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Poor Man’s 


INDEX Page 105 

Kurt Saxon 


by Kurt Saxon 

Due to buctqot cuts a Missouri sheriff's departmF^nt clo- 
ses dovn at 5 pm. Callers get s recorded message saying, 
it-, effect, "Defend yourself as best you can until tomor- 
row* . 

Violent crime rose 12 % in 1936, 

I’risons are so crowd&d, thousands of crxmnal psycno- 
tira are qiven early pnrole. Cases of irurder, rape and 
ovory other vicious crime have been reported as a direct 
result of loosing thesf» oniraals. 

Mental inst i tiitions are so seltfictive that an -applicant 
has to prove his eligibility by killing at least one of 
the examiners. The fellovr who killed 7,\ McDonald's custo- 
mers a couple of years ago had been refused mental help 
just a few days previous tc the massacre because he seemed 
in pretty q<»od shape, nil things considered. 

Host police agencies are understaffed, overworked dUd 
their officers prone to battle fatigue. It :s increasingly 
hard to get a collar put away for the period determined by 
his offense. Officers often ignore crimes they feel our 
Liberal court. s would allow to be plea-barga-tjed out of the 
over-crowdod docket. TUece ace even cases of Cops ignoring 
a mugging while staked out for a large drug bust, So you 
can actually be atLackec^, robbed, raped, maimed or killed 
while a cop looks on. 

Crxjgo hove become such o fixation with our lawmen Lhai 
their suppression has effectively emasculated police sworn 
to 'Protect and Serve". Besides, every cop vho makes a 
drug bust is, in effect, working for the driKj dealers. 
Their valiant, though counterproductive efforts seeve only 
to drive up the prices of drugs. Ihis greatly increases 
your chance of being mugged or burglarized by losers need- 
ing more money for a fix- 

only solution to the drug problem le total logali- 
zation. This would take the profit from tho LraSe. The 
losers who prey on society to support their habit could 
then destroy their already inferior brains at little cost 
and no danger to the taxpayer. 

Why should billions be taken from our economy by the 
Drug Enforc*cnout Agency, junkies robbing to support their 
habit and court Lime? Who cares if a loser, born Lp no 
purpose, destroys his brain? Wouldn't your child be less 
likely to get on drugs through peer pressure if one of 
his already hooked peer« had nothing to gain? And* would- 
n't you rather a junky blow his mind with over-the- 
counter narcotics than itiaim or kill you or one cf your 
loved ones far the mor.ey to buy from a pushor? 

Our groat-qrardparenis could buy any narcotic over-the- 
counter, l>cuc -induced crimes wore too race to docurent, 
Drug addicts not only had no need to prey on society to 
sxippurt Ufuiic habit but they yooi: died, taking their in- 
ferior selves out of the gene pool . 

Now, babies are born showing withdrawal symptoms. Hun- 
dreds of thousands of d^generalea are breeding like rats, 
both out of and to gftL iiK)re Aid Ly Depur.dunc 
Children so as to buy more drKXis. 

The Secret 
Secret Agent’s 

Just imagine you were the 
real 007. After saviig your 
tountry a dozer times, you are 
in disgrace. This is is be- 
cause, at a party, you gave 
the queen a playful goose, 
causing her to spring into the 
punch bowl. So you were fired. 

No longer the clever gad- 
gets, the fancy and lethal 
cars. And all those girls? Now 
even Money penny won’t give you 
a tumble. Poor baby. 

But you've still got all 
those enemies you've made dur- 
ing so many movies. You are 
now cut off from MI -5 and on 
your own, Now jxju’II have to 
equip yourself to survive and 
defend your nation, Unauthori- 
zed and even forbidden to en- 
gage the foe, you must keep 
your activities secret from 
police, landlords and especi- 
ally relatives living with 

Of course, while waking all 
your own weapons, you’ll need 
a cover story to explain your 
workshop and lab, Aside from 
the other volumes of THE POOR 
you to get GRANDDAD’S WONDER- 
the volumes of THE SURVIVOR. 
With all this information, you 
will be able to create an ars- 
enal while leading others to 
think you were only trying out 
the old formulas and crafts. 

Although the chemistry book 
shows how to make many com- 
pounds from simple, easy to 
get chemicals, ywu may want to 
order many chemicals and lab 




This vas exeirplified on a reoent Phil Donahue shov. Tte 
stQce vas crowded with cribs of *' boarder babies'*. These 
vere the pitifal offspring of junkies were too far 
gone to care for rheir socially doomed younq . “What to do 
about the sitaation?** was the theme of the segment. 

Somehow, a rational caller got through who said that 
all their it»o there should undergo mandatory sterilisation, 
Phil moved on without addressing himself to the only real- 
istic soiu-loii slx^gestecJ . rjor did any In his axodience re- 
fer to it. Doth Phil and his entice studio audience seemed 
j "crrat feome-onin^’ snouid oe abne to help* those 

uined children. Of course, nothing could be done, but 
rtj'^riting more of the samo was out of the question, 

^>o more wonv^n will have core ru*ned babies. They will 
iso spread AIDS through dirty needles and prostitution ir 

rid have more babies while Phil and his liberal audience fl 
ammer their impotent sympathy, 

But ; digress. Getting back to the subject of ^ou, the tr 
rivate citizen being the law, is my purpose, 

Not too long ago, officers engaged in public relations v 
ould lecture civilians on how to keep from being injured 
y social predators. Their advice WdS non-resistance, 

Jive him vhat ho wants and he may not hurt you". 

This no longer holds true. Increasingly , more predators 

r© those prematurely rolvaoed from nuthouses and prisons. 

hey are criminally psychotic and consider the bodily in- ar 
ury of their vic‘-;rrs the icing on their cake. They have 
0 fear of punishment since they are used to prison or tl 

ave pa^rs saying they arc mentally ill and no cire not cl 

esponsible. So why sliouidn't they tear you to pieces aft- of 
r they've gotten your wallet or raped you? 

One argument against resistance to the mugger, armed 
Dbbsc or rapist: is that a show nf foiroo miohtt 

ake him mad at you. But, Dear Hearr, is not a’rronster 
rireaterinq your life already mad at you? 

This brings to mind a classic news account of a cape, 
afore the word ”rdpe'’ was in comiron use. *'H© boat her up, 
locked her teeth out, threw her downstairs, breaking her 
aq, and then attacked hoc'. qc 

Getting back to your beirq rhe law? you've heard of the ir 
arm "ClL^en's Arrest'’. This means that a citizen vii_n«s- 
ing a crime where there are no police present is legally vl 
npowerod to arre-st the lawbreaker. Such arrests havu only h: 
sen made in the case of non-violent offenders. I've never 
2ard of a mugger or rapist beinc^ treated to a citizen’s t- 
crest. Even so, if the citizen making the arrest failed 
j “read hin h:s rights" would not he be released? 

So forget citizen' & arrests. Also, don't be bothered by 
•jy objections to taking the law into your own hands. VOion 
ju arc confronted oy an assailant you are the law, Moxe- 
/er, in anticipation of being forced to act against an cl 

itacker, go armed. c( 

With your chances of being a victim going up all the S( 

ime, the penalties for carrying a concealed weapon p] 
ess important. Even so, as a California police captain gi 

old me years ago, “Better to be ;udged by twelve than pt 

arried by six'*. Besides, if you aren't accustomed to be- ^ 

nq searched, how would carrying a concealed weapon make u. 
ou more 1 ikely to be searched? 

As the crime rate rises, the Liberal media continues to 
ntimidate the citizen who vould exercise his duty to eli- 
inate predators. Bernhard Goetz is still being tried for 
hooting four vermin, Berny’s only crimes were in not kil- i* 
ing them all and in then giving himself up. cl 

A lesser crime was in his pleading self-defense. I hate tc 
hat term. If you limit your action to def enae, which he 
idn't, an attacker can break through your defense. The 
dea is to attack with the intention *to maim or kill your 

What most people don't realize is that a mugger, rap- 
st , burglar, etc., chooses his victims for their vulnera- ** 
lility. He's not a challenger. He doesn't . want any resis- 

he supplies ready-made. Your best 
source is the hobby chemical 
companies adver’aizing in the 
o classifieds of Popular Science 
and Popular Mechanics, 

Of course, such companies 
' have removed just about all of 
the oxidizers like tho chlor- 

^ ates and nitrates, plus acids 

^ e,5y? - L* e . .a ' ’ 

do damage with, But they do 

offer the full range of lab 

eguifwnent such as rubber tub- 
ing, glass tubing, retorts, 

flasks, test tubes, etc., that 
you may not want to take the 
trouble to make yourself. 

An even better eaurce for 
chemicals is your local phar- 
macy, It vTould be best if it 
vas one near a hospital, as 
they usually have imre chemi- 
cals ir, stock, such as strong 
ammonia, foriraldehyde , etc. 

You don't just walk up to 
the pharmacist with a list of 
chemicals and lab geai • Host 
of his time is spent filling 
prescriptions and he makes a 
cood living at it. He would 
make a profit ordering chemi- 
cals and lab gear for you but 
not enough to interrupt his 
routine. So you have to be 
very c 1 ever and get to his 
ogo and also his unorthodox 

Every pharmacist is some- 
what of a mad scientist in 
his own fantasies, You must 
get him to accept your own in- 
terest in *weird projects with- 
out arousing any suspicion or 
taking up too much of his 
time • 

You start by saying a few 
cheery words to hin on a 
couple of occasions *when you 
see he's not too busy. Most 
pharmacists are really nice 
guys but if he's just an old 
poop, go on to the next one. 

Your best bet is to shov 
him a copy of GRANDDAD'S woK- 
DERFUL book CF chemistry, esp- 
ecially the section on chemi- 
cal magic. Tell him you are 
interested in stage magic virh 
chemicals but don't know ho*w 
to get the chemicals* You may 
even loan him the took, At any 
rate, it will be your best 
smokescreen, giving you a le- 
gitimate, if odd, excuse for 
wanting just about any chemi- 
cal you feel a need for. 




tance. A counterattack is usually th« only vay to keep 
fror. being victimized. And that usually means any forn of 

A predator bent on gain from someone he considers weak- 
er will change his mind qaxckly if attacked by his victim. 
After all> he doesn't want to press charges against a vic- 
tim. Nor does he want to explain a wound which has to be 
reported to the police. In most cases, he simply can't af- 
ford resistance to any degree. 

Even so, the media still warns against counter force ag- 
ainst attackers. Last week a Little Rock TV station did a 
report against stun guns by Doug Hurst. The argument was 
uliau the stun gun wasn’t effective against everyone and it 
would take about three seconds tc iirmobilize an attacker, 
the Inference being that the attacker could disarm a smal- 
ler person in those three seconds. 

That vae nonsense. Anyone unaffected by 50,000 volts is 

from another planet. Even a 35,000 volt stun gun will stop 
an attacker instantly. And sure, one can do a lot in three 
seconds. But the stun gun immobilizes instantly and the 

longer the contact is maintained, the longer the attacker 

will be Immobilized. So simple ccntact will make an at- 
tacker helpless. If the contact is maintained for from 
three to five seconds, the attacker will be paralyzed for 
from four to night minutes, In that time you can handcuff 
him and take his wallet. (Spoils of war). 

One thing to keep in mind is to never threaten a mugger 
or any other attacker. Use on him whatever you have, in 
most cases he would run. But if your weapon seems puny or 
if he has a longer reach, you might not be able to do as 
much damage to him as if you take him unawares. 

Actually, any harm you can do to an attacker will be 
very likely to cause him to flee. We're not concerned with 
•'Stopping power" herei Stopping power usually applies to 
ar. assailant dedicated to harming you as an individual. He 
may be a doped -up psycho bent on rape or mayhem for its 
own sake, in that event you might as veil do as much dam- 
age as you can since you are at risk regardless of your 
behav ior. 

In most cases concerning junkies, txiey are not high. 
They want money for a f ix and are hurtirg . They don't want 
any more pain, A ,22 Stinger, a stab wound from a knife 
pen or even a "Key Buddy” knife will be sufficient. 

Last week i was gratified by a caller who bold me I may 
have saved the lives of his wife and himself. He told ne 
they were in a foreign country and were accosted by a 
knife- wielding punk vho demanded their money. The caller 
had one of my fangs in a narrow pocket he had had his wife 
sev beside his wallet pocket. The fang pocket vas snug 
enough to retain the cap as the fang was w'ithdravn. 

The caller removed the wallet and fang at the same time 
and as he handed over the wallet he shoved the potassium 
cyanide loaded fang into the punk's stonach. 

As expected, it had registered In the fool's mind that 
something had been done to him. He paused momentarily to 
see if he was hurt. The caller estimated that it took only 
from four to six seconds for him to drop dead. As it hap- 
pened, police were nearby and took the body away, assuming 
the robber had had a heart attack. The caller wasn't held. 

But the caller vas sure, from the demeanor of the punk, 
that had he not been fanged he would have stabbed then 
both. The police were there only by coincidence. 

Aside from being able to destroy vermin vho might be a 
threat to you, you ought to reach out as a responsible 
protector of your community. If you are at loose ends, you 
Aucfht to become a cop. Foiling that, there is always the 
National Guard, At least join your local neighborhood 
watch. Without a sense of community responsibility you 
won't count for much in the long run, 

A sure way to get lab gear 
and even a pretty fair assort- 
ment of chemicals is to call 
up highachool and college 
chemistry lab teachers, after 
Class, Tell them you are look- 
ing for second-hand lab gear 
and would appreciate it if 
they would tell you if they 
knew of any graduating stu- 
dents who might wish to part 
with their old lab gear. I've 
come upon good buys from ex- 
chemistry students who were 
through with their equipment. 
It*s usually just taking up 
space and they are glad to get 
rid of it for very little. 

Teachers are often very 
helpful on behalf of such stu- 
dents and also, one might even 
have some school lab gear that 

has been replaced with new 
equipment. You might also ask 
the teachers where to buy lab 
gear and chemicals. 

Another way is to put an ad 
in your local newspaper's 
classifieds under "Wanted". 
Example, "Wanted j Beginning 
chemistry student wants second 
hand lab gear and chemicals, 
(phone)". You might also tack 

such an ad on highschool and 

college bulletin boards* 

If you put your mind to it 
you can gradually accumulate 
all the lab gear and chemicals 
you want. But just to prepare 
you for the time when you may 
have to make your own lab gear 
you should learn to make all 
the practical lab gear you can 
from odds and ends. 

The following calls for a 
lot of glass and rubber tubing 
which is easy to get from any 
pharmacy or chemistry cata- 
logue. Even so, copper tubing 

in various sizes from your lo- 
cal hardware store can often 
be substituted for glass tub- 
ing. Host glass tubing is used 
for leads from stoppers to 
which rubber or plastic tubing 
is attached. To bend copper 
tubing without crinkling, you 
fill the tubing with sand. 

Regular corks of all sizes 
can be bought from any large 
hardware store. The cork is 
drilled to snugly accommodate 
glass or copper tubing. 

Plastic tubing can also be 
bought from the safrte hardware 
store in all sizes. It is al- 





by Kurt Saxon 

in my last edltorlsil I stressed the fsct that as our 
system degenerates, the police will be even less able to 
protect the public. It was not an anti-police article. 
However, even though the police are increasingly unable to 
protect the public, they >{^re greatly offended by aw 

Setrartnmtt of Colics 

Qloum of HUlsbotmigl) 

(Smu uf tilt 

June 8, 1987 

AtJen Formijlaries 
P.O. Bo> ) 2 ? 

Harrleon, AR 72801 

Williim A. Kry 
Oufff oTMn 

)M« FlmbuRA AtcfiM 
HilUbwM^. Cdiaru. 

< 419 ) ) 79 <MW 

most as good as rubber tubing 
but tends to go lirp with any 
heat. This can be remedied by 
tying a string around the 
drooping section and suspend- 
ing it up away from the heat. 


You can’t properly organ- 
ize your projects without a 
suitable work table. Any old 
table will do as long as it's 
sturdy so it doesn’t wobble. 
You can get such a table very 
cheaply from your local junk 
shop, Good Will or Salvation 
Arrr^' store. 

You’ll need a round hole 
in the table to accommodate 
the top half of a gallon jug 
used as a sink. You can also 
use an oblong gallon can. If 
a jug, make the hole slightly 
smaller than the diameter of 


I )usc received • cepy o( Volume 6. Number « of your publlcerlor 
entitled Tne Survivor. 

1 hiye never reed e more eJek. debased piece of junk in my life. 
People eho j»rocioTe siwh anarchy and laeiesmees are exaetkv 
»hai ia wrong with this country today. 

This is ore police department that does not shut down at >iQC p.m. 
and na/er wlU. l resent your aUp in the face te pr<^ssional 
Jaw enforcement. 

I dvmarM that 


(d {M£om 



my fiamt (roiTi your maillns ilat 

City Attorney 

June 15, 

Aden Toaouiaciej 
P. 0. Box 327 
HaxrliOA, AX 72S01 

Actentionr Kurt Saxoa 


1 don't know bow you obtained my neioe ond addrnat, but demand 
that you romove me fxem your mailing Hat iroMdlatoly. Be 
farther advieed that any redieeealnetion of my neme amd 
addraSB ii offeniive to mm and oona^tutat an iovaaioa of my 

Sinoarely , 

K. d. Qarhaxdt 
Moiotant City Actomoy 

/oa an— Um ^ „, 9WWWT 




AtUn F9mu1iPi«s 
F. C. Bd* 327 
Harrison, Af 72631 

GeritUnen ; bostai. ms^eCYOR 

A copy of THE SUftVlVOF > Voliine 5. ho. 4, «s rcccUed by Chief Robert K. 
Bocdnight. p. 0. BOX les, sens, fcz B5634, CMef Ooodrtght of the Toheno 
Q'Odhdn IndioA Reservation celled ny office statin; that he found your 
pjtlfcatlon objectionable in that 1 t contained infomatioe about 
violence^ mayhem, and death, as veil as advert! sene nts for lethal 

In riev of the foregoing, and at the reqjest of CMef Goodnight, it is 
asked that you renove his nane fron your mailing list. Thank you for 
your anticipated cooperation regarding this natter. 

the jug. If a can, cut about 
a half inch <3cwn at the cor- 
ners anc bend outward so the 
flaps will rest on the table 

To cut the hole, first 
drill a hole through and then 
use a keyhole saw to cut the 

shape you choose* 

To cut the jug in half see 
the bottle cutter further a- 
long . Smooth the edges with a 
file or emery paper . 

Put a one-hole stopper or 
corK into the neck of the jug 
or can vith a length of plas- 
tic or rubber tube leading in- 
to a vaste bucket. 

As illustrated, shelves at 
the back will finish your lab 
table. They can be a set of 
book shelves, also bought very 
cheaply second- hand or can he 
built with 1 X 12 Inch scrap 


This will give you a steady 
stream of water and is easy to 
refill . 

You will need a gallon jug 
with a #6 1/2, two-hole rubber 
or cork stopper. (Cork stop- 
pers can be drilled to accom- 
modate glass or copper tubing. 
Rubber stoppers are better and 
are sold by any hobby chemical 
supply company. But in a pinch 
cork stoppers will do). 

To complete the wash bottle 

f\ A ^ ^ / \n~ you'll need a plastic funnel, 

4Wi> 17 

In the *60s several police officers were maimed or 
Killed by improvised weaponry directed at them by radi- 
cals. Their main danger lay in the fact that they had no 
knowledge of improvised weaponry. They couldn't recognize 
an improvised weapon until it blew up in their faces. 

When I enlarged •'The Hilitant's Fornuiary** and retit- 
led it "The Poor Man's James Bond** i sent brochures on it 
to several thousand police and fire chiefs. Most of them 
realized the importance of being able to recognize impro- 
vized bombs and such and their coimon components. Thus, 
when searching a radical's person, vehicle or home, if he 
was carrying or making such weapons, the police would 
know it* 

Some police chiefs believed i was some sort of radical 
■yself so they called the Eureka, CX PD. Chief Shipley 
then prepared the following letter to assure them that I 
was on their side. 



miiA. CAiMotHu fua 

Thi( U a copy of fhe leHer sent out by 
Chief O.R. Shipley, of the Eureka Poltce 
OeportiTient to CfvM outhoririe$ who enquire 
about *'The Poor Mor>S Jomes ^ond" ond Ui 
Out hor. 

In regard 
5axon» aka Don 
of Bureke . He 
subjects. His 

to your inquiry about Mr. Kurt Saxon, Mr. 
Sisco is a pemanent resident of the City 
hae authored several books on various 
nost controversial book has been **The poor 

Man's jares Bond”. 

Mr. Saxon is a recognized expert in the field of 
explosives and their application. He has ruide in**depth 
studies of vethods enployed by the more nilitant groups. 

He is a former mernbec of the John Bixch Society, the Mimite- 
nen and several other extreme right wing organ! zationa. 
HCFWever. over the years he has mellowed and is no longer 
affiliated with these groups. 

Mr. Saxon is very pro-establishnent and pro-law 
enforcement. This department uses Mr. Saxon's expertise 
in training programs. 

Mr« Saxon wishes only to sell hia more sensitive books 
to lav enforcement and fire agencies to serve as training 
manuals in the recognition of bombs, bozb components and 

Mr, Saxon will not knowingly sell his more sensitive 
^ks to any left wing group or individual. This department 
feels that a diligent study of Mr. Saxon's books will assist 
any department in learning the irethocia and techniguee used 
by militant organizations. 

Yours truly, 



and a clothespin. Plastic tub- 
ing is not as good as rubber. 

as it's too stiff to be mashed 
by a clothespin. Even so. you 
can connect a length of plas- 
tic straw to the plastic tub- 
ing and that will easily close 
as the clothespin presses it, 

Plastic drinking straws can 
also be substituted for glass 
tubinq . They are bought at 
most grocery stores and some 
are flexible for bending. One 
thing to note if you are using 
plastic straws through cork is 
to smear epoxy around both the 
entrance and exit points of 
the cork to make it air-tight. 

Plastic straws can be con- 
nected, for extra length, Just 
slit the straw a half inch and 
push another length in, Then 
epoxy around the slit and the 
join and it will be one piece. 

If you decide to use plas- 
tic tubing, take a plastic 
straw to the hardware store so 
as to choose a width which 
will most easily fit, Whether 
the plastic tubing goes over 
or inside the drinking atraw, 
epoxy is the best substance to 
use to make the joins tight. 

To put the gravity wash 
bottle together, insert the 
funnel and tubing through one 
hole in the stopper, (see the 
thistle tube, further along) . 
Then put the glass or plastic 
straw tubing through the other 
hole, as shown. 

To operate, fill the bot- 
tle through the funnel . Suck, 
on the end or the tubing to 

The letter was printed about 1972 and I sold a lot of 

PMJBa. Redstone Arsenal vas conducting a training program 

for police bomb squads and so bought a couple of thousand 
copies , 

Since I believed this generation of cops would profit 
having icy three volume library of weaponry, 1 got a 
directory listing thousands of police officials, I sent a 
copy of SURVIVOR 6, issue four and the only replies I oot 
were those above. Not one order! 

Of course, I hadn't realized the makeup of today's po- 
lice. The modem cop has been emasculated by our Liberal 
judicial system, ht the same time, he has been equipped 
with the latest state-of-the-art methods of crime detect- Join 
ion along with self -protecting equipment. 

So this *’cop" patrols his assigned territory in his — 
rolling fortreea. He has a shotgun attached to hla dash 

ana a pistol at his side. He also has a radio to sutnron 
help if he confronts any criminal nore dangerous than a 
crippled shoplifter. 

Although cops get a lot of credit for catching the 
bad gxve» they seldom stop them from committing atrocit- 

Flexible Strav 




iee. In short, although he is pledged to "Protect and 
Serve", the podern cop does neither. He can't. His highly 
visible patrol car Keeps all street crime from happening 
until he moves on. Then the criminal is at liberty to 
rob, rape, maim and kill any of the unarmed citizenry be 
has targeted . *' 

Of course, after the deed has been done, police sci- 
ence steps in. The criminal is often quickly caught. This 
is no help to the victim. And all too often, If the vic- 
tim lives, the criminal ie out of jail before he or she 
is out of the hospital. 

Our I^iberal judicial system is so concerned vith the 
rights of criminals that even the best efforts of the po- 
lice are vasted. After even the most violent and disgust- 
ing outrage, the captured criminal must be treated -with 
exaggerated courtesy. Otherwise he is likely to be set 
free on the grounds that his arrest was improper and his 
"Constitutional Rights" violated. 

Although there are a lot of good men in our police 
forces, they are nowhere as effective as when 1 was young» 
The admission of women into the forces has naturally low- 
ered the standards of aggressiveness needed in an effect- 
ive police officer. Also, the overall liberalizing of po- 
lio© forces hc.e kept the more rational men out. This has 
caused our police forces to be "manned" mainly by nitwits 
who actually do consider the rights of the criminal rtore 
inportant than those of the victim. 

Our national crime rate is accelerating and our liber- 
alized police are becoming less effective at protecting 
us. So ve must protect ourselves and each other. 

Katurally, most police are dead-set against citizens 
meting out justice to predators . To those I would submit 

the following two scenarios. 

Scenario Is A psychotic breaks into a woman's home 
vith the intent to rape and kill her. An arm^ citizen, 
or vigilante, if you wish, goes in, kills the fiend before 
he can do much damage and then fades away into the night. 

Scenario 2i A psychotic breaks into a woman's home 
with the intent to rape and kill her. Ko one comes to her 
Aid. When her body is found the next day, the local police 
track down her killer. He is sent to a mental institution 
for a fev months or prison, where, if he behaves, he will 
be parolled in three years. 

Which scenario would you prefer? If you are the typical 
modern cop you will consider the commendation you get for 
the killer *s capture wore Important than the woman’s life 
and the safety of the community. If you chose the first 
scenario you are* approving vigil antism. Shame on you! 

Shame on me, too. 

In my last editorial 1 promised to tell you hov to form 
a neighborhood defense group which would serve both your 
community and nation. Such a group would not be connected 
with any radical o^anization. It would have no basis in 
race, creed or national origin. There should be no dues, 
oaths or commitments to any cause but the safety of the 
coaunun ity. 

The basis of the group should be a martial arts school. 
This would not be an Oriental martial arts school, clut- 
tered vith alien tradition, discipline, foreign phrases 
and various uniforms and belts. All that is nonsense to 
one simply wanting to learn to fight. 

Actually, most people are intimidated by the idea of 
training for something they may never have a need for. How 
often have you been assaulted? Do you hang around in bars 
and loiter in slum neighborhoods? If your answer to all 
three is in the negative, martial arts training will sim- 
ply fit you to protect your territory from likely maraud- 
ers as our system goes from recession to depression. 

Aside from the nonessential -filled Oriental martial 
arts schools, there are t>w^8e two -week coi^at courses con- 

start the flow. Then clamp the 
tubing vith a clothespin. 

This gravity wash bottl® 
will give you runnir^ water 
for miking chemicals. 


This flasK can be heated 
and used vith stoppers and 
requires only a burned out 
light bulb. 

To turn the bulb into a 
flask, use a knife blade to 
bend up and separate the tip 
from the surrounding baked 
tar. A pair of needle nosed 
pliers is better than the 
pair in the illustration. 

Pull off the tip with the 
pliers and crush and pick out 
the bits of baked tar. Then 
pull out the filaments and 
what you can grasp of the 
glass pointing up. Now, use 
any screwdriver, file or what- 
ever, to give a sharp tap to 
the rest of the glass holding 
the filaments, Rotate the tool 
around the inside of the bulb 
until no inore glass juts out. 

You will want a clear flask 
and the frosting is easy to 

reirove. Simply stick a tooth- 
brush inside the bulb and ro- 
tate it against the sides. Nov 
all you have to do is rinse 
the bulb out vith water. 


You really ought to get a 
few feet of various sizes of 
glass tubing. Improvisation 




sitting of cunning through the woods coll set ir^ ticl^s and 
chiggers. That’s about all such courses aitount to. And 
they average $350.00 per course. 

Such quicicie combat courses have a potentially fatal 
drawbacK. They maxe a novice overconfident. Simply learn- 
ing to throw an opponent under the direction of an in- 
structor gives nothing but surface knowledge. The brain 
may absorb certain rules of hand-to-hand combat but the 
body has to be trained to make those moves reflexive. Two 
veeke doesn't do it- 

Whatever you do, don't waste money on those stupid Nin- 
ja books- ’’Kinja*' is simply a Japanese word for assassin- 
We have tnelr equivalent in the Hafia hit man- You don't 
need to practice creeping, climbing, crawling and clawing 
for several years just to put a bullet or knife into some 

Besides, there Is no proof that the black- clothed, gad- 
get-encumbered Ninja of the films and those ridiculous 
books ever existed as portrayed. Also, where were the Nin- 
ja on Guadalcanal or Guam? I'm sure the Japanese military 
would have used them if they'd had them- 

If the films and books are to be believed, a half-dozen 
Ninja could have gone behind the American lines and wiped 
out every Marine contingent- The idea is not without prec- 
ident on our side. 

A Mafia hit-man was drafted for WW ii- one night he 
slipped behind the German lines and found a company of 
soldiers, asleep and mostly huddled together for warmth. 

He Slit the throat of one, ear-to-ear, while he was lying 
next to a buddy. When the other awoke, he went mad. The 
whole company was demoralized and paniced, The idea that 
an American could get that close to Bleeping but heavily 
guarded men far from the front lines was a mind-blower- 

Then there was Kommando leader Otto Skorzeny's men who 
dressed in American uniforms and infiltrated American un- 
its- You've probably read of the havoc and confusion just 
a few of them caused in the American lines- 

If Mafia men could be drafted, so could Ninja in the 
Yakuza. "Greetings" from Hirohito meant the same thing as 
from Roosevelt. Conclusioni the Ninja and their prowess 
are largely mythical. Don't waste your time and money. 

Getting back to starting a group i first develop some- 
thing to attract the kind of people you want- This would 
be a martial arts school which would be affordable, in- 
formal and effective. Give an office worker a place he 
can go to three nights a week and go from Jiu-Jitsu (Ju- 
do), to lethal combat in easy stages and you'll have all 
the customers you can handle. 

Say you have no experience in martial arts. That's 
best, actually, since you won't have to unlearn a lot of 
nonsense you might have picked up from a formal school- 
So, starting fresh, you choose as a partner, a friend you 
can get along with and enlist him as a business partner 
and Cel low-trainee- 

Start with Jiu-Jitsu in PMJB 2- Learn and practice each 
lesson until it is reflexive to both of you- This should 
take a couple of hours each evening for about two months. 
By now you should be a match for just about any moronic 
roughneck who might threaten you. 

Having mastered Jiu-Jitsu, go to the Arny Course in 
PHJti I- Learn every attack and defense there until both of 
you are an even match. Next, master the Marine course and 
consider yourselves ready for business. 

Moat towns have empty stores on the square or near it 
which can be rented cheaply. All you need are a couple of 
wrestling mats, a sign reading" "American Martial Arts" and 
SOM newspaper ads. You might also talk to your local rep- 
orters about the echool. In your ads and interviews, tell 
people your school will teach self pdefenee to anyone for 
only $25.00 per week in easy two->our sessions three times 

keens the mind but you must 
not take it to extremes. 

So let’s say you've gotten 
a supply of glass tubing from 
your pharmacist, a chemical 
catalogue or your friendly 
sign maker, who has access to 
glass tubing for neon signs. 
Working with it will not only 
give you new skills but better 
lab equipment. Also, it’s fun. 

To begin, place a length of 

glass tubing on a smooth sur- 
face. Decide where you want to 
break it and give that spot a 
sharp rake with a file- Then, 
grasp the tubing firmly with 
your thumbs near the mark. Now 
bend the glass back from the 
mark and it will snap cleanly. 

To insert the pieces of tu- 
bing into the rubber stoppers 
or corks, dip them first in 
soapy water so they will slip 
in easier. If you use corks, 
epoxy around the tubing on 

both sides - 


Basic glass bending is very 
simple. The part to be bent is 
held over the flame and rota- 
ted until it glows red all a- 
round. Then bend it. Nov, hold 
it for about ten seconds until 
it hardens. 

An alcohol flame is not so 
hot as a gas flame from a bun- 
sen burner or a propane torch. 
Actually, you can buy a pro- 
pane torch with all its at- 

tachments cheaply from the 
hardware store. It can be put 




per veeH* Host people can afford that and only 100 custo- 
mers vould ^ive you $2,500.00 per vee)c. 

Open up from 2«00 pm to lOspm six days per week. That 
would give you eight two hour classes each week. Figure on 
from ten to twenty students per class; mostly women from 
tvo to six pm and mostly men from six to ten pm. 

The idea would be to teach each student the basics and 
have him or her practice with another while you and your 
partner coach and watch so no one gets hurt. 

You might consider stocking my books in your school. 
Each student would buy PMJB 1 and 2 and probably 3 and the 
Survivor series. In this way they could study the mo^es in 
PMJBs 1 and 2 and so would have a clear idea of what they 
were to learn. 

All my books will retail at $22. DO each and with 50% 
off to dealers, you would make L 00 % clear profit, since 
you vould sell direct. The students who bought every book 
would be those Aost aware of the state of the world. These 
would be the most likely candidates for a community de- 
fense group. These would also be the most likely to go 
from Jiu-Jitsu to the rore lethal aspects of American Har- 
t ial Arts, including improvised weaponry. {You would have 
to let your students learn improvised weaponry on their 
own, as that sutject would put you on very shaky legal 
ground) . 

As time went by, you would find you had a ready-made 
group of Like -thinking men and women. You wouldn’t need a 
name for it or any clear cut philosophy or ideology. But as 
things got worse in your area you vould have quite a large 
group of trained, natural gurillas to draw on. With them 
you could insure the community’s internal security as well 
as a defense against outside antagonists, 


From Taekwondo Tines 

on the shelf when not in use 
and is itiuch more efficient 
for glass work than the alco- 
hol burner • 

For a complete course in 
glass blowing, bending, etc, 


A graduate is a container 
with marks to measure liquids. 
An excellent graduate, and al- 
so a flask is a baby bottle. 

It will take the heat from an 
alcohol burner so it can alao 
be used as a large test tube* 
Fitted with the right sized 
stepper with one or two holes, 
it will have many uses. 

A smaller graduate is a 
coiruron medicine dropper and 
even better is a hypodermic 
syringe. The dropper can be 
bought at any pharmacy and if 
they have none with marks, you 
can put them on with a ruler 
and a felt pen, 

The true Martial Artist is a danger only to 
the dangerous. With skill comes responsibility 
along with confidence. This adds up to a self- 
reliance which makes anyone with that disci- 
pline an asset to those around him. 

But as one develops personal mastery/ one 
anticipates a time when his services will be 
needed by the community. Then, as martial art- 
ists of old were called upon to defend their 
less-able brothers, he will need to know the 
arts of improvised weaponry. 

Such knowledge is just an extension of his 
own body/ as was the nunchaku (rice flail 
etc. Tyranny cannot prevail where the martial 
artist protects. 

Kurt Saxon's Poor Man's James Bond series 
is the most complete/ and growing, collection 
of methods of improvised weaponry. No invader 
or home-grown despot can disarm a community or 
feel safe in an occupation. 

Beyond The Poor Man's James Bond, the sur- 
vivor series teaches domestic self-reliance so 


This is simple to make from 
a baby- food jar or any other 
of a chunky kind with si metal 

Punch a hole in the middle 
of the lid and work It vide 
enough to hold a four-inch 
length of cotton rope, 

Rubbing alcohol* bought at 
any grocery or pharmacy is the 
eofest fuel for such a lamp. 

Fill the jar, tighten the 
lid and turn it upside down 
until the exposed part of the 
repe is saturated. Then turn 
it right-side up and light. 



no one need starve or do without any of the 
necessities of life. 

To combat stress » Mr. Saxon has even made a 
hypno-tape which guarantees clearness of mind 
and the banishment of worry. It enables the 
user to plumb his subconscious for buried an- 
swers to the problems that are holding him 
back from accomplishing his true potential. 

All-in-all, Saxon's books and tapes are a 
positive reinforcement of the Martial Artist's 
striving for power over any threats to himself 
or his community. 



This one gives more heat 
over a wider area and is used 
mainly for glass work as it 
will enable you to bend glass 
into all kinds of odd shapes. 


Simple, safety match heads in a pipe, cap- 
ped at both ends, make a devastating bomb. It 
is set off with a regular fuse. 

A plastic Baggie is put into the pipe before 
the heads go in to prevent detonation by con- 
tact with the metal. 

Cutting enough match heads to fill the pipe 
can be tedious work for one but an evening’s 
fun for the family if you can drag them away 
from the TV, 


About the best fire bomb is napalm. It has 
a thick consistancy, like jam» and is best for 
use on vehicles or buildings. 

Napalm is simply one part gasoline and one 
part soap The soap is either soap flakes or 
shredded bar soap. Detergents won't do. 

The gasoline must be heated in order for 
the soap to melt. The usual way is with a 
double boiler where the top part has at least 
a two-quart capacity. The water in the bot- 
tom part is brought to a boil and the double 
boiler is taken from the stove and carried to 
where there is no flame. 

Then one part, by volume, of gasoline is 
put in the top part and allowed to heat as 
much as it will and the soap is added and the 
mess is stirred until it thickens. A better way 
to heat the gasoline is to fill a bathtub with 
water as hot as you can get it. It will hold its 
heat longer and permit a much larger contain- 
er than will the double boiler. 

With a pipette you can lift 
small organisms or flecks out 
of liquids. Also, you can pick 
up very small amounts of a li- 
quid much easier than pouring. 
You might even mark the pip- 
ette for use as a neasore. 

To make pipettes » hold a 
length of glass tubing over 
the flame andj vhen it reddens 
all around, pull it gently at 
both ends until the middle is 
quite thin. Then break it in 
the middle. 


To use it, put your thumb 
over the vide end and place 
the tip in the liquid directly 
over the particle you want, 
Then remove your thumb and the 
liquid vili automatically rise 
and carry the particle vith it. 


The irouth pipette does much 
the same as the regular one 
but better. If you need a cer- 
tain a.TOunt of what you're 
working with. You can suck up 
exactly as much as you need or 
can fill the pipette and, drop 
by drop, reale a se an exact a- 
roount into a process. 

All you do to make it is to 
force the larger end of the 




ftyKurt Stxon 

A vhile back I vaa invited to be on the David Letter- 
ean ahov> The girl vho called ne eaid they had a co^ of 
my book* '*Granddad*a Wonderful Book Of Chebietry* and 
thought it vould make for an intereating subject* I 
thought so too and» as usual » 1 to conclusions 

and suggested I could do sobs chebical nagic. Actually > 
the copy they had vas the early edition which didn't 
have “Chenical HagiC in it, 

So» instead of going on the show and explaining t\m 
delights of being a mad eclentlst I volunteered to dev- 
onetrate* Kever volunteer I Over the phone, the producer 
was quite excited about the project and urged ve to do 
at least six demonstrations • as vy segment would be froe 
six to eight minutes, 

I soon realised that maybe 1 had bitten off more than 
1 could chev« I explained that I vas experienced on talk 
shows but had never done any sort of performing* The 
producer encouraged me to do ay best so X picked six ex- 
amples 1 thought were simple snd bssicj spectacular but 
harmless • 

one was nitrogen trl- iodide from page 150. XL II* Ano- 
ther vas the ignition of potassium chlorate and augar 
from page 153» XXXIV (i). Then came the spontaneous com- 
bustion of mercury, potaselun and sodiumt page 153, 


Burning water came nexti page 15S» LVI* After that I 
meant to demonstrate lighting a cigarette with an ice 
cube I page 1S6» LXXIV* Last was simply how metallic aod- 
iun catches fire when vet* 

At home I did all these projects with no trouble that 
I can remember* When I did them in rehearsal, a half 
hour before taping, everything vent wrong* This vas ent- 
irely my fault. I took everything for granted* Not hav- 
ing performed so before any audience* 1 didn't Know 
enough tc practice under stage conditions* even though 
the effects worked the first time* 

1 started setting up about three hours before 1 was 
to go on* Firet 1 mixed up a large* large, large batch 
of nitrogen trl- iodide. Better too much than too little* 

I thought* since the nitrogen tri- iodide would take an 
hour or more to dry. One of the stage hands had told 
to make two batches so I could use one at rehearsal* I 
did and made even more than was in the first batch. 

Rehearsal time came around and i put one board with 
the nitrogen tri-iodide on a tall* wheeled table and a 
stage hand moved it out in front of the cameras. I had 
everything lined up and began doing the various demon- 
strations and everything went wrong. First I put a 
Slice of sodium in a pan and flooded it with water* It 
didn’t burst into flame but Just sputtered and gave off 
puffs of smoky mist* It had flamed at home* but not 
there. Why? 

It occurred to me on the plane going hone* When I 
first tried it I sliced off a piece of sodium and drop- 
ped it into some water* It did burst into flame* Ano- 
ther slice I*d laid aside just spluttered. I should 
have realized it at home when I first tried it* When so- 
dium is first sliced, it is shiney and will ignite on 
contact with any moisture. However* it oxidizes almost 

pipette into a foot of rubber 
or plastic tubing. 


To turn your burner into a 
blowtorch* simply use the pip- 
ette to blow into the flame. 
This adds oxygen which makes 
the flame much hotter. 


This lets you gather larger 
amounts of liquid. Making it 
also shows you a simple prin- 
ciple of glass bloving which 
might encourage you to make 
even more complicated glass- 

Take a piece of glass tub- 
ing one foot or less arid hold 
the middle over your broad 
flame or bunsen burner, turn- 
ing until it glows red. Then 
put a finger over one end and 
blow into the other. The mid- 
dle will bulge out over the 
length of the heated part. Try 
it. It's fun. 




immediately, even as one vatches. and becomes covered 
vith a Kind of whitish rust. 

When put In the vater at the studio* the oxidized so- 
dium spluttered because of the insulating property of 
the oxide. As water penetrated the layer of sodium oxide 
it only created more oxide so no actual flaming occurred 
and it just spluttered. 

The same oxidation prevented the cigarettes from be- 
ing Lit by the ice cube. When I vas at here I tried the 
cigarette lighting tricK in the Kitchen because that was 
where the ice cubes were. I tooH one of my vife*s ciga- 
rette butts from her ash tray by the sinK and poked a 
apace in the tobacco with a toothpick. 1 then put a 
fresh sliver of sodium in it and held an ice cube to its 

One drag and it was lit. This was because the ciga- 
rette was bone-dry and the sliver of sodium had no oxide 
coating* But when 1 prepared three fresh cigarettes on 
the set 4 none of them lit* Frustration. Of couree* the 
fresh cigarettes were moist *and so caused the oxide 
coatirtg. The book suggested drying the cigarettes in the 
oven but X didn't pay attention. 

Then there was the burning water trick. It worked at 
home because 1 had a large, glass petci dish with a 
fresh sliver of potassium in a layer of ether about an 
eigth of an inch thick. This kept the potassium from ox* 
idizing. When I poured in some water* the ether stayed 
on top and the water ignited the potassium* which Igni- 
ted the ether, producing a startling flame# 

On the set, however, I had put the sliver of potas- 
sium down while doing southing else and it hsd gotten a 
thin coating of oxide. Instead of the petri dish* I had 
a tin pie pan and used too little ether. So when pouring 
iu the water, the ox^de kept the potassium fro;n igniting 
it Just spluttered' and h'.'bbled* pushing the toc-thin 
Layer of ether away. 

I didn't get around to mixing the sodium* potaselun 
and mercury. That would have worked but was not spectac- 
ular. What did me in was the potassium chlorate and su- 
gar ignited by sulphuric acid. Nothing could go wrong 
vith that but what it caused was something 1 hadn't ant- 
icipated . 

I had put the board spread vith about six square 
inches by one eigth of an inch of nitrogen bri-oxide 
about the middle of the table. Sarry* one of the exu- 
tivesi wae leaning against the table with his left ear 
about two feet from the nitrogen tri-iodlde. I didn't 
notice he was so close because I was preoccupied. When I 
did the on-cairtera performance T had Intended to have 
David stand at least three feet back. 

Anyway* after the failure of some of the tnoet obvious 
demonstrations, like the igniting of the ether and 
Lighting the cigarette with an ice cube I was worried 
that I wouldn't have any reason to be on the show* I be- 
lieve it vaa this feeling of frustration which kept me 
from being aware of the consequences of carelessness. At 
iny rate, instead of having Barry stand well away* as I 
would have had David, I didn't even notice he was so 
Close to the nitrogen tri-iodide. 

But I was not only feeling frustrated but being stu- 
pid. I remembered that dropping sulphuric acid on the 
small pile of potassium chlorate and sugar did ignite 
beautifully and send pretty sparks all over every tinae. 
Perhaps I felt 1 could show Barry 1 could get something 
to work after all. 

Then it happened. The potassium chlorate and sugar 
nlxtxire did ignite beautifully and sent sparks every- 
where, including into the large smear of nitrogen tri- 
iodide. Nhat followed was not a bang but a boom. It 
Bounded like nothing less than a bomb going off in the 


Kason jar a are made of py- 
rex and so can be heated with 
an alcohol burner. They make 
very good large flasks. They 
come in quart, pint and half- 
pint sizes. They are also eas- 
ier to clean* than regular 

The lid for the flask can 
be either a two-part Mason jar 
lid or one from a mayonnaise 
jatr. Make a stopper-sized hole 
in the top and make it from 
the top of the lid inward so 
the stopper will go in smooth- 


You can either drill a hole 
and enlarge it with tin snips 
and a file, or make a punch, 
or punches for different sized 
stoppers. Punches are made 
from short pieces of metal 
pipe 3/4 or 1 inch in diameter. 
The outside edge of the pipe 
is ground or filed so it is 
quite sharp. Then, virh a bit 
of wood under the lid* the 
pipe is centered and hammered 


Plastic funnels of nearly 
any size can be bought at your 
supermarket. 3ut you can also 



and v%s heard ill over that floor and the floors 
above and belov. 

Sarry vas under etandahly traueiatiaod and in a state 
of ahocK. He aHittered eidevaye avay froa the* eiq;»lo9ion 
and aat dovn on the edge of the stage. He then yelled. 
*'AJB I bleeding? I can't hear. Can I get this stuff out 
of RV pants?" 

Ke vasn't bleeding and his teeporary deafneas via to 
be Qxpectsd under the eircuaetances. He vas vearing 
vhite pants and there vae nothing on thee 1 could see. 

In a fev einutss hia hearing returned and he vas out of 
shock and had suffered no injury. But I vas truly sorry 
I had upset hie so . 

naturally. David had heard tte blast and refused to 
experlencs anything like it. I sxjggested to the producer 
that recounting the string of errors vouid aake an am> 
sing segment. But they vere all too shook up to consider 
the subject eo I vas buqped. 

If you vatch talk ahovs on a regular baels you*ve 
heard many references to guests being scheduled but not 
being on the shov. This happens quite often. It is usu- 
ally because schedules are so tight and thers is so such 
involved that they can't take any chances vlth a guest 
vho Bight interfere vlth the stev*e even tiadng. 

For veeke after, i vas getting calls fro« readers all 
over the country vho heard David nsntion bs. Vas I sup- 
posed to be on that shov? Would 1 ba on latsr? (They had 
vatched every night after that). Anyvay. I could only 
tell thsB that It vae up to the producer to reschedule 
m and i vas sure that chenicai bmIc vould not be the 
subject • 

So take a leescn from ey experience. When you do an 
follcv it to the letter. Don’t take anything for grant- 
ed. M if you mean to perfor» befor* any audience* do ' 
the tiling at least six tines first, ratter than once at 
hoee and then boabing before your audience like 1 did. 

What Is A Secret Agent? 

by Kurt Ssxgn 

gvake your ovn in a pinch from 
the tops of glass or plastic 
bottles. A Knife and scissors 
ate all you need to work vith 
plastic bottles but for glass, 
you’ll need the nichrome vire 
bottle cutter. 

A gallon top can be aa 
big a funnel as you'll need. 

By using a stopper with glass 
or plast.ic tubing, it can be 
as small as you may want it. 

An extra in making the fun- 
nel from glass is that the 
bottom part can be used as a 
lab bovl. 


This is a clever way to 
filter a liquid without filter 
paper. All you need is a fev 
inches of cotton rope, or even 
heavy tvlne. and two bovls. 
Place the bowls, one higher 
than the other i ss shown. Then 
put the rope or twins in one 
bovl leading to the other and 
wait a fev hours. 

A lot of my readers were confused by my Secret Agent 
concept. Since our country ie terribly in need of Se* 
cret Agents I I’ll separate fact froa myth so you can 
see If you qualify. 

Vuu piubdLly gut yuui uwn iaviesSiuu uC SeCiei. A- 
gents from the Jams Bond series. Patric McNee and Dia** 
na Rigg of "The Av anger s** and Patrick HcGoohan of "Sec- 
ret Agent". These are the idealized Secret Agents and 
no re in line with vhat a Secret Agent ought to be. 

In actuality, however, the average Secret Agent is 
more like Doo Adams in "Get Smart" or Inspector Clou- 
Eeau of the "PinK Panther" series, played by the late 
Pf^ter Sellers. In short, they are stupid and bungling. 

The KGB isn't much better. Tte British Secret Agents 
ere tops. The reason for this is that eoet of them are 
trained by the KGB. And since the British ore sore in- 
telligent than the down- bred Russians » they knov hov to 
use their training. But the Aserican Secret Agent is 
usually a paranoia clod, or traitor. 

The FBI Agent isn’t necessarily a "Secret" Agent. 

But he is so ineffective that be is usually a waste of 
the taxpayers’ money. The secret is luw be stays on tte 
payroll . The reason for this is that the recruit has to 
be so Joe College, too straight and "normal’'. Thus, he 
can't identify with ant 4 -establishment types to the de- 
gree it takes to learn what they’re up to. 

The ATF has the worst reputation among the weapons 


For this you need a clay 
flower pot. some sand and a 
piece of cotton rope or rolled 
up cotton for a plug. 

First put in the plug, tten 
add a fev inches of sand. The 
nice thing about the sand for 
filtering is that vhat you 
want left behindviii be held 
avay from the plug by the saivi 
and so will not clog the plug 
and stop the filtering action, 






Cottni piers 



crovd but this is lar^Iy undeserved. For the most part 

they are intelligent and decent. But the exress teal TRiPoD CANS 

used by an occasional dingbat has given a good group a The purpose for these cane 
bad image. Also, they are greatly understaffed and so is to hold flasks or bottles 
are generally innefectiv© against the real crieinal el- away fro» direct Claae of 
ement. your alcolwl or bun sen burner. 

But by far, the worst lot of -Secret- Agents is the Collect a general assartnwnt 
CIA. Vice President Bush used to head the organisation. different sized cans. Punch 
When Reagan dies, if Bush runs the coxmtry like he did 
the CIA, the country's done for. 

It took me only one run-in with the CIA to give up 
on them. When I perfected my Pang 1 decided to market 
them through the CIA. The idea was that if I made them 
and an Agent was caught in a foreign country, the wea- 
pon could not be traced to the government • 

I called their headquarters in Langley, Virginia, 

(703-352-1100) and the phone was answered by a token 
darkey straight out of Central Casting. T told her 1 
wanted to talk to someone in covert operations, or 
whatever they called that department. She told me T*d 
have to give her the nan« of someone in that depart- 
ment. It ought to have been obvious, even to that stu- scissors, enlarge the 

pid bitch I that I didn’t know any such name but I pat- accommodate your var- 

iently told her to put me in touch with anyone hartdy. sited flasks. 

A male darkey came on the line and i wondered if I*d «»ke a tripod from a tin 

called the WAAC? by mistake. He had never heard of me the tin snips to cut 

and was impatient, as if he wanted to get back to his strips from the open end down 
nop bucket. I told the idiot T vented to send the agen-^^ other end. You can cut 

cy A copy oi TKE POOR HAW’S JAKES BOND and THE WEAPON- ^Hree or even four stripe out. 
EBR and .1 sample Pang with vaccine bottles of nicotine number doesn't matter as 

holes in the middle of the can 
bottoms. With tin snips or 

long as there is plenty of 
ventillatlcn for the flame and 
strong support for the flask. 


To cut microecops slides 
and glass for other lab equip- 
ment, lay the glass flat on 
some newspapers. With the rul- 

su.vphats, potassium cyanide and ricin. When his rooiv 
temperature C.J. grasped* the ilea that I was offering 
weapons f.-jr their Agents he snapped, -We don’t kill 
:^oople" and hung up. 

Still hoping, I called an ATP Agent in Dallas and 
bold him my problem in getting the real CIA to stand 
up. He gave me a number to call in Little Rock, (501- 
3^9-6181). X called and the phone was answered by a 
see mingly -cone ious woman who connected me with an A- w 

gent. This boob didn’t went to give his full (or real) firmly, run the glass 

name but let me call him “Jim-. i told him w^.at I told along a straight line, 

the ATP Agent and he asked me if 1 wanted to join the the pane on the edg* 

CIA. Nothing in vhat t’d said was even a suggestion wanted 

that I was looking for a job. i answered that I already over the ta- 

had a job and just wanted t© offer my services. As if 

he hadn't heard a wrd, he said he*d take tiy phone glass apart at the cut, 

ber and they’d get back to me if they needed me. To 
Hell with them. 

Their most famous graduate, the bungling slob, 6. 

Gordon Liddy was for a time, the prime example of a se- 
cret Agent. He screwed up the Watergate break-in and 
vas jailed for it. 

Ho re recently the CIA nu ned the harbor in Nicaragua, 
ineffectively, it sinply damaged some of our allies* 
ships and America's reputation. 

Secret Agents could do a lot to stop terrorism, esp- 
ecially by Moslem fanatics. I realize few of my sub- 
scribers are prepared to do big things at this tiom but 
X'll give a couple of exar^ies of how real Secret A- 
qents could squash terrorism, plus the traffic in dope. 

The Moslem fanatics could be gotten to through their 
religion. Islam's most holy place is the Kaaba in Mec- 
ca. A secret agent in a private plane could singly 
swoop down and drop a pig on the Kaaba. To Hosliiss and 
Jews, the noble pig, food of vikings, is unclean. 

To drop a pig on the Kaaba would be the oost bla^h- 
emous insult imaginable to Isles. On one of its legs 




With a glass cutter bought 
cheaply at any hardware store, 
you can make cuts in bottles 
which are enough to cause them 
to break cleanly with the ap- 
plication of heat. 

However, the break will be 
only as clean as the cut a- 
round the bottle is even. For 
this, you will need a Cora 
which will allow an even cut. 

The best form is one which 
will allow you to cut any size 
bottle at the height you need 
to get the container you want. 

The simple forin described 
will do just that. With it you 
can cut petri disheSi bowls, 
funnels or anything else you 
may ^ve a use far. 

First, get two one inch by 
twelve inch boards and another 
to mount them on. 

Drill about a dozen holes 


could be the messaget "This is a pig. Release all Ajser- 
lean hostages, ictuned lately. Any further actions against 
Americans will result in our return. And then we won*t 
drop a pig". 

The reaction would be outrage by every »tosie« nation 
as you can well imagine. But the threat to their mst 
holy place iKiuld force every Moslem to give up on even 
the slightest ant i-Amer lean act. Even the Msst psycho- 
tic Moslem fanatic would realise that for him to cause 
the destruction of the Kaaba would Keep him out of Far- 
dise . 

The dope traffic coats Africa billions of dollars 
each year. It also costs the lives and fortunes of 
thousands preyed on by inoggers, burglars and doped-up 
psychotic s. Of course, the idwle dope problem could be 
resolved by legalizing drugs and letting the nation's 
inferior* blow their useless minds with ru real lose to 
society. But this win not be done. 

Even so, Secret Agents could intercept batches of 
heroin and cocain and lace it with ricin. Those who 
shot up or snorted the doctored dope would die. Depend- 
ing on the area, Hollywood producer* of the scunoiiest 
movies would go, Inept politician# would make room for 
men and hopefully, i few Rock *n Roll idols would bite 
the dust. 

Nothing but positive result# would come from poison- 
ing Illicit drugs. Aside from the initial elimination 
of some of the worst element# of society, only the »ui- 
cidei would continue using, 

Those two operations must be left to better eculDDed 
and financed Secret Agents. But you can thinK of tnny 
tu^i^ ''•y* to preserve the beet of our cui- 

Secret Agent# don't itecwe*arily have to 

''•IP tr.lning, »v«r, though 
you must not l»t «v«n your closest friends in on cert- 
•in persona: activities. Ths “need to knov rule is a 
imist for a Secret Agent. 

* reputation for something as far from 
5®eeiDls. Beast of your prowess in mart- 
ial arts or underwater basket weaving. But don't ew- 

Secret AgentiJJg to anyone yJJ ^ 

iik2iv recruit, and then only if he is a very De*'*e*t to the site of the 

^ cutter. Mount the two 

aetiviJfr against joining any ‘political boards in a broad V which vlii 

V.V-v.kil ^ ^ ^ groups are always member ed by the accownodate anything from a 

t ill ^ learned this In the six- 

cent fot right-wing group 1 could, «- 

mlJtl ^ thers. A man who 

drape to 

filled always either infiltrated or 
will L ^i9-'»uths who are all talk. Anything done 

tft meantime, go to every gun show you can get 

While working on this, I was watching Red DAWN on 
RED doing anything until the real 

Tslenc^. • justified your ex- 

dare mighty things, than to ;ith“h^ to any size. 

your Th;rs.s First, make the simple 

aio tor being a Secret Agent. stand shown. Then screw in two 

gallon bottle down to a pint. 

Nail the boards firmly from 
the bottom. 

To use, push the bottle as 
far into the V as it will go 
and insert the glass cutter in 
the hole nearest the height 
and diameter you want, Hold 
the glass cutter firmly to the 
bottle's side and turn the 
bottle a full circle, or two. 

Nov it is ready to heat and 


This is a dandy tool which 
will enable you to cut bottles 






I love sm&ars by the press. As a Corner repor* 
ter X find it hiXuriouti that "journalists'* are eo 
intimidated by THE POOR HAN'S JAKES BOND that 
they figuratively soil themselves vhen dealing 
with it. This latest is a classic and 1 want to 
share it with you. 

Denise Haeilton of the Los Angeles Tinea cal- 
led and questioned me on my lack of responsibili- 
ty in publishing such dangerous material. What 
vith such a high incidence of de^ntia in L.A. 
County* any suggestion of the lethal application 
of common substances must be done vith criminal 
intent . 

That seems to be the thrust of her article. 

She criticizes me for ny callousness in publish- 
ing 4 three sentence description of oleander* (See 
top left of page SO). Then she elaborates 

on the oleander* ite availability to L.A. ding- 
bats* how it worKs, etc. According to her article 
anyone can poison anyone vith little chance of 
being caught and the only reason the article's 
poisoner is reinvestigated is that he had 

to boast about it. (Due to renewed interest I've 
-epr^nted the section on plant poisons). 

She quotes my figure of 60*000 PHJBs eold nat- 
ionwide over the past 17 years. While decrying 
such a spread of my vorH ehe gives no thought to 
the vast circulation of the L.A. Times* probably 
a million or more. So now several hundred t>vu- 
sand potential Borgiaa know just )ev to do it* 
far more than I could have reached. 

L.A.'s favorite hunting sport* drive-by shoot- 
ings* have killed scores so far this year. That's 
a problem for the game warden. But if they follow 
Denise's advice they might consider sending ole- 
ander-laced plazas to their rivals instead of 
shooting them. 

The whole article was bom out of the alleged 
murder by poison of Tim (Belly) Waters* a Burbank 
coff in-stufter, by David (Cnuckiesj Sconce* enucK- 
les, who along with his parents is charged with 67 
counts of naughtiness* such as selling body parts 
of uncomplaining clients, clearly had the intent- 
ion of depriving Belly of certain of Ms Constitu- 
tional Rights. 

Chuckles borrowed an old edition of the PKJH 
from a friend as a guide to dealing with Belly. 
Poisons were the appropriate choice but* unless he 
Was already familiar with oleander, the PMJB ref- 
erence would have been inadaquate. 1 suppose he 
could hiave gotten the pertinent information from 
the library. He might alao have ceaied his local 
Poison Control office. A simple request for their 
booklet describing most household products to be 
kept out of the reach of children, as veil as 

long screws so there is a 
space between the screw heads 
and the wood and vith the ends 
of the screws projecting on 
the outsides of the wooden 

Next, take a six-foot ext- 
ension cord and cut off the 
plug. Cut a couple of feet off 
one of the insulated vires and 
strip the insulation off an 
inch from both ends. Wrap one 
end around a projecting screw. 
Fit the other end to a small* 
lead fishing sinker. 

Strip the insulation from 
an inch of the alv^rter wire 
and wrap that end around the 
other projecting screw. 

Strip off an inch of insui- 
lat from ths other wire and 
fix It to another small > lead 
fishing sinker. 

Now for the nichrone virs» 
it usually comes colled and is 
bought at the hardware store. 
Hold the coil and pull an end 
of the wire to straighten ths 
length you want. Wind the ends 
around the two screw heads so 
it sags* as etvvn. 

Put the two lead sinkers 
into a shallow* glass contain- 
er. Don't let them touch or 
you will burn out the unit. 

You now have a salt-water 
rheostat, minus the salt. Pure 
water is a poor conductor of 
electricity, But the gradual 


plants also dangerous to, the yo\ing vould have giv- additLon oC salt will cause 

the vater to bubble and this 

en him a much more detailed description of his 
sought-after weapon. 

So Chuckles was hardly the in^ressionabl^ dim- 
wit so often pictured as being turned on by the 
PMJB. * 

Another fun thing about such smears is the 
"authorities’* quoted in judging cny material. They 
come out of the woodwork to tell >»w dar^erous is 
the PNJB . Neil Livingstuiie expresses the Estab- 
lishment hysteria regarding lethal knowledge in 
the hands of us just plain folks. 

He pretends to despise my books yet he has not 
examined any, My books are not meant to teach any- 
one Co do anything to anybody. They teach the mak- 
ing of weapons to use against aggression and fu- 
ture tyranny. He could not cite one case of any 
cop being hurt or any child blowing himself up be- 
cause of the PHJB. When he says the PHJB is lack- 
ing proper safety procedures, he is as much as 
admitting he has never examined it. K cursory per- 
usal of NEW IMPROVED PMJB gives clear warnings* 

Page 79, Piashpovder. 1st paragraphs Page 105, col- 
umn I, last paragraph* Page KO, all of INTROOOC- 
TIONj Page 195, coluim 1, bottom. Page 201, coluim 
1. top. These are just a f^ew i spotted by riffling 
through. Older editions are equally highlighted 
with warnings. Proper procedures, safety precau- 
tions and the accuracy of the formulas stouid be 
evident to any knowledgeable reader. 

LWingatonf no duubt styles hi"*self as an ex- 

CARSON ARC FURNACE Continued on next page 

This simple carbon arc fur- 
nace produces a very high tem- 
perature at the tips of the 
carbon roda, it also produces 
a blinding light, so never 
look directly at it unless you 
ars wearing very dark glasses. 

Cut two flashlight batter- 
ies at both ends until you get 
to their carbon rods. Clean 
off the rods and wrap an inch- 
wide strip of the wtai cover 
of a battery tightly around 
one end of each rod. 

With a wooden frame, as 
shown, push the rods through 
holes drilled through both up- 
rights, with the metal wrap- 
inga firmly in the holes, but 

with the rods loose enough to 
move back and forth, 

Next, bore two holes into a 
small clay flowerpot with a 
drill or a Gcrewdriver. Mount 
the pot on a brick and push 
the rods into the l¥5les until 
they are about a quarter of an 
inch apart. 

Connect the bare vires of 
the extension cord to the met- 

Bseans it is conducting the 

House current is much too 
strong for such a short length 
of nichrome wire or flashlight 
battery carbon rods. NitJ^ut 
the rheostat, the insulated 
wire would melt or a fuse 
would be blown. 

Now plug in to an outlet, 
add the salt until there are 
bubbles and watch the nichrome 
wire turn red. 

Etch a line around the bot- 
tle with the etcher. 

Hold your bottle 
*o the etched part rests on 
the glowing wire and turn it 
slowly. The glass win begin 
to ping. The bottle should 
snap apart cleanly after one 
or two revolutions. 

Smooth the edges by rubbing 
with emery paper. 

Cft/tOfl rod 

al wrappings, held either by 
soldering or tape. Put in the 
plug and pour sooie salt into 
the bovt. Then slowly move the 
rods until they barely touch. 
At this point there should be 
a lot of sparks. (When pushing 
the electrified roda in or out 
use rubber -covered grip pli- 
ers). Pull them slowly apart 
so you will get an arc. 

With a Ceramic cover for 
your furnace you can generate 
enough heat to melt metals and 
do many other interesting 


peril on terrorism, since he wrote a book on the 
subject. Such experts may boast of having read 
more nevspap>er articles on terrorism than most pe- 
ople but that's about as far as it goes in prac- 
tice. Since I've done considerably mote than read 
about terrorists 1*11 review his book, *’The War 
Against Terrorism'*. 

"Neil Livingstone's book is fatuous drivel from 
front to back. In describing the terrorist element 
aS such effective attention-getters, Livingstone 
teaches the violent and mentally unstable tow to 
hold the Establishment at bay and at the same time 
gain the prestige such losers could never tope for 
using their inferior abilities legitimately. He 
graphically illustrates the techniques of misfits 
to create destruction far out of proportion to 
their miniscule numbers. Any lonely and alienated 
Individual has but to read "The War Against Ter- 
rorism" to put himself and a few equally bitter 
and twisted acqua intances on the path of "resis- 
tance on behalf of The People". This book is dan- 
gerous. I do not think the First Amendment ot^ht 
to protect Chose who write books encouraging dis- 
turbed people to act out paranoid rage and murder 
fantasies. I want this book banned". 

OS course I I've not read hie book, but he 
didn't read mine either. So» there. 

Such books > however, can provide rationales for 
acts of destruction and cruelty by dis*sidents« 

They also tend bo providw the dissident with a 
picluru of li^m^elf as part of an intellectual el* 
itOi Another bock I*ve read but will not name, 
could almost serve as a terrorists* recruiter's 
manual with such plaudits as, "Yet the terrorist 
mystique has considerable attraction for alert, 
intelligent, capable individuals of all age groups 
in many countries" . 

San Di«^o County's own Conrad Greyson bemoans 
the fate of the six kids in his area blown up each 
year. He says, "we always find these manuals". He 
didn't name mine but I'll bet he would have if he 
did. But he seems to blame the damage on the manu- 
als instead of the kids, or their apathetic par- 
ents . 

L liked his account of "raiding" the house of a 
17 year-old who blew himself up with homesiade ex- 
plosives. Conrad seems to blame Desert's IMPROVIS- 

But he was a young man, old enough to join the 
Marines, with permission. Nor would he have neces- 
sarily gotten the idea from the book. Most likely 

continued on next page 

Claim of Poisoning 


Stirs Debate on 
‘Mayhem Manuals’ 

ilos AnfieUs Simes 
Thursday, Augusi 25, 1988 

By DENISE HAMILTON, Tim^s Staff Wnler 

Oleander is a familiar aight lo Southern 
Califormanr A darb: ^en shrub with 
pink, red or white flowen. it tolghteiu up 
Ireeway landacapet and sprouia gsiJy m 
suburban back yards. 

What ia not u well known ia that 
every inch o( this photogenic plant 
harbare a hard* to- detect and potentially 
fatal poiaon for which there li no sure 

Kurt Saxon knows. He wrote about the 
lethaJ prop e ftiea of oleander in a suilstar 
1971 book called "The Poor Man 'a James 
Bond." The aeU'publiahed text, which 
law enforcemenl offIciaU hive long de- 
plored. uUs readers how to kill people, 
commit areon and build bombs. 

Earlier this year, both the ancient 
plant and the atomic* age book came 
under new scrutiny after wlineeses at a 
prehmmery hearing lesufied that Paaa* 
dene funeral operator David 
Sconce laid M had poisoned Burbank 
mortician Timothy Waters, 

Waters. 24, died April i. 1985, st 
CaxnariUo’s ricaaanv Valley Hospital. 
tJnttI May. when toxicologleal lesti 
turned up traces of oleander in Waters’ 
blood and tissue, it had been ihouglu that 
me dOO'pound mortician died or natural 
causes brought on by obesity. 

"n^c Veniura County disinct attorney's 
office IS renewing ihe new evidence but 
has not determined wnether lo charge 
the 22 -year -old Sconce in 'Waters’ death. 
Sconce is awaiting trial in Pasadena 
Superior Court along with his parents. 
Jerry and Laujieanne Lamb Sconce, on 
ff7 felony and misdemeartor charges 
regarding the operation of Lamb Funeral 
Home In Pasadena. 

The charges rar^ from mutilating 
corpses to selling body parts. David 
Sconce also faces chargee of soliciting the 
mui'ders of hia grandparoits and of a 
deputy distncL attorney who was the 
prosecutor in the preliminary hearing. 
The ScMwes have denied aU the charges. 

Quest for InferaiatSon 

Nonetheless, the revelation cf death by 
pcisonmg sent coroners, prosecutors and 
police investigators scurrying to learn 
more about the 12 or ao known cases of 
oleander poisoning and to obtain copies of 
The Poor Man's James Bond,” which is 
not widely available but is stocked in 
some survjvalisi shops. 




he had a veil -formed Idea and bought the book as a 
stop in implementing his idea. At any rate» the 
book was not at fault. Pipe boinbs are coowonLy 
shown on TV and are moron-simple. A book could on- 
ly serve to add such safety features as my idea to 
put a plastic baggie in the pipe with its top 
pressed around the threads to prevent premature 
explosion through friction. The instructions could 
not have been faulty or lacking in proper caution- 
ary procedures. Hadn’t he already inade 10 of them? 
Most likely he just got bored and careless. 

And shouldn't Conrad be grateful that the jerk 
finally goofed? What would have happened if he had 
actually used those bombs? Think about that, Con- 
rad, buddy. 

Sa I conclude with SOF's own Jim Graves wh? 
judged my civic-mindedness in experimenting with 
poisons on vinos aa '*sick-. Relatives of a murder- 
ed woman were awarded nine million dollars because 
of an obvious this-gun-for-hire ad run by SOF. I 
chink Tim is a little late in recognizing what 
sick is. 



THE GUN RLNNER 1986 by KurtSaxOfi 

on March 27 20/20 aired a aegeent on "Terrorist laanu* 
ale*'. One obvious purpose was to expose and dleccedlc the 
sellers of books on homemade weaponry aa de-facto terror- 
lets and heartless proflteere. Another object vae to show 
that such material la a clear and present danger to soci- 
ety. 20/20 failed miserably on both counts. 

20/20 obviously spent a great deal of tls« researching 
the subject, but When the theme le weapons of any Kind, 
their liberal bias renders them heipleea in a frenry of 
hysterical inferences and nsM-calling. 

Their first target waa THC AMARCmST COOKBOOK, com- 
piled by Hill lain Rowell. With its emphaale on narcotics 
and Powell's antl-eetabiiehmnt propaganda, it vae the 
nearest 20/20 ever got to a terrorist manual. 

One Interviswse vaa Morris Lltwak of The Larder. 11106 
Magnolia Blvd,, N. Hollywood, CA 91601. His main line is 
survival products but he stocks books on weaponry for 
those would protect their goods free l^>rovident loot- 
era all survival! at B will have to contend with. 

An interesting part and an endorsement of such books, 
especially mine, was a trip to drug and herdvare stores 
by a 20/20 eog^loyee. She had a shopping list of ordinary 
Iboma to be used for oaking bombs. Explosives expert, Jack 
HcGeorge, assured 20/20 that her purchases would make ex- 
plosives equivalent to five or six sticks of dynamite. 

They next spent 35 seconds on the nut who threatened to 
blow up the Washington Monument four years ago. Ratrolman 
Jim Povell, first officer to sxaeine the truck believed to 
have been filled with explosives, said of such manuals; 

"It is a detriment to us. It*s a detriment to all lav en- 
forcement officers and the general public aa well**. But 
there were no explosives in the truck and tte event had no 
tie-in to books of any sort. 

D^ing ny interview they had the camera on for about 
30 minutes as I discussed many aspects of the weapons book 
field. They cut my part down to 90 seconds. I told them my 

U also raised coccams ihst texts such 
as Saxon's could prove dangerous in (he 
hands of vwlem. menially unstable indj* 
viduals and sparked debate on censorship 
vs. freedom of the press. 

Neil Livingstone, a Georgetown Um* 
versUy professor who wrote "The War 
Against Terrorism/' called Saxon's book 
"an airociogs piece of literature that 
servef! no public interest*' He wants it 

"Kurt’s books teach people Row lo kill 
cops and teach children how to blow 
Uiemaelves up,” he added. "I don't ihlnk 
the rifsL Amendment ougbi to protect 
you if you wnie a book on how to murder 

Law enforcement oflteiala dub books 
nch as Saxon's "nayhein nanualt^ and 
aay they ofun Hod such texts when they 
raid Illegal ei^loiivss laba. drug tiba and 
lentwlft hide-ouu. Although it b diffl* 
cult to tie violem Wddenta directly to the 
books, police paycholoftfu say the nan* 
ualfl are dingeroui because ihey encouf' 
age disturbed people to act out paranoid 
rage and murder lanusies. 

Lt Don Beasley, who heads the Loe 
AngeJet Pobce D^artmeni’s axpJosivex 
aqu^. says enminais often photxopy 
and paaa around pages of 'The Poor 
MaD’i Jamas Bond" and "The Anarchist 
CnoLbook." anotha/ such lome'hai was 
popularinthe I9d0i. 

The police aay danger also arvci 
beeauia the books occaiionalky pnnt 
tnaccurate chemical fcrfflulas or do hot 
Indicau proper safety pfocedurai Liv. 
ingstone said this is especially true of 
"The Poor Man's Jamas Bond," 

'"We gel an average of six kids s yur 
who blow themselves up, and when we 
gel to their house, we ilwayi find these 
fflanuali. " aaid San Diego County Sher- 
iff's Sgt. Conrad Grayson of the bomb and 
arson squad. 

Last year, the squad raided sn titan- 
dkk house slier 1 17.year*old boy blew 
lumaelf up with homemade explostvei 
Ten pipe bomba and a how-to text titled 
"Improvised Munitions Black Book" 
were found 

Even those most siiixnchly commltied 
to press freedom and the pubUe'a right to 
bear arms recoil at some aspects of 
Saxon's book whleb includes a chatty 
section on bow to test homemade poison 
concoetiona on homeless wlooa. 

'Thav's pretty aic'k." said Jim Graves, 
managing editor of Soldier of Portune, 
the guns- and .adventure magazine. 

Saxon claJnu his book has sold 60.000 
copies, many via mall order Pew main> 
stream bookstexec stock 'The Poor Man's 
Janies Bood": some bookshop owners 
interviewed say they don't want ii on 


i&aln purpose iox pubiiahlos TH£ poor HAN*S JAMES BOND, THE their sfieWes. 

WEAPONEER and Biy booKa on icieitcy was aoney. 

Of ccurae I write and eonv^lle for money. An author and/ 
or conpiler hasn't arrived until he can laake a living from 
the sale of his vor)t to a satisfied sarlcet. But since they 
were unable to show ma up as a radical paj^hleteer turning 
out terrorist propaganda after a hard day's work as a dish 
washer, they meant to project me as an irresponsible prof- 

Reaching, as 30/20 did to Justify Powell's stateeents, 

20/20 wasted a full two minutes recountiiv) the case of 
Texan, John Chansior, who tried to buy ricin from Hinnery 
in 1962. It was a lurid case, but again had nothiT^ to do 

‘Bowuioi tad Martiaar’ 

■Tm lore iwo ways. It’s a free speech 
issue on one hand and iepIoraDie on the 
other,” said Doaier Haiunond. ihe former 
president of the Southern CaJtfornia 
Booksellers' Asm. and the trade-book 
manager at the DCLA student bookstore, 
which does not carry the book 
Saxon, a foUay 56- year- old who lives 
lA Harrison, Ark., and pubiisAes survj- 
vabst books says with glee that nis book 

with weapons books. Had Chanslor bought my WEAPONEER, made wQJ come m handy "when the Russians 

his own ricin and killed his wife, there would have teen 
some Justification for airing the case in conjunction with 
‘‘terrorist inanuals'* . 

In a letter John Hinnery wrote to me in 1962 concernir^ 
Chanslor, he told to Chanslor had contacted him through 
his publisher. Obviously, Chanslor had read one or tore of 
Hinnery* s books but the ricin process isn't there. So the 
Chanslor spot on 20/20 was Irrelevant concerning Hinnery* s 
or any other such books. 

Moving on, 20/20 said, "Robert McBrisn has been helping 
to coordinate the Federal Government's fight against ter- 
rorism for almost IS years (With little if any success, I 
might add). He's one of Washington's nost knowledgeable 
experts" . 

HcBrian told 30/20, -Ws've had bosibers wh»*ve admitted 
they have used the manuale in concocting their devices. 
Soto of the Ifterature has been found in a variety of the 
iTOridsn terrorist type groups. 

There was a raid last ‘year or. the strongl^Td of the CSS, 
an extreme right radical organisation. The coepound had 
varUuB booby-t:apv« weapons, illegal and otherwise, 'okn 
of explosives and manual^ on the premisis on how to use 
the explosives and hov to make exploeives” . 

Since I'm quite familiar with the now defunct CSA (see 
page Rl of THE GUN RUNNER). 1 Know that this reference, 
too. was irrelevant, over the years the CSA had several 
dsinolitions and weapons experts, trained by tte military. 
They nevsr really needed such manuals. So Ellison bemt^ a 
fag church and a pipeline of sose sort, as 1 rseember. Any 
of several of his memters could have built the bombs with- 
out referring to any manual. 

The film footage 30/20 shoved on the CSA ordnance con- 
ta.ncd no improvised weaponry or manuals on the subject. A 
copy of the PHJB was stevn on tte original film but had 
teen purchased only a couple of lonths before the raid ard 
so had not been used. 

Tte CSA was a cult which, over the shears, had collected 
weapona and exploaives with great seal. They didn't get 
their knowledge of weapons, Inpro vised or otherwise, from 
our bonks. So the CSA's antics ace also iCcml event to the 
question of out manuals being a detriaient to society. 

Kefir ian continued t "Juveniles are learning from this 
■ort of thing. A substantial number of ei^losives inci- 
dents that are investigated .every year by Federal Agents 
and by local authorities involve accident e. Unfortunately, 
many of these accidents are by curiosity eeekers and the 
interested juveniles who decide they are going to see if 
^hey can make ttemaelves a bond^s see if they can saKe 
*QTOthing go boos. And it's very tragic". 

Tragic, yes. But what about parental supervision? And 
how many such tragedies haps>ened to Ignorant youngsters 
^^'ying to recreate a bomb from s TV show as opposed to our 
books? Only the inference is there. 

A few veeKs previous to the airing of the "terrorist 
''manual" segment, 20/20 did a piece on a psychotic doctor 
coiwlcted of poisoning seven of his patients. He had also 
tried to kill his co-workers with iced tea laced with ant 

and Martiani invade.* 

hij; deleted ihe oleander 
p<Mson <nir> in his "New Improved 
Poor Man s James Bond” because, 
hcaaid, "it wasn I fanciful enough.” 
The lection originally read. 
'Olcandcrt are common floweri 
but arc about aa poisonous as anv 
plaru. The hear! is iiffecied very 
quickly and severely Both the 
branches and (he Inave^ arc !»• 

Kxpens say only a fraciion of 
vlvaudcr poisonings, '.vheiher acci* 
Omul or imcruianal homicides, are 
reported Dr Krednc Rieden a 
furcflaic wxicoinglst with Naiionai 
Medical Services in rhiiadrilphu. 
s.,id children, in parucular, are 
>ii)»rTpi«ii;e iij olt'amier poii^onin;! 
Utaose (r.u.' pul tni.iga m ihnr 

UicUcrv saw sympioms mriuM 
koin.Uig, diarrhea. indigCiUnn and 
« conira^Uflg of the heart until the 
mwacic cramjH cause the blood to 
Slop flowing, which can result in 

"Once the poisoning has m* 
furred, u is extremely difficult to 
countmet n It ii mostly m Cod's 
hanUs.” Rieders said. 

A minuscule amouni^f the plant 
I > enough to be f s la I , experts sa id . 

Df P. Warren Loveli, Ventura 
County’s coruner, says be knows of 
two oleander poisomng cases— one 
in which a 96 *yeaf.old woman m 
Northern California comimtUQ 
suiodc b> eating oleander leaves 
and a case in which a Haitian herb 
doctor u> Florida prescribed olean- 
der loa for ailing patients and 
accidcnulty killed one. 

Then there are the unconfirmed 
(ales, such as I he one s bou t the Boy 
Scout who barbecued a wiener on 
an olcande r bra neb and d led 
Waters, who ran the Burbank- 
based Alpha Society, a cremation 
service, died m agony after two 
days of bloody vomiting and diar- 
rhea at the Camarillo house of his 
motfaer, Mary Loo Waters. A n 
autopiiy pe^opmed by the vemura. 



Capl«s of the PKJS end THE HfiAPOMBSn vere shown siong 
his effects, alon? with various poieons. But vae a doc- 
tor r with the training and vlth easy access to sany pois- 
onous substances. I've never written about snt poison and 
the deaths of bis seven victies were not described as a 
result of anything he had read in ey booKs. But again, 
there were ey books, there vexe soee ted lee. taut no direct 
connection • 

for such a prestigious prograe as 20/20 to raise an 
alarn ateut our "manuals for nay hen*, "terrorist litesa- 
tute". etc., without one clearcut exasple is shaaeful. And 
if hcBrian is such an expert and so close to the. subject 
and so willing to collaborate with 20 / 20 , why co«ildn*t he 
have supplied then with st least one Irrefutable exaipie? 

I've sold over 50,000 copies of the PKJB. Pslsdin pub- 
lished 300,000 weapons and related books last yesr alone, 
and with Looinpan ics . Delta, Desert, Alpha, etc. | eilliona 
over the years. On the surfsce. this should be slaradng. 

But where are the body counts? Where are the exa^les of 
erines which would not have been coseitted without eueh 

What with the hostility shown us by the eedia it would 
be reasonable to expect thsB to rub our noses in actual 
exanplea if they had thee. A few years ago a nan answered 
a ciaaaified ad in SOLOIU Of FORTUNE, becam a nercenary. 
vent to Africa and got captured and was executed. The eed- 
ia had K field day. "The nan would be alive today except 
for SOLDIER Of FORTUNE" . they all said. (The man was an 
adult and tesponsibis for his actions. SOf was bisseiessl. 

Recently, SOf ran an ad by a *an in an Aesricsn prison 
who wanted to hire siercenaries to help hie escape. The ad 
was cinsverad and four or fiva marcenarles joined hie in 
prison. Again, a tredU barrage of accusations against SOF. 

So if «Johnny, due to a lack of parental supervision, is 
found with his hands and face blown off and one of our 
’iria>)oait giued to the ceiling with his blood, can anyone 
doubt the media reaction? Or if tomorrow a terrorist bo* 
gins throwing bombs he could not have aiade without one of 
our books, will not the eedis lay the biaee at tte pub- 
lisher's door as they did with SOF? 

Although we can't be expected to act as surrogate par- 
eras or public guardians anyway, 20/20 stewed an extrese 
lack of profSBSionslise and future credibility in accusing 
us of contributing to violence, using nothir^ but infer- 
ence and Innuendo. Where is the journslisn of Joseph Rui- 
itzer? Where are the objective investigative reporters? 

The 20/20 ttaff sought to expose our field, teping to 
find trails littered with the b^ies of innocents leading 
bo our firms. No bodies. They nay have hoped to stew a 
scroungy band of an^i-aocial. murderous nihilists fament- 
ir\g revolution and terrorism wherever they could. Insteed, 
they found only well-educated, cleancut authors and pub- 
lishers, unaffiliated with any radical groups and with not 
a terroristic aim among us. 

You might wonder why the red la so fears and hates us 
that they would strike out so blindly. I have a theory you 
might consider. For years, the liberal news media has been 
pushing their cacreras into the faces of every violent sed- 
iocrity screaming, "Down vlth America 

The jnedia tea consiatehtly furthered tbs causes of tte 
weak minded and destructive •dlsadvant^ed" of every race, 
creed and color. They have encouraged tte entry into our 
country of millions of illegal aliensi diseased, criminal, 
illiterate and perverse, Our streets are filled with sava- 
ges who rape, rob, maim and kill, slsnst with lte«nity. 

Having destroyed our republic and uteecmined their own 
democracy, they fear the violence and terrorism ttey thsm- 
sel^s have nurtured. Yet, as the scorpion vtio stung to 
°®ath the frog carrying him across the stream, because it 
was his nature, they follow their ovn natures still. 

Coumy Coroner's oCfice said Wa* 
icrs died of naiural causes, eom- 
pounded by Hie enreme obesity 
and falty deposits m bis liver. 

Some authomies today question 
that conclusion and say the coroner 
should have earned out loxieolofi* 
cal teats. 

"The autopsy looked reaJ funny 
to me. " uid Wait Lewis, the deputy 
district attorney in Pasadena who 
iflim))/ handled the Sconce case, 
but was removed after Sconce was 
accused of soliciting his slaying. 

"Here's a guy whos 24 and 
weighs 300 pounds, and he died of 
fatly Uepomw in the liver’" Lewis 
asked rhctoncally 
Lovell, who became Ventura 
County's coroner in laie 1^85, said 
the previous coroner indicated he 
planned to perform toxicological 
teas But Lovell said he loft the 
po.''! m J uly . 1 985 , wiihoul doi n g so 
Both tevell and others point out 
that standard uuncolofical tests 
would not have turned up ihe 
pri'SCiKe of oleander, however, be* 
cause It requires a specific teat. 

* If you don't suspect oleander, n 
would he way tlown on your Ust of 
lAing 0 to luok for." Rieders said 
Jt wasn't uniiJ Lhu year Ihji the 
auihuriues began to suspect fouJ 
play. UuriTjg an fl 'month iieshng 
Pttddena Superior Court, wannu* 
es testified that Sconce hired two 
men to beat up Waters on Feb. 12. 

David Edwards, i former Lamb 
employee, testified that Sconce 
borrowed the Saxon book to learn 
how to poison a neighbor's dog, 
Witnesses said that in March 
Sconce went uy a SImi Valley 
restaurant where Waters was eat- 
ing and told witnesses that he 
dropped poison Into Walen’ mtxed 
dnnJc when he left the table. 

The motive, according to wii- 
nesses, was that Sconce wanted to 
silence Waters because Ihe Bur- 
bank mortician suspeeVed that 
LAmb Funeral Home was conduct- 
ing iiicfal. multiple cremations 

One ceiimsie testified that the 
p^son was not strong enough, so 
Sconce poisoned Waters again, 
causing a heart attack. Cellmates 
lestifk^ that Sconce bragged about 
poisoning Waters, 

The Vemura County diairci at- 
torney's office sold It probaOly will 
not decide whether to file murder 
charges against Sconce until Sep- 
tember, because the prosecutor 
reviewing the evidence is on vaca- 





A pair of ne^le‘*no6e<i pli- 
ers and a pair of regular pli- 
ers and a fev clothes hangers 
will allow you to ever eo 

rriany different pieces of lab 
equipment, as shown. 


Prussic, or hydrocyanic, acid is one of rhe 
most poisonous compounds known. A stu* 
dent once described it as being so poisonous 
that a drop on the tongue of a dog is enough 
to kill a man. Na 2 is and Communists used to 
murder each other with it before HitJer came 
to power. 

It is shot from a water pistol into the vic- 
tim’s face. The victim automatically gasps in 
surprise and droplets of the acid are drawn up 
the nose to the olfactory nerves. Before he re* 
alizes he has been attacked he is unconcious. 
Within three minutes of his collapse he is 

A few drops in the mouth is also fatal. So 
just consider that if a man is shot in the face 
with prussic acid he will drop dead before he 
can move ten feet. 

The attacker usually hides the water pistol 
in a folded newspaper and shoou the victim 
in the face while passing him on the street or 
on a staircase. The victim stops in surprise and 
collapses and dies of an apparent heart attack. 
The attacker simply keeps on going and pass- 
ersby gather to gawk and discuss their own 
coronaries. 1 chink it would be great fun to 
watch what would happen to some poor son 
of a bitch who tried to give the victim mouth* 
to-mouth resuscitation. 

Small batches of prussic acid are made with 
your still. The ingredients needed arc 15 pans 
of potassium ferrocyanide, nine parts of dis- 
tilled water, nine parts of strong sulfuric add 

and five parts of calcium chloride. The cal- 
dum chloride can be bought or it can be 
made by covering broken up bits of black- 
board chalk with hydrochloric acid and let- 
ting if soak in well and then drying it. 

To start the process, put the potassium 
ferrocyanide into the flask first. Then put in 
the water and swirl the flask to mi.x both in- 
gredients well. Next, the sulfuric add is pou^ 
cd in. slowly, and the mess is well stirred with 
a glass rod or tube. 

The calcium chloride, in coarse fragments, 
is put into the receiving bottle ind a two hole 
SK>pper is put in with a tube leading outside. 

Measurements are by weight. Consider the 
parts as ounces. Depending on the size batch 
you need, the measurements arc cut in half 
until you reach the quantity you want. Below 
are four sample size batches starting with 15 
pans, or ounces, and going down the scale to 
one and seven-eighths parts, or ounces. Mea- 
suring parts is easy once you get the hang of 






roasnuM fo«oc^«iwle 




1 7/9 cft. 

totaled wtr 

9 Ok* 

4H oc. 


2 2/8 c«. 


4H o:. 

2U oz. 

1 1/8 OC, 

9 oc* 

2K oc. 


5/8 os. 

If you lack a lab scale you can measure 
with plastic cups on a $3.00 postage scale 
bought at any office supply store. To do this, 
say you have a 500 ml fiask and want the 
surest batch, batch four. 

You first pur a plastic cup on the postage 


scale and turn the little knob that causes the tants wear a cloth mask soaked in a brine so- 

scalc to register no weight with the cup on it. 
You don^t want to include the cup as part of 
the weight. 

Then, while watching the scale, slowly pour 
the potassium fcrrocyanide into the cup until 
the scale reads one and seven-eighths ounces 
or just a hair short of two ounces. Another 
cup is put on the scale and water is slowly 
poured in until it measures one and one- 
eighth ounces or just a hair over one ounce. 
The same goes for the sulfuric acid. Bits of 
calcium chloride are dropped into another 
cup until the scale reads five-eighths of an 
ounce or a hair over one-half ounce. The 
other batches are measured likewise. 

A word of caution is in order concerning 
sulfuric acid. Never pour water into the acid 
as that would produce a violent reaction. Al- 
ways pour the acid slowly into the water. 

When you distill the mixture in the flask, 
watch closely to sec that the stuff docsn*t 
bubble up into the neck. If it boils up into the 
tube you 11 have a real mess. If it starts to 
head for the neck of the flask, quickly remove 
the alcohol lamp. When the bubbles subside, 
return the lamp and continue to watch. 

ludon of bicarbonate of soda. This goes over 
the nose and mouth. 

When the distillate covers the calcium 
chloride in the receiving bottle the action is 
stopped and the apparatus is allowed to cool. 
Then the tubes are removed and the distillate 
is poured into another bottle with a good 
stopper. Light and air cause prussic acid to 
lose its potency quickly. Its container should 
be uTapped with aluminum foil and stored 
upside down in the refrigerator. A few drops 
of hydrochloric acid wiU help to preserve the 
prussic acid. 

What is left in the flask is the most beauti- 
ful Prussian blue dye. Don’t pour it down the 
sink where it svill become a pollutant. Instead, 
use it to dye a shirt. This is yet another exam- 
ple of recycling. 

If batch four is made, only about a half 
ounce of prussic acid is obtained. In a small 
water pistol this will be enough for several 
hits and will at least get you a scat on the bus. 

Although deadly poison, prussic acid Is 
only about as strong as vinegar and so leaves 
no burns on the skin. This is small consolation 
for the victim. 

While this stuff is being made, wise Mili- 

Prussic acid; Dick’s* 1872 

8M7« EydreoxAalo TbbUalio 
Mllec priimc acid, ud cooaJeU of » Uitm. 
oolorloH. isd TulfttUe btrlof » tkntm 
odorof po4ob korxMli. ItVoUi Fi^. 

feed uUdidM lU iMdflo gnfiif li 

.7068. Ik coaaUtntM OM or tta moit 
poUou kaowa. Iti c«ltf mo ktdkoctax- 

ATM tad METALItlO PlBiriC Odd, 

tvta irbon dllnCo, ii rwy lUbio to iponM- 
neou deoompoilUoii, wd tbifl epoedilj oosors 
^bon It \t axDo«6d to tbo Ikbt. To proiooto 
iCk onnrTftuon, ft ii ucu to ttuzoakd the 
botM oontfti&lnf It vith thick puplo pBpor. 
Aod to keep them inroTted in Bii obMore ait- 

It II axDoied to too lubt. To proiooto 
iCa onaerTBUon, ft ii ucaT to atuzoakd the 
botM oontai&lnf It vith thick puplo papor, 
Aod to ke^ thorn inroTtod in Bii odmuo ait- 
aotfoo. Tqo Addition ot % tsxj miAll qosi* 
tit/ oC Bioriatiu ocid taodara it tsQob loaa 
Uiihle to flhAn gflt, And is genei^lr mode bj 
uiuvdfoctcLiara lor thAt pvpoae. 

3948. To Ohtftm Aa^L^droua PtumIo 
Aold. P\iro cr7st4Licod reauo)*BDidB of po* 
Uadiim, 15 pans; wbUt and s&lpbaxio add. 

tbfi prucoaa aa aooa &a the ohluride io the 
o«i/er is perfecd^ covoc^ tke diatllled 
fluid, tnd aeoa&t the acid into a bottlo fu. 
nishad vlth a good atopper. Xeep it in the 
dark, with the bottle in/erted. 

8949. Dilute Pruaalo Acid. Mix 41 

E Jn 

as mnriatw add with I floid canoe dia- 

killed waUr, add 6(H ffraina oeaofda of eilTer, 
and Aake tofekher a a veu atopped phliJ. 

Wheu the pret;p4ka4e haa inbifdad, pw off the 
clear dilate eud aad keep for oae. (Sm yo. 
3W7.) <r. Art,) 

8950. Teaki fWthaPraaeaoaoFPrua* 
do AdA U la dJatlBgniafced bj a akroag 
odor of bHker almooda. 

Xantrahasd bj poteah, aod taied with a 
aolQtioQ of mlpbate or tiaotim of Iron, it 
giras a blue prwdtate, or ooo tnrafng blno 
Ob the addikion of oihita eol^ario omuriatio 
add. T^ia test aaj in appued bj’ apraading 
a ainfia drop of aoration of potasia oTer the 
bottom of a white Bocer or poccelain oapaole, 
and iBTertiag it OT« another Toaeel ik the 
aame aUe eonliuning ibe lutter ondar etaiu- 
laatioo. AAer 3 to 3 mfunteA remove the 
nppar capsola ; add to the potaaaa apon It, a 
aiagla drop of a aolaUos of ralpbata or tiae- 
tere of iroB, and axpoaa it to the air for a lew 
eaoondii Kazt ads 1 or 3 dmpe of dilate 
aalphoho add. wboa a Uoa color vUl be da* 
Teloped if hTdioc/BBio add is praeent in the 
matter tasted. 

Ifikrate of eilvar r^raa a white clottp pro* 
obitato, eoldple ia ao&iag naif «oid; and 
which, when dried and beMed in a teat taba, 
erolree fhsiee of opanogea. which buru with 

a Tldel or bluiih colored flame. ± watch 
gla% moistened with thia teat and invartad 
over matter coatainfng h^drocyanle aeld, be* 
comae opaque and white from the funsatioc 
of cyanide of allvar. 

UebfF* teit fa oenMdared the most delicate. 
If Olsten a watob-dau or poieeldo capsule 
with 1 or 3 dropa k rellow nydioaulphuRt of 
ammonia ; inTeit it over the xnatter as befnre, 
and after a few mhmtei dry ft with a gentle 
heat. ▲ glau rod dipped in a solution of a 
peraaJt or aeeqniaah oi iron, drawn over the 
glass, will form a bbod*red streak If the 
Boallett quaotitj of hydrooyacio acid is pres* 

8961, TeotCbr tha Strength of Prvia- 
aio Add. For estimating the strength of 
the eommareial acid the foTlowIne plan, pro* 
posed by Br. Ure, will be found ''very exact 
and oenveoJeat. To 100 grains, or any other 
ooQTenlent qointlty of the aeid 
aunaJlnhial, add in inoeeselw, small quu- 
titiee of the peroxidB of merenrr in flna 
powder, till it oeases to be dissolved on aAta- 
tsoQ. The wedght of the red pieelpUate tai^ 
op being divide by 4, girse a patient repre- 
senting the quantity of real pnaslo acid 
present. By weighing out befbrehand, on a 
piece of paper orawat^ gtaas,40 or 50 



id tlie peroxide, reddTiel wd^t of it 
shove dt oikce the eoentitj Aa 

operuioQ mar be uv« 7 e eoapletad in fire 
minoUi^ for w red pr»lpitat« dieealree wd 
rroidlf in the dBnto praesio edd| vith tiu aid 
of eUut upUtion, ee sngv diieo^ee in ir»- 
tsT. SbooM ^ preeeooe of muriatic add be 
auipectcd. tben the difltreace in the roUtilitr 
□f proedete and muriate of 1 m 

had reooQjH bovHh adranta^: tha farmer 
Bzbaliac at a rar^ ^tle beat the latter re- 
a eobliaung lempevatve of aboet 
300^ Fahi. Aft*>y iddisc ^Mrrwu^i^ liii difbt 
exoeee to the proaaio aM, if ve er^oiate to 
diyciew at a beat of va maf mkt fioia 
tba retdilaarT eal*ammot^M the ^aaaii^ of 
mnriado add present. Btot grain or Mi- 
ammoniac eoneepende to .ASs graine of mn« 
riatio add. 

Encyclopedia Britarmica, 1892 

PRUSSIC ACID, the familiar &ame for a dangerooal/ 
poUoDooa, though chomicallj feeble^ acid, known ecionti* 
flcally oa “ hydrocyanic acid,” or “ cpAide of hydrogen,^ ia 
here taken u a eonTenient beading nndar vkkh to treat of 
cyanidea generally,^ Thin generic tarn (from averoc, tlacj 
19 not meant to liini at any generio property ; it u due 
simply to the fact that aU cranidea, is an hiatorical ifmtf t. 
ai*e derivatives of a blue pigment which waa discovered 
accidentally by Diesbacb, a Berlin colourmaker, about the 
beginning of the ISbh century. 

The foundations of oui present knowledge of cyaiudea 
were laid by Schcelo (1783), whoso dlacoverice were subse- 
quently (from ]8LL} conGnnod and supplemented, chiefly 
in the souse of quantitative determinations, by Gay-Luasac. 
Although we have uo space further historioal notee, we 
must not omit to state Uiat Gay-Irusaac, as one result of his 
work, conosived and introduced into obemistey the notion 
of the ^'compound radical/' having shown that prussic 
acid and its salts are related to the group NO in precisely 
the same way as chlorides are to chlorine, or sulphides to 
sulphur, This idea, in Iiis own eyes and in those of bis 
eon temporaries, wss greatly fortilied by his success in even 
isolating his ** cyanogens " as a substance. 

In preparing cyanogen or cyanides in Ike Ubevatory the 
operator now always starts from prussiate of potash, with 
which, accord I ng1y» w*e begin. 

cf /V/mA, (NC)jFe.K 4 + 8l^ (lyii. ffcrecyanids of 
]vt«niun ; Germ. TJlKlianpeiuah ). — This alt is b^tg nrodneod 
indi\striiUv from snimsl remM (Inds sn«l hom clippings, oVi shost, 
biood selv IS, &C.1 csrbcmtc of potash, and iroi nlings or koriags 
hi raw maUrisla The carbonate of pobish U fused atacedheat 
in an iron pctr-sliaped vewel fuspemieu within a fnrnwo, or on tbs 
ciipsl'Sinped so'c 91 n reverberatory fximac^ an'1 t1is animal aaaltcr, 
V hie: It slioulO be as dry sa possible, is than intrtdujcd in uita'.- 
Mienta along with the iron. Tbs fusion it coiitinue<1 as long as 
iiiflamnnhls g.uet sro going off; then the still fluid rims Is ladlsd 
cut and allo'vsd to cool, when it hardens into a blsck stcuc-liks 
body kiionn to the man u fact jrer as "mstaL** Whsn the brokto- 
up mntal U digested nith water in an iron vessel prasnateof potish 
pisses into soltitioii, while a bUck rssidue of ebarcoel, metallk 
ii^n, lulphiJe of iron, Ac, remains. The clarified solution, aftR 
snfficient concentration in the heat, deposits on cooling pari of 
ita pmsaiate ii lemon -yellow nnailratic crystals fgeuetufy trun- 
cated octelicJte), which are purihed hy recrystalUatiMi. Thalut 
mothcr liquoi a fuvmsh aa im^iure greeu salt, which is added to u 
freah fuse and so utiUitcd. 

1 1 former times it was believed that the pnisshte was prodnred 
Uiung the fusion process, and in the »Rbse<^nent process oTlixiTis* 
tioii simply passed into solutlooi until Liebig showed that this view 
was untenable. The fuse cannot contain ready •formed pnismU, 

this «lt at a red heat breaks up with formation of a rttidne 
of carbide of non And cyanide of potaafiinpa. The metal in fact 
When treated with dilute atcoliol gives up to it i)lain cyanide of 
potaseiom, and t!i« fully exhausted resWne yields no pruaslate on 
teentment with watee. The pnuBlata accordingly must be produced 
<lunng the process of lisi nation by the acdon of the cyanide of 
iKUttimn on some ferrous compound In the inelaL Liebic thoitelit 
tl»t It vaa partly tlK metallic iron, pirtly the aul^ids of imn 
present ui the metal, rbieh effeeteJ the convorsioii. Xwordinu to 
Biwe recent fawarches a double rilrdiicle, l(,S + Fe,8„ which is 
P™i”«®d diiniig tlio fusion (from thcrcAgcnU proper anl 
the sulphur of the organic matter and tliat of the siitpb ate of potash 
prtuent la the carbonate as an iiapurity), plays this important perl, 
^le donUe snJphnU by the action of watsr hresks up into illra- 
line wiphid^ snlpMae of iron (Fr8}, and jrilulmr. Tliia snlnhicl^ 
<d »r^ ij of a peculiar kind ; it does what etdiuan FeS doss not 

• ** wo verts tbs cyaniiio into Tinusiata, tbus. 
8J®^*^+^^‘’^J;f3 4 -(NC) 4 Fe,K 4 , whife the eliinmatol siUnbur 
« the ongiuol FeA titiltes witli another port of the (rraniae of 
jyvUwlum into sulpRocyanate, S 4 NCK - SNO . K, which latter 
salt IS tiuia fuiSTonlaNy proJared u a (rethcr iaconvcnlant) bye- 
iwoduct. Tore pruteisU of potash has UiD spcoiikgmrlty 1*83 ; it 

^ . •Il' lo»w R* water, part at 60* C., the rest 

at 100 G, but very slowly. The anhydreiM salt Is a white powder 
The orystels ds^lve In four mns of c<^d and in two perts of 
boUtng yater. It is insoluble fii, sod not dehydrated by, alcohol. 
_ ku the eomnositiou of a double salt, 

FelHC),+ #KlfC. but the idea that ii conUins t))ew two blnsry 
cyanklee is enGreir at varlsnce witli Its rrscliona Cyanide of 
^Ustanm is wadlly deoempi^ by «v«» Uie feoblort ncidi, and 
to soms siUnt ersa by water, with eUmi nation of hydrocvAnic 
acMV and on this aownnt perhaps is intensely poison oni. A solu- 
tion of ths prusiiaU remsint absolutely unchanged on crsporatiori, 
end the acteon on It even of steong scidi in the cold ranite in the 
formeticnof the hydrrg^n self, (NGl^FeU^. wH U is decomposed, it 
IS trne, but only when the mis tuts It bostel, with ercjuLion of 
hydro^nte ncid. It Is act poisonous. Its sotn lion when mixed 
rith .nitrate of sllvef does not give s precipitate of cyanido of sAver, 
NO.Aj^ and a solution of tbo two altrateSi but yields a uitary pre- 

cipitate of ths eoTQMsItion <7IC)i?o.Ag^ which coatefns all tbw 
iron : only mtrete of pclaarinm psasaa into solution. Other heavy 
incite oalta behan simherly. Oa'the strength of these oon- 
lideiutions enemuits, folia wing the lead of Lisbi& view prusslate 
« • kii»rr tomiwund of potassium, K 4 , ivitli a complex radksL 
N«C^Fe, “fmocpnogca.'' 

ifprfrtf|wate vfcfd, NO.H.— fbU leld Is prepared most con* 
yenlently from pru^te of potasli. Wbhlcr rocommon<li the 
followuif method. Ten parts of powdered pmisl a to are pieced in a 
rtlorl, ins noek of which is tumod upwards, and s (cools d doirti) 
mixtuiw of aeren parts of oU of v Itriol sod fourteen parts of water is 
Ui en added. If tho aquecras add Is wanted, tb s ax it-on d of tb • retort 
11 joined on direct to a Liebsg’S condenser, which mustbs kept vory 
cool It a corrupt of cold water. If tlw anhydrons add is d«sire<l. 
two wule-iKeked bottles (or two laigo U -tubes) charged with fused 
cblonde of calciam and kept at 80* C. by iramevsion in a wahT 
baUi of this terepciutUTf, must be inserted between tlie retort snd 
cowlnser. ju this case mors t»rticQUtly it js in di 5 pen sable to 
provide for a most efficient condensation 0 ? the rspoun : ths exit- 
end of tlie condenser should be provided with an adapter going 
down to near tlie bottom of tbe receiver, which mnit be sumunded 
by a fccariiig mixture. The teirperature of Lho latter, of course 
must not be a:iowcd to fnll to the freediig.point of tJto distillate. 
The retort is healed by means of a sand both and a brisk dutilla- 
tioA maicuiaod^ cm til tlie residue beeins to dry up. The rtiult of 
the reaction is lu accordance with the assumption Ihat the dilute 
vitriol, in Uie first instance, converta the prussUtc, <me*hatf into 
(NC)^e.H^ the olhcf into (KCbFe.K.H^ and that throu^ the 
effect of the beat these two boues decompose each other iste 
{[NC)«Fe) R^e, which remains in the residue as a precipitate, 
ard (NC]LH 4 = 8 KCH, which dlrtfls over. Real NCH is a 'colour- 
Jest ll^ld of 0 A&87 specific gravity at 18* 0., which freercs at 
-16* C. (Cay-Lussne) into a white fibrous salid. According to 
Scbulx the acid, if r^y pure, remains liquid a? - 37* 0. It boils 
at SA®*5 C. s at d **6 its vaponc-tCDsloa already amounts to half an 
atmosphere. The vapour Is la flammable and bums into eaiboaic 
acid, water, and citrugen. Tbe acid mixes with water iu all 
proportions, with cootTietloB and yet absorption of heat. The 



BolatidQ bob&Fcs on distillatloa Iik« » nen xndch»9k«l uixtnre of 
its two components. PnaxEic xcid bso a xtrj foliar powerful 
email ; moro characteristic atUl is a liikd of ^otdn^ action vbicli 
even the highlr attenuated TafKrar exerU on Uie larynx. Prtmk 
acid ia fearfully pcisoDOua; a few drops of aven the ordinary 
idiarmaceutical preparatioa (of 2 per cenL)are rafficient to kill a 
largo dog. It acta with charactertatie promptitude, especially when 
inhaled M a vapour. Even a re]aU^*<ly lar« doae, u it h^ ceico 
ffiniHl Ita way into the stomach without produdag a fatal effaci ia 
■aid to do reTstively little harm there.^ 

* The Pharmneeperia preacrlhce for t1»e medldaaf add a 

strength cf 2 per cent, of real I7CH. The two medlcioal pr^an. 
Uons kTtown as »}ua amypdofsruts ttnararun and aa OTxa l*»r»vrtu£ 
re^^tetWofy contsin pmssic add in eomblDatlon with hydride of ben* 
eoyl 0«H|.C0U. Xn neither case doei the prasaie aald pra* exist in 
the vegrtaUs materials, hut k prodaced* during the miahing proem 
which precedes tbe distil lation, by a femsatatiTe dw^mpodtioa of the 
amygdalia which tbsy contain. 

Pi-ussic acid is dianictariiticaUy prone to tnfTer ’'iponUaeoQt 


decempoBtioB."' Whotiiw the pur9 aubydrona acid really is, iu 
the itneteet aeme ol the word, still re^iuiree to he fonnd out ; the 
ordwry prenn^ou, when lept Ju a close bottle, toon turns brow® 
•ml turbid from ^'axnlinic* acid, a sulataDCB of complex constitn- 
tion. Other ^lq|s are formed at the aam e tim e. The pure aa neons 
add ii liable to amilar changes ; in its easo form late of ammonia 
alwayt forma the predomiiiaBt product This change is easilr 

NC . H sKH, + n . CXIOH. 

AB&OQii. Penii<esei4. 

A strong aoueons prassle acid, when mixed with Aiming f^ydro* 
dilorie add, la mow eowrertn] into a magnia of crystsis of sal- 
ammoniac, with fomatlon of formie ac'd!, which remains dwuoWed. 
And yet, mostsiD^Urly, the addition to the premi alien of a imall 
proportion of hydmliloHe or autphuric add lx the best means for 
prefontioft or at lesat greatly retarding, itt ^ntaDoouB cltange 
m tbe my ame diroction. Ai^neous prusslo acid acts only very 
f«^bly (if at atll OA bine litmus ; it combi iioa wHth a^] neons caustic 
alkalis bnt does not deeompoeo their carbonatea ; nor docs it act 
wpow the generality of insolnble base metalUe oxides or hydrates ; 
mercuric oxide and oxide of aleor form noteworthy excerlions to 
thie rule. 


Laughing gas was one of the earliest an* 
aesthetics. After a little while of inhaling the 
gas the patient became so happy he couldn’t 
keep from laughing. Finally he would drift off 
to a pleasant sleep. 

Some do-it-yourselfers have died while tak- 
ing laughing gas. This is because they had gen- 
erated It through plastic bags while their 

A.'nmonium Nitrate 
See Page 10^ 

First, dissolve a quantity of ammonium ni- 
trate in some water. Then you evaporate the 
water over the stovc» while stirring, until you 
have a heavy brine. When nearly all the mois- 
ture IS out it should solidify instantly when a 
drop is put on an ice cold meca! plate. 

When ready, dump it all out on a very cold 
surface. After a while, break it up and store it 

heads were inside. They were simply suffocat- in a bottle. 

ing but were too bombed out to realize it. A spoonful is put into a flask with a one- 

The trick is to have a plastic clothes bag in hole stopper, with a tube leading into a big 
which you generate a lot of the gas. Then you picric bag. The flask is heated with an alco- 
stop generating the gas and hold a small open- lamp. 

ing of the bag under your nose, getting plenty When the temperature in the flask reaches 
of oxygen in the meantime. Then, Wheel ^80 F the gas will generate. If white fumes 
To make it you start with ammonium ni- the heat should be lowered as the stuff 

trate bought from a chemical supply house or explodes at 600 F. 

which you have purified with lOC^ rubbing When the bag is filled, stop the action and 
or wood alcohol. get ready to turn on. 

DicX’s, 1872 

4060. ProtoaSde of Kitrogem This 

gae id also called nitnnts oxiiJg, aud is largely 
used by inlifiiation, undar the tiarn^ of laug\» 
inff ffas, to produce iDseuailrility to paia. It 
is colorless, posaosses aa agreeable odor, azid 
a sweetish taate. At 4&^ Fabr., and under a 
pieBRure of tO atmospheres, it ia liquid. lU 
specific gravity U 1.5241 j it supporta combus- 
tion. (md U abembed by water. Its niDst re« 
tnarkable property la its action on the system 
when inspaxea. A few deep inapiratiozxa are 

lunuUly sneoeededby a pleasing state of ex* 
citeme&t, and a strong propensity to laaghiec 
and muscular exertion, which soon subside, 
wilhoat being fiiJowed by languor or depres- 
sion. Its effects, howerer, vary with different 

4061. To PTopare laugltinff Oaa. 

EraDorate a aoluticin of nitrate of ammonia 
ontzl a drop of the fused mass placed on a 
cold {date instantly aolidifies: coal, break the 
lump into pieces, urd place it in a stoppered 



bottle. Fur ueOj a portion la iutrodaced into 
a f\a£s retort, and heat applied bjr means of a 
mrit lamp. As soon as the heat reaches 4d(P 
Fahr., protoxide of nitrogen ia oT^red, 
ma/ be collected in bladdm, bags, a gaao- 
metoTj or in the pnenmatic troogh 07er ’warm 
water. (Sea No. 4031.) Should white ^mes 
appear within the retort after the eTolutioa of 
the gas has commenced, the heat sboiUd be 
lowered, aa, when heat^ to about 600^, iu> 

tzate of ammonia explodes with violence. 
KitroQS oxide may also be made in the same 
way from CTystiiliied nitrate of ammonia, or 
bj* enoaing nitric oxide for some days over 
iron filmge, bat it requires great care in its 

4D09. Teat fbr Pure Laughing Oaa. 

Tnien pure, it is colorlosa, h^ an agreeable 
odor, and does not aff^ a solution of nitrate 
of silyer. 

Soil warm’s Manual of Pharmacology, 1917 

ifTTRoos oxm 

General StatemenL^Nitrous oodd, NtO, nitrogen monoxid or prot- 
oxiH, “Laughing Gas," was the first of the inhalation anesthetics and is 
still safest. When inhaled undilated, it produces very rapidly un- 
consciousness and anesthesia, partly by a ctiiect narcotic action, and 
partly by exclusion of oxygen. The asj^yxia Umiu its use to very short 
operations, such as the extraction of teeth. It has the advantages of 
prompt action and recovery, absence of irrilatkm and of after-effects, and 
is practically devoid of danger. By the addition of oxygen, the asphyxial 
factor may be removed. The anesthesia also becomes slower and lighter; 
but by carefully adjusting the percentage of ox>'gen (5 to 10 per cent.), a 
satisfactory d^ree of surgical anesthesia can be mainfained for long 
pwjods, without letting the asphyxia obtain dangerous proportions. 
Nitrous oxid is e^iedally valuable in the “Gas-Eiher Sequence, by 
avoiding the unpteasant features of the indoction of ether anesthesia. 

InhaUthm of tTndiluted N}0.— For short operations, as in dentistry, 
the gas is administered ihrough a tight-fitting mask, so that all air is 
excluded. The symptoms run a very rapid course: the prtiimincry 
tftcu consist in a sweetish taste; numbness; exhilaration (lau^ter); con- 
^iion; deeper and quicker respiration; and fuller pube. Partial ones- 
tkejia, with loss of consciousness, ensues in twenty to thirty seconds. 
The patient U subject to dreams and the anesthesia is imperfect. The 
reflexes are preserved and excitement ma)' be present, espectaUy if the 
patient is disturbed. The respiration is still regular, deep and quickened; 
the pulse full and rapid; the pupils enlarged; the face dusky, livid or 
pallid; the eyelids twitching and slightly separated. CampitU anesibesia 
occurs in fifty to one hundred and twenty seconds, averaging fifty-six. 
Its onset is denoted by a change in the resfwation, which becomes slightly 
irregular and noisy. The pulse is quickened by about 30 per cent, and n 
small. The blood pressure shows a large aspbyxial rise (Kemp, 1897). 
The vasoconstriction diminishes the urine flow. The limbs are relaxed, 
but Individual muscles exhibit donic or epileptiforen contractions. The 
pupils are almost invariably dilated. The face is cyanosed. Kelaxation 
of the sphincters occurs rarefy. 

Operatlye Period. — As soon as this stage is reached, the gas is removed. 
The pulse at once becomes slower and fuller; the respiration also recovers 
rapidly; and the aspbyxial symptoms disappear. The anesthesia lasts 
some twenty-two to t^ty seG>nds after t^ gas is removed; and it is 
during this period that the operation must be p^ormed. The total time 
between the beginning of the administration and complete recovery is 
therefore one hundred to oae hundred and twenty seconds. The duration 
of the after-anesthesia increases with the duration of the administration. 
This may be prolonged to several minutes by giving the patient an occa- 
sional breath of pure air (every fifth inhaJalioa); or by admitting a little 
air into the mask. The admission of air, however, makes the anesthesia 
uneven and unsatisfactory. 

After-effects are generally absoit with short administrations. Some- 
times the patients com^m oi giddiness, headache, latitude and drowsi- 
ness. Nausea is exceptional. 

Accidents. — With short administrations, these are very rare, because 
of the wide margin between the first danger sign (noisy and irregular 
respiratimi) and death. Only about seventeen deaths have been reported, 
making the fatality less than i in 5,000,000. 



The first process for maXing chlor- 
al hydrate (knockout drops) is from 
kick's formulary, 1872- 

4276. Chloral. Chloral is ao oily li- 
quid, posaessiog an ethereal it is aolu- 

bio in alcohol, ether, and vater, but its solo- 
tiou in the latter rapidly changes into a semi- 
sol i<i crystalline mass of Aydrato of thhraL 
soluble in a larger quantity of water. Chloral 
boils at 202^, and has a specific gnTity of 

4877. To Obtain OhloraL Place an- 
hydroaa alcohol in a tabulate retort, and 
pass dr7 cblorine gas through it, ai first in 
the cold, but afterwards with the appileation 
of a geutle heat. As soon aa the ehiotioe 
passes undecotn posed through the liquor ai 
iho boiling temperature, the procees is com- 
plete. On eoobng, the liquid In the retort 
solidifies, forming a crystallme mass of bydr^ 
ted chloral. This must be melted by gentle 
beat, and amtated with thrice its volume of 
oil of vitriol, when, on inoreasing the beet a 
little, an oily stratum of impure chl(»^ will 
rise to the surface. This must be removed, 
boiled for some time, to drive ttff some IVeo 
bjdrocbloric acid and alcohol, and next 
tilled with an equal volume of oil of viuioi ; 
lastly, it must be rectified from finely-pow- 
dered quicklime. Htoppiog the process as soon 
as the surface or the hmo becomee dry. ibo 
chlorine is best introduced by a tube inserted 
into the tubulature of the retort, and a long 
tube, bent upwards, should be connected with 
the beak to convey away the hydrocUorio 
acid gas extricated, and to allow (be volatil- 
ized alcohol and chloral to condenie and flow 
back Into the retort. 

Knockout drops arc usually given to some- 
one when he is a little drunk. After fifteen 
minutes he is out for the night. 

Chloral hydrate was used as a sedative in a 
dose of 0.6 gram. It is seldom used now and is 
hard to get. For those who know chonistry 
and would like to make it I include the for- 

The chemicals needed are bleach, Sani- 
Flush, ethyl alcohol, sulfuric acid and calcium 

You will need pure alcohol so buy a fifth 

of 100 proof vodka. This is 50% alcohol so 
ditfill h off and you should have just a little 
over 12 ounces. 

The equipment needed is the still, the 
chlorine ^^e, some pieces of glass tubing, 
rubber cubing, a 600 ml beaker, a water glass, 
an aquarium aerator and a basting syringe and 
a cooking thermometer, both from the dime 

A piece of glass cubing is fitted Into the 
bottom of the stopper for the flask. To it is 
fitted an eight-inch length of rubber cubing 
and at the end of this is the aerator. Two 
more pieces of glass tubing are put into the 
top of the stopper and the rest of the equip- 
ment is set up as illustrated. 

To begin, put 12 ounces of alcohol in the 
flask. Put two inches of bleach and a tea- 
spoonfuU of Sani-Flush in the chlorine bottle. 

Stan the chlorine through the alcohol 
while the flask is cold. Watch the flask care- 
fully to see when the alcohol stops absorbing 
the chlorine. Then light the alcohol lamp with 
its wick turned down or with the stand on 
blocks so only a gentle heat will be made. 
When alcohol scops absorbing again, raise 
the heat. 

Keep this up until the alcohol is boiling. 
Finally it will no longer pick up any chlorine. 
Then, this part of the process is finished. 

Some of the alcohol will have distilled off. 
It will go into the collecting bottle while the 
waste chlorine gas goes outside. Several times 
during the process, this alcohol is poured back 
into the flask. 

When the alcohol is totally chlorinated the 
contents of the flask Is poured Into a porce- 
lain pan and allowed to cool. If you have 
done it right the cooled product should be a 
crystaline mass of unreflned chloral hydrate. 

Then, strong sulfuric add, three times the 
volume of the chloral hydrate, is slowly pour- 
ed into the pan. The pan is then put on the 




Stove over a gentle heat, 

When the chloral hydrate is melted, it and 
the sulfuric acid are stirred thorou^ly and 
part of the mixture is poured into the 600 mJ 
beaker and put over the alcohol lamp. Don’t 
let the mixture in die beaker get over 200 P 
as it will begin to boil away at 210 F. This is 
where the thermometer comes into play. 

As the mixture heats up, the still impure 
chloral hydrate will rise to the surface in the 
beaker. When it stops rising, take the basting 
syringe and collect it off the top of the suifur- 
ic acid. It doesn’t matter If you pick up a lit* 

de sulfuric acid as long as you get all the 
chloral hydrate. Store it in the water glass. 

Repeat the last process until the pan is 
empty. ^ 

The still impure chloral hydrate is then put 

into the beaker. Then it is heated at about 
190 d^ees F for 20 minutes to drive off all 
the unchlorinated alcohol and hydrochloric 

The next step is to pour the chloral hydrate 
back into the flask and add an equal amount 
of sulfuric acid. The contents are then swirled 
around to mix. 

The chloral hydrate is then distilled out of 
the sulfuric acid. Tliis is easy to do as chloral 
hydrate boils at 210 F and sulfuric acid boils 
at 722 F. 

When the distilling is over the sulfuric acid 
is poured out and the flask is washed and 
dried Then finely powdered calcium oxide, 
equal in volume to the chloral hydrate, is put 
into the flask. The chloral hydrate is then 
added and distilled again. The process is stop* 


pcd as soon as the chloral hydrate has nearly 
stopped dripping into the collecting jar and 
the surface of the calcium oxide is dry, 

To prepare for use, add to the finished 
chloral hydrate, one part of water to two 
parts, by volume, of the finished product. 

Chloral hydrate is a hypnotic and many 
people become addicted to it. Taking it your- 
self is a no-no. 

This process has proven diffi-- 
cult for some. It does work, hovev 
er . But if you have trouble vith it, 
study Dick's process (4276-7) and 
the directions given in the 1892 ed 
it ion of The Encyclopedia Britanicai 

CHLORAX, TucBLOftAtozHYDB, or Htpudx of Tat> 

CHLORACSTYL, C|C^On Or COl|.COH, a tuUteoce di»> 
coTored by Llobig la 1S32, «nd further at tidied by Duoua 
and Stadeier. li in % bexTy, oily, and colourleaa liquid, of 
specific gravity PM 8 at 0 * C., aod boiling point 94^*4 C. 
It b&a a greasy^ eomerrhat bitter taato, and girea off a rapour 
at ordinary temperature which bee a pungent odour end an 
irritating effect on the eyee. The word thUrai ia derived 
from the first eyll ablet of Moriin and the namee 

of the tubetaneee employed for ita preparatioiu Chloral 
is aoluble in alcohol and ether, in lets tl^ its own wei^i 
of water, and in four timee its woight of chloroform ; it 
absorbs but is not acted upon by cblorine, and dissolves 
bromine, iodine, pbosphorus, and sulphur. Chloral delk 
quesces in the air, and, like aldehyde, is coQTerted by 
water into a hydrate, with erolaiioD ol heat ; it coml^ee 
also with ethylie alcohol and its homologuee, and the 
derived mercaptana. An ammoniacal aolotion of nitrate 
of Bilrer is reduced by chloral ; aulphitee of the alkalies 
form with it crystalline compounds ; and nascent hydrogen* 
by replacing ita three atoms of chlorine, converlj it into 
aldehyde (Pononne, A fin, Ch, PkarrH,, clviL 11 3X By 
means of pbosphorus pentochlorida, chlorine can be subati' 
tttted for the oxygen of chloral, the body CCI 3 .CCLU 
being produced; an analogous compound, CCI^C(C^H^)^, 
Gontolaing the radicle phenyl in the place of the oxygen, 
is oblained by treating chloral with bensene and Bnlpoozie 
acid. With an alkali, chloral gives chlorofonn and a 
formate of the base according to the reaction CCl^COH 
+ KHO — OClgH + H.CO(OK) ; it is converted by oxidio* 
big agents into trichloracetic acid CCLOO(OH) ; and forma 
with oyanio acid the body CjE^Cl^NO, - (CCa,.COH)| 
*COHN» When kept for some days, as also when placed 
in contact with sulphuric acid or a very small quantity 
ot water, chloral nndergoea spontaneous ohanga into the 
polymeride meiaMoral, - (Cjd,OH)„ a while 

porcelooeous body, slowly volatile in the air, insoluble 
la water, alcohol* and ether, and reconverted into ebJorol 
without melting at 180* 0 . 

Chloral is prepared by pas^g diy chlorine into absolute 
alcohol ; tfie latter must be cooled at first, but towards 
the end of the operation has to be heated nearly to boiling. 
The alcohol becomes converted finally into a syrupy fluid, 
from which chloral k proenred by treatment with sulphuric 
acid. The action of cblorine upon alcohol is complex 
first aldehyde, CS|.COH, is produced, which combines 
with alcohol to form acetal, this, acted 

on by chlorine, yields trichloraceti^ CG^CH(OC 2 HJj, 
which b coQvarted by the hydrochloric acid present into 
chloral alcolKdate, CCIJ.CH.OH.OO 2 H 5 , and monochlor- 
ethane, C^H^CL The latter body is abo formed directly 
frwn alcohol, in ths process for the manufacture of chloral* 
and comlunea with aldehyde, giving monocblorinated 
ethylie ether, CHgCHCLOC-H^ which b converted by 
chlorine into tetrachlorinated ether, CCl,.CHCa.OO,H^. 
By .the action of lulphurie add* etJoro] alcohols to and 
tetrachlorinated ether ora resolved into alcohol and 
chlotol* and monoehloreihane and cbloiol* respectively. 
The crude chloral is distilled over lime, and is purified by 
further treatment vith eulphunc odd, and by redbtillatioii. 

A mixture of starch or sngnr with manganese peroxide and 
bydrochloric add may be employed inatoad of aleohol and 
ahlorine for the manofocturB of chloral (Stodeler, Ann, 
CA Fkam., IxL 101-lSI). An iaom« of chloral, 
naracJUcr<Uide^ is made by poasiog excdM of dry cblorine 
to to abeoluto methylie alcohol ; it is a colonrleu liquid, 
iosoh^la in water, and boils at 182° C. (Cloez, Ann, Oh. 
Fhann.f tlL 180). 

Chkral kfdruU, or CCL.CH(OH),, the 

eompoond formed by tne union water with chloral* occurs 
in the form of oblique, often very abort, rhombic prisma ; 
an ociculor form 01 erystoU b conddersd by Paul to be 
choractoristie only of the alcohoUte. The pureat samples 
of diloraJ hydrate present the appearance of ordinary alum 
broken into fragments* are ]MrfecUy transparent, only 
slightly odorous, free from powder, and d:y to the touch, 
and do not become white by exposure. Jacobsen gives the 
melting point of pure chloral hydrate os 80* to 51*, the 
boiling point os 9^* 0. It can be distilled unchanged at 
120 * 0 . ; but when heated with Bulpburio acid it b coaverted 
into anhydrous ehloml and ^ortUide, C^HgClfO,. When 
mixed inih water* chloral hydrate causes a considerable 
degree of cold ; and* os with camphor, amnll fragments of 
it placed on (he surface of water exhibit gyratory move* 
meoCa. An aqueous aolntioD should bo neutral or nearly 
• 0 , sad should ^re but a faint KDilkiness when boiled with 
siLvm nitrate^ A drop or two of ammonia added to solu- 
tions aasbto in their preservation. Chloral hydrate may 
bo detected in the presence of other substonoes by adding 
on alkali and heating* when ebJoroform is evolved, which 
may bo collectod in a receiver j thb process con be 
employed for the estimation of the commercial hydrate. 
When ammoniom aulphide b added to a solution of pure 
chloral hydrate* the liquid tnms red, and then becomes 
npid^ brown and thick ; the presanoe of oily impurities 
in as^tion u shown by ^e b ro wn colour U acquires when 
ohakw up with concentrated aniphu ric acid. Chloral 
hydrate has the property of checking the decomposition of 
a great nnmber of albununoos substances, sneh os milk sod 
meat ; and a mixture of it with glycerine, according to 
Persozuie* b suitable for the preservation of anaiotnica] 




preparations. When heated with concentrated glycerine to 
a temperature of I10*~230^d, chloral hydrate yielde 
chloroform, CHCI^,and formate of aUyl, HCO(OC^^): 
end by the action of nitric aci^ and strong aunliglit) at 1%^ 
C. it ia transformed Into trichloracedc aoid, CCn^.COOH. 
The effect of chloral hydrate upon frteh lilta that of 
formic acid, is to render it darker. 

The breaking up of chloral hydrate, In the preeeoce of 
alkalies, with production of chloroform and formatu, 
Ud Llebreichto the conjectare that a aimilar decompcaition 
might be produced in the blood i and hence hie introdnction 
of the (frug, in 1869, aa an ameethctio and hypnotic 
{Compi. read., 1869, Ixiz., 466). It haa been aopposed 
that ita pbyai^ogical action may be doe to fonnie a^ as 
well aa to ehlor^orm set free in the blood, the effecta of 
the formic acid being altribnted to the production from it 
of carbon dioxide. Fersonne, bo we tat, has adminiatered 
sodium formats to dogs, without perceiring in them the 
slightest amcatheiic phenconena, or the abnonnal formation 
of oerbon dioxide (Compi. rfnd., 1874, botrul 129). He 
conaidera that chlocofoim k aet free in the blood, bat k 
not eliminated as sucu, c:Ing couTerted into sodium (boride 
and formate 1869, 9B8) ; the prolonged action 

of chloral on the animal economy ha explmoa on the 
aupnoulion that, chloroform being produced at the expense 
of vit alkali of the albnmsn of the blood, the latter, which 
may be regarded as an amide, forma with the trichlor mated 
aldehyde chloral a eempound which, by the gradnil action 
cf the blood, affords a oontinoone *^pply of chloroform. 
Tanret, on tho other hand, sn^eeU that as chloral hydrate, 
when made alkaline with caoetic potaeh, yields in the 
presence of the oxidizing egent potassium permaDganate 
the formate, chloride, and carbonate of potassium, together 
with carbon monoxide, the alkalinity of the serum of the 
blood may deternuDe a timilar decomposition of chloral 
hydrate, the physiological effects of whkh may tberef<«e be 
asetibed to poisoning or deoxidation of arterial blood by 
carbm monoxide (Cbmpf. rend, burix. 669; Jottm. 
Pharm. Chtm, (4), xx. 355-357), 

The diet effect of a doee of chloral hydrate Is to produce 
a state of oongeition df the brain, aa eridenced ^ the con* 
dition of the retinal ressels ; after 5 or 10 minutea, con- 
traction of the Toescla is obserred, the retina becomes of a 
pale pink colour, and drowsioeu ensuea ; when this wear* 
offj the retinal and cerebral TeBselsreemne their accustomed 
size (Dr VT. A. Hammond). In cases of death from chloral, 
the cerebral vessels have been found mneb congested. 

The effects of chloral hydrate vary with different 
individuals ; bot, as a rule, a dose of 20 grains acts in a 
healthy subject as a mild sedative of the nnacry nervoua 
system, and produce about half or three quarters <4 an 
hour after it haa been taken, a light, refreshing, and nomal 
sleep, without oansing headache or disturbance of the 
respiration and pulae. 

Taken in large quantities chloral hydrate is a powerful 
soporific; it perceptibly bwere the temperature of the 
body, and diminklies 'the frequency and force of the hearVa 
action, probably from par^sk of its intrinaio moto^ 
ganglia ; whilst the rate of respiration Is leMened, 
appuently through affection of the medulla oblcngata. Ex- 
cessive doses prodncQ complete inaensibiUty, and diminish, 
and at last al^Bsh reflex excitability; pa) coldness of 

the extremitiea, lividity, and muscular relaxation ensue ; 
and death may result from cardiac syncope. 

M Ord ia the originator of a plan for performing opera- 
tions during anesthesia produced by the intra-venous 
injection of chloral hydrate. He shows (Ootnpt rend., 
1674, Ixzviu. 615, 651) that it may be harmlessly injected, 
and that when thus brought into immediate contact with 
the blood, k effects eom|detd ansathesia of long duration, 
and k a rapid and effectual remedy for tetanus. Chloral 
hydAto sometimes fails to afford relief from suffering, and 
when it does not induce sleep, may occasion excitement and 
deliriazm In some oases a dose has produced an eruption of 
urticaria, lb most be adnunistered with caution to chiidreti, 
and to patients having disease of the heart and of the 
digestive tract, tertain affections of the bronchi, or hysteria. 
It appeera t h at ohlotol cannot be decomposed and thrown 
off by a healthy body at a greater nte than from 6 to 7 
groiiu an hour (Eiebardsoo, lanctt, 1871, 1, 209); and as 
the limit of the dose that can be safely takes iMot affected 
by the enstomary use of the drug, as in the cate of opium, 
but r^er the reverse, its ineantious employment in large 
quantitiee, and the practise of haHtually resorting to it to 
gain relief from sleetdessneea, from nearalgia, aod from the 
effects of alcoholic excess, here in not a few msiancea led 
to fatal resulia In conieqaenee of this risk medical 
ptactitionere now use it Jew eitenaiTsly. The continued 
use of chloral hyd^e, too, is apt to cause a hyperwinie 
emdition of the skia,diffuae inflammatory erythema of the 
fM Md cheat, eonjunctivitis, and interference with re- 
epiratioo ; ud may bring on deep mslaneboly, weakness 
of will, and inabiU^ to sleep without the drag. 

CUc^ hydrate is of special value as a eoporifio where 
opi w k inadmissible, as in the esse of children. In urwmis, 
and in sense fevers. It is used in delirium tremens, nbiea, 
sevece chorea, acute maoia, and phthisis, as well as in 
dyspnea^ pertnssis, cholera, eea^iekness, cancer, chronic 
rheufnatiim,a&d gastralgia,and In parturition andeclampsk; 
and Id cases of tetanus it is omployod to produce muscular 
relaxation. Its antagoolsru to strychnia was first pointed 
out by Liebreich {C<mp(. rmd.^ 1870, Ixx. 403). When 
administered to rubits It has l»e& found to be a remedy 
for poisonous doses of stcychnis (Bennett, £din, 2fed, 
•Tbwro., 1870, xvi. 262); but Ord has shown [dfae. Jfidi^ 
di Paris, 1872, p. 401) that the hypodermic injection of 
that drug k of no avail in the esse of rabbits poisoned 
with fatal doses of chloral hydrate. Numerous export- 
meubs bare led to the conclusions that chloral hydrate 
is more likely to save life after a fatal dose of strychnia, 
than strychnia is to save lifo after a fatal dose of chloral 
hydrate ; * that after a dose of strychnine has produced 
ieiantc coo vuLi ions, these convulsions may be reduced in 
force and frequency, and life may be saved, by means of 
the infiuouco of chloral hydrate ; but that though the 
effecte of a poisonows dose of the hydrate may be mitigated, 
the coma produced by its action on the brain is not removed 
by stryebnia (Bennett, Report in Brit. Med. Jour., 1875, 
1, 97; Ogflvie Will, Bdin. Med. Jour., April 1876, 907), 
Chloral hydrate modiflee the action of a fatal dose of 
extract of Otiabar bean, but U of little eervice if given 
some time after the latter. The effects of ehloralism Bn 
combated by provoking emetis, and by atimulating freely. 





Most fire bombs Are simply gasoline fJJed 
bottles Vfxth a fuel soaked rag in the mouth 
(the bonle’s mouth, not yours). The original 
Molotov cocktail, and still about the best, 
was a mixture of one part gasoline and one 

part motor oil. The oil helps it to cling to 
what it splatters on. 

Some use one part roofing tax and one pare 
gasoline. Fire bombs have been found which 
were made by pouring melted wax into gaso* 


These little goodies are affectionately 
known as “nut busters.” They are simply 
shotgun shells enclosed in cardboard rolls 
with cardboard fins put on. On the primer 
end of the shell is glued a small cork with a 
hole drilled through it, A roofing nail fits in 
the hole snugly enough to stay in but loose 
enough to plunge into the primer upon im- 

Since the shell Is not confined in the cham- 
ber of a gun, it will naturally not cause the 
same amount of damage. But if it goes off be- 
tween a fellow’s legs he can look forward to 
becoming a soprano. 

These bombs arc thrown singly or by the 

handfull into the air over milling crowds. The 
weight of the shell and the stabilization by 
the fms causes the nut buster to head straight 

It has tremendous effect as its presence is 
usually a surprise. The threat of more coming 
in is guaranteed to rout any mob. 

Not only does it go off on the pavement 
but it wH! also explode on contact with a per- 
son's head or shoulder. At night it is impos- 
rible to trace its point of origin. 

A clever use for a plain shotgun shell is as a 
muffler bomb. The shell is simply shoved up a 
car's exhaust pipe with a length of stiff wire 
until it drops into the muffler. After a few 
minutes on the road the shell explodes, total- 
ling out the muffler and treating the driver to 
a sick kind of panic. 





A grenade on the end of an ei^t-inch piece 
of broom stick can be thrown almost twice as 
far as when you hold the grenade directly in 
your hand» 

As illustrated, both caps are drilled and the 
bottom cap is fitted with a screw chat goes iH’ 
to the stick. The piece of broom stick is also 
drilled but a size smaller than the screw. This 
is to make the screw go in easier without split- 
ting the stick. 

The fuse is cut the length it takes about 
five seconds to bum. It is glued firmly into 

^e cap and generously covered with flare ig- 
niter. To ignite, the fuse Is scratched with a 
stnp of wood covered with red phosphorus 
and sand. 

^ Pipe grenades can be caused to fragment 
^ply by grinding depressions in chem with a 
grinding wheel. The depressions are made be- 
fore the explosive is put in. Depressions 1/16 
inch deep cut the resistance of the pipe 
enough to make it shatter. 

If you have any skill at all you can grind 
such a grenade in about two minutes. 





Firecrackers are so simple to make that 
many books on fireworks ignore them. There 
are two main types of firecrackers but many 

Handmade giant firecrackers are made by 
first rolling paper around a 3/4 inch dowel 
until the paper is 1/8 inch thick. This is the 

The best paper to use is ^m paper sacks. 
It is cut to the desired width and the length 
that makes it 1/8 inch chick when roiled. On 
the last roll, the paper is glued and the cube 
is slipped off the dowel. 

One-quarter inch thick slices of the dowel 
are used to plug the ends. 

The plug for the fuse end is drilled to allow 
for the fuse. The plugs are smeared with glue 
before being pressed into the ends of the 
tube. More ^ue is squeezed in around the fuse 
after it is pur in. 

In all the directions I have for making giant 
firecrackers it is recommended that they be 
filled only one-third. It is agreed by all who 
wrote about them that completely full ones 
aren’t as loud as those that are one-third full. 

1 admit to never having made one. I did 
play with them as a child and used them more 
for their destructive properties than for dicir 
noise. They do have terrific force, even when 

only one-third full. 

Anyone wanting to make them can test for 
himself whether there is more concu stive 
force in a full firecracker or one which is only 
one-third full. 

If you choose the one-third full kind you 
should be sure to put the fuse well into the 
firecracker to make sure it reaches the pow- 

For the small firecracker, two kinds of pap- 
er are used. Any regular paper is used for the 
rube but thin wrapping tissue is used for the 

As illustrated, a pile of powder is put on 
(he tissue. Hie edges are folded over and the 
fuse is placed so its end is in the powder area. 

The short end of the tissue is then lapped 
over the powder and fuse. Next, the whole 
thing is rolled tightly to the end over the glue. 

The outside is a strip of paper about 11 in- 
ches long and slightly wider than the length of 
the powder core. It is smeared lightly with 
glue and rolled tightly around the powder 

If any glue is water based, the firecrackers 
are allowed to dry for a couple of days. Then 
airplane ^ue is squeezed into both ends. 

Adequate firecrackers can be made with 
commercial gunpowders. Pistol powder is best 
but even shotgun powder will do. 

Of the many powder formulas to choose 
from« 1 picked three as being che most practi- 
cal and stable. 

The first is four parts potassium nitrate, 
one part sulfur. The second is, six parts potas- 
sium nitrate, two parts aluminum powder and 
three parts sulfur. The third is five pans bar- 
ium nitrate, two parts aluminum powder and 
one part sulfur, 

The potassium nitrate and charcoal are 
both ground as finely as possible before being 
mixed. An electric blender can be used to pui- 
veriae both but should never be used for any 
other explosive scuff. 


For sheer terrorism, incendiaries can't be 

beat. They are horrifying to look at and if set 
off in a crowded room, instant panic is guar- 
anteed. They burn at 4,000 degrees and give 
out a blinding light. 

Wartime incendiaries had magnesium cas* 
ings which burned fiercely. If water was put 
on them they disintegrated, sending burning 
metal in all directions. You probably can't get 
hold of magnesium tubing so you will have to 
settle for aluminum. 

Aluminum tubing, bought at any hardware 
store, is the next best casing for improvised 
ineexuliaries. It doesn't bum as fiercely as 
magnesium but is still pretty awful. 

The tubing should be at least VA inches in 
diameter. This is to make sure there is enough 
thermite to bum the tubing. 

Aluminum tubing is cut into suitable 


lengths and slices of a large dowel are cut for 
plugs. One slice is drilled to accommodate the 
fu se 

Thermite is a mixture of three parts, by 
volume, of red or black iron oxide and two 
parts of fine aluminum powder. 

The tube is filled nearly full and ramped 
until the thermite is one inch from the top. A 
circle of tissue paper is then put in to keep 
I he Thermite from blending with the igniter. 

The igniter is a mixture of one part, by 
weight, of powdered magnesium and two 
parts of barium peroxide. This is mbeed care- 
fully, preferably by rolling back and forth in 
) plastic container. It isn't all that sensitive 
but It doesn’t hurt to be cautious. Goggles 
ai^d gloves should always be worn when work- 
ing with explosive or flammable substances. 

When mixed, a one-half inch layer of ther- 
mite igniter is put into the tube. Another cir- 
cle of tissue is added and one-fourth of an 
inch of flare igniter is spread in. The one- 
fourth inch of inside tubing is cleaned of flare 
igniter to accommodate the plug. 

A bare fuse is stuck straight up m the 
center of the flare igniter and it is l^t to dry 
for a day or two. Then the drilled plug is 
smeared with glue and pushed over the fuse. 
Then flare igniter is daubed on the fuse and 
when dry, the thing is ready to use. 


Thermite can also be ignited by potassium 
chlorate and sugar or flare igniter, althou^ 
not as reliably as with the barium peroxide 
and magnesium, 

To make a thermite grenade which will ig- 
nite by potassium chlorate and sugar or flare 
igniter, you start with aluminum tubing IVi 
inches in diameter, or more, and five inches' 

Buy a length of dowel that fits sm^y in- 
side the cube. Cut one-founh inch thick slices 
of the dowel to plug both ends. Bore fust 


holes in the slices that are to be used for the 
tops of the grenades. 

Put ^uc around the bottom slices and put 
them in the ends of the tubes. When the glue 
is dry, put in a one-fourth inch layer of three 
parts, by volume, of potassium chlorate and 
TWO parts of sugar, well mixed, or flare ig- 
niter. Tlicn put in a circle of tissue over the 
mixture so it stays by itself. 

Next, wrap a pencil once with a 4% inch 
piece of tissue and hold it in the center of the 
tube while you pour in the thermite. When 
the cube is full, tamp the thermite down, be- 
ing careful not to damage the tissue around 
the pencil. Put in and tamp the thermite until 
it fllJs the tube to one-half inch from the top. 

The pencil is then carefully removed from 
the tissue cube and potassium chlorate and 
sugar or flare igniter is funneled in until it 
meets the top of the thermite. 

Then, put in another circle of tissue over 
the thermite and add a one-fourth inch layer 
of potassium chlorate and supr or flare ignit- 
er. Next put in the plug and the fuse. Glue is 
squeezed in around the fuse to hold it in 


Potassium permanganate, potassium nitrate 
and potassium or sodium dichromate can all 
be used to ignite thermite. However, they 
won't ignite by fuse so must be helped along 
by an additional igniter. 

First, either of these igniters must be crush- 
ed to the fineness of granulated sugar. A quar- 
ter-inch of the igniter is poured over the ther- 
mite and a quarter-inch of flare igniter is 
spread over it. 

The fuse Is stuck straight up in the flare 
^iter and the mess is allowed to dry for a 
couple of days. Then the plug is glued and 
put over the fuse and pressed firmly into the 
end of the tube. It is good to squeeze some 
more ^ue around the fuse as the flare igniter 
doesn’t hold it very well. 





Many Militants use dynamite. In some 
states it takes a fire marshal's permit to buy 
dynamite but such a permit is easy to get. All 
you have to do is file a mining claim in some 
desert wasteland. The land office, usually in 
the courthouse, is where to learn how to go 
about filing a claim. Then you take your 
claim to the fire marshal and if you are not an 
obvious freak he will give you a permit. 

The mineral you claim to be hunting will 
depend on your own area. In the courthouse 
there Is usually a geological survey office 
where they can give you a list of minerals 
mined in your area. 

You should choose one chat requires blast* 

One Militant was out in the boondocks and 
found several outcroppinp of pretty rocks. 
He figured they would look great in aquu* 
iums. He filed his claim and got his permit. 

After doing enough blasting to prove he 
was using his dynamite legitimately, he was 
supposed to share all the rest he bought with 
his friends. But he uses it all for blasting and 
is fast becoming the aquarium rock king of 
Southern California. Now he looks down on 
his former friends. 

Not all Militants are like him. They file 
their Mickey Mouse claim and after a little 
blasting to make the area look like it is beii^ 
worked they buy all the rest to sell to friends. 

With your permit you can buy dynamite 
for $20.00 for 100 sticks and resell it for 
$2.00 per stick. Less the small cose for blast- 
ing caps and a little fuse given with each sale, 
you v^l nuke 1,000% profit. If you steal it 
your margin of profit will be even greater. 

Dynamite is bought from stores selling to 
miners. Such stores can be located through 
the business section of the phone book under 

Militants in the service, and especially the 
National Guard, steal great quantities of ex- 
plosives as well as military equipment and 
supply their civilian friends. Dynamite is also 
stolen from construction sites, even in the 
middle of large cities. 

Dynamite ranges in explosive velocity from 
4,000 to 23,000 feet per second. The lower 
velocities are used for moving earth and such 
and the higher velocities are used for their 
shattering effect on stone and steel. 

Lower velocity dynamites are made up 
from 20 to 60% nitroglycerine with sand, clay 
or sawdust as an absorbent. 

The low velocity dynamites are very dan- 
gerous to store because the nitro settles to the 
bottom in a few months and the stuff has to 
be turned every couple of weeks, like hatch- 
ing e^. If not turned, the settled nitro can 
explode at the slightest jar. 

If you are smart you will buy only the gela- 
tin dynamites. They are made up of up to 
90% nitro and the rest is nitrocotton. These 
are the roost powerful. These are also safer to 
store, as they become less sensitive with age 
and don't have to be turned. 


Once the Militant has his chemicals, he sets 
up his soil. It is small, efficient and safe. In it 
he makes things like tear gas, prussic acid and 
occationaly distills alcohol. 

First, a flask is fitted with a one-hole rub- 
ber stopper. A short length of thin glass tub- 
ing is inserted into the hole. A five foot length 
of thin rubber tubing is fitted over the ^ass 
tube and coiled into the ice bucket and out 
through a hole near the bottom. The end of 




the tube is fitted over another glass tube 
which is in a two-hole stopper stuck into a 
bottle. The ocher hole contains another glass 
tube to which is attached another length of 
tubing long enough to reach outside to get rid 
of any noxious or poisonous fumes. 

The equipment for the still is cheap and 
simple to get. Most of it can be bought from 
your local drug store. They carry tubing, stop- 
pers, glassware and many chemicals whidi 
they freely sell to doctors, students, etc. If 
you get on good terms with your druggist and 
he doesn't know you're a freak you can buy 
most of your stuff from him. 

A ring stand or tripod for the flask is more 
handy than the can in the illustration. But a 
tin can with strips cut out of it for ventilation 
and for the removal of the lamp ts usually ad- 

The checklist of equipment ist 

1. alcohol lamp. 2. ring stand, tripod or tin 
can. 3. 500 ml or larger flask. 4. assortment of 
one and two-hole and holeless rubber stoppers 
of various sizes. 5. about six yards of 5/16 of 
an inch (inside diameter) rubber cubing. 
6. about a foot of six millimeter (outside dia- 
meter) laboratory glass tubing. 7. child’s plas- 
tic bucket. 8 . receiving bottle. 

The hole in the bu^et for the tube is made 
somewhat smaller than the tube so it will fit 
snugly and prevent leakage. 

Full strength wood alcohol for die lamp 
can be bought at the drug store. Rubbir^ al- 
cohol, although 30% water will bum in the 
lamp but not so well. You can distill the pure 
alcohol off the water from rubbing alcohol. 

This is best done over a gas or electric 
stove. First a large pan with a couple of inches 
of water in it is put on the burner to be used 
and the others are turned off. 

The still is set up as in the illustration ex- 
cept the receiving bottle is larger and doesn't 
need a stopper or tube going outside. The 

flask is Riled with rubbing alcohol to just un- 
der the neck and set in the pan of boiling 

In this setup a coath anger wire with a loop 
in its middle is put over the neck of the flask 
and fixed to the sides of the pan. This is ne- 
cessary because as the alcohol distills off. the 
flask gets lighter and would rise in the water 
and f^ over without support. 

Another consideration is to make sure the 
tube does not flop over and collapse. Hiis can 
be prevented by hanging a string from the 
ceiling by which the tubing is held above the 

The cubing should be further supported so 
it does not touch the hot edge of the pan. If 
it is allowed to lie over the edge it will melt. 

When the action starts the alcohol will fair- 
ly flow into the collecting bottle. When it 
stops all that is left in the Hask will be water. 
If left alone, water would start dripping, 
much slower than the alcohol, but this Is not 

This b the only case where you should di^ 
dll over a stove. A stove is harder to conffol 
than an alcohol lamp. It is also harder to clean 
up than a table in case of an accident. 


There are several eye and nose irritants on 
the market which can be easily duplicated by 
Militants. One is "Defend." It is advertized as 
leavii^ a red stain so an attacker can be iden- 
tified. The stain is not visible and the active 
ii^edlent is common household ammonia. 
Forget it. Besides, ammonia turns to water in 
a few seconds and is more likely to enrage 
chan to repel an attacker. 

A much better irritant is formaldehyde. 
Better known as embalming fluid, it smells 
horrible, hurts the eyes and nose, and on ex- 
posure to the air it vaporizes, making a room^ 




uninhabitable for hours. This was so painful she thought she would 

It can be squirted from a water pistol or lose her mouth. 

nasal inhaler, poured on the floor or vapor A scratch on the back of her hand got some 
ized by a bomb described under stinkum. formaldehyde and the agony was almost as 

This was accidentally tested after a visit to bad as everything else. Even though none had 

the Avilas of Eureka, aiifomia. I threw my gotten directly into her eyes, they began to 

jacket on an easy chair and my anahist nasal tear copiously and she could hardly see. 
sprayer feU out. It was filled with formaldc- She was totally incapacitated for at least 
hyde which I carry for vicious dogs and mem- twenty-five minutes. She couldn't do a thiiig 
bers of the Eureka Oty Council. except yell. She regained her sense of smell 

Mrs. Avila found it later and put it on the several hours later and luckily there was no 
kitchen table. Her sixteen year old daughter, lasting damage. 

Laura, saw it and, feeling an attack of the Formaldehyde can be bought at the drug 
sniffles, did then take it and squirt it up her store under die pretext of wanting it to pre- 
Icft nostril. serve mice or other lab specimens. 

The action got pretty heavy about then as The irritant mailmen use against dogs and 

she went into convulsions and almost blacked, which is sold wddely for self defense is oleo- 

out. She wiped her hand across her nose and t«iii capdeum. Capsicum is the hot essence of 
got some formaldehyde under her upper lip. red peppers. Oleoresin is the process for ex- 

POOR MAN^S kTAMES 130ND Vol • 1 



tractiiig it. 

To extract the capsicum, grind up four 
ounces of red pepper seeds in a blender or 
with a mortar and pestle. Red pepper seeds 
arc bought in the grocer's. 

The dry, ground seeds arc then put into a 
coffee percolator in which there is about 16 
ounces of alcohol, preferably with the water 
distilled out. The seeds are then percolated 
for about a half hour. 

The alcohol is then distilled off until there 
are only a couple of tablespoons of red liquid 
left in the flask, The red liquid is then added 
to a half pint of light mineral oib bought at a 
drug store. 

It can be sprayed from a nasal spray. An* 
other good way is with a window cleaning 
sprayer bought at any dime store. The rube of 
the sprayer is cut to fu in a two ounce medi* 
cine bonle. This way you have enough goody 
to last through a whole demonsemion, no 
matter which side youVe on. It is also nice to 
keep by the door to repel intruders. 

Before using, the container should be given 
a few shakes. Under laboratory conditions all 
the oil is extracted from the seeds. But with 
my Mickey Mouse method a lot of oil is left 
in so the residue is quite potent. Just be sure 
you strain out any larger bits so the sprayer 
hole is not dogged. 

The ground seeds left in the percolator are 
dried and saved. They are great for thromng 
into the faces of people In a mob. If you 
really want a laugh, throw some broadcast 
from a theater balcony during the death scene 
m “Love Story.” 

*rhe goody called MACE is probably only 
acrolein, tf not, it works just as well as MACE 
and is simple and fun to produce. 

Acrolein is not toxic but causes horrible 
pain in the nose and copious tears, and irri- 
tates the skin. A shot in the face from a water 
pistol or some other sprayer will put anyone 

out of the game for at least a half hour. 

Acrolein is best made an ounce at a time. 
Put in the flask 2M ounces of glycerine and 
3/4 ounce of sodium bisulfate (Sani-Flush), 
both of which can be bought at any grocery 

The still is sec up like in the illuscrarion 
with the outside tube connected as the fumes 

are bad. 

When the mixture starts to bubble it must 
be watched constantly to make sure it does 
not bubble up into rhe neck of the flask. If it 
starts for the neck of the flask, remove the 
lamp until it settles down. If the lamp is too 
hot, the tin can is raised on small blocks until 
the ri^t heat is gotten. 

Distill off an ounce of acrolein and take 
away the lamp. An ounce is all this size batch 
1 $ good for. Let the flask cool for an hour be* 
fore opening and cleaning. Pour the residue 
down the sink and put your face over the 
drain to get a sample of the vapor. Jesus f 

Then cap the receiving bottle and wash 
everything the acrolein was in contact with. 

The best squirter for the three irritants 
above Is a water pistol. Most water pistols leak 
badly so they must be transported barrel up 
so the goody won't ooae out around the trig- 
ger, It will leak when you use it so it is best to 
put it In a plastic sandwich bag with the open- 
ing held around the barrel with a rubberband. 
If die pistol has a trigger guard it should be 
cut off and then it can be used just as easily in 
a plastic bag as otherwise. 

For casual carrying around, you can’t beat 
a nasal spray. The best ones can be screwed 
open so the goody can be poured in. If not, 
you have to squeeze it and put its nozzle into 
the goody. When the pressure is released the 
irritant will be sucked up. 

Such irritants are illegal to carry in some 
states. 'Hiat's one of the reasons the nasal 
spray is best. If you are searched and it is 




found, there is little chance it will be rccog- 
ni^ed for what it is. 

I don’t know whac advice to give you if ihc 
cop has the sniffles and goes to use some of 
your goody. 


Iron sulfide is sold for $.35 for only l/8rfi 
of an ounce. Easier to make, just as potent 
and costing about $.50 a quart i& ammonium 
sulfide. It stinks to high heaven like rotten 
eggs and no one can stand to stay around it 
once it has been spiUed on the floor or vapor- 
ized by an explosion, 

To make some, you mix four ounces of sul* 
fur with eight ounces of hydrated lime in a 
stew pot. A quart of water is added and the 
mess is heated and stirred until the sulfur has 
completely blended. The hydrated lime 
will sink to the bottom of the pan and the 
yellow liquid is then poured off into a bucket. 

Take the bucket outside, if you have any 
sense, and add one pound of sulfate of ammo- 
nia. Stir it a minute and hold your nose. Then 
cover the bucket with plastic wrap and let it 
set for about a half hour. Then pour off the 
liquid slowly through a cloth filter into a 

If you don’t have an outside you can use 
your bathroom. Just hope no one has to go 
for an hour or so. The liquid is vile but it is 
not poison. 

Incidentally, when I researched this for- 
mula 1 went to the garden store and bought a 
five pound b^ of sulfate of ammonia for 
$1.65. Garden sulfur is very h^h grade and 
makes excellent gunpowder. It has 10% inert 
ingredients so 10% more should be added to 
any formula requiring sulfur. 1 bought the hy- 
drated lime from a building supply store for 
$.10 a pound. 

A word is in order about the spelling used 
for sulfur produces. Different spellings are: 

sulfur, sulphur, sulfate, sulphate, sulfide, sul- 
phide, etc. 

Stinkum is cither poured on the floor, shot 
a water pistol, thrown in a bottle or 
bulb or vaporized by a firecracker. The 
same goes for the formaldehyde or acrolein. 


The hydrodoric acid goody is the most fun 
in the whole book. It takes many forms and 
works on the principle rfiat hydrochloric add 
reacts with aluminum powder, foil or metal, 
releasing a great, dark cloud of noxious gas 
which looks horrible and smells worse. 

Hydrochloric acid is used for killing algae 
in svdmming pools and for cleaning tile and 
stone work- 

Where swimming pools are common it can 
be bought at the supermarket for less than a 
dollar a gallon. It is also sold at hardware 

Being only 37% strength, iz is seldom harm- 
ful to the skin but will eat through clothing 
like battery acid. 

Hydrochloric acid is also knovm as muriatic 

On damp nights, a bottle of the acid alone, 
broken in the midst of a crowd, will form 
noxious clouds of chlorine gas. Scream ''Poi- 
son gas!" and you will have a panic that will 
give you laughs for years. 

When you get some, open it up and give it a 
sniff. It won’t hurt you because you couldn’t 
stand to smell enou^ to be harmed. Then put 
a couple of square inches of aluminum foil in 
a can in your sink and pour some acid on the 
foil. If the acid bottle has been tightly capped 
the reaction of breaking down the aluminum 
and producing a dark noxious gas should start 
in about a minute. If the bottle has been set- 
ting for months, poorly capped, the reaction 
may be immediate. You can stop the action at 
any time by turning on the faucet and flood- 




ing the aluminum with water. 

When you have tested the reaction with 
foil, try it with powder and then with alumh 
num metal cut from a pipe or a slab. 

The versatility of the hydrochloric acid 
goody is amazing and should keep you fasdn- 

ated for hours. 

Of course, the Militant’s most common use 
of the hydrochloric acid goody is to dear 
areas of people he doesn’t like. In a movie or 
a meeting hall a tin can half full of aluminum 
powder, foil or chunks is pul under a scat. 
The acid is in a bottle with its mouth covered 
with a couple of plastic bags held in place 
vrith a rubber band. You can also use a plain 
rubber or a balloon over the mouth of the 

The cover is pierced with a pencil and the 
bottle is upended into the can, after which, 
the Militant gets up and walks out. If the acid 
is old and reacts immediately, a wad of 
sponge is put over the aluminum, causing the 
needed delay. 

A person sitting beside the Militant would 
not notice anything, especially if something 
exciting was happening up front. By the time 
he noticed the odor the reaction would have 
left him with nothing to do but run squealing 
and pissing from the scene. 

The outside goody is great, too. It is used 
to break up parades and demonstrations and 
in riots, where it’s every man for himself and 
the devil take the hindmost. 

It is simply a pint or quart bottle (a quart is 
better) filled with goody and wrapped with 
several layers of aluminum foil and put in a 
paper sack. 

Now, say a group of Militants infdtrare a 
civilian parade at different points. At an 
agreed upon time they yell, * ‘They ’re throw- 
ing things I” Then, while the other paraden 
are lookL\g around and up, the Militants crash 
their outside goodies, still in the sacks, to the 


As the parade moves on, the Militants filter 
back to where the goodies are, When the re- 
action starts they scream, “Poison gas! Poison 
gas!” and panic the whole mob out of the 

The aluminum wrapped bottles have to be 
slammed down hard or they might not break. 


Igniters range from powder fuses that 
smoke and burn and ignite the device in a few 
seconds, to chemical igniters that take min- 
utes, to watch timers that ignite the device 
electrically hours later. 

The simplest fuse is made from gunpowder 
mixture, using the dextrine or glue but omit- 
ting the graphite. A length of cotton twine is 
stirred in the mush, which is wetter than that 
to be used for gunpowder, and when well 
coated it is hung up to dry. 

If a thicker fuse is wanted, the coated 
string is folded along its length once or twice, 
depending on how thick you want it. Then a 
heavy object is attached to one end and spun, 
twisting the strands. The other end of the fuse 
and the heavy object are secured so. the 
strands will remain twisted until dry. 

The dried fuse, whether one or more 
strands, is stiff and brittle. With any bending 
the powder drops off in spots, making it bum 
unevenly. If your fuse is going to be handled 
or will be out in damp weather, you should 
make some Micky Mouse safety fuse. 

Up to three feet of masking tape is unrolled 
and placed sticky side up on a table. Three- 
quarter inch wide tape is used for one-strand 
fuse and one-and-one-quarter inch wide tape 
is used for the four-strand fuse. 

Tlic dry fuse is simply laid along the tape’s 
edge and the tape is rolled over it until it is 
nice and light. It is then cut into the desired 

A more sophisticated safety fuse is made 




by coating the fuse with spray-on plastic from 
an aerosol can. When this dries the fuse is 
coated with rubber mold compound, bou^t 
at any hobby store. The plastic Is used first 
because the mold compound has a water base 
and would wet the fuse. The rubber would 
dry but the fuse would stay damp indefin- 

Fuses of all kinds are best lit with the ma- 
terial used to ignite highway flares. This is be- 
cause matches often go out or the Militanr*s 
hands are shaking so badly he drops the 
match into his fly. 

Commercial safety fuse is almost impos- 
sible to light with a match. Coating its end 
with flare igniter makes it easy to light and 
alsT) keeps loose powder from dropping out 
the ends. This also applies to homemade or 
ocher fuses. 

Flare igniter is gotten from highway flares 
you can buy from any auto supply or surplus 
store for as little as $.15 each. The black igni- 
ting core is dug out, crumbled and dissolved 
with carbon letrachloridc, bought at any auto 
supply store. 

Carbon tetrachloride is commonly used for 
dissolving grease from auto parts. Just enough 
is used to dissolve the igniter and it 1$ then 
evaporated off in a well ventilated area as the 
fumes are harmful. 

The gray powder is then mixed with just 
enough water to make a chick paste. The fuse 
ends are then dipped into the paste and dried. 

The most difhcult to light fuses arc easily 
lit by a match or even with a drop of sulfuric 

If you don't want to waste a lot of fun 
flares you can make your own ignition mix- 
ture, which is the same stuff as found in 

A lifetime supply of the black part is made 
with XH ounces of black antimony suJfide, 
2\i ounces of potassium chlorate and one 

ounce of dextrine or 1'6 ounces of Lepage’s 

The blade antimony sulfide and the potas- 
sium chlorate are both wet before being mix- 
ed. If they arc mixed dry an explosion can 
result. Then add dextrine or glue and enough 
water to make a thick paste. 

You don't need much of the red striker 
mixture. One striker can be used to light 
many fuses. 

The red striker mixture is made with 1V4 
ounces of red phosphorus, H ounce of dex- 
trine or 3/4 ounce of Lepage’s Mucilage (from 
the dime score) and 3/4 ounce of fine sand. 
Enough water is added to make a paste, slight- 
ly thinner ritan the black paste. 

The striker is a tongue depressor, bought at 
the drug store, or any similar light, thin piece 
of wood. A couple of inches of the striker is 
smeared with the red paste and allowed to 
dry. The red paste should be stirred well be- 
fore using as ^e sand will sink to the bottom 
after a time. 


Chemical delay igniters have always been 
popular vnxh the more versatile Militants. The 
most common such igniter, but a perverse 
one, is the sulfuric acid-potassium chlorate 
and sugar goody. 

The igniter is a mixture of half potassium 
chlorate and half granulated sugar. It bursts 
into flame with tiK application of a drop of 
sulfuric acid. 

The idea is to put some of the mixture into 
a glass or plastic tube and then stuff in some 
cotton, or paper. Some add is then put into 
the tube with a medicine dropper, bought at a 
drug or hobby store. 

The acid is supposed to seep slowly 
throi^ the barrier and finally ignite the mix- 
ture. The bad thing about this system is that 

POOR MAN’S JAiffiS BOND Vol . 1 



it often doesn^t work or it works too fast. 

When sulfuric acid eats through vegetable 
matter there is a reaction of great heat. This 
is often enough to break the glass tubing or 
melt a plastic drinking straw and can stop the 
action right there. 

If the glass tubing holds, the acid still loses 
its potency as it reacts with the vegetable 
matter and that which reaches the mixture 
may be too weak. 

The worst thing that can happen, however, 
is that it will work too fast. The acid can cat 
through the barrier in seconds instead of the 
minutes you think you have. 

This could be disastrous if you loitered in 
the area for a minute to avoid looking su$pi« 
cious. If you armed the device before going 
into the target area, you mi^t not even get 

To avoid such hangups you should use a 
non«reactive barrier such as asbestos fibers, 
bought from any building supply store. The 
acid will seep through the as^stos without 
making heat and without losing its potency. 
And since it doesn’t eat the asbestos, it can be 
timed with much more certainty, which 
makes it safer and more sure. 

Powdered highway flare igniter can be sub* 
stituted for the potassium chlorate-sugar mix- 
ture. It is over half potassium chlorate and is 
simpler. In fact, if the plastic straw is pushed 
over a fuse coated with flare igniter, the fuse 
needs no other igniter. 

Another chemical ignition device uses gly- 
cerine to react with potassium permanganate. 
Potassium permanganate is a relatively stable 
oxygenator and can easily be bought at the 
drug store. It Is also used for staining micro- 
scope specimens, disinfecting fish tanks and 
curing fish fungus and fin rot. 

The potassium permanganate is ground to a 
powder and mixed with the same amount of 
fuse powder or the highway flare igniter. Got- 

ten can be used as a barrier as it doesn't react 
with glyccrinc- 

At lease an inch of glycerine is put into the 
tube, especially if you use a barrier, When ii 
reaches the mixture it takes from three to five 
minutes for the ignition to take place. 

For some reason, 1 haven’t been able to get 
this to work except in a plastic straw. Bur 
that way it works every rime and is lots of 

If the igniter Is potassium chlorate and sug- 
ar or flare igniter or potassium permanganate, 
it needs a barrier to keep it in place. To make 
sure the fire train burns past the barrier to the 
fuse, the barrier should be flammable. To 
make material for this barrier, mix cotton 
with wet fuse powder or flare igniter. Then 
dry it and pul) off pinches as needed. 

To arm these devices a medicine dropper 
filled with acid or glycerine can be carried up- 
ended in a test tube in the shirr pocket. A 
plastic felt-tip marker with a clip to hold it 
upright in the pocket can be used instead of 
the test tube. It is simply hollowed out and 
Che dropper ^rs in nicely. 

To avoid burned fingers, a string is tied to 
the dropper so it can be pulled out of the con- 

To avoid the medicine dropper entirely, 
you can make up some pre-primed plastic 
straws. For these, you will need some rubber 
mold compound. Suck up a half inch of the 
compound into a 4H inch plastic straw. Then 
let it dry for a couple of days. 

Shortly before use, put in the acid or gly- 
cerine. Then, with a cotton tipped stick, dean 
out the straw ^>ovc the acid or glycerine so 
there will be none on the sides to ignite the 

Next, put in the barrier and push it within 
an inch above the acid or glycerine. Then put 
in the mixture and the flammable barrier. 

You can carry this quite safely upended in 



Flwnmable bajTier - 

Pouttlum thJormtc & 

or flare ipi iter — 

Cmpey ipace - . - 

Add or flyceriiK 

Rubber meld cempeuad 






^ Ruaewidi 
^ fUr« l^(er 

A mpf or 


^ perBMapfutf 
Lk ft flare igoiier'^ 

f Flamnabie 

IUruW fuae 

Arid vi6 (W« regular fvae ^otanlum pemanianaia 

fy«r ft |lyeerljie 


your shirt pocket. When ready for use ii is 
turned over and Its open end is pushed over 
the fuse. 


Although the wrisrwatch time bomb is not 
a formula, I feel that no book concerning 
bombs and Militants should be without this. 

The diagram is strung out to show the 
points of contact. The igniter is a flashlight 
bulb, carefully broken to keep the filament 

Filaments from household light bulbs can 
also be used but they arc very delicate. The 
bulb is broken and the filament is removed 
and carefully attached to the two copper 

Improvised goodies are fun and give a sense 
of creative accomplishment. Even so, an elcc- 

trie dynamite cap will take the place of a lot 
of ingenuity. 

Flashlight and transistor radio batteries are 
sufficient to heat the filaments or detonate 
the dynamite cap. If flashlight or pen light 
batteries are used they should be reversed as 
in the illustration. 

llie wires should be soldered to the battery 
terminab to insure contact. The best wire is 
die thin, plastic covered kind used in tran- 
sistor radios. 

A hole is drilled Into the plastic watch lens 
and a small nail is inserted and glued in place 
so its point doesn't couch die watch face. 

If the bomb is to go off more than an hour 
after it Is set, the minute hand is taken off. 

The vratcb hand making contact with the 
nail is sanded to remove any paint on the con* 
tact edge. 




H1h'4 i>v«» bauefin ac tucJ 
da.*)' Mfv revers'd thown 

When the bomb is finished the pares are 
compacted and taped securely to its casing. 
The watch is secured with transparent Scotch 
Tape so that the hands are visible for setting. 

The watch is allowed to run down before 
attaching it to the bomb and U wound only 
after it is set. 

To avoid frustration from a dud bomb, the 
timer, battery and filaments should be tested 
before arming an actual bomb. This is done 
by putting the filament into a small pile of 
powder. If it ignites, disconnect the battery 
immediately to save the filament. Examine 
the filament carefully to make sure it is still 
intact and if it is it can be reused. 


Pipe bombs, whether filled with match 

heads, gunposvder or high explosives, should 
be lined with plastic Baggies or freezer bags. 
This prevents friction, static clcctriciry and 
any chemical reaction between the explosive 
and the metal. 

'Hie mouth of the bag is folded back over 
the threads and the explosive is put in. Next, 
the fuse is put in and the plastic bag is wrap- 
ped tightly around the fuse and held with a 
rubber band. All this is necessary because any 
explosive on the pipe threads could cause the 
bomb to explode when the cap is screwed on. 

The cap for the fuse hole is drilled from 
both sides with any high-speed steel industrial 
twist drill bit. The bit is used with any electric 
hand or table drill. 

The size of the hole should be exactly the 
size of the fuse. The plastic bag should cover 




only the lower part of the fuse. Flare igniter, 
if used, should be put on the fuse after the 
cap is screwed on as the hole would have to 
be made larger than necessary to accommo* 
date the glob of flare igniter. 


Commonly known as *'zip" guns, guns 
made from pipe have been made and used for 
years by juvenile punks. Today's Militants 
make them just for the hell of it or to shoot 
once in an assassination or riot and throw 
away if there is any danger of apprehension. 

They can be used many times but with 
some, a length of dowel is needed to force out 
the spent shell. 

There are many variations but the iliustra' 
tion shows the basic design. 

First, a wooden stock is made and a groove 
is cut for the barrel to rest in. The barrel is 
then taped securely to the stock with a good, 
strong tape. 

The trivet is made from galvanized tin. A 
slot is punched in the trigger flap to hold a 
roofing n^, which is wired or soldered onto 
the flap. The tri^r is bent and nailed to the 
stock on both sides. 

Ihe pipe is a short Length of one-quarter 
indi steel gas or water pipe with a bore that 
fits a cartridge, yet keeps the cartridge rim 
from passing through the pipe. 

The cartridge is put in the pipe and the cap, 
with a hole l^red through It, is screwed on. 
Then the trigger is slowly released to let the 
nail pass through the hole and rest on the 




To fire, the trigger is pulled back with the 
left hand and held back with the thumb of 
the right hand. The gun is then aimed and the 
thumb releases the tri^r and the dung actu- 
ally fires. 

Pipes of different lengths and diameters are 
found in any hardware store. All caliber bul- 
lets, from the .22 to the .45 arc used in such 

Some zip guns are made from two or three 
pipes nested within each other. For instance, 
a .22 shell will fit snugly into a length of a 
car’s copper gas line. Unfortunately, the cop- 
per is too weak to withstand the pressure of 
the firing. So the length of gas line is spread 
with glue and pushed into a wider len^ of 
pipe. This is spread with glue and pushed into 
a length of steel pipe with threads and a cap. 

Using this method, you can accommodate 
any cartridge, even a rifle shell. The first size 
of pipe for a rifle shell accommodates the 
buUet. The second accommodates its wider 
powder chamber. 

A 12*gauge shotgun can be made from a 
3/4 inch steel pipe. If you want to comply 
with the gun laws, the barrel should be at 
least eighteen inches long. 

Its firing mechanism is the same as that for 
the pistol. It naturally has a longer stock and 
its handle is lengthened into a rifle butr. Also, 
a small nail is driven half way into each side 
of the stock about four inches in front of the 
trigger. The rubber band is put over one nail 
and brought around the trigger and snagged 
over the ocher nail. 

In case you actually make a zip gun, you 
should test it before firing it by hand. This is 
done by first tying the gun to a tree or post, 
pointed to where it will do no damage. 'Hicn 
a string is tied to the trigger and you go off 
several yards. The string is then pulled back 

and let go. If the barrel does not blow up, the 
gun is safe to fire by hand. 

You should not attempt to register such a 


Many MiliUnts squirrel away stockpiles of 
guns and bombs and as fast as the authorities 
find them with metal detectors, the Militants 
discover new ways of fooling the metal detec- 
tors. Militants hiding lethal goodies have dis- 
covered the following tricks to fool the detec- 

Rural Militants bury illegal items under 
metal scrap piles or where garbage with tin 
cans has been thrown for years, There is so 
much rust and bits of metal in the soil that 
the detector indicates that a tank is buried 

Not believing there is a tank buried there 
(although there might be) the searcher moves 
on to fmd a more localized, and therefore 
easier, digging job. 

Iron filings and lathe cuttings scattered 
over the site will give the same false readings. 
The agent using detector will figure he Is 
over a dump site or an iron mine. Unless he 
can con some archaeologists to dig up a few 
hundred cubic yards of dirt he is apt to just 
wander off and get blind drunk. 

The floors of barns, being impregnated 
with iron-containing urine and excrement 
from (he animals, render metal detectors use- 

Fence corners and other places where ani- 
mals gather regularly are good places to bury 
contraband since the soil there is the same as 
chat in bams. 

Since streams deposit metallic oxides along 
their courses, a dry stream bed will likewise 
roister a bonanza which no civil service work- 




er will tackle. 

City Militants have more space problems 
than do rural ones. But they still find ways of 
hiding stuff from detectors. The concrete 
floor of a basement is a great place under 
which to hide metallic objects. If there is a 
way of digging underneath the cement, the 
objects are safe from the detector. It will buzz 
everywhere and not pinpoint anything. 

Those lucky enough to have a basement 
space to build a secret room arc least likely to 
be found out. Walling off a corner of the base- 
ment makes a dandy goody hider and can also 
hold a body or two. 

If the basement walls are made of reinforc- 
ed concrete, that is. has those steel rods em- 
bedded in them, the new wail must give the 
same metallic reading. To achieve this, the 
mortar cementing the bricks is liberally sprin- 
kled with cut soft wire in about one-eighth 
inch bits or a few handfuils of tiny wire nails. 
None is put into the mortar used to cover the 
brick wall. In this way, the brick and the con- 
crete will measure the same metallically. 

Whether the secret companmene is walled 
with meralized mortar or is just a plain brick 
wall, the goodies to be hidden are placed In 
the middle of the space and not toui^ing any 

The poor Militant who has only a little 
back yard and no cows, garbage or scrap pile 
has a real digging job ahead of him. He needs 
a hole five or six feet deep. 

The goodies are stored in a wooden box 
covered with tar or creosote to protect it 
from the moisture. Then the box is covered 
around and on top with about a foot’s thick- 
ness of loose, non-metallic rocks. Next, the 
hole is filled with dirt. 

Smart Militants put a layer of plastic over 
the rock covered box, since a metal detector 
works best if damp earth is in contact with 
the hunted objects. 


Those Militants not content to psych out 
the driver with some practical joke have his 
last ride in mind. 

The besr methods require getting under the 
hood. Explosives are placed as near the occu- 
pants as possible. The fuse, homemade, com- 
mercial or safety, is wrapped a few turns 
around the exhaust manifold. After a few 
minutes on the road the exhaust manifold 
gets almost red hot and ignites the fuse. 

This way Is more certain than wiring the 
car because since it blows up on the road the 
wreck will do the victim in even if the blast 
doesn’t. Besides, if the intended victim is a 
passenger Instead of the driver, the driver may 
start the engine before the passenger gets into 
the car. You can see how embarrassing char 
would be to the bomber, can’t you? 

Old-fashioned types, like the Mafia, love to 
wire cars. They are too set in their ways to 
change and besides, they get a charge out of 
seeing a car blow up before their eyes instead 
of imagining it going to hell on the road. 

They usually use about three sticks of dy- 
namic, two lengths of electric wire with two 
alligator dips for quick attachment, and an 
electric blasting cap. The cap is stuck into a 
dynamite stick and its two wires are connec- 
ted to the two electric wires. Then one alliga- 
tor clip is damped to the input side of the 
coil and the other is fastened to any metal 
surface in the car’s frame as a ground. 

Hjis is very simple and you’d think anyone 
could do it. But sure enough, there are always 
morons vAxo will attach one clamp to a spark 
plug and one to a ground. This usually resulrs 
in misfires and no end of frustrations. 


Now we go from destroying cars to protect- 
ing them and their contents from pursuers. A 




diagram would fit only a few of the vehicles 
but this explanation should be understood by 
anyone at all handy with cars and trucks. 

Firsts a hole is drilled in the exhaust mani* 
fold the size of the nozzle of a paint or plant 
sprayer. When the nozzle is welded in place 
a length of gas line is affixed to the nozzle 
tube and fed into the driver's compartment. 

The gas line is then attached to the spray 
unit inside the driver’s compartment under 
the dash. 

Solid brass plant sprayers going under the 
trade name of “Mist”ifier, or similar, can be 
bought at any garden store. The nozzle is re- 
moved and welded to the exhaust manifold 
and the container is put inside with the driver 
and connected to the nozzle unit with t 
length of gas line. 

To use, the container is filled with castor 
oil, bought at any drug store. Burned castor 
oil will blot out everything on the road be- 
hind you. 

A friend tried this and just put in a few 
short squirts to see what it would do. The 
effect from his exhaust pipe was so wild that 
it looked like a bomb had been dropped on 
the freeway. 

He was so startled he allowed himself to be 
pulled over by a cop and he almost got locked 
up for it. He could have gotten away if he had 
made a smokey run for it. 

It is the hot exhaust manifold which turns 
the castor oil into smoke. Smoke screens in 
war are made using this simple principle. 
Qank case oil to be thrown away is great for 
smoke screens. It could also highli^r the 
idea of recycling in your area. 

On the road, the smoke not only causes 
pursuers to slow down in order to sec, but it 
causes panic among the other motorists on 
the road. This makes the police stop the 
chase as the traffic hazards are greater than 
your capture is worth. 


Since this section was written, 
in 1970, I*VG run across a terrific 
book you'll want to get from your 
library or order through your local 
book, store. It is "Poisons, Anti- 
dotes & Anecdotes", by William Ti- 
chey and published by Sterling Pub- 
lishing, 1977. 

It ia the most fun book and will 
give you oodles of ideas as well as 
tell you how poiaone work. 

Also, I've incorporated "The 
Complete Medical Student's Manual 
of Chemistry" into GRANDDAD’S WON- 
ual has the most extensive writings 
on poisons of any book I've ever 
seen. Under the headings of "Action 
on the economy", it describes how 
much of what will do in an opponent 
and how he will react and for how 
long before he croaks. 


PUftt poisons are vety easy to administer 
and are hard to trace. A few leaves in the sal- 
ad aren’t noticed and the victim dies without 
knowing vdiy. 

Rhubarb, (or one, is a deadly poison. The 
stalks are fine but if you eat any of the leaf, 
youll die, Cooked, the leaves take an hour or 
so, but in a salad they kill almost immedi- 

The rhubarb bought in stores has all the 
leaves taken off so you will have to get the 
leaves from a farm or grow your own. 

You don’t have to be stingy with rhubarb 
and most other plant poisons like figuring 
grains and grams. Just chop up some leaves 
and put them in the salad or stew or among 
the lettuce on hamburgers and you will have 
hit dfc jackpot. 

Castor beans are a good poison as they are 
almost tasteless when ground and only three 
or four are enough to kill. They’re easy to get, 
especially in Southern California where they 
grow wild. They can be put into almost any 


Oleanders are common flowers but arc 
about as poisonous as any plant. The heart is 
affected very quickly and severely. Both the 
leaves and branches are lethal. 

A couple of poinsenia leaves will kiU just 
about anybody. Better use three. 

Yew is a conifer, or cone bearing evergreen 
tree or shrub. Any nursery man can cake you 
out in back and identify it for you. But he 
will get pretty surly if you start stripping off 
branches so you should buy a small tree, if 
you don't know where a big one is growing. 

It's the foliage that kills so forget the ber- 
ries. It is so poisonous and so quick that at 
one time the Secret Service considered it for 
suicide pUls. The beauty of it is that it kills al* 
most immediately without any symptoms. 
You take it and. splatc. you're on the floor, 

I'm not sure of the dosage but it's not 

The way to refine it is to fill a coffee perco- 
lator with the ground up foliage and put eight 
ounces of alcohol in the pot. Percolate it for 
about a half hour. If the dcohol boils off. put 
in some more. 

Cheap rubbing alcohol is good enough once 
you have distilled it off from its water con- 

When the process is finished, put the alco- 
hol and what went through the percolator in- 
to the still. You then distlU off the alcohol 
until you have only a couple of teaspoonfuls 
of residue left. Pour this out into a saucer and 
let it evaporate. 

You can use the same process for a finer 
grade of nicotine from tobacco. Always strive 
for quality. 

Laurel is another evergreen that can cause 
death by the eating of a single leaf. It is best 
percolated and distilled but it can be used as 
it is and put in stews and as a garnish on hors 
d ’oeuvres. 

Poisoning was a great sport and topic of 
conversation before the widespread use of 


^rearms. Now that firearms might be going 
out. Militants and suburbanites are becoming 

inierested in more aesthetic ways to kill. 

Unlike your gun, poison is seldom very ef- 
fective against burglars. But say youVe been 
suckered into giving a wife swapping party 
where every female but your own is either 
pregnant or periodic. In this case a little some- 
thing to sprinkle on the hors d 'oeuvres is a 
good thing. 

The Militant can use poison on individual 
enemies or can put it in refreshments at rallies 
of political opponents. It is also great for get- 
ting rid of rivals in his own group. Last, but 
very important, is that old standby for an em- 
barrassing moment, the self destruct capsule. 

There arc several books on poisons. The 
best one is POISONS, by Vincent Brooks. It's 
mainly for doctors and police but is very read- 
able and amusing. Most libraries have it, along 
with several others, which are mainly about 
garden plants to watch for. 

I got a great charge out of reading about 
Warfarin on p^e 108 of POISONS. Warfarin 
is a rat poison which is mainly corn meal or 
some other rat dainty. Anyway, it tells how 
some slob was induced to eat a pound of it a 
day for six days. Talk about Jethro Bodine! 

A word to the wisej if you're a southern 
type and your wife stops earing her share of 
the com pone, thrash her and make her eat all 
the pone. 




Poisoning is no pastime for an idiot. YouVe 
got to be mighty shrewd. To ^vc a blood 
enemy just a bad ta5te in the mouth while 
you’re sitting talking with him over a drink is 
dangerous. He’ll suspect poison and know you 
tried to do him in. 

Poisons act in different ways. There are 
four considerations when selecting a poison. 
Four effects for different objectives. 

One objective might be to kill the victim 
immediately so he would be unable to calk. 
Another would be a several minute delay 
where the victim would be stricken some time 
after you had left the scene. 

Still another consideration is that the vic- 
tim should be unconcious so he can ^ve doc- 
tors as little help as possible. Also, you don’t 
want him to hurt any more than necessary be- 
cause that would be mean. The fourth consi- 
deration is that the dose is strong enough to 
be lethal. 

As you apply yourself to this study you 
will occasionally blunder. Your victim will be 
dovm. flopping like a fish off the hook and 
the medical types will still pull him through. 
I know this Is frustrating, but one must learn 
to cope. 

Another good thing to know about the 
poison of your choice is its legitimate use. If 
a druggist or someone else asks you what you 
want with it, it's embarrassing to have to ad- 
mit that you want to kill someone. A cover 
story is always good. 


This is simply antifreeze, such as Prestonc, 
Zerex, etc. Always read the can to make sure 
the ingredient is ethylene glycol, k is a color 
less. s)Tupy liquid with a sweedsb taste. It 
mixes well with both water and alcohol. 

Authorities disagree on the lethal dose. 
They put it from a half ounce to four ounces. 
This is not important, however, as anyone 
will drink four ounces in his soft drink with- 

out becoming suspicious. 

It can also be tasted along with what 
you’ve put il in. Just wash your mouth out 
and you will feel no bad effects. 

At a party, a half-gallon at a time can be 
dumped into the punch bowl so that every- 
body will get his share. Only don't pour it in 
directly from the anti-freeze can. An observer 
might wonder about you. Instead, put some 
food coloring or Kool-Aid in it to make it 
look like grape juice or something and put it 
in two-quart fruit juice cans. 

That way you can pour it (n the punch and 
stir it and grin and anyone watching would 
think you were just helping. 

A nice thing about ethylene glycol is that a 
person dying from it just seems drunk. 


Arsenic and its compounds are great poi- 
sons. They are quite popular and have been a 
good subject for comedies such as ^'Arsenic 
and Old Lace.’* The nice thing about arsenic 
is chat it is almost tasteless and it doesn’t start 
to act until a half hour to an hour after it is 
taken. That vray you can zap just oodles of 
people who would get off scot free if you 
used a fast poison like cyanide. Cyanide is 
terrific for individual hits but disappointing 
udien working with groups. 

Say you’re operating at a governor’s ban- 
quet and you lace the grits with cyanide. One 
of the victims would be eating a handful! of 
grits and would all of a sudden flop over into 
his ^avy. His neighbor might swipe his pork 
chop but you can be sure be would not touch 
the victim’s, or his own, helping of grits. He 
might even warn others. 

But with arsenic, they’ll all be to their 
prunes by the time the poison takes effect. 

The lethal dose of most arsenic compounds 
is from 0.1 to 0.5 gram. A gram is only 
l/28di of an ounce. Say you had a pound of 




arsenic or arsenic crioxide, etc. Say » also, you 
allowed the maximum dose of half a gram. 
That would be 896 fatal doses. There would 
be enough left over to take care of the Senate 
and Congress and even Billy James Hoggis. 


This is rat and insect poison. It’s a real kill- 
er. It can be bought at hardware and garden 
stores in an adulterated powder. Chemical 
supply companies sell the pure stuff for $.35 
an ounce. 

You can make it yourself with hydrofluoric 
acid and sodium carbonate <sal soda). 

Use only plastic when working with hydro- 
flouric acid as it eats glass and metals. Also 
work with good ventilation and avoid the acid 

Put one part sodium carbonate in a plastic 
container and add an equal amount of acid, 
slowly, stirring all the while. The result will be 
colorless crystals and white powder. 

Death has been caused by less than one 
grain. There are 437 grains to an ounce so a 
grain would be about the size of a gr^n of 
rice or wheat. 

In case you didn't know, sodium llouride 
is the waste matter from certain chemical 
companies which they unload on moronic 
city officials, like those in Eureka, to fluori- 
date the drinking water. It might toughen 
kid's teeth but it also dulls the creative part 
of the mind, even at one part per million in 
drinking water. 

POISONS doesn't say if the full strength 
stuff is fast or slow to act or how long the 
victim lasts. Testing is in order here. 


Nicotine is a really terrible poison. One 
drop of pure nicotine has killed in fifteen 
minutes. It is great to put a few drops in an 
opponent's shot glass and make a bottoms up 
toast to Senator Fulb right. 

Us taste is prerry well covered by wine, es- 
pecially sweet wine. It's not so good in drinks 
that have to be sipped and savored. Few poi- 
sons are. 

You can get almost pure nicotine from the 
kind of snuff that comes in round, flat boxes. 
Pour it out into a water glass and put in just 
enough water to cover it all. 

After about 24 hours pour the mess into a 
handkerchief that has been stuffed down into 
another glass but with its edges over the rim. 
Then lift out the handkerchief and twist the 
edges so that the snuff forms into a ball. Con- 
tinue twisting until all the liquid is squeezed 

Pour the liquid into a small sauce pan and 
pul it on a low fire. When the liquid has eva- 
porated CO about a teaspoonful of thick syrup 
it is finished. It is best to dilute it with 
enough water so it will easily leave a medicine 
dropper. A few drops should do the trick. 

A ^od way to handle nicotine Is to fill a 
medicine dropper with it and plug the end 
with a piece of soft wax which is pushed in 
and molded around the opening. The dropper 
is earned with the wax end up in the shirt 
pocket and is ready for use in a jiffy. 

Nicotine is also a good way to commit su- 
icide if you arc a prisoner. Just collect a hand- 
full of cigarette butts and strip the paper from 
them, if you are a neat person. 

Soak them for several hours, if possible, in 
water. If you arc being watched you can slip 
them into your coffee. At the last minute just 
gulp the whole thing down, Best to do it on 
an empty stomach. If you keep your mouth 
shut for a few minutes, even if they pump 
you out it will be too late. 

Nicotine is an alkaloid so you might get 
quite a hi^ while you die. Give it a try. 


Tliis is my favorite. It is an insect poison 



poem MAN'S JAMES BOND Vol . 1 

found under several brand names. TTic most 
common is Black Leaf 40, bought at any gar- 
den store. This stuff is 40% nicotine sulfate. 
Just a few drops in a drink will kill quickly. 

It is best CO evaporate it to the point where 
it is like a thin syrup and will still form into 
drops from a medicine dropper. 

One of the glories of nicotine sul^te is that 
it is absorbed by the skin and is fatal within a 
few minutes. Death by nicotine sulfate can 
only be detected by a blood test, which is 
seldom given. 

A fine way to use nicotine sulfate is to 
carry it In a sofc drink cup and act like you 
accidentally spilled it on the victim. If he 
doesn’t wash it off in a matter of seconds he 
will be dead in a matter of minutes. There is 
liRle chance of him washing it off if he thinks 
it’s just a soft drink, especially if he is at a 
meeting or talking to someone. 

Most other insect spays and powders kill 
by being absorbed through the skM. Some of 
them are; Malathion, Parathion, Otiordane 
and Lindane. 


At first thought it would seem chat the best 
way to test poisons would be on alley cats. 
Cats are not the best subjects because, first 
it’s naughty to hurt cats and also because they 
are hard to kill. 

Alley cats eat such garbage and corruption 
they develop cast iron stomachs. A cat can 
often handle a dose that would kill a dozen 

The best subject is a wino. In every dty 
there are hundreds of winos sleeping out in 
nests in vacant lots, abandoned houses, under 
bridges, etc. It’s very easy to find such nests. 
They are usually made up of flattened card- 
board boxes and newspapen and littered with 
wine bottles. 

Put the dose you want to test in a half full 
fifth bottle of sweet wine. Then tuck it in the 

nest where the wino will be sure to find it. He 
will just think another wino hid it there. 

If the nest has a dead wino in it the next 
morning you’ve figured out the right dose. If 
bodi the nest and the bottle is empty, it’s 
back to the old drawing board. Try increasing 
the dosage. 

I was going to test poisons myself in this 
way. Then I realized I would probably wipe 
out half the Eureka City Council. Even so, 
they deserve it, since they all voted to put so- 
dium fluoride in the city’s drinking water. 

Most poisons can be tasted to see what, if 
any, flavor ^ould be added to hide the taste. 
it*s quite safe to put a little bit on your 
tongue to get the taste and then wash your 
mouth out well. The only poisons 1 would not 
taste arc prussic acid and others chat kill with 
less than a grain and strong acid or lye which 
would damage the tongue. 

The safest way to test poisons, for you, is 
to put it in dope. Another safe way is to put 
it in an enemy's medicine, If you have access 
to his bathroom look for capsules, especially 
prescription so you know he's the only one 
taking them. 

1 saw the capsule trick on “Iron side." 

Care evoy step along the way makes the 
diffoence between the proud expert and the 
red-faced bungler. Imagine the embarrassment 
of the ancient Greek poisoners when Socrates 
said, "Wow! It sure doesn’t taste like tomato 


Many Militants rob banks for operating ex- 
penses. It is pretty easy to get caught and go 
to jail for ten years, that is, if you don’t get 
shot and killed. Counterfeiting is a lot less 
risky and the sentence is about the same if 
you are caught passing funny money. Also, 




there is less danger of harm. 

Ninety per cent of the arrests for counter- 
feiting are made on tips. If you are a lone 
wolf and produce the stuff all by yourself, 
and if it is pretty good, your chances of cap- 
ture are very slim. 

If there are two people involved the chan- 
ces are two to one against you. If there are 
three people, it’s three to one and so on. 

The person I got this information from 
made the best stuff the T-Mcn had ever seen. 
He wasn't caught making or passing it. He was 

The treasury people are setting up ail kinds 
of fun and games because they are running 
out of work. They promise to pay informers 
on tax cheats, but they don't live up to their 
promises so people have stopped informing. 

So, having nothing better to do, they ap- 
proached this ex-counterfeiter and promised 
him $20,000 in real money to print them up 
a million in phoney hundreds. They then 
showed their badges and arrested him. They 
have no case since they set him up but he was 
mad enough to divulge the secrets of his craft. 

Anyone who is good with photography and 
darkroom techniques can be a professional 

This method works, with minor variations, 
for any paper money from any country. \ 
stress foreign currency because it*s a stupid 
bird that fouls its own nest. But think of a 
grand tour of Europe, financed out of your 
own basement. It would do your head good 
and besides, they want your trade. 

Samples of foreign currency can be bought 
from most coin shops, foreign exchange shops 
and from many of the larger banks, 

G:>ntrary to popular opinion, you can buy 
paper nearly identical in feel and weight to 
le^ bills. It can be bought from any paper 
house in the U. S, 

It is normally a 25% rag. If you go any 

higher in the rag content it feds too soft, 
whereas the 25% has the crackle that a real 
bill has. 

The only problem with the paper is that it 
is absolutely white. A real bill is not white. 
It*s a combination of greenish, yellowish 
brown in a very light tint. At the end of the 
process you have to dye the bills with the tint 
that matches the real U. S. currency. Foreign 
bills have different tints. 

To begin with, you must have an excellent 
negative. The first way is to make the bill in 
the negative the exact size of the real bill. The 
other way is to enlarge it to about four times 
its real size, retouch it, then reduce it to its 
real size. 

On U. S. currency, and particularly the 20 
dollar bill, there is one very troublesome 
place. That is around the eyes. Some way, 
they have made this area very difficult for a 
camera to pick up. 

A place for currency is made by engraving. 
They rake a piece of flat metal and scribe in- 
dentadons in the meta). Around the eyes are 
very fine lines and the indentations around 
the eyes are very shallow. 

There is very little ink in that area, When- 
ever it is to be reproduced by a photographic 
process, these lines do not register well on the 

Therefore, you must retouch the negative 
by hand so as to get these fine lines. The 
easiest method is to enlarge the image to 
twice its size or more. After the lines are put 
in, the image is reduced to the exact size of 
the real bill. 

Ail bills arc better enlarged but a twenty 
is the worst as far as reproduction is concern- 
ed. They have made it that way purposely be- 
cause the twenty Is the best denomination to 
pafg , The easiest to duplicate is the hundred 
dollar bill. 

Each bill needs three different negatives. 




One negative is for the back, \^ich is aU one 
shade of green. Another is for the portrait 
side and is for the black. The last is for the 
green seal and serial numbers on the portrait 

After you have the negatives for the back 
plate and the portrait plate you have two very 
difficult areas. The first is the littie green seal 
TREASURY 1789. This is on the right side of 
the portrait. 

The denomination of the bill is printed in 
fine black lines over the seal, These have to be 
touched out of the negative of the seal and 
the serial numbers. You have to enlarge the 
portrait side maybe four times its size and 
take out all the black parts especially the fine 
lines through the seal Then it is reduced to 
normal size. 

Then you take another negative of the por* 
trait side and blow it up about four times. In 
this one you touch out the seal and the serial 
numbers. Then reduce it to normal riae. 

Now you have a complete set of negatives. 
You've got the green back side. You have the 
black portrait side without the seal or serial 
numbers. Then you have the green seal and 
the serial numbers on the right and left sides 
of the bill. 

Next, you take the three finished negatives 
and reproduce them so you will have as many 
bills as your press handles on one sheet. If it 
handles 8V4 by 14 Inch paper you wiQ need 
five of each negative. 

Now it is time to get the negatives ready 
for the plate making operation. You will have 
to do the printing yourself as it would be 
risky trying to get a commercial shop to do it 
for you. 

You can get a second hand by 14 offset 
press for about S3 00. You can get a simple 
book on running the press and describing the 
offset process from any printing supply com* 

To get the negatives ready for the plate 
making they are cut to the exact size of real 
bills on the sides but with extra negative on 
die cods. Then you take a piece of opaque 
oran^ plastic and cut a hole in it exactly the 
size of the several bills, 

Next, place the negatives side by side over 
the hole and scotch tape the ends to the or- 
ange plastic. This is called stripping. 

Your next step is to lay the stripped nega- 
dves down on a sheet of light sensitive alumi- 
num called a lithographic plate. It is best to 
have a vacuum frame so the negatives will be 
pressed uniformly on the plate. Then the 
place is exposed to an arc (i^t for from two 
to two and a half minutes. 

When the exposure is complete, the plate is 
put into a sink for developing. First, a desen* 
ritizing solution is rubbed over the entire 
plate. Then the lacquer is put on. Places that 
were swisitive to the light pick up the lacquer, 
showing what you have. 

When the plate is developed and lacquered, 
a solution of gum arable is rubbed on the 
place. This prevents moisture from oxidizing 
the aluminum plate, 

When it is ready the plate is put on the 
press and wrapped around the cylinder. The 
relation between the position of the paper 
feeding through the press and the plate on the 
cylinder is called the register. The register 
must be exactly the same for all three sets of 
negatives so there is no overlapping and the 
printing is perfectly centered around the 
edges on both sides. 

Then the printing scans. The colors on a 
bill are easy to match. Three Inks are used; 
black and two shades of green. When match* 
ing inks you must consider that at the end of 
the job you will add a tint on both sides. 
Thus, the greens should be a bit lighter as the 
tint will darken them. 

After the black plate is run it is left to dry 
for about two hours. Then it is turned over 




and the green side is run. When this has set a 
couple of hours it is turned over and the seal 
and serial numbers are printed. 

There should be several sets of serial mim- 
bers. When a bill is being passed, one nurnber 
is good for about a week before it is picked 
up and listed with banks and stores. A dozen 
different numbers should be made into nega- 
lives for a sizable printing. 

When the three colors have been printed 
and the last is dry, the bills are cut apart with 
a power paper cutter. 

(In the original text the counterfeiter re- 
commends cutting after the printing is done 
and before tinting. I don’t know why. It 
seems much easier to first tint and iron the 
sheets flat and then cut. There may be a rea* 
son for his sequence so [ have followed his 
text. Another thing might be confusing; and 
that is in drying the printed sheets for two 
hours. The impression is given that the sheets 
are dried individually. Aaually, you can mck 
them as many sheets high as the press permits. 
Only don’t disturb the stack until it has set a 
couple of hours) 

After printing you have what looks like 
play money with no resemblance in color or 
feel to real money. 

The tint is a combination of yellow, green 
and a tiny touch of orange. It is a vegetable 
dye used in coloring cakes, idngs and cookies 
and is bought at any grocery store. You can 
buy a little package of four different colors 
for $.35. This is enough to tint five thousand 

To make the tint you put water in a pan 
and carefully add the dyes while sdning. 
Hopefully, the tint will be too light and can 
be darkened gradually because if it is too dark 
you will have to pour it out and start over. 

You will have reject bills so test the tint on 
them. To test, dip the bill in the solution, 
then press it between two layers of p^er tow- 

el to blot up the excess tint. Then the bill is 
dried in a hot oven for about a minute and 
compared for color to a real bill, preferably a 
crisp, fresh one. 

When you have arrived at the right shade 
of tint, do the whole batch, blotting like with 
the test bills and drying in a hot oven for a 
minute. After this it looks quite similar to a 
real piece of currency. But that is not the end 
of ic 

The bills ^ould look used. First, they are 
wrinkled a little. Then they are rubbed with 
ground coffee to give them an aged, dirty 
look. 'Hien they will pass even at banks. 

Don’t worry about the lack of fme blue 
filaments in your product. Just observe some 
poor, harried shop broad servicing a line of 
impacieot noontime shoppers and see if she 
examines the bills for tiny blue filaments. If 
she did die’d be fired if she wasn’t torn to 
pieces by the mob. 


As much fun as bombs are to use against 
others, most of the fun goes out of it when 
they are used against you. Whether you repre- 
sent the government, the Bank of America or 
a rival Militant group, you may someday need 
this section so pay close attention. 

By far the best work on bomb handling is 
Lenz's Explosives and Bomb Disposal Guide. 
This is described in the book section. It is 
heavily illustrated and is much better than my 
book for the identification of bomb compo- 
nents and bomb dismantling. 

Lenz’s only shortcoming, however, is his 
seeming preoccupation with taking the nasty 
things apart. My methods are safer and more 

If you are confronted with a bomb the best 
thing to do is to run and report it and so pass 
the buck to someone else. If you arc the one 




to whom the buck is passed you arcn*c sup- 
posed to run away. You are supposed to make 
the area safe. 

If you are a bomb squad person your Hrst 
act should be to assure minimum danu^ in 
case the bomb goes off before you can dis- 
pose of it. Having done rhi^ you must next re- 
move the bomb from the area. 

If the bomb is obviously going to go 
within minutes you may have to deactivate it 
on the spot. For this I again refer you to 
Lenz's book because if you are in the business 
you have no excuse for not having his book. 

There are four basic types of bombs: shat- 
ter, concussion, shrapnel and fire. 

Shatter bombs are those relying only on 
the actual explosive matter to do the damage. 
These include chemical explosives enclosed in 
plastic or paper, blocks or molded plastic ex* 
plosives or bare sticks of dyanamite. 

Shatter bombs have a very short radius of 

Photo shows complete spacuU and plutic medicine 
bocclc on left and explod^ cpatula on che right. 

damage. Anything from a half ounce or a 
couple of pounds will only shatter in a radius 
of a few inches. You have no doubt heard of a 
soldier stepping on a land mine and having a 
foot sheared off at the ankle. Then there is 
the dynamite fisherman who loses only a 
hand when he holds a stick too long. 

The photograph shows a spatula which had 
been used to stir a mixture ot about H ounce 
of potassium chlorate and a bit of red phos- 
phorous. The mixer was ignorant of the fact 
that these chemicals together, stirred dry, will 
detonate spontaneously. 

The resulting blast kneaded the spatula out 
of shape. It atomized the first 3/4 inch of the 
bone handle and split the rest. It shattered the 
plasdc mixing bottle. 

The fingers holding the bottle had the flesh 
blown off the bones and the bare bones had 
to be ampuuted. The palm of the hand was 
turned to hamburger and its inner bones were 

The hand holding the spatula was undam* 
aged except for particles of plastic bottle 
which pierced the skin. 

So the dtattering effect, although terrible, 
was only in a radius of about two inches from 
the outade of the charge of explosive. 

Examine the photos of bomb “expert” 
Norman Hill. He had been fooling with a 
bomb the size of a pack of cigarettes and it 
blew hb hand into a bloody mist. Otherwise 
he was not harmed. 

This also shows that the shattering effect 
was only a few inches and concussion was not 
a factor here. 

The second picture points out his foolish- 
ness in previously playing with a similar 
bomb. Note that he is ridiculously bundled 
up in the most elaborate blast protective out- 
fit. Yet, assuming this was a similar bomb, his 
body was in little danger. But his vulnerable 
hands, the parts of him that are endangered. 




are bare I 

I saw many such piccurcs during the recent 
rash of letter bombings. Bomb squad people 
would be wearing useless vests and carrying 
the vile letter bombs in their bare hands. 

I don't usually moralize about such things 
but letter bombs are the mark of a creep and 

a no’class coward. 

First, bombs which usually only cripple arc 
no-class. If you are a Militant, regardless of 
your feelings now, you will change in time. 
When you are off on another trip you may re- 
gret having some victim still crippled for life 
and suffering. 

A case in point is Rennie Davis. 1 don’t 
know if he ever made a bomb but he was a 

high priest of the Yippies calling for the end 
of the establishment. It Is impossible to reck- 
on the damage he encouraged with his anti- 
government speeches. 

Yet he has sensibly outgrown the leftist 
movement. He is now a spokesman for the fat 
little Indian degenerate, Guru-Maharaj Ji. I 
wonder if he ever considers the still crippled 
police his kind produced when they were so 
right and ail-knowing. 

At any rate the letter bomb is the lowest of 
the no-cla$s weapons. It usually gets some 
non-involved postal worker or secretary. Any- 
one so cowardly that he can't deliver his wea- 
pon to the target is beneath contempt. 

Concussion bombs are those meant to lift 
and move. These send out a shock wave which 
pushes out walls, buckles steel tanks and rais- 
es roofs. They are usually bare chemical 
bombs or dyanamite. 

Shrapnel bombs are meant to send out bits 
of met^ or other hard debris which will punc- 
ture people or objects. This would include a 
pipe bomb as opposed to a bare stick of dy- 




Fire bombs are usually containers of com- 
bustible liquid ignited by a chemical or fire 
fuse. 'Fhcy may also be cans or bottles of M- 
quid set off by dy anamite or other explosive. 

Having found a bomb, if you aren't sure 
you can get rid of it, you should pack it 
around with stacks of tied newspapers. Such 
simple stacks around the bomb and between 
it and the target will take up most of the 
shattering effect. They will also act as an cx« 
cellent buffer to the concussion. They will 
absorb a blast that would otherwise blowout 
every wall in a room. 

Adouc ten two-foot high stacks of news- 
papers carried always in ihe bomb vehicle 
should protect a lot of property. 

If you are lucky your bn^mb is loose and is 
probably not going to go off right away. Your 
next job is to get it away from the scene. 

This is best accomplished by using a carrier 
made of U inch steel and opened at one end. 
The carrier’s bottom part is swung out and it 
is lowered over the bomb. The bottom is then 
swung in toward the bomb, the sharpened 
edge sliding under the bomb and picking it up. 

The carrier is then lifted and taken to the 
bomb vehicle. The open end of the carrier is 
held facing the least valuable area while the 
closed end also faces away from people. 

If the bomb is sizable and should go off the 
carrier will be ruined. But there is much less 
chance for the officer to be injured than with* 
out the carrier. The carrier will be jerked from 
the officer’s hand and sent in the direction of 
the closed end. The main effect of the blast 
would go out the open end. 

That carrier can be made by any black- 
smith, boilermaker or welder who works with 
^4 inch metal sheeting. The price is around 

The design shown is simple and can be 
made in a few hours. Any metalworker con 
understand the plan and may even improvise 


A steel rod is welded to the back of the 
bottom part. It goes through a hole drilled in- 
to the top part and is bent over the handle as 
shown. The rod is also secured to the inside 
back of the carrier by a welded band. 

A half inch extension is welded to both 
sides of the bottom of the front and the mid- 
dle of the bock. The weight of the carrier rests 
on these extensions. The bottom, which is ac- 
tually a large blade, rests alone and swings 
free of the extensions. 

In case you have carried the bomb out to 
the bomb vehicle and packed it in amidst 
bundles of newspapers you are pretty safe. 
The next thing to do is take it to an empty 
space and shoot it. 

It is ever so much fun to stand off and bang 
away at a bomb with a shotgun. Use 0-0 buck- 
shot. Most likely the bomb won’t explode but 
shooting it to pieces is far more relaxing than 
interr^tlng winos. 

I can't see any reason for taking a bomb 
apart unless it is about to go off and is chain- 
ed to an important target. But in case you 
have to disarm a bomb you should have a pair 
of galvanized hand protectors. 

These goodies would have saved Norman 
Hill’s hand and that fellow stirring the chemi- 
cals wouldn’t have even lost a fingernail. 

I don’t encourage making explosives but If 
the manipulations were performed with these 
hand guards the most potent explosives could 
be made safely in batches under four ounces. 
It almost goes without saying chat the home- 
made face and body armor described further 
on is a must. 

Any amateur can make a pair of these hand 
protectors in an afternoon. 

First go to a sheet metal shop and buy two 
1914 by 9 inch pieces of galvanized sheet me- 
tal. Then get a pair of tin cutters, some pic- 
ture hanging wire and a 3 /8th inch drill. 


tongs and dip their ends in liquid rubber stitch the piaurc hanging wire through the 

bought at any hobby shop. About four coats, drilled holes and the job is done, 

well dried after each dip, should make the Holes can be drilled around the rounded 
tips so they can be used to manipulate the edge to accommodate wires holding elastic 

finest wire, circlets. In this way the protectors will hang 

First cut the sheets in half circles of 19% on the wrists without the need to grasp the 

by 9 inches. Cut a notch 1^ inch deep by 2% tongs. You may not think such circlets nc- 

wide 8% inches to the right of the right hand cess ary so they are optional, 

one and to the left of the left hand one. At When brought to full width the tongs will 
the appropriate ends of the notches cut small- handle the largest pipe bombs. Even so, 1 re- 
er notches V4 inch deep by 1 inch long. commend using the carrier for pipe bombs 

Next, drill seven l/8th inch holes in each other explosives with fragmentation 

side of the notches. Then bend the drilled sheathing. 

edge opposite the small notch to a V. The hand protectors will withstand ever so 

When the bending is done you next lay the rouch concussion but an exploded pipe bomb 
tongs on the metal and bend the half circles would give you a couple of pretry battered 
entirely SO that the drilled edges join and one hands. Therefore, a pipe bomb should be 




Photo shows galvanized hand proteccui and setd 
bomb carrier. 

handled only long enough* to get it into a car* 
ricr. If you must use your hands then the, pro- 
tectors would certainly be better chan no* 

The el^orate bomb suits shown are very 
expensive but easy to duplicate. They are 
mainly fiber padding to absorb the concussion 
and any bits of shrapnel. 

Instead of spending up to $500 for a bomb 
suit a fireman can make his own for $5.00 if 
he is at ail handy or has a wife. 

All you need is a pair of coveralls with a 
slit in the back. As in the illustration you sew 
on pockets made from blue jean material, 
reaching around the legs and arms and on the 
upper and lower torso. In these pockets go 
tightly packed newspaper at least two inches 

For the head you will need a curved piece 




of galvanized metal with eye holes. A com* 
piete pocket is also made for the head. An 
inch Thickness of paper is put in front of the 
Pace plate. Eye holes are cue out as well as a 
slot for the nose. 

A V* inch strip of clear plastic is glued over 
the eye holes of the face plate. Then an inch 
more of paper with eye holes is slipped in 
back of the face place. 

An clastic strip sewn to the face mask and 
going over the top of the head is joined at the 
back by one sewn Co chc sides. 

Such a suit can be carried in back of a fire- 
man's car and be slipped on much quicker 
than the many -strapped and buckled ex- 
amples shown here. I believe they were de- 
signed for going in after gunmen. 

The thirty-five buckles and snaps would 
take several minutes to put in order. This de- 
tracts from the fantasy of the heroic bomb 
squadder with only seconds to prepare to dis- 

ann a ticking monster. Actually, most bombs 
arc dormant when found. They didn’t go off 
as planned and the only real risk is that they 
wU still go off accidentally. 

The fact that my suit is Mickey Mouse and 
cheap should not discourage you. It will ab- 
sorb one hell of a concussion and a lot of 
shrapnel. It will be ruined and need replace- 
ment but you will probably walk away. 

It is certainly as good as the other padded 
suits shown. 'I'hc suit with all the straps does 
not seem to be padded but instead seems to 
be made of metal plates. This would not ab- 
sorb a concussion or shrapnel. 

Us safety factor would lie in its overall im- 
penetrability. Wearing it, you might not be 
pierced but would probably get knocked 
down. And it would certainly be vcr>' heavy. 
I prefer chc padding and I think padding is 
most common. 

At «iny rate yop can see chat bomb disposal 
is dangerous but not mysterious. You should 
read Lenz’s book and just hope for chose ro- 




maniic jobs, like on TV, where the dock hand 
is about a minute away from WHAMMOl 

Most properly made and activated bombs 
go off before they are found. What you will 
most likely get arc duds. Don’t short yourself 
on knowledge, however. But don’t go over- 
board on elaborate equipment, cither. 

TTie main reason for making your own 
equipment is that you will have more confi- 
dence in it. It is also cheap enough chat you 
can take it out in the woods, tie it to a tree, 
and test it against various blasts. You can't get 
such knowledge when you are assigned the ex- 
pensive gear. 





This diQqram r»xd shorL description, sent ty <i friend, does not shov 
the connection betveon the two batteries and the motor. Evon so, one 
goinq so far as to build the model viii Find the hookup elementary. 

The centri'iigal gun, described in The Scientific American, ia61, 
ts obviously a workable concept. The 1861 article, reprinted in THE 
WEAPONEER Under the title "The Baltimore Steam Battery”, is a wodpon 
you might consider. In it was described such a gun which shot two-inch 
balls lf>Q yards through three one- inch pine plunks and landed from three 
to four hundred yards beyond, powered by human muscle. 

Imagine a machinegun, powered by steam, gasoline or electricity, no 
gunpowder, and silent? T can't see vhy it was never used, since its 
1837 prototype worked and a steam-powered iwsdei was patented in 19^9. 

The toy model, shown hern obviously worked. 

It would be interesting to see how the ATF would react to a fully 
automatic gun using no powder, and thus not being a Firearm, and belrwa 
silent without the use o* a silencer, 




F bcno in 

ouiDt n 





>'Mosiai - 





This gunpowder is more like the old- 
fashioned gunpowder used before smokeless 
powder was invented. It is quite powerful 
when made right and properly confined but is 
still not as good as smokeless powder, which 
is really guncotton. 

The formulas here are for what is known as 
black powder, to distinguish it from smoke- 
less powder. 

The simplest black powder is meal powder, 
mixed dry. This is used mainly for fireworks. 

The general formula for black powder is, 
by weight, 15 parts potassium nitrate, three 
parts powdered charcoal and two pares sulfur. 
The ingredients arc ground, separately, as fine 
as possible, or fine enough to go through a 
100 mesh screen. 

For a better quality powder, add one-half 
pare of dextrine or one part Lepage *s Mucilage 
and enough water to form a chick mush. Stir 
and mix well and then rub it through a win- 
dow screen in a thin layer on waxed paper. A 
lor will stick to the bottom of the screen. Let 
this dry until it can be scraped off without 
the particles going back to mush or being so 
dry as to become powder. 

When the particles are firm but sightly 
damp, sprinkle them with one-haJf part fine 
graphite. Then put them in a round bowl with 
^ plastic cover and gently swirl them so they 
will become round and uniform. 

Next, put them on the window screen and 
shake it gently until ill the proper sized pel- 
lets have fallen through. Press the la^er pel- 
lets through the screen into the bowl and 
swirl them again and keep this up until all the 
pellets arc uniform or until you arc no longer 

Even better powder can be made by substi- 
tuting undiscilled rubbing (70%) alcohol for 
plain waccr. 

G unpowder, both black and smokeless, can 

be bought at spotting goods stores. It is used 
for reloading. It has to be signed for but a per- 
son who practices at a rifle range and loads 
his own can prove a legitimate reason for buy- 
ing tons of it. He can funnel off any amount 
of it for ocher purposes. 

All grades of gunpowder are suitable for 
making bombs and grenades. Of course, com- 
mercial powder, and especially smokeless, is 
more powerful than anything you can make 
at home. 

Of the smokeless powders, Bullseye Pistol 
Powder is the most potent. The strength range 
is, first, smokeless pistol powders, then rifle 
powders. Next, commerci^ black powder and 
last, the homemade kind. 


The simplest fuse is made from gunpowder 
mixture, using the dextrine or glue but omit- 
ting the graphite. A length of cotton twine is 
stirred in the mush, which is wetter than that 
to be used for gunpowder, and when well 
coated it is hung up to dry. 

If a thicker fuse is wanted, the coated 
string is folded along its length once or twice, 
depending on how thick you want it. Then i 
heavy object is attached to one end and spun, 
twisting the strands. The other end of the fuse 
and the heavy object aic secured so the 
strands will remain rudsted until dry. 

The dried fuse, whether one or more 
strands, is stiff and brittle. With any bending 
the powder drops off in spots, making it burn 
unevenly. If your fuse is going to be handled 
Of will be out in damp weather, you should 
make some Micky Mouse safety fuse. 

Up to three feet of masking tape is unrolled 
and placed sticky side up on a table. Three- 
quarter inch wide tape is used for one-strand 
fuse and one-and-one-quartcr inch wide tape 
is used for the four-strand fuse. 




The dry fuse is simply laid along the tape’s 
edge and the tape is rolled over it until it is 
nice and tight. It is then cut into the desired 

A more sophisticated safety fuse is made 
by coating the fuse with spray >on plastic from 
an aerosol can. When this dries the fuse is 
coated with rubber mold compound, bought 
at any hobby store. The plastic is used first 
because the mold compound has a water base 
and would wer the fuse. The rubber would 
dry but the fuse would stay damp indefin- 

Fuses of all kinds are best lit with the ma- 
terial used to ignite highway flares. 

Commercial safety fuse is almost impo^ 
sible to light with a match. Coating its end 
with flare igniter makes it easy to light and 
also keeps loose powder from dropping out 
the ends. This also applies to homemade or 
other fuses. 

Flare igniter is gotten from highway flares 
you can buy from any auto supply or surplus 
store for as little as $.15 each. The black Si- 
ting core is dug out. crumbled and dissolved 
with carbon tetrachloride, bou^t at any auto 
supply score. 

Carbon tetrachloride is commonly used for 
dissolving grease from auto pans. Just enou^ 
is used to dissolve the igniter and it is then 
evaporated off in a well ventilated area as die 
fumes are harmful, 

The gray powder is then mixed with just 
enough water to make a thick paste. The fuse 

ends are dien dipped into the paste and dried. 

The most difficult to light fuses are easily 
lit by a match or even with a drop of sulfuric 

If you don’t want to waste a lot of fun 
flares you can make your own ignition mix- 
ture, which is the same stuff as found in 

A lifetime supply of the black part is made 
with 14 ounces of black antimony sulfide, 
24 ounces of potassium chlorate and one 
ounce of dextrine or 14 ounces of Lepage’s 

The black antimony sulfide and the potas- 
sium chlorate are both wet before being mix- 
ed. If they are mixed dry an explosion can 
result. Then add dextrine or glue and enough 
water to make a thick paste. 

You don't need much of the red striker 
mixture. One striker can be used to light 
many fuses. 

The red striker mixture is made with 14 
ounces of red phosphorus, 4 ounce of dex- 
trine or 5/4 ounce of Lepage’s Mucilage (from 
the dime store) and 3/4 ounce of fine sand. 
Enough water is added to make a paste, slight- 
ly thinner than the black paste. 

The striker is a tongue depressor, bought at 
the drug store, or any similar light, thin piece 
of wood. A couple of inches of the striker is 
smeared with the red paste and allowed to 
dry. The red paste should be stirred well be- 
fore using as the sand will sink to Che bottom 
after a time. 




Sulphuric Acid 

MAKING SULPHURIC ACID The following instructions will enable 

GRANDDAD’S WONDERFUL BOOK ^ sulphuric add, nitric acid and 
OF CHEMISTRY has directions for 

making a wide range of needed chemical »"ethods here are for making small quan- 

compounds from easily gotten raw chem- f'"' 

icals. Those directions were taken from “*®*'"*S larger amounts. 

DICK’S ENCYCLOPEDIA OF PRACH- Essentially, sulphuric acid is a thick, 
CAL RECEIPTS AND PROCESSES, first water solution of sulphur trioxide, 

published in 1872. DICK'S failed, however. Concentrated acid is made commer dally 
to give a simple method of making sul- by the “contact” process in which sulphur 
phuric acid. Its compilers obviously dioxide, produced by burning sulphur or 
thought sulphuric add would always be so roasting iron pyrites, is passed over a 
easy to buy from commercial producers heated catalyst, which causes it to com- 
that individuals would never need to make bine with oxygen of the air to form sulphur 
it. triox Ide. Since the finely divided sulphur 

DICK'S method of commercial product- trioxide cannot be dissolved directly In 
ion (3855) is too complex and the simpler water, it is added to concentrated sul* 
method, credited to Nordhausen (3658) is phuric acid, forming a superconcentraiod 
loo sketchy. It is also impractical, although or “fuming" acid which is easily diluted to 
you can easily modify the multi flask the required strength, 
method I found in the AMERICAN You may demonstrate this "contact" 
MECHANICAL DICTIONARY, 1876, to a process in your kitchen laboratory, with 
one flask setup If you want to try it. the simple apparatus shown. Your sulphur 
Since the home manufacture of sulphur- dioxide producer is a tin-can cover on 
ic acid is so important. 1 have included it which you set fire to a mound of sulphur, 
here. The simple chemicals needed are; The gas is collected by an inverted funnel 
sulphur, bought at any garden store, cal- held just high enough for air to come 
cium chloride, (4247) and iron (ferric) under its rim. Tubing carries the sulphur 
oxide, which is simply iron rust. dioxide to the bottom of a pickle jar filled 

The glassware can be bought from any with lumps of calcium chloride which filter 
chemical supply company or even from dry it. For a catalyst, moisten a little 
your local pharmacy. asbestos fiber and shake it with a quarter 


Never pour water into concen* pour the add into the xMter, 

trated sulphuric acid. They will boil stirring constantly. Likewise, con- 

and spatter over the room. This is centrated sulphuric acid will draw 

caused by the acid’s great affinity water out of the skin, leaving a 

for water. The only safe way is to dangerous burn. 


l-’UUK MAW’i OAMh;^ iiUNJJ Vol. 

of its bulk of iron oxide. When thoroughly 
mixed, dry in an oven and pack loosely in 
the glass tube which is arranged horizon- 
tally in your setup. The remaining flask 
contains concentrated sulphuric acid. The 
half-gallon jar is a siphon bottle which 
draws the gas through. 

The Bunsen burner must be adjusted for 
gentle heat or the sulphur trioxide will de- 
compose again. A marked increase in the 
concentration of the sulphuric acid in the 
flask occurs in a few minutes. By adding it 

to water— in diluting, always pour the acid 
into the water^you get a greater quantity 
of acid of the original strength. 

Sulphuric acid is used in making many 
other acids. As an example, nitric acid— 
tremendously important in manufacturing 
explosives and cellulose films— may be 
made in your home laboratory, but use a 
glass retort as nitric acid reacts on cork 
and rubber. Through a paper funnel, drop 
25 grams of sodium nitrate into the retort. 
Carefully pour 20 cc. of concentrated sul- 

J I 



xsacvros Piecns 










Sulphuric acid con be mod* in vour homo laborofary with odds ond ends liko the 
opporotus shown m di09ram dbovo. Commoroial manufacturo 

by th« "contaef procoss, ilfusfroted sohomofioally bolow, is ostontially tho same 















phuric acid on the nitrate. Arrange the re- 
tort with its stem extending into a test 
tube immersed in ice water and its bowl 
resting on a square of wire gauze with an 
asbestos center. When the crystals are 
thoroughly moistened, heat the retort 
gently, distill at a low temperature until 
no more vapor condenses, and then allow 
to cool. The drops of liquid in the test tube 
will be pure nitric acid. HANDLE WITH 

An important property of concentrated 
sulphuric acid is its eagerness to absorb 
water— a property employed to dry gases 
which are bubbled through and to remove 
water formed during chemical reactions. 
This dehydrating action can be demon- 
strated by dropping sulphuric acid on 
sugar. The mixture boils, then blackens 
and swells. 

Dilute acid does not absorb water, 
however, and this may be shown by an 

instantly, forming a sulphate and furiously 
releasing bubbles of hydrogen. Use cold 
concentrated acid and little or no action 
occurs. Heat the metal, and the con- 
centrated acid will oxidize it and then form 
a sulphate. 

One of the greatest uses of sulphuric 
acid is in the production of fertilizers. In 
1941, nearly a fourth of the total product- 
ion was applied to this purpose. Phosphate 
rock, as found in the earth, is practically 
insoluble and of no use to plant life. Treat- 
ment with sulphuric acid changes it into 
soluble calcium phosphate, a valuable 
plant food. Two other important uses, in 
storage batteries and in electroplating, 
derive from its high electrical conductiv- 

Shake a little sulphuric acid with an 
equal amount of castor oil or olive oil, and 
the result is a thick dark-reddish material 
called Turkey-red oil, which is used in the 

amusing “stunt.'’ Write with it on a piece 
of paper, and the writing will be invisible. 
Heat the paper, and the lines become visi- 
ble as the water evaporates and the con- 
centrated acid chars the paper. 

Dilute sulphuric acid acts differently 
from concentrated in several ways, and, 
strangely enough, is often more active. 
Drop a little dilute acid on a piece of clean 
zinc or iron and it “attacks” the metal 

Sul-phu'ric-acid Ap'pa-ra'tu*. An .appu- 
ratufj in whicli bolphur sublimed and lh« ncid 

F>f C068 UlQstntAi Tftit'ii app«r»tuj for prodocing suipharic<3 b/ meiins ot«utpliuraua anO aikric.tcid «ood«««l b; 
prvMun. ioto th« liquid fbrcD. d » furboc* }n wbicb Um 
G ulphur li burned. P, the Am puriAvr : C, • pnnp whirb ex- 
fa tu«t« the Kftf) from the fints purifier, 
tmJ forced it into the mc- || 

oud purlA«r D, whenre It j$ _ (j 

driven into the coQdenier £, wbera ‘I 

U is eondeiiMd into X liquid ■ 

xod drawn off Into tfav cyllo Jer F. 

The commublextioQ be- ^ i 

tween S nnd F » then " Aim 

out off, xrtd n enlre in * 

dyeing industry as a “wetting agent” to 
make dyes penetrate more evenly and 
easily. Having molecules which are partly 
attracted to water and partly to oil, it 
lowers the surface tension of water, 
spreads more readily. 

tbe worm .pip* pnwfnf tbrouifh lh« mtorU purl* 
6«r i> to opened, mIIotIiik Uw proauro wfakh mxio- 

Uiu Um Milphu«o«u neU In liquid Furrn.apd pormitlinff U to 
nttunottaofutieoiuooudUiQn. It flows Tbrou^U tItU pipe into 
n iveviTur, wbere Um oitric. 
avM K**. nod xtoxm 

htUH cfae boilor if ore nduit' 

n ^ t'ie (Mm 


Smlpkitrit-Aeiii Afiparatua. 




Pi^ 606d. 

Ud, and th%a aubmUt<?d ro 
H pressure sulllcieiic to liqiu-fy 
both it jiiii th« nitric acid 
TLe r^acHoua between die 
oxygen uod the nitric and ^ul- 
pimroufl acids result in the 
produciien of sulphuric acid. 

Fuminy or Nordhaunoii .sul- 
phur jo acid i« prepared hy 
'ueans of the appamtuv A 
G06ji^). 2^ pouiuU of 

vitriol HotiQ (diied BUJjjhatp of 
iron] are placed in each of the 
rlaekti a n, cW., made of 
hrvciay, wlioee necks 
puss through the walU of 
tlje furuai e : on the hrai 
applIcutioD of Iteut only 
0 n jphurouB uelJ and weak 

hydrated sulphuric acid poM over, which are usually allowed 
to «»c8|)e. U'heii white vapors of unh>droue sulphuric acid 
appear, the netks of the Ha^ks are luted to the receivers 6 6, 
each of wUkh eontaioK 33 grjmines water, and the dhtUiadna 
continued from 24 to 3H hoard, whcii the tiaska are again filled 
with Che sulphaie ; thi^ operation is repeated four times, be> 
lore the acid U deemed sufhcleutly strong. Its spcoitic gravity 
varies from 1.86 to This variety is principally used for 
diuolving indigo; 1 part bciDg mixed with 2 of the comutou 
ackl fbr this purpose. 

fi U the apparatus employed for cotirent rating the ordinary 
aulphurie a<*id of conmirrce The we ik acid, pre;)ared by the 
absorptvon in water of the gas evolved hy rakliung pyrites, Is 
InLoarerred to the leaden chamber o, connected by a siphon 
with the similar ehanilxi 6 ; the lutier and the retort e are 
heated directly by furnaces, and the forrper iiy a ti ue rlicrefroin ; 
durinif the trana^imee from tlu: first tn the second chamber 
Ihe acid acquires a higher dogt^e of conciintratlon, and is then, 
by means of a second riphou, eonvereJ from thanre into the 
retort, where water and weak aciil arc driven strong acid, 
of epceific grarity 1 T8 to 1 SremHlnlng m the I'Ctoi**, whence U 
Is withdrawn by a plutirmut siphon of peculiar cottslructiou. 
The retort is also hi many otocs madt; of plaimuin, but glass is 
also frequently employed. 

StfipAuric-At‘d Apparatus. 


The w ell imawn nltro explosives used in practice belong 
both as regards their chemical constitution and also their 
properties and effect • m general to two different groups, 
via. the ethereal salts of nitric sold ud the nitro com- 
pounds proper. Typical repressntattvss of (be first class 
are miro glycerine and guncotton, of the second the 
a ro malic nitro compounds such as trinUrotoluens, picric 
acid and tetrsaltroniethylanilins. The moat prominent 
features of thi ethereal salts of nitric acid are on the 
favourable side tne high amount of energy they contain 
an the onfavourable side their easy UabiUty to decompoal* 
tion and their extraardinarlly great sensittveoeae towards 
mechanical Irfluencee. In contradistinction hereto is the 
behaviour of the aromatic nitro compounds. Their advan* 
tages are in particular their extraordinary chemical 
stabUlty and their marked non-sensltiveneas towards 
shock, but their disadvantage is their comparatively lew 

These oppositely contracted properties explain the varioua 
attempts which have beer, made to provide an explosive, 
which shall combine in itself only the advantages of both 
classes of explosive, *that U to say a compound, which. 

In addition to the stability and non-asnsitWeneas of the 
aromatic nitro com pound a exhibits the degree of energy 
of the sihersa] salts of nitric acid. As a result of these 
attempts hitherto obtained, certain tetranltrated benzene 
derivatives with the only recently prepared tetr anil rani- 
line are the chief. These compounds are moat certainly 

an advance in this direction, but they have no*, fulfilled 
the expeclations demanded of them, becauaei as it was 
subsequently found, the increase in energy conferred by 
the fourth nttro group was obtained at the expense of a 
serious decrease in their stsbility. Owing to a decided 
UabiJity of (he fourth mtro group, which la situated in the 
meta position, these highly nitrated sub stance a are lO 
liabla to Mecomposltton, Chst any practical use thereof la 
not to be thought of. 

lA this way therefore the end aimed at cannot be attained 
and there are coniequsnUy a: present no prospects of the 
realization of this idea. 

Now* according to the present Invention it has been found 
that hexamethylenetetramine, the well known condensation 
product obtained from forzaaldehyde and ammonia, yields. 
When suitably treated with concentrated nitric acid, an 
extraordinarily powerful explosive compound, which com* 
bines in itself In an absolutely ideal manner the favourable 
proper Use of the ethereal salts of nitric acid and the aro* 
matic nitro compounds. 

Tn is new explosive substance Is neither an e tne real salt 
of nitric acid nor a pure nitro compound, out is a nttra* 
mine with a peculiar ring formation. As chemical inves* 
tigatioq has shONva, it is derived like hexamethylenetetra* 
mine from the hypo;hetical cyclotrimethylenetr famine 






possQSfled the follow uig struclural formula: 




Thif cyclotrlmethylenetrinUramint !• formed from ell 
the acceesible derivetivee of cyclotrimeih>'l«netriamine 
by the action of concentrated nitric acid. For ite pro* 
duct Lon on a large icale. however, only cyclotrime thy* 
leTietrlmethyhr lamina, that ia the condenaation product 
obtained from formaldehyde with methylamloe could be 
entertained aa a raw material in addition to the already 
known hexamethylenetetramine, a a the other derivativea 
are difficultly accee Bible and therefore not economical. 

The following method of preparation has been found to 
anawer well by reaeon of Ita good yield and the remarka* 
ble uniformity of the product; 

into bOO grma. of nitric acid of a apeciflc gravity of 
1 . 52 freed ea completely aa poaalble from nltroua gaaea 
ire introduced, at fir at in quite email portion a, and grad* 
ually, 70 grma. of well dried crude heyamethylenetetra* 
mine with continuoua etlrring. The temperature la kept 
between 20* and SO* C. during the nitration. After the 
addition of tha haxamelhy lane tetr amine ia coinplete the 
mixture it allowed to etind for a few mlnutea at the aaid 
temperature and then tne mixture la aiowly heated to 55* 

C. By cominuouB etlrring and cooling if neceaaary tha 
temperature la kept between SO* and 55* for a period of 
about 6 mlnutea after which the maae le again cooled down 
to the original temperature. After IS minutes atanduig it 
ia diluted whilst being again cooled by the quite gracual 
addition of from 3 to 4 times Ita volume of water and after 
some time the eeparated nitro compowd is separated from 
the liquid. After being washed several times with cold 
water, hot dilute soda solution and again with water it Is 
finally dried at any desired temperature. If necessary the 
product may also be recry staUiaed from acetone. 

The cy clotr Imethylenetr in itr amine obtained ia this way is 
a brilliantly white, odourless and tasteless rather coarse* 
ly crystalline powder of a neutral reaction. It melts at 
200* C. and only detonates at higher temperatures. It la 

quite insoluble in water, difficui'.ly soluble In hot alcohol 
more easily so ui acetone glacial acetic acid and concen- 
trated nitric acid from which sixb stances it can also be 

'Hie cyclotrimethylenetrinUr amine is not attacked by 
either boiUng water nor by hoi dilute acios and exnlbits 
when subjected to the usual hot storage teats even at un- 
usually high temperatures quite a remarkable stability. 

It is extraordinarily non -sensitive towards shock, blows 
and friction and in this respect is about equal to the aro- 
matic trinilro cmti pounds. When Ignited it bums slowly 
without exploding with a bright reddish flame and a fizzing 
noise like tetranitraniUnc and leaves no cesidje. 

The most surprising feature of this compound however is 
its extraordinary explosive and shattering power. In this 

respect the cyclotrknethylenetrinitrannne exceeds all the 
explosive anbatancea hitherto known, both the enormously 
energetic nitroglycerine and also the rapidly deton stmg 
teiranltrantUne. This property it ow'ee. In addition to a 
com position which permits of fairly complete internal 
combustion, to its high endothermic character principally. 
Whereat the formation of the moat of the niiro exploaivei 
takea place with frequotily a considerable loss of energy, 
the welding together of the eye lot rime thy leneirinltr amine 
from the elements requires the astonishingly high amount 
of $1. 4 calories per molecule. This latent fixed energy 
is again manifested on explcelve decomposition and In- 
creases the amount of energy of this explosive to an un- 
usually high amount. Hand in hand with this increase of 
energy there appeare to be also the velocity of detonation 
which le greater than that of any other knovm explosive 
subetance. Since Utere Is added as a third factor an ex- 
tremely large volume of gas due to the Urge amount of 
nitrogen and hydrogen contained, this new exploilve eeema 
to be of quite enormous tffaet, which is also clearly 
shown actually by the surprlelng results of the lead block 
and panel ratlOT teats. 

Another requirement, w'hich le demanded of a good ex- 
plosive, that of a high danslty. Is poseeseed by cyelctri- 
msthylene trinit ram ins in quite a remarkable degree. The 
absolute specific gravity le i. 82 and this is a maximum 
not possessed by any nitro compound hitherto. This fact 
enablea very high loading densities to be obtained which 
is of great importance for many purposes, e. g. , bursting 
charges for projectllei. detonators and percusalon caps. 

Tha following table will Aow ths comparison of all these 
conetanie of explosive science with those of other 
explosives. (See next page) 

A point of importance which la not to be underestimated 
ia also the behaviour of cyclotrimethylenetrinifrair.ine in 
a sanitary direction. In contradistinction to most of the 
other nitro compounds It is absolutely non -poisonous, has 
DO tinctorial properties, ie completely odourless and 
tssteless and does not cause either in the farm of dust or 
aolutlor. any irritant affect;oaa of the respiratory organs 
and the skin. In juries to the work people by the usual 
d taco lour si; CDS of the skin, injurious action on the sense 
of teste, eruptions, headaches and easy chronic poisoning 
which are caused ui the preparation and handling of the 
nitro compounds are therefore precluded and the compli- 
cated hygienic precautions hitherto necessary become 




partially supcrHuOUs. 

Fi^m these remarks it will therefore be clear« that in 
cyclotrim ethylenetrinitramlne we have a perfectly new, 
hitherto unknown explosive, which combines in itself in on 
ideal way the advantages both of the ethereal salts of nitric 
acid and also those of the aromatic nilro cma pounds, com- 
bined with remarkable stability and non-aensitiveneas 
while it surpasses all hitherto knoNvn and practicaliy usa* 
blc explosives in ener^, ebattering power and density and 
combines with these extraordinary properties m an explo- 
sive respect many advantages also as regards sanitary 
conditions . 

Its possibilities of ude embrace in respect of the large 
number of excellent properties which it possesses^ all 
branches of civil and military explosive science. In addi* 
tion to its use for bursting charges for proiectiies, mines, 
and the like, and as a blasting agent for all mining and 
mlneraloglcal purposes It Is particularly suLlabJe lor the 
production of extraordinarily rapidly acting detonating 
fuses and In conjunction with initial means of ignition for 
the filling of percussion caps, detonators and fuses for 
projectiles. According to the use for which it Is retired 
and the effect aimed at the cyclotriraethylenetrinitram 
may be used alone, or In conjunction with or mixed with 
oiher explosives or components ol explosives. 


Baalca.Iy, the production of nitroglycerin involves the 
gradual adding of glycerol to a mixture of nitric and sul* 
furlc aelda followed by separation of the nitroglycerin from 
the waste products. The following directions wlU serve 
for the laboratory prei>o ration nf nit ro glycerin in small 


tl) Measure out 1^00 ml. of fuming, or 90% Nitric acid 
having a spec;: is gravity of 1. 5 at room temperature. 

(2) Mi^asure out 300 ml. of concentrated, or 99% sulfuric 
acids, having a specific gravity of 1.84 at room temper- 

(3) Slowly pour the Sulfuric acid mio the Nitric acid, and 
start letting u cool off in the salt -ice bath. 


(1) Measure out 1 unilfos.. mo., gram, etc.) of chemi- 
cal pure glycerol, or glycerine (water free) having a spee- 
gravity of 1.262 to 1 . 265 at 15 degrees centigrade, 
into the drt^ping fuTuiel of the nitrator. 

{2} Put 6 like units of the mixed acid into the nitrator tank. 

(3) Cue unit o£ glycerol yields about 2*1/3 units of nitro 
so you can judge the amount of glycerol to use by the a- 
moun; of nitro you w'ish to make. 

(4) The nitrator can be made ol glass, cast iron, lead, 
or steel 

(5) Start the air flow and regulate U so that the acids are 
well stirred but not spattering out of the nitrator. Use a 
screw type clamp to regulate the air flow, and watch the 
flow carefully as it helps to keep the temperature down. 

If the temperature does go up give the nitrator as much 
air as you possibly and safely can. 

(6) Start the glycerine late the nitrator In a fine, slow 
stream or even by the drop, depending on the temperature 
rise, and the speed and violence of the reaction. With 
plenty of time available the drop method is advisable. 

(T) The ice bath is salt and crushed ice and small amount 
of water. 

(81 Use a total unmerslon centigrade thermometer in the 
acids in the nitrator. The nitrating temperature Is kept 
below 23 degrees ceoUgrads, If it runs higher, cool it 
oS, The lenspe rature can go up 30 degrees C. without too 
much danger. T^e nitro being produced will start to de- 
compose at SO degrees C. and give off the red gas of nitro- 
gen dioxide, which is poisonous. Don’t 1st this happen, If 
there is a sudden rise m the temperature or the ted gas 

(91 Keep the reaction cool, and the air stirring going until 
the temperature of the reaction comes down to 19 degrees 
C and remains there or a little cooler. 


(1) Pour the cool solution from the nitrator into plenty of 
room temperature water. Now run this water* nitro* acid 
solutiOTt in the separator, 

(2) Separate the " tutors' ’ or waste acids from the nitro. 
TTte nitro will be heavy oil on the bottorr.. 

(31 Keeo the "liquors" separate for further separation 
with chloroform, if one wants to do this. This is only 
done AFTER neutmlUuig the acids with sodium carbonate 
acluti<m. Check the acidity with blue litmus paper. When 
it is neutraL the litmus will stay blue and show NO red. 

(41 Add plenty of 38 to 43 degree C water to the nitro and 
mix up with the air stirring. Then separate. 

(5) Repeat the washing completely as above. 

(6) Wash with a warn. 4% solution o: sodium carbonate. 



(7> Wash With water 3 more times as in step 14. 

<8) Give it a final wash of cone eat rated salt solurion, let 
it set for one day before separating. 

(9) Separate and check the rutro for acidity. The nitro 
inuist be neutral. If it is not. keep washing it. It MUST be 
neutral due to safety and keeping qualities. 


Dry the rutro over sulfuric acid in a dessicaior. The nitro 
should have a specific gravity of 1. 6 at 15 degrees C. It 
may take several days for the nitro to dry out. 


Add an e<}Lal quantity of C. P. Chloroform to the NKUTRAl 
’’liquors. " Mix, then le: separate and run through the 
separator. Let the chloroform -nitro set in the open for 
I day so the chloroform can evaporate off as much as 
possible. Now this nitro can be mixed with the other nltn) 
just before put into the dc's.ticoior to dry. 











Properties: Nitroglycerine 1NG) is the most common li- 
quid high explosive known today. However, there are 
many other similar liquid nitric esters which have the 
same explosive properties as NG. Many of these have 
somewhat inferior blasting power to that of NG (a few are 
superior) but are more stable towards mechanical shock 
than NG itself. PGDN is lust one such compound, being 
at least ten times more stable towards medianical shock 
than NG, Under the falling weight lest, NG detonates at 


a height of from two to four centlmelera using a two kilo- 
gram weight. PGDN fails to detonate under the same 
weight dropped from a heigh th of 100 centimeters. It 
fails to detonate under a 10 kilogram w' eight from a height 
of 20 centimeters. This difference becomes valuable in 
manufacturing and transportation. 

Another property of PGDN which recommends it for ser- 
ious consideration by any organisation is its stability 
toward storage over long periods of time without suffer- 
ing any decomposition. Further, PGDN does not freeze 
as readUy as NG, thereby eliminating the hazards of par- 
tially frozen NG which U most dangerous to handle. PGDN 
freezes at minus 20 degrees centigrade, ^r minus four 
degrees F. This means that stocks of PGDN can be bur- 
ted m underground caches writhout serious danger of 
freezing, provided they are placed below the frost-line. 

At the other end of the temperature scale, PGDN shows 
extreme stability. It shows no decomposition after 2S 
days at 75 degrees Centigrade. Unlike NG, it does not 
cause the severe headaches from breathing its vapor. 

Like NG, it can gelatinize guncotton thereby suggesting 
Us use for the manufacture of cordite and smokeless 
powder-like substances. 

As an explosive, PGDN shows about 909i of the expansion 
of NG m the Trausl lead block test, fiy calculation, its 
energy coQtem la 77% of mat of NG. It is a highly brlsani 
explosive however, and lias a detonatloh rate of over 1 . 000 
meters per second. Despite its high mechanical insenai- 
livUy to shocri, PGDN is easily initiated by a detmation 
wave. II can be set off with a number 6 blasting cap. 

Propylene Olycol is somewhat cheaper than Glycerine at 
the present time by about 20d a pound In lots of 40 lbs. 

PG can be purchased from ajiy chemical supply house for 
about 60q to 75q per lb. depending on the quantity bought. 
Furthermore, the nitration of PG requires leas of the 
mixed Nitric ‘Sulfuric acids. These savings of course are 
offset by the lower explosive power of PGDN, and may 
well balance out when all economic computation a have been 
made; Nevertheless, the greater stability of PGDN toward 
mechanical shock and the lower freezing point far outiwelgh 
any other considerations. For this reason, all those who 
have been manufacturing NG, or who have been consider- 
ing doing so, should give serious thought to the manufac- 
ture of PGDN instead. ITie process is basically the same, 
uses the same type of mixed acids, the same procedure 
for separation and purification and can be run in the same 
equlpniAt used for NG. 

TTic following procedure was carried out by the writer of 
this report for the preparation of PGDN during a recent 
experiment. Although the preparation waa conducted on a 
very aroall scale, there is absolutely no reason why larger 
batches camot be made, pros' Ided they are kept within 
realistic bounds. Batches ten time a the size of the one 
described on the following pages would be reasonable, and 
would produce approx Imatel/ 160 grama of PGDN (i. e. 
6-1/2 oas. bAv). 

Preparatioo of Propylene Glycol Dlnitrale; 30 grams of 
96% Sulftiric Acid was slowly poured with stirring into 20 
grams o< 90% Nitric Acid, A small amount of heat was 
produced, but it Is not excessive, and no external cooling 
is required. The 50 grams of mixed acid ~iiusly produced 




b&a a composition of approximately 36% Nitric Acid, $7% 
Sulfuric Acid, and 7% water. It hae a specific gravity of 
1.71 fi\ degrees C. , and occupies a volume of 30 

The entire 50 grama of mixed acid was placed in a 100 ml 
glass beaker which in turn was placed in a hath of ice and 
water. The acid was stirred by hand, using a thermome- 
ter. When the temperature of the mixed acid had sunk to 
10% C. , 10 grams of Propylene Glycol (9.6 ml) was intro* 
duced dropwise with good stirring. The rate of addittcn 
of the PG was so regulated to keep the temperature of the 
mUiure between 10 and 15 degrees C. The addition of 
the PG lakes from 20 to 30 minutes, depoidmg on the 
efficiency of the cooling bath, and the rate of stirring. No 
red fumes were observed at any time during the addition. 
The PQ should be dropped directly Into the acids and not 
be allowed to splash on the aide walla of the beaker or on 
the stirring rod. Droplets that do so, can start to ox Id ice 
and generate heat creating a hatard. PG is more sensi- 
tive to oxidation than Glycerine itself, and eo a lower ni* 
tratlon temperature Is necessary. Nitrations at SO d«« 
greea C. begin to show some oxidation, and at SO deg. C. 
the reaction begins to go cut of control.' IMPORTANT: A 
large vat of tee water should always be kspt near at hand 
when doing any nitratlcns. If the temperature begtns to 
climb rapidly and passes the upper limit given for the 
specific nitration, the entire batch should be dumped 
IMMEDIATELY into the vat of Ics water. The vat should 
contain at least flvs times the volume of water and Ice as 
there is liquid in the nitrator. Sudden risea in tempera* 
ture accompanied by red fumes or brown smoke is an 
indication that oxidation is taking place, and that the 
batch is about to go out of control. After the PQ has all 
been added, stirring is coni tawed for another five to len 
min. It is then ready for separation. 

The mixture is poured into a separatory funnel azU 
allowed to stand for a few minutes. A sharp of dlvl* 

8»n will appear when the mixture has separatee. The 
lower acid layer of spent acids is carefully withdrawn and 
set aside for further purification before being discarded. 
The upper layer of PGIW is left in the funnel and an equal 
volume of cold water added to U. The funnel is closed, 
and genily shaker for about a minute. Or. standing, the 
mixture divides Into two layers as before, but this time 
the product (HG MO is the lower layer . It is drawn of into 
a clean beaker, and Ihe water wash layer, which remains 
in the funnel, is poured out of the top of tne funnel into 
another vesseL This washing process U repeated two or 
three more times, eacn portion of used wash water being 
added to the previous one. The product is then given a 
wash with dilute Sodium Carbonate solution until the solu- 
lion remains alkaline to Litmus paper, the spent Carbonate 
wash(esl being added to the used water washes. Finally, 
the PGDN Is washed with water again until It la no longer 
alkaline. When drawn off from the final wash, the PGDN 
will be somewhat milky In appearance due to occluded 
water. On standing in a warm room for several hours, 
this waur will evsporaie, leaving a colorless oil having a 
pleasant ethereal odor. 18 grams of product were obteined 
in the above run. 

Before pouring eway. the spent acids ahould be extracted 
with chloroform, to remove trace a of PGDN. same 
portion of Chloroform can thsn be used to extract any 
1 races ol PGDN in the water and Carbonate washes. After 
the Chloroform evaporates a further amount of PGDN will 
be obtained. The chbroform solullo.n should be washed 
until it Is neutral to Utmus before evaporation, however. 

The spent acid, after extraction wUh the Chlnroform, 
should be poured into a large volume of water before being 
discarded. All glossware which hse come into contact with 
PGDN m.uat be rinsed with Acetone before eoap and water 
cleanLig. These Acetone rinses should be poured over sew* 
dust and ignited at a aafe distance from the point of opera* 
tion. Rinse the miration beaker with water first before 
rinsing with Acetone, Nitric Acid imitee Acetone i 

arrow launched grenade 

By Raymond J. Lamer 

This grenade can be u$ed with; a con* 
vent Iona 1 long bow, a compound bow, or a 
crossbow/ which would be my first choice. 

The nose and tail caps are cast using 
either plaster of paris or clear casting 

The tail cap has a hole drilled in it 
to accept an arrow shaft or a cross bow 
bolt. The shaft or bolt should be glued 
In place. The other end has a hole 1'^ in 
diameter and deep to seat a thin 
walled glass tube. The outside is re- 
duced for a distance of i'* to allow a 




piece of thin welled metal or plastic 
tubing to be slipped over it. 

The nose cap Is cast with two holes 
through It, (or you can cast It solid and 
then drill the necessary holes) to take 
a firing pin and a cotter pin 
also has a recess fn Che bottom to sit o- 
ver the base of a .410 shotgun shell bas& 

The Initiator Is the brass base from a 
.410 shotgun shell. Carefully cut the 
shell apart Just above the brass base,af* 
ter first having emptied out the shot, 
powder and wadding. Once you have the 
brass base cut down, refill most of it 
with the powder you removed before cut* 
ting It. Use tissue paper or a thin card* 
board wad to hold the powder In the brass 

A steal washer with an outside diame> 
ter of li" Is used to support the shotgun 
shell brass base. Drill out the center of 
the washer to accept the brass base. The 
ritn of the brass base should be supported 
by the steel washer. 

The outside casing for the grenade U 
a piece of chin walled metal or plastic 

The center tube Is a piece of thin 
walled glass tubing that has an outside 
diameter of 1 

To assemble the grenade: 

U Insert the shotgun shell base into the 
steel washer. 

2. Epoxy the washer to the bottom of the 
nose cap. 

3. fpoxy the glass tube to the steel 

4. Epoxy Che outer casing to the steel 

Improvised Hand Grenades 

Den Moore 

A ready supply of Improvised hand gren- 
ades can be made In the home workshop at a 
cost of about 7St apiece. These grenades 
are easy to make and are Just as effective 
as regular grenades. There are two kinds, 
offensive and defensive, In v^tch both use 
the same fuse assembly. Add 1 1 lonal ly, these 
grenades use readily available materials 
and can be put together in IS minutes. 


5. Fill the space between the glass tube 
and the outer casing with B.B.'s, small 
nuts and bolts or nails. 

6. Fill the glass tube with black powder, 
rifle powder or one of the propellant 
powders listed In the Improvised Muni- 
tion^ Handbook in PHJB Vol . 2 . 

7. Epoxy the base cap to che glass tube 
and outer casing. 

fl. Install a cotter pin with non-harden- 
ing Permatcx and sHp It in place until 
it is sitting on the safety pin. 

10. Cpoxy the complete grenade to the end 
of an arrow or bolt. 

OyiCEA NOTC : Make sure the hole for 

the firing pin is a snug fit. If It is 
too large, the Permatax may not hold che 
firing pin In place when you launch It, 
possibly causing the grenade to explode 
in your face when you fire It. 

The firing pin is a place of steal rod 
1/6" in diameter with a 3/4" OD washer 
epoxyed or soldered to the end. Hake sure 
the firing pin extends far enough past 
the and of the nose cap so that It will 
hit the shotgun shell primer when you hit 
your tergec. 

katnember that this grenade has to hit 
somathing fairly solid to be set off Jf 
shot into sand or mud, It may or may not 
explode. It would probably be set off if 
it hit a human or animal, but only If 
there was plenty of force pushing it. 

Hake sure that your arrow Is long e* 
nough for you to come to full draw with- 
out having the grenade hit the bow. 

The heart of these grenades Is Che fuse 
assembly, therefore 1 will describe Its 
production first. The macerlals needed for 
the fuse assembly are: 

1. 3/4" PVC pipe In 4" lengths 

2. 3/4" wooden dowel In V' lengths 

3. 5 mm glass tubing 

4. 1/6" wooden dowel In li" lengths, 

5. Paraffin wax 

6. Concentrated sulfuric acid 

7* 50% sodium chlorate and 50% sugar 
mixture made pasty with water then 
blotted on paper towels and dried. 

A. Construction of fuse assembly 




Start construction of the 'fuse* by 
drill ing a 3/16" hole V froft an etid of the 
PVC pipe. This hole will hold an add vial. 
Next insert a length of S nm glass tubing 
into this hole and place the 3/^" wooden 
dowel into the PVC pipe SO it is touching 
the glass tubing. Drill a 1/8" hole 1/2" 
from the dowel end of the pipe. This 1/8" 
hole is where the safety pin is inserted 
(see diagram). The safety pin is the II" 
length of 1/8" dowe) (a hole can be drilled 
In an end of the dowel and wire Inserted to 
aid in pin removal). With the 1/8" hole 

hake this vial by cutting a length of 5 rnm 
glass tubing the same length as the O.D. of 
the PVC pipe. Next seal one end of the tube 
with 1/8" of paraffin by dipping It in 
melted wax. Now fill the tube with sulfuric 
acid using a glass eyedropper, etc.» leav~ 
ing a 1/8" air space. Fill this space with 
wax. The vial can now be Inserted Into the 
PVC pipe and taped In place. Finish the 
•fuse' by inserting a 2" x 2" square of 
chlorate paper next to the add vial (see 
diagram) . The fuse assembly Is finished. 

6. Construction of offensive (concussion! 

dowel striker 

3/«i"ID PVC Pipe 

Safety Pin 

Class Tube 

Chlorate Paper 

Dowel Fuse 

CO 2 Cylinder 

Cardboard Tube 
3/32" Fuse 

Flash powder 
Tape Wrapping. 

drilled insert the safety pin. This will 
hold the 3/k" dowel In place (see diagram). 
The length of glass tubing can be removed. 
The installation of the chemical Ignitor 
rema 1 ns . 

Construction of the chemical ignitor 
Is started by making the acid filled vial. 

1/*i" Plywood 


The materials needed for the offensive 
grenade are: 

1. 2" heavy*wa1led cardboard tube In 3" 
leng ths 

2 . two plywood plugs for the above 

3 . epoxy or glue 




k. FIashpowd«r 

5. 3/^*' dowel In li“ lengths 

6. 2“ length of safety 'fuse' 

7. the 'fuse' assembly 

Start construction of the grenade by 
drill/ng a 3/32" hole through the center of 
the y/k" dowel. Then epoxy the fuse into 
this hole leaving ^"exposed on either end. 
Now place a small amount of chlorate paper 
on one fuse end to Insure it ignites (see 
diagram). Next cut 1" off the open end of 
the 'fuse' assembly and epoxy the dowel 
(chlorate paper end first) Into it. The 
chlorate paper on the dowel fuse should 
contact the chlorate paper in the fuse as- 
sembly (see diagram). Continue by cutting 
a hole the same diameter as the 'fuse* In 
the center of one of the plywood pit>gs. £- 
poxy the fuse assembly into this hole leav- 
ing V of the dowel end protruding out. Now 
epoxy this plug Into the cardboard tube 
with the dowel and of the 'fuse' out. Fill 
Che cardboard tuba with flashpowder and e* 
poxy the solid plug onto the ether end of 
the tube (see diagram). The grenede is 
fl nl shed. 

C. Construction of defeos I ve (fragmentation) 

The materials needed for the defensive 
grenade are; 

l . empty CO 2 cartridge 

2. 3/V' wooden dowel In lengths 

3 . epoxy or glue 

safety fuse In 2" lengths 

5. flashpowder 

6. fuse assembly 

Start construction by dri 1 1 Ing a 3/32" 
hole through the 3/V' dowel, insert the 
safety fuse through Che dowel allowing V* 
on one end and IV on the other. Epoxy the 
fuse In place. Now fill the CO 2 cartridge 
with flashpowder and Insert the 1 i" fuse 
end Into It. Use tape, etc. to secure the 
fuse. Wrap a small amount of chlorate paper 
around the short fuse end (see diagram). 
Place the dowel and CO 2 cartridge (chlorate 
paper end first) Into the fuse assembly as 
before. 8 e sure to epoxy the dowel Into 
place. Flnslh by taping the CO 2 cartridge 
into the fuse assembly (see dlagraa). The 
grenade Is finsihed. 

D. Firing procedure and ml seel lanecus 

The firing procedure for these grenades 
is as follows. First) grasp the grenade in 

your hand with the dowel end up. Second^ 
pull the safety pin out. This arms the 
grenade. Third^strlke the dowel end sharply 
against the palm of your hand, etc. There 
should be a 'hissing' sound and a small a* 
mount of smoke should come from the dowel 
end. This indicates that the chemical Ig- 
niter has functioned. Finally hurl the 
grenade at your target immediately and 
take cover. The grenade should explode In 
five (5) seconds. 

You now know a 1 1 you need to make and 
use ny grenades, however, there are a few 
additional items, i will list these for 

1. Use the offensive grenade to daze and 
stun the enemy and use the defensive gren- 
ade to inflict casualties. 

2. 2" FVC pipe can be used as a fragmenta- 
tion sleeve for the offensive grenade. 

3 . Oroov«s,etc. can ba fllad Into cha CO 2 
cartrld9e or fragmentation sleeve for 
better fragmentation. 

4. Wax placed around the striker makes an 
affective air and water seal, while a coat 
of varnish on the grenade will make It 
waterproof . 

3 . Offensive grenades can be used for smoke 
or Incendiary purposes by replacing the 
flashpowder with the appropriate filler. 

both grenades make effective landmines 
when buried exposing only the dowel . Sheet 
wood can be placed on top of the dowel for 
increased surface area. 

7. Survlvallsts, etc. wishing to store 
these greoades should remove the acid vials 
and store them separately, 
d. Chemicals and equipment for my grenades 
can be purchased from Herrel Scientific; 
address: Educational Modules lnc.,lS6S 
buffalo Rd. .Rochester, NY 14S24. Catalog $I . 
Herrel has a good line of chemicals and 
labwarewith fast delivery. High melting 
point wax, glass tubing and glass tubing 
cutters can also be purchased from Herrel . 

9 . High melting point wax or add proof 

— epoxy can be used to more effectively seal 
acid vials. Use this for grenades to be 

10. Check PMAVol.l II for additional gren- 
ade information. 

Precaut ions : 

11. Hake and use several test samples before 
increasing charge size. 




12. Test safety fuse in fuse assembly to 
make sure it will not Jet after being e- 
pox led in place. If It does, try another 
brand or epoxy the fuse at the dowel ends 


Potassium Chlorate is a highly unstable 
and dangerous compound when used In a pyro~ 
technical mixture which also contains sul- 
fur. Combined, these two compounds are sen- 
sitive to both heat and friction as well as 
sparks, and are made more so by moisture 
absorbed from the humidity In the air. 
Furthermore, they deteriorate on storage 
slowly producing sulfuric add which makes 
the mixture even more unstable. 

Some years back 1 had the unfortunate 
personal experience of having just Such a 
mixture spontaneously Ignite while I was 
mixing 1 t on a hot humid day. Had the am- 
ount of materials been larger or had I been 
a bit less lucky, I would have been perma- 
nently blinded. Sven so, I suffered painful 
burns to my eyes, face end hands. 

Seder, but wiser, I looked for e mixture 
of equal power, but with batter storage 
qualities and one less hazardous to pre- 

The answer I found Involved the use of 
potassium perchlorate. Although this chem- 
ical contains more oxygen then the clorete, 
it Is more stable in both storage and prep- 
aration. In addition, I found the sulfur 
could be eliminated entirely, making the 
preparation that much simpler. 

The ingredients are, by weight, 7 parts 
potassium perchlorate and 5 parts aluminum 
powder. Both should be as fine as possible. 
After weighing they are thoroughly mixed 
and stored In a sealed container until 
needed . 

This mixture Is extrernely powerful and 
very, very Past burning. Well «ade,wlth very 
fine Ingredients, it burns about 3-A times 
faster than commerc la 1 ly made black powder. 
It ts excellent for use In aerial bombs, 
large or small firecrackers or any purpose 
where a quick violent explosion is needed. 

It Is too rapid burning for use in any 
firearm, and Is not suited to such use. 

I have kept such a mixture several years 

13 . Wait at least two minutes when approach- 
ing dud grenades. 

Provided these I terns are considered and 
the instructions followed anyone should be 
able to safely make and use these grenades. 

with no deteriorat Ion, however reasonable 
storage precautions should be observed. All 
such mixture type powders, Including com- 
mercially prepared black powder, should be 
protected from dampness. AH will deteri- 
orate if exposed to large amounts of humid 
air, but If you use common sense, they wM I 
keep indefinitely. 

There arc also several other mixtures 
that I have experimented with and found sa- 
tisfactory. While I do not think any of 
them are dvlte as good a$ that already giv- 
en, they are noteworthy because they In- 
volve the use of ether Ingredients of the 

first formula. 

Alternative N 0 .I 
bariam Nitrate A Parts 

Sulfur 1 Pirt 

Aluminum Powder 2 Parts 

Alternative No. 2 
Potassium Perchlorate 12 Parts 
Sulfur 8 Parts 

Fine Sawdust 1 Part 

Alternative N 0 .I Is probably better than 
Ho. 2 which does not seem to keep as well as 
the others, however, number 2 makes a very 
violent explosion. Furtharmore It Is the 
only really good formula I have ever seen 
for flash powder which does not require al- 
uminum powder. 

These mixtures, particularly the per- 
chlorate-aluminum powder one, will burn and 
if confined, explode almost no matter how 
badly they are mlsmeasured or poorly pre- 
pared. Like most things though, the end re- 
sult is reflective of the care put Into 
production. The most Important thing is to 
have the ingredients as fine as possible 
before nixing them together. There Is not 
much you can do about the aluminum except 
to get the finest powder possible. The po- 
tassium perchlorate can be gently ground In 
a oortar and pestle or by other suitable 
means If necessary. The goal Is to have the 
texture as near to that of flour as possi- 
ble. If you have the consistency of table 




salt, It will i^rki but not a& ^ood. 

The second thing Is that the IngredienU 
be thoroughly and IntlrrateVy mixed. If you 
achieve the desired degree of fineness in 
the Ingredients, the mixing Is not very 
hard, but It must be thorough. Mixing Is 
most easily accomplished with a flat wood 
stick on several layers of newspaper.Sift* 
ing through a smell screen, as fine a 
screen as may be obtained, several times Ts 
very useful. It should be done after a pre* 
llmlnary mixing and not only mixes the In- 
gredients but sorts out any large pieces 
which can then be broken up. Avoid the use 



By following the Instructions below 
you can modify any semi-automatic rifle 
or shotgun to fire fully automatic and by 
remote control as a bonus I lt‘s great 
for a car or other vehicle. 

of metal and ceramic utensils because of 
spark and contami nat Ion hazards. 

With a little practice, It 1$ easy to 
Judge the quality of such pcxvder by placing 
a small quantity on a fire resistant sur- 
face in an open area and lighting It with 
a short piece of fuse. Good quality powder 
will bum almost instantly with an Intensly 
bright flash, and a puff of white smoke. 

If made with reasonable care, any of 
these powders are equal to that usually 
found in commercially manufactured fire- 
crackers such as H-SO's. 

supply store or Junkyard) 

- Two push button switches /normally 
off. (Auto supply) 

• Steel strepplng or other light metal 
pieces for mounting. (Hardware score) 

• Hisc. wire / does not heve Co be very 

- One semi -auto weapon. (I used a Ruger 
10-22. but others will work) 

- A 12 volt power supply, (battery, bet- 

Safety SwI Cch 

Firing Switch 


To Power Supply — » 

Vou will need the following parts: 

One 12 volt solenoid. (I used the car- 
buretor solenoid from a Ford van) 

One toggle switch for 12 volts. (Auto 

tery charger, etc.) 

Please refer to the drawings when build- 
ing your system. 

1. Start by making mounts for the push 




button switches and the solenoid from the When the wiring Is completed, the tog* 

steel strapping. The exact design will gle switch acts as a safety (it must be 

depend on the switches and solenoid you on for the gun Co fire) and when the fir- 

use. These mounts must be stout enough to 
hold the parts on the gun In the correct 
posi tion. 

2. The first push button Switch must be 
mounted so that the operating lever of 
the rifle will push it as the action 
doses • 

3* The solenoid has a metal extension 
screwed, welded or brazed to the plunger 
so It will push the trigger when it Is 
activated. The modified unit is now 
mounted to the trigger guard assembly. 

k. The toggle switch and second push 
switch are the controls and are mounted 
at your fire control center. In the draw 
Ing I shew them Just under the rifle, but 
they can be whatever distance you want 
(such as on tha dash of the car). 

S. To wire, Just follow the plctures>mak- 
tng sura you get the switches in series. 


How to nitrate oercury: . 

l. Take a bottle with 1000 coocen-’ 
traced, pure nitric acid (apec .weight 

1, A2). Pour 120 gratnne pure mercury into 
the acid end let It rest for 12 houra. 
Don't put a stopper on the bottle. After 
12 hours put a stopper on it and turn it 
(acid and mercury shall nix). After sone 
time cake Che scopper away, because there 
mlghc be some fumes. 'Dien close the 
bottle again. 

2. Take a big bottle with a large opening 
with 1280 grama of 95% (puce) alcohol. 
Four the mixture of nitric acid end mer- 
cury in this bottle. Don't cloae It. After 
a short time toxic fumes will escape. When 
this scope the nitrated mercury vUl lay 

Ing button is pressed, the solenoid will 
trip Che trigger, causing the rifle to 
fire. When Che operating handle goes for- 
ward, it presses the switch mounted at 
the front of the receiver, which causes 
the solenoid to again trip the trigger. 
This continues es long as the firing 
switch if held down or until the eirmo 
runs out. 

This system can be used to secure an 
approach to your proparty, such as a 
driveway or a ditch. You can also mount 
the system on a T.V. rotor and be able to 
change the aim. If the gun Is mounted In 
a car or truck, be sura It Is very aoHd- 
ly fixed and give close attention to aim* 
Ing and consider the effect of the car 

Now you can even fire two weapons In 
two different directions at oncel 

OQ the bottom of the bottle. It muat be 
veehed with distilled water end dried 
Id the eum on e glaae plate. 

1. copperplpe 

2. end (eoldered) 

3. cotton wool 

4. mercury, must be nitrated 
(Kna 1 Iq u eckal Iber ) 

5. cotton wool 

6. tape 

7. electric contacts 
6. insula Cion 

9. thin wire (like that in 
a bulb) 





In order to make potassium cyanide you must first learn how to make 
both potassium carbonate and potassium f errocyanide . If you have some 
background in chemistry, and especially access to a lab and its equip- 
ment, the following processes may at least give you a laugh. And if 
you're one who believes laypersons should not have access to methods 
for making such substances, this section should give you the screaming 
meemies and cold sweats. Because this junkyard lab I’m going to des- 
cribe really works. If you are the type who likes to fantasize funct- 
ioning under a totalitarian system which treats everyone like he was 
either a prison or or a nuthouse inmate, you’ll love this. 

Nhat with the stigma placed on potassium cyanide by a veritable 
handful of jerks, it is just about unattainable now. Even though it is 
not even a controlled substance at this time, I challenge you to get 
some. I fully expect home chemists to manufacture potassium cyanide 
and sell it on New York street corners like they do Crack. 

At any rate, if you are imaginative and like to learn weird things, 
turning out your own potassium cyanide will give you a feeling of real 
importance. It will also teach you more about chemical manipulations 
than you will learn about in most schools. 

These processes may seem time consuming and complicated. However, they 
are actually very simple, Little time is actually spent, as most of the 
processes will be working while you are otherwise occupied. 


With potassium ferrocyanide you can also make prussic acid. To my 
knowledge, that's the deadliest |»ison a kitchen chemist can make. In- 
structions for making it are elsewhere in this book. Its use was demon- 
strated in the movie, **The Final Option". A terrorist girl was riding a 
bus in the seat just in front of the intended victim. She had the prus- 
sic acid in a perfume atomizer, which can be bought in any department 
store. Pretending to primp while looking into a hand mirror, she caught 
his eye and gave him a quick spray in the face, holding her breath in 
the meantime. One whiff and before he could react he crumpled and died. 




GoLtir»g back to potassium cyanide; knowledge oC how it works miqht 
give you the incentive for learning to make it. It acts directly on the 
nervous system, rapidly. It stops the use of oscygen by the tissue cells 
and paraly?:G5 the center of the brain which controls the breathing mus- 
cles. A fatal dose of cyanide involves about 50 milligrams, about the 
weight of a postage stamp. Yet this dosage contains close to 10 billion, 
billion molecules. One molecule of cyanide can disrupt tho function of 
orio body coll. A lethal dose, then, affects one out of ten cells in the 
average human body. Cyanide kills by turning off an enzyme the cell 
needs to use oxygen from the blood. This enzyme, cytochrome, is vital to 
the cell's utilization of oxygen. Shut down the action of up to ten per- 
cent of a body’s cells and death is almost immediate. 

Buying potassium cyanide these days is nearly iir^xjseibie, due to the 
actions of a few psychotics. These psycho tics in our body politic might 
be compared to cyanide, itself. Whereas just a tiny amount of cyanide is 
enough to cut off the body’s supply of air, a comparable amount or ding- 
bats in a social system is enough to cut off the supply of a chemical 
once available to all and sold over the counter without questions. 

Digressing to a little social comment, I believe society would do 
better to rid itself of its crazies rather than institutionalizing all 
of us with bans on guns» chemicals and whatever the psychotic might use 
next against society. Since looneys have taken to using the telephone to 
call in threats of tampering and poisoning, ve might find soon that our 
phone privileges are in jeopardy. 

At the end of this section are excerpts from I9th century books which 
describe the making of the chemicals in this section. Modern books guard 
against such descriptions for reasons of public safety, of course, in 
the last century, those who were a threat to public safety were gotten 
rid of in the interests of the freedom of anyone to have or do whatever 
he wanted as long as he didn’t act to the disadvantage of others. I put 
the older material here to show hov simple these compounds are to make 
and hov casually such knowledge was disiminated anw?ng a responsible pop- 
ulace • 

Potassium carbonate is gotten from wood ashes. It is the same stuff 
your great grandmother used to make her lye soap, it is obtained by 
boiling ashes, letting the ashes settle, pouring off the liquid and 
evaporating it. It is further refined by heating to over SCO degrees 7 
or more in a furna»^e, which you can make. 

There are several steps to making the grade you need but you can do 
so with common utensils and little real knowledge of chemistry. The fun 
of making your own is a feeling of accoinplishraent and also of security 
if yrm like to fantasia© getting away with something without anyone 


You can do all this work on your kitchen stove but when boil overs 
occur there io too much screaming and yelling to make your yiujecLy 
worthwhile. Also, there may be tiroes idien fumes wotUd be smelly or even 
dangerous and a hotplate will allow you to run an extension cord outsidp 
in the garage or on the back porch. 

The kind of hotplate you need is one with a gradual heat control as 
opposed with one with a single setting or three settings, low, medium 
and high with nothing in between. 





Round, five gallon cans are fine to boil your ashes in and are part 
of the furnace and have many other uses. Such cans used to be plentiful 
buL since most companies now use plastic the metal ones are hard to find, 
T culled all the places X expected to have them but had no luck until 1 
called my friendly Exxon qas station. Gas stations get grease for lube 
jobs in the motal cans and give them away. You have but to ask. 

They are the very devil to clean as the grease still in them doesn't 
melt. You can wipe them clean with newspapers and finish with old rags. 


Wood or coal ashes are both suitable for extracting potassium carbo- 
nate from. Coal is simply wood which is maybe fifty million years old, 
Charcoal ashes are in the same category as wood or coal ashes. You can 
figure extracting about one pound of potassium carbonate from ten pounds 
of ashes. 

Tf you have a fireplace or furnace, ashes are no problem. Otherwise, 
you might ask someone to let you remove their ashes. You will not be re- 
fused, Of course, you could always go to some vacant lot, pile up a lot 
of scrap wood and burn it. Ashes should be no problem. 


First, put three gallons of hot tap water in one of the cans and put 
the lid on it. It should boil pretty eoon if you put the hotplate dial 
on full heat. Then the dry ashes, which you have run through a piece of 
window screen, are put in >^ile stirring. Put in the ashes a pound or 
so at a time so the heat is kept at a simmer. When the ashes are all in 
and simmering away, put on the lid and leave it alone for about a half 
hour. Then remove the lid and stir some more to keep the ashes from 
lumping on the bottom. Do this every half hour for about three hours, 
turn off the heat and let the ashes settle overnight. 

You should ha*«/e at least three five gallon cans. Take an old shirt 
or other cloth and cover the top of the second can. Then wind a turn or 
so of picture hanging wire or heavy cord around the outer lip of the 
can, tightly. Then pour off the yellow liquid from the ashes, slowly. 

When you get to the loose sediment continue pouring. When you get to 
the heavier sediment, stop, as roost of the potassium carbonate has al- 
ready gone over and what is left is not worth more effort. 

Let the loose sediment alone for an hour or so until most of the li- 
quid has gone through the cloth. Then scoop out the sediment from the 
sagging cloth and remove the cloth. 

You should have at least two gallons of yellowish liquid in the can. 
Put the can on the hotplate and turn it on to full heat. Leave the lid 
off so the water evaporates. When you have only a couple of quarts left 
it is time for the first filtering. 


Get a Coffee filter holder from any supermarket aloi^ with a good 
supply of filters. You can get generic filters for about $1.50 for 200. 
Put the filter holder and filter on top of a quart jar and slowly pour 
the liquid from the can into the filter. When the filter gets slightly 
cloqqed and you are tired of holding the can, stop, wait for the liquid 
to go through the first filter and then dispose of the dirty filter. 




Pour ‘■-he filtered liquid into a stew pot or something similar and renew 
the filter and fill the jiir again. Dispose of that filter and continue 
until there is no liquid or sediment in the can. 

Put the pot on the hotplate and set it at a simmer. Watch it pretty 
closely so all the liquid doesn't evaporate, letting the crude potas- 
ii3m carbonate stick to the pot. When you see crystals forming, that is 
the time you watch closely because you'll just have to put in more wa- 
ter if it sticks. When it is a mush, put it in the crucible and let it 
heat until all the moisture is out. 


The salts must be melted to fuse and react with the compounds which 
creates the cyanides. This takes beat at veil over 1000 degrees F. The 
melted salts will go through most clay crucibles and the great heat 
win melt the seams of most tin cans. You could go to a welding shop 
and have a four inch wide by six inch long length of steel pipe cut 
and have a one eigth inch thick steel bottom welded on. This would make 
an excellent crucible but it would cost maybe five dollars or a little 
more, if you don't care to pay anything, go to your nearest gas station 
and get the used oil filters which are thrown away. The largest and 
most common filters are five inches deep by nearly four inches wide. 
Their value lies in the fact that they are steel and seamless and free. 
All you have to do is take a hacksaw and cut around the lip of the fil- 
ter. Make sure you don't dent the filter or it won't come off. Wipe the 
oil from it and you will have an excellent crucible which will last 
through several firings. The larger sizes are best but you may have use 
for the two smaller At any rate, the few minutes it takes to cut 
the case off are well worth the effort. 


After the crude potassium carbonate has been well dried in the cru- 
cible on the hotplate, it must be fired in the furnace to remove most 
of tlie impurities. Never fill the crucible more than half since it 
Lends to bubble up and some would be lost. Since the first firing is 
while the crucible is completely covered with charcoal or briquets, 
you must provide the crucible with some sort of cover. If you don't 

a Jar lid the right size, just cut a circle of tin from a can and 
cut slices around it so the edges can be bent over, forming an adequate 
cover. It doesn't have to fit tightly since it is simply to keep ashes 
nut oT the potassium carbonate. 


A furnace which will serve every purpose in making potassium cyanide 
can be made with one of the five gallon cans, a galvanized bucket and a 
20 pound bag of cat litter. You can get the bucket from any hardware 
store for under five dollars. 

First, pour enough cat litter in the can so the bucket is about an 
inch from Lhe Cop of the can. Next, put a piece of thin cardboard be- 
tween the bucket and the can and pour litter on the cardboard so it 
fills the space between the bucket and the can. Now you have a furnace 
which will hold great heat and also will not burn anything outside it. 
Of course, if your back porch is wooden, set the furnace on a couple of 
bricks. You can’t be too safe. 

Jn your furnace you will also need something to hold the crucible 
above the first layer of the charcoal briquettes as they don't burn 




well with the crucible sittinq directly on them. This is no problem as 
you can rtiaXe a simple stand for the crucible with a clothes hanger. 

Just bend the clothes hanger around so the the ends nearly touch. Then 
bend the hooh over toward the ends. Put the stand in the bottom of the 
bucket and sit the crucible on the hook* Bend the stand this way and 
that until you have it so the crucible will stand straight and about an 
inch above the bottom layer of briquettes. 

Charcoal briquettes are better than regular charcoal because they 
burn more evenly and last longer. They also throw out less sparks when 
you are using a hair dryer for white heat. Whatever sparks might blow 
out are not really danqerous» as they go out within seconds, but you 
don't want to attract a lot of attention, especially if you are working 
on a back porch in a city. 

The best place to use your furnaco is in a garage with the door open 
so you get plenty of oir. Under no circumstances must you use the fur- 
nace inside. The carbon nonoxide would make you quite ill, if not dead. 

Charcoal briquettes are sold at all supermarkets for about $3.00 for 
20 pounds. Charcoal lighter is also easily available but I find that a 
Bernz-O-Matic propane torch with pushbutton lighter to be far superior. 
Vou can light the charcoal even faster by simply putting the nozzle of 
the propane torch down between the briquettes for about a minute. T 
would suggest you get the bottom layer going, pile in the rest of the 
briquettes and light them. Tn a little while, all the briquettes will 
catch fire and the whole bunch should be gloving with no smoke. 

On your first firing of the crude potassium carbonate, pile briquet- 
tes in a heap ever the covered crucible. Let it burn all night and when 
you uncover Lhe crucible the next day you'll have what appears to be a 
mass of fused carbon. If the crucible is still hot, and it probably 
will be, set it in a pan of water to cool it. If you pour water in it 
while it is still hot steam and ash will erupt and probably burn your 
hand . 

When the crucible is cool, fill it with water and let it set for a 
fov hours before digging out the contents. This will give the water 
enough time to dissolve a lot of the purer potassium carbonate hidden 
in the carbon. When the caked mass can be dumped out of the crucible, 
put It in two quarts of water and mash and stir it so the potassium 
carbonate dissolves completely. 

Set the two quarts of matter aside until the carbon settles. Then 
pour the clearer liquid into the filter over the jar. Empty the clear 
liquid into the pot and set it to simmering so it will evaporate, Here 
is where you will use up several filters. The liquid goes through very 
quickly when the filter isn't cloqqed. Also, a lot of the carbon will 
go through the filter at first. And when you are to the bottom of the 
matter and there is mainly carbon left, that will take longest to fil- 
ter, At any rate, it will all come through clear after a few filterings 
so don't expect perfect clarity at first. So as a filter empties and 
what goes through isn't clear, pour it back through another filter and 
keep it up until it is clear, then evaporate it in the pot. 


When you have the pretty pure potassium carbonate filtered to clar- 
ity and evaporated to a mush, put it in a tin can and put it on the 
hotplate at medium heat until dry. Since it will stick to the can, take 

r»jk^r. O UrtilfiiO oUiHiJ VOl. J. 


o / 

a hammer and bang the can on the sides and bottom to break it loose. 

It's just a tin can so go ahead and ruin it. 

When you have the potassium carbonate out and in chunks, pulverise 
i t to a powder. It will not be crystalizod since heating it in the tin 
can has burned out the water of crystalization, I’m telling you this 
because when you read the old formulas they tell of crystals and I 
don't want you to think you have made a mistake. Crystalization is a 
process manuf acturers are set up for but which you don't need. 

All right? so you now have some pretty pure anhydrous (without water 
of crystalization) potassium carbonate. Now for tho potassium ferrocya- 
nidc. Read the old articles and formulas at the end of this article. 
Dicks, for instance calls for potassium bicarbonate* to be re-purified 
to make absolutely pure potassium carbonate. But such purity is for the 
reagent grade used by chemists for testing and whatever. You don't need 
100% pure potassium carbonate or potassium ferrocyanide or even potas- 
sium cyanide to anneal with or leach gold from quartz or self-destruct 
capsules or cyanide grenades or even prussic acid. Read the formula for 
potassium cyanide from the Techno -Chemical Receipt Book, 1896 to see 
the garbage which can be used for what you want. You know that wouldn't 
pass any chemist's test for purity but 400 milligrams of that would 
make an enemy go belly-up» just the same. 

Some of the old formulas call for iron turnings, some call for fer- 
rous oxide (iron oxide or just plain rust). The point is that fused, 
the atoms of iron will be picked up by the potassium carbonate whether 
Iron turnings or rust is used. Also, you can go to any junk yard and 
scrape off a lot of rust from old boilers, car bodies or whatever, with 
a lot less trouble than it takes to turn iron. Use whichever is handy. 

Again, some of the old formulas call for coke, cinders or coal, 
charcoal, blood, hair or leather to add more carbon to the potassium 
carbonate. So just use five parts of whichever you want. I would choose 
charcoal but you could get scrap leather from any shoe shop, chop it in 
small bits and stir it in. The parts referred to mean parts by weight. 

So let's get down to the business of making potassium ferrocyanide . 
Take 10 parts of your homemade potassium carbonate, 10 parts of charcoal 
or bits of leather and five parts of iron turnings or rust, Get the 
furnace set up with the bottom layer of charcoal briquettes lit then put 
the crucible on the coat hanger stand. Then pile briquettes all around 
the crucible and get the rest of them lit. Next, take a regular hair 
dryer and set it for cool and play the air on the briquettes. You don't 
want to set the hair dryer on hot since its heat would be negligible but 
would burn out the unit in a short time. Besides, all you want is the 
air flow and the dryer can be used indefinately ^en set on cool. So now 
you have the briquettes lighted and are training the air flow all over 
them. You'd be surprized at the difference in heat. 

When the crucible turns white hot, pour in the well-mixed ingredients 
and keep the heat playing around the crucible, I would advise the wear- 
ing of glasses and gloves while making potassium ferrocyanide. 

Soon the contents will begin to redden and fuse. Take a bent out 
coathanger wire and stir occasionally. After all flames have ceased in 
the crucible use a pair of tongs or pliars and lift out the crucible. 
When the contents have cooled, pour them into two quarts of water and 
treat as you did while filtering the final processed potassium carbo- 
nate. You may want to crystal ize it as described in Dick's process far- 
ther on in number 4201. 





cible. Waiting lintil all bubbling, aimraerinq or vhatever ceasn*? iy<\ 

^ pretty pure grade of potassium cyanide. It will 
ot stick and should be broken up and put in an airtight jar. You can^ 
qet some more potassium cyanide by dissolving and filterim the slaa 


4131« 0«rbgiiAt« of PotMwiL This i* 
ilBo known nndar the nsme 3<Ut of Tttriar, 
And of Wofmteood. The onde cnrbonAto 
is obtAined by lizlritUng (set ye. 23) wood 
AAhei, ATAponting the Aolatioa to dmeet, 
»d ftlring in iron poU for urenl hooM. 
Hue conatitntee the ^tash ofcoBunerco. 

pother method oi prepArmtion ie to trsnefer 
the prod not of the dmerApontion toea oven 
or fufOAoe to coottn»:ted tbet the fieme ia 
BAde to ptey orer the tikAlIne k«t 
ooAAtAntly etirred vith An iron . rod. The 
Ignition u oontinned nntil the imporitiee ere 
bnned out, and the xqasa becomes of abla* 
iih^white ; this ia commercUl fearlath. ^&o 
CT. S. Fhifi&Acapccia directi, for genml pv- 
poses, the imp ore CArbooAto to & diatolTed 
in WAter, hiCered, And eyapormted mitll it 
thickens, end then grAanletod in the rnMrtnm* 
directed for the pore cerbonAte. 

41U. Pnro Oarbonato of PotMML 
Put 12 troj ooncei biCArbooAte of potAStA, in 
ooAria powder, into a lerge iron crucible ; heat 

S idnillr until the water of cryiUllinaon it 
yen oft then nifo the heat to redneee end 
BAintaln It at that heat for 30 minntes. When 
oooJ, dlstolye it in diatUled water, ^ter, and 
flT^nto oyer a gentle dre nntal it thickens, 
then remoye it from the dre end atir it con* 
ftaotly with an iron apatnla until it mnn- 
UtM. ( U. 8. Ph.) ® 

4201, Terrocyuido ot 
Hue yellov prwiiate e/poioth is the prvf'- 
fiaU of potash of commerco. It is obtalnel 
by exposing 10 parts potash or peazlaah; 10 
parts coke, cinders, or coal; and 6 parte iron 
turnings, all in coarse powder, to a foil rod 
boat in an ooon crucible, stirring occasionally 
until Boall jeta of pnipio dame are no loo(^ 
Been. Wbeo cool, the soluble matb'r Is ^ 

solyed out of it, the Bolntion flltored, e7ftt<>* 
ratfld, and cirstalliiod. The crystals ob- 
tained are redfssolTed b hot water and cookd 
yery slowly, formbe Ihrge yellow crystals of 
the ferrocyanide oi potairinm of cotnmoTce. 
In order to obub a pure article, fhee oHo- 
roscod commercial praeslate of potash b a 
glass yessel, disaohe ths fused mass b water, 
nentraUze any «tooss of alkali with aoetio 
add, and precipitate the salt with strons al* 
oobol ; wash tbe predpitaU with a little woek 
aleohol, redietolte It b water, and CTTftidJiie. 

4202. Oyaaide fOyanuiet) of Fotan* 
Aluzn. Mix thofonghiy e oodcqs of diy ferro- 
ejaeudo of pousDinm and 3 onnees ary car* 
booete of potasftsj throw the mixture mlo a 
deep red*hot earthen crucible, tbe host boirjg 
fustabod until eiFerTosconeo oeasoe, and tho 
fluid portion of tbe mace' boon mce oolorJosr; 
after a fewmiuTitos'rwt, to all.»w tUoconteoti 
to settle the dear portion ie poured from tbe 
honvy Meok sediment at tbe bottom on a 
clean marble Blab; aod, while yet waim. hre^ 
hen up and placed b welbcloeed boltloa. 
Whoa pure, this salt is colorleas mid odorloss 
SU cTystale ore cubic, or octahedral, and sro 
r.nbydrous. If K efferreccPB iHth acids, it 
contains caiboiiato of potMsa. If it be yellow, 
it oooteme iton. (ZAebi^.) 



J^oduation ef Cfyanide of Potassiumj 
Afnnwnu^ 2hr, and Qas from 2ii(r0‘ 
geneous uraardc Subitanoer, Leather 
waate, blood, wool, hair, etc., are autu> 
rated with a solution of potash and 
then dried. The masa Is then heated 

:->COR R'iN’S J’AMES BOND Vol . 1 



ia retorts, but oot to the melting poiat. 
Ammonia, gaa, and tar are caught up 
in the usual manner. The residue cou> 
tains cyanide and cyanate of potassium, 
sulphocyanide of potassium, calcium 
carbonate, potassium hydrate, potas- 
sium sulphide, and carbon. In the 
presence of metallic iron or ferrous 
oxide the cyanide of potassium is con- 
verted Into ierrocyaniae of potassium by 
lixiviation. After separatiug this the 
solution may again serve for impregua^ 
ing uitrogeneous substances. The potas- 
sium hydrate present is converted into 
carbonate by treating the solution with 
carbonic acid. In case the raw mate- 
rials arc contaminated with sand it is 
removed by washing with potash-lye. 

See page 95, column right, 
rOT'ASSrtnC >IETAL3. Under thi* beading wo 
treat of pota^ium, rubidium, and ca»»ium ; SouiUK ar.d, being 1 cm cloftcly allied to potajaium, ba^e 
rpC'“ial r.rticlsa dc voted to them. 

tliree meUls under ccuelde ration ore all 
very widely dlfTueod through 3 ut nature; but only potoaaiuni 
\n at all abundant, and the re fore wo begin with It Tho 
richest natural store is in the ocean, whicb, according to 
riogusiawaki's calcultitton (in his Ote'tiUf<;rapKU) of Us 
lotrd volume and the present wi i tor's analysis of scA water, 
contains potassium equal to 114 1 times 10'* tons of sniphata. 
This inexhaustible storo, hnwover, is not moeb 
dmvm upon at present ; Uic “ salt-gardens "on the coast of 
Trance have lo?t their industrial imporiance os polosb*pro> 
dueem, if not otherwise, since the ricn deposits at Stossfurt 
in OcmiAijy liavo como to be so largely worked. These 
deposits, in addition to common salt, include the following 
ni i n flv als : — eylv i n o, KCl j ca rnal )i to, K Cl . gCl^ dH^O 
(transparent deliquescent crystals, often red with difftUM 
oxide of iron); kainlte, K-&0,.MgS0,.MgCT5 + 6HjO (hard 
crystalline masses, permanent in the air) ; kicseribo (a 
hydrated sulphate of magnesia which is only vtr^ 
dissolved by water) ; besides boracite, anhydrite (OoSO^ 
and other minor components lying outside the subject 
of this article, The potassium minerals named ore not 
confined to Stossfurt ; far larger quantities of sjUiae and 
kainlte are met with in the nalt-mines of Kaluw in the 
Cftslcrn Carpathian Mountains, but they have not yet cqme 
to bo worked so extensively. The Suilssfurt potossiferous 
minerals owe their industrial importance to tlieir aolu* 
bill by in water aud consequent ready amenability to 
chemical operations, In point of absolute moss tbe^ arc 
indgniricant compared vrith the abundance and Toriety of 
pDtas.siferftus silicates, which occur everywhere in the earth's 
crust ; orLbodoso (potash felspar) and potash mica may ‘be 

quoted as prom : n en t examples. Su ch po tassf fe rou s sti i catc s 
are found in almrefc all rocks, if not as normal at least as 
subsi diary components; and iheir disintegration furnisbas, 
directly or indirectly, the Bolublc potassium salts which 
ore found in all fertile soils. Tbcsj salts are sucked np 
by Uie roots of plants, and by taking part ta the process 
of nutritioa are partly converted into oxalate, Urtrato, 
and other organic salts, which, whon the plants are burned, 
assume the form of carbonate, K^CO,. It is a remarkable 
fact ibat, although in a given soil the soda may pr<H 
domioate largely over the potaslt salts, the plants growing 
in the soil take up the latter by preference : in the ashen 
of most land plants llie (calcuJr.trd ns K^O) fonns 

upwards of 00 per cent, of the toil alkali (KjO or NojO). 
The proposition holds, in its general sense, for sea plants 
likewise. In ocean water the ratio of soda (Ka^O) to potash 
(K.O) is 100 ! 5'23 (Dlttmar) ; in kelp it iis on the average, 
lOd: 5*26 (Richardson). Ashes particularly rich in potash 
are those cd burning nettles, wormwood (Arimisia Ab4\f^ 
(hiunt), tansy (Tanacflunt it/fj-are), fumitory (Fumaria 
q^ciiiofCr), tobacco. In fact the ashes of herbs generally 
are richer to potash than those of tho trunks and branch ea 
of trees; yet, for obvious reasons, tho latter are of greater 
industrial importance as Bouiecs of carbonate of potash. 

Caritcnate e/ FoiatM (KjCOA in former times used to 
be made exclusively from wood- ashes, and even now the 
indostry lundves in Canada, Russia, Hungary, and other 
countries, where wood is used as tho general fuel In 
some plocea — for Instance, in certain districts of Hungary-* 
wood is burned expressly for the purposo ; as a rule^ how- 
ever, tho osbes produced in houseuolds form tho raw 
The ashes are lixiviated with water, which 
dissolves all the carbonate of potash along with more or 
less of chloride, sulpbaU, and a little silicate, while the 
enrtby phosphates sod carbonates and other Insoluble 
mattera remain as a reeidue. The clarined solution is 
evaporated to dryness in iron basins and tlie residue cal- 
cin^ to burn away particles of charcoal and half-burocd 
organic matter. Is former times this calcination u.sed to be 
effected in iron pots, wbenco ibe name ''potashes’* was 
given to the product ; at present it is generally conducted 
in reverberatory fumocee on r<des of cast-iron. The cal* 
cined product goes into commerce os crude poUsbes. The 

conposition of tbis substance is very variable, the .per* 

ccatagr cf real K^OO^ varying from 40 to 60 per cent. 
The following a*.:aly?js of an Amcricaii “potashes” is 
quoted ax an exarcpic. 

CdrbcnaUof pciash ...?T4 ; Water 4*5 

.1 2'8 I Insoluble matter 27 

Snlpkato of potash 

C':i1oH .] e puta^Hum . . . S 6 . 98 *9 

Crude potashes ia used for the manufacture of glass, and 
after being caustieixed for the making of soft soap. For 
many orher purposes it is too impure and must be refined, 
which is done hy treating the crude product witli the mini- 
mum o^ cold ^vater required to dissolve the airboTiato, 
removing the undLssclvcd part (which conslets chiefly of 
aulphate^ and e^Tlpo^ating the clear liquor to dryacas in 
on iron paa The jiurified carbonate (which still contains 
TOort of the chl'Hde of the raw material and other im- 
purities) is known os “p^rl ashes.” 




Large quao titles of carbontite used to be manufactured 
from the aqueous residue leitin tbedUtillatioo of bciHroofe 
spirit, t.f.y ir>direcily from beetroot molasses. The liquors 
are cvajio rated to dryness and the residue Is ignited to 
obtain a Ter>' ttr.purs carbonate, which is pr.rificd by 
methods founded on tlie didcrent solubilities of the scYeml 
components. Such potashes, however^ is exceptionally 
rich in soda: Orandostu found m crude ashes from 10 to 
21 per cent, of jiotaali and from 23 to ^ of soda cerboiata 
This industry would have expired by this time were it 
net that tJio beetroot spirit residues arc worked for tri- 
mctliykrnine (sec * Methyl, vol. xvL p. i$6), and the 
carbonate thus obtained iDcidentaily. Most of the cai' 
bonate of potash which now occurs in commerce is 
from Stosrfuvt chloride by means of an adaptation of the 
“Leblanc process for the cor version of commoa salt into 
soda ash (sec Sodium). 

Chemically pure carbonate of potash is beat prepared 
by the ignition of pure bicarbonate (see below) in iron or 
(bettor) in silver or platinum vessels, or else by the calcina- 
tion of pure bitnrtrale (see TxBTaBic Acio). The latter 
operation furnishes an intimate tnatura of the carbonate 
with cbarcca), from which the carbonate is e.xtrocted by 
lixiviatiou with water and filtration. The filtrate U 
ev&poiuted to dryiioss (in iron or platinum) and the residue 
fully dehyJrateil by gentle ignition, The salt is thus 
obtained as a white porous xnos^ fusible at a red heat 
(83d* C., (^rnglley) into a colourless liquid, which freeses 
iuto a while opaque jnass. The dry salt is very hygro- 
scopic; it dcIiqucKcs into an oily solntion (“oleum l&r* 
tan'') in ordiiiary air. 100 parts of water dissolve— 
St0*c. sc* a I8S*C. (bolUrwpoioS 

* «fa(untoti MiitioA) 

S3 *205 

C arts. Carbonate of potash, being insoluble id strong. alco- 
ol (and many other liquid organic compounds), is much 
u^d for the dehydration of the corresponding aqueous pre* 
parations. From its very concentrated solution ta hot 
water tho salt crye tallies oa cooling with a certain, pro- 
portion of n-atcr ; but these crystals are little knowa even 
to chemists. Fare carbonate of potash is being constantly 
used in the laboratory, as a basic substance generally, for 
the diiinlbgratiun of bilicaU«, and os a precipitant The 
industrial preparation sen-ea for the making of flint-glasa, 
of potash «oap (soft soap), and of caustic potash. It is 
a bo used in mvdicino, whers its old name of **sal tartar! * 
is nob yet quite obsolete. 

SicarbonaU o/ FcUuA (K,OCOj + H,OCO, - 2KHCO,) 
is obtained whdn carbonic add U passed through a cold 
solution of the ordinary carbonate as long as it is absorbed. 
If feilicate is present, it likewise is converted into bicar- 
bom»3 with eliraination of silica, which mus* he filtoed 

ofiL The filtrate is evaporated at a temperature not 
exceeding 60’ or at most 70* C. ; after suflicieut concen- 
tratioQ* it deposits ou cooling aabydtous cr)sUl$ of the 
sale, while the chloride of potassium, which may be present 
as an ituputity, remains mostly in the molhcrdlqnor; the 
rest is easily removed by repeated recrystalliiatioa. If 
an absolutely pure preparation is wantod, it is best to 
follow Wohler and start with the “Mack dux produce J 
by the ignition of pure bitartrate. Hie f.ux is mdstened 

wiUi water and expoceJ to a current of carbonic acid, whi; li, 
on account of the condensing action of tlio cl.arcDal, is 
abaorbed wlih great aridity. The rest explains itself. 
Bicarbonate of potash foiJiw If.vge monodiidc pnam^, 
permaDent in the air. 100 parrs of wncer dls^lvj — 

St S* W Cfi* 7(1* 

1G'61 28*23 23-Vl 4135 4^24 

parts of salt At higher temperatures than 70' the solu- 
tion loses carbonic aci X quickly. Tl;e solnlion ia far lv:»s 
violently alkali no to the tri&te and teBbp.*)pers than that of 
the noriral carbonate, Hence it in p ret erred ininedicino 
as an ami-adil. Wlicn the dry is treated it brenks 
up below redness Into normal carLonato, carbonic acid, 
and water. 

Cah4lic P^ath {f/^Jrate of Pofffsrvuw), KHO.— It has 
been known for a long time timt a solution of carbonate of 
|K)tasb becomes mure intciiscly ulkoline, acts more strongly 
on the epidermis, and dissolves fats more jiromptly after it 
bas been treated with slaked lime. It used to be supposed 
that the latent firo iu the quick dime went into the “mild 
alkali and mode It “caustic,’' until Black, about tim 
middle of last century, showed that the chemical 
between the two prc^:arations is that the inlKi is a com 
l>ound of carbonic acul and the caustic one of water wUU 
the same base (potash), — tbs caustidilng action of the I) mo 
consisting in this, tluit it svitlidrawa the carbonic acid from 
the alkali and subititutes its own water. Add to this 
that the exchange takes place only in the presence of a 
sufCcicAt proportion of w'ater, and that it is undone if the 
mixture is rJ lowed to get concentrated by evaporation 
beyond a certain (uncertain) point, and you have a full 
theory of the process. A good concentration is bvclve 
parts of water for one of carbouato of potash; the 
iiiDO is best employed iu the shape of a scnji-lluid paste, 
made by slaking quick* lime with three parts of water 
poured on at a time. Tlio alkali solution is lu'cted to 
boiling IQ a cast-iron vessel (IndustruiUy by nu'^ans of 
steam -pipes) and the lime paste added in i.istalments until 
a sample of the filtered mixture no longer cfikrvcsccs on 
addition of an excess of acid. The mixture is tlicn 
allowed to settle iu the iron vessel, access of air be lug 
prevented as much as practicable, and the clear liquor 
u drawn off by tuoxas of a syphou. Tlie rUiiait;ing 
mud of carbonate and hydrate of lintc is washed, by 
decantation, with small instalments of hot water to recover 
at least part of tlie alkali ditfused throughout it, bat this 
process must not be continued too long or else some of 
the lime passes into solution. The united liquors are 
boiled down in an irou vessel until the desired dujrec of 
concentration is reached. In obedience to an old tradition, 
the concentration is habitually continued until tho spec ilk 
gravity tbecold ley is 1*338, which is a rather incon. 
venienlly high degree of strength for most purposes, but 
in the case of the ordinary commercial article o fie re (his 
advantage, that any sulphate of potash which may bo 
present as ui impurity crystallizes out completely on 
loading (Liebig). If solid caustic potash ia wanted, tho 
ley (after removal of Uis deposit of sulphate, .kc.) is trans- 
fen^ to Ik silver dish, and the evaporation continucil uulil, 
instead of steam, the heavy of KHO itself is seen 

to go olh The residual oily liouid is thei^ |> 0 URd out into 




a I alisjicd iron lra 7 , or into an iron mould to produce the 
CTif tomary form of ‘^sticks/' and allowijd to cool. The 
RolidiGcd prepara^tioa ni’ist bo at once bottled up, because 
it attracts the moisture and carbonic acid of the air vibh 
great avidity and dcHqueecea. According to feho present 
WTitcj’a exporlenoe (Joum. Soc. Chan. jTtd., May 1884), 
r.ickcl basi].s are far better adapted tl an iron basins for flie 
concentration of potash Icy. The btter begin to ozidire 
before tbo ley has ooine up to the traditicaal strength, 
while nickcL not attacked so long as the percentage of 
rfol KHO ia short of 60, For the fusion of the dry 
hydrate nickel vesscb cannot be used ; in fact, even silver 
is perceptibly attacked as scon as tbo excess of v.^ater 
is away ; ahrolubely pure KHO can be produced only in 
^'lid vessels Regaining the action of potash on plalimun, 
CCS Pr.ATiNUM p. 191). Glass and <to a less extent) 

|K»rcclain are by cniiatic potash ley, slowly in the 

cold, more readily oo boiling. 

Frozen caustic poUksh forus an opaque, white, atone-Iike 
mass of dems granular fracture; specific gravity* 2' 1, 
It /uses considerably below and is pcrcoptibly volatile at 
ft led heat. It is extremely soluble in oven cold water, 
and in aoy proportbn of water on boiling. The solution 
is intonsoly “ alkaline ” to tost-papers. It readily diasoKes 
ths epidcrniia of the skin and many other kinds of animat 
ti«uo, — hence the well-knOTm application of the sticks ” 
in surgeiy. A dilute potash ley readily emuldonizcs fats, 
«i:nrdii-oohiffg***^eStpQnmc^ fhthi wita iortnauo’i oi a* soap 
and of glycerin. Caustic potash is the very type of an 
energetic <moncN-acid) be^ hydrate (see CajafiSTRY, voL 
V. p]x 486, .488). 

According to T unnermann’s and Schiff's detorminations, 
calculated by Gerlach, the relation in pure potash ley 
betw'cen specific gravity at 15* C. and porcentace strength 
is as follows : — 

r^rceDfagsi ef ! 
K-EO Of AjO. 

Spec! Sc Onvity, If j 
percensaae refere to j 


' Fereentftx^s of 
1 KUO or 

Speclfio Grsviiy, !f I 
percoatog* .Tsfen ts f 





0 , 






I I 





^ *288 








1 1*126 


3 ecu 




'll?? \ 

1 GO 

1810 1 


All commercial caustic potash is contaminated with ex- 
cess of water (over and above that in tie KHO) and with 
carbonate and chloride of potassium; sulphate, Misrule, 
is absent, Absolutely pure potash has perLtps never been 
seen; a preparation sxifBcing for most purpose of tie 
enalyst is obtained by digesting the commercial article in 
strong (85 per cent, by weight) pure alcohol. The hydrate 
KHO dissolves in the alcohol of the solvent; the chlu^de 
and the wboaate unite with the water and form a lower 
layer or magma, from which ike alcoholic solution of the 
KUO is decanted off, to be evaporated to dryness and 
fused in (^‘potaseo h Talcool”)^ 

The metal (potassium) has been known to exist since 
LaTpirier, but was first obtained as a substance by Hum- 
phry Davy in 1807. He prf^parrd it fwm the hydrate by 
electro .ysis, Oay-Luasac and Th^nard subsequently found 
that this substance con be reduced to the metallic state 

more easily by pass'. jg ita vap<njr over white hot metallic 
iron ; but even their method as a mode of preparation was 
soon Buperseded by Brunner’s, who, to the surprise of his 
contemporaries, produced tho metal by simply dhtilUng 
its carbonate with cliatcoal — ^'pj’lyiog an old-established 
pciuoiple of ordinary metallurgy. Bnmner’e process is used 
to the present day for the production of the motal 
One of tho«e cylir.drical, nccklMs, wrought •iron bottl€S wlijch 
serve for the itoring of quicksiUer w made into a retort bv taking 
iFul Ui 0 ecrew'plag at the ctfatre of one of the roimd ends and 
snbelituting for it a short, ^ounJ-in, iron out'.et pipe. Tliii 
retort is clisrgcd with a black finx in.ido from a mixture of pire 
aod crude biUitreto »o noted that the Uiix contains aa nearfy aa 

E i«i«ihle tbs proportion of frcQ c&rboa demanded br the equation 

,C0j+ SC = 2K + 8CO. It la then suspended horirontallvTdfhin 

e powerhJ wind-farnace, co Detracted for coke as fjeV At first a 
mixture of coke and charcoal ia a.pplied, to produ^ t)ie riglit tem- 
perature for cliA8fT.e away the laoisture and enabling one to, eo to 
say, vamiah over tfia retort with borax nnd thr.a protect it 
the subeeouent inwee iicat. After these proHiniiinrlaa coke adcnc 
Is used and the frre nrged <m to, aj»d maintained at, ite matimnn 

S ’tCh, wlien potassium vapour anon begins to make its Ap{> 0 arance. 

le ccmdenaition of this vapotir, ho'^ever, demands spec wd me tboda 
because oven tho cold mcUl would quiAly osidim in tlw air ani 
art most violently oa liquid water, prtnner used to condeaeo the 
vapour by pcsibg it iato a small copper v easel ehargad with rock- 
oil (aeo PARA^rm, vol. xviii. p 207), in which liquid the condensed 
metal Sinks to tho bottom and thus eaeapea the air. Dense and 
ICareaca di«ixnso with rock-oil altogether j they receive Jh*! vapoui 
in a djT c<-:jden$cr iimde of two 13at reclangufar trays of wrought 
iron which fit closely uroE each otilicr, cncloaitig a space auca aa 
might be aaed as a mould for eaa^mu a thin cake of ;iuv cmllqiirF 
TOclal. This con denser ha# a short Deck into which the outlet pipe 
of , tho retort fits ; end the pipe ruuet be as ehorr as pceaible, be- 
cause it is essential (Donr.4 Marca::^) that the hot vapour paa 
abruptly from its oilgiuat high to a lew temperature, to evade s 
uerlain rangQ of incdu.m temperatures aU which the metal com. 
bui» with CPI bouic oxide into & bhek solid, w'hl^ may obstruct 
the outlet pipo, Tho forraatioE of this bye -product canuo; be 
altogether avoided ; hence a long borer ie inscrUd into the con- 
denser from tlio’ first to enable oro to clear the throat of the retort 
at B moment’s notice. The cond sneer U kept aa far as possible cold 
by conitait appllceUon to it of dan>p clrtha. Aa soon as the 
dial illation is fiuianed the still hot) condnneer is plunged Inio a 
bucketful of rock-oil, Co coo it down, the mould ope&ed?under the 
rtl), and tho now* solid mota taken otifc. lY.e crude metal ie alvaya 
contaminated with eoins of tlio black noHd and other mechanical 
iJD/urilica To remove theeo tiie best method is to rediitQ It 
fr m ont of a email iron retort end condeueo the vinour in rock- 
04 I according to Cr.mner'a original plan. The punned metal is 
eofl enough, bo be moulded (under rock-oil) into gbbular plscas, 
which are preserved in battlei filled to the top with the protecting 
liquid. But even this do«« not prevent gradual oxidation ; bright 
metftlUo potueium orb bo maintaineJ ^ this conditioo only by 
preening it In a ealed-up glaas tube within a voeaum or in au 
attnoaphere of hydrogen ur some other inert gae. The black loUd 
above referred to la a moat dsngcroue substa^ioe. '^an expoeed 
to the air it turaa red and then explod oa ciLhor apontauoously or 
on the alichteat provocation by friction cr pressure. Even If kept 
under rock-oil it grtdmlly beconea explosive. The distillaticu of 
poUasium, in ia a dangerous operatio:]| which had better ^ 
left in the hands of epeciallata. 

Pure potaseium is & bliiish-white ractal ; but oq exposure 
to ordinary sir it at onoe draws a film of oride, and on 
prolonged exposure deliquesces into a solution of hydrate 
and caxbonats. At tamperaturaa 1»low 0* C. H ia pretty 
hard and brittle; at the ordinary temperature it is so soft 
that it can be kneaded between the fing-jrs and cut with 
a blunt knife; specific gravity *0 805. It fuses at 62**5 
0. (Bunsen), and at 720' to 730* C. (Carnelley and 
WiUiams), i.r., considerably below, its boiling point, begins 




to dblil Trith formation of 4n intensely groen vapouc 
Wiien heated in air it fnaee and then takes fire and bums 
into a mixturo of oxides. Most renmrkablt^ and chains 
tcristic for tha group it represents, is its action on vaUr. 
A poUet of potass inm when thrown on wat-er at onoe i>uisU 
out into a violet flame and the burning metal fizzes aboufc 
on the surface, its extremely high tcmiieratnre precIudiBg 
abaoluto contact with the liqai^ except at the Tery end, 
when the last remnant, throu^ lo^ of tdTT)per«tttre» k 
wetted by the watfer and bursts with expUstvo violenca 
What really goes on chcTiically is that the metaJ d«om- 
noses the water tlius, K + ITjO-KRO + n, and that the 
hydrogen catches fire, the Tiolet colour of tho fame being 
due to lac ixita&^ium Tapour diffused thn»ugbont it 
Similar to that on water L« its action on alcobed : the 
alcohol is converted into ethylate, while hydrogen escape 
K + . OH « OgHj . OK t H, this time without inBam- 

mation. Sa strong is Ehe basilous character of the element 
that, in opposition to it, even ammonia behavea like ail 
acid. ^Vhtn the oxide-free metal is heated gently wHhin 
the dry it is gradually transformed into a blue liquid, 
which on cooling freezes into a yellow isli-brown or ficsli- 
poloured soli<l. This lody is known as *‘pouiMraide,'* 
KNHj. VJjen h*.^tcd by itewlf to redness the amide is 
decomposed into amm :^nia and nitride cf polasbium, SNH»K 
• NKj + SNI!-. Tho nitride is an altnost black solid. 
Doth it and the ntr.ide dccouipoee water readily w'ilh for* 
maliou of ammonia and caustic potash, rotossium at 
temparitures iion. 200" to 400* C. “occludes** hydrogen 
gas, as palladiam docs (sec “Palladioin/' under Flatinosi, 
iuprfi, p. 193). The highest degree of saturation corre- 
sponds approximately to the formula KjH for the “alloy/’ 
or to about 123 volumes of gas (measured cold) for one 
volume of mctaL lu a vacuum or in suSciently dilute 
hydrogen the compound from 2D0* upwards loses hydro- 
until the tension of tho free gas Los arrived at the 
ucLximum value cuaracc eristic of that temperature (Troost 
(.nd H&uUfcullU). 

Ozutii, iinguUily. esn bo Produced onlv from the 
Ziiotcl, snd Ainther i-emukeUe fact ij tlut the cue wUd ahkh all 
rhcTuicsI stjdeati imagiuo thoy are » familiar— asm ely, *'sahydrous 
I'Ctash/’ K,0— U little mois than a fiction, Accwding to Tcrnen 
llucourt. n^lieu tlie oieUl is licaCed cautiouslr, £rtt in dry air and 
1 hen in dry oxy^*cn, it is transformed into a *<«nite mass (Et^j 1)i 
nldch, however, et once tak:a up mere oaygen with*fonnstiOJW 
uUimately of s y'Jlcw po^vdc^y tetmido foible st a red 

hcaC vitbout deconi I'OMtioQ. At a white heet it loses oxygtr. and 
joarcseoteii lueof lower o*iJc* (KjO A When heated in hydroge;» 
it is rvUiiccd tc oiUluary potash, K<iO. ^Vhen diaiolvett in excos of 
dilate acid It yields a mixed soktioa of the Tespeciive potash salt 
ard peroxide of hyUrcgcD, vriih abandaul cTclatioQ of oxygen gn s 

Po’nsrUm Sati , — There U ouly one scries of chess knovru, — 
na:*j«]y, the salU produced by tlic union of potash (SHOlwiib acids. 

Chhr^, KCl.—Thie salt (com niercuJ name, **munatecf potash") 
is at piesont being produced in in^mease quantities at Sussfart 
from the sc-callsd Abraunvalio.*' Pm the purpose of tho manu* 
fa:;turcr of muriate tV.ese an 'assorted into a raw amterisl contain* 
ii!g Approximately in 100 ^rts — 55-Co of canialliU (representing 
U of chloride of patisAuin ) ; fi3*X5 of ccfcmon salt; 15-2D 

of kicscrite, a poculiar, very sloirly solubjs sulphate of megneda. 

2-4 of tachhydrite (CaCT,. 2V^J, -I-12H.O) ; and 
lair.or cc'mponents. Tliis mixtnie is now wreught mainir In two 
wavs. (1) The salt la dltsolrcd io water with As help olf steam, 
ai'.d the sol Lt ion is cooled down to from 60* to 70*, when a 
quantity of impure common salt crvitalUrss out, vhiA is rs- 
moved. The docaatod ley depostta on cooling and standing a 

70 rer ceut. >n.imte of pota&h- which ie purified, ;f d^siieil, by 
tast.i ng it by Ji&placeinent wiA cold water. Common salt prin* 
tipally cc^s into solution, and the pore an tags may thus be brought 
up to ^ai 80 to SS. Ills mother* liquor from the 70 per cent 
muiiate is eva|v>rat«d doivn further, tbs conmion salt which 
sc ;it rates out in the hsac icmoved os it appears, and the sufh* 

cieurljr concentrated Uqoor allowed io cn'etalUra, when almost 
pure carnsllile separates out, w’hich is easily decoir. loosed into its 
roinponcnts (see ia^ro), (2) Zier>ogcl snd Tucheu'e method. 
1 be cnvl; alt is ground up and then Liested in concentrated 
'dutioii of chloride of magiirsium uith iccchanial agitation. 
'!hc cainalUlo p.'ineuuiU/ dissolves ard cryvts Hires out rtlativcly 
; are on cuoli:ig. ^be mothcr-Hquor is used for a sultsequcitt 
• xtraklion of fresl. raw salt The esnialUte produced is dissolved 
in hot water and the solution allowod to cool, vrKen it deposits 
a coarse granular n.umto of petash containing up to tfd per cent, 
of tlie pure sub*tance, Ths undissolrcd lesidus produced m cither 
p40cee:> const Us eh felly of klnerito and common salt. * It is worked 
op eitlnw for Epsom elt and coenruoa salt, or for sulpha Co of soda 
and cliiorulo or magnesikim. The potaxsiferous bye -pioJ nets are 
ntUired for the maitufscture cf maun ret. 

Chemically puie cUoride of potassium U roost conveniently pro* 
pjreJ fioiq pure perclilorate (sm itt/ra) by dioxygensUng it in a 
ptaliuurn Lmw at the louest temperatuN and then fusing the 
residue In a uuH-eovcre*! platinum crocibla Tho fused product 
solidifios oil cooling into a colourless gisss. Chloride of potasslam 
dissolves in water oni cr)'stsUiceH frOBi the aolu;iou iu auhydruus 
(ubes. 100 parts of woleriliMolv^ 

« r 10* 80* w iwa 

29 2 M SIT 42*8 66*6 

pstts of the ealt. iVluQ a sufficiency of hydroclHoHc*add gti U 

t »nssed Into the aolutiou lie salt Is eomp'.glely prccipitatca ss a 
IMS i«»der. If t).e crigiial solution contained chloride of msg* 
oeimii; or calcium or sulpha 10 of jkUsIi, all impurities remain iti 
ths BO(hti-li>tuctr (lbs SOj aa Ki]bC 4 ), and can be icaiovcd by 
washing the precipitate with strong hyds'Oclilorlo acid. Chloride 
of poUuluw fuses at 736* 0. [Caiusllcv), sud at a red hu'ut vjla- 
Uliaes ra thcr abu ndaatl y. 

CMtoraif, KnO» — Aii indust riolly important !^i was die* 
OCTcred in 1786 by berthollct, who correctly designated it jt 
"puroiiiired nLr.awJ Chlorine gaa U largely absorbed hv cold 
caiaatk* potash lyr with Anoafioi; cf chloride and hyiofiMoiitr. 
2KHO + Cl|« + KCIO e*ll|0. When l!w mixed soluhon is 
bowed U suffers, alrictly apvukujg, a couti licated dccompcuujon, 
which, however, in tho uitm comet ta the sainu as if ilis hype* 
di.oriU bfc k< up lu to ch brid o a nd c lilorato, 3 U t *10 • 2 Iv Cl + K ClO» 
Heuee chlorate cf potaah is easily piuduced by naaslng elder; 

MUitIc.poUsh ley eo ea at once to K'aliuo the chaTu*e. 
6 KHO + SCIj«3«,0-r6KCl+-KClO, ; and this mrtliOd jseJ to 
oc fallowed ir.dusuk.Iy until Usbig pointed out that five-iixtUs 
S? S?. cna be uved by first mbsti'.uling millc of lirje, 

^fO]l),«2c90H, for the poUsa ley and from ths mixed sold; on 
of luM.ialU p>ucipita;iag, so to say, the chlori: acid u potash 
suit by adding IKCl for every let CIO, present, con^nUaUrg by 
evapoiutioR. and allowing the KClOj to crvstalliM out. This is 
til® present induetidal process. Tor tho tec. mica', details wc mast 
reler to (he bandboolu of clKtiustry. Suldce u to say that in 
practiw rhout I 03 times KQ are used for every lea CTO,, aiwj 
that the ^ ♦produced ii almost fhcmijallv pure a?ier one leery s* 
uUiatiM. By repeated recry stall Nation wciy tracu of jmruritios 
is cuily removed. The crystals are eo)oi.rk»sa transparent nicno* 
cljjiic plates, which, unless fo.-ned rerv blo;\!y, arc very thin, so a e 
often to axUibit tho IfewWi colocra *100 [cru of water dissolve— 

0* ir 50* lW'l{po boiUiifi) 

3 3 6 19 CO 

ports of the salt (Gaj-Lussac). Tne salt iiaicnost inaoliiLlc in itroug 
alcoliol. 1 1 is pes-manent i.n ihe air. J t fuse s a t 35 9* C. ( Ca rr.el I ey k 
audat about !i* above the tcmpeatcrs cf i:s fciniation the Ilqij 
gives eff oxypn n.Uk notution o/ heat, and fonnaKcn iill.matefy of 
chloride {ana oxyget), Tho salt accordingly, in epposition to any 
c«r. bubble matur with which it nuy be mixed, Uhaves at (ho 
same tLiie as a store of highly •condensed loose ly* combi .no J oa^geji 
and of potcutiat heat. Hk*nce iu manifold applications in ariillcrr 
and pyrotechnics are easily underaiood. To give one example of 
the readiness with which it aet^ as a burning agent : a mi^tu^c ul 




it ai.d suliiUui* \vLett 6 (ruck 4 e?;ploitcs Icailly, tho 

)ii«ehAni;wI Ur^v su^T.cicg to prcducfi locally tha tcmperitu« uccaa- 
sary for starting the roacticn. ‘^Vhen the aalt mas still a novelty 
it 'i^as triud a substitute tor (ho nitre U gucrw.rje* Suds 
poud.’r, hov'i.viiri proved too good to bo ctfe. ^lorc recently s 
ii.ixtuix tf 40 ]«rt% cf tbe cLlomto, of augat. and 2d of prj&s atu 
of i>o;<ish v'Qs recomoiciiJed by I'ohl as & prcfcrabla substitute for 
gjhpowder, bu: this ^x>v*dcr baa never come Into actual use any- 
mhore. \Ve must not forget to point out that ir.iztnrcs of ehlcratc 
of ]>oULsh and cotobuatibU ajlatanecs must or. no account be mde 
in a ir.ortar ; this v'ould bo sere to lead to d&ngvrous explo^n*. 
The several Ir.CTedUnU nmst be pondered separately and only lUeu 
be mixed together on a sheet of J^per or on a table, all unneecsaary 
ptussuro or frietion be lug carefully avoided. 

The decoujjKisition of chlorate of potash by heat b fready facili- 
tated by admixture of oven small proportions of certain solid oxides, 
oxide of cop|vr, of iron, or cf Lmnganeee. The oxrcen, lu 
the ease of blnoxids of tnongaiiese, for lustance, coiuee oif bcloir 
(lie fusing point of the selt H<.nce a salt contaniitalcd vitheven 
a small pronoriion of hc6,vy mcullie chln^ato cannot (in general) 
bo fi.sed mltiioat decoiiiposition. The mriter observed this at.orualy 
mHtli a commercial chlorate mhlch happened to ccnt&in about ono 
1ialf ]«r cent, of chlorate cf ainc. The a'^ueoue solution cf the salt 
is ncutiul and bears prolonged boiling^ uithont decomposition. On 
acidifkaticn with diluti ai^phurm acid it assurDcs the rvaellonaof 
4 soludon uf chlcrie achl. hr., of a^K>uvrrul but r^ai 1 1 ly centro liable 
osvJant. In this eaperity it is used in cal ivo.pKc ting as • 
*‘ifivhcrge.” In. the san.e iuduetr^’ it eersea far lUAking the 
chlorate of soda reeded for the proiiuction of anlinc block. In 
the chemical laboratory* it, is lu constant ict^ulsition oe a source of 
oxygen and as an oxhhring agent. In the liauda of ^orljpioc il 
served for the determinatio:) oi the im^iorlaDtratio KCI : CO. 

TinhioiaUt IvClOg.^TKs clccempcsltiou of chic rate of pot.a>h by 
heat, if catalviic agents like >IrOt, kc.i areabseui, proceed tv two 
itftcrea Id the tins the salt breaks up thus, 2ktlO»sivC. 

KCIO, : 1a tUo secend the |>«Rh]orato at • higher t^iu.erjture ts 
dKorijpcBcd into chlunde and oxygen. The leradnation of the 
first stage is inerkcd by a Unektnlng In the evoUticn of the oxygen 
and by the rceiduai salt (>shlch» at the Winning, is a tl»in Jlnidj 
Wcormoff pasty. From tbo mixture KCI KC*0« the chloride is 
extra stfiT bv llsjvbtiou with successive insUlffients of coM niter. 
H'Jie residua) perch I ora to is (v'v eosl/y purified by recryslalliratlvi) 

a 'iu puix dilori le of pottisiLta, sry'ra). iVrcUorair of iivtaah 
ves ir parts cf ncUr of iJ’C.i aud in far less of boiling ns ter. 
It U absolute!/ ii.soluLle in abac lute alcohol. It rt;^ns to give 
off id o.x^*gcc 4t about 401" C., which is Utow iu ludrg pv.ut 
The s&lt has bcou i*scoinm(&dda w e sudstiMte for chlorate iu 
pyrotechnic mixturea, because it centains mere oxy|en, eft«l yet, on 
account of creoUr aubilit^, is a leae dangerous ingndiciit. 

Sremide, Kt!r — This salt U formed vheu brouiine is dissolved 
in cjuistic-pcta&h Icy. rcactioa Ls quite analogous to Lliat go- 
ing ou in LIiq case of chlorine ; only the nypobteoute <KBrO) first 
proil'.iced ia far lose stable than hypochlorite, and vaniehes after 
Khort hcn'.ing. The addition of bromine is continued until the 
liquid is pBi*man«ntly yellow aud retain* its colour after short heat- 
ing. Tho solution is tlicn evaporated to dryoew and the bromatc 
cl pco mpoQoil hy cautions hosting, A Small portion of the bromata 
I rc.vke ui> into ILjO + 50 ; hsnee tlic residual broniJa Is coii- 

Untijiatcd with a little free? alkali ; bat (his is easily set light by 
ne.ilraUzinu Its '^ulatluu with liydrobromic ac.d. The salt crystal- 
lizes in ccdcfurlpis transparxnt cubes,, easily scinblo in irate r. It 
ii LiscJ, ill medicine for quieting the nerves,— to eura ^eplessness, 
for ir.ictnnce ; rlso (hitcmall/) as a local aDirsthotk preparatory 
to CT<c rations on tho liiwnx or the eye. The dose w tlkS pure 
{K1 live) salt for adults esn sa.^cly bo raised to 2 giaiames (about 33 
grsirs). It i* alw used in photography. 

lodid', KL— Of tho very nnnir*rcus roetliods which have been 
ivcommrm'ci'. foi* tho preparation of this important salt the simplest 
(incl proliahly the br^t) is to dlssolTO in a cav>tic*pctas1k ley (wukh 
IS ililuU enough to hold tits rc.cher difScultly soluble iodats ElO^ 
in solution) enough iodine to produce a permanent yellov cdoaT 
(the iodine passes At once into fiKI + ElU^; the hype body EIO 
ha.s no existence pnv'tically) and to deoxidize tho i^ate, which ia 
done n.ost conreuieutly by adding a s’.ifficicncy of ji-owdcwd char* 
coal to the sohi'.lou, evaporating to dryness in ariHon vessel, and 
heating the residue. The oxygen goes o(T as 00^ at a lower tem- 

perature than tiiat which would l< needed ita expulsion as 
oxygen gf 8. Tlia residue ia diaoclved, an:l the solution filtered and 
evaporated to crystalluaticn. THb salt cornea out in colourless 
transparent ve:*y easily aoluble in even cold water. The 

CQiBiuercial soilt fonns opaque inilk'nhile ciystnls, wliich, os a 
maltor of hfthlt, ara |ii*of«rrocl'to the clear ftilt, although they are 
prodneed by causing the salt to crystallize fj cm a strongly alkaline 
solution and bv <3r}ing the cry'stala (finally) in a stream of hot sir, 
and alll.ougK IbixfUgh 1*ie fornier o[»crau<m tlioy aiv at le\st liable 
to con lain carbon lie. Iodide of potasaiuTn acta lariuore poweihiUy 
«u Iho hum vn system than bromide, au.l thcrtfcpte ia adininiatei ed 
in smalW doves. It Is uacd against skln-disuiacs, and also for 
eliminating tbc mercury which settles in the syaUm after long* 
cautiurod administration of ti'.crr urul meJicInra. It Is oho used, 
far more br^'y tium tho bromide, in photography. See Pboto* 
CHAfUT, ywan X. 

(K,.S 04 ) used to be extracted from kainite. but t:ie 
process is now gi\*vQ up because the salt can be prodneed cheaply 
enough from ths muriate by deoorr posing it with iU exact oqui* 
valent of oU of vitriol and caleiiiJDg the residue. To purify the 
crude product it U diasolred in hot water and ths aoVatlon filtered 
and allowed to cool, when the bulk of tho dissolved silt crystallines 
OQ twi I Hcharsi: (eristic pram rlltnd a. The very bet r.riful (sntiydrous) 
nyvtoU have is a rslo IheWlntus of a double slx-^ded pyramid, 
but really bekng to the rhombic system. Theirs trauspareut, 
very har^i, and absolutely pennanent In tlie air. Tliey have a bitter 
eelty taatc. 100 parts ^ water diaiolve — 

St <r ir icc'C. 

€ 30 10 23 

parts of tha salt Sn’phate of Mtssh fuses at a stroi.g red hrat, 
and at this tomperature rclatlutts, for an alkaline salt, rtithrr 
sl«ndy. The weight for weight, volatiluvs at ten times 

(he rs(e (Bunsen). Sul p4* ate of prtssli used ti he gmp'oyed U\ 
medicine, hut is non* obsolete. The crude salt Is used oceasionaliy 
in the manufacture cf ^h«s. 

7hiH2f'ki‘t4 (KlidO^) » jvadily prcMir.ced by fualne thirteen parts 
cf the powdered normal ealt with eight J^ris of oil of vitriol It 
diasolves in thrt^ parts of water or 0* ^ TUa •ohitlon belmvcs 
pretty much a.i ifUa tvrocoiigonsra, K^SOi sud Hg 5 l 04 , vm present 
ride by side of each other u» combined. An excess of alcohol, in 
f-wl, pTodyiiMc* uotimI sulphate (iritU little hlsulphutc) and free 
acid jemaios in soli .;i>n. Similar Is tho bclmvimjT of the fused diy 
snH at a dull ivd heatt U hcU on slllcAtc«, CcAiiitca, kc., as if ft 
wrre Miljihurio neid raised beyond I to natnial hoi ling point. Hence 
its frequeat ajipli cation in AUAlyMs as a die iuti.gra ting sgeat 

Jot (I e folJuirbig jotasb aslto wo refir to tlie arliJlcs named i 

C^raro/>«, see CiiuoMrPMj Cpatu'dc and Fcrr^x^ftnidt, Tnuisio 
Arm; Ckifir^jdativa/e, PlaUNUOI (sup}’(t, p. H»2); XiTRO* 

CRM (vol. XV 1 L p. 313); riioeritnaus' (vol. xviM. pp. 

313 13); OWatrs, Oxalic Void; S'Miyii’da ind.Sstf>jiiici, Sni.Pinra; 
Siikrtft, <?i.AAa(vol *.p.fi5og.) and Silica ; TnHratu, TARTanic 
Acid. For I'cUrii wilta no*, named, s» the handbooks of chemlsfry. 

JinUdixpi ainl C^aiuni . — *VVTien Bunsen and KiixhhcfF 
ia ISW) applied taeir method of ipcctnim analyala to ihe 
alkali a.alts whtc!] they had extracted analytically from 
DUxkbelm miimral water, they obtained a epcctfxun wlucli. 
In addition to tne unaschanetenauo tor sooiam, potafieinra^ 
and liihium, exUibltod two blue linos which were foreign 
to any other Bpectrum they had ever seen. They accord- 
ingly concluded that these lines must be owbg to the 
prcMDce of a new alkali metal, w hich they called ^‘cseslum.” 
Bunsen at once resumed the preparation of the mixed alka- 
line aaU W'lUi 44,000 litres of Durkheim water, with tha 
Tiew of isolating the cesium in the. form of a pure salt ; 
and be was more than auccessful — for the new alkali 
salt, after elimination of all the ordinary alkali meUlo, 
proved to be a mixture 'of the salts of turo new alkali 
metala, which he succeeded in separating from each other. 
For one he retained the name already chosen ; the other 
be called "rubidium,” on account of tha presence in his 
plectrum of certain characteristic red lines. Since Bunsen’a 




time tli«eo two metiils liave been discoyered in a great 
many native potaasiicrons materials — minerals, mineral 
waters, plant as lies, ifcc, — but in all cases they form onlj 
a small fraction of the alkali, the czeaium in general 
amounting to only a fraction of even the ntbidinm. One 
solitary exception to both rules is afforded by a rare 
mineral called “poIIux," whicli is found only on the island 
of Elba. Pkttner analj’sod this mineral in 1846 and 
recognized it as a compound pilicate of alumina, oxide of 
iron, soda, potiLsh, and water ; but bis -quantitative acalysia 
came up to only 92‘75 per ecu t., and he could not account 
for the 7*25 per cent, of loss, ' After Bunsen's disco*'<ry 
Pisanl analysed the mineral again, and he found that it 
coalainod no potash at all, but, instead of it, a Urge 
percen tnge ( 3 4 * 1 ) of c«#to. P ecalculati ng Plattn er *s ana ! y- 
pis on the assumption tliab the presumed cbloroplatinate 
of pota.Mium wag really chloropktinate of caaium, be found 
that the corrected numbera did add up to near 100 and 
agreed with liis own. Rubidium, singularly, ig absent from 
this mincrAl. 

That both rubidium and cesium are contained in sea 

ater might well be taken for granted ; but it )g worth 
whik to state that Schmidt of Dorpat actually proved the 
presence of rubidium, and even determined it quantita- 

For the preparation of n'bidium compounds ons of the best 
mstensli li s mixture of slkallnosnlu, \xlich fillt ■ bye- product 
in the induitrisl prepsistion of of li this from Jepkiolite. 

A sitpply of this salt nltturs nliicb Hi-iMn wofXcd upcotiUinei 
20 prr cent, of clitorids ot rubidium, S3 of obluridc of jK^UMiaio, 
otuf 39 of comnon salt, but very littls cs»sinm ; his iu|i|1e camo 
from tlio Saaon or Boiomian minersl. The Isjikloliic in ifc^^on, 
Mains, Ciuted Stiitcs, on ths ether hand, n rich in vwuin. 
Another pvacUcnllr available icurco for cu*sijia is the ntother* 
Hc^uor salt of Ifauhcim in Gcrmsnv. It yUdsd to ^Ucher ]. 
per cent, of iH ^eljht of rhe chloToplatlnnU PtCljC*,. 

IhiMv^n's methoa for the cxtrortion of the tiro rare pot.usitun 
Metals fi-om n pivcu mixture of alkali tjt anils ia foonded upon tbe 
G [ JTe rsi 1 1 an 1 nil i a ty 0 1 tli e se ve r^l si kal iM chloropla tiisstew Accord* 
h;g 10 him 100 porta of u*af«r diasolve^ 

K CtfsTan 

at 0*C. C T4 018*- 00*4 

5o*c MS e-’* eero 

e-13 o\^ o*»;r 

p^rt« of the sftvcral wUi, The chloroplatinstca of sodium nod 
lithi'im era oasil/ solulle mil In cold water, so 1 l as olilotidool 
platiuuin. does not precipitate thoeo two mcUls at el). Rouse, 
supposing v*e hell s gpreo mixture of cliloroplatinalca of ]n>tas»kam 
and (say) rihidium vith a quantity of tiatti in^iflh^at to disv*lvo 
the whole, part of hr. I h «Ua nill lU^olvo ; bal thcicsidnal chloro. 
pUtin^U will be I idler ill vr.bMium than Uk diapolve.l j«rt. And 
suf pesing, on the other hand, we add to a niix'id sotu'.ion of ih« 
two chloridea a qus-ility of chloropUtinic-acid solution liisufllcicnt 
to bringdown th-i nhok of both ir.cUls, the nibidium w.d acnin u« 
hie In the pro?! pirn bo ami the ^obasium in tlie solulion.' It la 
also CAaily midersto-xl thiu, if the amount of resgent added falls 
phci't even of tliat v hie li ivoul J V uccdM b» the riudiom U (.resent 
alone, X very nearly pure rtCl 4 Rb, may bo'cxpeclcH to comedown. 
Any dry chloropi at Inace is easily rediwcJ to a mixture of metalHe 
plaUmim and alkaline chloride by the aiinjde operaLim of heat* 
ing in hydrogen to about 300* G. The chloride can be dissolved 
ont| and thus sgaon izisde aaMosble to fmctlongl precipitgtioD IjF 
pUttfiua solution, oed the be recoaTertad into reagent 

by moans of aqua regU. Hence the process Is not so expensive 
as it might at nret sight appear. 

RedtODbocher has worked out an snslogoTig procam to Bunaen'a, 
rounded upon tbc diffurciiC sol ability oCthe throe aiams^Al.R/dOJ, 
-K12H}0. At 17’ C. ICO paits of water distoivo of the aium of 

^Ujdur C«nKu*n 

US 2 37 

parta Sodium and lithiuid alum are very eauly soluble in water, 
and remain dusolvaJ ia tlio fir. t mother-liquor when the mixed 
alum of R, Rb, and Ce crjsh.l.i 2 os aut Tnese tbuo aluois are 
parted by ispeatad crystxVixatici, and ths rare alkalis recevered 
irom their respeecire alums by precipitation witb chloiide of 

Ths separation of rubidium aod crr;im offers gvMt dl/hcultua. 
According to Code (Troy an ipproxicnato separation may be effected 
by dissolving tho mixed eh'.oiidee in strong hydrochloric acid, and 
addings sol ntion of tar chloride of sntimony ui the sa.iie msnatruuni ; 
ths cesium (chiedy) comes down as SbGh4-SCaCl; the Ivlk of 
the rubidium romaius diw^lved. The two rare sUali mi^Uils arc 
so closdy aimiUr to potsasioiD Chit it will suffice to give a Ulmlar 
sUUnent of the principal (olnta of difference, lly way of intro- 
duction, however, ve may stato that rJbiuium metal wasprcpan4 
by Bunsen from tlie black Hux obtained by lilting the bitai irate, 
by Bnioner's method for potassium, hletaflio crtaitm, it acorns, 
can Dot be thus obtained; but in US3 Setterberg mads it by tbe 
slaetroJyiig of s fiuo-l lauturc On cyanides of co&iui:] aod barium. 


AtoBUO wdeSteOvU K»SV']S4 RliaU-C 

rrm iMala— 

Specific gnriir 0*S6fi Iti 1-BB 

Kaeliw ^aS QX^'S 88* A S4* te $7* O. 

VelauUn tricreaece •— • 

Vl|dra4s«k HH*l>^Vvry iSmIlar ie eM snotber; Uiebsslllty Iscresivi 

r yUtm-prn, Penuoeat la l>«lio .lesceah 

Chioridw, BO \ AhiK'it InuOsbls ^ere loluU* thsn ACh 

i la sl e u h »L Boluhls i& sUolioL 

ffotiAaSM, R^«-* 

100 nsiUoT vstsr Cli-/At* r 0. 8 t ISO 

eelTs \ 70*08*1 U t 

CtfUmttK ItjCOy-All very eeluUs la vstvr. 

AI%M f derrvuea 

CUercytarfisro f (vUv nipfe> 

An^ftU^lh this saction ws treat of tbs detaction and de term In* 
a don of alkail mstaU gsasrally. If ths given subatcnca U a solid, 
a good prsliiuiiury Ust is to baaC about ons oentigramme of it stone 
end of a fins pUtmuiu wire in the Aams-mantle of a Bunsen lamp, 
9T in a bloiv-pips Hams Jnit st ths snd of ilis inner c<mo. Host 
alkali salts arc sufiaently volatile to impart to ths ^me tho 
coloar characteristic of tM rsspacdvs matlllio vapour. Certain 
naiivs ailicataa and certain other cotnpeanda do not voUtlKre, but 
these can b# rsudsred acsenabli to ths tost by mixing them wiUi 
sulphate of lias and then applying the flame, whereupon alkaline 
solphate is foroiod rhieh volstBues. Tbs flame- cdoun i 

^Mejrtim, A«tMd4e«, Carrfeau Sod (mu 

VMH. YsUsw. EUA 

These flams -reaetioas are *trj delicato but not conclusive, bseanse 
in ths case of mixtures ter era! cola art may Ls radiated out at tbe 
AOS ticne, and ons may ssUpss all thsmt — this holds, for i a stance, 
for things sonUiuing sodium, whose flame -colour is more intense 
tian that of any other motaWor a mixed colour may be prod-^esd 
which the sye is ineocr.pctvnt to analyse. Ths spectrum apparatus 
hero comes in uaefully ; and by means of it it ia in general poiaible 
to oet ths linen vkai-aeterisue of the Kvenil oeULa in presence of, 
Of at leisi after, one ssotber, Lereuee as a rule the aererel metala 
are present as cocupounds of difTermt volatility. 

For a thorough aaalysis it is nescsoarr to begin by bringing tbs 
oubstanes into aqueous or acid solution,' snd next to elkminste all 
that is Ao4 alkali mvUJ by suitable methods. A ceitsin sot of 
heavy ostaU can be predpiuted as tuipbidee bv means of sulphur* 
otUd hyUrogea in toe presenco of acid, all tfie rest of these by 
means it sulphids of ammonium hom an alkali ns solution. Frum 
the fUtrato, urium, stronrium, and calcium are oorily precqdtated 
by of carbonate sf smmoDA cn buliog, so that, if the fUtiste 
from tbeso va4bonatre is evaporated to drynea and the residue 
kept at a dull red heat long enough to drive away the ammonia 
saf^ nothing can be left but salu of alkali metals and magnasiam. 
This residus is dissoKi^d in a sino/f quantity of water, and any 
residual baric salt of maiciiesium filtered oft I^e filuute ia th^n 
ready to be tasted for alkali metsla as foUowa : ^ ntc^mn'a it altcnt, 
potasaiom or nsbidiiim (not eiuimn) caa be asCecled by addition 
(to a neutral or feebly a.-etle solution) of a aacu rated soluLloB of 




bitftrCratB of roU^luTu luJ ruliiUaia coLoe doM A ab cryft' 

ullino bitartutea. Tho reactioa maj taka BOtAe tints to become 
ouMufeat, lJuC oio be accekrated by vigoroiia at!ri*lt:g. In a ecparate 
quantity of the sol ct ion lithium may b« waTsrhed for I y means of 
•vjxuato of aoda or trisociie ribo9j>ha;e aa exbUlned nnler Liiua'u 
jvoL xiv. p. 697). Fot aod* re liaTe uo chaiaoMstie prefipitaol 
Iq any caae the apectnim appaaatua ahould ba nse<t for eeatronint 
and, if ncoeaaary, •upploneiiiing tlic ttct-way taiU. The cxa oT 
nia^MSin prtMit uoed not b« apectallj eouaidereJ, Ivtcauaa 

lie quaJitaiivo method sadly be Jvdart4 frou. what is 
in Uc foJIowiug par agrapi;. 

i^iMhlUadu lv^snnra»i<wru.— An cihausLiie ireahnett ol this 
aabjut iVtiild be cut of phee leie. ^Ve coniine <;uinelves to U o 
esaes. (1} A mix lure of alknliiip cD grides odIj, In tbU case I In. 
potasaium (including Kb aud Cay U seperateJ o by adduia 

a qliantity of cLlcuopUtu.ic*o^id 9^1uUon auUidcut tu owUvext a/3 

Uu nuUih iu(e chlorunlatiniUa, to e^aporoU to L^ei 

w'itcr*bath, au4 ftVDi tfic residue tosMrart the litlinii, and aodimii 
a*iiU \jy Uxiviation will alcohol of 70 |>er cent, (by TIk 

rtoiduAlchloropUUnatc iscoUotUdon o riltur, <lri««l at UO* C., and, 
if Kb aod Cd are ahaent, wcDhed as tUoroi Utinatfl of potaa^iuiu, 
rtCl4KAlHClaS8x0'S071«2KOl). The cUoridc of sodium ia uc ter- 
mini by diflerenco^lf lltliium be ab&ant, The ease of lU preseuca 
'mnnot be here considered. (2) A mixlLre of alkulia comliucd vriil 
sulfjhuric aohk oi uuch vulaCfle uclde as cun L« expelled l/sulphu) .c. 
lu Cfiiscase i: is best to Ugiu by cc.»ycrljni^' tie wl job into ucutial 
sulpUatea, and tlicii to apply the mcCloil of Kin If oner, which, 
ainon^jat other adTanbgts, oUcra Ihc ono that it does rur demand 
the absence of m.'igiieeU. The mixed aulphxtc fs dLsoU'^d in walcir 
and the solution mixed v^Uh a little nijie thsa the volniTA of 
chloroplatiiiic acid (‘'pUtinum solatiou 'J demanded by the pot- 
aaaiHm (Kb and Cs). I'he mixtuie is placed in a water bith at: a, If 
BBceasary, diluted with aifUcient water tu hrihg tl»o vhcle of the 
predpiuud ehloroplitimile into lot iolution. llie solution is then 
evaporabd vety naarly todiyticss (ca the wctoi bath, with conlinu* 
out Btirring tovarda the eud to avoid foruatieu cf crLsti), allowed 
to cool, and tie residue mixed, first with twenty tines its vclurr.e 
of a^feolute alcehol, then m ith ten vol once of absolute ctbeu Tl'.e 

Cyawgan, (NC), ^VHicn drj' mercuric cyanide is heated it 
breaks up, Wbw redness, iu:3 morcurvnnd cvAT:ogcn g« ; jvarL uf 
the latter, how'erev, always si-fTcrs polymeviration into a solid called 
“paracyanogen," and proauned to consriat of molecules 'NC),. 
C 3 'snogm gas is colourless ; it has tho spccifio gmvily dornandod by 
iU formnla. It possesses a pocuUar odour ana has a characUriatia 
tniiatliig oilbei od the eyes nr.d mil rone DiemLranee of the noaa. 
It is voiaosour By strong pressure it is cnndcnHblo into a liuitid 
wW.h freases at -34*'4 O., and has the following Tapoui-tcmsicois 
P at tlie temperatures t stated ^ 

-20*-7 -10* 0* +10* +20" C. 

1 185 27 3*8 Satmoi 

At ordln.ay tcmparaturca tester dlssolfce about 4 '6 tlnice, Blcoho] 
aheui 23 times lUyglumc of the gaa The sol u dons are liable to 
(very complex) ^pcntailcous dcoumposition. The list of prodneta 
included oxalate of amraonU and iirox Cyanogm bums with a 
characteristically beautiful 'reach^bloseorn eolouved (lame into car- 
bemio Bcid end nitrogen. Tbis gas cyanogen, as ilieady staled, is 
to cyanides whnt cluorine gis Q- « to chlofidca, bat it is weU to 
remember thnt the analogy, tbou^ ucifecC iu regard to the com- 
Bponding formnlio, doos luti, as a ruio, csitond to tho eondltioiis of 
fcmiR'ion of tho hodios repesented. Tiius eycuo^a docs noi unitfi 
with hydro^n Into pvussicacid, nor docs it cembme with ordinary 
rretals in tlie ehlonno fashion, Vfhen passed over heated potas* 
Blum, It is true, it combines xrith it into c^’ankla; and caustic 
potaab-lcy absorbs it with formation of cyanide and cyanate 
(NCO. K), ae chlorine yields chloriJo and hypochlorita KCIO ; 
but thii is al«u( Ui9 aum* total of tlis analogies in action. Vet 
metallic cyanides all kinds can be produced iadiroctlr. 

Cyanida rtf NC.K.— An aqueous mixture or the quan- 

tities NCK and KHO no doubt contains tills salt, but It smells of 
the acid, and on erapontioxL hchates tcore like & mlxturoof the 
two conffOtiQM thsQ (a any other way. An cxhaestivi unieo esn 
be bron^t about by ^aing NCH vapoir into an alcoholic sclutlon 
of £110 ; tho salt n 6.£ then comes down as a ciystaUine predpi- 
tate^ which must be washed with alcohol and dried, cold, over 
vitriol. A mere convenient method is to dehydrate yellow prnsai- 
ate and then dccomMse it by beatli^g It to redness in jia iron 
crucible. The ro(Nb}, part of the silt breaks cp into e^nogen 
aud nitrogen, which go olfraitd a oarboniferoua finely-divided iron, 

mixture is allowed to stnud ia a wril* covc.'cd vca^cl for sonve liours, 
to enable the rrecipiute to settle ccinplctely. The prccioiute con* 

.nd mognesJun. »nd »lw inrt ortho m sr ^hat. rorm. b., e^y, y., 4, ,otLi.oo to .ottl. enfi- 

It 15 washed with ctber- alcohol (to cctnplete bit rate A), auJ thon 
lixiristvd as quickly a< possible with cold com^entreted solutlou of 

aohetnokOnlic, whk1i dissalrre awey the eulphatee (file rale B). The 
residual cUlcroplatinate is dneJ within the niter in a porcelain cru* 
cible, which is nexc boated so as co chir tire paper at the lowest tcm< 
persture. The residue is then ignited gently Iu h)drogen, sud from 
tUo rceultiug rcaidae the cLkiidc orpotaasium is extiocted tv waler, 
to be dotertriincil ss chloropUtinate, as shokvn ;n ( 1 ), or otfisrwiae. 
From the un dissolved reeidoi* the charfoml is buroed a*.viy end the 
reridual platinum weighed to check the potassium dc'.etmiuatioa. 
After temoval of the ether oiid alccliol fiom filtrate A by dis* 
tillation, the two filtrates A end B uc mixcd| eve pointed to dry. 
ness, the ammonia salts chased away by heating, and the residue 
Li reduced (at about SOO' C.} in hydrogen to bring the plutLuum into 
the form of metal, from v.*hieh the magneeia and alkali sslts are 
easily dissolvad avay by means of water or dilu’.o acid. The whole 
of the salts are zhtn made into neutral sulphate, which is wcigliixl 
and thea dkselvod la a known weight of water. The lichiuiu and 
the magnesium axe dciermined in ^iquot parte of the solutian end 
calc jla ted as sulphates. TIid soda ia (bond by dufercnc^. A case 
intertuediaCe betwaon ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) ortou preseuts iteelf in practice. 
We refer to the commerdal muriate horn Stosafuit In sc^h an 
impare muriate the poUj:.sium can be deUrnum^d promptly end 
accurately .by adding to the very coQccn Crated solution of tlie 
substance a large excesa of a very conci^ntrated eolation of cldoro. 
platinic add, — ** excesa** meaning more pUtinuin thnu necesaxiTy 
CO make all the metals Into cLljroplaClnatoa. Tlie pi\>*ipitate is 
allowed to settle, colkC'd on a snail filter, and washed, fii^t 
with aucccssLve ixiaUlmsnta of a platinum solution (coutaining t 
per canL of metnl], then wiih oiainaxy alcohol riit is next dried, 

and weighed as above (T^tloA'a nictlkc^ slightly modified). I;) 

exact aualyses tlie small quantity of potaBsiuru which pasMs into 
the filcrale la xeooTercd— ulrimtiely by Jiukenak merhvJ— and 
allowed for. 

cient jwomydtude to enable ono to dccnot oT tho balk eveixof the 
fusfid cyanide. According to private inform ati on rec^ved by the 
writer a French manufacturer usee a certain kind of very porous 
fireclay as an efilcient filtering medium, 

The ordirxpy cyanide of potassium'’ of trade h cot strictly 
that at all, but at best a mixture of the resl salt with cyaaata. It 
la produced by fusing a mixture of eight parts of arbvdyous prussioU 
and paria of aah 3 ’drous eatbonate of potash, allowing the 

(NC)|Fe . E* + K,CO, « CO, + Fe f 5KCK + K . "FCO 

to cotn^cU itsolf and the Iron to scUle, and dccantii\g off the clear 
fuse. The product gqoe by tho name of "Liebig’s eyaoide," but 
ibo pToocss WQS really invented by Hodg:en. 

Fused cyanide of potassium avumes on cooling the form of a 
mfUey white Btone like solid. It fuses re/idily at a red hcatj end 
at a white heat volatUizee with out do com position, provided that 
It is under the infiuence of heat alone ; in the presence of sir 
it grnduall^ passes into cyanate ; when hooted fn steam it is 
converted into carbonatQ of poiash with evolution of ammonh, 
ratbonic oxide, end liydroMO- 'When heated to re;lne3s with soy 
«f iho moro ewHiy rodncible metallic oxides it reduces theta to the 
metallic stite, while it ps.rees itself Into cyanatc. It also reduces 
the corresponuiTig iiilr hides with formation of enlphocyanats ; for 
eXampK rb(S or 0) + N0E* Pb + NC(0 or S)K. Hence Us fte- 
quint By^pliration ir. blowpipe ansi; “Jia ^*hsr. heated with chlor- 
ates or nitrites It redoces tl;eo] with violent explosion. .The aqueous 
solution of the salt has a strongly alkaline reaction ; it smells of 
hydrocyauic acid and is neadily decomposed by even such feeble 
iclds IS acetic or carbonic. It readily aiseoVrea preclpitatod chlor- 
ide, bromide, and iodide of silver ; this Is tho basis of Its application 
hi pliotogtipliy. Large quantities of tho salt are used in electro- 





C Ikes’ Rirurry CyanxAfe . — Of these onlj a fav can 1» Bolicedhera 
{!) Cyan(;U af dodium Is very aimiUir to tho potaaaiwn salt Tli^^ 
Mma remirk, :n a more limited seaso, W*U for Uia (^anitlei 
of^berium, 8lir»ntinm, and catciun. C'jarn^ i/ amseumtusn 
(KO.NHJ fnr-rr.scrystaliTolaUliat 35" CXand smell ing of anmoi.U 
and hydrocyanic acid. The solution in irafcc docompoars ^>on* 
taueongly, pretty mneh lika that of the free acid. Bat the anhy- 
drona ynpour by ilesif stands a Umpnabt:r% as ia fussved by 
the fact that it Is yrixJuccd. larr'‘fy ir’jen ammonia is raaasd ov*«r 
rol-hrt charcoal, C + SNH,r^lJ, + NCir.NHj. {Z) Uercurucfrinidt, 
fema very mdi’y when mercuric oxide is di*»»olvcd in 
a<]iiQO'.is pru*8tc acid.. The solution on eveTioration and tooling 
Oepotita crystals soluble in eight pads of cold vmter. Thia mlt la 
not at all ricrornpo»(?d, even a'hen hcai«d, byirater, nor am»r-«i- 
ahly by dUulo sufpl.urio or nitrio acid> boiUng hjdrochJor:«S a^ad 
eliminatee the KC as hydrocyanic acidj nlpharetted hydrogen 
acta nimilarly in ilie cold. It giree oo predpitaU with nitrate 
«f BUvnr, ncr is* it changed Tiailly by caustic alialii. . It readily 
unites not only vith other cyan idea bnt aleo vith a n altitude of 
other salts into cryitallinbie den Me aalLs. iferenrooa cyanic. 

earns to have bo existcBca, When it is eUcmi<cd'{o 
produce it by double doconpcaitions, tltc mix bum Hg+ ;NC)JIg 
cones forth iostofid cl* the compound Hg,fyC)^ ( 4 ) Heavy UKtyUs 
cyaiiicUs are mostly insoluble in water, and U>e gcncnl method 
irr their preparation is to docompo:«e a aolntion oi the re^*‘tiro 
stUfhata, cljTorUe, ire., with one of cyanide of potassiiitiL lie 
raost Important general prwrty of these b^:«a is that t1i«y 
readily disiialve In wlutloa of^aalde of potaaslom with fonnation 
of double cyanidee, which ia thole capacity ea doubt# salts all 
exhibit. In a higher or lows degree, those anomalies which were 
hilly explained aoove (eee **prtisdate of poCesh *’). Theea ” mctallo* 
cyeuidea,'^ as we will all them, beir^g all, nnUke plain eyr.nide 
ot pataBium, very stehle in oppoaiUon to water end ar,ucout alkaUe, 
are readily rrodaced from almost any eotrriouBcl of llic respeclirt 
rnetatlh rtaicol'-^some horn the metal its^f— by troatment wHh 
solution of cyanide of potaselam. In aU we have tsiii **notaasiuin’* 
mey be taken &a UKlnding sodtom end la a BmitoJtenae ain* 
monlum, but the pottMium compounds are best known, ard we 
accordingly in the following eectioa eonhoo outeeWos to iheto. 

^cwWe-cjrfinltffls,— <1) Cyanide of sMv^r, Ag.KC, Is pro- 

duced ai a precipitate ^ additiOTi ot hydio^uic acid or cyenue of 
potassium to eolation of nltrale of slhcr. 'fit predpitate U similar 
m appearanco to chloride ofsiiYor and, like It, ; arable In cold dflute 
mineral arids but soluble in ammoDia. At a red heat It la dscom* 
posod with formation of a ftikdm of carbon: s roue meUlUe nlver. 

iVedpitated cyanide of silver, though ifiaolable In hydrocya&ic acid, 
diosorves readily in cyanide of potaailiun with fortnaiioa of argeoto* 
cyanide, AgX . which is easily obtelneil in crysial^ perma- 

nr Tit In tbs air and eolubte in eight parts of cold water. CMorido 
of silveT dissolres !u cyanide oT potasslam solo*.io|i as readily as 
the cyanide does and with forraatiou of the tone double calb^ 
AgCl-|-2KNC«SCt-rAgK(KC}s, This aaU Is naad very largely la 
cleetro rlaUng. (2] IrUfd . — From a eoliitloB of the acetate cyanide 
of leadla precipUated by addition of hydroeysnio add oreVanUe 
of pdftsiivim. The pTccipitate, Fb(ycL hwthe exception a] pro- 

E srty of being Insoluhlo I A cyanide of potasdum. (d) Zfn«& — 
yaiiido of sine, Zn(NO)|, is obiainod by addilloa of hydrocyanic 
a^id to a solution of the accUlc, sa a while precipitate ivadi^ 
sol'ihlo in cyauido of potaseit.ioi with fonratloa oft double salt, 
which forma wslN defined crystnh. (4) J^tcArf.^Tho 
cyamd^ Ni(NC)j, is on apple-green predptUle, which is obtained by 
nietboda eimihr to Ihyso giren under “line.’* It rendily dUe^vee 
in cyanide of pcta^‘juta' with formation of a cryataUiable salt, 
NiK,(2IC)* + irjO, the sclatna cf which is slvtle in air cad not 
cocvertible into on q of a nickelio (Ki’") compound by eblorire (com- 
pare ** cobalt " The potasslo-cyRnidw of iHrcr, fine, and 

nickel as aolatioos are net changed visibly by caoatis dVali^ but 
their licivy mdala can be precipitated by aulpkiiretted hydr^en 
or 8>ilphide of arDicoolum, u frem s<^utiou9 of, for instance, the 
chlorides. Aqueous nincral scida (in the heat at Irast'i decompose 
them exhauitively with eliraination of all the h'C es'HCH. (6) 
CVi»;;cv, — When cyanido of potassium solution is added lo one of 
eidplwiie cf copper, a ysllcw pieci^.tale of cupiic cyanide^ Cu<yC)^ 
comes duwTt; bjt cn boiling this precipitate Irace cyanogen and 
is converted into a white prwipllate cf the enprous mU Gu(NC). 
TliU white preciiiteto dissolves in cyanide of Tota»iinn wiiJi fbr^ 
iLstfon cliiejiy of t'vo crystalline douhlo ralts, riv., CnWC + ^NCK, 

'-i'ily eol.iblc i.. - r. .<n) CuN .H I i. 

pooed hr water with elimination cf Cu.NG ihe solui -n .. 
ONC.K Bi*;C is noi precipitated by suIphurcUed hydrogen. Solu- 
tions cf poteano-cyaDidea of eopr^cru are used in slectro- plating, 
(d) Cfcld . — 'Metallic gold dbsolvei in cyanide of potaasiuiD solution 
in tbo presence of air, thus — ' 

A 1 + IKK 0 -f |0 * J1C,0 + AuK , (7TCV 
Thb auro<ymnideof potaaidum is used hrgrly for plectio ^dirij^ 
for which purpose It is con tcb leu fly prepared as follows, $ix parts 
of gold are di^lved in a«^a regia and the solution is precipiuUd 

aciiBonla. The mit crystalliees in rhombic octahedru, soluble In 
seven parte of cold water. 

Id the following poUsdo -cyahidM tJia h'ftyy m^b!s eannot bs 
•klected by means of their cMiuiry preelj-lfi'nts ; thf*'a#i salts all 
l>r hare like tbc pola»*»iTiir avitsof ccinnier ia IIcsI# remj eftho 
licsvy metal ai«J all the ryunrgrft. (i\ of poU)« 

aiuin whyn added to a solution of a c^ialto-ie %xtt (CoCIf, ice. ) gives 
a pretipilats soluble in exccas of reagent. The solution presumebly 
containa a coballo-cysnid^ Od(KO),.JvKKG, but on expcrire to a.r 
eagoHy sbsorha osygen with formation of robsItl-cVBnfd'^, thus-^ 
C«(NO, V4KKO + iO-iKjO + Co'"fKC)/SKNf?. 

Chlorioe (Cl bstiad of acts more promptly with a sfmiliii eflbet 
If the alkaline solatioa is acid i fled and boiled, the mme eobalti 
cyanide Is prodm^ed with srolution of hydrogen*- 

Cn(HO)^ + 4KH0 e-aa - KCl + iB, -k cSo'^CHCJ, * aKNG 

CMhaia-flysnUe of wtsasi jm, (NChCo'Mvj, forms yellow crystals 
isomoiwhoue adtL irtoss o( rad prussisU (see iVra). U is a rs« 
iBnrkanly atable salt. In its whaviour to rengonts U sxhiUti 
none of the ebsrastm of s col«U salt nr of a simple cyar.idA 
ous mineral acids convert it into the hyiirpgen s^lt (KC),Co"3,, 
which remains uudecomposed nn Mm ling. Heavy metallic snlts pro* 
•luoe prsflipiUtM of cobaUbeyaciides { for axainplo, <KC)|Co'^. Ag|. 

(8) ywroenr*.— See *' prussiate of potash '* ahovs. (9) Perricum. 

Ferric hydrate and ferric compounds generally do not act upon 
cyanide of potassauin in a Tiunner araJt i<- to that of ferrous coin- 
]w.mils ; but' a forri-eyan Ida analcgotta ^ tlte cobalti-fAlt reforre J 
to lu f7) ia readily pMucodby reaaing chlorine into a <«1d roliitlon 
of ordinary prus^U, {NC)eFe'\K4-kCI»KCl * fNCV«*'-K,.* In 
propaiing the aalt an axcess of chlorine and uievatlon of lempore- 
ture must beaToulod, or else part of the vU is decompoMrl with 
formation ofagresa pr«.i]*itatc. The solutlm on eviporatlon and 
cooling yieUa epl«ndid dark red ciysUla, loluhle In 2*54 parts of 
waUr ol 15* € C. (Wallece). forming a most Intctnwly yellow 
soluttou. (Oedinary prut lata solution is only pole yellow avta 
whan aaCuTatul in the cold.) Tlds salt (discovered by L. (Icnelin 
In 18«) is BOW being manufacturer! iiuUHrially and is known in 
comiwrce u **red pnissiste." In iu r«aclioi:s it is analogous to 
onlinapy yellow pruuitte. Tbe aamc group, (NC’-Fe, which iu 
toe latte* acta as a four- valent, iu the rod saH rlrya tJio part of a 
t^- Talent radical, (NC;,fe. But the radical thus modified has 
a great Ur.dency lo assume Iho four-vslenl form; hence bd 

pniBsiale u a powerful oxidiring agent. 
(hC)jfe.K|+ KHO— (NC)-Fe. K 4 -hHO. The HO goes to tho reduc- 
ing agetrt Like the yellow salt, red prussiato is not poisenoue at 
least when pute- ‘ 

I IC^ Ts uw the eyrtWl ** le ** sv UsalsBsUog M )«rts «f tsrrle ir«n,— ** Fe * 
V nnhg the isine qaar.tUj o* fcrro«'4m. 

Prrro’ and — The two prose Ates are con- 

eUntly being awl io the laboiwtory as very delicate rmgenta for 
the detection of iron salt, and for tbe discrimination of ferrous and 
ferric coroiw.inda in solatiors,— (1) fono-cyunde and fenous aalt, 
white precipiUtf ; (2)lejTi-cTaAiJe and ferric salt, intensely brown 
CT>lo ration ; (3) CernT-mniJo and ferric aalt, bluo precipitate ; 
(I) ferri-cyanide ajid ferrous »)t, blue precipitate, Tbeso bJus 
prodpitates tro being produced industrialfy tuj used as pigmenta, 
under the nemee of •‘pruaaian blue*' and ‘'Tambnll’s nluo'’ foe 
(3) and |4) respectiTofy. The latter has been thus koovn for 
now half a oentaiy ; yet the conalitution of ibe precipitates end 
the true ratSonalc of tbeir Ibrmatiou hove been fully cleared up 
only duriug the last few years. The nai:i results of the researches 
referred to are inel (tied in the following paragraph a 

( 1) FerrC’CifanitU / ifyrfrtiyen, <KC),Fe. H,. U obtained M a white 
ciystalUJie procipitate when air-fWe concentrated rolution of yellow 

POOR >iA_''rS JAMES BOND Vol. 1 



l^recimt^’.d is n..xc<l v\t\ hydtoslilorie acid aud etJiff. It ia eaaiJy 
aotiible in s?atcr and Iti alcoiiol. An aqneoiu aolotion of it ii pre> 
pM'ed for trchnic4l p'srpoaca by mixing a atrcns aolation <4 y«nov 
prus^ato i^ith ongugH tartaric acid to briiig dtfvrm the potaanum 
i% crc&m of tartar. When tbs lolulicn of thia fciTO*)iydroc 7 aBic 
acvl U bol'ad hnlf fb« eyanogan goee off ta NCH» vUla tbo other 

remains as part of a whits, rather ^autable, pradpltai#, 

When the solution ia exposed to the air,* ospoeiallj At higher 
temperatures, pari of the cyanogen goes eff aa NCH, anerther part 
Biidurs oaldation into U^O + NC, and Ibie latter coobicco with the 
?e(NG)| of the oiiginal compound into blue nroilar ia Ihdr 
graoral properties to praasiaTi bluoi Thia latter ehaJiga iamtQised 
111 calico- printing for producing p^ttenia of, or dyeing with, ptan* 

sian blue. The white precipitate (RC'i7e dmt belo4Aed nnon 
». »n ici.1 of which ‘ ^ 

of Itydrated oxides of iron. The cheaper commercial ^arietica are 
more or leaa iatgely diluted wit«: cUy, sulphate of buy ta, Ac. - Pure 
prossan blue diisolrea readily on a dilute BoluLiin of dxalic acid ; 
tba intensely blue solnUoa used to serre as a blue ink, but has 
come to be auperaeOed by the aeTerml more brilliant b1u<^ of tbs 
coal«tor aeriea. These tar*btuee hare displaced prusvan bine aUo 
in other applies tlotia, and aa a oommercnl pigment it hae besides 
to atntggle against nUrtmarine. In short, it hae gone rery much 
ovt of oaa, aiw aa a conao^cnce the manufactare of yellow pruaaiato 
ia BO longer so remaneratiTe aa it ue^ to bo. 

Analynt ^ OyanuUs.~At hydrocyanic aiul and cyanide of 

detect such cyan^B In, eay, tba eooteoti of a stomach the first 
etep ia to distil the mass after acidiftcatba with tarUrie acid, 

bI B B tA ! 

« ww >.a gp ^ re r ^ le. « «1uc]id«ccmroMt€jftiud9o(E«fciMit3mbut dooe not UUraiU pruak 

SvfrtU 9 S<9U, (NC],Fe. , U the potash salt Thu aUt is prisnao blu* (cr eV« prwslate of wtisli *), If de dJa- 

prriduced in the ordinsTT process tor making pmasis add (eae above). titlace glvea no precipitate with nitrate of urer hydrorjanlc acid 
It U iiToValW lUent leaf with the white precipitate produced when is abeeat, if it dooe the preci^tate may hara beoD pr^ucod by 

ferrous aalt ia decomposed by pmasiaCe of potaeh. Srrrett'a salt 

U then oxidized sway, and a blue double ferri-cyanida of poUinCLni 
and ferrosnm takes the. place of the orlginid precipitates^ 

tNCjjFe. K,Fe«i(E,0 as uHrete)4. {CK<V0 "FeTC'. 

WltUamsea*# Uiw. 

T Id s bl ii e w h rn b 0 i!sf! w 1 th ferro* cyanide of rotoss i um is r soonvert ed 
luto the original Fverett’s salt with foncaiioa of a •ulntioQ of red 
yruisiate — 

(NC:4fe Kro* + K,*K,.F<NC),«0'CVe.K,e.F^Cl,.FeI^ 

J\t4 prvseiet*. grerMT'e mK. 
tie asteiHskcd pkIv aU changing places. 

(8) Fefuile £lue in iUntnc with Wlllkmaon's blue. It 

is \ roHurod bv mixing a solution of ferrie salt with taxm of yellow 
priissJots, which, however, is an ^d process ; wlut hu been Mcer* 
tained lately is that Cite rery «rao Piteiplt.ilela produced by addi« 
tioB to a ferrous »lt of aa exCeaa oi red priusiate. 

1. (tfC), re. ICj + FoCli-lKa +(KCUe. KFeaB'. 

II. (NC)eFe. K* + feClj -8KCl-f.(NC)jFe. KfewB^. 

B' and B' in tlie formul* look different, but the diFrtrenee is oniy 
Anpare&t ; iu either csm the group (NCU is combined iviih 1 Fo and 

tie aud llCj the.bodiee are Identical (SVreup i * Beindel). The 
precipiteU B/though insoluble in eelt aoluticets, le soluUs ia out* 
water, Jbrmlng an Infceneely blue aolulioa ; hose* the name. * 
Now the potaeeiuTB in eolablo prusaisn h)ae can 1 h displaced by 
ir<m in two weye, iiamrly, by digeitioa with eolu lions of ferrous to 
fcitk sal to I n the form er cm (NChfe Fe K Seccaim (SC \Mnp 'or 

empirically thUisGnwlin'af"TunjbcU*a**)b:ne. In the 

Uttercaw (SC\?kUkU<xmm{SC)Jfhu orempifically ;NC)»Fc, ; 

this is Prussian blue as discovered by I>ieabach. Conlrasting Uiis 
latter foroiula with that of G matin 'a blue (NChtFo^i, we m that 
t})e Utter needs only lose |F# to become pnmlaci blue ; tbk sur. 
plus iron in fact can be withdrawn by fflCOM ot Dilhe acid. 

In the cnacufactare of pruaslaa bide Ihe geseral proceaa fa to 
Qiat precipitate ferrous sulpbato with yellow pruasute end tlienio 
fully oxidise the precipitato by mesne of nitric aci.i or chlorine ta 
far as the oxygen of the sir does not do it Tbs folio wing receipt 
is recommended amongst othera. Six puts each of green vitnol 
and yellow prnsaiate are dissolved eaparetcly, each in fifteen parte 
of water, and the solntiona mixed. One nari of concentrated auU 

E hurie acid end twcntT.four parte of fanmg muriatic add are tlicn 
*ld«d, and after standing some hourt eieo a aoitiUou of bleachiog 
powder in instabnecu until th« blue eolour fa fully develop^ 
'* Tumbuira" bine fa made by precipitating n4 pnusiate of I'otaah 
with excess of ferrous salt ; but it fa ca^ly seen tnm what was 
said above that the ufo of this relatively axpenxivo douUe cyanide 
might be dispensed with. The properties o[ the two ragnenta are 
neetty much the earns. They are sold in th« form of solid tokea or 
jumpi% vhi( 2 h, in additiou lo their Idue colour, present a copperr 
lustre on irecture. They are steble against acidx, bat o^bly 
afTected {tleacbed)on‘prolonced exposun to sunlight j and, alfcfaousa 
tliey stand neutral aoap fair) 7 well, they are.decompo^ promptly 
by solutions of even the carbonates of the alkalis with formaticn 

fe abeeat, if it deto the preci^tete may bars been pr^ueod by 
hydrochioile aeiJ. which may Uien be eliminetod by redisUllation 
with boraa or tnlpbate of soda, neither of which aftreta KCH. But 
even in t^ presence of chlorides the following two tests gtee nsrfert 
oertoiotv. (1) A solution of hydrocyanic acid, when alkAlinized 

.... f -_l. 

mixed with emmoma ana yeiiowsoipniaeoi am men inn, is cnangoa 
into one of snlphoeyaoate of ammocuum, which, after roniora) of the 
excess of rMfcmtetiy evaporation at a gentle heat. atril:eaan intense 
and verreharweterfatiem colour with ferric salts, which colour don 
not vanish <ae that of forrie acetate does) on even strong scldifteatioa 
with mineial acid (Liebig's l«et> The (IctermiAatieo 

of cyanogen given as an s«|U»aa eolu don of hydrocyarilo add or 
cyanide of potaMiao) can (if naloids are atsen t) be elTeoted by adding 
excess of aitrete of ail vat, then acHifying, If necseury, with nitrfa 
acid, filtering off, washing, drying,and weighing the cyanide of silver 
l»rouiKc;l. AgNOw' I8t corroapoads CO NCK » 27 ^virta A more exv 
pediiloai raetnod has hon% invented bv Liebig A kriowti i^uantitr 
of the given aniaslo add fa alkalinfaea ttrcm;^y w/.h cau*it«e potash 
and tMn diluted freely with water. Tltc csuetic allsli usually 
eontaine pSeoty of chloride as an impunty, else a litLle alkaline 
chiotide must be added. A standard aolMtion of nitratu of silver 
(convcniectly adjuated so as to contain 8*80 grammes of fused ni* 
bate pet \000 cnbic oontiaiHrea, e<\uiralent fo 2 grammes of NON ) 
is now draped ia from a burette onlll the cloud of chloride of 
riivei which appears locaHy from the first Just tsils to dkanpMv on 
•tiRiag. Ia , until the reaction tXS C *f Ag .N 0| » K Ag.f KC) , CK 

fai jjs. bxn com, deled. Quo cu)j. coiii. uC alK'rr aoUUion used 
iiidUatec 2 milligcamniea of KCH* Liabig'a mctlioi Icuds itself 
parlkuUrly well for tlie amayiiig of the mcclicinal acid and of 
craalde of potassium. The two for h>drocyanic acid given 
above apnly ai they aUnd to aolutioiu of iho cyaiuJos of alkali 
and alkafinc-sailh mctela, but not to mercuric cyanide. In regard 
to all Other cyanides we have tn)y s}uu:e to uy that from a certaui 
eet (wbleb incladoeiKo cobaltl«oyenides and the plntlnum cyaiddee) 
Ounogrii caanot be extracted at all as NCll for AgXC) by any 
known metitods. S*jcli bodice must le i Jen (i Rod by Iheir own 
epecilke reactioas or by clemcntarr aialysia All cyanides arc de< 
composei bjr ket coffee ntralcd auVhuric ocii! ; the carbon goes olf 
as CO, me nitrogen roniuna as sulphate ofammenb and llic mi^tnU 
as sulphatea, which hrbiw them within the rango of the roiitiue 
methods of analysk 

Cyowflirv.— These were dheovered ^ ^Voklrr. Tlie I'otassmm 
aalt NCO.K is pr»lucca by lire oxidation cf fused cyaiiklB, for jitc- 
para live pnrpo»a most ccnvenicutly by Wohler’s method. An 
intimate mixtiue of tovo parts of absolutely .inhydious prussiate of 
pQtasIk al^) Mie pari of equally di*y bino.aidc of inangnnese is heated 
on an Iron tny until the msss has become brovausK l)s<dc and just 
begun to fasa It fa now alloaed to cool and exhausted by boiling 
fiJ) par cenL alcolnL The Titrate on cooling deposits crystals 
the valt NCO.K. If only au aqueous sol Jlioii of this an U is w anted 
for immediate nac, tbo fuse may be extiac'tcd bv cold water. From 
this mlution Ui? cyaaate of sQver, NCO.Ag.'cr lead, (NCOlgPb, 
CM be prepared by prscipitetiou with eolulioiia of the respective 
aitratea or scetatea. Hat water decomposes cyan ate of potash 
promptly with foiir.atien of carbonates of potash and amnionw, 




KNCU + 2}I|0-KHs + KllO-f*C0j. On addition of n in oral add 
to oven ;ili« co d tolution only a very liule of the cyanic acid » 

ii"t almost immediately ’jwssM epnntane^y‘'loto its 

laoincr urea, which ia not a cyan at# at all but the amide of ctrbonio 

aoicl, *.f., CO(OH),-2:OH} + 2NH,^CO^||r This reaction wia 

discovered by older, who tiius for tlie fir^t lime produced an 
01 ‘gamc substance iiiorganie tnateriaU, or viilQBlIy fr«n iu 
c»cmenta. S:ngnlsr!y, it U this pMudo-cyanato iiraa which servea 
5?J?. cyanic aeld. When hydrochloratc of urea. 

HCl. C0>j>l4, is heated to 145* C. the Ulcw Sebavea as ifit were 
cyaiiate of anmionia: Die ammonia anile* «Uh the hydrochloric 
aeU into anl-amtucniac and the cyanic acid is set 6ee, W immr- 
ih\U]y sidfers polymerization Into cyamiric acid, a sotM tri*U&& 
acid of the coni{«iition which, beiii^ difRcnUlT aoluU^ 

can bo freed from tho ail- ammoniac by being waahed with cold 
water. If pcifcijtly aidiydious cyan uric arid oa sulriect^ to drr 
<iisulUliori It ruriiiahes a distillate of (liquid) cyanic acid KCO.rf, 

which must be coudensed in n T^naal lurroanded by a Uttoau 
mixture. ® 

Cyanic arid lus a very inpreciable Tar-onr-lehilo® even at onJi- 
nmy tetnpnnt^r^», and ilia lea it trace of its vaiuur makes Uself fall 
by ^ tliaraclcjisiifally violent and dan gen as action on the rwpira* 
tory orgnns. ^S iih dry ammonia gas it uuitas into true cyanate of 
ommoniB. ^Ve do not knew «meh of itaown proparlivs, Wwoar 
as scon as U comes out of the fteMlnR mUtnro it I'egina to auff.n 
pulymemution Into ‘^cyamriia ** with meat evolnAvn of heoL 
This cyarneli'l is a porcelain dike inasa, insoUibU in all orJIuiry 
aolveiits Slid d« void of acid pro^tertiea. Dry distlUation recouvsrta 
It Into cyasle acid. 

7'^i’VyrtHA/M. “^TliU term moana bodies like cyanatas, birt 
containing snlplnir instead of tlio o*yg<*n of tho latter. Tlilo. 
eyanatrs aio hotter kuann, hen ever, fis snlpbocyanaus or aulnlio* 
eyarides, (1) The )x)Uafcium salt NCS.K U for.unl mhsn cyanide 
or potassium is fused with suljilmr or certain metallic n I phkies, 
r.y., rt'S. The uhucI method of ptcjwiiaiion U to fuse logtther 
fortv.^x pavta of dehydrated yellow |mi»dste of i>otad», seventeen 
of diy mi bonaU of potash, and thirty- two nf snliihur. Tl»s fuse 
u exhflUbtpa will) boilitig alwliol a:ul the filUfed sclulkm aliwcd 
to cool, when crystals or Die sslt wpainte out. Tho salt iavery 
soluble in water uUh flisractCTittIcally large al4oq»Mou of licat. 
<2) Tho Dinnioniiiin unit tf.n U pnpaiul hy allonjuga 

tmtlujc of alcohol, strong ftijueo is &:>iaioiMa^ and bisulubido of 
carbon to stand fer a tlnic anti ihvn worTring It. Thioeaibcnate 
of fimmonium, CS,.(NH,i 2 S, is proiJuceJ ni*st, bot suloequencW 
It gives up 211,8 to the aoimoria ami becomes NC8.KH. odii4 
16 ea^tv obUircil in crystals. Tlic Ur naier obtsine.1 In llie 
m^m hUmc M coO-gas jonetimes contaius sufTrient c.nantllW of 
IhlH mU to mof<c it n-crtl. while to r-'cever ik Boih Die rotaasimn 
and th^ :ini n ionium salturv nuivh ased as rer gents, and more especi- 
ally as pTcnpfianla for copjwi and silver, floliilione of ctipile uV. 
when mixed with Pidpliocj jnaU assume Uie dark brown eoloor of 
the cupric spH Cit(NC 8 V but on addition of sulphuioiiaieid the 
colour disanpeais and a whits.precipiuie of cuprons snlpbocyanide, 

NOS.Cu, comes donm, which, if eucuigh. of irwnit v*isuse»h tgn- 
lioina all the copper. If sulphocyanate is akdeilto rtUmte of silver, 
nil the Biker ha medpItaUd oa Ag. >(CS, a.mllar in ipiicanmco to 
the clikride aiiu, like it, insol iil^s ill water and In nitric arid. 
D|wu this ajid the fset that salpbocyanateo sitike a deep red coWiir 
wUh ferris salts Volliard has hcjod au excellent Dtiiniotrk iDOlbeii 
for the detc rnitu n tioii of s il rer. (See S r i v t n . ) 

•Sy uM 09C9 of CVoriogej i Co mp9Wi ^, — • Sy ii th ctica \ Argan ic eberniiRtry 
dates from Wohler's discovery of the artiCclaJ foimation of ui ra, 
a; id in tho further development of this branch of Die sc knee rvano 
g;ii has pliycd a proin incut part. (For jllnstrationa we may* refer 
to certain pnssig^s in the preecnl srtklc ami in those on klETUTL 
r.iid ou Nttnoeex.) lienee it is woith while to riiumente briefly 
the fyiiDi'rtical method for the roaking of cyanogan Itsclt (I) 
1 ! ) (Ivocyaiuc scid is produced when a current of electric sparks is 
mads to cro« a mixture of acewlene, CJIj, at:d nitrogen. (2) 
Cyanide of aniraonium is formed adien air.mcnui Is piacd o»er 
iCiUhot charcoal (see supra). (3) ItetaUie cyauidcs arc produced 

fflitti dry nibogen gas is passed over a div nuxtuic of carl on ale of 
I’otash or baryta and charcoal at a white teat. A BiuilUr m cl ion 
goes on apODtaneoiisly in the ii on -smelting furnaces and gives rise 
10 Dio foibiatioii of vapour cf cyaDide of i»ta?siiitn. [I) Sulj'ho- 
(yajiiJe cf amiiioiiivm is produced fi-om b&uluhido of cerbon and 
ammonia, aa explaised above. 


A new weapon adopted by Militants is the 
“Whamo” sling shot. Its steel pellets will pen- 
etrate a human skull. It can even deliver many 
types of bombs. 

Its arrow attachment allows a Militant to 
sit in a car and fire an arrow with enough 
force to kill. While spectators are looking for 
a man with a bow, the killer drives away. A 
perfect night weapon. 


While at the sporting goods store you might 
pick up a two-ounce lead fishing sinker. Tie 
on two feet of strong fish line and make a 
loop at the end. 

To use it, put the loop on your forefinger 
and hold the sinker and line in the palm of 
your hand. Then half throw, half swing the 
sinker at the prey. 

With a little practice you can flick it out at 
a victim’s temple and finish him off before he 
knows you mean to strike. This goody is for 
close quarter work in crowds, especially at 
night. They drop like flics and no one knows 
what hit him. 


A plastic substance used to fill out dents in 
car bodies can also be used to compact simple 
bombs and replace the screw caps on pipe 

Some of the substance is put on a piece of 
wood or cardboard. Then a few drops of hard- 
ener are added and the stuff is well mixed. It 
begins to harden in a few minutes so you have 
to have all your job ready and work fast be- 



fore the ooky mess gets too stiff to work 

It sets in a few minutes and then any ex- 
cess can be pared off with a knife before it 
gets too hard. It is like rock in 24 hours. In 
the first few minutes it is sticky and runs, so 
often molds are used. 

A good use for plastic auto body filler is to 
stop up the ends of pipe bombs. Pipe caps 
arc very expensive and the Militant must be 
constantly on the alert for ways to cut cor- 
ners; as who docs not in these days of ruinous 

An inch of the filler is enough to cap the 
ends. Since the glop is sticky and runs, paper 
wadding is pul in the end of the pipe to hold 
the filler in place until it hardens. The wad- 
ding Is then removed or packed against the 
filler with a stick. 

First, the wadding is shoved into the pipe 
so there is a one-inch space. The space is filled 
with goody which is allowed to harden. Then 
you remove all the wadding you can or pack 
it in. Then fill the pipe with explosive to IH 
inches from the top. 

Then a fuse is put into the explosive and a 
small bit of wadding is pressed around it. The 
filler is poured in and the thing is done. 

In order to save a hassle in getting the first 
batch of wadding out there should be two 
pieces of wadding. A big gob of wadding 
should be put in first and a small gob should 

be put over It. Thar way, the little gob will be 
stuck to the filler and the big gob can be re- 
moved without trouble. 

'Fhe chemicals in some brands of auto body 
filler will deactivate some brands of fuse. If 
this happens with yours, just twist some plas- 
tic from a Baggie around the fuse that will be 
exposed to the filler. 

This method of capping pipe bombs saves 
more than the price of the caps. It also allows 
you to use scrap pipe cut to siiz instead of 
the more expensive lengths of pipe that arc 
threaded for caps. 

Anything you are using the filler on should 
be free from grease and dirt. Pipes should be 
boiled in strong soap so the filler will bon<l 
with the metal. 

As the filler begins to set it becomes quite 
hot. There is not enough heat to detonate any 
explosive, but for safety’s sake, always use 
some wadding. 


A very simple way to make a grenade is to 
fill a two-ounce bottle with gunpowder or 
other explosive. The bottle cap is drilled for a 
fuse. The bottle and part of the fuse is then 
smeared liberally with plastic auto body filler 
and laid on a waxed or paper surface and al- 
lowed to harden. 


Ammonium Nitroaen Tri- Iodide 

Every reference I’ve read concerning aramoiaiun nitrogen tri-iodide has 
it as an interesting scientific curiosity vith no practical application. 
"ANTI”, as I call it? being anti cOiy enemy, is quaranteed to be the most 
eFfective booby trap trigger ever discovered. 




1 got the rnrmila from "Chemical Magic", one of the books in 0RAM>- 
pAO'S WaKDEHFUL BOOK OF CHEMISTRY. ANTI is simply iodine crystals soaked 
in strong ammonia. The hook advisos making up just a little bit and dem- 
onstrating how it. can be sot of-^ by the touch of a feather. You see, it 
is an explosive. Ln fact, lt*s a high explosive? a fulminated 

The reason oLher writers have dismissed it as having no practical ap- 
plication is probably because they don't think alor^ the lines of irrpro- 
vi ?ed weaponry. Eut I do. T made about a Leaspoonful and spread it about 
an eighth of an inch thick on my work table and let it dry. Then T bare- 
ly touched it with a feather, instead of the snap-crackle -pop effect de- 
scribed in the book, it was a real explosion. The table was pitted and 
mv ears rang. Afuer having made far more than required to denx)nstrate 
Lhis aTrakinqly unstable substance, I was struck by its heretofore unmen- 
cionod potential as a weapon. 

rmagine a high explosive anyone can make and which is harmless while 
moisL but devastating when dry. Say you put a moist piece about the sikse 
of a grain of rice into a pipe bomb three fourths full of powder and 
then screw on the cap. When its moisture diffuses throughout Lho pipe. 

In about an hour, it is dry and any vibration will cause it to explode, 
thereby igniting the powder. Crushed into a paste, a dollop about the 
sl7.e of a bean on a stick of dynamite, once dry will explode the dyna- 
mitft at the slightest vibration. Such a pipe bomb or stick or dynamite 
under the car seat of an enemy would have him out of the way an hour 
down L.he road, I'm sure you can think of many other ways to use 3t, 

To make it, all you need is iodine crystals and strong ammonia. You 
can oet both rrom most pharmacies located near hospitals. I would advise 
against asking lor both at the same place. 

If your pharmacist doesn't stock iodine crystals he can order (.hem 
for you at about $12.00 for four ounces. You might tell him you are 
t.hinking of making up some first aid kits and want to make your own 
tine Lure of iodine. Four ounces is enough to last you a lifetime. 

The strong ammonia can be gotten under the pretense of beina a but- 
terfly and moth collector. Ammonia in bottles with some cotton on the 
bottom kills butterflies quickly. The store ammonia is weaker and the 
soap sticks to the scales so strong ammonia is an absolute neceasihy. 

But if you don't want to bother your pharmacist you can distill your 
own from store ammonia in the still described further on. Two 20 ounce 
bottles will provide 14 ounces of strong ammonia, free from the soap and 
gunk in all household cleaning ammonias. 

Anyway, to make ANTI, just drop iodine crystals into ten times their 
volume of strong ammonia. A few grains will prove the process, After 
jbout ten minutes soaKinq, swirl and pour the iodine crystals into a 
coffee filter. Then remove the filter from its holder and scrape up the 
crystals and/or paste with a knife or spatula. Crystals are best for 
strewing around for people to step or sit on, causing coronaries. Paste 
is best for spreading on things and also for stability in the rate of 
drying. A small pile of treated crystals drying would set each other off 
as they settled. The paste, however, will dry uniformly and will not go 
off because of its own weight. 

When you have put the ANTI on a board or some other surface you don't 
care about, use the knife or spatula to separate it into tiny bits, Af- 
ter an hoar's drying just slightly touch one of the particles with a 
feather or anything else and you'll get a surprisingly loud explosion, 
which will most likely set off the rest if the particles are close to- 

t'Ui.iti MAK'b aUNU vol. L iUl POOK MAN’S JAMES iiONJ Vol. i 

gather . 

ANTI can be made in a relatively large batch and carried safely. A 
good way is to cut about a square inch from the corner of a plsstic 
t»aggy. Put the ANTI in the bottom corner and roll it up. Then wrap it in 
a wet Cloth and roll that up and put it in a whole baggy and roll that 
up too. The ANTI could stay that way for months and yet be ready for use 
at any tine. 


When a rat eats of poisoned bait, if sickness follows fast enough 
for him to make the connection, he can somehow communicate to his fel- 
low rats that that food is bad. AtfVI has been used to clear an area of 
rats. The iodine crystals are finely ground so the ANTI is a paste. 

The paste is dappled around food, near rat holes, along the floor by 
basement walls and wherever rats are known to run. As the rat sets off 
the ANTI, either by stepping on it or touching it with a whisker, he 
will be terrified and will communicate this terror to the other rats, 

In a couple of days they will all have left. Repeat minings every few 
weeks win keep any area free of rats. 


If you buy a still from a health food store it will coat you about 
$200,00, But you can make one yourself out of odds and end a and just 
plain junk for about $7,00 and it will work as well as the expensive 
one, Also, all its parts can be bought from your local aupermarket and 
hardware store, 

All you need is a one-gallon gas or cooking oil can as the still, it- 
self. The cork for the can is available from any hardware store. Then 
you will need a roll of plastic electrical tape, an 11 quart plastic 
bucket, picture hanging wire, a three-pound coffee can, a roll of three- 
quarter inch paper masking tape and about 20 feet of 3/S" outside dia- 
meter plastic tubing from the hardware store and some Childs' modelling 





First, drill a 3/8** hole through the corK, Then drill two 3/8*' holes 
in the side of the bucket at the bottom and a quarter of the distance 
around from each other. Through one of these holes will run the conden- 
ser coil tubing and the other will allow the excess water to squirt into 
the sink. 

Next, take the coffee can and start the masking tape at the top and 
make five winds evenly down to the bottom. That will leave about an inch 
o- uncovered can between the winds of masking tape- Now you will have 
the path on which to attach the condensing coil so it winds down evenly 
so the distillate will flow freely into the collecting container under 
the tubing coming from the bucket. Then take the smallest drill bit you 
can buy from the hardware store and drill holes through the masking 
and the can. start drilling at the top and drill a hole every six inches 
until you reach the very bottom. 

Then cut several three inch lengths of picture hanging wire. Start 
the tubing about 18 inches from one end, bend a piece of wire over it 
and put the two ends of the wire into the top hole. Pull the wire ends 
all the way in and bend them back along the inside of the can. Do the 
same thing six inches further on and repeat until you have the condenser 
cnil fixed all the way around the can. five winds to the bottom* 

About three Inches from the bottom of the can, wind plastic electric- 
al tape around the condenser tubing maybe four of five turns. Just back 
toward the can, wind another section of tape raaybe eight or nine turns » 
then begin winding more tape from the thicker part to about an inch be- 
yond the thinner part • 

Next, place the condenser coil can in the bucket and push the tubing 
through the hole in the bucket's side. Pull it through until the taped 
part clogs the hole. When the bucket is full of water, pull the taped 
part further until no water leaks out around the tubing. 

Now set your hotplate near the kitchen sink with the plastic bucket 
beside it with the water vent hole just over the sink. Stick the top 
end of the tubing just through the cork and press modelling clay around 
it to stop any fumes or steam from leaking out around the tube. 

Nov pour two 28 ounce bottles of household ammonia into the can and 
put the cork in tightly. Turn on the hotplate just past MEDIUM and wait 
until you smell fumes coming from the end of the tub© hanging down into 
the collecting bottle on a stool by the sink and directly under the 
bucket. Before filling the bucket with water put a rock or other weight 
inside the can lest the air in the condensing coil tilt it once the can 
and bucket are filled with water. 

Cut off about two feet of the bottom of the tubing and stick an end 
into the faveet. Wrap a plastic baggy around the fawcet and the tube, 
Secure the tube by wrapping plastic tape around the fawcet, the baggy 
and a bit of the tubing. This will keep the water inside the tubing. 

Since you will be dealing with ammonia you won't want to stink up 
the house. Take your 3/8** drill and make a hole through the frame of 
the nearest window and stick an end of the spare tubing through it. 

This will lead any stray fumes outside and irtien not in use, the hole 
can be covered with a small bit of tape and should not be noticeable. 

When you smell the fumes coming from the end of the condenser tube 
fill the bucket with cold water and tvurn on the water faveet just 
enough to compensate for the amount of water spurting out from the bot- 
tom of the bucket into the sink. You must do this to keep cool water in 




the bucket, otherwise the water in the bucket would heat up and would 
not condense the steam and ammonia gas coming from the still. 

When the action has started make sure the condensing tube end is in 
the collecting bottle along with an end of the tubing leading outside. 
Press modelling clay aroxjnd the two tubes so no fumes escape into the 
kitchen. Now you are ready to distil the amu«nia. 

By tho time you've finished setting up the ammonia should be about 
ready to boil. Actually, amnonia is a gas which has combined with the 
water. The water has to boil so it will come over with the ammonia. 
Otherwiso, the ammonia will just leave the water and pass through the 
tube to the outside. But with the water at a good boil, the ammonia 
will como over with it. When the collecting bottle is half full, stop 
the process. Take a cautious sniff of the open collecting bottle and 
you'll notice it is much stronger than the original. Smell what is 
left in the still and you will see there is hardly any ammonia smell 
at all. So you have not only condensed the amnonia into one quarter of 
the original amount of water but you've left the soap and other gunk 
behind. Wasn't that fun? 

You can use the same still to take alcohol from vine, vd^lch then 
makes it brandy. You can also pour in rubbing alcohol, which Is 309^ 
water and take out nearly pure alcohol. When working with alcohol you 
must realize that it boils at 173 degrees F instead of 212 as does 
water. So when you want alcohol you use a Kitchen thermometer stuck 
in the mouth of the still. When the thermometer registers 173 degrees 
or slightly higher, put the cork and its tube in the still and turn 
the heat down slightly so the temperature doesn't rise. 

The alcohol should come over in a pretty steady flow if you have 
the heat adjusted to the point where It is above 173 but below 212. 

When the flow just about stops you will get nothing further but drops 
of water, which you don't want so stop the process. 

You can make this still in a few hours and it will laet indefinitely 
with minor repairs. Once you've learned to uee and adjust it properly 
to fill your needs, it will be a handy and reliable tool. 


Molotov coc tails have a way of being bulky and hard to throw far or 
accurately. The use of lightbulbs as fire grenades gives you longer 
range and accuracy. They are simple to prepare and more sturdy than you 
might realize. Their size also permits one to carry such a weapon in a 
pants pocket if conceal ability is a consideration. Their availability 
is universal ond one who saves his standard light bulbs after they've 
burned out will have a qood supply in a short time. 

Using a standard light bulb, pour in four ounces of gasoline. Use no 
more, since, if the bulb is full, it may not work. Gasoline does not 
burn? it is only the fumes that bum. Therefore, if you fill the bulb 
completely, the liquid is apt to put out the flaming cotton fuse. But 
if you allow for an air space, fumes will be released on impact and the 
gasoline will work as it is supposed to. 

For more sticking effect, you can mix the gasoline with half roofing or crank-case oil. Chain-Saw oil increases the burning rate. But, 
for all intents and purposes, plain gasoline will serve. 

To make the fire grenade, first treat the bulb as if you were making 
a chemistry flask, page 7. Then fill it with the combustible liquid and 
stuff a piece of cotton into the hole tight enough So it won't fall out 




but loose onongh for the liguid to soak the top part and act as a vic:<. 
Tilt ihe bulb so the wick ig saturated and it*s ready to light. 

If you just have one target, a good carrier is a Campbell Soup can, 
pot a layer of paper towling in the bottom of the can to act as a cush- 
ion. This will enable you to carry the greande in a pants or jacket 
cocket without fear of its breaking. 


Some Militants who don*t have much dy- 
namite use ammonium nitrate. This can be 
bought by anyone at $3.75 for an 80 pound 
bag. It is a fcrtili 2 cr. 

Ammonium nitrate explodes at rates up to 
14»000 feet per second. It is roughly com- 
pared to dynamite having 60% niiro. 

The fertilizer grade Militants use is mixed 
with motor oil at the ratio of one pint of oil 
CO S'/i pounds of ammonium nitrate. This has 
CO be detonated with a stick of gelatin dyna- 

Purified ammonium nitrate can be deton- 
ated with a number six dynamite cap. The 
pure stuff can be bought at chemical supply 
houses or the fertilizer grade can be purified 
with distilled wood alcohol. 

Put several pounds of fertilizer grade am- 
monium nitrate in a pan. Pour In enough 
wood alcohol (methanol) to cover the ferti- 
lizer. Then stir it until a lot of it has dissolved. 
Next, let it set a few minutes to allow the im- 
purities to settle to the bottom along with the 
undissolvcd ammonium nitrate. 

Another pan is set on some pieces of dry 
ice for the next step. Dry ice can be found in 
the business section of the phone book under 
‘Dry Ice.'^ Locker companies will sell it to 
anyone, cheaply and in small amounts. 

The dissolved ammonium nitrate is poured 
into the cold pan. This is done carefully so as 
to leave the impurities and undissolvcd am- 
monium nitrate behind. 

The dry ice causes the purified ammonium 
nitrate to precipitate out of the solution in 
crystals. When no more crystals arc formed 
they arc removed from the alcohol. 

The alcohol is then poured back into the 
other pan and stirred to dissolve any am- 
monium nitrate left undissolved. After setting 
a few minutes the solution is again poured off 
the dregs and the dregs are thrown away. 
When the last batch of crystals is removed, 
the alcohol can be stored and reused. 

The dry ice is simply frozen carbon diox- 
ide and its fumes are harmless unless they are 
enough to replace the air. Don’t handle the 
dry ice with your bare hands as Its cold will 
cause bibters. 

In order for pure ammonium nitrate to be 
detonated by a dynamite cap, it must be very 
dry. Spread ic out under a heat lamp or in the 
sun. When completely dry, store it in tightly 
closed plastic bags. 

Nv«. Wlti. Aftili. *K. 

FOUGASSE Isploeve 

This is like a big shotgun or the old-fashion- 
ed blunderbus. It is simply a pipe with a cap 
on one end drilled for a fuse. It is stuck in a 
tree or laid down. If you hold it you’ll be 
kicked a mile. 

When the fuse is put in, a couple of inches 
of gunpowder is added. Then some conon or 
paper wadding is put in and pressed down 
gently but firmly. 

Next, some nuts and bolts are poured in 
and some more wadding is tamped in to hold 
them in place. 

The fougasse doesn’t have much of a range 
but It is hell on a crowd or down an alley. ., 





AnuTvyriium Nitrate 1 04 
AmrronLUiri Nitrogen Tri-Iodi6e 
Arsenic 51 
Auto-Body Filler 98 
Elasting Caps, Improvised 61 
E loving Up A Car 48 
Bomb Handling 56 
Bomb, Pipe 45 
Bomb, Shotgun Shell 31 
Bombs, Fire 31 , 103 
Counterfeiting 53 
Dynamite 35 
Ethylene Gli'col 51 
Evading Fursu:.t 46 
Firecrackers 33 
Flashpos-der 79 
tougasse 104 
F use 66 

Grenade, Arrow-Launched 7S 
Grenades, Improvised 76, 99 
Grenades, Potato Kasher 32 
Gun, Centrifugal €4 
Gunpowder 66 
Hydrochloric Ac,*d 40 
Igr.itere 35 , 41 , 42 


Igniters, Thermite 35 

Incendiaries 34 

Knockout Drops 27 

Laughing Gas 2 5 

Metal Detector, Beating a 4”^ 

Me paint 1 C 

Nicotine 52 

Nicotine Sulphate 52 

Nitroglycerine 73 

PDGN 74 

Poisons 49 

Pcisons, Testing 53 

Pctaasiutr Cyanide 02, 88 

Potassium Ferroryanide 86 

Prussic Acid 22 

RCX 71 

Rifle, Electric 80 
Sinker Basher 99 
S' ii^shot 98 
Sodium Fluoride 52 
Still 35, 38. 131 
Stinkum 40 
Sulphuric Acid 6S 
Tear Gas 37 
Zip Guns 46 



»!• iAleh*un«*r(c b r«pli rh«ni«a) 

oh«rj(k t4 prkdusB Iftrtf kn9vat4 of O«oo. Sivb th« r«ictlMi 

i* BXJthBrxlo, thflt i*, A rAAeilon which rol«AS«s r«At. xtm 
Cbse* AM txpAivdBd, preAHini a AtlU forxoful opUsloo. 

£x^Uiiv»i An clAAtifUd AB BlihBr Uv bx^IoaIvha or frop«l> 
lanzt, or hl^p BxpIoalvtA, Oio diff«f«UB b«iB4 ih cbo my 
ih«y ruhstiea. Loh txploBiVBB burn ard iro Atb off with a 
f«AB. ThB BZploAiQfi muU» fro» t>,B bjrstlff of tto citinA 
in which tbay am ntXd, 

Hlfh BX^lOBiTBA 0«tOr.AtB, VMch 1 b A mwh OOrB TApU 
rhAOlcAl chans* buralng, Altho«|h d«ton«tlon 1* uauAlly 
oceoBptnl<4 by a flAiWi it la not • biirnlns oom 

hlsh BJcplealveA do not eont«ln «xyc«a, VrWtr Slsh ax^loolvoa 
an two oubclAAoaor prlaary or IrittAlin*. And ABcoftOtry. 
SaeondAr? high asploaitOA era aot off hy ahock, vhla s*Aora)ly 
fcalDg provldtd by a bUatirs Ihty trt scMroUy ««;h 

l«a« atnaltivo And oor« powerf jl thaa priaary ox^IoaItoa am!, 
b«c«UAo of thoae propartloa^ am uiad ab tha baIa bUotlrts 

(horse 1 b aoet tncuatrUl tlaating ofxrationa. 

Prloarr hlsh exploelra# wili turn on isnlUon a 
detonation, and ao&e prlnry •xplooivea ara wood la tlaetlas 
eape to eet off aaeondary ex^lertvao, fcocco tho oasa 

i&ltlatlng, Prinary txploelvaa an ouch aoro sehoitlva than 
Boeendary axoloalvea and aueh ds*e eart ahould ae uaod wheo 
vorkins wltb then. TnclJded la thla bcoUet aro tha prApara- 
tlor.8 of careury fulAinate, load aaida, ard ooveral ^Uins 
Aixturea; these expLoalvea wera c be a an b«ca;»a they are 
Bost widely used In blasting eapa. 

SecA of the conpounda aod aoiee of tba ehoxloala oj«0 ia 
their F repara tier. A are very dansaroua. Wo au^est that you 
alwaya use the proper aafaty precajttcaa wher. worklrg with 
any eheoUala, tblo booklet le publiabad etrietly for 
oetlonAl purpoaea. Any peraea aakir.s tne coapouAds uatnc tbo 
proeadvea la tbla booklet should kaep la Bind ttet THESE 
CHEiaCALS AKO COMPOUNDS ktB CANCePOtS, anl tine author earnot 
b* he*d reaponel&Xe fer aeelBenta arielng fr» the prepara> 
tlcn of theaa oeapounds, Aay tnexparianeed obmoh shocid 
leak the gvldanoe of a chealatry teacher or ocher <i'jallfletf 
peraaa before atteeptia® tha preparation of theee eenpeunda. 

•ft AM/ eLa.00 thero are lawa perbaioia® to the aeklr.!, 

oxploidrae. Sofore etteaptlni to Mb* 

UM. or atero any axploalvoe or «ar«oroua shoiaioaU you 
aftoeU ohtaiQ pomdeelMi fro* your atava, looel. and any 
other autaorttlea wbUb may hara eCAtro) avar thea. 

koreu^ fulAlAAte e»s the flrav prlaary axplealvo to be 
uoe4 la blaatln® eapa ond la atlU uaal io fus»*type bUotlAfl 
eapa. It has a ahoftieU foraula of H.(0CN}2* It la a fairly 
aeneltUe prlAor and la oABlly dotoaated by flaae or aheeb. 

It* preparation roealraa hlshiy porlfled aatarUla and la ev 
laboratory taata aely rea|enb frada aattrUU wora uaod. U 
la praparad by sdMni Mtalla aaroury to olcris aeld. in whleh 
lb dlaooXvoa, thoo raaotlas tka a old aolutlon with atbyl 
Aloobal. ill the peaetloBO are aaothorale Wt. la quaatltlea 
aa aaoll ae bha ona to ba daaerlbod, no eoaliBi la naoMaary, 
For this roaaoB. airoury AUkiAito abould never ba pre^Md 
1 a 4 iarsor quAr.tlty thAA tho one 1 a tM proparatlon* 

Harciff7 fviaiute la a white to fray cryataUiae oolld 
vUeh i« oftly iUshtLy eolusbla inviter, tad ii neAhydroaooptc. 
It oxploAM AC l$D*l 40 d 4 ail taapenturas ia thla booklat are 
sLveft in x\m centtgrada aealal. Ic baa a detonstins rate of 
1,000 Mtora par saowd# Nereury falalnata can baeoaa dead 
praaoed; tt«t la, oeaipaBtad to a daaalty at whUh It eas no 
locgtr ba detOBatad by flaaa. Mercury falaiute ahould 
alweya ba atored iii water to arold any deoMapoaltlona, It 
ehouid alao be kept out ef the ilfht sad kept eool. 

Freparatloa of Hareury PulAioatej five snu «f aerourr 
ie addad to 5$ graas of coocantratad sitrle aeld ( 70 ^ eoAeaA. 
traied apeaine gravltT liUJ la a 2 $ 0 «« 1 . baakar. The 
aereury will ujually begia to dlsaolra, givlns off red r\aa*. 
Thle preparatiea ahould be tarried out out*doera or under a 
bood aiAce tb* fu»M are nitrogen dlezld* aad are deadly 
peleoAoue. tf tha aarcury does cot dleaolv* or if it data 
tot eeaplately dleaalve, tha baaher abeuid be haatad |amly« 
After It ia dlaaolvad, troBSfar cbe aald solucian to a 1 , 00 ^ 
beakar ceoulBing 50 gra^a of ethyl alaohol, A reaotiaa 
will take plaee evclvlBg white foaea. In abeut ^ ninjtea the 
raaetlco will stop and tha aerctry fulBlaata is filtered out. 
It ahould ba * 4 asX>ed wltl*, distilled water several tiK«a to 
raaove the a<td. It Is toen set out to dry to be used ar 
plaeeo uhcer water anc storec. 





Lo6d la a acfnewliat laoa aaoslvlTs Initleitor thaifi 

aarco'r rxiLninata L« « ituch aero «f/«ctiv« Ijiltiator 
tnan thdt oxplo9iv«« Its choalcaL romulA is Pb {K))2> U 
is nado by roactlng solutions ct iotd acototo anc aodiua 
«2id« to^echor, ond cba raactlon 1« ondochonslc. 

Load aside Is a wlilto erystjiUiitt solid, praotleaLly 
Inseluabla In wator, and nonhjdresceple. It detcaatos at 
and. beeauso cf this hlshor dotonatLiie toaperaturo. 
load azldo la not alwors doconatod by the and spit of a 
safoty ihjse« In storing, load tsido should be kept cool 
and avay froo boat and light. 

/ul so a number 6 and, of course, is used for setting off 
less oenaltive axpIosiTss such as stareh nitrate. It «or- 
talns .2 graas of the dO/20 blxturo ard .8 grans of pants* 
srjrthrltoltstra nitrate. This cap has Apprexiaatoly tha sane 
pover as 2 grass of the 80/20 asreury f\jlolivate*pctoasiua 
chlorate nixture. It night be noted that diffarert expLe* 
aive coapenles vlll use different primary and bsoater expio* 
slvvs, sucb as dlasodinltrophenol (DbKf), manlu^l baxanitrata, 
CrlnitrophenoLBechylnitraaine (tetryl) s»l eycLotrisiethylene- 
nicrjttlne (eyelonlis) to nans s few. 7he explosives nentlonad 
above are nest suited tc aoatsur use sad are approxlaatsly 
the ease strength as ths ooeaerclal blasting caps. 

Pre^ratloh of Lead Aside: Six grass of lead acetate 

ie dissolved in 30D-al. of water at 70^ in a UX^*al. beaker 
anc is pours d into a 600-inl. beaker oontaiolng 10 grass of 
sodiua aside dlaaolvad In 2 COhiU of water at 50^ ond 
etlired. A vblte solid will ioDadlateLy foru whSen la 
filtered and allowed to dry ccapletely. lead aside should 
not be a cored under water because of Ite erysca 111 sing 


In iBodern blasting caps, nsrcury fuloinate la mixed 

with potasaluji chlorate. This nekes the explosive cheaper 
as well as aore powerful. The two noat econonly need 

fonulss are 80/20 and 90/10 ulxinres of aeroury fulninate 
end poCaseiuD chlorste, respectively* The 60/20 nlxture 
hss eljBost eovpletely replsced the others. PoteseixtB per- 
chlorate nay be used i.netead of poCassiua ehloi^aca In an 
83/13 fixture* 

One of the oain disadrantages of using aerecry fulAinate 
as ar initiator is its tendsasy to beccae dead pressed, fix- 
ing lead aside and mercury fulainste, together in 4 3 to 1 
ratio, reepeoclwoly, •llmlMtes ths passiblllcy cf it. becom- 
ing dead praassd and also insures Chat the lead sslds will 
detonate frca the and spit of a safety fuse. This mixture 
should never be placed in e copper tubed blaetibg cap. 


Blasting caps for the purpose of initiating high explo- 
sLvee, consist of a copper or alufalnuo tube woioh Is closed 
at DCS and end flUsd with a eertala aoouat of prltiary ex- 
ploaivo and ecastlnea a booster explosive. Ths other end Is 
left open to receive the eafety fuse which ia placed Id and 
erlmpted prior 10 uss or, in tha ease of sd electric blasting 
cap, an ignitor aseeintaly consisting of an ignitor wire which 
glows red hot when a current in run through it, aa Ignitor 
compound to help ignite the priniry explosive, a rubber cap 
nhieh is crimped into piece to protect ths oap from water, 
and Lag vires which ere cenneoted to the italn firing line. 

The tube usually has an inside diameter of 3/16 inch, and tha 
length ie detsTalaed fay the asonnt of expLosiva which will be 
contained in it. Whether the tube la copper or elumlnua 
depends upon the prlmery sxpleelve to be used. Lead aside 
should ftsver M ussd In a blaatiog cap tbet has a copper tube 
for the container. This ie becauae of tbe formation of copper 
aslda which ie every sensitive explosive, the amount of 
prlnstry explosive used Capsads upon ths aspLoslve to be dat^ 
Dated. Blasting caps for detonating dynstaite contain .5 
grsBS of ths 80-20 aiKtura of asroury fulalnebe ant potaesSua 
eblorats. Electric cape are rated by the numbers 6 and 6. h 
flttfflber 6 cap coats ins ,2 grams of the 80/20 mixture and .h 
grams of a booster e:^lc8lve known as penis erythri to Ite trini- 
trate [sbbrsvlitBd PE7V). the purpose of using a beoetar 
explosive Is to reduce the amount of primary explosive needed 
in a cap, thereby reducing the dangers Involved In hendUng 
the espe since it would be Leee likely to be est off froa 
Bcoldereel shock. Booster explosives are seoondax7 claes 
high explosives but are more sensitive than the ones used in 
the BsLn blasting eharge. A miabsr 8 cap is twice as power- 

A suitable blasting cap for detorutlc^ dynsnits, which 
is easily prepared from ordinary materials, eonslete of an 
empty 22 shell (the long rifle else) which Le niled with 
the BO/20 mixture. The shell will bold about .1 grams of 
this mixture «Aich will detonate most dynsmites. Fuse fer 
this cap can be eeslLy made by filling an ordinary plastic 
straw with a 6O/LO mixture of potasslun nitre te end browr 
sugar, r««p9ctiT9ly . Other alxtures, such as 70/30 and 
75/25 1 nay also be used. Tha mixture barns very slowly, but 
sll fuses to be used In connection with explosiTee should be 

tee tad bv bjrnlne a.sKor^ Iwnrhb 3»afogjajialoa, . thA.y.rww 

will fit over the shell end naeklng t.ap9 should be wound a 
the way up the straw. The tape will keep the explosive fr 
being eat on fire by the fuse. Deually about two thisVinea 
of masking Cape will prevent tr)is. ?or larger caps, co^e 
or aluminum tubing can be used. As stated before, the tub 

ehculd be 3/l6-ln9h inside dlaeatwr and sbout l/v-inch out 
diuMtsr. It ia necessary to experimen*. to get the right 
length for the ]>artlculsr amount of prisary explosive to t 
used. Always allow at least 1/2-ineh to receive the safet 
fuse or, if you wish to make your own fuse by thi method s 
tlonid abovi, this dlstaoee may be fillsd alth tbe fuse p< 
ate 8er. This will also prevs&t the prlmeir explosive fr» 
lx- felli&g out until the cap ie used. To leal the other end 
tha asp, tha best method la to press wet in It. It is 
m- advLeaclo never to orlop thia end or anv other part of the 

cap except for receiving the safety fuea (If uael]. Por t 

type of cep another faae may also ba used wfaico will fit it 
the cap. To make it, a email piece of cotton strL&g is eo« 
with a wat mixture of pocaseiua nitrate 75^, ebareoal dust 
Bulfur 9%, and dextrin 28, by running it through Lbe niztu: 
This ia allowad to dry thoroughly. It is then covered wLtL 
two thlcknestee of naaking tape, and tha burning rata la 
teetad as before. ThLa la s much faster burning fuse than 

” «h« an* used bifaw* aad also pradusee leee 9v«k«. Te 9*«ut 

it to the blasting oap, wrap a email piece of tape around 
both. It is very litportant to make sure the fuse is saatec 
d snugly ageinet the primary explosive. 


There ere three general mecbode of attaching tha blaai 
ing cap irto tha explcslve cariridge and any of them ere 
Bultable, provided that the osp la aecurely held in place 
inside the cartridge so that it cannot be eceicentally pull 
froa It. In wet condltLcni, the attacbnent must be water- 

In side priming, a hola li punched in ihe side of the 
cartridge and into the axploslra sc that the cap will ba ii 
th« centar of It. The buatnaei end of ths osp should b9 
alvaya pointing in the Ulreeulac of the re«t of ths cart- 
ridge a, if iny. The busineea end le the end oontaining thi 
expLoelve or ^posits the and that receives the fuse. The 
cep may be held in piece by wrtpping over the hole with 
elootrioLan'e cap*. 

Bottom end priming is probably tha moat satlefsetonr 
for getting the aost effeciancy out of the explosive since 
ic ooafines all tbs explosion gasses until ths entire chari 
has detenstsd. A hole should he pieced in tbe center of il 
end of the cartridge te a depth that will ocafine the expL 




elon tba •xploalvi ar.4 will not paralc U to 

Bdrolr blew th« aad off tha sartrlQso. T«pa ahould be pieced 
around the beod in the fuse to hole the cap in the expleeive. 
Since the fuje anat be beet sharply back arouad the cert ridge, 
the pleatic atrev type fu«e «ea»ot be used ar.d cate ehould La 
taken when using any type of fuse that It Is not tent so 
sharply that it orseVs the powder core, 

Top end prlnlng U us 'jell 7 the eaalen vhen tlastiag with 
fnee«type blasting cepe. Ae In prinLng with tne botton 
DMthoc» a hole is placed jn the center of tha end of the 
cartridge to the proper depth end the cap la pieced In lt« 

The fuae is then brought to one side end tied witn string or 
taped acroea the bottors oi the cartridge • 

The oheapnese and e vs liability of eaaoniua nitrate has 
brought Into use oany cap InaeosltiTe exploslTss, eueh as 
antonlus nltrate^fuel cil nlxtures* These exploalvee are 
toe Inseosltiva to be set off by even a &\nbar 6 blasting 
cap. In order to detor^te thea a booster charge is needed. 

This consists of a highly brisant cap aensltlTs exploslre 
such as blasting gelatin or gelatin dynenLte. These explo- 
sives sre placed So the bere hole ra>rt te tK« ether expla- 
elves end the blasting ceps are pieced in then. 

;aTRQDJCTiox TO Hich sypi03in5 

Sj^losivee are substtncee which undergo a rapid chemical 
change to produce large eaounts of gasses. Since the reaction 
le an exothernle cna» a rsaetleo which releases heat, the 
gaaaes are expanded, prodaclng a etill more forceful explosion. 
Exploslvea are classified as either low expLoeires or propel- 
lent! end high expLoslvee, the dlffererue being In the way 
they function. Low expLoslvee burr, end are set off with a 
fuse* Ths exploalor. results fr«i tbs bursting of the esslng 
in which they sre hsld. 

High explosives detcaate, which la a nuch aora rapid 
chenUcl change than burntng. Although datonaeion is usually 
eecoapanlad by a fleas, it Is not a burning proceaa and a few 
high explosives do noc oostaln oxygen. Under high explosives 
are evo eub classes: priutry or initiating, and secondary* 
PriMry explostvae will tarn into a detonatlen and eooe prlaary 
expLoeives are used in blasting caps to set off secondary high 

lead aside end aarcury ruixinete. Ssoondery high exploaivas 
are set off by shock, this gsnerally bslng provided by a 
blasting cap. Kltrlo esters and the other high explosives 
dtaouesed In this booklet are secondary high axploslvae* If 
you wish to siaka blasting cape to eet then off, see our 
booklet "The Prepare tlen of Prlnary Explosives and Blasting 
Caps" which gives their eonplete preparations. It night ba 
noted Chat, althcugh secondary high explosives are generelly 
sat off by shock if ignited In cuffLcisntly layga ^ar.tUica 
end a fee? Wjpnlng for aaae tLaa, they esy eventually build 
up enough beat that the exploelve will be raised to its 
detonating teioperature and, of course, go off* 

High explosives, bsoauis of their detonating rates 
ranging Xroa under 2,000 to d,lOO natars per secoad, are 
vary brleant. Brisaaca Is dafLoed ae the shattering quality 
in an explosive. Ihia qxiality la wanted whan the explosive 
is being used in blasting hard rock or penetrating amor. 

The sere brisant eaploalvoe era piire nitrated organlo 
aster Isle such ae eyelonite, trlnitrocclwena (THT), or 
blasting gelatin* The leas brlsanc ones sre explosives 
such as lABoniuB aitrata or aixttires of nitrated and noh- 
expleelve ir.gredlente aueh as dynanitae. These sxplosivee 
ere used tr bleetlag seod or when a great deal of pueb-type 
power Is wanted, delatln dyoanltee, the Beat brisant in this 
group, are brisant enough to be used la nest hard rock or 
underwater appUeatiena . ITie velooltf of these explosLvee 
can be varied by the cranual else, eoirser djmaaltes beiig 
lesa brisant. 

When choosing the right explosive for a pertlcular lab, 
the following prepertisa should ba taken into consideration: 
brleence and heat, neeseslty of reelatanca to aoisture, 

senaltlvlty to Inpact and heat, thenial and other deccnpoel- 
tlors. Brlsares, as diecusaed before, would be wanted In 
hard rock, underwater, and in nose BlLltarr appLlcatlena, or 
whenever a ehatbering effect Is desired. An exploal/e with 
low farlsance would be uead Ln send or soft roek or In Blnlng 
operations whan large chunks of coal are wanted. Heat In 
Blni&i operations Is not wanted since it could Ignite explo* 
sirs gasses In the Bine. Asuienlua nitrate dynanitss are 
coBaenly used or dynaaltes centaining large aincunta of a 
cooling Ingredient such as eodlua chloride. Bueh explosivaa 
are known as pemia sables* High heat sod high brisancs seaa 
to ntn together and generally »4ien heat producing Ingredients, 
such ae alunlnw dust, are added ^ the brieanca is Increased* 
Kaaistsncs to acisture would be needed in extrectly Huald 
regions or under water, ^droscoplc axploelvaa (a hydroscopic 
substancB la ote.that absorbs iKiBVJTC fron the sir], such as 
asiBcniun nitrate, could Dot be used unless protected. Theroal 
dseonposltlon oust be taken into account whan using or atcrlag 
the explosive at high tnpereturea. Qlyosrcl trinitrate la 
very sensitive at high temperature a, • a peel ally If there is 
any acid left In It. >lc 8 t nitrated organic explosives give 
off fuses when deeonpeslng. When this is noticed, the 
explealva should be destroyed as It has beccBS extmMly 
sensitive. Seoeltivlty to impact STjet be tsken into account 
when the explosive will be subjected to sxtrene aboek as in 
the ease of a shell flUer. Obvloualy dynamites could not 
be used end Instead trlrltrotoluene or smeniuai picrace nay 
be used. 

Tha first azplosives to be dtscussed will be nitrated 
orgaolc eoapounds, Sotse of these ocapounda ard soae of the 
obSBicals used in their prepsrstlona are very dangaraua. Ve 
auggeet that you always use the proper safety precautions 
when working any shemloalft. This booklet is puollsbed 
strictly for educational purposes, iny person naklns the 
ooopouDds using the procodurea In this booklet shouLi keep 
and the author cannoc be held responsible for accidents 
arising free tha prsparction of these compounds. Any 
InexparLeneed person should seak tha guidance of a ohenlatry 
teacher or other quaUfled person before atteapting the 
preparation of these coapounOa* In juny states there are 
laws pertaining to the naklng,* storage, and use of axploslvea. 
Before attanpting to Skal<e, use, or stcire any explosives or 
dangerouB ehealeala , yet should obtain paraissiori fre^ vour 
atete, looel, and any othar suthorieies which nay have 
eontrol over that, 


All the nitric esters In this booklet are prepared by 
adding the organic substance to nixed r.ibrU and sulfuric 
aolds, scestiacs called nitrating acid* Tha acids and 
orgaalca used In our tests wars of reagent grade ouaiity, 
and we bare Bade no testa to deteraiine hew well any other 
grades would «ork* Both the acids auat be cone e nt rat sd. 

The nitric acid should be epproxioately 69*7Qj( with a spael- 
fio gravity of i. 42 . The eulfurlc acid should ba apprexl- 
aataly eonosatratad with a specific gravity of '..14* 

The Dloliig of the acids and ehs addition of the organie 
aubataness are both axothsrnlc reactions and a cooling aya- 
tSA is needed to keep the alxturei froa building up toe aneb 
beat in the course of alxing* Tha following syatea aay be 
used in each of the preparttUns provided tha quantity of 
chemleals ia no larger than that described in tha prepara- 
tion: larger quattltLes will raqulrs larger cooliDg systeu. 

I foil pla pan, about nine laches in dlaBater and one and 
one-half inebes deep is filled with ice and the apace between 
tha lea particles la filled with water. Balt nay be placed 
on the ioa* if desirad, for griater cooling, rhe beaker Is 
placed in a hols in the nllCla of the pan. 

Vhea the ll<|ald nitrates are poured into water after 
their treatawnt with the adds, the acids should dissolve in 
the water* the nitrate will collect as s whit* er clear In- 
soluable liquid at the bottoa of the bsaksr. fcT filtering 
glyeerol trinitrate, all that is required la a place of cloth, 




• thirlana clyeol dinisrAt* vlll <omc1ma rcqulra « of 

fil&er papar alnea it Is net AS dsnM •• tba clfoorol trl- 
nltrst*. Starch and ealltUoM nltratas my ba filtaratf with 
cLotb. Betb tba cloth and fLltar papor should ba ehancad 
afiar a fev fUtarlnca. Per tha sautraUtatiae of tba acid 
rataininc in tha coftpovnda, ^a fallovLas aclutian akojld ba 
uaad: tar. |raaa of aodliua oarbeuta or bicarboaata, sodiaB 
aarbonata 1* acaatldai ra far rad bo ai m 1 aoda, la dlaaolrad 
in 600 nl. of watar at $ 0 - 70 ^. iU taaparaturaa 1 b thU 
booklet ara clvan in bka eaBtlcrada aaala. This aolutloe la 
placid in althar an SCO or LOOO-ai. baakar. Tba aaaauraaant 
of tha water for t ha aalutlon oaad net ba auct and Um 
fraduatlor.a on tha alda of tha baakar ara aiact anau^h for 
tbla purpoaa. 


Olycarol Crinibrata ia ona of tha Boat lapertaot ladaa* 
trial axploalvaa baeauia of ita uaa la dpHulbaa and dOdbla 
baaa poardar. tha propalUat uaad la |una. AltbMch It la 
eoaaonlp eallad nltroglyaarlai it la, of eauraa an aatar of 
nitric acld» and not a.altro caapaud. diaea thU la a 
aolantlfla publleatlon, tha aoApouada vlll ba rafarrad to bp 
thair eorraot ehaaioal runaa* dlpearol trlnltrata Ma a 
apaaUic iravitp of 1»60 at lie ahaalaal faraula ia 

Ita atructural fontala iat 


hv •OHO. 


?ha anxMtlen fer ita daeetipaalilaa lot 

4CjHj{0IQ3»3 • 6H2.12C03*LM20^02 

Aa f9U can aaa bp tha aaoation, (lyaarol trUitrata has aoro 
Chaa anouih expfan to coaplatalp oiidla# all of ita a;ddia« 
abla aiaoanta. Thia U eallad a poaltUa expcoo balanea, 
which aoaounca for tha fact ttMt flrcarel trlaltrata la oaa 
of tha boat pewarfal axploalvaa known. It haa a datOMtind 
rata of apprexliutaly 7,700 oatara par aaaoiid. 

Olyearol brlnitrata la praparad, aa ara tba othar 
merle astara In ebU backUt» bp tba action af altrSe a^ 
auLfurla acida on whattrar cr(nnla aubaeaaca ia to ba 
nitratad. Tha mtrU acid la uaad to iopart tha OM. fraup 
wblla tha aulfwlc acid abaerba tba water ibroad lo tba 
raactloo to kaap it frcai dUitiA$ the nitric cold. Aa ai- 
plained before, the retcticc la atraoilp axetbarode and eara 
■uat be taken that tha teaperatura doaa net rlaa blgh aMu^h 
to daooopoea tha ee^euAda* diaea tba taa^arature tea a 
diracb bearlnc ea plaid, It oheuld net ba allowad ta axeead 

wbaraae 30^ la tha \9per llAit. If tte taaparatvre 
riaaa abova X**, wutar ahouU ba poured Into tha baakar in 
which it ia bcinf prepared: tbla io irity tha baakar ia larger 
than tba Blzbura. If a larger quantitp la to ba prepared, 
tba eh«lcala ara nartly Increased prepOTtleoattlT: boeartr, 
Largar alTturaa vllX darale? Here teat in propartion to 
larger ocas, and thia auat ba takan into aocooBt ia deter* 
■lalsg tha aUa of tha cooling apparatus^ Another point 
about larger nitration nlxturae la that while, If the taap* 
araenra of a small mixtura rleae tec high and decompoaaa, It 
vlll only boll and produea fuanei whereas, a largar nixtnra 
■ap produea acougb to esnaa tha datoMtien of vtetaetr glpearal 
trinitrate nay have fonad. If abp mixture, large ar email, 
gats out of head, pour water into U or leara it UeMdUtalf. 
The red fumes formed are nitrogen dlaxlda which la deadQy 
poiaonoua, so do oot cone back into tba room uatll the fumes 
are game* 

Preparation of Slycerel TrlAltrata: forty-thraa grama 

of aulfuric acid and 21 grama of nitric add ara weighed out 
in a 2(0<«1. baakar aod placed In the cooling ayatam, aod tte 
tanperattxa U alLcpwad to drop to 20« or balow. tea grama of 
glyearlne U now added, altbar through an ayedropper or a 
eaparatory funaal, • lowly en^ogh that tba ta^raturo dees 
not rlaa above 2$^, and praferably atar> aa far balow aa 

la practisally poaaibla. Whan all the glycerin haa been added, 
tte nlxtura ia allowed to iit for %X 1 $ coroa 

TlM miKtvn l9 now pouTid into olthor on 300 or ICOO^uls 
beokar contalaiiig 600*ml. of water, stirred for a few elnutea, 
than fUtarad. The glycerol trinitrate ia now tranaferred 
to a baakar contaloiog the acid neutral IsatiQa aalutioc, aad 
left for $ niautea, than fUtarad again* It la now given a 
pB teat* If acidity shows up, tbo acid raeoval proaasa La 
rapoatad; if not, It ia treated with iOO-al. of water at 
ICfi ba remove the last traces of alkali* It is how ready to 
ba bottled or uaad* 


ffthyLaos glycol dloLtrata Is aaothar Important nitric 
aster. It is ja ad Is comb lea tloo with glyearoL trlaltrata 
in dynamltas to reduce the fraealh| poiat of the lattor eon* 
pound, usually la about an d0*20 nlxtura roepaetivaly. Thia 
nlxtun^ may ba uaad In place of glycerol trinitrate in tha 
dyuamlts fomulna given later. BthyUna glyeol dinUrtta ia 
cnnnnhty abbrevlaCad CCDN and It la often rafarrad to aa 
oitroglycol or glycol dinitrata, both in error. E thy lane 
glycol dinitrata haa a specific gravity of 1*196 at 15^. Ita 
chnnlcsl formula is Its atrucCural formula la: 

S H^-OMOg 


tte o«imatloa for lbs daeapeeltion las 

6211^ (CHOg 

As you oaa aoa by tte oquatlea, etivlono glyeol dinitratc 
has s nsutrsl oxygen halanca: chet ia, It oontaina tte exact 
bMuat of oxygen oaadad to oxidiea lbs carbon and hydrogan. 
tthyUns glycol dlnltreta, as dsaa glycerol trinitrate, gives 
haadschsa to parsons who brsatha Its eapera or absorb it 
through tha akin. Soadacboi esuitd by athyla&a glyeol 
dinitrata aro acquired faster and sro more violent, but 
shertsr in duration than those caused by glycerol trinUrata* 
It should ba noted ttet atbylano glycol dinitrata la much 
more poUcooua than glycerol trinitrate, aad glovaa ahoull 
elwaye be worm when working with it* 

Bthylsna glycol dlnlcrate is mads in tha uausl Banner of 
oddiag tha organlo subatanca to nitrating acid. The reaatlon 
In this case la much mva exothanala than betwaan glycerin 
aad the acid; and, of ocurao, tha otbylar.a glyeol should ba 
added much slower. 

Prapnrstloo of Ithylaaa Olyeol l»lnltratas Forty grsms 
of emlfwlo acid and 22 grams of nitric acid are weighed out 
in a 250^. baakar and ara placed la tte cooling aystsn. 
After tte tai^retura tee dropped to 20^ or lover, IQ greoa 
of atbylSM glyool is adlad* This la done slowly asough 
that tbs tamporetura dees not rise abova 25^. Tha mixture 
It ellowad to sat for et least 15 mlnutaa after all the 
sthylena glycol baa been eddad* Tha mixture la now poured 
Into a tester coatalnlng 600-«1. of weter end le stirred fer 
a short timo, tten flltorsd, Tho nltrota is now tranaferred 
to a beaker eenuining tha sold aamtraliastlon where It is 
Isft for 5 mlcetas. Aftsr flltarlag, the eempound should be 
glTom a pi test* If acid shove up, tbs eempouad ia waabsd 
in anaiter aalutloc: if not, lb ia veahad in 60^nl. of water 
at 50-70^ to ramoTf tba alkali. ThU wsahing aheuld ba 
eoaalnuad far 5 Binutaa after which It la uaad or bottled. 


Cellulose aitrata le another vary ixportsBt nitric 
aster* It Is used in doable sad c Ingle bssa powders and In 
blast Lag galnblD sad gslstln dynssitas. Since the eorract 
fcrmuls for cellulose is lut kwwn, It la oot kncpwn how asny 
mitmts radlesls s single eolaeuXa of oelluloaa nltrsta eon* 
tsios, so tha Bsna of cellvloea nitrate Is not ehsmlesUy 
correct; however, elnea tha contact name (or it is not known, 
asllulflsa nitre ta is genera Uy aceaptad. tt la somatiitee 
arromouJly celled nitrooalluLeas. Callulesa nltrsta is rstad 
by tha par cant ef r.itrogan it eoatsina, being tha high* 




• n pQ«elbl« nitro^A co&ttBb 6or th«or«ti- 


Zd th« prsparAtiOB of cbIIuIm* Dltrmt*, tco soch 
hMt la Ubaratad vhan tha caZluloaa la addad bo tbc Mida; 
and I ainoa tha quantity of oalluLeaa la thla praparation la 
anall, lb Bay ba adoad aZl at onea. 

Praparation of Calluloaa Htrata: Tblrty gnm af ral* 
furle acid and 15 graaa of aitrle aald, «bl«h baa baan dllutad 
vitb 1 eras of dlatlllod watar, ara waLghad is a 250-al. 
baakar* It la aov placad In tba cooling tyatas and coolad to 
2$^. Ctbo gram of ooUuloaa (eotbobi la »o« addod to tfaa 
aaidi. Ttila it alletrad to aot for oca hour« Tka oalluleaa 
file rata and told art pour ad iato a baa bar eoBtaialnf 600 mU 
of watar. Thlt U attrrad for a abort ^lla, thtb flltarad. 
Tha eaLlttloaa nltrata la than haatad at for 4 alautaa U 
600 >al. of watar. If a pH boat ataetia aaidlty, tha procaaa to 
rapaatad; if not, tha axeaBj watar la fraaaad out aod tba 
calluloaa nltrata la apraad out to dry ceoplataly. It la now 
ratdy to ba uaad. 

Starch nltrata vaa uaad ia aba f Irat world war io band 
granadaa baaauoa of a aberta^ of tolwoca vhlab la naeaaaan' 
to produei trinitrotolxiana. Surah nltrata aajr ba dataoatad 
by a nuabar d blaatlag cip 

and aa la obrUua, atareh nltrata lo 
ratbar iaoanaiciva to dotomtloo In ecaparlaca wltb tha othar 
aitploalvaB In thia booklat. Surah nltrata la caoBOnly, but 
arroAoualy, saliad Mtroatarch* Xc la net a dtrlnata alagla 
eoapownd but a aivtwa of otarah ultratao of dlff tract dagraoa 
of cltntlon. flureh nltrata la ratod» ai la oaUuioaa 
nitratai by nitrogan aontant; 12*5 balng a good fdtro^a 
eontant for otaroh nltrata. Ta oaba a largar quantity of tha 
coapauod la aaolly dona oloao tha addition of atarah doaa net 
aauaa tha taoparatura ta rlaa nuah. 

PraparatlOB of dtarah Xltratai Pwty^olght graaa of 
aulfurU aald acd 2 } |raaa of cltrla aeld art olaad Ic a 
35041. baakar and pUaad ta tha cooling ayataa. Aftar tba 
acid Blxtura haa raaahad a taaparatva of 20 a or lawor, 10 
graaa of atarah la alawLy addad, not allowing tha taoparatura 
to rlaa abort 25^* Afitr all tha atarah haa baon addod, tha 
aixtura la aUowad to aat for yC alautaa. fha oixturo la mw 
pourad lato a baakar QoabalAiog 6 OO 4 I. of cold water, and 
atlrrad tor aararal alcutaa, Sm aolutlon io now ftltarad 
and tba atareh nltrata la plaoad lo tha aeld aautraiiaatioo 
aolutlon and laft for 5 Blnutaa. Aftar filtaricg, tha toe- 
pound la |iraa a pK taat and tithar traatod again fer add 
or placad in 6 OO 4 I. of watar at fsr raaoral of alkali. 

It la 71 ry iaportant that tha ac^pcuod la riddad of tha laat 
tracaa of acid for it to parfara proparly. Tba aoapoued la 
now apraad out to dry coaplataly, aftar which tlgt It la raady 
to ba uaad* 

droap J 

Olycarol Trlnltrata 
SodluB Bit rata 
Wood Kail 

20 25 SO AO A5 50 do 75 

TO SO 62 A5 5 K 20 

10 25 6 5 20 20 



Oroup II 

Olycarol Trlnltrata 2025 25 5 OAO 50 5660 

PotaaaiuB hitrata TO 61 A7 61 k> 25 20 1 5 

Wood Kail 10 56 t 9 IT 2? 4 25 

Alxainua dwat 30 

So 4 <ua Chlorlda 20 


PynaAlta waa tha firat high axploalrc uaad for blaotiog 
and ia a till tha calq high axploaiva for cciiBorclal purpeoaa. 

Tho firat dynaalta, uda by AlTrad B« Kebai, waa a ccablna* 
tiac of glyearol trlnltrata and kaiaalgahr, a varlaty of 
dlatouacloua aartb, aa a daianaitiaar. Thla coapoaUion 
la abeam In Oroup 1 . Thla dyoulta, eallad gdhr dynacita, 
haa wiBt ia known aa an inarb baaa. That la, tha abaerbant, 
kalaalgoiir, doaa act ehaaically ehanga vhan tha dyoanlta la 
datcaatad, «riklah naaca that tha d/aaBlCa la not too pewarfvl. 
Tba ethar dynaaitaa contain aatlva baaaa which oocalat of 
wood aaal aa an abaortoot, fual, aad an cccldltar to oxidlta 
it. Tho atraegth of a dyaanlta la ratad by tha total par- 
eantaga of glyearol trioitrata la tha dynanlta. Oroup 11 
oontalco potaaal^a nltrata aa an osldlaar, which la la a a 
hydroacopie than aodluii nltrata that la uaad ta Group Z. 

Tba pfopartlaa of tha addltlvaa, aodluc ehlcrlda and bLub- 

lAUA duat, aa axpUlood btfora, ara to raduea or Ineraaaa 
brlaaiMO aad haat. 


Olycarol Trinitrate 
CaUaloaa Nitrate 
Pouaalva Vitrata 
Sodlw Nitrate 
Voed Keal 

95 92 5? AT 56 56 65 75 

7 8 3 5 4 4 5 5 

48 40 50 22 

52 16 

12 10 10 8 8 4 

Tba icveBtloo of blaatlhg gelatin lad to a new aerlea 
of dynaaitaa called gelAtla dynaaitaa. Slaatlng galatin, 
aa ahova by the above eoApoaitlona, eonalata of glycerol 
trlBltrate that haa baee boU aided with 7-8)( of celluloee 
nitrate. It ia rated at lOOJt atrength and la tha neat 
powerful ioduatfial azploelve ia uae. It la alao the eoat 
brlaaot and anat water reaUtant. It haa a valoeity ^ 
7,800 utera par aeeond at d. 1.65* the aubetltution of 
bleating gelatin for glyearol brlcierate In dynacitea glvaa 
a aerlea it gelatin dynaidteo which, like bleating gelatin, 
hare tba propartlaa of being briaant, water proof, and 
powerful, loth are axoalleat for utidaieAtar work* 

Olycarol trt nitrate 
Colluloao lltrato 
Anaodlw Nitrate 
Potaaaluci lUrate 
Vood Heal 
Sediia Nitrate 

10 10 

70 85 

IQ 7 


20 53 

75 50 
5 10 

10 25 
1 1 
59 64 

15 10 

50 75 
1 5 

50 15 

9 5 

The above coapoaUiona nike uae of anaoniw nitrate for 
an OBldiaar. It ie Ineeraatlng to Mto tha addad power 
aaconlwai nitrate iaparte io theaa oonpoaltiena. Per euapla, 
a atrekght dyaaclta requlraa iOf flysarol trinUrata to hava 
a 6oi power { howoeer, aaiionla dynanltea require aa llttla aa 
2 <r$ to nave the power. AMoala dynaaitaa era very cool 
eaploaivea with Uaited briaaaea whleh produce auli vol\Aca 
of obnoxloua fuaea ^^on detoutloa, eoaaeading chair uae in 
uadergrownd werk. auch aa tuanallag. AaaaonlA nltrata ia 
very hydroeeopU aad mitt ba protected froa aolature, Seeauoe 
of iu detonation proportiea, the beat afreelancy ean aaly be 
obtalced la large dluoater caalnga. The autonlun nitrate 
veralaa of gelatin dynaaitaa ia called aeal-|eUtla dynaaltea 
ea ahnre in tha lent four eapooitioiu. It a brlaane* and 
water raalJtaaea are iaproved aoaewhat and, Ilka atwonU 
dynajaitea. It produeaa dull roluaea of ebnoxioua fuaea. 

They ora eoaetlaea oaed aa a beeater for aattlcg off laaa 
oanaitiva asoalua oAtrata explealvee. 


Stareh Nltrata 
Aaaoniua Nltrata 
Sodl» Nitrate 
Chareoal duet 
Puol Oil 

Qua Arable 

25 24 25 2? 95 96 97 98 
55 35 40 30 
5? 32 28 40 
4 5 4 2 

2 1 

2 2 11 

The above a^loalvea uae atarcb nitrate aa a eeneltlier 
aad, OB o^ 9 lainad before, otarch nitrate U rather InaeneU 
tlvB t« detonatlenj ttaerefora, the exploalvea derrlTed froa 
it are aot. Tha purpoBo of tCB liquid hydrocarbon addltlvoa 
<foel oU and xylone) la t« protoet tha aunure freo aolatura, 
aapaclelly in tbo alatvea eeabalaieg aasonlua nltrata. Tha 
laet four alxeurae aro eallad gronlte, naed in hand grenadaa. 





Fully automatic weapons are notoriously wasteful of amiro but so intri- 
c inq to gun buffs that underground gunsmiths have been publishing crude 
instructions for years, since the ATF has begun cracking down on the sair* 
of auto-conversion kits, the do-it-yourself -from-scr a tch techniques have 
gained popularity. So here are four plans I*ve had lying around for years 
and now hope some of my readers may enjoy the challenge of figuring them 
out. Once you've mastered the technique of converting roost s err. i- automat- 
ics to full -auto you can make money right away by converting your best 
friends' guns until you get that job making license plates. 

AR-15 TO M16 


Tools needed! 

electric drill 
1/4 inch drill bit 

Small pointed metal rotary file/rasp bit 
1/8 Inch drill bit 


Strip AR-15 rifle down to lower receiver. 

Remove the following parts c hand grip (watch out for that detent and 

spring) , safety selector, hammer, carrier, trigger & disconnector. 
Take the necessary parts from the AR-15 carrier and put them into the 
M -16 carrier. 

Take the electric drill and the small rotary rasp bit and grind out the 
area in the lower receiver housing as shown in the crudely drawn diagram 
SEAR. It is only necessary to grind away the metal for about 1 1/4 
inches back towards the buttstock. 

After the above is completed, use the 1/8 inch drill bit to drill the 
hole in the lower receiver housing for the sear pin. Drill STRAIGHT UP 




frofr the letter in the word "FIRE” and come DOWC EXACTLY 5/3 2 of an 

inch. It. is very important to drill this hole in the proper place as 
i nd ] cated . 

this step has been completed you are ready to install the M-lf: 
Paris •’n your 

Install the sear with the IXINGEST part point lug HOWN 

Tbla Ifl A top t1«w of thi insldo of 
th« lowor rdeei?«r B5IDRS th« sotal 
hAi b 0 «D ground avay* Thin MUST bo 
done In ordor to aoko eloaronco for 
tbo H 16 sear* 

To the right ie a top rlov of tho 
lover reeolvor of your APTBR 

the heceeeary aetal hoe bean reaoved* 

Ifpv tho eorreot epaco ood eloaroneo lo provided 
for the Ml 6 tear* 

NOTSi dotted line repreoeoto notol that vat 
renored by grinding* 








Thp main part of this conversion is the Secondary Sear Trip Lcvi?r. 
This part can Pe bent or filed to gain the exact cit you need, AT NO 

't’hc average person can make this conversion using ordinary tools, 
with your weapon on full-auto mode, you can squeevie ofl single shots by 
using trigger control. The rate of fire is up to 750 rounds per minute. 

In the normal firing cycle, the fol loving actions occur t Starting in 
a locked and cocked position with a round in the chamber, the trigger 
IS pulled, This causes the primary scar to move forward, disenquoinq 
the sear from the hammer. The hammer then moves forward and the weapon 
'“ires. Upon firing, the slide and the bolt move to the roar, carrying 
the hurr.mer to the rear. Since the trigger is still in the rearward pos- 
ition, the primary sear is also in the disengaged position. The second- 
ary sear has moved forward and engaged the hammer. (See figure 2). 

When the trigger is released, the primary and secondary sears move 
to the rear. The sejeondary sear then disengages and the primary soar 
engages the hammer. The weapon is then ready to fire. 

Tn full -auto condition the first round is fired norir,al)y. The trig- 
qer is held to the rear. When the slide and bolt move forward, charrbor- 
ing a round the slide contacts the Secondary Sear Trip I. ever (figure 3) 
which cams the secondary sear to the rear, releasing the hammer. The 
weapon will continue to fire until the trigger is released and the pri- 
mary sear engages the hammer. 

Contrary to a popular belief, filing the sear is a mistake. It is a 
dangerous practice and may turn a fine piece of machinery into a booby 
*• rap. 




/^/GUft.6 Twer 



1) Drill Rod, 11/6A or 3/16” diasi^ter, 1/4** long (Secondary Sear Stud). 

2) Key Stock or Soft Iron Flat Bati 1/8" or 3/16” diameter resjwctively (Secondary Sear Trip Lever). 

3) Machine Screw i^lO-24, 1/2” long* (Secondary Sear Trip Lever Pivot). 

4) Sec Screw, ih long x 1/4" dlaaeter with #20 thread (Selector Scud). 

5) Steel Nut, #20 thread, commercial or hand made (Selector Stud Mount). 







The first step is to basically field strip your weapon, the next page offers some additional guidance 

1) remove the magazine 

2) pull the cocking lever to the rear and release . put safety on 

3) open trigger guard latch 

4) remove trigger group 

5) remove barrel and receiver group from stock 

6) remove recoil spring and guide 

7) remove slide 

8) remove stock reinforcement from stock 

Take the stock reinforcement and cut off two pieces with n hack saw as shown below from the right side: 

use hack saw with 
fine blade 

The above procedure will allow clearance for the Trip Lever 
Replace the Stock Relnrorcenenc 



1. Remove magazine (Fig. C). 

5. Remove Barrel/rvceiver aseembly 
from clock (Fig. C). 

2. Foil cocking handle entirely to rear 
and releaie. Pul Safety *'0n*'. (Fig.D). 
(Note; Hammer muat be cocked and 
Safety muat be *‘0n” to accomplish die* 
asaembly and reaaaembly}. 

3. Uaipig a cartridge or other suitable 
tool, spring open trigger guard laU'h 

(Fig. E). 

4. Remove irijTKPr group (Hg. F). 

Fig. HI and 2 

6, Heatove Recaii spring guide and re- 
coil spring (Fig, Hi and 2). Caution* 
Mainspring ia heavily compressed — 
Dae care while disassembling or reas- 
sembling to prevent mainsfiring assem- 
bly from escaping and |wwiibly caiisini: 

Out of the rece i ver. Align Bring pin pro* 
jecllon with slot in lower rv<civcr 
bridge. Remove bnli (Fig, J), 

Furtlier dl.^a^embly siinnM not be re- 
quirrd .»nd i» not rvtommindeil iiiili*>ss 
performed by rtimpetenl persoiw ex- 
perienced in gunsmllhing. 


Rcnove Secondary Sear 

Whun soldering* foHow Jireccions on Lite Flux r.onteiiier and properly apply flux fo scar, place. Scar Stud 
on flux ond then solder using a good propane or accryUtiu Lorr.h. 

Replace Senondary Sear 

Taking the Receiver* drill and top ?IO-2/i hole for Trip Lever Pivot. You nfghc aark your drilling apoL with « 
center punchi Dee a 1/6 or drili bit. U»c a ftO*24 starter tap. 

Grind mecal from receiver co provide clearance for Trip Lever. A disk grinder or a file will do this well. 
Once the hole is drilled, use a tf 20-24 starter tap to thread the hole with. 

Now using the Trip Lever Pivot i install the Trip Lever. Once the Pivot Screw Is tight, you will want to cut 
off and file flush any exposed threads froii the Inner side as to not interfere with the magazine track. Also 
it Is advisable to use Loc-'Tlght to Insure the Pivot stays lo place in a PIRB FIGHT. 

Using the Parts Nonenclature diagram as a guideline* silver solder the Selector Stud Pount to the Slide. 



The Trip lever must be in place. 

Vhen aligning Che KounC» insert the 
Stud to get accurate alignment. Benove 
Che Stud before actually soldering the 
Nount Co Che Slide. 

Inetell the Trigger Group onto Che receiver, when you do this be sure che Trip Lever a cays In proper 
conflguraelOA vieh the Sear Stud as ahovn below. 

ye 4 

Install Recoil Spring and Operating Slide. 

Kow inlet the stock for clearance of the Trip Lever. Do this by aligning the stock and barrel/receiver assembly, 
then using a chisel or similar wood working tool* csske the proper cuts. Tn addition Cn Che obvious cut-out on 
the outside, it is necessary to cut-out an area on the Inside on Che right side to allow clearance for the 
Trip Lever. 


Now assemble che 



Partially screw In the Selector Stud. You are now ready to aake the final adjuscnent. Place the safety In the 
Fire position, depress the trigser and leave it depressed until T tell you to let It up. Pull the slide to the 

rear and release It, screw down the Selector Stud until the Secondary Sear Is disengaged and the haointer falls, 

at this point the weapon is on AUTOMATIC. HOW YOU CAN LET UP ON THE TRIGGER. 

A) Now at this point, measure the amount of thread between the Stud Itount and the Trip Lever (a^ and mark Ic, 
then tighten the Stud all the way down, take neasurement (a) and measure from point (b) toward the elp, 
you will be at point (c), cut off the excess from point <c) toward the tip. Now when the Stud la tight, the 

weapon will be on AUTO and when it is becked off It will be on SEMI. You could stake the end of the Stud with 

a center punch or chisel, ehia will provide a stop for the Selector Stud when it Is backed out in the SEHt 
position, see (d) . 

TNI piiMwtr 
<0 ^4 (t> li tHf 
Ai e«rw(tdfo MiJ 

You are now ready to test fire your weapon. 





Complete Construction Plans 

for the 

Scale Drawings - Parts List 

1. (1) brl. cal. .45 blank .750 dia 

2. (1) 16^" seamless tubing 1.250 ID./ .002 wall (@ Sl.25 ft.) - Approximately . . . 

а. (2) Aluminum bar ‘*6061 or 2024 414 diameter (3** needed per) ^SOc per lb 

4. (1) W* wide x 1/8** thick iron strap ^ 61.28 per 20* Approximately 

5. (2) 44** wide x 1/8 thick iron strap 9 $1.30 per 20* — Approximately 

б. (1) Steel bar (C/R or H.S.T.) 6H* pr 

7. (1) Steel Spring (diameter 14/8 to 1.3/16 x 10** long 

8. CD 6/16** X 18” bolt (1.3/8** long) & nut 

9. (1) 10x32 Allen set screw t4** long 

10. (8) 10 X 82 ovalheed screw *4** long 

11. (2) Pins W’* diameter & 8/18” diameter (l”1ong) 

12. (2) Cotter pins 1/16*' diameter long 915c for 40 pint 

13. <1) 1/16** thick fheet-raetel S^^xS” 

14. (1) 5/16” X 24'* bolt IH” long 

16. (1) 6/8*' wide z W thick Ste^ Cold RoU or Hot RoD Steel 

16. (1) Spring 3/8” diameter x 3/8” long 

17. (1) pin, H” long x 1/8** diameter (Sted drill rod) 

18. (1) tv* X 44” Square tubing (Sled with .062 waD) 2** per 

19. (1) Wood IW* wide X % thick x 5” long, preferaUy hardwood 

20. (2) Wood screws 1/8” diameter x V4”long 

21. (1 ) Front sight; make or buy 

22. (1) Rear make or buy 

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3/4 '.155 DIA PIW PEEHCD OR 

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Use a vertical mill or drill press if at all possible. Set up blank 
betveen centers and mill, Use a 1/4- end niu for all of the ports as 
they have a 1/8 radius on each corner. The charging handle slot is made 


L i } 


vi Lh a 2/^'' €*r>d rp.ill in all areas, depending on your type of extractor, 
it aets a l^ole or slot in the area indicated in the magazine area. File 
Lo fit. 

Due to the St«?n being manu-actured in irony allied countries on vari- 
ous Tnachinery, bolt diaineters vary. Your bolt will most likely fit CK, 
by L you may noed to polish the Lubos inside with an automobile brake 
cylinder hone and kerosene BEFORE cutting ports. 

Tho end of the Lube marked in yellow will get the barrel bushing. 

After assembly of the weapon, locate and drill a 1/4" hole for the 
barrel retaining lock. Check how the bushing goes in before welding it 
into place. 

The ejector may have to be filed for proper fit. The bolt should be 
able Lo slide freely over the ejector while still being high enough to 
vnrk properly. Test with an empty case or dummy round. 

When welding the tube to the rear housing, place a snug fitting dowel 
through the housing into tho tube to maintain the proper alignment of 
•t'heee two parts. The tabs on the trigger housing are welded to the tube. 
Weld the tube to the housing, THEN align the barrel bushing. 

NOTEi Tt. win probably be necessary to slightly enlarge the inside dia- 
meter of the magazine housii^ bund where it slides over tho tubei This 
i s normul . 

Tli^Si .Test with dummy rounds. 

•Ejector is fitt^ just behind magazine port (seo ejector page). 

.Mount a front sight on the magazine housing. Otherwise, you won’t 
be able to remove this housing tf you have to. 

Hole for barrel 
collar top lock 

The two holes (1/4") in the barrel bushing shown her© are to be dril- 
led through the Lubrng and through the barrel bushing for the respective 
lockxng devices. Since the barrel bushings vary, it is best to measure 
yours. No measurement is given since they vary. The holes are best dril- 
led after the bushing is welded in place. Ejectors vary also, but the 
ejector page should be of help. 


Top V/i’tw 

Cvr* V 

6f fiff&CTA(V 






This is your rear cut. 

Locate the magazine port. (Left Side) . Measure forward from the front 
edge nf this port, 1.078*', This is your front cut. Actually, the size of 
the eioction (right side) is arbitrary. You may wish to change the shape 
of this port to suit your taste. 

Remember* The charging handle slot is rotated 25 degrees from hori- 
zonfal . 

IMPORTANT I As shown in the above diagram# the tube is butted up 
against the rear ring and welded. When stripping your parts hit, 00 NOT 
REMOVE old piece of Lube inside this ring. The tube part has two '*000 
leg cute" in it to retain the mainspring cap retainer. The tube measure- 
ments are generated from the front face of this ring forward. 

Read all notes and instructions before proceeding, 

yo^ have access to a vertical milling machine, this is 
the easiest and best. Set up the receiver blank between centers or in a 
good mill vise and mi ] 1 (being careful not to crush the Q.D.). The el- 
ection port, magazine well and trigger port all have a 1/8" radius in 
each corner - so use a 1/4" end mill. The cocking handle slot is 3/8" 
wide in all areas - so use a X/4" end mill. The small hole behind the 
magazine port is for the ejector. Drill the hole 5/32", The two larger 
holes in front of the magazine port are for the magazine housing lock. 
Drill these holes 1/4". (The furthest forward is for the barrel lock). 

Method #2 To complete with a hand drill and file or Dremel style 
Moto-Tool (using cut-off disks). Place receiver blank in a vise, being 
careful not to crush the tube. Then, take a center punch and mark it 
for a 1/4" drill in each corner of the ports and ends of the slot. 




He ill out the comers of the blacKed in areas first, then drill more 
holes inside the blacXed in areas to remove the metal along the straight 
edges(being careful to stay inside the black areas) • Drill all the small 

holes as in method #1. 


1 . The barrel bushing must be turned dovn by lathe to an outside diame- 
ter of 1 . 39fl*’ - 1.400” (slip fit into tube). The best method is to turn 
the barrel bushing between centers for a concentric cut. DO NOT REMOVE 
THE ORIGINALS ( mr>dern stock sizes). The barrel bushing should be 1.5*' 
long. Slide the barrel bushing into the front of the receiver tubing 
until flush and silver -braze, spot -weld or button-weld into place. 

2. The ejector fits into the hole behind the magazine port. It should be 
silver-brazed in place. Filing the top of the ejector may be required to 
get a proper fit. The bolt must be able to just slide freely over the 
top of the ejector. Test with an empty cartridge case. When the action 
is worked rapidly, the case should be thrown clear of the action. 

3. The trigger group and rear housing should be welded onto the receiver 

4. The magazine housing may require some materiel removed from the in- 
terior diameter to allow it to slide freely over the receiver when as- 
sembling the gun. 

5. After the barrel bushing is welded in place, the furthest forward 
hole should be drilled completely through on one side to allow the bar- 
rel lock to contact the serrations on the barrel. The hole drilled pre- 
viously in the receiver tubing acts as a guide for this step. 

CAUTIONS This gun fires from an open bolt. Never close the bolt on a 
live round or the gun will fire. 

This diagram is intended for use with OFIGINAI. barrel bushirvg. It is 
pressed in tho front and heliarc-velded. This diaqrara vas prepared from 

an actual uncut Sten and also Austen, 

POOR JAHES BOND Vol . i I ■ f AUi'UPiAii^ w£.Arurgb 










FORMULAS A PROCESSES 1E72 . . .. (INDEX 167) 156 





Many of the chemical terms in this book 
are so outdated you may not understand 
them. If you don’t already have GRAND- 
ISTRY» get one. It has a dictionary of over 
2500 definitions and synonyms of vague 
and old-fashioned terms for chemicals, 
plants, processes, etc. 

It also details the 19th Century methods 
of home manufacturing of most chemicals 
and substances you will need, from simple, 
easy to get raw materials. 

OF CHEMISTRY can be bought from 
Allan Formularies and other dealers for 


Dick’s Encyclopedia of Practical Recipes 
and Processes was first published in 1872. 
It details methods for making everything 
from deadly poisons to high explosives, 
narcotics, shoe polish, all the most popular 
patent medicines of the day and ketchup. 

When that book was published, most of 
those who would misuse its information 
were in prisons or nuthouses. The rational, 
lawabiding person was trusted with no 
end of potentially dangerous materials. He 
was also trusted to teach his children the 
dangers of anything they were permitted 
to use, such as fireworks. His children 
were trusted, not only in playing with the 
fireworks safely, but they were also 
trusted not to cause damage to property 
or to other children. 

There were very few injuries; less than 
kids got from falling out of their neighbor's 
apple trees. 

Since the governors trusted the people, 
the people accepted the responsibility 
imposed by that trust. In the same sense, 
the children accepted the responsibility 
imposed by their parents' trust. 

As more people were bwn into our 
society who were mentally defective, or 
just naturally stupid and irresponsible. 

many wonderful things were made illegal. 
In 1934 firearm silencers were outlawed. 
As one of the noisiest children in Brooklyn, 
I didn't miss silencers. At the same time, 
automatic weapons were also outlawed. I 
didn't know about that. I took it for 
granted that as soon as 1 got bigger I 
would own a Tommygun. 

When i was seven 1 remember buying 
firecrackers for five cents for a packet of 
20. I liked to put them under tin cans. 
Often 1 would spend hours building 
elaborate fortifications for my toy soldiers 
just so 1 could blow them all up. 

I never suffered an injury worse than a 
flash-burn. I never knew anyone who had 
been seriously hurt. When anyone was 
damaged the tale was passed around and 
elaborated on but such stories just served 
to make the rest of us more careful. 

Later, in Chicago, I remember fire- 
crackers were made illegal. This shot the 
price up to 20c for a packet of 20. The torch 
of Al Capone was passed down to 
teeny-bopper gangsters and there seemed 
to be more firecrackers sold illegally than 
had been sold when they were legal. 

Then there were injuries aplenty. Many 
people were hurt when packs of fire-» 

POOR MA^> ' S .’AMES BOND Vol . 1 



crackers were set off in crowded street- 
cars or elevators, Since firecrackers were 
illegal there was no instruction or parental 
guidance, Also, since the norma), open, use 
of firecrackers was out of the question, 
their abnormal and destructive use was 
the rule of the day. 

Today, the average fire marshal is 
dedicated to removing all fireworks 
our society. I agree with most of their 
arguments. Fireworks are unsafe when 
used only by those who have no respect for 
the law. 

But since the main harm is caused by 
ihc irresponsible and dimwitted in our 
society, then those elements must be 
suppressed, not the rational ones. I'm just 
^elfish enough to want the moron or the 
psychotic to be confined if his freedom 
' akes away mine. If he is not to be trusted 
with fireworks, guns, etc., then let him be 
put in a nice place where attendants or 
guards can control the traffic in potentially 
dangerous things. 

Do we live in a nation-wide mental 
institution, where the police officer is 
supposed to function as a nuthouse 
attendant, seeing that none of us have 
anything sharp, lest a real sickie hurt 
someone? To Hell with that! 

Alcoholics, improvident and violent 
drunks, spurred the adoption of Pro- 
hibition, This took away the freedom of 
the responsible social drinker and built a 
criminal class which is still a fixture 
decades after Prohibition has ended. 

So enough of editorializing. When the 
Law comes to its senses, or is made 
ineffective by just too many boobs, you 
will be free to play with potentially 
dangerous materials to your heart's 

Even if you are responsible and 

intelligent, knowledge of the materials and 
processes is necessary to avoid injuries. 
Such knowledge is now pretty much 
limited to professionals who use such 
technical methods and machinery that the 
layman is effectively barred from their 

However, Granddad made just as good 
stuff with simple hand tools and such. So, 
since you have this book, you should be 
pretty safe. 

You must realize that Granddad learned 
from the ground up and had a thorough 
understanding of his materials. You ought 
to look up each chemical and study its 
specific hazards, flashpoint, etc., before 
pulverizing it or mixing it with other 

Always wear goggles when working 
with any quantity of potentially explosive 
material. Even a small accident can blind 
you. If you are not blinded, particles of 
matter in the eyeballs can cause agony for 
months. Simple goggles prevent this. 

tjeather gloves are useful, also, to 
prevent flash burns, which can be severe. 
The hand protectors described on page 48 
are required when working with materials 
like potassium chlorate or other explosive 

When following these formulas it is 
suggested you make your own chemicals 
as shown in GRANDDAD'S WONDER- 
Allan Formularies. 

Modern chemicals have a greater purity 
and so would probably be a lot more 
powerful than those described in this 
book. This could cause your fireworks to 
be far more powerful than you want or 
expect them to be, thus leading to a lack of 
control, which is a danger in itself, 





The Scientific American Cyclopedia 1903 

PyrotocUny. — Asteroid Hockat. — Compo- 
sition for 1 lb.: Niter, 8 02.; flue charcoal* r* 
02.; No. 2 charcoal, oi.; sulphur, 2o&; m< 
powder, oz. 

Uurstino Powder. 





Meal powder 




Grain powder F 






Chlorate Meal Powder. 





Chlorate of potash 




Charcoal, fine 








To Re^&ant Cordage irt FCreuv»r^— Aotl* 
mony, 1 part: juniper resin, I part; niter* Z 
pdrta; sulphur, iS parts. Mix and soeb soft 
ropes with the composition. 

Comnvoi Ami ^’parlrUng 1. Meal pow* 

Oer, i parts; charuoal, \ part. 

S. Meal powder. 10 uarw niter. 8 parts; eul* 
phur 4 parts; charcoal, i parts. 

8. Meal powder, Id parts; very tine alaas 4ust* 
6 parts. 

4. Meal powder, 8 rarts; very finely powdered 
porcelain, 3 parts. These fires can be arranged 
very effectively as stats, euna. etc. for in- 
stance, provide a circular disk of hard wood, 
d Id. in diameter and I In. thick. Nall to tbls 
9 apokee of wood at equal dlstaoces troin one 
another, aod 15 in. long. Nall also to the back 
of the central disk a strip of wood about 2 feet 
long. Inches wide, and H Inch thick. By 
nteaQa of this you can ecrew tbe whole piece odd* 
venlently to your firing post On eacn of the 5 
spokea w a case of bnillant Are* supported at 
its end, and ooonect tbe mouths of these with 
quick match. 

Red ChintM Pire.—!, Meal powder. 16 parts; 
niter. 16 parts; sulphur. 4 parts; cnareoa) 4 
parts: iron borings. 14 parts. 

2. Meal powder. 16 parts; sulpbur, 8 parts; 
tbarcoal, s parts: iron borings, t parta 

8. Meal powder, 8 parts; otter, 16 part^ sul- 

f bur, 3 parts; charcoal; 8 parts; Iron borings, 

4. Meal powder, 16 parts; niter. 8 parts; sul* 

f hur, 4 parts; <^rooal* 3 parts; Iron borings* 

On Preporing Some Colored Firee (Bengal 
Liohte) U$ed in PyroUchny.^By Sergius Kent 
Petersburg). — Id preparing colored 
fires for fireworks by means of tbe usual 
f ormuls given in many manuals of pyrotechny. 

It is often very necessary to know the quick- 
neas of burning of colored fires, as in some 
cases* as decorations and lances, they must 
burn slowly; in other cases, as wheels, stars for 
rockets* and Homan candles, they must burn 
quicker. Working for somemonm with many 

compositions of such kind. 1 prepared three 
tables of colored fires (red. green and violet), 
where every formula with a higher num- 
ber burns quicker than a fire with a lower 
number. For iostanoe. No. 5 burns quicker 
thao No. 6 and slower than No. 4. These tables 
will. I think, be of much assistance In tbe pre- 
paration of fireworks. 

Oreeti OAored Firu. — 







Per cent. 

Per esni. 

Psr eent, 





Z .. 

. . .38 




.... 24 




. ...21 












« « 4 » » 



8 -. 








16 .. 




U .. 




12 .. 

6 5 



13. . 






70 5 






Red Colored Arcs.— 









Per oeot 

Per oeot. 


Per cent. 

1 .. 

*... ¥> 




2 .. 




8 .. 





4 . 










6 .. 







61 6 

21 2 


8 .. 





9 . 










, ...u 









12 . 


^ 25 







0 75 






Kiolet Colored Fires — 









Per oeot. 

Per eent. 

Per cent 

Per cent. 






2 .. 

















5. . • . 













, ..61 







10 .. 









.. 61 











15.. M 












Cfilored Fires for TKeat^,-We give beloir 
a table of the coxnpoajUoD of tbe mixture 
comcBonly employed for colored ftr« In tab- 
leaux. etc. Theae Area, however, should nerer 
be used witmn doors, aa the gaseous produota 
of some of them are extremely poisoooua. Tbe 
lime light lanterns end lensea of suits 61 / col- 
ored glass have now been generally subetituied 
(or these Area, and give much better results. 



1 2 

3 1 4 

Yellow (Blue 



, White 

Chlorate ot' 



9 8, 









M 5 





Charcoal.. ., 
Nitrate ot'tM- 


Nitrate of 

stroritia I 

Nitrate ot so- 

45 7 


9 s: 





aulphate of 



black sul- 
phide of an- 


27 4 



Kioury gun- 
powder .... 




It is haixlly necessary to mention that great 
care la required in mixing these materials, and 
that each should be pulverized separately. 

hiruftr L#{/hta, Oot»/T«d.— These fires serve to 
tUuminate; hence intensity of light with as 
iittleemokc us poeelblo is aimed at. In tbe pre* 
pHration of such mixtures the ingredients, 
which should be perfectly dry. must be re- 
duced separately, by grinding in mortar 
or othcpwiBO to very tine powders, and then 
thoroughly but carefully mixed logger on 
beets of paper with the hands or by means of 
cardboard or burn spatulas. The mixtures are 
U*at packed in capsules or tubes about 1 in. in 
< 1 lametcr and from 6 to 1 n. lo ng, made of stiff 
writing paper. Greater regularity in burning 
IS secured by moistening the mixttires with a 
little whisky and packing them flymiy down 
in tbo coses by means of a wooden cyiind^, 
then drying. To facilitate ignition a amaii 

quantity of a powder composed of mealed pow. 
der, 16 parts; niter. 2 parts; sulphur, 1 part, and 
charcoal. I part, loosely twisted in thin paper, 
is inserted in the top. The tubes are b^t tied 
to sticks fastened in the ground. 

White Lights-— 

Saiipcter 4 oz. 

Sulphur 1 oz. 

Black sulphide of antimony 1 oz, 

Teiiow l.lgbts." 

1. Chlorate of potash 4 oz. 

. Sulphide of antimony 2 oz. 

Sulphur 2 02 . 

Oxalate of aoda 1 oz. 

2. S^tpeter. 140 

Sulfuiur 45 

Oxalate of soda 80 

Lampblack 1 

Ureen Lighta.— 

L Chlorate of baryta 2 

Nitrate of baryta 3 

Sulphur j 

2. Chlorate of potash 20 

Nitrate of baryta 21 


Hed Lights.— 

Nitrate of atrontia 35 

Chlorate of potash 15 


Black sulphide of antimony^!.*.* 4 
Mastic 1 

Pink Lights.— 

Cblorate of potash 12 


Milk sugar 4 

l^oopodlum I 

Oxalate of strootia ) 
















02 . 

02 . 




Blue Lights.— 

Chlorate of potash..., 3 ©z. 

Sulphur,... ...... 1 o*. 

AmmoDio-sulphate of ooppor. . . l o& 

r ^9 / where tbe mlxturee ai« 
united in shallow pans and maintained byad- 
aitione of the powders, the compositions are 
somewhat different. 

White Piro.- 


^ . 1 A 


Mealed powder 

s % 4 # « 1 % av 





Yellow Fire.- 





Nitrate of soda 





Red Fire.- 





Nitrate of strontla. 







Lampblack i oz. 


Niter 8 oz. 

Sulphur. S ot 

Sulphate of coppor, 4 or. 

Green Pire. — 

Niter u O*. 

Sulphur. .16 o& 

Nitrate of baryta 48 os. 

Lampblack 1 os. 

Ftve^PoiTUed Star. 




Meal powder 







Sulphide of antlmnn? 



' 1 

Bengal Fire.- 

Sulphur 4 o*. 

MeakHl powder 4 os. 

Antimony 2 os. 

lAmpblaok IS to. 

Prom the JVenum J>rv4rp(8t; 

Bed Fire. - 

StroDtlum nitrate 8 part^ 

Potasaium chlorate 1 part. 

ShelUCi In coarse powder . ..... I part. 


Green Fire.— 

Barium nitrate.... . .. 8 parte. 

Fotassluffl chlorate 1 part. 

Shellac.., 1 part. 


Violet Fire.- 

Calcium carbonate... . 8 parte. 

Malachite 8 parte 

Sulphur 2 parta. 

Potassium otdorate S par^ 


Purple Fire.— 

Copper sulphide 1 part. 

Strontium nitrate 14 parta. 

Calomel 14 parta. 

Potasal urn chlorate 16 parta. 

Shellac 0 parte. 


On account of the calom^ this must not be 
burned Indoors. 

Yellow Fire.— 

Sodium nitrate 

Potassium chlorate 



,. a 
.. 1 
. i 




Blue Fire.— 

Copper ammonia sulphate. 

Potassium chlorate. 

.. 1 




, 1 


Spur FHf€,/or RTouw Pots and Star Candles 


1 r 








Veget^le black 




















iteaJw, or sulphide of ar- 















1 A 

Meal powder 













CharocaU. 1 







PWe, Composition for.- Niter, 18 
parts: sulphur. 8 parts: lampblack, 6 parte! 





Meal powder.... 
Steel flllnire.... 
Out iron Sort 
CbarccMU. ... 

Coke eralna. 

Poremio irralns 











1 5 


































. 1 













“ 1 













The Mixture ptr O^MenRain is Componed of.— 

Nit«r le oz. 

Sulphur 11 ox. 

Mealed powder 4 o^. 

UUDpblack 8 os. 

TIowers of dno 1 oz 

Gum arable 1 oz 

All the mateiialB used In fireworks must be 
in tbestate of fine powders and perfectly diy. 

Gimpmolsr.— The Component parta of gun- 
powder are saltpeter, sulphur, and charcoal, 
used in the following proportions: 

1. Bo^Uh war powder.-Saltpeter, 76 parts; 
sulphur, 10 parts; charcoal, 15 parts. 

a. French war powder.— Saltpeter, 75 parts: 
sulphur, 12*5 parts; charcoal, 13*6 parts. 

X KiOfich sporting powder.— ^tpeter. 76*9 
MTtK sulphur, dii parts: charcoal, i3*5 parts. 
4. Fronen blasting powder. — Saltpeter, 68* 




VurU: suipbuv. 'S\ parts: cbarcoaU 18 parts. 

There areaDumbcror variat i ods of the above 
receipts, but the difference, which U purely a 
tnatter of upicion, consists pHnclpaby in vary* 
in^ tbe qiaaotity of sulphur or charcoal em- 










Meal |»owder 




F. F. F. grain 




Laneti.^l. Croces are small paper casea, two 
to four in. io diameter, flUed with coenpoaitton, 
and are used to mark tbe outlines of Aaurea. 
They are attached endwise to light wooden 
frames or sticks of bamboo and connected by 
streamers or quick match. The following are 
some of the compositions used in these: 

Whlta 7aUow Bad Stoa Or sen 



la d 





U) t 


Mealed powder 



7^ — 

Nitrate of soda..,. 





Nitrate otstronriiL 


80 - 

.Sulphate of copper 


• 4 

Nitrate of barym.. 



Lances are used la making up dertcec,eucb 
as rtames. mottoes, wreaths, and eo on* Tbey 
consist OT small casaa. gaoeraUy made about 
A of an Inch In diameter, that la round a piece 

of glass or brass rod or tube of that else; tubes 
are always beat for theee small forttkeia. na 
caaoa are about 2 or ^ lQ> long, with ooa aod 

S inched or turned in. Two rounds of tfalo 
emy or double crown white paper, pasted, 
will give aulfioient tblckoeas and^ aubetaboefor 
the case. Tbe caaea, when dry, are to be filled 
with either of the compoeltloos In the same 
09 golden rain: 

mpoaitions for Lances. White.—!. Niter, 
16 perw: sulphur. 8 parts; meal powder, 6 parts. 

2. Niter, 16 parte; sulphur, 4 parts; meal pow- 
6 parts. 

3. Niter, 12 parts; sulphur, 4 parts; auJphldeof 
antimony, 3 parts. 

4. Niter, 72 parts; sulphur, IS parts; regulos 
of antimony, S3 parts; realgar. 1 part; sheQae, 1 

b. Niter, 96 parts: sulphur, 24 parts; cegulua 
of antimony, 46 parts; realgar. 6 parts; shellac, 
1 part. These for tbe most part give a bluish 
white flame, and when employed In caaee of the 
size mentioned above, bum slowly, and will 
last as long as this epecleeof firework is re- 
quired to last. 

Tellow. — L Chloride of potash, 7Z parte 
oxal. soda, 60 parts; stearine, dpart^* Bulpnur, 6 

Pin Wh€€U, 

Number...,. ,..1 







1 8 

































Meal powder. ... 


' 9 














Antinni^n V 




Beech sawdust, 








Orpiment, or 







Nitrate of iMd. 











Compositions for Pin Wheels, ate.— 

Common. Brilliant. Cblneee. White. 

Niter 6 116 

Sulphur.... 1 1 1 T 

Mealed pow* 

der lA 16 7 16 

Charcoal.... 6 ^ ^ 

Steel filings. — 7 . ... 

Cast iron nU 

Inga -• f •— 

Port Pirt» 




8 ' 


Meal powder 



1 1 













Qulc* Ifotch.— Make a tblok paste of gun- 
powder and hot water, with a amall quantity 
of gum in It. Take aTOUt four atranda of oo^ 

ton, aucb as la sold in bails and used for making 
the wicks of lamps, steep this in tbe solution of 
niter used for making touch paper, and wring 
Hasdryaa possible: then ruo It well in the 
gunpowder paste till it is thoroughly covered 
with it. One end of tbe cotton may be passed 
through a small funnel, whose mouth is not 
more thau yi in. in width. By this means, if 
the whole length of the cotton is drawn 
through iL the superfluous paste will bo re* 
moved, and tbe match will be of a nice round 
form. Hang it out of doors on a dry day, and 
when it is nearly dry coll it upon a tray or 
paper, and dust it over with meal powder. In 
winter it will not be sufficiently dry for use 
under a week. When thoroughly dry it should 
be stiff and hard, and the less it is bent or 
doubled the better. To use this match for con* 
neeting the mouths of different fireworks, or 
clothing them, as it is termed, make some long 




paper tub«8 round a wire former which has a 
r of not less tha a in . T heac pi pea are 
tnreadM on the match, and have a piece cut 
*way at their sides wherever they are ioeerted 
into the mouth of a case, in onier that the 
match maybe laid bare and convey Ita fire to 
the priming of the cases. 







Steel filings 

Meal powder 

Niter .... 


2 ' 







1 — 







_ _ 


Nitrate ot lead 




OoUi Ratn. 






















Meal powder..,. 

: 16 






Rockets, Compositionfor. -1. Niter, fl 

sulphur, 8 oi.j meal powder, Moz.i fine 
<4iarcoal, No. 8charo^, 8oz. 

2. Niter, 8 oz.; sulphur, 2 os.; meal powder, 
Moz.; fine charcoal, 4oz. 

3. Niter, 8oz.; sulphur, Os.; fine charcoal, 
8 os.; No. 2 charcoal, l^os. 

Rockets, Composition for.—I. Niter, 8 
os.: sulphur, IH os.; meal powder, 2 oz.; fine 
charcoal. os.; No. 8. charcoal, l^oz. 

2 . Niter, fi os.: sulphur. oz.; meal powder, 
2H os.: fine charcoal, Z oz.; No. 2 charcoal, 
2os. ' 

8. Pine fire.— Niter, 6 oz.; sulphur, 2 oz.; meal 
powder. SK oz.; fine charcoal, 4 oz. 

Roman Candle. 













U 12 




Sulphur. ... 



I 8 








81 3 


Charcoal .... 










9 8 














18 10, 











































1 8 












2 1 




1 n 1 
























16 1 








Meal powder 
















Steel filings 











Roman CandUs,^To MaheaHEloiziatiOaiidtow 
-Procure a straight piece of brass tube, M of 
an inch external aiameter and inches foog. 
daw or file oO a piece, ioob long, Flg/X 
This is for the star former, and is drawn oi tbe 
correct size. 

In the other piece, of 16 inches, fix a handle, 
as shown, in diminutive, in Fig. 7. This is for 
the case former. It should be filed smooth at 
the end. 

Take another piece of brass tube, A of so 
inch external diameter and about IdH inob» 
long. In this also fix a handle, or fix it into a 
handle, Fig. 4. Invert it, and set it upright in 
a tlower pot, filled with sand or loose mould. 
Melt some lead in a ladle, and pour it slowly 
into the tube* leaving room for the air to es> 
cape up the side, till it is full. If the lead Is 
poured in rapidly, the confined air, expanding, 
jerks the metal up, and may cause serious 
injury. A pound or more of lead ill .'e- 
quired. When cold, drive the end of the lead in 
with a hammer, and 'He in smooth. Thi^ Is for 
a rammer. 

Take a piece of deal. Fig. 8, about 12 Inches 
long, 6 inches broad, and ^ inch thick; and, on 
the top. screw a handle, like one on a scmblng 
brush. Ibis is for a rolling board. An Iron 
door handle would answer. A wooden one, 
however, about an inch thick, not cyUndHcah 
but slightly flat, and rounded at the edges, is 
preferable, as it gives more purchase for tbe 

Cut apiece ot tin, or zinc, or thin board Into 
the shape of figures, in which the distance be* 
tween the arms, a and b, across the dotted 
line, shall be ^ uf an inch. This la for a gauge, 
with which to measuro the external diameter of 
the case. Write upon it, ^ space. 

Procure some 60 lb., 70 lb. or 84 lb. imperial 
brown paper; the size of a sheet will be 20 In. 
by Cut a sheet into four equal parts, oach 
14|4by LU4« paste the four pieces on one side, 
axidlay tb^ on one another, with the pasted 
face upward, putting the fourth piece with 
the pasted side downward, upon the pasted 
aide of the third piece. Turn tnem over; take 
off the now top piece, and lay it flat on tbe 




near edge of a table, pasted aide upward* 
Take the former. Fig. 7, and paste the tube all 
o7er. Lay it along the edge or the paper, bend 
the paper OTer with the fingers of both hands, 
and roll it tightly up, until the external diam- 
eter of the case about fits the guaae. Pig. CL 
If the paper should be too long, oz coume a 
pleco must be cut olf ; If it should not be long 
enough, more must be added, taking care to 
bind in the second piece with three or four 
inches of the first piece; for If the whole of 
the first piece be rolled up before beginning 
tne second, the latter, when dry, will prohabig 
Slip off and spoil the case, rnie case baring 
been rolled up. take the handle of former 
in the loft band, lay the case flat on the near 
side of the table. taVe the roiling board, Plg.d^ 
In the right band, press the front part of It on 
the case, and drive It forward five or six tlm^ 
like a Jack plane, letting the handle of the 
former slip round Jo the left hand. This will 
tighten the case, and render It, when dir«aa 
h^d as a book cover. 

The former must always be pasted before 
rolling a ease, to prevent ita sticking. It 
should, likewise, be wiped clean with a damp 
sponge before being laid aside. Brass lutew 
keep cleans much longer time if lac*^ucred. 
To laoQuer them, clean chom with very noe 
glass paper; make them hot by the fire, till you 
can just bear them on the back of tbe band : 
then, with a camel's hair pencil, wash them 
over with thin lac soluilou. Tbe cases may be 
either USi or UM in. long; but ]l >4 is the best, 
tor when the cases are too long, the fuse, as it 
approaches the bottom, is apt. il slow, to 
smoke ; if fierce, to set tbe top of the case in a 
flame. If tbe learner decides upon l\y% In., 
tbe former and rammer may each be iwoor 
three inobes shorter. 

After the first case has twen rolled up to fit 
tbe gauge, ic may be unrolled and tbe paper 
measured. Future pieces of tbe same QUirc 
of paper oan then be cut of the right sixe at 
once, so that tbe oase will fit tbe gauge without 
further trouble. 

A Icrge slab of slate is convenient for rolling 
upon, but a smoothly planed board will answer 
every purpose. 

When a numoer of cases are finished hitch a 

f iece ot flax two or three times round each of 
hem, and hang them up to dry In a place free 
from draught, that they may not warp. 

Flax is sold in balls; the thick yellow Is tbe 
best. It Is named inditterently, nax or hemp. 
It is much used byshoemakera and is sold at 
tbe leather shops. Two or three thick nesses of 
this, waxed, or drawn through tbe bai^ with a 
little paste, is very convenient for passing 
round the necks of small choked cagf fi, ^yicig 
cases on wheels, etc. 

To Make a Homan Candle Star.— Take tbe 
former. Fig. 1, which, as eaid before, Is in. 
long; have a cylindrical piece of turned wuod, 
box, beech or mahogany. Fig. '4 about fi in. 
long, and of a diameter to just fit easily into 

Fig. 1. At a point, u. at the distance of about 
^of an inch from the end. d, with a bradawl or 
very small gimlet ornosebic, make a hole and 
drive in a piece of brass wire, to project just so 
much as to prevent the tube slipping over It. 
A piece of a brass rivet, such us used by shoe- 
makera, is convenlom for the purpose. -The 

K irt with the bead on is boat; a (luartor <if an 
cb length will be sufficient, filed or out o(f 
with the nippers. It Is evident that upon in- 
serting Fig. 3 in the tube, Kig. 1. a vacant 
roace of Hof an Inch will be left at tbe bottom. 
Pig. 3 is a piece of turned wood, or bettor still, 
of turned brass, exactly like Fig. 2, without the 
side pin, a. Now, to pump a star, insert Fig. 2 
In Pig. 1; press the tube into damped cumpcal- 
tloo, turn it round and withdraw It. Host the 
tnbeon a fiat surface. Insert Fig. 3 and give it 
two or three taps with a small mallet, like Fig. 
28. A convenient size for the mallet Is IHlo. 
SQuare, 3 in. long, with a turned handle. The 
mallet is best made of bccch or mahogany. Tbe 
slight malleting consolidates the star and pre- 
vents it from getting broken In charging; It 
will compress It to about nioe-slx teen tbs of an 
Inch Id height. Push it out and set it by to 

liars are best made in summer, and dried in 
the MiMhloe: when dry they should be put 
flilo clean pickle bottles furnished with tight 
fitting buugs. A piece of wash leather paAed 
^er tbe bottom ot tbe bung, gather up 
round tbe sideband tied atthe top like a choke, 
makes a good stopper. Shot shaken up In hot- 
ttas, wiUi water, soon cleans them. 

To Damp Stars.— Stars containing nitrate of 
itrooiluiD must be damped either vntb lac eolu- 
OoD or wax solution; anything containing 
water deetroys tbe color. Niter stars may be 
flam ped wltb gum water, dextrine solution or 
thin starch. Most other stars with either of 
the solutions. Crimsons and greens wilt mix 
with boUed linseed olK but they cannot then 
be matched, as oil renders meal powder almost 
Imflammahle. With nil stars, not a drop more 
of tbe solution should be used than is sumcient 

to make tbe comi> 08 ltjon bind: imd it is advis- 
able not to damp more than half an ounce at a 
time; this Is particularly tbe casein using the 
Iac 80 lutl<m, as it dries rapidly; and if a large 
uuantity of composition Is damped and gcU 
ary and has to be damped over ami over again, 
it lieoomes clogged with the shellac and the 
color is deteriorated. 1 i it abould get dry, and 
require a second damping, it is best to use pure 
alcohol only the second ume. 

Before mixing compositions, every article 
should be os fine as wheaten flour and perfectly 
dry. Nitrate of strontium, if purchased in the 
lump, should be set over the fire In a pipkin; it 
wlU soon ktegin to boil in its water ot crystal- 
lization; it must be kept stirrod with a pleoe of 
wood till the water is evaporated and a fine 
dry powder left. A pound of crystals will 
yie*d about eleven ounoea of dry powder, which 




Bhoukl immediatfly bottled. Even then, Jf 
U8<^ in damp weather, it is best dned a^ain 
and mixed with the other ingredients while 
warm. This second drying maj* be in a six 
mob circular trying pan. 

Articles, separately, may ia; reduced to pow- 
der with the pestle in u mortar. See that it is 
wiped clean every time, us there tsdanirpror 
ignition with chlorates and sulphides. Wbeti 
the articles are to be mixed, they may be put 
Into the mortar and stirred together with a 
small sash tool. A ^ in. is a convenient size. 
The mixture must then bo put into a sieve and 
shaken In the usual way: or it may be brushed 
through with the sash tool. Ketum it to the 
sieve and brush and shake ilirouah again. As 
It lies In a heap, level or smooth it with tbe 
blade of a table knife, or any straightedge- If 
thoroughly mixed, It will present a uniTorm 
color; If it appears darker in one pan than iu 
another, It must be sifted again. A sieve with 
a top and receiver is very desirable, as nearly 
mixtures are either black or poisonous; the 
dust troinstar mlxturesla very Injurious to tbe 
lungs. If a top and receiver cannot be readily 
purebssod, botDmay easily bo constructed out 
of a sheet of mill board, fastened with a brad* 
awl and waxed yellow tax, and neatly covered 
with paper. 

Mixtures may be damped on a Dutch tile, a 
marble slab, ora slate without a frame. Tbey 
may be stirred about with a dessert knife, 
pressed dat, and chopped, or minced, as it 
were, a&d again prossM flat. 

To Make Lac solution.— Put half an ounce 
of flake shellac into a tin pot. and pour upon 
it >4 of a pt. or 6 02 . of methylated spirit or 

E referably, a like quantity of wood naphtha 
et it stand for about a day, etJrnng it oc« 
casionaUy till dissolved. Then half dll a basin 
wltbboUlna water, set the tin containing the 
Jsclnitanq leave it till it boils and curdles. 
If tbe water does not remain hot long enough 
to make it boll, set it in a second basin Of boiling 
water. As soon as tt has curdled remove It, 
and when cold pour It Into a vial and cork It, 
Spirit must never be boiled over a Are nor 
near one. as tbe vapor might inflame. Keep 
the pot, therefor, while in tbe hot water, at a 
distance from a 8re or flame of a lamp or can- 

To Make Wax Solution.— Put into a vial ^ an 
oz. of white (bleached beeswax), pour upon it 
a 02 . of mineral naphtha (coal or gas tar naob* 
tba); keep It tightly cork^. 

To Make Steaiine Solution. — Dissolve a 
Piece of composite candle in mineral naphtha 
Ip tbe same way. Mineral naphtha must not 
be used near a candle or fire, as ft givea off 
an Inflammable vapor at leas than IQO^ rahren- 

To Make Gum Solution.->There is no better 
way of preparing this than simply to put cold 
water upon ^m arabic, and let It stand till 
dlsBolved. If for sticking purpoaea, as much 
water as will just cover the gum will be suf- 

Aeteat; but, for making quick match, 1 02 . or 
ou of gum to a i^int of water, if required 
in a hurry, put the gum into coM water, in a 
pipkio ur tin saucepan, set it i>n the tire, make 
It m>U, and kei'iiEtin Ing till dissolved. Wlieu 
COlci, bottle and coi k it. 

To Make Dextrine Sol iitimi.— Take ^ an 02 . 
nf dextrine an<i 0 oz. or n H pt. of cold 'water, 
put the dextrine into a eup or basin, add a 
little of the wutor, and mix it well with a tea- 
spoon, rubbing it till all is dissolved; then add 
ihe remuindcrol the water, stir well together 
asocoiui time, pour 1t into a \ iul and cork for 
1190. Dextrine, wetted to the cousistenry of 
huncy, may be used instead of thick gum arable 
water for pasting. Vur this puri»ose it is ad- 
visable to Keep cither io a wiac mouthed bot- 
tle, and tosettho bottle in a Mahlpot contain- 
ing M lUtlo water; U 10 hr us It, a camel's hulr 
IMMicil, or very small sash lool with onothlrd 
of tiKs bristles cut away on each side, to rondttr 
It flat, can then be kept in the wafer when not 
io us^ ibis will prevent It, on the one haud* 
from Dscoming dry und hard; and, ou tho 
other, from irctting clog^ and swollen. It 
can bes>iuoc 2 ^ botwoon tlictliumb and lingers 
when wanted for use. The flat gum brushes 

now sold, bound with tm, are not ulgasant to 
us^ns the tin oxidizes and turns or a disagree- 
abto brown color. If there is a dithculfy ia 
obtaining a graduated water measure, ono 
sufttcleotly correct for pyrotoclinlo purposes 
may be made with a vial, raato a narrow scrip 
of paper up the outside of thu vial, weigh 4 os. 
of water In a cup io the scales; pour it into 
the vial, mark the height, and dl>*l(le it Into 
four equal parts for ounces; of course, it can 
be graduated into half and quarter ouuccs, and 
increased, if large enough, to five or more 
ounces. A gallon of dlstllJod water weighs ex- 
actly ten pnumiB. Consequently a pint of pure 
water weighs a pound and a quarter. 'J'his U 
»il9o near enough foi’ spirit, though, of course, 
spirit is a tri fle 1 Igh ter. Doctors' vlaJs are often 
marked with ounco divisions. 

To Make Paste.— Paste is most economically 
made In u zino pot, which may be 4 in. deep 
Hiid in* diameter. Any zinc worker will 
make one to order. Put into it 2oz. wbeaten 
flour, add a little cold water, rub tho two to- 

K titer with a spoon till smooth and free f tom 
mps; pour iu mono water till tbe pot is full 
wltbia about an inch, set tbe pot in half a 
aaucepanfui of water, put it on the Are: make 
tbe water boil, and keep it and tho paste boil- 
ing for four or Ave minutes, stirring the pasto 
tho while. Remove it IVom the flie,aad set it 
by toc<K>L The paste is to remain in the zino 
pot, in wbich It will keep good for a length of 
tune and beautifully white. 

Some recommena alum in paste; but it is 
best avoided, especially in cases Intended to re- 
ceive eoloreo hms. Alum is a double salt, a 
Bulphato of alumina andpotassa; it has an acid 
reaction; and, coming in contact with chlorate 



ol; putadh and sulpliur, may cause BpoiUaueou^ 
combustion. A droo of suJphariCttcId instantly 
ignites stars containing them. AttbeaterstLe 
clown sometimes tiros a cannon with what ap- 
|K'Urs to l>c a red bot poker, but wh!ch in real- 
ity H only a piece of ■wood^inted red. A ml*- 
line is tiuifi n of chlorate or potash and Bul|»hur 
i>rsui;ar, a g:lass bead is tilted wHh suipburlc 
arid, and tlio hole stopped up with wax. Tbia 
IS iiild m tho mixture, and when it iB struck 
with the i.oker, the Hquor escapee unci inflanies 
tUo potash and Bulphuv. Sulphate of copper is 
a particularly danircrous salt, and inuBt never 
Ixi used, us It IS almcjst certain to cause spouta- 
ncous coenkmetion. Cherticr, to whom pynv 
teoUny otherwise owes bo much, introduced 
an omp Ideal preparation, by disAolvm^ sul- 
phate of copper in water, totrethei with clilo- 
rate of potasn. dryinAf it, and wottmK it xvith 
ammonia ; but this, however dried, 'when :nrnm 
wettc^d, turns litmus paper red. iVaciu u:; luiB 
named It <<jbevtier’a coppor. Its u&e is not 

Two paste brushes will bo sutUcieoi for an 
amateur, sash tools, ono about an l?>cb diame* 
UT, the other smaller tor light purpoaee. liOt 
them stand in the i«sto. If they get dry, the 
bristles tub out. convenience, oi>e may bo 
kei»t in the paste and ono til water. 

Dry clay, powdorod and Bitted 09 tineas poesi* 
t>lu. la UBOO for plugging or stopping up ibe 
boitoQiB of cases. Amateurs uavo disco rw 
turned ita use. and employ piaster or Paris In 
pref e renoe. I>1 recti oiis w til m gi ven for each, 
so that tho learner can adopt wbicb ho Pleases; 
but plaster is intinUely preferable, ft Is ao 
American Improvement, 

Roman Oandlo Seoopa.^No spiles of fire- 
works require greater cdro in tbeir construc- 
tion than Roman candles. In the first place the 
stara must tio tlorce, that they may light thor- 
oughly ; next, t bey m us t not 6e dr I veil out with 
ti>o great vejoc Ity . For t h la pu r i>o6e to^o w lOg 
powder must be carefuuy odiustod. The atars 
also must be qf so easy a tit that when put into 
the case tboy may fall to the proper depth of 
tbeir owu accord. If they require pushing, they 
are too tight, and will probably be blown out 
blind. WncQ mode as directed they will necee- 
Banly be of uu easy tit, as they wul be of tho 
Inner diameter of the brass tube, while the 
boro of the case is equal to its external diame- 

To regulate the blowing powder, prepare a 
number of little scoops, uko Fig. 6, which is 
about the right size for the bottom star. They 
are formed of pieces of tin, xioe, or copper. 
Cut a long strip of tin ^ in. broad; out thU 
QcroEsinto 7 pieces of tbc following lengths; 
1^, and 4 in. Hound off thecor* 

HOI'S. Tuku a piece of brass wire, or stair rod. 
about K in. in diameter, and with the wooden 
mallet before mention^ Fig. 26, bend each 
of the pieces round the i*od into a halt' cylinder 
or gutt(;r. Take up thesmalleet and bold % in. 

of the end of the stair rod in the end of the 
semi -cylinder to keep it open: put tbo other 
part, from n to b. Fig. 5, in a vise and pinch it 
up: it will assume the form represented; the 
bowl part will bo ^ in. long and tne handle 1 In. 
long. Make the bowl of the next scoop | in. 
long, the next % in** and so on; the handle will 
ol be 1 In. long. The last, tor the top star, 
will have a bowl of 3 In. ThesmaUest scoop 
ought to hold as much grain powder as wlU 
weigh about one twelfth of tho star; but to 
have i lie scoops iiccura to, Jtwlil be necesBary 
u> charge a Komaa candle, tire it, and observe 
wbetber the stars go a ualform belgbt. For 
m wtf u riog thb Interval fuse, or fuse between 
the top of one star and the bottom of ibe next, 
a large scoop of the sire of Fig. 10 will be re- 
quJCM The tin may be 1 in. brood, and the 
wwi part sH in. long, bent round the rmnmer. 
Fig. L To adjust It, take a Roman candle 
case, tit on the foot. Fig. 0. which U a pleoe 
of wood or brass turned with a tenon to fit 
tight at the t'Ottom of the case. Fill the sooop 
nod strike It level with a straight ed^ empty 
It Into the case, rest the foot on a flat surfaoe; 
insert tbe rammer, Fig. 4, and Jolt It up and 
down a dozen times or more, lift it about 
H m. at a time : put in another scoopfui 
and Jolt it in like manner. If the two scoop* 
fuls thus compreesed fill 1 in. of tbe case, tbe 
scoop W1J1 be correct. If more or less, the 
scoop must be shortened or lengtl^ned accoed- 

A piece of writing paper maybe pasted end 
wound twice round tho handle of each scoop, 
as from a to b, Fig. 4. One dot can be put 
upon the scoop for tbo first or bottom star ; 
two dots for the Bocond scoop, etc., or any 
memorandutn can bo written upon thorn for 
future guidance. .Should they get soiled, they 
may be cleaned with a eoapM damp piece of 

Gunpowder for firework a is used in two 
forms, meal powder and grain powder. Meal 
powder is a fine black dust and is employed in 
all cases ot mixing. Grain powder Is of three 
kinds, P. FF, and FFP— fine, double tine and 
treble fine. FFF is best for crackers, simply 
boca«>9C it runs rapidly down the pipes : for 
driving stars, shells, etc., F wiii be sufficient 

but FFFmay oe employed ; PF need not bo 

ffl ^ohasod. If in any place there should be a 
Bculty in obalnlng me^ powder, F grain 




K wder may be crushed In a leather hag by 
'ing the bag on a hard surface and beating 
it with a hammer. The leather should be of 
the same kind as shoes are made of. 

To Charge Homan Candle Cases.— Pour some 
F grain powder into a wooden bowl or platter* 
represeutod by Fig. U. Hound tfao edge lay 
the little blowing powder scoops side by side, 
beginning with the smullust at a*theuextat 
and 80 on to {7. Put some Roman candle 
fuse into a large tin scoop, made to stand on a 
tlat bottom, like Pig. 12, the same In shape as 
used by tea dealers ; and, on the right hand of 
It lay the charging fuse scoop. Fig. ifK If ibe 
Roman candlu is to contain different colored 
stars, set seven la a row in the order desired. 
When the cases are Intended to be Sred Iq 
threes or fours, the stars la one maybeali 
blue, in another crimson, in another green* in 
another white. Fit the loot^ i'lg. V, in the bot- 
tom of the case, put in a scooptul of clay, 
in^rt the rammer. Pig. 4, and Jolt it till the 
c'ujy is well composed. The clay should HII half 
aniuch. This being done, invert it, apd shake 
out any Uttlo dust that may rcinuin. Putin 
the little scooptul, a, of F grain powder, then 
lay the scoop at A. Kow put in a star. As 
previously stated. It ought to fall of its own 
accortl; but make sure that it has reached the 
blowing powder by putting in the rammer. 
Havii^ ascertalucd this, put in h scoop of 
fuse, ng. Itl \ lay the scoop on tbc right of Tig. 
12; Insert the rammer and Jolt It; put fn 
auotborscoopof fuse. Fig. 10; lay the scoop on 
the right of Pig. LI; Insert the rammer and Jolt 
It aa before. Tbeo orooeed with tbc scoop, b, 
of grain powder anil lay it at B, and so ou, till 
the case IS tU led. The fuse on the top star is 
l>eatdnvenin with a short solid rammerand 
mallet, as It Is dilbcuU to Jolt the long rammer 
In so small a space. The last eighth <n an inch, 
near the mouth of the case, should be fine meal 
powder, as it hinds better than the Roman 
candle fuse, and also blows oS the leader pipe. 

The blowing powder scoops, having been laid 
at A, B, etc., ail that is required is to turn the 
bowl or platter a little round to the left and 
they will come in rotation ready for tfae next 
case. Also, by putting the scoop. Fig. 10, alter- 
nately to the left and right of the scoop. Fig. 
12 , it will always be known whether tbepropv 
quantity of fuse has been put in. 

Cole rod stars, from their dercenesa, nave a 
tendency to burn in the cases. This defect 
maybe remedied by putting upon each star a 
small uoopful of starting fire. No. 1, before 
putting in the interval fuse as much as will fill 
round the sides of the star. Thlscompositioo 
Is somewhat fiercer than would suit for the 
regular fuse; so catches the blowing powder 

A Homan candle is well charged when the 
stars Isocbronls^ or come out at equal Intervals 
of time: they should also, theoretically, ascend 
to equal heights; but with colored stars this 
cannot be perfectly insured, aa some shrink 

more than others lu drying, and of course fit 
more loos^y; some are heavier, some fiercer 

The Interval fuse must always be driven in 
at twice, never at once. Eacq s^r, with its 
blowing powder and fuse, occupies about an 
inch and a half: perhaps a trifiu more. 

Instead of driving in clay ut the bottom, 
plaster of Paris may be ut^d, and thuu the 
foot, Hg. 9, will not be requin^. Have some 
plaster of Paris in a wide-moutbed bottle; a 
glass of cold water with a salt spoon in it; and 
a number of pieces of paper about four inches 
square. Put a small quantity of the plaster on 
oneof the pieces of i^apcv; indiaii iiie middle 
with the finger: put to ic a little wm rev and work 
ft up with a douert knife. Jusi as it gets Co 
the conalBteocy of mortar and is about to set, 
mould it with tho fingois to the shapo of a 
cork; push it in to the end of tho case; rest the 
case on a fiat surface; Insert the rammer and 
give it two or three slight Jolts; turn it round 
a few times and withdraw it. If tho plaster 
sticks to the end of the riunmer, it shows either 
that you have used tho plaster too wet or 
have not turned the rammer round a suifi* 
dent number of times. 

No more plaster must bo mlxod at a time 
than wlU suffice for one case. NVhen pl>iater 
has once set it oanuot bo mixed up u wcond 
time: therefore take a fresh plet*e of paper and 
let tbe knife bo cleaned uvorv time. It is ad* 
visable to have two dessert knives, tbeu ono 
can bo used to scrape tbc uibor. As much 
plaster should be will fill the case up 
about half an Inch. They muse be set by to 
dry; th^r not requiring the use of tho foot 
will be found a great convenience. 

Roman candies ai*e usually made from threc- 
elghths to six^oighths, but fivo-oighths is a 
very satisfactory site. U u Komun candle Is 
Intended to be fired singly, twist » piece of 
touch paper round *he mouth. If the c&ma are 
intended to be fired in tbreee, fours, etc., to 
form a bouquet, or to be placed round a mine, 
Jack -m- tho- rox, or dovil-umong-tho-tallors, 
omit the touchpaper and envelop thu case in 
doublo crown, made to project nu inch beyond 
tbe mouth, to receive the leader or quick- 

A steel pen inserted, liib backward, in the 
end of a small paper tube, rullod round the 
ondof a pen huldoi’, makes a neat little scoop, 
it may be fastened in with a little plaster of 
Paris. A scoop may also be made with a quill. 

Oxbpositlon for Roman Candles.— I. Niter, M 
parts; sulphur, 6 parts; fine chai'coul, 7 parts; 
meal powder, 4 pons. 

fi. Niter, 16 parts; meal powdei*, 8 parts; fine 
charcoal, 6 parts; sulphur, 6 parts. 

3. Niter, 16 parta^ meal powder, 11 parts; sul- 
phur, 6 imrts; antimony, 4 parts. The next 
thing is to till the cade. Before filling it iniio- 
duce a little clay to the bottom of the 
thus forming a better and firmer bottom. This 
beiug doue properly, put in a little coarse pow* 




der, and over this a smuJl ru!(*o or paui^r to 
prevent tho coraposition mixing witn the 
powder: then ram down as mucU compositioa 
ae will flu tbd caao one-si xtU of its bei(tnt; over 
this put a small piece ot paper ooverioic about 
two thirds of the diameter, then a lit He com 
powder, and upon that a ball. oLecrvinff that 
the ball la rather smaller than the diameter of 
the case. Over this hrsC balk more ot the com- 
position muse be put and rammed llffhily down 
to prevoQt breaking the bull, till the cose Is 
one third full: then a piece nt paper, a little 

K wder, and then another ball as before, till 
9 esse la tilled with bolls ond compoaition, 
taking care to place couii»o8itlon above the 
highest ball. When the case is thus tilled, cap 
it with touch paper by pasting it round the 
orifice, and a lltUe priming of powder being 
added, the work is complete. 







Sulphur MM 











Meal powder 





Meal powder 





dipnoi Fireworks.— The foUowlog ptopgrtloos 
me given in an BogJlsh patent by E. H. 
aarre, of Paris, for colored Lights for sigoate : 
white Light.— One hundred parts potanium 

j>orte antimony sulphide. 15 parts 

Bed Light.— Fifty parts potassium chlorate, 
so parts strontium nitrate, 5 parts wood char- 
coal. with as much linseed oil as is rc<)uirod to 
knead the moss together. 

Green Light.— mty parts potassium clilorate, 
50 parts barium nitrate; 5 parts wood cbarcool 
and lioaieil oil, as above. Tho use ot ilnseod 
ml Is claimed as a specialty In subetitutlon for 
oil of turpentine or resin. — Science Record^ 
1914 * 

To ilfatch.— Dissolve 1 drra. nitrate 

of lead m ^ 02 . boiling water. Cut u slieet of 
biotl^g pa^r in aix equal parts, and wet them 
on teth ald^ with a sash tool, with the 


ut^Q It smoothly press another piece: upon 

® piece; and so on, till 
all the aU forma stiff board. Lay them under 

and, when dry. with a sharp 
fo and straight edge, cut the whole into 
wipe a quarter of an inch broad. Four Inches 
jnll burn ateut a quarter of an hour, Narrow 
tape. boUed In the solution, makss exoellent 
slow matc^ 

^ths, Oompostttona /or.-l. Meal powder. 80 
portO} Diter.h parU: sulphur. 4 parts: E.cbar* 
ooal. fparU. 

powdsr. M parts; B. charcoal. 8 

k Meal powder, 84 oartsj niter, i parts; E. 
cbarcpaL 4 parts; sulphur. 1 part. 

k Meal powder. 18 parts; niter, 8 parts ; suU 
phur. 4 parts: S. charcoal, 3 parts, weigh out 
all tbe ingredients, mix them thoroughly, and 
mm the oompoaltion through a sieve at least 
three ticaefc The oomoositloD cannot be over- 

Slow FCrw, to be Heaped upon a in Shape of a Cone, and Lit at Top. 


Nitrate of strontium. . 
Nitrste of barytes.. . .. 

Oxalate of «oda. 

Sulphure of copper. . , . 
Chlorate of barytes.... 
Chlorate of potash.... 

Charcoal, flne 


Sul^^hur, washed 

y^etaple black .* 

of antimony. 































- ' 108 

































■top“aSdTn«^* ® » wineglaas. or lay a tile upon the 


±itchnuKK:3 i. vts 

S(;ut2> and Serpent, 





ivhHTCoal ......... 

1 . 



Moal powder 


8teel filinn 






Stars, Ori7n»m. — 1. Chlorate of potash^ 2i 
parts; nitrate of strontlA, 3d parte; caloxoeL 1^ 
parte; sulphur. 6 parts; saellao In fine powder, 
o parte; sulphide of oopper, 2 parts; fine obar* 
coal, 2 parts. 

2. Chlorate of potash, U parts; nitrate of 
stroutla, 20 parte; eulpbur, 11 parts; charcoaU d 
parts; antimony, 2 parte; mastic, 1 part. 

8. Nitrate of etrontia* 72 parte; sulphur, 20 
pa^; ATUopowd^, 6 parts; eo»X duet, 2 parte 

Rom Colored Stare— Chlorate of potash, 2D 
parts; carbonate of strontia, 3 parts; calomel, 
10 parts; shellac, 2 parts; sulphur, 8 parts; One 
charcool. X part; ^eadvantstfO of this com- 
position Is that it Is not at all liable to suffer from 
damp In winter. TUo carbonate of atrontto Is 
a salt not abeorbent ot mouiure like tbo ni- 
trate, and Is, moreover, always to be bad in a 
state of fine powder. 

C reen States.— 1. Chlorate of potash. 20 parts; 
nitrate of baryta, 40 parts; calocnel. 10 parts: 
sulphur, 8 parts: shellac, Sparta; flue charcoal, 
1 part; fused sulphide of copper, 1 pari. 

8. Nitrate of baryta. 40 parts; roalaar.3 parts; 
sulphur, S ports: lampblack. 1 part. 

S. CbJorLte of potash, a ports; nitrate of 
baryta, 12 ports; sulphitr, 13 parts; mastic, 1 


Pule Hose ColorodSCara.— Nitrate Of Strontia, 
6 parts; chlorate of potash, 4 parts; sulphur, 3 
parts; Hi2lphur«t of antimony, 2 parts. Take 
cepocia] care that the nitrato of strontia used 
in this Vormuis la very dry, 

Pule Hroca Stars.— Nitrate of baryta, ISiMirte; 
chi urn to of potash. 8 parte; sulphur, 0 parte; 

antimony, 3 pai ca. 

Yellow Stars.— L Chlorate of potash, 20 parts; 
blear booato of soda, 10 p^ts; sulphur, 5 parts; 
mastic, 1 part. 

Z. Chlorate of potash, 80 parts; dried soda, 12 
parts; sulphur. 8 parts. 

Q elder. Yellow Stare.— Chlorate of notosh, 20 
parts; nitrate of baryta, 30 parts; oxolote of 
aoda. 15 parts* sulphur, 8 parts; shellac, 4 parts. 
Tf it is thought advisable to give the stars 
ma^ from tnls formula a tailed tippearance, 
add one pari of fine charcoal. The compost* 
tioa ki to be moistened with the shellac solu* 
iloa. The stars form a beautiful contrast with 
those of an intense blue. 

Blue Stara— 1. Chlorate of potash, B parts; 
sulphide nf copper, 8 parts; Cbertier's copper, 
6 parts: sulphur, 4 par^ 

^ Chlorate i potash, 12 parts; Chertlcr’a cop- 
per, 6 part^ sulphur. 4 parts; calomel, 1 part. 

Z, Chlorate of potasD. IS parts; ChorLlor's 
copper, 12 parts; coiomol, 8 parts; steurlne. 2 
parts; sulphur, 2 parts; shellac, 1 part. This 
gives a most intense blue. 

4. Chlorate of potash. 20 parts; carbonate of 
copper, 14 parti; sulphur, 12 parts; mastic, X 

3. Niter. 12 parts; sulphide of autimony, 2 
parts; sulphur. 4 parts; lampblack, 2 parts. Ail 
these oompoaltions should bo moistened with 
gum water, and in No. 0 the stearins employed 
roust bo la fins powder. 

VioiotStera.— Chlorate of potash, 9 parts: ni- 
trate of strontia, 4 parts: sulphur, 6 parts; oar« 
bonatc of oopper, 1 part; calomel, 1 part; ma^ 

'%hlte 3tars.-Ba)tpeter,9 parts; sulphur, 3 
parts; antimony, 2 parts. 

Na 1. dfouve and I4lac Stars and Lances, 








^ 7 


^ 0 


OUorate of potash .... 















— 1 










No. 3. Purple arui VioUt Stare and Lances, 












1 n 





('hlgrmte of potash 











Nitrate of strontium 








Sulphur, washed 







' 2 


1 2 




Calomel .. 









8 . 

48 1 

. 8 




Sulphide of copper 







- — 

8 1 


1 1 









1 1 



VemtAhiA hlftok 



1 W 

niflrlr ovMa nf «VkriTw»r 







Carbonate of strontium 



5 ' 



r^f w(n»r 




Oxychloride of oopper 







— , 







if 1 







Nitrate of strontium. . 








Sulphide of copper. 











^ V 





Slilnhiir wflohfvi 



' 16 




Chloride of lead . . . 






Njf nf 


IqI ^ 

Oxychloride of copper. 




Salammoniac i 



Xr , 

Vegetable black.. 1 




Niter ' 



-I 2 



Carb'nate of strontium' 


1 ^ 

4 ^ 


Orplment or realgar. . . 


^ * 


1 0 





Tbe foUowingr refers to table No. 6« patfC'U : 
If powdered nitrate of barytes and ehHIac 
crush^ by tHiln^hamcnered liiatut^^aruinixeil 
tojfethep and raeltod in a pipkin over the fire 
tne mixture, when eold. may be redui'vtl to u 
pp wdcp t n an i ro n mo rtar wfl h pal ionce. Ta kc 
No. 6. Weiifb outSi parts nitrawof Iwryw. 
and 2 parts coarsely powdered iac; melt tUvm 
toffotber; wlum cold, powder them, ami add 
I ne other substances in pmiM^r proportion. 
.'Shellac may be mol ted v/ltb jjjtnue of strou* 
tian. in the satuo way. 

No. i. Sucrar B/uea for Stun rtjal L<i»cc«. 


4 « 4 

4 « 

Chlorate of rotaah, . , . 


Loaf 6Ui<ar 

fiulphoretof copper 


Oxychloride of copper 


Copper flllDifs 

Black oxide of copper 












i 9 






lOj 6 







- 5 






9 4 






















- 1 


Nosutetance combines better with salts of 
c opper than sugar. S ugar, pu t in to tbe bowl 
of a tobacco pipe end placed In the «re, burns 
fiercely, and is converted into carameh This 
poured on to a pJute, slightly smeared with 
butter to prevent it sticking, hardens on cool- 
ing; and is used lor coloring brandy vinorar 
gravy, porter, coffee, etc. Stearine 

fine from a Stearinc candle, 
burar blues arc to be damped with pure water 
only, as tbp sugar itself, when wetted, Is suffl- 
cientlv cohesive. Use an exceedingly small 
quantity of water, and rub it up thoroughly in 
the mortar ; the longer it is rubbed, the better 
it combines. 

The following refers to table No. 10, page 19 ^ 
it la impossible to powder shellac suadently 
fneby band; and, twenty years ago, powdereS 
shellac could not be procured. About that 
time the drug grinders, finding a demand for 
it, submitted it to tbe action of the stamping 
mills (mechanical pestle and mortar), and now 
it can bo obtained at most shops. 

Chertler mixed fiake shellac with salt; molted 
the two together;* powdered the mixture; and 
washed out the salt. Such process is needles.^', 
DOW. It Is useless, unless as fine as wheateo 

Na4. SUil Stars for RocMs and SfiOis. 







Nitrate of lead.. 




Chlorate of pot-' 

. e 









A 1 









Steel fillDgs...... 






Shellac, fiDO 



Sulphur, washed 




Rub up tlio mixture thoroughly in a mortar 
with Just enough boiled oil to make it cohere, 
find pump it into Homan candle stars; the oil 
will proeurve the sloe) from rusting. For 
Itoman candleeor Italian streamers they will 
ready at any time: for rockets nnd sheila 
they t^y bo matched and enveloped, like 
figure B. a day or two previously. They form 
beautiful stM. Or they may w charged la 
^A9es,ai>d primed with cnloralc meal powder* 
Or tb^ may be damped with Jao solution. 

Na 5. Pearl Streamer, 



















' io 





Zinc fliings 

Mealpoi^r. ... 
Vegetable black. 

^ obtained in a 
^po^er, by pouring It, meated. into a hot 

° hammering It the pestle 
direct It tegins to solidify. Sift it throuSi a 
floe eiev^ Protect the hands with cloth gloves 
wUte uamg the pe^e. Damp the composition 

stars. Bro 

krawts of the stars may be put into colored 




No. 6. 

Oreen or Emerald SiarM and Lances. 


Chlorate of puiash... 
Nitrate o£ barytes... 
Chlorate of barytes.. 

Sulphur, washoa 

Charcoal, tlno .... 
Sulphide of antimony 

Calomel .. ... 


VcifC table black 

Loaf su^ar 

Sal iimruuniac 

Orplment, or Kealgar 

Sulphide of copper 

Veep and PaU Yellow Stars and Lances 


CKlorato of potash 

oxalate of soda 

Illcnrbonuto uf aoda . . 
Nitrate of strontium . - 
Carbonatu uf atrontlum 

Nitrate ct barytes 

SulpJiur. washed 



Charcoal, Ane 

Orpiineut, or realgfar... 
Loaf sugar 


Moul powder 



Sulphide of antimony.. . . 
Sulphide of arsenic, realgar. 
Minium, or red lead 

No. 8. 

trhf <€ or DriQhi Stan and Lancee. 

Chlor&te of potafih 


Sulphide of copper 

Oxychloride of copper 




BUu^k oxide of copper. 

Copper Allngs 
Sal ammoniac. 

Orinton and ScarUt Stan and Lancu 

Chlorate of potaah 
MiCrate of atrODtii 
Sulphur, waabed .. 
Charcoal, fine 



Sulphide of copper.... 
Rcal^r. or orplment. 

Vegetable blaca 


Carbonate of itrontiaa 

Vegetable block 




Meal powder 

Oxalate of eooa 

duipblde of antimony 
Chlorate of potash . .. 
Aapbaltum, Egyptian. 
Burgundy pitch 

No. 11. Streamer, or Comet Stnrm fnr RstekeUs SMU and Roman CanitU^i. 



NO. 10 ._ 



i'tJUK & JAM£,S BU.NJJ VOl. 1 

I'j / 


OtJed Taiied Stanr //>r HoctutA and SheOit, 

















Meal powder 




Sulphide of antimony. 





To J oz. ftdc! 'M drops of boiled Uoseed oil ; 
rub them tbon^uKbly together Id a mortar : 
then spread out too mixtuit? kora few days to 
dry. When dry, mix with starch, dextrine so- 
lution, or guru wall T, and chop into or Min. 
cubical blocks, They will keep for years, and 
improve by age. In onler that a star may tall, 
rapidly burn through and lOAvea cin- 
deu. or s<^na; from this, as it falls, minute 
portions become detached, uivl trail behind. 

yfnancMtim CnVir* f>rr S^tftr* on<l v44cmld]i. 




i O 







NItrmc of strontium 


a 1 


Chloride of barytes. ... 


OxychlurliJo of Copper 


Oxalate or soda 


sSulphido of nritiraony.. 


Chloraui of potash 




2 ; 


2 1 










Magnesium filings 




U A few magnesium filings may be added to any 

Star Lighta, Compoeltion for.— Fine dry 
niter. SU parts ; eulpbur, S parts ; lampblack. 

Storting Fire. 









Meal powder 







Niter... 1 



St irnracrs.— Streamers or quick matches, used 
for commuaicatiDg fire quickly from one tube 
to another in dismay pl^es,are composed of 
the following comp^tion pocked in slender 
continuous paper tubes: 

Niter ft oa. 

Sulphur. 1 os. 

Mealed powder Id oz. 

Cbarcom 4 oz. 

To Make rpuch Pa per. — Dissolve ^oz. of ni1«r 
^ of bot water. Procure some lb. 
double civ>wn blue, out each sheet into four 
equal parts, fifteen by ten. lay them smooth 
upon each other, aod. with a sash took dipped 
Into the niter solution, wash them over oo one 
aide, and hang them up to dry. 

Wam Upfu. 




Mem powder. 





Wheel and Fixed Canes. 





4 i 

i 5 













Meal powder . 

1 » 



38 ' 




, 12 

, 42 































. _ 



















1 ^ 








l| J 1 iilfa . ^ 










1 - 















1 a 




Case Colors /or Wheets, Oympeeilians far-^L 
White.— Niter, 10 oz.; sulphur, 3 oz.; r^ulus 
antimony, 2 ot.; realgar, 1 oz.; red lead, Hol; 
shellac, h oz. 

2. Oolden Yellow.— Potassium chlorate. B oa,; 
barium nitrate, 2 oz.; sbeUac, 2 oz.; sodium 
oxalate, oz^ stearine, >4 os. 

3. Orange.- Potassium cnlcrate, B os.; stron- 
tium chlorate, 1 oz.; barium nitrate, 2 os.; 
sbeUac, 2 oz.; sodium oxalate, 1)4 oz 

4 Mauve.— Potassium chlorate, 12 oz.; mer- 
curous chloride, 4 oz.: strontium nitrate, 2 oz.; 
copper Bubdulphate, 2 oz.; shellac, 8 oz.; stear- 
ine. 14 os. 

6. Rich Crimson.— Potassium chlorate, 9 oz.; 
strontium nitrate, 6 os.; shellac, 2 oz.; mer- 
curous chloride, copper sulphide (fused), 
1 os.; lampblack, ^ oz. 

A BM.— Potassium chlorate, 3oz.; strontium 
Ditntte, 5 OS.; shellac, 2 oz.; mercuroue chloride. 

^OOR MAN* *5 "AlffiG 30NI) 'oL. 



7. BrlUlAnt Greeo. i’oca&fltum tjhioi’Aiey 10 02. . 
b%rium nitnt4^. 5 9h<3llac, Z vi. i uicrcarooi^ 
chloride, 2 o&: puro Bulpnur, 1 os.; copper sul- 
phide, M 02.; due charcoal, H oz. 

6. Rica EmeraloGrccn.— Potassium chlorate, 
IB 02.; oariuxn nitrate, 0 02.; barium chloiuto, 5 
os.; Bhellac, 4 oz.; mercuroua chloride, 2 oz.; 
copper powder, 1 o/,.; pureaulphur,! oz. 

9. Bright Blue.- •Pulaael urn chlorate,. ^7 os.; 
Caere arous chloride, 4 oz.; Chertier's copper, 4 
os.; doxtrioe, 1>4 oz,: etearine, ^ 02. 

10. Bright Blue.— PotaBSlum chlorate, 8 02.; 
^hertier'a copper, 7 02.; mercurous chloride, 3 
02.: aheJlac, 1 oz.; stearine, 1 oz. 

11. Kicta Blue.- Potaiislum chlorate, 8 o z. ; eop> 
per eubebJoride, 2oz.; ehellac, ^ 02.; mercurous 
chloride, 3 oz.; etearine, 1 oz. 

Ail the ingredients must be perfectly dry 
and doe enough to pass through a forty moen 
Mve. They should be thoroughly well mixed 
and the compoBitloos should be kept in stop- 
pered bottles ready for use. 

Dick’s Encyclopedia of Formulas & Processes 1872 

f INDEX 167) 

^3yrOtechliy. This is th« *rt or 
makin g fireworks. Tho three principle 
materials employed In this art are chared, 
saltpetre, and sulphur, combined with filings of 
iron, steel, copper or sine, or with resin, cam- 
pbor, lycopodmm and other imbstaneM, to 
rmpi^ color, or to modify the effect and dnra- 
tion of the combasUon. Gunpowder is need, 
either in grain, half crushed, or meal (finely 
ground}, as oiroomstauees may require. Iron 
filings give red and bright spots. <^pper 
ffiingi pve a greenish tint to fiame; those of 

zinc, a fine blue color; sulphuret of antnnony 
gives 0 less greenish uluo th«i tho lino, bat 
with much smoko ; amber, resin and common 
salt afford a yellow fire. Lycopodium burne 
with a rose cofor and a mag^cent fiame^ 4c. 

2040. Tho TdMulIng Firoworka. Tho 
leading simple fireworks are rooketi, 
candles, flowerpots or gerbs. mines, and th^ 
adaptatjons or varieties; quick flret of difliv- 
ent hinds and colors iu cases, such as goldeii 
r^, spur fire, 4c.; slow fires in cases and pots, 
as blue lights, Bengal lights, 4c. Thosoxorm 
the fundamental pnncipioB of all pyrotoohnlc 
display. Tho endless variety of tnelr combi* 
nations m the shape of vertical and horiiont^ 
wheels and ''set pieces,’' reqaires considerable 
fertility of invention and meononic^ ingenuity, 
combined with a thorough prootaoal knowl^ge 
of the naturo of firework compositioas, and 
the appropriate moans of displaying tiiem to 
the best advantage. The weights used is the 
following receipts are avoirdupois. 

2050. To Kako Plain Rockets. The 
cases are mode of stout cartridge paper, rolled 
on a rod whoso thickness is equal to the de- 
sired diameter of the bore. Tho rod is slightly 
tapering, to allow of its easier withdraw^ 

after the case is rolled and pasted. The 
narrower end of tho case is cboKod; that is, 
a neck is mado in it, similar to the neck of a 
phial. {Sec Jio. 2053.) The composition 
[see Ifc. 20641 is uext rammed tightly into 
the case AO. 2062), which is supported by 
A closely fitting mould during this operation, 
finisbiog with a small charge of gunpowder 
to ezDiode when the rocket goes out. The 
top 01 the case is then stopped with clay and 
a conical cap fastened on, to decrease the 
reeiaUoce of the air in its upward flight; and 
the bottom or choked end of the caso is fhr- 
nisbed with priming and touch-paper. The 
whole is secured to the end of a willow sticky 
to direct its tuarao throngh the ur. 

9051. To Hake viaplay Rocket*. 
RookeU whoso disebargo ends iu display, are 
(hrnisbed with an ostra case, called tho pot, 
aboQt i the length of tho rooket: its inside 
diameter is tho samo as the ontsido diameter 
of the rocket cose, over which it is glued 
firmly, and takes tbo place of the conicaTcsp. 
The ffomitvre, consisting of star^ serpents, 
4o., as tbo case may be (see No. 2(fe5), is in- 
serted in the pot and connected with tbo 
charge in tho rocket case by a quick match. 
(See No. 2060.) Tho whole is Dnished with 
the clay and cap, the same as the head of a 
simple rooket. 

9058. To Okarge Rocket Gaaea. In 

charging rocket cases, in order to increase 
the rapimty of its discharge a wire is some- 
times ins^ted through tho centre of the 
charge, the r^mcr being constructed with a 
smul bore through its length, to receive this 
wire when ramming tbo ebar^. This wire is 
withdrawn when tbo cbor^ is complete, and 
the space it has left is filled with a quick 
match (oee No. 2060), which thus sets fire to 




the entire charge at once. This centred epsce 
is called the soul of tho rocket, and the aa<^ 
tion of this amn^ement la neoeasair lor 
large rocketa, eapeoali 7 those ha ring Learj 

2053» To Choke Firewotk Ca— A 
abort cjlindiicai pieee of wood, of the 
Aaawter as the thin end of the rod used for 
railing a case, is fumiahed with a wire, the 
thiokness of which must be the same as the 
inrfrml bore of the choke. Tho end of the 

rod baa a hole bored in it to reoeire this wire 
looaelr. A is the rod on which the case ie to 
be rolled; 0 tho cap of tho eacne diameter as 
the end of tho rod, haring the wire inserted 
finnlj in its axis. Tho rod is bored, as the 
dotted lines at B denote, to reoeire the wire. 
The ontaide dotted Uaea indicato a case oo 
the rod, choked at N. ThU is offeoted b/ 
stretching a pioco of strong cord, a ainglo 
torn of ^ch is paaaed round the case at K, 
oompreseing it nrmty and learinc a boro of 
the same sUo as tho wire between uo rod aod 
the cap. In rolling a caso to be choked, the 
paper should bo used in pieces, each piece 

wide enough to make about 3 tbickneMee 
when rollM over tho rod, and the oboklog 
dono after cooh pieoo is rolled. When fiDisb* 
ed, tho rod is withdrawn from the mouth of 
the case, and the cap and wiro from tho other 

2054. Oompoaition for Bocketa. For 
2 ounce rockets: — Mix 54ft parts nitre (salt- 
petre), 18 parts sulphur, and 27 i of obarooal, 
cdl in due powder. Sift through lawn. For 
4 ounoe rocketa :'-64 parts nitre, 16 porta enl- 
phur, and 20 ports charcoal. For 8 ounce to \ 
pound rockets : — 62} parts nitre, 15( parte eoi' 
phar, and 21 ^ parts cliaronal. For rooketa | 
inch in diameter :-^16 parts nitre, 4 parte sul- 
phur, and 7 parts charcoal. For rockets H 
inches in diameter uso 1 part more nitre, and 
for still larger rockets, another addiUooa) part 
nitre. By using 1 part less charcoal, and 
adding respec lively 3, 4, and 0 parts duo steel 
filings, the above arc converted into britttani 
fires; or, by using coarse iron filings, and 
still less charcoal, they become Chinese fire. 

2055. Chineae Fire for Bky Rocketa. 
If 4 inch or under, nitro, 10 parts; charcoal, 
4 parts; sulphur, 8 parts; cast-iron borings, 
4 parts. Mix. Or : If over 1 inch and under 
2 inches bore, nitre 16 parts ; cbarcoal, 4 parts: 
sulphur, 4 parts ; iron borings, 5 parts. Mix. 

2056. (Golden Ram. Mealed powder, 4 
oauces; saltpetre, 1 pound; sulphur, 4 ounces; 
hrasa filings, 1 ounce; sawdust, 2i ounces; 
glass powder, 6 drachms. 

3057. Silver Rain. Mealed powder, 2 
OQDces; saltpetre, 4 ounces ; sulphur, 1 ounce; 
eteel dust, t ounce. 

2058. Trailed Stars for Rooketa and 
Roman Oandlea. Saltpetre, 4 ounces ; sul- 
phur, 6 ounces; sulphate of antimony, 2 oun- 
ces; resin, 4 ounces. T7ith sparks. Mealed 

r wder, 1 ounoe; soitpetro, 1 ounce; camphor, 
ounces. Other receipts for stars suitable 
for rocket garniture will be found under the 
bead of “ Colored Fires." (5se No. 2065, 
2059. To Pr^are Touch Paper. 
6eok UQ glased paper in a solution of nitre in 
vinegar or water. Tbs stronger the solution, 
the faster will it bum. A good plan is to dip 
it in a weak solution, dry it, try It, and if it 
bums too slowly, make the solution stronger 
aad dip it again to moke it bum faster. 

9060. To Ibkko Ruick Xatdt. Quick 
match is made by immorsing lomp-wick in a 
solution of saltpetre with meal powder, wind* 
Ing it on o frame, and afterwards dus^g with 
meal powder. To 28 ounces cotton, take s^t- 
petrvj 1 pound; oloobol, 2 quarts; water, 3 
quarts; solution of isinglass (1 ounce to the 

mat), 3 gallons ; mealed powder, 10 pounds. 

9061. InaxtftngTaiahablo 

re, S gui 


4 parts dry nitre. 9 |;unpowder, 2 ebarooal, 
and 1 sulphur, and mix them ; then ram ^ 
eompouuu into paper cases 0 inches in length 
and of the thickness of a common qnill. 
When this composition is inflamed, rain will 
not extingoish it; the burning end of the 
match must bo cut off to stay the fire. 

2062. To li^e Roman Candid The 
coses for Roman candles are net choked, but 
well eecured at the bottom with day. A 
small charge of gunpowder is first intro* 
duced, theo a star, ful lowed by u eburgs of 
composition (sea No. 2063); these ore gently 
rammed down, and tho eamo routine of gun- 
powder. star, and composition, is repeated 




until tho case is full Lastly^ pnmo and clo8u 
with touch paper. Tho stars are fat nyliudere 
of a paste composition, cut to lit tho'^Uira of 
tho case, and having a hole bored in their con- 

QOfF7. Colored Fire* fbr Sian, Ac, 

Tna oompnniKis nia/ be put into aid all pill- 
boxea, with a little pruning and a quick match 
3060) attached to each. If kept, 

tre to allow the firo to through to tho they fihould bo pat where no damage can hw)- 
charge behind them. Tho stars which oro pen in case of their catching fire, 
nearest to the mouth of tho case should fit a ^ . 

little tightly, and gradually a little mors loose- 
ly as they arc further from tho mouth. Tho 
charges of powder behind thoiu should also 
decrease by degrees as their position is fur- 
ther from tho mouth of tho case. It is dso 

advisable to put a loose wad of ono thickness 
of paper, with a 

oath star and tho gunpowder bohlod it. 

r, with n holo in the centre, b^ween 

3063. Gompoaition for Aoman Gao* 
dies. Mix pound meal-powder, pounds 
saltpetro, and ^ pound each sulphur and glass 

^64. Colored Staxs may be made by 
using any of tho receipts for culon^ firce, 
with a solution of isinglass, i ounce; cam- 
phor; i ounce ; and alcoool, } ounce. Make 
into cyiindrico! cakes of the /equisito aise» 
punch a bole in tho centre of each; roll in 
gunpowder, and dry in the sun. 

3065. Colored Fires. Orest care is 
necessary in the preparation of these com- 
bustibles. The ingredients should bo 
rateltj reduced to powdor and sifted ; then put 
Into well-oorkcd, wido-mouthed bottles un^t 
tho time for mixing them for use. Colored 
fires deteriorate rapidly by keeping, and oro 
nearlv all dangerously infiamm&lc; they 
should, therefore, bo mixed aa soon os possi- 
ble -before using them. The ingrod louts 
ahould bo pure und perfectly dry; uniformly 
powdetwl, but not so fi no as to bo dusty. 
Nitrate of strontia, alum, carbonate of soda, 
and other crystals, should be gently boated in 
Qu iron pan until .they lose thoir stater of 
crystallizutitm and crumble iuto dry powder. 
(Sec Drying, No, 3843.) Ghlcrata of pota^ 
sa must bo very cautiously handled, aa it ex- 
plodes by moderate frictiou. The requisite 
quantity of each ingredient should be weight 
and placed on a clean sheet of white paper, 
and mixed lightly with a bone knife; they 
may then be more thoroughly mixed by 
ing throngh s fine ware seive. 

•066. <Mor«d Fires teXUimiiaAtionj. 

Faok the compounds lightly into small cups 

<t P<WU- 

3068. To ICake Colored Fires. The 
uwmDg receipts for tho preparetion of these 
effective aids m pyroteennio and dramatic 
di^lsy; aro among the very best that arc 
known. These fires have in some theatres 
jwu asdatod. if not superseded, by the calcium 
light; color being communicator by passing 
the rays of light through colored gloss. Tho 
nnpleBsant smell of colored fires is avoided, 

and the effects con bo prolonged at pleasure! 
instead of lasting merely a few moments. 

3060. Bluo Fire. Mix 2 parts realgar 
(red arsenic), 3 parts charcoal, 5 ports chlorate 
of poUssa, 13 parts sulphur, and 77 parts 
utrale of baryta. 

3070. Blue Firs. ) part char- 
coal, 1 part orpiment (yellow sufphuret of 
arwujo), 16 parts black sulphuretof an time- 
Bjr 48 parts nitre, and 64 parts sulphur. 

3071. Bengal, or Blue Big^ Liffht, 

VB 0 d »t Sea. 1 part tersuJphido of ontimu- 
nr, 2 par(4 sulphur, and 6 parts dry nitre. 
{6rs Ab. 2065.) ^ 

3073. Bengal Lights. Braunschweiser 
rscemmenOs the following mixtures as not 
producing injurious fumes; For red lights: 
9 parta tutrule of strontia, 3 ports shollao, U 
parts chlorate of potasso. For green : 9 parts 
nitrate of barytek 3 parts of ebeUoc, IJ ports 
chlorate of TOtassa. For bluo : 8 parts am* 
moniacal sulphate of copper, 6 parts chlorate 
of jpotasBo, 1 part of shellac. ' 

3078. Blue Fire for Btage Bffbct. 
16 parts of sulphur, 16 ports sulphate of po- 
iyga . IS parts ammonio-sulphato of copper, 
27 parta nitre, and 28 parts chlorate of potsssa. 
The blue is mode darker or lighter by increas- 
mg or dimmishing tho potassa and copper in- 
gndienta. This h Marchaud's preparation. 

3074. ICnrah^ Blue Fire. Mix 7 
parts snlpbate of copper, 24 sulphur, and 69 
parta chlorate of potassa. 

3075. Hffftrflh’M CMynanfi Fixe for Pots. 
Mix 17 parts chlorate of potassa, 23 willow 
charcoal, 90 parts sulphur, and 270 parts 
nitrate of etrontio. 

3076. Mflfsk’B Crimson Fire for 
Stars and Boxes. Mix 17 parts charcoal, 




nificent CTeen fixa be prepared by muiag 
6 parts cnlorate of thalliumi 2 parts odomeb 
d 1 Dart rcein. 

S2 parts sulpharet of antimoDy, 69 chlorate 
of potaaso, 72 parts sulphur, and 220 parts 
nitrate of strontio. 

2077. Marchand’a Purple Crimao& 
Fixe. Mix 16 parts sulphur, 23 parts dry 
chalk. 61 parts chlorate of potassa. 

2078. Oreen Fire for Ohoet Scenes, 
larts charcoal and oitrate of b^ta. 

'207d. Brilliant Green Fire. A 
nificent CTeen fixe 1» prepared by nuxinj 

a 1 pai 

20 Green Fire. Take 2 parts meUUic 
arsenic, 3 parts charcoal, 5 parts chlorate of 
potassa, 13 parts Rulphnr, 77 parts nitrate of 
tiaryta. This is a beautiful fire, particolaji? 
wh^ bunt before a reflector of g laea or met^ 

2081. Kar^haz^ Oteea Bt 

10 parts boraoic acid, 17 salphtiT, and 
parts chlorate of potassa. 

2082. Gteen Tirt for Aectrteal 
Tableau. Take 16 parte chlorate of potaaaa 
22 parts sulphur, 60 parts nitrate of bsjrtA. 

s083. Green FIm. Wix 16 

parta sulphur, 24 carbonate of baryta, €0 parts 
chlorate of potassa. 

2084. dreen Fire for Pete or fltara. 

Take 7 parts charcoal, 7 solpborst of areeDio, 

42 parts sulphar, 93 parts chlorate of potassa^ 
250 parts nitrate of baryta. 

2085. T.iiit/. Fire for Peae. Take 6 

part charcoal, 20 chalk, 20 parta sulphu, 27 
parts chlorate of potassa, 32 parts nitie. 

2093. Bose Colored Fire. Take 14 
parts sulphur, 23 dried chlorido of calcius, 61 
parts ohlorate of potassa. 

2094. Pale Violet Fire. Take 14 
parts sulphur, 16 parts alnro, 16 carbonate of 
potassa, 54 parts chlorate of potassa. 

2095. bark Violet Fire. Take 12 
parts slnm, 12 parts carbonate of potassa, 16 
parts sulphur, 6o parts chlorate of potassa. 

2096. White Fire for Theatres. Take 
2 parts charcoal, 22 Bulpbur, 76 parts nitre. 

2097. White Fire fbr Pane or Stars. 
Ti^o 00 parts nitre, 20 parts sulphur, 10 black 
aatimony, 4 parts powdered camphor, 0 parts 
meal powder. 

2098. Kareh’e White Fire for Pane. 
Take 25 parts gunpowder, 36 fine filings, 46 
parts sulphur, 93 parts nitre. 

2099. Tellow Fire. Take 16 parts sul> 
pbur, 23 parts dried (See Ne. 2065) c&reonate of 
soda, 61 chlorate of potassa. 

2X00, 2Carah*a Yellow Fire. Mix 12 
parts charcoal, 149 parte dry (see yo, 2065) 
Ditrato of soda, 39 parts sulphur. 

2101. Fire-eating Qhoete. I'our aume 
strong warm spirits iuto a fiat disb, sprinkle 
some salt into ft, and set it on fire on a table 

parts black ox^do of copper, 20 Ary cbalk, 25 
parts sulphur, 49 parts chlorate of potaei<a. 
2086. Lilac Fire for Stan. Take 3 

in a perfectly dark room, taking care to pro- 
tect th9 table from Ipinry. Persons stanoing 
round the table will appear of a deathly 


parts black oxido of copper, 23 parta dried 
chalk, 25 parts sulphur, 50 cniorate of potaeea. 
2087. Bed Fire. Mix 16 parta sul* 

pbur, 23 parts carbonate of stronti^ 61 parta 
chlorate of potassa. 

2088. Bed Fire for Stage Bflhct. 

Mix 20 parts chlorate of potassa, 24 enipliQr, 
56 parts nitrate of stroutia. 

2089. Orange Bed Fire. Take 14 
parts sulphur, 34 chalk, 52 parts chlorate of 

2090. Purple Bed Fire. Sulpbnr, 16 
parts, 23 parts chalk, 61 parts chlorate of 

2091. Purple Fire. Take 1 part each 
of lampblack, arsenic, and nitro; 2 parts 
Bolphor, 5 parts chlorate of potassa, and 16 
parts fused nitrate of stroutia. 

2092. Pink Fire fbr the Stage, Mix 1 

E allor, and by eating raiBins dipuea m 
ornJng spirit, will appear to eat tire. Bbut* 
tiug the mouth quickly on the burning raisins^ 
exUnguisbes them instantly. 

2102. Port Fire. l%e port fire naad 
for cannon is oomposed of 3 parti nitrei 8 
enl^nr, and 1 gunpowder, well mixed and 
|a(o cases. These are also uaefhl for 
iemring fireworks. 

Bigiial Lights* Such lights are 
generally composed ofaulphur and ni^o, with 
a ^mmX\ quantity of motaUic sulphuret. Mix 
600 gnins nitre, 2 sulphur, ana 100 yellow 
i^pnuret of arsenic, and ram it into a conical 
paper case. When touched with a red-hot 
iron it deflagrates rapidly with a brilliant 
white light. The eulphurct of antimony may 
be subsututed for that of arsenic. 

2104. TriAttLTx White Fire BignaL 
1>Ty (see No. 20@) nitre, 24 ports ^ sn^hur, 
7 parts; powdered charcoal, 1; or instead of 




the charcoft!, 2 parts red sulphuret of areenic. 
Mix them intimatelj ia an iron Teasel, and 
ram the mixture into thick paper oylinderB of 
about 3 Inohes in length bj 1 in diameter. 
These are kept iu a dry ^lace, and when odo 
Is required to be used, it is set on end, and a 
piece of red-hot oharooal placed Mpya. it. 

dl05. Iron Band fbr Fireworka. 
tJeed to gi?e comisoations in dreworks, is &r 
better than iron or steel-filinga. It ia made 
hf beating cast ated or iron into small pieces 
on an anvil. These are sifted into 4 aises, 
amalleat for the smallest pieces, and vice 
vers^ Tho oorrnsoationa produced by those 
are exceedingly brilliant. The sand ahonld 
be kept in a ary place in a well-closed bottle, 
as any nist damages it. Fireworks containing 
it should not bo made very long before adng. 

dl08. Open Fir ea. The following aro- 
cla and receipts tor open fires are by Professor 
Ferrnm, and wo quote them from the** Amer- 
ican Druggists* Circular**: 

Among the many receipts for open fires, but 
fbw deserve to be reoommeuded, and thoso 
have been selocted. The white and red fires 
only show a dear, distinct color. The green 
is generally palo, and shows off only when 
burnt after a red. A pure blue is vorv diffi- 
oolt to obtain. Tho following should be ob- 
eerved os general rules : The ingredients for 
the fires aro dried singly at usUgutiy elevat^ 
temperature, finely powdered, and preeervod 
in well-stoppered bottles, until required for 
use Tho mixing of tho ingredients is h&ft 
performed on a shoot of paper by means of a 
card, ondebould bo dono very carefully so os 
to onsore a complete mixture. Sirtiug is in 
most cases admissible, while tritnra&g in 
a mortar is above all to be avoided. Alter 
mixing, the powder ia piled in small heaps in 
open voaaela, for which purpose small flowor- 

S ota or fiowor-pot dislica are well adapted. 

a top of these several piles, eomo gnnpow- 
der ia placed to fociiltate tho lighting. The 
vessels should bo arranged in such a manner 
that the flamo may illuminate tho intended 
object without boiug seen by tho spectators. 
The distribution of tho material into a greater 
or less number of dishes is governed Iw dr- 
comstances. A great number of small uamce 
from a certain quantity of mixtore generally 

E lve a moro intense, but so much ahorter- 
ved light than tho same quantity distribute 
in larger portions; beyond a cert^ limit, 

however, even that intensity is not materially 
heightened by n few more lights. If tho fire 
ia to continue for some time, it must further 
be considered that large quantities of the mix- 
ture form a oorraapondingly greater amount 
of slags, which greatiy mar the effhek It bs 
thererore, best in such cases to bum off amuo* 
her of small charges successively. 

2107. White Fire, Tho following mix- 
tuie wo recommend as the very best far white 
Ugbts, being unsurpassed in brilliancy «id 
power by any other : 

Saltpetre, 18 parts; sulphur, 10 parta: 
black aulpboret of antimony, 3 parts ; burnt 
lime, 4 parts. The sulphur is nsod in tho 
form of flowers prcvioasly dried; tho limo is 
not to be filaokeu, but must be finely powder- 
ed ; It must be fresb, and be powdqrea imme- 
diately before use. All other mixtures for 
white fires have either a bluish tinge nr oon* 
tain deleterious ingredients, which render 
them at least uneuitablo for indoor nae. Of 
tho latter olaeo we will mention only one: 
Saltpetre, 12 parta; snlphur. 4 parts; stiI- 
pbito of tin, 1 part Two oilier mixtures do* 
eervo mention, though not oaual to tho last: 

I. Saltpetre, 46 parts; Bolpbur. 131 parta; 
en^bido of sodinm, 74 parts; and 

II. Saltpetre, 04 parts; sulphur, 91 parts: 
gunpowder, 15 parts. 

2106. Blue Fire. Tho only mixtuiu to 
be relied on, though tho light Is not purely bine, 
bat bluish white, is tho f(rilowii]ff : Saltpetre, 
12 parts; sulphur, 4 parts; blooKSulpburet of 
antimony, 1 part. 

2109. Bed Fire. The following mix- 
ture is the best In use ; its composition may 
be alterod by various admixtures : 

I. Nitrate of strontiar 13parts; sulphur,! 
art; powder dust, 1 part. The latter iugre- 
lent U prepared from fine gunpowder, mbued 
up carerully in a mortar and thou sifted 
throngh a hair sieve. Another receipt is : 

n. Nitrate of strontio, 24 parts; chlorate 
of potaaso, 16 parts; stearine, 4 parts; powder- 
ed oharooal. 1 port, louslngchloratoof potas- 
sa the precautions givon in No. 2124 must be 
strictly observed, and all pounding and rub- 
bing avoided. 

Hi. Nitrate of strontia, 20 ports; chlorate 
of potassa, 4 ports ; sulphur, 5 ports ; block 
snlphnret of antimony, 2 ports; powdered 
charcoal, 1 part. Gives a vory strong li^ti 




Tbo nitrate of stroutiafor these firoa, as tlio 
iugrodionts for all others, mast be well, bat 
carefully dried. { See Ko, 20G5.) 

2110. Tellow Fire. This color, which 
is very little used, is produced by tbo follow* 
iag mixtaro : Nitrate of soda, 48 parta; sol- 
phur, IG parts; block sulphuratof antimony, 
4 parts ; powdered cbarcoaJ, 1 part. 

3111. Green Fire«« Tbo coloring in- 
grodieuts for these lights are the salts (u ba- 
ryta. The color is ^nerally not yeir deep. 

I. Nitratoof bar^a, 45 parts; siupbiir, 10 
parts; cblorato of potaasa, SO parts; calomel, 

2 parts ; lampblack, 1 part. 

II. Nitrato of baryta, 60 parts; chlorate 
of potassa» 18 parts i sulphur, ^ parts. 

III. Chlorate of baryt^ 3 parts; aalphiir, 

1 part. 

IT. Chlorate of baryta, 24 parts; ateariiv 

3 parts ; sugar of milk, 1 port. 

V. Chlorate of baryta, 3 parts; sogar of 
milk, 1 part. 

2112, Colored Lights. VederiTotiie 
reoeiptofor tbeso from .tao same scarce as the 
open fires. (8ea 2To. 2100.) Colored 
are fanned by filling cylinders of thin wrumg 
Mper of about an inch in diameter with the 
mixtures. The length of the ojUnder det^* 
mines the duration of the light. The mix* 
tares may be moistened and potmded into the 
oylindor with a wooden rod; after drying, 
they will then be hard enough to oUbw of tbo 
remoTat of the paper, and may bo further 
strengthened by Wng dipped in orpiunted 
oyer with mucilago of gum-Ehrabic. Tbo oyl* 
inders, when finished, ore tied to tbo upper end 
of sticks fastened in the ground in a Tertical 
position. The mixtures vary eaeentially firom 
those used for colored fires. 

2118. White Lights. Sal^tre, 4 
parts; sulpbur, 1 part; black sulpburet of 
antimony, 1 port. 

2114. Tellow light*. I. Black so]- 
phuret of antimony, 2 parts; chlcrato of po* 
ta pffft , 4 parts ; sulphur, 2 parts ; oxalate of 
soda, 1 part. 

II. Saltpetre, 140 parts; sulphur, 46 parts; 
oxalate of so«^ 30 parts; lampblack, 1 part. 

2115. Green Light*. I. Cblorato of 
baryta, 2 ports; nitr^ of baryta, 3 parts; 
sulphur, 1 part. 

II. chlorate of potassa, 20 parts; nitrate 
*o( baryta, 21 parts; sulpbnr, 11 parts. 

21 Id. Bed Light*. N itrato of stront in, 
25 parts; chlorate of potassa, 15 parts; sul- 

S hur, 13 parts; block sulpburet of antimony, 
parts ; mastich, 1 port. 

2 1 17. Finh Light*. Cblorato of potas- 
sa, 12 ports ; saltpetre, 5 parts ; sugar of milk, 
4 parts; lycopodium, 1 part; oxalateof stron- 
tia. 1 port. 

2118. Blue Light*. Cblorato of potaa- 
so, 3 parts; sulpbur, 1 part; ammoniatod 
copper, 1 part. 

2119. Colored L^ht* without Sul- 
phur -*^For Xndoor HiuminationB. These 
aro used for the purpose of lighting up tab- 
leaux Ti rants, and for private theatricals. 

2120. White Light. Chlorate of po- 
ta^ 12 parts; saltpetre, 4 parts; sugar of 
milk, 4 parts; lycopodium, 1 part; carbonate 
of baryta, Ipsrt. 

2121. Yellow Light. Chlorate of po- 
tesaa, 6 parts (or nitrato of baryta 10 parts); 
saltpetre, 6 parts; oxalate of soda, 5 ports; 
powdered ehoUoo, 3 parts. 

2122. Green light. Duly after yellow 
or red lights. Cblorato of potosea, 2 parts; 
nitrate 6t baryta, 1 port; sugar of milk, 1 

2128. Bed Light. Nitrato of strontio, 
12 pvts; chlorate of potassa, 0 parts; sugar 
of milk, 1 part; stearin c. 2 parts. 

2124. Caution in tae u*e of Chlorate 
of Fota***, This ^bstance should nover 
bo kept in admix turo with any infiammablo 
matter, ospeoially sulphur or phosphorus, as 
they expire with terrific violenco by the 
most trivial causes, auti notunfroquentlyspon- 
iaooously. AU pounding and rubbing must 
bo avoided. 

2125. Paper for Frodudu Flashes 
of Colored l3ght. Soak unsixea paper for 
ten minutes in a mixture of 4 port^, by mea- 
sun^ oil of vitriol, and 5 parts strong fuming 
nitrio acid ; wash out thoroughly in warm dis- 
tilled water, and dry it thoroughly at a gentle 
heat. The paper thus prepaid is similar in 
its proMities to gun cotton, and a small 
pellst oT it, lighted at one point at a fiome, 
and then thrown into the air, will p^no* * 
brilliant fiaeh^ and leave no perceptiblo adu 
The color is ipven by saturating the gun-papex 
in the one of the solutions given bSow ^id 
then drying it. 




A Bolution of chlorate of BtrontiTun makaj 
tho flash a bright crimson . Chlorate of bariom, 
green. Nitrate of potasBium; violet. Chlor- 
ate of copper, blue. Anj one of tho foregoisg 
chlorates may bo prepared by mixing a warm 
BolutioD of tho corrosponding chlorido with an 
equivalent quantity of a warm Bolntion of 
chlorate of potASsa; the precipitato formed 
will bo chlorido of potassmiu, and tho clear 
liquid, poured off, wul be the desired chlorate^ 
to bo used for saturating tho gun-paper. 

2126. Japapeuft Ijfatehftn, Lampblack, 

5 parts; Bulpbur, 11 ports; gunpowder, from 

to 30 partB, this lost propomoD varying 
with tho quality of tho powder. Grind verr 
flne, and make tho material into a pafite with 
alcohol; form it into dice, with a knife or 
opatula, about 4 inch equoi'c ; lot them diy 
rather gradually on a warm mantel-piece, not 
too near a Arc. When dry, fix ono of tho Ut- 
tlo fiouarcb in u small cleft made attbo end of 
a stalk of broom* cum. Light tho material at 
a caudle, bold the stem downward, and await 
the result. After tho first blaring olT, a boU 
of molten lava will form, from which tha 
curioua corruscations will soon appear. 

2127. Japa&eao Firework Kixture. 
Finely pulvcnrcd niU*ato of potasBa, 70 porta: 
washed flowora of pulphur, 30 parts; powdered 
lycopodium, 12 part^; best and very light 
lampblack, 8 parts. From li to 2 groins of 
this powder arc Biifficicut for uso packed in 
BtripB of suitable paper. 

2126. Colored Flamea. Tho (lamo of 
alcohol may bo colored by mixing certain salts 
with tho spirit. A green color is given by 
muriato pf copper, or boracic acid. Bed, by 
nitrato of Gtroutiau, uitrato of iron, or nitrate 
of limo. TcHow, by nitrate of soda, Ac. 

2129. Greek Fire. Truo Greek ilro ia 
simply a solid, highly cozobustiblo composb 
tion, consisting of sulphur and phospboma 
dissolved in tho bisulphide of carbon, to which 
occasionally Bomo mineral oil is added, with 
the viow of iuorcaaing its incendiary powers. 
When tho liquid ia thrown on any finriwo ex- 
posed to tho air tho solvent evaporates, ieav- 
mg a film of tho phosphorus or snl^ido of 
phosphorus, wbicli then inflames sponta- 
neously. Tho proper mudo of cxtingniahing 
^uch a tiro ia to throw damp sand, ashes, saw- 
dust, lime, or auy powder, wet sacking or 

carpcliug, in ohovt, any material which wiif 
exclude ^0 air from ll)o lire. No attempt 
should bo inodo to remove tho covering lor 
somo time after the flame has been extiu* 
gnished. The place should afterward bo thor- 
oughly washed by a powerful jot of water 
forced upon it. 

"C^xplosives. This ia a general 
I iUrm for all substances which explode 
with vioJcDCO. Somo of these, as gunpowder, 
^un-cotton, Ac., oxplodo by being urought 
into contact wirii fire. Others, to which tho 
term of Fulminates is applied, explode witA 
violence by alight beat, friction, or conenaaion. 

2191. Fulttiutingr Antimony. Orind 
well together 100 parte of dried Urtar emetic, 
and 3 parte of lampblack, or charcoal powder; 
then take a crucible capable of bolding 3 
oQDCeeof water, and he ving ground ita oago 
amootb, and rubbed tho inside with powdered 
charcoal, i fill it with the above mixture, 
cover it with a layer of charcoal powde^p^aud 
lute CD the cover. Bxposo it for 3 hours to 
a etroDg beat lu a reverberatory furnace, and, 
when takes oot, let it stand to cool for 6 or 7 
hoore before removing its contents, to prevent 
ao explosion. Tho oniciblo being now opened, 
the COD tents must be hastily transferred, with- 
out breaking, to a wide-monthed stoppered 
blaJ, when, after some time, it will crumble 
own into a powder of itself. Or: Triturate 
together, very carefully, 100 parts antimony, 
75 parts carburetted (roasted to blackness) 
cream of tartar, and 12 parts lampblack; pre- 
eerve it in phials. 'When the above processea 
VC properly conducted, the resulting powders 
fulmioate violeutly on contact wuh water. 
It la Co the presence of the very inflammable 
metal potaseiam that they owe this property. 
Anetber compound, made with 60 parts of 
carburetted cream of tartar, 120 bismuth, and 
1 of nitre, treated as above, contains an alloy 
very rich in potassium. A piece tho si bo of a 
pea introduced into a mass uf gunpowder ox- 
^odes it on being thrown into water. 

2132. Fulminatiiig Gold. Dissolve 
gold in aqua regia (made bv dissolviug 4 
ounces sal ammoniac m 12 or f6 ounces nftric 
acid), and precipitate with a solution of car- 
bonate of potassa. Fulminating gold should 




be made in very pmall quantities at a time, to 
avoid risk, as 'without great care it exploded 
'with extreme violence. This is caused W the 
slightest friction or sudden increase of beat. 
Its fulminatiog property may bo destroyed!^ 
hoiliog it in pearlasb lye, or oil of vitriol ; 
and by heating the powder after washing it in 
water, pare gold wul be obtained. 

21 33. Fulminating Silver. Digest oz^ 
idc of silver (recently precipitated, anu dried 
by pressure between bibulous paper) in con- 
centrated liqnor of ammonia for 12 or 15 
hours, pour off the liquid, and cautiously div 
tho black powder in the air. Tbo decant^ 
ammonia, when gently heated, yields, on 
cooling, small crystals, which possess a stUJ 
mure form ida bio power of detonatioo, and 
will scarcely bear touching, even while onder 
the liquid. This compound is exploded by 
tbo slightest friction or percussion, and should 
tborcforc be only made in very small quanti* 
ties at a time, aud handled with great cantion. 
Its oxplo8i7o powers aro tremendous; in fact, 
it cau hardly uo handled with safety, oven in 
the moist state. Many IVightlul occidouU 
have happened from the spontaneous ezpio* 
si DU of this Bubstauee. At most 1 or 2 grains 
can be exploded with safety at one litne. 

2134. FtUminating filercur^. Dis- 
solve by a gentle beat \6o parts, by weight, 
of mercury in 100 parts nitric acid of specific 
gravity 1.4; and when the solution has ac* 
quired a temperature of 130<^ Fahr., slowly 
pour it through a glass funnel tube into 830 
parts alcohol of specific gravity .830. As 
soon as the effervescence is over and while 
fumes cease to rise, filter it through double 
paper, wash with cold water, and dry by 
steam (not hotter than 912^} or hot water. 
This is the formula of Dr. Ure, and said to be 
the cheapest aud safest. If parts by measun 
bo adopted, the above proportions will be, for 
100 parte, by measure, of mercuiy, 740 parte 
nltnc acid, and 830 parts alcohol. 

2185. FulxniiiAtii^t Copper. Digete 
copper, in powder or filings, with fulminate of 
meroury or of silver, . and a little water. It 
forms soluble green crystals that explode witli 
a green dame. 

2136. Fulmifiatizig Powder. Powder 

separatehj 3 ports nitre, 2 parts dry {seo No, 
2(M>5) carbonate of potash, and 1 fiowere of 
sulphur ; mix them together carefully. If 20 

graina of this compound oro slowly heated on 
a shovel over tho fire, it molte and becomes 
brown, exploding 'with a loud report. 

2137. Kew Explosive Compound. 
B. G. Amend has observed that glycerine 
mixedwitb crystallised permanganate ofpotaa- 
sa in a mortar spuntaneonsly deflagrates. 

2138. Priming for Percussion Cape. 
To makothiB compound XOO grains of fnlmin* 
ating mercury aro tritnrated with a w<^en 
muller on marble, with 30 grainsof water and 
GOgrmnsol gu^owder. This issufficient for 
400 caps. Dt. Uro recommends a solution of 
gum moatlch in turpentino as a medium for 
attaching tho fulminate to tbo cap. 

2139. Percussion Pellets. Mix equal 
parte of tho chlorate of polassaond snlpburet 
of antimony with liquid gum, so as to form a 

E tc. When dry it may bo formed into pel- 
, and used as percussion powder for guns. 
This composition, placed on the ends ofsplinta 
dipped in sulphur, produces fricliou inatcbea. 
This mixture maf also be empl(»yed for per- 
cosidon caps, only without tho gum ; tbo two 
subetauoes, mixed together dry, are forced 
into tbe caps, ond a dr^ of varnish depoeited 
on tbe inside surface of each. A mixture of 
tbo fulminate of mercury, thlorate of potaasa, 
and sulphur, however, is more commonly 
used for lining pcrcusBion caps. 

2140. To Hake Gunpowder. Polver^ 
ixe separately, 76 parts uitrate of poto^ U 
sulphur, and 13 freshly burned charcoal, and 
mix tbcDi with a littlo water, so os to form a 
cake when rolled out on a board. This is then 
dried on a clean sheet of paper placed in a 
warm^tuarioD, and afterwards crumbled into 
mins. It will form un glased gunpowder. 
The pulverised ingredients, thoroughly mix^, 
without the addition of any water, constitute 
what 13 called meal })ou:der ; this may also be 
mado by puiverisiDg grained gunpowder very 
cautiously in a mortar, or with a mnllor. 
(See Por 2 )hyrisation^ No. 25.) 

2141. To Pr^are Gun-Cotton. The 
simplest way consists in immersing, for a few 
seconds, well -carded cotton in a mixture of 
equal parts, by volume, of oil of vitriol of 
specific grovity 1.846, aud nitric aoid of spe- 
cific gravity of 1.500. The cotton, when well 
saturaM, is to bo removed and squeexed to 
the excess of acid, and then well wash- 
ed in clean cold water, imtal tho water no 




loDger reddens litmus paper. It is then dried 
at a heat not exceeding 212°. A lower tern- 
peratnro is still safer. The cotton thns pr^ 
pared explodes well, but does not dissolTo 
easily in ether. Under CollodioK will be 
found other preparations of Qnn-Cotton. 

0143, Hitro>fl 7 carino. This lean oily, 
edlorlesa liquid, with a specliio gravity of l.S^. 
It has no emeli, but a taste which at drat ia 
•weet, bnt aoou becomes pangent, likepepper^ 
Is eolnble in ether and metbyiic alcohol, bnt 
not in water, bnt the presence of water di- 
minishes tho risk of explosion. It begins to 
evaporate at 365° Fahr. It baa been found 
that pure nitrtH^lycerino, dropped upon nthor* 
onffhly red htriiron, assumes a spheroida] state 
and flashes off into vapor in the eamo wey os 
gunpowder; but if tho iron is not red her, 
onl7 hot enough to cause tho nitro-glycciiuc 
to boil snddenlr, a irigbtfiU explosioD takes 
place. The explosion of a single dr^ in this 
manner will cause serious damage, l^isdau- 

C ;erous compound requires most carefbl band- 
ing. a slight shock sometiEnes exploding it. 

SI 48. To Prepare Itf^ltrc^tycerme. 
MIX 100 parts Ibming nitric ocidatXo° Baunid 
with 200 parts sulpburio aci<l! wbcu cool, add 
38 parts glycerino slowly, allowing it to 
trickle down the Bides of tho vessel. Tho 
glyoerino will remain on tho surface for hours 
without mixing. Stir the glycerine aod acids 
with a glass rod for 10 seconds, pour it into 
20 times its volume of water, and the uilro- 
glycerine will be instautly precipitatetl to the 
extent of 76 parte*, or double the amount of 
glycerine employed. It must be repeatedly 
washed with water, and then saturated with 
bicarbonate of soda ur lime. 

2144, Blasting Powders. Neither 
nesb uor Halt water has any iujuriems effect 
on blasting powders; they need only to be 
dried to regain their explosive character. 
Their emitting but little smoke reuders them 
useful in undergrouDd operations, and their 
explosive force is eight times that of gun- 
powder. They explode with extieme foenUy, 
either by ccmlact with a strong acid, a slight 
elevation of temperature, or the slightest iric- 
tion. In propanng them, therefore, excessive 
precaution is necessary, especially in mixing 
the ingredients. A straw, slightly wetted 
with oil of vitriol, applied to a smul heap of the 
.powder, will cause rnKtaotaueous explosion. 

214S. To Make Blasting Powder. 
Bednce separately to powder, 2 parts chlorate 
of potash and 1 part redsuipburct of arseuic; 
mix very lightly together. Or:— Powder 
aeparately, 5 parU chlorate of potassa, 2 parts 
m enlphuret of arsenic, and 1 part fcrrocyan- 
ide of potassium (prusaiate of potassa); mix 
carefully. Or:— Mix carefully, as be fore, 
aftar having separately reduced to powder, 
eottal parts chlorate of potassa iiud ferrocyanide 
of potassium. 

vl46. Parlor or Congravo Matchoi. 
IMssolve 16 parts gum-arabic in the least pos- 
Mblo qaantity of water, and mix with U 2 
parts phosphorus iu powder (sec Xo. 433d) ; 
then add 14 ports nitre (saltpetre), and 16 
parts of either venniUon (red sulpburet of 
merenry), or binoxido (black oxide) of man- 

g nese, aud form tho whole into a paste. Dip 
a malcbea into this paste, and then let them 
dry. When quite dry they are to bo dipped 
ioto a very uiluto copal or lac varnish, and 
again driaa; by this means they are less likely 
to suffer IVom damp weather. 

2147. Cheap Parlor Matchee. A 
vhaeper paste for dipping may be made by 
fPMking o parU glue for 24 hours in a little 
water, and liquefled by mbbojig ib a h«M 
mortar; 4 perta phosphorus are next added 
at a beat not exceeding 160° Fahr.; then add 
10 parte finely powdered saltpetre; and lastly 
5 parts red le^ and 2 parU smalts are mixed 
in, the whole beiug fonned into a unifonn 
pMte. The matches are dipped, dried, var- 
nished, and dried again, as belore. 

2148. To Make Matches Without 
Suli^ur. To obviate the use of enlpbur Ibr 
igniting tho wood of tho match, the ends of 
Uio matches oro first slightly charred by nib- 
bing them against a red hot iron plate, and 
then dipped into ae much white wax, melted 
ID a suitable vessel, os will cover tho bottom 
about i inch in depth. Or they may be 
dipped into camphorated spirit. Or into a 
solution of 1 ounce Yen ice turpentine and | 
onnee camphor, in i pint oil of turpentine, 
with a little gum-benxoin and cascarilla by 
way of perfume. After any nf the above 
prepiMtions the matches arc ready for dip- 
ping in the phosphoruspaste. 

2149. Substitute for Lucifer Matchee. 
The dangers arising from the universal adop- 
tion of Uic common lucifer match have in- 




iluced chemists to seek 5 substitute for it. If. 
Pokier h&a rcceut)^ proposed a cotnpoDikd 
which is obtained m tbo shape of a violet 
powder, by mixing together equal volumes of 
solutions of sulphate of copper, one of whicb 
iH supersaturated with ammonia, aod the 
other with hyposulphite of soda. A mixture 
of chlorate of potaah and the above powder 
will catch five by percussion or rubbing; it 
bum a like gunpowder, and leaves a blank 
residue. M. Viederbold prup(»aea a mixture 
of hyposulphite of lead, or baryta, or chlorate 
of potash, for matches without phosphoms* 
Tbo only incouveuienco of this compound ia 

that it attracts moisture too easily. 

2150. Mizturee for Metcbea. For 
sulphur dips: Fhosphorus, 3 parts; glue, 6 
parts; 6anu, Ipart; incorporated boluw 100^ 
Fohr., with 10 parts of water. Or, phospho- 
rus, & parts; 6uo sand, 4 parts; ml ochre, 1 
part (or, ultramarine), f part; gum-arabic, 5 
parts, in 0 pints of water (or, 4 parts of due 
in 9 parts of water). For Btearine dips : Poos* 
phonis, 3 parts; brown oxide of lead, 2 parts; 
turpentine, i part, softened in 3 parts water. 
Instead of the brown oxid^ 2 parts of red 
lead stirred up with i part of nitnc add may 
bo used. 



Dick’s Encyclopedia of Formulas & Processes 1872 

Antimony, rglmlnsikofl 

Bengal ugnis 

Biro'i 8luo Fire 2070 

Bl«»nno Fowdtrt 2144 

Blue Bengii LlgMs 20M. 4c. 

BIu 4 Fires 2069. 2072. 2i OB 

Blue Lighis 2701. 2M6 

Oiinese Fire 206S 

Cnioreie ei Fotisee, Caution in 

uung 2124 

Colored Firee 2046. 4c. 

Colored for II III ml nil lone ,8064.2106 

Colored Firee tor indoori 2UB, 4c, 

Colored FIrec for stars 2067 

Colored Flames 2t26 

Colored Flashes, Paper lormaking . , .2i24 

Colored Lighte 2112 

Colored 6iers 2064 

Composihon lor Rockets 2094 

Congreve Matches 2146 

Copper, Fulmmetrng 2i34 

Crimsor> Fire 2078 , 2074 

e*0los(ves 2130. 4c 

Eiplosive Compound, New 2137 

Fire-EatIng Ghosre 21<H 

FIre.QitOIng 3404 

Firework Cases, to make 205S 

Firework Mixture, Japanese 2I27 

Fireworks 2048, 4c. 

Fulminates 2130. 4c. 

Fulmmatlng Antimony 2131 

Fulmineting Copper 2136 

Fulmmaitng Gold 2132 

Fulmlr^alrng Mercury 2134 

Fuiminailng Powder 2136 

Fulm/netlr>o Silver 2133 

Ohoel Scenes, Fires lot . 2076, 

Ohoais, Fkro<eaiing 

Gold. FuMnknaiing 

Golden Ram for Rockets 

Greek Fire 

Gteen Bengal Lights 

Green Fire 2074, 4c , 

Green LigMs 2114, 



Indian White Fire 

inexMnputshabie Hatch 

Iron Sand lor FirewoAe 

Jeoanest FitewcA Mixtures 

Jepanese Matches 

LIgnis. Colored 2112. 

Lilac Fire* 20B8, 

Luctler Matches. Subslilule for 

MarcheTMl’s Cnmaon Ftre 

Merchend’e Gt e en Firv 

Marsh’s Blue fire 

Marsh’s Crimson Fire 

Maish's While Fire 

Marsh’s Yellow Fire 

Match, Ineiiinguishabie 

Match, Quick 

Malch. Slow 

Matches. Congreee 

Matches, Japanese 

Matches, Mixtures for . ..... 

Matches, Parlor 

Matches, Subsiiiule lor 

MalctMs without S«i Iphur 

NitiO'Glycarlne 2142, 

Orange Fire 

Paper tor producing Flashes of 

2101 Colored Light 

2101 Paser. Touch, lor Firaworks 

2108 Prior Meiehes 

8086 Percuaslon Cape, Priming lor 

2126 Percussion Pellets 

2072 Pink fire 

2111 pink Lighie 

2122 Fort Fire 

2141 Powders, Bleating 

2l40Powdeil, Fulminating . . 

2i04Pyrp(e Fire 

2061 Pyroiechny ... 

2104 Quick Match 

21 27 Red Bangal Lighii 

2l26Red Fke 

. 4c. Red Lights 

4 c Red Lights lor Indoors 

21 49 Rocket Cases, to make . 

. 2128 
. 2146 
. . 2134 
. 2139 
. . .2117 
, ,2102 
. . 2136 
.2077, 2090 
. .2048 , 4C. 


. .2072 
2067 , 2i09 



. . . . 2050 

2077RxketS. Chinaea Firalor 2059 

2001 Rpckels, Composition for charging . 2084 

2074 RocKele. Oisplay 2051 

^TSRocksls, Garniture lor . . 2059 . 4c 

2094 Rockets, Plain 2050 

2l00ftockels, to charge 2052 

2061 Roman Candles 2062 

2060 Roman Candlas, Composition 

2089 lor charging .2063 

2144 Roman Candles. Sian lor . . .2088 , 2064 

21 26 Rose-Coioied Fire 2093 

2150 Signal Lights 2071, 2103 

21 46 Touch Paper lor Fireworks 2099 

2149 Violel Fire 2094 

2l44wnite Fire 2096. 2104, 2107 

2143 While Lights 2ii3 

2069 White Lights loMndoofs 2120 




^ INDEX 187) 

The Techno-Chemical Receipt Book 1896 


^ Bengal LighU. Beafd^a the combos* 
tible and coloring com|ionent6^ the fire* 
works kn(»wn under this nsmecontaio 
substances which, by yielding oxygen^ 
aid combustion. The principal ingre* 
dients used for this purpose are char- 
coal, lampblack, sulphur, stearine, lin* 
seed oil, colophony, sugar, etc. For 
coloring the nghu the fol lowing sub* 
Stances are made use of? SulphuJe of 
antimony, arsenical sulphides, nitrate 
of barium, nitrate of strontium, sul* 
phate ofpotassium, carbonate of sodium, 
cupric oxide, boracio acid, chlorate or 
potassium^ saltpetre, etc. In preparing 
colored lights the greatest attention 
should be paid to the absolute purity 
of the ingredients used, and that they 
are powdered as finely as possible and 
very intimately mlx^ with a spatula 
after pulverisation. Every mixture 
containing chlorate of pota^ium must 
be treated and bandied with the utmost 
care and caution, as such mixtures are 
liable to spontaneous ignition and even 
to explosion. For preparing a very 
fine powder of it, it is best to allow a 
supersaturated hot solution of chlorate 
of potassium to become cold, with con- 

stant stirring, when the salt will be 
separate in the form of a very fine 
crystallized flour, which should be 
dried without exp<»iog it to direct heat. 
To secure uniformity the ready mixt- 
ures should be sifted. It is advisable 
to use dry materials only in manufact- 
uriog them, not to prepare large quan- 
tities at one time, and to store the 
mizturea in ad replace in hermetically 
elusad* vessels. 

Col ored lights are best used by press- 
ing the mixture into cases (cartridges) 
of pBpf>* twice os long as wide and ig- 
nitii^^ it by means of a quiek match. 

Quick molchee are made of 4 parts of 
saltpetre, 2 of gunpowder, 2 of cnarcoal, 
and 1 of sulphur. Quick matches made 
of this composition never miss Are and 
are not extinguished by rain or wind. 

White Fire. This excellent light, 
on account of its brilliant whiteness, is 
especially adapted for night signalling 
and also for festive occasions. It is 
produced by mixing 24 parts of salt- 
petre, 7 of flowers of sulphur, and 2 of 

In mixing the saltpetre with the flow- 
ers of sulphur sulphurous vapors are 
developed which form moist lumps in 
the mass. To secure a good ignition 




and quick combustion of the mass it is 
necessary to dry it thoroughly in an iron 
f»an with gentle heat, as, if this precau- 
tion Is neglected, it frequently miases 
fire or i^ites and then goes out. The 
mixture is cheaper than gunpowder, as 
less labor is required in preparing it 
and very littJe danger incurred. 

Alohr^i While Pirty which is very 
effective and scarcely ever misses fire, 
is composed of 24 parta of saltpetre, 7 
of sulpnur^ and 1 of fine charcoal. The 
charcoal increases the infiammabiliiy 
of the mixture and shortens the length 
of time during which the light bunii^, 
but adds to its intensity. It m not i>er- 
missible to use a larger amount of char- 
coal than that given, as the composition 
would then approach that of gun powder. 

White Fire for Theatreny cU. I. 
Forty-eight parts of saltpetre, 13.25 of 
sulphur, 7.25 of sulphide of antimony. 

II. Twelve parts of saltpetre, 4 of 
sulphur, 1 of sulphide of s<^ium. 

III. Sixteen parts of saltpetre, 12 of 
mealed powder, 12 of cast-iron filings, 
8 of powdered charcoal. 

Iv. One part of charcoal, 3 of sul- 
phur, 7 of saltpetre, 1 of chlorate of 
potassium, 4 of sulphide of antimoDy. 

V. Thirty-two parts of saltpetre, 12 
of sulphur, 8 of sulphide of sodium, 1 
of gunpowder. 

vl. One hundred to 133 parts of 
pulverized antimony, 48 to 206 of pul- 
verized sulphur, 375 to 500 of saltpetre. 

VII. Sixty- four parts of pulverized 
saltpetre, 21 of pulverized sulphur, 15 
of gunpowder. 

VIII. One hundred parts of potas- 
sium carbonate, 10 of sulphide of anti- 
mony, 15 of boiled linseed oil* 

I A. Eleven parts of chlorate of potas- 
sium, 4 of nitrate of potassium, 1 of 
stearine, 1 of carbonate of barium, 5 of 
milk sugar. 

X. Forty-five parts of sulphide of 
antimony, 15 of washed flowers of sul- 
phur, 96 of saltpetre, 15 of stearine. 

The stearine is either grated or cut in 
shavings and then rubbed with some 
pulverized saltpetre into as fine a pow- 
der as possible. The other powdered 
ingredients are then mixed with it and 
the mixture passed through a fine 

XL Eighteen parts of saltpetre, 3 of 
sulphide of antimony, 10 of sulphur, 4 
of burned lime (unsfaked). 

Greeniih-whiU Fire. I. Two parts 
of sulphur, 1 of oxide of zinc, 2 oi sul- 
phide of antimony, 1 of powdered char- 

II. Fifty parts of saltpetre, 26 of sul- 
phur, 5 of sulphide of antimony, and 
0.5 of alum. 

Bluieh*whitf. Fire. Uhdtn has made 
experiments in regard to the availabil- 
ity of sulphide of cadmium for pyro* 
technic purposes* In the following 

mixture the sulphide of cadmium bums 
with a brilliant white flame surrounded 
with a magnificent blue border: Mix 
20 parts of saltpetre, 4 of sulphide of 
cadmium, 5 of su^hur, and I of pulver- 
ized charcoal, l^iB mixture may be 
used for fire-balls. 

Red Fire. I. Forty parts of nitrate 
of strontium, 15 of sulphur, 5 of chlo- 
rate o^otassium, and 2 of charcoal. 

li. Fifty parts of chlorate of potas- 
sium, 50 of nitrate of strontium^ 5 of 
charcoal, and a sufficient quantity of 
linseed oil to knead the mass together. 

Red Fire according to Braunech/tveig- 
er. Nine parts of nitrate of strontium, 
3 of shellac. 1.5 of chlorate of potas- 
sium. The shellac need only be coarsely 
powdered. The above 3 mixtures for 
red fire possess the advantage of not 
emitting injurious vapors, and can 
therefore be used in rooms, etc. 




HoltxU Red Fire^ which was so much 
used in Berlin during the festivities in 
celebration of th^ victories in the 
French war, contains no chlorate of 
potsssium, but is simply composed of 

1 part of shellac ana 4 of nitrate of 
strontium. The absence of chlorate of 
potassium makes it possible to store 
such mixtures without any danger, 
though the light produced is leas in> 
tense and brilliant in color. The mixt> 
ure is not very inflammable, bums 
better if slightly moistened, develops 
but little smoke, and, as it bums very 
slowly, is without doubt the cheapest 
material for red lights. A very small 
addition of chlorate of potassium iin* 
proves the color of the flame very much. 

Receipts for other Red^Jire Mixtures. 

I. Fifty-six parts of nitrate of strontium, 
24 of sulphur, 20 of chlorate of poias* 

II. Twenty-three parts of carbonate 
of strontium, 16 of sulphur, 61 of chlo* 
rate of potassium. 

III. Mix 40 parts of pulverized ni* 
trate of strontium, 6 of pulverized chio* 
rate of potassium, 13 of washed flowers 
of sulphur, and 2 of pulverized char* 

Instead of the rather expensive pre« 
cipitated chalk, salts of steontia, car* 
bonate of calcium, and the native 
sulphate of strontium (coelestine), may 
be used for preparing red fire according 
to the following rec^pts : 

I. Mix carefully 3 parts of powdered 
coelestine, 2 of sulphur, and 5 of chKh 
rate of potassium. 

II. Three parts of precipitated chalk, 

2 of sulphur, 6 to 8 of chlorate of po- 

III. Twelve hundred and fifty psxis 
of sulphate of strontium, 375 of purified 
sulphur, 166 of chlorate of potassium, 
ana 133 of antimony. 

IV. Seven hundred and fifty parts of 
carbonate of strontium, 500 purified 
su^hur, 1750 of chlorate of potassium. 

V. Rub fine and mix 195 parte of 
nitrate of strontium, 45 of chlorate of 
potassium, 45 of washed flowers of sul- 
phur, 7.5 of powdered charcoal, and 
22.5 of stearine. 

VI. Eleven parte of chlorate of potas* 
Slum, 4 of nitrate of potassium, 5 of 
milk sugar, 1 of earth -moss seed, 1 of 
oxalate of strontium. 

Furple Fire. Powder and mix 61 
parte of chlorate of potassium, 16 of 
sulphur, 23 of chalk. 

Rose-r^ lAcht. I. nc ami mix 
61 parte of chlorate of potassium. 16 of 
sulphur, 23 of chloride of potassium. 

II. Pulverize and mix 20 parte of 
sulphur, 32 of saltpetre, 27 of chlorate 
of potassium, 20 of chalk, 1 of charcoal. 

Red^oran^e Fire. Pulverize and mix 
52 parte of chlorate of potassium, 14 of 
sulphur, 34 of chalk. 

Dari-vioUt Fire. Rub fine and mix 
60 parte of chlorate of potassium, 16 of 
sulphur, 12 of carbonate of potassium, 
and 12 of alum. 

Pale-uiolet Fire. Rub fine and mix 
54 parte of chlorate of potassium, 14 of 
sulphur, 16 of carbonate of potassium, 
ana 16 of alum. 

Blue FHre. I. Eighteen parte of 
chlorate of potassium, 24 of saltpetre, 
14 of sulphur, 6 of cupric oxide. 

II. Four parte of mealed gunpowder, 
3 of sulphur, 3 of powdered zinc, 2 of 

III. The following mixture gives a 
loudly detonating compound : Two 

C of saltpetre, 1 of sulphur, 2 of car- 
te of potassium, 6 of common salt. 
IV, Mix 27 parte of pulverized salt- 
fietre, 28 of triturated chlorate of potas- 
sium, 16 of pulverized sulphur, 15 of 
pulverized sulphate of potassium, and 




15 of powdered cupro-ammoniuiD sul- 

The dark -blue color will gain iaten- 
sity by adding potassium sulphate to 
the mixture. 

V. Seventeen hundred and fifty parts 
of chlorate of potassium, 500 of sulphur, 
575 of carbonate of copper, and 375 of 
burned alum. 

VI. Twenty-one parts of chlorate of 
potassium, 23 of Ci^pfier preci|utated 
with chlorate iHjtassium, 12 of sul- 
phate of copper, 12 of calomel, 4 of 
milk sugar, and 3 of stenriiie. 

Dark-bhie Fh'e, Mix GO )>arts of 

chlorate of potHH.siLjm, 16 of sulphur, 12 
of carbonate of copjier, and 12 of alum. 

Pale-hlv^e I, Mix 61 i«irts of 

powdered chlorate of potassium, 16 of 
ulverized suiidiur, and 25 of strongly 
eated and pulverize<l alum. 

II. Mix 61 parts of iiowderetl salt- 
petre, 17i of uulverized sulphur, 20 of 
powdered anhydrous .soda, and \i of 
imiverized charcoal. 

Blue Fire unth a Blau/i*greai Flame. 
Rub fine and mix 12 parts of nitrate of 
l»arium, 5 of chlorate of potassium, and 
4 of sulphur. 

Green Fire, I. Rub fine and mix 
433 parts of purified sulphur, 2250 of 
nitrate of barium, 166 of chlorate of 
potassium, 66 of arsenic, and 100 of 

JI. Fifty parts of chlorate of potas- 
sium, 50 of nitrate of barium, 5 of char- 
coal, and a sufficient quantity of linseed 
oil to knead the mass. 

Green Fire according to 
^cha>e\ger. Three parts of shellac, 9 of 
nitrate of barium, li of chlorate of 

Other Beceipia for Grem Fire. I. 
Sixteen parts of nitrate of barium, 4 of 
sul])hur, and 16 of chlorate of potas- 

il. Forty-five parte of nitrate of 
barium, 10 of sulphur, 20 of chlorate of 
potassium, 2 of calomel, I of lampblack. 

III. Mix very carefully 12 parts of 
nitrate of barium dry as dust, 4 of sul- 
phur and 6 of chlorate of pota.ssium. 

IV. Powder and mix 6 parte of nitrate 
of barium, 1 of sulphur, 2 of chlorate 
of potassium, and i of charcoal. 

Pale-green Fire. I, Rub fine and 
mix 60 parte of chlorate of ]>cta8siiim, 
16 of sulphur, and 24 of carbonate of 

II. Sixtv parte of nitrate of barium, 

14 of washed fiowera of sulphur, and 40 
of chlorate of }^tasBium. 

III. Thirty -eight parte of nitrate of 
barium, 10 of chlorate of potassium, and 
6 of charcoal. 

IV. Six parts of nitrate of barium, 1 
of sulphur, 2 of chlorate of potassium, 
and i of charcoal. 

Dark-green Fire, One hundred and 
twenty parte of nitrate of potassium, 60 
of washed flowers of sulphur, 45 of 
chlorate of potassium, 37 i of anhydrous 
carbonate of sodium, 2 of pulverized 
charcoal, and 22.5 of stearine. 

Yellow Fire, I, Mix carefully 48 
parts of sodium nitrate, 16 of sulpWr. 
4 of sulphide of antimony, and 1 of 

II. Rub as fine as possible and mix 
20 parts of sodium nitrate, 3 of sulphur, 
ana 1 of sodium sulphide. 

III. Two thousand parte of chlorate 
of potaasium, 500 of purified sulphur, 
ana 750 of sodium carbonate. 

IV. Fifteen hundred and sixty-six 
rte of saltpetre, 625 of sodium car* 
Date, and 400 of gunpowder. 

V. Six parte of chlorate of potassium, 
6 of potassium nitrate, 5 of sodium ox- 
alate, and 3 of shellac. 

VI. Sixty-one parte of chlorate of 




potassium, 16 of sulphur, and 25 of 
anhydrous soda. 

VII. One hundred and twenty parts 
of potassium nitrate, 30 of flowers of 
sulphur, 45 of chlorate of potassium, 
37 i of anhydrous sodium carbonate, 2 
of charcoal powder, 22i of stearine. 

VIII, Sixty-one parts of saltpetre, 
17^ of sulphur, 20 of soda, and li of 

Other Colored Fireworks. 

Whiit Siari, Mix 32 parts of pul- 
verized saltpetre, 12 of pulverized sul- 
phur, 8 of powdered sodium sulphide, 
and 1 of gunpowder. 

Rid Sidti, Rub fine and mix 40 
parts of nitrate of strontium, 10 rf 
chlorste of potassium, 13 of sulphur, 2 
of charcoal, 5 of sodium sulphide. 

Oreen Star9, Thirty parts of chlo- 
rate of barium, 10 of flowera of sulphur, 
and 1 of mastic. 

Blue Stare. Rub floe and mix 20 
parU of chlorate of potassium, 11 of 
sulphur, 14 of cupric oxide, and 1 of 

Bluish^green Stare. I. Rub fine and 
mix 24 parts of nitrate of barium, 66 of 
chlorate of potassium, 30 of siilidinr, 
and 1 of mastic. 

II. Twenty parts of nitrate of barium, 
18 of chlorate of potassium, 10 of sul- 
phur, 1 of mastic, and 3 of sodium sul- 

Vellovneh^green Stars. I. Rub fine 
and mix 60 parts of chloride of barium, 
30 of nitrate of .barium, 20 of sulphur, 
and 1 of mastic. 

II. Twenty parts of chlorate of potas- 
sium, 5 of sulphur, 1 of mastic, and 1 
of carbonate of barium. 

Yellow Stars. Rub fine and mix 16 
parts of sodium nitrate, 6 of snlpUnr, 2 
of sodium sulphide, and 1 of charcoal. 

White Candies. Powder and mix 4 
parts of saltpetre, I of sulphur, and I 

of sodium sulphide. 

Red Candles. Rub flue and mix 26 
parts of nitrate of strontinm, 15 of chlo- 
rate of potassium, 12 of flowers of sul- 
phur, 2 of charcoal, 2 of sodium sul- 
phide, and 1 of mastic. 

Oreen Candles. Mix 20 parts of 
chlorate of barium, 30 of nitrate of 
barium, and 10 of sulphur. 

Blue Candles. Rub fine and mix 18 
parts of chlorate of potassium, 6 of salt- 
petre, 10 of sulphur, and 6 of cupric 

Bluish-green Candles. Rub fine and 
mix 20 parts of chloride of barium, 30 
U>A2 of nitrate of barium, 40 of chlorate 
of potassium, 10 to 22 of sulphur and 
of sodium sulphide* 

Yellow Candles. Kub fine and mix 
80 parts of sodium nitrate, 7 of sulphur, 
3 of sodium sulphide, and 2 of mastic. 

Jananeec Matches. One part of pow- 
derea charcoal, li of sulphur, and 3i 
of saltpetre. 

According to another receipt they 
consist of 6 parts of lampblack, 11 of 
sulphur, and 26 to 30 parts of gunpow- 
der. The mixture is made iuco a paste 
with alcohol, formed into small dice, 
and dri^. When dry one of the little 
squares is fixed into the cleft of a laven- 
der stalk, lighted on a candle, and held 
stem downward. After the first blazing 
ofiT, a ball of molten lava will form from 
which the curious and very beautiful 
oorroscationa will soon appear. 

Prof. JioUger says about Japanese 
matches: The mixture consists either 
of 3 parts by weight of lampblack, 8 of 
flowers of sulphur, and 15 of saltpetre 
{dry as dust) ; or 2 parts by weight of 
finely sifiwl lime- wood charcoal, 4 of 
flowers of sulphur, and 7 of saltpetre 
(dry dust). The mode of preparing 
the iimtclies is as follows : Cut the finest 
commercial tissue paper into stri})S 
about 04 inches long, I inch wide on 




one end, atid running into a j^int at 
die other, Hy roll iiig these sm^l strips 
• d' j^aper tightly together, conmiencing 
ni the pointed end, and filling the lower 
]iurt\vitli from 3Q to 45 grains of oneof 
the ahovo mixtures, a close imitation ot 
the genuine Japanese matches will be 
the result, 

J^'ircwof'ks for Uitein J2oom$^ accord- 
inf/ fo Peiron. Mix 12 parts of salt- 
petre, 15 of flowers of sulphur, and 30 
of gunpowder. Then dissolve 2 parts 
<d‘ camjihor in 8 of spirit of wine, and 
4 of gum Arabic in water. Knead the 
whole into a doughy and form small 
cornered pieces from (t which are dried. 
When ignited they give a beautiful 

Pharaoh^ $ S€rpeni$. This curious 
chemical toy is prepared as follows: 
Dissolve mercury, with the aid of heat, 
iu dilute nitric acid, being carefiil that 
there shall alwavs be an excess of mer* 
curv II resent. \Vhen the action of the 
acid lias ceased, decant the solution, 
and pour into it a solution of sulpho- 
cyanide of potassium or ammontum, 
which may oe procured at any drug* 
gist’s. Use about equal quantities of 
the two solutions. A precipitate of 
sulphO'cyanide of mercury falls oat, 
which should be filtered off, washed, 
and dried. Then take for every pound 
of this substance 1 ounce of gum traga- 
cantlp which should be soaked in water. 
When the gum is completely softened 

Blasting CcHPOUKoe, Blasting 

Powder, Dynamite, Gun-Cotton, 

Gunpowder, Nit bo-glycerine, 

Fulminates, Etc. 

Among the blasting compounds nitro- 
glycerine and the explosive substances, 
dynamite, etc., derived from it, occupy 
t£e foremost place. 

it is transferred to a mortar, and the 
dried iirecipitate is gradually rubbed 
up w'itii it into a homogeneous paste, 
with the addition of a little water. 
This mass is fillefl into moulds of coni- 
cal or other shape, made of silvered 
pai>er, and dried. When these arc 
ignited by the application of a match 
at the conical end tlieyforni an enor- 
mous volume of asli, which proceeds in 
great coils from the body oi the mass, 
and which by its serpentine movements, 
as it is formed, hag suggested the name. 

Harmless Substitu/e for Pharooh’s 
Serpents. The Hbove-iiamed ex|>eri- 
fuent, though curious and iuterestiug, 
is not altogether free from danger, be- 
cause Misonous mercurial ftimes are 
evolved duriug the combustion of the 
mass. On this account several substi- 
tute have been suggested. One of these, 
which is almost good as the original, 
aud is not poisonous, is prepared lu the 
following munucr : 


Olclitx)miite of .... 2 purU. 

Snltpotre 1 

White sugar 8 parts. 

Pulverize each of the ingredients sepa- 
rately, and then mix them thoroughly, 
ilake small paper cones of the desired 
size, and the mixture into them. 
When quite dry they are ready for use. 
They should be kept away from mois- 
ture and 1 ight. ( w . } 

Nitre •glycerine is obtained in the fol- 
lowing manner: Fuming nitric acid of 
49^ to 50^ Beaum4 is mixed with twice 
its weight of highly concentrated aul- 

E fauric acid in a vessel kept cool by 
sing surrounded with cold water. 
Ordinary eommercial glycerine, free 
from lime and lead, is evaporated to 30^ 
or 31*^ HeaumA When entirely cold. 




it should be of a syrupy consistency. 
pounds of the cold acid mixture are 
Drought into a glass flask or earthen 
vessel ; this is placed in cold water, and 
1 pound of glycerine is slowly poured 
into it; constant stirring being kept up 
during the addition of the glycerine. 
Great care must be observed to avoid 
any heating of the mixture, as the con- 
sequence of thifi wduld be an oxidation 
of the glycerine with development of 
carbonic acid. When the mixture is 
complete, it is allowed to stand quietly 
for 5 or 10 minutes, when it is poured 
into 5 or 6 times its volume of cold 
water, to which a rotary motion has 
previously been imparted. The nitro- 
glycerine subsides quickly as a heavy 
oil, which, by decantation, is brought 
into a vessel of greater neight than 
width. It is now washed with water, 
until not a trace of acid reaction is in- 
dicated by blue litmus paper, when it 
is put in flasks ready for use. It is a 
yellow or brown oil, heavier than 
water, and practically insoluble in it, 
but soluble in alcohol and ether. When 
impure or acid, it decomposes spon- 
taneously in a short time, with develop- 
ment of gite, and formation of oxalic 
and glyceric acids. 

Mowbra}/$ Process of Monuffictnring 
Nilro-fffyccrine, This product is pre- 
eminent because of its stable character. 
It freezes at 45® F., is clear as water, 
and never of an orange color, When 
detonated it does not produce what 
is known as glycerine neadache and 

is non-explosive when frozen. These 
excellent qualities are imparted to 
it by the care taken in its preparation. 
The nitrifying acid is maae in a well- 
ventilated building, in which are 
placed five retorts each of pounds* 
capacity and charged with lOi ounces 
of sodium nitrate and 131 ounces 

of sulphuric acid. Terra-cotta pi|»e8 
conduct the vapors from each retort 
into a row of four earthenware receivers 
standing upon a trestle raised slightlv 
above the floor. 165 pounds of auf- 
phuric acid are poured into the first two 
receivers and 110 pounds into the third, 
while the fourth remains empty. The 
nitric acid VApom are condensed in the 
receivers, whereby the mixture of acids 
repaired for nitrating is at once ob- 
taiued. When the distillation, which 
require 24 hours, is finished, the acid 
mixture (about 660 pounds) is drawn 
off and emptied into a large trough of 
so^tone. To remove the hyponitric 
ado, as well as to obtain a homogeneous 
mixture, Mowbray passes a current of 
air into the trougn through an iron 

f iipc, which answers the purpose {^r- 
ectly. This operation is of great im- 
portance, as the presence of hyponitric 
acid and nitrous acid probably causes 
the spontaneous decomposition and con- 
sequent explosion of tbis eubstance. 
The room In which the nitrating pro- 
cess is carried on is about 103 feet long 
and contains 116 jars of earthenware in 
9 wooden troughs. Ifii pounds of acid 
are poured into each of the jars and the 

troughs are filled with ice water, or 
with a mixture of ice and salt, to within 
j inch of the edge of the jars containing 
the acid. Upon a shelf above the 
troughs are placed glass vessels, one 
for each jar. Each contains 2i pounds 
of jnirc glycerine (not crude glycerine), 
which is conveyed drop by rfrop into 
the acid mixture by means of a siphon 
and rubber hose. Beneath the shelf 
upon which the glycerine vessels stand 
runs an iron pipe 2J inches in diameter, 
through which passes a current of cold 
and dry air, which is introduced into 
the jai^ while the acid and glycerine 
intermingle, through glass tul^s 16 ^ 




inches long and } inch in diameter. 
1 J hours are required for the glycerine 

to run off, and the greatest attention 
and care are necessary during this 
time. The three workmen overseeing 
the mixing process walk constantly up 
and down with a thermometer in hana, 
and should they find the temperature 
rising in one of the jars, or that red 
vapors are emitted, they stir the mix- 
ture with a glass rod. It happens some- 
times that the glycerine runs too rap- 
idly, when the flow must be diminished, 
and in case the eugiae should cease 
working must be entirely stopped and 
the mixture stirred. 

When the i5on version of glycerine into 
nitro*glycerine is complete, and no 
more red vapors escape, the Jars are 
emptied into a vat containing cold 
water (42.8^ F.). The quantity pro- 
dnoed amounts at each operauon to 
495 pounds. In this vat toe oil sat^ 
sides to the bottom, being covered with 
water about 6 feet deep. It remaini 
here for 15 minutes, wnen, after the 
water has been run oflT, it is drawn off 
into another vat resembling an old* 
fashioned churn, but much larger. 
Here it is washed 5 times — three times 
with pure water and twice with a solu- 
tion of soda, a current of air being 
p^assed through it at the same time. 
The water from the washing apparatus 
is allowed to run into a vat, and from 
this through two barrels buried in ^e 
ground, whence it finds its way to the 
outside. If ai^ of the oil should have 
been carried off with the wash -water, it 
is regained in one of the barrels. The 
nitro-glycerine is then transported in 
copper vessels to a magazine about 300 
feet distant from the work-room and 
emptied into crocks each having a capa- 
city of 66 pounds. These are placed on 
women shelves, each holding about 20 

crocks, which are immersed in water of 
about 70® F., reaching to within 6 
inches of the edge of the crocks. Here 
they remain for 72 hours, during which 
time the impurities that may ^ con- 
tained in the oil rise to the surface in 
the form of a scum, which is removed 
With a spoon. The nitro-glycerine is 
then chemically pure, transparent as 
water, and strongly refracts light. In 
this condition it is ready for packing. 
The tin cans used for this purpose are 

coated inside with paraffine, and have 
a capacity of 61} pounds each. When 
they are to be filled they are placed in 
a shallow wooden vat; the oil is first 
poured into copper cans and then 
through a rubber funnel into the tin 
cans. To render any oil which may be 
spilled harmless the precaution is used 
to cover the bottom of the vat with a 
thick layer of plaster of Paris, which 
quickly absorbs the fluid. When the 
cans have been filled they are placed 
in a wooden vat filled with ice water, 
or ice and salty until their contents are 
iVozen, and 30 to 40 of them are stored 
away together in smaller magazines at 
a distance of about 32.5 feet from the 
factory. For transporting the nitro- 
glycerine the tin cana are packed in 
open wooden boxes, the Iwttom of 
which ia covered witii several inches of 
sponge. Around the themiielvei 
are fastened two gutta-percha tubes 
crossing each other on the bottom of 
the can. To thaw the nitro-glycerine 
each can is provided with a tube a^ut 
10 inches long and 1 } inches in diame- 
ter. passing through the centre from top 
to bottom, into which water of from 70 to 
90® F, is poured. The cans are closed 
by a cork covered with a piece of blad- 
der. Sleighs are used in winter for 
transporting the cans, and in summer 
wagons covered with a layer of ice and 




this with a blanket. 

R, Bottger recommends the following 
process as free from risk for pre|>aring 
small quantities of nitro^glycerine: A 
few grammes of anhydrous and entirely 
pure glycerine are poured into a test* 
glass kept cool by being surrounded 
with a freezing mixture, and contaitiing 
1 part by volume of concentrated sul- 
phuric acid of 1.52 gravity, and 2 parts 
t>y volume of stronger sulphuric acid 
of 1.83 gravity. The mixture is poured 
as quickly as possible into a larger vol- 
ume of water. In this the nitro-glvcer- 
ine, resembling drops of oil, subsides to 
the bottom ; it is then washed and re* 
washed, first with water, and finally 
with a weak solution of soda. It is 
freed from water by means of a few 
small pieces of chloride of calcium, 
when a product will be obtained of 
such purity that it may be kept with- 
out risk for an indefinite time and with- 
out suffering decomposition. 

DgncmiU possesses all the properties 
of nltro-glycenne for blasting purposes, 
and is less dangerous. Expl<»sion is 
accomplished by means of a percussioo 
cap in the same manner as with nitro- 
glycerine. The most common mode of 
making dynamite is by mixing 75 per 
oeut. of nitro-glycerine with 25 per 
cent, of powderea sand. 

Dynamite, according to H. Champiw 
and if. Pelietf may be divided into, a, 
dynamite with an inert absorbent (in- 
fusorial earth, ashes, tripoli, etc.), and 
5, dynamite with an active absorbent. 
In the latter variety rosin, finely-pow- 
dered coal, or saltpetre are used as 
absorbents. To this class belong dualin, 
lithofracteur, etc. 

To make the maou&cture of dyna- 
mite less dangerous, A.Sobr€ro sug^sts 
to stir infusorial earth with water into 
IX dough, form it into shapes of suitable 

size, dry them at 212^ F., and finally 
dip them into nitro-glycerine. Dyna- 
mite with 75 per cent, of effective ex- 
plosive can be prepared in this manner. 

Ceiluloit Dy^uimite, Franzl has suc- 
ceeded in producing a nitro-glyeerine 
powder which, while it possesses all 
the properties of dynamite prepared 
with inmsorial earth, has the advan- 
tage of being unafi'ected by water. He 
found that certain organic absorbents 
possessed the property of retaining ab- 
sorbed Ditro-glycerine,even when placed 
under water, and did not lose their ex- 
plosive power. The nitrogen! zed ab- 
sorbents— wood fibre and gun-cotton— 
were fiiund to be too dangerous for 
roanufacturing large Quantities. But 
Franzl has now succeeoed in prepariug 
a w'ood fibre which absorbs from 70 to 
75 per cent, of nitro-glyeerine, which 
returns these proportions uuehan^d 
when in contact with water, and which 
retains also its explosive power after 
beti^ pressed out and dried. 

Noi^in A OhUion*$ Patau Dynamite 
consists of a mixture of ammonium 
nitrate, with 8 to 10 per cent, of pulver- 
ized charcoal or coal, and 10 to 30 per 
cent of nitro-glyeerine. The compound, 
which, on account of the hygroscopic 

ammonium nitrate, must 
cases or glass 
vessels, is exploded by means of a per- 
cussion cap. 

An NobA^e Dynamite is a mixture of 
69 parts of saltpetre, 7 of paraffine or 
naphthaline, 7 of coal dust, and 20 of 
n tiro-glycerine. It is claimed that the 
addition of paraffine or naphthaline 
renders the mixture less hygroscopic. 

Lithofracteur^ as manufactured by 
Krebs i Co, of Deutz, is composed of 
52 parts of nitro-glyeerine, 30 oi infusor- 
ial earth. 12 of <x»al, 4 of saltpetre, and 
2 of sulphur. 

property of the ammoni 
be kept in metallic 




DittrMir^s Dualin consiffte of 50 parts 
of nitro-glycerine, 50 of nitrated saw- 
dust, and 20 of saltpetre. 

New Dynamite hy Anihoine At Oen^ 
aud. Ill this preparation unsized paper 
takes the place of silica. The paper is 
not only saturated with nitro-glycerine, 
but dipped in succession into solutions 
of saltpetre, potassium chlorate^ and 
potassium picrate. 

Carbodzotme. This explosive mix- 
ture, patented in France by de Saulagce 
and Ciihuc, is composed of 50 to 04 
parts of saltpetre, 15 to IG of sulphur, 
14 to 16 of spent ten, or very tine saw- 
dust, to 15 of lampblack, and 4 (o5 
of ferrous sulphate, The mixture is 
heated with u suitable quantity of water 
to 250^ to 245^ F., then allowed to cool, 
aud the solid moss dried and sliap^ 
into bricks. 

Druc*roc^t au ex|)to6ive agent patent* 
ed by Xobaudtf consists of 40 parts of 
saltpetre, 20 of soda saltpetre. 15 of 
sulphur, 1 of rock salt, and l5of woody 
substance, spent tan, sawdust, etc. 

DudrifHlU, Poch'^ blasting |H>wder, 
known under this name, consists of 5 
parts by weight of ai>ent tan, 5 of saw- 
dust, 3 of soda saltj^tre, 5 of barium 
nitrate, t> oi’ wood vharcoal, 12 of 
sulphur, and Gb of saltpetre. The 
barjum and sodium salts are dissolved 
in hot water, the tan and sawdust 
stirred into the solution, aud the mix- 
ture IB evaporated to dryness. The 
other ingredients, previously pulver- 
ized, are iutimately mixed with the 
jMjwdered residue in a revolving cylin- 

Pyrolith, This blasting powder, 
atented by WaUleUy and used for 
lasting hara rocks, such as granite, etc., 
consists of 12.0 parts by weight of saw- 
dust, 67.5 of saltpetre, and 20 of dowers 
of sulphur. 

For blasting softer rocks, such as 
limestone, coal, etc., Wattlen recom- 
mends the following composition: 11 
parte by weight of sawdust, 50.5 of salt- 
petre, 16 of soda saltpetre, 1.5 of pow- 
dered charcoal, and 20 of flowers of 

TretP Bl<uting PowdeVy patented in 
England, consists of 52.5 per cent, of 
Chili soda saltpetre, 20 per cent, of 
sulphur, and 27.5 per cent, of 8{>ent 

Frozen Dynamite. Hynamite, when 
frozen solid, is comparatively valueless, 
as IQ thawing for use it becomes injured 
and sometimes ignites ; hut by granulat- 
ing it, as freezing takes place, and keep- 
ing it in this condition, it may He trans- 
ported, handled, or poured and rammed 
into bore holes witn entire safety and 
convenience. Freezing the dynamite 
in grains may be readily accomplished 
by p^ing it through a coarse sieve 
alter it is manufactured, but just before 
it congeals, and allowing it to fall 
loosely and lie undisturbed during its 
exposure to a freezing temperature. 
The jiartieles will slightly adhere, but 
may be readily separateJ by stirring. 
Uynamiteso frozen will readily explode 
by the ordinary tneuns, but the cap 
should have about three times the usual 
quantity of fulmiuate. 

Augendre^e ly/iite Powder, This 
powder may be advantageously used 
tor Masting very hard rock, although 
itis8ouiewhatex])ensive. Considerable 
care ami caution are required in ram- 
ming it into the drill holes, and for this 
reason the work should be only in- 
tru8te<l to experienced workmen. By 
the following process gun- 

powder can.^ produced as a very ho- 
m^eneous mixture and of great explo- 
sive energy. The three ingredients of 




wliite gunpowder, potassium ferrocy- 
anide, sugar, and potassium chlorate^ 
are }>ulverized, each by iteelf, in a mor- 
tar, and then thorougfily dried. Ea<^ 
of the ingredients, when dry, is again 
pulverized as finely as possible, and 
passed through a fine hair sieve. The 
rcsjieetivc quantities of the ingr^ienta 
are then weighed off, poureif upon a 
sheet of paper, and intimately mixed 
with the lingera or with a feather. The 
powder is then placed in a capacious 
porcelain mortar, moistened witn ab^* 

lute alcohol, and an intimate mixture 
is produced by continued rubbing with 
a jiestle, the process being entirely free 
from danger if done in this manner. 
The powder, which is now in the form 
ofa stiff d<iugh, is spread upon a smooth 
board and dried in a warm room. The 
alcohol evaporates quickly, when the 
thin, dry cafces of powder are crushed 
between two smooth boards, and the 
powder passed through a fine sieve. In 
this manner it is obtained in the form 
of very fine, intimately mixed dust, 
possessing excellent explosive proper* 

Hafen€gg€T^$ Gun and Blaming Pow- 
der, several varieties of which have 
been patented in England, resembles 
Augtndr€*8 white powder. Their com- 
position is as follows : 

I. Nine parts of Mtassium chlor* 
ate, i of sulphur, ana i of wood char* 

II. Two parts of potassium chlorate, 
1 of refined sugar, and 1 of potassium 

III. Four parts of potassium chlorate, 
1 of 8ul}>hur or sugar, J of wood char- 
coal, and I of potassium ferrocyanide. 

IV. Four parts of potassium chlorate, 
4 of sugar, \ of wood charcoal, and i of 

V. One part of potassium chlorate 

and 1 of sugar. 

VL Eleven parts of potassium chlor- 
ate, J of sulphur, and i of wood char- 

Dr. BorlineUo*9 Gunpowder. Mix 
TCiy intimately 10 parts of Chili salt- 
petre, 10 of picric acid, and 81 of potas- 
sium bichromate. 

Sharp Sc Smith's Patent Gunpowder 
consists of 2 parts of saltpetre, 2 of po- 
tassium chlorate, 1 of potassium ferro- 
cyanide, 1 of potassium tartrate, and 2 
of sulphur. 

Spences Powder for Cannon of Large 
Calibre. Two parte by weight of finely- 
pulverized charcoal are boiled with 88 
parts by weight of water. The boiling 
28 iDterrupted after a short time, and, 
with constant stirring, 20 jiarte by 
weight of potassium chlorate, 2 of pul- 
verised coal, and 4 of sodium bicarbon- 
ate are added to the mixture of charcoal 
and water. The mass is again brought 
to the boiling point, 7 parte by weight 
of fine sawdust are added, and the boil- 
ing continued until the woody mass has 
formed a magma with the water. When 
this is done the mass is evaporated in 
open pans until it is of a consistency to 
be granulated in the usual manner in 
the powder-mill. 

Ison>txpl09ive Po^oder. When this 
wder is ignited it docs not explode, 
t burus slowly with a hissing noise. 
It loosens and raises stones without 
blasting them. It is cheaper than the 
ordinary powder, of quite a coarse 
grain, and contains 3 parte of potassium 
nitrate to 1 of sodium nitrate. The 
powder is mixed in the following pro- 
portions: 56.22 to 56.23 per cent, of 
potaaium nitrate, 18.33 to 18.39 per 
cent, of s^ium nitrate, 9.68 per cent, 
of sulphur, and 14.14 to 15.01 per cent, 
of charcoal. 

Often* s Blotting Powder consists 




princi pally of barium nitrate, contaius 
out little aaltpetre and no sulphur. 
There is less dancer In manufacturing 
it than gunpowder, but it is not fit for 
firearms. It possesses the great advan> 
t^:e of not emitting thicK smoke or 
choking gases, and therefore does not 
interrupt the work in mines; and fur- 
ther, that it takes up less room than 
gunpowder and is much cheaper. Its 
effect as compared with gunpowder is 
as 18 to 11. 

Giant Dynamite is a mixture of 18 
to 28 parts oy weight of pyroxyline, 55 
to 44 of nitro-glycerine, 5 to 10 of pyro- 
paper, 20 to 10 of nitro^starch, 1 to 1 of 
nitromannite, ami I to 2 of water-glass 
The materials, which should be free 
from acid, are carefully mixed and 
brought under a cartridge press, in the 
stamp of which is fasten^ a needle 
whicn makes a hole in the cartridge for 
the reception of the fuse. The cartridge 
thus jirepared is hermetically cIom 
with collodion, ami packed in the same 
manner a$ lithofracteur. Shortly be* 
fore the cartridge is to be usca the 
coating of collodion is broken on those 
places where tfie holes are for the re* 
eeption the fuse. This consists of 
soft gun-cotton impreraated with potas- 
sium chlorate and plumbic ferrocyan- 
Ide, and is prevented from dropping 
through by a knot on one end. it is 
drawn through the holes and a Bick- 
ford^ e fuse fastened to the other end. 

Blaeting Comp<nind from Foiato- 
Starch, The process is similar to that 
of manufacturing nitro-glycerine. The 
potato-starch is shaken with concen- 
trated nitric acid until it is dissolved, 
and then, with vigorous stirring, poui^ 
into sulphuric acid, whereby the prep- 
aration 16 separated in a finely-divided 
condition. All traces of acid are then 
removed by washing and rewashing, 
and treating the preparation with so- 

dium carbonated The explosive starch 
flour, when dry, forms a tender white 
powder. When touched with a glowing 
piece of wood it is quickly consumed 
with a yellow flame without leaving a 
residue. A great advantage of the ex- 
plosive starch flour is that it explode 
only after having been repeatedly 
struck whh a hammer upon an anvil. 
Its ignition temperature is ^tween 
356^ and 374^ F. In external appear- 
ance this explosive agent does not aider 
from ordinaiT starch flour. It remains 
entirely naehtpged when l^ed in 
water, but loses the property of being 
cqloiw blue by iodine. If examined 
with the microscope the well-known 
starch globules cannot be detected. 

A New BlosUna Powder^ patented in 
Qeimany by Th. Siartinsenf consists of: 

Ssitpstrs . . 
Sulphur . . . 
Lunpbistk . . 
Sswautt or tes 
Forrous ruipbste 



f ■ 


















The ferrous sulphate is completely 
disiolved in a little water, and the other 
oomponente are mixed with it at 248° 
to F. The mixture is cool^ off 
W constantly stirring it and then dried. 
This powder can be stored, transported, 
and used without danger, and develops 
DO smoke in the mine. The first mix- 
ture is intended for dense rocks, the 
second for anthracite, and the third for 
bituminous coal. 

To protect bla^tiyig agents containing 
nitro-glycerine and ammonium nitrate 
from moisture, and to prevent the ex- 
udation of the nitro-glycerine, Nohei 
adds par^ne to them. He recom- 
mends the following proportions : 69 
per cent, of sodium nitrate, 7 per cent, 
of j^rafline, and 4 per cent, of charcoal. 

•'>r-ryj M'.NJ » " 1 ' f.n.;'- ijf •; 


Those ingredieiitfi arc caret’uUy 
and 20 per cent, of nitro-glycoriae is 
added to the mixture. Or, 75 per cent, 
of ammonium nitrate, 3 per cent, of 
( harcoah 4 per cent, of paraftine, and 
18 per cent, of nitro-glycerinc. 

untnt Powder. Forty parts of uitro* 
glycerine are mixed with 60 parts of a 
dry mixture, consisting of 40 parts of 
HodiuDi nitrate, 6 of rosin, 6 of sulphur, 
and 8 of infusorial earth or other anal* 
ogous absorbent substance. This forms 
a powerful blasting compound, which 
will not ignite from contact with flame 
nor from a blow, but may be readily 
exploded by the shock given by dis* 
charging a cap containing fulminate. 

Faure & Frtnck*^ Bl€Uiitig Com- 
pound is a mixture of 1 part of char* 
coal, 16 of barium nitrate, and I of 
Ditro-cellulose stirred into a dough with 
some water and then formed into disks 
and dried. 

Gun-CoUon, Cotton -wool is im- 

mersed in a boilioff dilute solution of 
}>otasHiuni carbonate, then washed with 
water and well dried. It is now stee|^ 
for a few minutes in a cold mixture of 
1 part of concentrated nitric acid and 3 
of oil of vitriol, then squeezed, and 
again placed in a fresh acid mixture 
and Jell there for 48 hours. It is then 
again well ^ueezed and washed for a 
long time with running water, and fin- 
ally steeped in a solution of {^tassium 

Uun>cottoQ thus manufactured will 
keep without change indefinitely, and 
may be kept under water for safety's 
sake, and possea^es, after drying, ail its 
original ])roperties. 

It is hisoluble in water, alcohol, and 
ether. It takes fire at 300® F., burning 
away rajddly but without explosion; 
but w lien ignited in a confined space, 
or by percussion, it decomposes with a 

violent detonation, the energy of which 
equals that of five times its weight of 

New Blasting Compounds. 

1. PsraliU is a coarse-grained pow- 
der consisting of 64 per cent, of salt- 
petre, M per cent, of charcoal, and 6 
jMjr cent, of sulphide of antimony. 

2. Jalinc contains 65 to 75 per cent 
of saltpetre, 10 per cent, of sulphur, 10 
to 15 i^r cent, of lignite, 3 to 8 per cent, 
of sodium picrate, and 2 per cent, of 
potassium chlorate. 

New Blasting Compound from a 

Combination of Honey and Glycerine. 
The following proportions by weight 
are used : 

No. I. Fifty parts of combination of 
honey and glycerine, 13 of potassium 
chlorate, 16 of potassium nitrate 17 of 
pre^e<l sawdust, and 5 of prepared 

No. II. Thirty-eight parts of com- 
bmatioR of honey and glycerine, 19 of 
potassium chlorate, 24 of potassium 
nitrate, 10 of prepared sawdust, and 9 
of prepared chalk. 

The combination of honey and gly- 
cerine is prepared as follows: Mix 1 
part of nitric acid of 1.50 specific grav- 
ity and 2 parts of sulphuric acid of 1,84 
specific gravity, and let the mixture 
cool off to 62® F. Eight parts of this 
mixture arc placed in a wooden vessel 
lined with lead, and to this is added, 
with slow and constant stirring, l port 
of a mixture of ^ual parts of honey and 
giycerine, keeping the temperature of 
the compound between 59® and 68® F. 
After stirring for about 5 minutes the 
combination of honey and glycerine 
settles on the bottom of the vessel. It 
is then separated from the supernatant 
acid and washed first with water and 
next with a solution of soda to remove 

iWR a\W'S vX\MBS BOND Vol , 1 



the la^st traces of acid. It is aow ready 
for mixin^^ with the other ingredients, 
which must have been previously pul* 
verized anci intimately mixed.. The 
sawdust flour is prepared by passing 
ordinary sawdust through a fine sieve 
and boiling it in a solution of soda until 
all resinous and coloring substances 
have been extracted, when it is washed 
in cold water and dried. 

Preparation of BUiaiing Cojtvponnde 
bp directly Nitrating Crude Tar Oila, 
The crude tar oils are gradually; com' 
pounded by constant stirring with nitric 
acid of a high grade. The clear oil 
.standing over tlie precipitate is |ioured 
off into another vessel, nitric acid added 
to the residue, and the (process re|K»ate<l. 

The nitrogen) ze<l substances obtained 
io this manner are wa.she^l, dried, and 
mixed with substances yielding oxygeu. 
The nitrates of alkalies, potassium 
chlorate, and the strongest nitric acid 
(1.5 specific gravity) are principally 
used for the purpose. 

OelaiinouB - liiiro^fjlycrrint. Cotton 
carefully cleansed and conuninuted is 
boiled in a closed boiler with 5 )>arts by 
weight of dextrine and some acetate of 
ammonium \ the resuitingjelly, of which 
os much as 7 per cent, may be dissolved 
in nitro-glvcerine, forms with it a roaas 
from whicH no nitro'glycerinc can e$' 

To prepare the blasting compound 
'^Forcite^' 76 parts of the above gelat> 
inous nitro«glycerine are mixed with 
15 parts of saltpetre and 9 of sawdust. 

Cartridge Shells of Easily Combtt^ei- 
ble jS'u^s^ancc.^. The material consists 
of very loosely woven cotton or silk 
tissue, which is impregnated with nitro- 
glycerine, or with a mixture of sulphur 
and saltpetre. When the tissue is dry, 
collodion, to which a small quantity of 
castor oil has been added, is poured 
over it and it is then smoothed between 


Fulviinute of Mercury is used for 
filling percussion caps. It is prepared 
on a large scale by dissolving 1 part of 
mercury in 12 of pure nitric acid of 1.36 
specific gravity, and adding 12 of spirit 
of wine, when a violent reaction takes 
place, which is kept in check ^ adding 
gradually more alcohol, jlrat, the 
liquid becomes black by the separation 
of metallic mercurv, which, however, 
soon disappears, ^^^hen the liquid be- 
comes cool the fulminate of mercuty 
separates as a crystalline powder. It 
IS D<^rly insolubfe in cold water : from 
a boiling solution it is obtained in white 
prismatic crystals. When kindled in 
the open air it burns away like gun- 
powder, but by percussion it is decom- 
pi««d with a violent detonation. The 
explosion of the fulminate is so violent 
and rapid that it is necessary to moder- 
ate it for percussion caps. For this 
)>urpose it is mixed with potassium 
nitrate or chlorate. For gun caps 
potassium chlorate Is generally mixed 
with the fulminate, and powdered glass 
is sometimes added to increase the sen- 
sibility of the mixture to explosion by 
percussion. After a little of the cotD' 
position has been Introduced into the 
cap, it IS made to adhere by a drop of 
solution of shellac in spirit of wine, 
which renders it also water-proof. 

FulininaU of Silver » Ten grains of 

E ure silver are dissolved, at a gentle 
cat, in 70 drops of concentrated nitric 
acid of 1.42 specific gravity and 50 
drone of water. As soon as the silver 
is oi^lved the heat is removed and 
2,000 drops of alcohol are added. If 
the action does not commence after a 
short time, a very gentle heat may be 
applied until effervescence begins, when 
the Eliminate of silver will he deposit^ 
in minute needles, and be further 
treated as in the ease of fulminate of 




mercury. When dry the fuliniDate of 
silver must be handled with the greatest 
caution, since it is exploded far more 
easily than the fulminate of mercury. 
It should be kept in small quantities, 
wrapped up separately in paper, and 

f daced in a pa&teboara box. The vio- 
ence of its explosion renders it useless 
for percussion caps, but it is employed 
in uetonating crackers. 

FnhuinaHng Platiauvi is obtained 
by dissolving binoxidc of platinum in 
diluted sulphuric acid and mixins the 
solution with an excess of ammonia, 
when a black precipitate will result 
which detonates violently at about 
400® F. 

Fulminating Gold is obtained as a 
buff-colored precipitate when ammonia 
is added to a solution of torch loride of 
gold. It explodes violently when 
gently heated. 

Explosive Agents. 

Blaniing Cartridges, Dissolve 73 
parts of saltpetre and 1 of magnesium 
sulphate in i of their weight of boiling 
water, and compound with 8 parts of 
ground wood charcoal, 8 of bran, and 
To of sulphur, previously mixed dry. 
Stir the mass thoroughly, and heat for 
2 hours at a temperature of 284® F., 
and then dry in a drying apparatus for 
5 hours at a temperature of 122® F. 
The dried mass is pressed into cylin- 
ders, four of which are generally 
formed into a cartridge in a paper 

Blasting Paper. Coat unsiaed paper 
with a hot mixture of It drachms of 
ferrocyanide of potassium dissolved in 
3i pints of water, 11 ounces of bass- 
wood charcoal, 11 ounces of refined 
saltpetre, ounces of potassium chlo- 
rate, and 6jr drachms of wheat starch, 
stirred to a paste with li ounces of 

water; dry and smooth. For use roll 
of tn< 


le prepared paper into car- 

Ezplosive Combination, An explo- 
sive combination consists, according to 
a French patent, of 80 parts of pow- 
dered potassium chlorate, 20 parts of 
ordinary coal tar, and a porous, ab- 
sorbent substance, such as pulverized 
wood-charcoal or silicious earth. Po- 
tassanni permanganate can be substi- 
tuted for a portion of the chlorate. 

Explosive SubUanee. This, accord- 
ing to an English patent, consists of 9 
parts of potassium chlorate, 2 of carbo- 

hydrate (sugar), 1 of flour, and 1 of fer- 
cyanide of potassium. 

Explosive and Pyrotechnic Sub> 

stancet. Ferrocyanide of potassium, 

sal tpetre,and chlorate 
of potassium are dis- 
solved aud mixed 
with pulverized char- 
coal. The water is 
then evaporated, and 
the substances are 
combined by the ad- 
mixture of paraffine 
or resins. The paraf- 
fine is used either 
melted or dissolved 
in benzine. The mass 
is made into any de- 
sired shape, and can 
also be used for coaU 
ing paper. 

3fethod of Blastina 
under Water witn 
Compressed Oun^cot^ 
, ton. In the accom- 
pan y ] ng ill ustr atio n, 
Fig. 60, aa represent 
layers of ^un-cotton, 
b tKe cartridge of com- 
pressed gun-cotton, 
and d the quick match 

Pig. 60. 




with the cap. The 
cartridge ia enclosed in the rubber tube 
€, which on the top is fastened water* 
tight around the quick-match, so that 
when tbe cartridge is placed under 
water the latter can penetrate the gun- 
cotton oaly from below. The entire 
charge is enclosed in the tin case 
which is open on top and bottom for 
the passage of water. The cartridge re* 
mains explosible until all the gun* 
cotton is soaked through by the water 
entering from below, which with a 
cartridge about 1 inch in diameter and 
42 inches long will be the case in ex- 
actly 22 hours, which makes the unex* 
pected explosion of a charge missing 
fire impossible after that time. 

yew Blasting Powder. Saltpetre, 
potassium chlorate, and fioeIy*pulrer« 
ised coal*tar pitch are cooverm with 
benzine into a plastic paste, which is 
made into flat cakes and freea from tbe 
benzine by evaporation, and then 
worked in tne same manner asordinary 
powder. Tbe grains, which, like those 
of the ordinary article, are irreguiar in 
form, can be made of any desired size. 
The density, which is 0.9 or somewhat 
more, corresponds with that of ordinary 
gunpowder. This new ^wder pos* 
sesses considerable hardness, does not 
lose color, even when wet, and without 
undergoing a change stands a higher 
degree of heat than that of melting 
tin. It is not inflammable by single 
sparks of short duration. Iraited free, 
it bums quickly with a white flame ; 
in a closed space it bums, however, 
vety energetically with little smoke 
and leaving a very small residue. A 
gun is not m the least affected by its 
oombustioD products. The advantages 
of this powder are: 1. Facility and 
quickness of manufacture. 2. Safety 
.in its preparation. 3. Absence of all 

hygnMcopic properties (4 ounces placed 
upon a very sensitive scale in an open 
window for 4 days of misty weather did 
not increase in weight). 4. Superior 
force, 2i times that of ordinary powder. 
6. Very small residue. 6. Scarcely 
perceptible smoke. 

New Method of Preparing Giant 
Powder, Two mixtures are prepared : 

а. 36.06 parts of potassium or sodium 
bisulphate, 28.60 of potassium nitrate, 
and 9.20 of glycerine. 

б. 60 to 56 parts of some chlorate, and 
50 to 45 pai^ of a substance rich in 

On igniting a mixture of the two, it 
is claimed mixture b evolves sufficient 
heat to effect the nitrification of the 
glycerine and explosion of the nitro* 
glycerine. The material rich in carl^n 
)s saturated with concentrate solutions 
of the bisulphate, nitrate, and chlorate, 
and dried. The mass is then mixed 
with the glycerine and made into car- 

Preparation of Byponitrie Add and 
its Use for SxploHve and Illrminating 
Subst^nees, The following process has 
b^n patented in France and Germany: 
Nitrate of lead is heated in the retort 
A (Fig. 61). The developed gases are 
first conducted through sulphuric acid, 
which retains the moisture, and then 
into the condensers Cof enamel led cast* 
iron, which rest in the cooling vessel 
whose cooling fluid is kept at zero by 
the ice tosohine O, While the oxygen 
escapes for farther use through the 
hyponitrio acid collects in the reser* 
voirs H and Jy the first of which is pro* 
vided with a iest*cock for the examma- 
tion of the acid. Tbe reservoir / con* 
tains sulphuric acid. From J the 
hypooitric acid is brought by the pump 
O into the vessel Z, and from there is 
drawn into tin cans, The oxide of lead 




*in the retorts is reconverted into nitrate 
by nitric acid. 

A mixture of carbon di*sulphide and 
hyponitric acid Is a powerful explosive, 
which is exploded by fulminate of mer- 
cury or gunpowder. It does not ex- 
plode by a shock alone, nor by heating 
to 398® F. A mixture of equal parts 
of hyponitric acid and carbon dt-snl- 
phide gives the most powerful explo- 

The mixture barns in the open air 
with a brilliant white light, which is 
powerfully actinic. 


Sw4diih Matches are made in Swe- 
den almost exclusivelv of white c^plar 
wood, it being the cneapest. Blocks 
of the length of the match are cut by 

be of such a consistency that only small 
drops remain adhering to the stick. 
The following mixtures are used : 

In Nos. I. and II. the paraffine is first 
robbed up with the antimony and 
then incorporated with the compound. 
The compound ignites easily and trans- 
mits the flame quickly to the wood. 
Matches with compound No. II. ig- 
nite well and burn quietly. Matches 
with No. HI. ignite easily on the 
striking surface and quickly transmit 
the flame to the v/ood. Compound 
No. IV. furnishes matches exactly like 
those of the Jon/coping product t they 
ignite easily on the sinking surface, 
transmit the flame quickly to the wood, 
burn quietly ami without noise. 

iUriiing Sur/aee of Swedish Matches 
consists at a compound prepared by 


covered wit^ the inflammable com- 

f cand is dipped in a solution of paraf- 
ne in beniine, when they are again 
dried. They are then dipped into the 
inflammable compound, which should 

I. II. 111. IV. 
Chlorats of potassium 2000 2000 2000 4000 
Plumbic diozids . . 11S0 2150 

Uliuum 2500 2500 2000 4000 

AottiDonr trUulphlde 1250 1250 IdOO 3000 
Cliromatsof potA^nm 1318 750 1500 

Onm-Arabic .... 570 670 670 670 

Pmfflos 250 250 

Fig. 61. 




mixing 9 parts of amorphous phos* 
phorus, 7 of iron pyrites pulverized 
aacl sifted, 3 of pulverized glass, and 1 
of glue or gum with the requisite quan- 
tity of water. 

Matches vnthout Sulphur ^ which can 
be ignited by friction on any surface 
and do not absorb moisture from the 
air, are prepared bj^ dijming the 
matches into a hot solution of any kind 
of fat, and using the following inflam- 
mable compound : Seven parts of phoa 
phorus, 7 of gum-Arabic, 40 Of lead 
nitrate, 5 of pulverized glass, and lOof 

J-nflammable Compoiin<l$, H, Schwkft 
recommends the following mixtures as 
giving excellent results : f. One part of 
pulverized sulphur is melted in wann 
water with 4 of yellow phosphorus* 
Host of the water is then poured off 
and the fluid mixture rubbed iDti* 
mately with 4 parts of dextrine gum. 
Now compound 45 parts of minium 
with U equivalent of nitric acid, drr 
the mixture, pulverize it, and add it 
gradually to the phoaphoras mixture. 
The matches are saturated with solu* 
UoD of pine rosin in alcohol, and dried 
at a moderate heat. 

II. Hix 1 part of phosphorus, 5 of 
chalk, 2.S of anhydrous gypsum, 6 of 
pulverized glass, and 6 of some aggluti* 
nant and coloring matter. This com* 
pound requires a rough striking sur- 
face, ignites with a slight report, and 
does not absorb moisture. 

Injlam mable Compound loi^hout 
Phosphorus. Thirty -six parts of 
plumbic dioxide, 15 of chlorate of 
potassium, 9 of msoganese dioxide, 9 

of flowers of sulphur, 6 each of infu- 
sorial earth, pulverized glam or sand 
and amorphous phosphorus, and S of 

The compound ignites by friction on 
any surface. 

Parlor Matches. The sticks are first 
thoroughly dried, then soaked with 
stearic acid, and nnslly dipped into an 
inflammable compound prepared from 

3 parts of phosphorus, i of gum traga* 
canth, 3 of water, 2 of fine sand, and 2 
of red lead. To perfume the matches 
they are dipped, after the coin|)ound ii 
dry. into a solution of aromatic nm. 
made of 4 parts of benzoin in 10 or 
spirit of wine of 40^ B. 

Colored Parlor Matches. The in- 
flammable compound on the end of the 
matches may be coated with different 
colored lacquers to give a variegated 
appearance when placed in boxes. 

The lacquers are prepared in the 
following manner : Eight parta of pul- 
verized rosin are diasolved in a hot 
mixture of 200 parts of alcohol and 

4 parts of glycerine, end 40 parts of 
solutioD of shellac added to the hot 
•olution. The whole is then thoroughly 
s^fitateJ snd, while yet warm, com- 
poundid with the necessary quantity 
of coloring matter* and finally allow^ 
Co cool. 

The gr^n mde»cenc bronze color, 
which is in great demand, requires for 
the above solution of lacquer 80 parts 
of crystallized fuchsine, or 28 parts of 
methyl -violet. Tu produce vioiet an 
additnm of only I part of met 1^1 -violet 
IS required; for5/ue | part of aniline 
blue soluble in water; for orange 4 
parts of aniline orange; for blue-green 
i part of methyl -green. For yellow- 
green 2 imrts of blue-green are mixed 
with 1 or orange ; an<f for red 32 parts 
ofeoraJIioe with au addition of 2 parts 
of caustic soda-lye, dissolved in the 
above lacquer. 

A nti-phos pfior us Matches. The paste 




for the friction surface consista of 
minium, aud amorphous phos* 

phorus rubbed up with a solution of 
gum-Arabic and applied with a brush ; 
or of 10 parts of amor[»Irou$ |)hnsphoru8, 
8 of pyrolusite or antimmiy trisulphide, 
and 3 to d of glue dissolved iu water. 
To prepare the matches the ends are 
first dipped into melted sulphur, stearic 
acid, or wax, and then into a compound 
of 6 parts of chlorate of potassium and 
2 to 3 of trisulphide of antimony mixed 
with a solution of 1 part of glue in 
water. It must be remarked here that 
the mixture of bichromate of potassium 
and antimony is exceedingly danger- 
oils, as it is easily ignited by a shock or 

Match fa tncxiinguUhable by the 
Wind. Sheets of paper, thin paste- 
board, or wood are saturated with a 
•olution of saltpetre in water to which 
has been added some substance emitting 
an agreeable odor while burning. When 
the sheets are dry, a thin layer of a 
phosphorus compound, as is used in 
the manufacture of motion matches, 
and to which some incombustible sub- 
stance, as pulverized glass, fine sand, 
etc., has been added, is placed between 
two of them, leaving a part of one end 
free for handling. When dry the 2 
sheet! are pasted together, and this is 
cut op into strips of suiUble shape. 
These strips are then coated with a 
varnish to protect them from moisture 
and to prevent their ignition by friction 
during transportation, etc. 

Matches without Phosphorus, Pre- 
pare a paste of iO parts of dextrine, 75 
of pulverized chlorate of potassium, 35 
of pulverized plumbic dioxide, and a 
like quantity or pulverized pyrites with 
the necessary quantity of water, and 
dip the end of the splints Into the com- 


Matches without PkoaphoruSy of an 
excellent quality, and in the manufact- 
ure of which there is not the slightest 
danger, are obtained from the follow- 
ing mixture: 53.8 parts of chlorate 
of potassium, 10 of gum- Arabic, 3 of 
gum tragacanth, 6 of pyrolusite, 6 of 
frrric oxide, 12 of pulverized glass, 5 
of bichromate of potassium, 3 of sul- 
phur, 1.2 of chalk, and sufficient water. 

Paraffine or sulphur is used for trans- 
mitting the fiame to the wood. The 
matches can only be ignited by being 

struck on a surface composed of the 
following mixture: Five parts of anti- 
mony trisulphide, 3 of amorphous phos- 
phorus, 14 of pyrolusite, and 4 of glue. 

Ainarccs d'Allumettes are matches 
prepared from 20 parts of phosphorus. 
5*5 of gun-cotton, 5 of pulverized wooa 
charcoal, 5 of iron filings, 51.5 of sul- 
phur, and 10 of gum. 

Nickl^s Process oj' Preparing an 
Amorphous Pfiosnhorus from the Ordi- 
nary Article, Tne conversion of ordi- 
nary into amorphous phosphorus is ac- 
complished by heating ora i nary plios- 
phorus from 445® to 482® F. in a closed 
iron boiler. After 3 or 4 weeks the 
phosphorus is found to be converted 
into a red, brittle mass which is ground 
by millstones under water, and sepa- 
rated from the ordinary phosphorus 
either by bisulphide of carbon or caustic 
soda, ID which the latter ir soluble. 
The temperature requires careful regu- 
IhUoq, for if it is allowed to rise to 500® 
F. the amorphous phosphorus quickly 
resumes the ordinary condition, evolv- 
ing the heat which it had absorb^ dur- 
ing its conversion, and thus converting 
much of the phosphorus into vapor. 
This reconversion may be shown by 

heating a little amorphous phosphorus 




in a test-tube, when drops of ordinary resulting: in the decay of the lower jaw. 
phosphorus condense on the cool part This evil may be greatly mitigated by 
of the tube. Ordinary phosphorus is ^ood ventilation or by diflfusing turpen- 
very poisonous, while amorphous une vapor through the air of tne work- 
phosphorus appears to be Iiarmless. room, or may be entirely obviated by 
The vapor of pliosphorus produces a substituting amorphous phosphorus for 
very injurious effect upon the persons the ordinary variety, 
engaged in the manufacture of matches, 


The Techno-Chemical Receipt Book 1896 


Ammoriiurr nil rati, to proiact 

Ifom mo'tture 

Anthoioa and GaoauO, procaat 

tor dynamite ;*77 

Aohohoipnonis matchaa 

Auoandraa white powder . 177 

Bengal lights 168 

Blasting cartrlOgea 162 

compound, Pau'i A branch's . . . . 190 

compound from polalo-atarch . . . 179 

compouhd of honey and giycaflna . , .180 
compQjnOs by nitrating cfudo-lar oH8l6l 
BlatJng compounds, blasting powds', 
dynamite. gur>-cotton, gunpowder, 

nllro*g|ycenr>e. luFmlnalea. etc 173 

cornpounds. new 180 

compounds, nitre* glycerine, 
fulminaies, tic 


powder, by Martlnsen 

powder, Qresn‘s 

powder, new 

powder, Treie' 

under water with compraeaod 

gurt-coflon 3^2 

’’ 170 

Boriineiio'a gunpowder 

Bottger, process for niiro-fltycerir>e . . 176 

Candles, colored Mreworti • . 172 


Canhoges, biastmg 

Cartridge sheila of essMy combuaOpIt 


Ceiiuloae dynamite ^^4 

Cotton, gun 

Dynamite, A. NoOei'e process * 

by Antholne and Qsnaud 


Dynamite, frozen 


gun-cotton, gunpowder, nitro- 
glycerine, fulmlnalea. etc 173 

Noroin and OWison’e patent 175 

properties of 

Sobrsro's process , , . ^75 

Explosive egenis ^^3 

and pyrotechnic subsiances 162 

comblnalion i®2 

substances 132 

subsisncas, use ol hyponltrle 









acid for 


faure 8 Prenen*$ biaaiing powtfar . . . . 

Fires, white 


for rooms 

Frarui, proeeAs for cellulose 


Froten dyrtamlie 

Fulmlr^ete, of mercury 

Fulmlf'ate, ot aliver 

Fulminating gold 

platihum . . 

Gelallhous rtliro-gtycarine 

Glam dynamite 


powder, new mtihod of preparing . 

Gold. lulmlnailAQ 

Green fire 

Green a blasting powder 

Gun and blasting powder of 



<otton. compressM. blasling 

wnda# water with 

-cotton, gunpowder, nitro-giycertne. 

fulminetea. etc 

Gunpowder, Sorllnetto a 

Sharp and Smith's patent 

Hafenogger'a gun and blasting powder 
Honey end glycerine compound 

lor blasting 

Hypor>ltiie acid, preporatlon of, and 
uaa for explotlvo and lllumlnitino 


filuminatlng aubstanegs. use of 

hyponltrle odd for . 


Japanese maichea 

Krebs & Co , procoas for dynamito . . . 

Martirtean’s bleating powder 



inextinguishabio In cha wind 





without phoaphorus 

without sulphur 

Mercury, lulm I net# of 

Mohr’a white the . 

Mowbray's process for nitro-glycarlne 










• 163 

• 182 




















Boitgsr*s process 


to protoci from moisture . 
Nobors process for Oyhamlie 
Non-expioaive powder .... 
Horbln & Ohisson'a patent for 


Paper, blasting 

Psrtor matches 

Patent dynimite. Norbin and 

Ohiason a proesas 


Perron's flroworks for rooms . 

Pharaoh s sorpents 

sorpenti, subitimte for . . , 















Potato, etirch, blasting compound 

from 179 

Powder, Augendre's while 177 

blasting. Green’s 178 

bleating, new ,193 

for cannon of lirg palibra— dpefice'$i78 

giant 178 

glam, new method of preparing 

non-expioaivt 183 

Pucpie lire .178 

Pyrotechnic and axpioaive substances 170 

Quick matches i 8 Z 

Rod fir* 168 

Red-orsnge fke 169-170 

Roman candies i70 

Rose-red light .172 

Serpents, Pharebh's 170 

Sharp and Smith 'a patent gunpowder 373 

Sliver, fulrnirtate of i 8 *j 

Sobrero** process far dynsmlle 27 ^ 

Spence's powder for cannon ol targe 

calibre 170 

sure 172 

Swedish matches, composition ol . . . 104 

matches, alrlKIng turlace 184 

Tret's blasting powder 177 

Water, blasting under, with 

com pressed gun-cotton 182 

White fires 1*8 

powder, Augendre’s 1^7 

While stars ,172 

Yellow fire - 171 




Henley’s Twentieth Century Formulas 1907 



'riir cliirf ohcintcal process is, of 
coiir<c, o\ulaiie)n. O.xiilallon msy be 
prodiiccil livtlic atmospliorc, but in mo,ny 
this i.H Hot cnou{?tu amt then the 
pymtorlinist musk employ his knowledge 
of < Honii'lry iji scleuilug agents* 

'riu' chief (»f tliosc o\*i«ii/.iKg agents are 
cl I Ion t os and nitrates, the ciTccl of w*hicb 
is fo promote the continuance of com- 
Imslioti vshon it is once started. They 
are specially nsoful, owing to their $oha 
non-Iiygruscopic nature, Then ingredi- 
ents nre noedod to prevent the too speedy 
action of the o.\idi;^ing agents, to regulate 
the proem of com bust ton» such as 
calomel, sand, and sulphate of potash. 
Tldrdly. there are the active ingredicDta 
that produce t lie desired effect, prominent 
among which are substances that in 
contact u*ith flame impart some special 
color to it. Brilliancy and brigbloess 
arc imparted by steel, zinc, and copper 
filings. Other substances employed are 
lampblack with gunpowder, and, for 
theatre purposes, fyeopodium. 

Fireworks may be classified under 
four beads, viz.: 

1. Single fireworks. 

2. Terrestrial fireworks, which are 
placed upon the ground and the fire 
issues direct from the surface. 

3. Atmospheric fireworks, which begin 
their display in the air. 

4. Aquatic fireworks, in which oxida- 
tion is so intense that they produce a 
flame under water. 

Rockets. — First and foremost among 
atmospheric fireworks are rockets, made 
in different sizes, each requiring a slightly 
different percentage composition. A good 
formula is 

Sulphur 1 part 

CarDon, wood 2 parts 

Niter 4 parts 

Meal powder 1 part 

Meal powder is a fine black or brown 
dust, which acts as a diluent. 

Romaa Candles. — Roman candles are 
somewhat after the same principle. An 
average formula U; 

Sulphur 4 parts 

Carbon 3 parts 

Niter 8 parts 


Coat 12 Inch lengths of No. 18 Iron 
Wire with a compound consisting of: 

Powdered sulphur ... 1 ounce 
Potassium nitrate . . . ounces 
Powdered charcoal . . IVi ounces 

Iron filings 2 ounces 

Aluminum powder ... Yi ounce 

mixed in shellac to a thick creamy con- 
sistency. Dip the wires in the mixture 
and then insert the base end of wires in 
holes drilled Into a board, until the mix- 
ture dries. Repeat this process until each 
wire is covered with a thick coat, 


The compounds should be ignited in a 
small pill box resting on a plate. All the 
ingredients must be dried and powdered 
separately, and then lightly mixed on a 
sheet of paper. Always bear in mind 
that sulphur and chlorate of potassium 
explode violently if rubbed together. 

Smokeless Vari-Colored Fire.— First 
take barytes or strontium, and bring to 
a glowing heat in a suitable dish, remove 
from the fire, and add the shellac. The 
latter (unpowdered) will melt at once, 
and can then be intimately mixed with 
the barytes or strontium by means of a 
spatula. After cooling, pulverize. One 
may also add about 2| per cent of pow- 
dered magnesium to increase the cnect. 
Take for instance 4 parts of barytes or 




strontium and I part of shellac. 

The following salts, if finely powdered 
and burned in an iron ladle with a little 
spirits, will communicate to the flame 
their peculiar colors. 

Totassium nitrate or sodium chlorate/ 

Potassium chlorate, violet. 

Calcium chloride, orange. 

Strontium nitrate, red. 

Ilarium nitrate, apple green. 

Copper nitrate, emerald green. 

Borax, green, 

Lithium chloride, purple. 

The colored fires are used lareely in the 
production of various theatrical enecU. 

Blue Fire. — 

I.— Ter - aulphuret o f 

antimony 1 part 

Sulphur,' 2 parU 

Nitrate of potassium 0 parte 

II. — Sulphur 15 parte 

Potassium sulphate 15 parte 
Ammonio-cu p r i c 

sulphate 15 parte 

Potassium nitrate.. 27 parte 
Potassium chlorate 28 parte 

III. -^Chlorate of potash. 8 parte 

Calomel 4 parte 

Copper sulphate, . . 5 parts 

Shellac 3 parte 

IV. — Ore pigment 2 parte 

Charcoal 3 parte 

Potassium chloride 5 parte 

Sulphur IS parte 

Potassium nitrate.. 77 parte 

V.— Potassium chlorate 10 p..rte 
Copper chlorate. . . 20 parte 

Alconol 20 parte 

Water 100 parte 

VI. — Copper chlorate. . . 100 part 
Copper nitrate. ... 50 parU 

Barium chlorate. . . 25 part. 

Potassium chlorate 100 parte 

Alcohol 500 parte 

Water ..1,000 parte 

Green. — 

I. — Barium chlorate. . . 20 parts 

Alcohol 2U parte 

Water 100 parts 

H. — Barium nitrate. ... 10 parts 

Potassium chlorate 10 parts 

Alcohol 20 parte 

Water 100 partr 

in. — Shellac. . 5 parts 

Barium nitrate. ... 1^ parts 

Pound after cooling, and add 

Barium chlorate, 2 to 5 per cent. 


I. — Shellac. 5 parts 

Strontium nitrate 1 to 1.2 parte 

Preparation as in green fire. In damp 
weather add 2 to 4 per cent of potassium 
chlorate to the red flame; the latter 
causes a little more smoke. 

Il.^Strontium nitrate. . 20 parts 

Potassium chlorate 10 parts 

Alcohol 20 parte 

Water 100 parte 


I.— Sulphur 10 parts 

Dried carbonate of 

soda 2$ parts 

Chlorate of potas« 

Slum 01 parts 

II.— Sodium chlorate. . . 20 parts 

Potassium oxalate. 10 parte 

Alcohol 20 parts 

Water 100 parte 


1.— Strontium chlorate. 15 parts 
Copper chlorate. . . 15 parte 

Potassium chlorate 25 parts 

Alcohol 50 parts 

Water 100 parte 

II.— Potassium chlorate 20 parts 
Strontium chlorate. 20 parts 
Copper chlorate. .. 10 parts 

Alcohol 50 parts 

Water 100 parts 

Lilac. — 




Potassium chlorate €0 parts 
Cop p>er chlorate. .. 10 parts 

Strootium chloride. 10 parts 

Alcohol 50 parts 

Water 100 parts 

Uauye. — 

Chlorate of potash . £8 parts 

Calomel 1£ parts 

Shellac 4 parts 

Strontium nitrate. . 4 parts 

Cupric sulphate ... £ parts 

Fat 1 part 

Purple. — 

Copper sulphide. . . 8 parts 

Calomel 7 parts 

Sulphur £ parts 

Chforste of potash. 18 parts 


L^Gunpowder 15 parts 

Sulphur ££ parts 

Nitrate of potassium 64 parts 

II.— Potassium nitrate. . . 80 parts 

Sulphur 10 parts 

Antimony sulphide 

(black) 5 parts 

Flour 9 parts 

Powdered camphor. £ parts 

III. — Charcoal 1 part 

Sulphur 11 parts 

Potassium sulphide. 8$ parts 

IV. — Stearine,. 1 part 

Barium carbonate . . 1 part 

Milk sugar 4 parts 

Potassium nitrate .... 4 parts 

Potassium chlorate. 1£ parts 

As a general rule» a correspondins 
quantity of shellac mar be taken instead 
of the sulphur for insiae fireworks. 

The directions for using these sola* 
tions are simplv to imbibe bibulous pa* 
pers in them, tnen carefullv dry and roll 
tightly into rolls of suitable length, accord* 
ing to the length of time they are to bum. 

Fuses. — For fuses or igniting papers, 
the following is used: 

Potassium nitrate. . . £ parts 

Lead acetate 40 parts 

Water 100 parts 

Mix and dissolve, and in the solution 
place unsized paper; raise to nearly a boil 
and keep at this temperature for £0 
minutes. If the paper is to be **slow/* 
it may now be taken out, dried, cut into 
stripy and rolled. If to be **faster,’' the 
beat is to be continued longer, according 
to the quickness desired. Care must be 
taken to avoid boiling, which might dis- 
integrate the paper. 

In preparing these papers, every pre- 
caution against fire should be taken, and 
ibeir preparation in the shop or bouse 
should not be thought of. In making 
the solutions, etc., where beat is necea* 
sary, the water bath should invariably 
be used. 


rCautioR.— When about to place any 
lighted material in the mouth be sure 
that the mouth is well coated with saliva, 
and that you are exhaling the breath con- 
finuouelif, with greater or less force, 
according to the amount of heat you can 

If the lighted material shows a ten- 
dency to burn the mouth, do not attem'pt 
fp dra^ it out ouirkly, but simply shut the 
lips tight, and breathe through the nose, 
and the fire must go out instantly. 

In the Human Gas Trick, where a 
flame 10 to 15 inches long is blown from 
the mouth, be careful after lighting tho 
gM, to conftnus w exhale ike breath. 
When you desire the gas to go out, sim- 
ply abut the lips tight and hold the 
breath for a few seconds. In this trick, 
until the gas is well out, any inhalation 
18 likely to be attended with the most 
serious results. 

^be several cautions above given may 
be examined with a lighted match, first 
removing, after lighting the match, any 
brimstone or phosphorus from its end.] 




To Tirt Paper^ «tc., Breathing on 
it. — This secret seems little known to 

Half fill a half-ounce bottle with car* 
bon disnlphide, and drop in 1 or 2 frag- 
ments of phosphorus, each the site of a 
pea, whicn will quicklj dissolve. Shake 
up the liquid, and pour out a small tea- 
spoonful onto a piece of blotting paper. 
The carbon disulphide will quicinj evap- 
orate, leaving a film of phosphorus on 
the paper, which will qutcldy emit fumes 
and burst into flame. The once-popu- 
lar term Fenian fire was derived from 
the supposed use of this liquid bv the 
Fenians for the purpose of setting fire to 
houses by throwing a bottle down a 
chimnev or through a window, the bottle 
to brealc and its contents to speedily set 
fire to the place. 

For the purpose of experiment this 
liquid should only be prepared in small 
Quantities as above, and any left over 
snould be poured away onto the soil in 
the open air, so as to obviate the risk of 
fire. Thin paper may be fired in a sim- 
ilar manner with the acid bulbs and 
powder already mentioned. The pow- 
der should be formed into a paste, laid on 
the paper, and allowed to dry. Then the 
icia bulb is pasted over the powder. 

Burning Brimstone. — Wrap cotton 
uround two small pieces of brimstone 
and wet it with gasoline; take between the 
fingers, squeesing the surplus liquid out, 
light it with a candle, throw back the 
head well, and put it on the tongue blaz- 
ing. Blow fire from mouth, and observe 
that a freshly blown-out candle may be 
lighted from the flame, which makes it 
more effective. After lighting candle 
chew up brimstone and pretend to swallow. 

Blazing Sponge Trick. — Take or 5 

small sponges, place them in a ladle; 
pour just enough oil or gasoline over 
them to wet them. Be very careful not 
to have enough oil on them to cause them 

to drip. Set fire to the sponges and take 
one oi them up with the tongs, and throw 
the head back and drop the biasing 
sponge in the mouth, expelling the 
brea^ all the time. Now close your 
mouth quickly; this cuts off the air from 
the flame and it immediately goes out. 
Be careful not to drop the sponge on the 
face or chin. Remove sponge under 
cover of a handkerchief before placing 
the second one in the mouth. 

Burning Sealing Wax. — Take a stick 
of common sealing wax in one hand and 
a candle in the other, melt the wax over 
the candle, and put on your tongue while 
blazing. The moisture of the mouth 
cools it almost instantly. Care should 
be taken not to get any on the lips, chin, 
or hands. 

Demon Bowls of Fire. — The performer 
has three 6^-inch brass bowls on a table, 
and openly pours ordinary clean water 
(may be drunk) into bowU, until each is 
about half full. Then by simply passing 
the band over bowls they eacn take fire 
and produce a flame IS to flO inches high. 

Each bow] contains about tea- 
spoonfuls of ether, upon which is placed 
a small piece of the metal potassium, 
about the size of a pea. If the ether be 
pure the potassium will not be acted 
upon, when the water is poured into 
the bowl the ether and potassium Boat 
up, the latter acting vigorously on the 
water, evolving hydrogen and setting fire 
thereto, and to the ether as well. 

The water may be poured into the 
bowl and lighted at command. In this 
case the potassium and ether are kept 
separated in the bowl, the former in a 
little cup on one side, and the latter in 
the bo(^ of the bowl. The water is 
poured in, and on rocking the bowl it is 
caused to wash into the little cup, the 
potassium floats up, and the fire is pro- 

N. B. — The above tricks are not safe 
in any but specially made bowls, i. e., 




bowls with the wide flange round edge to 
prevent the accidental spilling of an; 
portion of the burning ether. 

The Burning Banana. — Place some 
alcohol in a ladle and set fire to it. Dip 
a banana in the blazing alcohol and eat 
it while it is blazing. As soon as it is 
placed in the mouth the fire goes out. 

SMrka fro SI the Finger Tips. — Take a 
sm^l piece of tin about ^ inch wide and 
inches lo^. Bend this in the shape 
of a ring. To the center of this piece 
solder another small piece of tin bent in 
the shape of a letter U; between the 
ends of this U place a small piece of wax 
tape about \ inch long. Take a piece of 
small rubber tubing about 2 feet in length 
and to one end of this attach a hollow 
rubber ball, which vou must partly fill 
with iron filings. Place the ruober ball 
containing the iron filings under the arm 
and pass the rubber tube down through 
the sleeve of the coat to the palm of the 
band; now place the tin ring upon the 
middle finger, with the wax taper inside 
of the hand. Light this taper. By 
pressing the arm down sharply on the 
rubber nail, the force of the air will drive 
some of the iron filings through the rub- 
ber tube and out through the name of the 
burning taper, when they will ignite and 
cause a beautiful shower of spa^s to ap- 
pear to rain from the finger tips. 

To Take Boiling Lead in the Mouth. — 
The metal used, while not uoHke lead in 
appearance, is not the ordinary metal, 
but is really an alloy composed of the 
following substances: 

Bismuth 8 parts 

Lead 5 parts 

Tin g parts 

To prepare it, first melt the lead in a 

crucible, tnazi add the bismuth and finally 
the tin, and stir well together with a piece 
of tobacco pipe stem. This fusible 
metal'* will melt in boiling water, and a 
teaspoon cast from the alloy will melt if 

very hot water be poured into it, or if 
boiling water be stirred with it. If the 
water be not quite boiling, as is pretty 
aure to be the case if tea from a teapot is 
used, in all probability the beat will be 
insufficient to melt the spoon. But by 
melting the alloy and adding to it a small 
quantity of quicksilver a compound will 
1^ produced, which, though solid at the 
ordinary temperature, will melt in water 
pery much below ike boiling point. 
Another variety of easily fusible alloy is 
made by melting together 

Bismuth 7 to 8 parts 

Lead 4 parts 

Tin 2 parts 

Cadmium 1 to 2 parts 

This mixture melts at 158^, that given 
above at 208^ F. 

^ Either one of the several alloys above 

S 'ven will contain considerably less heat 
an lead, and in consequence be the 
more suitable for the purposes of a **Fire 

When a body is melted it is raised to a 
certain temperature and then gets no 
hotter, not even if the fire be increased— 
all the extra heat goes to melt the re- 
mainder of the substance. 

Second 3/ef^od.— This is done with a 
ladle constructed similarly to the tin cup 
in a previous trick. The lead, genuine in 
this case, is, apparently, drunk from the 
ladle, which is then ulted, that it may 
be seen to be empty. The lead is con- 
cealed in the secret interior of the ladle, 
and a solid piece of lead is in conclusion 
dropped from the mouth, as congealed 

To Eat Burning Coals. — In the first 
place make a good charcoal fire in the 
furnace. Just before commencing the 
ad throw in three or four pieces of soft 
pine. When burnt to a coal one cannot 
tell the difference between this and char- 
coal, except by sticking a fork into it. 
This will not burn in the least, while the 
genuine charcoal will. You can stick 

POOR >L\y\'S JAMES 1301^0 Vol. 1 



your fork into these coa)s without any 
difficulty, but the charcoal is brittle and 
hard; it breaks before the fork goes into 

Chain of Fire. — Take a piece of candle 
\vick 8 or 10 inches long, saturated with 
kerosene oil, squeeze out surplus oil. 
Take bold of one end with your 6re tongs, 
light by furnace, throw back your head, 
and lower it into your mouth while ex- 
haling the breath freely. When all in, 
close your lips and remove in handker* 

Note. — Have a good hold of the end 
with the tongs, for if it should fail it would 
probably inflict a serious burn; for this 
reason also no burning oil must drop 
from the cotton. 

Biting Off Red-Hot Iron. — Take a 
piece or hoop iron about t feet long, 
place it in a vise and bend it backwards 
and forwards, about an inch from the 
end, until it is nearly broken off. Put 
this in a furnace until it becomes red hot, 
tiieo take it in your right band, grasp the 
broken end in your teeth, being careful 
not to let it touch vour lips or your 
tongue, make a **face^' as though it was 
terribly hard to bite off, and let the 
broken end drop from between your teeth 
into a pail of water fwbich you should 
always have at hand In case of fire), 
when the hissing will induce the belief 

that the portion bitten off is still “red 
hot’* — it may be, for that matter, if the 
iron be nearly broken off in the first place 
and if you have good teeth and are not 
afraid to injure them. 

Water Stirred Yellow, Scarlet, and 
Colorless, — Obtain a glass tube with one 
end hermetically sealed and drawn into a 
fine point that will break easily. Into an 
ale glass put a solution of mercury bi* 

chloride (corrosive sublimate, a deadly 
poison) and into the tube a strong solu- 
tion of potassium iodide so adjusted in 
strength that it will redissolve toe scarlet 
precipitate formed by the union of the 
two liquids. While stirring the solution 
iu the glass the bottom of the tube (ap- 
parently a glass rod) is broken and a 
small portion of its contents allowed to 
escape, which produces a beautiful scar- 
let. The balance of the fiuid in the tube 
is retained iliere by simply keeping the 
thumb on the open top end. Continue 
the sticring, allowing the balance of the 
contents or the tube to escape, and the 
scarlet fluid again becomes colorless. 
Before the scarlet appears the liquid is 

To heighten the effect, another ale 
glass, containing only clean water and a 
solid glass stirring-rod, may be handed 
to one of the company, witfi instructions 
to do the same as the performer; the 
result is amusing. 





by George W. Weingart 



'The Man Hof in Hand 

Mtll; or«r the reed the 

motto 00 tho crest of Coor|o W. 

Woln^rt'o autoroil aMootcrt of Hmr«»burc» 
GonucQr, vhooo bm«, ttflicb. 
lltoooaa 4id eonrtesy. Wj fetbor'i onto, 
eedoote came fra Wei^rtom, Bevorla. 
whose resideote were oeerlf ell ertlste, 
evthori^ cr neicUu. Boro io Pees 
Christ ieo« Klu. oe My U, 1B71, Gewge 
caoload these inherited trelts to becae 
bot 0 bl 7 eo eecotpUebed suslcUo, ebalst» 
etd prrotechblst. bot lo later life the eu* 
thcr of the mat femeue Aeriao book of the 
ceflttt 7 00 the luafeetoro of fireverfcs. 

tlthou^ e teleoted rlcllalet e«l alUst 
os e 7904 meo, his loterat lo pTrotoctelee 
led him to mtudy cr^olc cheeimti 7 e^ to 
seek work et the A.L. Due fireworks feotee 7 la Ciaeloatl, wbere he leeroed 
the trade, later settlog up bis ewa shop la hew Or 1 mm. He eootlooed mak- 
ing fireworks aed iMidllbc public dlsplijs till tbe dMth of Us father, 
when he pwe up the bueloese to Mate the femilr toy store eo Ctmrtree 
St., but cootleued as official "torch ll^btar* fee the >krdl ^s pefmdee 
UDtll two jeers before hli deeth et the age of 77. durlog which time he 
wrote hli famous book PTftOflCIBilCS. publish^ la 1^?. ofteo ailed "tbs 
Bible of Modern l^MechUee". With the pees log of George baehl^oe W«1 d» 
gert 13 la New frleaa. Sept. 1946. Meria lost ooe of its forMoet 
euthoritlea ia tht field, but his bak reealas as a Imstlog mooaeaBt to 
"tha >%o with his tkX io his 


To those contemplating the making of fireworks, either 
professionally or as an amusement it is desirable to under- 
stand the principles which govern the operations of the 
various devices as well as the compositions of the chemi- 
cals entering into their production. 

The principle of colored lights is based on: 

1^. Producing a mixture that will bum at a 
reasonable speed while generating an intense heat 

2nd. Adding thereto the salts of such elements* 
in the spetftrum of which, predominate lines of the de- 
sired colors. 

Gaargo Machirngtea Vaiagart 



Sugar of milk. 

Corn flour etc. 

In addition to the above there are some subAances 
which when added to colored fire compositions increase 
the affinity of the several constituents for one another 
thereby improving the colors, vis:. 

Picric aeid 

and in the instance of blue and green fires it is almost 
essential to add an easily volatilised chloride in order to 
get sufficient depth of color. 


Sal Ammoniac. 

The exact fun^on of these last named substance* 
is not entirely clear but it appears that the beSt spearumt 
are yielded by the chlorides of the elements. However 
most chlorides are deliquescent and therefore unsuiled 
to fireworks making. By adding a substance that yields 
chlorine freely at the moment of decomposition the 
necessary conditions are produced for obtaining the beSt 

The following substances are moSt generally used 
for producing pyrotechnical colors. 


Strontium and Coppgr compounds. 


Strontium and Sodium salts. 

Heal generating compounds consist chiefly of: 

(a). Substances which yield oxygen freely when 
ignited in the presence of carbon, vixr 

Potassium chlorate, 

Potassium per*<hlorete. 

Potassium nitrate. 

Sodium chlorate. 

Barium nitrate. 

Strontium ikitrate. 

(b). Carbon and carbonaceous sources, via: 


Fossil gums, 



Bright or “Plain” Mixings 

Consist almost entirely of: 

Sail peter, 

rarely Lead nitrate, 

Charcoal or lampblack, 
with the addition of 

Sleet filings. 

Iron borings, 

Zinc powder. 





Calcium carbonate, 




Cftlcium »ulphAt«. 

Cftlcium oxAl&te. 


Barium nilraU. 

Barium chlorate. 

Boric acid. 

and rarely TKatium nitrate. 


Strontium ahrate, 

Stronrium carbonate, 
and rarely* Liduum aalta. 


Copper carbonate. 

Copper araenate. 

Copper aulpKate, 

Copper black oaid» 

Copper & Ammoniom «ilpKate» 

Copper oxalate^ 

Copper & Amisoruufn chlori4e. 


Sodium oxalate. 

Sodium bicarboriate. 

Sodium metantimouate. 

The intenriy bright white rparka are produced by 
aluminum powder. At one time Magneetum waa uaed 
for thie purpoae but ii haa been enordy diecononued. 





K Cl O4 

Thia recently produced aub^ance forma another vaU 
uabla addibo n to the pyrotechniAe art. Containing even 
more oxygea dvan the chlorate it i» leee liable (o de* 
co tt poeabon due to the fatft that it ia a aalt of perchloric 
acid which ia a much more AaUe acid than chloric from 
which iKa cKidraie 11 derived. It can be aubAituted for 
the chlorate in moet mixinga and can be aafely ured in 
connexion with auLphur. 


Tfio *’fiour of •ulphur*' which U uaad U 
almoA white and coMee in baga of 50 Iba. **Flow«n** 
of eulphur ie dec aomedmee uaed ai well aa coaraely 
ground eulphur which burnt aomewKai alewer than the 
hrA two vari^ea. SpociScatsona call for leae than lilt) 
of lit of tmpuritiae and the finely grouad ahould paee 
trough a dev* of 120 taeah. 


WiOow coal m the baA foe firaworke ptopoeae trough 
coal made from any aoft wood ie auiuhle. Pina coal 
ie aot TMf dadrable Charcoal 

that haa a browa dm indicataa incomplala carbonixadoa 
aod ahouM ba avoidad Aleo h ahould coniam a minimum 
af grit lhakiwf a enmpla Ia a botda nf watar aad doi 
canting erveral dmat will dUcloae an excaaeiva amount 
of land ate 


nitTAte) make a good bright Aar it ahould be free 

Spedncaliona for ealtpoter to be ueed ia fireworke from oil or other impurihee and it ia aometimaa neceMery 
makmt call for a mU (Km \» cl«». whit, .mi .hotdd „ b.k. it m wiU U ekplained Uler, in order to fet nd 
be ground Ane enough to pace through a eieve of 80 volatile 
to 100 meab. It ahould contain leee than ll^of aodium. 
calcium and magneeium ealie combined. SHELLAC 


K Cl O, other gums etc. 

For SheUac. a gum like lubAanee. ie the aecretron of an 

pufpoeae it ehould be white, odorleea end coaCain not iaeeA living on a Urge variety of tree# in northern India 
over H of IA of aodium* calcium and bromiae combined. Alter going through varioua procetaei it finally reachaa 
k fhou id be of iba eama fisecMae ai aaltpaear. ihie country in aome doten different gradea. 

~ “ “ work 

impuritiee which impair ita briliancy in burn. 


Never mix dry potAMlum chlorite with red 
phoephorue, Meek inUmony eulphide or 
eulphur. The mixture will detOMte eponlene* 
ouely with e ihatterlng Miet* Alweye moliten 
the potaeelum chlomte with water belore 
mixing it with the above chemlcile or anything 
alee, ]uel to be aafa. 

ahellac «■ almoA indiapenaable but for Aock gooda. tableau 
firea and torch ea t number of aubAitute guma have been 
introduced auch ta Kauri, a foaail reain of a light yellow 
to a dark brown color, obtained from New Zeland. Red 
Cum eofnea from the Kangaroo lalanda. 5 milea from 
AuAmlia. K. D. duA ia uaed for green fire. Aaphalium 
producea excellent colora when finely ground but owing 
to tie containing eulphur. or perhapa on account of be- 
ing ao eaaily decompoaed it ia liable to cauae apontaneoua 
cembuAion when mixed with potaaiium chlorate. A max- 




ture of tho*e will explode violently when ftnick widt e 
hammer on an anvil. With potaeeium perchlorate* how« 
•v«i, it U a&drely eai^ Tka Syiian Aaphahum ia iha 
beat. So called Green Gum i» merely powdered coconut 
•KelU and haa no more value in pyrotechny than eaw* 
duat. Hour, dextrirxe, auger of milk etc. are aUo frcQuendy 
uaed aa aourcee ol carbon. Another article ol clua 
charadar ia 


In making blue fire it haa been found that atcarirM 
pcoducea a better etfeCt, aepecially with pane green Md 
other copper aalta, than molt any of the other hydro- 
carbona. It ia moltly obtained in cakea and ie redoi c od 
CO a *aerv icable oondibon by aetting a carpenter a pla n e 
upeidedown over a box and ahovmg the cakea againA 
the blade lo at to abave the Aearu\e aa hne aa peaaibke. 
When it ia then mixed with the other ingredienta it wiB 
pe »4 through an ordinary aieve. 


It U probably die molt uaeful color produong 
cKemieei uaed in firework# making, aa the deep red light 
which it givee ia the molt marked elfed which the pyr^ 
lecknitft haa achieved. Owing to ita deligueecent propartHa. 
however, a numbm of meckoda have been deviaed to 
overcome thU tendency one of wkiah ie to meh m an 
iron pot over a fire tome ahellac and Hir in the nafrale 
of Urontia. cooling and pulverixing. Another plan ia to 
uae cerbonate of Itroncia but at tbc colt of conaiderable 
depth of color. Strontium nitrate ie uaed in a aomewhat 
coaieef powder then the potaeaium aalta but ahouU be 
a clean white and contain net over of I# moilture 
and K of 1# aodium eoUii 


In damp climate* there ii no altemadve but to we 
thia Arondum compound for molt exhibition work aa e 
piece of lancework made with ninale of Aronbum* if 
expoied for one hour to a damp atmoaphera. will hardly 
burn. Precipitated carbonate of Itrontitmi ia the only 
kind which ahould be uaed and may be purebneed lor 
about 16c lb. or can be caaily made by adding carbonate 
of ammonia to a aolution of Arontium nitrate, thoroughly 
waahing and drying the precipitate If aodium carbonate 
ia uaad aa a precipitant it ia almoA impoeaible lo remove 
every trace of it from the carbonate of Arontium and 
cauaing an orange dot lo the red light 


Aa a color pro* 

ducer it ia far inferior lo Itrondum though k doea not 
attract moilture. If luod without calomel ita color ia to 
pale aa to be almolt indilkinguiahafate from wbiia. Spe^* 
eationa for fireworka making are pradbcaHy the aama aa 

for Arondton nitrate A bettar aalt for making green fire la 


Thia aalt give a very beautiful emerald color but ila 
high coA, vixr about 3Qc 1b. makoa it bale uaed except 
in exhibetion work. Some recipiea have been given for 
green fire uaing boradc acid, thalium aalta etc. but if 
uaed at all it ie to a very limited eeteni All barium 
aalta are very poisonoua. 


It ia a Arange faA that while yellow ia the moA 
common color of fire* in general ita praAical produAion 
in pyrotechny ia accompanied with.aome ^ffi^ty from 
the fad that there ia pradbcally only one inaoluble aalt 
of aodium while all iKa other* are mote or laaa hygroacopic. 
The aitrate and biearbonale give deep yellow lighia but 
the leaA dampneaa will render them incombuAible and 
even the oxalate* will in damp waather, altralt moiAure. 
The eecaption ia Sodium met^niimoniate but aa thia aalt 
coAa M.OO lb. and at beA givea a pala color, it ia net 
much uaed. Oxalate of aoda epAa about 20c lb. or can 
be eaaily made by adding bicarbonate of aoda to a hot 
concentrated aolution of oxalic acid. A copiua precipitate 
falli which however cannot be waaKed but muA be dried 
on a filter. An exeaaa of oxalic acid ahould ba matn- 
tamed in ikda operation. 

(Paris screen) 

Thia aidela la made in New York Aata and alaewhara 
in thi* country and can be bought for from lOelo 13e 
lb. from dealma in paintam aupplic*. It can abo ba anaily 
made by adding a aolution of blne-Aone to one of ameniua 
acadl waahing and drying the reeultant bulky precipilata. 
h ia uaed in making bine fire. The kind uaed let green 
pnml ie enlaruly eatiafaAoty for firework* making. 

COPPER, Hack Sulphidg 

Thii cofnpouitd m valuable in the production of blue and 
purple fire* when uaed in conjunction with calomel. It ii im* 
portMK TO note in ihk connection that the product made hf 
fudon only* b of value in pyrotechny. The precipitated black 
Ajlphide ia iseleif. A* ir ia aometime* quite difficult to obtain 
the above product while it ia very eaiy to make, the folloaring 
method ta edvimd. 

Procure aome thin aheett of acrap copper and cut them Into 
fdecea about 1 inch aqutra. Take a large clar crucible and 
pack ft with ilterture layeri of the copper leripe and pound 




wiphur to inehin in inch or to o{ the top. Cover and 
in t bright red £re for about an hour. W\tr\ removed and 
cooled the content! may be ihaken out and ground or pulver- 
bed for use, Kreening through a £0 to 60 meah lieve. Ejnct 
propoftiortt of lulphur and copper are not neeeaaarr as the 
exceai of copper bum od in fuaing. 

COPPER, Black Ona« 

Thb is uMd limUady ai the above and it b more ewtiy 
obtained. The fused form must be uaed as the brovniah l^t 
precipitated oxide b meleaa in fireworks maitna 


This euhdtanea ia aUo used for makiag Uoe fitM 
but batter effo^ are obtained by the uaa of othw copper 
eompeuAda. with laaa trouble. The nathro earbooolo m 
alraodt uacleaa for fi reworha purpoeea but the pmcapstilod 
b eaaily obuinod from doalwi in p yr o tech nical eheetMala 
or can be made by adding oarbonalo of amnottia to a aolu> 
bon of bKie Ifcona. Cherdete Copper m rnada by eaaefttBjr 
adding aqua ammonia to a aolution of bluodtone. evap- 
orating and cKryataliaing. BCaek aulphiwei of copper. Mark 
of copper and varioua oth« copper eompounda are 
eceasionally uae^ 71 m author Kaa obtained the bedl raaulte 
with copper ammonium cKIorida. and calomel ia unneeaa- 
aory with thia laJt 


For moA purpcaea where a good blue waa required 
For exhibition purpoaea the older pyrotechniAa uaed thia 
•air bul owing to ita being a aulphate great care muA 
be uaed in mixing it with chlorate of potaah and a separate 
sieve ehould be uaed For mixiures of theae aubdancea. 
which ahouJd not be employed in any other work. It coJta 
uaually lOc to 15c lb. MIxturea containing it muA not 
be Aored but uaed promptly after making. Expoawe to 
moiA air oiudizea thia and raleaaea lulphuric acid. Thia 
can ^ obviated by uaing potaaaium perthlocete but the 
reauhing mixturea are mueh mora diificuk to ignite in 
the form of Aara etc. 


Metalic or Raglua antimony, when finalr powdered 
in an iron mortar ia uaed in making white fire. 



U 70* pura it i. tftUl Mrvie.Ua ior prrMeehiti- 

cel purpoaea and ia used for making white fire, maroons 
and nneke ofieAa. Red and orange axiipbureta ere also 
aomerimea uaed. The eompounda are peiaonona. 


Afi S, 

As S, 

They are useful in mak- 
ing whUe Aara, especially as these take 6re fai more 
eaaily than those made from antimony. Araenic compounds 
are also used for making yellow smoke In day fireworks. 


When, about 30 years ago. it was found that a Aar 
of unuaual briliancy could be produced by the use of 
magnesium this metal suddenly came into considerable 
derrmnd in spite of ita then cr>A of $75.00 lb. About 
the time that ha price was reduced to $3.00 lb it was 
found that aluminum waa iq every way better and eoA 
Unie more than $1.00 lb. in line powder. It can now 
be gotten from moA paint dealers, in 1 1b. cans or papert 
at 60c lb. Ahaminum powder should be 9513 pure. It. 
may contain 2l3 fatty metehal and 153 silicon. The fins 
should pass through a 100 meah sieve and the flake, 
through a SO meah aieva 


Thia is uaed to deepen the color of firea when they 
are not euAeiently deep without ita use. It haa been 
found that the chlondae of metala give the beA apedtrum 
but chlohdea are not uaually pradtioal for fireworks mak- 
ing so the addition of an easily dccompeatd chloride to 
fireworka compos itioni is to produce a chloride at the 
moment of combuAion. thereby acquiring the desired reault 
Finely divided metals also take fire spontanoualy ia chlo- 
rine gas and the great heat thereby produced probally 
cauaea die increased depth of color. 


Sal Ammoniac. 

Thia IS eomHimea used as a subAituto for 
but Ita tffiiuty for moiAure senouily interferea with iu 
general use. The. cryAalixed salt ia almoA useless. 


In all the old works on pyroteckny. either d soluHcn 

aheHac in alcohol or gum arabic in water is used to 




bind compontiont for making Aart and other aimilar pur- 
poiea. but at preaent, in moii caaea the neceaaary amount 
oF dextrine ia added at once to the mixture and then 
nothing but water ia needed to fona it into the deacred 
objedU. Dextrine alao im prove! the color of aocne inea 
and it may be advantageoualy. uaed in place ol gU»e lor 
light work. Potato dexthite tiaually cornea in aacka of 
about 200# and cotfti from 2Hc lo 5e lb. When uaed 
for gummlnf rockei ^icka, tabe etc. it ia atmidy mixed 
with water to the deaired eoaaiAcncy. The light brown 
#132 ia mo#t auitable for pyretaekny. 


Several forma of glue are uaed in firework a making. 
For attaching laacaa to frame work a good grade of 
carriage glue it be!t. For attaching mine bottoma etc. I» 
the caaea cheap carpentera glue will luffice. For pladng 
■hell Fuaea and aacuring (he enda of cannon crackera. 
goad liquid glue ia moA convienanl. 


In powdered form thia ii uaed in aome ilat eompoai* 
tiona. eapccially for making japaneie State. It ia alao uaed 
in "Sen of a Gun" compoaiiion. 


Cast iron boring^s etc. 

A beautiful acinhUting e!fe^ ia produced with Acel 
filingi uaed in varioua waya. The Japaneae make a btde 
lube of twined paper, at one end of which U a com> 
poaiKon which when lighted producaa a glowing bead 
of molten flux The balance of the lube coniaina Aeel 
fUinga. which when reached by the Fuaed bead. burA in* 
lo feather like flaahei. In other countriaa ateel hlinga aie 
added to garba, fountaina and driving caaea with rcaulu 
ing brilliancy. A beautiful waterfall ia produced by 

charging from 30 to 200 caaea 2 inchea in diarnetex and 
12 nichea long with a compoaition containing call iron 
boringa. Theae are faltencd to acintlingi at intervala of 
aboul 13 inchea, each acantling holding about 16 gerba. 
Theae are matched and hoilled to a wire cable aome 
50 Feel above the ground. When burned the elfe^ ia 
molt realiltic aa the arc of the auapended wire givea 
]ult the right curve lo cauae the appearance of pervpec' 
live while the roar oF the burning gerbe ia alao char' 
a^eriltic of Niagara Falla aa the fire From die iron boe* 
tnga dropa to (he ground. 

The belt Heel hlinga for gerbe ia known aa ^needle 
Hecr. Thia reaemblea broken aewing neadlea but ia leaHy 
e by-produdt of aome turning or planing operedon. The 
Heel hlinga from aaw filing ahopa axe quite good provid- 

ed they are the remit of hand filing and not the particJea 
thrown ofi by antery wKeela. which are uaeleaa for pyto* 
technical puipoaea. When Heel filing# are added to gerb 
compoaitiona. the aaltpeler qtackly atUcka them, frequently 
cauaing tha gerb lo become quite hot The Heel ia niHed 
and thia aHion praHicelly deHroya ita uaefukwM. To 
prevent thia the Heel muH be coated in aome way that 
the aaltpeCer canool attack it which may be eccoocdiahed 
aa follow#: 

In an agateware aaucepan place a piece of pamlfia 
and carefully melt it heating aa much aa poaaible with- 
out permiHing U to amoke. To thia add clean Heel fih 
inga. aa much ai the paraffin will thoroughly coat Thwe 
ahotdd be no aurplua ol parafiin but |uH enough lo com- 
pletely cover each filing. Shake the pan and Hir frequent- 
ly while cooling to prevent the filingi from caking. Steel 
filinga are alao uaed for Hart in rocketa and iheOa. 


Thia if uaed for eloaing the enda of moH caaee aa 
well aa choking them when they are rtol crimped. MoH 
any kind of clay wiU do. It muH be thoroughly dried, 
pulverized and lifted. Before uairtg. it may be alighdy 


Thia ia uaed in all gradei from Dupont FFF Rifie 
to the coarae graina aa large aa eimcked com. for ahelU. 
A alow burning powder ia prafarable fes a dnvmg ehargo 
aa it reduce# the liability of ahalla burHing in the mortar 


Thia ardde ia uaed coniidaribly in diaplay work for 
geabe etc and in ahetla and rocketa aa a blowing charge. 
It ie geBerally auppUed in 23 lb. wooden kega but ia 
•ometnnea difficult to obtain. In that caae aoma pyro- 
techniHa make a fairly good article themaalvaa. aa foUowa: 

Mount a 50 gallon wood barrel on two uprighta to 
iKal it will revolve freely on cantara FaHened to the lieada. 
On one center attach a crank and cut a hole (cloaed 
by a auitaUe plug) into aide of barrel For putting in and 
removing the neceaaary ingredients. Race in the barrel 
300 to 300 lead bells about one inch in diameter. When 
it ia dcahed to make meal powder put into the barrel 
a thoroughly mixed compoaition aa foRowa: 

Saltpeter, double refined 15 Iba. 

WiSow charcoal 3 ** 

Sulphur fiour 2 " 

Hie barrel b now revolved for about 500 turns. The 
longer it ia turned, the Hronger the powder will become 
Great caic muH be exCrciaed to aee that no Foreigrt mai- 
ler such oa naiU. gravel etc. find their way into the 
barrel an due might ruauh in an exploaion. 




New Ingredients. 

5ome v«4r« * 1:0 powdmd magntuuin w«t add«d to 
(he ingrcdieiiU lucd in pyrolcchiiy and voy line brisHi 
efleO* woe produced with it JuA when iu Ki^K pnee 
and itt affinity for oaygen. causing it to decompose iKe 
cKemtcata with whicK it was mixed, made pyrotecKmUs 
look at it askance aluminum came on the scene. A d d- 
ed to tftars and torches it greedy increases their fariUiancy 
and beauty. Exquisite water fall effeifts are produced 
with it as well as comets, tailed 4lars and tnlensly bright 
flares. Large quantities of finely divided aluminum (pyro 
aluminum) are used in the new '*flasK crackers'* and the 
same composition is used in maroon shells. Besides 
irxaeaiing the report it gives a dtartUn^y bright flash to 
the explosion. Being unaffe^ed by water it is likewise 
much safer than magnesium W care should be used 
in handling it because as. before mentioned all Andy 
divided metals are liable to explosion when in contact 
with oxygen producing chemicaU. Rubbing into it a email 
amount of vaselins seams to reduce the danger of accent 

Picric acid is enother valuable ingreikent tn flrewosks 
making When added in small quantities to colors it 
deepens them and inereaie their brilliancy without mak- 
ing them bum much faster. AUc beautiful colon can 
be produced with it. almodt free from emoke. Bui it 
muiV always be kept in mind that ^eric add (tn«nitro* 
phenol) II a cousin to T N T die tremendous ex* 
plosive force of which is only too well known. Poi this 
reason it cannot be used in shells as Aars made with 
it will detonate when conflnod. instead of burning. An* 
other effect for which large qusotitiee of pseric acid were 
used until eome years ago when a faul accident occur ad 
in a factory employed almoA eadusively in making them 
are the amusing -whittling fireworks '. Picretc of potash 
has (he peculiar property of emibng a shrill whirling 
sound when rammed tighily and burned in a small tube 
If made in small quantities and carefully handled it seems 
10 be reasonably safe but the result of a band of it 
accidently detonated can be readily imagined. 

Still another subAance producing a moft beautiful 
effcti when fired from spcoally prepared rockets, as will 
be eaplained later in detad. is phosphorus- It is with 
1I11S that the so called 'liquid fire rockets” are marie and 
a more beautiful dinpUy tlian these docs not exist. They 
consist of an intensly yellow flame mdling as 11 falls 
through the sir, breaking Into myriads of incandescent 
particlea witli a heavy background of while smoke 
Obviously, the greatest care muSI be exercised in its use 
as phosphorus bums, even when very small are moA 
painful but when properly handled it is no more danger* 
out lhan many other articles. 

Coiuiderable quantifies of phosphorus are also used 

in the manufacture of the article variously known as 
“spit devil” -son of a gun“. “devil on the walk” etc. 
but deaths of children by poisoning on account of mis- 
taking ihese tablet looking contrivances for candy and 
esHng them has caused their le^ricdon in some ^atei. 

Amorphous phosphorus Is the bass of moit of ihe 
toy torpedoes in use. Fulminate of silver was used al 
moA exclusively for this purpose 40 years ago but only 
a small amount is used now owing to its very sensitive 
nature However, its method of use and preparation will 
be given later as a maner of record. 

Zinc powder is used to smne extent for making 
what is known as EJearic Spreader Surs. These produce 
an enginsl effeA. breaking up while burning into many 
small bluish-creen paitkles. These, being propellad with 
ceasiderabU force give the appearance of alearical die* 
okarges. hence the name. On account of the explosive 
nature of sine duA the making of this Aar muA be done 
with caution and reserve, until it is well underAood. 

An effea that is always beautiful, is easily produced, 
is perfeAly safe under all circumAancet and is lusccpiibU 
of an infinite variety of uses is the jspanese or lam^ 
black Asr. The well known Willow Tree rockets and 
shells sre made with it and it may be used as garniture 
for colored rockets, mines etc. An unusual fullness is 
given to any article to which a small quantity of Jap. 
Aar IS adde^ 

PART n. 


Tbe handiing of explosives, naturally, is new en- 
tirely free of denger. No more ao is alsebicity, gasoline 
and many other things in daily use yet many persona 
have devoted long Uvea to the making of fireworks with- 
out having an accident Even with the grealeA care, 
howevo, accidents will occur to both those employed 
in making fireworks as well as those burning them, ll 
U here endeavored to point out the moA Fruitful sourem 
of accident though obriously it la impossible to foresee 
every inAance in which some carsleMness or unknown 
faAor may bring on disaAsr. 

HrA. always keep separate placea. a considerifaie 
diAance apart to be used for making so<aUed “pisun 
raixiagi'' as rockets, romancandla and garb composition 
cotAaming sulphur, end the colored mixinga containing 
chlorate oF pol ni h . Separate Mevea and utaniils of evsey 
doscriptioo muA be employed and thoae working in die 
**plain“ aedions of die fadnry muA not go into the rootaa 




of tKoee in tho **colore4*’ 

Seconi keep in mind khftt v«y tUgkl Nktaon wiB 
•ometime* the bumini of mixtum ol findr dividod 
ehemieais. Star compoailion Km Wn known to osplodo 
while beiny aifted, by aerotciunc the broM wire eievo 
bottom witk the fixifer naiL while rodtote have taken 
Are from the braM eoUd rammer talaaf the top ol tbo 
epindlo while lamminf. 

Third, finely divided mettle, when in contea wide 
cblortte of peeamuim eonetimee take fire euddealy. Whib 
fortunately thia ia te)dom the caee it muft not be lod 
aigkt of. Even aed filinga and iron boringa freooantly 
become quite warm when mixed with aalrpeter etc end 
rammed into gerba. Fire ia aaid to have ecctsed from 
iKia eetion. The prevention ol thia haa been pl ained 
under “Steel Rlinga‘\ 

Employee in the mixing end ramming rooma of feo* 
toriea ahould be required to wear rubber ahoea while at 
work and a conAanl aource of danger la the carrying 
of matchea. Thia cannot even be controlled by roquir^ 
ing the empleyea to change their dothea in the factory 
before going to work and having them wear garmente 
without pocketa aa they will aomeiimea slip etg lor a 
•moke during rcA houra and have matchea aecreted 
where about their peraona. 

Small buildinga ahould be aupplicd. aboui 12 foot 
aquare and not leea than 50 feet apart for all thoee en* 
gaged in mixing and ramming operationa m well aa for 
thoae making Clara and aa much aa poaiible have one 
perrtjn to a room. Doora ahould be placed at bodi ewb 
of work rooma and ahould alwaya open to the outtide 
with no feCteningi on the inner aide but held doeed» if 
deaired. by apring hingea. Tire bucketa. inape^ed daily 
ahould be on each building, auppleroenled by fire hoee 
convienently placed for emergency. 

The molt aueceeaful method of reducing the Bebilky 
of aerioue accidenU to a minimum b to keep at all time* 
the lealt pcaaible amount of compoeitioii on hand in the 
work rooma and to remove to Aorage or finiabing rooma 
all rammed articlea aa quickly aa they accucnulale. 

Long experience haa ahown the following liA of nui* 
turea uaed in pyrotedmy to exlubit the charecUrlAica 
following each and are to be handled accordingly. 

BIACK teem to be the aaiefit tonbuaatiooa with wUch 
we have to deaL acddenti with tkeee occur only when 
* *park Km been Aruck in eome tnannec and htmight 
in contaA vrith mixtwea of them. 

BARIUM NITRATE with aulphur, eal^ieler and alumh 
nuro are not reported to have cauaed any aeddenta. 


NUM and aimiUr aubAancea in comUnadon with POTAS- 
SlLM PER^HU^^ATE have been found to be among 
the aafe mixfurea even when mixed with lulphur and guma. 

Barium nitrate and Strontium nitrate when in combi- 
nation with pouaaiiim chlorate and aheUac or o^er guma 
form a acnaitive mixtuie and thia condition ia largdy in. 
oreaaed when powdered charcoal ie adde^ r^r r ia Aer^ 
fore urged to avoid all unnecceaaaiy friction when handl. 
ing aame. 

Barium CHLOI^lTE yielda Ita oxygen quite readily 
ao it ia to be haridled with great care in conpouiKh 
iroutaining ahettac and other hydrocarbonai 

ALUMINUM powder in mixhiree with potaaeium rhlo- 
rala, barium nitrmte and ihellae or other carbon aourcee 
aie cleaaed aa **haxardoui**. 

Mixturee ol petaiaium chlorate with aidphur, eulphatee 
or Bul^iidee are to be avoided al all 
ahould never be mixed with ammonium aa ihb 

combination ie easd to be liable to eponianeom cem- 

Poteaeium ba<Kromate and permanganate are to be 
handled wkh earn, aepecially in combmadon vndk finely 
divided mnlali 

MlnrtMi of pkrtc add end ehkxatee are too ‘■Mai. 
live fee eadiaaiy uea» 

Compoeiriona of potaeaium chlorate and phoaphorue 
muA never be mixed except under water. Phoaphorua 
alone muA never be removed from water for more than 
a lew moment* et a dme, end then handled eo aa to 
avoid al fiiddon. 


only be handled hy expwta. 

care ie urged in the foregoing eombiaadena it 
doee not refer to email amount* u*ed fay a per*cn of 
ordinary judgement but more apecificaily to amount* of 
10 to 1CK) pound* whan thougkdeMly handled aa ao 
much aand or cesnont 

Whan expenmenting with new aubAancee uee the 
amalleA poeaible amount* of the component chemicale 
undl the entire aafety of the mixCwo ie aaeured. Before 
ueing coneidenUe quantide* of new mixturee they ehouU 
be eubjcAed to exhauAive l^ta aa friaioB. pvcuaiton, 
detonation and moiAure with aubeequent drying. Alao 
thdr fiaah point ahould if pcaaible fae Mcstaiaed widi 
amiable a^emlua for thia purpoee. 







It Is nor sufficient for the pyrotechnist to know what mix* 
tures of various substances will produce the t€tct udiich he 
desires; he should also understand the reason why these effects 
accrue. For instance, he may know that a mixture of saltpetef, 
sulphur and charcoal will explode when a lighted match is 
brought in contact with it, but he should also know why it 

Broadly speaking ptactically all pyrotechnic compositions 
owe their action to chemical decomposition. This may occur 
under four different conditions; namely rotting bummg, ex* 
plosion and detonation. The secorxl and third of these are 
made use of most frequently by the pyrotechnist. The last, 
with a few exceptions, he tries to avoid while the first is of no 
value ro him. 

Rotrins b a slow^ process, usually produced by fungus and 
bacteria aided by molsrure and slight heat. 

Burning proceeds very much faster and one of the ob)eccs 
of the pyrotechnist is to control its speed. 

of aomc chamicala are so loosely combined that they fly apart 
at times without the direct application ci heat. One such ii 
potassium chlorate, one of the most useful fireworks diemscals. 
This ts due to the fact that its acid componenr, viz; chloric 
add, is an unstable compound and very easily dissociated. 
Consequently only a slight rise in temperature is sometimes 
sufficient to bring about an expiceion. In iht presence of sul* 
phur, sulphidea, sulphates, etc., which through oxidation some* 
times produce minute quantities of sulphuric add, this ten- 
der^ is very strong. Consequently, compeeitioni containmg 
these ubscances must be strictly avoided. 

Hnely divided roetalf combine with oxygen easily and 
sometimes react sufficiently at ordinary temperatures to cause 
fire. Ajuminum and zinc are instances of this danger. 

STRICKING FIRE is another cause of danger against which 
the pytoteehnitt must be on corutant guard. This is usually due 
to steel cools being struck together in presence of easily ignited 
compounds. Scimetifpea, brass cools and even wooden paro 
produce enough friction to cause fire. 

Explosion is due to a violent combination of the chemkal 
elements which combine easily with one another and is usually 
brought about by the ap^ietdon of heat. Heat may arise from 
fire, friction or spontaneous combustion. 

Deronacim is an instantaneous decompoaicion of the auly 
stances involved, in which their component elemcno change 
place with the utmost violence. This property is made use of 
in blasting with dynamite, etc. where the greatest possible 
energy is desired from the substances Involved. It is brought 
about mosdy by the use of fulmixutes whidi detonate when 
ignited. Dynamite, when lighted simply bums but when a 
small amount of fulminate is detonated in its midac the action 
is communicated to the dynaioite and the rtfultant violent 
action is produced. 

Otesnical acdon resulia from the atn a tUo u of diffmnt 
elements for one another. For instance: if one part by wdi^t 
of oxygen and 2 parti of hydrogen are mixed at ordinary icm* 
penturo nothing occucb; but if a spark or other aource of 
energy as sunli^t is allowed in their midst the reaction pnv 
ceeds to a point where the mixed gases combine with a violent 
explosion and water is produced. This principle applies 
throughout to practically all pyrotechnical mixeures. 

Explodvc Hazards 

This is the *Tieadache** of the pyrotechnist. The elements 

The fir* operadoi) in fireworks making and I foay 
say the mogt impoiUnl is miaing . CKemieala are so well 
made now and can be so easily obceiaed ia a powdw^ 
ed ftate that long arttclce on purifying, powdering ole. 
are unneeeaaary. All chemicab sKotU el coerae, be ob> 
tained of the bait quality procurable at a veaaonaUe price 
and as finely powdered (as a general dung) as poeaible 
but rhami rally pure dnigs are not oeceaeary. 

For Duxiog OB a sbwO aeale, round btuM win sievea 
are the belt For tancea end kha mote f work 

#22 to #2fi maak may he used while for 
# Ik to #16 BMh is auitable. ! If 23 Ibe. or more of ooa^ 
powdon ia to he mlaed ordiaaiy painted wash tuba are 
moA convicseBt and the siarea should bo mad e so as 
to iugt fit In si de the upper edge of while let rri- 
Inge of from 100 Jbe. up tsoughe are often (wed. For 
thea^ the alevea are ma^ square and fit jun ^he 

troughs* same as with tubs. Mixing machiiim are 
tiroee used for bright work or mixings containing no 
rate of potash but they ere too dangeroue for coloca. 

With the plain mixings* the coal is weighed fivA and 
p«a mto the bottom of the tub; then the dove put ia 
Aace and the sulphur, sakpeCer eta pushed throu^ it 
When erefything is sifted* hare the irma and mix well 
in every dirw^on. Piece the sieve on another empty 
of same stxe and sift from ihe firgl tub into ffie iirnnd 
owe. a scoopful at a rime. When all hai pmsgd thfungh 
for the second time r^aai once more Into the firSI tiffin 




misinf between tiftinga ind liter left eifdnc. For ordwory 
compoeidoni thie U •iA£dent boc aomo m&sturea ora 
ad four Of bve timaa through the aiavaa. 

In colored mixinfa more care muA be obawad 
each infiedient aiftad aeparatel)r the tim^ axeapt the 
ih^ac« coal etc. which caa be put right mto the bottom 
of the tub. Never throw tbt chlorate of poiaaK oa the 
aieve at the eame time with daitriDa at otbex hydraoar- 
boni but alft the potaah arvd add aalta oaa by 

one. Great care ibould be taken oever to lat dm 
naila Arike the sieve while aifdxtg as it k vety easy l» 
**Arike fue*’from such causes, with dkattroua edad M 
sharp Aar eomposldons in a loose data are abnatt aa 
ast^oalve as meal powdcv. Special miainga wiU ba d^ 
sccibad when we come to the compMitiooa raqubiag (bam. 


Tbk it tba neat mod impcelant operadaa el tba bosk 
neat and the ona requiring probably the Md asacbaak 
cal skill judging from the time required to Isarn it aad 
the comparatively imall number of really gaed cm la^ 
«« to be fcuad In mod tadOM» 

All kinds of braworkt raquira a case of aoma kind 
sacept lablaau brae. A good caaa mud be tighdy rolled 
and almod aa hard aa iron. Tba bed arrangement for 
caae rolling k e sort of large daak made of tongue and 
grooved flooring tightly joined and flrmly nailed to aiUa 
of about 2 incKea tkickneu and Upanng from 2 incKea 
in front to 6 or 7 inchaa in IKe back ao aa to form a 
gendt riae from front to rear. Aecordng to the work 
to ba done the rolling board may be made from two 
to four feet wide. See Fig* 1* A marble elab also U 
good for rolling rocket cases. 

Mod cases are roBad from drawboard. fealberedgad, 
Tba bed k made is Eibridga. N. Y. and oomce is sheets 
26* s 36* with waigbcs varying from 40 to 150 sheets 
to bundle of 50 lbs. For sockets, two or throe turns el 
hardware or caitiidga paper are uaad fird. backed up by 
five or sis turns ol dnwboan£ The cartridge paper bw 
ing wsterprool swells and cononds but little in rolling 
wbile the drawboard. being absorbent awelle eonaidem- 
bly: therefore when ibe "drawboard k rolled an tba oua* 
aide of the case, it contrada in diyrag and k ahrunk on 
making a very firm case. Heavy manilla and eo 
cotton sampling paper ako make good rockci caaaa if 

carefully tolled but as those abimk considerably in dry- 
ing. tba ramming tools ara liable to dick unloaa specially 
to tbk kind of papCT. The recently produced 
^Craft* papax should make an axeallanl caae though I 
have never uaad it There is else a greyish rag papas 
vbkh k MMlyaly Md fat eiadha. 

Since thU was wrirten the use of waste paper board hai 
ttken the place of icrawboard for most fireworb cases. This 
k made in similar weights and sires and used in the same 

Tba lighted caaaa uaed in firaworke making eia lance 
caaea. So me pyrotechnida use poder paper of difarent 
colore, conaspoading to the color of the compoaiden to 
ba rammed mto them, while others use linen paper. 

Colored papa has the advantage of making Uncea 
easily di^nguiahabla in case lha boxea containing them 
become mixacL On tha othar hand it raquira keeping 
a larga dock of empty caaee co&dnually on band which 
k aometimea inconvieoent Linen paper is much dreng- 
<f and only one kind k required, the different eelom of 
laacea bang kept aeparated by havini boxes for them 
with the colora marked on the outside. 

Laacaa are made from k* to H* in diameta and from 
2H* to 4* long. GaneraHy speaking, tha greater tha dia- 
mata, tba laaa need be the lentth. 1 generally use a 
lanea k* diamtter made of ribbed linan paper 17* s 
22* about 16 Iba. to the raanv cut in four^ the am all ad 
way or acfoas the rtbe and aU dmaa the long way or 
with tha riba. Thk makta 24 cute from aath sheet 3K* 
B 4H*. New procive a braes or copper lube with an 
euttida dia mtt m of k* and aoma go^ pada. Take a 
btda bunch of say one or two doien skeeta and lay 
them squarely * bafere you on the rollmg board so that 
*ho 3V aidea ara at top and bottom and holding them 
down lightly wkb the Uh hand, rub them gently to- 
ward you wkb the thumb nail of the right hand ao 
that each one wiD elide about k* below and to the left 
of the oaa undet it Apply pade lo theae edgm, lay tha 
tuba now ea the top sheet about k* from the bottom of 
seaa and H* from left or paded edge. With the ends 
of the kngcn of the right hand bend tha lower edge 
around tha tube, laying over about k* and roll to upper 
eoA Then with a turn of the fingen twid iho bo6 
inm in. The bottoms should not be made too aoUd and if 
aval a littla bole k laft in them il wilt be easier after* 
wai^ In dick dkcm an the pins. Sematunae when aa 
^ahAi^ati k mada on the grounds and not lubjadt to 
Mch h a n dli n g, the laacaa are made without any bottoma. 
Tbay My now be thrown lighdy m a basket or sieve 
to dry. Tbme eparmtions while vary simple are quite 
hard to dtacriba and a few moments of pcaaical dciaon- 
dralion wiD go farther dian several pagaa of deacription. 

?COK MAN’S JAMES 30ND Vol ♦ 1 



Pin wh«d CAM in^ mttcK pipe* roUed in » 
fenml way ika Mme u Uncca, except that no bottom* 
ere made to them end breee or Acel rode ere used in' 
Stmd of Cube*. The noH coATienent eise for match pipe# 
ii one yard m length and H* diameter. Uee a good 
qnahty of maniUa or kraft papa 24* a 20 Iba. to 
ream, l^e quire ie cut the longedl way of the eheet, in- 
to gtrine 4* to 5* wida A Iteel rod four feel long ie 
the beet for rolling them. Pin wheel pipet are ueually 
made 12* long and diameter. Somedmee one end 

ie made elighdy foanel ebaped by padting a Hrip ef paper 
6* long and 2* wida at ono and taparing to H* at tha 
other. roUed arouad the end of the rod^ RoBimg match 
pipee properly b one of the moA difieult operadoM to 
madtar. in the bu ii nee*. It li therefeie advieable to W 
gin on ehortcr pipe* until prmdiee » aequirodi 


Tlieie are aUo eomewhet diActjh to roQi It ie 
eeeential to heoe feather edged boarde for ihie work and 
preferably dbawboerd. The ehaete for ene to few baB 
eandlee are padted entirely ever with rather thin padia 
From ^ ball up, aaly about 4* on each end ef die 
eheci thould be pedted on both lidea TIm mannet el 
proceeding it to lay a theet on the rolling board* pretty 
well up near the top, end upeide down. Then widi a 
4* flat paint bruah apply thin padia quita Kaavib^ on 
about 4* ef the top of die theet end about dm eame 
amount on the bottom. How place ane^er eheet on top 
of diia but about one inch lower down, eo that an in^ 
el die krdt one eatendi beyond die neat on top el it 
Padte aa before and repeat the operation uadi a doxen 
or more theeta are in the pile. Now reverta tha entire 
lot at once eo that the former bottom one will be on 
lop FaAe over the bottom end lop edger of pile now 
expoeed and rub otf eurpluc padte with a ecrape of the 
rod and you are ready to begin rolling. (Rg. 2). 

Rjp a. 

Ley the rod acroae die pile about V from the bet* 
tooa Lift bottom edge of firdt aheeli Uy it over tod, 
draw rod with paper around it beck, until odge of dtrip 
it on top of rod and by eliduxg the fingere along the 
rod and edge of cheat untd came dbeke firmly to tt» for 

ito entve lengdL Now roll Rnnly along, one hand foU 
lowing tha other until the whole eheet ii rolled up care 
being taken that the eace doec not nn to one cide. By 
• quick backward hvUt of tha rod il may now be re- 
moved from the former and placed on rack for drying. 

The d i^m fe c T * and length* ef roman candle* hac been 
and ladueed co often of late year* that no 
deodard of *ixae can be given but the following will 
be found to be a* ueeful a* any for the average work 
and may be ucad comparatively. Special cixee may be 
aaatiy to the required circumdancec. When cut* 

ting paper for eandlee and other ea*ee a* well care ehould 
be taken to elwaye exit eo the caae roll* with the grain 
of tite paper and with the leather edge at the top of 
lha eheet 




eizK or mm 

wo. or traiueeAew 









5H"t 7* 




6H* x a* 





aH*s 10* 






12* 1 13* 






lS*z 16* 


















22* X 26* 











32* X 26* 






36* X 26* 


Cacee for rocket** gerbe. fountcinc. lourbinion** eaxone 
etc. end the email paper gunc veed for minec, Aortl 
chell* etc. require coruiderable ckiH and drength for roll- 
tng, aepedally the larger citec. After ceeing a great many 
caee roUete at work and employing at different timee 
their vahouc method*. I have come to the eonelueioA that 
the following i* not only the aaeied but makea the bed 

Procure e cmaS hair eeiubbing bmeh of good quality 
and long ftii hair. Have the pede cemewhat differ than 
foe candlae. Lay the eheet of drawboard on the rolling 
beard, (in tha caea of rockel*. with tha iheet of caiiridga 
paper on top of it) Now* with the acrubbing brxiah mb 
aom* pade avenly over the cartridge paper, (not ae much 
me for eandlee) and immediately roll up ae tighdy a* 
pouiblp except tho lad two inche* or eo. Now peda 
iho eboel of drawboard over ae you did the cartridge 
paper and place the partly rolled eaie on top of it about 
2* or 3* froen the end neared you. feeing that tha adga* 
of both are even. Raiee the end of the drawboard p*^ 
foding behind the already partly roUad caae and bend 
k around eo it will lay between the part of the cartridge 
paper left unroUe<L and continue idling, preacing mean- 
whila the caee finnly to the rolling board or marble elab 
until tha caea ie completed. Thie leave# e caee that ie 



Already keif dry and when completely lo. ehould ke finn 
enotigh the! il cannot be bent in on the endi with the 
finsert. The advantegee of thta method of rolbnc heavy 
eaaee ia that the paper, eapeciaHy the ilrewboard haa not 
the time to become aoftened end awclied up aa when a num- 
ber of aheeta are peAed down at once, and a tighler, clean- 
er and more eaaily and quickly dned eaae rcaullt. II too 
much pa<Ye ia uaed, when the caae driea the water horn 
the paite evaporatea. leavini the caae apongy. 










Niagara Falla 2* 


The flizea of rocketa vary aa much aa thoae of candlee 
conaequenlly the following Hit can only be uaed approxi- 


UniOl a«*« 

anMi auM^«rtf K«. at*, are uav r«w« 

1 Of. 









3 " 





4 " 





6 - 






8 • 












2 “ 






3 - 





4 “ 











Theee can be cenvienendy uaed 

in two lengdia. 

Mine Cases. 


DIanattr «•. lei^Wre 








1 Ilfl6* 





2 1/16* 


















Floral Shell Cuna. 



Oi.rwwr iw. 


n* -i,,„ 



2 SMI* 





2 11/10" 





3 3/16" 









TKeae. though net being tolled (except the caniAer 
ahali caaaa) properly come under thia divsaion aa they 
are part of lha caae toUera* buairtaaa. to make and are 
eompoced of paper ar^ paAa 

Thaia are two waya of making them. One, roughly 
apeaking* conaiAa of papediig lha inaido of a Kola; the 
odter. papering the ouiaide of a ball We will take a 
aia inch diameter ahell aa an ekimple to work on ai il 
ia the mofl popular aita and aame method ia«employed 
for all PirA procure • perfe^y round ball of wood or 
aomo other aubAance. hve inchea in diameler. W« then 
cut Aripa of Arawbcard and tagboard or heavy paper 
of mogt any kind, about H* wide and 4H* long and palta 
them on a board, ena on top of anolhw* with ae much 
padte between them that they will net flick logether but 
will become aeft and pulpy. I have uaod a eort of red 
buildmg paper told in roHa. which made a better caae 
lhan any ether kii>d I ever uaed. The ftrawboard and 
other paper ehould not be pefted in tbo eame pile but 
two tOm made, one pile of each kind. 

Now amear the ball or mold well with pafte ao it 
will be wel enough to keep the paper from ^ying and 
Aicking to it before ahell caie can be finiahed. Then 
uke Hripa of paper from eilhcr pile fitfl and lay them 
oir the mold, beginning » on top and running half way 
down ike aide. Lay the aecond Arip ao il will lap over 
the fitA one about K' at the lower end and almoA over 
it on top but H* lower down. The third Ahp ahould 
Aart Aill a half inch funher down from the top while 
the fourth Arip again AaiU at the lop Thia will prevent 
the ahdl caae from becoming egg ahaped. Continue ihia 
until the entire upper half of the ball hai beert covered 
with paper. Each Arip muA be firmly preaaed down and 
aQ aurplua paAe aqueexed out with the hngeva. Now 
repeal the operation aa befove but uaing ihe other paper. 
The objeA ia to make it eaaiar to aee where one layer 
haa begun and the ether ended aa each layer ia put on. 
Another way ia to cut the Anpa a foot long and after 
aofteiUDg with paAe aa above, lay them on the mold 
from the top to the middle, tearing off the Arip at the 
required point and letting aecond and third piacea Aart 
half an inch below the other ao aa not to get the top 
too thick aa explained above. 

After the third layer haa bean put on one ihould be 




laid on uoaiwise, croaiing ea much aa poaiible iKe firA 
Uyori. Thia proeeii ia continued, preaaing each Anp aa 
Tirmly aa poaaihle until the caae ia about H* thick M the 
edfea where it ia usually thineA, and not orer H* on 
lop. IF the work hat been properly done the half ahell 
can now be slipped oft and allowed to dry. When dry 
ihe lower ed«:e should be trimmed oft with a sharp knife 
at a point that will make two halves, when put together 
show a fair aphere. 

The other method la to have a wooden block hol> 
lowed out ao aa to have a bole in it 5H* in diameter 
and a perfeA aemhaphere. Or a meld rnay be made by 
taking a ball of ihia diameter, oiling it well and aettinA 
it halfway of ita diameter into a box of wet plaAer of 
pans Now then, proceed as before, except paAing the 
Anpi inside the hollow InAcad of on the outside of the 
ball This will make a better looking shell and I be* 
licve. a Aroiiger one when properly done. The paper 
may be gut into Aripa a fool or more long and torn oft 
as il^ey reach the edge of the Hollow. In thia way all 
waAe is avoided and the rough edge nsade mewe even 
and regular. The Aripa should be preaaed very hrmly 
aa the quality of the shell depends on tliia. If the |wva* 
sure againA the hngers» in rubbing out the paAe. makes 
them sore, a piece of wood about V long artd wide, 
rounded snd slightly curved on the edge, may be used 
ss a sort of squeexer. If the work has bean well done, 
the case should be as firm as wood when dried. To 
sasiA in removing the wet ahell caae from the mold, hrA 
place in the bottom of it two Aripa of cloth at right 
angles with the ends protruding over the aidae, long 
enough to permit pulling the caae out by them when h 
ia completed* 

board or odter paper. When thoroughly dry the wooden 
Kesda or plug# axe fitted, nailed in with I* iron brada, 
or well glued il made with a flange and carefully sealed 
all around with several thicknesses of good manilla paper. 


For all cases more than 6* long, tacks are moA con- 
vienent for drying them. These are made of Arips of 
V X 2* cypress ot other light wood, suitable for support- 
ing them. The longer the cases, the farther apart the 
Aripa should be. When filled with cases they should be 
moved to a well ventilated room or covered platform. 
If placed in the sun they will be badly wsrped when 
dxy. (Fig. 3) Center and end Aripa are H* x 3*. 

Small cases may be thrown into sieves 2 feet wide 
by 4 feet long, made of I* mslerial, 4* deep and the 
bottoms covered with galvanized hardware cloth of 

W^en the halves have been evenly bimmed place 
two together so at to form a sphere and secure joint 
with a Arip of canvaa smeared with glue. Then put on 
one or two mere layers of paper. After again drying, bore 
hole for (use through one end or better AiO bore hole 
through one hall, from inside, with a wood bit, before 
joining the halvea. 

In addidon to these methods very good shells cen 
be easily and quickly made where hollow bsJla of zinc, 
tin or wood can be obtained The wood half balls need 
only to be well glued together and they are raady lor 
use. Those of xine and tin require to be papwed juA 
aa dirsAed for ahell making with rovind mold axeept that 
andre ball is papered until It is about H* duck for ^ 
shell snd H* For ^10* ahells. Others in propordoiL 

The cases for cyEndricsl os csniAsr shells seed no 
detailed deacripdon ae they are mads juA like any otha 
heavy csss. A former of the required aixe ta procured 
and the case rolled thereon juA as for a mine, of Araw- 

When cases are Aored away care ehould be taken 
to pxoteA ihem from roaches and mice aa these axe a^ 
trsAed by the paAe. 


All paper cases are rolled on formers of one kind 
or another. For rockets, gerbs etc. these may consiA of 
hard wood Aicke but better fermera are made of light 
brass tubing vritK an outside diameter equal to tha inside 
diameter of the case desired. T^ey should be one to two 
inches longer than the intended case and fitted with wood- 
en handles to enable them to be easily removed when 
case ie rolled. (Fig. A) 

FiS. * 

RoclCet case 




Mines etc. me rolled on wooden formcn, ike ende 
ol wKicK are turned down to convienenl sue to fit the 
hand Roman candles are rolled on rods of mackioe Aeel 
while match pipes and pin wheels are rolled on tkin 
brass or tfteel rods. Lances, on small brasa tubing. 


Without this simple article* 1 doubt if any freat •• 
mount of modem fireworks could be produced, aa it is 
in almoA conAant demand in every department el the 

Ready made paAe is now to easily and cheaply oW 
taincd that few persons care to bother about making it 
but for those not so fortunatdy situated the following is 
■ standard method: 

boiler of abotit ten gallons capacity with faucet in bottom, 
on a gaaoline Aove or furnace and when this is fined 
with boiling water t^ce one of ihe buckeU of batter 
under the faucet. Open it and while the water Is run- 
ning m Air it briskly. The contents of the bucket will 
at hrA become as thin as milk but as it begins lo kU 
it will gradu^y thickan until it can hardly be Airred if 
aU the details have been correctly followed, and a bucket 
of clear, clean and very Aicky paAe. free from all himpe 
will be the result. The other tub may be used alternate- 
ly with the firA for souring baiter while that in the hrA 
is being used for psAe making. This paAe. having been 
soured before cooking cannot sour again end will not 
become watery. 

Clue and deatrins are sometimes added to make peAe 
bind better axtd alunu blueAone, salicylic acid etc. to pre- 
serve it but these ere all unnecessary if made as above. 

Mix 4 oxi. wheat Aour with 6 oxs. wata 
and H ox. powd. alum, nibbing until free 
of lumpe. Poxir this slo%^ and with eo»- 
dttnt AMng iato: 

16 ois. boiling wator to which has 
been added. 

5 drops carbolic acid. 

5 drops oil of clovos. 

2 |r»ine cofroeivs sublimate. 

When cold it should be r^rndy fov uee, 

AnoiKsi method which 1 ni^ about to describe. I 
think, no] only the bcA mnd simpleA but requites nethiag 
for preserving and If properly made, will keep for a 
month in wintA. The proccas coni I As mainly in allow- 
ing the baiiA to sour before cooking; and cooking by 
addmg boiling water inAesd of placing diieAly on the 
hre where it is likely to gel lumpy or overcooked. The 
following details are for making paAe in lota of three 
or four buckets per day. 

Procure two deep wooden tubs of about 20 gallons 
capacity. Buy a barrel of the cheapeA grads of fiour 
you can get. Samples or sour and wormy flour wi& do 
if it M not adulterated. Put 2 or 3 bucketfuls of flour 
into one of the tubs and add water. Airring meanwhile 
with a paddle until well mixed and about as chick as is 
convienent to handle. It does not matter if it is livnpy 
as these all come out in the souring. When the tub has 
been Idled not more than one third full allow it to reA 
in a warm place (about Wf) lot two or thiee days by 
which time fennentation will have sA in. When the l«- 
menlation is complete the flour wiD have settled as a 
heavy batter in the bottom of the lidi with ■ lour brown- 
iih liquid over it. Pour this ofl and iUI several buckeCa 
about one ihiid full of (his baner. Now hava a water 


Sometimes garbs, etc. are choked or crimped lo re- 
duce the opening, in place of using clay. This is done 

by taking a turn of Arong Aring or piano wira around 
(he case while Ail) wet. about H* from the end and dmw- 
ing righdy while turning ihe case slightly so as to maka 
a neat iob. One en4 of the Aring Aiould be ded to a 
wall or some unyielding obieA while the other is passed 
around the body (a) (Fig. 5). A nipple with a short 
point slightly smaller than the desired opening to be left 
in the end of the case, should be inserted about be- 
fore drawing the Aring so that the end of the case will 


b« kept opea and cjimpmg neatly done {b). A mocK> 
auical device made by a Cincinnati macKine worki doea 
the woik very neatly and much quicker than the 40ia% 
pvoceea. (c) (Ftf. 5). 


Ae thia operation v^iU be daechbed m dated under 
each of the aiticlei to be rammed ae we coma to them, 
only a lew general dire^ona wiU he give& Al) ram- 

mine ahould be done in amaU rheda a» far ronovad from 
the balance ol the fadfeory aa pradticabla aad with one 
a^ opea toward which the operator ahoyld ilvAiri have 
Kia back while at work A rtout wood block, etther tall* 
mg on the ground or over a loundation akould be uaed 
for ramming on. For heavy ramminf the beH roallete 
are thoae made of raw-htda. Theae are round and ranga 
in weight from h *lb to 10 Iba. About 2 ibe ia a good 
weight for tha avemga work. (Hg. 6). 

Rammiag toola should be made of braia or guiwneul 
alao tha nipplaa. while the apindlai for rockala mult be 
made of IteaL 

Scoopa for taking up tha deairad amount of compoai* 
lion at a cime^ can be made of tin or any light metal 
and ahould be provided in different aiset from about H' 
in diameter and I* long to 1' in diameter and 3* long, 
with about aix infermodiate aisea aa loma compoaidona 
work bertei when rammed in imall quanddea than otheaa 
with the aame caliber of caaea. 


For all amall work auch aa aerpenta» aauciaaona etc. 
make a funnel about 4* bigh< 3 inch ckameter on top 
and 5/16" at the botlonw without a apout, (F^. 7) (a). 


Procare a rod k* diameter and 12' to 18* long according 
to work to be done. A wooden knob may be fattened 
to top of aame for convlenence in ramming tc)< In uae« 
a caae le dipped on a nipple (d). The funnel half full 
cd Gompnmlio& hae ita amall and inaertad in top of caae 
and vrilh the rod moved up and down, tthking the bottom 
firmly each liB»e, the compoaition becomea rammed with 
inftrient aolidity. When caae haa been rammed to with* 
an k* of topi» funnel ia removed and a charge of clay 
ia added to ttop end. by linking clay a few blowa with 
a light mallet and auiubla drift or tammet. Tha arrange* 
eneni for lancea ia aomewhat lighter. Tha funnal Cb) ii 
very eftcienL It ia 2 k* diameter on lop and 2k* high 
with a k* ahoulder on bortom and a apeut k* outaide 
diamotcr projoddng from bottom for K*. Tbii* when 
moved from lance leavea jutt the proper amount of caae 
empty foe paiming. 


Tbia ia the term uaed to deaignate that fundbon of 
pyrotechny which conaitti of bringing Rre to the varioua 
parta ol devicea aa they are burned. In mott ci tha in* 
dividual aiticlea a ihort piece of rrtatch la twitted ia the 
noMBg ^ the wrappei or fattened otherwiae. In lat piecaa 
thia operation lakea on an importance aacond to none ia 

the ar^ 

Staffing at a leader at which a lat piece ia lightad 

and which muat be long enough to reach from the 

device when eroded, to a conviaaent dittanca from tha 
ground ao the operator can reach it, the match mutt lead 
to every part of the piece. 

The matching of lance work ia fully daacribed undar 
that heading. In the caae ol aet piacea conaitting of 

gerba. wheela etc. the gerb ia firtt primed by amaaring 

a litde priming on inaide of choked end of caae. A 
noaing ia put on. conaitting of 2 or 3 tuma of itout paper 
roDad around end of caae ao aa to proiad 2 Inehea b^ 
yood end. About half an inch of the piping ia removad 
from a length of quickmatch. Thia ia hant back, inaertad 
into the noting and aecured by tying tightly with two 
half hitohaa. The match ta now brought over to the next 
gmb and bant at ri^bt anglaa ovar it. At 2 mchaa from 
thia point it ia bent back again onto itaelf and at point 
of firtt bend, again at right angle# lo aa to lead to the 




next gerb. (Rg. 6}. At the bottom of thit bend the pip- 
ing i» cut off. bearing match, with a sharp knife, and 
tins portion puihed into nosing of second gerb and secure 
cd by tying es before. See (Fig. 6). Candles, wheel cases 
etc. are treated in the same manner. 

If a gerb has been properly primed it is net necessary 
for the match to enter choke as fire will reach it from 

It U a good plan to have the leader from which a 
piece of fireworks la ignited, to nin to each section ol 
same, irrespedive of the faA that said aodlorxa are already 
connected to one another in the proceaa of matching it» 
as sometimes a length of match will go out in the center 
of the pipe, owing to eome defe^A not observed in mak* 
ing iU Jt is therefore Advisable to have the match joined 
wherever it crosses, as for inftance. on top of a tsnee 
guarding sa much sa poMible againlt sU chance for ono 
or the other se^oo to fail 

If It (a desired to have one part of a piece to bum 
after the other has been burning a*whiW. as when candles 
or gorbs are used in conoe^on with lance' work, these 
fcrbs etc. are matched to a separate leader which may 
bd fired by hand after the lances are hall consumed, or 
they may be connected to several lances about haU way 
down so that when they have burned to this point the 
balance will be lighted automatically. This it done bo' 
cause, lances burning so much longer than candles or 
gerbs, if all are fired at once, the gerba et& would be 
finished before the lancet were well under way. while 
it is bcA for the finest effect to come at the end. 


In order to insure lighKngi especially in exhibition 
work, all gerba. wheel cases, lances etc. are primed which 
consiAta of ameaslng a little moiA gunpowder about the 
mouth of the case. Priming is made by adding water 
to grain powder in a suitable receptacle until the powder 
becomes paAy. A little alcohol and dextrine can be ad- 
vantageously added. 


In fadtoriea, where Aock or ah^ goods are made 
thia is quite an important department. All kinds of fic^ 
works are covered with some kind of colored paper and 

often Aripea and borders are added. Candles, rockets, 
serpents, small rmnea and triangles are covered with 
different colored poAer. Flower Pots are uaually covers 
ed with calico paper while fancy rockets, large minea 
aaucisaons, floral shelU and fountains are covered with 
glazed paper, Aripes being added where desired. The 
size of cuts as given here are for use with car^ee and 
rockeCa of the site shown in thia work. They are usually 
2' longer than the ardde to be papered if it has to be 
matched at one end and tucked in at the other P longer 
where matching only ia done and the aame length where 
only the case la covered as in minea etc. 

1 o& Sky Rockets 3' x 5' 


4^ M 


3< 1 



M M 


4* x 


aa m 




4" X 


4i M 




3* X 







6^ X 


ib. * 




6^ X 



m m 



V X 



baO Roman Caodlea 















































































To make a good naat, tight and Arong bundle la 
about as baportanl and I may say difficult to learn as any 
other part of the fireworks business. 

Roman Candles fiocn I to A ball are packed 3 dozen 
in a bunde. From 6 ball up. I dozen in a package. 
The packagaa of I dozen are made in two forma, viz: 
four sided and six sided. (Pig: 9) (b) and (a) reapeAivaly. 




To mftWe ihe foui a;dc<l package of I doccn 6 bal) 
cancQca lay 5 on the bench in front of you to the cmndlea 
run paralel with the bench. Mark the apace they cover 
and fit into top of bench four wood pina about one inch 
of which project above, two on each ioDV aide of the 
apace occupied by the 5 eandlea. ao aame may be eeeily 
laid between ibem See dota. (Fig. 9). (b). Now cut a 
aheet of manilla paper 19* long and 14* wide and lay 
this between the pina iuft aa the candle# laid before, and 
replace the five candle#, now on top of the paper be- 
tween the pina. On top of thaae 6ve place few more 
and on top of them three Thia make# twelve. Draw 
the paper lightly over them arvd fold it like a dtuggiA 
makes a bundle. Now close the enda aa follows: with 
two fingers press the top of the folded paper over the 
end of three top candles; then, hiding aame down with 
both thumbs, fold in the two aides of package with the 
faft and second hngere of each hand at the aame time; 
then holding these folds with the left hand, lift the opposite 
end of the bundle with the right which wilt cause the 
bottom to fold itself over the other folds. Now. with a 
brush dipped in thick patfte give (he end a daub on the 
la4l fold and while the bundle is still ^landing ott this 
end fold the top end the same way. Before folding the 
la^ fold five it a daub of pa#te aa you did the other 
end. Lean againA the wall and place a paper weight 
or tile on top of end to bold it in place undl dry. After 
a quantity are packed like this end dried the lebela are 

To make the six Mded bur\dle e pereon mu4l ErA 
learn to form the eandlea in the band, Couirt out one 
doten candle# and encircle the bunch at one end with 
both hands. Now work them about (thia U herd to de* 
scribe on paper) until they form a triangular bunch (e) 
with three candle# on each side of the triangle. When 
this has been accompUahcdi lay them on the wrappirr^ 
sheet (cut aa described above, though preferably wider) 
holding them lightly so they retain the triangular form. 
To get the paper around them without having them to 
fall in a heap is 4till harder to describe end equally bard 
to ma^ec (hough easy enough when learned. Once the 
bundle has been gotten to the wrapping sheet one hand 
is sufEcisnl to maintain its form so with the other bft the 
ude of the aheet nearest you and bend it partly around 
the package so you can hold it while the other hand is 
released long enough to> enable it to take the paper on 
that side. Slraighleo and flatten it well on over the candlrs 
and begin rolling up the bundle until the other edge of 
the paper is reached. PaAe this edge and lap it on the 
bundle and you ate ready for the corncra. If the burKOe 
has been properly made, when it lays on one of the 
facee of the triangle, the lop row mui\ be composed of 
2 candles; the second row. 3 the third row 4 and the 
bottom row 3. Now bend the paper down from the top 
FrA, then bend in the two upper sides, then the two 

lower aides and finally, by lifting the bundle, from opposite 
end. the bottom folds over all the otbera. A little paAe 
secures it as described above. 

The bundles of smaller candles are formed in a wood' 
en former. Hollowed out to the aixe of a bundle of 3 
doxen (c) and when it is packed with the required 
number they are secured with a Aring perparatory to 

Short Aick aky rockets are nearly always packed in 
paper botes Long Aicks are packed as follows: Cut 
aome piece# of #IS iron wire 6 inches long. Then take 
half or a dozen rockets with the heads all even and 
work them in the hands until they Iona as square a 
bundle a# possible and bead one of the pieces of wire 
around the Aicks juA below tbe matches. This ahould 
be done with one hend while (he other holds the bundle 
in shepe. Now past anoihsr wire around the Aicks 
about a foot from the bottom. Cut aome pieces of Araw> 
board as wide as the bundle of rockets on the wide 
•idee and long enough to go completely over the head# 
and down the other side nearly to the matehaa Cut 
some wrapping paper six inches wider than the rocket 
head bunch and long enough to go twice aroui>d it 
PaAe the fer edge for about one inch and lay the bundle 
of rocket# with the Arewboard around it, on the sheet 
and wrap it up as tighdy as possible. Fold in the upper 
end: aecure with e Uitle paAe and set aside, heads down* 
ward, to dry. Later, the other end may be gathered in 
and secured with enothec piece of wire. 

Wheels, tourbillions elc. are made into moA any kind 
of a package desired, while mines, fountains etc. are 
given one or hvo turns of paper over the Enishing to 
keep them clean. 

Serpents. Eower pots end torches ere packed like 
roman candle#. Blue lights, the seme. Fancy rockets are 
pecked heads and Aicks eeperately. the heads in boxes 
and the Aicks loose. 


For no A purposee eoneiled irort wire from IB guage 
to 20 guege i# the moA seevicabla. The eaaieA end 
quick e A wey to use it for wiring rockets, triangles etc, 
is to cut it in lengths of from 4* to 6^ according to the 
nze of the work to be done. A Isrge guandly can be 
cut at once by using e bench abear and cutting several 
hundred at one dme. Rockets can be quite securely leA* 
ened with one wire if e CUM BOARD (Pig. 1 D) is used 
Else two wires are noceeaary. A gum board is made 
by taking a piece of H* board 6^ long and nailing piece# 
of rocket Aick around it on three ndei on top and one 
side on the bottom. Put into ibb about 1 ox, of dextiino 
mixed with water to the consiAeney of jelly and it is 
ready to commence wmng. 





Put * pile of rockeU end win to your left emd e bundle 
of fttckt end the sum boerd to your ri^Kt Rub one 
eide of the end ol e tfdck egatnA the bottom of the fum 
board eo e little gum wiQ edker* to H. L^y it with the 
fununed eide egeinA the rocket about three <|ueiter» of 
the way to the coae. Hold it in thie way in the left 
hand end with the right, bend e wire around it about 
the middle giving one turn on the tide of Aick. Now* 
with a pair of nippera give about three more turru cut* 
ting the wire with the leA tiun. If no gum U uaed two 
wire* are neceeeary. 


In doing eehibidon work Aiing playt n voy import* 
ant part and the belt and cnoA convienent knot fot all 
purpoeee U the «ai1or« two half hitehee. (Fig. U). 

Thi* U lomewhat difictik fot moA pereoni to leejm. The 
beA way ie to pcaAlce on a Akk. Paee Ariag under 
Aide bringing free tod over left of loepi bring it over 
tame again paeaifig end again to left of aeeond loop but 
betwe an aeeond and firA. An ordinary tie of the free 
ende new Mcuraa k pvmaamidy. Thie knot wiO be 
found invaluable in matching. 


TUe rwy eaey oporadoa may be a 31 furdtv ttmpb* 
fiad if done In tho right way. Taka a board about a 
foot iquare. Smear it weO on top with dun paAe and 
lay g label on it face dowiL Cover tUe well with peAe 
and place another label on top ef it repeaciDf the paA* 
ing and putting down of lab^ until ceveril dosen are 
on the board. Thie wiB aoften them io diat when taken 
up and preeeed with the finger* or the paAe favueh a* 
gainA the bundle to be labeled they wQl adhere fimdy 
and lay fiat. 


When it ia deeired to produce in firework* a por* 
trait, a piAure of a buildiAg. monument Ao or a line of 
lettering thie i* fiiA drawn on the floor with a piece of 
chalk fixed into the end of a Aick *o that the designer 

may walk about ak Aching hi* pi Auto from the miniatute 
plan a* he goes along. The floor i* firA laid ofi with 
a chalk line into *quare* one foot each way and in 
multiplea of 50 aqtiare feA five feet wide and 10 feA 
long. Foe inAance, if a pdhirc 10 feA high and 20 feA 
long ia desired it i* composed of 4 *cAion* 5* a 10' or 
two high and two wide. 

The akAch is now taken and marked elf with rule 
and dividers into 200 equal square*. 10 high and 20 wide 
corrmponding to the full tiled squat A on the floor. Fheae 
are numbered along the edge ef iketch on top and on 
one tide. The squares on the floor are numbered in the 
same wey. With the chalk now draw into each iquare 
on ihe fleer, the tame Unm a* appear in cerveaponding 
square of skAcb. When this ia done, an eiad repto* 
d^on of tmail piAwe will bo ready to bo placed on 

Fe* lettering or haea of wording thi* is nA neceasaty 
aa dctifB can usually be ^awn ^oAly onto the floor 
with free hand, of the desired siae and without enlarge* 

PART ni 



(Quick Match) 

This ia used for conveying fire to the eumbuAible 
poAion of pyroleehnical devices and is diAinguJshed from 
FUSE by the feA that its efledt ie almoA inAantansous 
wbUe fuse bumi A a comparatively very alow and aasA 
rale. It consiAs ef cotton wicking impregnated with gun* 
powdtf and covered wkb a loose paper piping. As al* 
moA every piece of fireworks requires, match for lighmg 
it and lance work end eahibition pieces in general are 
•bsolutely dependent on good match for their luccessful 
opemben it ie essentiBi to make this very necessary article 
as nearly perfeA as possible. Tliere are sereral wayi of 
making match which will be classified as the "French 
SyAem** and the "Engliib SjitmT and candle and rockA 

Fmch System 

Sectge two psecei of I* s 9* tumbm and lale one 
edge ef each drive n number of 6* naili for half their 
length, about one loch apart 5 a these irieees up hori- 
sentaOy* with the nail edges uppennoA, aboA 9 feA 




*^va tka ground* ona at eacK and ol a 4^7 akad aoma 
30 faat long. Wiclung w cotton coid of iKa proper duck* 
neai can be iacurad aliaady in batb« aa daava^ Now 
get aome cotton cord of wicking not laaa than 24 meah 
and faitan the and to tba nail naaraA the wall on one 
of the abora piocea of x 3*. Wkk die ball of cotd 
walk to the other end of the ahad and, drawing it rather 
dgktlyf failen it to the cofraaponding nai] in the other 
^rip of I* a 3' by taking a few tuma around the nail 
Leave the ball lemporanly at lhai end of aked» in a light 
box to keep it clean. 

In an agate pan mix 3 Iba rifle powder thoroughly 
with 4 ozi. dextrina and add water. Airring with die 
hngera until all the graina are wet Allow to Aand a 
lew minuter until a amell lump pforaed between the hngcra 
leela perfectly rmooth and eontiina no more graine. Sdr 
in aome more water and a little alcohol until the mixture 
U about the coniiAency of muah. 

Holding the pan in the left hand, under the flrA 
length ol cord take up a handful of the powder mixture 
and work it wall into the cotton while holdiAg the pan 
•0 aa to catch th« drippingi, and walk backward# lo 
other end of #hed. When thia ia reached go back to die 
begining of the ftrand, take #oma of the powder in the 
right hand, pare the cord over the ArA joint of ihe ArA 
Anger, place thumb on top of it and again walk back* 
ward# toward other end of ahad but without working 
any more powder into the cord, aimply allowing it lo 
run through the Anger and thumb for the purpoaa ol 
rubbing o(f rough uneven place# and leaving a #mooih 
well Axuihed aurface. 

Now take up the ball of cord again and. paaaing it 
around the third or four^ nail lo the right. AreCch a 
aecond length to the poirtt of begining. faAaning it here 
alao iereral nail# away from the ArA Arand. H>U ia for 
the putpoee of not touching the Aniahad Arand while 
working the powder into die aecond one. Proceed a# 
with AtA length and whan Aniahad move it to aecond 
nail. Aretching it tightly into place. Repeat widi the 
following Arand until all the powder li u»ed up. 

IF the weather i# dry rnatch will be ready for piping 
in a day or two. In dry climalaa gum arable make# a 
belter match than dextrine but where there ia much moia* 
turn in the air dextrina ii «far. When the match i# dry 
and Aid it may be cut down and the pipe# thraadad oa. 
Match pipe# are made of 20 lb. maiulla Or kraft paper 
24* X 36^, cut into Aripa 4* wide and 3b* long. roQad 
on a ki* Acel rod, only the edge of the ahaei being 
paAad for about one mcK. When pipuig match creaaa 
or gather the end of AtA pipe when tn place #o next 
pipe may be alippad over it for about 1 ine^ 

A aimpla and clean method of making parfoA axlnbi* 

don match, and one, which to the baA of the author# 
knowledge ia originaL ia a# foQowa: 

Make a cup of brae#, about 3* diameter, at top, 2H* 
at bottom and 2 l{* high a# ibown in accompanying aketcL 

in an ^**g 
2 Quart pud^g pan and a 

ponA&ng upward and 
A amaD duk 
match frame 4* x b 



of appatatua. 

Thtet prapoM 

No. 1 

No. 2 


3 osa 



2 Iba. 



2 ptt. 



4 oaa 


I fc. 

12 « 

Into the diah pan plaea mixtnre No. 1. rmxmf the 
funpowdo thoroughly with the dextrine before adding 
water. When powder haa complAely melted add alcohol 
and Atf well Unwind into thia abouP 2 Iba. of good 
cotton twine of not lea# than 24 mteh. and with a Aick 
prat# it well into the powder mixture. Into the 
pan place mucture No. 2 proceeding aa fee No. 1. Tbia 
however, ihould be thicker (about like aoft putty). 

Now uka the end of the cord and pCM it through 
the ipout of braaa can. from the inaida: All the cup %vilh 
nuxture No. 2 and pull through apoul enough cord ae 
end may be atiached to match frame. Hold the cup ia 
the left hand and revolve the frame with the right, plae- 
ing diahpan ao cord wiD lead out, over notch in back 
of top rim of cup and through powder mixture into frame 
aeparating each Arand by about H*. If apoul of cup At# 
cord anugly a perfeddy round, amooth match will reauh 
and if aurgeona rubber glovca are worn the han^ will 
aot be aoiled. Be aure to keep the amall cup alwaya fuL 

English System 




Ma1c€ 4 Ughc (mme of wood like tko frune o| » 
looking nnd four lc«C widt 

And htng it in An upright tend m tkot it eon revolv* 
juA lik* dte mirror in A dreoM. Then got a quAolity of ooA 
ton wicking, 24 m«h And unwind it into A thin pna okottf 
A foot in (kAmotor ond aia incKct doep. In Another oimiUr 
pAn put 2H rifle powder miied with 2H oxA. dntrisA 
And cover it with 2H pinta wAter. ^tmiog (KcedoiiABy 
until powder ie m^ted; then edd 2H os. Alcohol And 
mix well. Pour ihia gvor the lAsp wUking in the hr# 
pen tekang care to leave the end of* wtek Kengiag over 
edge of pan eo it can he aaiily fouid. Begining with 
thii end now run all the wicking into the cn^y pen* 
taking cere that every part of it u well eoeked with the 
wet powder, e little of which ehould remain after the 
cotton ie pasod for the fir^ time end due may sow he 
poured over the pile of wet wieki presinf or kneading 
•ame eo ae to thoroughly eoak every part, when It can 
he returned to the hrtft pan s heloca. It la now ready 
for the frame. Tie the end of wick to one aide of end 
of frame and while acmeone tume it alowly food match 
into U with the ttranda about H* epert M^lwn all el it 
ia on the frame remove from the tend to a pert el the 
floor covered by large aheeta of paper and aupport it over 
theae on four blocka ebout 3' high* one at each comer 
of frame. Now, take a amatl aieve of meal powder and 
dugt it carefully over ao aa to cover it evenly with A 
layer of powder. The frame of match may now be plac- 
ed in the Aun or eUewhere to dry. Match made by thia 
proeeaa la all of one length, viz: 2 yarda, and it vary 
round in app€amnc& it buma fieceJy but wiD not tend 
at aevave uaage aa that pcevieualy dm gibed. It alao tehee 
longer to make. 

Match pipiag aenrs dotdde purpoee of protecting 
the match from injury end making it bn infinitely laM- 
er. A 20 fact long wiD flaah from one end to the 

o^ar ia laae thao a ae cond 


Match made by either el the two prevloue methodi 
li toe egpenitve for UM with the cbeap grade ol Ito ck 

h gw mkA m the maiket to a ttmplet method baa booB 

demeed tor tbie pwpoie. It ia aeientialJy like the left 
deaciibeid pcoeeea. 

Into a fmall hib put a gallon of aarch. wall boiled* 

and dtir into it about IS Ibe. of a thoroughly muted com* 

poaition of 

Saltpeter 16 

Fine charcoal 3 

Sulphur 2yi 

Soak in ihia. cotton wick of about 3 arandr untd nearly all 
the cecApoaition ia aheorbed but about one hall inch which 
abeuld AiU covw the cotton in ihe tub. Work it in well 
and nm k on a frame aa direted m preceeding dcacrip- 
non but the frame may be a mailer for convienenee of 
hendlini by one peraon. aa long lengthe are not re<|uired. 
Ngthcr doea it need In ba dtigted with meal powder. 
If well made, howevg, it will bum freely and eerve its 
purpoee completely. When dry k U tied ia bunchs. I 
to 2 iachea in diameter and cut into the deetred lengtha 
with a tobacco cutter or large aharp knife. 



Tbie M uaed in fireworke making, ia the produ^don 
of cannon csckerc and to A leeaer degree ia aaaU bomb- 
ahJa k eondte eeientitlly of a cotton pipe coatnirung 
mael powder end buma At A rate of appronknAtely 1 
inch in 3 aeeonda. It can be had ia aizea varying from 
to K* in diameter and from the cheapest painted 
cotton kind to one heavily coated with gutte pereha for 
unds-wals wtok. 

k la mada by a vgy ingwoue Btachine which weavea 
a c e lton fabric around e amelt tube. At thia tube ie 
with^wn tie place ie token by the meal powdg which 
ie Itoced in thruagh the ^wrung in the tube. The largeH 
fateriAA aie ia Siainebcfo. Cowl 


(in tttdng colort the pyiotechnist aheuid not look diracdy 
At the burping muourc but ahould hAVC hai btek turned to it 
while neneone eke It^a iL He ahcatld then turn* quickly 
Around for a moment and look at the light And then rum 
Away Again. By looking directly at the burning color the optic 
nerve aeems to be temporarilv affected lo that an accurate 
apprntsal of dir color cannot be made. It k also well to view 
the from A dktance of about 100 feet to judge it ac- 

Tldi i» aboto ds waplatt form ol firewotka aI praeent 
m mm. k ii made by adziag therwighly ibc neceeaeiy 




upttticnti Id praduec the derircd eolet end heepioc U 
on en iron pUfee or boeid, in n pele, eo U mey he eeeOj 
kichtod. Or it mny he ptri up in tin e«ae lor the toode. 
Good tebleou fire eho^ hun hrighdy withdtrt eputtmif 
end moke ee liitU ea poetihle, h ehould teke fi^ mely 
but oerer he tieMe to tponlnAeoui eomhuAioiL Lilhi^ 
frephed eeoe aey be ee contemere* dceicnedi^ by 
^err color the color ol the fire they eontein end with 
brief diredheaa printed on theo^ A emel gamcm ^ nnUch 
placed in eech cea leediletee lighting it 



MeteKc eedomy 
Anrimony eelphide 

5 7 

2 2 


utf t chlonle 

Sel eeui 




A fire rocnewKet cheeper then the nhove but bilorior 
in color BUty be made er lollowr; 

Nitrate of Strontie 46 16 16 

Saltpeter 12 4 7 

Sulphw 5 2 2 

Chercoel 4 I H 

Red fum 3 2 

Dextrine ^ 

Tbia ehould not eo* over 7 cente per pound while 
the other formulae coA about ccnta p«r pound. A 
pink Ufhl may aleo be made by eub^dtuciAt Cm* nr 
chalk for Aronda but more ehlocmte of potaek » requbed 
and the emoke ie freater. 


Nitrate of baryta 56 

Oxalate of loda 6 

Sulphur 3 

Red f«m $ 


Niftle of baryta 6 9 4 

□domte ol peteeh 4 3 2 

Red fum 2 

Dex&ine |;j6 

Rae aaw du4l 14 

Sal ammoniac | 

b ^ abere color il ehould be bown b that 
^ne fiemi la veiy poreonoue and a t>*«^Th ^rchiil fhfruld 
bt dad OTCi ^ aooo If k ^ te be han4ad nrirh 


Strontium nitrate 60 10 16 |4 

Potaetium chiorata 20 4 6 4 

Shellac 3 

Red or Kauri fum 12 3 

AepKaltum 3 

Charcoal | 

Dextrine f 

Fine aaw duel 12 

Roiin 1 

Lampblack f 

1/ it ii deeired to make teUeau firea eeore bulky one 
or two parte ol fine aawdu4t may ba to any ol 

the above recipiee wilhoul materially alfeainc the color. 
If the eawduft will not paee freely through the eieve it 
may be added alter the other iogrediente are lilted and 
mixed and rubbed in with the hnn d r 

I have never found anytkitif belter or ni pood ea 
Itea. temelore five only ^ one recipe. 


For tboofeieal or indoor um colored firee ue veir 
OB account of the ekokinc -nek. ther five 
oft -n.. foBmin* miaint. pre . fir. p»oduei,« 

Lnle ratoka wkiek qaickly diMipalaa after fira i. buniad. 


Nitrate ol tfbpada 
PScrie add 



Nbnte ol boyta 
Ricrk add 

picrio add in boiliof 

wats; add Aronda or 

POOR MAN*S JAMES 30N0 Vol ♦ 1 



btfyUi until cM «ad ^ on filter or |fiec« ol elotk 

It •Hould be obeerred tbet m oil rrusinco, tbe fonoolot 
coHTiot be fronoidered oboolute o* the punty end ^enero) 
cKoro^tcriftiee of cKemicoU differ eo much thol oB tniv* 
ttfi muA be tested end refuUted to tbe ceo< 

ditiont oi motenek. elimote etc. U tobktu fire hmos too 
•lowly more potaii; or cool «hould be added if too foA. 
more Urontio, baryta etc. In rocket* candle or geib eem> 
poaioone* laUpetor or reeal powder will inaeaee dve com** 
buAion wbile coal and aulpbw WiU retard ft 

tba cap tc pulled off and Anick againA tbo end 
^ the huee it takee fire like a lafty match. With 
eompoeilioa* it ia neceeaary to have a little starting fire 
at top of torch juA under the eappin|E or ptunievg under 
eke cep which will culfice to cauae eaiy ignition. (Fig. 13) 


Theaa may be dacified according to the pwpoie foe 
which they are intended. Militery torcKea have but one 
requirameni which ia that they produce the maximum 
lUununation of the deepeA hue of eotof deeired. Aa iheae 
are fully deacribed in apecial worka iaiued by the govern- 
meni and really form no part ol commercial pyroCacbnica 
it will be unnaeeaaary to devote further apace to then 
here Railway lorchea or fuaeea. on tha olKer hand, are 
the cheapeA loim of pink light, aa anything cap^le ol 
allraAing the attenborv of the engineer ia all that ia ra« 
quired. They are uaually fi' diameter and 8* to 12* long 
excluaive ol the handle and burn from 5 to 20 miautea. 
The following coenpoaioona are adaquate: 



Petaaaium percKlorala 


Strontium nitrate 


16 16 




7 4 



2 5 


Fine charcoal 


H 1 

Red gum 






R>taasium perchlorate 


Strontium nitrate 




Red gum 




molAen with ICeroaene before ramming 
Fuaeea are provided with a alip cap which ia oaed 
for ignituif them. Tha end ol the torch ia capped widi 
paper onto which ia painted a mixture of 

Potaaa: chlorate 6 

Antimony aulfid 2 

Glue I 

while the emd of die cap le aiinffarly peinted with a paAa ol^ 
Black oxid ol manganeae fi 

Amorphoua idioaphorua* 10 

Clue 3 


Parade torcbea lor campaign purpoaea, where a cheap 
grade of fire aufioee and where competition urgea the 
mamdeAureta to produce the largeA article at the amall- 
aA pdee* ena of the methoda ia to add S0% ol fina aaw* 
duA to the mixiag. Thia doaa not affaA the burn- 

ing ol tha torch and makaa it look twice ai Large at 
pea Aic e By no extra ceA. The flowing ia a good formula: 


Nitrate Arontia, 3D 

PotMi; chlorate 8 

Red gum 7 

Saw^uA may be added ad libitum* The torchaa are 
uaually K* diametar and 12* long and ahould burn* with 
die above mixiftg* 8 to 10 mimitaa. 


A very cheap method of ramming thaee lorcKee ia 
to mokto the compomtion with dilute dextrine aoluboo 
until it ia damp enough to hold togetkav when a hand* 
ful ia tighdy aqueesed. A doxeo torch ceaea ate tied in 
a bundle and preaaad into a pile of Aunp compoaition 
on a alab. It k than moved to a dear, part of die alab 
end tolled firmly againA it by lifting the bvindie a few 
inchea and ianiag it downward*. More compoaddon ia 
ahaken in from the top when the jarring la repeeted and 
thk continued until lorchea are full when they are aat 
aaida to dry. By thia manner a doxen torchaa may be 
rammed in one minute. The handlea may be etUched 
by a Arip of gummed paper 2 inchea wide, hall of which 
encnclaa the torch and tha other, the end ol the torch 
handle. Tha other end of torch ia noted and matched 
in the regular way, (Tig. M). 

Fij.lff tatk. 




A better oi mmsiinf torcKei » m {oBowe^ 

Tie the caeee la btui^Aee of 12. F’lece on resunittc 
block etMl iniert ipotit ol lenne! (Pif* 15). into one oi 
ihenv Then peie « •uiteble ro4 through it until it nii 
on block ebo. NoWt with e ecoop* fill the Kiood with 

eampoatioa en^ teedyinc eeme with ike left Kend. freep 
the tod firmly with the n|kt end reiehs it ebout eix 
inckee. drive it witli t firm ftroke up end down ee the 
eompoeiHon rune into the eeee Continue ihie opereiion 
until ctee ie filled. When funnel ie removed the epece 
occupied by the epout will eerve for ineerting the K^dle 
which ie done by epplylng to it e* little pjm or gbie. 


ThMe pretent the mo^ exedtsng roquireTnentt eivd 
the following formulee ere the reeult of mere (hea 30 
yeen of oipenmenhng during which tome exceplJoael 
mixinge heve been developed et wdl at tome mo4t beouli* 
ful colore which, in modified form* mey be ueed for box 
in ihelle etc 

Cemivel Permde Torches muA be of deep color, give 
meximum illuxninetion, bum wlovdy end cleea, not be 
probibitive in coA end give oS ee little eraeke ee poMibie. 
They ehould bum not leee then 1 5 minutee with e length 
of ebout 16* exclueive of handle end • rfiemetcr oF 

The Aendard Formula of 40 yeare ego wne; for 


NitreCo ftrontie 16 

Poteee: thlonilo 6 

Shettec, ) 

however, thie httme eonwwhet firoely ead U rilher eat* 
peneive. A better cnixinf iei 

Nitrate Aronde 14 

Poteai: chlorelo 4 

Crond eepheltum gum 3 

5ttoatium nilrele 
Poteeetum chlorete 
Red moe. 




Thie will bum 1 7 mintitee hi en 16* loecK. The letedi 
formula, giving exceptionel reeulte ie: 

Strontium nitrate 9 

Polaaeium percMorato 2 

Sulphur, ground 2 

Red gum 1 

Thie givae a fine color, buitte clean end (e inaxpeniiva. 


Baritun chlorete 5 

Berium nittate 40 30 4 

Potaeeiiaa chlorate 1 1 

PetaeeiuB perchlorate 6 

*\LD. pm 6 2 

Sulphtv. ground 3 

Se) ammoniae I 

Sh^c 1 

Calomel 2 

*K. D. end Red gum are eupplied by New York 
dealere in pyroteclmieel euppUee. 


Potaeeium per chlorete 5 24 24 

Perie green 2 

Copper-ammonium autphalo 6 

Copper •ammonium chloride 6 

Dextrine t 

Caloenel \ 

Sugar of milk 2 

Sulphur 9 

Staarine 2 

Aephakum I 


Strontium nittale 7 

Poteceium perchlorate 9 

Black oxid of copper 6 

Calomel 5 

Sulphur 5 



Strontium nitrate 





Sodium S 

ShollM 5 

Sulphur 3 

PoUjAium p«rcKlor»t« U> 

The 1a^ (wo lorcKe* are oxeeplionftUy b^utiM ukL 
h»ve been uied very in ennivel peredee. Gteet 

cere muit be obeerved in miiitiff compounds conuimag 
•odium oxelele, that etl the infredienu ere perfe^ly diy» 
end it ie berft in e damp dimate. to ndz only on e drer 
dey. for the reeion that the IcUt moiAure is baUe lo 
cauje the oxelete to decompose formini sodium nitrate 
or chloride which is Aill more deliquescent then the oxalate 
end the work is soon so wet that it will net bum. Even 
when miied in dry weakhtr it iheuld be preteded Irom 
dampness by parahned wrappinge or edi«wisa> 

In cutting the pcp«r for • IJ mintita pancU (oick 
K <Luneter mnd \V long cut 35 to 40 fc. Knk p.per 
•0 It wn roU with Iho gram I8‘ in length and eetoM 
the grain MK*. ThU will giv« {ew comply lume and 
uuaa more legulv huming. PaAiiig th« otMr ed<« lor 
3 or 4 inehei will be sufident 

Capping and Matching Parade Tarch«. 

A good method of doing diii ie as foOowe: 

Cot iome cotton cloth into pieces about 2 iachoi square. 
Cover them with pelle and bend dwm securelr over the 
lopi of the torches ae ehown in eketch (Rg. I6e). Wherf 
they have dried punch a hoU about I inch deep through 
the doth and mto the top of tordu with an awl about 
H diemeter, into which iniert the match. Then make 

FW. t«a. 

up lome thin priraini of gunpowder, gum water and a 
tittle alcohol. Place this in a squirt oil can with a Urge 
opening in iti spout and. shaking frequently to prevent 
it irom separatinff. press out a drop or two at the poiot 
where the match enters top of tordu If this is propedy 
done it will sectno the match in place and cause the 
torch to ignite freely. 


This beautiful ploco of pyrotaehny was krdt introduend 
in parades by the author, with sensadonal rasultag about 
35 years ago. A row of 12 men was placed at die 
head of the tine of march and with these all buming 

alununum torches simultaneously thac was produced the 
edeeft of an oncoming avalanche of lire. For this tordr 
a case H* diameter and 16^ long ii used with a round 
wooden handls & long. They are rammed and matched 
much aa other parade torchei and a good fomula is: 

Potassium perchlorate 13 

Fine aluminum powder 6 

Hake alumiaum 5 

Dextrine or Ucopodium I 

A beuudful modification of this is the 


These should be V diameter IS' long and of the 

following composition 

Strontium nittate 3S 

Potassium perchlorate 7 

Shellac 4 

Coarse Sake aluminum 4 

Lyeopodham 1 

another formula ii: 

Strontium lulrata 13 

Sulphur } 

Mixed aluminum 3 

Before ramming, this formula should be moieteaed with 
a solution of I part ah^lac in 16 parta of alcohol and 
one pert of thia aolutioB usod to every 36 parte of coni' 
position. As this mixture is somewhat dificult lo Ignite 
it ie aeceseery to acoop out a httie from the top of torch 
and replsco it with starting tao aa ahown in CF^g. IT). 



Saltpotsr 6 

Sulphw flower 4 

Ftae charcoal 1 

Aa aUuninum torch of heretofore unheard of briOianee 
and giving aa illuminadeiv in the I inch dianMter dxe. 
of what ie said to be 100,000 candle powee ie made as 

B4rium mttate 36 

Mixed ahnninam 9 

Suli^ur 2 

VmediiM I 

Rub the vaselific into the barium nitrate; mix sulphur 
and aluminum aeparately; then mix with barium nktaie 




anJ vaaeline. A &re fov tKia ako ta raquvcd. 

at foUowt: 

Banum nltrale 4 

Saltpetcf 3 

Sulphur 1 

Shellac 1 


Theae are amall icrchea H* 4iatne<ef 12* long, uacd 
in exhibUiona for LgKeing other piecea of £reworka» They 
are i’4mme<i with rod and Kmnel nod a good Ruxi&g ia: 

Meel powder 1 

Sulpdmr 2 4 

Seltpetcff 5 S 

CKarco*! I 

Ship Lights and D is tre ss Signals. 

Another lorm ol torch ia thm BangoU or Blue 
uaed moaly by ahipa in aigaaling for pilota. TTvey rrtrwia 
of a aout paper caaa IH* in diameter end 4* long* 3* 
nf which ia cotnpoaidon and H* elay at bottom: the 
balance being the aockel into which the handle la firta^ 
(Fig. id). They akould be mnuned guite hardi the 

ahould ba of good Along paper aecured wound tha match 
with twine and the match ahould be piped where il 
peaeea through the noeing. The hniahed light iho«dd 
then be painted with melted parahae ao aa to proteA it 
againA the dampncaa of the aea air. l\ii ia an avarage 

Saltpeter 12 

Sulphur 2 

Antimony auldd t 

DiAreta aignala are the aama escapt that they bum 
red. The regulation Life Beat equipment coMiAr o< 6 
or 12 encloaed n a water tight ce^er caa. The follow* 
ing formule ia ruitable 

Potaaa: cblorata 5 

Strondum carbonate IH 

Shellac I 

Dextrine H 


Tbeae are little ligKu 1^* diameter and 6* long made 

by rolling a light case aa foi lancea. Cut tha paper 2* 
X 6^. the 6* way running with the giain of the paper. 
One end should be closed aa for lances. Bunch about 
2CK) into a bundle with ttiing, all the open ends being 
uppermoA when the bundle la Aood on end. Now make 
the following eotnpoaitioA: 

Saltpeter $ 

Sulphur 2 

Antimony aulhd I 

When thoroughly mbtad it on a large sheet of 

Areng paper previouaty spread on a him table. Set lha 
bundle of hhie light caeca alongaide of lha cemporiiion 
on the paper, with the open enda up and pour a hand* 
ful of compoaidon on lop of them. Shake the bundle so 
aa to make compoaidon fall into the cases aa ranch aa 
poakble and repeat acven] dmea. Now with both hands 
tmiee the bunefle of partly fitted lighti and bring it down 
on the table with a good blew. Repeat thia aevetal 
dmea and ihen again tha firA operxdon of hlUng ihem 
end potmchftg 'dxcm on the table toidl all are wall fillad 
whaa tha mA tnay ba tucked in with a dull awl 


These are probably ihe moA popukr piece of fire, 
works made, from a sales point of yiew. Up to soma 
years ago they were made endraly by hand, that is, one 
at a timo Hien a combination rammer taking a dozen 
at a dme was devised. And later the Candle Machine 
which handles six dotei> was perfeAad To make roman 
enndlea by band. reD the cases ai deacribed and hava 
a lot of Aare of diferent colora ready. Then make some 
caodla compoeitioa aa follows: 


Powdarsd saltpeter 16 Ihs. 

Fine powdered charcoal 1 1 * 

Flowers of sulphur 6 ** 

Dextrine I 

Water 1 gallon 

Afto all tha ingredienta are well mixed and eifted 
three liiDca add the water and mix again until the whole 
let ie evenly daoapened. Then force through a 16 moah 
oeve into cloth bottomed Iraya and dry in the sun. 

r»> Il 




Now provide e runming out£| ahowa in (Fig. 1 9) 
eontiAinf el e pin block (b), 4 rammer (4). 4 compoai^ 
boa icoop (c}» e cUy icoop (d) end e gunpowder acoop 
(c}. The verioue peite muA. of coaree, be proportioned 
to the cixe of eandle il ia intended to make. Say you 
will begin with an 6 baU. The pin of pin block muA 

be H* diameter. The rammer, aligbdy amaller ao iC can 
pact enaily up and down the candle caae which abo ta 
HV Tke clay icoop akould hold a level leaapoon full 
o( glgpi the eonpoaibon acoo|K n Wping deoamt apoon- 
ful; and the gunpowder icoop ahould be diamaaer 
and K* deep. It may be made from a cal n6a ahA 
if deiired. 

Now. place an empty caae on the pin; pour in a 
acoop of clay and ram it firmly with a light maket 
Remove rammer; pour in a acoop of gunpowder on top 
of which drop a ^ar and Urtly. a acoop of candle coni' 
poaiiion. Ram with about aix blowa of a light mallei. 
Remove rammer and potir in another acoop of gunpowder: 
another Aar and another acoop of candle compoaition, 
repeating thia until care ia filled to within 2* of the top. 
Remove candle and finiah aa dcacribed under iKat head. 

Hand Combination Candle Rammer. 

Thit conaiAa of an iron pin plate (e). funnel plate, 
iron (IX A wooden guide hoard (d)» three wooden ihifp 
big hcgfde. vig: clay hoard (c). Aar board (b), and com- 
poekaoa beaed (a) aa w^ aa a gun^wder box (Fig. 23 
and 24) and rammeg (g). Ibe conArudbon of ahifdng 
bovda can be readily undmAood from dglail aketch (Rg. 
2lX Tbe pine abown in uppee platea ihould be under' 
Apod aa being ia lower platee. Otheewiie alota would 
become clogged with compoaition while in uae. 

The hole# in upper board are of a me to contain 
juA rufteient compocition clay et& for one charge (A). 
Ibia board alidae a diAaaca of about H* controlled by 
pin (CO). When upper board ia puahed back the holea 
are klled and whan ready lo diacharga it ia drawn for* 
ward ao the holea are in line with the holea in lower 
fued board when the coalenia falla through funael into 
^**>dle being rpmiaod. (B). The gunpowder box U deecrih 
^ undar **Candla Ramming Machina* lo it ii unneceaaary 
to repeat ill conAruAion. k ia of eoune amaller chan 
the oat foe large nmehiae and made of aize to correapend 
to pin plate etc Rnally there ia the rammer (Fig. 21). 
(g) conaiAkig of eight Aeel loda with eompreaaion apringa 
fitted through a wooden handle bar aa, abown. whh d^ 
tail of whole at di). 

Thia apparatui ia uaed for raKunit^ oae to four ball 
eandlea end can alao be uaed for eerpenta and aauciaaona. 

Place pin plate on aome aohd wood block or coneretr 
bale; place 'guidi board ever pini 10 that the holea tn- 
circle iba pina fairly; aKp a candle caia on each pin; 
place luanal plate oa lop of aaaomhly and raiae guide 
board ao aj lo uke caaea center nicely. 

Now. Idl clay board, compocition board and Aar board. 




R*e« dty boAtd over funoel plete «o KoW ere an line 
end ihiK tapping lightly ao thet ell dey feBa out tKrougK 
funnel plele end into candle** With remmev give 10 to 
15 strong hlowa through eeeh row ol holea. Put on gun- 
powder boi and drew plate until e charge enttre cencDe*. 
Then teke lUi hoerl piece ea wet done with clay bevd 
end ihifL See thar all tftara have entered candlea and 
put on compoaition board. When thia hea been diacKeig- 
ed give about 6 to 10 hlowa with the remmer, not quite 
as hard aa for the clay. Now give another el^arge of 
gunpowder, another board of Aan and e aeeond charga 
of candle composition (if more than I ball candlea) and 
repeat until deaired number of Aara have been uaed. 


The ramoking machine herewith iOuAraled wae de> 
cigned pi Cincinnati end ii uaed priatlpe&y for nraMAg 
roman candlea from b bell to 30 ball but up to three 
ounce rocketa may be rammed aoUd with it end iho 
hollow center of rocket made by driving a apindle into 
it a/terwardi aa will be explained later. Flower pota 
may alao be rammed with thia machine and the writer 
haa adapted it to making 3* cannon crackete at the rate 
of 72 at a time. However, aeveral acta of raramere of 
different lenglha and thickoeaa ere required for the diBer- 
enl aizea of candlea. 

The freme ia of caA iron about 7 feat high: the up* 

right aidea are IK* thick with a V edge on inner aide# 
upon which the head block (A) alidea. The rammer ai^ 
acmbly ia faAened to head block by Aud boUa The 
guide board (C) ia made of M* lumber and aervea to 
keep the remmera properly in line. Thia board ia looae 
enough to alip up and down on the rainmera while 
machine ia in uae. The pin plate (D) reAa on bate of 
machine and ia slid into piece from (n front and retained 
by abort Aopa in the rear. Several of iheae platea alao 
are required, correaponding with the rammer aaaembliM 
aa above. The pawl (£} Kolda the rammen up while 
the atliclea to be rarruned are arranged below. When 
all ia in place and the fait charge of clay (in the caie 
of roman candlea) ia in the caiea an attendent pulla the 
rope attached to head block, which aervee to diaengage 
the pawl. The rammera are now lowered alowly undl 
they enter the funnel plate. The rope ii relcaaed and 
aa the rammer head falU it rama the clay in the boRom 
of the caiea. From 5 to 15 blows are uaually required 
to ram each charge. 

If compoeitioB becomes ao dry that it will not peck 
firmly it should be dampened with a very little water. 
The Aare should he hard end dry end free from Aar 
duA which can be aafted out by shaking Aata in a coarse 
sieve. The floor of ramming room also should be kept 
free from all accumulated composition etc. to guard a- 
gainA aeeidenie from friAicm of the shoos or otherwise 

It should here be noted thst when cutting the paper 
for machine rammed romen cendlee, a thin V shaped 
dip should be cut from one end (a) of a sheet at aide 
nearsA the operator when being rolled. The objedt of 
this is to form a aomewhet funnel ahapped end to ease 
which materially saaiAa its easy ramming. This end 
muA. of course, be uppermoA when case is in machine, 
(a, b) (Fig. 16). 

Tbe fuand plate is made of caA iron one inch thick 
and the other dimeMiona being the same aa head of 
rammer aetembly, It is drilled with 72 holes ni 6 rows 
of 12 eech corrMponding with the inside of the diemeler 
of the candles to be rammed and spaced same aa the 
rods in rammer head. Theie holes ere countmsunk on 

upper side of plate, to a depdv of one third thickness 
of plate so ea to give them the shape of e funnel while 
the under aide ie counter bored somewhat larger then 
the outside of the candlea to be rammed, which slip in- 
to these receosee and thus are held in place while machine 
ta being operated. 




Thif funnel plate ia lupported In the ramming machine 
by an adiuAable frame attached to aidea of macKtae. 
which peimita it to be moved up and down at required 
to fit the varioue lengtha of caaea to be rammed. Thu 
frame ie not ^own in drawing of machine 


The powder bom (Fig. 23 Ac 24) la made of braaa 
3116* thick and it$ conAruetion will be readily underwood 
from ikeuh. The boHom conrieta of three braaa. plalca. 
each h* thick* dulled with 3/16* holea apeccd at aame 
distance aa there in funnel plate. The holea in upper 
and middle platea are 11* nearer the rear of the bom than 
the holer in the bottom plate. The upper and lower 
platea are fixed but the middle plate movee forward and 
backward M*. When it ia purhed back the holea ia it 
and the (op plate are in line, ro when the box ia charged 
with rifle powder, the holea in middle plate become filled. 
When the center plate ir drawn forward the hole* in it 
and theae in the bottom plate come, into line and tho 
little powder charge in each hole falli out into tho roman 
candle below it C^etail at (Fig. 24) (b). 


Fig 2a 

To facilitate the ure of thie box it ie placed on the 
adjuitable Aand (Fig. 25) whereon it can be raired to 
the deriied height foi the work in hand. ThU Aand la 
made of light lumber and preferably on rolleta ao it may 
be moved into porition and out of the way. ar deaved 
between charger. 

The ihifting boavda follow the nme principle ar 
iHurt rated in hand ramming machine relative to errangf » 
ment of holer etc. hut arc of a rise to fit other part* 
of big machine. Boardr of different (Idckntea muA be 
provided ro ai to hold the required amount of compo* 
•ilion for the different eizea of candle* rammed. The h^a 
in Aar board rhould be alighdy larger then the Aata ao 
ar to permit them to faU through eaaily when in uae. 
The Aara for roman candlea ahould be aomewhat longer 
then their diameter aa tbir maker them eaaier to faU in* 
to place when filling a ahift board 

To fill there boarda, a aeoop of compecition or a 
handful pf Aar* ia thrown on top of it; the board ia 
ahaken until the hole* are evenly filled and the aurplua 
allowed to elide od into the compoaidon or Aar tray. By 
using boy a to keep the extra pin platea and ahifdng 
board* filled a* quickly aa needed* and other* to remove 
the loaded candlea. a voy large number of thero cao bo 
loaded in a day, by one mfiehina. A pin plate of candle 
caaee ia alipped on to the bate of the machines the funnel 
plate ie lowered on top of it; the guide board ie taieod. 
cauaing the ende of caeea to enter the Funnel plate which 
ia faAened in place by eet acrewa or thumb bolte on 
aide* of frame. The rammer head i* allowed to deeend 
luftciendy to eoe that all ie clear. It ia drawn back up 
into place and a ehifeing board of clay flipped over and 
ha content* diacharg ed irvto the candlea. a alight jar be- 
ing given to aaaure all hole* of having emptied. The 
rammm head ie now dropped aome 10 or 12 dmee to 
eet tho clay* and withdrawn to ita original poaidon. The 
powder box ia now elid acroaa funnel board and by pull* 
mg handle of center plate a charge of gunpowder enlert 
the candlea. After removing powder box a board of Aar* 
ia ahifted into the funnel pUte. Care muA now be uaed 
to eee that all Aar* have alipped through funnel plate 
inte candle* Now a board of compoeition ia dbeharged 
tho aame way and the wholo rammod with about 6 to 
10 blow#. TKia operation ia repeated aa often ai the aiae 
ol candle requirea. When laA charge of compeaition haa 
been rammed the plate of candlea ia removed. un« 
loaded and refilled with empty ceaea while another pin 
plate of empty caiei haa been alipped Into iu piece in 


A very efiedtive piece of firewotka (Fig. 26) eiaily 


made by taking a wood box about two Inche* longer 
than the candlea to be uaed and filling it with about 
three doxaa S ball or 10 ball roman candle*. The apace 
above the candlea in the box ia to be filled with a few 
aermpe of match, one piece allowed to hang over (he aide 
and a piece of cardboard nailed over for a top. 


Theae are an affedtlve combination of candlea and 
floral •KclU packed hi a large box aa ^own in (Rg. 27). 





All uc lifKeeil «t once by acnp* of iiutcb ui tbo top, 
hxii th« Aorol •hdli an matehod lo aa to fifO 1110111 itrij. 
one at a time ai ikown. durinf lk« burning of ika 

Another intereAing uaa for roman can dice ia in dia 
80 called union battery 26 ) which conaUtod ongiAaUy 

of one batteiy eaeh of eandUe eonteiniaf white, red and 
blue etere. It ii however, now uaed effe«£hv«ly with candlaa 
of varigaled Aari. 


Fireworki diaplaje axe often Verted with a row of 
vari^coiored light* or bengoUa act about 2) feet apert n 
front of the ael piece*. When ihetc are euppocted by a 
fan of candle* or gerb* a very ctfedtive diapUy ia pro- 
duced. The bengola* are lighted hrA and when dwy 
have burned half way. the candlea or gerba are lighted. 

(Hr 29) 


Next to roman candle*, there are perhap* the moA 
popular article of the pyrotechnicjJ craft and on good 
authority, teem to have antedated the candle. So much 
haa been wrillen about *ky rocket* that any general 
deecjiption would be auperBuoua. The French, m imrtia* 
ular. have kft a moA detailed KiAory. eemetiiBea avraiuii 
in view of preaent day condidoni, regarding it* maoiH 

to eay that the rocket of n tube of 

paper, rammed with *ui table compoaitioni ila lower end 

choked to about one third the diameter of it* bore and 
a hollow center extending upward though the compoai* 
don to about inch of the top. A Aick attached to 
the tube lerrea to balance it while eacending. Broadly 
the compoaidon of a rocket* that U the portion of it 
which bum* while It U aBcanding, should be aeven bme* 
its diameter, in length. Six sevenths is pierced through 
the cttter while one seventh ia solid and adt* a* tha 
fuse to communicate the fire to the heading when rocktft 
reaches the higheA point of ita ftght The tube ia made 
of good Arong paper, preferably three turn* of hardware 
on the inside with four or more turns of good Araw* 
board on the outside, but a good rocket casa can ba 
made of heavy rag or building paper if properly rotted 
with good paAe. Choking the case and ramniag in mold 
baa been praAieally diacontinuad. 

An average m od el for a I lb. rocket is given in 
(Fig. 30) with a cotteeponding ael of ranming tools in 
(Fig. 31). The spiiidie i* one half aAua) sue while rlic 
lamming tools are one third aAual sue. 

Good rockets should be uniform, all those of one 
caliber ascending to approximately the same height and 




explo^rif al about the tame time. Particularly ia (hia 
dc^rabie in bouqueU or flighta ol 100 ov more &eti aimut' 

laneously,. eUe a draggling ia produced 



Motf) rockcta larger that 3 ei> are rammed aingly or 
by gang rammera aa ahown m aketch (Fig. 32) W ky* 
draulic rammeta are alao in uae. See Military Pyrotech' 
nice, H. B. FabcTi Vol. 2 pp. 39. 

Tha gang rammer ia Quite e&eiant and one man can 

out a targe number of recketa ta a day with il. A 
ahowa the apindle block: B ia tha guide boa^ for aaaiA* 
iflf to get the enda of eaaea into funnel piece C D 
ahowa a ael of rammera while £ la the aet of acoopa 
for charging the entire aix eaaea at once. It ia eaaily 
made by cuRing brtaa ahotgun ahelli in half and eoldei* 
ing them to biaaa rod aa ahown. DeCaila of fuon^ piece 
and hollow pia raasner uaed in a^ti&g top etay c^rge 
aio ibown at F and G reapcdtiv^. 

1 os. to 3 Of. rock eta are rammed aolid on ^ ca&^ 
machino ot otbarwiae and (he hollow center ie made by 
^riag a Aael apindU into them afterwards Tbeae muA 
have their lower enda choked aa explained on page 41. 
An eAcient way of doing thia b to get a mortuing 
machine and replace the chiael with the apin^ aa abovs 
A V ahapad block ia ael on table of maelune. in aucK 

a poaitioQ that when a rocket ia placed on il» it will be 
in juA the right poaitson for the apindle to enter H. A 
Aep on (be pedal of mortidng machine will force tha 
apindle into the rocket and make the neceuaiy hollow 

To ram rocketa from 4 to ^ oz. aingly the caaa ia 
clipped on the apindle illuArated under aky rocketa; a acoop 
of day ia ahaken in and rammed by about eight good 
Uowa of the mallet on the tongcA rammer. Then a acoop- 
lul of compoaition ia rammed with about eight lighter 
blows This ia repealed undl the caae ia filled to within 
about t ioch of the top. drifting rammera ea it becomea 
peaaible to uae ahorter ones Now the final charge of 
day ia put in and the hollow pin rammer uaed. Thie 
aeta tha day wKila laaving an opaning for the fire to 
reach the heading. Cam mu4t be taken to aae (hat the 
hollow tube juA piereee tbe day. If it doaa not go 
ihreugK. the heading will fail to fire; if it goee through 
loo far. heeding will fire prematwdy or rocket ii liable 
to blow through before ridng. 

Tbe foQowmg are good oompoaitiona for rocketa of 
didaetol aixae: 

1 to 3 os. 4 to d ox. I to 3 lb. 4 to fi lb. 
Sallprtar Ifi 16 16 16 

Mixed coal ID 9 12 12 

SdpKur 3 4 3 3 

U rocketa burA add more coel if they aaeend too ilewly 
add mere Millpftcc. For tha amaller aiiea uae fine coal 
for tbe larger eaee uae ooaraer cod is proportion to their 
diameters 4 !b. to 6 lb. rocketa uae granulated aaltpeter. 

AH rocketa largcf then 3 os ere provided with e 
ceae to eonttin tbe beading. TheM are made aa foUowai 


Tun out a cone former on the laths of a ahape 
aomewKal aa ahown in Fig. 33. Cut some Aiff paper 
to Ae ahape of one third ol e circle, the radiua of which 
for a 1 lb rocket ehould be 3 inches. I^y it on the 
table bdere you with die round aide toward the right 

Fj 09 

P»Ao the Araigbt edge farthcA from you end place ihe 
formm oo it with the point toward the left and about 
ft* bom the point on the paper where the two Araight 
edgee tneel Now roll il around the former commencing 
with the unpaAed edge When fiaiahed clip aft fmroer 
to dry. 





Prepare & with hole* through it about tK* in 

^mcter and raUed from the table about 3* at ahown 
ia Fig. 34. Place in theie hole* a r\ umber of the com*. 
point down, and fill them about half full of Aar*, gold 
rain etc. Al*o a little meal powder and charcoal or candle 
compoeidon. Apply gum to the upper edge of a rocket 

and Aick it into one of tKeie corvee. Raiae car^uUy out 
of the bole and preaa cone evenljr la place. The rocket 
rrvay now be wired to Aick end U reedy for uaa. In 
the caee of ehell good* the toekete are of co«m papered 
aad matched befote attaoUag co&oa 


ThcM are the eemc ae long Aicka esc^ that g Akk 
only H the regular lervglh ie ueed, oit the bottom of which 
a wing or tab of cardboard ie aiucKed (Fig, 35eJ. Cut 
a piece eboui V long. \H* wide ai one end end H* 
m the ochae. Smear a Utile deatnae on one end 


of Aick. place the tab on it* large cod dpwn and drive 
e 2 oz. teck through it in the ndddla When <hy it ie 
reedy for uea Theee rocket* are bbucK eaeter to carry 
ebottt but require more cere la bring to gA them Aeited 

The one illuArated et right (Fg> 35*) hae no Aick 
at ail. only four winge. upon the eivde of which it rcAe 
when lighted. 

When the bottom* of breee rammeea become wora 
from uie» they may be recondiKionad by baltenag them 
uadi they are again full eiied on the end*. 

There are a great many of eo called fancy rocket* 
in which the hcadmg ie net cenfinad to e eimple burA 

of Aar* etc. but ie eupplexnented by many other beeuri- 
ful cdeAe, eome of which will be deecribed here while 
the ingenoity of the pyiotechniA muA be relied on for 


Theee arc made by filling a large reckA head with 
precee of Japaaeee Star and e weak butAing charge. If 
the burAiag ie too Arong many piece* will fail to light 

Prize CoinetiCr or Shooting Star Rockets. 

Theee are peepared by placing 4 or 5 four ounce 
rockete. without Aick*. in the head of 6* lb. rockA be. 
eidee a handful of boz Aar*. A few It I Aar* are elea 
placed in the top of each of the 4 oz. rockete with a 
pinch of grain powder^ and well capped. 


For theee the rockA head ie filled half iuU each of 
geld rain and aluminum Acre. The weight of the con- 
tent* of a rocket head muA be proportioned to the eiie 
of the rocket A heading of heavy Aar* muA be emaller 
than one of Hghter materiel*. 


Have one or more emill marpone in the head b^ 
tide* a few Aai*. 


Made by filling a amall head with eleAric ipreeder 
or granite Aer*. Ae theee are very heavy only a imell 
quantity can be ueed 


Theee have a email eheO with very ehoit fuee faA- 
ened to top of rocket^ with e few Aer* in the head of 
the rocket iteelf. which bom before the ihell burAe. 


The bead cf thU rocket ie filled with whiAlae, made 
a* deecribed under that capdon. In additien, a few 
colofod Aon at# added. 


Theee are one of the moA beautiful pyrotecKnical 
effeAe known to the art Take a 3 )b. rocket and fill 
the ep*9e above the clay with- grain powder. Cover ihl* 
with a circular pitcc of perforated paper eecured by a 




^rip of tUiue paper. Roll on a heod of about three tuma 
of strong manilla paper, only patfted on the edge, about 
6* long. Now procure aome Atckt of phoaphonit and 
cut them under water with a chieel into piecea about K* 
long. Get aome H lb. tin cana, punch a number of holea 
in the bottoma of them and fill with the piecea of phoa- 
phorua, conducting the entire operation under water. When 
ready to fire the rocketa remove one of the cana from 
the water, allow to drain for a few aeeonda, empty con- 
tenta into one of the rocket heada tuck in and fire at 
once. Great caution muit ba obaerved owing to the dan- 
geroua nature of the phoaphorua. 


To aucceaafully launch a parachute from a ahell or 
rocket requires the greatest care and skill, besides padent 
attention to every detail or the light fabric will either fail 
to unfold or be torn or burned in its erut from the tube 
in which it is placed. To begin with procure aome very 
light Japanese tissue paper, cut into apuarea about 18 
inches each way and rub thoroughly with powdered aoaj^ 
Aone.* Cut four piecea of ^out linen twine or shoe* 
makers thread about 16' long. Twi4l the comers of the 
tissue squares a little and de a thread to each. Draw 
the other four ends of threads together and de (hem in 
a knot The parachute is now ready to fold. In one 
hand take the knot where the four brings meet and in 
the other take the top of the parachute by the center. 
Draw the hands apart undl the paper folds together end 
lay on the table in front of you. Straighten out the four 
folds, two each way, and fold them again laterally toward 

"Ready made parachutes may now be purchased from Aocki 
the center about five or six times like the bellows of an 
accordeon undl the pile is about I inch wide. Now roll 
this up lightly beginning at the imall end or tip until 
you come to the Aringa, then wiijd the four brings, also 
lightly, around the bundled parachute until it will iuit 
about fit the rocket head for which it is intended. 

For making the light ram a short case diameter 
and P long with box Star corApoaidon. Prime one end 
and Stop the other with clay. Over clayed end glue a 
cardboard disc slightly smaller than iruide diameter of 
rocket head, having firSt pasted a wire through the case 
under the disc so as to form a loop on exposed size as 
shown. (Fig. 35). Pass about 18 inches of Stout Unen 

twine through the wire loop and de the other end to 

the knot on the parachute where the four Strings come 
together. Roll a ^ece of naked match about 1 8* long, 
into a bunch and place it in the bottom of the rocket 
head for a blowing charge. On top of this drop the 
primed end of the parachute light and over it place a 
small wad of cotton waste and a little cotton hulls or 
bran. Now slip in the parachute around which the Strings 
have been lightly wound. Fill all around parachute with 
bran and secure the top of rocket head very lightly so 
the parachute will be thrown out when discharged, with 
the least poasible effort. 

CHAIN ROCKETS, (Caterpilars). 

If you have succeeded with parachute rockets you 
may now attempt this modificadon of the above which 
is infinitely more difficult but dieir great beauty compeo^ 
sates for (he (rouble required in their preparadon. A para- 
chute several times larger than the firSt described is mada 
in subSlantially the same manner but pteferaUy oSlagonal 
with the separate pieces sewed together. Instead of one 
light, a dozen or so of different colored lights are attached 
to it. This is called the chain and to launch it success- 
fully from either rocket or shell is about as difficult a 
proposition as the pyrotechniA is called upon to execute. 

For the lights composing the chain ordinary lances 
may be used. To a 4 Ib. rocket take 12. Procure a 
Arong linen twine about 16 feet long. To this attach 
the lances at intervals of abput IK feet, by taking two 
half hitches around the bottom ends. (It is beSt to make 
special lances for this purpose, filling the firA H inch at 
the bottoms with clay). When sU are faAened, tie one 
end of chain to parachute and at the other begin to wind 
up the slack between the lances. Wind each lance with 
the slack between it and the next one to it, winding as 
smoothly as possible without lapping the twine anywhere. 
As each one is wound lay it againA the other one before 
it until the 12 are in a round bundle. Then take a few 
turns around the entire bunch on upper end, so as to 
hold it together. At the bottom end of bunch take two 
turns of light cord not more than K inch from the en^ 
This is to hold the lot together until the lights all take 
fire when this cord bums off and chain unwic^ds in the 
air. A cardboard wad fitting easily in the rocket head 
ai>d with a hole through its center is placed on top of 
the primed ends of the bunch of lances and a piece of 
match passed through the hole in same so as to touch 
them. Tlus may be faAened in place with a small tack 
or two. 

Now pcepwe dte rocket heed for the recepdon of the 
chein. u diretfted for peiechute rockets, by idedog shout 
2 feet of neked metch in bottom of heed for the blow- 
ing cherge. Slip die bunch of lencee on top of this with 




aaolW pAp«r d»c. ikrougk which Ua# nuw, over il. Put 
in t good wed of colloa waAe. then the parachute cere^ 
fully folded aa deaenhed end peck with bten. Now cap 
the rocket head a* lightly aa poaaibte end il eU direCtioM 
have been carefully followed, the chain will be likely to 
come out aucceailotty. A few triela. however, are gen^ 
eially necetaary. Somedmea fottr light Iticka eie inaerted 
in rocket head elongaide of the pencKutc the Iowa enda 
re^ng on e ttout wed under the bunch of lancee 
the other enda ageinA top diac over parachute. Tbia ie 
to keep parachute from being injiired while being expelled 
by blowing charge. 


TKeae are made by firing a Kuadred or more rockete 
at once from a apecially prepared box. Taka three boarda 
of lumber. 12” wide and 4 feet long; clamp two of 
them together amd with a bit bote 5 rowe of hole* 
2 inchea apart and begianing 2 inchea from dte aidea 

and enda. Thia will make 100 holea through the boarda 
(B). Now make a box. tha bottom of which ia made of 
ono of tha boarda with hotaa through it aa ahovna in 
(Fig. 36). (A). Attach four lega to the bos» about 
feet long. At IH feet from the bottom aoeuro the othei 
board with tha kolca in it, (B) ao that a rocket paaaed 
through a hole in the box bottom may be Acadied by 
paaaing through correaponding hole in lower one. Fit the 
tiiird board (C) in the Icgi alao, about 6 inchaa from the 
ground to make a renting place for the rocket Akka and 
ao aa to hold the bottoma of Bte rockela in box. about 
one inch above bottom board (A) of box. Thia ia to 
permit the fire to reach all tho rockgta mAantly when 
flight ia lighted. 

Flight rocketa uaed thia way need not be matched; 
only pnmed and a little looae grain powder thrown on 
bottom, inaide of box and a piece of match paaaed through 
a hole in lide to fire it from U all that ia required, if 

a top. covered with canvaa. ia fitted to flight box. aame 
may aafely be left in the rw until required. Some pyro' 
lechniAa make flighta by Aringing rocketi in a row on 
alati provided with naila to hold them apart but tha offeA 
m much inferior. • 


The bedt method of firing aky rocketa ia from a 
wooden bough conArudted of two light boarda. thick, 

# wide and 6' tong. TKaae are nailed together ao aa to 
fora a gutter and aupporlad by two laga Jf tho boarda 
and laga are hinged aa ahown in Fig. 37 the bou|h 
may ba folded and eaaily carried about 


(Gtys^rs, Whirlwinds. Table Rockets) 

Thia ia a modification of the iky rocket and aacenda 
to a height of about IDO feet, in a iparai manner and 
without a ebek. They are made by ramming a 3 lb. 
rocket caae with one of the following mixturea: 

Saltpeter 6 5 

Meal powder 7 12 

Charcoal 2 3 

Sulphur 2 3 

5te^ filinga 3 

Both enda of the caaa are Aopped bght vrith clay. 
Four Hclaa ara bored in it, H' diameler. Two are bored 
into the bottom, 3* apart oi IH” each way from the center 
and one hole on each aide. 1” from end and oppoeite 
to each other aa ahown in aketch (Fig. 36). A place of 


curved ddck» m long m d^e eaae ia nailed to the bottom of 
caaa concave aide down exaAiy in tha center and at right 




ftDglei with AAme The hel«e ere primed end while ^rill wet 
it ie matched hj tecklng e ple«e ef quick match to one ol 
the bottom holes, pewing it to the neared end hole: then 
over the top to the other end hole end finally to the 
other bottom hole. A small hole la now rimde in jha 
match pipe as It p essea over the top of caae. JiUI in ihe 
canter, into which a ehert piaea of naked ii dtp* 

ped /or lighting. To (ire a leurbUlioa it ahould W 
on a wide board or smooth surface Aick down and 
lighted with a long portfire. 

Small tourbiUians are aometimae made by botiaf only 
two liolea In the under side of case, at an angle of 45* 
/rom the perpendicular, but thoae with four holes, especially 
in the larger sizes are safer and more likely to funCttort. 
They may also be matched by ueing naked all 

around and afterwarda eovesing the whole tourbillion with 
tissue paper paAed and pressed closely to same. Large 
tourbilliona are sometimes further beautified by placing a 
few Aars in the ar^ds of the ease, outside of the clay, 
boring a small hols through ssmo and securing over top 
with Arong paper and a wad. A little meal powder (s 
put in with the Aars and when the tourbillion reaches 
its height, these arc thrown out with fine eficA. 


This amusing piece of fireworks is aesily made in it# 
simpleA form by securing two rockets with their open* 
ings pointing in opposite dIreAiofis, to an empty caae as 
shown in Hg. 39 (a). The roar and of one is connoAad 

by a plaea of match to dis front of the othar. A piece 
of thin rope or telegraph wire ie Stretched betwe e n two 
poAa about 20 feet high and 300 feet epart Orte end 
of wire is previously slipped through the empty case form* 
ing the middle of pigeon. On lighring the firA rocket 
the pigeon will run along the liiw until the other roeket 
lights when it will racun to the Storting point 

A more elaborate form of pigeon (b) is made by 
proctsring a frame as shown. Tltis consisu of a vertical 
wheel frame with a heavy slotted hub. A row of 4 
wheel cases are fastened to the rim and four I lb. rockets 
sre secured to the long slots in hub. two poinling each 
way. The pigeon Aarts with one of the wheel cases, 
the rear end of which is connedtod to one of the rockets. 
This in turn is matched to the second wheel case and 
that to the next rocket, pointing in the opposile dIreAion, 

and ao on to ths laA rocket. 

English Cracker or Grasshopper. 

Cut some good 26 1b. 24* z 36* manilla or kraft paper 
into Aripa 4* wide and 12* long If cut with the grskr. 
of the paper aa it should be this will give 16 cuts from 
one sheet Roll them into shotl tubes as directed foi 
match pipas. getting ths opening at one end. somewhsi 
larger than that at the other. This may be dona by loll- 
ing a V shaped Arip of paper on one end of rod. When 
e quentlty of these tubes have been rolled close the 
smaBcA end by twiAlng or folding it over. Dry them 
In the shade and put about 12 dozen in a bundle, all 
the open ends one way. Stand the bundle on a large 
sheet of paper with the open ends up and pour FTP 
villa powdar on top of it until all the lubes aie full Jolt 
bundle occasionally to be store none are only partly filled. 
Then draw them out, closing the lop end as you did 
dta bottom and wrap them all in a wet towel, setting 
aside In a damp cool place for sevml hours. A good 
way ia to lake a long cloth, wet il well, spread ths loaded 
pipe* loosely on it and roll it up so that each pipe will 
touch part of the wet cloth as they should be moiAaned 
through but net wat before proceeding further. When this 
condition Kaa been reached (on which the whole succtos 
of the operation depends) nin them through a clothes 
wringer or other loUer so that they wnll be somewhat 
(Ultoncd. Tha axaA amount of fiattening can only be 
found by asperinaol. 

Now uke a piece of wood, say I* thick and 4* wida 
by 16* long. Notch out a piece as shown in Rg, 40 
Ih* wide and (f deep snd procure a dozen pieces of 
Atff wire 4» long. Lay the lower ends of a half dozen 
of the damp pipes across the bottom of the notehed 

board which has been fsAened in sa upright position to 
a bench. On top of these and againA one side of the 
board lay a wire and bend |he pipes across over it unbi 
they now point in the oppoiiie dircAion. Lay another 
wire as before but on opposile side and repmt the oper- 
adon until the endre length of the pipes have been folded 
up. Then take a bar of wood sKs^ as shown in sketch 
and, bolding one end in each hand press the folded pipes 
down aa hard as possible so as to have the turns well 
formed. Now lift out the folded bunch, wirea and all. 
Remove wirea. fold bended pipes, one by one in the 




hand and vi^Uh linen Bhocmaheri thread eecuie (hem by 
wrapping half a dozen lums around the folded pipe and 
final^ paia a few turna between the folda. Stnp ot one 
en4 ao the powder ie expoaed and prime il with a little 
wel powder or match It: or the end may be twiited up 
with Couch paper, made by coating ungUzed paper with 
a aohidon of aaltpetei* before folding. When dry creek ere 
are fkiiahetL 

In thia country a cruder form of cracker ia made by 
taking auilaUe lengtha of covered match, damping and 
folding it like the crackeaa deacribed. lying and laaving 
a abort piece of match protruding lor lighting it 


For making theae proceed juA aa deacribed for EnglwK 
Oackera except ueing the following compoaition inroad 
of gunpowder for loading them: 

Meal powder 10 d 

Fine grain powder 6 5 d 

Aluminum 5 

Saltpeter 1 4 4 16 

Steel fUingi 6 6 

Sulphur 4 I 3 

Charcoal 3 I 6 




When they are dampened and rolled out punch out 
a lot of round piecee of #60 Aiawbcaid. with a bole 
through their center. Then get a piece of braea. the aame 
•ize ai the cardboard centere and fasten tl lo the work 
table. Lay one of the centere on thia braaa plate end 
uking a hlled pinwheel tube preaa the amallegt flat end 
agaio^l ita edge end twining it around die e with the 
right hand while left hand feoda (he tube aa it la bemg 
wound on. continue unb1 ail the tube ie roDcd around 
the center. The braae plate akould be half a« thick aa 
the (uuihed pin wheel eo the cardboard wiQ be 

held juA about in the middle of the pinwheel while it 
ia being IwiAed. 

Now have aoma boarda prepared with itripa of wood 
aquar^ nadod on them, the earn# dtHance apart aa 
Width of a pinwheel when it ia lyinf dow& When 
the wet pinwheel U twUlad up aa above, lift it of (he 
braaa plate and aet it between two of choae Itiipa on the 
board ao aa to kaap it from untwiAing and with a bn»K 
put a drop of glue acroea lha pipea and onto the center 
diae, at four equtdillant points. When they hare ^ied 

they mey be removed from the boards end are ready 

for uae. (Fig. 4 1). 



Tlieae are Kght ftrong caaee, 3’ to 5* long, crimped 
at one end end charged with a aharp compoaitioiir Arong 
gfiough to eauae them to run around on the ground or 
in (he air while bwning. They may be made fromd^ I40 
frawboard* heavy manilla or rag paper end crimped 
while AiU wet. (Fig. 42). 

They may be rammed aingly wid) rod and funnel or 
m batch ee of 72 at a tuae with the hand combinadon 
rarnmee. ^ v. Alternate corapotidocia arae 

Meal powder 



Mined coal 

FTP grain powder 












These are very suailar to serpenti but somewhat larger 
and elwaye muf with a report The usual length ie 
with a dia meter of fi* to H*» rolled and crimped like 
evpento though with a heavier caee. 

Ram wilh» Meal powder 4 

.WipWMg 2 

Fine coal IH 

Sulphur 1 

For anhibilioDs. aboid three dosen of these are put 
mapaptrbag with three onces of Iriowiag charge coov* 
peeed ef hall meal powder and hall grain powder. A 
piece of match a yard long, band for an inch or two 
Is Aueh into the mouth of the bag and dghdy secured 
widi a dtring. When ready for use it is loaded into a 
mortar and match ignhed. 

For Pock work a paper mortar is made by roQing 
ei* or eight duckneeeee of heavy girawboard 12* wide 
around s forma 2H* diameter. A wooden bottom is fitted 
and a mins hag mads as described under MINES. The 
ssiifisinni are placed in same with blowing charge* around 




« 10 b«U rcmAQ e«ndie from which th« bottom clcy he# 
been omitted. TKii u pUced in the peper morUi with 
c dcub of slue on bottom of beg. A top U fitted *e 
for sninea end when pepered end ftriped. ie reedy lor 
the market 


TKeee ere tmell paper cum from I' to 3* in diameter 
an the bottoma of which are pieced •mall hagi of Aan 
powder etc. which ere fired by a mine fuee or roman 
candle in which (he charge of clay hae been omitted 
and rtpUced by one of ceedle compoiition. The bottom* 
ere turned out of wood. 7*Ke tube* ere made by tsghdy 
rolling fix to twdve thickoeeMa of Arewboeid. around e 
auilebla former. Following are approeinmte aiaee: 




nguaca or CTaAwaeAae 






K 140 






























1 minet taka 

a 1 ball mine 

fuae; No. 2 

mine* a 

2 ball fuae fuae etc. 

The mine bage are made by boring a number of 
Kolea into a thick board (for 4\ minea. IK* diameler 
and IH* deep). Than make a punch with rounded edge*; 
(for #t minea, 1' diaoieler) end over (hla preaa e piece 
of «oul paper (about 4' a^uara) cloaely around end of 
punch end above it into one of the holee m the board 
remove punch; inaert e mine fuae and around il put e 
Kell once of Aen and e Icaapeonful of blowing charge. 
Squeeae loeae enda of beg eiound fuae end aecure with 
o piece of string or wire. Now daub the bottom of beg 
with a litde dexorise or glue end inaert il in one of the 
paper guna into which e bottom haa been previoudy 
glued A top ia now neceaaaiy. Hue ia made by adjuA* 
ing an ordinary waaher cutter to the reqidailc aiae ao aa 
to cut e piece of ftiawboeid with the outaide diemeter 
of the gun end center hole of the eae of the mirw fuae 
When thia ii elii^cd into piece over the fuae it ta aecured 
by e aquere piece of paper, an inch or two larger then 
the top of mine end with a hole punched in the mid' 
die widk a wed cutter, to fit over mine fuae. Petfle end 
preee doaely about the top of mine and when dry aame 
ia ready for use. For Aock work they muil, of couree, 
6e papered end Ariped, packed end labeled. Minet of 
•euciaaona are made by aubftittiting aeuciaeona for the 
Aare. (Fig. 44). 





Theeo ere m ade by taking a large abort mine caae 
and fiUiag the bag with tailed Aara, aerpenta and Eagliah 

^^charv Beeidea the centtal candle lor firing it< four more 
0^0 et oach comer on the outaide of gun are 
iaAeaed imd conneAed ao aa to burn at aame time. 
(Rg^ 45). 


'Hieae conaiA of a #6 mine caae conuining a bag 
filled with colored Aara and Japaneae or Willow Tree 
Aara. EioAric Spaeader Aara with cxackera alao make a 
handaome mine. 'Hie varioua efieCta are almoA unlimited 
And the geniua of the artificer will auggeA other combi* 

Fountains, Flower Pots and Gerbs. 

Theae ate all modifitaboai ol the aame principle which 
ii a paper tube or caae varying from H* diameter to 2' 
diameter rammed lolid with orw of the compoaidona to 
be given lat«. 


Ara uaually frocn I* to IH' diameter and 12' long 
with a wooden point in the lower end ao they can be Auck 
in the ground for firing. A qiiarter ounce of lifie powder 
ia aometimee placed after the laA charge of eompoaidoD 
and before the cley, both in feunteina and gerba ao aa 
to have them finiah with e report or "bounce*'. 

Beeidea the reguler compoailion with which fountaini 
are charged, il the calibre permita. amall colored Aara 
ns to about H* cubee and placed between the chargea 
wim immingi gmady lacroaM thib baauiy and they 
FOUNTAINS, There ia however, aome danger in ramming 
Aara conuiniiig ehlmate of potaah with cocnpoai&ona con- 
taming free aulphur and thia may be avoided by ining 
eompoaitiona free from chlorate, auch aa granite Aara. 
coppo boringi etc. or perchlorate compound*. 

C aa c ad e caae* are uaed for water falU and auch 
deeigna where the fire ia required to fall conaiderable 
diAancee to the ground. They are uaually horn IH' to 
2" diameter and 12" long. Where thia piece ia to be 
often repeated aa at Faire, iron tube* 2' inaide diameter 



fere soroeticnei ue«d fee tkaee ere Aronier *nd c»n be 
clefened with kmeene mhtt ueiog for repetition. Where 
Nifegfeife FfelU ie ehown thle form of cmee ie in geneifel 
uie fee U ifevee the rolling of 200 to 300 Urge com (or 
eecb diipUy. 


SmfeU cfefeee, choked, K* and H* dUmetcr end from 
5* to 10* long with fe wood t a hendle in end provide e 
pretty piece of fireworkc for uee by India end ebildren. 
When properly mode ih^ Me perfe^y eefe lo hte from 
the hend but thU ffe^ feLouU be feceured by &r6 bfieg 
fe few by Peking them ie ibe ground, lo ioe thal the 
chfeige ie not iuibcienlly Aroog to buret tbe cnee. The 
Umpblfeck in ihcfee produce# fe peculitr ededt not entirely 

It might be well le mintiiwi dmi when mraming gerbe 
etc, it II fedvifefeble to begw udth one cbferge of Aening 
&re eepeciiUy whem die eempoeition eontfeine AeeL ee 
they not only eomedmee mim &i« but there ie eUe tbe 
likelihood of Arikisg fire by mmnung Aeel kUngi fegfei&A 
fe metfel nipple. 


Theee me ueed foe «U eet piecee where briDUot effeAe 
or jeti of tin oro deeired. They ihould be febout H* 
difecnetec end 9* long. When Aeel tting* ere ueed the 
Aeel ehould be firA proteAed v. ne the eehpeier cor* 
rodee the hlingi which edeAe dicir briUi«ney. They ere 

remmed like rockets but on « short nipple without cenirel 
spindle. Use the following (omiuU 


Meal powder 4 

Saltpeter 2 

Sulphur I 

Cbfercofel I 

Meal powde; 6 

Saltpeter 2 

Sulphur I 

Charcoal I 

Steel Elings I 


Meat powder 5 

Granulated esiltpeter 3 

Sulphur I 

Coarse chercofel 1 

FF rifle powder K 








FFF rifie powder 







m* cnee 

Cranulfetfed saUpeter 16 

Mixed cbarcofel 4 

Sulphur 3 

liCB borings 6 


2* case 

Tbis contrivance a very edeAive and safe medtod of 
deAfoying the ncA of wasps, hornets oU. Tha sketch 
iUuAratee the method of using same and the following 
eompoaitien ie satufaOory. 

Seitpeter 9 

Sn^>hur IK 

Charcoal 5 

VKQ>ere it is not pradbcol lo attach the tight as shown, 
a long pole may be used. Tied to the end of a fishing 
rod end brought in eontsA with a neA it will dcAioy 
it without danger le the operator u the bunting com* 
po^on cTMnpletely demormtices the inaeAe who make no 
effort to Aing. 

The caee should be about diameter and 5' long 
rammed on e nipple tike a garb. (Rg. 49). 


These are made In two ferms, (Fig. 30) (a) 

Ing of a imall riz sided block with concaved groves on 
d>ree of ks edges* into which small choked cases are 
fsAened. either by glue, wbe or nailed; and (b) eonsiA- 




iaff of tt ^nfukr block on oneh of which « ocrponi 
U foAcne^ The ieipenti muA be mnmed fuU nod primed 

et both end*, except the Ua one. A pUco of poper U 
ported over the jeiale where the two ende meet of eocoml 
end third eoeee end firft one ii metched with o emoU 
pUco of meteh for lightinf. The btocke hove e hole 
through their center for the neU on which they revolve. 

In mekiat the lerger brienglee (•} take I emeU choked 
re e r e diemeter. Rem two of theca wiUi triengle 
poeihoa to within h* of the end; then Aop ende with'lf 
^ eeme corapoeition moigteaed with dextrine weitt fi iy^ 
rein tight wi^ eolid rammer. The third eaee ihotild be 
cloeed with cloy. Now cut peperiag 2* longer then the 
ceee nod cow in the reguJee way. Into the choked end 
after priming, twigt • piece of match 1K* bug. except 
the firdt one where a ehorter piece will eufice. Fadlea 
them to block ae deecribed abo^ fiidt die one with clayed 
end. then one with both ande opaa and hnally the one 
with short match. Ineart match ol third cnee TK>ring 
of eocood one and match of eecead ceee iaCo the (uH 
and eeeura the joint! with paJIad deeua paper. 


Mada by faAeoing 4 to 6 ^living caeca to a wood en 
wheel made for ibie pmpu!a The caeee are i wittily H* 
to K* in iniide diameter, etAer choked or rammed on n 
nippln with day. 'Htay am papered and natth-H the 
came aa for toiaaglee except ^ the coonetfting matekee 
•hould be papered ae the diltance between caeee ie graeler 
than in the Piinglci. A little gum on the eide of caae 


Rj 5i. 

where it toucher the rim of wheel will hold it more 
eecurdy than wire alone The wood whnds for 
may be obtained m North Weare. N. H 


Smton FI 5 . 52. 

Ram two caeee Vj* to H* Ictdde diameter with a Arong 
compoeition. eloeibg both ende with clay and gluing them 
to n block ae ehown. Hotee are bored diameter and 
juA through cnee, ae near to clayed ends ae poeaible 
and at right anglea with the nail hole in center of block 
on which eaxon will revolve. These holes muA, of coune 
bo on epeeite aides. A piece of match le fitted inlo one 
ef these holes and eeeurad with paAed paper while an- 
other bole is becod into bottom ol case but on aide 
opposite to that of firA hola. From due hole a piece of 
match k led to hole in second eaew faAened with e 
tack and wJH eeeurad with paAed Aripu (Fig. 52) 

Colored pote are attached to wheels and saxone gr^tiy 
enhanciat their beauty, by ramming light eaiee die* 
meter and 2* leag. with torch composition. They are 
faAened to the piece ae shown and usually matched to 
the laeond caeo. Aleo^ cn Urgec vertical wheels the 
eompoeition of the various driveie is varied to as to 
iocraass their cdeA aa burning proceedi. The firA case 
ia charged with plain driving composition; the second 
with Aeal filings added; the third vrith granite Aari etc. 

TriAiigte Composition 







Mixed chamoal 



lUfle powder FTF 



Wheel Caeee 


Meel powdm 









Mixed charcoal 



F ride powder 




Ste^ filmge ad. kb. 



Meal powder 


Sulphtv 2 

Saltpeter 2 

Mixed charcoal 1 


This itdijed covers probably the moA comprehensive 
division of the art of fireworks making. Besides the end- 
less variety of colon, •St€ta etc. we have the cut Aar. 
box Aar, pionpad Aar, candle Aar etc. Nearly all Aars 
are made by dampening the coenpoamon with water (if 
composition contnins dextrine) or alcohol {if it contains 
ehdlac) and preaeing the caked mast into litde cubes, 
cyliaclen etc. by the various devices to he deecribed. 


Tbeee sre the limpleA form of Aars in use. Secure 




M>me oak wood Anjm I* wide and V thick, dmaed. 
aod from the** mak« a hama about 12* wida. 16* lon$ 
and H* high inaide mcaawemenU, when lying down. Tba 
comera ahould be aecured by balvad )oinU. gliiad and 
fastened with amalJ wire naiU. eJinebed. AUo provide a 
rolling pin about 2* diameter and 15* long. Now lake 
any one of the formulaa given foi cut or pumped Aara 
and moisten it lather more than foi uaa widi pump. *TKe 
tnoA convienent way to moilKen any compoaidon ia to 
have a large dieh pan or amall wooden tub into v^cK 
the compoaitien ia put while water ia added little by little* 
working it in by nibbing the dampened portiona between 
the hand# until it ia evenly moistened and a handful, 
dimly aqueezed retaina ila ahape. 

L^y a piece of Aiff cardboard on a marble alab. duA 
it with dry compoaition and lay on it the above roen> 
lioned wood frame. Fill frame heapingly with the damp' 
ened compoaition and preaa it down firmly with the rolU 
mg pin, leveling it off with a ahding motion ao it ia 
fluah with the top of frame. Now. with a ruler and a 
table knife acore the compoaition in each dve^oo at a dia* 
tance of H* apart ao ai to cut it into cubea. Tkie ia facUi* 
lated if the frame haa been pravioualy marked at M* intervale. 
Make a cut around the inaida edge of tha frame ao aa 
to looaan the ^ara and carefully remove it Uve belch 
may now be placed in tha aun to dry. When throroughly 
dry the cubee may be broken tpart (or uae. 

On account of the eaie with which theae Jtara ignite, 
owing to their eharp comera, they are patdculafly adapted 
to rock eta, imall ahelle etc. where mooth aUra are liable 
lo miae fire. If larger eiaed atari are deaired a frame of 
H* material or thicker may be uiad. 


TKia beautiful effect ia made eomewhat aunilar to tha 
above. 7*he great difference between the bulky lamp- 
black and the compadl potaah makee it quite diAcuh to 
nua them thoroughly and thia la particularly aeeeaaary 
to, obtairx good reaulti. Fuithermore it ia hard to get 
lampUack to take up water. It ia therefore aecaaaary 
krA to molAen k with alcohol whan it will taka the waUe 
more readily. The nMthod which 1 have followed with 
be4t aucceae ia aa follovn; 

ffl #2 

Lampblaak 12 esa. b o». 

Potaaaium chlorate 6 * 4 “ 

Saltpeter I * 

Water 16 “ 9 • 

Alcohol 4 ** 2 ** 

Dextrine I * 

Cum armbic H ** 

Mix the dextrine and aaltpeter (formula 1) w^ together 
and add auAcient water to make a gummy liquid. Boil 
the halanr.e of the water and add the chlorate of potoaeium 

to iL Put the lampblack in a large pen and pour the 
alcohol over it working it in ea weU ae poaeible. Now 
add the chlorate of petaeiium dieolved in the hot watai 
and Air with a Aick until cool enough for the hand*. 
Ladlly add the dasirina and lalQwter. Rammibar that 
you cannot mis it toe well and the affedi will be in 
proportion to the evenneae wiA which thia haa boon dona 

Take aoma piaeee of light caavaa or ticking about 
Iff* aquare and put one or two bandafuQ of comporibon 
onto iq epraad it about an inch thick in center of cloth, 
lolAng aamo over aad place under e ftrong preaa of 
oooio kind. Fold up another cloth of compoaition in a 
manner end place on top of firA. Repeat until 
4 or 5 clod» era under preaa and aciew up aa tigKdy 
aa poaaibln and until lurplua water rune out freely. Open 
pMaa. move cakaa from clothe* ^y for about tvro week# 
and break into pieeea about K* aquare. It ia iinpertaAt 
Aat the ia perfaAiy dry nnd free from eti to 

get the bedt reaulta end it la aomedmea n e c eraaiy to peck 
a far or crucible with it and heat in a bright fire until 
*11 volatile impuritie* ere nrpil1*d You will then have 
one el ^ moA beautiful effeifla of the entiie iroworka 

Id recipe #2 Ae potaaa end l^»^ |»Ut fk ere oltad 
tegethcr aovml timea; add alcohol; than walm in whkh 
gum haa been dieolved and pro raid u la reope #U 



Wbara the boA and hendaomaA eff adfca are requiied 
thia form of Aer ia undoubtadly the moA edaptabie to 
the purpoae. FirA, they bum much longar than other*; 
ae c onA they are lea# liable to go blind and furthmmero 
Aey will Aead more blowing from a abell than any iAtt 
form of Am. (Fig. 54). 

Make acme light caaea of about (our tbichoaaoco of 
Aout manilla paper to 12’ long on e former. Gu 
vnlh e aciaaora into H* langtha. Cut aome thin match in* 
to lengtha of an inch or a Uttia over. Paaa e piece of 
match through one of the little pieeea of caae or "pill 
box”, bend the enda abghdy around the edge* aa ahown 
in iUuAratioo and dip it into e pan of enmpoeidon pro* 
vioualy dampenad aa deaqiibed before. Thn with the 
firA end aeeond finger* of the right hand proa* lha 
poeition into it aa finnly aa peeaible until ti wiD hold 
DO aof» Dry in tha aun for two or Area day*. 





TkcM ftn med men diui oAhm form el ter mi 
ecceuat el their recvUnty end the eeee ead epeed wtlh 
which thef cea be made, hrinf erea mere <|i4ekbr made 
than cut term where the proper applianeec an al head. 
Whve ooiy a lew an requifod, a head pump (Bg. $3) 
will do very good work. All dmi m ■eoamary ie to 
dnw up ^ plunger* pme the pump into damp com* 
pontioa untii filled aad by praming the pfamgm while 
holdiaf the tube, a ter ie ejeteA Whoa dmy are l eq uu a J 
i& Uv^ quaofinee. however, ter ptafiec are aoeeaeaiy. 
With thaee 200 or 300 ten are made almost ae qmekly 
aa one by hand pump* A good idea may be ebeainad 
by relereace to (Hg. 33). The tendard eixoa of eiara 
are about a# follow* : 

#1 #2 #3 e4 

diam. Si16* dian H* diam. 7M6^ diaBi 
H* long 71 1 6* long H* long ^eog 

Gmaequendy the plate lor Baking a #1 ter latdl be 
H' thi^ and hava holer K' diameter (a). The orhaia. 
in fame proportion. The plunger* on plioger ptete C*) 
murt be aomewhal rmallcr in diamcler and elighdy long*' 

Slar fUk a*MnW^ ft^SS 

dtan ^ holer is ter plate ao they witt meva hudy ead 
lore# the ten compiriely ouL T^ plate an ahoirt S>T 
a 7H* aqueim Tmye lor holding the tem whda ^yiag 
(d) Aouid have the be rt oma made ol bran win nrefing 
ao ae to panit Iroa ciroulaboa ol air Aeougb the ten, 
enabling than to tky tn a lew hour*. Ibe cente rtrip 
ea wall aa the aidea el the tray on lop eheuld ba nbbated 
ae aa to held ihe ter pleta while ten an bring |wwu»ati 
far order to nmke terr with a ter plate, m or rtr 
batch ol eempoaidoa is a dith pas with water a« hm^ 

toion dceczihcd, and empty aame on a rather high work 
table pfwiouily covered with a aquare yard ol ruhhm 
cloth. Ptei the plate (a) into aame usiil dm compomtum 
fWH i He up through dw holer. Then with the rciaper knife 
(b) week nmre cotnpoaition down into the holer until 
they appear lulL Scrape all all rurplur eompoaition and 
rmimre to the iron bed fjate (e) puRing down the ride 
previondy up and prear more compoaidork in with the 
amaper. Whan all the holer an well Idled acrape off 
wrpitw thoroughly, place is rabbet of tray and with plunger 
plate rm ny out the term. Cara muA be takes to have 
right rida of the |date up when pumping or plunger* 
wil not fit bole*. V the plate hegisr to work badly on 
ihe eompoaition drying on plungun aan\e murt 
be wmahed balera taiiig again. The propm dampneu for 
ceatpoakion can only be aacertained by praddee. II too 
dry tel* will cnanhle. 11 toe wet they vrilt not ignite 
finely. Tba hole* in the Aar plate aa well ai the plunger* 
may be much doaai together than ahown in cut 

Fonsulas for Cut. Pumped or Canefle Siam. 








Red aimesic 





a^k MlBDOlir 


RmI ua 





Chlorate potaaeium 



Shellac or rad gum 



Fm charcoal 



Carbesata teonda 


Nitet* Aroatia 





CUorale poteaium 


Pari* glees 


Niteie Baryta 








niVnnta iiiitaa*iiiiii 


Nitrate Baryta 


r»a chanoal 


&aflac or KD gum 




Caktel ad Kb. 








\6 16 

3 3 

4 1 


1 7 


ORBEN (not for dtdli) 

CUofftti polftMhan 
or rod foa 

HiCretB Bwrta 

Bann rynnw 

PoteMim cUofM 

Rcric 4Ctd 









(Fcpr hand pumps sot ouiublo for SKofioX 

Nitrmia Arontia 6 

CXlorate polsuiuA 4 10 

Rcxic tcid m IH 

ShellM IH K 

Fine thareoal 1 I 

Dextrine H H 

5trondum cer1>Qnete 3 

Exhibition Blu« Stan, pumped. 

Potaeaium chlorate 








Black oxide copper 







Pans green 



Copper ammoslum chloride 





^ssotern with AeOoe solsdon 

Silver Comet Sm 

Meal powder 


Antimony Sulphide 


Aluminum, fine 


Aluminum, ditier 




Gold Comet Scar 

Meal powder 




Aluminum, fine 




Alutninumi fiittef 


Sugar of mJk 




Sodium oxalate 







PoCseMum elilorete 







Berium nitrele 3 

PoisjMun cKlorete 4 

Sl^eOee I 

Dextrine H 

Beriun eUoreie 


Peris green 

Poteesium cMorete 10 

Potessium percKIoreie 
Copper SoipKeie 3 

Copper emmonitun ehloride 




Desoine H 

Celomri 2 











Is fait reripSt nss tKerougKIy tKe copper itdpKste. 
eKsOec. celetnel end dextrine: then edd cUorxte petuK. 
seriously si/ted alone* This «er ia onl/ euiiaUe where 
k le to be ueed wilKin a few weeks. Itt second fomuU 
rub up the Aeanne with the copper ammonium chloride 
in a mortal before adding other ingredienti. 


Poteesium perchlorate 16 
PlaJIm pans 4 

%eSae 3 


Petaeshun chlente 4 

Sodium oxalate 2 

Sk^c 1 

Destoine H 


Sahpetif 7 

Sulphur 2 

Powdered metal asliinoiiy 1H 
DeBctariae ^ 


Potaecium eUermte 16 

Blk. oxid c opper t 

Calomel ^ 

Streothm ailiala f 






MmI powder 

BUek e&dmony 





Moi«en with weten prt— into cxkee. diy for one week 
end breek into piece* ebout H' equer^ 


^Itpeler 50 I ft 

Sulphur 15 ^ 

Red eieeiue 15 

Chercoel I0 K 

Dextrine 3 

fileck e&dmony ft 

Lempbieck 1 

MoiAen with weier. 



OxeUte iodium 






Bleck endmeny 


ft ft 



H 4 







Seltpeter ft 

*Stee1 ftUnf* 2 

Meel powder I 

Chtic^ I 

Dutribe 1 ^ 

(Greeted widi pereftoe) 
Moitflen with wetec. 

yellow twinklers. 

Poteeeiun chlecete ft 

Lnmpbleek I 2 

Sceerine m 

Seltpeter | 

Moiften wilk aJeohol •nd ikcIUc. Pump with haul pump 

Orenuleted ceel ft 

Poieeeium bicKromete 6 

Oftxtrine ] 

Mix thoroughly ell bot the chercoal end dampen urvtil 
quke wet Then add eoa) end mix etain end pump with 
hand pump. Coal muat be a|] coaree from which the 
fine Kaa been rifted. 


Saltpeter |4 

Zinc duA 40 

Fine eheteoel 7 

Sulphur 2H 

Dextrine f 

Fer ehriU and rock eta thia mekea a very good eub- 
Aitute for elearic epreeder ftan while beinf cheaper 
and eafer to handle. It ie naoiAenad until quite wee. 
pmaad iuo eakea h* Utiek, cut into aquaraa each 
way, 4oeouftUy dried end brokack apeii 

GOLD ft SILVER RAIN, (cut stars) 

MaeJ pewdei |ft 4 

Sekpetar I0 | | 

Suipbar )0 I 

Fine charcoal 4 | 2 

Lenpbftaek 2 

Red araenic | 

ShaUae ] 

Daaaine | 

Lead nitrate 3 

MciAen with wata and cut into equaree K* each way 

ALUMINUM STARS, (box- stars only) 

Potaariam chlorate ft 

PoUaehim perchlorate ft 

Aluminum powd medium 4 4 

SheBac | 

Lqrcopodium 1 

MmAaa with Arilac eolution apd form into box aan 
K* loAft, K* diemafcw. 



The dfedt of theae Acre ie quite euprieint. A email 
pefleft no larger than a pea will epatter over an area of 
IS feet when lighted. To make good elcaric epreadat 
Aar* raqutrea conriderable care and judgemmit at 

enmr too much or too Utile greedy reduce* thes effect, 



S a l t y el l I 5 

Megnerium powder 2 

M ei ft ep with Lneeed oit Owing to its high cotft end 
kuaebalky megnaaium hae been almodt entirely replaced 
by alummuxs. 


Theee are large ten about 1 H* diameter fired from 
emal mortaie of paper In dirir timplaA form they are 
juA large pumped Aaie. If the gua U I ft* long a piece 

Zinc duft 
PotaMium chlorate 




of quickma(eli 16* long it bored ml one end obout I* 
and at ^ otber 5*. Lay k along aide comet Aar 
•0 the I * bared end can be bent over tbe bottom. Then 
paAe a Arip ol paper 4" wide and 10* long and roll 
tbia around tbe Aar . over the roatcb widk (be aama amount 
pcojeddnf on aacK aide* Wbaa iy gadw tbe upper 

exiension around tbe match with a Anng and into the 
lower proje4ftion or bag put a half teaapoonliJ of coarae 
grain powder and aecure with a Aring alao. Now drop 
thia in the gun and it ia ready for uae. Handaome eSedU 
are obtained by making half of the Aar of red Aar 
compoaition and the other half of Ateamer eompoaitioA. 

A more ambitioui form of comet U lUuArated in 
Fig. 36. Tkia U rammed into a caae ai ahown, while 
(lie upper half, separated from the lower portion by a 
diaphragm of clay with amall connecting oriliee* ie 6Ued 
with email Aara and blowing charge. At the end of ite 
flighi tbe Aara are diacharged with 6ne effe^. 



These are made by placing a comet Aar at (ho 
bottom of a abort gun with blowing charge but no match. 
Over the Aar ia placed 2* ol candle compoaition and 
over tbli 1* ol bangal fire. 


Saltpeter 6 

Meal powder 6 3 

Sulphur 1 

Fine charcoal 3 I 

Powdered antimony 3 I 

Lampblack 2 


Tbia ia a division of pyrotechny which conaiAa of 
reptoducing with colored lighM various deaigna, portraits, 
lettering etc. after the design ia sketched on the Eoor aa 
described under **Deaigning". 



jiPHiiiittkv.amwjii ' 

rig. ff 

A number of frames aro made, 5* wide and 10* long, 
of light lumber 3^* x 2* for the outside Aripa and H* a 
I* for the canter onea, spaced I fool apart each way 
with a brace ia the two oomeia aa shown in (Fig. 37). 
Theee are laid over (he design on the floor and aacured 
so they do not shift until completed and the piAura etc. 
ttanafared lo the frames wilh bamboo for the curves 
and light Aripe of wood for the Araight linee a and b 
Prg. 58. 

^^en ihia has been completed frames should ba 
numbered* begining at left hand upper comer of flrA 
frame and numbering each consecutively to ae«A ia gel* 
ting them in their proper placoe when ereAing to be 

Tbe frames are now ready for attaebing tha lancei. 
Thli ii done by driving a I K* wire nad to a depth ol 

half an inclw (b) at intervals ol 2H* in curves and 3 lo 
4* on Aiaight lines all over the design. Be sure lo see 
that there is always a nail at every point where two 
lines interse^ Now with a nipper cut ofl the Heads of 
the nsils, holding the nipper at an angle with the nail 
so that die place where the bead has been cut oil will 
have a sharp point mAead of being cut off square across. 




TKe fr*me« kte now reuly for ihe Unce*. WKoi it 
Wen decided wKat colore are to be ueed foe ibe 
vaKoui parte of the deeigrt. take a handful of Uncec of 
the deeired color end dip (heir bottoma into glue to • 
depth of about and prcaa one onto each of iha nail# 
until they are attached hnnlv to the cane or Aieki form- 
ing deeigiw (c) (Rg. 

When glue haa hardened frame Sa ready for match- 
ing. Take a length of quickmatcK ancL begiaing at the 
upper end of frame pin it from one lance to another 
until entire frame ia covered, following the oulKne of 
deaign aa much aa poaaible. (0 (Fig. 56). When the end 
ef a length of match ia teacM apHce onoeher to k by 
baring about 5* of the new length and alippiag ihia hare 
end into the pipe of the prccea^ng length: aecuring by 
tying and paAIng joint. 

Leave an end of match about 2* long pcojeeting from 
the lower right hand corner of each frame ae it be 
connected to the one next to it when erecting. Alao on 

one of the bottom framea leave a leader 10 le 20 fed 
long, of match, to lighc piece by when it haa been ereded. 
Now with a three cornered ewl make a hole H* deep 
through the match pipe and into the pruning of each of 
the lancet on the frame, <d) (Rg. 50). Then take diipa 
of tieiue paper hVwide and 3* long; pa^e a numbw of 
them onto a light board and working along from lance 
to lance aecure the match to top aa ehown at fig. S6. 
Sometimea where it ia deaited to nieh a job to be burned 
•ame day at point where St ia made, the lanc irt are 
•ecured by eimply bending a paded drip an mcK w»^ 
over top of lance aa ahown at a. b, Rg, 59. 

The completod ftamea may now be crated into lota 
of four, with H* x 4* Aripa arranged lo hold them apart, 
for convienence in tranapoitation. 


Theae are amall paper tubea from K* to H* diameter 
2* to 3H* long Hlled with compoaitioB burning dUferent 
colora with a duration of one minute and uaed foe produc- 
ing the dilferent deaigna uaed in tirtworka 
auch aa pertraita mottoea etc. The eaaaa are rolled and 
rammed with funnel and rod, at previoualy deecribed. 

Some lance compoaitiona are io light aa to be diffi- 

cult to lam. Tbeae should be alightly dampened firA. 
Blue lancea made with paria green and white ones using 
lealgM are frequently used wUhoul priming aa they ignite 
veiy eaaily. 

A good laace should burn clear for one minute, 
without flaring or clogging up Ail colors should bum 
of about the same duration. U a lance burns to one side 
it ia often because the composition ia not well miied 
or because there ie more paper on one side than on the 
other. They should have about three tuma of paper all 


Red Lanoea. 

Potaaeium chlorate 
Strontium aitrate 
Strontium carbonate 







Green Lances. 

Potaaeium chlorate 7 16 

Barium nitrate 7 4 

Barium chlorate 

Shellac 2 4 

Calomel 3 

LaropbUck H 

Picric acid ) 



White Lances. 



Antimony iidphide 
Antimony metalic 
Moil powder 
Rod anonic 











Blue Lances. 

Potaashim chlorate 20 16 12 

Potaaeium pochlorate 24 

Paris green 5 

*Co^er aulphala 6 

Copper emmooium aulphate 3 

Copper ammonium chloride 6 

4 I 

Slaerine IH H 2 

Calomri 4 3 3 

Deatrina I 

Aaphaltum I 

*Sae diredtioac tmder box Aara for uaiag thia 

Yellow Lances. 




Potewium cKIaiate 16 4 4 

Sodium 2 2 2 

ShelUc 3 1 I 

ChMcotl H 

B«num nitmta I 

For unbaf a&d purpla Uncai dia raeipai 
TORCHES may ^ mad ta advantage. 


Tlieae re^aaent tha lii|haA dav^pammtt cf (ka 
pyrotecKnical art and require great pade&ca and akiB lor 
their aucceaelul produ^on. Hie moA wcwdechJ eSedte 
are produced hy the japanaac while tha £aeA color efada 
are made by tha Europeqpa and AmarieaAa. SKeOa ate 
made in aeveral forma though rotiml ia the moA popular. 
Cylindrical or caniAer aheUa Ko waver coatain more Aara 
etc. and in the more complicated atfedta it la aomedmee 
neceaaaiy to attach a caniAer to the round ahell to coa« 
tain the permckute etc. (Fig. 64). 

Shelli are all £rcd from mortara. the oiMa 

made of paper, up to about 3* ika largct 

onaa of wood, copper and iron. The amallaA aheHa wkk 
which we have to deal are ^e 


#1 #2 «5 

Diameter 2*5/1 6* 2-7/16* 3-)fl6^ 

Height 9* II* 13* 

Hie ahella aie made of hollow wooden belle wbich 
can be Iwncd out by any wood tumet. They are made 
in balvce. uaually with a rabbet to inaura e eloee it 
Through one helf> drill a hole juA the ai»e to aniqdf 
At a piece of ordinary blaAing luae> 1^' long, due the 
fuae on the inaide aa well aa on the outaide of the 
ahell caae. Now fill each half with Aara to which adU 
a taaapooniul of ahell blowing powder, ^ua (he edgea 
of each hell, clap them together and when dry paAe a 
Arip of paper around whara the two helvea /oia Prime 
the enda of the fuae which ahould pro>eA through the 
■hell about H\ bend a piece of naked matclu about 6* 

long, around iho ih^ ao that tha middle el il paaaaa 
over the fuee. taeking the enda to other hall of abeO. 
ao that they will Aick over about 2*. Set it now on the 
fioreJ ahell bottom aa ahown at Fig. 60 into which baa 
been previoualy put an even teeipoeaful (for the ^l. 
laigs eiaea in proportion} of F grmin powder, and aaeure 
with a Arip of paAed paper. When dry. alip over the 

peper mortar, having prcvioualy well glued the b ott wm 
Meaeure diAaiim from top el mortar to top ol ahefl in* 
aide and mark aame on outaide. Punch hole throu^ 
aame at ihia point fit on a top and aecure. Now take 
e romen candfte a Hide longer than the mortar, punch a 
hole in ila aide near the bottom Aar; fit in a ahoit piece 
of piped mafech bate the other end; >hp into hole in 
mortar. laAen candle to aide with wire end Bora] ahell 
ia completed. 


Theae are made aomewhat didtfently: H lb. to H tta 
tin cana being aubAituied for wood ahdta. They are filled 
with Aara. colored and Japanaee and burAing powder in 
die aame manner aa deacribed above. A hole ia punched 
dirough lid into wbich fuae ia glued A Arip ei paper 
about y wider than tha length of can and long enough 
to roll around it ala timea ia paAed all evert the filled 
can placed on it and rolled up aemethiiig like a caaa 
ia rolled. The IH* proiatting over each end ie now earw 
fully praaaed atound the fuae on one aide and the can 
bottom at the other. The ahell ia allowed to dry for a 
week before uaing. The end of fuae ia tttmmed and 
pcined; a piece of piped match bared at each end ia 
laid againA ha eideb eetendiag 1* beyond fuee at bottom 
ol ehefl. A y wide which aecurea the match in 

place ie attached to ahell and thia whan dry aervae to 
contain the driving cherge of a level teaepoonful of giain 
powder, after which it ie fathered together and tied with 
l%riaa» A deb of glue on bottom of bag auficea to hold 
it in bottom of mortar and it b ready for uaa. (Fig. 61). 



The prinopel uee of ah^la uaed for thie purpoee are 

6^ nnd UP diaatAci. For round ehtlb, aft« tha caiee 
here been made aa deacribed under **CASE5” the upper 
helve* ex* bored lor the fuaea. Tlua nuiy be done v^ 
a enrpeotara brace bit H\ boring from the inaida. Fh the 
two kahree accurately together; Hnd with a Arip of glued 
cloth and ever thie two or three layerv ol peper Aripe 
land OB longitudinally: each Arip overieppiag the one be* 
loru il by about K*. If each layer ie made oJ a differ* 
eat length e better ^iah will be obtained. 

When caaee have been thoroughly dried fill them 
with the deeired Aare through the fuae hole. When 
they will hold no mote add blowing charge. The fuae 
^mld now be accurately fitted by cutting around it with 
a knife H* from rise top and peeling off a layer or two 
ol paper nntfl it will juA enter the hole which haa been 
mode in top ol ahall for it Clue lower portion well 
and pueh into place until ihoulder reA aquarely againA 
ahell eaaa. 




Att»cK « clotb doling to fiMe: b«re I* nt th« end of 

• lengUk of mJt«K 4nd efteth to bottom of eKell by a 

# ( \kck-. lend mntch up to fuee bend it ngkl nnglee to 
pcnnit of entry mto noeing; cut ibe piping at point of 
entry end eecure wUK Aiong cord. The remaining match 
aUo aervee for lowering ehell into mortar, up to 6* eiaea. 
Larger ehella muA have a heavy cord paieed around 
them for thia purpoae. 

The necaaaaiy driving charge having been placed in 
a paper eone thia ia attached te bettecn of abnQ when 
aamo t$ completed. 

The Btkmg of caniftcr aheUe i« ae eimilar that ihev 
eonftnidden can be readily understood from the aketcbea 
(Tig. 62). The haada and bottome are made of N* wood. 

Another madiod of matchup ihella.ia to 4tait el the 
fuae by baring a half inch at tha end of a match pipe 
and puahing thia Into noeing . Bend match at right anglca 
H* above noeing and paaa undar and entirety around 
ahelL ceming back again te noaing. Band once more at 
tight angjea and ineert bend aiongiide of where Aait waa 
made 6rVI cutting through match pipe ae 'potnk of inaef' 
don. Gather noting eloaely around match and tie d^lly 
ae poeeible. Thia method givci « aemewhal better eupport 
to theU when lowering it into mortar. Where ika match 
eroeaee bottom of ahell and entera driving charge be cure 
to cut piping away for about half an inch. (Fig. 61). 

Two and three break ahela are made by tightly fast* 
•ning together the deal red number of abort canister aheUa 
with fuaea not over H* long between them. The hrlt 
ahell haa regular length fuM. The dctaila ean be better 
understood From diawinga than from a deacription. See 
Fig. 65. 

in detail. Rg. 64. 

fVacW# hun. Figoe 3 SKail. F.g «. 

of iheae caaei are rolled they mutt be dried in the ihade 
untii they are aa hard aa wood and /aide when ttruck 


• lammer 7i)6* diameter a light mallet and 
•ome fuae compoaition made aa foUowa: 

Meal powder 4 

Saltpeter 2 

Sulphur 1 

Sk and mis thrM timea Ratt a fuae cnae on a hnn 
block, ecoep in a litde eompoaidon and tap It about ten 
li^l klowa. Add more compoaition and ram agein» repeal* 
ing undl fuae ia fiUed The eompoaidon b fuM mutt 
be aa hard aa peaaible when finiahed, otherwiaa it will 
Wow through when uaad m a ihell. The fw may now 
be cut into the raquired length* with a fiiM toothed hack 
aaw. (Rf. 66X 

Length of fuaea. 
4- rimU IM* 
6* ahell Uf* 
)CP ahaU IK* 

Inaide djameNr of fuaaa. 
4* ahoD »/16^ 

6< alwU IT 
10* aheU J/16* 

In Mm# eeaee a hole la drilled into the oempoaition 
of the fuae ea the end an the akelL H* deep, eo the fire 
from anme ia thrown into the ihall with more force. In 
thia eaae aBowance mutt be made when cisdng length 


Theae are bett made of hardware papa. Take a 
rod diameter (For • 6* ahell) and a aheet of paper 6* 
wide. Patte it with khbk patte all over one aide end 
at once roll it up aa dghtly aa poaiible until it haa an 
oulaide diameter of H\ The Un^ of aheet required ia 
dependent on the thickneaa of the paper. When a number 

SheO Blowtttg Powder may be mada ols 

Grain powder 1 

Meal powder I 

Saltpeter 3 

Charcoal lk( 

Sulphur 9 

The burtting and driving charge for ahella U aa 





Burning CK«rg«. Driving C^nrg«. 

4* tkeU IK oi. 4’ cKeU 1H ns. 

6^ ahell S os. 6* shell 3H.os. 

10* «Ke11 16 oi. 10* ahett 14 os. 

The driving charge should be cocrae grein powder, 
cannon pev^der ia baA. An endleaa ▼ahetjr can be prO' 
dueed with ahella some of which fellow while die Age* 
Buity of the pyrotechnic wiB a\iggeC othcra ea he pro* 


Fig. a 

SaKd color ahella 

Verigated ahella 

Gold rain ahafli 

Japaaeae or wdlow tree ahella 

Screamer aKcMa 

Alununun ehalU 

*GncK ahdla 

C3»am ehella 

Repeedng ahelle 

Maroea or Sehae ahella 

Dey ahella. 

*The Conch Shell oond^e of e I CP diameter ahall 
packed with three ball roman candlea made apeciel^ 
for chia purpose. The cases of the candles art mede of 
very Arong peper ao that they cen be thin end no empty 
portion ia left at top and bostom. In eddibot» to the 
little romen candles, colored ftara are added. Thie makes 

a very effedbve iball. 


(for holding driving charge) 

These are made by cutting out a round ^ece of 
good Kraft paper six Co twelve inches diameter accord* 
ing to size of shell for which cone is intended ^th a 
scissors make a cut from the edge to the center and 
rwitft it around ao as to make a or cone of two 

thickneaaes. paPing the edges where they meet Put the 
driving charge into this and with a Utile paAe attach it 
to the bottom of shell having previously cut the match 
piping where it crosses the bottom, so that fire will 0rike 
driving charge when ahell ia Ughtad 


Day and Night 

The fapenaaa have developed ^lia form of pyroteck* 
ny to an almoA incradihle degree of beauty sued erigi* 
nality. Some of their ahella era marvels of petisnee, 
ingenuity end skUl 

Day shells cobiiA of two kinds. Firft. those con> 
taini&t large 6gurea of birds, ervimela etc. made of light 
desue peper sewed together like a bag end open el the 
bottom with e row of small weights eround the rim of 
die bottom. The figure ia folded into a small com pa <ft 
ptie end pecked into e cylindrical shell csiae, lomewhat 
ee parachute* ere placed in rockets. When they are 
hred to e height oi about 1000 feet the figure ia ezpeUed 
with e light charge end es it fella, the weights cause 
the bottom to unfold and the inrushing air inflates it 
One of their day shells contains about s dozen paper 
parasols which, of couive. ere folded when inside the 
•hail caee but which by an ingenious conAru^on. open 
as seen es shell breaks and they float to the ground 
much as parachutes do. Tlie avrangement is as follows: 

The second variety of day shells consigti of coloial 
spideri made of smoke and varicolored clouda which 
mult be seen to be appreciated. They are made by filling 

fit. r«. 66U 

e round shell with smoke Aars. on top of which is sst 
e caniAss containing e number of I K* diameter colored 
emoke sheUs end a parachute from which hange a 
'sm^e dragon". 

rie 66c 

*n>e raght shells embrace some 50 or 75 different 
efleAa. Up to 40 ago colors in night shells seem 

to have b ee n unknown to the Japanese end all their 
device* consiAed of endleas vsriacies of tailed Aars. gold 
and rilver miiu willow trees and bright work, each one. 
more entrancing dian the other. Among some of then 
very unusual effe^ is a night shell which upon reach- 
ed the oi In fiight diTOWS out five red paper Un* 

Una with a light hurning inaide each one. The laatems 
when orm about two feet in dia m eter and four 

feet high. When folded inside the sKeD they occupy a 
space ahottt five inches ^meter and nine inches long. 
Another el their original shells breaks with their very 

POOR MAN *3 JAr*lES BOND Vol . 1 



rvimd but «nly one balf of the circle i» fUled out 

Vfith A«re while the periphery only, o^ the other hell ia 
outlined with ftera *• ihown below. (Fi^. 66d}< To aecure 
thia cfleA e wing or tel! ia attached to the aheU which 
holda it m the required poaidon. relative to the obacrvcia 
at the moment of exploaion. 

Fi«. ttd. 

The amngemcnl of the eonUote of iheee ahdk U 
•howa In the accompany ing eketch. (Tig. 67). The in* 
aide of the round ahell caae ie acored aa ahown at (a) 
and (h} by cutting half way duough the paper with a 
knife in order to cauee ahell to burA evenly end throw 
the dtara equelly in aO duediona 

Snok* dan ai« pill hawm M* dlimetw and K* Ioa« 
cloeed at one en^ and over tho other end are bent two 
drip* of thin meul (copper or dn) which are aeewed 
by a paper faltening eo ae «o redrid the opening to 
about one third ite original eiae. The darv are charged 
with the compoeitiob ehown under *5meke Stare", the 
end being primed over the meul ftripn They ere 
then arranged in the round part of ihcU aa ehown in 
Fig. 67. *The little amoke ahell# and parachute are pla ced 
in upper or canider portion. 


Mortara lor firing pyrotechnica] bombihelle are made 
lo a variety of different wayi. For ahelli up to 3* in 

diameter a moilar 12 to IS Inchea high, made of a 
number of turn# of good Aout peper will aerve for per* 
hape a hundred ahota. eapecially if lined on the inaide 
with a piece of tin or galvanized iron. If a bottom ol 
oak or other hardwood i# fitted to it and the barrel tightly 
wound with marlin, it will he peifedly aafe, light and 

For 4* diameter ahella and upward mortara of copper 
lubee> ahnmk, one over the other ao that there are four 
iKickneaaea u the bottom, three lor half the length two 
up to three^^uaftera of ita band and one thicknaai lor 
balancei with a ring at the top make ao ideal mortar. 

Wrought iron tubee wound wid> galvanized wire and 
fitted with eait iron bottoma aecurely faitened in by 
machine bolt# or riveti make very lervicable guna Ihe 
bottom ahouU be conical on the inaide to accomodate 
tba powder beg of ihdl. (Fig. 66). 

Hw Japoncee uiod long wooden mortar# rei&forced 
with vott banda. Theee were aoaked in water before 
being uaed to ewell and ughten them. On account of 
tbeir length they would throw a ahell to a great height 
with a amall driving charge. They ahould alwayi ba 
baried for half their length in the ground when in uae. 
With theee mortan k waa cxiAomary to pour the driving 
eharge for ahdla» looaely iolo the mortar, drop the ahdl 
over k and fiie by ahaking a Unle dro#» from a port fire 
iMo the moflar. Tbia method W dangeroua and i# net 
lo be recommended. 

Mortar# with port hole* on #ide of bottom, like the 
old Ayle military mortar# are aemebmea u#ed for day 
abella. The cartridge ol #heU ia pierced' with a pcirning 
rod and a piece ol bare match inaerted through port hole. 


Secure eome good tUeue paper 20* z 30* (Foudrinier 
it beA). Page two aheete together on the 20* enda mak* 
mg a aheet 20* s 60*. Split thia lengthwiae and gel • 
abed 10* X 14)*. Make twelve ihcda of ihia aiie: lay one 
on top of another and double over the lot lengitudinaffy 
ao aa to have pile 5* z 60*. Now. with a aciaaoca cut 
along the unfolded edge aa ahown in Fig. 69 (a), 
remeviag the part ahown at shaded. The exact line to 
cut may be determined by praddee unbl the moA aatia- 
faaory ahape ia found when an extra aheet ol heavy 
P*pee ahould be cu| and reaervad aa a pattern. Or. the 
pattern can be made according to initruAaooa given under 
"Balloon Deeigning**. 

Unfold iheeta cut aa above and lay one on the tabic 
before you. On top of thia lay ariother but about H* 
neiree lo you thua leaving an uncovered edge of the 
under aheel ezpoeed (bX Apply p«Ae lightly to thia edge 
and Up it over onto the upper aheet in thia manner 
ioming dm two for their entire length. Make aix pair# 
of akaele like thU and then repeat the proeeea with 




tko double tKeett until 70U have three ecte ol four 
iheell* Join theie u before making the &oal cloaing ioini 

UkewiM. If the top of balloon where the joinia rdM ia 
not well doled pafte a amall round piece of paper over 
• 11 . 

When balloon hea dried make a ring of wire. baji^Oo 
or rattan for the bottom with ciom wire* to *bold the 
inflalor (c). For a balloon of the above aUe ibe ring 
ahould be about 15* diameter. In balloona 10 feet or 
more in height a wire baeket ia eomedmee woven into 
the tenter of the ring eo that an extra iaHator may be 
added jult before releaaing balloon when ready to riea. 


Theae are made m aeverai wayi. One condAa of a 
ball of cotton wool which ia aaturaled with alcohol 0* 
keroaeno oil when balloon ia to be Inflated. A more 
eonvienent inRater may be made by impngnaimg a ball 
of aacelaior with paraAne and fadteniag it on top of creae 
wirea of balloon ring. Thta hai the advantage of bang 
cleaner and requiiea nothing further chan lighting wban 
balloon ia to be raiaed. 


A balloon Rve feet high when debated oan be made 
from twelve piecea of taaiue paper cut out of ahoeto l(F 
wide and 60* long. To get the proper aKape for cutting 
iheea aediona draw a plan of the deaired ehape of beh 
loon when RnUhodt aocnewhat w ahown in R«. I. 
Then make a ground plan a# ihown in F^. 2. (AMUter 
the elevaCiea plan by the two Uoee a I and o2. The 

linee a1 repcearnt the balloon at ita wida^ point in both 
plana, line b In ground plan la obtained by meaauiing 
the length of line b in Fig. I from central line a2 lo 
the edge of balloon and then taking the aama di^aaca 
from the center of Fig. 2 and making a circU with a 
pair of compeaaea at thia point. Idnei e. d and c are 
oblainad in tba aame manner. 

Now. to make the pattern aa ahown in Fig. 5 draw 
a plan of one of the iHeetk from which the balloona ia 
to be cut uaing aama icaJe ai in Figurea I and 2. Divide 
it by a line through ita cenlaa langthwiae and then locate 
line# abb ho I. d I and e 1 by meaauring distance 
from bottom of balloon to each croia Una on Fig. I 
along one edge from d2 to e. it now only remaiiu to 
locate the point# on Fig. 3 for getting proper ahape of 
pattern. To do iW take a pair of dividera and meaaure 
length on tine b 1 from central perpendicular line in Rg. 2 
to point where it inloacdto the next radial line to the 
ri^h Divide thia diAance equally to each aide of central 
Koe of line bl ip Fig. 3. Do the aame with lines c, d 
4ftd a. On a large plan thia may be more accurately 
^oaa widt. g Aaxible rule but when uaing dividan aa 
above a alight allow aaca muit ba mada for the curva* 
Cure of the line* on Fig. 2. All that ia iteeeaaary. now» 
ta to draw an aaay line from top to bottom of Rg. 3 
aa shown. Tbe bottom of 5* ballooa ihould be about 
l$* diamatar. Dividing thia by four will give approii- 
matily 3N* for bottom of pattern. 

Fireworks Attachments for Balloons. 

Theae make a very pretty addition la a balloon aacen* 
aion and may be deeigned m numetoui wayi aa to ioge* 
nuily af tbe pyroiethnWt will auggea. A typical attach- 
ment ta ahown in accompanying akaleh (Fig. 7JX 

*n>e lower portion el a geib » AUad with lad fira 
which bums undl the baSoon raacKee tha keicht of aev* 
oral Kundrad feeg then the gold rain dfedt of iha geib 
fttodiona unlfl the heading of Aan, empeota tie. le di^ 
ckargeA A vertical wheel euapendad from a wire and 
lifhcinf when baDoon ia well up in the air makee a 
very lAteratfbng display. 


In lhaa item of pyrotec h ny the lugloTy of firaworka 
in genoml has been somewhat reveraed While many 
persona have loA Umba and life m (he manufadhve of 
roman candlee, rockets etc. ori a large acale» compate- 
tively few eeiioua eccidenta have occured to those using 
them. On the other hand, though cannon cracken are 
one of the aafedt arudee in the buaincae to make, they 


Kavo cAtM^d, duhn^ their then «Ar«er die leee of more 
htnde, trme etc. to thoic &rioc them then ell f^h er 
of pyrotechnici combined 

The re«Aon w eimpU. The compoeidon of omckcn 
ii ooV «splMT» wheo or oher «ck« t» 

finiihcd end the expkoeion of e finiehcd creckcr will not 
ignite othen. a# i* the cue with cendlee etc where e 
eperk will Are thoueende at once But when crecken 
are ueed by the inexpeheoced it ie difEcult to dotenmne 
whether the ftae ia lighted or not which often caueee 
the cracker to explode in the hand with dieaAroua reeuUe. 
iti bloody record h*i cauud a number of tftatea to Keg' 
iiUte againA ita eale in aizea larger than three to four 
inch. Until a fuee is invented that wiU be eaneumed ae 
it burnt. thU piece of fueworka will be dangeroua to 
Karfedle. The &A available record of the manufacture of 
American Cannon Cnckare on a eommefcial aeale wae 
about the year I66D when Edmund 5. Hunt of Weymouth, 
Matr. devieed a very iagenioui machine into whtcK waa 
fed empty caiei from a hopper while the compoeidon 
and fuae waa inaerted and the ende cruaped at one 
operation. Previoualy only Qtineae erackeca were uaad 
but the inereaaed loudneaa of the report and the reduced 
Koit of making them aoon cauaed the American articia 
to aupplant the imported one in the larger aicee. 

With the advanl of the Fleah Cracker the Chineee 
have again invaded the American market to a Urge aAent 

The caaaa for cracker* are rolled aimdar to rocket 
caaea except that pa41e ia uaad only on the Uil turn at 
farthest end of aheot, the body of the eaae beini rolled 
dry. By thia meana the cracker ia mote eaady blown 
into iroaU fragment! and the danger of being struck by 
a Urge piece of hard caee ia evoidod The fuee uaed 
ia the amall red cotton unteped fuae made eepeeially for 
thia purpoee though moA any kind of blasting fuae May 
be ueed A piece from IV^ to 3* loag ia auficient ac* 
cording to the Icngdi of the ciackar. 

Varioua compoaidon# are uaad thoee eoacainiog And* 
mony giving the leudegt npoit while thoae made with 
aulphur only, produce laae noUe. The caeea ahould he 
J^ed about one third full of corapoeidon to obtain the 
bail leaulta and compoeidan mudt be looee. not rammed 
The addidoh of charcoal will Ucfeeae the hfbtBeaa of 
the compoaiden end prevent ito tendency to pack wbkh 
leaeene the report 

The anda of erackcie are ftoppad in variom waya 
The beA ia by mean* of crimpen which pinch or naeh 
the enda of the cnae around the fuee at one end and 
into a bvmeh or bunp at the odwr. A dab of glue letaine 
the enda in pUce. Another method ia to cloee the h^e 
end with clay and the other with a cork. The low grade 
of corke \ieed for thia purpoee can be bought for ee 
cheaply ea twelve eenta per iKoueand in the amall aizea 
which U leu then the coA of plug! of any other aort 

242 PYR0TE2H,''JY 

To meko crackera in thia manner roll the caam ei 
direAed hUka a brnu nipple aa ahown Fig. 72, of the 
diameter of the crecker duired and about aa high from 
top to ahouldar. Drill a hole through the centar aonw' 
what larger dian de, fuea ao it wiO pou eaaily into it. 
Alan promde a rammer about 6^ longer than the cracker 
and d^ a boU into the lower end, aomewKtt larger than 
the lime and ream or countemink it a Kittla. After aetdng 
the nipple in a block put a piece of fuae in it. alip a 
cnee on. put in enough alightly dampenad cUy to occupy 
a ball ineb when rammed and with a few blowa of a 
malat etO it firmly. You had boA now remove the eaae 
and with a aharp knife eplit it open without breaking 
^ cUy 4nd aee tl everything ha* been operating cor- 
roAfar. that U if the proper amount of clay haa been 
ueed and H the fuae projedto au£cient)y on the inaida 
end haa net been maahad into the day aa aomedme* 
happwir if the rammer hae not been conaAiy made on 
tbe mid which rama the day wKila the fuee enter* hole 
in aamn UnUee thia haa been wall done the oatker 
w9 foil m anploda. When thaae mattem have been pro* 
p ml l adj^tAed proceed with remming cUy in another 
eaae and ecoop in enough compoeidon (any one from 
Ha to foOew) to fill eaae ebout one third. Then take e 
oerk that will fit pretty anuggl)^* dip the amall end in 
liquid fiah glue end lore* It in open end of crecker. It 
ie now cooipUtcd and may be removed from nipple. If 
toe mwdk compoaiHon U ueed the report ia weakened; 
a ful CBM will hardly caplode at alt 

When craehcr* are made on a Urge acalei a block 
of da dotes nipplea ie uaed. aia wide and twelve length' 
wiao. eame aa for roman eandlea. The cUy and compo- 
dsiofl can be dropped into lot eimuknneously by the uae 
of boarda aa abown under eandla machine. Seme 

manufaAurett piafv lo uae a long nippU and abort ram* 
mcv. iwntai&g the of ramming aa the cracker ia 

rtaamd from the fuee «id inAaad of from die cork end. 
By thia maani the danger of maihing the fuao into the 
clay ie aroided aa the nipplo on the iaaide proteAa it 
But only ibe clay can be filled into them ail at one* by 
da* method, aa, th* compoeidon hug loaded from the 
athm and. they miAt be remevad from the apindloa bo* 
foto dne enn be accompliabed. 

Tb* foOewing are the Anndard eiaea. 





Nwben Length 

Bore No. 

. in boa 

Beaes ia case 

1 Ss^ 





2 • 





3 - 










5 - 





7 - 





9 - 





10 - 




12 • 





13 - 








Potass: chlorate 


6 6 

Washed sulphur 


3 2 

Sulphuret endmony 


Meuiic andiuoDy 






If unwashed sulphur is used 

the report wiS be con* 

•idcrtUy lo\id«v bul the deafer *u fMetef. Of the ehove 
roiimft* the leA b about the eeleA that ceo be mede 
Ibe hr* five* the loudeA repoit Greet ceie niuf be 
excrtieed m mirinf the eenpeeitien for ceaaoo creckere. 
^ch iafredieat muA be etfted eepecetely ead then mised 
in e tub with the fiat ere, prelefeUy floved. beUf «ere^ 
ful aot to eentch the bottom of Otb with ^ neHe. 


The Mae le prebebly denved horn the ^each word 
lor chMaufet which bum when beiaf reeled, ead eevm 
whet fofiei#! of e oeee of heevy p%pm ceoaieiae ea 
eaploeiTe ehei^ whieh whea iyiilej producee a loud 
report Aeriel Merooae ere eua^ the eeae eitiele er* 
tufed to explode la mid-eir wKm ired Hke e ehell 

b* diemeler fitted into e hendle b end «ome piece* of 
Aroag light paper 2H* *<}uere e. Take e piece of paper 
in one hand and with the nipple in the other, preaa the 
paper around it io a* to focm a UlUe cup which ia now 
ineerted in the Ko?^ in block pressing down until the 

fiaikfe of the nipple spreads the upper edges of the 
peper. Remove the nipple and pul into tlte paper cup 
lorme<L enough composition to htlf fill it. Insert a pieca 
of match three ir^ehe* long; draw the paper around (Ke 
match end secure tightly with two half hitches of linen 
twioa Remove from ^bloeki pmt^r a Ktde gum on one 
side and push Into a cracker case (d) diameter and 
3* tong. It ia not nccaaMrx to close the ends of iUih 
cradten as the report le ju#l as loud when they are left 


This intmAiaf addition to pTroteehnjr ie one ci the 
raeulto of the adreat of aluminum. The feOewing con* 
po whop may be used both lor dash oaeken and natoen 




Potoesi ptocUevmto 
Petoee cUomto 




Wedtod sulphw 




P^vo ahaBiauai 






Mm themghlj ^ evlpbiir» coal and aKomnuiw then 
add tba cHlotato petoeti previously eifted by itaalf; on* 
ing by relUng the ingredients back and forth on a piece 
of paper and avoiding friction of arty kiinL 

Prepare a block c Txg. 73 by boring several holes 
as shown. 7/16* diameter and 1* deep. Also a nipple 

Composition #2 and #3 an much the salcet and 
should be used by any but those very familiar with this 
class el work but the ends of the cracker muSt be cif htly 
closed to secure a loud report as direeiod for cannon 
crackwa. Also the sulphw m ihess miainge should not 
be washed 


By due name ie understood the toy torpedoes used 
by children, whieh detonate when thrown on the ground. 
I bdivve that these were hrrt mede by the French under 
the name of Teas fulminant** (mad peas). -but the co 
Tilfrd Jap. or cap torpedoesi which conAitute far the larg* 
cA pert of those used today, as' nearly as I can liod out 
are an Amencan invention. 



Fulminate of Silver. 

Tb. Minmal. i. by uking 6 ozi. oF C P. 




f^bie (42%) and adding graduAllyi Alfring conitft&liy 
with k gUM ro6t 2 ou. W4ter. Into thii pot a Oliver 
dollar or 1 os. of Wr lilvor Warm ilighdy until a briok 
rcadtion takao plaoa. WKen the oHver incompletely dio* 
oolved allow to cool lor ikiae minutai. T})en add 16 oza. 
pwe alcohol Add it all al oiieo and qtdckly and ho 
•ure that the vetiel containing the toludon of nlver la 
at leait four dmea aa large aa the amount cMtIained for 
a violent elferveaence will take place. Aftex it auhaidea 
add three ounce* more alcohol Let 4tand lor a quarter 
to one hall hour when a white ciyAaline precipitate will 
be lormed on the bonom ol vecae) which it the fulminate 
and may be coUedted on a Alter and dried in a ahady 
place. A candy jar may be uaed for making the fulminate 
but a glaaa beaker it lar preferable. 

The utaoA care muA be eacerciaod m handling the 
dry powder aa the alightcA concuaaion will explode the 
entire lot vndi lerriAc violenea. A wooden ipoon ahould 
be uaed for removing it from the hlter and it ehotdd be 
handled a* littla aa poaaihle and ia the amalleA pradti- 
cable quanbeiea Procure a round paper boa from a drug 
Aore» one inch in diameter and three inche* high. Make 
a email hole U16* in diameter through the cover artd 
611 it about half lull of dry fulminate. Now take a board 
1 0* wide and 20* long. H* thick and with a H* bat bore 
50 holea through it* (5 rowt« 10 to a row). Thi* ie the 
torpedo board. Then take a aimilar board and with a 
H’ bit bore the aame rtumber of hole# in the eame poei« 
don. into it but not quite through. Thi* U the giavel 
board. A punch will now bo required aa ahewn tn Fig. 
74. a, the nipple being H’ diameter and H* long. 
Get come ol the bcit grade liMue paper and cut k in* 
to plaeoe two iaoboe iquon. Tako g bu&eb of dmm la 
the laH haad. Plaoe oao over enth bole la dte torpedo 
board, ml lha eame time fordag it ia the bole with the 
punelmr lo ae to make a litde bag. Wboa the board k 
filled with paper dip the gravel board into a boi filled 
with gravel dhing the board to the eurptue will run o(l 
and the holee will be juA filled Than laveiee the board 

gttvar Tep^eiiae 


containing the papere and place it over the board of 

gravel. Hold tighdy together and mm both board* to- 
gether uptide down and the gravel will be emptied into 
the torpedo board all at once. Remove the now empty 
gravel board and with the fulminate boa ahake a little 
of the powder into each little bag of gravel juA a* you 
would shake lalt from a salt aeiler. Only a very little 
i* required. Now dip the lip* of the thumb and forefinger 
into pa Ae and with the finger tipi of both hand* gather 
up the edge* of the paper, bunch them together and by 
giving a few twUU the torpedo i* finished. Care muA 
be taken not lo twiA too tightly as the torpedo ii likely 
to eiplode in the fingers. 


These, while considerably .safer than the silver torpc' 
does to make and handle require to be A ruck with much 
more force in order to cause them to ssplods. RrA we 
muA proceed to meke the ceps< (Fig. 7$). 

*nMra ere tequirod a pan 2* deep* S’ wide aad 10* 
loag» a number of pieces of blanket 12* iquars which 
muA be wall deiapaned before using* end e cap dra^ 
per made by driving 150 S penny neiU, lor one inch 
of their length into s wooden block 7’ a 9*, I thick and 
fitted with e hesdle aa shown in iUuAretion. The heads ol 
die neili ahould be wcU leveled up so that evesy one 
touches when dropper Asnds on s Aet surfsce. Also cut 
a lot of pieces of poAer paper 6” a S’ and ^ce them 
in twe pdee on the work table. They art for dropping 
the caps into. The cap composition is made as follows 


Potasaium chlorate 5 oas. Amorphoue phosphorus 

Sulphur h " 2 ois. 

Oialk H ** 

Sift separately the ingredient* of No. I. mis (Keroughly 
and molAen in s bowl with water lo the coiuiAency 
ol porridge. In another bowl niolAen the two ounces 
Amorphous Phosphorus, to the same coniiAcncy. Ihen 
Air the phosphorus into the bowl containing the other 
ingredients, with s spoon. When thoroughly miaed pour 
into the pan previously menlioncci. 

Teke the dropper by the handle and dip it into the 
pan of composition, remove it end print it lighdy onto 
the top sheet of one of the piles of poAer. With s wide 




bru«h p*Ae the tap eheet on the other pile, ell over on 
one side with thin pa^e to which a lillW dextrine hee 
Wen added end revene it onto the iheet thel hee juA 
had the cepe dropped on it Now remove the ^Uhed 
a^eet of cepi to one 0 / the damp hUnheti end repeat 
operedoni placing e piece of blanket between each eheet 
of cepe until ell the compoeidon It need up after which 
place a UsKi board on top of the pile ol alternate cepe 
and blanketa, end on thie. a weiiht allowiaf it to remain 
for about an hour, after which remove the blanketa and 
place the ^le of cape in a tight box where diey can- 
not become dry. 

Now fill the torpedo board ae before diraded only 
uiing a lomewhal amaller gravd board. Take* out a few 
aheeU of cape and with a long pair el aciaaon cut be- 
tween each row of cape each way ao aa to aaparata 
them. Place one aquarely on top of the gravel in 
each torpedo and taking a handful of gravel, drop a hole 
on lop of oacK cap. They are now ready to be twidod 
ai deacribed foi ailver torpodoea. When a number have 
bean finiahed they ahoutd be packed in aawdulk or rice 
ahalla and removed from the workroom. Too many abould 
not be allowed to accumulate 10 a pile, lor when dry» 
the eaploeion of one will aometimea fire the entire lot 
and the flying Aonea often cauee aarioue injury. Be aura 
never to allow the capa to become dry while making the 
lorpedoea, or in the Aorage box. 

In making cape, when a batch Kaa been completed, 
be very careful to wipe up thoroughly every drop or 
apeck that may be apillod, and waah well the pen and 
dropper etc. aa well aa the table, aheara and btuah uaed 
and throw away the waahinfa where they will run od. 

Japaneae lotpedoaa do not keep much over a year 
aa the phoapKorua decompoaaa and after awhile diaappeari 
entirely from the cap. rollowing are (he principal auee 
and packiogi of lorpedoea: 


ail* m«im ' 

n*. la iM a« 

|U» lA €•• 


1 H‘ iq. 





3- iq. 






Ai& Exirmi 1H’ 


















Cat Scat 










Tbcee conaiA of a I oe. tin ointment can containing 
a Ruslure almilar to that uaed in paper capa. A Arip 
of lead ia aolderod to bottom of box ao it can be eaaily 
attached to rail by bending Arip around top of rail, and 
firaa when engine rune over it (Fig. 74 b). 

for toy piatob. 

l^Mae are made ainular to thoee deacribed under 
Japan eee Torpadoea with aueh variationa of detail aa are 
nacaaaary to their apecial resuirementa. They ate of 
courae punched out by machinery, a abeet ak a tiiiia. 


The peculiar property of potaanum pioata to whiAla 
while buraing haa been known for a long time and Kaa 
been made uaa of lor producing the amuaing whiAling 
fireworka. To make ihii article: 

Diaolva I lb. picric acid In the laaA poarihla quantity 
of boiling watae, in a porcalain raeapbeal: add H lb. 
potaaalum carbonate, bide by little, Aining continuoualy. 
Then add ) lb. powd«ed aattpeter. Sdr thbrougbly; allow 
to Aand for one bour and remove to a heavy piece ol 
filter paper placed in a gUei luanel where U can drain. 
When dry cniah to fine powder with • wooden roller. 
Very email quantidea ahould be handled at a tiine aa an 
etploaion will caul a diaaatroua reaulta. Tbe dry powder 
may be rammed into tubea from to H* dUmettr and 
will produce the whiAling aound whan burned. Bamboo 
tubaa are meA oifaAiva. 

Owing to the caaa with which potaae; pierata delo* 
natea whiAlea cannot be uaed in aheUa but amall tubea 
M* diameter and 2H* long when charged with the above 
compoaiden may be place in the heada of rocketa or 
laAenad to the ouiaido and arranged (q bum aa the 
rocket ia aaceoding. Attached to whaela they are quite 
amuaiag, but the moA efieAive uaa for them ia when a 
Miice of aim or eight rangiiig in aise from K* to H* 
diameter are act aide by aide like e Pandaen Pipe and 
burned aimukaneoualy. 


(%)it Devil— D avU on die Walk). 

TUi Mpyging litde piece of fireworka coneiA of a 
diac about one inch or mora m diaoater which, when 
antchad on the paveanant givea off a eondnuoua aeriea 
of Utde exploaiobf, bnrxung from ona hall to three quartera 
of a minute. On account of aomewhat rcaembling candy 
loaengea a number of faliJ aeddenia have oceured by 
amall children awallowing them. For thia reaecn their 
•ale haa been forbidden in aome aedboxia. They are 
made aa loDowa; (Fig. 76) 

Secure a number of boaida ol W matariaL and bore 
helce into them K* deep end 1 M diameter acmewhal aa 




ikowD «l (*X Turn up ft puncher kke (b) whlckk wiH 
work «ft«ly in the hol^ Cut lome red Poudrimer ibiue 
peper into dreuW pieeee 2H* dUmeter. Ley them over 
the kolee in boned ftnd punch ia Pour into tbeee the 
coenpoftidon pren bdew end fold orcr the ed<«e of ibo 

poper ftt in {eX Penut lo eel end when Kerdened they 
be removed end thoroufkly dried when d»ey wdl 
be reedy for uec. 


Mil five kflofreme of powdered gum Ambic wkK 
hve litroe of weler, ed^ng witcr gtedueMy with ceoAftai 
Aiirinf . Then odd \ M kg. Mofneeium cArboaete. Piece 
thii in ft wftler both with e ihermoaiettt emnged ee ihet 
temperftture con be eerofully obeervod end heel to $0^C 
efter wbieh odd e mixtur* of one kf. white pboephorue 
end Air until entiioly mrfted. Coruinuft ftirnAg while 
cooling to 2S^C after whieK add a miitufe of 2K kf- 
red ochre and d kg. potaae: chlorate and Air undl a 
perfa^y emoetb produA raaulti after which k may bo 
poured into the paper moldj m above. Croat caromiuA 
be ueed to proven! aecidente in all mlztoroe conUkiing 
phoephorue and chlorate of potaei. 


Thii remarkable eubAence coneiAe of email p^ete 
of iulphocyenide of mercury which hae the remarkable 
property of cwelling 25 to 50 Umee its original me when 
lighted, producing a long make like aeh. To prepare, 
make a concentrated lolution of merewie chloride and 
add hnie by litde a eolution of potaeeium lulphocyanado. 
Aimng conAantly. A greyUh precipitate will be formed 
and when the laA drop of iulphocyenide added no longer 
producee cloudineee permit ike mixtul^, .to eetde. Drain 
90 ai much ai poeeible of the cleai lupemant Iwiaid. 
remove precipitate to a paper filler placed ia a glaae 
funnel and waiK ihghdy. When thereughly dry reduce to 
a fine powder. When ready to form the eggi moiAen 
very ipaiingly with a week eolution of gutn arabie to 
which may be added a pinch of ealtpelar and form into 
conee with the appliance ehown in Fig. 77. 

m.Tl \/ 


Ibie German device producee an immenee long bU ^k 
enake. otherwUe quite eimilar to the Pharaoke Serpente 
but in no waye related chemically, 

Naptha pitch 


Lineeed oil 


Fuming nitric acid 


Picric acid 


Reduce pitch to fine powder; add lineeed oil and rub 
m well; add ArongeA fuming nicric add. little at a time. 
Allow to cool for one hour. Weak eeveral timet with 
water, the Ua time allowing maie to Aand in the water 
for eeveral houre. TKorousMy diy; powder fine and add 
iricric acid, nibbing it in well MoiAen with gum arabie 
water and form into pellete about the aize of a #4 Aar, 

The naptha pitch can only be obtained in Gmany 
and then with eoneidenUa difficulty. A fairly good article 
may be made by melting together equal pam of Syrian 
aa^hum and roofing pitch. To the final product add 

Aeaiina when forming into Aara. 


(Snake in the grass). 

Thete conaiA of email conee of dnfoil containing a 
prtpoation whkh. when ignited, produce# a graee groan 

pda of aeh from which prwently omaegae a **Pharaoke 

Cut coma dnfoil into drclae IH* diamaaer. Cut thaee 
age» from the peiipbery to the center ae ehown in Rg. 
70. (a). Fold them around the former (b) to ae to make 
little conee and iaeert into block (e) filling them wick the 
following compoeidon: 







WH<n quite hitt up lo tKu ol ihu Uock» pruM 
cent«> a pell«t of PLoreoVe SorpenC pcwd«. FoU ov«r 
the odgee to the eenter end remere from To um» 

light et top ol eona. 


Ihese ore made hp dieoinckf T«rioUi euhAMKee io 
elcohoL, A copper con ikUed with cotton ie iM pcequotod 
widi the nleoholie eohitiotL It ia ^ n ^ 

cotton Idt prottudibf ftpBi the opeaifif. (Fig. 79). 

For Gma FUbo uio 


Y^Uw * 


Before lig htiai epetphlo * hide of ike p.ewdewd chee^ 
ioel eeor iko eottoq whm k profolto bom iko ooa. 


Theeocoiiiitt of thio wooden ttickeeuDikr toepplkcelofe 
Ueed hy phyekciene for epplyiAf lodioe eCc to etfe^ed 
poite. They ere dipped lor half dwir leaflh iste colored 
lire compondone in e more or leee liquid Aete. 

One method ie to mek one pert of gum eheUee in 
ID. iron pot Stir In 6ve perte of rery hnely powdend 
ttrondum nitrate. To keep thie ru£cieiil]y bquid it mutt 
be kepi quite hoi by the uee of e ttcem kettU. Hue 
U for red tticke Another method te to dieolve the ehdlee 
iTi ekohol end adding the ttrontium. The proper eon* 
ntteney of the mixture can be eeaUy regulated hy uttng 
ntore w'^lcea alcohol ee xequiraA When (he ttieke ere 
dried Iney are ready for uaa. 

Green ia not ao auccceafully made, benum nitrmte 
Ing aubttituted for ttrontium. A httU UmpbUck improTce 
the burning but detinAa from the col6c» cepecially the 
green. The tticka are puahed into a gnure ia the her 
aa ahown, Fig. 00 for drying. 

Ruby and Emerald Shower Sticks* 

Tbeee are much more etfettive and are made in 
the aame manner aa above uaing foUowing compoaition: 

Sirondum nitrate 6 

Coerve elununum 6 

Poteaa pcrchlomte 2 

ShelUe I 

Diaolve aheUac in alcohol and add other ingredi an ta, 
previoualy well mixed. Stir thoroughly to conaittaney of 
thick glue and dip Aicki pievioualy arranged in holder 
eo they may be pieced in drying racL 

For C»££S uer 

Aluminum powder coane b 

Barium chlorate ^ 

ShaUac H 

Alcohol q. .!• 

The Japenaae make a airoiUr aidcla of twitted paper 
httl tii$ toquirea a gMat deal of pcadice to Uaro» almott 
uaaitaioablo by wattam raaaa* 

Tkaeo am made in a gaaaral way like the abova 
but in attatt thay throw of a ahowar of bocutifui cpatka 
Tkmo aie aooMl eariedae of eparkling Aicki which aro 
aald under thie aama. *1^ principal ona eonaitta of 
piacaa of who or thin twittad matah part of which it 
aoTWod with a compoaidon containing ttael hUaga. 


Rm tto4 filingt )2 

Rae aluouBum powder I 

Potaaaium panhlomte b 

Desttina or gum anbic 2 

Wntar q. a. 

TW ttoaf mutt be ptatetted from cotoaion with para* 
fina» Tko gum ahouJd be made of the coaeittente of 
madlafo. Min die ingredieata thoroughly end add gum 
uepil a mistura ia obtainad that wiD adhere to 
iko wiroi wbea they are dipped iato it Thia vaiica in difer* 
nt eottiona and with ditfarant runa of ingrediente. In 
pmttfca. hunchae of wirea avo ^pped at once and alowly 
wi^^nwB ia a current of warm, dry air wlucK eauaea 
mixture to adhan eranly. 

A aparUar of ^uat hrdhasco and which ia vary 
efettnro mny ho made ae followa.* Take 3 Ibn of dex* 
Irina and odd la aama. littia at a tiniei 1 2 pints of water, 
ttvriag condauaOy go aa to avoid lumpa. Mix mdmalely 
10 Iho^ poNaaium petchloiole wid) 7 Iba. pyro-aluminum 
er Sn4y powdwad abmiaum oud add thia to the gum 
w#cc» tthring imid a perfottly amooth mixtura ia ohtauiod. 
Wood ttiAi may bow be dipped huo k to the deaired 
depth while it ia coatnined in a deep veeael and placed 
hi a aui table rack for drying. It may be neeeaaary to 




dip d)« Aick* •everal dme* depcndenl on how much 
c^jnpoiituin it b detued lo h^vo on them. In diU 
they »KouU be dried with the compocihon end up, the 
. time eo the! qo< Co much eompoution eceumuUtee 
on the end bexond the ftick. 


Thcee contbl mainly oi five or eU viricdee u fob 
lowe: (pif. fil}< 

No» I Flondnf f «b or romea A com ebeped 

piece cl Kfht weed ll bored wilh bole ol euiteble cite 
to Uke the f erb or cendle «• tkown. tn erdw to eecure 
M upncht poeidoo with roman ceadUpv h b eomedmee 
MpeeMTj to pUca a charfo ol iron filiaci in the bottom 
ol eaae 

No. 2. Ploadaf Tableau liphtt are mwetr a colored 
po< ol ttdwUe mn placed on a boards 

No. 3. Diriag Devfla A sharp geA b fitted with a 
h ollow head aet at aa angle with the eaae. Carelul 
adju ttin e n t mutt be made to ae to inewe fioadiif el the 
peA which will cauae it to tfive into end coma up oid 
ol the walm properiy. Thb k perhape tha modt amu»> 
af poeca el weler faewet b ee weO m the oae caBjti 
lor the B»oA cenM work. The tip ol float mutt be 
weighted eo ae to cauM it to dive and pot be boeyaat 
ceoeph to make it rue agiia. 

No. 4. Rab are. made limUar to the Divic^ Devd 
eacoiC that not eo much adjiittr—iU b eecwMry aa they 
only run around on top ci the water. 

No. 5. Water WbeeU are aa ordinary Vertical Wheel 
cet on a board float aa ekown. 

The Reh and Devile akould be beavfly coated with 
peia&ne when finbhed; even the noetai ol the match 
ehoold be proCetted bi dua manaw and water proel hue. 
p roperty primed, need lor lifhtiof. 

Water fireworke are only prattacal on ^ubt poadi 
and email lakae and an nrually fired From a ekifl. Great 
care ahould be used to proledt the copply in boat From 
apaika ol iKoee buming. in order to p ier cut accidmie 
to d>e operator. #6 b a Floattag Kfioa 


Theae ate taed ornttlr ift the large epaninilai pyto- 
I whn i ee l pi ttu rm leaMrbg vekaaoe em rah aa “The 

latt daya ol Pempeh” “Bomlag ol Pome'* etc They 
coneitt ol Aort mine eaaea aboitt 4* to 6' b db meter 
and 6^ to 12' long. Ibe eompoeitiooa are 


Meal powder 2 

Raa chareoe] T 

Sawdutt 1 


While ckeee are reelV no part ol the ii|inlw1mh at 
eat they do come under the headinf ol Military Pyro- 
techaica. They coneitt ol a fine ttream ol Titanium 
tetoechleride whiA b eprayed from an airplane at a aut* 
aUe height and whiA in lalling producee the deoaa 
amoke intended to aereen what b b^nd it TVe Kqsdd 
b pmjetted haAward from dia plane at the eame rale 
aa the H*"** movament throegh the ak aa that the Ao^ 
let* fall petpandiculerty. 


Tbb branch ol pyroteckay aeema lo have been aome* 
what overtookod though Ua poaaibilihee lor daylight e^ter 
tainment lo aupplament night diaplaya would appear to 
open an iotaretting field lor theae with the oeceaaary 
imagination Id develope U. 

T^ere are aa many eolora and dtiKa ol amoke aa 
there are ol flamea and aerial eomhinationa produce kome 
mafly heanlihil aflette 

Tlw eimplett form oF amoka uaad in pyrotechny b 
the Smoke Pet uaed in tha apottaelea auA ae “Latt Daya 
of Pompei* where it b deeked lo give the inpreaeion 
ol dettiuAiou by fire. A baaie lonnular. eubjott lo vacw 
abon b: 

Snkpeler 4 

Qmmoal t 

Ree||mr I 

Roetn I 

A tteidng fire m given below b elao necaeaaiy. 

A amoka pot develepad by our War Depaitment For 
making imoka acraatu conaitta of eaae 3H* diamecct 6* 
high with a I' opening in the top. The compoaidon 
MneUta ol: 

The aa 













b mAed and 

whUe ttiU hot the other 




ingr*^enti» previdtMly well mlxe^ ere Airred in. Before 
ihe mixture eeoU end kerdene it b preeecd into ceee. 
Ai it ie difficult to ifnitCi e Aerttog fire ol 

deltpeler 6 


Antimony tulfid. I 

Meel powder I 

ii used. About b* of thie b pieced on top ol odier com- 
poeition before putting the top on ceee. THie mey con- 
•bt of e ’wooden diec with holci leAened in piece with 
imell neiii or e bn can mey be used ee conteincr. 

Ae iKb emoke ie not iaiurioue to the lunge it mey 
be ueed in doere for theetricel work< Rub the po t eee; 
chlorele end leAoee tegether thoroughly, then edd eel 
eaunoniec* findy powdered, mixing only once more. Rem 
lightly. Another very good white emoke ipey he mede 
ee followK 

Sulphur floWere 16 


Fine chereoel I 

Thie b foe outdoor u»e only. Uie e bctle while Aer 
cooipoNtioD for Aerting fire. 


(Smoke Clouda) 

Theee ere ueuelly mede by filling ^e eheO ceee with 
e finely divided powder of the deeired color cloud lo be 
ebteined. To the end of the ehell luee b eaeched e 
■mell bag of gunpowder which ehould be located ee neer 
the center of the ehell ee poeeiblc. TKb, when exploding 
eervee to ecettcr the colored metter end produce the cloud. 
The errengement of the hue mey be ueed ee thown 
in Fig. 67. 

For RED 


uee Amtricnn vennillion powder 
Ukremeiine powder 
Perie green 
Chrome yellow 
Ivory black 


The really beautiful efieAa. however, ere produced 
by the burning ol mixtures which produce e denee emoke 
of the deiired color. For ihb puipoie • paper lube 1 
inch ineide diemeter end 4 inch long b deeirmble. into 
which ore bored 4 or ^ holee b* diameter on • epirel 
line, at interveb ee ehown in Fig. S6. Both ends of the 
ceee mey be closed with cley or wooden plugi. Do aol 
peck emoke compoeilione. Rem very tighdy. 


Poteeeium chlorate ) 

Ladloee I 

Sal ewmoniar, final/ powd. S 


Haxi c hlor oethane 24 

Alpha aaplha 6 

Anthfocene 1 

Aluminum powder 4 

Roman candle compeeidon 6 

Uee white Aar compoiHion for Aeidni. if found 


YELLOW SMOKE, (canary) 

Poteenum chlorele I 

LeAoee | 

Perenitieniline yellow 2 

Uee red Aar compoitlion for Aerting either of the 
above three. 

YELLOW SMOKE, (olive) 

Red ereenic 

Aabmony sulphide 
Meel powder 
No Aeibng fire necessery. 


Potaesium cMofate 
Peraniinmiline rod 

RED SMOKE, (dark) 

Potaaiium chlorate 











Petaasium oUorata 6 

Laftcie 5 

Awamme b 

lodigo (sytothebe) 5 


PotaaeiuB ehlome 7 

LaAom 5 

Indigo (eynthebc) fi 

Staiba^ fire If naaded 

Aimodt any paAel shade deetred may be produced 
by combining the above formulae containing aniline dyes. 






Thi» iDg«iuou« piec« £r«wavk« U belier«d to koY« 
koea deviied by tho firook Fbewofkj Co. ol 5 wrtj. 
Engknd lAd oreoted quite o tonudon ot die Oyital 
PeUto when hrit ihown about loRy yeoit $ 140 . h oon- 
eia* of a make equirnuAf around Ln the air alter a 
butterfly which maaegee however to evade it 

Hio Iramewoek coneiAe of aa eridioM chain of w eod> 
<n Unke 4* x d* baked together and running on four 
iprockete and four idler# of a auiubU #ixe a# ahown in 
Rg. 62. When ^ mounted, a crank U attached to one of 
the aprocket# by which ihe whold ia operated. The •nake 
and butterfly are made of Uneework which ia attached 
to the chain. 


VVImI. ^ ffg. ei. 

Thu ia a very old, yot alwaye attrartva doeice. I 
eooaiJti of two whaila throe foot m dkuMMr, attachea 
to oppoaite andt ol aa axle, airaatad to revolve hoiisot] 

tally on a apiodk aa ahowo. The rocketo paaa through 
aerew ^ea along the rim of the whoeL and an matched 
le fito at interval# aa the wheel revolvea by being con« 
aeOUd to eueoeeaive drivera. On the top ia a battery of 
roman eandlae. The top wheel ia httod with ordinary 
dnvera eontaining ttoel fiHua and matched to bun two 
at a lime, one each on oppoaite aidea. lha lower wheel 
ia fitted wth aluminum gerba all to bum at oneo with 
the laA two dhveta of the lop wheel. The latter are aet 
at an angla with the axia of rotadon ao aa to give a 
wider apread ol Hie. The battery of candle# Aarta with 
aecond pair of driver# of top wheel (Fig« 63). 


Tbia almple yet boffliDg and atwaya intcraAing device 
ia conAruAed aa ahown in Fig. 64. The frame may be 
aecured in diflerent alxee. all ready for lancet etc. from 
manufadhirera of firework# wheel# in North Weare. N. K 
or it may be conArudted by the pyrotechniit Kimaelf 
aceording to auggeAiona given in akotch. 

When the piece ia huming. the globe appear# to he 
revolving firA in one. then in the other dlrMboa in a 
noA amuiing naanar. 

Revolving 6lobo. 

rifi. 64 . 



Aa far aa ia known to the writer there ha# never 
been givgn in Engliah a detailed de#cKptioh of thi# inter- 
eAing Htda article of pyrolechnica of which there are 
undoubtedly more made than of any other piece of fire- 
work#. The ingenuity of the Ounaae in ita production 
in the unb^ievable large quaatitiea that they are made 
b only equaled by the many other unuaual thing# done 
by tlua moA padeni and painAaking race. 




The yeerly imports to thu councry o{ Chinese fue> 
crackers amounts to three million doltara which divided 
among the various sizes, would amount conservaliv^y 
Co eight billion crackers. 

The Cubes or luecracker cases cases ate IK* long. 
H* outside diameter and have a hors oi 5/52*. They 
are rolled of a grade of paper unknown in this country; 
perhaps the LoweSl grade of paper made, unsized and 
quiie irregular in charadter a sort of coarse blotting paper. 
A amall amount of gum water or rice padte is used as 
a ^nder and the case ia firviahed with one turn of very 
thin red« green or yellow paper. They ere rolled in 
lengths of one to two feet ertd then cut Co the required 

Now a block is prepared (or gathering about 1000 
of these tubes into e heatgon shepod bundle, as follows. 

A piece of hard wood tboyl 1* thick and cut into a 
heaagon. each side of which is 5* wide is provided with 

pointed wood or metal pins H* long and 5/32* diameter 
set into the wood base so that the above amount proje^. 
and exaddy K* apart They are also arranged in a hei' 
agon wkh aides 4* wide. A cube is now slipped ores 
each piii until the entire block ia hUed. having ptevioualy 
provided a wood frame the aame size as the outside of 
the block one half inch thick and Keviag an inaide dU- 
meter slightly greater than the assembled tubes so as to 
be able to lUp snugly around (hem. This is slipped up 
and down a few times to ihape (he bundle nicely and 
a String tied around it to furchesr secure same. 

A piece of white paper ia now pated over the top 
of the bundle. When dry it is removed from the form 
and a pi ec e of paper pasted on the other tide when ii 
is drieo again. The under side ia moistcoed at the edges 
and the surplus paper needy rubbed oti. When again 
dry dte uppa tide is moistened all over and the paper 
over (ha top of each cracker ie pierced with a punch 
or round pointed Slick eo that they may be charged 
with the neceasary powds and clay. Some operators 
hold several Sticks between (heir fingcn at one dm* so 
aa to bo able «o punch eevaral hoWa tinniltanooualy. 

A wooden board about one inch wider all around 
than the bundle of emckere and K* thick with )i* holee 
bored through it, corresponding esa^y in position with 
the crackers in the bundle is now bn a smooth 
board, coverod with finely powdered cley which ia preased 
into the holee in it with the hand, unci) it ia firm enough 
not (o fall out when the pieco ia lifted. The surplus is 
brushed off and it is placed over the bundle of crackeie 
so that the clay filled holes are exactly over the open' 
in the tubee. A slight blow is usually suftdent to 
lo cause the clay to fall into (he crecken. Any not fall- 
ifig out ie puahed out widi a tiick. Hie bundle is jarred 
sllchriy against the table lo make the clay eettle. A 
tirailar opmtioa ie now petfonned .with a Aicket board 
oontaining slightly larger holee containing the powder 
cha^e after which the clay board is used once more as 
described above. 




The top layer of paper U now moistened ao tkAt it 
it may be entirely removed and ihe cUy which Km b^ 
come slightly moistened as well is gently pwhed down 
With A suitable raiiuner. It ts then dried In the sun. The 
bottom end is now carefully dipped into water, turned 
bottom up' and the paper removed from thU side also, 
the clay pushed down and pierted wilh an awl for the 
purpose oi inserting the meIcK or fuse. This ia however 
not done until the crackers have been again dried in 
the aun. After the fuses are inserted the ends of the 
crackers are pinched around It, about from the eod. 
by a enroper or two blunt knives hinged togech« at one 
end end having a V shaped notch cut out of the center 
of eath blade, so that when two notches ap^oecK from 
opposite sides .they pinch the cracker togedier and cause 
the fuse to be held in place. When they are now haaliy 
dried for the ls4t time they are platted togethei eo as to 
form the packs of commerce. The plaBiag and wra^ 
ping of the packs is suck a deatrous p^formaneo that k 
is luelese to try to describe k ae i| is caly acquired by 
many years of succeeding generadone doiag the mm 

'Hie following formulas are in uee for making tha 
composition used in Gtineae crackers and flash crackesv 





Aluminum powder flne 
Chlorate potassium 











diAcult part 

J — ^1 .T — w me luso V ciy tenctei 

Md skilled hngera are required to produce this insignif. 
leant looking ye* mott raquitke adjunct. A thin Anp of 
the fcneA Chinete tissue paper, about H* wide and 14* 
lone is laid on a smooth damp board; a little Aream of 
powder la poured down its center from a hollow bamboo 
Aick and wkh the dps of soft skinned Angers which seem 
to have an attraction for the paper and placed againA 
the right hand lower a rolling motion in the 

general direAion of the upp« left hand comer cause* 
the paper to roll up into a rvdne like fuse. The slIgkteA 
of paAe secures the end and prevents unrolling. 
When dry k is cut into the required lengths and is ready 
for use. 

NOTE. The mformadon upon which the foregoing article 
was written has been supplied by Mr. Ip Lsn CKuen. 
manager of the Kwong Man Uong Rreworks Co. of 
Hong Kong. China. 










Chlorate potaasium 







. s s ess esses. . . s s . s s s s . s s s . s . . s s . s esses 



Antimony, metalic... 

** black aulpkide. 




Casex caBrBa.....w..,.. . 

s A vio 





Appendix - — 

Araenic, red - 



** csiscads 

■ III MB MM............. _ 

drying...— ... ,,,,,,,, 



* aeib 



Balloons, designing 


* lance....—.. 

** sttacKmenta 


lUD. tai Aon! .hell 

* rocket..... 






^ inflaton . 



Aanum rhJnrnts 


* aauGUBon 

“ nittats 





Battenes.... - 


— — — .... 

** tof^b 

^ <9 f 

n T yS 


{Sue liehia 







Bombstte foimtairkj 




** amokelsss.. — — _ 


" caniAm.............w.... 



" Japaneee.. ...... . 

. 239 


24 7 




Copper Arteaile. - — *96 

blftck 9ulphuret 196 

garbof iat^ 197 

CWeim 9 4* V9 499»*M«4|«^»4«494| 4 9^4 49 1 4 4449 4 44144*94 4^ 4 4^M4 197 

iulphAt*....^....^^ 197 

Crmckcrt. cannon 241 


* EnfUsh 226 

♦ 4^M« • ^*4 ♦ ♦«•♦ 4 ^9^ ♦ ♦« ^*44^999^^«« ^9 4 4 ^^^9 4 4 ^9 4 4 4 9 4 • 49 

). I I. M — — « •••••^•— •»•«.•• .<••• •••••^.•••» 206 

D«7 Areworiu.. 239 

Devil among (be Tailora. .. ^-...228 

4 4 a 44 4««9*4A49«99MA94944M9449MAM44«94 4^*««4«4 W 44A44«9«4M4«A4444«««« ^ ^ 

DiAreM AgneU- 217 

Elednc apreeder* *4 4«««4 4«*4 • «9**4«A9 4 4*4 4 444 4 444^ 9 fl* •* 444«9«v4 «444*9«9 *4**4«944* 4*«4 4 234 

EsKibitien firework* 250 

P — ^ coloreds. ,.., 246 

FWee 224 

FW« pnm 229 

E ^niabingt ••••<•<•• 

F 20$ 

9 WI4MVI# ♦ «44 944 494 4I44 444 4 ♦ 4 • 4 • 4 4 • 4 4 4 4 4 « 9 • «e4 4 4 ^ 4 4 •* • 9 9 9* 9 « 4 4 4 4 9 • 4 ^ 4 4 4404 4 4 • 9 9 1 44 

FountAinA. 223 

4 V M I 9 4W4 4 4W4 • 4 49 • 4 94 4 4 449 • • 4 4 ♦ 94 4 444««*W 444 4 4 9 9 4 4 4 4 4 4 9 9 94 4 • • • 9 9 94 • 4 4 | • 9 VV* « • 9 9 4 4 9 9 

Frame work 444 44 44 I 4 4944 4 »e |4 eei * <44 94 4 94 4 I 994 44ee99W 49M949494 9W49W44 9V^4 A4 4994 «99«44« ^ 

Fulminate of ailver... 

Fujc. blaAing • • 4944444 4 44 4 • 944 4 4 44 • 4 9ai * m#99aa99a#9i •ea99ia4 4aa94 aaa44«a94 •*49fl9«44444 4 9a 
Fuaea. aKall 238 

e ^eeer9a44 4*4 ••44 • 44 4 1 499 • 4 44 44 4 91 4 949 911 4 1 4 * 94 919 • 94 * 4 4 * 94 4#«a49M4 4^94 w* 4999499*9 « 

Fuieea railroad 21d 

w • *4449 9 444 *444 444 4 4 94 4 4999i4e999944i»9»««aa««^M««M«^««9 99a49999^949 

0orbC 4 4 4 4 444 4«4. l9aiM9<4 44*44 494 449*4 •••4.9a4l44e4«99e9«a4944e999994 44e94 9a4 9«944a«9 9aa< 44«9 « 229 

Cold tn<l iilv«r («in 234 

449 4444 444 44* *** *** 4 49 4 49494 4 44 4 49 4 4 4444 4 49 4 4494 4 444 4 49 4 ^994 • 4 49 4 • »94 4 •* 4 X 3 

Gum arable • 44 • 94 I 4 499 I M M 4444 • 4 44 490994 999*4 99 4 44994 4 •* *9*4 4 4*4 4 4 49 4 • 9**4 «*9 4*9«* 99* • 198 

Gun powder - 198 

Globe* revolving. ♦ ^4 9444499449444999444944aaai iaa94ie94ae94 ##049904 44##99i#4 44#9494##« 250 

e K0C1CCC44 4 49.4#44. 4*4 4 4 9944«»4 49 49 4« 4 49994 M* 499999M99*9*499994 ^ 49^4 4 9*9 4* 222 

94#994l994 <4##«9W 49«949#94 

4449 «< 4 ai 49 #| 9 9 ## 94 i #4 4 ## 994##4 

99a#49a#4l ###99i#4 4a#44 i#a999#94 #*99fl##4999# 4 

4441 499«4494449|4999 9M4l4#949l9«9##44a 


1991419444^4499449944 4449«94#l 49##«9##9«a#949##99994 4 9#94 9#9 4«94 



4 W 94 ##a 99 «* 4 l# 


#*9999#4999# 4 9# 



4999 99#49999^94* 

4949 94^44999 « 





Globe* revolving. ♦ ^4 9444499449#449994#4944aaai i#a9ai#94a#9# 9##499#4 4«##99i#4 4#994 99## . 250 

e K0C1C4C44 4 49.4#44. 4*4 4 4 9* 44 «»44949 4 49994 M* 499999M99*9*499994 ^ 49^4 4 9*9 4* 222 

J A ^ r 4 *4M4*99444#4 *499449944#494 ^«4«49*«4*»*499«4 «##* 9 ## 9 9^## 9 « 9* 4 4*#* 9##9 4«9*«499*** X 3 

lntrodUCltl0n#44«*»444* 4.9*4 4 499. .94 4 S 4 49. W49M94. 49^94M999» 4 4994 * 949 4 X9^ 

Kauri gum 94444«944MI4|«94#49449994|9944M44499*4#94*«99449* 4«**99###»99999##9 9ea94#*9**«#4 « ^ 

Labeling • 4944499*4 «9 4 49944 99 ** **4 4 49 * 44 W4 4 4 ** 44 *4 4 4999 44 9^4 49994 4 9# * I 9# 4 ### 1 4 9# 9 4 #99^4 99 ♦♦44* 

«*♦ ♦ 4 49 • • A4 4 499 • 4 99 4 499# 4 99# 4 • 4 4 4 49 449«4 449 • 94 4 4 4 •# 49M94 94999M949 44 • 4 4 4 *44 X^^^^ 

X#a^0^^a 94 4 ♦♦•4 *•♦♦♦♦•♦• 4444*9 «#*4999994 9*4 4 49999M 4 49*94 4^*99*94 49999**94 9999999 49 A94 99* 4 3^^ 
^VOrlr ««9«4*94 ♦ 499*4 9*4 ♦49994##9 499*94 |##999*99***99#9 999*4 4 4 99*4999 4 499999tt*499*94*9*9 2 ^ _7 

Magneaium *190 

ManipulitioM. ......... \ 99 

Englieh aj^Aem 211 

** French ayAem 21 0 

“ exhibition.. - 211 

“ frame.......... 212 

]9lpa94 494 4 4 499 44 994 4 499* *94 4 4 499**4 4 4 49 94 4 4 W99994 4 W94 4 9^94 9 » < 9»49^»4499» V 4 4 4V 20^ 

** rocket and candle.... 212 

Matching - 207 

Maroon# 2^1 3 

Meal powder — - — 298 

Mine bags 228 

ftdinee... ».«««* 228 

Mixing. 2C1 

h^ortjtia............. 240 

Niagara Falle......—.... - 229 

^X|^menL. — — L 9 7 

Pap 0 cape 245 

Parachute# 224 

PaAe 2 C 6 

Paris green 19 ^ 

Picric acid..... 100 

f^geons 226 

Pin wheels.- 227 

Pharaohs sespenta .,, 246 

Phoaphoma - j 99 

amorphous 190 

Fort 44. ...4»*««* ........ ... 217 

Foia» smoke 248 

Spark . . .... 248 

Potassium bichromate. 234 

cKloiata 1 95 

, *4 94 49994 99#49994 4 9*4 499949^44SS|4|tt9|S##9«S9## W49994 4 4* X 93 

PCFCUOrfttA* 94 4##9#eSM4SS4#^49SSa#|##*4SS#4M9 195 

PlCf^l#9#9-#*4#i* — 99444*9. *•449*9 .9*4 9*4 « *«99*994999 44 ^ 4 #9994 |#« 49SSM M» 1^9 

b^S#99S#4 4 4^99^999999999 44 99499aa4 499.4 94 4 4 4994 4 9«|9«9MI*994W4 4S9S<imi9SS»IM9 4 250 

D * » 

9 ^ « •••♦•4*99449^44 4^44994499**4944999499#*49#4 44*9»* 4^4499|4499||^449^^^^^^^^|^, ^ ^ g 
RAfBJJEUng. 4** . ♦4**994 499 •*- 44 994 4 499 4 4 94 4.94 4 4 4^4 94 94 4 499S9#SSMSeSMm#9#S#4 4S9 49999 

^^AAK3ftf*W99S##9 4^ 44 9*4 49994 4«994 994 4 49**4M4.9994 499 4*994 4 499 44##|99#9MMHeeSSS«SMSe#MSe«im X 0 7 

p e 

gum 49S#99a9.4«949994 4 4 9#4499#49994 4 ^449994 49» 4 994 4 4994 4 »4 49S#<l«ei9SeSMm4#m4 49994 4W 1 QS 

Ro«W Ar..~ 

* 9 S 949 m 999 * 49499 * 4 M 4 * 9944449 « 499 # 4999449#444994494 

4 # 9 SSS##«# 4999949 SSi 44«44994 

49994 #99 4 4994 4^^999i^^«» 44 ##9 #9SeMeSMS»944^4*S99444« 499 

9 « 994 ## 449 # 9449 «# 9 rS 44 # 9 # 44 ^ 9 * 9#4 

4 9*4 4«*##9a#49994 4 4 • 44 «• 4 4 4994 4 S» I 4994 4 4*9 4999* 

S9iee499ss# #e#i9S994 

ehaift. ............... 

4 4 ^M *994 499#94 9 SI 9 Se#S|S 

•• I- - -..-..~™,.4. ........ ....... 2 21 


^O0kbAb^lL44»»4 499#«9»»4 4 49994 94 4 49994 49»499#99#^99||««09|^|9|^|||^4^^^ 223 

#99Se94##49S#»49*#99«#4 49994 4 — 9S94 49*994 9«MSe#S|^999999W#9SSSMSe#l sea 224 

4 s##99ssM9#»44 994 4 499 4. 9*9 ••v*9#siM»9eea49se9i s^ i9se»isss94 22 

eUtitafic ahewer. 223 

• Aifhs. 225 

• golden elovd.^ 223 

“ Kquid fim... 223 

g^s^achiAe...,v— ..—..........a M,*.M*M»* .....* a,....* *^, 224 

price co m e ti ^..w.. a.. .... 22 3 

• abort Aick 223 

• Aajxl «... 225 

• Aandani aisee....w.... 204 

vrhiAling or calliope.- - 22 3 

** wiBow tree... a... ^23 

Roman candles 217 

hand ramming.... - 217 

machiae - 219 

Aandard sizes. a.... .... 




Saxon wheels - — 

Sheliac - 



* pharaohs - - 

%«Us4 ftorsl - 

.. 203 
••• 213 
... 227 
.. 230 
.. 195 
... 227 
.. 246 





* mateorie 

Ship lights 

Smokeless fires 

Stnoke fireworks 

** clouds, colored 



** screens 

Snake neAs 

Snake and butterfly 

Son of a gun 

Sodium oxalate 




Steel fUings 

Sticks, ruby and emerald 

Stars, box.. 


** candle 

** compoaitiona 


" Jap«a 

Stars, molds 



Strontium carbonate 



















Sugar of milk 

Sulphur, flour 195 

flowers of 

ground I 95 

Tableau fires 212 

Torches aluminum 216 

campaign 214 

carnival 215 

1 214 

raiboad 214 

Torpedoes, Japanese 244 

•• silver 243 

TourbilUona 225 

Tyi ng . 210 

WaM fir^unjl, ■ 

*• divers 248 

** flying fish 248 

mines 248 

- wkeeU 248 

Wheels, rocket 250 

2 30 

" vetticJ 230 

Wasp light 229 

Wring 209 

WKiltling fireworks 245 

Wrapping 208 

Zinc dttdt 2 99