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N.PETERS, PHOTO-UTHOGRAPHER, WASHINGTON. DM. 




N.PETERS, PHOTO-LITKOGHAPHER, WASHINGTON. D C. 



irniTED STATES PATEKT OFFICE.. 



GATLORD V. HARPER, OIT FRANKLINVILLE, NEW YORK. 
MACHINE EOR MAKING BRICKS. 

Specification of Letters Patent No, 439, dated Octo'ber 33, 1837. 



2'o all whom it may concern : 

Be it known that I, Gatloed V. Hakfee, 

- of Franldinville, in the county of Catta- 
raugus and State of New York, have invent- 
5 ed a new and useful Improvement in Ma- 
chines, for Making Bricks, called " Harper's 
Improved Brick Machine," which is de- 
scribed as follows, reference being had to the 
annexed drawings of the same, making part 

10 of this specification. 

For a double machine I make a platform 
A about eight feet in length, five feet in 
width and of any required thickness. On 
this platform I fasten five pieces of scantling 

15 B, each six and a half inches in depth and 
three inches in width, placed parallel to 
each other as far apart as the width of the 
piston hereafter described. Over these and 
near each end I frame a plank, C C, sixteen 

20 inches in width and in length equal to the 
width of the platform and of requisite thick- 
ness to give it proper strength. 

I make four pistons D D D D, each as 
wide as the space between every pair of 

25 scantlings, and between which they are 
placed against anti-friction rollers repre- 
sented by dotted lines at r at the sides- 
said pistons being four feet, six inches in 
length and about four inches in depth. On 

30 the side of each piston is fastened a rack 
E, into which a cog wheel F works for mov- 
ing the same ; and into the end is bored 
longitudinally an aperture covered at the 
mouth by a swinging valve, G, opening out- 

35 ward, or toward the clay, for preventing it 
adhering to the piston on its return; — said 
aperture being intersected by a cross aper- 
ture H from one side of the piston to admit 
air. See Figure 7. 

40 I make forty eight bars I each six inches 
in length, four in width on the outside or 
toward the molds and half an inch in thick- 
ness beveled on the side toward the piston s 
and placed parallel and vertical as far apart 

45 as the thicloiess of the brick or tile to be 
molded and let into the before mentioned 
plank above and the platform below, far 
enough to give them the required strength, 
either by dovetailed mortise and tenon, or 

60 in any other suitable manner. The plank 
and platform are also to be beveled, the 
former on the under side u and the latter 
on the upper side, v. I cut a horizontal 
groove K in the plank an eighth of an inch 

55 deep intersected by a vertical aperture from 



the top in which is placed a funnel L for 
supplying it with water to moisten the clay 
and keep the bars always wet. The plat- 
form is also channeled as at w, I likewise 
form channels on the sides of the vertical 60 
bars to communicate with the horizontal 
groove before mentioned for conveying the 
water to the clay and sides of the bars as 
seen at x. 

I make my molds with a horizontal plate, 65 
M, upon which I raise vertical leaves N in 
proportion to the required number of bricks 
to be molded, which I place as far apart as 
the size of the intended brick or tile. 

I have two horizontal cog wheels, F F, 70 
about ten inches in diameter placed on ver- 
tical shafts working into the racks on the • 
pistons. On these shafts I have two other 
cog wheels P P each about thirty inches in 
diameter, between which and working into 75 
them is placed a small cog wheel Q of about 
ten inches in diameter on a vertical shaft 
extending above the frame about three feet, 
having on its upper end a sweep, E, for 
the horse to draw by. _ 80 

I make use of two Imives S S for cutting 
the clay into proper lengths for bricks or 
tiles, one working between the molds and 
bars and the other on the outer side of the 
molds, both attached to a sliding frame T, 85 
movecl downward by a treadle t by the foot 
of one of the attendants and raised by a 
spring U when the foot is removed. 

I raise the platform to any desired height 
for operating the machine by placing four 90 
or more pieces of timber under it. 

I frame other planks V on top of suffi- 
cient size and strength for the gudgeons of 
the vertical shafts. 

I form hoppers W W between the planks 95 
to receive the clay. 

To make a single machine containing only 
two pistons I take off the two 30 inch wheels 
and the small wheel between them and place 
the horse on the line between the two pis- 100 
tons. In working the machine, the horse 
will travel far enough to carry the clay 
through between the bars to make the length 
of a brick. He then travels the contrary 
way the same distance, which reverses the 105 
motion of the pistons. 

The method of using the machine is as 
follows : I first prepare the clay by grinding 
it in a common mixing tub and then put 
it into the hoppers of the brick machine by 110 



439 



means of wheel barrows or shovels. I cause 
the horse or horses to move around, with the 
sweep about two thirds of the circle in which 
he walks — this carries out two of the pistons 
5 and recedes two ; those thus advanced force 
the clay between the bars in a condensed 
state into the molds. The knives are then 
brought down by the attendant bearing his 
foot on a treadle, which also contracts the 

10 spring to Avhich they are attached — ^the cut 
being made, the brick or tile is formed in 
the molds — the foot is then raised when the 
spring again carries up the knives. The 
molds are then removed and discharged. 

15 The horse is then driven back which causes 
the other two pistons to perform a similar 
operation. Water is all the time passing 
through the channels for keeping the bars, 
plank and platform wet and the clay in a 



moist state. The molds are held in place 20 
while molding by pins or stops z z. 

What I claim as my invention and which 
I desire to secure by Letters Patent, is — 

1. The combination and arrangement of 
the several parts of the before described 25 
machine for making bricks. 

2. The channels in the plank and bars for 
conveying water to moisten the clay and 
keep the bars wet. 

3. The valves and apertures in the pistons. 30 
The principle of forcing the clay through 

a grating into the molds and cutting off 
the clay by a knife passing between the 
molds and the grating, is not claimed. 

GAYLOED V. HARPER. 

Witnesses : 

Ltjthee Bkookins, 
William Deuky.