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AMCP 385-108 


AMC 

Safety Digest 




Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2016 


https://archive.org/details/amcsafetydigest1972wash_2 



HEADQUARTERS 
UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND 

WASHINGTON, DC 20315 


AMC PAMPHLET Number 385-108 JULY-AUGUST 1972 

The Safety Digest is an AMC Pamphlet prepared by the Safety Office, Headquarters, US Army 
Materiel Command. Its purpose is to disseminate information which can materially influence 
and improve safety programs at all Command establishments. 

Articles are included to supplement technical knowledge as well as practical knowledge gained 
through experience. They provide a basis for the further refinement of safety measures already 
incorporated in operating procedures and process layout. To achieve maximum effectiveness, the 
Safety Digest should be given widespread circulation at each AMC establishment. 

Articles appearing in the Safety Digest are unclassified and are not copyrighted. They may be 
reproduced as desired in order to bring pertinent accident prevention information to the atten- 
tion of all employees. The Army Materiel Command Safety Digest should be given a credit line 
when articles are extracted. 

Unclassified material believed to be of interest or benefit to other establishments is welcome for 
publication in the Safety Digest. Please send articles for review to: US Army Materiel Command 
Field Safety Agency, Charlestown, Indiana. If possible, include pictures, charts, drawings, and 
illustrations that clarify and heighten interest in your presentation. 

(AMCSF ) 

FOR THE COMMANDER: 



Colonel, GS 

Chief, HQ Admin Mgt Ofc 


Special Distribution 


CHARLES T. HORNER, JR. 
Major General, USA 
Chief of Staff 


I 



IN THIS ISSUE 


AMCP 385-108 
JULY-AUGUST 1972 


FOREWORD i 

IN THIS ISSUE ii 

A SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE— SAFETY AND TRAINING 1 

FALLS 3 

NEW CUMBERLAND ARMY DEPOT RECEIVES GOVERNOR’S TRAFFIC SAFETY 

SAFETY AWARD 4 

SYSTEM SAFETY TESTING 5 

SAFETY SHOES... A PROVEN WINNER 9 

ALCOHOL, VISION, AND DRIVING 10 

CURRENT EVENTS 

UNTRAINED WORKER LOSES FINGER 13 

WORKER INJURED IN METAL PARTS FORMING OPERATION 14 

TRACTOR TUMBLES INTO PIT 15 

UNTRAINED + UNAUTHORIZED - AMPUTATION 16 

ONLY FOUR FEET TO THE GROUND 16 

MINI-BIKES — FUN OR? 17 

SAFETY AND SEX 19 

YOU’RE DEAD RIGHT 21 

IFR PROFICIENCY THROUGH PRACTICE 23 

EXPLOSIVES SAFETY 

MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT EVALUATIONS - 81 MM MORTAR CELCON 

SEAL PRODUCTION 24 

SAFETY GLASSES SAVED EYES 28 

TACOM “zero in ” ON SAFETY DISPLAY 29 

DO YOU KNOW? 30 

NEW PUBLICATIONS 31 

WELL DID YOU KNOW? 32 

SENECA SAFE DRIVERS 34 


II 



A SUCCESSFUL MARRIAGE— SAFETY AND TRAINING 


Murle L. Syndow, Training Supervisor 
Mason & Hanger - Silas Mason Co., Inc. 
Cornhusker Army Ammunition Plant 


No single type of promotion can sell safety day after day, month 
after month. And, written prose, no matter how beautifully or colorfully 
produced, will not effectively touch all individuals alike. What may 
bring acute safety consciousness to one employee, or to one work area may be 
completely ignored in the next building. 

A successful safety program needs the constant and wholehearted co- 
operation of the Safety Department AND the Training Department. The Train- 
ing Department can AND SHOULD serve as "Public Relations" to help heighten 
the safety interest in ALL plant employees. At the Cornhusker Army Ammu- 
nition Plant, these two Departments are under the same Division Manager; 
they are housed in adjacent offices; and, they work closely together in 
ALL phases of safety. 

While the Safety Department is planning the annual Master Accident 
Prevention Program, they contact Training for suggestions as to how the 
various sub-topics can best be presented. 

The CAAP Training Department distributes a Weekly Management Memo to 
all foremen and supervisors. Both sides of this weekly sheet contain 
short items of interest to every level of plant management: Latest news 

items from the various work areas, suggestions for improving management 
traits or characteristics, and a continual stress on every aspect of plant 
safety. 

However, a sincere and lasting interest in safety must be developed 
by methods other than sending out pages of printed material (although the 
printed pages make fine visual evidence for visiting auditors). The CAAP 
Training Department also makes 10- to 15- to 20-minute colored slide pro- 
grams to coincide with the monthly safety themes. These programs are 
available to supervisors for use in safety meetings. 

Canned programs developed by a neutral company a thousand miles away 
are good -- but any picture program developed in your own plant -- with 
your own personnel on the screen -- well, that's the way to go! 

Sure, the employees know that many of the shots were staged, but they 
also recognize the scenery as their work areas and they recognize the 
'ictor^' as being their people. These two personal touches cannot be equaled 
by any other type of safety publicity no matter how well it is written and 
no matter how beautifully it is printed! 


1 


When you're presenting the program, it doesn't hurt to tell the 
viewers some of the difficulties that were encountered in producing this 
month's "epic." The average viewer will appreciate the trouble that 
management has endured to develop a special safety topic for them. 

Producing such a colored slide program is as simple as 1 - 2 - 31 

1. Place a thought, an idea, a concept into an outline form. 
Visualize 60 or 80 or 100 pictures in sequence to sell this topic. 

2. Take your colored slides; try shots at different angles; if a 
new twist evolves itself during photography, don't be afraid to deviate 
from your original outline of slides. 

3. After you have your completed slides in order, write a script 
to match the pictures. Use each slide for at least five or six seconds; 
never keep one slide on the screen for more than 15 seconds. 

For some of our programs, we read the script aloud as we present the 
slides. For other programs, we make tape recordings -- sound effects and 
all. 


Days afterwards we hear the people talking about these colored slide 
programs. No one remembers a printed page that long. It is indeed true 
-- a picture is worth a thousand words. The marriage of Safety and Train- 
ing will never be annulled. 

If you're looking for a safety program that is exciting and different, 
we'll be glad to loan you a set of slides and a script for each of the 
programs listed below so that you can locally adapt that thought or con- 
cept into a safety program produced by your own plant for your own people. 

Fire Safe - Fire facts leading to home fire safety 

(15 min.) 

Home, Sweet Home - Safety hazards around any home (11 min.) 

Nothing Old-Fashioned - General importance of safety (15 min.) 

About Safety 

The Round Trip - Driving to and from work each day (15 min.) 

Safety Sad-istics - Local, State and National accident facts 

(10 min.) 

Steps to Safety - Safety hazards ready to 'trip' you up (15 min.) 


2 


FALLS 


A review of AMC accident experience during recent months reveals that 
our old nemesis, "falls," continues to be the leading source of injury 
throughout the command. Statistically speaking, efforts to reduce the fre- 
quency of fall injuries have been fruitless. 


Group analysis of AMC accident records since August 1962 gives 
credence to the well-publicized problem of falls. As noted in the data 
below, falls account for approximately one of every four injuries in AMC. 


Fisca 1 
Year 

All 

Injuries 

and 

Fatalities 

FALLS 

Iniur ies 

Fatalities 

Injuries 

and 

Fatalities 

Per Cent of All 
Inis. & Fatals 

1963* 

873 

193 

1 

194 

22.2 

1964 

866 

200 

4 

204 

23.6 

1965 

807 

201 

1 

202 

25.0 

1966 

619 

154 

2 

156 

25.2 

1967 

761 

190 

1 

191 

25.1 

1968 

697 

157 

1 

158 

22.7 

1969 

585 

114 

1 

115 

19.7 

1970 

530 

111 

1 

112 

21.1 

1971 

401 

98 

0 

98 

24.4 

1972** 

251 

62 

0 

62 

24.7 

TOTALS 

6390 

1480 

12 

1492 

23.3 


* Excluding July 1962 
** Thru March 1972 


One out of four! Hardly a commendable average in any sport as it is 
considered LOW or mediocre, yet in safety circles, such a ratio is indeed 
exceedingly HIGH. 


3 


Nationwide accident and injury statistics are quite comparable to 
those of AMC in the area of falls. For example, falls resulted in 29.7 
per cent of injuries suffered by the 1,000,000 personnel work force of the 
Bell System during 1969. Periodic reports from the National Safety Council 
indicate that one of every four injuries is the result of a fall. Approxi- 
mately 190,000 people died from falls in the United States from 1962 
through 1971. 

The aforementioned statistical data should be sufficient to convince 
even the most skeptical of persons that falls are a problem of utmost con- 
cern. President Nixon's "ZERO IN on Federal Safety" program stresses the 
identification of primary injury-producing conditions and elimination 
thereof. Falls, then, present an easily discernible target for immediate 
attack by all AMC installations and activities. 

Vw'wwV/V 


NEW CUMBERLAND ARMY DEPOT RECEIVES 
GOVERNOR’S TRAFFIC SAFETY AWARD 



On 16 December 1971, COL Thomas B. Mahone , Jr. (second from right), 
Commanding Officer, New Cumberland Army Depot, was presented the 
Pennsylvania Governor's Traffic Safety Award at a ceremony in the 
Governor's reception room. The award was presented in recognition of the 
depot's participation in the promotion of Highway Traffic Safety during 
the year. Others in the photo are (left to right) William B. Blake, 
Deputy Secretary for Safety Administration; Jacob Kassab, Secretary of 
Transportation; and Julius A. Trombetta, Director of Traffic Safety. 


4 



SYSTEM SAFETY TESTING 


During the period January-August 1971, seven laser-equipped M60A1E2 
tanks were subjected to rigorous tests at the U. S. Army Armor and 
Engineer Board, Fort Knox, Kentucky. 

The tanks were tested by 35 trained tank crewmen over a combination 
of cross-country terrain and paved and unpaved roads, accumulating a total 
of 20,000 test miles. During this period 4,000 rounds of 152mm conven- 
tional ammunition and 180 Shillelagh missiles were fired. This effort ex- 
pended approximately 85,000 man-hours. 



Subject test was one of the most extensive ever conducted by the 
Armor and Engineer Board, and it is considered to have achieved maximum 
results from both equipment performance and personnel safety standpoints. 

The aforementioned test is an example of the type of testing that is 
conducted by the Army during development and acquisition of materiel. The 
Army conducts one of the world's largest and most comprehensive testing 
programs to insure that the safest and most effective equipment possible 
is made available to the using personnel. 

The intent of this article is to discuss the principal test plans and 
tests that take place as a system progresses through its life cycle and the 
system safety input for each phase of the testing program. 


5 


Prior to the testing of any materiel, long range plans must be made 
and coordinated by the preparation of a preliminary system development 
plan. This document, which is based on the system materiel need (MN) , in- 
cludes an initial testing plan called the Coordinated Test Program (CTP) . 
This CTP is initiated, coordinated and maintained current by the develop- 
ing agency. It contains a description of all testing contemplated for the 
item/system being developed to include test objectives, testing schedules, 
environmental tests required, funding, and test support requirements. It 
will be a subject of review at each in-process -review (IPR) . In other 
words, the CTP is the plan that outlines the tests that will be conducted 
to determine whether the item meets the requirements specified in the MN. 

System safety engineering input to the coordinated test program would 
include the following: 

1. Forecasting of system safety test requirements for inclusion 
in the initial CTP. 

2. Participation in the system development plan IPR. 

During the contract definition phase of the life cycle, the CTP 
should be updated. This action should include review and updating of the 
tests to be performed by Government and contractor personnel and materiel 
support requirements to support tests and test specifications. It must 
also be assured that the plan includes such general concepts as time 
schedules, location of tests, quantities and availability of items to be 
tested, and basic government and contractor support required for perform- 
ance of: 

1. Developmental Suitability Test. 

2. Engineer Design Test. 

3. R&D Acceptance Test. 

4. Engineering Test. 

5. Expanded Service Test. 

6. Preproduction Test. 

7. Initial Production Test. 

The system safety input at this stage should include: 

1. Identification of safety testing for design evaluation and 
verifications . 


6 


2. Participation in system requirements reviews with each con- 
tractor to assess contract definition test objectives. 

3. Participation on source selection evaluation board to evaluate 
proposal of test implementation. 

The CTP as refined and updated will be included in the plan forTfie 
system development contract. 

That portion of the CTP that encompasses the major materiel tests 
conducted during the development phase is called the development acceptance 
(DEVA) test plan. Tests that could fall into this category are: 

1. Engineer Design Test. 

2. Contractor Demonstration. 

3. R&D Acceptance Test. 

4. Engineering Test. 

5. Expanded Service Test. 

The engineer design tests are conducted under controlled conditions 
for the purpose of collecting design data, confirming preliminary concepts 
and calculations, and for determining the compatibility of components. 

Contractor demonstration tests are usually conducted by the develop- 
ing contractor to indicate attainment of significant performance character- 
istics specified in the development contract. 

The research and development acceptance test is conducted to determine 
whether the developer has fulfilled the specifications of the development 
contract. Acceptance of the item for engineering tests is contingent upon 
meeting the requirements of this test. 

System safety effort during the above tests should have been directed 
toward the following: 

1. Providing safety evaluation of test equipment. 

2. Maintaining liaison and surveillance over the contractor's 
testing activities. 

3. Providing a brief on system safety status at the design 
characteristics review (Prototype IPR) . 

4. Preparing a safety statement. 


7 


The safety statement (AMCR 385-12) is a summary of the data collected 
and evaluated during design and development phases and available prior to 
engineering tests. It expresses the opinion of the developing agency re- 
garding the hazards and safety limitations that may be presented by the 
system. It also includes recommended actions to minimize these hazards 
and to reduce the exposure of personnel. 

The U. S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (USATECOM) is responsible 
for the establishment of the engineering test objectives, preparation and 
approval of the plan of test, and processing and distribution of the test 
report. Engineering tests determine the technical performance, reliability, 
maintainability, endurance and safety characteristics of an item or system 
and its associated tools and test equipment as described in the MN. The 
results of the tests should also provide sufficient information to deter- 
mine the relative safety of the item in the hands of Army troops and the 
suitability of the item for Expanded Service Tests. 

System safety inputs at this stage encompass the following: 

1. The safety statements will be used by USATECOM to integrate 
safety into test design, planning and procedures. 

2. USATECOM will notify the developing agency of any new or 
significant hazards encountered during tests. 

3. A safety release will be prepared. This is a summary of the 
safety information collected during the engineering test phase. It pre- 
sents the specific hazards of the system, together with the operational 
limitations and action necessary to reduce the hazards and exposure to 
expanded service test personnel. This is not to be confused with release 
of the item for issue to the field. 

4. A report of engineering test is made available at the DEVA IPR. 

As was the case with the engineering tests, TECOM is responsible for 
the establishment of the expanded service test objectives, test plan, and 
report of test. The expanded service tests determine to what degree the 
item or system and its maintenance test package meet the characteristics 
described in the MN. The tests are conducted using personnel who are 
representative of those who will operate and maintain the equipment in the 
field . 


The system safety engineering input is to insure that the safety con- 
firmation is issued. This is a statement prepared by USATECOM consolidat- 
ing findings from the engineering and expanded service test reports and 
indicating the degree to which the item meets the safety requirements es- 
tablished by the MN. The safety confirmation will recommend limitations, 
warnings and precautions necessary for the safety of personnel. 


8 


This concludes our discussion of the types of tests conducted during 
the concept and development phases of a system life cycle. In the next 
article we will discuss that group of tests and plans that are conducted 
during the production phase. 


***** 


SAFETY SHOES. .A PROVEN WINNER 

Mr. Ernest F. Doyle, a processor in the Electronics Division, 
Letterkenny Army Depot, was moving a suspended load of parts by means of a 
monorail electric hoist. The basket and its contents weighed approxi- 
mately 1,300 pounds. 



As he approached a degreasing tank, the hoist contacted a "dead" spot 
and stopped its movement. Mr. Doyle tugged at the basket in an effort to 
nudge it past the dead spot. 

This manual movement caused 
the drum brake to lose its 
tension, thus permitting the 
cable to unreel and causing 
the basket to drop, striking 
the operator's left shoe. 


Mr. Doyle was not injured. 
Safety shoes win again! 



Another believer is Clifford 
Kaufman, a munitions handler at 
Seneca Army Depot. Kaufman, left, 
explains to Mr. William Benjamin, 
Depot Safety Director, how safety 
shoes prevented serious injury when 
an igloo door struck his foot. 


9 


ALCOHOL, VISION, AND DRIVING 

What effect does alcohol have on driving ability? How does alcohol 
affect vision while driving ? 

■ A Major Factor : Alcohol is generally conceded to be a major factor 

in half of all fatal traffic crashes. This includes both drinking drivers 
and drinking pedestrians. As the concentration of alcohol in the blood 
increases, the likelihood of a driver or pedestrian being involved in a 
traffic accident increases greatly. 

Safe and skillful driving depends on: 

Getting a clear picture of the traffic scene; 

Making a correct interpretation of the traffic scene by the brain; 

Making the proper response. 

The effect of alcohol on the physical response of an individual is 
usually obvious. His reaction time is slowed; he lacks coordination; 
his speech may be slurred; and he may exhibit overconfidence. The effect 
on vision is not so obvious; yet, 85% to 90% of the information we receive 
concerning the traffic scene comes through the eyes . Without a clear pic- 
ture, accident-free driving is impossible. 

" Alcohol >s Effect on Vision : How does alcohol affect each element of 

the seeing process? Alcohol usually has a relaxing effect resulting in 
less voluntary control over all general body musculature. The delicate 
control of the fine, discrete muscles which move and focus our eyes is 
particularly affected by alcohol. 

In order to see clearly, the right amount of light must reach the 
retina. This is controlled by the pupil which acts like a camera shutter. 
The opaque iris (colored portion of the eye) closes the pupil opening 
(black area) so that on bright days the size of the pupil is reduced to 
limit the amount of light entering the eye and thus protect the retina. 

At night the pupil is enlarged to allow the maximum amount of light to 
enter. Normally, it takes one second for the pupil to constrict and 
respond to the glare of oncoming headlights. It takes seven seconds 
after exppsure to headlight glare for the pupil to once again adapt to 
the dark conditions. This recovery action is slowed by alcohol. It may 
be one of the main reasons for the higher nighttime accident rate. 

To obtain a clear picture, the rays of light must be focused on the 
retina in the back of the eyeball. This is accomplished by means of the 
lens of the eyes. The shape of the lens is determined automatically by 
the ciliary muscle which surrounds the lens and brings objects, both far 
and near, into sharp focus. If this muscle is relaxed by alcohol, then 
a distortion of light rays appears on the retina and, in turn, an inter- 
ference in the neural impulses sent to the brain results in a faulty or 
fuzzy picture of the traffic scene. 


10 


The retina is made up of millions of rods and cones, each connected 
by a nerve fiber which runs to the brain. Nerve (neural) impulses are 
sent to the brain along these nerve fibers to transmit the picture focused 
on the retina. The retina takes the place of film in a camera. The cones 
can transmit color while the rods transmit only dark and light. Acuity is 
greatest in the macular area (center of the retina where most light rays 
are focused) where the cones are most dense. Details such as traffic signs 
can be seen in this area. Alcohol, or any other drug which reduces the 
supply of oxygen in the bloodsteam, .can impair the sensitivity of the 
cones which, in turn, diminishes visual acuity. At low levels of illumi- 
nation, most of the seeing is accomplished by the rods with some help 
from the cones. This is why visual acuity is reduced more than one-half 
at nighttime. For example, a person with 20/40 daytime acuity may have 
only 200/100 vision at night, even less under the influence of alcohol or 
other drugs. 

A Cause of Double Vision : So far we have discussed only the factors 

affecting seeing with one eye. However, the best vision is obtained when 
the two eyes work together. To do this, both eyes must be looking at the 
same spot at the same time -- directed to the same point in space. This 
is accomplished by six muscles attached to each eye which automatically 
point the eye to the object to be seen. When these muscles are relaxed 
by fatigue, drugs, or alcohol, the two eyes may not be focused on the same 
point. The result is double vision. The brain in this case can do one of 
two things. If one image is weaker, that image may be ignored (suppressed) 
and you will be using only one eye -- causing poor depth perception. On 
the other hand, if both images are seen and interpreted by the brain, 
you will be seeing double. You may see two cars approaching or two sets 
of headlights and not know which one to avoid and which to ignore. 

For some people, alcohol can cause uncontrolled rapid oscillation of 
the eyeballs, making good vision almost impossible. With properly coordi- 
nated eyes, driving ability is enhanced as two images tend to reinforce 
each other. 

Judging Distance ? The ability to move from one lane to another is 
dependent upon the ability to judge distance. This is accomplished 
largely as a result of the brain receiving two slightly different images 
from the two eyes. If there is sufficient alcohol in the blood to pre- 
vent the two eyes from working together, the results are a double image 
or suppression of one image. In either case the ability to judge distance 
will be greatly reduced. 

Reduces Peripheral Vision : While looking straight ahead, you can 

notice objects at the side even though you cannot see them clearly. A 
study by the British Medical Research Council indicated that the score 
on a f ie ld-of-vision test fell off 307, for a blood alcohol concentration 
of .055%. The reduction of your visual field will make it more diffi- 
cult to see potential hazards on either side. Speed also has an adverse 
effect on the field of vision. Most drivers fail to realize that at 30 


11 


MPH, a driver has reduced his side vision by 25%. At 45 MPH, he has 
reduced his side vision by 507>. At speeds over 60 MPH, he is literally 
driving down a "vision tunnel." So, when you add the effects of alcohol 
to the decrease in field of vision caused by speed, you can see how the 
driver’s field of vision is greatly reduced. 

More Difficult to Distinguish Colors : The cones in the retina make 

it possible to distinguish between red and green. This is important, 
especially when approaching traffic signals. When the sensitivity of 
these cones is decreased by alcohol, it becomes more difficult to dis- 
tinguish colors. Also, if visual acuity is affected, images will be 
blurred, and two adjacent colors may appear as a blur. 

Makes Seeing at Night Difficult : Seeing at night does not involve 

so much the seeing of small details as the detection of objects in the 
field of view. At normal nighttime illumination, this involves the use 
of both the rods and cones. Many factors affect the ability to see at 
night, one of these being alcohol. At night there is little light to 
stimulate the rods and cones. Anything which decreases their sensitivity 
makes seeing at night more difficult. Studies at Indiana University indi- 
cate a blood-alcohol concentration of 0.12% reduces the distance a pedes- 
trian can be seen by a driver at night by about 20%. In many cases, this 
is enough to make the visibility distance less than the stopping distance. 


Seeing Properly is Necessary for Driving Safely : Good vision is the 

net sum of all of these factors which make efficient seeing. Since see- 
ing properly is a fundamental necessity for driving safely, it is impossi- 
ble to deny the obvious conclusion -- drivers with visual abilities 
impaired by alcohol are a traffic hazard and are likely to be involved in 
serious traffic accidents. 


Reference: Alcohol, Vision and Driving, American Automobile Association - 

Traffic Engineering and Safety Department, March 1971 

© 6 ***** 



12 



UNTRAINED WORKER LOSES FINGER 

A crew leader was instructing a line worker in the operation of a 
taping machine used in packing out 60mm illuminating mortars. The machine 
taped the cap of the fiber container to the container itself. 

In demonstrating how the job was to be performed, the crew leader 
taped several rounds himself and cautioned the worker to keep her hand 
from under the taping head as it descended toward the container. 

The line worker then sat down at the machine while the crew leader 
left to activate a conveyor switch. Before the crew leader returned, the 
line worker attempted to tape a container. She inadvertently placed her 
left index finger at the end of the container and, as the machine cycled, 
her finger was pinned between the container and the end clamp. She suf- 
fered an amputation of the distal phalanx, left index finger. 

Accident analysis data indicated that the worker did not have suffi- 

cient training in the machine's operation and was unable to recognize the 
hazard of placing her hand near the point of operation. 

Corrective action taken to prevent recurrence of similar accidents 
included the following: 

1. Spacing between the end clamp and container will be reduced 
to the minimum tolerance which will permit a container to enter the taping 
cradle, thus reducing the pinch-point area. 

2. The microswitch in the bottom of the taping cradle will be 

adjusted so the machine will activate each time a round enters. 


13 


WORKER INJURED IN METAL PARTS FORMING OPERATION 


An engineering technician was forming metal parts on a hydraulic 
arbor press. After cutting approximately 20 parts, the worker noticed 
that the cuts were not clean at the pressure being utilized (60 tons -- 
4,300 psi). On the next blank to be cut, the technician increased the 
pressure to approximately 80 tons, at which point the metal cup ruptured, 
propelling metal fragments about the work area. One of the slivers struck 
the worker in the throat causing a deep laceration. 

The specific set-up for the operation consisted of a metal cup (tool 
steel), 2 7/8" diameter, 2 1/16" high, 1 7/16" deep, with a 9/16" bottom 
and a 5/6" wall thickness. A 2 3/32" diameter rubber disk of 1" thickness 
was placed in the steel cup, and a steel blank of .010" thickness was 
positioned on the rubber disk. After placing a steel die on the blank, 
the hydraulic ram was lowered, pressure was applied and the desired part 
was formed. 


The die normally used had been 
borrowed by another employee and not 
returned. The metal cup involved in 
the accident was of lesser strength 
than the metal cup the operator had 
originally fabricated for the job. 
Fragments of the broken cup are shown 
in the photo at right. 



A Rockwell test was made on the 
cup to determine hardness. Results 

showed the cup to be soft (C-10); however, a flat had been machined into 
the outside portion of the cup wall and the letters "H.H.L." impressed in 
the flat, thus further decreasing the strength of the cup. The cup split 
through the leg of the middle H which is believed to have been the weakest 
portion. At the pressure being applied, it was possible to have reached 
108,000 PSI pressure inside the cup, which was above the safe working 
pressure for tool steel of the dimensions described. 


In addition to the metal cup's not being designed to withstand the 
pressure applied, it was indicated that the technician was inadequately 
trained due to the fact that an improperly designed cup was used. 

To prevent a similar accident, all metal cups that are to be sub- 
jected to high pressures will have to be stencilled identifying the safe 
working pressures to be used. In addition, the presses will be equipped 
with hinged steel barriers with Lucite windows. 


■^www'oV 


14 


TRACTOR TUMBLES INTO PIT 


A licensed tractor operator was transporting excess blacktop surfac- 
ing material from a worksite to a burning pit by means of a farm-type 
tractor equipped with a front-end loader. 

As the driver approached the north edge of the pit to dump a load , he 
was unable to stop the forward motion of the tractor through engagement of 
the rear wheel brakes. When the tractor rolled into the pit, the operator 
jumped off only to break his left ankle and right arm. Damage to the trac- 
tor amounted to $1,100.00. 

The burning pit was laid out for dumping from the south edge where a 
steel rail blocking device was installed. The north edge, however, was 
not so equipped. 

Investigation established that the brakes were adequate and within 
the tolerances accepted for operation. When disassembled, the brake shoes 
and drums were saturated with exceptionally clean differential lubricant. 
The lubricant presumably had leaked past the grease seals around the axle 
into the brake assemblies as a result of the accident. 

It was determined that the most probable cause of the accident was 
temporary brake failure due to overheating of the brakes when the tractor 
was driven a considerable distance with the pedals locked in the "ON" 
position. Post-accident inspection of the tractor indicated that the 
manual brake release lever did not always disengage the latch which held 
the brakes. Depressing the brake pedals then would be required to dis- 
engage the latch and allow the brake pedals to return to the normal "OFF" 
position . 

In order to prevent future accidents of this type, the installation 
performed the following: 

1. Tractor operators were reinstructed to assure proper opera- 
tion of equipment. 

2. Further dumping of any kind will not be permitted in the pit 
unless proper authority is granted. 

3. All tractor brake systems were carefully inspected. 




15 


UNTRAINED + UNAUTHORIZED = AMPUTATION 


In the course of his duties, an air conditioning mechanic entered a 
carpentry shop to obtain a piece of plywood for use as a base on an air 
compressor installation. Unable to find a precut piece, the mechanic 
decided to cut the plywood himself in the absence of all carpentry shop 
employees . 

The cut was performed on a table saw equipped with a dado blade. 
After setting the guide, he began pushing the plywood toward the blade 
with his right hand on a pusher block and his left hand on top of the 
stock. The pusher block slipped and the worker's left hand contacted the 
saw blade. He suffered lacerations of all fingers and an amputation of 
one joint of the middle finger. 

Investigation revealed that the mechanic failed to place the saw 
guard into position prior to operation. Also, more pushing force was re- 
quired because of the dado blade set at 3/4" width. A ripping blade 
should have been used. 

■To prevent similar accidents, the following corrective actions were 
taken : 


1. The Branch Chief posted a list of persons authorized to op- 
erate equipment. 

2. All machine operators in this section have been instructed to 
use guards. 

3. Machine operators have been instructed not to work alone on 
woodworking machinery. 

4. Interlocks have been placed on electric disconnects to prevent 
unauthorized use. 


•kickit-k 


ONLY FOUR FEET TO THE GROUND 

The temperature was -10°F. and the wind was gusting up to 40 mph. A 
contractor employee working the day shift as a conductor on an 80-ton 
locomotive prepared to dismount his engine to throw an upcoming switch. 

As he opened the cab door and started down the two steps to the 
engine deck, a strong gust of wind suddenly caught the door and threw the 
conductor off balance. He grabbed for the guard rail, but missed, slipped 


16 


under the guard rail and fell about four feet to the road bed. He suf- 
fered a fractured left temporal bone upon striking the guard rail or cab 
step. 

■To prevent similar incidents, additional guard rails were installed 
on this and all similar type locomotives. The rails on the side decks 
were placed 12 inches above the deck and those on the front and rear were 
placed at 17 inches above the deck. 




Locomotive Without Midrail 


Locomotive With Midrail 


***** 

MINI-BIKES - FUN OR? 

Edison W. Wolfe, Safety Officer 
Scranton Army Ammunition Plant 


A comparatively new entry in the recreational vehicle field is enjoy- 
ing immense popularity which shows no signs of waning. On the contrary, 
sales of mini-bikes are continuing to skyrocket according to market re- 
ports. The mini-bike appeals to youngsters from "8 to 80" although the 
greatest appeal appears to be centered in the 8 to 14 year old group. 

At this time, there are no accepted standards and specifications for 
mini-bike manufacture throughout the industry. Some mini-bikes (so-called) 


17 


have larger engines than vehicles called small motorcycles. The descrip- 
tion of a typical mini-bike is hard because of the range of design, power 
and sophistication features. There are wide ranges in: 

Engines - 2 or 4 cycle, from 1 to 14 horsepower. 

Transmissions - from centrifugal, to geared, to automatic. 

Speed - from 10 to more than 50 miles per hour. 

Frames - from simple tube construction to motorcycle types. 

Suspensions - shock absorbers on front or rear wheels or both. 

Wheels and tires - from 6-inch rim with 3X6 tire, to 15-inch 
rim with 3.5 X 15 tire. 

Weight - from 50 to 145 pounds. 

Price - less than $100 to more than $500. 

■ Mini-bikes provide a fun outlet for riders if proper attention is 
paid to operation of the vehicle. 

Lack of training for bike riders is widespread. Brief written in- 
structions are available from dealers; also some dealers offer limited 
operating instructions. However, many dealers offer no instruction with 
the mini-bike purchase and riders are left to their own devices. Mini- 
bike riders are often observed using highways and streets illegally, since 
few of these riders and their vehicles are licensed. Licensing require- 
ments for mini-bikes are expensive especially for "economy" models. En- 
forcement of licensing puts an extra burden on police forces which have a 
limited number of personnel. 

Accident tolls of mini-bike riders have kept pace with the sales of 
these bikes. Again the accident tolls relate to the group to whom they 
appeal the most; i.e., 8 to 14 year old children,, On-the-road or off-the- 
road bike operations show that these bikes can be deadly if not properly 
operated or controlled. Misuse can be overcome, however, with the proper 
safety program that combines responsibility and fun while helping riders 
develop dexterity, coordination and judgment. 


18 


SAFETY AND SEX 


Robert J. Martin, DAC 
Aviation Safety Officer 
White Sands Missile Range 

® 1*11 wager you*ve never stopped to consider the connection between 
the two have you? Well, for one thing, both begin with the letter "S" 

-- and, as far as I know, the connection ends there. Unless you want to 
contemplate the ways in which an aircraft is like a woman: It is often 

cranky and hard to get started, cold at first but prone to overheat, 
unforgiving of mistakes, needs to be pampered and given lots of tender, 
loving care and sometimes comes in twin-engined models. One could argue 
that since sex creates immediate interest with thoughts of pleasure and 
anticipation, it might be hazardous to our subject "Safety." But if 
thoughts of safety could only evoke the same responses as sex, no aviator 
would fail to be safety conscious. Unfortunately, the only real connec- 
tion the two have is that without a proper attitude toward safety, you 
may not be around to enjoy sex. 

Safety is like certain things in life that we know are necessary but 
just aren*t any fun, like exercise, or moderation, or medicine. Ralph 
Waldo Emerson was once asked what purpose beauty served. You can't eat 
it or drink it or use it. He immortalized his answer in the poem "Rhodora" 
when he said, "If eyes were made for seeing, then beauty is its own 
excuse for being." Perhaps that can be said of safety -- it is its own 
excuse for being. If you don it think so, ignore it to your own peril and 
when the sound of bending metal assails your ears and the sight of dis- 
located parts disturbs your vision, you too may join with the Hairy Ono 
Bird in crying, "Oh-h-h, No"! 

But then it is too late. It is necessary to be thinking about safety 
before the mishap. Here lies the problem: How to make safety a conscious 

part of every action to automatically think safety before proceeding. 

People need motivation to do those things which are not instinctive and 
safety is not. The child will be burned before he realizes the danger of 
fire. Reward, fear, and pleasure are some of the stimulants used to 
induce people to perform. The rewards of praise or recognition and the 
esteem of co-workers are reasons for doing a job well. On the other 
side of the coin, fear of losing one's job, fear of hurting oneself or 
damaging equipment, or fear of criticism are equally effective reasons 
for achieving. 

What about the stimulant of pleasure? This is one of the most 
powerful urges. Did you ever listen to a group of aviators converse? 

It's a safe bet that it won't be long before the talk turns to sex. 

Notice the pleasant sound of the voices and the smiling countenances 
while on this subject. It doesn't take much urging in this department. 


19 


Now if safety could just be identified with sex, the problem would 
be solved. Then an aviator would be motivated enough to think safety 
from the time he sees the flight assignment until he completes the paper 
work at the end of the flight. His attitude might not be, "it’s a piece 
of cake, kick the tire and light the fire, last one in buys the beer" to, 
"What is Operations trying to do to me? I wonder if I have time to 
increase my life insurance? Oh, my God, not 7268! That thing drinks 
fuel like a drunk at an alocholic’s convention. It’s got a bad one-to- 
one. 1*11 bet the blades are cracked." He would take care in checking 
weather, filing his clearance, assuring that he had enough fuel to go to 
an alternate, the necessary maps and IFR charts. He would wear the 
proper flight gear, including fire retardant clothing. On the way to 
the aircraft, he would be checking for FOD. Is there a fuel sample and 
is the container identified with the aircraft number in case of an acci- 
dent? What about a thorough pre-flight? He wouldn*t be afraid to touch 
and move the part instead of just looking at it. He*d wear a pair of 
gloves, especially for pre-flight, so he wouldn*t have to be concerned 
about getting his flight gloves greasy for he knows that some deficiencies 
can*t be seen but can be felt. Just, maybe, the crew chief missed a step 
on his pre-flight. Where is that checklist? Is there a fireguard? Rotor 
untied? EGT? Oil pressure? Tip path plane? Ad infinitum, ad nauseam. 

But that is safety. Like it or not, it is its own excuse for being and 
must be a part of every step. We have been given the best designed equip- 
ment possible to fly but, unless used properly, it is an accident waiting 
for a chance to happen. We don*t assume women will cooperate without 
attention and we can*t assume machines will fly without gentle handling. 

You don’t think those rotors or that propeller like to turn, do you? That 
loose formation of parts surrounding you is just looking for an opportunity 
to quit. If you don’t believe it, relax and enjoy the scenery; put your 
feet up on the pedestal and get some soft music on the radio compass so 
you’ll have fitting accompaniment when you groan, "oh-h-h, No," and start 
dusting aircraft parts off of your chest. 

That’s safety -- think about it. 


20 


YOU’RE DEAD RIGHT 


John C. Neantz, DAC 
Aviation Safety Officer 
New Cumberland Army Depot 

INTRODUCTION: The little phrase probably seems like an overworked 

"Cliche." It has been tagged to automobile Driver Safety Campaigns many 
times and has been the case in point of many discussions as to who has 
the right-of-way. The same cliche applies to flying. 

We pilots have been drilled in the rules of the air since the begin- 
ning of flight. We all know that any aircraft on the final approach to 
land has the right-of-way over all others. We all know that powered air- 
craft will yield to non-powered, etc., etc. 

In this case, you can be just as "Dead Right" in an aircraft as in 
an automobile. 

An Army C-45 aircraft (nonstandard) departed Euclad Army Depot on 
a clear turbulent, windy day to destination some 120 miles away. On 
board was DAC Jones, Instructor Pilot, 7000 hours, 1200 hours in type 
and First Lieutenant Smith, pilot 600 hours, 14 hours in type undergoing 
transition. 

The assigned mission was a cargo pickup of 800 pounds of urgently 
needed radio equipment at Toboggan Army Depot in support of the aircraft 
maintenance mission at the home station. The airport at destination was 
uncontrolled and civilian operated. 

The en route flight to destination was uneventful. Approximately 
fifteen nautical miles out, Mr. Jones established contact with UNICOM 
and made his landing intentions known. Approximately five minutes later 
the C-45 entered the pattern, left for runway 23 to land. A call to 
UNICOM by Mr. Jones for traffic was not acknowledged and he immediately 
transmitted "in the blind" on UNICOM his landing intentions. No traffic 
was observed and the C-45 continued it is approach to land. At this 
point, the C-45 had the right-of-way. 

At approximately one-fourth of a mile out, in the final approach at 
300 feet, Mr. Jones yelled to LT Smith "We have an aircraft coming in 
our right side - high." LT Smith, thoroughly engrossed in the landing, 
took no action. Mr. Jones, who had seen the on-coming green and white 
Bonanza 135 in a steep decent in landing configuration, took control of 
the C-45. He applied power, pulled the gear and flaps and executed a 
sharp right 360° turn, passing under the Bonanza at a very low altitude. 
The Bonanza landed, evidently unaware of his near -miss and taxied to the 
ramp. Mr. Jones landed the C-45 and on roll-out observed the pilot and 
a small boy walking to operations. 


21 


When the C -45 was secured, Mr. Jones walked into operations and asked 
the pilot of the Bonanza if he realized that he almost hit the C-45 on his 
short final. He replied, "No, and besides that, he had a sick boy on 
board and had to get on the ground. " 

Mr. Jones informed the pilot he thought that his act was extremely 
dangerous and had there not been two pilots on the Army aircraft, there 
would have been a "Mid-Air Collision." 

The Bonanza pilot replied that he had been flying for 30 years and 
knew what he was doing. Mr. Jones advised him that he intended to inform 
the FAA of his actions and asked for his name and certificate number. 

The pilot refused to reveal his name or any other information. Mr. Jones 
informed him that his aircraft number, type, color, and date of the inci- 
dent would suffice. 

During the course of the conversation, the civilian pilot stated 
that he had called UNICOM and asked the desk clerk if she had received 
his call? She replied, "No, but she heard the Army C-45 call." 

Upon return to his home station, Mr. Jones filed a written report of 
the incident with the FAA. The pilot of the Bonanza lost his license for 
six months. 

n The moral of this story is not that 30 years of flying makes one an 
expert or that "hot shot" flying gets you grounded, but rather the right- 
of-way does not always make you right; it could make you dead. So don’t 
be "Dead Right." The life you save may be your own. 

k k k k k 


22 


IFR PROFICIENCY THROUGH PRACTICE 


CPT Bruce A. Lindsay, SC 
Picatinny Arsenal 

"Army 12345, this is East Tower, understand one five southwest. 

East weather 1000 scattered variable broken, 3 miles in haze, GCAis in 
progress. Would you like one?" 

How many times when you have received similar transmissions have 
you simply turned to the copilot with, "I don>t have the time. Tell 
him we >11 come in VFR." You probably didn>t stop to think about when 
you last shot a GCA or, for that matter, any kind of an instrument 
approach. In fact, maybe the reason you turned down the GCA was that 
you felt your proficiency was insufficient to complete it. 

AR 95-1 states, "All aircraft assigned to active Army units ... 
that are instrumented for IFR flight and with an instrument rated 
aviator in command will operate on IFR flight plans in CONUS ..." This 
has been recently reinforced by a DA message. There are exceptions to 
this requirement but how many of us use these exceptions as "loopholes" 
and find ourselves making more and more excuses for not filing IFR? 

Sure, you may have to do a little more planning and wait a few 
minutes for a clearance, or possibly even have to hold somewhere, which 
is highly unlikely under visual conditions. Once you become more and 
more familiar with the procedures, you >11 find that the advantages of 
flying under an IFR clearance definitely outbalance the few minutes of 
delay. 

Other than the fact that IFR clearances allow flight into instru- 
ment weather conditions, separation and radar coverage are just two of 
the safety advantages gained. 

All aviators are required to log a minimum number of hours of hood 
or weather time, and the plain truth is that the most benefit can be 
obtained from that hood time if the flight is conducted under IFR. 

The objective of the Army Instrument Program as outlined in AR 95-63 
is for "... each aviator to attain and maintain an instrument rating." 
Just because you hold a standard or even a special instrument ticket 
doesn>t mean you are proficient at flying instruments. 

The point of the matter is that the only effective way to maintain 
total instrument proficiency is to file and follow IFR flight plans 
whenever possible . If you do this, when the time comes when it is 
necessary for you to enter instrument conditions, YOU WILL BE READY. 

k k k k k 


23 



MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT EVALUATIONS 
SIMM MORTAR CELCON SEAL PRODUCTION 

Richard G. Fowler, Safety Engineer 
Olin Corporation 

Indiana Army Ammunition Plant 


In order to fulfill a military requirement for a moisture-proof 81mm 
mortar propellant charge, an increment bag made of celcon material was 
specified. An ultrasonic sealer was to be employed for closing the bag 
after being filled with M9 flake propellant. 

The requirement for moisture-proof charges, ultrasonically sealed, 
necessitated the re-evaluation of production equipment. Emphasis in the 
equipment study was to center upon the fundamental tenet of explosives 
safety; i.e., expose as few people to as little propellant for as short a 
duration as would be consistent with production requirements. Primary 
consideration, then, in any new concept was toward reducing quantities 
of propellant at any work station, and eliminating hazardous confinement 
of propellant. 

When the Engineering Department developed a new method and fabricated 
prototype equipment, the Safety Director initiated evaluations of field 
material and equipment. 

The new production concept was based upon the use of automatic high 
speed scales which weighed the propellant for individual charges. Propel- 
lant was introduced to the scales by means of small vibrating conveyors 
leading from five-pound capacity, open hoppers located behind a reinforced 
concrete wall. 

First to be evaluated was the proposed powder supply system consist- 
ing of five-pound capacity, open-top hoppers and one-inch aluminum channel 
to simulate the vibrator conveyor. A series of 25 propellant supply sys- 
tem evaluations was conducted. Each test was designed to simulate the 


24 



"worst possible" ignition conditions that could arise within a production 
configuration. 

There were no detonations in any of the supply system tests and only 
in the evaluations simulating the hopper supply booths containing 60 
pounds of propellant were there pressure releases sufficient to damage the 
hopper doors. All tests indicated that the proposed supply system was 
safe with the only hazard being that of rapid-burning fire from an acci- 
dental ignition. Light-actuated deluge systems were subsequently installed 
on production lines to provide protection against this hazard. These sys- 
tems were supported by existing "rate-of-rise" deluge systems. 




TEST #5 (Before) - Simulated TEST #9 (After) - Simulated 

hopper and vibrator conveying vibrating conveyor passing 

through reinforced concrete 
wall 

Second to undergo study were the chutes used to transfer the filled 
increment bags from the loading bay, through a reinforced concrete wall, 
to the next processing bay. These tests would determine whether or not 
the heavy compartments with alternate opening, sliding doors would contain 
the fire and pressure generated by an accidental ignition. 

Nine evaluations were conducted in each of which up to 400 propellant 
charges (20 pounds) were ignited inside a transfer chute. Each ignition 
produced intense, rapid burning with pressure releases sufficient to dam- 
age the chutes and, in one instance, to completely remove one door. After 
these tests, it was concluded that transfer chutes would not be used in 
the new concept and that manual handling between booths would be utilized. 


25 




TEST #20 (Before) - Transfer chute 

Next, an evaluation was performed on the proposed unit for transport- 
ing the filled increment bags to the ultrasonic sealing device. 

A working model was set up at the evaluation site. Loaded propellant 
increments were suspended by the top ends of the bags, spaced 3 3/4 inches 
apart on a small endless conveyor called a transporter. This was used to 
deliver the increment bags to the ultrasonic sealer in the next bay. One 
increment was ignited to determine 
the rate and extent of propagation 
to adjacent increments. This 
particular test was conducted sev- 
eral times with deliberate igni- 
tion at different locations along 
the transporter. Test results 
indicated that the production 
equipment would require flash 
shields around each increment on 
the transporter to prevent 
propagation to adjacent increments. 


transporter 

Finally, the ultrasonic sealing unit was evaluated to determine if 
its operation could cause ignition of an overloaded or misplaced increment. 
Test results left no doubt as to the sealing unit's potential as an igni- 
tion source with non-standard increments. Subsequently, in the production 



TEST #10 (After) - Simulated 


26 


operation, the sealing unit operator is protected from a burning increment 
by a flash shield and a light-actuated deluge system in the event of fire. 



TEST #22 (Before) - Sealing unit TEST #23 (After) - Burned 

increment 

All of the aforementioned evaluations were documented on 16mm film. 
These motion pictures proved to be of inestimable value in training workers 
for the new celcon seal production lines. The material and equipment 
tests required close cooperation of the Engineering, Production and Safety 
Departments of Indiana Army Ammunition Plant. Such interfacing was con- 
ducive to the end result ... .upgrading the safety engineering applicable 
to facilities and equipment. 


27 



SAFETY GLASSES SAVED EYES 


Dan Bied, Area Safety Engineer 
Mason & Hanger, Silas Mason Co. 

Iowa Army Ammunition Plant 

3 0 Thanks to his eye protection, a worker at the Iowa Army Ammunition 
Plant still has 20-20 vision. 

"I really believe I*d be blind if it weren*t for my safety glasses," 
Michael Creger, a production operator covered by the IAAP eye protection 
program, told safety investigators after his face and hands were burned 
in a flash fire. 



"My eye lashes were burned off 
and my face was burned around my 
eyes," he said, "but Iim just 
thankful I can still see." 

The fire, the injured man 
related, took him "by surprise" as 
he was handling items used in pro- 
duction of artillery shells. 

When it happened, I went down 
to my knees and my safety glasses 
fell to the floor," he recalled. 
"This kind of thing takes you by 
surprise and you ire either wearing 
your eye protection or youire not." 


The facial burns, treated at the IAAP field hospital with no record- 
able loss of time for Creger, were the first injury suffered by him since 
he was discharged from the Navy and returned to the IAAP in the fall of 
1971. 


"live never had any serious 
injuries," he remarked. "Not even a 
broken bone. I hope I can keep that 
record going." 

The 25-year- old worker summa- 
rized his attitude toward the IAAP is 
mandatory eye protection program in 
a few appropriate words. 

"I was told to wear safety glasses 
as part of my job so I always do," he 
stated. "I even wear eye protection at 
home in the garage when I use a grinder 
to work on the car I*m restoring." 



28 


If Michael Creger had not been wearing safety glasses when burned, 
he might be blind or partially sightless today, according to medical 
personnel at the IAAP. 

There is no way to accurately calculate the cost in misery and loss 
of future earnings to a person blinded due to a momentary lapse in safety 
mindedness, IAAP employees were reminded after the recent incident. 

If Michael Creger had been blinded, it was pointed out in safety 
meetings, the direct costs for compensation and medical care (based on 
the Iowa Workmen *s Compensation Law) would have totaled an estimated 
$33,840. 

That amount would pay for 4,230 pairs of safety glasses as an 
average of $8 per pair. 

How much, IAAP employees were asked in a plant newspaper article, 
are your eyes worth? 


* * k k * 


TACOM “ZERO IN” ON SAFETY DISPLAY 



Photograph above shows display located in several lobbies at TACOM. 


29 


a 9 


|Here are ten questions that will test your knowledge of safety re- 
quirements that you will need under different circumstances. Answers to 
these questions may be found in the AMCR 385-series and the AMC Supplements 
to the AR 385-series. How many can you answer without referring to the 
regulations ? 

1. What type storage facilities are required for Group A chemical filled 
munitions assembled with bursters? 

Answer and reference: 

2. What hazard does frozen nitroglycerin present? 

Answer and reference: 

3. For future permanent construction of fences at restricted areas, what 
specifications apply? 

Answer and reference: 

4. What type fire extinguishers are required for trucks carrying explo- 
sives off post over public highways? 

Answer and reference: 

5. When is shielding required for disassembly operations? 

Answer and reference: 

6. What are the requirements for storage of binary chemicals and projec- 
tiles? 

Answer and reference: 




30 


7. What basic principles are to be observed when manual handling of 
material is required? 

Answer and reference: 

8. Who must complete Section E, Accident Analysis Data, of a DA Form 285, 
Accident Report? 

Answer and reference: 

9. When is it necessary to make an immediate telephonic report of a fire 
to higher headquarters? 

Answer and reference: 

10. Who is responsible for appointing investigation boards to investigate 
aircraft accidents involving aircraft under the control of AMC? 

Answer and reference: 


AR 385-41, Ch 3 
16 Mar 72 

AR 500-72 
8 Mar 72 


DA Cir 40-86 
13 Mar 72 

DA Cir 385-30 
23 Mar 72 

AMCR 385-12 
28 Feb 72 


AMC Suppl 1 to 
AR 385-12 
14 Mar 72 

AMCR 11-5 
24 Feb 72 


NEW PUBLICATIONS 

Safety - U. S. Army Accident Codebook 


Emergency Employment of Army and Other Resources 
- Development, Use, Marking and Stocking of Pro- 
tective Shelter Areas on Military Installations 

Medical Services - Prevention of Heat Injury 


Safety - Training for Army Safety Personnel 


Safety - Life Cycle Verification of Materiel 
Safety 

Safety - Fire Report 


Army Programs - Environmental Pollution Abatement 


31 


WELL 

DID YOU 
KNOW ? 

a 



“ Here are the answers to the questions on pages 30 and 31. A refer- 
ence to the pertinent regulation and paragraph follows each answer. 

1. Igloo-type magazines with nonabsorbent floors that will permit 
decontamination of chemical agent leaks or spills. Reference para- 
graph 12-1, AMCR 385-102. 

2. Frozen nitroglycerin is less sensitive than the liquid compound; 
however, upon thawing, it may produce internal changes accompanied by 
sufficient evolution of heat to cause explosion. Reference paragraph 
14-6b , AMCR 385-100. 

3. For future permanent construction of restricted area fencing, type 
FE-5 fencing as shown on Office, Chief of Engineers' Drawing 
SK-40-16-08 should be used to enclose explosives and ammunition areas. 
When existing areas of this type are enclosed by 6-foot high barbed- 
wire fences with barbed-wire overhangs , the fences should be modified 
by adding 12%-gage smooth wire ties vertically at 2-foot intervals. 

For emergency construction, type FE-3 fencing as shown on Office, 

Chief of Engineers' Drawing E-40-16-02 may be used, and, if chain 
link is in critical supply, woven wire fabric or mesh and gage ap- 
proximating that of the type FE-3 fencing may be substituted. Refer- 
ence paragraph 16-4d, AMCR 385-100. 

4. All trucks (Government and commercial) destined for off-post shipment 
over public highways shall be equipped with one Class 10-BC rated 
portable fire extinguisher. Reference paragraph 22-5d, AMCR 385-100. 

5. Adequate operational shields shall be provided for operations such as: 

a. Disassembly of loaded boosters, fuzes, primers and blank ammuni- 
tion . 


32 


b. Removal of base plugs from loaded projectiles. 

c. Removal of fuzes from pentolite loaded shells. 

d. Disassembly of loaded bombs (except for removal of shipping 
bands, nose and tail closing plugs, fin locknut protectors, fin 
locknuts, and washout of high explosives bursting charge). 

e. Pull-apart of fixed ammunition, 20mm and larger. In the pull- 
apart of rounds containing self-destroying tracer, the dimensions 
of the shield should anticipate initiation of the propellant and 
the projectile. 

f. Disassembly of foreign ammunition or other ammunition items of 
uncertain design and condition. 

Reference paragraphs 25-3b(l) through (6), AMCR 385-100. 

6. The following requirements are mandatory for storage of binary 
chemicals and projectiles: 

a. The storage of stocks of binary agent chemical compounds will be 
in separate fireproof buildings. The corrosive liquid; e.g., 
Difluoro, is not compatible, and will not be stored in the same 
building or magazine with the flammable liquid; e.g., alcohol. 
Additionally, binary corrosive liquid (whether in bulk or in 
canisters) will not be stored with other industrial- type chemi- 
cals . 

b. When the corrosive liquid canister; e.g., Difluoro, is assembled 
in artillery projectiles with explosive bursters, such projec- 
tiles are assigned storage compatibility Group A and separate 
storage in igloo magazines is required. 

Reference paragraphs ll-37a (1) and (2), AMCR 385-100. 

7. When manual handling of materials is necessary, personnel should be 
instructed that observance of the following basic principles will 
assist in reducing accidents: 

a. Lifting shall be with the knees bent and the back straight in 
order that the thigh muscles may assume the greater portion of 
the load. If the object to be lifted is too awkward or too heavy 
to be handled in this position, additional help shall be obtained 
to move the load. Lifts shall be made vertically and close to 
the body. Side lifts or off-balance lifts frequently result in 
muscle strains. 

b. Loads which obstruct vision shall not be carried. 


33 


c. Steel-toed shoes or other approved type foot protection should be 
worn by all employees engaged in material handling operations 
designated as hazardous to feet or toes of employees. Gloves, 
aprons and other items of personal protective equipment shall be 
worn when handling materials which are sharp, abrasive, corrosive 
or which might splinter. 

Reference paragraphs 9-16a, b and c, AMCR 385-100. 

8. Section E of the DA Form 285 will be completed by full-time safety 
personnel at the lowest echelon of command where such personnel are 
assigned. Reference paragraph la(7). Reports column. Appendix H, 
USAMC Suppl 1 to AR 385-40. 

9. A telephone report of a fire shall be made when a fire or explosion 
followed by fire occurs in which $10,000 or more property damage is 
incurred; when serious injuries and/or loss of life occurs; or when 
arson is suspected. Reference Appendix A, AMC Suppl 1 to AR 385-12. 

10. Headquarters, AMC (AMCSF-A) , will appoint aircraft investigation 

boards to investigate aircraft accidents involving aircraft under the 
control of AMC, except those aircraft controlled by U. S. Army Avia- 
tion Systems Command (AVSCOM) and U. S. Army Test and Evaluation Com- 
mand (TECOM) subordinate activities. Commanding General, AVSCOM, and 
Commanding General, TECOM, are responsible for appointing aircraft 
accident investigation boards for aircraft under their control. Ref- 
erence paragraph 8, AMCR 385-26. 

/VVcVw'w'c 

SENECA SAFE DRIVERS 

Mr. Faust Alaimo and 
Mrs. Hazel Rector, employees 
of Seneca Army Depot, were 
cited recently for their out- 
standing achievement of driv- 
ing 20 years without an acci- 
dent . 

LTC Thomas M. Lewis, 

Director of Distribution and 
Transportation, and Mr. Martin J. 

Way, Safety Officer, Seneca Army 
Depot, presented the two employees 
with engraved watches in recog- 
nition of their accomplishment. 



34 



Summentcme 

FUNTlMf ! 


i 


But, before you rush off to the beach, or the mountains, or wherever — 
take a minute to look over these Safety Reminders. It coujd help prevent 
a serious accident — and let you enjoy the whole summer! 





When camping or picnicking - 

Watch out for poison oak, snakes, 
and other potential hazards. 

Take along a First-Aid Kit. 


Bikes are fun, but remember to 
obey ALL traffic lavs. Use bike 
lanes where available, and keep 
a close watch on traffic. 


Don't fish alone; take a friend. 

Leave word where you will be and 
when you will return. 

Dress properly and comfortably. 

Walk cautiously in water; be 

careful of holes and rocks. 

Remove hooks from fish carefully. 

Avoid areas where there are scuba 
divers or swimmers. 


Play a good game - exercise 

is good for you 

But, don't overdo it! 


And remember - THE MATCH YOU TOSS 
COULD BE A GREAT LOSS! 


Don't horseplay around a hot 
bar-b-que. Keep children away 
Use starting fluid cautiousl y. 



DON’T CAUSE OR BECOME A STATISTIC I 


UNITED STATES ARMY MATERIEL COMMAND 
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20315