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1874, 1875, AND 1876. 



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"IT THEN the author entered Arizona, in 1874, he 
^ ^ had little thought of being able to gather 
material for a work on the country. Sick, weak, and 
debilitated, caused by long years of suffering from 
bronchial and pulmonary diseases, his greatest hope 
was to write up descriptive articles of the country for 
the Press in different sections of the Union. In a 
few months, the mild, healthful, and pure climate 
had worked a radical change, giving promise of re- 
stored health, and with this change,. coupled with the 
request and solicitation of hundreds of Arizona's best 
citizens, came the desire to write up in book form 
whatever might be gathered by a thorough explora- 
tion of the Territory. In addition to copies of over 
five hundred communications published by different 
newspapers in widely different sections of the United 
States, a full record was kept day by day of every- 
thing seen and learned during his long explorations, 
a brief account of which is given in these pages. 
The sole object of the author has been to write a 


truthful and accurate description of the Territory as 
it now is, and to give to the public reliable informa- 
tion concerning it. With the wish that this work, 
though far from complete, may contribute to the de- 
velopment and future prosperity of Arizona, and 
with unbounded confidence in the future of that great 
country, it is given to the public, with the hope that 
it may be read with care and criticised with forbear- 

The Authob. 


TTWURING the years 1874, 1875, and 1876, Col. 
-"-^ H. C. Hodge has made a thorough tour and ex- 
ploration of Arizona. His articles on the country, 
descriptive of its mineral, agricultural, grazing, and 
other resources, and of its climate, scenery, and pre- 
historic ruins, published in different sections of the 
Union, have been truthful, and more full and com- 
plete than any heretofore given the public, and be- 
lieving him to be an honest, truthful, and reliable 
gentleman, we commend him and his writings and 
lectures to the people of the United States, with the 
assurance that full confidence may be given to his 
reports on Arizona. 

Abizona, October f 1876. 

(Signed.) A. P. K. S afford, Governor A. T. 

H. S. Stevens, Delegate in Congress from A. T. 
August V. Kautz, Commanding Military Depart- 
ment of A. T. 
F. H. Goodwin, United States Marshal of A. T. 
J. S. VosBURG, Adjutant General of A. T. 
Coles Bashford, late Secretary of A. T. 

• • • 


P. R. Brady, member of Council, A. T. 

A. E. Davis, member of Council, A. T. 

J. P. Hargrave, member of Council, A. T. 

John G. Campbell, member of Council, A. T. 

J. M. Redondo, member of Council, A. T. 

John T. Alsop, speaker House of Representatives, 

A. L. MoELLER, member House of R., A. T. 
C. P. Head, member House of R., A. T. 
S. R. De Long, member House of R., A. T. 
Samuel Purdt, Jr., member House of R., A. 1?. 
James P. Bull, member House of R., A. T. 
Gideon Brooks, member House of R., A. T. 
Thomas Cardis, United States Collect(»r internal 

Revenue, A. T. 
P. R. TuLLT, Territorial Treasurer, A. T. 
Levi Ruggles, Register United States Laad 

Office, Florence, A. T. 
M. S. Stiles, Receiver Land Office and United 

States Disbursing Agent, Florence, A. T. 
C. H. Brinlet, United States Deputy OoUectdr 

of Customs, Yuma, A. T. 
T. J. Butler, Editor " Miner,'' Prescott, A. T. 
Wm. J. Berry, Editor " Sentinel,'' Yuma, A. T. 
John W. Leonard, Assistant Editor " Enterprise," 

Prescott, A. T. 
Briggs Goodrich, District Attorney, First Dii< 

trict, A. T. 
H. B. Summers, District Attorney, Pinal County, 

H. H. Carter, Judge of Probate^ Yavapai County, 

A. T. 
H. Nk Alexander, Judge of Probate, Yuma 

County, A. T. 


William A. Hancock, District Attorney, Mari- 
copa County, A. T. 

George D. Kendall, Mayor of Prescott, A. T. 

C. A. Luke, Ex-mayor of Prescott, A. T. 

Edward F. Bowers, Sheriff, Yavapai County, 
A. T. 

William Wilkerson, Clerk of Court and Re* 
corder, Yavapai County, A. T. 

H. C. Mbador, Deputy, Yavapai County, A. T. 

S. W. Carpenter, Recorder, Pima County, A. T. 

John J. Divine, Recorder, Pinal County, A. T. 

O. F. TowNSEND, Recorder, Yuma County, A. T, 

Jay G. Kelly, Assayer, Prescott, A. T. 

Blake & Company, Prescott, A. T. 

And many others. 




AND Extent. — Definition of Name, etc. . . .13 


Eablt Settlement bt Spaniabds and Jesuit Pbiests. — 
Old Missions, etc. 17 


Descbiption of the Old Mission Church of San Xatieb 
DEL Bag 21 

Climate, Baint Seasons, Health, etc 27 


Mountains of Abizona: Extent, Chabacteb, and Gen- 
eral Description 32 

Rivers of Arizona : Size, Extent, and Location . . 35 


Agricultural and Farming Lands : Extent, Location, 
ETC 42 

Grazing Lands. — Extent. — Stock Raising. — Wool, etc. 54 

Wood, Timber, etc 57 


Mineral Lands : Mines and Mining ..... 61 


Pbincipal Mineral Belts of Arizona. — Remarks and 
Suggestions . 137 

Counties and Towns. — Population, etc 143 


Indian Tribes: Locality, Numbers, and General De- 
scription 156 

Prehistoric Ruins of Arizona 177 

Schools and Education .196 

Railroads, Stage and Post Routes 200 


Colorado Steam Navigation Company. — History op, and 
Statistics 208 

Newspapers . . .211 

Telegraphs 213 

Military, and Military Posts 215 

Wild Animals, Birds, Fish, etc. . . • . . .22] 


Heptiles, Venomous Insects, etc. . • . . S26 

Natural Curiosities. — Grand Scenbrt, bto. . • . 229 

The Flora of Arizona 242 

Routes of Tratel to Arizona 249 

Distances from Point to Point 254 


References for Information and General Remarks on 
Emigration to Arizona 259 


Prices of Produce, Provisions, Labor, etc. — General 
Remarks 268 

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npHAT portion of United States territory known 
as Arizona, was, prior to the treaty between 
Mexico and the United States, February 2, 1848, a 
portion of the Mexican state of Sonora. Owing to a 
misunderstanding between the two governments re- 
specting the boundary line, another treaty was made 
in 1864, by which the United States acquired that 
portion of the territory south of the Gila River, com- 
monly known as the Gadsden Purchase, paying for 
the same the sum of ten millions of dollars. From 
this time until 1863, Arizona was appended to New 

By act of Congress, February 24» 1863, Arizona 
was formed into a separate and distinct Territory of 
the United States, and was duly organized by its 
Governor, the Hon. John N. Goodwin, at Navajoe^ 

1 Nav-a-ho. 


Springs, December 29, 1863. The seat of govern- 
ment was established, by proclamation of the Gov- 
ernor, at or near Fort* Whipple, which was then in 
the beautiful Chino Valley, twenty-two miles north 
of where Prescott now is. This fort was removed 
in 1866 to its present location one mile north of 
Prescott, where the government had been located in 
1864. In 1867 the seat of government was re- 
moved to Tucson, an old Spanish town in the rich 
Santa Cruz Valley, some seventy-five miles north of 
the Sonora line, at which place it still remained in 
December, 1876, but was removed back to Prescott 
in January, 1877. 

The Hon. Richard C. McCormick came to the Ter- 
ritory with Governor Goodwin and suite as secretary 
of the Territory, and succeeded Governor Goodwin 
as governor, and afterwards was delegate in Congress 
for six years, and was succeeded as delegate by the 
Hon. Hiram S. Stevens, the present delegate. The 
Hon. A. P. K. Safford succeeded Governor McCor- 
mick as governor, and has held the position for the 
past six years in an acceptable manner. 

Arizona is in latitude 31° 20' to 37° north, and in 
longitude 32° to 37° 40' west from Washington, and 
contains about 122,000 square miles, or 78,080,000 
acres, the whole area being nearly three times that of 
the State of New York, and one third larger than all 
the New England States combined. It is bounded 


on the north by Nevada and Utah, on the east by 
New Mexico, on the south by the Mexican state of 
Sonora, and on the west by California and Nevada. 

Of the origin and significance of the name, Ari- 
zona, there seems to be much doubt, and a score or 
more of definitions have been given by difiFerent and 
well-informed persons. Referring back to the old 
Aztec traditions, the following significant item occurs, 
which may assist somewhat in the explanation. 

" The earth is the ofifspring of the sky. Long 
prior to the present race of men, the earth was peo- 
pled by a race of giants who in time died oflF, leaving 
the earth uninhabited. After a long time, a celestial 
virgin, a child of one of the thirteen great deities who 
rule all things, came down to the earth, and being 
well pleased, remained for a long time its sole in- 
habitant. Once when in a deep sleep, a drop of dew 
from heaven fell on her, and she conceived and bore 
two children, a son and daughter, from whom have 
sprung all the people of the earth. The name of this 
celestial virgin was Arizunna, the beautiful, or sun 
beloved maiden." The Mohave language, which is by 
far the most perfect and complete of any of the Indian 
dialects of the country, has two words of nearly the 
same meaning : Ari, meaning the sun, holy, good, or 
beautiful; and Urnia, maid, or maiden; which to- 
gether means the land of the beautiful or lovely 
maiden. This may be the true meaning of the word 


Arizona. Another definition is this, Ari, from the 
Mohave, meaning beautiful, or good, and Zona, from 
the Spanish, a zone, and taken together, meaning the 
land of the beautiful zone. Both of these definitions 
seem to be well made, and both are quite significant 
and expressive. 




TT has been found very difficult to trace up the his- 
tory of the first explorations and settlements in 
what is now the Territory of Arizona. Sufficient 
has been learned, however, to warrant the assertion, 
that about thirty years subsequent to the conquest 
of Mexico by Cortez, or near the year 1551, the 
early Spanish explorers and the Jesuit Fathers pen- 
etrated into this then unknown country. In 1540 
a Spanish expedition traversed Northern Sonora, now 
Arizona and New Mexico.^ They carried back with 
them to the city of Mexico wonderful accounts of the 
country, and of reports gathered from the Indians 
of the seven wonderful cities of Sibola, which other 
Spanish expeditions afterwards went in search of, and 
which are now supposed to have been the seven towns 
originally built by the Zufii Indians many hundreds 
of years since. About the year 1560, a permanent 
settlement was made by the Spanish explorers and 

^ See Weeeler's Reports and Notes. 


Jesuit Fathers, at or near "where Tucson now is. It 
may be mentioned in this connection, that Santa F^, 
New Mexico, was supposed to have been settled in 
1555, — Tucson in 1560, and San Augustine, Florida, 
in 1565 ; thus making Santa F^ the first, Tucson the 
second, and San Augustine the third settled town 
within the present domain of the United States. 

One of the oldest missions established by the Jes- 
uit Fathers was that of St. Gertrude de Tabac, in the 
Santa Cruz Valley, forty-five miles south of TucsoUi 
the latter part of the sixteenth century. A writer 
in " Rudo Ensayo," in 1762, says, that the Indians 
on the San Pedro River state that the missions were 
built previous to 1694, Solorano, a Spanish writer 
during the reign of Philip III., also mentions these 
old missions, and gives much information respecting 
the country, the old prehistoric ruins, etc.^ In the 
*' Cronica Serifica " of about the same date, a long ac- 
count is given of the early explorations, the old mis- 
sions, and of the Indians then in that region, who were 
estimated at 75,000. 

In 1720, the missions were prosperous and flourish- 
ing, and in Sonora, including what is now Arizona, 
there were twenty-nine missions and seventy-three 
Christian Indian pueblos, or villages, in charge of the 
Jesuit Fathers. In what is now Arizona there were 
known to have been the missions of San Xavier del 

1 See first Tolume of Solorano, page 218 and on. 


Bac, St. Gertrude de Tabac, St. Joseph de Tumaca- 
Cara, San Miguel de Sonoitag, Guavavi, Calabasas, 
Arivaca, and Santa Ana. In 1751, there was an out- 
break of the Pima and other Indians, who destroyed 
some of these mission churches, and killed many of 
the priests in charge. In 1769, the Marquis de Croix, 
Viceroy of Mexico, sent to the Superior of Santa 
Cruz in Europe, and had fourteen priests sent out to 
the New World to fill the places of those killed by 
the Indians in this outbreak. In 1778, two missions 
were established on the Colorado River near where 
Yuma now is, and in 1781 these were destroyed 
by the Indians and the priests in charge were mur- 

The mission church of St. Augustine at Tucson 
was founded by one of the priests sent out by re- 
quest of the Marquis de Croix in 1769, and this old 
mission church has long been in ruins. The first 
mission church of San Xavier del Bac was founded 
at a very old date, — now unknown, — and on its 
ruins was commenced, in 1768, the present mission 
church of that name, the only one of all the old mis- 
sions now standing. It is a model of architecture, 
and excites the wonder and admiration of all who 
visit it ; and from its antiquity and surroundings, and 
the many interesting circumstances connected with 
it, deserves special mention, to which a subsequent 
chapter will be devoted. Since 1720 to the present 

20 - ARIZONA, 

date, 1877, there have been forty-seven priests of the 
Jesuit and Franciscan orders sent into what is now 
Arizona, of whom more than one half have been 
murdered by the Indians, or died from privation and 




rilHE erection of the present mission church of 
" San Xavier del Bac " was commenced in 1768, 
on the site of one of the same name which had gone 
to decay. It is some ten miles south of Tucson, in 
the rich and beautiful valley of the Santa Cruz, and 
near the Papago villages. It was completed in 1798, 
with the exception of one of the towers, which is yet 
in an unfinished state. Its dimensions are 115x70 
feet. The style of architecture is a commingling of 
the Moorish and the Byzantine. The outside is cas- 
tellated, and surrounded by one dome and two mina- 
rets. The foundation walls are of brick with a fine 
coating of cement. The outside walls are of brick 
also cemented. The inside walls are of stone and ce- 
ment, plastered and stuccoed, and the interior has the 
form of the Latin cross. The church fronts to the 
south, and the front centre is covered with beautiful 
scroll work, having also the coat of arms of the Fran- 
ciscan monks, which is a cross, with a rope coil above. 


and two arms below, one of which represents that of 
Christ, and is naked, the other one that of St. Francis 
de Assisi, and is partially clothed, St. Francis de 
Assisi being the patron of the church. A life sized 
bust of St. Francis Xavier adorned and surmounted 
the front, but the head and part of the bust have 
been broken off by some modem Vandal. The roof 
is 'surrounded by a brick balustrade cemented, and at 
each angle and corner are griffons worked in cement, 
forty-eight in all. On the outside of the church to 
the west is a wide open niche where the Papago In- 
dians were formerly congregated for morning prayers, 
and adjoining this, was the old Indian burial ground 
and dead chapel. Of late years, for sanitary reasons, 
the dead are buried farther down the valley. To 
the south of the church are the old convent buildings, 
which of late have been renovated and occupied by 
four of the sisters of St. Joseph, who for several years 
past have lived here teaching a school for the Papago 
children, and caring for and comforting the sick 
among the Indians. 

When once inside the church, the beholder is forci- 
bly struck with the display of skill in its structure, 
its beauty and grandeur, and the taste displayed in. 
its adornment. ITie inside of the church has the 
form of the Latin cross, the foot being to the south, 
and extending thence to the north end, where the 
main altar is. The walls and ceilings are tastefull;y 

decoi'atei] and fresitoed. The main altar is dedicateij 
to St. Fi-ancU Xavier, and one of the central chapela 
to St. Francis de Assisi, Four large freaeo paintings 
represent the Annunciation, the Visitation of the 
Virgin to Elizabeth, the Nativity of Christ, and the 
Visitation of the Magi. The altar work, anJ all 
the cornices, are done in cement, as are also the sis 
arched ceilings overhead, the main one of which is 
fifty feet high, and the others about thirty feet high. 
The ceilings were all frescoed, but much of this has 
been defaced by time, and the elements. Tlie Four 
Evangelists, in sculpture, adorn the main altar, and 
the scroll work is covered with gold leaf, which in its 
early days, when the frescoes and paintings were 
fresh and bright, and all the other aiirroundings new 
and in perfect harmony, must have presented a beau- 
tiful, grand, and gorgeous sight, especially to the half 
wild Indians who had never before seen anything of 
like character. 

In the lateral chapel of the Virgin, there is a cross 
of small pieces of ironwood, imbedded in cement, on 
which there was formerly a sculptured figure of 
Christ. Within the body of the church there are 
in all over fifty pieces of sculpture, most of which 
are grand and beautiful, perfect in form, feature, and 
position. In two of the angles of the main arch, 
there are two most beautiful statues, representing 
fingels, which tradition states are porti-aits of the 



two daughters of the artist who decorated the church. 
The main aisle is adorned by two large fresco paint- 
ings representing the Last Supper and the Pentecost. 
The foregoing is but a faint and imperfect descrip- 
tion of this old and venerable church, whose won- 
derful beauty and symmetry of form attracts the 
attention of all, and creates wonder, surprise, and 
admiration in the bosom of every beholder. East of 
the altar, a door leads into the vestry, where the val- 
uables of the church are kept. In former times 
there were large quantities of gold and silver orna« 
ments, priests' vestments, and other furniture, which 
was kept in the vestry, some of which has been lost^ 
stolen, or carried away to other churches, and a por- 
tion yet remains, among which, are one full set of 
priests' vestments, two gold cruets of about six 
ounces each, a large silver cross, several candlesticks 
of solid silver, a Douay Bible of date 1692, and a few 
other minor ornaments. On the door leading to the 
vestry is the name of its builder, Pedro Bojargues, 
1797. The masonry work of the church was executed 
by two brothers named Gauna, who evinced great 
skill and genius in their work. From the south end 
of the main aisle, a doorway leads to the west, into 
the baptismal chapel, and from there a flight of wind- 
ing stairs, consisting of twenty-seven, twenty-one, and 
twenty-one steps, leads to the upper floor of the west 
minaret or tower. At the rise of twenty-seven stepB, 


a doorway leads to the right into the choir gallery, 
which is arched and frescoed. A further rise of twen- 
ty-one steps leads to the second floor of this tower, 
where there is a chime of four old and rich sounding 
bells, one of date 1804, and the three othei*s so old and 
defaced by time, their date is obliterated. From this 
floor a doorway leads to the roof of the main build- 
ing, and on going across, the visitor enters the east 
tower, where but one bell remains of the four for- 
merly there. The date of the one remaining is also 
obliterated by time, but it carries the mark of some 
worse than Vandal, who has made of it a rifle target. 
Returning to the west tower, the visitor rises the last 
flight of twenty-one steps to the upper floor of the 
tower, from whence a fine view is obtained of the 
beautiful valley of the Santa Cruz, of distant moun- 
tain chains, of picacho peaks, and many evidences of 
ancient upheavals and volcanic eruptions. The steps 
leading to the upper floor, sixty-nine in all, have a 
rise of ten inches each, making the whole rise fifty- 
seven and one half feet. When it is remembered 
that this old, venerable, and wonderful church was 
commenced one hundred and eight years since, in a 
wild Indian country, far from the centres of civiliza- 
tion, we can but admire the great energy, persever- 
ance, and indomitable will of the old Jesuit and 
Franciscan Fathers who planned, carried out, and so 
successfully accomplished this great work. It is the 


only remaining edifice left in the Territory of the 
many erected by those of a former century and age, 
and sliould be cared for and preserved by legislative 
enactment, as a memento of the past. 



rilHE climate of Arizona is varied, embracing every 
variety, from that of the northern States, to that 
of the extreme of the sunny south. On the highest 
mountain peaks, from ten thousand to thirteen thou- 
sand feet in height, snow falls to a great depth, and 
remains on the ground in places from six to ten 
months of the year. On the mountains, at an alti- 
tude of eight thousand feet, the snow fall is two to 
four feet, and remains from one to three months. 
At an altitude of six thousand feet, — that of Pres- 
cott, — there is a snow fall of a few inches to one 
foot or more, and the snow remains for a few days 
only, except in extreme cases, when it has. remained 
for a few weeks only. At this altitude the seasons 
of spring, summer, and fall, are extremely pleasant, 
salubrious, and enjoyable, equal to any in the world. 
The nights are pleasantly cool and agreeable, and 
two pairs of blankets at night will ever be found to 
be a necessary covering. At an elevation of four 
thousand feet, which is that of Mineral Park, Cerbat, 


San Carlos, Pueblo Viejo Valley, Camp Grant, and 
many other places, there is but little snow fall, the 
winters are chilly, but not cold, and the summers 
pleasant and delightful, the nights moderately cool, 
sufficiently so to give to all a good and refreshing 
night's rest. At an altitude of fifteen hundred to 
two thousand feet, which is that of the great plains 
and valleys of the southern part of the Territory, 
Tucson, Florence, Phoenix, etc., snow is almost 
wholly unknown, the winters are extremely mild 
and pleasant, and the summers warm and diy, with 
continued warm weather for many months. At this 
altitude the climate in summer, though quite warm, 
is not oppressive, or debilitating, as in many other 
parts of our country with the same range of ther- 
mometer, 85° to 105°. Owing to the pure and rare- 
fied condition of the atmosphere, and the cool nights, 
the human system keeps in a healthy tone. At lower 
altitudes, especially at Yuma, which has an elevation 
of but one hundred and sixty feet above tide water, 
the thermometer often runs up to 110°, and in ex- 
treme cases to over 120°, yet at Yuma, cases of sun- 
stroke are unknown, and its citizens enjoy most ex- 
cellent health. From the foregoing, it will be noticed 
that the altitude of the country gives the different 
degrees and variety of temperature. * 

There is probably no country in the world with a 
purer, healthier climate than Arizona, and the sick, 


the debilitated, the worn out and enfeebled constitu- 
tions of other climes and countries, can here find a 
climate of exceeding purity, ranging through all the 
degrees from hot to cold, accoi-ding to altitude, from 
which each and every one can select that locality in 
summer, or winter, that is required by their constitu- 
tion or ailments. For consumptives and those hav- 
ing kindred diseases, the winter climate of Yuma, 
and thence east to Maricopa Wells, Phoenix, Flor- 
ence, and Tucson, and especially at Yuma, there is 
no more favorable climate in the known world, and 
when the country is opened up, and traversed by 
railroads, Yuma and the other points named will 
of necessity become the centres of sanitariums of 
world-wide celebrity. In summer, the mountainous 
regions are equally favorable for like diseases, and 
also for all asthmatic and respiratory diseases. The 
worst cases of asthma are invariably cured by a resid- 
ence in the mountains of Arizona of a few months. 

There are two rainy seasons each year in the Ter- 
ritory, one of which is usually the months of Feb- 
ruary and March, and the other the months of July 
and August, but these rainy seasons sometimes come 
earlier and sometimes later. Occasionally they will 
continue for three and four months, and some years 
there is a rain-fall during every month, more espe- 
cially in the mountains. The amount of rain-fall 
differs much in different localities of the Territory, 


being far greater in the mountains than in the great 
plains and valleys. In the moimtains it ranges from 
twelve to thirty or more indies, and in the plains 
and valleys from one to twelve inches. At Yuma 
the lain-fall has in some years been less than one 
inch, hot this is exceptional, the usual quantity 
being from three to five inuhes. The sky here during 
the whole year is almost invariahiy a clear, bine ex- 
panse of ether. The extreme purity of the atmos- 
phere, and the almost continued and perpetual sun- 
shine which pervades the Territory, has attracted the 
attention of every observing person who has been 
there either for a few months, or for years. The 
author made a special note of the fact, that during 
his residence there of over two years, there was 
never, not in all that time, in summer or winter, one 
single day without bright, beautiful sunshine. There 
is perhaps no other country which presents this 
peculiarity in so marked a manner, where there is 
any I'ain-fall at all. The rain clouds do not over- 
spread the whole heavens as in the Atlantic States, 
but pass over in areas of narrow width, following 
up the mountain spurs and chains, and often, when 
the rain-fall upon a mountain top, or moimtain 
plateau, is sufficient to transform the tiny rivulet, or 
mountain brooklet, into a raging torrent of waters, 
there will be in the valley below, only a few miles 
distant, continued suusblne, a balmy and fragrant 


atmosphere, and continued employment for man and 

It is a grand and glorious sight to witness a thun- 
der-storm in the mountains of Arizona, to listen to 
the rolling, rumbling, almost deafening reverberations 
of the thunder, as the thunder-cloud passes over 
some lofty mountain plateau, or hangs along the crest 
of some jagged mountain cliff, and witness the vivid 
play of the forked lightning, as it flashes from cloud 
to cloud, or darts meteor like from crag to crag; 
while during this time, the observer is basking in 
the sunshine in some beautiful valley just outside the 
mountain range, where all nature is pleasant, qnieti 
and serene. 




A RIZONA is properly a mountainous country, 
"^^^ though there are great plains and valleys in the 
country, more especially in its southern part. The 
mountainous districts cover about two thirds of the 
Territory, and the great plains and valleys about one 

The main mountain chains are the White, Mo- 
goUon, San Francisco, Bill Williams, Pinal, Apache, 
Cerbat, Juniper, Hualapai, Bradshaw, Peacock, 
Music, Mazatsal, Santa Catarina, Santa Teresa, 
Santa Rita, Patagonia, Dragoon, Chiricahua, Gra- 
ham, Antelope, Cordilleras de Gila, Sierra Ancha, 
Hacquahilla, besides many others of less note, and 
small detached spurs, or picacho peaks, generally 
with local names. The highest peak of San Fran- 
cisco mountain is 13,000 feet. It is some eighty-five 
miles a little east of north from Prescott, and is the 
highest mountain in the Territory, Its northern 
declivities are covered with snow for ten months in 


the year. The highest peak of the White Mountains, 
called by the Spanish and Mexicans the "Sierra 
Blanco " Mountains, is 12,000 feet high, that of the 
Bill Williams and Union Peak, 10,000, and Mount 
Graham 8,000 feet. Several others are from 8,000 
to 10,000 feet in height. Many of the mountain 
peaks are noted landmarks, and can be seen for long 
distances. That of San Francisco, the mountain mon- 
arch of all the mountains of Arizona, whose rock- 
ribbed summits . are ancient as the sun, can be seen 
in different directions for two hundred miles. The 
Four Peaks, near camp McDowell, can be seen for 
over one hundred miles, and Castle Dome in the Col- 
orado River range, nearly the same distance. This 
noted landmark will be more fully described in a sub- 
sequent chapter. Superstition Mountain, thirty miles 
east of Phcenix, is so named from some superstitious 
traditions of the Indians respecting its being the 
abode of evil spirits. The " Dos Cabasas " peaks — 
two heads — in the northern spurs of the Chiri- 
cahua Mountains, one hundred miles east from Tuc- 
son, are noted landmarks and can be seen for a long 
distance throughout all of Southeastern Arizona. 
Their two bald summits look in the distance like the 
giant heads of some monstrous Titan of old. The 
peak of Babaquivora, one hundred miles or more to 
the southwest from Tucson, is another noted land- 



The summits of many of the mountain ranges, es- 
pecially in the northern portion of the Territory, are 
wide, level plateaus, covered generally with a splendid 
growth of pine, spruce, fir, juniper, cedar, and other 
timber, with clear sparkling mountain springs burst- 
ing out at short intervals, at which points there are 
generally open plats of ground nearly destitute of 
timber, but covered with a rich coating of wild clover 
and other nutritious grasses, and reminding one of the 
beautiful oases in great deserts. These mountain 
plateaus are well supplied with game, such as bear, 
deer, antelope, wild turkeys, and in a few places with 
elk, and also a variety of smaller game. 



rpiHE principal rivers of Arizona are the Colorado, 
"*" Gila, Salt, Cliiquito Colorado, or Little Colorado, 
Verde, Bill Williams, San Pedro, Santa Cruz, White, 
Black, and some others of lesser note, which are 
mostly branches of the main rivers. Many of the 
mountain streams, which in Arizona are called rivers, 
would in most other parts of the United States be 
called creeks, brooks, or rivulets. 

The great Colorado River is formed by the Green 
and Grand rivers, and other streams far to the north. 
The Grand River rises in Colorado, in the western de- 
clivities of the Rocky Mountains, and runs a south- 
westerly course to its junction with the Green. The 
Green rises far up in Wyoming, near Fremont's 
Peak, and runs a southerly course to where it unites 
with the Grand, in Utah, from which point of union 
it is called the Colorado. The Colorado is navigable 
for steamers of four hundred tons at all seasons of the 
year, as far as Hardyville, five hundred and thirteen 
miles above its mouth, and steamers have been as far 


up as Callville, six hundred and forty-one miles from 
the Gulf of California. From its mouth to the foot 
of the Grand Canon, a distance of seven hundred 
miles, the river at low water has an average width 
of about six hundred feet, and a depth of five to 
twenty feet. From the extreme head waters of its 
upper branches, the Colorado River has a total length 
including its windings of some three thousand miles, 
and it is the largest and longest river that enters the 
Pacific Ocean, south of the Sacramento River, on the 
American continent. The Colorado River region 
presents some of the grandest scenery on the globe. 
For nearly three hundred miles, in Northern Arizona, 
its waters, during the untold ages of the past, have 
worn through great mountain chains, and mountain 
plateaus, cutting out for itself a channel many hun- 
dreds and thousands of feet deep in the hard granite, 
slate, porphyry, sandstone, limestone, and volcanic 
rocks, thus forming the Grand Canon of the Colorado, 
the grandest canon the eye of man ever saw. This 
cafion can in no way be fully explored, except by en- 
I tering it with boats from its upper part in Utah, as 

Lieutenant Powell and party did, in 1869 ; and then 
it is a Herculean task, requiring a large degree of en- 
ergy, perseverance, and indomitable courage. For a 
full description of this wonderful canon, the reader is 
referred to Major Powell's reports of his expedition 
down the river, all of which will be found exceedingly 


interesting in its description of the scenery, and of 
hair-breadth escapes from dangers and death, which 
exceed in interest the wildest imaginations of the 
most fertile brain. Many lateral cafions enter the 
main one, in its long and tortuous course, all of ex- 
ceeding interest to the admirers of the grand and sub- 
lime in nature. Between the Grand Cafion, where it 
opens out from its rocky inclosure, down to Yuma, 
there are several other deep, abysmal canons, from 
five to twenty miles long, through which the great 
volume of waters of the Colorado, collected from a 
thousand mountain streams, rush with whirlpool ve- 
locity, bearing onward, ever onward, in its mass of 
waters, a thick sediment of alluvium, which is depos- 
ited along its banks, and in the upper portion of the 
Gulf of California, adding year after year large tracts 
of rich alluvial land to the tens of thousands of acres 
heretofore deposited by the river in the long eras of 
the past. 

The Gila River, the largest tributary of the Colo- 
rado, rises far to the east in New Mexico to the north- 
east of Silver City, pursues a general westerly course, 
enters Arizona near the rich Clifton Copper Mines, 
passing through, the beautiful Pueblo Viejo Valley, 
the San Carlos Indian Agency, and the mountains 
below, and emerging into the lower, or great Gila 
Valley, some twelve miles above Florence, the county 
town of Pinal County, and thence west for nearly 


three hundred inileB to ita junction with the Colorado 
at Yuma. The total length of the Gila, including ita 
many windings, la fully six hundred and fifty miles. 
For fonr hundred miles, at low water, the Gila baa 
an average Avidth of about one hundred feet, and a 
depth of one to two feet. 

Salt River rises well up towards the eastern part 
of the Territory, in the White Mountains, ita head 
watera being the White and Black rivers. It haa 
numeroua large branches, coming in mostly from the 
north, draining the country far to the north, includ- 
ing the Tonto Basin, the Sierra Ancha, White, San 
Francisco, and other mountjuna. Ita course is west 
and southwest, and it unites with the Gila below 
Phcenix some thirty miles. This river was named 
the " Rio Sulido," by the early Spanish and Jesuit 
explorers, on account of its waters being highly im- 
pregnated with salt, which is easily noticed at low 
water. This is caused by a heavy salt formation 
through which the river passes about one hundred 
miles above Phoenix. At low water it is a clear, 
beautiful stream, having an average width of two 
hundred feet for a distance of one hundred miles 
above its junction with the Gila, and a depth of two 
feet or more. 

The Verde River is one of the largest northern 
branches of Salt River, its upper branches lislng at 
different point* to the east, north, and northwest 


from Prescott. It becomes a fine river of eighty feet 
in width about fifty miles northeast from Prescott, 
and thence runa a soiithei'Iy courae to its junction 
with Salt River near Camp McDowell. Its whole 
courae ia about one hundred and fifty milea. The 
Touto, Sipicue, CheiTy, Agiia Frio, and other large 
creeks, are also tributaries of Salt River, coming in 
from the north. The main upper braiiches of Salt 
River, the White and Black rivers, are both swift 
running mountain streams, and rise in the White 
Mountains, They are well stocked with the real 
speckled mountain trout, affording rare sport to the 
followers and devotees of Izaak Walton. 

The Little, or Chiquito Colorado, which has by 
Bome been called Fl:ix River, rises iu the nortlieast* 
em declivities of the White Mountains, near the lino 
between Arizona and New Mexico, runs iu a north- 
westerly direction, and enters the main Colorado 
in Northern Arizona, about fifty miles south of the 
■oiithern line of Utah, and near the liead of the 
Grand CaHon. The lower part of the Chiquito Colo- 
rado runs through a caHon second only to that of the 
Grand CaSon of the main Colorado, 

Bill Williams Fork is an eastern branch of the Col- 
orado, with which it unites at Aubrey, 235 miles 
ibove Yuma. Its different branches rise, some in 
Qie mountains fifty miles southwest from Prescott, 
Kline near Moiint Hope, and some in the Hualapai 


Mountains in Mohave County. In its whole course 
it is not far from one hundred and fifty miles long, 
which is about the same as the Chiquito Colorado. 
The Santa Maria is its main eastern branch, and the 
Sandy its main northern. These two streams unite 
some fifteen miles south from Greenwood, from which 
point the Bill Williams Fork flows west to its junc- 
tion with the Colorado. 

The San Pedro rises near the line between Arizona 
and Sonora, and runs a general northerly course a 
distance of over one hundred miles, and enters the 
Gila River near old Camp Grant. 

The Santa Cruz River rises also near the Arizona 
and Sonora line, southeast from the Patagonia Moun 
tains, making a long detour into Sonora to the south- 
west, thence to the north into Arizona, and finally 
sinking in the great plain or valley some twelve 
miles to the north from Tucson. The whole length 
of the Santa Cruz is not far from one hundred and 
fifty miles, to the point where its waters finally sink. 
It must have formerly run far to the northwest and 
perhaps entered the Gila River below Maricopa 
Wells, as its old bed is now distinguishable at dif- 
ferent places. One fact connected with most of the 
mountain streams of Arizona, and which is applica- 
ble to most of the streams west of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, is this: The volume of water in the mountains 
is much greater than in the valleys and plains below, 


which is principally owing to the character of the soil, 
— generally a disintegrated granite, which is open and 
porous, permitting the waters to sink in, and percolate 
through it to a great depth, — and, to a less extent, 
to evaporation in a dry and hot climate. Some of the 
larger rivers, such as the Gila, are at times during 
extreme hot and dry weather dry in their beds for 
many miles, rising and sinking at intervals as the bed 
rock comes near the surface. Nearly all of the smaller 
streams that enter the great valleys and plains present 
this peculiarity. 

The Colorado River drains the western and extreme 
northern parts of the Territory, the Chiquito Col- 
orado the northeastern part, the Gila and Salt Rivers 
the central part east and west, and the San Pedro 
and Santa Cruz the southern part of the Territory, 



rilHE amouut o£ rich agricultural and farming land 
in the Territory of Arizona is from fifteen to 

twenty million acres, but owing to a scarcity of water 1 
for irrigation, there ia now susceptible of cnltivatioi 
bnt about two million eight hundred thousand acres. 
Crops cannot be successfully raised iu most of the 
great valleys and plains without irrigation, and : 
there is not sufficient water in the rivers, owing to 
the sinking of the water as before stated, a large por- 
tion of them lie waste, and must continue in that 
state until water is obtained by artesian wells or 1 
otherwise, for the purpose, which it is confidently be- i 
lieved will be accomplished most successfully, when 
the necessities of the country require and demand it. 
A splendid opportunity is here presented for action 
hy the General Government, in developing artesian , 
wells at different points in the Territory, thus bring- 
ing large quantities of as rich land into market, and 
under successful cultivation, as can be found on the i 


continent, and aiding at a comparatively trifling ex- 
pense in the development of the Territory. Many 
millions of acres of land, now almost worthless and 
unproductive, would become centres of rich and ex- 
tensive farming districts, a good population would be 
introduced, and churches and schools would spring 
up as if by ma^ic, where now there is no indnce- 
ment for industrious white people to settle. Gov- 
ernment would be repaid a hundred fold by sales of 
land, and by a wonderful increase in taxable prop- 
erty for the support of government. 

This subject has been presented to Congress by 
the Honorable R. C. McCovmick, but it has never 
received the attention wJiich it deserves. This may 
be in part owing to indifference, and partly to a 
lameutikble ignorance on the part of our law mak- 
ers at Washington, respecting the wonderful cnpaci- 
tiea of this far off and almost isolated Territory. It 
is to be hoped that future delegates in Congress from 
the Temtory will, among other important matters of 
legielatloii, press this one to a successful issue. 

The largest tract of agricultural land which can 
uow be cultivated in Arizona, is that on Salt River, 
in Maricopa County, in and around Phcenix for a 
distance of from twenty to fifty miles. The amount 
of such land in this rich valley is approximately one 
million of acres. The soil is a rich alluvium, capable 
of producing, with good tillage, twenty-five to fifty 

to the acF^^H 
)B, and othe^H 


busliels of wheat, barley, aiid com, 
BeauB, melons, pumpkins, sweet potatoes, 
Toots and Tegetables of most kinds, grow and pro- 
duce well. Peaches, pears, nectarines, apricots, and 
all the smaller fruits, also grapes, and most of the 
semi-tropical fruits can be cultivated with success. 
Sugar-cane, hemp, tobacco, and no doubt rice and 
cotton, could also be successfully cultivated. ___—- 

In the Gila Valley, extending from above Flor- 
ence to Yuma, there are in all at least five hundred 
thousand acres of land, similar in character and pro- 
ductiveness to that of the valley of Salt River, and 
capable of producing the same cereala, vegetables, 
fruits, etc. In this great valley ia the Gila River 
Indian Reservation, where the Pima Indians have 
cultivated wheat, com, pumpkins, melons, etc., for 
the past two centuries. 

In the Chiquito Colorado Valley, including its trib- 
utary and lateral valleys, there are about five hundred 
thousand acres of good farming and grass land, which 
produces wheat, barley, corn, and most of the fruits 
and vegetables common to the Northern States. 
Wild flax grows here vei-y abundantly, and when 
first explored it was from that reason called Flax 
River. Many thousand tons of wild hay, of excel- 
lent quality, could be cut in this valley annually, and 
In the course of time this will become very valuable, 
tn the upper part of the valley, at the Milligan Set* j 


tlement, there is quite a prosperous town springing 
up, and also at several other favorable points, small 
villages are starting into active life. Colonies of 
Mormons have been settling in the lower portions of 
the valley the past two years, and being an industri- 
ous people, will soon become successful colonies. 

Along the upper portions of Salt River, including 
the valleys of its many tributaries, there are in all 
at least two hundred thousand acres of land, capable 
of raising most of the products before named, and in 
those valleys which extend well up into the moun- 
tains, Irish potatoes of an excellent quality can be 
successfully raised. 

The Pueblo Vie jo Valley, sometimes called the Up- 
per Gila Valley, has, with its tributary valleys, that 
of Ash Creek and others, over one hundred thousand 
acres of choice farming land, rich, beautiful, and pro- 
ductive, and is one of the most desirable places for 
settlement in the whole Territory. Its altitude is 
about four thousand feet, which is a sufiBcient eleva- 
tion to escape the extreme heat of the lower valleys, 
and to give a mild and healthy climate in winter. 
Snow is almost unknown in the valley, and the Gila 
River furnishes a large volume of water sufficient to 
irrigate most of the valleys when properly distributed. 
The products are about the same as those of the val- 
leys of the Salt and Gila rivers mentioned above. 

On the Arizona side of the Colorado River, there 


ATB in all over one hundred thousand acres of exceed 
ingly rich land, a portion of which is included in the 
Colorado River Indian Reservation, where the Mohave 
Indians, and a few from other tribes, have for years 
past raised considerable quantities of wheat, corn, 
beans, pumpkins, melons, etc. Wild hemp of an ex- 
cellent quality gi'ows in many places along the Colo- 
rado bottom, and in process of time must become a 
productive industry. Alfalfa has been grown suc- 
cessfully by Mr. Smith, between Camp Mohave and 
Hardyville. Rice, cotton, sugar-cane, and tobacco, 
could be raised along the Colorado successfully. One 
Bcrious diCBculty connected with funning in the Colo- 
rado Valley is the constantly changing channel of the 
river, but when the necessity arrives, means will no 
doubt be devised to control its waters and confine 
them vn a permanent channel. 

There are in the Santa Cruz Valley, and its tribu- 
taries, about one hundred thousand acres of choice 
farming land, a portion of which, near Tucson, has 
been cultivated continuously for two centuries or more, ' 
and is now seemingly as productive as when the val- 
ley first became well known to our people, twenty- 
five years since. In this valley were some of the 
first settlements of the early Spanish explorers, and 
here also were located some of the first of the old 
Jesuit missions founded during the latter part of the 
sixteenth and the first part o£ the seventeenth c 



The San Pedro Valley is about fifty miles east 
from Tucson, in which, and the lateral valleys, am 
about fifty thousand acres of good farming land, most 
of which can be successfully cultivated. At Tres 
Alimos, in this valley, are some well cultivated farms 
Kiid one choice dairy farm, that of H. C. Hooker, 
Esq. Near the upper part of the San Pedro Valley 
is one old Spanish- Mexican laud grant, said to be the 
only one in the Territory whicli is legal and valid. 
At Tres Alimos, a grant was made of several leagues 
many years since, on eoiiJitions which were never 
fulfilled, and consequently the grant is void. This 
freedom from land grants in Arizona is extremely 
favorable to its settlement, and its future prosperity 
and freedom from litigation aud strife, which has 
been ao prolific a source of trouble in California. It 
will give to the ae.ttler peace and security, it will 
give [jermanent homes to the many, and build up 
good communities where schools and churches can be 
supported by a resident and independent farming 

In the valley of Bill Williams Fork, and along its 
tributaries, the Sandy, Santa Maria, and other creeks, 
there are many tracts of excellent farming lands, in 
all many thousand acres. These tracts are mostly in 
Mohave County, and embrace nearly all the tillable 
land in the valleys of that county which are at prea- 
snt supplied with water. There are large valleys, 


however, in the connty, such as the Sacramento iindi 
Hualuptii valleys, which have a rich soil, bnt n&^ 
water to irrigate until artesian water is obtained^ 
when they would support a. population of thousands* 
On the Buniinit of the inountuins, and the table or 
mesa lands, there are many plivces where potatoe*. 
and other vegetables grow well. One of these local- 
ities is on the summit of the Hualapai Mountains, 
where Mr. Shoulters has raised large crops of pota- 
toes for several yeara ; and several other locaUties 
could he mentioned. 

In Yavapai County there are scores of smaller vftl* 
leys than those heretofore mentioned, containing froid 
a few hundred to several thousand acres of choice 
land each, where wheat, corn, vegetables of all kinda, 
all the common northern fruits, and excellent pota- 
toes can be raised most successfully. In the aggregate 
there are in these valleys over one hundred thousand 
acres of good land, and these beautiful and pleasant 
valleys have a certain charm about them, which ia 
drawing to them scores of families who are building 
up pleasant homes, and happy firesides. The purej 
mouutiiin atmosphere which surrounds all the littl^j 
valleys in the mountainous regions of Arizona is 
drawing to them a large share of the present farm- 
ing immigration to the Territory, and especially of 
families from many of the States and Territories. 

The most prominent of these small valleys in; 



Yavapai County are the Verde, Williamsons, Pee- 
ples, Eirkland, Chino, Skull, Agua Frio, Walnut 
Grove, Walnut Creek, Beaver Creek, and scores of 
others, which are now being settled up and improved. 

Go where one will in all parts of the Territory, 
in the foot hills, and through the mountains, pleasant 
and delightful valleys are continually attracting the 
attention of the explorer, many of them having 
springs of clear, crystal water, and often one will 
find small rills and rivulets which are sufficient to 
supply the wants of many horses, cattle, and sheep. 

There evidently was a time in the long past when 
there was far more running water in Arizona than 
now, when many of the large valleys, now destitute, 
were well supplied. Climatic changes, the filling of 
the valleys to a great depth by a rich alluvium 
brought down from the mountains by water erosion, 
and perhaps other causes, have operated to make 
them as we now find them, destitute of water, and 
consequently uninhabitable, until water shall be ob- 
tained by artesian wells, or otherwise. Could these 
great valleys and plains be supplied with sufficient 
water for irrigation, many million acres of exceed- 
ingly rich land could be brought under successful 
cultivation, and would add millions of wealth to the 
agricultural products of the Territory. 

In passing over the great Pacific Mail Stage Line, 
between Yuma on the Colorada River, and the Steins 



Peak riinge of mountains on the east line of tlie Tei'^- 
ritory, several of the great valleys and plains are 
crossed which extend south from the valley of the 
Gila and along the stage route, and which extend 
south far down into Souora a distance of one hundred 
miles or more. 

The Sulphur Springs Valley, seventy-five miles east 
of Tucson, is from ten to twenty-five miles wide and 
one hundred miles or more in length, having ;i rich 
Boil, which with a good water supply would support a 
large population, but which is now almost entirely 
worthless for farming purposes, as it is almost wholly 
destitute of water, except what la obtained from a 
series of springs at different points in the valley. 
These springs afford a water supply sufficient for 
thousands and tens of thousands of cattle, horses, 
sheep, etc., but not sufficient for farm irrigation. 

It is stated that some fifty or more years since, a 
wealthy SpMniard had a herd of sixty thousand head 
of cattle in this valley. 

To the east of Apache Pass is the San Simon Val- 
ley, which is simitar to the Sulphur Springs Valley, 
and of about the same extent and quality. This val- 
ley extends north from the line of the I*acific Mail 
Stage Line to the Pueblo Viejo Valley on the upper 
Gila River some fifty miles, and south down into So- 
nora. The soil, like that of the other valleys in the 
Territory, is exceedingly rich, and like them, owing 


to the absence of water, almost useless at present for 
agricultural purposes. There are not over a dozen 
settlers in these two great valleys, where there might 
be thousands, if a water supply could be obtained. 

A small expenditure of money by the General Gov- 
ernment, in developing artesian water here, would be 
productive of grand results. 

Another great plain is between Florence and Phoe- 
nix, which covers an area of fifty or more square 
miles,. but differing from the two last mentioned in 
some respects, being a slightly elevated plateau, or 
mesa land, at an elevation of one or two hundred feet 
above the bottom lands of the Gila and Salt rivers ; 
the Gila River being on the south, and Salt River on 
the north. 

Much of this level and beautiful mesa was evi- 
dently cultivated by the ancient prehistoric race, who 
long, long ago, inhabited and cultivated most of the 
great valleys and plains of Arizona, and who have 
left here, as elsewhere, many mementoes of their for- 
mer life, and of their habits, character, and pursuits. 

In Mohave County, in the northwestern part of 
the Territory, there are several great valleys worthy 
of mention. One of these, the Sacramento Valley, 
extends from Bill Williams Fork on the south, to 
Stone's Ferry on the north, a distance of over one 
hundred and fifty miles, with a width of five to 
twenty-five miles. This great valley is also destitute 


of water for iixigation, and without an inhabitant. 
The soil IB rich, and capiible of producing an abiiu- 
dant supply of grain, fruits, vegetables, etc., if water 
could be obtained for irrigation. There is strong 
evidence that this valley was, at some very remote 
age, the bed of the Colorado River. It is at no one 
point over thirty or forty miles east from the Colo- 
rado River, and runs nearly parallel with it from 
Stone's Ferry on the north to the Needles on the 
southwest, where a portion of the valley enters the 
Colorado. With an abundant supply of artesian 
water, this valley would also become a rich and pros- 
perous farming country, and make homes for thou- 
sands of industrious tillers of the soil. 

Another fine and beautiful valley lies to the east 
of the Cerbat Mountains, and is known as the Hual- 
apai (wal-la-pi) Valley. It is hemmed in by lofty 
mountains, the Hualapai Mountains on the south, 
the Peacock range on the east, the Cerbat range on 
the west, and the Music Mountains on the north. 
The valley is eighty miles long nearly north and 
south, and five to twenty miles wide east and west. 
There is no permanent stream of water running 
through this valley, and no outlet for a river if there 
was any. During the rainy season, the water which 
falls in the valley, and on the surrounding moun- 
tains, is collected into a small lake in its northern 
part, where it remains for a few months, until carried 


off by evaporation, or by seepage into the earth. 
This water reservoir is called Red Lake. 

In the mountains and foot hills contiguous to, and 
surrounding all of these great plains and valleys, 
there are many springs and small rivulets, where a 
good water supply can be obtained for horses, cattle, 
and sheep, but these waters all sink soon after enter- 
ing the plains and valleys. 

There are scores of smaller valleys in different por- 
tions of the Territory, somewhat similar in character 
to those mentioned, most of which will no doubt in 
time be utilized and made productive by means of 
artesian wells. Many of these smaller valleys are 
now being located and settled on by immigrants from 
all parts of the Union, and are being improved to 
some extent, especially in the mountain region, where 
much of the soil can be successfully cultivated with- 
out irrigation. 




rilHE larger poiiion of Arizona is emphatically a 
grazing and stock raising country, and is capable 
of supporting and fattening an immense number of 
cattle and sheep. There are but few localities in the 
whole Territory destitute of rich and nutritive grasses, 
and at least forty million acres of land is fully equal 
for grazing, to any on the continent, all of which is 
well supplied with water conveniently near to the 
stock ranges. 

The wild grasses of the country are very nutri- 
tious, embracing varieties of the wild clover, wild 
barley and oats, black, white, and curly gramma 
grass, sacatone, six week grass, many varieties of 
bunch grass, etc., etc. 

The mountains, foot hills, and rolling lands, are 
literally covered with a velvety green for most 
of the year, and having two rainy seasons, the 
hills and mountain sides do not present that bleak 
and barren appearance so characteristic of California 



Boener; for many months of tlie year. The excellent 
gi-azing qualities of Arizona have already attriicted 
tbe attention of stock men of the contiguous Statca 
and Territories, and dnring the past year niitny 
thousands of hoi'see, cattle, and sheep have been 
taken to the Territory from California, Oregon, 
Nevada, New Mexico, Texas, and other places. The 
number of sheep in the Territory is now nearly two 
million, yet they are scarcely noticed, so extensive is 
the i-ange. 

Arizona is destined at no distant day to become 
one of the most successful wool producing sections 
of the Union, and when railroads traverse the coun- 
try, and connect it with San Francisco and other 
i^ties on the Pacific slope, and with St. Louis, Clii- 
cago, New Orleans, and other cities east, the rich beef 
and mutton, from a thousand hills and valleys in Ari- 
zona, will be supplied to those markets at reasonable 
mtiis, and her wool, free from burrs and other im- 
purities, will be eagerly sought for by the great 
manufactories of the older States. The climate of 
Arizona is so mild that when sheep and cattle become 
well acclimated, there is but little necessity for pro- 
tection from storm or wind. The mountain ranges 
of the Territory are extremely favorable to stock 
raising, and as there are numerous springs and rivulets 
there, those localities are at present the most favor- 
able points for location. The grasses in the groat 


valleys, especiiiUy in the sontheasterD part of the 

Territory, are veiy abundant, and where water can be 

had, they afford splendid ranges for stock of all 


The section of country watered by the Cluquito 
Colorado River is especially favorable for sheep rais>^ 
ing, as is also the region of country around Preacot^« 
and thence to the north in the region of country ' 
around the San Francisco and Bill Williams moun- 
tains. The same can also be said of the country 
Bonth of Tucson, embracing the country around the 
Santa Rita, Patagonia, Huachuca, Whetstone, Dra- 
goon, and Chiricahua mountains, and in the contigu- 
ous valleys. There is no employment more health- 
ful, pleasant, or profitable than stock raising, and for 
young men of good habits, combined with watchful- 
ness, care, and energy, there is no surer road to 
competence and wealth than this. It also offers fine 
inducements to those having debilitated constitutions, 
and to those broken down in health, to engage in 
a business which requires constant out-door exercise, 
either on foot or on horseback, in a climate clear, 
pure, and exhilarating, where in a few years health 
can be fully restored, and a fortune accumulated. 

Too much cannot be said of the future prospectsJ 
of Arizona in this respect, all of which will be fulljM 
verified in a few short years. 



A MISTAKEN idea has heretofore prevailed ro- 
"^^^ specting the wood and timber supply of the 
Territory, which was, that it was almost entirely des- 
titute of a supply for the ordinary wants of the in- 
habitants. By a thorough exploration of the Territory 
the author found many large forests of pine, spruce, 
fir, juniper, cedar, oak, mesquit, with a fair supply 
of other wood and timber, such as ash, black walnut, 
poplar, Cottonwood, palo verde, alder, willow, etc., etc. 

In Arizona, as elsewhere in southern climates, the 
altitude generally indicates the different varieties of 
wood and timber which may be looked for. Along 
the low river bottoms the cottonwood, willow, etc., 
are found, and on the plains, mesas, and valleys, be- 
low four thousand feet altitude, the mesquit, palo 
verde, and other kindred varieties flourish, and at 
%bout four thousand feet, in the foot hills and ravines 
leading into the mountains, the oak, ash, black wal- 
nut, etc., flourish. From four to seven thousand 
feet altitude the juniper, cedar, Pifion pine, etc., are 

found, and from five to ten tJiousand feet, pine, 
spruce, and £i', are found in great abnDdance. A 
large portion of Northern Arizona is an elevated 
plateau, from five to eight thousand feet in altitude, 
most of which is covered with grand toreats of pine, 
epruce, fir, juniper, and cedar. These forests aro 
sufficient in extent to supply all the wants of the 
Territory for generations, if judiciously used and 
properly cared for. 

The great timber belts inchido the White, Mogol- 
lon, San Francisco, Bill Williams, and other ranges 
in the northeastern and northern portions of the Ter- 
ritory ; the Bradahaw, and contiguous mountnina 
around Prescott, Mount Hope, Hualapai, Music, Cer- 
bat, and other mountain chains to the west, and run- 
ning through Mohave County ; the Piuals, Apache, 
and contiguous mountains in Maricopa and Pinal 
counties ; Mount Graham, Santa Teresa, Santa Cata- 
rina, Cliiricahua, Santa Rita, and other mountains in 
Pima County, and also other timber belts on tha 
different river ranges and mountain spurs In different 
parts of the Territory, aggregating in all about twenty^ 
million acres of timber land. 

When the thirty-fifth parallel railroad is buili^ 
across the continent, it wilt pass through Arizona tftl 
the north of Prescott, and will open up some of thi 
finest bodies of timber on the continent, consistin] 
mostly of the pine and juniper varieties. The fon 


TIMbkh. 59 

"f juniper will furnish large quftntities of the most 
duTiihle railroad ties, fencing posts, etc., etc. ; and the 
grand old pine forests will all be needed in process of 
time for building purposes, mining, and a thousand 
other wants. 

The Texas Pacific, or thirty-second parallel rail- 
i-oad, will open up the timber belta along the Gila 
River, to the east of Florence in the Pinal, Santa 
Catarina, Santa Teresa, Mount Gi-Ahain, and the 
Chiricahua raountain ranges, on and near which line 
there ai-e many fine bodies of piue, juniper, and other 
varieties of timber. 

The mesquit, of which there are two varieties, is 
quite common thronghout the Territoiy below au 
altitude of four thousand feet. It is a veiy hard, 
solid wood, fully equal to hickory for fire-wood, and 
produces the true gum arable of commerce, which 
exudes from the tree similar to the gum of the com- 
mon cherry tree. It also produces a bean which ia 
eaten both in a green and dry state by the Indians, 
and which has a pleasant sweetish taste. Its fatten- 
ing qualities are excellent, and stock of all kinds be- 
ing fond of the bean, will fatten on it in a few weeks. 
The largest growth of the mesquit is found in the 
Falley of the Santa Cruz, south of Tucson, and at dif- 
ferent points in the Gila and Colorado River valleys. 

One variety produces a bean-pod somewhat similar 
to the Lima bean, or the common string bean of north- 


erii gardens, and the other being in form something 
like a mass or bunch of common screws, is called the 
screw bean. The Indians collect large quantities of 
both varieties, which when dried they grind into flour 
on their metat stones ; this they mix with water and 
drink it for food, living on it for weeks at a time. It 
makes a nutritious and palatable drink. 

The Pifion pine, which grows along the lower lino 
of the large pine forests, and is intermixed with the 
juniper forests, is excellent for fire-wood, and some 
other purposes, and produces the Pifion pine nut in 
great quantities, which is quite an article of diet 
among the Indians, and is also relished by the whites. 

The great bodies of the pine forests of Arizona are 
as yet untouched by the woodman's axe, and must 
remain so to a great extent until railroads open up 
the country, and hasten the time of great improve- 
ments and general prosperity to the country. Lum- 
bering has been carried on for some years at Prescott, 
and a few other places, but the great timber belts are 
yet untouched. 



npHE mines of Arizona, varied and numberless, are 
no doubt the sources of the future wealth of the 
Territory, and consist of gold, silver, copper, lead, iron, 
coal, salt, and perhaps of other valuable minerals. 
These mines, especially those of the precious metals, 
and of copper and lead, are of wonderful extent and 
richness, and are destined at no distant day to aston- 
ish the world by the immensity of their product. 

A full description of the different mineral belts of 
the country, of the locations made, and of the mines 
already opened, would fill volumes, and therefore will 
not be attempted in this work. An outline and par- 
tial description alone can be given, leaving the sub- 
ject to be fully written up in the future by some one 
having more time, and more competent to the task. 

Mines of gold and silver were known to exist in 
what is now Arizona two hundred years or more 
since, and some successful workings were carried on 
by the old Jesuit priests, who first explored the Terri- 
tory, and who employed Mexican and Indian laborers. 


After tlie whole of the Territory came into the posse* 
sion of the United States, by the Gadsden Purchase in 
1854, old monntaineers, triippers, and traders, in their 
expeditions through the Territory, reported from time 
to time the discovery of placer gold, hut not until 
about 1860 was there any systematic or continued 
effort made to lociite and work the mines. Reports 
from time to time reached California, and other min- 
ing sections, and in 1862 and 1863 many old miners 
from California and elsewhere visited the country, 
and made vainahle discoveries of placer diggings. 
Previous to this, some twenty years since, rich phtcer 
diggings were discovered at Gila City, eighteen miles 
east of Yuma, and at one time a mining population 
of over three thousand were collected at that point, 
consisting of whites, Mexicans, and Indians. For a 
few years mining was a success at that point, and 
large amounts of the precious metal were taken out, 
aggregating, as the best informed claim, some two or. 
three millions of dollars. 

As in most rich mining localities, a large majority 
of the miners spent their earnings in riotons living, 
gambling, and debauchery, and but few of the many 
saved their fortunes. Owing to a want of water, 
these placers were after a few years almost deserted, 
yet a few Mexicans and Indians work at them from 
time to time, making fair wages. Tliere is no doubt 
but the placers would pay well now, could water for 



Bluicing or hydraulic washing be obtained at not too 
great an outlay o( capital. The project of bringing 
water into the diggings from tlie Gila River has been , 
mooted, and should it be carried out BuccessfuUy, 
these placers will again attract large numbers of 

Some rich placers were diBCOvcred and worked some 
fifteen miles above Yuma, at what was called the Pot- 
holes, and at the Cienega, where lai^ quantities of ' 
gold were taken out for a few years, but these mines 
are now ahnost forgotten, although fortunes were 
made during their continuance. 

In 1862, 1863, and 1864, the most thorough pro- 
specting was done through all the mountainous regions 
of the Territory, and many rich and valuable discov- 
eries were made at different points. Some of these 
discoveries were back of the Ciilorado River to the 
east of La Paz and Ehrenburg, but owing to a want 
of water have never been worked extensively. Could 
water be obtained for hydraulic washing, these local- 
ities would pay exceedingly well for many years. 
Dry washing machines have of late been introduced, 
whicli, under favorable circumstances, work quite sat- 
isfactorily, and it is supposed they will be bo im- 
proved as to produce good resnlta, and be the me,an3 
of working out large tracts of placer mines, where it 
would be impossible to obtain a water supply. If 
perfectly successful they will add much to the product 
of the gold placers. 

64 ARIZONA. ^^H 

In 1862 and 1863, old Uucle Joe Walker, Paul 
Weaver, Jack Swilling, Henry Wickenbui-g, Mr. 
Peeples, and other noted prospectora and pioneers, 
devoted much time to the exploration of Central and 
Northern Arizona, and discovered many rich pla- 
cers on the Hassayampa, Lynx, Big Bng, and other 
Creeks, in what is now Yavapai County, and in July, 
1863, the rich placers of Weaver Gulch were discov- 
ered by them, and a Mexican working with Weaver, 
Swilling, Peeples, & Co. discovered Rich, or Ante- 
lope Hill, about the same time. This hill is twenty- 
eight miles north of Wickeiihurg, and near the road 
running from Wickenburg to Prescott. Weaver Gnlch 
is on the east of the Rich Hill, and both the summit of 
the hill and the gulch were enormously rich. Ante- 
lope Hill was one of the most strange discoveries ever 
yet made in mining. The summit is aome.two thou- I 
sand feet above the surrounding valleys below, and on 
it there is a slight depression, resembling a saddle 
back, of less than one acre of ground with but littla 
earth covering the granite rock. In this depression 
of land a few men took out, in less than three months, , 
$108,000 in nngget gold, from the size of a pin head 
to that of five or six hundred dollars in value. 

A common belt or hunter's knife was the only ( 
implement used in the work, the gold being found 
in crevices and pockets, and to some extent on the 
smooth, bare rock. The gold was worn smooth and 

GOLD. 65 

round, like that found in the rivers and gulches of 
California and elsewhere. How the gold came upon 
the mountain's summit in such quantities, smooth and 
water-worn, is a query which has puzzled most old 
miners, who advocate different theories ; but the most 
natural explanation is, that a rich surface lode of 
gold-bearing quartz, running across the mountains, 
became decomposed and in the process of time, in- 
cluding perhaps many thousand years, the action of 
water, and wearing away of the rocks by erosion, had 
rounded and worn smooth the gold, and left it a? 
when discovered. Work is yet carried on at Weavei 
-Gulch, and on Antelope Hill, and some large nuggets 
are occasionally found. 

A half million dollars or more has been taken from 
these mines, and when water is plenty in the gulch 
fair wages can yet be made. 

Another rich mining camp was at the " Placeritas," 
some fifteen miles northeast of Antelope Hill, where 
large quantities of gold have been extracted, and 
which are yet worked during the rainy seasons of the 

The mines on the Hassayampa Creek, ten miles 
south of Prescott, have been worked since 1863, and 
are yet yielding well in different localities. 

The mines on Lynx Creek, ten miles east from 
Prescott, have also been worked since 1863, and have 
yielded large amounts of gold. They are yet worked 


to some extent, aa alao the mines on Big Bug, Turkey, 
aud other small creeks in Bradahaw Range, east and 
south of Prescott. 

The " Cafiadii de Oro," thirty-five miles north from 
Tucson, in Pima County, is an extensive and lich 
placer gold deposit, and was worked a, hundred years ■ 
or more since by the Jesuits, who employed Indian J 
laborers. Evidences of tlieir work can yet be seen. 
The CaHada de Oro Creek furnishes water sufficient 
for hydraulic mining at these placers, and with the 
expenditure of a few thousiind dollars a successfa] 
mining camp would spring into life at this locality. 1 
Some gentlemen in Tucson have located these mineSt-] 
and it is to be hoped that they will soon push their. I 
work to a success. 

In the winter of 1874r-75, some rich placers were 
discovered in the northern spurs of the Santa Rita 
monntilina, by Messrs. Smith, Ray, Hand, and others, 
which have yielded quite well, and which would yield 
a large amount of gold, was there water sufficient for 
hydraulic working. The yield has been remarkably 
large for the small amount of water that can be u 
ized for washing out the gold. 

Many other placers have been discovered in diffeiv 
ent portions of ttie Territory, sorae of which are v 
rich but not extensive. The placer mines of Arizontf: 
are not extensive, like those of California in its earl4^ 
days, and perhaps tlie world will never see again t 





ft ^ 


like, either in extent or richness, as was witnessed 
in California from 1849 to 1860. 

Wonderful reports have been circulated, from time 
to time, of rich placers in the northern and eastern 
parts of the Territory, which are said to have been 
seen by explorers long since, or by captives among 
the Apaches, and several expeditions have been fitted 
out for their discovery, but as yet without success. 
Some of these wonderful reports may be true, but 
doubtless many of them are more imaginary than real. 

Tlie great and permanent mineral wealth of the 
territory is in its numerous rich and extensive lodes 
of gold, silver, copper, and lead. 

These lodes are found in almost every mountain, 
hill, and picacho peak in the Territory. Wherever 
one may go, north, south, east, or west, these lodes 
are found in almost endless profusion. 

In Yuma County, in the southwestern part of the 
Territory, the most prominent mines are those of the 
Castle Dome district, forty miles northeast from 
Yuma. These mines are principally argentiferous 
galena and copper. The lodes are large and well 
defined, and most of them are very rich. 

The principal argentiferous galena lodes are the 
Flora Temple, a four foot vein owned by N. Gunther 
& Co. ; the Buckeye, a four foot vein owned by 
Miller, Berry, & Co. ; the McLane, a four foot Vein 
owned by Charles E. McLane ; the Little Willie, a 

two and a half foot vein, owned by William P. Miller 
,& Co. J tbe Big Dome, n three foot vein owned by E. 
Battia, all of which yield from thirty to sixty-five per 
cent. lead, and from twenty to thirty ounces of silver 
per ton. . There are other lodea equally as promising 
as the foregoing. 

The principal copper ludes in the district ave as 
follows: The Montezuma, an enormons twelve foot 
vein, owned by Messra. Miller & Minear ; the Cortez, 
another great vein, twelve feet wide, owned by G. D. 
Roberts & Co. ; the Ellen Gowen, a seven foot vein 
owned by Willimn P. Miller ; the St. Charles, a six 
foot vein owned by Charles Baker & Co. The two 
first of these give a yield of thirty to sixty per cent. 
of copper, and from thirty to forty-five ounces per ton 
in silver. The Ellen Gowen vein yields from thirty 
to forty-five per cent, of copper, and over sixty ounces 
of silver per ton. The St. Charles vein yields about 
the same as the othei-a in copper, and in places is very 
rich in silver, yielding at times over one hundred 
ounces per ton. Nunicrons other locations have been 
made in the district, enough to warrant the belief, 
that when this district is fully opened the yield of 
silver, copper, and lead, will be very large, and add 
much to the future product of the conntry. 

The Castle Dnnie mines are in the Color-.ido River 
range of monntiunB, and from ten to twenty miles 
east of the river, and are easily approached from 


Caatle Dome Liintling, where a brisk little town is 
beiug built up. Further north, in the same moun- 
tain range, there are locations of gold and silver 
mines at different points, fov two Liuidreil miles or 
more, some of which are veiy promising, 

The Planet Copper Mine is in the extreme north- 
ern part of Yuma County, on the south of Bill Wil- 
liams Fork, which stream is the dividing Hne be- 
tween Tuma and Mohave counties. The mine is 
twelve mites east of Aubrey on the Colorado liiver, 
and was discovered in 1863, and has been worked in 
a desultory manner ever since. The ore yields from 
twenty-five to sixty per cent, in copper, and there has 
been a total yield of ore from the mine of over 8,000 
tons, most of which has been shipped to, and sold in 
San Francisco at a fair profit. 

The distance from Aubrey to San Franciaeo by 
water, being about 2,200 miles, and the freight high, 
it will be readily perceived that ore must be very 
rich to pay freight and other charges, and return a 
profit to the owners. 

Moliave County is the northwestern one of the 
Territory, and a large portion of it is distinctly a 
ilueral region. From Bill Williams Fork on the 
sonth, and extending thence north through the region 
of the Sandy, and tlience throngh the Hualapai, Cei-- 
bat, Peacock, and other monntain ranges, there is a 
continued succession of mineral veins of great extent 

been opened^^l 
iome are be^^H 

and richness. Many of these veins have beei 
with the most fluttering prospects, and 
ing thoroughly worked. In the sotithern part of the 
county the lodes are very large, being from ten to 
nearly or quite one hundred feet wide, and traceable 
in BOine instances for many miles. In tlie central part 
of the county, in the northern spurs of the Hualapai 
Mountains, and in the Cerbat aud I'eacock 
tains, the mineral lodes are not as large as further 
south, but extremely rich. The principal veins are 
argentiferous galena, yet there are many promising 
lodes of gold, and some almost wholly of silver. But 
few of the many hundreds and thousands of mines 
located in Mohave County can be specially men^ 
tioued, but snfEcient to give the i-eader a general 
idea of the mineral wealth of the county. 

The McCracken Mine is in the southern part of 
Mohave County, thirty miles east of the Colorado 
River, with a good roadway back and forth. It IB 
six miles north of Bill WiltianiB Fork, and twelvO' 
miles west of Sandy Creek. This mine was discovered' 
August 17, 1874, by Measra. McCracken aud Owen, 
who yet own a large intei'est in the mine. It ia now. 
incorporated uuder the laws of California, with the 
Hon. Eugene Caeserly as President, I. C. Batemati, 
Vice-pi-esldeut, and H. Augustus Whiting, Secretary** 

The lode runs nearly due north and south, directly 
over a high mountain spur, known as McCracki 




Hill, This hill baa an eluvation of about two thou- 
sand feet above the sun-oundiog valleys. It is an 
immense vein, being in places over eighty feet wide 
at the surface. It is traceable for about two miles 
by surface ontKii'opping, and out^cropa at different 
places on the south for ten or fifteen miles. 

In some respects this mine differs from all others 
on the Pacijic Slope, the formation being a spar 
gangne or matrix, in granitic or primitive formation, 
Not a particle of quartz has been found in the inine, 
and as quartz has ever been considered the true 
matrix of gold and silver, the mine is a cuiiosity, 
and well worth the study of tlie scientific. The out- 
croppings of the mine on the suiwmit of McCracken 
Hill can be seen for many miles, the spar having a 
dark burned appearance, caused by the hot burning 
Bun of thousands of years. At a distance it looks 
like a black volcanic dyke, and for many years pro- 
Bpectors had so considered it, and had passed by the 
mountain without an examination. The McCi'iicken 
Company own two mining claims of fifteen hundred 
feefc eiieh in length, named tho Senator and Alta, 
The mine is now the best developed in the Territory, 
having over seven hundred feet of shafting, and over 
twelve hundred feet of tixnneU. The deepest shaft 
is three hundred anil sixty-seven feet, and the shafts, 
and over one thousand feet of the tunnels are in vein 
matter all the way. The first class milling ore gives 


by assay an aTerage of 896 per ton, and the coi 
pany's ten stamp mill at Greenwood, on the Sandy, 
works this ore np to aJxty-five per cent, of the assay. 
Tlie bullion produced averages 985 fine. 

The second class milling ore, of which over five 
thousand tons are now on the dump pile, gives 1^, 
assay over $65 per ton. 

Twenty samples, taken promiscuously by the 
thor from the dump pile, gave by assay $67.54- pet 
ton. There are small atrataa of carbonate ore carry- 
ing much lead, and excellent for smelting, which has 
sold in San Francisco for an average of $237 per ton, 
in silver, and yielding in addition twenty per cent, 
of lead. In the different shafts, tunnels, and drifts, 
the ore has in no place been worked out from hang- 
ing to foot walls, and therefore tlie actual width of 
vein matter at one, two, and three hundred feet 
depth, is unknown. In seven different chambers, 
the workings are from twenty-five to forty-two feet 
wide, and there is sufficient assurance to pronounce 
the McCracken one of the great mines of the world. 
In addition to the ten stamp mill at Greenwood, the 
company are now making arrangements to erect a 
new and much larger quartz mill the present year. 

Coat of labor at the mine and mill four dollars per 
day. Wood, delivered, costs five dollars per curd. 
The coat of hauling ore from the mine to the mill is 
twelve dollars per ton. The amount of ore now 


r mined, 
r tained, 


mined, and workiug value, is, as near as can be aacer- 
tained, as follows : Two thousand tons of fivat class 
ore at aixtj-five dollars per ton, working value, and 
five thousand tons of second class ore at forty-five 
dollars per ton, working value, gives a total o£ 
$365,000 of ore now mined. The great want at the 
mine at present is water, of which none has yet been 
developed in the mine, and for drinking, culinary, 
and other purposes, water is now brought from Caa- 
tenado'a well, eight miles distant. 

The company's office is at rooms 7 and 9 Hay- 
ward's Block, San Francisco, where further and full 
information can be obtained of the mine, etc. 

The first north extension of the McCracken is the 
San Frjincisco Mine, also incorporated, which is being 
opened successfully, and a large mill is to be erected 
the present year for working the ores, which are 
equally promising, both in extent and richness, to the 
McCracken. The extensions south are also being 
opened, and all look well. 

Sis miles south the vein out-crops again, and at 
this point Messrs. Cory and Fotts, and some other 
parties, have good prospects for valuable and extcn- 
sive mines, 

The whole country to the north from the Mc- 
Cracken Mine, and from Greenwood for over one 
hundi'ed miles, contains continued successions o* min- 
eral lodes of wondrous extent and richness. These 


mines are mostly avgeiitiferoua g-<ilen», some of themj 
Laving a fair showing of gold. By a judicious ex-> 
peiiditiire of time and money, this whole extent of 1 
country will in due time become a source of gi'eat 
mineral wealth. 

Ill the river I'ange of mountains to the northwest 
of the McCnicben Mine, there are numerous lodes 
of gold and silver, some of which have been worked 
in former yeai-s, but are now lying idle. Among the i 
number is the Moss Gold Mine, from which ranch rich . 
mineral was taken in yeara past. This mine is fifteen . 
miles east fi-om Camp Mohave, on the Colorado 

In the northern portion of the Hualapai Moun- 
tains, there are many valuable mines of both gold i 
and silver. 

The Dean Mine, gold bearing, has been snccesa- , 
fully opened with the most flattering prospects, suf- , 
ficient to induce the company to erect a ten stamp i 
mill, which will be erected the present yes 

The American FIj^ Mine, silver bearing, owned i 
by Mr. ShouUers, has been fully opened, and is very 
rich. Fifty tons of ore worked in the Mineral Park 
Mill, gave a product of from $300 to over $1,000 per 
ton in refined silver bullion. The American Flag 
Mine is near the summit of the Hualapai Mountains, 
and about thirty-five miles southeast from Mineral 


One hundred or more mines have been located in 
the Hualapaia, but to the present time butfew of 
them have been opened. Many of them give promise 
of exceeding richness, and the district, when well de- 
veloped, will yield a large amount of gold and silver 
bullion. Wood and water are both abundant, offer- 
ing fine inducements for both mining and milling 

The Cerbat Mountains, for an extent of thirty 
miles north and south, are a perfect network of min- 
eral veins, including gold, silver, and lead, and of 
exceeding richness. The mineral lodes of the Cer- 
bat range are small in comparison to those in the 
southern part of Mohave County, but make up to a 
great degree in richness what they lack in size and 
extent. These lodes range from one to three feet in 
width at a depth of twenty to one hundred feet. 
Many of theni have been fully opened and prospected, 
and are now being worked BUCcessfuUy, The great 
hindrance to Eucceasful mining operations In the 
Cevbat MoinitainH, has been the want of reduction 
worka. Tiiia has been partially remedied by the erec- 
tion of a five stamp quartz mill at Mineral Park, which 
was put in successful operation February 22, 1876. 
The Mineral Park Miil Company have, since their 
mill was put in operation, worked ore for many dif- 
ferent mines, all of which has paid extremely well, 
running from $100 to Sil.OOO per ton. A few only 


undreds in ^^H 


of the muiea can be mentioned, of the tundreda i 

the Cerbat Mountnins. 

Cevbat, the county seat of the county, is in the 
smithern spurs of the mountains, Stockton Hill being 
three miles northeast, and Miiiei'aV Park six miles to 
the north. This description of location will give the 
reader some idea of the particular locality of the , 
minea hereafter mentioned. 

The Fontenoy Mine, one raile east of Cerbat, is I 
well opened by five shafts from twenty-five to one \ 
hundred feet each. The vein matter is eight inches to 
two feet wide, and works from $142 to $530 per ton 
in silver. Seventeen tons sold in San Francisco for 
■over $500 per ton. Ownei-s, Canavan & Mulligan. 

Tlie New York Mine, owned by Mulligan, is bnt a 
short distance from the Fontenoy and very similar to 
it. The ore pays from $100 to $600 per ton in silver. 

The Sixty-three Mine, two miles northeast from, was discovered in 1863, and has been success- 
fully worked at intervals since that time. Over fifty 
tons of ore sold in San Francisco foi- $600 per ton, 
and large amounts of ore have been worked at the 
Mineral Park Mill and elsewhere, paying an average 
of 1200 per ton in refined bullion. The vein matter 
is from one to three feet wide. The mine is incorpo- 
rated, and the company are erecting reduction works 
at Cerbat, under the superintendence of Mr. Scale, 
one of the owners. 




The Mocking-bii-d Mine, a ball mile from the Sixty- 
three Mine, has a fine two foot vein of gray and blue 
sulphurets of silver, inclosing specimens of green born 
silver. The ore assays from $200 to $1,000 per ton, 
and twenty tons worked in the Mineral Pai'k Mill 
gave an average of $700 per ton, silver bullion. 
Ownei-8, Riley & Co. successor to Miley & Riiey, the 
original owners. 

At Stockton Hill there are a large number of 
promising mines now opened and being worked. 
Among tbe number is a cluster of five, named re- 
spectively the Little Tiger, Dolly Varden, Cupel, 
Edward Everett, and Alba Stevens ; all of which are 
quite i-ich in silver, and from eight to twenty inches 
of vein matter. Fifty tons of ore from these veins 
sold in San Francisco for over $500 per ton, and a 
large amount has been worked in the country. All 
has paid an average of over $200 per ton. Owners, 
Messrs. Cory & Potta. 

There are many other lodes of silver rnnning 
through this portion of the Cerbat Mountains, some 
of which have been opened and are now being worked 
to some extent. Among the number are the Tiger, 
Monitor, Franklin, I, X, L,, Legal Tender, Snow- 
flake, Lorena, Coutinental, Little Chief, etc., etc. AH 
of the foregoing are rich veins from one to four feet 
wide, and the ore assays from liSlOO to $1,000 per ton 
Selected specimens assay as high as $5,000 to '$10,000 


por ton. There is no doubt but Stockton Hilt \ 

iU ' 

ere loii^ make a fine allowing of her product of silver 
bullion. A quartz mill is mncli needed, and one for 
custom work would pay well, as fifty dollars per ton 
^'Ollld be readily paid for reducing ores. 

The Oro Plata Mine carries both gold and silver, 
as its name implies. It is two and a half miles north 
from Cerbiit, ii well defined two foot vein, owned by 
Messrs Cody and Layne, who have several other good 
mining properties in the Cevbat Range, The ore 
pays from $200 to $1,000 per ton. Large quantities 
have been worked in years piist by Mexicans, in the 
common araatra, with large profits. 

To the south and southwest of Cerbat are a large 
number of mines, mostly argentiferous galena, and 
gold intermixed with silver. Of the niiniber the 
Viinderbilt, Champion, and Twins, owned by the 
Cerbat Mining Company, are among the most prom- 
inent. The Vanderbilt and Twins cany both gold 
and silver, and yield by working from $100 to $400 
per ton. Tiie Champion is a large six foot vein, car- 
rying some free gold, with silver and lead, and woika 
about $70 per ton. 

The O'Fallon Mine, four miles south of Cerbat, ia 
owned by Johnson & Co., and carries both gold and 
silver, — vein two feet wide. A shipment of several 
tons of ore to San Fra)icisco paid the owners an 
average of $300 per ton. 


There are manj^ scores of other mines located 
around Cerbat, equally as promising as those men- 
tioned. Those east of the town are mostly silver, 
while those to the west, running north and south, are 
gold and silver, and some heavy lodes of argentifer- 
ous galena. 

At and around Mineral Park, in all directions, 
there are numerous rich and promising mines of sil- 
ver and argentiferous galena, with a small percent- 
age of gold in some, and an intermixture of other 
mineral substances. Some of these have been opened 
and are being worked quite successfully, among which 
are the following : — 

The Keystone Mine, incorporated in California, is 
a few hundred yards north of the town, and has a 
vein of mineral from one to three feet in width, con- 
sisting of gray antimonial silver, carrying ruby and 
native silver, zinc pyrites and sulphurets of iron, and 
a trace of copper. Several hundred tons of this ore 
worked in the Mineral Park Mill has yielded an 
average of $200 per ton in refined bullion, and some 
lots have worked as high as $500 per ton. The 
claim west of the Keystone Mine, and on the same 
lode, is owned by the Hon. William H, Hardy & 
Co., and is equally promising. 

The Lone Star Mine is one mile northeast of the 
town, and is incorporated under the laws of Arizona. 
It carries beautiful ore, rich in horn, ruby, and native 


ailver, ami yieUs in working from $200 to $600 per 3 
ton. The miue is well developed, and gives promise i 
of becoming a splendid and penniinent property. 

The Metallic Accident Mine, discovered by ai 
dent as tlie name implies, is owned by T. J. CLiistie, ■ 
its discoverer, who located it but little over one yeaci 
since. Tbe mining property covered by tlie Metallio ] 
locution consists of a lai-ge and heavy loile of low j 
grade ore on tbe surface, and includes several small j 
veins or feeders, which rnn into the main lode. ' 
These feeders are extremely rich and are from eight 
to fourteen inches wide. Some thirty tons sold in 
San Francisco for $1,000 per ton. Tliis was first claaa 
selected ore ; specimens from this mine assay thou- 
sands of dollars per ton. Second ciass ore yielilsfrom 
$300 to $500 per ton. There is but little doubt that 
when this mine is worked to a proper depth, it will 1 
become one of the most productive in tbe Territory. ' 

She-rum Peak is the highest point of tbe Cerbat 
Mountains, four miles northeast from Mineral Park, 
and well up its southern side there is an immense 
Fein of low grade ore, located by Messrs. Mix & Co,,, 
which in time will become a great and valuable mia-4 
ing property. 

Tbe Index Mine, owned by Messrs. Haas & Co., is i 
a good twenty inch vein, one mile northeast of Min-- 
eral Park, from which five tons of ore worked in the J 
Mineral Park Mill yielded an average of $236 per ton J 



The Laporte Mine, owned by Davison & Co., south 
of the Ifldes, gave by assay $534 per ton, and the ore 
will work from -SlSOO to 8i400 per ton. A large num- 
ber of other mines similar to the foregoing are well 
prospected, and some are being worked quite success- 

Many heavy lodes of fine smelting ore are in the 
vicinity, which carry fi'om twenty to sixty per cent. 
of lead, and from thirty dollars to one hundred dollars 
per ton in silver. L. C. Welbourue, and others, have 
locations of this character, some of which are to the 
west and southwest of town, and some to the west 
and north from She-rum Peak, 

Chloride Flat is six miles north of Mineral Park, 
in the low foot hills and level land on the west of 
the Cerbat Range. This disti-ict was prospected and 
worked to some extent ten or twelve years since, but 
owing to the continued hostility of the Huaiapai In- 
dians, who murdered many of the miners, and from 
other causes, the camp became almost deserted, and 
remains so to the present time. Two smelting fur- 
naces were at one time erected at Chloride, one of 
which is now in miiis, and the other has remained 
idle for several years. The ores of this district are 
mostly chlorides, and heavy veins of argentiferous 
galena. Some indications of cinnabar exist, but none 
sufficient to warrant the belief that that mineral ex- 
ists there in paying quantities. One of the first loca^ 


tions made at Chloride Flat was on what is called 
Silver Hill, in 1864, but operations were broken up 
by the murder of those working it by the Hualapais, 
one being shot at the windlass, and two others killed 
by stones while in the shaft. Several other miners 
were killed in the vicinity about the same time, and 
for years all work was virtually broken up. The 
mine on Silver Hill is a four foot vein, and the ore 
pays from flOO to f 300 per ton. No systematic 
work has been done on it for years, but just suffi- 
cient to keep up a title to the mine. This is the 
case with thousands of mines in the Territory, and 
though the law operates in some respects to the bene- 
fit of prospectors and miners, its general tendency is 
to retard the advancement and prosperity of the Ter- 
ritory. In the older States, during the past few 
years of hard times, thousands of landholders com 
plain of being "land poor," and the same may be 
said of hundreds of miners who own locations in 
many different mining districts, and are unable to 
develop any of them, yet hold on to all, hoping, 
Micawber like, that something will turn up to their 
advantage. Could miners see, and understand, that 
one well developed mine is worth more than a hun- 
dred undeveloped ones, and that by continual pros- 
pecting and locating new mines, they are continually 
gi-owing poorer and poorer, they and the country 
would both enter upon a new career of prosperity 




by the new departure. Miners and prospectors, think 
of this, and act for j^our own and the country's good. 
The following are some of the most conspicuous mines 
at Chloride Flat : — 

'^ii^he Schuylkill Mine is close by the old Baker fur- 
nace, a well defined four foot vein of fine argentifer- 
ous galena, and a good smelting ore. It yields from 
twenty to sixty per cent, lead, and an average of $45 
per ton in silver. 

The Schenectady Mine is a parallel lode to the 
Schuylkill, and to the east a few hundred yards. The 
ore is similar in character but richer in silver, yield- 
ing from $50 to $200 per ton. 

The Albany Mine is the first extension north 
on the Schenectady Lode, and is equally promising. 
The vein widens out in places to eight feet, and 
yields some fine carbonate ore. The Schenectady 
and Albany mines have a solid body of mineral two 
feet wide, and the vein matter is fully four feet. 

The Empire Mine is one mile further up the ra- 
vine, an immense lode, from two to twenty feet wide, 
of argentiferous galena and chloride ores, which 
yield an average of $210 to $256 per ton by actual 
working. Selected specimens assay $3,000 per ton. 
The mine is owned by the Cerbat Mining Com- 
pany, of which W. H. Raymond of San Francisco is 
one of the principal stockholders. The company have 
many fine locations at Choride, and also at Cerbat. 


To the west of the Empire Mine, some four huu- 
dred yards, Mi-. Raymond has iiidivitlualty a mine 
called the Sunday-school, from which two lots of ore 
have been worked, one paying $191 per ton, and the 
other S500 per ton. Both of. the last named mt^^ 
are good milling ores. j 

The Blue Dick, Senator, and HL-rmit mines, are aS 
less than one mile east from the Empire, and are 
owned respectively by Winham & Reauy, Ashton, 
and Mr. Reany. They each carry silver, lead, and a 
trace of gold, and the owners claim a fine showing of 

Independence Mine No. 1 is one mile east from 
Chloride Flat, a well defined six foot vein of argen- 
tiferous galena, yielding by assay from 1^50 to $500 
per ton in silver. 

Independence No. 2 is one mile northeast from 
Chloride, and is owned by Ridenour & Spear. The 
vein is three feet wide, and ten tons of the ore sold in 
San Francisco for $480 per ton. 

The Oriental Mine, owned by E. Martin Smith, is 
south of Independence No. 1, and the vein matter, 
which is from five to twenty feet wide, assays from 
$100 to $300 per ton. The ore is a carbonate axu 
argentiferous giilena, with a trace of gold. 

The Rose Bud and Porter mines are midway 
tween Chloride and Mineral Park, having well d&- 
fined veins of mineral. Ore from the Rose Bud piud 


by arastra working $300 per ton, and thirty tona 
from, the Porter sold in San Francisco for $300 per 
ton. At a depth oE fifty feet these veins run into a 
water formation and change from chlorides and car- 
bonates to rich snlphnrets, 

The Black Sniike Mine, in the same locality, ia 
owned by W. M. Hardy. The ore is a fine chloride, 
which by mill process yields from |l200 to $300 per 

The Conner Mine, one mile from the Black Snake, 
ia a rich chloride and carbonate ore, with considerable 
gold. One lot of thirty tons yielded $400 per ton, 
and selected ore assays as much as $5,000 per ton. It 
is owned by Messrs. Canavan & Smith. 

The Quaker Mine, a half mile north of Chloride 
Camp, is a large lode, varying from ten to twenty- 
two fe^t in width. It is a low grade ore, yielding 
from $30 to $60 per ton in silver. The ores are 
Bulphurets, carbonates, and argentiferous galena. 

The first extension north on the Quaker Lode is 
owned by Messrs. Towle & Co., and is called the 
Cady Mine, and is similar in chariict«r and extent to 
the Qnaker. 

The Virginia Mine, one mile northwest, is a good 
two foot vein of gray chloride and sulphurets of sil- 
ver, which assay from $100 to $1,000 per ton. It 
is owned by H, Ashton. 

The Pennsylvania Mine ia owned by 0. Groom, and 


IS a four foot vein of chloride ore, two miles west of 
Chloride Camp. At a depth of forty feet, it changes 
to rich sulphurets at the water line. Fine specimens 
of horn silver are intermixed with the chloride ore. 
Ten tons of this ore gave an average yield of $200 
per ton, and selected ore assays $1,000 per ton. 
When suitable hoisting and pumping works are 
erected, and the mine worked thoroughly, it will be- 
come a valuable property. 

The Diana Mine, owned by Rogei-s & Doniphan, 
and the Pink Eye Mine, owned by J. Barnes & Co., 
are one half mile cast from the Pennsylvania, and 
each have veins of from two to four feet wide of rich 
chloride ores, which assay from $300 to $3,000 per 
ton. Thirty-five tons gave by working over $300 
per ton average. 

There are numerous other lodes of equally valu- 
able mineral in and around Chloride Flat. Many 
of these run well up in the foot hills of the Cerbat 
Range, and others extend far down into the Sacra- 
mento Valley to the west. 

In the main range of the mountains north of 
She-rum Peak many locations have been made, but 
few of them, however, have been thoroughly pro- 
spected or worked. The whole range is mineral bear- 
ing, except a narrow strip on its eastern declivit3^ 
But few of the hundreds of mines located in the Cer- 
bat Mountains have as yet been opened or worked, 


but eiiougli iii them Lave been thoroiigbly prospected 
to warrant tbe belief that these mountains have an 
almost inexhaustible supply of the precious metnls. 

Prospecting ia as brisk as ever, and new discov- 
eries are being made continually. Wood ia quite 
plentiful in the mountains and in places there are 
fine springs of water, yet there ia a scarcity of water 
at present for large reduction works. Wlien the 
mines are worked to sufficient <Iepth, a goi;>d water 
supply will be obtained for all practical purpose. 
At Chloride - Flat, and Stockton Hill, tbe water ia 
excelleut for drinking and culinary purposes, but at 
Mineral Park and Cerbiit, much of tbe spring water 
ia strongly impregnated with mineral, and unpleasant 
to Strang!? rs. 

The Peacock Mountains are about twenty-five 
milea east of the Cerbat Range, and to the east of 
the beautiful Huahipai Valley, which intervenes be- 
tween the two mnges. In the Peacock Mountains 
Bome fine mineral lodes have been located, one of 
which is deserving of a full and special mention. In 
October, 1874, William Ridenoui, S. Crozier, and two 
others parties discovered a wonderful rich lode, which 
tliey named the Hackberry Mine, in honor of a large 
hackberry tree near a spring of tbe same name. 
This tree gave them shelter and shade, and under 
its protecting brunches they made their home for 
piany weeks. Prior to the discovery of this mine, 


tonr to the^H 

ions of the ^H 

the party had been on a, prospecting tonr 
north, far down towiirda the Grand Canons 
main and little Colhrado, where tliey were attacked 
by Indians and barely escaped with their lives, losing, 
however, their animals, mining toola, food, and cloth- 
ing. After long wandering, they succeeded in reach- 
ing Mineral Park, nearly dead with fatigue and 
hnnger. After a. few days of reafc, they again started 
out on another prospecting tour, and were fortunate 
in finding the Hackberry Mine, which is destined to 
become one of the noted ones of our country. 

The Hackberry Mine is in the foot hills of the 
OHstem declivities of the Peacock Mountains. The 
lode has a nearly due north and south course, and 
has been traced for several miles. Two locations 
were made by the discoverers, the Hitckberry and 
the Hackberry South. Messrs. Ridenonr & Crozier, 
in the division, took the Hackberry, and the other 
pivrtnera the Hackberry South, which tliey sold aoon 
after to the Mineral Park Mill Company for $12,000. 
Messrs. Ridenonr & Crozier, though without money, 
had what ia better, grit, vim, and energy, and a good 
mining experience, and went to work with a will to 
develop the mine. In the winter of 1875-76, Messrs. 
Davis & Randall erected a five stamp mill near the 
Hackberry spring, and when completed in March, 
1876, it was included in the HackbeiTy property, and 
Messrs. Davis & Randall became part owners in the 



property. In October, 1876, the property was incor- 
porated at San Francisco, under the laws of Ciilifor- 
niu, with WUliara H, Raymond as President, and E. 
Martin Smith, Secretary, the character of both these 
gentlemen being such as to give perfect confidence 
in the organiaition, and in the value of the property. 

The Hackberry Mine has been opened at five dif- 
ferent points to a depth of fifty to over two hundred 
feet, and all the openings sliow a continuous body of 
rich mineral, from one to five feet wide, which in- 
creases in width regularly as the work goes down. 
On the surface the pay ore is from one foot to sixteen 
inches \cide, and at two hundred fiwt deep the ore 
has widened out to five feet, and equally rich as at 
the surface. The ore body is all worked in the mill, 
and pays regularly S^SOO per ton. 

Rich strataa are found which will yield $1,000 
to the ton. To a depth of one hundred and sixty 
feet the ore is a free milling ore, and does not re- 
quire roasting ; but below that depth rich sulphu- 
rets abound, and it requires roasting. The -com- 
pany are now erecting a furnace, and when completed 
the product of silver bullion will he much increased. 
Over five liundi-ed tons of ore have been worked, with 
results as before stated. 

The geological formation is granite, with dykes of 
■late, quartzites, talc, and pipe clay. The inclosing 
pnnite vralls are from thirty to one hundred feet 


apart. The ore at the mill battery has averaged 
$247 per ton, and there is now mined nearly one 
thousand tons of ore ready for working when the fur- 
nace is completed and in operation. Adjoining the 
wall rock of granite on the east is a quartzite from 
five to fifteen feet wide, then a talc of about the 
same width, then the mineral vein ; to the west of 
the mineral body a pipe and fire clay fifteen to tliirty 
feet, then a narrow, soft quartzite, and adjoining this 
a red water-bearing conglomerate, which meets the 
granite wall rock on the west. A careful and critical 
examination conveys the impression that at a suf- 
ficient depth the whole space between the granite 
walls will be filled with mineral, in which event it 
will become a Bonanza mine, equal to the most 
noted in the world. 

When incorporated, Messrs. Ridenour and Crozier 
owned three fourths of the mine and mill, and Messrs. 
Davis and Randall one fourth. The foregoing is but 
a brief and imperfect description of the Hackberry 
Mine, made from a personal examination by the 
author. $75,000 of bullion produced to date. 

To the east and north of the Hackberry Mine 
are other promising mining locations worthy of men- 
tion, but which cannot be described or enumerated 
in this work. 

Wood of an excellent quality and in abundance ex- 
sts in the Peacock Mountains, close by the Hack- 


berry Mill and Mine, and many fine springs of ex- 
cellent water. 

The eastern part of Mohave, and the western part 
of Yavapai County, are to a certain extent desti- 
tute of mineral, yet in several localities good indi- 
cations exist, and when the country is thoroughly 
prospected, no doubt valuable discoveries will be 

The central and southern portions of Yavapai 
County, which is the nortlieastern county in the Ter- 
ritory, may be said to be literally a mass of mineral 
lodes of gold, silver, copper, and lead, and a volume 
might be written descriptive of them without ex- 
hausting the subject. Silver, gold, and lead are found 
over the whole extent, and copper principally in 
the mountains and foot hills twenty to thirty miles 
southwest of Prescott, and on the upper watere of 
the Santa Maria Creek, which is the main eastern 
branch of Bill Williams Fork. 

From the southern spui-s of the Bradshaw Moun- 
tains, near Salt River, and extending thence north for 
a hundred miles or more, to the northern spurs of 
the Black Hills, there is a continued succession of rich 
lodes of gold, silver, and argentiferous galena. 

In the northern and western portions of this great 
mineral belt, gold predominates, and in the central 
^nd southern, silver ; but the two minerals are found 
intermixed to some extent through the whole belt. 


Some good locations of copper are also found in th( 
eastern declivities and foot hills of the Brudshat^ 
and contiguous mouutains. Twenty miles Boutheai 
fioin Prescott, and thirty miles northeast, in i 
around the Black Hills, many fine veins of coppi 
have been located, but they will not be worked inuoj 
until the country is traversed by railroads. 

The following is a brief description of some of tlM 
principal mines hi Yavapai County : — 

The Vulture Mine ia in the southwest part of t 
county, some ten miles south from Wickenburg, and 
was discovered in October, 1S63, by Henry Wicken- 
burg, one of the early prospectors of the Territoi-y. 
It is gold bearing, and a rich and extensive ] 
Mr. Wickenburg worked it for some time alone, anw 
then James A. Moore became interested with himJ 
It required great nerve and energy to work it, as the* 
Indiana were very hostile, requiring constant watchJ 
fulness and continued preparation for battle w 
them. The mine was afterwards sold to the Vult^ 
Mining Company for $85,000, and was worked sat^^fl 
cessfuUy for a time, and yielded large amounts t 
gold bullion, aggregiiting, as is believed, from on 
to two million dollars. For reasons unknown to thffi 
community, and under suspicious circumstances, worl^ 
both at the mill and mine was suddenly auspendedJ 
and for sereral years the mill has lain idle, 
three years since Mr. William Smith, who has re*J 

located a portion or all of the lode, erected a. ten 
Btamp mill twelve miles to tlie east of the mine, on 
the Haasayampa, and has been working the ore with 
fair profit. 

The vein ts from two to twenty feet wide, and in 
places of great richness. Mr, Smith has been work- 
ing surface ore principally, which yields an average 
of $35 per ton. Doctor Jones, one of the best in- 
formed scieutific miners in the Territory, is con- 
nected in some manner with Mr. Smith in the Vnl- 
tnve Mine, and has great confidence in its future. 
The Doctor has many mining interests scattered far 
and wide through tlie Territory, and is probiibly as 
well infoiTned respecting its mineral wealth aa any 
one tliere. 

Many other lodes of gold and silver are located all 
through the section of country in and about Wicken- 
bui^. Ai^ntiferous galena lodes are also numer- 
ous, and one owned by a well-known old pioneer, 
known as Black Jack, a few miles east of the Vul- 
ture Mine, is claimed to be one of the best for smelts 
ing pui-posea of any in the Territoiy. 

In the mountains east of the Hassayampa Ci'eek 
several promising lodes have lately been discovered, 
»nd are now being prospected with promises of good 

Further up the Hassayampa, in the vicinity of 
Waluut Grove, and some twenty-five miles south 


from Prescott, there are a number of rich mines of 
gold, and argentiferous galena, now being opened 
and worked. Messrs. A. Cullumber and son, Fred. 
Henry, and others, have exceedingly good prospects, 
and the Pinal Silver Mining Company have also 
some good locations, and have lately completed a 
smelting furnace of thirty tons daily capacity, which 
if successful will add much to the prosperity of the 
district. The company own the Crescent Mine 
among other mining properties, which is a well de- 
fined two foot lode of argentiferous galena, excel- 
lent for smelting, and which yields from twenty to 
forty-five per cent, lead, and from $20 to f 100 per 
ton of silver. Selected ore yields much more in 

The company employ from twenty to forty men at 
the furnace and mine. C. D. Morrison, the Super- 
intendent, is an old and experienced miner and 
smelter, and has great confidence in the success of 
the company. 

The new discoveries of Cullumber, Henry, and 
others, are a few miles west of Walnut Grove, and 
some of them are wonderfully rich in gold. 

Mr. Bowers, sheriff of Yavapai County, has a good 
gold mine in the same section of country, which has 
been worked to some extent. 

Twenty miles east from Walnut Grove, in the 
Bradshaw Mountains, and about forty miles south 


from Prescott, is the old Tiger Mine, discovered by 
D. C. Moreland some years since, and opened and 
worked to some extent. 

The Tiger Lode is well defined with good wall 
rocks, and from four to forty feet wide on the surface, 
and has been traced and located a distance of over 
two miles. The locators are mostly residents of the 
Territory, are honest, but unfortunately most of them 
are poor, and consequently unable to erect suitable 
machinery to work the mine, or to treat the ores, and 
the result is, this valuable mining property with its 
untold millions of wealth has lain idle for years, and 
must continue so for years to come, unless capitalists 
shall take hold of the property and assist in the de- 
velopment of its long stored up wealth. 

Two shafts have been sunk on the Tiger Mine to a 
depth of one hundred feet, connected by a tunnel two 
hundred and sixty feet long. There are several hun- 
dred tons of ore on the dump pile, taken out some 
years since, which will work from $100 to $300 per 
ton. Selected ore has been taken out which assays 
as much as $7,000 per ton in silver. 

Tlie first extension south, owned by Messrs. Riggs, 
Hammond, & Co., is now being opened, and looks 
equally as promising as the original discovery. Sev- 
eral openings on the northern extensions also give 
promise of grand results when thoroughly opened 
and worked. 

Whenever reduction works are erected for 
the rich ore of the Tiger Lode, a large and prospei 
mining town wilt spring into existence as if by mi 
and hundreds of thous;iDds of dollars be added to 
productive wealth of the Territory. 

To the north of the Tiger Mine, in a depression 
the mountains three miles distant, and known as t 
Bradshiiw Basin, are a large number of promisinj 
mines of both gold and silver. Sevenil of the gold- 
bearing lodes are being worked continuously, and 
the ore, worked by arastra process, pays from 
to $120 per ton. Messrs, Luke, Collier, & R( 
own several fine minea, and Mr. Luke, who 
active, wide-awake man, »nd ex-mayor of Preacott, 
has made arrangements to erect suitable reduction 
works the present aeaaon, which will add much ta, 
the pi-osperity of the district. 

Messrs. Luke & Co. own the Gretna and I( 
wild mines, both of which are four foot veins, 
which have paid by actual working $464 per ton 

They also own the Thurman Mine, gold bearing; 
a two and a half foot vein of solid sulphurets; alsfl 
some others nearly as promising. The ore from t 
Thurman Mine yields from §140 to $200 per ton. 

North of Bradshaw Basin, two miles, is the Del 
Pasco Mine, a rich gold . bearing lode, which 1 
been worked to some extent, but ia now idle i 
want of capital to erect reduction works. 

3 a^B 

THE PECK Mine. 97 

To the east of the Del Pasco is the War Eagle Mine 
of Jackson Brothers & Co., about midway between 
the Tiger on the south and, the Peck Mine on the 
north, and supposed by many to be the same lode. 
The War Eagle is a five foot vein, and has been 
worked to quite an extent. One thousand tons of 
the ore yielded frdm $60 to $500 per ton in gold and 
silter, the average being $50 in gold and $70 in 
silver, — a total average of $120 per ton. 

Two miles iiortb of the Jackson Mine is War Ea- 
gle Mine No. 2, on the same lode, now owned by Linn, 
Coe, & Co., who purchased it a few months since of 
Messrs. Goodwin & McKinnon, the original owners. 

Before selling, Messrs. Goodwin & McKinnon took 
out and worked by arastra process several hundred 
tons of ore which paid them from $40 to $200 per 
ton, gold. The present owners are prosecuting work 
on the mine successfully, and at eighty feet depth 
are working a solid two foot vein which assays, in 
gold,, from $50 to $1,200 per ton ; and, in silver, from 
$25 to $50 per ton. 

The Peck Mine, two miles north of the last named, 
is truly one of the great mines of the world. It is 
in the eastern declivities of the Bradshaw Mountains, 
and thirty miles east of south from Prescott. 

The Peck Ivas discovered and located June 17, 
1875, by Messrs. t^eck. Bean, Alexander, Jewell, and 
t/ole, most of whom retain their interests in it. The 

98 ARIZONA. a 

mine has lately been incorporated under tlie laws of 
the Territory, with a capital of one million dollars, 
divided into one hundred thousand shares of ten do] 
lars each. President, Hon. C. C. Bean ; Secretai 
and Aasayer, F. W. Blake: Office, Prescott, A. T. 

When this mine was located its fortunate discO' 
era were, in mining phraseology, " down to bed rock,' 
in other words, out of fniida; but by untiring enei^," 
and continuous work and management, assisted by a 
few noble heartt'd friends, the Peck Company are 
now on tlie road to'wealth, A ten stamp quartz mill, 
the Aztlan, located six miles south from Prescott, has 
been purchased and paid for, the mine h;is been 
opened to a depth of two hundred and fifty feet, ai 
a lai^e amount of ore taken out and worked very bu) 
cessfully both by mill and furnace process, 

Tlie geological character of the country both ei 
and west, a half mile from the mine, is granite, bi 
between the granite formation, for a half mile to one 
mile in width, are numerous dykes of quartzites, 
slate, and porphyry, intermixed with granite, forming 
a splendid gangue for a rich and extensive mineral 
deposit. At a depth of two hundred and thirty feet 
the ore body is five feet wide, carrying a wonderful. 
strata of almost solid chloride of silver, from eight 
fourteen inches wide, which yields from $1,000 
$3,000 per ton in refined silver bullion. Selected 
assays from $10,000 to 126,000 per ton. First cl 



ore has paid, both by mill and furnace process, from 
$1,000 to $1,600 per ton. Second class ore has paid, 
by the same process, an average of over $400 per 

The ore from this mine is transported by pack 
trains over twenty miles to their mill, which is quite 
expensive. At a depth of 170 feet, water enters the 
mine, and it is expected that at not much greater 
depth a flow of water will be obtained sufficient to 
operate a ten stamp mill, in which event thousands 
of tons of ore, which will yield from $100 to $300 per 
ton, can be worked at the mine, but which will not 
warrant the company in paying the great expense of 
packing to their present mill. The Aztlan Mill is 
now turning out some $10,000 of refined bullion per 
week, and but five stamps are used, the other five be- 
ing employed in working gold ores for different par- 

The probable future product of silver bullion from 
the Peck Mine is aln^ost limitless. It is not the only 
one in the district however, as there are many other 
locations which give promise of becoming its rivals, 
both in extent and richness. 

The Silver Prince Mine, discovered some time sub- 
sequent to the discovery of the Peck, is a short mile 
southeast from the Peck, and is owned by its discov- 
erers and locators, Messrs. Hough teling & Curtin. 
Both of these lodes have a north and south trend, 
and are parallel to each other. 


Messrs. Hough fceling & Cur tin have accomplished 
wonders in opening and developing their mine, which 
is now in good condition for successful work, and 
have good buildings, work shops, assay office, etc., all 
in perfect order. 

The ore from the Silvel- Prince Mine is quite simi- 
lar to that of the Peck. Several tons of first class 
selected ore sold in San Francisco for $2,470 per 
ton, and second class ore for $818 per ton. Selected 
specimens assay as high as $14,000 per ton. The 
future of the Silver Prince is most promising. 

The Black Warrior Mine, the first south extension 
of the Silver Prince, owned by Messrs. Smith, But- 
trick, & Co., is very promising, and has been well 

Several tons of ore from this mine sold in San 
Francisco for $1,200 per ton. This mine carries iti 
places heavy bodies of rich argentiferous galena. 

One mile north from the Peck Mine, and evidently 
on or quite near the Peck extension north, is a heavy 
out-cropping of copper, eight hundred feet in length, 
with a width of vein matter six to ten feet wide, 
which gives by assay from thirty to sixty per cent, 
copper. The location was discovered and is owned 
by Messrs. Roberts, Poland, & Boggs. 

One mile northeast from the Peck Mine, there is 
an immense lode of low grade ore called the Wallace 
Mine, which is owned by some membei;s of the t*eck 

Oompany. The vein matter is in 8oiTie'pt(iceg eighty 
feet in widtb. At one point, tliere is a thiij strata 
of salts of silver. This locution will not pay to work 
now, but the time will come when the coi'iilry is 
opeited by raih'oads, when it will be a valnable prop- 

Scores of other valuable locations are within a ahoEfc" 
distance of the Peek and Silver Priiics mines, m;iiiy •' 
of which are being developed, among which is on<i 
owned by General A. V. Kautz, Military Command- 
ant pf tha Ten-itory. 

On the route from the Peck Mine to Prescott, a 
distance of thirty miles, there is a continued succes- 
aioii of minei-al veins of both gold and silver. 

Some of them on the head waters of Turkey Creek 
have been well opened and are being succeesfully 

Wm. M. Buffum, Esi^., has a quartz mill at that 
point, called the Crook Mill, whith is in successful 
operation. It is run on gold ores exclusively, there 
being many rich lodes in the vicinity. 

On the Hassayainpa Croek, ten miles south of east 
fi-om Preacott, S. 0. Fivdericks has a ten stamp mill 
with all the latest improvements in suooessEul opera- 
tion, working ore from his mine, the Senator Lode, 
which is one mile up the mountain to the south. 

The Senator Mine is gold bearing, carrying a fair 
percentage of silver. The ore is a beautiful body of 



102 ■■■.'. ■ ARIZONA. 

sulphuietBi'ttie vein being five feet wide with verti- 
cal wall, robka of slate and granite. The wbole of_ 
the &Y&Joot ore body is worked, there being no 8 
sortin^.'of mineral or refuse low grade 
wholc'budy of ore assays $85 dollars per ton in gold."* 
Onlil quite recently Mr. Fredericks lias made no 

,-. "effort to save ttje silver, and beside bus lost a lai^e 
-l/^moant of the gold carried off in the nndecomposed 

"• Buiphurets. With improvt'd machinery, now in oper- 
ation, a very large saving will be made over former 
working, which however has been very profitable. 
The Senator Mine has been worked to a depth of 
two hundred feet, and a more regular body of ore q 
uniform width and richness was never discoverc 
In the whole depth of two hundred feet, and in a 
the drifts, stopes, and tunnels, the width of the tcS 
will vary but a few inches from five feet. It ia | 
most valuable property, and in good hands. 

Some three miles soutli of tlie Fredevicka Mill, i 
the southern declivity of the Hassayampa Monhta 
are sevenil large and rich lodes of argentiferouB g 
lena, and other ores, one of which, the Davis Mia< 
has been partially opened. The vein is fully fifte^ 
feet wide, and some selected ore, shipped to SftI 
Francisco a few years since by tlie Hon, 0. 0. Bes 
waa sold for several hundred dollars per ton. Af!, 
present these mines are diSicolt of access, as the 
aiountain spurs soutli of tlie Hassayampa Creek are 


higb and precipitous. There is no doubt but in a 
few years, aonie of the mines in this locjtlity will be 
among the beat in, the Territory. 

Between tlie Hassayainpii and Prescott, there are 
many promising lodes, mostly of gold, some of which 
are now being opened and worked. Judge Brooka 
of Pi'eseott has some good locations, iis well as many 
other parties, and all have great hopes of realizing 
fortunes from their mines. 

To the west of Prescott, from five to twenty railea, 
there is a gold bearing formation of considerable ex- 
tent now being developed. Among those engaged in 
the work is Alexander Majors, Esq., one of the best 
known men west of the Misaisaippi River, and one 
respected by all men. In his old age he has settled 
down here to retrieve liis fortunes, after having lost 
his all during the great civil war. Good wishes at- 
tend him from all, and a decided success would be 
hailed with delight by a host of sincere and earnest 
friends. The mine now being worked by Mr. Ma- 
jors has a body of ore two foet wide, which assays 
from $40 to $200 per ton. 

To the east of Prescott, from five to fifteen miles 
in width, and extending a long distance north and 
south, is a district of country literally filled with lodes 
of gold and silver, some of which are of remarkable 
richness. These mines are mostly in the moun- 
tiuns bordering on Lynx, Big Bug, and other creeks, 


where for many years placer and gulch gold mining 
has been carried on with success. Excellent water 
and timber abound ix\ thi9 district, which is of gre^t 
advantage to mining operations. 

The following are a few of th^ many mines in t^iiii 
section of country : — 

The Accidental, a mine discovered in 1864, and ^( 
times worked more or less since that time, is a well 
defined vein of gold bearing quartz, from two to tbre^ 
feet wide, now owned by Messrs. Rice, Elliot Bros., 
& Co. The owners have twenty-two hundred feet in 
length on the lode, and the workings include two 
tunnels, one of two hundred and ninety feet in length, 
and one of one hundred and seventy feet. Shafts 
have also been sunk to a depth of ona hundred feet- 
Both the tunnels and the several shafts are all in tb^ 
pay ore. Over one thousand tons of ore have been 
worked, and it has paid from $30 to $80 per toi; in 
gold. The company have a mill one mile below the 
mine, on Lynx Creek, where they have a thirty-five 
horae-power steam engine, with which they run four 
arastras day and night, and a thunderbolt quartz 
crusher. They work an average of six tons daily, 
working sixteen men at the niill and mine, paying a|i 
average of three dollars per day and board. The 
mine in places carries a heavy and rich body of silver 
ore, but as yet it has never been worked but for gold. 
The argentiferous galena ore found in the mine givos 


thirty per cent, in lead, and an assay yalue of $30 per 
ton in silver. The mine is well up in the mountains 
on the east side of Lynx Creek. So numerous are 
the mineral lodes in this district, one can count nearly 
one hundred from the summit of the mountain above 
the Accidental Mine. Some of them hav^ been thor^- 
oughly prospected and give promise of exceeding 

Across the summit of the mountain to the east, oq 
the head waters of Big Bug Creek, Messrs, Poland, 
Roberts^ and others h^^ve some excellent mining prop- 
erty, both gold and silver. Among those owned by 
Poland & Roberts are the Poland, Belle, Bullion, 
Mesa, Turkey, and Bulger, ^11 of which are good 


The Poland Mine is rich in both gold and silver, 
and the ore works from $122 to $310 per ton. There 
fire heavy bodies of beautiful sulphate of lead in this 
mine. The Mesa i^nd Turkey mines ^re both gold 
bearing, and both pay from $60 to $200 per ton. 
The others carry gold, silver, and lead- 
in the Poland Mine are many beautiful specimens 
of white crystallized sulphate of lead, a rare mineral 
in all mining countries. 

Passing down Big Bug Creek to the east, one meets 
at short intervals rich put-croppings of minei'al, of 
both gold and silver. The Hon. C. E. Hitchcock 
and family, who live near the creek, some four milea 


below the inouiitaiii summit, have aevera,! proinisini 
locations, amoug which are the Big Bug, Gen. Kautz, 
Belle, Sunset, Simrise, Twiliglit, etc. Some of them 
are rich in gold, some in silver, and some are of argen- 
tiferous galena. Some years since, Mr. Hitchcock 
carried on at Big Bug snccessEul mining opei-ations, 
but during his absence east on business, operations^ 
owing to mismanagement, entirely ceased, and like 
others of like character, debts accumulated, and mij 
and machinery became involved in litigation, and an 
entire loss of all invested became the inevitable 

E.tcellent water and good pine timber abonndsin, 
the mountains along the Big Bug as well as npoa; 
Lynx Creek. Wherever wood and water are botlt 
abundant the value of mining property is much en-f 

From two to six miles north of Big Bug Creek, in 
the eastern foot hills of the mountains, there are sev- 
eral very fine lodes of argentiferous galena ores, 
which are fine for smelting, and of the highest grade. 

The Silver Belt Lode is one of the best in the 

country, and has yielded a large amount of bullion. 

It is a heavy two foot vein, and is now being worked 

on a lease by Mr. Thompson, and the ore is smelted 

I in the Agua Frio Furnace, a few miles distant. The 

) yields a return of $300 per ton in silver, 
e over twenty per cent. lead. 





Tlie Kit Carson and Silver Flake mines are both 
of the same kind and character as the Silver Belt, 
and botii are being successfully worked. The ores 
Irom these two mines yield from $100 to 8600 per 
ton. The veins are from two to four feet wide, with 
well defined wall rocks. 

During the past few inontlia the three last mimed 
mines have produced several thousand pounds of bul- 
lion, the ore being worked in the Agua Frio Furnace, 
byMessra Perkins & Shater, 

The Salvador Mine is a gold lode, three miles east 
from Prescott, with a good showing of silver. Ninety 
tons of the ore worked in the Aztlan Qusirtz Mill 
gave a total yield of over 87,000. The ore was 
worked by Messrs. Bowers & Richards. Woi-k ia 
progressing on this mine success fully. 

To the northeast from Preacott for a distance of 
fifty miles through the BUtck Hills, and to the west 
of Camp Verde, tliere have been many mines of gold, 
silver, and copper, located during the past year, which 
from surface indications, indicate the existence of vast 
bodies of rich mineral. Some of these locutions have 
been prospected to considerable extent, sufficient to 
warrant the belief that they are permanent true fis- 
sure veins. 

The extreme northern and northeastern parts of 
■ the county of Yavapai have not been prospected to 
I utiy extent, though the well known prospectors and 


explorerB, Cliarley Spencer, Dun O'Leary, nnd eomd 
otbei's, have made several expeditions into tlint poi 
tion of the Territovy in search of some fabulous rioh 
silver mines, which tradition asaei'ts, were long sinoe 
worktid by the old Jesuit priests from Ciilifornia, ^ 
century or more since. These daring prospector^J 
and Indian fighters have penetrated far down intoj 
the great caHons of the north, and relate wonderfu 
stories of what they there discovered : of isolate 
bands of Indians living far down in the deep gorgt 
and canons of that region, where no white man's foe 
had ever trod, and where none can enter except bjj 
the descent fi-om point to point of perpendicular wal 
rocks, hundreds and thousands of feet deep ; of peiu 
orchards, corn and pumpkin fields, almost biddei 
from view, down in the ciiHona near the rivers whoa 
presence was heretofore unknown ; of masses of niia-4 
eral running through the gniuitic formation of thfl(« 
caSon's sides, and of a thousand otiier interesting 
sights witnessed by tiiem. Many other traditions 
exist respecting that great northern, and almost na- 
known country, of the finding many yeara since ( 
rich gulches and nivinea, where nuggets of j 
could be picked up by the handful, of golden IndiiU 
bullets found after straggling Indian fights, pf ] 
masses of gold seen in the possession of Indians fro 
'.ime to time, and of many other wonderful storii 
hard to be believed. If any or all of such I 

COAL. 109 

arid traditions are true, they will irt time be verified, 
for the iippulse to search for gold is so strong in mati 
that some of the hundreds of brave arid reckless pros- 
pectors of the Territory will in the course of time find 
the localities indicated, at whatever cost and peril. 

In the great Ton to Basin, a hundred miles east from 
Prescott, there are known to be rich placer mines, 
also wonderful lodes of gold and silver, but the basiii 
has ever been the resort of all the Apache bands, and 
of the refugees who from time to time leave the In- 
dian reservations for mischief and plunder, and con- 
sequently but few whites have been bold and reckless 
enough to explore and prospect that region of coun- 
try, as most parts of the Territory have been explored 
and prospected. The march of the white man will 
no longer be stayed, and soon this almost terra incog- 
nita will be made to disburse freely from its lotig 
hidden stores of mineral wealth. 

To the north of Camp Apache there is quite an ex- 
tent of country having a sandstone formation, with 
limestone intermixed, in which have been found 
stratas of excellent coal, but they are so. far from the 
white settlements, and from any market, no induce- 
ments have existed sufiicient to cause them to be de- 
reloped. With the construction of the Thirty-fifth 
Parallel Railroad, this coal formation will become a 
necessity, arid a source of wealth and prosperity to 
the country. 



But two other mineral belts remain to be de- 
scribed in Yavapai County, which are the i^ew mines 
lately discovered by Jack Swilling, Jack Moore, Bob 
Groom, and others, in the southern spars of the Brad- 
shaw Mountains, west of the Black Canon, and the 
wonderful Clifton Copper Mines in the far south- 
eastern part of the county, near the boundary, line 
between Arizona and New Mexico. 

The Black Canon Mines were discovered but a few 
months since, and are of that wonderful rich charac- 
ter, characteristic of the Peck, Silver Prince, and 
others previously mentioned. They are about sixty 
miles south from Prescott, and ten miles west from 
the Black Cafion of Turkey Creek. 

Within a radius of five miles, a large number of 
miners are now at work developing many lodes of rich 
silver ore, which yields from $300 to $600 per ton. 

Among the principal lodes opened and now being 
successfully worked are the Tip Top, Rescue, Silver 
Jack, Fourth of July, Nevada, McDerwin, Fawn, 
George, Swilling, aiid several others equally prom- 

The Swilling Mine, owned by Jack Swilling, has 
a four foot vein carrying a ten inch strata of solid 
chloride ore. Ten tons paid in working, f513 per 
^.on. Second class ore assays from $100 to $300 
per ton. The vein is well defined with good wall 


The Tip Top Mine is owned by Jack Moove & Co., 
and is the best developed of any in the district. It 
has been thoroughly prospected by both shafts and 
tunnels. The vein is from fifteen inches to over two 
feet wide, and the ore assays from three hundred to 
thousands of dollars per ton. The ore worked has 
yielded an average of $550 per ton. 

One mile up the cafion from the Tip Top Mine is 
a location owned by Messrs. Brunson & Barnum, 
who have a two foot vein from which they have 
mined several tons of ore worth over 1500 per ton. 

The Fawn Mine is on the Swilling Lode, and is 
owned by Mr. Mullen, who has a two foot vein of ore 
equally as* rich as the others mentioned. 

The George Mine shows rich ore at four different 

Two miles distant from the George Mine, Mr. J. 
Foy has taken out some very rich ore, which gave 
by assay |1,900 per ton. 

D. C. Moreland, the original discoverer of the 
noted Vulture Mine, has also a good claim here, 
from which he is taking out quantities of $500 
ore. . 

Bob Groom and other parties have locations quite 
similar, and equally as good as the foregoing. The 
ore from the Black Canon Mines has to be freighted 
either to the Aztlan Mill, a distance by wagon road 
of seventy-five miles, or to the Smiths Mill south of 


Wickeiiburg, a distance of over one hundred miles, 
at great cost and expense. 

Good springs of water abound in and around this 
mining camp, but wood is scarce. When reduction 
Works are erected conveniently near, and roads con- 
structed, this new mining district will become one of 
the most prosperous in the Territory. Too high an 
estimate cannot be made of the vast amount of min- 
eral wealth here stored up for man's use. The ores 
are easily worked, both by mill and furnace process, 
they being free carbonates and chlorides, with fiiie 
specimens of ruby and horn silver, in considerable 

The wonderful Clifton Copper Mines were discor- 
ered several years since, and have been worked by 
different parties with eminent success. Among the 
leading operators are Messrs. Lazinsky and the Ben- 
nett Brothers, all of Silver City, New Mexico. 

The ore is in vast bodies, virtually mountains of 
copper, and very pure, ranging from thirty to eighty- 
five per cent. Thousands of tons of copper have been 
worked by furnaces, of which there are a number in 
continual operation. There are from two hundred 
to four hundred men employed all the time at three to 
four dollars per day. These mines are about eighty 
tniles west from Silver City, New Mexico, one hun- 
dred and seventy-five northeast from Tucson, and 
two hundred south of east from Prescott. 



Of nearly eight thousand mining claims located 
and recorded in Yavapai County, the author haa 
selected and described but a few as a type of them 
all, hoping to give to the public correct and reliable 
information respecting the great mineral wealth of 
the county, from which the reader can form a definitQ 
idea of its future mineral product, when all these 
thonaands of mines, already located, shall be worked, 
together with thousands of others which are now un- 

It should be borne in mind that nearly all the 
mines opened and worked in Yavapai County, and 
elsewhere in the Territory, have been located by 
mea without money to operate with, relying entirely 
on muscle, energy, and perseverance, and that con- 
sequently the development of the mines has been 
slow and gradual. 

The continued hostility of the Apache tribes has 
also been a serious hindrance to mining, as well as 
to all other industries in the Territory, and until two 
years past no man was safe from their murderous at- 
tacks in any part of the Territory, When we con- 
sider the isolated condition of the eonntry, far from 
any great centres of civilization, remote from railroads, 
destitute of cheap and rapid transit, the woitJcr is, 
that BO much has been done in the development of 
the Territory as has been accomplished to the present 


Too much honor and praise cannot be given the 
early pioneers of Arizona, who have, under all the 
surrounding difficulties which have continually beset 
them, continued their exertions towards developing 
the Territory of Arizona — the coming country of our 

Mining capitalists from abroad, both on the Pacific 
and Atlantic slopes, are turning their attention to 
Arizona, being fully convinced by what has been 
already developed by hard labor alone, without any 
considerable assistance from capitalists, that it is the 
great mineral country of the world. 

In this connection it is proper to remark, that sev- 
eral noble-hearted business men of Prescott have at 
times assisted miners in the development of their 
mines, without which assistance much delay and suf- 
fering would have ensued. Prominent among these 
are the firms of C. P. Head & Co., Bowers & Richards, 
L. Bashford & Co., William M. Buffum, John G. 
Campbell, and others, to whom Yavapai County 
owes much for its present prosperous condition. 

Maricopa County is to the south of Yavapai, and 
is distinjctively more of an agricultural region than a 
mining country. It is the great agricultural county 
of the Territoiy, and as such has been fully described 
in the chapter devoted to agriculture and farming. 

The northern and eastern portion of Maricopa 
County is a mining country, in which some good 


mines have been located, and in the southeastern 
part is a portion of the newly-discovered and won- 
derfully rich Globe mining district, a district prob- 
ably without a parallel. The main part of the dis- 
trict being in Pinal County, a brief description will 
be given of it in the description of the mines of that 
county. ^^ 

Pinal County is south of Maricopa, and between 
Maricopa and Pima counties. The whole eastern por- 
tion of Pinal County is a mining country of exceeding 
richness. Good mines exist ajso in the western part of 
the county. No thorough prospecting was ever done 
through the Pinal, Apache, or Mazatzal Mountains, 
until 1875. The Globe Copper Mine, a mountain of 
copper, had been discovered, but nothing, had been 
done to develop it. In the summer and fall of 1875 
attention was attracted to the Pinal Mountains, and 
some gold placers were found sufficient to attract the 
attention of miners, who are ever on the alert to 
go in search of new diggings. The result was the 
discovery of wonderfully rich lodes of silver ore of al- 
most fabulous extent, which are drawing to the dis- 
trict large numbers of miner's and prospectors, as well 
as capitalists. Duruig the past year, 1876, hundreds 
have flocked to this new El Dorado, and are opening 
the scores of rich mines already located. A brisk 
mining town has sprung* into existence ; quartz mills 
and furnaces are being erected, and the prospects are 


growing brighter and brighter, day by day, for tUitf^ 
becutniiig one of the most prosperous raining campk^ 
on the continent. 

This mining diati'ict ia about twenty miles id | 
length and twelve in width, and within this i 
about fifty distinct and well defined lodes of silver 
have been discovered, some of which are also rich in 
gold. The mineral lodes are from two to ten feet 
wide, and some of miles in length. The Globe Cop- 
per Mine is of enormous extent and exceedingly rich, 
and will yield from forty to eighty pet cent, of i 
fined copper. 

One of the peculiarities of the Globe district i 
the wonderful plants of silver, — planchaa de plata 
— which are masses of almost pure silver nuggets^^ 
from a few pounds in weight to five hundred or 
more pounds. These nuggets are found i 
localities, but more especially in and around Rich- 
mond Flat, where mining claims are staked ofE anf 
dug up with pick and shovel like gold placers. 

There ia some mystery connected with these plan- ' 
ohaa de platii, many believing that they were thrown 
op from the depths below by volcanic action, but 
the more reasonable opinion prevails, that they are 
masses broken from the surface of the rich lodes 
during past ages, and have been washed and worn 
down to their present form and locality. 

In connection with these planchas de plata, it n 


I or 



be proper to mentiun another locality In Northern 
Sonorft, and but a few miles soiit^b of the Arizona 
line, where in the paat century some wonderful 
planchas of pure silver were found, one of which 
weighed twenty-nine hundred pounds, the record of 
it being yet kept at the port of Guaymas, on the 
Gulf of California. 

The planchas of the Globe district have yielded 
many thousand dollars, one gentleman having se- 
cured and sold over $10,000 in value of his own dis- 

A few of the mines in the Globe district will be 
mentioned, being a fair average sample of tlie hun- 
dreds located. 

The Rescue Mine has a tluce foot vein of silver 
ore which assays from $300 to S15,000 per ton. 
The lode is well defined, and well opened. 

The Blue Cap Mine is a large and well defined 
vein, over three feet wide, and the ore assays from 
$500 to $5,000 per ton in silver. Horn and native 
silver is very abundant in the ore, as well aa in many 
other lodes iu the district. 

The Helen Mine can'ies chloride, nugget, and horn 
silver, and the ore assays as high as $8,000 per ton. 
The vein is three feet wide and well defined. 

Were it necessary a score or more mines equally 
as promising could be named. The foregoing will 
give the reader some faint idea of the wondrous min- 
eral wealth of the (•lobe district. 


Several shipments of ore from this district to San 
Francisco have been sold at good figures, ranging 
from $800 to $3,986 per ton, gold value. 

The Hon. A. P. K. Safford, governor of the Terri- 
tory, has an interest in some of the mines in the 
district, from which ore has been mined that sold 
from $400 to $800 per ton. Messrs. Newman & Co., 
Williamson, and others, have sold ores from their 
mines, and one lot sold in San Francisco for the enor- 
mous sum of $11,000 per ton. Incredible as this 
may be to thousands of miners who deem $100 rock 
rich, the fact is well attested and strictly true. The 
country is well supplied with wood and water, and 
but forty miles of roadway is necessary to make it 
easily approachable with loaded teams. 

The district is seventy-five miles northeast from 
Florence, the county seat of Pinal County, and but 
forty miles from the Silver King Mine, to which a 
good wagon road is opened from Florence. 

The summers in the Globe district are mild and 
pleasant, and the winters not at all severe, as but 
little snow falls at Richmond Flat, remaining on the 
earth but a short time. The snow fall is never suflB- 
cient to retard mining operations. 

In the western foot hills of the Pinal Mountains, 
forty miles southwest of the Globe district, and 
thirty-fivs miles northeast from Florence, is one of 
the most remarkable mines of the world. This is 



ttie celebrated Silver King Mine, discovered Mai-ch 
24, 1875, by Messre. Long, Mjison, Reagan, and 
Copeland. These gentlemen were alt honest farmers, 
having farms near the Gila River, below Florence a 
few miles. They are all men of enei^y, induatrious 
and enterprising. It had been their practice for 
years, when their farms required no attention, to 
make prospecting excursions through the mountains, 
and when they discovered the Silver King they were 
on tlieir return from the Globe Copper Mine, which 
they had previously located. The discovery of the 
Silver King was almost an acciilent, Himdreda of 
miners, prospectors, and soldiers, had passed over it. 
Mid a few years previously a company of soldiers, be- 
longing to Genei-al .Stoneman's command, encamped 
for weeks close by the mine. At the time of the dis- 
covery none of the locators had money to assist in 
its development, but they went to vrork with mil 
and energy, and succeeded in developing one of the 
most noted mines ever yet discovered. 

On the 26th day of Jnne, 1876, only fifteen months 
Rfter the discovery, Messrs. Long and Copeland sold 
their interests to Mason and Reagan, for the sum of 
f65,000 each, including the value of the ore already 
mined. About the first of December, 1876, Mr, 
Mason sold his half interest to Col. James M. Bar- 
Bey for $300,000, gold coin. 

The vein matter of the Silver Kiug is eighty-seven 



feet Tvide, and tlie depth of working is one handrej 
and ten feet. The whole upper surface of the min^j 
is worked and taken to the assorting dump for t 
eortmeut and classification. Tlie ore is assorted int^ 
firet, second, third, and fourth classes. The first in/ 
eludes all which assays oVer $2,000 per ton ; 
second all between ®1,200 and »2,000 per ton ; tin 
third all between $500 and $1,200 per ton ; and thifl 
fourth all below $500 per ton. 

Tliat below 3<500 per ton, assay value, is saved iaeM 
future working, and tlie three first claBsea are sacked 
and shipped sepanitely to San Francisco and there 
sold. A considerable amount of the ore has been 
worked in furnaces at Florence, and elsewhere, 
amount sold in San Francisco in 1875 cannot no 
definitely ascertained. The amount sold thei 
187C was one hundred and sixty-three tons, whicE 
realized in gold coin $137,642.52, and this broughy 
seventy-five per cent of the assay value. 

Tliere is now on the dump at the mine over cm 
thousand tons of fourth class ore, which will ■ 
an average of $350 per ton, or in the aggregaU 

There are three levels now being worked in tl« 
mine, and over $1,000,000 of ore is now uncoverd. 

These rich ores are antimonial silver, nugget silveM 
and silver glance. When the author was last i 
this mine, in October, 1876, he examined one to 



Df selected ore whose assay value was $12,000. H. 
Kearaing, tlie aaaayer foe the mine, is one of the most 
competent in Arizona, or on the Pacific coast, and hia 
aaaaya have never been at fault. Judge Aiidei-aon is 
secretary at the mine. In the whole history of min- 
ing, there has probably been no instance wlieie a 
mine has yielded the same am.ount of bullion as this, 
in proportion to the amount of work done. 

The geological formation is granite, gneiss, slate, 
and porphyritic rocks, and to tho northeast near the 
3ummit of the mountain, a thin horizontal strata of 
limestone. Several other locations have been made on 
the Silver King Lode, and on other rich lodes which 
outcrop in numerous plajzes, both north and south. 

The Athens Mine, the first south extension of the 
Silver King, is owned by Charles Brown & Co., from 
which some very rich ore has been mined. 

The Pike, Hard Cash, Redeemer, Silver Brick, and 
Surprise mines, in the vicinity, are all promising loca- 
tions. The Surprise Mine is owned by Messi-s. Rich- 
mond and Welch. It is now being worked and has 
yielded a considerable iimouut of ore which assays 
$900 per ton. 

There is a want of water in the Silver King dis- 
trict, hut wood of a good quality is conveniently near, 
and sufficient for many years. 

There is no better opening for mining capital any- 
where than in the Pinal Mountains, and the whole of 


the eastern portion of Pinal County seems to be a 
mass of mineral, including gold, silver, copper, lead, 
and iron. It may be remarked that iron prevails 
all over the Territory, and when the demand arises, 
and railroads, the great civilizers of the age, traverse 
the country, great iron manufactories will spring up 
to supply the demand for mills, machinery, farm ip^ 
plements, etc., etc. 

Pima County, which embraces the whole of South- 
ern Arizona, is traversed by mineral veins over most 
of its surface in all dii*ections. 

In the Quajate ^ Mountains, south of the Gila 
River, there are some rich lodes of gold, silver, and 
copper, which have been opened the past two years, 
and which give promise of becoming valuable min- 
ing properties. Water being very scarce in these 
mountains, the work of development has been very 
slow, but this is now being remedied by the discovery 
of water at no great depth, and in a few months it 
is to be hoped that these valuable mines will be suc- 
cessfully worked. 

In the southern spurs of these mountains, in the 
Silver Mountain district, are vast deposits of copper. 
This district is about fifty miles west of Tucson. 

The principal operators in these copper mined are 
Messrs. Chas. Brown, E. M. Pearce, and Mr. Barnes. 
The firm of TuUy, Ochoa, & Co., of Tucson, own some 
valuable locations in this copper belt. 

1 Oiia-hn-ta. 


Messrs. Brown, Pearce, & Co. own the Young 
America, and other mines in and around the copper 
peaks, some bold mountain spurs so fully impregnated 
with copper as to be distinguishable a distance of 
fifteen miles. The principal locations bj' these gen- 
tlemen are known as the Young America, Boston, 
Lafayette, Brown, and No Name, mines. These sev 
eral locations have all been thoroughly prospected 
and worked, and large quantities of ore shipped to 
Baltimore, Maryland, San Francisco, and other 
places. Although the cost of ti-ansportation is great, 
they have realized fair profits on their shipments. 

The ores are black and red oxides, gray sulphurets, 
pyrites of copper, and rich sulphurets, or salts 'of 
copper. The main body of ore, at a depth of fifty 
feet, is the gray sulphurets. 

The ore shipped has averaged from sixty to eighty- 
five per cent, copper. The amount of the ore bodies 
seems to be virtually inexhaustible. 

The formation is granite, and the mountain sides 
for miles around are streaked with rich though small 
and thread-like veins of silver ore, which has been 
dug out in trench-like excavations for long distances 
by some unknown people in the distant past. The 
supposition is that it was done by Indian labor under 
the directions of the old Jesuit Fathers, as there is in 
other parts of the Territory similar mining which is 
directly traceable to them. 



Four miles west of the Copper Peaks, are aom 
minee owned by Messrs. Tully, Oelioa, & Co., vrhos 
locations are also very rich in copper. Tliey hart 
taken out considerable quantities of ore, some < 
which they have bad smelted in a common Mexics 
furnace with good results. 

When the Texas Pacific, or Thirty-second ParalM 
Railro-od is completed, alt of these rich mines will I 
come very valnable. Good water for drinking pun 
poses is found near them, and a fiiir supply of woo^;1 

The Picftcho Mine, a very rich silver lode, is aboi^ 
seventy-five miles west from Tucson, and was discoViiS 
ered in 1860. It was worked successfully for seven 
years, and produced a large amount of bullianiil 
Work was reUuquisbed when the water line ' 
reached, as at the time there was no means by wbicbfl 
pumpa or other machinery could be obtained toeM 
working it. This mine was worked by Mexican laboViS^ 
and for months before work was stopped, the wate 
that entered the shafts and drifts was packed out fa 
the Mexicans in rawhide buckets. The ore 
worked by the Pateo process. It is known that tw 
hundred and forty thousand ounces of silver 
taken from this mine, and a large amount was suW 
posed to have beeu carried away by the Mw 
workmen which was never accounted for. The v 
is from two to six feet wide, and paid by the Pat 
process from 9^00 to $1,500 per ton. There are se^J 



era! lateral veins, or feeders, which enter the inaiu 
lode, all of which are very rich. One of these liiteral 
a is rich in gold, as well lis in silver. 

This valuable mine is now the property of Don L. 
J. F. Jaeger of Yuma, who has lately offered it for 
sale at a low figure. 

Tlie Trench Mine ia in the Patagonia Mountains, 
about seventy miles east of south from Tucson. Tlie 
owners are Messrs. Archibald, Gardiner, & Hop- 
kins of Tucson. It is an immense vein of low 
grade argentiferous galena ore, excellent for smelts 
ing, and easily mined. The lode is from fonr to 
ten feet wide and carries from $30 to §1100 per ton 
of silver. Selected specimens assay as high as $600 
per ton. The ore yields from thirty to eighty per 
cent. lead. Parallel veins of nearly equal width 
are within a short distance of the maiu lode. This 
is one of the few proraineut mines in the Territory 
which have an east and west trend. Most others run 
north and south with alight variations. There is per- 
haps no better mine in the Territory of like charac- 

The lode has beeu traced and located a distance of 
over twenty thousand feet. 

The Trench Mine, being the original discovery on 
this great lode, is now being worked successfully, and 
fifty men are in the employ of the company. Four 
smelting furnaces are in successful operation. 


The work on the mine includes several shafts from 
forty to one hundred and twenty feet, and two tun- 
nels of two hundred and three hundred feet each. 
Wood and water are abundant and of good quality. 
Iron ore is abundant and of the right quality to form 
a proper flux in smelting. 

The old Mowry Mine, now owned by Fish, Bennet, 
& Co., has quite a history. It is in the southern spurs 
of the Patagonia Mountains, five miles south of the 
Trench Mine, seventy-five miles from Tucson, and 
tluee or four mil^s north of the Sonora line. It car- 
ries a splendid quality of argentiferous galena and 
carbonate ores, in a formation of limestone, ironstone, 
and manganese inclosed in a granitic primary for- 

It was discovered in 1857 by a Mexican herder, 
who sold it to Captain Ewell, afterwards General 
Ewell of the Confederate army, and Messrs. Bre- 
voort, Douglass, and Johnson, who gave the Mexican 
a pony and some other traps for the location. In 
1859, Colonel Titus and Brevoort became the own- 
ers by purchase, and in 1860 they sold it to Lieuten- 
ant Sylvester Mowry for $25,000. Lieutenant Mowry 
associated other parties with him, erected buildings, 
furnaces, machinery, etc., and worked it successfully 
until 1862, when he was arrested by order of General 
Carleton, who was then in command of the Union 
forces in the Territory, was taken to San Francisco, 


but was never tried on the charges of disloyalty pre- 
ferred by General Carleton. There was much in^ 
dignation aii^png the people of the Territory against 
General Carleton for the arrest of Lieutenant Movvry, 
and it was then charged, and is yet, that the arrest 
was without cause, and was made on account of pre- 
vious jealousies and ill feelings between Carleton and 
Mo wry, when they were in the service in former 
j^ears. Be this so or not, the result of the arrest of 
Mo wry was the ruin of all his hopes of fortune and 
affluence. After his release he went to London for 
the purpose of selling his mine, was taken sick and 
died in poverty. 

After the death of Mowry, his heirs, who reside in 
Connecticut, being either fgnorant of the mining laws, 
or too poor to fulfill the requirements, neglected to 
maintain their title, and on the first day of January, 
1875, Messrs. Fish & Bennet of Tucson relocated it 
and now hold possession. A patent has been applied 
for and soon the occupants will become the owners in 
fee simple. 

The present location includes three thousand feet 
in length by six hundred feet in width, or over forty 
acres of land. 

The workings now include several shafts, the deep- 
est of which is two hundred and sixty feet, and nu- 
merous tunnels and drifts. 

There are several lateral veins running into the 


main lodis, aome of which are splendid carbonate ores. 1 
The lode, like the Treufh mine, has an east and wert, j 
trend, and several exteuaiona have been»located on ii 
to the eiist. 

The argentiferous ores work from $60 to $I40(K| 
per tun in silver, and the carbonate ores from SSQV 
to $60 per ton. Both kinds carry from thirty tv 
sixty per cent, of lead. Much of the ore is found in 
great pockets, or caves, which present the appear- 
ance of having been filled by injections of the mineral 
from billow, some oE these pockets or caves being 
sixty feet across, all filled with mineral. A few of 
the caves near the surface are only partially filled 
with the minei'al, and in them are found beautiful | 
Btalactites. The altitude at the surface of the mine ii 
six thousand feet. 

After the arrest of Lieutenant Mowry, Mexicans '1 
from Sonora carried away much of his valuable ma>» J 
chinery, and also gouged out and took away a larg 
amount of valuable ore, and seriously injured ■ 
mine, requiring a large expenditure of money to tim 
ber up and make it secure for working. 

There are many other good mines in the PatagoniaJ 
Momitains, consisting of gold, silver, and ] 
some paying gold placers. 

AnotJier rich mineral range of mountains ia 
Santa Ritas, west of the Patagonia Range, and t 
vided from them by the rich and beautiful ' 


Valley. The Santa Ritas are twenty miles long 
north and south, with a width of three to six miles, 
and they seem to be filled with lodes of gold, silver, 
and lead, in its whole extent. 

The district embraced in the old Santa Rita min- 
ing district, is in the southern declivity of the moun- 
tains, twelve miles east from the old Tumacacari 
mission* church, and sixty-five miles south from Tuc- 

Some of the mines in this district give evidence of 
having been worked a century or more since, and 
from traditions now current, much silver was mined 
here by the old Jesuit Fathers, who employed large 
numbers of Mexicans and Indians in the work. 
From 1856 to 1861, the mines here were worked by 
an eastern company, but owing to the continued and 
determined hostility of the Indians, who killed many 
of the employees. Superintendent Wrightson and 
others, with other causes combined, work was wholly 
discontinued. Messrs. Wrightson, Grosvenor, and 
Hopkins, all leading men in the enterprise, were 
murdered by the Apaches between 1858 and 1861. 
In January, 1875, the mines were relocated under the 
superintendence of Col. William G. Boyle, one of 
the best informed mining men on the Pacific Coast. 
Considerable work has been done since their reloca- 
tion, but until suitable machinery is erected for prop- 
erly working them, and mills erected for treating the 



ores, but little can be done towards their proper d^^ 
Telopment. There is no doubt that with the prop^ i 
expenditure of money and labor, these mines will 
become very productive. 

In the northeastern spurs of the Santa Ritas there 
are numerous loiles of gold, silver, and lead, i 
valuable placer mines, the latter having abeadj] 
been described. Wood and water are both quite * 
abundant in the Santa Ritas, but there are no lai^e 
streauis of water sufficient to work phicers with great 

Twenty miles west of the Santa Ritas, and forty* J 
five miles southwest from Tucson, ia the formerly"! 
noted Cerro Colorado Mine, which was worked ; 
former years by an eaetern company who expended ] 
large sums of money in machinery, and for other pur- 
poses. The lode is extremely rich, and much of the 
oi-e assays as high as $5, 000. and $10,000 per ton in 

Like many of the early mining operations in AriJ 
zonii, owing to mismanagement, incompetency, ; 
Indian hostilities, the operations completely failed. 
Portions of the milling and other macliinery are scat- 
tered at different places on the road between the mine 
and the Rio Grande River, in New Mexico, for ft^ 
distance of hundreds of miles. Other portions of th((^ 
machinery have been appropriated by differeot j 
tlea to their own use, and some yet remains, ecatten 

ere ^^ 




r- ^ 




promiscuously around tlie mine in different direc- 

The Cerro Colorado Company owned another mine, 
the Frowita, fifteen miles south, and the two were 
connected by a telegraph, the firat in operation in the 

The Cerro Colorado Mine has been relocated by 
parties who are making arrangements to reopen and 
work it by improved processes. 

The Emma Mine ia a late discovery, being in the 
same section of country, and on a lode called the Sea 
Serpent. This mine ia about sixty-five miles to the 
southwest from Tucson, and fifteen miles from the 
Sonora Mine. The Sea Serpent Lode has been 
traced and located a distance of twenty-one thousand 
feet. It ia one of those immense lodes of mineral 
seldom found in any country, being from ten to forty 
feet wide. The oyo assays from $50 to $800 per ton 
in silver. 

The Emma Mine, which is the best developed of 
any on the lode, ia owned by Thomas Ewing & Co., 
who are making arrangements for working it in a 
. thorough and systematic manner. When fully de- 
veloped, this mine, as well as the others on the lode, 
will produce an enormous amount of bullion. 

The Ostrich Lode and Mine is seventy-five miles 
west of south from Tucson, and within six or eight 
miles of the Sonora line. It is a large, well-defined 


gold bearing vein, from three to twelve feet wide, 
with nearly vertical and well-defined wall rocks. The 
lode trends to the northwest and southeast, and is ap- 
parently a continuation of the old Frowita Mine. 
The Ostrich Mine is owned by Dr. J. C. Handy & 
Co. who have erected a ten stamp quartz mill which 
is in successful operation. 

Wood and water is quite abundant. The capacity 
of the mill is twenty tons per day of twenty-four 
hours. . Wood delivered at the mill costs $3.50 per 
cord. The company employ about fifty men at the 
mine and mill, paying an average of $50 per month 
and board for good men. 

The formation is granite, with heavy dykes of slate 
and quartzites. The mine is in the Cerro Blanco 
Mountains, which extend south into the Mexican 
state of Sonora. 

Six miles south from the Ostrich Mine is the so 
called Old Mine, so named from its having been 
worked long since bj'^ the old Jesuit Fathers. 

• This mine was discovered and relocated over one 
year since, and gives promise of becoming a most 
valuable property. Two well known gentlemen, eu- 
phoneously known as Hank and Yank, formerly large 
freighters and packers in the Territory, are its princi- 
pal owners, and are developing it with much energy. 
Eminent success awaits them. 

To the south of the Old Mine are the wonderful 

Flanclios de Pliita, befoi-e described. Tbese are in 
Sonora, a few milt^ii south of the Arizona liuu. 

The iTiiiiea already mentioned are but few of the 
hundreds in Pima County. There is hardly a moun- 
tain spur or picaeho pfiak in the county, but has its 
lodes of mineral, either of gold, silver, copper, or lead, 
and iron exists in Urge quantities. Scoi-es of mineral 
lodes are within sight of Tucson. 

North of Tncson, in the Santa Catarina Mountains, 
are many fine lodes of gold and silver. 

Extending through the Santa Teresa, Mount Turn- 
bull, Mount Graham, and other mountain chains, and 
thence Boiilb through the Dos Cabasas, and Chirica- 
hua Mountains, are nuiuerous rich lodes of mineral, 
both gold, silver, copper, and lead. Near the head of 
Aravaipa CaHon are many locations made by Dr. 
Atkinson, Mr. Buck, and others, which have been 
but partially prospected, but give evidence of being 
very rich in silver and copper. Wood and water are 
both abundant in this region of country, and in time, 
when circumstances are more favorable, many pros- 
perous mining camps will spring up through the 
whole range of country named. 

In the Cbiricahua Mountains, in the southeastern 
part of Pima County ami of the Territory, there 
has been kno\vn for a long time the existence of 
wonderfully rich and extensive lodes of gold and 
silver; but until quite recently no prospecting at 


miDing waa permitted there, as it xraa included in 
ibe Cbiricahuiv Indian Eeservation. This i-eaervatioB 
having been lately vacated, prospecting parties vviU 
BOon explore the mountains, and make known its 
bidden sources of mineral wealth. 

A valuable gold mine was opened a few years since' 
in Apache Pjiss, by Colonel Stone and others, a qnartSi 
mill erected, and the mine and mill were being 
thoroughly and sncceasfuUy worked, when Colonel 
Stone and others were brutally murdered by the 
Apaches, which put an end to opei'ations at the mine 
and mill, since which time no effort has been made 
to reopen and work it. 

The foregoing brief description of a few only dE 
the thousands of mines located and recorded in Ari^ 
^ona, will give the reader some faint idea of tHfti 
enormous mineral wealth of the Territory. A fewl 
only have been selected from each of the many min- 
ing districts in the Territory. The number might 
have been swelled indefinitely, as the author visited 
and examined ciirefnlly nearly all of the thousands 
of mines loci\ted. Tlie descriptions are literally tru( 
and the yield of bullion, though in amount almi 
beyond belief, has been carefully collected from 
books, certificates, and returns given from the mineS' 
mentioned, and carefully copied. 

The number of mines located and I'ecorded in 
Territory, which was obtained from the county 


isters of each county, excepting the County of Mo- 
have, which is given much below the actual number, 
was, on the first day of October, 1876, aa fol- 
lows ; — 

Yavapai County . 7,298 

Pima County 975 

Maricopa County SOO 

Yuma County SSO 

f inni Canpty SSa 

Mohava Cuonty 2,000 

Total 11,60S 

It IB safe to assert that the Territory is not at 
the present time one half prospected, as, until the 
two past years, but little thorough prospecting could 
be done, on account of the hostility of the Indians. 
Vast areas in the Territory are as yet almost wholly 
unknown, and many sections of the countiy have 
never been trod by white men. What will be ac- 
complished in the coming years is, of course, a matter 
of conjecture only, but judging from what has been 
done the past two years from the actual results ob- 
tained, and from a careful examination of the niinea 
now being opened, no one can doubt that a bright 
and golden futui-e awaits those who now have, or 
may hereafter have mining interests in the Territory. 
What is now necessai-y to open up this great mineral 
wealth is, first, railroads ; second, capital ; and third, 
more men of energy, will, and perseverance, to open 


and develop its inexhaustible mineral resources, and 
to hasten forward the day when Arizona, and its 
wealth of precious metals, shall be known to the 
uttermost parts of the earth. 



A THOROUGH examination of Arizona demon- 
-^-^ strates the existence of several great mineral 
belts, which extend for hundreds of miles through 
the Territory. 

The main belts have lateral branches running in 
different directions, some parallel with the main ones, 
and others at different angles from them. 

One of the main belts commences near the south- 
western part of the Territory, in the Colorado River 
range of mountains, twenty miles east of Yuma, and 
extending thence a northerly course through the 
county of Yuma, and far north, nearly, or quite 
through the county of Mohave. 

This great belt, which is three hundred miles in 
length, includes the Castle Dome Mines, and many 
others through the river range to the east of Ehren- 
burg. La Paz, and the Planet, Johnson, and other 
mines south of Bill Williams Fork. 

In Mohave County it includes the mines of the 


McCi-acken district, the Sandy, and those of th^l 

Hualapai, Cerbat, and Peacock, and other mountaiQ j 


Another of the great mineral belts commences neaci 
the aouthern line of the Territory, seventy-five miles f 
south fi:om Tucson, uud includes the mines in the ' 
SanCii Rita and Patagonia mountains, with a break 
between the Santa Ritaa and the Santa Catarina j 
mountains, and from the latter continuing uorthJ 
through the Santa Cattiriua, Pinal, Apache, Brad-T 
shaw. Walker, and Black Hill mountains, sixty miles 
north of Prescott, a total distance of over three hun- 
dred miles. This belt includes the Mowry, Trench, 
ftnd Santa Bita mines, in the south, the CaQada de 
Oro, Silver King, Globe District, and other mines in' 
the centre, and the Bhick CaSon, Tiger, Peck, Silver , 
Prince, Senator, and other mines mentioned in tlw 
nortliern portion of the belt. This mining belt variei 
in width fi'om ten to fifty miles, and it is almost si 
to say that there is hardly one mile square in I 
whole belt which is destitute of mineral. 

Another mineral belt, smaller than the two alreadyfl 
mentioned, but equally rich, commences in the Cerr(i| 
Blanco Mountains, near the Sonora line, eighty-f 
miles west of south from Tucson, and includes tha. 
Old Mine, the Ostrich, Sea Serpent Lode, Cerro Ci^a 
orado, Picacho, Young America, Quajate, and othei 
mines for a distance of about one hundred miles i 
length north from the Ostrich and Old mines. 


Another mining belt commencea in the extreme 
Boutheasterii corner of tlie Territory, and includes 
the Chiricahua, Dob Cabasas, Graham, Cordilleraa de 
Gila, and Steina Peak Mountains, and the Clifton 
Copper Mines on the north. The whole length of 
this mineral belt is nearly or quite two hundred 
miles. The lateral branches of these great mineral 
belts will not be specified, though many of them are 
equally rich in mineral as the main ones. 

There is one other mineral belt, distinctively of 
copper, which crosses most of the others. The main 
ones described all have a north and south course. 

The copper belt mentioned commences near the 
Colorado River, at the Caalle Dome Copper Minesj 
and runs thence east for a distance of over six hun- 
dred miles, and nearly to the Rio Grande in New 
Mexico. This copper belt outcrops at intervals in 
enormous lodes, sometimes really mountains of cop- 
per, and inclades prominently the Castle Dome Mines, 
the Young America, and others in the Silver Moun- 
tain district, the Globe Mine and others in the Pinal 
Mountains, and the Clifton Copper Mines in Arizona, 
and the Santa, Rita and other copper mines in New 

The belt ia from ten to fifty miles wide through ita 
whole course. 

From the foregoing brief description of the prin- 
^pal mineral belta of the Territory, the intelligent 


ami thoughtful reader can form some faint idea 

the extent of the mineral formation of the country.! 

But no one can fully realize the vast probabilities^ 
of what the future has in store for tlie country, with- 
ont making a personal and thorough examination,, 
embracing its geological character, its topt^raphy, 
soil, climate, and the many peculiarities and condi- 
tions which must ever be looked for by those di^siroua 
of studying thoroughly all pertaining to new and un- 
developed countries. 

After more than two years' constant and continued 
exploration and examination of Arizona, the author 
feels justified in the opinion that in mines and min- 
ing, the salubrity of climate, etc., Arizona ia the 
coming eountrtf of our continent, and that capital can 
there be invested with more certainty of long con- 
tinued and profitable results, than iu any other min- 
ing section of our country. 

In regard to the selection of mines, and the man- 
agement of mining operations, a word of caution and 
a few suggestions seem to be eminently proper in this 
connection. Capitalists should never purchase mininj 
property without first making a most tlj( 
araination of the mine and all its surroundings, eithet* 
in person, or through a competent and trustworthy! 
agent. It is not safe, however, as can be testified iftl 
numerous instances, to rely implicitly on a mere bool 
worm, either as to the value or worthlessnesa of 



ing property, no matter how high his position, or his 
many sounding titles conferred by colleges and uni- 
versities. Scientific knowledge is all well as far as it 
goes, but there are a thousand things, more or less, 
connected with mines and mining that the mere book- 
worm can know nothing of but by actual experience. 

The numerous instances, well known to the author, 
where eminent professors have at great expense ex- 
amined and reported on mines, their reports costing 
thousands of dollars, have led to deplorable results, 
and ruined those who have put faith in them. The 
opinion of a well informed practical miner, with but 
a modicum of book knowledge, is more to be relied 
on as to the value, quality, and probable perma- 
nency of mines, than the opinion of the mere student 
of books without practical knowledge. 

The perfection of mining is that of science and 
practicality combined, and this should ever be 
borne in mind by capitalists, and others, when look- 
ing for permanent and profitable investments, or for 
profits from mining labor. 

Another most important matter connected with 
large mining operations is the selection of proper 
and suitable men as superintendents, financial agents, 
secretaries, assayers, foremen, etc. The practice of 
sending somebody's son, nephew, cousin, or friend, to 
fill any of these stations, merely to get rid of their 
presence at home, or to draw large salaries, is a most 


foolish and unwise course, unless such persons have a 
thorough and practical knowledge of the important 
duties necessary for them to perform. Hundreds 
of mining enterprises have failed from this course of 
action, which, if conducted by practical and honest 
men, who understood their duties, would have been 
eminently successful, and fortunes would have been 
made, where bankruptcy and financial ruin was the 
natural and inevitable result. 

If these suggestions should be heeded, the reports 
of mining failures would seldom be chronicled, mining 
operations would be reduced to a greater certainty, 
and the business would be fully legitimatized. 



A RIZONA is divided into six countieB, to wit: 
■^-^ Yuma, Mohave, Yavapai, Maiicopa, Pinal, and 

Yuma County is in the southwestern part of the 
Territory, and has a popuhvtion of 2,212, The pop- 
ulations given of tlie towns and counties is taken 
from the Tevfitofial census of July, 1876. 

Tho county town of Yuma County ia Ynma, which 
was formerly known as Ai-izona City. Its popular- 
tion is about 1,500. Yuma is situated on the east oc 
left bank of the Colorado River, at its junction with 
the Gila River. It is one hundred and seventy-fiva 
miles above the head of the Gulf of CaUfornia, eight 
miles above the line of Lower California, and twenty 
miles above the Sonora line. 

Yuma is the principal shipping and commercial 
town of the Territory, being the point where a large 
portion of the goods and merchandise entering the 
Douutry is unloaded from the steamers of the Colorado 
Steam Navigation Company. From Yuma they are 


shipped by wagon to Phoenix, Florence, Tucson, and 
the many mining camps in Central and Southern 
Arizona. That taken to the northern part of the 
Territory is taken by river steamers to Castle Dome, 
Ehrenburg, Aubrey, Camp Mohave, and Hardyville, 
and thence to Prescott, Wickenburg, and other inte- 
rior towns, and elsewhere as required. 

At Yuma is the Territorial Prison, which is now 
partly completed, and when fully finished according 
to the plans and specifications, will be a model of 
strength, utility, and architectural beauty. Among 
the other important buildings are the county court- 
house, jail, public school-house. Catholic school-house, 
two hotels, printing-office, and a large number of fine 
stores, saloons, and private dwellings. The "Senti- 
nel," a wide awake newspaper, is well established at 
Yuma, and thoroughly devoted to the interests of the 
county and territory. It is now under the manage- 
ment of George E. Tyng, Esq., an independent and 
thorough journalist. For several years it was under 
the management and control of Judge Wm. M. 
Berry, who was an able editor and a most genial gen- 

The Southern Pacific Railroad of California will, it 
is expected, be finished in a few months to Yuma, 
when the town will receive a new and fresh impetus. 

The Texas Pacific Railroad will also cross the river 
at Yuma, which ^vill add much to the prosperity of 


the place, connecting it with San Diego on the Pa- 
cific, and with all the great cities of the Mississippi 
and Atlantic St:itL-s. 

Castle Dome Landing is thirty miles above Yuma, 
at which an active little town ia springing np, and 
from which point the Castle Dome Minea, fifteen 
miles distant, are supplied. A store and poat-office is 
kept here by Wm. P. Miller, who has also a smL'lting 
furnace in succcBsfuI operation. Large quantities of 
ai^eiitiferous galena, and copper ores, are shipped 
from Castle Dome Lauding to San Francisco. Pop- 
ulation about 50. 

Ehrenburg is a brisk town one hundred and thirty 
miles above Yniua, and next to Yuma the largest 
shipping town on the Colorado River, The popula- 
tion is about 300. Most of the freight for Prescott, 
Wickenburg, and the country east is transshipped 
at this town. There is a public school. Catholic 
church, general stage offices of the California and 
Arizona Stage Company. Several fine stores and pri- 
vate dwellings may be found here. 

Ehrenbut^ is the present crossing of the Colorado 
River of the California and Arizona Stage Line, from 
the terminus of the Southern Pacific Railroad to Pres- 
cott, and other points in the interior. The annual 
sales of the merchants of Ehrenburg aggregate about 
3i20O,OO0. The principal firms are J. M. Barney, J. 
Goldwater & Brother, J. M Castenat]o,and Juan Noli, 


Mohave County is in the northwestern part of the 
Territory, and north of the Bill Williams Fork, that 
stream being the dividing line between Mohave and 
Yuma counties. The county town is Cerbat, a small 
town in the southwestern spurs of the Cerbat Moun- 
tains, and about thirty-five miles from Hardyville on 
the Colorado River. The population of Mohave 
County is put by the census at 822, but it is believed 
that it much exceeds that number. The population 
of Cerbat, the county town, is about 100. There is 
a good county court house at Cerbat, a post-office, a 
few stores, saloons, private dwellings, etc. 

Mineral Park, the largest town in the county, is 
six miles north from Cerbat, with a population of 
about 200. Mineral Park has a five stamp quartz 
mill, a public school-house, post-office, several stores, 
saloons, and private dwellings, and is the centre of a 
rich and extensive mining countiy. By act of Legis- 
lature of 1877 it is now the county town of the county. 

Hackberryis a new and prospering mining town in 
the Peacock Mountains, thirty miles east of Mineral 
Park. The celebrated Hackberry Mine is the cause 
and foundation of its prosperity. Population about 

Greenwood is a fine little hamlet village on the 
Sandy Creek, in the southern part of the county, 
twelve miles east from the celebrated McCracken 
Mine, and the location of its quartz mill, the working 


of which has built up a town of 100 inhabitants. 
Hackberry and Greenwood have each a few stores, 
restaurants, and saloons, and several private dwellings, 
blacksmith shops, etc. 

At McCracken Hill and Mine there are about 100 
inhabitants, and at Planet, twenty miles west, about a 
score. Aubrey Landing is two hundred and thirty 
five miles above Yuma, and the landing for goods, 
merchandise, and miners' supplies, for the McCracken 
and Sandy districts. 

Hardyville is the present upper terminus of the 
river navigation, and the great crossing point for im- 
migrants from California. It is three hundred and 
thirty-seven miles above Yuma, and five hundred and 
thirteen miles above the head of the Gulf of Califor- 
nia. It is quite an important place, being the point 
of transshipment of freight for Cerbat, Mineral Park, 
Hackberry, and other points in the interior. A fine 
store is kept here by William M. Hardy, Esq., a post- 
office, and an excellent ferry. 

Yavapai County embraces the whole of central and 
northeastern Arizona, an immense extent of terri- 
tory embrachig an area of country larger than the 
States of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, Delaware, New Jersey, 
and Maryland, or about fifty-five thousand squ^,re 
miles. The population is 13,738, nearly one half of 
that of the whole Territory. It is fast increasing in 


popnlatton, and the immigrants are oE the better 
class, consisting to a great degree of fumilies who 
come to stay and to build up homes, 

Prescott, tlie county town, and by an act of the 
Territorial Legislature, J:inuiiry, 1877, ouee more 
made the capital of the Territory, is as beautiful a 
niountaiu town as can be found on the Paeillc slope. 
It hns a papulation o£ 3,800, consisting almost wholly 
of white people of the better class. It is surrounded 
by mountains on all sides, which are covered with 
forests of pine and other timber. The town is well 
laid out on the eastevn side of Granite Creek, one of 
the tributaries of the Verde River. 

An iiddition has been laid out by Judge Fieury, on 
tb« western side of Granite Creek, which adds much 
to the beauty and growth of the town. 

The Judge is an old and respected resident, and 
came to the Territory in 1863 with Governor Goodwin 
and suite, took part in the organization of the Terri- 
tory, and has been identified with Arizona and its 
interests, and especially with Yavapai County, ever 
since. A beautiful plaza adds ranch to the beauty of 
the town, being in its centre, and surrounded on all 
sides with fine business blocks, residences, etc. 

There are fourteen mercantile houses in town, 
three jewelers, three nteat markets, four livery star 
bles, three breweries, eight carpenter shops, eight 
blacksmith shops, seven wt^n shops, five hotels and 


restaurants, five boot and shoe stores, fourteen sa- 
loons, two tin shops, two barbers, seven attoi-neys, 
four physicians, one drug store, four milliners, one 
dentist, one harness shop, one photographic gallery, 
three assay offices, one extensive sash, door, and 
blind fttctoiy, one church edifice, Methodist, with the 
Rev. Mr. Wi'ight as Pastor, one Congregational 
Church organization, Rev. Mr. Merrill, Pastor, and 
one Methodist Episcopal Church South org-.inization, 
Rev. Mr. Head, Pastor. Tliere is also a comfortable 
county court-house and jail, and good county ol&ces, 
and an excellent new brick school-house, erected at 
a cost of $12,000, and capable of accommodating three 
hundred pupils, with Professor Sherman, Principal, 
and a good corps of assistants. 

Prescott has many fine business blocks built of 
brick, which would do credit to a large city, the 
principal ones being those of C. P. Head & Co., L. 
Bushtord & Co., J. G. Campbell, Wni. M. Buffum, 
and others. 

Prescott has two newspapers, the "Miner," the 
leading paper in Arizona, owned and conducted by 
Messre. Marion & Beach,' independent in politics, 
having a large circulation, and great influence. The 
"Miner" is daily and weekly, being the only daily 
in the TeiTitory. 

The "Enterprise," published by Mr, Mitchell, is a 
wide awake Democratic paper, having a good circiila- 


tion, well edited and well supported. John W. Leon- 
ard, Esq., is associate editor, and adds much to the 
life and character of the paper. 

Wickenburg is a small town in the southwestern 
part of the Territory, on the Hassayampa, and the 
general transfer station of the California and Arizona 
Stage Company. Passengers, mails, and express, 
are here transferred from the main line via Ehren- 
burg to Prescott, and intermediate stations north, 
and to Phoenix, Florence, and other stations south. 
Population 300. 

Brisk little hamlet towns are springing up in all 
parts of the county, among which may be mentioned 
Walnut Grove, Williamson Valley, Walnut Creek, 
Peck Mine, or Alexandra, Chino, Verde, etc. 

Several others are becoming quite important points 
on and near the Chiquito Colorado River, two of 
which are at the new Mormon settlements, where 
these industrious people are making good improve- 

There has been a large increase in the population 
of Yavapai County the past two years, and its increase 
in wealth and productiveness has kept pace with the 
increase in population. 

During the past year Prescott exported over five 
hundred thousand dollars of gold and silver bullion, 
three hundred and fifty thousand pounds of wool, and 
a large amount of lumber and other products. Messrs. 


Curtis and Noyes have each large saw mills near to 
Prescott, and both are doing a large and remunera- 
tive business. 

The largest mining town in Yavapai County is at 
the Clifton Copper Mines, in the southeastern part 
of the county, which has a population on an average 

of 3oa 

/^ Maricopa County is south of Yavapai, and has a 
population of 3,702. It is the great agricultural 
county of the Territory, and the larger part of its 
population are directly connected with agricultural 
pursuits. The great and rich valley of Salt River is 
wholly in Maricopa County. 

The county town is Phoenix, with a population of 
500. It is pleasantly situated in the valley of Salt 
River, two miles north of Salt River, well laid out, 
with a fine growth of shade trees along its principal 
streets, rendering it pleasant, attractive, and beauti- 
ful. In summer the thermometer ranges here from 
80° to 110°, and in winter from 40° to 80°. 

There are three fine flouring mills in and close to 
Phoenix, which furnish the larger portion of flour 
for Maricopa and Yavapai counties. A court-house, 
jail, school-house, hotel, restaurant, and several good 
stores, pleasant residences, etc., make up the town. 
The population is about one half each, white and 

At Hayden's Mills, eight miles east of Phoenix, is 



BL small town witli two stores, and a population of 
about 100. 

Maricopa Wells is a notetl station near the 
western part of the county, and a pnncipal atatiou on 
th© great overland Southern Pacific Mail Line o£ 
Messrs. Kerens & Mitchell, 

James A. Moore, Esq., one of the old pioneers of 
the Territory, a most estimable man, and superin- 
tendent of the line between Yuma and Tucson, re- 
sides at Maricopa Wells, with his estimable and 
respected family. 

In the Salt River Valley, for many miles in and 
around Plicenix, are many interesting and wonderful 
ruins, the work of a long forgotten race, which will 
be fully described in a future chapter. > 

Pinal County is south of Maricopa and north of 
Pima, having a population of 1,600. In the eastern 
part of Pinal County are some of the most valuable 
mines ever yet discovered, embracing most of the 
Globe district, the Silver King, and other rich mines. 
The central iitid western part of the county, along the 
Gila River, is a rich agricultural country. In this 
valley are the Pima villages, on the Gila River Res- 
ervation, which embraces a large tract of valuable 
farming land, where the Pimas and Maricopa Indiana 
raise lai^ crops of wheat, pumpkins, melons, etc. 

Florence, the county scat of the county, is on the 
them bank of the Gila River, some fifteen milea 



below where it emerges from the mountains. It baa 
a populiitioii of 500 ; four stores, a good school- 
house, Catholic church, two hotels and restaurauts, 
one brewery, a smelting furnace, three flouring mills in 
or near town, and some fine residences. Shade trees, * 
aa at Phcenix, are freely put out along its streets, 

Adamsville is four milea west of Florence, the loca- 
tion of the Bichard Mill, tlie first flouring mill erected 
in the Territory. A large mining town is being built , 
up in the Globe mining district, and an active one 
in the Silver King mining district. 

Pinia County is in the southern part of the Terri- 
tory, and until within a few years was the most pop- 
ulous county in the Territory. It now has a popu- 
lation of 8,117, 

Tucson is the county town of Pima County, and 
since 1867 lias been the capital of the Territory, until 
Januaiy, 1877, when tlie seat of government was re- 
moved, by an act of the Territoria,! Legislature, to 

Tucson was settled, as claimed, somewhere about 
the year 1560, by an expedition fitted out by the 
Spanish authorities in Mexico, with whom came some 
of the Jesuit Fathers, who thus early commenced the 
work of Christianizing the Indians. It is in the 
beautiful valley of Santa Cruz, three hundred miles 
east from Yuma, one hundred and twenty-five milea 
west from Apache Pass, and seventy-five miles north 


from the Sonora line. It has a population of about 
4,000, one third being whites and two thirds Mexi- 
cans. The Santa Cruz River waters the valley of 
the Santa Cruz, south of Tucson. This valley has a 

* very rich soil, and portions of it have been cultivated 
for one or two centuries, and produce equally as 
well now, as when first known to our people. The 
town of Tucson is built up almost wholly of adobe 

. (sun-burned brick), and to one unaccustomed to that 
kind of material, it presents a quaint and curious 
appearance. Buildings erected of this material are 
extremely cool and comfortable in the hot and dry 
climate of the country. 

Tucson has two hotels, a county court-house and 
jail, fifteen general stores, a branch United States 
depository, two bi*eweries, six attorneys, five phy- 
sicians, one news depot, ten saloons, two milliners, 
two flouring mills, three barbers, four boot and shoe 
stores, four feed and livery stables, a public school- 
house and about three hundred pupils, a Catholic 
school under the charge of the Sisters of St. Joseph, 
with about two hundred pupils, one photographic gal- 
lery, two jewelers, several small establishments, and 
one newspaper, the *' Citizen," edited and published 
by John Wasson, Esq. It has the second largest 
circulation in the Territory, and has done much to 
build up the Territory, more especially the southern 

TUCSON. 155 

The business of Tucson is quite large, amounting 
annually to over $1,500,000. A good proportion 
of this business and trade is with Sonora, the mer- 
chants exchanging dress and fancy goods, boots and 
shoes, groceries, notions, etc., for flour, oranges, lem- 
ons, tobacco, cigars, and silver coin, of which large 
sums are annually brought from Sonora, where there 
are two coinage mints, one at Hermosilla, and one at 
Alamos, both of which coin from $50,000 to $200,000 
per month. Tucson has ever been, and must con- 
tinue to be for a long time to come, the central point 
for business of Southern Arizona. In summer the 
climate is quite hot for many months, but not un- 
bearably so, and in winter mild and pleasant. Gen- 
eral good feeling exists between the white and Mexi- 
can population, and a large number of white men 
have married Mexican women, who make kind, pleas- 
ant, and aflfectionate wives. 

Many of the wealthiest and most successful busir 
ness men of the Territory reside at Tucson, where 
they have accumulated handsome fortunes, in trade, 
government contracts, arid general business enter- 



rpiHE Indians of Arizona may be classified as river. 
"^ and mountain Indians ; as pueblo, or village, and 
roving Indians ; as self-supporting, and non-self-sup- 
porting Indians ; or as reservation and non-reserva- 
tion Indians. They will be described in the order of 
their locality, commencing with the Colorado River 
Indians on the southwest. 

The Colorado River Indians are the Co-co-pahs, 
Yu-nias, Mo-ha-ves, and the Chim-ue-hue-vas, all of 
whom are a large, powerful, and well formed race. 
They are now generally quiet and peaceable, and are 
easily taught the simpler forms of agriculture. 

The Cocopahs inhabit the country bordering the 
Colorado River below Yuma, both in Arizona, Cali- 
fornia, Sonora, and Lower California. They are 
quiet and quite industrious, raise considerable quan- 
tities of wheat, corn, pumpkins, and melons, and cut 
and prepare much wood for the use of the Colorado 
Steam Navigation Company's river steamers, below 



Yuma, for wUich they are paid from two dollnra and 
a, half to three dollara per cord. 

They should not be eonfoumied with the mountain 
Cocopahs, who inhH,bit the Cocopah Mountains in 
Lower CaUfornia. The mountain Cocopahs are a 
wild, savage, and blood-thirsty race. The river Cn- 
copiihs number about 500. 

The Yamaa live ou the Colorado River at and 
above Yuma, and number about 600. They culti- 
vate some wheat, corn, pumpliina, and melons, do 
some work about the landing at Yuma, and cut and 
prepare some wood for the river steamers at Yuma, 
and for a distance above. 

Tlie chief of the Yumaa is Pas-qual, an old and 
quite intelligent Indian, and a firm friend of the 
wliites, whose manners and customs he often com- 
nieiida to his people, and urges them to adopt. 

The Yuraas, like most Indians, love fire-water, 
which, with diseases introduced among them, is mak- 
ing sad havoc in the tribe. They are now peaceable 
and quiet, uidess when under the inSuence of bad 
whiskey, and great provocation. 

The Mohaves are farther up the Colorado River, 
and range principally between Ehrenbui^ and Hardy- 
ville, a tlistaHce of two hundred miles. They number 
nbout 1,500. Of this number, 900 are collected on 
the Colorado River Reservation, eighty-fi?e niilea 
ibove Ehrenburg, and 600 are on the river above 


the Reservation, in the vicinity of Hardy villa and 
Camp Mohave. The Colorado River Reservation is 
two hundred and ten miles above Yuma, and was es- 
tablished by act of Congress, March 3, 1865. The 
boundaries of the Reservation were extended by an 
executive order of the President, November 16, 1874, 
and it now contains 250,000 acres of land, a large 
proportion of which is first quality farming land. 
The Reservation is now in charge of Col. William 
E. Morford, a gentleman well qualified for the posi- 
tion, and who succeeded Dr. Tonner as agent, Jan- 
uary 1, 1876. Lieutenants Fudge and Dodt, and Mr. 
Lehigh, had formerly had charge of the Reservation, 
and Mr. Lehigh was brutally murdered by his own 
Indians at Bell's Canon, when returning from a visit 
to Prescott. Colonel Morford seems to be the right 
man in the right place, and it is to be hoped that he 
will succeed in his efforts to make the Mohaves self 
supporting, which has never yet been done, although 
large sums of money have ostensibly been expended 
for that purpose. It is believed by many that the 
money so expended has been worse than thrown 

The Chief of the Mohaves on the Reservation is 
Hook-a-row, who succeeded the celebrated Chief and 
friend of the whites, Ar-i-ta-ba, who died some two 
years since.^ Hookarow is a large, well-formed Indian, 
peaceable and industrious. 


The Mohaves on the Reservation receive a portion 
Df supplies from the Government, and raise some 
wheat, corn, pumpkins, and melons, and gather and 
use large quantities of the mesquit bean, which 
greatly assists in supplying them with food. Ari- 
taba, the former chief, was far in advance of his 
tribe in intelligence, and was once taken to New 
York, Washington, etc. His wonderful report, on 
his return to his Indians, of what he saw, of the 
thousand things connected with the white men, — 
their great cities, their great canoes, and long lines 
of wagons drawn with the speed of the wind by the 
steam horse, and the many other things he told them 
of, were so incompi'ehensible to their simple minds, 
they could not credit the stories, and lost confidence 
in him, saying the white men had bewitched the 
great chief. 

Sic-a-hoot is the chief of the other portion of the 
tribe. This portion are self-supporting, and cultivate 
considerable wheat, corn, pumpkins, and melons ; 
collect large quantities of mesquit beans, and per- 
form considerable labor about the landings at Camp 
Mohave and Hardyville. 

The Chim-ue-hue-vas are an off-shoot of the Pah 
Utes, and live on and about the Colorado River, and 
'.ntermix, to a considerable extent, with the Mohaves. 
rhey number about 500. 

All the river Indians mentioned are fond of fish, 


which they take in great quantities from the Colo- 
rado River. 

The Maricopas are a branch of the Yumas, which 
fcribe they left some sixty years since on account of a 
difficulty with others of the tribe. They now live 
with the Pima Indians, on the Gila River Reser- 
vation, and will be described in connection with 

The Mohaves, Yumas, and Maricopas speak the 
Mohave language, which seems to be the most per- 
fect and original of all the Indian dialects of Arizona. 
That of the Cocopahs and Chimuehuevas assimilates 
with the Mohave. 

The Hualapais ^ are a distinct and separate tribe 
from all others in the Territory, and now live in the 
mountains of Mohave County. They number 600, 
and maintain a miserable existence by hunting, gath- 
ering nuts, roots, and berries, and by begging and 
stealing. They are a small, dark race, naturally given 
to war and plunder. Their chief, She-rum, is a bold, 
bad Indian, and in former times planned and com- 
mitted numerous murders among the early prospec- 
tors, miners, and immigrants. He ought long since 
to have been hung for his cringes. 

The Pima Indians live on the Gila River Reserva- 
tion, about midway between Yuma and Tucson, and 
with the Maricopas, who live on the Reservation 

1 Wal-la-pais. 


with them in the most perfect harmony, niiiiiber 
4,326. They have from time immemorial been quite 
Biiccessful agricalturists, and now raise considerable 
quantities of wheat, pumjjkius, melons, etc. In 1876 
they sold nearly two million pounds of wliedt at 
about three cents per pound. They prepare their 
wheat for market in a manner that would be cred- 
itable to the best eastern fanners. Not a parlicle of 
anything but the pure full formed wheat is sold by 

The Pimas are medium sized, well formed, peace- 
able, and quiet, but great thieves, stealing with im- 
punity every article left in their reach. It is laugha- 
ble, 33 well as provoking, to have a swarm of Pimas 
gather around one's camp fire, and note with what 
patience and peraevei'ance they will steal, or try to 
steal, any small article, such as a knife, spoon, fork, 
or other article left on the ground. The foremost 
in the circle will put his naked foot on the article, 
and when he deems himself unnoticed, will give it a 
throw back with his toes to an Indian in the rear, 
who in like manner pats his foot on the article, and 
thus it is passed ivom one to another until they think 
it safe to pick it up and hide it in the fold of their 
blankets. If caught at the game, they will laugh iu 
one's face with impunity, as though it was a good 

An hour or more will often be passed by a score 


or more in stealing in this way some slight articlet 
of the value of a few cents. 

The Pimas have several villages, extending along 
the Gila River for many miles, and have a reservation 
of about seventy-five thousand acres, most of which 
is excellent agricultural land. 

The Papagoes number 6,000, and live on a reservar 
tion south of Tucson which contains seventy thousand 
four hundred acres of land. Their villages are near 
the old and noted mission church of San Xavier, 
twelve miles south from Tucson, and in the Santa 
Cruz Valley. They are nominally Catholics, and 
have been under the care of the Roman Catholic 
priesthood most of the time for nearly or quite three 
centuries. They are self-supporting, and have been 
so, as far back as their history is known ; have a good 
supply of horses, mules, and cattle, and raise consid- 
erable produce of various kinds. 

Like the Pimas, they have been friendly to our 
people ever since the United States acquired their 
country, and both have ever been ready to assist in 
fighting the Apaches, and at times have done good 
service. For reasons unknown to the author, they 
have lately been taken from the charge of Bishop 
Salpointe and attached to the Pima Agency. 

Under the care and charge of the Catholics, the 
Papagoes have been kept free from most of the many 
vices which prevail among all Indian tribes soon 


jifter they become acquainted with white people, and 
familiarized to their manners and practices. 

Why the Papagoes should under these circum- 
stances be transferred to another agency, and no 
doubt be eventually habilitated with them, and where 
they will as a natural consequence contract the same 
loathsome diseases so common among the Pimas, is a 
matter of serious consideration, and should be care- 
fully inquired into. 

At the San Carlos Indian Agency, which is on the 
White Mountain Indian Reservation, are gathered 
most of the Apache bands of Indians. This agency 
is on the Gila River, near its junction with the San 
Carlos River. It is about one hundred and seventy- 
five miles northeast from Tucson. 

The Indians gathered at the San Carlos Agency 
are the Coy-o-ter-os, Pi-nals, Ar-a-vai-pas, Ton-tos, 
Apache Yu-mas, Apache Mo-ha-ves, and the Chir-i- 
ca-huans, which include the Co-chise Indians. 

The Coyoteros, Pinals, Aravaipas, Tontos, and 
Chiricahuans, are Apaches ; and the Apacha Yumas 
and Apache Mohaves are a mixture of Apaches and 
of the Colorado River Indians. The total number at 
San Carlos is 4,459. Of this number 1,051 are 
Pinals and Aravaipas, under the chief Es-kim-in-zin ; 
629 Tontos, under the chief Char-le-pan ; 1,512 Coyo- 
teros, under the chief Bab-by-du-clono ; 297 Chirica- 
huans, under the chief Ta-za; 352 Apache Yumas, 


under the chief Snooks; and 618 Apache Mohaves, 
under the chief Charley. M. A. Sweeney was at 
last accounts acting agent at San Carlos, and under 
his management the Indians are being taught habits 
of industry, and it is to be hoped that they will in 
time, at least partially, if not wholly, become self-sup- 

. From Mr. Sweeney the following Indian statistics 
for the year 1876 were obtained : — 

Total number of acres of land cultivated 549 

Brought under cultivation in 1876 221 

Number of tons of hay cut by the Indians 350 

Number of horses owned by the Indians 537 

Number of mules 22 

Number of burros 18 

Number of sheep 5^000 

Number of cows 125 

Number of bulls 6 

Number of cords of wood cut by the Indians in 1876 , . 500 

Number of pounds of wheat raised 10,000 

Number of pounds of corn 200,000 

Number of pounds of barley 28,000 

Number of pounds of beans 13,000 

Number of melons 6,000 

Number of pumpkins and squashes 4,000 

Number of pounds of mescal gathered and roasted for food 75,000 

Number of Indians under medical treatment in 1876 . . 3,237 

Number of births in 1876 86 

Number of deaths in 1876 20 

Number killed in 1876 1 

The war chief of the Apache Mohaves, named 
Mi-ra-ha, left the Reservation July 26, 1876, with- 


out leave, and was killed by Captain Porter near the 
Verde River, far from the Reservation. 

The White Mountain Reservation embraces a largo 
extent of country, containing two and a half millions 
of acres or more. Most of this vast section of coun- 
try is totally useless to the Indians and can never be 
utilized for their civilization, and should be opened 
to the use of white men. 

The Navajoes ^ are also an Apache band, and oc- 
cupy a reservation in the northeastern part of Ari- 
zona, and northwestern part of New Mexico, compris- 
ing 3,328,000 acres of land. They number 9,114. 
They are a bold, active, warlike people ; sharp, keen, 
and shrewd ; naturally inclined to rob, murder, and 
steal, and before their subjugation lived by war and 
plunder. They would often go hundreds of miles to 
raid on other bands of Indians, and on Mexicans, and 
at times would drive back from their forays thou- 
sands of horses, cattle, and sheep. They now have 
large bands of stock. They are very ingenious and 
make the most beautiful and costly blankets of any 
of the Indian tribes, the best of which are woven in 
bright and gaudy colors and many devices, and worth 
a horse each. 

South of the Navajo Reservation, both in Arizona 
and New Mexico, is the country of the Zunis, one of 
the most interesting tribes on the continent. The 

1 Nay-a-hoes. 



ZuHis oru worthy of special mention, and a 
work could be written of them, their traditions, 1 
its, cuatoma, manners, religion, etc., etc 

The ZuHia number <i trifle over 3,000, and i 
live in a, large and well built town, eleven miles frc 
the eastern line of Arizona. Their town ia built U 
a slightly elevated hill, on the north side of the Zil| 
River, and on the Zufli arroya or plain, which ru) 
a northeast and southwest conrse in Arizona and N^ 
Mexico. This great plain ia eighty miles long, ! 
from three to ten miles wide. The ZuBi River is, in 
the diy season, but a small and insigniticant brooklet. 
The houses are mostly built of adobe, many of them 
having well laid stone floors, and plastered and vi 
washed inside. The town covers about ten acres J 
land. The houses are erected one on the top of f 
other, to the height of seven Btoriea, 

The Zuilia are an exceedingly peaceable and : 
dnstrious people, are self-supporting, have lai^e flo( 
of sheep and goats, many horses, mules, cattle, hoj 
and poultiy, raise large qnantities of wheat, coi 
pumpkins, melons, chili pepper, etc., etc., manufacture 
qnantities of blankets, many of which they sell and 
trade with other Indiana, and with the whites, ani 
at times supply emigrants passing through with ( 
and mutton, and other articles. 

Their government ia patriarchal in form, 
vested in thirteen wise men, or caciques, who m^ 


all the laws, rules, and regulations, for their govern- 
ment, appoint the governor for the town, and war, 
hunting, and other captains, for every general or 
specific purpose or enterprise. 

They are a medium sized race, the men averaging 
about five feet four inches in height, and the women 
about five feet, by actual measurement of Bix.ty or 
more of each sex. They are quite stout, more espe- 
cially the women, are well formed, and do not have 
the high cheek bones so prevalent among the common 
Nortli American Indians. Their language is differ- 
ent also from all other tribes, and their voices low 
and musical, quite different from the guttural of the 
common Indian. They are generous and hospitable 
to strangers, but keen and sharp in trade. Tlieir tra^ 
ditions reach far back into the piist for hundreds of 
years. One of tlieir traditions is, that many hundreds 
of years since, they lived far to the southwest, evi- 
dently by their description on the great plains and 
valleys bordering the Gila and Salt rivei-s, where 
there are many old and interesting mins of a long for- 
gotten race, which will be partially described in a 
future chapter. 

Their present town was built about one hundred 
and fifty years since, and near its centre is an old and 
venerable Catholic church, erected about that dis- 
tance of time, as determined by inscriptions now leg- 
ible. They had, prior to the building of the present 



towii| seven large towns, the ruins of which yet exii 
and are supposed to be the seven wonderful cities 

Sibola, the location of which was long searched for 
by the early Spanish explorers, and which were sup- 
posed to be ricli in silver and gold, so eagerly sought 
for by the early discoverers and explorers of tli« new 
continent. The old church is now closed most of thi 
time, and the Zunis report that formerly Cathol 
priests lived with tlieni, but have not been pen 
ted to do BO for about sixty years piist. The 
church is in size 115 by 75 feet, with massive adobe 
walls, having a choir gallery, and embellished with 
a number of old paintings, now badly defaced by 

The Moqui Indians occupy a section of country 
Northern Arizona, some eighty miles north of wf 
from the Zufli village. They number about 2,0< 
and live in seven pueblos, or villiiges, which 
high and abrupt table-land. They are in some re- 
spects similar to the ZiiHis, smaller in size, not near 
as cleanly in habits, generjilly quiet and 
but will steal. The table-lands where the Moquis 
are from two hundred to live hundred feet high, 
can easily be defended against the attacks of t 
enemies. One of tliese table-land plateaus is 
miles long, and half a mile wide, on which are four 
their villages. Tliree other quite small jnes, ha' 
each one village. They are ae IE-supporting, 



n com and other produce in limited quantities on tlie 
plains suiTounding the tiible-land plateaus. 

I The word moqui means death, and was applied to 

them by other tribes at a time long since, when the 

I small-pox killed off largo numbers of the tribe. 

I Their original name was Ha-pe-ka. 

I, III addition to the Indians already named, there 

II are several small bands who live tar down in the great 
I caSons of the main and Cliiqiiito Colorado rivers, who 
I number in all perhaps 500. Among the number are 

the Agua Supais, and a few others whose names are 
unknown. But little is known of them, as but few 
I whites have ever ventured into their almost inacces- 

sible retreats. They raise some com and other prod- 
uce, and, like the ZuBis, raise excellent peaches from 
peach pits brought into the country, us is supjmsed, 
by the old Jesuit priests. 

There are a few refugees who haunt the Chirica- 
hua, Dragoon, and other mountains in the southoasfr- 
ern parts of the Territory, and perhaps a few more 
in the great Tonto basin, between Prescott and Camp 

Of the Indians mentioned, the Zafiis and Navajoes, 
live Ixith in Arizona and New Mexico ; the Cocopahs 
in Arizona. Sonora, California, and Lower Califor- 
nia; the Chimnehnevas in Arizona, California, and 
I Nevada, and these tribes cannot all be enumerated as 
I belonging wholly in Arizona. The other tribes men- 


tioned make their home in Arizona, except at times 
the Yumas pass some time in California on the west 
side of the Colorado River. The actual namber of 
Indians now belonging to and living in Arizona is, 
as near as can be ascertained, as follows : — 

Of the Cocopahs 200 

Of the Cbimuehueyas 300 

Onehalf oftheZufiid 1,500 

One half of the Navajoes 4,557 

The Yumas 500 

The Mohaves 1,500 

The Hualapais 600 

The Pima? and Maricopas 4,326 

Tlie Papagoes 6,000 

At the San Carlos Agencj 4,459 

The Moquis 2,000 

Small bands 500 * 

A total of 26,442 

Add refugees and stragglers 200 


The Indian reservations in Arizona cover a large 
extent of country, including many thousand acres of 
the best farming lands there, also large tracts of min- 
eral and timber lands. But a small proportion of the 
lands set apart for reservations can ever be utilized 
by the Indians, or made to assist in making them 
self-supporting. The extent of the several I'eserva- 
tions is as follows : — 


Colorado River Reservation . . » . . 250,000 acres. 

Gila River Reservation . 75,000 

Papago River Reservation 70,400 

Chiricahua River Reservation 2,736,000 

White Mountain Reservation 2,528,000 

Navajo (one half) Reservation .... 1,664,000 

Ziini (one half) claimed 1,000,000 

Moquis claimed 1,000,000 

A total of 9,323,400 

In round numbers this would be 14,568 square 
miles, a tract large enough to make a good sized 
state, if densely settled. 

Of the Reservations above mentioned, those of the 
Colorado, Gila, Papago, Chiricahua, White Moun- 
tain, and Navajo, are recognized by the Government. 
The Chiricahua Reservation, from which the Indians ' 
were removed the past summer, has been, or prob- 
ably soon will be, opened up for the use and occu- 
pancy of the whites. 

The claims of the Zuflis and Moquis to reserva- 
tions is founded on a claim of long occupancy and 
tillage for hundreds of years, and by treaties made 
long since with Spanish and Mexican authorities, but 
no official action has been taken towards a recog- 
nition of their rights by our Government. Their 
claims have been silently recognized by the Govern- 
ment, and they have never been interfered with, and 
most probably will not be, unless they should be re- 
moved to some more suitable locality. 


The author does not desire to tread on forbidden 
ground, but nevertheless deems it a duty which he 
owes the genei-al public, and especially the people 
of Arizona, to express his strong disapprobation of 
the present Indian policy, or more properly the want 
of any well-defined and permanent policy, beneficial 
either to Indians or the whites. The practice of set- 
ting ofE a large extent of country fifty or one hun- 
dred miles square, for an Indian Reservation, over 
which they can roam at will, encourages them in 
their roving, nomadic habits, and gives them oppor- 
tunities for committing depredations, for plundering 
and theft, which they are ever ready to take advan- 
tage of. 

The practice of issuing rations of beef, flour, cof- 
fee, sugar, beans, salt, blankets, and other articles, 
without requiring any return in labor in consider- 
ation for the same, only tends to confirm them in 
habits of laziness and idleness. Under this system, 
one half or more of the men are constantly lying 
around idle, basking in the sun, and living on the 
bounty of the Government from taxation imposed 
directly or indirectly on the white labor of the na- 

The idle, the shiftless, the unemployed, of all 
races, both Indian ard white, are sure to pass most 
of their time in immoral practices, — in gambling 
^nd all the low- vices, becoming contaminated with 

foul diseases, and creating cesspools of filth, corrup- 
tion, aud degradation, instead of being raised to a 
higher civilization aud to habits of industry, enter- 
prise, and thriftinesa. The recognition and encour- 
agement given to tribes and tribal relations, the 
keeping up of distinct organizations of petty and 
insignificant nations within a great nation like ours, 
is an anomaly in the science of government produc- 
tive of no good, aud much harm. Under the present 
treatment, the Indians become neither civilized nor 
Christianized, but on the contrary, contract all the 
bad habits of the whites, filthy diseases, become im- 
pudent, and more and more improvident, having no 
care or thought for their own support, knowing that 
Government will supply all their wants of food aud 

A better and wiser policy would seem to be first, 
to give them reservations only large enough to be 
utilized, to break np their tribal relations as fast as 
possible, to teach them that they have the same 
rights as the whites, and no more ; that it is for their 
own good that each head of a family locate eighty, 
or oue hundred and sisty acres of land, with the 
same right of ownership aa the whites have, that they 
are subject to the same laws, amenable the same 
ns whites for crimes committed, and equally protected 
by those laws. Then teach and impress them with 
the fact, that after a given number of years the issu- 


ing of rations will be wholly stopped, and that in the 
mean time they will be taught the rudiments of an 
agricultural and pastoral life. 

It will no doubt take years to accomplish all this, 
but it can and should be done, or some other policy, 
equally as good or better, should be inaugurated, and 
then the Indians will become self-supporting, which 
will never be done under the present system, and our 
government and people be relieved from the burdens 
of taxation to the extent of millions annually. The 
present no Indian policy has never made a tribe self- 
supporting, and perhaps never will ; has never bene- 
fited either Indians or whites, excepting, always, an 
army of Indian agents, Indian traders, contractors, 
and the like, who fatten on the spoils and stealings 
both from the Indians and the Government. 

When under tribal relations, gathered on reserva- 
tions, and supported by Government, no Indian should 
be allowed to leave the Reservation unless accompa- 
nied by a proper guard, and then he should not be 
permitted to carry arms. The present system of 
giving permits to scores of Indians to leave the diflEer- 
ent reservations for days and weeks at a time, at the 
same time prohibiting white men from entering or 
crossing the reservations, without first reporting to 
the agent his business, or the necessity for so doing, 
gives great offense to the whites, and opens an oppor- 
tunity for plunder and stealing by the Indians which 

they ai'B ever ready to take advantage of whenever 
an oppoi'tiinity offers. 

Neither the Government nor its ageuts should ever 
make promises to Indians unless they are right and 
just, and when made they should ever be fulfilled. 
Indians are not fools, and in many things they have 
aa correct an opiuion of right and wrong as the 
whitea. As a general thing they are truthful, and 
consider that a> promise once made is to be kept and 
fulfilled faithfully. Many of the wars, murders, and 
depredations committed by them, have been caused 
by broken promises, cheating, and fraudg, on the part 
of the whites. Many instances could be given in 
Arizona, and elsewhere, to substantiate this assertion. 

One instance will be given that occurred in Ari- 
zona, which was feared would lead to an Indian war, 
but which was fortuuately avoided by the presence 
of a large body of troops. While in command of the 
department of Arizona, General Crook, who is un- 
excelled in a knowledge oE Indian character, mode of 
warfare, and the proper way and manner to subdue 
hostile tribes, had succeeded in the complete subjuga- 
tion of the Tontos, Apache Mohaves, and Apache 
Yumas, and had gathered them on a Reservation on 
the Verde River, promising them that the Reservation 
should be their home so loug as they remaiued good 
Indians. Placing implicit confidenca in the promise 
of the General, they remained on the Reservation 


peaceable and quiet, made good improvements, dug 
irrigating ditches, and were becoming partially self- 
supporting, when in some unknown and unaccount- 
able manner, an order was issued from the Interior 
Department at Washington, to remove these Indians, 
in the dead of winter, to the San Carlos Reservation, 
a distance of nearly two hundred miles; a special 
agent was sent out to accomplish the work, and the 
military under General Crook were commanded to 
assist in doing what the General had promised the 
Indians should not be done. The General, like a 
true soldier, obeyed the orders of his superiors, though 
it must have been extremely humiliating to him to 
do so, when he and all others knew that these In- 
dians had faithfully fulfilled their promise to be good 
Indians. The result was, the Indians lost confidence 
in General Crook, and he, chagrined and mortified, 
soon after was fortunately transferred to the depart* 
ment of the Platte, where he now is. 

It is to be earnestly hoped, that our wise men in 
Washington will soon see the necessity of inaugura- 
ting and adopting a settled and permanent Indian 
policy, which will be just to the Indians, and just to 
our government and people ; which will tend to make 
good citizens of them instead of vassals, beggars, and 
robbers ; which will release the white race from un- 
necessary and unjust taxation, and which will tend 
to elevate, instead of degrading the aboriginal race of 
our country. 



/^NE of the most interesting features connected 
^^ with an exploration of Arizona is the examina- 
tion of the ruins of a prehistoric race, who were evi- 
dently well advanced in civilization, and possessing 
many of the comforts and. conveniences of civilized 
life. These ruins consist of towns and cities, of ir- 
rigating canals, of stone implements, pottery ware, 
etc., and of rude hieroglyphics and pictures of men, 
animals, birds, reptiles, and other objects, animate 
and inanimate, painted on, or cut deep into rocks in 
different sections of the Territory. 

A thorough study and examination of all the many 
wonderful ruins, and of matters connected with them, 
would take a lifetime. 

In the great valleys and plains bordering the Gila 
and Salt rivers, the buildings were constructed almost 
wholly of concrete, while those in the mountains were 
mostly of stone. The aceiques, or irrigating canals, 
were of great length and size, and conducted the 
water from the great rivers, far over great tracts of 



country now incapable of cultivation for want of 
water, and which must at that time liaye been well 
supplied and cultivated by that old and numerous 
nice. The stone implements consist of stone axes, 
stone hammers, stone rings, stone metats for grinding 
grain, etc. ; and the broken pottery consisted of many 
patterns and kinds, sizes and forms, painted and un- 
painted, glazed and unghized ; some of which were of 
beautiful color and finish, the painting and glazing 
being apparently as fresh and perfect as when com- 
pleted, hundreds if not thousands of years since. 

The stone implements and pottery are found in 
large quantities in and around the old ruins, along 
the irrigating canals, and scattered here and there to 
some extent over a large portion of the territory. 

A brief description of a few only of the old ruins 
will be given, sufficient, it is to be hoped, to awaken 
attention to tliem, and to induce some society or or- 
ganization, the General Government, or some wealthy 
and generous individual, to take measures for a thor- 
ough exploration of them. 

In traveling up the great Gila Valley, from Yuma 
to Tucson, many of the old ruins will be found at but 
little distance from the stage road. At Gila Bend, 
one hundred and twenty-five miles east from Yuma, 
and eight miles from where the Oatman family were 
murdered by the Tonto Indians, in 1851, are some 
extensive hieroglyphics, called the Painted Rocks. 


This mass o£ rock rises from the Burface of the 
plain to a height of perhaps fifty feet, the uppermost 
being a broken ledge, from wliicli musses have fallen 
ofE, and the whole covering leas than an acre of land. 
On the standing leilge, imd on the broken masses at 
its base, are carved deep in the surface I'ude repre- 
seutittions of men, animals, birds, and reptiles, and 
of numerous objects real or imaginary, some of which 
represent checker-boards, some camels and dromeda- 
ries, insects, snakes, turtles, etc., etc.; and on the 
broken rocks at the base of the ledge are found on 
all sides like sculptui'ed figures, some of which are 
deeply imbedded in the sand. These pictured rocks 
present much of interest- to the thinking mind, and 
when examined by some one versed in hierogljphical 
reading, may be fonnd to give some clue to the time 
of making and the people who made them. 

Farther np the Gila Valley, for a distance of one 
hundred and fifty miles, the whole valley is covered 
in places, for miles in extent, with the ruins of irrigar- 
ting canals, houses, towns, and cities, on both sides of 
the river. 

In places are found the outlines of reservoirs, em- 
bankments, raised plateaus, etc., and the houses and 
towns seem to have been laid out with due regard to 
the points of the compass, as though the builders had 
some knowledge of astronomy, or at least of the north 



The best pi-eserved building in the viilley of thi 
Gila has been designated the " Caaa Grande," 
Great House — though in size it is much inferior 
to many others, but being better presei-ved is bo 
called. The Casa Grande ruin is forty-five feet , 
^vide, and sixty-three feet long, and the walla novfl 
etauding are nearly forty feet high, or, four and %M 
half stories. The walls are of concrete, over five feet 1 
thick at the base, and the tiers of concrete are thirty ] 
inches each in heiglit. 1 

The early Jesuit Fathers who. explored this conn- 1 
try in the latter part of the sixteenth and during the 1 
seventeenth centuries, described the old ruins very J 
minutely, mentioning also the great irrigating canals^ 
the stone implements, and the broken pottery wantn 
scattered profusely over the plain. Their descriptioafl 
would veil answer a description at the present timttifl 
The old Fathers could obtain no information from.fl 
the then existing Indians as to who built the towiwJ 
and cities then in ruius, any more than can now be ■% 
obtained of the Pima Indians, and in answer to qn%* J 
tions asked by them, they received the same answeta 
as was given the author by the Pima Indians, whtt^'jl 
was Moc-te-zu-ma. J 

No other answer or information could be obtaine4l 
from them, and they CTidently knew no more abonn 
the builders than ourselves. I 

The great irrigating canal, which is near the GasB. | 



Grande ruiD, is almost entirely obliterated where the 
soil is of & rich sedimentary character, and can there 
only be traced by the bi'oken pottery, as the canal ie 
entirely filled by the rains and storms of past ages; 
but where it was cut through hard, cemented, and 
stony ground, it is easily traced and in places open 
for himdreds of yards to a depth of five to ten feet, 
having a width of fully twenty-five feet. 

The Casa Grande ruin is on the south side of the 
Gila River, and nearly foar miles distant from it, sur- 
rounded by a great plain from twenty to fifty miles 
in extent. It is about twelve miles below Florence, 
the county seat of Pinal County. The great irriga- 
ting canal commences some fifteen miles above Flor- 
ence, where the water was takeii from the river, and 
can be traced far down the \alley tow.irds Maricopa 
Welb, a distance of nearly fifty miles. 

It is evident that this, and numerous other canals 
of like character, were excavated by a numerous and 
industrious people, and that they carried out the 
earth in vessels of pottery ware on their heads, the 
same as the Chinese are said to do now. 

No implements of Iran have ever been found in or 
around the old ruins, nor the bones of any large do- 
mestic animal, such as the horse or ox. 

They were evidently constructed in an era of time 
corresponding to the Stone Age of Europe, 

The vegiis, or beams, which supported the upper 


floors of the houses, were no doubt cut by them witifc 
stone axes, as the ends reuiiiining in the concret 
walU present that appenraiice. 

These vegas, as well as the other wood-work i 
the interior of the Cash Grande, and other building) 
examined, were burned out as though destroyed l^ ■ 
an enemy, whieh was pei'haps the case. On tha.1 
iioi-th side of the Gila River, and ex^tendiug a dia- ■ 
tance of many miles below Florence, are many other J 
old ruins, some of the buildings being over one hun- 
dred feet in length, with a corresponding width. 

About two miles west of Fliirence, on the nortli I 
side of the river, between the homes of Mr. Stiles ] 
and Mr. Long, is a stretch of hard, stony land, 
through whioli another of the lai^e iri-igiiting canals j 
was cut, and where, for several hundred yards, one | 
can ride on horseback in the canal, which is yet 8oj 
deep one cannot look over its banks on either side^ J 
when sitting on his horse. 

Four miles to the west, on the line of the canaltJ 
are the ruins of another old town, the outlines i^J 
some of the buildings being easily traced. One c^t 
them is one hundred and twenty feet long, and^ 
eighty feet wide. It was surrounded by a wall of 
concrete and stone, portions of which now remain ; 
and this w;ill was one hundred and thirty feet long 
on two sides of the building, and two hundre 
twenty-five feet long on the other two sides, J 

id red an^^^l 
., forrain^^^l 



I a kind 


a kind of court-yard inclosing the building. Tbis 
!ourt-yard was filled in on the south and east sides 
with earth to a depth of four feet, 

The soil in thu valley of the Gila ia very rich, and 
with the lai-ge snpply of water furnished by these 
great in-igating canals, the valley must have been 
very productive, and capable of supporting a nu- 
merous population. 

Sixty miles to the north of Florence, in the great 
valley of Salt River, at different distances from the 
town of PhuDuix, the county town of Maricopa 
County, are other old ruins, more extensive than 
those in the Gila Valley. 

In the Salt Elver Valley, within a radius of thirty 
miles, are the ruina of several large towns, some of 
which are over three miles in extent. 

Six uiilea east from PLoBuix, and two miles from 
the Hellings Mill, now owned by Major C. H, Vail, 
are the ruius of a large town, near the centre of 
which is one very large building, two hundred aud 
seventy-five feet long, and one hundred and thirty 
feet wide. The debris of this building foi-ms a 
mound which rises thirty feet above the surrounding 
plain. The walla of thia building are standing about 
teu feet in height, and are fully six feet thick. There 
seem to have been several cross walls, and the whole 
waa suri'ounded by an outer wall, which on the south 
Btde was thirty feet from the main wall ; on the east, 




eixty feet ; od the nortli, one hundred feet ; and oaB 
the west aide, sixty feet. 

On the north, and at the northwest comer, were 
two wings, perhaps guartl or watch houses. On thff] 
south of the outer wall was a moat, that could heM 
flooded with water from a large reservoir fifty yards^ '| 
to the south. Several other large reservoirs are fA'\ 
different points in and around the main town, whioh 
was over two miles iu extent, 

A large irrigating canal runs to the soutli of the 
lai^e building, which was from twenty-five to fifty- 
feet wide. This canal took the water from Salt 
River eight miles above, and can be easily traced for 
twenty rail.'S or more below. 

The jieople who excavated these canals must h«TB'| 
had a knowledge of engineering, as they are cnt o 
true and perfect grade. Seyerul engineers who have { 
surveyed canals for irrigation along the line of the t 
old ones, acknowledge that they cannot improve the'j 
grade, or gain an inch of grade to the mile. 

The largest of the old irrigating canals, visited aad.'l 
examined by the author, is soma twenty-five milosi,'! 
above Phoenix, on the south side of Salt River, i 
the point whei-e the river emerges from the moua ■ 
tains. This one, for eight miles after leaving the'l 
', is fully fifty feet wide. For this distance i&fJ 
runs in a southwest course through bard, stonyJI 
ground) and enters on a vast stretch of mesa or tablft>4 



land, which extends south and southwest from thirty 
to sixty miles, Imying an elevation above the river of 
nearly one hundred feet. 

At about eight miles from where this great canal 
leaves the river, it is divided into three branches- 
each twenty-five feet wide, one of wliich runs an east 
of south course, one nearly south, and the third south- 
west, the three probably carrying water sufficient to 
irrigate the whole of the immense plateau of table 
land before mentioned. Two miles west of where the 
maid canal branches are the rains of a large town 
which extends along the mesa for inanj miles. 

Near the centre of this town are the ruins of the 
largest building yet discovered. Its ground measure- 
ment is 350 feet by 150 feet, vnth outer walls, moats, 
embankments, and resenoira, outside tlie main walls, 
and ruins of smaller buildings in all directions. 

The presumption is, from a careful consideration of 
all the circumstances connected with the old ruins, 
that the large building, one of which is found in 
every town, was a temple, perhaps for sun wor- 
ship, as there are many evidences that they were 
sun worshippers. 

On the line of the branch canals, distant many 
miles from this one, are other ruins of towns similar 
to the others described. Below the great canal and 
the large ruins described, extending through what is 
called the Tempe Settlement, are other irrigating 



canals of nearly equal size to the others, and whii 
were taken out of the river many miles below thi 
lai^ one mentioned, and along these are also the 
rains of great houses and towns. 

In the Pueblo Viejo, or upper Gila Valley, are tho 
ruins of some ten or more old towns, with irrigati 
canals, etc., of the same character as those in th< 
great valleys of the Gila and Salt rivers. 

Some of the ruins in the Pneblo Viejo Valley are 
near mountain spurs where rock is abnndaut, and 
these were built of stone instead of concrete. This 
beautiful valley is one hnndi-ed and fifty miles north- 
east from Tucson, and contains about one hundred 
thousand acres of choice farming land, which waa 
evidently all cultivated by the old prehistoric race. 
, "Well towards the upper end of the valley, on a 
piece of table land, elevated above the river some 
fifty feet, are the ruins of a considerable town, lai^ 
reservoirs, some round and some square, connected 
by canals. One of these reservoirs is two hundred 
feet square, and walled up on the inside ten feet in 

The inhabitants of these old prehistoric toi 
were evidently cremationista, as from time to 
few burial urns of pottery ware have been foni 
filled with ashes and smiill pieces of partially burofli 
human bones. These cremation or burial urns wi 
quite small, about the size of a lai^ coffee cup, 



aliiiped, and generally inclosed in two or three larger 
ones, the largest of till being from twenty to thirty 
inches in diameter, iind turned bottom side up over 
the smaller ones, thus shielding and protecting them 
and their contents. 

The ruinB of this ancient race are found over a 
wide extent of country, from the great valleys men- 
tioned, for a width of fifty to one hundred and fifty 
miles and for four hundred or more miles in lengtli, 
far to the northeast, to the country of the ZnriiB. 

Through thia whole section of country, in almost 
every little valley among the mountains, are ruins of 
houses, towns, irrig-iiting canals, and other evidences 
of their work, the buildings being almost wholly of 
stone. On the summits of the highest mountains, 
along this whole distance, are the ruins of what are 
supposed to have been their temples of sun worship, 
and perhaps also a place for refuge in time of danger. 
A few only of the hundreds examined will be de- 

Some twenty miles south from Prescott, and two 
miles uorth from Walnut Grove, in sight of Captain 
IJartlett's house, is a mountain top with a walled in- 
dosure of about two acres. The wall surrounding 
this inclosure is in places ten feet thick, and ten to 
fifteen feet in height. Inside this wall are the ruins 
Df fourteen old stone houses. 

Six miles southeast from Captain Bartlett's, on the 


east side of Milk Ci'eek, is another moantaia tcpj 
three tbuusand feet above the little valley below, and 
on this Biimmit there is also a nailed incloaure, i 
taining about five acrea. The wall is very heavy aiu 
high, and inaide it are the ruins of twentj'-foi 
stone buildings from twenty to thirty feet square^ 
The ruins of a stone causeway, leading from a soutfc 
spur of the mountain to the main summit, can be 
traced for fifty yards. It is twelve feet wide, bnilt 
up on the sides with bowlders of a ton in weight, be- 
tween which were filled in smaller stones and earth. 

From this summit, a grand phuioramic view can b« I 
had of the surrounding country for a long distance, i 
embnicing mountains, valleys, and plains. 

Several miles up the Hassayampa Creek from 
Walnut Grove, and some eight or ten miles south j 
from Preacott, are many ruins of stone houses, some*' 
on the high hilla bordering the HasaavampH) and i 
some in the valleys near the creek ; some of those i 
the valleys near the creek are surrounded by larg 
pine forests, and inside the walls of one of the ruinri 
were three large pine trees of hundreds of yes 

There are many ruins around Prescott, and t 
series is in the village just west of Gninite Greek, o 
Judge Fleury's land. This series is on an elevate 
plateau, some two hundred feet above the creek, a 
'ihey were originally fenced in by a large stone wal 



most of whicli has been taken away for use in the 

For a distance of sixty or seventy milea weat there 
ia a continuation of riiiua of stonn houses, fortifica- 
tions, temples, etc., without numbiT. Tbey extend 
into tlie eastern part of Mohave County. 

Tbti rnins are plentiful around Williamson's Val- 
ley, Walnut Creek, Camp Hualapai, Mount Hope, 
and otber places. The most prominent are on tbe 
Bummits of high mountains. 

In Obino Valley, twenty milea north from Pres- 
cott, are some interesting ruins, well worthy a visit 
and thorough examination. Chino Valley is rich 
and fertile, contains a few fine farms, and was no 
doubt formerly a favorite locality tor the ancient race, 
now unknown. The ruins extend for a long dis- 
tance, in and aroiuid the valley, there being a series 
of nearly a score in sight from almost any point in 
the valley. The springs which water the valley were 
long since used for irrigation, there being yet evi- 
dences of them to be seen. 

Within less than one hundred feet of Mr. Bang- 
hai't's residence are a series of mins of stone bouses, 
five in number, surrounded by a stone wall. The 
eat'tb has accumulated around tbe wall and houses to 
a depth of several feet since their destruction, which 
was evidently tbe work of an enemy. 

Mr. Banghart lias pirtially excavated one of tbeae 



buildings to a depth of five feet below the aiirfa( 
The inner walls of the room were plastered, and t 
walla were partly oE concrete and partly of stoii&fl 
On the west side he found a number of large ollaa'"! 
filled with what was evidently burned or charre^fl 
beans and corn. Near the southeast coiTier he found' 
portioiiB of three skeletons, one of a laige man, o 
apparently of a woman, and the other of a child, a 
near them a water olla. Tbey were evidently kill 
iiisLile their' bniliiing while defending it. Mr. B. a 
found nearly a dozen stone axes and hammers in e 
cavating this room. The stone of which the \ 
and buildings were made was trachyte, and miial 
have been brought from a volcanic mesa, about ouoj 
mile to the west, where they are abundant. 

One mile north of Mr. Banghart's is a very Iarge.1 
stone building ou the summit of a hill, which was I 
probably a temple or a fortress, also built of stone). I 
an i the stone were square dressed. 

In a canon yet a little further north are a teetfM 
small cave dwellings of considerable interest, boK] 
difficult of approach. In this canon the Verde I 
takes its name, though there are some small tribatHn] 
riea many miles to the southwest and west, and alo 
the Verde, in its winding coui-ae of nearly one 1 
dred and fifty miles, are continued evidences of t 
work of the ancient people of the country. 
^ A luge eoitlien vessel, pronoanced 0-fa. 



Four miles below Mr, Bjiiigh art's, and two iiiilea to 
the north of tlie Hon. John H. Marion's sheep ranch, 
is a Iiigli hill overlooking the Verde River, and a series 
o£ ruins of stone houses, inclosed by a stone wall on 
the south side, whieli in places is twenty feet high, 
and twelve feet wide. The other aides of the hill are 
abrupt and precipitous, and two to three hundred 
feet perpendicular. 

Three miles further to the east is one of the liigh- 
est mountain peaks of the country, and its summit is 
inclosed by three tiers of stone wall, a few hundred 
feet apart. Old atone ruins of an extensive character 
crown its summit, and here perhaps was a great tem- 
ple for sun worship for many long years. 

To the east of Prescott eighteen miles, in the'Agna 
Fiio Valley, on the site of the present residence of 
Mr. Nathan Bowers, there was a very large ruin of a- 
stone building, which was one hundred and sixty feet 
square. From the debris of this building, a Xat^q 
double stone house, one smaller one, and much stone 
wall have been erected, and there yet remains on one 
side, a pile of debris four or five feet in height. 

On the hills around are many other old stone ruins, 
as well as on the summits of high mountains iu every 
direction, and for long distances. 

In the Verde Valley, forty miles east from Pi-escott, 
dind extending up aud down that valley for long dis- 
tances, are scores of stone ruins flimilar to those here- 


tofore clesciibeil. They are fdund also in all the 

tiguouit \alley8 of Beaver, Oak, and otber creeke, 

the hills and the mountain auniinits, as elsewhere. 

Opposite Camp Verde, a elioit half mile on th©' 
eastern side of the river, ai'e many large stone ruins .1 
on the bluffs overlooking the river, the walls of wbieb, 
are etamling twenty to thirty feet high, and immense 
quantities of broken pottery are strewn freely ovar 
the ground. Two miles down the river, and a half 
mile east of it, on a stretuh of table land elevated 
above the river bottom one hundred feet or more, is 
what was, as is supposed, an ancient burial ground. 
It covers nearly one hundred acres of ground. The 
graves were inclosed by stones placed in an obloDf 
circular form, from two to six feet in diameter. 

Beaver Creek enters the Verde River a half mil 
above Camp Verde, coming in from the Dorthoastri 
This eection of country is a limestone region, in wlu(A' 
are some of the most interesting cave dwellings to be 
found in Arizona. Beaver Creek is hemmed in much 
of the distance for many miles, by abrupt, perpendic- 
ular bluffs of limestone, in which are many interesl 
ing old eave dwellings. They are mostly walled n 
in front, and at a distance look like the natural ston; 
bluffs. , 

In two of these caHons, some six miles up the creel 
on the north side, are several caves some twenty 
above the creek, iu two of which are perfect oiatei 





made of ceraent, and almost as bard as marble, and 
as perfect as when made. On one of them are prints 
of the hands of their makers, indented in the cement 
while in a plastic state, and also the print of the tiny 
hands of a small child, no doubt made by the little 
one in childish glee and play. Though both man and 
child have long aince passed away, and have been for- 
gotten for unknown ages, the imprint of their hands 
remain yet to tell a long forgotten story of the un- 
known past. How long ago these imprints of the 
little hand were made, none can teli, bnt there they 
are full and fresh as when first made. The changes 
of time, the warring of the elements, and tlie up- 
heavals and commotions of mother earth, have failed 
to impair or obliterate those hand pictures, and there 
they will probably remain for ages to come, telling 
their silent story of the long, long past. 

Three miles below these caves are numerous others 
in a high bluff on the north side of the creek. This 
bluff is nearly or quite four hundred feet high, and is 
almost perpendicular. 

Tlie lai^est of the caves is ninety feet across in 
front, walled up to its very top, a distance of over 
fifty feet, and diflScult and dangerous to enter, as the 
opening ia nearly one hundred feet above the base of 
the cliff. The debris from the cave is piled up 
against the foot of the perpendicular wall rock for 
nearly one hundred feet-, from which point explorers 


must climb the face of tlie vertical wall rock nearly 
the same distance to reach the opening to the cave. 
This must be done by clinging to poles and jutting 
points of rock, and occasionally obtaining an inse- 
cure foot-bold but a few inches wide. 

When once in the c:ive, it ia found to be divided 
into many rooms. The extreme height is fifty to 
seventy-five feet, as Dear as one can judge. The wsH 
iu front is laid in mortar, or cement, and near its up*^ 
permost part are two port holes, from whence 
dwellers within eaald obtain a view of the country 
for a great distance around. But few whites have 
ever succeeded in exploring this cave, and it took ua 
several hours to accomplish the feat in safety. Whi 
first explored tliere were found in it a few atone axi 
metiits, and other stone implements. 

Continuing on to the northeast from Prescott, for 
two hundred miles, there are scores and hundreds of 
other ruins, and hieroglyph ical paintings, extendii^_j 
to the Zufli Village heretofore described. 

From what has been written descriptive of a E&w'' 
of the many hundreds of ruins found in Arizona, 
intelligent reader will readily concur in the opiuit 
that sometime in the long distant past, a nnmerooB 
race of a semi-civilized people lived and occupied 
most of Arizona, a race far antedating the present 
Indians, and far superior to them in industry and in- 
telligence, and possessed of a good degree of patient 


i of 


Alt C IE NT RUINS, 195 

resolve, and of untiring perseverance. They must 

have been tillers of the soil, and peaceable and quiet 
in their habits. Their implements of stone were vsrell 
formed, and must have required great patience and 
long continued toil in their manufacture, as most of 
them were of volcanic and other hard rock. BuJb few 
insignificant implements of the war and chase have 
ever been discovered in or around their ruins, from 
which fact the inference is drawn that they were a 
peaceable and quiet race, more inclined to the pur- 
suits of peace than of war. 

To the present time, not one of the old ruins has 
been fully excavated or explored. This is to be re- 
gretted, as much of an interesting and instructive 
character might be discovered, which perhaps might 
lead to some definite knowledge of the builders, as 
to what race they belonged, the time when they oc- 
cupied the country, and their probable fate. 

It is to be hoped that an official or private explora- 
tion will soon be made of these most interesting ruins, 
which might result in the obtaining of some such 
definite information respecting the ruins and their 
makers, — of the interesting people who once tilled 
the rich soil of Arizona, and roamed through its 



TT will be interesting and important for those de- 
siring to locate in Arizona to know that the Leg- 
islature of the Territoi-y has enacted a good school, 
law, patterned after the best of the States east and 
west. This law is intended to give to every child in 
the Territory a thorough common-school education. 

The Hon. A. P. K. Safford, and other leading 
gentlemen of the Territory, have worked long and 
faithfully to inaugurate a good common-school system 
on a broad and permanent basis, equal in all respects 
to that of the older States and Territories. The sys- 
tem is now well established, and with a few neces- 
sary amendments will no doubt be eminently success- 
ful. Schools have been successfully established in 
most of the towns in the Territory, and good and 
competent teachers employed who are having excel- 
lent success. 

Several Catholic schools are also firmly established 
at different localities. 

In Yuma County there are two public schools, one 




at Yuma and one at Ebrenburg, and also one Catho- 
lic Buhoo! at Yuma, under the charge of the Sisters 
of St. Joseph, which is quite successful. The Yuma 
public school employs two good teiichei-s, and has an 
attendance of over one hundred schulars. That at 
Elireubui^ has but one teacher, and some twenty 

In Mohave County there is one school at Mineral 
Park, with one teacher and twenty scholars. 

At Cerbat there is a small school a portion of the 
time, and at Greenwood and HackbeiTy some ar- 
i-angements are being made for schools. 

Yavapai Countyis quite well supplied with schools 
at all points where there are a dozen or more scholars. 
Frescott has the model school-huuse and school of the 
Territory. A new brick school-house was erected the 
past year at a cost of twelve thousand dollai-s, hav- 
ing all the modern improvements. It is capable of 
accommodating three hundred pupils, and nearly 
that number now attend. Professor M. H. Sher- 
man, an accomplished teacher, formerly from Wash- 
ington County, New York, is principal, and is as- 
sisted by a good corps of teachers. 

At Williamson Valley, twenty miles west of Prea- 
cott, they have a school of thirty scholars and a com- 
Detcnt teacher. 

At Walnut Creek is another good seliool with 
some twenty acholars, forty miles west of Presoott. 


At the Verde Settlement, forty miles east : 
Prescott, is a good school of twenty scholars. 

At Walnut Grove, ou the Hassayampa, thirtyl 
miles south from Prescott, a school diatrict has heeaj 
organized with some thirty Bcholars. 

At Chino Valley, Kirkland Valley, and Peeple'ft ] 
Valley, schools are already, or soon will be, estabr J 
lished. Also at Wickenbnrg, in the extreme fioutb- J 
west part of the county. 

On the Chiqiiito Colorado there are several aettle-l 
ments where arrangements are l>eing made to estabiii I 
lish schools, which will ere long be in successful opeiv 1 

In Maricopa Connty there is a good school at Ph(8«l 
nix, of over forty scholars, and arrangements are bek^.l 
ing made to organize several others in Salt Valley tut | 
convenient points. 

At Phoenix, in Pinal Comity, they have a school of I 
some thirty scholars, and a competent teacher ; also a 1 
comfortable school-hotise lately put in good repair. 

There is a firat class public school at Tucson, ia i 
Pima County, with several excellent teachers and an j 
attendance of two hundred scholars. A good school- ] 
house has been erected at Tucson, mainly through 
the efforts of ladies of the town, to whom much * 
credit is due. There is a large and well attended , 
Catholic school here with an attendance of nearly 
two hundred, under the chaise of the Sisters of St. 


Joseph, who are having good success. They are 
doing much to advance the cause of education within 
the church. 

At Tres Alimos, on the San Pedro River, fifty 
miles east from Tucson, and at Saflford, in the Pueblo 
Viejo Valley, one hundred and fifty miles northeast of 
Tucson, schools have already been organized, or soon 
will be. At each of these places there are twenty or 
more scholars. 

Some effort has been made at various times to 
establish schools at the different Indian agencies. 
While the Papago Indians were under the charge 
of Bishop Salpointe, a school was started there by 
four of the Sisters of St. Joseph, and quite a number 
of the Papago children attended, and were making 
good progress, especially in writing and dmwing, for 
which they seemed to have a natural taste. The 
school is now closed. 

At the San Carlos agency, arrangements were made, 
a year or more since, to establish a school, but with 
what success is unknown. 

At the Gila River Reservation a school was estab- 
lished for the Pima and Maricopa children, and 
several favorable reports have been made of suc- 

TT ia admitted by all, that rai!roa:ds are tlie great 
civilizera of the nineteenth century. This being 
the case, it is important to know what the prospi 
are for railroads in and through Arizona. One i 
the principal objections to iminigmtion to Arizoni 
and one that Lii3 for yeai's retarded its progress, baj 
been its isolation, and a want of cheap and rapiq 
communication through its borders, and with 
outside world. Though there are several excellent 
stiige lines, which have been of great benefit to tlie 
Territory, and accomplished all that the beat of s 
lines could do, they have not filled the want, whte 
can only be supplied by railroads. The subject I 
railroad building ia therefore of vital intei-est \ 
the people of the Territory, as well as to the peopi 
of the whole Union, for when Arizona's wondroiii 
mineral wealth is developed, all will be benefited. 

There are two great trans-continental line 
road projected and surveyed through Arizona. Om 
■ of them is on the thirty-second parallel, and cont 



monly known as the Texas Pacific Railroad route. 
This railroad would enter Arizona from the east, 
either north or south of the Steins Peak range of 
mountains, near the eastern line of the San Simon 
Valley, follow down the Gila River, or make a detour 
to the south via Tucson, and thence down the valley 
of the Gila from Florence to Yuma, and thence west 
to San Diego on the Pacific Ocean, where there ia 
one of the finest bays on tlie Pacific coast ; a bay 
easy of entrance and perfectly secure at all times. 
The eastern connections of the Texas Pacific would 
be with the Missouri, Kansas, and Texas RaiU'oad ; the 
International and Great Northern Railroad ; the St, 
Louis and Iron Mountain Railroad ; and with numer- 
ous other lines to all parts of the Mississippi Valley, 
the Atlantic sea-board, and the Gulf of Mexico. The 
Texas Pacific is now completed to Foit Worth, Texas, 
and work ia prt^easing at Yuma, San Diego, and 
other points along the line of route. The history of 
this railroad route is well known to the public and 
need not be repeated. As to its necessity, none can 
doubt. When completed, it will open up Arizona, 
New Mexico, and Western Texas ; will be free from 
snow blockades, and will shorten the distance and 
time across the continent, and become a popular and 
favorite national railroad. 

Another trans-continental railroad route, is the 
Atlantic and Pacific, or thirty-fifth parallel route. 




This railroad wohIiI enter Arizona at or 
Zuni ViUiige, nearly west from Santa F^, 
the north of Prescott, the Colorado River at or near 
the Needles belowCamp Mohave, intersect the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad at or near Indian Wells on tha 
Colorado desert, and thence be run on the Sonthei 
Pacific Railroad track, or on a route of its own, 
Los Angelea, Santa Barbara, San Francisco, and otli( 
cities on the Pacific coast. Tliis railroad would raabs' 
connections at St. Lonia with all railroads from thi^' 
point, north, east, and south. 

Both of these great trans-continontal routes would 
open and develop a wide extent of coiintry through 
which they pass, could be worked at all times of the 
year, wonld shorten the time and distance across tha 
continent, would cheapen the cost of travel and trans- 
portation, and would add much to the production cf 
mining, agriculture, and grazing wealth. 

The Southern Pacific Railroad of California, which 
is destined to be of immense benefit to Arizona, 
has been completed to Indian Wells for some months, 
a distance of less than 150 miles from the Colorado 
River, and, work being prosecuted with vigor, will be 
completed to Yuma before July of the present year. 
Owing to railroad complications at Washington, the 
public are not informed as to the route the road wlU 
take from Yuma, nor other cirGumstances connected 
with it. It will soon become the great connect]] 

or near th4^^| 

', crossing, tft^^l 
ha J 


to J 



link between Arizona and San Francisco. This rail- 
road lias been pushed forward with the same energy 
and skill that made the Central and Union Pacific 
railroads memorable, is deserving of, and will surely 
attain success. 

Several other railroads are projected in Hie Terri- 
tory, one of which will be a most important one. and 
articles of incorporation have been filed in the office 
of the Secretary of the Territory. This is the Pres- 
cott, Phcenix, Tneson, and Soiiora Railroad. It is 
intended to connect with a niilrnad from Guaymaa on 
* the Gulf of California through Sonora to the sontliem 
line of Arizona, for which a concession has been ob- 
talni?d from the Mexican Government, and the state 
of Sonora. 

The Utah Southern Railroatl is of much interest 
to Arizona, and is now completed from Salt Lake 
City to Nephi, 120 miles south of Salt Lake. From 
Nepbi to Prescott, Arizona, is less than .500 miles, 
and when completed to Prescott, will make direct 
connections with the Central and Union Pacific Rail- 
roads at Ogden, and give Northern Arizona a direct 
outlet in that direction. 

The Atchison, Topeka. and Santa F^ Railroad is 
being pushed forward with commendable energy, and 
in a few years will open another railroad outlet for 
Prescott and Northern Arizona. 

Two great stage lines have been hi operation in 


Arizona for many years, and several minor o 

Lorseback post routes. 

The Southern Pacific Mail Line, owned by Messrs. 
Kevens & Mitchell, extends from San Diego, oq the 
Pacific Ocean, to Mesilla, New Mexico, on the Rio 
Grande Kiver, a distance of 850 miles, at wMch point 
it makes eonnections with other lines running to dif- 
ferent cities and railroads east. 

This great stage line enters Arizona on the west, at 
Tnma, and on the east at the Steins Peak Moun- 
tains, fifteen miles east from Apache Pass. It is a 
tri-weekly route, and is made in eight days from San 
Diego to Mesilla. The line is well stocked with 
horses, Concord coaches, and closed buckboard car- 
riages. Good Concord coaches are run over most of 
the 1-0 ute. 

The coaches are run promptly on the schedule 
time prescribed by the Government. The proprie- 
tors, superintendents, and employees, on the route, 
are well informed, affable, and attentive to every 
duty, and, as a consequence, travel and transportation 
over the route has much increased the past two years. 
It is a very popular route, and well patronized. 

TheCalifornia and Arizona Stjige Line is the other 
great stage line of Arizona. The line now connects 
with the Southern Pacific Railroad at Indian Wells, 
runs thence to Ehrenburg on the Colorado River, 
thence to Wickenburg, from whence the main line 

' riTnia tn 1 



runs to Prescott and intermediate stations, and a 
branch line to Phosnix and Florence, where it inter- 
secta the Sonthern Pacific Mail line before mentioned. 
Both the main and branch lines are tri-weekly. An 
effort is now being made to make the main line from 
Prescott to the railroad a daily route, with prospects 
of success. 

Another route, run by the California and Arizona 
Stage Company, is a weekly, from Prescott via Min- 
eral Park and Cerbnt to Hardyville, on the Colorado 
River. Petitions have been forwarded to increase this 
to a trt-weekly route. Tlie officei-s of the California 
and Arizona Stage Company are Mr. James Stewart, 
President, and Dr. .T. H. Pierson, Secretary. Messrs. 
Thomas and Nichols, Superintendents, are both good 
men, and employ none but first class drivers. 

The two stage companies above mentioned have, 
for many years, kept up their several lines under the 
greatest difficulties imnginable, and with hardly a 
day's interruption. During the long years of the 
Indian wars, their coaches were often attacked by 
the savage foe, coaches rifled and burned, stock killed 
or driven off, employees murdered, and great pecu- 
niarj' damage sustained in addition to loss of life, yet, 
through all these difficulties and dangers, they, with 
indomitable will and courage, fulfilled their obliga- 
tions to the government and people, kept np their 
several lines, and are deserving the thanks and grati- 
tude of all in Arizona. 


Tlieee two atage companies employ four hundn 
' horses, one hundrect men, und fifty coaches. 

There is a weekly stage line from Tucson, runninf 
Bouth into the Mexican state of Sonora,, and thei 
to Guayraas on the Gulf of CaUfornia. 

A tri-weekly stage line runs from Phosnix to Gam 
McDowell, thirty-five miles. Another one runs f 
Phteiiix to Maricopa Wells, connecting the two 1 
described main lines — the distance is thirty i 

A weekly stage line runs from Prescott, via t 
Cliiquito Colorado and Camp Wingate, to i 
in New Mexico. This will soon be made a tri-weel 

A horseback mail route is run fi'om Camp Granj 
via old Camp Goodwin and Safford, to the Clifte 
Copper Minea. At Camp Goodwin it is intersects 
by a military post rider, who takes the mail via i 
Carlos to Camp Apache. From Camp Apache, 
military post route runs north to the Chiqiiito ( 
orado, connecting with the line from Prescott ( 
Santa F^. 

Another horseback mail route runs from Yum 
via Castle Dome, Ehrenburg, Colorado River Rese 
vation, Aubrey, and Camp Mohave, to Hardyville. 

Another one runs from Cerbat and Mineral 1 
via Stone's Ferry of the Colorado River, to Pioc 

Another route has lately been established whi 


supplies Greenwood, McCracken, the settlements on 
the Sandy Creek, and a few other places. 

Another horseback route is from Prescott, via the 
Peck Mine, Bradshaw, and Walnut Grove, to Wick- 

The great increase in population, the springing up 
of niunerous and successful mining towns and camps, 
demand increased mail facilities in different parts of 
the Territory, which requires constant attention on 
the part of the present efficient Delegate in Congress, 
and which he is ever willing to give. 



rpmS is the only line of steamers running to Ari- 
zona. It is intimately connected with the his- 
tory and prosperity of the country, has done much 
to build it up, for many long years supplied most of 
the wants of both the citizens and the military, and 
is justly deserving of a longer and more extended 
notice than can be given in these pages. 

In 1852 Captains George A. Johnson, B. M. 
Hartshorne, and A. H. Wilcox organized a company 
under the firm name of George A. Johnson & Co., 


for the purpose of transporting passengers and freight 
to and from San Francisco, Cal., and the Colorado 
River in Arizona, stopping at the Mexican ports of 
La Paz, Mazatlan, and Guaymas. They first em- 
ployed sail vessels on the ocean, and in July, 1871, 
they put on their first ocean steamer, which was soon 
after increased to two. Some years subsequent to 
its first organization, the company was incorporated 
under the laws of California, under the name it now 


One of the ocean steamers leaves San Francisco 
every twenty days, running to the head of the Gulf 
of California, a distance from San Francisco of nine- 
teen hundred miles. At the head of the gulf the 
passengers and freight are transshipped to four river 
steamers, and taken thence up the Colorado River to 
Yuma, one hundred and seventy-five miles, and 
thence portions are taken up the river to their sev- 
eral destinations, The river steamers make regular 
trips to Hardyville, three hundred and thirty-seven 
miles above Yuma, and five hundred and thirteen 
miles above the mouth of the river. 

The Company have now four river steamers of four 
hundred tons each, and four barges of eight hundred 

The river steamers are the Mohave^ Gila^ Cocopah^ 
and Colorado. Captains : J. A. Mellen, William 
Poole, S. Thorn, and A. D. Johnson. The ocean 
steamers were the Newlern^ Capt. William Metzger, 
and the Montana^ Capt. George M. Douglass. The 
Newlern was burned at sea in December last, the 
only serious calamity that has happened to the Com- 
pany since its organization. The Newhern will be 
replaced with a new boat. 

The officers of the Company are as follows : — 

President, B. M. Hartshorne, San Francisco. 
General Agent, John Birmingham, San Francisco 
Superintendent, Isaac Polhemus, Jr., Yuma. 



fco, California, ^H 


I ^^^ 

L are 

Tiimn Agent, A. J. Finlay. 

Elirenbut^ Agent, P. M, Fisher. 

Mazatlan Agent, Seiior Kelton. 

La Phz Agent, Sunor Viosco. 

Guaymas Ageat, St'ilor Willard. 

General office, 10 Market St., San Francisco, California, I 
This Company have occupied a position, in sup- 
plying the neceasities of the Territory, which could 
not have been filled in any other manner. For many 
years the citizens and military o£ Arizona have re- 
ceived almost all their supplies of provisions, goods, 
machinery, arms, etc., etc., through the medinm of 
this Company, and could have obtained them in no 
other way. 

The amount of freight brought to Yuma, In the 

y§ar 1875, was over four thousand five hundred tons. 

The amount of freight shipped from Yuma was ; — 

Minernl Ores I,( 


Gencrnl Merchnndi^c 60 tons. 

No. orHidaa 6,170 

No. of Pelts 1,400 

Way Freight 1,440 toas. 

Also a large amnimt of bullion and other articl 
The amount received and shipped during the j 
1876 is not yet repoi-ted. 

The Company have a good ship-yard on the SonOj 
side of the Gulf of Ciilifornia, where their 
steamers were constructed, and where their rep 
are made. 



rpHERE are four newspapers in Arizona, one of 
which is daily and weekly ; the others are 
weekly. They are the " Miner," daily and weekly; 
the " Citizen," " Sentinel," and " Enterprise." 

The " Miner " was first issued March 9, 1864, by 
the Hon. John H. Marion, one of its present owners 
and editors. Mr. Marion published it until March, 
1875, when he sold it to T. J. Butler, Esq., who re- 
sold it to Messrs. Marion & Beach, the present 
proprietors and editors, in December, 1876. The 
" Miner " has the largest circulation of any paper in 
the Territory, has ever been ably edited, and haa 
done much to build up the interests of the Territory, 
and especially of the northern part. It is published 
daily and weekly at Prescott. 

The " Citizen," a weekly, is edited and published by 
John Wasson, Esq., at Tucson. Mr. Wasson started 
the " Citizen" some six years since, and through its 
columns has done much for Southern Arizona. The 

" Citi; 

second in circulation, 
supplied with interesting Voca.^ 

) well edited and 


The " Enterprise," a weekly, is published at Pres- 
cott, by C. F. Mitchell, Esq., a printer of much ex- 
perience, and is edited by Messrs. J. W. Leonard and 
C. F. Mitchell. It is a neat, spicy sheet, and bound 
to succeed under the present able management. 

The ** Sentinel " is located at Yuma. It has been 
published for several years by Judge Wm. J. Berry, 
an able editor, who lately sold it to George E. Tyng, 
Esq., its present enterprising editor. It has a good 
circulation, is the special shipping paper of the Ter- 
ritory, and devoted to the interests and prosperity of 
Yuma County. 

Of the four papers, the " Miner " is independent in 
politics, the "Enterprise" is Democratic, the "Citi- 
zen " Republican, and the " Sentinel " independent. 

Arrangements are being made to start a Demo- 
cratic paper at Tucson. Phoenix and Florence are 
both in hopes of having each a paper at no distant 



rpHE present telegraphic lines have all been built 
by the Military and Signal Service Depart- 

The main line is from San Diego, California, to 
Yuma, and thence to Maricopa Wells, Phoenix, 
Florence, Tucson, Prescott, Wickenburg, Camps 
Whipple, Verde, McDowell, Lowell, Grant, Apache, 
Bowie, and other points. 

From Camp Apache a line is now being con- 
structed, via Camp Wingate, to Santa F^, New 

These lines are all under the charge and superin- 
tendency of Lieutenant Read, who is a most efficient 
gentleman, and well qualified for his important posi- 

The total length of the telegraph lines in the 
Territory will approximate to one thousand miles. 

The citizens, and particularly the military of the 
country, have been greatly benefited by their con- 
struction. The charges for transmission of news are 


very moderate, less than the charges on the gi'eat 
incorporated telegraph lines of the States east. This 
fact, together with their good management, the care, 
promptness, and order, with which they are con- 
ducted, gives eminent satisfaction to all classes of 



rriHERE are ten military posts belonging to the 
Department of Arizona, commanded by Colonel 
August V. Kautz, Colonel of tbe Eighth U. S. Infan- 
try, Brevet Major-genenil, U. S. A. 

Fort Whipple, Department Headquarters, ia one 
mile north from Preseott, in latitude 34° 30' north, 
and longitude 35° 80^ west from Washington. 

Fort Whipple was first located at Chiiio Valley, 
twenty-two miles north from Preseott, in 1863, and 
removed to its present site in 1866. Capacity of the 
fort, two companies of cavalry, and one of infantry. 
Altitude six thousand feet. Commandant of Post, 
Lieutenant-colonel J. D. Wilkins of the Eighth In- 

Camp Verde is in the Verde Valley, forty-two 
miles nearly east from Prencott. Camp established in 
1864. Altitude 3,500 feet. Latitude 34° 34' north, 
longitude 35" west from Washington. Capacity four 
companies. Commandant, Capbtin George M. Bray- 
ton, Eighth Infantry. Company B of Indian Scouts, 

and scout, is^H 



216 AniZONA. 

forty strong, with Al. Seiber, guide i 
attached to Camp Verde. 

Camp McDowell is thirty-five miles east from 
Phi£iHx, n two company post, situated in latitude 
33° 40' north, longitude 34° 40' west from Wiishing- 
ton. Commandant, Captain Augustus W. Corliss, d 
Eighth Infantry, 

Camp Mohave is on the Colorado River, 325 miles 
above Ynnia, and ten below Hardyville, in latitude 
35° 24' north, longitude 37° 35' west from Washing- 
ton. Established in 1858. Capacity, three com- 
panies. It is a pleasant and agreeable post, on a 
high bank overlooking the Colorado River, and about 
one hundred and ninety miles nearly west from Preil- ■ 
cott. Commandant, Major Henry R. Mizner. 

Camp Lowell ia on the Rillito ' Creek, six milec 
east from Tucson. Capacity, four companies. 
tude 32" 12' north, longitude 33° 52' west. Altitud( 
2,200 feet. Commandant, Captain John N. An-^ 
drews. Eighth Infantry. 

Camp Bowie was established in 1863, and i 
many years it was one of the most important poBfaj^jl 
in the Territory, being surrounded by hostile Indiai)B>^ 
It is in the noted Apache P;is3, one hundred mil««fl 
east from Tucson. Latitude 32° 41' north, longitudt 
82° 25' 80" west. Capacity, three companies. Com^^-fl 
mandant, Captain Curwen B. McLellan of the Sixth.'B 

1 Bv-jfr-M. 


Camp Apacba ia in the White Mountain country, 
well towards the eoat line of the Territory, an isolated 
post, but one of the most pleasant on the continent. 
It is on the south bank of White River, which is well 
stocked with mountain trout, and in a section of 
country abounding in bear, deer, and wild turkeys. 
Altitude about 6,000 feet. Commandant, Captiun 
Frederick D. Ogilby of the Eighth Infantry. Car 
pacity four companies. 

Camp Grant, headquarters and band of the Sixth 
Cavalry, is located at the base of Mount Graham, 
in latitude S2° 48' north, longitude 32° SS' west. Ca- 
pacity three companies. Commandant, Major Charles 
E. Compton, Sixth Cavalry. 

Fort Yuma is on the California side of the Colo- 
rado River, opposite Yuma, It is on a bluff one 
hundred feet above the river, having an altitude of 
260 feet. Latitude 32° 23' north, longitude 37° 36' 
west. Capacity three companies. Commandant, Ma- 
jor Thomas S. Dunn of the Eighth Infantry. 

Camp Thomas is a new post, on the Gila Kiver, 
near old Camp Goodwin. One company is stationed 
here uuder the command of Captain C. M. Baily, 
Eighth Infantry. 

Company A, Indian Scouts, is posted at Camp 
Apache, and Company C at Camp Bowie. 

In addition to the regular posts, there ai'e four 
supply depots belonging to the Department of Ari- 
zona, as follows : — i 



I Fv 

San Diego, California, Ordnance Stores, under tin 
charge of Sergeant Michael Donovan. 

Whipple Depot, in charge of Ciiptaln John Simp 
son, A. Q. M., AsBiBtant Depot Quartermaster. 

Yuma Depot, in cliarge of Captain George WJ 
Bradley, Depot Quartermaster. 

ESivenbui^ Depot, in charge of Second Lieutenaui 
A. G. Tasain, A. A. Q. M. and A. C. S. 

The officers of the Military Department of Arizom 
are good and true men, and will compare favorably* 
with those in any other department. The character 
of most of them ia above reproach, and in this respect 
the Commandant of the Department sets an example 
to liis inferioi-s worthy of imitation. 

The officers not specially named as commandanttj 

of the several military posts are as follows : — 

Coloiiol AucjuBt V. Kautz, Eigttli Infantrj, Brevet Majot 

general U. S. Army, Commanding the De[>artment. 

Personal Staff", 
First Lieutenant P. A. Wliitney, Eighlh Infantrj-, Aid-de-c: 
First Lieutenant K. D. Thomas, Fifth Cavalry, Aid-de-cui 

and En, OHice-r. 
First Lieutenant G, S. Anderson, Sisth Cavalry, Aid-dM 

Department Staff. 
Major Jamea P. Martin, Assistant Adjutant-general, Prescol 

A. T. 
First Lieutenant Thomas Wilhulm, Adjutant Eighth Infanb: 

Acting Assistant Adjutant-geneml, Frescott, A. T. 


Major James Biddle, Sixth Cavalry, Acting Assistant Inspec- 
tor-general, Prescott, A. T. 

Major C. A. Reynolds, Q. M., Chief Quartermaster, Prescott, 
A. T. 

Captain Thomas Wilson, Com. of Sub., Chief Commissary of 
Sul)sistence, Prescott, A. T. 

Surgeon James C. McKee, Medical Director, Prescott, A. T. 

Major Rodney Smith, Paymaster U. S. A., Chief Paymaster, 
Prescott, A. T. 

Quart€iinaster*s Department. 

Captain George W. Bradley, A. Q. M., Depot Quartermaster, 
Yuma, A. T. 

Captain G. C. Smith, A. Q. M., Post Quartermaster, Camp 
Grant, A. T. 

Captain James H. Lord, A. Q. M., Disbursing Officer, Tucson, 
A. T. 

Captain John Simpson, A. Q. M., Assistant Depot Quartermas- 
ter, Whipple, A. T. 

Medical Department. 

Assistant Surgeon Henry M. Cronkhite, Post Surgeon, Camp 

Verde, A. T. 
Assistant Surgeon Leonard Y. Loring, Post Surgeon, Fort 

Yuma, Cal. 
Assistant Surgeon J. C. Worthington, Post Surgeon, Fort 

Whipple, A. T. 
Assistant Surgeon Walter Reed, Post Surgeon, Camp Lowell, 

A. T. 
Assistant Surgeon J. dc B. W. Gardiner, Post Surgeon, Camp 

Apache, A. T. 
Assistant Surgeon R. L. Rosson, Post Surgeon, Camp Grant, 

A. T. 


Assistant Surgeon H. 6. Burton, Post Surgeon, Gamp Bowie, 
A. T. 

Pay Department, 

Major James R. Roche, Paymaster, Tucson, A. T. 
Major AVilliam M. Maynadier, Paymaster, Yuma, A. T. 

Post Chaplains, 

Alexander Gilmore, Fort Whipple, A T. 
Preston Nash, Camp Lowell, A. T. 



riiHE most common mid animals of Arizona are 
the bear, elk, deer, antelope, wild goat, cougar 
or California lion, wolf, fox, wild cat, prairlo dog, 
hare, rabbit, skunk, squirrel, beaver, mink, muskrat, 
etc., etc. 

The difEerent varieties of bear are tbe cinnamon, 
brown, black, and now and then a grizzly. The 
first three kinds are very numerous in all the moun- 
tainous parts of the country. The cinnamon bear ia 
nearly as large as the grizzly bear, and a tough cus- 
tomer for a solitary hunter to meet- 
Elk are abundant in the region of the San Fran- 
cisco, Bill Williams, and some portions of the White 
Mountains. They are generiiUy lai'ge and in good 

There are three kinds of deer, all of which are very 
abundant in the mountains and foot hills. One kind 
is the white-tailed deer, common to the Northwestern 
States. A second kind is the common black-tailed 
deer of the Rocky and Sierra Nevada mountains. A 
third ia also a black-tailed deer, biit much larger, ap- 



i elk, and 

commonly calle^^H 

proximating in size to the 
the buiTO deer. 

Antelopes are very abundant in the valleys and 
plains bordering the foot hills of the mountains. 

The wild goat, or Rocky Mountain sheep, is quite 
plentiful in some of the mountainous districts, but a 
they are very timid at the approach of civilizatioi 
will, in a few years, become exterminated. 

Cougars, or California lions, are not very numerout 
but are occasionally found in the rocky fastnesses t 
the mountains. 

The large gray wolf is occasionally found, but n 
in large numbers. The common coyote wolf is fouiH 
evei-j'where in great numbers. They ; 
sneaking, ill-looking animal, without the bravery i 
attack a man, unless in large packs, and in a starvi 
condition, . 

Foxes of different kinds are found only in sma] 

Several varieties of the wild cat are found, 
among the number, a curious and interesting i 
somewhat resembling the civet cat of India. 

Prairie dogs are not numerous, and are found i 
the largest numbers in the northern part of the S 
phur Springs Valley, both north anil south froril 
Camp Grant. 

Hares and rabbits are numerous over the whol^j 
of the Territory. 



The skunk and squirrels of different kinds are 
found in limited numbers in all sections. 

Beaver, miuk, and a few other fur-bearing animals 
.ire found to some extent in most of the rivers and 
mountain streams. Their furs are not as valuable aa 
further north. 

Other kinds of animals of rare species are occa- 
sionally found, but not in lai^e numbers. 

The most common of the birds of Arizona are • 
eagles, wild turkeys, grouse, quail, mocking birds, 
pelicans, herons, sand-hill cranes, wild geese, brant, 
wild ducks, wild pigeons, turtle doves, robins, blue 
jays, larks, and a great variety of smaller birds, and 
numerous quantities of vultures, hawks, crows, rav- 
ens, etc., etc. 

Eagles are found in the higher mountains. Wild 
turkeys are found in mountainous districts, but more 
abundantly in the northern and ejistern portions of 
tlie Territory, Many of them are of great size, 
often weighing forty or more pounds. They are al- 
ways ill good condition. 

Grouse are only found in a few mountainous dis- 
tricts, and then in small numbers. 

There are three varieties of quail, some of which 
are very numeTous. One variety is similar to the 
Bob White qnail of the eastern slope, and the two 
others are similar to the top-knot quail of California, 
out one is much lai'ger. 


The mocking-bird^ is quite numerous in most parts 
of the Territory. Its notes, both in the wild and 
tame state, rival those of all others of the feathered 

Pelicans, herons of different kinds, sand-hill cranes 
(called in Arizona the Colorado turkey), wild geese, 
brant, and ducks, are found in large numbers along the 
great rivers, and geese and ducks elsewhere in lakes, 
ponds, and mountain streams. 

Most of the other birds, large and small, are found 
generally throughout the Territoiy. 

The chaparral cock, or California road runner, is 
found generally through the Territory. It is a tall, 
slender bird, weighing about one pound, is a fast 
runner, and does not fly to any distance. Wonderful 
stories are told of its fights with the rattlesnake, 
which it is said to surround with branches of cactus 
to prevent its getting away, and then kill it by con- 
tinued and persistent attacks. 

There is also a small bird, no larger than the wren, 
which is called the rattlesnake-killer, and which it is 
asserted pursues the same tactics as the road runner 
in the destruction of the rattlesnake. 

Many fine specimens of the birds of Arizona, with 
a description of their habits, etc., can be seen in the 
Smithsonian Institute at Washington. 

The varieties of fish in Arizona are not numerous, 
although the streams are well stocked. 

1 Turdvu^ poli/glottus ot Lmnseus. 

FISH. 225 

In the Colorado and Gila rivers are large quanti- 
ties of what are called the Colorado and Gila River 
salmon, an excellent fish, but quiie different from the 
salmon of California and Oregon, more resembling 
the cod of the Atlantic Coast. Varieties of the bass 
and perch are also abundant. The mountain streams 
have smaller fish, but similar to those of the large 
rivers, and in the upper branches of Salt River, the 
White and Black rivers and their tributaries, are 
large quantities of the mountain trout, where the ad- 
mirers of Isaak Walton can find rare sport and en- 
joyment seldom surpassed. 




"DEPTILES and venomous insects are not as nu- 
^^ merous in the Territory as has been generally 
reported, and instances of serious results from bites 
or stings are very rare. 

There are three varieties of the rattlesnake, one 
being the large black rattlesnake usually found in the 
rocky gorges of the mountains. Another kind is the 
large yellow rattlesnake found in lowlands, and on 
the sandy plains. These two kinds are from three to 
five feet in length. Another kind, called the side 
wiper, from its peculiar habit of locomotion sideways, 
instead of ahead, is found through most of the valleys 
and plains, and is from two to three feet in length. 
It is quite spiteful, active, and venomous. 

There are many varieties of the saurian lizard 
species, resembling those found on the continent else- 
where. There is one variety, however, peculiar to 
Arizona, found principally in the Gila River valley, 
and locally known as the Gila monster. 

It is from fifteen to thirty inches long, a dull, 


filthy looking reptile, with black mouth and tongue, 
seemingly harmless and inoffensive. The Indians, 
however, say that its breath will cause one to die, but 
this is perhaps apocryphal. 

The tarantula, which is a large black spider, the 
Lycosa tarantula^ is found in moderate numbers in 
all the warmer portions of the Territory. Its bite is 
not as dangerous as generally supposed, though it is 
quite poisonous and painful. 

The centipede, of the genus Scolopendra, is found in 
the tropical valleys of the Territory, where they often 
are four to six inches long. When they crawl over 
the flesh of a person, it causes a stinging, smarting 
sensation, quite painful, and in sensitive parts of the 
body would be somewhat dangerous. 

The scorpion is found in limited quantities, and its 
sting is painful but not necessarily dangerous. 

Turtles are found along the Colorado and Gila 
rivers of considerable size, sometimes twenty inches 
across. Their flesh is quite palatable. 

The tarantula bug is about the size of a humming- 
bird, and is so named from its tenacity in the destruc- 
tion of the tarantula and its nest and eggs. 

The common house-fly, MuBca domestica^ is numer- 
ous in all {)arts of the Territory, and a great nui- 

For about two months before the summer rainy 
season, some of the mountain districts swarm with 


large, venomous flies, which are extremely irritating 
to horses and cattle. 

There are many kinds of bugs, insects, etc., much 
too numerous to mention, and of no particular inter- 
est to the common reader. 



\ MINUTE and full description of the grand 
-^^ Bcenei'j, and wonderful natural curiosities of 
Arizona, would fill volumes, and would be of exceed- 
ing interest to all who love to read descriptions of 
nature's works, or who delight in nature's wonderful 
doaiain. But few of these can be described in this 
work, and tbey in a brief manner only. 

There are numerous caiiona in the Territory, of 
great depth and extent. These arc deep gorges, 
worn out by the erosion of running water, during the 
countless ages of the unknown past. They are grand 
and sublime to the liigheat degree. They are often 
many miles long, with abrupt and i>recipitoua wall 
rw;ks on either side, thousands of feet in height. 

The Grand Canon of the Colorado, which is in 
Northern Arizona, is three hundred miles in length, 
and there are but few places in the whole distance 
where men can enter or emerge from its wonderful 
depths. This cailou has been worn through the bard 
granite, limestone, slate, trachyte, and other baid 

>e explored l^^^| 
:l)erii Ut^li, iB'^l 

rocka, to a gi-eat depth. It Ciio only be e 
cnteriAg it from its upper end, Id Soiitlierii 1 
boats prepared for the purpose, as did Major Powell 
and party in 1860, and tlieQ it is a most dangerous 
iinderhiking, fraught \rith a thousand dangers to life 
and limb. This grand canon has no equal in the 
world, and when once seen can never be forgotten. 
For grandeur and sublimity, it has never been ck- 
celled by nature in her wildest moods. The deaci-ip- 
tion given of it by Major Powell, of the many scenes 
and incidents which occuiTed during the passage 
through its wonderful recesses, of the dangers to be 
overcome, as day by day tiiey floated down with the 
rapid current of the Colorado, the falls and whirlpo( 
met with, and overcome by almost superhuman t 
ergy and determination, the narrow escapes 
death, and the many dangers encountered, — it is a 
oC the most thrilling character. For a full descriptiel 
the reader is referred to Powell's reports to the I 
partment at Washington. Entering the Gra 
CaRon at many different points, are lateral caBo; 
equal height as tlie main one, some of which are 
narrow, it would seem that one could leap from s 
to side across the chasm. That of the Chiquito ( 
orado is the largest of the lateral onea. 

In passing down the Colorado, after emer^ 
from the Grand Canon, several others are met v 
of from £ve to twenty miles in length, and of gw 
interest to the explorer. 



From Stone's Ferry of the Colorado River, wbich 
is G40 miles above its entrance to tbe Grulf of Califor- 
nia, explorers can go down tbe Colorado in a strong 
open boat in comparative safety ; and from Hardy- 
villa down, a distance of 51S miles, the river steam- 
ers of the Colorado Steam Navigation Company 
make regular trips. A trip up and down tbe river 
DD one of these steamers is of exceeding interest, 
and tbe explorer and traveler, wbo visits that far off 
coimtry, should by all means make the journey, 
which will occupy but one or two weeks. Three 
caHona are passed on tbe way, one of which is the 
Black CaRou of the Needles, thirty miles below 
Camp Mohave. It is nearly twenty miles long, and 
as the staunch steamer rushes witli tbe speed of the 
race horse through the rushing, roaring whirlpool of 
watera, turning now to the right, and now to the 
left, under tbe guidance of Captain Mellen and tbe 
pilot, one looks on with bated breath, catcliing 
here and there visions of almost every conceivable 
object in the worn and eroded rocks on either hand, 
sometimes a minaret, tower, or steeple, and anon the 
image of some giant Titan, as if carved by tbe hand 
of man. After piissing this caBon tbe steamer en- 
ters tbe beautiful Chimuehueva Valley, which opens 
up to the view a scene of quiet beauty, where all 
nature seems quiet and serene. The ra^ng waters of 
ehe cailon above are now still and smoothly flowing, 


preaeiiting a contrast to the wildnesa and grandeu] 
above, quieting to tbe nerves, and soothing one ialig 
silent meditation, and peaceful thought. 

The Bill Williams CaBon below Aubrey, and tlu 
Picacho CaHon above Ciistle Dome, are similar i 
character to the Black CaHon, though not so exceec 
ingly wild, grand, or picturesque. 

There are scores of other caSons in the Territory a 
almost every point in the mountains, and the mounrl 
tain plateaus. Some of them are found where no pep*n 
manent streams now exist, but where evidently there 
were in ancient times rivers of some magnitude. 
Others are found in the mountain plateaus where, at 
a distance, the smooth surface is apparently level an4. 
unbroken, and where the course of the explorer i 
suddenly checked by one of these great ca&oni 
which it is impossible to pass without making a d 
tour o£ many miles; others again are found whei 
a tiny trickling stream of water runs through its 
length for many miles, a stream hardly deep enough 
to cover a lady's shoe. 

One of the most interesting of these is the Ara 
vaipa CaHon, one hundred and twenty miles fromJ 
Tucson. It is eighteen miles long, and the wall r 
rises in places from one thousand to three thousaiMll 
feet perpendicular. A tiny brooklet, the Aravaipi 
Greet, runs through its whole distance, with deep 
pools in places, well stocked with fish. When once 

CANONS. 233 

in the caQon, it ia next to impossible to get out until 
one goes to the extreme end, or retraces his way to 
the point of enti-ance. It is in a few places one 
hundreil yards wide, and again not over oue hundred 
feet. A few lateral ciiHons enter it of equal depth,* 
but only a few feet wide, from the depths of which, 
in looking upwards, one can see what would be vul- 
garly called a crack or hole in the sky, with a sight 
above of stars at noonday. 

Occasionally a large cinnamon bear will be met in 
this cafion, which it would be well to avoid, also a 
flock of wild turkeys, one of which would make a 
choice meal, for a number of hungry men. A few 
chaparral bushes and eottonwood trees grow in places 
in the canon, and far up in the cliffs of the over- 
hanging rocks, specimens of the giant cactus, the 
Cereus giganteutf spread out their giant arms as if in 
wonder at the scene below. 

The mountainous parts of Arizona, which com- 
prise nearly or quite two thirds of its area, are lit- 
erally cut up and filled with these wonderful goi^s, 
some of which have never yet been explored by white 
men, and which would require years of time to fully 
explore. Tlie formation is generally granitic, with 
occasional heavy dykes of hard lime and sandstone, 
slate, porphyry, and in places trachyte, through 
whose hardened surfaces these chasms have been worn 
in the lengthened ages of the past. 

In additioD to the uailons, Arizona la filled wid 
numerouB other natuml curiosities and scenery, 8u£B 
cient to keep the explorer in a continued state < 
wonder and surprise. 

The southern portion of the Territory has numeiv 1 
ous augar-loaf mountains, which rise abruptly from 
the surface of the great plains and valleys to a height 
of hundreds and thousands of feet, and are called -| 
there picachos. Many of thera are entirely isolate 
and have no connection with any mountain r 

Their formation is a mystery, and a subject of 
deep thought and study. They may have had orig- 
inally a connection with other mountains, but the 
degradation of the connection is so complete, 1 
not a vestige now remains. 

An interesting formation is that known as Castle ' 
Dome, thirty miles northeast from Ynma. On the 
highest point of the Colorado River range of moun- 
tains, about ten miles east of the river, is a rock ftow- | 
mation hundreds of feet square, which, at a distance 
looks Uke a great castle. This can he seen for a hm 
dred railea or more in different directions, and i 
noted landmark of the country. 

Another noted landmark is the Four Peaks, whieb 1 
sre four mountain peaks near Salt River, and but a 
few miles from Camp McDowell. They rise to a 
height of several thousivnd feet, and can be seen f or | 
hundreds of miles. 


!ct of 
t the 

:;astle ■ 

I the 
: tor - J 



Further up Salt River is an extensive salt forma- 
tion thivjiigli wbiuh Salt River runs. It is some one 
undi'ed miles or more above Plicenix. Tlie salt is 
so extensive that the whole volume of water in the 
liver is impregnated with it, rendering it so salt a 
stranger can barely drink of it, thougli in other re- 
spects it is clear and pure. To obtain a full idea of 
this immense saline formation, one must bear in 
mind the fact that the river, where it emerges from 
the nionutains, has a width of two hundred feet and 
a depth of nearly twenty inches, with a swift cur- 
rent. For at least two hundred years there has been 
no abatement in the saltnesa of the water of the 
river, which was named the Rio Salido (River of 
Salt) over two centuries since, by the early Spanish 
and Jesuit explorers. 

In different parts of the Territory are peculiar 
mountain formations, resembling the thumb of a man, 
which are called Thumb Buties. One of these is a 
few miles west from Prescott, and is a conspicuous 
objei-t in the mountain scenery of that region. 

The grandest mountain in all Arizona is San Fran- 
cisco Peak, eighty-five miles north of east from Pres- 
cott. It rises to an altitude of over thirteen thousand 
feet, and is plainly distinguishable at a distance of 
oves two hundred miles. It rises to a height far above 
the timber line, and its hoary head, " rock-ribbed and 
ancient as the sun," is considered by the simple Zuil' 



Indians to be one end of tlie earth. The ZuQis lii 
nearly two hundred miles far to the northeast of t1 
mountiitn, and it is no wonder that they should at- 
tach much importance to this great mountain, whose 
bald crown rises so high above all other mountains, 
and whose rocky sides are covered with snow for 
months in the year. 

The great Tonto Basin is a natural depressioi 
the mountains, midway between Preacott and d 
Apache, where the great Tonto and other creeks rii 
and flow south into Salt River, It is fifty miles or 
more iicrosa, and surrounded most of the way by pre- 
cipitous wall rocks, and almost unapproachable. For 
many years it was the resort of hostile Apaches, 
who fled to its recesses where they were in compara- 
tive safety, A few renegades yet seek its fastnt 
as a secure hiding place from their pursuers, 
basin is as yet almost wholly unknown, except to 
military, who from time to time have pursued the 
hostile Indians into its wonderful caHons smd gorges. 

The Zuni Lake is near the eastern line of Arizona, 
some thirty miles from the Milligan Settlement, which 
is on the upper waters of the Chiquito Colorado 
River. It is in one of the most desolate regions 
the continent, surrounded by bleak, Iwirren, deaolat 
volcanic mountains, with no outlet, and is nearly«oi 
mile across in its widest part. The water is in 
place over Ave feet deep. In the southern part 





the lake la a volcanic cone about eighty feet above 
the surface of the lake, and from this cone there issues 
a stream of salt water, somewhat impregnated with 
saltpetre, which flows continaally into the lake, keep- 
ing up a uniform height. The heat of the sun evap- 
orates the water and leaves the salt as a residuum iu 
ft crystallized form. 

The depth of the deposit of salt is unknown, but it 
has been opened over five feet deep, and is found pure 
at that depth. It is an excellent quality for preserv- 
ing meat, and for table and other purposes. The 
hollow cone from which the water issues is two feet 
in diameter and of great depth. Ropes have been 
sunk to a depth of nearly one hundred feet withont 
touching bottom. 

A load of this salt was brought to Prescott in July, 
1876, which sold for five cents per pound. The dis- 
tance from Prescott to the lake is over two hun- 
dred miles. At one point a wagon can approach the 
lake, and being driven into it, the salt is shoveled up 
like BO much sand or gravel. There is a spring of 
pure water four hundred yards to the south of the 
lake, which is the only good drinking water for many 
miles around. 

From time immemorial, the ZuBi Indiana have ob- 
'ained salt from the lake, and they hold it sacred, 
going there for salt only at stated times and seasons. 
They do not like to have other tribes or people go 
there, but now permit the whites to do ao. 



In the northern and northeaatem portions of Ari> 
zona are a number of carious Hud interesting lakesi 
or, as some of them are called, " wells," of pure freeb 
water. One near the Navajoe Springs is called Jeu 
cob's Well. Another is known as Stoneraan's Lake. 
Several are found near Bill Williivms Mountain, and 
one, which will be briefly described, is abont fifty- 
five miles north of east from Prescott, and is called 
Monteznma Well. 

Tills well, or lake, is near Beaver Creek, twelva 
miles northeiiat fi-om Camp Verde, on the Verde 
River, and two miles east from Mr. Arnold's ranch or 
farm. It is in a limestone formation, and on a piece 
of tableland or mesa, elevated above the creek aboull' 
one hundred feet. This mesa is level, and its surface 
is tlie bare limestone rock, with no bush, tree, or ver-' 
dure on it. The opening to the well is circular, and 
as perfect as though made by the hand of man, an3 
is about six hundred feet across. From the surface. 
of the mesa to the water, is seventy feet. The watef 
is clear and pure, and nearly or quite one hundred. 
feet deep. The inner walls of the opening are per- 
pendicular, and access to the water is almost impoa*' 
sible, except on the southeast side, where the walla-' 
are partially broken down, and where ladies can ap-, 
proach the water with assistance. 

On the northwest side are three or four cave dw( 
ings, about midway between the water and the s 



face of the mesa. These dwellings are from twelve 
to twenty feet across in front, and about the same 
depth, and are walled up in front. They were evi- 
dently inhabited by the old prehistoric people de- 
scribed in another chapter. The eastern and south- 
eastern borders of the well approach Beaver Creek 
within thirty to one hundred feet, and it is separated 
from the creek by a rim of the inclosing limestone 
rock. This rim of rock was built up with stone 
buildings its whole width, and about one hundred 
feet in length. The walls of these old buildings are 
yet standing to a height of twenty feet in places. 

On the southeast side of the well is another old 
cave dwelling, which can be explored fully one hun- 
dred feet. It is near the surface of the water of the 
well, which runs off under the cave and discharges 
the water into the creek some two hundred feet to 
the south, in a pretty cascade of about one hundred 
inches of water. 

This stream is continuous the whole year. The 
whole surface surrounding the well is strewn with 
broken pottery ware of various sizes, forms, and pat- 
terns. In walking around the rim of the well, the 
limestone rock gives forth a ringing metallic sound, 
as though it had been subjected at some former time 
to extreme heat. Below the well, on the creek flat, 
are two or three dykes of volcanic lava. From all the 
surroundings, it is quite evident that the well was at 


one time, in the tar distant past, the crater of a long 
dince extinct volcano. Mr. Arnold, who Uvea two 
miles below, baa a small row boat on the lake or well, 
iu which one can ride aci'oss its smooth and glassy 
surface, which is ever quiet and unruffled by wind 
OP storm, 

Tliia is a pleasant resort for picnic and other 
ties from Prescott, Camp Verde, and elsewhere, 
find it exceedingly interesting. Both male and female 
visitors can enter tbe large cave, where, seated on the 
limestone slabs of rock, they can enjoy ita coolness, 
drink of the crystal water, and lunch in the most ap- 
proved romantic style. 

Some lai^ open-mouthed bottles have been placed 
on the shelving rock of the gi-eat cave, where visitors 
leave their cards with such inscriptions as seem ap- 
propriate to the time and place. 

Though evidently, as before stated, the crater of 
an extinct volcano, future critical examinations by 
wise men and savants may determine otherwise. 
Whatever the final decision may be, the well is one 
of tbe moat interesting of the many natural curiosi- 
ties of this or any other country, and is worth a trip 
across the continent to see. 

There are but few thermal springs in Anzona com- 
pared to tbe numbers found in California, and of 
these but little is yet satisfactorily known as to their 
cbemical constitnents or curative qualities. Some of 


them have been found beneficial in rheumatic and 
kindred complaints. They may in the future be- 
come noted resorts for invalids. 

One of the best known is that of the Agua Cali- 
ente, near Stanwix Station, ninety-five miles east 
from Yuma, owned by the Hon. King S. Woolsey. 

A series of hot sulphur springs are in the Sulphur 
Spring Valley, seventy miles east from Tucson. There 
are others in the Santa Catarina Moimtains, and in 
the Pueblo Viejo Valley, as well as in other localities 
in the Territory. Future examination, and an analysis 
of these waters, is necessary to determine as to their 
value as curative agents. 

The foregoing is but a faint and imperfect descrip- 
tion of a few of the many natural curiosities found 
in Arizona, a country so filled with objects of interest, 
of an all absorbing character, one can never tire in 
his explorations, and can feast on new and wonder- 
ful formations from day to day, and year to year. 




npHE flora of Arizona approximates in character 
to that of ti'opical climates. It would require 
much time and study, and long continued research, to 
write up a full description of the flora of the Terri- 
tory. A brief description was given in a precedii^ 
chapter, of timber forests, and the most common "wood 
of the country. Brief mention will now be made of 
a few only of the numerous floral productions, and 
of some of their qualities and uses. 

A very large proportion of the trees, shrubbery, 
plants, and flowers of the Territory are literally cov- 
ered with thorns ; so general is this, some wag in a 
former day in commenting on the Territory asserted, 
among other objections to the country, that " every- 
thing which grew there had a thorn." 

Of the cactus family (order CactaceaB) there are 

over one hundred varieties. They are of all forms 

and sizes, from the tiny cross cactus, like two needle 

points crossed, to the giant cactus tree (the Oereu9 

ffiganteuBy^ which grows to the height of a forest 


tree. The Cereus giganteiis ie often fouDd Mxty 
feet in height, with a diameter of three feet. It ia 
supported by ribs of very great strength and tough- 
ness. These riba are fi-om one to two incliea wide, 
about the same distance apart, and extend from the 
root of the plant to its apex. It is long lived, and 
■when in a green state the interstices between the 
riba and the interior part is filled with a dark green 
substance, resembling a gi-eeu pumpkin. When the 
tree dies the whole of it, except the ribs, dries np and 
diaaolves into an impalpable powder, which is blown 
away. The riba being atroug and elastic are used 
for covering the adobe Iiouses, on which is put the 
earth covering in place of shingles or boards. They 
are also uaed for many other purposes where strength 
and durability are reqnired. They often grow to a 
height of sixty feet without a branch, sometimes hay- 
ing a few which grow out laterally one or two fee t^ 
and then turn up like a crooked elbow, and run 
up parallel witb the parent stem. On the apex of 
both pai'ent stem and the limbs are beautiful clus- 
ters of white flowers, which produce a delicious pear- 
shaped fruit, the siKe of a common pear, which has 
the combined flavor of the peach, strawberry, and fig. 
It 18 gathered and eaten in great quantities by the 
Indians, and ia highly prized by the whites. 

Another variety of the cactus is the Ocotea, ao 
called by the inhabitants of the country. It grows 


244 ARIZO^fA. 

like n cane to ft height of ten to twenty feet, in 
bunches of twenty to fifty from one root. The 
ocotea is sometimes cut and set out for hedges, mak- 
ing !V fence impassable for anything larger than a 
small bird. It produces a eluater of bright scarlet 
flowers, but no fruit. 

Of the Choya cactus there are many variel 
They grow in bush form, with numerous hranch< 
having long thorny prongs, and have a white flower, 
but no fruit. 

The common prickly pear cactus (^Cactus opuntid) 
is distributed over the whole Territory. It produces 
different colored flowers, and a peiir-sbaped edible 
fruit, having an acid and pleasant taste. The author 
counted on one bush, on the eastern declivities of the 
Bradshaw Mountains, over one thousand of these 

The barrel cactus reserablea the Cereus giganteus, 
■ and grows to a» extreme height of ten feet, with a 
diameter of nearly two feet. It produces no fruit, 

The kind commonly called the ni^;er head is 
round, of the size of a cabbage, and covered with 
large, crooked, catlike thorns. 

There are many other varieties worthy of descrip- 
tion, and which would be interesting to the botanist 
and florist. 

The maguey plant, of the genus agave, known in 
the Mexican States, Arizona, and New Mexico aa 



the incBCiil plant, is one of the most useful and im- 
portant o£ all the indigenous plants of the country. 
It grows profusely at certain altitudes in all sections 
of the Territory, It produces a bulbous like root, 
partly in, and partly above the ground, which is 
rich iu saccharine matter. These bulbs are from 
the size of a cabbage to a bushel biiaket, and when 
roasted are sweet and delicious. The Indians will 
live on it for a long time. From the root thi-re 
grows up large, long, thorny pointed leaves, and 
from the centre a stalk rises to a height of ten or 
more feet, having a few bi-auches and a flowering pod 
which incloses the seed. The juice of the plant 
when boiled down makes a good syrup. A liquor ia 
made from the plant by distiUation, which has the 
taste and flavor of old Scotch whiskey, and which is 
the favorite strong drink of the Mexicans. 

The fiber of the leaves is strong, aud from it ropes 
are made and used quite extensively among the In- 
dians aud Mexicans. A more useful plant would be 
difficult to find. The Indians at tlie San Carlos 
Agency gathered and roasted for use, in 1875, over 
seventy five thousand pounds of the mescal, and all 
the Indians of the Territory gather and use it quite 

Another plant, called there the amole, with leaves 
similar to the mescal, has a bulbous root, which 
is very valuable as a detergent. It grows to the 


height of three feet or more. It is successfully used 
for cleansing clothing, and makes a fine wash for the 
hair, to which it imparts a soft and glossy appear- 

It grows abundantly in the Territory, and offers 
an opportunity for some wide awake, ingenious 
Yankee, to make a fortune. 

The mesquit tree, before mentioned, is probably a 
yariety of the acacia, and like it, produces the gum 
arable of commerce. There are two kinds of the 
mesquit, both of which produce a beau which is 
sweet and nutritious, and which the Indians gather in 
large quantities to be eaten either in the green or 
dried state. When dried they grind it into a kind 
of flour, living on it for months at a time. The bean 
is very fattening for all kinds of stock, and is well 
liked by horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs. One kind has 
a pod much like that of the large string-bean, and 
the other, which is called the screw bean, resembles 
a bunch of the alder tags and is screw shaped. The 
wood of the tree is very hard, excellent for fire- 
wood, and used to some extent for wagon felloes and 
other work. 

It is a very durable wood, and for railroad ties 
would equal the lignum-vitaB of tropical climates. 
Its botanical name is Algarohia glandulom. 

There are many varieties of the pine found grow- 
ling on the mountains and mountain plateaus of 



Arizona, whtdi are good for lumber and timber, 
wbich in time will become very useful for building 
purposes, and especially for timbering and working 
the numerous mines of the country. 

One kind, the common pifloa of the country (Pinu« 
edulii) beai-3 a large quantity of fruit known as the 
piiion nut, which is gathered and eaten in great 
quantities by the natives. The nut is of the size 
of the common hazel-nut, sweut and edible. Swine 
fatten on it readily, and other stock eat it with avid- 

There ai-e many 'herbs and shrubs indigenous to 
the country possessed of rare medicinal qualities. 
One kind is much used by the Mexicans for fevers, 
with the best of results. Two kinds assimilate to 
the tea plant, and the leaves gathered in a gieen 
state make a pleasant and aromatic drink. 

Edible berries are not very numerous, yet in the 
mountains there are varieties of the barberry, whor- 
tleberry, strawberry, and a few others. 

A large variety of flowering plants grow profusely 
throughout the Territory, and during each rainy sea- 
son, there being two in the year, the mountains, hills, 
valleys, and plains present a beautiful and gorgeous 

The blossoming willow is very beautiful, the flower 
resembling in form and size the honeysuckle. There 
is a rich field in Arizona for the florist, and the hot- 


anist, as yet almost wholly unknown, though several 
parties have made partial examinations of the Terri- 
tory, and gathered many choice specimens. 

Long months and years could be passed in the 
Territory, in the examination and classification of the 
floral products of the country, and in thoroughly 
studying their properties and uses. 



rilO all desiring to go to Arizona, this is a necessary 
iind iiDportiUit subject for consideration. 
There are two routes by public conveyance from 
San Francisco, one by steamer from San Francisco 
to either San Pedro, Santi Monica, or San Diego. 
If by Santa Monica or Sail Pedro, from both those 
points the Southern Pacific Railroad will be taken at 
Los Angeles, from fifteen to twenty miles from thoae 
ports, and thence by that railroad either to Yuma, to 
which point the raib-oad will be completed before the 
first of July of the present year, or to the nearest point 
on the Colorado to Ehi'cnburg, which will be lesa 
than 100 miles, By the route to Yuma one can there 
take the stage of the Southern Pacific Mail Line to 
Maricopa Wells, Florence, Tucson, and all. points in 
Southern Arizona, connecting at Maricopa Wells 
with a stage route to Phoenix, and thence by the Cal- 
ifornia and Arizona Stage Company to Wickenburg, 
Prescott, and all points in the central and northern 
parts of the Territory. Ou the Colorado Desert, at 


tlie nearest poiut to Ebreabtirg, the Culifornia ant 
Arizouft Stage Company connect with the railrc 
semi-weekly, and will soon make daily connections, 
crossing the Colorado River at Ehrenburg, and 
thence running to Witrkenburg, Prescott, and all in-- 
terme<iiate points. At Wickeuburg a branch lii 
runs to Plicenix and Florence, at the latter poii 
connecting with the Southern Pacific Mail Line, ani 
at Phcenix with stage lines to Camp McDowell eaat^ 
and with Maricopa Wells southwest. 

Those desiring to visit the beautiful town and hai^ 
bor of San Diogo, go to that point by steamer from 
San Friincisco, and thence by stage on the Southern 
Faciiic Mail Line to Yuma, and thence by the saoHt' 
line to other points as before designated. 

The distance by stage from San Diego to Yuma 
is 200 miles, from Yuma to Maricopa Wells 183, to 
Florence 237, to Tucson 300, and to Apache Pass 
425 iQiIes. 

Emigrants going from Califoi'nia to Arizona will, 
with teams and stock, follow nearly on the line ini 
catcd from Los Angeles, and if on reaching the Co] 
rado Desert, they desire to go to Mineral Park, 
bat, Prescott, or elsewhere in the central or northei 
parts of the Territory, they will, at or near Indi 
Weils, tiike the northern route, crossing the Coli 
River at Hardyville, where there is an excellent fei 
kept by William M. Hardy, Esq., and thence go 




any of the selected centra,! or northern portions of 
the Territory. 

TJie most expeditioua route from San Franciaco is 
by tlie Southern Pacific Railroad, by which route one 
can (by the first of July, 1877) enter Arizona at 
Yuma in less than three days, and at Ehrenburg by 
stage connectiou, as before stated, in the same time. 

Several northern routes from Nevada and Eastern 
California centre and cross the Colorado River at 
Stone's Ferry, thence pursuing a southerly course 
tor eighty miles to Mineral Park, and theuce to Prea- 
cott and elsewhere as desirable. Many immigrants 
with stock come in on this route, which is very favor- 
able during the winter. 

Those desinng to go to Arizona from the south- 
western States, from any point between St. Lonis and 
New Orleans, will take any one of the many routes 
that pass through the Jndian Territory and Texas ; 
and if desiring to go to the northern part of the Ter- 
ritory, either to Prescott, the Chiquito Colorado Val- 
ley, or elsewhere, will make their way to Santa F^, 
or Albuquerque, from which points good emignmt 
roads lead west to all poiuts,. If desiring to go to 
Tucson, or Southern Arizona, they will intersect the 
Southern Pacific Stage and Mail line at Mesilla, on 
the Rio Grande River, fi-om which point by stage it 
IB but 350 miles to Tucson. This is a good stage 
route, as well as an excellent one for immigrants, 
with teama and Btook, 



ImmlgraDts from nortli of SL LoniB, including all 
Uie Dorthtrc^leni, northem, and eastern States, can 
obt^ a good oatfit at Kansas City, Topeka, and 
many other points to the west of those cities on the 
line of the AtcJiison, Topeka, and Santa F^ Railroad, 
or on the line of the Kansas Paci&c, or Denver and 
Rio Grande railroads, and from any point selected, 
find a good road with wood and water to Saiita ¥6--^ 
and Albuquerque, and thenee a good route via tb^ 
Chiquito Colorado to Frescott, and ail points : 
Northern Arizona. 

Those going from Utah, or from the east, who go«l 
by railroad to Salt Lake City, can continue by raiU J 
road to Nfpbi, which is less than 500 miles fromJ 
Prescott. This road is being pushed forward witb J 
vigor, and in a few years, at farthest, will reach Pre 
cott, and thence, as supposed, be contiuued on to th| 
Port of Guaymaa, on the Gulf of California. 

There is a certainty now, that in a few years at 
the farthest, Arizona will be traversed by railroads 
in all directions, her rich mines be fully developed, 
and a career of prosperity opened which has long 
been earnestly looked for by her citizens. With the 
completion of I'ailroads, and the development ai ■ 
mines, all other industries will prosper. Her rid 
agricultural lands will be settled and tilled, her mit*! 
lions of acres of grazing lands will be covered 1 
aameroua flocks of sheep and herds of cattle; 


factories will be establiahecl, of milla and macliiuery 
of all kinda, of woolen goods, of sugar refineries, of 
hemp and cordage, and all other kinds needed ; brisk 
and prosperous towns and cities will spring into ex- 
istence, and in less than a decade of years, a pros- 
perous, wide-awake, and energetic American popula- 
tion will have centered in her borders, and she will 
be knocking at the doors of Congress for admission 
into the Union, where she will become a bright star 
in the galaxy of free and independent States of the 
great American Union. 

This picture is not overdrawn, Arizona has not 
only the possibilities, she has also the probabilities 
which point unerringly to an early fulfillment of all, 
and more than all, which has been said of her in 
these pages; and when in the coming time her his- 
tory shall he written, what has herein been said will 
have been fulfilled. 





To San Diego, California, west 200 

Castle Dome, on Colorado Kiver, north .... 35 

Ehrenburg, on Colorado River, north . . . . 135 

Colorado River Reservation, on Colorado River, north . . 220 

Anbrey, on Colorado River, north .... 245 

Needles, on Colorado River, north. ..... 285 

Camp Mohave, on Colorado River, north . . . . 325 

Hardy ville, on Colorado River, north 837 

Colorado Cafion, on Colorado River, north . . . ^00 

Callville, on Colorado River, north 460 

Stone's Ferry, on Colorado River, north . . . . 510 
Mouth of River, Colorado River, south . . . .175 

Gila City, in Gila Valley, east 22 

Oatman Flat, in Gila Valley, east 118 

Maricopa Wells, in Gila Valley, east 191 

Pima Village, in Gila Valley, east 203 

Florence, in Gila Valley, east 237 

Tucson, in Santa Cruz Valley, east 300 

Tres Alimos, in San Pedro Valley, east .... 350 

Apache Pass, Camp Bowie, east 425 

Ralston, New Mexico, east 475 

Silver City, New Mexico, east 525 

Mesilla, New Mexico, east 645 


From EHSENBusa. 

To conTicctions with Southern Pacific Railroad, west . .100 

San Bernardino, California, west 230 

Wickcnburg, Arizona, east . 140 

Prescott, Arizona, northeast ....•• 220 

From Miiteral Pjlsk. 

To Hardy viHe, on Colorado River, southwest .... 35 

Cerbat, south * 6 

McCracken Mine, south 100. 

Greenwood, east of south 100 

Hackberrj Mine, east 35 

Stone's Fcny of Colorado River, north .... 80 

Hualapai Mountains, southeast 30 

Cottonwood Station, east 51 

Anvil Rock, east . ... . • • « .81 

Oaks and Willows, east ..••••. 90 

Camp Hualapai, east « . .103 

Williamson's Valley, east . . . • • • . 121 

Prescott, east « . . 141 

From Prescott. 

To Williamson's Valley, west • . , • . -. .20 

Mineral Park, west « . . 141 

Hackberry Mine, west • . 110 

Chino Valley, north 22 

Agua Frio Valley, east 15 

Camp Verde, east 42 

San Francisco Mountain, east of north . . « • . 85 
Nephi, Utah Southern Railroad, northeast . • « 500 

Black Canon, southeast 52 

Peck Mine, southeast « • 30 

Fredericks Mill, on Hassayampa, southeast . . • .10 
Aztlan Mill, Peck Co., south ...... 6 ' 



Walnut Grove on air line, south 15 

Camp McDowell, east of south 92 

Wickeuburg, south 82 

Hardyville, on Colorado Biver, west 180 

Ehrcnburg, on Colorado Kiver, southwest . • • . 220 

Sunset Crossing, on Cliiquito Colorado, north of east • 132 

Stoneman's Lake, north of east 75 

Montezuma Well, north of east 55 

Phoenix, south 142 

Florence, south . 192 

Silver King Mine, east of south • . . • . . 190 

Tucson, south 267 

Apacbo Pass, Camp Bowie, southeast 392 

From WiCKBKBusa. 

To Prcscott, north 82 

Ehrenburg, west 140 

Phoenix, south . . • • • • • • . - 60 

Florence, south • • • • 110 

Camp McDowell, southeast 95 

Tucson, south 185 

Mineral Park, northwest 225 

Hardyville, northwest 260 

Yuma, via Ehrenburg and Colorado Biver, southwest . 265 

Yuma, via Phoenix and Maricopa Wells, southwest • 286 

Fbom Ph(bniz. 

To Wickenburg, north 60 

Prescott, north 142 

Camp McDowell, east 35 

Florence, south 50 

Tucson, south • • • • 125 

Yuma, via Maricopa Wells, west • . . ' • • 226 

Maricopa Wells, southwest 85 



Fbom Florbnob. 


To Phoenix, north 50 

Frescott, north 192 

Wickenburg, north 110 

Silver King Mine, northeast 35 

Globe District, Final Mountains, northeast . ... 75 

Sanford, west 6 

Casa Grande, west 12 

Fima Villages, west 34 

Maricopa Wells, west 46 

Yuma, west 237 

San Diego, California, west 437 

Tucson, houtheast . . • • • r • • 75 

From Tucsoir. 

To Florence, northwest • . • • 

Yuma, west « 

San Diego, California, west 

Sonora line, south 

Ostrich Mine, west of south . . • 
Young America Copper Mines, west . 

Santa Kita Mountains, south • 

Trench Mine, south 

Mowry Mine, south . . . • 
Tres Alimos, on San Pedro, east • • 
Apache Pass, Camp Bowie, east . • 
Silver City, New Mexico, east . . • 
Mesilla, on Bio Grande, New Mexico, east 
Camp Grant, north of east 
Pueblo Viejo, north of east . 
San Carlos, Indian Agency, northeast 
Camp Apache, White Mountains, northeast 





















The distance from Prescott and Tucson to St. 
Louis, Missouri, is about fifteen hundred miles. 

All other mining camps and settlements can be 
easily reached from some of the places mentioned. 



TT^OR the benefit and convenience of tliose desiring 
-*- information respecting Arizona, its soil, climate, 
productions, minerals, general business prospects, etc., 
etc., a list will be given below of some of the leading 
business men and citizens of the principal towns, to 
whom communications may be addressed, and whose 
answers may be relied on for correct and reliable in- 

Address at Yuma, A. T. : Col. James M. Barney ; 
David Neahr ; Hon. J. M. Redondo ; Capt. I. Polhe- 
mus, Jr. ; A. J. Finlay ; Judge Porter; C. H. Brinlay ; 
Judge Alexander; Editor of "Sentinel. " 

At Castle Dome, Yuma Co., A. T.: Wm. P. 
Miller, Esq. 

At Ehrenburg, Yuma Co., A. T. : Chas. Vande- 
vere, Agt. J. M. Barney ; J. Goldwater & Bro. ; J. 
M. Castenado; E. O. Grant, Agt. C. & A. Stage 

At Colorado River Reservation, Yuma Co., A. T. : 
Col. Wm. E. Morford, Agt. 


At McCracken Mine, Mohave Co., A. T. : A. 
Bateman, Supt. ; D. B. Pierce, Asst. ; Joseph S. 
Currie, Assay er. 

At Greenwood, Mohave Co., A. T. : Joseph Mc- 
Cracken ; Col. Buell ; A. Cady. 

At Cerbat, Mohave Co., A. T. : Wm. Corey, P. M. ; 
Sheriff Comstock. 

At Mineral Park, Mohave Co., A. T. : Alder Ran- 
dall, P.M.; Messrs. Breon & Spear; Hon. James 
Bull; Capt. Welbourne ; T.J. Christie; Hon. Mr. 

At Hackberry Mine, Mohave Co., A. T, : Hon. 
A. E. Davis; Judge Wm. Towle. 

At Oaks and Willows, Yavapai Co., A. T. : G. S. 
Smith, P. M. 

At Williamson Valley, Yavapai Co., A. T. : Ste- 
phen Breon. 

At Prescott, Arizona Territory: Col. C. P. Head 
& Co.; L. Bashford & Co.; Hon. John G. Campbell; 
Hon. Geo. D. Kendall; Hon. John P. Rush; Hon. 
Gideon Brooks; Hon. John H. Marion; Hon. C. C. 
Bean; Messrs. Bowers & Richards; Wm. C. Foster, 
Esq.; Hon. C. A. Luke; Hon. E. G. Peck; Dr. 
McCandles; Judge H. H. Carter; Sheriff Bowers; 
J. C. Behan, Esq.; Editors "Miner;" Editors 
" Enterprise." 

At Agua Frio P. O., Yavapai Co., A. T. : Post- 
master; Nathan Bowers, Esq. 


At Camp Verde, Yavapai Co., A. T. : Major Bray- 
ton ; Hon. Wni, Head. 

At Waliiut Grove, Yavapai Co., A. T. : Hon. E. 
G. Peck; C. A. Morrison ; A. Culliimber, Esq. ; 
Capt. S. Bartlett; Geo. Hogle, Assayer ; Geo. Jack- 
sou, Esq. ; J. 0. Wood. 

At Wickenbui^, Yavapai Co., A. T.: Dr. J. H. 
Pierson; H. Wickenburg, Esq.; Dr. Jones; Wm. 

At Phcanix, Maricopa Co., A. T.: Hon. John T. 
Smith ; Hon. King S. AVoolaey ; Hon. Granville 
Oury ; Major C. H. Vail; Wm. B. Hellinga. 

At Maricopa Wells, A. T. : James A. Moore, Esq. 

At Hayden'a Ferry, Maricopa Co., A. T. ; Hon. 
Chas. T. Hayden. 

At Florence, Pinal Co., A. T. : Messrs. Colliug- 
wood & Hammerslag; Wm. Long; Judge Ruggles ; 
Judge J. D. Walker; Hon. P. B. Brady; J. Clark, 

At Tucson, Arizona TeiTitory : Messrs. Tully, 
Ocboa, & Co, ; Meserg. Lord & Williams ; Hon. Hiram 
S. Stevens, Delegate in Congress ; Judge French, U. 
S, Supreme Judge of A. T. ; Dr. J. C. Handy ; Gov. 
A. P. K. SafEord; Hon. John Wasaon, Editor '■ Citi- 
zen ; " J. H. Archibald ; Hon. John S. Wood ; Right 
Rev. Bishop Salpointe ; Messrs. Zeckendorf & Co.; 
M. L Jacobs & Co. ; S. Drachman & Co. ; T. Wel- 
lisch ; E. N. Fish & Co. ; Hon. Mr. Bennett. 

At Camp Bowie, Apache Pass, Pima Co., A. T.d 
Hon. Mr. De Long ; Capt. C. B. McLellan; Capt. J.^ 

At Tres Alimos, San Pedro River, Pima Co., A. 
T. : H. C. Hooker, Esq.; Hon. Mr. Montgomery; 
Mr. Dunbar. 

At Camp Grant, A. T.: Major 0. E. ComptottJ 
Commandant; Hon. Geo. A. Stevens. 

At Safford P. O., Pueblo Viejo Valley, Pima C 
A. T.: J. E. Bailey, P. M.; Isaac Clanton ; ! 

At San Carlos Agency, Pima Co., A. T. : J. P,3j 
Cliini, Agt. ; M. A. Sweeney, Clerk. 

At Camp Apache, White Mts., Yavapai Co., A 
T. : Capt. F. D. OgUby, Commandant ; Capt. Win 
S. Worth ; Mr. James, Post Trader. 

At Chiqiiito Colorado, Yavapai Co., A. T. : Chfu 
Franklin, J. P. j S. & M. Barth ; Mr. Milligan. 

At Silver King Mine, Pinal Co., A. T.; Judj 
Anderson ; A, Mason, Siipt. ; H. Kearsing, i 

At Globe District, Pinal Co., A. T. : Chaa. BtuwH j 
E. M. Pearce ; Messrs Garrish & Co. ; Mr. William 
son ; Mr. Newman. 

All of the gentlemen named in the foregoing li 
are good and reliable men. The number could h 
been increased to an indefinite extent, but the nam 
given are representative gentlemen in military, c 
and pi'ivate life, and represent all parts of the 1 



Of the hundreds and thoiisiinda in diSerent 
parts of the Union ^ho are inaking inquiries respect- 
ing Arizona and its climate, productions, etc., those 
vfIio do not obtain that specific information desired, 
in these piigea, are referred to the gentlemen named, 
who will no doubt be pleased to answer all inquiries 
respecting the country. 

While the author has been earnest and untiring 
in his endeavor to let the people of the United States, 
and the world, know all about Arizona, and haa given 
to the public during the past three years a series of 
articles through tlie press, numbering in all over five 
hundred, descriptive of its climate, soil, productions, 
scenery, minerals, etc., etc., endeavoring in an honor- 
able and truthful manner to draw attention to, and 
assist in its permanent development, and while be- 
lieving it to possess stores of mineral wealth, un- 
equaled by any other country, he deems it his duty 
to caution those desiring to emigrate there, against 
being over sanguine. All new countries have their 
dark sides, and many and serious difficulties the 
emigrant will meet witli, which must be overcome 
with will, energy, and perseverance. 

Fortunes cannot be raftje in Arizona, or elsewhere, 
without work, and hard work too. Mir^es of wonder- 
ful wealth permeate and traverse all the mountain 
ranges, but the hardy and untiring prospector must 
undergo weeks, months, and sometimes years, of toil 


aai Lfcif^rafi. befsvr x c&cA^e locmdon will be found, 
&=^i vTren iSsKoreredL i « will take geneially long, long 
zaraics «i? dcT^ujip jjid nnooTef ii3 hidden treasores. 
Dsrizi^ ^ ihSs tiziH-, ooe masK be ooofcent to live on 
fc;fcii4 &;=ri $£3Lphie £a;ne^ mns: sleep most of the time on 
modKT eATUu with bat a bLuiket Ux a coYeiing, 
mass v^ jrk eaHy and latie« and at times soffer untold 

If the hopeful yonth, or matured man, can do all 
this vidKxit losing coonge. and will keep clear from 
drinking and gamblii^ saloons, and other yices, he 
can in a few veais aeqoiie a compet^icy, perhaps 
great wealth. 

Arizona wants men of energy, of perseverance and 
determination, men of muscle, men of brains, men 
of wealth* to assist in developii^ her great resources. 
All such will be welcomed to her borders by her 
large hearted, wide-awake citizens, who are ready to 
assist and advise those who may desire to make tiie 
country their home. She throws wide open her doors 
to immigrants from all parts of the world. 

To the capitalist who desires to invest his money 
in rich mines, which well managed will pay large 
dividends for many years to come, she says come and 
assist in her development. Untold millions are here 
boarded up for your and your country's use. 

To the young man, full of honest day's work, who 
desires a new field for labor, and can resist temptation. 


and maintain his manhood, and who has a laudable 
ambition for the future, Arizona sends greeting, and 
bids you a liearty welcome to her borders, where in a 
few years by honest labor you can secure independ- 
ence, and a fortune for old age. 

To the broken down in health, whose every bi-eath 
is drawn in agony iind pain, who have suffered a 
thousand deaths during long years of suffering and 
sickness, the balmy skies and pure atmosphere of Ar- 
izona will greet you in winter to a mild and balmy 
climate in her great plains and valleys, and in summer 
the pure and rarefied atmosphere of her mountain 
plateaus will be breathed with pleasure, and life will 
again become a blessing to you, instead of a curse. 

Stock raisers will here Snd an almost unlimited 
range for sheep, cattle, and horses, where millions 
can be kept and fattened on the rich grasses of the 
Talleys, mountitins, and plains, with but little care, 
and at a triBing expense. 

To farmers, horticulturists, and pomologists, Ari- 
zona presents a rich field for operations. Hundreds 
and thousands of these classes could in a few years ac- 
cumulate a competency in either of these branches of 
business, and build up beautiful homes for old age. 

Skilled mechanics and laborers of all kinds are 
wanted. Towns and cities are to be built, mills and 
manufactories are to be erected, and good workmen 
must be had for the purpose, to whom good wages 
*nd constant employment will be given.^ 

Hundreds of fauiiliea have emigrated to ArlzoKJ 
the past two years, who are well pleased with tliSS 
country and climiite, and thousands more are wanted 
to assist in building up churches, schools, and good 
society. The dangers of Indian warfare, of murders, 
pillage, and robbery, are virtually over, and fathers 
and mothers need have no fear for themselves or 
their little ones. The domination of savage life has 
ended, and that of civilization has usurped its place, 
bringing in its tr.iin the blessings of peace, security, 
and prosperity. Thei-efore we say to families, come 
to Arizona, where the skies are ever bright, where 
disease and sickness are almost unknown, whci 
ure's bountiful gifts await you in a thousand variec 
forms of beauty and grandeur. 

Like all newly settled countries, there is a gre 
disproportion between the different seses, the malfj 
outnumbering the female, as five or ten to o 

This fact alone calls for the emigration of laifl 
numbers of females to the Territory, where constanfl 
and remunerative employment would be given 
good help. Cooks, chamber-maids, searastressefl 
teachers, etc., are wanted, for which several i 
ployments from thirty to fifty dollars and often c 
hundred dollars a month are paid. 

Recognizing the fact that no community, o 
try, can ever enter upon its highest state of prospi 
ity, refinement, or happiness without the aid and a 


sistance of woman, Arizona and her citizens would 
welcome the advent of large numbers of the true, the 
pure, the good, of the superabundant females of 
other portions of the Union, and would give them a 
welcome such as goddesses might envy. 




T3RICES are given in greenbacks, as that is the 
-^ currency of the Territory, though on and near 
the Colorado River a specie basis prevails to some 
extent : — 

Wheat, per ponnd $0.02j- 

Barley, per pound 02j- 

CoFD, per pound 02} 

Flour, per 100 pounds • • 
Bacon and ham, per pound 
Pork, per pound 
Beef, per ponnd .... 
Venison, per pound . 
Potatoes, sweet, per pound 
Potatoes, Irish, per pound 
Garden vegetables, per pound 
Mutton, per pound . . • 
Coffee, per pound • • • 
Sugar, per pound • . • 
Beans, per pound . . • 
Board, per week . . • 

Lumber, per M . . . 
Daj laborers, per day 



@ .04 
@ .04 
@ 12.00 
@ .40 
@ .30 
@ .20 
@ .20 
@ .15 
® .10 
® .10 


@ 10.00 
@ 50.00 
® 3.00 


• • 

• • 

Blacksmiths, per day . 

Carpenters, per daj • . • 

Masons and Bricklayers, per day 

Miners, per day .... 

Farm hands, with board, per month 

Herders, with board, per month • 

Teamsters, with board, per month 

Cooks, with board, per month . 

Norses, with board, per day 

Teachers, per month . . 

House help, with board, per month 

Skilled Machinists and Millwrights, per month 

Apples, per pound . ... 

Peaches, per pound 

Grapes, per pound 

Pears, per pound . • • . 

Melons, each • . • • • 


. 4.00 


. 3.00 


. 30.00 


. 30.00 


. 50.00 


. 100.00 







@ 100.00 
@ 40.00 
@ 200.00 
@ .10 







With the present price of lumber and material for 
building, it costs about thirty per cent, more to build 
than in the States east of the Rocky Mountains. 
Houses and stores can be rented at about the same 
comparative rates as it would cost to build. Scores 
of families on arriving in the Territory live for 
months in tents or under wagon covers, until they 
have time and opportunity to select a permanent 
home and erect suitable buildings. The climate is 
80 mild and pure they suffer no ills or danger from 
sickness by so doing. Many who came to the Ter- 
ritory in its early days lived for years in this way, 
buoyed up by the hope that in a few years a home 
and a competency would be obtained. 


In most instances that hope has been more than 
fulfilled, and though harassed for years by roving 
bands of the savage Apaches, stock driven off, and 
crops destroyed, most of the early settlers are now 
above want, and have homes, houses, and lands, 
which will compare favorably with those of the 
Northern and Eastern States. 

The foregoing brief description of Arizona, of its 
soil, climate, and productions; of its minerals and 
mines ; of its prehistoric ruins and grand scenery, is 
given to the public with the hope that it will attract 
that attention which its importance demands, and 
assist to some extent in hastening the time when 
the Territory will be filled with a numerous and 
happy people, and when Arizona will become what 
nature has destined her to be, the coming country of 
the continent. 


Accidental Mine, 104. 

Adams ville, 153. 

Agricul rural lands, 42-53. 

Agua Frio P. O., 260. 

Agua Supai Indians, 169. 

Albany Mine, 83. 

American Flag Mine, 74. 

Amole plant, 245. 

Animals, birds, fish, etc., 221-225. 

Antelope, or Rich Hill, 64, 65. 

Athens Mine, 121. 

Arizona, general description of, 

Arizona flora, 242. 
Arizona mines, total, 135. 
Aubrey, 147. 

Black Snake Mine, 85. 
Black CaHon Mines, 110. 
Black Warrior Mine, 100. 
Blue Cap Mine, 117. 
Blue Dick, and other mines, 84. 
Bradshaw Basin, 97. 
Brad^haw Mountains, 91, 94, 97. 

CflDctns of Arizona, 242-244. 
California and Arizona stage line, 

Camp Apache, 213, 217, 262. 
Camp Bowie, 216, 262. 
Camp Grant, 217, 262. 
Camp Lowell, 216. 
Camp McDowell, 216. 
Camp Mohave, 216. 
Camp Thomas, ^17. 
Camp Verde, 215, 261. 
CaSada de Oro, 66. 
Casa Grande, 180-182. 

Castle Dome, 145, 234, 259. 

Castle Dome Mines, 67, 68. 

Cerbat, 76, 146. 260. 

Cerbat Mountain Mines, 75, 260> 

Cereus giganteus, 242, 243. 

Cerro Colorado Mine, 131. 

Chi(|uiio Colorado, 39, 262. 

Chiquito Colorado Valley, 44, 

Chimuehneva Indians, 156. 

Chloride Flat Mines, 81. 

"Citizen,*' Tucson, 154. 

Clifton Copper Mines, 112, 139, 

Climate, etc., 27-31. 

Coal, 109. 

Cocopah Indians, 156. 

Colorado River, 35. 

Colorado River Indian Reserra* 

tion, 259. 
Colorado Steam Navigation Co., 

Conner Mine, 85. 
Counties and towns, 143-155. 

Davis Mine, 102. 

Dean Mine, 74. 

Del Pasco Mine, 96. 

Diana and Pink Eye Mines, 86. 

Distances in Arizona, 254-258. 

Ehrenburg, 63, 145, 255, 259. 
Emma Mine, 131. 
Empire Mine, 83. 
"Enterprise," Prescott, 149. 

Fawn Mine, 111. 

First exploration and settlement 

of Arizona, 17. 
Florence, 152, 257, 261. 



Fontenoy Mine, 76. 
Fort Whipple, 215. 
Fort Yuma, 217. 
Four Teaks, 234. 

George Mine, HI. 

Gila Kiver, 37. 

Gila Valley, 44. 

Globe Copper Mine, 115. 

Globe Mining District, 115-119, 

Grazing lands, 54-56. 
Greenwood, 146, 255, 260* 
Gretna Mine, 96. 

Hackberry, 255, 260. 
Hackl)erry Mine, 87, 90. 
Hardy vilie, 147. 
Hassayainpa Placers, 65. 
Hayden's Kerry, 261. 
Hayden's Mills, 151. 
Health, 27, 31. 
Helen Mine, 117. 
Hiichcock Mines, 105. 
Hualapai Indians, 160. 
Hualapai Mountains, 48, 74, 75. 
Hualapai Valley, 52. 

Idlewild Mine, 96. 
Independence Mines, 84. 
Index Mine, 80. 
Indian scouts, 215, 217. 
Indian reservations, and remarks, 

Indian tribes, 156-166. 
Indians, total in Arizona, 170. 

Keystone Mine, 79. 
Kit Carson Mine, 107. 

Laporte Mine, 81. 

Lone Star Mine, 79. 

Lynx Creek, etc., placers, 65. 

Majruey plant, 244. 
Maricopa County, 114, 151, 152. 
Maricopa County Mines, 114. 
Maricopa Wells, 152, 261. 
Marico|)a Indians, 160. 
McCracken Hill, 147. 

McCracken Mine, 70, 147, 260. 
Mesquit tree, 59, 246. 
Metallic Accident Mine, 80. 
Military Department of Arizona, 

Mineral Park Mines, 75, 79. 
Mineral Park, 146, 250, 255, 260. 
" Miner," Prescott, 148. 
Mines and Mining, 61-136. 
Mines — placers, 62-67. 
Mines — lodes, etc, 67-136. 
Mines, total in Aiizona, 135. 
Mineral belts — suggestions, etc., 

Mocking-bird Mine, 77. 
Mohave County, 48, 51, 69, 146. 
Mohave County Mines, 69-91. 
Mohave Indians, 156-160. 
Montezuma Wei, 238. 
Moqui Indians, 168. 
Mormon settlements, 150. 
Mountains of Arizona, 32-34. 
Mowry Mine, 126. 

Natural curiosities, 229-241. 
Navajo Indians, 165. 
Newspapers, 211. 

Oaks and Willows, 260. 
Old missions, 18, 21. 
Old Mine, 132. 
Oro Plata Mine, 78. 
Oriental Mine, 84. 
Ostrich Mine, 132. 

Painted Uocks, 178. 
Papago Indians, 162, 163. 
Peacock Mountain Mines, 87, 90. 
Peck Mine, 97, 99. 
Pennsylvania Mine, 85. 
Phcenix, 151, 152, 256, 261. 
Picacho Mine, 124. 
Pike, and other mines, 121. 
Pima County, 153. 
Pima County Mines, 122. 
Pima Indians, 160. 
Pima villages, 162. 
Pinal County, 115, 152. 
Pinal County Mines, 115-121. 
Pinal Silver Mining Co., 94. 



Placer Mines, 61-67. 
Placeritas, 65. 
Planchas de plata, 116. 
Planet, 147. 

Planet Copper Mine, 69. 
Poland, and other mines, 105. 
Population, etc., 143. 
Pot-holes, etc., 63. 
Prehistoric ruins, 177. 
Prescott, 148, 149, 249, 255, 260. 
Prices of provisions, labor, etc., 

Pael)lo Viejo Valley, 45. 

Quajate Mountains, 122. 
Quaker Mine, 85. 

Railroads nnd sta<re routes, 200. 

References and remarks, 259. 

Reptiles, etc., 226. 

Rescue Mine, 117. 

Rich Hill, 64. 

Rivers of Arizona, 35. 

Rose Bud and Porter Mines, 84. 

Routes of travel to Arizona, 249. 

Saftord, 262. 

Salt formations, 235. 

Salt River, 38, 43, 45. 

Salvador Mine, 107. 

San Carlos Agency, 163, 262. 

San Francisco Mountains, 32, 33, 

San Pedro Valley, 47. 
San Simon Valley, 50. 
San Xavier del Bac Mission 

Church, 19, 21. 
Santa Cruz Valley, 46. 
Santa Rita Mountains, 66, 128. 
Santa Rita Placers, 66. 
Schenectady Mine, 83. 
Schools and education, 196. 
Schuvlkill Mine, 83. 
Sea Serpent Lode, 131. 
Senator Mine, 101. 
" Sentinel," Yuma, 144 
She-rum Peak, 80, 86. 
Sheep raising, 55, 56. 
Silver Belt Mine, 106. 
Silver Flake Mine, 107. 


Silver King Mine, 119, 262. 
Silver Mountain District, 122. 
Silver Prince Mine, 99. 
Sixty-three Mine, 76. 
Southern Pacific Mail Line, 202. 
St. Gertrude de Tabac, 18. 
Stockton Hill Mines, 77. 
Sulphur Springs Valley, 50. 
Swilling JVline, 110. 
Sunday school Mine, 84. 
Surprise Mine, 121. 

Telegraphs, 213. 
Thurman Mine, 96. 
Tijjer Mine and lode, 95. 
Timber, 57. 
Tip Top Mine, HI. 
Tonto Basin, 109. 
Trench Mine, 125. 
Tres Alimos, 262. 
Tucson, 18, 153-155, 257, 258, 

Virginia Mine, 85. 
Vulture Mine, 92. 

Wallace Mine, 1 00. 
Walnut Grove, 261. 
War Eagle Mine, 97. 
War Eagle Mine No. 2, 97. 
Weaver Gulch placers, 47-48, 64. 
White Mountain Indian Reser- 
vation, etc., 64. 
Wickenburg, 93, 150, 249, 256, 261 . 
Williamson Valley, 260. 
Wood, 57. 
Wool, etc., 55. 

Yavapai County, 48, 64, 91, 147. 
Yavapai County Mines, 92. 
Young America Copper Mincft, 

etc., 123. 
Yuma, 143, 259. 
Yuma County, 67, 143. 
Yuma County Mines, 67. 
Yuma, distances from, 254. 
Yuma Indians, 157. 

Zuni Indians, 166. 
Zuni Lake, 236. 



' I 

1 1