the bright morning light, 

And by the night when it is 

Your Lord has not 
abandoned you; nor is He 
displeased with you. 

Indeed, the life to come is 
better for you than the [first] 

And surely your Lord will 
give you, and you will be 

Did He not find you an 
orphan and gave you shelter? 

And He found you lost and showed you the way? 
And He found you poor and made you rich? 

So do not treat the orphan with oppression; 

And do not turn away the one who asks; 

And speak of the favours of your Lord. 

Surat adh-Dhuhaa was revealed in Makkah. It consists of eleven 
verses. It was revealed to the Prophet ( ) during a period of time 
when he was worried and the Angel Jibreel (>&B) had not come with 
any new revelation for quite some time. The disbelievers of Makkah 
began to tease the Prophet ( ;; ) and taunt him by saying that his 
devil had forsaken him. 

Allah revealed this surah as a consolation and assurance to the 
Prophet ( jjg ) for the opposition and persecution he suffered at the 
hands of the pagan Makkans in the early years of Prophethood. 

Although the surah is addressed to the Prophet ( ), it has a 

wider purport: it concerns and is meant to console every faithful man 
and woman suffering from sorrows and bitter hardships, which so 
often afflict the good and innocent. 

Happiness in human life is widely spaced and short. Man 
sometimes finds periods of sorrow and suffering overshadowing his 
existence in this world. But as sure as morning follows night, Allah’s 
Mercy is bound to alleviate every suffering, either in this world or in 
the life to come. The Arabic word "as-saa'il", which occurs in verse 
ten, denotes literally, ‘one who asks’, which signifies not only a 
‘beggar’ but anyone in a difficult situation who asks for help, whether 
physical or moral or even for the sake of knowledge! 


A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . When was Surat adh-Dhuhaa revealed? 

2. What are the two purposes for revealing Surat adh-Dhuhaa? 

3. What does the term ‘as-Saa'il’ mean and what does it signify? 

B. Memorisation 

Learn this surah by heart. 


Prophet Hud 

* * 


After Prophet Nuh ( ) 

Allah blessed the descendants of Nuh ( & ) who spread over 
the earth, and one community from them was Aad. These were 
ancient Arab people who were very well known throughout Arabia 
for their glory and greatness. 

According to the Qur’an, the people of Aad lived mainly in the 
Ahqaaf region, which is situated to the southwest of the Empty 
Quarter, between Hijaz, Yemen and Yamamah. It was from there that 
the people of Aad spread to the western coast of Yemen and 
established themselves in Oman, Hadramawt and Iraq. 


Aad was a strong nation. 

They came immediately after 
Prophet Nuh (M). They were 
huge and very strong. They 
conquered everyone, but no 
one was able to conquer them. 

They did not fear anyone, but 
everyone was afraid of them. Allah blessed the Aad with everything. 
Their sheep and camels filled the valleys and the hills. Their horses 
filled the streets of their cities. The land of Aad was a fertile land. It 
was full of gardens and springs. 

The Aad’s Ungratefulness to Allah 

But the Aad were not grateful to Allah for all these blessings. 
They forgot about the incident of the great flood, which they had 
heard about from their fathers. Although they still saw its traces in the 
land, they forgot why Allah had sent the flood as a punishment for 
the disbelievers. 


The Aad began to worship 
idols instead of Allah, just as the 
people of Nuh (jjjUi ) had done 
before them. They carved idols 
out of stones with their hands 
and then prostrated themselves before them and worshipped them. 
They offered sacrifices to them. They did not believe in the life after 
death. They were tyrants and oppressed people. They did not fear 
any punishment for the wrong they were doing. The powerful and the 
rich among them wronged the weak and the poor. 


The poor and the weak were terrified of their evil. They fled from 
their wickedness. Their strength was a curse for them and for others. 
People who do not fear Allah and do not believe in the life after 
death always have such a terrible end. 

The Castles of the Aad 

The Aad competed with each other in building high castles and 
spacious dwellings. They wasted their wealth on mud and stones. 
Whenever they came across an empty place or some high ground, 
they built a fortress on it. They built houses as if they were going to live 
forever and never die. They did nothing else. They ate, drank and 
amused themselves. They were content with the life of this world. 

Hud (a$0i), the Messenger of Allah 

It was in this extremely bad situation that Allah raised among 
them His Messenger Hud (>&3), who started calling them to Allah the 
Almighty. He asked them to worship Allah alone and to stop being 
cruel to the weak amongst them. But the Aad did not listen to him. 
They rejected his call and showed pride and arrogance. 


Hud ( ) said to them, "My people, worship Allah. There is 
no other god for you other than He. Do you not fear Allah?" The 
leaders of his people who did not believe said, "We see you in 
foolishness and we think you are one of the liars." 

He said: "My people, there is no foolishness in me, but I am 
a Messenger from the Lord of the Worlds. I bring you the 
messages of my Lord. I am a sincere and a trustworthy advisor to 
you. Remember the benefits of Allah that you might prosper." 
They said, "Cause to us that with which you threaten us, if you are 
one of the truthful." 

Hud (^\) said, "Punishment and wrath have already befallen 
you from your Lord. Wait, I am waiting with you. My people, I do 
not ask you for recompense. My recompense is only from the 
One Who created me. Do you not understand? My people, ask 
your Lord for forgiveness, and then turn to Him. He will send upon 
you pouring rain, and add strength to your strength. Do not turn 
your back as sinners." They said, "Hud, you have not brought us 
any sign, and we are not going to leave our gods on your word. 
Nor are we believers in you; we only say that some of our gods 
have possessed you with evil." 

Hud ($£& ) replied, "Indeed, I call upon Allah to witness, and 
witness [yourselves] that I am free from whatever you associate 
with Allah. So plot against me all together, then do not give me 
respite. Indeed, I trust in Allah, my Lord and your Lord. There is no 
moving creature whose forelock He does not hold. Indeed, my 
Lord is on the Straight Path... If you turn away, then I have brought 
you that with which I was sent to you. My Lord will create a 
people other than you and you will not harm Him at all. Indeed, 
my Lord has watch over all things... I fear for you the punishment 
of an awful day." 


The Punishment 

Hud (M) told them again and again that he did not seek any 
reward from them. He said his reward was with Allah. This is the 
hallmark of a Prophet’s life. They do not crave wealth, honour or 

Only a few among the Aad followed the truth, but most of 
them were stubborn and arrogant. The time for punishment to 
descend on the people of Hud had arrived. 

Almighty Allah imposed a drought on the Aad for three years, 
and they suffered, so they sent a party to pray for rain. 

The Aad looked at the sky for the rain. They looked for it 
everyday but did not see any rain clouds at all. 

One day they saw a huge black cloud coming towards them. 
They were very happy. They cried out joyfully, "Here is a rain cloud! 
This is a rain cloud!" People danced with joy. They called out at one 
another, "A rain cloud! A rain cloud!" 

But Hud (jjggai) understood that the punishment had come. He 
told them, "This is not a cloud of mercy. It is a wind with a painful 


So it was! A terrible 
fierce wind blew, the like of 
it people had never seen 
before. This wind uprooted 
trees and destroyed houses. 

It carried up animals and 
flung them far away. They 
saw the camels and men 
that the wind was causing to 
fly about. When they saw this, they returned to their houses. The wind 
followed them and destroyed them all. The wind continued to be a 
punishment upon them for seven days and eight nights in a row! ( 69 : 7 ) 

It destroyed everything 
in its path, driving the 
people from their houses 
and uprooted them as if 
they were the roots of hollow 
palm trees torn up. The 
desert sands blew into the 
air and blocked out 
everything. No one could see anything. Terror filled people's hearts. 
They began to pray and begged for help. The once arrogant people 
were now dead bodies scattered everywhere! Their grand houses 
were now in ruins. 

Allah saved Hud ( <#M ) and his followers for their belief, and 
destroyed the arrogant among the Aad people for their disbelief. 


1 . The people of Hud were Muslims. 

2. The cloud that Aad saw was a cloud of mercy. 

3. The wind destroyed houses and uprooted trees. 

4. The Aad were destroyed for their disbelief. 

B. Complete these sentences. 

1 . The people of Aad were known for their and _ 

2. The Aad lived immediately after Prophet ( 

3. Prophet was sent to the people of Aad. 

*• * 

4. The Aad competed with each other in building 

and . 

5. Prophets do not crave , or 

6. Allah imposed a drought on the Aad for years. 

C. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Where did the people of Aad live? 


2 . What type of people were the Aad? 

3. What injustices did the people of Aad indulge in? 

4. Write in your own words the reply the people of Aad gave to Prophet Hud 
(%!§) when he invited them to Islam. 


Prophet Salih m 

fOLaJl <Olc. jJUa 

The Thamood 

The Thamood are another ancient people next only to the Aad 
in fame. 

The Thamood lived in the north-western part of Arabia, which is 
still called al-Hijr. Today there is a station on the Hijaz railway 
between Madinah and Tabuk. This is called Madaa'in Salih, which 
was the capital town of Thamood, and was then known as al-Hijr, 'the 
rock-hewn city'. This has survived to this day and is spread over 
thousands of acres. It was once inhabited by no less than half a 
million people. During the lifetime of Prophet Muhammad ( ^ ), Arab 
trade caravans passed through the ruins of this city. 

While the Prophet ( ) was on his way to Tabuk, he pointed to 

the well from which the she-camel of Prophet Salih (&gi) used to drink 
water. He told his companions to draw water from that well alone 
and avoid all the other wells. The Prophet ( jjjjg ) then asked them to 
hastily move ahead, for the place was a sad reminder of Allah’s 
severe punishment. 

The people of Thamood were the descendants of the people of 
Aad, who followed the teachings of their Prophet Hud (^). They had 
survived Allah’s punishment because of their belief. They lived in the 
territory known as al-Hijr and the plain known as Waadee al-Quraa. 
It forms the southern boundary of Syria and the northern boundary of 
Arabia. The people of Thamood were the heirs to the Aad, and that 
is why they are also known as "the Second Aad ". 


The Thamood were also highly skilful in rock carving. They 
carved beautiful and spacious houses out of the mountains and 
produced wonderful paintings on the stones. A few buildings, which 
were erected by the Thamood and are still intact in Madaa'in Salih, 
still speak of their tremendous skill in civil engineering and 

Allah showered His blessings upon the people of Thamood. 
They were handsome and their land was a beautiful green land, full 
of gardens and with running rivers and streams. They had plenty of 
rain and fruits. Allah blessed them in provisions and livelihood and 
gave them many comforts. 


The Thamood worshipped idols, 
moved the people of Thamood to be 
reject Allah and to be unjust. They 
what they had been given. They lived 
their palaces and gardens. 

From the stones they carved, they made idols. They worshipped 
these idols, just as the people of Nuh and Hud had done before 


Prophet Salih ( ) 

Allah the Almighty sent Prophet Salih ( $3 ), who was a noble 
man from among the Thamood, to guide them and call them to the 
worship of Allah alone. The Thamood, however, rejected him and 
spread corruption in the land. 

Salih ( ) told his people, "Worship Allah. You have no god but 
Him... Remember when He made you successors after the Aad and 
settled you in the land, [and] you take for yourselves palaces from its 
plains and carve from the mountains homes. Then remember the 
favours of Allah, and do not abuse the earth, spreading corruption." 

The leaders from among his people who were arrogant said to 
those among them who believed and who were oppressed, "Do you 
know that Salih is sent from his Lord?" They replied, "Indeed, we are 
believers in what he has been sent with." 

When Salih ( called them to the truth, they also said, "Salih, 
you were among us a man of promise before this. Do you forbid us 
to worship what our fathers worshipped? We certainly doubt that to 
which you invite us." 

Allah wanted to guide the Thamood but they preferred 
blindness to guidance. They argued with Salih ($£§l) and ridiculed 


Prophet Salih ) Continues Calling to Allah 
A small number of people believed in Prophet Salih’s teachings 
and became his followers, but most of them rejected him. They 
refused to change their evil ways, so he continued calling them to 
Allah with wisdom and kindness. He reminded them that they would 
not live forever and that Almighty Allah would raise them up again 
and question them about His blessings. They stubbornly refused to 
follow the truth and to change their evil ways. Some of them said he 
was a magician and that they were not going to listen to him unless 
he brought them a sign proving that he was sent by Allah. 

The She-Camel - A Sign from Allah 

When Salih ($$©1) asked 
them about the sign they 
wanted him to produce, 
they asked him to bring out 
a she-camel from a certain 
rock." They knew that 
camels are only born from 
camels and so they were 
sure, in their ignorance, 
that Salih ( ) would not be able to do it. They thought they would 

surely win! 

But Salih [yuM] was a prophet, and he knew that Allah has the 
power to do anything He Wills. He had total faith in his Lord. So he 
prayed to his Lord, and the very thing they wished happened! They 
were astonished and confused. Some of them believed but most of 
them persisted in their disbelief. 


Prophet Salih ( ) told them to leave the 
she-camel to feed upon Allah’s earth and not to 
touch her with evil intent or they could be taken 
by a painful punishment. He also said that she 
had drinking rights and they had drinking rights 
on fixed days. 

When she came to the well, 
she drank the water of 
that day, and so they all drank from the water 
of the next day. They also all drank from her 
milk to their satisfaction. This is how the limits 
were set between Salih (SS£R) and the people 
of Thamood regarding the she-camel. When it 
was the she-camel’s turn, she went and drank. 
When it was the people’s turn, they went and drank. For a time 
these limits were kept. 

The Thamood’s Treachery and Cruelty 

But the Thamood were arrogant 
and cruel. They broke the 
agreement. They argued, "Why 
can’t our camels drink everyday?" 
They were furious at the she-camel 
which Allah sent to them as a sign 
of Salih's prophethood. They 
defiantly decided to kill her. The person who took the charge of killing 
her was their chief. When they hamstrung her, he was the first one to 
attack her and kill her. When she fell on the ground, they rushed 
forward, cutting her into pieces. They also challenged Salih by saying, 
"Bring us that which you threaten us with if you are a messenger." 


When Prophet Salih ) learnt of this incident, he felt very sad 
indeed. He threatened them, "Enjoy yourselves in your homes for 
three days. This is not an idle promise!" 

In the city there were nine men. They were the wicked men 
among the Thamood. They spread evil and corruption in the land. 
They plotted to kill Prophet Salih ($$). They said, "We will kill Salih and 
his family at night. We will not be seen. So if we are questioned about 
it, we will simply say, 'We do not know anything about it." 1 

The Punishment 

But Allah protected Salih ($3 ) and his family. On the third day 
the punishment came to them. As they woke up in the morning, they 
were seized by a terrible blast from the sky and a terrible earthquake 
from beneath them. They died 
instantly. They remained in their 
houses squatting and lifeless. It 
was a terrible day for the 
Thamood. All the disbelievers 
died. The city was destroyed. 

As Salih (<&& ) and the believers left the city, Salih (>&£») looked 
sadly at the remains of his people. He said with great sadness, "My 
people, I brought to you the message of my Lord and advised you, 
but you do not like advisors." (7:79) 


Today, in the place where the Thamood lived, there are only 
empty fortresses, disused wells and abandoned villages. 

When Allah’s Messenger (^) passed by the dwelling places of 
the Thamood on his way to Syria, he told his Companions, "Do not 
enter the houses of those who wronged themselves unless you enter 
weeping, fearing that the like of what had happened to them might 
also happen to you." 

The Thamood rejected their Lord, so away with the Thamood! 


A. Match the following. 



1 Salih ( was sent to 

2 Thamood lived in 

3 They were skilful in 

4 They worshipped 


a rock-carving 1 

b Thamood 2 

c Aad 3 

d Al-Hijr 4 

e idols 5 

B. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . The people of Thamood were the descendants of the people of 

2. The Thamood are also known as . 

3. Salih ( ) threatened them, "Enjoy yourselves in your homes for 

days. This is not an idle 

4. The Thamood decided to kill Prophet Salih ) at . 

C. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Why did the Prophet ( H ) ask his companions to move away quickly 
from al-Hijr? 

2 . 

Why were the Thamood known as "the Second Aad "? 

3. Writedown some qualities of Prophet Salih (&si). 

4. What condition did the Thamood lay down for believing in Salih’s 

5. What was the deal Salih ( >&s\) struck with his people concerning the 

6. Did they honour their promise? 

7. What type of punishment did they get? 

D. Think-up 

What is the outcome of those who reject Allah and His Messengers and 
turn away from the truth? 


0 'A Vi **'' * 

£j—uUl &JJMJ 

Surat Ash-Sharh 

(The Expansion) 


^ ^ ^ x >-' 

y / >// / / 

In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 

1 . 

2 . 

3 . 

4 . 

5 . 

6 . 

7 . 

8 . 

Have We not expanded your breast, 
And relieved you of your burden, 

That had weighed so heavily on your 

And have We not raised high your 

So surely, with every hardship comes 

Surely, with every hardship comes 

So when you are free, stand up [for 

And to your Lord turn all your attention. 


This surah was revealed in Makkah. It was revealed almost 
immediately after Surat Adh-Dhuhaa. 

Surat Ash-Sharh, like adh-Dhuhaa, is addressed in the first 
instance to the Prophet ( sjjjg ) and, through him, to every true follower 
of the Qur’an. 

The most fundamental principle of the Prophet’s message is 
pure tawheed. It is a simple, clear and rational set of beliefs. In the 
present surah, Allah advises His Messenger ( ^ ) to persevere and 
persist in his mission. He assures him that the future is for him and his 

"With every hardship 
comes relief; every hardship is 
followed by relief." The Arabic 
term conveys an impression 
of brief hardship but plentiful 
of ease. 

Islam is a religion of 
honesty, truth and justice. 
These qualities are most 
urgently needed in today’s 


The lesson the surah conveys to the Prophet’s followers is clear 
and poignant. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . The most fundamental principle of the message of Prophet Muhammad 

2. Islam is a religion of , and 

3. The lesson of the surah is and to the 


B. Answer the following questions. 

2. Explain the verse "With every hardship comes relief". 

C. Memorisation 

Learn this surah by heart. 




She was Khadijah bint (daughter of) 
Khuwaylid ibn (son of) Asad ibn 
Abd-ul-Uzzaa ibn Qusayy. Khadijah ( i& ) 
was of the Quraysh. The lineage of the 
Prophet ( 3ji| ) meets with her in the 
celebrated Qusay. Qusay was the great 
founder of Makkah and was the famous 
patriarch of the Quraysh. 

When Khadijah ( ) heard of the Prophet’s wonderful moral 
conduct, she requested him to head her trading caravans. When he 
went on a business trip to Syria along with her trusted slave Maisarah, 

this trip proved extremely 
profitable. During the journey, 
Maisarah noticed wonderful 
qualities in the Prophet ( ;Jg ), such 
as honesty, adherence to noble 
principles, agreeable dealings and business skills. The Prophet ( ;$g ) 
succeeded very well in his business mission. The profits were 
unusually high. 


Khadijah ( & ) was very wealthy and had a strong and 
independent will. She had repeatedly declined marriage propoals 
made by some of the most prominent men of the Quraysh. However, 
when the Prophet ( <$§ ) returned back home and Maisarah reported 
all that he had seen during the trip, Khadijah ($,) was deeply 
impressed by the Prophet's fantastic character. She expressed her 
wish to marry him through her friend Nafeesah, and he agreed. His 
marriage to Khadijah ( &.) took place about fifteen years before the 
beginning of the revelation. The Prophet (||) was twenty-five and she 
was forty years old. Khadijah (fct*) understood the Prophet (H) and 
remained deeply devoted to him and morally supported him 
throughout her life. 

When the Prophet (H) married her, he was in the prime of his 
youth. The marriage proved to be one of affection and happiness. 
Khadijah ( ) bore the Prophet ( ^ ) all his children except 

Ibraaheem, whose mother was Maariyah (($?_,). His sons from Khadijah 
(!$*,) were Al-Qaasim and Abdullah (also known at-Taahir and 
At-Tayyib), and his daughters from her were Zainab, Ruqayyah, Umm 
Kulthoom and Fatimah. All his sons died very young during his lifetime. 

During his solitary retreat in the Cave of Hira, the Prophet (^) 
used to be quite alone most of the time, but Khadijah (($?_>) would visit 
him from time to time and would also bring along his little daughters. 


The appearance of Angel Jibreel [%M) 
at Hira and, consequently, the first 
revelation of the Qu'ran took place during 
the month of Ramadan. The Prophet ( ) 

was at that time forty years old. When he 
returned home from the Cave of Hira, his 
heart was trembling. He told Khadijah ), 

"Wrap me up, wrap me up." Then he told 
her what had happened. It was Khadijah 
( &) who stood by him and comforted him. 

She said, "Allah will never humiliate you. You 
fulfil the duties of kinship; you support the 
weak; you help the poor and the needy; 
you honour your guests and endure hardships in the path of 
truthfulness." She then took him to her cousin Waraqah ibn Nawfal, 
who became before Islam a Christian and had knowledge of the 
previous divine books. Waraqah told him that the angel who had 
come to him was the same angel whom Allah sent to Prophet Musa 
(*&£*). He also told him that his people would drive him out because 
every prophet who came with the same massage was treated with 
hostility from his people. 

Although the Prophet ( ) was fifteen years younger than 

Khadijah ( &>), he never thought of marrying another woman as long 
as she lived. 

Allah’s Messenger ( ) said of her, "The best of the women of 

her time was Maryam, daughter of Imran, and the best of the women 
of her time was Khadijah, daughter of Khuwaylid." (Ai-BukhAaree) 

Allah’s Messenger {'$&) loved her very much. He often praised 
her. On one occasion, when Khadijah (ty was still alive, Jibreel [%£&) 
came to the Prophet ( s|g ) and said, "...Give her greetings of peace 


from her Lord and from me, and give her the good news of a palace 
of jewels in Paradise, where there will be neither noise nor any 

The Prophet ( ^ ) often mentioned Khadijah’s outstanding 
merits. He used to say, "She believed in me when no one else did; 
she accepted Islam when people rejected me; and she helped and 
comforted me when there was no one else to lend me a helping 

She died about three years before the hijrah. This incident 
affected the Prophet ( ) so much that his companions always 

referred to the year in which she died as ‘the year of grief’. 



Name the following: 

1 . Khadijah’s full name : 

2. Khadijah's cousin : 

3. Her tribe : 

4. The founder of Makkah; 

5. The children the Prophet ( ) had from Khadijah ( i& ) 

B. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . At the time of marriage, Khadijah ( (&, ) was years old and 

Muhammad ( H ) was years old. 

2. Khadijah ( & ) took the Prophet ( ) to after the incident 

in the cave. 

C. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What effect did the Prophet’s marriage to Khadijah have on Islam? 


2. In what ways did the Prophet ( ^ ) remember Khadijah ( ) after her 

3. What do the Arabic words ‘bint’ and ‘ibn’ mean? 

D. Think-up 

Why did the Prophet ( sgg ) say, "The best of the women of her time was 
Khadijah?" Explain this, keeping in mind the Prophet’s opinion of her. 


He was Abu Dharr Jundub ibn Junadah al-Ghifaaree. He was 
one of the early converts to Islam. He was probably the fifth Muslim 
from among the freeborn men. 

During his early life, he achieved fame as a daring raider. The 
Ghifaar tribe to which he belonged lived in the Waddan Valley. The 
Makkan caravans, laden with their many goods and riches, had to 
pass through this valley, and Abu Dharr used to lead the youths of his 
tribe in raids on the trade caravans. The tribe members lived by what 
these caravans gave in return for protection. If they refused to pay 
the price, Abu Dharr with his company of youths would attack them 
and cause great damage to the trading caravan. 


Abu Dharr ( 4& ) , the Seeker of the Truth 

With all this, Abu Dharr ( ) appears to have been a seeker of 

the truth from his early youth. He may well be classed together with 
those righteous men who prayed to the One God and were known 
before Islam as al-hunaffaa (plural of haneef). 

When he heard about the description of the Prophet ( ^ ) 

and his excelle -4 

“haracter, he was 
him. So he said to his 
valley [of Makkah] 
the truth of the 
he is a prophet who 
heaven; listen to what 

greatly attracted by 
brother, "Ride to this 
and try to find out 
person who claims 
receives the news of 

back to me." 

he says and come 
So his brother set off 

to Makkah, went to the 

Prophet ( s|g ) and listened to what he said. Upon his return, he said, 
"I have seen him enjoining good conduct and saying something that 
is certainly not poetry." 

Abu Dharr ( ) was not satisfied, so he decided to go and see 
him in person. When he got there, he went straight to the Ka’bah, the 
House of Allah, which provided a shelter for those coming from 
faraway places for pilgrimage. He did not speak to anyone, nor did 
he pay attention to those around him. 

Eventually, a young boy in his teens came by. He was Ali ibn 
Abee Talib ) who took him to his house. After three days, when he 
realized that he was looking for the Prophet (^ ), Ali («fe) took him to 
where the Prophet ( % ) was staying. 


After the Prophet ( jijjg ) had explained to him the message of 
Islam and recited some of the verses of the Qu'ran, Abu Dharr («|b) 
embraced Islam on the spot. Then he said to him, "Go back to your 
people and tell them about [it] until you receive my order." Abu Dharr 
( ) said, "By Him in whose Hand my soul is, indeed I will proclaim 
my conversion among [the idolaters] loudly." 

Abu Dharr ( ) then went to the Mosque and called out at the 
top of his voice, "I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that 
Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." 

The people of Makkah fell upon him and beat him very hard. 
When Al-Abbas, the Prophet's uncle, saw him in that state he rescued 
him and said to them, "Woe to you! Don’t you know that he belongs 
to the tribe of Ghifaar, and that your merchants’ road to Syria passes 
through their country?" 

The next day Abu Dharr did the same thing, and they fell upon 
him and beat him, and again Al-Abbas ( 4 *> ) came to his rescue. 

Abu Dharr («fe) then went back home and, within a short time, 
converted all the other members of the tribe of Ghifaar to Islam. 
Later, after the Prophet’s hijrah to Madinah, Abu Dharr ) also 
migrated there. He reached Madinah after the Battle of the Trench. 
He died in Rabadhah, near Madinah in 32 A.H. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 


1 . During his early years, Abu Dharr ( «^>) achieved fame as a 

2. The Ghifaar tribe lived in the Valley. 

3. From his early youth, Abu Dharr appears to have been a . 

4. Abu Dharr ) requested to go to to find 

out about the Prophet ( M )■ 

5. When Abu Dharr ) went to Makkah, he went straight to the . 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . How did the members of the Ghifaar tribe earn their living? 

2. Which incident in the text makes you think that Abu Dharr ( was a 
seeker of the truth? 

3. What teachings of Muhammad ( I) did Abu Dharr's brother bring to him? 

4. Who gave refuge to Abu Dharr in Makkah? 



Abu Ubaidah 


He was Abu Ubaidah Amir ibn Abdullah al-Jarraah. He 
embraced Islam at an early period of the Islamic mission. He was 
popularly known as Abu Ubaidah. He was a tall and thin man with a 
wonderful face. He was very sensitive, modest and full of life and 
vigour. He was not boastful but was fiercely courageous. He was 
bright and sharp like the blade of a sword. 

He embraced Islam after Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq ( ). Abu Bakr 
himself brought Abu Ubaidah to the fold of Islam. In fact, he was 
among the first followers of the Prophet ( |g ) beside his own 


Abu Ubaidah ( ^ ) went through the cruel and painful 
experiences of embracing Islam in the early days of the Prophet’s 
mission in Makkah. He suffered injustice, pain and rejection at the 
hands of the pagan Makkans, yet he remained firm and loyal to 
Allah and His Prophet (^ ). 

Abu Ubaidah ( 4 ® ) was a man of youthful vigour and utmost 
sincerity. He had qualities of leadership. He was the eighth person to 
embrace Islam. He spent most of his time in the company of the 
Prophet ( ^) and learnt a great deal about Islam from Him. 

Abu Ubaidah [4k>] migrated to Ethiopia when life in Makkah 
became very hard for the Muslims. He returned to Madinah along 
with other believers when they heard of the Prophet’s emigration. 
Abu Ubaidah (4&) was very happy to be with the Prophet (ft) again. 

Abu Ubaidah’s Hardest Test 

In the beginning of Ramadan 2 A.H., the Prophet ) set out 
from Madinah at the head of 313 companions, assisted for the first 
time by warriors from the Ansaar. His intention was to attack the 
Makkan trade caravan led by Abu Sufyan, which was on its way 
home from Syria. When informed of the Muslims’ approach, Abu 

Sufyan turned off his caravan 
toward the seacoast. He then 
sent a courier to Makkah with 
an urgent request for 
reinforcements. His own 
forces were between thirty to 
seventy men. An armed force 
of the Quraysh set out from Makkah, under the leadership of Abu 
Jahl, to the help of their caravan. 


The Prophet’s real objective was, from the very beginning, this 
strong Makkan army. The attack on the caravan was merely bait for 
the Makkans to offer open battle to the Muslims. It was in fact a plan 
designed ‘to bring out the snake from its burrow’. 

In any case, the Muslim army had not expected to be faced 
with so strong an army. On the 1 7th of Ramadan 2 A.H., the two 
armies met up near the Wells of Badr. Badr was a few days’ journey 
south of Madinah, and about one day's distance from the coast. The 
Muslims were greatly inferior in number and in equipment - there 
were for example only two horses in their army, and only a limited 
number of camels. But these drawbacks were more than set off by 
their boundless courage and readiness for self-sacrifice. The Makkan 
forces were completely routed and several of their most prominent 
chiefs were killed. You will learn about the Battle of Badr later, Inshaa 

Abu Ubaidah ) took part in this battle. He was so fierce and 
fearless that the Quraysh horsemen were too afraid to confront him. 

Only one man continued chasing Abu Ubaidah 
and every time Abu Ubaidah tried to 
avoid him. This man was Abdullah 
Al-Jarraah, his own father who was in 
the enemy camp. Over and over 
again, Abdullah blocked his son’s path 
and wanted to kill him. Finally, when Abu 
Ubaidah lost patience, he struck a fierce blow on 
his head with his sword and killed him. Abu Ubaidah did not kill his 
father but rather killed an enemy of the Prophet ( ^ ) and Islam. 

Abu Ubaidah had a great faith in Allah. He was deeply devoted 
to Islam. He had a sense of responsibility towards the Muslim 


When the Muslims were defeated in the Battle of Uhud, Abu 
Ubaidah (4&) was one of the ten companions who surrounded 
Allah’s Messenger (^) and bore all the arrows, spears and blows 
aimed at the Prophet ( ^ ). 

Because of Abu Ubaidah’s sense 
of modesty and loyalty, the Prophet 
( ) said about him, "Every nation has 
an Ameen (trustworthy man), and the 
Ameen of this nation is Abu Ubaidah 
ibn Al-Jarraah." (Ai-Bukhaaree) 

Umar ibn al-Khattab ( ) 

appointed him as Commander-in-Chief of the Syrian campaign. 
Later he became governor of Syria. He died there from plague in 
18 A.H. at the age of fifty-eight. He was one of the ten to whom 
Allah’s Messenger ( ^ ) had announced in their lifetime that they 
would enter Paradise. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . ( ) brought Abu Ubaidah ) to the fold of Islam. 

2. Abu Ubaidah ( ) was one of the ten companions who defended and 

supported the Prophet ( ^ ) in the Battle of . 

3. Umar ( ) appointed him as of the Syrian campaign. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Mention a few qualities of Abu Ubaidah (<^,). 

2. Who was Abdullah Al-Jarraah? Why was he pursuing Abu Ubaidah? What 
was the result? 

3. What do you know about Abu Ubaidah and Paradise? 



Bilal ibn Rabaah ( ) was an 

Ethiopian slave. He belonged to some 
people of the tribe of Banu Jumah. He 
was known for his hard work and loyalty 
to his master Umayyah ibn Khalaf, a 
leader of his tribe. He was one of the 
very early converts to Islam. He was tortured mercilessly by his master 
until Abu Bakr (^) bought him and freed him. 

When Allah’s Messenger (^|) began preaching Islam, Bilal was 
so deeply moved by the wonderful character of the Prophet ( ^ ) 
and the remarkable teachings of Islam he was calling to that he 
decided to embrace this new religion. In fact, he was the first slave 
to become Muslim in the history of Islam. 

His master Umayyah was a cruel man who hated Islam and 
subjected Bilal to different kinds of torture to make him reject Islam. 
Bilal (4H however, remained 
steadfast in his belief in Allah, 
the One. Umayyah would order 
his men to take him naked to the 
desert at the hottest times of the 
day and throw him on the 
scorching sand. He would also 
order them to put a heavy rock 
on his chest so he would reject 


belief in Allah. But Bilal { 4 & ) would simply say, "Ahad, Ahad", which 
means Allah is One. Sometimes, the disbelievers would also put a rope 
around his neck and the street boys would drag him through the 
alleyways and even across the hillocks of Makkah. This made Abu 
Bakr (<#>) to buy him and give him his freedom. 

Bilal emigrated to Madinah where he immediately received a 
warm welcome from Sa’d bin Khaithamah ( 4 & )■ He afterwards lived 
in the house of Abu Bakr ( ) where, like other members of the 

household, was attacked by the fever, then raging in Madinah. 

It was Bilal ( ) who was the first companion to call adhan in 
Islam. The Prophet ( H ) appointed him his mua’dh-dhin. 

Bilal ( ) became one of the closest 

companions to the Prophet ( % ) and took 
part in all the campaigns of the Prophet 
( It )■ Once in the Battle of Badr, he came 
face to face with his former cruel master 
Umayyah ibn Khalaf and challenged him. 

They fought fiercely, and finally Bilal killed 
Umayyah. Abu Bakr ( ) exclaimed, "O 

Bilal, how sweet Allah’s Justice is!" 

He remained with Abu Bakr until the latter’s death. Then he took 
part in the Syrian wars and died of plague, sixty and odd years old, in 
Damascus in 18 A. H. 

Once Bilal ( ) said to Abu Bakr ( 4 ® ). "If you have brought me 

for your own sake, keep me for yourself; but if you have brought me 
for the sake of Allah, then let me work in the Cause of Allah." Bilal 
made this request after the Prophet’s death. He wished to go forth to 
war, but Abu Bakr implored him not to leave him, as he was old and 
needed Bilal’s services. So Bilal ( 4 ® ) remained in Madinah until Abu 
Bakr ( ) died. Afterwards, he requested Omar (<4&) to let him go. 


In the beginning, Omar (4&) was reluctant to give him permission 
because he considered Bilal’s services indispensable. So Bilal 
suggested another companion as his successor. Omar (4&) accepted 
this and allowed him to go. 

Omar (^) used to say about Bilal ( 4k > ), "Abu Bakr is our master 
and he freed our master." 



A. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . Bilal ibn belonged to some people of the tribe of . 

2. Bilal's master was . 

3. Bilal died in . 

4. The Prophet ( H ) appointed Bilal ( ) his . 

5. Bilal ( 4b ) took part in all the of the Prophet ( n ). 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1. Who was Bilal (^)? 


Write how Umayyah tortured Bilal 

3. Why was Bilal ) the Prophet’s mu’adh-dhin? 

4. Abu Bakr ) exclaimed, "O Bilal, how sweet Allah’s Justice is!" Why do 
you think he said this? 

5. Who freed Bilal ( ) from slavery? 



Surat Al-Alaq 

(The Clinging 

.jj 7 

* ~'* y > < £k± v n/ / / ;:rr ?f 

/ ^ // ^ 'c / ^ j>/// y iv ^ / ,/ ^ /^v ^ v 

C^p c£ J jt .J jo^S ^p <^£_y3ii b 

>/ . < > ^rr 
!<loLj pjuls 

Ill l Uili) <d) jj 




In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 

1 . Read in the Name of your 
Lord Who created, 

2. Created man from a 
clinging substance; 

3. Read, and your Lord is Most 

4. Who taught by the pen, 

5. Taught man that which he 
did not know. 

6. No, but truly man is arrogant, 

7. He thinks that he needs no help (Allah’s); 

8. Surely, to your Lord is the return. 

9. Have you seen the one who prevents, 

1 0. A servant from performing prayer? 

1 1 . Have you seen if he is rightly-guided, 

1 2. Or enjoins righteousness? 

1 3. Have you seen if he denies and turns away? 

1 4. Does he not know that Allah sees? 

15. But no, if he does not stop, We will surely drag him by his 

1 6. A lying, sinful forelock; 

1 7. Then let him call on his associates; 

1 8. We will call the angels of punishment. 

1 9. No! Do not obey him. But prostrate yourself and draw closer [to 


This surah was revealed in Makkah and consists of nineteen 
verses. There is no doubt that the first five verses of this surah were the 
first revelation of the Qur’an. These verses were revealed in the month 
of Ramadan, thirteen years before the hijrah. Allah’s Messenger ( ) 
was then forty years old. At that period of his life, solitude became 
dearer to him, and he used to withdraw into a cave in Mount Hira 
near Makkah for devotion and worship. 

One night Angel Jibreel ( ) suddenly appeared to him and 
said, "Read." The Prophet ( ^ ) at first thought that he was expected 
to read actual script, which, being unlettered, he was unable to do; 
so he answered, "I cannot read." The Angel seized him and pressed 
him to himself until all strength went out of him. Then he released him 
and said, "Read." The Prophet ( ^ ) answered, "I cannot read." Then 
he seized him again and pressed him to himself until all strength went 
out of him, then he released him and said, "Read!" to which, again, 
the Prophet ( ^ ) answered, "I cannot read." 

Then he seized him and pressed him a third time, 
then he released him and said, "Read in the 
Name of your Lord Who created; created man 
from a clinging substance; read, and your Lord 
is Most Generous, Who taught by the pen, 
taught man what which he did not know." 

Verses 6 to 1 9 were revealed at a later date. 

The verses of the surah other than the first five verses, according 
to most Qu'ran scholars, refer to Abu Jahl. He was the Prophet’s 
bitterest enemy who persistently tried to prevent the Prophet ( jjjjg ) 
and his followers from praying to Allah before the Ka’bah. They 
however, apply to anyone who attempts to deny to Muslims their 
lawful right to offer the prayers to Almighty Allah. 


Another important point to note in this surah is its reference to 
reading and knowledge in Islam. The command to read was the first 
revelation that the Prophet ( $|) received. 

Both the Qu'ran and the Sunnah are full of commands to seek 
knowledge. The Prophet ( H ) stressed the value of knowledge on 
various occasions. 

“Allah makes the way to Paradise easy for him who pursues the 
path in search of knowledge.” (Al-Bukhaaree and Muslim) 

"The superiority of the learned man over a mere worshipper is 
like the superiority of the moon when it is full over all the stars. 


"Search for knowledge is a duty imposed on every Muslim, man 
and woman." (ibn Majah) 

Human ability to learn is one of Allah’s great mercies to us; it is 
also one of the ways He has honoured us above all other creatures. 
And the most important knowledge is that which we can learn from 
the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet ( ^|). 

Allah the Almighty commanded the Prophet ( to pray to Him 
wherever he wished and not to worry about Abu Jahl and his likes, 
because Allah would protect him and defend him against the 

Whenever the Prophet ( ^ ) recited this surah to the end, he 
would prostrate. 



Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1 . Surat Al-Alaq was revealed in . 

2. It consists of verses. 

3. At the time of the first revelation, the Prophet ( H ) was years old. 

4. The command to was the first revelation that the Prophet 

( M ) received. 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . According to Qur’an scholars, who do the verses 6-1 9 particularly refer 
to? Who does it generally refer to? 

2. Describe the relationship that Surat Al-Alaq has with learning, in the light 
of the Prophetic sayings. 


C. Think-up 

What is special about Surat al-Alaq? 

D. Memorisation 

Learn this surah by heart. 


Talhah ibn Ubaidillah ( ) 

embraced Islam at about the same 
time as Abu Bakr as-Siddeeq ( -sfe > ). 

He went with Abu Bakr to the 
Messenger of Allah ( H ) who laid 
Islam before him and recited some 
verses of the Qu'ran. Talhah 
embraced Islam instantly. In fact, he was one of the ten companions 
who were given the good news of Paradise by the Prophet ( ijjg ) and 
the first eight people to embrace Islam. 

Talhah’s family was shocked at the news that their son had 
embraced Islam. His mother suffered the most. Talhah was a man of 
noble character. He had qualities of leadership. His mother wanted 
him to become a leader of his community. She thought all her hopes 
were shattered, because of Talhah’s acceptance of Islam. She, 
however, was determined to turn him away from Islam. 


All the people of his tribe attempted to make him leave his new 
faith, but Talhah («|b) was very firm. After having tried all methods of 
persuasion, the people of his household turned to force to make him 
change his mind. They began to 
persecute him. They tied his hands to 
his neck with a rope. They pushed him 
and beat him. Talhah (^) suffered 
many cruelties at the hands of his own 
people because of his resolve to follow 
Allah’s Messenger ( ^ ). Torture and 
persecution made Talhah’s devotion 
to Islam and Allah’s Messenger more 
and more intense. 

Ten days before the Battle of Badr, he was sent by the Prophet 
( M )- together with Sa’eed ibn Zayd (dk > ), to a secret military mission 
to the confines of Syria. He returned too late to take part in the Battle 
of Badr. 

The Battle of Uhud 

During the Battle of Uhud, Talhah («|b) fought hard for the 
Prophet’s life. He subsequently participated in all the campaigns led 
by the Prophet (s|g). 

At one point, during the Battle of Uhud, the Muslim army 
became very confused. But some companions firmly stood by the 
Prophet (^). They protected him from the army of the Quraysh. One 
of them was Talhah ibn Ubaidillah. When the Prophet ( ^ ) became 
exposed to the Quraysh fighters, he was defended by a small group 
of men and women who shielded him with their own bodies against 


the swords, spears, arrows and 
blows of the enemy. These 
included the celebrated Muslim 
woman Nusaybah bint Ka’b ( ) 

and such brave Muslims as Sa’d 
ibn Abee Waqqaas ( ), Ali ibn 

Abee Talib ( ), Umar ibn 
al-Khattab (<4b). Talhah ibn 
Ubaidillah (4&) and others. Muslims 
were put up to flight and the enemy killed many of them. It was a 
day of trial and testing in which Allah honoured several Muslim 
fighters with shahaadah (martyrdom). The enemy attacked the 
Prophet ( ) who was hit with a stone and fell on his side; one of his 

teeth was broken, his face bruised, and his lower lip injured. The man 
who wounded him was Utbah ibn Abee Waqqaas. The blood began 
to run down his face. He began to wipe it along while saying, "How 
can a people prosper who have stained their Prophet’s face with 
blood while he calls them to their Lord?" 

The first man to recognize the Prophet ( ) after the rout when 
men were saying "Allah’s Messenger ( ) had been killed" was Ka’b 
ibn Malik. The Prophet ( ^ ) was accompanied by Abu Bakr, Umar, 
Ali, Talhah and others. They took him up towards the narrow valley. 
Allah’s Messenger ( H ) made for a rock on the mountain to climb it. 
He had put on two coats of mail, so when he tried to get up he could 
not do so. 

Talhah saved the Prophet’s life by intercepting an arrow aimed 
at the latter with his naked hand. Then he bore the Prophet (^ ), who 
himself was wounded, on his shoulders out of the thick of the battle 
and up the hill. 


Talhah (4&) was bleeding. Abu Bakr [4k>) later saw that Talhah 
had received on that day seventy wounds. The hand of Talhah that 
had saved the Prophet ( M ) was withered. He lay unconscious in a 

After that day, the Prophet ( ^ ) used to say, "Whoever desires 
to see a martyr (a shaheed) walking on the earth let him look at 

The Prophet (^g) remained pleased with Talhah until his death. 
During the Battle of the Camel (36 A.H.), when Talhah ( ) was 

sixty-two or sixty four years old, he was blessed with martyrdom, for 
he was killed by a man called Marwan ibn al-Hakam. 


A. Fill in the blanks with suitable words. 

1. Talhah ( ^ ) accepted Islam at about the same time 

as ( 4 ^-jb ). 

2. The first person to recognize the Prophet ( % ) after the rout 

was . 

3. Talhah had received more than wounds during the 

Battle of . 

4. Talhah ( 4&) died during the Battle of the . 


B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Who was most affected by Talhah’s acceptance of Islam? 

2. How did Talhah’s household persecute him? 

3. Why did Talhah not take part in the Battle of Badr? 

C. Think-up 

1 . Talahah ibn Ubaidillah ( 4 * ) was one of the ten companions to whom the 
Prophet ( H ) gave the good news of Paradise. Who are the others? 

2. Explain the word 'shahaadah’. 


Umm Sulaym* 

Her real name was, according to some authorities, Rumaylah, 
and according to others, Sahlah and Maleekah. She was also called 
Umm Sulaym, which was her kunyah. She was the daughter of 
Milhaan ibn Haraam, a prominent member of Banu an-Najjaar who 
were closely associated with the Prophet’s house and family. 

Umm Sulaym’s first husband was Malik ibn an-Nadhr. She bore 
him Anas, the famous companion of the Prophet (^). She embraced 
Islam at an early period, while her husband remained a disbeliever. 
After his death, she received a marriage proposal from Abu Talhah, 
but she refused because he was an idolater. However, when he 
embraced Islam, she readily consented to marry him. She regarded 
his acceptance of Islam as her only dowry (mahr). 

Umm Sulaym ( tfb ) had an unusually strong personality. She had 
the determination and a will of a man. She accepted the call to 
Islam independently of her husband, Malik ibn an-Nadr. He was, it 
seems, not aware of the upheaval taking place around him in 
Madinah as a result of the coming of the Prophet ( ^ ). 


Umm Sulaym ( & ) was a very brave woman. She was a staunch 
Muslim fighter. She took part in several of the Prophet’s campaigns. 
In the midst of the fight, she would attend to the wounded and give 
water to the warriors, she would fight if necessary. She 

took part in the Battle of 
and in the Battle of 
Hunayn she was 
seen carrying a 
dagger. When 
asked about the 
weapon in the 
presence of the 
Prophet ( H ), she 
answered that she might 
have to defend herself if one of the 
disbelievers tried to harm her. Allah’s Messenger ( ^ ) smiled on 
hearing her reply. He remarked that Allah had taken care of that. 

Umm Umayr ( %> ) was high-minded. When Abu Umayr, one of 
her children from Abu Talhah ( ). died, she behaved in a very 

brave manner. She did not break the sad news to her husband when 
he came back home. She acted as if nothing had happened. She 
served him his dinner and let him relax. Later on that night, she asked 
him, "If a person entrusted another one with something and then he 
came to claim it, should he return the trust?" Abu Talhah replied, 
"Certainly, he should return it gladly." Then she told him about the 
death of their son whom Allah had taken back after He had 
entrusted him to their care. When he told this to the Prophet ( ), the 
Prophet ( ^ ) prayed for them, and they had another son, Abdullah, 
who had ten sons, all of whom learned the whole Qu'ran by heart 
and learned religious knowledge from him. 


When the Prophet ( ) came to Madinah, she said to him, "O 

Allah's Messenger, here is Anas to serve you." Anas, who was at that 
time ten years old, served the Prophet ( % ) for ten years until he 
passed away. Anas then came to be known as 'the servant of Allah’s 
Messenger ( )'. 

Once, she requested the Prophet ( ^ ), "Anas is your servant. 
Pray for him." The Prophet ( ^ ) prayed, "O Allah ! Give him a lot of 
wealth and children and bless anything that You give him." Anas 
(^) lived on to a very advanced age. He was (according to various 
accounts) somewhere between 97 and 1 07 years old when he died 
in around 91 - 93 A.H.; he also became very rich and had scores of 

Allah’s Messenger ( H ) praised Umm Sulaym’s ( ) merits and 

sincere devotion to Islam on several occasions. Umm Sulaym ( ($?_> ) 
sailed with the Muslim army, which invaded Cyprus, during the reign 
of Mu’aawiyah ibn Abu Sufyan. She is buried in Cyprus. 



1 Umm Sulaym’s first husband was 

2 Her second husband was 

3 Her father was 

4 She belonged to the tribe of 

5 Anas ton Malik served 

B. Answer the following questions. 


a Abu Talhah ( )■ 

b Banu an-Najjaar. 

c Malik ton an-Nadhr. 
d the Prophet ( 3jt) for twelve years, 
e Milhan ton Haraam. 
f the Prophet ( H) for ten years. 

1 . What was Umm Sulaym’s real name? 

2. Why did Umm Sulaym ( ) refuse to marry Abu Talhah? 

3. What was Umm Sulaym’s unusual dowry? 



4. Mention an incident from the life of Umm Sulaym ( ) that brings out her 


5. Write a short note on the bravery of Umm Sulaym ( &). 

C. Think-up 

How do we know that the Prophet ( ) honored Umm Sulaym ( %, )? 


Surat Al-Bayyinah 
(The Clear 



In the Name of Allah, Most Kind, Most Merciful 

1 . Those who disbelieved among 
the People of the Book and 
the mushrikoon would not 
leave (their disbelief) until clear 
evidence came to them: 

2. A Messenger from Allah 

reciting purified pages, 

3. Containing correct and 

straight laws; 

4. Those who were given the 
Book did not divide into sects until after clear evidence came 
to them; 

5. They were not ordered to do anything but to worship Allah, 
devoting themselves sincerely to Him alone, as straight and true 
believers, and to perform salah and give zakah; and that is the 
correct religion. 

6. Indeed, those who disbelieve from among the People of the 
Book and the mushrikoon will be in the fire of Hell, remaining in 
it forever; they are the worst of all creatures. 

7. Indeed, those who believe and do righteous actions - they are 
the best of all creatures; 

8. Their reward with Allah will be the gardens of Eden underneath 
which rivers flow. They will abide there forever. Allah will be 
pleased with them and they with Him; that is for whoever fears 
his Lord! 


Whereas some Qur'an scholars believe that this surah belongs 
to the Madinah period, many others regard it as a late Makkan 
revelation. The key word by which it is named is found at the end of 
the first verse. 

This surah describes the difference between the true believers 
and the disbelievers. The ‘clear evidence’ is the Qur'an. The term 
‘People of the Book’ is used in the Qur'an to denote the Christians 
and the Jews, who had been given holy books: The Tawrah which 
was given to the Jews and the Injeel which was given to the 
Christians. Many changes, additions and deletions have crept into 
these books. Only the Qur'an, the final revelation from Allah to His 
Messenger Muhammad (Sjjg), remains intact. 

The mushrikoon are those who commit shirk, by associating 
others with Allah in worship. They include the idolaters and the fire 
worshippers among the Arabs and non-Arabs. 

The surah mentions the reward of the true believers in the 
hereafter because of their belief in Almighty Allah and their good 
actions that are pleasing to Him. It also mentions the punishment of 
the disbelievers in Hellfire because of their disbelief and rejection of 
the truth. 


A. Answer the following questions. 

1 . Where does the surah get its name from? 

2. What does the term 'the People of the Book’ denote? 

3. What does this surah describe? 

4. What does 'clear evidence’ mean? 

5. What does the word 'mushrikoon' mean? 

B. Memorisation 

Learn this surah by heart. 



0 0 

Islam and 

The story of Islam would remain incomplete without looking at 
all it has brought to the whole world, both in the past and today in 
terms of sciences, art, literature, civilization and culture. In fact, the 
world, particularly the western world, owes a great deal to Islam. 
Muslim thinkers were very keen to learn from what others outside 
Islam had discovered. When Islam spread outside Arabia, the 
learning of the Greek philosophers and scientists in the Byzantine 
lands - that of Iran and the Hindus of India - all were open to them. 

Islamic sciences, that is, the sciences developed by Muslims 
from the second Islamic century onwards, certainly represent one of 
the great achievements of the Islamic civilization. For some seven 
hundred years, from the second to the ninth Islamic centuries, the 
Islamic civilization was the most productive of all civilizations in the 
field of sciences - ranging from medicine to astronomy. Let us begin 
with the fields of mathematics and sciences. 


Mathematics and Other Sciencific Fields 

Muslims made remarkable contributions to various fields of 

In the field of arithmetic, the most important achievement of 
Muslims was the adoption of the Sanskrit numerals. The numerals we 
use today came from the Sanskrit of India. These were taken over by 
the Arabs who actually introduced the 
system of numerals to the western 
world when the Arabs ruled Spain. 

Before then, Europe had used Roman 
numerals. It was thanks to the Arab 
mathematicians that the various 
branches of mathematics and all the 
sciences that depend on it began to 
develop in Western Europe. 

The Greeks had done most of the 
advanced scientific work in the world 
at that time. But one thing had kept them back. They had a very 
clumsy way of writing numerals, using letters of the alphabet and they 
could not express fractions in a convenient way. Trying to do written 
sums with these Roman numerals was clumsy. Moreover, neither the 
Greeks nor the Romans had a zero symbol. The Europeans then learnt 
the new system from the Arabs, which is why, in English the system is 
called the Arabic numerals. 

Major advances in the field of science include the perfection of 
the decimal system and the development of algebra and 
trigonometry. Trigonometry is the branch of mathematics that deals 
with the relationship between the sides and angles of triangles. 
Outstanding among Muslim mathematicians was also the astronomer 
Umar Al-Khiyyam who improved the calendar. 


Algebra, which comes from the 
Arabic word 'al-jabr 1 , is something 
else which came to Europe 
from the world of Islam. The 
term 'al-jabr' actually means 
‘making good what is broken, filling 
in something which is complete.’ The English word algebra that 
comes from the Arabic word 'al-jabr' was used in the title of a 
textbook written by an Arab scientist in Baghdad in about 825 CE. His 
name was al-Khawaarizmee (died 846 cej. 

One of our great needs is to be able to measure accurately. 
The Arab Muslim scientists made great progress in this field. Each day 
and night Muslims needed to know the direction of Makkah (the 
qiblah) to be able to perform the five daily prayers in the right 
direction. Again, the engineers had to 
know the direction of the qiblah to place 
the mihrab in the right position in 
mosques. Muslims developed special 
instruments and used them in the Islamic 
world to help in this field. The need to 
find the direction of Makkah for the 
purpose of prayers gave Muslims an 
interest in astronomy from the earliest 

Astronomy is the scientific study of the universe and the objects 
that exist in space such as the sun, the moon, the stars and the 
planets. An astronomer is a person who studies astronomy. The 
world’s first time observatory was established at Maraghe in 
Azerbaijan by Halagu, son of Chenghis Khan in 1 259 CE. Here a 
team of several astronomers made regular observations. Massive 


observations can also be seen at Samarqand - fifteenth century. It 
was the Arab Muslim traders who taught the Western Europeans how 
to keep popular accounts. 

Several Arabic-based words commonly used in English testify to 
the special influence the Arabs had on scientific thinking: words like 
alchemy, almanac, admiral and zero. 

Arab Muslim scholars translated scores of learned works from 
Greek and Latin into Arabic. In this way, the works of such great 
thinkers as Aristotle, Plato, Socrates or Euclid were preserved. 

The story is long and interesting. In fact, the full impact of Islamic 
sciences (the sciences developed by early Muslims) upon Western 
science has not really been fully appreciated by the general public 
as it deserves to be. 


Allah’s Messenger 
($H) said, "Allah has not 
sent down a disease 
except that He has also ^ 
sent down its 


He also said, "Every illness has a cure, and when the (proper) 
cure is applied to the disease, it is cured with the permission of Allah, 
the Exalted and Glorious." (Muslim) 

The guidance of the Prophet ( ) fired the imagination of 

Muslim scientists. So medicine occupied the attention of many 
Muslim scientists over the centuries. This is still alive today in Islamic 
medicine in some countries. 

In the field of medicine, early Muslims concentrated on the use 
of drugs and herbs rather than surgery. They also knew about the 


importance of dieting, the climate and mental strain in having an 
effect on the health of patients. Muslims set up public hospitals with 
trained, permanent staff, where doctors and scientists could study 
and do research. 

Ibn Sina (died. 1037 CE) wrote a medical 
encyclopedia and described how epidemics 
spread. He was called 'the prince of physicians' in 
the West. His book The Canon is the most 
famous book in the history of medicine. 

Ar-Raazee (d. 925 CE) was the first scientist who told 
the difference between smallpox and measles. 

Muslim doctors became great experts in treating 
eye diseases. Muslim scientists made important S F G N J 
advances in optics and the treatment of eye i m etc 


Ibn An-Nafees discovered the minor circulation of the blood 
before Michael Servetus who had been credited with it for a long 


A. Fill in the blanks. 

1 . It was the who introduced the system ot numerals. 

2. The word ‘algebra’ comes from the Arabic word . 

3. The real credit for discovering the minor blood circulation goes to 

4. was called the ‘prince of physicians.’ 

5. Ar-Raazee differentiated between the diseases of 

B. Answer the following questions. 

1 . What different areas did Islam contribute to? 

2. Mention Islam’s contributions to various fields of mathematics. 


3. What did the Greeks lack in spite of their advanced scientific work? 

4. Why are the ‘Arabic numerals’ named as such? 

5. How did Islam encourage Muslim contribution to astronomy and