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Arnold Arboretum 


Harvard University 








ON . . 






notes on american gardening and fruits ; 
with designs fob promoting the ritening 
of fruits, and securing tllkm as family 

and further 

OF jECONOMICAL principles in building 






GHtttfc P**0. 






THERE is a difference respecting country 
habitations as they are recommended by the au- 
thor of essays and notes on husbandry, and what is 
$aid of country habitations in this work. The for- 
mer was written upon the happening of certain 
events, which seem to have induced a hasty recom- 
mendation of the principles on which to build coun- 
try habitations, with the especial purpose of effec- 
tually guarding against their being destroyed by 
fire, and also particularly for preventing their be- 
ing easily broke into by force or surprise. At 
first, it was published singly, in a pamphlet; and 
afterwards inserted in the volume of collected es- 
says and notes on husbandry. The present editor 
ring to recommend a mode of building country 
citations upon more enlarged principles, and that 


will be the most suitable to farms in America, in 
particular; some considerable alterations are de- 
signed, for rendering the American farmers' habi- 
tations not only secure against fire, but also the best 
adapted to the business and employments of far- 
mers, and the habits and manners of country peo- 
ple ; at the same time that, in certain situations, 
that form of building may be preferred, and the air- 
holes in the recesses occasionally applied in the de- 
fence of the doors and windows, against outrages ^ 
of burglars, as far as the perfectly square angles of I 
a building will admit of it. j 


The editor has condensed this work, that it 
might not run into a high price : but the author's j 

thirteen plates of engravings could not be omitted, 
and it is hoped, die two plates now added will be 
satisfactory in illustrating 'the subjects they relate 
to — These articles of expence could not be avoided. 








The names and qualities of Apricots commonly culti- 
vated in England^ i£c. 

X HE Masculine Apricot is small and round ; the 
earliest in ripening, about the end of July, in Eng- 
land. It is chiefly esteemed for its tart taste. Red to- 
wards the sun; a greenish yellow on the other side. 
The Orange: large, but rather dry and insipid: 
fitter for tarts than for the table : a deep yellow co- 
lour when ripe, the latter end of August* It is 
considered the best for preserving, in England. The 
Algiers: a flatted, oval shaped fruit; a straw co- 
lour, juicy, and high flavour. Ripens the middle 
of August, in England. — The Roman : larger than 
the Algiers, rounder ; of a deep yellow, and not 
quite so juicy. Ripe the middle or end of August, 
ill England. The Turkey: larger than the Ro-. 

( 2 ) 

man ; sharper, more globular, flesh firmer and dri- 
er: ripens the end of August, in England. The 
Breda is large, round, and deep yellow : the flesh 
soft and juicy : an excellent fruit. Ripe the end 
of August, in England. The Brussels: in very 
great esteem ; bearing well on standards and 
large dwarfs. The fruit, a middling size, red 
towards the sun, with many dark spots; of a 
greenish yellow on the other side. It has a brisk 
flavor; not mealy or doughy. On a wall, ri- 
pens in August ; but not till the end of September 
in standards, in England. Moor-park, called also, 
Anson's, Temple's, and Dunmore's Breda : a 
fine fruit; ripens end of August, in England. 
The Peach-apricot: the finest and largest of all 
apricots; ripens in August, in England. The 
Black-apricot : highly esteemed in France : this is 
also ca\ledthe*Mex&ndrian apricot ; and, says For- 
syth, it will prove an acquisition in England. 

Mr. Forsyth then gives, a regular succession of 
fruit for accommodating those who have small gar- : 
dens j torn the larger selections; retaining only the 
best kinds ; of which one or two trees of a sort 
may be planted, according to the wants of families. 
The likeselection he applies to other fruits — peaches, 
plums, pears, jfcc. 

( 3 ) 


The Masculine; the Roman; the Orange; the 
Breda ; and the Moor-Park. 

Of Planting, Pruning, and Training Apricots, in 
• England. 

PLANT in autumn, soon as the leaf begins to fall. 
Choose from the nursery > those having the strong- 
est and cleanest stems. If they have been previ- 
ously headed down, of two or three years growth, 
they will bear, and fill up, sooner than others. — 
Prefer them with one stem. If there be two stems, 
cut away one, however fair. 

The borders wherein the trees are to be planted, 
if new, are to be made two and a half, or three feet 
deep, of good, light, fresh loam. If to be planted 
where trees had stood, it may be proper to take 
out the old mould, at least three feet deep and four 
feet wide, filling up with fresh loam ; and plant the 
trees eight inches higher than the level of the old 
border, to allow for sinking of the earth, that they 
may not be too deep in the ground ; but inore of 
this in treating of Pear-trees. 

( 4 ) 

When the trees are planted, by no means head 
them down till April or May, when they begin to 
throw out fresh shoots. Cut strong trees, a fbett 
from the ground; the weak. ones, about half that 

In backward seasons, head down net sq early ; 
never till the buds are fairly broken ; always cut 
sloping (towards the wall, if a wall is intended,) 
and as near to an eye as possible, that the young 
leading shoot may cover the cut, Q>1. 1, fig. 1.] 
which operation should be again performed in the 
ensuing March or April. The shoots that are then 
thrown out are to be trained horizontally, to cover 
the wall. The number to be left may be three to 
six on each side, according to. the strength of the 
main shoot. With finger and thumb rub off the 
foreright shoots all over the tree, except a few, if 
wanted, to fill up the wall, near the body of it. 
Q>1. 1, fig. 1.] 

In the second year shorten the horizontal shoots 
in the same manner, according to their growth ;—?- 
and so on, every year, till the wall is completely 
covered from top to bottom. 

( 5 )- 

Some gardeners head down the trees at the time 
of planting.; which often proves fatal to them. 

Where large branches have been cut off, from 
full-grown trees, in a careless manner, and the 
wounds left to nature, the whole tree is infected 
with the gum and canker. In which case, to save 
or restore the tree's fruitfulness and health, .pare off 
the cankered part of the bark with a draw-knife. 
Often the white, inner bark, is found infected, 
which also is to be cut away ; not leaning a single 
brown or black spot ; which are like dots, made with 
a pen. 

All the branches so cut and pared, are instantly 
to be covered with the composition in a liquid state : 
the preparation and application whereof, see post. 
JVherever the knife has been used, the composi- 
tion must be immediately applied. 

I have, says Mr. Forsyth, a great dislike to au* 
tumnal pruning of fruit-trees ; especially of stone 
fruit. By pruning these, the canker is apt to fol- 
low it* In the spring, when the sap begins to flow, 
and will follow the knife, the lips will quickly 

( 6 ) 

Covering apricots (and other fruit-trees) will 
prevent the blossom from destruction by frost, 
cutting winds, &c. In severe weather cover them 
before the flowers begin to expand; for they often 
drop off before they are opened. 

The best covering is old flsb-nets, put on three- 
fold ; with a few branches of dry fern, stuck in 
among the branches before the nets are put on- 
They assist greatly in breaking high winds. The 
practice of covering with mats in the night, and 
taking them off in the day, is injurious in exposing 
the trees frequently to the cutting winds. Cover- 
ing with branches of spruce fir, is also injurious, 
from being too close, and promoting the curl of the 
leaves of the trees, and the shoots to break veiy 
weak; Whereas the nets admit of a free circulation 
of air, yet break the force of the winds. It rains 
or snows, sometimes, in the forepart of the night, 
and freezes towards morning ; the drops are then 
found hanging in icicles on the meshes, while the 
tree is almost dry. 

In England, a west aspect is reckoned preferable 
for the general crop. A few trees they plant on a 
south aspect, for an early supply ; and for a late 
supply, a few on an east aspect. 

( 7 ) 


Selected by Mr. Forsyth for a small garden, in Eng- 
land; with certain notices on their culture \ tfc. 
THE selection recommended by Mr. Forsyth for 
his small garden, consists of— -The Jaunhative ; 
Early Damask; Orleans; La Royal; Green Gage 
(sorts) ; Draps d'Or ; Saint Catherine, and Impe- 
Tatrice. The Magnum Bonum, for baking ; and 
the Winesour, for preserving. 

Of the Jaunhative, Mr. Forsyth observes, it is 
a small plum (by some called White Prismordian), 
of a yellow colour, and mealy. Ripe, the end of 
July, or first of August. One tree, he says, is 
sufficient for a garden. 

The Early Damask, commonly called the Mo- 
rocco Plum, is middle sized, the flesh good. Ri- 
pens in early August. 

The Red Orleans, is large ; rich juice. Ripe end 

\ of August. 

La Royal; a fine Plum, equal to the Green 
Gage ; but a shy bearer ; of a red colour. Ripens 
late in September. 

( 8 ) 

Green Gage; several varieties, and all good* Is 

of an exquisite take ;— - eats like a sweetmeat. Its 

colour and size distinguish it from any other. Ri- 
pens in August and September. 

Drap 4'Qr is a good Plum — a plentiful bearer. 
Rij>e l&te in September. 

Saint Catherine Plum is one of the best — much 
used in confectionary ; also very good for the table, 
having a rich sweet juice ; and is a good bearer, 
hanging the longest of any upon the tree : some- 
times six weeks in gathering. Ripens late in Sep- 

Hhelmperatrice, or Empress Plum, has an agree- 
able flavor : Ripens the middle of October. This 
is one of the latest Rums— should not be gathered 
till it begins to shrivel ; it will then eat like a sweet- 
meat, and make a great addition to the table in the 
latter end of October and beginning of November. 

On the choice, planting, pruning, &c. of Plum- 

' Trees, see those treated of under Apricots, ante. 

BOiereareany tap-roots, cut them off; and also 

the fine hairy roots, they being liable to become 

( 9 ) 

mouldy and rot. If the roots, says Mr. Forsyth, 
are not spread near the surface of the ground, it will 
prevent the sun and air from penetrating to them ; 
and the fruit, of course, will not have so fine a flai> 

Never cut the stems of young Plum-trees when 
first planted, but leave them till the buds begin to 
break ; then they may be headed down to five or 
more eyes, always observing to leave an odd one 
' for the leading shoot : observing to cut sloping to- 
wards the wall, ai*d as near to an eye as possible, 

Speaking of the distance between the trees, Mr, 
Forsyth says, Plum-trees should be planted accord- 
ing to the height of the wall, (when not a standard.) 
If the wall be ten feet high (the common height), 
they may be planted eight yards distance from tree 
to tree. If the wall be twelve feet high, or more, 
seven yards will suffice, 

By training an upright shoot on the Plums, a$ 
for Pears, there will be gained fine kind shoots 
from the ?ides, Shorten tfie leading shopt, legtv? 
ing it one to two feet k>ag, according to its strepgtfr, 

( io ) 

Plum-trees intended for standards, (as the elim- 
inate of America prefers for all fruit-trees, not ab- 
solutely exotic), Mr. Forsyth recommends should, 
in England, be prepared as follows : — The year 
before they are meant to be transplanted, cut in the 
side shoots at different lengths, from one foot to 
three, according to the size of the trees ; suffering 
them to grow rude all the summer, without rail- 
ing-iri nor cutting the side and foreright shoots. 
Sometimes during winter open the ground round 
their roots, and cut in the strong ones (for promo- 
ting the putting forth fine young fibres) ; then fill 
in the earth.* In the following autumn, or during 
the winter (the sooner the better), transplant them 
out, as standards. He considers it to be of great 
consequence, in transplanting trees, especially if 
large, that they be placed in the same position, that 
is, having the same parts facing the same points of 
the compass as formerly. When a tree is cut down, 
three parts in four of # the growth, appear on the 
north side. If, however, it is intended to plant 
them against a wall, never cut the side shoots, says 
Mr. Forsyth, but only the roots ; by which the trees 
will bear fruit the first year after transplanting. 

( *1 ) 

The ground in the borders and quarters should 
be well trenched, two spits deep, where fresh ^rees 
are to be planted ; to give the rootsjrpom to run in- 
to the fresh stirred ground. 

Huip-tfrees, as standards > in an orchard to be 
kept for grass, should be in tows twenty yards from 
*ach other, ^ays Mr. F. — If in the kitchen garden, 
as standards ', he recommends that they be dwarfs. 
They may be trained up to have a stem three feet 
high, at the distance of seventeen yanfe,. 

Dwarf standards cm be kept to the size you 
please. They look much handsomer than Espali- 
ers, and produce a greater quantity of fruit. 

In cold, frosty weather, cover Plums in the same 
manner as Apricots, as above. They are more 
tender than other sorts of stone fruit; the {lower- 
cup dropping sooner. 

Do not thin the fruit too soon, lest it be pinched 
by the cold. The fruit is to be the size of a small 
marble, and well sheltered by the leaves, before it 
be thinned. 

( 12 ) 


Selected by Mt. Forsyth, for a small gat-den in Eng- 
land; tvith bis observations oh their culture > fcfa 
THE selection of peadies for a small garden, ift 
England; consists of, the Early Avant; Small 
Migiiohnej the Ann Peach ; Royal George; Royal 
Kensington; Noblesse; Early Newington ; Gal- 
lande; Early Piirplej Chancellor; Nivette; the 
Catherine ; the Late Newington* 

The Early Avant has an agreeable flavor ; ripens 
in August^ early. 

The Sthalt Mignonhe, is very red ne*t the sun { 
the flesh has a rich vinous juice : It is ripe about 
the middle of August. 

The Ann Peach, a fine early fruit : ripens the 
middle or end of August. 

The Royal George, comes in soon after ihcAnn. 
The flower large and white t the fruit a dark red 
towards the sun, and full of a fine rich juice* Ri- 
pens the end of August. 

( 13 ) 

The Royal Kensington, is one of the best peaches 
in England* Of a high red colour next the sun; 
yellowish next the wall : a good bearer, not apt to 
be blighted. The flesh is full of rich juice. Ripen* 
near the end of August or early in September. 

The Noblesse, large ; of a bright red colour to- 
wards the sun : the flesh melting, and the juice very 
rich. A good bearer ; ripens the beginning of Sep- 

Early Nevoingtoh, beautiful red towards the sun, 
foil of a sugary juice : ripens beginning of September, 

The Gallande or Beltegarde 5 is Very large, a deep 
purple towards the sun ; the flesh melting and full 
of a very rich juice. " This is afine peach;" ripens 
the middle of September. 

The Early Purple, This fruit is large ; of a fine 
red colour, and foil of rich vinous juice* Is an ex- 
cellent peach : ripens about the middle of August* 

The Chancellor, one of the best sort of peaches ; 
of a fine red next the sun; the skin is thin, the flesh 
melting, the juice very rich. Ripens, beginning of 

i 14 ) 

The Ntvette, 6f a bright red next the sun ; yellow- 
ish cast towards the wall ; the flesh melting, and 
full of a rich juice. An excellent peach : ripens 
the middle of September, 

The Catherine 9 a fine large peach : a round make, 
and beautifully red towards the sun. The flesh is 
melting, and full of rich juice. " The pulp is im- 
proved by lying three or four days before it is eaten" 
(says Mr. F.) Ripens about the latter end of Octo- 
ber ; but there are not many situations where it ri- 
pens well. Is a plentiful bearer. 

The Old Nenvington, is of a fine red colour ; has 
a high vinous tasted juice, and esteemed a good 
Pavie (clingstoned. ) Ripens, the end of September. 

Planting, Pruning, Training, &fc. Peaches in 
England. • 
Peaches require slighter soil than Pears and Plums. 
A light mellow loam is best. In the choice of Peach 
Trees, as to health, &c. see of Apricots, &c. Pro- 
cure them the end of October or early in November, 
as soon as the leaf begins to fall \ and best that the 
ground be %e*dy before hand. It is a great hurt 
to fruit trees when planted too deep. They should 
be kept up above the level of the old ground, at first, 

( is ) 

when planted, water the roots to settle the mould, 
letting it remain some days till the water is absorbed : 
then, tread the mould, and fill die holes up to the top ; 
observing the same rules as before given in case of 
dry weather, letting the fresh planted trees remain 
unpruned till the spring. 

When the buds begin to shoot, if they be of 
maiden trees of one years growth, head them to five 
or more eyes, according to their strength: then rub 
on a little of the composition, where the top is cut 
off; cutting it sloping! as before said, and as near the 
top buds as may be; and also rub off the fore-right 
shoots. If the leading shoot be very strong, pinch 
off its top, the beginning of June. It prevents the 
shoots growing too long in the first and second years, 
by pinching their ends : but they should not be 
topped, when the tree sends out fine kind shoots, 
till the spring following, when they are to be pruned, 
according to the strength of the tree, and the quan- 
tity of wood it has made during the preceding sum- 
mer, leaving the shoots from six to twelve inches 
long ; for soon filling the lower part of the wall. It 
is too common to lay in the shoots at full length, 
taking off only the points of the branches; which in 
a few years is apt to leave the wall naked : but if 

( « ) 

attention be paid to the training, especially for the 
first four years the walls could always be filled with 
fine bearing wood from top to bottom, and the trees 
could produce a deal more fruit, of a finer qua- 
lity, than when they are run up in the former way ; 
for those trees are so weak, sometimes, as not tp 
have strength to bear good fruit. The third year, 
with summer attentions, they may be brought 
into a bearing state. If from very strong ground 
they grow very vigorously, the strong shoots should 
be pinched about June, for making them throw out 
side shoots ; and if not laid in too thick, they will 
make fine bearing wood for the next year. If the 
strong shoots are suffered to grow their full length, 
they will be large and spongy ; and produce neither 
fruit nor good wood for the following year* Weak 
shoots, altho' full of blossoms, never bear good 
fruit. Suffering trees to be once weakened from abun* 
dance of fruity they never can recover. In such 
eases, pick off the fruit, that the tree may recover, 
[See pi, III, Fig. 2.3 

( 17 ) 

When Peaches come into a bearing state, in 
general, there will be soon twofiower-buds, and it 
will be soon what is called a wood-bud. Always 
cut at such double buds ; as from between them, 
come out the shoots that produce the fruit for next 
year. [See pi; III. fig. 2.] 

THEY differ from the Peach in nothing more 
than their smooth rind, and the greater firmness 
of their flesh. 

Select Nectarines for a small garden. 
Fairchild's Early Nectarine ; the Elruge j Scar- 
let ; Murry ; Newington; Red Roman. The 
first four arc clcarstones ; the other two cling* 

Nectarines are managed nearly as Peaches. The 
same rules of pruning and cutting out diseased 
parts. Thin the fruit when of a tolerable size. 


~ Their Culture, Selection, &c. in England. 

yOR a small garden in England, Mr. Forsyth re- 
commends the following selection of Pear-Trcer: 

( 18 ) 

•Suambr Pears : the Muik 5 the Green Cfaissel ; 
Jargonelle ; Summer fiergamot ; Summer B09- 

Autumn Pears : Orange fiergftmot; Autism* 
Bergamot ; Gansel's Bergamot ; Brown Beurre $ 
Doyenne, or St. Michael ; Swan's Egg. 

Winter Pears : Crasstne j Ch*umontelIe ; St. 
Germain ; Colmer ; D'Auch ; L'Esschasserie ; 
Winter Bonchretien ; Bergamot de Pasque. 

The above, Mr. F. says, will furnish a regular 
succession of fruit. 

Of the sorts and management of Pear-Trees, in 
Observations on the Pears seletted by Mr. For- 
syth for a {mall garden, given in the preceding 

I. Summer Pear4. There are several Musk 
Pears, spoken of by Mr. Forsyth. — The Little 
Musky or Supreme ; good only a few days. The 
Orange Musk ; apt to be dry. The Musk Robine 
Pear, or Queen's, or the Amher, is small, yel* 

( 19 ) 

low when ripe ; has a rich,, musky flavor ; * great 
bearer ; riperis the end of August. The Musk 
Drone; a rich, musky taste: apt to be mealy > 
lest on the tree ; ripens early in September. Thef 
Musk Orange ; the skin green, the flesh nicking j 
Ripens early September. 

The Green-ChisseU or Has ting's Pear, is of a 
middle size ; always remains green, and is full of 
juice when ripe, which is early in August. 

The JargpiiellC) or Guisse Madame. Lady's 
Thigh. It is somewhat like the Windsor :— the 
skin is smooth, of a'p ale green colour. A plenti- 
ful bearer ; but is apt to be mealy, if left stand- 
ing to be ripe, which is middle of August. 

The Summer Bergamotj or Hamden's Berg&riot, 
has a melting flesh,' gnd a juice highly peffttmed* 
Ripens the. end of September. 

The Summer Benqhretienj very full of juice, of 
a rich perfumed flavor. Ripens the middle of 


H. Autumn Peahs. The Orange Bergmot* 

( 20 ) 

Autumn Bergamo t : smaller than the Summer 
Bcrgamot ; the flesh is melting, the juice highly 
perfumed. A great bearer. Ripens early in Oc- 

GansdVs Bergamot. 

Brown Beurre: a reddish brown next the sun, 
yellowish on the other side ; the flesh melting, 
full of rich juice. Ripens in October. An ex- 
cellent Pear. ' 

Doyenne, or St. Michael. 

Swan's Egg : middle size, egg-shape ; green ; 
flesh melting, full of pleasant, musky juice. Comes 
in eating in November. Bears well. 

III. Winter Peaks. TheCrasane: the flesh 
extremely tender and buttery, full of rich sugar- 
ed juice. The very best of the season : comes 
into eating late in December. 

The Chaumontelle (wilding of Chaumontelle) 
is melting; the juice very rich : is in eating in 

The St. Germain is a fine fruit and keeps long ; 
the flesh is melting, and very full of juice ; 

( 21 ) 

which, in a dry season is very sweet : it is in eat- 
ing from December till February. — Note. In dry 
seasons , fruit should not be suffered to sweat so 
long in the heaps, as directed in treating of gather- 
ing and laying up fruit. Perhaps two weeks will 
be long enough, says Mr. Forsyth. 

The Colmar Pear is very tender; the juice 
greatly sugared. Is in eating about the first of 'Ja- 
nuary. The D'Auch Pear much resembles the 
Colmar ; but is fuller towards the stalk ; and is 
in eating from Christmas to April ; " and without 
exception is the best of all the winter Pears."— 
VEsschaserie has flesh melting and buttery ; the 
juice sugary. In eating early in January. The 
Winter Bonchretien Pear is very large ; the flesh 
tender and breaking, and is very full of a rich su- 
gared juice. It is in eating from the end of March 
till June. 

The Bergamotde Pasque % goes also by the names 
of, the Terling, the Amoselle, the Paddington 
and the Tarquin. It is a fine handsome fruit — 
green when gathered— -yellowish when ripe. 
Comes into eating in April, continues till June— 
and makes a handsome appearance at table. 

( 2* ) 

Mr. Forsyth advises, that instead of chctosirig 
young P£ar-Trees to plant out, the oldest in the 
nursery should be looked for and preferred, with 
strong stems : to take them up carefully with as 
much root as possible, and carefully plant them, 
after cutting the rdots a little, spreading them as 
horizontally as can be. Then fill up all round the 
roots, with light, dry mould, forcing it in about 
those which lie hollow with a pointed stick j fill- 
ing the whole up to the top, without treading tht 
mould till the hole is first filled with as much wa- 
ter as it wilt contain, leaving it a day or two, un- 
til the ground has absorbed the water : then throw 
on some fresh, dry mould, and tread it as hard as 
it can be; fill, the hole up again with mould to 
within an inch of the top, and give it a second wa- 
tering, leaving the mould three inches higher thart 
the border, to settle of itself, and receive rain that 
falls ; for at least a month. When the mould is 
became quite dry, it may be trod a second time ; 
then make a large bason round the tree, and give 
it another watering ; then mulch the top over with 
rotten leaves or dung, observing to water the 
trees once a week in dry weathcr r and sprinkle 
the taps frequently with a pot or hand-engine, to. 
keep the wood from shrivelling till the trees have 
taken fresh root. 

{ 23 ) 

In planting trees against a wall, let the stem 
stand sloping towards it } its lower part being 
no more nor less than six inehts from the bottom 
of the wall, that the stem may have room to grow $ 
and let the stem not lean, but be perfectly up* 
right. When standards are planted a foot or two 
from the wall, it gives them a disagreeable ap- 
pearance: six inches , he says, will be full enough. 

When the buds begin to break well, head the 
trees to three or fbpr eye?, for filling the wall 
with fine wood. Never head them afterwards, 
except the leading ^hopt, to fill thd wall j leaving 
the foreright shoots to be pruned,.— Mr. F. says, 
he had trees giving forty Pears the second year; 
while some of the same kind bore only eleven 
Pears the fourteenth year after planting, with the 
common method of pruning. 

If any of the trees get stunted after a number of 
years, nothing more, he says, is to be done but to 
head them^ as he directs, which will restore them 
into fresh vigour and fruitfulness. 

The method, he says, of pruning Pear-trees is 
very different from that practised for Jlpple-trces y 

( 24 ) 

in general, [See pi. VII. Letters C. and D.] Mr. 
F. supposes it would be between twelve and four- 
teen years before he could obtain any fruit from 
young Pear-trees. But he makes a comparative 
experiment in pruning or heading Pear-trees. He 
cut down four old and decayed Pear-trees, of dif- 
ferent kinds, near where they had formerly been 
grafted : this was performed the 15th May. Find- 
ing that they put forth fine shoots, he headed down 
four more on the 20th of June, of the same year, 
(by which time the former had shoots a foot long), 
which did equally well, and bore some fruit in 
the following year. One of the first four headed 
down, was a St. Germain, which produced nine- 
teen fine large well-flavored Pears next year, [see 
Letter B. pi. VII.] and in the third bore more fruit 
than in its former state it ever did, when it was 
four times the size. He left seven trees upon an 
east wall, treated according to the common method 
of pruning^ which bore as follows : 

The number of Pears produced upon each of 
seven trees that had been treated according to the 
co?nmon method of pruning^ viz. 

1. Epine d'Hyver produced eighty-six pears, 
and the tree spread fifteen yards. 

(2$ ) 

2. A Crasane produced one hundred Pears, and 
the tree spread .fourteen yards. 

3. Another Crasane produced sixteen Pears, and 
the tree spread ten yards. 

4. A Virgouleuse produced one hundred and fi£ 
ty Pears, and the tree spread nine yards. 

5. A Colmar produced one hundred and fifty 
Pears, and the tree spread nine yards. 

6. Another Colmar produced seventy-nine Pears, 
and the tree spread ten yards. 

7. A L'Eschasserie produced sixty Pears.* 

Compared with the above,— seven trees, beaded 
down and pruned according to his, Mr. Forsyth's 
method, leaving the foreright shoots in summer, 
they bore as follows, in the fourth year.after heading : 

1. A Louisbonne bore four hundred and sixty- 
three Pears, and the tree spread nine yards. 

* Total 641. 


( 26 ) 

% Another Louisbonnc bore three huridred and 
ninety-one Pears, and spre^ eight yards. : > 

3. A Colmar bore two hundred urn! thirteen 
Pears, and spread six yards* . 

4. A Brown Beurre bore five hundred and three 

5. Another Brown Beurre bore five hundred and 
fifty Pears. 

6. A Crasane bore five hundred and twenty 

7. A Virgouleuse bore five hundred aid eighty 

The branches of the four last trees spread neaity 
in the same proportion as the first three. 

A young Beurre the second year after heading 
We 230 Pears, and a St. Germain 400. 

f Total 3220. That is 5 to 1. 

( » ) 

. AUth* above trees stood upon the same aspect 
and the sam$ wall, and the fruit was numbered in 
the same ys*r. , The treesjxraned according to the 
oid practice covered, at least, one third more wall 
than the others. 

By the abpve statement, the trees headed down 
bore upwards of five times the quantity of fruit that 
the others did ; ahd they keep increasing, he says, 
in proportion to the progress of the trees. 

Add to this vast encouragement and superiority 
of his pruning, that on the 20th June, Mr. Forsyth 
beaded several standards that were nearly destroyed 
by the canker; some of them were so loaded with 
fruit the following year, that he was obliged to prop 
the branches. In the fourth year after these stand- 
ards were headed down, one of them bore 2840 
Fears. On the same border were three standards, 
two whereof were St. Germains; the old trees was 
of the same kind. One of these trees, twenty years 
old, had five hundred Pears on it, a great crop for 
its size : so that there were on the old tree, which 
had been headed down not quite four years, 2340 
Pears more than on the tree of twenty year's growth. 

( 98 ) 

Mr. Forsyth gives a curious account of the re- 
covering an old decayed Pear-tree, illustrated with 
a plate (VIII.) — Restored from an inch and half 
of bark, which now covers a wall sixteen feet high. 
In 1796, it bore 450 fine large Pears, and continues 
flourishing. The plate, however, is so badly drawn 
• as to be scarely worth copying. In referring to the 
plate, he refers to " fruit-budafor the present year- 
others forming for next year j and old footstalks that 
bore the fruit last year ; n but ifcey are sdafcely in- 

The following Mr. Forsyth gives as his method in 
training trees that are cut near to the place where 
they were grafted. Every year, in March, he 
shortens the leading shoot, to a foot or eighteen 
inches, according to its strength ; this shoot, if the 
tree be strong, will grow from five to seven feet in 
one season ; ind if left to nature would run up with- 
out throwing out side shoots. The reason for thus 
shortening the leading shoot, is to make it throw 
outside shoots; ajid if done close to a bud, it fre- 
quently will cover the cut in one season, leaving on- 
ly a cicatrix, as at f. f. f. in pi. VIII. which shews 
every year's growth ajid cicatrix. When the shoots 
£re very strong, he cuts the leading shoot twice in 

( 29 ) 

one season ; by which he gets two sets of side shoot* 
in one year; which enables him to cover the wall 
the sooner. The first cutting is performed any time 
during the springy and the second the middle of 

He directs, when you prune the trees, and cut the 
foreright shoots, which is to be in February or 
Marcb> always cut close to an eye or bud, observ- 
ing where there are the greatest number of leaves at 
die lower bud, and cut at them ; for at ihttfoot stalk 
of every one of these will be produced a flower bud. 
The same, he adds, will hold good in cutting the su- 
perfluous shoots on standard Pears. There will be 
in some sorts of Pears, from five to nine Pears in a 
cluster. This cutting is to be no£ later than March 
or first of April, because of the leading shoot begin- 
ning to grow : the next topping, when the leading 
shoot grows quick enough to admit of it, willbe the 
middle ol June ; and the length of the shoots are to 
be according to their strength, having from three 
eyes or buds, to six on a side. 

The cankery part, he says, beginning to affect 
$he new bark, he cut off all the canker at the bot- 
tom last year, ajid plastered the place with cow- 

( 3« ) 

dung, mixed with "wood ashes and powder of burnt 
tones , put into as much urine and soapsuds as would 
make it the consistence of thick paint. It was laid 
pn with a painter's brush. After being applied three 
hours, it was patted gently down with the hand, 
close to the tree : by which the air-bubbles that 
may hap to be under the composition, and make 
it adhere to the tree, preventing its being washed 
off by rain, are got rid of. 

In August, early, the foreright shoots aire shorten 
ed to about four inches long ; by this time the shoot 
will have made its full growth for the season, and 
will produce fine strong eyes for the following year. 

The tree above mentioned had a decayed, rotten 
root, the dead part of which he cut all away, till he 
came to the sound wood. Whenever the trunk is 
hollow, he directs that it be followed under ground 
till all the decayed parts and rotten roots are cut out, 
otherwise the tree will be lost. 

If, says Mr. Forsyth, the above be followed, more 
Pears will be got in three or four years, than can be 
in twenty-five years by planting young trees, and 
pruning and managing them in the common way. 

( 31 ) 

But it may happen that the Pears become stunted 
after cold blighting winds, and frosty nights (as 
sometimes seen in June and July*). In this case, 
Mr, Forsyth recommends a new and bold, method 
of operation, when the weather becomes milder, <m 
begins to be so : . v 

He says, take a sharp pen-knife, and with I* 
point cut through the rind of the Pear, from the 
footstalk to the eye, as if it were a bark-bound tree, 
cutting as little into the flesh of the tree as possible. 
Beat up fresh cow-dung with wood ashes, and rub 
in a little of this composition with the fore finger, 
where the cut is made. 

The distance he gives Pear-trees against walls, 
and breadth of borders, are twelve yards : but the 
distances vary too greatly to enter into detail. Bor- 
ders should be 10 to 20 feet wide. But here is 
much extravagance. 

* No such cold weather ever happens in the United 
States, at least not beyond the 41°. So far from it, 
it is thought strange there should be frost in May. 

( 32. ) 

. MR. FORSYTH selects for a imall garden iii 
England, the following Vines : — The White Musca- 
dine; White Sweet 9 Water; Black Sweet Water; large 
Black Cluster ; small Black Cluster ; the Miller 
Grape. St. Peters, and the Black Hamburgh, may 
do very well in favorable seasons. 

, The White Muscadine, above selected, resembles 
the Royal Muscadine, but the berries are smaller. 
It is the best grape for a common wall, and a great 
bearer. Also called the Common, and the Chas* 

The White Sweet Water. The berry Jarge, a 
white colour ; very agreeable juice. Esteemed an 
excellent grape. Ripens in September. 

The Black Sweet Water. Small berry, sweet ; 
but apt to crack. Not much in repute. Ripens in 

The large Black Cluster. A very rough, harsh 
taste. Speechlay says it is the grape of the Opor- 
to wine. 

( S3 ) 

' The small Black Cluster. A very pleasant fruit. 

The St, Peter's Grape. Large oval berries; 
deep black ; bunches large : the flesh juicy. Ri- 
pens late. 

The Black Hamburgh. Bunches large — large 
berriesr— pleasant sweet juice, vinous. Ripens in 

Cutting? of Vines, take from shoots the best ri- 
pened, with the shortest joints— always with one or 
two joints of the last year's wood : cutting it as near 
a joint of the old wood as possible. 

. Choose cuttings after a warm, dry season. Each 
cutting to have two inches of the old wood, with one 
eye of the new. 

Training and Pruning Vines. 
In 1789, says Mr. Forsyth, I let two strong 
branches grow to full length, without topping them 
in the summer. In 1'790, he trained them in a ser- 
pentine form, [pi. X.] leaving about 30 eyes on 
each shoot, which produced 120 fine bunches of 
grapes, weighing from one pound to a pound and 

( M > 

g. quartet each. A1J whp saw them $aisi the brge 
ones were as fine as forced grapes ; while the small 
Qoes prodfcped froin, branches of the same Yfre, 
trained and, pcuned in the old way, were^bad natUr; 
ral grapes, and not above twice the size of large 

To confirm this experiment, he next year trained 
five plants in the same way, allowing the shoots in- 
tended for bearing wood to run to their full length 
in summer, training wherever there was a vacancy 
between the old trees ; wh^re the*e was none, he run 
them along the top of the wall, without topping 
them. In winter he t*aiped them ia a serpentine 
manner, so as to fill the wall as regularly as possi- 
ble : they were as productive as those in the former 

After a three year's trial, he thought himself war- 
ranted to follow th^ same practice with the whole ; 
and in 1793, he sent for the king's use 378 baskets 
of grapes ; each weighing three pounds, without 
planting a single Vine more than were the preceding 
year, when he could send only 56 t^skcts of the 
same weight. The. above proves the great advan- 
tage of thq serpentine method of training Vines. 

( 35 ) 


; It must be observed, the shoots should be brought 

as jaear as gossibl&Jrom the bottom of the Vines, that 
the wall may b6 well covered; When the walla 
are high, and the shoots from the serpentine branches 
ifctmg, tfeey may sometimes b£ suffered to remain* 
If die walls are low, and the serpentine branches 
fpive weak shoots* tbsy are tobfe cut in the autum- 
nal pruning, and the strongest of the young, wood is 
trained up in their room, as directed in the explana- 
tion of pi. X* 

I , The wood, in pruning and training Fines, must 

' be strong, or the Vines will produce small bunches; 

I If that be the case, cut them down to two or three 

eyes, in ordfer to have strong wood for the next year. 
' Vines bear their fruit on the wood that was prddilced 

the preceding year. The deal of old naked wood 
I tfyat occurs, and small weak shoots at the extremi- 

! ties, always cut down as near to the grbulid as pos- 

sible* There then will be no fruit for that year. 
Or cut every other shodt, leaving the old ones to 
produce some small grapes. The next year there 
will be plenty of fine wood, if care has been taken 
to nail- in the strongest shoots, arid pick off the side 
shoots produced from the eyes ; pinching off with 
finger and fyumb, or with, a sharp pen-knife cutting 


( *> ) 

tbem out close to the bod or eye ; bat fitter twist 
them : by twisting them, the bad will be hart that 
produces the grapes next year ; always cutting as 
near to a bud as possible, and laying in the wood 
very thin in summer ; so it will grow very strong* 
Pick of all side shoots as often as there is nailing to 
the wall, which will be several times in the summer 

Suffer not the Vines to run together in a cluster, 
and to mat, which will ruin their bearing the next 
season. Top the shoots trained serpentine-like, 
soon as the grapes are as big as very small green 
peas, a joint or two above the fruit; but never top 
the leading shoot > nor which is intended to give fruit 
next year* 

In the second year's pruning^ observe not to prune 
Vines till the beginning of February, unless in case 
of uncommon forwardness in the season. It is com- 
mon with some, to begin pruning soon after the fall 
of the leaf before the wood becomes bard : but if a 
frost sets in before the wood is bard, especially after 
wet summers and autumns, it will be much injured. 
Mr. F. has seen Vines almost killed after autumnal 
pruning. When the Vine leaves begin to fell, take 

( 37 ) 

a soft broom and sweep them off, upwards, in a 
gentle manner, which helps to harden the wood. 

In beginning to prune in February, make choice 
of the strongest and longest shoots.; leaving them as 
Jong as the eyes are found good and plump, and the 
wood round; but never leave them when they be- 
come flat ; for in that case they seldom bear fruit ; 
and if they do, it will be very small. Mr. F. never 
lays in any that has less than fifteen, and from that 
to thirty good eyes, which wjll produce two bunches 
from every good eye. He has had seventy bunches 
of grapes froip. one shoot. 

The shoots that bore fruit in the preceding year 
should be cut out next year ; except when the wall 
is to be filled, and the shoots are very strong. A 
plenty offine, healthy young wood is always to be had, 
if there be care in pruning in the winter ; therefore, 
he says, never leave any but fine strong wood, always 
cutting at the second, third or fourth eye, rubbing 
off the lowest bud, and that which comes out at the 
joint between the new and last year's wood. Thus 
as much fruit is got from these short shoots, as would 
be by the common pruning. 

( *« ) 

Always leave two or three of the strongest shoots 
for next year's bearing wood, and never top them : 
and, if there is a want of room to train them, they 
may be led over the tops of the other trees, or run 
them behind the standards ; which will have a beau* 
tiful appearance when the fruit is ripe* 

The composition presented by Mr. Forsyth to the 
world, through the bounty of the government and 
Parliament of Great-Britain, is always to be applied 
as soon as possible after pruning. The Fine is very 
porous, and soon imbibes wet and moisture, which 
soon bring it to decay. , , . 

If a Vine j from being cut late, should Meed, the 
powder is to be applied, and repeated till the bleed- 
ing is stopped. 

To try the effect of the powder in stopping the 
bleeding of Grape- Vines, Mr. F. cut two strong 
Vine branches in June, and three more in July, in 
very hot weather. The sap rose so strong that it 
worked out at the top in a frpth : on applying the 
J>owder 9 it was in a short time entirely stopped. 

( »* > 

Watering Fines. 
When the grapes are set and begin to swell, ma- 
ter them with the barrow-engine ; sprinkling all over 
the leaves and fruit, pressing the fore finger over the 
top of the pipe, so that the water can be thrown as 
fine as small rain. 

Insects on Grapes. 
Soon as the large fly, &c. appears, have bottles, 
a good number, about half full with some sweet li- 
quor, where the insects will be drowned. Hang the 
bottles aJl oyer the Vines, and some at the bottom 
ofthewaHs. Hang them up early, as the blue fly 
comes much earlier than the wasp, and is not less 

Against birds, nets or bunting are to be thrown 
over the grapes. 

It is a bad practice to take off the leaves from 
Vines soon after the fruit is set \ which prevents the 
fruit from swelling, and it becomes bardmd small, 
apt to crack. 

Grapes are kept wrapped in soft paper, and cover- 
ed, layer and layer, with bran well dried: but short 



( 40 ) 

cat, sound, dry straw must be better, as the dusting 
of meal on the bran will produce mites, &c. — The 
grapes bagged, and the jar or pot being filled, layer 
and layer with them and the cut-straw, they atfe 
then closely secured in a dry room, nor cold nor hot. 


FIGS have been cultivated in England ever since 
the year 1562. Mr. Forsyth gives an account of 
fifteen sorts the best worth cultivating in England. 
They are, he says, raised from suckers, layers, or 
cuttings ; which will thrive in almost any soil, but 
do npt like a wet bottom : they generally, he adds, 
produce more fruit on a strong loamy soil than on 
a dry one. Layers or cuttings are preferable t* 

Pruning and Culture of Figs. 
They should never, says Mr. Forsyth, be pruned 
in autumn or during the winter : his best time is the 
latter end of April or beginning of May ; by which 
time will be seen what shoots have been killed by 
the frost in winter. The end of those branches 
more particularly will be hurt where the wood has 

( 41 ) 

not ripened well in cfotumn : they should be cut int§ 
the sound wood, and as near to an eye a$ possible* 
When the branches have been suffered to run up, 
leaving the bottom quite naked, there should be cut 
out every other branch as near to the gjroilnd as can 
be ; which will furnish the wall with fine young 
wood ; observing to stop the ends of the shoots ii* 
the beginning of June ; this will cause them to 
throw out side shoots which will bear fruit the next 
summer. By that time there will be plenty olfine 
wood: then nday be cut down the rest of the old 
branches left the preceding year, observing to prune 
them about the same time the pruning was the last 
year : remembering always to pinch ojfihc ends of 
the strongest shoots, except the leading ones* at 
th£ top bud. 

When th$ pruning; is in the spring* n£ver shorten 
the shoots, as the fruit is produced near the tops* 
There will, he says, be many fine short side and 
foreright shoots, which should n£ver be qiit off but 
when decayed. These shoots, he thinks, will ripett 
much better than the long strong ones, and not be 
so liable to be killed by frost in winter. By following 
this method, Mr. F. says, the trees will be covered 
with fruit from top to bottom of the walls, instead 

( 42 ) 

of a few fruit ofily at the top, as when the common 
method of pruning is practised 

When the Figs are the size of small nutmegs, 
pinch off the point of the top bud with the finger and 
thumb, or cut it with a sharp pen-knife ; always re- 
membering to use the powder wherever is the cut or 
pinch, to stop the oozing of the milk; which, if suf- 
fered, would exhaust and injure the trees. 

Do not lay in the branches too thick, or near to- 
gether ; their distance should be twelve to eigh- 
teen inches from each other. 

. In the beginning of winter cover the trees before 
the frost sets in, or the ends of the shoots will be 
hurt by the first sharp frosts, before the wood is ri- 
pened and hardened j which will render it necessary 
to cut them as before. When Fig-trees are very 
much injured in hard winters, the best way is to cut 
as near the ground as possible ; and the second year 
they may be got into a fine bearing state, if managed 
as above directed. 

( 43 I) 

Covering Fig-Trees* 
Mr. Forsyth covered with bentings,* or short 
grass from the pleasure grounds ; which he finds an- 
swers the purpose very well. Figs, he adds, may 
filsobe sheltered in winter, by wrapping hay or 
straw bands round the branches of the trees ; then 

* open the ground, lay in the branches of the trees, and 
r cover them over with mould about nine inches deep, 
' leaving the ends of the shoots about three inches out 
: of the ground, and covering, the ground over with 

• some rotten leaves or old tan, &c. to keep out the 
frost. The roots also may be so covered. 

Do not uncover the Figs too soon hi the spring ; 
and it should be partially, for fear of frosts and cut- 
ting winds in April and May ; which would kill the 
young fruit,, as it makes its appearance in thp 

The branches laid into the ground should be taken 
■■up in April, taking off the hay and straw bands, 

* Bentings, or bent-grass ? Under Grapes, p. 129 
he says, cover the trees with "nets or bunting (a kind 
of stuff which ship's colours are made of)." But here, 
(his p. 136), beatings seem to be the bent-grass; for 
he says, "bentings or short grafs." , ; 

( M ) . 

and then nail them £o the ujaU. Stick in among 
the 4>randhes some fern leaves, or other Ogfct tfoer* 
ingi to protect fthqpi iron* itey'mg wincjs and frosts, 
till the fruit is<ef the size of^Jarge watatft, Qr rathev 
till the fc&re? are large enough to protect the fruit, 

The Italians, tcfarvmrdahripcn^^T^y &Q$> 
But take care not 1oiiOTt,the ^km wd«^etheF\g 

burst. This arafces the ^ 
in the ripening. 

Soon as the leaves begin to fall, brush them off 
OT*&a>broom^f^ lest 

4be trees be made to bleed ^ the foot^tolk^ U $& 
same moment clean the stalks of all the <st«Jks ^f 
tmaU late fruit y-~v&\ob, if suffered .to remain in 
the winter, will rot and injure the tree, so 3$ to 
prevent it from bearing the next summer. 

If milk is seen oosmg from tfre footstalks, apply 
some of the composition ; which will stop it and heal 
the injured part : and by doing Ais, ripening and 
"hardening the wood before winter frosts set in will 
J>e sssistcdi ,See beforp, jp. .38,, b^ ppweter applied 
to Vines. 

( 45 ) 

Plant Uig-trees 3D to 24 feet apart ; and train 
horizontally , which renders them much more fruit- 
ful than if trained upright, which makes them run 
up in long, naked wood. 

;Leave spurs or short shoots cdl over the branches ; 
and when the buds begin to swell, all the short shoots* 
should be pinched as above. 

The branches of standard Fig-trees are liable to 
rbtf killed in winters ; they therefore should be laid 
in the ground, wrapping them up in hay or straw 
.bands, as directed for wall-trees. It sometimes will 
.be impracticable to lay down the middle branches-: 
Aen let them be well covered with hay or straw 
bands, and the outside laid down regularly round the 
tree, and avoiding to hurt them with the spade: 
then mulch them with rotten leaves, &c. 

After hard winters it has been found necessary to 
cut Fig-trees down very near to the ground, and ap- 
ply the composition : in two years the new wood has 
covered oyer the old stump, and the branches filled 
4*p the space, bearing a plenty of fine fruit. 

In a plentiful year, what is not used at table, may 
be dried for winter use. 

( 46 «) 


THE best sort far die kitchen garden is the Por- 
tugal, the best for baking or stewing. It is of a fine 
purple colour when dressed, and much better for 
marmalade than any other sort. These also mix 
well with apples in pies and puddings ; adding a 
quick pleasant flavor. 

They are easily raised by layers or cuttings taken 
from the tree in March. Plant in a shady placed in 
rows a foot apart, and three inches, plant to plant in 
the rows. Mulch them with rotten leaves or rotten 
dung, for keeping the ground moist about them. 
Water them frequently in hot weather. About Mi- 
ehaelmass the well-rooted may be planted out ; and 
the rest let remain over to another year. — They also 
maybe propagated by budding or grafting ; and 
those trees will bear, Mr. F. says, sooner, and be 
more fruitful than those raised by any other method. 

Prune Quince-trees much like Apple-trees, cut- 
ting out all the diseased, old, and dead wood, and 
the cross branches in the middle of the tree. In ge- 
neral, old trees are much hurt by injudicious prun- 
ing ; in that case, head them down, cut out all the 

< 47 ) ■ x 

#wjforypart, and all the diseased and dead wood 
where the tree is hollow, or where large branches 
have been cut or broken off; applying always the 
composition as for Apple-trees. 

Quince-trees are apt to have rough bark, and be 
bark-bound. Shave off the rough bark with a draw- 
knife ; and scarify them when bark-bound : then 
brush them over with the composition, as hereafter. 

Quinces ought to be planted some distance frojn 
apples and Pears, as bees and the wind might mix 
flie farina, and occasion the apples and pears to de* 


; THE sorts common in England, Mr. Forsyth 
says, are — 

Green Gascoin, Hairy fe Smooth Red, 

Smooth Green, Large Smooth Yellow, 

Early Black, Large Rough Yellow, 

Small Early Red* Common Large White, 
LargeSmoothDutch Yellow, Champaigne. 

( 4* ) 

They are raised from tattings, or from &ed; 
some raise them from suckers : but these laart are 
faised in a bad way ; as the bushes are more liabte 
to throw out suckers from them than in either of 
the other ways. 

Plant cuttings, he says, about Michaelmas*; al- 
ways cutting them from the strongest and cleanest 
shoots. The length of cuttings to be six to eight 
inches, planting them on an east or north border, 
one foot from row to row, leaving theft* about three 
inches above ground : at this distance the hoe may 
be admitted, for cleaning them from weeds arid stir- 
ring the soil. Water frequently in dry weather dtfr- 
ing the spring. 

Market gardeners near London plant them in 
rows, 8 or 10 feet from row to row, and six feet, 
plant to plant in the rows* In which case, Mr. F. 
advises priming them in the beginning of Octo- 
ber ; and the ground between planted with colworts 
or beans, for a spring crop. 

After this time (or before) lay*a Goat of rotten 
dung on : then dig and plant early potatoes ; but 
not so near the Gooseberries as to hurt them. 

C *» ) 

The roots of Gooseberries are to be kept clear 
to admit sun and air. In small gardens, plant 
them in ^tfartcrt by themselves ; Six feet between 
the rows,, and four fect^ plant to plaint ; or plant 
tfcem round the edges of the quarters, three feet 
from the path; and then the ground will be clear 
fcr Cropping* 

Gooseberries love a rick sail ; and should there- 
fore be dunged every year, or at least a good coat 
•nee in two years • 

Never plant them, he says, under the shade of 
Mher tree* ; Which would injure the flavour of the 

Pruning Gooseberries. * 
It is a bad practice to let Gooseberry-bushes 
branch out with great naked stems* . When they 
are found in this state, cut them down near to the 
ground in the winter pruning. They then will 
throw out fine strong healthy Shdot*, that will give 
fruit the second year. In general, they bare their 
fruit on the second year's wood. 

( 50 ) 

In summer keep the middle of the bush clear r to 
admit a free air ; leaving the finest and strongest 
shoots from six to ten inches distant from each 
other j which will help to ripen and harden the 
wood. It is, says Mr* F. a practice with some to 
shorten the shoots in the autumn or winter prun- 
ing ; this, he adds, should always be near to s 
wood-bud; which is known by its being single f 
whereas fruit-buds are in clusters. The shoots are 
shortened to eight or ten inches, as they are strong* 
Some leave them at full length three or four year*, 
thinning out those that are superfluous. Always 
leave a number to be trained up between the full 
length shoots, to succeed them when they are tired 
of bearing : then cut the old ones down to the 
young that are to succeed them. Thus the bushes 
are always in a constant state of bearing. 

The branches cut in the first year, in the second 
will throw out, short dugs, or spurs which produce 
the fruit 5 and these should by no means be cut 
off, unless the branches are in a sickly state, and 
require to be cut close down when the bushes arc 
overloaded with fruit. It will then be necessary 
to cut out a good deal of the old wood, to assist 
nature to recover herself after being forced in 
producing so great a quantity of fruit. 

( 51 ) 

The Gooseberry supplies the table amply till 
the wall-fruit comes in. Great additions to them 
are of late made by raising them from seed. 

By mixing up a rich soil to plant those in that 
have been raised from seed, and by watering, shad- 
ing and thinning the fruit, they have grown much 
larger than any ever before see n in England. 

The catalogues of Gooseberries are brought to 
contain between four and five hundred sorts or # 
varieties. Mr* Forsyth asked Messrs. M'Niven, 
nurserymen at Manchester), how many good and 
distinct sorts (some hardly being distinguishable) 
they could send him out of their numerous cata- 
logue: the answer was, "They fould send about 
eighteen or twenty sorts, which they could an- 
swer for being good and distinct ." — Mr. Forsyth 
accordingly received, on his order, all the sorts 
that they could warrant good, which turned out 
to his satisfaction. 

« * 

Great attention ought to be paid to the cultiva- 
tion of the early and late sorts before all others, 
and he wishes attention be paid tp the times of 

i m ) 

He disapproves of clipping the top* of Gfoose- 
berry-hushes with garden-shears, which exceed? 
ingly injures thp bushes and the fruit, 

In the spring and summer, grub up all thesuct- 

ers from the roots ot t&e ousnes ; le?vi#g their 

Stems clear aqd unincumbered* 

To have the fruit very late, plant on north walls 
and palings between the other trees, j and tbey 
may be removed when the trees begin to meet. 
If laid in thin y they will bear very fine and hand- 
some fruit. Plant the finest late sorts. By this 
method the table will be supplied much longer 
than by the common practice of planting in quar- 

Immediately after pruning, Mr. F. always ap- 
plies the composition to the ends of the shoots and 
cuttings ; and he finds it of great use in prevent- 
ing the exhalation of the* sap, and preserving the 
cuttings till they take root, 

A small green caterpillar frequently devour? 
the leaves and fruit of Gooseberry-bushes. Wsytch 
their early coming, and destroy them before tjiey 

;( 53 ) 

fpt ahead, or they will destroy all the leaves, and 
the fruit will be worthless. Their first appear- 
ances trcjtxder and at the edges of the leaves • 

To kill the green caterpillar, lay sifted quick-lime 
under the bushes : but at first let none touch the 
branches or leaves j then shake each hush suddenly 
^nd smartfy. The caterpillars then fall into the 
lime. If the bush be not very suddenly shook, 
with a spring, the insects being a little disburbed 
will cling close to the leaves, hardly to be shaken 
off. After this is done, sift some of the lime over 
and on the bushes, which will drive down those 
that may be lodged on the branches, Next day 
sweep upy<ke caterpillars, and wash the bushe* 
with clew lime-water, mixed with urine. This 
will destroy aphides as well as caterpillars. 


THE sorts most commonly cultivated in Eng- 
land are, the Red d.nd fVhite Dutch Currants, and 
the Common Black and American Black Currants. 
Also the following sorts are cultivated by the nur- 
serymen about London and other parts of Eng- 
land : 

( 54, ) 

Common red, Longbunched red, 

Champaignelargepalc&red, Striped- leav'd red, 

Fine new white Dutch, White Crystal, 
Large pale and red Dutch. 

The Currant is the most useful of all the small 
fruit, either for the table and kitchen, or for pre- 
serving, makingwine, Sec. and continues longer 
in succession than any other. 

He further says, with proper attention, Currants 
will continue in use from June to November. 
Black Currants are very much esteemed by some ; 
yet they arc seldom sent to the table, but are very 
useful for makingjelly, for sore throats, colds, &c. 
In Ireland, he says, Black Currants are steeped in 
whiskey, of which they make punch, and recom- 
mend it as a medicine for coughs and colds. He 
once had two gallons of it sent by a friend for that 
purpose; some of it was taken in a glass of warm* 
water by a person much afflicted with a severe 
tough, arid thought to be in a decline, which effect- 
ed a perfect cure in three or four nights. The 
Currants for this purpose should be bruised and 
put in a jar, and the whisky poured over them. It 
stands a fortnight, cover it close down j then it is 

( ss ) 

strained through a fine cloth or sieve, and put it 
into bottles or casks for use. Currants, he adds, 
may be used in this manner with brandy, gin, or 
other spirits : and they may be preserved as cher- 
ries, and sent up to table. 

Propagation of Currants* 
They may be raised from seed, layers, &c. 
When the trees are cut low, lay down some of the 
branches in winter or spring, when the ground is 
dug in the quarters or rows, which ought to be 
annually. In the next autumn, these layers will 
have made fine roots ; then they may be planted 
out wherever wished to stand, when in the follow- 
ing summer. they will give fine fruit. 

Currants may also be propagated by cuttings ; 
choosing out the strongest and straightest shoots. 

Under the bushes, covered for late fruity there 
will always be found aplenty of self-sown plants; 
which it is adviseable to plant out by themselves. 
When wine is made of Currants, save and dry the 
seed — then in autumn or early in the spring sow 
the seeds on fine light earth ; when there probably 
will be some fine varieties. Do not propagate 

( *6 ) 


them from stickers: they never grow handsome, 
and throw ant many stickers. 

Instead of some bad Currant! retained in the 
gardens in England, Mr. Forsyth recommends the 
rooting them out, and plant in their room the 
Large Red and tVhite Dutch, the Long Bunched 
Red, and Champaigne Large Pale Red. They may 
be planted out in the same maimer ad Goosebef* 
ries, in quarters, or single row* round the edges &t 

A few, particularly, plant against a south or 3 
ivest wall or paling, which will give fruit much 
earlier than in quarters, &c. — Also to plant some 
between other fruit-trees on north walls or palings, 
for later crops : these may be covered with double 
nets, to preserve them from birds; tucking in a few 
fern branches between the two nets, for preventing 
the heat of the sun and Ary\t\gtvinds from shrivel- 
ling the fruit. In quarters, they should be cover- 
ed with mats for the same purpose ; at the same 
time permitting the leaves to remain on the bushes 
to shade the fruit and make it keep the longer. 

( «7 ) 

Priming Currant-Bushes. 
It is neoriy similar to that of Gooseberries. It 
may be begun in November, and continue till March. 

Never leave Currants too thick of wood; and 
much depends on their management in summer, 
that they may have strong and fine wood fjpr the 
next season. If they have been neglected for years, 
and suffered to run up to long naked wood, they are 
to be cut down near the ground ; they then will set 
forth fine strong shoots. In such case, Mr. Forsyth 
recommends heading down every other tree, and 
cutting the others partially, by taking out every 
other branch as near as can be to the ground, unless 
they jste trained up with single stems, in which case, 
he sdys, .cut diem as near as possible to where the 
branches begin to break out and form the head. 

In the winter pruning preserve the strongest and 
finest shoots, leaving them nine to eighteen inches 
long, according to their strength, and from eight to 
ten inches apart, and regular from top to bottom of 
the trees ; cutting out the dead and weak shoots. — 
Particular attention is to be paid in summer tokeep 
open the middle of the bush, to admit sun and air; 
preserving the finest and strongest sjioots, nearest 

( 58 ) 

the stem. Suffer not, for the sake of a fine round 
head, that it run too high, however comely, because 
the winds are apt to break them if not well support- 
ed by stakes. The shoots should run not to more 
than six inches long. He prefers dwarfs, three to 
four feet high. Stock up all suckers at the roots of 
the tr$es, and keep them very clean. — Suckers would 
prevent the sun and air from the roots, and weaken 
the trees. 


MR. FORSYTH recommends Barberries in all 
shrubberies. They attract and harbour singing 
birds. The sorts are, the Red Barberry without 
stems: the White Barberry : the Black Sweet, the 
tenderest of them — plant in a warm situation : the 
Common Red with stones, planted for its beautiful 
red berries. 

They are propagated from their suckers and lay- 
ers, and require the like pruning with other flower- 
ing shrubs. They look well planted in clumps. 

( 59 ) 

When, they are to be increased, encourage the 
finest and cleanest shoots in summer, by trimming all 
the side branches off thin ; and when in winter the 
shrubberies are dressed, lay down the strong shoots, 
which will take root, and be fit to transplant in au- 
tumn following. When designed for use, train them 
up as standards and half standards, and they will 
grow from six to twelve feet high. In summer 
trim off all the straggling and superfluous ' shoots, 
so as to make handsome heads. 

Barberries may also be raised from seeds ; but 
suckers and layers are best for preserving the sorts 

They are used as pickles, in garnishing dishes, 
and as a preserve. They are excellent ; to many 
purposes ; and in making a cooling drink in fevers, 
they are scarcely equalled ; and in punch are thought 
by some to rival lemons. 


THE sorts propagated in England, according ta 
Mr. Forsyth, are — 

( <* ) 

Early white, Large red Antwerp. 

Double-bearing white, Large white Antwerp, 
Large common white, Smooth cane double-be&titij, 
Large red, Woodward's new Raspberry. 

Propagating i Planting and Pruning kdspbtrftis. 
They are, says Mr. Forsyth, liaised froiA suckfts 
and layers. They should be planted in a j>iec6 6f 
ground by themselves, and (except the eariy white) 
at the distance of six fe&« froih row td row* and fbitf 
feet in the rows. 

First trench and dung tfte grdtttad befofe the Rasp- 
berries are planted : choose the strongest and finest 
plants that come from the sides of the stools , where 
they hav£ been sidndihgfor some years ; or encou- 
rage the strongest plants that come out betwixt fhef 
rdws aftet digging, which should be done annually. 
In digging, the roots Will frequently happen fe be 
cut with the spade, which will occasion many sihatt 
plants to come up ; of which select the strongest and 
finest, and then hoe up all the rest. But he prefer, 
red laying down some of the strongest outside shoots 
in March ; as by the next autumn they will make 
fine roots, and may be planted out where inteitded 
to remain, These will be less liabfc to throw otif 
suckers than those produced from suckers. , 


( 61 ) 

Plant out fresh pieces of Raspberries m moist 
leather, &S the foots are very delicate, and subject 
to be hurt if exposed to a dry air. If, however, 
they are planted in dry weather, be sure to moisten 
the roots with water, and cover them with wet litter 
or leaves, during the time of planting. 

In planting, open a trench with the spade along the 
line where the suckers or layers are to be planted. 
Cut off the small fibrous roots with a knife, leaving 
only the stronger roots. Put them into the trench, 
and cover them with earth : then water them well, 
and throw the rest of the earth over them, to remain 
till the planting is finished ; then where you first be- 
gan to plant, begin and tread the ground with your 
foot as hard as you can along each of the trenches, 
and ifc the same direction as you planted : then with 
a spade level all the ground smooth, and run it over 
with a rake, taking off any stones and rubbish that 
may be left on the surface. 

In dry weather, water the plants two or three 
times a week till they take root. The Antwerp 
and other strong growers should be staked with 
stout stakes: then run two small rails at top, to tie 
the branches to. 

< 62 ) 

Hie early white and smaller sorts may be plaited 
together at top, tying them round with small yellow 
willow, for keeping them together. 

The Antwerps will thrive well against a north wall 
•r paling, and give late crops. 

Where the small red and white Raspberries are 
found, destroy them, — and in their room plant the 
following sorts: large red, smooth-cane double-bear- 
ing, large red and white Antwerps, the large common 
white, double-bearing white, and Woodward 9 s new 

Some prefer to prune Raspberries in autumn, a 
practice not approved by Mr. Forsyth; because 
bearing the fruit on the wood of the preceding year, 
they are liable to b% killed by frost in severe win- 
ters ; but by deferring the pruning till February, 
there will be great choice of fine wood for bearing the 
following summer ; always rooting out or cutting 
down all the wood that bore fruit the preceding year, 
which generally dies ; selecting only from/w to se- 
ven of the most vigorous and strong shoots from the 
last year's wood, to bear fruit the ensuing year. 
These shoots may be pruned to the length of three 

( 63 ) 

vr four feet j according to their strength, if they are 
of the smooth-cane double-bearing sort (which ge- 
nerally bears a second crop in aytumn, and will in 
fine seasons continue bearing from June tq Novem- 
ber) ; but, if the large Antwerp, the shoots should 
be left five or six feet long. 

Raspberries will continue in bearing five or six 
years; by which time there should be afresh planta* 
tion to succeed them. The young plants will bear 
some fruit the first year, and come into full bearing 
the second year after planting. If suffered to remain 
more than five or -six years on the same ground, they 
will degenerate and bear small fruit. Leave not 
above eight or ten of the strongest shoots, rubbing 
off or pujling up all the superfluous ones ; and keep 
the ground well hoed and clear of weeds between 
the rows. 


MANY old Mulberry-trees are standing at this 
day about ancient monasteries and abbeys ; from 
whence it is probable they had been introduced be- 
fore the dissolution of those houses. It is said, they 

( 6* ) 

were first introduced into England in 1596. But 
if so, the opinion of the Duke of Northumberland 
must be erroneous, Vhen he said the four Mulberry- 
trees at Sion-house were above 300 years old : and 
Gerard says, in his history of plants, that in 1597 
Mulberry- trees then grew in sundry gardens in Eng- 

There is none worth cultivating for fruit in Eng- 
land, but the common Black Mulberry-tree, the 
fruit whereof is very wholesome ; and the Red or 
Virginian Mulberry, 

Mulberries are raised in England from seed, or 
from cuttings and layers. The best bearing branches 
of old trees are to be chosen for cuttings and layers. 
Some of their branches bearing only katkins, and 
trees from them will yield fruit. From layers, they 
will generally take root sufficiently the first year to 
bear separating from the parent tree ; and should 
then be planted in a nursery, and trained up with 
single stems. In four years they are fit to plant out 
to remain. Give them distance, that the sun and 
aar may have full influence on them ; the fruit, other- 
wise, being apt to turn mouldy. Also shelter them, 
in England, from east, north and west winds. 

( 65 ) 

Buft, Mr. Forsyth says, the best way to raise them 
is frofo former year's shoots, having one joint of the 
twd years* wood. Plant them out in autumn, if fine 
Weather, or in March, in rows nine inches apart, 
and at two inches distance in the rows, leaving only 
two or three buds above ground: mulch the ground 
with leaves or dung well rotted, to keep it moist, 
arid the plants will require little watering. - If well 
thriven, the next year they may be transplanted in- 
to a nursery, and treated as directed for layers. 
Whilst they remain in the. nursery they should be 
transplanted every three or four yearp. Plant the 
trees where they will drop the finest of their fruit on 
grass; when dropping on dug ground, the fruit 
would be lost. 

Their best soil is a rich, light, and deep earth. 
The fruit is produced on the young wood ; there- 
fore only cut out such branches as cross others, and 
that are decayed or broken by accident ; at the same 
time apply the composition. If, however, the heads 
become too full of wood, they must be thinned, for 
giving larger and better flavored fruit where the * 
heads are thin of wood. 

( 66 > 

Mr. Fofsyth found many Mulberry-trees in a very 
decayed state, and the trunks quite hollow ; on which 
he tried the composition, cutting out all the dead 
wood and cankery parts of some, and beading down 
others that were stunted and sickly. After these 
operations, they put forth vigorous branches,, and 
bore excellent crops of fruit, more than double the 
size of that which they produced in their former 
. state. 

Those, he says, who have old decayed Mulberry- 
trees, should treat them in the same manner ; but 
such as are very much decayed should be beaded 
down : this tvill throw them into a healthy, bearing 
state, and in two or three years they will produce 
^plenty of fine fruit. 

As old Mulberry-trees, Mr. F. says, produce not 
only a greater quantity of fruit, but also much larger - 
and of a finer flavor than young ones, it is well 
worth while to take some pains to repair the injuries 
which they may have sustained by accidents or age. 

This pleasant and valuable fruit, he says, is but 
Httle cultivated in England. 

( 67 ) 


THE following are the sorts propagated in Eng-" 
land, for ornament and use : — The tender-shell'd 
almond ; the sweet almond ; the common or bitter 
almond ; the sweet Jordan almond ; the hard shell'd 
alniond ; the dwarf, and the double-flowering al- 

They are propagated by budding them on plum , 
almond, or peach-stocks* The next spring, train 
them for standards, or let them grow for half stand- 
prds : but the common way is to bud them as high 
as it is wished the stem should be ; and the second 
year after they njay be planted out for good. Trans- 
plant into a dry soil in October, when the leaves be- 
gin to decay : if into wet ground, February is the 
season. Budded on plum stocks, they thrive best 
in a wet soil ; and on almond and peach stocks in a 
dry. They require nearly the same management in 
pruning as the standard apricot. 

Plant them, Mr. Forsyth says, always in a shel- 
tered place, facing the south. If planted as dwarfs, 
they may be covered with poles stuck into the 
ground, thatching over the tops of the trees with 

fern or other light covering, to prevent the blossoms 
being killed by the frost in February and March. 

After the fruit is set and the leaves so far out as 
to cover it, if fine weather, the covering ipajr be re- 
movcid in the latter end of April or early in May. 

They are sometimes planted on walls, and some- 
times on espaliers. 

Preserve them in dry sand or bran ; but they 
should be first thoroughly dried Q» shelves or boards 
jn an airy place before they axe put into sand or 
feran ; ptherwise they will become mouldy. 


THE sorts mostly cultivated in England, Mr. 
Forsyth says, are the Spanish Cbesnuts, which run 
into great varieties when raised from seed i and the 
American sort, called Chinquapin, for variety. 

The Spanish Chesnuts are very fine trees, and 
well worth cultivating, both for use and ornament* 
The limber is reckoned equal to oak, and for casks 

( 69 > 

superior to it ; for when seasoned it is not so liable 
to shrink or swell as oak. They have a noble ap- 
pearance, and so are adapted to parks. 

Propagate them from seed gathered when tho- 
roughly ripe, about the end of October. — Let them 
spontaneously open and drop from the trees, to be 
picked up in the morning. All that fall in the husk 
should be thrown in a heap in a shed, to remain 
threfe or four weeks to ripen. Then pick out the 
best, dry them on mats or. cloths in a sunny situa- 
tion. They are then laid up on shelves or a dry 
floor, turning them frequently. If some are dried 
in an oven after bread is drawn, and then packed iji 
boxes or jars with quite* dry sand, they will, he says, 
keep plump and good* If put in the oven when too 
hot, they will shrivel. Sow in beds of light earth 
in November ; the drills being nine inches apart and 
three deep : the nuts to be an inch apart in the rows, 
with the points upwards : cover with mould, and pat 
it down with the head of the rake. The beds four 
or five feet wide, raised a little in the middle to let 
off rain. If it appears the seeds are attacked in the 
ground by mice, cover the beds with slates, brick, 
or stone, till the nuts begin to spring : then off with 
the stone covering. If the winter sets in severely, 

( 70 ) 

©over the beds with rotten dung, leaves, or old tan, 
before laying on the pavement. — If the autumn be 
wet, don't sow till February, or March, early. 

Hoe between the nuts in the rows. The summer 
proving dry, water them once or twice a week. By 
October, or the following spring, they may be put 
into bejds, in rdws a foot apart, and four inches in 
the row, to remain two years longer; carefully 
trimming all the side shoots, leaving bnly one 
straight stem. 

When planted out for good, let it rather be in au- 
tumn; they are to stand till the next spring twelve- 
month, and then are headed down to two eyes above 
ground, cutting near as may be to an eye, and sloping 
to the north, that the shoot which is thrown out 
may cover the stem in the first season, which it will 
do, and grow six or seven feet. — If they are not 
headed down in this manner, they will never be 
straight, handsome trees. Toung trees must not be 
beaded down immediately after transplanting. They 
ought to be well rooted before that operation is per- 
formed : and it is to be observed, that th6 larger the 
Stems are when headed, the stronger and more luxu- 
rient will the shoots be. 

( n t ) 


THOSE commonly cultivated in England are 
varieties from the common walnut, viz. — The 
double y the large, the French, the; thin-skinned, and 
the late. 

They are best raised from the nut, gathered full 
ripe. The thin-shelled are preferred for this pur- 
pose. When ripe, let them remain till they begin 
to drop off of themselves : shaking the tree will then 
bring them down. Beating with poles injures the 
free much, by breaking the young shoots. They 
will be fit to transplant theirs* autumn after sow- 
ing, if they have thriven well— if not, let them con- 
tinue another year. — Bed them out in the manner 
directed for Chesnutsi transplanting every second 
or third year, until planted out for good. This 
causes their throwing oxxtfine horizontal roots, and 
bring them to a bearing state much sooner than 
when they make deep tap-roots. 

Train them up with fine single stems to seven feet 
high, before they are suffered to form heads; the 
branches will also be out of the reach of cattle* The 
time of transplanting them out, depends on their 

( n ) 


progress in the nursery .* they must remain there 
till they have grown to a tolerable size, and to the 
height just mentioned as proper for standards. 

The ground is to be well plowed or trenched ; and 
the trees to be planted, at first, in rows six feet apart, 
and the same distance from tree to tree in the rdws, 
in quincunx order ; and thus remain until they come 
into bearing. After making choice of the best 
frsit-trees, the other trees may be planted for tim- 
ber, or made use of in stakes or any other way. 
The bearing trees must be thinned as they increase 
in size, till they are at the proper distance for full* 
grown trees, which may be 24 to 48 feet, accord, 
ing to the richness of soil and progress in the trees' 

In trimming stems of Walnut-trees^ cut off the 
shoots and small branches close to the bole ; and in 
loppingy cutting out cross branches, or such as are 
damaged by winds and accidents, always cut at a 
fork or eye ; otherwise a part of the branch will die 
and injure the tree. But be it a part or the whole 
cut off, the composition is to be immediately applied* . 


(73 ) « 

Walnuts thrive best in a deep, rich soil. They 
are well worth cultivating : the yearly value of the 
fruit being very., considerable. There is a great 
deal made by thinning the nuts for pickling, for 
home and foreign markets* AtBeddington, about 
50 Walnut-trees, and but half of them foil bear- 
ers, have been let at £30. £40. and £50. according 
to the crop : and the renter is thought to clear 
£50* by the bargain. 

The leaves of Walnuts steeped in boiling wa- 
ter, and that infusion mixed with lime-water, soap- 
suds and urine, is very efficacious in destroying 
slugs and worms in the ground, and insects on trees. 

Walnuts for keeping should drop of themselves, 
and afterwards be laid in an open airy place till 
they are thoroughly dried : then pack them in jars, 
boxes, or casks, with fine clear sand, well dried 
in the sun, in an oven, or before the fire, in layers 
of sand and walnuts alternately j set them in a dry 
place, buv. not where it is too hot. They so are 
kept till the 6a d of jiprH^ If they ever become 
shrivelled steep tt*m in milk and water, six or 
eight hours. 

( 74 ) 



M(l. FORSYTH gives directions for render- 
ing g ra ft* n g plain and easy to those who have not 
been regularly instructed in the art from general 
practice ; and he adds a method followed by him 
for some years ; and which, he thinks, will be 
found an improvement. 

The shoots or cions used in grafting, called also 
grafts, are to be chosen with observingthe follow- 
ing directions carefully : — 1st. That they are 
shoots of the former year. 2dly. Always take 
them from healthy, fruitful trees. If they be 
sickly trees, the grafts often partake of the distem- 
per; and iftaken from young luxuriant tre«s> they 
may continue to produce luxuriant sh«*>*s, but are 
seldom so productive as those tak*tf from fruitful 
trees, whose shoots are more compact, and the 
joints closer together. 3dly. Prefer those grafts 
taken from the lateral or horizontal branches, to 
those of the strong perpendicular shoots. 

( 75 ) . • 

These grafts should be cut off from the trees 
before their buds begin to swell; which generally 
is three or four weeks before the season for graft- 
ing : therefore when they are cut off, lay them in 
the ground with the cut downwards > burying them 
half their length, and covering their tops with dry 
litter, for preventing their dryings If a small 
joint of the former year's wood be cut off with 
the cion, it will preserve it the better ; and when 
they are grafted, this may be cut off, for at the 
same time the cions must be cut to a proper length 
before they are inserted in the stocks ; but till then 
the shoots should remain of the full length, as 
taken from the trees. If these cions are to. be 
carried far, their ends ought to be put in a lump of 
clay, and wrap them up in moss, which preserves 
them fresh a month or longer; but these should 
be cut from the trees earlier than what are to be 
grafted near where the trees grow* 

Next of the stock, or trees intended to be graft- 
ed : these are either old trees growing where they 
are to remain, whose fruit is intended to be 
changed, or young trees raised in the nursery for 
a supply to the garden. In the former, there is no 
other choice than of the branches^ such as are 

( 76 ) 

young, healthy, well situated, and have smooth 
bark: if these grow against walls or espaliers, 
there should be grafted six, eight or ten branches, 
as is the size of the trees by which they will be 
sooner furnished with branches again, than when 
a less number of cions are put in j but in standard 
trees, four, or at most six cions will be sufficient. 

In the choice of young stocks for grafting, prefer 
those raised from seeds, and that have been once 
or twice transplanted. 

Next to these, the stocks raised from cuttings 
or layers. Suckers from the roots of other trees 
should always be rejected. 

Having directed the choice of cions and stocks, 
he then speaks of the operation, and points out the 
following tools, viz. 

1st. A neat small hand-saw for cutting off the 
heads of large stocks. 

2. A good strong knife, with a thick back, to 
make clefts in the stocks. 

( 77 ) 

3. A sharp pen-knife, or budding-knife, to cut 
the grafts. 

4. A grafting chisel and a small mallet. 

5. Bass strings or woollen yarn, to tie grafts 
with j and such other instruments and materials 
as may be found necessary. 

6. A quantity of clay, prepared a month before 
wanted, and kept turned and mixed like morter 
every other day : this is to be made thus — 

Get a quantity of strong, fat loam : take new 
stone-horse dung, and break it in among the loam ; 
cut a little straw or hay very small and mix 
amongst it, for making the loam hold together 
better ; and if there be a quantity of salt added, 
the clay will be prevented from dividing in dry 
weather : stir these well together, putting water 
to them as in making morter. It should be hol- 
lowed like a dish, filled with water, and kept eve- 
ry other day stirred : but let it not be exposed to 
frost or drying winds ; and the oftener stirred the 

( 78 ) 

Of late years, says Mr. F. some persons have 
made use of another composition for grafting, 
which keeps out the air better than clay. It is 
composed of turpentine* bees-wax and rosin, melt- 
ed together; when of a proper consistence it is 
put on the stocky round the graft, as the clay usual- 
ly is applied. If but a quarter inch thick, it keeps 
out the air better than the clay ; and as cold will 
harden this, there is no danger of its being hurt by 
frost, which is apt to cause the clay to cleave, and 
sometimes to fall off; and when the heat of the 
summer comes on, this mixture will melt and fall 
off without trouble. In using this, there should 
be a tin pot, with conveniency to keep a very gen- 
tle fire with small coal; otherwise the cold will 
soon condense the mixture : but be careful not to 
apply it too hot, lest the graft be injured. A per* 
son a little accustomed to this composition will ap- 
ply it very fast ; and it is much easier for him to 
work with than clay, especially if the season is 
cold. ' 

There are several ways of grafting, but there 
are four principal ones, [see pi. XL] Perhaps the 
common whip-grafting alone might suffice for the 
farmer and country gardeners 9 purposes in grafting: 

( 79 ) 

1. Crafting in the rind, or shoulder graftings or 
crown grafting ; proper only for large trees : per- 
formed the end of March or early in Jfpril. 

2, Cleft-graftings or stock, or slit-grafting : in- 
tended for lesser stocks, one or two, or more inches 
diameter : in February or March. 

3. Whip-grafting, or tongue-grafting ; proper 
for small stocks, of one inch, half an inch, or less 
diameter : €i It is the most effectual of any, and is 
the most in use." 

4. Grafting by approach, or ablactation. This 
is practised when the stock to be grafted on 7 and 
the tree from which the graft is taken, stand so near 
each other that they may be joined ; and should 
be performed in jfpril. It also is called the 
Inarching method, and is chiefly used for Jas- 
mines, Oranges, and other tender exotics. 

For the several methods, in general, see thp 
plate XI. But the common method of whip-graft- 
ing will suffice for the farmer's and country garden- 
er's purposes. — It is thus perfortned by cutting off 
the head of the stock sloping ; then make a notch 

( 80 ) 

in the slope towards the upper part downward, a 
little more than half an inch deep to receive the 
cion, which must be cut with a slope upward, 
and a slit made in this slope like a tongue, which 
tongue must be inserted into the slit made in the 
slope of the stock, and the cion is placed on one 
side of the stock, so that the two rinds of both 
cion and stock may be equal and join together ex- 
actly : then a ligature of bass fastens the cion so 
that it may be easily displaced ; after which it is 
clayed over, as in former instances. 

Grafting in the 4th method may, however, be 
proper to practice sometimes, as the walnut, fig, 
mulberry, and certain other exotics, cannot be 
grafted with effect in any other method, especially , 
evergreens : but then the trees are always weakly. 

In a long continuance of dry weather , the grafts 
frequently fail of taking. It is therefore best to 
graft in moist giving weather. 

It is better to use the composition on many ac- 
counts. Rubbing some of it into the incision pre- 
vents canker, and in applying round the graft a 
much less quantity will suffice than' of the clay. 

( 81 ) 

It need not be more than three inches round in 
grafting small stems or shoots, and in proportionfot 
what are larger : the composition will keep the cion 
moist, and will not crack and fall off in dry weather 
as clay will. This composition used in grafting 
should be made to work easily with a hand or knife, 
rather softer than grafting^clay commonly is. 

Grafting or budding should be performed near 
as may be to the upper side. Insert the cion or bud 
at the joint a little above the cross shoot. 


Budding is best learned how to be effectually per- 
formed by actual instruction, seeing it done in expe- 
rience : which in every neighbourhood may be ob- 
tained. In three or four weeks it may be seen what 
buds have taken : the shrivelled and black are dead. 
Those that remain plump are to have their bandages 
then loosened, to prevent pinching the stock ' and 
kill the bud. — The March following cut off th« 
stock three inches above the bud, sloping it. 

( 82 ) 


MR, FORSYTH recommends that the garden 
be on a gentle declivity towards the south, a little 
eastwardly inclined. If in a bottom, the wind has 
the less effect on it ; but then damps mdfogs will be 
prejudicial to the fruit and herbage. If too high si- 
tuated, the fury of the winds will damage the 
branches, blossoms and fruit. It should be well 
sheltered from the north and east, to prevent blight- 
ing winds affecting plants ; and also from the west- 
erly winds, hurtful to gardens in spring or summer 

. *. 
The best shelter of them is from gentle rising 

hills and plantations of forest-trees, at due distances 
not to shade the garden ; giving a free passage of 
sun and air. Fruit-trees^ in shrubberies, he recom- 
mends to be intermixed. 

In laying out a new garden, he says, choose a 
good soil, the deeper the better, of a mellow, pliable 
nature, moderately dry in quality. If it has an un- 
even surface, do not be persuaded to level it. The 
best soil is a rich mellow loam ; the worst a stiff 
heavy clay. A light sand is also unfit. Whenever 


( 85 ) 

horse dung is applied, it is first to be perfectly rot- 
ted : it otherwise will burn up the crop. 

The. form he would have in preference, is an ob- 
long or square, if at liberty ; and the size from one 
acre to six or eight within the wall, according to de- 
mand for vegetables in the family. Brick wall is pre- 
ferable to stone, and ought to be 10 to 12 feet high ; 
but if there be a plenty of walling or ground suffi. 
cient to admit it, he would prefer a wall of ten feet 
high, to those higher, being convinced they will be 
more convenient. If the ground is to be spared, 
surround the garden with a border or slip, 40 to 60 
feet wide, or more ; and this, he says, inclose again 
with an oak paling, 6 to 8 feet high, with a cheval 
dc firisc. He recommends a-cbeval de /rise to be 
thus made : A piece of wood, long as convenient, 
about four inches broad, one inch and quarter thick ; 
the upper side planed to an edge, sloping from the 
top, and centre on each side, like a roof. Draw a 
line on each side from end to end about one fourth 
of an inch below the upper edge and centre : through 
these lines drive twelve-penny nails about four inches 
distance from each other, so as to come out near the 
upper edge on the opposite side. Each nail, he adds, 
should be opposite the space between two nail* on 

( 84 ) 

the other side. The nail-heads should be sunk in 
the wood, and small strips nailed over them : then 
drive in tenter-hooks between the nail points, and 
nail the whole firmly on the outside of the top of the 

- By making slips on the outside of the garden wall, 
you will have ground for gooseberries, currants, 
strawberries, &e. cucumbers or melons : and both 
•ides the wall may be planted. 

The new garden should be ploughed or dug three, 
or four times before any thing be planted in it. 

It is a convenience that a garden lies near a river 
or brook ; from these conduct the water by drains 
or pipes. If the garden is too high for distributing 
the water in those ways, and it is near a public road, 
and on a declivity, make a drain or cut from the road, 
for carrying the water of it in rainy weather to a 
large cistern or tank in the upper part of the garden. 
The best time is the night for turning on the water 
into the garden. The pipes, cocks, &c. for facili- 
tating it will seem a considerable expence at first ; 
but they repay it by saving time which would be 
spent in pumping and carrying water. If pumped 

( 85 ) 

ih>m a deep v>ell y it should be into a large reservoir, 
in which it should be exposed to sun and air some 

The middle walks, he says, should be seven feet 
wide, enough for a cart to pass ; the others three 
or four feet broad, with a border on each side, 5 or 
6 feet wide at least between the walk and \hz fruit- 
trees. In kitchen gardens, walks are generally gra- 
velled, seldom in turf ; frequent wheeling and tread- 
ing soon destroying the grass : but a binding sand 
makes good walks, easily kept : for when moss or 
weeds begin to grow, they may be cleaned with a 
horse hoe, or scuffled over with a Dutch hoe, in dry 
weather, raking it a day or two after ; but sea-coal 
ashes make the best kitchen garden walks, easier 
kept than others, and firm and dry : cleaner than 
sand, especially after a frost. Bottoms of walks are 
filled with brick rubbish, chippings of stones, or 
gravel and stones. There sometimes will be under- 
ground drains to make. 

When the soil is wet and stiff, subject to detain 
moisture, under-ground drains must carry off the 
water ; making the main drain under the walk, to 
receive and carry off the water under the quarters. 

( «* ) 

Goody well-favored fruit can never be produced, 
unless draining^ where the soil lies wet, be practised ; 
and kitchen plants will also be very defective with- 
out that attention. 

Borders under the walls, inside, should be 10 to 
20 feet wide, as is the size of the garden, for giv- 
ing free passage to the roots of the trees to spread. 
A footpath should be two and a half foot from the 
wall, for greater ease in nailing trees, gathering 
fruit, &c. This walk should be two to two and a 
half feet wide (to admit a barrow or barrow-engine 
in watering the trees), and covered with sand, or 
coaUasbes better, about 2 or 3 inches thick, without 
rubbish or gravel below. On these borders may be 
early or late crops ; but avoid to plant any deep-root- 
ting plants, such as cabbages, beans, peas, (except 
peas for the early frames), as they would be very 
hurtful to the trees. 

Melons are best worked in brick-pits^ coped with 
stone or oak, 12 feet wide and two and a half deep : 
the length according to the number of frames to be 
worked. Size of lights for early melons, 5 feet 
long> 3 broad : — for others they require to be 6 feet 
lmg> and four broad. The former should be four, 

( 87 ) 

and the latter three light boxes.-— For the pits * 
nine-inch Wall will be sufficient. 

There should, he says, be a walk between the 
ridges, 6 or 7 feet broa d, sufficient t6 admit a cart 
to cany dung ; much more expeditious than wheel- 
ing. The walk should be made up as high a& the. 
Coping, and sloping gently towards each end ; the 
bottom should be filled up and covered as before di- 

A loose drain should be made along the middle 
of the bottom of the pit, to carry oflF wet and oozing 
of ttfl dung to a cistern or tank made on purpose 
to receive it. 

When a garden is planted and finished, says Mr. 
Forsyth, it will be convenient tahave a plan of it, 
with the name of each tree inserted in its proper 

Walls of kitchen gardens, from ten to fourteen feet 
high, should have the foundation two or two and a 
a half bricks thick ; the off-set not above one course 
higher than the level of the border : the wall then 
to set-off a brick and a half thick. Piers should 

( 88 ) 

strengthen the walls, 40 to 60 feet apart ; to project 
half a brick beyond the wall. If the coping is of 
woody it answers well for hanging nets to against 
thefts of birds. 

He repeats the superiority of bricks over stone 
walls, favoring fruits better in ripening. When a 
kitchen garden contains four acres, it may be inter- 
sected by two or more cross wails ; which greatly 
augments the qucntity of fruit; warms and shelters 
the garden from high winds. 


WHERE a large supply of fruit is wanted, Mr. 
Forsyth says, Orchards are appropriated to the 
growth of standard fruit-trees only ; and generally 
consist of apple-trees, pear-trees, plum-trees and 
eherry.trees ; but a complete Orchard ought also 
to have quinces, medlars, mulberries, services, fil- 
berts, Spanish nuts, and barberries ; as also walnuts 
and chsenuts. These last would break high winds, 
and he would prefer to plant them along the bounda- 
ry of the Orchard. In choosing the trees, admit 
none but with good roots, fair clean stems, and pro- 
per heads. 

( » ) 

* In selecting pears and apples let the assortment 
range in succession, for supply of the table during 
the whole year* A very few of the summer sorts 
will suffice; — more of the autumn; — still' more of 
the winter will be called for. On the winter sorts 
the dependence is from January to July. — The me- 
tbod ofpreseroiug them, post. 

What has been said of the situation and soil of a 
Garden 9 also applies to Orchards — that they be ra- 
ther elevated than low. On a gentle declivity, open 
to the south and south-east. Also they should be 
well sheltered from the eastern, northerly and west- 
ern winds : but see of Gardens, in its place. Such 
aswalnut andfi>?jmtf-trees are advantageously placed 
on the exterior of the Orchard. The size of an 
Orchard in the cyder-making counties of England 
may be one to twenty acres, or more. A loaiAy % 
soil is best ; shingly and gravelly soils disagree with 
fruit-trees, unless intermixed with a loam. Orchards 
should be dunged once in two or three years. 

He recommends washing the Orchard trees an- 
nually in February or March, with the following 
mixture, to destroy eggs of insects, and prevent 
moss from growing. Mix fresh cow-dung with 


( *> ) 

wrtrie and soapsuds / and with thfe mixture Wash 
over the stems and branches of trees, ag yoti Wtifeld 
your room with whitewash ; cutting off the CJffiktty 
parts and scrape cff the moss, before the washing. 
In the course erf the summer theft; wiH be * fine rieW 
bartc coming 6ft. Pare off all did canker. When 
necessary to take off aH the outer bark, the stem, &c. 
are to be covered with the composition and powder 9 
patting it gently down, as in the case when large 
limbs are cut off. 

Repeating the above wash in autumn, after fall 
of the leaf r will destroy the eggs of many insects, 
that hatch in autumn and wifitef . This washing is 
found of great service to all fruit and forest trees. 



NEVER beat or shatke apples down — hand*pick 
all, from standing on steps for thfe purpose.— ^They 
should be light, and so contrived that the ladder inajr 
be disengaged from the back at pleasure ; fastening 

( 8* \ 

together by a bolt at top. At top should be a broad 
step to stand on, with room for the basket holding 
the fruit. Have, in the beginning together, hand- 
baskets of different sizes, and also large baskets or 
hampers, and wheel-barrows. At the bottoms of 
the large baskets and hampers, perfectly dry short 
fine grass from summer mowings, kept clean and 
diy for the purpose, 

He observes to gather the fruit, as a mark of its 
ripeness, when it begins to fall, (not wind-falls, or 
from the caterpillar). If the fruit comes off with* 
out any farce used, it is presumed to be ripe enough* 
But sickness, &c* of the trees may make it seem 
riper than in fact it is* All fruit will stomal, he 
says, that is gathered before it is ripe* 

If the fruit be in the least bruised it will not keep } 
therefore the person on the steps picks it carefully, 
and gently lays it in the basket: and the small 
baskets are to be gently emptied into the large* 

When the fruit begins to fall of itself, cover the 
ground under the tree with soft grass mowings*, 
pease-haulm, or oat or barley straw, quite dry . -This 
that drops of itself, lay up separate from* and use it 
before, that which is hand-picked* 

( 92 ) 

In the fruit-room lay dry soft grass on the floor : 
lay the fruit gently from the baskets in heaps on the 
grass. To sweat the fruit, cover it 2 or 3 inches 
thick on the top with some of the grass ; the heaps 
may be two to three feet high. They lie in heaps 
two weeks ; then open and turn them over, wiping 
each apple or pear with a dry cloth ; to be frequent- 
ly dried during the process. The heaps now re- 
main 8 or 10 days covered as before, for throwing 
off the watery crudities. Then wipe the fruit one 
by one. 

Gather the fruit in dry weather, and when the 
dew is off; nor is it to be gathered, in the evening 
after the dew has begun to fall. Air should be some- 
times admitted for carrying off the sweat. 

The most perfect way of keeping, as used in 
England, is to pack it in glazed earthen jars, sepa- 
rately wrapping pears and apples in soft paper. Put 
dried bran in the jar, then a layer of fruit ; then a 
little more bran; and so on alternately. When 
full, gently shake the jar ; fill up with bran and paper 
at top of all. Cover with bladder to perfectly ex- 
clude accession of air. Fit on the cover of the jar ; 
and it is best kept in a room where a fire may be, 
in wet or damp weather. 

( 93 ) 


CANKER is a disease which occasions the bark 
of trees to grow rough and scabby ; and turns the 
wood affected to a rusty, brown colour * It will kill 
the tree if not stopt. 

The Canker may arise, on apple-trees, from inju- 
dicious pruning, from the footstalks of the fruit be- 
ing left on the trees, and from injuries in applying 
ladders in gathering the fruit.— Another cause, very 
wet autumns, which prevents the young wood from 
ripening, and a hard frost setting in after it, kills the 
young shoots. These are not to be left on the tree. 
Birds and insects destroying the buds, also give the 

Dead shoots left on the tree through summer, 
bring on Canker. These are to be cut off in the 
end of April or early in May. He advises to cut 
two or three buds, or even more, below the appa- 
rently diseased part : cut down till the brown colour 
in the shoot disappears, and nothing but sound 
white wood remains. 

( * ) 

All the diseased parts of the bark must be pared 
off. The inner white bark is frequently infected : 
this also must be cut away till no infection appears 
to remain. The infection in the inner bark appears 
like dots made with a pen ; all whereof is to be cut 
out clean* Wherever Gum oozes, be assured the 
Canker is not quite eradicated. 

When the trunk is become hollow, cut the loose 
rotten part clean out, till you come to the sound 
wood, and round the edges ofthe hollow part. Then 
apply the composition in a liquid state, with a pain- 
ter's brush : then shake some ofthe pcmder of wood* 
asbes and burnt bones over the composition^ and pat 
it gently down with the hand. See of making and 
laying on of the composition. 

When the decay is great, the ground is to be open* 
ed, the roots examined, and the rotten parts to be 
cut away : then make up a mass of the composition, 
mixed with some clay ; fill the hollow with it, to 
within about two inches of the surface of the ground, 
treading it, Or pressing it with the hand close as 
possible, for preventing wet from penetrating to the 
toots, and leave the surface of the composition 
sloping from the tree towards the outaidb of the 
border, &c. 

: The Gum ifc a kind of gangrene incident \o fruit* 
reesof tie stme kind > and arises from injudicious 
pruning^ from bruises, or injuries received in the 
.wood or bark* The Gum is to be cut out perfect* 
ly clean ; and grubs must be sought for, and they 
*re to be cut out before the composition is applied. 


MR. FORSYTH, in general, speaks in the strain 
of others writing on these subjects, who have little 
more than guessed at the nature of these disorders : 
the most likely surmise of Mil-dew, &c. seems to 
be what he quotes from Mr- Segttr ; where he says, 
that Mil-dev> is erf a Very sharp corrosive nature, 
and by its acrimony hinders the circulation of the 
nutritious sap. 

Mr. Forsyth says, when danger is apprehended, 
wash or sprinkle the trees well with urine and lime- 
water mixed; and when the young and tender 
shoots are much infected, wash diem well with a 
Wobllen cloth dipped in the mixture following, to 
the clearing them of all glutinous matter, that thei* 

( 96 ) 

respiration and perspiration may not be obstructed : 
Take tobacco a pound, sulphur two pounds, uri- 
slacked lime a peck, and a pound of elder buds : on 
these pour ten gallons boiling water — cover it close, 
to stand till cold : then add cold water, as much as 
will fill a hogshead. After standing a few days to 
settle, take off the scum, and it is fit for use. 

The Honey-dew he directs to be treated in the 
same manner : and he cautions that trees be washed 
or watered early enough in the day to dry before 
the cold air of the night arrives ; nor should it be 
applied whilst the sun shines very hot. 

Blights, he says, sometimes destroy the whole 
tree; but oftener the leaves and blossoms only. 
Wash, he adds, with soap-suds and urine ; the sooner 
the better; and even with a woollen cloth dipped in 
the same liquid as above directed for mil-dew. 


UNDER the head of Insects, Mr. Forsyth gives 
along list of them; concerning which, the imagi- 
nation becomes tired ; and it is tedious, and too ge- 

( *7 ) 

aierally unsatisfactory. Of the Aphis ; he says 
the Aphides or Plant-lice are a numerous tribe, 
Amounting to 75 species. Of the Icarus there 
are 82 species. Moisture* he thinks, best de- 
stroys them, as in hot-houses it does many other 
insects. The Acarus (or Red Spider) also de- 
stroy or much injure melons in dry weather* 
There are other species of 160 sorts. 

It would be heavy t work to enumerate those 
plagues, when the accounts of them and the me- 
thods proposed for reducing them are not general- 
ly satisfactory for answering the views of the hus- 
bandman therein. The general applications to 
-the trees and plants are powders of ashes and lime 
mixed and strewed on them — also lime-water , strew- 
ed through the tube and its head, of a water en- 
gine that forces. — Moreover, in hot-houses ^ mois- 
ture destroys some sorts — Water alone is applied 
often in hot-houses. Melons he directs to be ex- 
amined, and when the leaves curl and crack in the 
Xmiddle, the Acarus or Red Spider may be presumed 
to have effected the injury, although as yet they 
may not be visible to the eye. In this state of the 
melons, in fine warm sunny weather, water them 
All over the leaves from a watering-pot with a 

( 98 ) 

rose j or an engine, about six in the morning, and 
about eight o'clock shade them with mats, if the 
sun shines, and shut the frames close down till 
eleven : then admit a little air, the mats remaining 
till three in the afternoon ; then take them off. 
' Endeavour to water the under side of the leaves, 
and the vines may be cautiously turned partly for 
the purpose. In cold frosty weather do not sprin- 
kle the plants. 

A wash of urine and soap-suds accumulated and 
stored in winter, he largely uses to his trees dis- 
tempered with insects, caterpillars or vermin ; 
and in summer the mixture is lowered with water. 
It kills also slugs near the roots of trees. Urine 
and suds are saved in tubs in winter for the sum-* 
mer's use. 

On Forest-Trees his treatise is important j but 
it is here prolix ; and being a subject not yet scarce 
and striking to the attention of the American peo- 
ple, this is for the present 'here omitted. 

( 99 ) 




MR. FORSYTH, in thirty years practice in 
cultivating, pruning, and keeping garden fruit- 
trees, observed that from natural causes, acci- 
dents , and unskilful management^ they were sub- 
ject to injuries of various kinds, which always di- 
minished their fertility, and frequently rendered 
them wholly unproductive. 

He thereupon offers to disclose his practice and 
management with his composition? formerly appli- 
ed in the manner of a plaster, but now in a liquid 
state, and laid on with a painter's brush. He im- 
putes to it a soft and healing nature ; an absorbent 
and adhesive quality ; and that by resisting the force 
of washing rains ', the contraction of nipping frosts, 
and the effects of a warm sun or drying winds , it 
excludes the pernicious influence of a changeable 

( 100 ) 

The discovery of it, he adds, is the result of 
much reflection and study r during a long course 
of years, and of a great variety of experiments, 
made at a very considerable expence, to ascertain 
the efficacious powers of the application. Cc Nor 
shall I' hesitate a moment to declare my firm be- 
lief, that wherever it shall be properly applied by 
the proprietors of gardens or orchards, and woods , 
it will be productive of all the advantage that cai* 
be derived from restoring as well as preserving 
vigour and fertility in all kinds of fruit-trees ; as 
a!sq from preventing decay, and promoting health 
and Sound timber in every species of forest-trees." 

Mr. Forsyth's Directions for making a Composi- 
tion for curing diseases, defects and injuries in alt 
kinds of Fruit and Forest-trees — and the method 
ef preparing trees and laying on the Composition* 

u Take one bushel of fresh cow-dung, half * 
" bushel of time rubbish of old buildings (that 
u from the ceilings of rooms is preferable), half a 
* c bushel of wood-ashes y and" a sixteenth part of a. 
* bushel of pit or river sand: the three last articles 
^ are to be sifted fine before they are mixed ;the» 

( 101 ) 

u work them well together with a spade, and at 
" terwards with a wooden beater, until the stuff 
* c is very smooth* like fine plaster used for the 
4C ceilings of rooms. 

" The Composition behjg thus made, care must 
" be taken to prepare the tree properly for its ap- 
" plication, by cutting away all the dead, decayed 
" and injured parts, till you come to the fresh, 
" sound wood, leaving the surface of the wood 
" very smooth, and rounding off the edges of the 
" bark with a draw-knife or other instrument, 
"perfectly smooth, which must be particularly 
" attended to ; then lay on the plaster about one 
• 4 eighth of an inch thick all over the part where 
u the wood or bark has been so cut away ; finish- 
" ing off the edges as thin as possible : then take 
*' a quantity of dry powder of wood-ashes mixed 
" with the sixth part of the same quantity of the 
" ashes of burnt bones ; put it into a tin box, with 
cl hales in the top, and shake the powder on the 
4C surface of the plaster, till the whole is covered 
" over with it, letting it remain for half an hour 
" to absorb the moisture \ then apply more pow- 
" der, rubbing it on gently with the hand, and re- 
4< peating the application of the powder till the 
" whole plaster becomes a dry smooth surface. 

( 102 ) 

" All trees cut down near the ground should 
" have the surface made quite smooth, rounding 
cc it off in a small degree, as before mentioned j 
li and the dry powder directed to .be used after- 
u wards should have an equal quantity of powder 
u of alabaster mixed with it, in order the better 
" to resist the dripping of trees and heavy rains. 

" If any of the Composition be left for a future 
" occasion, it should be kept in a tub or other ves- 
<c sel, and urine of any kind poured on it, so as 
" to cover the surface ; otherwise the atmosphere 
u will greatly hurt the efficacy of the application. 

u Where lime rubbish of old buildings cannot 
" be easily got, take pounded chalk, or common 
<c lime, after having been slacked a month at least. 


cC As the growth of the tree will gradually af- 
" feet the plaster, by raising up its edges next the 
" bark, care should be taken where that happens 
cc to rub it over with the finger when occasion may 
c< require (which is best done when moistened by 
" rain), that the plaster may be kept whole, to 
" prevent the air and wet from penetrating into 
" the wound." 


( 103 ) 

" Additional Directions for making and using the 

" To the foregoing directions for making and 
w applying the composition^ it is necessary to add 
€i the following. 

u As the best wajr for using the composition is 
" found, by experience, to be in a liquid state ; 
" it must therefore be reduced to the consistence 
" of pretty thick paint, by mixing it up with a 
" sufficient quantity of urine and soap-suds^ and 
<c laid on with a painter's brush. The powder of 
Cc wood ashes and burnt bones is to be applied as 
" before directed, patting it down with the hand. 

<c When v trees are become hollow you must 
" scoop out all the rotten, loose and dead parts 
ct of the trunk, till you come to the solid wood, 
<c leaving the surface fmooth ; then cover thehol- 
<c low, and every part where the canker has been 
" cut out, or branches lopped off, with the com* 
41 position ; and as the edges grow, take care 
<c not to let the new wood come in contact with 
u the dead, part of which it may be sometimes 
u necessary to leave ; but cut out the old dead 

( 104 ) 

<c wood as the new advances, keeping a hollow 
* l between them, to allow the new wood room to 
"" extend itself, and thereby fill up the cavity, 
u which it will do in time, so as to make as it were 
* c a new tree. If the cavity be large you may cut 
<Q away as much at one operation as will be suffi- 
4< cient for three years. But in this you are to be 
<e guided by the size of the wound and other cir- 
"" cumstances. When the new wood, advancing 
<fc from both sides of the wound has almost met, 
46 cut off the bark from both the edges, that the 
* c Solid wood may join, which, if properly ma- 
u naged, it will do leaving only a slight seam in 
<c the bark. If the tree be very much decayed, 
" do not cut away all the dead wood at once, 
* c which would weaken the tree too much, if a 
iC standard, and endanger it being blown down by 
u the wind. It will therefore be necessary to leave 
*' part of thq dead wood at first, to strengthen the 
4€ tree, and to cut it out by degrees as the new 
* f wood is formed* If there be any canker, or gum 
" oozing, the infected parts must be pared off, or 
< c cut out with a proper instrument. When the 
" stem is very much decayed, and hollow, it will 
" be necessary to open the ground and examine the 
u roots$ then proceed as directed for hollow peach 


( 105 ) 


44 trees, [see pi. II. and V. which shew the manner 
" of preparing hollow trec$, and also the growing 
4 ' of tiie wood.] 

" Some months before the publication of the Ob* 
servations on the diseases, 6te. of fruit and forest 
trees y I had tried the .composition in a liquid state, 
" but did not think myself warranted to make it 
" public until I had experienced its effects through 
4 ' the winter. The success answered my most san r 
44 guine expectations ; and I have used it in that 
.. " way ever since. By using the composition in a 
* " liquid state, more than three fourths of the time 
" and labour is saved ; and I find it is not so liable 
44 to be thrown off as the lips grow* as when laid on 
4 * in the consistence of plaster : It adheres firmly to 
44 the naked part of the wound, and yet easily gives 
44 way as the new wood and bark advances." 

u The first time that I tried the composition in a 
44 liquid form was upon an elm which had been 
44 planted about twenty years. It had been very 
44 much bruised by the roller, had several cavities 
44 in it, and was very much bark-bound besides. 
44 Having prepared the wounds* and applied the 
44 composition with a painter's brush, I took my 

( 106 ) ' 

" knife and scarified the tree in four places ; I also 
" shaved off with a drawing-knife all the cankery 
" outer bark, and covered the whole tree with the 
" composition, shaking ihepowder ofwood-asbes and 
" buAit bones all over it. A very heavy rain began 
« in the evening, and continued all night ; yet, to 
" my great surprise, in the morning I found, that 
" only some of the powder, which had not had time 
"to dry and incorporate with the composition, 
« was washed off. I now repeated the powder, 
" and without any thing more being done to the 
" tree, the wounds healed up, and the bark was re- 
" stored so compleatly that three years ago it could 
♦' hardly be discovered where the wounds Had been. 
" The scarifications had also disappeared. Some 
" of the wounds were thirteen inches long, eight 
*' broad, and three deep. Since the time when it 
u was scarified, the tree has increased ten inches 
"more in circumference than a healthy tree plant- 
" edat the same time with it, about sixteen feet 
>« distant, which was not scarified.' 9 

( 107 ) 


THIS is practised upon all sorts of stone fruit in 
| particular; such as peaches, nectarines, cherries, 

f plums, &c. also oranges and jasmines ; and is pre- 

ferable to any sort of grafting for most kinds of fruit. , 

Provide a sharp pen-knife vtiihflat haft for rais- 
ing the bark of the stock to admit the bud, and some 
sound bass mat soaked in water* The cuttings be- 
ing taken off from the trees, choose* a smooth part of 
the stock, 5 or 6 inches above the surface of the 
ground, if designed for dwarfs, and for half stand- 
ards at three feet ; but for standards, bud six or more 
I feet above the ground : then cut horizontally across 

the rind of the stock ; and from the middle of that 
cut make a slit downwards about two inches long, 
forming a T : be careful not to cut too deep ,and 
wound the stock. Having cut off the leaf from the 
bud, leaving the footstalk remaining, make a cross 
cut about half an inch below the eye, and with the 
knife slit off the bud with part of the wood to it, in. 
form of an escutcheon ; this done, next with the 
knife pull off 'that part of the wood which was taken 
with the bud, observing if the eye of the bud be left 

( 10a y 

to it or not, (buds that lose the eye in stripping are 
good for nothing) ; then gently having raised the 
bark of the stock where the cross incision was made, 
with the flat handle of the knife clear off the wood f 
thrust the bud therein, placing it smooth between the 
rind and the wood of the stock, cutting off any part 
of the rind belonging to the bud which may be too 
long for the slit made in the stock ; and having thus 
exactly fitted the bud to the stock, tie them closely 
round with bass mat, beginning at the under part of 
the slit , and proceed to the top ; taking care not to 
bind round the eye of the bud 9 but leave it open. 

In three or four weeks, you will see which have 
taken. The shrivelled and black are dead. The 
fresh and plump are joined ; at which time loosen 
the bandage, that the stock be not pinched. 

In the next March cut off the stock three inches 
above the bud; sloping it that water pass off: to 
the part above the bud, festen the shoot proceeding 
from the bud. This must continue but one year : 
then cut it off close above the bud. 

Time of innoculating is the middle of June to the 
middle of August. The time may be ascertained by 

( 109 ) 

trying if the buds will come off well from the wood 
or not. 

Apricots are the first, and, oranges commonly the 
last sorts innoculated. Oranges should never be 
innocuteted before the middle of August. Cloudy 
weather is the best : rather avoid the middle of the 
day for it. Avoid the erroneous practice of throw- 
ing cuttings into water. 

All trees of the same genus, which agree in theif 
flavor and fruit, will take upon each other under 
gFafting or innoculation : All the nut-bearing trees 
on each other, and all the plum-bearing trees, in- 
cluding almond, peach, nectarine, apricot, See. 

Success of experiments on Heading-down, Compost* 
tion y Esfc. 

MR. FORSYTH says, that since he published 
" Observations on the diseases, defects and injuries 
in Fruit and Forest trees,' ' he has been assidious 
in making experiments. A great many hollow trees 
that had little more than the bark remaining sound, 
have within a few years been filled up :— Others 
that were beaded down wjthin a few feet of the 

( no ) 

ground have their stumps now completely covered 
by the leading shoot, forming handsome trees; and 
the places where they were headed ore only discerned 
by a faint cicatrix. There were many such in- 
stances. He gives but few accounts of them. 

A lime-tree, he says, 18 inches in diameter, 
whose trunk was decayed and hollow from top to 
bottom, to which, after cutting out the decayed 
wood, he had applied the composition 16 years ago, 
was last year cut down, on purpose to examine the 
progress it had made in the interior part, and was 
found entirely filled up with new, sound wood, com- 
pletely incorporated with what little old wood re- 
mained when he first took it in hand. The body of 
this tree he keeps, cut into short lengths, to shew to 

An old elm, he adds, the inside totally decayed, 
and two large cart loads of rotten wood taken therel 
from at different times, has made shoots upwards of 
20 feet high in the course of six years. Another 
elm, headed twenty feet from the ground, has pro- 
duced a shoot 46 feet high, and 5 feet 9 inches in 
circumference. — A lime, cut down near the ground, 
has now a shoot 20 feet high, which entirely covers 

( 111 ) 

the stump, forming a fine tree, 21 inches in circum- 
ference. — A sycamore, treated in the same manner, 
is now 30 feet high, and 26 inches in circumference. 
Another is 30 feet high, and 2 feet in circumference. 
These, he says, are now fine thriving trees, and the 
cicatrices hardly discernable ! 

A horse-chesnut, headed down, has produced, 
from its hollow stump, four fine shoots, one where- 
of is cut down, the other three are upwards of thirty 
feet high ; and one of them is 26 inches in circum- 
ference. Two of the remaining three are to be cut 
down, leaving one to form the body of the tree. 

About two and a half feet in length, on one side 
of a large diseased elm, which was for some time left 
to nature, still continued to decay till the composi- 
tion was applied : new wood and bark are now fornix 

An elm, entirely hollow, was also headed down. 
The new head now spreads 24 feet, and is 18 feet 
high. Another large hollow elm, near the last, was 
headed down : it afterwards produced a shoot 60 
feet high, and three and a half feet in* diameter. 
There are many other elms, some with wounds 10 

( 112 ) 

feet long and 2 feet broad, now entirely filled up ; 
besides many sycamores, oaks, and other forest 
trees, all restored to a flourishing state, by having 
the dead woodcut out, and the composition applied. 
An oak that was beaded down six years ago, is re- 
presented in pi. XII. 

In hollow trees , the rotten and decayed wood must 
be tut out at different times, as the new wood comes 
in contact with it : but beware not to cut out too 
much at once ; but leave enough to support the tree 
and prevent it from being blown down by high 
winds, till the new is strong enough for that pur- 
pose : the remainder may then be cut out. 

Mr. Aberdeen, gardener, has followed Mr. For- 
syth's method for some time with great success, in 
the house and " on the natural walls* 

Hearing several years of the very fine and large 
crops produced in the forcing houses on Black Heath, 
Mr. Forsyth took a journey thither in company 
with Mr. Wedgewood, to inquire into the method 
pursued there for obtaining these superior crops, 
and was candidly, told that Mr. Stuart several years 
Itgo bad seen Mr. Forsyth's method used at Ken- 


( 113 ) 

sington Gardens, and was convinced of its advan- 
tages above the old ; he adopted it with great 

John Wedgewood, Esq. practises in Mr. For* 
sytits method with great success. 

Lord Frederick Campbell sent to Mr. Forsyth a 
list of 85 fruit-trees that were beaded down, and af- 
terwards trained and pruned according to Mr, F. — 
From a cankery, unfruitful state, ever green with 
moss, they are now fruitful \ healthy and flourishing* 
— These trees are now proper patterns for others 
desirous of giving the composition^ and method of 
training and pruning recommended by this treatise, 
a fair trial. 

Successful trials have also been made, of the same 9 
at the Duke of Dorset's. 

( 114 ) 



THE Economical Society of St. Peter sburgh ex- 
presses great satisfaction with the effects of Mr. 
Forsyth's applications of the composition, &c. and 
this excellent idea of a Mr, Guthrie to him, appears 
well worth our notice — " That he is happy in ex- 
pressing, individually, his satisfaction from Mr, For- 
syth's sagacious application of the cbiurgicalart to ve- 
getation ; and declares that the extirpation of the dis- 
eased parts, and the use of an unguent to ward off the 
noxious action of the air and humidity, during the ex- 
ertions of nature to repair loss of substance, and the 
languid circulation of the vegetable juices, appear 
highly judicious." 

In the hot climate of India, and the opposite ex- 
treme of the cold of Russia, the composition was in 
constant and successful use ; even 400 miles south 
of Madras ; and also in the India company's cinna- 
mon plantation : and it was likewise applied with 
equal success to the fruit-trees of the country. 


f 115 > 

Besides these, there are many satisfactory and 
Wonderful instances of improvement to trees and 
fruits by the ajpplication of the composition. 


FOR the information of persons who arc but lit- 
tle acquainted with practical gardening, Mr. For- 
syth gives the following explanation of what is call- 
ed Heading-down ; 

V7hen young trees ore planted out from the nurse- 
ry as soon as they begin to break in the spring, they 
are cut down to three or four eyes, according to their 
strength, to furnish them with bearing wood: if this 
were not done, they would run up in long naked, 
branches, and would not produce one quarter of the 
fruit which they do when this operation is properly 
performed. The same holds good in heading aU 
kinds of old trees. 

An opinion prevails (especially amongst apple- 
tree cultivators) that trees never bear well after be- 
ing headed-down. It may be so sometimes, when 
trees are improperly headed-down, all at once> by 

( 11« ) 

giving a sudden check to the sap. But, if beading 
were done gradually ; that is, if every other branch 
all over the tree were headed at a proper length, cut. 
ting as near to those parts where the shoots appear, 
as possible, in February or March, or even as late 
as May, in the course of the summer they would 
throw out fine long shoots. These should not be 
shortened the first year, unless it be a few to fill up* 
the head of the tree with bearing wood; and that 
should be in the following spring ; cutting them to 
six or eight inches in length, according to their 
strength. In the next spring after the first branches 
are headed, the remaining old branches may be cut 
out ; and these will soon fill the head of the tree with 
fine bearing wood. In three years, trees so headed 
will produce a much greater quantity of fruit, and 
of better quality than they did befqre the operation 
w$s performed. 

Heading-down Orangp-trees. 
Just as Mr. Forsyth's manuscript of his Treatise 
was going to the press, he was informed by the late 
Portuguese Ambassador at London, that on his re- 
turn to Portugal he had found the Orange-trees on 
the Prince of Brasil's plantations in a very unhealthy 
and decayed state ; and applied to Mr, Forsyth for 

( 117 ) 

some of the composition, and a copy of his pamphlet 
on the diseases, &c. in fruit and forest trees, that he 
might make trials of the remedy on the trees of that 
country. Mr. Forsyth sent him a cask of the com- 
position, with directions for preparing the trees and 
laying it on. 

He advises, that when it is found necessary to 
bead-down Orange-trees, they be not cut quite down 
to the stem ; but to leave two or three inches of the 
branches, some more, some less ; always remem- 
bering to cut near to a joint, and in such a manner 
as to form a handsome head; and to apply the com- 
position immediately. In doing this, however, he , 
adds, it will be necessary to leave a few young shoots 
to draw up the sap. If the trees are infected with 
insects, the stems must be washed with soap-suds 
and urine, and well scrubbed with a hard brush. 

Mr. Forsyth informs us> -he always leaves three 
different years branches on apple-trees, when the 

first shoot, d, is cut off at e, (see the pi. VI. fig. 2.) 
It is to be observed, the ne^t shoot, f, will be full 
of fruit-buds, if it has not been shortened; when- it 

* begins to grow weak, cut it off at g. The next cut- 
ting must be at i, when the branch h is tired of 

( 118 ) 

bearing. Proceed thus all over the tree with care 
and attention, and it will soon be perceived the ad- 
vantage of this method of pruning above the com- 
mon mode ; for by it the trees may be kept in a con- 
stant state of bearing, which, if left to nature, woiild 
only produce a crop of fruit once in two or three 
years. Always remember, when the shoot that has 
done bearing is cut off, to apply the composition im- 
mediately, and to rub off the shoots where they are 
too numerous. 

The best time, he says, for pruning apple-trees is 
April or May, after the peaches, nectarines and 
cherries are pruned. 

The small shoots crossing each other should be 
cut off; leaving the strongest to fill up the tree and 
make a fine handsome head. 

The apple-trees chosen from tht nursery, as well 
as the apricot and peach-trees, should have strong 
straight, and clear stems. 

Speaking, as it seems, rather of dwarf trees or 
trees in borders, he says, the same directions for 
beading must be observed, according to the season 

( 119 ) 

and the time of the buds breaking forth, leaving the 
number according to the strength of each tree ; cut- 
ting as close as possible to the top bud, that the 
leading shoot may more easily cover the wound ; 
and constantly observing to rub off all the buds that 
come by the side of the leading shoot, which would 
otherwise rob it of its nourishment and strength, 
and so prevent it from making a fine leaden (See 
pi. VI. fig. 1.) Remember, he says, also to cut it 
annually to the length of from nine to eighteen 
inches, according to its strength, till the tree has got 
to that height to which you would have it run, and 
according to the extent of the ground ; which height 
may be from eight to twelve feet. By these means, 
the trees will throw out horizontal branches on eve- 
ry side, and soon form handsome heads for dwarfs. 

He advises that dwarf-trees be not suffered to run 
higher than twelve feet. From eight to twelve is a 
convenient height. If allowed to run higher, they 
wMl become naked at bottom, the fruit will be liable 
to be blown down, and the tops broken by high 

( 120 ) 


According to Mr. Forsyth: 

WHO says, it is a generally received opinion, 
that when an oak loses its tap-root in transplanting, 
it never produces another. But this he thus refutes. 
He transplanted a bed of oak-plants into a fresh bed, 
cutting the tap-roots near to some of the small side 
roots or fibres shooting from them. In the secona 
year after, he beaded one half of the plants down, and 
left the other half to nature. In the first season, those 
loaded-down made shoots six feet long, and com- 
pletely covered the tops of the old stems, leaving 
only a faint cicatrix ; and had produced new tap-roots 
upwards of two and a half feet long. One Of these 
trees he left at the Revenue-office to shew the advan- 
tage of transplanting and heading-down young oaks, 
when done in a proper manner ; of which he also 
gives directions for Chesnuts. See p. 70. 

By this method of treating the plants, the oaks, 
&c. will grow more in one year than in six when 
treated in the common way. 

( 121 ) 

The * other half, not headed down, grow not one 
fourth the size of those headed. One of the 
headed-down is eighteen feet high ; and, six inches 
from the ground, measures fifteen inches in circum- 
ference : at three feet from the ground, ten inches ; 
and at six feet, nine and a half inches: when one 
of the largest of those not headed-down, measures 
only five and a half feet high, and three and three 
quarters inches in circumference^ at six inches from 
the ground* This is a convincing proof that trans- 
planting and heading- down oaks is the most success- 
ful and advantageous way of treating them ; and 
by it they are sooner out of danger from cattle, 
as well as from vermin so frequently injurious 
to young trees. 

Of Oak-trees, it is further to be observed, from 
Mr. Forsyth's Treatise, that where they had re- 
ceived very considerable damage from various ac- 
cidents, blows, bruises, cutting deep letters, rub- 
bing off the bark by the ends of rollers, cart- 
wheels, and mutilated branches or limbs, a per- 
fect cure has been made, and sound timber pro- 
duced, through his applications. 










NOTES, &c. 

A FARMER is not made by books ; but books 
may assist a farmer, in giving him information of 
successful practices by other farmers in other 
countries or places, which he cannot but by books 
know, limited in his inquiries to the little occur- 
rences of his neighbours* Books will entertain a 
farmer with conversations on the practices of other 
farmers, and will inform him how far such prac- 
tices have proved successful and advantageous, or 
how far they failed — and why they failed. One 
man may profit of the failure or mistake of ano- 
ther, and often does — The design has been good 
and promising, and the cause of the failure may 
thereafter be avoided, and the design be rendered 
1 successful. 

Mr. Forsyth's treatise on the culture and ma- 
nagement of trees,' fru its, and gardening, ought 

( 126 ) 

to be well attended to by the farmers of America^ 
as it contains accounts of important discoveries, 
interesting to country families, and is founded on 
very numerous and extensive instances of suc- 
cessful practice. 

For disclosing the fruits of his experience, Mr. 
Forsyth received from his government £4000 
sterling money. The world also receives the 
benefit of his communications, especially in mak- 
ing and applying his composition ; and with it 
much other useful knowledge and instruction re- 
specting trees, fruits and gardening, the price of 
the £4000 ; and the world is indebted also to Mr. 
Forsyth for it. 

It is in full proof, from the instances of his ex* 
perience, and the efficacy of his applications and 
management, that all fruit-bearing trees and vines 
are greatly jmproved in their properties of giving 
much more and far better fruit than in common 
practice is produced : the difference, on comparing 
them, is astonishing ! 

Of all the discoveries made public by Mr. For- 
syth, the heading-down) training and pruning in 

( 127 ) 

his very judicious methods, are the most import- 
ant and satisfactory, including the application of 
his composition y washes , and powder I Upon these 
communications Mr. Forsyth has a great; deah-to 
value himself, Look tq the neighbouring unhead- 
€dy unprunedy or injudiciously trained fruit-trees 
and orchards — how inferior, scrubby and mean, 
the trees and the fruit ! 

Heading-down, training and pruning are prac- 
tised by many people in their own some-how way ; 
which together may be denominated the common 
method : but how inferior, and how void of proofs 
of its having any extraordinary good effect ! Yet 
it may be of some advantage, generally, more 
than if no attempt was made to improve the tree* 
and fruit, by the few country people who shew 
some endeavour to improve. So by chance the 
editor succeeded in heading-down and trimming 
a number of peach-trees, without having then 
heared the expression of heading-down. He had 
been told it was advantageous to trim and thin 
young trees when planted out. These trees grew 
and produced fruit to admiration. But what is 
all the random pruning in America^ compared with 
Mr. Forsyth's now well-known method, so supe- 
rior to all ever before practised ? 

( 128 ) 

In general, th6 American air and climate appear 
well adapted for yielding the best of fruits > as well 
orchard as garden kinds. Strawberries ^ currants 
and raspberries are very sure and perfect crops. 
Gooseberries are not such certain or perfect pro- 
ductions ; unless it may be in the cooler, more 
northern parts : but yet they answer culinary pur- 
poses, and bottle well 4 . This is with scarcely any 
•attention to their cultivation. 

Cherries in America would abound and be in 
great variety, very perfect, if some attention to 
them was observed : but as it is with so little done 
for them, they are a common, and rather a mean 
fruit. The sorts preferred in country places seem 
to be the thick, tough, indegestible sorts, which 
are now and then the cause of sudden death in 
people who make too free in eating them. 

Cherries are chiefly applied to culinary purposes, 
and for improving brandy into what is called 
cherry brandy ; which is a considerable article, 
much noticed in Hamburgh, in Europe, it is im- 
ported from thence into some places ip America. 

Apricots come when there is a scarcity of other 
ripe fruits ; which makes them more desireable 

( 129 ) 

than otherwise they would be. In the green 
state, they make an agreeable tart. In ground 
dug or stirred about the trees, as in gardens, they 
are apt to drop their fruit without ripening it* 

Peaches are in some variety, and ripen to great 
perfection in the middle and southern states ; a$ 
with but a little attention they would in the more 
northern states of America. It is a fruit that is so 
natural to the country of these states, that they 
are applied as food to hogs 7 also in making brandy r 
and for culinary purposes. They are in succession^ 
one sort coming after another, from July to No- 
vember. In some of the states, kilns are erected 
for drying and curing apples, pears, peaches, and 
other fruits in great quantities j where pies are 
made into mountains of crust, thick, essential, and 
cheap; and given to hirelings, as an agrecable/wrf 
for all labouring people in the country, and which 
needs but little or no sugar. The dried fruit is; 
packed in casks for family use ; and is sometimes 
exported as merchandize. They are generally di- 
vided into clear -st one and clingstone peaches. The 
ding-stone sorts are, in France , called pavies. In 
a list of thirty-nine choice sorts of peaches, given 
by Mr. Forsyth^ only six are received by the 


( 130 ) 

Trench as pavics or cling-stoncs ; and, it seems, in 
France and England the clear-stone sort is prefer- 
red at their tables. 

But of all peaches, perhaps of all fruits, there is 
none equal in flavor to the American Heath Peach % 
a clingstone. It is large, weighing near a pound, 
in common : with but a moderate attention, the 
editor believes, they would very generally weigh 
a full pound. It is backward in ripening north- 
ward of the Susquehanna ; and is one of the last 
sort that ripens ; many weigh a full pound. — 
Peachley's form of a vinery would perfect the ri- 
pening, and secure the fruit from thieves. 

Within the states of America, clear-stone 
peaches are preferred for food to hogs, and for 
making brandy ; perhaps also to be eaten in coup- 
try families, with milk ; but the cling-stone sorts 
are preferred when of a good sort, well ripened, 
to be eaten as fruit undressed. 

It is a common fault, after having planted out 
an orchard of peach-trees, to leave the trees to 
shift for themselves and travel down with old 
time, with scarcely any culture or attention ; and A 

( "I ) 

the trees are taken from the nursery, where they 
had become full grown, crowded and stunted, so as 
to be now unfit for giving good fruit when trans- 
planted: and they are left to themselves, without 
any training or pruning; and heading-down is 
scarcely thought of, if known : in consequence, the 
fruit they yield is mean, and the orchard in the end 
is given up. 

Nectarines scarcely ever ripen in the parts of 
America where the editor has been. An insect 
punctures the green fruit, and gum flows from it, 
till the fruit drops without ripening. 

. Every American farm has some s<Mt of an apple 
orchard. The fruit is of various sorts of apples, 
and formerly gave much cider ; and store apples 
abounded. Now, the trees and entire orchards be- 
come daily more mean, and there is a great scarcity 
of cider ; but few keeping-apples ^ and those knotty, 
dry and insipid. There is not the attention to 
orchards that has been. West-India spirit and 
French brandy abound in the shops ; and we wear 
out the strength of our lands in scuffling for corn, of 
all, sorts, to be sold to the shopkeepers, who furnish 
us very readily with exotic spirit and brandy. The 

( 132 ) 

orchard is no longer manured: instead of it, various 
corns — oats, barley, rye, and even Indian corn and 
wheat are sown and reaped in the orchard, on ground 
not half dressed or cultivated. Moreover, the 
orchards are now left open to powerful storms, to 
which they are exposed from the general clearing 
of the country, and particularly from clearing away 
the neighbouring woods that had sheltered the 
orchards. Further, pruning and training fruit-trees 
are less understood and less attempted than former- 
\y.—~Mighty rum, and mighty brandy , divert better 

Pears in America are only from some one or two 
trees in the farmer's apple orchard or garden ; mere- 
ly for the fruit eaten, or for preserves or present cu- 
linary purposes* Perry is scarcely known. 

A few quinces, for preserves, are in a corner of 
the American apple-orchard or garden. The edi- 
tor had a row of dwarf pear-trees grafted on quince 
stocks. They were chiefly the small round sugar 
pear: the fruit abundant and good. The trees 
*bout four or five feet high. 

( 133 ) 

The Fine is quite natural to America. This, 
with the plum tribe, the editor propagated in one of 
the middle states. There however is very little at- 
tention observed towards the plum ; though they 
generally thrive well. Damisons are preserved for 
making tarts. 

Little attention is had to lifats. The walnut of 
Europe, and the Spanish chesnut, would be worth 
cultivating, as well for the timber as the nuts. Al- 
though the chesnut is bad as fuel, yet staves of ches- 
nut, for wine casks, are equal, if not superior to oak. 
In Italy it is much used for wine casks. The chesnut 
is also excellent house timber in beams, &c. The 
liquor of pickled walnuts is greatly used in sauces. 

Formerly, the early settled plantations of the more 
wealthy emigrants from England, abounded in large 
spreading walnut-trees, of the European kind. In 
some places were entire rows of them. At this* 
time* scarcely any such rows of walnut-trees, indeed 
even of solitary straggling bearing trees are to be 
seen, in the states where they Had abounded. There 
is a fashion in these as in other matters. The early 
wealthy planters from England introduced walnut- 
trees about their houses— their descendants have 

( 134 ) 

given them up. Cabinet-makers have rooted and 
sawed up all the noble blocks of curled veiny re- 
mains of noble walnut-trees — and the trees are not 
renewed* It is no longer a tree noticed. In a word, 
very generally fruit is shamefully neglected by the 
American farmers. They plant — and they neglect ! 
Yet we sow wheat — it buys us rum, brandy and 
spirits, at the expence of an entire impoverishment 
•f our lands. 


IT is proper that they be adapted to the employ- 
ments and manner of living, suitable to the farmer's 
circumstances, and what is genuine country life. It 
is adviseable not to copy closely, for country life, 
from the fashions, taste, or excesses of city life : 
there must be a discreet difference preserved. 

Whilst it is a foshion, convenient in citiek, to 
finish their rooms with stampt or coloured paper, in 
the country this practice is less convenient or suita- 
ble. Workmen in the country are every where to 
be fpund, who can whitewash in the wholesome, 
neat, old way, every year, or as may be the occa- 

( 135 ) 

sion ; when, to paper the country rooms as often as 
may be requisite, though seldomer than white-wash- 
ing, it is difficult to procure workmen, if not also 
sometimes materials. This is one of the many in- 
conveniences attending the introduction of city ha- 
bits and fashions into rural life ; where the neat and 
convenient country usage of frequently ~white-wash- 
ing and renewing the rooms and chambers is experi- 
enced, and has been always approved for its great 
advantages and admired neatness and wholesomeness. 

Giving up the well adapted usage of white-wash- 
ing country mansions, is followed by many disad- 
vantageous changes in country economy, house- 
keeping, practices and employments ; especially by 
a too close attention to and observance of city plea- 

Some particulars may be introduced into the 
country from city usages, which will be advantage- 
ous ; but the danger is great of their being attended 
or followed with depravities or inconveniences. 
There are not many that prove advantageous ; and it 
is adviseable that plain, yet cheerful country life do 
not give way too easily to city trifling, or things 
adapted only to city life, if adviseable in any condi- 

( 156 ) 

tion. In the good old courses, neatness, cleanliness, 
and modest becoming character and habits, have 
heretofore been admired and emulated by the inha- 
bitants of cities ; on the other hand, country people 
too closely and too largely followed the city taste ; 
which ushered them into city extravagances and 

Among other improprieties, there is a great, ab- 
surd and disadvantageous introdijption, in country 
houses, of plank floors on joists, and a giving up the 
more natural, wholesome, cheap, solid and lasting 
earthen and brick floors, for the city choice of wooden 
floors over an unwholesome, close, stagnant air. 

In the annexed plate is designed a country habita- 
tion, with its first or basement story on an earthen 
or brick floor, raised only six or eight inches, with 
earth, on the common level of the ground. Farmers 
in Europe, worth scores of thousands of pounds in 
money, have houses, where they reside on their 
farms, so built and so floored, because of its being 
sufficient, proper, wholesome and convenient ; and 
they find great advantage from their two kitchens, 
one of them, clean as a parlour, is every thing to 
the good house^wife and her family. But here in 

( 137 ) 

America, how common has it become for our far- 
mers to imitate city modes and practices, however 
unsuitable to the peculiar state of country affairs. 
The proud, perhaps really poor city resident, how- 
ever he bustles in the banks of paper-means of 
gambling, builds fine houses, indeed house upon 
house, called stories ; for which he has the pretence 
of a want of ground in towns ; and the American 
dashing imitative farmer builds in like shewy man- 
ner, although he is not stinted in ground to build 
on ; he must have his flight of steps to pass to and 
from his house, by one or other of his family, a hun- 
dred times in a day — then another flight shews the 
stranger, visiting, .rooms empty, if not unfinished, 
over rooms that ought to be under domestic employ- 

The farmer's house (having only one floor or 
story) has no cellar under it. The floor of it is 
brick. For visitors, there are the two little front 
parlours ; of which, one may occasionally have a 
bed, or very full matrass. A middle room, 12 by 
12, is the lobby, and for the stair-case. The two 
back rooms, 18 by 18, zrefa?nily rooms. Up stairs 
arejfatf bed-rooms and a landing, 12 by 12. A ceh 



( 138 ) 

lar is under the traveller's detached lodging ; which 
is a house, 16 by 16, near or adjoining the mansion. 

The farmer's house of city stories on stories, 
however shewy or not, outside, has less area, and 
less of convenience^ though much more wall, than 
the humble house of one floor or story. Its two 
rooms, 20 by 20, and a passage 20 by 10, are all 
that are in the first story, below. Above, in the 
second story, are rooms too inconvenient to be of 
much use : they are two bed chambers and a landing 
of the stairs : in the roof are four bed-chambers, 14 
by 12 1-2, and a landing. 

The editor has been well entertained in a house 
which had but one floor (no upstairs), divided into 
five rooms, 18 feet square ; the middle of them was 
the summer room and the lobby ; another was a win- 
ter and dining room, " parlour and all" ; the three 
others were bed-chambers, having fire-places, and 
very completely furnished. The two first occupiers 
of it were great tobacco planters and merchants, 
owning shipping : two others were mere planters. 
It was a house of great entertainment — and yet it 
had but the one floor — not a room upstairs — no up- 
stairs — and but one fifth pf its area was cellar. " A 
died room had been added for a nursery. 

( 159 ) 

In comparing the waits of the farmers two above 
houses, those of the modern, or with two stories, 
are more than twice, or twice tWenty-seven times 
more in quantity and expence than the single story 
house ; and moreover, the single story house has 
more of employed rooms and conveniences than v the 
farmer's modern country house of two stories ! 


IS it presumption to say, that the houses on a 
farm, entitled to immediate attention, and that 
next to the mansion ought to be built, are what 
will shelter the farmer's beasts of the place ? and 
that \h& farm-yard is of more consideration than 
the garden ; though this is of great value to every 
family, especially to the, farmer's. 

Country gardens , in America, are usually close 
to the mansion ; and thefarm-yard, when the farmer 
has any, is a considerable distance from the man- 
sion ; perhaps partially to be seen from it. It may 
even be said, that the garden is but of a secondary 
consideration to the farm-yard, and ought to give 
way to it. Then,* as it is elsewhere said, it is ad- 

( 140 ) 

vantageous to have the farm-yard, and all the work 
and employment in it, within view from the man- 
sion, as a check on the idleness and misconduct of 
labourers and herdsmen. The garden may be in the 
front, or on one of the sides of the dwelling house 
or of the farm-yard, as conveniently placed as cir- 
cumstances will allow, not to be, especially, too 

A garden laid out in long beds, admits of being 
advantageously ploughed, with a light plough drawn 
by a single horse, ass or mule. Mr. Parkinson, an 
English farmer of judgment and experience, lately 
in America, in conversations, gave satisfactory ac- 
counts of the excellence of cultivating gardens with 
light single-horse ploughs ; and he approved of an 
ass 9 as being steady, sober and small, with which 
he ploughed his garden crops. If the garden is 
ploughed through its whole length, parallel with the 
middle great walk, it can, after being well dressed, 
have cross paths trod out, or otherwise as conveni- 
ency demands. 

Besides cultivating the garden sort of white 
peas in long garden beds as above, the editor 
is beholding, he thinks, to Mr. Parkinson for the 

( ui ) 

thought of tending those peas in field-husbandry / 
first dressing and preparing the field in fine condi- 
tion, then sowing broad-cast; when the pea vines 
soon will cover the ground and smother many weeds. 
If in this case there should be but a partial crop of 
peas, though a full crop may be expected, yet the 
product in the straw, or haulm and grain, together 
would be very valuable to the farmer who shall know 
how to spend such acquisitions amongst cattle and 

A country garden divides well, in the objects of. 
its productions, into articles to be prepared in cook- 
ery for the table i into pot-herbs and medicinal herbs. . 
These may be in separate pieces of ground. The 
pot-herbs, parsly, thime, &c. are frequently wanted . 
in haste; they may be nearest to the kitchen, &c. 
and let them abound. In saving seeds, lay out for ten 
times as much as it is thought will be wanted : many . 
accidents, from storms, insects, seasons, &c. hap- 
pen. Whatever may be above the wants of the 
garden, it will be a pleasure to supply neighbours 
*with ; and for ever there is a certainty of a sufficiency 
at home. Till the editor pursued this^ principkrOf 
economy respecting seefopx&fratfKnz seldom had 

C 142 } 

enough of either — and such are 9ore wants. In- 
deed, respecting fruits he would not be limited in 
quantity. Wants are due to careless, random, half* 
spirited attentions, or where there is n6 care at all. 

The garden ftuiutrees (distinct from orchard or 
straggling trees) may range along the interior or 
middle walks, and generally at some distance from 
the garden fence. The quantity designed to be 
many times more than the family may be supposed 
to want. Divide the placing fruit-trees distinctly 
as out-fruit, for servants and others close at home, 
and even. Some articles, precious family comforts, 
it is recommended to securely inclose in a vinery or 
the like cheap building, under lock and key ; which 
will scarcely require any expence of fuel. Here 
grapes may run up the rafters in serpentine order, 
whilst dwarf trees of the beath peachy &c. and also 
figSy may be in the beds. Of fgs, observe Mr. 
Forsyth's excellent instructions in the pruning and 
cultivating them ; no where are any equal to them, 
in print. 

If Z full-grown peach-tree, in America, will ripen 
, 4()0 peaches, two sucu ^ U eivc *?2 fjwnil ? com ' 

( 143 ) 

forts.* Is it not worth the expence to secure such 
perfect fruit, if it were only for the sick of a family? 
In the season of peaches and grapes ripening, inter- 
mittents arrive ; and how excellent, says the good 
ajiti knowing Tissot, is sound ripe fruit to the sick ; 
as indeed those who have had them in their sickness 
cannot but feelingly remember and vouch* 

There can be little occasion for sheltering the 
heath peach from autumnal cold any where south of 
the Susquehanna. Yet the fig, a fine wholesome 
fruit, though not an American favourite, is highly 

' * A gentleman in England, lately, grew within 
frames, 14 feet long and 12 feet broad, the frames 
having three slides of glass, five peach-trees. At eight 
years old they ripened 261, 201,220, 151, 152 peaches, 
in all 985. In thinning, therehad been taken off 2020, 
which, added to the ripened 985, amount together to 
3005. Medium, 600 a tree, failures included ; from 
which, off one third, would give to American peach- 
trees 400 a tree, in ripened fruit in the field. Then 
one tree in the back corners of two peacheries, would 
give of the noble heath peach 1600$ besides grapes 
along the rafters. A vinery in England is usually 40 
or 50 feet long, 9 feet wide, 3 feet high in front, 12 to 
1 4 4 back : but the width in America may be 12 feet, the 
height in front 3 or 4 feet, and back, on the north 
wall, 12 or 13 feet. 


( 144 ) 

esteemed in countries where it ripens, and ia every 
where deemed wholesome and delicious when eaten 
ripe from the tree. The editor knows that at first 
his neighbours in America who disliked their flavor, 
soon were fond of them, and they are in truth a 
wholesome and a valuable fruit, as in his Maryland 
garden was often attested from experience. 

The Shelter s, in nature of vineries, may be made 
good use of in America, for forwarding (not forcing 
them out of season) cucumbers, melons, Lima beans, 
peppers, &c. — sprouting the seeds in the vinery, 
and even letting the plants grow a while ; then move 
and plant them out in the garden beds or hills. First 
in the vinery, grow the seeds in little unglazed 
two-cent pots, or in paper, or willow twigs, or straw y 
make-shift temporary litde baskets ; which are to 
be removed, pot and earth, and seeds or plants, 
without breaking their earth much, and all buried 
where to remain. Early radishes and sallads may 
also be here promoted. 

The farmer cannot find it worth while to force \ 
fruits and plants out of season by the use of expen- 
sive jires and attentions ; but to promote their time- 
ly ripening, and securing choice fruits under lock 

( 145 ) 

)nd key by affluent farmers would be profitable, 
find of great comfort to skk people, for whom they 
may have some thought. 

Green-houses and hot-houses the husbandman 
bad better avoid, as being expensive ; and are too 
lar used in preternaturally ripening plants and 
fruits: but to his consideration is referred the 
€heap vinery or inclosure, for the purpose of se- 
curing some choice grapes andyfor, and a little ri- 
pening some rather backward grapes, and perfect- 
ing the fig-trees for next year's bearing— as also 
may be ripened tender peaches, plums, and other 
subjects of family comfort, under lock and key, 
with very little or no fire ; but for some purposes 
with a portion of glass in sliding frames. Qf 
which, see the plate. 

The editor may have been too reserved in not 
speaking of some advantageous occurrences re- 
specting his own gardening and management of 
fruit : but he will venture to relate an instance or 

In some gardens in America, greengages scarci- 
ty yielded any fruit, or but badly : it was the case 




( 146 ) 

of the gages in the editor's garden, till by grafting 
five green gages on five damison stocks, and at 
the same time, of the same grafts, one was graft- 
ed in the stock of a Chickasaw plum y growing near 
the damison stocks : in four or five years of the 
grafted trees bearing, the five damison grafted 
gages scarcely yielded a tenth of the fruit which 
the one Chickasaw plum grafted tree gave. In- 
deed, it was wonderful and curious to observe 
how like ropes of onions the gages grew along the 
twigs and small limbs of the Chickasaw grafted 
tree; and another Chickasaw plum-stock, fifty 
yards from the other, was grafted with one of the 
same green gage cuttings as before, the year after 
the others were grafted, and bbre fruit equally 
surprizingly as the former. It seems, then, that 
Chickasaw plum-stocks are excellent for grafting 
green gages on them. The Chickasaw plum is 
by some called mountain cherry. It is in nothing a 
cherry, but is red, and of the size of a cherry ; 
and in many particulars is like the common wild 
plum of the sea-coast. 

In many parts of the country almond-trees gave 
no fruit. The tree, though hardy, was planted 
in the warmest parts of gardens ; where in spring 

( 147 ) 


the blossom was the first out, of all trees ; and then 
the fruit was destroyed by subsequent frosts. The 
editor chose the coldest, most airy, exposed and 
clayey part of his garden, where he planted al- 
monds. The trees bore the fruit to perfection in 
three years after planting the nuts — the large soft- 
shelled almond. 

His strawberry vines were dressed every sum- 
mer , after the fruit was gone ; the runners shorten* 
ed y the ground stirred and cleaned from weeds, and 
a moderate portion of mild cow-dung added, best 
from the compost j and every third year the plants 
renewed into fresh beds, the old ones left to give 
fruit as long as they proved worth attention. The 
improvement of the strawberries was great, in 
quantity and quality of the fruit* Respecting 
raspberries and the other garden fruits, consult 
and attend to Mr. Forsyth's treatment of them— 
how different they arc in size, &c. when managed 
according to his book, the purport whereof is con- 
tained in the above Epitome ; and the method of 
culture was partly experienced by the editor. 

The editor but little regarded the breaking down 
his peach-trees , tor their destruction by w rax— for 

( 148 ) 

he aimed not at " inoftgh," but very many 'timet 
fnore them enough ; whilst persons aiming at theitf 
hroug/i, for ever Tfranted^as often as storms* 
worms, insect*, or other accidents happened to a 
tree. When ttto 6r three of the editor's trees 
were triovtn down, or the fruit of so many was de* 
stroyed, still there was of fruit mord thah 
enough ; and in every autumn he planted peach 
stones, regularly zspeds are in the spring by Other 
people. They were in some numbers, partly in 
borders where they iftight remain-^— others were 
transplanted* sornc cvefn aftfcr shewing their fruit* 
Many were grubbed np. He .preferred Baker's 
clear-stone Jfafy peaches, the Newingtnns^ and a 
feiv others ; especially the latest and best, th& 
large heath peach, ripe from October to Nwem* 
fcr.-^He Was for ever planting peach stones and 
found not grubs, storms, &c« affecting them, to 
bis detriment. 


IN the plate are plans and elevations of two me- 
thods of building farmer s' d\netting : heus4s~ % draWn 
*n the same scale, 30 feet in an inch. 

( 149 ) 

Of the two, the modern house has 4200 feet of 
well: the old mode compleats a house more con- 
venient and of more room, with but 1850 feet of 
mall >• less than half the quantity of wall! 

A small out-house of one room would be f for 
either house, very convenient for strangers to 
lodge in : and to have under it a cellar sufficient 
for a farmer's family. In the loft over the bed- 
rbom of this out house may be strata matrasses for 
travelling poor peopld or servants to lodge on :— * 
What an accumulation of advantages arc herc^ 
cheaply concentrated ! Stranger* cannot be at 
-ways reftwed lodging; and it is not always with 
perfect safety that they are taken into the family 
house to lodge. 

It may be best that there is no direct commu- 
nicatioh open between the mansion and the small 
lodging-house. On the same side of the mansion* 
may be other convenient houses: milk*house y &c. 
On the opposite side of the dwelling may be a 
passage to the out kitchen with closets, poultry-yard 
land shelter, &C. Over the passage and closets 
<epd oufrkitchen may be lodgings for the family 
servants, to »gQ up to by a ladder or stairs from 

( ISO ) 

the passage. It is proper and necessary, especial- 
ly in country houses, that accommodations, mostly 
or all together, be on the ground-floor. A fre- 
quent use of the rooms upstairs will naturally be 
avoided, as they are extremely inconvenient, but 
for bed-rooms. In towns a scarcity of ground 
obliges, a sore necessity, the building up house 
upon house, story upon story. 

A clean small yard or two of close turf is highly 
useful to the country house-wife. The garden is 
more in sight and more likely to be attended to 
when in front of the dwelling, but at a proper dis- 
tance : and the road to the house is, better to be 
somewhat round-about on one side of the garden : 
than to have it a directly straight, dead view to 
the eye at the house. 

The small rooms in the old plan may be par- 
lours ; occasionally with a bed or matrass in one, 
easily removed, in the country way. The lobby 
has its uses, besides admitting the stair-case. 

The first floors are of brick or cement in the old 
mode, upon the ground, raised six or eight inches 
with earth. The wall ought to be let three feet 
deep in the ground, against severe frosts. 

( 151 ) 

Let nothing induce the having a cock4ofi in ei- 
ther of the houses. They are dangerous rccepti- 
cles of combustibles, and are often set fire to by 
carelessness. They ought to be so close that 
scarcely a cat can enter them. It will suffice 
that, after narrowing the area of the uppermost 
floor in the old method^ because of the interference 
of the roof, there will remain an area of 36 feet by 
24, to divide into six rooms, twelve feet square* 
The garret floor, in the new method, will divide 
into four rooms of 14 by 12 1-4 feet, of no very 
great demand in a country house, elevated as it 
would be. 

Wind can make but little impression on the low* 
built house ; but what a powerful lever the high 
house would prove to be in storms ! In sweeping 
the chimnies and extinguishing fires, the prefer- 
ence is in favor of the low house. See more of 
man ions, p. 134. 

The vinery may be only one, as is common, 
though some have two to advantage. The size 
for the above purposes in America may be 40 feet 
long, 12 broad, 12 or 13 high at the back wall, 3 
or 4 at the front or south wall. The rafters 

( 152 ) 

have sliding sashes, set with glass. This section is 
drawn by a scale of seven feet per inch. 

Such a house would ripen and secure heath 
peaches in cold districts : the trees whereof might 
be dwarfs. Fig-trees would perfect their fruit, 
and harden their late grown wood. Also Lima 
beans , cucumbers , melons^ peppers. Sec. may here 
be aided in perfecting their ripening ; but not be 
forced preternaturally. 

In England, the^«<f is in the back wall ; which 
can give plants only one side of its heat, very slow- 
ly and duly moderate ; when the flue in the middle 
~t>f the floor , as here, gives three sides, or three 
fourths of its heat. On the top of this stove may 
Jae 9 bed of good rich earth, and small seeds sown 
in it ; or if seeds be sown in small pots, they might 
be early sprouted, and when frost is gone the pots 
and plants in them be disposed of in the garden ; 
as Lima beans, peppers, &c. Some seeds need 
.only be sproated in the vinery, and then sown at 

The gable-end of a vinery, or rather a section 
•fit, is given in pi. XIV. in which is seen a view 

( 153 ) 

of the width of the beds, paths, flue, 8cc. It is 
drawn on a scale of seven feet to an inch. Further, 

1. Beds raised a foot or so : width shewn, three 
and a half feet. 

2. Width of the paths, eighteen inches. 

3. The flue, nearly long as the vinery ; only leav- 
ing room to pass by the fire-place, from path to path. 

4. Lower division of the glass frames. 

5. Upper division of the same* 

6. Covered with boards or shingles. 

7. North wall of the garden and vinery. 

8. Grape vines, planted outside ; and enter the 
vinery about two feet up the front or south wall* 
This wall may be chiefly glazed. 

The contents of this XI Vth plate are respectful- 
ly submitted to the consideration of the farmers of 
America. They will determine which of the two 

f 154 ) 

ihdnsiofts, 'or Vht principles onwftich ifhfey alt cfc- 
Signed, is td be preferred by real farmers ; and wtfl 
consider of American gardens and fruits. Some 
general remains are dispersed 6n these subjects ; 
and the American farmer entreated to consult Mr. 
Forsyth's treatise, very frequently : it containing 
the most valuable information th& eve* was made 
public on trees and fruits ! 

The bdltdr^feorecanfihehds to landholders Who 
may be desirous of propagating plantations of tim- 
ber trees, that ftley consult the third volume of An- 
derson's essays on agriculture. He especially is 
important in what J he writes of the larch~tree y of 
Europe ; a tree so superior, in its uses, to all other 
trees, that the mniversdl preference given to it by 
ancient nations has occasioned the extirpation of it 
in all accessible places of countries where it former- 
ly was to be had ; and where at this time little is to 
3>e found but what grows ininaccessible,. mountain- 
ous places ; saving in Russia, anew country, where 
they still obtain of it for building ships 6f war at 
Archangel. American larch differs from this pinus 
'lafix tin. 

. ( 15* > 

Of late, millions of larch plant* are annually rais- 
ed, for sale, in Scotland; and many trees are in gen- 
tlemens' grounds, grown to a full size, having been 
raised before this moment of the value of the wood 
being largely known. Of saving seeds, sowing 
them, and cultivating the trees, Mr. Anderson is 
full, pleasing, instructive, and satisfactory ! 



DR. BARTON'S fragments of the natural histo- 
ry of Pennsylvania, points, with much justice and 
ingenuity, to the conduct of various birds, although 
of ill fame, from the early prejudices of youth, 
against appearances, rather than any actual facts. 

Insects arid vermin are food to the immense bird 
tribe : to which these insects are in due proportion 
to the essential wants of birds, as again numerous 
minuter beings are, with other aids of nature, to 
those, Sec. All nature depends on its own laws for 
the support of its various subjects. 

( 156 ) 

The attention of European writers to the common 
well-known fact, observed especially in the rural 
retreats of contemplative men, of animals preying 
on animals for their food, is very commendable. 
And often it has been observed, that whilst the 
woodpecker, for an instance, is busily engaged on 
the growing corn in digging with his beak and 
probing with his barbed tongue for the worm or in- 
sect which is equally active in destroying that com 
for his own food, the hasty, inconsiderate spectator 
, is outraged with the apprehension that the bird is a 
destroyer of the corn, when he actually is in the 
state of defending the corn for himself and the hus- 
handman against the depredations of the insects. 

The blackbird and the crow are the two most 
desperate destroyers of the maiz corn ; on planting 
the grains in the crossings, they follow and take up 
the corn when it is even growing through the 
ground : but when the maiz is ripe, then it is that 
the crows seem to form their batallions, and pounce 
upon a whole field at a time, eating and destroying 
t9gether entire fields ; as in one year they served a 
field of the editor : and so in armies they fly over the 
the country, till they choose a field to attack, and 
seemingly with a mighty command, one and all at 

( 157 ) 

t once scream aloud, and dash upon the selected 
corn-field, missing but few ears that are left un- 
gathered by the farmers. 

Pidgeons, as well wild as domestic, are charged 
with being great destroyers of gram. They do in- 
deed eat much of the husbandman's seed corn, yet 
not so as to materially injure crops. They feed 
mostly on wild seeds of sour grasses, weeds, &c. 
But the farmer himself is extremely indiscreet in 
common, by suffering old, breeds of tame pidgeons 
extending their colonies too largely and overrun all 
laws of economy. 

Poultry also eat much of the farm corn ; but the 
farmer eats both the poultry and the pidgeons, the 
rabbits, &c— all to his satisfaction and support. 
Yet even the house-fly is not grudged his share of 
the most exquisite pine-apple cheese — nor the pu- 
rest, most excellent Madeira wine. 

44 Busy, curious, thirsty fly, 

u Drink with me, and drink as I ; 

" Freely welcome to my cup, 

" Could' st thou sip — and sip it up I " 

. The grudgings, indeed, of certain selfish people, 
would withhold food from animals that in themselves 

( 158 ) 

gratify the luxury of the condemner. Others, more 
reasonable and thoughtful, know, and are willing to 
admit that all animal life preys for its subsist- 
ance, and lawfully preys, on other beings and sub- 
jects, according to the Taws of nature : the applica- 
tion whereof, as such, answers other wise purposes. x 
The fish, the bird, the quadruped, all share in the 
life of , their own kind — Yet not so of man; to 
whom, and some other animals, they are unnatural 
as food to their own species, and so are withheld 
and forbidden. 

The s^veet, cheerful mocking- birds are said to be 
enemies to us in eating our cherries and small fruit. 
Very little of these I am sure they consume. In 
paying some attention to them, it has been remark- 
ed that they are very particularly fond of spiders : if 
this be their principal food, together with other in- 
sects and worms, the epicure may not grudge him 
his food ; and even of the red-breast, so much more 
numerous, he robs the fruiter in proportion to their 
extensive numbers. They are indeed somewhat 
vexatious in the partiality they shew for the garden 
grape-vine, where they much abound, perhaps as 
much for the spiders, bugs and worms, if not 
more than for the grapes. But poor things they 

( 159 ) 

nrast live, and we must not grudge a share of our 
labour for their support ; and from whence we ac- 
quire pleasing gaiety in the morning in the trees di- 
rectly at our windows ; and then let us give them 
praise for their destruction of enemies, among worms 
ajid fcugs, to our garden and field crops. Of all 
birds about a house, the most vexatious are the wa- 
ter martin ; which had better be called the bee bird, 
as it is for ever snapping up these industrious ani- 
mals, foil loaden as they are returning to their 
hives. There is no such other enemy to bees. 

But Dr. Barton has given so excellent an ac- 
count of the habits, and actions of birds in his frag- 
ments of the natural history of Pennsylvania, that a 
preference is due to it, for our present purposes ; 
and it is referred to as the most satisfactory respect- 
ing our present enquiries, as we have it in a Eu- 
ropean late publication as follows : 

" It may in the first place be observed" says Dr. 
Barton, " that insects appear to be the first food of 
almost aH the birds of our country. The more I 
have enquired, the more I have been convinced, that 
almost all birds live, in some measure, upon in- 
sects. Even those species which consume consk 

( 160 ) 

derable quantities of seeds, berries and fruit, also 
consume large quantities of insects. 

" The greater number of our smaller birds of the 
order of passeres, seem to demand our attention 
and protection. Some of them feed pretty entirely 
upon insects, and others upon mixed food — that is, 
insects and seeds. Many contribute to our plea- 
sure by the melody of their notes. I believe the in- 
jury they do us is but small, compared to the good 
they render us. 

" The muscicapa acadica of Gmelin, is called in 
Pennsylvania the lesser or wood-pewe. This little 
bird builds in woods and in forests. After the 
young have left the nests, the parents conduct them 
to the gardens and habitations of men. Here the 
brood dwells in trees near the houses, where they 
are fedt>y the old birds with the common house-fly 
and other insects. The'young ones are soon capa- 
ble of obtaining their food in the same way. This 
species of muscicapa visits us in the spring, and 
commonly continues with us till late in September* 
when it retires southerly to winter. 

( 161 ) 

" The blue bird feeds principally, if not entirely, 
upon insects, both such as are flying and such as 
are reptile. 

i( Most of our species of wood-pecker, appear 
very useful in destroying insects, particularly 
those which injure forest and orchard trees" — 
and such as infest and injure the corns whilst grow- 
ing, especially the maiz or Indian corn. "'It is 
true/these birds are sometimes injurious to us, by 
eating some fine fruits ; and therefore pains are 
taken to drive them from cherry-trees and Indian 
corn. — But, withal, they devour great numbers of 
injurious insects. 

"Asa devourer of pernicious insects, one of the 
most useful birds is the house-wren. This lit- 
tle bird seems peculiarly fond of the society of 
man. From observing" the usefulness of this bird 
in destroying insects, it has long been a custom 
in many parts of the country to fix a small box 
at the end of a pole, about houses, for it to build 
in. When the young are hatched, the parent 
birds feed them with insects. It is a curious 
fact, that a friend counted the number of times a 
pair of wrens came from their box and returned with 


• ( 162 ) 

insects. He found it was performed from 40 to 60 
times in an hour ; and in a particular hour they car- 
ried food 71 times. They were engaged in this 
business the greater part of the day. Taking the me- 
dium at 50 times in an hour (in the whole 12 hours) 
a single pair of these birds took from the cabbage, 
sallad, beans, peas, and other vegetables in the gar- 
den, six hundred insects per day/' This is sup- 
posing the old birds carried but one insect at a time, 
but the editor has seen them take and carry to the 
nest two at a time, and even, he believes, three. — 
For preserving tobacco plants from worms and in- 
sects, at times, and on particular occasions, a whole 
plantation of negroes, men, women and children, 
and then again large flocks of turkies go through 
10, 20, to 40 acres of plants, plant by plant, and 
take from them daily destructive worms and in- 
sects, and render that service at a great expence, 
which the wrens, wood-peckers, and other wild 
birds perform at no expence, unless the unreasona- 
ble husbandman would charge them heavily for 
sometimes partaking of the fruits of their labour. 
" Thus the esculent plants of a whole garden may 
perhaps be preserved from the depredations of dif- 
ferent species of insects by 10 or 15 pair of these 
small birds; and moreover, they are a very agreeable 
companion to man, for their notes are pleasing. 

( 163 ) 

" Perhaps our storks, cranes and herons are as 
serviceable, if not more so to us, as the ibis 
were in devouring the reptiles of Egypt. In Hoi- 
land at this time the storks go wild, protected by the 
government, from a sense of their usefulness in the 
above respect. 

" In Britain, the heron and other birds of the tribe 
protect the country against an excessive increase of 
frogs, toads, and other reptiles. North- America 
abounds with birds of this order. 

" The vulture is useful in sweetening the air, by 
devouring all carrion ; and in Virginia the turkey^ 
buzzard, vuhur aura> is one of the most useful birds 
of this kind; and is there protected by a law," 




( 167 ) 


Fig. 1. 
Represents an old apricot-tree, after the last 
pruning in summer, in the fourth year after heading 
down. The lower part of the trunk is represented as 
covered with a rough bark, which must be pared off . 
when it happens to be cankery. 

a, a, a, a. The cicatrices of the four different 
years* heading, which should be performed at the time 
of the winter or spring pruning. 

bj 6, b. Forked shoots w^iich are laid in, in sum- 
mer, and cut off at b in the winter pruning, that the 
leading shoots may be always left without forks* 

As the small shoots r, c, c, from the stem, advance, 
the larger forked shoots should be cut out, as at d, d, d> 
to make room for them to be trained horizontally. 

Fig. 2. 
Is an old branch of an apricot trained up accord- 
ing to the old method, leaving above three-fourths of 
the wall naked. Such branches should be cut down as 
near to the place where the tree was first budded as 
possible, as at e, on purpose to fill the wall with fine 
new wood. 

( 168 ) 


Fig. 1. 
Aw old hollow Green Gage Plum-Tree the second 
year after heading down. This tree was very much 
decayed, having only a few inches of sound bark ; many 
of the roots, being also rotten and decayed, were cut , 
off, and an incision made at a, which produced a fresh 

b. The first heading, close to a bud. 

c, c. The new wood and bark growing over the 
hollow part d, which is covered with the composition. 

e, e, £s?c. Where the second year's heading was 

f, f. Where the fore-right shoots are cut off dur- 
ing the winter or spring pruning. 

gi <?> gt & c ' The fruit buds for next year, as they 
appear after the fore-right shoots are cutoff, as atyj/.* 

* Owing to an error of the engraver, the /, / are omitted. They 
should be at the forks in the two lower branches. The g which is fur- 
thest to the left hand should not be there at all. Where the fork is, the 
shoot is cut off, which brings out the little new shoot. The long shoot is 
left in the plate to show what it was before it was cut off. 


( 169 ) 

buds. This should be done at A, A, but not till the 
fruit is set ; they afterwards form into dugs as /, i. 

Fig. 3. 
An old branch pruned in the common way, cover- 
ed over with canker, and producing only small weak 
shoots, leaving the wall mostly naked. 


Fig. 1. 
An old hollow peach-tree, after the last nailing in 
summer, which had been headed down at a, four years 
ago. The hollow is covered over with the composition, 
and now nearly filled up. The heading must always 
be done as near to a bud as possible. 

A, bj &?c. Where the forked branches are to be 
cut, when the small shoots c, c, &fc. are far enough ad- 
vanced, that the$.e may be trained horizontally. 

When a shoot has single fruit-buds to the top, as 
at d r it must not be shortened, but laid in at full length; 
or, if not wanted, it must be cut clean out. See the 
4to. edition, p. S3. 

Fig. 2. 
A branch on a larger scale. 


( 170 ) 

*, r. Are double flower-buds, with wood-buds 
between them : The shoots should always be cut at 
such ; but never at a single flower-bud, as at^ ; other- 
wise the shoot would die to the next wood-bud ; and, if 
the pruning were done in a careless manner, would en- 
danger the whole shoot* Those above f, are all wood- 
buds. See 4to. edition, p. 32, 33, 34* 

Fig. 3. 
A branch of an old peach-tree pruned in the com- 
mon way, which should be cut at g, and the young wood 
will soon cover the wall. 


Fig. 1. 
An old cherry-tree headed down at c. Before this 
its branches were covered with the gum and canker, as 
Fig. 2. 

The fore-right shoots should be tucked in, as di- 
rected for pears ; and at the fall of the leaf, or in the 
month of February, they should be cut at a : These 
form the fruit-buds b. £, fc?c. all over the tree. 

c, c, &fc. The cicatrices where the leading shoot 
was headed indifferent seasons. 

{ 171 ) 

dj d. The composition applied where large limbs 
were cut off. 

Fig. 3. 
A branch of this tree before it was headed down. 

e, e y &?c. Branches injudiciously pruned in sum- 
mer ; which brings on the death of the shoot, and af- 
terwards the gum and canker on the tree. 

f> ft &fa. The gum and canker in the last stage, 
which corrodes the whole tree if not carefully extir- 


An old cherry-tree, restored from two or three 
inches of live bark, taken from the wall, and planted 
out as a dwarf standard : Now very fruitful. 

a, a. The cicatrices where it was headed down 
the first and second time. 

b. The hollow covered with the composition, and 
now nearly filled up with sound wood. 

( 1*2 ) 


Tig. 1. 
An old cankery apple-tree headed down four years 
ago, now bearing great plenty of fine fruit. 

a. Where it was first headed down. 

b and c. Two wounds covered with the composi 
tion, and now nearly filled up with scfund wood. 

The part of the trunk below a shews the cankery 
state of the bark ; which rough cankery bark must al- 
ways be pared off, otherwise it will infect the new. 

Fig. 2. 
A branch shewing the method pf keeping a regu- 
lar succession of bearing wood. 

d. A branch, which has done bearing, to be cut 
at *, and which is succeeded by the branchy*; when 
that also is tired of bearing, it is to be cut at g, and will 
be succeeded by the branch h ; and when that also is 
worn out, it is to be cut off at L By proceeding in this 
manner, you will always be able to keep a regular suc- 
cession of fine bearing wood. 

( 173 ) 


This plate represents an old decayed pear-tree, 
with four stems, which was headed down, all but the 
branch C, and the young wood trained in the common 
way, or fan-fashion. 

A 9 Aj A. Young wood producing the fine large 
fruit B. 

C. An old branch pruned in the common way, 
haying large spurs standing out a foot or eighteen 
inches, and producing the diminutive, kernelly, and ill- 
flavoured fruit Z), not fit to be eaten. 

The two pears B and £), represented in the plate of 
their natural size, grew on the tree at the same time. 

a, cr, a, fcfc. Wounds in the stems of the tree, 
with the composition applied, as they appeared when 
the edges of the bark began to grow over them* 


Fig. i. 

An old decayed Beurre pear-tree headed down at 
y, and restored from one inch and a half of live bark. 

( 174 ) 

a, A?, a, £s?c. The fruit-buds for the present yean. 

b, b, £, &?c. Those forming for next year. 

c*, *r, &fc. The footstalks of the fruit of last year, 
on which are forming buds for bearing in the second 

d, d y &?c. The fore-right shoots as they appear 
before they are cut off at e, in the autumn or spring 

d< The manner of tucking in the fore-right 

fyf> ^ c * Cicatrices of the different headings, 
which cause the leading shoot to produce horizontal 

g, g. Large wounds, having the composition ap* 
plied, healing up. 

Fig. 3. 

An old branch of the same tree before it was head- 
ed down, trained and pruned in the old. way, with 
spurs standing out a foot, or a foot and a half, from the 
wall ; and the rough bark, infested with a destructive 
insect, which is described and a method of cure given. 
See Plate IX. Fig. 3. 

( 175 ) 


Fig. l. 
An old Bcrgamot Pear headed down at the cica- 
trix o, taken from the wall and planted out as a dwarf 

b. A wound, covered with the composition, where 
a large upright shoot was cut off, to give the leading 
shoot freedom to grow straight. 

Fig. 2. 

The different appearances of the insect so destruc- 
tive to pear-trees. 

This insect is inclosed in a case, and, when fixed 
on the leaf on which it feeds, appears as represented at 
a, a y a, which is about its natural size. 

b. The case magnified. 

c. The case, with the Insect in motion, magnified 

d. The Insect magnified. v 

e. The Moth. 

J\ The Chrysalis. 

( 176 ) 

g. The Chrysalis magnified. 

Fig. 3. 
The coccus which infests peach, nectarine, and 

<z, a, a. The insect, the natural size, on a branch 
of a pear-tree. 

by *, b. The same magnified. 


a, a, a, &?c. The young bearing wood of a vine 
trained in a serpentine manner, with the buds for the 
present year appearing. These shoots are generally 
cut out in the winter pruning, as low as c, c, c, &?c. to 
produce wood for next year. 

The shoots i, A, £s?c. produce fruit in the usual 
manner, also young wood for the following year, which 
must not be topped, but only have the side shoots pick- 
ed off. Two or three of the strongest young shoots 
from each of those £, b y £s?c. will be sufficient, and they 
must be laid in at full length. 

( 177 ) 


Fig. 1. 
Grafting in the rind, shoulder-grafting, or 

a. The stock grafted. 

b. The manner of raising the bark to receive the 
cion or graft. 

c. The graft prepared for inserting. 

Fig. 2. 
Cleft-grafting, stock-grafting, or slit-grafting. 

d. The stock grafted. 

e. The stock prepared for receiving the graft. 

f. The cion ready for inserting. 

d> </, d. Different views of incisions made for the 
purpose of obtaining young wood. 

e. A young shoot coming out at the lower part of 
the incision. 

( 178 ) 

Fig. 3. 
Whip-grafting, or tongue-grafting. 

g. The stock grafted. 

h. The stock prepared. 

i. The graft prepared for inserting. 

Fig. 4. 
Inoculating or budding. 

k. The manner of making the incision in the bark. 

/. The bud inserted, and the bark laid over it. 

m. A shoot shewing the manner of cutting off the 

n. A vessel w.ith a little loam, covered with wet 
moss, so stick the lower end of the shoot in, to keep it 
moist till used. 

o. A bud taken off and ready for inserting. 

Fig. 5 and 6. 
Inarching, or grafting by approach. 

p. Grafting on a stock in a pot. 

( 179 ) 

q. Grafting on a stock growing near the tree 
from which it is to be grafted on. 

r, s. The shoot and stock prepared. 

t, t. Two branches inarched where the natural 
ones had failed, now properly united with the*body of 
the tree ; the lower parts being cut off. 

w, u. Two branches lately inarched for the same 
purpose, and when properly united with the stem 5 , are 
to be cut off at w, w, u y u. 

w, x. The manner of preparing the and 

v* A natural shoot coming out where the branch 
was inarched the preceding year. 


This plate represents an old stinted oak, which 
was headed down about six years ago. At that time 
it was full of wounds and blemishes, now nearly healed. 

a. The place where the tree was headed, after- 
wards covered with the composition. 

( 180 ) 

£, £, b. Three young shoots produced fine head- 
ing ; there were several others, which were cut down 
as they advanced in growth ; the two remaining side 
ones are also to be cut down and only the middle one 
left, which will in time cover the wound a, and form a 
proper tree. 

c, c, c. Remains of the old wounds, covered with 
the composition, and now almost healed up* 


Fig. 1 &? 2. 
Two different views of a tool for cutting out the 
dead and decayed parts of hollow trees. It has two 
wooden handles which may be of any convenient 

Fig. 3 &? 4. 
Two views of another tool, with one handle, for 
cutting out dead wood. This is made narrower than 
the former, and is to be used in places where Fig. 1 can- 
not be admitted. 

5. A triangular chisel, for cutting grooves or chan- 
nels to carry off the water from the hollows of the 

( 181 ) 

6. A tool representing an adze on one side and * 
hatchet on the other. 

7. A large chisel. 

8. A large gouge. 

9. A small saw, with double teeth, thin on the 
back, for cutting off small branches, &c. 

10. A knife with a concave edge. 

11. A tool in form of a sickle, without teeth. This 
is to scrape stems and branches of trees on the side 
next the wall. 

12. A pruning-knife with a convex edge. 

13. A tool in shape of a curry-comb for scraping 
moss, &c. off the stems and branches of trees : One of 
the scrapers has teeth ; the other is plain. The back 
of this tool, and th$ edges of the scrapers, are a little 

14. A larger double-toothed saw for cutting of* 
large branches. 

15. A small pruning-knife with a convex edge. 

( 182 ) 

16, A large chisel with a strong plate of iron screw- 
ed on upon the face of it, like a double iron for a plane, 
to prevent its running in too far where the tree is cross- 

JV. B. These tools have handles of different lengths, 
to be usted as occasion requires. 


Fig. 1. 
Farmers' houses of residence are of various sizes 
and forms, suitable to the degree and circumstances of 
the occupier. — Fig 1 is the most humble of farmers' 
habitations, on the smallest farms ; and is an excellent 
design for a cottage. The floor is best of brick or ce- 
ment, or earth perfectly solid. The size 16 by 12 feet. 

a, a. Dotted lines, fhewing the width of area up- 
stairs, 8 by 16: to form two rooms of 8 feet square. 

Fig. 2. 
This is a comfortable house for a farmer's family 
in common ; and very convenient, without ostentation. 
— It admits of an entry by one or two steps — Its busi- 
ness is all done on the one ground floor : the rooms 
over head being solely as bed-chambers and store- 
rooms of family goods. — It admits of enlargement on 

( 183 ) 

the ground, as may be for future occasions — Its chim- 
nies are easily swept — Its single story gives little to 
the power of storms — A fire is easily conquered, being 
more within reach than when it breaks out on two-story 
houses. Into this most common farmer's habitation, 
you enter a lobby 12 by 12 feet; tne stairs to bed- 
chambers and store-rooms, ovfcr it. On each hand of 
the lobby is a room also 12 by 12 feet, with a small 
corner chimney. The two back rooms, which are 18 
by 18 feet, are family rooms of employment : they look 
back into the farm-yard. A door may be on the east 
and west sides'. Best that there be little or no cellar 
under this habitation. Jf any cellar, let it be under 
one of the 12 feet rooms ; but still better to be under a 
small out-house for a poor traveller's bed-room. 
N. B. Th<i two dotted lines shew where the sides of 
the chambers upstairs will extend to. When divided 
oiF, there will, for chambers and stores or closets, be 
six rooms of 12 feet square. — The whole of the ground 
floor may be laid solid with brifk or cement ; and this 
coloured or not at pleasure : but the solid floor is the 
healthful floor ! ever and ever. Even the upper floor 
would be well laid with stout sawed laths, and then 
laid thick with a cement ; which would protect against 
fire, d, d. Doors. 

Fig. 3. 
This is taken from a house lately built in the state 
of Main by an English family ; having only a ground 

( 184 ) 

story, the floors of brick and earth. They are built o* 
the principles of farm houses in *he experienced old 
countries ; having never more than one story, with 
brick or cement floors, solid, that no stagnant, un- 
wholesome air be admitted under them ; except a very 
small portion of cellar under the stairs, for containing 
family small beer, lard, &c. Bed-rooms, and closet* 
or store-rooms may be over head, in the garret or se- 
cond floor, as in No, 2. 

Fig* 4. 
This and Fig. 3 were built nearly together by re- 
lations by marriage, and there need not be sought a 
more convenient and comfortable house than either of 
them, suitable to farmers of property. Upstairs, as 
No. 3. 

Fig. 3. Enter a passage 10 by 25 feet to a. a store- 
room : b. a closet: c. childrens' bed-room :• d. bed- 
room of master and mistress : e. closet : f. parlour, 
15 by 22 feet: g. friends' bed-room, 15 by 19: h. h. h. 
closets : i. kitchen, with cellar and chamber stairs : k. 
door into shed, 27 by 13, with fire-place and copper: a 
pump and sink ; door both ways : — Fig. 4. 1. entry 
with closets for books, &c. on each side, S 1-2 by 25 : 
m. north parlour, a beau-room, 22 by 18 1-2 : n. boys' 
bed-chamber and closet, 7 by 8 feet : o. girls' bed* 
chamber, 7 by 7 feet : p. master and mistress's room : 
q. q. closets: r. parlour, 16 by 20: s. friends' bed- 

( 185 ) 

room 16 by 20: t. kitchen, with sink, and store-room 
it. w< > Whole front, 50 feet. 

- The areas are worth noticing : 

jFig. 1, 192 feet. The least farmer's house : same 
as a godd cotuge. 

Pig. 2, 1080 feet. The farmer's habitation ; the 
most common. 

Fig. 3, 1520 feet. A wealthy farmer's house. 

Fig. 4, 2000 feet. Ditto. 

It is a rural absurdity to entertain the idea of more 
than one story to a farmerVhabitation— - or to any habi- 
tation in the country, less than a proud palace. 


Fig. &> 
" Plav of a two-story house :— 50 feet long, 20 feet 
wide ; passage, 10 by 20; two rooms, 20 feet square ; 
chimney in each room, at pleasure. 

▲ a 


( 196 > 

Elevation of the same two-ttory kqbfatiwi o£ 2$ 
show and little use ; but, withal, very inconvenient, and 
very costly. 

#£• *• 
Elevation of the farmer's one-story AabiWian r . pf 
which the plan is in pi. XIV, fig. 2. a size and form 
suitably to farms the most common r and which are 
cheap, strong, convenient, wholesome, and the best 
adapted for the purposes of a farmer's family, and the 
views and employment* of country housewifery. . 

Epitome, p. 142, -t Speaks of the uses of the Vi- 
J44 t i nery, 

151, 8cc. of the size* &c. of the Vi- 

152, referatoPLXIV. , , 

If any more is wanted of Vineries, refer at large 
to Speachley's book treating, of them in England^ 8vo. 

: ;l\ . ■ ; :,b -i 

' it • • -. .: ... 

- / *■•... I 

i uru'i x. 

ripen when there is little *>tffci>frtfai /Ittji ' 
- ^wheii and -host head downy 4* §. 
when very youngs make tatfttf, 129. 
bear ben where the ground is hard, 129. 

ALMONDS, sorts, training, 6Y. 
cured in sand, 68. 

oNfaYfs easily covered against spring frosts, 67. 
in clay, cold soil, 146. 

AMERICA, the climate favourable to iYults, 128. 
its garden and orchard fruits, 128, 1*3. 
its country habitations, 134, 138, 148* 
the gardens, 139, 148. 

country habitations, old and modern compared, 14** 
birds inoffensive or injurious to crops, 4S5« . 

APPLES, to harvest and atorc, 9Q, 92. 

scarce in America from neglect, 131. 

AUTUMN, an objection to prune then, 5. 

BARBERRIES, sorts, how propagate and prune, 58, 59. 
attract singing birds, their use, 58, 59. 
BOOKS, on husbandry, advantageous to husbamlpjcn, ; 1$$. - 

BUDDING, general account of it, 74. 

time and signs of the buds takirig, 81. 

of cutting off the stocks, 81. . 
particular modes of budding, 107. 
the various tools, 107. 
times for budding, 108. 

BIRDS, &c. advantageous or disadvantageous to husbandry, 155. 

CATERPILLAR, assort peculiar to gooseberries, 52, 53. 
CANKER described, and cure, 9*3, 94. 


CHESNUTS, sort* tnd propagation, 68 to 7w* 

plant out in autumn, head down in time) TO. 

CHERRIES, tee the advertisement, ante, and America^ 138* 
ingredient in cherry brandy, 138. 

COMPOSITION, always apply t«*farts cut, 5. 
liquid, 94— powder, 100, L06, 
experience of it, and approved abroad, 114. 
has effected vast improvements, 126. 


CURRANTS, the sorts, 53. 

. to continue in June to November, 54. 
jelly of black currants, 54. 
black currants as used in Ireland, 54. 
to propagate, 55, 56* 
prune and head down, 56, 5f • 
dwarf currant-trees preferred, 58. 
keep clear of suckers, 58. 

CELLARS in the country best under an out-house, 149. 

CIDER scarce in America from neglect, 131. 

CUCUMBERS assisted in a vinery, 144. 


DWARF FRUIT-TREES preferable to Espalier, 11. 

in a vinery, 142. 

ESPALIER, inferoir to dwarf trees, 11. 

EXPERIMENTS, comparative, in pruning pears, 34, 35, 36. 
in heading down,, composition, , powder, 
ficc. 109, 113, 136. 

ENGRAVINGS, the plates explained, 167. 

FIGS, sorts, pruning and culture, 40. 

the fruit and wood matured in a vinery, 143. 

covering the trees against frost, 43, 45. 

milk oozing, how stopt, 44. 

to train horizontally, 45. 

their spurs, leave to grow, 45* 

to shelter against winter, 45. 

to forward their ripening early, 44. 
FROST, late in^England, 31. 


FORSYTH, his merit, and treatise recommended, 135. 

his composition, heading, and training, superior I 
and have effected astonishing improve ' 
merits, 126. 

FRUIT, when to begin thinning it, 11. 
of America, 125* 
dried in kilns,. 129. 
rule for having enough, 141, 142. 

FRUIT-TREES, defects repaired, 99. 

FARM-YARD, in full view from the house, 140. 


signs of the buds having taken, 8 1. 

time and manner, of the stock in budding, 81* 

GARDEN, the site to prefer, 82. Soil and form, 83. 

ploughings and digging before planting, 84. 
water convenient— irrigating, See. 84. 
walks and drains, 85, 86. 
borders, walks, paths, 86. 
pits for hot-beds, 86, 87. 
. plan of the garden, to be kept, 87. 

walls, foundation, height for kitchen garden, 87. 

size, brick best in walls, 88. 

in America, 140— divide and plough, 141. 

GOOSEBERRIES, sorts, and how raised, 47, 48,49, 51. 

soil rich, and dunged often, 49, 

shade, 49, 51. Thinning, 51. 

cut down and train, 49, 50, 52. 

fruit on second year's wood, 49. 

modern improvements, in watering, rich 
soil, and thinning, 5 1 • 

early and late fruit, attend to, 51, 52. 

garden shears injurious, 52. 

a gooseberry early catterpillar, 52, 53 J 
GUM, described and cured, 94, 95. 

GRAPES, trained serpentine, 1 42. 

GREEN GAGE, the best stock for it, 146*. 

HEADED DOWN trees, how superior in fruit, 24, ?7. 
chesnuts to be well rooted, 70. 
particulars of preference, 115, 120* 



HIDE-BOUND QUINCES, to «ufe, 4t. 

HABITATIONS, in the country of America, 134, 148. 

of more than one story avoid, as being in- 
convenient and dear, 136 to 134, 139. 

of only one ioor and no upstairs, of great 
fame, 138* 

HOT-HOUSES avoid in the country by husbandmen, 144, 145. 

INSECTS, 96, 98, 53. 

LIME and LIME-WATER against insects, 5*5. 
LODGINGS for'strangers, best out-house, 149. 

MILDEW and BLIGHTS, the nature and remedy, 96. 

MULBERRY, sorts, and how propagated, 64, 65. 
thinning and training, 65. 
restored and improved by the composition, 66. 
decayed, head down, the fruit improved, 66* 

MELONS, Peppers, Sec* made and secured in a vinery, 144. 

NECTARINES, 17, 131. 

NUTS, but little cultivated in America, 133. 

ORCHARDS, only for standard fruit-trees, 88. 

the size, give dung every two or three years, 89. 
pare and wash off canker, then lay on composi- 
tion and powder, 89, 90, 106. 
neglected in America, 131. 

ORANGE-TREES, head down, 116. 

OAKS, an important particular of the root, 120. 

PEACHES, a selection, 12. 

preparing and planting the stones, 14. 

heading down the tree, 15. 

the heath peach, most excellent, 130. 

fed to hogs, ate with milk, make brandy, 129. 

in succession from July to November, 129. 

dried in kilns, fed, exported, 129. 

INJ>EX, ' ■ ■ , 

PEACHES, clingstones called pavies, IM. . 

peachery, a house to save thejn, 130, 142, 143* 
cultivation neglected, 130, 
plant yearly, as if peas; autumn. Then always 
abound against storms, worms, &c. 148. 

PEAJ5, sown broad-cast, 141. 
straw, rich food, 141* 

PEARS, a selection, 17. 

caution in storing them, 21*. 

choice from the nursery, 22. 

heading and pruning, 23. 

experiments proving the great superiority in pears- 

from pruning, See. 23, 24. 
storing and keeping, 90, 92. 
few, and no perry in America, 13*. 
dwarfed on quince stocks, 132. 

POWDER, Mr. Forsyth's discovery, 38, 94. 

PLUMS, selection, 7. 

cautions in planting, 8, 9. 

heading down, 9. 

training, 9. 

trench, when planted out, 11. 

dwarfed, 11* 

cover as apricots against frost, 11. 

PRUNING, always followed with the compositions, fcc* 
autumnal not to be preferred, 62. ' 

PLANTING, cautions of Plants, 89. 

QUINCES, the best, to plant cuttings, the distance, 46. 
mulch the plants and often water, 46* 
plant forward ones in autumn, 46. ' ' 
some raised from grafts, 46. . 
prune, and old ones head down, 46. 
apply the composition, 47. 
hide-bound, to cure, 47. 
1 plant them distant from apples and pears, 47* 
in the American orchard or garden, 132.. 

RASPBERRIES, sorts, and how' propagated, 60. 
in America, 128, 147. 
the roots delicate m planting, 61. 


RASPBERRIES, plant in moist weather, 61. 

water frequently, having trenched, 61. 

small plants tie together, others stake, 62. 

autumnal pruning inferior, how to prune, 62* 

remove plants every five years, 63. 

number of shoots to retain on removals, 63. 
RUST, meaning honey-dew, mill -dew, blight, 95, 96. 

ROOT, the tap-root, very important particulars of them, 120* 

STANDARD FRUIT-TREES, the moat suitable to Ame- 
rica, 10. 
STRAWBERRIES, in America, how treated, 128, 147. 

SEEDS, rules for assuring enough, HI, 142* 

TREES, transplant in their former position, 10. 
defects and injuries repaired, 99. 
importance of tap-roots, and that they grow again, 120. 
f nut- trees, defects repaired, 99. 

TRENCH GROUND before trees are planted, 60. 

TIMBER TREES treated of by Anderson, 154. 

VINES, selected, 32. 

how to choose cuttings, S3, 
train and prune, 33 — serpentine form, 34. 
the composition used on every cut, 38.* 
if it bleeds, apply the powder, 38. 
when and how watered 39. 
enemies in insects and birds, 39. 
leaves not to be stripped off, 39. 
currants in America, 128. 
very natural to America, 133. 

VINERY, how built and used, 142, 15 1. 

WALNUT-TREES, sorts, training, use of composition, Sec. 7}. 
pay a great rent, 73. 
gathering, curing, keeping the fruit, 73.^ 
fruit shrivelling, steep in milk for use, 73* 
formerly abounded in America, 133* 

WHITEWASHING best in the country, 134. 









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