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G. P. MALALASEKERA, M.A., Ph.D.(Lond ) 


VOL. I. 

A— Dh 









“ Patifddesi me maggam tava nanena, calckhuma.” 


One of my abiding memories of the days in the Nineties, when work under 
and with Rhys Davids became an essential part of my married life, was 
the foreground-presence of three interleaved volumes. These were Robert 
H. Childers’s Pali Dictionary (a copy bequeathed by him to my husband) 
and the Pali Text Society’s Journal for 1888, almost monopolized by an 
Index of Pali Names by the Swiss scholar Edward Miiller-Hess. Daily 
those interleaved pages were becoming ever more filled, to say nothing 
of marginal additions, so keenly did Rhys Davids record as soon as it 
appeared the New—or shall I say, the Newly-risen from the Once-had- 

Even then the question of loyal collaborators in the new Dictionary 
and that of raising funds to print it were exercising energy and patience. 
The Names Dictionary, as less yet otherwise important, he consigned to 
a list of desirable publications worthy to be included in the programme 
of the Indian Texts Series, a subvention which he had persuaded 
Lord Curzon, at a Calcutta interview, to make. In that list, to give 
prior place to the works of other men, he gave it a place so low down 
that its publication could not come within his lifetime. Others would 
garner and arrange what he had reaped. 

I did not find the assigning of this an easy task. For a scholar in the 
best sense the work was not creative enough. For the analytical scholar 
its range was too scattered in space and time. And the scholar is a hopeful 
animal who will accept work he has neither time nor serious intention 
to take up without delay. Meanwhile I had to nurse impatience and wait. 

Then a keen and gifted student, once my pupil, consented to fill the 
breach. With Dr. Malalasekera, to undertake is to will to begin work 
there and then. And now, working as men-of-will work, in the leisure 
intervals of an educational appointment, with yet another large task on 
his shoulders—the Mahavamsa-Tika, published in 1935—unbaffled by a 
temporary breakdown through over-work, he has come as editor of the 
Names Dictionary to see land ahead. 

He has naturally not rested content with the materials collected by 
Rhys Davids. That collecting came to an end with the end of an earth 




life in 1922. Since that date the Pali Text Society has published 28 
volumes of .first editions of texts, and some 14 annotated translations. 
And this is to say nothing of other contributions made elsewise, referring 
to names associated with Buddhist history. Nor is there yet an end to 
all that. For yet a few years the collecting of addenda will be necessary. 
None the less the hour for the book’s appearance is come, and I am 
happy to have been yet here to say so. 



Dr. Stede, the illustrious editor of the Pali Text Society’s Pali-English 
Dictionary, having said, in his Afterword to that great work: “ It will be 
worth the trouble to explore more thoroughly that range of civilisation 
which lies enshrined in the Pali Canon,” added in a footnote, “ In con¬ 
nection with this I may point out that one of the greatest needs of Pali 
scholarship is a Dictionary of Names . . . the Name Dictionary will be 
an indispensable supplement to the Word Dictionary.” That was in 
1925, when I was yet a student at the School of Oriental Studies, with the 
privilege of having Dr. Stede as one of my teachers. 

Somewhere in 1930 when, in the course of a letter to Dr. Stede, I casually 
inquired what progress had been made with the Names Dictionary, which 
(after the death of Rhys Davids), I knew he was keen to edit, he wrote 
back to say that owing to circumstances beyond the control of those 
most concerned, nothing further had been done since 1925, and that he had 
abandoned the idea of doing the work himself because he was far from 
being well and was very busy with his teaching at the School. He also 
indicated that there was much difficulty in getting someone else suitable 
to undertake the task. Thereupon I wrote to Mrs. Rhys Davids, as 
President of the Pali Text Society, offering my services in the compilation 
of the Names Dictionary, if I could be of any possible use. She replied 
very promptly and most encouragingly. The publication of the Names 
Dictionary, she said, was not in the hands of the P.T.S.; the work was 
to be included in the Indian Text Series, issued under the aegis of the 
India Office in Whitehall. Now that her husband, by whom the Dictionary 
had been originally prepared, was no more, the choice of an Editor 
ultimately lay with the authorities of the India Office, though the P.T.S. 
would naturally have a large say in the matter. She would certainly 
recommend to the Council of India that the compilation be given over 
in my charge. 

There followed the usual inevitable delays, and it was not till July, 1931, 
that the India Office, in consultation with the Government of India, 
accepted Mrs. Rhys Davids’ recommendation and asked me to undertake 
the work. Meanwhile Mrs. Rhys Davids had, with remarkable but 
characteristic generosity, sent me, of her own accord, her husband’s copy 
of the P.T.S. Journal for 1888, containing Edward Muller’s “ Index of 
Pali Proper Names,” interleaved with numerous additional references 




entered by Rhys Davids himself. I was, however, at the time deeply 
engrossed with my critical edition of the Mahavamsa Tlka (since published 
by the P.T.S.) for the Ceylon Government, and was therefore not able to 
devote much attention to the Names Dictionary till 1933. 

The original suggestion was that I should limit my “ sources to the 
Tripitaka, the fifth century Commentaries on the Pali Canon, a few post- 
Pitakan works, published by the P.T.S., separately or in Journals, and the 
Milindapanha.” I was “ not to compile a Lexicon, but to follow in general 
the method adopted by Muller in J.P.T.S., 1888, giving, only in the case 
of the more important names, short translations from a few specified 
references, the material to go into one not very bulky volume.” Mrs. Rhys 
Davids was confident that the work could be finished in a year. I took 
advantage of a visit I paid to Europe in 1932 to discuss these matters 
with Mrs. Rhys. Davids, Dr. Stede, Professor Turner, Dr. Barnett, 
Dr. Sylvan Levi and other eminent Orientalists, and with the authorities 
of the India Office. As a result of these discussions the original scheme was 
considerably modified, and I was enabled to give myself greater freedom 
in the selection of sources and in following my own preferences in the 
treatment of the materials. 

When I came to examine the materials at my disposal I found that 
I had undertaken a truly stupendous task. Muller’s plan, in general, was 
to give a name and a description of it, followed by a series of references— 
e.g., “ Yasa , son of Kakandaka; took a principal part at the Council of 
Vesali, C. xii. 1,1 et seq ., 2. 1 et seq .; Smp. 293, 312; Dpv. v. 23; Mah. 15-19, 
42.” In his bibliography he indicated that he had indexed the Vinaya 
Pitaka, the Majjhima, Anguttara and Samyutta Nikayas, the Mahapari- 
nibbana and Samannaphala Suttas of the Digha Nikaya, the Sutta Nipata, 
the Thera- and Theri-gatha, Udana, Buddhavamsa, Cariyapitaka, 
Dhammapada (text only), the Jataka, Puggalapannatti, the Mahavamsa 
and Dipavamsa and the Milindapanha, and, of the Commentaries, the 
first volume of the Sumangala-VilasinI, the portion of the Samantapasa- 
dika quoted in Vol. III. of Oldenberg’s Vinaya, and a few extracts from 
the Paramatthadlpanl on the Udana and Thera- and Theri-gatha. I soon 
discovered, however, that except in the case of the Vinaya Pitaka and the 
Dipavamsa there were numerous and serious omissions. 

Rhys Davids, in his interleaved copy of Muller’s Index, had inserted 
a very large number of fresh names and numerous additional references 
in the case of names already included by Muller. This lightened my task 
considerably, but not to the extent I should have desired. For it is a 
well-known fact that a scholar’s collectanea, however carefully prepared, 
can be used, if at all, by another only after a great deal of trouble and 
with extreme caution. Everyone has his peculiar intentions and his 



peculiar methods in the handling and arrangement of scientific materials. 
I found, for instance, that I could not verify numerous references because 
of the absence of a “ key ” to some of Rhys Davids" abbreviations. Of 
the Indexes to the volumes published by the P.T.S. only those of the 
Anguttara, Samyutta and Majjhima Nikayas and the Sutta Nipata 
Commentary were found to be at all adequate, but even in these cases 
I soon discovered that if I relied solely on the passages referred to in the 
Indexes, without knowing what went before in the context and what 
followed, I should miss a great deal of valuable information and run grave 
risk of inaccuracy. As a result of these considerations, I decided that 
the only safe course to adopt would be to go through the books myself 
and make my own indexes and notes. And this I did, except in the case 
of the Vinaya Pi taka, where I found Muller's Index unimpeachable. As 
regards the Commentaries, the indexes both of the P.T.S. volumes and 
those issued in the Simon Hewavitarne Bequest Series were quite un¬ 
satisfactory. It will be seen, therefore, that I hold myself entirely re¬ 
sponsible for the accuracy (or otherwise) of the references contained in this 

The work in its present form includes, besides other materials, informa¬ 
tion obtained from the whole of the Tipitaka and all the Commentaries 
thereon. It was my intention, at first, to index the Tikas as well, but 
after reading through several of them I decided that the additional material 
to be gleaned from them would not be sufficient recompense for the trouble 
and inevitable delay involved. There was also the difficulty of obtaining 
satisfactorily uniform editions of the Tikas, in spite of the great attention 
apparently devoted to these texts in Burma. Among non-Canonical 
works, I have included, besides the Milindapanha, the Mahavamsa, Dipa- 
vamsa, Mahabodhivamsa, Sasanavamsa, Gandhavamsa, and the Sasana- 
vamsadfpa. I have also included the Culavamsa, chiefly in order to 
complete the information contained in the Mahavamsa, and the Maha¬ 
vamsa Tika, because it contains valuable data regarding names occurring 
in the Mahavamsa. It was suggested, while the work had made consider¬ 
able progress, that I should not forget the many short volumes in P.T.S. 
Journals — e.g., the Jinacarita, Dathavamsa, etc. References to some of 
them are already given in the main body of the Dictionary, while others 
will be given in the Appendix, at the end of the second Volume. I have 
attempted to give the names of all Suttas and Jatakas and of Pali works 
of any literary importance written in India, Burma and Ceylon, prior to 
about 1700 a.c. With regard to these works it was not my intention to do 
more than merely mention their names; for further details concerning them 
reference should be made to Bode's Pali Literature of Burma and my Pali 
Literature of Ceylon , both published by the R.A.S. in their Prize Publica- 


P.T.8. means published by the Pali Text Society. 

SHB. means published in the Simon Hewavitarne Bequest Series (Colombo). 
A=Anguttara Nikaya, 5 vols. (P.T.S.). 

AA.=ManorathapuranI, Anguttara Commentary, 2 vols. (S.H.B.). 
AbhS.=Abhidhammatthasahgaha (P.T.S. Journal , 1884). 
Anagat.=Anagatavamsa (P.T.S. Journal , 1886). 

Ap.=Apadana, 2 vols. (P.T.S.). 

ApA.=Apadana Commentary (S.H.B.). 

Av>§. = Avadana Pataka, ed. Speyer (Bibl. Buddhica). 

Barua: History of Pre-Buddhist Indian Philosophy (Calcutta). 

Beal: Romantic Legend of the Buddha (Kegan Paul). 

Beal: Buddhist Records of the Western World (Kegan Paul). 

Bode: The Pali Literature of Burma (R.A.S.). 

Brethren=Psalms of the Brethren, by Mrs. Rhys Davids (P.T.S.). 

Bu.—Buddha vamsa (P.T.S.). 

Bu A. = Buddha vamsa Commentary (S.H.B.). 

CAGL=CunninghanTs Anct. Geography of India, ed. Majumdar 

CNid.=Culla-Niddesa (P.T.S.). 

Codrington: Short History of Ceylon. 

Compendium=Compendium of Philosophy (P.T.S.). 

Cv.=Culavamsa, ed, Geiger, 2 vols. (P.T.S.). 

Cv. 2Ys.=Cula vamsa, translated by Geiger, 2 vols. (P.T.S.). 
Cyp.=Cariyapitaka (P.T.S.). 

CypA.=Cariyapitaka Commentary (S.H.B.). 

D.=Dlgha Nikaya, 3 vols. (P.T.S.). 

DA.=Sumangala Yilasinl, 3 vols. (P.T.S.). 

Dath.=Dathavamsa (P.T.S. Journal , 1884). 
DhA.=Dhammapadatthakatha, 5 vols. (P.T.S.). 

DhS.=Dhammasahgani (P.T.S.). 

DhSA.=AtthasalinI (P.T.S.). 

Dial.=Dialogues of the Buddha, 3 vols. (Oxford). 

Dpv.=Dipavamsa, ed. Oldenberg (Williams and Norgate). 
Dvy.=Divyavadana, ed. Cowell and Neill (Cambridge). 

Ep. Zey.=Epigraphia Zeylanica (Oxford). 

ERE.=Encyclopsedia of Religion and Ethics. 




Giles: Travels of Fa Hsien (Cambridge). 

GS.=Gradual Sayings, 5 vols. (P.T.S.). 

Gv.=Gandhavamsa (P.T.S. Journal , 1886). 

I. H.Q.== Indian Historical Quarterly (Calcutta). 

Ind. An.=Indian Antiquary. 

Itv.=Itivuttaka (P.T.S.). 

ItvA.=Itivuttaka Commentary (P.T.S.). 

J. =Jataka, ed. Fausboll, 5 vols. 

JA. = Journal Asiatique. 

J.P.T.S.— Journal of the Pali Text Society. 

J,R.A .S.= Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. 

KhpA.=Khuddakapatha Commentary (P.T.S.). 

KS.== Kindred Sayings, 5 vols. (P.T.S.). 

Kvu.=Kathavatthu (P.T.S.). 

Lai.—Lalita Vistara, ed. S. Lefmann. 

Law: Ksatriya Clans in Buddhist India. 

Law: Geography of Early Buddhism. 

M.=Majjhima Nikaya, 3 vols. (P.T.S.). 

MA.=Papanca Sudani, Majjhima Commentary, 2 vols. (Aluvihara Series, 

Mbv.=Mahabodhivamsa (P.T.S.). 

Mhv.=Mahavamsa, ed. Geiger (P.T.S.). 

Mhv. 2Ys.=Mahavamsa Translation, by Geiger (P.T.S.). 

Mil. =Milindapanha, ed. Treckner (Williams and Norgate). 

MNid.=Maha Niddesa, 2 vols. (P.T.S.). 

MNidA.=Maha Niddesa Commentary (S.H.B.). 

MT.=Mahavamsa Tlka (P.T.S.). 

Mtu.=Mahavastu, ed. Senart, 3 vols. 

Netti.=Nettippakarana (P.T.S.). 

NidA. SeeMNidA. 

NPD.=P.T.S. Pali-English Dictionary. 

PHAI.=Political History of Anct. India, by ChaudhUri, 2nd. ed. (Calcutta). 
P.L.C.=The Pali Literature of Ceylon, by Malalasekera (R.A.S.). 
PS.=Patisambhidamagga, 2 vols. (P.T.S.). 

PSA.==Patisambhidamagga Commentary (S.H.B.). 

Pug.=Puggalapannatti (P.T.S.). 

Pv. —Petavatthu (P.T.S.). 

PvA.=Petavatthu Commentary (P.T.S.). 

Rockhill: Life of the Buddha (Kegan Paul). 

S.=Samyutta Nikaya, 5 vols. (P.T.S.). 

SA.=SaratthappakasinI, Samyutta Commentary. 
SadS.=Saddhammasangaha (P.T.S. Journal , 1890). 



Sas.=Sasanavamsa (P.T.S.). 

Sisters=Psalms of the Sisters, by Mrs. Rhys Davids (P.T.S.). 
Sp.==Samantapasadika, 4 vols. (P.T.S.). 

SN.=Sutta Nipata (P.T.S.). 

SNA.=Sutta Nipata Commentary, 2 vols. (P.T.S.). 
Svd.=Sasanavamsadipa, by Yimalasara Thera (Colombo, 1929). 
Thag.=Theragatha (P.T.S.). 

ThagA.=Theragatha Commentary, 2 vols. (S.H.B.). 

Thig.=Therigatha (P.T.S.). 

ThigA=Therigatha Commentary (P.T.S.). 

Thomas: The Life of Buddha (Kegan Paul). 

Ud.=Udana (P.T.S.). 

UdA.=Udana Commentary (P.T.S.). 

YibhA.=Sammoha-YinodanI, Vibhanga Commentary (P.T.S.). 
Vin.=Vinaya Pitaka, 5 vols., ed. Oldenberg (Williams and Norgate). 
Vsm.=Visuddhimagga, 2 vols. (P.T.S.). 

VT.=Vinaya Texts, trs. by Rhys Davids and Oldenberg, 3 vols. (Sacred 
Books of the East). 

Vv.=Vimanavatthu (P.T.S.). 

VvA.=Vimanavatthu Commentary (P.T.S.). 

ZDMG.=Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft. 


An effort has been made to avoid repetition as far as possible. Generally 
speaking, the information appearing Under any particular word should 
not, therefore, be regarded as complete until reference has also been made 
to the words given in that article in Clarendon type. Reference should 
likewise be made to the Appendix given at the end of Volume II. 

The arrangement of words is purely alphabetical— i.e ., according to 
the Pali alphabet. Cerebral 1 follows dental 1. There is great dis¬ 
crepancy in the texts regarding the Use of cerebrals, especially 1 and n. 
Thus, a word not appearing in its place under the cerebral letter may 
be found under the corresponding dental and vice versa. 

There has been a certain amount of unavoidable confusion in the arrange¬ 
ment of words beginning with the Pali equivalent for the prefix meaning 
“junior,” as opposed to Maha. Reference should be made under all 
three heads, Cula, Cula and Culla, before the search for a word is abandoned. 

There is also lack of uniformity in the texts regarding the use of the 
prefix Maha. Sometimes it is an integral part of the word, sometimes 
merely an honorific. It is necessary, therefore, to look— e.g., under both 
Sangharakkhita and Maha 0 —before the list of possible Sangharakkhita's 
is exhausted. 

Potential trouble also lurks with regard to the hyphen. Generally 
speaking, the names of Jatakas and Suttas are given without a hyphen— 
e.g., Kapi Jataka, Kavi Sutta —and these words follow the usual order. 
Thus Kapi Sutta is given before Kapittha and Kavi Sutta before Kavittha- 
vana. Where a word is hyphened, either because it is a true compound 
or merely for convenience, it is regarded as a single word. The presence 
or absence of a hyphen affects the order, and a certain amount of circum¬ 
spection is, therefore, requested in looking for compound names, or those 
that appear to be so. 

The regnal years given for the rulers of Ceylon are taken from the 
chronological table in Geiger's Translation of the Culavamsa , Vol. II., 
pp. ix-xv, and should be regarded as only provisional. A.C. - After Christ. 



Akatannu Jataka (No. 90).—A merchant is befriended by a colleague in 
another country but refuses to return the service. The servants of the 
latter thereupon take revenge. The story is related to Anathapingika? 
who experiences similar ingratitude at the hands of a fellow-merchant. 1 

1 J. i. 377-9. 

1. Akatunnata Sutta. —One who is of bad conduct in deed, word and 
thought, and is ungrateful; is born in purgatory. 1 3 

1 A. ii. 226. 

2. Akatunnata Sutta. —Same as above. 1 

1 A. ii. 229. 

Akatti— See Akitti. 

Akanittha deva. —A class of devas, living in the highest of the five 
Suddhavasa (Pure Mansions). 1 In the Mahdpaddna Sutta 2 the Buddha 
mentions that he visited their abode and conversed with beings who were 
born there as a result of the holy lives they had lived under various Buddhas. 
In the Sakkapanha Sutta 3 Sakka speaks of them as the highest devas, and 
expresses his satisfaction that he, too, will be born among them in his last 
life. Buddhaghosa says they are so called because of their supremacy in 
virtue and in happiness, and because there are no juniors among them 
(sabbeh’eva sagunehi ca bhavasampattiyd ca jettha n’atttiettha kanitthati 
akanittha ). 4 In the Yisuddhimagga (p. 634) their world is spoken of 
as a Brahmaloka where Anagamis are born and enter complete Nibbana 
(p. 710). 6 The duration of life among these devas is 16,000 Kalpas. 6 
Sometimes Anagamis are born among the Aviha devas and finish their 
existence, in a subsequent birth, among the Akanitthas. These are called 
“ uddhamsota” 1 The Akanittha-bhavana is the upper limit of the 

1 D. iii. 237. 

2 D. ii. 62 f. 

3 Ibid., 286. 

4 DA. ii. 480. VbhA. 621 [ayuna ca 

pahhaya ca Akanittha jetthaka sabba-devehi 
panitatara deva ( — DA. iii. 739)]. 

6 Also ItA. 40; DA. iii. 740. 

6 Kvu. 207. 

7 DhA. iii. 289 f.; see also S. v. 201. 



[ Akarabhanda 

rupdvacara-bhumi 8 ; it is also spoken of as the highest point of the 
universe, Avici being the lowest. Thus the quarrel among the Kosambi 
monks spread even up to the Akanittha deva, 9 as did the shouts of the 
assembly at the severing of the branch of the Bodhi tree. 10 

8 Ps. i. 84. 9 J. iii. 487. 10 Mbv. 150-1; see also Mil. 284. 

Akarabhanda. —A village in Ceylon dedicated by King Kittisirirajaslha 
to the Tooth-relic. 1 

1 Cv. c. 23. 

Akalahka. —A Cola officer who fought against the Sinhalese army of 
Parakkamabahu I. during the latter’s invasion of the Pandu kingdom. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvii. 17, 55, 80, 90. 

Akalaravi Jataka (No. 119).—A cock belonging to a school of young 
brahmins had its neck wrung because it crowed in and out of season. A 
monk, who is inconsiderately noisy, is the cause of the story being told. 1 
In the Dhammapada Commentary 2 the name of the story is given as 
Akalardvikukkuta-Jdtaka, and is related of the thera Padhanikatissa, who 
is stated to have been the cock of the Jataka story. 

i J.i. 435-6. 2 iii. M2 f. 

Akitti (v.L Akatti). —The Bodhisatta in one of his births. He was a 
brahmin magnate of Benares, who, after giving away all his wealth in 
charity, retired to the forest with his sister, Yasavatl. When gifts were 
brought to him as homage to his holiness, he sought obscurity, and, leaving 
his sister, dwelt in Karadipa, then known as Ahldlpa, eating the leaves of a 
Kara-tree sprinkled with water. By virtue of his asceticism Sakka’s 
throne was heated, and Sakka (Anuruddha in a previous birth), having 
tested him, and being satisfied that worldly attainments were not his 
aim, granted him various boons, including one that Sakka should not visit 
him any more and disturb his asceticism I 1 His story is given in the 
Cariyapitaka (p. 1), to illustrate ddnaparamitd . In the Nimi Jataka 2 he is 
mentioned in a list of eleven sages, who, by their holy lives, passed the Peta 
world to be born in Brahma’s heaven. In the Jataka-mala 3 his name 
occurs as Agastya, but he should not be confused with the Vedic sage 
of that name. 4 Perhaps he belonged to the Kassapagotta, because, in 
the conversation related in the Jataka story, Sakka addresses him as 
“ Kassapa.” 6 

1 J. iv. 236 f. Kalikarakkhiya; and Angirasa, Kassapa 

2 J. vi. 99, the others being the seven and Kisavaccha. See also KhA. 127 f. 
brothers Yamahanu, Somayaga, Mano- 8 No. 7. 

java, Samudda, Magha, Bharata and 4 See Vedic Index s.v. 

6 J. iv. 240-1. 

Akkamanlya Sutta ] 


Akitti Jataka (No. 480).—See s.v. Akitti. It was related at Jetavana, 
of a generous donor who lived at Savatthi. This man invited the Buddha, 
and during seven days gave many gifts to him and to the monks. On 
the last day he presented the company of arahants with all necessaries. 
The Buddha praised the man's generosity and told him how wise 
men of old shared their possessions with others, even when they them¬ 
selves had nothing to eat but kara-leaves and water. 1 

1 J. iv. 236 ff. 

Akitti-tittha. —The ford by 
left Benares. 1 

which Akitti crossed the river after he 
1 J. iv. 237. 

Akitti-dvara. —The gate through which Akitti left the city. 

1 J. iv. 237. 

Akusala Sutta. —The man who is sinful in action of body, speech and 
mind is born in purgatory. 1 

1 A.i.292. 

Akusaladhamma Sutta. —On the unprofitable and profitable states. 1 

1 S. v. 18. 

Akusalamula Sutta. —On the three roots of demerit: greed, malice and 
delusion. 1 

1 A. i. 201; cf. M.i.47, 489. 

Akodha-avihimsa Sutta. —On mildness and kindness, the verses being 
put into the mouth of Sakka. 1 

1 S. i. 240. 

Akodhana Sutta.— See Accaya-akodhana Sutta. 

Akkantasaiinaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he gave 
his ragged garment to the Buddha Tissa. Once he was born as a king 
named Sunanda. 1 

1 Ap. i. 211 f. 

Akkamaniya Vagga. —The third section of the Ekanipata of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. 1 

1 A. i. 5-6. 

Akkamanlya Sutta. —The uncultivated mind is an intractable thing 
and conduces to great loss; the cultivated mind has the opposite qualities. 1 

1 A.i.Sf. 


[ Akkosa Vagga 

Akkosa Vagga.— The fifth section of the Dasaka Nipata of the Angut- 
tara Nikaya. 1 

1 A. v. 77-91. 

1. Akkosa Sutta.— Preached to Akkosaka-Bharadvaja to the effect that 
insults hurled at those who revile not come back to the reviler, just as 
gifts of hospitality not accepted by the guests are left behind with the 
host. 1 

1 S. i. 161 f. 

2. Akkosa Sutta. —On the five evil results that attend a monk guilty 
of reviling others. 1 

1 A. iii. 252. 

Akkosaka-Bharadvaja.— A brahmin of Rajagaha who—incensed that 
his eldest brother, a member of the Bharadvaja clan and, probably its 
head, 1 had been converted by the Buddha—visits the Buddha and 
insults him. Later he is himself converted and becomes an arahant. 2 
The soubriquet of Akkosaka was given him by the Sangitikara to dis¬ 
tinguish him as the author of a lampoon of 500 verses against the Buddha. 8 
Asurindaka-Bharadvaja was his younger brother 4 ; he had two others, 
Sundari Bharadvaja and Bilangika-Bharadvaja, who also became con¬ 
verts and, later, arahants. 5 

1 KS.i. 201, n. 4; see also s.v. Dhanan- 

2 S.i. 161 f.; MA i. 808. 

3 SA.i. 177. 

4 Ibid., i. 178. 

5 DhA. iv. 163. 


given above. 1 

Vatthu. —The story of Akosaka-Bharadvaja 

1 DhA. iv. 161 f. 

Akkosaka Vagga. —The twenty-second section of the Pancakanipata 
of the Anguttara Nikaya. 1 

1 A. iii. 252-6. 


Akkhakkhayika. —A famine in the mountain-region of Kotta in 
Ceylon, during the reign of Dutthagamini. The king sold his earrings 
and procured a meal for five hhlnasava theras. 1 The famine was so 
called because nuts called aklcha (Terminalia Bellerica) were eaten, which 
at other times were used as dice. In the Atthakatha, quoted by the 
Mahavamsa Tika, 2 the famine is called Pasanaehataka. 

1 Mhv. xxxii. 29-30. 2 p. 593. 


Agati Sutta J 

Akkhakhanda. —A section of tlie Vidhurajdtaka which deals with 
events leading up to the surrendering of Vidhura by the king, when the 
latter lost his wager with Punnaka. 1 

1 J. vi. 286. 

Akkhana Sutta. —On the eight inopportune occasions for the living 
of the higher life. 1 

1 A. iv. 225 f. 

1. Akkhanti Sutta. —The five evil results of the want of forbearance. 1 

1 A. iii. 254. 

2. Akkhanti Sutta. —The same as above with slight variations in detail. 

1 A. iii. 255. 

Akkhama Sutta. —The qualities which an elephant used by the king 
should have and similar qualities that should be possessed by a monk. 1 

1 A. iii. 157 f. 

Akkhara-Kosa.— See Ekakkhara Kosa. 

Akkharamala. —A short treatise in Pali stanzas on the Pali and Sinhalese 
alphabets, by Nagasena, a Ceylon scholar of the eighteenth century. 1 

1 P.L.C.,285. 

Akkharavisodhanl. —A late Pali work written in Burma. 1 

1 Sas. 154. 

Akkhipuja. —A festival held by Asoka in honour of the Buddha when 
Mahakala created for him a figure of the Buddha. The festival lasted 
for seven days. 1 The Mahavamsa Tlka explains it by saying that the 
king fasted for seven days, standing gazing at the figure with unwinking 
eyes. But even at the time of the Tlka there seems to have been un¬ 
certainty regarding the meaning of the word. 2 

1 Mhv. v. 94. 2 See MT. 209 f. 

Akhila. —Chief woman disciple of Sikh! 1 ; the Commentary calls her 

Makhila. 2 

1 Bu. xxi.21. 2 BuA. 204; also J. i. 41. 

Agati Sutta. —Three discourses on agati and gati —here defined as 
wrong action done under the influence of desire, hate or delusion—- 
and its opposite, right action. 1 

1 A. ii. 18 f. 

6 [Agada 

Agada. —Cakkavatti, sixteen times in succession; Subahu Thera in a 
previous birth. 1 

1 ThagA.i. 124. 

Agahya Sutta. —Devas and men delight in objects, sounds, etc., but, 
through the instability of these, they live in sorrow. 1 

1 S.iv. 126 f. 

1. Agarava Sutta. —On the five qualities that make a monk rebellious 
and unamenable to discipline. 1 

1 A.iii. 7f. 

2. Agarava Sutta. —A monk who is rebellious will never lead the 
higher life nor attain in the end to peace of mind. 1 

1 A.iii. 14 f. 

3. Agarava Sutta. —The rebellious monk will never live according to 
the dhamma, nor thereby ultimately win insight. 1 

1 A. iii. 16 f. 

Agariya Vimana. —A palace in the Tavatimsa world, occupied by a 
couple who, as humans in Rajagaha, had done many deeds of piety. 

1 Vv. vi.; VvA. 286-7. 

Agganna Sutta. —Twenty-seventh of the Digha Nikaya. 1 It is a 
kind of Buddhist book of Genesis, dealing, among other things, with the 
evolution of the world, of man and of society. The pretensions of the 
brahmins to be the legitimate heirs of Brahma are examined and re¬ 
jected; righteousness is declared to be above lineage. 2 It was preached 
to Vasettha and Bharadvaja at the Pubbarama. 

The larger portion of this sutta (from the beginning of the genesis 
part to the election of the first king) is found in the Mahavastu. 8 

1 D. iii. 80 f. Dial. i. 105 f. Of. Madhura Sutta. 

2 For a summary of the sutta see j 3 i. 338-48. 

Aggadhanuggahapanflita.— See Cula Dh°. 

Aggadhamma Sutta. —On the six qualities requisite for the attainment 
of arahantship, which is the highest state {aggadhamma). 1 

1 A.iii. 433-4. 

Aggabodhi II. ] 


Aggapandita. —A native of Burma and author of the Lokuppattipa- 
karana, written at Pagan in the thirteenth century. 1 The Pitakatthamain 
calls the work Lokuppattipakasanl. 2 The Sasanavamsa 3 speaks of three 
monks by the name of Aggapandita: MahaAggapandita (evidently our 
author), DutiyaAggapandita (his saddhiviharika), and TatiyaAgga- 
pandita (his nephew), all of Arimaddanapura and all famed for their 

1 Gv. 64, 67. 2 Bode, 16, n. 3. 3 74. 

Aggappasada Sutta. —Mentioned in the Visuddhimagga 1 in reference to 
the epithet “ anuttara ” as applicable to the Buddha. 

1 i. 207; also Sp. i. 120 and KhA. 19. 
The sutta has not been traced. It has 
been suggested (Vm. i. 207, n. 2), that it 

is the same as the Odrava Sutta. I think 
it probably refers to A. ii. 34, the section 
on the aggappasada. (See Appendix.) 

Aggapithaka-pasada. —A building in the inner city of Anuradhapura. 

It is said that when Ilanaga entered the city in splendour, after the 
festival at the Tissa-tank, his chariot was drawn by his former enemies, 
the Lambakannas, who were yoked to the chariot, and that the line 
thus made extended from the tank to the Aggapithaka-pasada. 1 

1 MT. 646. 

Aggapupphiya Thera. —One of the arahants. In a previous birth he 
had offered flowers, from the top of a tree, to SikhI, hence the name. In a 
later birth he was a cakkavati named Amita. 1 

1 Ap. i. 229. 

1. Aggabodhi. —Bon of Bhayaslva, of the Moriya clan. He became 
the viceroy of Mahanaga. 1 

1 Cv. xli. 70, 93. 

2. Aggabodhi I. —King of Ceylon (a.d. 568-601), Mahanaga’s nephew. 
For an account of his reign see Cv. xlii. 1-39. He is sometimes identified 
with Bhayaslva's son. 1 

1 See Geiger, Cv., trans. i. 64, n. 1. 

3. Aggabodhi II. —King of Ceylon (a.d. 601-11). Nephew of Agga¬ 
bodhi I. Also called Khuddaggabodhi or Khuddaraja. 1 

1 Cv. xlii. 38 f. 


[ Aggabodhi III. 

4. Aggabodhi III. —King of Ceylon (a.d. 628 and 641), son of Silamegha- 
vanna; also called Sirisahghabodhi. He had to flee from the throne 
several times. 1 

1 Cv. xliv. 83-144. 

5. Aggabodhi. —Cousin of Dathopatissa II. (a.d. 650-58), under whom 
he was Yuvaraja, ruling Dakkhinadesa. 1 

1 Cv. xlv. 23. 

6. Aggabodhi. —Son of Mahatissa, claiming descent from Okkaka and 
Sanghasiva. He was independent ruler of Rohana. 1 

1 Cv. xlv. 38-48. 

7. Aggabodhi IV. —King of Ceylon; also called Sirisahghabodhi; he 
reigned between a.d. 626 and 641 and died of an incurable disease. 1 

1 Cv. xlvi. 1-38. 

8. Aggabodhi V. —King of Ceylon (a.d. 711*17), probably the eldest 

son of Manavamma. 1 

1 Cv. xlviii. 1 and lvii. 25; see Geiger, Cv. trans. i. 108 n. and 195, n. 2. 

9. Aggabodhi VI. —King of Ceylon (a.d. 727-66), son of Kassapa, 
brother of Mahinda I., and, at one time, ruler of Paclnadesa. 1 He 
became king under the name Silamegha. 2 

1 Cv. xlviii. 32. 

2 Ibid., vv. 42, 60, 61, 76, 90; see Geiger, Cv. trans. i. 114, n. 2. 

10. Aggabodhi VII. — King of Ceylon (a.d. 766-72), son of Mahinda I. 
He was first ruler of Dakkhinadesa and, later, joint king with Agga¬ 
bodhi VI. He married Sangha, daughter of the latter, and became 
king on his death. 1 

1 Cv. xlviii. 39, 60, 61, 68, 80. 

11. Aggabodhi. —Maternal cousin of Sangha, wife of Aggabodhi VII. 
When Sangha, estranged from her husband, joined the nuns at her 
father's suggestion, he ran away with her, but was later caught, and the 
family became reconciled. 1 

1 Cv. xlviii. 50, 60-1. 

12. Aggabodhi VIII. — King of Ceylon (a.d, 801-12), probably brother 

of Mahinda III. 1 

1 Cv. xlix. 43-64; see also Cv. trans. i. 126 n. 

Aggalava Cetiya ] 


13. Aggabodhi IX. —King of Ceylon (a.d. 828-31), son of Dappula II. 1 

1 Cv. xlix. 83-92. 

14. Aggabodhi, a minister of Sena III., and ruler of Malaya. He built 

the Nagasala-parivena. 1 

1 Cv. liii. 36. 

Aggabodhipadhanaghara. —A building erected by Aggabodhi IV. for 

the use of the thera Dathasiva. Several villages were made over for its 
maintenance. 1 

1 Cv. xlvi. 11 ff. 

Aggabodhiparivena. —A building belonging to the Jetavanarama of 

Anuradhapura and erected by Potthasata, general of Aggabodhi IV. 1 

1 Cv. xlvi.23. 

Aggalapura. —A city where Revata went on his way from Soreyya to 
Sahajati, prior to the Council of Vesali. 1 

1 Vin.ii.300. 

Aggavati Parisa Sutta. —On the three kinds of companies: the distin¬ 
guished, the discordant and the harmonious. 1 

1 A. i. 242-4. 

Aggavamsa. —Thera of Pagan. He wrote a Pali grammar, the 
Saddaniti, in 1154. 1 He was tutor to King Narapatisithu of Pagan. 2 
The Gandha-Vamsa calls him a native of Jambudipa, 3 but his name occurs 
among the famous residents in the retired monastery of the northern 
plateau above Pagan, the cradle of Pali-Burmese literature. 4 

1 Gv. 63; SvD. v. 1238; Sas. 74. 4 Forchhammer Report, p. 2; Jardine 

2 Bode, 16. Prize Essay, p. 34. 

8 p. 67. 

Aggasavaka Vatthu.— The chronicle of Sariputta and Moggallana. 1 

1 DhA.i. 83-114. 

Aggani Sutta. —The four perfections: of virtue, concentration, wisdom 
and release. 1 

1 A. ii. 79; see OS. ii. 88, n. 2. 

Aggalava Cetiya. —The chief shrine at Alavl 1 (hence probably the name), 
originally a pagan place of worship, but later converted into a Buddhist 
vihara. The Buddha stopped here on many occasions during his 
1 SnA. i. 344; SA i. 207. 


[ Aggi Sutta 

wanderings, and this was the scene of several Vinaya rules, e.g. against 
monks digging the ground 2 and cutting trees, 3 using unfiltered water for 
building purposes, 4 sleeping in the company of novices, 5 giving new 
buildings in hand. 6 The Chabbaggiya are censured here for a nissaggiya 
offence. 7 The Yanglsa Sutta was'preached there to Vaffglsa, on the occasion 
of the death of his preceptor, Nigrodhakappa. 8 In the early years of 
Vangisa's novitiate he stayed at the shrine with his preceptor, and dis¬ 
affection arose within him twice, once because of women, the second 
time because of his tutor's solitary habits, 9 and later, again, through 
pride in his own powers of improvisation (patibhdna). 10 Here, again, the 
Buddha utters the praises of Hatthaka Alavaka, who visits him with a 
large following, whose fealty has been won (according to Hatthaka) by 
observing the four characteristics of sympathy ( sangahavatthuni ) learnt 
from the Buddha. 11 

Many lay-women and nuns flocked there by day to hear the Buddha 
preach, but none were there when he preached in the evenings. 12 It 
was here that the Manihantha Jdtaha was related, 13 also the Brahmadatta 
Jdtaha , 14 and the Atthisena Jdtaha , 16 all in connection with the rules for 
building cells. See also s.v. Alavl. 

2 Vin. iv. 32. 

3 Ibid., 34. 

4 Ibid., 48. 

5 Ibid., 16. 

6 Vin. ii. 172 f. 

7 Vin.iii.224; 

8 Sn. 59 f. 

9 S.i. 185-6. 
Ibid., 187. 

11 A. iv. 216-20. 

12 J. i. 160. 

12 J. ii. 282. 

14 J.iii. 78. 

15 Ibid.. 351. 

1. Aggi Sutta. —A number of monks go to the Paribbajakarama at 
Savatthi, and have a courteous discussion with the Paribbajakas, who 
claim that their teaching is the same as the Buddha's. The monks are 
unable to refute their claim and seek the Buddha's advice. He tells 
them that the bojjhahgas form the distinctive feature of the Dhamma 
and that the Paribbajakas, if questioned about them, would not be 
able to answer. 1 

1 S. v. 112. 

2. Aggi Sutta. — On the seven kinds of fires. 1 

1 A.iv. 41. 

Aggika Jataka (No. 129).—The story of a jackal, who, when his hair 
is singed by a forest fire, pretends to be a saint of the name of Bharadvaja 
and eats the rats that trust him. 1 

1 J. i. 461 f. 

Aggikkhandopama Sutta ] 


1. Aggika-Bharadvaja. —A brahmin of Savatthi, of the Bharadvaja 
clan. The Buddha, while on his rounds, sees him tending the fire and 
preparing oblations, and stands for alms in front of his house. The 
brahmin abuses him, calling him mundaka and vasala. Thereupon the 
Buddha preaches to him the Vasala Sutta (or, as it is sometimes called, 
the Aggika Bharadvaja Sutta), and wins him over to the faith. 1 The 
sobriquet Aggika was given to him because he was a tender of the sacred 
fire. 2 

1 Sn. 21-5. 2 SnA.i. 174 f. 

2. Aggika-Bharadvaja. —A brahmin of Rajagaha, evidently different 
from the above, also a fire-tender. He prepares a meal for sacrifice, 
and when the Buddha, out of compassion for him, appears before his 
house for alms, he says the meal is meant only for one who has the 
“ threefold lore ” (the three Vedas). The Buddha gives the brahmin 
another interpretation of the “ threefold lore ”; (see Aggika Sutta below). 
The brahmin, thereupon, becomes a convert, enters the Order, and, in due 
course, attains arahantship. 1 

1 S.i. 166 f.; SA.i. 179. 

3. Aggika-Bharadvaja. —The name assumed by the jackal in the 
Aggika Jataka (q.v.). 

Aggika-Bharadvaja Sutta. —Another name for the Vasala Sutta. 

Aggika Sutta. —Preached by the Buddha to Aggika-Bharadvaja (2). 
The brahmin exalts the knowledge of the three Vedas. The Buddha 
tells him that a mere babbling of Vedic runes does not make a brahmin 
of a man who is defiled within and is deceitful. He should have a know¬ 
ledge of former lives, of other worlds and of the higher lore ( dbhinna) 
that gives cessation of birth. Aggika-Bharadvaja offers the Buddha 
the prepared meal as a fee for his teaching, but the Buddha rejects it 
because “ the Buddhas do not accept wages.” The brahmin should, if 
he so desire, extend his hospitality to him for his holiness, and not for 
his ability to chant verses. 1 

1 S.i. 166-7. 

Aggikkhandopama Sutta. —Preached by the Buddha while touring in 
Kosala with a large concourse of monks, the sight of a blazing fire being 
made the occasion for the discourse. It were better for a man to seek 
shelter in, embrace and lie down upon the raging flames than to live 
in the guise of a monk and accept the alms of the faithful while being 


[ Aggidatta 

guilty of evil conduct. 1 It is said that while the sutta was being preached 
sixty monks vomited hot blood, sixty left the Order in diffidence 
and sixty others became arahants. 2 The Commentary adds that the 
Buddha foresaw this result, and that later many of the monks, hearing 
of the discourse and fearing dire consequences for themselves, returned 
to the lay-life in such large numbers that the Order became rapidly 

It was to counteract this result that the Culaccharasafighata Sutta 
was preached. 8 This sutta is mentioned as an example of a sermon 
based on some immediate experience, in this case, a fire. 4 It was preached 
by Mahinda in Ceylon, in the Nandana pleasaunce, on the day the 
Mahameghavana was gifted to the Sangha 5 ; and also by Yonaka Dham- 
marakhita, in Aparantaka. 6 

The vomiting of hot blood, mentioned here, is made the subject of 
a dilemma in the Milinda. 7 

1 A. iv. 128 f. 

2 Ibid., 135. 

3 AA. i. 38-40. 

4 MA. i. 14; also AA. i. 32, 267. 

5 Mhv. xv. 176; Mbv. 133. 

6 Mhv. xii. 34; Mbv. 114. 

7 p. 164. 

1. Aggidatta.—Chaplain to the King of Kosala, first to Mahakosala, 
and then to his son Pasenadi. Later he renounced the world and, with a 
large band of followers, wandered about Aiiga, Magadha and Kururattha, 
teaching a cult of nature-worship. The Buddha, seeing his upanissaya , 
sent Moggallana to convert him. Moggallana went to Aggidatta's 
hermitage, but being refused shelter there, vanquished, by a display of 
iddhi- power, a nagaraja, Ahicchatta, who lived in the neighbourhood, 
and occupied the naga's abode. While Aggidatta and his followers 
stand awestruck at this event, the Buddha appears, and realising that 
the Buddha is even greater than Moggallana, they pay homage to him- 
The Buddha preaches to them on the error of their ways. At the end of 
the discourse they become arahants. 1 

1 DhA. iii. 241-7. 

2. Aggidatta.—A brahmin of Benares and father of the Bodhisatta, 
when the latter was born as Somadatta. The old man lived by ploughing, 
and one of his oxen having died, he decided, on the advice of his son, to 
ask the king for an ox. Somadatta, with great patience, trained him in 
all the formalities to be gone through in an appearance at court, but at 
the crucial moment when Aggidatta was making his petition to the king, 
he used the word “ take ” where he meant to use “ give/ Somadatta's 

Aggi-Bhagava ] 


presence of mind saved the situation. 1 In the Somadatta Jdtaka the 
name Aggidatta does not appear. In the present age he was the thera 


1 DhA.iii. 124-5. 2 J.ii. 164 f. 

3. Aggidatta. —A brahmin of Khemavatl, father of the Buddha 
Kakusandha. His wife was named Visakha. 1 

1 D.ii. 7; Bv. xxiii.14; J. i.42. 

4. Aggidatta. —See Gahvaratiriya. 

1. Aggideva .—Fifth son of Devagabbha and Upsagara, 1 and one of the 
ten brothers who were famed as the Andhavenhudasaputta. 

1 J.iv. 81 f.; PvA.93 and 111. 

2. Aggideva. —See Aggibhagava. 

3. Aggideva. —A cakkavatti who lived eleven kalpas ago; a previous 
birth of Papanivariya Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 213. 

Agginibbapaka ( v.l . Agginibbapana), a cakkavatti of eighty-six kalpas 
ago; a previous birth of Manava Thera, 1 also called (in the Apadana 2 ) 


1 ThagA.i. 162 f. 2 i. 158-9. 

Aggibrahma. —Nephew of Asoka and husband of Sanghamitta. He 
entered the Order on the same day as Tissakumara, Asoka’s brother. 1 

1 Mhv. v. 169; Sp. i. 51; Mbv. 102. 

Aggi-Bhagava. —A deity (probably identical with the Vedic Agni), 
worship of whom brought, as reward, birth in the Brahma-world. On 
the day a son is born, a fire ( jdtaggi ) is kindled; when the son comes of age 
and wishes to renounce household life, this fire is taken to the forest and 
homage is paid to Aggi-Bhagava. 1 

In the Nanguttha Jdtaka 2 the Bodhisatta, having received an ox as 
a gift, wishes to offer the flesh to Aggi-Bhagava, but thinking that the 
deity will not relish a saltless meal, he goes away in search of salt. He 
returns to find that the ox has been eaten by hunters, only the tail, one 
leg and the skin being left. “ If thou, Aggi-Bhagava, hast not the 
power to look after thine own, how canst thou guard me V s So saying, 
1 J. i. 285. 2 ibid., 494-5. 

14 [ Aggim&la 

he quenches the fire with water and becomes an anchorite. In the verses 
of this context Aggi is addressed as Jataveda. 

In the Santhava Jataka , 3 too, the Bodhisatta is a votary of the deity. 
Once when he makes an offering of milk mixed with ghee the flames 
blaze forth and burn his hut, and thereupon he loses faith. In this story 
Aggi-Bhagava seems to be identified with Maha Brahma. 4 

In the exegesis to the Bhuridatta Jataka , 6 the deity is spoken of as 
Aggideva, and mention is made of an enquiry made of learned brahmins 
by a king, Mujalinda, as to the way to heaven. In answer he is told that 
Aggideva is the brahmanadevata par excellence , and that he should be 
offered fresh ghee. See also Jataveda. 

3 J. ii. 43-5. 4 See also KS.i. 209,n. 4. 6 J. vi. 202. 

Aggimala (v.l. Aggimall). —A mythological sea which stands like a 
blazing bonfire and is filled with gold. 1 It is one of the seas crossed by 
the merchants mentioned in the Supparaka Jataka. 

1 J. iv. 139-40. 

Aggimitta. —One of the nuns who accompanied Sanghamitta to Ceylon. 1 
1 Dpv. xv. 78; xviii. 11. 

Aggimukha. —A species of snake; bodies bitten by them grow hot. 1 
1 DhsA. 300; Vsm. 368. 

Aggivacchagotta Sutta {v.l. Aggivaccha Sutta).— Preached at Jetavana 

to the wanderer Vacchagotta on the danger and futility of theorising 
about the world, life, etc. 1 The sutta is evidently so called because the 
simile of a fire is used. A blazing fire is visible, but, once extinguished, 
none can say whither it has disappeared. 

1 M. i. 483 ff. 

Aggivaddhamanaka.-— A tank made by King Vasabha of Ceylon 1 (v.l. 

Abhi 0 ). 

1 Mhv. xxxv. 95. 

Aggivessa. —One of the guards of King Eleyya. 1 
(See below.) 

1 A. ii. 181. 

Is this a gotta name ? 

Aggivessana. —Probably the name of a brahmin clan, the Agnivesya- 
yanas, and the Ksatriyas who were so styled, took the name from their 
brahmin purohitas. 1 The name is used by the Buddha in addressing 
1 Further Dialogues, i. 162 n. 

Ankura ] 


Saccaka Niganthaputta, 2 and also Dlghanakha Paribbajaka. 3 In the 

Dantabhumi Sutta 4 the novice Aeiravata is thus addressed by Prince 
Jayasena, who visits him, and also by the Buddha. 

2 M. i. 229 f.; 237 f. 3 Ibid., 497 f. 4 M. iii. 128 f. 

Aggisama. —The thera Pupphathupiya was born sixteen times in 
succession as cakkavatti and ruled under this name. 1 

Aggisama. —See Abhisama. 

Aggisikha. —The name borne by the thera Gatasaiihaka when in 
previous births he was cakkavatti three times in succession. 1 

1 Ap.i. 127. 

Aggismiqi Sutta. —The five evil qualities of fire. 1 

1 A. iii. 256. 

Aghamula Sutta. —On the root of pain. 1 

1 S. iii. 32. 

Ankura. —Tenth son of Devagabbha and Upsagara, 1 and one of the 
Andhakavenhudasaputta (q.v.). Ankura gave his share of the kingdom, 
won by the dasaputta, to his sister Anjana, and started in trade. 1 
The Petavatthu 2 contains an account of Ankura's later career. Once 
he took a caravan of a thousand carts from Dvaravati to Kamboja, led 
by himself and a brahmin colleague. On the way their water supply 
fails, but they are befriended by a yakkha of great power, who, in his 
previous life, had been one of Ankura's trusted and loyal servants. 
Annoyed by the suggestion of the brahmin that instead of proceeding 
to Kamboja they should entice the yakkha back with them to Dvaravati, 
the yakkha appears before them in person, and in answer to Ankura's 
questions, tells him that he had been a tailor in Bheruva, where lived 
the generous Asayha. When suppliants came in search of Asayha's 
house, the tailor showed them the way. Impressed by the story, Ankura 
returns forthwith to Dvaravati, and spends the rest of his life, 60,000 
years, 3 in acts of unparalleled munificence. 4 He is reborn in Tavatimsa. 

In the assembly of the devas who gather to listen to the Buddha's 
preaching of the Abhidhamma, Ankura occupies a place in the back row, 6 

1 J. iv. 81 f. 

2 Pv. 23 ff.; PvA. Ill ff. 

3 10,000 says DhA. (loc infra ); Sp. i. 245. 

4 There were as many as 3,000 cooks 

to supply food in his alms-halls and 60,000 
youths to cut firewood. 

5 12 leagues away (DhA. iii. 219); 
10 leagues away (Pv. 28, v. 65.) 


[ Ankura Vatthu 

while Indaka, who had given but one spoonful of rice to Anuruddha Thera, 
sits quite close to the Buddha. The Buddha notices this and remarks 
that Indaka had been lucky in finding a worthy donee; the recipients 
of Ankura's gifts had not been distinguished for their holiness. Gifts 
should, therefore, be given discriminately. At the end of this discourse 
Ankura becomes a sotapanna. 6 

6 DhA. iii. 222; ibid., iv. 82. See also Liiders, 2DMG. 58, 700. 

Aftkura Vatthu. —The story of Ankura. 1 

1 DhA. iv. 80-2. 

AnkurapetaVatthu— See Ankura. According to MA. (i. 225) and DA. 
(i. 178), in this story the word brahmacariya is used to mean veyydvacca 

Ankolaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he had offered 
an aiikola-flower to Siddatha Buddha. Once, thirty-six kalpas ago, 
he was a cakkavatti named Devagajjita. 1 

1 Ap. i. 199. 

Ankolaka-pupphiya Thera.— An arahant. In a previous birth he had 
made an offering of an ankola-flower to the Buddha Paduma. 1 In the 
ThagA. 2 the Apadana verses are attributed to the thera Anupama, with 
whom he is probably to be identified. 

1 Ap. i. 287. 2 i. 335-6. 

1. Anga. (See also Anga.) —One of the stock list of the sixteen 
Powers or Great Countries ( Mahdjanapada ), mentioned in the Pitakas. 1 
It was to the east of Magadha, from which it was separated by the Kiver 
Campa, and had as its capital city Campa, near the modern Bhagalpur. 2 
Other cities mentioned are Bhaddiya 3 and Assapura. 4 

The country is generally referred to by the name of its people, the 
Anga, though occasionally 5 the name Ahgarattha is used. In the 
Buddha's time it was subject to Magadha, 6 whose king Bimbisara was, 

1 E.g., A. i. 213; iv. 252,256, 260. The | see also Mtu. i. 34 and i. 198; and Lai. 
countries mentioned are Anga, Magadha, ( 24 (22). 

Kasi,Kosala, Vajjl, Malla, Cetl, Vamsa, ! 2 Cunningham, pp. 546-7. 

Kuru,Pancala,Maccha,Surasena, Assaka, 3 DA. i. 279; DhA. i. 384. 

Avanti, Gandhara,and Kamboja. Other I 4 M. i. 271. 
similar lists occur elsewhere, e.g. D.ii. | 5 E.g., DhA. i. 384. 

200 (where ten countries are mentioned); I 6 ThagA. i. 548. 

Anga ] 


we are told, held in esteem also by the people of Aiiga, 3 4 * * 7 and the people 
of the two countries evidently used to pay frequent visits to each other. 8 

We never hear of its having regained its former independence, and 
traditions of war between the two countries are mentioned. 9 

In the Buddha's time the Angaraja was just a wealthy nobleman, and 
he is mentioned merely as having granted a pension to a brahmin. 10 

The people of Anga and .Magadha are generally mentioned together, 
so we may gather that by the Buddha's time they had become one 
people. They provide Uruvela-Kassapa with offerings for his great 
> sacrifice. 11 It was their custom to offer an annual sacrifice to Maha- 
Brahma in the hope of gaining reward a hundred thousand fold. On 
one occasion Sakka appears in person and goes with them to the Buddha 
so that they may not waste their energies in futile sacrifices. 12 

Several discourses were preached in the Anga country, among them 
being the Sonadanda Sutta and the two Assapura Suttas (Maha° and Cula°). 

The Mahdgovinda Sutta seems to indicate that once, in the past, 
Dhatarattha was king of Anga. But this, perhaps, refers to another 
country. 13 Sona Kolivisa, before he entered the Order, was a squire 
(paddhagu) of Anga. 14 

7 MA. i. 394. s J. ii. 211. 12 SA. i. 269-70. 

9 E.g., J.iv. 454; J. v. 316; J. vi. 271. 1 13 Dial. ii. 270 n.; see also The 

10 M. ii. 163. | Ramayanai. 8, 9, 17, 25. 

11 Vin. i. 27. I 14 Thag. v. 632. 

2. A6ga. —King. Chief lay supporter of Sumana Buddha 1 ; the Buddha- 
vamsa mentions Varuna and Sarana as Sumana's aggupatthdkd and 
Udena as upatthdka . 

1 BuA. 130. 2 Bu. v. 28. 

3. Anga. —A king of Benares on whose feet hair grew. He inquired 
of the brahmins the way to heaven, and was told to retire to the forest 
and tend the sacred fire. He went to Himava with many cows and 
women and did as he was counselled. The milk and ghee left over from 
his sacrifices were thrown away, and from them arose many minor 
rivers, the Ganges itself, and even the sea. 

Later he became Indra's companion. 1 

1 J. vi.203. 

4. Anga. —King of the Anga country, between whom and King 

Magadha there was constant war, with varying fortunes. In the end, 

Magadha, with the help of the Naga king Campeyya, seized Anga and 

slew him. 1 

1 J. iv. 453. 

18 [ Anga 

5. Anga. —One of the Pacceka Buddhas mentioned in the list in the 
Apadana Commentary. 1 

1 ApA. i. 107. 

1. Anga Sutta. —The five powers of woman: beauty, wealth, kin, sons 
and virtue. 1 

1 S. iv. 247. 

2. Anga Sutta. —Systematic attention as potent factor for the seven 
limbs of wisdom (bojjhanga). 1 

1 S. v. 101. 

3. Anga Sutta. —Friendship with the virtuous as potent factor for the 
bojjhangas. 1 

1 S. v. 102. 

4. Ahga Sutta. —The four limbs of sotapatti: consorting with the 
good, hearing the good dhamma, mindful attention and practice ac¬ 
cording to the dhamma. 1 

1 S. v. 404. 

Angagama. —A tank built by Parakkamabahu I. 1 

1 Cv. lxxix. 37. 

Angaka. —Given as an example of a name, Angaka-manavo. 1 

1 DA. i. 36. 

Anganika-Bharadvaja. —Son of a very rich brahmin in Ukkattha, near 
the Himalaya. Having learnt all the arts and sciences, he left the 
world and practised penance for the purpose of obtaining immortality. 
He met the Buddha in the course of his wanderings and, having entered 
the Order, in due course acquired sixfold abhinnd. 

Later he lived in a forest near the village of Kundiya of the Kurus, 
and the verses ascribed to him in the Theragatha 1 were spoken at 
Uggarama, near by, to some brahmin acquaintances who had come from 

In a previous birth he had met Sikh! Buddha and paid homage to him. 

1 vv. 219-21; ThagA.i. 339-41. 

Afigati. —King of Videha ; he ruled at Mithila. His chief queen bore 
him a daughter Ruja, all his other 16,000 wives being barren. 

His ministers were Vijaya, Sunama and Alata. 


Angika Sutta ] 

He questions an ascetic, Guna, as to the various moral duties, and 
following his advice, devotes himself solely to pleasure. Ruja, however, 
is virtuous and tries to deliver him from his heretical beliefs, but it is 
not till the Bodhisatta—who had been born as the MahaBrahma Narada 
—comes down to earth in the guise of an ascetic, and frightens the king 
with descriptions of the various hells, that Aiigati is convinced of the 
error of his ways. 

He was a former incarnation of Uruvela Kassapa. 1 

1 J. vi. 220-55. 

Anganakola. —A village in South Ceylon, the residence of Ambapasana» 

vasI-Cittagutta. 1 

1 MT. 552. 

Anganasalaka. —A village given by Aggabodhi II. to the Abhaya- 
(giri-)vihara. 1 

1 Cv. xlii. 63. 

Angamu. —A place in Ceylon identified with the modern Ambagamuva. 1 
The Senapati Deva once encamped there. 2 

1 Geiger Cv. trans. i. 298, n. 3. 2 Cv. lxx. 130. 

Angaraja. —The chieftain of Anga in the Buddha's time. See Anga. 

Anga. —Chieftains of Anga, so called, according to the Dlgha Nikaya 
Commentary, 1 because of the beauty of their limbs. Their name was 
customarily (rulhi-vasena) used to denote their country. 

1 i. 279. 

1. Angani Sutta. —The five qualities of exertion ( padhdna ). x 

1 A.iii. 65. 

2. Angani Sutta. —On the five qualities which a monk should have 
and the five which he should discard to complete his duties in the 
religion and attain its highest eminence. 1 

1 A. v. 16-17. 

Angarapabbata. —A blazing mountain of white hot coal, one of the 
tortures of the Mahaniraya. 1 

1 Kvu. 597. 

AAgika Sutta. —On the development of the fivefold Ariyan Samadhi. 1 

1 A. iii. 25-9. 


[ Angirasa 

1. Aflgirasa (v.l. Aflgirasa). —A name applied to tlie Buddha several 
times in the Pitakas. 1 In the Commentaries three etymologies are 
given: Buddhaghosa says that “it means emitting rays of various hues 
from the body,” and that the word is therefore applicable to all Buddhas 
alike. 2 Dhammapala adds that it signifies being possessed of attain¬ 
ments such as virtue, and ako that according to some, Angirasa was a 
personal name given by the Buddha's father in addition to Siddhatha. 3 
It is, however, well-known that, according to Yedic tradition, the 
Gautamas belong to the Angirasa tribe 4 ; the word, as applied to the 
Buddha, therefore, is probably a patronymic, in which case we have 
another example of a Ksatriya tribe laying claim to a brahmin gotra. 5 

1 E.g ., Vin i. 25; D. iii. 196; S. i. 
196; A. iii. 239; Thag. v. 536; J. i. 

2 DA. iii. 963. 

3 ThagA. i. 503. It is worth noting 

that in AA. i. 381 Siddatha is referred 
to as Angirasa Kumara. 

4 See Vedic Index s.v. Gotama. 

6 See Thomas: Life and Legend of the 
Bhuddka , p. 22-3. 

2. Aflgirasa. —Another name (Angirasa gahapati) for Asayha. 1 
1 Pv. p. 25, vv. 23 and 27 ff.; also PvA. 124. 

3. Aflgirasa. —One of the ten ancient seers who conducted great 
sacrifices and were versed in Yedic lore. 1 The same ten are also men¬ 
tioned as being composers and reciters of the Yedas. 2 

1 The others being Atthaka, Vamaka, 
Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, 
Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa and 

Bhagu. The list occurs in several places, 
e.g. Vin i. 245; A. iii. 224; M. ii. 169, 200. 
2 D. i. 238. 

4. Angirasa. —A celebrated physician. 1 Rhys Davids suggests that 
the connection of the name Angirasa with the physician is due to the 
charms against disease to be found in the Atharva Yeda. 2 

1 Mil. 272. 2 Mil. trans. ii. 109, n. 3. 

5. Angirasa. —A king, mentioned among the descendants of Mahasam- 
mata. 1 

1 Mhv.ii.4; and Dpv. iii. 6. 

6. Aflgirasa. —An ascetic. The name occurs in a list of eleven ascetics 
who, because of their holy lives, passed the Peta world and were born 
in Brahma's heaven. 1 

1 J. vi. 99. For the others see Akitti. 

7. Aflgirasa. —An ascetic, Angirasa Gotama, who was killed by the 
thousand-armed Ajjuna. The ascetic disturbed the animals when 


Anguttaranavatlka ] 

Ajjuna was waiting to hunt, and tlie king, in anger, shot at him with a 
poisoned arrow. 1 This Aiigfrasa is probably to be identified with 
one of the foregoing. 

1 J. v. 135, 144 and 145; DA. i. 266. 

Afigirasl.— A term of affection (Radiant One) used by Pafieasikha in 
addressing Suriyavaccasa. 1 

The Commentary 2 explains that she was so called because her limbs 
shone (ange rasmiyo assati Ahglrasi.) 

1 D. ii. 265. 2 DA. iii. 701. 

Anguttara Nikaya. —The fourth division of the Sutta Pitaka, consisting 
of eleven nipatas (sections) and 9,557 suttas. 1 The suttas are arranged 
in numbered lists, probably as aids to memory. Thus we find set out 
in order first the units, then the pairs, the trios etc., up to groups of 
eleven. This method of arrangement has evidently influenced the 
subject matter as well, for we seldom see any reasoned arguments. The 
lists are often curtly given and curtly explained. 2 

At the first Council Anuruddha was asked to be the custodian of this 
Nikaya of 120 bhanavaras and to read it to his pupils. 3 

When the Buddha's religion fades away, the first portion of the 
Sutta Pitaka to disappear will be the Anguttara Nikaya from the eleventh 
section to the first, and in that order. 4 

It was also sometimes called Ekuttara. 6 The Anguttara Nikaya 
quotes the Parayana, which is evidence of its late compilation. 6 

The Commentary to the Anguttara Nikaya is called Manorathapurani. 

1 A. y. 361; DA. i. 23; Gv. 56. that the Ekottaragama Sutra of the 

8 See also Hardy’s remarks, A. v. Chinese is unlike the Anguttara Nikaya 
introd. p. vii. (A. i. introd. ix., n. 4). 

3 DA. i. 15; Mbv. 94. 8 i. 133 and 134; ii. 45. For other 

4 MA. 881. quotations in and from the Anguttara 

6 Mil. 392. It is worthy of note Nikaya see A. v., introd. p.ix.,nn. 3 and 4. 

Anguttaratthakatha. —Quoted in the exegesis to the Jataka. 1 

1 J.i. 131. 

Afiguttara-tika. —By Candagomi, evidently an author of Ceylon. 1 

1 Svd. v. 1201. 

Anguttaranavatlka— By Sariputta, author also of Saratthadlpanl— 
Yinaya-t!ka (g-v.). 1 

1 Gv. 71. 


[ Anguttarapa 

Afiguttarapa. —A country north of the river Mahi, evidently a part of 
Anga on the other side of that river (Anga eva so janapado ; Gahgdya 
[ MahdmaMgangdya] pana yd uttarena dpo , tasam avidurattd TJttardpdti 
vuccati). 1 

It was here, in the village Apana, that the Buddha was staying when 
the Jatila Keniya came to see him; here also was preached the Sela Sutta . 2 
From Bhaddiya (in Anga), 3 the Buddha went to Anguttarapa and thence 
to Apana. 4 

The country was probably rich because we find as many as 1,250 monks 
accompanying the Buddha on his tour. 5 

Other suttas preached here are the Potaliya , 6 and the Latukikopama . 7 

Apana seems to have been the chief township, because it is always 
mentioned in connection with Anguttarapa. 

1 SnA. ii. 437. 2 Sn. 102 f. 6 Sn. 102 f. 

8 DhA. i. 384. 6 M. i. 359. 

4 Vin. i. 243-5; DhA. iii. 363. 7 Ibid., 447. 

Afigulimala (Angulimalaka). —A robber who was converted by the 
Buddha in the twentieth year of his ministry, and who, later, became an 
arahant. 1 He was the son of the brahmin Bhaggava, chaplain to the 
king of Kosala, his mother being Mantani. He was born under the 
thieves’ constellation, and on the night of his birth all the armour in the 
town shone, including that belonging to the king. Because this omen 
did no harm to anyone the babe was named Ahimsaka. 2 

At Takkasila he became a favourite at the teacher’s house, but his 
jealous fellow-students poisoned his teacher’s mind, and the latter, 
bent on his destruction, asked as his honorarium a thousand human 
right-hand fingers. Thereupon Ahimsaka waylaid travellers in the 
Jalini forest in Kosala and killed them, taking a finger from each. 
The finger-bones thus obtained he made into a garland to hang round 
his neck, hence the name Angulimala. 

As a result of his deeds whole villages were deserted, and the king 
ordered a detachment of men to seize the bandit, whose name nobody 
knew. But Angulimala’s mother, guessing the truth, started off to 
warn him. By now he lacked but one finger to complete his thousand, 
and seeing his mother coming he determined to kill her. But the 
Buddha, seeing his upanissaya, went himself to the wood, travelling 
thirty yojanas, 3 and intercepted Angulimala on his way to slay his 

1 His story appears both in the Maj - 2 The Thag. Cy. says he was first called 

jhima Cy., 743 ff., and in the Thag. Himsaka and then Ahimsaka. See also 
Cy., ii. 57 ff. The two accounts differ Ps. of the Brethren, 323, n. 3. 
in certain details; I have summarised 3 DA. i. 240; J. iv. 180. 
the two versions. 

Ahgulimala-pitaka ] 


mother. Angulimala was converted by the Buddha's power and re¬ 
ceived the “ ehi bhikkhu pabbajja ” 4 while the populace were yelling at 
the king's palace for the robber's life. Later, the Buddha presented 
him before King Pasenadi when the latter came to Jetavana, and 
Pasenadi, filled with wonder, offered to provide the monk with all 
requisites. Angulimala, however, had taken on the dhutangas and 
refused the king's offer. 

When he entered Savatthi for alms, he was attacked by the mob, but 
on the admonition of the Buddha, endured their wrath as penance for his 
former misdeeds. 

According to the Dhammapadatthakatha 5 he appears to have died 
soon after he joined the Order. 

There is a story of how he eased a woman's labour pains by an act of truth. 
The words he used in this saccakiriya (yato aham sabbaflnutabuddhassa 
ariyassa ariyaya jdtiyd jdto) have come to be regarded as a paritta to 
ward off all dangers and constitute the Afigulimala Paritta. The water 
that washed the stone on which he sat in the woman's house came to 
be regarded as a panacea. 6 

In the Angulimala Sutta he is addressed by Pasenadi as Gagga Manta- 
niputta, his father being a Gagga. The story is evidently a popular 
one and occurs also in the Avadana Sataka (No. 27). 

At the Kosala king's Asadisaddna , an untamed elephant, none other 
being available, was used to bear the parasol over Angulimala. The 
elephant remained perfectly still—such was Angulimala's power. 7 

The conversion of Angulimala is often referred to as a most compas¬ 
sionate and wonderful act of the Buddha's, e.g. in the Sutasoma Jdtaka* 
which was preached concerning him. The story of Angulimala is 
quoted as that of a man in whose case a beneficent kamma arose and 
destroyed former evil kamma.® 

It was on his account that the rule not to ordain a captured robber 
was enacted. 10 

For his identification with Kalmasapada see J.P.T.S. , 1909, pp. 240 ff. 

4 Thag. 868-70. 

6 iii. 169. 

6 M.ii. 103-4; MA. 747 f. 

7 DhA. iii. 185; also DA. ii. 654. 

8 J. v. 456 f.; see also J. iv. 180; SnA. 
ii. 440; DhA. i. 124. 

• AA. i. 369. 

10 Vin. i. 74. 

Afigulimala Paritta. —See above; referred to also in the Milindapanha 
(p. 151) in a list of Parittas. 

Afigulimala-pltaka.— Given in a list of heretical works. 1 
1 SA.ii.150; Sp. iv. 742. 

24 [ Angulimala Sutta 

Angulimala Sutta. —Contains the story of the bandit's conversion 
and the bliss of his deliverance. 1 

1 M.ii.97 ff. 

Acarin Sutta. —The Buddha, as he walked about, sought the satisfac¬ 
tion, the misery and the escape that come from the earth element. He 
found these and discovered that they exist also in the other three 
elements. 1 

1 S.ii. 171. 

1. Acala. —Thera. One of the eminent monks present at the founda¬ 
tion of the Maha Thupa. 1 

1 MT. 526. 

2. Acala. —Assistant to the architect of the Maha Thupa. 1 

1 MT. 535. 

Acala Cetiya. —The name given to the spot at the entrance to Sahkassa, 
where the Buddha first placed his right foot on his descent from Tava- 
timsa. 1 

1 DhA. iii. 227 (but see Appendix). 

Acintita Sutta. —The four unthinkables: the Buddhas, their musings, 
world-speculation and the point of action. 1 

1 A. ii. 80. 

Aciravata. —A novice who had a conversation with Prince Jayasena 
on the life of the bhikkhu. Aciravata repeats this conversation to the 
Buddha who thereupon preaches the Dantabhumi Sutta} The novice is 
throughout addressed as Aggivessana. 

1 M. iii. 128 ff. 

1. Aciravatl. —A river, the modern Bapti in Oudh; one of the Paftca- 
mahanadl, 1 the five great rivers flowing from the Himalaya eastwards 
(pdclnaninnd 2 ) into the sea. During the hot season it ran dry, leaving 
a bed of sand. 3 It flowed through Kosala, and at Savatthi an udumbara 
grove grew on its banks; it could be seen from the terrace of Pa- 
senadi’s palace. 4 To the south of it was Manasakata, and on its southern 
bank was a mango grove where the Buddha sometimes resided. 5 The 

1 Vin. ii. 237. 4 Vin. iv. 111-12; SnA. i. 19. 

2 S. v. 39, etc. s D. i. 235-6. 

8 A. iv. 101. 

Aeiravati ] 


Tevijja Sutta was preached here, and the Aeiravati is used in a simile 
to prove the futility of sacrifices and prayers: it is of no use standing on 
one bank of the river and calling to the other bank to come over. 

In the river were many bathing places, in some of which courtesans 
bathed naked; the bhikkhunis did likewise until a rule was passed pro¬ 
hibiting it. 6 The Chabbaggiya nuns, however, continued to do so even 
afterwards. 7 

The river was crossed in rafts 8 ; it sometimes became so full 9 that 
disastrous floods occurred, in one of which Vi<jludabha and his army 
were swept into the sea. 10 

In sheltered spots monks and brahmins used to bathe, 11 and once 
Sariputta himself bathed there. 12 The Sattarasa-vaggiya monks fre¬ 
quented the river for water-sports. 13 

Once the Buddha was\old that the Pancavaggiya monks were in the 
habit of seizing the cows that crossed the river. 14 

The elder Sivali stopped on the banks of the Aeiravati while on his 
way to the Himalaya with five hundred monks. 15 In the time of 
Kassapa Buddha the river flowed round Savatthi and, at the eastern 
fort, flowed into a wide and deep lake on which separate bathing places 
were made for the king, the people, the Buddha and the Order respec¬ 
tively. 1 ^ 

The people on the banks were in the habit of casting nets for fish. 17 
Near the river was Dandakappa, a Kosalan village, and while staying 
there Ananda bathed in the river with many other monks. 18 

Two occasions are mentioned on which monks hit in the eye swans 
flying over the river. 19 It was here that Patacara’S child was drowned. 20 

Kapila was born here as a golden fish as a result of his evil deeds. 21 In 
the Avadana Sataka 22 the name is given as Ajiravati, and according to 
1 Tsing (p. 156) means the river of the Aji (dragon). 

6 Vini. 293; iv. 278. 

7 Vin. iv. 269. f. 

8 Vin. iii. 63. 

9 D. i. 244-5; M. iii. 117; J. iv. 167. 

10 DhA. i. 360. 

11 Vin. iv. 161. 

12 AA. i. 315. 

13 Vin. iv. 111-12. 

14 Vin. i. 191. 

i* AA. i. 139. 

16 MA. i. 371. 

17 UdA. 366. 

18 A. iii. 402. 

49 J. i. 418 and ii. 366. See also DhA. 
iv. 5 and 8 f. 

20 DhA. ii. 264. 

21 Ibid. , iv. 41; see also Kapila S. 

22 i. 63; alsoii. 60. 

2. Aeiravati. —A canal which ran westwards from the Mahavaluka- 
gaftga in Ceylon; from it flowed four other canals eastwards: the Sata- 
ruddha, Nibbinda, Dhavala and Sida. 1 

1 Cv. lxxix. 51-3. 

[ Acela-Kassapa 

1. Acela-Kassapa. —A naked ascetic. He visited the Buddha at 
UJuftfia in the Kanna-katthala deer-park and asked him if it were true 
that he disparaged all penance and reviled ascetics. Their conversation 
is recorded in the Kassapa-Slhandda Sutta. 1 After the usual four 
months’ probation, he joined the Order and in due course became an 
arahant. 2 In the Majjhima Nikaya 3 we are told that he was an old 
friend of Bakkula Thera, and that after a conversation with him obtained 
his ordination (under him). 

See also Acela-Kassapa (3). 

1 D. i. 161 ff. 

2 Ibid., 177; but according to DA. (i. 363) he was ordained forthwith. 

8 M. iii. 124 ff.; also AA. i. 171. 

2. Acela-Kassapa. —An old family friend of Cittagapahati. Having 
been for thirty years a paribbajaka, he admits to Citta that he had 
thereby obtained no particular excellence of knowledge. Citta tells 
him of his own attainments and Kassapa expresses a desire to enter 
the Order. He is duly ordained, and shortly afterwards becomes an 
arahant. 1 

1 S. iv. 300 ff. 

3. Acela-Kassapa. —The Kassapa mentioned in the Acela Sutta, 1 prob¬ 
ably to be identified with Acela-Kassapa (1), though the stories of their 
conversions are different. 

1 S. ii. 18 f.; see also JSA. ii. 26 f. 

1. Acela Sutta. —Contains a series of questions asked of the Buddha by 
a paribbajaka named Acela-Kassapa, probably Acela-Kassapa (3). 1 

1 S.ii. 18 f- (See Appendix.) 

2. Acela Sutta. —Contains the story of the conversion of Acela- 
Kassapa (2). 

Acelaka Vagga. —Fifth of the Pacittiya of the Vinaya Pitaka. 1 

1 Vin.iii. 195 ff.; ibid., v. 19-21. 

Accaya (akodhana) Sutta. —Speaks of two kinds of fools—the one 
who does not see his offence as such, and the other who does not accept 
a right ruling. 1 

1 S.i. 239. 

Accayika Sutta. —The urgent duties of a farmer and of a monk. 1 

1 A. i. 239-40. 

Aecutadevft ] 


Accima. —King. One of the descendants of Mahasammata. 1 He 
had twenty-eight sons and grandsons, of immeasurably long life, who 
reigned in Kusavati, Rajagaha and Mithila. 

1 Dpv.iii. 8; Mtu.ii. 5 £E.; see also Mtu. i. 348. MT. 126. 

Accimukhl. —A naga princess, daughter of Dhatarattha, the naga king. 
She was half-sister to the Bodhisatta Bhuridatta and helped his brother 
Sudassana to rescue the Bodhisatta from the clutches of the snake- 
charmer Alambana. She could shoot flames from her mouth and spit 
the deadliest, poison. The story is related in the Bhuridatta Jataha. 1 

In the present age she was the bkikkhuni Uppalavanna 2 ( v.l . AccI- 

1 J. vi.l67ff. 2 Ibid.,219. 

1. Accuta. —A treasurer who, in Kakusandha’s time, built a sangha- 
rama of golden bricks on the spot where, later, Anathapindika built the 
Jetavanarama. 1 He was the chief lay disciple of Kakusandha and was 
a Mahasala-setthi. 2 

1 J. i. 94; ApA. i. 82. 2 DA. ii. 424; see also Bv. xxiii. 22. 

2. Accuta. —A Pacceka Buddha, mentioned in a list of Pacceka 
Buddhas. 1 

1 M. iii. 70; ApA. i. 106-7. 

3. Accuta. —A hermit, black-toothed and with matted hair, who lived 
in the Vahka forest near Vankagiri. He directed Jujaka to Vessantara’s 

dwelling in the forest. 1 He was a previous incarnation of Sariputta. 2 

1 J. vi.532. 2 Ibid., 693. 

Accutagamabyamaka. —One of the Pacceka Buddhas in a nominal 
list. 1 

1 M. iii. 70. ApA. i. 107. 

Accutagami. —One of Vijaya’s companions in colonising Ceylon. He 
founded a settlement at UJjeni. 1 The Mahavamsa 2 mentions the found¬ 
ing of Ujjeni, but does not give Accutagaml's name. 

1 Dpv. ix. 32, 36. 2 vii.45. 

Accutadeva. —A class of devas mentioned among those assembled on 
the occasion of the preaching of the Maha-Samaya Sutta. 1 

1 D. ii. 260. 

[ Accutavarpadanta 

Accutavarnadanta. —One of Ekaraja's elephants. 1 

1 J. vi. 135. But see Jat. trans. vi. 72. 

Accenti Sutta. —The hours pass away, be heedful therefore. 1 

1 S.i.3. 

Acchagallaka (or Acehaglri). —A vihara built by King Suratissa to 
the east of Anuradhapura and near Dahegallaka. 1 According to the 
Mahavamsa Tika, 2 Devanampiyatissa had also built an Acchavihara to 
the south of the city, and in order that one might be distinguished from 
the other, Suratissa's work was called Purimayacchagallaka. It was 
there that Vattagamani Abhaya held a festival in honour of the Buddha 
with the help of the thera Mahatissa of Kuppikkala. 3 

1 Mhv. xxi.60. 2 MT.424. 3 Mhv. xxxiii. 67-8. 

Acchagiri.— See Acchagallaka. 

Aechara Sutta. —Connected with a monk, who, through over-exertion, 
died as he leaned against the terrace-post. His life-work unfinished, 
he is born in Tavatimsa leaning against a door-post. Accosted by the 
nymphs with song and music, he thinks he is yet a monk till they bring 
a cheval-glass and reveal to him his figure. In disappointment he seeks 
the Master, who preaches to him. 1 

1 S.i.33; SA. i. 67 f. 

1. Acchariya 

path thereto. 1 

Sutta. —The Buddha teaches the marvellous and the 
1 S.iv. 371. 

2. Acchariya Sutta. —The four marvels that are manifested in con¬ 
nection with the birth of a Tathagata. 1 

1 A.ii. 130-1; c/.D.ii. 13, 15; M. iii.118. 

Acchariyabbhuta (or Acchariyadhamma) Sutta. —The wonders attendant 
on the nativity of a being destined to become a Buddha, described from 
the time of his leaving the Tusita heaven. Ananda gives them in detail 
with the Buddha listening and giving his approval. 1 

1 M.iii. 118 ft. 

Ajakarani. —The river on whose banks was the Lonagiri (or Lena 0 ) 
vihara where lived the Thera Sabbaka (Sappaka). 1 Here also, in a 

1 Thag. 307 ft. 



cave, dwelt the Thera Bhuta. 2 This river was probably a branch of the 

Aciravati. 3 

2 Ibid.,5 18 f.; ThagA. i. 493 f. 3 Brethren , 187, n. 2. 

Ajakalapaka. —A yakkha who tried to frighten the Buddha, but who, 
later, became his disciple. 1 When he returned from a certain yakkha- 
assembly he found the Buddha seated on his couch, as had already been 
told to him in the assembly by Satagira and Hemavata (q.v.). In anger 
he tried in various ways to cast out the Buddha, but failed in his efforts 
and ended by becoming his disciple. 2 

Two explanations are given of his name: aje kaldpetvd bandhanena aja- 
kotthdsena saddhim balim paticchati, no annatha . . . kecipana ajake viya 
satte Idpetiti, Ajaka-ldpako ti z (those bringing him sacrifices bleat like 

1 Ud. 4-5. 

2 UdA. 63 ff. Fora note on this passage see J.P.T.S. 1886, 94 ff. 

3 UdA. 64. 

Ajakalapaka-cetiya. —A shrine at Pava at which sacrifices were offered 

to Ajakalapaka. 1 

1 Ud. 4. 

Ajagara. —A peta who lived in Gijjhakuta. He was seen there by 
Mogallana, but not by Moggallana's companion Lakkhana Thera. 
Later, in answer to a question by Lakkhana Thera, the Buddha revealed 
the petals past. He had been a bandit in Kassapa Buddha's time, and 
having been unintentionally offended by the treasurer Sumaftgala, who 
had built a Gandhakuti for Kassapa, he sought to take revenge on him 
and to make him angry by committing various heinous crimes against 
him. But the latter showed no wrath, and once, after having given 
alms to the Buddha, he gave over the merit, so gained, to the bandit. 
He thereupon repented, but his evil kamma was too great for him to be 
able to win any special attainment. 1 

1 DhA.iii.60ff. 

Ajapala. —Son of the chaplain of King Esukari (q.v.). He renounced 
the world with his three elder brothers. He was Anuruddha in the 
present age. 1 

He was given the name Ajapala because he grew up among the goat¬ 

1 J. iv. 476 ff. 

30 [Ajaeea 

Ajacca. —One of the disciples mentioned in the Silavlmamsana Jdtaka 
as having tried to win their teacher's daughter and failed. 1 

1 J. iii. 19. 

Ajajjara Sutta.— See Ajara Sutta. 

Ajapala-nigrodha. —A banyau tree which is famous in Buddhist 
literature. It was in Uruvela, on the banks of the Nerafijara, near the 
Bodhi tree, and a week after the Enlightenment the Buddha went there 
and spent a week cross-legged at the foot of the tree. There he met the 
Huhufikajatika brahmin. 1 Two weeks later he went there again from 
the Rajayatana 2 ( q.v .). It was then that the Brahma Sahampati appeared 
to him and persuaded him to preach the doctrine, in spite of the difficulty 
of the task. 8 This was immediately after the meal offered by Tapassu 
and BhaUuka, so says the Majjhima Atthakatha. 4 When the Buddha 
wishes to have someone as his teacher, Sahampati appears again and 
suggests to him that the Dhamma be considered his teacher. 6 

By Ajapala-nigrodha it was, too, that, immediately after the En¬ 
lightenment, Mara tried to persuade the Buddha to die at once. 6 Several 
other conversations held here with Mara are recorded in the Samyutta. 7 

Here, also, the Buddha spent some time before the Enlightenment, 8 
and it was here that Sujata offered him a meal of milk-rice. 9 

Here, in the fifth week after the Enlightenment, Mara's daughters tried 
to tempt the Buddha. 10 

Several etymologies are suggested for the name: (a) in its shadow goat¬ 
herds (ajapdla) rest; (b) old brahmins, incapable of reciting the Vedas, live 
here in dwellings protected by walls and ramparts (this derivation being as 
follows: na japanti ti=ajapd, mantdnam anajjhayakd — ajapd, dlenti an - 
yanti nivdsam etthdti = Ajapdlo ti) ; ( c) it shelters the goats that seek its 
shade at midday. 11 The northern Buddhists say that the tree was 
planted by a shepherd boy, during the Bodhisatta's six years' penance, to 
shelter him. 12 

The Brahma Sutta 13 and the Magga Sutta, u both on the four satipat- 
thana, and another Brahma Sutta 15 on the five indriydni, were preached 

1 Vin. i. 2-3. | 8 D. ii. 267. 

2 Ibid., 4. I »J.i. 16,69. 

3 Ibid., 5-7; in the eighth week after 10 Ibid., 78,469. 

the Enlightenment, says Buddhaghosa, 1 11 UdA. 51. 

SA. i. 152. 12 Beal, Romantic Legend of the 

4 i. 385; J.i. 81. Buddha, 192,238; Mtu.iii. 302. 

3 A ii. 20 f.; S. i. 138 f. ™ S. v. 167. 

6 D. ii. 112. 14 Ibidtf 185 . 

7 S. i. 103 f. 16 Ibid., 232 f. 

Aj&tasattu ] 


concerning thoughts that occurred to the Buddha on various occasions 
at the foot of this tree, when he sat there soon after the Enlightenment. 
On all these occasions Brahma Sahampati appeared to him and confirmed 
his thoughts. Several old brahmins, advanced in years, visited the 
Buddha during this period and questioned him as to whether it were true 
that he did not pay respect to age. To them he preached the four 
Thera-Jcarana, dhamma . 16 

16 A. ii. 22. 

Ajara Sutta. —The Buddha teaches the undecaying and the path 
thereto 1 (v.l. Ajajjara). 

1 S.iv. 369; Vm.i.294. 

Ajarasa Sutta. —Preached to a deva in praise of wisdom. 1 

1 S.i.36. 

Ajatasattu. —Son of Bimbisara, King of Magadha, and therefore half- 
brother to Abhayarajakumara. He succeeded his father to the throne. 
His mother was a daughter of Mahakosala, 1 and he married Vajira, 
Pasenadi’s daughter, 2 by whom he had a son Udayibhadda. 3 

Ajatasattu grew up to be a noble and handsome youth. Devadatta 
was, at this time, looking for ways and means of taking revenge on the 
Buddha, and seeing in the prince a very desirable weapon, he exerted 
all his strength to win him to his side. Ajatasattu was greatly impressed 
by Devadatta's powers of iddhi and became his devoted follower. 4 5 He 
built for him a monastery at Gayasisa and waited upon him morning 
and evening carrying food for him, sometimes as much as five hundred 
cartloads in five hundred cooking pans. 6 

Devadatta incited him to seize the throne, killing his father if necessary. 
When Bimbisara learnt of the prince's intentions he abdicated in his 
favour. But Devadatta was not satisfied till Bimbisara, who was one 
of the Buddha's foremost supporters, was killed. 6 

Ajatasattu helped Devadatta in several of the latter's attempts to kill 
the Buddha. 7 Later he was filled with remorse for these past misdeeds 
as he confesses himself 8 ; but evidently, for very shame, he refrained 

1 J. iii. 121. 

2 J. iv. 343. 

3 D. i. 50. 

4 Vinii. 185; J.i. 185-6. 

5 S. ii. 242. 

6 DA. i. 135-7. According to the 

Sahkicca Jataka (J. v. 262 ff.) he 

had killed his father in previous 
births too. 

7 See s.v. Devadatta. In the Sanjiva 
Jataka (J. i. 510 f.) we are told that in 
past lives he had associated with the 
sinful and once lost his life as a result. 

8 D. i. 85. 

[ AJ&tasattu 


from visiting the Buddha till he was won over by the persuasions of his 
physician Jivaka Komarabhaeea. And when in the end he did go to the 
Buddha, it was in great fear and trembling; so nervous was he that he 
imagined conspirators in the very silence surrounding the Buddha where 
he dwelt in the monsatery, in Jlvaka's Mango grove at Kajagaha. 9 It was 
on the occasion of this visit that the Sdmannaphala Sutta was preached. 
The king admits that he had been to various teachers before, but had 
failed to find satisfaction in their teachings. It is noteworthy that the 
Buddha greets the king cordially on his arrival and makes no mention 
whatever of the king's impiety. Instead, when Ajatasattu expresess 
his repentance at the end of the discourse, the Buddha accepts his con¬ 
fession and lets him off almost too lightly. But after the king had de¬ 
parted the Buddha tells the monks how the king's misdeeds had wrought 
his undoing both in this world and the next, for if he had not been guilty 
of them, the Eye of Truth (Sotapattimagga, says the Commentary) would 
have been opened for him on the occasion of this sermon. 10 Henceforth 
the king became a loyal adherent of the Buddha's faith, though, as far as 
we know, he never waited again either upon the Buddha or upon any 
member of the Order for the discussion of ethical matters. 11 He was 
so full of love and respect for the Buddha that when he heard of Upaka 
Mandikaputta having spoken rather impolitely to the Buddha, he at 
once flew into a rage. 12 

Sakka said of him that among the puthujjanas he was most possessed 
of piety. 13 When the Buddha died, in the eighth year of Ajatasattu's 
reign, 14 the latter's ministers decided not to tell him the news at once, 
in case he should die of a broken heart. On the pretext of warding off 
the evil effects of a dream, they placed him in a vat filled with the four 
kinds of sweet (catumadhura) and broke the sad news gently to him. 
He immediately fainted, and it was not till they put him in two other 
vats and repeated the tidings that he realised their implication. 16 He 
forthwith gave himself up to great lamentation and despair, “like a 
madman," calling to mind the Buddha's various virtues and visiting 
various places associated in his mind with the Buddha. Later he sent 

9 D. i. 49-50; J. v. 262-9. An illus¬ 
tration of this visit is the subject of one 
of the bas-reliefs on the Barhut Tope 
(Cunningham, PI. xvi., fig. 36, and p. 135). 

10 D. i. 85-6. It is said that from the 

day of his father’s death he could not 

sleep on account of terrifying dreams, 

particularly after he had heard of Deva- 

datta’s dire fate (J. i. 508). He slept 

after his visit to the Buddha (DA. i. 

11 But see DA. i. 238, where we are 
told “ tinnam ratananam mahasakkaram 
alca-si .” 

12 A. ii. 182. 

13 DA. ii. 610. 

14 Mhv.ii. 32. 

15 DA. ii. 605-6. 

Ajatasattu ] 


messengers to claim liis share of the Buddha's relics, and when he ob¬ 
tained them he prolonged the rites held in their honour till the arahants 
had to seek Sakka's aid to make the king take the relics away to Kajagaha, 
where he erected over them a stone thupa. 16 Two months afterwards, 
when the first Council was held, he gave the undertaking his royal 
patronage and assisted the monks who took part in it with all his 
power. 17 

Several incidents connected with Ajatasattu's reign are mentioned in 
the books. Bimbisara had married a sister of Pasenadi, and when he was 
killed she died of grief. The revenue of a KasI village had been given 
to her by her father, Mahakosala, as part of her dowry, but after 
Bimbisara's murder, Pasenadi refused to continue it. Thereupon 
Ajatasattu declared war on his uncle. 18 At first he was victorious in 
three battles, but, later, he was defeated by Pasenadi, who followed the 
military advice of an old monk, the Elder Dhanuggahatissa; Ajatasattu 
was taken captive with his army. On giving an undertaking not to 
resort to violence again, he was released, and to seal the friendship, 
Pasenadi gave him his daughter Vajira as wife, and the revenue of the 
disputed village was gifted to her as bath-money. 19 

Ajatasattu evidently took his reverses very unsportingly. (See 
the Haritamdta Jataka , J. ii. 237 f.) 

Later, when through the treachery of Pasenadi's minister, Dlgha 
Karayana, his son Vidudahha usurped the throne, Pasenadi, finding 
himself deserted, went towards Kajagaha to seek Ajatasutta's help, 
but on the way he died of exposure and Ajatasattu gave him 
burial. 20 

About a year before the Buddha's death, Ajatasattu sent his chief 
minister and confidant, the brahmin Vassakara, to the Buddha to 
intimate to him his desire to make war on the Vajjians and to find out 
what prediction the Buddha would make regarding his chances of 
victory. The Buddha informed the brahmin that the Vajjians practised 
the seven conditions of welfare which they had learnt from him, and 
that they were therefore invincible. 21 The Samyutta Nikaya mentions 
the Buddha as saying that the time would come when the Vajjians 
would relinquish their strenuous mode of living and that then would come 

16 DA. ii. 610. 

17 Sp.i. 10-11; DA. i. 8-9. 

18 Before this, uncle and nephew seem 
to have been on very friendly terms. 
Once Ajatasattu sent Pasenadi a wonder¬ 
ful piece of foreign fabric, sixteen cubits 
long and eight broad, mounted on a pole 

to serve as a canopy. This Pasenadi 
gave to Ananda (M. ii. 116). 

19 S. i. 82-5; J. ii. 403-4; Avas. 54-7; 
J. iv. 343 f.; DhA. iii. 259. 

20 See s.v. Pasenadi. 

21 D. ii. 72 f. 



[ Ajatasattu 

Ajatasattu's chance. 22 This chance came about three years later, for 
by the treachery of Yassakara, he succeeded in sowing dissension among 
the leading families of Yesali. Having thus weakened them, he swooped 
down upon the place with an overwhelming force and completely destroyed 
it. 23 Rumours are mentioned of King Candappajjota making prepara¬ 
tions for a war on Ajatasattu to avenge the death of his friend Bimbisara, 
but no mention is made of actual fighting. 24 

Of the end of Ajatasattu's reign the books mention very little except 
that he was killed by his son Udaya or Udayibhadda, 25 who had been 
born on the day that Bimbisara died as a result of his tortures. 26 

We are told that Ajatasattu had feared that 'his son might kill him 
and had therefore secretly hoped that Udaya would become a monk. 27 

Ajatasattu's reign lasted thirty-two years. 28 It was he who built the 
fortress of Palatiputta (s.v.), which later became the capital of Magadha. 

We do not know what Ajatasattu's real name was. 29 The title 
Vedehiputta which always accompanies his name probably means “ son 
of the Yideha lady.” At the time of Buddhaghosa there seems to have 
been much confusion about the meaning of this word. According to 
Buddhaghosa 30 Vedehi means “ wise.” There seems to have been 
another explanation which Buddhaghosa rejects—that Ajatasattu was 
the son of the Yideha queen. Yidehi was probably the maiden, family, 
or tribal (not personal) name of his mother. According to a Tibetan 
authority her personal name was Vasavl, and she was called Yidehi be¬ 
cause she was from Yideha. 31 (See also s.v. Vedehika.) 

Two explanations are given of the epithet Ajatasattu. According to 
Buddhaghosa he was so called because the soothsayers predicted his 
enmity to his father even before his birth, and a story is told of how his 
mother, at the time of his conception, had a longing to drink blood from 
Bimbisara's right hand. The longing was satisfied, but when the queen 
heard the soothsayer's prediction, she tried, in many ways, to bring 
about a miscarriage. 32 In this she was prevented by the king. Later 

22 S. ii. 268. According to the Jainas, 
Ajatasattu fought with Cedaga, king 
of Vesali, for the possession of an extra¬ 
ordinary elephant (Hoernle on Ajivaka 
in ERE i.). 

23 For details see s.v. Licehavi. 

24 M. iii. 7; MA. ii. 853; see also 
Buddhist India, p. 13. 

26 Mhv. iv. 1. 

26 DA. i. 137. 

27 DA. i. 153. 

28 Mhv. ii. 31; but see Geiger’s Introd. 
to Mhv. trans. xi If.; also Samaddar: 

Glories of Magadha, 17, n. 3; also Vincent 
Smith: Early History of India, pp. 26 ff. 

29 By the Jains he is called Kunika or 
Koijika, which again is probably a 
nickname (Dial. ii. 79, n. 1). 

30 DA. i. 139. 

31 Rockhill, p. 63. In the Pali books 

i ihe is often referred to as KosaladevI 

1 q.v. 

I 32 DA. i. 133 ff.; J. iii. 121-2; the 
park where she tried to bring about the 
miscarriage was called Maddakucchi 
(SA.i. 61). 

Ajita ] 


both parents grew to be very fond of him. There is a story of the prince, 
holding his father's finger, visiting Jotika’s marvellous palace and 
thinking that his father was a fool for not taking Jotika's wealth. When 
he became king he acquired Jotika's palace. 33 

To show Bimbisara's love for the babe, an incident is mentioned of 
how once, when the prince was yelling with pain because of a boil on his 
finger, the nurses took him to the king who was then holding court. 
To soothe the child, the king put the offending finger in his mouth, where 
the boil burst. Unable to spit the pus out the king swallowed it. 34 
The other explanation is that also found in the Upanisads, 35 and this is 
probably the correct one. It says that the word means “ he against 
whom there has arisen no foe." 

According to the Dfgha Commentary, 36 Ajatasattu was born in the 
Lohakumbhiya niraya after his death. He will suffer there for 60,000 
years, and later will reach nibbana as a Pacceka Buddha named Vidita- 
visesa (v.l. Vijitavi). Ajatasattu's crime of parricide is often given as 
an example of an upacchedaka-kamma which has the power of destroying 
the effect of meritorious deeds. 37 He is also mentioned as the worst kind 
of parricide. 38 

Ajatasattu seems to have been held in hatred by the Niganthas. The 
reason is probably that given in the Dhammapada Commentary, 39 where 
it is said that when Moggallana had been killed by thieves, spies were 
sent out by the king to discover the murderers. When arrested, the 
murderers confessed that they had been incited by the Niganthas. The 
king thereupon buried five hundred Niganthas waist-deep in pits dug 
in the palace court and had their heads ploughed off. 

3 3 DhA. iv. 211 and 222 f. As a boy 
he used to visit the Buddha with his 
father (BA. i. 152). 

34 DAi. 138. 

35 Dial. ii. 78 f. 

36 i. 237-8. 

37 E.g., AA.i.369. 

38 E.g., AA.i.335. 

39 iii. 66 f. 

1. Ajita. —A monk. He devoted his time to explaining the Path 
mokkha rules to the monks. At the time of the Second Council he was 
a monk of ten years' standing and was appointed to assign seats to the 
Theras. 1 

1 Vin.ii.305. 

2. Ajita. —A paribbajaka who visited the Buddha, and at whose 
instigation the Buddha preached to the Bhikkhus on the difference 
between dhamma and adhamma A 

1 A. v. 229 ff. 



3. Ajita. —A brahmin, the Bodhisatta in the time of Sobhita Buddha. 1 

1 J. i. 35. 

4. Ajita .—General of tlie Licchavis and follower of tlie Buddha. Im¬ 
mediately after his death he was born in Tavatimsa; he visited the 
Buddha to refute a statement made about him by the naked ascetic 
Patikaputta to the effect that he had been born in the Mahaniraya as a 
result of having followed the teaching of the Buddha. 1 

1 D.iii. 15-16; DA.iii.825. 

5. Ajita-manava. —One of the disciples of Bavari who visited the 
Buddha at the request of their teacher. He was the first to question the 
Buddha, and the questions asked by him form the Ajitamanavapuccha 
of the Par ay ana Vagga of the Sutta Nipata. 1 At the end of the con¬ 
versation he became arahant with a thousand followers and entered the 
Order. 2 He was the son of a Brahmin of Savatthi, price-assessor 
(aggdsaniya) to the King of Kosala. 3 

According to the Anguttara Commentary 4 he was the nephew of 
Bavari, and the latter particularly asked him to come back to him with 
news of the interview with the Buddha. 5 

In a previous birth he offered a kapittha-fruit to Yipassi Buddha. 
He is probably to be identified with the Kapittha-phaladayaka Thera of 
the Apadana. 6 A verse attributed to Ajita-manava is found in the 
Theragatha. 7 The Ajita-puccha are referred to in the Samyutta, 8 where 
they are expounded by the Buddha to Sariputta. 

1 Sn. 197 f. 

2 SnA. 587, but see ThagA. ( infra ), 
where he is said to have become an 
arahant later. 

3 ThagA. i. 73 f. 

4 i. 184. 

5 ThagA. loc cit. 

6 Ap. ii. 449. 

7 v. 20. 

8 ii. 47 f. 

6. Ajita. —Thera, 1 probably to be identified with Ajita (5), but the 
story of his past differs completely from that of Ajita-manava given in 
the Thag. Commentary. In the time of the Buddha Padumuttara he 
lit a lamp in front of the Enlightened One. As a result of this he enjoyed 
happiness in heaven for 60,000 kappas, and when he was born from 
Tusita in this Buddha-age there was a great light on the day of his birth. 
He is stated to have been a disciple of Bavari, 2 but he heard of the Buddha 
while in Himava. Later he became an arahant. 

1 Ap. i. 335 ft. 

2 Ibid., 337, 28. 

Ajltakesakambala ] 


7. Ajita. —The lay name of Metteya Buddha in his last birth, when he 
will attain Enlightenment. 1 

1 Anagata-Vamsa, pp. 43, 45, 56. 

8. Ajita. —A Pacceka-Buddha who lived ninety-one kappas ago. 
Dasaka Thera, in a previous birth, gave him mangoes to eat 1 (v.l. Ajina). 

1 ThagA. i. 68. 

9. Ajita. —A brahmin, a previous birth of Citapujaka Thera; he offered 
flowers to Sikhi Buddha. 1 

1 Ap. i. 243. 

Ajita Sutta. —Preached by the Bhuddha to Ajita the Paribbajaka on 
the difference between dhamma and adhamma. 1 

1 A. v. 229 ff. 

Ajitakesakambala (Ajitakesakambali).— Head of one of the six 

heretical sects mentioned in the Pitakas as being contemporaneous with 
the Buddha. He is described as a Titthaka (heretical teacher), leader 
of a large following, virtuous and held in esteem by the people. 1 

According to the Samannaphala Sutta , 2 where Ajatasattu describes a 
visit paid to Ajita, he taught the doctrine of “ cutting off,” i.e. annihila¬ 
tion at death. He was a nihilist who believed in neither good nor evil. 
The answer Ajita gave to Ajatasattu is given elsewhere 3 as being the 
view of a typical sophist. His name is often introduced into the stereo¬ 
typed list of the six teachers even where the views they are alleged to 
have expressed do not conicide with those attributed to Ajita in the 
Samannaphala Sutta. 4 He was called Kesakambali because he wore a 
blanket of human hair, which is described as being the most miserable 
garment. It was cold in cold weather, hot in the hot, evil-smelling and 
uncouth. 5 

According to the Mahabodhi Jataka the Buddha had already refuted 
Ajita’s view in previous births. 6 Ajita was evidently much older in 
years than the Buddha, for we find Pasenadi, in the early years of his 
friendship with the Buddha, telling him that he was a young novice 
compared with Ajita. 7 

1 S. i. 68. i 4 E.g. 9 S.iv. 398, whereheisrepresented 

2 D. i. 55. In Tibetan sources he is as talking about the rebirths of his 
stated to have taught that all beings adherents—he who denied rebirth. In 
must dwell in Samsara for 84,000 maha- A. i. 286 he seems to have been confused 
kalpas before they come to an end; with Makkhali Gosala. 

nothing can prevent that. Rockhill: 5 DA. i. 144; MA. i. 422-3. 

103-4. e J. v. 246. 

3 E.g., S. iii. 207; M. i. 515. I 7 S. i. 68. 


[ Ajitanjaya 

In tlie Milinda-panha tie king says that lie had visited a teacher 
named Ajitakesakambala. This cannot possibly refer to our Ajita; the 
reference is probably to a teacher belonging to the same school of thought. 8 
References to ascetics wearing hair garments are found in several passages 
of the Pali canon. 9 

8 “There is neither fruit nor result 9 D. i. 167; M. i. 77, 238; A. i. 240; 
of good or evil karma,” p. 4. His views i for a discussion of Ajita’s views see 
are given on p. 25 without mention being Barua: PreBuddhistic Indian Philosophy, 
made of his name. But see note 2 to | pp. 287 ff. 
the Mil. trans., p. 8. 

Ajitanjaya. —King of Ketumati. He was a previous birth of Todeyya 
Thera, q.v. 

Ajitapuccha or Ajitapanha. —Second sutta of the Parayanavagga of 
the Sutta Nipata. See Ajita-(manava). 

Ajitarattha (v.l. Addika- or Addila-rattha). —The country in which the 
setthi Ghosita was born, in a previous life, as a poor man named Kotu- 
halaka . 1 

1 DA. i. 317; DhA.i. 169 f. 

Ajina. —Thera. He belonged to a poor brahmin family of Savatthi, 
and was so called because at birth he was wrapped in an antelope skin. 
He saw the presentation of Jetavana and, impressed by the majesty of 
the Buddha, joined the Order and later became an arahant. But because 
of past misdeeds he remained unhonoured and unknown, and on this 
account was despised by worldly novices. 1 He is evidently to be 
identified with Ghatamandadayaka Thera of the Apadana. 2 In a pre¬ 
vious birth he gave butter as medicine to the Pacceka Buddha, Sucintita. 

1 Thag. 129-30; ThagA. i. 250 f. 2 ii. 436. 

Ajinadayaka. —A thera who later became arahant. He gave a piece of 
antelope skin to Sikhi Buddha. Five kappas ago he was a cakkavatti, 

Sudayaka . 1 

1 Ap.i. 213-14. 

Ajlvaka, given as a possible name. 1 

1 J.i. 403. 

Ajelaka-Sutta. —Many are those who do not abstain from accepting 
goats and sheep. 1 

1 S. v. 472. 

Ajjuna ] 


Ajjuka. —A monk of VesalL In settling a dispute regarding the 
estate of his lay-supporter, he was accused of partisanship by one of the 
parties concerned and was reported to Ananda. The case went up 
before IJpali, who decided in favour of Ajjuka, 1 and was commended by 
the Buddha for this decision. 2 

1 Vin.iii. 66-7. 2 ThagA.i.370; AA.i. 172. 

1. Ajjuna. —Thera. Son of a councillor of Savatthi. In his youth he 
first joined the Order of the Niganthas; being dissatisfied, he was won 
over by the Buddha's Twin-miracle and, entering the Order, reached 
arahantship. 1 He is evidently to be identified with Salapupphadayaka 
Thera of the Apadana. 2 In VipassI Buddha’s time he was born as a 
lion and gave the Buddha a flowering branch of a sala-tree. 

1 Thag. v. 88; ThagA.i. 186. 2 i. 169. 

2. Ajjuna. —A Pacceka Buddha, who lived ninety-one kappas ago. 
Panasaphaladayaka Thera ( q.v .) gave him a ripe jackfruit. 1 

1 Ap.i.297. 

3. Ajjuna. —A Pacceka Buddha who lived ninety-four kappas ago. 
Ajelaphaladayaka Thera gave him an ajela-hmk. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 446. 

4. Ajjuna. —The seventh son of Devagabbha and Upasagara ; one of 
the Andhakavenhuputta 1 (q.v.). 

1 J. iv. 81; Pv. 93. 

5. Ajjuna. —King of the Kekaka, and a great archer. He annoyed 
the sage Gotama and was destroyed in spite of his bulk and his 
thousand arms. 1 In the Sarabhanga Jdtaha he is mentioned as 
having sinned against Anglrasa. 2 He is identified with Arjuna, called 
Kartaviraya of the Kathasaritsagara , 3 and in the Uttarakanda of the 
Bamayana. 4 

He used to offer sacrifices to the gods. 5 

1 J. v. 267. 4 Sarga 32. 

2 J. v. 135; also DA. i. 266. j 5 J. vi. 201. 

3 ii. 639. I 

6. Ajjuna. —The eldest of the five sons of King Pandu, all of whom 
were married to Kanha. On discovering her liason with a hunch¬ 
backed slave and her treachery towards themselves, they gave her up 

40 [ Ajjunapupphiya 

and retired to Himava. 1 Ajjuna was a previous birth of the bird-king 

Kunala. 2 

1 J. v.425f. * Ibid., 427. 

Ajjunapupphiya Thera, probably identical with Sambhuta Thera 

Ajjuhattha-pabbata. —See Ambahattha-pabbata. 

Ajjhohara. —One of the six huge mythical fishes of the Great Ocean. 
It was five hundred yojanas in length and lived on the fungi that grow 
on rocks. 1 

1 J. v. 462. 

Ancanavana— See Anjanavana. 

Anjana. —The Sakyan, son of Devadaha, and father of Mahamaya and 
Mahapajapati, wives of Suddhodana. His wife was Sulakkhana. 1 Ac¬ 
cording to the Mahavamsa, 2 he was the son of Devadahasakka and had 
a sister Kaccana; his queen was Yasodhara. In addition to the daughters 
mentioned above he had two sons, Dandapani and the Sakiyan 
Suppabuddha. See also s.v. Suppabuddha. 

1 Ap.ii.538, v. 115; see also ThigA. 152. 2 ii. 17 ff. 

Ahjanadevi. —Daughter of Devagabbha and Upasagara. When her 
ten younger brothers, the Andhakavenhuputta, had conquered all 
Jambudlpa and were living at Dvaravatl, they divided the kingdom 
into ten, forgetting their sister. Ankura, however, gave her his share 
and went into business. Later when all the members of her family, 
except Ankura, perished, she escaped destruction. 1 

1 J. iv. 80, 84, 88, 89; PvA. 111-12. 

Anjana-pabbata. —One of the six peaks of the Himalaya from which 
rose the five great rivers and round which were the seven lakes. 1 

Pabbata, one of the seven chief pupils of the Bodhisatta Jotipala, 
had his hermitage there. 2 

1 L v. 415. 2 Ihidti 133< 

Aiijana-vana ( v.l . Aneana-vana).— A garden at Saketa. In it was 

a Deer-park where the Buddha used to stay. On one such occasion 
Kakudha came to see him, 1 and also the paribbajaka Kundaliya 2 who 

1 S. i. 54. 

2 S. y. 73. 

Anjanavasabha ] 


lived near by. Here were preached the Sdketa Sutta , 3 the Saketa Jdtaka 4 
and the Java Sutta. 

When Ananda was staying there a nun of the Jatila persuasion visited 
him and questioned him on the use of samadhi. 5 

The Thera Jambugamiyaputta 6 dwelt there while yet a novice. Once 
the Buddha was staying at Anjanavana with a large company of monks 
and some of the monks slept on the sandbanks of the river Sarabhti near 
by. During the night floods rose and the Thera Gavampati controlled 
the water by his mystic powers. 7 

The elder Bhuta 8 stayed in Aiijana-vana while visiting his relatives 
in Saketa, and the. Thera Anjanavaniya spent the rainy season there 
on a couch. 9 There Sujata met the Buddha, and having listened to his 
discourse became an arahant. 10 

In ancient times the king of Kosala used to hunt in this garden, thus 
it was that the deer Nandiya met him. 11 

The garden was so-called because it was thickly covered with anjana- 
creepers that bore collyrium-coloured flowers. Others say that ahjana 
s the name of a spreading tree. 12 

3 Ibid., 219. 

4 J. i. 308; DhA. iii. 317 ff.; SnA. 531. 
3 A. iv. 427-8. 

6 ThagA. i. 86; SnA, 531. 

7 Ibid., i. 104; Thag. v. 38. 

8 ThagA. i. 494. 

3 Ibid., i. 127. 

10 Thig. vv. 145-50. 

11 J. iii. 270 f. 

12 ThagA. i. 128; SA. iii. 195. 

Anjanavaniya Thera. —Son of a raja in Vesali, in the Vajjian terri¬ 
tory. At that time Vesali was faced by the threefold terror of drought, 
disease and demons. The Buddha quelled the panic by preaching the 
Ratana Sutta. In the great concourse of listeners was the raja's son 
who thereupon left the world. He dwelt in the Anjana-vana, and in 
the rainy season, having procured an old couch, he put it on four stones 
and covered it all round with grass, leaving an open space to serve as 
door; there he spent his time meditating till he became an arahant. 1 

In a previous birth he was a garland-maker, named Sudassana, and gave 
flowers to Padumuttara Buddha. He was sixteen times born as a king, 
named Devuttara. 

He is evidently identical with Mutthipupphiya of the Apadana. 2 

1 Thag. v. 55; ThagA. i. 127 f. 2 i. 142. 

Anjanavasabha. —The state elephant of Dhanahjaya, king of the 
Kurus. It was credited with the power of bringing rain; the brahmins 
of Dantapura in Kalinga, therefore, begged for it during a severe drought. 

42 [ Anjall 

But the elephant was of no avail, the rain did not come, and so it was 
returned to Dhananjaya. 1 

1 J.ii. 368 f.; DhA. iv. 88 f. 

Anjall. —One of the nuns who accompanied Sanghamitta to Ceylon. 1 

1 Dip. xviii. 24. 

Afijasa. —A king of two kappas ago, father of Sunanda, a previous 
birth of Upali. 1 

1 Ap. i. 45, V. Ill; ThagA. i. 367. 

Anna Sutta. —On the results of developing the four satipatthana. 1 

1 S. v. 181. 

“ Annamjivam annamsarlram ” Sutta. —That the body is one thing 
and the soul another is the view held by some people. 1 

1 S. iii. 215. 

Annana Sutta. —Five of the same name recording conversations with 
the paribbajaka Vacchagotta regarding the results of ignorance. 1 

1 S. iii. 257-9. 

1. Annatara Sutta. —On the chain of causation. 

1 S.ii. 75-6. 

2. Annatara Sutta. —Few are born among men because beings do not 
see the four Ariyan truths. 1 

1 S. v. 465. 

Annatara-Brahma Sutta. —A certain Brahma thought no recluse or 
brahmin could come to his world. The Buddha, Mogallana, Mahakas- 
sapa, Mahakappina and Anuruddha all appeared there and refuted his 
views. 1 

1 S.i. 144 f. 

Aniiatara-Bhikkhu Sutta. —Two of this name containing questions on 
the holy life and the destruction of the asava. 1 

1 S. v. 7-8. 

Annatara 0 Vatthu. —Several stories given in the Dhammapada Com¬ 
mentary are designated only by such titles as Annatara-itthi vatthu, 
Annatara-kutumbika vatthu, etc. For reference to such stories see 
DhA. Index (Yol. v.). 


Afinata-Kondanna ] 

Annatitthiya Bhanavara. Ends tlie sixteenth chapter of the second 
khandhaka of the Mahavagga. 1 

1 Vin.i. 115. 

Annatitthiya Vagga. —Several discourses on the views of other teachers. 1 

1 S. v. 27 f. 

Annatitthiya Sutta. —Describes a visit of Sariputta to some heretical 
teachers in Rajagaha and the discussions that ensued. Ananda reports 
the incident to the Buddha, who approves and explains the questions 
further. 1 

1 S.ii. 32 f. 

Annata-Kondanna (v.l Anna-Kondanna) Thera.— He was the son 

of a very wealthy brahmin family of Donavatthu near Kapilavatthu and 
was born before the Buddha. He came to be called by his family name 
Kondanna. He was learned in the three Vedas, excelling in the science 
of physiognomy. When the Buddha was born he was among the eight 
brahmins 1 sent for to prognosticate, and though he was yet quite a novice 
he declared definitely that the babe would be a Buddha. Thereafter he 
lived awaiting the Bodhisatta's renunciation. After this happened he 
left the world with four others, and the five later became known as the 
Pancavaggiya. 2 When, after the Enlightenment, the Buddha visited 
them at Isipatana and preached the Dhammacakka'p'pavattana Sutta , 
Kondanna and eighteen crores of brahmas won the Fruit of the First 
Path. As he was the first among humans to realise the Dhamma the 
Buddha praised him saying “ annasi vata bho Kondanno ” twice; hence 
he came to be known as Annata Kondanna. 3 Five days later when the 
Anattalakhana Sutta was preached be became arahant. 4 He was the 
first to be ordained with the formula “ ehi , bhikkhu ” and the first to 
receive higher ordination. Later, at Jetavana, amidst a large con¬ 
course of monks, the Buddha declared him to be the best of those who 
first comprehended the Dhamma. 5 He was also declared to be pre- 

1 The others being Rama, Dhaja, , the Burmese MSS. the name appears 

Lakkhana, Manti, Bhoja, Suyama and as Annasi-K°. The Cy. explains 
Sudatta. In the Milinda (236), where Annata-K° by “ pativedha K°.” In the 
the eight names are given, Kondanna ThagA. he is called Anna-K°. Mrs. 
appears as Yanna. Rhys Davids suggests that Anna was 

2 J. i. 65 f.; AA. i. 78-84; ThagA. ii, j his personal name (Gotama the Man , 

Iff. 1 'p. 102). 

3 Vin. i. 12; UdA. 324, 371; Mtu iii. | 4 Vin. i. 13-14. 

333. It is interesting to note that in 6 AA. i. 84. 

44 [ Afinata-Kojidanha 

eminent among disciples of long-standing ( rattannunam 6 ). In the 
assembly of monks lie sat behind the two chief disciples. Finding that 
his presence near the Buddha was becoming inconvenient to himself 
and others, 7 he obtained the Buddha’s permission to go and live on 
the banks of the Mandakinl in the Chaddanta-vana, where he stayed for 
twelve years, only returning at the end of that period to obtain the 
Buddha’s leave for his parinibbana. The elephants in the forest took 
it in turns to bring him his food and to look after him. Having bidden 
farewell to the Buddha, he returned to Chaddanta-vana, where he passed 
away. 8 We are told 9 that all Himava wept at his death. The obsequies 
were elaborately performed by eight thousand elephants with the deva 
Nagadatta at their head. All the devas from the lowest to the highest 
brahma world took part in the ceremony, each deva contributing a piece 
of sandalwood. Five hundred monks, led by Anuruddha, were present. 
The relics were taken to Yeluvana and handed over to the Buddha, who 
with his own hand deposited them in a silver cetiya which appeared 
from the earth. Buddhaghosa states that the cetiya existed even in 
his time. 10 

Several verses attributed to Kondanna are given in the Theragatha, 
admonishing fellow celibates to lead the higher life, because everything is 
impermanent, bound to ill and void of soul. 11 

On one occasion he preached to Sakka at the latter’s own request; 
Sakka expressed himself as greatly pleased because the sermon was 
worthy even of the Buddha. 12 

Vanglsa once extolled his virtues in the presence of the Buddha. 13 

In Padumuttara’s time Kondanna had been a rich householder, and, 
seeing one of the monks given preference in seniority, he wished for a 
similar rank for himself in the future. Towards this end he did many 
acts of piety, one of them being to build a golden chamber over the 
Buddha’s relics. In Vipassl’s time was a householder, Mahakala, 
and gave to the Buddha the first-fruits of his field in nine stages of 
their produce. 14 

According to the Apadana, 15 he offered the first meal to Padumuttara 
after his Enlightenment. 

Punna Mantanlputta was his nephew and was ordained by him. 16 

6 A. i. 23. 12 Thag. v. 673; ThagA. ii. 3. 

7 For his reasons see AA. i. 84; SA. 13 S. i. 193. 

i. 216. 14 ThagA. ii. 1; DhA. i. 80. 

8 SA. i. 218; AA. i. 84. 15 i. 48 f.; The Divy (430) mentions 

9 SA. i. 219. another previous birth of Kondanna. 

10 Ibid . 16 ThagA. i. 37. 

11 Thag. 674-88. I 

Atthaka ] 


Annatitthiya Sutta. —The answers that should be given to followers 
of other faiths if they should question about lust, malice and delusion. 1 

1 A.i. 199-201. 

Atata. —One of the Avici hells appearing in a list of names of purga¬ 
tories. 1 Buddhaghosa 2 says these are not names of separate hells, but 
only periods of time in Avici apportioned to each entrant by the work¬ 
ing of Kamma. 

1 S. i. 150; Sn. 126. 2 g A . i# 170; SnA. 476. 

Attakarana Sutta.— See Attha°. 

1. Atthaka. —A celebrated sage, composer and reciter of sacred runes, 
mentioned together with nine others, 1 as the ancient rsis of the brahmins. 
They abstained from food at unseasonable times. They were the first 
teachers of the Tevijja brahmins 2 and great sacrifices were conducted 
by them. 3 

Various teachings are attributed to them, e.g. that they recognised five 
kinds of brahmins—brahmasama, devasama, mariyada, sambhinnama- 
riyada, and brahmanacandala. 4 These sages did not claim to have 
discerned and realised the five qualities—truth, austerities, chastity, 
study and munificence—specified by the brahmins for the attainment 
of merit and the achievement of what is right, 5 though their followers 
behaved as if they did. Nor did they claim that they personally saw 
and knew that “ here alone resides the truth and everything else is vain.” 6 
In the Vimanavatthu Commentary it is said that the Buddha had 
realised those things of which these sages thought and for which they 
wished. 7 (Brahmacintitan ti brahmehi Atthakadihi cintitam } pancacak - 
khuna dittham.) 

It is said that Atthaka and the other seers had the divine eye and had 
incorporated the teachings of Kassapa Buddha into their own scriptures. 
Thus (at that time) the three Vedas were in conformity with the Dhamma. 
But later the brahmins went back on these teachings. 8 

Atthaka is generally identified with Astaka mentioned as the author 
of Bg-veda x. 104, unless the name be taken as a corrupt reading under 
which some representation of Atri may lurk. 9 

1 Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, 

Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vaset- 
tha and BhagU. Vin i. 245; D. i. 104; 
DA. i. 273. | 

2 D. i. 238. 

3 A. iv. 61. 

4 A. iii. 224 ff. 

6 M. ii. 199-200. 

6 M. ii. 169. 

7 p. 265. 

8 DA i. 273. 

9 VT. ii. 130, n. 2. 


[ Atthaka 

2. Atthaka. —King. Mentioned in a list of kings who in times past 
had been unable to get beyond the domain of sense in spite of making 
great gifts and holding great sacrifices. 1 

1 J. vi. 99. 

3. Atthaka. —King. Mentioned in a list of former kings who had 
followed righteousness and who, by waiting diligently on ascetics and 
recluses, had gone to Sakka’s heaven. 1 

1 J. vi. 251. 

4. Atthaka. —King. When Dandaka, having sinned against Kisavac- 
cha, was destroyed with his realm, three of the subordinate lords within 
his kingdom— Kalinga, Atthaka and Bhlmaratha —went to consult the 
Bodhisatta Sarabhanga on the fate of Dandaka and his fellow-sinners. 
Their doubts were set at rest, and at the end of Sarabhanga’s discourse 
they became free of their sensuality (kamaraga.) 1 Sakka himself was 
present at the interview and asked questions of Sarabhanga. 

1 J. v. 135-49. 

5. Atthaka. —Pacceka Buddha. Mentioned in a nominal list. 1 

1 M.iii. 70; Ap.i. 107. 

Atthakanagara. —A city, from which came the householder Dasama 
who, while on a visit to Pataliputta on business, went to see Ananda at 
Beluvagama and questioned him. 1 The conversation is recorded in the 
Atthaka-nagara Sutta. 

1 M.i.349f.; A. v. 342-7. 

Atthaka-nagara Sutta. —Gives an account of questions asked by 
Dasama of Atthakanagara of Ananda while the latter was in Beluvagama. 
It deals with the eleven portals leading to Nibbana by which one may 
save oneself. 1 

1 M. i. 349 f.; A. v. 342-7. 

Atthaka-Vagga. —The fourth division of the Sutta Nipata. It consists 
of sixteen suttas, all of which are explained in the Maha Niddesa. It 
may also have been the name of divisions of other books, because we are 
told that once Sona Thera intoned before the Buddha all the verses of 
the Books of the Eights (Atthaka-vaggikani). 1 

1 ViD. i. 196-7. The DhA. (iv. 101-2) says he recited the 16 portions of the 
Atthaka vagga. 


Atthangika-magga Sutta ] 

Nandamata Upasika was once reciting the Atthakavagga and the 
Parayanavagga on the roof of her house, and Vessavana, while on the 
way with his followers to see the Buddha, listened to her recital. 2 Ac¬ 
cording to this tradition, the Atthakavagga was already being recited 
in the Buddha's own time. 

In Sanskrit the title was known as Artha-varga and was so understood 
by the Chinese translators. No one has explained what the title means 
nor has interpreted the second sutta (Guhatthaka) except as “ The eight 
verses on the cave," and similarly with the three following suttas: 
Dutthatthaka , Suddhattha and Paramatthaka, each of eight verses. The 
fact that it is commented on separately in the Mahd Niddesa and was 
translated into Chinese makes it appear probable that it was once a 
separate work. 3 

2 SnA. i. 370; but see A. iv. 63, where only the Parayana is mentioned. 

3 See Thomas, op. cit 274. 

Atthaka Sutta. —Two of the same name. They deal with the methods 
of mastering the feelings, of bringing about their cessation and of the 
six \^ays of calming them. 1 

1 S. iv. 221 f. 

Atthakatha-Thera.-— Mentioned in the Dlgha Commentary 1 as being 
capable of solving the doubts that arose in the mind of Maha SIvali Thera 
of the village hermitage. 

Mii. 728. 

Atthakathacariya. —Composers (?) of the Commentaries. They lived 
prior to Buddhaghosa, because he refers to them. 1 

1 E.g., AA.i.273. 

1. Atthangika Sutta. —Things that flow together and coalesce do so 
because they contain a common element (dhdtu) which makes possible 
such confluence, e.g. right views accord with right views by virtue of 
their common quality. 1 

1 S. ii. 168. 

2. Atthangika Sutta. —On the unworthy man, the still more unworthy 
man and the worthy man. 1 

1 A. ii. 220 f. 

Atthahgika-magga Sutta. —The Ariyan eightfold path, called the path 
that goes to the uncompounded (asankhata). 1 

1 S. iv. 367. 


[ Atthapuggala Sutta 

Atthapuggala Sutta. —Two suttas on the eight persons who are worthy 
of homage and of gifts. 1 

1 A. iv. 292, 293. 

Atthama. —Paceeka Buddha, one of the names given in a list of 
such. 1 

1 M. iii. 70; ApA. i. 106. 

Atthasata Sutta (°Pariyaya). —Method of describing the 108 feelings— 
thirty-six each of the past, present and future. 1 

1 S. iv. 231. 

Atthasadda Jataka. —Preached at Jetavana. Pasenadi, having heard 
one night a cry uttered by four inhabitants of hell, sought the advice of 
the Buddha. 1 The Buddha tells him of a former king of Benares who, 
when seated on his bed at midnight, heard eight unusual sounds which 
frightened him till they were shown by the Bodhisatta to be quite 
natural. 2 

1 Thestory is givenin fullin the Lohahumbhi Jataka-, J.iii. 43 f. 2 J.iii. 428-34. 

Atthasahassa. —A district of Rohana in Ceylon 1 to the east of the 
modern Valaveganga. 2 

1 Cv. lxi. 24; lxxv. 154. 2 See Geiger, Cv. trans., i. 227, n. 4. 

Atthana jataka.— On the untrustworthiness and treacherousness of 
women. A young merchant, Mahadhana, patronised a courtesan, giving 
her a thousand pieces daily. One day, having no time to fetch the money, 
he went empty handed and was cast out. Thereupon, in disgust, he 
became an ascetic. 1 

The story is related to a monk who wished to leave the Order on 
account of a woman. 

1 J. iii. 474 ff. 

Atthana Vagga. —A group of the “ impossibilities examples of such 
are the simultaneous existence of two Buddhas, or the following of a 
good result from an evil deed. 1 

1 A. i. 26-30. 

Atthanaparikappa Sutta. —Mentioned in the Atthasalini l ; it evidently 
refers to Anguttara i. 222. The sutta states that it were easier for the 
four great elements to change their characteristics than for an Ariyan 

1 p. 336. 

Addha Sutta ] 


disciple possessed with unvarying faith in the Buddha, the Dhamma 
and the Sangha, to be born in purgatory among lower animals or in the 
feta- world. 

Atthika Sutta. —A group of suttas dealing with the benefits occurring 
from meditating on skeletons. 1 

1 S. v. 129 ft. 

AtthipesI Sutta. —Preached about a feta , a mere skeleton, seen near 
Gijjhakuta by Moggollana and Lakkhana. He had been a cattle-butcher 
in Bajagaha. 1 

1 S.ii.254. 

Atthisena. —The Bodhisatta. He came of a brahmin family of Benares, 
studied at Takkasila and later became a religieux . He lived in the 
royal garden, at the king’s request, but would never ask the king for 
anything even when pressed to do so. 1 

1 J. iii. 352 f. 

Atthisena Jataka (No. 403).—The story of Atthisena as given above. 
Some monks in Alavl were begging everywhere for materials and aid to 
build houses for themselves. People were annoyed by their solicitations 
and avoided them. When Mahakassapa came to Alavl people ran away 
from him thinking he too was one of the monks. On enquiry he learnt 
the reason and told it to the Buddha, who was then at the Aggalava- 
cetiya. The Buddha rebuked the monks, saying that formerly samanas 
and recluses, even though offered their choice by kings, never asked 
for alms, holding that begging from others was neither agreeable 
nor pleasant. The Manikantha Jataka 1 was also preached on the same 

1 J.ii.282 ft. 

Atthissara. —The name under which Devadatta, having suffered for 
five parts of a kappa in purgatory, will become Pacceka Buddha. 1 

1 DhA.i. 125; Mil. 111. 

Addha Vagga. —Third section of the Paiicaka Nipata of the Jataka 
Commentary. 1 

1 J. iii. 211-227. 

Addha Sutta (2).—That Ariyan disciple is wealthy who possesses four 
things: unwavering loyalty to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, 
and virtues held in esteem by the Ariyans. 1 

1 S. v. 402. 



[ Addhakasi Therl 

Addhakasi Therl. —In Kassapa Buddha’s time she had been a nun 
well established in the precepts. But she reviled an arahant therl by 
calling her a prostitute, and for this she was bom in purgatory. In 
the present age she was the daughter of a rich and distinguished citizen 
of Benares but, because of her former evil speech, became a prostitute 
in Rajagaha. Having heard the Buddha preach, she entered the Order 
of the bhikkhunis. Wishing to obtain the higher ordination from the 
Buddha, she set out for Savatthi, but was waylaid and stopped by 
libertines. So she sent a man to ask the Buddha’s advice and he per¬ 
mitted her to be ordained by a messenger. 1 Her case established a 
precedent. 2 Later she attained arahantship. 

It has been suggested 3 that her name “ half KasI ” might mean that 
she charged five hundred pieces from her patrons. For, according to 
Buddhaghosa, KasI means one thousand, and anything worth one 
thousand is called kdsiya . 

Another explanation is, however, given by Dhammapala. 4 The 
revenue which accrued to the king for one day from KasI was a thousand. 
Addhakasl’s patrons had to give a like sum to spend a night with her. 
This is referred to in one of the verses attributed to her in the Therlgatha. 6 
For this reason she was called KasI. But later, many men, not being able 
to afford a thousand, would pay half the amount and spend the day with 
her. As a result she became known as Addhakasi. 

1 Thig. vv. 25-6; ThigA. 30 ff.; Vin. 
ii. 277; Ap. ii. 610-11. 

2 Sp. i. 242. 

3 VT. iii. 360, n. 3; and VT. ii. 195-6, 
t. 3. 

4 ThigA. 32. e v . 25. 

Addhacandiya Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he gave 
Tissa Buddha a bouquet of flowers in the shape of a crescent moon. He 
was once a king named Devapa. 1 

1 Ap. i. 231. 

Addhacelaka Thera. —In a previous birth he gave half a garment to 
Tissa Buddha. He was thirty-two times king, under the names of 
Samanta and Odana. He became an arahant. 1 

1 Ap.i. 134. 

Addhabhuta Sutta. —Preached in the Kalandakanivapa at Yeluvana. 
Everything is afflicted: eye, objects, eye-consciousness, etc. ( v.l . Andha- 
bhuta 1 ). 

1 S. iv. 20-1. 

AtappS-devft ] 


Addhamasaka. —King. He was a poor man of Benares. He saved 
a halfpenny (addha-mdsaha) and hid it in a brick wall. When the 
festvial came round, wishing to take part in the fun with his wife, who 
had also saved a halfpenny, he travelled six leagues in the hot sun to 
fetch his savings from the hiding-place. King Udaya saw him as he 
passed by the palace singing, and having discovered his mission, gave 
him half of his kingdom. The man chose the half in which his half¬ 
penny lay concealed. He later became an ascetic. His story is given 
in the Gangamdla Jataka} He was Ananda in the present age. 2 

1 J.iii. 449 ff.; iv. 174. 2 Ibid.,Hi, 454. 

Animandavya.— See Mandavya. 

Andabharigamakutaka Sutta. —Story of a village cheat, born as a 
peta. His secret organs (anda) were huge in size. He was among the 
petas seen by Mahamoggallana on his way to Rajagaha from Gijjhakuta, 
in company with the Elder Lakkhana. He had been a corrupt judge in 
Rajagaha and had taken bribes and given unjust judgments. 1 

1 S.ii.258. 2 SA.ii. 162. 

Andabhuta Jataka (No. 62).—On the innate wickedness of woman. A 
girl is bred from infancy among women only, never seeing any man but 
her husband, the king's chaplain. The latter had embarked on the enter¬ 
prise of so bringing up the girl, in order to defeat the king at dice, because 
the king was in the habit of winning by a declaration of truth to the 
effect that all women were treacherous; the chaplain wanted to find 
an exception in order to falsify the declaration. For a time the ex¬ 
periment succeeds, but later, as a result of the king's scheming, the girl 
starts an intrigue with a flower-seller as lover and is discovered. 1 The 
Jataka is so called because the woman in the story was guarded from the 
time she lay in her mother's womb as a foetus {andabhuta). 

The story was related concerning a monk who was worried by his 

1 J. i. 289 ff. 

Atappa-deva. —A class of devas whose company mortals long for. 1 
They belong to the Suddhavasa. 2 According to Buddhaghosa 3 they 
are so called because they torment no one (na hand sattam tafenti). 
They are andgamis . 4 

1 M. i. 289; iii. 103. j 3 DA. ii. 480; VibhA. 521. 

2 D.ii.52;D.iii.237. I 4 ItA. 40. 

52 [ Ataranda-mahabhodhikkhandha 

Ataranda-mahabhodikkhandha.— A village in Rohana where the forces 
of Dhamiladhikari destroyed the rebels. 1 

1 Cv. lxxv. 97. 

Aticari Sutta. —That an adulteress is born in purgatory. 1 

1 S. iv. 242. 

Atitti Sutta. —There is no satiety in sleep, in drinking liquor and 
sexual intercourse. 1 

1 A. i. 261. 


Atideva. —The Bodhisatta born as a brahmin in the time of Revata 
Buddha. Having heard the Buddha preach he gave him his upper 
garment. 1 He belonged to Rammavatl. 2 

1 J. i. 35; Bu. vi. 10; Mbv. 10. 2 BuA. 134. 

Atinivasa Sutta. —The five evil results of long dwelling [atinivasa). 1 

1 A.iii.258. 

Atipandita. —The Bodhisatta was once born as the son of a merchant- 
family in Benares and was named Pandita. He entered into partnership 
with another man, named Atipandita, who tried to deceive him but in 
vain. 1 

1 J. i. 405 f. 

1. Atimuttaka. —A cemetery near Benares, where robbers used to 
deposit their stolen goods. Two ascetics, Mandavya and Dipayana, lived 
there. 1 

1 J. iv. 28 f. 

2. Atimuttaka. —A novice, nephew of Sankicca. On his way to his 
parents to obtain, at Sankicca's behest, permission for the higher ordina¬ 
tion, he was attacked by thieves; he was set free on promising not to 
mention their whereabouts. Later, he saw his parents take the same 
road, but refrained from warning them on account of his promise. The 
thieves, marvelling at his integrity, wished to be ordained under him. 
He took them to Sankicca and later on to the Buddha. 1 

In Atthadassi's time he was a rich householder and held great alms¬ 
givings for the monks after the Buddha's death. 2 

He is mentioned as one who shone in the assembly of relatives. 3 

His name is often spelt Adhimuttaka. 

1 DhA. ii. 252-3; SA. i. 44-5; but see taken place after he became arahant. The 
ThagA. ii. 11 f., where his encounter rest of the story also is different, 
with the thieves is mentioned as having 2 Ap. i. 88. 3 SA. i. 45. 

Atula ] 


Atimuttaka-samanera Vatthu.— See Atimuttaka (2). 

Atimbara.— Minister of Dutthagamani. 1 

1 SdS. 77. 

Atitanagatapaccuppanna Suttas. —Three in number. Seeing that the 
sankhdras are (1) impermanent, (2) ill, and (3) without the self, the 
Ariyan disciple cares not for what is past, is not in love with the present 
and seeks dispassion for the future. 1 

1 S.iii. 19-20. 

Atitena Sutta. —Seeing that the eye, ear, etc., of the past are im¬ 
permanent, the Ariyan disciple should cease desiring them. 1 

1 S.iv. 151. 

1. Atula. —An upasaka of Savatthi. He went with five hundred 
others to listen to Revata, who, however, being fond of solitude, would 
not preach to him. In anger he went to Sariputta who, on hearing his 
grievances, discoursed at length on the Abhidhamma. Annoyed thereat 
he repaired to Ananda, to whom he told the story. Ananda preached 
them a very short sermon, and the upasakas in despair sought the Buddha. 
The Buddha pointed out to them that they had been too hasty in their 
condemnation. At the end of the discourse Atula and his companions 
gained the First Fruit of the Path. 1 

1 DhA.iii. 325-9. 

2. Atula. —A naga king. The Bodhisatta in the time of Sumana 
Buddha. He had music played before the Buddha and gave him a 
pair of robes. 1 

1 J. i. 34; Bu. v. 15 f.; Mbv. 10. 

3. Atula. —A naga king. The Bodhisatta in Vipassi Buddha's time. 
He offered the Buddha a golden seat embossed with jewels. 1 

1 J. i. 41; Mbv. 11; Bu. xx. 10 f. 

4. Atula. —A celebrated 
six others. 1 

physician of old, mentioned in a list with 
1 Mil. 272. 

5. Atula. —Son of Sikhl, who later became Sikh! Buddha. His 
mother was Sabbakama. 1 

1 Bu. xxi. 17; DA. ii. 422. 


[ Atulamba 

Atulamba. —The mango tree produced by the juggler Bhan$u-kanna 
to make Prince Mahapanada laugh. The mango is known as Vessavana’s 
mango and it is impossible to approach it. 1 

1 J. iv. 324; see also ii. 397. 

Atulya. —King. A previous birth of Asanatthavika Thera. Twenty- 
seven kappas ago he was king seven times under this name. 1 

1 Ap. i. 255. 

1. Atta Sutta. —Self-possession is the forerunner of the Eightfold 
Path. 1 

1 S. v. 36. 

2. Atta Sutta. —The self-possessed monk develops the Eightfold Path. 1 

1 S. v. 37. 

Attakara Sutta. —On individuality and non-individuality; preached in 
answer to a brahmin's questions. 1 

1 A.iii. 337 f. 

Attanuvada Sutta. —On the four kinds of fears: fear of self-reproach, 
of others' reproach, of punishment, and of woeful state. 1 

1 A. ii. 121 f. 

Attadanda Sutta. —The fifteenth sutta of the Atthakavagga of the Sutta 
Nipata. 1 It was preached by the Buddha when he went to settle the 
quarrel between the Sakiyans and the Koliyans. It was the last to be 
preached on that occasion. At the end of the discourse their quarrels 
ceased and five hundred Sakiyan and five hundred Koliyan youths 
entered the Order by way of ehibhihhhupabbajjal. 2 The sutta deals with 
various aspects of self-control and a description of one who might be 
called a muni. 

1 Sn. 182 f. s SnA. 566-9; J. v. 413-4. 

Attantapa Sutta. —On the self-tormentor who practices various 
austerities, and the tormentor of others—butcher, fisherman, etc.— 
and those who, like some kings, torment both themselves and others. 1 

1 A. ii. 203 ff. 

Attadattha Thera. —When the Buddha announced that he would pass 
away in four months, many puthujjana- monks, out of affection for him, 
stayed near him, not knowing what to do. But Atthadattha, deter- 


AtthadassI ] 

mined to realise the aim of his pabbajja in the Buddha's lifetime, dwelt 
apart, in earnest striving. His action was reported to the Buddha who, 
on learning what his purpose was, greatly praised him and held him up 
as an example to the others. At the end of the Buddha's sermon the 
thera became an arahant. 1 

1 DhA.iii. 158-64. 

Attahita Sutta. —Three suttas on the four kinds of people in the world: 
bent on their own profit; on another's profit; on the profit of both; on 
the profit of neither. 1 

1 A.ii. 97 ff. 

Attadlpa Vagga. —Of the Samyutta Nikaya, 1 contains ten suttas on 
the nature of the body and the self. 

1 S.iii. 42 if. 

Attadlpa Sutta. — Monks should be refuges unto themselves, the 
Dhamma should be their refuge. They should seek for the very source 
of things in the impermanence of the five Khandhas. 1 

1 S. iv. 42 f. 

Attalhidhatusena Vihara. —A monastery built by King Dhatusena. 1 

1 Cv. xxxviii.49. 

Atthakarana Sutta.—Pasenadi tells the Buddha how, when he was 
sitting in the judgment-hall (atthakarana), eminent nobles and brahmins 
and burgesses deliberately told lies because of their worldly desires and he 
was disgusted. The Buddha tells him that their action in doing so will 
be a source of ill to them for a long time 1 (v.l. Atta 0 ). 

1 S. i. 74 f. 

Atthakama Vagga. —The fifth section of Eka 
katthakatha. 1 

1 J.i. 234-61. 

Nipata of the Jata- 

Atthakula Sutta. —The reasons why certain families, having attained 
great possessions, fail to last long. 1 

1 A.ii. 249 f. 

1. AtthadassI. —The fourteenth of the twenty-four Buddhas. He was 
born in Sobhana in the Sucindhanu pleasaunee, his parents being Sagara 
and Sudassana. 1 He was so called because at his birth people recovered 
1 Bu. xv.; BuA. 178 ff. 


[ Atthadassl 

long-buried treasures. His wife was Visakha and his son Sena (Sela 
according to the Buddhavamsa Commentary). He lived for 10,000 
years as a householder in thiee palaces— Amaragiri, Suragiri and 
Girivahana. He left home on a horse called Sudassana. His penance 
lasted eight months, and his meal of milk-rice was given by a naga woman, 
Sucindhara. A naga, Dhammaruci, gave him the grass which he spread 
at the foot of the campaka tree, where he reached Enlightenment. His 
first sermon was preached in the Anoma-park near Anoma. His chief 
disciples were Santa, the king's son, and Upasanta, son of the chaplain 
of Sucandaka. His chief women disciples were Dhamma and Sudhamma. 
Abhaya was his attendant, and his patrons were Nakula and Nisabha 
among the laymen, and Makila and Sunanda among the lay-women. 
The Bodhisatta was a jatila, Suslma of Campaka, and he offered the 
Buddha a canopy of flowers brought from the deva-world. Atthadassl 
died at the age of 100,000 years at Anomarama in Anupama and his 
relics were scattered in various places. He appeared in the Mandakappa, 
in the company of two others, PiyadassT and Dhammadassl. 2 

2 J.i.39. 

2. Atthadassl. —A thera in Ceylon who, in company with two others, 
Buddhamitta and Buddhadeva, asked that the Jatakatthakatha be 
written. 1 He was probably an incumbent of the Mahavihara in Anura- 
dhapura. 2 

1 J. i. 1; Gv. 68. 2 See Pali Lit. of Ceylon, 125. 

3. Atthadassl. —One of the mythological kings of Kapilavatthu. 1 

1 Dip. iii. 41. 

4. Atthadassl. —A thera in Ceylon, supposed by some to be the author 
of the Bhesajjamanjusa and to have been the head of the Panca-mula- 
parivena. 1 

1 Pali Lit. of Ceylon , 215. 

Atthavasa Vagga. —The seventeenth chapter of the Duka Nipata 
of the Anguttara Nikaya. 1 It deals with the aims behind the Buddha's 
injunctions to monks with regard to the practice of samatha and vipas- 
sand , to be employed as remedies against lust, etc. 

1 A.i. 98-100. 

1. Atthavyakhyana.— By Culabuddha Thera of Ceylon; a book on 
grammar or exegesis. 1 

1 Sa-s. 34; Bode: Pali Lit . of Burma, 28. 

Atthiraga Sutta ] 


2. Atthavyakhyana. —By Culla-Vajira (of Ceylon). 1 

1 Gv. 60. 

3. Atthavyakhyana —By Culla-Vimalabuddhi; written, says the 
Gandhavamsa, independently, according to his own convictions. 1 

1 Gv. 70. 

Atthasandassaka Thera.— An arahant. In Padumuttara’s time he 
was a brahmin named Narada. Seeing the Buddha going along, attended 
by his monks, he uttered the Buddha's praises in three stanzas. 130 
kappas ago he was born as a king named Sukhitta. 1 He is probably 
identical with Nagita Thera. 

1 Ap. i. 168. 

Atthasalini (Atthasalini). —Buddhaghosa's commentary on the Dham- 
masanganippakarana of the Abhidhamma Pitaka. It was originally 
written in India, 1 but was probably revised in Ceylon as it mentions 2 
the Samantapasadika, also various Atthakathas and the Visuddhi- 

1 Mhv. xxxvi. 225; Sas. 31. 2 pp. 97-8. 

Atthassadvara Jataka (No. 84).—The Bodhisatta was once born as a 
very wealthy setthi in Benares. He had a son who, when only seven years 
old, showed great intelligence and anxiety for his own spiritual welfare. 
One day the boy asked his father which were the paths leading to welfare 
and on being told them he followed their teaching. 

The story was told in reference to a similar child, the son of a wealthy 
setthi of Savatthi. The father, not being able to answer the boy's 
questions, took him to the Buddha at Jetavana. 1 

1 J.i. 366-7. 

“ Atthinukhopariyaya ” Sutta. —Is there a method by following which 
a monk could affirm that he has won insight ? 44 Yes," answers the 

Buddha; a monk beholding an object or hearing a sound, etc., recognises 
it with the eye of wisdom and of reason, whether it produces in him lust, 
etc., or not. This method leads to insight apart from belief, hearsay, etc. 1 

1 S.i. 138. 

Atthiraga Sutta. —All existence is the result of attachment to the 
four kinds of food: kabalihkara (solid food), phassa (contact), mano- 
sancetand (will), and vinnana (consciousness). This is explained with 
various similes. 1 

1 S. ii. 101-4. 


[ Attho Sutta 

Attho Sutta. —See Virocana-asurinda Sutta. 

Athabbana (Athabbana). —A branch of knowledge, dabbling in which 
is forbidden to monks. 1 When spoken in conjunction with the three 
Vedas, it is mentioned as a fourth branch of Veda with itihdsa as the 
fifth. 2 It is explained as athabbanika-manta-payoga (the trade of the 
wonder-worker 3 ). 

1 Sn. vs. 927. 2 DA. i. 247. 3 SnA.ii.564. 

Athalayunnafla.— A district in S. India. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvi. 261. 

Athalayuru-nadalvara.-— A Damila chieftain. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvi. 140, 260; lxxvii. 27. 

Adanta Vagga. —The fourth chapter of the Eka Nipata of the Angut- 
tara Nikaya. 1 It consists of ten suttas on the untamed mind. 

1 A.i. 6f. 

Adalidda Sutta. —The rich man is he who possesses the seven boj- 
jhanqd. 1 

1 S. v. 100. 

Adassana Sutta (five).—Diverse opinions arise in the world because 
of the failure to see the five sankhard their nature, etc. 1 

1 S. iii. 260. 

Aditi. —Mother of the sun, who is called Adieca, which is explained as 
Aditiyd putto. 1 

1 DA.iii. 963. 

Adiuna Sutta. —Few are they that abstain from taking what is not 
given. 1 

1 S. v. 469. 

Adinnapubbaka. —A brahmin of Savatthi, father of Mattakundall, 
so called because he never gave anything to anyone. When, later, 
Mattakundali, having been born in heaven, visits him and persuades him 
to take refuge with the Buddha, he invites the Buddha with his monks to 
a meal at his house. At the conclusion of the meal Mattakundall appears 
again and Adinnapubbaka, after listening to the Buddha’s preaching, 
attains the First Fruit of the Path. 1 

1 DhA. i. 25-30; VvA. 322 f. 

Adhamma Vagga ] 


Addilarattha. —A kingdom where once lived a poor man named 
Kotuhalaka, who, in the present age, became Ghosita-setthi. Food being 
very scarce in the country, Kotuhalaka and his family left it. 1 

1 DA. i. 317; MA.i.539. 

Adinasattu.— See Alinasattu. 

Adukkhamasukhi Sutta. —A group of twenty-six suttantas, dealing 
with various heresies regarding the soul. 1 

1 S.iii. 220-2. 

Addha Vagga. —The seventh chapter of the Devata Samyutta of the 
Samyutta Nikaya. 1 The Samyutta Commentary 2 calls it Anvavagga. 

1 S. i. 39-41. 2 SA> im 75 . See also KS. i. 54, n. 4. 

Addhariya-brahmana. —The word occurs in a list of brahmin teachers 
in the Tevijja Sutta. 1 They teach a state of union with Brahma. These 
are evidently Adhvaryu brahmins. 

1 D. i. 237. 

Addhuvasila. —A youth who stole ornaments to win the daughter of 
his teacher. He failed in his quest. The story is given in the Silavimam- 
sana Jdtaha. 1 

1 J.iii. 18-20. 

Adhanapali. —Given as an example of a name. 1 

1 J.i. 403. 

Adhamma. —A Kamavacara god, Devadatta, in a previous birth. He 
appeared to men on fast days and admonished them to lead evil lives. 
Once he met Dhamma (the Bodhisatta), and the two had a discussion 
in mid-air, at the end of which Adhamma plunged headlong into hell. 1 

His vehicle was called Adhammayana. 

1 J. iv. 100-3. 

Adhamma Vagga. —The tenth chapter of the Eka Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. 1 It consists of forty-two suttas, dealing chiefly 
with the harm that arises from monks describing what is not Dhamma as 
Dhamma and vice versa . 

1 A. i. 16-19. 


[ Adhamma Sutta 

Adhamma Sutta. —Three suttas describing dhamma and adhamma 
and their different qualities. 1 In the last Ananda explains in detail 
what the Buddha taught to the monks in brief. 

1 A. v. 222 ff. 

Adhammavadl. —A monk who lived soon after the death of Kassapa 
Buddha. Having been guilty of various offences, he was charged by 
his colleague Dhammavadi ; he persuaded certain vinayadhara monks to 
give an ex parte judgment in his favour. 1 The two monks who were 
chiefly responsible for this judgment were later known as Hemavata 
and Satagira. 1 

1 SnA.i. 195-7. 

Adhammika Sutta. —The evils resulting from the unrighteousness of 
kings and the benefits of their righteousness. 1 

1 A. ii. 74 f. 

Adharatteri. —A district in S. India. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvii. 69. 

Adhikakka. —A ford, evidently a well-known bathing-ghat, where 
pilgrims used to bathe in order to obtain purification from their sins. 
It is mentioned in a list of rivers and ghats. 1 

1 M.i. 39. 

Adhikarana Vagga. —The second chapter of the Duka Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. It consists of ten suttas on the value of self- 
examination in disputes and several other topics, such as the reasons for 
being born in heaven and in purgatory, abstention from immorality, 
the holiness of the letter of the Dhamma, etc. 1 

1 A. i. 52-8. 

Adhikaranasamatha Vagga. —One of the divisions of the Sutta- 
vibhanga on the procedure for settling disputes. 

Adhicitta Sutta. —The qualities necessary for the monk developing 
higher consciousness. 1 

1 A. ii. 256 f. It is quoted in the Vibhanga Commentary, 229 f. 

Adhieehattiya Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he placed a 
parasol on the thupa containing the relics of Atthadassi Buddha. 1 He is 
evidently identical with Samidatta 2 ( v.l . Chattadhiehattiya). 

1 Ap.i. 170. 2 ThagA.i. 189. 

Anangana Jataka ] 


Adhigama Sutta. —On the qualities requisite for acquiring good states 
and for fostering them. 1 

1 A.iii. 431 f. 

1. Adhimutta.— A brahmin of Savatthi. Dissatisfied with brahmin 
learning, he looked for salvation elsewhere, and hearing the Buddha 
preach at the presentation of Jetavana, entered the Order, becoming an 
arahant in due course. 1 A verse addressed by him to some corpulent 
monks is found in the Theragatha. 2 

In Padumuttara's time he was a learned brahmin and became an 
ascetic. Later he met the Buddha, offered him a bark-robe and uttered 
his praises in song. He is probably identical with Sabbakittika of the 
Apadana. 3 

1 ThagA. i. 224. 2 v. 114. 3 i. 323-4. 

2. Adhimutta.-— See Atimuttaka (2). 

Adhimutti Sutta. —Preached to Ananda on the ten powers of a Tatha- 
gata. 1 

1 A. v. 36 f. 

Adhokurangama. —A village in the district of Alisara in North Ceylon; 
a fortification there of Gajabahu was captured by Parakkamabahu I. 1 

1 Cv. lxx. 171. 

Adhoganga.— See Ganga. 

Adhopupphiya Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he was a 
hermit of great power in Himava and offered flowers to Abhibhu, the 
chief disciple of Sikhi Buddha. Soon afterwards he was eaten up by a 
boa-constrictor. 1 

1 Ap.i. 128-9. 

Anangana Jataka. —Mentioned in the Anguttara Commentary, 1 among 
the Jatakas revealed by the Buddha at Sahkassa in answer to the 
questions asked by Sariputta. No story of this name is found in the 
Jataka Commentary, but the verse quoted in the Anguttara Commentary 
is found in the Jhdnasodhana Jataka , 2 for which evidently this was 
another name. An Anangana Vatthu is mentioned in the Samantapa- 
sadika, 3 but the reference is not clear, and probably refers to Anangana 
Sutta (infra). 

1 i. 74. 2 J. i. 473 f. 3 i. 158. 


[ Anangana Sutta 

Anangana Sutta.—A record of a conversation between Sariputta and 
Moggallana on the nature of blemishes (anganani) and on the benefits of 
recognising and removing them. 1 

1 M.i.24 ff. 

Anatam Sutta.—See Anta. 

Ananaka Sutta.—The four kinds of bliss possible to a householder: 
a bliss of ownership, of wealth, of debtlessness and of blamelessness. 1 

1 A.ii. 69 f. 

Anaticarl Sutta.—A 

heaven. 1 

woman who is no adulteress will be born in 
1 S. iv. 244. 

1. Anatta Sutta.—Preached to Radha at Savatthi in answer to his 
question “ What is not-self V’ 1 

1 S. iii. 196. 

2 and 3. Anatta Suttas.—The occasion is the same. That which is 
without a self must be put away. 1 

1 S. iii. 199 and 201. 

4. Anatta Sutta.—The idea of 
to great profit. 1 


“ not-self,” 
S. v. 133. 

when cultivated, conduces 

Anattaniya Sutta.—For that which does not belong to the self, desire 
must be put away. 1 

1 S. iii. 78. 

Anattalakhana Vatthu.—The story of five hundred monks. The 
Buddha, knowing their past, advises them to reflect on the “ selfishness ” 
of the khandhas. 1 These monks had devoted themselves to meditation 
on this topic for 20,000 years in the dispensation of Kassapa Buddha. 

1 DhA. iii. 406-7. 

Anattalakhana Sutta.—Preached five days after the Dhammacakkapa- 
vattana Sutta to the Pancavaggiya monks, all of whom became arahants 
at the conclusion of the sermon. 1 No self is to be found in any of the 
five khandhas, all of which are impermanent and subject to woe. The 
1 Yin. i. 13-14; J. i. 82; iv. 180; Dpv. i. 34; MA. i. 390; AA. i. 57, 84. 

Ananusociya Jataka ] 


sutta does not deal with the question as to whether the self exists or not; 
it only shows that the khandhas are not the self. 

In the Samyutta Nikaya 2 the discourse is called the Paiica Sutta, the 
five referred to being the Pancavaggiya who listened to it. 

2 iii# 66 f. 

1. Anatta Sutta. —All the khandhas are without the self. The Ariyan 
disciple feels revulsion towards them realising that, for him, there is 
no hereafter. 1 

1 S. iii. 21. 

2. Anatta Sutta.— Same as above. 1 

1 S.iii. 77. 

3. Anatta Sutta. —All objects of the senses (sights, sounds, etc.), both 
external (bdhira) and personal (ajjhatta), are void of a self. 1 

1 S. iv. 2, 4, 6. 

4. Anatta Sutta. —Everything is void of self. 1 

1 S. iv. 28. 

Anattena Sutta. —Lust and desire for that which is without a self 
should be put away. 1 

1 S. iii. 178. 

Anatthataya Sutta. —Negligence ( pamdda) conduces to great loss. 1 

1 A.i. 16. 

Anatthapucchakabrahmana Vatthu. —Story of a brahmin who asked 
the Buddha whether he knew only of that which was good or did he 
know evil as well ? The Buddha set his doubts at rest. 1 

1 DhA.ii. 227-9. 

Ananutappiya Sutta. —Preached by Sariputta on how a monk should 
deport himself so as to have no occasion for repentance. 1 

1 A. iii. 294 f. 

Ananusociya Jataka (No. 328). —The Bodhisatta was born as a rich brah¬ 
min in Benares. After his education at Takkasila his parents wished him 
to marry. After much persuasion he agreed to do so, if they could find a 
woman like a golden image which he would make. Emissaries were sent 
out and they found a girl of sixteen, SamillabhasinI, in the Kasi kingdom. 


[ Ananussuta Sutta 

She did not wish to marry either, but yielded to her parent’s wishes. 
Though the two young people were married they lived in celibacy and 
when their parents died they gave away their immense wealth and 
became ascetics. Samillabhasini died of dysentery caused by unsatis¬ 
factory meals. The Bodhisatta coming back from his begging-rounds 
found her dead on a bench, but proceeded to eat his meal much to the 
surprise of the onlookers. On being questioned, “ Why should I weep ?” 
he said “that which has the quality of dissolution is dissolved.” 

The story was related in reference to a landowner who, when his wife 
died, gave himself up to despair. The Buddha, seeing his upanissaya, 
went out to meet him and told him the story, whereupon he obtained 
the First Fruit of the Path. 1 

1 J.iii.92-7. 

Ananussuta Sutta. —The five-fold power of a Tathagata. 1 

1 A.iii. 9 f. 

Ananta. —The serpent king referred to under Anantapokkharani, but 
not elsewhere mentioned in the old books. He is also called Anantabhoga. 
For details see Hopkins’ Epic Mythology (pp. 23-4). 

Anantakaya. —An attendant of King Milinda who was sent by the 
king to escort Nagasena from the monastery to Sagala. On his way 
he questioned the Elder about the soul and we are told that the latter 
talked to him from the Abhidhamma to such effect that Anantakaya 
became a convert. 1 He is probably to be identified with Antiochus, 
attendant of Menander. 2 

1 Mil.30-1. 2 Milinda Questions, I. xix., xlii. 

Anantajall. —King. A previous birth of Bhajanadayaka fifty-three 
kappas ago 1 (v.l. Antarajali). 

1 Ap. i. 218. 

Anantajina. —An epithet of the Buddha. When Upaka, the ajivika, 
saw the Buddha, and heard of his attainments, Anantajina was one of 
the names he used in uttering the Buddha’s praises. 1 Later, when having 
quarrelled with his wife Capa, he sought the Buddha at Savatthi, it was 
“ Anantajina ” he asked for. 2 

1 ThagA. i. 220. 

2 Ibid., 222; SnA.i.260; MA.i.389. 

Anabhirati-bhikkhu Vatthu ] 


Anantapokkharani. —A pond constructed by Parakkamabahu I. in 
Pulatthipura. The steps surrounding the pond were laid like the coils of 
the serpent-king Ananta. 1 

1 Cv. lxxiii. 120. 

Anantarapeyyala. —One of the sections of the Vidhura Jataka. 1 

1 J. vi. 304. 

Anantarabhandaka-tittha. —A ford in the Mahavaluka-ganga in 

Ceylon. 1 

1 Cv. lxxii.16. 

Anantava Sutta. —On the world as being unlimited. 1 

1 S. iii. 215. 

1. Anabhirati Jataka (No. 65).—Women cannot be regarded as private 
property. They are common to all; they extend universal hospitality. 

The Bodhisatta was once a famous teacher of Benares. A pupil of his, 
finding his wife unfaithful, was so affected by the discovery that he 
kept away from classes. When asked why, he told his teacher the whole 
story; the latter consoled him by telling him that all women were 

The story was told to an upasaka who came to visit the Buddha. 
Once, on discovering his wife's faithlessness, he had words with her and 
kept away from the vihara. 1 

1 J. i. 301-2; see also DhA. iii. 348 ff., where the details given are slightly 

2. Anabhirati Jataka (No. 185).—Told to a young brahmin of Savatthi 
who knew the three vedas by heart. When he married his mind became 
darkened. He visited the Buddha, who talked to him pleasantly and 
discovered in the course of conversation that his memory had grown 
weak. The same thing had happened to him in the past, said the 
Buddha. Serenity of mind is essential for good memory. 1 

1 J.ii. 99-101. 

Anabhirati Sutta. —The idea of distaste for all the world, if cultivated, 
is fruitful. 1 

1 S. v. 132. 

Anabhirati-bhikkhu Vatthu. —The story of a discontented monk. 
When the monk was away engaged in study, his father fell sick and died 
before his son could be summoned to see him. The father, on his death- 


[ Anabhisamaya Suita 

bed, left with his other, younger son, a hundred pieces, to be given to 
the monk. At first the monk refused to accept the money, but later 
he felt a desire to take it and to return to the lay life. Indecision made 
him ill and he was taken before the Buddha. The latter, by getting him 
to enumerate the things which he could buy with the money, made it 
clear to him that the amount of his inheritance would be very little, and 
that no amount of wealth could ever be sufficient to gratify one’s needs, 
relating the Mandhdta Jataka to illustrate the truth of his words. 1 

1 DhA.iii. 238-45. 

Anabhisamaya Sutta. — Preached to the wanderer Vacchagotta. 

Diverse opinions arise in the world through not seeing the nature of the 
body, etc. 1 

1 S. iii. 260. 

Anamatagga Samyutta. —The fifteenth section of the Sarnyutta Nikaya. 
It contains a collection of sayings on the incalculable beginning of 
Samsara. 1 After the Third Council, the Thera Rakkhita, who went to 
Vanavasa, preached the Anamatagga Samyutta there and converted 
60,000 persons. 2 On the fourth day of Mahinda’s visit to Ceylon he 
preached this Samyutta in the Nandanavana in Anuradhapura. 3 The 
Patheyyaka monks became arahants after listening to the Buddha 
preaching the Anamataggani. 4 

1 S. ii. 17835. 3 ibid., xv. 186; Sp. i. 81; Mbv. 114. 

2 Mhv. xii. 32 f. * d^A. ii. 32. 

Anagata Sutta. —The five kinds of anticipatory fears that should make 
a forest-dwelling monk zealous and active. 1 

1 A. iii. 100 f. 

Anagatavamsa. —A poem on the story of Metteyya, the future Buddha, 
by an elder named Kassapa, 1 an inhabitant of the Cola country. 2 The 
poem is probably based on an older work. 3 A tika exists, written by 
an Upatissa, possibly the author of the Mahabodhivamsa. The intro¬ 
ductory verses of the poem state that the story was preached by the 
Buddha at Sariputta’s request. For the text see J.P.T.S., 1886, pp. 32 ff. 

1 Gv. 61. 2 Svd. v. 1204. 3 P.L.C., 160 f. 

Anagami Sutta. —The six 

the Path. 1 

qualities necessary for the third Fruit of 
1 A. iii. 421. 

Anathapindika ] 


Anagami-thera Vatthu. —Story of a monk who became anagami; when 
asked by his pupils, however, he did not say anything regarding his 
attainment. After death he was born in the Sllddhavasa. His 
pupils, grieving for him in their ignorance, were enlightened by the 
Buddha. 1 

1 DhA.iii. 288-9. 

Anatha. —A Pacceka Buddha of thirty-one kappas ago. Uddalapup- 
phiya Thera, in a previous birth, offered him an uddala-ft ower. 1 

1 Ap. i. 288. 

Anathapindika. —A banker {setthi) of Savatthi who became famous 
because of his unparalleled generosity to the Buddha. His first meeting 
with the Buddha was during the first year after the Enlightenment, 
in Rajagaha, 1 whither Anathapindika had come on business. His wife 
was the sister of the setthi of Rajagaha, and when he arrived he found the 
setthi preparing a meal for the Buddha and his monks on so splendid 
a scale that he thought that a wedding was in progress or that the king 
had been invited. On learning the truth he became eager to visit the 
Buddha, and did so very early the next morning. 2 He was so excited by 
the thought of the visit that he got up three times during the night. 
When, at last, he started for Sitavana, the road was quite dark, but a 
friendly yakkha, SIvaka, sped him on with words of encouragement. By 
force of his piety the darkness vanished. 

The Buddha was staying in the Sitavana, and when Anathapindika 
reached there spirits opened the door for him. He found the Buddha 
walking up and down, meditating in the cool air of the early dawn. 
The Buddha greeted him and talked to him on various aspects of his 
teaching. Anathapindika was immediately converted and became a 
Sotapanna. He invited the Buddha to a meal the next day, providing 
everything himself, although the setthi, the Mayor of Rajagaha and 
King Bimbisara, asked to be allowed to help. After the meal, which 
he served to the Buddha with his own hand, he invited the Buddha to 
spend the rainy season at Savatthi, and the Buddha accepted, saying 
“the Tathagatas, 0 householder, take pleasure in solitude/' “I 
understand, 0 Blessed One, I understand," was the reply. 

When Anathapindika had finished his business at Rajagaha he set ouh 
towards Savatthi, giving orders along the way to his friends and ac- 

1 The story is given in Vin. ii. 154 ff;. SA.i. 240 if., etc. 

2 Vin. ii. 155-6. 


[ Anathapindika 

quaintances 3 to prepare dwellings, parks, rest-houses and gifts all along 
the road to Savatthi in preparation for the Buddha's visit. Understand¬ 
ing the request implied in the Buddha's words when he accepted the in¬ 
vitation, Anathapindika looked out for a quiet spot near Savatthi where 
the Buddha and the monks might dwell, and his eye fell on the park of 
Jetakumara. He bought the park at great expense and erected therein 
the famous Jetavanarama. 4 As a result of this and of his numerous 
other benefactions in the cause of the Sasana, Anathapindika came to be 
recognised as the chief of alms-givers. 5 

Anathapindika's personal name was Sudatta, but he was always called 
Anathapindika 6 (feeder of the destitute) because of his munificence; 
he was, however, very pleased when the Buddha addressed him by his 
own name. 7 He spent eighteen crores on the purchase of Jetavana and 
a like sum on the construction of the vihara; another eighteen crores 
were spent in the festival of dedication. He fed one hundred monks 
in his house daily in addition to meals provided for guests, people of the 
village, invalids, etc. Five hundred seats were always ready in his 
house for any guests who might come. 8 

Anathapindika's father was the setthi Sumana 9 . 

Anathapindika married a lady called Punnalakkhana 10 ; he had a son 
Kala and three daughters, Maha-Subaddha, Cula-Subaddha and Sumana. 

Mention is also made of a daughter-in law, Sujata by name, daughter of 
Dhananjaya and the youngest sister of Visakha. She was very haughty 
and ill-treated the servants. 11 

The son, in spite of his father's efforts, showed no piety until he was 
finally bribed to go to the vihara and listen to the Buddha's preaching. 12 
The daughters, on the other hand, were most dutiful and helped their 
father in ministering to the monks. The two elder ones attained to 
the First Fruit of the Path, married, and went to live with the families 
of their husbands. Sumana obtained the Second Fruit of the Path, but 
remained unmarried. Overwhelmed with disappointment because of 

3 He had many friends and acquaint¬ 
ances and he was adeyyavaco (his 
word was held to be of weight), loc. cit., 
p. 168. But see J. i. 92, where it is said 
that Anathapindika bore all the expenses 
of these preparations. Viharas were 
built costing 1,000 pieces each, a yojana 
apart from each other. 

4 q.v. for details. 

5 A.i. 25. 

6 AA. i. 208; MA. i. 50. 

7 Vin.ii. 156. 

8 AA. i. 208-9. He fed 1,000 monks 
daily says DhA. i. 128; but see J. iii. 
119, where a monk, who had come from 
far away and had missed the meal hour, 
had to starve. 

9 AA. loc. cit. 

10 J. ii. 410; J. iii. 435. She was the 
sister of the setthi of Rajagaha. SA. i 

11 J. ii. 347. 

32 See s.v. Kala. 

Anfithapindika ] 


her failure in finding a husband, she refused to eat and died; she was 
reborn in Tusita. 13 

The Bhadraghata Jdtaha u tells us of a nephew of Anathapindika who 
squandered his inheritance of forty crores. His uncle gave him first 
one thousand and then another five hundred with which to trade. This 
also he squandered. Anathapindika then gave him two garments. On 
applying for further help the man was taken by the neck and pushed 
out of doors. A little later he was found dead by a side wall. 

The books also mention a girl, Punna, who was a slave in Anatha- 
pindika's household. On one occasion when the Buddha was starting 
on one of his periodical tours from Jetavana, the king, Anathapindika, 
and other eminent patrons failed to stop him; Punna, however, succeeded, 
and in recognition of this service Anathapindika adopted her as his 
daughter. 15 On uposatha days his whole household kept the fast; on all 
occasions they kept the pancasila inviolate (J. iii. 257). 

A story is told of one of his labourers who had forgotten the day and 
gone to work; but remembering later, he insisted on keeping the fast 
and died of starvation. He was reborn as a deva. 16 

Anathapindika had a business village in Kasi and the superintendent 
of the village had orders to feed any monks who came there. 17 
One of his servants bore the inauspicious name of Kalakanni (curse); 
he and the banker had been playmates as children, and Kalakanni, having 
fallen on evil days, entered the banker's service. The latter's friends 
protested against his having a man with so unfortunate a name in 
his household, but he refused to listen to them. One day when 
Anathapindika was away from home on business, burglars came to 
rob his house, but Kalakanni with great presence of mind drove them 
away. 18 

A similar story is related of another friend of his who was also in his 
service. 19 

All his servants, however, were not so intelligent. A slave woman of 
his, seeing that a fly had settled on her mother, hit her with a pestle 
in order to drive it away, and killed her. 20 

A slave girl of his borrowed an ornament from his wife and went with 
her companions to the pleasure garden. There she became friendly with 
a man who evidently desired to rob her of her ornaments. On discovering 
his intentions, she pushed him into a well and killed him with a stone. 21 

13 DhA. i. 128 f. 

14 J. ii. 431. 

15 MA.i. 347-8. 

16 MA. i. 640-1. 

17 Vin. iv. 162 f. 

18 J. i. 364 f. 

19 Ibid ., 441. 

20 Ibid ., 248 f. 

21 J. iii. 436. 


[ An&thapindika 

The story of Anathapindika’s cowherd, Nanda, is given elsewhere (s.v. 

All the banker’s friends were not virtuous; one of them kept a tavern. 22 

As a result of Anathapindika’s selfless generosity he was gradually 
reduced to poverty. But he continued his gifts even when he had only 
bird-seed and sour gruel. The devata who dwelt over his gate appeared 
before him one night and warned him of his approaching penury; it is 
said that every time the Buddha or his monks came to the house she 
had to leave her abode over the gate and that this was inconvenient to 
her and caused her to be jealous. Anathapindika paid no attention to 
her warnings and asked her to leave the house. She left with her 
children, but could find no other lodging and sought counsel from various 
gods, including Sakka. Sakka advised her to recover for Anathapindika 
the eighteen crores that debtors owed him, another eighteen that lay in 
the bottom of the sea, and yet eighteen more lying unclaimed. She did 
so and was readmitted. 23 

Anathapindika went regularly to see the Buddha twice a day, some¬ 
times with many friends, 24 and always taking with him alms for the 
young novices. But we are told that he never asked a question of the 
Buddha lest he should weary him. He did not wish the Buddha to feel 
obliged to preach to him in return for his munificence. 25 But the Buddha 
of his own accord preached to him on various occasions; several such 
sermons are mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya: on the importance of 
having a well-guarded mind like a well-protected gable in a house 26 ; 
on the benefits the recipient of food obtains (life, beauty, happiness, 
strength); on the four obliagtions that make up the pious householder’s 
path of duty ( gihisdmikiccdni 27 —waiting on the Order with robes, food, 
lodgings, medical requirements); on the four conditions of success that 
are hard to win (wealth gotten by lawful means, good report, longevity, 
happy rebirth); on the four kinds of happiness which a householder 
should seek (ownership, wealth, debtlessness, blamelessness). 28 Then 
again, on the five kinds of enjoyment which result from wealth right¬ 
fully obtained (enjoyment—experienced by oneself and by one’s friends 
and relations, security in times of need, ability to pay taxes and to spend 
on one’s religion, the giving of alms to bring about a happy rebirth 29 ); 

22 J. i. 251. 

23 DhA.iii.10fL; J.i.227 ff. 

24 J. i. 95 ff.; he went three times says 
J. i. 226. 

25 DhA.i.3. 

26 A. i. 261 f. 

27 Referred to also in S. v. 387, where 

Anathapindika expresses his satisfaction 
that he had never failed in these obliga¬ 

28 These various tetrads are given in 
A. ii. 64 ff. 

29 A. iii. 45-6. 

Anathapindika ] 


the five things which are very desirable but difficult to obtain (long 
life, beauty, happiness, glory, good condition of rebirth 30 ); the five 
sinful acts that justify a man’s being called wicked (hurting of life, etc. 31 ); 
the inadvisability of being satisfied with providing requisites for monks 
without asking oneself if one also experiences the joy that is born of 
ease of mind (evidently a gentle warning to Anathapindika 32 ). 

The Buddha preached the Veldma Sutta to encourage Anathapindika 
when he had been reduced to poverty and felt disappointed that he 
could no longer provide luxuries for the monks. 33 On another occasion 
the Buddha tells Anathapindika that the Sotapanna is a happy man 
because he is free from various fears: fear of being born in hell, among 
beasts, in the realm of Peta or in some other unhappy state; he is assured 
of reaching Enlightenment. 34 

Elsewhere the Buddha tells Anathapindika that it is not every rich man 
who knows how to indulge in the pleasures of sense legitimately and 
profitably. 35 

There is, however, at least one sutta preached as a result of a question 
put by Anathapindika himself regarding gifts and those who are worthy 
to receive them 36 ; and we also find him consulting the Buddha regarding 
the marriage of his daughter, Cula Subhadda. 37 

Anathapindika died before the Buddha. As he lay grievously ill he 
sent a special message to Sariputta asking him to come (again, probably, 
because he did not want to trouble the Buddha). Sariputta went with 
Ananda and preached to him the Andthapindikovdda Sutta. 38 His pains 
left him as he concentrated his mind on the virtuous life he had led 
and the many acts of piety he had done. Later he fed the Elders with 
food from his own cooking-pot, but quite soon afterwards he died and 
was born in the Tusita heaven. That same night he visited the Buddha 
at Jetavana and uttered a song of praise of Jetavana and of Sariputta 
who lived there, admonishing others to follow the Buddha’s teaching. 

In heaven he will live as long as Visakha and Sakka. 39 Various in¬ 
cidents connected with Anathapindika are to be found in the Jatakas. 
On one occasion his services ^ere requisitioned to hold an inquiry on 
a bhikkhuni who had become pregnant. 40 

Once when the Buddha went on tour from Jetavana, Anathapindika 

30 A. iii. 47-8. 

31 Ibid., 204. 

32 Ibid ., 206-7. 

33 A. iv. 392 ff. 

34 Ibid., 405 f., also S. v. 387 f. 

35 A. v. 177 ff. 

38 A. i. 62-3. 

I 37 DhA. iii. 466. 

, 38 M. iii. 258 f.; see also S. v. 380-7, 

! which contain accounts of incidents 
connected with this visit. 

39 DA. iii. 740. 

I 40 J. i. 148. 


[ Anathapindika Vagga 

was perturbed because there was no one left for him to worship; at the 
Buddha’s suggestion, an offshoot from the Bodhi tree at Gaya was planted 
at the entrance to Jetavana (J. iv. 229). 

Once a brahmin, hearing of Anathapindika’s luck, comes to him in 
order to find out where this luck lay so that he may obtain it. The 
brahmin discovers that it lay in the comb of a white cock belonging 
to Anathapindika; he asks for the cock and it is given to him, but the 
luck flies away elsewhere, settling first in a pillow, then in a jewel, a 
club, and, finally, in the head of Anathapindika’s wife. The brahmin’s 
desire is thus frustrated. 41 

On two occasions he was waylaid by rogues. Once they tried to make 
him drink drugged toddy. He was at first shocked by their impertinence, 
but, later, wishing to reform them, frightened them away. 42 

On the other occasion, the robbers lay in wait for him as he returned 
from one of his villages; by hurrying back he escaped them. 43 

Whenever Anathapindika visited the Buddha, he was in the habit of 
relating to the Buddha various things which had come under his notice, 
and the Buddha would relate to him stories from the past containing 
similar incidents. Among the Jatakas so preached are: Ajoannaka, 
Khadirangdra , Rohini, Varum, Punnajpdti , Kdlakanni , Akatannu, Yen, 
Kusandli , Siri, Bhadraghata, Visayha, Hiari , Sirikalakanni and Sulasd , 44 

Anathapindika was not only a shrewd business man but also a keen de¬ 
bater. The Anguttara Nikaya 45 records a visit he paid to the Paribba- 
jakas when he could think of nothing better to do. A lively debate 
ensues regarding their views and the views of the Buddha as expounded 
by Anathapindika. The latter silences his opponents. When the in¬ 
cident is reported to the Buddha, he speaks in high praise of Anatha¬ 
pindika and expresses his admiration of the way in which he handled the 

During the time of Padumattara Buddha Anathapindika had been a 
householder of Hamsavati. One day he heard the Buddha speak of a 
lay-disciple of his as being the chief of alms-givers. The householder 
resolved to be so designated himself in some future life and did many 
good deeds to that end. His wish was fulfilled in this present life. 
Anathapindika is sometimes referred to as Maha Anathapindika to 
distinguish him from Cula Anathapindika. 

41 J. ii. 410 f. 44 For details see under the respective 

42 J. i. 268. names. 

43 Ibid., 413. 43 A. v. 185-9. 

Anathapindika Vagga. —The second chapter of the Devaputta 
Samyutta of the Samyutta Nikaya contains a series of verses spoken 

Anathapindikovada Sutta ] 


before the Buddha on various occasions by devas, the last of them being 
Anathapindika (reborn in the deva world). 1 

1 S. i. 51 ff. 

1. Anathapindika Sutta. —Similar to the Anathapindikovada Sutta 
(infra), but the greater part of this discourse is taken up with the words of 
consolation, courage and suggestion addressed by Sariputta to the banker, 
and we are told that his pains were allayed. No mention is made of the 
advice not to cling to matters mundane, nor of the death of the banker 
almost immediately afterwards. Instead, it is stated that Sariputta and 
Ananda were given a meal from the banker's own cooking-pot and that 
they went away after thanking him. Ananda reports to the Buddha 
the news of their visit, and the Buddha praises Sariputta for his wisdom. 1 

1 S. v. 380-5. 

2. Anathapindika Sutta. —The same as the above, but Ananda is given 
as the admonisher and Anathapindika is made to claim that he had not 
violated a single one of the obligations binding on a householder (gihi- 
samicakdni sikkhdpaddni). 1 

1 S. v. 385-7. 

3. Anathapindika Sutta. —Records a visit paid by Anathapindika to the 

Buddha, who tells him of the five kinds of guilty dread (panca-bhaydni 
verani) which are allayed in the Ariyan disciple, and of the four limbs 
of the Stream-winner (sotapattiyangani). 1 

1 S. v. 387-9. 

Anathapindika-putta-Kala Vatthu. —Story of the conversion of Anatha- 
pindika's son Kala (q.v.). 1 

1 DhA.iii. 189-92. 

Anathapindikovada Sutta.— Addressed by Sariputta to Anathapindika 

when he lay on his deathbed. It was an exhortation to him not to cling 
to mundane things. It is said that at the end of the sermon the banker 
wept aloud, never before having heard such a homily. Soon after, he 
died and was born as a deva, in which form he came to Jetavana and 
paid homage to the Buddha. 1 

In this sutta Sariputta says that such sermons were not vouchsafed 
to the white-robed laity but reserved for the duly-ordained, 2 a state¬ 
ment sometimes quoted as evidence of an esoteric doctrine in Buddhism. 

1 M.iii. 258-63. 2 Ibid., 261. 

74 [ Anathapindika-Setthi 

Anathapindika makes a request that such suttas should also be preached 
to laymen because there are young men whose eyes are but slightly 

Anathapindika-Setthi Vatthu. —Story of the goddess, guardian of 
Anathapindika's gate. 1 

1 DhA. iii. 9 ff.; for details see Anathapindika. 

Anathapindikassarama.— See Jetavana. 

Analaya Sutta. —The Buddha teaches the destruction of attachment 
and the path leading thereto. 1 

1 S.iv. 372. 

Anasava. —A Pacceka Buddha found in a list of Pacceka Buddhas. He 
lived in Isigili. 1 

1 M. iii. 70; Ap. i. 107. 

Anasava Sutta. —The Buddha teaches that which is free from asavas 
and the way thereto. 1 

1 S. iv. 369. 

Anikadatta. —See Anikaratta. 

Anikaratta. —Ruler of Varanavatl. He came to Mantavati as a suitor 
for the hand of Sumedha, but did not succeed in his quest, as Sumedha 
became a bhikkhuni after having converted Anikaratta and his retinue 1 
(v.l. Anikadatta). 

1 Thig. v. 462-515; ThigA. 272fAp. ii. 512. 

1. Anicca Vagga. —The second chapter of the Khanda Samyutta. 1 

1 S.iii. 21-5. 

2. Anicca Vagga. —The first chapter of the Salayatana Samyutta. 1 

1 S.iv. 1-6. 

3. Anicca Vagga. —The fifth chapter of the same. 1 

1 S. iv. 28-30. 

1. Anicca Sutta (see also Yadanicca Sutta). Preached at Savatthi; all 
khandhas are impermanent. 1 

1 S.iii. 21. 


Aniccata Sutta ] 

2. Anicca Sutta. —Preached at Savatthi, in reply to a monk’s question. 1 

1 S.iii. 21. 

3. Anicca Sutta. —At Savatthi, preached in reply to Radha’S questions. 1 

1 S.iii. 195. 

4. Anicca Sutta. —Same as (3); desire for what is impermanent should 
be repelled. 1 

1 S.iii. 199. 

5. Anicca Sutta. —Same as (4). 1 

1 S.iii. 200. 

6. Anicca Sutta. —All the external senses are impermanent. 1 

1 S.iv. 1-2. 

7. Anicca Sutta. —The same. Personal senses, past, present and 
future, are impermanent. 1 

1 S. iv. 3-4. 

8. Anicca Sutta. —On the impermanence of external sense-percep¬ 
tions. 1 

1 S. iv. 5. 

9. Anicca Sutta. —All is impermanent. 1 

1 S. iv. 28. 

10. Anicca Sutta. —All feeling, pleasant, painful and neutral is imper¬ 
manent. 1 

1 S.iv. 214. 

11. Anicca Sutta. —The idea of impermanence, if cultivated, is bene¬ 
ficial. 1 

1 S. v. 132. 

1. Aniccata Sutta. —The disciple who realises the impermanence of all 
khandhas has no rebirth. 1 

1 S.iii. 44-5. 

2. Aniccata (or Safina) Sutta. —The idea of impermanence, if cultivated, 
destroys sensual lust, lust for rebirth, ignorance and conceit. 1 

1 S.iii. 155-7. 

76 [ Aniccadhamma Sutta 

Aniccadhamma Sutta. —Desire for that whose nature is impermanent 
should be destroyed. 1 

1 S.iii. 199. 

Anicca Sutta. —On the seven kinds of persons who are worthy of 
homage and of gifts. 1 

1 A. iv. 13-14. 

1. Anitthigandhakumara.— The Bodhisatta, born as the son of a king of 
Benares. He hated the sight of women until he was seduced by a 
dancing-girl. He was banished from home together with the girl, and 
they lived in a forest-hut, where the girl tempted an ascetic and robbed 
him of his mystic power. The Bodhisatta, realising this, gave up the 
woman, and himself became an ascetic. The story is told in the Culla- 
palobhana-J dtaka. 1 

1 J.ii. 329-31. 

2. Anitthigandhakumara. —Similar to the above, the story being called 
the Mahapalobhana-J dtaka. 1 

1 J. iv. 469-73. 

3. Anitthigandhakumara.— Another Anitthigandha, of Savatthi. He 

refused to marry unless a woman could be found rivalling in beauty an 
image which he had made. Envoys were sent out and, in Sagala, they 
discovered a sixteen-year-old girl to answer to the desired qualifications. 
The marriage was arranged, but the girl, being very delicate, died on the 
way to the bridegroom's house. On learning the news of her death he 
was sorely grieved and gave himself up to despair. The Buddha, seeing 
his capabilities, visited his home and preached to him. At the end of 
the sermon he became a Stream-enterer. 

The story in which this account is given is called Anitthigandhakumara 
Vatthu. 1 

1 DhA.iii. 281-4. Compare with this the story of the Kusa Jataka. 

4. Anitthigandhakumara. —A Pacceka Buddha. He was the son of 
the King of Benares. In a previous birth he had been a monk for 
20,000 years, during the dispensation of Kassapa Buddha. His story 
is very similar to that of No. 3 above, the wife chosen being the daughter 
of Maddava, King of Sagala. When the princess died, on her way to be 
married, the prince gave himself up to contemplation and became a 
Pacceka Buddha. 1 A stanza attributed to him is included in the 
Khaggavisdna Sutta. 2 

1 SnA. 67 ff.; ApA. i. 126-7. 

Sn. p. 6. v. 36. 


Anlkanga ] 

Anitthigandhakumara Vatthu.— See Anitthigandhakumara (3). 

Anidassana Sutta. —The invisible and the path leading thereto. 1 

1 S. iv. 370. 

Animitta Sutta. —Preached by Moggallana ; it records an occasion 
when he experienced unconditioned rapture of the heart ( animittaceto - 
samadhi). 1 

1 S. iv. 268. 

Ammisa-cetiya. —The shrine built on the spot where the Buddha spent 
a week after the Enlightenment, gazing unwinking at the seat at the foot 
of the Bodhi tree, the seat of his great victory. It was to the north of 
the Bodhi tree. 1 

1 J.i. 77. 

Aniyata. —The third division of the Parajika of the Sutta Vibhanga. 1 

1 Vin.iii. 187-94. 

Aniruddha. —See Anuruddha. 

Anivatta Brahmadatta. —A king of Benares; so called because he never 
left a thing half done. One day on his way to the park he saw a forest 
fire which made him wish to burn all his defilements. Later, he saw 
men catching fish; one large fish broke through the net and escaped. 
Wishing to escape himself, he left the world and later became a Pacceka 
Buddha. 1 

A stanza attributed to him is included in the Khaggavisdna Sutta. 2 

1 SnA. i. 114-15; ApA. i. 159-60. 2 Sn. v. 62. 

Anissukl Sutta. —A woman who is faithful, modest, scrupulous, not 
wrathful and rich in wisdom, will be reborn in a happy condition. 1 

1 S. iv. 244. 

Anigha. —A Pacceka Buddha; occurs in a list of Pacceka 
Buddhas. 1 

1 M.iii. 70; ApA. i. 107. 

1. Anlkanga.— Son of Vikkamabahu II. He was killed by Vfradeva. 1 

1 Cv. lxi. 40. 

2. Anlkanga. —Known as the Mahadipada. In 1209 he killed the 
reigning Prince, Dhammasoka, and reigned in Pulatthinagara for seven¬ 
teen days. He was slain by Vikkantacamunakka. 1 

1 Gv. lxxx. 43. 

78 [ Anltika Sutta 

Amtika Sutta and Anitikadhamma Sutta.— On the state that is free 
from ill and the path thereto. 1 

1 S. iv. 371. 

Anukampaka Sutta. —The five ways in which a resident monk shows 
his sympathy for his lay supporters. 1 

1 A. iii. 263 f. 

Anukevatta. —A brahmin, clever in stratagem. He was used by 
Mahosadha to defeat Culani-Brahmadatta when the latter laid siege to 
Videha. Anukevatta pretended to be a traitor to his own people, and 
having won Brahmadatta’s confidence, persuaded him to raise the siege 
and go back. 1 

1 J. vi. 406-9. 

Anugara. —An eminent wandering ascetic. He is mentioned as living 
in the Paribbajakarama in the Moranivapa in Veluvana near Rajagaha. 
He was probably one of the company who was with Sakuludayi when the 
Buddha came to visit the latter. 1 

1 M.ii. 1. 

Anuggaha Sutta. —Right belief is endowed with five advantages. 1 

1 A. iii. 20-1. 

Anujlvisamiddha. —A Damila chief, ally of Kulasekhara. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvii. 33. 

Anujja (v.l. Anoja). —Wife of Vidhurapandita. She had a thousand 
sons whom she summoned to bid farewell to Yidhura when he went away 
with Punnaka. 1 She is depicted as a brave woman. 

1 J. vi. 290. 

Anutiracarl. —An otter who had a dispute with another otter, Gam- 
bhlraeari, about a fish. They appealed to a jackal, Mayavl, and lost in 
the bargain, the jackal claiming the middle of the fish as the price of his 
arbitration, leaving only the head and the tail for the otters. 1 

1 J. iii. 333 f.; DhA.iii. 141-2. 

Anuttariya Vagga. —The third chapter of the Chakka Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. 1 

1 A.iii. 309-29. 

Anupama ] 


Anuttarasaftgamavijaya (Dhammapariyaya).—One of the names by 
which the Bahudhatuka Sutta is known. 1 

1 M.iii.68. 

1. Anuttariya Sutta. —The six unsurpassables. 1 

1 A. iii. 284. 

2. Anuttariya Sutta. —A detailed explanation of the above. 1 

1 A. iii. 325 f. 

Anudhamma Sutta. —The bhikkhu, who conforms to the Dhamma, 
should live in disgust for the body, feeling, etc. 1 

1 S. iii. 40-1. 

Anupada Vagga. —The second section of the Uparipannasa of the 
Majjhima Nikaya. 1 

1 M. iii. 25 ff. 

Anupada Sutta. —Preached at Savatthi in Jetavana in praise of Sari- 
putta’S learning and understanding. It is really a description of the 
perfect disciple who has risen to mastery and perfection in noble virtue, 
noble concentration, noble perception and noble deliverance. It con¬ 
tains psychological introspective analyses which are expanded in the 
Dhammasangani. 1 

1 M. iii. 25 ff. 

Anupanahl Sutta.— 

a happy condition. 1 

The woman who is not wrathful will be born in 
1 S. iv. 244. 

1. Anupama.— City where Vessabhu Buddha was born. 1 The Buddha- 
vamsa, 2 however, gives the name of the city as Anoma. 

1 BuA. 205, 206. 2 xx ii. v> 18> 

2. Anupama. —Pleasaunce in Anupama where Vessabhu was born 
and where, after Enlightenment, he performed the twin-miracle. 1 

1 BuA. 206. 

3. Anupama. —Son of Phussa Buddha. 1 The Buddhavamsa 2 gives 
his name as Ananda. 

1 BuA. 193, 194. 

2 xix. 16. 


[ Anupama 

4. Anupama.— Son of Siddhattha Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. xvii. 15. 

5. Anupama. —City where, in Anomarama, AtthadassI Buddha died. 1 

1 BuA. 181. 

6. Anupama. —A brahmin village in the time of Anomadass! Buddha. 1 

1 BuA. 142. 

7. Anupama. —An ajivaka who gave grass to Sumana Buddha for his 
seat. 1 

1 BuA. 125. 

8. Anupama.— Son of Sumana Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. v. 23. 

9. Anupama. —A banker, father of Anupama (l). 1 

1 BuA. 122. 

10. Anupama. —A banker, father of Anupama (2). 1 

1 BuA. 125. 

1. Anupama. —Daughter of the banker Anupama (9), of the village of 
the same name. She gave a meal of milk-rice to Anomadass! Buddha just 
before his Enlightenment. 1 

1 BuA. 142. 

2. Anupama. —Daughter of the banker Anupama (10), of the village 
Anoma. She gave a meal of milk-rice to Sumana Buddha just prior 
to his Enlightenment. 1 

1 BuA. 125. 

3. Anupama.— See Magandiya. 


crimination. 1 

Sutta. —Diverse views are the result of want of dis- 
1 S. iii. 261. 

Anupadaya Sutta. —The holy life is lived with final emancipation, free 
from grasping, as its aim. 1 

1 S. y. 29. 

Anumana Sutta ] 


Anupiya (Anupiya). —A township in the Malla country to the east of 
Kapilavatthu. In the mango grove there (the Anupiya-ambavana) the 

Buddha, having arrived from Anoma and having ordained himself, spent 
the first week after his renunciation, before going to Rajagaha, thirty 
leagues away. 1 He went there again after his return from Kapilavatthu, 
whither he had gone to see his relations, and large numbers of Sakiyan 
princes joined the Order, including Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Ananda, 
Bhagu, Kimbila, Devadatta and their barber, Upali. 2 

It was during this stay that the Buddha preached the Sukhavihari 
Jataka . 3 From Anupiya the Buddha went to Kosambl. 4 Near 
Anupiya was the pleasaunce where the paribbajaka of the Bhaggava- 
gotta lived. The Buddha visited him once while staying at Anupiya 
and it was then that he preached the Pdtika Sutta. 5 
Anupiya was the birthplace of Dabba Mallaputta. 6 
Once when Sona Potiriyaputta was meditating the Buddha sent forth 
a ray of glory from the mango grove to encourage him. 7 

The mango grove belonged to the Malla-rajas; they built a vihara there¬ 
in for the Buddha’s residence. 8 

The name is sometimes spelt Anopiya and Anupiya. 9 See also s.v. 


1 J. i. 65-6. 

2 Vin. ii. 180 f.; AA. i. 108; DhA. i. 
133;iv. 127. 

3 J. i. 140. 

4 Vin.ii. 184. 

5 D.iii. Iff. 

6 ThagA. i. 41; the Ap., however, says 
Kusinara (ii. 473). 

7 ThagA. i. 316. 

8 UdA. 161; DA. iii.816. 

9 J. i. 140. 

Anupubba. —Setthi of Savatthi. He was so called because he engaged 
himself in a series of good works, each being of greater merit than the 
last, with the object of freeing himself from suffering. In the end he 
entered the Order, but finding the rules too numerous and irksome, he 
wished to return to the lay-life. His colleagues took him to the Buddha, 
who asked him to observe one rule only—guarding his mind; he agreed 
and became a Stream-enterer. 1 

1 DhA. i. 297-300. 

Anubuddha Sutta. —Preached at Bhandagama, on the importance of 
understanding. 1 

1 A.ii. If. 

Anumana Sutta. —Preached by Mahamoggallana in the Bhesakalavana 

at Sumsumaragiri in the Bhagga country. It deals with the admonishing 
of monks and with self-examination. It is of interest to note that there 


82 [ Anum&napanha 

is no reference to the Buddha throughout the discourse. 1 Buddhaghosa 
says that this discourse was known to the Porana as the Bhikkhu- 
patimokkha, and adds that this self-examination should take place three 
times each day. 2 The description of the evil-minded monk given in 
the sutta is often quoted. 8 

1 M. i. 95-100. 2 MA. i. 294. 3 JS.g., Sp. iii. 612. 

Anumanapanha. —One of the most famous chapters of the Milinda 
Panha. 1 It deals with the problem of inferring the existence of the 
Buddha from facts known about him and connected with him. It also 
includes a description of the City of Righteousness— Dhammanagara —the 
Buddhist Utopia, and gives an excellent idea of city life at the time the 
chapter was written. 

1 329-47. 

Anura. —A general of the Vahga king's army, maternal cousin of 
Sihabahu, father of Vijaya. When Slhabahu left the lion's den with his 
mother and sister they came across Anura who was ruling the border 
country. Later Anura married Slhabahu's mother. 1 

1 Mv. vi. 16-20; MT. 246. 

Anuraja.-— Son of Sunanda, King of Surabhi, at the time of Mangala 
Buddha. He visited the Buddha in the company of his father, and, 
having listened to his preaching, became an arahant. 1 

1 BuA. 119-20. 

1. Anuradha. —An Elder. Once when he was staying in a forest hut 
in the Mahavana in Vesali, near to where the Buddha was, certain 
wandering ascetics came to him and asked him whether or not a Tatha- 
gata exists after death; dissatisfied with his answer they called him 
“ fool " and went away. Thereupon Anuradha sought advice from the 
Buddha, who asked him “ How, inasmuch as it cannot be said of a 
Tathagata even in this very life that he really exists, can anything be 
said regarding him after death ?'' 1 

1 S.iii. 116-19; the same story is repeated, with slight expansions, in S. iv. 380-6. 

2. Anuradha. —One of those that accompanied Vijaya to Ceylon. He 
later became one of his ministers and founded Anuradhagama. 1 

1 Mhv. vii. 43. 

Anuradhapura ] 


3. Anuradha. —A Sakiya prince, brother of Bhaddakaccana ; a great- 
uncle of Pandukabhaya. He founded a settlement at Anuradhagama 
and constructed a tank, to the south of which he erected a house for 
himself. Later he handed this over to Pandukabhaya. 1 

1 Mhv. vii. 43-4. 

Anuradhagama. —The name given to the settlement founded by the 
two Anuradhas. It was near the Kadamba-nadl. 1 The capital, Anu¬ 
radhapura, was later founded near it. 

1 Mhv. ix. 9; x. 76. 

Anuradhapura. —The capital of Ceylon for nearly fifteen centuries. 
It was built on the site of settlements started by the two Anuradhas 
on the bank of the Kadamba river, and was founded under the constella¬ 
tion Anuradha, hence the name. 1 Pandukabhaya (394-307 b.c.) was 
the founder of the city, to which he removed the capital from Upatis- 
sagama, 2 and there it remained up to the time of Aggabodhi IV. 
(a.d. 626-41). After a short period it became once more the capital, and 
continued to be so until the royal residence was removed elsewhere. 3 
It was finally deserted in the eleventh century. 

Pandukabhaya beautified the city with the artificial lakes Jayavapi 
and Abhayavapi. It was round the last-named lake that the king laid 
out the city, including four suburbs, a cemetery, special villages for 
huntsmen and scavengers, temples to various pagan deities and residences 
for the engineer and other officials. Abodes were also provided for 
devotees of various sects, such as the Jainas, the Ajivakas, wandering 
monks and brahmins. There were also hospitals and lying-in homes. 
Guardians of the city (Nagaraguttikd) were appointed, one for the day 
and another for the night. 4 

Pandukabhaya's son and successor, Mutasiva, laid out the beautiful 
Mahamegha Park with fruit and flowering trees 6 ; this was to the south 
of the city; between it and the southern wall of the city was another park 
called Nandana or Jotivana. 6 

In the reign of Piyatissa, who succeeded Mutasiva (when Buddhism 
had been introduced into the land), the king, together with his nobles 

1 MT. 293; Mhv. x. 76; this tradition i 3 See Cv. xlvi. 34, where the new 
seems to have been forgotten later, for in S capital, Pulatthinagara, is first mentioned 
the Mbv. (116) there is a suggestion that | as a royal residence. 

the city was so called because it was the 4 For a full description see Mhv. x. 

dwelling of satisfied people ( anurodhi- 80-102. 

jana); oris this mere alliteration ? 5 Mhv. xi. 2. 

2 Mhv. x. 75-7. * Mhv. xv. 2, 11. 


[ Anuradhapura 

and people, erected many noble edifices in support of the new religion. 
Ten of the most noted were in Anuradhapura, 7 and the Mahameghavana, 
which was given over to the Buddhist Sangha, henceforth became the 
centre of Buddhism in the island. In this park was also planted, by 
Piyatissa, the branch of the Sacred Bodhi Tree which came from 
Gaya. 8 

Soon afterwards the city was taken by the Tamils but was recaptured 
by Dutthagamani (101-77 b.c.), the hero of the Mahavamsa. Many 
chapters of the chronicle are devoted to descriptions of the numerous 
buildings erected by him in Anuradhapura for the glorification of the 
national faith, 9 chief among them being the Maricavatti-vihara, the 
Lohapasada and the Maha Thupa. 

A few years later the Tamils once more overcame the city and held 
it till Vattagamani (29-17 B.C.) drove them off. In his reign was built 
the mighty Abhayagiri Thupa and the vihara attached to it. 10 

The subsequent history of the city is a record of how succeeding 
kings repaired, added to, or beautified, these various monuments and 
the steps they took for their preservation. The only later monument 
of real importance is the Jetavanarama built by King Mahasena 11 
(a.d. 334-61). 

About this time the fame of Anuradhapura as the chief centre of 
Buddhist culture attracted many visitors from abroad in search of 
learning. The most famous of these was the great commentator Buddha- 
ghosa. 12 It was also during this period that Dhatusena ‘(a.d. 460-78) 
reorganised the water supply of the city and built the Kalavapi. 13 

From this time onward the country suffered from a series of dynastic 
intrigues and civil wars, each party appealing to the Tamils of South 
India for help and protection. As a result, the district round Anura¬ 
dhapura was overrun by Tamil freebooters and became impossible to 
defend; the seat of government was therefore removed to Pulatthipura 
about the beginning of the ninth century, where it continued, except 
for a brief interval to the eleventh century. Finally, about a.d. 1300, 
at a date not exactly known, the whole district was abandoned, having 
become a kind of no-man's land; it then rapidly relapsed into jungle. 
For quite a long time, however, and even after Pulatthipura became the 
state capital, Anuradhapura was regarded as a centre of religious activity, 
and its monuments were restored from time to time. 14 

7 For list see Mhv. xx. 17 ff. 

8 For details see Mhv. xviii. and 

9 Mhv. xxvi.-xxxii. 

10 Mhv. xxxiii. 80-3. 

11 Mhv. xxxvii. 33 f. 

12 Ibid., 215 ff.; also Fa Hien. 

13 Ibid., xxxviii. 42. 

14 Mhv. lxxvi. 106-20; lxxviii. 96 f.; 
lxxxviii. 80 f. 


Anuruddha ] 

Various scraps of information regarding Anuradhapura and its in¬ 
habitants are found scattered in the commentaries. 16 

It was famous throughout Jambudipa for its virtuous monks, and men 
came from there to visit them. 16 

The city wall, which existed at the time the Mahavamsa was written, 
had been built by King Vasabha 17 , and was, according to the Tika, 18 
eighteen cubits in height. 

15 E.g., that it had two indakhilas (Sp. 16 E.g., the brahmin who came from 
iii. 299); its main street ran from Thupa- Pataliputta to see Mahanaga Thera 
rama, where the chief entrance to the (AA. i. 384). 17 Mhv. xxxv. 97, 

city lay (UdA. 238; DA. ii. 573). 18 p. 654. 

Anurarama. —A monastery to the north of Mahagama in South Ceylon, 
built by King Vasabha, who also bestowed on it one thousand Jcarisa 
of land in the village of Heligama. 1 

In Voharatissa’s time the Thera Mahatissa lived there. 2 

King Vasabha also built an uposatha hall for the vihara. 3 

1 Mhv. xxxv. 83; MT. 652. 2 Mhv. xxxvi. 30. 3 Ibid., 37. 

1. Anuruddha Thera. —First cousin of the Buddha and one of his 
most eminent disciples. He was the son of the Sakyan Amitodana and 
brother of Mahanama. When members of other Sakyan families had 
joined the Order of their distinguished kinsman, Mahanama was grieved 
that none had gone forth from his own. He therefore suggested to his 
brother that one of them should leave household life. Anuruddha was 
at first reluctant to agree, for he had been reared most delicately and 
luxuriously, dwelling in a different house for each season, surrounded 
by dancers and mimes. But on hearing from Mahanama of the endless 
round of household cares he agreed to go. He could not, however, get 
his mother's consent until he persuaded his cousin Bhaddiya to go with 
him. Together they went with Ananda, Bhagu, Kimbila, Devadatta 
and their barber Upali, to the Blessed One at the Anupiya Mango Grove 
and were ordained. Before the rainy season was over Anuruddha acquired 
the dibbacakkhu , x and he was later ranked foremost among those who 
had obtained this attainment. 2 

He then received from Sariputta, as topic of meditation, the eight 
thoughts of a great man. 3 He went into the Paclnavamsadaya in the 
Ceti country to practise these. He mastered seven, but could not learn 
the eighth. The Buddha, being aware of this, visited him and taught 

1 Vin.ii. 180-3; Mtu. iii. 177 f. Another conversation he had with Sari- 

2 A. i. 23. * putta before becoming an arahant is 

3 The list is given in A. iv. 228 ff. reported in A. i. 281-2. 

[ Anuruddha 

it to him. Thereupon Anuruddha developed insight and realised ara- 
hantship in the highest grade. 4 

Anuruddha appears in the suttas as an affectionate and loyal comrade- 
bhikkhu, full of affection to his kinsman, the Buddha, who returned 
his love. In the assembly he stood near the Buddha. 5 When the 
Buddha, disgusted with the quarrels of the KosambI monks, went 
away to seek more congenial surroundings, it was to Paclnavamsadaya 
that he repaired, where were Anuruddha, Nandiya and Kimbila. The 
TJ'paM'ilesa Sutta (M. iii. 153 f.), on the sweets of concord and freedom 
from blemish, seems to have been preached specially to Anuruddha on 
that occasion, for we are told at the end that he was pleased to have 
heard it, no mention being made of the other two. And again in the 
Nalakafana Sutta (M. i. 462 ff.), though a large number of distinguished 
monks are present, it is to Anuruddha that the Buddha directly addresses 
his questions, and it is Anuruddha who answers on behalf of them all. 
See also the Cula - and the Maha-Gosihga Suttas. 

Anuruddha was present when the Buddha died at Kusinara, and 
knew the exact moment of his death; the verse he uttered on that occasion 
is thoughtful and shows philosophic calm, in contrast, for example, with 
that of Ananda. 6 Anuruddha was foremost in consoling the monks and 
admonishing them as to their future course of action. It was Anu¬ 
ruddha again that the Mallas of Kusinara consulted regarding the 
Buddha’s last obsequies. 7 Later, at the First Council, he played a 
prominent part and was entrusted with the custody of the Ahguttara 
Nikaya. 8 

In one of the verses ascribed to Anuruddha in the Theragatha 9 it is 
said that for twenty-five years he did not sleep at all, and that for the 
last thirty years of his life he slept only during the last watch of the 
night. The same source 10 mentions an occasion where a goddess, 
JalinI, 11 who had been his wife in a previous birth, seeing him grown 
old and grey with meditation, seeks to tempt him with the joys of 
heaven, but he tells her he has no need of such things, having attained 
to freedom from rebirth. 

His death took place in Veluvagama in the Vajji country, in the shade 
of a bamboo thicket. 32 

4 A. iv. loc. cit .; A A. 108-9; Thag. 

5 Bu. v. 60. 

6 D. ii. 156-7. On this see Oldenberg, 
Nachrichten der Wissenschaften zu Got¬ 
tingen , 1902, pp. 168 f.; and Przyluski- 
JA. mai-juin, 1918, pp. 485 ff. 

7 D. ii. 160 f. 

8 DA. i. 15. 

9 904; ThagA. ii. 72. 

10 Thag. 908; also S. i. 200. 

11 ThagA. ii. 73; this story is given 
in detail in SA. i. 225-6. 

12 Thag. 919. See also Psalms of the 
Brethren , p. 331, n. 1. I cannot trace the 
reference to Hatthigama. 

Anuruddha ] 


In Padumuttara Buddha's time he had been a rich householder. 
Hearing one of the monks declared best among possessors of the celestial 
eye, he wished for a similar honour for himself in the future. He did 
acts of great merit towards that end, including the holding of a great 
feast of light in front of the Buddha's tomb. In Kassapa Buddha's age 
he was born in Benares; one day he placed bowls filled with clarified 
butter all round the Buddha's tomb and lighted them, himself walking 
round the tomb all night, bearing on his head a lighted bowl. 

Later he was reborn in a poor family in Benares and was named 
Annabhara (lit. ‘‘food-bearer"). One day, while working for his 
master, the banker Sumana, he gave his meal to a Pacceka Buddha, 
Uparittha. The banker, having heard from the deity of his parasol of 
Annabhara's pious deed, rewarded him and set him up in trade. The 
king, being pleased with him, gave him a site for a house, the ground of 
which, when dug, yielded much buried treasure. On account of this 
great accretion of wealth he was given the rank of Dhanasetthi . 13 

According to the Dhammapada Commentary (i. 113), as a result of 
his gift to the Pacceka Buddha, Anuruddha never lacked anything he 
desired—such had been the wish he expressed. A charming story is 
related in this connection. Once when playing at ball with his friends 
he was beaten and had to pay with sweets. His mother sent him the 
sweets, but he lost over and over again until no more sweets were to be 
had. His mother sent word to that effect, but he did not know the 
meaning of the words “ there isn't." When his mother, to make him 
understand, sent him an empty bowl, the guardian deity of the city 
filled it with celestial cakes, so that he should not be disappointed. 
Thereafter, whenever Anuruddha sent for cakes, his mother would send 
him an empty vessel, which became filled on the way 14 ! 

The Apadana 15 mentions another incident of his past. Once, in 
Sumedha Buddha's time, Anuruddha, having seen the Buddha meditating 
alone at the foot of a tree, set up lights round him and kept them burning 
for seven days. As a result he reigned for thirty kappas as king of the 
gods, and was king of men twenty-eight times. He could see a distance 
of a league both by day and night. 

On various occasions Anuruddha had discussions with the Buddha, and 
he was consulted by disciples, both monks and laymen, on points of 
doctrine and practice. In the Anuruddha Sutta 16 he goes with Abhiya 
Kaccana and two others to a meal at the house of Pancakanga, the 
king’s carpenter. At the end of the meal the carpenter asks him the 

13 ThagA. ii. 65 ff.; Thag. 910; DhA. is i# 35# 

iv. 120 ff. I® M. iii. 144 f. 

14 See also DhA. iv. 124 ff. 


[ Anuruddha 

difference between tbat deliverance of the heart (cetovimutti) that is 
boundless ( appamdna ) and that which is vast (mahaggata). The dis¬ 
cussion leads on to an account of the four states of rebirth among the 
brilliant gods (Abha), and in reply to the questions of Abhiya Kaceana, 
Anuruddha proceeds to explain their nature. At the end of the discourse 
we find Anuruddha acknowledging that he himself had lived among 
these gods. 

In the Samyutta Nikaya 17 he is mentioned as questioning the Buddha 
about women, how they come to be born in happy states and how in 
woeful purgatory. A similar inquiry is mentioned in the Anguttara 
Nikaya. Anuruddha had been visited by some Manapakayika devas, who 
had played and sung to him and shown their power of changing their 
complexions at will. He comes to the Buddha and asks how women could 
be born among these devas. 18 

We find him 19 being asked by Sariputta and Moggallana about the 
sekha and asekha and about super-knowledge (abhinnd). In dealing with 
this passage the Commentary 20 states that Anuruddha used to rise early, 
and that after ablutions he sat in his cell, calling up a thousand kappas 
of the past and the future. With his clairvoyant eye he knew the 
thousandfold universe and all its workings. 

The Anuruddha Samyutta 21 gives an account of a series of questions 
asked by Moggallana on the satipatthand , their extent, etc. Anuruddha 
evidently laid great emphasis on the cultivation of the satipatthand , 
for we find mention of them occurring over and over again in his dis¬ 
courses. He attributes all his powers to their development, and ad¬ 
monishes his hearers to practise them. 22 Once he lay grievously ill in 
the Andhavana in Savatthi, but the pain made no impression on his 
mind, because, he says, his mind was well grounded in the satipatthand . 23 
Apart from his teaching of the satipatthand , he does not seem to have 
found fame as a teacher. He was of a retiring disposition and never 
interfered in any of the monks’ quarrels. 

Mention is often made of Anuruddha’s iddhi- powers. Thus, he was 
one of those who went to the Brahma-world to curb the pride of the 
Brahma who had thought that no ascetic could reach his world. 24 The 
mother of the yakkha Piyankara, while wandering in search of food, 

17 S.iv. 240-5. 

18 A. iv. 262 ff. 

19 S. v. 174-6, also 299 f. 

20 SA. iii. 183. 

21 S. v. 294. 

22 Ibid,, 299-306. He himself con¬ 
sidered the dibbacakkhu as the highest 
attainment. Thus in the Mahagosirga 

Sutta (M. i. 213) he declares it to be more 
worthy than knowledge of the doctrine, 
meditation, forest-life, discourse on the 
abhidhamma or self-mastery. 

23 S. v. 302, but see DhA. iv. 129, where 
he suffered from wind in the stomach. 

24 S. i. 145. The others being Mog¬ 
gallana, Mahakassapa and Mahakappina. 

Anuruddha ] 


heard him at night reciting some verses from the Dhammapada and 
stood spellbound listening. 25 

His iddhi, however, does not seem to have enabled him to prevent 
his fellow-dweller Abhinjika from talking too much, 26 nor his other 
fellow-dweller Bahiya from attempting to create dissension in the 
Order. 27 Among the Vajjians he seems to have been held particularly 
in esteem, together with Nandiya and Kimbila. A yakkha named 
Dlgha tells the Buddha how the Vajjians are envied by the inhabitants 
of the deva and brahma worlds on account of the presence of these 
distinguished monks in their country. 28 

In numerous Jatakas Anuruddha is identified with personalities 
occurring in the Atitavatthu. In several cases he is mentioned as having 
been Sakka, the deus ex machina of the story in question. 29 Elsewhere 
he is identified with different personalities: he was Pabbata in the Indriya 
(iii. 469) and in the Sarabhanga (v. 151); the king in the Candakinnara 
(iv. 288); one of the seven brothers in the Bhisa (iv. 314); the dove in the 
Pancuposatha (iv. 332); Ajapala in the Hatthipala (iv. 491); Sucirata 
in the Sambhava (v. 67); Pancasikha in the Sudhdbhojana, (v. 412) and 
the charioteer in the Kurudhamma (ii. 381). 

Anuruddha’s name occurs in several of the legends of the Dhammapada 
Commentary apart from those already mentioned. In the story of 
Culasubhadda it is stated that after the Buddha had visited Ugganagara 
at Culasubhadda/s request and enjoyed her hospitality, Anuruddha was 
asked to stay behind at Ugganagara for her benefit and that of the new 
converts. 30 When the Buddha spent a rainy season in Tavatimsa 
preaching the Abhidhamma, it was Anuruddha who kept the people on 
earth informed of his doings. 31 

In the Sumanasamanera Vatthu 32 we are told how Anuruddha, having 
himself attained salvation, sought for his friend and benefactor of a 
past birth, Sumana-setthi. Sumana-setthi had been born near the 
Vindhya forest as Culasumana, son of Anuruddha's acquaintance 
Mahamunda, and Anuruddha ordained him at the age of seven. The 
lad became arahant in the tonsure-hall. 

According to the Peta Vatthu, 33 it was by virtue of a spoonful of food 

25 S.i. 209; SA.i. 237-8. 

26 S. ii. 203-4. 

27 A. ii. 239. 

28 In the Culagosihga Sutta, M. i. 210. 

29 Thus in the Manicora (J. ii. 125); 
Guttila (ii. 257); Ayakuta (iii. 147); 
Mahasuka (iii. 494); Cullasuka (iii. 496); 
Kanha (iv. 14); Akitti (iv. 242); Sadhina 
(iv. 360); Siri (iv. 412); Mahasutasoma 

(v. 511); Sama (vi. 95); Nimi (vi. 129); 
Mahasumagga (vi. 329); Vessantara 
(vi. 593). 

30 DhA.iii.471. 

31 Ibid., 218 f.; SnA. (ii. 570), states 
that the Buddha went to Tavatimsa 
at Anuruddha’s request. 

32 DhA. iv. 120 ft. 

33 Pv., p. 27, vv. 58-60 


£ Anuruddha 

given by him to Anuruddha that Indaka entered Tavatimsa, and the 
same gift enabled him to surpass in glory Ahkura, who had spent all his 
wealth in practising generosity. 

Anuruddha had a sister, Rohini, who suffered from a skin disease and, 
therefore, remained indoors; she would not see the Elder when he visited 
her relations. But he insisted on seeing her and persuaded her to sell 
her ornaments and build a resting hall for the Buddha and his monks. 
She later became a Stream-enterer and was reborn as Sakka's consort. 84 

In Mahayana books Anuruddha's name appears as Aniruddha. In 
the Lalitavistara he is mentioned as wearing the Bodhisatta's ornaments 
when the latter renounced the world. He is sometimes spoken of as a 
son of Dronodana. 36 According to the Dulva, it was Anuruddha who, 
finding Ananda still aseJcha , got him turned out of the First Council 
until he became an arahant. 36 

34 DhA.iii. 295 f. i Beal, Records of Western World, ii. 38 n. 

85 Thus, e.g ., Mtu i. 75; iii. 117. See I for meaning of Anuruddha. 

36 Rockhill , p. 151. 

2. Anuruddha. —A Pacceka Buddha, to whom Nanda Thera in a 
previous birth offered a canopy of lotus flowers. 1 

1 Ap.ii. 350. 

3. Anuruddha (or Anuruddhaka). —One of the parricide kings of 
Magadha. He killed his father Udayabhaddaka and was himself slain 
by his son Munda. 1 

1 Mhv. iv. 2-3; Mbv., p. 96; but see father. In the Divyavadana (p. 359) 
DA. i. 153, where Anuruddha is given Anuruddha’s name does not appear at 
as Mahamunda’s son and Nagadasa’s all in the list of Bimbisara’s successors. 

4. Anuruddha. —Personal attendant of Piyadassi Buddha. It was in 
reply to his question that the Buddha revealed the future attainments 
of Nigrodha Thera 1 and of Tissa Thera. 2 

1 ThagA. i. 75; Ap. i. 431. 3 ThagA. i. 273. 

5. Anuruddha. —Personal attendant of Kondahha Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. iii. 30; J. i. 30. 

6. Anuruddha. —Author of the Abhidhammattha-sangaha, Para- 
mattha-vinicchaya, Namarupapariccheda and, perhaps, of the Anuruddha 
gataka. 1 He was an incumbent of the Mulasoma Vihara and probably 
lived in the eleventh or twelfth century. 2 

1 Gv. 61, 67; SdS. 64; Sas. 69. 

2 For details see P.L.C., s.v. 

Anuruddha Sutta ] 


7. Anuruddha. —Teacher of Mahasumma Thera. He once offered to 
the Sangha a bowl filled with ghee. The incident is mentioned in a 
discussion as to whether a bowl, that had been bought for a particular 
monk, could be used by the community of monks. 1 This bowl had been 
bought for the Elder, but it was used by the community and was, there¬ 
fore, kappiya. 

1 Sp.iii. 698-9. 

8. Anuruddha. —King of Ramanna. He helped Vijayabahu I. of Ceylon 
to re-establish the Order in Ceylon. 1 He is also called Anorata {q.v.). 

1 Cv. lx. 5-7; see, however, Geiger, Cv. trans. i. 214, n. 4. 

1. Anuruddha Sutta. —Preached by Anuruddha Thera to Paneakaftga, 
the king’s carpenter, at Savatthi, on the conclusion of a meal given by 
him to the Elder and three others. It explains the two kinds of emanci¬ 
pation of mind,* the “ boundless ” and the “ vast/’ and the results of 
developing them, which produce birth among the Brilliant Gods. Abhiya- 
Kaccana, who was evidently one of Anuruddha’s companions on this 
occasion, asks him the reason for the difference in degree of the brilliance 
of the gods; he is answered to his satisfaction. 1 

1 M. iii. 144-52. 

2. Anuruddha Sutta. —Records the incident of Jalini’s visit to Anu¬ 
ruddha Thera, and her unsuccessful efforts to tempt him with the joys 
of heaven. 1 

1 S. i. 200. 

3. Anuruddha Sutta. —The Buddha explains to Anuruddha, in answer 
to his questions, why beings are born as women. 1 

1 A. i. 281. 

4. Anuruddha Sutta.— Two Suttas on how Sariputta admonished 
Anuruddha to give up boasting about his attainments and concentrate 
on amata-dhdtu , and how Anuruddha following the advice became an 
arahant. 1 

1 A. i. 281-3. 

5. Anuruddha Sutta. —On the eight thoughts of a great being ( mahd - 
purisa vitakka). 

Anuruddha had acquired seven of them and the Buddha paid him 
a special visit to teach him the eighth, which brought him arahantship. 
Later the Buddha repeated the sermon to the monks. 1 

1 A. iv. 228 ff. 


[ Anuruddha Sutta 

6. Anuruddha Sutta. —The Buddha explains to Anuruddha how women 
may be born among the ManapaJcayiJcadeva. 1 

1 A. iv. 262 ff. 

Anuruddha Samyutta. — The fifty-second section of the Samyutta 
Nikaya. It forms the eighth section of the Mahavagga, and contains 
accounts of incidents connected with Anuruddha, his meditations in the 
Jetavana on the satipatthdna and the benefits of their development, 
his admonition to the monks on the banks of the Sutana River, his 
conversations with Sariputta and Moggallana in Saketa and in the 
Ambapali Grove, his sermon in the Salalagara, his illness while staying in 
Andhavana, and his accounts of how he came by his psychical powers, etc. 1 

1 S. v. 294 ft. 

1. Anula. —A Thera, incumbent of the Kotipabbatamahavihara in 

Ceylon. He evidently possessed the celestial eye and, seeing how 
Sumana, wife of Lakuntaka-atimbara, had once been a pig, he expressed 
marvel that such things should happen. She heard his exclamation, 
and having learnt from him the story of that past life, she herself got 
the power of seeing her past lives. 1 

1 DhA.iv. 50-1. 

2. Anula.— See Maha Anula. 

Anulatissapabbata.— A vihara in GangarajI in East Ceylon, built by 

Kanitthatissa . 1 

1 Mhv. xxxvi. 15. 

1. Anula. —Daughter of Mutasiva, King of Ceylon, and wife of Maha- 
naga, who was brother and sub-king to Devanampiya-Tissa. With five 
hundred other women she heard Mahinda preach the Petavatthu, the 
Vimanavatthu and the Sacca Samyutta, and together with the others 
became a Stream-enterer. 1 Later, hearing the sermon preached by 
Mahinda in the Mahameghavana, she, with others, became a Sakadagamf, 
and expressed to the king their wish to receive ordination. It was to 
enable these to be ordained that Sanghamitta was sent for. 2 Until the 
arrival of Sanghamitta, Anula and her companions observed the ten 
precepts and lived in the Upasika Vihara . 3 After her ordination Anula 
became an arahant 4 and was the first woman arahant in Ceylon. 

1 Mhv. xiv. 56-7; Dpv. xi. 8; xii. 82. says they took on the ekasanikanga 

2 Mhv. xv. 18-19; Sp. i. 90 ff.; Dpv. vow as well; see also Mbv. pp. 121, 144, 

xv. 73 ff. 167. 

3 Mhv. xviii. 9-12. The TIka (p. 388) 4 Mhv. xix. 65; xvi. 41. 

Anulomadayaka Thera ] 


2. Anula. —Widow of Khallatanaga, King of Ceylon, and later wife 
of Vattagamani . 1 When Vattagamani had to flee from his enemies, she 
was the only one of his wives whom he took with him, because she was 
with child. 2 Later, when they were hiding in Malaya, under the pro¬ 
tection of Tanasiva, Anula quarrelled with the wife of Tanasiva and, as 
a result, Vattagamani killed him. 3 

1 Mhv. xxxiii. 35, 36. 2 Ibid., 45. 3 Ibid., 62 ff. 

3. Anula. —Wife of Coranaga and Queen of Ceylon for four months 
(in a.d. 12-16). She was a lewd woman and killed her husband that she 
might marry Mahacula’S son, Tissa. She soon got tired of him and 
poisoned him. Then, in succession, she had as husbands Siva, a palace 
guard; Vatuka, a Tamil carpenter; Tissa, a woodcarrier; the Damila 
Niliya, a palace priest—all of whom she removed by poisoning. The last 
one she killed because she wished to live indiscriminately with thirty-two 
palace guards. 

In the end she was killed by Kutakannatissa . 1 

1 Mhv. xxxiv. 16-34; Dpv. xix. 50 ff. 

4. Anula. —The chief woman-disciple of Kassapa Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. xxv. 40; J. i. 43. 

5. Anula. —Daughter of Culasetthi of Benares. She lived with her 
husband in Andhakavinda, and after her father’s death she fed brahmins 
in his name, but this pious act was of no benefit to him. 1 

1 PvA. 105 ff. 

6. Anula. —One of the chief women-supporters of Mangala Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. iv. 25. 

Anulepadayaka Thera. —An arahant. In AtthadassPs time he supplied 
plaster to a monk for carrying out some repairs to a building. 1 

1 Ap. i. 251. 

Anulomadayaka Thera. —An arahant. He built a railing round 
AnomadassPs Bodhi tree and the Buddha expressed delight with it. 
As a result, in a later birth he became a king named Sabbagghana ( v.l 
Sabboghana ). 1 He is evidently to be identified with Mettaji Thera. 2 

1 Ap. i. 173. 2 ThagA. i. 194. 


[ AnuvattanS Sutta 

Anuvattana Sutta. —Like a cakkavatti’s eldest son, who, because of 
five qualities, administers the kingdom like his father, so does Sariputta 
administer the Kingdom of Righteousness founded by the Buddha. 1 

1 A.iii. 148-9. 

Anuvindaka. —Name of a people, mentioned with hosts of others, as 
seeking and finding hospitality in the house of Jatukannika, when, in 
a previous birth, he was a banker in Hamsavati . 1 

1 Ap.ii.359. 

Anusamsavaka Thera. —An arahant. In a past birth he gave a spoon¬ 
ful of rice to the Buddha Vipassi . 1 

1 Ap.i.247. 

1. Anusaya Sutta. —Preached to Rahula in reply to a question asked 
by him as to how insidious tendencies ( anusaya ) could be got rid of. 1 

1 S. ii. 252; see Rahula Sutta (2). 

2. Anusaya Sutta. —The holy life is lived for the uprooting of the 
anusaya. 1 

1 S. v. 28. 

3. Anusaya Sutta. —The five faculties ( indriydni ), when cultivated, 
conduce to uprooting of anusaya. 1 

1 S. v. 236. 

4. Anusaya Sutta. —Concentration on breathing conduces to destruc¬ 
tion of anusaya. 1 

1 S. v. 340. 

Anusaya Sutta. —On how the anusaya can be uprooted. 1 

1 S. iv. 32. 

Anusasika. —The name of the greedy bird in the Anusasika Jataka. 1 

1 J. i. 429. 

Anusasika Jataka (No. 115).—Preached at Jetavana regarding a glutton¬ 
ous sister, who sought alms in quarters unvisited by other sisters. In order 
to keep these areas for herself she warned others of dangers lurking there. 
One day, while begging for alms, her leg was broken by a ram, and her 
secret discovered. The story of the past is of a greedy bird, which, after 
cunningly warning others against the dangers of the road in which she 
found food, is herself crushed to death by a carriage on that same road. 
The sister is identified with the bird. 1 

1 J.i. 428-30. 


Anupiya ] 

1. Anusissa. —An ascetic. He was the chief student of the Bodhisatta 
Sarabhanga, who lived with him. He is identified with Ananda . 1 

1 J.iii.463, 469. 

2. Anusissa. —Probably the same as Anusissa (1). An ascetic and 
student of the Bodhisatta Jotipala, who, in the latter part of the story, is 
identified with Sarabhahga, without any explanation being given. When 
various kings, together with Sakka, visited Sarabhanga to consult him 
on their doubts, it was Anusissa who, at the request of his brother- 
ascetics, introduced them to the Bodhisatta. Here, too, he is identified 
with Ananda . 1 

1 J. v. 133-40; 151. 

Anusota Sutta. —On four classes of persons: those who go with the 
stream and those who go against it; those who stand fast and those who 
have crossed over. 1 

1 A. ii. 5 f. 

1. Anussati Sutta. —-The six topics of recollectedness. 1 

1 A.iii.284. 

2. Anussati Sutta.— A detailed explanation of the above. 1 

Anuna. —The name used by the yakkha Punnaka to hide from Dha- 
nan jay a his real name, lest he should be mistaken for a slave. The word 
has the same meaning as Punnaka. 1 

1 J. vi. 273-4. 

Anupama Thera. —He belonged to a wealthy family of Kosala and 
obtained his name (“ Peerless ”) because of his beauty. When he came 
of age, urged by the workings of his upanissayakamma (efficient cause), 
he left the world and dwelt in the forest, practising insight. For some 
time his mind wandered, but later he put forth great effort and became 
an arahant. 1 

Thirty-seven kappas ago he had offered flowers to a Pacceka Buddha 
named Paduma . 2 He is evidently to be identified with Ahkolapupphiya 
Thera of the Apadana. 3 

1 Thag. vv. 213-14. 2 ThagA. i. 334-6. 3 i. 287. 

Anupiya.— See Anupiya. 


[ Anekavanna 

Anekavanna. —A devaputta in Tavatimsa, who, because of his good 
deeds, excelled even Sakka in majesty. When he appeared in the streets 
of Tavatimsa, Sakka fled in shame. 1 

The Vimanavatthu 2 gives his past story which he revealed to Mog- 
gallana. He had been a monk under Sumedha Buddha, but later, feeling 
disheartened, left the Order. When the Buddha died he was seized with 
repentance for having lost his opportunity, and paid homage to the 
Buddha's shrine and observed the precepts. 

1 DhA. i. 426-7. 2 pp. 74-5; VvA. 318 ff. 

Anekavannavimana. —The abode of Anekavanna-devaputta. 1 

1 Vv. 74-5. 

Anejaka. —A class of devas mentioned as having been present on the 
occasion of the preaching of the Mahd-Samaya Sutta. 1 

1 D. ii. 160. 

1. Anoja. —Wife of Mahakappina, while he was king, before he entered 
the Order. She had been his wife in former births as well and had helped 
him in his good works. In this age she was of equal birth with Maha¬ 
kappina and became his chief consort. She was so called because her 
complexion was the colour of anoja-fi owers. 

When Kappina made his renunciation, she and her companions followed 
him in chariots, crossing rivers by an act of truth ( saccakiriya ), saying 
“ the Buddha could not have arisen only for the benefit of men, but for 
that of women as well." 

When she saw the Buddha and heard him preach, she and her com¬ 
panions became Stream-enterers. She was ordained by Uppalavanna. 1 
In the Yisuddhimagga it is said that Mahakappina was present when she 
heard the Buddha preach, but the Buddha contrived to make him 
invisible. When she asked whether the king was there, the Buddha's 
reply was “ Would you rather seek the king or the self ?" “ The self " 

was the answer. 2 

1 AA. i. pp. 176 ff.; SA. ii., pp. 178 ff. I “self” seems to have been borrowed 

2 p. 393. The conversation on the | from Vin. i. 23. 

2. Anoja. —See Anujja. 

1. Anotatta. —One of the seven great lakes of Himava. 1 It is sur¬ 
rounded by five mountain peaks, Sudassanakuta, Citrakuta, Kalakuta, 
Gandhamadana and Kelasa. Sudassanakuta is concave, shaped like 

1 The others being Kannamunda, Rathakara, Chaddanta, Kunala, MandakinI and 

Anotatta ] 


a crow's beak and overshadows the whole lake, which is hidden also by 
the other peaks. The lake is 150 leagues long, 50 leagues wide and 
50 leagues deep. All the rains that fall on the five peaks and all the 
rivers that rise in them flow into the lake. The light of the sun and of 
the moon never falls directly on the water but only in reflection. This 
means that the water is always cool, hence the name. Many bathing 
places are found therein free from fish and tortoises, with crystal clear 
waters, where Buddhas, Pacceka Buddhas and arahants bathe, and 
whither devas and yakkhas come for sport. Four channels open out 
of the lake in the direction of the four quarters: Slhamukha, Hatthi- 
mukha, Assamukha and Usabhamukha. Lions abound on the banks of 
the Slhamukha; elephants, horses and cattle respectively on the others. 
Four rivers flow from these channels; the eastward river encircles 
the lake three times, waters the non-human regions of Himava and 
enters the ocean. The rivers that flow north and westward flow in 
those directions through regions inhabited by non-humans and also enter 
the ocean. The southward river, like the eastward, flows three times 
round the lake and then straight south over a rocky channel for sixty 
leagues and then down a precipice, forming a cascade six miles in width. 
For sixty leagues the water dashes through the air on to a rock named 
Tiyaggala, whereon by the force of the impact of the waters the Tiyaggala- 
pokkharani has been formed, fifty leagues deep. From this lake the 
waters run through a rocky chasm for sixty leagues, then underground 
for sixty leagues to an oblique mountain, Vijjha, where the stream 
divides into five, like the fingers of the hand. The part of this river 
which encircles the original lake Anotatta is called Avattaganga ; the 
sixty leagues of stream which run over the rocky channel, Kanhaganga ; 
the sixty leagues of waterfall in the air, Akasaganga; the sixty leagues 
flowing out of the Tiyaggala-pokkharani and through the rocky gorge 
is called Bahalaganga, and the river underground, Ummaggaganga. The 
five streams into which the river is divided after leaving the oblique 
mountain Vijjha are called Ganga, Yamuna, Aciravatl, Sarabhu and Mahl. 2 

A wind called Sincanakavata (sprinkling wind) takes water from the 
Anotatta lake and sprinkles the Gandhamadana mountain with it. 3 
The lake is one of the last to dry up at the end of the world. 4 To be 
bathed in the waters of the lake is to be thoroughly cleansed. Thus 
the Buddha's mother, on the day of her conception, dreamt that she 
had been taken to the lake and had bathed there. This was interpreted 
to mean that she would give birth to a holy son. 6 

2 SnA. ii. 407; 437-9; MA. ii. 585 f.; 
AA. ii. 759-60. 

3 SnA. i. 66. 

5 MA. ii. 918. 

4 A. iv. 101. 


[ Anotatta 

During periods when the world does not possess a Buddha, the Pacceka 
Buddhas, who dwell in Gandhamadana, come amongst men and wash 
their faces in the lake before starting on their aerial journey for Isipatana 6 
or elsewhere. 7 The Buddha would often go to Anotatta for his ablutions 
and proceed from there to Uttarakuru for alms, returning to the lake 
to have his meal and spend the hot part of the day on its banks. 8 

Examples are given of other holy men doing the same. 9 

There are many bathing-places in the lake; those for the Buddhas, 
Pacceka Buddhas, monks, ascetics, the Four Regent gods and other 
inhabitants of the deva-worlds, and for the goddesses, were all separate 
from each other. In the bathing-place of the goddesses there once arose 
a dispute between Kalakanni and Slrl as to which should bathe first. 10 
Other instances are given of goddesses bathing in the lake and resting 
on the banks of the Manosilatala next to it. 11 

It was considered the summit of iddhi -power to be able to obtain 
water from Anotatta. Thus, when the Buddha wished to make known 
the great powers of Sumana-Samanera, he expressed a desire to have 
water fetched from the lake in which to wash his feet; no one was willing 
or able to fetch it except the novice Sumana. 12 And Sona, to show his 
iddhi to the 101 kings who escorted his brother Nanda to his hermitage, 
brought water from Anotatta for them and for their retinue. 13 To 
provide water from the lake for the personal use of some eminent person 
is considered one of the best ways of showing him esteem. Thus, when 
a friendship was established between the king of the swans, Javahainsa, 
and the king of Benares, the former brought the famous water from 
Anotatta to the king for his ablutions. 14 Pannaka, the Naga king of 
Anotatta, promised to supply water to Sumana-Samanera as amends for 
his earlier discourtesy 15 ; and Nanda, when he wished to ask his brother's 
forgiveness for disobedience, thought it a good way of showing his 
repentance to bring him water from the lake. 16 This water had curative 
powers; Anuruddha’s abdominal affliction was cured by its use. 17 To 
be able to use water from Anotatta daily was a great luxury and a sign 
of real prosperity. Gods brought to Asoka eight pingo-loads of lake 
water in sixteen pots for his use. 18 Vessavana employed yakkhi^is to 

• MA.i. 386. 

7 E.g., J. iii. 319, iv. 368. 

8 E.g ., before his visit to Uruvelakas- 
sapa (Yin. i. 28); and again during the 
three months he spent in Tavatimsa 
(DhA. iii. 222); see also J. i. 80. 

9 E.g., Matarigapandita, J. iv. 379; 
see also DhA. ii. 211. 

J. iii. 267 ff. 

11 E.g., J. v. 392. 

12 DhA. iv. 134 ff. 

13 J. v. 320-1. 

1 4 J. iv. 213. 

15 DhA. iv. 134. Also ThagA. 467, 
where the story is given in detail. 

36 J. v. 314. 

17 DhA. iv. 129. 

18 Sp. i. 42; Mhv. v. 24; 84; xi. 30. 

Anodhi Suttft ] 


fetch water for him in turn, each turn lasting for four to five months. 
It was exhausting work and some of them died before their term of 
service was over. 19 

Regular assemblies of the devas and yakkhas were held on the banks 
of Anotatta, at which contests of skill took place. 20 Sometimes the 
Buddha would go there with a company of monks and preach or make 
proclamations. 21 Monks would often dwell there in meditation and come 
when summoned. 22 

A mahd-kappa is measured by reckoning the amount of time that 
would be required to empty the Anotatta lake, by dipping into it a blade 
of Jcusa-gr&ss, and shaking out from it one drop of water once in every 
hundred years. 23 

Just as the water of Anotatta, having ultimately entered the ocean 
through the Ganges, would never turn back, so the Bodhisatta, in his 
last birth, would never turn back from his purpose of becoming Buddha 
for the sake of becoming a cakkavatti. 24 

The Divyavadana speaks of a class of devas who dwelt near Anotatta, 
whom it calls Anavatapta-kayikadevata. 25 

19 DhA. i. 40. 

20 E.g., among the daughters of Ves- 
savaiia, demonstrating their ability to 
dance (VvA. 131-2). 

21 E.g., Ap. i. 299. 

22 Dvy. 399. 

23 PvA. 254. 

2 4 Mil. 286-7. 
26 p. 153. 

2. Anotatta. —One of the tanks built by Parakkamabahu I. of Ceylon. 
A canal called the Bhaglrathl flowed from it. 1 

1 Cv. lxxxix. 49. 

Anottappamulaka-tlni Sutta. —Through an element ( dhdtuso) beings 
meet together, the indiscreet with the indiscreet, the untaught with the 
untaught, the unwise with the unwise and vice versa. 1 

1 S.ii. 163. 

Anottapi Sutta. —Records a conversation between Mahakassapa and 
Sariputta in Isipatana. A man without ardour (anatdpi) and without 
care [anottapi) is incapable of Enlightenment and Nibbana. 1 

1 S.ii. 195 f. 

Anodhi Sutta. —Three suttas on the development of unlimited reflection 
of anicca , dukkha and anatta. 1 

1 A. iii. 443 f. 

100 [ Anopama 

Anopama. —Birthplace of the Vessabhu Buddha and capital of his 
father, King Suppatlta. 1 

1 D.ii. 7; but Bu. xxii. 18 gives it as Anoma. The BuA. (p. 205) calls it Anupama. 

1. Anopama. —Daughter of the Treasurer Majjha of Saketa. She was 
so called (“ Peerless ”) because of her beauty. When she grew up, all 
sorts of eminent men sought her hand with rich gifts, but she was un¬ 
willing to marry. She heard the Buddha preach and, meditating on his 
sermon, attained the Third Fruit of the Path. Later she entered the 
Order, and on the seventh day thereafter became an arahant. 1 

1 Tflig. vv. 151-6; ThigA. 138 f. 

2. Anopama.— See Magandiya. 

1. Anoma. —Birth-city of Vessabhu (see Anopama). 

2. Anoma. —A mountain near Himava. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 345. 

3. Anoma. —A pleasaunce in Khema where Tissa Buddha was born. 1 

1 BuA. 188. 

4. Anoma. —An ascetic of great power, who lived in the time of 
Piyadassl Buddha. He gave a jewelled chain to the Buddha and offered 
him a meal of fruit. In the present age he became Hemaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 351-4. 

5. Anoma. —A king of Jambudlpa, fifty kappas ago; a previous birth 
of Bakkula Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 329. 

6. Anoma. —A township in the time of Sumana Buddha; the residence 
of Anupama, who offered the Buddha a meal of milk-rice. 1 

1 BuA. 125. 

7. Anoma. —One of the two chief disciples of Anomadassi Buddha. 1 
He preached to Sarada-tapasa on the occasion when the latter made up 
his mind to become an aggasavaka himself. 

1 J. i. 36; BuA. 145; DhA. i. 88 ff. The Bu (viii. 22) calls him Asoka. 

8. Anoma. —The personal attendant of Sobhita Buddha. 1 

1 J. i. 35; BuA. 140; The Bu. (vii. 21) calls him Anuma. 

AnomadassI ] 


9. Anoma. —An djtvaka who gave grass to AnomadassI for his seat. 1 

1 BuA. 142. 

10. Anoma. —The city in whose park Atthadassi preached his first 
sermon. 1 

1 Bu. xv. 18. 

11. Anoma. —The birth-city of Piyadassi Buddha, and capital of King 

Sudinna. 1 

1 J. i. 39. According to the Bu. (xiv. 15) it was called Sudhanna. 

1. AnomadassI. —The seventh Buddha. He was born in the park 
Sunanda in Candavatl, his parents being Yasava and Yasodhara. He 
lived in three palaces: Siri, Upasiri and Vaddha. 1 His wife was Sirima 
and his son Upavana. He renounced household life at the age of 10,000 
years, leaving home in a palanquin, and practised austerities for ten 
months. A maiden, Anupama, gave him a meal of milk-rice before his 
Enlightenment, and the ajivaka, Anoma, provided him with grass for his 
seat, his Bodhi being an ajjuna tree. 

His first sermon was preached in the park Sudassana in Subhavatl. The 
Twin-Miracle was performed at Osadhl at the foot of an asana tree. 
Nisabha and Asoka (f.l. Anoma) were chief among his monks, and 
Sundarl and Sumana among his nuns. Among laymen, Nandivaddha 
and Sirivaddha were his foremost supporters, and among lay wo men, 
Uppala and Paduma. 

King Dhammaka was his royal patron; his constant attendant was 
Varuna. He lived to be 100,000 years old and died at Dhammarama. 

He held three assemblies at which were present 800,000, 700,000 and 
600,000 respectively. 

The Bodhisatta was a powerful yakkha-chief and entertained the 
Buddha and his following. 2 

It was a sermon preached by Nisabha and Anoma, the chief disciples 
of this Buddha, that made Sarada-tapasa (Sariputta in his last birth) 
wish to become an aggasavaka himself. Later, Sirivaddha (Moggallana), 
at Sarada's suggestion, entertained the Buddha and wished for the post 
of second disciple under Gotama. 3 

Bakkula Thera was an ascetic in Anomadassl’s day. The Buddha 
once suffered from an abdominal affliction and it was this ascetic who 
cured him. 4 

It is said that at AnomadassI"s birth seven kinds of jewels rained down 

1 Sirivaddha, according to BuA. 3 DhA. i. 88-94. 

2 Bu. x.; BuA. 141-6. * AA. i. 169; Mil. 216. 


l AnomadassI 

from tlie sky and that this was the reason for his name. From the time 
of his conception the aura of his body spread round him to a distance 
of eighty hands. 5 

5 BuA. 141. 

2. AnomadassI. —An ascetic who gave grass for his seat to Sikhi 
Buddha. 1 

1 BuA. 201. 

3. AnomadassI. —A Sangharaja of Ceylon, at whose request the 
Hatthavanagalla-Vihara-Vamsa was written. 1 He was the author of a 
Sinhalese work on astrology, the Daivajna-kama-dhenu , and he is generally 
identified with the Elder for whom, according to the Culavamsa, 2 Pati- 
rajadeva, minister to Parakkamabahu II., built in Hatthavanaggalla, 
following the king's orders, a temple of three storeys and a lofty pinnacle. 

1 D’Alwis’ edition, p. 7, n. 6. 2 lxxxviii. vv. 37-9; see also P.L.C., 219. 

4. AnomadassI. —An Elder of Ceylon, at whose request a pupil of 
Ananda Vanaratana wrote a commentary called Saratthasamuccaya on 
four Bhanavaras of the Tipitaka. 1 

1 P.L.C., 227. The work has now been For a discussion on this AnomadassI 
published in the Simon Hewavitarana see the Introduction, p. x-xi. 

Bequest Series (Colombo), vol. xxvii. 

Anomasatta. —An epithet of the Buddha. 1 

1 UdA. 304; KhA. 170. 

1. Anoma. —A river thirty leagues to the east of Kapilavatthu, where 
Gotama went after leaving home. 1 It was eight usdbhas in breadth, but 
Kanthaka cleared it in one leap. It was here that Gotama cut off his 
hair and beard and put on the orange garments of the ascetics, brought 
to him by the Brahma Ghatikara. 

On its banks was the mango grove of Anupiya. 2 Three kingdoms lay 
between it and Kapilavatthu. 3 From the river to Rajagaha was a dis¬ 
tance of thirty leagues, which Gotama took seven days to walk. 4 It 
took him a whole night to ride from Kapilavatthu to Anoma. 5 

1 According to the Lalita Vistara, the Sakiyans, Koliyans and Mallas; see 

river was only six yojanas from the , Expositor i. 43 n., where Kapilavatthu, 
city, and Cunningham accepts this ^ Devadaha and Koliya are mentioned as 
(p. 485 ff.). I the three kingdoms. 

2 J. i. 64 f.; SnA. 382. j * J.i.65; SnA. 382. 

3 BuA. 5. The countries of the 1 6 VvA. 314. 

Anomiya Sutta ] 


The name seems to have meant “ Glorious/' or “ not Slight." 6 

Cunningham 7 identifies the river with the modern Aumi. He states 
his belief that the word means 44 inferior," to distinguish it from other 
and larger rivers in the neighbourhood, and that the original name in 
Pali was Oma. According to him the confusion in names arose from a 
misunderstanding of Channa’s reply. It is difficult to accept this 
suggestion because evidently, according to the tradition quoted in the 
Jataka commentary and elsewhere, the name of the river was taken as a 
good augury for the accomplishment of Gotama's desires. 

Thomas, 8 on the other hand, suggests that Anoma did not necessarily 
really exist. There was possibly an actual locality to the east of Kapi- 
lavatthu traditionally associated with Gotama's flight. It was probably 
near Anupiya of the Malla country, and the names given to it, such as 
Anoma, Anomiya, Anuvaniya, Anumaniya, were corruptions of Anupiya 
in the popular dialects of the neighbourhood. 9 

6 See J. i. 65, where Gotama asks 
Channa the name of the river and Channa 
replies “It is Anoma (glorious).” 
“ Good,” says Gotama, “ my renunciation 
shall also be anoma.” The Burmese 
name is Anauma (Bigandet. p. 41). 

7 p. 486 If.; in the Sutta Nipata (vv. 
153, 177) and again in the Samyutta 
(i. 33) the Buddha is spoken of as Anoma- 
nama. Buddhaghosa (SA. i. 67) explains 

this as meaning having no “defect,” 
endowed with perfection ( sabbagunasam- 
annagatatta avelcalla-namam ; paripu- 
ranamam ). 

8 Loc oit ., p. 61 and n. 1. 

9 The Mahavastu does not mention 
a river; it only mentions a town, Anomiya, 
twelve leagues from Kapilavatthu. The 
names Anuvaineya and Maneya occur 
in the Lalitavistara. 

2. Anoma. —Mother of Narada Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. x. 18; J. i. 37. 

1. Anomarama. —A pleasaunce in Anupama. Atthadassi Buddha 
died there. 1 

1 Bu. xv. 26. 

2. Anomarama. —A pleasaunce in the city of Kancanavelu. Siddattha 

Buddha died there. 1 

1 Bu. xvii.24; BuA. 188. 

Anomiya Sutta. —Contains verses in praise of the Buddha who is called 
the Peerless ( Anomanama). 1 The verses are found also in the Sutta 
Nipata. 2 

1 S.i.33. 

2 Sn.,p. 177. 


[ Anorata 

Anorata. —The name by which Anuruddha (Anawrata), King of Burma 
(Ramanna) 9 is generally known. He was a religious reformer and was 
helped in his task by a Talaing monk, Arahanta. 1 

1 Bode: Pali Lit. of Burma, pp. 11-13. 

Anta J at aka (No. 295).—Preached atVeluvana regarding Devadatta and 
Kokalika, who were going about singing each other's praises in order to 
obtain followers. The story of the past is of a jackal who was eating the 
carcase of a bull. A crow, seeing him, flattered him, hoping to get some 
of the flesh. The jackal and the crow were Devadatta and Kokalika 
respectively. 1 

1 J.ii. 440-1. 

Anta Vagga. —The first chapter of the Uparipannasaka of the Khanda 
Samyutta of the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S. iii. 157 ff. 

Anta Slltta. —The Buddha teaches the end, as well as the way thereto. 1 
See also Anta Sutta. 

1 S. iv. 373. 

Antaka. —See Mara. 

Antaramegiri. —A monastery built by King Dhatusena. 1 

1 Cv. xxxviii. 48. 

Antaravaddhamana. —A mountain in Ceylon. A story connected 
with it is given in the Samyutta Commentary. 1 A farmer, who had 
taken the precepts from Pingala Buddharakkhita of Ambariyavihara, 
lost a bull while ploughing. In looking for it he came to this mountain, 
where he was seized by a large snake. He was strongly tempted to kill 
the snake, but honouring his vows, he refrained. The snake left him. 
v.l. Uttaravad 0 . 

1 SA.ii. 112-13; DhsA. 103. 

Antaravitthi. —One of the villages given by Vijayabahu I. to the 
Labhavasi monks. It was situated in Kajarattha not far from Pulatthi- 
pura, 1 probably between that town and Kotthasara. It is mentioned in 
an account of battles which apparently took place in the neighbourhood 
of Pulatthipura. 2 

1 Cv. lx. 68. 

2 Ibid., lxi. 46; lxx. 322; see also Cv. trans. i. 221, n. 4, and 229, n. 2. 

Andu ] 


Antarapeyyala. —A section of the Nidana Samyutta containing twelve 
suttas with abridged contents. 1 

1 S. ii. 130 ff. 

Antarasobbha. —A locality in Ceylon. It was here that Duttha- 
gamani subdued the Damila chief Mahakottha. 1 

Later, King Manavamma built the Devavihara at Antarasobbha. 2 The 
Majjhima Nikaya Commentary 3 mentions that Maliyadeva preached the 
Mahasalayatanika Sutta here, and that on that occasion sixty monks 
became arahants. 

1 2 Cv. lviii.4; 3 ii. 1024. 

Antaraganga. —A monastery in Ceylon to which Jetthatissa III. gave 
the village of Cullamatika. 1 

1 Cv. xliv. 100. 

Antalikkhacara. —A king who reigned thirty-two kappas ago; Aka- 
sukkhipiya Thera in a previous birth. 1 

1 Ap. i. 230. 

Antava Sutta. —The origin of the view that the world is limited. 1 

1 S. iii. 214. 

Anta Sutta. —The four separate divisions: Sakkaya, its arising, ceasing, 
and the way thereto. 1 

1 S.iii. 157-8. 

Antureli. —One of the villages given by King Aggabodhi IV. for the 
maintenance of the Padhana-ghara, which he built for the Thera Datha- 

siva. 1 

1 Cv. xlvi. 13. 

Antevas! Sutta. —A monk dwells at ease without a pupil or a teacher, 
the pupil or co-resident (antevasi) being the name given to evil and un¬ 
profitable states of mind which arise in him and abide in him through 
the senses. Such states are also called “ teacher ” (acariya) because 
they beset and master him. 1 

1 S.iv. 136-8. 

Andu. —A village near Pulatthipura. 1 

1 Cv. lix. 5, 

106 [ Andha Sutta 

Andha Sutta. —On the three classes of persons: the blind, the one- 
eyed, and the two-eyed. 1 

1 A.iii. 128 f. 

Andha. —Mentioned in the Samantapasadika, 1 together with the 
Damilas, as being non-Ariyan ( miiakhha ); the name is probably the 
same as Andhaka(a) (q.v.). 

1 i. 255; see also VibhA. 387-8, where taught in the Andha language also (MA.i. 
the Andhaka-language is mentioned. 113). 

In Buddhaghosa’s time the Vedas were 

Andhakarattha.— See Andhaka (1). 

Andhakavinda. —A village in the Magadha country, three gdvuta from 
Rajagaha. Between it and Rajagaha is the river Sappini, which rises in 
the Gijjhakuta. 1 Once the Buddha went from Benares to Andhakavinda 
with 1,250 monks, and many people followed them carrying cartloads of 
provisions that they might feed them in turn. There were so many 
awaiting their turn that a certain brahmin (referred to as Andhakavin- 
dabrahmana) had to wait two months for his to come round. At the 
end of two months, finding that his own affairs were going to ruin and 
that there was no likelihood of his turn coming soon, the brahmin went 
to the provision-room to see what deficiency he could possibly supply. 
Seeing there neither rice, milk, nor honey-lumps, he approached Ananda, 
and having, through him, obtained the Buddha's permission, the brahmin 
prepared a meal of milk-rice and honey-lumps for the Buddha and the 
monks. At the conclusion of the meal the Buddha spoke of the tenfold 
good qualities of milk-rice. 2 

During the same visit of the Buddha, a newly converted minister of 
the district prepared meat dishes for the fraternity, but being disappointed 
that the monks, who had had a meal of solid milk-rice earlier, could not 
eat large quantities of his dishes, he was rather rude to them. Later he 
expressed remorse, and the Buddha assured him that heaven would be 
his inheritance. 3 It was on the way back from Andhakavinda to 
Rajagaha that the Buddha met Belattha Kaccana. 4 

Once when the Buddha was staying at Andhakavinda the Brahma 
Sahampati came and lighted the place with his effulgent beauty till 

1 Vin.i. 109; Vin. Texts i. 254, n. 2. 3 Vin. i. 222 f. This was the occasion 

2 Vin. i. 220 f.; it was this praise for the rule that monks who have been 
uttered by the Buddha that made invited to a meal in one place should not 
Visakha ask him, as a favour, that she accept milk-rice somewhere else earlier 
should be allowed to supply milk-rice in the same day. 

to the monks throughout her life (ibid., 4 Vin. i. 224 f. 

293); see also UdA. 112. 

Andhakavenhu ] 


late at night; then he sought the Buddha and sang before him verses 
of exhortation meant for the monks, urging them to lead the holy life. 5 

Here, too, the Buddha mentioned to Ananda the necessity of admon¬ 
ishing and encouraging new members of the Order with regard to five 
things: good conduct, control of the faculties of sense, abstinence from 
too much talking, love of solitude and the cultivation of right views. 6 

Once in Andhakavinda the Buddha suffered from disease of the wind. 
Ananda was asked to obtain gruel for the complaint. The wife of the 
village physician supplied the gruel with great devotion, and as a result 
was born in Tavatimsa, where her abode was known as the Kanjikadayika- 
vimana. 7 Another lay devotee built a Gandhakuti for the Buddha at 
Andhakavinda, and personally looked after the Buddha while he was 
there. This upasaka was also, as a result, born in Tavatimsa in a golden 
vimana. 8 

Culasetthi’s daughter, Anula, lived in Andhakavinda after her marriage 
and it was there that she gave alms on behalf of her dead father. 9 

5 S.i. 154. 7 VvA. 185-6. 

6 A. iii. 138-9; referred to in Sp. iv. 8 Ibid., 302-3. 

789. a PvA. 105-9. 

Andhakavinda Brahmana. —See under Andhakavinda. His story is 
given as an illustration of how followers of the Buddha would often 
pursue him with manifold gifts. 1 

1 E.g., UdA. 112. 

Andhakavinda Vagga. —The twelfth section of the Pancaka Nipata of 
the Anguttara Nikaya. 1 

1 A. iii. 136-42. 

1. Andhakavinda Sutta. 1 —Becords the incident of Sahampati visiting 
the Buddha in Andhakavinda ( q.v .). 

1 S.i. 154. 

2. Andhakavinda Sutta. —Preached at Andhakavinda to Ananda on five 
things regarding which new entrants to the Order should be admonished. 1 

1 A. iii. 138 f. 

Andhakavenhu. —Husband of Nandagopa, serving-woman of Deva- 

The ten sons of Devagabbha by Upasagara were brought up as the 
children of Nandagopa and Andhakavenhu and later became known 

as Andhakavenhudasaputta 1 (q.v.). 

1 J. iv. 79-81. 

108 [ Andhakavenhu 

Andhakavenhu-(dasa)-putta. Ten brothers, sons of Devagabbha and 

As it had been foretold at Devagabbha's birth that one of her sons 
would destroy the lineage of Kamsa, each time a son was born to her, 
fearing lest he be put to death, she sent him secretly to her serving- 
woman, Nandagopa ; the latter had married Andhakavenhu and, by good 
fortune, daughters were born to her at the same time as sons to Deva- 
gabbha; these daughters she sent to Devagabbha in exchange for the 
latter's sons. 

The ten sons were named Vasudeva, Baladeva, Candadeva, Suriyadeva, 
Aggideva, Varunadeva, Ajjuna, Pajjuna, Ghatapandita and Ankura. 2 

They had also a sister, Anjanadevl. When they grew up they became 
highway robbers, seizing even a present sent to their uncle, King Kamsa. 
Thus they became notorious as the Andakavenhudasaputta. The king, 
having learnt of their true descent, devised various plans for their 
destruction. Two famous wrestlers, Canura and Mutthika, were , en¬ 
gaged to have a public wrestling match with them. The brothers 
accepted the challenge and looted several shops for clothes, perfumes, etc., 
to be used for the occasion. Baladeva killed both the wrestlers. In 
his death-throes Mutthika uttered a prayer to be born as a yakkha; 
his wish was fulfilled and he was born as such in the Kalamattiya forest. 
When the king's men attempted to seize the brothers, Vasudeva threw 
a wheel which cut off the heads of both the king and his brother the 
viceroy, Upakamsa. 

The populace, terrified, begged the brothers to be their guardians. 
Thereupon they assumed the sovereignty of Asitanjana. From there 
they set out to conquer the whole of Jambudipa, starting with Ayojjha 
(whose king, Kalasena, they took prisoner) and Dvaravatl, which they 
captured with the help of Kanhadipayana. 

They made Dvaravatl their capital and divided their kingdom into 
ten shares, forgetting their sister, Anjanadevl. When they discovered 
their mistake, Ankura gave her his share and took to trade. 3 

In course of time the brothers had many sons and daughters, the 
average human age at that time being 20,000 years. Later their sons 
annoyed the sage Kanhadipayana by dressing up a lad as a woman 
and asking him what child she would bring forth. “ A knot of acacia 
wood," he answered, “ with which will be destroyed the line of Vasudeva." 

2 Cowell sees in this story the kernel i article on Krsna in Hopkins’ Epic Myth- 
of a nature-myth (Jataka, trans. iv. 51 n.); ology, pp. 214 f. 

cf. with this the Krsna legend in the 3 Ankura’s later history is found in 
Harivamsa; see also Wilson’s Visnu i PvA. Ill £f. See * r. Ahkura. 

Purana (Hall’s Ed.), v. 147f.; and the 1 

Andhaka ] 


They laughed at the sage and kicked him. On the seventh day the lad 
voided from his belly a knot of acacia wood which they burnt, casting 
the ashes into the river. From those ashes, which stuck near the city 
gate, an Eraha -plant sprang up. One day, while disporting themselves 
in the water, the kings, with their families and followers, started a sham 
quarrel and plucked leaves from the Eralca -plant to use as clubs. The 
leaves turned into weapons in their hands, and they were all killed 
except Vasudeva, Baladeva, AnjanadevI, and their chaplain, all of 
whom fled in a chariot. Thus were the words of the sage fulfilled. 

In their flight they reached the Kalamattiya forest in which Mutthika 
had been born as a yakkha. When Mutthika saw Baladeva he assumed 
the shape of a wrestler and challenged him to a fight. Baladeva accepted 
the challenge and “ was gobbled up like a radish-bulb.” 

Vasudeva proceeded on his way with the others and at night lay in a 
bush for shelter. A huntsman, mistaking him for a pig, speared him; 
when Vasudeva heard that the huntsman's name was Jara (Old Age) he 
leconciled himself to death. Thus they all perished except AnjanadevI, 4 
of whose later history nothing is mentioned. 

In the KumbJia Jataka 5 it is suggested that the Andhakavenhus were 
destroyed as a result of indulging in drink. This story was evidently 
well known to tradition as it is so often referred to. 6 

4 J. iv. 79 If. 6 E.g., in the SahkiccaJat. (v. 267) and 

5 J. v. p. 18. in Vv., p. 58. 

1. Andhaka. —Mentioned in a list of tribes that came to pay homage 
to Jatukannika Thera when he was born as a banker in Hamsavatl. 1 

The Andhakarattha was on the banks of the Godhavarl and near where 
Bavari lived. Assaka and Alaka, mentioned in the Vatthugatha of the 
Parayanavagga, 2 are described in the Sutta Nipata Commentary as 
Andhaka kings. 3 In the Aitareya Brahmana 4 the Andhakas are men¬ 
tioned together with the Pulindas, etc., as an outcast tribe. They again 
appear associated in the time of Asoka. 5 The Mahabharata 6 places the 
Pulindas, the Andhas and the Sabaras in the Daksinapatha. 

1 Ap. ii. 359. 

2 Sn. 977. 

3 SnA. ii. 581; Vincent Smith places 
them originally in Eastern India between 
the Krsna and Godavari rivers ( Z.D.M.G. 
56, 657 if.); see also Burgess: Arch. 

Reports on W. lyidia, ii. 132 and iii. 54. 
Cunningham: 603-607. 

4 vii. 18. 

5 Vincent Smith: Z.D.M.G. 56,652 f. 

6 xii. 207,42. 

2. Andhaka. —An important group of monks that seceded from the 

Theravada. They included as minor sects Pubbaseliyas, Aparaseliyas, 


[ Andhak&ra 

Rajagirikas and Siddhatthikas. 1 They were still powerful in Buddha- 
ghosa's time. 2 The Andhakas are not mentioned as a special sect either in 
the Mahavamsa or in the Dlpavamsa, though in the Mahavamsa the sects 
spoken of above as offshoots of the Andhakas (Rajagiriya, Siddhatthika, 
Pubba- and Apara-seliya) are given. 3 There were various doctrines 
held by all the Andhakas either in common with other sects or alone, 
and various other doctrines held only by some of the minor groups of 
Andhakas. 4 

1 Points of Controversy, p. 104 (extract other, see Points of Controversy , pp. 

from Kathavatthu Cy.). xxxv-xlv. About the Andhakas see 

2 Ibid., xxxiv. particularly pp. xliii. If. 

3 Mhv. v. 12 f.; also the Mbv. 97. 4 For a summary of these see Points 

For a very valuable account of the dif- of Controversy , pp. xx-xxiv. 

ferent schools and their relation to each 

Andhakara. —A village in Ceylon, one of the villages given by Agga- 
bodhi IV. for the maintenance of the Padhana-ghara built by the king 
for the Thera Dathasiva. 1 

1 Cv. xlvi. 12. 

Andhakara Vagga. —The second section of the Pacittiya in the Bhik- 
khunlvibhanga. 1 

1 Vin.iv. 268-71. 

Andhakara Sutta. —The ignorance of Ill, its arising, etc., is greater 
and more fearsome than the darkness of interstellar space ( loJcantarika ). 

1 S. v. 454-5. 

Andhatthakatha. —One of the Commentaries used by Buddhaghosa. 1 
It was handed down at Kdhcipura (Conjevaram) in South India. 

1 Sp. iv. 747. 

Andhanaraka. —One of the villages given by Aggabodhi IV. for the 
maintenance of the Padhana-ghara built for the Elder Dathasiva. 1 

1 Cv. xlvi. 13. 

Andhapura. —A city in the Seriva country, on the bank of the river 
Telavaha. It was whilst doing business as a hawker here that the Bodhi- 
satta, born as Seriva, crossed the wishes of another hawker, who in the 
present age was Devadatta. This was the beginning of Devadatta’s 
enmity towards the Buddha. 1 

1 J.i. Ill, 113. 

Andhavana ] 


Andhabhuta Sutta.— See Afldhabhuta Sutta. 

Andhavana. —A grove to the south of Savatthi, one gavuta away from 
the city. It was well guarded and monks and nuns used to resort there in 
search of solitude. During the time of Kassapa Buddha, thieves way¬ 
laid an anagaml upasaka in this forest; his name was Sorata, 1 and he had 
been touring Jambudlpa collecting money for the Buddha's cetiya. 
They gouged out his eyes and killed him. Thereupon the robbers all 
lost their sight and wandered about the forest blind; hence the name 
of the forest (“ Blind," usually, but wrongly, translated “ Dark ”). It 
had retained its name during two Buddha-periods. 2 

There was a Meditation Hall (padhana-ghara) built there for the use 
of contemplative monks and nuns. 3 Stories are told of those, particularly 
the nuns, who were tempted by Mara in the Andhavana. 4 

Once when Anuruddha was staying there he became seriously sick. 5 
It was here that the Buddha preached to Rahula the discourse ( Cula - 
Rdhulovdda) which made him an arahant. 6 

Among others who lived here from time to time are mentioned the 
Elders Khema, Soma, 7 and Sariputta 8 , the last-mentioned experiencing 
a special kind of samadhi (where he realised that bhavanirodha was 

The Theragatha Commentary 9 records a discussion here between 
Sariputta and Punna regarding purification (visuddhikamma). The 
Vammika Sutta 10 was the result of questions put by an anagami Brahma, 
his erstwhile colleague, to Kumara-kassapa, while he was in Andhavana. 

Once bandits laid an ambush for Pasenadi as he went through the 
forest to pay his respects to the Buddha, attended by a small escort, 
as was sometimes his wont. He was warned in time and had the wood 
surrounded, capturing and impaling or crucifying the bandits on either 
side of the road through the wood. We are told that though the Buddha 
knew of this, he did not chide the king because he had certain reasons 
for not doing so. 11 

The Therl Upalavanna was raped in a hut in the forest by a young 

1 Yasodhara, according to the Sam- 
yutta Cy. 

2 The story is given in MA. i. 336 fl. 
and SA. i. 148. 

3 MA. i. 338. 

4 E.j., Alavika, Soma, Kisagotami, 

Vijaya, Uppalavanna, Cala, Upacala, 

Sisupacala, Sela, Vajira; J. i. 128 if. and 

ThigA. 64, 66, 163. 

6 S. v. 302. 

6 S.iv. 105-7; AA.i. 145. 

7 A. iii. 358. 

8 Ibid.yV. 9 . 

9 i. 39. 

10 M. i. 143 if. 

11 See SA. i. 131-2. Mrs. Rhys 
Davids doubts the authenticity of this 
story; KS. i. 127 n. 

112 [ Anna Sutta 

bralimin named Ananda, and it is said that from that time nuns did not 
live in Andhavana. 12 

The Parajika 13 contains stories of monks who committed offences in 
the forest with shepherdesses and others, and also of some monks who 
ate the flesh of a cow which had been left behind, partly eaten, by cattle 
thieves. 14 It was here that Uppalavanna obtained the piece of cow’s 
flesh which she asked Udayi to offer to the Buddha, giving Udayi her 
inner robe as “ wages ” for the job. 15 

The Pariehattakavimana 16 was the abode which fell to the lot of a 
woman who having plucked an asoka-flower, while getting firewood in 
Andhavana, offered it to the Buddha. 

The rule forbidding monks to enter a village clad only in their waist 
cloth and nether garment was made with reference to a monk whose robe 
had been stolen by thieves in Andhavana. 17 

12 DhA. ii. 49, 52. 15 The story is told in Vin. iii. 208-9. 

13 Vin. iii. 28 ff. 16 VvA. 172 ft. 

14 Ibid., 64. I? Vin. i. 298. 

1. Anna Sutta.—All creatures desire food, so food should be given in 
charity. 1 

1 S.i.32. 

2. Anna Sutta. 1 

1 A. ii. 86 f.; but see CoS. ii. 96, n. 1. 

1. Annabhara.—A well-known paribbajaka who lived in the Parib- 
bajakarama on the banks of the Biver Sappini near Rajagaha. He 
is mentioned as staying with the well-known paribbajakas, Varadhara 
and Sakuludayi. The Buddha visits them and talks about the four 
factors of Dhamma ( dhammapadani) which are held in esteem by every¬ 
one: not-coveting, not-malice, right-mindfulness, right-concentration. 1 

On another occasion they discuss the “ brahmin truth.” The Buddha 
visits them and tells them what he considers to be the brahmin truths 
(brdhmanasaccdni ): that no creatures are to be harmed; all sense-delights 
are impermanent, painful and changing; all becomings are impermanent, 
etc.; a brahmin is one who has no part in or attachment to anything any 
more. 2 

1 A.ii.29-31. 2 Ibid., 176-7. 

2. Annabhara.—A former birth of Anuruddha Thera. His story is 
given in the account of the Elder. 


Apaeara ] 

]. Annasamsavaka Thera.— An arahant. Four kappas ago he had 
given a meal to Siddattha Buddha. 1 

1 Ap.i. 78. 

2. Annasamsavaka. —A second thera of the same name whose story 
is identical with the above and who is very probably the same person. 1 

1 Ap.i. 261. 

Anva Vagga.— See Addha Vagga. 

Apagata Sutta. —Records a conversation between the Buddha and 
Rahula in Jetavana. The Buddha explains how the mind is freed from 
notions of “ I ” and “ mine.” 1 

1 S. ii. 253; see Rahula Sutta (3). 

Apaeara. —A king of the first kappa. He was the son of Cara and 
reigned in Sotthivatl-nagara in the Cetiya country. He was one of the 
ancestors of the Sakiya race. He belonged to the race of Mahasammata 
and was possessed of four ^dd^-powers: walking on air, being guarded 
by four devas, diffusing the fragrance of sandalwood from his body and 
the fragrance of the lotus from his mouth. 

When he was prince he had promised to appoint as his family priest 
his fellow-student Kosakalamba, brother of the royal chaplain Kapila, 
when he should become king. But when Apaeara came to the throne, 
Kapila obtained the post for his own son and became an ascetic. When 
the king realised what had happened he offered to get the post back for 
Kosakalamba by means of a lie. The latter protested, because lies had 
hitherto been unknown in the world \ but the king persisted in his desire 
even in spite of Kapila's warning, and seven times in succession uttered 
a lie to the effect that the post of chaplain belonged by right of seniority 
to Kosakambala and not to Kapila's son. At the first lie he lost his 
iddhi-ipoweis and fell to earth, and with each succeeding lie he fell deeper 
and deeper into the earth until the flames of Avici seized him. He was 
the world's first liar. 

He had five sons, who sought Kapila's protection, and leaving the city 
founded five cities, which were called Hatthipura, Assapura, SIhapura, 
Uttarapancala and Daddarapura, because of certain tokens connected 
with them. 1 According to the Sutta Nipata Commentary (ii. 352) 
Makhadeva was his son. The king was a previous birth of Devadatta. 2 

1 For details see under those names. Jataka (J. iii. 454-61; see also Mhv. ii. 

2 The story is related in the Ceiiya 2; DA. i. 258 f.; Dpv. iii. 5). 


114 [ Apaecakkhakamma Sutta 

v.l. Upacara, Upavara and Uparuvara. The Milinda (p. 202) calls him 

Apaecakkhakamma Sutta. —Five discourses in which the Buddha 
explains to Vacchagotta how diverse opinions arise through want of 
clearness about the facts of body, feeling, perception, activities and 
consciousness. 1 

1 S. iii. 262. 

Apaccupalakkhana Sutta. —Same as the above, only substituting 
“ through not discriminating ” for “ through want of clearness/' 1 

1 S. iii. 261. 

Apaceupekkhana Sutta. —Same as the above, but substituting “ through 
not looking into ” for “ through not discriminating." 1 

1 S. iii. 262. 

Apannaka Jataka (No. 1).—Preached at Jetavana to Anathapindika 
and his five hundred friends, who were followers of other schools. They 
had gone with the banker to hear the Buddha preach and became converts. 
But when the Buddha left Savatthi and went to Rajagaha they reverted 
to their old faiths, coming back to the Buddha when he returned to 

The story of the past is of two merchants who travel with caravans 
across a desert. One, beguiled by goblins, throws away his drinking 
water and is devoured with all his people and cattle. The other com¬ 
pletes his journey safely, not putting faith in the goblins. The moral 
is that the followers of false teachers are led astray. The foolish merchant 
was Devadatta. 1 This Jataka will be among the last to be forgotten 
when the Dhamma disappears from the world at the end of the Kaliyuga. 2 

1 J. i. 95 ff. 2 AA. i. 51. 

1. Apannaka Vagga. —The eighth chapter of the Catukka Nipata of 
the Anguttara Nikaya. It consists of ten suttas on various topics, 
including an extract from the Mahay arinibbana Sutta and a sutta con¬ 
taining reasons why women are excluded from public assemblies and 
serious business. 1 

1 A. ii. 76-83. 

2. Apannaka Vagga. —The first section of the Ekanipata of the 
Jatakatthakattha. 1 

1 J. i. 95-142. 



1. Apannaka Sutta. —Preached to a gathering of brahmins in Sala. On 
informing the Buddha that they had no favourite teacher in whom they 
had confidence, they were told that they should embrace and fulfil the 
Sound Doctrine ( apannaka-dhamma ), and the Buddha proceeded to 
explain it. In the course of this elucidation reference is made to the 
teachings of several other schools of thought, particularly those of the 
Jainas and the Ajlvakas, including the six Environments of life (abhi- 
jdti). 1 

The sutta concludes with the arahant-ideal as the height to be attained 
by the being who tortures neither himself nor others, and who is 
given to torturing neither himself nor others, but lives here and now 
beyond all appetites, blissful and perfected. 2 

1 For a discussion of some of these see , and Kuhn: Beitr., where the word is 

Further Dial. i. 293, n. 1. 1 derived from a-prasna-ka. Buddhaghosa 

2 M. i. 400-13. For a derivation of i defines it as aviruddha advejjhagami 
the name see Weber: lnd. Str . iii. 150, ekasangahiko (MA. ii. 630). 

2. Apannaka Sutta. —As sure as the cast of a true die (apannakamani) 
are the results of failures or successes of sib, etc. 1 

1 A. i. 270. 

Apannakata Sutta. —On the three qualities which make a monk pro¬ 
ficient in following the sure course (apannakapatipadd): guarding the 
senses, moderation in eating and wakefulness. 1 

1 A.i. 113 f. 

Apadana. —The thirteenth division of the Khuddakanikaya. It is 
a Buddhist Vitce Sanctorum and contains 547 1 biographies of monks and 
forty biographies of nuns, all mentioned as having lived in the time of 
the Buddha. In addition to these, there are two introductory chapters, 
the Buddhdpadana and the Paccekabuddhdpaddna, dealing with the 
Buddha and the Pacceka Buddhas respectively. It is worth noting 
that the Buddhapadana contains no account of the Buddha's life, either 
as Gotama or earlier, as Bodhisatta (see, however, s.v. Pubbakammapiloti). 
Nor does the Paccekabuddhapadana contain any life-histories. The 
stanzas are what might be more appropriately described as udana, and 
appear in the Khaggavisdna Sutta of the Sutta Nipata. 2 

1 The Cy. gives details of eleven more as meaning the legend or life-story of 
theras not found in the text: Yasa, a Buddha or a Great One—in this case 
Nadikassapa, Gayakassapa, Kimbila, the seven Buddhas. Or does Mahapadana 
Vajjiputta, Uttara, Apara-Uttara, Bhad- mean the Great Story, i.e. the story of 
daji, Sivika, Upavana and Ratthapala. the Dhamma and its bearers and promul- 

2 Cp. the Mahapadana Sutta (D. ii. gation : cp. the title of the Mahavastu 
1 ff.), where the word Apadana is used (Dial.ii. 3). 


[ Apadfiniya Thera 

Most of the stories are found in the ParamatthadipanI, the Commen¬ 
tary to the Thera- and Theri-gatha, extracted from the Apadana with 
the introductory words, “ tena vuttam Apaddne.” But in numerous 
instances the names under which the verses appear in the Paramat- 
thadipam differ from those subjoined to the verses in the Apadana. 
In several cases it is a matter of the Commentary giving a name while 
the Apadana gives only a title. 3 Sometimes the stories are duplicated 
in the Apadana itself, the same story occurring in two places with a very 
slight alteration in words, even the name of the person spoken of being 
the same. Most often no reason can be assigned for this, except, perhaps, 
careless editing. 4 

The Apadana is regarded as one of the very latest books in the Canon, 
one reason for this view being that while later books like the Buddha- 
vamsa mention only twenty-four Buddhas previous to Gotama, the 
Apadana contains the names of thirty-five. It is very probable that the 
different legends in the collection are of different dates. 5 

According to the Sumangala Vilasini, 6 the DIghabhanakas, who included 
the Khuddaka Nikaya in the Abhidhammapitaka, did not recognise 
the Apadana. The Majjhimabhanakas included it in the Khuddaka 
Nikaya, which they regarded as belonging to the Suttapitaka. 

There is a Commentary to the Apadana called the Visuddhajana- 

3 E.g., Usabha Thera (ThagA. i. 320), 5 On these and other matters connected 

called Kosumbaphaliya (Ap. ii. 449); with the Apadana, see Rhys Davids' 
and Isidinna (ThagA. i. 312), called articleinERE. andMuller ’sLesApadanas 
(Ap. ii. 415) Sumanavijaniya. du Sud (Congress of Orientalists, Leyden, 

4 E.g., Annasamsavakai Ap. i. 78 and 1895). 

again i. 261; see also the Introduction 6 i. 15. See also Przyluski: La Legende 
to the P.T.S. Edition. de VEmpereur Agoka f pp. viii f., 214. 

Apadaniya Thera. —An arahant. Ninety-two kappas ago he had 
eulogised the life history ( apaddnam kittayissam) of the Buddha. 1 

1 Ap. i. 241. 

Apadika. —A river. Vasabha Thera, in a previous birth as the jatila 
Narada, erected on its banks a cetiya in memory of the Buddha 1 ( v.i . 


1 ThagA. i. 258; Ap.ii.437. 

Apanthaka. —Given as a personal name in a passage where it is stated 
that names are mere designators, they signify nothing. Thus “ Pan- 
thakas ” (Guides) too lose their way, so do “ Apanthakas.” 1 

1 J. i. 403. 

Aparantaka ] 

Aparagotama.— See Gotama (3). 


Aparagoyana. —One of the four great continents into which the earth 
is divided. It is to the west of Sineru and is seven thousand yojanas in 
extent. It is surrounded by five hundred islands. 1 According to the 
Anguttara Nikaya, 2 each cakkavdla (world-system) has an Aparagoyana. 
It is inhabited by men, 3 but they have no houses and sleep on the ground. 4 
In the centre of the continent is a Kadamba tree, whose trunk is fifteen 
yojanas in girth and whose trunk and arms are fifty yojanas in length. 
This tree stands for a whole kappa. 5 When the sun rises in Jambudipa, 
it is the middle watch of the night in Aparagoyana; sunset in Apara¬ 
goyana is midnight in Jambudipa, and sunrise is noon in Jambudipa, 
sunset in Pubbavideha and midnight in Uttarakuru. 6 

A cakkavatti -king first conquers Pubbavideha in the east and Jambu¬ 
dipa in the south, and then sets out to win Aparagoyana in the west and 
Uttarakuru in the north. 7 Thus King Mandhata, having conquered 
Jambudipa, journeys on with his retinue to Aparagoyana and conquers 
it straight away. 8 

Punnaka, in his play with Dhananjaya, staked a jewel, by gazing into 
which the continent of Aparagoyana could be seen. 9 

In this context the name given is Goyaniya. 10 

Some of the inhabitants came with Mandhata from Aparagoyana to 
Jambudipa and settled down there. The country they colonised was 
called Aparanta. 11 

1 SnA.ii.443. 

2 i. 227; v. 59. 

3 KhA. 123. 

4 ThagA.ii. 187-8. 

5 DhsA. 298; AA. i. 264; Vm. 206. 

6 DA.iii. 868. 

7 Mbv. 73-4; BuA. 113. 

8 Dvy. 215. 

9 J. vi. 278; so also in the necklace 
mentioned in the Harapraddna Jat. (Mtu. 
ii. 68). 

10 So also in the Mahavastu: Apara- 
godanika, °godaniya (ii. 159, 378, etc.). 
In the Dulva it is called Aparagaudani 
(Rockhill, 84). 

11 DA. ii. 482; MA. i. 484. 

Aparanna.— A vulture who lived in Gijjhapabbata. He had a son 
Migalopa, strong and mighty, able to fly higher than his fellows. In 
spite of his father's warning, he flew too high and was dashed to pieces 
by the Verambha winds. 

The Bodhisatta is identified with Aparanna. 1 

1 J. iii. 255-6. 

Aparantaka (Aparanta). —One of the countries to which Asoka sent 
missionaries after the Third Council. The leader of the mission was 


[ Aparanta 

Yonaka Dhammarakkhita. 1 He preached to the people the Aggikkhando- 
pamd Sutta and 37,000 people embraced the new faith, a thousand men 
and even more women entering the Order. 2 The country comprises the 
territory of Northern Gujarat, Kathiawar, Kachch and Sindh. 3 Prob¬ 
ably Buddhism was known in Aparanta during the time of the Buddha 
himself. 4 

It is said that when Mandhata brought all the four continents under 
his sway people from the three other continents came over to Jambu- 
dipa and lived there. When the king died they found themselves unable 
to get back, and begged his minister to allow them to start settlements 
in Jambudfpa itself. He agreed, and the settlement of those who had 
come from Aparagoyana was for that reason called Aparanta 6 ( v.l . 

1 Mhv. xii. 5; Dpv. viii. 7. of the adjoining coast on the lower bank 

2 Mhv. xii. 34-6; Sp. i. 67. of the Narmada. Cunningham * And. 

3 Fleet J.B.A.S. 1910, p. 427; Bhandar- Oeog. of India, notes, p. 690; and Law: 
kar in his Early History of Dekkan puts Early Geography 56 ff. 

it in North Konkan (p. 23); see also ( * Butt: Early Hist, of Bsm. p. 190; 

Burgess: Arch. Reports ii. 131. Accord- Dvy., pp. 45 ff.; but the reference is to 

ing to Hsouien Thsang, the country Sunaparanta. 

seems to comprise Sindh, Western Raja- 6 DAii. 482; MA. i. 184. 

putana, Cutch, Gujarat and a portion 

Aparanta. —Mentioned in a list of tribes. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 359. 

Aparaseliya. —A sub-sect of the Andhaka. Their beliefs seem to have 
been similar to those of the Pubbaseliya. 1 Their centre was Dhana- 
kataka, in the Andhaka country, somewhere near Kancipura and Amara- 
vati on the S.E. coast of India. 2 According to one tradition they were 
connected with the Cetiyavadins. 3 

1 KvuA. quoted in Points of Con¬ 
troversy , pp. 5 and 104. See also 
Dpv. v. 54; Mhv. v. 12; Mbv. 97. For 
their beliefs see de la Valine Poussin; 
J.R.A.S., April, 1910, pp. 413 ff. 

2 Points of Controversy, xliii; see also 
Watters On Yuan Chwang, ii. 214 ff. 

3 For a discussion of this see Points 
of Controversy, xliii-iv. 

1. Aparajita. —One of the Pacceka Buddhas mentioned in the Isigili 
Sutta. 1 

1 M. iii. 70; also ApA. i. 107 and MA. ii. 890. 

2. Aparajita. —A cakkavatti who lived seven kappas ago, an earlier 
birth of Avyadhika Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 215. 

Aparihaniya Sutta ] 


3. Aparajita. —A householder of Bandhumati. When his elder brother, 
Sena, left the world and became an arahant under VipassI Buddha, 
Aparajita sought his advice as to how he could use his wealth to perform 
some act of great merit. He was asked to build a Gandhakuti for the 
Buddha, which he did, using all manner of precious metals and stones 
and surrounding it with various kinds of luxury, such as perfumed water. 
The chamber was on three occasions filled knee-deep with jewels to be 
taken by anyone who came to hear the Buddha preach. At the opening 
of the Gandhakuti, Aparajita entertained 6,800,000 monks for nine 
months. In this age he was born as the banker Jotika. In an earlier 
birth he had given sugar-cane to a Pacceka Buddha. 1 

1 DhA. iv. 199-207. 

4. Aparajita. —Nephew of the foregoing. He asked his uncle to let 
him have a share in the building of the Gandhakuti , but was refused. So 
he built an elephant stable next to it. 

In the present age be was the banker Mendaka. 1 

1 DhA. iv. 203. 

Aparaditthi Sutta. —A certain Brahma thought that no recluse or 
brahmin could come to his world. To refute his views, the Buddha 
went there and sat in the air above the Brahma, flames radiating from 
his body. The Buddha was followed by Moggallana, Mahakassapa, 
Mahakappina and Anuruddha. The Brahma was at first agitated by their 
presence, but later he was delighted on learning from Moggallana, who 
was questioned by an attendant Brahma, that there were many more 
disciples of the Buddha who could do as he and the others had done, 
and that they were holy men. 1 

1 S.i. 144-6. 

Aparika. —See Apadika. 

Aparihani Sutta. —There are seven things that decline not, viz., the 
seven bojjhahgas. 1 

1 S. v. 85; see also ibid., 94. 

1. Aparihaniya Sutta. —On the six things that lead away from ruin. 1 

1 A.iii.310; cf. A. iii. 329-30. 

2. Aparihaniya Sutta. —A devata visits the Buddha at Jetavana and 
mentions six things which lead away from ruin. The Buddha makes 
that a topic for a sermon to the monks. 1 

1 A. iii. 330 f. 


[ Apalala 

Apal&la. —A naga king, converted by the Buddha. He is mentioned 
together with Aravala, Dhanapala and Parileyyaka. The name appears 
in passages where the Buddha's powers are discussed. 1 “ Was not the 
Buddha honoured even by beasts such as Aravala, etc.?" 

The story of the conversion of Apalala does not, as far as I can dis¬ 
cover, occur in the canonical books. In the Samantapasadika 2 the 
story of the conversion of Apalala ( Apaldladamana) is given among the 
stories not included in the Three Councils (sangtti), but that it was known 
quite early in Ceylon is evidenced by the fact that, among the scenes 
from the Buddha's life represented in the relic-chamber of the Maha- 
Thupa, the conversion of Apalala is mentioned. 3 The Divyavadana 4 
makes reference to the story, and states that the naga was converted 
shortly before the Buddha's death. Hiouen Thsang gives the story in 
detail. 5 During Kassapa Buddha's time, Apalala had been a powerful 
man called Gangi. By means of his charms he subdued the dragons 
that attacked the country, and the people, in gratitude, agreed to give 
him tribute. Later some of them forgot their promise and he, in wrath, 
became a dragon after his death. 

The Buddha Gotama visited him and preached to him. He was con¬ 
verted, but, for his sustenance, he was allowed to have one gathering 
of the crops every twelve years. It is for this reason that the White 
Biver (Subhavastu) overflows every twelfth year. The story is found 
in the Sutralankara and other Mahayana books. 6 

3 2 £.< 7 ., BuA. 29. i. 122; also Legge: Fa Jlien's Travels , 

2 iv. 742. p. 29 n. 

8 Mhv. xxx. 84. 6 See Nariman: Sanskrit Buddhism , 

4 pp. 348,385. pp. 194, 274. 

5 Beal: Records of the Western World 

Apalaladamana.— See Apalala. 

Apalokita. —See Apalokina. 

Apalokina Sutta. —The Buddha teaches the undecaying and the path 
that leads thereto 1 (v.l. Apalokita). 

1 S. iv. 370. On the name see KS. iv. 262, n. 2. 

Apassena. —A cakkavatti who lived six kappas ago; a previous birth 

of Arakkhadayaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 215. 

Ap&yimha Vagga. —The ninth section of the Ekanipata of the Jataka. 1 

1 J.i. 360-79. 

Aputtaka Sutta ] 


1. Apara Sutta. —The seven bojjhahga, if cultivated, conduce to no 
more going to the hither or further shore. 1 

1 S. v. 81. On the name see KS. v. 225, n. 3. 

2. Apara Sutta. —The same as above, regarding the four bases of 
psychical power (iddipddd). 1 

1 S. v. 254. 

Apasadika Sutta. —Two discourses on the evils of being unamiable. 1 

1 A.iii. 255-6. 

Apilapiya. —A calclcavatti of eighty-six kappas ago; a former birth of 

Tikandipupphiya Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 202. 

Aputtaka. —A wealthy burgess of Savatthi who died intestate. In 
the Samyutta Nikaya 1 we find Pasenadi, King of Kosala, visiting the 
Buddha at noonday and telling him that he had just finished having 
the banker's wealth removed to the royal coffers, “ eight millions of gold 
to say nothing of silver." And yet Aputtaka ate nothing except sour 
husk-gruel left over from the previous day and wore only hempen 

In the next Sutta of the same Nikaya 2 the Buddha is reported as 
revealing the banker's past. In a former birth he had given alms to 
a Pacceka Buddha, Tagarasikhi, but later he repented and wished that 
he had given the food to slaves and workmen. 

He had, in the same birth, slain the only son of his brother for the 
sake of his fortune. 

As a result of the alms he was born seven times in the deva-worlds and 
seven times as a rich man of Savatthi. His repentance made him 
inclined to deny himself enjoyment of sense-desires. Owing to the 
murder of his nephew in his previous birth, he was childless in this, and 
he died intestate. After this life he was born in Maharoruva purgatory. 3 

1 i. 89-91. 

2 i. 91-3. 

3 The Mayhaka Jat. (J. iii. 299 f.), 
contains the whole story of the banker’s 
past and present, giving many graphic 
details not found in the Samyutta account, 
but it does not mention the seven births 

in heaven or in Savatthi. It adds that 
the king’s men took seven days and 
nights to remove the treasure. Aputtaka 
is there referred to not as Aputtaka but 
as Agantuka (Strange). See also DhA. 
iv. 76-80. 

1. Aputtaka Sutta. —Contains the earlier part of the story of Aputtaka 
as given above, and the moral to be drawn therefrom: namely, that the 


[ Aputtaka Sutta 

mean man, who acquires wealth, pleases neither himself nor others, but 
is like a lake of delicious waters lying in a savage region. On the other 
hand, the rich man who is generous is like a lake near a village. 1 

1 S.i. 89-91. 

2. Aputtaka Sutta. —Contains an account of Aputtaka’s past, as re¬ 
lated above; the wealth that a man stores here has to be left behind for 
others; hence let him make a good store for life elsewhere by using this 
wealth well. 1 

1 S.i. 91-3. 

Aputtasetthi Vatthu. —The story of Aputtaka given above. 1 

1 PhA. iv. 76-80. 

Appam-supati Sutta. —The five kinds of persons who sleep but little. 1 

1 A.iii. 156. 

Appaka (or Virata) Vagga. —The eighth chapter of the Sacca Samyutta 
of the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S. v. 468-70. 

Appacintl. —A fish who lived in the Ganges with his brothers BahuciUti 
and Mitacintl. He and Bahucinti were caught in a fisherman’s net and 
were rescued by Mitacintl. 1 

1 The story is told in the Mitacintl Jat. (i. 427-8). 

Appativani Sutta. —By him who knows not birth and becoming, 
grasping, craving, feeling, contact, etc., there must be no turning back 
in the search for knowledge. 1 

1 S.ii. 132. 

Appatividita Sutta. —Spoken by a deva; a Buddha has arisen, now 
is the time for those who have not perceived the truth to do so. 1 

1 S.i. 4. 

Appativedha Sutta. —Preached to Vacchagotta. Divers opinions arise 
in the world through want of perception of the nature of the body, etc. 1 

1 S.iii.261. 

Appamatta Sutta.— See Asamatta. 

Appamftda Sutta ] 


Appamattaka Vagga. —Tlie nineteenth chapter of the Eka Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. In the spiritual world, by analogy with Nature, 
only a few are selected out of many who will be lost. 1 

1 A. i. 35-8. 

Appamateyya Sutta.— See Matteyya. 

Appamanasubha. —A class of devas of the Rupaloka belonging to the 
plane of third jhana. 1 Their life-term is thirty-two aeons (kappas). 2 
Beings are born there who are possessed of faith, virtue, learning, muni¬ 
ficence and wisdom. 3 

1 Abhs. p. 21. 2 Ibid., 23; see also Kvu. 207; VibhA. 520. 

3 M. iii. 102. 

Appam&nabha. —A class of devas of the Rupaloka, belonging to the 
plane of second jhana. 1 Their life-term is four kappas. 2 Beings are 
born there who have absorbed the idea of boundless brilliancy, 3 or who are 
possessed of faith, virtue, learning, munificence and wisdom. 4 

1 Abhs., p. 21. 3 M.iii. 147. 

2 Ibid., 23; see also Kvu. 207; VibhA. 4 Ibid., 102. 


1. Appamada Vagga. —The second chapter of the Dhammapada. 

2. Appamada Vagga. —In the fifth division of the Samyutta Nikaya 
(Mahavagga) several chapters are found called Appamadavagga. Thus 
the fifth of the Magga Samyutta, 1 the tenth and the fifteenth of the 
Bojjhanga, 2 the seventh of the Satipatthana, 8 the ninth and the fourteenth 
of the Indriya, 4 the second of the Sammappadhana, 5 the second and 
the seventh of the Bala, 6 the fifth of the Iddhipada 7 and the second of 
the Jhana. 8 

1 S. v. 41-5. 2 135. 138. i 6 245. 6 250,252. 

3 191. 4 240,242. I 7 291. 8 308. 

1. Appamada Sutta (2).—Preached to Pasenadi. Diligence is the one 
quality that acquires and keeps welfare both in this life and in the next; 
just as the elephant's foot is chief among all feet, so is diligence the best 
of qualities. 1 

1 S.i.86,87. 

2. Appamada Sutta. —Diligence must be practised by those who know 
not the nature of birth, becoming, etc. 1 

1 S. ii. 132. 

124 [ Appam&da Sutta 

3. Appamada Sutta (2).—Digilence is the harbinger of the arising of 

the Ariyan Eightfold Way. 1 ; 

1 S. v. 30, 32. 

4. Appamada Sutta (2).—Diligence is most useful for the arising of the 
Ariyan Eightfold Way 1 ; there is no other single condition like it for the 
arising and perfection of the Way. 2 

1 S. v. 33. 2 Ibid ., 35, 36, 37. 

5. Appamada Sutta. —On four occasions on which earnestness should 
be applied. 1 

1 A.ii. 119 f. 

6. Appamada Sutta. —Preached in answer to a brahmin's question. 
Earnestness is a quality which, if developed, brings success both in this 
world and in the next. 1 

1 A.iii. 364. 

7. Appamada Sutta. —Same as Aparihaniya Sutta (2), with the addition 
of samadhigdravatd. 1 

1 A. iv. 27 f. 

8. Appamada Sutta. —Earnestness is the best and highest of all 
qualities. 1 

1 A. v. 21 f. 

Appamadovada. —The name given to the stanzas in the Dhammapada 
(Nos. 21-23) on heedfulness. 1 

1 J. v. 66. 

Appameyya Sutta. —Of three classes of persons, the arahant is the 
immeasurable ( appameyya ). x 

1 AA. 266. 

1. Appassuta Sutta. —A woman who has small knowledge is born in 
purgatory. 1 

1 S. iv. 242. 

2. Appassuta Sutta. —Four classes of persons, some of small learning 
and some of wide learning. 1 

1 A.ii. 6f. 

Appiya.— See Suppiya. 

Abbha&janadayaka Thera ] 


Appiha. —A Samanera who lived in the Suvannakuti in Dakkhinagiri 

vihara. On the day after his ordination his mother had prepared 
seats and alms for eight monks, and, by the power of iddhi , these were 
made to suffice for 68,000 monks. The story is told in order to show 
the power of iddhi in connection with the Maha Thupa ceremonies 1 
(v.l Ambasuppiya). 

1 Mr. 552. 

Apheggusara. —A treatise, of about the fourteenth century, on Abhi- 
dhamma topics, written by a scholar of Hamsavati in Burma. 1 

1 Bode: op.cit., 36 and n. 2; Sas.48. 

Apheggusaradipanl. —A book composed at Hamsavati, probably by 
Mahasuvannadlpa, teacher of Queen Sivali. In NevilTs MS. Catalogue in 
the British Museum it is described as an anutikd dealing with matter 

in the Abhidhammattha vibha vanl. 1 

1 Bode: op. cit. 36, n. 2. 

Ababa Niraya. —A name given not to a special purgatory but to a period 
of time in Avici. One term of Ababa is equal to four hundred of Abbuda; 
an Abbuda being reckoned as the time taken to remove twenty Kosalan 
Kharis (equal to a cartload) of tila- seeds, taking one seed at the end of 
each century. 1 

1 Sn. p. 126; S. i. 152; SA. i. 170; see also KS. i. 190, n. 1 and 2. SnA. (ii. 477) 
gives an Abbuda as equal to 100,000 ninnahutas ; AA. ii. 853. 

1. Abbuda. —A period of suffering in Avici. For details see Ababa. 

2. Abbuda.— A king of long ago; a former birth of Nigganthipupphiya 
Thera. 1 

1 Ap.i.263. 

Abbha Sutta. —Thunder clouds arise sometimes because the Abbhava- 
lahaka devas wish to give joy to their bodies. 1 

1 S.iii.266. 

Abbhanjanadayaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he had 
given ointment to the Buddha Kondanna. As a result, fifteen kappas 
ago he was born as a cakkavatti , Cirappa. 1 

1 Ap. i. 236. 


[ Abbhantara J&taka 

Abbhantara Jataka (No. 281).—Tlie Sister Bimbadevi had suffered from 
flatulence, and was cured with mango-juice and sugar which Sariputta had 
obtained from the king of Kosala, at Rahula’s request. The king, having 
heard of Bimbadevf s affliction, ordered that she should be continually 
supplied with mango-syrup. On being told of the incident, the Buddha 
revealed this story of the past to show that it was not the first time that 
Sariputta had obtained mango-syrup for Bimbadevi. 

The atitavatthu is about the chief queen of a king of Benares. Sakka, 
becoming nervous on account of the austerities of an ascetic, wishes to 
destroy him, and arouses in the queen a desire for a “ Midmost Mango ” 
(Abbhantara-Amba). After prolonged search—during which the ascetic 
and his companions are driven from the royal park because they are 
reported to have eaten the mangoes there—a favourite parrot of the 
palace is commissioned to find the Midmost Mango. He goes to Himava, 
and learns from the parrots of the seventh mountain range that the 
mango grows on a tree which belongs to Vessavana and which is most 
strictly guarded. He goes stealthily by night to the tree, but is caught 
by the guardian goblins, who decide to kill him. He tells them that 
he is delighted to die in the performance of his duty, and thereby wins 
their respect. Following their counsel, he seeks the assistance of an 
ascetic, Jotirasa, living in a hut called Kancanapatti, to whom 
Vessavana sends a daily offering of four mangoes. The ascetic gives 
the parrot two mangoes, one for himself and one for the queen. 1 

Ananda was the parrot and Sariputta Jotirasa. 

1 J. ii. 392-400. 

Abbhantara Vagga. —The fourth division of the Tika Nipata of the 
J atakatthakatha. 1 

1 J.ii. 392-430. 

Abbhavalahaka. —One of the Cloud-group of devas. They are em¬ 
bodied in the thunder clouds (cumulus clouds), and when they wish 
to revel and delight themselves, thunder clouds make their appearance 
in the sky. 1 

1 S.iii. 256. 

Abbhahattha.— See Ambahattha. 

Abbhasa. —Eleven kappas ago there were thirty-five kings of the name 
of Abbhasa, all former births of NIta Thera 1 (v.l. Ambaramsa). 

1 ThagA.i. 182. 

Abhaya ] 


Abbhahata Sutta. —The world is persecuted by death, age, decay and 
craving. 1 

1 S. i. 40. The verses appear also in the story of Sirimailda Thera (Thag. v. 448). 

Abbhuta Sutta.— The Buddha 
leading thereto. 1 


preaches the marvellous and the path 
S.iv. 371. 

Abbhutadhamma. —Name given to one of the nine divisions (anga) 
of the Dhamma. 1 Buddhaghosa (DA. i. 24) defines it as including all 
the passages treating of wonders, e.g . the four marvellous things 
described in the Mahdparinibbana Sutta} 

1 Vin.iii. 8; M. i. 133; A.ii. 103; Pug. 43; Mil. 344, etc. 2 D.ii.145. 

1. Abbhutadhamma Sutta.— On the marvel that when a Tathagata 
preaches the Dhamma, folk give up their usual predispositions and listen 
to it. 1 

1 A.ii. 131 f. 

2. Abbhutadhamma Sutta.— See Appendix. 

Abbhokasa Sutta. —The five kinds of those who seek solitude. 1 

1 A. iii, 220. 

1. Abhabba Sutta. —Various events and the conditions requisite for 
their presence. 1 

1 A. v.144f. 

2. Abhabba Sutta. —The ten conditions essential for arahantship. 1 

1 A. v.209. 

1. Abhaya Thera. —An arahant. He was a brahmin of Savatthi who, 
having heard the Buddha preach, entered the Order. One day, while 
going to the village for alms, he was disturbed in mind by an attractively 
dressed woman, but he recollected himself and developed insight. 1 

In a former birth he had met Sumedha Buddha in the forest and had 
offered him a wreath of salala- flowers. Nineteen kappas ago he was 
born sixteen times as king, his name being Nimmita. He is probably 
to be identified with the Thera Vatamsakiya of the Apadana. 2 

1 Thag. v. 98; ThagA. i. 201-2. 2 i. 174. 

2. Abhaya. —Commonly called Abhayarajakumara. He was the son 
of King Bimbisara and of Padumavatl, the belle of Ujjeni. When the 


[ Abhaya 

boy was seven years old, his mother sent him to the king and he grew 
up with the boys of the court. He first came under the influence of 
the Nigantha Nataputta, who taught him a dilemma to set the “ Samana 
Gotama.” In the Buddha's reply, the prince recognised the defeat 
of the Nigantha and the supreme Enlightenment of the Exalted One, 
whose disciple he then became. Later, when the king died, Abhaya 
was disturbed in mind, and entered the Order. On the occasion of the 
preaching of the T dlacchiggalupama Sutta / he became a Stream-enterer 
and afterwards attained arahantship. 1 2 3 The Abhayardjakumdra Sutta? 
contains the dilemma episode. It also mentions that at the time the 
prince had a little son of whom he was evidently very fond. 

In the Samyutta Nikaya 4 he is stated as having visited the Buddha at 
Gijjhakuta and discussed with him the views of Purana Kassapa. The 
Buddha teaches him about the seven bojjhahgas. 

In the Vinaya, 5 Abhaya is mentioned as having discovered JIvaka 
Komarabhacca lying on a dung-heap (cast there by the orders of his 
mother, the courtesan Salavat!), and having brought him up. 

The Anguttara Commentary, 6 on the other hand, says that Abhaya 
was Jivaka's natural father. 

As a reward for quelling a disturbance on the frontier, Abhaya was 
given a skilled nautch girl by his father, Bimbisara. For seven days he 
enjoyed her company to the exclusion of all else, but on the seventh day 
she died. Disconsolate, he sought comfort from the Buddha, who 
assuaged his grief. 7 

The Apadana 8 gives the story of his past. He had been a brahmin of 
Hamsavatl, skilled in the Vedas; having heard the Buddha Padumuttara 
preach, he was converted and joined the Order, where he spent his time 
singing the greatness of the Buddha. 

The Theragatha Commentary 9 quotes, in his story, some verses in 
the Apadana, which in the Apadana itself are ascribed to a Thera 
Ketakapupphiya. They state that he offered a ketaka -flower to the 
Buddha Vipassi. Perhaps Ketakapupphiya was the title of another 
thera, whose real name was Abhaya, and hence the stories were 
confused. 10 

See also Abhaya (3). 

1 Probably the same as S. v. 455 and 
M. iii. 169. 

2 Thag. 26; ThagA. i. 83-4 also ThigA. 
39. In ThagA. his mother’s name does 
not appear. 

3 M.i. 392 ff. 

4 S. v. 126-8. 

6 i. 269. 

6 i. 216. 

7 DhA. iii. 166-67; cf. the story of 

8 ii. 502-4. 

9 i. 83-4. 

10 ii. 449-50. 

Abhaya ] 


3. Abhaya. —A Licchavi of Vesali generally, 1 but wrongly, identified 
with Abhayarajakumara. On one occasion he comes with another 
Licchavi, Pandita Kumaraka, to Ananda in the Kutagarasala in 
Yesali, and discusses with him certain views held by Nigantha Nata- 
putta. Ananda teaches him the Buddha's three Ways of purification. 2 
On another occasion he visits the Buddha, again at Yesali, with the 
Licchavi Salha; the latter asks the Buddha's views on purity of morals 
and self-mortification. The Buddha tells him of the Ariyan Way and 
explains its implications by various similes. 3 We are not told that either 
of them became converts on this occasion. 

1 K.g., GS.i. 200, n. 2; ii. 211, n. 2; KS. I 2 For details see A. i. 220-2. 

v. 107, n. 2. 1 3 See A. ii. 202-4. 

4. Abhaya. —A Thera. He and Tissadatta Thera are mentioned 
together, in several Commentaries 1 as examples of persons worthy of 
being associated with, because of their possession of ready attention 
(upatthita-sati). This perhaps refers to Abhaya (1) or, more probably, 
to one of the three Abhayas mentioned with their titles in the Digha 
Commentary on the Mahaparinibbana Sutta 2 in its exegesis on the 
word upatthita-sati. 

1 DA. iii. 786; MA. i. 234; AA. i. 273; j Dighabhanaka-Abhaya and Tipitaka- 

VibhA. 275. j Cuiabhaya {q.v.). 

2 DA. ii. 530: Mahagatimba-Abhaya, 

5. Abhaya. —King of Ceylon (then known as Ojadipa) in the time of 
Kakusandha Buddha. His capital was Abhayanagara. 1 

1 Sp. i. 86; Mhv. xv. 59. 

6. Abhaya. —King of Ceylon (414-394 b.c.). He was the eldest son of 
Pandiuvasudeva and reigned in Upatissagama. Later, when the usurper 
Pandukabhaya came to the throne, he killed all his other nine uncles, 
sparing only Abhaya, because the latter had befriended both him and 
his mother, Ummadacitta. 1 Abhaya was made NagaraguttiJca (Guardian 
of the City), administering the government by night; he was the first 
holder of that office. 2 

1 It was he who prevented Citta from being killed at birth, Mhv. ix. 3. 

2 Mhv. ix. 3, 9; x. 52, 80, 105. 

7. Abhaya. —Personal attendant of AtthadassI Buddha. 1 


1 Bu. XV. 19. 


[ Abhaya 

8. Abhaya. —Eldest son of King Mutaslva of Ceylon. He renounced 
the succession in favour of his younger brother, Tissa, who later became 

known as Devanampiyatissa . 1 

1 MT. 302. 

9. Abhaya. —Father of Khanjadeva . 1 

1 Mhv. xxiii. 78. 

10. Abhaya. —A monk, chief of the ascetics who dwelt in the Panca- 
parivenamula monastery. He was sent by King Kittisirimegha (q.v.) to 
fetch the king’s son. 1 

1 Cv. lxvii. 61. 

11. Abhaya.— -Author of the Mahatikd on Saddatthabhedacinta. 1 He 
was a native of Pagan, and is also credited with the authorship of the 

Sambhandhacinta-tlka. 2 

1 Gv. 63. 2 Bode, op. cit., 22, and n. 8. 

12. Abhaya. —A brigand, commonly called Cora-Abhaya (q.v.). 

13. Abhaya (Abhayupassaya). —A nunnery built by King Mahasena. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxvii. 43. 

14. Abhaya. —Nephew of Khallatanaga. 1 

1 MT. 444. 

For others named Abhaya see under their titles, e.g. Mahagatimba, 
DIghabhanaka, Meghavanna, etc. 

Abhaya Sutta. —On what fearlessness means. 1 

1 A. iv. 455. 

Abhayagallaka. —A vihara in Ceylon built by King Mahaculi-Maha- 
tissa. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxiv. 8. 

Abhayagiri. —A celebrated monastic establishment on the north side 
of Anuradhapura, consisting of a vihara and a mighty thupa. Only 
the thupa now stands. It was built by King Vattagamani Abhaya 
on the site of the ancient Tittharama, 217 years, 10 months and 10 days 

Abhayagiri ] 


after the founding of the Mahavihara. 1 Tradition states that when the 
king was fleeing from the Tamils he passed the Tittharama on his way, 
and the Nlgantha Giri, who then lived there, made insulting remarks 
about him. The king vowed, if he were returned to the throne, to 
build a vihara on that spot 2 ; he fulfilled his vow, and the name of the 
vihara was a combination of his own name and of that of the Nigantha. 
The monastery was given in charge of the Thera Mahatissa of Kuppikala 
and of two other monks, Kuppikala having befriended the king in his 

The vihara advanced rapidly in wealth and in power, but quite soon 
the monks seceded from the Mahavihara fraternity because, according to 
the Mahavamsa, 3 an incumbent-of the Mahavihara, Mahatissa by name, 
was expelled from the monastery for frequenting lay families. His 
disciple, Bahalamassutissa, went in anger to Abhayagiri and formed a 
separate faction. 

A Sinhalese chronicle, the Nikaya Sangraha, 4 5 states that these dissen¬ 
tients were soon after joined by a body of Vajjiputtaka monks from the 
Pallarama in India, under the leadership of a teacher called Dhammaruci, 
and the sect which they together founded in Ceylon became known as the 
Dhammaruci Nikaya, with headquarters in Abhayagiri. 

For quite a long while the two fraternities, that of the Mahavihara 
and that of the Abhayagiri, seem to have lived in amity, alike enjoying 
the munificence of patrons. 6 Thus, Gajabahukagamani raised the 
height of Abhayuttara-thupa (as the thupa at Abhayagiri seems to have 
been called) and made the Gamanitissa-tank to be used for the cultiva¬ 
tion of land for the maintenance of the vihara 6 ; Kanitthatissa built a 
splendid structure in the same vihara for the Thera Mahanaga; it was 
called the Ratanapasada. 7 

But in the reign of Voharakatissa, the Abhayagiri monks openly adopted 
the heretical Vaitulya Pitaka. 8 An inquiry was held by the king with 
the help of his minister Kapila, the heretical books were burnt and the 
monks of Abhayagiri disgraced. 9 

Soon afterwards, however, the heretics won over the king Mahasena 
to their side and destroyed the establishment of the Mahavihara, carrying 
away all the materials to Abhayagiri. 10 Later, Mahasena repented of 
his ways, burnt the books of the Abhayagiri monks and transferred his 

1 Mhv. xxxiii. 78-83. 

2 Ibid., 43-4. 

3 Ibid., 95 ff. 

4 pp. 11, 12; also P.L.C. 42. 

5 Ibid., 52 f.; Mhv. xxxv. 20, 57, 119- 

22; xxxvi. 7-14. 

6 Ibid., xxxv. 119-22. 

7 xxxvi. 7, 8. 

8 Of the Mahayanists (see Mhv. 
trans. 259, n. 2). 

9 Mhv. xxxvi. 40-1. 

10 P.L.C. 53; Mhv. xxxvii. 10-16. 


[ Abhayagiri 

patronage to the Maha vihara. But the Abhayagiri fraternity must 
soon have recovered its prestige, for we find Mahasena's successor, 
Sirimeghavanna, planting a bodhi tree (called Tissavasabha) 11 in Abhaya¬ 
giri and surrounding it with a stone terrace. 12 A few years later both 
Mahanama (409-31) and his queen became active supporters of Abhaya¬ 
giri. 13 Dhatusena is stated to have enlarged the Abhayuttara-vihara, 14 
and Silakala is credited with several benefactions to the vihara and its 
bodhi tree 15 ; Mahanaga gave the weaver's village of Jambela to the 
Uttaravihara 16 ; Aggabodhi I. built a bathing-tank there, 17 while his 
successor, Aggabodhi II., built the Dathaggabodhi house, so called after 
himself and his queen. 18 

In the monastery at Abhayagiri there seems to have been a stone 
image of the Buddha, referred to under various names, Silasambuddha, 
Kalasela, Kalasattha, Silasattha and Silamayamuninda. 19 It was 
evidently held peculiarly sacred. Buddhadasa placed a nagamani in its 
eye 20 ; this was soon lost, and we find Dhatusena replacing it, adorning 
and decorating the statue in various ways. 21 Silameghavanna had it 
restored and redecorated and made provision for its maintenance. 22 
The same king, we are told, attempted to carry out a reform of the 
Abhayagiri monks, but this attempt ultimately brought disaster on 
him. 23 Jetthatissa gave to the vihara the village of Mahadaragiri. 24 
Dathopatissa built the Kappura-parivena attached to the vihara, and 
also a monastery Tiputthulla, encroaching on the precincts of the Maha¬ 
vihara, notwithstanding the protests of the monks belonging to the 
latter. 25 Aggabodhi VII. added the Sabhattudesabhoga, 26 and Mahinda II. 
the Mahalekha-parivena as well as the many-storeyed Ratanapasada 
with its costly ornamentation. 27 

Sena I. built the Vlrankurarama and gave it to the Mahasanghikas, 28 

while his consort, Sangha, erected a dwelling house, Mahindasena, 29 and 
his courtier, Uttara, yet another dwelling house, called Uttarasena, for 
the maintenance of which he provided. Two other courtiers, Vajira and 

11 Cv. trans. i. 9, n. 3. 

12 Cv. xxxvii. 91. 13 Ibid ., 212. 

14 Ibid., xxxviii. 61. 

« Ibid.,xli. 31-2. 

16 Another name for Abhayagiri; see 
Cv. trans. i. 8, n. 2; 61, n. 6. 

17 Cv. xlii. 28. 
is Ibid., 63-6. 

19 Cv. xxxix. 7; xxxviii. 66; 61-2; 
see also vv. 61, 77, 87. There was also 
in Abhayagiri another image called the 

Abhiseka ( q.v .). 

20 Cv. xxxvii. 123. 

21 For details see Cv. xxxviii. 62 ff. 

22 Ibid., xliv. 68. 

23 Ibid., 76 ff. 

24 Ibid., 96. 

25 Ibid., xlv. 29 ff. 

26 Ibid., xlviii. 64. 

27 Ibid., 135-40; see also Geiger’s 
trans. 123, n. 2. 

23 Cv. 1. 68-9. 

29 Ibid., 79. 

Abhayagiri ] 


Rakkhasa, built two dwelling bouses, called respectively Vajirasenaka 
and Rakkhasa. 30 

In tbe reign of Sena II. the Pamsukulika monks, who till then bad 
evidently lived in Abbayagiri, 31 separated and formed special groups. 
Sangha, queen of Udaya II., erected and endowed tbe building known as 
tbe Sanghasenapabbata. 32 Kassapa IV. built a pasada bearing bis name 
and assigned to it a village, 33 while bis successor, Kassapa V., erected the> 
Bhandika-parivena and tbe Silameghapabbata, endowing each with a 
village. 34 

Sena III. spent 40,000 kahd'panas for a stone paving round tbe cetiya. 
Tbe Abbayagiri monks befriended both Vijayabahu I. (then known as 
Kitti) and bis brother, and out of gratitude Vijayabahu built tbe 
Uttaramula-parivena, which was probably attached to tbe vihara itself. 36 

In tbe reign of Parakkamabahu I., when that monarch bad estab¬ 
lished himself on the throne, it is said that be tried to reform tbe monks 
of tbe Abbayagiri, but be found tbe task hopeless. 36 He found that 
tbe Abhayagiri-thupa bad been destroyed by tbe vandalism of tbe 
Tamils, and be bad it restored to a height of 160 cubits. 37 When Anura- 
dbapura was finally abandoned, Abbayagiri fell into ruin and decay, 
the monastery being completely destroyed. 

It is clear that even at tbe outset there was considerable rivalry 
between tbe monks of Abbayagiri and those of tbe Mahavihara. Tbe 
rivalry seems originally to have been mainly personal, but it later 
developed into differences in doctrinal opinion. Of tbe exact nature 
of these latter we have no information, owing, chiefly, to tbe book- 
burnings carried out by pious kings in tbe excess of their zeal for tbe 
purity of the Faith. For tbe same reason we are unable to ascertain 
what part, if any, tbe Abbayagiri fraternity played in literary activity. 
It has been suggested, however, that both tbe Jatakatthakatha 38 and 
tbe Sahassavatthuppakarana, 39 another compilation of tales, were tbe 
work of tbe Abbayagiri monks. 

Fa-Hsien evidently spent tbe two years of bis stay in Ceylon with 
tbe Abbayagiri fraternity because tbe books be took away with him 
were those of tbe unorthodox schools. According to him, there were, at 
this time, 5,000 monks in Abbayagiri. 40 

In tbe chronicles Abbayagiri is referred to under several names: 
Abhayuttara, Abhayavihara, Abhayacala and Uttaravihara. 

30 Ibid., 83. 

31 Cv. trans.i. 108, n. 1. 

32 Cv. li. 86-7. 

33 /&w2.,lii. 13; Cv. trs.i. 162, n. 4. 

34 Cv.lii.58-9. 

35 Cv. lvii. 18, 23. 

36 /6td.,lxxviii. 21 ff. 

37 Ibid., 98. 

38 P.L.C. 124, 125. 34 Ibid., 128. 

40 Fa Hsien’s Travels, 67 ff. 


[ AbhayagirikS 

Abhayagirika. —The monks of the Abhayagiri-vihara. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxiii. 97-8. 

Abhayahkara. —One of the royal elephants of King Vasavatti of 
Benares. 1 

1 J. vi. 135. 

Abhayanagara. —The capital of King Abhaya (5), King of Ceylon, 
when the island was known as Ojadipa. It lay to the east of the 
Kadamba river. 1 

1 Mhv. xv. 58-9. 

Abhayanaga. —Younger brother of King Voharikatissa. With the 
help of his uncle Sllbhadeva he conspired against the king and, obtaining 
the assistance of the Damilas, he overthrew and killed him. Abhayanaga 
reigned for eight years (a.d. 291-9). 1 

1 Mhv. xxvi. 42-53. 

Abhayattheri.— See Abhaya. 

Abhayamata. —A Therl. She was a courtesan named Padumavatl, 
the belle of Ujjenl. King Bimbisara, having heard of her beauty, ex¬ 
pressed to his purohita a wish to see her. The purohita, by the power of 
his spells, enlisted the assistance of a yakkha, Kumbhira, who took the 
king to Ujjenl. She bore to the king a son, Abhayarajakumara, who 
later joined the Order and became an arahant. It was on his account 
that Padumavatl came to be called Abhayamata. She heard Abhaya¬ 
rajakumara preach and leaving the world herself became an arahant. 1 
Two verses attributed to her are found in the Therfgatha. 2 In the time 
of the Buddha Tissa, seeing him going round for alms, with glad heart 
she gave him a spoonful of food. As a result, she was thirty-six times 
queen among the gods and was chief queen of fifty cakkavattis . 3 She 
is evidently identical with Katacchubhikkhadayika of the Apadana. 4 

1 ThigA. 31-2. 3 ThigA. 32. 

2 33, 34. 4 ii. 516-7. 

Abhayarajakumara Sutta. —It contains the episode of Prince Abhaya 
(q.v.) visiting the Buddha at Rajagaha and setting him the questions 
suggested by Nigantha Nataputta : Would a Tathagatha say anything 
unpleasant or disagreeable to others ? If he did, how would he 
differ from ordinary men ? If he did not, how was it that the Buddha 

Abhaya ] 


spoke of Devadatta as a reprobate, a child of perdition, etc.—words 
which angered and upset Devadatta ? 

The Buddha answered that the question needed qualification and, 
noticing that the prince was nursing his little boy, who lay in his lap, 
asked him what he would do if a pebble or a stick got into his mouth. 
“I should pull it out even if the blood flowed.” “Just so would a 
Buddha state unpleasant truths in due season if necessary and profit¬ 

At the end of the discourse Abhaya accepts the Buddha as his 
Teacher. 1 

1 M.i. 391 ft. 

Abhayaraja-parivena. —A building erected by King Vijayabahu IV. 

in connection with the Vanaggamapasada Vihara. He built it in order 
that he might give the merits arising therefrom to his father, Parakkama- 
bahu II. It was richly endowed. 1 

1 Cv. lxxxviii. 51-2; Cv. trans. ii. 186, n. 4. 

Abhayavapi. —A tank in Anuradhapura built by King Panduka- 
bhaya. 1 At its lower end was the settlement of the yakkha Cittaraja. 2 
In the hot weather it ran dry, and on one occasion Devanampiyatissa 
used its mud for building a temporary structure in which to deposit the 
relics brought from Jambudlpa. 3 The hall which Dutthagamani built 
round the Maricavatti Vihara extended into a part of the Abhaya tank. 4 
In the reign of Bhatikabhaya water was taken from the tank, by means 
of machines, up to the top of the Maha Thupa, for the sprinkling of the 
flowers offered there. 5 The tank is generally identified with the modern 
Basavakkulam. 6 

1 Mhv. x. 88. I 4 Ibid., xxvi. 20. 

2 Ibid., 84. 5 Ibid., xxxiv. 45. 

3 Ibid., xvii. 35. 6 Geiger, Mhv. trans. 74, n. 3. 

Abhaya-Vihara.— Another name for Abhayagiri Vihara. 

Abhayasamana Sutta. —Preached to Janussoni on those who have no 
fear when death comes to them. 1 

1 A. ii. 173 f. 

Abhaya. —A Then. She belonged to a family in Ujjeni and was the 
playmate of Abhayamata (Padumavatl). When the latter joined the 
Order, Abhaya, too, left the world. As she was meditating in Sltavana, 


[ Abhayacala 

the Buddha sent forth a ray of glory to encourage and help her; she 
thereupon became an arahant. 1 Two verses are attributed to her in the 
Therlgatha. 2 

In the time of Sikh! Buddha she was born in a noble family and became 
the chief queen of the Buddha's father, Arunava. One day she offered 
to the Buddha some lotuses which the king had given her. As a result, 
in later births her body was the colour of the lotus and bore the perfume 
of the lotus. 

Seventy times she reigned as queen of heaven and she was chief queen 
of sixty-three cahhavattis . 3 She is evidently to be identified with 

Sattuppalamalika of the Apadana. 4 

1 ThigA. 33-4. I 3 ThigA. loc. cit. 

2 35, 46. I * ii. 517-18. 

Abhayacala. —Another name for Abhayagiri. 

Abhayuttara. —A name for Abhayagiri. 

Abhayupassaya. —A nunnery; see Abhaya (13). 

Abhayuvara. —The name of the eighth bhanavara (portion for recita¬ 
tion) of the first Khandhaka of the Mahavagga of the Vinaya Pitaka. 

Abhayebalakapasana. —A locality in Anuradhapura, one of the spots 
included in the Sima marked out by Devanampiyatissa. 1 It was on the 

Abhayavapi. 2 

1 Mhv. xv. 13; see Appendix B of Geiger’s text. 2 Mbv. 135. 

Abhijana Sutta.— See Parijana. 

Abhinjika Thera. —A fellow-dweller of Anuruddha. On one occasion 
when the Buddha asks Maha Kassapa to preach to the monks, the latter 
reports that it is impossible to talk to them because monks like Bhanda, 
colleague of Ananda, and Abhinjika, were engaged in wordy warfare. 
The Buddha sends for them and admonishes them. Having heard his 
discourse, they express regret for their behaviour and promise to cultivate 
self-restraint in the future 1 (v.l. Abhijika, Abhinjika). 

1 S.ii. 204-5. 

Abhinna Vagga. —The twenty-sixth section of the Catukka Nipata of 
the Anguttara Nikaya. It consists of ten suttas. 1 

1 A. ii. 246-53. 

Abhidhamma Pitaka ] 


1. Abhinna Sutta.—On higher knowledge and its applications. 1 

1 A. ii. 246 f. 

2. Abhinna Sutta.—A group of suttas on qualities that could be 
obtained by an understanding of rdga (lust). 1 

1 A.iii.277. 

Abhinnaparinneyya Sutta.—Everything should be known and com¬ 
prehended as impermanent, woeful, void of self. 1 

1 S. iv. 29. 

Abhinneyya Sutta.—Same as above. 

Abhinha Jataka (No. 27).—The story of a dog and an elephant who 
grew up to be great friends and became indispensable to each other. 
The dog used to amuse himself by swinging backwards and forwards 
on the elephant's trunk. One day the merchant sold the dog. The 
elephant went off his food and would not be consoled till the dog was 
brought back. 

The story was told in reference to two monks of Savatthi who were- 1 
very intimate with one another and spent all their time together. 1 

1 J.i. 189 f. 

Abhidhamma Pitaka.—The third division of the Pitakas. It consists 
of seven books: the Dhammasangani, Vibhanga, Kathavatthu, Puggala- 
pannati, Dhatukatha, Yamaka and Patthana, all designated by the name 
of Pakarana. Only in the Chronicles and the Commentaries is the word 
used as the title of a third Pitaka. 1 In the Canon itself 2 the word means 
“ special dhamma,” i.e. the Doctrine pure and simple (without admixture 
of literary treatment or personalities, etc.), and is sometimes coupled 
with the word abhivinaya . 3 It has been suggested 4 that, as the word 
abhidhamma standing alone is not found either in the Sutta Nipata, the 
Samyutta, or the Ahguttara, and only once or twice in the Digha and 
Majjhima, it probably came into use only towards the end of the period 
in which the four great Nikayas grew up. 5 

The MahasaAghikas refused to include the Abhidhamma in the 
Pitakas at all, as they did not regard it as the word of the Buddha. 6 

1 See the discussion of this in DA. i. 
15, 18 f. 

2 E.g. 9 Vin.i. 64; iii. 144; iv. 344. 

3 E.g. 9 D. iii. 267; M.i. 272. 

4 New Pali Diet. s.v. 

5 See Dial. iii. 199 on a possible origin 
of the Adhidhamma. 

6 Dpv. v. 32-8. 


[ Abhidhamma Pita k a 

According to the Dighabhanakas the Abhidhamma Pitaka also 
included the whole of the Khuddaka Nikaya except the Cariyapitaka, 
Apadana and Buddha vamsa. 7 

According to another division, the five Nikayas are not divisions of the 
Dhamma but of the whole Canon, and in the fifth are included both the 
Yinaya and the Abhidhamma. 8 

There is a legend recorded by Buddhaghosa that the Abhidhamma 
was first preached by the Buddha in Tavatimsa at the foot of the Paric- 
chataka tree, when he was seated on Sakka's throne, during his visit to 
his mother in Tavatimsa. Later it was taught by him to Sariputta on 
the banks of the Anotatta Lake, whither Sariputta had gone to minister 
to the Buddha during the latter's visit to Tavatimsa. 9 

The legend further relates that after the Enlightenment the Buddha 
spent the fourth week in the Ratanaghara, revolving in his mind the 
intricate doctrines of the Abhidhamma in all their details. 10 

According to the Cullavagga version of the Councils 11 the Abhidhamma 
Pitaka was not rehearsed at either Council. 

The fact that the Abhidhamma is not mentioned in the suttas and that 
only Dhamma and Yinaya are usually referred to, only proves that at one 
time the Abhidhamma did not form a separate Pitaka. As a matter of 
fact, it is not held even by the commentators to be the word of the 
Buddha in the same sense as the suttas. One section of it, the Katha- 
vatthu, 12 was taught only at the Third Council. 

As far as we know, the seven books of the Abhidhamma are peculiar 
to the Theravadins, though there is evidence that other schools, chiefly 
the Yaibhasikas (Sarvastivadins) and the Sautrantikas, held the Abhi¬ 
dhamma books sacred. 18 

As far as the contents of the Abhidhamma are concerned, they do not 
form a systematic philosophy, but are a special treatment of the Dhamma 
as found in the Sutta-Pitaka. Most of the matter is psychological 
and logical; the fundamental doctrines mentioned or discussed are those 
already propounded in the suttas and, therefore, taken for granted. 14 
Apart from the Commentaries on the seven books, an exegetical work 
on the whole Pitaka, called the Abhidhamma Mulatika, was written 
by Ananda Vanaratanatissa of the VanavasI school in Ceylon. 

The tlka was evidently based on Buddhaghosa's Commentaries, but 

7 DA. i. 15. 

8 Ibid,, 23. 

9 VibhA. p. 1; AA. i. 71, etc. 

10 J.i. 78. 

11 Chaps, xi. and xii; but see DA.i. 
15 contra. 

12 But see Kathavatthu. 

13 See Taranatha: Geschichte de* 
Buddhismus (56) 156 (296). 

14 For a discussion of the contents see 
article on Abhidhamma in ERE. 


Abhidhamm&vat&ra ] 

Ananda occasionally dissents from Buddhaghosa. The work was written 
at the request of an Elder, Buddhamitta, and was revised by Maha Kassapa 
of Pulatthipura. 

An Anutikd was written by Culla Dhammapala . 15 

16 Gv. 60, 69. For details see P.L.C., | Abhidhammagandhi, probably a glos- 
pp. 210-12. The Gv. (72) also mentions * sary. 

Abhidhammattha-vikasinl.— A tika on Buddhadatta’s Abhidhammava- 
tara written by Sumangala . 1 

1 Gv. 62; Svd. v. 1227. 

Abhidhammattha-saftgaha. — A compendium of the Abhidhamma 
written by Anuruddha, incumbent of the Mulasoma Vihara . 1 A tikd 
called the Pordna Tikd exists, written by Navavimalabuddhi of Ceylon. 2 

Other explanatory works on the Abhidhammattha-sangaha are those 
by Sumangala and Chappata, the Sihalavyakhyana by Candagomi, the 
Anutikd by Vepullabuddhi, two Navanutikd , one by Ariyavamsa and 
the second by an unknown author, and a Vivarana . 3 

1 For details see P.L.C. 168-72. i s g ee gas. 69. 71; Svd. 1202, 1223; 

2 Compendium of Philosophy , Preface | Gv. 64, 65, 75. 

Abhidhammapannarasatthana. — Written by Nava(Culla-)Vimala~ 
buddhi, explaining some passages of the Abhidhamma. 1 

1 Gv. 64, 74; Bode, op. cit ., 27-8. 

Abhidhammavibhanava.— A tikd on the Abhidhammatthasangaha by 
Sumangala, pupil of Sariputta (Navavimalabuddhi). 1 It is the most 
famous of the exegetical works on the Abhidhammatthasangaha. 2 

1 Gv. p. 62; Svd. 1227. 2 Compendium of Philosophy , Preface ix. 

Abhldhammavatara. —An Abhidhamma treatise by Buddhadatta of 

Uragapura. The book was written in India in the Cola country. It is 
an introduction to the study of the Abhidhamma, and there is much 
similarity between it and the Yisuddhimagga, though Buddhadatta’s 
diction is less involved and ambiguous than that of Buddhaghosa; his 
vocabulary is extraordinarily rich and his style more graphic. 

The work is mostly in verse with, here and there, a prose commentary 
supplied by the author himself. 1 

Two tikds on it exist, one by Vacissara Mahasami of the Mahavihara 
and the other by Sumailgala, pupil of Sariputta. 2 

1 Gv. 69; see P.L.C. 107-8 for details. 

2 Sas. 34. 


[ Abhidh&nappadlplkfi 

Abhidhanappadlpika. —A Pali Dictionary written in tlie twelfth 
century by Moggallana Thera of Ceylon, following the style and the 
method of the Sanskrit Amarakosa. It is in three parts, dealing with 
“ celestial, terrestrial and miscellaneous objects/' and each part is sub¬ 
divided into several sections, which are not all mutually exclusive. The 
whole book is a dictionary of synonyms, all the names given to one 
particular thing being grouped together and put into verse for the purpose 
of memorisation. 

A Samvannana was written by a Burmese Officer-of-State under King 
Kittisihasura (a.d. 1351), and there exists a Burmese translation of the 
eighteenth century. In Ceylon itself a sanna (paraphrase) and a tiled 
have been written, the sanna being the older and by far the more valuable 
work. 1 

1 Gv. 62, 63; Svd. v. 1253; Sad. 65; see also P.L.C. 187-9; Bode, op. cit ., 67. 

Abhinandana Sutta. —He who takes delight in any or all of the five 
khandhas takes delight in suffering; he who does not is released there¬ 
from. 1 

1 S. iii. 31. 

Abhinandamana Sutta. —One who is enamoured of body, etc., becomes 
Mara's bondsman; by not being enamoured one becomes free. 1 

1 S. iii. 75. 

Abhinandena Sutta (2).—By taking delight in the eye, ear, etc., one 
takes delight in Ill; by not so doing one is released from Ill. Similarly 
with regard to sights, sounds, etc. 1 

1 S.iv. 13. 

Abhinivesa Sutta. —Bondage of and dependence upon the fetters arise 
as a result of clinging to the five khandhas. 1 

1 S. iii. 186. 

1. Abhinlhara Sutta. —Of those who engage in meditation, some are 
possessed of both skill in concentration and power of resolve, others are 
otherwise. 1 

1 S. iii. 267. 

2. Abhinlhara Sutta. —Same as above, but “ range of concentration " 
is substituted for “ concentration." 1 

1 S. iii. 276. 

Abhibhu ] 


Abhibhuyya Sutta. —A woman possessed of the five powers (beauty, 
wealth, kin, sons and virtue) continues to get the better of her husband. 1 

1 S. iv. 246. 

1. Abhibhu. —Chief disciple of Sikh! Buddha. 1 In the Arunavati Sutta 
it is said that he went with Sikh! to a Brahma-world and, at the Buddha’s 
request, preached a sermon to the accompaniment of great magical 
powers. He proved that by using just such speech as if he were preaching 
to a gathering of monks, he could, standing in the Brahma-world, make his 
voice heard by its thousand realms. 2 The verses spoken on this occasion 
are, in the Theragatha, ascribed to Abhibhuta . 3 

In the Anguttara Nikaya 4 we find Ananda asking the Buddha how far 
Abhibhu’s powers bore relation to those of a Buddha, and the Buddha 
replying that Abhibhu was a mere disciple, and proceeding to describe 
the immeasurable powers of the Tathagatas. 

Abhibhu was a brahmin because we find him so addressed in the 
x4j:unavati Sutta referred to above, but in the Buddhavamsa Com¬ 
mentary 5 he is spoken of as a rdjaputta. 

In the Patisambhidhamagga Commentary 6 his story is given as an 
example of vikubbana-iddhi whereby a person could make himself seen 
in many places at the same time. We are told that he developed nila- 
kasina , to attract to himself the attention of the world systems. 

The Thera Adhopupphiya had been a hermit in Himava during the 
time of SikhI Buddha and had offered flowers to Abhibhu. 7 

1 D.ii. 9; J. i. 41; Bu. xxi. 20. 5 p. 202. 

2 8. i. 154 f. e 488 f. 

3 v. 1147-8. 7 Ap . i. 128-9. 

4 i. 226 f.; AA. i. 436 f. 

2. Abhibhu. —A class of devas belonging to the Arupa-plane. 1 They 
live in the same plane as the Vehapphala. In the Mulapariydya Sutta 
the word is used to denote all the Asannasattadeva. Buddhaghosa ex¬ 
plains the word by saying abhibhavi ti Abhibhu; kim abhibhavzti? cattdro 
khandhe , arupino . They are beautiful and long-lived, and are therefore 
considered to be eternal and identical with Brahma. 2 In the Brahma- 
nimantanika Sutta z the Buddha claims to be Abhibhu ( = the conqueror). 

1 M. i. 1. 3 MA. i. 30. 3 M.i.329. 

3. Abhibhu. —The name of a Bodhisatta who obtained vivarana under 
Gotama. He will become the sixth Buddha after Gotama. 1 

1 Anagata Vaipsa, p. 37. 


[ Abhibhu Sutta 

1. Abhibhu Sutta. —On the immeasurableness of a Buddha's powers. 1 

1 A. i. 226 falso called the Sihanada Sutta in the Commentary. 

2. Abhibhu Sutta. —On the eight stages or stations of mastery over the 
senses (abhibhdyaphandni). 1 

1 A. iv. 305 f. 

Abhibhuta. —A Thera. He was born in the Raja's family in Vettha 
(v.l. Vetthipura) and succeeded to his father's estate. When the Buddha 
came to the city during a tour, Abhibhuta heard him and invited him 
for a meal; he later entered the Order and became an arahant. Three 
verses ascribed to Abhibhuta occur in the Theragatha, uttered, it is said, 
when his kinsmen and retainers came to him lamenting that he had left 
them without a leader. 1 The second of these verses is elsewhere 2 attri¬ 
buted to Abhibhu, chief disciple of Sikh! Buddha. But in the Milinda- 
panha, 3 Nagasena ascribes the second verse to the Buddha, and in the 
Mahaparinibbana Sutta 1 the third verse also is ascribed to him. The 
second verse is also assigned to the Buddha in the Divyavadana, 5 but 
elsewhere in the same book 6 it is said to have been uttered by devas. 

In a former birth Abhibhuta had been a householder in the time of 
Vessabhu Buddha and became a believer in the Faith, to which he was 
led by his friends. When the Buddha died, the populace gathered to¬ 
gether to obtain relics, but Abhibhuta, having quenched the pyre with 
fragrant water, was first able to take those which he desired. 7 

He is evidently to be identified with Citakanibbapaka Thera of the 
Apadana. 8 

1 Thag. vv. 255-7; ThagA. i. 372 f. 5 p> 2 00. 

2 S. i. 156. 6 p. 569. 

3 245. 7 ThagA. i. 372. 

4 D. ii. 121. s ii. 408 . 

Abhimarapayojana. —Name given to the conspiracy into which Deva- 
datta and Ajatasattu entered, to have archers shoot at the Buddha and 
so kill him. 1 

1 J. i. 142; vi. 130 f.; DA. i. 154. 

Abhiya Kaceana.— See Sabhiya Kaceana. 

Abhiradhana.— A friend of Sambhuta Sitavaniya. He went with 
Sambhuta, Bhumija and Jeyyasena to hear the Buddha preach. 1 

1 ThagA. i. 47. 

Abhivaddhamanaka ] 


Abhlrama. —One of the three palaces occupied, as a layman, by Narada 
Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. x. 19. 

Abhirupa-Nanda Therl. —She was born in Kapilavatthu as the daughter 
of the chief of the Sakiyan Khemaka and was named Nanda. Owing 
to her great beauty and charm she became known as Abhirupa- 

On the day appointed for her to select her husband, the Sakiyan youth, 
on whom her choice was to have fallen, died, 1 and her parents made her 
leave the world against her will. Even after she had entered the Order 
she avoided going into the Buddha's presence, being infatuated with 
her own beauty and fearing the Master's rebuke. In order to induce 
her to come to him, the Buddha directed Maha Pajapati to see that all 
the nuns came for instruction. When Nanda's turn came she sent 
another in her place. The Buddha refused to recognise the substitute, and 
Nanda was compelled to go herself. As she listened to the Buddha 
preaching, he, by his magic power, conjured up a beautiful woman and 
showed her becoming aged and fading, causing anguish to arise in 
Nanda's heart. At the opportune moment, the Buddha drove home 
the truth of the impermanence of beauty. Meditating on this topic, she 
later became an arahant. 2 

The two verses preached to her by the Buddha, which she made the 
subject of her meditations, are given in the Therigatha. 3 

In the time of Vipassi Buddha, Nanda had been the daughter of a 
wealthy burgess in the Buddha's native town of Bandhumatl. Having 
heard the Buddha preach she became his pious follower, and, at his death, 
made an offering of a golden umbrella decked with jewels to the shrine 
built over his ashes. 4 

The verses quoted in the Therigatha Commentary, as having been 
taken from the Apadana, really belong to Metta, and are found in the 
Apadana (ii. 515) ascribed to Ekapindadayika. The correct verses are 
found in the Apadana under the name of Abhirupa Nanda, and agree 
with the story given in the text of the Therigatha Commentary. 

1 The Apadana account (ii. 609) does 
not mention the suitor’s death, but states 
that many sought her hand and caused 
great trouble, to avoid which her parents 
made her join the Order. 

2 ThigA. 81 f.jSnA.i. 241-2. 

3 vv. 19, 20. 

4 Ap. ii. 608. 

Abhivaddhamanaka. —See Aggivaddhamanaka. 


[ Abhisanda Sutta 

1. Abhisanda Sutta (3).—Unvarying loyalty to the Buddha, to the 
Dhamma, to the Saiigha and possession of virtues dear to the Ariyan— 
these are the four floods of merit that bring happiness. 1 

1 S. v. 391-2. 

2. Abhisanda or Sayhaka Sutta (3).—Same as above ; the measure of 
merit that accrues as a result of these four floods is incalculable, like 
the waters of the ocean. 1 

In the second and third suttas of both these groups the fourth quality 
is given in [a) as possession of a heart free from stinginess, delighting in 
self-surrender; in (b) as possession of insight into the rise and fall of 
things, insight that is Ariyan. 

1 S. v. 399-402. 

3. Abhisanda Sutta. —The five yields of merit (punnabhisandd) which 
accrue to a monk because of concentration of mind in various activities. 1 

1 A. iii. 51 f. 

4. Abhisanda Sutta. —-The eight yields of merit that a monk can obtain 
by practising various qualities. 1 

1 A. iv. 245 f. 

Abhisamaya Katha.— The third chapter of the Paiinavagga of the 
Patisambhidamagga. 1 

1 ii. 215 ff. 

Abhisamaya Vagga. —The sixth chapter of the Sacca Samyutta of the 
Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 V. 459 ff. 

Abhisamaya Samyutta. —The thirteenth Samyutta, forming the second 
section of the Nidana Vagga of the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 ii. 133 ff. 

Abhisambodhialankara. —A Pali poem in one hundred stanzas written 
by Saranahkara Sangharaja of Ceylon in the eighteenth century. It 
treats of the life of the Buddha from the time of his birth as Sumedha, 
during the regime of Dipaiikara, to his last birth as Siddhattha. 1 

1 P.L.C.281. 

Amata Sutta ] 


Abhisambuddha-gatha. —The name given to the stanzas which illustrate 
and summarise the Jataka stories, when such stanzas are mentioned as 
having been spoken by the Buddha himself, either after the Enlighten¬ 
ment or before it, while he was yet a Bodhisatta. 1 

1 See Buddhist Birth Stories, Introd. 

Abhisammata. —A king of sixty-three kappas ago; a previous birth 

of Patalipupphiya Thera. 1 

Ap.i. 123. 

Abhisammataka. —A yakkha chieftain. Upavana Thera, who at the 
time of Padumuttara Buddha had been a very poor man, set up his 
uttardsanga as a banner on the shrine erected over the relics of the Buddha. 
Abhisammataka had been appointed by the devas as guardian of the 
offerings at the shrine, and he went round the shrine three times carrying 
the banner, while he himself remained invisible. 1 

1 ThagA. i. 308; Ap. i. 72. 

Abhisama. —A king of fifteen kappas ago; a previous birth of Udaka- 

sanadayaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap.i. 218. 

Abhiseka. —The name of a statue of the Buddha in the Abhayagiri- 
vihara. King Dhatusena had a golden ornament made for it, 1 and in the 
time of Kassapa I., a senapati, named Migara, built a house for it. 2 
Migara also instituted a dedication festival for “ Abhiseka Buddha/ 

1 Cv. xxxviii.67. 3 Ibid,, 40; see also Geiger’s trans, i. 

2 Ibid., xxxix. 6. | 35, n. 7; 36, n. 2. 

Amaccharl Sutta. —A woman should not be stingy and she should be 
wise. 1 

1 S. iv. 244. 

Amata. —The Lake of Immortality, in searching for which Bhaddas&la 
met the Buddha Narada. 1 

1 BuA. 154. 

Amata Vagga. —The fifth chapter of the Satipatthana Samyutta of 
the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S. v. 184-90. 

1. Amata Sutta. —The Buddha teaches the Deathless and the path 
thereto. 1 

1 S. iv. 370. 



[ Amata Sutta 

2. Amata Sutta. —Dwell with mind well established in the four Sati- 
patthdna, but let not that be to you the Deathless, i.e. do not confuse 
the means with the end. 1 

1 S. v. 184; also KS. v. 161, n. 1. 

3. Amata Sutta. —On the nature of deathlessness. 1 

1 A. iv. 455. 

Amatadundubhi. —One of the names under which the Bahudhdtuka 
Sutta is known. 1 Like soldiers in the field of battle, so the disciples in 
the path, developing insight after the method of this sutta, raise aloft 
the standard of Arahantship—hence the name. 2 

1 M.iii. 67. 2 MA.ii. 888. 

Amadha. —See Damatha. 

1. Amara. —See Amaravatl. 

2. Amara. —A city in the time of Siddhattha Buddha. The Buddha, 
being there, made his way to the pleasaunce (Amaruyyana) of the city, 
leaving his footprints to show his path. The two chiefs of the city, 
Sambahula and Sumitta, brothers, seeing the footmarks, went themselves 
to the pleasaunce, and having listened to the Buddha's preaching became 
arahants. 1 

1 BuA. 186. 

1. Amaragiri. —One of the three palaces occupied by AtthadassI Buddha 
during his lay life. 1 

1 Bu. xv. 15. 

2. Amaragiri. —A monastery in Ceylon, in which lived the Elder 
Vanaratana. In the time of Bhuvanekabahu IV. it seems to have been 
the home of the orthodox monks. 1 

1 P.L.C. 240. 

Amarapura. —A city of Burma, founded by King Bodopaya. 1 The 
Elder Nanabhivamsa lived there and was head of the group of monks 
known as the Amarapura sect. These monks, later, took to Ceylon a 
number of Pali texts, these being either of Burmese authorship or else 
better known to the Burmese fraternity than to the Sinhalese. 2 

Bode, p. 74; Sas. 130. 2 Bode, p. 78. 

Amaradevf-panha ] 


1. Amaravati. —Also called Amara. A city in the time of Dipaftkara 
Buddha. Sumedha was born there in a very rich family and renounced 
the world after having given his wealth away. 1 According to the 
Mahabodhivamsa 2 the city was so called because it was inhabited by 
men like gods. 

1 Bu.ii.6; J. i. 6; DhA. i. 68, etc. 2 p. 2. 

2. Amaravati. —A city in the time of Kondanna Buddha eighteen 
leagues in extent. It was in the Devavana, near the city, that Kondanna 
preached his first sermon 1 (v.l. Arundhavati). 

1 BuA. 108-9. 

3. Amaravati.-— The city of Sakka, king of the gods. 1 

1 Sp. i. 49; Cv. lxxx. 5; it is described in the Mahabharata iii. 1714 h.; see also 
Hopkins, Epic Mythology, 140 f. 

Amara (AmaradevI). —Wife of Mahosadha. She was the daughter of 
a merchant who had fallen on evil days. Mahosadha, while seeking for 
a wife, met her as she was taking a meal to her father and entered into 
conversation with her. He asked her various questions and she answered 
in riddles. Mahosadha went to her father's house and plied his trade as 
a tailor, taking the opportunity of observing the girl's behaviour. He 
tested her temper and her character in various ways, and being satisfied 
that she was altogether desirable, he married her with the approval of 
Queen Udumbara. She became popular with everybody and was of 
great assistance to her husband in frustrating the attempts of his enemies 
to work him harm. 1 

In the present age Amara was the beautiful Bimbadevl. 2 

In the Milinda 3 the king mentions the story of AmaradevI having been 
left behind in the village while her husband was away on a journey, and 
of her resisting a temptation to be unfaithful to him. “ If that be true, 
how," asks the king, “ could you justify the Buddha's statement 4 that 
‘ all women will go wrong, failing others, even with a cripple '? " Naga- 
sena explains this by saying that Amara did not sin because she had 
neither real secrecy nor opportunity nor the right-wooer ! 

1 J. iv. 364-72, 392; the story appears really belong to the Buddha. They 

alsom Mtu. ii. 83. appear in the Kunala Jataka (J. v. 435), 

2 J. vi. 478. which is a specimen of Indian folk-lore 

3 pp. 205 if. and not of Buddhist belief. 

4 Incidentally, these words do not | 

Amaradevl-panha. —The name given to the riddle in which Amara tells 
Mahosadha the way to her house: “ Yena sattu bilahga ca dvigunapalaso 

148 [ Amarinda 

ca pupphito, yendddmi tena vaddmi yena ndddmi na tena vadami esa 
maggo yavamajjhakassa etam channapatham vijdndMti ” 

The scholiast explains it thus: entering the village you will see a cake 
shop and then a gruel shop; further on an ebony tree in flower, take a 
path to the right. 

This riddle referred to in J. i. 425 as the Amaradevipanha, is, however, 
called Channapathapanha in the Ummagga Jdtaka itself, where it actually 
occurs in the story. 1 

1 J. vi. 365-6. 

Amarinda. —Name given to Sakka, king of the gods. 1 

1 E.g., ThigA. 151, 112. 

Amita. —A king of twenty-five kappas ago; a previous birth of Agga- 
pupphiya Thera 1 (v.l. Amitobhava, Amitogata). 

1 Ap. i. 229. 

Amitanjala. —A king of fourteen kappas ago; a previous birth of 

Saiapupphiya Thera 1 (v.l. Asitanjala). 

1 Ap. i. 219. 

1. Amita. —One of the two chief women disciples of Padumuttara 
Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. xi.25; J. i. 37; SA. ii. 68; DA.ii.489. 

2. Amita. —One of the two daughters of Sihahanu (the other being 
Pamita) and therefore a sister of Suddhodana, the Buddha's father. She 
married Suppabuddha the Sakyan and had two children, Bhaddakaccana 
and Devadatta. She was a grand-daughter of Devadahasakka. 1 

She is the paternal aunt of the Buddha, referred to as being the mother 
of Tissa Thera 2 (v.l Amata). 

1 Mhv. ii. 16-22; see Rockhill, p. 13, where her son is called Kalyanavardhana. 

2 ThagA. i. 105; MA. i. 289. 

Amitabha. —A king of twenty-five kappas ago; a previous birth of 

Ekasannaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 210. 

Amitodana.— Son of Sihahanu and Kaecana (daughter of Devadaha¬ 
sakka) and brother of Suddhodhana. 1 He was the father of Mahanama 
and Anuruddha. 2 Elsewhere 3 Ananda is also called a son of Amitodana. 

1 Mhv. ii. 20; SnA. i. 357. 2 DhA. iv. 124. 2 DA. ii. 492; AA. i. 162. 

Amba Jataka ] 


In Sanskrit sources 4 lie is spoken of as Amrtodana and the father of 
Devadatta. Mention is also made of another son of his, the Sakka 
Pandu, who escaped the slaughter of the Sakyans by Vidudiabha. 5 

4 E.g., Rockhill, p. 13, and Bigandet i. 13; see also Mtu. i. 352 
6 Mhv. viii. 18, 19. 

Amitobhava.— See Amita. 

Amitta.— See Somamitta. 

Amittaka.— See Amittabha. 

Amittatapana. —A king of seventeen kappas ago; a previous life of 
Pavittha Thera, 1 probably to be identified with Ekadamsaniya of the 
Apadana. 2 

1 ThagA.i. 185. 2 i. 168. 

Amittatapana. —The young wife of the brahmin Jujaka of Kalinga. 
She had been given away by her parents in payment of a debt. Being 
mocked at by the friends she met at the watering-place, she insisted 
on being provided with servants. It was in order to meet with her 
wishes that Jujuka went to Vessantara to beg for the latter's children 
to be used as slaves. 1 

In the present Buddha-age, Amittatapana was Cincamanavika. 2 
1 J. vi. 521-4. 2 Ibid., 593. 

Amittabha. —A king of twenty-five kappas ago; a former life of 

Bhojanadayaka Thera 1 (v.l. Amittaka). 

1 Ap. i. 253. 

Amoraphaliya Thera. —An arahant. Ninety-one kappas ago he gave 
an amora-i ruit to Vipassi Buddha. 1 The verses ascribed to him in the 
Apadana are, in the Theragatha Commentary, attributed to two monks, 

Isidatta 2 and Gotama 3 (v.l. Amodaphaliya). 

1 Ap. ii. 447. 2 ThagA. i. 238. 3 Ibid., i. 256. 

1. Amba Jataka (No. 124).—During a very severe drought a hermit, 
living in the Himalaya at the head of five hundred ascetics, provided 
water for the animals, using the hollowed trunk of a tree as trough. 
In gratitude the animals brought him various fruits, enough for himself 


[ Amba J&taka 

and his five hundred companions. The story is related regarding a 
brother who was very zealous in his duties, doing everything well and 
wholeheartedly. Because of his great goodness the people fed regularly 
every day five hundred of the Brethren. 

1 J.i. 449-51. 

2. Amba Jataka (No. 474).—The story of a brahmin youth who learnt 
a charm from a wise Candala. The charm had the power of making 
lovely and fragrant mangoes grow out of season. The youth exhibited 
his skill before the king, but when asked the name of his teacher he 
lied and said he had been taught in Takkasila. Immediately the charm 
escaped his memory and all his power deserted him. At the king’s 
suggestion he went back to the teacher to ask his forgiveness and to 
learn the charm anew, but the teacher would have none of him and 
the youth wandered away into the forest and died there. 

The story is told in reference to Devadatta who had repudiated the 
Buddha as his teacher and as a result was born in Avici. 1 

The youth was a former birth of Devadatta. 

1 J. iv. 200-7. 

Amba Sutta.-— The four kinds of mangoes (ripe, etc.) and four corre¬ 
sponding classes of monks. 1 

1 A. ii. 106 f. 

1. Ambagama. —A village in Ceylon near Pulatthipura identified with 
the modern Ambagamuva. A battle was fought there between the forces 
of Gajabahu and Parakkamabahu I. 1 Parakkambahu II. built a bridge, 
thirty-four cubits in length, over the KhajjotanadI at Ambagama. 2 

1 Cv. lxx. 321. 2 Ibid., lxxxvi. 23. 

2. Ambagama. —One of the villages near Vesali visited by the Buddha 
on his last tour. 1 It was between Bhandagama and Bhoganagara, on 
the road from Vesali to Kusinara. This was evidently the road which 
led from Vesali northwards to the Malla Country, for other villages in 
the vicinity of Ambagama were Hatthigama and Jambugama. 

It is noteworthy that Anupiya, although in the Malla country, is not 
mentioned in the list of these villages. Thomas 2 thinks that this is 
because the route to Kusinara passed to the east of Anupiya. 

1 D. ii. 123. 2 Op. cit., 148, n. 1. 

Ambanganatthana. —The spot where Devanampiyatissa gave a mango 
to Mahinda. The Elder ate the mango and had the stone planted in the 

Ambattha ] 


ground. Immediately a tree grew from it and the earth trembled. 
The Elder declared that the spot would become a place of assembly for 
the Sangha of Ceylon and would be called Ambangana. 1 

1 Sp.i. 101. 

Ambacora Jataka (No. 344).—The story of a wicked ascetic who built 
for himself a hut in a mango orchard on the river bank near Benares 
and ate the ripe mangoes as they fell. In order to frighten him Sakka 
made the orchard appear as if it had been plundered by thieves. The 
ascetic, coming back from his begging-round and seeing what had 
happened, charged the four daughters of a merchant who had just 
entered the garden with having stolen the mangoes. They denied the 
charge and swore dreadful oaths to support their statement. Thereupon 
he let them go. 

The story was told about an Elder who had entered the Order in his 
old age and who, instead of practising his duties, looked after mangoes. 
Thieves stole his manoges, and he charged with the theft the four 
daughters of a rich merchant who happened to visit the park. They 
swore oaths to prove that they were not guilty and were released. 1 

1 J.iii. 137-9. 

1. Ambattha (usually called Ambattha-manava). A brahmin youth 
of the Ambattha clan who lived with his teacher, Pokkharasadi, at 
Ukkattha. He was learned in the three Vedas and the correlated 
branches of knowledge, including the Lokayata, as recorded in the 
Ambattha Sutta. 1 Once, at the request of his teacher, he visited the 
Buddha in the Icchanankala wood and seems to have opened his con¬ 
versation by reviling the Sakyans and calling them menials. It appears 
that Ambattha had once gone on some business of Pokkharasadi's to 
Kapilavatthu, to the Mote Hall of the Sakyans, and had been insulted 
there. 2 

Asked by the Buddha to what family he belonged, Ambattha replied 
that he came of the Kanhayana-gotta; thereupon the Buddha traced the 
family back to its ancestor, who had been the offspring of a slave girl of 
Okkaka, named Disa. The child had been able to talk as soon as he 
was born and, because of this devilish trait, had been called Kanha 
(devil), hence the family name. 3 Ambattha makes no remonstrance 
against this genealogy and, under pressure, accepts it as true. This 
gives the Buddha an opportunity of preaching on the futility of feeling 
vanity regarding one's caste and on the worth of morality and conduct. 3 

1 D. i. 87fl. 2 Ibid., 91. j and married Maddarupl, daughter of 

3 Kanha later became a mighty seer Okkaka (D. i. 96-7). 


[ Ambattha 

At tlie end of the discourse the Buddha walked up and down outside 
his chamber so that Ambattha might see on his body the thirty-two 
signs of a great man. Ambattha goes back to Pokkharasadi and reports 
the whole interview. Pokkharasadi is greatly incensed, abuses Ambattha 
and kicks him. Later Pokkharasadi goes himself to the Buddha and 
invites him for a meal. At the end of the meal the Buddha instructs 
him in his Doctrine and is accepted as the Teacher both of Pokkharasadi 
himself and of his followers and dependants at Ukkattha. Pokkarasadi 
himself becomes a Sotapanna,.* 

We are not told that Ambattha became a follower of the Buddha. 
Buddhaghosa says 6 that the Buddha knew that Ambattha would not 
profit by his discourse in his present life (imind attabhdvena magga - 
pdtubhdvo natthi), and that therefore a sermon with the idea of converting 
him would only have meant spending unnecessary time. Ambattha 
himself only visited the Buddha on account of his interest in physiognomy. 
According to Buddhaghosa the idea of the Buddha in preaching the 
Ambattha Sutta at such length was that it might be repeated to Pok¬ 

It is conjectured that the Ambattha, who is identified with Kavinda, 
one of the counsellors of King Vedeha, in the Ummagga JataJca , 6 probably 
refers to the Ambattha of this sutta. 

4 DA. i. 278. 6 DA. i. 274. • J. vi. 478. 

2. Ambattha. —A king of old, at whose court Rahulamata in one of 
her former lives had been a handmaid. In that life she had given alms 
to a holy man and, as a result, became in her next birth consort of the 
King of Benares. 1 

1 J.iii. 413-14. 

Ambatthakola. —A district in Ceylon near the modern Kurunegala, 
fifty-five miles from Anuradhapura. When Dutthagamani planned to 
build the Maha Thupa silver appeared near a cave in this district by the 
power of the devas and was discovered by a merchant who reported the 
find to the king; the king himself came to gather the silver for the thupa. 1 

Later, Amanflagamani Abhaya built the Rajatalena Vihara here. 2 
It was in this district, in the neighbourhood of the Kuthari Vihara, that 
Moggallana defeated his brother the parricide Kassapa I. 3 

According to the Mahavamsa Tika it was in Ambatthakola that King 
Mahaculi Mahatissa worked in Sonnagiri in a sugar mill to earn money for 
an alms-giving 4 (v.l. Ambatthakolalena). 

J Mhv. xxviii. 20-35; MT. 512. 

2 Mhv. xxxv. 4, 5. 

3 Cv. xxxlx. 21 ff. 

4 MT. 624; Mhv. xxxiv. 4 f. 

Ambatittha ] 


Ambattha-gotta. —The clan to which Ambattha-manava belonged. 
The Kanhayana-gotta was probably one of its chief sections, or, perhaps, 
the family of its original ancestors. In the Buddha's time the clan was 
evidently considered very aristocratic, at least by its own members, 
for they looked down upon even the Sakyans as scourings from their 
kinsmen's feet, though the Sakyans themselves seem to have laughed at 
the pretensions of the Ambatthas. 1 Nor were the Ambatthas brahmins 
by birth; some of them were farmers and traders and some even sold 
their daughters for gold. 2 

The Ambatthas were of an old stock and were well known. Besides 
the Ambattha-manava mentioned above, another Ambattha, called 
Sura, is spoken of in the Pitakas. 3 

1 See Ambattha-manava above. father and a slave (presumably Sudra) 

2 J. iv. 363; they were called brahmins , mother, as given in the Ambattha Sutta , 
by courtesy voharavasena (ibid., 366). but from a brahmin father and a Vanya 
According to the Manavadhammasastra, mother. 

they were not sprung from Ksatriya ! 3 E.g., A. i. 26; iii. 451 

Ambattha-vijja. —The charm learnt by Kanha, ancestor of the Kanha- 
yanas, from the ascetics of Dakhinajanapada. The charm had the power 
of disarming those who tried to attack its possessor. With the aid of 
this charm Kanha won Maddarupl, daughter of Okkaka. 1 

1 D. i. 96; DA. i. 265. 

Ambattha Sutta. —Preached at Icchanankala when Ambattha-manava 

visited the Buddha. 1 

Reference is made to the Commentary on this sutta where a detailed 
explanation is given of the term carika , 2 It is regarded, together with 
the Sonadanda and Kutadanta Suttas, as one of the chief discussions 
which the Buddha had with his opponents. 3 The eight kinds of vijjd 
are detailed therein. 4 

1 D. i. 87 ff. 3 MA.ii. 697. 

2 AA. i. 407. I 4 Sp.i. 116;ii.495. 

Ambatthaja. —Seventy kappas ago there were fourteen kings of this 
name, all former lives of Ambadayaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 117. 

Ambatittha. —A village in the Cetiya country near Bhaddavatika. When 
the Buddha was on tour near there he was repeatedly warned by the 
cowherds not to go to Ambatittha as in the Jatila's hermitage in the 
village dwelt a mighty Naga. While the Buddha was yet in Bhadda 



vatika the Elder Sagata went to the Jatila's hermitage and took up his 
abode near the fireplace. The Naga showed his resentment, but Sagata 
was able to overcome him by means of his iddhi- powers. Later Sagata 
visited the Buddha at Bhaddavatika and went with him to Kosambl. 
The fame of the Elder's victory over the Naga had preceded him and the 
inhabitants of Kosambl were lavish in their hospitality to him. He 
drank wine in their houses and had to be carried to see the Buddha. 
The latter made this the occasion for declaring the drinking of intoxicants 
to be a pacittiya- offence. 1 

1 Vin. iv. 108-10; AA. i. 178. 

1. Ambatitthaka.— A Tamil stronghold surrounded by a river and a 
moat; it was captured by Dutthagamani after a siege of four months. 1 
The crafty Damila Titthamba lived there, and it is said that, in the end, 
he was conquered by a conspiracy in which Dutthagamani offered to 
allow him to marry Dutthagamani's mother. 2 Near here was a ford 
across the Mahavaluka-gahga. 

1 Mhv. xxv. 7-9. 2 MT. 473 f. 

2. Ambatitthaka. —A Jatila living at Ambatittha (1). 

Ambatthala. —A little tableland immediately below the Silakuta of the 
Missaka Mountain in Ceylon. It was near here that Mahinda and his 
companions alighted after their aerial journey from Jambudipa. 1 There 
King Mahadathika-Mahanaga built the Ambatthala Thupa, risking his 
own life in order to make the building secure. He made a cover for the 
whole thupa and, at its dedication, held the great Giribhandapuja. 2 
Kanitthatissaka built a monastery attached to the thupa, 3 which Gotha- 
bhaya renovated. 4 

The vihara was rebuilt or enlarged by Dhatusena. He intended to 
give it into the charge of the Theravadins, but ultimately gave it to the 
Dhammarucikas at the latters' request. 5 Sirimeghavanna had a life- 
size golden image of Mahinda placed in the Ambatthala Cetiya. 6 

It is said that the place was so called after the riddle of the mango 
tree (Mhv. xiv, 17 ff.) with which Mahinda put Devanampiyatissa's 
discernment to the test. Even now mango trees are planted near the 
ceitya in memory of the event. 7 

Other names for the place are Cetiyambatthala 8 and Therambatthalaka. 9 

1 Mhv. xiii.20. 6 Ibid., xxxvii. 69. 

2 Ibid., xxiv. 68-81. 7 Cv. trans.i. 4, n. 5. 

3 Ibid., xxxvi. 9. 8 Cv. xxxvii. 69. 

4 Ibid., 106. 9 Mhv. xxxvi. 106. 

6 Cv. xxxviii, 76, 

Ambapall ] 


Ambadayaka Thera. —An Arahant. He had been a monkey in the 
time of Anomadassi Buddha and, having seen the Buddha in Himava, 
offered him a mango fruit. As a result of this he enjoyed happiness in 
deva worlds for fifty-seven kappas and was fourteen times king under 
the name of Ambatthaja. 1 

1 Ap.i. 116-17. 

Ambadugga.— A tank in Ceylon, built by Kutakannatissa. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxiv. 33. 

Ambapall (Ambapalika), —A courtesan of Vesali. She is said to have 
come spontaneously into being at Vesali in the gardens of the king. 
The gardener found her at the foot of a mango tree—hence her name— 
and brought her to the city. She grew up so full of beauty and of 
grace that many young princes vied with each other for the honour of 
her hand. Finally, in order to end their strife, they appointed her 
courtesan. Later she became a devout follower of the Buddha, and 
building a vihara in her own garden, gave it to him and the Order. This 
was during the Buddha's last visit to Vesali shortly before his death. 
It is said that when Ambapall heard of the Buddha's visit to Kotigama 
near Vesali she and her retinue drove out of the city in magnificent 
chariots to meet him, and, after hearing a discourse, invited him and the 
monks to a meal the next day. The Buddha accepted this invitation 
and had, as a result, to refuse that of the Licchavis of Vesali. 1 

It was. after this meal that Ambapall gave over her park, the Amba- 
palivana, to the Buddha and the Order. The Buddha accepted the gift 
and stayed there some time before going on to Beluva. 2 

Ambapall had a son, Vimala-Kondanna, who was an eminent Elder. 
Having heard him preach one day, she renounced the world and, working 
for insight by studying the law of impermanence as illustrated in her own 
ageing body, she attained arahantship. 3 

Nineteen verses ascribed to her are found in the Therlgatha. 4 

In the time of Sikh! Buddha she had entered the Order. While yet 

1 While returning from her visit to be steadfast and mindful, lest they 
the Buddha, Ambapall was so elated at should lose their heads about her (DA. 
the idea of having the Buddha to a ii. 545). 

meal the next day, that she refused to 2 Vin. i. 231-3; D. ii. 95-8; the two 
make way for the Licchavi princes who accounts vary in details, e.g. in the 
were on their way to the Buddha. She Digha version the Buddha was already 
refused to give up her invitation for in Ambapalivana, and not in Kotigama* 
anything in the world. The DA. says when the courtesan visited him. 
that just before Ambapall’s visit to him, 3 ThigA. 206-7. 
the Buddha admonished the monks to 4 252-70. 


[ Ambapali Vagga 

a novice, she took part in a procession of bhikkhunis, and was doing 
homage at a shrine when an arahant theri in front of her hastily spat 
in the court of the shrine. Seeing the spittle and not knowing who 
had committed the fault, she said in reproof, “ 4 What prostitute has 
been spitting here It was owing to this remark that she was born 
as a courtesan in her last birth. 6 

The Apadana (quoted also in ThigA.) gives some more details about 
her. She had been a daughter of a Khattiya family in the time of Phussa 
Buddha and had done many good deeds in order to be beautiful in later 
births. As a result of the abuse of the nun (referred to above) she had 
been born in hell and later had, for ten thousand lives, been a courtesan. 
In Kassapa Buddha's time she had practised celibacy. 6 

It is said that she charged fifty kahapanas a night from her patrons 
and that Vesali became very prosperous through her. It was this 
that prompted Bimbisara to get a courtesan for his own city of Baja- 
gaha. 7 

Among Ambapali's patrons was Bimbisara, and he was the father of 
her son Vimala-Kondanna. 8 

In the Theragatha 9 there are two verses which, according to tradition, 
were spoken by Ananda in admonition of monks who lost their heads at 
the sight of Ambapali. Whether this was before or after she joined the 
Order we are not told. 

6 ThigA. 206-7. | 8 ThagA. i. 146. 

6 Ap. ii. 613 ff.; ThigA. 213 f. I 9 vv. 1020-21; ThagA. ii. 129. 

7 Vin. i. 268. 

Ambapali Vagga. —The first chapter of the Satipatthana Samyutta 
in the Mahavagga of the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S. v. 141-8. 

1. Ambapali Sutta. —Preached at Ambapalivana. The four satipat- 
thana form the sole way that leads to the purification of beings, and 
to the realisation of Nibbana, etc. 1 

1 S. v. 140. 

2. Ambapali Sutta. —A conversation between Anuruddha and Sariputta 
in Ambapalivana. Sariputta asks the reason of Anuruddha's serenity 
and beauty of complexion. It is due to the practice of the four sati- 
patthdnd , says Anuruddha; he himself spends all his time in the practice 
of them, and so generally do all arahants. 1 

S. v. 301. 

Ambay&gad&yaka Thera ] 


Ambapalivana. —The grove presented by Ambapali to the Buddha and 
the Order. It was in Vesali and was given to the Buddha during his last 
tour in that town, at the conclusion of the meal to which Ampaball had 
invited him. 1 But both the Buddha and the monks seem to have 
stayed there previously during their visits to Vesali. 2 The Buddha is 
stated to have preached three suttas in the grove, two of them being 
on the value of the satipatthdnd . 3 In the third sutta 4 he dwells on 
the impermanence of all sankharas and proceeds to describe the process 
by which the whole world will ultimately be destroyed by seven suns 
arising in the world and drying everything up. In this sutta appears 
also the story of the teacher Sunetta, who, even after becoming the 
Great Brahma, is yet subject to old age and death. 

The Samyutta also records a conversation that took place between 
Anuruddha and Sariputta during a stay in Ambapalivana. 6 

The grove was planted with mangoes and was so called because it 
belonged to Ambapali. 6 

1 Vin. i. 231-3. the Buddha’s last tour, because Sariputta 

2 Thus according to D. ii. 94 the was still alive. 

Buddha was already in the grove before 3 S. v. 141 ff. 

Ambapali visited him; see also S. v. 301, 4 A. iv. 100-6. 

which must refer to an incident before 5 S. v. 301. 6 DA. ii. 545. 

Ambapasana. —A monastery in the village of Ahganakola in South 
Ceylon, where lived the Elder Cittagutta. 1 

1 MT. 552. 

1. Ambapindiya Thera, —An arahant. He had been a Danava named 

Romasa and had given a cluster of mangoes to Vipassi Buddha. 1 

1 Ap. i.247. 

2. Ambapindiya. —An arahant. He had been an elephant in the time 
of Siddattha Buddha. Having seen the Buddha in the forest, the 
elephant gave him a bunch of mangoes. As a result he was born in 
Tusita. 1 

1 Ap. i. 395. 

Ambamala Vihara. —A monastery in Rohana built by Dappula I. 1 

1 Cv. xiv. 55. 

Ambayagadayaka Thera. —An arahant. Ninety-one kappas ago, 
going to the forest in pursuit of his trade, he met the Buddha and gave 
him an offering of mangoes 1 ( v.l. Appa°). 

1 Ap. i. 221. 


[ Ambayagu(y&ga ?)-dayaka Thera 

Ambayagu(yaga ?)-dayaka Thera.-— An arahant. Ninety-four kappas 
ago he had met a Pacceka Buddha named SataramsI, when the latter had 
just awakened from samadhi, and had given him a broth (?) made of 
mangoes. 1 

1 Ap. i. 284. 

Ambaramsa.— -See Abbhasa. 

Ambara-Ambaravatl. —The double name of a city in Uttarakuru. 1 

1 D.iii.201; DA.iii.966. 

Ambariya Vihara. —A monastery in Ceylon, the residence of Pingala- 
Buddharakkhita Thera. It was near Antaravaddhamana-pabbata. 1 It 

was also the residence of Pindapatika-Tissa Thera. 2 

1 SA.ii. 113; MA.i.165; DhsA. 103. 2 AA.i.277. 

Ambala. —Probably the name of a tower in the Jetavana monastery. 
The Sunakha Jdtaka was preached there about a dog who lived in its 
resting-hall. 1 

1 J. ii. 246. 

Ambalatthika. —A royal park on the road between Bajagaha and 
Nalanda. It contained a royal rest-house (rajagaraka) in which the 
Buddha and members of the Order used to stay in the course of their 
journeyings. It was on one such occasion that the Brahmajala Sutta 
was preached. 1 Buddhaghosa 2 says that it was a shady and well- 
watered park, so called because of a mango sapling which stood by the 
gateway. It was surrounded and well guarded by a rampart, and its 
rest-house was adorned with paintings for the king's amusement. 

It was one of the spots in which the Buddha rested during his last 
tour, and we are told that while there he discoursed to a large number 
of monks. 3 But the most famous of the Buddha's sermons in Ambalat¬ 
thika seems to have been the Rahulovada Sutta named Ambalatthika - 
Rahulovada Sutta , because of its having been preached in the park. 4 
From the context it appears as though Ambalatthika was within walking 
distance from the Kalandakanivapa in Bajagaha. 5 

1 Vinii. 287; D.i. 1. *M.i. 414 ff. 

2 DA. i. 41-2. 6 But see below (4) for a more probable 

3 D. ii. 81; he remained there one explanation, 
night (UdA. 408). 

2. Ambalatthika. —A park in the brahmin village Khanumata. The 
Buddha went there during one of his tours through Magadha. On this 

Ambalatthika-Rahulovada Sutta] 


occasion was preached the Kutadanta Sutta. 1 Buddhaghosa 2 says the 
park was like the pleasaunce of the same name between Rajagaha and 

1 D. i. 127. 2 BA. i. 294. 

3. Ambalatthika. —There was a place of this name to the east of the 
Lohapasada in Anuradhapura. Once when the Dighabhanaka Theras 
recited the Brahmajdla Sutta there, the earth trembled from the water 
upwards. 1 

On another occasion King Vasabha heard the Dlghabhanakas reciting 
the Mahdsudassana Sutta , and thinking that they were discussing what 
they had eaten and drunk, he approached closer to listen; when he 
discovered the truth he applauded the monks. 2 

The place referred to here was probably not a park, but a building 
which formed part of the Lohapasada. In the Mahavamsa account 3 of 
the building of the Lohapasada we are told that the plans were copied 
from the gem-palace of the goddess BIranL The central part of the 
palace was called the Ambalatthikapasada. “ It was visible from every 
side, bright, with pennons hung out.” 

Dutthagamani probably included a similar central part in the 
Lohapasada. 4 

1 DA. i. 131. 4 This view is strengthened by No. 4 

2 Ibid. 9 ii. 635. below. 

3 Mhv. xxvii. 11-20. 

4. Ambalatthika. —According to Buddhaghosa, 1 the Ambalatthika, 
in which the Rahulovada Sutta of that name was preached, was not a 
pleasaunce, but a pasdda , a kind of meditation hall ( padhdnaghara - 
sahJchepa) built in the outskirts of Veluvanavihara for the use of those 
who desired solitude. It is said that Rahula spent most of his time 
there, from the day of his ordination as a seven-year-old boy. 

1 MA.ii.635. 

Ambalatthika-Rahulovada Sutta.— Preached by the Buddha at Amba¬ 
latthika (near Veluvana) to Rahula. It deals with falsehood. Like 
a minute drop of water is the recluseship of those who shrink not from 
deliberate lying, it is thrown away, upset; it is empty and void. There 
is nothing evil they will not do, they run every risk, like an elephant who 
guards not his trunk. One should practise constant reflection, thereby 
abandoning all things conducive to woe, either to oneself or to others, 
and develop self-control and purity. 1 Rahula was evidently yet very 

1 M.i. 414-20. 

160 [ Ambalala 

young at the time of this sermon, for we find,the Buddha making use of 
frequent similes, and pointing them out to him. 2 

The Commentary says that it was preached because very young novices 
might be tempted to say things both proper and improper; they were 
likely to imagine things. This sutta is to warn Rahula against the use 
of lies. 3 

The Ambalatthika-Bahulovada Sutta is among the portions of scripture 
mentioned in the Bhabra Edict of Asoka as being essentially worthy of 
study by all monks 4 (v.l. Ambalatthiya 0 ). 

2 According to the Cy., he was at the I 3 MA. ii. 635 f.; AA. i. 145; ii. 547. 

time only 7 years old (MA. ii. 636). | 4 See Mookerji: Asoka , p. 119. 

Ambalala. —A locality in Bohana, near the Kantakavana, where the 
forces of Parakkamabahu I., under Rakkha, were victorious in battle. 1 

1 Cv. Ixxiv. 58. 

1. Ambavana. —A fadhanaghara in Ceylon, built by Kassapa III. 1 

1 Cv. xlviii. 25. 

2. Ambavana. —A district in Ceylon, near the village of Khlravapi. It 
was not far from Pulatthinagara. The name is preserved in that of the 
Ambanganga which flows through the valley of Matale. 1 

1 Cv. lxvi. 85; lxix. 9; lxx. 98, 191-6. See also Cv. trans. i. 260, n. 1. 

See also under Anupiya, Kakuttha, JIvaka, Cunda, Todeyya, Pavarika 

and Vedanna for other localities designated as Ambavana and connected 
with these names. 

Ambavapi. —A tank at Bukakalla in Ceylon. It was given over to the 

Matambiya-padhanaghara by the Damila, Potthakuttha. 1 

1 Cv. xlvi. 19-20. 

Ambavasavapi. —One of the tanks restored by Parakkamabahu I. 

before his great war. 1 

1 Cv. lxviii. 43. For identification see Cv. trans. i. 280, n. f>. 

Ambasakkhara. —One of the Licchavi chieftains of Vesali during the 
Buddha's time. He was a nihilist by persuasion. 

Once while going through the city he saw a beautiful woman. Wishing 
to possess her, he commandeered her husband's services and one day 
ordered him to bring mud and lotuses from a pond three leagues away, 
his life to be the penalty if he did not return the same evening. Mean- 

Ambasa&fla ] 


while Ambasakkhara ordered the guards to shut the city gates earlier 
than usual. The woman's husband returned to the city before nightfall, 
but finding the gates shut, he asked a thief, who was impaled just outside, 
to bear witness to his having arrived before sunset. 

The thief's uncle had been a pious merchant in Vesali, but had been 
beheaded for alleged implication in his nephew's theft. He had been 
reborn as a jpeta, and because of his good deeds he possessed various 
powers. By reason, however, of having once hidden, in jest, the clothes 
of a friend who was bathing in the river, he was born naked. Every 
night he came to see his nephew and encouraged him to go on living, 
in spite of his impalement, because the feta knew that suffering in hell 
awaited the thief after death. 

When the man with the lotuses asked the thief's assistance in proving 
his innocence, he was advised to await the feta's arrival that night 
and to get his counsel. This the man did, and when, the next day, he 
was summoned before Ambasakkhara, he cited the feta as witness for 
his defence. Ambasakkhara agreed to test the truth of the story, and 
in the night he saw the feta and learnt all that had happened. Greatly 
marvelling, he offered to help the feta in getting rid of his nudity. He 
was asked to seek the holy Elder Kappitaka who lived in Kapinaccana 
in the Vajji country and give him robes in the feta s name. This was 
done, and the feta immediately appeared before them clad in heavenly 
robes. From that time Ambasakkhara was converted to the Faith, and 
after having listened to a sermon by Kappitaka became a Sotdfanna. 
The impaled thief was set free and was cured by the royal physician; 
he later attained to the state of an arahant. 1 

1 Pv. 45-57; PvA. 215-44. 

Ambasakkharapeta Vatthu.— The story of Ambasakkhara and the feta, 
as given above. The Elder Kappitaka related the story to the Buddha, 
and the Buddha made it an occasion for a discourse to the assembled 
multitude. 1 

1 PvA. 243-4. 

Ambasanda. —A brahmin village in Magadha to the east of Rajagaha. 
To the north of the village was the Vediyaka mountain, in which was the 
Indasalaguha, where the Sakkafanha Sutta was preached. On the 
occasion of the preaching, as Sakka with his retinue came to visit the 
Buddha, the village was bathed in radiance. 1 

The name arose from the fact that the village lay in the vicinity of many 
mango groves. 2 

1 D.ii. 263 f. 2 DA.iii.697. 



[ Ambas&manera 

Ambasamanera.—Name of Silakala. When he was a novice in the 
Order, at Bodhiman^a Vihara, he fulfilled his duties to the community 
with zeal and skill. Once he presented a mango-fruit to the Sangha, 
and the monks, being pleased, gave him this name . 1 

1 Cv. xxxix. 48 ff. 

Ambasuppiya.—See Appiha. 

Ambahattha.—A hill in Sunaparanta where the Elder Punna stayed 
for some time after his arrival in that country. His younger brother 
lived near there in the merchants' village and gave him alms 1 (v.l. Ajju- 
hattha, Abbhahattha). 

1 MA.ii. 1015; SA.iii. 15. 

Ambataka Thera.—An arahant. Fourteen kappas ago he had given 
a mango to a Buddha . 1 

He is probably identical with Rajadatta Thera . 2 

1 Ap. ii. 394. 2 ThagA. i. 403. 

Ambatakavana.—A grove at Macchikasanda, belonging to Cittaga- 
hapati. Being pleased with the Elder Mahanama of Macchikasapda, 
Citta invited him to a meal, and after listening to his discourse, gave 
the grove to the Order. At the dedication of the gift the earth trembled. 
Later he built a splendid monastery there, the Ambatakarama, for the 
use of monks from all parts . 1 It became the residence of large numbers 
of monks, and discussions often took place there between Cittagahapati 
and the resident bhikkhus . 2 

Among eminent Elders who visited the place were Isidatta of Avanti 
(who answered Citta's questions regarding the reason for the existence 
of various views in the world ), 3 Mahaka (who, by his magic powers, 
produced rain and thunderstorms and later showed a special miracle 
to Citta ), 4 Kamabhu (who discoursed to Citta on various topics ), 5 and 
Godatta . 6 The Elder Lakuntaka Bhaddiya also lived there, in solitude, 
wrapt in meditation . 7 

Behind Ambataka was Migapathaka, which was Citta's tributary 
village 8 (v.l Ambalavana). 

1 AA. i. 209; DhA. ii. 74. 

2 S. iv. 281-97. 
s Ibid., 283-8. 

* Ibid ., 288-91. 

5 Ibid., 291-5. 

6 Ibid., 295-7. 

7 Thag. y. 466. 

8 SA. iii. 93. 

Ambatakiya Thera.—An arahant. Thirty-one kappas ago he had 
met the Buddha Vessabhu in the mountains and given him a mango . 1 

1 Ap.ii.399. 

AmbuyySna ] 


Ambalavapi. —A tank restored by Parakkamabahu I . 1 A canal known 
as Tambapanni flowed from the tank northwards . 2 

1 Cv. lxviii. 46. 2 Ibid.,Ixxix. 50 . 

Ambalavana.-— See Ambataka. 

Ambila-janapada. —A district in Ceylon. In it was the Rajatalena . 1 

1 MT. 400. 

Ambilapassava. —A village in Ceylon, near Kurunda, the residence of 
Mahasiva . 1 Aggabodhi I. built a vihara there and gave the village 
for its maintenance. The vihara and the village were dedicated to the 
ascetics of the Theravada fraternity . 2 

1 Near Mannar, Cv. trans. i. 66, n. 6. 2 Cv. xlii. 17. 

Ambilayagu. —A village in Ceylon. It was the residence of Dathanama, 

father of Dhatusena . 1 

1 Cv. xxxviii. 15. 

Ambilahara Vihara. —A monastery in Ceylon. On one occasion the 
Thera Tipitaka-Culla Naga preached there the Mahd Saldyatanika Sutta. 
The audience of men was one gavuta in extent, and that of gods a 
league. At the end of the sermon a thousand monks became arahants . 1 

1 MA, ii. 1025. 

Ambilapika. —A village given by Jetthatissa III. for the supply of 
food to Kassapagirivihara . 1 

1 Cv. xliv. 98. 

Ambillapadara. —A village given by Aggabodhi III. to the Cetiyapab- 
bata monastery . 1 

1 Cv. xliv. 122. 

Ambutthi. —A tank built by Upatissa II . 1 

1 Cv. xxxvii. 185. 

Ambuyyana. —A monastery in Ceylon. Udaya I. (or Dappula) built in 
it the dwelling-house Dappulapabbata . 1 It was finished later by Sena I . 2 

1 Cv. xlix. 30; trs. i. 126 n. 1. According to Cv. 1. 80, it was built not by the 
king but by Mahadeva. 

2 Cv. 1. 80. 


[ Ayakuta Jataka 

Ayakuta Jataka (No. 347).—The Bodhisatta was once born in Benares 
and became its king. At that time people were in the habit of sacrificing 
animals to the gods in order to win their favour, but the Bodhisatta pro¬ 
claimed that no living creature should be slain. Being enraged at the 
loss of their food, the yakkhas sent one of their number to the Bodhisatta. 
He came to the Bodhisatta’s bed at night meaning to strike him a deadly 
blow. Thereupon Sakka's throne grew hot, and learning the cause, 
Sakka himself came and stood guard over the Bodhisatta. The latter 
saw the yakkha standing over him ready to strike but powerless, and 
only learnt later, to his great encouragement, that Sakka had been there 
to protect him. 1 

The reason for the telling of the story is given in the Mahakanha 
J dtaka. 

1 J.iii. 145-7. 

Ayogula Sutta. —Ananda asks the Buddha if the Buddha can, by 
psychic powers, reach the Brahma world in his mind-made body as well 
as in his physical body. The Buddha says he can, and proceeds to 
explain how by concentrating body in mind and mind in body the body 
becomes radiant and plastic. Like an iron ball heated throughout the 
day, or a tuft of cotton seed on a ball of thistledown, wafted lightly on 
the wind, so the body, at such time, rises from the ground into the air 
and takes on manifold forms of magic power. 1 

1 S. v. 282-4. 

Ayoghara. —The Bodhisatta was once born as the son of the king of 
Benares. Both the earlier children of the Queen Consort had been eaten 
up by a she-goblin. For the third child, therefore, an iron house 
{ayoghara) was built, and in this the Bodhisatta was born, hence his name, 
Ayoghara. Meanwhile the she-goblin had died, but yet the Bodhisatta 
grew up in the iron house. When he was sixteen his father, wishing to 
give him the kingdom, had him taken in ceremonial procession round the 
city. Wondering at all that he saw, he asked why he had been denied 
the sight of all these things before. When told the reason, he reflected 
that all life was a prison, that though he had escaped the goblin, there 
still remained old age and death. Accordingly, at the end of the pro¬ 
cession, he announced his intention of renouncing the world. His 
parents and many others being converted to his views, they followed 
him into the forest, where a special hermitage was built for them by 
Vissakamma under Sakka’s orders. 1 

1 J. iv. 490-99. 

Ayojjha ] 


Ayoghara Jataka (No. 510).—The story of Prince Ayoghara as given 

The story was told regarding the Buddha's Renunciation. 

In the Jatakamala the name appears as Ayogrha. 1 

1 Jarakamala, No. 32. 

1. Ayojjha. —A city of the Ganges. 1 Two visits of the Buddha to this 
city are recorded in the Canon; on one accasion he preached the Phena 
Sutta 2 and on the other the DaruJckhandha Sutta . 3 In both these 
references the city is said to be on the Ganges; the town usually called 
Ayojjha (Ayodhya) is certainly not on this river. The records, therefore, 
go back either to a confused or an unintelligent tradition, 4 or may 
possibly refer to another settlement made by colonists from the original 
Ayojjha. It is worthy of note that in the Darukkhandha Sutta some 
of the MSS. read KosambI for Ayojjha. But even KosambI ( q.v .) was 
on the Jumna and not on the Ganges. 

During the Buddhist period, Ayojjha on the Sarayu was the capital of 
Dakkhina Kosala, th e janapada roughly corresponding to modern Oudh. 
This, the Ayodhya of the Ramayana, is about a mile from the modern 
Fyzabad. In the Jataka Commentary 5 there is a mention of Ayojjha, 
which here evidently refers to the city of the Sanskrit epics. It is called 
the capital of King Kalasena. It was besieged by the Andhavenhuputta, 
who breached the wall and took the king prisoner. Having thus sub¬ 
jugated the city, they went to Dvaravatl. 

The Dlpavamsa 6 mentions Ayujjhanagara as the capital of King 
Arindama and of fifty-five of his descendants. 

According to Buddhaghosa, 7 the people of Ayujjhanagara built for the 
Buddha a vihara in a spot surrounded by forest near a curve of the river. 

Once a warrior named Jagatipala, of the race of Rama, came to 
Ceylon from Ayojjha, and having slain Vikkampandu, the heir-apparent 
to the throne, ruled in Rohana for five years. 8 

1 But see below in this article. 5 J. iv. 82. 

2 S.iii. 140 ff. 3 S. iv. 179 f. 6 iii. 15. 

4 See Thomas: op. cit., 15; cf. 7 SA. ii. 233-4. 

Saketa. i 8 Cv. lvi. 13 ff. 

2. Ayojjha. —Capital of Siam. From there Vijayarajaslha, King of 
Ceylon, obtained monks for his own country. 1 A few years later his 
successor, Kittisirirajasiha, sent an embassy there for the same purpose. 

The King of Siam showed the embassy every mark of favour and 
granted them the monks. The monks, who came from Ayojjha to Ceylon, 
re-established the ordination of monks in the Island. 2 

1 Cv. xcviii. 91 f. 

2 Ibid., c. 60-139; see also J.R.A.S. {CeylonBranch), 1903, No. 54, pp. 17 ff. 


[ Ayoniso 

1. Ayoniso (or Vitakkita) Sutta. —A certain monk staying in a forest 
tract in Kosala was occupied with evil and wrongful thoughts. The 
deva of the forest, desiring his welfare, drew near and admonished him to 
give up his muddled ways and fix his thoughts on the Buddha, the 
Dhamma and the Sangha. 1 

1 S.i.203. 

2. Ayoniso Sutta. —In one who practices unsystematic attention, 
sensual desires arise afresh and grow; similarly malevolence, sloth and 
torpor. In him the satipatthana fade away. The reverse happens in 
the case of the man who practises systematic attention. 1 

1 S. v. 84. 

Ayya-Uttiya(°ika). Brother of Tissa, king of KalyanT. He was the 
queen’s lover and, being discovered, fled from the capital and lived in 
a district which was later named after him. He sent a letter to the queen 
by a man disguised as a monk, but the ruse was discovered. 1 For the 
rest of the story see s.v. Kalyani-Tissa. 

1 Mhv. xxii. 13 ff.; MT. 307. 

Ayyaka Sutta. — PasenadFs grandmother died at the age of 120. He 
had been very fond of her, and would have done anything to have kept 
her. He was so grieved at her death that he came to the Buddha for 
consolation. The Buddha tells him that all creatures have to die. 1 

1 S.i.96ff. 

Ayyaka-kalaka. —The Bodhisatta was once born as a bull as black as 
jet. While still a young calf he was given by his owners to an old woman, 
who reared him like a son; hence his name (“ Grannie’s Blackie ”). The 
village lads used to ride on him for play. Once he saw a merchant 
trying to get his five hundred carts across a ford; the merchant’s bulls 
were not strong enough for the task, and seeing the Bodhisatta the 
merchant tried to make use of his services. The Bodhisatta agreed only 
after he had been promised a thousand. The task completed, the 
merchant tried to cheat him, paying only half the promised amount. 
But the bull would not let him go till all the money had been paid. The 
earnings so obtained he took to the old woman, who was greatly pleased. 1 

1 J.i. 194-6. 

Ayyamitta Thera. —An Elder who lived in Kassakalena. In his 
begging village was an upasika who looked after him like her own son. 
One day the Elder, while on his begging rounds, heard her giving orders 

Arafijaragiri ] 


to her daughter regarding his food. He realised that the woman was 
undergoing great privations in order to provide him with luxuries, and 
feeling that he was unworthy of such attention, went back to Kassa- 
kalena and sat down on his couch, determined not to rise till he had 
become an arahant. During the night his object was achieved and the 
deva in the cave uttered his praise in song. The following morning 
he went as usual for his alms and the updsika knew that he had realised 
his quest. 1 

He is also called Mahamitta. 

1 DA.iii. 790-1. 2 VbhA.279. 

Araka. —The Bodhisatta, born as a brahmin teacher. His story is 
told in the Araka Jdtaka. He is referred to also in the Dhammaddhaja 
Jataka, 1 where the Bodhisatta relates how, as Araka, he had developed 
thoughts of lovingkindness and practised the brahmavihdrd for seven 
years and then was born in the Brahma-world. 

His name appears again in the Anguttara Nikaya 2 in a list of teachers, 
and we are told that among Araka's pupils those who followed his 
teachings were born in the Brahma-world, while the others were born in 
various purgatories. In the Anguttara context no special mention is 
made of his having taught the brahmavihdras. 

1 J.ii. 195. 2 A.iv. 136-8. 

Araka Jataka (No. 169).—The Bodhisatta was once born in a brah¬ 
min's family and was named Araka; when he grew up he embraced the 
religious life and lived in the Himalaya as a teacher with a large follow¬ 
ing. He taught his pupils the value of the four brahmavihdras. After 
his death he was born in the Brahma-world and remained there for seven 

The story was told to the monks at Jetavana in reference to the Media 
Sutta. 1 

1 J.ii. 60-2. 

Araka Sutta. —The teachings of Araka (q.v.). 1 

1 A. iv. 136 ff. 

Araja. —One of the palaces occupied by DhammadassI before he became 
the Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. xvi. 14. 

Arafijaragiri. —A chain of mountains in Majjhimadesa. Not far away 
from it was a very populous town on a river. In this river many men 

168 [ Aranfia 

bathed, and along its banks sat beautiful courtesans tempting them. 
It was one of these courtesans that tempted the sage Narada. 1 

Aranjagiri was one of the places passed by Vessantara and his family 
on their way from their home to Vafikagiri. From the city of Jetuttara 
to Suvannagiritala was five leagues and it was five leagues more to 
Kontimara; thence to Aranjaragiri was five and again five to Dunni- 
vittha. 2 This was the road followed by banished men 8 (v.l. Aranjara 0 ). 

1 J.iii. 463. 2 Ibid., vi. 514. 3 Ibid., 493. 

Aranfia. —Four great Arannas are often mentioned in literature. 1 
They had once been the sites of very populous and prosperous kingdoms, 
but had later been destroyed by the gods because of offences committed 
by their kings against holy men. The four Maha Arannas are: Dandaka 0 , 
Kalinga 0 , Mejjha 0 , and Matanga 0 . Details of these are found under each 
respective name. 

1 E.g., M. i. 378. 

Aranfia Jataka (No. 348).—The Bodhisatta was once born in a brahmin 
family. He learned all the arts in Takkasila, but when his wife died he 
went with his son to be an ascetic in the Himalaya. One day a girl came 
to the hermitage, fleeing from brigands, and corrupted the virtue of 
the youth. But when she tried to induce him to go away with her, he 
wished to consult his father. The father warned him against leaving the 
hermitage and taught him the way to mystic meditation. 1 The reason 
for telling the story is given in the Culla-Ndradakassapa Jataka. 

1 J.iii. 147-9. 

1. Aranfia Vagga. —The third section of the Tika 
J atakatthatha. 1 

1 J.ii.354 ff. 

Nipata of the 

2. Aranfia Vagga. —The nineteenth section of the Pancaka Nipata of 
the Anguttara Nikaya. It consists of ten suttas, describing ten classes 
of men, each excelling in a special kind of asceticism, and in each class 
one is named as being the best among five who devote themselves to the 
same life, though from different motives. 1 

1 A. iii. 219-21. 

1. Aranfia Sutta. —Spoken before the Buddha by a forest-dwelling 
spirit who had been impressed by the simple life of the brethren in the 

Arananjaha ] 


woods. The Buddha tells him the reason for their serenity and their 
beauty of complexion. 1 

1 S.i .5. 

2. Aranna Sutta. —On the kind of monk who should seek the forest. 1 

1 A.ii.252. 

3. Aranna Sutta. —On the advantages of developing dndpdnasati. 1 

1 A. iii. 121. 

4. Aranna Sutta. —On the qualities a monk should have to benefit 
by living in forest hermitages. 1 

1 A. iii. 135f. 

Arannakutika. —Mention is made of several forest hermitages in the 
Buddha's time. There was one, for instance, near Rajagaha, where 
Maha Moggallana 1 used to spend his time and also Maha Kassapa. 2 
Evidently other monks of the Order dwelt there from time to time, 
e.g. the novice Aciravata. 3 There was one hermitage near DIghambalika 4 
and another near Himava, 6 where the Buddha sometimes went. 

1 J. iii. 33. 2 Ibid., 71. I 4 DhA. ii. 235. 

3 M. iii. 128. I 5 Ibid., ii. 31, 129. 

AraiinavasI Nikaya. —A group of monks in Ceylon who seem to have 
spent most of their time in solitary spots engaged in meditation. They 
owed allegiance to the Mahavihara. They are first heard of in the sixth 
century when, in the reign of Aggabodhi II., the King of Kalinga came 
over to Ceylon and joined the Order under the famous Elder Jotipala. 
This fraternity seems to have been closely associated with the Buddhists 
of Kalinga. Among famous scholars belonging to it were: Ananda 
Vanaratanatissa, Vedeha, Cola Buddhappiya, Culla Dhammapala, 
Medhankara, his pupil Ananda and Siddhattha. 

The Arannavasins were specially esteemed by Parakkammabahu of 
Dambadeniya. 1 

1 For details about them see P.L.C. 210-13, 226, 229. 

Araniiasatta. —A king of twenty kappas ago; a previous birth of 

Nimittasannaka Thera 1 (v.l. Arannamanna; Arannasanta). 

1 Ap. i. 261. 

Arananjaha.— See Arunanjaha. 


[ Aranadlpiya Thera 

Aranadipiya Thera. —An arahant. Ninety-four kappas ago he had 
been a deva, and coming back to earth had, with great devotion, lighted 
five lamps for the use of others. As a result, fifty-five kappas ago he 
was born as a king, Samantacakkhu 1 (v.l, Apannad 0 , Arannad 0 ). 

1 Ap. i. 231. 

Aranavibhanga Sutta. —The 139th Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya. 
It was preached at Jetavana and contains a statement and an exposition 
of the middle path of peace between the two extremes of pleasures of sense 
—low, ignoble and unprofitable—and self-mortification, also painful 
and unprofitable. The path is the Noble Eightfold Path: in preaching 
the doctrine the preacher should neither appreciate nor depreciate it, 
he should teach the truth in abstract terms of general principle. He 
should not be a tale-teller nor confront anyone with improper remarks; 
he should speak slowly and not hurriedly; he should neither affect 
provincialisms in speech nor depart from recognised parlance. 

At the end of the discourse a young man, Subhuti, is praised because 
he walked where calm dwelt. 1 

1 M.iii. 230-7; MA.ii. 977-8. 

Arana Sutta. —On the Undefiled. Preached in answer to a devas 
questions as to who are undefiled and fit to receive homage from everyone. 
Monks, says the Buddha, are so worthy. 1 

1 S. i. 44-5. 

Arani Sutta. —There are five indriyas: those of ease, discomfort, 
happiness, unhappiness and indifference. Just as from the rubbing 
together of two sticks warmth and heat are produced, so, from their 
separation, warmth and heat, thus born, are quenched; similarly from 
contact, experienced as agreeable, arises the faculty of ease (sulchindriya ), 
etc. 1 

1 S. v. 211-13. 

1. Aranemi. —A brahmin teacher of a past age, given in a list of six 
teachers, who were purohitas. 1 They practised ahimsa and, abstaining 
from flesh, got rid of their lusts. As a result, they were born in the 
Brahmaloka. They had many disciples. 

1 A. iii. 373. The others being a seventh name is added, Araka ; see also 

Sunetta, Mugapakkha, Kuddalaka, Divy, 632. 

Hatthipala and Jotipala. In A. iv. 135 f. 

Aravaccha ] 


2. Aranemi. —Tibetan sources mention a king, Aranemi Brahmadatta 
of Savatthi, who was father of Pasenadi. He was exiled from his kingdom 
and lived in Campa. 1 But see Mahakosala. 

1 Rockhill, pp. 16, 70. 

1. Arati Sutta. —Once when Vangisa was in iLlav! he noticed that his 
teacher, Nigrodha Kappa, never left his cell after his return from the alms- 
round. Disaffection arose in Vangisa's heart and he was troubled by 
thoughts of lust. He composed several verses by way of self-admonition 
and uttered them to himself. These form the Arati Sutta. 1 

1 S.i. 186-7. 

2. Arati Sutta. —Three evil states and the means of removing them. 1 

1 A.iii. 448. 

Arati. —One of the three daughters of Mara, the others being Tanha 
and Raga. 1 Seeing their father disconsolate after his repeated attempts 
to foil Gotama's quest for Enlightenment, they offered to tempt the 
Buddha with their wiles. This was in the fifth week after the Enlighten¬ 
ment. With Mara's approval, they came to the Buddha in various forms 
and in various guises, as he sat at the foot of the Ajapala banyan tree, 
and danced and sang before him. In the end the Buddha told them that 
he was beyond temptation by the pleasures of the senses and they went 
back to their father. 2 

In the Samyutta account, they are said to have asked the Buddha 
questions regarding himself and his teachings. Aratl's question was 
how a man who had already crossed the five floods could cross the sixth. 3 

1 In the Buddha-Carita (xiii.), their 2 S. i. 124-7; J. i. 78-80, 469; DhA. i. 
names are Rati, Prltl and Trsna; in the 201 f.,iii. 196, 199; SN. v. 835. 

Lai. (353), Rati, Arati and Trsna. 3 For explanation see KS. i. 158, n. 3. 

Aramma. —A tribe mentioned in a list of tribes. 1 

1 Ap.ii.359. 

Aravaccha. —One of the rivers crossed by Kappina on his way from 
his kingdom of Kukkutavatl to see the Buddha at Savatthi. The river 
was one league deep and two leagues wide. No boat was available, but 
the king and his retinue crossed it on horseback by meditating on the 
Three Jewels and the supreme power of the Buddha. 1 Later Kappina's 
queen did likewise. 2 

1 DhA. ii. 119-20. 

2 Ibid., 124. 


[ Arav&Ja 

Aravala. —A Naga king, who lived in the Aravaladaha in Kasmlra- 
Gandhara. He had been in the habit of destroying the crops of the people 
by causing hail-storms. When Majjhantika Thera was sent by Moggali- 
puttatissa's Council to convert Kasmlra-Gandhara, the thera went to 
Aravaladaha and standing in the air above it showed himself to the Nagas. 
Hearing of this the naga king came out and tried to frighten the Elder 
with various terrors. When all his attempts had failed he acknowledged 
defeat and the thera preached to him. He and his 84,000 followers were 
established in the Refuge and the Five Precepts 1 (v.l. Aravala). 

1 Sp.i. 65; Mhv. xii. 9-20. 

Aravaladaha. —The lake in which Aravala lived. 

1. Araham Sutta.— Would an arahant by speaking of “ I ” and “ mine ” 
show thereby proneness to notions of self or soul ? The Buddha says 
“ No.” He would thereby only conform to common usage in such 
matters. 1 Buddhaghosa says that the question was asked by a forest 
devatd who had heard forest-dwelling arahants talk thus. She was 
worried by the question as to whether they had any “ mdna ” at all. 2 

1 S.i. 14-15. 2 SA. i. 41. 

2. Araham Sutta. —An arahant is one who has really seen the arising, 
ending, etc., of the five grasping groups (upadanaTchhandha)} 

1 S.iii. 161. 

3. Araham Sutta. —That noble disciple is released by perfect insight 
(sammadanna) who has really seen the satisfaction in, the misery of, 
the escape from, the five indriyas. 1 

1 S. v. 194. 

4. Araham Sutta. —The monk who has really seen the arising, the 
perishing, etc., as above. 1 

1 S. v. 194. 

5. Araham (or Buddha) Sutta. —It is by the cultivation of the four 
iddhipada that the Tathagata is called Arahant or Fully Enlightened 
One. 1 

1 S. v. 257. 

6. Araham Sutta. —Arahants, fully enlightened ones, have full under¬ 
standing of the four Ariyan truths as they really are. 1 

1 S. v. 433. 

Arah& Sutta ] 


7. Araham Sutta.— Six qualities requisite for arahantship. 1 

1 A.iii. 421. 

1. Arahatta Vagga. —The eighth section of the Chakka Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. It deals with the six qualities for realising arahant- 
ship and for living in complete peace. 1 

1 A.iii. 429-34. 

2. Arahatta Vagga. —The seventh chapter of the Khandha Samyutta 
of the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S. iii. 73-81. 

1. Arahatta Sutta. —Records a conversation between the Paribbajaka 

Jambukhadaka and Sariputta. “ What is arahantship V’ “ The de¬ 

struction of lust, hatred and illusion.” “ And the path thereto V 9 
“ The Noble Eightfold Path.” 1 

1 S. iv. 252. 

2. Arahatta Sutta. —Six qualities requisite for arahantship. 1 

1 A. iii. 430. 

Arahanta. —A Talaing monk, the preceptor and advisor of Anuruddha. 
King of Burma. He made far-reaching reforms in the Burmese Sangha 
of his day. 1 

1 Bode, op. cit., 12-13. 

1. Arahanta Vagga. —The first chapter of the Brahmana Samyutta 
of the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S. i. 160-72. 

2. Arahanta Vagga. —The seventh section of the Dhammapada. 

Arahanta Sutta (2).—Of all the forms of becoming, the arahants have 
the best in all the worlds. They attain this by right insight with regard 
to the sankhdras. 1 

1 S. iii. 82-4. 

1. Araha Sutta. —Preached at Savatthi to Radha. A monk who sees, 
in their true nature, the coming to pass and the passing away, the satis¬ 
faction of, misery in, and escape from, the five groups of grasping, is called 
an arahant. 1 

1 S. iii. 193. 

174 [ Arahft Sutta 

2. Araha Sutta.—Same as above, the six sense-faculties being sub¬ 
stituted for the five groups of grasping. 1 

1 S. y. 205. 

3. Araha Sutta.—Same as above, the five indriyas (controlling facul¬ 
ties) being substituted for groups of grasping. 1 

1 S. v. 208. 

Arikari.—A monastery in Ceylon. It is not recorded by whom it was 
first built. Udaya I. found it in a dilapidated condition and had it 
repaired. He also built there a house for the distribution of food and 
added a pasdda. 1 

1 Cv. xlix. 32. 

1. Arittha.—A monk. He had been subjected by the Sangha to the 
ukkhepamyakamma for refusal to renounce a sinful doctrine, namely, 
that the states of mind declared by the Buddha to be stumbling-blocks 
are not such at all for him who indulges in them. 

Arittha left the Order and would not come back until the ukkhepamya- 
Jcamma was revoked. 1 

He was a vulture-trainer ( gaddhabddhiputta ). 2 

His case is cited as that of a pdcittaya- offence because he refused to 
give up a wrong doctrine even after the monks had three times requested 
him to do so. 8 

In spite of the ukkhepamyakamma the Chabbaggiya monks kept com¬ 
pany with Arittha, thereby committing a pdcittaya- offence. 4 We find 
the Buddha rebuking the nun Thullananda for associating with Arittha 
after the ukkhepamyakamma . 5 

In was Arittha's heresy that led to the preaching of the Alagaddupama 
Sutta . 6 In the Samyutta Nikaya, 7 Arittha is mentioned as having said 
to the Buddha that he practised concentration in breathing and as 
having described how he did it. The Buddha, thereupon, instructs him 
as to how such concentration can be done perfectly and in every detail. 
In the Samanatapasadika Arittha is mentioned in a list of enemies of the 
Sdsana . 8 

1 Vin.ii. 25-8. 6 Ibid. , 218. 

2 See note in VT. ii. 377. 6 M. i. 130 if. 

3 Vin. iv. 135. 7 S. v. 314-15. 

4 Ibid., 137. 8 Sp. iv. 874. 

2. Arittha.—An updsaka mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya 1 in a list 
of householders and updsakas who had seen and realised immortality and 

1 iii. 451. 

Aritthapabbata ] 


were possessed of unwavering faith in the Buddha, the Dhamma and the 
Sangha. They practised Ariyan conduct and had won wisdom and 

3. Arittha. —A Pacceka Buddha, mentioned in a list of Pacceka 
Buddhas. 1 

1 M. iii. 69; ApA. i. 106; also Netti, 143. 

4. Arittha. —Nephew of Devanampiyatissa. See Maha Arittha. 

5. Arittha. —Son of the Naga king, Dhatarattha. See Kanarittha. 

6. Arittha. —A messenger of Vessavana, employed by him to take his 
proclamations and publish them. 1 

1 D.iii.201. 

Arittha Sutta. —Records a conversation—already referred to (s.v. 
Arittha 1) —between Arittha and the Buddha regarding concentration on 
breathing. The Buddha asks the monks whether they practise such 
concentration. Arittha says that he himself does and proceeds to 
explain his method. The Buddha, while not condemning it, explains 
to him how concentration could be made perfect in every detail. 1 

1 S. v. 314-15. 

Aritthaka. —A class of devas who were present at the preaching of the 
Mahdsamaya Sutta. They were like azure flowers in hue (ummapup- 
phanibhasino). 1 

1 D. ii. 260. Buddhaghosa, however, i being the name of another class of devas 
explains “ ummapupphanibhasina ” as I (DA, ii. 690). 

Aritthajanaka. —Son of King Mahajanaka, whom he succeeded as 
King of Mithila. His brother was Polajanaka, the viceroy, who later 
killed him and captured his kingdom. Aritthajanaka's son was the 
Prince Mahajanaka, who was the Bodhisatta. 1 

1 J. vi. 30-42. 

Arittha-thapita-ghara.— See Sirivaddhaghara. 

Aritthapabbata. —A mountain in Ceylon half-way between Anura- 
dhapura and Pulatthipuva. It is identified with modern Ritigala, and 


[ Aritthapura 

is near the modern Habarane in the North-Central Province. 1 Pan$U- 
kabhaya lived there for seven years, awaiting an opportunity to make 
war on his uncles, and it was near there that he ultimately defeated 
them. 2 At the foot of the mountain, Suratissa built the Makulaka 
Vihara. 3 Lanjatissa built a vihara on the mountain and called it Arittha 
Vihara. 4 

Jet that issa occupied the mountain before his fight with Aggabodhi III., 
and it was there that he organised his forces. 5 

Sena I. built a monastery on the mountain for the use of the Pamsuku- 
likas and endowed it with large revenues. 6 

At the present day the place is extremely rich in ruins. 7 

1 Mhv. trans. 72, n. 3. 5 Cv. xliv. 86. 

2 Mhv. x. 63-72. e iud.,\- 63. 

3 Ibid., xxi. 6. 7 See Hocart: Memoirs of the Arch. 

4 Ibid., xxxiii. 27. Survey of Ceylon i. 44. 

Aritthapura. —A city in the kingdom of Sivi, over which King Sivi 
reigned. 1 It was also the birthplace of Ummadanti. 2 It lay on the 
road from Mithila to Pancala. 3 

1 J. iv. 401. 2 Ibid., v. 212. 3 Ibid., vi. 419. 

Arittha Vihara. —The monastery built by Lanjakatissa in Arittha- 
pabbata. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxiii. 27; Mhv. trans. 230, n. 6. 

Arindama. —The Bodhisatta, born as King of Benares and son of the 
Magadha King of Rajagaha. During the time of Sikhi Buddha he held 
a great almsgiving for the Buddha and his monks; he presented to the 
Order a fully caparisoned elephant which he redeemed by giving suitable 
gifts to the height of an elephant. 1 He had as friend the chaplain's 
son, Sonaka. They both studied in Takkasila and at the conclusion of 
their studies they travelled about in search of experience. In the 
course of their travels Arindama was elected to succeed the King of 
Benares who had died childless, and Sonaka became a Pacceka Buddha. 
Forty years later Arindama wished to see Sonaka, but no one could tell 
him his whereabouts in spite of the offer of a large reward. Ten years 
later Sonaka saw the king through the good offices of a lad of seven, who 
belonged to the harem and had learnt a song composed by the king 
expressing his desire to meet Sonaka. At the meeting, however, the 
king failed to recognise him. Sonaka, not revealing his identity, spoke 
to the king about the joys of renunciation, and disappeared through the 

1 J. i. 41; Bu. xxi. 9. 

Arindama ] 


air. The king, moved by his words, decided to give up the throne and 
to follow the ascetic life. He appointed his eldest son Dighavu king 
in his stead, handed over to him all his possessions, and developing super¬ 
natural faculties was born in the Brahma world. 2 

Arindama is mentioned together with Mahajanaka as an example of 
a king who renounced a mighty kingdom to lead a hermit's life. 3 The 
story also appears in the Mahavastu, 4 but the details given differ from 
those of the Jataka version. There Arindama is spoken of as the King of 

In both accounts Dighavu's mother, the king's chief queen, is spoken 
of as having died before the king's renunciation. 

According to the Buddhavamsa Commentary, 6 Arindama's capital 

was Paribhuttanagara. (v.l Arindamaka.) 

2 J. v. 247-61. | 4 iii. 449 ff. 

3 76R,iii.489. i 5 BuA. 203. 

2. Arindama. —King in the time of Sumana Buddha. A great dispute 
had arisen at this time regarding nirodha and all the inhabitants of 
many thousand world systems were divided into two camps. In order 
to settle their doubts, the disputants, with Arindama at their head, 
sought the Buddha. The Buddha sat on Mount Yugandhara while 
Arindama, with his ninety thousand crores of followers, sat on a golden 
rock, which by the power of his merit had sprung from the earth near 
Sankassa. The Buddha preached to them, and at the end of the sermon 
they all became arahants. 1 

1 BuA. 128-9. 

3. Arindama. —King of Uttara. When Revata Buddha visited his 
city the king went to see him, accompanied by three crores of people. 
The next day a great almsgiving was held for the Buddha and the monks, 
and also a festival of light covering a space of three leagues. The 
Buddha preached to the assembly, and one thousand crores of people 
realised the Truth. 1 

1 Bu. vi.4; BuA. 133. 

4. Arindama. —A king of forty-one kappas ago; a former birth of 
Sannidhapaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap.i.97. 

5. Arindama. —King of Hamsavatl. When the king, through care¬ 
lessness, had lost his wealth, his setthi (Jatukannika in a former birth) 
made good the loss by giving him the seven kinds of jewels. 1 

Ap.ii. 360. 

178 [ Arindama 

6. Arindama. —The name given to the Cakkavatti’s cakharatana 
because it brings all his enemies into subjection. 1 

1 Mbv. 72. 

Arimaddana. —The name given in the Pali chronicles to the city of 
Pagan in Burma (Ramanna). 1 During the time of Parakkamabahu I. 
of Ceylon, the King of Arimaddana quarrelled with him, ill-treated 
his envoys, and seized by force a princess sent from Ceylon to Kamboja. 
Parakkama sent a punitive expedition under the Damiladhikari Adicca, 
who reduced the country to subjection. 2 

Later Vijayabahu II. of Ceylon entered into friendly negotiations 
with the ruler of Arimaddana, and wrote him a letter in the Magadha 
language composed by himiself. As a result, a friendly treaty was 
made between them which also resulted in closer contact between the 
monks of the two countries. 3 

According to some authorities, quoted by Minayeff, 4 the city was full 
of learned women. The Gandhavamsa 6 mentions a list of twenty-three 
teachers who wrote their works in Arimaddana. From this context it 
appears that Arimaddana was known also as Pukkama (Pukkdmasah- 
khdte Arimaddananagare). This is supported by evidence from else¬ 
where. 6 It was a minister in Arimaddana who wrote the Nyasappadlpa- 
tika. 7 Arimaddana was also the city of birth of the Thera Chapata. 8 

1 Bode: op. cit., 14. 6 Forchhammer: Jardine Prize Essay , 

2 Cv. lxxvi. 10-75. pp. 29, 32. Ind. Ant. 1893, p. 17 

3 Ibid., lxxx. 6-8. 7 Svd. v. 1240. 

4 Recherches sur Bouddhisme, p. 70. i 8 Ibid., 1247. 

5 p. 67. ! 

Arimaddavijayagama. —A village and a tank. The Somavatl canal 
was built by Parakkamabahu I. to connect the Arimaddavijayagama 

with the Kadduravaddhamana tank. 1 

1 Cv. lxxix. 56. 

Arimanda. —A city in which the Bodhisatta was born as the Khattiya 
Vijatavl in the time of the Buddha Phussa. 1 

1 BuA. 194. 

1. Ariya. —A country and people in South India. Palandipa was one 
of its divisions. It once had a king named VIradeva who led an expedi¬ 
tion against Jayabahu I. of Ceylon. 1 

It was also the name of a dynasty, the Aryan dynasty of the Pandya 
(Pandu) in South India. 2 

1 Cv. Ixi. 36 f. 

2 Ibid., lxiii. 15; see also Cv. trans. i. 239, n. 1. 

AriyapariyesanS Sutta ] 


2. Ariya. —A fisherman of a settlement near the north gate of 
Savatthi. The Buddha, seeing his upanissaya for sotdpatti , passed with 
the congregation of monks close by the spot where he was fishing and 
stopped not far from him. Then the Buddha proceeded to ask the 
monks their names, and noticing that the fisherman himself expected to 
be questioned, he asked him his. On learning that it was Ariya, the 
Buddha suggested to him that he was unworthy of the name, because a 
real Ariya never injured any living thing. At the end of the discourse 
the fisherman became a sotdpanna. 1 

1 DhA.iii. 396-S. 

3. Ariya.— A Paeceka Buddha mentioned in the list of the Isigili 
Sutta. 1 

1 M. iii. 70; also ApA. i. 107. 

1. Ariya Sutta. —The seven bojjhangas , if cultivated, lead to the Ariyan 
qualities which conduce to salvation (ariydniyydnika). 1 

1 S. v. 82. 

2. Ariya Sutta. —The four satipatthanas , if cultivated, lead to the utter 
destruction of ill. 1 

1 S. v. 166. 

Ariyakoti. —A monastery (probably in Ceylon), the residence of Maha 
Datta Thera. 1 

1 MA.i. 131. 

Ariyapariyesana Sutta. —Preached in Savatthi in the hermitage of the 
brahmin Rammaka. Some monks expressed to Ananda their desire to 
hear a discourse from the Buddha, as it was so long since they had heard 
one. He advised them to go to the hermitage of Rammaka where 
their wishes might be fulfilled. The noontide of that same day Ananda 
spent with the Buddha at the Pubbarama in the Migaramatupasada and 
in the evening, after the Buddha had bathed in the Pubbakotthaka, 
Ananda suggested to him that he might go to Rammaka’s hermitage. 
The Buddha assenting, they went together. The Buddha, finding the 
monks engaged in discussing the Doctrine, waited till their discussion 
was over. Having inquired the topic thereof, he praised them and pro¬ 
ceeded to tell them of the two quests in the world—the noble and the 
ignoble. He described how he, too, before his Enlightenment, had 
followed the quest, apprenticing himself to various teachers, such as 


[ Ariyabalisika Vatthu 

Alava-Kalama and Uddaka Ramaputta, and how, on discovering that 
they could not give him what he sought, he went to Uruvela and there 
found the consummate peace of Nibbana. 1 The Sutta then proceeds to 
give an account of the Buddha's first reluctance to preach, of Sahampati's 
intervention, of the meeting with the Ajivaka Upaka and the first sermon 
preached to the Pancavaggiyas. Finally the sutta expounds the pleasures 
of the senses, the dangers therefrom and the freedom and confidence which 
ensue when one has overcome desire. 2 

In the Commentary 8 the sutta is called Pasarasi, evidently because 
of the simile found at the end of the discourse where the pleasures of the 
senses are compared to baited traps. 

The Atthasalim quotes it. 4 

1 This biographical account is also 
found in the Maha-Saccaka , Bodhirajaku- 
mdra and Sangarava Suttas. It is in part 
repeated in the Vinaya and the DIgha 

2 M. i. 160-75. 

3 MA. i. 369 ff. 

4 p. 35. 

Ariyabalisika Vatthu. —The story of the fisherman Ariya given above, 

Ariya 2. 

1. Ariyamagga Vagga. —The fifteenth chapter of the Dasaka Nipata of 
the Anguttara Nikaya. 1 It consists of ten suttas on right views and 
wrong views and their train of consequences. 

1 A. v. 244-7. 

2. Ariyamagga Vagga. —The nineteenth chapter of the Dasaka Nipata 
of the Anguttara Nikaya. 1 It consists of ten suttas on the ten trans¬ 
gressions and the abstinence therefrom. 

1 A. v. 278-81. 

Ariyamagga Sutta. —The Ariyan way consists of deeds neither dark nor 
bright with results neither dark nor bright. 1 

1 A. ii. 235 f. 

Ariyamuni. —One of the monks who were sent to Ceylon by the King of 
Ayojjha, at the request of Kittisirirajasiha, to re-establish the upasam- 
pada Ordination in Ceylon. He is mentioned as second in order to 
Upali, the leader of the delegation of Siamese monks. 1 

1 Cv. c. 95; also Cv. trans. ii. 282, n. 2. 

Ariyasavaka Sutta ] 


1. Ariyavamsa. —A compilation, probably of the life-histories of men 
eminent in the Buddhist Order, made in Ceylon and read aloud publicly 
for the edification of the people. The reading of the Ariyavamsa seems 
once to have been a regular feature of gatherings in the Buddhist viharas 
on feast days. King Voharaka-Tissa made endowments for the giving of 
alms throughout Ceylon on the occasions when the Ariyavamsa was read. 1 

A sutta called Ariyavamsa Sutta is mentioned in the Commentaries 2 
as an example of a discourse preached by the Buddha on his own initia¬ 
tive ( attajjhasaya ). This perhaps refers to the sermon on the four 
Ariyavamsa in the Anguttara Nikaya. 3 See also Maha-Ariyavamsa. 

1 Mhv. xxxvi. 38; Mhv. trans. 258, n. 6 . 2 DA. i. 50; MA. i. 14. 3 A. ii. 27. 

2. Ariyavamsa. —A celebrated teacher and author of the fifteenth 
century. He came from Pagan and was a member of the Chapata sect. 
He was a pupil of the famous Ye-din (“ water-carrier ”) of Sagaing, 1 and 
with great zeal and enthusiasm learnt the Abhidhammattha-vibhavam 
from his teacher. Later, Ariyavamsa wrote a commentary on this work 
and called it the Manisaramanjusa. A charming anecdote is related of 
how he read the work to his colleagues and readily accepted their correc¬ 
tions with gratitude. 

Among his other works are the Manidipa, a tika 0 n the Atthasalinl, a 
grammatical treatise, the Gandhabharana, and a study of the Jatakas 
called the Jatakavisodhana. 

Ariyavamsa spent only a part of his life at Sagaing and afterwards 
taught at Ava, where the king was sometimes among his listeners. He 
was among the first of Burmese litterateurs to write a metaphysical 
work in the vernacular—an Anutika on the Abhidhamma. 2 The Gandha- 
Vamsa 8 attributes to him another work, the Mahanissara (Mahanissaya ?), 
but no mention is made of it in the Sasanavamsa. 

1 For an account of him see Bode, op. cit., 41 f. 2 Sas. p. 41 ff. 3 64-5. 

Ariyavamsalankara. —A book written by fianabhisasanadhaja Maha- 
dhammarajaguru Thera of Burma, author of the Petakalankara and 
other books. 1 

1 Sas. 134. 

Ariyavasa Sutta. —The ten dwellings of Ariyans, past, present and 
future. 1 

1 A. v. 29. 

1. Ariyasavaka Sutta. —Preached at Savatthi. The well-taught Ariyan 
disciple does not wonder as to the cause and effect of things, he knows 


[ Ariyasavaka Sutta 

that it really is the arising and the passing away of the world. His is 
the knowledge of the trained man; he is possessed of the insight of 
revulsion, he stands knocking at the door of the deathless. 1 

1 S.ii.77. 

2. Ariyasavaka Sutta. —Same as above, with a very slight variation in 
the final paragraph, in the wording, not in the sense. 1 

1 S.ii. 79. 

Ariya Sutta. —The four iddhipddas , if cultivated, conduce to the utter 
destruction of Ill. They are ariyaniyydnikd. 1 

1 S. v. 255. 

Ariyakari. —A monastery in Rohana in South Ceylon. Dappula gave 
it to the village of Malavatthu and built therein an image house. He 
also had a valuable unnaloma and a hemapatta made for the image there. 1 

1 Cv. xlv. 60-1. 

Ariyaiankara. —There were four theras of this name in Burma, all 
famous for their Pali scholarship. The first (Ariyaiankara of Ava) 
excelled in dhdtupaccayavibhdga, i.e. was an accomplished grammarian. 1 
His pupil, Ariyaiankara the younger, is credited with exegetical works 
on the Atthasalini, the Sankhepavannana, the Abhidhammatthavi- 
bhavani and the Vibhaiiga. He also wrote a Pali tika called the Sarat- 
thavikasini on the Kaccayanabheda, and he made in Burmese what 
amounted to a revised edition of Kaccayana's grammar. 2 

The two others do not seem to have written any works which have been 

1 Sas. p. 106-12. 2 Ibid., 110-11; Bode, op. cit., 52-3. 

Aruka Sutta. —On the man whose mind is like an open sore, as opposed 
to one who is lightning-minded or diamond-minded. 1 

1 A.i. 123 f. 

1. Arana. —A khattiya, father of Sikhi Buddha and husband of 
Pabhavatl. 1 Aruna's chief queen became the Then Abhaya in the present 
age. 2 Another of his wives became, in her last life, the Ther! Soma, 8 
who is perhaps to be identified with Uppaladayika of the Apadana. 4 In 
the Samyutta Nikaya 5 he is called Arunava. 

1 Bu. xxi. 15; J. i. 41; AA. i. 436. 4 goi f. 

2 ThigA. 41. j 5 S. i. 155. 

8 ThigA. 66. j 

Aruiia ] 


2. Aruna. —The Assaka 1 king of Potali in the Assaka country. The 
Kalinga king of that time, longing for a fight, but finding no one willing to 
accept his challenge, at last devised a plan. He sent his four beautiful 
daughters, in a covered carriage and with an armed escort to the various 
cities in the neighbourhood, proclaiming that any king, who took them 
as wives, would have to fight their father. No one was found willing 
to take the risk till they came to Potali in the Assaka country. Even 
the Assaka king at first merely sent them a present by way of courtesy, 
but his minister, Nandisena, fertile in expedients, urged the king to 
marry them, saying that he himself would undertake to face the con¬ 
sequences. The Kalinga king at once set out with his army. On his 
way to Potali, he came across the Bodhisatta, who was leading the 
ascetic life and, without revealing his identity, consulted him regarding 
his chances of success in the fight. The Bodhisatta promised that he 
would see Sakka about it the next day and, having done so, informed 
the king that the Kalinga forces would win. Nandisena heard of this 
prophecy but, nothing daunted, he gathered together the Assaka forces 
and all their allies; then, by a well-planned manoeuvre, he managed to 
have the tutelary deity of Kalinga (who was fighting for the Kalinga 
king) killed by Assaka. Thereupon the Kalinga king was routed and 
fled. The Bodhisatta, finding that his prophecy had turned out false, 
sought Sakka in his distress; Sakka consoled him thus: “ Hast thou never 
heard that even the gods favour the bold hero of intrepid resolve, who 
never yields V 9 

Later, at the suggestion of Nandisena, the Assaka king demanded of 
Kalinga's ruler dowry for his four daughters, and the Kalinga king 
acceded to his request. 2 

1 In the main story the king’s name 2 The story is told in the Kalinga Jataka 
is given as Assaka, but the scholiast says (J.iii. 3 ff.). 
his real name was Aruna. 

3. Aruna. —The pleasaunce near Anupama where the Buddha Vessabhu 
first preached to his chief disciples, Sona and Uttara. 1 

1 Bu. xxii.22, BuA. 205. 

4. Aruna. —The name of the lotus that grows in the Naga world. It 
was one of Uppalavanna’s wishes to have a body of the colour of the 
Aruna-lotus. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 554 (v. 39). 

5. Aruna. —A class of devas present at the preaching of the Maha - 
Samaya Suita. They were of diverse hue, of wondrous gifts, mighty 
powers, comely and with splendid following. 1 

1 D.ii.260, 

184 [ Arupaka 

Arunaka. —Thirty-six kappas ago there were seven kings of the name 
of Arunaka, all previous births of the Thera Vatthadayaka. 1 

1 Ap.i.116. 

Arunanjaha. —Seventy kappas ago there were sixteen kings of the 
name of Arunanjaha. They were all past births of Asokapujaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 199. 

Arunapala. —A king of thirty-five kappas ago, a former birth of 
Kanikarapupphiya Thera (who is evidently identical with Ujjaya 1 ). In 
the Theragatha Commentary 2 he is called Arunabala. 

1 Ap. i. 203. * i. 119. 

Arunapura. —A city in the time of the Buddha Sikhl. Ambapall was 
born there in a brahmin family. 1 It is probably identical with Aruna¬ 
vati (q.v.). 

1 Ap.ii. 613; ThigA. i. 213. 

Arunabala. —See Arunapala. 

1. Arunavati. —The city and the country of King Arunava, and the 
birthplace of Sikhl Buddha. 1 It was from there that Sikhl and Abhibhu 
went to the Brahma-world to preach to Brahma and his attendants. 2 
At that time Salalapupphiya Thera was a confectioner in Arunavati. 3 
See also Arunapura. 

1 Bu. xxi. 15. 2 S.i. 155 f. 3 Ap.i.218. 

2. Arunavati. —A vihara in the village of Itthakavati in Magadha. 
Sariputta once lived there. 1 

1 PvA.67. 

Arunavati Sutta. —Records the incident of the visit of Abhibhu to the 
Brahma-world. 1 Abhibhu chose as his theme action and energy, and 
the verses he uttered on that occasion, beginning “ Arabhatha , nikkha- 
matha , yunjatha buddhasdsane ” are often quoted. 

Buddhaghosa 2 says that Abhibhu chose this theme out of all the 
doctrines to be found in the Tipitaka because he knew that the subject 
would commend itself to all his hearers, human and non-human. 

Milakkhatissa Thera of Ceylon, hearing a novice in Pacinapabbata 
recite the Arunavati Sutta, listened to the stanzas, and feeling that they 
had been preached to encourage zealous monks like himself, he exerted 
1 S. i. 154 f., etc.; see s.v. Abhibhu (1). 

2 SA. i. 172-3. 

Alagakkonara ] 


himself and became an anagaml. Soon afterwards he became an 
arahant. 3 

The sutta is said to have been preached by the Buddha on the full- 
moon day of Jetthamdsa . 4 

3 AA. i. 21-2. 4 Ibidm im 436> 

Arunava.— See Arana (1). 

Arundhavatl. —See Amaravat! (2). 

Aruppala. —One of the villages given by Kittisirirajaslha for the main¬ 
tenance of the Gangarama Vihara. 1 

1 Cv.c.212. 

Alakadeva. —A thera who accompanied Majjhima to Himava. 1 He 
converted one of the five districts there and ordained 100,000 monks. 2 
The Dlpavamsa 8 gives his name as Mulakadeva. 

1 Sp. i. 68. 2 Mbv. 115. 3 viii.10. 

Alaka. —The town of the god Kubera, 1 evidently another name for 


1 Cv. lxxiv. 207; lxxx. 5. 

Alakkhl. —The goddess of Ill-luck. She delights in men of evil deeds. 1 

1 J.v. 112-14. 

Alankaranissaya. —A scholiast on Sangharakkhita’s Subodhdlankdra , 
written by a Burmese monk in a.d. 1880. 1 

1 Bode, op. cit., 95. 

Alagakkonara. —An eminent prince of Ceylon in the time of Vikkama- 
bahu IV. He was of the Giri family and lived in Peraddoni (modern 
Peradeniya). The Culavamsa does not recount much of him, save that 
he was full of virtue and piety and that he did many good deeds, such as 
the advancement of the Order; also that he was the founder of Jaya- 
vaddhanakotta, which soon after became the capital of Ceylon. 1 The 
Sinhalese chronicles, however, 2 tell us a good deal about him, the most 
important fact being that he succeeded in breaking the power of the 
Jaffna king which was then at its height. Formerly it was believed 
that Alagakkonara later became king under the name of Bhuvaneka- 
bahu V., but now that opinion has been given up. 3 

1 Cv. xci. 3-9. | 3 Ibid., 213, n. 4, and the references 

2 See Cv. Trs. ii. 212, n. 4. I given there. 


[ Alagaddfipama Sutta 

Alagaddupama Sutta. —Preached at Jetavana to Arittha concerning 
his heresy. Arittha held that according to the Doctrine, as he understood 
it, the states of mind, e.g. pleasures of sense, declared by the Buddha 
to be stumbling-blocks, are not such at all to the man who indulges in 
them. The Buddha questioned Arittha regarding this, and when 
Arittha acknowledged that such was his view, the Buddha rebuked him 
as having not even a spark of illumination regarding the Dhamma and 
the Yinaya, 

Foolish persons, who have learned the Doctrine by heart but fail 
to study its import, quite miss the real meaning of their memorising 
and find no joy in it, using it solely as a means of stricture on others or 
of bandying verbal quotations; they are like a man who, finding a 
serpent, seizes it by its tail or coils and gets bitten, meeting thereby 
death or deadly hurt. But those, who comprehend all that the Doctrine 
embodies, resemble a man who pins a serpent securely down with 
a forked stick and grasps it firmly by its neck. 

This sutta also contains the parable of the raft. The Doctrine is like 
a raft to be used in crossing the flood and then to be abandoned. Even 
good things must eventually be discarded, therefore, how much more 
bad things ? 

The last part of the sutta contains questions, chiefly on the mastery 
of self, asked by various monks, which the Buddha proceeds to explain. 1 

The sutta is quoted by Buddhaghosa 2 as an example of a discourse 
of which the meaning is illustrated by a variety of similes (atthena 
upamam parivdretvd ), (v.l. Alagadda Sutta.) 

1 M. i. 130 if.; MA. i. 321 ff. MA.i.136. 

Alambusa. —The nymph sent by Sakka to tempt the sage Isismga, as 
related in the Alambusa JdtaJca. In the present age she was the wife of 
the monk with reference to whom the Alambusa Jataka was related. 1 
Her name appears in the Vimdnavatthu 2 in a list of nymphs who minister 
with song and dance to Sakka and his queens. 

1 J. v. 152-61. 2 p. 16, v. 10. See also CSB.29, PI. 15. 

Alambusa Jataka (No. 523).— Isisinga, son of the Bodhisatta and of a 
doe, who had drunk water into which the Bodhisatta's semen had fallen, 
lived the ascetic life like his father. He had been warned by his father 
about the wiles of women, and lived in the forest practising the most 
severe austerities. By virtue of the power of these austerities, Sakka’s 
abode trembled, and Sakka, fearing his rivalry, sent down a beautiful 
celestial nymph, Alambusa, to tempt him and despoil him of his virtue. 

Alata ] 


This she succeded in doing, and for three years he lay unconscious in her 
embrace. At last, realising what had happened, he forthwith forsook 
sensual desire, and developing mystic meditation, attained to jhana. 
Alambusa pleaded for forgiveness, which was readily granted. The story 
was related in reference to the temptation of a monk by the wife he had 
had during his lay life. 1 

In the Dlgha Nilcaya Commentary 2 the name of the ascetic is given as 
Migasingi, and the story is quoted as an instance of a wrong explanation 
of the cessation of consciousness. 

1 J. v. 152-61. See also the NalinikgJ. story of Rsyasrngain theRamayana(i.9). 

(v. 193 f.) where Isisinga is tempted by The story is found in the Bharhut Tope 
Nalinika. (see Cunningham, CSB. 29, PI. 15). 

2 ii. 370; see also Sp. i.214. Cp. the 

Alasaka.—The name of a disease, of which Korakhattiya died. 1 Ehys 
Davids translates it as “ epilepsy ” and suggests that its name is a 
negative of lasika , the synovial fluid. 2 

1 D. iii. 7. 3 Dial . iii. 12, n. 2. 

Alasanda.—A city in the land of the Yonas. There was a large 
Buddhist community there and it is said, in the Mahavamsa, 1 that on 
the occasion of the foundation of the Maha Thupa by Dutthagamani, the 
thera Yonaka Maha Dhammarakkhita came to Anuradhapura from 
Alasanda with 30,000 monks. 

In the Milinda'paflha 2 Alasanda is mentioned in a list of places, among 
which are China, Benares and Gandhara. Elsewhere in the same book, 8 
King Milinda is mentioned as saying that he was born in a village named 
Kalasi in Alasanda, but he speaks of Alasanda as an island. It was 
about two hundred leagues from Sagala. 

It is generally accepted 4 that Alasanda was the name of an island in 
the Indus in the territory of Baktria. Geiger 5 thinks that it is probably 
to be identified with the town founded by the Macedonian king in the 
country of Paropanisadae near Kabul. 

In the Apadana 6 the Alasandaka are mentioned in a list of tribes. 

1 xxix. 40. 4 fi.g., in Questions of King Milinda , 

2 p.327. i., p. xxiii(see also CHI.,p. 550). 

3 82,83. 5 Mhv. trs. 194, n. 3. 6 i. 359. 

Alata.—A minister and general of Afigati, King of Videha. He is 
described as wise, smiling, a father of sons and full of experience. When 
Angati consulted his ministers as to ways and means of finding diversion 
for himself and his subjects, Alata's counsel was that they should set 
out to battle with a countless host of men. The suggestion of another 


[ Allnacitta 

minister, Vijaya, was that the king should visit some samaria or brahmin, 
and this idea it was that won the king's approval. Thereupon Alata 
persuaded Angati to visit the Ajlvika Guna of the Kassapa family, who 
evidently enjoyed Alata's patronage. When Guna preached his doctrine 
that good and evil actions were alike fruitless, he was supported by 
Alata, who stated that in a previous birth he had been Pingala, a cow¬ 
killing huntsman in Benares, and that he had committed many sins for 
which, however, he had never suffered any evil consequences. 

Later, Angati's daughter Ruja explains that Alata's present prosperity 
is the result of certain past acts of righteousness and that time will 
eventually bring him suffering on account of his evil deeds. Alata 
himself, she says, is not aware of this because he can remember only one 
previous birth, while she herself can recall seven. 1 

Alata was a previous birth of Devadatta . 2 

In the text he is sometimes 3 also called Alataka, perhaps for the 
purposes of metre. 

1 Seethe Maha Narada-Kassapa Jataka j 2 Ibid,, 255. 

(J. vi.222 ff.). I z E,g., pp. 221,230. 

Allnacitta. —King of Benares; one of the lives of the Bodhisatta. He 
was so-called (“ Win-heart '') because he was born to win the hearts of 
the people. He was consecrated king at the age of seven. His story 
is related in the Allnacitta Jataka. 

Allnacitta Jataka (No. 156).—Story of the Bodhisatta, when he was 
born as Allnacitta, King of Benares. 

An elephant, while walking in the forest, trod on a splinter of acacia 
wood left there by carpenters while felling forest trees for wood for 
buildings in Benares. In great pain he came to the carpenters and lay 
down before them. They removed the splinter and owing to their 
treatment the wound healed. The elephant, in gratitude, spent the 
rest of his life working for them, and, before his death, he enlisted his 
son, white in colour, magnificent and high-bred, in their service. One 
day a half-dry cake of the young one's dung was carried into the river 
by the flood, 1 and, floating down, stuck near the bathing place of the 
king's elephants in Benares. The royal elephants, scenting the noble 
animal, refused to enter the water and fled. Having discovered the 
reason for their behaviour, the king decided to obtain the animal for 
himself, and going up-stream in a raft, he saw the carpenters and the 
white elephant working for them. The merchants agreed to give him 
1 We are told that noble animals never dung or stale in water. 

Allnasattu ] 


to the king, but the elephant refused to move till the carpenters were 
adequately compensated. The animal was taken in procession to the 
city and with his help the king became supreme ruler over India. 

In course of time the Queen Consort bore a son to the king, but the 
king died before his birth. The Kosala king thereupon laid siege to 
Benares, but desisted from attack for seven days, astrologers having 
predicted that at the end of that time the child would be born. The men 
of Benares had agreed to surrender unless the baby proved to be a boy. 
After seven days the queen bore a son named Alinacitta, and the in¬ 
habitants of Benares gave battle to the Kosala king. The queen, being 
told that they were in danger of defeat, dressed the baby and took him 
to the elephant for protection. The elephant had been kept in ignorance 
of the king’s death, lest he himself should die of a broken heart. But, 
on hearing the news, he sallied forth into battle and soon brought back 
the Kosala king as captive. 

Alinacitta became, in due course, king over the whole of Jambudlpa. 2 

This story and that of the Samvara Jataka were both related in con¬ 
nection with a monk who had become faint-hearted. For details see 
s.v. Samvara. The elephant of the Jataka was the faint-hearted monk 
and the father-elephant was Sariputta. 

This Jataka also was related by the Buddha, with reference to the 
Elder Radha whom Sariputta had taken under his special spiritual pro¬ 
tection and guidance, in gratitude for a ladleful of food that Badha, as 
layman, had once given him. The Buddha pointed out that this was not 
the first time that Sariputta had shown his gratitude. 3 

2 J. ii. 17-23. 3 DhA.ii. 106. 

Allnasattu. —The Bodhisatta, born as son of Jayaddisa (q-v.), King of 
Uttarapaiicala in Kampilla. When the boy grew up, fully instructed in 
all the arts, his father made him Viceroy. Later, Jayaddisa’s life having 
become forfeit to the man-eating ogre (; porisdda ), Allnasattu volunteered 
to offer himself in his father’s place. The ogre, impressed by the prince’s 
fearlessness and by the readiness with which he carried out his offer, 
refused to eat him and absolved him frpm his undertaking. Allnasattu 
preached to him the five moral laws and, having discovered that the 
ogre was really a human being, offered him the throne, which, however, 
the latter would not accept. 1 

In lists of births in which the Bodhisatta is mentioned as having 
practised silapdramitd, the Allnasattu Jataka is mentioned 2 ( v.l . Adlna- 
sattu, Alinasatta, Alinasatta). 

J. v. 22 ff. 

2 E.g ., J. i. 46. 


[ Aloma 

Aloma (Alona ?). —A poor woman of Benares. She saw the Buddha 
going on his begging round, and having nothing else to offer, gave him, 
with very pious heart, some dried flesh, old and saltless. She thought 
constantly of her gift, and after death was born in a vimana in Tavatimsa, 
where Moggallana came across her and heard from her her story 1 ( v.l . 

1 Vv.39; VvA. 184. 

1. Alaka. —A country on the banks of the Godhavari Biver. It was 
at a spot between the territories of the Alaka and the Assaka kings that 
Bavari lived. 1 To the north of Alaka was Patitthana. 2 

1 Sn. 977. 2 Sn. 1011. 

2. Alaka. —An Andhaka king of the Alaka country. 1 See Alaka (1). 

1 SnA.ii. 580-1. 

Alakhiya-rayara.— One of the Tamil generals who fought on the side 

of Kulasekhara against Parakkama-bahu I. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvi. 145. 

Alagvanagiri.— A locality in South India, captured by the forces of 

Parakkama-bahu I. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvii. 12. 

AJajanapada.— A district which the thera Isidatta visited on his 
return journey from a pilgrimage to the Maha-Vihara. The children of 
Alajanapada collected some fruit-rinds, which had been left behind by 
the fruit-gatherers, and gave them to Isidatta and his companion, 
Mahasona. It is said that this was the only meal they had for a week. 1 

1 VibhA. 447. 

Alatturu.— Name of two Damila chiefs in the army of Kulasekhara. 
They took part in various battles and were eventually conquered by the 
forces of Parakkamabahu I. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvi. 140,' 184, 214, 217, 220, 305. 

Alandanagarajamahesl.— The name occurs in the Samantapdsddikd , 1 
in a discussion as to what is and what is not, kappiya for the monks. 
Monks should not accept or use a pond or any such thing, unless it has 
been properly gifted to them. But if the real owners of the pond, etc., 
or their heirs, or, if no heirs exist, the chief of the district, having dis- 

1 iii.680. 

Allakappa ] 


covered that the pond was being used by monks, were to give it to the 
monks, then the gift becomes Jcappiya, “ as in the case of the bucket of 
water taken by the monk of Cittalapabbata and Alandanagarajamahesi ” 
—evidently meaning that the water was later given to the monk by the 
mahesl , thereby making it kappiya. 

Alara. —A landowner of Mithila, described also as Videha and 
Videhiputta, an inhabitant of the Videha country. 1 While journeying 
on business, in a carriage, attended by five hundred waggons, he saw the 
Naga king, Saiikhapala, being ill-treated by lewd men who had captured 
him and, feeling sorry for the Naga, Alara gave gifts to the men and 
their wives and thus obtained his release. Sankhapala, thereupon, 
invited Alara to the Naga kingdom where, for a whole year, Alara lived 
in all splendour. Later, realising that the Naga's wonderful possessions 
were the fruit of good deeds done in the past, he became an ascetic in 
Himava and afterwards took up his abode in the king's park in Benares. 
The king, seeing him on his begging-rounds, was pleased with his deport¬ 
ment and invited him to the palace. There, at the king's request, he 
told him the story of his encounter with Sankhapala and his subsequent 
life and exhorted the king to do acts of piety. 

Later he was born in the Brahma-world. 2 

Alara was a previous birth of Sariputta. 3 (v.l. Alara.) 

1 J. v. 166, 167. 2 See the Sankhapala J. (v. 161 ff.). 

3 Ibid., 177. 

Alara Kalama. —See Alara Kalama. 

1. Allakappa. —A country near Magadha. When the Bulis of Alla¬ 
kappa heard of the Buddha's death, they sent messengers to the Mallas 
asking for a portion of the relics, claiming that they too, like the Buddha, 
were khattiyas. Having obtained them, they later built a thupa over 
them. 1 Allakappa seems to have had a republican form of government, 
but its importance was not very great. According to the Dhammapada 
Commentary, 2 Allakappa was ten leagues in extent and its king was on 
intimate terms of friendship with the King of Vethadipaka. They spent 
a great deal of their time together, so that the two countries must have 
been near each other. 

1 D.ii. 166-7; Bv. xxviii.2. 2 DhA.i. 161. 

2. Allakappa. —The King of Allakappa and friend of King Vethadipaka. 

They both renounced their kingdoms and became ascetics in the Hima¬ 
laya. At first they lived in the same hermitage, but later separated and 
lived apart, meeting once a fortnight, on fast-days. 


[ Avakannaka 

Vethadlpaka died and was born a mighty king of devas. Soon after, 
when visiting Allakappa, he learned that the latter's asceticism was being 
disturbed by wild elephants. Vethadlpaka gave him a lute with which 
to charm them, and spells whereby he might influence them. The lute 
had three strings; at the plucking of the first, the elephants ran away 
at once, of the second they ran away but looked back at each step, 
but when the third was plucked, the leader of the herd came and offered 
the player his back on which to sit. 

Some time later, Allakappa met the Queen of Parantapa, King of 
Kosambi, with her son Udena, who had been born in the forest, the queen 
having been carried thither by a large bird of prey. Allakappa took 
them to the hermitage and looked after them, in ignorance of their high 
estate. He later lived with the queen as his wife. One day he perceived, 
by the occultation of Parantapa's star, that the king was dead; he told 
this to the queen who then confessed her identity and that of Udena, 
the legitimate heir to the throne. Allakappa gave to Udena the magic 
lute and taught him the spells that by their power he might gain his 
heritage. See s.v. Udena. 

Avakannaka. —Given in the Pdcittiya rules 1 as an example of a low 
name (hinanama). 

1 Vin. iv. 6 ff. 

1. Avataphaliya Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth, ninety- 
four kappas ago, he gave an avata (tala ?) fruit to the Pacceka Buddha 

Sataramsi. 1 He is probably identical with Sambula Kaceayana. 2 

1 Ap. ii. 409. 2 ThagA.i.314. 

2. Avataphaliya Thera. —His story is similar to that of (1) except 
that the name of the Pacceka Buddha seems to have been SahassaramsI 
(or is this an epithet ?). x He is probably to be identified with Melajina 
Thera. 2 

1 Ap. ii. 445. 2 ThagA.i.252. 

Avantaphaladayaka Thera. —An arahant. Ninety-four kappas ago he 
had given a fruit without a stalk (avanta) to a Pacceka Buddha named 

Sataramsi. 1 

1 Ap. i. 294. 

1 . Avanti. —One of the four great monarchies in the time of the Buddha, 
the other three being Magadha, Kosala and Vamsa (or Vatsa). Avanti 

Avanti ] 


is also mentioned among the sixteen great janapadas. 1 Its capital was 
Ujjenl (q.v.). But according to another account, 2 Mahissati is mentioned 
as having been, at least for some time, the capital of Avanti. It is 
quite likely that ancient Avanti was divided into two parts, the northern 
part having its capital at Ujjenl and the southern part (also called Avanti 
Dakkhinapatha) at Mahissati (Mahismatl). 3 This theory is supported 
by the fact that in the Mahabharata, 4 Avanti and Mahismatl are referred 
to as two different countries. 

In the Buddha's time, the King of Avanti was Pajjota, a man of violent 
temper, 5 and therefore known as Canda Pajjota. He wished to conquer 
the neighbouring kingdom of Kosambl, of which Udena was king, but 
his plans did not work out as he had anticipated. Instead, his daughter 
Vasuladatta became Udena's wife and the two countries continued to be 
on friendly terms. 6 

The kingdom of Assaka is invariably mentioned in connection with 
Avanti. Even in the Buddha's life-time, Avanti became a centre of 
Buddhism. Among eminent monks and nuns who were either born or 
resided there, are to be found Maha Kaccana, Nanda Kumaraputta, Sona 
Kutikanna, Dhammapala, Abhayarajakumara, Isidatta and Isidasi. 

It is said that when Pajjota heard of the Buddha's advent to the world, 
he sent his chaplain's son, Kaccana, with seven others, to invite him to 

Having listened to the Buddha's teaching, the messengers became 
arahants, and when Kaccana conveyed to the Buddha the king's invita¬ 
tion to Avanti, he was asked by the Buddha to return and represent him. 
Kaccana returned to Avanti and converted Pajjota to the faith of the 
Buddha. 7 Henceforward Maha Kaccana seems to have spent a good 
deal of his time in Avanti, dwelling in the city of Kuraraghara in the 
Papata Pabbata. 8 

The religion thus introduced, however, does not seem to have spread 
to any extent until much later; for we find Maha Kaccana experiencing 
great difficulty in collecting ten monks, in order that Sona Kutikanna 
might receive the higher Ordination; in fact it was not until three years 
had elapsed that he succeeded. 9 Later, when Sona Kutikanna visited 
the Buddha at Savatthi, he conveyed to the Buddha Maha Kaccana's 
request that special rules might be laid down for the convenience of the 

1 A,i.213;iv.252, 256, 260. 

9 D.ii.235. 

3 Bhandarkar: Carmichael Lectures 
(1918), p. 54. 

4 ii. 31, 10. 5 Vin. i. 277. 

6 The romantic story of this marriage 

is given in DhA. i. 191 ff. For a sum¬ 
mary see s.v. Vasuladatta. 

7 ThagA. i.485. 

8 S. iii.9. 12;iv. 115-16; A. v. 46; also 
UdA. 307. 

9 Vin. i. 195. 



[ Avanti 

monks of Avanti Dakkhinapatha and of other border countries. 10 The 
Buddha agreed, and among the rules so laid down were the following: 
(1) The higher Ordination could be given with only four monks and a 
Yinayadhara. (2) Monks are allowed the use of shoes with thick linings 
(because in Avanti the soil is black on the surface, rough and trampled 
by cattle). (3) Monks are enjoined to bathe frequently (the men of 
Avanti attaching great importance to bathing). (4) Sheepskins, goat¬ 
skins, etc., could be used as coverlets. (5) Robes could be accepted on 
behalf of a monk who has left the district, and the ten days’ rule with 
regard to such a gift will not begin until the robes have actually reached 
the monk’s hands 11 (this, evidently, because of difficulty of access). 

By the time of the Vesali Council, however, Avanti had become one of 
the important centres of the orthodox school, for we find Yasa Kakanda- 
kaputta sending messengers to Avanti to call representatives to the 
Council, and we are told that eighty-eight arahants obeyed the summons. 12 

Among other localities in Avanti (besides those mentioned above) were 
Ghanaselapabbata, Makkarakata and Velugama, and, in Jaina works, we 
find mention also of Sudarsanapura. 13 

Even in ‘‘K Buddha’s day there were rumours of the King of Avanti 
making preparations to attack Magadha, but we are not told that 
he ever did so. 14 Subsequently, however, before the time of Canda- 
gupta, Avanti became incorporated with Magadha. Before Asoka 
became King of Magadha he was the Magadha Viceroy of Avanti and 
ruled in Ujjeni, and it was in Ujjeni that Mahinda and Sanghamitta were 
born and grew up. 15 But the country seems to have retained its name 
at least as late as the second century A.D., as may be seen from Rudra- 
daman’s Inscription at Junagadh. 16 

Avanti is now identified with the country north of the Yindhaya 
Mountains and north-east of Bombay, roughly corresponding to modern 
Malwa, Nimar and adjoining parts of the Central Provinces. 17 

In the Milinda'panha 18 Avanti is mentioned as one of the three mandalas 
or great divisions of Jambudipa, the other two being Paclna and Dak- 

According to a late tradition recorded in the Buddhavamsa, 19 the 
Buddha’s mat (nisldana) and rug were deposited, after his death, in 

It has sometimes been suggested that Avanti was the home of modern 

10 Ibid,, 197-8. 

11 Cp. the first msmggiya rule (Yin. iii. 

12 Vin. ii. 298-9. 

18 Law: Ksatriya Tribes , p. 148. 

14 E.g., 

16 Mhv. xiii. 8 if. 

16 Buddhist India, p. 28. 

17 Law: Geography of Early Buddhism , 

p. 22. 

18 Trs.ii. 250, n.l. 

19 Bn. xxviii. 10. 

Avaruddhaka ] 


Pali. 20 It has further been suggested that the Avanti school of monks— 
founded by Maha Kaccana, who was considered the greatest analytical 
exponent of the Buddha’s time—living in comparative isolation (as seen 
above) on account of difficulty of access, 21 and laying special stress on 
dhutavdda practices 22 —developed branches of knowledge dealing mainly 
with grammar and doctrinal interpretation by ways of exegetical analysis. 
The Pali grammar ascribed to Kaccayana and the Netti-ppalcarana were 
both works of this school. 23 

Avanti was one of the parts into which the earth was divided by King 
Renu, with the help of his Great Steward, Maha-Govinda. The King of 
Avanti at the time was Vessabhu and his capital Mahissati. 24 

20 E.g.,mBud. India , pp. 153-4. 

21 Avanti, however, lay on the road 
taken by Bavari’s ten disciples on their 
way from Patitthana to Savatthi. 

22 Vin. ii. 299. 

23 For a discussion of this see PLC. 
181 ff. 

24 D.ii. 235-6. 

2. Avanti. —King of Ujjeni in a past age. During his reign the Bodhi- 
satta was born, under the name of Citta, in a Candala village outside 
Ujjeni. His story is related in the Citta-Sambhuta Jataka. 1 

1 J. iv. 390 ff. 

Avantiputta. —King of Madhura. His mother was the sister of Pajjota, 
King of Avanti, hence the name Avantiputta. 1 He once went in royal 
state to visit Maha Kaccana who was staying in the Gunda Grove in 
Madhura. Their discussion is recorded in the Madhura Sutta. 2 It is 
said that after the interview Avantiputta became a follower of the 
Buddha’s teaching. 

1 MA.ii.738. 2 M.ii.83-90. 

Avandiya. —A Damila chief who fought on the side of Kulasekhara 
against Parakkamabahu I. 1 

1 Cv, lxxvi. 146. 

Avaruddhaka. —A yakkha. Having served Vessavana for twelve years, 
he received, as his reward, permission to take the boy, who later became 
known as Ayuvaddhana. On the day destined for the boy’s death, 
Avaruddhaka, coming to claim his possession, found the Buddha and 
his disciples there, reciting texts and taking other measures to avert his 
death. Avaruddhaka had to step back twelve leagues to make room 
for his superiors and had eventually to go away without getting the boy. 1 

1 DhA. ii. 237-8. 


[ Avaroja 

Avaroja. —A householder in the time of VipassI Buddha; he had a 
nephew who was also called Avaroja after his uncle. When the uncle 
undertook to build a gandhakuti for the Buddha, the nephew wished to 
have a share in the work, but this the uncle would not allow. The 
former thereupon proceeded to erect a Kunjarasala (Elephant Hall), on 
the site opposite the gandhakuti , adorned with the seven kinds of precious 
minerals. In the centre of the Kunjarasala was a jewelled pavilion 
beneath which was a Preacher’s Beat. At the foot of the seat were set 
four golden rams, of which there were two more under the foot-rest and 
six round the pavilion. At the festival of dedication, Avaroja invited the 
Buddha with sixty-eight thousand monks, giving alms to suffice for four 
months and various gifts to monks and novices. 

This Avaroja, the nephew, became Mendaka, the famous setthi of 
Benares, in the present age. 1 

A story similar to that of the two Avarojas is told of Aparajita, uncle 
and nephew of the same name, who also were householders in the time of 
VipassI Buddha. We are told that this nephew also became Mendaka 
Setthi in his last birth. 2 We have here, evidently, a confusion of legends. 

1 DhA. iii. 364 ff. 2 Ibid., iv. 202-3. 

Avavadaka. —A Licchavi girl. Her father was a Nigantha who had 
come to Vesali to hold discussions and had there met a NiganthI whom he 
married. Avavadaka had three sitsers, Sacca, Lola and Patacara and 
one brother Saccaka. The children learnt from their parents one 
thousand theses for discussion, and on the death of the parents the sisters 
became Paribbajakas. In the course of their wanderings, whenever they 
entered a city, they would set up at the city-gate a jambu-twig, as a 
challenge to anyone who might wish to hold a philosophic discussion 
with them. In Savatthi, Sariputta accepted the challenge, and at the 
end of the discussion he converted them. They later became arahants. 
The story of their past is given in the Culla Kdlihga Jataka. 1 

1 J. iii. 1 ff. 

Avariya Jataka (No. 376).—Once, when the Bodhisatta was an ascetic, 
at the invitation of the King of Benares, he dwelt in the royal garden, ad¬ 
monishing the king on the virtues of righteousness and compassion. Being 
pleased with him, the king wished to present him with a village of which 
the revenue was a thousand, but the ascetic declined the gift. For 
twelve years the ascetic lived in the park; then, desiring a change, he 
went away, and in the course of his wanderings, arrived at a ferry on 
the Ganges, where lived a foolish ferryman named Avariyapita, He 

Avijja Sutta J 


took the Bodhisatta across, on the latter’s promising to tell him how to 
increase his wealth, his welfare and his virtue. On reaching the other 
side, the Bodhisatta advised the ferryman on the desirability of getting 
his fare before crossing if he wished to increase his wealth; he then pro¬ 
ceeded to recite to him the stanzas on the virtue of compassion, which, 
for twelve years, he had daily recited to the king. Incensed at feeling 
that he had been cheated out of his money, the ferryman started striking 
the ascetic; his wife, coming along with his food, tried to stop him. 
Thereupon he struck her, upsetting the food and causing her womb to 
miscarry. He was brought before the king and punished. 

Good advice is wasted on fools, like fine gold on beasts. 

The story was told regarding a foolish ferryman of Aciravatl. When 
a certain monk came to him one evening to be taken across the river, the 
ferryman was annoyed and steered so badly that he wet the monk’s robes 
and delayed him. The two ferrymen were the same. 1 

1 J. iii.228-32. 

Avariya Vagga. —The first division of the Chakka 
katthakathd. 1 

1 J. iii. 228-74. 

Nipdta of the Jata - 

Avariyapita. —The ferryman of the Avariya Jataka. 

Avariya. —Daughter of Avariyapita. 1 

1 J. iii. 230. 

Avikakka ( v.l . for Adhikakka). 

1. Avijja Vagga. —The thirteenth chapter of the Khandha Samyutta. 1 

1 S.iii. 170-7. 

2. Avijja Vagga. —The sixth chapter of the Saldyatana Samyutta} 

1 S. iv. 30-5. 

3. Avijja Vagga.— The first chapter of the Magga Samyutta. 1 

1 S. v. 1-12. 

1. Avijja Sutta. —The ignorance of puthujjanas consists in not knowing 
the nature, the arising, the ceasing and the path thereto, of the five 
khandhas. 1 

1 S.iii. 162. 

198 [ Avijja Sutta 

2. Avijja Sutta. —In him who knows and sees the eye, objects, etc., as 
impermanent, ignorance vanishes and knowledge arises. 1 

1 S. iv. 30. 

3. Avijja Sutta. —When ignorance is abandoned, knowledge springs 
up. This state is reached by knowing, by seeing the eye, etc., as im¬ 
permanent. 1 

1 S.iv. 49-50. 

4. Avijja Sutta. —When it is realised that nothing should be adhered to, 
that all phenomena are changeable and become otherwise, ignorance 
disappears and knowledge arises. 1 

1 S.iv. 50. 

5. Avijja Sutta. —The ninth sutta of the Samandaka Samyutta} 

1 S.iv. 261-2. 

6. Avijja Sutta. —When ignorance leads the way, wrong views arise, 
wrong aims, etc.; the reverse happens with knowledge. 1 

1 S.v.l. 

7. Avijja Sutta. —Ignorance is ignorance about Ill, its arising, its 
ceasing and the way thereto. 1 

1 S. v. 429. 

Avijjapaccaya Sutta. —Two suttas. Conditioned by ignorance, activi¬ 
ties ( sankhara ) come to pass, and so on for each factor of the Paticca- 
samuppdda. 1 

1 S. ii. 60-3. 

1. Avitakka Sutta.—Ananda, seeing Sariputta, remarks on his calm 
demeanour and his translucent colour and asks him how they came about. 
Sariputta explains that he had spent the day in the second jhana, in 
single-pointedness of mind, apart from thought applied and sustained 
(avitakka avicdra), 1 

1 S. iii. 236. 

2. Avitakka Sutta.—Moggallana tells the monks how he had obtained 
the second jhana with the assistance of the Buddha. 1 

1 S. iv. 263. 

Avidure Nidana. —The story of Gotama the Buddha, from the time of 
his leaving the Tusita heaven until the attainment of his Enlightenment 

Avici ] 


at the foot of the Bodhi-tree, is called Avidure Nidana. 1 The whole of 
the story agrees word for word with the account given in the Madhurat- 
thavilasini, Buddhaghosa's Commentary on the Buddhavamsa; possibly 
they were both drawn from the same source. 2 

1 J.i. 2 ; 47-77. 2 PLC. 125-6. 

Aviha. —A class of devas. Their world ranks among the five foremost 
of the mpa-worlds, the Suddhavasa. 1 Anagamls are born in Aviha and 
there attain arahantship. 2 Mention is made of seven persons who 
became arahants immediately after being born in the Aviha world: 
Upaka, Palaganda, Pukkusati, Bhaddiya, Kundadeva, Bahudanti and 
Pingiya. 3 The name Aviha means “ not falling from prosperity 99 (attano 
sampattiya wa hayantiti Aviha)} * The duration of life in Aviha is one 
thousand kappas. 5 U ddhamsotas start their caTeer from Aviha and end 
in Akanittha. 6 

The Buddha once visited Aviha. 7 

1 D.ii. 52; iii. 237; M. iii. 103. 5 DA.iii.740. 

2 ItA. 40. 3 MA. ii. 999. 6 PsA. 319; DhA. iii. 289-90. 

4 VibhA. 521; DA.ii. 480. 7 D.ii. 50-1. 

Avihimsa Sutta.— See Akodha Sutta. 

Avici. —One of the eight great purgatories (mahaniraya). 1 It is ten 
thousand leagues in extent and forms part of a cahkavdla . 2 

The Milindapanha (p. 5), however, places it outside the sphere of the 
earth. Spence Hardy 3 mentions a tradition which says that Avici is 
seven hundred miles directly under the Bodhi Tree at Gaya. In later 
books, e.g. the Dhammapada Commentary, it is represented as being 
under the earth, for we are told that the earth opened wide to allow the 
flames of Avici to escape and to drag down sinners into its bowels. 4 It 
seems to have been specially designed for those who had committed very 
grievous crimes, among whom are Devadatta; Cunda, the pork butcher; 
Ananda, who raped his cousin the Therl Uppalavanna;the ascetic Jambuka, 
who in a previous birth had insulted an arahant; the murderer of the 
Pacceka Buddha Sunetta; SIvall, who in a former birth had blockaded a 
city for seven years; Suppabuddha, who insulted the Buddha; Mallika, 
because of her misbehaviour with a dog (she was only there seven days); 
Cinca-Manavika, because she falsely accused the Buddha; and Kapila, 
brother of Sodhana, for reviling pious monks. 5 

1 J. v. 266. 4 J£. 0 .,DhA.i. 127, 147; iii. 181. 

2 SnA. ii. 443. ! 5 For details and references see under 

3 Manual of Buddhism , p. 26. these names; see also Mil. 357. 


[ Avici 

According to Buddhaghosa, Avici is often called Maha Niraya. 6 
Descriptions of it are to be found in several places in the four Nikayas. 7 
It is a quadrangular space, one hundred leagues each way, four-doored, 
walled all round and above with steel and with floor of incandescent 
molten steel. 

The Dhammapadatthakathd gives a description of the tortures that 
await the entrant to Avici. When, for instance, Devadatta entered 
there, his body became one hundred leagues in height, his head, as far 
as the outer ear, entered into an iron skull; his feet sank up to the ankles 
in iron, an iron stake as thick as the trunk of a palmyra tree came from 
the west wall, pierced the small of his back and, penetrating his breast, 
entered the east wall. Other similar stakes came from the south and from 
the north and transfixed him. 8 

The fire of Avici is so powerful that it destroys the eyes of anyone 
looking at it from a distance of one hundred leagues. 9 It would destroy 
in a moment a rock as large as a gabled house, yet beings born there 
remain undestroyed, as though reposing in their mother’s womb. 10 

Beings born in Avici suffer for periods of varying lengths; thus, 
Mallika, Pasenadi’s queen, remained only for seven days, 11 while Deva¬ 
datta is destined to pass there 100,000 kappas. 12 The Sutta Nipata 13 
gives the names of various specified periods of suffering, which, according 
to Buddhaghosa, 14 are to be spent in Avici; they are Abbuda, Nirabbuda, 
Ababa, Ahaha, Atata, Kumuda, Sogandhika, Uppalaka, Pundarika, and 
Paduma, taken in a geometrical progression of twenty (i.e. twenty 
Abbudas = one Nirabbuda, etc.). 

Another mode of suffering in Avici is described as Sarajita. 15 

It is noteworthy that the word Avici occurs only once in the four 
Nikayas—namely, in a passage in the Cakkavatti-Sihandda Sutta of the 
Digha Nikaya 16 —but in this context there is no indication that the name 
refers to a purgatory. The word is not found in a list of purgatories 
given in the Sutta Nipata 17 and in the Samyutta. 18 It is, however, found 
in a poem in the Itivuttaka (No. 89) which recurs both in the Vinaya 19 
and in the Dhammasangani , 90 and there it is specifically called a niraya. 

In the Digha passage mentioned above, the reference to Avici is in 
connection with a tremendous growth of population which will occur 
in Jambudlpa in a future age. Houses will be so close that a cock could 
fly from any one to the next, and one would think it Avici {avid manne). 

6 AA.i.376. 

7 E.g., M. iii. 183; A.i. 141-2. 

8 DhA.i. 148. 8 A.i. 142. 

10 DhA.i. 127; Mil. 67. 

11 DhA. iii. 121 . 

12 Ibid.A. 148. 13 p. 126. 

14 SnA.i. 476. 

16 SA. iii. 100. 

19 D. iii. 75; repeated in A. i. 159. 

17 pp. 126-31. 

18 i. 152. 

20 Section 1280. 

19 ii. 203. 

Asafikiya Jfttaka ] 


Rhys Davids suggests? 1 that the word (which he translates as Waveless 
Deep) might have been originally used to denote density of population. 
Buddhaghosa 22 explains it as “ nirantara-purita ” perhaps in the sense 
that it is filled with fire. In the Visuddhimagga 23 the word appears to be 
a synonym for jam (disintegration) and is used in connection with the 
disintegration of earth, water, mountains, sun, moon, etc. 

Avici is often referred to as the lowest point of the universe. 24 The 
chief suffering endured there is that of heat. 25 

21 Dial. iii. 73, n. 1 . 24 Thus,e. 0 ., Vsm.ii. 390, 486; Mbv. 57. 

22 DA. iii. 855. 23 ii. 449. 25 MNidA., p. 8 . 

Avela. —One of the palaces used by the Buddha Revata in his last 
lay-life. 1 

1 Bu. vi. 17. 

Avyakata Vagga. —The fourth chapter of the Sattalca Nipdta of the 
Anguttara Nikdya} It contains ten suttas on various subjects such as 
the seven states of man (purisagati), anupdda parinibbdna , the knowledge 
Brahmas possess regarding sa-upadisesa - and anupddisesa-nibbdna , im¬ 
parted to them by Moggallana, the reason why the Dhamma will not last 
long, the seven kinds of wives who are like murderers, etc. 

1 A. iv. 67-98. 

Avyakata Samyutta. —The forty-fourth section of the Samyutta 
Nikaya. 1 

1 S.iv.37* 

Avyadhika Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he built an 
aggisdla for Vipassi Buddha and a hospital and hot baths for the sick. 
Later, seven kappas ago, he was a king named Aparajita. 1 

1 Ap. i. 215. 

Avyapajjha Sutta. —The Bijddha teaches the harmless and the path 
thereto. 1 

1 S. iv. 371. 

Asafikiya Jataka (No. 76).—The Bodhisatta was born as a brahmin in 
Benares and became an ascetic. In the course of his wanderings he once 
travelled with a merchant caravan. The caravan halted for the night, 
but while the merchants slept, the ascetic spent his time pacing up 
and down. Robbers, coming to plunder the caravan, were prevented 
from so doing by the watchfulness of the ascetic. The next day the 
merchants, discovering what had happened, asked him if he had felt no 


[ Asankhata Samyutta 

fear at the sight of the robbers. “ The sight of robbers causes what is 
known as fear only to the rich. I am penniless, why should I be afraid V* 
he answered. 

After death he was born in the Brahma world. 

The story was told to an updsaka of Savatthi who had likewise pre¬ 
vented a caravan from being robbed. “ In guarding himself a man 
guards others; in guarding others he guards himself/' 1 

1 J.i. 332-4. 

Asankhata Samyutta. —Also called Nibbana Samyutta. The forty- 
third section of the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S.iv. 359-73. 

Asankhata Suttas. —A group of suttas describing the way to the uncom¬ 
pounded (asankhata). 1 

1 S.iv. 362 ff. 

Asannataparikkhara-bhikkhu Vatthu. —The story of a monk who 
failed to keep his requisites in order. Exposed to rain, sun and white 
ants, they soon went to pieces. His conduct was reported to the Buddha, 
but when questioned about it, he did not show much concern, saying it 
was a mere trifle. The Buddha showed him the folly of his conduct 
and laid down a rule that no monk should fail to remove a bed which he 
had spread in the open air. 1 

1 DhA. iii. 15-16. 

Asannasatta. —Inhabitants of the fifth of the nine abodes of beings 
(sattdvdsd ). These beings are unconscious and experience nothing. 1 As 
soon as an idea occurs to them they fall from their state. 2 Brahmin 
ascetics, having practised continual meditation and attained to the 
fourth jhana, seeing the disadvantages attached to thinking, try to do 
away with it altogether. Dying in this condition, they are reborn among 
the Asannasatta, having form only, but neither sensations, ideas, pre¬ 
dispositions nor consciousness. They last only as long as their power 
of jhana; then an idea occurs to them and they die straightaway. 3 

The Andhakas held that these devas were really only sometimes 
conscious, which belief the Theravadins rejected as being absurd. 4 

The Elder Sobhita was once born among the Asannasatta and could 
remember that existence. These devas are long-lived. 6 

1 A. iv. 401. 2 D. i. 28. 4 Kvu. 262. 

3 DA.i. 118. | 5 ThagA.i.291. 

Asattharama. —The place where the Buddha Piyadass! died. 1 

1 Bu. xiv. 27. 

Asadlsadftna ] 


1. Asadisa. —The Bodhisatta born as the son of Brahmadatta, King of 
Benares. Brahmadatta was also the name of Asadisa’s brother. When 
the father died, the kingdom was offered to Asadisa, but he refused it 
and handed it over to his brother. Finding that his presence in the city 
was causing anxiety to the latter, he left Benares and entered into the 
service of another king, as archer. He attained great fame by his 
wonderful feats of archery. Once he brought down a mango with the 
downward shot of an arrow, which, in its upward flight, reached the 
realm of the Catummaharajika, whence it was turned back by another 
arrow, which, having accomplished its purpose, rose to Tavatimsa. 

Later, on hearing that seven kings had beleaguered his brother’s 
kingdom, Asadisa shot an arrow, bearing a message, into the dish from 
which the kings were eating, and they all fled. 

He soon afterwards became an ascetic and at his death was born in the 
Brahma world. 1 

: J.ii. 86-92. 

2. Asadisa. —A brahmin village, the residence of Sunetta who gave 
milk rice to the Buddha Siddhattha. 1 

1 BuA. 185. 

Asadisa Jataka (No. 181). —The story of the prince Asadisa. It was 
told in reference to the Great Renunciation to show that in former lives 
also the Bodhisatta had renounced a royal state. 1 The latter part of the 
story is given in the Mahdvastu and is called the fiaraksepana Jataka . 2 
The story is figured in the Bharhut Stupa 3 and in the Sanchi Tope. 4 King 
Kittisiri of Ceylon wrote a beautiful poem in Sinhalese based on this 
Jataka. 5 

1 J.ii. 86-92. 2 Mtu.ii.82-3. 

3 Cunningham, p. 70, and Plate xxvii. 

4 Fergusson, Tree and Serpent Worship , 
p. 181, Plate xxxvi. 

5 Cv. Supplement 101, vs. 13. 

Asadisa Vagga. —The fourth section of the Duka Nipata of the Jata- 
katthakatha. 1 

1 J.ii. 86-113. 

Asadisadana. —The celebrated almsgiving which Pasenadi, under the 
guidance and inspiration of Mallika, held, in order to outdo his citizens 
in their generosity to the Buddha and the Order. The almsgiving, was 
attended with unparalleled splendour, khattiya maidens fanning monks 
while elephants held white parasols over them and golden boats filled 
with perfumes and flowers were placed in the gay pavilion where the 


[ Asadisadana Vatthu 

monks were fed. Four gifts of priceless value were given to the Buddha, 
a white parasol, a couch whereon to rest, a stand and a footstool. These 
gifts were never after equalled by those of anyone else, each Buddha 
receiving these gifts only once in his lifetime. 1 

The Aditta , the Dasdbrahmana and the Sivi Jatakas were all preached 
in reference to the Asadisadana. 

1 DA.ii. 653-4; DhA.iii. 183-6. 

Asadisadana Vatthu, —The story of the Asadisadana and its sequel, 
the story of Pasenadi’s two ministers Kala and Junha. 1 

1 See s.v. Kaja. 

Asaddha Sutta. —Like joins with (literally “ flows together with '') 
like, unbelievers with unbelievers, the lazy with the lazy, etc. 1 

1 S.ii. 159. 

Asaddhamulakapanca Sutta. —The same in its main features as the 

Asaddha Sutta. 1 

1 S.ii. 160-1. 

Asanabodhiya Thera. —An arahant. In Tissa Buddha's time he 
planted the Asana- tree, which was the Buddha's Bodhi-tree, and tended it 
for five years. The Buddha was very pleased with him and foretold for 
him a glorious future. For thirty kappas he dwelt among the devas; 
seventy-seven kappas ago he was a cakkavatti named Dandasena, and 
one kappa later he was seven times king under the name of Samantanemi. 
Twenty-five kappas ago he was a khattiya, Punnaka by name. 1 

1 Ap.i. 110-11. 

Asani Sutta. —What is the falling of a thunderbolt compared with the 
danger for a learner (sekha) arising from gains, favours and flattery ? x 

The Commentary explains that a thunderbolt destroys one life-span 
only, while gains, etc., bring a man to infinitely prolonged misery. 2 

1 S.ii. 229. 2 SA.ii. 154. 

Asaudbimitta. —Chief queen of Dhammasoka. He gave for her use 
one of the eight loads of water brought for him from Anotatta. 1 She 
was a faithful follower of the Buddha's teaching and died in the thirtieth 
year of Asoka's reign. 2 When preparations were being made to take 
the branch of the Bodhi-tree to Ceylon, she offered to the tree all kinds 
of ornaments and various sweet-scented flowers. 3 

1 Mhv. v. 85; two says Sp. (i. 42). 2 Mhv. xx. 2. 3 Mbv. 152. 

Asama ] 


Haying learnt from the monks that the voice of the karavlka bird 
was like that of the Buddha, she had a karavlka given her by the king, 
and listened to his song. Thrilled with joy at the thought of the 
sweetness of the Buddha's voice, she attained to the First Fruit of the 
Path. 4 

She was called Asandhimitta because the joints in her limbs were 
visible only when she bent or stretched them. 5 

In a previous birth, when Asoka was born as a honey merchant and 
gave honey to the Pacceka Buddha, she was the maid who pointed out 
the honey-store to the Pacceka Buddha. She had then wished that she 
might become the queen consort of the King of Jambudipa and be 
possessed of a lovely form with invisible joints. 6 

4 DA.ii.453; MA.ii. 771. 5 MT. 136. 6 Mhv. v. 59-60. 

1. Asappurisa Sutta. —The man who has wrong view, wrong aim, etc., 
is called 44 unworthy " ( asappurisa ); he who has the opposite qualities is 
“ worthy." 1 

1 S.v. 19. 

2. Asappurisa Sutta. —The same as the first, with the addition of “ the 
still more unworthy," possessed also of wrong knowledge and wrong 
liberation, and 44 the still more worthy " having the opposite qualities. 1 

1 S.v.20. 

1. Asama. —The chief disciple of Sobhita Buddha. 1 He was the 
Buddha's step-brother, and it was to him and to his brother Sunetta 
that the Buddha preached his first sermon. 2 

1 Bu. vii. 21; J. i. 35. * BuA. 137. 

2. Asama.— Father of Paduma Buddha and King of Campa. 1 

1 Bu. ix. 9; BuA. 146. 

3. Asama. —Chief lay-supporter of Paduma Buddha 1 ; probably the 
same as his father. See Asama (2). 

1 Bu. ix, 23. 

4. Asama. —A devaputta who once visited the Buddha at Yeluvana, 
in the company of Sahali, Nivika, Akotaka, Vetambari and Manava- 
Gamiya. They were disciples of different teachers and, standing before 
the Buddha, each uttered the praises of his own teacher. Asama 
eulogised Purana-Kassapa. 1 Perhaps Asama is the name of a class; 
See Asama (1). 

1 S.i.65. 


[ Asamatta Sutta 

Asamatta Sutta. —Association with the worthy, listening to the 
Dhamma, systematic reflection and living according to the precepts of 
the Dhamma—these things, if cultivated, lead to infinite insight. 1 

This sutta should probably be called Appamatta; the text gives both 

1 S. v. 412. 

Asamapekkhana Sutta. —By not seeing the nature of body, etc., diverse 
opinions arise in the world. Preached at Savatthi to the Paribbajaka 

Vacehagotta. 1 

1 S.iii.261. 

1. Asama. —A class of devas, present at the preaching of the Maha 
Samaya Sutta. They are mentioned together with the Yama twins. 1 

1 D.ii.259. 

2. Asama. —Mother of Paduma Buddha and wife of King Asama. 1 

1 Bu. ix. 16; J. i. 36. 

3. Asama. —Chief woman-disciple of Padumuttara Buddha. 1 

1 Bu.xi.25; DA.ii.489; J.i.37. 

Asamahita Sutta. —Like joins with like, e.g. the unconcentrated with 
the unconcentrated, because of some fundamental quality (dhatu) 
common to both. 1 

1 S.ii. 166. 

Asampadana Jataka (No. 131).—The Bodhisatta was born in Kajagaha 
and became known as Sankhasetthi, worth eighty crores. He had a friend, 
Piliyasetthi, in Benares, equally wealthy. Piliya having lost all his 
wealth, sought the assistance of Sankha, who gave him one-half of all 
his possessions. Later, Sankha, himself becoming bankrupt, went with 
his wife to Benares to seek help from Piliya; the latter, however, dis¬ 
missed him with half a quartern of pollard. On the way back Sankha 
was recognised by an erstwhile servant of his whom he had given to 
Piliya. This servant befriended Sankha and his wife, and with the help 
of his companions, brought to the king's notice Piliya's ingratitude. 
The king, having tried the case, wished to give all Piliya's wealth to 
Sankha, but at the latter's request restored to him only what he had, in 
days of prosperity, given to Piliya. 

The story is related in reference to Devadatta’s ingratitude. 1 

1 J.i. 465-9. 

AsatarOpa Jataka ] 


Asampadana Vagga. —The fourteenth section of the Eka Nipdta of 
the Jdtakatthakathd. 1 

1 J.i. 465-86. 

Asayha. —A rich setthi of Bheruva. He gave generously to holy men 
and to the needy. After death he was born in Tavatimsa. A former 
servant of Ankura, who had settled down as a tailor in Bheruva, used to 
show the way to those who sought the house of Asayha, and was, there¬ 
fore, reborn as a powerful yakkha. 1 In the Peta-Vatthu stanzas Asayha 
is once spoken of as Angirasa. 2 

1 PvA. 112. 2 p. 25, v. 23. 

Asallakkhana Sutta. —Preached to the Paribbajaka Vacchagotta. 

Through want of discernment of the nature of the body, etc., diverse 
opinions arise in the world. 1 

1 S.iii. 261. 

Asatamanta Jataka (No. 61).—The Bodhisatta was once a famous 
teacher in Takkasila. A young brahmin of Benares came to study under 
him and, after completing his course, went back home. His mother, 
however, was anxious that he should renounce the world and tend Aggi- 
bhagava in the forest. She accordingly sent him back to the Teacher 
that he might learn the “ Asatamanta ” (Dolour Text). The Teacher 
had a mother aged 120 years, on whom he himself waited. When the 
youth came back to learn the Asatamanta, he was asked to look after the 
old woman. She, falling in love with him, hatched a plot to kill her son. 

The Bodhisatta, having been told of this plot, made a wooden figure 
and placed it in his bed. The mother, thinking to kill her son, struck 
it with an axe, and discovering that she had been betrayed, fell down 
dead. The youth, having thus learnt the Asatamanta, returned to his 
parents and became a hermit. Kapilani was the mother in the story, 
Maha Kassapa the father and Ananda the pupil. 

This story, together with the Ummadanti Jataka, was related to a 
passion-tossed monk to warn him of the evil nature of women. 1 

1 J.i. 285-9. 

Asatarupa Jataka (No. 100).—Once the Bodhisatta was King of 
Benares. The Kosala king waged war on him, slew him and bore off his 
queen to make her his own wife. The king's son escaped through a sewer 
and later came back with a large army to give battle. His mother, hear¬ 
ing of his doings, suggested that he should blockade the city instead. 


[ Asfgg&ha Silakala 

This he did, and the blockade was so close that on the seventh day 
the people cut off the head of the king and brought it to the. prince. 

It was this prince who became Sivall in the present age; the blockade 
was the reason for his remaining seven years in his mother’s womb, and 
for her being seven days in bringing him forth. His mother was Suppa- 
vasa, daughter of the Koliya king. 

The story was related by the Buddha to explain to the monks the 
reason for Suppavasa’s long pregnancy. 1 

1 J. i. 407-10. This Jataka appears, with variations in detail, in DhA. ii. 198 fT. 

Asiggaha Silakala.— See Silakala. 

1. Asita. —Often called the Buddhist Simeon, though the comparison 
is not quite correct. He was a sage and the chaplain of Slhahanu, father 
of Suddhodana. He was the teacher of the Suddhodana, and later his 
chaplain. He came morning and evening to see the king, Suddhodana, 
who showed him as great respect as he had while yet his pupil; this, we 
are told, is a characteristic of Sakya kings. With the king’s leave, Asita 
renounced the world and lived in the king’s pleasaunce. In due course 
he developed various iddhi powers. Thenceforward he would often spend 
the day in the deva worlds. Once, while in Tavatimsa, he saw the whole 
city decked with splendour and the gods engaged in great rejoicing. On 
inquiry he learnt that Siddhattha Gotama, destined to become the Buddha, 
had been born. Immediately he went to Suddhodana’s home and asked 
to see the babe. From the auspicious marks on its body he knew that 
it would become the Enlightened One and was greatly overjoyed, but 
realising that he himself would, by then, be born in an Arupa world and 
would not therefore be able to hear the Buddha preach, he wept and was 
sad. Having reassured the king regarding the babe’s future, Asita 
sought his sister’s son, Nalaka, and ordained him that he might be ready 
to benefit by the Buddha’s teaching when the time came. Later Asita 
was born in the Arupa world. 1 

According to Buddhaghosa, 2 Asita was so-called because of his dark 
complexion. He also had a second name, Kanha Devala. 3 Other names 
for him were Kanha Siri, 4 Siri Kanha 5 and Kala Devala. 6 

He is evidently to be distinguished from Asita Devala (q-v.), also called 

Kala Devala. 

The Lolita Vistara has two versions of Asita’s prophecy, one in prose 
and one in verse, which, in their chief details, differ but slightly from 

1 Sn., pp. 131-36; SnA. ii. 483 ff.; 3 Ibid., 487. 4 Sn. v. 689. 

J. i. 64 f. 5 SnA. 487. 6 J.i.54. 

2 SnA. ii. 483. 

Asita Devala ] 


the Pali version. In the former his nephew is called Naradatta, and 
Asita himself is represented as being a great sage dwelling in the Himalaya 
but unknown to Suddhodana. 

Here is evidently a confusion of his story with that of Asita Devala. 

In the Mahavastu version 7 he is spoken of as the son of a brahmin 
of Ujjeni, and he lives in a hermitage in the Vindhya mountains. It is 
noteworthy that in the Jataka version he is called, not an isi, but a 
tdpasa, an ascetic practising austerities. And there we are told that 
when the king brought the boy, the future Buddha, and prepared to 
make him do reverence to the ascetic, the babe’s feet turned up and 
placed themselves on the ascetic’s head. For there is no one fit to 
be reverenced by a Bodhisatta, and had they put the babe’s head at 
the feet of the ascetic, the ascetic’s head would have split into seven 

The tdpasa could see forty kappas into the past and forty kappas into 
the future. 8 

7 ii. 30 f. | pp. 38 ff., on the growth of the Asita 

8 J. i. 54-5. See Thomas, op. cit., j legend. 

2. Asita. —A Pacceka Buddha, mentioned in a list of Pacceka Buddhas. 1 

1 M. iii. 70; ApA. i. 107. 

3. Asita. —A garland-maker in the time of Sikh! Buddha. While taking 
a garland to the palace, he saw the Buddha and offered it to him. As 
a result, twenty-five kappas ago he became a king named Dvebhara. 
In the present age he was known as Sukataveliya Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 217. 

1. Asita Devala. —A sage (isi). His story is given in the Assaldyana 
Sutta. 1 Once there were seven brahmin sages living in thatched cabins 
in the wilds. They conceived the view that the brahmins are the 
highest class of men and that they alone are the legitimate sons of 
Brahma. Hearing of this, Asita Devala appeared before their hermitage 
in orange attire, with stout sandals and staff, and shouted for them. 
The brahmins cursed him with the intention of shrivelling him into 
a cinder, but the more they cursed the more comely and handsome 
grew Asita. Feeling that their austerities were evidently fruitless, they 
questioned Asita who urged them to discard their delusion. Having 
learnt his identity, they saluted him and wished to be instructed; Asita 
examined and cross-questioned them about their pretensions regarding 

1 M.ii. 154 ff. 


210 [AsitaDevala 

their lineage and they could find no answer. They thereupon followed 
his advice and renounced their claims to superiority. 

Buddhaghosa says that Asita Devala was the Bodhisatta. 2 

2 MA.ii.785. 

2. Asita Devala. —More commonly called Kala Devala, probably 
identical with (1) above, and mentioned in the Indriya Jdtaha. 1 He 
was one of the seven chief disciples of the Bodhisatta Sarabhaiiga and 
lived with many thousand sages in Avanti Dakkhinapatha. He had a 
younger brother Narada, also an ascetic, who lived in Aranjara. When 
Narada became enamoured of a courtesan on the river-bank near 
Aranjara, Kala Devala flew to him, and in due course brought Salissara, 
Mendissara-and Pabbatissara to admonish him. When they, too, failed 
in their efforts to convert Narada, Kala Devala brought the master of all 
sages, Sarabhanga, who with their help persuaded Narada to give up 
his love. 

In this present age Kala Devala became Maha Kaecana. 2 

1 J. iii. 463 ff. 2 Ibid., 469. 

Asitaiijana.— A city in the Kamsa district in Uttarapatha and capital 
of King Mahakamsa and the Andhakavenhudasaputta. 1 It was also the 
birthplace of the two merchants Tapassu and Bhalluka. 2 

1 J. iv. 79; PvA. 111. 2 AA.i.207. 

Asitanjala.— See Amitanjala. 

Asitabhu. —Wife of Prince Brahmadatta. Her story is given in the 
Asitabhu Jdtaha. 

Asitabhu Jataka (No. 234).—The Bodhisatta was once a holy ascetic 
living in the Himalaya. At that time the king of Benares, growing 
jealous of his son Prince Brahmadatta, banished both him and his 
wife, Asitabhu. They went to the Himalaya and lived in a hut of 
leaves. One day the prince, becoming enamoured of a Candakinnari, 
followed her, forsaking his wife. Asitabhu went to the Bodhisatta and, 
having developed various superhuman powers, returned to her hut. 
Brahmadatta, having failed in his quest, returned to the hut where he 
found his wife poised in mid-air uttering songs of joy over her new¬ 
found freedom. When she left, he lived in solitude till, at his father’s 
death, he succeeded to the throne. 

The story was told in reference to a young girl, the daughter of a 
servitor of the two chief disciples. She was married, but finding her 

Asibandhakaputta ] 


husband neglectful of her, visited the two Chief Disciples. Under their 
instruction she attained the First Fruit of the Path and embraced the 
religious life, ultimately becoming an arahant. 

She was Asitabhu in the previous birth. 1 

The story is referred to in the Vibhanga Commentary 2 in connection 
with a King of Benares who, having gone into the forest with his queen 
to eat roast flesh, fell in love with a kinnari and deserted his wife. 
When he returned to his queen he found her flying through the air away 
from him, having developed iddhi powers. A tree-sprite then uttered 
a stanza, citing the example of Asitabhu. 

1 J. ii.229 ff. 2 p. 470 f. 

Asipattavana. —One of the tortures of purgatory. In the distance the 
grove appears as a mango grove, and when the inhabitants of purgatory 
enter, wishing to eat the mangoes, leaves which are sharp like swords 
fall on them, cutting off their limbs. 1 

1 Sn. v. 673; SnA., ii. 481. 

Asibandhakaputta. —A gdmani (headman). He came to the Buddha 
in the Parileyyaka Mango Grove in Nalanda and asked him various 
questions, recorded in the Samyutta Nikdya. 1 One of these related to 
the custom among the Pacchabhumaka (Westlander) brahmins (where, 
perhaps, he himself belonged) of lifting a man up when dead and carrying 
him out, calling him by name to speed him heavenward. Surely the 
Buddha who is an arahant, etc., could make the whole world go to heaven 
thus if he chose. To this the Buddha answers no, and explains, by 
various similes, that only a man's kamma can determine where he will 
be reborn. On another occasion, the Buddha tells him, in answer to a 
question, that the Buddha teaches the Dhamma in full only to certain 
disciples and not to others; just as a farmer sowing seed selects, first the 
best field, then the moderate, and lastly, the field with the worst soil. 

Asibandhakaputta tells the Buddha that, according to Nigantha 
Nataputta, 2 as a man habitually lives so goes he forth to his destiny. 
The Buddha points out the absurdity of this view and tells him that all 
Tathagatas lay down definite rules for the guidance of their followers, 
so that they may attain development. 

It is recorded 3 that once, when Nalanda was stricken with famine, 
Asibandhaka visited Nigantha Nataputta, who asks him to go and defeat 
the Buddha in debate. Asibandhaka is at first reluctant, but his teacher 
propounds to him a dilemma to put to the Buddha, and he agrees to go. 
Is it true that the Buddha extols compassion to clansmen ? Why, then, 

1 iv. 312 ff. 2 He is described as a Niganfha-Savaka (S. iv. 317). 

2 Ibid., 322 ff. 


[ Asilakkhaga Jfttaka 

does the Buddha ask for alms in a place stricken with famine ? The 
Buddha's answer is that there are eight ways of injuring clansmen, and 
that begging for alms is not one of them. And Asibandhakaputta, 
pleased with the answer, declares himself to be a follower of the Buddha. 

Asibandhakaputta's conversation with the Buddha, in which the 
Buddha tells him that only a man's kamma can determine the state of 
his rebirth, is quoted in the N ettippakarana} 

4 pp. 45-47. 

Asilakkhana Jataka (No. 126).—In Benares was a brahmin who could 
tell, by smelling them, whether swords were lucky or not. One day, 
while testing a sword, he sneezed and cut off the tip of his nose. The 
king had a false tip made and fastened to his nose so that no one could 
tell the difference. 

The king had a daughter and an adopted nephew, who, when they 
grew up, fell deeply in love with each other. They wished to marry, 
but the king, having other plans, kept them apart. The prince bribed 
an old woman to get his beloved for him. The old woman reported to 
the king that his daughter was under the influence of witchcraft and 
that the only way of curing her was to take her to the cemetery under 
armed escort, where she must be laid on a bed under which was a corpse, 
and there she must be bathed for the purpose of exorcism. 

The prince was to impersonate the corpse, being provided with pepper 
in order that he might sneeze at the right moment; the guard were 
warned that if the exorcism succeeded, the dead body would sneeze, rise 
up and kill the first thing it could lay hold of. The plot succeeded, the 
guard taking to their heels when the prince sneezed. The two lovers 
were married and were forgiven by the king. Later, they became king 
and queen. 

One day the sword-testing brahmin was standing in the sun when the 
false tip of his nose melted and fell off. He stood hanging his head for 
very shame. “ Never mind," laughed the king, “ sneezing is bad for 
some, but good for others. A sneeze lost you your nose, but a sneeze 
won for me both my throne and my queen." 

The story was related in reference to a brahmin of the kingdom of 
Kosala who tested swords by smelling them. He accepted bribes and 
passed the swords only of those who had won his favour. One day 
an exasperated dealer put pepper on his sword so that when the brahmin 
smelt it he sneezed, slitting his nose. The monks were once talking 
about him when the Buddha entered and told them the story of the past. 

The two brahmins were one and the same man in different births. 1 

1 J.i. 455-8. 

Asm ] 


Asisukarika Sutta.—Records the incident of Moggallana seeing a Peta 
while on the way, with Lakkhana, from Gijjhakuta to Rajagaha. The 
Peta travelled through the air which was bristling with sword blades. 
The swords kept rising and falling directly on his body, while he uttered 
cries of pain. 1 

1 S.ii.257. 

Aslti Nipata.—The twenty-first section of the Jdtakatthakatha. 1 

1 J. v. 333-511. 

1. Asubha Sutta.—There are four modes of progress with reference to 
a monk who lives contemplating the unloveliness of the body, the re¬ 
pulsiveness of food, etc. His attainment, however, may be sluggish 
if his five indriyas (of faith, energy, etc.) are dull. 1 

1 A. ii. 150 f. 

2. Asubha Sutta.—The idea of the foul, if cultivated, leads to great 
profit. 1 

1 S. v. 132. 

Asubhakammika Tissa Thera.—Referred to in the Majjhima Com¬ 
mentary 1 as an example of a monk in whom lustful desires ceased because 
he dwelt on the Impurities and associated only with worthy friends. He 
was an arahant. 

1 MA. i.228; J.iii.534; see also MT. 401. 

Asura.—In Pali Literature the Asuras are classed among the inferior 
deities together with the supannas, gandhdbbas , yakkhas , l garulas and 
ndgas . 2 Rebirth as an Asura iz considered as one of the four unhappy 
rebirths or evil states (apdyd), the others being niraya , tiracchdnayoni 
and pettivisaya . 3 The fight between the Devas and the Asuras is men¬ 
tioned even in the oldest books of the Tipitaka and is described in identical 
words in several passages. 4 A chief or king of the Asuras is often referred 
to as Asurinda, 5 several Asuras being credited with the role of leader, most 
commonly, however, Vepaeitti 6 and Rahu. 7 Besides these we find 

1 BA. i. 51. 2 Mil. 117. Asuradhipa; see, e.g., J. i. 66 ( Asurindena 

3 $.<7., It. 93; J. vi.595; J.v. 186; Pv. I pavitthadevanagaram viya) and J. v. 245, 

iv. 11. j where we are told that from the time he 

4 E.g., B. ii. 285; S. i. 222; iv. 201 ff.; j conquered the Asuras he was called 

v. 447; M. i. 253; A. iv. 432; also Asuradhipa. 

S. i.216ff. | ® E.g., S. i. 222; iv. 201 ff.; J. i. 205 

5 Sakka was also called Asurinda and l 7 A.ii.17,53; iii.243. 


[ Asura 

Paharada 8 (v.l. Mahabhadda), Sambara 9 , Verocana , 10 Bali , 11 Sueitti 18 and 
Namuel . 13 

The Asuras are spoken of as dwelling in the ocean after having been 
conquered by Vajira-hattha (Indra 14 ) and are called Vasava’s brethren, 
of wondrous powers and of great glory. They were present at the 
preaching of the Mahti Samaya Sutta. u Buddhaghosa 18 says that they 
were all descendants of an Asura maiden named Sujata. 

There were evidently several classes of Asuras, and two are mentioned 
in the Pi takas, the Kalakanjakas and the Danaveghasas. The Danave- 
ghasas carried bows in their hands. 17 The Kalakanjakas were of fear¬ 
some shape, 18 and were considered the lowest among the Asuras. 19 

Once the Asuras dwelt in Tavatimsa together with the devas. When 
Magha Manavaka was born as Sakka, he did not relish the idea of sharing 
a kingdom with others, and having made the Asuras drunken, he had 
them hurled by their feet on to the steeps of Sineru. There they 
tumbled into what came to be known as the Asurabhanava, on the lowest 
level of Sineru, equal in extent to Tavatimsa. Here grew the Citta- 
patall tree, and when it blossomed the Asuras knew they were no longer 
in the deva-world. Wishing to regain their kingdom, they climbed 
Sineru, “ like ants going up a pillar/' When the alarm was given, Sakka 
went out to give battle to them in the ocean, but being worsted in the 
fight, he fled in his Vejayantaratha. Fearing that his chariot hurt the 
young Garujas, he had it turned back. The Asuras, thinking that Sakka 
had obtained reinforcements, turned and fled right into the Asurabhavana. 
Sakka went back to his city and in that moment of victory, the Vejayanta- 
pasada sprang up from the ground. To prevent the Asuras from coming 
back again, Sakka set up as guard in five places Nagas, Garulas, Kum- 
bhandas, Yakkhas and the Four Great Kings. Everywhere were images 
of Indra bearing the thunderbolt in his hand. 20 

The Asuras are sometimes called Pubbadeva 21 and their kingdom is 
10,000 leagues in extent. 22 

8 A. iv. 197,200. 

9 S. i. 227. 

10 S. i. 225; probably another name for 
Rahu (see DA. ii. 689). 

11 D.ii.259. 

12 Ibid. 13 Ibid. 

u Elsewhere (J. v. 139) called Asurap- 

i 6 See DA. ii. 689. 

i® This cannot be the Sujata, Vepa- 
citti’s daughter, whom Sakka married 
(J.i. 205-6). See also Danava. 

1’ See 8.v. is D.ii.259. 

i® D. iii. 7; see also s.v . Kalankajaka 
and Vepacitti. 

20 J.i. 202-4; DhA.i. 272-80; the same 
story, differing slightly in details, is found 
in SnA. 484-5. There it is said that when 
Sakka was born among them, the Asuras 
received him with great cordiality; see 
also the various incidents of the Asura war 
mentioned in the Samyutta Nikdya I. 
216 ff. 

21 SnA. 484. 

22 Ibid. f 485; elsewhere, in the same 
page, it is given as 100,000 leagues. 

Asurindaka Bhdradvaja ] 


In Buddhaghosa’s time, the bygone lustre of the word Asura (as equiva¬ 
lent to Ahura) seems to have faded. His explanation 23 of the name is 
interesting. When Sakka was born with his followers in the Asura-world 
(which later became Tavatimsa) the Asuras prepared a drink called 
gandapana. Sakka warned his companions not to drink it, but the Asuras 
became drunk and were thrown down Sineru. Halfway down they 
regained consciousness and made a vow never to drink intoxicants (surd) 
again; hence their name Asura. 

The Anguttara Commentary 24 defines Asura as bibhaccha , awful, vile. 
They had a drum called Alambara ( q.v .), made of a crab’s claw. They 
left it behind in their flight from Sakka, and since then Sakka has the use 
of it. 25 

23 SA.i.260. 24 ii. 526. 25 J.ii.344. 

Asura Vagga. —The tenth chapter of the CatuhJca Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nilcdya. It consists of ten suttas containing the classification 
of four kinds of individuals to be found in the world, with more or less 
detailed descriptions of them. 1 

1 A.ii. 91-101. 

Asura Sutta. —The first of the Asura Vagga. Four individuals exist 
in the world: the asura (a) with a retinue of asuras , (b) with a retinue of 
devas ; the deva (a) with a retinue of devas, (b) with a retinue of asuras. 
The first is himself immoral, as is his company, and so on correspondingly 
with the others. 1 

1 A.ii. 91. 

Asurinda (Asurindaka) Sutta. —Recounts an interview between the 
Buddha and Asurinda Bharadvaja in Veluvana. When Asurinda heard 
that Bharadvaja (probably the chief of the clan) had entered the Order, 
he was greatly vexed, and going up to the Buddha he abused him. The 
Buddha remaining silent, Asurinda thought that he acknowledged defeat. 
But the Buddha enlightened him, saying that the worse of the two is he 
who, when reviled, reviles back; he who does not so revile wins a twofold 
victory: he seeks the good both of himself and of the other. 1 

1 S.i. 163f.; SA.i. 178. 

Asurindaka Bharadvaja. —One of the Bharadvajas. His interview with 
the Buddha is described above, in the Asurinda Sutta. He was the third 
of the Bharadvaja brothers, all of whom eventually became followers of 
the Buddha. 1 “ The name (demon-chief) is so pagan for a brahmin ” 

1 MA.ii, 808. 


[ Asela 

says Mrs. Bhys Davids, 2 and “ the Buddha's reply so suggestive of 
Sakka's (in Samyutta i. 221) that a bifurcated or transferred legend seems 
fairly plausible." 

2 KS.i. 203, n.2. 

Asela. —Son of Mutasiva, and youngest brother of Devanampiyatissa. 
When the two Damilas, Sena and Guttaka, conquered Sfiratissa and 
captured the throne, Asela defeated them and reigned in Anuradhapura 
for ten years (155-145 b . c .). 1 He was ultimately conquered by Elara . 2 

Asela was one of nine brothers, the others being Abhaya, Devanampi¬ 
yatissa, Uttiya, Mahaslva, Mahanaga, Mattabhaya, Suratissa and Kira . 3 

He built a cetiya in the Asokamalaka . 4 

1 Mhv. xxi. 11; Cv. lxxxii. 20; Epy. j 2 Mhv. xxi. 13. 

Zeyl. iii., Introd., p. 5, n. 1 . 3 MT. 303. 4 Ibid., 263. 

1. Asoka. —King of Magadha. He was the son of Bindusara. Bindu¬ 
sara had sixteen wives who bore him 101 sons. The Pali Chronicles 
( Dlpavamsa and Mahdvamsa) 1 mention only three of the sons, viz. Sumana 
(Suslma according to the northern legends) the eldest, Asoka, and Tissa 
(uterine brother of Asoka) the youngest. The Mahdvamsa Tika 2 gives 
the name of his mother as Dhamma and calls her AggamahesI (Bindu- 
sara's chief queen); she belonged to the Moriyavamsa. The preceptor 
of Dhammas family was an Ajivaka called Janasana . 3 

In his youth Asoka was appointed Governor of Avanti with his capital 
at Ujjeni . 4 When Bindusara lay on his death-bed, Asoka left Ujjeni 
and came to Pataliputta where he made himself master of the city and 
possessor of the throne. He is stated in the Mahdvamsa? to have killed 
all his brothers except Tissa that he might accomplish his purpose, and 
to have been called Candasoka on account of this outrage. 6 It is impos¬ 
sible to say how much truth there is in this account of the accession. 
Asoka's Bock Edicts seem to indicate that he had numerous brothers, 
sisters and relations alive at the time they were written in Pataliputta 

1 The chief Pali sources of information tradition ( e.g ., Asokavadanamala) she is 
regarding Asoka are Dipavamsa (chaps, called Subhadrangi, daughter of a 
i., v., vi., vii., xi., etc.), Mahdvamsa (v., brahmin of Campa. 

xi.,xx.,etc.),/SVmaw£a^d$defo*M(pp.35ff.). 3 Which probably explains Asoka’s 
Other sources are the Divyavadana pas- earlier patronage of the Ajivakas. 
sim, and the AvadanaSataka ii. 200 ff. 4 The Divy. says he was in Takkasila 
For an exhaustive discussion of the with headquarters in Uttarapatha, where 
sources and their contents see Prszlyski, he superseded Suslma and quelled a re- 
LaLegends de VEmpereur Asoka. bellion. 

2 p. 125; Mbv. 98. In the northern & v. 20 ; Mbv. 98. 

6 Mhv. v. 189. 

Asoka ] 


and other towns. 7 His brother Tissa he appointed as his uparaja* but 
Tissa ( q.v .) became a religious devotee attaining arahantship. The 
Theragatha Commentary 9 refers to another younger brother of Asoka, 
Vltasoka, who also became an arahant. 

Asoka had several wives. His first wife was the daughter of a merchant 
of Vedisagiri, whom he met when stopping at the merchant's house on his 
way to Ujjeni. 10 Her name was Devi, also called Vedisa-MahadevI, and 
she was a Sakyan, descended from a Sakyan family who migrated to 
Vedisa to escape from^Vidudabha . 11 Of Devi were born a son Mahinda, 
and a daughter Sanghamitta, who became the wife of Aggibrahma and 
mother of Sumana. Devi evidently did not follow Asoka to Pataliputta, 
for his aggamahesl there was Asandhamitta . 12 Asandhamitta died in the 
thirtieth year of Asoka's reign, and four years later he raised Tissa- 
rakkha to the rank of queen. 13 

According to Mahavamsa, 14 Asoka's accession was 218 years after the 
Buddha's death and his coronation was four years later. The chronicles 15 
contain various stories of his miraculous powers. His command spread 
a yojana into the air and a yojana under the earth. The devas supplied 
him daily with water from the Anotatta Lake and with other luxuries 
from elsewhere. Yakkhas, Nagas and even mice and karavlka birds 
ministered to his comfort, and thoughtful animals came and died outside 
his kitchen in order to provide him with food. 

At first Asoka maintained the alms instituted by his father, but soon, 
being disappointed in the recipients, he began looking out for holy men. 
It was then that he saw from his window, his nephew, the young novice 
Nigrodha. Owing to their friendship in a past birth, 16 Asoka was at once 
drawn to him and invited him into the palace. Nigrodha preached to 
him the Appamadavagga and the king was greatly pleased. He ceased 
his benefactions to other religious orders and transferred his patronage 
to Nigrodha and members of the Buddhist Order. His wealth, which, 
according to the Samantapdsddilcd (i. 52), amounted to 500,000 pieces 

7 See Mookherji, Asoka , pp. 3-6. 

8 Mhv. v. 33. 

9 i. 295 f. The northern works give 
quite a different account of his brothers. 
See Mookherji, p. 6. 

10 Mhv. xiii. 8 ff. 

11 Mbv.,pp. 98, 116. 

12 Mhv. v. 85. 

13 Ibid. , xx. 1-3. The Allahabad Pillar 
Inscription mentions another queen, 
Karuvakl, mother of TIvara. The Divy. 
(chap, xxvii.) gives another, Padmavatl, 

Kunala’s mother. Besides the children 
mentioned above, names of others are 
given: Jalauka, Carumati (Mookherji, 

14 v.21, 22 . 15 Ibid ., 22 ff. 

16 Asoka, Devanampiyatissa and Ni¬ 
grodha had been brothers, traders' in 
honey, and they gave honey to a Pacceka 
Buddha. Asandhamitta had been the 
maiden who showed the honey-shop to the 
Pacceka Buddha. The story is given in 
Mhv. v. 49 ff. 


[ Asoka 

daily, lie now spent in doing acts of piety—giving 100,000 to Nigrodha 
to be used in any manner lie wished, a like sum for the offering of 
perfumes and flowers at the Buddha's shrines, 100,000 for the preaching 
of the Dhamma, 100,000 for the provision of comforts for members of 
the Order, and the remainder for medicines for the sick. To Nigrodha, 
in addition to other gifts, he sent sets of robes three times each day, 
placing them on the back of an elephant, adorned by festoons of flowers. 
Nigrodha gave these robes to other monks. 17 

Having learnt from Moggaliputta-Tissa that there were 84,000 sections 
of the Dhamma, he built in various towns an equal number of viharas, 
and in Pataliputta he erected the Asokarama. With the aid of the Naga 
king Mahakala, he created a life-size figure of the Buddha, to which he 
made great offerings. 

His two children, Mahinda and Sanghamitta, aged respectively twenty 
and eighteen, he ordained under Moggaliputta-Tissa and Dhammapala, 
in the sixth year of his reign. 18 This raised him from a paccaddyaka to 
a sdsanaddyadin. 

In order to purge the Order of undesirable monks and heretical 
doctrines, Moggaliputta-Tissa held the Third Council under the king's 
patronage. It is said that the pious monks refused to hold the uposatha 
with those they considered unworthy. The king, desirous of bringing 
about unity in the Sangha, sent a minister to restore amity, but the 
minister, misunderstanding his orders, beheaded many holy monks, being 
at last stopped by the king's brother Tissa, who was then a monk. 19 

At the conclusion of the Council, held in the seventeenth year of his 
reign, 20 Asoka sent forth theras to propagate the Buddha's religion: 
Majjhantika to Kasmlra and Gandhara, Mahadeva to Mahisamandala, 
Rakkhita to Vanavasa, Yona Dhammarakkhita to Aparantaka, Maharak- 
khita to Yona, Majjhima to the Himalaya country and Sona and Uttara 
to Suvannabhumi; Mahinda with Itthiya, Uttiya, Sambala and Bhad- 
dasala he sent to Lanka. 21 In the eighteenth year of his reign he sent 
to Lanka, at Devanampiyatissa's request, Sanghamitta, with a branch 
of the great Bodhi Tree at Buddhagaya . 22 A little earlier he had sent 
by his grandson Sumana, some relics of the Buddha and the Buddha's 
alms-bowl to be deposited in the thupas of Lanka. 23 

17 MA.ii. 931. 

18 Ibid.,v. 197,209. 

19 Ibid., vs. 240 ff. 

20 Ibid., 280; in the northern texts 
Moggaliputta-Tissa’s name is given as 
Upagupta. It was for this Council that 
the Kathavatthu (q.v.) was written. 

21 Ibid., xii. 1-8. For particulars of 

| these missions and identification of the 
; places mentioned, see under the different 
names; this list appears also in the 
SamantapdsadiJca, where further interest¬ 
ing details are given. For a discussion 
on them see Mookherji, pp. 33 ff. 

22 Mhv. xx. 1. 

23 Ibid., xv ii. 10 ff. 

Asoka ] 


Asoka reigned for thirty-seven years. 24 In his later life he came to 
be called Dhammasoka on account of his pious deeds. 25 The Dipavamsa 
gives his name in several places as Piyadassl . 26 

The Chronicles state that Asoka and Devanampiya Tissa of Ceylon 
had been friends—though they had never seen each other—even before 
Mahinda's mission to Ceylon. Tissa had sent him, as a friendly gesture, 
various gifts, and Asoka had returned the courtesy. He sent an embassy 
of his chosen ministers, bearing gifts marvellous in splendour, that Tissa 
might go through a second coronation ceremony, and the messengers 
were directed to give this special message to the king: “ I have taken 
refuge in the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha and declared myself a 
follower of the religion of the Sakyaputta. Seek then, even thou, oh 
best of men, converting thy mind with believing heart, refuge in these 
best of gems.” 27 

The Milindapanha 28 mentions an encounter of Asoka with a courtesan 
of Pataliputta, Bindumatl, who, in order to show the king the power of 
an Act of Truth, made the waters of the Ganges to flow back. According 
to the Petavatihu Atthakatha 29 there was a king of Surattha, called 
PiAgala, who used to visit Asoka in order to give him counsel. Perhaps 
he was an old friend or tutor of the king. 

Asoka is called a dipacakkavatti as opposed to padesardjas like Bim- 
bisara and Pasenadi . 30 

24 Ibid., XX. 6. 25 Ibid., v. 189. _ kings in Ceylon: Varikanasika Tissa, 

26 E.g ., vi. 1, 2, 25. The title Deva- j Gajabahukagamini and Mahallaka-Naga 
nampiya used by Asoka in his inscrip- j (Ep. Zeyl. i. 60. f). 
tions was also used by Tissa, Asoka’s con- j 27 x j % 18-36. 

temporary in Ceylon, and by Asoka’s 28 p jgl. 
grandson Dasaratha (NagarjunI Hill Cave 29 244 ff. 

Inscription). It was used also by other { 30 Sp. ii. 309. 

2. Asoka,— See Kalasoka. 

3. Asoka,— See Vltasoka. 

4. Asoka, —A brahmin in the time of Kassapa Buddha. He provided 
eight meals daily for the monks and entrusted the distribution of them 
to his serving-woman Birani (q-v.). 1 


5. Asoka. —Attendant to Vipassi Buddha. 1 He was once ill and was 
cured by a doctor who, in this age, was Tikicchaka (Tekicchakanl) Thera. 2 

1 J. i. 41; Bu. XX. 28. 2 Ap. i. 190; ThagA. i. 442. 


[ Asoka 

6. Asoka. —The chief disciple of the future Buddha Metteyya. 1 Ac¬ 
cording to the Mahdvamsa 2 he should be identified with Dutthagamani. 

1 Anagatavamsa. v. 97. 2 xxxii. 81. 

7. Asoka. —A monk of ftatika. Once when the Buddha was staying 
at Aatika in the Ginjakavasatha, Ananda mentions to the Buddha that 
Asoka Thera had died, and asks where he had gone. The Buddha tells 
him that Asoka was an arahant and had realised Nibbana. 1 

1 S.i. 358. 

8. Asoka.— See Anoma (7). 

9. Asoka. —A mountain near Himava. There, in the time of Sumedha 
Buddha, Vissakamma built a hermitage. 1 

1 Ap.ii.342. 

Asokapujaka Thera. —An arahant. Ninety-four kappas ago he was 
the king's park-keeper in Tivara and offered an Asoka flower to the 
Buddha Paduma. Seventy kappas ago he became king sixteen times 
under the name Arunanjaha. 1 

1 Ap.i. 199. 

Asokamalaka. —One of the spots in the Mahasagara garden, north 
of the Nagamalaka, where the Buddha Kassapa preached to the assembled 
populace on his visit to Ceylon. Four thousand people were converted. 1 
Later King Asela erected a cetiya there. 2 

1 Mhv. xv. 153 ff. 2 MT.253. 

Asokamala. —The wife of Prince Sali. She was a canddla woman of 
exceedingly great beauty, and the prince married her, thus renouncing 
his right to the throne. 1 The two had been husband and wife, named 
Tissa and Naga, in a previous existence and had lived in Mun$agafiga 
in Ceylon. One day the husband received a pig from a hunter in pay¬ 
ment of some smith's work he had done. Having prepared the animal 
for food, he expressed the wish that eight holy monks might come to 
accept alms from him. His wife joining him in this wish, they decorated 
the house, prepared eight seats, strewed the village path with sand and 
awaited the guests. Dhammadinna Thera of PiyaAgudipa, having 
divined the man's wish, came to the village with seven colleagues. After 
they had eaten, they gave thanks and went away. The man was born as 

Mhv. xxiii. 2-4. 


Assa Sutta ] 

Sali the son of Dutthagamani, but his wife was born as a canddla as 
punishment for an offence in another existence. She had been the 
youngest of seven daughters of a carpenter and was one day scolded by 
her mother for untidiness. In anger she used to her mother the same 
abusive terms as had been hurled at her. This undutiful behaviour 
caused her to be born as the daughter of a canddla. 2 

2 MT. 606 f. 

1. Asoka. —A nun of Ratika. When Ananda announces her death to 
the Buddha at Natika in the Ginjakavasatha, and inquires where she 
had been born, the Buddha says that she had been reborn spontaneously 
in the Suddhavasa, there to pass away, destined never to return. 1 

1 S. v. 358. 

2. Asoka. —One of the two chief women disciples of Mangala Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. iv. 24; J. i. 34. 

Asokarama. —A monastery in Pataliputta, built by Asoka and finished 
in three years. It was there that the king’s brother Tissa was ordained. 
When the monks had refused for seven years to hold the uposatha 
ceremony, Asoka sent his minister to summon them to the Asokarama. 
There the misguided minister beheaded several theras who refused to 
obey his orders. It was there that Moggaliputta Tissa held the Third 
Council and made a compilation of the Dhamma. 1 

Asoka used to feed 60,000 monks daily at the Asokarama. 

On the day of the foundation of the Maha Thupa in Anuradhapura, 
sixty thousand monks under Mittinna came from Asokarama. 2 There, 
too, lived Dhammarakkhita, the teacher of Nagasena. 3 

Indagutta Thera was appointed by the king to superintend the building 
of the vihara. 4 

It was from Asokarama that Mahinda set out on his mission to Ceylon. 6 

1 Mhv. v. 80, 163, 174, 236, 276. | 3 Mil. 16-18. 

2 Ibid.,xxix. 36. 4 Sp. i. 48-9. 5 Ibid., 69. 

Assa Sutta, —Once Assa, the “ Jockey ” ( assdroha ) of Rajagaha came 
to the Buddha to ask if it were true that a horse-trainer, if he exerted 
himself in the performance of his duties, would be born among the 
Saranjita devas ? The Buddha tells him that such a view is a perverted 
one and that its result is rebirth either in purgatory or as an animal. 
Assa expresses his consternation and declares himself thenceforth a 
follower of the Buddha. 1 

i S. iv. 310. 


[ Assaka 

1. Assaka. —A king mentioned in the Nimi Jataka , in a list of kings, 
such as Dudipa, Sagara, Sela, etc., who, in spite of all their great sacrifices, 
were not able to go beyond the Peta-world. 1 

1 J. vi.99. 

2. Assaka. —King of Potali in the kingdom of Kasi. His queen consort 
Ubbari was very dear to him, and when she died he was plunged into 
grief. He put her corpse in a coffin, placed it under his bed and lay 
thereon, starving for seven days. The Bodhisatta was then an ascetic 
in the Himalaya, and just at this time he visited Potali. There, in the 
royal park, the king came to see him because he was told that the ascetic 
would show him Ubbari. The Bodhisatta showed him Ubbari now 
reborn as a dung-worm in the park, because, being intoxicated with her 
own beauty, she had done no good deeds. Seeing the king incredulous, 
the ascetic made her speak, and she declared that she cared much more 
for the dung-worm, who was now her mate, than for Assaka who had 
been her husband in her previous life. Assaka went back to the palace, 
had the body disposed of, married another queen and lived righteously. 1 

1 J.ii. 155-8. 

3. Assaka.— King of Potanagara in the Assaka country, soon after the 
Buddha's death. He was the father of Sujata and had two wives. He 
bequeathed his kingdom to the son of the younger wife. 1 

See also Aruna (2). 

1 VvA. 259-60. 

4. Assaka. —The country of Assaka is one of the sixteen Mahajana- 
padas mentioned in the Anguttara Nikaya. 1 It does not, however, occur 
in the list of twelve countries given in the Janavasabha Sutta 2 The 
Assakas are said to have had settlements on the Godavari, and BavarFs 
hermitage 3 was in their territory, in close proximity to the Alaka or 
Mulaka (the district round Paithan). 4 

The country is mentioned with Avanti 5 in the same way as Anga with 
Magadha, and its position in the list between Surasena and Avanti makes 
it probable that when the list was drawn up, its position was immediately 
to the north-west of Avanti. It is probable, in that case, that the 
Godavari settlement, in the Dakkhinapatha, was a later colony. 

In the Assaka Jataka 6 mention is made of a king Assaka whose realm 
was in the kingdom of Kasi. It is significant, in this connection, that the 

1 A. i. 213; iv. 252, 256, 260. j 4 Law, Early Geography, 21. 

2 qv. 6 j v 317< 

3 Sn.v.977. 6 Ibid,,ii, 155. 

Assaka Jataka ] 


capital of Assaka, variously called Potana 7 or Potali, 8 is not mentioned 
in the reference to the Godavari. 

According to the Culla Kalinga Jdtaha , 9 at one time the King of 
Assaka (Aruna) accepted the challenge of King Kalinga of Dantapura 
to war, and defeated him. Later Assaka married Kalinga’s daughter 
and the relations between the two countries were amicable. In the 
Hathigumpha Inscription of Kharavela it is related that Kharavela, 
regardless of King Satakarnl, sent a large army to the west (pachime 
disam ) to strike terror into Assaka (or Asika) nagara. Law 10 thinks that 
the Assaka of the Culla Kalinga Jataka, the Asikanagara of the Hathi¬ 
gumpha Inscription and the Assaka of the Sutta Nipata are one and the 
same place. This would probably be correct if Potana and Potali were 
regarded as two different cities, capitals of two different settlements 
having the same name. 

Sanskrit authors speak of both As'maka and Asvaka. It is not possible 
to say whether these represent two distinct tribes or whether they are 
variant names for the same people. Asanga mentions Asmaka in his 
Sutralankara as a territory on the basin of the Indus. This would make 
it identical with the Assakenus of Greek writers, that is to the east of 
the Sarasvati, about twenty-five miles from the sea on the Swat valley. 
Panini mentions the Aimakas. 11 The Mdrkandeya Parana and the 
Brhat Samhitd place Assaka to the north-west. The Assaka capital, 
Potana, it has been suggested, is the Paudanya of the Mahabharata. 12 
In the Commentary to Kautilya’s Arthasasta, Bhattasvami identifies 
Asmaka with Maharastra. 13 

Soon after the Buddha’s death, a King Assaka was the ruler of Potali, 
and he and his son Sujata were converted by Maha Kaecana. 14 

In the time of King Benu, the Assaka king of Potana was Brahma- 

datta. 16 

In the Buddha’s time the Assaka king is described as an Andhaka- 
raja. He took a thousand for the plot of land sold for Bavarl’s hermit¬ 
age. 16 

7 E.g.,D.ii.235; J.iii.3. 

8 E.g.,JAi. 155. 

9 Ibid., iii.3-5. 

10 Op. cit., p. 21. 

11 iv. 173. 

12 i. 77, 47. 

13 Law, op. cit., 22. 

14 VvA. 259-67. 

15 D.ii.236. 

16 SnA. ii. 581. 

Assaka Jataka (No. 207).—The story of King Assaka (2). It was 
related to a monk who was distracted by the recollection of a former 
wife. He was Assaka in the previous birth. 1 

1 J. ii. 158. 


[ Assakanna 

Assakanna. —One of the mountains round Sineru. 1 It is higher than 
Vinataka, and between these two flows the SIdantara Samudda. 2 

1 SnA. ii. 443; Sp. i. 119. 2 j # vi< 125 . 

Assagutta Thera. —A dweller in the Vattaniya hermitage. Nagasena’s 

teacher sent him to Assagutta to spend the rainy season with him. 
There was an old woman, a devout follower of the Faith, who had for 
thirty years or more looked after Assagutta; it was while preaching to 
her that Nagasena became a Sotapanna. 1 

When Nagasena had completed his course, Assagutta sent him on to 
Pataliputta to Dhammarakkhita. 2 It was Assagutta who interceded 
with Sakka to persuade Mahasena to leave the deva-world and be born 
in the world of men as Nagasena. He was evidently the leader of the 
Sangha at the time, for it was he who summoned an assembly at Yugan- 
dhara to discuss the danger caused by Milinda's controversies. 3 In the 
Commentaries 4 he is quoted as an example of a kalydnamitta, full of 
compassion, association with whom leads to the destruction of ill-will. 

1 She, too, became a sotapanna (Mil. 2 Ibid. 3 Ibid., 6. 

16). 4 DA.ii.779; AA.i.28; VibhA.272. 

1. Assaji Thera. —The fifth of the Pancavaggiya monks. When the 
Buddha preached the DhammacakJcappavattana Sutta, he was the last 
in whom dawned the eye of Truth, and the Buddha had to discourse to 
him and to Mahanama while their three colleagues went for alms. 1 He 
became an arahant, together with the others, at the preaching of the 
Anattalakkhana Sutta. 2 He was responsible for the conversion of 
Sariputta and Moggallana. Sariputta, in the course of his wanderings 
in search of Eternal Truth, saw Assaji begging for alms in Rajagaha, 
and being pleased with his demeanour, followed him till he had finished 
his round. Finding a suitable opportunity, Sariputta asked Assaji 
about his teacher and the doctrines he followed. Assaji was at first 
reluctant to preach to him, because, as he said, he was but young in the 
Order. But Sariputta urged him to say what he knew, and the stanza 
which Assaji uttered then, has, ever since, been famous, as representing 
the keynote of the Buddha's teaching: 

“ ye dhammd hetuppabhavd tesam hetum Tathdgato aha 
tesah ca yo nirodho, evamvadl Mahasamano.” 

1 Vin. i. 13. He became a sotapanna on the fourth day of the quarter (AA. i. 84). 

2 Vin. i. 14; J.i.82. 

Assaji-Punabbasuka ] 


Sariputta immediately understood and hurried to give the glad tidings 
to Moggallana that he had succeeded in his quest. 3 

Sariputta held Assaji in the highest veneration, and we are told that 
from the day of this first meeting, in whatever quarter he' heard that 
Assaji was staying, in that direction he would extend his clasped hands 
in an attitude of reverent supplication, and in that direction he would 
turn his head when he lay down to sleep. 4 

One day when Assaji was going about in Vesali for alms, the Nigantha 
Saccaka, who was wandering about in search of disputants to conquer, 
saw him, and questioned him regarding the Buddha's teaching because 
he was a well-known disciple (ndtannatara-sdvaka) . Assaji gave him a 
summary of the doctrine contained in the Anattalakkhana Sutta. 
Feeling sure that he could refute these views attributed to the Buddha, 
Saccaka went with a large concourse of Licchavis to the Buddha and 
questioned him. This was the occasion for the preaching of the Cula - 
Saccaka Sutta. 5 The Commentary 6 tells us that Assaji decided on this 
method of exposition because he did not wish to leave Saccaka any 
loophole for contentious questioning. The Samyutta Nikaya 7 records 
a visit paid by the Buddha to Assaji as he lay grievously sick in Kassa- 
parama near Rajagaha. He tells the Buddha that he cannot enter into 
jhana because of his difficulty in breathing and that he cannot win 
balance of mind. The Buddha encourages him and asks him to dwell 
on thoughts of impermanence and non-self. 

3 Vin.i. 30 if.; the incident is related in 4 DhA. iv. 150-1. 6 M. i. 227 ff. 

the DhA(i. 75 ff.) with slight variations as 6 MA. i. 452. 

to detail. 7 S. iii. 124 ff. 

2. Assaji. —One of the leaders of the Assaji-Punabbasuka (q.v.), the 
other being Punabbasu. He was one of the Chabbaggiya, the others 
being Mettiya, Bhummajaka, Panduka and Lohitaka. 1 

1 J. ii. 387; MA. ii. 668. 

Assaji Sutta. —Records the incident, mentioned above, of the Buddha's 
visit to Assaji (l). 1 

1 S. iii.124-6. 

Assaji-Punabbasuka.— The followers of Assaji and Punabbasu. They 
lived in KItagiri, between Savatthi and Alavi, and were guilty of various 
evil pract ^s. They used to grow flowers, make wreaths and garlands, 
and send them to girls and women of respectable families and also to 
slave girls, to lie with such women, and disregard the precepts regarding 


[ Assaji-Punabbasuka 


the eating of food at the wrong time, using perfumes, visiting shows, 
singing and playing games of various sorts. 1 Their abandoned ways of 
life won popularity for them, and virtuous monks, who did not belong 
to their group, were not welcomed by the people of the neighbourhood. 

The Buddha heard of their nefarious doings from a monk who had been 
sojourning in the district, and having convened a meeting of the Saiigha, 
sent Sariputta and Moggallana, together with a number of other monks, 
(for the recalcitrants were passionate and violent), to carry out the 
Pabbajaniyakamma (Act of Banishment) against them. The deputation 
of the Sangha went to Kitagiri and made an order that the Assaji- 
Punabbasuka should no longer dwell there, but the latter, instead of 
obeying the injunction, abused the monks, accusing them of partiality, 
and not only departed from Kitagiri, but also left the Order. When the 
matter was reported to the Buddha he had the Pabbdjaniyakamma re¬ 
voked (“ because it had served no purpose ”). 2 

In the Dhammapada Commentary 3 we are told that Assaji and Punab- 
basu had originally been disciples of Sariputta and Moggallana, and that 
when the two Aggasavakas admonished them and their followers on the 
wickedness of their conduct, some of them reformed themselves and a 
few retired to the householder's life. 

The Assaji-Punabbasukas seem to have had a special dislike for 
Sariputta and Moggallana. Once the Buddha, on his way somewhere 
from Savatthi, accompanied by Sariputta, Moggallana and five hundred 
others, sent word to the Assaji-Punabbasukas to prepare sleeping places 
for them. They sent answer that the Buddha was very welcome, but 
not Sariputta and Moggallana, because “ they were men of sinful desires 
and influenced by such desires." 4 

But elsewhere 5 even the Buddha is represented as having been lightly 
regarded by them. When it was reported to them that the Buddha lived 
on only one meal a day and found that it made him well and healthy, 
their reply was that they themselves ate in the evening and the early 
morning and at noon and outside prescribed hours, and that they found 
this quite agreeable and saw no reason for changing their mode of life. It 
is true, however, that even on this occasion when the Buddha sent for 
them, they came dutifully and listened patiently to his admonition 
on the necessity of implicit obedience to a teacher in whom they had 
faith, and we are told that they were 44 even gladdened in their hearts " 
after hearing the Buddha. There is, however, no evidence that they 
reformed after hearing him. 

1 They violated eighteen precepts (Sp. 

2 Vin.ii.9-13, 14, 15. 

3 ii. 109. 

4 Vin.ii.171. 

5 Kitagiri Sutta (M. i. 473 ff.). 

Assapura Suttas ] 


In the Commentaries 6 the Assaji-Punabbasuka are mentioned as an 
example of those who paid no heed to precepts great or small, which 
they had undertaken to observe. 

The Samantapdsadikd 1 mentions that Kltagiri was chosen by them as 
residence because it was watered by both monsoons, produced three 
crops, and had suitable sites for buildings. 

They w r ere five hundred in number. 

6 E.g., DA. ii. 525. 7 iii. 614. 

Assaji-Punabbasuka-Vatthu. —The story of the visit of the Aggasa- 
vakas to the Assaji-Punabbasuka, mentioned above. 1 

1 DhA. ii. 108-10. 

Assatara. —A tribe of Nagas present at the preaching of the Mahd - 
samaya Sutta. 1 Buddhaghosa 2 says they lived at the foot of Sineru 
and were so powerful that they could resist even the Supannas. 2 

They were among the Nagas assembled by Dhatarattha to help him in 
winning Samuddaja. 3 They are always mentioned with the Kambala 

1 D. ii. 259. 2 DA. ii. 688. 3 J. vi. 165. 

Assapala. —The second son of King Esukari’s chaplain. He was born 
in the world of men at Sakka’s request. His father had him brought up 
among the keepers of horses (assapala) so that he might not wish to 
renounce the world. His brothers were Hatthipala, Gopala and Ajapala. 
He followed Hatthipala into the ascetic life and lived on the banks of the 
Ganges. 1 

He was Sariputta in the present age. 2 

1 J. iv. 476 ff. 2 Ibid.,* 91. 

Assapura. —A city in the kingdom of Anga. It was here that the 
Mahd Assapura and Cula Assapura Suttas were preached by the Buddha. 1 

According to the Cetiya Jdtaka , Assapura was built by the second of 
the five sons of King Upacara of Ceti, on the spot where he saw a pure 
white horse. It lay to the south of Sotthivati, Upacara’s capital. 2 

1 M. i. 271 ff.; ibid., 281 ff.; MA. i. 483. 2 J. iii. 460. 

Assapura Suttas.— See Maha Assapura and Cula Assapura. 


[ Assamandaia 

1. Assamandaia. —A ford on the Mahavalukaganga in Ceylon. 1 Geiger 
refers to a legend which connects this with Kacchakatittha, in which case 
it should be near the Mahagantota, east of Polonnaruva. 2 

1 Cv. lxxii.27. 2 Cv. Trs. ii. 321, n. 5. 

2. Assamandaia. —One of the spots included in the area marked off by 

Devanampiyatissa for the Sima of the Mahavihara. 1 

1 Mv. xv. 15 in Appendix B to Geiger’s Edition. 

Assamukha. —One of the four rivers that flow out of the Anotatta Lake. 
Many horses are found on its banks. 1 

1 8nA.ii.438; UdA.301. 

Assalayana. —A young brahmin, sixteen years old, of Savatthi, very 
learned in the Vedas and allied subjects. Five hundred brahmins staying 
in the city asked him to hold a discussion with the Buddha and refute his 
views. He agreed only after repeated requests, because, he said, Gotama 
was a thinker with views of his own and, therefore, difficult to defeat in 
controversy. He visits the Buddha and asks what he has to say con¬ 
cerning the claims of the brahmins to be the only superior class, the legiti¬ 
mate sons of Brahma. The Buddha points out to him that such preten¬ 
sions are baseless, and that virtue, which alone leads to purity, can be 
cultivated by any of the four classes. Assalayana sits silent and upset 
at the end of the discourse, but when the Buddha relates to him a story of 
the past where Asita Devala had defeated brahmins who held these same 
views, Assalayana feels relieved and expresses his admiration of the Bud¬ 
dha’s exposition. He declares himself a follower of the Buddha. 1 
Buddhaghosa 2 tells us further that Assalayana became a devoted follower 
of the faith and built a cetiya in his own residence for worship, and that all 
his descendants, down to Buddhaghosa’s day, built similar cetiyas in their 

Assalayana is probably to be identified with the father of Mahakotthita, 
(q.v.), his wife being Candavatl. There is, however, one difficulty connected 
with this theory: Mahakotthita says that he was won over to the faith 
after hearing the same sermon of the Buddha as converted his father 
(yadd me pitaram Buddho vinayl sabbasuddhiyd ). 3 It is unlikely, if the 
identification be correct, that this refers to the Assalayayia Sutta , because 
at the time of that Sutta, Assalayana was only sixteen years old; but there 
exists no record of any other sutta preached to Assalayana, dealing with 
“ sabbasuddhi” 

1 M. ii. 147 fl. 2 MA. ii. 785. 3 ThagA. i. 31; Ap. ii. 480. 

Assutava Sutta ] 


Assalayana’s name occurs in a list of eminent brahmins found in the 
Sutta-Nipata Commentary. 4 

4 i. 372. 

Assalayana Sutta. —Records the conversation between the Buddha and 
Assalayana when the latter went to visit him. 1 

1 M.ii. 147 ff. 

Assarama. —The place of death of Sikh! Buddha. 1 The Buddhavamsa 2 
calls it Dussarama. 

1 BuA.204. 2 Bu. xxi.28. 

Assaroha. —Probably a nickname for the horse-trainer whose visit to the 
Buddha is recorded in the Assa Sutta. He is described as a gamani (head 
man of a village). 1 

1 S. iv. 310. 

Assasa Sutta. —A conversation between Sariputta and the Paribbajaka 
Jambukhadaka as to what constitutes comfort ( assasa ) and how it might 
be won. 1 

1 S. iv. 254. 

Assu Sutta. —Preached at Savatthi. The tears shed by a person faring 
in Samsara, as a result of various sorrows, are greater in quantity than 
the waters of the four oceans. One should therefore feel repulsion for 
all things of this world. 1 

1 S. ii. 179-80. 

Assutavata Sutta. —The untaught might well be repelled by the body, 
seeing its decay, but not by the mind or consciousness, which is like a 
monkey letting go of one thing only to grasp another. The well-taught 
disciple is repelled not only by the body but by all the khandhas and 
wishes to be free from them. 1 

1 8.iv. 94. 

Assutava Sutta. —From the adjusted friction of two sticks fire is born; 
if there is no friction there is no fire. Similarly, from contact feeling 
is born: if contact ceases feeling ceases. The well-taught disciple knows 
this and attains freedom. 1 

1 8. iv. 95. 


[ Ahaha 

Ahaha. —One of the purgatories mentioned in the Sutta-Nipdta list. 1 
It is the name given to a period of suffering in Avici and is equivalent in 
duration to twenty Ababa. 2 

1 p. 126. 2 SnA> iim 476; g> i# 152 . 

Ahimsaka. —The earlier name of Afigulimala (q.v.). 

Ahimsaka Sutta. —Records the interview between the Buddha and 

Ahimsaka Bharadvaja. 1 

1 S.i. 164. 

Ahimsaka Bharadvaja. —One of the Bharadvaja brothers. He came to 
the Buddha at Savatthi and the Buddha suggested to him the desirability 
of living up to his name by practising ahimsd. It is said that later he becam e 
an arahant. 1 Buddhaghosa 2 is uncertain as to the reason for the name 
which he says was given to him by the Recensionists. He suggests that 
he was so called, either because his actual name was such, or because of 
the nature of the discussion between him and the Buddha. 

1 S.i. 164. 2 sa. i. 179. 

Ahigundika Jataka (No. 365.)—The story of a snake-charmer in Benares 
who had also a tame monkey. Once, during a festival, he left the monkey 
with a corn-factor (the Bodhisatta) and set out to earn money by making 
sport with the snake. The monkey was well looked after by the Bodhi¬ 
satta. Seven days later the snake-charmer returned drunk and ill- 
treated the monkey. When the man was asleep the monkey escaped 
and refused to come back in spite of his former owner's fine words. 

The story was told with reference to a novice who was ordained by a 
distinguished Elder. The Elder ill-treated the lad who, in exasperation, 
left the Order. The Elder persuaded him to return, but when this had 
happened twice again, the lad refused to come back. 1 The novice is 
identified with the monkey of the story. 

1 J. iii. 197-9. 

Ahicchatta. —A king of the Nagas. He lived in the heap of sand which 
was made by Aggidatta (q.v.) and his followers, who had made a vow to 
bring from somewhere a jar of sand and empty it at an agreed spot when¬ 
ever a sinful thought occurred to them. When Moggallana visited 
Aggidatta and asked him for a lodging, Aggidatta refused to give him one, 
but Moggallana, in spite of his protests, occupied the sandhill. Moggallana 

Ahirika Sutta ] 


overcame the power of the Naga king by his iddhi-power, and when 
Aggidatta and his followers visited him the next morning, they found 
Ahicchatta standing with his hood over Moggallana's head as protection 
for him from the sun. 1 

1 DhA.iii.241 ft. 

Ahidlpa.— The old name for Karadipa, near Nagadlpa. 
some time there. 1 

1 J.iv.238. 

Akitti spent 

Ahinda Sutta. —For self-protection one should practise amity for the 
four royal families of snakes: Virupakkha, Erapatha, Chabyaputta and 
Kanha-gotamaka. It was preached when a monk was bitten by a snake 
at Savatthi. 1 

1 A. ii. 72. Cp. Vin. ii. 109; SA. ii. 144. 

Ahiparaka. —Commander-in-chief and friend and counsellor of Sivi, 
King of Aritthapura. —They had been to Takkasila together and were 
friends from boyhood. Ahiparaka's wife was UmmadantI of ravishing 
beauty. Their story is given in the Vmmadanti Jdtaka. 1 In the present 

age he was Sariputta. 2 

1 J. v. 209 ft. 2 Ibid., 227. 

Ahipeta. —Seen by Moggallana as he came from Gijjhakuta to Rajagaha 
in the company of Lakkhana. He revealed the petals story in the presence 
of the Buddha. In the long past men had erected a bower of leaves and 
grass on the banks of the river near Benares for a Pacceka Buddha. 
Here residents from the city would visit him morning and evening with 
offerings. On the way they had to pass a field, which in their many 
journeyings they trampled and damaged. The farmer tried in vain to 
prevent them. One day, in exasperation, when the Pacceka Buddha was 
away, the farmer burnt his bower, destroying everything in it. When he 
confessed his guilt the followers of the Pacceka Buddha beat him to death. 
He suffered in Avici till the earth was elevated one league, and was there¬ 
after born a peta, twenty-five leagues in length, his body enveloped in 
flames. 1 

1 DhA. ii. 64 if.; see also S. ii. 254. 

1. Ahirika Sutta. —A man who is void of faith, virtue and shame is 
destined to be born in hell. 1 

1 A.ii.227, 

232 [ Ahirika Sutta 

2. Ahirika Sutta. —The man who is shameless destroys his welfare, the 
man who has shame works his weal. 1 

1 A. ii. 229. 

“ Ahirikamulaka cattaro 99 Sutta. —Four suttas based on the fact that 
like coalesces with like, the shameless with the shameless, etc. 1 

1 S. ii. 162 f. 

Ahogahga. —A mountain in North India, on the Upper Ganges. There, 
for some time, lived the thera Sambhuta Sanavasi, and it was there that 
Yasa Kakandaputta saw him. The meeting of arahants to discuss what 
measures should be taken against the Vesali monks was also held there, 
and at the meeting were present monks from the Western country 
and from Avanti-Dakkhinapatha. 1 Moggaliputta lived in Ahoganga all 
alone for seven years, prior to the Third Council for which he was awaiting 
the right time. 2 The Mahavamsa describes it as being “ further up the 
Ganges 99 (uddham Gangdya). 

Moggaliputta Tissa came from Ahoganga to Pataliputta on a raft. 3 

1 Vin.ii. 298-9. 146, n. 1. (The Mbv., p. 106, says upari 

2 Mhv. v. 233; see also Vin. Texts, ii. 1 Gangdya ; see also Sp. i. 67). 

3 Sp. i. 57. 


Akankha Vagga. —The eighth chapter of the Dasaka Nipdta of the 
Angutiara Nikdya. It consists of ten suttas on such subjects as the 
“ thornless 99 life, the obstacles to desired things, Migasala’s questions on 
the future life of individuals, the likeness of a bad monk to a crow, the 
qualities of the Niganthas, etc. 1 

1 A. v. 131-51. 

1. Akankheyya Sutta. —The sixth sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya , 
preached at Jetavana. A monk must conform to the slla, the patimokha 
and the sikkhapadas, whatever be his yearnings, whether to be beloved 
of his fellows, to be given robes etc., to gain the four jhanas, to make 
an end of dukkha or to be possessed of such powers as dibbacakkhu, 
etc. 1 This sutta is often mentioned 2 as an example of a discourse 
preached by the Buddha of his own accord (attano ajjhasayen’eva). 

1 M.i. 33-6. 

E.g., DA. i. 50; MA. i. 13. 


2. Akankkheyya Sutta. —Preached to the monks at Jetavana on the 
ambitions that should stir a monk's heart. 1 

1 A. v. 131-3. 

1. Akasa Sutta. —A conversation between Sariputta and Ananda at 
Savatthi on the attainment of and dwelling in the sphere of the infinity of 
space. 1 The full title of the Sutta should be Akasanancayatana. 

1 S.iii.237. 

2. Akasa Sutta. —Just as divers winds blow in the sky, in different 
directions—hot, cool, dustless, etc.—so in the body arise divers feelings. 1 

1 S. iv. 218. 

3. Akasa Sutta. — Moggallana tells the monks how he won the power of 
dwelling in the realm of infinite space (akasanancayatana). 1 

1 S. iv. 266. 

4. Akasa Sutta. —Just as divers winds blow in the sky, so when a monk 
cultivates the Noble Eightfold Path, the satipatthdnas , the sammappa- 
dhanas, the iddhipddas , the indriyas, the balas and the bojjhangas reach 
fulfilment. 1 

1 S. v. 49. 

1. Akasaganga. —The river that flows southward from the Anotatta Lake 
receives, in its different stages, various names. That part of it which 
flows sixty leagues through the air is called Akasaganga. 1 The Buddha's 
discourse on various topics (pakinnakakatha) is like the downward flow of 
the Akasaganga 2 ; so also is the eloquence of clever preachers. 3 

The fine clay to be found in the area (thirty yojanas in extent) over which 
the Akasaganga falls to earth, is called, on account of its fineness, “ butter 
clay " (navanita-mattikd). This clay was brought by arahant samaneras 
to be spread over the foundation of the Maha Thupa in Anuradhapura. 4 
The spot where it is found is called Tintaslsakola. 5 

1 SnA.ii.439; MA. 586, etc. 4 Mhv. xxix. 5 f. 

2 AA.i. 94; DhA.iii. 360. , 5 MT. 515. 

3 ^..DhA.iv. 18; J.ii.65. 

2. Akasaganga. —A vast channel built by Parakkamabahu I. to bring 
water from the Karagariga to the Parakkamasamudda. 1 

1 CV. lxxix. 25. 

234 [ Akfisagotta 

Akasagotta. —A physician of Rajagaha who lanced the fistula of a monk. 
Meeting the Buddha, he told him of the lancing, trying to make fun of it. 
The Buddha, having made inquiries, declared the performance of such an 
operation a thullaccaya offence. 1 

1 Vin. i. 215-16. 

Akasacetiya. —A cetiya in Rohana in South Ceylon, not far from 
Cittalapabbata Vihara, so named because it is situated on the summit of a 
rock. It is not known when and by whom it was built. King Kakavanna- 
Tissa fixed to it stone slabs, to make it easier of ascent. 1 

There were probably two cetiyas of the same name, one being in Rohana 
and the other to the east of Anuradhapura. It is the latter which is 
mentioned in the thirty-third chapter of the Mahavamsa. 2 

Vattagamani, going up with his queen to the Akasacetiya, saw his minis¬ 
ter, Kapisisa, who had just come down from the cetiya, where he had been 
sweeping the courtyard, sitting by the road; because he did not fling 
himself down before the king, the latter slew him in anger. 

This Akasacetiya was near Acchagalla Vihara, which, according to the 
Mahavamsa Tika, 3 was to the east of Anuradhapura. 

It may be that Akasacetiya was a common name for any vihara built 
on the summit of a rock, for the Commentaries 4 speak also of an Akasace¬ 
tiya at Sumanagiri (Sumanakuta) at which the Tamil general DIghajantu 
offered a red silken robe. 

1 Mhv. xxii.26. 3 MT. 302. 

2 Vers. 68-9. 4 AA. i. 375; MA. ii. 955. 

Akasanancayatanupagadeva. —A class of devas born in the Realm of 
Infinite Space (akasdnancayatana 1 ). They belong to the Arupa world 
and their life term is twenty thousand kappas. 2 Their mind arises and 
ceases moment by moment. 3 In the description of the Arufdvacara - 
bhumi , these devas represent the lowest limit, the highest being the Neva- 
sannanasanna. 4 

1 M. iii. 103. 3 Kvu.i. 207-8. 

2 A.i. 267; AbhS., p.23. 4 Ps.i.84. 

Akasukkhipiya Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he had offered 
a lotus flower to the Buddha Siddhattha and had thrown another up into 
the sky above him. Thirty-two kappas ago he was a king named Anta- 
likkhaeara. 1 

1 Ap. i. 230. 


Agantuka Sutta ] 

1. Akincanna Sutta. —A conversation between Sariputta and Ananda 

on the sphere of Nothingness (akincannayatana). 1 

1 S.iii.237. 

2. Akincanna Sutta.—Moggallana tells the monks how he entered on 
and dwelt in the realm of Nothingness. 1 

1 S. iv. 267. 

Akincayatanupagadeva. —A class of devas born in the Akincdyatana, 
the third Arupa world. 1 Their life term is sixty thousand kappas. 2 

1 M.iii. 103. 2 AbhS.23. 

Akotaka. —A deva who visited the Buddha at Veluvana accompanied 

by Asama, Sahali, Ninka, Vetambari and Manava-Gamiya. Akotaka 
spoke before the Buddha in praise of various teachers of other schools: 
Pakuddha-Katiyana (sic.), Nigantha, Makkhali and Purana. Vetambari 
made rejoinder to Akotaka, speaking disparagingly of the teachers 
he had mentioned. 1 

1 S. i. 65. 

Agantuka.— A banker of Savatthi. He was rich, but he neither enjoyed 
his wealth himself nor gave it to others; he ate rice-dust with sour gruel, 
wore cparse clothes and went about in an old chariot with a parasol 
of leaves over his head. After death he was born in Roruva-niraya. He 
died heirless and it took seven days and seven nights for the king’s men 
to remove his wealth to the royal treasury. 

In reply to a question of Pasenadi, the Buddha revealed why Agantuka 
had been a miser: in a past birth, while going to the king’s court, he had 
met the Pacceka Buddha Tagarasikhf begging for alms and had ordered 
his servant to give the food prepared for himself (Agantuka) to the Pacceka 
Buddha. On his way back, seeing the Pacceka Buddha returning with 
the excellent food from the merchant’s house in his alms-bowl, he wished 
he had distributed it among his own servants instead, as they would have 
done some work in return. 1 

The reason for Agantuka being heirless is related in the Mayhaka Jataka. 

1 J. iii. 299-300. 

Agantuka Sutta. —Like to a guest-house into which come folk from all 
quarters to take up their residence, a monk, who develops the Noble 
Eightfold Path, realises those states (the five updddnakkhandhd) that 


[Agara Sutta 

should be realised, abandons those (avijjd and bhavatanhd) that should be 
abandoned and cultivates samatha and vipassana. 1 

1 S. v. 61-2. 

Agara Sutta. —Like a guest-house to dwell in which come folk from 
all quarters, noblemen and brahmins, commoners and serfs, so, in the 
body, divers feelings arise, pleasant, painful and neutral, carnal (sdmisa) 
and non-earnal. 1 

1 S. iv. 219. 

Aghata Vagga. —The seventeenth chapter of the Pancaka Nipdta of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. It contains ten suttas on various topics, including a 
dispute between Sariputta and Udayi. 1 

1 A.iii. 185-202. 

1. Aghata Sutta. —On nine things which cause enmity to be born. 1 

1 A. iv. 408. 

2. Aghata Sutta. —On the nine ways of getting rid of feelings of enmity. 1 

1 A. iv. 408-9. 

1. Aghatavinaya Sutta. —The five ways of repressing ill-will: by pro¬ 
ducing metta, karund and upekkhd, by getting rid of forgetfulness and by 
reflecting on the power of kamma 1 . 

1 A.iii. 185-6. 

2. Aghatavinaya Sutta. —A sermon by Sariputta to the monks on the 
way in which ill-will arises in men, and the methods by which it may be 
overcome. These methods are illustrated by various similes. 1 

1 A.iii. 186-90. 

Acamadayika. —A family in Rajagaha was afflicted with plague and all 
its members died except one woman. She broke through a wall 1 and 
went and lived in the backyard of another house. The inmates of the 
house, having compassion on her, gave her the remnants of their food. 
One day, Maha Kassapa, rising after seven days and nights from nirodha- 
samdpatti , knowing that he could be of use to the poor woman, appeared 
before her asking for alms. Having nothing but rice-water to give him, 
1 That being the customary method of avoiding infection. 

Ajafifia Sutta ] 


she asked him to go elsewhere, but the Elder showed his desire to accept 
her gift and refused alms offered to him by Sakka and by the inmates of 
the house behind which the woman lived. With great joy she gave him 
the rice-water, and the Elder then told her that three births earlier she had 
been his mother. That same night she died and was born in a vimdna 
among the Nimmanaratl gods. Her story forms the basis of the Acdma- 
dayika- Vimdna Vatthu. 2 

2 Vv.p. 17; VvA. 99 ff. 

Aearavitthigama. —A village three leagues to the north-east of Anura- 
dhapura. When Dutthagamani was seeking for materials for the building 
of the Maha Thupa, nuggets of gold, from a span to a finger's breadth in 
size, appeared in the village. 1 

1 Mhv. xxviii. 13-15. 

Ajanna Jataka (No. 24.)—Once, when Brahmadatta was ruling in 
Benares, seven kings laid siege to the city. A warrior sent by Brahmadatta 
harnessed two horses (brothers) and, sallying forth from the city, overcame 
six camps and captured six kings. Just then the elder horse (who was the 
Bodhisatta) was wounded. The charioteer unfastened the horse's armour 
as he lay on his side, and started to arm another horse. The Bodhisatta 
addressed the charioteer and said that as an Ajanna horse he must fight 
on. The charioteer set him on his feet again and, with his help, captured 
the seventh camp and its king. 

The Bodhisatta, having counselled the victorious king to show mercy 
to his captives, died, and his body was burnt with all honours. 

The story was told to a monk who had given up striving. 1 

1 J.i. 181-2. 

1. Ajanna Sutta. —Like a king's thoroughbred horse possessed of beauty, 
strength, speed and good proportions, a monk worthy of offerings should 
have beauty (of life), strength (of character), speed (of insight) and good 
proportions (of necessaries). 1 

1 A. ii. 250-1. 

2. Ajanna Sutta. —Same as above, but speed of insight in a monk is 
depicted as ability to enter into the four jhanas. 1 

1 A. ii. 251-2. 

3. Ajanna Sutta. —On eight qualities that a horse should possess in order 
to be worthy of being used by the king, and on eight similar qualities 
essential in the ideal monk. 1 

1 A. iv. 188 ff. 


[ Aj&ni Sutta 

1. Ajani Sutta. —The five qualities of a thoroughbred horse in the service 
of the king and the similar qualities of a good monk. 1 

1 A.iii.248. 

2. Ajani Sutta. —Three suttas giving six similar qualities. 1 

1 A. iii. 282-4. 

Ajaniya Sutta. —Three discourses identical, in the main, with the Ajanna 
Sutta (1), but the fourth quality (good proportions) is omitted. The suttas 
differ from one another in the definition of “ speed ” in the case of the 
monk. 1 

1 A. i. 244. 

Ajlvaka Sutta. —A conversation between Ananda and a householder, a 
follower of the Ajlvakas. The householder questions Ananda as to whose 
doctrine is well taught, who are the rightly conducted and who are the 
welfarers in the world. Ananda tells him the characteristics which are 
helpful in arriving at a decision on these questions, without praising one’s 
own creed or decrying another’s. The man expresses great satisfaction. 1 

1 A.i.217 ff. 

Ajlvaka. —A class of naked ascetics (see, e.g., Yin. i. 291), followers of 
Makkhali Gosala, regarded, from the Buddhist point of view, as the worst 
of sophists. Numerous references to the Ajlvakas are to be found in the 
Pitakas, only a few of them being at all complimentary. Thus in the 
Maha Saccaka Sutta 1 they are spoken of as going about naked, flouting life’s 
decencies and licking their hands after meals. But they never incurred 
the guilt of obeying another man’s command, of accepting food specially 
prepared for them, of accepting food from people while eating, from a 
pregnant woman, or nursing mother, or from gleanings in time of famine; 
they would never eat where a dog was already at hand, or where hungry 
flies were congregated. They never touched flesh, fish or intoxicants, and 
they had a rigid scale of food rationing. It is mentioned that they did not 
always find it possible to adhere to this rigid code of conduct. 

1 M. i. 238; see also S. i. 66, where a person, was equable, a speaker of truth, 
deva praises Gosala as a man who had I a doer of no evil. That the life of the 
attained to perfect self-control by fasting Ajlvakas was austere may be gleaned 
and austere practices. He had aban- I from their condemnation of monks 
doned speech and wordy strife with any carrying parasols (Yin. ii. 130). 


Ajivaka ] 

It is stated in the Tevijja Vacchagotta Sutta? that far from any Ajivaka 
having put an end to sorrow, the Buddha could recall only one Ajivaka 
during ninety-nine kappas who had even gone to heaven, and that one too 
had preached a doctrine of kamma and the after-consequences of actions. 
Elsewhere 3 they are spoken of as children of a childless mother. They 
extol themselves and disparage others and yet they have produced only 
three shining lights: Nanda Vaccha, Kisa Sankieca and Makkhali Gosala. 
A fourth leader, Panduputta, of wagon-building stock, is mentioned in the 
Anahgana Sutta*; there is also the well-known Upaka (q.v.). 

There is no doubt that the Ajlvakas were highly esteemed and had 
large followings of disciples. 5 They had eminent followers such as 
high court officials, 6 and that, for centuries at least, they retained an 
important position, is shown by their being thrice mentioned in the Asoka 
Edicts as receiving royal gifts. 7 

The doctrines held by the Ajlvakas are mentioned in several places, 
but the best known account is in the Samannaphala Sutta where they are 
attributed to Makkhali Gosala by name. 8 He maintained that there is 
no cause or reason for either depravity or purity among beings. There 
is no such thing as intrinsic strength, or energy or human might or en¬ 
deavour. All creatures, all beings, everything that has life, all are devoid 
of power, strength and energy; all are under the compulsion of the individual 
nature to which they are linked by destiny; it is solely by virtue of their 
birth in the six environments (chalabhijdtiyo) that they experience their 
pleasure or pain. The universe is divided into various classes of beings, 
of occupations and methods of production. There are eighty-four hundred 
thousand periods during which both fools and wise alike, wandering in 
transmigration, shall at last make an end of pain. The pleasures and pain, 
measured out as it were with a measure, cannot be altered in the course of 
transmigration; there can be neither increase nor decrease thereof, neither 
excess nor deficiency. 

The fundamental point in their teaching seems, therefore, to have been 
44 samsdra-suddhi 9 ” purification through transmigration, which probably 
meant that all beings, all lives, all existent things, all living substances 
attain and must attain, perfection in course of time. 

According to Buddhaghosa, 9 in the classification of the Ajlvakas, 44 all 
beings ” (sattd) meant all kinds of animals, camels, cows, asses, etc.; 44 all 
lives ” (pdrid) comprised all sensitive things and sentient creatures divided 
into those with one sense (ekendriya), those with two senses and so forth; 

2 M.i. 483. 3 M.i. 524. 4 M.i.31. 6 Vin.ii. 165;iv. 71. 

5 See, e.g.> Pasenadi’s evidence in S. i. 7 Hultsch: Asoka Inscriptions , see Index. 
68, apartfromAjatasattu’s visit mentioned 8 B. i. 53-4. See also M. i. 516 f. 
in the Samannaphala Sutta; also S.iv. 398. 9 BA. i. 161. 


[ Ajivaka 

‘ ‘ all existent things ” (bhutd) denoted all living beings divided into generic 
types—viz., those produced from an egg, or born from the womb, or sprung 
from moisture, or propagated from seed; and 46 all living substances" 
(jtvd) denoted rice, barley, wheat, etc. 

The division of men into six classes (chalabhijatiyo) is noteworthy. 
Buddhaghosa describes these as being kanha , nlla , lohita, halidda , sukka 
and paramasukka. This closely resembles the curious Jaina doctrine of 
the six Lesyas. 10 In the Anguttara Nikaya 11 a similar doctrine is attributed 
to Purana Kassapa. 

Gosala's theory 12 of the divisions of the universe into fourteen hundred 
thousand principle states of birth—( pamukhayoniyo) and into various 
methods of regeneration—viz., seven kinds of animate (sannigabbha) pro¬ 
duction, i.e. by means of separate sexes; seven of inanimate ( asannigabbha), 
such as rice, barley, etc.; seven of production by grafting ( niganthigabbhd ), 
propagating by joints, such as sugar cane, etc.—seems to show that the 
Ajlvakas believed in infinite gradations of existence, in the infinity of time, 
and also in the recurrent cycles of existence. Each individual has external 
existence, if not individually, at least in type. In the world as a whole 
everything comes about by necessity. Fate ( nigati ) regulates everything, 
all things being unalterably fixed. Just as a ball of string when cast 
forth spreads out just as far as, and no farther than it can unwind, so 
every being lives, acts, enjoys and ultimately ends, in the manner in which 
it is destined ( sandhavitva , samsaritvd dukkhassantam karissanti). The 
peculiar nature ( bhdva ) 13 of each being depends on the class or species 
or type to which it belongs. 

Among the views of the Puthusamanas (other teachers), the Buddha 
regarded the doctrine of the Ajlvakas as the least desirable. It denied 
action ( kiriya ), endeavour (viriya), and result of action (kamma), and was 
therefore despicable (patikhitto) , 14 The Buddha knew of no other single 
person fraught with such danger and sorrow to all devas and men as 
was Makkhali; like a fish-trap set at a river mouth, Makkhali was 
born into the world to be a man-trap for the distress and destruction of 
men. 16 

According to Buddhaghosa, 16 Purana, by propounding a theory qi the 
passivity of soul, denied action; Ajita, by his theory of annihilation, denied 

10 Given, e.g., in the Uttaradhyayana Cp. with this the Buddha’s teaching in 
Sutra (Jacobi’s Jaina Sutras ii. 213). A. iii. 384 ff. and M. i. 36. 

This seems to involve a conception of 11 iii. 383-4. 

mind which is originally colourless by 12 D.i. 54; see also S.iii. 211. 

nature. The different colours ( nila, etc.) 13 DA. i. 161. 

are due to different habits or actions. 14 A.i.286. 

The supreme spiritual effort consists in 16 A. i. 33. 

restoring mind to its original purity. 16 DA. i. 166. 

AjlvakS ] 


retribution, whereas Makkhali, by his doctrine of fate, denied both action 
and its result. 

It has been suggested 17 that Makkhali Gosala's doctrine of the eight de¬ 
velopmental stages of man {attha purisabhumi) was a physical antecedent 
of the Buddha's doctrine of the eight higher spiritual ranks {attha puri - 
sapuggald). Buddhaghosa 18 gives the eight stages as follows: manda , 
khiddd , mmamsana , ujugata, sekha , samana , jina and panna. 

The first stage extends from the first day of birth to the seventh. In 
the second stage those who have come from evil states cry constantly, those 
from happy conditions smile, remembering their past lives. The third 
stage is marked by the infant beginning to walk with the help of others. 
The time of his being able to walk alone is the ujugata-bhumi. The period 
of study is sekha-bhumi , of leaving household life, samana-bhumi; the 
period of knowledge ( vijanana ), of constant association with teachers, 
is the jina-bhumi and the last stage when the jina remains silent (panna- 
ka), is called the pannaka-bhumi. This seems to indicate a development of 
the mental and spiritual faculties, side by side with physical growth, an 
interaction of body and mind. 

There seems to have been a great deal of confusion, even at the time of 
the compilation of the Nikayas, as to what were the specific beliefs of the 
Ajivakas. Thus in the Mahali Sutta of the Samyutta Nikaya 19 some of 
Gosala's views {natthi hetu , natthi paccayo sattdnam sahkilesdya) are 
attributed to Purana Kassapa. The Anguttara Nikaya in one place 20 
apparently confounds Makkhali Gosala with Ajita Kesakambala, while 
elsewhere 21 Purana Kassapa's views regarding the chalabhijati are repre¬ 
sented as being those of Makkhali. 

There was a group of Ajivakas behind Jetavana. The monks saw the 
Ajivakas perform various austerities, such as squatting on their heels, 
swinging in the air like bats, scorching themselves with five fires, and they 
asked the Buddha whether these austerities were of any use. “ None 
whatever," answered the Buddha, and then proceeded to relate the 
Nahguttha Jataka , 22 

The Ajivakas used to be consulted regarding auspicious days, dreams, 
omens, etc. 23 

There was a settlement of Ajivakas in Anuradhapura, and Pandukabhaya 
built a residence for them. 24 

17 E.g . Barua: Pre-Buddhistic Indian 
Philosophy\ p. 314. 

18 DA.i. 162; see also Hoernle’s Uvdsaga- 
Dasao, ii. p. 24, where pannaka is given 
for panna. cp. J. iv. 496-7 ( manda- 
dasaka, khiddci-dasaka , aqna-dasaka, etc.). 

19 iii.69. 

20 i. 286. 

21 iii. 383-4. 

22 J. i. 493 f. 

23 See, e.g ., J, i. 287 and MT. 190. 

24 Mhv. x. 102. 



[ Atanata 

Thomas, 25 following Hoernle, thinks that the term (Ajlvaka) was probably 
a name given by opponents, meaning one who followed the ascetic life 
for the sake of a livelihood. Hence we cannot infer that the name which 
was found as late as the thirteenth century always refers to the followers 
of Makkhali Gosala. This point is certainly worth investigating. 

25 Op . cit., p. 130. But see DhA. i. account of the Ajivakas see Hoernle’s 

309, where the different kinds of religieux Article in ERA. and Barua’s paper in the 

are distinguished as acelala , djfvaka , ' Calcutta University Journal of the Dept . 

nigantha and tapasa. For a detailed I of Letters, vol. ii. 

Atanata.— A city in Uttarakuru, mentioned with Kusinata, Paraku- 
sinata and Natapuriya. 1 

1 D. iii. 200. 

Atanatiya Sutta. —The thirty-second sutta of the Digha Nilcdya , preached 

at the Gijjhakuta. 1 

The Four Great Kings having set a guard over the four quarters, visited 
the Buddha. Having saluted him and sat down with hosts of other yakkhas, 
Vessavana told the Buddha that the yakkhas did not, for the most part, 
believe in the Buddha for the reason that they did not find it pleasant or 
agreeable to abstain from the things which he declared to be evil—such 
as the taking of life, theft, etc. And in order that the Buddha's disciples, 
haunting lonely and remote parts of the forest where the yakkhas dwelt, 
might find protection from them, Vessavana suggested that the Buddha 
might learn the Atanatiya word-rune (rakkha). The Buddha agreeing, 
Vessavana proceeded to recite it. 

It opens with a salutation to the seven Buddhas, beginning with VipassI, 
The remainder contains a list of the gods and other superhuman beings, 
the Four Great Kings heading the list; these last are described at some 
length; forty-one other gods are mentioned as a kind of appendix or after¬ 
thought, all mentioned one after another with no attempt at group division 
and without any details, in what are, apparently, mnemonic doggerels. 

A part of the Mahdsamaya Sutta (sections 10-20) looks very much like 
an improved and enlarged edition of this list of bare names. 

The Buddha learnt the word-rune and taught it to the monks. 

The Atanatiya Sutta is now regarded as a Paritta , and its influence 
pervades a hundred million world systems. 2 In Ceylon, for instance, it 
is recited with great fervour at the conclusion of the Paritta ceremonies, 
particularly in times of illness, in order to ward off evil spirits. 

It is included in the list of Parittas found in the Milinda-panha . 3 

1 I), iii. 194 ff. 2 VibhA. 430. sutta in the history of India, see Rhys 

3 p. 151; on the importance of this Davids, Buddhist India, pp. 219-37. 


Atuma Thera ] 

Ananjasappaya Sutta. —Preached to the monks, with Ananda at their 
head, by the Buddha at Kammassadhamma in the Kuru country. It 
deals with real Permanence (ananjasappaya) and with the various ways of 
meditating on impassibility and the attainments and true release. True 
deathlessness is only the heart's deliverance (anupadd cittassa vimokkho ), 
and there are several stages of the paths that lead to it. 1 Buddhaghosa 2 
says that this sutta described the arahantship of the Sukkhavipassaka. 
Arahantship is mentioned in nine different connections in the sutta, which 
is therefore praised as being well taught (sukathitam). 

1 M. ii. 261 ff. 2 MA. ii. 851. 

Ani Sutta. —Like the Anaka drum of the Dasarahas, in which the drum¬ 
head vanished, leaving only the framework of pegs, even so is it with the 
Suttantas of the Tathagata which are deep in meaning. They lie neglected 
and forgotten while men will turn their attention to the Suttantas of poets 
and the utterances of disciples, full of words; these they will learn and master 
instead of the Buddha's own teachings. 1 

1 S.ii. 266-7. 

Animandavya.— See Animandavya. 

1. Atappa Sutta.— By him who sees not and knows not decay, death, 
etc., as they really are, energy must be shown. 1 

1 S. ii. 132. 

2. Atappa Sutta. —On the occasions oil which ardent energy (atappa) 
should be exerted. 1 

1 A. i. 153. 

Atuma Thera. —The son of a setthi in Savatthi. When he grew up his 
mother proposed to find him a wife, but on account of his upanissaya, he 
left the world and was ordained. His mother tried to entice him back but 
he declared his great determination and, developing insight, became an 
arahant. 1 

In Vipassi’s time he had been a householder and had made offering to 
Vipassi of perfumed water and fragrant powder. 

Thirty-one kappas ago he was a king named Sugandha. Atuma is prob¬ 
ably identical with Gandhodakiya Thera of the Apadana. 2 

1 Thag. V. 72; ThagA. i. 160:. 

Ap.i. 157-8. 


[ Atuma 

Atuma. —A town that lay between Kusinara and Savatthi. Once the 
Buddha, with a large company of bhikkhus, visited the town. At that 
time there dwelt in it a monk who had been ordained late in life (a bud- 
dhafabbajita, identified by Buddhaghosa 1 with the buddha'pabbajita 
Subhadda) and had formerly been a barber. He had two sons, handsome, 
elegant and well versed in the barber's art. When the monk heard of the 
Buddha's coming, he sent his sons from house to house to collect salt and oil 
and rice and meal. The young men, using all their powers of persuasion, 
collected a large quantity of each of these things, and when the Buddha 
arrived in Atuma and went to stay in the Bhusagara, they made ready 
rice-gruel and offered it to him. The Buddha, however, would not accept 
it as the monk, who had had the food collected, had been guilty of an 
unlawful act in that one monk had begged for others. 

It was on this occasion that it was declared to be a dukkata offence 
for a monk, who had formerly been a barber, to carry about with him a 
barber's equipment. 2 

In the Mahd Parinibbana Sutta? the Buddha tells Pukkusa of another 
occasion on which he was staying in the Bhusagara in Atuma. There was 
a thunderstorm and two peasants (brothers) and four oxen were struck by 
lightning. A large number of people having gathered at the place, one 
of them asked the Buddha if he were aware of the accident. But the 
Buddha had been in a state of concentration and had neither seen nor 
heard anything of it. Such was the state of calm of his mind. 

1 DA. ii. 599. 2 Vin. i. 249-50. 3 D. ii. 131-2. 

Adasamandapa. —One of the numerous buildings erected by Parakkama- 
bahu I. in the Dipuyyana in Pulatthipura. It was so called because its 
walls were made of mirrors. 1 

1 Cv. lxxiii. 119. 

Adasamukha. —The Bodhisatta born as the King of Benares. He was 
the son of Janasandha (also called Dasaratha), and because his face was 
resplendent with beauty like a well-polished golden mirror, he was called 
Adasamukha. His father died when he was seven years old, and the 
courtiers tested the boy in various ways before crowning him king. 

Reports of his wisdom soon spread abroad and once,when an old servant 
of his father's (Gamani Canda) was being brought to the court to answer 
various charges, fourteen problems were entrusted to him by different 
inhabitants of the kingdom to be placed before the king for solution. The 
king solved them all and ruled righteously. The story is given in the 
Gamani Canda Jdtaka} 

1 J. ii. 297-310. 

Adiccabandhu] 245 

Adicca. —Another name for Suriya, the Sun. 1 Buddhaghosa explains the 
name as meaning Aditi’s son (Aditiya putto). Adicca was also the gotta - 
name of the Sakyans who were called the Adicca. 2 Buddhaghosa 3 gives it 
as a gotta-name of the Khattiyas, together with Kondanna-gotta. 

See also below, s.v. Adiccabandhu. 

1 D. iii. 196. 2 Sn. v. 423. 3 VibhA. 466. 

Adicca Damiladhikari. —A distinguished official of public accounts, one 
of the ministers of Parrakamabahu I. He asked for and was given the 
leadership of the successful expedition against Ramanna. 1 He appears to 
have died soon after the campaign. 2 

1 Cv.lxxvi., vers. 39, 63-4; for details see under Parakkamabahu I. 

2 See Cv. Trs. ii. p. 69, n. 3. 

Adicca Sutta. —Just as dawn is the harbinger of the arising of the sun, 
so is friendship with the good (kalyanamittata) the harbinger of the arising 
of the seven bojjhangas. 1 

1 S.v. 101; cp. S. v. 29. 

1. Adiccabandhu. —An often-used epithet of the Buddha. 1 The Vima- 
navatthu Commentary 2 says that Adicca (the Sun) belonged to the Gota- 
magotta, as did also the Buddha, hence his epithet Adiccabandhu; other 
explanations are given in the same context: the Buddha is born in the same 
ariydjdti and is the descendant of the Sun (tarn paticca tassa ariyaya jdtiya 
jdtattd ), or the Sun is the Buddha's kinsman because the Sun is the Buddha's 
orasaputta (breast-born son) inasmuch as the Sun is the Buddha's disciple. 
It is in this sense that in the Samyutta Nikdya 3 the Buddha speaks of the 
sun as “ mama pajd which Buddhaghosa 4 explains as meaning disciple 
and spiritual son. 

Adicca is described as tapatam mukham (chief of heat-producing things). 5 

1 E.g., D. iii. 197; Sn. v. 1128; Thag. . 3 S. i. 57. 

26, 158,417, etc. j * SA . i# 86# 

2 p. 116. 5 MA.ii. 783. 

2. Adiccabandhu. —A Pacceka Buddha who was instrumental in enabling 
the author (son of the King of Benares) of the twentieth verse of the Khagga - 
visdna Sutta to become a Pacceka Buddha. Adiccabandhu saw that the 
young prince, who had renounced the world and was living in his father's 
park near the city, did not, on account of the visits of his parents and 
others, have sufficient peace of mind to develop his power of meditation. 


[ Adiccupatthana Jataka 

He, therefore, visited the prince and persuaded him to go into the forest 
by showing him how real pabbajitas lived. The first two lines of the Sutta 
Nipdta verse (No. 54) were uttered by Adiccabandhu. 1 

1 Sn. v. 54; SnA. i. 104-5; see also ApA. i. 105, 152. 

Adiccupatthana Jataka. (No. 175).—The story of a monkey who used 
to visit the hermitage of some ascetics whose leader was the Bodhisatta ; 
when they were away in the village, he upset everything he could lay 
hands on, and did much damage generally. When the ascetics were about 
to return from the village to the hermitage after the rainy season, the 
people brought them various foods, and the monkey, thinking to get some 
for himself, stood outside their hut worshipping the sun. The people, 
impressed by the monkey’s holy demeanour, started praising his virtues, 
whereupon the Bodhisatta revealed to them his true character. 1 

The story was related concerning a rogue. 

1 J. ii. 72-3. 

Aditta Jataka (No. 424).—Once the Bodhisatta was born as Bharata, 
King of Roruva, in the country of Sovlra. He was very righteous and 
much beloved, and his chief queen, Samuddavijaya, was wise and 
full of knowledge. 

The king, wishing to give alms to Pacceka Buddhas instead of to others 
far less holy, consulted the queen, and acting on her advice, made pro¬ 
clamation to his people that they should keep the precepts. He himself 
observed all holy days and gave great gifts in charity. One day he offered 
flowers to the eastern quarter, and making obeisance, wished that any 
Pacceka Buddha in that quarter might come to accept his alms. His 
wish not being fulfilled, he repeated, on the following days, the same 
ceremony to the other quarters till, on the fourth day, seven Pacceka 
Buddhas came to him from the north where they lived in Nandamula- 
pabbhara. The king and queen fed them for seven days and gave them 
robes and all the other requisites of an ascetic. The Pacceka Buddhas 
departed one by one, each expressing his thanks in a stanza and exhorting 
the king and queen to lead pure lives. 

The story was related in reference to Pasenadi’s Asadisadana, to show 
that wise men of old also gave gifts to holy men, with discretion. 1 

This is evidently the story referred to as the Sucira Jataka in the intro¬ 
duction to the Dasa Brahmana Jataka 2 and again as the Sovlra Jataka 
in the introductory story of the Sim Jataka . 3 

1 J. iii. 469-74. 2 J. iv. 360. 8 Ibid., 401. 

“ Adittena ” Sutta ] 


Aditta Vagga. —The fifth chapter of the Devata Sarnyutta of the Sarnyutta 
NiJcdya. 1 

1 S.i. 31-6. 

1. Aditta Sutta. —Spoken before the Buddha at Jetavana by a deva who 
visited him. Like a man who rescues what he can from his burning house, 
let the wise man enjoy his possessions and give them away with discern¬ 
ment. Thus will he attain to happiness hereafter. 1 

1 S.i. 31. 

2. Aditta Sutta. —All the khandhas are on fire. Seeing this, the Ariyan 
disciple feels revulsion from them and, through knowledge, attains to 
freedom. 1 

1 S. iii. 71. 

3. Aditta Sutta. 1 —Same as the Adittapariyaya Sutta. (See below.) 

1 S. iv. 19. 

Adittapariyaya Sutta. —The name given to the discourse preached by 
the Buddha at Gayaslsa in Gaya, after his conversion of the Tebhatikajatiia 
(Uruvela Kassapa, Nadi Kassapa and Gaya Kassapa). 

Everything is burning: the eye, the eye-consciousness (cakkhuvinnana), 
and the contact of the eye with objects (cakkhu-samphassa), and the sensa¬ 
tions that arise thereform. It is the same with the other senses: they are 
aflame with lust, anger, ignorance and the anxieties of birth, decay, death, 
etc.; knowing this, the follower of the Noble Eightfold Path feels revulsion 
towards them and divests himself of passion for them and ultimately attains 
supreme freedom. 

At the end' of the discourse the thousand monks, erstwhile jatilas , who 
had been listening, became arahants. 1 

It is said that the Adittapariyaya was preached on the Pitthipasana at 
Gayaslsa. 2 This is the third recorded address of the Buddha. It is also 
called the Aditta Sutta. (See Aditta Sutta 3). 

1 Vin. i. 34-5; J.i. 82; iv. 180. 2 AA. i. 166; ThagA. i. 435. 

“ Adittena ” Sutta. —It were a good thing if the sense organs were seared 
with a red-hot iron, for then there would be no grasping of marks or details 
of objects cognizable by the senses. It were a good thing to be asleep, for 
then the mind would not be applied to evil ends. But it were better to 
ponder on the impermanence of the sense organs, their sensations, the 

248 [ Adipadakajambu 

consciousness and the contacts connected with them and all that has to do 
with the mind, because that pondering would produce repulsion and dis- 
passion, freedom and realisation of freedom. 1 

1 S. iv. 168 f. 

Adipadakajambu. —A locality in Ceylon where the Adipada Vikkamabahu 
defeated Manabharana and his brothers. 1 

1 Cv. lxi. 15. 

Adipadapunnagakhanda. —A locality in Rohana in the south of Ceylon. 
It was in the district of Guttasala. Here an encounter took place between 
the forces of Parakkamabahu I. and those of the rebels in Rohana. 1 

1 Cv. lxxv. 14. 

Adimalaya. —One of the generals of Vijayabahu I. He openly rebelled 
against the king and came with his troops to the village of Andu, near 
Pulatthipura. The king went out against him and destroyed him. 1 

1 Cv. lix. 4-6. 

Adiya Sutta. —Preached at Jetavana to Anathapindika on the five uses 
(adiya) of possessions legitimately obtained: one enjoys them oneself; 
entertains with them one's friends and relations; uses them in times of 
need; employs them in the discharge of one's duties to the king, to religion, 
to one's relations, both living and dead; and in doing good deeds which will 
bring happiness in future lives. 1 

1 A. iii. 45 f. 

Adharadayaka Thera. —An arahant. He gave a stool (adharaka) to 
Sikhi Buddha. Twenty-seven kappas ago he became king four times under 
the name of Samantavaruna. 1 

1 Ap. i. 207. 

Adhipateyya Sutta. —The three “ mandates " which should guide a monk : 
the self, the world, the Dhamma. 1 

1 A. i. 147f.; on the significance of the sutta see Mrs. Rhys Davids, April 

1933, pp. 329 ff. 

Anaka (v.l. Anaka). —A mutihga (kettle-drum) belonging to the 
Dasarahas. As it grew old and began to split, they fixed in another peg, and 
this process was continued, until, at last, the original drumhead vanished, 


Ananda ] 

leaving only the framework of pegs. 1 The origin of the drum is related 
in the Kakkata Jataka. When the Golden Crab, there mentioned, was 
trampled to death by the elephants, his two claws broke away from his 
body and lay apart in the Kuliradaha, where he lived. During the floods 
the water flowed from the Ganges into this lake, running back again when 
the floods subsided. The two claws were thus carried into the Ganges. 
One of them reached the sea, and the Asuras, picking it up, made thereof 
the drum named Alambara. The other was picked up by the Ten Royal 
Brothers (evidently the Dasarahas mentioned above) while playing in the 
river, and they made of it the little drum Anaka. 2 

In the Samyutta Commentary 3 it is said that the drum was like molten 
wax in colour, because the crab's claw had been dried by wind and sun. 
The sound of the drum was heard for twelve leagues, and it was, therefore, 
used only on festive occasions. On hearing it, the people assembled 
hurriedly, in various conveyances, decked with splendour. It was called 
Anaka because it brought the people together as if summoning them 
(mahdjanam pakkositva viya aneti ti Anako). Later, when the original 
drumhead had vanished, it could hardly be heard even inside a hall. 

The Anaka drum is used as a simile in the Ani Sutta. 4 

1 S. ii. 266. ( 3 ii. 167-8. 

2 J. ii. 344; the Jataka is quoted in j 4 S. ii. 266-7; see also KS. ii. 178, 

SA. ii. 167-8, with several variations in | n. 4. 

detail. 1 

Anancayatana Sutta. —On the three infinite spheres: infinite space, 
infinite consciousness, and sphere of nothingness. 1 

1 A. i. 267. 

Ananjasappaya Sutta.— See Ananjasappaya Sutta. 

1. Ananda. —One of the principal disciples of the Buddha. He was a 
first cousin of the Buddha and was deeply attached to him. 

He came to earth from Tusita and was born on the same day as the 
Bodhisatta, his father being Amitodana the Sakyan, brother of Suddho- 
dana. 1 Mahanama and Anuruddha (q.v.) were therefore his brothers (or 
probably step-brothers). 

Ananda entered the Order in the second year of the Buddha's ministry, 
together with other Sakyan princes, such as Bhaddiya, Anuruddha, Bhagu, 

1 According to the Mtu. (iii. 176), I the brother of Devadatta and Upadhana. 
Ananda was the son of £uklodana and I His mother was Mrgl. 


[ Ananda 

Kimbila and Devadatta, and was ordained by the Buddha himself, 2 his 
u'pajjhdya being Belatthasisa. 3 Soon after, he heard a discourse by Punna 
Mantaniputta and became a Sotapanna . 4 * 

During the first twenty years after the Enlightenment, the Buddha did 
not have the same personal attendants all the time. From time to time 
various monks looked after him, among them being Nagasamala, Nagita, 
Upavana, Sunakkhatta, the novice Cunda, Sagata, Radha and Meghiya. 
We are told that the Buddha was not particularly pleased with any of 
them. At the end of twenty years, at an assembly of the monks, the 
Buddha declared that he was advanced in years and desired to have 
somebody as his permanent body-servant, one who would respect his 
wishes in every way. 6 

All the great disciples offered their serviecs, but were rejected by the 
Buddha. Ananda alone was left; he sat in silence. When asked why he 
did not offer himself, his reply was that the Buddha knew best whom to 
choose. When the Buddha signified that he desired to have Ananda, the 
latter agreed to accept the post on certain conditions. The Buddha was 
never to give him any choice food or garment 6 gotten by him, nor appoint 
for him a separate “ fragrant cell ” (residence), nor include him in the 
invitations accepted by the Buddha. For, he said, if the Buddha did 
any of these things, some would say that Ananda's services to the Buddha 
were done in order to get clothes, good fare and lodging and be included 
in the invitations. Further he was to be allowed to accept invitations 
on behalf of the Buddha; to bring to the Buddha those who came to see 
him from afar; to place before the Buddha all his perplexities, and the 
Buddha was to repeat to him any doctrine taught in his absence. If 
these concessions were not granted, he said, some would ask where was 
the advantage of such service. Only if these privileges were allowed him 
would people trust him and realise that the Buddha had real regard for 
him. The Buddha agreed to the conditions. 

Thenceforth, for twenty-five years, 7 8 Ananda waited upon the Buddha, 
following him like a shadow, bringing him water and toothpick, washing 

2 Vin.ii. 182. 

3 ThagA. i. 68; also DA. ii. 418 ff.; 
Vin.i. 202;iv. 86. 

4 In S. iii. 105 Ananda acknowledges 
his indebtedness to Punna and gives an 

account of Punka’s sermon to him. 

6 The Buddha says that sometimes 
his attendants would not obey him, and 
on certain occasions had dropped his 
bowl and robe and gone away, leaving 


8 Ananda did, however, accept one of 

the two robes given by Pukkusa the 
Malian to the Buddha (D.ii. 133); Bud- 
dhaghosa explains this by saying that 
Ananda’s period of service had now come 
to an end, and also he wished to be free 
from the accusation that even after having 
served the Buddha for twenty-five years, 
the Buddha had never made him any gift. 
It is further stated that Ananda offered 
the robe to the Buddha later (DA. ii. 

7 Thag. v. 1039. 

Ananda ] 


his feet, accompanying him everywhere, sweeping his cell and so forth. 
By day he was always at hand, forestalling the Master's slightest wish; 
at night, stout staff and large torch in hand, he would go nine times round 
the Buddha's Gandha-kuti in order to keep awake, in case he were needed, 
and also to prevent the Buddha's sleep from being disturbed. 8 

Many examples are given of Ananda's solicitude for the Buddha, 
particularly during the Buddha's last days, as related in the Mahd Parinib- 
bana Sutta. Ananda was the Buddha's equal in age (having been born on 
the Same day), and it is touching to read of this old and most devoted 
attendant ministering to his eminent cousin, fetching him water, bathing 
him, rubbing his body, preparing his bed, and receiving last instructions 
from him on various matters of importance. It is said that when the 
Buddha was ill, Ananda became sympathetically sick. 9 He was aware of 
every change that occurred in the Buddha's body. 10 . 

Once, when acting on the instructions of Devadatta, the royal mahouts 
let loose Nalagiri, maddened with drink, on the Buddha's path, so that 
he might trample the Buddha to death, Ananda, seeing the animal rushing 
towards them, immediately took his stand in front of the Buddha. Three 
times the Buddha forbade him to do so, but Ananda, usually most obedient, 
refused to move, and it is said that the Buddha, by his iddhi-ipower, made 
the earth roll back in order to get Ananda out of the elephant's path. 11 
Sometimes, the extreme zealousness of Ananda drew on him the Buddha's 
rebuke— e.g., when he prepared tekatuka gruel (gruel with three kinds of 
pungent substances) for the Buddha when he was suffering from wind in the 
stomach. The gruel was prepared from food kept indoors and was cooked 
by Ananda himself, indoors; this was against the rules, but Ananda knew 
that the gruel would cure the Buddha. 12 

Ananda was most efficient in the performance of the numerous duties 
attached to his post. Whenever the Buddha wished to summon the 
monks or to send a message to anyone, it was to Ananda that he entrusted 
the task. 13 

8 The account here given is summarised 
from AA. i. 159 ff. and from ThagA. ii. 
121 ff. On the boons see J. iv. 96, where 
Ananda had asked for boons in the past 
too. The Ti be tan sources give a different 
and interesting version of Ananda’s entry 
into the Order. See Rockhill. Life of the 
Buddha , 57-8. 

9 D. ii. 99. 

10 L.g., the brightening of his features 

after Janavasabha’s visit (D. ii. 204); 

and the fading of his complexion just 

before death, which was apparent when the 

Buddha put on the robe given by Pukkusa 
{ibid,, 133). 

11 J. v. 335-6; it was in this connection 
that the Culahamsa Jdtaka was preached 
to show that Ananda had, in previous 

I births also, renounced his life to save 
| that of the Buddha; see also DhA. i. 119. 

I The Cullavagga account of the Nalagiri 
I incident makes no mention of Ananda’s 
I past (Vin. ii. 195). 

12 Vin. i. 210-11. 

13 See, e.g. t D.ii.199; 147; Vin.i. 80; 
M. i. 456. 


[ Ananda 

He reported to the Buddha any news which he heard and thought 
interesting. 14 Laymen and lay women, wishing to give alms to the 
Buddha and the monks, would often consult him in their difficulties, and 
he would always advise them. 15 When the monks came to him expressing 
their desire to hear the Buddha preach, he did his best to grant their wish. 16 
Sometimes when Ananda felt that an interview with the Buddha would be 
of use to certain people, he would contrive that the Buddha should talk 
to them and solve their doubts; thus, for instance, he arranged an 
interview for the Nigantha Saccaka 17 and the brahmins Sangarava and 
Rammaka. 18 Similarly he took Samiddhi to the Buddha when he found 
that Samiddhi had wrongly represented the Buddha's views. 19 When 
he discovered that Kimbila and a large number of other monks would 
greatly benefit if the Buddha would preach to them on anapanasati> he 
requested the Buddha that he should do so. 20 

Again, when at Vesali, as a result of the Buddha's talks to the monks on 
asubha , a large number of them, feeling shame and loathing for their 
bodies, committed suicide, Ananda suggested to the Buddha that he 
might teach the monks some method by which they might obtain insight 
(anna). 21 

In order that people might still worship the Buddha when he was away 
on tour, Ananda planted the Ananda-Bodhi (q.v.). 

Ananda was, however, careful that people should not weary the Buddha 
unnecessarily. Even when he told the Buddha about the suicide of the 
monks (mentioned above), he was careful to wait till the Buddha had 
finished his fortnight's solitude, because he had given orders that he should 
not be disturbed. 

When Subhadda wanted to see the Buddha as he lay on his death-bed, 
Ananda refused to let him in until expressly asked to do so by the Master. 22 
That same day when the Malias of Kusinara came with their families to 
pay their last respects to the Buddha, Ananda arranged them in groups, 
and introduced each group so that the ceremony might be gone through 
without delay. 23 

14 E.g., the death of Nigantha Nataputta, 18 S.i. 163; M. i. 161. 

of which he learnt from Cunda Samanud- 19 M. iii. 208. 

desa (D. iii. 118; M. ii. 244); also Deva- 20 S. v. 323. Ananda’s requests were, 
datta’s conspiracy to harm the Buddha however, not always granted. Once, for 
(Vin. ii. 198). instance, though he asked the Buddha 

18 E.g ., the Andhakavinda Brahmana three times to recite the Patimokkha, the 
(Vin. i. 220-1); Rojathe Malla (ibid., 248); Buddha refused to do so until an offend- 
see also ibid., 238 f. ing monk had been removed (Vin. ii. 

16 E.g., when the Buddha retired into 236 f.). 

the Parileyya forest (S. iii. 95; DhA. i. 21 S. v. 320 f. 

50 f.). 22 D, ii. 149. 

17 M. i. 237. 1 23 Ibid., 148. 

Ananda ] 253 

He often saved the Buddha from unpleasantness by preventing too pious 
admirers from trying to persuade the Buddha to do what was against his 
scruples. 24 

Among Ananda's duties was the task of going round to put away any¬ 
thing which might have been forgotten by anyone in the congregation after 
hearing the Buddha preach. 25 

Ananda was often consulted by colleagues on their various difficulties. 
Thus we find Vanglsa 26 confiding to him his restlessness at the sight of 
women and asking for his advice. Among others who came to him with 
questions on various doctrinal matters were Kamabhu, 27 Udayi, 28 Channa, 29 
and Bhadda. 30 Nor were these consultations confined to his fellow-monks, 
for we find the brahmins Ghosita 31 and Unnabha, 32 the Licchavis Abhaya 
and Panditakumaraka, 33 the paribbajakas Channa 34 and Kokanuda, 35 
the updsikd Migasala, 36 a householder of KosambI 37 and Pasenadi Kosala, 38 
all coming to him for enlightenment and instruction. Sometimes the 
monks, having heard a brief sermon from the Buddha, would seek out 
Ananda to obtain from him a more detailed exposition, for he had the 
reputation of being able to expound the Dhamma. 39 

It is said that the Buddha would often deliberately shorten his discourse 
to the monks so that they might be tempted to have it further explained 
by Ananda. They would then return to the Buddha and report to him 
Ananda's exposition, which would give him an opportunity of praising 
Ananda's erudition. 40 In the Sekha Sutta^ 1 we are told that after the 
Buddha had preached to the Sakyans of Kapilavatthu till late at night, 
he asked Ananda to continue the discourse while he himself rested. Ananda 
did so, and when the Buddha awoke after his sleep, he commended Ananda 
on his ability. On another occasion, the Buddha asks Ananda to address 
the monks on the wonders attendant on a Buddha's birth, and the Acchari- 

24 b.g ., Bodhirajakumara, when he 
asked the Buddha to walk over the 
carpets in his mansion, Kokanada (Vin. 
ii. 128; M.ii. 94). 

25 DhA. i. 410. 

26 S.i. 188; Thag. vers. 1223-6. 

27 S.iv. 165-6. 

28 S.v. 166-8; A.iv.449. 

29 S.iii. 133-4. 

30 S. v. 171-3; ThagA. i. 474; he could 
not, however, be of use to his fellow- 
celibate Bhandu ( q.v .). 

31 S.iv. 113.’ 

32 S. v. 272. 

33 A. i. 220. 

34 A. i. 215. 

35 A. v. 196. 

36 A. iii. 347, and again A. v. 137. 

37 A.i. 217. 

38 M. ii. 112. It was on this occasion 
! that Pasenadi presented Ananda with a 

valuable piece of foreign material which 
had been sent to him by Ajatasattu. 

39 A. v.225; S.iv. 93. 

40 MA. i. 81; for such praise see, e.g., 
A. v. 229. It is said that once when a 
certain landowner asked the Buddha how 
he could show honour to the Dhamma, 
the Buddha told him to show honour to 
Ananda if he wished to honour the 

i Dhamma (J. iv. 369). 

' 41 M. i. 353 ff. 


[ Ananda 

yabbhuta-Dhamma Sutta is the result. The Buddha is mentioned as 
listening with approval. 42 

Sometimes Ananda would suggest to the Buddha a simile to be used 
in his discourse, e.g. the Dhammayana simile 43 ; or by a simile suggest a 
name to be given to a discourse, e.g. the Madhupindika Sutta 44 ; or again, 
particularly wishing to remember a certain Sutta,he would ask the Buddha 
to give it a name, e.g. the Bahudhatuka Sutta , 45 

Several instances occur of Ananda preaching to the monks of his own 
accord 46 and also to the laity. 47 The Sandaka Sutta records a visit paid 
by Ananda with his followers to the paribbajaka Sandaka, and describes 
how he won Sandaka over by a discourse. Sometimes, as in the case 
of the Bhaddekaratta Sutta, 48 Ananda would repeat to the assembly of 
monks a sermon which he had previously heard the Buddha preach. 
Ananda took the fullest advantage of the permission granted to him by 
the Buddha of asking him any question he desired. He had a very 
inquiring mind; if the Buddha smiled he would ask the reason (M. ii. 
45, 50, 74; A. iii. 214 f.; J. iii. 405; iv. 7). 

Or if he remained silent, Ananda had to be told the reason (S. iv. 400). 
He knew that the Buddha did nothing without definite cause; when 
Upavana, who stood fanning the Buddha, was asked to move away, Ananda 
wished to know the reason, and was told that Upavana prevented various 
spirits from seeing the Buddha (D. ii. 139). The Buddha was always 
willing to answer Ananda's questions to his satisfaction. Sometimes, as 
in the case of his question regarding the dead citizens of Ratika (D. ii. 
91 ff.), 49 a long discourse would result. 50 

Most often his consultations with the Buddha were on matters of doctrine 
or were connected with it— e.g., on nirodha (S. iii. 24); loka (S. iv. 53); 
sunna (S. iv. 54; M. iii. 104-24); vedand (S. iv. 219-21); iddhi (S. v. 282-4; 
286); dndpdnasati (S. v. 328-34); bhava, etc. (A. i. 223 f.); on the chalabhijati 
of Purana Kassapa ( q.v .); the aims and purposes of sib (A. v. If., repeated 
in v. 311 f.); the possibilities of samddhi (A. v. 7 f., repeated in v. 318 and 
in A. i. 132 f.); on sanghabheda (A. v. 75 ff.); the qualities requisite to be a 
counsellor of monks (A. iv. 279 ff.); the power of carrying possessed by a 
Buddha's voice (A. i. 226 f.); the conditions necessary for a monk's happi- 

42 M. iii. 119 ff. 

43 S. v. 5. 

49 In this case the discourse concluded 
with a description of the Dhammadasa 

44 M. i. 114; cp. Upavana suggesting j (Mirror of Truth) to be used for all time; 
the name for the Pasadika Sutta (D.iii. see also S. v. 356-60. 

141). 50 The Pabbajjd Sutta (Sn. 72 ff.), was 

4R M.iii.67. preached because of Ananda’s request 

46 B.g., A.ii. 156f.; v. 6. that the Buddha should give an account 

of his renunciation (SnA. ii. 381); see 
also Pubbayogavacara Sutta (SnA. i. 47). 

47 E.g., A. ii. 194. 

48 M. in. 189 f. 

Ananda ] 


ness (A. iii. 132 f.); the different ways of mastering the elements (M. iii. 
62 1); the birthplace of “ noble men ” (DhA. iii. 248); and the manner in 
which previous Buddhas kept the Fast-day (DhA. iii. 246). To these should 
be added the conversations on numerous topics recorded in the Maha- 
parinibbana Sutta. Some of these questions— e.g., about earthquakes 
(D. ii. 107 ff.; A. iv. 312 ff.) and the different kinds of spirits present at 
the death of the Buddha (D. ii. 139 f.)—seem to have been put into 
Ananda"s mouth in order that they might be used as pegs on which to 
hang beliefs connected with them which were current among later-day 

Not all the Suttas addressed to Ananda are, however, the result of his 
questions. Sometimes he would repeat to the Buddha conversations he 
had had with others and talks he had overheard, and the Buddha would 
expound in detail the topics occurring therein. 

Thus, for instance, a conversation with Pasenadi Kosala on Kalyam- 
mittata is repeated and the Buddha explains its importance (S. i. 87-9; 
v. 2-3); Ananda tells the Buddha about his visit to the Paribbajakarama 
in Kosambi and what he there heard about a bhikkhu being called niddasa 
after twelve years of celibacy. The Buddha thereupon expounds the 
seven niddasavatthu (A. iv. 37 ff.). The account conveyed by Ananda of 
Udayi preaching to a large crowd leads to an exposition of the difficulties of 
addressing large assemblies and the qualities needed to please them (A. iii. 
184). A conversation between Udayi and the carpenter Pancakanga on 
feelings is overheard by Ananda and reported to the Buddha, who gives a 
detailed explanation of his views on the subject (S. iv. 222 f.; M. i. 397 f.). 
The same thing happens when Ananda mentions to the Buddha talks he 
had heard between Sariputta and the Paribbajakas (S. ii. 35-7) and between 
the same Elder and Bhumiya (S. ii. 39-41). Sometimes—as in the case of 
the upasika Migasala (A. iii. 347; v. 137)—Ananda would answer questions 
put to him as best he could, and seek the Buddha’s advice and corrections 
of his interpretation of the Doctrine. 

When the monks asked Ananda whether the Buddha’s predictions re¬ 
garding the results of Devadatta’s crimes were based on actual knowledge, 
he furnished them with no answer at all until he had consulted the Buddha 
(A. iii. 402). Similarly, when Tapussa questions him as to why household 
life is not attractive to laymen, Ananda takes him straight away to the 
Buddha, who is spending his siesta in the Mahavana in Uruvelakappa 
(A. iv. 438 f.). Once Ananda fancies that he knows all about causation, and 
tells the Buddha how glad he is that he should understand this difficult 
subject. The Buddha points out to him that he really knows very little 
about it and preaches to him the Mahaniddna Sutta (D. ii. 55 ff.; S. ii. 92-3). 


[ Ananda 

When Ananda realises that the Buddha will die in a short while, with 
childlike simplicity, he requests the Buddha to make a last pronouncement 
regarding the Order (D. ii. 98 ff.; B. v. 152-4). 

On several occasions it is news that Ananda brings to the Buddha— e.g., 
about the death of the Nigantha Nataputta, and about Devadatta's plots, 
already mentioned—which provoke the Buddha to preach to him: Phagguna 
has died, and at his death his senses seemed very clear; so they would, says 
the Buddha, and proceeds to speak of the advantages of listening to the 
Dhamma in due season (A. iii. 381 f.). Or again, Girimananda is ill and 
would the Buddha go and see him ? The Buddha suggests that Ananda 
should go and tell Girimananda about the ten kinds of sanna ( aniccasannd , 
etc.), and the patient will recover (A. v. 108 f.). Ananda desires to retire 
into solitude and develop zeal and energy; would the Buddha tell him on 
which topics to meditate ? And the Buddha preaches to him the doctrine 
of impermanence (S. iii. 187; iv. 54-5). 

The Buddha, however, often preached to Ananda without any such pro¬ 
vocation on various topics— e.g., on the nature of the sankhara (B. iii. 37- 
40); on the impossibility of the monk without faith attaining eminence in 
the sdsana (A. v. 152 ff.); on the power the Buddha has of knowing which 
doctrines would appeal to different people and of preaching accordingly 
(A. v. 36 f.); on immorality and its consequences (A. i. 50 f.); on the ad¬ 
monitions that should be addressed to new entrants to the Order (A. iii. 
138 f.); on the advice which should be given to friends by those desiring 
their welfare (A. i. 222). 

The various topics on which the Buddha discoursed to Ananda as recorded 
in the Mahd Parinibbdna Sutta, have already been referred to. Borne of 
them— e.g., on the eight assemblies, the eight positions of mastery, the eight 
stages of deliverance (D. ii. 112)—seem to be stereotyped later additions. 
On the other hand, with regard to the accounts of the honours to be paid to 
a Buddha's dead body, the places of pilgrimage for the pious, and various 
other similar subjects, it is impossible to say how far they are authentic. 
In a few instances the remarks addressed to Ananda seem to be meant for 
others, to be heard by them or to be conveyed to them—e.g., in the dispute 
between Udayi and Sariputta, when they both seek the Buddha for him 
to settle the differences in opinion between them (A. iii. 192 ff.); or, again, 
when the recalcitrant Udayi fails to answer the Buddha's question on 
subjects of reflection ( anussatitthdna ), and Ananda gives an answer which 
the Buddha approves (A. iii. 322 ff.). A question asked by Ananda as to 
whether there are any scents which spread even against the wind, results 
in the well-known sermon about the fame of the holy man being wafted 
everywhere (A. i. 222 f.; DhA. i. 420 ff.). Once or twice Ananda intervenes 


Ananda ] 

in a discussion between the Buddha and another, either to ask a question 
or to suggest a simile which he feels could help the Buddha in establishing 
his point— e.g., in the interviews of Uttiya Paribbajaka (A. v. 194), of the 
brahmin Sangarava (A. i. 169), and again of Vidudabha, son of Pasenadi 
(M. ii. 130). 

In the Maha Mdluhkyd Sutta (M. i. 433), it is Ananda's intervention 
which evokes the discourse on the Five Fetters. Similarly he intervenes 
in a discussion between the Buddha and Parasariya’s pupil, Uttara, and 
persuades the Buddha to preach the Indriyabhdvana Sutta on the cultivation 
of the Faculties (M. iii. 298 ff.). 

Buddhaghosa gives a list of the discourses which bring out the eminence 
and skill of Ananda; they are the Sekha , Bdhitiya , Ananjasappdya , Gopaka- 
Moggalldna , Bahudhatuka , Cuiasunhata , Mahdsunnata , Acchariyabbhuta, 
Bhaddekaratta , Mahdniddna , Mahdparimbbana , Subha and Culaniyaloka- 
dhdtu. (For particulars of these see under the respective names.) 
The books give accounts of several conversations between Ananda and 
his eminent colleagues, such as Sariputta. 51 He seems to have felt happy 
in their company and did not hesitate to take to them his difficulties; 
thus we find him asking Sariputta why only certain beings in this world 
reach parinibbdna (A. ii. 167); on another occasion he asks Sariputta 
about the possibilities of samddhi (A. v. 8). On the other hand, at 
least twice (A. iii. 201 f.; 361 f.), when Ananda asks his questions 
of Sariputta, the latter suggests that Ananda himself should find the 
answer, and having heard it, Sariputta praises him highly and extols his 

Ananda's special friends seem to have been Sariputta, Moggallana, 
Maha Kassapa, Anuruddha and Kankha Bevata. 52 He was the Sahgha- 
navaka among them all, yet they held him in high esteem. 53 Ananda and 
Sariputta were very special friends. It is said that Sariputta loved Ananda 
because the latter did for the Buddha what Sariputta would wish to have 
done himself, and Ananda respected Sariputta because he was the Buddha's 
chief disciple. Young men who were ordained by either of them would 
be sent to the other to learn under him. They shared between them any 
good thing given to them. Once Ananda was presented by a brahmin with 
a costly robe; immediately he wished to give it to Sariputta, but as the 
latter was away at the time, he obtained the Buddha's permission to 
keep it for him till his return. 54 

The Samyutta Nikdya 66 contains an eulogy on Sariputta by Ananda, 

51 8ee also his conversation with 63 MA.i.436. 

Musila, and Savittha and Narada at 54 Vin. i. 289; 8p. iii. 636-7; MA. i. 
KosambIin the Ghositarama (S. ii. 113 f.). 436. 

52 E.g., M.i.212f. 33 im 63 . 4> 



[ Ananda 

where the latter speaks of his comprehensive and manifold wisdom, joyous 
and swift, of his rampant energy and readiness to accept advice. When 
he hears of Sariputta's death from Cunda the Samanuddesa, he goes to 
the Buddha w T ith Cunda (not wishing to break the news himself) and they 
take with them Sariputta’s bowl and outer robe, Cunda carrying the ashes, 
and there Ananda confesses to the Buddha that when he heard the news 
he felt as thought his body were drugged, his senses confused and his mind 
become a blank. 56 The Commentary adds 57 that Ananda was trembling 
“ like a cock escaping from the mouth of a cat.” 

That Maha Kassapa was fond of Ananda, we may gather from the fact 
that it was he who contrived to have him elected on the First Council, and 
when Maha Kassapa heard of Ananda's attainment of arahantship, it was 
he who led the applause. 58 Ananda held him in the highest veneration, 
and on one occasion refused to take part in an upasampadd ordination 
because he would have to pronounce Kassapa's name and did not consider 
this respectful towards the Elder. 59 In their conversations, Kassapa 
addresses Ananda as “ dvuso ,” Ananda addresses Kassapa as “ bhante.” 
There is an interview recorded between them in which Kassapa roundly 
abuses Ananda, calling him “ corn-trampler ” and “ despoiler of families,” 
and he ends by up saying “ this boy does not know his own measure.” 
Ananda had been touring Dakkhinagiri with a large company of monks, 
mostly youths, and the latter had not brought much credit upon them¬ 
selves. When Kassapa sees Ananda on his return to Rajagaha, he puts 
on him the whole blame for the youths' want of training. Ananda winces 
at being called “ boy ”; “ my head is growing grey hairs, your reverence, 
yet I am not vexed that you should call me ‘ boy ' even at this time of 
day.” Thullananda heard of this incident and showed great annoyance. 
“ How dare Maha Kassapa,” she says, “ who was once a heretical teacher, 
chide the sage Ananda, calling him ‘ boy Maha Kassapa complains 

to Ananda of Thullananda/s behaviour; probably, though we are not told 
so, Ananda apologised to him on her behalf. 60 

On another occasion, Ananda, after a great deal of persuasion, took 
Kassapa to a settlement of the nuns. There Kassapa preached to them, 
but the nun Thullatissa was not pleased and gave vent publicly to her 
displeasure. “ How does Kassapa think it fit to preach the doctrine in 
the presence of the learned sage Ananda ? It is as if the needle-pedlar 
were to deem he could sell a needle to the needle-maker.” Kassapa is 
incensed at these words, but Ananda appeases him by acknowledging 
that he (Kassapa) is in every way his superior and asks him to 

66 S. v. 161; Thag. vet’s. 1034-5. 
” KA.i. 180. 

58 DA. i. 11. 

60 S. ii.217ff. 

69 Vin. i. 92. 

Ananda ] 


pardon Tissa. “ Be indulgent, your reverence/' says he, “ women are 
foolish." 61 

In this passage Ananda is spoken of as Vedehamuni. The Commentary 62 
explains it by panditamuni , and says further, pandito hi ndnasahkhatena 
vedena ihati sabbakiccani karoti, tasma vedeho ti vuccati ; vedeho ca so muni 
cd ti vedehamuni , 63 

It was perhaps Ananda's championship of the women's cause which made 
him popular with the nuns and earned for him a reputation rivalling, as 
was mentioned above, even that of Maha Kassapa. When Pajapati 
GotamI, with a number of Sakyan women, undaunted by the Buddha's 
refusal of their request at Kapilavatthu, followed him into Vesali and there 
beseeched his consent for women to enter the Order, the Buddha would 
not change his mind. 

Ananda found the women dejected and weeping, with swollen feet, 
standing outside the Kutagarasala. Having learnt what had happened, 
he asked the Buddha to grant their request. Three times he asked and 
three times the Buddha refused. Then he changed his tactics. He in¬ 
quired of the Buddha if women were at all capable of attaining the Fruits 
of the Path. The answer was in the affirmative, and Ananda pushed home 
the advantage thus gained. In the end the Buddha allowed women 
to enter the Order subject to certain conditions. They expressed their 
great gratitude to Ananda. 64 In this connection, the Buddha is re¬ 
ported as having said 65 that had Ananda not persuaded him to give 
his consent to the admission of women to the Order, the Sasana 
would have lasted a thousand years, but now it would last only five 

This championing of the women's cause was also one of the charges 
brought against Ananda by his colleagues at the end of the First Council. 
(See below.) 

Perhaps it was this solicitude for their privileges that prompted him to 
ask the Buddha one day why it was that women did not sit in public 

61 S. ii. 215 ff.; the Tibetans say that went away from home Ananda wished 

when Kassapa died, Ajatasattu was very to join him, but his mother was unwilling, 
grieved because he had not been able to because his brother, Devadatta, had 
see the monk’s body. Ananda took the already gone away. Ananda therefore 
king to the mountain where it had been went to the Videha country and became 
buried and showed it to him (Roekhill, a muni. Is this another explanation of 
op. cit.. p. 162 and n. 2). the term Vedehamuni ? 

62 SA. ii. 132. 64 Vin. ii. 253 ff. Ananda is again 

63 Compare with this the derivation of found as intermediary for Pajapati 
Vedehiputta in connection with Ajata- 1 Gotami in M.iii. 253 f. 

sattu. See also s.v. Vedehika. The Mtu. I 65 Vin. ii. 256. 

(iii. 176-7) says that when the Buddha j 

260 [ Ananda 

assemblies (e.g. courts of justice), or embark on business, or reap the full 
fruit of their actions. 66 

That Ananda was in the habit of preaching frequently to the nuns is 
evident from the incidents quoted above and also from other passages. 67 
He seems also to have been in charge of the arrangements for sending 
preachers regularly to the nuns. A passage in the Samyutta Commentary 68 
seems to indicate that Ananda was a popular preacher among laywomen 
as well. 

They would stand round him when he preached, fanning him and asking 
him questions on the Dhamma. When he went to Kosambi to impose the 
higher penalty on Channa, the women of King Udena’s harem, hearing of 
his presence in the park, came to him and listened to his preaching. So 
impressed were they that they gave him five hundred robes. 69 It was 
on this occasion that Ananda convinced Udena of the conscientiousness 
with which the Sakyaputta monks used everything which was given to 
them, wasting nothing. The king, pleased with Ananda, gave him another 
five hundred robes, all of which he distributed among the community. 

A similar story is related of the women of Pasenadi's palace and their 
gift to Ananda. The king was at first angry, but afterwards gave Ananda 
one thousand robes. 70 

The Bhammafada Commentary 71 says that once Pasenadi asked the 
Buddha to go regularly to the palace with five hundred monks and preach 
the Law to his queens Mallika and Vasabhakhattiya and to the other women 
in the palace. When the Buddha said that it was impossible for him to 
go regularly to one place he was asked to send a monk, and the duty was 
assigned to Ananda. He therefore went to the palace at stated times and 
instructed the queens. Mallika was found to be a good student, but not 
so Vasabhakhattiya. 

The Jataka Commentary 72 says that the women of the palace were 
themselves asked which of the eighty chief disciples they would have as 
their preacher and they unanimously chose Ananda. For an incident 
connected with Ananda's visits to the palace see the Mahdsdra Jataka 
and also s. v. Pasenadi. 

According to the Anguttara Commentary 73 Ananda was beautiful to 
look at. 

Ananda's services seem often to have been sought for consoling the 
sick. Thus we find Anathapindika sending for him when he lay ill (M. iii. 

06 A. ii. 82. See also GS. ii. 92, n. 2, 69 Vin. ii. 290. 

on the interpretation of the last word. 70 J.ii. 24 ff. 

67 E.g., S. v. 154 ff.; Thag. v. 1020 ; 71 i. 382 ff. 

ThagA. ii. 129. , 72 i. 382. 

68 i. 210. i 73 ii. 533. 

Ananda ] 


258), and also Sirivaddha (8. v. 176 f.) and Manadinna {ibid., 177 f.). He 
is elsewhere mentioned as helping the Buddha to wait on a sick monk. 74 

We are told that when the Buddha had his afternoon siesta, Ananda 
would spend his time in waiting upon the sick and talking to them. 75 
Ananda was never too busy to show gratitude to his friends. When a 
certain crow-keeper’s family, members of which had been of special service 
to him, had been destroyed by a pestilence, leaving only two very young 
boys, he obtained the Buddha’s special permission to ordain them and 
look after them, though they were under the requisite age. 76 

When Ananda discovered that his friend Roja and Malla had no real 
faith in the Buddha, he was greatly grieved and interceded on his special 
behalf with the Buddha that he should make Roja a believer. Later he 
obtained the Buddha’s permission for Roja to offer a meal of potherbs. 77 
In another place we find Roja presenting Ananda with a linen cloth. 78 
According to the Jatakatthakathd 79 Roja once tried to persuade Ananda 
to go back to the lay-life. 

His sympathy is also shown in the story of the woman who asked to have 
a share in the Vihara built by Visakha. She brought a costly carpet, but 
could find no place in which to put it; it looked so poor beside the other 
furnishings. Ananda helped her in her disappointment. 80 

Once in Jetavana, in an assembly of monks, the Buddha spoke the praises 
of Ananda, and ranked him the foremost bhikkhu in five respects: erudition, 
good behaviour ( gatimantdnam, power of walking, according to Dhamma- 
pala), retentive memory, resoluteness and personal attention. 81 Again, 
shortly before the Buddha’s death, he speaks affectionately of Ananda 82 ; 
Ananda knew the right time to bring visitors to the Tathagata; he had 
four exceptional qualities, in that whoever came to see him, monks or 
nuns, laymen or laywomen, they were all filled with joy on beholding him 83 ; 
when he preached to them they listened with rapture and delight, which 
never tired. 84 

Another proof of the Buddha’s esteem for Ananda is the incident of his 
asking Ananda to design a robe for the monks to be in pattern like a field 
in Magadha (Yin. i. 287). 

74 Vin. i. 302. 80 DhA. i. 415 f. 

75 Sp. iii. 651. 81 A. i. 24 f. 

76 Vin. i. 79; to a young monk who 82 D. ii* 144-5; A. ii. 132; A. v. 229; 
used to wait on him and do various SA. ii. 94 f. 

servicesfor him, Ananda gave five hundred 83 Re was called Ananda because he 
robes presented to him by Pasenadi; the brought joy to his kinsmen (ThagA. ii. 
monk distributed them to his colleagues. 123). 

77 Vin. i. 247-9. 84 But see the story of Atula (DhA. iii. 

78 Ibid., i. 296. 327), who is not satisfied with Ananda’s 

79 ii. 231. preaching. 


[ Ananda 

In spite of Ananda having been the constant companion of the Buddha 
—probably because of that very fact—it was not until after the Buddha’s 
parinibbana that Ananda was able to realise Arahantship . 85 Though he 
was not an arahant he had the patisambhida, being among the few who 
possessed this qualification while yet learners (Sekha ). 86 When it was 
decided by Maha Kassapa and others that a Convocation should be held 
to systematise the Buddha’s teachings, five hundred monks were chosen as 
delegates, among them, Ananda. He was, however, the only non-arahant 
(sekha) among them, and he had been enjoined by his colleagues to put forth 
great effort and repair this disqualification. At length, when the convoca¬ 
tion assembled, a vacant seat had to be left for him. It had not been 
until late the previous night that, after a final supreme effort, he had 
attained the goal . 87 

It is said that he won sixfold abhinna when he was just lying down to 
sleep, his head hardly on the pillow, his feet hardly off the ground. He 
is therefore described as having become an arahant in none of the four 
postures. When he appeared in the convocation, Maha Kassapa welcomed 
him warmly and shouted three times for joy . 88 In the convocation, Ananda 
was appointed to answer Maha Kassapa’s questions, and to co-operate 
with him in rehearsing the Dhamma (as opposed to the Yinaya). 

Ananda came to be known as Dhammabhandagarika, owing to his skill 
in remembering the word of the Buddha; it is said that he could remember 
everything spoken by the Buddha, from one to sixty thousand words in 
the right order, and without missing one single syllable . 89 

In the first four Nikayas of the Sutta Pitaka , every sutta begins 
with the words “ Thus have I heard,” the “ I ” referring to Ananda. 
It is not stated that Ananda was present at the preaching by the Buddha 
of every sutta, though he was present at most; others, the Buddha repeated 
to him afterwards, in accordance with the conditions under which he had 
become the Buddha’s attendant. 

We are told that Ananda had learnt eighty-two thousand dhamma 

85 Buddhaghosa gives a long account 
of Ananda’s struggle for final emanci¬ 
pation (DA. i. 9 ff.); sec also Vin. ii. 

86 VibhA. 388. 

87 He had been occupied in consoling 
the laity after the Buddha’s death and 
had had no time for practising meditation. 
In the end it was a devata in the woodland 
grove in Kosala, where he was staying, 
who pointed out the urgency of the 
matter (S. i. 199-200); but see ThagA. i- 

237. where the credit for this is given to 

a Vajjiputta thera. 

88 According to the Majjhimabhanaka, 

says Buddhaghosa, Ananda appeared on 
his seat while the others looked on, having 
come through the earth; according to 
others he came through the air. Accord¬ 
ing to ThagA. ii. 130, it was a Brahma of 
the Suddhavasa who announced Ananda’s 
attainment of arahantship to his col¬ 
leagues at the Convocation. 

89 ThagA.ii. 134. 

Ananda ] 


(topics) from the Buddha himself and two thousand from his colleagues . 90 
He had also a reputation for fast talking; where an ordinary man could 
speak one word Ananda could speak eight; the Buddha could speak 
sixteen words for each one word of Ananda . 91 Ananda could remember 
anything he had once heard up to fifteen thousand stanzas of sixty thousand 
lines . 92 

Ananda lived to be very old 93 ; a hymn of praise sung at his death is in¬ 
cluded at the end of the stanzas attributed to him in the Theragathd. M 

That the Buddha’s death was a great blow to him is shown by the 
stanzas he uttered immediately after the event . 95 Three months earlier 
he had heard for the first time that death of the Buddha was near at hand 
and had besought him to live longer. The reply attributed to the Buddha 
is a curious one, namely, that on several previous occasions, at Rajagaha 
and at Vesall , 96 he had mentioned to Ananda that he could, if he so desired, 
live for a whole leaf fa, and had hinted that Ananda should, if he felt so 
inclined, request him to prolong his life. Ananda, however, having failed to 
take the hint on these occasions, the opportunity was now past, and the 
Buddha must die; the fault was entirely Ananda’s . 97 It was when Ananda 
was temporarily absent from the Buddha’s side that the Buddha had 
assured Mara that he would die in three months . 98 

As the end approached, the Buddha noticed that Ananda was not by his 
side; on enquiry he learnt that Ananda was outside, weeping and filled 
with despair at the thought that the Master would soon be no more, and 
that he (Ananda) would have to work out his perfection unaided. The 
Buddha sent for him and consoled him by pointing out that whatever is 
born must, by its very nature, be dissolved. Three times he said, 44 For 
a long time, Ananda, you have been very near to me by acts of love, kind 
and good, never varying, beyond all measure,” and he exhorted him to be 
earnest in effort, for he would soon realise emancipation . 99 

Once, earlier, when Udayl had teased Ananda for not having benefited 
from his close association with the personality of the Master, the Buddha 
had defended Ananda, saying, 44 Say not so, Udayl; should he die without 
attaining perfect freedom from passion, by virtue of his piety, he would 
seven times win rule over the devas and seven times be King of Jambudlpa. 
Howbeit, in this very life shall Ananda attain to Nibbana .” 100 

90 Thag. v. 1024 . 95 I). ii. 157. 

91 MA. i. 283. 96 See, e.r/., D. 102 f. 

92 MA. i. 501. 97 Ibid., 114-18. 

93 One hundred and twenty years, says 98 Ibid., 105-6. 

DhA.ii.99; he is bracketed with Bakkula, 99 Ibid., 144. It was on this occasion 
as having lived to a great age (AA. ii. that the Palasa Jdtaka was preached 
596). (J. iii. 23 ff.). 

94 Vers. 1047-9. 100 A.i.228. 


[ Ananda 

Ananda did his best to persuade the Buddha to die in one of the great 
cities, such as Rajagaha or Savatthi, and not in Kusinara, the little wattle- 
and-daub town (as he called it) in the middle of the jungle. He was not 
satisfied until the Buddha had revealed to him the past history of Kusinara, 
how it had once been Kusavatl, the royal capital of the mighty Maha 
Sudassana . 101 

Just before the Buddha died, Ananda was commissioned to inform the 
Mallas of the impending event, and after the Buddha's death, Anuruddha 
entrusted him, with the help of the Mallas of Kusinara, with all the 
arrangements for the funeral. 102 Ananda had earlier 103 learnt from the 
Buddha how the remains of a Tathagata should be treated, and now he 
was to benefit by the instruction. 

At the end of the First Council, the duty of handing down unimpaired 
the Digha Nikaya through his disciples was entrusted to Ananda. 104 He 
was also charged with the duty of conveying to Channa the news that the 
higher penalty (brahmadanda) had been inflicted on him by the Sangha. 
Ananda had been deputed by the Buddha himself to carry out this, his last 
administrative act, 105 but Ananda, not wishing to undertake the responsi¬ 
bility alone (knowing that Channa had a reputation for roughness), was 
granted a number of companions, with whom he visited Channa. The 
latter expressed repentance and was pardoned. 106 Perhaps it was because 
both the Buddha and Ananda's colleagues knew of his power to settle 
disputes that he was chosen for this delicate task. 107 

Ananda's popularity, however, did not save him from the recriminations 
of his fellows for some of his actions, which, in their eyes, constituted 
offences. Thus he was charged 108 with: (1) having failed to find out 
from the Buddha which were the lesser and minor precepts which the 
Sangha were allowed to revoke if they thought fit 109 ; (2) with having 
stepped on the Buddha’s rainy-season garment when sewing it; (3) with 
having allowed the Buddha's body to be first saluted by women 110 ; (4) with 
having omitted to ask the Buddha to live on for the space of a kappa 111 ; 
and (5) with having exerted himself to procure the admission of women 
into the Order. 112 

Ananda’s reply was that he himself saw no fault in any of these acts, 
but that he would confess them as faults out of faith in his colleagues. 

101 D.ii. 146. 

102 Ibid., 158, if. 

103 Ibid., 141 f. 

101 DA. i. 15. 

105 D.ii. 154. 

106 Vin.ii. 290-2. . 

107 See S. ii. 235 f., where the Buddha , 
classes him with Sariputta and Moggal- 

lana for his ability to settle disputes 
among the monks. 

108 Vin. ii. 288-9. 

109 SeeD. ii. 154. 

110 Not mentioned elsewhere, but see 
Rockhill, op. cit., p. 154. 

111 D.ii. 115. 

112 Vin. ii. 253. 

Ananda ] 


On another occasion he was found fault with (1) for having gone into the 
village to beg for alms, clothed in his waist-cloth and nether garment 113 ; 
(2) for having worn light garments which were blown about by the wind. 114 

The last years of his life, Ananda seems to have spent in teaching and 
preaching and in encouraging his younger colleagues. Among those who 
held discussions with him after the Buddha's passing away are mentioned 
Dasama of the Atthakanagara , 116 Gopaka Moggallana 116 and Subha Todeyya- 
putta . 117 

The Pali Canon makes no mention of Ananda J s death. Fa Hsien, 118 
however, relates what was probably an old tradition. When Ananda was 
on his way from Magadha to Vesali, there to die, Ajatasattu heard that he 
was coming, and, with his retinue, followed him up to the Rohini River. 
The chiefs of Vesali also heard the news and went out to meet him, and 
both parties reached the river banks. Ananda, not wishing to incur the 
displeasure of either party, entered into the state of (ejoJcasma in the middle 
of the river and his body went up in flames. His remains were divided 
into two portions, one for each party, and they built cetiyas for their en¬ 
shrinement. 119 

In the time of Padumuttara Buddha Ananda had been the son of Ananda, 
King of Hamsavatl, and was therefore a step-brother of Padumuttara. His 
name was Sumana. King Ananda allowed no one but himself to wait on the 
Buddha. Prince Sumana having quelled an insurrection of the frontier 
provinces, the king offered him a boon as reward, and he asked to be allowed 
to entertain the Buddha and his monks for three months. With great reluc¬ 
tance the king agreed, provided the Buddha's consent was obtained. When 
Sumana went to the vihara to obtain this, he was greatly impressed by 
the loyalty and devotion of the Buddha's personal attendant, the monk 
Sumana, and by his iddhi- powers. Having learnt from the Buddha that 
these were the result of good deeds, he himself determined to lead a pious 
life. For the Buddha’s residence Prince Sumana bought a pleasaunce 
named Sobhana from a householder of that same name and built therein 
a monastery costing one hundred thousand. On the way from the capital 
to Sobhana Park he built viharas, at distances of a league from each other. 
When all preparations were completed, the Buddha went to Sobhana with 
one hundred thousand monks, stopping at each vihara on the way. At the 
festival of dedication of the Sobhana Vihara, Sumana expressed a wish 
to become a personal attendant of a future Buddha, just as Sumana was of 

113 Yin. i. 298. 118 Giles trans. 44. The story also occurs 

114 Ibid., ii. 136. in DhA. ii. 99 ff., with several variations 

115 M. i. 349 f. in detail. 

116 Ibid.,Hi. 7; Thag., ver. 1024. i 119 See also Rockhill, op. cit ., 165 f. 

117 D. i.204 ff. 


[ Ananda 

Padumuttara. Towards this end he did many good deeds. In the time 
of Kassapa Buddha he gave his upper garment to a monk for him to carry 
his begging-bowl in it. Later he was born in heaven and again as King of 
Benares. He built for eight Pacceka Buddhas eight monasteries in his royal 
park 120 and for ten thousand years he looked after them. The Apadana 
mentions 121 that he became ruler of heaven thirty-four times and king of 
men fifty-eight times. 

Ananda's name occurs in innumerable Jatakas; he is identified with 
Suriyakumara in the Levadhamma Jataka (i. 133), Cullalohita in the 
Munika (i. 198), Pajjuna in the Maccha (i. 332), Kalakanni in the Kdla- 
lanni (i. 365), Radha in the Radha (i. 496), Potthapada in the Radha II. 
(ii. 134), Cullanandiya in the Cullanandiya (i. 202), Gamanicanda in the 
Gamanicanda (ii. 310), Cullalohita in the Sdluka (ii. 420), Dabbasena in 
the Ekaraja (iii. 15), Potthapada in the Kaldbu (iii. 100), Baranaslsetthi in 
the Pltha (iii. 121), Vedehatapasa in the Gandhara (iii. 369), Sumangala 
in the Sumangala (iii. 444), Anusissa in the Indriya (iii. 469), Mandavya 
in the Kanhadifdyana (iv. 37), Pottika in the Nigrodha (iv. 43), Panca- 
sikha in the Bildrakosiya (iv. 69), Rohineyya in the Ghata (iv. 69), Yu- 
dhitthila in the Yuvahjaya (iv. 123), Bharata in the Dasaratha (iv. 130), 
Matali in the Kanha (iv. 186), the Sudhdbhojana (v. 412), the Ninii 
(vi. 129), and the Kuldvaka (i. 206), Kalihga in the Kalingabodhi 
(iv. 236), Vlssakamma in the Suruci (iv. 325), Sambhutapandita 
in the Sambhuta (iv. 401), Cittamiga in the Rohantamiga (iv. 423), 
Sumukha in the Hamsa (iv. 430), Anusissa in the Sarabhahga (v. 151), 
Somadatta in the Gullasutasoma (v. 192), Sunanda the charioteer in the 
Ummadantl (v. 227), the younger brother of Kusa in the Kusa (v. 312), 
Nanda in the Sona-Nanda (v. 332), Sumukha in the Culahamsa (v. 334), 
and the Mahahamsa (v. 382), the brahmin Nanda in the Mahd Sutasoma 
(v. 511), Somadatta in the Bhuridatta (vi. 219). He was also the barber 
in the Makhddeva (i. 139), the antcvdsika in the Asdtamanta (i. 289), 
the bandit-leader in the Takka (i. 299), the brahmin in the Sdrambha 
(i. 375), the Sattubhasta (iii. 351), the Paldsa (iii. 25), the Junha (iv. 100), 
and the Sahkeddra (iv. 282); the tree-sprite in the Kusanali (i. 443), 
the elephant trainer in the Sumedha (i. 446), the younger brother of the 
Bodhisatta in the Manikaytha (ii. 286), the marauder in the Seyya 
(ii. 403), the inhabitant of a frontier village in the Mahd Assarohaka 
(iii. 13), the attendant in the Sahkha (iv. 22), one of the seven brothers 
in the Bhisa (iv. 314), the physician SIvaka in the Sivi (iv. 412), and 
the arrow-maker in the Maha-Janaka (vi. 68). 

Several times he was born as an animal. Thus he was a parrot in the 

120 ThagA. ii. 121 ff. 

121 i. 52 f. 


Ananda ] 

Saccahkira (i. 327), the Abbhantara (ii. 400) and the Mahd-ummagga 
(vi. 478), a jackal in the Guna (ii. 30), the father-goose in the Vinllaka 
(ii. 40), the tortoise in the Kacchapa (ii. 81), the iguana in the Cullapaduma 
(ii. 121), the otter in the Sasa (iii. 56), the younger swan in the Neru 
(iii. 248), the crab in the Suvannakakkataka (iii. 298), the wise naga in 
the Mahdpaduma (iv. 196), the tawny dog in the Mahabodhi (v. 246) 
and the vulture king in the Kunala (v. 456). 

He was many times king: in the Nigrodhamiga (i. 153), the Kukkura 
(i. 178), the Bhojajanlya (i. 181), the Ajanna (i. 182), the Tittha (i. 185), 
the Mahildmukha (i. 188), the Mudulakkhana (i. 306), the Kudddla 
(i. 315), the Mahasupina (i. 345), the Attisa (i. 354), the Mahasdra (i. 387), 
the Sdlittaka (i. 420), the Bandhanamokkha (i. 440), the Ekapanna (i. 508), 
the Gagga (ii. 17), the Suhanu (ii. 32), the Mora (ii. 38), the Suslma (ii. 50), 
the Gijjha (ii. 52), the Kalyanadhamma (ii. 65), the Kalayamutthi (ii. 76), 
the Sahgawdvacara (ii. 95), the V alodaka (ii. 97), the Giridanta (ii. 99), 
the Pabhatupatthara (ii. 127), the Punnanadl (ii. 175), the Kacchapa (ii. 
178), the Kosiya (ii. 209), the Guttila (ii. 257), the Sahkappa (ii. 277), 
the Kundaka-Kucchi-Sindhava (ii. 291) the Siri (ii. 415), the Ndnacchanda 
(ii. 429), the Supatta (ii. 436), the Chavaka (iii. 30), the Sayha (iii. 33), 
the Brahmadatta (iii. 81), the Rajovdda (iii. 112), the Kesava (iii. 145), 
the Sussondi (iii. 190), the Avdriya (iii. 232), the Nandiyamiga (iii. 274), 
the Dhajavihetha (iii. 307), the Kukku (iii. 321), the Sutanu (iii. 330), 
the Atthisena (iii. 355), the Mahakapi (iii. 375), the Dalhadhamma (iii. 388), 
the Susima (iii. 397), the Atthasadda (iii. 434), the Atthdna (iii. 478), the 
Cullabodhi (iv. 27), the Matiposaka (iv. 95), the Bhaddasala (iv. 157), the 
Mittamitta (iv. 199), the Amba (iv. 207), the Javahamsa (iv. 218), the 
Duta (iv. 228), the Rurumiga (ii. 263), the Sarabhamiga (ii. 275), the 
Udddlaka (iv. 304), the Dasabrdhmana (iv. 368), the Bhikkhaparampara 
(iv. 374), the Sattigumba (iv. 437), the Kumbha (v. 20), the Tesakuna 
(v. 125) and the Sama (vi. 95). 

He was King of Benares in the Kdka (i. 486), the Tacasdra (iii. 206) 
and the Sahkhapdla (v. 177); King Mallika in the Rajovada (ii. 5), the 
Kosala King in the Manikuudala (iii. 155), King Vatika in the Ghata 
(iii. 170), the Kosavya King in the Dhumakdri (iii. 402), King Addhama- 
saka in the Gahgamdla (iii. 454), and King Dhananjaya in the Sambhava 
(v. 67), and the Vidhurapandita (vi. 329). 

In the Mahd Naradakassapa Jdtaka 122 Ananda was born as Ruja, 
daughter of King Angati. 

The Dhammapada Commentary 123 states that once when Ananda was 
a blacksmith he sinned with the wife of another man. As a result, he 

J. vi. 255. 

123 i. 327. 


[ Ananda 

suffered in hell for a long time and was born for fourteen existences as 
some one's wife, and it was seven existences more before the results of his 
evil deed were exhausted. 

There seems to be some confusion as to the time at which Ananda 
entered the Order. In the Canonical account 124 he became a monk in 
the second year of the Buddha's ministry. In the verses attributed to 
him in the Theragatha , 125 however, he says that he has been for twenty- 
five years a learner (sehha). It is concluded from this that Ananda must 
have joined the Order only in the twentieth year after the Enlightenment 
and the whole story of his having been ordained at the same time as 
Devadatta is discredited. 126 The verses occur in a lament by Ananda 
that his master is dead and that he is yet a learner. The twenty-five 
years which Ananda mentions probably refer to the period during which 
he had been the Buddha's personal attendant and not to his whole career 
as a monk. During that period, “ though he was but a learner, no 
thoughts of evil arose in him," the implication being that his close con¬ 
nection with the Buddha and his devotion to him gave no room for such. 
He, nevertheless, laments that he could not become an asekha while the 
Buddha was yet alive. If this interpretation be accepted—and I see no 
reason why it should not be—there is no discrepancy in the accounts 
of Ananda's ordination. 

124 E.g., Vin. ii. 182. See also Rhys Davids’ article on Deva- 

125 Vers. 1039 ff. j datta in ERE. 

126 See, e.g., Thomas op. cd 123. 

2. Ananda. —A Khattiya king of Hamsavati, father of Padumuttara 

Buddha. 1 He had, by another wife, a daughter Nanda, who became the 
ther! Pakula in the present age. 2 Once, with twenty of his ministers 
and twenty thousand of his subjects, he appeared before Padumuttara 
Buddha at Mithila and, having received the “ ehi-bhikkhu-pabbajjd ," 
they became arahants. 3 The Buddha went back with them to Hamsavati 
where he preached the Buddhavamsa . 4 

One of Ananda's sons was the prince Sumana, step-brother to Padu¬ 
muttara, who became Ananda, the personal attendant of Gotama 
Buddha . 5 

1 J. i. 37; Bu. xii. 19. 3 MA. ii. 722; DA. ii. 488. 

2 ThigA. 91. 4 BuA. 160. 5 ThagA.ii. 122. 

3. Ananda. —Step-brother of Mangala Buddha. He came to Mangala 
Buddha with ninety crores of followers; having heard the Buddha's 
preaching, they all became arahants. 1 

1 J. i. 30. 


Ananda ] 

4. Ananda. —Son of Tissa Buddha, his mother being Subhadda. 1 

1 Bu. xviii. 18. 

5. Ananda. —Son of Phussa Buddha, his mother being Kisagotami. 1 
The Buddhavamsa Commentary, 2 however, gives his name as Anupama. 

1 Bu. xix. 16. 2 p. 192. 

6. Ananda. —A Pacceka Buddha of ninety-one kappas ago. The thera 
Citakapujaka, in a previous birth, came down from the deva-loka and 
cremated the Pacceka Buddha’s body with due honour. 1 According 
to the Majjhima Nikdya and its Commentary, 2 there were four Pacceka 
Buddhas of this name. 

1 Ap. i. 227. 2 M. iii. 70; MA. ii. 890. 

7. Ananda. —A king of vultures. He dwelt with ten thousand vul¬ 
tures in Gijjhakuta and came to hear Kunala preach. At the end of 
Kunala’s sermon Ananda, too, discoursed in the same strain, dwelling 
on the evil qualities of women “ keeping to facts within his knowledge.” 1 
He lived in the Kunaladaha with Narada, Devala, Punnamukha, the 
cuckoo, and Kunala. 2 In the present age the vulture-king was Ananda 
Thera, the Buddha’s attendant. 3 

1 J. v. 424, 447-50. 2 SnA. l. 359. 3 J. v. 456. 

8. Ananda. —A king of fishes, appointed by the fishes themselves to 
rule over them. 1 He was one of the six monsters of the deep. He lived 
on one side of the ocean and all the fishes came to him morning and 
evening to pay their respects. He lived on rock-slime ( sevdla ) till one 
day he swallowed, by mistake, a fish. Liking the taste very much, he 
found out what it was, and from that day he ate fish, unknown to his 
subjects. Seeing their numbers diminish, they began to grow inquisitive, 
and one day one of their wise ones hid in the lobe of Ananda’s ear and 
discovered him eating the fish which straggled behind. When this was 
reported to the other fish, they fled in terror and hid themselves. Ananda, 
desirous of eating them, searched everywhere; believing that they lay 
inside a mountain, he encircled it with his body. Seeing his own tail 
on the other side of the mountain and believing it to be a fish trying to 
escape, he crunched it in a rage. The tail was fifty leagues long and he 
suffered excruciating pain. Attracted by the smell of blood, the fish 
collected round and ate him bit by bit. His skeleton was as big as a 
mountain, and holy ascetics, flying through the air and seeing it below 

1 J. i. 207; ii. 352. 


[ Ananda 

them, told men about it and the story became famous throughout Jam- 
budipa. Kalahatthi is reported as relating this story to the king in the 
Mahd Sutasoma Jdtaka , 2 Ananda is referred to as an example of great 
deceitfulness. 3 

2 J. v. 462-4. 3 MA. i. 138. 

9. Ananda. —A yakkha to whom a shrine, called the Ananda Cetiya, was 
dedicated. The Cetiya was in Bhoganagara and was later converted 
into a Buddhist Vihara. 1 There the Buddha stayed during his last 
sojourn, and mention is made of a sermon he preached there to the monks 
on the Four Great Authorities (cattdro mahdpadesd ). 2 From there he 
went to Pava. 

1 AA.ii. 550. 2 D.ii. 123-6; A.ii. 167. 

10. Ananda. —A banker of Savatthi. He had eighty crores of money, 
but was a great miser. He had a son, Mulasiri, and once a fortnight he 
would gather his kinsfolk together and, in their presence, admonish his 
son as to the desirability of amassing wealth, always increasing it, giving 
none away. When the banker died he was born in a Candala family 
outside the city gates. The king appointed Mulasiri banker in his place. 

From the time of Ananda’s conception among the Candalas, mis¬ 
fortune dogged their footsteps. Knowing that a Jonah had come among 
them, they caused a search to be made and, as a result of their investi¬ 
gations, they sent the pregnant mother away. When the child was 
born he was a monstrosity with his organs all out of place. When old 
enough, he was given a potsherd and told to beg his living. One day 
he came to the house in which he had lived in his former life, and though 
he managed to enter it, he was discovered and thrown out by the servants. 
The Buddha happened to be passing by, and sending for Mulasiri, he 
told him that the beggar had been his father. Being convinced by 
certain proofs, Mulasiri believed and took refuge in the Buddha. 1 It is 
said that eighty-four thousand beings attained deathlessness on the 
occasion of the Buddha preaching to Mulasiri about his father Ananda. 2 

1 DhA.ii. 25-8; the story is referred to in the Milindapanha (p. 350). 

2 AA.i. 57. 

11. Ananda. —Author of the Mulatikd on Buddhaghosa's Commen¬ 
taries on the Abhidhamma. 1 He was originally a native of India, but 
came over to Ceylon and became head of the Vanavasi fraternity in the 
Island. He probably lived about the eighth or ninth century a.d. and 

1 Gv. 60, 69; Has. 69. 

Ananda ] 


wrote the Mulatika at the request of a monk named Buddhamitta. He is 
probably identical with Ananda, teacher of Culla Dhammapala (see 
below). 2 He was also known as Vanaratana Tissa from his connection 
with the Vanavasi school. 

2 P.L.C. 202 f.; 216 f. 

12. Ananda.—Teacher of Culla Dhammapala, author of the Saccasan- 
khepa. 1 The Saddkamma Sanghaia 2 says that Ananda was the author 
of the Saccasankhepa. See also above (Ananda 11). 

1 q-v. 2 ix. 

13. Ananda.—Teacher of Buddhappiya, author of the Rupasiddhi. He 
was a native of Ceylon, for Buddhapiya refers to him as “ Tambapannid - 
dhaja ” He too belonged to the VanavasI sect and wrote a Sinhalese 
interverbal translation to Piyadassi's Pada-Sadham and another to the 
Khudda-Sikkha. He was a disciple of Udumbaragiri Medhankara, pupil 
of Sariputta, and he probably lived in the time of Vijayabahu III. 1 

He was the teacher of Y^ieha, author of the Samantakutavannana 2 
See also Buddhavamsa V naratana Ananda. 

1 P.L.C. • J. 2 Ibid., 220. 

14. Ananda.—Author of the Saddhammopdyana , also called Abhayagiri- 
Kavicakravarti Ananda and probably belonging to the same period as 
Ananda (13). His friend and companion, for whom his book was written, 
was Buddhasoma. An Ananda, probably a later writer, is also the 
author of a Sinhalese Commentary on the Saddhammopayana. 1 

1 P.L.C. 212. 

l ~. Ananda.—Companion of Chapata and co-founder of the Sihala-Sangha 
of Burma. 1 He was later cut off from the community for trying to send 
to his kinsfolk an elephant presented to him by King Narapati. His 
companions suggested that the animal should be let loose in the forest, 
in accordance with the Buddha's teaching regarding kindness to animals. 
Ananda's reply was that the Buddha had also preached kindness to 
kinsfolk. 2 He died in 1246. 3 

1 Sas. 65. 3 Forchammer: Jardine Prize Essay, 

2 Bode: op. cit.. 24. p. 35. 

16. Ananda.—Of Haipsavati. Author of the Madhusaratthadipam, 
a tikd on the Abhidhamma. 1 

1 feas. 48; but see Bode: op. cit ., 47-8. 


[ Ananda 

17. Ananda. —Called Manava, in order to distinguish him from others. 
He was a brahmin youth, maternal cousin of the therl Uppalavanna, 
with whom he had been in love when she was a laywoman. One day 
when Upalavanna returned from her alms-rounds to her hut in Andhavana, 
where she was living at the time, Ananda manava, who was hiding under 
her bed, jumped up and seized her. In spite of her protestations and 
admonitions, he overcame her resistance by force and, having worked 
his will of her, went away. As if unable to endure his wickedness, the 
earth burst asunder and he was swallowed up in Avici . 1 

In order that such assaults should not be repeated, Pasenadi Kosala 
erected, at the Buddha's suggestion, a residence for the nuns within the 
city gates, and henceforth they lived only within the precincts of the city. 2 

1 DhA.ii. 49-50. 2 Ibid., 51 f. 

Ananda Vagga. —The eighth chapter of the Tiha Nipdta of the Anguttara 
NiJcaya. It consists of ten suttas, the last of which contains a prophecy 
regarding Ananda . 1 

1 A. i. 215-28. 

1. Ananda Sutta. —Preached by Ananda to Vangisa. Once as they 
were going together for alms to Savatthi, Vangisa confessed that he was 
disaffected. Ananda advised him on how to overcome the disaffection 
by proper cultivation of the senses. 1 

1 S.i. 188. 

2. Ananda Sutta. —Once Ananda was living in a forest tract in the 
Kosala country and was much occupied in talking to the laity who came 
to see him. A deva of the forest, desiring his welfare, came up to him 
and suggested that he might stop his constant babbling and meditate 
instead. 1 According to Buddhaghosa, 2 this was soon after the Buddha's 
death, shortly before Ananda became arahant. People, knowing of his 
close attendance on the Master, were ever asking for details about the 
Parinibbana and when they mourned he had to admonish them. He 
used to wander about, taking with him the Buddha's begging bowl and 
robe. In the Theragatha? the same admonition is put into the mouth of 
a Vajjiputta monk. 

1 S. i. 199. 2 SA.i.225. 3 ver. 119; ThagA. i. 237. 

3. Ananda Sutta. —Preached by the Buddha to Ananda, who asked 
how nirodha could be obtained. By the cessation of the five Jchandhas, 
answered the Buddha. 1 

1 S. iii. 24-5. 


Ananda Sutta ] 

4. Ananda Sutta. —A conversation between the Buddha and Ananda, 
at Jetavana. Ananda is asked in what things one discerns the arising 
(uppdda ), passing away (vaya), and constant change (annathatta). The 
answer is “ in the five khandhas.” The Buddha praises Ananda for his 
answer. 1 

1 S.iii. 37-8. 

5. Ananda Sutta. —Same as above, except that the discernment is not 
only with regard to the present, but also to the past and the future. 1 

1 S.iii. 38-9. 

6. Ananda Sutta. — Ananda tells the monks in Jetavana how when he 
and his colleagues were novices, Punna Mantaniputta was very helpful 
to them and instructed them as to how the conceit of self (asmimana) 
arose and how it could be overcome. Having heard him, Ananda says 
he fully understood the Dhamma. 1 

1 S. iii. 105-6. 

7. Ananda Sutta. —Preached at Jetavana. Ananda asks the Buddha 

about psychic power ( iddhi ), its basis and cultivation, and the practice 
thereof. The Buddha enlightens him. 1 

1 S. v. 285-6. 

8. Ananda Sutta. —Same as above, with the addition of Ananda s 
declaration that the monks consider the Buddha as their guide, etc. 1 

1 S. v. 286. 

9. Ananda Sutta. —Preached at Jetavana. Ananda is instructed as 
to how concentration on breathing (anapanasati) leads to the four 
satipatthanas and how these, in turn, bring to completion the seven 
bojjhangas. These last lead to complete knowledge and release ( vijja - 
vimutti). The methods of their development are explained in detail. 1 

1 8. v. 328-33. 

10. Ananda Sutta. —Same as above, the only difference being the same 
as between 7 and 8. 

11. Ananda Sutta. —Kecords a visit paid to Ananda at Jetavana by 

Sariputta, who was also staying there. Sariputta tells Ananda that 
sotapannas are those that have no disloyalty to the Buddha, the Dhamma 
and the Sangha. They have no such immorality as is possessed by the 
uneducated putthujjanas. 1 

3 8. v. 362-4. 



[ Ananda Sutta 

12. Ananda Sutta. —Preached at the Ghositarama in Kosambi. Ananda 

asks the Buddha how monks could enjoy ease (phdsuvihdra) and the 
Buddha tells him. 1 

1 A.iii. 132-4. 

13. Ananda Sutta. —A conversation between Ananda and Maha 
Kotthita with regard to what happens after the passionless, remainderless 
ending of the six spheres of contact. 1 

1 A. ii. 162. The P.T.8. text puts this mentary and the Uddana at the end of 
under Kotthita Sntta, but both the Com- the Vagga treat it as a separate sutta. 

14. Ananda Sutta.—Ananda goes to Sariputta and asks him how far 

a monk could learn the Dhamma, remember it, reflect upon it and teach 
it to others. Sariputta suggests that Ananda should answer the question 
himself, which Ananda does. At the end of the discourse Sariputta 
utters an eulogy on Ananda and calls him the pattern of the true monk. 1 

1 A.iii. 361-2. 

15. Ananda Sutta. —Preached by the Buddha in reply to Ananda’s 
question as to how notions of “ I ” and “ mine ” and the tendency to 
vain conceit could be completely destroyed. 1 This sutta refers to the 
Punnaka-panha of the Pardyana. 

1 A.i. 132 f. 

16. Ananda Sutta. —A conversation between Ananda and Udayl on 
the wonders of a Tathagata's attainment and the nature of perception. 
In the course of the dialogue Ananda mentions a visit paid to him by a 
nun who was a follower of the Jatilas, and her questions on samadhi. 1 

1 A. iv. 426. 

17. Ananda Sutta. —A discourse given to the monks by Ananda on the 
good man and the wicked man. 1 

1 A. v. 6 f. 

18. Ananda Sutta. —On the ten qualities that a monk should possess 
if he would benefit by the practice of the Buddha's teachings. 1 

1 A. v. 152 ff. 

Ananda or Atthatta Sutta. —The paribbajaka Vacehagotta visits the 
Buddha and asks him if there is a self. The Buddha makes no reply even 
when the question is repeated, and Vacehagotta goes away. The Buddha, 


Anandamanava ] 

later, explains to Ananda, in reply to his inquiry, that he remained 
silent because whatever answer he gave to Vacchagotta's question, it 
would be capable of being misunderstood and misinterpreted. 1 

1 S. iv. 400-1. 

Anandakumara. —A shipwright, who, with three hundred others, was 
sent by Mahosadha to the Upper Ganges to secure timber wherewith to 
build three hundred ships in preparation for Mahosadha's visit to the 
capital of Pancala in order to erect buildings for King Vedeha . 1 

1 J. vi. 427. 

Anandabodhi. —The bodhi-tree planted by Ananda at the entrance to 
Jetavana. The people of Savatthi, led by Anathapindika, suggested to 
Ananda that some place should be provided where they might offer 
flowers and perfumes in the name of the Buddha, when the Buddha was 
away on his periodical tours. After consultation with the Buddha, 
Ananda obtained, with Moggallana’s assistance, a fruit from the bodhi- 
tree at Gaya, and had it planted at the gateway of Jetavana in the presence 
of a large and distinguished gathering, including Pasenadi Kosala and 
Visakha. The seed was planted by Anathapindika in a golden jar filled 
with fragrant earth. Immediately a sapling sprang up, fifty cubits 
tall, with five branches, each fifty cubits long. The king poured round 
the tree perfumed water from eight hundred jars of gold and silver. In 
order to consecrate the new tree, the Buddha, at Ananda's request, sat 
under it for one night, in the rapture of samapatti. Because the tree 
was planted by Ananda, it became known as Anandabodhi. 1 Pilgrims 
who came to the Buddha at Jetavana were in the habit of paying respect 
to the Anandabodhi. 2 The Paduma Jdtaka and the Kdlihgabodhi Jdtaka 
were both preached in reference to this bodhi-tree. 

1 J. iv. 228-30. 2 J. ii. 321. 

Ananda-bhaddekaratta Sutta. —Preached at Jetavana. Ananda dis¬ 
courses to the assembled monks on the nature of the True Saint ( Bhadde - 
karatta). The Buddha appears on the scene and on being told of Ananda's 
discourse, asks him how exactly he had proceeded. Ananda repeats to 
him the Bhaddekaratta Sutta ( q.v .), which he had previously learnt from 
the Buddha. The Buddha recites it himself from beginning to end and 
praises Ananda for his skill. 1 

1 M.iii. 189-91. 

Anandamanava.— See Ananda (17). 



Ananda. —One of the five daughters of the chief queen of the king of 
the third Okkaka dynasty. 1 The Mahavamsa Tikd 2 says that Okkaka 
was the youngest of the sixteen kings of the Mahasammata dynasty and 
makes no mention of three Okkaka dynasties. 

The name of Okkaka’s chief queen was Hattha (v.l. Bhatta). 

1 DA. i. 258; SnA. i. 352. 2 p. 84. 

“ Anandena ” Sutta. The Buddha is asked by Ananda to tell him of a 
doctrine which would make him more ardent and intent. The Buddha 
teaches him the doctrine of impermanence. 1 

1 S.iii. 187-8. 

Anapana Katha. —The third section of the Mahavagga of the Pati- 
sambhidamagga. 1 

1 Ps. i. 162 ff. 

Anapana Vagga. —The seventh chapter of the Bojjhanga Samyutta of 
the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S. v. 129-32. 

Anapana Samyutta. —The fifty-fourth section of the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S. v. 311-41. 

Anapana Sutta. —The idea of in-breathing and out-breathing, if culti¬ 
vated and developed, leads to much profit. 1 

1 S. v. 132. 

Anapanasati Sutta.— Preached at Savatthi on Komudi, the full-moon 
day of the fourth month. The monks had gathered together to see 
the Buddha and eminent disciples had been busy instructing their pupils 
in the various attainments. 1 Seing them thus assembled, the Buddha 
was pleased with their demeanour and described how in the confraternity 
of monks were to be found men of various degrees of attainment. Some 
of them practised the cultivation of mindfulness by breathing exercises 
and the Buddha proceeded to explain how it was done. Such mindful¬ 
ness leads to the development of the four satipatthdnas , and these, in 
turn, to the seven bojjhangas. Through them one attains deliverance 
through understanding. 2 

1 The Commentary says the Buddha of developing their attainments. (MA. 
had not gone on tour as usual because ii. 895-6.) 
he wanted to give the monks opportunity 2 78.g8, 


Apatti ] 

1. Anisamsa Vagga. —The tenth chapter of the Chakka Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. It consists of eleven suttas on various subjects. 1 

1 A.iii. 441-5. 

2. Anisamsa Vagga. —The first chapter of the Dasaka Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nikaya , consisting of ten suttas. 1 

1 A. v. 1-14. 

Anisamsa Sutta. —On the six advantages of realising the first fruit 
of the Path (Sotapattiphala). 1 

1 A. iii. 441. 

Apana. —A city in the Anguttarapa country (probably its capital). 
The Buddha once visited the city with 1,250 monks and the whole 
company was entertained by the Jatila Keniya. 1 From Apana the 
Buddha went on to Kusinara. 2 In the Samyutta Nikaya , 3 Apana is 
spoken of as a township of the Angas ( Angdnam nigamo) and the Buddha 
is mentioned as having stayed there with Sariputta. Several suttas were 
preached at Apana, among them the Potaliya Sutta (regarding Potaliya), 4 
the Latukikopama Sutta (to Udayi), 5 the Sela Sutta (regarding Sela) 6 and 
the Saddha or Apana Sutta. 7 Apana was a brahmin village and was the 
home of the Elder Sela. 8 On the occasion of the Buddha's visit to 
Apana, during which he converted Sela and Keniya, he seems to have 
stayed at Apana for over a week and ordained three hundred monks in 
the company of Sela. 9 

According to Buddhaghosa, 10 the village was called Apana because it 
had twenty thousand bazaars [apana) and was therefore distinguished 
for its shops (dpananam ussannattd). Near the village, on the banks of 
the river Mahi, was the woodland where the Buddha stayed during his 

1 Vin. i. 245 ff, 

2 Ibid., 247. 

3 v. 225. 

4 M.i. 359 ff. 

5 M.i. 447 ff. 

6 M.ii. 146 ff; Sn. pp. 102 ff. 

7 S. v. 225-7. 

8 ThagA. ii. 47. 

9 Sn., p. 112. 

10 MA. ii. 586. 

Apana Sutta. —See Saddha Sutta. 

Apatti. —A section of the Vinaya Pitaka, the fourth chapter of the 
Parivdra. 1 

1 Vin. v. 91 ff. 

278 [ Apatti Vagga 

Apatti Vagga. —The twenty-fifth chapter of the Catuhlca Nipdta of the 
Ahguttara Nikaya, containing ten suttas on various subjects. 1 

1 A. ii. 239-46. 

1. Apatti Sutta. — Ananda informs the Buddha at Ghositarama in 

Kosambi, that Bahiya’s efforts to bring about dissension in the Order 
had not been suppressed because Anuruddha, being Bahiya’s colleague, 
did not want to interfere. The Buddha tells him that they should not 
depend on Anuruddha for interference in disputes, for he was by tem¬ 
perament unfitted for such action. He then proceeds to discourse to 
Ananda on the four probable reasons for a monk being desirous of creating 
dissension. 1 

1 A. ii. 239 f. 

2. Apatti Sutta.— Deals with the four kinds of fears produced by 
transgressions, involving either being taken in the act and punished or 
having to confess guilt and receive punishment. 1 

1 A. ii. 240-3. 

Apa. —A class of deities who were present at the preaching of the Mahd - 
samaya Sutta. 1 

Buddhaghosa 2 says they were born as devas because of their having 
practised dpohasina in previous lives. 

1 D. ii. 259. 2 DA. ii. 689. 

Apana. —One of the Vanni chiefs of Ceylon, brought into subjection by 

Bhuvanekabahu I. 1 

1 Cv. xc. 33. 

Apayika Vagga. —The twelfth chapter of the Tika Nipdta of the 
Anguttara Nihdya. 1 It contains ten suttas on various topics. 

1 A. i. 265-73. 

Apayika Sutta. —On three persons who are doomed to purgatory. 1 

1 A.i. 265. 

Abhassara. —A Brahma-world where live radiant devas from whose 
bodies rays of light are emitted, like lightning. It belongs to the Rupaloka 
and is in the plane of second jhana. 1 The devas living there subsist on joy 
(pltibhakkha) . 2 Their span of life is two kappas and there is no guarantee 
1 Abhs. v. 3; Compendium 138, n. 4. 2 S. i. 114; DhA.iii. 258; J. vi. 55. 

Abhassara J 


that a person who has been born there may not later be reborn in an un* 
happy condition. 3 From time to time these devas utter shouts of joy say¬ 
ing “ aho sukham , aho sukham” This sound is the best of sounds. These 
devas are completely enveloped in ease (sukhena abhisannd parisannd) . 4 
Their world forms the third station of consciousness (vinndnatthiti), they 
are of uniform body, but their perceptions are diverse (ekattakayd ndnat- 
tasannino). 5 During the periods of the development of the world many 
beings are born in the Abhassara realm and they are then called the 
highest of the devas, yet even they change their condition. 6 In lists of 
devas 7 they are given below the Appamanabha and above the Subha. 

Bodhisattas are sometimes born in the Abhassara world, 8 but they 
are never born in Arupa worlds even when they have developed Arupa- 
jhanas. Baka Brahma was born in Abhassara after having passed through 
Vehapphala and Subhakinna, and it was then that he conceived the belief 
that he was eternal. 

The Buddha visited him and convinced him of the error of his belief. 9 
When the universe is dissolved after the lapse of a long epoch and is 
again evolved, beings are mostly born in the Abhassara world. When, 
sooner or later, the world begins to re-evolve ( vivattati ), the Brahmavi- 
mana appears, but it is empty. Then some being or other, either because 
he has finished his life there or because his merit is exhausted, leaves 
the Abhassara world and is reborn in the Brahmavimana. Others 
follow his example, and it is then that the first to be reborn in the 
Brahma-world thinks of himself as Brahma, the eternal, etc. 10 

When inhabitants of the Abhassara-world are reborn as humans, their 
existence continues to be like that which they had in the brahma-world 
itself. As time goes on, however, they lose their qualities and 
develop the characteristics, both physical and mental, of human beings. 11 
Buddhaghosa 12 says that their birth on earth is opapdtika (by spontaneous 
regeneration) and they are mind-born (manomaya). 

On the occasions when the world is destroyed by fire, the fire spread 
up to the Abhassara-world; when by water, the water rises to the Subha¬ 
kinna ; when by wind, the wind reaches to the Vehapphala. 13 

According to Buddhaghosa, 14 the Abhassaras are so called because 
radiance spreads from their bodies in all directions, like flames from a 

3 A. ii. 127; but see Abhs. v. 6, where 9 J. iii. 359. 

their life-span is given as eight kappas. 10 D. iii. 29. 

4 A.iii. 202; D.iii. 219. 11 For details see D. iii. 84 ff., PsA. 

5 A. iv. 40,401; D.ii. 69; D.iii.253. 253. 

6 A. v. 60. 12 jy A iii# 865 . 

1 E.g., M. i.289. 13 CypA. 9. 

8 AA. i. 73; J. i. 406, 473; M. i. 329; 14 MA. i. 29; VibhA. 520; cp. DA. ii. 

MA.i.553; SA.i. 162. 510. 

280 [ Abha 

torch (dandadl'pikaya acci riya etesam sanrato dbhd chijjitrd chijjitvd 
fatanti viya sarati visarati ti Abhassara). 

Abha. —A generic name for devas distinguished for their brilliance, 
such as the Parittabha and the Appamanabha. 1 

1 M. iii. 102; MA. ii. 902. 

Abha Vagga. —The fifteenth chapter of the Catukka Nipdta of the 
Ahguttara Nikaya. It consists of ten suttas on such subjects as the four 
splendours, the four due seasons, the four sins and virtues of speech and 
the four choicest parts (sdras). 1 

1 A. ii. 139-41. 

Abha Sutta. —There are four radiances: that of the moon, the sun, of 
fire, and of wisdom, the last being the chief. 1 

1 A. ii. 139. 

Amakadhanna-peyyala. —The ninth chapter of the Sacca Samyutta of 
the Samyutta Nikaya. It contains a list of the gifts which Ariyan monks 
abstain from accepting. 1 

1 S. v. 470-3. 

Amagandha. —A brahmin. Before the appearance of the Buddha in 
the world, Amagandha became an ascetic and lived in the region of the 
Himalaya with five hundred pupils. They ate neither fish nor flesh. 
Every year they came down from their hermitage in search of salt and 
vinegar, and the inhabitants of a village near by received them with 
great honour and showed them every hospitality for four months. 

Then one day the Buddha, with his monks, visited the same village, 
and the people having listened to his preaching became his followers. 
That year when Amagandha and his disciples went as usual to the village, 
the householders did not show towards them the same enthusiasm as 
heretofore. The brahmin, enquiring what had happened, was full of 
excitement on hearing that the Buddha had been born, and wished to 
know if he ate “ amagandha ” by which he meant fish or flesh. He was 
greatly disappointed on learning that the Buddha did not forbid the 
eating of amagandha , but, desiring to hear about it from the Buddha 
himself, he sought him at Jetavana. The Buddha told him that dma- 
gandha was not really fish or flesh, but that it referred to evil actions, and 
that he who wished to avoid it should abstain from evil deeds of every 

Amandaphaladayaka Thera ] 


kind. The same question had been put to the Buddha Kassapa by an 
ascetic named Tissa, who later became his chief disciple. In giving 
an account of the conversation between Kassapa Buddha and Tissa, 
the Buddha preached to Amagandha the Amagandha Sutta. The brah¬ 
min and his followers entered the Order and in a few days became ara- 
hants. 1 

1 Sn., pp. 42-5; SnA. i. 278 ff. 

Amagandha Sutta. —The conversation between the Buddha and the 
brahmin Amagandha mentioned above. 1 According to Buddhaghosa 2 
this was merely a reproduction of the conversation of the Buddha 
Kassapa with the ascetic Tissa, who later became his chief disciple. 

The sutta is particularly interesting as being one of the few passages 
in which sayings of the previous Buddhas are recorded. The Buddha's 
view is put forward as being identical with that which had been enunci¬ 
ated long ago, with the intended implication that it was a self-evident 
proposition accepted by all the wise. 

1 Sn. 42 ff. 2 SnA. i. 280 ff. 

Amandagamani Abhaya.— Son of Mahadathika and King of Ceylon 
for nine years and eight months. His younger brother, by whom he 
was ultimately slain, was Kanirajanu-Tissa, and he had two children, a 
son Culabhaya and a daughter SIvall. Ilanaga was his nephew. 

Amandagamani heightened the cone of the Maha Thupa and made 
additions to the Lohapasada and the Thuparama. He also built the 
Rajatalena Vihara and the Mahagamendi tank to the south of Anura- 
dhapura, which latter he gave for the use of the Dakkhinavihara. He 
enacted an order that there should be no slaughter of animals in Ceylon 
and had gourds planted everywhere. To the whole brotherhood of 
monks in the island he once gave robes and alms-bowls filled with 
kumbhandaka fruits (pumpkins) and thereafter he was known by the name 
of Amandagamani. 1 

His brother Kanirajanu-Tissa, having killed him, succeeded to the 
throne. 2 Amandagamani is also referred to as Amanda and Amandiya. 

1 Amanda is evidently a synonym of Kumbhandaka. 

2 Mhv. xxxv. 1-10; MT. 640. 

Amandaphaladayaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth, while 
carrying a pingo laden with fruit, he saw the Buddha Padumuttara and 
offered him an dmanda fruit (pumpkin ?). In the present age he became 
an arahant. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 459. 

282 [ Amalakivana 

Amalakivana. —A grove at Gatuma. The Buddha once stayed there, 
and it was on that occasion that the Gatuma Sutta was preached. 1 

1 M. i. 456. 

Amalacetiya. —A thupa in Ceylon. It is not known who built it. 
Aggabodhi I. erected a parasol over it. 1 

1 Cv. xlii. 62. 

Amisakincikkha Sutta. —One of the suttas in a group of eight, dealing 
with people who will not lie for the sake of gain—and, in this case, for 
the sake of anything worldly whatsoever. 1 

1 S. ii. 234. 

1. Ayatana Sutta. —Once when the Buddha was staying in the Kuta- 
garasala in Vesali, he preached to the monks a sermon on the six spheres 
of contact (saldyatana). The monks listened with rapt attention until 
Mara, making a terrible din, disturbed their peace of mind. The Buddha 
admonished the monks not to be led away by Mara, and the latter, dis¬ 
comfited, disappeared. 1 

1 S. i. 112. 

2. Ayatana Sutta. —The four Ariyan truths are concerned with the 
six personal spheres of sense. Effort should be made to realise this. 1 

1 8. v. 426. 

Ayasmanta. —A general of King Sahasamalla. Ayasmanta deposed 
the king and installed Kalyanavati, chief queen of Kittinissanka, on the 
throne of Ceylon. It was he who really administered the government, 
the queen’s power being only nominal. The Culavamsa calls him a man 
of almost unsurpassable courage, a descendant of the Khandhavara 
family. He slew the Adhikarin Deva and had a vihara erected at Vallig- 
gama. He also built a parivena called after him Sarajakulavaddhana 
(this evidently being one of his honorific titles) and gave land and other 
possessions for its maintenance. He had a text-book of law compiled 
for the use of administrators. 

He was slain by the Mahadipada Anlkanga. 1 

1 Cv. lxxx. 33-44. For furthei details see Geiger Cv. Trs. ii, 130, n. 2. 

Ayagadayaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he worshipped 
with gladsome heart the thupa of Sikh! Buddha and gave carpenters 

Ay&citabhatta Jataka ] 


money to build an aydga. 1 As a result he was born in deva worlds and 
could bring even the devas into subjection. He could produce rain at 
will. 2 

1 A long almshall, says ApA. 2 Ap. i. 89*90. 

1. Ayacana Vagga. —The twelfth chapter of the Duka Nipdta of the 
Anguttara Nikaya. It contains eleven suttas on different topics. 1 

1 A. i. 89-91. 

2. Ayacana Vagga. —The third chapter of the Radha Samyutta of 
the Samyutta Nikaya. 1 

1 S.iii. 198-200. 

1. Ayacana Sutta. —The good monk, if he would perfectly aspire, 
should wish to be like Sariputta and Moggallana ; the nun to be like 
Khema and Uppalavanna ; the householder like Citta and Hatthaka ; 
the house-mistress like Khujjuttara and Velukantakl, the mother of 

Nanda. 1 

1 A.ii. 164. 

2. Ayacana Sutta. —Contains the story of the reluctance felt by the 
Buddha, while meditating at Uruvela, in the eighth week after the 
Enlightenment, to preach his doctrine to the world, feeling that it would 
not appeal to the human temperament; and of the appearance before him, 
of the Brahma Sahampati, who had read his thoughts and who entreated 
him to overcome this reluctance. He assured the Buddha that there 
were in the world many who would comprehend the Dhamma if they 
heard it. The Buddha saw that this assurance was justified and agreed 
to set forth as a teacher. 1 

The sutta appears verbatim in the Vinaya? and almost verbatim in 
the Digha Nikaya , 3 as an episode in the life of each of the Buddhas men¬ 
tioned there, but with two variants; the Brahma repeats his request 
three times and the stanzas in which the request is made, as given in the 
Samyutta , are omitted. 

1 S.i.l36ff. 2 i. 4 ff. 3 ii. 36 ff. 

Ayacitabhatta Jataka (No. 19).—Once the squire of a certain village, 
in the Kasi country, promised the deity of a banyan tree a sacrifice 
should his enterprise succeed. When he came back from his journey 
he slew a number of creatures and took them to the tree. The deity of 
the tree appeared and admonished the squire, saying that no one could 
attain deliverance by means of slaughter. 


[ Ayu Sutta 

The story was related in answer to a question by some monks, who had 
noticed that many people when going on a business journey would slay 
living creatures and offer them to various deities in order that their 
ventures might be successful. The monks wished to know if such sacri¬ 
fices were of any good. 1 

The Jataka is also known as the Panavadha Jataka . 2 

1 J. i. 169. 2 Feer: JA. 1876, p. 516. 

1. Ayu Sutta.— Preached at the Kalandakanivapa in Rajagaha. The 

Buddha tells the monks that human life is very brief and has its sequel 
elsewhere. Therefore good must be done and the holy life must be lived. 
Mara approaches the Buddha and suggests that men should take no heed 
of death, but should enjoy life like a babe replete with milk. The 
Buddha points out to him the error of such a view. 1 

1 S.i. 108. 

2. Ayu Sutta. —Preached at the same place, on another occasion. 
Mara utters the same sentiment and the Buddha refutes his views. 
Mara retires vanquished. 1 

1 S.i. 108-9. 

Ayupala. —A thera who lived in the Sankheyya Parivena near Sagala. 
King Milinda’s royal astrologer informed the Elder that the king wished 
to see him, and the king, having obtained his permission, visited him at the 
Parivena, attended by five hundred Yonakas. The king discussed with 
the Elder the aim of those who became monks, and Ayupala was unable 
to meet the king's arguments. 1 

1 Mil. 19 f. 

Ayupala (Ayupall). —An arahant therl, preceptor of Sanghamitta. 1 

1 Mhv. v. 208; Sp. i. 51. 

Ayuvaddhana Kumara.— Two brahmins of DIghalambika became asce¬ 
tics and practised austerities for forty-eight years. Then one of them 
returned to the world and having procured cattle and money, married 
and begot a son whom he called Dlghayu. Later, when his former 
companion came to the city, the householder visited him with his wife 
and child. When they made obeisance to him, the ascetic said, “ Long 
life to you ” to the man and his wife, but not to the child. When 
questioned, the ascetic told them that their son had but seven days to 

Arakkhadayaka Thera j 


live, and suggested that they should visit the Buddha and ask him if 
there were any means of averting the child's fate. They did so and the 
Buddha, who was then staying at the Araniiakutika in Dlghalambika, 
told them to erect a pavilion outside the door of their house. This they 
did, and in the pavilion the monks recited the Paritta continuously for 
seven days with the child seated before them on a bench. On the seventh 
day the Buddha himself came and hosts of devas gathered round him. 
The yakkha Avaruddhaka, who had been granted the boon of eating 
Dighayu, appeared to claim him at the time appointed for his death, 
but on account of the presence of the devas, he could not come near the 
boy. The Buddha recited the Paritta all night long, and when the 
seventh day had passed Avaruddhaka could no longer claim the child. 
The Buddha declared that the boy would live for one hundred and twenty 
years and he was renamed Ayuvaddhana. When he grew up he became 
the leader of five hundred lay disciples. 1 

1 DhA. ii. 235 ff. 

Ayussa Sutta. —Two in number, on the five conditions (such as exces¬ 
sive eating), which do not bestow long life, and on the five conditions 
which do. 1 

1 A.iii. 145. 

Ayura. Minister of Maddava, king of Benares. When Maddava 
was grieved at the loss of his wife, Ayura and his colleague Pukkusa 
helped the king's counsellor Senaka to quench the king's sorrow. The 
story is told in the Dasannaka Jataka 1 . 

In the present age Ayura became Moggallana. 2 

1 J.iii. 337 ff. 2 Ibid., 341. 

Arakkha Sutta. —Earnest care should be exerted to guard one's 
thoughts from running riot among passionate things, from being malicious, 
from being deluded and from following the path laid down by various 
recluses (false teachers ?). 1 

1 A. ii. 120. 

1. Arakkhadayaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he built 
a railing (vedi) round the thupa of the Buddha Siddhattha and made 
provision for its protection. Six kappas ago he was a king named 

Apassena. 1 

1 Ap. i. 214-15. 


[ Arakkhadayaka Thera 

2. Arakkhadayaka Thera. An arahant. He put a fence round the 
thupa of the Buddha Dhammadinna and arranged for its protection. 
This act resulted in his becoming an arahant in the present age. 1 

1 Ap. i. 253. 

Aranjara.— See Aranjara. 

Arabhati Sutta. —There are five kinds of people in the world. Those 
who commit faults and repent, etc. 1 

1 A. iii. 165-7. 

Arabbhavatthu Sutta. —On the eight occasions in which exertion should 
be applied. 1 

1 A. iv. 334 f. 

1. Arammana Sutta. —Some who practise meditation are skilled in 
concentration, but not in the object of concentration (arammana), some 
vice versa , some are skilled in both, some in neither. 1 

1 S.iii. 266. 

2. Arammana Sutta.— Some are skilled in the object of concentration 
but not in the range of it, etc. (As before.) 1 

1 S. iii. 275. 

Aravala.— See Aravala. 

Arama Vagga. —The sixth division of the Pdcittiya of the Bhikkhum 
Vibhanga. 1 

1 Vin. iv. 306-17. 

Arama Sutta, —See Sariputta-Kotthita Sutta. 

Aramadanda. —A brahmin. Once when Maha Kaccana was staying 
at Varana on the banks of the Kaddamadaha, Aramadanda came to see 
him and asked him why nobles quarrelled with nobles, brahmins with 
brahmins, and householders with householders. 44 Because of their 
bondage and servitude to sensual lusts/’ answered Maha Kaccana; and 
for the same reason recluses quarrelled with recluses. “ Is there anybody 
in the world who has passed beyond this bondage V s “ Yes/" said 
Maha Kaccana, 44 in Savatthi lives the Exalted One/' and he proceeded 
to describe the Buddha’s virtues. Aramadanda stood up with clasped 

Aramadusaka Jataka ] 


hands and, turning in the direction of Savatthi, he uttered his adoration 
of the Buddha. Thenceforward he became a disciple of Maha Kaccana. 1 

1 A.i. 65-7. 

Aramadayaka Thera.—An arahant. In a past life he planted a garden 
with shady trees for the Buddha Siddhattha, and gave the Buddha the 
fruits and flowers that grew there. Thirty-seven kappas ago he was 
born seven times as king, by name Mudusltala. 1 

1 Ap. i. 251. 

1. Aramadusaka Jataka (No. 46).—Once in Benares there was a 
festival and all the townsfolk assembled to keep holiday. The king’s 
gardener, wishing to join in the festivities, approached the king of the 
monkeys who lived in the royal garden and, pointing out to him all the 
benefits the monkeys had derived from their residence there, asked 
him if he would get the monkeys to water the trees in the gardener’s 
absence. The monkey-king agreed and, when the man had gone, 
distributed the water-skins and water-pots among the monkeys. In 
order that the water should not be wasted, he gave instructions to the 
monkeys that they should pull out the trees by the roots and give plenty 
of water to those plants whose roots went deep and little to those with 
small roots. A wise man, happening to see this being done, and reflect¬ 
ing how with every desire to do good, the foolish only succeed in doing 
harm, rebuked the monkey-king. 

The story was told by the Buddha while staying in a hamlet in Kosala. 
The squire of the village invited the Buddha and his monks to a meal 
and at the conclusion of the meal gave them leave to stroll about in 
the grounds. In their walk the monks came across a bare patch of land 
and learnt from the the gardener that it was caused by a lad who had 
been asked to water the plants there and who, before watering them had 
pulled them out to see how they grew. This was reported to the Buddha, 
who related the story of the past. 1 

1 J. i. 249-51. The story is sculptured in the Bharhut Stupa. See Cunningham, 
Pi. xl v. 5. ' ' " ' 

2. Aramadusaka Jataka (No. 268).—Same as the above except that 
the monkeys are asked to water the garden for seven days, and the con¬ 
versation between the wise man (in this case a young man of good family 
belonging to Benares) and the monkey-king is different. 

The story is told in reference to a lad in Dakkhinagiri and not in Kosala 
as above. 1 

1 J.ii. 345-7. 

288 f Aramassa 

Aramassa. —A village in Ceylon, given by King Udaya I. for the 
maintenance of a Loharupa (bronze statue) of the Buddha. 1 

1 Cv. xlix. 17. 

Aramikagama. —The name given to the village in which lived the five 
hundred park-keepers who were given by Bimbisara to the Elder Pilinda- 
vaccha. It was near Rajagaha and was also called Pilindagama. Pilin- 
davaccha depended for his alms on the residents of this village. 1 

1 Vin. i. 207-8; iii. 249. 

Ariyakkhattayodha. —The mercenary soldiers employed in Ceylon. 
Their chief was a general called Thakuraka. When the Senapati Mitta 
obtained possession of the throne, he sought to win the favour of these 
soldiers by giving them money. This they refused to accept and Thaku¬ 
raka, going up to Mitta as he sat on the throne, cut off his head. On 
being questioned, he said that he had done the deed at the command of 
the lawful king, Bhuvanekabahu I., who had become a refugee. The 
Ariya soldiers then joined forces with the Sihala army and restored 
Bhuvanekabahu to the throne. 1 

Geiger 2 thinks that these mercenaries must have come from South 
India. The name of their general, Thakuraka, however, seems to 
indicate that they were Rajputs. 

1 Cv. xc. 16-30. 2 Cv. Trs. ii. 202, n. 3. 

Ariyacakkavatti. —A Damila general who came with a large army from 
the Pandu kingdom and landed in Ceylon during the famine in the reign 
of Bhuvanekabahu I. We are told that though he was no “ Ariya ” 
he was a dignitary of great power. He laid waste the kingdom and 
entered the capital Subhagiri. There he seized the Tooth Relic and the 
costly treasures which were kept with it and took them back to King 
Kulasekhara 1 . 

1 Cv. xc*. 43-7. Kulasekhara reigned tion (No. 110, in the Annual Report 
1268-1308. His general Ariyacakkavatti of Epigraphy , Southern Circle , Madras, 
is mentioned in a South Indian Inscrip- I 1903). 

Arohanta. —One of the chief ministers at Savatthi. He joined the 
Order of monks and his wife became a nun. They had their meals 
together and she waited on him, fetching him water and fanning him. 
He forbade her to wait on him as it was improper and, angered by his 
words, she poured the water over his head and struck him with the fan. 
For this she was rebuked by the Buddha. 1 

1 Yin. iv. 263. 


Alambayana ] 

1. Alamba. —Probably the name of a divine musician, one of a large 
number who wait on Sakka and on his wives. 1 Dhammapala 2 quotes 
this view and objects to it, saying that the name is not that of a musician 
but of a musical instrument. The opinion that the name denotes a 
celestial musician seems, however, to be the right one. 3 

1 Vv., pp. 16, 47. | 3 For a discussion see Hardy: Vimana- 

2 VvA. 96. I vatthu Commentary (P.T.S. Ed.), 372-3. 

2. Alamba. —See Alambayana. 

Alambagama. —A tank in Ceylon built by Jetthatissa. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxvi. 131. 

Alambanadayaka Thera. —An arahant. In a past birth he gave an 
alambana (prop ?) to the Buddha Atthadassl. Sixty kappas ago he was 
born three times as king under the name of Ekapassita. 1 

1 Ap. i. 213. 

Alambayana. —Originally the name of a spell taught to an ascetic by a 
Garuda king who had unwittingly torn up by its roots a banyan tree 
which grew at the end of the ascetic's walk. The ascetic taught it to a 
poor brahmin of Benares who had gone into the forest to escape his 
creditors and who ministered to the ascetic. The brahmin became known 
as Alambayana after he learnt the spell. Having learnt it he left the 
forest and was walking along the banks of the Yamuna, when he came 
across a host of Nagas, sitting, after their sports, round the Naga gem 
which grants all desires. The Nagas, hearing the man repeat the charm, 
fled in terror, believing him to be the Garuda, and he took possession of 
their jewel. Soon after, Alambayana met an outcast brahmin with his 
son, Somadatta, and on their agreeing to show him the Naga King, 
Bhuridatta, he gave them the jewel. With the help of his spell Alamba¬ 
yana tamed Bhuridatta and went about giving exhibitions of the 
Naga's skill. Bhuridatta was finally rescued by his brother Sudassana 
and his sister Accimukhi. In the contest of skill which Alambayana 
had with Sudassana, Accimukhi ( q.v .) assumed the form of a frog and let 
drip three drops of poison on her brother's hand, and these were allowed 
to fall into a hole specially prepared and filled with cow-dung. A flame 
burst out and Alambayana was smitten with the heat. His skin changed 
colour and he became a white leper. 

The story is told in the Bhuridatta Jdtaka. 1 

The name Alambayana appears also as Alambana and as Alamba. 

1 J. vi. 179-97. 


290 [ Alindaka 

Alindaka. —Probably the name of a monastery in Ceylon where lived 
the thera Maha Phussadeva (q-v.). 1 

1 SA.iii. 154; VibhA. 352. 

Aluvadayaka Thera. —An arahant. Thirty-one kappas ago he gave 
an alum (fruit ?) to the Pacceka Buddha Sudassana, near Himava. 1 

1 Ap.i.237. 

Aloka Sutta. —There are four lights: of the moon, the sun, of fire and of 
wisdom, the light of wisdom being the chief. 1 

1 A.ii. 139. 

Alokalena. —A cave in the cleft of a mighty primeval landslide, not far 
from the modern Matale in Ceylon. According to tradition it was here 
that the Buddhist scriptures were first reduced to writing in Ceylon 
under the patronage of a chieftain of King Vattagamani. The Burmese 
believe that Buddhaghosa’s Atthakathas were also written in this spot. 1 
In the eighteenth century King Vijayarajaslha built images of the Buddha 
in the rock cave. 2 

1 Mhv. xxiii.100 f. SeePLC.43f. 2 Cv. xcviii. 65. 

Alakamanda. —A city of the gods, mighty, prosperous and full of devas. 1 
It was one of the chief cities of Uttarakuru, and a royal residence of 
Kuvera. 2 It is probably another name for Alaka. The name is used 
as a simile to describe cities of great wealth. 3 In the Culla Vaggd 4 the 
word is used as an adjective (vihara alakamanda honti) to mean crowded 
with people, and Buddhaghosa explains it by saying “ alakamanda ti 
ekangand manussabhikinnd” 

1 D.ii. 147, 170; Mil.2. I 3 E.g., Cv. xxxvii. 106; lxxxi. 3; MT. 

2 D.iii.201; Cv. xxxix. 5. ! 411;BuA.55. 

4 Vin.ii. 152. 

Alambara. —The drum of the Asuras made from the claw of the crab of 
Kullradaha. (For the story see s.v. Anaka.) When the Asuras were 
defeated in battle they left the drum in their flight and Sakka took pos¬ 
session of it. Its sound resembled a peal of thunder and for that reason, 
probably, came to be called Alambara-megha. 1 

1 J. ii. 344. 

Alava Sutta. —Records the conversation between the Buddha and 
Alavaka Yakkha (g.v.) at Alavi. 1 

1 S.i. 213-15. 

Ajavaka ] 291 

1. Alavaka. —The king of Alavi. He was in the habit of holding a 
hunt once in seven days to keep his army in trim. One day when he was 
hunting, the quarry escaped from where the king lay in wait and, accord¬ 
ing to custom, it became the king's duty to capture it. He, therefore, 
followed the animal for three leagues, killed it and, having cut it in half, 
carried it in a pingo. On his way back he happened to pass under the 
banyan tree which was the abode of the Yakkha Alavaka. The Yakkha 
had been granted a boon by the Yakkha-king, which allowed him to eat 
anybody who came within the shadow of the tree. Accordingly, he 
seized the king, but later released him on obtaining his promise that he 
would provide him at regular intervals with a human being and a bowl 
of food. 1 For the rest of the story see Alavaka Yakkha. 

1 SnA. i. 217 ff. 

2. Alavaka. —The yakkha referred to above. King Alavaka, with 
the help of the Mayor of the town (Nagaraguttika) and his ministers, was 
able to keep his promise for some time, by sending criminals to the 
Yakkha. The Yakkha's power was such that at the sight of him men's 
bodies became as soft as butter. Soon there were no criminals left, and 
each household was forced to contribute one child for sacrifice to the 
Yakkha. Then women, about to bring forth children, began to leave the 
king's capital. Twelve years passed in this manner and the only child 
left was the king's own son, Alavaka Kumara. When the king learnt 
this, he ordered the child to be dressed in all splendour and taken to the 
Yakkha. The Buddha, with his Eye of Compassion, saw what was going 
to happen and went to the Yakkha's abode. 

Alavaka was away at a meeting of the Yakkhas in Himava. His 
doorkeeper Gadrabha admitted the Buddha, after warning him of the 
Yakkha's unmannerly nature. The Buddha went in and sat down on 
Alavaka's throne while Gadrabha went to Himava to announce to his 
master the Buddha's arrival. While the Buddha was there, preaching 
to Alavaka's women-folk, the Yakkhas Satagira and Hemavata, passing 
through the air on their way to the assembly in Himava, being made 
aware of the Buddha's presence by their inability to fly over him, de¬ 
scended to Alavaka's palace and made obeisance to the Buddha before 
resuming their journey. 

When Alavaka heard from Gadrabha and from Satagira and Hemavata 
of the Buddha's visit, he was greatly incensed and uttering aloud his 
name, he hurried to his abode. There with all the various supernatural 
powers he could command he tried to dislodge the Buddha from his seat, 
but without success, even his special weapon, the Dussavudha being of 

292 [ Ajavaka 

no avail against tlie Buddha. Then, approaching the Buddha, Alavaka 
asked him to leave his house, which the Buddha did. He then summoned 
the Buddha back and he came. Three times this happened and three 
times the Buddha obeyed, judging compliance to be the best way of 
softening his wrath, but the fourth time the Buddha refused to return. 
Thereupon Alavaka expressed his desire to ask questions of the Buddha, 
hoping thereby to fatigue him. The Buddha agreed, and when he had 
answered all the questions to Alavaka's satisfaction, the latter became a 
Sotapanna. 1 

At dawn of day, King Alavaka's men brought the young prince, 
Alavaka-Kumara to the Yakkha, as sacrifice. Hearing the Yakkha's 
shouts of joy at the close of the Buddha's sermon, they greatly marvelled. 
When they announced to Alavaka that they had brought their offering, 
and handed him the child, he was much ashamed because of the Buddha's 
presence. Alavaka gave the child to the Buddha, who blessed him and 
gave him back to the king's messengers. The boy, having passed from 
the Yakkha's hands to those of the Buddha, and from there to the king's 
men, thereafter became known as Hatthaka Alavaka. 2 

When the king and the citizens heard that the Yakkha had become a 
follower of the Buddha, they built for him a special abode near that of 
Vessavana and provided him with endless gifts of flowers, perfumes, etc., 
for his use. 3 Alavaka's abode was thirty leagues from Savatthi, and the 
Buddha covered the whole journey in one day. 4 The abode was near a 
banyan tree and on the ground ( bhummattham ,) well protected with walls, 
etc., and covered on the top by a metal net, it was like a cart enclosed on 
all sides. It was three leagues in extent, and over it lay the road to 
Himava by air. 5 Ascetics, having seen the glittering palace, often called 
to find out what it was. Alavaka would ask them questions regarding 
their faith, and when they could not answer he would assume a subtle 
form and, entering their hearts, would drive them mad. 6 

Alavaka shouted his name before starting from Himava to vanquish 
the Buddha. He stood with his left foot on Manosilatala and his right on 
Kelasakuta. His shout was heard throughout Jambudipa and was one 
of the four shouts, mentioned in tradition, as having travelled so far. 7 
Alavaka had a special weapon, the Dussavudha, comparable to Sakka's 
Vajiravudha, Vessavana's Gadavudha and Yama's Nayanavudha. It 

1 SnA. i. 239. 

2 Ibid., 239-40. 

8 The story of Alavaka, of which the 

above is a summary, is given in full 

in SnA. i. 217-40 and in SA. i. 244-59. 

It is also given in brief in AA. i. 

211-12 and with some difference in de¬ 

4 SnA. i. 220. 

5 Ibid., 222. 6 Ibid., 228. 

7 Ibid., 223; for the others see s.v. 

Punnaka, Vissakamma and Kusa. 

Ajavaka-gajjita ] 


had the power, if it were thrown into the sky, of stopping rain for twelve 
years and if cast on the earth of destroying all trees and crops for a like 
period. If hurled into the sea it would dry up all the water, and it could 
shatter Sineru into pieces. It was made of cloth and is described as a 
vatthavudha, and it was worn as a part of the Yakkha's upper garment 
( uttariya ). 

There are three salient features in the story of Alavaka which link it 
closely to the large circle of stories grouped by Professor Watanabe 8 
under the title of Kalmdsapada stories: (1) The man-eating Yakkha; 
(2) the captured king saving himself by a promise to provide the Yakkha 
with offerings, and the sanctity of that promise; and (3) the conversion 
of the Yakkha. 

The conversion of Alavaka is considered one of the chief incidents of 
the Buddha's life. 9 

Alavaka's name appears in the Atdnatiya Sutta, among the Yakkhas 
to whom followers of the Buddha should appeal for protection in time 
of need. 10 (See also Alavaka Sutta.) 

8 J.P.T.S. 1909-10, pp. 240 ff. 

9 iv. 180; vi. 329; Mhv. xxx. 84. 10 D. iii. 205. 

1. Alavaka Sutta. —Records the eight questions asked of the Buddha 
by Alavaka Yakkha and the answers given by the Buddha. It is said 1 
that Alavaka's parents had learnt the questions and their answers from 
Kassapa Buddha and had taught them to Alavaka in his youth; but he 
could not remember them and, in order that they might be preserved, 
he had them written on a gold leaf with red paint, and this he stored 
away in his palace. When the Buddha answered the questions he found 
that the answers were exactly the same as those given by Kassapa. 2 

The sutta appears both in Sutta Nipdta 3 and in the Samyutta Nilcaya. 4, 

The Alavaka Sutta is also included in the collection of Parittas. 

1 SnA.i.228. 3 pp. 31-3. 

2 Ibid., 231. , 4 i. 213 ff. 

2. Alavaka Sutta. —A conversation between the Buddha and Hattha- 
ka Alavaka in which the Buddha states that he is among those who enjoy 
real happiness. 1 

1 A.i. 136 f. 

Alavaka-gajjita. —Mentioned in a list of works considered by Buddha- 
ghosa to be heretical. 1 

1 SA. ii. 150; Sp. iv. 742. 


[ Ajavaka-puccha 

Alavaka-puccha. —A name for the questions asked by Alavaka of 
the Buddha and mentioned in the Alavaka Sutta ( q.v .). When the 
Sasana gradually falls into abeyance, questions such as these and the 
questions in the $ abhiya-pucchd, will remain in the memories of men, but 
they will not suffice to keep the religion alive. 1 

1 VibhA. 432. 

Alavaka ( v.l . Alavika). —A name given to the monks of Alavi. 
Buddhaghosa 1 says that all children born in Alavi were called Alavaka. 
The Alavaka-bhikkhu are mentioned several times in the Vinaya 2 in 
connection with offences relating to navakamma (repairing and recon¬ 
struction of buildings), and rules are laid down by the Buddha restricting 
these monks in their activities. Once when one of the monks was cutting 
down a tree which was the abode of a devata, the sprite was sorely 
tempted to kill him, but restraining her wrath she sought the Buddha 
and complained to him. The Buddha praised her forbearance and 
preached the Uraga Sutta . 3 

In the introductory story of the Manikantha Jatakd 4 it is stated that 
the importunities of these monks so annoyed the residents of Alavi 
that they fled at the approach of any yellow-robed monk. 

1 Sp. iii. 561. I 3 SnA.i.4-5. 

2 ii. 172 ff.; iii. 85; iv. 34-5. 4 J. ii. 282-3. 

Alavandapperumala. —A Damila general defeated by Parakkama- 

bahu I. 1 He belonged to the immediate retinue of King Kulasekhara. 
In the battle of Patapa he was wounded and fled, but his enemies suc¬ 
ceeded in slaying the horse on which he rode. 2 He is perhaps to be 
identified with Alavanda who was slain by Parakkamabahu in the village 

of Vaflali. 3 

1 Cv. lxxvi. 128. 2 Ibid., 223, 232. 3 Ibid., 134. 

Alavi-Gotama. —A thera, who, according to Buddhaghosa, 1 attained 
arahantship through faith. He is mentioned in the Sutta Nipdta 2 in a 
verse spoken by the Buddha to Pifigiya when the Buddha appeared in a 
ray of light at Bavari’s hermitage. 

1 SnA. ii. 606. 2 vers. 1146. 

1. Alavika. —See Alavaka. 

2. A}avika.— A nun. See Sela. 


Alavi ] 

Alavika Sutta. —Contains the conversation between Alavika (Sela) 
and Mara which ended in the latter's discomfiture. 1 

1 S. i. 128 f. 

Alavi. —A town thirty yojanas from Savatthi 1 and probably twelve 
from Benares. 2 3 It lay between Savatthi and Rajagaha. 8 The Buddha, 
on several occasions, stayed at Alavi at the Aggalava shrine ( q.v .) which 
was near the town. In the sixteenth year after the Enlightenment, the 
Buddha spent the whole of the rainy season at Alavi and preached the 
doctrine to 84,000 listeners. 4 The King of Alavi was known as Alavaka 
and the inhabitants as Alavaka. The town later became famous 
as the residence of Alavaka Yakkha and of Hatthaka Alavaka. The 
therl, Sela was born in Alavi and was therefore known as Alavika. 5 
There was evidently a large community of monks at Alavi, some of 
whom seem to have chiefly occupied themselves with building viharas 
for themselves. 6 

Once, while at Savatthi, the Buddha saw a poor farmer of Alavi, 
ready for conversion and decided to go and preach in that town. The 
farmer’s ox had strayed away, and he looked for it for quite a long while 
before finding it; he knew that the Buddha was in Alavi and decided that 
he still had time to visit the Buddha, and he set off without taking any 
food. Meanwhile at Alavi the Buddha and his monks had been served 
with a meal by the people, but the Buddha waited until the farmer came 
before returning thanks. On the farmer’s arrival the Buddha ordered 
that some food should be given him, and when the man was comforted 
and his mind was ready the Buddha preached a sermon, at the end of 
which the man became a Sotapanna. 7 

On another occasion the Buddha came all the way from Jetavana to 
Alavi for the sake of a weaver’s daughter. 8 

Alavi has been identified by Cunningham and Hoernle with Newal or 
Nawal in the Urao district in the United Provinces, and by Nandalal Dey, 
with Aviwa, twenty-seven miles north-east of Etwah. 9 

Mrs. Rhys Davids states that Alavi was on the bank of the Granges, 10 
probably basing her view on the declaration of Alavaka in the Sutta 
Nipata 11 that he would throw the Buddha 44 para-Gangaya ” (over to 

1 SnA. i. 220. 

2 See Watters: ii. 61; FaHsein, 60, 62. 

3 The Buddha goes from Savatthi to 
Kitagiri, thence to Alavi, and finally, to 
Rajagaha. (Vm. ii. 170-5.) 

4 BuA. 3. 

6 ThigA. 62-3. 

6 S ees.u., Alavaka. 

7 DhA.iii. 262-3. 

8 For the story see DhA.iii. 170 f. 

9 Law: Geog . of. Early Buidhism , 

p. 24. 

10 Ps. of the Brethren , 408. 

11 p. 32. 


[ Alfira 

the other side of the Ganges) unless his questions were answered. I 
believe that here “ para-Gangaya 99 is merely a rhetorical expression 
and has no geographical significance. 

Alara.— See Alara. 

Alara Kalama. —One of the two teachers to whom Gotama, after his 
renunciation, first attached himself , 1 the other being Uddaka Ramaputta. 
In the Ariya'parivesana, Sutta 2 the Buddha describes his visit to Alara. 
Gotama quickly mastered his doctrine and was able to repeat it by heart; 
but feeling sure that Alara not only knew the doctrine but had realised 
it, he approached him and questioned him about it. Alara then pro¬ 
claimed the Akincanndyatana, and Gotama, putting forth energy and 
concentration greater than Alara's, made himself master of that state. 
Alara recognised his pupil's eminence and treated him as an equal, but 
Gotama, not having succeeded in his quest, took leave of Alara to go 
elsewhere . 3 When, after having practised austerities for six years, the 
Buddha attained Enlightenment and granted Sahampati’s request to 
preach the doctrine, it was of Alara he thought first as being the fittest 
to hear the teaching. But Alara had died seven days earlier . 4 

The books mention little else about Alara. The Mahd Parinibbdna 
Sutta 5 mentions a Mallian, Pukkusa, who says he had been Alara's dis¬ 
ciple, but who, when he hears the Buddha's sermon, confesses faith in the 
Buddha. Pukkusa describes Alara to the Buddha as one who practised 
great concentration. Once Alara was sitting in the open air and neither 
saw nor heard five hundred passing carts though he was awake and 

As already stated above, the aim of Alara's practices is stated to have 
been the attainment of Akincaiinayatana, the stage of nothingness. 
Whether this statement is handed down with any real knowledge of the 
facts of his teaching, it is not now possible to say. Asvaghosa, in his 
Buddhacarita , 6 puts into the mouth of Arada or Alara, a brief account 
of his philosophy. It has some resemblance—though this is slight—to 
the Sankhya philosophy, but in Alara's teaching some of the salient 
characteristics of the Sankhya system are absent. In reply to Gotama's 
questions about the religious life and the obtaining of final release, 

1 In the MUindapafiha (p. 236) A]ara 
is mentioned as Gotama’s fourth teacher. 
The ThigA. (p. 2) says he went to 
Bhaggava before going to Alara. The 
Mtu. (ii. 117 f.) and the Lai. (330 f.), give 
quite different accounts. 

j 2 M. i. 163-5; also 240 ff.; ii. 94 ff. 
! 212 ff. 

3 VibhA. 432. 

4 Vin.i. 7. 

5 D. ii. 130; Vsm. 330. 

6 xii. 17 ff. 


Avattaganga ] 

Alara describes a system of spiritual development which is identical 
with the methods of the Buddhist monk up to the last attainment but 
one. The monk reaches the four jhanas and then attains successively 
to the states of space, infinity and nothingness. The last three stages 
are described in the terms of the first three of the four Attainments. 7 

According to Buddhaghosa, 8 Bharandu Kalama was a disciple of 
Alara at the same time as Gotama and is therefore described as the 
Buddha's purana-sabrahmacdri . 9 Buddhaghosa further tells us 10 that 
in Alara Kalama, Alara was his personal name. He was so called 
because he was digha-pingala (long and tawny). 

7 For a discussion on this see Thomas, 8 AA. i. 458. 

op . cit ., p. 229-30; see also MA. ii. 881; I 9 A.i. 277. 

VibhA. 432. 10 DA. ii. 569. 

Alahanaparivena. —One of the religious buildings constructed in 
Pulatthipura by Parakkamabahu I. Attached to it was a splendid 
pasada for the thera Sariputta. 1 

Geiger 2 identifies this with the group of buildings lying outside the 
city, now popularly, but wrongly, called the Jetavanarama. 

1 Cv. lxxviii. 48-9. 2 Cv. Trs. ii. 107, n. 2. 

Aligama.— A stronghold in the Alisara district on the banks of the 
modern Ambanganga. Here Parakkamabahu’s forces fought a decisive 
battle with those of Gajabahu. 1 

1 Cv. lxx. 113 ff.,and Geiger’s note thereon in the Cv. Trs. i. 296, n. 4. 

1. Alisara. —A district in Ceylon, now Blahera in the Matale district, 
north-east of Nalanda on the Ambanganga. Once the whole district 
was given over by Vijayabahu 1 for the support of the monks of Pulat¬ 
thipura. 1 Later the district was the scene of several fights between the 
forces of Gajabahu and Parakkamabahu I. The conquest of Alisara 
enabled Parakkamabahu to capture Pulatthipura. 

1 Cv. lx. 14, and Geiger’s note thereon in the Cv. Trs. i. 215, n. 6. 

2. Alisara. —A canal in Ceylon, probably leading from the Ambangan¬ 
ga. King Vasabha gave a share of the water of the canal to the Mucela- 

Vihara in Tissavaddhamanaka. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxv. 84. 

1. Avattaganga. —The name given to the river which, flowing from 
the southern channel of Anotatta (q.v.), circles the lake three times before 
becoming the Kahhaganga. 1 

1 SnA. ii. 439, etc. 


[ AvattagangS 

2. Avattaganga. —A canal which branched off to the south from the 
Anotattavap! made by Parakkamabahu I., 1 evidently called after (1). 

1 Cv. lxxix. 50. 

Avarana Sutta. —There are five things that overwhelm the mind and 
weaken the insight: kdmacchanda, vydpada , thmamiddha , uddhaccakuk- 
kucca and vicikicchd. 1 

1 A.iii. 63-4. 

Avaranata Sutta. —Six conditions which make it impossible, even if he 
hear the dhamma, for a man to enter on the Path (niyamam okkamitum) 
which consists of good deeds: killing father, mother or arahant, willingly 
causing physical hurt to the Buddha, bringing dissension among the 
monks, being foolish, half-witted, deaf and dumb. 1 

1 A. iii. 436-7. 

Avarana-nlvarana Sutta.— (Also called Nivaranavarana). The five 
things, as above, which overwhelm the mind and weaken the insight and 
the seven bojjhangas which counteract them and conduce to the attain¬ 
ment of emancipation through knowledge. 1 

1 S. v. 94-6. 

Avantika. —The name given to monks of Avanti who helped Yasa 
Kakandakaputta to overcome the heresy of the Vajjiputtakas. 1 

1 Mhv. iv. 19 ff. 

Avasika Vagga. —The twenty-fourth chapter of the Pancaka Nipdta 
of the Anguttara Nikdya. It consists of ten suttas dealing with the 
qualities of a resident monk which make him worthy of honour and 
agreeable, or otherwise. 1 

1 A. iii. 261-7. 

Avenika Sutta. —There are five special (dvenika) woes which a woman 
has to undergo as distinct from a man: at a tender age she goes to her 
husband's family, leaving her relations; she is subject to menses; to 
pregnancy; to labour at child-birth; and she has to wait upon a man. 1 

1 S. iv. 239. 

Aveyya. —A king of fifty-nine kappas ago, a former birth of Sama- 
dapaka Thera. 1 v.l. Avekkheyya. 

1 Ap. i. 185. 


Asanatthavika Thera ] 

Avopupphiya Thera. —An arahant. He heard Sikh! Buddha preach 
and, being pleased with the sermon, threw a heap of flowers into the sky, 
above the Buddha, as an offering to him. Twenty kappas ago he became 
a king under the name of Sumedha. 1 

1 Ap. i. 112. 

Asahka Jataka (No. 380).—Once the Bodhisatta was an ascetic in 
the Himalaya. At that time a being of great merit left Tavatimsa and 
was born as a girl in the midst of a lotus in a pool near the Bodhisatta’s 
hermitage. The Bodhisatta, noticing some peculiarity in the growth 
of the lotus, swam to it and recovered the girl, whom he brought up as 
his daughter, giving her the name of Asanka. Sakka, coming to visit 
him, saw the girl, and, inquiring what he could do for her comfort, he 
provided her with a crystal palace and divine food and raiment. She 
spent her time waiting on the Bodhisatta. The King of Benares, having 
heard of her great beauty, came to the forest with a large following and 
asked for her hand. The Bodhisatta agreed, on condition that the king 
would tell him her name. The king spent a whole year trying to guess 
it and, having failed, was returning home in despair, when the girl, 
looking out of her window, told him of the creeper Asavati, for whose fruits 
gods wait for one thousand years. She thus encouraged him to try again. 
Another year passed and she again raised hopes in the disappointed king 
by relating to him the story of a crane whose hopes Sakka had fulfilled. 
At the end of the third year the king, disgusted by his failure, started 
to go home, but again the girl engaged him in conversation, and in the 
course of their talk the girl’s name was mentioned. When the king was 
told that the word had occurred in his talk, he returned to the Bodhisatta 
and told it to him. The Bodhisatta then gave Asanka in marriage to 
the king. 1 See also the Indriya Jataka. 

1 J. iii. 248-54. 

Asanka. —The adopted daughter of the Bodhisatta in the Asanka 
Jataka. She was so called because she came to him when he crossed 
the water owing to his doubt {asanka) as to what was in the lotus. 1 

1 J. iii. 250. 

Asanatthavika Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth, while 
wandering about in the forest, having lost his way, he came across the 
cetiya named Uttama, of Sikh! Buddha. Calling to mind the Buddha’s 
good qualities, he uttered his praises and paid him homage at the altar 

300 [ Asanupatthayaka Thera 

in the cetiya. Twenty-seven kappas ago he was king seven times under 
the name of Atulya. 1 

1 Ap. i. 255. 

Asanupatthayaka Thera. —An arahant. 118 kappas ago, in a previous 
birth, he had provided a seat ( sihdsana) for the Buddha Atthadassi and 
had waited upon him. 107 kappas ago he was a king named Sannibba- 
pakakhattiya. 1 He is probably identical with Ramanlyakutika Thera. 2 

1 Ap. i. 144. 2 ThagA. i. 132 ff. 

1. Asava Sutta. —On the six qualities which make a monk worthy of 
honour and offerings, due to destruction of the asavas, and also on the 
methods which lead to such destruction. 1 

1 A. iii. 387-94. 

2. Asava Sutta. —Ten things that conduce to the destruction of the 
asavas : the eight factors of the Noble Eightfold Path, in addition to 
sammdnana and sammavimutti. 1 

1 A. v. 237. 

1 . Asavakkhaya Sutta. — Five things, if practised, lead to the destruc¬ 
tion of the asavas : reflection on what is loathsome, the thought of disgust 
with regard to food, revulsion from all things, the perception of imperma¬ 
nence in all composite things and the thought of death. 1 

1 A. iii. 83. 

2. Asavakkhaya Sutta. —The holy life is lived for the destruction of 
the asavas. 1 

1 S. v. 28. 

3. Asavakkhaya Sutta. —The five indriyas of saddhd, etc., if cultivated, 
lead to the destruction of the asavas} 

1 S. v. 236. 

4. Asavakkhaya Sutta. —Intent concentration on in-breathing and 
out-breathing conduces to the destruction of the asavas} 

1 S. v. 340. 

5. Asavakkhaya Sutta. —In him who knows ill, etc., the asavas are 
destroyed. 1 

1 S. v. 434. 


Aslvisa Vagga ] 

Asavanam-khaya Sutta. —By cultivating the five indriyas ( saddhd , etc.) 
a monk in this very life realises the liberation by insight which is without 
the dsavas. 1 

1 S. v. 203. 

Asa. —Daughter of Sakka. Once when Narada was on his way to 
Kancanaguha where he dwelt and which stood at the head of Manosila- 
tala, he carried in his hand a Paricchattaka flower, and the four daughters 
of Sakka— Asa, Saddha, Siri and Hirl —who were in Manosilatala, resting 
from their sports in Anotatta, on seeing him, asked him for the flower. 
He said he would give it to the one among them whom they chose to be 
their queen. He himself was asked to choose the queen, but he referred 
them to Sakka who, in his turn, sent them to the ascetic Macchariya- 
Kosiya in the Himalaya. Sakka sent in advance a cup of ambrosia to 
the ascetic and told his daughters that the one among them, with whom 
Kosiya should share his ambrosia, would be deemed the best. When 
they appeared before Kosiya he asked their names, and chose Hirl for the 
honour of sharing his meal. In rejecting Asa, Kosiya said, “ They tell 
me that whoever pleases you, to him, by accomplishing the fruition of 
hope, you grant life, whosoever pleases you not, to him you grant it 
not. In this case success does not come to him through you, but you 
bring about his destruction.” He spoke in like terms to the other two. 

The story occurs in the Sudhabhojana Jataka. 1 

1 J. v. 392 ff. 

Asa Vagga. —The eleventh chapter of the Eka Nipdta of the Anguttara 
Nikdya. 1 It contains twelve suttas on various topics. 

1 A. i. 86-8. 

Asavati. —A creeper which grows in the Cittalatavana in Tavatimsa. 

In its fruit a divine drink is hidden, and they who drink of it once are 
intoxicated for four months and lie on a divine couch. It bears fruit 
only once in a thousand years, and the gods wait patiently for that period 
for a drink of the fruit. 1 

1 J. iii. 250-1; Ap. i. 41. 

Asimsa Vagga. —The sixth section of the Eka Nipdta of the Jatakattha- 
kathd. 1 

1 J. i. 261-84. 

Asivisa Vagga. —The nineteenth chapter of the Salayatana Samyutta 
of the Samyutta Nikdya} 

1 J. iv. 172-204. 


[ Aslvisa Sutta 

1. Aslvisa Sutta. —Preached at Savatthi. Man has to tend four 
snakes of fierce heat and fearful venom—the four mahdbhutas; he is 
constantly followed by five murderous foes—the five ufaddnakkhandhd ; 
he is pursued by a murderous housebreaker with uplifted sword— 
passionate desire ( nandiraga); while trying to escape them, he wanders 
into an empty village, where everything is empty—the sixfold personal 
sense sphere ( ajjhattikdyatana ), and into it come village-plunderers— 
the sixfold external sense-spheres (bahirdyatana.) Fleeing from there 
he comes to a broad sheet of water beset with danger on the hither side; 
the further side is secure from fear, but there is no boat and no bridge— 
the fivefold flood ( ogha ), the hither shore being sakkdya and the further 
shore nibbdna. 1 

1 S.iv. 172-5. 

2. Aslvisa Sutta. —There are four kinds of snakes in the world: the 
venemous but not fierce, the fierce but not venemous, the one that is both 
and the one that is neither. Similarly there are four kinds of persons: 
the one quick to get angry but with short-lived anger, the one slow to 
get angry but with lasting anger, etc. 1 

1 A.ii. 110-11. 

Asivisopama Sutta.— Probably refers to Aslvisa Sutta (1), but may be (2). 
It was preached by the thera Majjhantika to the Naga-king Aravala and 
the people of Kasmira and Gandhara. Eighty thousand of the listeners 
accepted the new religion and one hundred thousand were ordained after 
the sermon. 1 It was also preached by Mahinda in Ceylon in the Nanda- 
navana at Anuradhapura on the third day after his entry into the city. 
Thirty thousand people were converted. 2 

1 Sp. i. 66; Mhv. xii. 26. 2 Ibid,, xv. 178-9; Sp. i. 80; Mbv. 133. 

Aseva Sutta. —If, just for the duration of a finger snap, a monk in¬ 
dulges a thought of good-will, such a one is verily a monk. 1 

1 A. i. 10. 

Asevitabba Sutta. —On the characteristics of the person who should be 
followed. 1 

1 A.i. 124 f. 

1. Ahara Sutta.— Preached at Jetavana on the four sustenances (dhard) 
that maintain beings by bringing them to birth and keeping them after 

Ahuneyya Sutta ] 


birth; also the cause of these sustenances and the method of their ces¬ 
sation. 1 

1 S. ii. 11-12, 

2. Ahara Sutta.— A group of suttas dealing with the food of the mvara- 
nas and of the bojjhangas, and with the condition that follows on the 
absence of their food. 1 

1 S. v. 102-7. 

Ahuneyya Vagga. —The first chapter of the Chakka Nipata of the 
Anguttara Nikdya. It consists of ten suttas. 1 

1 A. iii. 279-88. 

1. Ahuneyya Sutta. —Preached at Jetavana. The six reasons con¬ 
nected with the control of the senses by virtue of which a monk becomes 
worthy of homage and of gifts. 1 

1 A. iii. 279. 

2. Ahuneyya Sutta.— “Six other qualities connected with the abhihnd 
which make a monk so worthy. 1 

1 A. iii. 280-1. 

3. Ahuneyya Sutta. —Two suttas giving eight qualities that make a 
monk worthy of homage, etc. 1 

1 A. iv. 290 f. 

4. Ahuneyya Sutta. —On nine persons worthy of homage: those who 
have attained the four Fruits of the Path, those four who are on the way 
thereto and the Gotrabhu (one who has entered the lineage of the Ariyan). 1 

1 A. iv. 373. 

5. Ahuneyya Sutta.— On ten persons described differently from the 
above, worthy of homage, etc. 1 

1 A. v. 23. 


[ Ingirisl 


Ingirisi.—The Pali name for the English. 1 

1 E,g. y Cv. ci. 29. 

Iccha Sutta. —Wishes it is which hold the world prisoner; by subjugat¬ 
ing them, liberty is gained. 1 

1 S.\.40. 

Icchanangala. —A brahmin village in the Kosala country. It was 
while staying in the woodland thicket ( vanasanda ) there that the Buddha 
preached the Ambattha Sutta. 1 From this sutta, the village would 
seem to have been near Pokkharasadi’s domain of Ukkattha. It was 
the residence of “ Mahasala '' brahmins. The Sutta Nipdta 2 (which 
spells the name as Icchanankala) mentions several eminent brahmins 
who lived there, among them Cankl, Tarukkha, Pokkarasati, Janussoni 
and Todeyya. There were also tvro learned youths, Vasettha and 
Bharadvaja at Icchanankala, who, finding it impossible to bring their 
discussion to a conclusion, sought the Buddha, then staying in the 
village. Their interview with the Buddha is recorded in the Vasettha 
Sutta? Buddhaghosa 4 says that learned brahmins of Kosala, deeply 
versed in the Vedas, were in the habit of meeting together from time 
time 5 at Icchanangala in order to recite the Vedas and discuss their 
interpretation. 6 

According to the Samyutta Nikdya, 7 the Buddha once stayed for 
three months in the jungle thicket at Icchanangala, in almost complete 
solitude, visited only by a single monk who brought him his food. But 
from the Ahguttara Nikdya , 8 it would appear that the Buddha was 
not left to enjoy the solitude which he desired, for we are told that the 
residents of Icchanangala, having heard of the Buddha's visit, came to 
him in large numbers and created a disturbance by their shouts. The 
Buddha had to send Nagita, who was then his personal attendant, to 
curb the enthusiasm of his admirers. 

1 D. i. 87. 2 p. 115. ; cleanse their caste ( jatisodhanattham ), 

3 Ibid., 115 ff.; M.ii. 146 ff. and at Icchanankala in order to revise 

4 SnA.ii.462. their Vedic hymns (manle sodhetu- 

6 Once in six months (MA. ii. 796). kama), MA.ii. 796. 

6 These brahmins met at Ukkattha, 7 v. 325. 
under Pokkharasati, when they wished to | 8 iii. 30 f.; c/. iii. 341 and iv. 340 ff. 

Icchanangala Sutta. —Preached to the monks at Icchanangala at the 

end of the three months' solitude referred to above. Should anyone 
ask the monks how the Buddha spent his time during the rainy season, 

Itthiya ] 


they should reply that he spent it in intense concentration on in-breathing 
and out-breathing. A life spent by anyone in such concentration would 
be a life spent according to the Ariyan way and would lead to the de¬ 
struction of the dsavas. 1 

1 S. v. 325 f. 

Icchanangalaka. —An upasaka of Icchanangala. He was a devoted 
disciple of the Buddha and had been in the habit of visiting him often, 1 
Once he visited the Buddha at Jetavana after a long interval, and on being 
asked why he had been absent so long, he replied that he had been kept 
busy by various duties. Thereupon the Buddha sang the joy of the 
life free from ties. 2 

1 UdA. 115. 2 Ud.,p. 13. 

Ittiya. —See Itthiya. 

Itthakavati. —A village in Magadha, mentioned, together with Dlgha- 
raji, as the residence of the Samsaramocaka heretics. Near by was the 
Arunavatlvihara, where Sariputta once stayed with a company of monks. 
The village had retained its name for five hundred years. 1 

The Petavatthu 2 contains the story of a woman of Itthakavati who was 
born as a feta. 

1 PvA. 67. 2 pp. 12-13. 

1. Ittha Sutta. —Preached to Anathapindika on five things in the 
world which are very desirable but are difficult to attain—longevity, 
beauty, happiness, fame, happy rebirth—and on the means of obtaining 
them. 1 

1 A.iii. 47-9. 

2. Ittha Sutta. —The ten desirable things in the world, the obstacles 
to their attainment and the methods of procuring them. 1 

1 A. v. 135 f. 

Itthiya. —One of the monks who accompanied Mahinda on his visit 
to Ceylon. 1 King Sirimeghavanna had an image of Itthiya made and 
placed beside that of Mahinda and his companions in the vihara which he 
built in the south-eastern corner of his palace. He inaugurated a year’s 
festival in honour of these images 2 (v.l. Ittiya, Iddhiya). 

1 Mhv. xii. 7; Dpv. xii. 12; Sp. i. 71; Mbv. 116; DhsA. 32. 
2 Cv. xxxvii. vv. 87 ff. 


306 [ Idagalissara 

Idagalissara. —A village in South India where Kulasekhara had an 
encampment in his fight with the Sinhalese forces. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvi. 149. 

I$a Sutta. —Deals at length with the disadvantages, both material 
and moral, of poverty and consequent indebtedness. 1 

1 A. iii. 351-4. 

Itivuttaka. —The fourth book of the Khuddaka Nikdya, containing 
110 suttas, each of which begins with the words: vuttam h’ etam Bhagavata. 
According to Dhammapala, 1 the suttas were preached from time to time 
by the Buddha to Khujjuttara at Kosambi. She then repeated them 
to the five hundred women of Udena’s palace, chief of whom was Samavati. 
In order to emphasise to her audience the fact that she was reporting 
the Buddha's words and not her own, she prefaced each sutta with the 
phrase quoted above. There was no need to describe any special cir¬ 
cumstances in which the suttas were preached, because they were familiar 
to Khujjuttara's audience. 

At the Bajagaha Council, Ananda repeated the suttas to the Assembly 
and they were gathered into this collection. 

Itivuttaka is also the name given to one of the nine divisions (ahga) 
into which the Buddha's preaching is divided and it is defined as follows: 
vuttam h' etam Bhagavata, ti ddinayappavattd dasuttarasatam suttanta 
Itivuttakam ti veditabbam. 2 

In the scholiast of the Kummdsapinda Jataka , 3 the Itivuttaka is 
mentioned in the plural (Itivuttakesu) and a sutta is quoted from it, 
extolling the virtues of generosity. Perhaps, the Itivuttaka was com¬ 
piled as a result of a critical study of the authentic teachings of the 
Buddha, considered in a certain light and made for a specific purpose. 

1 ItA.24ff. 2 DA.i.24. 3 J. iii. 409 (1. 21). 

Itthi Vagga. —The seventh section of the Eka 
katthakathd. 1 

1 J.i. 286-315. 

Nipdta of the Jataka - 

1. Iddhi Sutta.—Anuruddha tells the monks that by cultivating the 
four satipatthanas , he enjoys psychic power in many ways, such as 
multiplying himself. He can reach even to the Brahma world. 1 

1 S. v. 303. 

Iddhiva<Jdhana ] 


2. Iddhi Sutta. —Same as above, but the psychic power is that of the 
divine power of hearing all things, far and near. 1 

1 S. v. 304. 

Iddhikatha.— The 

bhidamagga. 1 

second division of the Panndvagga of the Patisam - 
1 Ps. ii. 205-15. 

Iddhipada Vagga. —The ninth chapter of the Navaka Nijjata of the 
Ahguttara Nikdya. 1 It consists of ten suttas dealing with the cultivation 
of the four iddhipadas. 

1 A. iv. 463-4. 

1. Iddhipada Sutta. —The cultivation of the four iddhipadas and of 
exertion (ussolhi) brings insight (anna) in this life, or the Third Fruit 
of the Path. 1 

1 A.iii.81-2. 

2. Iddhipada Sutta. —The Buddha, even as Bodhisatta, before the 
Enlightenment, developed the four iddhipadas and exertion, and as a 
result enjoyed great psychic power. 1 

1 A. iii. 82-3. 

3. Iddhipada Sutta. —The four iddhipadas form the path leading to 
the Uncompounded (asahkhata). 1 

1 S. iv. 360. 

4. Iddhipada Sutta. —The path mentioned above should be practised, 
accompanied by concentration and effort, compounded with desire, 
energy, idea and investigation. 1 

1 S. iv. 365. 

Iddhipada Saxuyutta. —The fifty-first division of the Samyutta Nikdya, 1 
consisting of eight chapters. It is the seventh section of the Mahdvagga. 

1 S. v. 254-93. 

Iddhiya.— See Itthiya. 

Iddhivaddhana. —One of the palaces, occupied during his lay-life by 

Sumana Buddha. 1 

1 BuA. 125; Bu. v. 22 gives other names for his palaces. 


[ Idhaloklka Sutta 

Idhalokika Sutta. —Two suttas preaclxed by the Buddha to Visakha 
at the Migaramatupasada. To achieve victory in this world a woman 
should have four qualities: she should efficiently discharge her duties 
as housewife, should win the esteem of her servants and the affection 
of her husband and should look after his wealth. For victory in the 
next world, she should be possessed of faith, virtue, generosity and 
wisdom. 1 

1 A. iv. 269 ff. 

Inandapada. —A Damila chieftain whom Kulasekhara enlisted as his 
ally. He was a troop leader in Uccankuttha. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvii. 74 ff. 

1. Inda. —Given in the Atdndtiya Sutta as the name of the ninety-one 
sons of Dhatarattha, king of the Gandhabbas. They are represented as 
being of great strength and followers of the Buddha. 1 

The name is also given as that of the ninety-one sons of Virulha, 
king of the Kumbhandas 2 ; of Virupakkha, king of the Nagas 3 ; and of 
Kuvera, king of the Yakkhas. 4 Further on in the same sutta, Inda 
is mentioned with Soma, Varuna and others as a Yakkha, to whom 
appeal should be made by disciples of the Buddha when needing pro¬ 
tection. 6 In the Mahd Samaya Sutta, 6 also, Inda is mentioned as the 
name of the Sons of the Regent Gods of the Four Quarters. 

1 D.iii. 197. 4 p.202. 

2 J bid., 198. j 5 p.204. 

3 p. 199. ' 6 D. ii. 267 f. 

2. Inda. —The Pali equivalent of the Yedic Indra. He is referred to 
only very seldom in the Nikayas. In one such passage 1 he is mentioned 
with Soma, Varuna, Isana, Pajapati, Brahma, Mahiddi and Yama, as a god 
whom brahmins invoke and pray to, for union with Brahma after death. 
In another place, 2 he is described as being seated in the company of Paja¬ 
pati and other gods in the Assembly Hall, named Sudhamma. Two of his 
companions, having listened to the admonition of Gopaka, became dis¬ 
ciples of the Buddha and, as a result, far surpassed in glory Inda and his 
other companion devas. In the same context, Vasava, ruler of the gods, 
identified with Sakka, is addressed by Gopaka as “ Indra.” 

By the time of the compilation of the Nikayas , the hold of the Vedic 
god Indra on the mind of the people seems to have become greatly 

1 D. i. 244-6. 

2 Ibid., ii. 274; in M. i. 140; J. v. 411 

and vi. 568, he is mentioned with Brahma 

and Pajapati; in J. iv. 568, 571 is a list 
in which Inda appears with Brahma, 
Pajapati, Soma, Yama and Vessavana. 

Inda ] 


weakened and Indra has been merged in Sakka, although, strictly 
speaking, Indra and Sakka are quite different conceptions. (See s.v. 


In the later literature, however, particularly in the J atakatthakathd , 
Indra's name occurs frequently, but always as identified or identifiable 
with Sakka. In one place at least 3 the scholiast says, “ Sakko ti 

In the Ayakuta Jdtaka , 4 for example, Indra is called king of the gods 
(devdrajd) in one verse, and in the next he is identified with Maghava, 
husband of Suja, and described as “ devdnam indo” Indra is most 
revered of the gods. 5 He is free from old age and death, and is, there¬ 
fore, the happiest type of king, 6 a condition that could be attained 
by sacrifice. 7 Alone he conquered the Asuras. 8 He is spoken of as 
the lord of victors (jayatam pati)* and he is the embodiment of the 
greatest valour. 10 

Sometimes he visits the earth in disguise. 11 He is also represented 
as punishing people guilty of heinous crimed; with his thunderbolt he 
smites them. 12 

The scene of his pleasures is in the Nandana pleasaunce, 13 and his is 
the ideal enjoyment of pleasure, surrounded by friends 14 and by adoring 
wives. 15 The gods of Tavatimsa are called Inda-purohita, because, with 
Inda as their chief, they seek to promote the welfare of gods and men. 16 
Inda is called Tidivapuravara and Suravaratara. 17 His capital is Ma- 
sakkasara. 18 

In the sacrifice the paldsayatthi (Butea shoot), used by the sacrificing 
priest, is described as Indra’s right hand. 19 

Indra"s gotta, or clan, is the Kosiya 20 ; he is called Vatrabhu in refer¬ 
ence to his victory over Vatra (Skt. Vrtra), 21 and mention is made of his 
thunderbolt, the Indavajira 22 ; thus he is called Vajirahattha. 23 The 
sound of Indra"s thunderbolt striking its victim, surpasses all other 
sounds by its intensity, its volume and its fearfulness 24 ; no obstruc- 

3 J. v. 115. 

4 J.iii. 146. 

5 Sn. vs.316. 

6 Ibid., 515. 

7 Ibid., 517. 

8 J. iv. 347; he is therefore called 

Asurinda and* Asuradhipa ; see s.v. 

9 3. v. 322. 

10 Mhv. xxx. 10. 

11 J. v. 33. 

12 DhA. i v. 105. 

18 J. v. 158. 

14 J. v. 506; Sn. v. 679. 

15 J. vi. 240. 

16 J. vi, 127; the Tavatimsa gods are 
also described as being Sa-Indaka (ibid., 

17 D.iii. 176. 

18 J. vi. 271; but see Amaravatl. 

19 J. vi. 212. 

20 Ibid., 501. 

21 J. v. 153. 

22 J. i. 354. 

23 D.ii. 259; DA.ii. 689. 

24 UdA. 67. 

310 [ Indaka 

tion can stop the progress of Indra’s Vajira and it never misses its mark; 
it is avirajjkanaka . 26 

After his victory over the Asuras, images of him were made (Inda- 
patima) and placed round Cittakuta to frighten the Asuras away, in 
case they attempted to retrieve their lost honour. 26 

To be born into the company of Indra (Indasahavyata) is considered 
very fortunate. 27 

A species of coral red insect ( kimi ), noticeable after rain, are called 
Indagopakd. The reason for this name is not clear. 28 

The TJddna Commentary 29 seems to give Vidoja as an epithet of Indra; 
but this is probably a wrong reading, the correct one being, as in some 
MSS., “ Visamucchajapam japanti” 

Inda was a special protector of cows, and when men began to kill these 
creatures he visited his wrath on them. 30 

25 VibhA. 333 . 27 E.g., J. v. 411. 

26 J. vi. 125-6; see also J. i. 203-4; 28 See Brethren, p. 18 n., and N.P.D.s.v. 

DhA. i. 280. 29 p. 75, n. 12. 30 Sn. v. 310. 

1. Indaka. —A yakkha who lived in Indakuta, near Rajagaha. When 
the Buddha was staying at Indakuta, the yakkha questioned him as to 
how the soul finds its material counterpart. The Buddha, in reply, 
described how the embryo evolved into its final shape by the laws of 
physical growth and not by a soul’s fiat. 1 

Buddhaghosa 2 says that the yakkha was an animist ( puggalavddin). 

1 S.i. 206. 2 SA. i. 231. 

2. Indaka. —A deva. He had been a youth who gave a spoonful of 
food to Anuruddha. In consequence he was born in Tavatimsa as a deva 
of great power and majesty. When the Buddha went to Tavatimsa 
to preach the Abhidhamma , in the assembly of the gods who gathered 
there, those of lesser powers had to yield place to their superiors. Thus 
Ankura ( q.v .), who, at the start, was very near the Buddha, found himself 
twelve leagues away. But not so Indaka; the power of his merit was 
very great and no deva was mighty enough to displace him; he had been 
lucky in the recipient of his gift. Ankura’s generosity, much more 
lavish than Indaka’s, had been bestowed on men who were not holy. 
Such was the explanation the Buddha gave in the assembly of the gods, 
on seeing the discrepancy between the positions of the two devas, Indaka 
surpassing the other in ten qualities. 1 

1 Pv. pp. 27 f.; PvA. 136-8; DhA. iii. 219-20; 80-1. 

Indagutta ] 


In one place, in the Petavatthu 2 Indaka is called a yakkha, but the 
Commentary 3 says it means deva-yutta. He is, therefore, different from 

Indaka (1). 

2 p. 28, v. 69. 3 p. 139. 

Indaka Sutta. —Contains the question asked by Indaka and the 
Buddha's reply. 1 

1 S. i. 206. 

Indakuta. —A peak near Rajagaha, the abode of the yakkha Indaka, 
The Buddha once lived there. 1 

1 S. i. 206. 

Indakhlla Sutta. —Like a tuft of cotton-wool or a ball of thistledown, 
wafted by every wind, are recluses and brahmins who do not understand, 
as they really are, the facts of Ill; like an indakhlla , unshakable, un- 
quakable, are those who do so understand. 1 

1 S. v. 443-5. 

1. Indagutta. —A thera. He superintended the construction of the 
Mahathupa at Anuradhapura. 1 DutthagamanI consulted him with 
regard to all details and appointed him kammadhitthdyaka from the 
commencement of the work. 2 He had great psychic powers, and at the 
festival of the dedication of the Thupa he created a parasol of copper, 
as great as the universe, to ward off any harm that might befall those 
taking part in the celebrations. 3 He was at the side of the king through¬ 
out the festival, 4 and, by virtue of his power, all the inhabitants of Ceylon, 
who wished to worship the relics at the Mahathupa, were enabled to go 
to Anuradhapura the moment the wish to do so entered their hearts, 
and to return the same day. 5 

This Indagutta is probably to be identified with the thera Indagutta, 
the head of a great parivena in Rajagaha, who came to Ceylon with 
eighty thousand monks to be present at the foundation-ceremony of 
the Mahathupa. 6 

1 Mhv. xxxviii. 98; Dpv. xix. 5, 6, 8. 

2 MT. 550 f. 

3 Mhv. xxxi. 85. 

4 Ibid., 105. 

6 Ibid., 115. 

6 Ibid., xxix. 30. 

2. Indagutta. —The thera appointed by the monks of Pataliputta to 
superintend the work of building the eighty-four thousand viharas under¬ 
taken by Asoka. The thera, by his power, made it possible for the 
dedication festivals of all the viharas to be performed on the same day, 1 
1 Mhv. v. 174; Sp. i. 49. 


Indadvara.—One of 
Parakkamabahu I . 1 

[ Indadvara 

the fourteen gates of Pulatthipura built by 
1 Cv. lxxiii. 160. 

Indapatta (Indapattana, Indapattha).—A town in the Kuru country. 
In the Kurudhamma Jdtaha , 1 Dhananjaya Koravya ( q.v .), is mentioned 
as its king and as the owner of Anjanavasabha, the elephant of wondrous 
power. The town was seven leagues in extent 2 and there was a road 
that ran straight from Indapatta to BaranasT . 3 In times past, Indapatta 
was considered one of the three chief cities of Jambudlpa, the others 
being Uttarapancala and Kekaka . 4 According to a verse found at the 
end of the Buddhavamsa , 5 the Buddha's razor and needle were enshrined 
at Indapatta. 

The modern Delhi stands on the site of Indapatta. 

1 J. ii. 365 f.; also J. iii.400; iv. 361; v. 3 Ibid., 5^. 

457; vi. 255; Cyp. i. 3, v. 1. 4 J. ii. 213, 214. 

2 J. v. 57; 484. 5 

Indavarl.—Chief among the lay-women who supported Narada Buddha . 1 

1 Bu. x. 25. 

Indasama.—A king of thirteen kappas ago; a previous birth of Setuccha 
Thera , 1 also called Khajjakadayaka . 2 

1 ThagA. i. 207. 2 Ap.i. 182. 

Indasamanagotta.—A hermit who lived, with a large number of other 
anchorites, in the Himalaya. He had a young elephant which he had 
reared; being headstrong and rough in speech, he would not listen to the 
warning of his teacher, the Bodhisatta, that it was dangerous to have 
such a pet. Once while the hermits were away the elephant was seized 
with a frenzy, and when his master returned it killed him . 1 

1 J. ii. 41-3. Perhaps the man’s name [ Kosiyagotta (ThagA. i. 450), is addressed 
was Kosiya, because we are told (J. vi. in a verse (416) of the Theragdthd as 
501) that Inda was of the Kosiyagotta. Indasagotta. 

Katiyana, who was a brahmin of the I 

Indasamanagotta Jataka.—The story of Indasamanagotta, given above. 
It was told in reference to an unruly monk, who is identified with the 
hermit of the Jataka . 1 

For details see the Gijjha Jdtaha. 

1 J. ii. 41 ft. 

Indriya Jataka ] 


Indasalaka. —A cave, the size of a bed in a monk’s cell, near Valli- 
pasana Vihara. It was the residence of Maha-Nagasena Thera. When 
he was ill, eight thousand arahants and the inhabitants of the two deva 
worlds, led by Sakka, came to look after him. They all found room in 
the cave. 1 

1 MT. 552. 

Indasalaguha. —A cave on the Vediya mountain, to the north of 
Ambasanda, which was a brahmin village, east of Rajagaha. Once, 
when the Buddha was staying there, Sakka visited him and asked him 
the questions recorded in the Sakkapanha Sutta. 1 

Buddhaghosa 2 says that the cave lay between two overhanging rocks, 
with a large sdla -tree at the entrance. The village community had 
added walls with doors and windows and had ornamented it with polished 
plaster scroll-work and garlands and had presented it to the Buddha. 
In Fa Hsien’s time, 3 it was still inhabited and he describes it as being 
one yojana north-east of Nalanda. Hiouen Thsang, 4 however, found it 
deserted. Both pilgrims noticed marks on the rock; according to Fa 
Hsien they were the answers to Sakka’s questions written by the Buddha 
with his finger, while Hiouen Thsang says that both questions and 
answers were written on the stone. 

The cave is identified with one about two miles to the south-west of the 
modern village of Giriyek. 5 

It is said that on the occasion of the preaching of the Sakkapanha 
Sutta, eight hundred million devas realised the Truth. 6 

1 D. ii.263. 2 DA.iii.697. 

3 Giles, 48 f. 

6 He calls it Indr aka- saila-guha (Beal 
ii. 180-1). 

5 CAGI. 539 ff.; Stein, Ind. Antiq. 
1901, p. 54. 

6 Mil. 349. 

Indranagari. —The capital of Indra , 1 evidently another name for 


1 Cv. lxxxviii. 121. 

Indriya Jataka (No. 423).—Once an ascetic named Narada, younger 
brother of Kaladevala, became a disciple of the Bodhisatta Jotipala 
(also called in the story Sarabhanga), and lived in the mountainous 
country of Aranjara. Near Narada’s hermitage was a river, on 
the banks of which courtesans used to sit, tempting men. Narada 
saw one of these courtesans, and becoming enamoured of her, for¬ 
sook his meditations and pined away for lack of food. Kaladevala, 
being aware of this, tried to wean him from his desires. Narada, how- 


[ Indriya Sutta 

ever, refused to be comforted, even when his colleagues, Salissara, 
Mendissara and Pabbatissara admonished him. In the end Sarabhanga 
himself was summoned and Narada, having listened to the words of his 
Master, was persuaded to give up his passion. 

The story was told in reference to a backsliding monk. He went 
about for alms with his teachers and instructors but, being their junior, 
he received very little attention. Dissatisfied with his food and treat¬ 
ment, he sought his wife of former days. She provided him with every 
comfort and gradually tempted him with the desire to become a house¬ 
holder again. When the monk's fellow-celibates discovered his wish, 
they took him to the Buddha who preached to him this Jataka, showing 
that in a past life, too, he had been sorely tempted by the same woman. 
Narada was identified with the backsliding monk and the courtesan 
with the wife of his lay-days. 1 

The Buddha is stated on this occasion to have preached also the 
Kandina Jataka , 2 the Rddha Jataka , 3 the Ruhaka Jataka , 4 the Kanavera 
Jataka , 5 the Asahka Jataka" 6 and the Alambusa Jataka. 1 

The Indriya Jataka is also referred to in the Kamavilapa Jataka , 8 
but the connection between the two stories is not clear; perhaps the 
reference is to another story of the same name. 

1 J.iii. 461-9. 5 J. iii. 68 ff. 

2 J. i. 153 ff. 6 Ibid., 248 ff. 

3 Ibid. , 495 ff. 7 J. v. 152 ff. 

4 J. ii. 113 ff. | 8 J.ii. 443 ff. 

1. Indriya Sutta. —The monk possessed of six qualities—the five in- 
driyas (saddha, etc.), and the freedom of mind brought about by the 
destruction of the dsavas —is worthy of offerings, etc. 1 

1 A. iii. 281. 

2. Indriya Sutta.— Where control of the faculties of sense [indriya) is 
not found, morality ceases to exist and, in consequence, concentration, 
insight into and knowledge of reality as it is, detachment and the feeling 
of revulsion, insight into liberation—these also cease to exist. When 
such control is present all the other qualities are also present. 1 

1 A. iii. 360. 

3. Indriya Sutta. —If a monk, observing the rise and fall in the faculties 
of sense, is repelled by them and lusts not for them, the knowledge 
arises in him that he is free and that for him there is no hereafter. Thus 
would he be perfect in faculty. 1 

1 S. iv. 140. 

Indriyabhavana Sutta ] 


4. Indriya Sutta. —The five indriyas ( saddhd , etc.), are called the Path 
that goes to the Uncompounded (asahlchata). 1 

1 S.iv. 361. 

5. Indriya Sutta. —The five indriyas (saddhd, etc.), when practised with 
singleness of heart, dispassion, and cessation that conduces to abandon¬ 
ment, form the Path leading to the Uncompounded. 1 

1 S. iv. 365. 

6. Indriya Sutta.—Anuruddha tells his colleagues that by cultivating 
the four satipatthdnas, he knows, as they really are, the nature of the 
minds of other beings, of other persons (indriyaparopariyatti). 1 

1 S. v. 305. 

Indriyakatha. —The fourth division of the Mahavagga of the Pati- 
sambhidamagga . 1 

1 ii., pp. 1-35. 

Indriyagocara Sutta. —Mentioned in the Atthasdlim, 1 Buddhaghosa's 
Commentary on the Dhammasahgani. The quotation given from it is: 
“ ekam mahabhutam updddya pasado pathavidhatuyd tihi mahdbhutehi 
susahgahito dpodhdtuya ca tejodhdtuyd ca vdyodhdtuyd ca.” The sutta 
has, so far, not been traced elsewhere. 

1 pp. 307-8. 

Indriyabhavana Sutta. —Preached at Kajangala in the Mukheluvana. 

When a young brahmin, Uttara, pupil of Parasariya, visits the Buddha, 
the Buddha asks him what was the teaching of Parasariya on the develop¬ 
ment of the indriyas. It is that a man should neither see forms with 
his eyes, nor hear words with his ears, says Uttara. Whereupon the 
Buddha retorts that in that case the deaf and the blind have reached 
development. When Uttara sits silent and discomfited, Ananda inter¬ 
venes and begs the Buddha to expound his teaching on the subject. The 
Buddha agrees and preaches this sutta, with a variety of similes. 1 

In the Theragatha Commentary 2 we are told that the thera Parapariya 
(probably identical with Parasariya mentioned above) was taught the 
Indriyabhavana Sutta by the Buddha. He learnt it by heart, and 
pondering over its meaning, attained insight. The Theragatha 3 gives a 
summary of the musings of Parapariya which lead to his attainment. 

1 M. iii. 298-302. 2 ii. 17. 3 vv. 726 ff. 


[ Indriyfini Sutta 

The only connection between the Sutta and this summary is identity 
of subject, not identity of treatment. Perhaps Parapariya's musings 
were only prompted by the sutta and were independent of its actual 

Indriyani Sutta. —There are four indriyas : saddhd , viriya, sati and 
samadhi. 1 

1 A.ii. 141. 

Irandatl. —A Naga maiden, daughter of the Naga King, Varuna. 
When she learned that her mother, Vimala, longed for the heart of 
Vidhura, she determined to get for herself a husband who would satisfy 
her mother's craving. So she went to the Himalaya and having spread 
a bed of fragrant flowers, lay thereon and sang. Vessavana’s nephew, 
a yakkha, Punnaka, heard her and offered himself as her husband. She 
took him to her father who agreed to give him Irandatl, if he could bring 
Vidhura's heart. When Punnaka fulfilled this condition, as described 
in the Vidhura-pandita Jdtalca, Irandatl became his wife. 1 

1 J. vi. 263-327. 

Ilankiya. —A Damila chieftain of South India, conquered by Parak- 
kamabahu I. 1 Later, Ilankiya became the ally of Parakkamabahu, 
who gave him earrings and other ornaments as a mark of royal favour, 
also conferring on him the coveted title of Rajavesibhujanga-Silamegha. 2 

1 Cv. lxxvi. 98. 2 Ibid,, 191-2; on the title see Geiger, Cv. Trs. ii. 10, n. 3. 

Ilanga.— See Sena Ilanga and Rakkhaka Ilanga. 

Illisa. —A setthi of Rajagaha. 1 He was lame and hunch-backed and 
also had a squint. He was an infidel and a miser, never giving away 
any of his wealth nor enjoying it himself. 

For seven generations his ancestors had been generous, but Illisa 
burnt down the almonry and drove away the poor from his house. 

Once, at the sight of a yokel drinking, with a piece of dried fish as a 
relish, Illisa was sorely tempted to drink himself. For a long time 
he fought the temptation, but he sickened with longing, and having sent 
a slave with a single penny to the tavern, he got some toddy; he ordered 
the slave to put the jar of spirits in a thicket by the riverside so that he 
might drink unseen. 

1 At the opening ol the story the king gaha that Sakka comes (see p. 360), so 
of Benares is mentioned, but it is to Raja- l Rajagaha was evidently Illlsa’s residence. 

Ilan&ga ] 


Meanwhile Illisa's father, who had been born as'Sakka, having learnt, 
as a result of investigations, that his son had become a miser, came 
down to earth to wean him from his folly. Assuming in every detail 
the form of Illlsa, he entered the king's palace and offered all the wealth 
of Illlsa to the king. On the offer being refused, he went to Illlsa's 
house and gave orders to the servants to throw open all the treasure 
chambers and give the wealth to the poor. The servants took the 
disguised Sakka to be Illlsa himself, and Illlsa's wife, believing her 
husband's sudden generosity to be due to his drunkenness, acquiesced 
in the instructions. 

Among those who profited by this unexpected good fortune was a 
countryman who had been Illlsa's carriage-driver. Filling the carriage 
with seven things of value, he set out along the road, passing by the 
thicket wherein Illlsa lay drinking. The man was singing Illlsa's praises, 
and at mention of his name Illlsa came out, and seeing the man going 
away with his belongings tried to stop him. But the man, not recog¬ 
nising him, knocked him down and went on his way. Illisa hurried 
home but was turned out of his house by the porters, and at length he 
sought the king. The king, having heard his story, made enquiries and 
discovered the existence of two Illisas, alike in every respect, down to 
the minutest detail, even to a wart on the head. 

Not even Illlsa's wife and children, not even his barber, could distin¬ 
guish him from the second Illlsa. 

Bereft of all hope, Illisa swoons, Sakka reveals himself and tells Illisa 
that the wealth is really his and not Illisa's, the latter not having earned 
it. He urges Illisa to do good and practise generosity, or he would die, 
smitten by Indra's thunderbolt. 

Illisa, taking heed of the warning, becomes a virtuous man. 2 

2 J. i. 349 ff. 

Illlsa Jataka (No. 78).—The story of Illisa as given above. The 
Jataka was related in reference to the conversion by Moggallana of the 
banker Maccharikosiya (q.v.) of Sakkhara. Illisa of the past is identified 
with Macchariyakosiya. 1 The story is given as an example of iddhi by 
means of which Moggallana made a little thing increase manyfold. 2 

1 J. i. 345 ff. 2 Vsm. ii. 403. 

Ilanaga. —King of Ceylon (a.d. 93-102). He was the nephew of King 
Amandagamani Abhaya. Amanda was succeeded by his son Cula- 
bhaya and he by his younger sister Sivali. After Sivali had reigned for 
four months, Ilanaga dethroned her and became king himself. In the 


[ Isayo Arannaka 

first year of his reign he incurred the displeasure of the powerful Lamba- 
kannas and was deprived of his throne and taken captive. It is said 
that the king was rescued from prison by his state elephant and that 
he escaped to Rohana. Three years later he gave battle to the Lamba- 
kannas at Kapallakkhanda and massacred most of them. He had the 
noses and toes of the rest cut off as punishment. 

He was succeeded by his son Candamukha Siva. To his state elephant, 
who had helped him, he gave the tract of land called Hatthibhoga. 

During his exile in Rohana, Ilanaga built two tanks, the Tissa and the 
Dura, and restored the Nagamahavihara, which he gave to Mahapaduma, 
thera of Tuladhara, who had preached to him the Kapi Jataka. He also 
gave land for its maintenance. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxv. 14-45; Dpv. xxi. 41 f. 

Isayo Arannaka (or Gandha) Sutta. —Long ago, many seers of virtuous 
conduct lived in leaf huts in a wild forest. 1 One day, Sakka and Vepa- 
Citti visited them. Vepacitti entered the hermitage by the principal gate, 
keeping his shoes on and his sword by his side, thereby insulting the 
seers and committing sin. Sakka, on the other hand, went in by the 
usual entrance, doffing his shoes and sword; with his canopy folded up, 
he stood to leeward of the seers, rendering them homage with clasped 
hands. The seers, addressing Sakka, asked him if he did not feel 
disgust at their smell, inasmuch as they were humans and he a god. 
Sakka answered that the scent of virtuous men is lovely, like unto a 
wreath of varied blossoms. 2 

1 According to Buddhaghosa, they law; sometimes they quarrelled, some- 
lived in the Himalaya (SA. i. 265); Vepa- times, as here, they were friends, 
citti and Sakka were father- and son-in- 2 S. i. 226. 

Isayo Samuddaka (or Sambara) Sutta. —Long ago, many virtuous seers 
lived in huts on the seashore. At that time there was a war between 
the gods and the Asuras. The seers considered the gods righteous but 
feared harm from the Asuras. They went, therefore, to Sambara, 
lord of the Asuras, and asked him for a pledge of safety; he refused, 
saying that the seers were followers of Sakka. The seers thereupon 
cursed him to suffer everlasting terror. It is said that that same night 
Sambara woke up thrice, seized with fright. 1 

Buddhaghosa 2 adds that as a result of this curse, Sambara’s mind 
became deranged and he came to be called Vepacitti (crazy-nerve). 

1 S.i. 227-8. 

2 SA. i. 266. 

IsigiH Sutta ] 


Isigana. —Perhaps the name of a Paeeeka Buddha, whom the Bodhi- 
satta once reviled. The reading is, however, very uncertain. 1 

1 Ap. i. 299; see footnote. 

Isigili. —One of the five mountains round Rajagaha and one of the 
beauty-spots of the city. 1 There was, on one side of it, a black stone 
called the Kalasila. This was a favourite haunt of the Buddha and the 
members of the Order. 2 It was also the scene of the suicide of Godhika 
and Vakkali 8 and of the murder of Moggallana by the brigands. 4 

In the Cula Dukkhakkhanda Sutta it is said that a large number of 
Niganthas lived at Kalasila, never sitting down, undergoing paroxysms 
of acute pain and agony, following the teachings of Nigantha Nataputta. 
The Buddha questioned them as to their practises and preached to them 
the above-mentioned Sutta, which he afterwards repeated to Mahanama. 6 

Once when the Buddha was dwelling at Kalasila, he sang the praises of 
Rajagaha, giving Ananda a chance, if he so desired, of asking him to 
live on for a kappa ; but Ananda did not take his opportunity. 6 

The books refer to several other visits of the Buddha to Isigilapassa. 
During one of these visits he heard Vanglsa’s high eulogy of Moggallana. 7 

In the Isigili Sutta 8 the Buddha is represented as saying that while 
the other mountains round Rajagaha— Vebhara, Pandava, Vepulla and 
Gijjhakuta —had changed their old names, Isigili retained its former 
name and designation. 

Five hundred Pacceka Buddhas once resided in Isigili for a long time; 
they could be seen entering the mountain, but once entered, there was 
no more sign of them. Men, observing this, said that the mountain 
swallowed up the sages and so it came by its name of Isigili (1st gilati ti 
= Isigili). 

Buddhaghosa 9 adds that when the Pacceka Buddhas returned from 
their begging rounds, the rock would open like a folding door to admit 
them. Within the rock they had made for themselves cloisters, dwelling- 
houses, etc. 

1 D. ii. 116. 4 Jt v 125 f. DhA. iii. 65. 

2 See e.g., Vin. ii. 76, where Dabba 5 M. i. 91 ff. 

Mallaputta is asked by monks to provide 6 D.iii. 116. 

for them accommodation there; see also 7 S.i. 194; Thag. vv. 1249 ff. 

Vin. iii. 41. 8 M.iii. 68-71. 

3 S. i. 121; iii. 121 f. 9 MA. ii. 889. 

Isigili Sutta. —The 116th Sutta of the Majjhima Nikaya. 1 Preached 
to the monks at Isigili. It explains how Isigili came by its name, and 
gives a list of the Pacceka Buddhas who once dwelt there. 

1 M. iii. 68 ff. 


[ Isinda 

Isinda, —A tribe mentioned in a list of various tribes. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 359. 

1. Isidatta. —A thera. He was the son of a caravan guide at Vadflha- 
gama (v.l. Velugama) in Avanti. By correspondence he became the 
unseen friend of Citta-gahapati of Macchikasanda. The latter once sent 
him a letter regarding the excellences of the Buddha, and Isidatta, being 
pleased with the account given of the Buddha's religion, entered the 
Order under Maha-kaccana and in due course became an arahant. Later, 
with Mahakaccana's leave, he visited the Buddha in the Majjhimadesa 
and was warmly received by him. 1 A verse uttered by Isidatta, in 
response to the Buddha's enquiry regarding his welfare, is recorded in 
the Theragatha . 2 

Isidatta had been a householder in the time of VipassI Buddha and once, 
having seen the Buddha walking along the street and being pleased with 
his demeanour, he gave him an amoda-huit? He is, probably, identical 
with Amodapaliya of the Apadana . 4 

According to the Samyutta Nihdya , 6 Isidatta was once staying with a 
number of senior monks at Macchikasanda in the Ambataka grove. Citta- 
gahapati invited the monks to a meal. On this occasion Citta asked 
a question regarding the Buddha's teaching on the diversity of the 
elements. The chief Elder, being unable to answer, remained silent. 
Isidatta, though the most junior of the whole company, obtained the 
chief Elder's permission, and answered the question to the satisfaction 
of Citta. Citta likewise asked questions regarding various views, such 
as the infinity of the world, etc. At the end of the discourse, Citta 
discovered, by accident, that the Elder who had preached to him was 
none other than his unseen friend, Isidatta. Delighted with the dis¬ 
covery, he invited Isidatta to spend his time at^Macchikasanda, promising 
to provide him with all requisites. But that same day Isidatta left 
Macchikasanda and never returned. 6 

1 ThagA. i. 238. 

2 v. 120. 

3 ThagA. loc. cit. 

4 ii. 447. 

5 iv. 283-8, also AA. i. 210. 

6 Because, says Buddhaghosa (AA. i. 
210), he did not wish to stay after having 
been recognised. 

2. Isidatta. —An equerry or chamberlain (thapati) of Pasenadi, King 
of Kosala. Isidatta is always mentioned with Purana. Their duty 
was to look after the ladies of the king's harem when these went riding 
the elephant into the park. This often brought them into close contact 
with the ladies, and they confessed to the Buddha that it was difficult 
not to have evil thoughts regarding them. 

Isidatta ] 


Isidatta and Purana were once at Sadhuka 1 on some business. They 
heard that the Buddha was having a robe made before starting on his 
rounds and they waited for an opportunity to talk to him. When the 
opportunity came they followed the Buddha and told him how glad they 
always were when he was near them and how sad when he was away 
on tour. The Buddha preaches to them the glory of the homeless life 
and urges them to put forth energy. He speaks very appreciatively 
of their loyalty to him and to his religion and congratulates them on the 
possession of virtuous qualities, such as sharing all their goods with holy 
men, a rare quality. 2 

According to the Samyutta Commentary , 3 Isidatta was a Sakaddgdmi 
and Purana a Sotapanna. 

In the Dhammacetiya Sutta , 4 Pasenadi tells the Buddha how im¬ 
pressed he is by the reverence Isidatta and Purana show for the Buddha 
and his teachings. “ They are my carriage-builders/' says the king, 
“ and they depend on me for their livelihood and all their honours, yet 
these men do not serve me as whole-heartedly as they do the Lord.” 

Once the king spent the night in a cramped little house. Isidatta and 
Purana, who were with him, having spent the best part of the night in 
discussing the Doctrine, lay down to rest with their heads in the direction 
in which they thought the Buddha to be, and their feet towards the king ! 

Isidatta was the uncle of the woman-disciple Migasala, whose father 
was Purana. 

Purana is described as a brahmacdri , but not Isidatta, yet, after death, 
they were both born in Tusita. Migasala asks Ananda how it was that 
people of different characters could have the same rebirth. 6 

Isidatta is mentioned by the Buddha among those who had the six 
qualities that brought realisation of immortality—unwavering loyalty 
to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the Sangha, Ariyan virtue, wisdom 
and liberation. 6 

The Andgata Vamsa 7 says that when the future Buddha Metteyya 
leaves the household life, eighty-four thousand others, led by Isidatta and 
Purana, will accompany him. 

1 Their own property, according to was the brahmacari. The word cannot 

Buddhaghosa (SA.i.215). here mean “celibate,” for Purana must 

2 S. v. 348-52; Netti. 134 f. have had a wife because Migasala calls 

3 i. 215. 4 M. ii. 123 f. him her father {pita). 

6 A. iii. 348 f.; v. 138 f., 143 f. From 6 A. iii. 451. 

MA. ii. 756, it would appear as if Isidatta 7 v. 58. 

3. Isidatta. —King of Soreyya. AnomadassI Buddha preached to him 
and to eighty thousand of his followers. They all became arahants. 1 

1 BuA. 143-4. 



[ Isidatta 

4. Isidatta. —One of the three leaders of the monks in Ceylon during 
the time that Brahmanatissa-cora laid waste the land. The other 
two were Culasiva and Mahasona. For the story connected with them 
see s.v. Mahasona. 

1. Isidatta Sutta. —Records the questions of Citta-gahapati and the 
answers given by Isidatta Thera on the diversity of the elements. 1 

1 S. iv. 283-5. 

2. Isidatta Sutta. —The same, on the various views that arise in the 
world. Isidatta answers that they are all due to sakkayaditthi) he then 
proceeds, in reply to further questions, to explain how sakkayaditthi 
arises and how its absence is brought about. 1 

1 S. iv. 286-8. 

Isidasa. —A thera. He had a brother, also a monk, named Isibhatta. 
Having spent the rainy season in Savatthi, they went to take up their 
abode in a certain village. The people there gave them food and robes, 
but they refused to accept their share of these, because, according to 
the rule, the robes are the property of the Sangha until the Kathina- 
ceremony has been performed. The story is mentioned in connection 
with accepting robes elsewhere than in the spot where the rainy 
season has been spent. 1 

1 Yin. i. 299. 

IsidasI Then, —She was the daughter of a good and wealthy merchant 
of Ujjenl. Having come of age, she was given in marriage to the son 
of a merchant in Saketa. 

For one month she lived with him as a devoted wife; then because of 
her past kamma, her husband became estranged from her, and turned her 
out of the house. She was married again with the same result, and a 
third time to a friar. Isidasl’s father persuaded him to give up the 
pilgrim’s life; he dwelt with his wife only for a fortnight and refused to 
stay with her any more. IsidasI then met the therl Jinadatta, whom she 
entertained to a meal at her house. Under Jinadatta, IsidasI joined 
the Order and became an arahant. 

The Thengdthd / which contains forty-seven verses ascribed to her, 
describes not only her present life, but also her past lives. She had been 
a worker in gold in Erakaccha and had committed adultery in that 
life. As a result she was born in hell for a long time, and, in subse- 

1 vv. 400-47. 

Isipatana ] 


quent births became an ape, a goat, an ox, a hermaphrodite slave and a 
carter’s daughter. In this last birth she was sold to a merchant in 
payment of her father’s debts. When she was sixteen, the merchant’s 
son, Giridasa, fell in love with her and married her. He had already one 
wife, and the new one caused dissension between her and her husband. 
Therefore it was that in this life she was hated by her husbands. This 
account of her sojourn in samsara was related by Isidasi in response 
to a request by one of her fellow-nuns, Bodhl. 2 

Mrs. Ehys Davids thinks 3 that Isidasi’s verses in the Thengathd suggest 
late literary craft and bear the impress of late literary creation. The 
scene is Pataliputta, and not any of the usual towns mentioned in the 
Canon, and the name of Isidasi’s sponsor—Jindatta—is, she says, 
significant. Perhaps there are traces here of Jainistic influence. 

In the Dlpavamsa* Isidasi (Isidasika) is mentioned in a list of eminent 
theris who were leaders of the Order of bhikkhunls. 

2 ThigA. 260 ff. 3 Sisters , Introd. pp. xxiif. 4 xviii.9. 

Isidinna. —A thera. He was the son of a setthi in Sunaparanta. He 
witnessed the miracle of the Buddha’s acceptance of the Candana-mala, 1 
and, having heard the Buddha preach, he became a Sotapanna . While 
still living the life of a householder, a compassionate spirit urged him to 
give it up. He entered the Order and soon after became an arahant. 2 

The TheragathaI s contains two verses which he uttered in confessing 
anna. They were the same as were spoken to him by his friendly spirit. 

In the time of Vipassi Buddha, he was a householder and did homage 
to the Buddha’s Bodhi-tree with a fan made of sumana- flowers. 4 He is 
probably identical with Sumanavljaniya of the Apadana. 5 

1 Probably the Candanamalaka ( q.v .). i 3 w. 187-8. 4 ThagA. 312 f. 

2 ThagA. i. 312-3. | 6 Ap. ii. 415. 

1. Isipatana. —An open space near Benares, the site of the famous 
Migadaya or Deer Park. It was eighteen leagues from Uruvela, and 
when Gotama gave up his austere penances his friends, the Paiicavaggiya 
monks, left him and went to Isipatana. 1 After his Enlightenment the 
Buddha, leaving Uruvela, joined them in Isipatana, and it was there 
that he preached his first sermon, the DhammacaJckappavattana Sutta , 
on the full-moon day of Asalha. 2 There, also, the Buddha spent his first 
rainy season. 3 

1 J.i.68. this journey. The Buddha, haying no 

2 Vin. i. 10 f.; on this occasion 80 money with which to pay the ferryman, 
Jcotis of Brahmas and innumerable gods crossed the Ganges through the air. 
attained the comprehension of the Truth When Bimbisara heard of this, he 
(Mil. 30); (130 kofis says Mil. 350). The abolished the toll for ascetics. 

Lai. (528) gives details of the stages of 8 BuA., p. 3. 


[ Ii ipatana 

All the Buddhas preach their first sermon at the Migadaya in Isipatana; 
it is one of the four avijahitatthdndni (unchanging spots), the others 
being the bodhi-pallanka , the spot at the gate of Sahkassa, where the 
Buddha first touches the earth on his return from Tavatimsa, and the 
site of the bed in the Gandhakuti in Jetavana. 4 

Isipatana is mentioned by the Buddha as one of the four places of 
pilgrimage which his devout followers should visit. 5 

Isipatana was so-called because sages, on their way through the air 
(from the Himalayas), alight here or start from here on their aerial 
flight (isayo ettha nipatanti uppatanti cdti-Isipatanam). 

The Migadaya was so-called because deer were allowed to roam about 
there unmolested. 

Pacceka Buddhas, having spent seven days in contemplation in the 
Gandhamadana, bathe in the Anotatta Lake and come to the habitations 
of men through the air, in search of alms. They descend to earth at 
Isipatana. 6 

Sometimes the Pacceka Buddhas come to Isipatana from Nandamu- 
laka-pabbhara. 7 

Several other incidents connected with the Buddha, besides the preach¬ 
ing of the first sermon, are mentioned as having taken place in Isipatana. 
Here it was that one day at dawn Yasa came to the Buddha and became 
an arahant. 8 It was at Isipatana, too, that the rule was passed pro¬ 
hibiting the use of sandals made of talipot leaves. 9 On another occasion 
when the Buddha was staying at Isipatana, having gone there from 
Bajagaha, he instituted rules forbidding the use of certain kinds of 
flesh, including human flesh. 10 Twice, while the Buddha was at Isi¬ 
patana, Mara visited him but had to go away discomfited. 11 

Besides the Dhammacakkappavattana Sutta mentioned above, several 
other suttas were preached by the Buddha while staying at Isipatana, 
among them the Panca Sutta (S. iii. 66 f.), the Rathakara or Pacetana 
Sutta (A. i. 110 f.), the two Pdsa Suttas (S. i. 105 f.), the Samaya Sutta 
(A. iii. 320 ff.), the Katuviya Sutta (A. i. 279 f.), a discourse on the Mettey- 
yapanha of the Pardyana (A. iii. 399 f.), and the Dhammadinna Sutta 
(8. v. 406 f.), preached to the distinguished layman Dhammadinna, who 
came to see the Buddha. 

Some of the most eminent members of the Sangha seem to have re¬ 
sided at Isipatana from time to time; among recorded conversations at 

4 BuA. 247; DA. ii. 424. 9 Ibid., i. 189. 

6 D. ii. 141. 10 Ibid., i. 216 if.; the rule regarding 

6 MA.i.387; AA. i. 347 adds that sages human flesh was necessary because Sup- 

also held the uposatha at Isipatana.. piya made broth out of her own flesh 

7 MA. ii. 1019; PsA. 437-8. for a sick monk. 

8 Vin.i. 15 f. u 8.1. 105 f. 

Isipatana ] 


Isipatana are several between Sariputta and Mahakotthita, 12 and one 
between Mahakotthita and Citta-Hatthisariputta. 13 

Mention is made, too, of a discourse in which several monks staying at 
Isipatana tried to help Channa in his difficulties. 14 

According to the Mahavamsa , there was a large community of monks 
at Isipatana in the second century B.c. For, we are told that at the 
foundation ceremony of the Maha Thupa in Anuradhapura, twelve 
thousand monks were present from Isipatana led by the Elder Dhamma- 
sena. 15 

Hiouen Thsang 16 found, at Isipatana, fifteen hundred monks studying 
the Hinayana. In the enclosure of the Sangharama was a vihara about 
two hundred feet high, strongly built, its roof surmounted by a golden 
figure of the mango. In the centre of the vihara was a life-size statue 
of the Buddha turning the wheel of the Law. To the south-west were 
the remains of a stone stupa built by Asoka. 17 In front of it was a stone 
pillar to mark the spot where the Buddha preached his first sermon. 
Near by was another stupa on the site where the Paiicavaggiyas spent 
their time in meditation before the Buddha's arrival, and another where 
five hundred Pacceka Buddhas entered Nibbana. Close to it was 
another building where the future Buddha Metteyya received assurance 
of his becoming a Buddha. 

Hiouen Thsang quotes the Nigrodhamiga Jataka 18 to account for the 
origin of the Migadaya. According to him the Deer Park was the forest 
gifted by the king of Benares of the Jataka, where the deer might wander 

According to the Udapdna Jataka , 19 there was a very ancient well near 
Isipatana which, in the Buddha's time, was used by the monks living 

In past ages Isipatana sometimes retained its own name, 20 but more 
often it was known by different names. 21 Thus in Vipassi’s time it was 
known as Khema-uyyana. It is the custom for all Buddhas to go 
through the air to Isipatana to preach their first sermon. Gotama, 
however, walked all the way, eighteen leagues, because he knew that 

12 S.ii. 112.f ;iii. 167 f.; iv. 162f.: 384 ff. mula, Isipatana, Migadaya and Kusina- 

13 A. iii. 392 f. gara; this is confirmed by Asoka’s lithic 

14 S. iii. 132 f. records, e.g. Rock Edict , viii. 

15 Mhv. xxix. 31. 18 J. i. 145 ff. 

16 Beal: Records of the Western World y 19 J. ii. 354 ff. 

ii. 45 ff. 20 E.g. t in the time of Phussa Buddha 

17 The Divy . (389-94) mentions Asoka (Bu. xix. 18), Dhammadassl (BuA. 182) 
as intimating to Upagupta his desire to and Kassapa (BuA. 218). Kassapa was 
visit the places connected with the I born there {ibid., 217). 

Buddha’s activities, and to erect thuyas l 21 For these names see under those of 
there. Thus he visited LumbinI, Bodhi- I the different Buddhas. 

326 [ Isipatana 

by so doing he would meet Upaka, the Ajivaka, to whom he could be 
of service. 22 

Isipatana is identified with the modern Saranath, six miles from 
Benares. Cunningham 23 found the Migadaya represented by a fine 
wood, covering an area of about half a mile, extending from the great 
tomb of Dhammek on the north to the Chaukundi mound on the south. 
22 DA. ii. 471. 23 Arch. Reports, i. p. 107. 

2. Isipatana. —A monastery built by Parakkamabahu I. in the suburb 

Rajavesibhujanga, of Pulatthipura. 1 

1 Cv. lxxviii. 79; but see lxxiii. 151-5 and Cv. Trs. ii. 18, n. 3. 

Isibhatta Thera. —Brother of Isidasa ( q.v .). 

Isibhumangana. —A spot in Anuradhapura where half the relics of 
Mahinda were buried by King Uttiya. 1 The Difavamsa 2 calls it 


1 Mhv. xx. 46. 2 xvii. 109. 

Isimuggadayaka. —A Thera. He gave isimugga mixed with honey 
to Padumuttara Buddha and 108,000 monks. As a result, forty-four 
kappas ago he was born thirty-eight times as king, his name being 

Mahisamanta. 1 

1 Ap.i. 193-4. 

Isisinga. —A hermit, the son of the Bodhisatta and a doe. His story 
is related in the Alambusd Jatalca and in the Nalinika Jataka (q.v.). 

Issatta Sutta. — Pasenadi questions the Buddha as to how gifts should 
be given and the Buddha's answer is that they should be bestowed where 
the heart is pleased to give. The further question is asked as to whom, 
when given, does a gift bear much fruit. To the virtuous, irrespective 
of class, says the Buddha, and he instances the case of a youth skilled 
in war as opposed to one who is untrained and unskilled, no matter what 
his social status. The Buddha proceeds to describe the qualities which 
are possessed by the virtuous man. 1 

The Commentary 2 describes this interview as a public one, taking 
place before a large audience, among whom are teachers of rival schools, 
“ scratching the ground with their feet/' Their fame had suffered owing 
to the popularity of the Buddha and they had represented him as 
exhorting the people to give only to himself and to his followers. Pase¬ 
nadi here gives the Buddha opportunity to vindicate himself. 

1 S.i. 98 f. 

2 SA. i. 129 f. 

Issarasamanarama ] 


Issara Sutta. —One of the Suttas in the Devatd Samyutta. Questions 
are asked as to what makes for lordship among men, what is the supreme 
commodity, etc., and the answer is that power of command it is which 
brings lordship and that women are the supreme commodity, etc. 1 

1 S.i. 43. 

Issarasamanarama (Issarasamanavihara, Issarasamanaka) One of 
the monasteries at Anuradhapura. It was built by Devanampiyatissa 
on the spot where the prince Arittha dwelt with his five hundred followers 
after having received their ordination from Mahinda. 1 The building of 
this monastery was the seventh of the great tasks performed by Deva¬ 
nampiyatissa. 2 

One of the eight saplings from the Bodhi-tree at Anuradhapura was 
planted at Issarasamanarama. 3 

Candamukha Siva built a tank near Manikaragamaka and gave it 
for the use of the vihara, 4 while Vasabha built in the monastery an 
uposatha-hall 6 and Voharaka Tissa constructed a wall round it. 6 Kassapa 
I. restored the buildings and enlarged the grounds. He also bought 
villages which he presented to the monastery for its maintenance. He 
had two daughters, Bodhi and Uppalavanna, and he gave their names 
and his own to the vihara. When the king wished to hand over the 
vihara to the Theravada monks they refused to accept it, fearing the 
reproach of the people that it was the work of a parricide. Then the 
king dedicated it to the image of the Buddha and the monks accepted 
it saying that it belonged to their Master. 7 

According to the Mahdvamsa Tikd? the vihara was also called Kassa- 
pagiri, probably after its restoration by Kassapa I., mentioned 
above. 9 See also s.v. Kassapagiri. 

It had originally been called Issarasamana because of its association 
with the five hundred noblemen (issaraddrakd) who joined the Order 
with Arittha. 10 The Tika adds 11 that Saliya, son of Dutthagamani, 
enlarged the vihara out of the tribute brought to him by the men of his 
tributary villages to the south of Anuradhapura. He used to observe 
the uposatha on fast days at the vihara and spend the day in the Ma- 
hindaguha there. 

In the Samantapasadika 12 the vihara is called Issaranimmana. 

1 Mhv. xx. 14; xix. 66. | 8 pp. 407 and 652. 

2 Ibid., xx. 20. 9 See also Cv. Trs. i. 43, n. 7, and 

3 Ibid., xix. 61; Mbv. 162. Ep.Zeyl.i. 31 ff., where the vihara is called 

4 Mhv. xxxv. 47. I “Isuramenu-Bo-Upulvan-Kasubgiri” in 

5 Ibid., 87. an inscription of Mahinda IV. 

6 Ibid., xxxvi. 36. 10 MT. 416. 11 607. 

7 Cv. xxxix. 10-14; see also 9 below. 12 i. 100. 


[ Issariya 

Issariya. —A Damila general whom Dutthagamani subdued at Hala- 
kola. 1 

1 Mhv. xxv. 11. 

Issa Sutta. —The nun who is possessed of five qualities, including envy, 
goes to hell without any doubt. 1 

1 A. iii. 140. 

Issapakata-itthi Vatthu. —The story of a woman who, finding that her 
husband had relations with a female servant, bound the servant hand 
and foot, cut off her nose and locked her up in a secret chamber. In order 
to hide the deed from her husband, she took him to the monastery to 
hear the Buddha preach. Some relatives of hers came to the house 
and discovering what had happened, released the servant. She went 
to the monastery where her mistress was listening to the Buddha's 
sermon and proclaimed aloud the wrong done to her. The Buddha, 
thereupon, pointed out the folly of doing evil in the hope that it would 
not be found out. We are told that both the woman and her husband 
became Sotdfanna at the end of the sermon. The servant was set free. 1 

1 DhA. iii. 486-7. 

Issuki Sutta. —A woman who is faithless, shameless, unscrupulous, 
envious and of weak wisdom is reborn in purgatory. 1 

1 S. iv. 241. 


Isadhara. —One of the seven ranges of mountains round Sineru. It is 
the abode of deva kings and of devas and yakkhas. 1 It is higher than 
Karavika, and between these two is a Sidantara-samudda ; next to 
Isadhara and higher than it is Yugandhara, and between them is another 

Sidantara-samudda. 2 

The Mahdvastu 3 calls it Isandhara (suggesting its probable ety¬ 

1 SnA. ii. 443; Sp. i. 119; Dvy. 217. 2 J. vi. 125. 3 ii. 300. 

fsadanta. —A class of elephants mentioned with Hemavatas and others. 1 
They have trunks like the poles of a carriage, slightly curved. 2 

1 Yv. xx. 9. 2 YvA. 104. 

Ukkattha ] 


Isana. —One of the chief devas. In the Tevijja Sutta 1 he is mentioned 
with Indra, Soma, Varuna, Pajapati and Brahma, as being invoked by 
the brahmins. 

He was in the battle of the devas against the asuras and led a section 
of the deva host. Indra tells the devas that if, during the struggle, 
they felt faint-hearted, they should look at the crest of his own banner 
or at that of Pajapati, Varuna or Isana, and their fear would disappear. 2 

In the assembly of the gods, Isana gets the fourth seat next to Varuna. 
He is in beauty and longevity equal to Indra. 3 

Isana is an older name for Rudra (Siva). 4 The conception of him had 
so far changed by the time of Buddhaghosa that in Buddhaghosa’s 
accounts he is given a seat near Bakka and inferior to his. Perhaps he 
was one of the thirty-three gods of Tavatimsa. 5 

1 D. i. 244. 2 S. i. 219. 4 Bothlinck and Roth: Worterbuch. 

3 SA. i. 262. 6 KS. i. 281, n. 4. 


Ukkamsamala. —A learned monk of Ava. He was well versed in 
literature and wrote two books dealing with the Pali language, the 
Vannabodhana and the Likhananaya. 1 

1 Sas., p. 120. 

Ukkamsika. —A king of Ramanna, a great patron of learning. 1 
1 For details about him see Bode, op. cit., 50, 52. 

Ukkacela. —See Ukka°. 

Ukkattha. —A town in Kosala, near the Himalaya. It has been given, 
free from all taxes (as brahmadeyya ), to Pokkharasatl by the king of 
Kosala, in recognition of the former’s skill. It was thickly populated 
and had much grassland, woodland and corn. 1 The Icchanangala wood 
was in the neighbourhood, and when the Buddha was staying in the wood 
Pokkharasatl first sent his pupil Ambattha and then went himself to visit 
the Buddha. 2 

There was a road which connected Ukkattha with Setavya 8 and with 
Vesali. 4 

1 D. i. 87; DA. i. 245. to Ukattha to learn under Pokkharasati 

2 See the Ambattha Sutta. (VvA. 229). 

3 A. ii. 37. Chatta goes from Setavya 4 J.ii. 259. 


[ Ukkanthita-annatarabhikkhussa Vatthu 

It was in the Subhagavana at Ukkattha that the Mulapariydya Sutta* 
was preached and the Mulapariydya Jataka? was related in connection 
with it. Ukkattha was the residence of Anganika-Bharadvaja. 7 

Buddhaghosa 8 explains that the city was so called because it was built 
by the light of torches (ukkd) at night, in order that it might be com¬ 
pleted within the auspicious time. 

In the Brahmanimantilca Sutta , 9 the Buddha says that it was while 
he was residing at Subhagavana that be became aware of the erroneous 
views of Baka-brahma and went to the Brahma-world to teach Baka 
the truth. The Divyavaddna calls the city Ukkata. 10 

5 M.i. Iff. 8 MA.i.9 ; AA.ii.504. 

6 J. ii. 259 ff. | 9 M. i. 326; but see S.i. 142; J.iii. 359. 

7 ThagA. 339. I 10 p. 621. 

Ukkanthita-annatarabhikkhussa Vatthu. —The name given in the 
Dhammapada Commentary 1 to the story of Anupubba (q.v.), 

1 i. 297-300. 

Ukkanagara. —A vihara (presumably in Ceylon). It was the residence 
of the thera Mahavyaggha and seven hundred others. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxii. 54. 

Ukkala. —A district (janapada) in the region identified with modern 
Orissa. 1 The merchants Tapassu and Bhalluka were on the way from 
Ukkala, when a certain deva, an erstwhile relative of theirs, advised 
them to visit the Buddha at Rajayatanamula, near Uruvela, and to 
offer food to him, which they did. 2 They were on the way to Majjhi- 
madesa. 3 According to the Theragdthd Commentary 4 there were caravan- 
drivers of a city called Pokkharavatl (probably a town in Ukkala). Their 
destination was evidently Rajagaha, for we find them visiting the Buddha 
there after the first sermon and hearing him preach. 

The men of Ukkala, together with those of Vassa and Bhanna, are 
represented as being deniers of cause and effect, deniers of reality (ahetu- 
vddd, aJciriyavadd , natthikavada). 5 

The Mahavastu 6 places Ukkala in the Uttarapatha and mentions 
Adhjsthana as the place from which Tapussa and Bhalluka hailed. 

The Mahdbharata 7 mentions the Ukkalas several times in lists of tribes 
( v.l . Okkala). 

60; AA.ii. 497; see also KS. iii. 63, and 
GS.ii. 34, n. 3. 

6 iii. 303. 

1 CAG.,p. 733. 

2 Vin.i.4. 

3 J. i. 80. 

4 i. 48 f. 

6 A. ii. 31; S. iii. 72; M. iii. 78; Kvu. 

7 E.g., in 
Dronaiv. 122. 

Bhismaparvan ix. 3655 

Ukkha Sutta ] 


Ukkacela. —A village in the Vajji country, on the banks of the Ganges, 
on the road from Rajagaha to Vesali and near the latter. 1 Once while 
Sariputta was staying there, the Paribbajaka Samandaka visited him and 
talked to him about Nibbana. 2 Some time later, after the death of 
Sariputta and Moggallana within a fortnight of each other, the Buddha 
came to Ukkacela on his way to Vesali and at a gathering of the monks 
uttered high praise of the two chief disciples and spoke of the loss the 
Order had sustained by their death. 3 

The Culagopalaka Sutta was also preached at Ukkacela. 4 

Buddhaghosa 5 says that when the city was being built, on the day its 
site was marked out, fish came ashore at night from the river, and men, 
noticing them, made torches (ukka) out of rags ( celd ), dipped them in 
oil, and by their light caught the fish. On account of this incident the 
city was called Ukkacela (v.l. Ukkacela, Ukkavela). 

1 UdA. 322. 2 S. iv. 261-2. ! 4 M. i. 225. 

3 Ibid., v. 163 f. 5 MA. i. 447. 

Ukkacela Sutta. —The incident mentioned above, of the Buddha 
praising his two chief disciples, after their death. 1 

1 S. v. 163. 

Ukkasatika Thera. —An arahant. Ninety-four kappas ago he had 
seen the Pacceka Buddha Kosika, in Himava, engaged in meditation, 
and for seven days he had one hundred torches kept lighted near the 
Buddha. On the eighth day he gave alms to the Pacceka Buddha. As 
a result he was born in Tusita, and from his body rays of light issued, 
spreading one hundred leagues. Fifty-five kappas ago he reigned as 
king of Jambudlpa, with his capital in Sobhana, built by Vissakamma 
himself, entirely of gold. 1 

1 Ap.ii. 414-15. 

Ukkotana Sutta. —Few are those that refrain from accepting bribes to 
prevent justice, from cheating and from crooked ways; numerous those 
that do not so refrain. 1 

1 S. v. 473. 

Ukkha Sutta. —It would be better to cultivate thoughts of love ( mettd) 
at morning, noon and eventide, than to give a morning gift of one hundred 
ukkhds 1 and the same at noon and in the evening. 2 

1 The Commentary explains ukkha as being a large pot with a large month (- mate - 
mukha-ukkhali) ; SA.ii. 164. 

2 S.ii.264. 


[ Ukkhittapadumiya Thera 

Ukkhittapadumiya Thera.— An arahant. In the time of Padumuttara 

Buddha he had been a garland-maker of Haipsavatl. Once while he was 
picking lotuses in a pond, the Buddha appeared before him with numer¬ 
ous disciples. The garland-maker picked a lotus and threw it up into 
the air, wishing it to remain above the Buddha's head; by the Buddha's 
power it did thus remain. As a result, the garland-maker was reborn in 
Tavatimsa in a palace named Satapatta. A thousand times he was king 
of the devas and five hundred times king of men. 1 

1 Ap. i. 275 f. 

Ukkhepakata-Vaccha Thera. —He was the son of a brahmin of the 
Vaceha family. Having heard the Buddha preach, he entered the Order 
and dwelt in a village settlement in Kosala. He learnt the doctrine from 
the various monks who came there from time to time, but it was not 
until he learnt from Sariputta that he was able to distinguish between 
Sutta, Vinaya and Abhidhamma . He thus became versed in the Three 
Pitahas even before the First Council. 1 He practised meditation and 
soon attained arahantship. 2 Later he became a teacher of the doctrine. 

According to Dhammapala, 3 the soubriquet Ukkhepakata was given 
to him because he was able to teach and recite passages from the three 
Pitakas “ casting them in their proper setting, according as they belonged 
to each Pitaka." The title was meant to emphasise his eminent repertory 
of orally-learnt doctrine. 

He had been a householder in the time of the Buddha Siddhattha and 
had helped a guild who built a hall for the Buddha by giving them a 
pillar for the building. 

Fifty-five kappas ago he was a king named Yasodhara and twenty-one 
kappas ago another king named Udena. His seven-storied palaces were 
all built on one pillar. He is probably to be identified with Ekattham- 
bhika Thera of the Apadana. 4 

1 On this see Brethren , p. 66. n. 1. j 3 ThagA. i. 149. 

2 Thag. v. 65; ThagA. i. 147 f. I 4 i. 56-7. 

1. Ugga. —A banker in the time of Konagamana Buddha; he was one 
of the Buddha's chief lay-supporters and built for him a residence, half a 
league in extent, on the site of the later Jetavana. 1 

1 J. i. 94; Bu. xxiv. 24. 

2. Ugga. —The chief minister of Pasenadi, king of Kosala. 1 He once 
visited the Buddha and told him how he rivalled in power and wealth 
the setthi Migara, grandson of Rohana. He was worth one hundred 

1 AA.ii.697. 

Ugga ] 

thousand in gold alone, to say nothing of silver. The Buddha tells 
him that all this wealth could easily be lost in various ways, not so the 
seven kinds of Ariyan wealth ( saddha , sila, etc.). 2 

2 A.iv.6-7. 

3. Ugga. —One of those that formed the retinue of the raja Eleyya. 
He was a follower of Uddaka-Ramaputta, whom the king too held in 
veneration. 1 

1 A. ii. 180. 

4. Ugga. —A householder of Hatthigama(ka) of the Vajji country. 
Among householders he was declared by the Buddha to be the best of 
those who waited on the Order (sanghupatthakanam)} On his father's 
death he was appointed to the post of setthi. Once when the Buddha 
went to Hatthigama during a tour and was staying in the Nagavanuy- 
yana there, Ugga came to the pleasaunee, with dancers, at the conclusion 
of a drinking-feast of seven days' duration. At the sight of the Buddha 
he was seized with great shame and his intoxication vanished. The 
Buddha preached to him and he became an anagami . Thereupon he 
dismissed his dancers and devoted himself to looking after members of the 
Sangha. Devas visited him at night and told him of the attainments 
of various monks, suggesting that he should choose only the eminent ones 
as the recipients of his gifts. But what he gave, he gave to all with equal 
delight. 2 

The Buddha once stated that Ugga was possessed of eight special and 
wonderful qualities. One of the monks, hearing the Buddha's state¬ 
ment, went to Ugga and asked him what these qualities were. Ugga 
replied that he was not aware of what the Buddha had in mind and 
proceeded to explain eight wonderful things that had happened to him, 
viz.: (1) As soon as he saw the Buddha, his state of drunkenness vanished 
and he made obeisance to the Buddha, who talked to him on various 
topics, such as dana, sila, etc. (2) When the Buddha saw that Ugga's 
mind was ready, he preached to him the Four Truths, which he under¬ 
stood and realised. (3) He had had four young and beautiful wives; 
when he took the vow of celibacy, he made ample provision for them; 
for one of them he obtained the husband of her choice, because she so 
desired, and this he did with no tinge of jealousy. (4) All his immense 
wealth he shared with men of good and lovely conduct. (5) On what¬ 
ever monk he waited, he did it with whole-heartedness; to the monk's 
preaching he listened earnestly; if the monk did not preach, Ugga 

1 A.i.26. 

2 AA. i. 214-5. 



himself taught him the doctrine. (6) Devas told him of the different 
attainments of various monks, but he gave to all alike, without dis¬ 
tinction. (7) He felt no pride that he should hold converse with devas. 
(8) He did not worry about death because the Buddha had assured him 
that he would never more return to this world. 

The monk reports this conversation to the Buddha and the Buddha 
tells him that these were the very qualities he had in mind when praising 
Ugga. 3 

The Samyutta Nikdya 4 records a visit paid to the Buddha by Ugga, 
at Hatthigamaka. He asked the Buddha why it was that some beings 
attained full freedom in this very life, while others did not. Because 
of grasping, says the Buddha. 

Ugga had been a householder in the time of Padumuttara Buddha. 
He once heard the Buddha preach and declare, at the end of his sermon, 
one of his lay disciples to be the best of those who waited on the Order. 
He wished for himself a similar attainment and did many good deeds 
towards that end. 5 v.l. Uggata. 

3 A iv. 212-6. 4 S. iv. 109 f. 5 AA.i.214. 

5. Ugga. —A householder of Vesali, declared by the Buddha to be 
the best of those who gave agreeable gifts (mandpaddyakanam)} 

His original name is not known. He came to be called Ugga-setthi, 
because he was tall in body, lofty in morals and of striking personality. 
The very first time he saw the Buddha, he became a sotdpanna and 
later an anagdmi. When he was old, the thought came to him one 
day, while he was alone, “ I will give to the Buddha whatever I consider 
most attractive to myself and I have heard from him that such a giver 
obtains his wishes. I wish the Buddha would come to my house now/' 
The Buddha, reading his thoughts, appeared before his door with a 
following of monks. He received them with great respect and, having 
given them a meal, announced to the Buddha his intention of providing 
him and the monks with whatever they found agreeable. 2 

While staying at the Kutagarasala in Vesali, the Buddha once declared 
to the monks that Ugga was possessed of eight marvellous qualities. 
The rest of the story is very similar to that of Ugga of Hatthigamaka, 
given above. This Ugga states as the first wonderful thing which 
happened to him, the faith he found in the Buddha at their very first 
meeting; three and four are the same; the fifth is that whatever monk 
he waits on, he does it whole-heartedly; the sixth, that if the monk 

1 A. i. 26; in SA. iii. 26 he is wrongly described as aggo panitaddyakanam —the 
title of Mahanama. 

2 AA.i. 213-4. 



preaches he would listen with attention, if the monk does not preach, 
Ugga would teach to him the doctrine; the seventh is the same; the 
eighth that he has got rid of ^11 the orambhdgiya-samyojanas mentioned 
by the Buddha. The conversation is reported to the Buddha who agrees 
that Ugga does possess the qualities mentioned. 3 

The Samyutta Nikdyo 4 repeats under Ugga of Vesali the same dis¬ 
cussion with the Buddha as was given in connection with Ugga of Hatthi- 
gama, regarding the reason why some beings do not attain complete 
freedom in this very life. This is perhaps due to uncertainty on the part 
of the compilers as to which Ugga took part in the original discussion. 

A sutta in the Anguttara Nikaya 6 gives a list of things of which Ugga 
himself was fond. We are told that he offered these things to the Buddha. 
The list includes rice-cakes made in the shape of Sala-blossoms, the 
flesh of sucking pig and Kasi robes. These and other things were 
given not only to the Buddha, but, according to the Commentary, 6 also 
to five hundred monks. The Sutta goes on to say that Ugga died soon 
after and was born among the Manomayadeva. He visited the Buddha 
from the deva-world and stated that he had achieved his goal (of reaching 

He is included in a list of householders who possessed six special 
qualities: unwavering loyalty to the Buddha, the Dhamma and the 
Sangha, Ariyan conduct, insight and liberation. 7 

His desire to become chief of those who give agreeable things was first 
conceived in the time of Padumuttara Buddha, when he was a householder 
in Hamsavatl; he heard the Buddha describe one of his disciples as 
being a giver of such gifts. 8 

3 A. iv. 208-12. 6 AA. ii. 602. 

4 S. iv. 109 f. 7 A.iv. 451. 

6 A.iii.49-51. 8 AA.i.213. 

6. Ugga. —A thera. He was the son of a banker in Ugga, in the Kosala 
country. When the Buddha was staying in the Bhaddarama there, 
Ugga heard him preach and entered the Order. Soon afterwards he 
became an arahant. 1 

He had been a householder in the time of Sikhi Buddha and offered 
him a ketaka-fi. ower. As a result, he was born twelve times as king. 
He is probably to be identified with Sudassana Thera of the Apaddna . 2 

1 Thag. v. 80; ThagA. i. 174-5. 2 i. 164-5. 

7. Ugga. —A banker of the city of Ugga ; he was a friend of Anatha- 
pindika and, according to some accounts, his son married Anathapi^dika's 


[ Ugga 

daughter, Cula Subhadda. He and his family had been followers of the 
Niganthas, but they later became followers of the Buddha through the 
intervention of Subhadda. For the story see s.v. Cula Subhadda. See 
also Kalaka (1). 

8. Ugga. —A township (nigama) in Kosala. The Buddha stayed 
there at the Bhaddarama. 1 The town was the residence of the banker 
Ugga, and was once a stronghold of the Niganthas; after the conversion 
of Ugga's family, through Cula Subhadda’s intervention, the people 
became faithful followers of the Buddha and for some time Anuruddha 
lived there, at the Buddha's special bidding, to preach to the new 
converts. 2 Probably the Uggarama, mentioned in the story of Afiganika 
Bharadvaja, 3 was also in Ugga, in which case it was near the village of 
Kundiya of the Kuru country. 

1 ThagA. i. 174. i. 65 Maha Subhadda also lived in Ugga, 

2 DhA. iii. 465-9; according to ThagA. in a family of unbelievers. 

3 ThagA. i. 339; Brethren , 157, n. 4. 

1. Ugga Sutta. —Records the conversation between the Buddha 
and Ugga (2) ( q.v .), minister of King Pasenadi. 1 

1 A. iv. 6-7. 

2. Ugga Sutta. —Deals with the eight wonderful qualities of Ugga of 
Vesali. 1 See Ugga (5). 

1 A iv. 208-12. 

3. Ugga Sutta. —Deals with the eight wonderful qualities of Ugga of 
Hatthigamaka. 1 See Ugga (4). 

1 A. iv. 212-6. 

1. Uggata. —See Ugga (4). 

2. Uggata. —A khattiya of the city of Sumangala, father of Sujata 
Buddha. 1 

1 J. i. 38; Bu. xiii. 20. 

3. Uggata. —The Kalinga king who, with Bhlmaratha, king of Sanja- 
yanti, and Atthaka, king of Hastinapura, sought the Bodhisatta Sara- 
bhanga to learn from him where the kings Kalabu, Naliklra, Ajjuna and 
Dandaki had been born after the destruction of themselves and their 
kingdoms as a result of their ill-treatment of holy men. 1 

1 J. v. 135 ff. 

Uggatasarira ] 


Their story is given in the Sarabhanga Jataka (q.v .). 

The scholiast of the Jataka 2 takes Uggata to be not the name of the 
Kalinga king but a descriptive epithet, and explains it by saying 
cando viya suriyo viya ca pdkato panndto. 

The Mahdvastu, 8 however, definitely mentions Ugga as the name of 
the king, in the same way as BhTmaratha and Asthamaka (Atthaka), 
and gives the capitals of the two latter as Saiijayantl and Hastinapura 

2 Ibid., 137. 8 iii. 364 f. 

4. Uggata.—King during the time of Sobhita Buddha. He built a 
vihara named Surinda at Sunandavatl and another named Dhammaga- 
narama at Mekhala and dedicated them to the Buddha and the Order. 
At the festival of dedication of the former one hundred crores became 
arahants and at that of the latter, ninety crores. 1 

1 Bu. vii. 9 f.; BuA. 139. 

5. Uggata.—Twenty-nine kappas ago there were sixteen kings of the 
name of Uggata, all previous incarnations of the Thera Citakapujaka. 1 

1 Ap. i. 151. 

6. Uggata.—King of one thousand andfifty-onekappas ago; a previous 
life of Dhajadayaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 109. 

7. Uggata.—Fourteen kappas ago there were four kings named 
Uggata, previous births of Parappasadaka 1 or Bhuta 2 Thera. 

1 Ap. i. 114. 2 ThagA. i. 494. 

Uggatasarira.—A Mahasala brahmin, so called because he was tall in 
person and eminent in wealth. 1 Having made preparations for a great 
sacrifice, in which numerous animals were to be slaughtered, he visited 
the Buddha at Jetavana to consult him as to the efficacy of the sacrifice. 
Three times he told the Buddha that he had heard that the laying down 
(ddhana) of the fire and the setting up (ussdpana) of the sacrificial post 
bore great fruit. Three times the Buddha agreed that it was so, and 
Uggatasarira was about to conclude that the Buddha approved of his 
sacrifice, when Ananda intervened and suggested that the Buddha 
should be asked to explain his meaning and to give his advice as to the 
efficacy of the sacrifice. The Buddha thereupon declared that there were 

1 AA. ii. 714. 



[ Ugganagara 

three fires to be cast off: rdga, dosa and moha; and three fires that should 
be honoured: ahuneyyaggi , gahapataggi and dakkhineyyaggi. The dhu- 
neyyaggi was represented by the parents; the gahapata , by wife, children, 
servants and retainers; the dakkhineyya , by holy men and recluses. 

At the end of the discourse, Uggatasarlra became a convert to the 
Buddha's faith and set free the animals destined for the sacrifice. 2 

2 A. iv. 41-6. 

Ugganagara.— See Ugga (8). 

Uggarinda. —One of the chief lay supporters of Narada Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. x. 25. 

1. Uggasena. —King of Benares. The Naga king, Campeyya, was 
brought before him by a brahmin snake-charmer for a performance, 
but when the king learnt from the Naga's sister, Sumana, what had 
happened, he caused the Naga to be set free. Later, Campeyya took 
him to the Naga-world and shewed him every honour. Uggasena's sub¬ 
jects were allowed to bring back from the Naga-world whatever they 
desired. 1 

The story is told in the Campeyya Jdiaka (q.v.). 

In the present age Uggasena became Sariputta. 2 

1 J. v.458 ff.;Mtu.ii.l77ff. 2 J. v. 468. 

2. Uggasena. —Son of a banker of Rajagaha. He fell in love with a 
very skilful acrobat, mairied her and followed her about with her troupe. 
When he discovered that she despised him for his lack of skill as an 
acrobat, he learnt the art and became a clever tumbler. The Buddha 
knew that Uggasena was ready for conversion and entering Rajagaha 
while Uggasena was displaying his skill before a large crowd of people, 
withdrew their attention from his skilful feats. Seeing Uggasena's 
disappointment, the Buddha sent Moggallana to ask him to continue 
his performance, and while Uggasena was displaying his skill by various 
tricks, the Buddha preached to him, and Uggasena became an arahant, 
even as he stood poised on the tip of a pole, and later became a monk. 
His wife also left the world soon after and attained arahantship. 

In the time of Kassapa Buddha they were husband and wife. On their 
way to the shrine of the Buddha where they worked as labourers, they 
saw an Elder and gave him part of the food they had with them and 
expressed the desire that they should, one day, like him, realise the 
Truth. The Elder, looking into the future, saw that their wish would 

Uggarama ] 


be fulfilled and smiled. The wife, seeing him smile, said to her husband 
that the Elder must be an actor, and the husband agreed. Because of 
this remark they became actors in this life, but through their pious gift 
they attained arahantship. 1 

1 DhA. iv. 59-65; also ibid., 159. 

3. Uggasena. —King, husband of Queen Dinna ( q.v .) 

Uggasena-Nanda. —King of Magadha, one of the nine Nanda kings. 1 

1 Mbv. 98. 

Uggasena Vatthu. —The story of Uggasena of Bajagaha (Uggasena 2). 1 

1 DhA. iv. 59-65; ibid., 159. 

Uggaha Mendakanatta. —The grandson of the banker Mendaka; 
he lived in Bhaddiya. Once when the Buddha was staying in the Jati- 
yavana at Bhaddiya, Uggaha invited him and three monks to a meal 
at his house. At the conclusion of the meal, he asked the Buddha to 
speak a few words of advice to his daughters who were about to be 
married. 1 The Buddha preached to them the Uggaha Sutta. 2 

1 The Commentary says that their nuptials were already in progress at the 
time of the Buddha’s visit (AA. ii. 597). 

2 A, iii. 36 ff. 

Uggaha Sutta. —Preached at Bhaddiya to the daughters of Uggaha 
Mendakanatta just before their marriage. A wife should rise betimes 
before her husband, and sleep after him; she should respect his wishes, 
give him pleasure and be of sweet speech. His parents and elders and 
all those whom he holds in esteem, should she reverence and honour; 
she should be skilful in all the duties of the household; she should look 
after the servants in the house and supervise their duties, provide them 
with all necessaries and be kind and helpful to them; she should safe¬ 
guard her husband’s interests and look after his wealth; she should be 
of virtuous conduct in every way. 1 

1 A. iii. 36 ff. 

Uggarama. —A pleasaunce, probably near the village Kundiya of the 
Kurus. Anganika Bharadvaja is said to have visited it once. 1 See 
also Ugga (8). 

1 ThagA. i. 339. 


[ Uggahamftna-Samana-Mandikaputta 

Uggahamana-Samana-Mandikaputta.— A Paribbajaka. Once when he 

was staying near Savatthi in Mallika's pleasannce at the Samayappa- 
vadaka hall, the carpenter (thapati), Pancakanga, on his way to see the 
Buddha, visited him and had a conversation with him, which conversa¬ 
tion Pancakanga later reported to the Buddha. 1 The details are given 
in the Samana-Mandikd Sutta. 

According to Buddhaghosa, 2 the Paribbaj aka's original name was 
Sumana, but he was called Uggahamana because he had the ability to 
learn a few things (because he was always learning things ?). 

Chalmers 3 suggests that perhaps his mother's name was originally 
Sumana and that it was altered to Samana , just as there is the further 
tendency to read mundikd for the second part, in order to make her 
name mean “ shaveling recluse " on familiar Pali analogy. 

1 M. ii. 22 f. 2 MA. ii. 710. 

3 Further Dialogues ii. 12 n. 

Ugghatitannu Sutta. —Some people in the world are quick withal and 
learn by taking hints; others learn when full details are given; some have 
to be led on by instruction; others just learn the text but do not under¬ 
stand it. 1 

1 A.ii. 135. 

Uccankuttha. —A locality in South India; it was the residence of 
many famous troop-leaders, whom Kulasekhara won over to his side 
in his fight against Parakkamabahu I. 1 

1 Cv. lxxvii. 78. 

Ucchanga Jataka (No. 67).—Three men who were ploughing on the 
outskirts of a forest were mistaken for bandits and taken before the 
king. While they were being tried a woman came to the palace and with 
loud lamentations begged for “ wherewith to be covered." The king 
ordered a shift to be given to her but she refused, saying that that was 
not what she meant. The king's servants came back and reported that 
what the woman wanted was a husband. When the king had her 
summoned and questioned, she admitted that it was so. Being pleased 
with the woman, the king asked in what relationship the three prisoners 
stood to her. She answered that one was her husband, one her brother 
and one her son. When the king asked which of the three she wished 
to have released, she chose the brother, because, she said, the two others 
were replaceable. Well pleased with her, the king released all three. 


Ucchu ] 

The story was related in reference to a woman in a village in Kosala 
who obtained, from the king of Kosala, the release of three men in 
similar circumstances and in the same way. 1 

1 J. i. 306-8. 

Uccatalanka. —The residence of Mahanaga Thera 1 (v.l. Uceavalika, 

1 VibhA. 489. 

UcchaAgapupphiya Thera.— An arahant. In the time of Vipassi 

Buddha he was a garland-maker of Bandhumatl. He saw the Buddha 
walking along the street with a large following of monks, and taking 
a flower from his lap he offered it to the Buddha. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 374-6. 

UccaAgamaya. —A Pacceka Buddha found in a list of Pacceka 
Buddhas. 1 

1 M.iii. 70; ApA.i. 107. 

Ucchitthabhatta Jataka (No. 212).—In a village near Kasi, a brahmin’s 
wicked wife received her lover when her husband was away. She pre¬ 
pared a meal for her lover and while he ate she stood at the door watch¬ 
ing for her husband. The brahmin appearing before he was expected, 
the lover was bundled into the store-room. The woman put some hot 
rice over the food left unfinished by her lover and gave the plate to her 
husband. When asked why the rice was hot on the top and cold at 
the bottom, she remained silent. The Bodhisatta, who had been born 
as a poor acrobat, had been at the door of the house waiting for alms 
and had seen all that had happened. He informed the brahmin of his 
wife’s conduct and both wife and lover received a sound beating. 

The story was told to a monk who hankered after his wife. The 
Buddha related the story in order to show him that in a past birth this 
same wife had made him eat the leavings of her paramour. 1 

1 J. ii. 167 ff. 

Ucchu. —The name given to one of the stories of the Petavatthu. The 
feta referred to had been a resident near Veluvana. Once he was going 
along the road eating a sugar cane and carrying a bundle of sugar canes. 
Behind him came another man of good conduct, with a child. The child, 
seeing the sugar cane, begged for some of it with great lamentations. 
The good man wishing to console the child, walked up to the sugar 
cane-eater and tried to make friends. His efforts were, however, unsuc- 


[ Ucchukhandika 

cessful, and when he begged for a piece of sugar cane for the child, the 
man sulkily threw him a bit from the end of the sugar cane. This man, 
after his death, was born as a peta. Around him was a forest of sugar 
canes, but whenever he attempted to eat any of them he got badly 
bruised and wounded. One day Moggallana saw him, and having 
discovered his antecedents told him about his past profitless life. He 
made the peta get for him a piece of sugar cane, which he offered to the 
Buddha and the monks. As a result of this, the peta was reborn in 
Tavatimsa. 1 

1 Pv., pp. 61 f.; PvA. 257 ff. 

Ucchukhandika. —A thera. He was a gate-keeper in Bandhumati 
during the time of Vipassi Buddha and once gave to the Buddha a cut 
of sugar cane. 1 He is probably identical with Kosiya Thera. 2 

1 Ap. ii. 393. 2 ThagA. i. 431 f. 

1. Ucchu-vimana, also called Ucchudayika-vimana. A girl, who 
belonged to a pious family in Rajagaha, used to give to holy men 
half of anything she received. She was given in marriage to a 
family of unbelievers. One day she saw Moggallana going about for 
alms, and having invited him to her house she gave him a piece 
of sugar cane which had been set aside for her mother-in-law, whose 
approval of the gift she hoped to win. But when the mother-in-law 
heard of what had happened in her absence, she flew into a rage and 
struck the girl with a stool. The girl died immediately and was born 
in Tavatimsa. 

Later she visited Moggallana and revealed her identity. 

Her palace came to be called Ucchudayika-vimana. 1 

1 Vv. 24 f.j VvA. 124 ff. 

2. Ucchu-vimana. —The story is the same as the above except that 
the mother in-law struck the girl with a clod of earth. 1 

1 Vv. 44 f.; VvA. 203 ff. 

Ujita. —A caravan-driver, who, with his friend Ojita, gave the first 
meal to SikhI Buddha after his Enlightenment. 1 

1 ThagA. i. 48. 

Ujuiina (Ujjunna).— A district and a town in Kosala. Once when 
the Buddha was staying at the Deer Park in Kannakatthala in the 
neighbourhood of the city, Pasenadi, who happened to be at Ujuiina on 

Ujjaya Sutta ] 


business, visited the Buddha. On this occasion was preached the 
Kannakatthala Sutta. 1 

It was here too that Nigantha Kassapa came to see the Buddha. 
This visit is recorded in the Kassapa Sihandda Sutta. 2 

1 M.ii. 125 ff.; MA.ii.757. 2 D. i. 161 fi. 

1. Ujjaya, Ujjaya. —A Pacceka Buddha, mentioned in the list in the 
Isigili Sutta. 1 

1 M.iii. 70. 

2. Ujjaya. —A thera. He was the son of a Sotthiya-brahmin of 
Rajagaha, and became proficient in the three Yedas. Dissatisfied with 
the teaching of the Vedas, he went to the Buddha and heard him preach 
at Veluvana. Later he entered the Order and retired into the forest, 
having learnt a subject for meditation. Soon after he became an arahant. 

In a past life he had offered a kanikdra-ftowei to the Buddha. 

Thirty-five kappas ago he was a king named Arunabala. 1 

He is probably identical with Kanikarapupphiya of the Apadana. 2 

1 Thag. v. 67; ThagA. i. 118 f. 2 Ap.i.203. 

3. Ujjaya. —A brahmin. He once went to the Buddha and asked him 
if he thought well of sacrifices. The Buddha replied that he was opposed 
to sacrifices which involved the slaughter of animals, but sacrifices not 
necessitating butchery, such as, for instance, a long-established charity, 
an oblation for the welfare of the family, had his approval. 1 

The same Nikdya 2 records another visit of Ujjaya wherein he tells 
the Buddha that he wishes to observe a period of retreat ( upavasa ), 
and asks for a teaching which will bring welfare both in this world and 
in the next. See below Ujjaya Sutta 2. 

1 A. ii. 42. 2 A. iv. 285 f. 

1. Ujjaya Sutta. —Records the questions asked by the brahmin Ujjaya 
regarding sacrifice, and the Buddha's answer. 1 See above Ujjaya 3. 

1 A. ii. 42. 

2. Ujjaya Sutta.—Ujjaya’s request to the Buddha (referred to above 
under Ujjaya 3) for a teaching which would bring him welfare in both 
worlds and the Buddha's reply thereto, detailing four qualities which 
would bring prosperity in this world—the accomplishments of exertion 
(utthanasampadd), and of protection (drakkhasampadd), friendship with 
the good (kalydnamittatd), and regular living (samajivitd) —and four 


[ Ujjuhana 

others for bringing happiness in the next—viz., the four sampadd 
(accomplishments) of sila (morality), citta (concentration and medita¬ 
tion), cdga (generosity), and panna (higher wisdom). 1 

1 A. iv. 285-9. 

Ujjuhana. —A hill thickly covered with jungle and abounding in 
streams which get overfull during the rains and make living on the hill 

According to others, Ujjuhana is the name of a bird, capable of bearing 
cold and rain with comfort. 1 

1 Thag. 597; ThagA. i. 536. 

Ujjeni. —The capital of Avanti ( q.v .). In the Buddha's time, Canda- 
Pajjota 1 was king of Ujjeni and there was friendly intercourse between 
that city and Magadha, whose king was Seniya Bimbisara. 2 

There was an old trade-route from Ujjeni to Benares and the merchants 
of the two cities showed healthy rivalry not only in trade, but also in 
matters of culture. 3 

It was while going with a caravan to Ujjeni, that Sona Kutikanna 
met the Peta, whose words made him decide to renounce household 
life. 4 

The road taken by Bavarl’s disciples ran through Ujjeni. 5 

Ujjeni was also the birthplace of Maha Kaccana, 6 of Isidasi, 7 of Abhaya 8 
and of the courtesan Padumavatl, mother of Abhaya. 9 

Before succeeding to his father's throne at Pataliputta, Asoka reigned 
for several years as Viceroy at Ujjeni, and it was during this period that 
Mahinda and Sahghamitta were born. 10 

Mahinda spent six months in Dakkhinagiri Vihara in Ujjeni, prior to 
his visit to Ceylon. 11 

From the same vihara forty thousand monks were present, under the 
leadership of Maha Sangharakkhita, at the foundation of the Maha 
Thupa in Anuradhapura. 12 

The Jatakas 13 speak of Ujjeni as having been the capital of Avanti 

1 Vin.i.276; DhA.i. 192. 

2 After Bimbisara’s death, however, 
Pajjota seems to have contemplated a 
war against Ajatasathu. See M. iii. 7. 

3 See, e.g J. ii. 248 ff., where the 
merchants of Benares compare their 
musician Guttila with Musila, the chief 
fiddler of Ujjeni. 

4 UdA. 307 f. 

5 Sn.v. 1011. 

6 ThagA. i. 483. 

7 Thig. v. 405. 

8 ThagA. 41. 

9 ThigA. 39. 

10 Mhv. xiii. 10 ff.; Mbv. 99; Sp. i. 70. 

11 Mhv. xiii. 5. 

12 Ibid., xxix. 35. 

13 E.g., in J. iv. 390, where Avanti 
Maharaja rules in Ujjeni as capital of 

Ujjhanasafifilno Sutta ] 


from very ancient times. But in the Mahagovmda Sutta, u Mahissati 
is mentioned as the capital of Avanti. Perhaps Mahissati lost its import¬ 
ance later and gave place to UjjenI, for we find Mahissati mentioned 
just before UjjenI among the places passed by Bavarl’s pupils on their 
way to Savatthi. 15 

UjjenI is identical with the Greek Ozene, about 77° E. and 23° N. 16 

14 D.ii.235. 15 Sn. v. 1011. I 560, and Bea](ii.270)for HiouenThsang’s 

16 Bud. India , p. 40; see also CAGI. I description of it. 

2. UjjenI.—A 
gam!. 1 

city in Ceylon, founded by Vijaya’s minister Accuta- 
1 Dpv. ix. 36; Mhv. vii. 45. 

3. UjjenI. —A township (nigama), the residence of the banker’s 
daughter Rucinanda, who gave a meal of milk-rice to Padumuttara 
Buddha just before his Enlightenment. 1 

1 BuA. 158. 

Ujjenika. —Name given to the inhabitants of UjjenI. 1 Pajjota is 
called Ujjenika (Ujjenaka) raja. 2 

1 Mil. 331. 2 MA.ii. 738. 

Ujjhaggika Vagga. —The second division of the Sekhiya of the Vinaya 
Pitaka. 1 

1 Vin.iv. 187-8. 

Ujjhanasannika. —The name given to a group of devas who once 
visited the Buddha at Jetavana late at night. They charged the Buddha 
with inconsistency, but later, begging his forgiveness, they were pardoned 
by him. 1 Buddhaghosa 2 says that they did not belong to any separate 
deva-world but were given this name by the Theras of the Counc'i on 
account of their captious remarks. They had heard the Buddha praise 
his monks for self-denying practices while he himself wore raiment of 
silk, fine cloth or linen, ate food worthy of a raja, dwelt in a Fragrant 
Cell like unto a deva-mansion and used good medicines. 

1 S. i. 23-5. 2 SA.i.SOf. 

Ujjhanasannino Sutta.— Records the visit of the Ujjhanasanfiika 

devas to the Buddha. 1 

1 S. i. 23-5. 


[ Ujjhanasaftni 

UjjhanasannI. —A thera. He was so called because he went about 
finding fault with the monks. He was reported to the Buddha, who 
thereupon delivered a sermon blaming action such as his. 1 

1 DhA. iii. 376-7. 

Utthana Sutta. —The Buddha was once staying in the upper storey 
of the Migaramatupasada when he heard the new entrants to the Order, 
in the cells below, making a great uproar, talking about the food they 
had eaten, and other such worldly topics. The Buddha desired Moggal¬ 
lana to come and, when he appeared, the Buddha asked him to frighten 
the monks by a display of iddhi- power. 

By his psychic power Moggallana caused the whole building to rock 
to and fro like a ship, and when the monks, in terror, sought the Buddha's 
protection, he explained to them that Moggallana gave them the fright 
as a lesson to them to lead active and energetic lives, for death lays 
hold of the slothful. 

The monks having listened to the Buddha's sermon, concentrated their 
minds on it, and soon after became arahants. 1 

1 Sn.vv. 331-4; SnA.i,336f; cf. S. v. 269. ff. 

Uddita Sutta. —Preached in answer to a question by one of the devas. 
The world is all strung up by cords of craving and is escorted by decay. 1 

1 S. i. 40. 

Unnalomaghara. —A building belonging to the Rajayatanadhatu- 
vihara in Nagadlpa. It was erected by Aggabodhi II. 1 

1 Cv. xlii. 62. 

Unnabha. —A brahmin. He once visited the Buddha at Savatthi 
and asked him whether the five sense-faculties (indriyani), which were 
of different scope and range, had any common ground of resort (pati- 
sarana). The Buddha replies that the mind is their common resort and, 
in answer to further questions, explains that there is nothing beyond 
Nibbana; that the holy life has Nibbana for its ending. 

When the brahmin, greatly pleased with the Buddha's teaching, goes 
away, the Buddha tells the monks that Unnabha has become an andgdml 
and would, therefore, after death, no longer return to this world. 1 

The same Nikdya 2 records a visit of Unnabha to Ananda at 
Kosambi. He asks Ananda what is the aim of holy life and, on being 

1 8. v. 217 f. 2 Ibid., 272 f. 


Utulhipupphiya Thera ] 

told that it is the abandoning of desire by means of jhana, suggests 
that it would be a task without end. But Ananda, by means of an 
illustration, explains how the task does come to an end, and Unnabha 
expresses great satisfaction with the answer. Perhaps this refers to 
another brahmin of the same name. 

Unnabha Sutta. —The conversation between the Buddha and Unnabha 
referred to above. 1 

1 S. v. 

Unnanabhi. —A spider, as big as a chariot wheel, which lived in a 
cave in Mount Cittakuta. During the rains the geese who lived on the 
mountain entered his cave for shelter. Every month the spider would 
make a web, each thread of which was as thick as a cow's halter, at the 
entrance of the cave. At the end of the rains a young goose, who had 
been given two portions of food to make him strong would break the 
web and the geese would fly away. Once the rains lasted five months 
and the geese, having no food, were forced to eat their eggs and then their 
young. When the time came for them to fly away, none of them were 
strong enough to break the web and the spider sucked the blood of them 
all. That was the end of the Dhatarattha geese. 1 

1 J. v. 469-70. 

Unha Sutta. —When the Unhavalahaka-deva wish to revel their 
bodies, the weather becomes hot, according to their desire. 1 

1 S. iii. 251. 

Unhanagara. —A village, the birthplace of Hatthadatha (q.v.). 1 

1 Cv. xlvi. 45. 

Unhavalahaka. —A class of devas who live in the Catummaharajika 

world. 1 When they wish for heat to revel their bodies, the weather 
becomes hot. (See Unha Sutta above.) 

1 NidA. 108; VibhA. 519. 

Utulhipupphiya Thera. —An arahant. He made a garland of utulhi- 
flowers and offered it to a bodhi-tree. This was at the beginning of 
this kappa. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 398. 



Utta. —A thera. He and his friend Dhanuggahatissa lived in a hut 
near the Jetavana vihara. One night, couriers of Pasenadi, seeking for 
counsel as to how to win the war against Ajatasattu, overheard a con¬ 
versation between these two Elders, and acting upon the suggestion 
contained therein, Pasenadi became victorious. 1 

For the story see (s.v.) Danuggahatissa. 

1 J. ii. 403-4. 

2. Utta. See Datta (Mantidatta). 

1. Uttama. —Author of the Baldvatara-tikd and the Lingatthavivarana- 
Vika. He was a native of Pagan. 1 

1 Gy. 63, 73; see also Bode, op. cit.,22 and n. 1. 

2. Uttama. —The name given to a cetiya connected with Sikhi Buddha. 
Asanatthavika Thera, in a previous birth, came across this cetiya while 
wandering in the forest and did obeisance to it. 1 

1 Ap.i.255. 

3. Uttama. —A general of Manabharana. He was defeated at Vaca- 
vataka by Rakkha. 1 

1 Cv. lxx. 296. 

Uttamadevl Vihara. —A monastery to the east of Anuradhapura. 1 

1 UdA. 158; MA.i.471. 

1. Uttama. —A then. She was born in a banker’s family in Savatthi 
and, having heard Patacara preach, entered the Order. She could not 
attain the climax of her insight, till Patacara, seeing the state of her 
mind, gave her admonition. Uttama thereupon became an arahant. 1 

According to the Apaddna (quoted in ThigA.) she joined the Order 
at the age of seven and attained arahantship within a fortnight. 

In the time of Vipassi Buddha she had been a slave-girl in a house 
in Bandhumati. At that time King Bandhuma (Vipassf s father) kept 
fast-days, gave alms and attended sermons, and the people followed his 
pious example. The slave-girl joined in these pious acts, and on account 
of her thoroughness in the observance of fast-days, she was, after death, 
reborn in Tavatimsa. She became the chief queen of the king of the 
devas sixty-four times, and she was a Cakkavatti’s wife in sixty-three 

She is evidently identical with Ekuposathika of the Apaddna 2 
1 Thig. vv. 42-4; ThigA. 46 ff. 2 Ap. ii. 522 f. 

Uttara ] 


2. Uttama. —A theri. She was the daughter of an eminent brahmin 
of Kosala. Having heard the Buddha preach during one of his tours, she 
left the world and soon won arahantship. She, too, had been a slave- 
girl in Bandhurnatl in VipassFs time. One day, seeing an arahant 
seeking alms, she gladly offered him cakes. 1 

She is probably identical with Modakadayika of the Apaddna . 2 

1 Thig. vv. 45-7; ThigA. 49 f. 2 ii.524f. 

1. Uttara. —A thera. He was the son of an eminent brahmin of 
Rajagaha. 1 He became proficient in Yedic lore and renowned for his 
breeding, beauty, wisdom and virtue. The king’s minister, Vassakara, 
seeing his attainments, desired to marry him to his daughter; but Uttara, 
with his heart set on release, declined, and learnt the Doctrine under 
Sariputta. Later he entered the Order and waited on Sariputta. 

One day Sariputta fell ill and Uttara set out early to find a physician. 
On the way he set down his bowl by a lake and went down to wash his 
mouth. A certain thief, pursued by the police, dropped his stolen 
jewels into the novice’s bowl and fled. Uttara was brought before 
Vassakara who, to satisfy his grudge, ordered him to be impaled. The 
Buddha, seeing the ripeness of his insight, went to him and placing a 
gentle hand, “ like a shower of crimson gold,” on Uttara’s head, spoke 
to him and encouraged him to reflection. Transported with joy and 
rapture at the Master’s touch, he attained sixfold abhinnd and became 
arahant. Rising from the stake, he stood in mid-air and his wound was 
healed. Addressing his fellow-celibates, he told them how, when he 
realised the evils of rebirth, he forgot the lesser evil of present pain. 2 

In the time of Sumedha Buddha, he had been a Vijjadhara. Once, 
while flying through the air, he saw the Buddha at the foot of a tree 
in the forest and, being glad, offered him three hanihdra flowers. 

By the Buddha’s power, the flowers stood above him forming a 
canopy. The Vijjadhara was later born in Tavatimsa, where his palace 
was known as Kanikara. 

He was king of the gods one hundred and five times, and king'of men 
one hundred and three times. 

According to the Apaddna (quoted in ThagA.), he became an arahant 
at the age of seven. This does not agree with the rest of the story and 
is probably due to a confusion with some other Uttara. 

Uttara is probably to be identified with Tlnikanikarapupphiya of the 
Apadana. 3 

1 Of Savatthi, according to the Apa - I 2 Thag. vv. 121-2; ThagA. i. 240 ff. 
dana. ! 2 ^p. 441 


[ Uttara 

2. Uttara. —A thera. He was the son of a brahmin of Saketa. While 
on some business at Savatthi, he saw the Twin Miracle and, when the 
Buddha preached the Kdlakarama Sutta at Saketa, he entered the 
Order. He accompanied the Buddha to Rajagaha and there became 
an arahant. 1 

During the time of Siddhattha Buddha he had been a householder 
and became a believer in the Buddha. When the Buddha died, he 
called together his relations and together they paid great honour to 
the relics. 

He is evidently identical with Dhatupujaka of the Apaddna? 

It is probably this thera who is mentioned in the Uttara Sutta? (q.v.). 

1 Thag. vv. 161-2; ThagA. i. 283 1. 2 ii. 425. 3 A. iv. 162 ff. 

3. Uttara. —A devaputta who visits the Buddha at the Anjanavana 
in Saketa. He utters a stanza, and the Buddha, in another stanza, ampli¬ 
fies what he has said. 1 

1 S. i. 54. 

4. Uttara. —A thera. At the time of the Vajjian heresy, he was the 
attendant of the Elder Revata and had been twenty years in the Order. 
The Vajjians of Vesall went to him and, after much persuasion, succeeded 
in getting him to accept one robe from them. In return for this he 
agreed to say before the Sangha that the Pacmaka bhikkhus held the true 
Doctrine and that the Patheyyaka monks did not. Thereafter Uttara 
went to Revata, but Revata, on hearing what he had done, instantly 
dismissed him from attendance upon him. When the Vesali monks were 
informed of the occurrence, they took the nissaya from Uttara and 
became his pupils. 1 

1 Vin. ii. 302-3; Mhv. iv. 30. 

5. Uttara. —An arahant. He, with Sona, was sent by Asoka, at the 
conclusion of the Third Council, to convert Suvannabhumi. They over¬ 
came the female demon and her followers, who had been in the habit of 
coming out of the sea to eat the king's sons, and they then recited the 
Brahmajala Sutta. Sixty thousand people became converts, five hundred 
noblemen became monks and fifteen hundred women of good family were 
ordained as nuns. 

Thenceforth all princes born in the royal household were called 

Sonuttara. 1 

1 Mhv. iv. 6; 44-54; Sp. i. 68 f.; Mbv. 115; The Dlpavamsa speaks of Soputtara 
as one person (viii. 10). 

Uttara ] 


6. Uttara. —A brahmin youth (Uttara-manava), pupil of Para- 
sariya. He once visited the Buddha at Kajafigala in the Mukhe- 
luvana and the Buddha preached to him the Indriya-bhavana 
Sutta. 1 

Perhaps it is this same manava that is mentioned in the Payasi Sutta. 
When Payasi Rajanna was converted by Kumara Kassapa, he instituted 
almsgiving to all and sundry, but the gifts he gave consisted of such 
things as gruel and scraps of food and coarse robes. Uttara, who was 
one of his retainers, spoke sarcastically of Payasi’s generosity, and on 
being challenged by Payasi to show what should be done, Uttara gave 
gladly and with his own hands excellent foods and garments. As a 
result, after death, while Payasi was born only in the empty Serisaka- 
vimana of the Catummaharajika world, Uttara was born in Tava- 
timsa. 2 

1 M. iii. 298 ff. 

2 D. ii. 354-7; see also WA. 297 f. where the details are slightly different. 

7. Uttara. —A youth of KosambI, son of a minister of King Udena. 
When his father died, the youth was appointed by the king to carry out 
certain works in the city which his father had left unfinished. 

One day, while on his way to the forest to fell timber, he saw Maha 
Kaceana and, being pleased with the thera’s demeanour, went and wor¬ 
shipped him. The thera preached to him, and the youth invited him 
and his companions to a meal in his house. At the conclusion of the meal 
Uttara followed Maha Kaceana to the vihara and asked him to have his 
meals always at his house. He later became a Sotapanna and built a 
vihara. He persuaded most of his relations to join in his good deeds, 
but his mother refused to help and abused the monks. As a result she 
was born in the peta-world. 1 (See Uttaramata.) 

1 PvA. 140 ff. 

8. uttara. —A brahmin youth. When Erakapatta, king of the Nagas, 
offered his daughter’s hand to anyone who could answer his questions— 
hoping thereby to hear of a Buddha’s appearance in the world—Uttara 
was among those who aspired to win her. The Buddha, wishing for the 
welfare of many beings, met Uttara on his way to the Naga court and 
taught him the proper answers to the questions. At the end of the 
lesson, Uttara became a Sotapanna. When he repeated the answers 
before the Naga maiden, Erakapatta was greatly delighted and accom¬ 
panied him to the Buddha, who preached to him and to the assembled 
multitude. 1 

DhA. iii. 230 ff. 


[ Utiara 

9. Uttara.— A pupil of Brahmayu. He was sent by his teacher from 
Mithila to Videha, to find out if the Buddha bore the marks of the Super¬ 
man. Having made sure of the presence of all the thirty-two marks 
on the Buddha's person, he dogged the Buddha's footsteps for seven 
months, in order to observe his carriage in his every posture. At the 
end of that period, he returned to Brahmayu and reported what he had 
seen. 1 Buddhaghosa 2 says that Uttara became known as Buddhavl- 
mamsaka-manava on account of his close watch over the Buddha. 

1 M. ii. 134 ff; SnA. i. 37. 2 MA. ii. 765. 

10. Uttara. —A youth, evidently a personal attendant of Pasenadi. 
The Buddha taught him a stanza to be recited whenever the king sat 
down to a meal. The stanza spoke of the merits of moderation in 
eating. 1 

1 DhA. iv. 17; but see S. i. 81-2 for a . the same incident. There the youth is 
different version of what is evidently | called Sudassana. 

11. Uttara. —A royal prince to whom Konagamana Buddha preached 
at Surindavatl on the full-moon day of Magha. He later became the 
Buddha's aggasdvaka. 1 

1 Bu. xxiv. 22; BuA. 215; J. i. 43. 

12. Uttara. —Younger brother of Vessabhu Buddha. The Buddha 
preached his first sermon to Uttara and Sona at the Aruna pleasaunce 
near Amipama. Later Uttara became the Buddha's aggasdvaka. 1 

1 Bu. xxii. 23; BuA. 205; J. i. 42; D. ii. 4. 

13. Uttara. —Son of Kakusandha Buddha in his last birth. 1 

1 Bu. xxiii. 17. 

14. Uttara. —The name of the Bodhisatta in the time of Sumedha 
Buddha. He spent eighty crores in giving alms to the Buddha and the 
monks and later joined the Order. 1 

1 J. i. 37-8; Bu. xii. 11. 

15. Uttara. —A khattiya, father of Mangala Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. iv. 22; J. i. 34. 

16. Uttara. —Son of Padumuttara Buddha in his last birth. 1 He was 
the Bodhisatta. 2 

1 Bu. xi. 21. I 37 and Bu. xi. 11, where the Bodhisatta’s 

2 SA. ii. 67; DA. ii. 488; but see J. i. | name is given as the Jatila Ratthika. 

Uttara ] 


17. Uttara. —Nephew of King Khallatanaga of Ceylon. He con¬ 
spired with his brothers to kill the king, and when the plot was discovered 
committed suicide by jumping on to a pyre. 1 

1 MT. 612. 

18. Uttara. —A banker, a very rich man of Savatthi. He had a son, 
designated as Uttara-setthi-putta, whose story is given in the Vattaka 
Jataka 1 (q.v.). 

1 J. i. 432 ff. 

19. Uttara. —The city in which Mangala Buddha was born. 1 

1 Bu. iv. 22; J. i. 34. 

20. Uttara. —The city of King Arindama. Revata Buddha preached 
there to the king and the assembled multitude. 1 

1 BuA. 133. 

21. Uttara.— A township ( nigama ), near which Revata Buddha spent 
seven days, wrapt in meditation. At the conclusion of his meditation, 
the Buddha preached to the assembled multitude on the virtues of 
nirodhasamdpatti. 1 

1 BuA. 133-4. This may be the same as No. 20. 

22. Uttara. —One of the palaces occupied by Paduma Buddha before his 
Renunciation. 1 

1 Bu. ix. 17. 

23. Uttara. —A township of the Koliyans. Once, when the Buddha 
was staying there, he was visited by the headman Pataliya . 1 
v.l. Uttaraka. 

1 8. iv. 340. 

24. Uttara. —A nunnery built by King Mahasena . 1 

1 Mhv. xxxvii, 43. 

25. Uttara. —A general of Moggallana I . 1 

1 Cv. xxxix. 58. 

26. Uttara. —A padhanagara built by Uttara (25). 


354 [ Uttar a 

27. Uttara. —A minister of Sena I. He built in the Abhayuttara 
Vihara a dwelling-house called Uttarasena. 1 

1 Cv. 1. 83. 

28. Uttara. —A thera who, with sixty thousand others, came from the 
Vattaniya hermitage in the Vindhya forest to be present at the foundation 
ceremony of the Maha Thupa in Anuradhapura. 1 

1 Mhv. xxix. 40; Dpv. xix. 6 . 

29. Uttara.—A banker of Uttaragama, father of Uttara (13). 1 

1 BuA. 116. 

30. Uttara. —An ajlvaka who offered eight handfuls of grass to 
Mangala Buddha for his seat. 1 

1 BuA. 116. 

1. Uttara Sutta. —The conversation between Uttara devaputta 
(Uttara 3) and the Buddha. One's life is short, says the devaputta ; 
one should, therefore, gather merit, in order to gain bliss. Bather, 
answers the Buddha, reject the bait of all the worlds and aspire after 
final Peace. 1 

1 S.i.54. 

2. Uttara Sutta. —Preached to the monks by Uttara Thera (Uttara 6) 
at Mount Sankheyya at Dhavajalika in Mahisavatthu. From time to 
time we should reflect on our own misfortunes as well as on those of 
others, and likewise on our successes. Vessavana heard this sutta being 
preached as he was journeying from north to south on some business. 
He went to Tavatimsa, where he informed Sakka of what he had heard 
Uttara say. Sakka, thereupon, appeared before Uttara and asked him 
whether his sermon was based on his own illumination (patibhdna), or 
on what he had heard from the Buddha. Uttara's reply was that his 
words were garnered from the Doctrine of the Buddha just as a man 
takes a handful of grain from a heap of grain. Sakka then repeated the 
whole sermon on the same subject, which he had heard the Buddha 
preach to the monks at Gijjhakuta in Rajagaha. 1 

1 A. iv. 162-6. 

Uttaraka. —A village of the Bumus. The Buddha once stayed there 
and Sunakkhatta was in his company. At that time Korakkhattiya 
was also staying there. 1 

1 D. iii. 6. 

Uttarakuru ] 


Uttarakumara. —The Bodhisatta. See Uttara (16). 

1. Uttarakuru. —A country often mentioned in the Nikayas and in 
later literature as a mythical region. A detailed description of it is 
given in the Atdnatiya Sutta. 1 The men who live there own no property 
nor have they wives of their own; they do not have to work for their 
living. The corn ripens by itself and sweet-scented rice is found boiling 
on hot oven-stoves. The inhabitants go about riding on cows, on 
men and women, on maids and youths. Their king rides on an elephant, 
on a horse, on celestial cars and in state palanquins. Their cities are 
built in the air, and among those mentioned are Atanata, Kusinata, 
Natapuriya, Parakusinata, Kaplvanta, Janogha, Navanavatiya, Ambara- 
Ambaravatiya and Alakamanda, the last being the chief city. 

The king of Uttarakuru is Kuvera, also called Vessavana, because 
the name of his citadel (? rdjadhdni) is Visana. His proclamations are 
made known by Tatola, Tattala, Tatotala, Ojasi, Tejasi, Tetojasi, Sura, 
Raja, Arittha and Nemi. Mention is also made of a lake named Dharani 
and a hall named Bhagalavati where the Yakkhas, as the inhabitants of 
Uttarakuru are called, hold their assemblies. 

The country is always spoken of as being to the north of Jambudipa. 
It is eight thousand leagues in extent and is surrounded by the sea. 2 
Sometimes 3 it is spoken of as one of the four Mahadipa —the others being 
Aparagoyana, Pubbavideha and Jambudipa —each being surrounded by 
five hundred minor islands. These four make up a Cakkavala, with 
Mount Meru in their midst, a flat-world system. A cakkavattfs rule 
extends over all these four continents 4 and his chief queen comes either 
from the race of King Madda or from Uttarakuru; in the latter case she 
appears before him of her own accord, urged on by her good fortune. 5 

The trees in Uttarakuru bear perpetual fruit and foliage, and it also 
possesses a Kapparukkha which lasts for a whole kappa. 6 There are 
no houses in Uttarakuru, the inhabitants sleep on the earth and are 
called, therefore, bhumisaya? 

The men of Uttarakuru surpass even the gods of Tavatimsa in four 
things: they have no greed (amamd), 9 no private property (apariggaha), 
they have a definte term of life ( niyatdyuka ) 9 and they possess great 

1 D. iii. 199 ff.; here Uttarakuru is 5 DA. ii. 626; KhA. 173. 

spoken of as a city ( pura ); see also Utta- 6 AA. i. 264; MA. ii. 948. 

rakuru in Hopkins: Epic Mythology, 7 ThagA. ii. J87-8. 

especially p. 186. 8 The people of Uttarakuru are ac- 

2 DA.ii. 623; BuA. 113. i chandikd (VibhA. 461). 

3 E,g,, A. i. 227; v. 59; SnA. ii. | 9 One thousand years, after which 

443. they are born in heaven, says Buddha- 

4 D.ii. 173; DA. ii. 623. | ghosa (AA. ii. 806). 


[ Uttarakuru 

elegance (visesabhuno). They are, however, inferior to the men of 
Jambudipa in courage, mindfulness and in the religious life. 10 

Several instances are given of the Buddha having gone to Uttarakuru 
for alms. Having obtained his food there, he would go to the Anotatta 
lake, bathe in its waters and, after the meal, spend the afternoon on 
its banks. 11 The power of going to Uttarakuru for alms is not restricted 
to the Buddha; Pacceka Buddhas and various ascetics are mentioned 
as having visited Uttarakuru on their begging rounds. 12 It is considered 
a mark of great iddlni -power to be able to do this. 13 

Jotika’s wife was a woman of Uttarakuru; she was brought to Jotika 
by the gods. She brought with her a single pint pot of rice and three 
crystals. The rice-pot was never exhausted; whenever a meal was 
desired, the rice was put in a boiler and the boiler set over the crystals; 
the heat of the crystals went out as soon as the rice was cooked. The 
same thing happened with curries. 14 Food never ran short in Uttarakuru; 
once when there was a famine in Veranja and the Buddha and his monks 
were finding it difficult to get alms, we find Moggallana suggesting 
that they should go to Uttarakuru for alms. 15 The clothes worn by 
the inhabitants resembled divine robes. 16 

It was natural for the men of Uttarakuru not to transgress virtue, 
they had pakati-sila , 17 

Uttarakuru is probably identical with the Kuru country mentioned 
in the Rg-Veda. 18 

10 A. iv. 396; Kvu. 99. 

11 See, e.g., Vin. i. 27-8; DhsA. 16; 
DhA. iii. 222. 

12 See, e.g., J. v. 316; vi. 100; MA. i. 
340; SnA. ii. 420. 

13 E.g., Rohita (SA. i. 93); also Mil. 84. 

14 DhA. iv. 209 ff. 16 Vin. iii. 7. 

16 See, e.g., PvA. 76. 

17 Vsm. i. 15. 

18 See Vedic Index {s.v.) 

2. Uttarakuru. —A garden laid out by Parakkamabahu I . 1 

1 Cv. lxxix. 11. 

Uttarakuruka. —The inhabitants of Uttarakuru . 1 

1 A. iv. 396. 

Uttaragama. —A village in Ceylon, the residence of Pingala-Buddha- 
rakkhita Thera. There were one hundred families living there and the 
Elder had, at some time or other, entered into samdpatti at the door of 
each of their houses, while waiting for alms. 1 

1 MA. ii. 978. 

UttarapaficSla ] 


Uttaraculabhajaniya. —Mentioned in the Vibhaftga Commentary. 1 

1 p. 308. 

Uttarajiva. —A monk of Pagan, who came to the Mahavihara in 
Ceylon in a.d. 1154. He was accompanied by Chapata and brought 
with him a copy of the Saddamti which had just been written by 

Aggavamsa . 1 

1 P.L.C. 185. 

Uttaratissarama. —A monastery in Ceylon, built by Tissa, minister of 

Vattagamani. It was dedicated to the thera Mahatissa of Kambugalla 1 
(Kapikkala ?). 

1 Mhv. xxxiii. 92; MT. 622. 

Uttaradesa. —A province of Ceylon, probably to the north of Anura- 
dhapura. It was often occupied by the Tamils, and its chiefs refused to 
acknowledge allegiance to the Sinhalese kings. Its people had to be 
subdued from time to time by the Sinhalese kings, in order to establish 
the peace of the land and the security of the throne. 1 

The district formed a convenient landing-place for invaders coming 
to Ceylon from India, where they might complete their preparations. 2 
It is sometimes called Uttararattha . 3 

1 See, e.g., Cv. xliv. 71; xivii. 3, 54; | 2 E.g., Cv. 1. 14. 

xlviii. 83-4, 95, 112. 3 E.g., Cv. lxx. 92. 

Uttaradhatusena-vihara— Built by King Dhatusena . 1 

1 Cv. xxxviii. 48. 

Uttarapancala. —A city. When Apacara (Upacara), king of Ceti, was 

swallowed up by the fires of Avici, because of his falsehood, his five 
sons came to the brahmin Kapila and sought his protection. He advised 
them to build new cities. The city built by the fourth son was called 
Uttarapancala. It was founded in the north of Ceti, on the spot where 
the prince saw a wheel-frame (cakkapanjara) entirely made of jewels. 1 
According to the scholiast to the Kamanita Jataka , 2 however, and also 
according to the Kumbhakara Jataka , 3 Pancala or Uttarapancala is the 
name of a country (rattha) whose capital was Kampilla, while in the 
Brahmadatta Jataka , 4 Uttarapancala is given as the name of the city 

1 J. iii. 461. 2 J.ii. 214. j (iv. 430), the Jayaddisa Jataka (v. 21), 

3 J. iii. 379 ff. and the Gandatindu Jataka (v. 98). In 

4 iii. 79; also in the scholiast of the all these Uttarapancala is spoken of as a 
Citta-Sambhuta Jataka (iv. 396). Pan- cityinKampilla. In the Mahd Ummagga 
cala was also the name of the king of Jataka (vi. 391 fl.), Culani Brahmadatta 
Uttarapancala in the Sattigumba Jataka is the king of Uttarapancala. 

358 [ Uttarap&la 

and Kampilla as that of the country and we are told that a king Pancala 
reigned there. 

In the Somanassa Jdtaka , 6 mention is made of a city named Uttara- 
pancala in the Kuru country, with Renu as its king. Whether the 
reference is to a different city it is not possible to say. See also Pancala. 

5 J. iv. 444. 

Uttarapala. —A thera. He was the son of a brahmin in Savatthi. 
When he had attained to years of discretion he saw the Twin Miracle 
and entered the Order. One day, amid desultory recollection, he was 
beset by sensual desires, but after a violent mental struggle, he arrested 
his evil thoughts and attained arahantship. 

In the time of VipassI Buddha, he had made a bridge for the Buddha 
to cross. 1 

He is evidently identical with Setudayaka of the Apaddna} 

1 Thag. 252-4; ThagA. i. 371 f. 2 ii. 408. 

1. Uttaramadhura. —See s.v. Madhura. 

2. Uttaramadhura. —The pleasaunce in which Mangala Buddha 
was born. 1 

1 BuA. 115. 

1. Uttaramata. —Mother of Uttara, who was a son of Udena’s minister. 
(See Uttara 7.) She was miserly, and when her son gave alms she 
abused him, and spoke disparagingly of the holy men who accepted his 
gifts. On one occasion, however, she approved of a gift of a tuft of 
peacock's feathers at the festival of dedication of a vihara. After death 
she was born as a peta. Because of her approval of the gift of peacock's 
feathers she had lovely hair, but when she stepped into the river to 
drink water, all the water turned into blood. 1 For fifty-five years she 
wandered, famished and thirsty, till one day, seeing the Elder Kankha- 
Revata spending the day on the banks of the Ganges, she approached 
him, covering her nudity with her hair, and begged him for a drink. 
The Elder, having learnt from her her story, gave food and drink and 
clothes to the monks on her behalf and she obtained release from her 
suffering and enjoyed great bliss. 2 

According to the Visuddhimagga , 3 Uttaramata was able to go through 
the sky because of the psychic power inborn in her as a result of Kamma. 
This probably refers to another woman. (See below 2.) 

1 She fiad told her son that his gifts 2 Pv. 28 f.; PvA. 140 ff. 

would turn into blood in his next birth. 3 ii. 382. 

Uttara-raja-putta j 


2. Uttaramata. —A yakkhinl, mother of Punabbasu and Uttar a. Once 
as she passed Jetavana at sunset looking for food, with her daughter 
on her hip and holding her son by his finger, she saw the assembly, intently 
listening to the Buddha's sermon. She, too, hoping to get some benefit, 
listened quietly and with great earnestness, hushing her children to 
quietness. The Buddha preached in such a manner that both she and her 
son could understand, and at the end of the sermon they both became 
Sotapannd. She immediately got rid of her sad yakkha-state and 
obtained heavenly bliss, and took up her residence in a tree near the 
Buddha's Fragrant Chamber. 

Little Uttara was too young to realise the Truth. 1 

1 S. i. 210; SA. i. 238-40; BA. ii. 509 f. 

Uttaramula Nikaya. —One of the fraternities of monks in Ceylon, an 
off-shoot of the Abhayagiri sect. Their headquarters were probably at 
the Uttarola Vihara, built by King Manavamma, and given to the monks 
of the Abhayagiri Vihara, for having consented to take into the Order 
his elder brother, in spite of the fact that he had lost one eye as the 
result of some yoga practices. The first chief of Uttarola was the 
king's brother himself and he was in charge of six hundred monks. He 
was granted great honours and privileges together with five classes 
of servants to minister to him. He was also appointed to supervise 
the guardians of the Tooth Relic. 1 From a Tamil inscription of Mana- 
vamma we find that he kept up his patronage of the Uttaramula Nikaya, 
and it is recorded that he gave over the custodianship of the Tooth Relic 
to a monk of this fraternity, named Moggallana . 2 

Anuruddha, author of the Anuruddha Pataka and the Abhidhammattha - 
Sangaho, describes himself in the colophon to the former work as an 
“ Upasthavira " of the Uttaramula Nikaya. 

In later years this Nikaya produced many an illustrious star in Celyon's 
literary firmament, among them the grammarian Moggallana, Vilgam- 
mula, Maha Thera and Sr! Rahula . 3 

1 Cv. lvii. 7-11, and 16-26; also j 3 For details about them see P.L.C., 

Geiger’s Trs. i. 194, n. 2 and 3. I passim. 

2 Epi. Zey., vol. ii., pt. vi., pp. 250 ff. 

Uttara-raja-putta. —Mentioned in the Samantapdsddikd 1 as having 
sent to the Elder Mahapaduma a shrine made of gold, which the Elder 
refused to accept, as it was not permissible for him to do so. 

1 Sp. iii. 544. 


[ Uttaravaddhamana 

Uttaravaddhamana.-— See Antaravaddhamana. 

Uttaravinicchaya. —A commentary on the Vi nay a Pitaka, written by 

Buddhadatta as a supplement to his own Vinayavinicchaya. In manu¬ 
scripts the two works are usually found together. It was dedicated by 
the author to one of his pupils Sahkhapala. Vacissara wrote a tika on it. 1 

1 Gv. 59, 62. The work has been published by the P.T.S. (1928). 

Uttara-Vihara. —Another name for the Abhayagiri-Vihara ( g.v .). The 

inhabitants of the Uttaravihara seem to have kept a chronicle, in the 
same way as did the dwellers of the Maha-Vihara. This is often referred 
to in the Mahavamsa Tika , as the Uttara-Vihara-atthakathd and the 
Uttara-Vihara-Mahavamsa. Judging from the quotations from this 
work given in the Mahavamsa Tiled, the Uttara-Vihara chronicle seems 
to have differed from the tradition of the Maha-Vihara more in detail 
than in general construction. It is not possible to say whether it con¬ 
tained exegetical matter on the Pali Canon besides matters of historical 
interest. 1 

1 For a detailed account of the work see Geiger. The Dipavamsa and the Mahd - 
vamsa , pp. 50 ff.; also my edition of the Mahavamsa Tika . 

Uttarasena. —A dwelling-house in the Abhayuttara-vihara (Abhayagiri) 

built by Uttara, a minister of Sena I. He provided it with all the neces¬ 
saries. 1 

1 Cv. 1. 83. 

Uttarahimavanta. —See Himava. 

1. Uttara. —A theri. She was born in Kapilavatthu in a Sakyan 
family. She became a lady of the Bodhisatta's court and later re¬ 
nounced the world with Pajapat! Gotami. When she was developing 
insight, the Buddha appeared before her to encourage her and she became 
an arahant. 1 

1 Thig. v. 15; ThigA. 21 f. 

2. Uttara. —She was the daughter of a clansman's family in Savatthi. 
Having heard Patacara preach, she entered the Order and became an 

The Therigdthd contains seven verses uttered by her after becoming an 
arahant, the result of her determination not to leave the sitting posture 
till she had won emancipation. Later she repeated these verses to 
Patacara. 1 

1 Thig. vv. 175-81; ThigA. 161-2. 

Uttara NandamatS ] 


3. Uttara. —In the Theragathd two verses 1 are attributed to Ananda, 
as having been spoken by him in admonition to an updsika named 
Uttara, who was filled with the idea of her own beauty. Some say, 
however, that these verses were spoken in admonition to those who lost 
their heads at the sight of Ambapall . 2 

1 Thag. vv. 1020-1. 2 ThagA.ii. 129. 

4. Uttara Nandamata. —Chief of the lay-women disciples who waited 
on the Buddha. 1 In the Anguttara Nikdya , 2 she is described as the 
best of women disciples in meditative power ( jhdymam ), but this may 
refer to another Uttara. She is again mentioned 3 in a list of eminent 
lay-women disciples, who observed the fast (uposatha) of the eight 

According to the Anguttara Commentary , 4 she was the daughter of 
Punnaslha (Punnaka) ( q.v .), a servitor of Sumana-setthi of Rajagaha. 
Later, when Punnaslha was made dhana-setthi because of the immense 
wealth he gained by virtue of a meal given to Sariputta, he held an alms¬ 
giving for the Buddha and his monks for seven days. On the seventh 
day, at the end of the Buddha's sermon of thanksgiving, Punnaslha, his 
wife and daughter, all became Sotapanna. 

When Sumana-setthi asked for Uttara's hand for his son, his request 
was refused because Sumana's family did not belong to the Buddha's 
faith. Punna sent word to Sumana that Uttara was the Buddha's dis¬ 
ciple and daily offered flowers to the Buddha, costing a kahapana. 
Later, however, when Sumana promised that Uttara should be given 
flowers worth two kahapanas, Punna agreed and Uttara was married. 
After several unsuccessful attempts to obtain her husband's permission 
to keep the fast, as she had done in her parents' house, she got from her 
father fifteen thousand kahapanas and with these she purchased the 
services of a prostitute named Sirima, to look after her husband for a 
fortnight, and with his consent she entered on a fortnight's uposatha. 
On the last day of the fast, while Uttara was busy perparing alms for the 
Buddha, her husband, walking along with Sirima, saw her working hard 
and smiled, thinking what a fool she was not to enjoy her wealth. 
Uttara, seeing him, smiled at the thought of his folly in not making proper 
use of his wealth. Sirima, thinking that husband and wife were smiling 
at each other, regardless of her presence, flew into a fury and, seizing a 
pot of boiling oil, threw it at Uttara's head. But Uttara was at that 
time full of compassion for Sirima, and the oil, therefore, did not hurt 

1 Bu. xxvi. 20. 

2 i. 26. 

3 A.iv. 347; AA.ii.791. 

4 i. 240 ff. 


[ Uttara 

her at all. Sirima, realising her grievous folly, begged forgiveness of 
Uttara, who took her to the Buddha and related the whole story, asking 
that he should forgive her. The Buddha preached to Sirima and she 
became a Sotapanna. 

The Vimdnavatthu Commentary 5 and the Dhammapada Commentary 6 
give the above story with several variations in detail. According to 
these versions, at the end of the Buddha's sermon to Sirima, Uttara 
became a Sakadagaml and her husband and father-in-law Sotapannas. 

After death Uttara was born in Tavatimsa in a vimana. Moggallana 
saw her in one of his visits to Tavatimsa and, having learnt her story, 
repeated it to the Buddha. 

It is curious that Nanda is not mentioned in either account. It has 
been suggested 7 that Uttara Nandamata may be identical with Velu- 
kantakl-Nanda-mata, but I do not think that the identification is justified. 
Uttara's story is given in the Visuddhimagga 8 to prove that fire cannot 
burn the body of a person who lives in love, and again, 9 as an instance 
of psychic power being diffused by concentration. 

6 pp. 631 ff.; Vv. 11 f. 7 E.g„ Brethren 41, n. 1. 8 p. 313. 

6 iii. 302 ff.; see also iii. 104. 9 p. 380-1; also Ps.ii. 212; PsA. 497. 

5. Uttara.— Wife of Punnaslha (Punnaka) and mother of Uttara (4). 1 
For her story see Punnaslha. 

1 VvA. 63; DhA.iii.302. 

6. Uttara. —Daughter of Nandaka, general of Pingala, king of Surattha. 1 
For her story see s.v. Nandaka. 

1 PvA. 241 f. 

7. uttara.’ —A little yakkhini, sister of Punabbasu. For her story see 

Uttaramata ( 2 ). 

8. Uttara. —Mother of Mangala Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. iv. 18; J.i.34. 

9. uttara. —A brahmin lady, mother of Konagamana Buddha, and 
also his Aggasavika . 1 

1 J. i. 43; D. ii. 7; Bu. xxiv. 17, 23. 

10. Uttara.— Aggasavika of Narada Buddha. 1 

1 J.i.37; Bu. x.24. 



11. Uttara. —Wife of Paduma Buddha in his last lay life. 1 

1 Bu.ix. 18. 

12. Uttara. —One of the chief women supporters of Vipassi Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. xx. 30. 

13. Uttara. —Daughter of the banker Uttara. She gave a meal of 
milk-rice to Mangala Buddha just before his Enlightenment. 1 

1 BuA. 116. 

Uttarapa. —The name given to the region to the north of the river 

Mahl. 1 See also Aiiguttarapa. 

1 SnA.ii. 437. 

Uttarapatha. —The northern division of Jambudipa. Its boundaries 
are nowhere explicitly stated in Pali literature. It has been suggested 1 
that Uttarapatha was originally the name of a great trade-route, the 
nothern high road which extended from Savatthi to Takkasila in 
Gandhara, and that it lent its name—as did the Dakkhinapatha —to the 
region through which it passed. If this be so, the name would include 
practically the whole of Northern India, from Anga in the east to 
Gandhara in the north-west, and from the Himalaya in the north to the 
Vindhya in the south. 2 The chief divisions included in this territory are 
mentioned in the Pali literature as Kasmlra-Gandhara and Kamboja. 
This region was famous from very early times for its horses and horse- 
dealers, 3 and horses were brought down for sale from there to such cities 
as Benares. 4 

In Uttarapatha was Kamsabhoga, where, in the city of Asitahjana, 
King Mahakarnsa reigned. 5 The Divydvadana? mentions another city, 

According to the Mahdvastu , 7 Ukkala, the residence of Tapassu and 
Bhalluka, was in Uttarapatha, as well as Taksasila, the famous uni¬ 
versity. 8 

There was regular trade between Savatthi and Uttarapatha. 9 

Ahganika Bharadvaja had friends in Uttarapatha. 10 

1 See Law, Early Geog. of Bsm ., pp. 
48 ff. 

2 According to the brahmanical tradi¬ 
tion, as recorded in the Kavyamimamsa 
(p. 93), the Uttarapatha is to the west of 
Prithudaka (Pehoa, about fourteen miles 
west of Thaneswar). 

3 See, e.g. 9 Vin. iii. 6; Sp. i. 175. 

4 J.ii.287. 6 J.iv. 79. 

6 p. 470. 

7 iii. 303. 

8 Mtu. ii. 166. 

9 PvA. 100. 

10 ThagA. i. 339. 


[ Uttarapathaka 

Uttarapathaka.— A resident of Uttarapatha. 1 

1 ,J. ii. 31 ; Vin. iii. 6. 

1. Uttararama. —An image-house constructed by Parakkamabahu I. 

to the north of Pulatthipura. It was hewn out of the actual rock and 
had three grottoes, made by expert craftsmen—the Vijjadhara grotto, 
the grotto with the image in sitting posture and the grotto with the 
recumbent image. 1 

1 Cv. lxxviii. 74 ff.; for a description of it see Cv. Trs. ii (# 111, n. 2; Bell: Arch. 
Survey of Ceylon for 1907, pp. 7 ff. 

2. Uttararama. —The monastery where Mangala Buddha held his 
second Great Assembly (Sannipdta) in the presence of his kinsmen. 1 

1 BuA. 120. 

Uttarala. —A tank repaired by Parakkamabahu I. 1 

1 Cv. lxviii. 47. 

Uttarajha. —A dwelling-house (parivena) which probably belonged to 
the Abhayagiri-vihara. In it Sena I., while he was yet Mahadipada, 
built cells which bore his name. 1 Sena II. built a pdsada there. 2 
1 Cv. 1. 77. 2 Ibid., li. 75; see also Cv. Trs. i. 145, n. 2. 

Uttari (-manussadhamma) Sutta, —There are six things without getting 
rid of which it is impossible to obtain qualities of a transcendental 
nature ( uttarimanussadhamma ), to say nothing of Ariyan insight and 
wisdom. Those things are forgetfulness, want of discrimination, lack 
of control of the senses, intemperance in eating, deceitfulness and 
prattle. 1 

r 1 A. iii. 430. 

Uttarika. —A diminutive form of Uttara used by Uttaramata ( q.v .), 
the yakkhini, in addressing her daughter. 1 

1 S. i. 210. 

Uttari. —A nun. She continued going on her rounds for alms until 
she reached the age of one hundred and twenty. One day, when re¬ 
turning from her round, she met a monk in the street and gave him all 
she had in her bowl. On the second and third days she did likewise. 
On the fourth day, as she was going her round, she met the Buddha in 
a very crowded spot. She stepped back and, while doing so, she trod 
on the skirt of her robe which had slipped down. Unable to keep her 
feet, she fell down. The Buddha came up and spoke to her. She became 
a Sotapanna. 1 

1 DhA. iii. 110-11. 

Uttiya, Uttika ] 


Uttareyyadayaka Thera.— An arahant. In Padumuttara’s time he 
was a learned brahmin of Hamsavati. One day, when going to bathe 
with his pupils, he saw the Buddha and gave him his upper garment 
( uttanya ). The garment remained in the sky, forming a canopy over 
the Buddha and his monks. As a result, for thirty thousand kappas, 
Uttareyyadayaka was born in the deva-worlds, and fifty times he became 
king of the gods. On thirty-six occasions he was king of men. Every¬ 
where he went a canopy of fine material appeared over him and he 
obtained all he wished for. 1 

1 Ap. i. 272-3. 

Uttaromula, Uttarola.— See Uttaramula, 

Uttika.— See Uttiya. 

Uttinna Thera.— He came from Kasrnira, at the head of 280,000 monks, 
to be present at the foundation-ceremony of the Maha Thupa in Anu- 
radhapura. 1 

1 Mhv. xxix. 37. 

1. Uttiya, Uttika. —He was the son of a brahmin of Savatthi. When 
he came of age, he left the world, seeking “ the Deathless,” and became 
a Paribbajaka. One day, on his travels, he came to the place where 
the Buddha was preaching and entered the Order, but because of the 
impurity of his morals he could not win his goal. Seeing other bhikkhus 
who had achieved their object, he asked the Buddha for a lesson in 
brief. The Buddha gave him a short lesson, which he used for his 
meditations. During these meditations he fell ill, but in his anxiety 
he put forth every effort and became an arahant. 1 

In the time of Siddhattha Buddha he was a crocodile in the river 
Candabhaga. One day, seeing the Buddha's desire to cross to the 
other bank, the crocodile offered him its back to sit on and took him 

Seven times he was king of the devas, and three times ruler of men. 2 

This Uttiya is evidently identical with the thera of the same name 
mentioned in the Samyutta Nikaya. In one sutta 3 the Buddha explains 
to him, in answer to his question, the character of the five sensual 
elements and the necessity for their abandonment. Elsewhere 4 he is 
represented as asking the Buddha for a lesson in brief, which the Buddha 
gives him. Dwelling in solitude, he meditates on this and becomes an 

1 Thag.v.30; ThagA.i.89f. 
2 Ap.i. 79-80. 

3 8. v. 22. 

4 Ibid., 166. 


[ Uttiya Thera 

Perhaps he is also identical with Uttiya Paribbajaka, who is represented 
in the Ahguttara Nikdya 6 as asking the Buddha various questions on 
the duration of the world, etc., and as being helped by Ananda to under¬ 
stand the real import of the Buddha's answers. 

6 A. v. 193 ft. 

2. Uttiya Thera. —He was one of four companions—the others being 
Godhika, Subahu and Valliya —who were born at Pava as the sons of four 
Malla-rajas. They were great friends, and once went together on some 
embassy to Kapilavatthu. There they saw the Buddha's Twin Miracle, 
and, entering the Order, they soon became arahants. When they 
went to Rajagaha, Bimbisara invited them to spend the rainy season 
there and built for each of them a hut, carelessly omitting, however, 
to have the huts roofed. So the theras dwelt in the huts unsheltered. 
For a long time there was no rain and the king, wondering thereat, 
remembered his neglect and had the huts thatched, plastered and 
painted. He then held a dedication festival and gave alms to 
the Order. The Elders went inside the huts and entered into a 
meditation of love. Forthwith the sky darkened in the west and 
rains fell. 

In the time of Siddhattha Buddha the four were householders and 
friends; one of them gave to the Buddha a ladleful of food, another fell 
prostrate before the Buddha and worshipped him, the third gave him a 
handful of flowers, while the fourth paid him homage with sumana - 

In Kassapa’s time, too, they were friends and entered the Order 
together. 1 

1 Thag. vv. 51-4; ThagA.i. 123-6. 

3. Uttiya Thera. —He was a Sakyan of Kapilavatthu. When the 
Buddha visited his kinsmen and showed them his power, Uttiya was 
converted and entered the Order. One day, while begging in the village, 
he heard a woman singing and his mind was disturbed. Checking 
himself, he entered the vihara much agitated and spent the siesta, seated, 
striving with such earnestness that he won arahantship. 1 

In the time of Sumedha Buddha he was a householder and gave to 
the Buddha a bed, complete with canopy and rug. 

Twenty kappas ago he was three times king under the name of Suvan- 

He is probably identical with Pallankadayaka of the Apadana. 2 

1 Thag. v. 99; ThagA. i. 202-3. 2 Ap. i. 175. 

Uttiya or Uttika Sutta ] 


4. Uttiya .—In the Kaihdvatthu 1 mention is made of a householder 
Uttiya, together with Yasa-Kulaputta and Setu-manava, as having 
attained arahantship while living amid the circumstances of a layman's 

1 i. 268. 

5. Uttiya. —One of the theras who accompanied Mahinda on his 
mission to Ceylon. 1 King Sirimeghavanna had an image of Uttiya 
made and placed in the image house which he built at the south-eastern 
corner of his palace. 2 

1 Mhv. xii.8; Dpv. xii.12; 8p. i. 70; Mbv. 116. 2 Cv. xxxvii. 87. 

6. Uttiya. —King of Ceylon for ten years 1 (207-197 b.c.). He was the 
fourth son of Mutasiva and succeeded Devanampiyatissa. In the eighth 
year of his reign died Mahinda, 2 and in the ninth, Sanghamitta. 3 He 
held great celebrations in honour of these two illustrious dead and 
built thupas in various places over their ashes. The Mahdvamsa 
Tihd 4 adds that Uttiya built a cetiya at the Somanassamalaka. 

1 Dpv. xii.75; Mhv. xx. 57. | 3 Ibid., 49. 

2 Ibid., 33. I 4 p.253. 

7. Uttiya. —One of the seven warriors of King Vattagamani. He 
built the Dakkhina-vihara to the south of Anuradhapura. 1 

1 Mhv. xxxiii. 88. 

8. Uttiya.— See Ayya-Uttiya. 

1. Uttiya or Uttika Sutta. — Uttiya Thera visits the Buddha and asks 
him for an explanation of the five sensual elements ( kamaguna ) mentioned 
by him. The Buddha explains them, and declares that they should be 
abandoned in order that the Noble Eightfold Path might be cultivated. 1 

1 S. v. 22. 

2. Uttiya or Uttika Sutta.—uttiya asks the Buddha for a teaching in 
brief, on which he might meditate while dwelling in solitude. The 
Buddha tells him that he must purify “ the rudiments in good states ” 
(ddim eva visodhelii Jcusalesu dhammesu), and proceeds to mention the four 
satipatthanas. As a result of developing the latter Uttiya became an 
arahant. 1 

1 8. v. 166. 

3. Uttiya or Uttika Sutta.— The Paribbajaka Uttiya visits the Buddha 
and asks him his views regarding the eternity of the world, the end of 


[ Udaka 

the world, the identity of body and soul, and the continuation of the 
existence of the Tathagata after death. The Buddha replies that he 
teaches nothing about such things, but that the object of his teaching 
is to enable beings to realise emancipation. Thereupon Uttiya asks 
the Buddha whether the world is led to follow that teaching. The 
Buddha remains silent. Ananda, wishing to prevent any misunderstand¬ 
ing on the part of Uttiya, explains that there is no “ leading/' but that 
the Buddha knows that all those who escape from the world do so along 
a certain path, just as the gate-keeper of a well-guarded town knows 
that whoever enters that town must, inevitably, use the one entrance. 1 

1 A. v. 193-5. 

Udaka. —See Uraga. 

Udakagama. —A village in Ceylon given by King Kittisirirajaslha 
for the maintenance of the Gangarama-vihara. 1 

1 Cv.c.213. 

1. Udakadayaka Thera. —An arahant. In a former birth he saw 
the Buddha Siddattha having his meal and brought him a pot of water. 
Sixty-one kappas ago he became a king named Vimala. 1 He is probably 
identical with Sanu Thera. 2 

1 Ap. i. 205. 2 ThagA.i. 115. 

2. Udayadayaka Thera.— An arahant. In a previous birth he filled 
a vessel of water for Padumuttara Buddha. As a result, he could find 
water in any spot he wished. 1 His Apaddna-veises are found in the 
Theragdthd Commentary under the names of two theras: Maha Gavaccha 2 
and Gangatlriya. 3 

1 Ap. ii. 437. i. 57. 3 i. 249. 

Udakadayika Therl. —An arahant. In a previous birth she was a 
water-carrier and maintained her children on her wages. Having 
nothing else to give, she regularly provided water in a bath for others. 
As a result, she was born in heaven and was fifty times queen of the 
deva-king and twenty times queen of kings on earth. She could produce 
rain at will, and her body knew neither heat nor dirt. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 521-2. 

Udakapabbata. —A mountain in the region of Himava. 1 

1 J. v. 38; Ap.ii.434. 

Udakapujaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he saw Padu¬ 
muttara Buddha journeying through the air and wished to offer him 

Udakupama Sutta ] 


some water. He, therefore, threw some water into the air, which the 
Buddha, out of compassion, stopped to receive. 

Sixty-five kappas ago Udakapujaka became king three times under 
the name of Sahassaraja. 1 

He is probably identical with Kutivihariya Thera. 2 

1 Ap. i. 142-3. 2 ThagA. i. 129. 

Udakarahada Sutta (2).—There are four kinds of sheets of water: (1) Flat 
(uttana) but deep in appearance (obhasa ); (2) deep but flat in appearance; 
(3) flat and flat in appearance; (4) deep and deep in appearance. So, 
also, there are four classes of people: handsome in appearance but 
shallow in mind; not handsome in appearance but deep in knowledge; 
neither handsome nor wise; both handsome and wise. 1 

1 A.ii. 105-6. 

Udakavana. —The name of King Udena’s park at KosambI on the 
river. It was a favourite spot of Pindola-Bharadvaja, who often spent 
the day there. On one occasion when he was there, Udena came with 
the women of the palace to the pleasaunce to enjoy himself. When the 
king fell asleep the women wandered about the park and, seeing Pindola, 
they went up to him and he preached to them. The king, on waking, 
was enraged to find the women absent and, on learning the cause, went to 
Pindola and questioned him. Pindola, knowing that the king had no 
wish to learn, sat silent. The king, in great anger, threatened to cast 
a net of red ants on the Elder, but before he could carry out his threat, 
Pindola vanished through the air. 1 

1 SnA. ii. 514 f.; SA.iii.27f. 

Udakasanadayaka Thera. —An arahant. Thirty-one kappas ago he 
had been an ascetic, and at the door of his hermitage he placed a bench 
for travellers and provided water for them. Fifteen kappas ago he was 
a king named Abhisama. 1 

1 Ap. i.218. 

Udakasecana. —Thirty-three kappas ago there were eight kings of 
this name, all previous births of Bodhisannaka (°sineaka) Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 131. 

Udakupama Sutta. —There are seven kinds of people in the world 
who are like objects that fall into wells: Some having sunk into the 
water remain there; others continue sinking and rising; some having 



[ Udangana 

risen once will not sink again; others having risen will look round, etc. 
Similarly, some having fallen into sin never escape therefrom, others 
are prone to weakness but often check themselves, etc. 1 

1 A.iv. 11-13. 

Udangana. —See Uraga. 

Udancani Jataka (No. 106).—The Bodhisatta and his son lived in a 
hermitage. One evening when the Bodhisatta came back with fruits to 
the hermitage, he found that his son had neither brought in food and 
wood nor lit the fire. When questioned by his father, he answered 
that during the latter’s absence a woman had tempted him, and was 
waiting outside for him to go with her, if he could obtain his father’s 
consent. The Bodhisatta, seeing that his son was greatly enamoured of 
the woman, gave his consent, adding that if ever he wished to come back 
he would be welcome. The young man went away with the woman, 
but after some time, realising that he had to slave to satisfy her needs, 
he ran away from her and returned to his father. 1 

For the circumstances relating to the telling of the story, see the 

Culla-Narada-Kassapa Jataka. 

1 J. i. 416-7. 

Udapanadayaka Thera. —An arahant. Ninety-one kappas ago he had 
built a well for VipassI Buddha and offered it to him. 1 

1 Ap. i. 188. 

Udapanadusaka Jataka (No. 271).—In times gone by, the Bodhisatta, 
having embraced the religious life, dwelt with a body of followers at 
Isipatana. A jackal was in the habit of fouling the well from which the 
ascetics obtained their water. One day the ascetics caught the jackal 
and led him before the Bodhisatta. When questioned, the jackal said 
that he merely obeyed the “ law ” of his race, which was to foul the place 
where they had drunk. 

The Bodhisatta warned him not to repeat the offence. 

The story was related concerning the fouling of the water at Isipatana 
by a jackal. When this fouling was reported to the Buddha, he said it 
was caused by the jackal which had been guilty of the same offence in 
the Jataka-stoiy. 1 

1 J. ii. 354 ff. 

1. Udaya. —A brahmin of Savatthi. One day the Buddha came to his 
house and he filled the Buddha’s bowl with the food prepared for his own 

Udaya ] 


use. Three days in succession the Buddha came, and Udaya, feeling 
annoyed, said to the Buddha: “ A pertinacious and greedy man is the 
Samana Gotama that he comes again and again.” The Buddha pointed 
out to him how, again and again, the furrow has to be sown to ensure 
a continuous supply of food, how over and over again the dairy-folk draw 
milk, and how again and again birth and death come to the slow-witted. 
At the end of the sermon both Udaya and his household became followers 
of the Buddha. 1 

1 S.i. 173f.; SA.i. 199*200. 

2. Udaya. —A brahmin, pupil of Bavarl. When his turn came to 
question the Buddha, he asked him to explain emancipation through 
higher knowledge and the destruction of avijja. Because Udaya had 
already attained to the fourth jhdna, the Buddha gave his explanation 
in the terms of jhdna . At the end of the sermon Udaya realised the 
Truth. 1 

1 Sn. 1006, 1105-11; SnA.ii. 599-600. 

3. Udaya (or Udayana). —A prince of Hamsavati. It was to him and 
to Brahmadeva, that Tissa Buddha preached his first sermon in the 
Deer Park at Yasavatl. He later became one of the two chief disciples 
of Tissa Buddha. 1 

1 Bu.xviii.21; J.i.40; BuA. 189. 

4. Udaya. —The Bodhisatta born as king of Benares. In his previous 
birth he had been a servant of Suciparivara (q.v.). On fast days it was 
the custom in Suciparivara's house for everyone, even down to the cow¬ 
herds, to observe the ufosatha , but this servant, being new to the place, 
was not aware of this. He went to work early in the morning and re¬ 
turned late in the evening. When he discovered that all the others 
were keeping the fast he refused to touch any food and, as a result, 
died the same night. Just before death he saw the king of Benares 
passing in procession with great splendour, and felt a desire for royalty. 
He was therefore born as the son of the king of Benares and was named 
Udaya. In due course he became king, and one day, having seen Ad- 
dhamasaka (q.v.) and learnt his story, he gave him half his kingdom. 
Later, when Addhamasaka confessed to him the evil idea that had 
passed through his mind of killing the king in order to gain the whole 
kingdom, Udaya, realising the wickedness of desire, renounced the 
kingdom and became an ascetic in the Himalaya. When leaving the 
throne he uttered a stanza containing a riddle which was ultimately 
solved by Gaftgamala (q.v.)} 

1 J. iii. 444 if. 


[ Udaya 

5. Udaya. —King of Ceylon, Udaya I. (a.c. 792-797), also called 
Dappula. He was the son of Mahinda II. and his wife was the clever 
Sena. He had several children, among them Deva, who was given in 
marriage to Mahinda, son of the Adipada Dathasiva of Rohana. 1 

1 For details of his reign see Cv. xlix. 1 ff.; also Cv. Trs.i. 126, n. 1. 

6. Udaya. —A brother of Sena I. and his Adipada. During the king’s 
absence from the capital, he married Nala, daughter of his maternal 
uncle, and took her to Pulatthinagara, but the king forgave him and 
later, when his elder brother Mahinda died, made him Mahadipada, 
sending him as ruler of the Southern Province. Soon after, however, 
Udaya fell ill and died. 1 According to an inscription, he had a son 
who, under Kassapa IV., became Mahalekhaka. 2 

1 Cv. 1. 6, 8, 44, 45. 2 See Cv. Trs. i. 138, n. 3 and 142, n. 1. 

7. Udaya.— Son of Kittaggabodhi, ruler of Rohana 
Sena I. 1 

1 Cv. 1. 56. 

in the time of 

8. Udaya. —King of Ceylon, Udaya II. (a.c. 885-896), a younger 
brother of Sena II. and afterwards his yuvardja. 1 He succeeded Sena II. 
and reigned eleven years. During his reign the province of Rohana was 
brought once more under the rule of the king. 

1 Cv. li. 63, 90 ff.; Cv. Trs. i. 156, n. 4. 

9. Udaya. —King of Ceylon, Udaya III. (a.c. 934-937). He was the 
son of Mahinda, a younger brother of Sena II., and his mother was 
KittI or Kitta. He was first yuvardja of Dappula IV. and later suc¬ 
ceeded him as king. 1 

1 Cv. liii. 4, 13 ff.; Cv. Trs. i. 172, n. 5 and 174, n. 6. 

10. Udaya. —King of Ceylon, Udaya IV. (a.c. 945-953). He was a 
friend of Sena III. (perhaps his younger brother 1 ) and was his yuvardja. 
On Sena’s death, Udaya succeeded him and reigned for eight years. 
During his reign the Colas invaded Ceylon, but were repulsed. 2 Among 
his religious activities was the erection of the Manipasada, which, how¬ 
ever, he could not complete. 3 

1 See Ep. Zey. ii. 59. 2 Cv. liii. 28, 39 ff.; also Cv. Trs. i. 177, n. 2. 

3 Cv. liv. 48. 

11. Udaya. —Younger brother and yuvardja of Sena V. In Sena’s 
quarrel with his mother, Udaya took the side of the latter. 1 

1 Cv. liv. 58, 63. 

Udayadbhadda ] 


12. Udaya. —Senapati of Sena V. He was appointed by the king 
while the real Senapati was away in the border country. When the 
latter heard of the appointment, he marched against the king and 
defeated his forces. Sena was forced to come to terms with the Sena¬ 
pati and banish Udaya from the country. 1 

1 Cv. liv. 61, 68. 

13. Udaya.— See also Udayl-bhadda. 

Udaya Jataka (No. 458).—The story of Udayabhadda and Udaya¬ 
bhadda (q.v.). The story was related in reference to a back-sliding 
monk; the details are given in the Kusa Jataka. The Udaya Jataka 
also bears certain resemblances to the Ananusociya Jataka. 

1. Udaya Sutta. —The conversation between the Buddha and the 
brahmin Udaya (see Udaya l). 1 

1 s. i. 173f. 

2. Udaya Sutta.— See Udaya(-manava)-puccha. 

Udaya(-manava)-puccha or Udaya-panha.— The questions asked of 
the Buddha by Udaya-manava, pupil of Bavarl (see Udaya 2), and the 
Buddha's replies thereto. 1 They deal with the attainment of samdpatti. 2 

1 Sn. vv. 1105-11; SnA.ii. 599-600. 2 AA.i. 363. 

Udayaggabodhi. —A parivena built by Aggabodhi VIII. and named 
after himself and his father (Udaya I.). 1 

1 Cv. xlix. 45; see also Ep. Zey. i. 216, 221, 227. 

Udayana.— See Udaya (3). 

1. Udayabhadda. —The Bodhisatta, born as king of Benares. He was 
so called (“ Welcome") because he was born to his parents as a result 
of their prayers. He had a step-sister, Udayabhadda. When his 
parents wished him to marry, he refused, but in the end, yielding 
to their entreaties, he made a woman's image in gold and desired 
them to find a wife who resembled it. Udayabhadda alone could rival 
the image, so she was wedded to Udayabhadda. They lived together 
in chastity and, in due course, when Udayabhadda died, the princess 
became queen. The king was bom as Sakka, and honouring a promise 
he had made to the princess to return and announce to her the place of 
his birth, he visited her as soon as he remembered her, and, before 


[ Udayabhadda 

revealing himself, tested her in various ways. Being satisfied with her 
conduct, he instructed her and went away. The princess, renouncing 
the kingdom, became a recluse. Later she was born in Tavatimsa as 
the Bodhisatta's handmaiden. 1 

1 J.iv. 104 ff. 

2. Udayabhadda.—See Udayibhadda. 

Udayabhadda. —Step-sister and wife of Udayabhadda ( q.v .). In the 
verses she is also called Udaya. 

Udaya.— See Udayabhadda. 

Udana. —A short collection of eighty stories, in eight vaggas , contain¬ 
ing solemn utterances of the Buddha, made on special occasions. The 
Udana proper, comprising the Buddha's utterances, is mostly in verse, 
in ordinary metres (Sloka, Tristubh, Jagati), seldom in prose. 1 Each 
Udana is accompanied by a prose account of the circumstances in which 
it was uttered. The book forms the third division of the Khudda- 
kanikaya. 2 Udana is also the name of a portion of the Pitakas in their 
arrangement according to matter (anga). Thus divided, into this cate¬ 
gory fall eighty-two suttas, containing verses uttered in a state of joy. 3 

The prose-and-verse stories of the Udana seem to have formed the 
model for the Dhamniapada Commentary . 4 The Udana is also the 
source of twelve stories of the same Commentary and contains parallels 
for three others. About one-third of the Udana is embodied in these 
stories. 6 

1 E.g,, iii. 10; viii. 1, 3, 4. 3 DA. i. 23-4; see also UdA. pp. 2-3. 

2 DA. i. 17; but see p. 15, where it is 4 See Bud . Legends , i. 28. 

the seventh. I 6 See, ibid., i. 47-8, for details. 

Udayi-thera-Vatthu.— See Laludayi. 

Udayibhadda (Udayibhaddaka). —Son of Ajatasattu. When Ajata- 
sattu, after the death of his father, paid his first visit to the Buddha 
and saw the Buddha seated amidst the monks in a scene of perfect 
calm and silence, his first thought was: “ Would that my son, Udayi¬ 
bhadda, might have such calm as this." 1 Buddhaghosa 2 explains this 
thought by saying that Ajatasattu feared that his son might follow his 
own example and kill him as he had killed his own father. His fears 
were justified, for he was killed by his son Udayibhadda, who reigned 
1 D. i. 50. 2 DA. i. 153. 

Udayi Thera ] 


for sixteen years. The latter, in his turn, was killed by his son Anu- 
ruddhaka. 1 2 3 It was in Udayibhadda's eighth year that Vijaya, king of 
Ceylon, died, and in his fifteenth year that Panduvasudeva came to the 
throne. 4 The DIpavamsa 5 calls him Udaya and the Mahabodhivamsa , 6 

Udayabhadda. See also s.v. Kalasoka. 

3 Mhv. iv. 1 ff. According to Dvy. 5 iv. 38; v. 97; xi. 8. 

(369) his son was Munda. 6 p. 96. 

4 Sp. i. 72. ” j 

1. Udayi Thera, also called Maha Udayi (and Panflita Udayi), to 

distinguish him from others.—He was the son of a brahmin of Kapila- 
vatthu. He saw the power and majesty of the Buddha when the latter 
visited his kinsmen and, entering the Order, in due course became an 
arahant. When the Buddha preached the Ndgopama Sutta / on the 
occasion when Seta, King Pasenadi’s elephant, was publicly admired, 
Udayi was stirred to enthusiasm by thoughts of the Buddha and uttered 
sixteen verses, extolling the virtues of the Buddha, comparing him to 
a great and wondrous elephant. 2 Once when Udayi was staying at 
Kamanda, in Todeyya’s mango-grove, he converted a pupil of a brahmin 
of the Verahaccani clan and, as a result, was invited by Verahaccani 
herself to her house. It was only on his third visit to Verahaccani 
that Udayi preached to her and she thereupon became a follower of 
the Faith. 8 The Samyutta Nikayd 1 also records a conversation between 
Udayi and Ananda, when Udayi asks if it is possible to describe the 
consciousness, too, as being without the self. On another occasion 5 
Udayi has a discussion with Paricakanga on vedand . Ananda overhears 
their conversation and reports it to the Buddha, who says that Udayfs 
explanation is true, though not accepted by Pancakanga. Elsewhere 6 
Udayi is mentioned as asking the Buddha to instruct him on the 
bojjhangas, and once, at Desaka (Setaka ?) in the Sumbha country, 
he tells the Buddha how he cultivated the bojjhangas and thereby 
attained to final emancipation. 7 

He is rebuked by the Buddha for his sarcastic remark to Ananda, 
that Ananda had failed to benefit by his close association with the 
Master. The Buddha assures him that Ananda will, in that very life, 
become an arahant. 8 

1 See A. iii. 344 f. 

2 Thag. vv. 689-704; ThagA. ii. 7 f.; 
Udayl’s verses are repeated in the Atigut- 
tara (iii. 346-7) but the Commentary 
(ii. 669) attributes them to Kaludayi. 

3 S. iv. 121-4. 

4 iv. 166f.; another discussion with 
Ananda is mentioned in A. iv. 426 f. 

5 M.i. 396 ff.; S. iv. 223-4; the Com¬ 
mentary (SA.iii.86 and MA.ii. 629) here 
describes Udayi as “ Pandita.” 

6 S.v. 86 ff. 7 Ibid., 89. 8 A. i. 228. 


[ Udayl 

Udayf was evidently a clever and attractive preacher, for he is men¬ 
tioned as having addressed large crowds, a task demanding great powers, 
as the Buddha himself says when this news of Udayl is reported to him. 9 
According to Buddhaghosa, 10 it is this same Uday! (Maha Udayl) who, 
having listened to the Sampasadaniya Sutta, is beside himself with joy 
at the contemplation of the wonderful qualities as set forth in that 
Sutta, and marvels that the Buddha does not go about proclaiming 
them. Buddhaghosa 11 seems to identify him also with the Udayl to 
whom the Latukikopama Sutta 12 was preached. 

9 A. iii. 184. I 11 MA. i. 526. 

10 DA. iii. 903. I 12 M. i. 447 ff. 

2. Udayl. —A thera. It was once his turn to recite the Pdtimokkha 
before the Sangha, but because he had a crow's voice (kdkasaraka), he 
had to obtain permission to make a special effort so that his recitation 
might be audible to the others. 1 It is, perhaps, this same monk who is 
mentioned in the Vinaya as having been guilty of numerous Sanghadisesa 
offences. 2 He is censured again and again and various penalties are 
inflicted on him, nevertheless he repeats his offences. 3 In the Nissag- 
giyd 1 a story is told of a nun, a former mistress of Udayl, who conceived 
a child through touching a garment worn by him. Once when Uppala- 
vanna asked him to take some meat to the Buddha, he demanded her 
inner robe as his fee. 5 He seems to have been very fond of the company 
of women and they returned his liking. 6 There was evidently a strain 
of cruelty in him, for we are told of his shooting crows and spitting 
them with their heads cut off. 7 He is described as being fat. 8 

He is perhaps to be identified with Laludayl ( q.v .). 

1 Vin. i. 116. 

2 Ibid., iii. 110f., 119f., 127f., 137f., 
135 ff. 

3 Ibid., ii.38 ff. 

Ibid., iii. 205f. 5 Ibid., 208. 
See, e.g.,Vin. iv. 20, 61, 68. 

Ibid., iv. 124. 

Ibid., iv. 171. 

3. Udayl. —A brahmin. He visited the Buddha at Savatthi and asked 
if the Buddha ever praised sacrifice. The Buddha's answer was that 
he did not commend sacrifices which involved butchery, but praised 
those which were innocent of any killing. 1 

1 A. ii. 43 f. 

4. Udayl .—See also under Ka|udayi, Laludayl and Sakuludayl. As 
they are all, from time to time, referred to as Udayi it is not always 
possible to ascertain which is meant. The Commentary is not an 
infallible guide. 

Udumbara Jataka ] 


1. Udayl Sutta. —A conversation between Ananda and Udayl in the 
Ghositarama at Kosambi. Ananda explains how the Buddha has 
proved that not only the body but even consciousness is without self. 1 

1 S.iv. 166f. 

2. Udayl Sutta.—Udayl visits the Buddha at Desaka (?) in the Sumbha 

country and describes how he had realised nibbdna by developing the 
bojjhangas. 1 

1 S. v. 89 f. 

3. Udayl Sutta.—Ananda reports to the Buddha that Udayl preached 
to a very large following of laymen. The Buddha says that this is not 
an easy .thing to do; he who preaches to a large audience must see (1) that 
his talk has a logical reference, (2) that it has reasoning (pariyaya), 
(3) that it is inspired by kindness ( dayd ), (4) that it is not for worldly 
gain, (5) that it causes pain to no one. 1 

1 A. iii. 184. 

4. Udayl Sutta. —The Buddha asks Udayl (Laludayi according to the 
Commentary) as to what are the topics of recollection. Three times he 
asks the question, but Udayl sits silent. The Buddha then says he knew 
Udayl was a fool, and puts the question to Ananda, who explains five 
such topics connected with th ejhdnas. 1 

1 A. iii. 322-5. 

1. Udumbara. —A thera of Makuva, author of a tiled on the Peta- 

1 Gv. 75, 65. 

2. Udumbara. —A village. Revata went there from Kannakujja and 
stopped there before proceeding to Aggalapura and Sahajati. Thither 
the Elders followed him to ask his opinion on the Vajjian heresy. 1 

1 Yin. ii. 299. 

Udumbara jataka (No. 298).—The story of two monkeys. One, 
small and red-faced, lived in a rock cave. During heavy rains, the other, 
a large and black-faced monkey, saw him, and wishing to have the 
shelter for himself, sent him away, on the pretext that outside in the 
forest there was plenty of food to be had. The small monkey was taken 
in by the trick, and when he came back he found the other monkey, 
with bis family, installed in the cave. 

The story was told in reference to a monk who lived comfortably in 

378 [ Udumbaragiri 

a village hermitage and was ousted from there by another monk whom 
he had welcomed as a guest. 1 

1 J.ii. 444-6. 

Udumbaragiri.— See Dhumarakkha. 

Udumbara-devi. —Wife of Pifiguttara. She was the daughter of a 
teacher in Takkasila and was given to Pinguttara because he was the 
eldest pupil. But he was unhappy with her, and on the way to his 
home, when she climbed up a fig (udumbara) tree to pluck fruits for 
herself, he put thorns round the tree and ran away, leaving her. The 
king, coming along, saw her and married her. She was called Udum¬ 
bara-devi because of the circumstances in which she was found. 
When the king suspected her of infidelity to him, Mahosadha saved 
her from ignominy, and she became thereafter his best friend and 
helped him in all his doings, treating him, with the king's permission, 
as her younger brother. When the king planned to kill Mahosadha, 
Udumbara-devi warned him in time and enabled him to evade the 
treachery of his enemies at court. 1 

In the present age she was Ditthamangalika. 2 

1 J. vi. 348, 352, 355, 363, 368, 384. 2 Ibid., 478. 

Udumbaraphaladayaka Thera. —An arahant. In the time of Vipassi 

Buddha he was a householder. Meeting the Buddha walking along the 
bank of the river Vinata, he plucked some figs and gave them to him. 1 

He is probably identical with Paccaya Thera. 2 

1 Ap. i. 295. 2 See ThagA. i. 341. 

Udumbarika-SIhanada Sutta.— Preached at the Udumbarika-parib- 
bajakarama. Sandhana, on his way to see the Buddha, stopped at the 
paribbajakarama because it was yet too early for his interview, and started 
talking to the paribbajaka Nigrodha. Nigrodha spoke disparagingly of 
the Buddha's love of solitude. Seeing the Buddha walking along the 
banks of the Sumagadha, Nigrodha invited him to his hermitage and 
asked him various questions. The Buddha turned the discussion on to 
the merits and demerits of self-mortification and ended up by declaring 
the purpose of his own teaching. Though Nigrodha expresses great 
admiration for the Buddha's exposition, he and his disciples do not 
become followers of the Buddha. 1 Buddhaghosa says, 2 however, that 
this sutta will stand them in good stead in the future. 

1 D.iii. 36 fT. 

2 DA.iii.844. 

Udena ] 


Udumbarika. —A queen (devi) who built the Udumbarika Paribba- 
jakarama near Rajagaha. 1 Close to the drama was the lotus-pond 
Sumagadha and a feeding ground for peacocks (Moranivapa). 2 It was 
here that the Udumbarika SIhanada Sutta was preached. 

1 D. iii. 36; DA. iii. 832. 2 D. iii. 39. 

1. Udena. —King of Kosambi. He was the son of Parantapa. His 

mother, when pregnant with him, was carried off by a monster-bird and 
deposited on a tree near the residence of Allakappa. The child was born 
in a storm (utu ? )—hence the name. Allakappa, having discovered the 
mother and child, took them under his protection. One day, when 
Udena was grown up, Allakappa saw by the conjunction of the planets 
that Parantapa had died. When he announced the news, Udena's 
mother revealed to him her identity. Allakappa taught Udena the 
various charms he knew for taming elephants and sent him to Kosambi, 
with a large following of elephants, to claim the kingdom. Some time 
after he became king, Udena appointed Ghosaka as his treasurer, and one 
day, having seen Ghosaka's adopted daughter, Samavati, going to the 
river to bathe, sent for her and married her. Later he married, in very 
romantic circumstances, Vasuladatta, daughter of Canda Pajjota, king 
of Ujjeni. 1 Udena had another wife, Magandiya ( q.v .), who took ad¬ 
vantage of her new position to wreak vengeance on the Buddha for 
having once slighted her. When Samavati was converted to the Buddha's 
faith by her handmaiden Khujjuttara, Magandiya tried to poison 
the king's mind against her, but the attempt was frustrated, though 
Samavati very nearly lost her life at the king's hand. When Udena 
realised how grievously he had wronged her, he promised to grant her 
a boon, and, as the result of her choice, the Buddha sent Ananda with 
five hundred monks to the palace every day, to preach to the women of 
the court. Udena himself does not seem to have been interested in 
religion. Once when he discovered that the women of the court had 
given five hundred costly robes to Ananda, he was annoyed, but when 
in answer to his questions Ananda explained to him that nothing 
given to members of the Order was wasted, he was pleased and himself 
made a similar offering of robes to Ananda. 2 His encounter in his park 
the Udakavana (q.v.) with Pindola Bharadvaja, in somewhat similar 
circumstances, did not, however, end so happily. Udena's women had 

1 The Dhammapadatthalcatha (i. 161 ff.) • and their encounters with Udena, see 
contains a whole story-cycle of Udena under their respective names, 
from which these details, except where 2 Mentioned also in Vin.ii.291. The 
otherwise stated, are taken. For details incident took place after the Buddha’s 
of other persons mentioned in the article death. 


[ Udena 

given Pindola their robes, and when the king questioned Pindola as to 
the appropriateness of the gift, he remained silent. Udena threatened 
to have him bitten by red ants, but Pindola vanished through the air. 3 
Later 4 we find him visiting Pindola again on friendly terms and re¬ 
ceiving information as to how young members of the Order succeeded 
in curbing their passions in spite of their youth. In this context Udena 
calls himself a follower of the Buddha. 

Udena had a son named Bodhi, 5 among whose activities the building 
of a palace, called Kokanada, is specially recorded. It is clear from 
the incident of the presentation of robes to Ananda, referred to above, 
as well as by a definite statement to that effect contained in the Peta- 
vatthu Commentary , 6 that Udena survived the Buddha; but whether his 
son Bodhi succeeded him or not is not known. 

Among Udena's possessions mention is made of his bow, requiring one 
thousand men to string it, 7 and of his elephant Bhaddavatika. 8 

Udena is sometimes referred to as Vamsaraja (king of the Vamsas), 9 
the Vamsas or the Vacchas being the inhabitants of KosambL In the 
Uddna Commentary 10 he is called Vajjiraja. The Milinda-panha 11 tells 
a story of a woman called Gopala-mata, who became a queen of Udena. 
She was the daughter of peasant-folk, and, being poor, she sold her hair 
for eight pennies, with which she gave a meal to Maha Kaccana and his 
seven companions. That very day she became Udena's queen. 

3 SnA. ii. 514-5; SA. iii. 27; in a previ- 7 DhA.i.216. 

ous birth too, as Mandavya, Udena had 8 J. iv. 384. 

been guilty of abusing holy men (see 9 E.g., J. iv. 375; the Dvy. {e.g., 528) 

the Matanga Jataka, J. iv. 375 ff.). calls him Vatsaraja. 

4 S. iv. 110 f. 10 p. 382. 

5 J. iii. 157. 11 p. 291. 

6 p. 140. 

2. Udena. —A thera. He once stayed, after the Buddha's death, in 
the Khemiyambavana near Benares. There the brahmin Ghotamukha 
visited him. Their conversation is recorded in the Ghotamukha Sutta 
( q.v .). At the end of Udena's sermon, the brahmin offered to share 
with him the daily allowance he received from the Anga king. This 
offer was refused, and at Udena's suggestion Ghotamukha built an 
assembly-hall for monks at Pataliputta ; this assembly-hall was named 
after him. 1 

See also Udena (9). 

1 M. ii. 157 ff. 

3. Udena. —An upasaka of Kosala. He built a vihara for the Order, 
and he invited monks for its dedication, which took place during the 

Udena Cetiya ] 


Vassa. It being against the rules to go on a journey before the Vassa , 
the monks asked him to postpone the dedication. This annoyed him. 
When the matter was referred to the Buddha, he altered the rule so that 
a journey lasting not more than seven days could be undertaken during 
the Vassa} 

1 Vin.i. 139. 

4. Udena Thera. —The personal attendant of Sumana Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. v. 24; J.i. 34. 

5. Udena. —A king. He joined the Order under Kondahha Buddha, 
with ninety crores of followers, all of whom became arahants. 1 

1 BuA. ill. 

6. Udena. —A yakkha. See Udena Cetiya. 

7. Udena. —A king, father of Siddhattha Buddha; 1 also called 

Jayasena. 2 

1 Bu. xvii. 13. 2 BuA. 187. 

8. Udena. —A king, a former birth of Ukkhepakata-vaccha Thera, 1 

called in the Apadana, 2 Ekatthambhika. 

1 ThagA.i. 148. 2 i.56. 

9. Udena Thera. —An arahant, probably identical with Udena (2). 
During the time of Padumuttara Buddha he was a hermit, with eighty- 
four thousand others, living in a hermitage near Paduma-pabbata in 
the Himalaya. Having heard the Buddha's praises from a yakkha, 
he visited Padumuttara, offered him a lotus flower and spoke verses 
in praise of him. 1 

1 Ap.ii.362ff. 

Udena Cetiya. —A shrine of pre-Buddhistic worship, to the east of 
Vesali. It is mentioned with other shrines at Yesali— Gotamaka, 
Sarandada, Sattamba, Capala and Bahuputta— all of which are described 
as beautiful spots. 1 Ehys Davids conjectures that these were probably 
trees or barrows. 2 The Dhammapada Commentary 3 describes the Udena 
and the Gotamaka shrines as “ rukkhacetiyas ” to which men pay 
homage in order to have their wishes fulfilled. The Digha Commentary 4 

1 D. ii. 102; S. v. 260; A. iv. 309; see j 
also D. iii. 9. 

2 Dial. ii. 110, n. 1, but see Law: Geo¬ 
graphy of Early Buddhism. 74 ft. 

3 iii. 246. 

4 ii. 554; AA. ii. 784; UdA. 323. 


[ Udena Vatthu 

says that in the Buddha's time a vihara had been erected on the spot 
where this shrine stood and that this vihara had previously been dedicated 
to the yakkha Udena. 

Udena Vatthu. —The story cycle of King Udena, in many respects the 
most interesting of all the stories of the Dhammapada Commentary} 
It consists of six stories of diverse origin and character, dealing with the 
fortunes of the king, his three queen-consorts and his treasurer. Only 
two of the stories are really concerned with Udena, the rest being 
introduced by familiar literary devices. Versions of each of the six 
stories occur in the writings of Buddhaghosa, indicating that they go 
back to a common source. Parallels to one or more stories are also to 
be found in the Divydvaddna , the Kathdsaritsdgara and other Sanskrit 
collections and in the Tibetan Kandjur. 2 

1 DhA. i. 161-231. I parallels see Burlinghame, Bud. Legends, 

2 For an analysis ol the cycle and its ] i., pp. 51 and 62 ff. 

Udda Jataka. —See Uddalaka Jataka. 

Uddaka. —See Uddaka-Ramaputta. 

Uddaka Sutta. —Preached by the Buddha. He states therein how 
Uddaka-Ramaputta, unjustifiably, claims to have mastered all learning 
and all ill, and explains what such learning and mastery really are. 1 

1 8. v. 83 f. 

Uddaka-Ramaputta. —One of the teachers under whom Gotama, 
after leaving the world and before he became the Buddha, received 
instruction. 1 Uddaka taught him the doctrine which had been realised 
and proclaimed by his father Rama, which was the attainment of the 
state of “ neither-consciousness-nor-unconsciousness ” (corresponding to 
the fourth Jhana). When Gotama had mastered this, Uddaka made 
him more than his own equal by setting him over the whole company of 
his disciples as their teacher. But Gotama, finding this doctrine un¬ 
satisfactory, abandoned it. 2 The Buddha evidently had a high regard 
for Uddaka-Ramaputta, for after the Enlightenment, when looking 
for someone to whom the Dhamma might be preached, and who was 
capable of realising its import at once, his thoughts turned to Uddaka, 
but Uddaka was already dead. 3 

In the Vassakara Sutta of the Anguttara Nikdya 4 it is mentioned that 

1 J. i. 66, 81. 

a M. i. 165 ff., 240 ff.; DhA. i. 70-1. | 

3 Vin.i. 7. 

4 ii. 180. 

Uddalapupphiya Thera ] 


King Eleyya, together with his bodyguard, Yamaka, Moggalla and 
others, were followers of Ramaputta and that they held him in great 
esteem. In the Samyutta Nikdya 5 the Buddha says that Uddaka 
claimed to be “ versed in lore and to have conquered everything, digging 
out the root of Ill,” though he had no justification for such a claim. 

Again, in the Pasadika Sutta , 6 the Buddha tells Cunda that when 
Uddaka said “ seeing, he seeth not,” he had in mind a man who saw 
the blade of a sharpened razor but not its edge—a low, pagan thing to 
speak about. 

In the Sanskrit books Uddaka-Ramaputta is called Udraka. 7 

6 iv. 83 f. I 7 Mtu. ii. 119-20; Dvy. 392; Lai. 

6 D.iii. 126-7. ' 306f. 

Uddalaka. —Son of the Bodhisatta (then chaplain of the king of 
Benares) and a slave-girl, whom he first met in the royal park. The boy 
was so called because he was conceived under an uddala- tree. When 
grown up he went to Takkasila and later became leader of a large company 
of ascetics. In the course of their travels he and his followers came to 
Benares, where they received great favours from the people. Attracted 
by his reputation, the king once visited him with the royal chaplain. 
On that occasion Uddalaka arranged that he and his followers should 
feign to be very holy men given up to various austerities. The chaplain, 
seeing through their dishonesty and discovering the identity of Udda¬ 
laka, persuaded him to leave his asceticism and become chaplain 
tinder him. 1 

1 J. iv. 298-304. 

Uddalaka Jataka (No. 487).—The story of Uddalaka given above. It 
was related in reference to a monk who led a deceitful life. The monk 
is identified with Uddalaka. 1 On the same occasion were preached the 

Makkata, Kuhaka and Setaketu Jatakas. 

1 J. iii. 232. The Jataka is depicted in the Bharhut Tope (see Cunningham, 
Plate XLVI.). 

Uddaladayaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth, thirty-one 
kappas ago, he saw a Pacceka Buddha Kakudha, near a river, and gave 
him an uddalaka flower. 1 

1 Ap. i. 225. 

Uddalapupphiya Thera. —An arahant. Thirty-one kappas ago he gave 
an uddala flower to a Pacceka Buddha, Anatha, on the bank of the 
Granges. 1 

1 Ap. i. 288. 


[ Uddesavibhanga Sutta 

Uddesavibhanga Sutta. —The Buddha utters the brief statement that 
a monk should always so guard his mind that it may not be externally 
diffused nor internally set. The monks repeat this statement to Maha 
Kaccana, who gives a detailed exposition thereof. When the Buddha 
is told of Kaccana's explanation, he praises his erudition. 1 

1 M.iii.223 fF. 

Uddhakandaraka. —A vihara in South Ceylon, founded by Mahanaga, 
brother of Devanampiyatissa. 1 

1 Mhv. xxii. 9. 

Uddhakurangama. —A village and a fortification in the district of 

Alisara. It was captured by Parakkamabahu’s general, Mayageha. 1 

1 Cv.lxx. 171. 

Uddha-ganga. —See Ganga. 

1. Uddhagama. —A district (?) in Ceylon. It contained the village of 
Vasabha, which was given to the Jetavana Vihara by Mahanaga. 1 

1 Cv. xli.97. 

2. Uddhagama.— A village in Rohana. The forces of Parakkama- 

bahu I. carried on a campaign there for three months. 1 

1 Cv. lxxiv. 92. 

Uddhaculabhaya.— Nephew of Devanampiyatissa. He restored the 
Mahiyangana-thupa and made it thirty cubits high. 1 

1 Mhv. i. 40. 

Uddhacca Sutta. — Conceit, want of restraint and of diligence, should 
all be destroyed by calm ( samatha ), restraint and earnestness. 1 

1 A. iii. 449. 

Uddhanadvara.— A village in Rohana. There the Adipada Vikkama- 
bahu gained a victory. 1 It was in the region called Atthasahassa, and 
Sirivallabha, who reigned over this district, made Uddhanadvara his 
capital. The village formed one of the centres of battle in the campaign 

of Parakkamabahu I. 2 

1 Cv. lxi. 16, 25. , its identification see Cv. Trs. i. 29, 

2 Cv. lxxiv. 86, 113; Ixxv. 182. For I n. 4. 

Upaka ] 


Uddhambhagiya Sutta. —The Noble Eightfold Way should be cultivated 
in order to destroy the five “ Upward ” fetters—lust of form and of the 
formless, conceit, excitement and nescience. 1 

1 S. v. 61 f. 

Uddharattha. —See Pancuddharattha. 

Uddhavapi. —A village and a tank. The Maragiri Nigrodha ( q.v .) was 
stationed there. 1 

1 Cv. lxxii. 164, 174. 

Uddhumataka Sutta. —The idea of an inflated corpse, if developed, 
conduces to peace from bondage. 1 

1 S. v. 131. 

Unnama. —A Damila chief whom Dutthagamani defeated in his cam¬ 
paign.* He was a nephew of Tamba and his stronghold was also called 
Unnama. 1 

1 Mhv. xxv. 14, 15; MT. 474. 

Unnavalli. —A vihara to which Aggabodhi I. gave the village of Ratana . 1 

1 Cv.xlii.18. 

1. Upaka. —An Ajivaka whom the Buddha met on his way between 
Gaya and the Bodhi Tree, after he set out from Isipatana for the preach¬ 
ing of the First Sermon. Upaka questioned the Buddha on his attain¬ 
ments, and when the Buddha told him what he had accomplished he 
asked the Buddha if he were “ Anantajina.” When the Buddha acknow¬ 
ledged it, Upaka shook his head saying, “ It may be so, friend,” and 
went along by another road. 1 It is said 2 that the Buddha walked all 
the way from the Bodhi Tree to Isipatana—instead of flying through 
the air, as is the custom of Buddhas—because he wished to meet Upaka. 

After this meeting Upaka went to the Vankahara country and there, 
having fallen desperately in love with Capa ( q.v .), the daughter of a 
huntsman who looked after him, starved for seven days and in the end 
persuaded the huntsman to give her to him in marriage. For a living, 
Upaka hawked about the flesh brought by the huntsman. In due 
course Capa bore him a son, Subhadda. When the baby cried, Capa 
sang to him saying, “ Upaka's son, ascetic's son, game-dealer's boy, 
don't cry,” thus mocking her husband. In exasperation he told her of 

1 J. i. 81; Vin.i.8; M.i. 170-1; DhA.iv.71-2. 2 DA. ii. 471. 



[ Upaka Mandikaputta 

his friend Anantajina, but she did not stop teasing him. One day, in 
spite of her attempts to keep him, he left her and went to the Buddha 
at Savatthi. The Buddha, seeing him coming, gave orders that anyone 
asking for Anantajina should be brought to him. Hating learnt from 
Upaka his story, the Buddha had him admitted to the Order. As a 
result of his meditation, Upaka became an andgdmi and was reborn in 
the Aviha heaven. 3 The Samyutta Nihdya* records a visit paid to the 
Buddha by Upaka and six other beings born in Aviha. According to 
the Majjhima Commentary , 5 Upaka became an arahant as soon as he 
was born in Aviha. 

In the Thengdthd he is also called Kala 6 and his birth-place is given 
as Nala, a village near the Bodhi Tree, where he is said to have been 
living with his wife at the time he left her. 7 

Later, Capa, too, left the world and became an arahant then. 

The Divydvadana 8 calls Upaka Upagana. 

The enumeration of the Buddha's virtues which was made to Upaka 
is not regarded as a real dhammadesana because it took place before 
the preaching of the first sermon. It produced only a vdsana-bhagiya 
result, not seJcha- or ribaddha-bhagiya . 9 

The words of the Buddha's speech to Upaka are often quoted. 10 

3 ThigA.220 ff.; MA.i. 388 f. Upaka’s 
story is also given in SnA. i. 258 ff., with 
several variations in detail. 

4 i. 35, 60. 

6 i. 389. 

6 v. 309. This may have been a term 

of affection used because of his dark 

7 ThigA. 225. 

8 p. 393. 

9 UdA. 54. 

10 E.g., Kvu. 289. 

2. Upaka Mandikaputta. —He once visited the Buddha at Gijjhakuta 

and stated before him his view that whoever starts abusive talk of 
another, without being able to make good his case, is blameworthy. 
The Buddha agrees and says that Upaka himself has been guilty of this 
offence. 1 Upaka protests against being caught in a big noose of words, 
like a fish caught as soon as he pops up his head. The Buddha explains 
that it is necessary for him to teach with endless variations of words and 
similes. Upaka is pleased with the Buddha's talk and reports the con¬ 
versation to Ajatasattu. The king shows his anger at the man's pre¬ 
sumption in having remonstrated with the Buddha, 2 and the Com¬ 
mentary adds that he had him seized by the neck and cast out. 

Buddhaghosa 3 says that Upaka went to visit the Buddha in order 
to find out whether the Buddha would blame him for being a supporter 

1 The Commentary (AA. ii. 554) ex- I 2 A.ii. 181 f. 

plains that Upaka was a supporter of 8 AA.ii. 554-5. 


Upakkilesa Sutta ] 


of Devadatta. According to others, he came to abuse the Buddha be¬ 
cause he had heard that the Buddha had consigned Devadatta to hell. 

He was apparently of low caste, and Ajatasattu addresses him as 
“ salt-worker's boy ” ( lonakarakadaraha ). 4 

4 A.ii. 182. 

Upaka Sutta.—Records the visit paid to the Buddha by Upaka 
Mandakaputta ( q.v.)} 

1 A.ii. 181 f. 

Upakamsa.—Son of Mahakamsa, king of Asitanjana and brother of 
Karnsa. When Kamsa became king, Upakamsa was his viceroy. Upa¬ 
kamsa was killed by a disc thrown by Vasudeva, son of Devagabbha. 1 

1 J. iv. 79-82. 

Upakancana.—A brahmin, brother of the Bodhisatta Mahakancana. 
Their story is related in the Bhisa Jataka {q.v.). 1 

1 J. iv. 305 ff. 

1. Upakari.—A city of the Paiicalas. 1 Here was the entrance to the 
tunnel through which King Vedeha escaped to Mithila, as related in 

the Maha Ummagga Jataka (q.v.). 

1 J. vi. 448, 450, 458, 459. 

2. Upakari.—A city where Sumedha Buddha 
concourse of people. 1 

1 BuA. 165. 

preached to a large 

1. Upakala.—A 

Buddhas. 1 

Pacceka Buddha mentioned in a list of Pacceka 
1 M.iii. 70; ApA.i. 107. 

2. Upakala.—A niraya, 
niraya. 1 

also the name of the tortures in the same 
1 J. vi. 248. 

Upacara.—See Apacara. 

1. Upakkilesa Sutta.—Preached at Paelnavamsadaya to Anuruddha, 
Nandiya and Kimbila. It was at the time of the quarrel of the Kosambi 
monks; the Buddha, in search of quietness, goes to Balakalonaka, 
preaches there to BhagU and proceeds to Pacinavainsadaya, where he 

388 [ Upakkilesa Sutta 

tells his cousins how they should develop meditation, getting rid of all 
obstacles. 1 

1 M.iii. 152 ff. The verses of the sutta 
are also found in the Yinaya version 
(i. 34ff.). Some of the verses are in¬ 

cluded in the Dhammapada (vv. 328-30) 
and in the Khaggavisana Sutta of the 
Sutta Nipata (vv. 11, 12). 

2. Upakkilesa Sutta. —Gold ore must be purified from all its dross 
before it can be used for making ornaments, etc.; similarly, the mind 
must be freed from its impurities—the five nivaranas —before it can be 
used for acquiring the higher knowledge. 1 

1 A. Hi. 16-19. 

3. Upakkilesa Sutta. —Four things prevent the sun and the moon 
from shining with their full brilliance—clouds, mist, smoke and dust and 
Rahu. Similarly four things diminish the holiness of ascetics and 
recluses—intoxicants, sex, money and wrong livelihood. 1 

1 A.ii. 53f. 

Upacala. —Son of Upacala and nephew of Sariputta and Khadiravaniya- 
Revata. He was ordained by Revata. 1 He is mentioned in the Anguttara 
Nikdya 2 in a list of very eminent disciples, together with Cala, Kakkata, 
Kalimbha, Nikata and Katissaha. They lived in the Kutagarasala in 
Vesali, but when the Licchavis went there to visit the Buddha, they 
moved to the Gosingasalavana in search of quiet. 

1 Thag. v, 43; ThagA.i. 110. - v. 133. 

1. Upacala. —Sister of Sariputta (his other sisters being Cala, Sisupa- 
cala) and mother of Upacala. When Sariputta left the world to join 
the Order of monks, his three sisters followed his example and became 
nuns. It is said that when Upacala was taking her siesta in Andhavana, 
Mara tried to arouse in her sensual desires, but she vanquished him and 
became an arahant. Her conversation with Mara is recorded in the 
Therigathd. 1 

1 vv. 189-95; ThigA. 165 f. The Sam- 
yulta (i. 133 f.) mentions the temptation 
of all three sisters by Mara and their 
conquest of him. But in this account. 

Upacala’s verses are put into (Jala’s 
mouth, Sisupacala’s are ascribed to 
Upacala and Cala’s to Sisupacala. 

2. Upacala. —The chief of the women disciples of Phussa Buddha. 1 
See also Upasala. 

1 J. i. 41; Bu. xix. 20. 

Upatthana Sutta ] 


3. Upacala. —Chief of the women supporters of Sumana Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. v. 28. 

Upacala Sutta. —The story of Mara’s unsuccessful attempt to cause 
the then Upacala to sin. 1 

1 S.i. 133. 

Upajotiya. —One of the door-keepers summoned by Mandavya to turn 
Matafiga out of his house. 1 

1 J. iv. 382. 

Upajjha Sutta. —A monk goes to his teacher and confesses to him the 
difficulty he experiences in living the celibate life profitably. The 
teacher takes him to the Buddha, who suggests to him a different way of 
conduct. The monk acts according to the Buddha’s advice and becomes 
an arahant. On being informed of this, the Buddha makes it a topic 
for a sermon. 1 

1 A.iii. 69-71. 

Upajjhaya. —A gatekeeper of Mandavya, summoned by him to drive 

out Matanga. 1 

1 J. iv. 382. 

Upajjhayavatta-bhanavara.— The thirtieth chapter of the first Khan- 
daka of the Mahavagga. 

1. Upatthana Sutta. —The Buddha asks Ananda if he considers that 
every kind of moral practice produces like results. Ananda says they 
do not, and proceeds to explain his point of view. The Buddha agrees 
with him, and when Ananda has gone away, tells the monks that though 
Ananda is yet a learner ( sekha ), it would not be easy to find his equal 
in insight. 1 

1 A. i. 225. 

2. Upatthana Sutta. —Five qualities which make an invalid difficult 
for anyone to look after, and the absence of which makes him a good 
patient. 1 

1 A. iii. 143-4. 

3. Upatthana Sutta. —On five qualities requisite for an attendant on 
the sick. 1 

1 A. iii. 144-5. 


[ Upatthana Sutta 

4. Upatthana Sutta. —Record of a conversation between a deva and 
a monk who dwelt in a forest tract in Kosala. During his siesta the monk 
would often fall asleep, and the deva, wishing his welfare and desiring 
to agitate him, draws near and asks him not to give himself up to 
somnolent habits. The monk replies to the effect that once a man has 
obtained insight by the suppression of desire and lust, there is no need 
to plague himself with unnecessary exertions. 1 

According to the Commentary, 2 the monk was an arahant. He had 
far to go to procure food, and when he came back, tired out, he would 
bathe and rest. 

1 S.i. 197 f. 2 SA.i.232. 

Upatthayaka Thera. —An arahant. In a previous birth he provided 
Siddhattha Buddha with a personal attendant (upatthaka). Fifty- 
seven kappas ago he was born as a king, named Balasena. 1 

1 Ap. i. 241. 

Upaddha Sutta. —Preached at the Sakyan township of Sakkara. 
Ananda mentions to the Buddha his view that half the holy life consists 
in friendship with the good. The Buddha says that it is not the half 
but the whole of the holy life, and proceeds to explain. 1 In the Kosala 
fiamyutfa 2 we find the Buddha relating this incident to Pasenadi. 

1 S. v. 2. 2 S.i. 87. 

Upaddhadussadayaka Thera.— An arahant. In the time of Padu- 
muttara Buddha, he had been a labourer, and seeing a monk, named 
Sujata, looking for rags for a robe, he gave him half the garment he wore. 
As a result he became king of the gods thirty-three times and king 
of men seventy-seven times. 1 

1 Ap. ii. 436 f. 

Upatapassi Thera. —Author of the Vuttamala. He was incumbent of 
the Gatara Parivena and was the nephew of Sarasigamamula Mahasami. 1 

1 P.L.C. 253 f. 

1. Upatissa. —The personal name of Sariputta (q.v.). 

2. Upatissa.— Purohita to Vijaya, king of Ceylon. He founded a 
settlement at Upatissagama. 1 

1 Mhv. vii.44; Dpv. ix. 32, 36. 

Upatissa ] 


3. Upatissa I. —King of Ceylon. He reigned for forty-two years 
between A.c. 362 and 409. He was the eldest son of Buddhadasa. He 
was of very kindly disposition and lived a simple life, eating of the food 
served in the Mahapali alms-hall. It is said that once, when the roof 
of his palace started leaking at night, he lay all night in the wet, being 
loth to disturb any of the servants. During a period of drought and 
famine, he organised a religious festival, causing rain to fall. He built 
the Rajuppala, Gijjhakuta, Pokkharapasaya, Valahassa, Ambutthi and 
Gondigama tanks and the Khandaraja Vihara, besides hospitals and 
almshouses for women in travail, the blind and the sick. He was 
murdered by his queen-consort, who had an intrigue with his younger 
brother, Mahanama. 1 

1 For an account of Upatissa’s reign see Cv. i. 37, 179 ff. 

4. Upatissa II. —King of Ceylon. He was the husband of the sister 
of Moggallana I. and was his general. He killed Siva I. and became 
king, his reign lasting only one year and a half (a.c. 522-24). He had 
a son Kassapa, called Girikassapa by virtue of his prowess, and a daughter 
who married Silakala. Silakala became a rebel and seized Upatissa’s 
kingdom. 1 Upatissa belonged to the Lambakanna clan, and in Sinhalese 
writings is called Lamani-upatissa. 2 

1 For an account of Upatissa see Cv. xli. 5 f. 2 Cv. Trs. i. 52, n. 1. 

5. Upatissa. —Son of Silakala and brother of Dathapabhuti and 
Moggallana II. He was a good-looking young man and was his father’s 
favourite. He was killed by Dathapabhuti. 1 

1 Cv. xli. 33 ff. 

6. Upatissa Thera.— Called PasanadlpavasI Upatissa. He appears to 
have written a Commentary on the Mahdvamsa , which the author of 
the Mahdvamsa Tikd used for his own work, sometimes criticising its 
comments. 1 

1 See, e.q., MT. 47. 

7. Upatissa. —Thera of Tambapannidlpa (Ceylon), perhaps to be 
identified with No. 6 above. He and his colleague, Phussadeva, are 
often mentioned as being expert exponents of the Vinaya, Upatissa 
had two pupils, Mahapaduma and Mahasumma, who became very famous 
as vinayadhara. Mahapaduma “ read ” through the Vinaya eighteen 


[ Upatissa 

times with his teacher, and Mahasumma nine times. 1 Buddhaghosa 
evidently regarded with great respect the explanations of various Vinaya 
questions as given by Upatissa, for he often quotes him. 2 

1 Sp.i.263f. 2 See, e.g., Sp. ii. 456; iii.624, 714; iv. 890. 

8. Upatissa.—Sariputta’s father and chieftain of Nalaka or Upatissa- 
gama (q.v.). His proper name was Vanganta (q.v.), Upatissa being, 
evidently, his clan name. 1 

1 SnA. i. 326. 

9. Upatissa Thera. —Author of the Pali Malidbodhi-vamsa. He lived 
in Ceylon, probably in the tenth century. 1 

1 For details see P.L.C. 156 ff. 

10. Upatissa Thera.— He 

gatavamsa. 1 

wrote a commentary on Kassapa’s And- 
1 Gv. p. 72. 

11. Upatissa. —A Pacceka Buddha, found in a nominal list, 1 The 
name is also found in the Apaddna 2 

1 M.iii.69. 2 i. 280; ii. 454. 

12. Upatissa Thera. —Sometimes called Araha Upatissa, author of the 
Vimuttimagga. 1 He probably lived about the first century b.c. 2 

1 P.L.C. 86. 2 J.P.T.S. 1919, pp. 69 ff.; see also NidA. (P.T.S.); introd. vif. 

13. Upatissa Thera.— Author of the Saddhammappajjotilcd, the com¬ 
mentary on the Mahd Niddesa , written at the request of Deva Thera. 1 

His residence was on the western side of the Maha Cetiya within the 
precincts of the Mahavihara in Anuradhapura, and it was built by a 
minister, Kittissena. 

Some MSS. give the author’s name as Upasena. For his age, see 
s.v. Saddhammappajjotika. 

1 NidA. ii. 108. 

Upatissa Sutta. —Preached by Sariputta. He tells the monks that there 
is nothing in the whole world, a change in which would cause him sorrow. 
Not even a change regarding the Buddha, he emphasises, in answer to 
a question by Ananda. 1 

*S, ii, 274f, 

Upananda ] 


1. Upatissagama. —A brahmin village near Rajagaha. It was the 
birthplace of Sariputta. 1 Its real name was Nalaka ( q.v.), but it was 
called Upatissagama, evidently because its chieftains belonged to the 
Upatissa clan. It is probable that Sariputta’s father, who was head of 
the village (ydmasdmi), was also called Upatissa. 2 

1 ThagA.ii.93; DhA.i.73. 2 See SnA. i. 326. 

2. Upatissagama (sometimes called Upatissanagara). —The settle¬ 
ment founded by Vijaya’s chaplain, Upatissa, on the banks of the 
Gambhira-nadi, about seven miles to the north of Anuradhapura. 1 It 
was the seat of government till Anuradhapura became the capital. 2 
Soon after Mahinda’s arrival in Ceylon many young men joined the Order, 
and among them there were five hundred from Upatissagama. 3 

1 Mhv. vii. 44; Mhv. TVs. 58, n. 4; j 2 See, e.^.,Mhv. viii.4; x. 48. 
Dpv.ix. 36; x. 5. 3 Ibid,, xvii. 60. 

Upatissa. —One of the two chief women-disciples of Kondanna Buddha. 1 

1 Bu.iii. 31; J.i.30. 

Upadduta Sutta. —Everything in the world is oppressed. 1 

1 S. iv. 29. 

Upadhi. —A Pacceka Buddha, whose name occurs in a list of names. 1 

1 ApA. i. ]07. 

Upananda. —A thera. He belonged to the Sakyan clan. Several 
incidents connected with him are mentioned in the Vinaya. Once he 
promised to spend the rainy season with Pasenadi Kosala, but on his 
way there he saw two lodgings where robes were plentiful and so kept 
Vassa in those lodgings instead. Pasenadi was greatly annoyed and 
when, in due course, the matter reached the ears of the Buddha, Upananda 
was rebuked and a set of rules was passed regarding promises made about 
the rainy season. 1 On another occasion Upananda spent the rainy 
season at Savatthi, but when the time came for the monks to gather 
together and divide the robes that had been given to them, he went 
from village to village, taking his share of the robes from everywhere. 
The Buddha sent for him and rebuked him in the presence of the Order, 
but the rebuke had evidently no effect, for we find him again spending 
the Vassa alone in two residences, with the idea of obtaining many 
robes. The Buddha, however, ordered that only one portion should be 

1 Vin.i. 153. 

[ Upananda 


given to him. 2 His greediness was not confined to robes. Once he was 
invited to a meal by an official, a follower of the Ajivakas. He went 
late, and finding no room left for him, made a junior monk get up and 
give him his seat. There was a great uproar, but Upananda had his way. 3 
Elsewhere he is accused of having appropriated two lodgings for himself 
at the same time, one at Savatthi and the other somewhere in the 
country. He was evidently unpopular among the monks, because on 
this occasion we find him spoken of as “ a maker of strife, quarrelsome, 
a maker of disputes, given to idle talk, a raiser of legal questions/' 4 
Upananda was fond of money, for we find in the Vinaya 5 a statement to 
the effect that “ on the occasion of the matter of Upananda the Sakyan, 
the Buddha distinctly laid down a precept by which gold and silver were 
forbidden." Upananda had been given his meals regularly by a certain 
family. Once a dish of meat was prepared for him, but a little boy in 
the house started to cry for the meat, and it was given to him. Upananda 
insisted that a Jcahapana should be paid to him in lieu of the meat. 6 
Upananda was once asked to preach to those that came to Jetavana. 
Among the visitors was a banker, and when the banker expressed the 
desire to give something to Upananda to show his appreciation of the 
sermon, Upananda wished to have the robe that the man wore. The 
banker was embarrassed, and promised to go home at once and fetch 
him another robe, even better than the one he had on. But Upananda 
was adamant, till, in despair, the man gave him his robe and went 
away. Again, when Upananda heard that a certain man wished to 
offer him a robe, he went to the man and told him what kind of robe 
he wanted, and said he would accept no other. 7 A story is also told of 
a Paribbajaka exchanging his own garment for one belonging to 
Upananda, which was of rich colour. Two other Paribbajakas told him 
that he had lost in the bargain, so he wished to cry off the deal, but Upa¬ 
nanda positively refused. 8 He did not, however, always come off best 
in a bargain. Once he gave a robe to a colleague, on condition that the 
latter should join him in his tours. The condition was agreed to, but 
later, when the recipient monk heard that the Buddha was going on 
tour, he preferred to join the Buddha's company. The robe was not 
returned to Upananda, who had to be reported to the Buddha for the 
violent language he used to the defaulter. 9 Upananda is mentioned as 
quarrelling with the Chabbaggiya monks 10 and, at another time, as 
going his alms-rounds with a colleague with whom he quarrelled when 

2 Vin. i. 300. 

3 Ibid., ii. 165. 

4 Ibid., 168. 5 Ibid., 297. 

6 Ibid., in. 236 f. 

7 Ibid., 215. 

8 Ibid., 240 f. 

9 Ibid.,254:1. 

10 Ibid., iv. 30, 

Upananda ] 


the rounds were over, refusing to give him any of the food obtained. 
The unfortunate monk had to starve because it was then too late to go 
out begging again. 11 We are not told whether Upananda deliberately 
set out to have a quarrel in order that he might keep all the food himself ! 

Nor were all Upananda's misdemeanours confined to greed for pos¬ 
sessions. We are told that once a complaint was made to the Buddha 
that Upananada had gone to the house of an acquaintance and had sat 
down in the bedroom of the woman of the house, talking to her. The 
husband ordered food to be brought to Upananda, and when that was 
done, asked him to leave. But the woman wished him to stay and he 
refused to go away. 12 On two other occasions he is mentioned as visiting 
the houses of his acquaintances and being found by the husbands, seated 
alone with their wives. 13 

With most laymen, however, he was evidently popular. Mention is 
made of a meal where the donor kept all the other monks waiting for 
quite a long while, till Upananda should arrive, after his visits to various 
households. 14 And, again, of food being sent to the monastery with 
express instructions that the other monks should eat only after Upananda 
had done so. 15 

Episodes regarding Upananda's misdeeds are not confined to the 
Vinaya. In the Dabbhapuppha Jataka 16 we are told that he was in the 
habit of preaching contentment to others. When they, touched by 
his preaching, cast away their good robes, etc., Upananda collected them 
for himself. Once he cheated two brethren of a costly blanket. When 
the matter was brought to the Buddha's notice, this Jataka was related 
to show how in previous births, too, he had plundered other people's 
goods. He had been a jackal called Mayavl, and had cheated two other 
jackals of a rohita -fish they had caught. Again, in the Samudda Jataka, 17 
he is described as a great eater and drinker; he would not be satisfied 
even with cart-loads of provisions. The Jataka tells of how he once was 
born as a water-crow and tried to prevent the fish from drinking the 
sea-water lest he should not have enough for himself. Buddhaghosa 
calls him a lolajdtika , held in contempt by his eighty thousand fellow 
Sakyans who joined the Order. 18 Elsewhere he is referred to as a well- 
known example of one who never practised what he preached and, 
therefore, did not benefit by his cleverness. 19 

11 Vin. iv. 92 f. 

12 Ibid., 94. 

13 Ibid. 9 95-7; see also 121, 127 and 
168, for other offences committed by 

14 Ibid., 98. 

15 Ibid., 99. 

16 J. iii. 332 ff.; see also DhA. iii. 139 ff. 

17 J.ii. 441 f. 

18 Sp.iii.665. 

19 E.q., AA. i. 92; MA. i. 348; Vsm. 
i. 81. 


[ Upananda 

Upananda had under him two novices, Kandaka and Mahaka, who seem 
to have resembled their teacher in being undesirables. They were 
found guilty of an unnatural offence, and the Buddha ordered that no 
one should ordain them. 20 

20 Vin.i. 79. This order seems to have been rescinded later (see Vin.i.83). 

2. Upananda. —A king of fifty-seven kappas ago; a previous birth of 

Tindukadayaka Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 201. 

3. Upananda. —Four Paeceka Buddhas, mentioned in the Isigili 
Sutta. 1 

1 M. iii. 70. 

4. Upananda. —Commander-in-chief of the Magadha kingdom. He 
was present at the conversation, recorded in the Gopaka-Moggallana 
Sutta, between Ananda and Vassakara. 1 

1 M. iii. 13. 

Upananda-Sakyaputta-Thera-Vatthu. —A group of stories concerning 
the greediness and rapacity of Upananda Sakyaputta. 1 

1 DhA. iii. 139 ff.; c/. J. iii. 332 ff. 

Upanahi Sutta. —Preached in answer to the questions of Anuruddha. 
The five qualities, including grudging, which lead a woman to be reborn 
in purgatory. 1 

1 SAv.24l. 

1. Upanisa Sutta. —On causal association. 1 

1 S.ii. 29f. 

2. Upanisa Sutta.— On how, to the wicked man, the possibilities of 
all high attainments are destroyed, not so to the man who is righteous. 1 

1 A. v. 313 f. 

3. Upanisa Sutta. —The same as 2, but the Sutta is ascribed to Sari- 
putta. 1 

1 A. v. 315 f. 

Upanisinna Vagga. —The fourth chapter of the Radha Samyutta of 
the Samyutta Nikdya. 1 

1 S. iii. 200 ff. 


Uparittha ] 

Upanlta.— A Pacceka Buddha, mentioned in the Isigill Sutta. 1 

1 M.iii. 70. 

Upanemi. —A Pacceka Buddha, mentioned in nominal lists. 1 

1 M.iii. 70; ApA.i. 107. 

Upaneyya Sutta. —A deva visits the Buddha at Jetavana and utters 
a stanza in which he says that life is short, and one should accumulate 
merit in order to obtain bliss. The Buddha replies that all who fear 
death should aspire to the final peace. 1 

1 S.i.2. 

Upamanna. —The family (gotta) to which Pokkharasati belonged. He 
was, therefore, called Opamanna. 1 

1 M. ii. 200; MA.ii.804. 

Upaya Sutta (wrongly called Upaya). —Attachment (ujmya) is 
bondage, aloofness is freedom. With the abandonment of lust, lust’s 
foothold is cut off and, thereby, rebirth, etc., is destroyed. 1 

1 S. iii.53. 

Upayanti Sutta. —When the ocean rises with the tide, the rivers, 
their tributaries, the mountain lakes and tarns, all rise as a result. 
Likewise rising ignorance makes, in turn, becoming, birth and decay 
and death to rise and increase. 1 

1 S. ii. 118 f. 

Uparama. —One of the two chief women disciples of Paduma Buddha. 1 
The Buddhavamsa , however, gives their names as Radha and Suradha 

1 J.i. 36. 

Uparigafiga.— See Ganga. 

Uparittha. —A Pacceka Buddha. 1 In a previous life, when Anuruddha 
was born as Annabhara, he offered alms to the Pacceka Buddha and made 
various wishes which were fulfilled in later births. 2 Uparittha had spent 
seven days in meditation on Gandhamadana, and when he appeared before 
Annabhara, the latter ran home to his wife, fetched the food which had 
been prepared for themselves and gave it to Uparittha. Uparittha 
ate the meal seated on Annabhara’s garment, which was spread on the 
ground for him. 3 

1 M.iii.69; ApA.i. 106. 

3 AA. i. 105; Thag. 910; ThagA. ii. 


[ Uparimandakamala 

Uparimandakamala. —A vihara (?) in Ceylon, tlie residence of Maha- 
rakkhita Thera (q.v.). 1 

1 J. vi. 30. 

Uparimandalaka-malaya. —A vihara (?) in Ceylon, the residence of 

Mahasangharakkhita Thera. 1 

1 J. iv. 490. 

Uparuci. —A king of thirty-eight kappas ago; a previous birth 

Sucintita Thera. 1 

1 Ap. i. 134. 


1. Uparevata. —A samanera, son of Padumuttara Buddha. It was 
the sight of this novice which made Rahula, then born as the Naga- 
king Sankha, wish to become a Buddha's son. 1 According to the 
Buddhavamsa , 2 however, Padumuttara's son was called Uttara. Upare¬ 
vata, though very young in years (tarunalalitaddraha), was possessed 
of great iddhi -powers and the Naga-king was greatly impressed by him. 3 

1 SnA.i.340; MA.ii.722. I 3 AA.i.l42f. Here the naga king is 

2 xi. 21. I called Pathavindhara. 

2. Uparevata. —Nephew of Sariputta. When Sariputta went to 
Nalaka on his last visit, in order to die there, Uparevata saw him outside 
the village, seated under a banyan tree. He was asked to announce 
Sariputta's arrival to the latter's mother, and to make preparations for 
accommodating Sariputta's five hundred followers. 1 

1 DA. ii. 551; SA. iii. 175. 

Upavatta (Upavattana). —The sola -grove of the Mallas of Kusinara, 

on the further side of the Hirannavati. This was the last resting-place 
of the Buddha on his last tour, and here he passed away, lying on a bed 
placed between two sola trees. 1 Here Subhadda visited the Buddha in 
the earlier part of the last night of his life, was converted and gained 
admission into the Order, afterwards winning arahantship. 2 It was 
here, too, that the Buddha asked the monks if they had any doubts 
they wished to hear solved regarding the Buddha, the Dhamma and the 
Sangha, magga and patipadd, or any questions they wished to ask, 3 
and here he gave his last admonition to the monks. 4 Ananda tried to 
persuade him to die in a place of greater importance, and the Buddha, 

1 D.ii. 137 ff.; Dpv. xv. 70. 

2 (See also DhA.iii. 377. 

3 A.ii. 79. 

4 8. i. 157; see also Ud. 37 f. 

Upavana ] 


in order to disabuse his mind, preached to him the Maha Sudassana 
Sutta. 5 

Buddhaghosa says 6 that the road to the sola-grove from the Hiraii- 
navatl led from the further bank of the river, like the road from the 
KadambanadI to the Thuparama in Anuradhapura which led through 
the Rajamatu-vihara. The row of sala -trees stretched from south to 
east and then continued to the north (“ like the chief street in Anura¬ 
dhapura ”). Hence the name Upavattana. The grove was to the south¬ 
west of Kusinara. 7 

5 D.ii. 169f. 6 DA.ii. 572f. 7 UdA.238. 

1. Upavana. —A thera. He belonged to a very rich brahmin family of 
Savatthi, and having seen the Buddha's majesty at the dedication of 
Jetavana, he entered the Order and became an arahant with sixfold 
anna. For some time, before Ananda was appointed upatthdka, Upavana 
waited on the Buddha. Once when the Buddha was attacked by 
cramp, Upavana, with the help of his lay-friend Devahita, obtained 
hot water and suitable medicines, with which the ailment was healed; the 
Buddha, thereupon, expressed his gratitude. 1 

When the Buddha lay on his death-bed at Kusinara, Upavana was 
by his side fanning him; the Buddha, seeing that he obstructed the vision 
of the devas who had come to pay their last homage to the Teacher, 
asked Upavana to move away. 2 

Two occasions are mentioned on which Upavana consulted the Buddha 
on matters of doctrine, once regarding the arising of suffering 8 and once 
on the immediate and practical use of the Dhamma (sanditthikadhamma). 4. 
There is also recorded a visit of Upavana to Sariputta when they were 
both staying in the Ghositarama at Kosambi. Sariputta asks him about 
the bojjhangas as being conducive to a happy life and Upavana explains. 5 
On another occasion Upavana is the enquirer, and he asks Sariputta 
about the “ end-maker ” ( antakara ); Sariputta explains that the “ end- 
maker ” is the one who knows and sees things as they really are. 6 

When an unpleasant interview took place between Sariputta and 
Laludayi (q-v.) and no one was found to support Sariputta, the matter 
is reported to the Buddha, who declares that Ananda should have taken 
Sariputta's side. Soon afterwards Ananda seeks Upavana and tells him 
that he was too timid to interfere, and if the Buddha referred to the 

1 ThagA. i. 308 ff.; this ailment does I 
not seem to be mentioned in Milinda 134 f. I 
where several others are given. This I 
incident is given at greater length in j 
8. i. 174 f.; see also DhA. iv. 232 f. I 

2 D.ii. 138f. 

3 S. ii. 41-2. 

4 Ibid., iv. 41. 

5 Ibid., v. 76. 

6 A. ii. 163. 


[ Upavana 

matter again, would Upavana undertake to answer ? In the evening 
the Buddha engages Upavana in conversation and asks him to explain 
the five qualities which make a monk esteemed and loved by his col¬ 
leagues. At the end of the discourse the Buddha applauds Upavana. 7 

In Padumuttara’s time Upavana had been a poor man. Seeing people 
making great offerings at the Buddha's Thupa, he was much touched, 
and having washed his upper garment, he hung it as a flag over the 
Thupa. A yakkha named Abhisammataka, who was the guardian of 
the cetiya, took the flag three times round the cetiya, he himself remaining 

A monk whom the man consulted after this miracle foretold that for 
thirty thousand kappas he would be in the deva-worlds and that he 
would be deva-king eighty times. One thousand times he was Cakka- 
vatti. In his last life his wealth was eighty crores. When he was 
Cakkavatti, his banner was held aloft, three leagues in height. 8 

7 A.iii. 195f. 8 Ap.i. 70 ff. 

2. Upavana. —Son of Anomadassi Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. viii. 19. 

1. Upavana Sutta. —The conversation referred to above, between 
Upavana and Sariputta, on the anlakara. 1 

1 A.ii. 163 f. 

2. Upavana Sutta. —The Buddha explains to Upavana the arising of 
sorrow ( dukkha-samupjpdda)} 

1 S. ii. 41 f. 

3. Upavana Sutta. —The Buddha explains, in answer to a question 
of Upavana, how the Dhamma is immediate in its results (sanditthika). 1 

1 S. iv. 41 f. 

4. Upavana Sutta. —The conversation referred to above, between 
Sariputta and Upavana, where the latter explains how the bojjhangas 
conduce to a happy life. 1 

1 8. v. 76 f. 

Upavala.— See Uvala. 

1. Upasanta. —One of the two chief disciples of Atthadassi Buddha. 1 
He was the son of the chaplain of Sucandaka and the friend of Santa. 

1 Bu. xv. 19; J. i. 39. 

Upasagara ] 


Santa and Upasanta visited the Buddha and for seven days entertained 
the Buddha and his monks. The two entered the Order wibh ninety- 
eight thousand followers. 2 

2 BuA. 179 f. 

2. Upasanta. —A Paeceka Buddha to whom the thera Vajjita, in a 
previous birth thirty-one kappas ago, gave a campaka-fl. ower. 1 

1 ThagA. i. 336; Ap. i. 288. 

3. Upasanta (Upasantaka, Upasannaka).— The body-servant of 
Vessabhu Buddha. 1 He was the king of Narivahana city and was con¬ 
verted by the Buddha, taking over with him a large following. 2 

1 D. ii.6; Bu. xxii.23; J.i.42. 2 BuA. 206. 

Upasama Sutta. —The Buddha explains to a monk, in answer to a 
question, how one may become perfect in the indriyas. 1 

1 S. v. 202. For the title see KS. v. 178, n. 3. 

Upasama Therl. —She was born in a Sakyan family in Kapilavatthu 
and became a lady of the Bodhisatta's court. Later, in the company 
of Pajapati Gotami, she renounced the world and entered the Order. 
One day, while she was meditating, the Buddha sent forth a ray of glory 
and admonished her. She, thereupon, developed insight and became 
an arahant. 1 

1 Thig. v. 10; ThigA. 12 f. 

Upasampada Vagga. —The sixteenth chapter of the Pancaka Nipata 
of the Anguttara Nikdya. The suttas of this chapter deal with the 
qualities requisite for a monk who wishes to receive the upasampada , 
to give nissaya , to institute a novice, to become an official in the 
Order, etc. 1 

1 A. iii. 271-8. 

Upasampada Sutta. —On the qualities which a monk should possess 
in order to admit others to the Order. 1 

1 A. v.72. 

Upasagara. —Son of Mahasagra, who was the king of Uttaramadhura. 

Upasagara's elder brother was Sagara, and when their father died, 
Upasagara became his brother's viceroy. Having been suspected of 
an intrigue in the king's zenana, he fled to the court of Upakamsa in 



[ Upasala 

Asitanjano. There he fell in love with Devagabbha, and when she was 
with child he married her and they lived in Govaddhamana. Their children 
were the notorious Andhakavenhu-dasaputta. 

Upasala. —Younger brother of Paduma Buddha and, later, one of his 
two chief disciples. 1 

1 Bu. ix. 21; BuA. 147; J.i. 36. 

Upasala. —According to the Buddhavamsa Commentary / Sala and 
Upasala were the two chief women disciples of Phussa Buddha. The 
Buddhavamsa , 2 however, calls them Cala and Upacala. 

1 194. 2 xix . 20. 

Upasalha. —A wealthy brahmin of Rajagaha. He lived near the 
monastery, but was an unbeliever and had nothing to do with the Buddha 
or his monks. He had a wise and intelligent son. When Upasalha was 
old, he told his son that, after death, he wished to be burnt in a cemetery 
unpolluted by any outcast. Being asked by the son to point out such 
a spot, he took him to Gijjhakuta and shewed him a place. As they 
were descending the hill, the Buddha, perceiving their upanissaya , 
waited for them at the foot, and when they met he asked where they had 
been. Having heard their story, he related the Upasalha Jataka, 
shewing that in the past, too, Upasalha had been fastidious about ceme¬ 
teries. At the conclusion of the discourse, both father and son were' 
established in the First Fruit of the Path. 1 

1 J. ii. 54 ff. 

Upasalha Jataka (No. 166).—Preached to Upasalha. The story of 
the past is that of a brahmin Upasalhaka (identified with Upasalha). 
He instructed his son that after death he should be burnt in a cemetery 
unpolluted by the presence of outcasts. While descending Gijjhakuta, 
having ascended the mountain in order to find such a spot, they met 
the Bodhisatta, who was a holy ascetic, possessed of various attainments 
and mystic powers. When the Bodhisatta had heard their story, he 
revealed to them that on that very same spot Upasalha had been burnt 
fourteen thousand times, and preached to them the way of deathlessness. 1 

The Upasalhaka Jataka was preached by the Buddha to the novice 
Vanavasi-Tissa when the Buddha visited him in his forest solitude. 2 

1 J. ii. 54 ff. 

2 DhA.ii.99. 

UpasepI ] 403 

1. Upasiri. —One of the palaces occupied by AnomadassI Buddha in 
his last lay-life. 1 

Bu. viii.18. 

2. Upasiri. —A palace similarly occupied by Sujata Buddha. 1 

1 Bu. xiii. 21. 

Upasldari. —A Pacceka Buddha, mentioned in the Isigili Sutta. 1 

1 M.iii. 70. 

Upasiva. —One of the disciples of Bavari. 1 The questions he asked 
the Buddha, when he visited him in the company of his colleagues, 
are recorded in the Upasiva-manava-puccha. 2 Upasiva joined the 
Order and became an arahant. According to the Apaddna , 3 in the time 
of Padumuttara he had been an ascetic in a mountain named Anoma, 
near Himava. Once the Buddha visited his hermitage and the ascetic 
spread a seat for him with grass and flowers and gave him fruit to eat. 
He also gave the Buddha a quantity of fragrant aloe-wood. As a result, 
he was born in heaven for thirty thousand kappas and was seventy-one 
times king of the devas. The Apaddna-Siccomit makes no mention of 

1 Sn. v. 1007. 2 Ibid.,vv. 1069-76. 3 ii. 345 ff. 

Upasiva-manava-puccha.— The sixth sutta of the Parayanavagga. It 

contains the questions asked of the Buddha by Upasiva and the answers 
thereto. 1 One of Upaslva’s questions was as to how the floods (ogha) 
may be crossed. We are told that he was an dkincannayatanaldbhi. 2 

1 Sn. vv. 1069-76. 2 SnA. ii. 593 f.; see also Culla-Niddesa, p. 101. 

Upasumbha. —An image of the Buddha placed in the Bahumahgala- 
cetiya at Anuradhapura. King Dhatusena had a diadem of rays made 
for the statue. 1 

1 Ov. xxxviii. 66. 

Upasena. —One of the chief women supporters of Tissa Buddha. 1 

1 Bu.xviii.23. 

Upaseni. —Daughter of Vasavatti, king of Pupphavati and sister of 
Candakumara. She narrowly escaped death when the king, on the 
advice of his chaplain, wished to offer human sacrifices. The story is 

told in the Kanflahala Jataka. 1 

1 J. vi. 134. 


[ Upasena Thera 

1. Upasena Thera. —Maternal uncle of Vijitasena Thera and brother 
of Sena. He was an elephant-trainer, and having heard the Buddha 
preach, he entered the Order and, in due course, became an arahant. 
He ordained Vijitasena. 1 According to the Mahdvastu , 2 Sariputta 
was converted to Buddhism not by Assaji, as recorded in the Pitakas , 
but by an Elder named Upasena, who is, perhaps, to be identified with 
the Upasena. The Mahdvastu also mentions 3 an Upasena who was 
nephew to the Tebhatika Jatilas. When the Tebhatikas accepted the 
Buddha as their teacher, they cast the garments, etc., which they had 
used as ascetics, into the Neranjara, on the banks of which was Upasena's 
hermitage. When Upasena saw the robes, etc., he knew that something 
must have happened to his uncles. He went at once to see them and, 
having heard the good tidings of their new-found bliss became a monk 
himself. It is not stated whether this Upasena is identical with the 
Elder of the same name mentioned above as the teacher of Sariputta. 

1 ThagA. i. 424. 2 iiit 60 3 Im%> 431 ft 

2. Upasena Vangantaputta. —He was born in Nalaka as the son of 

Rupasarl, the brahminee, his father being Vanganta. He was the younger 
brother of Sariputta. 1 When he came of age, he learnt the three Vedas, 
and, having heard the Buddha preach, entered the Order. When his 
ordination was but one year old, he ordained another bhikkhu, to 
increase the number of holy ones, and went with him to wait upon the 
Buddha. The Buddha roundly rebuked him for this hasty procedure, 2 
and Upasena, wishing to earn the Master's praise on account of the very 
cause of this rebuke, practised insight and became an arahant. There¬ 
after he adopted various dhutahgas and persuaded others to do likewise. 
In a short time he had a large retinue, each member of which was charm¬ 
ing in his way, and the Buddha declared Upasena to be the best of those 
who were altogether charming (samantapasadikanam)? Buddhaghosa 
says 4 that Upasena was famed as a very clever preacher ( pathavighuttha - 
dhammakathika ), and many joined him because of his eloquence. He 
visited the Buddha when the Buddha had enjoined on himself a period 
of solitude for a fortnight; the monks had agreed that anyone who went 
to see the Buddha would be guilty of a pacittiya offence, but the Buddha, 
desiring to talk to him, asked one of Upasena's followers if he liked 

1 UdA. 266; DhA.ii.188. 

2 Vin.i.59; Sp.i.194; ,J.ii.449. 

3 A. i. 24. 

4 AA.i. 152; also Mil. 360, where more 
details are given of how Upasena ad¬ 
mitted monks into the Order and of the 

conditions imposed on them; for a slightly 
different version see Vin. iii. 230 ff.; it is 
said there that after Upasena’s visit, the 
Buddha allowed monks who practised 
dhutahgas , to visit him even during his 
periods of retreat. See also Sp. iii. 685 f. 

Upasena ] 


rag-robes. “ No, Sir, but I wear them out of regard for my teacher/’ 
was the reply. 

In the Theragdtha 5 are found several verses ascribed to Upasena as 
having been spoken by him in answer to a question by his saddhivi- 
hdrika , regarding what was to be done during the dissensions of the 
Kosambi monks. The Milinda-panha 6 contains several other verses 
attributed to Upasena similar in their trend of ideas and admonitions. 
The TJdana states 7 that once when he was taking his siesta he reviewed 
the happiness he enjoyed and the