LUCAS AEROSPACE COMBINE SHOP STEWARD COMMITTEE
A contingency strategy as a positive alternative to recession and
This is merely an introduction to the Corporate Plan and a summary
of its proposals,
The total plan includes 5 detailed technical sections each of approximately
These sections may be viewed upon request to the secretary:
= F Scarbrow
86 Mellow Lane East, Hayes, Middx,
Tel: 01 848 9604 Home
01 965 7777 Work
This Corporate Plan was prepared by the Lucas Aerospace Combine Shop
Stewards Committee for that section of Joseph Lucas Industries which is
known as Lucas Aerospace.
If a brief description of Lucas Industries is provided this gives an economic ,
technical and company background against which the performance and potential
of its wholly owned subsidiary, Lucas Aerospace, can be viewed. It was also
felt desirable to do so as some of the alternative products proposed elsewhere
in this report, although emanating from aerospace technology, could more
appropriately be handled, at the manufacturing stage, by production techniques
and facilities available elsewhere in the Lucas organisations.
Lucas Industries Ltd.
Lucas Industries is a vast and complex organisation with design, development,
manufacturing, sales and services activities in the automotive, aerospace
and industrial sectors of the economy. :
The Company which was formed in 1877 now has some 80 000 employees
and an annual turnover of approximately £300 000 000 and capital investment
of £110 000 000. A simplified schematic diagram of the U.K. structure is
provided in Appendix 1.
A discernable feature of the Company's mode of operation during the past few
years has been to shift large quantities of capital, resources and technological
know how into overseas activities. The scale and nature of this may be judged
from Appendix 2. This raises a whole host of fundamental, political, economic
and industrial questions, as is the case with the operation of any Multi-National
Corporation. It is not the purpose of the Corporate Plan to analyse these.
Suffice to say that this tendency is causing deep rooted concern amongst large
sections of Lucas employees and they will clearly have to consider appropriate
means of defending themselves from the likely repercussions of these developments.
These views and enxieties are reflected in the Aerospace division .
Lucas Industries hold a monopoly, or near monopoly position, in respect
of a number of product ranges both in the United Kingdom and in Europe.
However the present economic crisis, itself a reflection of the inherent
contradictions of the market economy, is having serious repercussions within
Lucas Industries. At the time of preparing this report the Company is |
attempting to shed large sections of labour in some of its plants There has
also been a serious cut in the living standards of all Lucas workers both by
hand and brain since 1972. The attitude of the Company to its employees
and society at large is however no worse that that of its international competitors
and it is certainly better than some of them. However, a sophisticated industrial
relations set up and a relatively elaborate network of consultative devices
simply provide a thin veneer of concern, beneath which is concealed all the
inevitable ruthlessness of a large corporation involved in the frantic international
competition: of the 1970's.
Lucas Aerospace Ltd.
Lucas has been in the aircraft equipment field since 1926 when it acquired a
subsidiary Rotax. Prior to World War II Lucas set up a parallel aircraft
equipment company known as Lucas Gas Turbine Ltd. This was formed
initially to design, develop and manufacture the fuel system and combustion
chamber for the Whittle gas turbine engine. Through this Company close
collaboration was established with Rolls Royce and that continues to this day.
Thus, since the end of the War and up to the late 60's Lucas had, in practice,
two distinct aircraft component operations. Rotax, which supplied electrical
generating systems, starting systems and small gas turbine driven auxiliary
power units, whilst Lucas Gas Turbine Equipment supplied engine fuel systems
and larger fabricated components.
During the 60's Lucas had three major competitors in the electrical aircraft
field namely, Plessey, English Electric and “.E.I. Lucas Gas Turbine
Equipment division did not have a competitor and Lucas, at that stage, was not
engaged in the design of flying control and actuating systems. Paradoxically
the turmoil in the U.K. aircraft industry of 1965, when the Labour Government
cut back a number of major products, provided the objective circumstances in
which Lucas could establish itself as the dominant force in these fields.
In 1968, through Rotax, it took over the A.E.I. interests at Coventry and then
the Special Products Division of Fnglish Electric at Luton, Bradford ané
Netherton in 1969. Lucas further extended its influence in the aircraft
equipment field by moving into the flying control and actuation systems side
by acquiring Hobsons of Wolverhampton in 1969. The resultant struciure
of the new organisation now !mown as Lucas Aerospace is depicted in Appendix 3.
The ‘Internationalisatior’ of Lucas Aerospace followed closely the pattern of
Lucas Industries aescrited above. Through its acquisition of English Electric
it acquired-a 40% stake in Auxilec of France and 34% stake in RL.U. of Germany ~
a joint company set with Bosch (15%) and Pierburg (51%) to produce hydro-mechanical
fuel systems particularly for the M.R.C.A. This pattern has continued to
provide an international organisation depicted in Appendix 4. The result is a
Lucas Company echieving the same dominance in the field of aircraft components
as other sections of Lucas have achieved in the automotive industry. Lucas
Aerospace is now the only Company in the World with the capability of producing,
within a single organisation, a complete range of aircraft electrical generating
systems and switchgear, engine starting, de-icing, flying control, fuel management,
thrust reverse and combustion systems, instrument lighting and cockpit
Lucas Aerospace also produce a range of equipment for defence applications on both
land and sea. The current major committments include extensive systems work
on the RB.211, Concorde, the TU144 supersonic airliner, the Lockheed
Tri-star, the A300B Airbus, the European Multi Role Combat Aircraft (MRCA)
and the Anglo French Jaguar. The full scale of Lucas Aerospace current
activity is shown in Appendix 5. A measure of the diverse range of products
which the Company is capable of designing, developing and manufacturing is
provided in Appendix 6.
Approximately 20% of Lucas Industries resources are now devoted to the
Aerospace industry. Lucas Aerospace now has just over 13 000 employees.
This is a highly skilled and talented workiorce, comprising a very wide spectrum
of technological ability both in the manual and intellectual field. Witha
high design and development content it is inevitable that there is a large proportion
of technical staff and there are 2 200 engineers, designers and draughtsmen of
various kinds. Aerospace deploys some 5 000 machine tools and approximately
250 of these are advanced machine tools which are numerically, automatically
or digital display controlled. This is supported by extensive research and
development facilities and laboratories, Aprendix 7.
In consequence of this, Lucas Aerospace is now Europe's largest designer and
manufacturer of aircraft systems and equipment.
The Combine Committee
The five years from 1964 to 1969 saw a very rapid monopolisation of large
sections of British Industry and the emergence of massive Corporations such
as British Leyland and G.E.C. This process was actively supported by the
government, which, in many instances, was providing the tax payers money
to lubricate the process. Within Mr. Wilson's philosophical framework of
tthe white heat of technological change' many thousands of highly skilled
workers found that the consequence of the 'White Heat' market economy was
that it simply burned up their jobs and gave rise to large scale structural
unemployment. , The ‘logic’ of the market economies and rationalisation
programmes in these vast Corporations resuited in the illogical growth of the
dole queue with all the degredation and suffering and loss of economic activity
ofhundreds of thousands of highly skilled men and women.
The Weinstock empire, that is G.E.C., was the pacemaker in this development.
The work force was reduced from 260 000 to 200 000 whilst during the same
period the profits went up from £75 000 000 to £108 000 000 per annum.
Thus whilst it was profitable for Weinstock to cut his work force, society at
large had to pay the price, firstly in social security payments for those
involved and secondly in the loss of productive capacity which these people
could have made to the economy of the nation as a whole. Weinstock's
attitude to the work force, summed up by one of his managers in a statement
to the Sunday Times ' he takes people and squeezes them until the pips squeak’
was seen as some kind of virtue. Indeed it is a measure of the deep rooted
economic and political sickness of our society that a person like Weinstock
was then, and is still, held up as the pinnacle of managerial competence.
When Lucas acquired parts of English Electric in the process described above,
the lessons of the Weinstock escapade were not lost on Lucas workers. It was
clear that Lucas Aerospace, if it were permitted, would embark on a similar’
rationalisation programme. Strangely enough it was recognition that this attack
would be made upon the work force that provided the objective circumstances in
which the Combine Committee was formed.
Its formation resu'ted in the first instance from fear of redundancy, and the
recognition of the need to provide an organisation which could fight and protect
the right to work. It was realised from the onset that the Combine Committee
could itself become another bureaucracy and that there were real dangers in
centralising activities of all factories through one body. Accordingly a
constitution was carefully worked out and widely discussed at all sites which
protected against this, see Appendix 8.
Development of the Combine Committe, now known as the Lucas Aerospace and
Defence Systems Combine Shop Stewards Committee, took approximately
4 years. In its early stages it lacked cohesion and strength. The Company
was, as a result of this, able to embark on a rationalisation programme in which
the work force was reduced from 18 000 to the present 13 000. However at
the last attempted sacking of 800 workers in January/February ‘74 the Combine
Committee was well enough organised to resist this. ©The Combine however has
no illusions that the right to work can ever be guaranteed in a market economy.
Gradually the Combine Committee set up a series of advisory services for its
members. These include u pensions advisory service which has recently
negotiated a complex pension structure for manual workers (2) and the
campaign for the election of trustees for the staff pension fund in order that
information could be available as to where this pension fund money is being
invested. The importance of this development may be judged by the fact that
the staff pension fund has a market value of something like £80 000 000 and
the works on? £40 000 000 at a time when the capitalisation value of Lucas
as a whole on the stock market has been as low as £36 006 000.
Other services included a Science and Technology Advisory Service which
provided technical information on the safeguards to be campaigned for when
new equipment was being introduced (3) or when health hazards were possibly
The Combine Committee is also a reflection of the growing awareness, of those
who work at the point of production, that the traditional trade union structures
based on geographical divisions and organised on a craft basis are incapable of
coping with the new and complex problems of these large monopolies.
However the Combine Committee should not be seen as an alternative to the
traditional trade union movement rather it is a logical development from it,
and complementary to its aims.
The Combine Committee produces its own four page illustrated newspaper
approximately bi-monthly, 10 000 copies of this are circulated amongst the
13 000 manual and staff workers.
In practice the Combine Committee has become the voice on a number of subjects
for the 13 000 manual and staff workers who now work throughout Lucas Aerospace
in the United Kingdom. It has also taken a series of steps to establish
close links with those employed by Lucas Aerospace abroad. The significance
of its development has been included in lectures at the T.U.C.(5) on the
training courses for shop stewards and for full time T.U. education officers.
The object of the Corporate Plan is twofold. Firstly to protect our members right
to work by proposing a range of alternative products on which they could become
engaged in the event of further cut backs in the aerospace industry. Secondly
to ensure that among the alternative products proposed are a number which
would be socially useful to the community at large.
The idea of proposing alternative products on which the work force couid be
engaged as an alternative te the redundancy arising from cut backs in the
aerospace industry is not new in Lucas Aerospace; as far back as 1970 when
the Company was attempting to close the Willesden site a number of projects
were put forward at the negotiations which took place on that occasion.
However the idea of prezaring an overall Corporate Plan for Lucas Aerospace
arose in the first mstance at a meeting in November 1974 with Tony Benn,
the then Minister of Industry. That meeting took place at the request of
the Combine Committee to discuss the nationalisation of Lucas Aerospace.
In the course of the meeting Mr. Benn suggested that there was the distinct
possibility of further cut backs in certain aerospace and military projects.
Even if this did not occur the rate at which new projects would be started was
likely to be reduced. Accordingly he felt that the Combine Committee would be
well advised to consider alternative products, not excluding intermediate.
technology on which our members could become engaged in the event of a recession.
The problems of the aerospace industry have of course been further compounded
by the ‘energy crisis’.
It is also likely that in order to make its austerity measures somewhat acceptable,
the government will at least make a gesture towards cuts in defence expenditure .
As the Defence Secretary, Mr. Roy Mason, stated in the House of Commons
recently 'even before the Defence Review it was clear that with few new projects
coming along there would be a marked reduction over the next decade in the
level of activity in military aerospace projects, particularly on the design side' (6)
These reductions we regard as both inevitable and desirable. Indeed it is the
national policy of almost all of the unions the Combine Committee represents
that there should be cuts in defence expenditure. However when these cuts are
made our members are placed in the position of being made redundant or
fighting for their continuation. We ourselves have done this in the past and will
support our colleagues in the rest of the aerospace industry in doing so in future.
Indeed, recently when the campaign to protect the H.S.146 was at its height our
members at the Wolverhampton plant seized drawings in support of their
colleagues at Hawier Siddeley's. :
It has to be recognised however that the traditional method of fighting for the
right to work has not been particularly successful. Between 1960 and
1975 the total number in the aerospace industry has been reduced from
283 000 to 195 000 workers. Apart from this internal problem in the aerospace
industry there is the more general problem in which all industries are tending
to become capital intensive rather than labour intensive with structural
unemployment in consequence.
Over the past 8 or 9 years there has been some 5 000 000 people permanently
unemployed in the United States. The same sort of structural difficulties are now
manifesting themselves even in West Germany where there are 1 000 000
people out of work and some 700 000 on short time working. These structural
problems are likely to be further compounded by the rationalisation of the
European Aerospace Industry within the Common Market. Finally it is to be
anticipated that Lucas Acrospace will attempt a rationalisation programme with
its associated conipanies in Europe.
It is not suggested in this report that, Lucas Aerospace is suddenly going to cease
to be deeply involved in the aerospace industry. We recognise, whether we like
it or not, that the aerospace industry is going to remain a major part of the
economic and technological activity of the so called ' technologically advanced
The intention is rather to suggest that alternative products should be introduced
in a phased manner such that the tendency of the industry to contract would firstly
be halted and then gradually reversed as Incas Aerospace diversified into
these new fields.
Tt is also evident to_us that when the three sectors of the acrospace industry
are nationalised the relationship between them and Lucas Aerospace may well
change. We have clear r indications from: our fellow trade unionists in those
bodies that they will not he prepared to see the lucrative > parts of the industry
hived off by the component. manufacturers: in this we fully understand their
motives and support them.
As trade unionists we do not wish to see a relationship between the aerospace
component firms and the nationalised sector of the industry which would be
similar to the relationship of the equipment manufacturers to the National
Coal Board. Such a relationship would provide the opportunity for those
forces in society hostile to nationalisation to point out that nationalised -
industries were economically unsuccessful, whilst in practice they would cream
off the research and development which was paid for by the tax payer into
component companies. It has already been stated to us therefore, that our
colleagues in the nationalised sectors of the aerospace industry will be demanding
that these industries diversity such that any potential contraction is at least
in part countered by those industries engaging in the manufacture of some of
the components which they now buy from outside. ;
The desire to wo1k on socially useful products is one which is now widespread
through large sectors of industry. The aerospace industry is a particularly
glaring example of the gap which exists between that which technology could
provide, 2nd that which it actually docs provide to meet the wide range
of human problems we see about us. There is something seriously wrong
about a society which can produce a level of technology to design and build
Concorde but cannot provide enough simple urban heating systems to protect
the old age pensicners who are dying each winter of hypothermia (it is estimated
that 980 died of hypothermia in London alone last winter, which was a
particularly mild one).
Further it is clear that there is now deep rooted cynicism amongst wide sections
of the public about the idea, carefully nurtured by the media, that advanced
science and technology will solve all our material problems.
As Professor Jung recently said to an international trade union gathering
"the deterioration in the quality of life is already noticeable in the highly
industrialised areas of the world, and this, presumably still accelerating trend,
makes it increasingly difficult for scientific and technological thought and
planning to enjoy the blind trust it received in the past decades" (7)
Of particular significance in this connection is the much publicised rejection by
capable sixth formers of the places that are available for science and technology
at British Universities. | Science and technology is perceived by them to be
de-humanised and even brutal and the source of a whole range of problems, not
only for those who work in the industries themselves but also for society at
It is our view that these problems arise, not because of the behaviour of scientists
and technologists in isolation, but because of the manner in which society
misuses this skill and ability. We believe however, that scientiests,
engineers and the workers in those. industries have a profound responsibility
to challenge the underlying assumptions of large scale industry; seek to
assert their right to use their skill and ability in the interest of the community
at large. In saying that, we recognise that this is a fundamental challenge
to many of the economic and idealogical assumptions of our society.
It is certainly not the assumption of this Corporate Plan that Lucas Aerospace
can be transformed into a trail blazer to transform this situation in isolation «
There can be no islands of responsibility and concern in the cea of irresponsibility
and depravity. Our intentions are much more modest, namely to make a
humble start to question these assumptions and to make a smalJl contribution to
demonstrating that workers are prepared to press for the right to work on
products which actually help to solve human problems rather than create them.
It remains our view that no matter how taany sections of workers in other
industries take up these demands the progress can only be minimal so long as
our society is based on the assumption that profits come first and people come last.
Thus the question is a political one, ‘whether we like it or not. Perhaps the
most significant feature of the Corporate Plan is that trade unionists are |
attempting to transcend the narrow economism which has characterised
trade union activity in the past and extend our demands to the extent of
questioning the products on which we work and the way in which we
work upon them, This questioning of basic assumptions about what should
be produced and how it should be produced is one that is likely to grow in
In July 1970 the United Automobile Workers of America ( U.A.W.) issued a
statement to General Motors Corporation asserting that U.A.W. members had
a direct legitimate concern in pollution caused by the automobile industry
and claiming the right to raise the issue in collective bargaining. The
union asked to know about fature programmes of General Motors ' designed
to eliminate pollution, both from within the plants and outside the plants
caused by waste emitted by the Corporation's factories and by internal
In September 1972 Douglas Frasez, the head of U.A.W. Chrysler Dept.,
announced that the union had asked Chrysler Corporation to begin talks
on how to thumanise!' jobs on the assembly line. He said that if the Corporation
refused the request, the issue of workers boredom and dissatisfaction would
be one of the unions most important bargaining goals (8)
Activities of this kind will, in our view, be far more significant in the long
term thancampaigns for worker participation or workers directors.
This Combine Committee is opposed to such concepts and is not prepared
to share in the management of means of production and the production of
products which they find abhorrent. Indeed at times of Company crisis
the real role of the so called directors becomes self evident. Thus in
spite of one third of the seats on the Volkswagen board being filled
by union representatives and these voting with socialist politicians on
the board, which in practice is said to give a 50 - 50 say in the running of
the plant, this inno way helped the workers during the massive
redundancies which took place in Volkswagen recently (9)
There cannot be ‘industrial democracy' until there is a real shift
in power to the workers themselves.
Trade Unionists at the point of production through their contact with the
real world of manufacturing and making things are conscious of the great
economic power which workers have. This growing sense of confidence
by working people to cope with the technological and social problems we
see about us is in glaring contrast to the confusion and disarray of
management, particularly in the highest echelons of industry.
Corporate Social Responsibility
Tt is clear that even amongst the supporters of private industry there is
a growing recognition that things will have to change. Issues such as.the
‘quality of life’ and the harnessing of the productive forces to meet human
needs are likely to be issues of major political importance during the
coming years. Even those whose policies have given rise to the present
economic and social crisis now admit that change is inevitable. 50%
of the key policy makers in Europe agreed 'the 1970's will see an economic
crisis provoking a re-examination of economic aims, the pursuit of
growth will give way to a search for ‘quality of life' for social justice
and solidarity (11) .
The motives of the large scale corporations are quite correctly perceived
to be anti social". The growth of large scale corporate industries during
the past century appears to furnish additional evidence of business men's
anti-social behaviour, first in the trust problem and the treatment of labour
and more recently in racial discrimination, pollution of the environment,
contribution towards low levels of public taste, inability to achieve stability
in the economy and inadequate consumer service and protection.
The rosta of accusations viewed over the past decade seems to be lengthening
and the intensity of antagonism appears to be rising orga)
The rosta could indeed be lengthened to include the de-humanised forms of
work in the plants of these corporations and even the interesting contradiction
for them that they are unable to provide the right to work for our members
in order that they can exploit them! All of this, it seems to us,
arises because the motive force behind industries of this kind is
the maximisation of profit.
In order to retain some kind of public creditability the large corporations
are even denying that profit is now the main motive. The manager of
the French subsidiary of the American Corporation Singer is quoted as
saying "profit remains vital to our survival but it cannot any longer be
our sole aim. Human related goals must be advanced, the satisfaction
of wage earners and consumers and the protection and upgrading of
the environment" (18)
Peter Parker, Chairman of Rockware Group, told a conference of the
British Institute of Management "the social dimension is for me the most
demanding and decisive of the decade. Its scope includes relationships
with government and institutions, organisational adjustments to the ages,
social priorities of classlessness and of establishing consent to the exercise
of industrial power, of a decent environment and of personal and moral
attitudes towards the question of efficiency to what purpose and at what price".
He went on to state "with social responsibility we are dealing with an idea
whose moment has come at last' (14)
Social responsibility has been defined as 'the committment of a business
or business in general to an active role in the solution of broad social
problems such as racial discrimination, pollution, transport or urban
decay" (15) Some Companies are even putting forward social responsibility
audit check lists, see Appendix9. —
It remains our view that businesses will look at social responsibility
purely in terms of profits, indeed as Maguire has pointed out, social
auditing represents a crude blend of long term profit making and
We believe this Corporate Plan will provide rtunity for Lue
Aerospace to demonstrate whether it is really prepared to take its
social responsibility seriously or not.
The past seventy years have seen systematic efforts to de-skill jobs,
to fregment them into small narrow functions and to have them carried
out at an increased tempo. This process which oddly is known as
Scientific Manegement', attempts to reduce the worker to a blind unthinking
appendage to the machine or process in which he or she is working.
In Scientific Management as its founder, Fredrick Winslow Taylor tells us
“the workmen is told minutely just what he is to do and how he is to do it
and any improvement he makes upon the orders given to him is fatal to success"'(17)
Taylor was not unaware of the implications of what he was doing and once said
"that the requirements of a man for a manual jo» is that he shall be so stupid
and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make up the
ox than any other type" (18)
The tendency to destroy skill and job interest is now evident in all fields of
manufacturing including in Lucas Aerospace; but human beings are not oxen
and are vebelling against such a system in many Ways. In Volvo in
Sweden, the labour turnover in 1969 was 52% and absentee rate reached 30%
in some plants. In the United States the reactiun has been even more
dramatic; in General Motors Lordstown's plant ths computor controlled
production line and the products on it have been dire ctly sabotaged by workers
who felt completely oppressed by their working environment (20)
- 11 -
This is of course inevitable in a society which views workers merely as
units of production and tries to treat‘them accordingly. Moral arguments
will certainly not change the situation, in fact Griener - a leading academic
in this field- suggests that successful change does not begin until strong
environmental and internal pressures "shake the power structure at its:
very foundation until the ground under the top managers begins toshift
it seoms unlikely that they will be sufficiently aroused to feel the need for
change, both in themselves and in the rest of the organisation (21)
Nor are these problems confined to the shop floor. The past ten years have
seen the extension of various forms of 'Taylorism' into the fields of white
collar and mental work (22)
Behavioural scientists and others are now making vast fortunes advising
management of job enrichment schemes and gréup technology.
These of course are simply devised to get more out of each worker. In fact
workers have always known that is far better if people work in teams
and know what each other are doing. They know that if they are engaged on work
which is challenging to them this results in bettez products of higher quality.
However modern industry continues to move in the opposite direction
a gradual replacement of human beings by machines, a change in the organic
composition of capital in which industry is made capital intensive rather than
labour intensive. Not only does this give rise to serious problems of
structural :memployment but it also causes serious problems as far as
quality of products is concerned, and more importantly 'quality of life’.
It is clearly evident from some of the Lucas Aerospace plants that attempts
to replace human intelligence by machine intelligence (e.g. over emphasising
the importance of numerical controlled machine tools as against human skill)
have had quite disasterous results. Itis intended to campaign for quite
radical job re-design which will protect our members from this.
- 312 -
The idea of a Corporate Plan of this kind is an entirely new initiative by
industrial workers, It is, to our knowledge, the first time that such a plan
has been proposed in the United Kingdom, There has, of course, been some
developments of this kind abroad, notably in Italy where at Fiat the work
force put forward a series of social demands in addition to the straight
forward economic ones (such as wages).
Whilst the Combine Committee is unanimous in its desire to have the
Corporate Plan produced,there is by no means universal agreement on the
tactics for its introduction, This is because of the industrial dangers which
arise in a project of this kind, There is obviously the danger that the
discussions with the Management about the implementation of the plan,
(if it were agreed that such discussion should take place, ) could gradually
degenerate into a form of collaboration, There is also the danger that, even
if collaboration were carefully avoided, the Company might simply take parts
of the Corporate Plan and have all this technology on the free, The plan has
taken a very considerable length of time to prepare and involved many evenings
and weekends of work, It has also meant that outside experts have been prepared
to give generously of their detailed knowledge in order to help the development
of the Corpoiate Plan,
In these circumstances the greatest care will have to be taken to ensure that
the Company does not succeed in drawing off the 'money spinners' from the plan,
and perhaps even having these produced abroad,whilst declining those products
which would be socially useful, It is even conceivable that whilst the Company
would take sections of the plan, our members may still be confronted with the
perennial problem of redundancy. Because of these dangers it is suggested that
the correct tactic would be to present only part of the plan to the Company, and
then to test out in practice the manner in which the Company will attempt to deal
Approximately 150 products were proposed for the Corporate Plan. 12 of
these were selected for presentation at this stage and are suitable for use in
the following 6 major areas of technological activity.
2. Telechiric Macuines.
3. Transport Systems.
“4. Braking Systems.
5, Alternative energy sources,
6. Medical Equipment.
- 13 =-
Fach of these major areas is supported by a file of some 250 pages of
detailed technical and economic supporting information. Only that on
alternative energy sources is provided at this stage. A summary of the
products chosen is included at the end of this section of the Corporate
While the Corporate Plan was being prepared, unemployment problems arose
at the Hemel Hempstead and Marston Green plants. Separate mini
corporate reports were prepared for these plants and they are being handled
by the local shop stewards committees.
EMPLOYEE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME
The prosperity of Britain as a manufacturing nation depends to a very large
extent upon the skill and ability of its people and the opportunity to use that
skill and ability to produce commodities .
During the past five years the Lucas Aerospace work force has been reduced
approximately 25%, ‘This has come about cither by direct sackings or by a
deliberate policy of so called natural wastage, i.e. not replacing those who
leave, or encouraging early retirement, The net result has been that highly
skilled teams of manual workers and design staff have been seriously
diminished and disrupted; we cannot accept that such a development is in the
long term national interest,
Coupled with this development has been one inside the Company in which
attempts have been made to replace human intelligence by machine intelligence,
in particular the introduction of numerically controlled machine tools, This
has, ina number of cases, proved to have been quite disasterous and the quality
of the products have suffered in consequence,
In many instances the Company has falicn victim of the high pressure
salesmanship of those who would have us believe that all our problems can
be solved by high capital equipment. We have allowed our regard for human
talents to be bludgeoned into silence by the mystique of advanced equipment
and technology. and so forget that our most precious asset is the creative and
productive power of our people,
When we reviewed the work force We now have, our concern centres on four
points. Firstly, very little is being done to extend and develop the very
considerable skills and ability still to be found within the work force.
Secondly the age group in some of the factories is very high, typically around
46 - 50 years average, Thirdly there is little indication that the Company
is embarking on any real programme of apprenticeships and the intake of
young people, (it is in fact sacking apprentices as they finish their time). Fourthly
the Company is making no attempt to employ women in technical jobs,and
apartfrom recruitment of these from outside, there are many women doing routine
jobs well below their existing capabilities. Quite apart from the desirability of
countering these discriminatory practices, the employment of women jin the male
dominated areas would have an important 'humanising' affect on science and
In that section of the report dealing with specific recommendations we propose
a number of steps which should be taken in this direction, The section of this
report is concerned with development and retraining facilities for the existing
workforce this we regard as important at two levels, firstly retraining and
re-education would mean that we were developing the capabilities of our people
to meet the technological and sociological challenges which will come during
the next few years, Secondly, in the event of work shortage occurring before
alternative products have been introduced the potential redundancy could be
transformed into a positive breathing space during which re-education could
act as a form of enlightened work sharing.
During the past 10 years a number of social, political and economic factors
have become clearly discernible which suggests that the traditional pattern of
education/work/retirement will grow increasingly inappropriate in the fourth
quarter of the 20th century, For the purpose of the Corporate Plan the most
important of these factors are:
lis The exponeritial nature of technological change (Ref. .23 and 24)
2. The rate of knowledge obsolescence and break up of. skills
associated with 1 above. (Ref, 25).
3. Structural changes in manpower requirements (Ref. .26 and 27)
4, ‘the movement towards equal employment and education
apportunities for women (Ref. 28).
5. The political and social unacceptability oi structural
unemployment as a feature of advanced industrial society.
(Ref. 29 and 30)
There are some indications that the trade union movement, educational
institutes, and even some Managements are beginning to respond to this
new situation, The growing interest in adult and recurrent education and
retraining is an indication of this (Ref. 31).It is also encouraging to see
international bodies, suchas the O.E.C.D.'s Centre of Educational
Research and Innovation, proposed recurrent education which permits
‘educational apportunities to spead out over the individuals life time!
Some countries have already well established and co-ordinated retraining
and educational procrammes, In Sweden for example, apart from all
training within industry, and the individuals own initiate, the state recognises
an annual training need of 1% of the total work force (Ref, 33), Even in the
United States, where the short sightedness of private enterprise is at its
worst, some large corporations now include training and education as part
of the corporate social responsibility activities (Ref. .34).
In general, however, the tendency is to discard older employees and engage
younger ones 'with new knowledge'. This, unfortunately, is likely to remain
the predominant business attitude for some time to come, It is an attitude
which we cannot and will not accept. In our view there is a need for a blending
of the dynamism and drive of the young people, to be counterbalanced by the
experience and knowledge of older workers, who should also have the
opportunity of having their knowledge updated,
More attention is now being given to the importance of human assets', although
the terminology used reveals the real motives of many of the companies, for
example reference is made to 'human capital' (Reference 35, 36, 87). However
there are some indications that the value of re-training einployees 'who know the
company system! is beginning to be recognised. The growing pressure from the
international trade union movement for retraining and re-education of older
workers (which can frequently mean a little over 40 in some fields) is likely to
be a significant factor during the next decade (Ref, 38, 39 & 40).
It is to be anticipated that these international tendencies will be reflected in the
United Kingdom, although to date the emphasis has been on compensation and
unemployment payments rather than re-education as an occupational form of
Unemployment is.a social evil which need not occur in advanced industrial
society and should not be tolerated, It represents a tragic wastage of the
nations greatest asset, its people's creative and productive power. Whiist it
may seem feasible from an accountant's viewpoint to balance his book by
sacking a few hundred workers the loss to the nction as a whole can be very
considerable, This loss arises firstly because the individuals involved are
denied the right to produce, hence the commodities that they would have
created are no longer available, Secondly the state is involved in vast sums
of money which are paid as earnings related unemployment benefit and in
compensation to the individuals who lost their jobs.
For the individuals involved there is the indignity and degradation of the
dole queue; for the tax payer there is the expenditure on these social
services, It is our view, therefore, that even in a narrow economic sense
it would be feasible to propose that part of the money that would have been
available had these people been redundant, should be provided as a basis for
part time education, thereby protecting the individual from the dole queue
whilst at the same time investing in the nation's future manpower.
The employment protection bill may provide an employee with a guaranteed
payment from his employer if he is not given work on a normal working day,
this can be toa maximum of £30 a quarter and is calculated to cost industry
£80 000 000 per annum (Ref. 41).
Mr. Albert Booth, Secretary of State in the Department of Employment,
recently poinied out that the government is considering paying up to £10 a
week for each employee in cases of potential redundancy involving over a
hundred workers as a means of countering unemployment. In these
circumstances, it seems that it would be economically feasible to suggest
training, particularly if hacked by a government grant, through an engineering/
industrial training board, as one means of countering short term conditional
unemploynent, In fact the T.U.C. in its annual economic report suggested
that £50 000 000 should be made available to the manpower services
commission, including £20 000 000 ‘or 'a job creation programme (Ref, 42)
We do not believe that private enterprise should be allowed to shift its
responsibilijies in this respeet ento the state, We do however feel that the
state should face up to its responsibilities by making some funds available
for alternative projects in industries where redundancies would have otherwise
It should be emphasised that we are not, in this context, talking about retraining
for white collar and technical staff only. It is our view that the entire work
force including semi-skilled and skiiled workers are capable of retraining for
jobs which would greatly extend the range of work they could undertake, This
would provide apportunities which they may have been denied, for a number of
reasons, at an earlier stage in their lives.
Such courses could best be organised in local technical colleges and polytechnics.
It is our view that universities are too rigid in hoth their entrance requirements
and teaching methods, The courses would have to take into account that many of
those involved would not have had traditional forms of education and paper
qualifications, but could bring to the course a wealth of experience through actual
work in industry.
It would further mean that those teaching on these courses would have to
develop new teaching methods and have a real respect for people who had
industrial experience, Such an arrangement would not be without its
advantages for the polytechnic and technical colleges involved, as such
trainees could bring to these institutions a much more mature and balanced
view about productive processes in general, but also about wider political,
social and economic matters.
OCEANICS - A BRIEF REVIEW
The ocean beds cover over 70% of the earth's surface, It is clear that during
the coming years there will be an ever increasing use made of this vast area,
Judging by the irresponsible manner in which human beings have used the
first 30% of the earth's surface the prospect is one which we view with
The exploitation of the ocean bed is likely to take at least three forms;
Ihe Exploration & extraction of oil and natural gas.
2. Collection of mineral bearing nodules.
3. Submarine agriculture,
It has been estimated that 15% of the worlds oil is already drawn from
coastal waters and this figure will be increased to 33% by 1980, The
significance of this in the United Kingdom has of course been underlined by the
work oni North Seal Oi1(48). The scale of this activity may be judged by the
fact that the total capital expenditure on process industries is forecast to
amount to £8,G billion pounds in the three years up to the end of 1977. Of
this some 40% is likely to go on North Sea Oil production development (Ref 44)
Five years ago, efforts to interest Mr. Rivett and Mr. Clifton-Mogg in the
possibility of using existing Lucas Aerospace vaive technology, and the
manufacturing facilities of the ballscrews to provide a complete valve
operating and controlled system were ignored. It is perhaps not surprising
therefore that Sir Fredrick Warner, Chairman of the N.l.D.C. process
plant working committee maintains that process plant and equipment
manufacturers are missing out to overseas companies on much of the
North Sca Oil work, He stated inpresenting the NE.D.C. report on the
9th June 1975 'I wish we were getting half the business'. (Ref.45)
Although such valve work would represent only @ minor part of the capital
investment in such installations it would have been of major significance to
Lucas Aerospace, However the real growth area would be in a whole range
of automatic and electronically controlled remote equipment, ‘It is easy to
envisage a time when all facilities now used in processing and distributing
oil are put in the sea bed in vast plants manned by men living in atmospheric
conditions, or handled by robots and automatic systems electronically
controlled from the shore' (Ref.46)
It is significant that Westinghouse and Lockheed are both actively engaged in
these fields, and Lockheed are concentrating their efforts on developing
sub sea working chambers which can be approached by diving bells (Ref. 47)
These activities will require a wide range of submersible vehicles which in
turn will need generating and actuating systems on board, Lucas Aerospace
should be entering into working agreements with the manufacturers of these in
particular with Vickers Oceanics. In fact thes; should consider entering into
an agreement with Vickers which would establich the same relationship which
they have in the aerospace field with Hawker Siddeley or B.A.C.
Metal Bearing Nodules
One of the richest sources of mineral resources is the metal bearing nodules
to be fourd on the sea bed, They exist virtually everywhere and are usually
20 to 40mm in size and average 17% manganese and 11% iron. They also
contain considerable quantities of trace elements of nickel, copper, cobalt
and zine, together with lead and phosphates, By the year 2000 the land sources
of some of these metals will have been exhausted, whilst tle marine reserves
are cnormous, The quantity of copper in nodule form for example is 150 times
greater than the terrestial reserves (Ref, 48)
Although this field of activity is only in its infancy three large companies in the
United States including Hughes Tool has already put 100 million dollars into
the project to exploit the seas off California, In Europe both France and Germany
have carried out initial experiments of deep sea retrievers, The initial
investment of projects of this kind is likely to be enormous and as a consequence
international co-operation is likely to be the pattern, In facta spokesman for
the German company said 'the technical development is so expensive that
exploitation of these metal bearing nodules is out of the question for one firm
alone, or even a national group of companies. It can only be done by
international co-operation as through cross frontier consortia'.
During the coming 10 years there is likely to be a growing interest ih marine
agriculture, Products of the sub acqua farms are likely to range from directly
consumable vegetables to those producing by products which can he processed
on land, This type of farming will require a whole range of special purpose
small vehicles to take the 'farmers' down to the work areas, There are also
likely to be requirements for a range of submersible vehicles and telechiric
machines which could carry out both the sowing and reaping by remote control,
It is our view that oceanics provides very important long term outlet for
Lucas Aerospace as manufacturers of complete aircraft systems, We are in
a unique position to provide total systems for the vehicles and equipment which
will be required in this field, It would also he a logical point of entry for
Lucas Aerospace into the wider and developing field of control systems as a
whole. This is likely to be one of the leading growth areas during the coming
years and a very considerable use of mini computers and micro~processers
are likely to be involved, The predictions are that this will have a profound
effect upon the whole nature of our technology during the coming years (Ref,7)
This field would also provide a logical framework in which Lucas Aerospace
could get involved in micro-processing systems, It is significant that some of
Lucas's leading competitors such as Plessey are already making considerable
advances in the micro-processer field.
The increased speed of both road and rail vehicles and the larger payloads which
they will carry, both of passengers and goods, will give rise to stringent
braking regulations during the coming years. This tendency will be further
inereased by Briteins membership of the E.E.C. The E.E.C. is now
introducing a range of new braking regulations. These specify, not only,
stopping distances, but calls for minimum standards of braking endurance
over a continuous period. Tn addition, the regulations lay down conditions
for ‘braking balance' between axles in order to prevent a dangerous sequence
of wheel locking.
Many individual E.E.C. countries have, in addition, their own national braking
requirements. In France for example, since the mid 50's auxiliary braking
systems have been compulsory for coaches operating in mountainous terrain.
A fundamental weakness of normal mechanical brakes is that when subjected
to long braking periods they overheat and the braking linings, at elevated
temperatures, teud to temporarily lose their ‘gripping qualtities'. This
problem can be greatly reduced, if not totally overcome, by using a retarder.
A Retarder is basically an electro magnetic dynamometer which is fitted
usually to the prop shaft between the engine and the back axle. To reduce
speed its coils are excited by an electrical supply direct for the vehicle battery,
thereby inducing a braking force as the dise rotates in the magnetic field.
At the Willesden plant some 25 years design experience exists in this field of
dynamo metry. Attempts by the design staff some 10 years ago to get the
Company to develop and simplify these eddycurrent dynamonicters for mass
production as retardors fatled. It is felt, however, that the time is now
-opportune to reconsider this whole project.
In Britian public attention has been dramatically focused on the wealnesses
of existing braking systems by the Yorkshire Coach disaster which claimed
32 lives in May of this year. The Sunday Times of June 1st stated Nast
week's crash might have been avoided if the coach had been equipped
with an extra braking device, such as an electro~magnetic retarder which is
being fitted to an increasing number of coaches in this country" Tn fact
it would anpear that only 10% of Britians' 75 000 buses and coaches actually
have reiarders fitted to them. There is, therefore, clearly a vast market
avuilable to Lucas ifitadopts an imaginative approach to this problem . qt
is not suggested that Lucas should simply produce dynamonr ters, rather what
is proposed is that they should analyse the whole neture of braking systems
through a wide range of vehicles, including buses, coaches, articulated
lorries, underground and overhead trains as used by British Rail.
It is proposed that a braking system analysis and development team should be
set up to take an overview of this problem. The team shovld make an
analysis of the actual requirements for the different applications, and at the
game should analyse any patent problems which might arise with respect of
the French Labinal retarder which is marketed in this country as''Telma.
Simultaneously a development team should develop an existing Lucas Aerospace
dynamometer, using a unit capable of heing fitted in the conventional position,
j.e. in the prop shaft between the engine and the back axle, capable of
absorbing 600 brake horse power and the weight approx. 200 kgs. Once
this unit has been designed and developed, discussions should take place with
Girlings to arrange for its mass production under a licensing arrangement
from Lucas Aerospace. Although a vast potential market exists for dynamometers
of this kind this unit should be seen only as the first step in evolving a total
braking system capability.
The second stage would be a combined electro magnetic braking system coupled
directly to a traditional mechanical brake based on a Girling disc. The
control system would have to be designed such that by moving the brake pedal
the dynamometer would intially operate and the further depression of the
pedal will graduaily increase the current and henee the braking load until
finally the mechanical brake could be applied if necessary. Use of the
dynemometer betiveen the prop shaft and the back axle clearly limits its range
of application. To overcome this, discussion should take place with manufacturers
of gear boxes to arrange to have them fitted on the output side of the gearbox
such that they could be used on the tractors of articulated vehicles.
A further development would be to design and produce units which could be
fitted to each individual axle. Work in this field is already being carried
out in France, but based on traditional dynamometer units.
An elaborate control system would be necessary to ensure that as each of the
individual axles is braked it still meets the new E.E.C. requirements
concerning the sequence and the effects on individual axles and their proper
synchronisation to remove the risk of unstable skidding or ‘jack knifing'.
This work would dove tail in conveniently with existing work being undertaken
by Girlings on anti-skid systems. It is important that this programme should
pot be earvicd out in the usual piece meal short term manner. A long
term overall plan should be worked out and cach stage of the development programiue
should be a tactical step towards a long term strategy.
- 22 -
Part of that long term strategy should be the provision of radar applied
braking systems. All the necessary components should be designed to
produce a flexible range of system options. Dynamometers lend themselves
jdeally to this as the load is applied electrically. The 1975 Society of
Automotive Engineers Congress held in Detroit, reported that the National
Highway Safety Association's 71 statistics showed that 8% of the vehicles on
the road were involved in rear end accidents. They represented 25% of
accidents or 8 million vehicles. The medium te long term aim should
be to provide radar applied braking systems particularly for use on motor ways.
The Financial Times on May 7th 1975 stated "in the longer run electronic
station keeping devices which use a form of radar to apply brakes automatically
to cars travelling along motorways when they approach too close a slowly
moving vehicle ahead may be adopted. If they were introduced compulsorily
for traffic they would certainly lead to a substantial reduction in the number
of lives lost through motorway accidents in fog".
R.A. Chandicr and L.E. Woods of the U.S. Departinent of Commerce Institute
for Telecommunication Sciences have said at the conference quoted above
‘while significant problems exist in the development of generaily acceptable
radar sensors for automobile braking, no insurmountable difficulties are
evident". Applications more complex than mere station keeping should
algo be considered, but these give rise to a series of technological problems
which, although they could be overcome, may only Le soluble with very
expensive equipment. However both Chandler and Woods had the following
to say "both pedestrians and the cyclists are detectable, radiation hazards
are minimal, small radius corners give a problem in false alarms, inter-system
plinding is a problem and that the effect of rain scattering are serious".
Spokesmen for the National Highway Tra ffic Safety Association have stated
that research in radar braking fields warrants continuation, but the decision
to implement such devices should be mude only after cost bencfit studies
and acceptable hardware performance had been verified. It is clear that
now is the stage for Lucas to become involved in these developments.
It is proposed that a similar long term overview should be taken of braking
requirements for roiling stock railways and undergound. Already British
Rail has introduced, on a1 experimental basis, velovity monitoring systems,
which indicate to the driver if he is travelling at a velocity considered to be
dangerous for a.1 oncoming curve, junction or other impediment. With
these velocity sensing devices already installed, it would be a logical step
to use this information to feed into braking systcms such that the train was
automatically slowed down to mect the travelling requirements already
determined for other sections of the track if the driver fails to respond due
to illness or whatever. Such overall braking systems wonld require many
computers and micro processors. The use of these would fit in with
suggestions made elsewhere in the Corporate Pian.
There will be an increasing requirement for battery powered vehicles during the
next 20 years. However the numbers involved are not likely to be substantial
until alternative forms of battery power storage and battery production have
been developed, and until means of charging these, other than using conventionally
produced electricity have been developed.
Tn the meantime there is likely to be a growing interest in hybrid systems which
make the best use of battery storage and couple that with the optimum performance
of internal combustion engines. It is therefore proposed that a hybrid system
be evolved utilising the I.C. engine running at a permanent and optimum power
setting and connected to a generator. The generator would charge the batteries
which inturn supply the power to the electric motor driving the vehicle.
Viewed in the wider company context it may be desirable to use the dicsel
engine with its inherent advantages of better fuel consumption characteristics.
Initial calculations suggest a 50% fuel saving in such a hybrid.
The Ground Support Equipment Group of the Aerospace division already has
considerable experience in the packaging of coupled prime movers and generators.
In addition it has developed considerable expertise in the silencing of units of
this kind without prcatly impairing the efficiency of the engine. This would
mean, not only cowd atmospheric pollution be greatly reduced, in that the toxic
emissions would be reduced by some 70 to 60% by the permanent power setting ,
but the noise pollution could be greatly reduced as an added advantage.
The existing Lucas battery powered vehicles could be used as a test bed
for this generator package. It is therefore proposed that designers from
the Ground Support Equipment Group liaise with their colleagues in the
Lucas Electrical Co. and C.A.V. so that a specification can be drawn up
for the 'hybrid package’.
A prototype should then be built. by the Ground Support Equipment Group and
tests carried out in the vehicles already in existence.
In Western Europ? the pressure of urbanisation and the density of population will
mean that transport systems, odier than rail and road, will increasingly be sought.
There is a growing and understahdable public hostility to conventional air
traffic systems with the problems of air and noise pollution in the immediate
vicinitics of airports. These considerations and ones of economy arc likely
to give rise to a growing interest in airships. Explosion hazards associated
with hydrogen are likely to continue to make that an unsuitable lifting source,
heliura is extremely expensive. Docking, loading and unloading problems are
considerable; To release a load of 250 tons would require a release of nearly
9 million cubic feet of helium and cost something in the order of £100 000.
Tn addition there is growing concern as to the availability of helium in the future.
The present rate of consumption of the resources of crude helium can only be
expected to last for a few more decades. Tn these circumstances a system
such as 'Air-float’ is highly desirable. However to allow for fine control
over its load/Amload position, complex vertical and horizontal vectoring
power unils will be required.
It is sucgested that Lucas could make a major contribution in this. It is
proposed that direct contact should be made with Dr. Edwin Mowforth of the
University of Surrey in order that Lucas's contribution to this development.
could be explored in detail.
The Combine has already been in contact with Dr. Mowforth on this issue.
The structure of railway coaches is based on a design philosophy which is
about 100 years ont of date. Strength and weight of railway coach structures
depends essentially on the characteristics of rigid wheel on the track and its
power transmissions through that. R. Fletcher of the North East London
Polytechnic nointed out for a number of years that these problems could be
overcome -if pneumatic wheels were used. The entire suspension system of
the vehicle could then be much lighter as could the overall payload bearing
structure. This work is currently supported by a Science Research
Council grant. Tf Lucas were to accept the proposal for braking systems
made elgewhore in this Corporate Plan they could extend that idea by
providing a complete whecl and axle unit which would embody a pneumatic
wheel, a retavder and dise brake. Aerospace would provide the automatic
braking system and the microprocessors to operate the unit.
With the overcrowding on roads such a light weight train could be used to
great advantage on suburban lines and might even bc used on some of the
lines now closed hy the Beeching Plan. It is therefore proposed that contact
should be made with %. Fletcher to establish in which way the braking systems
could be incorporated into an overall design philosophy for these lightweight
Approximately 10 years ago Lvcas Aerospace spent vast sums of money on
developing a railway actuator. Basically the idea was that a vehicle could
be taken directly from a railway and run on wheels suitable for conventional
road surfaces. These wheels to be actuated into position by a system provided
by the then Rotax Division. It is suggested that the sysem should now be
re-examined in light of current transport requircments. It should be
particularly re~examined in light of the proposals above for a light weight vehicle.
The (Scottish) Highland and Islands Development Board has already shown
considerable interest in such a hybrid road/rail system. A section of
track has been located where the tests can be carried out. The hybrid
prime mover proposed above (Page 24) and the "Braking System (Page 21)
should be incorporated into the final design. .
Yneumatic tyred road/reil transport proposed
in the Lucas corporate plan. Cn the test
yehicle flanzed wheels provide guidance, but
the vehicle is steered by tread forces.
3 month period expand the team to cater for the following work:
The design of a 600 brake horse power unit weighing
approximately 200 kes.
An integrated braking system incorporating both mechanical
disc brakes and dynamometers.
Automatic braking systems incorporating station keeping capabilities.
Complete braking systems for railways.
The design and development of a prototype hybrid power package
incorporating internal combustion enging generator, batteries
Airship vectoring systems.
Arrange meetings with Dr. Edward Mowforth of the University
Combined road/rail vehicle. Establish transport systems
design and devclopment team.
Establish working relationship with R. Fletcher of the North East
London Polytechnic whose work in this area is supported by the
Science Research Council.
Exemine feasibility of providing integrated braking system for
this vchicle together with microprocessors, suspension systems
using Girling know how and the hybrid power package outlined above.
Contact Scottish Development Board, and Derbyshire County Council
through R. Fletcher with a view to establishing a test section
of existing track.
Re-ex-:mine the Roiax railway van actuator in light of current
Establish working relationship with Vickers Oceanics.
Consider feasibility of providing complete systems for submersibles.
Examine the feasibility of designing, developing and manufacturing,
either independently or with Vickers, telecheiric devices
for metal bearing nodule collection and marine agriculture.
Marston Green Electronic Group to consider the provision of
micro-processors for the systems outlined ahove.
Particular attention to be paid to the deyelopinent at Plessey's.
Establish a medical division at G & E Bradleys, initially increasing
the production of kidney machines there hy approximately 40%.
In conjunction with Ministry of Health build up a 'design for the
Tnvestigate the feasibility of applying acrospace technology to provide
'sight! to the blind.
Examine the requirements of the computer industry for standby power units
using automatic sensing and starting systems, to be develop.ed
by Marston Green.
Carry out market survey of requirements of Middle East Oil producing
countries and newly emergent zations for power packs built on a
module basis to meet alternatively the requirement for pumping facilities,
hydraulic power pack facilities, electricity generation and compressed air.
Industrial Ball Screws
See attached appendix and analyse the application of ballscrews to valve
control systems, machine tool control systems, telechciric machines
and submersible vchicles.
Telecheiric Machines ‘
Augment existing systems and actuator know how with specialists in
remote control field.
Examine application for fire fighting telecheiric devices, mining machines
and underwater devices.
Employee Development Programme
Arrange Union/Management negotiations on employee retraining.
In the event of immediate redundancies negotiate full time educ ation
as a form of work sharing backed by government grants.
Unions to have discussions with the Department of Employment and
Manpower Services commission.
Integrated Product Teams
Union/Management negotiations on the establishment of integrated
product teams incorporating design, development production engineering
and manufacturing in one group.
Negotiations on the redesign of jobs.
Unior. to meet Dr. Gilbert Jessop of the Work Research Unit of the
Department of Employment to discuss job satisfaction schemes.
Other Products Under Consideration for Enlarged Corporate Plan
a. Linear motors operating pumps and compressors.
b. Range of applications for the '60 and 90 Gas Turbine’
Ge Rosot helicopter using Lucas gas turbine for crop spraying.
a. High speed motors.
DSP TPS UNED TX. 2°41
Principal Subsidiary Campanies
The following list excludes subsidiary companies which do not materially affect the Accounts.
All companies are wholly owned subsidiaries except where otherwise stated.
Interests in companies marked * are held by intermediate subsidiaries.
The trading of companies marked ¢ is incorporated in the accounts of Lucas Trading Ltd.
(Registered in England)
Joseph Lucas Ltd.
Lucas Trading Ltd.
Vehicle Equipment Companies:
The Lucas Electrical Company Ltd. f Rist's Wires & Cables Ltd. *
Joseph Lucas (Sales & Service) Ltd. Butlers Ltd.*
Lucas Service Overseas Ltd.t Globe & Simpson Ltd.*
Lucas Batteries Ltd.t Cox (Electrodiesel) Ltd.*
CAN. Ltd.*} Crosland Filters Ltd.*
Girling Ltd. * + ;
Aircraft Equipment Company:
Lucas Aerospace Ltd. *
Industrial Equipment Companies:
G. & E. Bradley Ltd. Keelavite Hydraulics Ltd. (24:5% of
Freference Share Capital owned
Lucas Industrial Equipment Ltd.+
N.S.F. Controls Ltd. *
A. R. Parsons Lid *
Semicomps Ltd. *
Bryce Berger Ltd.*
Leslie Hartridge Ltd.
Lucas Defence Systems Ltd. t
Lucas Marine Ltd.
Simms Motor & Electronics Corp. Ltd.
Clearex Plastics Ltd.*
Dawe Instruments Ltd.*
LUCdS INQUSUICS LITE
Principal Subsidiary Campanies
The following list excludes subsidiary companies which do not materially affect the Accounts.
All companies are wholly owned subsidiaries except where otherwise stated.
Interests in companies marked * are held by intermediate subsidiaries.
The trading of companies marked f is incorporated in the accounts of Lucas Trading Ltd.
(Registered in England)
Joseph Lucas Ltd.
Lucas Trading Ltd.
Vehicle Equipment Companies:
The Lucas Electrical Company Ltd. Rist’s Wires & Cables Ltd.*
Joseph Lucas (Sales & Service) Ltd.+ Butlers Ltd.*
Lucas Service Overseas Ltd. t Globe & Simpson Ltd.*
Lucas Batteries Ltd. Cox (Electrodiesel) Ltd. *
CAV. Ltd.*7 Crosland Filters Ltd.*
Aircraft Equipment Company:
Lucas Aerospace Ltd. *
Industrial Equipment Companies:
G. & E. Bradley Ltd. Keelavite Hydraulics Ltd. (24:5% of
Freference Share Capital owned
Lucas Industrial Equipment Ltd.+*
Lucas Defence Systems Ltd. t NSF. Ltd.*
, : SF:
pee SD N.S.F. Controls Ltd.*
Simms pee & Electronics Corp. Ltd. A-R. Parsons tid
Clearex Plastics Ltd. ehicunipe'ttd.*
Bryce Berger Ltd.*
Leslie Hartridge Ltd.
Dawe Instruments Ltd.*
A-P PE NDIA
Principal Subsidiary Companies — continued
Freins Girling S.A.*
Societe Francaise des Industries Lucas S.A.*
Lucas France S.A.*
Lucas Service Europe S.A.R.L.*
Sasic S.A, (68%) *
Societe Roto-Diesel S.A.
Messier Auto Industrie S.A.R.L. (51%) *
Joseph Lucas (Germany) G.m.b.H.*
Girling Bremsen G.m.b.H.*
Joseoh Lucas (Australia) Pty. Ltd.
Joseph Lucas (New Zealand) Ltd.
Joseph Lucas Canada Ltd.
Joseph Lucas North America Inc.
Lucas-T.V.S. Ltd. (60%)
Lucas Indian Service Ltd. (60%) *
Nihon-C.A.V. Ltd. (98%) *
Nihon Lucas (Sales & Service) Co. Ltd.
Lucas Service (Pakistan) Ltd.
Lucas Carello S.p.A.
Lucas (Iberica) S.A.
Agebe Ab. *
Lucas International Company S.A.
Joseph Lucas (Switzerland) A.G.*
Lucas International Trading S.A.
Martin Amato y Cia S.A.I.C. (80%) *
Lucas Service Argentina S.A.C.I.F.1. y E.
Lucas do Brasil S.A. Ind. E. Com.
Souza Duarte S.A.*
Acumuladores Vuicania S.A. (55%)
Electro Diesel de Mexico S.A. (96%) *
Inyec Diesel S.A. de C.V. (63%) *
Lucas (America Latina) S.A.
Lucas Industries South Africa (Pty.) Ltd.
Joseph Lucas (Pty.) Ltd.*
Lucas Service (Pty.) Ltd.* is
Joseph Lucas C.A. (Private) Ltd.
Lucas Industries Limited
Principal Associated Companies
The following list excludes associated companies which do not materially affect the Accounts.
It shows the dates to which the accounts incorporated in the Consolidated Profit and Loss
Account were prepared.
Interests in companies marked * are held by intermediate subsidiaries.
Class of Capital Accounting
and Percentage date
(Registered in England)
British Batteries Overseas Ltd. Ordinary 50 31.375
British Sealed Beams Ltd. Ordinary 40 S1ib.75
Centralab Ltd. Ordinary 50* ST 775
Ducellier et Cie Partnership 40* 31.8.74
Thomson-Lucas S.A. Ordinary 49 * 30.6.75
Pierburg Luftfahrtgerate Union G.m.b.H. Ordinary 34* 31.12.74
Fausto Carello & C. S.p.A. : Ordinary 40 31.12.74
Lucas Filtri S.p.A. Ordinary 40 31.12.74
Condiesel S.A. Ordinary 47* 31.12.74
Automotive & Girling (Pty.) Ltd. Ordinary 50 31.12.74
Maquinas Varga S.A. Ordinary 30 31.12.74
c Preference 30
Brakes India Ltd. Ordinary 49 31.12.74
Lucas Tundar Ordinary 35 22799
South Africa :
Automotive & Girling (S.A.) (Pty.) Ltd. Ordinary 50* 317.75
Hyperloop Inc. _ Ordinary 40* 31.3.75
a ee A IND Es o
LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD
Locations of Factories
LUGAS AEROSPACE LTD ——
Industrial Group £~ vy]
= LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD:
Product Support Group
Phoenix Works Bradford BD3 8LA Yorkshire
LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD
Victor Works Liverpool L14 3NW Lancashire
LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD -——--——~.-V-7]
Fabrications Group fore)
——LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD
Dunnings Bridge Rd. Liverpool
- LUCAS AEROSPA' LTD
Read St. Ceventry CV1 5SF Warwickshire
Wood Top and Hargher Clough
LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD,
Product Support Group
Hobson Woiks Fordhouses
Wolverhampton WV10 /EH Staffordshire
LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD—_
Product Support Group, Headquarters
Shaftmoor Lane Birmingham B28 8SW
[LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD
Industrial Group— Rotax Precision Products
Product Support Group
Maylands Ave Hemel Hempstead
LUCAS AEROSPACE LiD
Cybac Industrial Actuators
G. & E. Cradley Ltd
(Rotax Microwave Heating)
The Airpcit Luton LU2 9NG Bedfordshire
LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD
Product Support Group
Spring Rd. Birmingham B11 3ER
LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD”
G. & ©. Bradley Ltd?”
(Bradley Electronics) wy
Electral House Neasden London NW10
LUCAS ‘AEROSPACE LTD
Shirley Solihull Warwicksiire ©
LUCAS AEROSPACE !.TD
Hydromechanical Group QQ
Honiley W-rwickshire .
LUCAS AEROSPAct LTD = — —-
Premier Precision Works Western Rd. |
& LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD LUCAS AEROSPACE LTD
G. &. E. Bradley Ltd Industrial Group—Vactric Control! Equipment
(Rotax Test Equiprient & Garth Rd. Morden Surrey
Rotax Flectron Beu~. Welding) 5
Chase Rd. London N.W, 10
LUCAS. AE APPENDIX 4
GERMANY UNItcD KINGDOM FRANCE ITALY
oe ee eee i a 2. Ses
51% 2 + NIK aD CAS ALROSPA ests
ROBERT BOSCH Gmbtt LAL EEUGGT EAS TECHIE is MCAS ASEGS TSG LY: a AUXILEC SA | MCNA-HOWSON son |
x 1a Group |
A, PIERGURG AUTO- UND iy Hl : CAL GROUP t. [ socieré FRANCAISE
LUFTFAHRT. GERATEBAU kG 51% fh nb rs “| DES INDUSTRIES LUCAS
$$$ FABRICATIONS GROUP SS
‘ a >. a RES 109% INDUSTSIAL GKOUP
iS #1 LUCAS (GERMANY) cS; be aS Vg
GubH G. & FE. BRADLEY LTD
5 SSeS <a >
HOBSON GmbH %
LICENSEES OR WORKSHARING
Lucas Acrospace in Australia and North America
Lucas-Rotax (Australia) Pty. Ltd
Joseph Lucas North America Inc.
Lucas-Rotax Ltd., Canada
Lucas Aerospace Licensees in
AIRCRAFT and GAS TURBINE
CONTROL SYSTEMS —
HYDROMECHANICAL FUEL CONTROL SYSTEMS
ELECTRONIC FUEL CONTROL SYSTEMS
AND ENGINE _ COMBUSTION EQUIPMENT i
connce BNSINS STAB LER AE USS TEMS |e
SYSTEMS ENGINENOZZLE SYSTEMS —__
AIRCRAFT FUEL | FUEL BOOST & TRANSFER PUMPS
_ POWERED FLYING CONTROLS
AIRCRAFT AND | VARIABLE FEEL SYSTEMS
FLYING CONTROL] ACTUATION SYSTEMS
SYSTEMS TAILPLANE ACTUATORS
ACTUATORS & MOTORS __
HEATING & DE-ICING SYSTEMS
EQUIPMENT IR MOT
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CRONE SRL IT ATNR, AMT RT PE at
BONVUS yee 20VEIN
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Fuel Contro! Systems
Thrust Reverser Actuating Systems
Nozzle Actuating Systems
Engine Intake Control Systems
Starter/Auxiliary Power Units
Engine Intake Anti-icing Systems
Ignition.Systems and Components
GENERATING SYSTEMS AND
ASSOCIATED CONTROL CEAR
AC & DC Generators
Constant Speed Drives
' Starter Generators
Switchgear and Circuit Breakers
Transformer Rectifier Units
* Rotary Inverters :
Variable Speed Drives
AC & DC Motors
Geared Motor Units
Heating Systems and Equipment
Ice Detectors -
FIIGHT CONTROL SYSTEMS
Powered’ F!,ing Controls
Flap Operating Systems
Slat Operxating Systems
Wing Sweep perating Systems
Variable Fee! Systems
Auto- pilot 4ctuators
Tail Plane Actuators
HYDRAULIC POWER SYSTEMS
Motsr Pump Power Packs
Power Transfer Units
Quick Release Couplings
C astant Speed Drives
AIRCRAFT ENGINE FUEL
Fuel Boost and Transfer Pumps
Fuel Flow Proportioners
Fuel Flow Metering
Quick Release Couplings
Nozzle Drive Units
Thrust Reverser Drive Units
Microwave Heating Systems
Microwave sub-systems for Radar
Counters and Timers
Arterial Blood Pressure Monitor
Muscle Stimulation Equipment
Aversion Therapy Equipment
Sierraglo Instrument Panel Lighting
Eaith Fault Detectors
AIRFRAME AND ENGINE
Logic Sequencing and Protection
Thermal Control Units
AAP PEN DEX 6
TEST ANC SERVICE
Icing Wind Tunnel
Systems and Equipment Test Gear
Air Data Test Equipment
Portable Generator Sets
Ground Power Supplies
Communications Test Equipment
BCS Approved Electronic Standards
Radio Interference Laboratory
Electron Seam Welding
MACHINE TOOL EQUIPMENT
Electric Servo Drive Systems
Digital Readout Systems
Stepper Drive Systems
Test Facilities APPENDIX 7
Sand and Dust
Fire Resistance :
Fungus Growth and Tropical Test
High Speed Photography
CONSTITUTION OF THE LUCAS AEROSPACE AND DEFENCE SYSTEMS
COMBINE SHOP STEWARDS COMMITTEE
The Combine Committee shall be known as THE LUCAS AEROSPACE AND
DEFENCE SYSTEMS COMBINE SHOP STEWARDS COMMITTEE.
The Committee shall be comprised of representatives elected by the Shop
Stewards Committee at each Plant within the Lucas Aerospace Division.
The objectives of the Combine Committee shall be in the first instance, to
support, co-ordinate and initiate such steps as may be necessary to improve
the job security, wages and conditions of all Lucas Aerospace employees.
Further, it shall support the efforts of those elsewhere in the Lucas Organisation
and in its subsidiaries and associate companies abroad to establish parallel
Combine Committees and to improve their job security, wages and conditions.
It shall work for vigourous democratic Trade Unionism, free from State or Employer
interference, and 100% Trade Union Organisation at each Plant.
Recognising the Community of Interest of all working people everywhere, it shall
support their efforts to improve wages and conditions.
FREQUENCY OF MEETINGS
Yn order that the objectives set aut ahave @ to 6 incl.) can be energetically
campaigned for, the Combine Committce shall meet at least three times annually
to determine overall strategic policies, At these meetings the representatives
shall reflect the views of their respective Shop Stewards Coimittee. The minutes
of these meetings to be circulated at the earliest opportunity.
The individual Site representatives shall then recommend the Combine policies
to each Shop Stewards Committee and shall campaign for their acceptance. The
outcome of the Shop Stewards Committee's deliberations shall be conveyed, in
writing, to the Combine Committee Secretary within 14 days.
In order that the policies of the Combine Committee can be properly progressed
between meetings a Combine Exécutive shall be elected at the first meeting each
year (the A.G.M.). It shall carry out the policies of the Combine Committee and
report to and receive instructions from each Combine meeting.
The Combine Executive shall include the Combine Committee Chairman, Vice
Chairman, Secretary, Liaison Officer, Treasurer and such other persons as
the Combine Committee may deem suitable to serve on it to a maximum of eight
Executive members in total,
EMERGENCY COMBINE. MEETINGS
An emergency meeting of the Combine Committee may be called by the Combine
Executive or upon the request of a simple majority of the voting members (see
19 below) or upon the request of any Site in dispute.
The Combine Committee shall be financed by an affiliation fee of 10np per
member per annum. This may be directly from Shop Stewards — or by way
of a special levy.
The Treasurer shall be responsible for the funds and shall report on Income ond
Expenditure to each Combine meeting.
Cheques shall be signed by the Treasurer and either of two Trustees appointed
by the Combine Committee.
Cheques for payments for approved purposes up to £10 may be authorisea by the
Treasurer, Those over £10 must be authorised by at least 2/3rd. of the Combine
Executive members may claim expenses from the Combine Funds for attendance
at Combine meetings or when acting on behalf of the Combine Committee. Details
of the payment of such expenses must be included by the Treasurer in his report on
Income and Expenditure to each Combine meeting. An audited statement of accounts
to be available at the A.G.M.
It is recognised that the success of the Combine Committee will depend upon the
mass involvement of a well informed membership at each Site, To this end the
Executive shall publish, on behalf of the Combine Committee, a newspaper which
shall be called "COMBINE NEWS". This paper shall be published on a regular
basis and shall campaign for Combine policies, No views other than these policies
shall appear except as signed articles or lette:s from individuals or Shop Stewards
No Press or Publicity Statements shall be made on behalf of the Combine
Committee except by the Secretary or those whom the Secretary authorises
to do so on his behalf, All Press and Publicity Statements shall be in accord
with the policies of the Combine Committee.
Each Shop Stewards Committee may send as many representatives as they wish
to each Combine meeting provided always that they meet their expenses, Voting
shall however be limited to 1 vote per Site taken on a geographical group basis
namely, Bath, Birmingham, Bracknell, Bradford, Burnley, Coventry,
Hemel Hempstead, Liverpool, Luton, Neasden, Netherton, Willesden,
The officials of the Combine shall be the Chairman, Vice-Chairman, Secretary
Treasurer, Liaison Officer and 2 Trustees. They shall be elected at the first
meeting each year (the A.G.M.) fora duration of 1 calendar year with the
exception of the Chairman OR Secretary, who, for the purpose of continuity.
shall serve for a duration of 2 years, Each official shall be eligible to stand
ALTERATIONS TO THE CONSTITUTION
It is recognised that as the work of the Combine Committee grows and develops
its Constitutional requirements may change in the light of actual experience. To
facilitate such changes the Combine Committee, at its A.G.M., may alter the
whole of the Constitution or the parts thereof provided that 2/8rds of the voting
members (see 19 above) approve such alterations. Prior notice of proposed
alterations must be circulated by the Secretary to each Site two weeks in advance
of the A.G.M.
All those entitled to attend Combine and Executive meetings shall be given
proper notice of such meetings. Seven of the thirteen voting members of the
Combine Committee as defined in 19 above shall constitute a quorum of that
Five of the eight Executive members shall constitute a quorum of the Executive
- MAJORITY DECISIONS
Majority decisions shall be binding and membership of the Combine: Committee
shall be conditional upon the acceptance of such majority decisions subject to
the provisions of 8 above.
SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AUDIT:
A CHECKLIST Z
Social responsibilities and new
’ Community relations
AP PEN DES
Pollution 'The ENGINEER'
' Shareholder relations 8 February 1973
i Organisation structure and
j Inanagement style
f Industrial relations
f Education and training
' Social auditing at Singer (France)
Score from 0 to 20
1972 EE : 1974
Profit (1) 12.20 13.14 13.10
Product utility _ 12.97 13.85 |
Product quality — — 15.79")
« Work conditions 11.50 14.44 14.66
Communication and information 12.80 13.16 13.89)
; Job security 10.10 F222 12.80
| Salaries 11,20 12.46 12.64
Corporate morale 13.00 13.27 15.02
Training _ 14.65 14.45 |
Community service (2) 12.70 14.16 14.85
Environmental improvement 11.40 13.72 15.16
Customer satisfaction 11.60 13.07 13.70
Receptiveness to change ,
New products 11.00 13.13 13.57
Receptiveness to new ideas/
innovation (3) — 1279 A320" >
sine - i}
Average score 11.70 13.30 14.05 |
Notes 1-3; following questions were posed: (1) Is profit high enough to ensure
future growth? (2) Are the company’s products useful to society; vo they promote
its wellbeing? (3) Does the cuinpany implement new ideas?
Corporate Plan. -
Size - - - Sq. ft. of Floor Space
Other space e.g. Car Parks, Perimeters, Land etc.
Age and condition of buildings
Suitability of buildings for modern means of
Location and access e.g. Near motorway, main road
or railway link.
Other services e.g. Telex, computer, Gas etc.
Current value of site and buildings
Provide site plans.
Total No. Employed
Total No. Hourly Paid
No. Semi - Skilled
Total No. Staff
No. of Design, Development etc.
No. of other technical staff e.g. Production Engineering,
Contracts, Technical Sales etc.
No. Administrative Staff
No. Supervisory Staff
General availability of labour
Availability of skilled labour
Availability of design and other technical staff
Age spread in each group
(g) 1. Total Payroll
(h) Training and apprentices
Equipment (a) 1. Total No. of Machine Tools
ll. Breakdown into groups e.g. Lathes, Mills,
N.C. Machines etc.
(Goss Other production facilites e.g. Heat Treatment,
Plating, Welding etc.
(c) Details of equipment e.g. Age, Value, Condition etc.
Products (a) 1. List present product range
ll. List subcontract work Out and No. of hours
lll. iist subcontract work In ane No. of hours
lv. fourly rate for manufacture
(v) List products made in past
(c) 1. List new products under vevelopment
ike Any other new products outside aireraft work which
your plant could design, develop and manufacture
dlls Any socially useful products which your plant could
design develop and manufacture
1V. Any subcontract work on which the skill of your
IIembers could be used
Ve Any joint projects with other companies or government
Running the Plant
(a) 1. How could the plant be run by the workforce itself%
ll. Could existing '‘line' managers still be used?
lll. dave you got a joint staff and works Shop Stewards
1V¥. Have you set up a local Corporate Planning Comnittee.?
REF 8 ENCES
Iucas Aerospace Publicity Document No, ASD. SP. 213/74.
Economist May 3, 1975 p. 113
New Scientist March 21 1974 P7132
Sheridan, Geoffrey, The Guardian June 27th 1974.
Combine News March 75 p.1.
Financial Times 7. 5.75 p.11.
Jung K. Robert ‘Politics and Technology'
Proc: I.G. Metall "Qualitdt Des Lebens'' Oberhausen April 72.
Kuechle D, Business Quaterly Autumn 73, p.19
Sunday Times 13, 4,75 p.6l.
Business Horizons - "The Current Status of Social Responsibility." -
Vision Feb. 75 p.3J
Business Horizons, op. cit., p.7.
Vision op. cit, p.53.
The Engineer Feb, 8th 73.
Business Horizons op, cit. p. 7.
J. Mc Guire, "Business and Society" N.Y, Mc Graw-Hill 1963 p.143.
Taylor Workshop Management
Taylor, "Principles of Scientific Management" in Scientific Management,
Harper & Row 1947 p.59.
Spring 74 p.5.
Basil and Cook "The Management of Change"
N.Y. McGraw Hill. 1974 p.86.
Griener "Pattern of Organisation Change" in Walton and Lawrence
"Organisational Change and Development" Irwin Homewood 1970 p.221,
Cooley M,J.E. "Mental
New Scientist March 20th 1975 p.711.
Senate Hearing before the Clark Sub Committee, May 63 - 64
Published as 'The Manpower Revolution' N,Y, 1906
DR HERBERT E, STRINGER'S evidence P65 ~- 76.
M.J. Cooley. Industrial Robots: Proceedings
of First Conference on Industrial Robot
P 223 - 229,
Sir Frederick Warner in 'Technology Today!
Routledge & Kegan Pau,
197i P 5k >
Oecd, Review of National Science Policy (U.S.)
Paris 1968 P 43, 45, 52, 54 & 56.
Walter leuther's evidence to Senate Hearing op, cit. P 76, 87.
Christine O'Connor - Social Report. The Engineer. Aug Ist 74.
P35 - 41, (
Positive Plans to tackle Unemployment - Financial Times, dan 21st 75,
T.U.C. Review. Financial Times. Mar lst 75. P30.
Russel Committee Report: Adult Education for Development, Para 3 & 5,
Oecd - Ceri: Recurrent Education. 1975 P5,
Senate Hearings op. cit P84.
‘Che Current status of corporate social responsibility |
"Business JIorizons", Aug 73, P5 ~- 15,
A Framework for Measuring Human Assets,
Californian Management Review. Vol XVI No.4 1974 P45 - 17,
The Feasibility of Numan Resources
Accounting, Californian Management Review, Vol XVI No.4, 1974 P14 - 24,
Becker, fvestment in Human Capital
Journal of Political Economy, i962, Po - 49.
Problems and opportunities of Employment and
Re-employment of Older Employees in Commerce and Offices,
Geneva, Sept 74.
Paras 10, 16, 20 - 23,
I.L,0, 7th Session Geneva, Sept 74.
Conditions of Work and Life in Commerce and Offices. Para 51.
F.1.E.T; European Employees in Industry Action Programme,
Rec, 6(P 3-4) 22 ~ 23.:
Employment Protection Bill, Financial Times. Mar a7 15. 32 & 46,
Civeyrel, Francoise, Vision Feb 1975 P 41.
T.U.C. Review, Financial Times Mar ‘Ist 75.
N.E.D.O. Report on Process Plant Financial Times 10.6.75 P.9
N,E.D.O, Report op. cit.
Subsea Technology Financial Times April 23 1975 P27.
“Subsea Technology op. cit.
Civeyrel, Francoise op. cit.
H, "Tature of Control"