Skip to main content

Full text of "The lives of the first twelve Cæsars"

See other formats










L I V 

E S 





O F 















At ' 



CaIUS  Suetonius  Tranquillus,  whofe  Hiftory 
is  here  tranflated,  was  the  Son  of  ^ Roman 
Knight,  and  enjoyed  for  fome  time  the  place  of 
Secretary  to  the  Emperor  Hadrian  ; but  was  af- 
terwards difmilTed  from  the  Court,  for  behaving 
difrefpe^tfully  to  the  Emprefs  Sabina.  In  his 
Retitement  he  compofed  feveral  hiftorical 
Works,  of  which  the  Lives  of  the  Firft  Twelve 
Caefars  are  the  only  ’One  now  extant.  As  a 
Writer,  he  comprehends  in  his  Charafter  a Mix- 
ture of  good  Qualities  and  Blemiflies.  In  the 
Arrangement  of  his  Subje£l:,he  is  peculiarly  me- 
thodical, his  Style  is  plain  and  unaffected,  and 
his  Narrative  every  where  appears  to  be  in  the 
higheft  degree  faithful. 

V'  ... 

Of  two  Kinds  of  Blemifhes,  for  which  he  is 
confpicuous.  One,  namely,  his  minute  Recital  of 
Omens,  is  a Fault  of  the  Times  in  which  he 
lived,  rather  than  any  particular  Superftition  in 
Himfelf : for  the  Other,  which  is  Indelicacy  of 
Expreffion,  on  many  OCcafions,  he  has  too  juftly 
incurred  the  Cenfure,  of  having  written  the 
Lives  of  the  Caefars  with  a Degree  of  Licentiouf- 
nefs  equal  to  that  of  their  own  ConduCt.  But 
thofe  who  are  acquainted  with  the  Language  of 
this  Author,  will  obferve,  that  his  objeClionable 
Expreffions  have  been  foftened,  and,  in  one  or 
two  places,  neceffarily  fuppreffed,  in  the  Tranf- 

A 2 





Let  it  however  be  acknowledged,  that  a Ver- 
fion  of  Suetonius,  though  a valuable  Hiftorian, 
was  only  a fecondary  Objefl  with  the  prefent 
Tranflator,  whofe  principal  Defign  was,  to  ex- 
amine the  State  of  Literature  amongfl  the  Ro- 
mans, with  greater  Care  and  Precifion  than  has 
hitherto  ever  been  attempted.  Almoft  all  the 
Latin  Claffic  Writers  flouriflied  in  the  Periods 
which  form  the  Subject  of  Suetonius’s  Hiftory  ^ 
and  a Tranflation  of  it,  therefore,  feemed  a pro- 
per Vehicle  for  conducting  fuch  an  Enquiry. 

Could  a Difplay  of  the  Merits  and  DefeCts  of 
^ thofe  celebrated  Writers,  upon  a larger  Scale, 
have  been  rendered  compatible  both  with  the 
Gratification  of  Curiofity,  and  public  Conveni- 
ence, it  was  the  Author’s  With,  to  have  adopted 
a more  extenfive  Plan  ; but  it  feemed  more  ad- 
vifable,  on  thofe  Accounts,  to  contrad  the  Detail, 
and  reftrain  within  narrower  Limits  the  Scope 
of  critical  Obfervation. 

In  the  Chronological  View  now  exhibited  of 
the  Subject,  he  has  endeavored  not  only  to  form 
a juft  Eftimate  of  Roman  Literature,  and  afcer- 
tain  the  Caufes  which  carried  it  to  fuch  a Degree 
of  Perfection  ; but  to  elucidate  the  State  of  Go- 
vernment, and  the  Progrcfs  of  Manners,  in  thofe 
"i'imes.  He  has,  likewife,  it  is  prefumed,  cor- 
rected various  Mifreprefentations  of  Biographers, 
and  Errors  of  Commentators. 



To  the  HISTORY  and  REVIEW 


Divus  Julius  Ciefar,  — i 

Review  of  Government  and  Literature,  70 

D.  06i:avius  Ciefar  Auguilus,  — ^ 94 

Review  of  Government  and  Literature,  185 

Tiberius  Nero  Csefar,  ^ — — ■ 247 

Review  of  Government  and  Literature,  304 

Caius  Csefar  Caligula,  — — ^ 321 

Review  of  Government,  — 370 

Tiberius  Claudius  Drufus  Csefar,  — 374 

Review  of  Government,  — 415 

Nero  Claudius  Csefar,  — - — 423 

Reviev/  of  Government  and  Literature,  474 

Sergius  Sulpicius  Galba,  — — 500 

Review  of  his  Chara£f er,  — 51 S 

M.  Salvius  Otho,  — — 519 

Review  of  his  Condud,  — ^ 531 

: A Vitellius, 

I N D E jj. 


A.  Vitellius,  — — — 532 

Review  of  his  Charadler  and  Conduct,  547 

Titus  Flavius  Vefpafianus,  — 549 

/ Review  of  Government  and  Literature,  568 

Titus  Flavius  Vefpafianus  Auguftus,  — 573 

Review  of  Government  and  Literature,  581 

Titus  Flavius  Domitianus,  . — ■ 589 

Review  of  Government  and  Literature^  6ii 




To  WRITERS  and  fome  other  Perfons, 
particularly  mentioned  in  the  Review, 

Ivivius  Andronicus, 



Ennius,  — 


■ — 


Plautus,  — 




Terence,  — 




Julius  Ciefar,  — 

- — 



M.  Tullius  Cicero, 




M.  Terentius  Varro, 




C.  Valerius  Catullus, 




T0  Lucretius  Carus, 




M.  Vipfanlus  Agrippa, 




C.  Cilnius  Mecsenas, 




C.  Crifpus  Salluftius, 



Cornelius  Nepos, 


/ — 


Titus  Livius,  — r- 




P.  Virgilius  Alaro, 



Q^Horatius  Flaccus, 



P.  Ovidius  Nafo, 


- — 


Albius  Tibullus, 




S.  Aurelius  Propertius, 




Cn.  Cornelius  Gallus, 








Livia' Dru{illa.>  — 



^lius  Sejanus, 



M.  Velleius  Paterculus, 




Valerius  Maximus, 




Phsedrus,  — 



C.  Julius  Hyginus, 

— - 



A.  Cornelius  Celfus, 




Apicius  Coelius, 




Cara£l:acus,  — 



Valeria  Meflalina, 




Julia  Agrippina, 




L.  Annseus  Seneca, 




T.  Petronius  Arbiter, 



M.  Annseus  Lucanus, 




Aulus  Perfius  Flaccus, 




C.  Valerius  Flaccus,  • 




C.  Plinius  Secundus, 




M.  Fabius  Quintilianus, 




D.  Junius  Juvenalis, 




M.  Papinius  Statius, 




M.' Valerius  Martialis, 





O F 


I.  Julius  Caefar,  at  the  deceafe  of  his  father,  had 
not  completed  the  fixteenth  year  of  his  age.  Next  year? 
he  was  eledled  Flamen  Dialis  f,  or  prieft  of  Jupiter  ; when 
repudiating  Coffiitia,  who  was  only  of  an  equeflrian  fa- 

‘ mily. 

The  hyperbolical  epithet  of  Divus,  the  Di'vine^  had  for- 
merly been  conferred  upon  Romulus,  through  the  policy  of 
the  Patricians,  to  obviate  a fufpicion  entertained  by  the 
people,  that  the  king  had  been  violently  taken  off*  by  a con- 
fpiracy  of  that  Order;  and  political  circumftances  again  con- 
curred with  popular  fuperftition  to  revive  the  pofthumous 
adulation,  in  the  perfon  of  Julius  Caefar.  It  is  remarkable 
in  the  hiftory  of  a nation  fo  j'ealous  of  public  liberty,  that 
in  both  inftances,  they  bellowed  the  moll  extravagant  mark 
of  human  veneration  upon  men  who  owed  their  fate  refpec- 
lively  to  the  introduflion  of  arbitrary  power : firll,  in  the 
founder  of  the  Roman  monarchy,  and  next,  in  the  fubverter 
of  the  republic.  Both  inllances,  however,  ferve  to  Con- 
firm the  manner  in  which  many  of  the  pagan  deities  derived 
their  origin  in  the  fabulous  ages. 

The  place  of  Flamen  Dialis  was  an  office  of  great  dignity, 
butTubjeded  to  many  rellriclions.  The  perfon  who  held 
-it  could  not  ride  on  horfeback,  nor  llay  one  night  without 
the  city.  His  wife  was  likewife  under  particular  rellridlionsj 
and  could  not  be  divorced.  If  file  died,  the  Flamen  refign- 
ed  his  office,  becaufe  there  were  certain  facred  rites  which 


mily,  but  extremely  opulent,  and  to  whom  he  had  been 
contradled  during  his  minority,  he  married  Cornelia,  the 
daughter  of  Cinna,  who  %vas  four  times  Conful.  From 
this  lady,  who  fbon  after  bore  him  a daughter,  named 
Julia,  all  the  efforts  of  the  Didfator  Sylla  could  not  in- 
duce him  to  part.  On  which  account  he  was  puniffied 
with  the  lofs  of  his  facerdotal  office,  the  fortune  which 
he  had'  acquired  by  marriage,  and  the  eftate  of  his  an- 
ceftors.  Being,  befides,  confidered  as  an  enemy  to  the 
exifting  government,  he  was  obliged  to  abfeond  ; and, 
though  then  greatly  indifpofed  wdth  an  intermitting  fever, 
to  change  his  quarters  almoft  every  night  ; not  without 
the  expence,  at  the  fame  time,  of  redeeming  himfelf  from 
the  hands  of  thofe  who  were  fent  to  apprehend  him  ; un- 
til, by  the  interceffion  of  the  Veffal  virgins  of  Mamer- 

he  could  not  perform  without  her  affiftance.  Befides  other 
marks  of  diftindion,  he  wore  a purple  robe  called  Laena,  and 
a copical  cap,  called  Apex. 

* The  Veftal  virgins,  upon  their  inftitution  by  Numa, 
were  four  in  number ; but  two  were  added  by  Tarquinius 
Prifeus,  from  whofe  time  they  continued  ever  after  to  be  fix. 
Their  employment  was  to  keep  the  facred  fire  always  burn- 
ing. They  watched  it  in  the  night-time  alternately  ; and 
v/hoever  allowed  it  to  go  out,  was  fcourged  by  the  Pontifex 
Maximus.  This  accident  was  always  efteemed  ominous,  and 
expiated  ,by  offering  extraordinary  facrifices.  The  fire, 
when  thus  extinguifiied,'  was  lighted  up  again,  not  from  an- 
other fire,  but  from  the  rays  of  the  fun  ; in  which  manner 
it  was  renewed  every  year  upon  the  firft  of  March,  that  be- 
ing anciently  the  day  when  the  year  commenced.  Amonglt 
the  honors  and  privileges  enjoyed  by  the  Veftais,  they  could 
abfolve  a criminal  from  punifliment,  if  they  met  him  ac- 
cidentally ; and  their  interpofition,  upon  ail  occafions,  was 
greatly  refpected.  But  the  violation  of  their  vow  of  chaftity 



cus  ^mllius,  and  Aurelius  Cotta,  the  two  latter  of  whom 
were  allied  to  him  by  marriage,  he  at  laft  obtained  a par- 
don. It  is  certain,  that  Sylla,  when  he  yielded  to  the 
importunity  of  Caefar’s  friends,  broke  forth  into  the  fol- 
lowing exclamation,  whether  from  a divine  impulfe  up- 
on his  mind,  or  only  the  refultofhis  ownfagacity ‘‘  Ye 
Hiall  have  your  defircj  and  are  at  liberty  to  take  hiiri 
amongd;  you  ; but  know  that  the  perfon  wdiorn  ye  are 
fo  anxious  to  fave,  will,  one  time  or  other,  prove  the  de- 
firuc^tion  of  the  nobility  which  ye  have  affifled  me  to  pro- 
te61:  : for,  believe  mej  there  are  many  Marius’s  in  that 

II.  His  firll:  appointment  in  the  military  fervice,  was 
in  the  wars  of  Afia,  under  the  command  of  M.  Thermus 
the  Prsetor.  Being  fent  by  this  general  into  Bithynia  f» 
to  bring  thence  a fleet,  he  loitered  fo  long  in  die  court  of 
Nicomedes,  as  to  give  occafion  to  a report  of  a criminal 
intercourfe  betwixt  him  and  that  prince  ; which  received 
additional  credit  from  his  hafey  return  to  Bithynia,  under 

was  pimifhed  with  peculiar  feverity.  The.  unfortunate  fe- 
male was  buried  alive,  with  funeral  folemnities,  in  a place 
called  the  Campus  Sceleratus;  and  her  paramour  was  fcourg- 
ed  to  death  in  the  Forum. 

f Bithynia,  called  anciently  Bebricia,  is  a country  of  the 
peninfula  of  Afia,  now  called  Afia  Minor.  It  was  bound- 
ed on  the  fouth  by  the  river  Rhyndacus  and  mount  Olym- 
pus ; on  the  wefl  by  the  Bofporus  Thracius,  and  a part  of 
the  Propontis  ; and  on  the  north  by  the  Euxine  fea.  Its 
boundaries  towards  the  eafl  are  not  clearly  ascertained,  Stra- 
bo, Pliny,  and  Ptolemy  diifering  from  each  other  on  the  fub- 
ject.  It  is  however  generally  recommended  as  a rich  and 
fruitful  country  ; the  Greek  geographers  call  it  the  greateji 
and  the  bej}, 

B 2 



the  pretext  of  recovering  a debt  due  to  a freed-man  his 
client.  During  the  courfe  of  the  Afiatic  expedition,  his 
condudl  was  in  other  refpe^ts  irrepiehenfible  ; and  upon 
the  taking  of  Mitylene  ^ by  llorm?‘he  was  ..prefentcd  by 
Thermus  with  the  civic  crown  f. 


III.  He  fervcd  likewife  in  Cilicia  J , under  Servilius 
Ifauricus,  but  fp,r  a fhort  time.  For  upon  receiving  ad- 
vice of  Sylla’s  death,  in  the  hope  of  attaining  an  afcen- 

* Mitylene  was  a city  of  the  ifiand  Lefbos,  famous  for  the 
ftudy  of  phiiofophy  and  eloquence.  According  to  Pliny,  it 
remained  a free  city  and  in  power  one  thoufand  five  hundred 
years.  It  fuffered  much  in  the^Peloponnefiari^war  from  the 
Athenians,  and  in  the  Mithridatic  from  the  Romans,  by 
whom  it  was  taken  and  dellroyed.  But  it  foon  rofe  again, 
having  recovered  its  ancient  liberty  by  the  favor  of  Pom- 
pey ; and  was  afterwards  much  adorned  by  Trajan,  who 
added  to  it  the  fplendor  of  his  own  name.  This  was  the 
country  of  Pittacus,  one  of  the  feven  wife  men  of  Greece, 
as  well  as  of  Alcseus  and  Sappho.  The  natives  fiiowed  a par- 
ticular tafie  for  poetry,  and  had,  as  Plutarch  informs  us,  Bated 
times  for  the  celebration  of  poetical  contefts. 

f The  Corona  Civica  was  made  of  oak-leaves,  and  given  to 
him  who  had  faved  the  life  of  a citizen.  The  perfon  who 
received  it,  wore  it  at  public  fpe6Iacles,  and  fat  next  the  fe- 
nators.  When  he  entered,  the  audience  rofe  up,  as  a mark 
of  refpeft. 

X A very  extenfive  country  of  Hither  Afia  ; lying  be- 
tween Pamphylia  to  the  weft,  mount  Taurus  and  Amanus  to 
the  north,  Syria  to  the  eaft,  and  the  Mediterranean  to  the 
fouth.  It  was  divided  into  Afpera^  the  rough  or  mountain- 
ous ; and  Campeflris,  the  level  or  champaign  Cilicia.  It 
was  anciently  famous  for  faffron  ; and  hair-cloth,  called 
by  the  Romans  Cilicium^  was  the  manufadture  of  this 




dency  from  a new  commotion,  which  w'as  attempted  by 
M.  Lepidus,  he  returned  with  all  fpeed  to  Rome.  Dif~ 
truhing  however  the  abilities  of  that  perfonage,  and  find- 
ing the  times  lefs  favorable  for  the  execution  of  fuch  a 
projedl  than  there  feemed  reafon  at  firft  to  imagine,  he 
abandoned  all  thoughts  of  embracing  the  intended  confede- 
racy, though  the  mofl;  tempting  offers  were  made  him 
to  engage  his  concurrence. 

IV.  Soon  after  the  re-eftablifhment  of  public  tran- 
quillity, he  preferred  a charge  of  extortion  againft  Cor- 
nelius Dolabella,  a man  of  confular  dignity,  and  who  had 
obtained  the  honor  of  a triumph.  But  this  impeachment 
terminating  in  the  acquittal  of  the  accufed,  he  refolved 
to  retire  to  Rhodes  *,  with  the  view  not  only  of  avoiding 
the  public  odium  incurred  by  the  charge,  but  of  profe- 
cuting  his  ftudies  with  greater  advantage,  under  Apol- 
lonius, the  fon  of  Molon,  at  that  time  the  moft  celebrat- 
ed inafier  of  rhetoric.  While  on  his  voyage  thither,  in 
the  winter  feafon,  he  was  taken  by  pirates  near  the 
iiland  of  Pharinacufa ; with  whom  he  continued,  not 

* A famous  city  in  an  ifland  of  the  fame  name,  adjoining 
to  the  coaft  of  Caria.  Here  was  faid  to  be  anciently  a 
huge  flatiie  of  the  Sun,  called  Coloffus;  but  fome  are  of 
opinion,  that  the  account  delivered  of  it  is  fabulous.  The 
Rhodians  were  celebrated  not  only  for  fkill  in  naval  affairs, 
but  for  learning,  philofophy,  and  eloquence.  During  the 
latter  periods  of  the  Roman  republic,  and  under  fome  of 
the  emperors,  many  reforted  thither  for  the  purpofe  of  pro- 
fecuting  their  ftudies ; and  it  likewife  became  a place  of 
retreat  to  difeontented  Romans.  -Solinus  informs  us,  that  in 
this  ifland,  the  fky  was  feldom  fo  overcafl;  but  that  the  fun 
might  be  feen;  whence  probably  it  obtained  amongfl  the 
'poets  the  epithet  Clara, 

B 3 




without  feeling  the  utmoft  indignation,  during  almoft 
weeks ; his  only  attendants  being  one  phyfician,  and 
two  valets.  For  his  other  fervants,  as  well  as  the  friends 
who  accompanied  him,  he  had  immediately  difpatched 
to  raife  money  for  his  ranfom.  Upon  the  payment  of 
fifty  talents  he  was  fet  adiore  ; when  after  the  moft  dili- 
gent exertion  to  procure  fome  fliips,  he  came  up  with 
the  pirates,  and  making  them  all  prjfoners,  inflicted  upon  - 
them  the  punifhment  with  which  he  had  often  jocofely 
threatened  them  during  his  detention.  Mithridates  was 
at  that  time  carrying  devaflation  into  the  neighboring 
countries ; and  Caefar,  on  his  arrival  at  Rhodes,  that  he 
might  not  appear  to  difregard  the  danger  which  menaced 
* the  allies  of  Rome,  paflfed  over  into  Afla  ; where  having 
colledled  fome  troops,  and  driven  the  king’s  deputv  out 
of  the  province,  he  kept  in  their  duty  the  cities  which 
had  begun  to  waver,  and  were  on  the  point  of  revolt. 

V.  After  his  return  to  Rome,  he  obtained  from  the  fuf- 
fi  age  of  the  people  the  honorable  rank  of  a military  Tri- 
bune j and  in  this  capacity  zealoufly  aflfifted  the  abettors 
pf  the  tribunitian  authority,  which  had  been  greatly  di- 
minifhed  during  the  ufurpation  of  Sylla.  He  likewife  by 
a bill,  which  Plotius  at  his  inftigation  preferred  to  the’ 
people,  and  was  feconded  by  a fpeech  from  himfelf,  pro- 
cured the  recal  of  Lucius  Cinna,  his  wife^s  brother,  and 
others,  who  had  been  fent  into  banifhment,  for  having 
fided  with  Lepidus,  and  afterwards  with  Sertorius,  in  the 
|ate  public  diflurbances. 

VI.  During  his  Quaeftorfhip  he  pronounced  funeral  ora- 
tions in  the  Roflra,  according  to  cuflom,  in  praife  of  his 
paternal  aunt  Julia,  and  his  wife  Cornelia.  In  his  pa^ 
jiegyric  on  the  former,  he  gives  the  following  account  of 



the  genealogy  both  of  her  and  his  father  : “ My  aunt  Julia 
derived  her  defcent,  by  the  mother,  from  a race  of  kings, 
and,  by  her  father,  from  the  immortal  Gods.  For  the 
Marcii  Reges,  which  was  her  mother’s  family,  deduce 
their  pedigree  from  Ancus  Marcius,  and  the  Julii,  which 
is  that  of  her  father,  from  the  goddefs  Venus.  We  there- 
fore unite  in  our  defcent  the  facred  majefly  of  kings,  the 
greatefl:  among  human  kind,  and  the  divine  majefly  of 
Gods,  to  wliom  kings  themfelves  are  fubje6l.”  In  the 
room  of  Cornelia  he  married  Pompeia,  the  daughter  of 
Ch  Pompeius,  and  grand-daughter  of  L.  Sylla  ; but  this 
lady  he  afterwards  divorced,  upon  a fufpicion  of  her  hav- 
ing had  an  intrigue  with  Publius  Clodius.  For  fo  cuF' 
rent  was  the  report,  that  the  latter  had  found  accefs  to 
her  in  woman’s  habit,  during  the  performance  of  a reli“< 
gious  folemnity,  that  the  Senate  ordered  a commiffion  of 
enquiry  refpedting  the  fuppofed  profanation. 

VII.  Upon  his  appointment  to  the  Quajflorihip  the  pro- 
vince of  the  Farther  Spain  fell  to  his  lot ; where,  when» 
by  commiffion  from  the  Prsetor,  he  was  going  the  circuit 
of  the  country,  for  tlie  adminiflration  of  juftice,  and  was 
arrived  at  Gades,  feeing,  in  the  temple  of  Hercules,  a 
flatue  of  Alexander  the  Great,  he  fetched  a deep  figh  ; 
and  as  if  vexed  at  his  ina6tlvify,  for  having  performed 
nothing  memorable  at  an  age  at  which  Alexander  had 
conquered  the  world,  lie  immediately  requefted  his  dif- 
charge,  with  the  view  of  embracing  the  firll  opportunity, 
which  might  prefent  in  the  city,  of  entering  upon  a more 
fplendid  career.  His  repofe  was  farther  diiburbed  by  a 
dream  which  he  had  the  fucceeding  night,  of  having  been 
guilty  of  inceftuous  coinmerce  with  his  mother.  But  the 
interpreters  of  dreams  derived  thence  an  omen  of  events 
the  moft  flattering  to  his  ambition  ; afErming  it  to  be  a 

B 4 pre- 



prefage  that  he  fhould  yet  rule  the  empire  of  the  world  : 
for  that  the  mother  whom  in  his  fleep  he  had  feen  ftfb- 
je6led  to  his  will,  was  no  other  than  the  earth,  the  com- 
mon parent  of  all  men. 

VIII.  Quitting  therefore  the  province  before  the  expi- 
ration of  the  ufual  term,  he  had  recouife  to  the  Latin  co- 
lonies, then  eager  in  the  projedt  of  folliciting  for  the  free- 
dom of  Rome  ; and  he  would  have  excited  them  to  fome 
bold  attempt,  had  not  the  Confuls,  to  prevent  any  com- 
motion, detained  for  fome  time  the  legions  which  had 
been  railed  for  the  fervice  of  Cilicia.  But  this  vigilance 
of  the  government  did  not  deter  him  from  making,  foon 
after,  a yet  greater  eiFort  within  the  precindls  of  the  city 

IX.  For  a few  days  before  he  entered  upon  the  yEdile- 
fliip,  he  incurred  a fufpicion  of  engaging  in  a confpi- 
racy  with  M.  CrafTiis,  a man  of  confular  rank  ; to  whom 
were  joined^  P.  Sylia  and  L.  Autronius,  who  after  they 
had  been  chofen  Confuls,  were  convidfed  of  bribery^ 
The  plan  of  the  confpirators  was  to  fall  upon  the  Senate 
in  the  beginning  of  the  year,  and  to  murder  as  many  of 
them  as  fhould  be  deemed  expedient  for  their  purpofe: 
upon  which  event  CrafTus  was  to  have  afTumed  the  ofEce 
of  Didlatcr,  and  appoint  Caefar  his  Maher  of  the  horfe 
When  the  commonwealth  fhould  thus  have  been  fettled 
according  to  their  pleafure,  the  Confulfhip  was  to  have 
been  rehored  to  Sylla  and  Autronius.  Mention  is  made 

* The  proper  office  of  the  Maher  of  horfe  was  to  com- 
mand the  cavalry,  and  to  execute  the  orders  of  the  Didlator. 
He  was  ufuaily  nominated  from  amongh  thofe  of  confular 
and  praetorian  dignity ; and  had  the  ufe  of  a horfe,  which 
tiie  didator  had  not  without  the  order  of  the  peoplL 




of  this  plot  by  Tanufius  Germinus  in  his  hiflory,  by  M. 
Bibulus  in  his  edi6ls,  and  by  Curio  the  father,  in  his 
orations.  Cicero  likewife  feems  to  hint  at  the  fame 
tranfadlion  in  a letter  to  Atticus,  where  he  fays,  that 
Caefar  had  in  his  Confuiffiip  fecured  to  himfelf  that  arbi- 
trary power  to  which  he  had  afpired  when  he  was  ^dile* 
Tanufius  adds,  that  Craffus,  from  remorfe  or  fear,  did 
not  appear  upon  the  day  appointed  for  the  maffacre  of 
the  Senate  : for  which  reafon  Caefar  did  not  give  the  fig- 
nal,  which,  according  to  the  plan  concerted  betwen  them, 
he  was  to  have  announced.  The  agreement.  Curio  fays, 
was,  that  he  fhould  flip  his  toga  from  his  fltoulder.  We 
have  the  authority  of  ,the  fame  Curio,  and  of  M.  Acto- 
rius Nafo,  for  his  having  been  likewife  concerned  in  an- 
other confpiracy  wdth  young  Cn.  Pifo  ; to  whom,  upon 
a fufpicion  of  fome  mifehief  being  meditated  in  the  city^ 
the  province  of  Spain  was  decreed  out  of  courfe,  as  the 
means  of  fufpending  any  danger.  It  is  how’ever  faid 
to  have  been  agreed  between  them,  that  Pifo  thould  ex-, 
cite  an  infurredtion  agaiiift  the  government  abroad, 
whiKt  the  other  Ihould  attempt  a fimilar  revolt  within 
the  limits  of  the  domeftic  adminiftration,  by  artfully  prac- 
tifmg  upon  the  feditious  difpofitions  of  the  Lambrani,  and 
other  tribes  beyond  the  Po.  But  the  execution  of  this 
defign,  it  is  remarked,  was  prevented  by  the  death  of 

X.  While  In  the  office  of^diie,  he  not  only  beautified 
the  Comitium,  with  the  reft  of  the  Forum,  and  the  courts 
adjoining,  but  the  Capitol  likewife,  with  piazzas,  con- 
ftrudled  only  to  fubfift  until  the  end  of  his  ^dilefhip ; 
that  in  them  he  might  difplay  the  extraordinary  prepa- 
rations he  w'as  making  for  the  gratification  of  the  peo- 
ple, whom  he  entertained  with  the  hunting  of  wild 




beafls,  and  plays,  both  in  conjundlion  with  his  colleague, 
and  by  himfelf.  On  this  account,  he  obtained  the 
whole  credit  of  the  expence  to  which  they  had  jointly 
contributed;  infomuch  that  his  colleague,  M.  Bibulus, 
could  not  forbear  remarking  that  he  was  ferved  in  the 
manner  of  Pollux.  For  as  the  temple  eredled  in  the  Fo- 
rum to  the  two  brothers,  was  denominated  Caflor’s  only, 
fo  his  and  Caefar’s  joint  munificence  was  imputed  to  the 
latter  alone.  To  the  other  public  fpedlacles  exhibited  to 
the  people,  Caefar  added  a combat  of  gladiators,  but  in  a 
fraaller  number  than  he  had  intended.  For  fo  great  was 
the  company  of  them,  which  he  colleTed  from  all  parts, 
that  thofe  of  the  Patricians  who  were  not  of  his  party 
w^ere  alarmed  ; and  the  fenate  pafTed  an  a6f,  reftrldfing 
the  fliews  of  gladiators  to  a certain  number,  which,  for 
the  future,  no  perfon  fhould  be  allowed  to  exceed, 

XI.  Having  thus  conciliated  the  good  graces  of  the  peo- 
ple, he  endeavored,  through  his  interefl:  with  fome  of  the 
Tribunes,  to  procure,  by  a decree  of  the  commons,  the 
province  of  ^gypt.  The  pretext  for  fuch  an  applica- 
tion was,  that  the  Alexandrians  had  violently  expelled 
their  king,  whom  the  fenate  had  complimented  with  the 
title  of  an  ally  and  friend  of  the  Roman  people.  This 
tranfadlion,  which  feemed  to  afFe£l;  the  dignity  of  the  re- 
public, produced  a general  fpirit  of  refentment  among  the 
populace  at  Rome  : notwithflanding  which,  on  account 
of  an  oppofuion  from  a party  of  the  nobility,  all  the  ef- 
forts of  Caefar  and  his  friends  could  not  procure  him  the 
appointment.  To  diminihi  therefore  the  authority  of 
that  body,  by  every  means  in  his  power,  he  rehored  the 
trophies  eredled  in  honor  of  C.  Marius,  upon  account  of 
his  victories  over  Jugurtha,  the  Cimbri,  and  the  Teuto- 
ni, but  which  had  been  demoli  (bed  by  Sylla  ; and  fitting 




in  the  capacitor  of  a judge,  he  treated  as  murderers  all 
thofe  who,  in  the  late  profcription,  had  received  money- 
out  of  the  treafury,  for  bringing  in  the  heads  of  Roman 
citizens,  though  they  had  been  exprefsly  abfoived  from 
punihiment  by  fubfequent  laws. 

XIT.  He  likewife  procured  a perfon  to  bring  an  im- 
peachment of  treafon  againfl  C.  Rabirius,  by  whofe  af- 
fiftance  the  Senate  had,  a few  years  before,  retrained  the 
feditious  attempts  of  L.  Saturninus  the  Tribune  ; and  be- 
ing drawn  by  lot  one  of  the  judges  for  his  trial,  he  difeo- 
vered  fo  ftrong  a dehre  to  convidd  him,  that  upon  his  ap- 
pealing to  the  people,  no  circumilance  availed  him'fo 
much  as  the  extraordinary  bitternefs  of  his  judge, 

XIII.  Having  renounced  all  hope  of  obtaining  the  pro- 
vince of  ^gypt,  he  ftood  candidate  for  the  office  of 
High-prieft,  in  the  purfuit  of  which  objedl,  he  had  re- 
courfe  to  the'  utmoft  profufion  of  bribery.  Refledling, 
on  this  occafion,  on  the  greatnefs  of  the  debts  he  had 
contradled,  he  is  reported  to  have  faid  to  Iiis  mother,  when 
file  kiffied  him  at  his  going  out  in  the  morning  to  the  elec- 
tion, “ I lhall  never  come  home  again,  unlefs  I am  eledl- 
ed  high-prieft.”  In  effeci,  he  fo  much  baffled  two  com- 
petitors of  the  moft  powerful  intereft,_and  greatly  fupe- 
rior  to  him  both  in  age  and  dignity,  that  he  had  more 
votes  in  their  own  tiibes,  than  they  both  had  in  all  toge- 

XIV.  After  he  had  been  chofen  Prsetor,  the  confpi- 
racy  of  Catiline  was  difeovered , and  while  every  other 
member  of  the  Senate  inclined  to  infiidl:  capital  punifh- 
ment  on  the  delinquents,  he  alone  advifed  to  confifeate 
their  eftates,  and  commit  their  perfons  to  feparate  pri- 

, ■ Tons 



fons  through  the  towns  of  Italy.  He  even  firuck  fo  great 
a terror  into  thofe  who  were  advocates  for  greater  feve- 
rity, . by  reprefenting  to  them  what  a general  odium  they 
would  infallibly  incur,  by  carrying  fuch  a meafure  into 
execution,  that  D.  Silanus,  Conful-Elecl:,  thought  proper 
to  qualify  his  decifion,  becaufe  it  was  not  very  honor- 
able to  change  it,  by  a fofcening  interpretation,  as  if  his 
opinion  had  been  underftood  in  a harflier  fenfe  than  he 
intended  ; and  Casfar  would  certainly  have  carried  his 
point,  having  brought  over  to  his  fide  a great  number 
of  the  Senators,  among  whom  was  the  brother  of  the 
Conful  Cicero,  had  not  a fpeech  of  M.  Cato’s  infufed 
new  vigor  into  the  refolutions  of  the  houfe.  He  per- 
fifted,  however,  to  obftrudl  their  proceedings  with  intem- 
perate ardor,  until  a body  of  the  equeflrian  Order,  that' 
(food  under  arms  as  a guard,  holding  up  their  drawn 
fwords,  threatened  him  with  immediate  death.  Thofe 
who  fat  next  him  inftantly  moved  off and  a few  friends, 
with  no  fmall  difficulty,  proteded  him,  by  taking  him 
in  their  arms,  and  holding  their  togas  before  him.  Aj. 
laft,  difpirited  by  this  refentment,  he  not  only  relinquifh. 
ed  the  debate,  but  abfented  himfelf  from  the  houfe  during 
the  remainder  of  that  year. 

XV.  Upon  the  firft  day  of  his  Prastorfliip,  he  fum- 
moned  Catulus  to  render  an  account  to  the  people 
concerning  the  repairs  of  the  Capitol ; prefenting  at  the 
fame  time  a bill,  for  transferring  that  commiffion  to  an- 
other perfon.  But  being  unable  to  withftand  the  ftrong 
oppofition  made  againft  him  by  the  ariflocratical  party, 
whom  he  perceived  quitting,  in  great  numbers,  their  at- 
tendance upon  the  new  Confuls,  and  fully  refolved  to 
refift  his  propofal,  he  dropt  the  defign. 

XVI.  He 

jlTLIUS  C^SAR.  13 

y^VI.  He  afterwards  approved  himfelf  a moft  refolute 
adherent  to  Caecilius  Metellus,  Tribune  of  the  commons» 
who  had  preferred  fome  bills  of  a feditious  tendency  to* 
the  people,  in  fpite  of  all  oppofiticn  from  his  colleagues» 
until  they  were  both  difmifTed  from  office  by  a vote  of 
the  Senate.  He  ventured,  notwithftanding,  to  continue 
in -the  adminiftratlon  of  juflice;  but  finding  fome  pre- 
pared to  obflru6l:  him  by  force  of  arms,  he  difmifTed 
his  officers,  threw  off  his  gown,  and  betook  himfelf  pri- 
vately to  his  own  houfe,  with  the  refolution  of  being 
quiet,  in  a time  fo  unfavorable  to  his  interefts.  He  like- 
wife  pacified  the  mob,  which  in  two  days  after  affembled 
about  him,  and  in  a riotous  manner  offered  him  their 
affiflance  towards  the  vindication  of  his  honor.  This 
happening  contrary  to  expedfation,  the  Senate,  which  had 
met  in  hafte,  upon  occafion  of  the  tumult,  gave  him 
their  thanks  by  fome  of  the  leading  members  of  the 
houfe,  fent  for  him,  and,  after  a high  commendation  of' 
his  behaviour,  cancelled  their  former  vote,  and  reflored 
him  to  his  place  in  the  afTembly. 

XVII.  But  he  had  fcarcely  fooner  emerged  from  his 
late  difafter,  than  he  fell  again  into  a frefli  danger ; be- 
ing named  amongft  the  accomplices  of  Catiline,  both  be- 
fore Novius  Niger  the  Quasflor,  by  the  informer  L.  Vet- 
tius,  and  in  the  fenate  by  Curius  ; to  whom,  for  his 
having  firfl;  dlfcovered  the  defigns  of  the  confpirators,  a 
reward  had  been  voted.  Curius  affirmed  that  he  had  re- 
ceived his  Information  from  Catiline.  Vettius  even  en-  , 
gaged  to  produce  in  evidence  againfl  him  his  own  hand 
writing,  which  he  had  given  to  Catiline.  Csefar  declar- 
ing this  treatment  to  be  intolerable,  appealed  to  Cicero 
himfelf,  whether  he  had  not  voluntarily  made  a difeo- 
very  to  him  of  feme  particulars  of  the  confpiracy  ; by 




whicb  means  he  prevented  Curius  from  receiving  his 
expeded  reward.  He  obliged  Vettius  to  give  pledges  to 
anfwer  for  his  behaviour,  alienated  his  goods,  and  after 
feeing  him  roughly  ufed,  and  almofl  torn  in  pieces,  in  ait 
affembly  of  the  people  at  the  Roflra,  threw  him  in  pri- 
fon;  to  which  he  likewife  fent  Novius  the  Qu^hor, 
for  having  prefumed  to  take  an  information  againft  a 
magiflrate  of  fuperior  authority. 

XVIIL  At  the  expiration  of  his  Praetorlliip  he  got 
by  lot  the  Farther  Spain,  and  abated  the  violence  of  his 
creditors,  who  were  for  flopping  him,  by  giving  them 
fecurity  Contrary,  however,  to  both  law  and  cullom, 
he  took  his  departure  before  the  ufual  allowance  for 
his  equipage  was  paid  him  from  the  treafury.  It  is  un- 
certain whether  this  precipitancy  arofe  from  die  appre- 
henfion  of  an  impeachment,  after  the  expiration  of  his 
provincial  charge,  which  was  intended,  or  from  an  ardor 
to  relieve  the  allies,  who  anxiouily  longed  for  his  pre- 
fence. As  foon  as  he  had  eftablidied  tranquillity  in  the 
province,  he,  without  waiting  for  the  arrival  of  his  fuc- 
cefTor,  returned  to  Rome,  with  equal  hafle,  to  fue  for 
a triumph  and  the  Confullhip.  The  day  of  elecflion, 
howxver,  being  already  .fixed  by  proclamation,  he  could 
not  legally  be  admitted  a candidate,  unlefs  he  entered  the 

* Plutarch  informs  us,  that  Ccxfar,  before  he  came  into 
any  public  office,  orved  his  creditors  to  the  amount  of  one 
thoufand  three  hundred  talents,  which  makes  of  our  mo* 
ney  fomewhat  more  than  565,000!.  But  his  debts  encreafed 
fo  much  after  this  period,  if  we  may  believe  Appian,  that 
upon  his  departure  for  Spain,  at  the  expiration  of  his  Prac- 
torfliip,  he  is  reported  to  have  faid,  millies  et  quingenties 
fibi  decjje^  lit  nihil  haberet : i.e.  That  he  was  two  miilions  and 
neai*  twenty  thoufand  pounds  worfe  than  nothing, 





City  as  a private  perfon.  Oii  this  emergency  he  folli- 
citcd  a fufpenllon  of  the  laws  in  his  favor  ; but  fuch  an 
indulgence  being  ftrongly  oppofed,  he  found  himfelf  un- 
der the  neceflity  of  abandoning  all  thoughts  of  a triunaph, 
left  he  lliould  be  difappointed  of  the  Confulfhip. 

XIX.  Of  the  two  other  competitors  for  the  Conful- 
fhip, L.  Luceius  and  M.  Bibulus,  he.joined  with  the  for- 
mer, upon  condition  that  Luceius,  being  a man  of  lefs 
intereft  but  greater  affluence,  Biould  promife  money  to 
the  burgeffles  in  the  name  of  them  both.  His  opponents 
among  the  nobility  dreading  what  enterprife  he  might 
attempt,  fhould  he  get  poffeflion  of  the  Confulfliip  with 
a colleague  of  the  fame  difpofitions  with  himfelf,  advifed 
Bibulus  to  promife  the  voters  as  much,  and  moft  of 
them  contributed  towards  a fhare  of  the  expence  ; Cato 
himfelf  admitting  that  bribery  upon  fuch  an  occafion 
was  confiftent  with,  and  even  abfolutely  necclTary  to 
the  good  of  the  public.  He  was  accordingly  eledled 
Conful  with  Bibulus.  Adtuated  ftill  by  the  fame  motives, 
the  prevailing  party  took  care  to  affign  provinces  of  fmall 
importance  to  the  new  Confuls,  fuch  as  the  care  of 
woods  and  roads.  Caefar,  incenfed  at  this  indignity, 
endeavored  by  the  moft  affiduous  and  flattering  attentions 
to  gain  to  his  fide.  Cn.  Pompey,  at  that  time  diffatisfled 
with  the  Senate,  for  the  backwardnefs  tliey  fliewed  to 
confirm  his  adls,  after  the  conqueft  of  Mithridates.  He 
iikewife  produced  a reconciliation  between  Pompey  and 
M.  CralTuSy  who  had  ’been  at  variance  from  the  time 
of  their  joint  Confulihip,  in  which  office  they  were  con- 
tinually clafliing ; and  he  entered  into  an  agreement 
with  both,  that  nothing  fliould  be  tranfadled  in  die  go- 
vernment, that  was  difpieafing  to  any  of  the  three. 

XX.  Hav- 



XX»  Having  entered  upon  his  ofEce,  he  introduced  a 
new  regulation,  which  was,  that  all  the  adls  both  of  the 
Senate  and  people  ihould  be  daily  committed  to  writing, 
and  immediately  made  public.  He  alfo  revived  an  old 
cuflom,  that  an  Accenfus  * ihould  walk  betore  him, 
and  hisLi^lors  follow  him,  on  the  alternate  months  when 
the  fafccs  were  not  carried  in  his  train»  Upon  preferring 
a bill  to  the  people  for  the  divifion  of  feme  public  lands, 
he  was  oppofed  by  his  colleague,  whom  he  violently 
drove  out  of  the  Forum.  Next  day  the  infulted  Conful 
made  a complaint  in  the  Senate  of  this  treatment ; but 
no  member  having  the  courage  to  move  or  advife  the 
houfe  refpedling  fo  ferious  an  outrage,  which  had  yet 
been  often  done  upon  incidents  of  lefs  importance,  he 
was  fo  much  difpirited,  that  until  the  expiration  of  his 
office  he  never  (lirred  from  home,  and  only  endeavored 
to  obftrudl:  the  proceedings  of  his  colleague  by  procla- 
' mations.  From  that  time,  therefore,  Caefar  had  the  foie 
management  of  public  affairs  ; infomuch  that  foine  wags, 
when  they  ligned  any  writing  as  witneffes,  did  not  add 
“ in  the  confulfhip  of  Caefar  and  Bibulus,”  but,  “ of  Ju- 
lius and  Casfar  putting  the  fame  perfon  down  twice 
under  his  name  and  fujname.  The  following  verfes 
iikewife  were  currently  repeated  on  this  occafion : 

Non  Bibulo  quidquam  nuper,  fed  Caefare  fadtum  eft ; 

Nam  Bibulo  fieri  Confuie  nil  memini. 

Nothing  was  done  in  Bibulus^^s  year  : 

No  j Csefar  only  was  late  Conful  here. 

* Within  the  city,  the  Li<ftors  went  before  only  one  of 
the  Confuls,  and  that  commonly  for  a month  alternately. 
A public  fervant,  called  Accenfus,  went  before  the  other 
Conful,  and  the  Lidfors  followed.  This  ciiftom  had  long 
been  difufed,  but  was  now  reftored  by  Csefar. 




The  land  of  Stella,  confecrated  by  our  anceftors  to  the 
gods,  with  fome  other  land  of  Campania  left  liable  to 
tribute,  to  fupport  the  expences  of  the  government,  he 
divided,  but  not  by  lot,  among  upwards  of  twenty  thou- 
fand  feamen,  who  had  each  of  them  three  or  more  chil- 
dren. He  eafed  the  Publicans,  upon  their  petition,  of  a 
third  part  of  the  fum  which  they  had  engaged  to  pay  into 
the  public  treafury  ; and  openly  admonifh'ed  them  not 
to  bid  fo  extravagantly  upon  the  next  occafion.  All 
other  things  he  difpofed  of  at  pleafure,  without  the  leaf!: 
oppofition  from  any  quarter  ; or  if  any  attempt  to  that 
purpofe  ever  became  evident,  it  foon  was  fupprelTed.  M. 
Cato,  who  interrupted  him  in  his  proceedings,  he  ordered 
to  be  dragged  out  of  the  Senate-houfe  by  an  officer,  and 
carried  to  prifon.  L.  Lucullus,  likewife,  for  oppofing 
him  with  fome  warmth,  he  fo  terrified  with  the  appre- 
henfion  of  falfe  accufatiouj  that^  to  deprecate  the  Confur# 
refentment,  he  fell  down  on  his  knees.  And  upon  Cice- 
ro’s lamenting  in  fome  trial  the  miferable  condition  of 
the  times,  he  the  very  fame  day  by  nine  o’clock,  brought 
over  his  enemy  P.  Clodius  from  the  nobility  to  the  com- 
mons ; a tranfition  which  that  perfonage  himfelf  had  a 
long  time  follicited  in  vain.  At  laft,  effedfually  to  in- 
timidate all  thofe  of  the  oppofite  party,  he  by  great  re- 
wards prevailed  upon  Vettius  to  declare,  that  he  had  been 
follicited  by  certain  perfons  to  affaffinate  Pompey  5 and 
when  he  was  brought  upon  the  Roftra  to  name  fueh  as 
had  been  concerted  between  thern,  after  naming  one  or 
two  to  no  purpofcj  not  without  great  fufpicion  of  fub- 
ornation,  Caefar,  defpairlng  of  fuccefs  in  this  rafh  ftra- 
tagem,  is  fuppofedto  have  taken  offhis  informer  by  means 
of  poifon. 

XXL  About  the  fame  time  I\e  married  Calpurma,  the 
C dau:-rhter 



daughter  of  L.  Pifo,  who  was  to  fucceed  hirrl  in  the  Con- 
fiilfliip,  and  gave  his  ow^n  daughter  to  Pompey;  rejevStlng 
Servilius  Caepio,  to  whom  flie  had  been  contradled,  and 
by  whofe  means  chiefly  he  had  but  a little  before  baffled 
Bibulus.  After  this  new  alliance,  he  began,  upon  any 
debates  in  the  Senate,  to  alk  Pompey^s  opinion  firfl: ; 
whereas  he  ufed  before  to  pay  that  compliment  to  M. 
Craflfus ; and  it  was  the  ufual  pra6tice  with  the  Conful 
to  obferve  throughout  the  year  the  method  of  confulting 
the  houfe  which  he  had  adopted  the  fhll  of  January. 

XXII.  Being  therefore  now  fupported  by  the  interell 
of  his  father  and  fon-in-law,  of  all  the  provinces  he  made 
choice  of  Gaul,  as  mofl:  likely  to  furnifh  him  with  matter 
and  occafion  for  triumphs.  At  firfl;  indeed  he  received 
only  Cifalpine  Gaul,  with  the  addition  of  Illyricum,  by 
a bill  of  Vatinius  to  the  people  ; but  foon  after  obtained 
by  the  fenate  Gallia  Comata  ^ likewife ; the  houfe  en- 
tertaining an  apprehenfion,  that  if  they  Ihould  with-hold 
this  province,  it  would  be  conferred  on  him  by  the  com- 

* Gallia  was  anciently  divided  into  the  Tranfalpina^  or 
Ulterior^  and  Cifalpma^  or  Citerior^  with  refpeft  to  Rome, 
The  Citerior  was  properly  a part  of  Italy,  occupied  by 
Gallic  colonifts ; having  the  Rubicon,  the  ancient  boundary 
of  Italy,  on  the  fouth.  It  was  alfo  called  Gallia  Togata^ 
from  the  ufe  of  the  Roman  toga;  the  inhabitants  of  thofe 
parts  being,  after  the  focial  war,  admitted  to  the  right  of  ci- 
tizens. The  Gallia  Tranfalpina^  or  Ulterior^  was  called  Co- 
mata^  from  the  people  wearing  their  hair  long,  which  the 
Romans  wore  fliort;  and  the  fouthern  part  of  it,  afterwards 
called  NarbonenJiSy  came  to  have  the  epithet  Braccata,  from 
the  ufe  of  hraccce^  which  were  no  part  of  the  Roman  drefs. 
Some  writers  fuppofe  the  braccc^  to  have  been  breeches;  but 




mons.  Elated  now  with  his  fuccefs,  he  could  not  refrain 
from  boafting  a few  days  after  in  a full  houfe,  that  he 
had,  in  fpite  of  his  enemies,  and  to  their  great  mortifica- 
tion, obtained  all  he  defired,  and  Ihould  for  the  future 
treat  them  with  what  indignity  he  pleafed.  One  of  the 
members  fmartly  obferving,  ‘‘  That  will  not  be  very  eafy 
for  a woman  to  do,’'  he  jocofely  replied,  Semiramis 
has  formerly  reigned  in  Affyiia,  and  thc' Amazons  been 
pofTefTed  of  a great  part  of  Afia.” 

XXIII.,  When  the  term  of  his  Confulfliip  had  expired, 
upon  a motion  being  made  in  the  Senate  by  C.  Memmius 
and  L.  Domitius  the  Praetors,  refpedling  the  tranfadlions 
of  the  year  pad,  he  offered  to  refer  himfelf  to  the  houfe  ; 
but  they  declining  the  bufinefs,  after  three  days  fpent  in 
vain  altercation,  he  fet  out  for  his  province.  Immedi- 
ately, however,  his  Quseftor  was  impeached  for  feveral 
mifdemcanors,  by  way  of  prelude  to  the  future  condem- 
nation of  Casfar.  An  accufation  was  foon  after  prefer- 
red againfl  himfelf,  by  L.  Antiftius,  Tribune  of  the  com- 
mons; but  by  making  an  appeal  to  the  reft  of  the  body, 
he  prevailed,  as  being  abfent  in  the  ferviee  of  his  coun- 
try, to  have  the  profecution  fufpended. . To  fecure  him- 
felf therefore  for  the  time  to  come,  he  was  particularly 
careful  to  oblige  the  magiftrates  of  every  year,  and  to 
affift  none  of  the  candidates  with  his  intereft,  nor  fuffer 
any  to  be  advanced  to  any  poft  whatever,  who  would 
not  pofitively  undertake  to  defend  him  in  his  abfence:  for 

Aldus,  in  a fhort  difquifition  on  the  fubjedi,  affirms  that  they 
were  a kind  of  upper  drefs.  And  this  opinion  feems  to  be 
countenanced  by  the  name  hraccan  being  applied  by  the 
modern  Celtic  nations,  the  defcendents  of  the  Gallic  Celts, 
to  fignify  their  upper  garment,  or  plaid. 

C 2 


t«£  LIFE  OF 


■which  purpofe  he  made  no  fcruple  to  require  of  fom6: 
an  oath,  and  even  a written  obligation. 

XXIV*  But  when  L.  Domitius  was  candidate  for  the 
Confuhhip,  and  openly  threatened  that  upon  his  eleftion 
into  ofEce,  he  would  eiFe6t  what  he  could  not  in  the 
capacity  of  Praetor,  and  divefl  him  of  the  command  of 
the  armies,  he  fent  for  CralTus  and  Pompey  to  Luca  a 
city  of  liis  province,  and  prefled  them,  for  the  purpofe 
of  difappolnting  Domitius,  to  fue  again  for  the  Conful- 
fhip,  and  to  continue  him  in  his  command  for  five  years 
longer ; with  both  which  requifitions  they  complied.  Pre- 
fumptuous  now  from  his  fuccefs,  he  added,  at  his  own 
private  charge,  more  legions  to  thofe  which  he  had  re- 
ceived from  the  government ; among  the  former  of  which 
was  one  levied  in  Tranfalpine  Gaul,  and  called  by  a 
Gallic  name  Alauda,  which  he  trained  and  armed  in  the 
Roman  fafhiqn,  and  afterwards  made  free  of  the  city. 
From  this  period,  be  declined  no  occafion  of  war,  not 
even  of  fuch  as  was  unjufl  and  dangerous;  attacking, 
without  any  provocatiorr,  as  well  the  allies  of  Rome 
^s  the  barbarous  nations  which  were  its  enemies  t info- 
much  that  the  Senate  pafled  a decree  for  fending  commif- 
fioners  to  examine  into  the  condition  of  Gaul;  and 
^ fome  members  of  the  houfe  even  advifed  the  delivering 
of  him  up  to  the  enemy.  But  fo  great  being  the  fuccefs 
of  his  enterprifes,  he  had  the  honor  of  obtaining  more 
days  of  fupplication,  and  thofe  more  frequently,  than 
had  ever  before  been  decreed  to  any  commander. 

XXV.  During  nine  years  in  which  he  held  the  mi- 
litary coiUmand,  his  atchievements  were  the  following, 
lie  reduced  all  Gaul,  bounded  by  the  Pyrenean  foreft, 
the  Alps,  mount  Gehenna,  and  the  two  rivers  of  the 
8 Rhine 



Rhine  and  Rhone,  being  about  three  thoufand  two  hun- 
dred miles  in  compafs,  into  the  form  of  a province,  ex- 
cepting only  the  allies  of  the  republic,  and  fuch  nations 
as  had  merited  his  favor ; impofing  upon  this  new  ac- 
quifition  an  annual  tax  of  forty  millions  of  feherces. 
He  firjR;  of  all  the  Romans  pafled  the  Rhine  by  a bridge 
againft  the  Germanic  nations,  and  defeated  them  in  fe- 
veral  engagements.  He  likewife  invaded  the  Britons, 
a people  formerly  unknown,  of  whom,  after  he  had 
overthrown  tliem  In  battle,  he  exa£ted  contributions  and 
hoftages,  Amidfl  fuch  a feries  of  fuccefles,  he  experi- 
enced only  three  times  any  fignal  difaffcer:  once  in  Bri- 
tain, when  his  fleet  was  almoft  deflroyed  by  a florm ; in 
Gaul,  at  Gergovia,  where  one  of  his  legions  was  put  to 
the  rout;  and  in  the  territory  of  the  Germans,  his  lieute- 
nants Titurius  and  Aurunculeius  were  cut  off  by  an  am- 

XXVI.  During  this  period  he  loft  his  mother,  whofe 
death  was  followed  by  that  of  his  daughter,  and,  net 
long  after,  of  his  grand-daughter.  In  the  mean  time, 
the  Republic  being  alarmed  by  the  murder  of  P.  Clodius, 
and  the  Senate  pafling  a vote  that  only  one  conful,  name- 
ly Pompey,  fhould  be  chofen  for  the  enfuing  year,  he 
prevailed  Vv^ith  the  Tribunes  of  the  commons,  who  intended 
joining  him  in  nomination  with  Pompey,  to  propofe  to 
the  people  a bill,  enabling  him  to  ftand  candidate  for  a 
fecond  Confulftiip  in  his  abfence,  when  the  term  of  his 
command  ftiould  be  near  expiring ; that  he  might  not  be 
obliged  on  that  account  to  quit  his  province  too  foon,  and 
before  the  conclufion  of  the  war.  After  he  had  attained 
this  objedl,  carrying  his  views  ftill  higher,  and  animated 
with  the  hopes  of  fuccefs,  he  omitted  no  opportunity  of 
gaining  univerfal  affedion,  by  a6ls  of  generofity  and 

C 3 kindnefs 



kindnefs  to  individuals,  both  in  public  and  private.  With 
money  raifed  from  the  fpoils  of  the  war  lie  began  to  con- 
fliu6l  a new  Forum  ; the  ground-plot  of  which  cofl:  hirn 
above  a hundred  millions  of  feflerces.  He  promifed  the 
people  a public  entertainment  of  gladiators,  and  a feah: 
in  memory  of  his  daughter,  which  none  before  him  had 
ever  given.  The  more  to  ralfe  their  expedlations  on 
this  occafion,  though  he  had  agreed  with  vi6luallers  of  all 
denominations  for  his  feafl,  he  made  yet  farther  prepa- 
rations in  private  houfes,  in  different  quarters  of  the  city. 
He  iffiied  an  order,  that  the  moll:  celebrated  gladiators, 
if  at  any  time  during  the  combat  they  incurred  the  dif- 
pleafure  of  the  public,  Ihould  be  immediately  carried  off 
by  force,  and  referved  for  fomie  future  occafion.  Young 
gladiators  he  trained  up  not  in  the  fchool,  and  by  the 
mailers  of  defence,  but  in  gentlemen’s  houfes,  by  Ro- 
man knights,  and  even  Senators,  ikilled  in  the  ufe  of 
arms  j earneflly  requeiling  them,  as  appears  from  his 
letters,  to  take  upon  themfelves  the  trouble  of  inilrudl- 
ing  and  forming  thofe  novitiates  to  the  difcipline  of  the 
combat.  He  doubled  the  pay  of  the  legions  in  perpe- 
tuity ; allowing  them  likewife  corn,  when  it  was  in 
plenty,  without  any  reilridlion ; and  fometimes  diilribut- 
ing  to  every  foldier  in  his  army  a ilave,  and  a portion  of 
land,  or  a houfe, 

XXVII.  To  maintain  an  alliance  and  a good  under- 
flanding  with  Pompey,  he  offered  him  in  marriage  his 
filer’s  grand-daughter  Odlavia,  who  had  been  married 
to  C.  Marcellus,  and  requeiled  for  himfelf  his  daughter, 
lately  contradled  to  Fauilus  Sylla.  Every  perfon  about 
him,  and  a great  part  likewife  of  the  Senate,  he  obliged 
by  the  loan  of  money  at  low  interefl;  or  none  at  all ; and 
to  all  others  who  came  to  wait  upon  him,  either  from  in- 



vitation  or  of  their  own  accord,  he  made  liberal  prefents; 
not  negledling  even  freedmen  and  flaves,  who  were  fa- 
vorites with  their  mafters  and  patrons.  He  was,  befides, 
the  flgnal  protedlor  and  fupport  of  all  perfons  under  pror 
fecution,  or  in  debt,  or  prodigal  young  gentlemen  ; ex- 
cluding from  his  beneficence  only  thofe  who  were  fo 
deeply  immerfed  in  guilt,  poverty,  or  luxury,  that  it  was 
impoffible  eftedlually  to  relieve  them.  Thefe,  he  openly 
declared,  could  derive  no  benefit  from  any  other  means 
than  a civil  v/ar, 

XXVIll.  He  endeavored  with  equal  afliduity  to  en- 
gage in  his  interefl:  princes,  and  provinces,  In  every  part 
of  the  known  world  ; prefenting  fome  with  thoufands 
of  prifoners,  and  fending  to  others  the  afliflance  of 
troops,  at  whatever  time  and  place  they  defired,  without 
any  authority  for  fuch  extraordinary  adls,  either  from 
the  Senate  or  people  of  Rome.  He  likewife  ornamented 
with  magnificent  public  buildings  the  moll:  potent  cities 
not  only  of  Italy,  Gaul,  and  Spain,  but  of  Greece  and 
Afia  ; until  all  people  being  now  aftonifhed,  and  fpecu- 
latlng  on  the  obvious  tendency  of  thofe  proceedings, 
Claudius  Marcellus  the  Conful,  declaring  firft  by  procla- 
mation, that  he  intended  to  propofe  a meafure  of  the  ut- 
mofl  Importance  to  the  public,  made  a motion  in  the  Senate 
that  fome  perfon  fliould  be  appointed  to  fucceed  Crefar 
in  his  province,  before  the  term  of  vice-gerency  was 
expired,  becaufe  the  war  was  brought  to  a conclufion, 
and  the  vi6lorIou3  army  firoiild  be  difbanded.  He  far- 
ther moved,  that  Csefar  being  abfent,  his  fuit  at  the 
next  eledlion  of  Confuls  fliould  not  be  admitted,  as  the 
expedient  pradlifed  by  Pompey  could  not  infringe  the  va- 
lidity of  the  law  which  had  been  made  by  the  people  for 
that  purpofe.  The  fadf  was,  that  Pompey  in  his  law 
C 4 relating 



relating  to  the  choice  of  chief  magih: rates,  had  forgot  to 
except  Csefar,  in  the  article  in  which  he  declared  all 
fuch  as  were  not  prefent  incapable  of  being  candidates 
for  any  poft  jn  the  government ; and  foon  after,  when 
the  law  was  infcribed  upon  a copper-plate,  and  depo- 
fited  in  the  trcafury,  he  corredled  his  miftake.  Marcel- 
lus, not  content  with  depriving  Csefar  of  his  provinces, 
and  the  favor  intended  him  by  Pompey,  likewife,  moved 
the  houfe,  that  the  freedom  of  the  city  fhould  be  taken 
from  thofe  colonifts  whom,  by  the  law  of  Vatinius,  he. 
had  fettled  at  Novum  Comum  * ; becaufe  it  had  been 
conferred  upon  them  with  an  ambitious  view,  and  in  ex- 
prefs  contradiction  to  the  ftatute. 

XXIX.  Csfar  being  alarmed  at  thefc  proceedings, 
and  tliinking,  as  he  was  often  heard  to  fay,  that  it  would 
be  a more  difficult  enterprife  to  bring  him  dov/n,  now 
that  he  v/as  at  the  head  of  the  government,  from  the  firft 
rank  of  citizens  into  the  fecond,  than  from  the  fecond  to 
the  loweft  of  all,  made  a vigorous  oppofition  to  this 
meafure,  partly  by  the  Tribunes,  who  interpofed  in  his 
behajf,  and  partly  by  Servius  Sulpitius  the  other  Conful, 
The  following  year  likewife,  when  C.  Marcellus,  who 
fucceeded  his  coufin  Marcus  in  the  Confulfhip,  purfued 
the  fame  mcafures,  Caefar,  by  means  of  a large  fum  of 
money,  engaged  in  hi§  defence  ^milius  Paulus,  the 
other  Conful,  and  C.  Curio,  the  mod  violent  in  temper  of 

* Comum  was  a town  of  the  Orobii,  of  ancient  danding, 
and  formerly  powerful.  Julius  Csefar  added  to  it  five  thou- 
fand  new  colonifts ; whence  it  was  generally  called  Novo- 
comum.  But  in  time  it  recovered  its  ancient  name,  Comum  ; 
Pliny  the  younger,  who  was  a native  of  this  place,  calling 
it  by  no  other  name. 




;iil  the  Tribunes.  But  finding  the  oppofition  obftinately 
bent  againft  him,  and  that  the  Confuls  Ele6l  were  alfo  of 
the  party,  lie  wrote  a letter  to  the  Senate,  requefting  that 
they  w^ould  not  obftrud  the  kind  intentions  exprefled  by 
the  people  towards  him ; or  elfc  that  the  other  generals 
ihould  refign  the  command  of  their  armies  as  well  as  him- 
Celf ; fully  pevfuaded,  as  it  is  thought,  that  he  could  more 
eafily  call  together  his  veteran  foldiers,  whenever  he 
pleafed,  than  Pompey  could  his  new-raifed  troops, 
though  favored  with  the  influence  of  the  government. 
At  the  fame  time,  he  made  his  adverfaries  an  ofler  to 
furrender  eight  of  his  legions  and  Tranfalpine  Gaul, 
upon  condition  that  he  might  retain  two  legions,  with  the 
Cifalpine  province,  or  but  one  legion  with  Illyricum,  till 
fie  fhould  be  elected  Conful. 

XXX.  But  as  the  Senate  declined  to  interpofe  in  the 
hufinefs,  and  his  enemies  declared  that  they  would  enter 
into  no  compromife  relative  to  the  adrainiftration  of  the 
Republic,  he  advanced  into  Hither  Gaul,  and  having  gone 
the  circuit  of  the  province  for  the  holding  of  aflizes,  he 
made  a halt  at  Ravenna,  refolving  to  avenge  himfelf  by 
war,  if  the  Senate  fliould  proceed  to  feverity  againfl;  the 
Tribunes  of  the  commons  who  had  efpoufed  his  caufe. 
And  this  was  indeed  his  pretext  for  engaging  In  a war 
with  his  country  ; but  it  is  fuppofed  that  there  were  other 
motives  for  his  condudl.  Cn.  Pompey  ufed  frequently 
to  fay,  that  becaufe  he  was  not  able,  with  all  the  riches 
he  poflfefled,  to  complete  the  works  he  had  begun,  and 
anfwer,  at  his  return,  the  vafl  expedlations  which  he  had 
excited  in  the  people,  he  wiflied  to  throw  every  thing  into 
confufion.  Others  pretend,  he  was  apprehenfive  of  be- 
ing called  to  an  account  for  what  he  had  done  in  his 
firfl:  Confulfnip,  contrary  to  the  aufpices,  laws,  and  au- 



thority  of  the  Tribunes  ; M.  Cato  having  fometimes  de*. 
dared,  and  that  too  with  an  oath,  that  he  would  prefer  an 
impeachment  againfl:  him,  as  foon  as  he  difbanded  his 
army.  A report  likewife  prevailed,  that  if  he  returned  a 
private  perfon,  he  would,  like  Milo,  be  tried  with  a guard 
to  attend  the  court.  This  conjedlure  is  rendered  highly 
probable  by  Afinius  Pollio,  who  informs  us  that  Csefar, 
upon  viewing  the  vanquiflied  and  ilaughtered  enemy  in 
the  field  of  Pharfalia,  exprefied  himfelf  in  thefe  very 
words  : “ This  they  intended  : I,  Caius  Caefar,  after  all 
the  great  atchievements  I have  performed,  rauft  have  under- 
gone a fentence  of  condemnation,  had  I not  defired  the 
afiifiance  of  my  army.’^  Some  think,  that  having  con* 
traded  from  long  habit  an  extraordinary  love  of  power, 
and  weighed  his  own  and  his  enemies’  frrength,  he  em- 
braced that  occafion  of  feizing  the  government,  of  which 
from  his  youth  he  had  been  ambitious.  This  feems  to 
have  been  the  opinion  entertained  by  Cicero,  who  tells 
us  in  the  third  book  of  his  Olnces,  that  Caefar  ufed  to 
have  frequently  in  his  mouth  two  verfcs  of  Euripides, 
which  he  thus  tranflates ; 

Nam  li  violandum  eft  jus,  regnandi  gratia 
Violandum  eft  : aliis  rebus  pietatem  colas.” 

For  nought  but  fov’reign  pow’r  tranfgrefs  the  laws 
Of  Right  j nought  elfe  can  fan6rify  the  caufe. 

XXXT.  When  advice  therefore  was  brought,  that  the 
interpofition  of  the  Tribunes  in  his  favor  had  been  utterly 
rejeded,  and  that  they  themfelves  had  fled  from  the  city, 
he  forthwith  privately  difpatched  before 'him  fome  bat- 
talions, and  to  prevent  any  fufpicion  of  his  defign,  he 
attended  at  a public  ftiew,  examined  the  model  of  a fen- 
cing fchool  which  he  propofed  to  build,  and,  as  ufual,  fat 



flown  to  table  with  a numerous  party  of  his  friends.  But 
after  fun-fer,  having  put  to  his  chaife  mules  from  a neigh- 
bouring bake-houfe,  he  fet  out  on  his  journey  with  all 
pofTible  privacy,  ami  a fmall  retinue.  But  his  lights  go- 
ing out,  he  loll:  his  way,  and  wandered  about  a long 
time,  until  by  the  help  of  a guide,  whom  he  found  to- 
wards day-break,  he  proceeded  on  foot  through  fome  nar- 
row paths,  and  again  reached  the  road.  Coming  up 
with  his  troops  on  the  banks  of  the  Rubicon,  which  was 
the  boundary  of  his  province,  he  made  a flop ; when  re^ 
volving  in  his  mind  for  fome  time  the  greatnefs  of  his  at- 
tempt, he  turned  to  thofe  about  him  : “ We  may  flill  re- 
treat,” faid  he,  “ but  if  we  pafs  this  little  bridge,  we  mull 
make  our  way  by  force  of  arms.” 

XXXII.  While  he  was  thinking  on  what  he  (hould 
refolve,  there  happened  the  following  incident.  On  a 
fudden,  a perfon  of  a graceful  fize  and  figure  appeared 
hard  by,  fitting  and  playing  upon  a pipe.  Whilil  a great 
many  not  only  fhepherds  but  foldiers  too  upon  duty, 
and  amongfl  them  fome  trumpeters,  flocked  to  hear  him, 
he  fnatched  a trumpet  from  one  of  them,  ran  to  the 
river  with  it,  and  founding  an  alarm  wu'th  a prodigious 
blafl,  advanced  to  the  other  fide.  Upon  this,  Caefar 
cried  out,  “ Let  us  march  whither  divine  prodigies, 
and  the  perverfenefs  of  our  enemies  call  us.  The  die 
is  now  cafl.” 

XXXIII.  Accordingly  drawing  his  army  over  the 
river,  and  attended  by  the  Tribunes  of  the  commons, 
who,  upon  their  being  forced  from  the  city,  were  come 
Up  to  him,  he,  at  the  head  of  his  troops,  with  tears  in  his 
eyes,  and  his  garment  rent  from  his  breafl,  implored  their 
prote(5lion.  It  has  been  fuppofed,  that  upon  this  occafion 




he  promifed  to  every  foldier  a knight’s  eftate ; but  that 
opinion  is  founded  in  a miftake.  For  when,  in  his  ha- 
rangue to  them,  he  frequently  held  out  a finger  of  his 
left  hand,  and  declared,  that  to  recompenfe  thofe  who 
jfliould  afiiil;  him  in  the  defence  of  his  honor,  he  would 
wdlhngly  part  even  with  his  ring ; the  foldiers  at  a di- 
ftance,  who  could  more  eafily  fee,  than  hear  him,  while 
he  fpoke,  formed  their  conception  of  what  he  fald,  by 
the  eye,  not  by  the  ear  ; and  accordingly  gave  out,  that 
he  had  promifed  to  each  of  them  the  privilege  of  wear- 
ing the  gold  ring,  and  an  eflate  of  four  hundred  thou- 
fand  fefierces*. 

XXXIV.  Of  the  tranfa6lions  that  enfued  I fliall  give  a 
curfory  detail,  in  the  order  in  which  they  occurred. 
He  took  pofieflion  of  Picene,  Umbria  and  Etruria  ; and 
having  obliged  L.  Domitius,  who  had  in  the  late  con- 
fufion  been  nominated  to  fucceed  him,  and  kept  Corfi- 
nitim  with  a garrifon,  to  furrender,  and  difmifled  him,  he 
marched  along  the  coafi:  of  the  upper  fea,  to  Brundifium, 
to  which  place  the  Confuls  and  Ponipey  were  fled,  with  an 
intention  to  pafs  the  fea  as  foon  as  poflTible.  After  he  had 
endeavored  by  various  means,  but  in  vain,  to  prevent 
their  getting  out  of  the  harbour,  he  marched  towards 
Rome,  where  he  delivered  to  the  Senate  his  fentiments 

* Suetonius  here  accounts  for  the  miflake  of  the  foldiers 
with  great  probability.  The  clafs  to  which  they  imagined 
they  were  to  be  promoted,  was  that  of  the  Equites,  or  Knights, 
who  enjoyed  the  privilege  of  wearing  a gold  ring.  The  for- 
tune neceflary  to  thofe  who  were  chofen  into  this  order,  was 
about  3229I.  of  our  money.  Great  as  was  the  liberality  of 
Casfar  to  his  legions,  the  performance  of  this  imaginary  pro- 
mife  was  beyoi.d  all  reafonable  expectation. 



upon  the  prefent  fituation  of  affairs ; and  then  went  for 
Spain,  in  which  province  Pompey  had  a numerous  army, 
under  the  command  of  three  lieutenants,  M.  Petreius, 
L.  Afranius,  andM.Varro  ; declaring  amongft  his  friends, 
before  he  fet  forward,  “ That  he  was  going  againft  an 
army  without  a general,  and  fliould  thence  return  againft 
a general  without  an  army.”  Though  his  progrefs 
was  retarded  both  by  the  fiege  of  Marfeilles,  which  fhut 
her  gates  againft  him,  and  a very  great  fcarcity  of  corn, 
yet  in  a fhort  time  he  bore  down  all  before  him. 

XXXV.  He  afterwards  returned  to  the  city,  and  paCT- 
ing  thence  into  Macedonia,  blocked  up  Pompey  during 
almoft  four  months,  within  a line  of  ramparts  of  prodi- 
gious extent,  and  at  laft  routed  him  in  the  battle  of  Phar- 
falia.  He  purfued  him  in  his  flight  to  Alexandria,  where 
he  was  informed  of  his  murder,  and  prefently  found  him- 
felf  engaged  with  king  Ptolemy,  who,  he  faw,  had  a de~ 
fign  upon  his  life,  in  a very  dangerous  war,  under  all 
the  difadvantages  of  time  and  place.  It  was  winter, 
and  he  within  the  walls  of  a well  provided  fubtle  enemy, 
deftitute  of  every  thing,  and  wholly  unprepared  for  fuch 
an  embarraffing  occurrence.  He  fucceeded  how'ever  in 
his  attempt,  and  put  the  kingdom  of  Egypt  into  the 
hands  of  Cleopatra  and  her  younger  brother ; being  afraid 
to  make  it  a province  of  the  empire,  left,  under  a turbu- 
lent governor,  it  might  afford  a temptation  to  rebel  againft 
tlie  Romans.  From  Alexandria  he  went  into  Syria,  and 
thence  to  Pontus,  induced  by  advice  which  he  had  receiv- 
ed of  the  progrefs  of  Pharnaces.  This  prince,  who  was 
fon  of  the  great  Mithridates,  had  laid  hold  of  the  oppor- 
tunity which  the  diftraclion  of  the  times  offered,  for  mak- 
ing war  upon  his  neighbours,  and  was  greatly  elevated 
with  his  fuccefs.  Him  however  Csefar,  within  five  days 




after  entering  his  country,  and  four  hours  after  coming 
in  fight  of  liim,  overthrew  in  one  decifive  engagement* 
Upon  which,  he  frequently  remarked  to  thofe  about  him 
the  good  fortune  of  Pompey,  who  had  obtained  his  repu- 
tation for  a foldier,  chiefly  from  the  conquefi:  of  fo  un- 
warlike an  enemy.  He  afterwards  defeated  Scipio  and 
Juba,  who  were  rallying  the  remains  of  the  party  in 
Africa,  and  Pompey’s  fons  in  Spain, 

XXXVL  During  the  whole  courfe  of  the  civil  war, 
he  never  once  experienced  any  difafter,  except  in  the 
perfon  of  his  lieutenants  ; of  whom  C.  Curio  loft  his  life 
in  Africa,  C.  Antonius  was  made  prifoncr  in  Illyricum, 
P.  Dolabella  loft  a fleet  in  the  fame  Illyricum,  and  Cn. 
Domitius  Calvinus  an  army  in  Pontus.  In  every  en- 
counter with  the  enemy  where  he  himfelf  commanded, 
he  came  off  with  fuccefs,  and  without  ever  incurring  the 
hazard  of  a doubtful  vidlory,  except  on  two  occafions  : 
once  at  Dyrrachium,  when  being  obliged  to  give  ground, 
and  Pompey  notpurfuing  his  advantage,  he  faid,  Pompey 
knew  not  how  to  conquer.’*  The  other  inftance  hap- 
pened in  his  laft  battle  in  Spain,  where,  in  defpair  of  fuc- 
cefs, he  even  had  thoughts  of  killing  himfelf. 

XXXVIl.  For  the  viiftories  obtained  in  the  feveral 
wars,  he  triumphed  five  different  times  ; after  the  defeat  of 
Scipio,  four  times  in  one  month,  but  each  fubfequent  tri- 
umph fncceeding  the  former  by  an  interval  of  a few  days  ; 
and  once  again  after  the  conqueft  of  Pom pey’s^  fons.  His 
firft  and  moft  glorious  triumph  was  for  his  vidlories  ob- 
tained over  the  Gauls.  The  next  for  that  of  Alexandria, 
the  third  for  the  redudllon  of  Pontus,  the  fourth  for  his  Afri- 
can viclory,  and  the  laft  for  that  in  Spain ; all  different  from 
each  other  in  variety  of  furniture  and  pomp.  On  the  day 




of  the  Gallic  triumph,  as  he  was  proceeding  along  the 
ftreet  called  Velabrum,  he  narrowly  efcaped  a fall  from 
his  chariot  by  the  breaking  of  the  axle-tree,  and  mount- 
ed the  Capitol  by  torch-light,  forty  elephants  carrying 
flambeaux  on  the  right  and  left  of  him.  Amongfl:  the 
pageantry  of  the  Pontic  triumph,  this  infcription  was 
carried  before  him : ‘‘  I came,  faw,  and  overcame  * 
not  fignifying,  as  other  mottos  on  the  like  occafion, 
what  was  done,  fo  much  as  the  difpatch  with  which  it 
was  done* 

XXXVIII.  To  every  foot-foldier  in  his  veteran  le- 
gions, befide  the  two  thoufand  feflerces  paid  them  in  the 
beginning  of  the  civil  war,  he  gave  twenty  thoufand  more, 
under  the  name  of  plunder.  He  likewlfe  afligned  them 
lands,  but  not  contiguous  to  each  other,  that  the  former 
owners  might  not  be  entirely  difpoflefled.  T o the  people  of 
Rome,  befides  ten  modius’s  of  corn,  and  as  many  pounds 
of  oil,  he  gave  three  hundred  feflerces  a man,  which  he 
had  formerly  promifed  them,  and  a hundred  each  more, 
for  the  delay  in  fulfilling  his  engagement.  He  likewife 
remitted  a year’s  rent  due  to  the  treafury,  for  fuch  houfes 
in  Rome,  as  did  not  pay  above  two  thoufand  feflerces  a 
year ; and  through  the  refl  of  Italy,  for  all  fuch  as  did 
not  exceed  in  yearly  rent  five  hundred  feflerces.  To  all 
this  he  added  a public  entertainment,  and  a diflribution  of 
flefli,  and,  after  his  Spanifh  vidlory,  two  dinners.  For, 
confidering  the  firfl  as  too  fparing,  and  unfultable  to  his 
gcnerofity^  he  five  days  after  added  another,  w'hich  was 
moft  plentiful. 

XXXIX.  He  exhibited  to  the  people  fliews  of  various 
f ‘‘  Veni,  vidi,  vici.” 

kinds  : 




kinds  : fuch  as  a combat  of  gladiators  and  flage-plays 
in  the  feveral  wards  of  the  city,  and  in  feveral  languages ; 
Circenfian  games  f like  wife,  wreftlers,  and  the  rcprefent- 
ation  of  a fea-fight.  In  the  fight  of  gladiators  prefented 
in  the  Forum,  Furius  Leptinus,  a man  of  a Pr^torian 
family,  entered  the  lilts  as  a combatant ; as  did  alfo 


* Gladiators  were  firfi:  publicly  exhibited  at  Rome  by  two 
brothers  called  Btutz,  at  the  funeral  of  their  father,  in  the 
year  from  the  building  of  the  city  490 ; and  for  fome  time 
they  were  exhibited  only  on  fuch  occafions.  But  afterwards 
they  were  given  alfo  by  the  magiftrates,  to  entertain  the  peo- 
ple, particularly  at  the  Saturnalia^  and  feafis  of  Minerva.  It  ' 
is  incredible  what  numbers  of  men  were  deftroyed  upon 
thofe  occafions ; and  fiill  more,  that  women  of  quality,  lay- 
ing afide  the  foftnefs  of  their  fex,  became  combatants  at  fuch 
exhibitions,  under  fome  of  the  emperors.  Thofe  ferocious 
i’peftacles  were  prohibited  by  Conftantine,  but  not  entirely 
fupprefled  until  the  time  of  Honorius. 

f Circenfian  games  were  Ihews  exhibited  in  the  Circus 
Maximus,  and  confifted  of  various  kinds  : firfi,  chariot  and 
horfe-races,  of  which  the  Romans  were  extravagantly  fond. 
The  charioteers  were  diftributed  into  four  parties,  diftin- 
guifiied  by  the  color  of  their  drefs.  The  fpe<ftators,  without 
regarding  the  fvviftnefs  of  the  horfes,  or  the  art  of  the  men, 
were  attra<5Ied  merely  by  one  or  other  of  the  colors,  as  caprice 
inclined  them.  In  the  time  of  Jufiinian,  no  lefs  than  thirty 
thoufand  men  lofi  their  lives  at  Conftantiriople,  in  a tumult 
raifed  by  a contention  araongft  the  partizans  of  the  feveral 
colors.  Secondly,  contefis  of  agility  and  ftrength ; of  which 
there  were  five  kinds,  hence  called  Pentathlum.  Thefe 
were,  running,  leaping,  boxing,  wreftling,  and  throwing  the 
Aifcus  or  quoit.  Thirdly,  Ludus  Trojae,  a mock-fight,  per- 
formed by  young  noblemen  on  horfeback,  revived  by  Julius' 
Csefar,  and  frequently  celebrated  by  the  fucceeding  empe- 

JULIUS  c^sar; 


Q^Calpenus,  formerly  a Senator,  and  a pleader  of  caufes. 
The  Pyrrhic  dance  was  performed  by  fome  youths,  w'ha 
were  fons  to  perfons  of  the  firft  diftindtion  in  Afia  and 
Pithynia.  Decimus  Laberius  adled  a mimic  piece  of  his 
own  ; and  being  immediately  prefented  with  five  hundred 
thoufand  fefierces,  and  a gold  ring,  he  went  from  the  ftage, 
through  the  orcheftra,  into  the  feats  allotted  for  the  equeL 
trian  order.  In  the  Circenfian  games,  the  Circus  being  en- 
larged at  each  end,  and  a canal  funk  round  it,  feveral  of 
the  young  nobility  rode  the  races  in  chariots,  drawn,  fome 
by  four,  and  others  by  two  horfes,  and  likewife  on  fingle 

rors.  We  meet  with  a defcrlption  of  it  in  the  fifth  book  of 
the  iEneid,  beginning  with  the  following  lines  ; 

Incedunt  pueri,  pariterque  ante  ora  parentum 
Fraenatis  lucent  in  equis:  quos  omnis  euntes 
Trinacriae  mirata  fremit  Trojsque  juventus. 

Fourthly,  Venatio,  which  was  the  fighting  of  wild  beafis 
with  one  another,  or  with  men  called  BeJIiarii^  who  were 
either  forced  to  the  combat  by  way  of  punifliment,  as  the  pri- 
mitive Chriftians  were ; or  fought  voluntarily,  either  from 
a natural  ferocity  of  difpofition,  or  induced  by  hire.  An 
incredible  number  of  animals  of  various  kinds  were  brought 
from  all  quarters,  at  a prodigious  expence,  for  the  entertain- 
ment of  the  people.  Pompey,  m his  fecond  Confulfiiip,  ex- 
hibited at  once  five  hundred  lions,  which  were  all  difpatched 
in  five  days;  alfo  eighteen  elephants.  Fifthly,  the  reprefen- 
tation  of  a horfe  and  foot  battle,  with  that  of  an  encamp- 
ment or  a fiege.  Sixthly,  the  reprefentation  of  a fea-fighc 
(Naumachia),  which  was  at  firft  made  in  the  Circus  Maximus y 
but  afterwards  oftener  elfewhere.  The  combatants  were 
ufually  captives  or  condemned  malefactors,  who  fought  to 
death,  unlefs  fared  by  the  clemency  of  the  emperor.  If 
any  thing  unlucky  happened  at  the  games,  they  were  renew- 
ed, and  often  more  than  once. 





horfes.  The  Trojan  game  was  a6led  by  two  diflln£l 
companies  of  boys,  one  difFering  from  the  other  in  point 
of  flature.  The  hunting  of  wild  bcafls  was  prefented 
for  five  days  fucceilively  ; and  at  laft  a battle  fought  by 
five  hundred  foot,  twenty  elephants,  and  thirty  horfe 
on  each  fide.  For  the  accommodation  of  this  fpedlacle 
the  goals  were  removed,  and  in  their  room  two  camps 
were  pitched,  dire6lly  oppofite  to  each  ot;her.  Wreftlers 
likewife  performed  for  three  days  fucceffively,  in  a ftadi- 
um  provided  for  the  purpofe  in  the  Campus  Martius.  In 
a lake  funk  in  the  lefler  Codeta,  Tyrian  and  Egyptian 
fleets,  confiiling  of  fhips  of  two,  three,  and  four  banks 
of  oars,  with  a number  of  men  on  board,  afforded  an  ani- 
mated reprefentation  of  a fea-£ght.  To  thefe  various  di- 
verfions  there  flocked  fuch  crowds  of  fpedlators  from  all 
parts,  that  mofl  of  them  were  obliged  to  lodge  in  tents 
eredled  in  the  (Ireets,  or  the  roads  near  the  city.  Several 
in  the  throng  were  fcjueezed  to  death,  amongfl:  whom 
were  two  Senators. 

XL.  Turning  afterwards  his  thoughts  to  the  regula- 
tion of  the  commonwealth,  he  corre6led  the  Calendar, 
which  had  for  fome  time  become  extremely  confufed, 
through  the  unw^arrantable  liberty  which  the  prlefls  had 
taken  in  the  article  of  Intercalation.  To  fuch  a height  had 
this  abufe  proceeded,  that  neither  the  holidays  defigned 
for  the  harvefl:  fell  in  fummer,  nor  thofe  for  the  vintage 
in  autumn.  He  accommodated  the  year  to  the  courfe  of 
the  fun,  ordaining  that  in  future  it  fliould  confifl  of  three 
hundred  and  flxty-five  days,  without  any  intercalatory 
month  ; and  that  every  fourth  year  an  intercalatory  day 
fliould  be  inferted.  That  the  year  might  thenceforth  con> 
mence  regularly  with  the  Calends,  or  firfl:  of  January,  he 
inferted  tw^o  months  betwi.xt  November  and  December  ; 

8 fo 



fo  that  the  year  in  which  this  regulation  was  made  con- 
fifled  of  fifteen  months,  including  the  month  of  intercala- 
tion, which,  acccording  to  the  divifion  of  time  then  in 
ufe,  happened  that  year. 

XLI.  He  filled  up  the  vacancies  in  the  Senate,  advan- 
ced feverai  commoners  to  the  dignity  of  patricians,  en* 
larged  the  number  of  Pr£etors,^,t]iles,Quaefi:ors,  and  infe-* 
rior  magiflirates  likewife  ; reftoring,  at  the  fame  time,  fuch 
as  had  been  difgraced  by  the  Cenfors,  orconvi61:ed  of  briber 
ry  at  eledlions.  The  choice  of  magiftrates  he  fo  divided 
with  the  people,  that,  excepting  only  the  competitors  for 
the  Confulfhip,  they  nominated  one  half  of  them,  and  he 
the  other.  The  method  which  he  pracSiifed  in  thofe  cafes  . 
was,  to  recommend  fuch  perfons  as  lie  had  pitched  upon,  by 
bills  difperfed  through  the  feverai  tribes  to  this  effedl : 

Caefar  the  Dictator  to  fuch  a tribe  (naming  it).  I recom- 
mend to  you  — (naming  iTkewife  the  perfons),  that 

by  the  faVor  of  your  votes  they  may  attain  to  the  ho- 
nors vvliich  they  refpe^tively  fue  for  He  likewife 
admitted  to  offices  the  fons  of  fuch  as  had  been  proferibed; 
He  reftridted  the  trial  of  caufes  to  two  orders  of  judges, 
viz.  the  Equeftrian  and  Senatoria  n ; excluding  the  commif- 
lioners  of  the  treafury  who  had  before  made  a third  clafs. 
The  furvey  of  the  people  he  ordered  to  be  taken  neither 
in  the  ufual  manner,  nor  in  the  ufual  place,  but  in  the  fe- 
verai ftreets,  by  the  principal  inha.bitants ; and  reduced 
the  number  of  thofe  that  received  corn  from  the  public^ 

* This  is  the  firfi  inllance  We  meet  with  in  hiftory,  of 
having  recourfe  to  the  difiribution  of  hand-bills,  for  infiu- 
encing  the  people  at  eledions.  The  inventive  genius  of 
Cafar  left  no  expedient  untried  that  could  ferve  to  promote 
his  purpofe* 

D 2,  from 


THE  tiFE  OF 

from  three  hundred  and  twenty  thoufand  to  a hundred  and 
fifty.  To  prevent  any  tumults  on  account  of  the  furvey, 
he  ordered  that  the  Praetor  fhould  every  year  fill  up  by 
lot  the  vacancies  occafioned  by  death,  from  thofe  who 
were  not  enrolled  for  the  receipt  of  corn. 

XLII.  Eighty  thoufand  citizens  having  been  diftribut- 
ed  into  foreign  colonies,  he  enadled,  in  order  to  compenfate 
the  deficiency,  that  no  freeman  of  the  city  above  twenty, 
and  under  forty,  who  was  not  in  the  military  fervice  of 
his  country,  fliould  be  abfent  from  Italy  above  three  years  at 
a time : that  no  Senator’s  fon  fhould  go  abroad,  unlefs  in 
the  retinue  of  fome  governor  of  a province  ; and  that  thofe 
who  followed  grazing,  fliould  have  no  lefs  than  a third 
part  of  their  fhepherds  free-born.  He  likewife  made  all 
fuch  as  pradlifed  phyfic  in  Rome,  and  all  teachers  of 
the  liberal  arts,  free  of  the  city,  in  order  to  fix  them 
in  it,  and  invite  others  to  the  place.  With  refpedi  to 
debts,  he  difappointed  the  expe6tation  which  was  enter- 
tained, that  they  would  be  univerfally  cancelled,  a mea- 
fure  which  had  frequently  been  moved  for;  and  ordered  , 
that  the  debtors  fhould  fatisfy  their  creditors,  according  to 
an  eftimate  of  their  eftates,  by  the  rates  at  which  they 
w^ere  purchafed  before  the  commencement  of  the  civil 
war ; dedudfing  from  the  debt  fuch  interefl:  as  had  been 
paid  either  in  money  or  bills  ; by  virtue  of  which  order 
about  a fourth  part  of  the  debt  was  lofl.  He  diflblved  all 
corporations  of  craftsmen,  except  fuch  as  wece  of  ancient 
eflabliihment.  He  encreafed  the  punifhment  of  crimes 
beyond  what  the  laws  had  ordained;  and  becaufe  the  rich 
were  more  eafily  induced  to  tranfgrefs,  from  the  circum- 
flance  of  their  being  liable  only  to  banifhment,  without  the 
forfeiture  of  their  efiates,  he  ftripped  parricides,  as  Cicero 
obferves,  of  their  whole  efiates,  and  otherl>  of  one  half. 




XLIII.  He  was  extremely  affiduous  and  in  the 
admlniflration  of  juftice.  He  expelled  from  the  Senate 
fuch  members  as  were  convi6led  of  bribery  ; and  he  dif- 
folved  the  marriage  of  a man  of  Praetorian  rank,  who  had 
married  a lady  two  days  after  her  divorce  from  a former 
hufband,  though  there  was  no  fufpicion  that  they  had 
been  guilty  of  any  unlawful  commerce.  He  impofed  duties 
upon  the  importation  of  foreign  goods.  The  ufe  of  lit- 
ters for  travelling,  fcarlet  cloaths,  and  jewels,  he  permit- 
ted only  to  perfons  of  a certain  age,  and  on  particular 
days.  He  enforced  a rigid  execution  of  the  fumptuary 
laws ; placing  fpies  about  the  fharables,  to  feize  upon  all 
meats  expofed  to  fale  contrary  to  the  ftatutes  on  that  fub- 
je6f,  and  bring  them  to  him  ; fometimes  fending  his  fer- 
jeants  and  foldiers  to  fetch  off  fuch  victuals  as  had 
efcaped  the  notice  of  his  fpies,  even  when  they  were  upon 
the  table. 

XLIV.  His  thoughts  were  now  daily  employed  on 
a variety  of  great  proje61:s,  for  the  embellifhment  and 
convenience  of  the  city,  as  well  as  for  fecuring  and  ex- 
tending the  bounds  of  the  empire.  In  the  firfl  place,  he 
meditated  the  conftru6Iion  of  a temple  to  the  God  Mars, 
which  Ihould  exceed  in  grandeur  every  thing  of  that  kind 
in  the  world.  For  this  purpofe,  he  intended  to  fill  up 
the  lake  on  which  he  had  entertained  the  people  with  a . 
fea-fight.  He  alfo  proje6led  a moil;  fpacious  theatre 
clofe  by  the  Tarpeian  mount:  to  reduce  the- civil  law 
into  reafonable  compafs,  and  out  of  that  immenfe  and  un- 
digefled  mafs  of  ftatutes,  to  extra^l:  the  beft  and  moft 
neceffary  parts  into  a few  books:  to  make  as  large  a 
colle^Slion  as  poflible  of  literary  produdlions,  in  the 
two  languages,  Greek  and  Latin;  having,  afiigned  to 
Varro  the  province  of  providing  and  putting  them 
D 3 in 



in  proper  or^er.  He  intended  likewife  to  drain  the 
Pomptine  rnarfh,  to  empty  the  lake  Fucinus,  to  make 
a caufeway  from  the  Upper  Sea,  through  the  ridge  of 
the  Appennine,  to  the  Tiber ; to  make  a cut  through  the 
iflhmus  of  Corinth,  to  reduce  the  Dacians,  who  had 
over-run  Pontus  and  Thrace,  within  their  proper  limits, 
•and  then  to  make  war  upon  the  Parthia  ns,  through  the 
LefTer  Armenia,  but  not  to  rifk  a general  engagement 
with  them,  until  he  had  made  fome  trial  of  their  mili- 
tary qualifications.  But  in  the  midfi:  of  all  his  projeds, 
he  was  carried  ofF  by  death ; before  I fpeak  of  which, 
it  may  not  be  improper  to  give  a brief  account  of  his 
perfon,  drefs,  and  manners,  with  his  views  and  inclina- 
tions, refpefting  affairs  both  civil  and  military. 

.XLV,  He  is  faid  to  have  been  tall,  of  a fair  com- 
plexion, round  limbed,  rather  full  faced,  with  eyes  black 
and  lively,  very  healthful,  except  that,  towards  the  end 
of  his  life,  he  would  fuddenly  fall  into  fainting-fits, 
and  be  frighted  in  his  fleep.  He  was  likewife  twice 
feized  wdth  the  falling  ficknefs  in  the  time  of  battle.  He 
was  fo  nice  in  the  care  of  his  perfon,  that  he  had  not 
only  the  hair  of  his  head  cut,  and  his  face  fhaved  with 
great  exa6tnefs,  but  likewife  had  the  hair  on  other  parts 
of  the  body  plucked  out  by  the  roots,  a praiStice  with 
which  fome  perfons  upbraidingly  charged  him.  His 
baldnefs  gave  him  much  uneafinefs,  having  often  found 
himfelf  upon  that  account  expofed  to  the  ridicule  of  his 
enemies.  He  therefore  ufed  to  bring  forward  his  hair 
from  the  crown  of  his  head  ; and  of  all  the  honors  con- 
ferred upon  him  by  the  Senate  and  people,  there  was 
none  which  he  either  accepted  or  ufed  with  greater  plea- 
fure,  than  the  right  of  w'earing  conftantly  a laurel  crown. 

It  is  faid  that  he  was  particular  in  his  drefs.  For  he 

• ufed 



iifed  the  Latus  Clavus  * with  fringes  about  the  wrifls, 
and  always  had  it  girded  about  him  but  loofely.  This 
circumftance  gave  origin  to  the  exprellion  of  Syila,  who 
often  advifed  the  nobility  to  beware  of  “ the  loofe- 
coated  boy.’* 

. XLVI.  He  firft  lived  in  Suburra  in  a fmall  houfe; 
but  after  his  advancement  to  the  Pontificate,  in  a houfe 
belonging  to  the  State  in  the  Sacred  Way.  Many  writers 
fay  that  he  affedfed  neatnefs  in  his  perfon,  and  nice- 
nefs  in  his  entertainments  : that  he  entirely  took  down 
again  a country-feat,  near  the  grove  of  Aricia,  which  he 
eredfed  from  the  foundation,  and  finilhed  at  a vafi:  ex- 
pence, becaufe  it  had  not  exactly  fuited  his  fancy,  though 
he  was  at  that  time  poor  and  in  debt ; and  that  he  carried 
about  in  his  expeditions  marble  pavement  for  his  tent. 

XLVII.  They  likewife  report  that  he  invaded  Bri- 
tain in  hopes  of  finding  pearls,  the  bignefs  of  which  he 
would  compare  together,  and  examine  the  weight  by 
polfing  them  in  his  hand : that  he  would  purchafe  at 
any  cofl:  gems,  carved  works,  and  pidlures,  executed 
by  the  eminent  mafiers  of  antiquity  ; and  that  he  would 
give  for  handfome  young  flaves  a price  fo  extravagant, 
that  he  w^as  alhamed  to  have  it  entered  in  the  diary  of 
his  expences. 

XLVIII.  The  fame  authors  inform  us,  that  he  con- 
Aantly  kept  two  tables  in  the  provinces,  one  for  the  of- 

* The  Latus  Clavus  was  a broad  ftripc  of  purple,  in  the 
form  of  a ribbon,  fewed  to  the  tunic  on  the  fore  part.  There 
were  properly  two  fuch ; and  it  was  broad,  to  diftinguifli  it 
from  that  of  the  Equites,  who  wore  a nan'ow  one. 

D 4 




ficers  of  the  army,  or  the  gentlemen  of  the  provinces, 
and  the  other  for  fuch  of  the  Roman  gentry  as  had  no 
^ommiffion  in  the  troops,  and  provincials  of  the  firft  di- 
{liiKflion.  He  was  fo  very  exadl;  in  the  management  of 
his  domeflic  affairs,  both  fmall  and  great,  that  he  once 
put  a baker  in  fetters,  for  ferving  him  with  a finer  fort  of 
bread  than  his  guefis;  and  put  to  death  a freed«man, 
and  a particular  favorite,  for  debauching  the  lady  of  a 
Roman  knight,  though  no  complaint  had  been  made  tp 
him  qf  the  affair. 

RLIX,  The  only  flain  upon  his  chaftlty  was  his  bcr 
haviour  in  the  court  of  Nicomedes  ; and  that  indeed  fluck 
jclofe  to  him  all  the  days  of  his  life,  and  expofed  him  to 
ipnch  bitter  raillery.  I pafs  over  thofe  well  known  vcrfe? 
of  v^alyus  Licinius ; 

Bithynia  quicquid 

Et  paedicator  Caefaris  unquam  habuit. 

Whatever  Bithynia  and  her  Lord  pofTefs’d, 

Her  Lord  who  Caefar  in  his  luft  carefs’d. 

As  well  as  the  fpeeches  of  Dolabella  and  Curio  the  fa^ 
iher,  in  which  the  former  calls  him  the  queen’s  rival, 
pnd  the  back-fide  of  the  royal  couch,”  and  the  latter, 
the  brothel  of  Nicomedes,  and  the  Bithynian  flew.”  I 
would  likewife  fay  nothing  of  the  edidls  of  Bibulus,  in 
which  he  proclaimed  his  colleague  under  the  name  of 
the  queen  of  Bithynia;”  adding  that  he  had  formerly 
been  in  love  with  a king,  but  was  now  wjthout  a kingV 
dom.”  At  which  time,  as  M.  Brutus  relates,  one  Qdfa- 
yius,  a man  of  a crazy  brain,  and  therefore  the  more 
free  in  his  raillery,  after  he  had  in  a great  afiembly  L- 
Jilted  Pompey  by  the  title  of  king,  addreffed  Caefar  by 
fhat  of  queen.  C,  Memmius  likewife  upbraided  him 




n.vith  ferving  the  king  at  table,  among  the  refi;  of  his  ca»r 
tamites,  in  the  prefence  of  a large  company,  in  which 
were  fome  merchants  from  Rome,  the  names  of  whom 
he  mentions.  But  Cicero,  not  content  with  writing  in 
fome  of  his  letters,  that  he  was  condu61ed  by  the  guards 
into  the  king’s  bed-chamber,  lay  upon  a bed  of  gold  with 
a covering  of  fcarlet,  and  that  the  bloom  of  this  defcend- 
ant  of  Venus  had  been  tarnilhed  in  Bithynia ; upon  Cse- 
far’s  pleading  the  caufe  of  Nyfa,  Nicomedes’s  daughter, 
before  the  Senate,  and  recounting  the  king’s  kindneffes 
to  him,  replied,  “ Pray,  tell  us  no  more  of  that ; for 
it  is  well  known  what  he  gave  you,  and  you  gave  him.” 
To  conclude,  his  foldiers  in  the  Gallic  triumph,  amongll 
other  verfes,  fuch  as  they  jocularly  fung,  in  their  at- 
tendance upon  the  general’s  chariot,  on  thofe  occahons, 
recited  thefe,  hnee  that  time  become  extremely  com- 
#non : i ' » ' 

Gallias  Caefar  fubegit,  Nicomedes  Caefarem : 

Ecce  Caefar  ilunc  triumphat,  qui  fubegirGaliias : ' 

Nicomedes  non  triumphat,  qui  fubegit  Caefarem. 

Caefar,  the  Gauls  who  vanquifh’d  in  the  field, 

Was  made  to  fhame  by  Nicomede  to  yield  : 

A glorious  triumph  Caefar  now  employs. 

But  the  Bithynian  vi£lor  none  enjoys^  ' 

L.  It  is  admitted  by  all  that  he  was  much  addidfed  to 
women,  as  well  as  very  expenfive  in  his  intrigues  with 
them,  and  that  lie  debauched  many  ladies  of  the  higheft 
quality ; among  whom  were  Pofthumia  the  wife  of  Ser- 
vius Sulpicius,  Lollia  the  wife  of  Aulus  Gabinius,  Ter- 
tulla  the  wife  of  M.  CraiTus,  and  likewife  Mucia  the  wife 
of  Cn.  Pompey.  For  it  is  certain  that  the  Curio’s,  father 
and  fon,  and  many  others,  objet^ed  to  Pompey  in  re- 
proach, “ Tiiat,  to  gratify  his  anibition,  he  married  the 
' daughter 



daughter  of  a man,  upon  whofe  account  he  had  divorced 
his  wife,  after  having  had  three  children  by  her,  and 
whom  he  ufed,  with  a heavy  figh,  to  call  ^gifthus/’ 
But  the  miflrefs  whom  of  all  he  moll  loved,  was  Servilia, 
the  mother  of  M.  Brutus ; for  whom  he  purchafed  in  his 
ConfuHhip  next  after  the  commencement  of  their  in- 
trigue, a pearl  which  coft  him  fix  millions  of  feflerces ; 
and  in  the  civil  war,  befides  other  prefents,  confgned  to 
her,  for  a trifling  confideration,  fome  valuable  ellatcs  in 
land,  which  were  expofed  to  public  auction.  When 
many  perfons  wondered  at  the  lownefs  of  the  price, 
Cicero  facetioufly  obferved,  “ To  let  you  know  how 
much  better  a purchafe  this  is  than  ye  imagine,  Tertia 
is  dedu6ted for  Servilia  was  fuppofe’d  to  have  proflituted 
her  daughter  Tertia  to  Cajfar, 

LI.  That  he  had  intrigues  likewdfe  with  married  wo- 
men in  the  provinces,  appears  from  this  diftich,  which 
w'as  as  much  repeated  in  the  Gallic  triumph  as  the  for- 
mer : 

Urbani,  fervate  uxores;  moechum  calvum  adducimus : 

Aurum  in  Gallia  effutuifti,  heic  fumpfifti  mutuum. 

Watch  well  your  wives,  ye  cits,  we  bring  a blade, 

A bald -pate  mafter  of  the  wenching  trade. 

Thy  gold  was  fpent  on  many  a Gallic  w e ; 

Exhaufted  nosv,  thou  corn’ll  to  borrow  more. 

LIT.  In  the  number  of  his  miftreflTes,  were  alfo  fome 
queens,  fuch  as  Eunoe,  a moor,  the  wife  of  Bogudes,  to 
whom  and  her  hufband  he  made,  as  Nafo  reports,  many 
large  prefents.  But  his  greateft  favorite  was  Cleopatra, 
with  whom  he  often  reveled  all  night  till  day-break,  and 
would  have  gone  with  her  through  Egypt  in  a pleafure- 
boat,  as  far  as  ^Ethiopia,  had  not  the  anny  refufed  to  foU 




low  him.  He  afterwards  invited  her  to  Rome,  whence 
he  fent  her  back  loaded  with  honors  and  prefents,  and 
gave  her  permiffion  to  call  by  his  name  a fon,  who, 
according  to  the  teflimony  of  fome  Greek  hiiborians,  re- 
fembled  Csefar  both  in  perfon  and  gait.  M.^  Anthony 
declared  in  die  Senate,  that  Csfar  had  acknowledged  the 
child  as  his  ovv^ii ; and  that  C.  Mattius,  C.  Oppius,  and 
the  reft  of  Casfai ’s  friends  knew  it  to  be  true.  On  which 
occafion  Oppius,  as  if  it  had  been  an  imputation  w^hich 
he  was  called  upon  to  refute,  publiftied  a book  to  ftiew, 
**  that  the  child  which  Cleopatra  fathered  upon  Caefar, 
was  not  his.”  Helvius  Cinna,  Tribune  of  the  com- 
mons, told  feveral  perfons  as  a fa6l,  that  he  had  a bill 
ready  draw'n  up,  which  Csefar  had  ordered  him  to  get  en- 
adled  in  his  abfence,  that,  with  the  view  of  procuring 
iflue,  he  might  contradf  marriage  with  any  one  female, 
or  as  many  as  he  pleafed  ; and  to  leave  no  roOm  for  doubt 
of  his  paflTing  under  an  infamous  chara6ler  for  unnatural 
levvdnefs  and  adultery,  Curio,  the  father,  fays,  in  one  of 
his  fpeeches,  ‘‘  He  was  the  hulband  of  every  woman,  and 
the  wife  of  every  man.” 

LITI.  It  is  acknowledged  even  by  his  enemies,  that 
in  refpedl  of  wine  he  was  abftemious.  A remark  is 
afcribcd  to  M.  Cato,  “ that  he  w'as  the  only  fober  man 
amongft  all  thofe  who  were  engaged  in  a defign  to  Sub- 
vert the  government.”  For,  in  regard  to  diet,  C.  Oppius 
informs  us,  he  was  fo  indifterent  for  his  own  part,  that 
when  a perfon  in  whofc  houfe  he  was  entertained,  had 
ferved  him,  inftead  of  frefh  oil,  with  oil  which  had  fome 
fort  of  feafoning  in  it,  and  which  the  reft  of  the  company 
would  not  touch,  he  alone  ate  very  heartily  of  it,  that 
he  might  not  feem  to  tax  the  mafter  of  the  houfe  with  in- 
elegance or  want  of  attention. 

LIV.  He 



LIV.  He  never  difcovered  any  great  regard  to  m ode- 
ration,  either  in  his  comnaand  of  the  army,  or  civil  offices; 
for  we  have  the  teftimony  of  fome  writers,  that  he  re- 
queued money  of  the  Proconful  his  predeceffior  in  Spain, 
and  the  Roman  allies  in  that  quarter,  for  the  difcharge  of 
his  debts ; and  fome  towns  of  the  Lufitanians,  notwith- 
flanding  they  attempted  no  refi fiance  to  his  arms,  and 
opened  to  him  their  gates,  upon  his  arrival  before  them, 
he  plundered  in  a hoflile  manner.  In  Gaul,  he  rifled  the 
chapels  and  temples  of  the  gods,  which  were  filled  with 
rich  prefents ; and  demoliflied  cities  oftener  for  the  fake 
of  plunder,  than  for  any  offence  they  had  given  him.  By 
this  means  gold  became  fo  plentiful  with  him,  that  he  ex- 
changed it  through  Italy  and  the  provinces  of  the  empire 
for  three  thoufand  fefterces  the  pound.  In  his  firfl  Con- 
' fulffiip  he  flole  out  of  the  Capitol  three  thoufand  pound 
weight  of  gold,  and  placed  in  the  room  of  it  the  fame 
weight  of  gilt  brafs.  He  bartered  likewife  to  foreign  na- 
tions and  princes,  for  gold,  the  titles  of  allies  and  kings ; 
and  fqueezed  out  of  Ptolemy  alone  near  fix  thoufand  ta- 
lents, in  the  nam*e  of  himfelf  and  Pompey.  He  after- 
wards fupported  the  expence  of  the  civil  w’ars,  and  of  his 
triumphs  and  public  fliows,  by  the  moft  flagrant  rapine 
and  facrilege. 

LV.  In  point  of  eloquence  and  military  atchieve- 
ments,  he  equalled  at  leafi,  if  he  did  not  furpafs  the  greatefi: 
men.  After  his  profecution  of  Dolabella,  he  was  in- 
difputably  efiieemed  among  the  mofi  diftinguifiied  plead- 
ers. Cicero,  in  recounting  to  Brutus  the  famous  orators, 
declares,  “ he  does  not  fee  that  Caefar  was  inferior  to  any 
one  of  them  ; that  he  had  an  elegant,  fplendid,  noble, 
and  magnificent  vein  of  eloquence.*’  And  in  a letter  to 
C.  Nepos,  he  writes  of  him  in  the  following  terms: 

what ! 


“ what ! which  of  all  the  orators,  who,  during  the 
whole  courfe  of  their  lives,  have  done  ' nothing  elfe/ean 
you  prefer  before  him  ? which  of  them  is  ever  more  point- 
ed in  expreffion,  or  more  often  commands  your  ap- 
plaufe  ?”  In  his  youth,  he  feems  to  have  chofen  Strabo 
Csfar  as  his  model : out  of  whofe  oration  for  the  Sardi- 
nians he  has  tranfcribed  fome  paffages  literally  into  his 
Divinatio.  He  is  faid  to  have  delivered  himfelf  with  a 
fhrill  voice,  and  an  animated  adlion,  which  was  grace- 
ful. He  has  left  behind  him  fome  fpeeches,  among 
which  are  a few  not  genuine  ; as  that  for  Metellus. 
Thefe  Auguftus  fuppofes,  and  with  reafon,  to  be  the  pro- 
dudlion  of  blundering  writers  of  fhort  hand,  who  were 
not  able  to  follow  him  in  the  delivery,  rather  than  any- 
thing publifhed  by  himfelf.  For  I find  in  fome  copies 
the  title  is  not  “ for  Metellus,”  but  “ what  he  wrote  to 
Metellus  whereas  the  fpeech  is  delivered  in  the  name 
of  Csefar,  vindicating  Metellus  and  himfelf  from  the  afper- 
fions  call  upon  them  by  their  common  defamers.  The 
fpeech  addrefled  “ to  his  foldiers  in  Spain,”  Auguflus 
confiders  likewife  as  fpurious.  Under  this  title  we  meet 
with  two ; one  made,  as  is  pretended,  in  the  firfi:  battle,  and 
the  other  in  the  laft  ; at  which  time  Afmius  Pollio  fays, 
he  had  not  leifure  to  addrefs  the  foldiers,  on  account  of 
the  fudden  affault  of  the  enemy. 

LVI.  He  has  likewife  left  Commentaries  of  his  own 
tranfadllons  both  in  the  Cjallic  and  the  civil  war  with  Pom- 
pey;  for  the  author  of  the  Alexandrian,  African,  and  Spanlfii 
v/ars  is  not  known  with  any  certainty.  Some  think  they 
are  the  production  of  Oppius,  and  fome  of  Hirtius;  the 
latter  of  whom  compofed  the  laft  book,  but  an  imper- 
fect one,  of  the  Gallic  war.  Of  thofe  memoirs  of  C$far, 
Cicero  in  his  Brutus  fpeaks  thus “ He  wrote  his  memoirs 




in  a manner  that  greatly  deferves  approbation : they  are 
plain,  precife,  and  elegant,  without  any  afFedlation  of 
ornament.  In  having  thus  prepared  materials  for  fuch 
as  might  be  inclined  to  compofe  his  hiftory,  he  may  per- 
haps have  encouraged  fome  filly  creatures  to  enter  upon 
fuch  a work,  who  will  needs  be  drefling  up  his  a<51ions 
in  all  the  extravagance  of  bombafl ; but  he  has  dif- 
couraged  wife  men  from  ever  attempting-  the  fubje6i:.’' 
Hirtius  delivers  his  opinion  of  the  fame  memoirs  in  the 
following  terms : “ So  great  is  the  approbation  with  which 
they  are  univerfally  perufed,  that,  inflead  of  exciting,  he 
feems  to  have  precluded  the  efforts  of  any  future  hiflo- 
rian.  Yet  with  regard  to  this  fubjedi,  w^e  have  more 
rcafon  to  admire  him  than  others : for  they  only  know 
ho\V  well  and  corredlly  he  has  written,  but  we  know 
likewife  how  ealily  and  quickly  he  did  it.”  Pollio  Afi- 
nius  thinks  that  they  were  not  drawn  up  with  much  care, 
or  with  a due  regard  to  truth : for  he  inlinuates  that 
Casfar  was  too  hafty  of  belief  with  refped^  to  what  was 
performed  by  others  under  him ; and  that,  in  refpedf  of 
what  he  tranfa£ted  in  perfon,  he  has  not  given  a very 
faithful  account ; either  with  defign,  or  through  a defe6t 
of  memory ; expreffing  at  the  fame  time  an  opinion  that 
Cajfar  intended  a new  and  more  corredf  produ61ion  on 
the  fubje(5t.  He  has  left  behind  him  likewife  two  books 
of  Analogy,  with  the  fame  number  under  the  title  of  Anti- 
Cato,  and  a poem  entitled  The  Journey.  Qf  thefe  books 
he  compofed  the  firfl  two,  in  his  paffage  over  the  Alps,^ 
as  he  was  returning  to  his  army  from  holding  the  af~ 
fizes  in  Hither  Gaul ; the  fecond  work  about  the  time  of 
the  battle  of  Munda  ; and  the  laft  during  the  four  and 
twenty  days  he  was  upon  his  expedition  from  Rome 
to  Farther  Spain.  There  are  extant  fome  letters  of  his 
to  the  Senate,  written  in  a manner  never  pra^lifed  by  any. 


' » 


before  him  : for  they  are  diftinguiihed  into  pages  in  the 
form  of  a pocket-book;  whereas  the  Confuls  and  Generals, 
till  then,"  ufed  conflantly  in  their  letters  to  continue  the 
line  quite  acrofs  the  (heet,  without  any  folding  or  diftinc- 
tion  of  pages.  There  are  extant  likewife  fome  letters 
from  him  to  Cicero,  and  ethers  to  his  friends  concerning 
his  domeftic  affairs ; in  which,  if  there  was  occafion  for 
fecrefy,  he  ufed  the  alphabet  in  fuch  a manner,  that  not  a 
fingle  word  could  be  made  out.  The  way  to  decipher 
thofe  epiftles  was  to  fubftitute  d for  and  fo  of  the  other 
letters  refpedfively.  Some  things  likewife  pafs  under 
his  name,  faid  to  have  been  written  by  him  when  a 
boy,  or  a very  young  man  ; as  the  Encomium  of  Her- 
cules, a tragedy  entitled  CEdipus,  and  a colle^ion  of 
Apophthegms ; all  which  Auguftus  forbid  to  be  pub- 
liihed,  in  a fhort  and  plain  letter  to  Pompeius  Macer,  ' 
whom  he  had  appointed  to  direct  the  arrangement  of 
his  libraries, 

LVII.  He  was  a perfedl  mafler  of  his  weapons,  a com- 
plete horfeman,  and  able  to  endure  fatigue  beyond  ail  be- 
lief. Upon  a march,  he  ufed  to  go  at  the  head  of  his 
troops,  fometimes  on  horfeback,  but  oftener  on  foot, 
with  his  head  bare  in  all  kinds  of  weather.  He  would 
travel  in  a poft-chaife  at  the  rate  of  a hundred  miles  a day, 
and  pafs  rivers  in  his  way  by  fwimming,  or  fupported 
with  leathern  bags  filled  with  wind,  fo  that  he  often 
prevented  all  intelligence  of  his  approach. 

LVin.  In  his  expeditions,  it  is  difficult  to  fay  whe- 
ther his  caution  or  boldnefs  was  mofl  confpicuous.  He  ne- 
ver marched  his  army  by  a rout  which  was  liable  to  any 
ambuih  of  the  enemy,  without  having  previoufly  examined 
the  htuation  of  the  places  by  his  fcouts.  Nor  did  he  pafs 




over  into  Britain,  before  he  had  made  due  enquiry  re-^ 
fpedbing  the  navigation,  the  harbours,  and  the  moft  con- 
venient accefs  to  the  ifland.  But  when  advice  was  brought 
to  him  of  the  fiege  of  a camp  of  his  in  Germany,  he 
made  his  way  to  his  men,  through  the  enemy’s  guards, 
in  a Gallic  habit.  He  croffed  the  fea  from  Brundifium 
and  Dyrrachium,  in  the  winter,  through  the  midft  of  the 
enemy’s  fleets ; and  the  troops  which  he  had  ordered  to 
follow  him  not  making  that  hafte  which  he  expecSled, 
after  he  had  feveral  times  fent  meflTengers  to  expedite  them, 
in  vain,  he  at  lafk  went  privately,  and  alone,  aboard  a 
a fmall  veflel  in  the  night  time,  with  his  head  muffled  up  : 
nor  did  he  difeover  who  he  was,  or  fuffer  the  mafter  to 
defifl:  from  profecuting  the  voyage,  though  the  wind  blew 
ftrong  againfl;  them,  until  they  were  ready  to  fink. 

LTX.  He  was  never  difeouraged  from  any  enterprife, 
nor  letarded  in  the  profecution  of  it,  by  any  ill  omens. 
When  a vidlim  which  he  was  about  to  offer  in  facriflee, 
had  made  its  efcape,  he  did  not  therefore  defer  his  ex- 
pedition againfl;  Scipio  and  Juba.  And  happening  to  fall, 
upon  {lepping  out  of  the  fhip,  he  gave  a lucky  turn  to  the 
omen,  by  exclaiming,  “ I hold  thee  fall:,  Africa.”  In  ri- 
dicule of  the  prophecies  which  were  fpread  abroad,  as  if 
the  name  of  the  Scipio’s  was,  by  the  decrees  of  fate,  for- 
tunate and  invincible  in  that  province,  he  retained  in  the 
camp  a profligate  wretch,  of  the  family  of  the  Cornelii, 
who,  on  account  of  his  fcandalous  iife^  was  furnained 

LX.  He  engaged  in  battle  not  only  upon  previous  de- 
liberation, but  upon  the  fudden  Avhen  an  oecafion  pre- 
fented  itfelf ; often  Immediately  after  a march,  and  fome- 
times  during  the  moft  difmal  weather,  when  nobody  could 


Julius  c^sar* 


Imagine  he  would  flir.  Nor  was  he  ever  backward  in 
fighting,  until  towards  the  end  of  his  life,  He  then  was 
of  opinion,  that  the  oftener  he  had  come  oiF  with  fuccefs, 
tlie  lefs  he  ought  to  expofe  himfelf  to  new  hazards  ; and 
that  he  could  never  acquire  fo  much  by  any  vi6lorv,  as 
he  might  lofe  by  a mifcarriage.  He  never  defeated  an 
enemy  whom  he  did  not  at  the  fame  time  drive  out  of 
their  camp  ; fo  warmly  did  he  purfue  his  advantage,  that 
he  gave  them  no  time  to  rally  their  force.  When  the 
ifTue  of  a battle  was  doubtful,  he  fent  away  all  the  of- 
ficers’ horfes,  and  in  the  firft  place  his  own,  that  being  de- 
pfived  of  that  convenience  for  flight,  they  might  be  under' 
the  greater  neceffity  of  {landing  their  ground. 

LXI.  He  rode  a very  remarkable  horfe,  with  feet  aU 
moft  like  thofe  of  a man,  his  hoofs  being  divided  in  fuch  a 
manner  as  to  have  fome  refemblance  to  toes.  This  horfe 
he  had  bred  himfelf,  and  took  particular  care  of,  becaufe 
the  foothfayers  interpreted  thofe  circumflances  into  au 
omen,  that  the  poiTefTor  of  him  would  be  mafter  of  the 
world.  He  backed  him  too  himfelf,  for  the  horfe  would 
fufFer  no  other  rider  ; and  he  afterw^ards  erected  a flatue 
of  him  before  the  temple  of  Venus  Genitrix, 

LXIT.  He  often  alone,  by  his  courage  and  a61;ivity,  re^ 
jflored  the  fortune  of  a battle  ; oppofing  and  ftopping  fuch 
of  his  troops  as  fled,  and  turning  them  by  the  jaws  upon 
the  enemy  ; though  many  of  ihem  were  fo  terrified,  that 
a flandard-^bearer,  upon  his  ftopping  him,  made  a pafs  at 
him  ; and  another,  upon  a fimilar  occafion,  left  his  ftand- 
ard  in  his  hand. 

LXIII.  The  following  inftances  of  his  refolution  arc 
equally,  and  even  more  remarkable.  After  the  battle  ot 

E Pharfalia; 



Pharfalia,  having  fent  his  troops  before  him  into  Afia,  as 
he  v^^as  pafTing  the  Hellefpont  in  a ferry-boat,  he  met  with 
L.  Caflius,  one  of  the  oppofite  party,  with  ten  (hips  of 
war;  whom  he  was  fo  far  from  avoiding,  that  he  advan- 
ced clofe  up  to  him ; when,  advifing  him  to  furrender,  and 
the  other  complying,  he  took  him  into  the  boat. 

LXIV.  At  Alexandria,  in  the  attack  of  a bridge,  being 
forced  by  a hidden  fally  of  the  enemy  into  a boat,  and  fe- 
veral  hurrying  in  with  him,  he  leaped  into  the  fea,  and 
faved  himfelf  by  fwimming  to  the  next  fhip,  which  lay 
at  the  diftance  of  two  hundred  paces  ; holding  up  his  left 
hand  out  of  the  water,  for  fear  of  wetting  fome  papers 
which  he  held  in  it ; and  pulling  his  general’s  cloak  after 
him  with  his  teeth,  left  it  ftiould  fall  into  the  hands  of  the 

LXV.  He  never  eftimated  a foldicr  by  his  manners 
or  fortune,  but  by  his  ftrength  alone  ; and  treated  them 
with  eq^ual  feverity  and  indulgence  ; for  he  did  not  always 
keep  a ftridl  hand  over  them,  except  when  an  enemy  was 
near.  Then  indeed  he  was  fo  rigorous  an  exadlor  of  dif- 
cipline,  that  he  would  give  no  notice  of  march  or  battle, 
until  the  moment  he  was  to  enter  upon  them  ; that  the 
troops  might  hold  themfelves  in  readiiiefs  for  any  hidden 
movement ; and  he  would  frequently  draw  them  out  of 
the  camp,  without  any  neceftity  for  it,  efpecially  in  rainy 
weather,  and  upon  holy-days.  Sometimes,  giving  them 
warning  to  w'atch  him,  he  would  fuddenly  withdraw 
himfelf  by  day  or  night,  and  would  oblige  tliem  to  long 
marches,  on  purpofe  to  tire  them,  if  they  were  tardy. 

LXyi.  When  at  any  time  his  foldiei  s weredifeouraged 
by  reports  of  tr.e  great  force  of  the  enemy,  he  recovered. 


jtJLIUS  CiESAR.  51 

them,  not  by  denying  the  truth  of  what  was  faid,  of  by 
diminifhing  the  facSl,  but  oil  the  contrary,  by  exaggerat- 
ing every  particular.  Accordingly,  when  his  troops  were 
linder  great  apprehenlions  of  the  arrival  of  king  Juba,  he 
called  them  together,  and  faid,  “ I have  to  inform  you 
that  in  a very  few  days  the  king  will  be  here,  with  ten  le- 
• gions,  thirty  thoufand  horfe,  a hundred  thoufand  light- 
armed foot,  and  three  hundred  elephants.  Let  none  there- 
fore prefume  to  make  any  farther  enquiry,  or  to  give  their 
opinion  upon  the  fubje6t,  but  take  my  word  for  what  I 
tell  you,  which  I have  from  undoubted  intelligence;  other- 
wife  I lhall  put  them  aboard  a crazy  old  veffel,  and  leave 
them  expofed  to  the  mercy  of  the  winds. 

LXVIL  He  neither  took  notice  of  all  their  faults, 
nor  proportioned  his  punishments  to  the  nature  of 
them.  But  after  deferters  and  mutineers  he  made  the 
moH  diligent  enquiry,  and  punilhed  them  feverely : 
other  delinquents  he  would  connive  ,at.  Sometimes, 
after  a fuccefsful  battle,  he  would  grant  them  a relaxa- 
tion from  all  kinds  of  duty,  and  leave  them  to  revel  at 
' pleafure ; being  ufed  to  boaft,  that  his  foldiers  fought 
nothing  the  worfe  for  being  perfumed.”  In  his  fpeeches, 
he  never  addreffed  them  by  the  title  of  ‘‘  Soldiers,”  but 
by  the  fofter  appellation  of  “ Fello w-foldiers  and  kept 

them  in  fuch  fine  condition,  that  their  arms  were  orna- 
mented with  Silver  and  gold,  not  only  for  the  purpofe  of 
making  the  better  appearance,  but  to  render  the  foldiers 
more  tenacious  of  them  in  battle,  from  their  value.  He 
loved  his  troops  to  fuch  a degree,  tl’iat  when  he  heard  of 
the  difafier  of  thofe  under  Titurius,  he  neither  cut  his 
hair  not  lliaved  his  beard,  until  he  had  revenged  it  upon 
the  enemy  ; by  which  means  he  engaged  extremely  their 
afFedlion,  and  rendered  t!iem  to  the  lull;  degree  brave. 

E 2 LXVIII.  Upon 



LXVIII.  Upon  his  entering  into  the  civil  war,  th^ 
centurions  of  every  legion  olFered,  each  of  them  to  main- 
tain a horfeman  at  his  own  expence,  and  the  whole  ar- 
my agreed  to  ferve  gratis,  without  either  corn  or  pay  ; 
thofe  amongft  them  who  were  rich  charging  themfelves 
with  the  maintenance  of  the  poor.  No  one  of  them,  dur- 
ing the  whole  courfe  of  the  war,  went  over  to  the 
enemy  ; and  moft  of  thofe  who  were  made  prifoners, 
though  they  were  offered  their  lives,  upon  the  condition 
of  bearing  arms  againft  him,  refufed  to  accept  the  terms. 
They  endured  want,  and  other  hardfhips,  not  only  when 
themfelves  were  befieged,  but  when  they  belieged  others, 
to  fuch  a degree,  that  Pompey,  when  blocked  up  in  the 
neighbourhood  of  Dyrrachium,  upon  feeing  a fort  of 
bread  made  of’an  herb,  which  they  lived  upon,  faid, 
‘‘  I have  to  do  wdth  wild  beafts,”  and  ordered  it  immedi- 
ately to  be  taken  away  ; becaufe,  if  his  troops  fliould  fee 
it,  they  might  be  imprefled  with  a dangerous  apprehen- 
fion  of  the  hardinefs  and  defperate  refolution  of  the  ene- 
my. With  what  bravery  they  fought,  one  inflance  af- 
fords fufficient  proof ; w^hich  is,  that  after  an  unfuccefs- 
ful  engagement  at  Dyrrachium,  they  defired  him  to  pu- 
ni ih  them  ; infomuch  that  their  general  found  it  more 
neceffary  to  comfort  than  puniiTi  them.  In  othe  rbat- 
tles,  in  different  parts,  they  defeated  with  cafe  immenfc 
armies  of  the  enemy,  though  they  were  much  inferior  to 
them  in  number.  To  conclude,  one  battalion  of  the 
fixth  legion  held  out  a fort  againft  four  legions  belong- 
ing to  Pompey,  during  feveral  hours  ; being  almoft  every 
one  of  them  wounded,  by  the  vaft  number  of  arrows  dif- 
charged  againH:  them,  and  of  which  there  w^ere  found 
within  the  ramparts  a hundred  and  thirty  thoufand.  This 
is  no  w^ay  furprifmg,  w^hen  we  confider  the  behaviour 
of  fomc  individuals  amongft  them;  fuch  as  that  ofCaf- 




filis  Scasva,  or  C.  Acilius  a common  foldier.  Scseva,  af- 
ter lie  had  an  eye  ftruck  out,  was  run  through  the  thigh 
and  the  flioulder,  and  had  his  lliield  pierced  in  a hun- 
dred and  twenty  places,  maintained  obftinately  tlie  guard 
of  a gate  in  a fort,  with  the  command  of  which  he  was 
entrufted.  Acilius,  in  the  fea-hght  at  Marfeilles,  having 
feized  a fltip  of  the  enemy  with  his  right  hand,  and  that 
being  cut  off,  in  imitation  of  that  memorable  inftance  of 
refolution  in  Cynaegirus  amongO;  the  Greeks,  leaped  in- 
to the  lliip,  bearing  down  all  before  him  with  the  bofs  of 
his  Ihield. 

LXTX.  They  never  once  mutinied  during  all  the  ten 
years  of  the  Gallic  war,  but  were  fometimes  a little  refrac- 
tory in  the  courfe  of  the  civil  war.  They  always  how- 
ever returned  quickly  to  their  duty,  and  that  not  through 
the  compliance,  but  the  authority  of  their  general : for 
he  never  gave  ground,  but  conftantly  oppofed  them  on 
fuch  occafions.  The  whole  ninth  legion  he  difmilTed 
with  ignominy  at  Placentia,  though  Pompey  was  at  that 
time  in  arms  ; and  would  not  receive  them  again  into 
his  fervice,  until  not  only  they  had  made  the  moft  hum- 
ble fubmiffion  and  entreaty,  but  that  the  ringleaders  in  the 
mutiny  were  puniihed. 

LXX.  When  the  foldiers  of  the  tenth  legion  at  Rome 
demanded  their  difeharge,  and  rewards  for  their  fervice, 
with  great  threats,  and  no  fmall  danger  to  the  city,  though 
at  that  time  the  war  was  warmly  carried  on  againft  him 
in  Africa,  he  immediately,  notwithftanding  all  the  elForts 
ot  his  friends,  who  endeavored  to  prevent  him  from 
taking  fuch  a meaiure,  came  up  to  the  legion,  and  dif» 
banded  it.  ‘But  addreffing  them  by  the  title  of'^  Quiri- 
tes,’^ inflead  of  “ Soldiqrs,”  he  by  this  fingle  word  fo 

E 3 thoroughly 



thoroughly  regained  their  afFe^lions,  that  they  immediate- 
ly cried  out,  they  were  his  “ foldiers,”  and  followed  him 
into  Africa,  though  he  had  refuted  their  fervice.  He 
neverthelefs  puniflied  the  moft  feditious  amongft  them, 
with  the  lofs  of  a third  of  their  lhare  in  the  plunder,  and 
the  land  which  had  beerj  intended  for  them. 

' \ ^ 

LXXI.  In  the  fervice  of  his  clients,  while  yet  a young 
man,  he  evinced  great  zeal  and  fidelity.  'He  defended 
the  caufe  of  a noble  youth,  Mafintha,  againfi;  king  Hi- 
empfal,  fo  ftrenuoufly,  that  in  a wrangle  which  happened 
upon  the  occafion,  he  feized  by  the  beard  the  fon  of  king 
Juba  ; and  upon  Mafintha  being  declared  tributary  to 
Hiempfal,  while  the  friends  of  the  adverfe  party  were 
violently  carrying  him  oiF,  he  immediately  refcued  him 
by  force,  kept  him  concealed  in  his  houfe  a long  time, 
and  when,  at  the  expiration  of  his  Praetorfhip,  he  went 
to  Spain,  he  carried  him  with  him  in  his  litter,  amidft 
his  ferjeants,  and  others  who  had  come  to  attend  and  take 
leave  of  him, 

LXXII.  He  always  treated  his  friends  with  that  good 
nature  and  kindnefs,  that  when  C.  Oppius,  in  travelling 
with  him  through  a forefi,  was  fuddenly  taken  ill,  he 
refigned  to  him  the  only  place  there  was  to  lodge  in  at 
night,  and  lay  himfelf  upon  the  ground,  and  in  the  open 
air.  When  he  had  come  to  have  in  his  own  hands  the 
whole  power  of  the  commonwealth,  he  advanced  fome 
of  his  faithful  adherents,  though  of  mean  extradlion,  to 
the  highefi:  pofts  in  the  government.  And  when  he  was 
cenfured  for  this  partiality,  he  openly  faid,  “ Had  I been 
alfifted  by  robbers  and  cut-throats  in  the  defence  of  my 
honor,  I fhould  have  made  them  the  fame  recom- 




LXXIIL  He  never  in  any  quarrel  conceived  fo  im- 
placable a refentment,  as  not  very  willingly  to  renounce 
k when  an  opportunity  occurred.  Though  C.  Memmiiis 
had  publifhed  fome  extremely- virulent  fpeeches  againib 
him,  and  he  had  anfwered  him  with  equal  acrimony,  yet 
he  afterwards  affifted  him  with  his  vote  and  intereft,  when 
he  flood  candidate  for  the  Confulfhip.  When  C.  Cal- 
vus, after  publifliing  fome  fcandalous  epigrams  againft 
him,  endeavored  to  eiFe61:  a reconciliation  by  the  inter- 
ceflion  of  friends,  he  wrote  of  his  own  accord  the  flrfl 
letter.  And  when  Valerius  Catullus,  who  had,  as  he 
himfelf  obferved,  in  his  verfes  upon  Mamurra,  put  fuch 
a flain  upon  his  character  as  never  could  be  obliterated, 
begged  his  pardon,  he  invited  him  to  flipper  the  fame 
day;  and  continued  to  take  up  his  lodging  with  his  fa-* 
ther  occafionally,  as  he  had  been  accuflomed  to  do, 

LXXIV.  His  difpofltion  was  naturally  averfe  to  feve- 
rity  in  retaliation.  After  he  had  made  the  pirates,  by 
. whom  he  had  been  taken,  prifoners,  becaufe  he  had  fworn 
he  would  crucify  them,  he  did  fo  indeed  ; but  previoully 
to  the  execution  of  that  fentence,  ordered  their  throats 
to  be  cut.  He  could  never  bear  the  thought  of  doing  any 
harm  to  Cornelius  Phagitas,  who  had  trepanned  him  in 
tlie  night,  with  the  defjgn  of  carrying  him  to  Sylla  ; and 
from  w'hofe  cuftody,  not  without  much  difficulty  and  a 
larae  bribe  likewife,  he  had  been  aide  to  extricate  hinn- 
felf. Philemon,  his  fecrelary,  who  had  made  a promife 
to  his  enemies  to  poifon  him,  he  put  to  death  only,  with- 
out torture.  When  he  was  fummoned  as  a witnefs 
againfl  P.  Clodius,  his  wife  Pompeia’s  gallant,  who  was 
profecuted  for  a pollution  of  religious  ceremonies,  he  de- 
declared  he  knew  nothing  of  the  affair,  though  his  mo- 
ther Aurelia,  and  his  fifler  Julia,  gave  the  court  an  cxa6b 

E 4 an4 



and  full  account  of  the  tranfa61;ion.  And  being  allied, 
why  then  he  had  divorced  his  wife  ? “ Becaufe,  faid  he, 
I would  have  thofe  of  my  family  untainted,  not  only  wddi 
guilt,  but  with  the  fufpicion  of  it  Ijkewife.  ” 

LXXV,  Both  in  the  adminiftratlon  of  government, 
and  his  behaviour  towards  the  vanquifhed  party  in  the 
civil  war,  he  /hewed  a wonderful  moderation  and  cle^ 
mency.  And  whilft  Pompey  declared  that  he  would  con- 
iider  all  thofe  as  enemies,  w^ho  did  not  take  arms  in  de- 
fence of  the  republic,  he  defired  it  to  be  underBood,  that 
he  /hould  regard  all  thofe  who  remained  neuter  as  his 
friends.  Jn  refpedl  of  all  thofe  to  whom  he  had,  on  Pom- 
pey*s  recommendation,  given  any  command  in  the  army, 
he  left  them  at  perfedf  liberty  to  go  over  to  him,  if  they 
pleafed.  When  fome  propofals  were  made  at  Ilerda  for 
a furrender,  which  gave  rife  to  a free  communication  be-^ 
tween  the  tw'o  camps,  and  Afranius  and  Petreius,  upon  a 
fudden  change  of  refolution,  had  put  to  the  fword  all 
Csfar’s  men  that  were  found  in  the  camp,  he  fcorned 
to  imitate  the  bafe  treachery  which  they  had  pradlifed 
againfl  himfelf.  In  the  field  of  Pharfalia,  he  called  out 
to  the  foldiers  to  fpare  their  fellow-citizens,”  and  after- 
wards gave  liberty  to  every  man  in  his  army  to  fave  an 
enemy.  None  of  them,  fo  far  as  appears,  loft  their  lives 
but  in  battle,  excepting  only  Afranius,  Faufttis,  and  young 
Lucius  C^far  ; and  it  is  thought  that  even  they  were  put 
to  death  without  his  confent.  Afranius  and  Fauftus  had 
borne  arms  againft  him,  after  their  pardpu  had  been 
granted  them  ; and  L.  Csefar  had  not  only  in  the  moft 
cruel  manner  deftroyed  with  fire  and  fword  his  freedmen 
and  flaves,  but  cut  to  pieces  the  wild  beafts  which  he  liad 
prepared  for  the  entertainment  of  the  people.  And  finally, 
a little  before  his  death,  he  granted  liberty  to  all  whom 




hc  had  not  before  pardoned,  to  return  into  Italy,  and  admit- 
ted them  to  a capacity  of  bearing  offices  both  civii  and 
military.  He  even  erected  again  the  flatues  of  Sylia  and 
Pompey,  which  had  been  thrown  down  by  the  populace. 
And  any  machinations  againft  him,  or  refledtions  upon 
him,  he  chofe  rather  to  put  a flop  to,  than  punifh.  Ac- 
cordingly, with  regard  to  any  confpiracies  againft  him 
v/hich  were  difeovered,  or  nightly  cabals,  he  went  no 
farther  than  to  intimate  by  a proclamation  that  he  knew 
of  them  ; and  as  to  thofe  who  indulged  themfelves  in 
the  liberty  of  refledling  feyerely  upon  him,  he  only  warn- 
ed them  in  a public  fpeecli  not  to  perfift  in  their  oblo- 
quy. He  bore  wdth  great  moderation  a virulent  libel 
written  againft  him  by  Aulus  Caecinna,  and  the  abufive 
lampoons  of  Pitholaiis,  molt  highly  refledting  on  his  re-r 

LXXVI.  His  other  adtlons  and  declarations,  however, 
with  regard  to  the  public,  fo  far  outweigh  ail  his  good 
qualities,  that  it  is  thought  he  abufed  his  power,  and 
was  juftiy  cut  off.  For  he  not  only  accepted  of  excef- 
five  honors,  as  the  Confulfhip  every  year  fucceffively, 
the  Didtatoriliip  for  life,  and  the  Superintendency  of  the 
public  manners,  but  likewife  the  title  of  Imperator,  and 
the  Father  of  his  country,  behdes  a ftatue  amongfi:  the 
kings,  and  a throne  in  the  place  allotted  to  the  Senators 
in  the  theatre.  He  even  fuffered  fome  things  to  be  de- 
creed for  him,  that  were  unfuitable  to  the  greatefl;  of  hu- 
man kind  ; fuch  as  a golden  chair  in  the  Senate-houfe, 
and  upon  the  bench  when  Ire  fat  for  the  trial  of  cauies, 
a ftately  chariot  in  the  Circenfian  proceffion,  temples,  al- 
tars, images  near  the  Gods,  a bed  of  Hate  in  the  temples, 
a peculiar  prieft,  and  a college  of  priefts,  like  thofe  ap- 
pointed in  honor  of  Pan,  and  that  one  of  the  months 
8 fnould 



fhould  be  called  by  his  name.  He  ijideed  both  affumed 
to  himfelf,  and  granted  to  others,  every  kind  of  diftinc-. 
tion  at  pleafure.  In  his  third  and  fourth  Confulfliip,  he 
had  only  the  title  of  the  office,  being  content  with  the 
power  of  Didlator,  wdiich  was  conferred  upon  him  at 
the  fame  time  ; and  in  both  years  he  fubftituted  other 
Confuls  in  his  room,  during  the  three  laft  months;  fo  that 
in  the  intervals  he  held  no  affemblies  of  the  people,  for 
the  eledlion  of  magiflrates,  excepting  only  Tribunes  and 
-^diles  of  the  commons  ; and  appointed  officers,  under 
the  name  of  Przefedls,  inftead  of  the  Prastors,  to  admi- 
niher  the  affairs  of  the  city  during  his  abfence.  The 
honor  of  the  Confulffiip,  which  had  juft  become  vacant 
by  the  fudden  death  of  one  of  the,  Confuls,  he  inftantly 
conferred,  the  day  before  the  firft  of  January,  upon  a per- 
fon  who  requefted  it  of  him,  for  a few  hours.  With 
the'  fame  unwarrantable  freedom,  regardlefs  of  the  con- 
ftant  iifage  of  his  country,  he  nominated  the  magiftrates 
for  feveral  years  to  come.  He  granted  the  infignia  of 
the  Confular  dignity  to  ten  perfons  of  Praetorian  rank. 
He  called  up  into  the  Senate  fome  who  had  been  made 
free  of  the  city,  and  even  natives  of  Gaul,  who  were 
little  better  than  barbarians.  He  likewife  appointed  to 
the  management  of  the  mint,  and  the  public  revenue  of 
the  ftate,  fome  of  his  own  fervants  ; and  entrufted  the 
command  of  three  legions,  which  he  left  at  Alexandria, 
to  an  old  catamite  of  his,  the  fon  of  his  freed-man  Ru^ 

LXXVII.  He  gave  way  to  the  fame  extravagance  In 
his  public  convei  fation,  as  T.  Ampius  informs  us  ; ac- 
cording to  whpm  he  faid,  “ The  commonwealth  is  no- 
thing blit  a name,  without  fubftance,  or  fo  much  as  the 
appearance  of  any.  Sylla  was  an  illiterate  fellow  to  lay 




(?own  the  Did^ator/hip.  Men  ought  to  be  more  cauti- 
ous 'in  their  converfe  with  me,  and  look  upon  what  I 
fay  as  a law.”  To  fuch  a pitch  of  arrogance  did  he 
proceed,  that  when  a footh-fayer  brought  him  word, 
that  the  entrails  of  a vidlim  opened  for  facrihce  were 
without  a heart ; he  faid,  ‘‘  The  entrails  will  be  more 
favorable  when  I pleafe  ; and  it  ought  not  to  be  regard- 
ed as  any  ill  omen  if  a beaft  lliould  be  deftitute  of  a 

LXXVIll.  But  what  brought  upon  him  the  greateft  and 
moft  invincible  odium,  was  his  receiving  the  whole  body 
of  the  Senate  fitting,  when  they  came  to  wait  upon  him 
before  the  temple  of  Venus  Genitrix,  with  many  honors 
able  decrees  in  his  favor.  Some  fay,  as  he  attempted  to 
rife,  he  w^as  held  down  by  Corn.  Balbus.  Others  fay, 
he  did  not  attempt  it  at  all,  but  looked  fomewhat  dif- 
pleafed  at  C.  Trebatius,  who  put  him  in  mind  of  {landing 
up.  This  behaviour  appeared  the  more  intolerable  in 
him,  becaufe,  when  one  of  the  Tribunes  of  the  commons, 
Pontius  Aquila,  would  not  rife  up  to  him,  as  in  his  tri- 
umph he  paffed  by  the  place  where  they  fat,  he  was  fo 
much  offended,  that  he  cried  out,  “ Well  then,  mailer 
Tribune,  take  the  government  out  of  my  hands.”  And 
for  fome  days  after,  he  never  promifed  a favor  to  any 
perfon,  without  this  provifo,  “ if  Pontius  Aquila  will 
j^llpw  of  it.” 

LXXIX.  To  this  extraordinary  affront  upon  the  Se- 
nate, he  added  an  adlion  yet  more  outrageous.  For 
when,  after  the  facrifice  of  the  Latin  feflival,  he  w^as  re- 
turning home,  amidfl  the  Inceffant  and  unufual  accla- 
mations of  the  people,  one  of  the  crowd  put  upon  a» 
flatue  of  him  a laurel  crown,  with  a white  ribbon  tied 




round  it,  and  the  Tribunes  of  the  commons,  Epidlus 
Maruilus,  and  Csefetius  Fiavus,  ordered  the  ribbon  to  be 
taken  away,  and  the  man  to  be  carried  to  prifon  ; being 
much  concerned  either  that  the  mention  of  his  advance- 
ment to  regal  power  had  been  fo  unluckily  made,  or,  as 
he  pretended,  that  the  glory  of  refufing  it  had  been  thus 
taken  from  him,  he  reprimanded  the  Tribunes  very  fe- 
verely,  and  difmifTed  them  both  from  their  office.  From 
that  day  forward,  he  was  never  able  to  wipe  off  the  fcan- 
dal  of  affe£ling  the  name  of  king ; though  he  replied  to 
the  people,  when  they  fainted  him  by  that  title,  “ My 
name  is  C^far,  not  King.”  And  at  the  feafi:  of  the  Luper- 
calia when  the  Coniul  Anthony  in  the  Roftra  put  a 
crown  upon  his  head  feveral  times,  he  as  often  put  it 
away,  and  fent  it  into  the  Capitol  to  Jupiter.  A report 
w^as  extremely  current,  that  he  had  a defigii  of  removing 
to  Alexandria  or  Ilium,  wldther  he  propofed  to  transfer 
the  ftrength  of  the  empire,  to  drain  Italy  by  new  levies, 
and  to  leave  the  government  of  the  city  to  be  adminif- 
tered  by  his  friends.  To  this  report  it  was  added,  that 
in  the  next  meeting  of  the  Senate,  L.  Cotta,  one  of  the 
fifteen  commiffioners  entrufled  with  the  care  of  the  f Si- 

^ The  Lupercalia  was  a fefiival,  celebrated  in  a place 
called  Lupercal^  in  the  month  of  February,  in  honor  of  Pan. 
Puring  the  folemnity,  the  Luperci^  or  priefls  of  that  God, 
ran  up  and  down  the  city  naked,  with  only  a girdle  of  goat’s 
ikin  round  their  waiff,  and  thongs  of  the  fame  in  their 
hands  j with  which  they  ffriick  thofe  they  met,  particularly 
married  women,  who  were  thence  iuppofed  to  be  rendered 

f The  origin  of  thefe  celebrated  books  is  faid  to  have 
been  as  follows.  A certain  woman,  named  Amalth.sea,  came 
fiom  a foreign  country  to  Tarquinius  Superbus,  wiffiing  to 




byl^s  books,  would  make  a motion  In  the  houfe,  that  as 
there  was  in  thofe  books -a  prophecy,  that  the  Parthiaiis 

fell  nine  books  of  Sibylline  or  prophetic  oracles.  Upon 
Tarquin’s  refufal  to  give  her  the  price  which  die  alked,  die 
went  away  and  burnt  three  of  them ; returning  foon  'after, 
and  demanding  the  fame  price  for  the  remaining  fix.  • Being 
now  ridiculed  by  the  king,  as  a fenfeiefs  old  woman,  die 
went,  and  burnt  other  three;  and  coming  back,  demanded^ 
as  before,  the  fame  price  for  the  three  which  remained. 
Tarqurn,  furprifed  at  the  ftrange  conduft  of  the  woman, 
confulted  the  Augurs  what  he  diould  do.  They,  regretting 
the  lofs  of  the  books  which  had  been  dedroyed,  advifed  the 
king  to  give  the  price  required.  The  woman  therefore  de-- 
livered  the  books,  and  having  defired  them  to  be  carefully 
kept,  difappeared.  Tarquin  committed  the  care  of  thofe 
books  to  two  men  of  illullrious  birth,  'one  of  whom,  prov- 
ing unfaithful  to  his  truft,  he  is  faid  to  have  punidied,  by 
ordering  him  to  be  fewed  up  alive  in  a fack,  and  thrown  into 
the  fea  ; the  mode  of  punifliment  afterwards  infli6led  upon 
parricides.  The  number  of  perfons  appointed  to  the  care  of 
thofe  oracles  was  iiicreafed,  at  different  times,  to  ten,  fif- 
teen, and  by  Julius  Caefar  to  fixteen.  The  Sibylline  books 
were  fuppofed  to  contain  the  fate  of  the  Roman  govern- 
ment, and  therefore,  upon  occafions  of  public  ganger  or 
calamity,  the  keepers  were  frequently  ordered  by  the  Senate 
to  confult  thofe  oracular  produdlions.  They  were  depofit- 
ed  in  a done  chefl,  under  ground,  in  the  temple  of  Jupiter  - 
Capitolinus  ; but  the  Capitol  being  burnt  in  the  time  of  the 
Marfic  war,  the  Sibylline  books  perifhed  with  it.  To  fup- 
ply  this  lofs,  w^e  are  informed  by  Tacitus  that  am-baffadors 
were  fent  every  where  to'colledt  the  oracles  of  the  Sibyls ; 
for  there  were  other  'women  of  this  denomination  befides 
Amalthaea  who  came  to  Tarquin.  One  of  them,  the  Ery- 
thrsean  Sibyl,  Cicero  tells  us,  ufed  to  utter  her  oracles  with 
fuch  ambiguity,  that  whatever  happened,  die  might  feem  to 
have  predicted  it. 



fKould  never  be  fubdued  but  by  a king,  Ctefar  ihould  have 
that  title  conferred  upon  him. 

LXXX.  ThivS  was  the  reafon  why  the  confpirators 
againft  his  life  precipitated  the  execution  of  their  dehgn, 
left  they  fhould  be  obliged  to  comply  with  the  propofal. 
Inftead  therefore  of  caballing  any  longer  feparately,  in 
fmall  parties,  they  now  united  their  .counfels  ; the  people 
themfelves  being  diflatisfied  with  the  prefent  ftate  of  af- 
fairs, both  privately  and  publicly  condemning  the  ty- 
ranny under  which  they  labored,  and  calling  out  for 
fome  patriots  to  aftert  their  caufe  againft  the  ufurper. 
Upon  the  admiflion  of  foreigners  into  the  Senate, ' a 
billet  was  pofted  up  in  thefe  words : “ A good  deed : 
that  no  one  fhould  fhew  a new  Senator  the  way  to  the 
houfe.’^  Thefe  verfes  were  likewife  currently  repeated  ; 

Gallos  Csefar  in  triumphum  ducit ; iidem  in  curia 
■ Galli  braccas  depofuerunt,  latum  clavum  fumpferunt. 

The  vanquilh’d  Gauls,  triumphant  from  diftrefs, 

Flave  chang’d  their  braces  for  Patrician  drefs. 

When  (T  Maximus,  who  had  been  deputed  by  him 
for  the  laft  three  months  of  his  Confulfliip,  entered  the 
theatre,  and  his  ofticer,  according  to  cuftom,  bid  the 
people  take  notice  who  was  coming,  they  all  cried  out, 
“ He  is  no  Conful.”  After  the  removal  of  Caefetius  and 
Marullus  from  their  office,  they  were  found  to  have 
a great  many  votes  at  the  next  eledlion  of  Confuls. 
Some  wrote  under  the  ftatue  of  L.  Brutus,  “ Would 
you  were  alive  1”  and  under  the  ftatue  of  Casfar  him- 
i’elf  thefe  lines : 

Brutus,  quia  reges  ejecit,  Conful  primus  fadlus  eft: 

Hie,  quia  Confules  ejecit,  rex  poftremo  faitus  eft. 


Julius  C^SAR* 


iBrutus,  becaufe  he  drove  the  royal  race 

From  Rome,  was  firft  made  Conful  in  their  place,  ^ 

This  man,  becaufe  he  put  the  Confuls  down, 

Has  been  rewarded  with  a regal  crown. 

Above  fixty  perfons  were  engaged  in  the  confpiracy 
againft  him,  the  chief  of  whom  were  C.  Caflius,  M.  and 
Decimus  Brutus.  It  was  at  firft  debated  amongft  them, 
whether  they  Ihould  attack  him  in  the  Field  of  Mars, 
as  he  was  fummoning  the  tribes  to  vote,  and  fome  of  them 
fhould  throw  him  off  the  bridge,  whilft  others  fhould  be 
ready  to  ftab  him  upon  his  fall  ; or  elfe  in  the  Sacred ' 
Way,  or  in  the  entrance  of  the  theatre.  But  after  pub- 
lic notice  was  given  by  proclamation  for  the  Senate  to 
aflemble  upon  the  Ides  of  March,  in  the  Senate-houfe 
built  by  Pompey,  they  approved  both  of  the  time  and 
place,  as  mofl  proper  for  their  purpofe. 

LXXXL  Caefar  had  warning  given  him  of  his  fate 
by  feveral  plain  prodigies.  A few  months  before,  when 
fome  of  the  colony  fettled,  by  virtue  of  a law  propofed 
by  himfelf,  at  Capua,  were  demolifhing  fome  old  fepui- 
clires,  for  the  building  of  country-houfes,  and  were  the 
more  eager  in  that  work,  becaufe  they  difeovered  fome 
vefTels  of  antique  workmanfhip;  a table  of  brafs  was 
found  in  a tomb,  in  which  Capys  the  founder  of  Capua 
was  faid  to  be  buried,  with  an  infeription  in  the  Greek 
language  to  this  efFedt : “ Whenever  the  bones  of  Capys 
come  to  be  difeovered,  a defeendent  of  Julus  will  be  flain 
by  the  hands  of  his  relations,  and  his  death  revenged  by 
dreadful  devaftatlons  throughout  Italy. Left  any  per- 
fon  fhould  regard  this  anecdote  as  a fabulous  ftory,  it 
was  circulated  upon  the  authority  of  C.  Balbus,  an  inti- 
mate friend  of  Csfar’s.  A few  days  likewife  before  his 
death,  fome  horfes,  which,  upon  his  paiTing  the  Rubi- 

' con. 

THE  ilFE  Of 


con,  he  had  confecrated,  and  Ipt  loofe  to  graze  wlfhotit 
any  keeper,  he  was  informed,  abhained  entirely  from 
eating,  and  wept  Gopioiiily.  The  footh-fayer  Spurinna^ 
upon  the  credit  of  fome  ominous  appearances  in  a facri- 
fice  which  he  was  offering,  advifed  him  to  beware  of 
danger  ; othefwife  that  fome  mifchief  wocld  befall  him 
before  the  Ides  of  March  were  over.  The  day  immedi- 
ately preceding  the  Ides,  birds  of  various  kinds  from  a 
neighbouring  grove,  purfuing  a wren  which  flew  into 
Pompey’s  Senate-houie,  with  a fprig  of  laurel  in  its  bili, 
tore  it  there  all  in  pieces.  7'he  night  too  before  the  day 
of  his  being  flain,  he  dreamed  that  he  had  got  above  the 
clouds,  and  had  fhaken  hands  with  Jupiter.  His  wife 
Calpurnia  fancied  in  her  fleep  that  the  roof  of  the  houfe 
was  tumblino;  down,  and  her  hufband  flabbed  in  her  bo- 
fom  ; immediately  upon  which  the  chamber-doors  flew 
open.  On  account  not  only  of  thefe  omens,  biU  his 
bad  flale  of  health,  he  was  in  fome  doubt  whether  he 
ihould  not  keep  at  home,  and  delay  to  fome  other  time 
the  bufinefs  which  he  intended  to  propofe  to  the  Senate  ; 
but  Decimus  Brutus  advifmg  him  not  to  difappoint  the 
Senators  who  were  met  in  a full  houfe,  and  waited  his 
coming,  he  was  prevailed  upon  to  go,  and  accordingly 
fet  forward  about  five  o’clock.  In  his  way,  there  was 
put  into  his  hands  a paper,  containing  an  account  of  the 
plot,  which  he  mixed  with  fome  other  papers  he  held  in 
his  left  hand,  as  if  he  would  read  it  by  and  by.  Not- 
withftanding  vidlim  after  vidfim  was  flain,  without  any 
favorable  appearances  in  the  entrails,  he,  difregarding. 
all  tliofe  admonitions,  entered  the  houfe,  laughing  at  Spu- 
rinna as  a falfe  prophet,  becaufe  the  Ides  of  March  were 
come,  tvithout  any  ’mifchief  having  befallen  him.  To 
which  the  footh-fayer  replied,  They  are  come,  indeed, 
but  not  part,” 




LXXXIT.  When  he  had  fat  down,  the  confpirators 
gathered  about  him  under  color  of  paying  their  com- 
pliments 5 and  immediately  Cimber  T ullius,  who  had  en- 
gaged to  begin  the  onfct,  advancing  nearer  than  the  rehj 
as  if  he  had  fome  favor  to  requefl;  of  him,  Csefar  made 
figns  to  him  to  defer  it  to  fome  other  time.  The  former 
immediately  feized  him  by  the  toga,  upon  both  fboulders  ; 
at  which  the  latter  crying  out,  “ This  is  plain  violence,’^ 
one  of  the  CafTius’s  wounded  him  a little  below  the  throat. 
Cffifar  laid  hold  of  him  by  the  arm,  and  ran  it  through 
with  his  ftyle  ; and  endeavoring  to  rufh  forward,  was 
hopped  by  another  wound.  Finding  himfelf  now  attacked 
on  all  hands  with  drawn  fwords,  he  wrapped  up  his  head 
In  his  toga,  and  at  the  fame  time  drew  the  lap  of  it  over 
his  legs,  that  he  might  fall  the  more  decently,  with  the 
lower  part  of  his  body  covered.  He  was  ftabbed  with  three 
and  twenty  wounds,  fetching  a groan  only  upon  the  firft 
wound  ; though  fome  authors  relate,  that  when  M.  Bru- 
tus came  upon  him,  he  faid,  “ MHiat  * art  thou  one  of 
them  too,  thou,  my  fon  f ?’’  The  confpirators  difperfing 


* The  Jtylus  or  graphium  Was  an  iron  pencil,  broad  at  one 
end,  with  a fliarp  point  at  the  other,  ufed  for  writing  upon 
waxen  tables,  the  leaves  or  bark  of  trees,  plates  of  brafs,  or 
lead,  &c.  For  writing  upon  paper  or  parchment,  the  Ro- 
mans employed  a reed,  fliarpened  and  fpiit  in  the  point  like 
our  pens,  called  calafmis,  arundo^  or  canna.  This  they  dip- 
ped in  a black  liquor  emitted  by  the  cuttle  hfli,  and  which 
ferved  them  as  ink. 

f This  paftage  is  tranflated  as  it  hands  in  moft  of  the  edi- 
tions of  Suetonius:  but  thefe  words  are  not  in  the  Salmafian 
copy,  and  I am  hrongly  inclined  to  rejeft  their  authority. 
It  is  extremely  improbable  that  Csefar, ^who  had  never  before 
avowed  Brutus  to  be  his  fon,  ilmuld  make  fo  unnecefTaiy 

F an 



themfelves  upon  the  perpetration  of  the  ad:,  he  lay  fof 
fome  time  after  he  was  dead,  until  three  of  his  flaves  put 
the  body  into  a chair,  and  carried  it  home,  with  one  of 
the  chair-poles  hanging  lower  than  the  refl,  for  want  of 
a fourth  man  to  bear  it.  Amongfl:  fo  many  wounds,  there 
was  none  mortal,  in  the  opinion  of  the  furgeon  Antiftius, 
but  the  fecond,  which  he  received  in  the  breafl.  The  con- 
fpirators  once  intended  to  drag  his  body,  after  they  had 
killed  him,  into  the  Tiber,  to  confifeate  his  eflate,  and 
cancel  all  the  ads  of  his  adminiftration  ; but  from  fear  of 
M.  Antony,  and  Lepidus,  Mafler  of  the  horfe  to  Caefar 
as  Didator,  they  relinquifhed  the  defign. 

LXXXIII.  At  the  inflance  of  L.  Pifo  his  father-in- 
law,  his  will  was  opened  and  read  in  M.  Antony’s  houfe, 
which  he  had  made  on  the  Tdes  of  the  preceding  Septem- 
ber, at  a country-feat  of  his  near  Lavicum,  and  had  com- 
mitted to  the  cuftody  of  the  cldefl  of  the  Veflal  Virgins. 

Tubero  informs  us,  that  in  all  his  wills,  made  from 
the  time  of  his  firfl:  Confuifliip  to  the  breaking  out  of  the 
civil  war,  Cn.  Pompey  was  his  heir,  and  the  fame  was 
notified  in  a public  manner  to  the  army.  , But  in  his  lafl, 
he  named  three  heirs,  thegrandfons  of  his  fiftersj  C.  Oc- 

an  acknowledgement  to  that  purpofe,  at  the  moment  of  his 
death.  Exclufive  of  this  objection,  the  apoflrophe  feems 
too  verbofe,  both  for  the  fuddennefs  and  celerity  of  the  oc- 
cafion.  But  this  is  not  all.  Can  we  fuppofe  that  Caefar, 
though  a perfed  mafler  of  the  Greek,  would  at  fuch  a time 
have  exprefled  liimfelf  in  that  language,  rather  than  the 
Latin,  his  familiar  tongue,  and  in  which  he  fpoke  with  pe- 
culiar elegance  ? Upon  the  whole,  the  probability  is,  that 
the  words  uttered  by  Caefar  were,  Et  tu  Brute  ! which,  while 
equally  expreflive  of  aftonifliment  with  the  other,  and  even 
of  tendernefs,  are  both  more  natural,  and  more  emphatic. 


JULIUS  C^SAR.  67' 

tavius  for  three  fourths  of  his  eftate,  and  L.  Pinarius 
and  Pedius  for  the  fourth  between  them : the  other 
heirs  in  remainder  were  fpecified  towards  the  conclufion 
of  the  will.  He  likewife  adopted  C.  06lavius  into  his  fa- 
mily, with  an  intention  that  he  fhould  affume  his  name* 
Moft  of  thofe  who  were  concerned  in  his  death  he  had 
named  amongft  the  guardians  of  his  fon,  if  he  fhould  have 
any  ; and  D.  Brutus  amongft  the  fecond  heirs.  He  left  as  a 
legacy  to  the  people  his  gardens  near  the  Tiber,  and  three 
hundred  fefterces  each  man. 

LXXXIV.  The  time  for  his  funeral  being  fixed  by 
proclamation,  a pile  was  eredted  in  the  Field  of  Mars, 
near  the  tomb  of  his  daughter  Julia  ; and  before  the  Rof* 
tra  a gilt  tabernacle,  in  the  form  of  the  temple  of  Venus 
Genitrix  ; within  which  was  an  ivory  bed,  covered  with 
fcarlet  and  cloth  of  gold.  At  the  head  was  a trophy, 
with  the  garment  in  which  he  was  flain.  Becaufe  it  was 
thought  that  the  whole  day  would  not  be  fulficient  for 
carrying  in  folemn  proceflion  before  the  corpfe  the  fune- 
ral oblations,  dire£lions  were  given  for  every  one,  with- 
out regard  to  order,  to  carry  them  into  the  field  by 
what  way  they  pleafed.  In  the  plays  adfed  at  the  fu- 
neral, feveral  paflages,  to  raife  pity  and  indignation  at 
his  death,  were  fung  from  Pacuvius’s  tragedy,  entitled, 
“ The  Trial  for  Arms.’^ 

Men’  me  fervafle,  ut  effent  qui  me  perderent  ? 

That  ever  I,  unhappy  man,  fliould  fave 

Wretches,  that  thus  have  brought  me  to  the  grave  ! 

And  fome  paftages  likewife  out  of  Attilius’s  tragedy,  call- 
ed Eledra,  to  the  fame  efFedl.  Inftead  of  a funeral  pane- 
gyric, the  Conful  Antony  ordered  a crier  to  read  aloud 

Fa  to 



to  the  company,  the  decree  of  the  Senate,  in  which  they  had 
beftowed  upon  him  ^11  honors  divine  and  human,  with  the 
oath  by  which  they  had  engaged  themfelves  for  the  defence 
of  his  perfon  ; and  to  thefe  he  added  only  a few  words  of 
his  ov/n.  The  magiftrates,  and  others  who  had  former- 
ly been  in  the  fame  capacity,  carried  the  bed  from  the 
Roftra  into  the  Forum.  While  fome  propofed  that  the 
body  fhould  be  burnt  in  the  moft  facred  apartment  of  the 
temple  of  Jupiter  Capitolinus,  and  others  in  Pompey’s  Se- 
nate-hoiife  ; on  a fudden  two  men,  with  fwords  by  their 
fides,  and  each  a couple  of  lances  in  their  hands,  fet  fire 
to  the  bed  with  lighted  torches.  Immediately  the  whole 
company  prefent  threw  in  dry  faggots,  the  defks  and 
benches  of  the  adjoining  courts,  and  whatever  came  to 
hand.  Then  the  muficians  and  players  ftripped  off  the 
cloaths  they  had  from  the  furniture  of  his  triumphs  for 
the  prefent  occafion,  tore  them,  and  threw  them  into  the 
flames.  His  veteran  foldiers  iikewife  call:  in  the  armour, 
which  they  had  put  on  to  attend  his  funeral.  Mofl:  of  the 
ladies  did  the  fame  by  tlieir  ornaments,  with  the  bullas  ^ 
and  coats  of  their  children.  In  this  public  mourning  there 
joined  a multitude  of  foreigners,  exprefling  their  forrow 
according  to  the  fafhion  of  their  refpedfive  countries  ; but 
efpecially  the  Jews,  who  for  feveral  nights  .together  fre- 
quented the  place  where  the  body  was  burnt. 

LXXXV.  Immediately  after  the  funeral,  the  populace 
ran  with  torches  to  the  houfes  of  Brutus  and  Caflius,  and 
were  with  difficulty  obliged  to  retire.  Going  in  quefl;  of 

The  Bulla^  generally  made  of  gold,  was  a hollow  globe 
which  boys  wore  upon,  their  breafl:,  pendent  from  a firing  or 
ribbon  put  round  the  neck.  The  foiis  of  freedinen  and  poorer 
citizens  ufed  only  globes  of  leather. 



Cornelius  Cinna,  who  had  the  day  before  in  a fpeech  re- 
fledled  feverely  upon  Csefar,  and  miftaking  for  him  Hel- 
vius Cinna,  w’ho  happened  to  fall  into  their  hands,  they 
murdered  the  latter,  and  carried  his  head  about  the  city  on 
the  point  of  a fpear.  They  afterwards  eredled  a column 
of  Numidian' marble,  coniifting  of  one  ftone  near  tw'en- 
ty  feet  high,  and  infcribed  upon  it  thefe  words,  “ To  the 
Father  of  his  Country  T At  this  column  they  continued 
for  a long  time  to  offer  facrifices,  make  vows,  and  decide 
Gontroverfics,  ufing  for  that  purpofe  an  oath  by  the  name 
of  Csefar. 

LXXXVT.  Some  of  Caefar’s  friends  entertained  a con- 
jeddure,  that  he  neither  defired  nor  cared  to  live  any  long- 
er, on  account  of  his  bad  hate  of  health  ; and  for  that  rea- 
fon  flighted  all  the  prognoftics  of  death,  and  the  informa- 
tion of  his  friends.  Others  are  of  opinion,  that  thinking 
himfelf  fecure  In  the  late  decree  of  the  Senate,  and  their 
oath,  he  difmiflTed  his  Spanifh  guards  that  attended  him 
with  their  fwords.  Others  again  fuppofe,  that  he  chofe 
. rather  to  encounter  the  dangers  which  threatened  him  on 
all  hands,  than  to  be  conflantly  on  his  guard  againfl; 
them.  Some  tell  us,  he  nfed  to  fay,  that  the  public  was 
more  interefled  in  the  fafety  of  his  perfon  than  himfelf : 
for  that  he  had  for  fome  time  been  fatiated  with  power 
and  glory;  but  that  the  commonwealth,  if  any  thing 
fhould  befall  him,  would  not  be  quiet,  and  would  involve 
itfelf  in  another  civil  war  upon  worfe  terms  than  before. 

LXXXVII.  This  how’ever  was  generally  admitted,  that 
his  death  was  almoll;  fuch  a one  as  he  defired  might  be  his 
fate.  For  upon  reading  the  account  delivered  by  Xenophon, 
how  Cyrus  in  his  lafl;  illncfs  gave  inftrudlions  about  his 
funeral,  not  liking  fo  lingering  a death,  he  wiflied  that  he 

F 3 might 



might  have  a fadden  and  quick  one.  And  the  day  before 
he  died,  the  converfation  at  table,  in  the  houfe  of  M.  Le- 
pidus, turning  upon  what  was  the  mofl  eligible  way  of 
dying,  he  gave  his  opinion  in  favor  of  a death  that  is  fud- 
den  and  unexpe6led, 

LXXXVIII.  He  died  in  the  hfty-fixth  year  of  his  age, 
and  was  ranked  amongfl:  the  Gods,  not  only  by  a formal 
decree,  but  in  the  real  perfuafion  of  the  vulgar.  For  dur- 
ing the  games  which  his  heir  Auguftus  gave  in  honor  of 
liis  memory,  a comet  blazed  for  feven  days  togQther,  rif- 
ing  always  about  eleven  o’clock  ; and  it  was  fuppofed  to 
be  the  foul  of  Casfar,  now  received  into  heaven:  for 
which  reafon  likewife  a ftar  is  reprefented  upon  the  crown 
of  his  flatue.  The  Senate-houfe  in  which  he  was  flain, 
was  ordered  to  be  kept  clofe  fhut,  and  a decree  made  that 
the  Ides  of  March  fliould  be  called  “ The  Parricide,”  and 
the  Senate  fhould  never  more  affemble  upon  that  day. 

LXXXIX.  Scarcely  any  of  thofe  who  were  accelTary 
to  his  murder,  furvived  him  more  than  three  years,  or 
expired  by  a natural  death.  They  were  all  condemned  by 
the  Senate : fome  were  taken  off  by  one  accident,  fome  by 
another.  Part  of  them  perifhed  at  fea,  others  fell  in  bat- 
tle : and  fome  flew  themfelves  with  the  fame  poniard  with 
which  they  had  flabbed  Caefan 

THE  termination  of  the  civil  war  between  Caefar  and 
Pompey  forms  a new  epoch  in  the  Roman  Hiflory,  at 
which  a Republic,  which  had  fubfifted  with  unrivalled 
glory  during  a period  of  about  four  hundred  and  flxty 




years,  relapfed  into  a ftate  of  defpotifm,  whence  it  never 
more  could  emerge.  So  fudden  a tranfitioii  from  profpe- 
rity  to  the  ruin  of  public  freedom,  without  the  interven- 
tion of  any  foreign  enemy,  excites  a reafonablc  conjec- 
ture, that  the  conftitution  in  which  it  could  take  place, 
however  vigorous  in  appearance,  muft  have  loft  that 
foundnefs  of  political  health  which  had  enabled  it  to  en- 
dure through  fo  many  ages.  A (hort  view  of  its  pre- 
ceding ftate,  and  of  that  in  which  it  was  at  the  time  of 
the  revolution  now  mentioned,  will  beft  afcertain  the 
foundation  of  fuch  a conjedbure. 

Though  the  Romans,  upon  the  expulfion  of  Tarquin, 
made  an  eflential  change  in  the  political  form  of  the  ftate, 
they  did  not  carry  their  deteftation  of  regal  authority  fo 
far  as  to  abolilh  the  religious  inftitutions  of  Numa  Pom- 
pilius the  fecond  of  their  kings,  according  to  which, 
the  priefthood,  with  all  the  influence  annexed  to  that  or- 
der, was  placed  in  the  hands  of  the  ariftocracy.  By  this 
wife  policy  a reftraint  was  put  upon  the  flcklenefs  and 
violence  of  the  people  in  matters  of  government,  and  a 
decided  fuperiority  given  to  the  Senate  both  in  the  delibe- 
rative and  executive  parts  of  adminiftration.  This  ad- 
vantage was  afterwards  indeed  diminifhed  by  the  creation 
of  Tribunes  of  the  people  ; a fet  of  men  whofe  ambition 
often  embroiled  the  Rej^ublic  in  civil  diftentions,  and  who 
at  laft  abufed  their  authority  to  fuch  a degree,  that  they 
became  iiiftruments  of  aggrandifement  to  any  leading  men 
in  the  ftate,  who  could  purchafe  their  friendftiip.  In 
general,  however,  the  majority  of  the  Tribunes  being 
adluated  by  views  which  comprehended  the  interefts  of 
the  multitude  rather  than  thofe  of  individuals,  they  did 
not  fo  much  endanger  the  liberty  as  they  interrupted  the 
tranquillity  of  the  public ; and  when  the  occafional  com- 

F 4 motions 


motions  fubfided,  there  remained  no  permanent  ground 
for  the  eftablilliment  of  per-fonal  ufurpation. 

In  every  government,  an  objedl  of  the  lafl;  importance 
to  the  peace  and  welfare  of  fociety  is  the  morals  of  the 
people  ; and  in  proportion  as  a community  is  enlarged  by 
propagation  or  the  acceffion  of  a multitude  of  new  mem- 
bers, a more  ftri6l  attention  is  requifite  to  guard  againft 
that  difTolution  of  manners  to  which  a crowded  and^ex- 
tenfive  capital  has  a natural  tendency.  Of  this  the  Ro- 
mans became  fenfible  in  the  growing  flate  of  the  Republic, 
In  the  year  of  the  City  312,  two  magiflrates  were  firfl  cre- 
ated for  taking  an  account  of  the  number  of  the  people, 
and  the  value  of  their  eflates  ; and  foon  after  they  were  In- 
vefted  with  the  authority  not  only  of  infpe6ling  the  mo- 
rals of  individuals,  but  of  inflldling  public  cenfure  for  any 
licentioufnefs  of  condu6t,  or  violation  of  decency.  Thus 
both  the  civil  and  religious  inflitutions  concurred  to  reflrain 
the  people  within  the  bounds  of  good  order  and  obedience 
to  the  laws  ; at  the  fame  time  that  the  frugal  life  of  the 
ancient  Romans  proved  a ftrong  fecurity  againfl:  thofe 
vices  which  operate  moft  effectually  towards  gapping  the 
foundations  of  a ftate. 

But  in  the  time  of  Julius  C^far  the  barriers  of  public 
liberty  were  become  too  weak  to  reflrain  the  audacious 
efforts  of  cfmbitious  and  defperate  men.  The  veneration 
for  the  conflitutlon,  ufually  a powerful  check  to  treafon- 
able  deiigns,  had  been  lately  violated  by  the*  ufurpations 
of  Marius  and  Sylla.  The  falutary  terrors  of  religion 
no  longer  predominated  over  the  confciences  of  men.  The 
fha'me  of  public  cenfure  was  extlnguilhed  in  general  de- 
pravity. An  eminent  hiflorian  who  lived  in  that  time, 
informs  us,  that  venality  univerfaliy  prevailed  amongft 



*7  ■> 


the  Romans ; and  a writer  who  flourlfhed  foon  after 
obferves,  that  luxury  and  diffipation  had  encumbered  aU 
mod:  all  fo  much  with  debt,  that  they  beheld  with  a dc- 
gree  of  complacency  the  profpedt  of  civil  war  and  con- 

The  extreme  degree  of  profligacy  at  which  the  Romans 
were  now  arrived,  is  in  nothing  more  evident,  than  that 
this  age  gave  birth  to  the  mod;  horrible  confpiracy  w^’hich 
occurs  in  the  annals  of  human  kind,  viz.  that  of  Cati- 
line. This  was  not  the  projedl;  of  a few  defperate  and 
abandoned  individuals,  but  of  a number  of  men  of  the 
mod  iiludrious  rank  in  the  date ; and  it  appears  beyond 
doubt,  that  Julius  Csefar  was  acceflfary  to  the  defign, 
which  was  no  lefs  than  to  extirpate  the  Senate,  divide 
atnongd  themfeives  both  the  public  and  private  treafures, 
and  fet  Rome  on  £re.  The  caufes  wdiich  prompted  to 
this  tremendous  projeci',  it  is  generally  admitted,  w^erc 
luxury,  prodigality,  irreligion,  a total  corruption  of  man- 
ners, and  above  all,  as  the  immediate  caufe,  the  prefiing 
neceflity  in  which  the  confpirators  were  involved  by  their 
extreme  diffipation. 

The  enormous  debt  in  which  Csfar  himfelf  was  early 
involved,  countenances  an  opinion  that  his  anxiety  to  pro- 
cure the  province  of  Gaul  proceeded  chiefly  from  this 
caufe.  But  during  nine  years  in  w^hich  he  held  that  pro- 
vince, he  acquired  fuch  riches  as  mud  have  rendered  him, 
without  competition,  the  mod  opulent  perfon  in  the  date. 
If  nothing  more,  therefore,  than  a fplendid  edablifhment 
had  been  the  objedl  of  his  purfuit,  he  had  attained  to  the 
fummit  of  his  w’ifhes.  But  when  we  find  him  perfever- 
ing  in  a plan  of  aggrandifement  beyond  this  period  of  his 
fortunes,  we  can  alcribe  his  conduct  to  no  other  mo- 




tive  than  that  of  outrageous  ambition.  He  proje6led  the 
building  of  a new  Forum  at  Rome,  for  the  ground  only 
of  which  he  was  to  pay  800,000  pounds : he  raifed  le- 
gions in  Gaul  at  his  own  charges  : he  promifed  fuch  en- 
tertainments to  the  people  as  had  never  been  known  at 
Rome  from  the  foundation  of  the  city.  All  thefe  circuin- 
flances  evince  forae  latent  defign  of  procuring  fuch  a por 
pularity  as  might  give  him  an  uncontroied  influence  in 
the  management  of  public  affairs.  Pompey,  we  are  told, 
was  wont  to  fay,  that  Caefar  not  being  able,  with  all  his 
riches,  to  fulfil  the  promifes  which  he  had  made,  wiflied 
to  throw  every  thing  into  confufion.  There  may  have 
been  fome  foundation  for  this  remark  ; but  the  opinion 
of  Cicero  is  more  probable,  that  Caefar’s  mind  was  fe- 
duced  with  the  temptations  of  chimerical  glory.  It  is 
obfervable  that  neither  Cicero  nor  Pompey  intimates  any 
fufpicion  that  Csfar  was  apprehenfivc  of  being  impeach- 
ed for  his  condudl,  had  he  returned  to  Rome  in  a private 
ffation.  Yet,  that  there  was  reafon  for  fuch  an  appre- 
henlion,  the  pofitive  declaration  of  L.  Domitius  leaves 
little  room  to  doubt ; efpecially  w^hen  we  confider  the 
number  of  enemies  that  Caefar  had  in  the  Senate,  and  the 
coolnefs  of  his  former  friend  Pompey  ever  after  the  death 
of  Julia.  The  propofed  impeachment  was  founded  upon 
a notorious  charge  of  profecuting  meafures  deftrudtive 
to  the  interefts  of  the  commonwealth,  and  tending  ulti- 
mately to  an  objedb  incompatible  with  public  freedom.  In- 
deed, confidering  the  extreme  corruption  which  prevailed 
amongfl:  the  Romans  at  this  time,  it  is  more  than  pro- 
bable that  Caefar  would  have  been  acquitted  of  the  charge, 
but  at  fuch  an  expence  as  mufl  have  Ibripped  him  of  all 
his  riches,  and  placed  him  again  in  a fituation  ready  to 
attempt  a difturbance  of  the  public  tranquillity.  For  it  is 
laid,  that  he  purchafsd  the  fricndfl:ilp  of  Curio,  at  the 



commencement  of  the  civil  war,  with  a bribe  little  fhort 
of  half  a million  flerling. 

Whatever  Csefar’s  private  motive  may  have  been  for  tak- 
ing arms  againrt:  his  country,  he  embarked  in  an  enterprife 
of  a nature  the  moft  dangerous : and  had  Pompey  condu6l- 
cd  himfelf  in  any  degree  fultable  to  the  reputation  which  he 
had  formerly  acquired,  the  contefl:  would  in  all  probability 
have  terminated  in  favor  of  public  freedom.  But  by  dila- 
tory meafures  in  the  beginning,  by  imprudently  withdraw- 
ing his  army  from  Italy  into  a difiant  province,  and  by  net 
purfuing  the  advantage  he  had  gained  by  the  vigorous  re- 
pulfe  of  Caefar’s  troops  in  their  attack  upon  his  camp, 
this  commander  loft  every  opportunity  of  extinguiftiing 
a war  which  was  to  determine  the  fate,  and  even  the 
exiftence  of  the  Republic.  It  was  accordingly  determin- 
ed on  the  plains  of  Pharfalia,  where  Csfar  obtained  a 
vieftory  which  was  not  more  decifive  than  nnexpedled. 
He  was  now  no  longer  amenable  either  to  the  tribunal  of 
the  Senate  or  the  power  of  the  laws,  but  triumphed  at 
once  over  his  enemies  and  the  conftitution  of  his  country. 

It  is  to  the  honor  of  Caefar,  diat  when  he  had  ob- 
tained the  fiipreme  power,  he  exercifed  it  with  a degree 
of  moderation  beyond  what  was  generally  expedled  by 
thofe  who  had  fought  on  the  fide  of  the  Republic. 
Of  his  private  life  either  before  or  after  this  period,  little 
is  tranfmitted  in  hlftory.  Henceforth,  however,  he  feems 
to  have  lived  chiefly  at  Rome,  near  which  he  had  a 
fmall  villa,  upon  an  eminence  commanding  a beautiful 
profpecl.  His  time  was  almoft  entirely  occupied  with 
public  affairs,  in  the  management  of  which,  tliough  he 
employed  many  agents,  he  appears  to  have  had  none  in 
the  charadler  of  adual  minifter.  He  was  in  general  eafy 



of  accefs : but  Cicero,  in  a letter  to  a friend,  complains 
of  having  been  treated  with  the  indignity  of  waiting  a con- 
fiderable  time  amongfl  a crowd  in  an  anti-chamber,  be- 
fore he  could  have  an  audience.  The  elevation  of  Csfar 
placed  him  not  above  difcharging  reciprocally  the  foclal 
duties  in  the  intercourfe  of  life.  He  returned  the  vifits 
of  thofe  who  waited  upon  him,  and  would  fup  at  their 
houfcs.  At  table,  and  in  the  ufe  of  wine,*  he  was  habi- 
tually temperate.  Upon  the  whole,  he  added  nothing  to 
his  own  happinefs  by  all  the  dangers,  the  fatigues,  and 
the  perpetual  anxiety  which  he  had  incurred  in  the  pro- 
fecution  of  unlimited  power.  His  health  was  greatly  im- 
paired : his  former  chearfulnefs  of  temper,  but  never  his 
magnanimity,  appears  to  have  forfaken  him  ; and  we 
behold  in  his  fate  a memorable  example  of  illuftrious 
talents  rendered,  by  inordinate  ambition,  deftrudtive  to 
himfelfj  and  irretrievably  pernicious  to  his  country. 

From  beholding  the  ruin  of  the  Roman  Republic,  after 
inteftine  divihons,  and  the  diftra^lions  of  civil  war,  it 
will  afford  foine  relief  to  take  a view  of  the  progrefs  of 
literature,  which  flourifhed  even  during  thofe  calamities. 

The  commencement  of  literature  in  Rome  is  to  be 
dated  from  the  redudllon  of  the  Grecian  States,  when  the 
conquerors  imported  into  their  own  country  the  valuable 
prcdu6iions  of  the  Greek  language  ; and  the  firH  effay  of 
Li-i/ius  Andro-  Roman  genius  was  in  dramatic  corapoli- 
tion.  Livius  Andronicus,  who  flourifhed 
about  240  years  before  the  Chiiflian  sra,  formed  the 
Felcennine  verfcs  into  a kind  of  regular  drama,  upon 
the  model  of  the  Greeks.  He  was  fol- 
lowed fome  time  after  by  Ennius,  who,  be- 
fides  dramatic  and  other  compofitions,  wrote  the  annals 




of  the  Roman  Republic  in  heroic  verfe.  His  flyle,  like 
that  of  Andronicus,  was  rough  and  unpolilhed,  in  con- 
.formity  to  the  language  of  thofe  times ; but  for  grandeur 
of  fentiment  and  energy  of  cxprefTion,  he  was  admired 
by  the  greateft  poets  in  the  fubfequent  ages.  Other 
writers  of  diftinguilhed  reputation  in  the  dramatic  de- 
partment were  Nsevius,  Pacuvius,  Plautus,  Afranius, 
Caecilius,  Terence,  Accius,  &c.  Accius  and  Pacuvius 
ar'e  mentioned  by  Quintilian  as  writers  of  extraordinary^ 
merit.  Of  twenty-five  comedies  written  ^ , 

by  Plautus,  the  number  tranfmitted  to 
poflerity  is  nineteen  ; and  of  a hundred  and  eight  which 
Terence  is  faid  to  have  tranllated  from 
Menander,  there  now  remain  only  fix.  • 

Excepting  a few  inconfiderable  fragments,  the  WTitings 
of  all  the  other  authors  have  periflied.  The  early  pe- 
riod of  Roman  literature  was  diftinguifhed  for  the  in- 
troduclion  of  fatire  by  Lucilius,  an  author  celebrated  for 
writing  v/ith  remarkable  eafe,  but  whofe  coinpofitions, 
in  the  opinion  of  Horace,  though  Quintilian  thinks 
otherwife,  w^ere  debafed  with  a mixture  of  feculency. 
Whatever  may  have  been  their  merit,  they  alfo  have 
periihed,  with  the  works  of  a number  of  orators,  w'ho 
adorned  the  advancing  flate  of  letters  in  the  Roman  Re- 
public. It  is  obfervable,  that  during  this  whole  period, 
of  near  two  centuries  and  a half,  there  appeared  not  one 
hiflorlan,  of  eminence  fufficient  to  prcferve  his  name 
from  oblivion. 

Julius  Caifar  himfelf  is  one  of  the  mofl  eminent  writers 
of  the  age  in  which  he  lived.  His  Commentaries  on 
tlie  Gallic  and  Civil  Wars  are  v/ritten  with  a purity,  pre- 
cifion,  and  perfpicuitv,  that  command  appisobation.  They 
are  elegant  without  affedtation,  and  beautiful  without 




ornament.  Of  the  two  books  which  he  compofed  on 
Analogy,  and  thofe  under  the  title  of  Anti-Cato,  fcarcely 
any  fragment  is  preferved  ; but  we  may  be  affured  of  the 
juftnefs  of  the  obfervations  on  language,  wliich  were 
made  by  an  author  fo  much  diftinguifhed  by  the  excel- 
lence of  his  own  compofitions.  His  poem  entitled  the 
Journey,  which  was  probably  an  entertaining  narrative, 
is  likewife  totally  loft. 

The  moft  illuftrious  profe  writer  of  this  or  any  other 
age  is  M.  Tullius  Cicero  ; and  as  his  life  is  copioufly 
M.  I’ulUus  recited  in  biographical  works,  it  will  be 

Cicero.  fufficient  to  mention  his  writings.  From 

his  earlieft  years,  he  applied  himfelf  with  unremitting 
affiduity  to  the  cultivation  of  literature,  and,  whilft  he 
was  yet  a boy,  wrote  a poem,  called  Glaucus  Pontius, 
which  was  extant  in  Plutarch’s  time.  Amongft  his 
juvenile  productions  was  a tranflation  into  Latin  verfe, 
of  Aratus  on  the  Phaenomena  of  the  Heavens ; of 
which  many  fragments  are  ftill  extant.  He  alfo  pub- 
lifticd  a poem  of  the  heroic  kind,  in  honor  of  his  coun- 
tryman C.  Marius,  who  was  born  at  Arpinum,  the 
birth-place  of  Cicero.  This  production  was  greatly  ad- 
mired by  Atticus ; and  old  Scsvola  was  fo  much  pleafed 
wdth  it,  that  in  an  epigram  written  on  the  fubject,  he 
declares  that  it  would  live  as  long  as  the  Roman  name 
and  learning  fubfifted.  From  a little  fpecimen  which  re- 
mains of  it,  deferibing  a memorable  omen  given  to 
Marius  from  an  oak  of  Arpinum,  there  is  reafon  to 
believe  that  his  poetical  genius  was  fcarcely  inferior  to 
his  oratoriai,  had  it  been  cultivated  with  equal  induftry* 
He  pubiifhed  another  poem  called  Limon,  of  which 
Donatus  has  preferved  four  lines  in  the  Life  of  Terence, 
in  praife  of  the  elegause  and  purity  of  that  poet’s  ftyle. 


JULIUS  cjesa:r. 


He  compofecl,  in  the  Greek  language,  and  in  the  ftyle 
and  manner  of  Ifocrates,  a Commentary  or  Memoirs  of 
the  Tranfadions  of  his  Confulfhip.  This  he  fent  to 
Atticus,  with  a defire,  if  he  approved  it,  to’  publlfh  it  in 
Athens  and  the  cities  of  Greece.  He  fent  a copy  of  it  like- 
wife  to  Pofidonius  of  Rhodes,  and  requefled  of  him  to 
undertake  the  fame  fubje61;  in  amore  elegant  and  maflerly 
manner.  But  the  latter  returned  for  anfwer,  that,  inflead 
of  being  encouraged  to  write  by  the  perufal  of  his  traiSt, 
he  was  quite  deterred  from  attempting  it. 

Upon  the  plan  of  thofe  Memoirs,  he  afterwards  com- 
pofed  a Latin  poem  in  three  books,  in  which  he  carried 
down  the  hiftory  to  the  end  of  his  exile,  but  did  not  pub- 
lifh  it  for  feveral  years  from  motives  of  delicacy.  The 
three  books  w^ere  feverally  infcribed  to  three  of  the  Mufes ; 
but  of  this  work  there  now  remain  only  a few  frag- 
ments, fcattered  in  different  parts  of  his  other  writings. 
He  publiflied,  about  the  fame  time,  a coUcdlioii  of  the 
principal  fpeeches  which  he  had  made  in  his  Confulfliip, 
under  the  title  of  his  Confular  Orations.  They  confifted 
originally  of  twelve  ; but  four  are  entirely  loft,  and  fome 
of  the  reft  are  imperfedl.  He  now  publiflied  alfo  iii 
Latin  verfe  a tranflation  of  the  Prognoft  ics  of  Aratus,  of 
which  work  no  more  than  two  or  three  fmall  fragments 
now’  remain.  A few  years  after,  he  put  the  laft  hand  to 
his  Dialogues  upon  the  Charadler  and  Idea  of  the  perfedl 
Orator.  This  admirable  work  remains  entire  ; a monu- 
ment both  of  the  aftonilhing  induftry  and  tranfcendent 
abilities  of  its  author.  At  his  Cuman  villa,  he  next 
began  a Treatife  on  Politics,  or  on  the  heft  State  of  a 
City,  and  the  Duties  of  a Citizen.  He  calls  it  a great 
and  laborious  work,  yet  worthy  of  his  pains,  if  he  could 
fucceed  in  it.  Tiiis  iikewife  was  written  in  the  form  of 
' a dialogue. 



a dialogue,  in  which  the  fpeakers  were  Scipio,  Laelius, 
Pliilus,  Manilius,  and  other  great  perfons  in  the  former 
times  of  the  Republic.  It  was  comprifed  in  fix  books, 
and  furvived  him  for  feveral  ages,  though  now  unfor- 
tunately loll.  From  the  fragments  which  remain,  it  ap- 
pears to  have  been  a mafterly  produdlion,  in  which  all 
the  important  queflions  in  politics  and  morality  were  dif- 
cufied  with  elegance  and  accuracy.  . 

AmidR  all  the  anxiety  for  the  interefls  of  the  Republic, 
which  occupied  the  thoughts  of  this  celebrated  perfonage, 
he  yet  found  leifure  to  write  feveral  philofophical  trails, 
which  ftili  fubfifl  to  the  gratification  of  the  literary  world. 
He  compofed  a treatife  on  the  Nature  of  the  Gods,  in 
three  books,  containing  a comprehenfive  view  of  re- 
ligion, faith,  oaths,  ceremonies,  &cc.  In  elucidating  this 
important  fubjedl,  he  not  only  delivers  the  opinions  of 
all  the  philofophers  wlio  had  written  any  thing  concerning 
it,  but  weighs  and  compares  attentively  all  the  arguments 
with  each  other  ; forming  upon  the  whole  fuch  a rational 
and  perfect  fyfieni  of  natural  religion,  as  never  before 
was  prefented  to  the  confideration  of  mankind,  and  ap- 
proaching nearly  to  revelation.  He  now  likewife  com- 
pofed, in  two  books,  a difeourfe  on  Divination,  in  which 
Ite  difculTes  at  large  all  the  arguments  that  may  be  ad- 
vanced for  and  againfl:  the  adlual  exiflience  of  fuch  a 
fpecies  of  knowledge.  Like  the  preceding  works,  it  is 
Vvritten  in  the  form  of  dialogue,  and  called  Cato  from 
the  principal  fpeaker.  The  fame  period  gave  birth  to  his 
treatife  on  Old  Age,  called  Cato  IMajor ; and  to  that  on 
Frlendfiiip,  written  alfo  in  dialogue,  and  in  which  the 
chief  fpeaker  is  Lselius.  This  book,  conlidered  merely 
as  an  eilay,  is  one  of  the  mofi:  entertaining  produdlions 
of  ancient  times  ; but,  beheld  as  a picture  drawn  from  life, 




exhibiting  the  real  chara61ers  and  fentirrients  of  men  of 
the  firh;  diftin£l:ion  for  virtue  and  wifdom  in  the  Romafl 
Republic,  it  becomes  doubly  interefling  to  every  reader 
of  obfervation  and  tafte.  Cicero  now  alfo  wrote  hie 
Difeourfe  on  Fate,  which  was  the  fubje£t  of  a conver- 
fatidn  with.  Hirtius,  in  liis  villa  near  Puteoli;  and  he 
executed  about  the  fame  time  a tranflation  of  Plato’s  cele-= 
brated  dialogue,  called  Timseus,  on  the  nature  and  origin 
of  the  univerfe.  He  was  employing  himfelf  alfo  on  a 
hiftory  of  his  own  times,  or  rather  of  his  own  condudt  ; 
flill  of  free  and  fevere  refle6lions  on  tbofe  who  had 
abufed  their  power  to  the  oppreihon  of  the  Republic/ 
Dion  Caflius  fays,  that  he  delivered  this  book  fealed  up 
to  his  foil,  with  ftridl  orders  not  to  read  or  publifh  it  till 
after  his  death  ; but  from  this  time  he  never  faw  his  fon^ 
and  it  is  probable  that  he  left  the  work  unfinhhedi 
Afterwards,  however;  fome  copies  of  it  were  circulated  * 
from  which  hiS  commentator  Afeonius  haS  (][uoted  feveral 

During  a voyage  which  he  undertook  to  Sicily,  he 
wrote  his  treatife  on  Topics;  or  the  Art  of  finding  Argu- 
ments on  any  Queftion.  This  was  an  a])fl:ra61:  front 
Ariftotle’s  treatife  on  the  fame  fubje6l: ; and  though  he 
had  neither  Ariftotle,  nor  any  other  book  to  aflift  him, 
he  drew  it  up  from  his  memory,  and  hnifhed  it  as  he 
failed  along  the  coaft  of  Calabria.  The  laft  work  com- 
pofed  by  Cicero  appears  to  have  been  his  Offices,  written 
for  the  ufe  of  his  fon,  to  whom  it  is  addreffed.  This 
treatife  contains  a fyflem  of  moral  condu6l,  founded  upon 
the  nobieft  principles  of  human  adlion,  and  recommended 
by  arguments  drawn  from  the  pureft  fources  of  philo- 





Such  are  the  literary  produdlions  of  this  extraordinary 
man,  whofe  comprehenfive  underftanding  enabled  him  to 
condudl  with  fuperior  ability  the  moft  abftrufe  difquifi- 
tions  into  moral  and  metaphyrical  fcience.  Born  in  an 
age  pofterior  to  Socrates  and  Plato,  he  could  not  antici- 
pate the  principles  inculcated  by  thofe  divine  philofophers, 
but  he  is  juftly  entitled  to  the  praife,  not  only  of  having 
profecuted  with  unerring  judgment  the  fteps  which  they 
trod  before  him,  but  of  carrying  his  fefearches  to  greater 
extent  into  the  moll  difficult  regions  of  philofophy.  This 
too  he  had  the  merit  to  perform,  neither  in  the  ftation  of 
a private  citizen,  nor  in  the  leifure  of  academic  retire- 
ment, but  in  the  buftle  of  public  life,  amidfi:  the  almoll 
conflant  exertions  of  the  bar,  the  employm.ent  of  the  ma- 
giflrate,  the  duties  of  the  Senator,  and  the  inceffant  cares 
of  the  ftatefman ; through  a period  likewife  checquered 
with  domeflic  affli6tions  and  fatal  commotions  in  the 
Republic.  As  a philofopher,  his  mind  appears  to  have 
been  clear,  capacious,  penetrating,  and  infatiable  of  know- 
ledge. As  a writer,  he  was  endowed  with  every  talent 
that  could  captivate  either  the  judgment  or  tafte.  His 
refearches  were  continually  employed  on  fubjedls  of  the 
greateft  utility  to  mankind,  and  thofe  often  fuch  as  ex- 
tended beyond  the  narrow  bounds  of  temporal  exiftence. 
The  being  of  a God,  the*  immortality  of  the  foul,  a 
future  ftate  of  rewards  and  punifhments,  and  the  eternal 
diftindlion  of  good  and  ill ; thefe  were  in  general  the 
great  objefls  of  his  philofophical  enquiries,  and  he  has 
placed  them  in  a more  convincing  point  of  view,  than 
they  ever  were  before  exhibited  to  the  pagan  world.  The 
variety  and  force  of  the,  arguments  which  he  advances, 
the  fplendor  of  his  di(9;ion,  and  the  zeal  with  which  he 
endeavors  to  excite  the  love  and  admiration  of  ^virtue  ; 
all  confpire  to  place  his  character,  as  a philofophical 



writer,  including  likewife  his  incomparable  eloquence,  on 
the  fummit  of  human  celebrity. 

The  form  of  dialogue,  fo  much  ufed  by  Cicero,  he 
doubtlefs  adopted  in  imitation  of  Plato,  who  probably 
took  the  hint  of  it  from  the  colloquial  method  of  inflruc-' 
tion  pradifed  by  Socrates.  In  the  early  ftage  of  phllo- 
fophical  enquiry,  this  mode  of  compofition  'was  well  ad- 
apted, if  not  to  the  difcovery,  at  lead:  to  the  confirma-’ 
tion  of  moral  truth ; efpecially  as  the  pradfice  was  then 
not  uncommon,  for  fpeculative  men  to  converfe  together 
. on  important  fubje6Is,  for  mutual  information.  In  treat- 
ing of  any  fubjecl  refpedfing  which  the  different  feds  of 
philofophers  differed  from  each  other  in  point  of  fenti- 
ment,  no  kind  of  compofition  could  be  more  happily 
fuited  than  dialogue,  as  it  gave  alternately  full  fcope 
to  the  arguments  of  the  various  difputants.  It  required, 
however,  that  the  writer  fhould  exert  his  underftanding 
with  equal  impartiality  and  acutenefs  on  the  different 
fides  of  the  queftion  ; as  otherwife  he  might  betray  a 
caufe  under  the  appearance  of  defending  it.  In  all  the 
dialogues  of  Cicero,  he  manages  the  arguments  of  the 
feveral  difputants,  in  a manner  not  only  the  mofi:  fair  and 
interefting,  but  alfo  fuch  as  leads  to  the  mofi:  probable 
and  rational  conclufion. 

After  enumerating  the  various  trads  compofed  and 
publifiied  by  Cicero,  we  have  now  to  mention  his  Letters, 
which,  though  not  written  for  publication,  deferve  to  be 
ranked  among  the  mofi;  interefting  remains  of  Roman 
literature.  The  number  of  fucli  as  are  addreffed  to  differ- 
ent correfpondents  is  confiderable,  but  thofe  to  Atticus 
alone,  his  confidential  friend,  amount  to  upwards  of  four 
hundred;  among  which  are  many  of  great  length.  They 
are  all  written  in  the  genuine  fpirit  of  the  moft  approved 

G a epiftolary 



epiftolary  compofitioii ; uniting  familiarity  \vith  eleva* 
tion,  and  eafe  with  elegance.  They  difplay  in  a beauti* 
ful  light  the  author’s  chara6ler  in  the  focial  relations  of 
life;  as  a warm  friend,  a zealous  patron,  a tender  huf- 
band,  an  affedlionate  brother,  an  indulgent  father,  and  a 
kind  mafter.  Beholding  them  in  a more  cxtenfive  view, 
they  exhibit  an  ardent  love  of  liberty  and  the  conftitution 
of  his  country  : they  difcover  a mind  ftrongly  actuated 
with  the  principles  of  virtue  and  reafon ; and  while  they 
abound  in  fentiments  the  lii oft  judicious  and  philofophical, 
they  are  occafionally  blended  with  the  charms  of  wit* 
and  agreeable  efFufions  of  pleafantry.  What  is  likewife 
no  fmall  addition  to  their  merit,  they  contain  much  in* 
terefting  defcription  of  private  life,  with  a variety  of  in- 
formation relative  to  public  tranfa61;ions  and  chara£lers 
of  that  age.  It  appears  from  Cicero’s  correfpondence, 
that  there  was  at  that  time  fuch  a number  of  illuftrious 
Romans,  as  never  before  exifled  in  any  one  period  of  the 
Republic.  If  ever,  therefore,  the  authority  of  men  the 
mod  refpe6lable  for  virtue,  rank,  and  abilities,  could  have 
availed  to  overawe  the  firft  attempts  at  a violation  of 
public  liberty,  it  mud  have  been  at  this  period  ; for  the 
dignity  of  the  Roman  Senate  was  now  in  the  zenith  of 
its  fplendor« 

Cicero  has  been  accufed  of  excedive  vanity,  and  of 
arrogating  to  himfelf  an  invidious  fuperiority  from  his 
extraordinary  talents  i but  whoever  perufes  his  letters  to 
Atticus,  mud  readily  acknowledge^  that  this  imputation 
appears  to  be  deditute  of  truth.  In  thofe  excellent  pro* 
dudlions,  though  he  adduces  the  dronged  arguments  for 
and  againd  any  objedf  of  confideration,  that  the  mod  pene- 
trating underdanding  can  fugged,  weighs  them  with  each 
other,  and  draws  from  them  the  mod  rational  conelu- 
fions,  he  yet  difcovers  fueh  a diffidence  in  his  own  opi- 



nioii,  that  he  refigns  himfelf  implicitly  to  the  judgment 
and  direction  of  his  friend;  a modefly  not  very  compati- 
ble with  the  dlfpofition  of  the  arrogant,  who  are  com- 
monly tenacious  of  their  own  opinion,  particularly  in 
"Vvhat  relates  to  any  decifion  of  the  underftanding. 

It  is  difficult  to  fay,  whether  Cicero  appears  in  his 
letters  more  great  or  amiable  : but  that  he  was  regarded 
by  his  contemporaries  in  both  thefe  lights,  and  that  too 
in  the  highefl  degree,  is  fufficiently  evident.  We  may 
thence  infer,  that  the  great  poets  in  the  fubfequent  age 
mufl;  have  done  violence  to  their  own  liberality  and  dif- 
cernment,  when,  in  compliment  to  Auguftus,  whofe  fenh- 
bility  would  have  been  wounded  by  the  praifesof  Cicero, 
and  even  by  the  mention  of  his  name,  they  have  fo  in- 
du ftrioufly  avoided  the  fubjedl:,  as  not  to  afford  the  moft 
diftant  intimation  that  this  immortal  orator  and  phllofo- 
pher  had  ever  exifted.  Livy,  however,  there  is  reafoii 
to  think,  did  fome  juftice  to  his  memory  : but  it  was  not 
until  the  race  of  the  Caifars  had  become  extincl:,  that  he 
received  the  free  tind  unanimous  applaufe  of  impartial 
pofterity.  Such  was  the  admiration  which  Quintilian 
entertained  of  his  writings,  that  he  confidered  the  clrcum- 
Ifance  of  being  delighted  with  them,  as  an  indubitable 
proof  of  judgiuent  and  taide  in  literature.  Ille  fe  prof ecijje 
Jclaty  cm  Cicero  valde  placebit. 

In  this  period  Is  likewife  to  be  placed  M.  -Terentius 
Varro,  the  celebrated  Roman  gramm.arlan,  and  the  Neftor 
of  ancient  learning.  The  hrfl;  mention 
made  of  him  is  that  he  was  lieutenant  to 
Pompey  in  his  piratical  wars,  and  ob- 
tained in  that  fervice  a naval  crown.  In  the  civil  wars 
he  joined  the  fide  of  the  Republic,  and  was  taken  by 
G 3 Caefar ; 

M.  Tnentius 
F' 'zrro. 



C^far;  by  whom  he  was  likewife  profcribed,  but  ob-* 
tained  a remiffion  of  the  fentence.  Of  all  the  ancients, 
he  has  acquired  the  greateft  fame  for  his  extenfive  erudi- 
tion ; and  we  may  add,  that  he  difplayed  the  fame  jn- 
duflry  in  communicating,  as  he  had  done  in  colledbing 
jt.  His  works  originally  amounted  to  no  lefs  than  five 
hundred  volumes,  which  have  all  perifhed,  except  a 
treatife  De  Lingua  Latina^  and  one  De  Re  Rnjiica.  Of 
the  former  of  thefe,  which  is  addrelTcd  to  Cicero,  three 
books  at  the  beginning  are  alfo  loft.  It  appears  from  the 
introdu6lion  of  the  fourth  book,  that  they  ail  related  to 
etymology.  The  firfl  contained  fuch  obfervations  as 
might  be  made  againfl:  it  j the  fecond,  fuch  as  might  be 
made  in  its  favor ; and  the  third,  obfervations  upon  it. 
He  next  proceeds  to  inveftigate  the  origin  of  Latin  words. 
In  the  fourth  book,  he  traces  thofe  which  relate  to  place  ; 
in  the  fifth,  thofe  conne6led  with  the  idea  of  time  ; and 
in  the  fixth,  the  origin  of  both  thefe  clafles,  as  they  ap- 
pear in  the  writings  of  the  poets.  The  feventh  book  is 
employed  on  declenfion  ; in  which  the  author  enters  upon 
a minute  and  extenfive  enquiry,  comprehending  a variety 
of  acute  and  profound  obfervations  on  the  formation  of 
Latin  nouns,  and  their  refpedlive  natural  declinations 
from  the  nominative  cafe.  In  the  eighth,  he  examines 
the  nature  and  limits  of  ufage  and  analogy  in  language ; 
and  in  the  ninth  and  laft  book  on  the  fubjedl,  takes  a 
general  viev^  of  what  is  the  reverfe  of  analogy,  viz. 
anomaly.  The  precifion  and  perfpicuity  which  Varro 
(lifplays  in  this  work  merit  the  highefl  encomiums,  and 
juflify  the  charadler  given  him  in  his  own  time,  of  being 
the  moft  learned  of  the  Latin  grammarians.  To  the 
lofs  of  the  hrft  three  books,  are  to  be  added  feveral 
chafms  in  the  others  ; but  fortunately  they  happen  in  fuch 
places  as  not  to  afledl  the  coherency  of  the  author's 




<3o6liine,  thougli  they  interrupt  the  illuftration  of  it.  It 
is  obfervable  that  this  great  grammarian  makes  ufe  of , 
quom  for  quuniy  heh  for  his^  and  generally  queis  for  quibus. 
This  pra6iice  having  become  rather  obfolete  at  the  time 
in  which  he  wrote,  we  muft  impute  his  continuance  of  it 
to  his  opinion  of  its  propriety,  upon  eftablifhed  principles 
of  grammar,  and  not  to  any  prejudice  of  education, 
or  an  alFe61:ation  of  fingularity.  As  Varro  makes  no 
mention  of  Csefar’s  treatife  on  Analogy,  and  had  com- 
menced author  long  before  him,  it  is  probable  that  Caefar’s 
production  was  of  a much  later  date  ; and  thence  we  may 
infer,  that  thofe  two  writers  differed  from -each  other,  at 
leaf:  with  refpect  to  fome  particulars  on  that  fubjedt. 

This  author’s  treatife  De  Re  Rujiica  was  undertaken 
at  the  defire  of  a friend,  who,  having  purchafed  fome 
lands,  requefted  of  Varro  the  favor  of  his  inftruCtions 
relative  to  farming,  and  the  economy  of  a country-life, 
in  its  various  departments.  Though  Varro  was  at  this 
time  in  his  eightieth  year,  he  writes  with  all  the  vivacity, 
though  without  the  levity  of  youth,  and  fets  out  wdth  in- 
voking, not  the  Mufes,  like  Homer  and  Ennius,  as  he  ob- 
ferves,  but  the  twelve  deities  fuppofed  to  be  chiefly  con- 
cerned in  the  operations  of  agriculture.  It  appears  from 
the  account  which  he  gives,  that  upwards  of  fifty  Gi'eek 
. authors  had  treated  of  this  fubjcCl  in  profe,  befides  Heiiod 
and  Menecrates  the^Ephefian,  who  both  wTote  in  verfe ; 
exclufive  likewife  of  many  Roman'writers,  and  of  Mago 
the  Carthaginian,  who  wrote  in  the  Punic  language. 
Varro’s  work  is  divided  into  three  books,  the  firfl:  of 
which  treats  of  agriculture  ; the  fecond,  of  rearing  of 
cattle ; and  the  third,  of  feeding  animals  for  the  ufe  of  the 
table.  In  the  laft  of  thefe,  we  meet  with  a remarkable 
inflance  of  the  prevalence  of  habit  and  fafhion  over  hu- 
G 4 man 



jnan  fentiment,  where  the  author  delivers  Inflrudlions 
relative  to  the  heft  method  of  fattening  rats. 

We  find  from  Quintilian,  that  Varro  likewife  com-? 
pofed  fatires  in  various  kinds  of  verfe.  It  is  impofiible  to 
behold  the  numerous  fragments  of  this  venerable  author 
without  feeling  the  ftrongefl  regret  for  the  lofs  of  that 
vafl  collection  of  information  which  he  had  compiled, 
and  of  judicious  obfervations  which  he  had  made  on  a 
variety  of  fubjeCts,  during  a life  of  eighty-eight  years, 
almoft  entirely  devoted  to  literature.  The  remark  of  St. 
Augufiin  is  well  founded,  That  it  is  aftonilhing  hovy 
Varro,  who  read  fuch  a number  of  books,  could  find 
time  to  compofe  fo  many  volumes  ; and  how  he  who 
compofed  fo  many  volumes,  could  be  at  leifure  to  perufc 
fuch  a variety  of  books,  and  to  gain  fo  much  literary 

Catullus  is  fald  to  hav^i  been  born  at  Verona,  of  re- 
fpeClable  parents  ; his  father  and  himfelf  being  in  the 
habit  of  intimacy  with  Julius  Casfar.  He 
was  brought  to  Rome  by  Mallius,  to 
whom  feveral  of  his  epigrams  are  ad- 
dreffed.  The  gentlenefs  of  his  ifianners,  and  his  appli- 
cation to  ftudy,  we  are  told,  recommended  him  to  gene- 
ral efieem  ; and  he  had  the  good  fortune  to  obtain  the 
patronage  of  Cicero.  When  he  came  to  be  known  as  a 
poet,  all  thefe  circum  fiances  would  naturally  contribute 
to  increafe  his  reputation  for  ingenuity  ; and  accordingly 
we  find  his  genius  applauded  by  feveral  of  his  contem- 

poraries. It  appears  that  his  works  are  not  tranfmitted 
entire  to  pofierity ; but  there  remain  fufficient  fpecimens 
by  which  we  may  be  enabled  to  appreciate  his  poetical 




Quintilian,  and  Diomed  the  grammarian,  have  ranked 
Catullus  amongft  the  iambic  writers,  while  others  have 
placed  him  ainongft  the  lyric.  He  has  properly  a claim 
to  each  of  thefe  ftations  ; but  his  verfification  being 
chiefly  iambic,  the  former  of  the  arrangements  feems  to 
be 'the  mofl;  fuitable.  The  principal  merit  of  Catullus’s 
lambics  confifts  in  a fimplicity  of  thought  and  expref- 
fion.  The  thoughts,  however,  are  often  frivolous,  and 
what  is  yet  more  reprehenfible,  the  author  gives  way  to 
grofs  obfeenity  : in  vindication  of  which  he  produces  the 
following  couplet,  declaring  that  a good  poet  ought  to  be 
chafte  in  his  own  perfon,  but  that  his  verfes  need  not 
be  fo. 

Nam  caftum  effe  decet  pium  poetam 
Jpfum  : verflculos  nihil  necefle  eft. 

This  fentiment  has  been  frequently  cited  by  thofe  wdio 
were  inclined  to  follow  the  example  of  Catullus  ; but  if 
fuch  a pradtice  be  in  any  cafe  admiflTible,  it  is  only  where 
thf.  poet  perfonates  a profligate  charadler ; and  the  in- 
fiances  in  which  it  is  adopted  by  Catullus  are  not  of  that 
deferiptioa.  It  had  perhaps  been  a better  apology,  to 
have  pleaded  the  manners  of  the  times  ; for  even  Horace, 
w'ho  wTote  only  a few  years  after,  has  fuffered  his  com- 
pofitions  to  be  occafionally  debafed  by  the  fame  kind  of 
biemifli.  ^ 

Much  has  been  faid  of  this  poet’s  invedlive  againfl: 
Csefar,  which  produced  no  other  efliedl  than  an  invitation 
to  fup  at  the  Didtator’s  houfe.  It  was  indeed  fcarcely 
entitled  to  the  honor  of  the  fmallefl;  refentment.  If  any 
could  be  Ihewn,  it  mud  have  been  for  the  freedom  ufed 
bv  the  author,  and  not  for  any  novelty  in  his  lampoon. 
There  are  two  poems  on  this  fubjedt,  viz.  the  29th,  and 




,57th,  in  each  of  which  C^sfar  is  joined  with  Mamurra, 
a Roman  knight,  who  had  accjuired  great  riches  in  the 
Gallic  war.  For  the  honor  of  Catullus’s  gratitude,  we 
iliould  fuppofe  that  the  latter  is  the  one  to  which  hif- 
torians  allude  : but,  as  poetical  compofitions,  they  are 
equally  unworthy  of  regard.  The  57th  is  nothing  more 
than  a broad  repetition  of  the  raillery,  w^hether  w'ell  or 
ill  founded,  with  which  Caefar  was  attacked  on  various 
occalions,  and  even  in  the  Senate,  after  his  return  from 
Bithynia.  Caefar  had  been  taunted  with  this  fubjed:  for 
upwards  of  thirty  yea'rs  ; and  after  fo  long  a familiarity 
with  reproach,  his  fenfibility  to  the  fcandalous  imputation 
rnufl:  now  have  been  much  dimini  filed,  if  not  eiitirelv 
extinguifhed. . The  other  poem  is  partly  in  the  fame 
flrain,  but  extended  to  greater  length,  by  a mixture  of 
the  common  jocular  ribaldry  of  the  Roman  foldiers,  ex- 
prefTed  nearly  in  the  fame  terms  which  Caefar’s  legions, 
though  flrongly  attached  to  his  perfon,  fcrupled  not  to 
fport  publicly  in  the  ftreets  of  Rome,  againft  their  ge- 
neral, during  the  celebration  of  his  triumph.  In  a w^ord, 
it  deferves  to  be  regarded  as  an  effufion  of  Saturnalian 
licentioufnefs,  rather  than  of  poetry.  With  refped  to 
the  lambics  of  Catullus,  we  may  obferve  in  general,  that 
the  farcafrn  is  indebted  for  its  force,  not  fo  much  to  in- 
genuity of  fen  riment,  as  to  the  indelicate  nature  ofLthe 
fubjed,  or  coarfenefs  of  expreflion. 

• % 

The  defcriptlve  poems  of  Catullus  are  fuperior  to  the 
others,  and  difcover  a lively  imagination.  Amongfl  the 
bcft  of  his  produdions,  is  a tranflation  of  the  celebrated 
ode  of  Sappho  : 

Hie  mi  par  elfe  Deo  videtur, 

Hie,  &c. 




This  ode  is  executed  both  with  fplrlt  and  elegance: 
it  is  however  imperfedt ; and  the  laft  hanza  feems  to  he 
fpurious,  Catullus’s  epigrams  are  entitled  to  little  praife, 
with  regard  either  to  fentiment  or  point  ; and  on  the 
whole,  his  merit,  as  a poet,  appears  to  have  been  mag- 
nified beyond  its  real  extent.  He  is  faid  to  have  died 
about  the  thirtieth  year  of  his  age. 

Lucretius  is  the  author  of  a celebrated  poem,  in  lix 
books,  De  Rtrum  Natura  ; a fubje£t  which  had  been 
treated  many  ages  before  by  Empedocles,  » 
a philofopher  and  poet  of  Agrigentum.  Carus, 

Lucretius  was  a zealous  partizan  of  Democritus,  and  the 
fe6t  of  Epicurus,  whofe  principles  concerning  the  eter- 
nity of  matter,  the  materiality  of  the  foul,  and  the  jion- 
exlfience  of  a future  fiate  of  rewards  and  punilhments, 
he  affects  to  maintain  with  a certainty  equal  to  that  of 
mathematical  demonftration.  Strongly  prepofTeffed  with 
the  hypothetical  do61:rines  of  his  mafler,  and  ignorant  of 
the  phyfical  fyflem  of  the  univerfe,  he  endeavors  to  de- 
duce from  the  phenomena  of  the  material  world  conclu- 
fions  not  only  unfupported  by  legitimate  theory,  but  re- 
pugnant to  principles  of  the  higheft  authority  in  metaphy- 
ficai'  difqulfition.  But  while  we  condemn  his  fpeculative 
notions  as  degrading  to  human  nature,  and  fubverfive  of 
the  moft  Important  interefts  of  mankind,  we  mull:  admit 
that  he  has  profecuted  his  vlfionary  hypothefis  wdth  un- 
common ingenuity.  Abll:ra61ing  from  the  rhapfodical 
nature  of  this  produiSlion,  and  its  obfeurity  in  fome 
parts,  it  has  great  merit  as  a poem.  The  ftyle  is  ele- 
vated, and  the  verfification  in  general  harmonious.  By 
the  mixture  of  obfolete  words,  it  pofTeffes  an  air  of  fo- 
lemnity  well  adapted  to  abfirufe  refearches  ; at  the  fame 
time  that  by  the  frequent  refolution  of  diphthongs,  it  iri- 


THE  lllFE  OF 


ft  ills  into  the  Latin  the  fonorous  and  melodious  powers 
of  the  Greek  language. 

While  Lucretius  was  engaged  in  this  work,  he  fell 
into  a ftate  of  infanity,  occafioned,  as  is  fuppofed,  by  ^ 
philtre,  or  love-potion,  given  him  by  his  v^ife  Lucilia. 
The  complaint  however  having  lucid  intervals,  he  em-» 
ployed  them  in  the  execution  of  his  plan,  and,  foon  after 
it  was  finifhed,  laid  violent  hands  upon  himfelf,  in  the 
forty-third  year  of  his  age.  This  fatal  termination  of  his 
life,  wdiich  perhaps  proceeded  from  infanity,  was  afcrib- 
ed  by  his  friends  and  admirers  to  his  concern  for  the  ba- 
nifhment  of  one  Memmius,  with  whom  he  was  inti- 
mately connedled,  and  for  the  diflradled  ftate  of  the  Re- 
public. It  was  however  a cataftrophe  which  the  princi- 
ples of  Epicurus,  equally  erroneous  and  irreconcileable 
to  refignation  and  fortitude,  authorized  in  particular  cir- 
cumftances.  Even  Atticus,  the  celebrated  correfpondent 
of  Cicero,  a few  years  after  this  period,  had  recourfe  to 
the  fame  defperate  expedient,  by  refufing  all  fuftenance, 
while  he  labored  under  a lingering  dlfeafe. 

It  is  faid  that  Cicero  revifed  the  poem  of  Lucretius  af- 
ter the'  death  of  the  author,  and  this  circutnftance  is. 
urged  by  the . abettors  of  atheifm,  as  a proof  that  the 
principles  contained  in  the  work  had  the  fandlion  of  Ills 
authority.  But  no  inference  in  favor  of  Lucretius’s 
dodlrine  can  juftly  be  drawn  from  this  circumftance; 
Cicero,  though  already  fufficiently  acquainted  with  the 
principles  of  the  Epicurean  fedi,  might  not  be  aveife'  to 
the» reading  of  a produdlion,  wdiich  colledted  and  enforc- 
ed them  In  a nervous  ftrain  of  poetry  ; efpecially  as  the 
wmrk  was  likely  to  prove  interefting  to  his  friend  Atticus, 
and  would  perhaps  afford  fubjedl  for  foine  letters  c«r 

c Oliver- 



converfatlon  between  them.  It  can  have  beeil  dnJy  with 
rcfpe^l  to  compofition  that  the  poem  was  fubmitted  to 
Cicero’s  revifal  : for  had  he  been  to  have  exercifed  his 
judgment  upon  the  principles  of  it,  he  mufl:  undoubtedly 
have  fo  much  mutilated  the  work,  as  to  deftroy  the  cohe- 
, rency  of  the  fyftem.  He  might  be  gratified  with  the  fhew 
of  elaborate  refearch,  and  confident  declamation,  which  it 
exhibited,  but  he  mufl;  have  utterly  difapproved  of  the 
conclufions  which  the  author  endeavored  to  eftablilli* 
According  to  the  befl:  information,  Lucretius  died  in  the 
year  from  the  building  of  Rome  701,  when  Pompey. 
was  the  third  time  Confiil.  Cicero  lived  feveral  years 
beyond  this  period,  and  in  the  two  lafl;  years  of  his  life^ 
he  compofed  thofe  valuable  works  which  contain  fend- 
ments  diametrically  repugnant  to  the  vifionary  fyftem  of 
Epicurus.  The  afgument,  therefore,  drawm  from  Ci- 
cero’s revifal,  fo  far  from  confirming  the  principles  of 
Lucretius,  affords  the  ftrongeft  tacit  declaration  againft 
their  validity  ; becaufe  a penod  fufficientfor  mature  con- 
fideration,  had  elapfed  before  Cicero  publiflied  his  own 
admirable  fyftem  of  philofophy.  The  poem  of  Lucre- 
tius, neverthelefs,  has  been  regarded  as  the  bulwark  of 
atheifm — of  atheifm,  which,  while  it  impioufly  arrogates 
the  fupport  of  reafon,  both  reafon  and  nature  difclaim- 

Many  more  writers  flouriflied  in  this  period,  but  their 
works  have  totally  perifhed.  Salluft  was  now  engaged  in 
hiftorical  produdlions ; but  as  they  were  not  yet  complet- 
ed} they  will  be  noticed  in  the  next  divifion  of  the  review. 

( 94  ) 


I.  THAT  the  family  of  the  O^lavii  was  of  the 
firif  diftin£lion  in  V elitr^,  is  rendered  evident  by  many 
circumflances.  For  in  the  moft  frequented  part  of  the 
town,  there  was,  not  long  fince,  a ftreet  named  Odlavius  ; 
and  an  altar  was  to  be  feen,  confecrated  to  one  Odlavius, 
who  being  chofen  general  in  a war  with  fome  neighbour- 
ing people,  the  enemy  making  a fudden  attack,  w’hile  he 
was  facrificing  to  the  God  Mars,  he  immediately  fnatched 
the  entrails  of  the  vidlim  from  off  the  fire,  and  offered  them 
half  raw  upon  the  altar  ; after  which,  marching  out  to 
battle,  he  returned  vidforious.  This  incident  gave  rife  to 
a law,  by  which  it  was  enadted,  that  in  all  future  times 
the  entrails  fhould  be  offered  to  Mars  in  the  fame  manner, 
and  the  reft  of  the  facrifice  be  carried  to  the  Odlavii, 

IT.  This,  amongft  feveral  other  Roman  families,  was 
taken  into  the  Senate  by  Tarquinius  Prifcus,  and  foon 
after  advanced  by  Servius  Tullius  into  the  body  of  Patri- 
cians ; but  in  procefs  of  time  returned  to  the  commons, 
and  was  again  railed  by  Julius  Casfar  to  the  Patrician  dig- 
nity. The  firft  perfon  of  the  family  advanced  by  the  fuf- 
frages  of  the  people  to  any  poft  in  the  government,  was 
C.  Rufus.  He  obtained  the  Quaefforfhip,  and  had  two 
foils,  Cneius  and  Caius  ; from  whom  are  defcended  the 
two  branches  of  that  family,  very  different  in  their  cir- 
cumffances.  For  Cneius  and  his  defcendents  in  an  unin^ 




terrupted  fucceffion  held  all  the  great  offices  of  flate ; 
whilft  Caius  and  his  poflerity,  whether  from  fortune  or 
choice,  remained  in  the  Equeflrian  order  until  the  father 
of  Augullus.  The  great  grandfather  of  Auguftus  ferved 
in  the  capacity  of  a Tribune  in  the  fecond  Punic  war  in 
Sicily,  under  the  command  of  ^milius  Pappus.  His 
grandfather  contented  himfelf  with  bearing  the  public  of- 
fices of  his  borough,  and  grew  old  in  the  quiet  enjoyment 
of  a plentiful  eflate.  Such  is  the  account  given  by  differ- 
ent authors.  Auguflus  himfelf,  however,  fays  no  more 
than  that  he  was  defcended  of  an  Equeflrian  family,  both 
ancient  and  rich,  and  in  which  his  father  was  the  firft 
that  obtained  the  rank  of  a Senator.  Mark  Antony  up- 
braidingly  tells  him  that  his  great  grandfather  \xas  a freed- 
man  of  the  territory  of  Thurii,  and  a rope-maker,  and 
his  grandfather  a banker.  This  is  all  the  information  I 
have  any  where  met  with,  refpe6ling  the  anceflors  of  Au- 
guflus by  the  father’s  fide. 

III.  His  father  C.  Odlavius  was,  from  his  firfl  fetting 
out  in  the  world,  a perfon  both  of  opulence  and  diflinc- 
tion : for  which  reafon  I am  furprifed  at  thofe  who  fay 
that  he  was  a banker,  and  was  employed  to  diflribute  mo- 
ney amongfl  the  citizens  for  the  candidates  at  eledlions, 
and  other  fimilar  occafions,  in  the  Field  of  Mars.  For 
being  bred  up  in  all  the  affluence  of  a great  eflate,  he  at- 
tained with  eafe  to  honorable  pofls,  and  difcharged  the  du- 
ties of  them  with  approbation.  After  his  Prjstorfhip,  he 
got  by  lot  the  province  of  Macedonia  ; in  his  way  to  which 
he  cut  off  fome  banditti,  the  relics  of  the  armies  of  Spar- 
tacus and  Catiline,  who  had  poffeffed  themfelves  of  the 
territory  of  Thin  ii ; having  received  from  the  Senate  an 
extraordinary  commiffion  for  that  purpofe.  In  his  go- 

^6  THE  ilFE  OF 

vernment  of  the  province,  he  condiiiled  himfelf  with 
equal  juftice  and  refolution:  for  he  defeated  the  Beilians 
and  Thracians  in  a great  battle,  and  treated  the  Republic 
jn  fuch  a manner,  that  there  are  extant'fome  letters  from 
M.  Tullius  Ciceroj  iii  which  he  advifes  and  exhorts  his 
brother  Quintus,  who  then  held  the  ProconfuKliip  of  Aha 
with  no  great  character,  to  imitate  the  example  of  his 
neighbour  Octavius,  in  gaining  the  affeifions  of  the  allies 
of  Rome, 

IV.  After  quitting  Macedonia,  before  he  could  dec  lard 
himfelf  a candidate  for  the  Confulfhlp,  he  died  fuddenlyj 
leaving  behind  him  one  daughter,  by  Ancliaria,  and  a 
younger  daughter,  with  Auguhus,  whom  he  had  by  Ada  ; 
who  was  the  daughter  of  M.  Atius  Balbus,  and  Julia 
fifter  to  C.  Julius  Csefar.  Balbus  was  originally,  by  the 
father’s  fide,  of  Aricia,-  of  a family  many  ef  which  had 
been  ip  the  Senate.  By  the  mother’s  fide  he  was  nearly 
related  to  Pompey  the  Great ; and  after  he  had  borne  the 
office  of  Praetor,  was  one  of  the  twenty  commiffioners 
appointed  by  the  Julian  law  to  divide  the  land  in  Campa- 
nia amongft  the  people.  But  Mark  Antony,  in  con- 
tempt of  Auguftus’s  defcent  by  the  mother’s  fide,  fays 
that  his  great  grandfathef  was  an  African,  who  at  one 
time  kept  a perfumer’s  fhop,  and  at  another  a bake-houfe 
in  Aricia.  And  Caffius  of  Patma,  in  a letter,  reproaches 
him  with  being  the  fon  not  only  of  a baker,  but  a banker,' 
in  thefe  words  : “ Thou  art  a lump  of  thy  mother’s  meal,- 
v/hich  a money-changer  of  Nerulum  taking  from  a late 
bakehoufe  of  Aricia,  kneaded  up  into  fome  ffiape,  with 
his  hands  ail  difcolored  by  the  fingering  of  money.” 

V.  Auguflus  was  born  in  the  Confulffiip  of  Tuk^ 
« 8 Bui? 


lius  Cicero  and  Antony,  upon  the  ninth  of  the  kalends 
of  October,  a little  before  fun-rife,  in  the  ward  of  theTa- 
latiurn,  at  the  fign  of  the  Ox-Heads,  where  now  flands 
a chapel  dedicated  to  him,  and  built  a little  after  his  death. 
For,  as  it  is  recorded  in  the  tranfadlions  of  the  Senate, 
when  C.  Le6lorius,  a young  man  of  a Patrician  fami-» 
ly,  in  deprecating  the  judgment  of  the  Senators,  upon  his 
being  convicted  of  adultery,  all  edged,  befides  his  youth  and 
quality,  that  he  was  the  poffeiTor,  and  as  it  were  the  war- 
den of  the  ground  that  Auguflus  firfl;  touched  upon  his 
coming  into  the  world  ; and  entreated  that  he  might  find 
favor,  for  the  fake  of  that  God,  who  was  in  a peculiar 
manner  his  ; ' an  a6l  of  the  Senate  was  pafied,  for  the 
confecration  of  that  part  of  his  houfe  in  which  Auguflus 
was  born. 

VI.  His  nurfery  is  to  this  day  fliewn,  in  a feat  belong- 
ing to  the  family  near  Velitrs  ; being  a very  fmall  place, 
and  much  like  a pantry.  An  opinion  prevails  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood, that  he  was  born  there  too.  Into  this  place 
no  perfon  prefumes  to  enter,  unlefs  upon  necefiity,  and. 
w'ith  great  devotion,  from  a belief,  for  a long  time  pre- 
valent, that  fuch  as  rafhly  enter  it  are  feized  with  great 
horror  and  confiernation,  which  a fhort  while  fince  was 
confirmed  by  a remarkable  incident.  For  when  a perfon, 
upon  his  firfl  coming  to  live  in  the  houfe,  had^  either  by 
mere  chance,  or  to  try  the  truth  of  the  report,  taken  up 
his  lodging  in  that  apartment,  he  was  a few  hours  after 
throwni  out  by  a fudden  violence,  he  knew  not  how,  and 
was  found  in  a ilate  of  flupefadlion,  with  his  bed,  before 
the  door  of  the  chamber. 

VII.  While  he  was  yet  an  infant,  the  furname  of  Thu- 
nnus w’as  given  him,  in  memory  of  the  origin  of  his 

H family  j 



family  ; or  becaufe,  foon  after  his  birth,  his  father  Octa- 
vius had  been  fuccefsful  againft  the  fugitive  flaves,  in  the 
country  near  Thurii.  That  he  w^s  furnamed  Thurinus^ 
I can  afiirm  upon  good  foundation,  I inyfelf,  whilft  a 
boy,  having  had  a little  old  brazen  image  of  him,  with 
that  name  upon  it,  in  iron  letters,  but  almofl:  effaced ; 
which  I prefented  to  the  emperor,  by  whom  it  is  now  wor- 
Ihipped  amongfl;  his  other  tutelar  deities.  He  is  often  like- 
wife,  by  way  of  reproach,  called  Thurinus,  by  Mark  An- 
tony, in  his  letters  ; to  which  he  makes  only  this  reply  : 
“ I am  furprifed  that  I fhoiild  be  upbraided  with  my  former 
name  as  a fcandal.’^  He  afterwards  aflumed  the  name 
of  C.  Casfar,  and  then  of  Auguftus  ; the  former  in  com- 
pliance with  the  will  of  his  great-uncle,  and  the  latter 
upon  a motion  of  Munatius  Plancus  in  the  Senate  : when 
fome  propofing  to  confer  upon  him  the  name  of  Romu- 
lus, being  as  it  were  a fecond  founder  of  the  city,  it  was 
carried  that  he  fliould  rather  be  called  Auguflus,  a name 
not  only  new,  but  of  more  dignity  ; becaufe  places  devot- 
ed to  religion,  and  thofe  in  which  any  thing  is  confecrat- 
ed  by  Augury,  are  denominated  Augufl,  either  from  the 
word  au^usy  fignifying  augmentation,  or  ah  avium  geftu, 
gujtuve,  from  the  motion  and  feeding  of  birds  j as  appears 
from  this  line  of  Ennius : 

Augufto  augurio  poflquam  inclyta  condita  Roma  eft. 

When  Rome  by  auguft  augury  was  built. 

VIII.  He  loft  his  father  when  he  w'as  only  four  years 
of  age ; and,  in  his  twelfth  year,  pronounced  a funeral 
oration  in  praifs  of  his  grand-mother  Julia.  Four  years 
after,  having  aflumed  the  manly  habit,  he  w^as  honored 
with  feveral  military  prefents  from  Caefar  in  his  African 
triump]],  though  then  too  young  for  luch  fervice.  Upon 



his  uncle’s  going  to  Spain  againfl:  the  fons  of  Pompey, 
though  fcarcely  recovered  from  a dangerous  ficknefs^ 
lie  followed  him ; and  after  being  (hipwrecked  at  fea^ 
and  travelling  with  few  attendants,  through  roads  that 
were  befet  by  the  enemy,  he  at  laft  came  up  with  him. 
This  inftance  of  adtiviry  gave  great  fatisfadtion  to  his 
uncle,  who  foon  conceived  an  cncreafing  atfedlion  for 
him,  on  account  of  the  indications  of  genius.  After  the 
redudlion  of  Spain,  while  Casfar  was  meditating  an  ex- 
pedition  againfl:  the  Dacians  and  Parthians,  he  w^as  fenC 
before  liim  to  Apollonia,  where  he  applied  himfelf  to 
his  ftudies,  until  receiving  intelligence  that  his  uncle  was 
murdered,  and  himfelf  left  his  heir,  he  was  for  fome  time 
in  doubt  w'hether  he  fliould  requefl:  the  afliftance  of  the 
legions  which  were  neareft  that  place  ; but  at  lafl  aban- 
doned the  defign  as  ralli  and  unfeafonable.  He  returned 
however  to  Rome,  and  entered  upon  the  eftate,  though  his 
mother  was  apprehenhve  that  fuch  a meafure  might  be- 
attended  with  danger,  and  his  flep -father,  M.  Philippus, 
a man  of  Confular  rank,  very  earneftly  difluaded  him  from 
it.  From  this  time,  colledling  together  a flrong  military 
force,  be  firfl  held  the  government  in  conjundlion  with 
M.  Antony  and  M.  Lepidus,  then  with  Antony  alone  for 
almofl:  twelve  years,  and  at  lafl;  by  himfelf  during  a period 
of  four  and  forty* 

IX.  Having  thus  exhibited  a very  fhort  fummary  of 
his  life,  I iliall  profecute  the  feveral  parts  of  it,  not  ia 
order  of  time,  but  arranging  them  into  diflin(£l  clafTes, 
for  the  fake  of  perfpiculty*  He  was  engaged  in  five  civil 
Xvars,  viz.  that  of  Modena,  Philippi,  Peiufia,  Sicily,  and 
Adlium  ; the  firfl:  and  laft  of  which  were  againfl  Antony, 
and  the  fecond  againfl  Brutus  and  Cafiius : the  third 
againfl  L.  Antony,  brother  to  the  Triumvir,  and  the 

FI  2 fourth 



fourth  againft  Sextus  Pompey,  the  fon  of  Cneius  Pom*^ 

X.  The  motive  which  gave  rife  to  all  thefe  wars  was 
an  opinion,  that  both  his  honor  and  intereft  were  concern- 
ed in  revenging  the  murder  of  his  uncle,  and  maintaining  his 
eflabhfhments.  Immediately  upon  his  return  from  Apol- 
lonia, he  formed  the  defign  of  making  an  attack  upon 
Brutus  and  CafTius  by  furprife  ; but  they  having  forefeen 
and  avoided  the  danger,  he  refolyed  to  proceed  againft 
them  by  an  appeal  to  the  laws,  and  profecute  them  for 
murder  in  their  abfence.  In  the  mean  time,  thofe  whofe 
province  it  was  to  prepare  the  public  diverfions,  intended 
for  the  celebration  of  Csefar’s  fuccefs  in  the  civil  war,  not 
daring  to  exert  themfelves  upon  the  occafion,  he  took  the 
charge  of  the  whole  upon  himfclf.  And  that  he  might 
execute  his  other  purpofes  with  greater  vigor,  he  de- 
clared himfelf  a candidate  in  the  room  of  a Tribune  of  the 
commons  who  died  at  that  time,  though  he  was  of  a Pa- 
trician family,  and  had  not  yet  been  in  the  Senate.  But 
the  Conful  M.  Antony,  from  whom  he  had  expected  the 
greateft  afliftance,  oppofing  him  in  his  fuit,  and  even  re- 
fufing  to  do  him  fo  much  as  common  judice,  unlefs  gra- 
tified with  a large  bribe,  he  went  over  to  the  party  of  the 
nobility,  to  whom  he  perceived  him  to  be  odious,  chiefly 
for  endeavoring  to  drive  D.  Brutus,  whom  he  befieged 
in  the  town  of  Modena,  out  of  the  province,  which' had 
been  given  him  by  Caefar,  and  confirmed  to  him  by  the 
Senate.  At  the  inftigation  of  perfons  about  him,  he  engag- 
ed fome  ruffians  to  murder  his  antagonifl.  But  the  plot  be- 
ing difeovered,  and  dreading  a fimilar  attempt  upon  him- 
feif,  he,  by  didributing  money  among  Csfar's  veteran 
foldiers,  perfuaded  them  to  take  the  part  of  him  and  the 
Senate,  againft  Antony.  Being  now  commiffioned  by 



the  Senate  to  command  the  army  which  he  had  collected, 
in  the  quality  of  a Prastor,  and  to  carry  affiflance,  in 
conjunction  with  Hirtius  and  Panfa,  who  had  accepted  the. 
Confulfliip,  to  Brutus,  he  put  an  end  to  the  war  in  three 
months,  and  by  two  battles.  Antony  writes,  that  in  the 
former  of  thefe  he  ran  away,  without  even  his  generars 
cloak  and  horfe,  and  for  two  days  after  was  not  feen.  In 
the  latter,  however,  it  is  certain  that  he  performed  the 
part  not  only  of  a general,  but  a foldier ; and  in  the  heat 
of  the  battle,  when  the  flaudard-bearer  of  his  legion  was 
wounded,  took  the  eagle  upon  his  own  fhoulders,  and 
carried  it  a long  time. 

XI.  In  this  war,  Hirtius  being  flain  in  battle,  and  Pan- 
fa  dying  a Ihort  time  after  of  a wound,  a report  was  cir- 
culated that  they  both  were  killed  by  his  means  ; that, 
upon  the  defeat  of  Antony,  the  Republic  being  dehitute 
of  Confuls,  he  might  have  the  victorious  armies  entirely 
to  himfelf.  The  death  of  Panfa  was  fo  much  fufpcCted 
to  have  been  caufed  by  undue  means,  that  Glyco  his  fur- 
geon  was  under  confinement  for  fome  time,  upon  a pre- 
fiimption  that  he  had  put  poifon  into  his  wound.  And  to 
this  Aquilius  Niger  adds,  that  he  killed  Hirtius  the  other 
Conful,  in  the  hurry  of  the  battle,  with  his  own  hi^uds, 

Xn.  But  upon  intelligence  that  Antony,  after  h‘s  de- 
feat, had  been  received  by  M.  Lepidus,  and  that  the  refl 
of  the  generals  and  armies  had  all  declared  for  the  Senate, 
he,  without  any  hefitation,  deferted  the  caufe  of  the  noble 
party  ; alledging  as  an  excufe  for  his  conduCI,  the  aClions 
and  layings  of  feveral  amongfi;  them  ; as  that  feme  laid, 
“ he  was  merely  a boy,”  and  others,  “ that  he  ought  to 
be  promoted  to  honors,  and  cut  off to  avoid  the  mak- 
ing any  fuitable  acknowledgement  either  to  him  or  the 
H 3 legions» 



legions.  And  the  more  to  teftify  his  regret  for  his  former  at- 
tachment, he  fined  the  Nurfini  in  a large  fum  of  money, 
•^hich  they  were  unable  to  pay,  and  then  expelled  them 
out  of  the  city,  for  having  infcribed  upon  a monument, 
erefled  at  the  public  charge  to  their  countrymen  who  w^ere 
flain  in  the  battle  at  Modena,  That  they  died  for  the  li- 
berty of  Rome,’* 

Xm.  Having  entered  into  a confederacy  with  Anto- 
ny and  Lepidus,  he  finifhed  the  war  of  Philippi  in  two 
engagements,  though  he  was  at  that  time  infirm  and  fick- 
Jy.  In  the  .firfi;  battle  he  wa's  driven  out  of  his  camp,  and 
■with  fome  difficulty  made  his  efcape  to  the  wing  of  the 
army  commanded  by  Antony.  Intoxicated  with  fuccefs, 
he  fent  the  head  of  Brutus  to  be  thrown  at  the  pedeftal  of 
Caefar’s  flatue,  and  treated  the  moft  illufirious  of  the  pri- 
foners  not  only  with  cruelty,  but  abufive  language  : info- 
much  that  he  is  faid  to  have  anfwered  one  of  them  who 
re^uefted  the  favor  of  burial,  “ That  will  be  in  the  pow- 
er of  the  birds,’*  Two  others,  father  and  fon,  who  beg- 
ged for  their  lives,  he  ordered  to  call  lots  which  of  them 
fhould  live,  or  determine  it  betwixt  them  by  the  fword,  and 
looked  on  to  fee  them  both  die : for  the  father  offering 
his  life  to  fave  his  fon,  and  being  accordingly  flain,  the 
fon  killed  himfelf  likewife  upon  the  fpot.  On  this  account, 
the  reft  of  the  prifoners,  and  amongfl:  them  M.  Favonius, 
the  imitator  of  Cato,  being  brought  in  his  chains,  after 
they  had  paid  their  refpeifts  in  a handfome  manner  to  the 
commander  Antony,  reviled  Octavius  in  the  foulefl:  lan- 
guage. After  this  victory,  dividing  between  them  the 
public  fervice,  Antony  undertook  to  compofe  the  Eafl:, 
and  Caefar  to  conducf  the  veteran  foldiers  back  to  Italy, 
and  fettle  them,  as  was  intended,  in  the  lands  belonging  to 
feveral  great  towns  in  Italy,  But  he  had  the  misfortune 




to  pleafe  neither  the  foldiers  nor  the  owners  of  the  lands  ; 
one  party  complaining  of  the  injuftice  done  them,  in  be- 
ing violently  forced  from  their  poffeflions,  and  the  other, 
that  they  were  not  rewarded  according  to  their  merit. 

XIV.  At  this  time  he  obliged  L.  Antony,  who,  pre- 
fuming upon  his  own  authority  as  Conful,  and  his  bro- 
ther’s power,  was  raifing  a new  war,  to  fly  to  Perufia, 
and  forced  him  at  lafl  by  famine  to  a furrender ; though 
not  without  great  hazards  to  himfelf,  both  before  the  war 
and  during  its  continuance.  For  a common  foldier  hav- 
ing  got  Into  the  feats  of  the  Equeftrlan  order  in  the  theatre, 
to  fee  the  public  diverfions,  Caefar  ordered  him  to  be  re- 
moved by  an  officer  who  attended  him  ; and  a rumor  be- 
ing thence  fpread  by  his  enemies,  that  he  had  put  the  man 
to  death  by  torture,  fuch  an  uproar  was  excited  amongft 
the  foldiers,  that  he  narrowly  efcaped  with  his  life.  The 
only  thing  that  faved  him,  was  the  appearance  of  the  man 
fafe  and  found,  no  violence  having  been  offered  him.  And 
whilfl:  he  was  facrificing  about  the  walls  of  Perufia,  he 
had  nearly  been  made  prifoner  by  a body  of  gladiators, 
who  fallied  out  of  the  town. 

XV.  After  the  taking  of  Perufia,  he  put  many  of  the  pri- 
foners  to  death,  anfwering  all  that  begged  pardon,  and 
endeavored  to  excufe  themfelves,  with  telling  them  only, 
“ You  mufl:  die.”  Some  authors  write,  that  three  hundred 
gentlemen  of  the  Equeftrian  and  Senatorian  order,  feledl- 
ed  from  the  reft,  were  flaughtered,  like  vidfims,  before  an 
altar  raifed  to  Julius  Caefar,  upon  the  Ides  of  March. 
Nay  there  are  fome  who  relate,  that  he  entered  upon  this 
war  with  no  other  view,  than  that  his  fecret  enemies,  and 
thofe  whom  fear  more  than  affedlion  kept  quiet,  might  be 
detedled,  by  declaring  themfelves,  now  when  they  had  an 

H 4 opportunity. 



opportunity,  with  L.  Antony  at  their  head  ; and  that 
by  the  defeat  of  them,  and  the  confifcation  of  their  eflatcs, 
he  might  be  enabled  to  difcharge  his  promifes  to  the  vete^^ 
ran  foldiers, 

XVI. '.He  engaged  in  the  war  of  Sicily  at  an  early  pe- 
riod, but,  by  various  intermiffions,  protraded  it  during  a 
long  time  : one  while  upon  account  of  repairing  his  fleets, 
W'hich  he  loft  twice  by  ftorm,  and  that  in  the  fummer ; 
another  while  by  patching  up  a peace,  to  which  he  was 
forced  by  the  clamor  of  the  people,  on  account  of  a famine 
occafioned  by  Pompey’s  interrupting  a fupply  of  provifions 
from  foreign  parts.  But  at  laft  having  built  a new  fleet, 
and  obtained  twenty  thoufand  manumifed  flaves,  who 
wei  e given  him  for  the  oar,  he  formed  the  Julian  harbour 
at  Baiae,  by  letting  the  fea  into  the  Lucrine  and^vernian 
lakes  ; in  which  after  he  had  exercifed  his  forces  all  win- 
ter, he  defeated  Pompey  betwixt  Mylae  and  Naulochus; 
having,  juft  before  the  battle,  been  fuddenly  feized  with  fo 
found  a fleep,  that  his  friends  were  obliged  to  wake  him 
to  give  the  flgnal.  This,  I fuppofe,  gave  occafion  to 
Antony  to  upbraid  him  afterwards  in  the  following 
terms  : “You  were  not  able  to  look  upon  the  fleet,  when 
drawn  up  ready  for  battle  ; but  lay  ftupid  upon  your  back, 
gazing  at  the  heavens,  and  did  not  rife,  nor  come  in  fight 
of  your  men,  until  the  enemies’  fhips  were  forced  by  M, 
Agrippa  to  fheer  off.”  Others  charge  him  with  a faying 
and  a fuhfequent  adtion,  both  indefenfible  ; as  that,  upon 
the  lofs  of  his  fleets  by  ftorm,  he  exclaimed,  “ I fliall  ob- 
tain the  vidlory  in  fpite  of  Neptune  and  that  at  the  next 
Circenfian  games,  he  would  not  fuffer  the  ftatuc  of  that 
God  to  be  carried  in  procejfflon,  as  ufual  upon  that  occa- 
fion. Indeed  he  fcarcely  ever  ran  more  or  greater  rifques 
in  any  of  his  wars  than  in  this.  Having  tranfported  part 




of  his  army  to  Sicily,  and  being  on  his  return  for  the  reH, 
he  was  unexpedledly  attacked  by  Demochares  and  Apollo- 
phanes,  Porapey’s  admirals,  from  whom  he  efcaped  with 
great  difficulty,  and  with  one  fliip  only.  Likewife  as  he 
was  travelling  on  foot  by  Locri  to  Rhegium,  feeing  two 
of  Pompey’s  veflels  paffing  by  that  coafl:,  and  fuppohng 
them  to  be  his  own,  he  went  down  to  the  fhore,  and  had 
very  near  been  made  prifoner.  On  this  occafion,  as  he 
was  making  his  efcape  by  fome  bye-ways,  a Have  belong- 
ing to  yLmilius  Paulus,  who  accompanied  him,  owing 
him  a grudge  for  the  profcription  of  his  father,  and  tliink- 
ing  he  had  now  an  opportunity  to  revenge  it,  attempted 
to  kill  him..  After  the  defeat  of  Pompey,  one  of  his  coL 
leagues,  M.  Lepidus,  whom  he  had  fent  for  out  of  Afri- 
ca to  his  affiftance,  afFe(Sling  great  fuperiority,  becaufe  he 
was  at  the  head  of  twenty  legions,  and  claiming  for  him- 
felf,  in  a threatening  manner,  the  principal  management 
of  affairs,  he  diveHed  him  of  his  army,  and,  upon  his 
fubmiffion,  granted  him  his  life,  but ' baniflied  him  for 
ever  to  Circeii. 

XV IT.  The  alliance  between  him  and  Anton}^  which 
had  always  been  precarious,  often  interrupted,  and  by 
various  reconciliations  badly  cemented,  he  at  laff  en- 
tirely diffolved.  And  to  make  it  known  to  the  world 
how  far  Antony  had  departed  from  the  ufages  of  his 
country,  he  caufed  a will  of  his,  which  had  been  left  at 
Rome,  and  in  which  he  had  noininated  Cleopatra’s  chil- 
dren, with  others,  as  his  heirs,  to  be  opened  and  read  in 
an  affembly  of  the  people.  Yet  upon  his  being  declared 
an  enemy,  he  fent  him  all  his  relations  and  friends ; 
among  wffiom  were  C.  Sofius  and  T.  Domitius,  at  that 
time  Confuls.  He  likewife  excufed  the  Bononlans,  be- 
caufe they  had  been  In  former  times  under  the  protcdion 


I06  THE  LIFE  OF  \ 

of  the  family  of  the  Antonii,  from  entering  into  the  aflo^ 
ciation  with  the  reft  of  Italy  in  his  favor.  And  not  long 
after  he  conquered  him  in  a fea-fight  near  Adlium  ; which 
was  protradted  to  fo  late  an  hour,  that,  after  the  vidlory, 
he  was  obliged  to  ly  on  board  all  night.  From  Adtium 
he  went  to  the  ifle  of  Samos  to  winter  ; but  being  alarm- 
ed with  the  accounts  of  a mutiny  amongft  the  foldiers  he 
had  fent  toBrundifium  after  the  vidlory,  who  infilled  upon 
their  being  rewarded  for  their  fervice  and  difcharged,  he 
returned  to  Italy.  In  his  paffage  thither,  he  met  with 
two  violent  ftorms,  the  firft  between  the  promontories  of 
Peloponnefus  and  ^tolia,  and  the  other  about  the  Cer^tu- 
nian  mountains  ; in  both  which  a part  of  his  Liburnian 
fhips  were  funk,  the  rigging  of  his  own  fhip  torn  away,' 
and  the  helm  broken.  He  remained  at  Brundifium  only 
twenty-feven  days,  until  he  had  fettled  affairs  refpedling 
the  demands  of  the  foldiers,  and  then  went  by  the  way  of 
Afia  and  Syria,  for  Egypt,  where  laying  liege  to  Alex- 
andria, whither  Antony  had  fled  with  Cleopatra,  he 
made  himfelf  mafler  of  it  in  a fhort  time.  He  forced 
Antony,  who  ufed  every  effort  to  obtain  conditions  of 
peace,  to  kill  himfelf,  and  took  a view  of  him  after  he 
was  dead.  Cleopatra  he  anxioufly  wifhed  to  fave  for 
his  triumph  ; and  becaufe  flie  was  fuppofed  to  have  been 
bit  by  an  afp,  he  ordered  the  Pfylli  * to  fuck  out  the  poi- 


The  Pfylli  were  a people  of  Africa,  who  praeflifed  the 
employment  of  fucking  the  poifon  from  wounds  inflicted  by 
ferpents,  with  which  that  country  anciently  abounded.  They 
pretended  to  be  endowed  with  an  antidote,  which  rendered 
their  bodies  infenfible  to  the  virulence  of  that  fpecies  of  poi- 
fon ; and  the  ignorance  of  thofe  times  gave  credit  to  the 
phyfical  immunity  which  they  arrogated.  But  Celfus,  who 
flouriflied  about  fifty  years  after  the  period  we  fpeak  of,  has 
, exploded 

c;esar  augustus. 



foil.  He  allowed  them  the  favor  of  being  buried  together, 
and  ordered  a maufoleiim,  begun  b)r  themfelves,  10  be 
completed.  The  elder  of  his  two  fons  by  Fulvia  he  com- 
manded to  be  taken  by  force  from  the  flatue  of  Julius 
Casfar,  to  which,  after  many  fupplications  for  his  life, 
but  all  m vain,  he  had  fled,  and  put  to  the  fword.  He 
likewife  put  to  death  Ca^fario,  whom  Cleopatra  pretended 
fhe  had  by  C^far,  who  had  fled  for  his  life,  but  was  re- 
taken. The  children  that  were  born  to  Antony  by  Cleo- 
patra he  faved,  and  maintained  in  a manner  fuitable  to 
their  rank,  as  much  as  if  they  had  been  his  own  re- 

XVIIL  About  this  time  he  had  the  curlofity  to  view 
the  coffin  and  body  of  Alexander  the  Great,  which,  for 
that  purpofe,  w^ere  taken  out  of  the  vault  where  they  were 
depofited ; and  after  looking  at  them  for  fome  time,  he 
paid  his  refpeds  to  the  memory  of  that  prince,  by  the 
prefect  of  a golden  crown,  and  fcattering  flowers  upon 
the  body.  Being  afked  if  he  defired  to  fee  that  of  Ptolemy 
likewife,  he  replied,  “ I defire  to  fee  a king,  not  dead 
men.”  He  reduced  Egypt  into  the  form  of  a province ; 
and  to  render  it  more  fertile,  and  more  capable  of  fupply- 
jng  Rome  with  corn,  he  employed  his  army  to  fcour  the 
ditches,  into  which  the  Nile,  upon  its  rife,  difeharges  it- 
felf,  which  during  a long  feries  of  years  were  almofl:  quite 
choaked  up  with  mud.  To  render  his  violory  at  Adlium 

exploded  the  vulgar  prejudice  which  prevailed  in  their  favor. 
He  juflly  obferves,  that  the  venom  of  ferpents,  like  fome 
other  kinds  of  poifon,  proves  noxious  only  when  applied  to 
the  naked  fibre;  and  that,  provided  there  is  no  ulcer  in  the 
gunrs  or  palate,  the  poifon  may  be  received  into  the  mouth 
ivith  perfect  fafety. 




the  more  famous  with  pofterity,  he  built  the  city  Nico- 
polis near  that  part  of  the  coalf,  and  ordained  that  games 
fliould  be  celebrated  there  every  five  years ; enlarging 
likewife  an  old  temple  of  Apollo,  he  drefied  up  with  na- 
val fpoils  the  place  upon  which  he  had  encamped,  and 
confecrated  it  to  Neptune  and  Mars. 

XIX.  He  afterwards  quafhed  feveral  tumults  and  in- 
furredlions ; as  alfo  feveral  confpiracies  againfi;  his  life, 
which  were  providentially  difcovered  before  they  w^re 
ripe  for  execution  ; but  thefe  incidents  happened  at  differ- 
ent times.  Such  were  the  confpiracies  of  young  Lepi- 
dus, of  VaiTo  Mursna,  and  Fannius  C^pio  ; then  that 
of  Egnatius,  afterwards  that  of  Plautius  Rufus,  and  of 
L.  Paulus,  his  grand-daughter’s  hufband ; and  belides 
thefe,  another  of  L.  Audafius,  an  old  crazy  man,  and 
who  was  under  a profecution  for  forgery ; as  alfo  of 
Afinius  Epicadus,  a Parthynian  mongrel,  and  at  lafi  that 
of  Telephus,  a lady’s  nomenclator^'  : for  he  was  in 
danger  of  his  life  from  the  plots  and  confpiracies  of  fome 

* As  the  people  of  Rome  had  a vote  in  the  choice  of  their 
magifirates,  it  was  ufual,  before  the  time  of  election,  for  the 
candidates  to  endeavor  to  gain  their  favor  by  every  popular 
art.  They  would  therefore  go  to  the  houfes  of  the  citizens, 
Ihake  hands  with  thofe  they  met,  and  addrefs  them  in  a 
kindly  manner.  It  being  of  great  confequence,  upon  thofe 
occfions,  to  know  the  names  of  perfons,  they  were  common- 
ly attended  by  a nomenclator,  who  whifpered  into  their  ears 
that  information  wherever  it  was  wanted.  Though  this 
kind  of  officer  was  generally  an  attendant  upon  men,  we 
meet  with  inftances  of  their  having  been  likewife  employed 
in  the  fervice  of  ladies;  either  with  the  view  of  ferving  can- 
didates to  whom  they  Vere  allied,  or  of  gaining  the  rffeg- 
tions  of  the  people. 




of  the  lowefl:  of  the  people  againfh  him.  Audafius  and 
Eplcadus  had  formed  the  defign  of  bringing  to  the  armies 
his  daughter  Julia,  and  his  grand-fon  Agrippa,  from  the 
illands  in  which  they  were  confined.  Telephus,  from  a 
wild  imagination  that  the  government  was  defiined  to 
him  by  the  fates,  propofed  to  fall  both  upon  Odlaviiis 
and  the  Senate.  Nay  once  a foldier’s  fervant  belonging 
to  the  army  in  Illyricum,  having  palTed  the  porters  unob- 
ferved,  was  found  in  the  night-time  Handing  before  his 
chamber-door,  provided  with  a hunting-dagger.  Whe- 
ther the  perfon  was  really  difordered  in  the  head,  or  only 
counterfeited  madnefs,  is  uncertain : for  he  would  make 
no  confeflion  by  the  rack. 

XX.  He  conducted  in  perfon  only  two  foreign  wars  ; 
the  Dalmatian,  whilft  he^  was  yet  but  a youth,  and,  after 
the  final  defeat  of  Antony,  the  Cantabrian.  In  the  for- 
mer of  thefe  wars  he  received  fome  wounds,  as  in  one 
battle  a contufion  in  the  right  knee,  from  a Hone ; and 
in  another,  he  was  much  hurt  in  one  leg  and  both  arms, 
by  the  fall  of  a bridge.  His  other  wars  he  carried  on 
by  his  lieutenants  ; but  now  and  then  vifited  the  army, 
in  fome  of  the  wars  of  Pannonia  and  Germany,  or  was 
not  at  a great  diftance  from  it,  advancing  from,  the 
feat  of  government  as  far  as  Ravenna,  Milan,  or  Aqui- 

XXL  He  conquered,  however,  partly  in  perfon,  and 
partly  by  his  lieutenants,  Cantabria,  Aquitania  and  Pan- 
nonia, Dalmatia,  with  ail  Illyricum,  and  Rhstia,  befides 
the  two  nations  of  the  Vindelici  and  the  Salaflii,  inha- 
biting the  Alps.  He  alfo  put  a Hop  to  the  inroads  of  the 
Dacians,  by  cutting  off  three  of  their  generals  with  vaH 
armies,  and  drove  the  Germans  beyond  the  river  Elbe  ; 




of  whom  he  removed  the  Ubii  and  Sicambri,  upon  their 
fubmiflion,  into  Gaul,  and  fettled  them  in  a country  up- 
on the  banks  of  the  Rhine.  Other  nations  llkewife,  that 
annoyed  the  borders  of  his  empire,  he  obliged  to  acknow- 
ledge the  Roman  power.  He  never  made  war  upon  any 
nation  without  a juft  and  irreftftible  caufe  ; and  was  fo 
far  from  entertaining  a defire  either  to  extend  the  empire, 
or  advance  his  own  military  glory,  that  he  obliged  the 
chiefs  of  fome  barbarous  people  to  fwear  in  the  temple 
of  Mars  the  Avenger,  that  they  would  faithfully  ob- 
ferve  their  engagements,  and  not  violate  the  peace  which 
they  had  folicited.  Of  fome  he  demanded  a new  fort  of 
hoftages,  which  was  their  women,  becaufe  he  found 
from  experience  that  they  did  not  much  regard  their 
male  hoftages  ; but  he  always  left  them  at  liberty  to  re- 
cover their  hoftages  when  they  pleafed.  Even  thofe 
who  were  the  moft  frequent  and  perfidious  in  their  re- 
bellion, he  never  puniftied  wdtli  any  greater  feverlty,  than 
to  fell  their  prifoners,  upon  condition  that  they  ftiould 
not  ferve  In  any  neighbouring  country,  nor  be  releafed 
from  their  flavery  before  the  expiration  of  thirty  years. 
By  the  renown,  which  he  thence  acquired,  of  virtue  and 
moderation,  he  induced  the  Indians  and  Scythians  like- 
wdfe,  until  that  time  known  to  the  Romans  only  by  re- 
port, to  folicit  Ills  frlendftiip,  and  that  of  the  Roman 
people,  by  ambafladors.  The  Parthians  readily  allowed 
his  pretentions  to  i\rmenia  ; reftoring,  at  his  demand, 
the  ftandards  which  they  had  taken  from  M.  CrafTus, 
and  IVI.  Antony,  and  offering  him  hoftages  befides. 
Afterwards,  upon  the  occafton  of  a conteft  befwixt  fe- 
veral  pretenders  to  the  crown  of  this  kingdom,  they 
would  admit  only  the  claim  of  the  perfon  to  whom  he 
fhould  think  proper  to  award  it. 


xxn.  The 


XXII . The  temple  of  Janus  Quirinus,  which  had 
been  fhut  only  twice,  from  the  building,  of  the  city  to 
his  own  time,  he  (hut  three  times,  in  a much  fhorter  pe- 
riod, having  eftablilhed  an  univerfal  tranquillity  both  by 
fea  and  land.  He  twice  entered  the  city  in  the  leffer  tri- 
umph^, viz.  after  the  war  of  Philippi,  and  again  after  that 
of  Sicily.  He  had  likewife  three  grand  triumphs  f for  his 


* The  inferior  kind  of  triumph,  called  Ovatio,  was 
granted  in  cafes  where  the  vi(5lory  was  not  of  great  import- 
ance, or  had  been  obtained  without  difficulty.  The  general 
entered  the  city  on  foot  or  on  horfeback,  crowned  with  myr- 
tle, not  with  laurel ; and  inftead  of  bullocks,  the  facrifice 
was  performed  with  a flieep,  whence  this  proceflion  acquir- 
ed its  name. 

•f  The  grand  triumph,  in  which  the  viftorious  general 
and  his  army  advanced  in  folemn  proceflion  through  the 
city  to  the  Capitol,  was  the  higheff:  military  honor  which 
could  be  obtained  in  the  Roman  ftate.  Foremoft  in  the  pro- 
ceffion,  went  muficians  of  various  kinds,  finging  and  play- 
ing triumphal  fongs.  Next  were  led  the  oxen  to  be  facri- 
ficed,  having  their  horns  gilt,  and  their  heads  adorned  with 
fillets  and  garlands.  Then  in  carriages  were  brought  the 
fpoils  taken  from  the  enemy,  ftatues,  pictures,  plate,  ar- 
mour, gold  and  filver,  and  brafs ; with  golden  crowns,  and 
other  gifts,  fent  by  the  allied  and  tributary  flates.  The  cap- 
tive leaders  followed  in  chains,  with  their  children  and  at- 
tendants. After  them  came  the  Licflors,  having  their  fafces 
wreathed  with  laurel,  followed  by  a great  company  of  mu- 
ficians and  dancers  dreffed  like  Satyrs,  and  wearing  crowns 
of  gold  : in  the  midft  of  whom  was  a pantomime,  clothed 
in  the  garb  of  a female,  whole  buflnefs  it  w’as,  with  his 
looks  and  geftures,  to  infult  the  vanquiflied.  Next  follow- 
ed a long  train  of  perfons  carrying  perfumes.  Then  came 
the  victorious  general,  dreffed  in  purple  embroidered  with 




vidories  In  Dalmatia,  at  Adium,  and  Alexandria  ; each 
of  which  lafled  three  days. 

XXIIL  In  all  his  wars,  he  never  received  any  fignal 
or  ignominious  defeat,  except  twice  in  Germany,  in  the 
perfon  of  his  lieutenants  Lollius  and  Varus.  The  for- 
mer indeed  had  in  it  more  of  infamy  than  lofs  : but  that 
of  Varus  threatened  the  fecurity  of  the  empire  itfelf ; 

gold,  with  a crown  of  laurel  on  his  head,  a branch  of  lau- 
rel in  his  right  hand,  and  in  his  left  an  ivory  fceptre,  with 
an  eagle  on  the  top  ; having  his  face  painted  with  vermilion, 
in  the  fame  manner  as  the  ftatue  of  Jupiter  on  feflival  days, 
and  a golden  Bulla  hanging  on  his  bread,  and  containing 
fome  amulet,  or  magical  prefervative  againft  envy.  He 
flood  in  a gilded  chariot,  adorned  with  ivory,  and  drawn 
' by  four  white  horfes,  fometimes  by  elephants,  attended  by 
his  relations,  and  a great  crowd  of  citizens,  all  in  white. 
His  children  ufed  to  ride  in  the  chariot  with  him  ; and  that 
he  might  not  be  too  much  elated,  a (lave,  carrying  a golden 
crown  fparkling  with  gems,  flood  behind  him,  and  frequently 
whifpered  in  his  ear,  “ Remember  that  thou  art  a man  !’* 
After  the  general,  followed  the  Confiils  and  Senators  on 
foot,  at  lead  according  to  the  appointment  of  Auguflus ; 
for  they  formerly  ufed  to  go  before  him.  His  Legati  and 
•military  Tribunes  commonly  rode  J^y  his  fide.  The  vi£lo- 
rioiis  army,  horfe  and  foot,  came  laft,  crowned  with  laurel, 
and  decorated  with  the  gifts  which  they  had  received  for 
their  valor ; finging  their  own  and  their  general’s  praifes, 
'but  fometimes  throwing  out  railleries  againft  him  ; and  often 
exclaiming,  “ lo  Triumphe  !”  in  which  they  were  joined 
by  all  the  citizens,  as  they  pafied  along.  The  oxen  having 
been  facrificed,  the  general  gave  a magnificent  entertain- 
ment in  the  Capitol  to  his  friends  and  the  chief  men  of  the 
city;  after  which  he-^vas  conduced  home  by  the  people, 
with  mufic  and  a great  number  of  lamps  and  torches. 



three  legions,  with  the  general^  lieutenant-generals,  and 
all  the  auxiliary  forces,  being  cut  olF.  Upon  receiving 
advice  of  this  difafter,  he  gave  orders  for  keeping  a ftrict 
watch  over  the  city,  to  prevent  any  public  difturbance, 
and  continued  the  government  of  the  provinces  in  the 
fame  hands,  the  better  to  keep  the  allies  quiet*  by  the 
means  of  perfons  well  acquainted  with,  and  ufed  to  them. 
He  made  a vow  to  celebrate  the  great  games  in  honor 
of  Jupiter,  If  he  would  Be  pleafed  to  recover  the  ftate 
from  its  prefent  fituation.”  This  expedient  had  formerly 
been  pradtifcd  In  the  Cimbric  and  IMarfic  wars.  For 
we  are  informed  that  he  was  under  fo  great  confterna- 
tion*  upon  this  event,  that  he  let  the  hair  of  his  head 
and  beard  grow  for  feveral  months,  and  fometlmes  knock- 
ed his  head  againO:  the  dpor,  crying  out,  “ Quintilius 
Varus,  give  me  my  legions  again.”  And  ever  after,  he  ob- 
ferved  the  anniverfary  of  this  calamity  as  a day  of  forrow 
and  mourning. 

XXIV.  Tn  military  affairs  he  made  many  alterations, 
introducing  forae  pra^Iices  entirely  new,  and  reviving 
others,  which  had  become  obfolete.  He  maintained 
among  the  troops  the  flriftefl:  difcipline  ; and  would  not 
allow  even  the  lieutenant-generals  the  liberty  to  vifit  their 
wives,  but  with  great  reludlance,  and  in  the  winter  fea- 
fon  only*  A Roman  knight  having  cut  off  the  thumbs 
of  two  young  fons  of  his,  to  render  them  incapable  of 
ferving  in  the  wars,  he  expofed  both  him  and  his  eflate 
to  public  fale.  But  upon  obfervlng  the  farmers  of  the 
culloms  very  bufy  about  the  purchafe,  he  configned  him 
over  to  a freedman  of  Ins  own,  that  he  might  fend  him 
into  the  country,  and  fuffer  him  to  enjoy  his  freedom. 
The  tenth  legion  becoming  mutinous,  he  broke  it  wdth  dif- 
grace ; and  did  the  fame  by  fome  others  that  in  a petu- 

I lant 



lant  manner  demaniled  their  difcharge  ; with-holding  from 
them  the  rewards  ufually  beftowed  on  thole  who  had 
ferved  their  ftated  time  in  the  wars.  Such  battalions 
as  had  quitted  their  ground  in  time  of  adion,  he  deci- 
mated, and  fed  with  barley.  Captains,  as  well  as  com- 
mon fentinels  upon  the  guard,  who  deferted  their  polls, 
he  punilhed  with  death.  For  other  mifdemeanors  he  in- 
flided  upon  them  various  kinds  of  difgrace  ; fuch  as  ob- 
liging  them  to  {land  all  day  before  the  general’s  tent, 
fometimes  in  their  tunics,  and  without  their  belts,  fome- 
times  with  poles  ten  foot  long,  or  rods  in  their  hands. 

XXV.  After  the  conclufion  of  the  civil  wars,  he  ne- 
ver, in  any  of  his  military  harangues,  or  proclamations, 
addrefled  them  by  the  title  of  “ Fellow-foldiers,”  but 
“ Soldiers”  only.  Nor  would  he  fufFer  them  to  be  other- 
wife  called  by  his  fons  or  flep-fons,  when  they  were  in 
command  : judging  the  former  epithet  to  convey  the 
idea  of  a degree  of  condefcenfion  not  Very  conliflent 
W'ith  military  difcipline,  and  what  neither  the  tranquillity 
of  the  times,  nor  the  grandeur  of  himfelf  and  family,  ren- 
dered needful.  Unlefs  at  Rome,  upon  account  of  acci- 
dental fires,  or  under  the  apprehenfion  of  a public  difiurb- 
ance  during  a fcarcity  of  provifions,  he  never  fufFered 
manumifed  flaves  to  bear  arms  in  his  troops,  except  on 
two  occafions  ; one  for  the  fccurity  of  the  colonies  bor- 
dering upon  Illyricum,  and  again  to  guard  the  banks  of 
the  river  Rhine.  With  thefe  he  obliged  perfons  of 
fortune,  both  male  and  female,  to  furnifli  him ; and 
though  after  fome  time  he  granted  them  their  freedom, 
yet  he  kept  them  in  a body  by  themfelves,  unmixed  with 
liis  other  foidiers  of  better  birth,  and  armed  likewife  in  a 
dilFerent  manner.  Military  prefents,  fuch  as  trappings 
for  horfes,  chains,  or  any  others  of  gold  or  filver,  he  be- 



flowed  more  readily  than  the  crowns  which  were  ufually 
conferred  for  any  fignal  a6!:  of  bravery  in  the  fiege  of 
camps  or  towns,  which  were  reckoned  more  honorable 
than  the  former.  Thefe  crowns  he  gave  fparingly, 
without  partiality,  and  often  even  to  common  foldi- 
ers.  He  prefented  M.  Agrippa,  after  the  naval  engage- 
ment in  the  w’ar  of  Sicily,  wdth  a green  banner.  Per- 
fons  who  had  obtained  the  honor  of  a triumph,  though 
they  attended  him  in  his  expeditions,  and  had  a fhare  in 
his  fuccefles,  he  judged  it  improper  to  diflinguifh  by  the 
ufual  military  prefents,  becaufe  themfelves  had  a right  to 
grant  them  to  whom  they  pleafed.  He  thought  nothing 
more  derogatory  to  the  chara6ler  of  an  accomplifhed  ge- 
neral than  hafte  and  raflmefs : on  which  account  he 
had  frequently  In  his  mouth, 


EcrV  ajuBivuv,  n crlpaJn^.iXTYiSi 

Haflen  flo\vIy. — And 

The  cautious  captain’s  better  than  the  bold. 

And  “ What  is  done  enough,  is  done  well  enough.”  He 
was  -svont  likewlfe  to  fay,  that  “ a battle  or  a war  ought 
never  to  be  undertaken,  unlefs  the  hope  of  advantage  over- 
balanced the  fear  of  lofs.”  For,  faid  he,  “ thofe  who  pur- 
fue  fmall  advantages  with  no  fmall  hazard,  refemble  fuch 
as  fifh  with  a golden  hook,  the  lofs  of  which,  if  the  line 
fliould  break  afunder,  could  never  be  compenfated  by  all 
the  fifh  they  might  take.” 

XXVI.  He  was  advanced  to  public  offices,  before  he 
was  legally  qualified  for  them  in  point  of  age,  and  to 
fome  of  a new  kind,  and  for  life.  He  feized  the  Con- 
fulfliip  in  the  twentieth  year  of  his  age,  advancing  with 

I 2 his 


1 16 

his  legions  in  a hoflile  manner  towards  the  city,  and  fend-' 
ing  deputies  to  demand  it  for  him  in  the  name  of  the 
army.  When  the  Senate  demurred  upon  the  fubjedt,  a 
Centurion,  named  Cornelius,  the  chief  deputy,  throwing 
back  his  cloak,  and  ihev/ing  the  hilt  of  his  fword,  had 
the  prefumption  to  fay  in  the  houfe,  “ This  will  make 
him  Conful,  if  ye  will  not.”  His  fecond  Confulfliip  he 
bore  nine  years  after,  his  third,  upon  the  intermiffion  of 
only  one  year,  and  held  the  fame  office  every  year  fuc- 
ceffively  until  the  eleventh.  From  this  period,  though 
the  Confulfhip  was  frequently  offered  him,  he  always  de- 
clined it,  till,  after  a long  interval,  not  lefs  than  feven- 
teen  years,  he  voluntarily  flood  for  the  twelfth,  and  two 
years  after  for  a thirteenth  ; tliat  he  might,  whilfl  in- 
vefled  with  that  office,  introduce  into  the  Forum,  accord- 
ing to  cuhom,  his  twp  fons,  Caius  and  Lucius.  In  his 
five  Confulfhips  from  the  fixth  to  the  eleventh,  he  conti- 
nued in  office  throughout  the  year  ; but  in  the  red,  dur- 
ing only  nine,  fix,  four,  or  three  months,  and  in  his  fe- 
cond no  more  than  a few  hours.  For  having  fat  for  a 
fhort  time  in  the  morning,  upon  the  firft  of  January,»on 
his  ivory  chair  *,  before  the  temple  of  Jupiter  Capitoli- 
nus, he  quitted  the  office,  and  fubftituted  another  in  his 
room.  Nor  did  he  enter  upon  them  all  at  Rome,  but 

* The  Sella  Curulis  was  a flool  or  chair  on  which  the 
principal  magiflrates  fat  in  the  tribunal  upon  folemn  occa- 
fions.  It  had  no  back,  but  had  four  crooked  feet,  fixed  to  the 
extremities  of  crofs  pieces  of  wood,  joined  by  a common 
axis,  fomewhat  in  the  form  of  the  letter  X ; was  covered 
with  leather,  and  adorned  with  ivory.  From  its  conflruc- 
tion,  it  might  be  occalioflally  folded  together  for  the  con- 
venience of  carriage^  and  fet  down  where  the  niagiltrate 
chofe  to  life  it. 




upon  the  fourth  in  Afia,  the  fifth  in  the  Ifle  of  Samos, 
and  the  eighth  and  ninth  at  Tarracon. 

XXVII.  During  ten  years,  he  adled  as  one  of  the 
Triumvirate  for  fettling  the  commonwealth,  in  which  of- 
fice he  for  fome  time  oppofed  his  colleagues  in  their  clefigii 
of  a profcripti.on  ; but  after  it  was  begun,  he  profecuted 
it  with  more  determined  rigor  than  either  of  them.  For 
whilft  they  were  often  prevailed  upon,  by  the  intereft  and 
interceifion  of  friends,  to  fhew  mercy,  he  alone  infifted 
vehemently,  that  no  quarter  Ihould  be  given ; and  he 
proferibed  likewife  C.  Toranius.  his  guardian,  who  had 
been  formerly  his  father  Odlavlus’s  colleague  in  the 
./Fidilefiiip.  Junius  Saturninus  adds  this  farther  account 
of  him : that  when,  after  the  profeription  was  over,  M. 
Lepidus  made  an  apology  in  the  Senate  for  their  pad: 
proceedings,  and  gave  them  hopes  of  a more  mild  admi- 
nlftratlon  for  the  future,  becaufe  they  had  now  had  fuffi- 
clent  revenge  upon  their  enemies ; he  on  the  other  hand 
declared,  that  he  had  fet  no  other  bounds  to  the  profeription 
than  his  own  pleafure,  and  fo  was  entirely  at  liberty. 
Afterwards,  however,  repenting  of  his  fe verity,  he  ad- 
vanced T.  Vinius  Philopoemen  to  the  Equeftrian  rank, 
for  having  concealed  his  patron,  and  faved  him  from  the 
fury  of  the  profeription.  In  this  fame  office,  he  incur- 
red great  odium  upon  many  accounts.  For  as  he  was 
one  day  haranguing  the  foldiers,  obferving  Pinarius  a Ro- 
man knight  let  In  Ibme  company,  and  fubferibe  fome- 
thing  or  other,  he  ordered  him  to  be  ftabbed  before  his 
eyes,  as  a bufy-body  and  a fpy  upon  him.  He  fo  terri- 
fied with  his  menaces  Tedius  Afer,  Conful-eledl,  for 
. having  reflected  upon  fome  adllon  of  his,  that  he  threw 
himfelf  from  the  top  of  a houfe  and  died.  And  when 
Q^Gallius  the  Praetor  came  to  wait  upon  him,  with  a 

I 3 double 



Rouble  tablet  unJer  his  coat,  fufpe6ling  it  to  be  a TwotcI, 
and  yet  not  venturing  to  make  a fcarch,  left  it  ftiould  be 
found  to  be  fomething  elfe,  he  ordered  him  to  be  carried 
off  by  feme  captains  and  foldiers,  and  to  be  put  to  tor- 
ture, as  if  he  had  been  a flave  : and  though  he  would 
tnake  no  confeffion  of  any  ill  deflgn,  commanded  him 
to  be  killed,  after  he  had,  with  his  own  hands,  pluck- 
ed out  his  eyes.  His  own  account  of  the  tranfadlion 
however  is,  that  this  perfon  deftred  a private  conference 
wdth  him,  for  the  purpofe  of  murdering  him  : that  he 
therefore  put  him  in  prifon,  but 'afterwards  releafed  him, 
and  banifhed  him  the  city,  when  he  periihed  either  in  a 
ftorm  at  fea,  or  by  the  hands  of  robbers.  He  accepted 
of  the  Tribimitian  power  for  life,  but,  for  two  lujira  * 
fucceflively,  took  another  perfon  into  commiffion  with 
him.  The  infpedlion  of  the  public  rnanners  and  laws 
was  likewife  conferred  upon  him  for  life;  in  virtue  of. 
which  commiffion,  though  he  had  not  the  title  of  Cen- 
for,  yet  he  thrice  took  a furvey  of  the  people,  the  firft 
and  third  time  w’ith  an  aftiftant,  but  the  fecond  by  him-' 


XXVIII.  He  twice  entertained  thoughts  of  reftoring 
the  commonwealth  ; firft  immediately  after  the  redudlion 
of  Antony,  remembering  what  he  had  often  charged  him 
with,'  that  it  was  owing  to  him  alone  that  the  common- 
wealth was  not  reftored.  The  fecond  time  was  upon  oc- 

* The  Lujinm  was  a period  of  five  years,  at  the  end  of  ' 
which  a Cenfus  or  Review  was  made  of  the  people,  firft  by 
the'Roman  kings,  then  by  the  Cor.fuls,  but  after  the  year 
310  from  the  building  of  the  city,  by  the  Cenfors,  who 
were  magiftrates  created  for  that  purpofe.  It  appears  how- 
ever, that  the  Cenfus  was  not  always  held  at  ftated  periods, 

^nd  fometimes  after  long  intervals. 

caftoii  ^ 


1 19 

cafion  of  a long  illnefs,  when  he  fent  for  the  magifl rates 
and  the  Senate  to  his  ow*n  houfe,  and  delivered  them  a' 
particular  account  of  the  ftate  of  the  empire.  But  re- 
fledling  at  the  fame  time,  that  he  could  not  without  hazard 
return  to  the  conditipn  of  a private  perfon,  and  that  it 
might  be  of  dangerous  confequence  to  the  public,  to 
have  the  government  left  again  to  the  management  of  the 
people,  he  refolved  to  keep  it  in  his  own  hands,  whe- 
ther v/ith  the  better  event  or  intention,  is  hard  to  fay.  His 
intention  of  good  to  the  public,  he  often  afErmed  in  pri- 
vate difeourfe,  and  likewife  declared  by  proclamation  in 
the  following  terms  : “ So  let  me  have  the  happinefs  to 
ellablilh  the  commonwealth  fecure  upon  its  proper  bahs, 
and  enjoy  the  reward  of  which  I am  ambitious,  that  of 
being  celebrated  for  introducing  the  beft  kind  of  govern- 
ment amongft  you  : that  at  my  leaving  the  world,  I may 
carry  with  me  the  hope,  that  the  foundations  'which  I 
ihail  lay  for  a future  fettlement,  will  remain  unmoved 
for  ever.’* 

XXIX.  The  city,  which  was  not  built  in  a manner  ^ 
fuitable  to  the  grandeur  of  the  empire,  and  was  liable 
to  inundations  of  the^  Tiber,  and  to  fires,  he  fo  much 
improved,  as  to  boafl,  not  without  reafon,  that  he  re- 
ceived it  a city  of  brick,  but  left  it  one  of  mai'ble.  He 
likewife  rendered  it  fecure  for  the  time  to  come,  as  far  as 
could  be  efFedfed  by  human  forefight.  He  ralfed  a great 
many  public  buildings,  the  mold  confiderable  of  which 
were  a Forum,  with  the  temple  of  Mars  the  Avenger, 
the  temple  of  Apollo  in  the  Palatium,  and  the  temple  of 
Thundering  Jove  in  the  Capitol.  The  reafon  of  his 
building  the  Forum,  was  the  vafl  number  of  people  and 
caufes,  for  which  the  two  former  Forums  not  being  fuf- 
ficient,  it  was  tho'ught  necefutry  fo  have  a third.  It  was* 

I 4 there- 



therefore  opened  for  public  ufe  before  the  temple  of  Mars 
was  entirely  finidied ; and  a lav/  pafTed,  that  caufes 
fhould  be  tried,  and  judges  chofen  by  lot,  in  that  place. 
The  temple  of  Mars  he  had  made  a vow  to  build,  in  the 
war  of -Philippi,  which  was  undertaken  by  him  for  the 
revenge  of  his  father’s  murder.  He  ordained  that  the  Se- 
nate (hould  always  meet  there  to  deliberate  about  wars 
and  triumphs  ; that  thence  fliould  be  difpatched  all  fuch 
as  w'ere  fent  into  the  provinces  to  command  armies  ; and 
that  in  it  thofe  who  returned  viddorious  from  the  wars, 
fhould  lodge  the  ornaments  of  their  triumphs.  He  erecl* 
ed  the  temple  of  Apollo  in  that  part  of  the  Palatine 
houfe  which  had  been  ftruck  with  thunder,  and  which, 
on  that  account,  the  foothfayers  declared  the  God  to  have 
chofen.  He  added  to  it  pia7//.as,  with  a library  of  Latin 
and  Greek  authors  ; and  when  advanced  in  years,  ufed 
frequently  there  to  hold  the  Senate,  and  examine  the  lifts 
of  the  judges.  He  confecrated  the  temple  to  Thunder- 
ing  Jove,  upon  account  of  a deliverance  he  had  from  a 
great  danger  in  his  Cantabrian  expedition»;  when,  as  he 
\vas  travelling  in  the  night,  his  litter  was  fcorched,  and 
a flave  who  carried  a torch  before  him,  killed  by  the 
lightning.  He  likewife  conftruded  forae  public  build- 
ings in  the  name  of  others,  as  his  grandfons,  his  wife, 
and  After.  Thus  he  built  a piazza  and  a>  court,  iii  tlie 
name  of  Lucius  and  Cains,  and  piazzas  in  the  name  of 
Livia  and  Odlavia,  with  a theatre  in  that  of  Marcellus.  ^ 
He  alfo  recommended  to  other  perfons  of  diftiadlion  to 
beautify  the  city  by  new  buildings,  or  repairing  the  old, 
each  according  to  their  refpedlive  abilities.  In  confe- 
quence  of  this  recommendation,  many  were  raifed  ; fuch 
as  the  temple  of  Hercules  prefident  of  the  Mufes,  by 
Mercius  Philippus  ; a temple  of  Diana  by  L.  Corni- 
ficius ; the  Court  of  Liberty  by  Afinius  Pollio  ; a temple 




of  Saturn  by  Munatius  Plancus ; a theatre  by  Cornelius 
iBalbus;  an  amphitheatre  by  Statilius  Taurus  ; and  feve- 
ral  other  noble  edifices  by  M.  Agrippa. 

XXX.  He  divided  the  city  into  wards,  and  other  infe- 
rior departments  ; ordajning  that  the  annual  magiftrates 
/hould  by  lot  take  the  charge  of  the  former  ; and  that 
the  latter  Ihould  be  governed  by  mailers  chofen  out  of  the 
neigbouring  commonalty.  He  appointed  a nightly  watch 
to  be  kept  againfi:  accidents  from  fire  ; and,  to  prevent 
the  frequent  inundations  of  .the  Tiber,  widened  and 
cleanfed  its  channel,  which  had  in  length  of  time  been 
almofl  dammed  up  with  rubbiili,  and  much  reduced  by 
the  falling  in  of  houfes.  To  render  the  avenues  to  tlie 
city  more  commodious,  he  took  upon  himfelf  the  charge 
of  improving  the  Flaminian  caufeway  as  far  as  Arimi- 
num ; and  diftributed  the  repairs  of  the  other  roads,  to 
be  defrayed  out  of  the  money  arifing  from  the  fpoils 
of  war,  amongil  feveral  perfons  who  had  obtained  the 
honor  of  a triumph.  Temples  decayed  by  time,  or  de- 
frroyed  by  fire,  he  either  repaired  or  rebuilt ; and  enrich- 
ed them,  as  well  as  many  others,  with  noble  donations. 
He,  upon  one  occafion,  depofited  in  the  facred  apart- 
ment of  Jupiter  Capitolinus,  fixteen  thoufand  pounds 
of  gold,  v-'ith  jewels  and  pearls,  to  the  amount  of  fifty 
millions  of  fefterces. 

XXXI.  The  office  of  High-priefl,  of  which  he  could 
not  decently  deprive  Lepidus,  he  afTumed  upon  his  death.- 
He  then  ifiued  an  order  for  all  the  books  of  prophecy, 
both  Latin  and  Greek,  the  authors  of  which  were  either 
unknown,  or  of  no  great  authority,  to  be  brought  in  ; 
and  the  whole  colIe61ion,  amounting  to  upwards  of  two 
thouland,  he  committed  to  -the  flames  ; faving  only  fuch 





as  had  been  left  by  the  Sibyls  ; but  not  even  thofe  with^ 
out'a  examination,  to  afcertain  what  was  genuine. 
This  being  done,  he  depofited  them  upon  two  gilt  Ihelves/ 
under  the  bafe  of  the  ftatue  of  Apollo  Palatinus.  Pie 
reduced  the  Calendar,  which  had  been  corvedled  by  Ju- 
lius C^far,  but  through  carekiTnefs  w’as  again  fallen  in- 
to confufion,  to  its  former  regularity ; and  upon  that 
occalion,  called  the  month  Sextilis  (Auguft)  by  his  own 
name,  rather  than  September,  in  which  he  was  born  ; 
becaufe  in  it  he  had  obtained  his  hrft  ConfuUhip,  and  all 
his  mofd  confiderable  victories.  He  encreafed  the  num- 
ber, dignity,  and  revenue  of  the  priefts,  but  efpcciaily 
of  the  Veflal  Virgins.  And  when  upon  the  death  of  one 
of  them,  a new  one  was  to  be  chofen,  and  many  per- 
fons  folicited  that  they  might  not  be  obliged  to  give  In 
their  daughters*  names,  for  the  purpofe  of  eledlion,  he 
anfwered  them  with  an  oath  : If  any  of  my  grand- 

daughters was  old  enough  for  it,  I would  have  offered 
her  to  nil  up  the  vacancy.’*  He  likewife  revived  fome 
old  leligious  cuftoms,  which  had  become  obfolete  ; as 
the  Augury  of  ^Health,  the  office  of  Fiamen  Dialis,  or 
the  peculiar  pried  of  Jupiter,  the  religious  folemnity  of 
the  Lupercalia,  the  Secular,  and  Compitalitian  games. 
He  prohibited  young  boys  from  running  in  the  Luper- 
calia : and  in  refpect  of  the  Secular  games,  he  iffbed  an 
order,  that  young  perfons,  of  either  fex,  Ihould  not  appear 
at  any  public  diverdons  in  the  night,  unlefs  in  the  com- 
pany of  fome  elderly  perfon  of  their  relations.  Pie  or- 
dered’the  houfehold  Gods  to  be  decked  twice  a year  with 
fpring  and  funimer  flowers,  in  the  Compitalitian  feflivah 
Next  to  the  immortal  Gods,  he  paid  the  highefl:  honor  to 
the  memory  of  thofe  generals,  who,  from  the  original 
poor  condition  of  the  Roman  date,  had  raifed  it  to  the 
pinnacle  of  grandeur.  He  accordingly  repaired  or  rebuilt 




the  public  edifices  ere61;ed  by  them  ; preferving  the  for- 
mer iiifcriptions,  and  placing  ftatucs'  of  them  all,  in  a 
triumphal  drefs,  in  both  the  piazzas  of  his  Forum ; and 
declaring  in  the  terms  of  the  follovving  proclamation  : 
**  My  defign  in  fo  doing  is,  that  the  Roman  people  may 
require  from  me,  and  all  fucceeding  princes,  a confor- 
mity to  thofe  iiluftrious  examples.^’  He  iikewife  removed 
the  ftatue  of  Pompcy  from  the  Senate-houfe,  in  which 
C.  Caefar  had  been  killed,  and  placed  It  under  a marble 
arch,  ' fronting  the  magnificent  houfe  adjoining  to  his 

XXXII.  He  ftipprefTed  many  prailiccs  injurious  to 
the  morals  of  the  public,  which'had  arifen  either  from  ii- 
centloufnefs  during  the  late  civil  wars,  or  the  corruption 
produced  by  the  long  peace  which  enfued.  Great  num- 
bers of  higliwaymen  appeared  openly,  armed  with 
fwords,  under  color  of  felf-defence  ; and  in  different  parts 
of  the  country,  travellers,  freemen  and  flaves  without 
diflindlion,  were  carried  off  by  violence,  and  kept  con- 
cealed in  work-houfes.  Several  parties  of  men,  under 
the  fpecious  title  of  new  companies,  caballed  togetlier 
for  the  perpetration  of  all  kinds  of  villainy.  Thefe  ban- 
ditti he  quelled,  by  guards  of  foldiers  polled  in  different 
places  for  tlie  purpofe  ; took  a il;ri£l  account  of  the 
work-houfes,  and  diffolved  all  companies,  thofe  only 
excepted  which  were  of  ancient  handing,  and  ehablifh- 
ed  by  law.  He  burned  all  the  notes  of  thofe  who  had 
been  a long  time  in  arrear  with  the  treafury,  as  the  prin- 
cipal fource'of  vexatious  fuits  and  profecutions.  Places 
in  the  city  that  were  claimed  by  the  public,  where  the 
property  was  doubtful,  he  adjudged  to  tlie  poffeffors.  He 
' ffruck  out  of  the  lift  of  criminals,  the  names  of  fuch  as 
had  remained  long  under  the  terror  of  a profecution» 

V*  here 



where  nothing  further  was  propofed  by  the  informers, 
than  to  gratify  their  own  ill  nature,  by  feeing  the  wretch- 
ed appearance  which  they  made  upon  the  occafion.  At 
the'fame  time,  he  laid  it  down  as  a rule^  that  thofe  who 
perhhed  in  maintaining  a profecution,  fhould,  if  they 
failed  in  their  objedl,  be  liable  to  the  fame  punilhment 
which  the  laws  inflidled  upon  fuch  as  were  convidled  of 
the  charge.  And  that  crimes  might  not  efcape  punifli- 
ment,  nor  bufinefs  be  negledtcd  by  delay,  he  ordered  the 
courts  to  fit  during  the  thirty  days  that  were  fpent  in  ce- 
lebrating the  games,  which  the  magiftrates  ufuaily  pre- 
fented  to  the  people,  in  gratitude  for  their  advancement. 
To  the  three  claffes  then  exilling  of  judges,  he  added  a 
fourth,  confining  of  perfons  of  inferior  rank,  who  were 
called  Ducenariiy  and  decided  all  litigations  about  trifling 
fums.  He  chofe  judges  from  the  age  of  thirty  years, 
which  is  hve  years  fooner  than  had  been  ufual  before. 
And  a great  many  declining  the  office,  he  was  with  much 
difficulty  prevailed  upon,  to  allow  each  clafs  of  judges  a 
twelve -month’s  vacation  in  its  turn  ; and  that  the  courts 
might  be  exempted  from  attendance  during  the  months  of 
November  and  December. 

XXXIII.  He  was  himfelf  affiduous  in  his  application 
to  the  trial  of  caufes,  and  would  fometimes  protradl  his 
fitting  to  a late  hour,  if  he  was  indifpofed,  upon  a 
couch  placed  upon  the  bench,  or  lying  in  bed  at  home  ; 
difplaying  on  all  thofe  occaflons  not  only  the  greatefl:  atten- 
tion, but  mildnefs.  To  fave  a culprit,  wdto  evidently  appear- 
ed guilty  of  murdering  his  father,  from  being  hitched  up 
in  a fack,  becaufe  none  were  puniffied  in  that  manner 
but  fuch  as  confelTed  the  facf,  he  is  faid  to  have  inter- 
rogated him  thus  : “ Surely  you  did  not  kill  your  father, 
did  you  ?”  And  when,  in  the  trial  of  a caiile  about  a 




forged  will,  all  thofe  who  had  figned  it  were  liable  to 
the  penalty  of  the  Cornelian  law,  he  ordered  that  all  thofe 
who  fat  with  him  upon  the  trial  fhould  not  only  be  fur- 
ni died  with  the  two  ufual  tablets  for  condemnation  or 
acquittal,  but  a third  likewife,  for  the  pardon  of  fuch  as 
fliould  appear  to  have  fubferibed  their  names  through 
any  deception  or  midake.  All  appeals  in  caufes  betwixt 
inhabitants  of  the  city,  he  afligned  every  year  to  the 
Prstor ; and  where  the  provincials  were  concerned,  to 
men  of  Confular  rank,  who  had  each  his  province  for 
that  purpofe. 

XXXIV.  Some  laws  he  amended,  and  fome,  originally 
framed  by  himfelf,  he  introduced  into  the  code  ; fuch  as 
the  fumptuary  law,  that  relating  to  adultery  and  the  viola- 
tion of  chaftity,  the  law  againft  bribery  in  ele6lions,  and 
likewife  that  for  the  encouragement  of  marriage.  Having 
been  more  fevere  in  his  reform  of  this  law  than  the  reft,  he 
found  the  people  utterly  averfe  to  adopt  it,  without  taking 
off  or  mitigating  the  penalties;  befides  allowing  a refpite  of 
three  years  after  the  death  pf  a wife,  and  encreafing  the 
advantages  of  a married  ftate.  Notwithftanding  all 
thefe  modifications  of  this  obnoxious  ftatute,  the  Equef- 
trian  Order,  at  a public  entertainment  in  the  theatre,  w^ere 
importunate  for  the  repeal  of  it  ; infomuch  that  he  fent 
for  the  children  of  Germanicus,  and  fhewed  them  partly 
fitting  upon  his  own  lap,  and  partly  on  their  father’s  ; 
intimating  by  his  looks  and  geftures  a requeft,  that  they 
would  not  be  difpleafed  to  imitate  the  example  of  that 
young  man.  But  finding  that  the  force  of  the  law  was 
eluded,  by  the  marrying  of  girls  much  under  the  age 
proper  for  matrimony,  and  the  frequent  change  of  wives, 
he  limited  the  time  for  confummation  after  the  marriage 




c'cntra£^:,  and  retrained  the  great  licence  whicli  had  been 
admitted  in  the  piadtice  of  divorce. 

XXXV.  He  reduced,  by  two  diflin£l  nominations,  to 
their  former  number  and  fplendor,  the  Senate,  \vhich  had 
been  filled  up  and  over-charged  with  a rabble  of  people, 
degrading  to  the  dignity  of  that  houfe  (for  they  w^ere  now 
above  a thoiifand,  and  foine  of  them  very  mean  perfons, 
that  after  the 'death  of  Caefar  had  been  chofen  by  the 
dint  of  intereft  and  bribery,  and  were  commonly  called 
by  the  people  Orcini).  The  former  of  thefe-  eledlions 
was  left  to  their  own  determination  ; each  man  as  he 
was  named  naming  another.  But  the  latter  was  manag- 
ed exclufivcly  by  himfelf  and  Agrippa : at  which  time, 
it  is  believed,  he  prefided  at  the  eledlion,  wdtli  a coat  of 
mail,  and  a fword  under  his  garment,  and  with  ten  of 
the  moil  able-bodied  Senators  his  friends  attending  about 
him.  Cordus  Cremutius  relates,  that  no  Senator  w^as 
fuffered  to  approach  him  but  alone,  and  after  having 
been  fearched  wdiether  he  carried  about  him  any 
fword.  Some  he  obliged  to  the  relu6lant  modefty  of 
excufing  themfelves  from  the  acceptance  of  that  honor ; 
and  to  fucli  he  allowed  the  privilege  of  ufing  the  Senato- 
rial! tunic,  of  fitting  at  public  diverfons  in  the  feats  af- 
figned  to  that  Order,  and  of  feafling  publicly  amongfl 
them.  That  fuch  as  were  chofen  and  approved  of 
might  difeharge  their  duty  the  more  religioufly,  and  with 
lefs  trouble,  he  ordered  that  every  member,  before  he 
took  his  feat  in  the  houfe,  fliould  pay  his  devotions,  witli 
an  offering  of  frankincenfe  and  wine,  at  the  altar- of  that 
God,  in  w'hofe  temple  the  Senate  fhould  affemble,  and 
that  their  fated  meetings  fhould  be  only  twdee  in  the 
month,  viz.  upon  the  Calends  and  Ides  ; and  that  in  the 



months  of  September  and  O6lober,  a certain  number 
only,  chofen  by  lot,  fuch  as  the  law  required  to  give  a re- 
folution  of  the  houfe  the  force  of  a decree,  (hould  be  ob- 
liged to  give  their  attendance.  He  refolved  upon  the 
choice  of  a new  privy-council  every  fix  months,  to  con- 
fult  with  them  previoully  upon  fuch  alFairs  as  he  judged 
proper  at  any  time  to  lay  before  the  houfe.  He  likcwifc 
bilked  the  opinion  of  the  Senators  upon  a fubjedi  of ‘im- 
portance, not  according  to  cuftom,  nor  in  order,  but  as 
he  pleafed  ; that  every  one  might  give  the  fame  attention 
to  the  bulinefs  before  them,  as  if  he  was  to  deliver  his 
fentiments  at  large  upon  it,  to  influence  the  refl,  rather 
than  alTent  to  what  had  been  advanced  by  others. 

XXXVI.  He  likewife  introduced  feverai  other  altera- 
tions in  the  management  of  public  affairs  ; as  that  the  a^s 
of  the  Senate  Ihould  not'be  publiflied,  nor  the  magiferates 
fent  into  the  provinces  immediately  after  the  expiration  of 
their  office  : that  the  Proconfuls  fhould  have  a certain 
fum  affigned  them  out  of  the  treafury  for  mules  and  tents, 
which  ufed  before  to  be  contradled  for  by  the  government 
with  private  perfons : that  the  management  of  the  trea- 
fury fhould  be  transferred  from  the  City-Qiisftors  to 
the  Prsetors,  or  thofe  who  had  already  ferved  in  the 
latter  office : and  that  ten  commiffioners  fhould  call 
together  the  Centumviral  court,  which  had  formerly 
been  ufed  to  affemble  at  the  fummons  of  perfons  who 
bad  borne  the  office  of  Quseftors. 

XXXVIII.  That  a greater  number  ,of  perfons  might 
be  employed  in  the  admihiftration  of  the  State,  he  de- 
Vifed  feverai  new  offices  ; as  for  the  fuperintendency  of  the 
public  buildings,  roads,  waters,  the  channel  of  the  Tiber; 
for  the  diHribution  of  corn  to  the  people  ; the  Prefecture 




€)f  the  City  ; a Triumvirate  for  the  eledion  of  the  Sena- 
tors ; and  another  for  taking  an  account  of  the  feveral 
troops  of  the  Equeftrian  Order,  as  often  as  their  duty  in 
war  rendered  fuch  an  infpe6tion  necefTary,  He  revived 
the  office  of  Cenfors'*^,  which  had  been  a long  time  dif- 
nfed,  and  encreafed  the  number  of  Praetors.  He  likewife 
dehred,  that  as  often  as  the  Confulihip  was  conferred 
upon  him,  he  Ihould  have  two  colleagues  inftead  of  one  ; 
but  in  refpedl  of  this  point,  they  did  not  comply  with 
his  requeft  ; all  unanimoudy  crying  out  upon  the  occa- 
lion,  that  he  {looped  below  his  grandeur  fufficiently,  in 
holding  the  office  not  alone,  but  in  conjundlion  with  an- 

XXXVIIL  He  was  no  lefs  attentive  to  the  reward  of 
military  merit,  upon  all  occafions.  He  granted  to  above 
thirty  generals  the  honor  of  the  great  triumph ; and  took 
care  to  have  triumphal  ornaments  voted  by  the  Senate  for 
more  than  that  number.  That  the  fons  of  Senators 
might  become  fooner  acquainted  with  affairs  of  (late,  he 
permitted  them,  at  the  time  when  they  took  upon  them 
the  manly  habit  f , to  alTume  the  Senatorian  tunic  like- 

In  the  year  312,  from  the  building  of  the  city,  two 
inagiltrates  were  created,  under  the  name  of  Cenfors,  whofe 
office,  at  fril,  was  to  take  an  account  of  the  number  of  the 
people,  and  the  value  of  their  fortunes.  A power  was  af- 
'herwards  granted  them  to  infped  the  morals  of  the  people ; 
and  from  this  period  the  office  became  of  great  importance 
in  the  (late.  After  Sylla,  the  ele<d:ion  of  Cenfors  was  inter- 
mitted for  about  feventeen  years.  Under  the  emperors  the 
office  of  Cenfor  was  abolifhed ; but  the  chief  parts  of  it 
were  exercifed  by  the  emperors  themfelves,  and  frequently 
both_  with  great  caprice  and  feverity. 

• f Young  men  until  they  were  feventeen  years  of  age,  and 

• young 



wife,  and  to  be  prefent  at  the  debates  of  the  houfe.  When 
they  entered  the  fervice  of  their  country  in  the  wars,  he  in- 
vefted  them  not  only  with  the  commilTion  of  Tribune,  but 
likewife  the  command  of  the  auxiliary  horfe  of  a legion. 
And  that  none  might  want  an  opportunity  of  acquiring 
fufficient  experience  in  military  affairs,  he  commonly 
joined  two  Tons  of  Senators  in  comraiffion  for  the  latter 
appointment*  He  frequently  reviewed  the  troops  of 
horfe  belonging  to  the  State,  reviving  the  ancient  cuftom  ^ 
of  Tranfvedlion  which  had  been  long  laid  afide*  But  he 

young  women  until  they  were  married,  wore  a goWii  bor- 
dered with  pm'ple,  called  Toga  Prcetexta,  The  former, 
when  they  had  completed  this  period,  laid  alide  the  drefs  of 
minority,  and  alTumed  the  Toga  Virilisy  or  Manly  Habit. 
The  ceremony  of  changing  the  Toga  was  performed  with 
great  folemnity  before  the  images  of  the  Laresy  to  whom  the 
Bulla  was  confecrated.  On  this  occafion,  they  went  either 
to  the  Capitol,  or  to  fome  temple,  to  pay  their  devotions  to 
the  Gods. 

* The  TranfveSllo  was  a proceflion  of  the  Equeflrian  Or- 
der, which  they  made  with  great  fplendor  through  the  city, 
every  year,  on  the  fifteenth  day  of  July.  They  rode  on 
horfeback  from  the  Temple  of  Honor,  or  of  Mars,  without 
the  city,  to  the  Capitol,'with  wreaths  of  olive  on  their  heads, 
dreffed  in  robes  of  fcarlet,  and  bearing  in  their  hands  the 
military  ornaments  which  they  had  received  from  their  ge- 
neral, as  a reward  of  their  valor.  The  Knights  rode  up  to 
the  Cenfor,  feated  on  his  curule  chair  in  the  front  of  the 
Capitol,  and  difmounting  led  along  their  horfes  in  their 
hands  befbre  him.  If  any  of  the  knights  was  corrupt  in  his 
morals,  had  diminiflied  his  fortune  below  the  legal  fiandard, 
or  even  had  not  taken  proper  care  of  his  horfe,  the  Cenfor 
ordered  him  to  fell  his  horfe,  by  which  he  was  confidered 
as  degraded  from  the  Equeflrian  Order. 

‘ K 




did  not  fudFer  any  one  to  be  obliged  by  his  accufer  to  dif- 
mount,  wbilft  he  palTed  in  review,  as  had  formerly  been 
the  pradlice.  And  for  fuch  as  w’-ere  infirm  with  age,  or 
any  way  deformed,  he  allowed  them  to  fend  theif  horfes 
before  them,  and  when  called  upon,  only  to  anfwer  to 
their  names ; permitting,  foon  after,  thofe  who  had  at- 
tained the  age  of  thirty-five  years,  and  defired  not  to 
keep  their  horfe  any  longer,  to  have  the  privilege  of  re- 
figning  him*  ► 

XXXIX.  Having  obtained  ten  aflifiants  from  the  Se- 
nate, he  obliged  every  one  of  the  horfemen  to  give  an  ac- 
count of  his  life  : in  regard  to  thofe  of  whom  he  difap- 
proved,  upon  fomehe  fet  a mark  of  infamy,  and  others  he 
punifhed  in  different  ways.  The  mofi:  part  he  only  re- 
primanded, but  not  in  the  fame  terms.  The  moft  gentle 
mode  of  reproof  was  by  delivering  them  wax  tablets^f, 
which  they  were  obliged  to  read  to  ihemfelves  upon  the 
fpot.  Some  he  difgraced  for  borrowing  money  at  low 
intereft,  and  letting  it  out  again  upon  ufurious  profit, 

XL.  In  the  eledlion  of  T ribunes,  if  there  was  not  a 
fufficient  number  of  Senatorian  candidates,  he  nominated 
others  from  the  Equefirian  rank ; granting  them  the  li- 
berty, after  the  expiration  of  their  office,  to  continue  in 
whichfoever  of  the  two  Orders  they  pleafed.  BeCaufe 
moft  of  the  knights  had  been  much  reduced  in  their 
eftates  by  the  late  civil  wars,  and  therefore  durft  not  fit 
to  fee  the  public  diverfions  in  the  theatre,  in  the  feats  al- 

f Pugillares,  or  Pugillaria,  were  a kind  of  pocket-book, 
ufed  for  the  purpofe  of  taking  down  memorandiin}s.  They' 
appear  to  have  been  of  very  ancient  origin ; for  we  read  of 
them  in  the  Iliad  under  the  name  of  Tliva?££i> 




Ibtted  to  tHeir  Order,  for  fear  of  the  punifhment  provided 
by  the  law  in  that  cafe  ; he  publicly  declared,  that  none 
•Were  liable  to  the  penalty  of  that  law,  who  had,  either 
themfelves,  or  their  parents,  ever  had  a knight’s  eftate. 
He  took  the  furvcy  of  the  Roman  people  flreet  by  ftreet^ 
and  that  the  commonalty  might!  not  be  too  often  taken: 
from  (heir  bufmefs,  to  attend  the  diflribution  of  coriii 
he  intended  to  deliver  out  tickets  for  four  months,  that 
they  might  receive  a greater  quantity  at  once ; but  at  tlielr 
rcquelf,  he  continued  the  former  regulation..  He*  reviv-« 
ed  the  ancient  ufage  in  eledlions,  and  endeavored,  by 
various  penalties,  to  fupprefs  the  practice  of  bribery. 
Upon  the  day  of  eledlion,  he  diftributed  to  the  freemen 
of  the  Fabian  andScaptian  tribes;  in  which  he  himfelf  was 
enrolled,  a thoufand  fellerces  each,  that  they  might  en- 
tertain no  expe£l;ations  from  any  of  the  candidates.  E>t- 
tremely  defirous  of  preferving  the  Roman  people  pure; 
and  liritainted  with  a mixture  of  foreign  or  fervile  blood, 
he  not  only  bellowed  the  freedom  of  the  city  with  a fpar- 
ing  hand,  but  laid  fome  reflri6lIon  upon  the  pradlicc  of 
manumlfing  flaves.  When  Tiberius  interceded  with  him 
for  the  freedom  of  Rome  in  behalf  of  a Greek  client  of  his^ 
he  wrote  to  him  for  anfwer,  “ I (hall  not  grant  it,  un- 
lefs  he  come  himfelf,  and  give  me  a fatisfa6lory  reafon 
why  he  makes  that  requeft.’’  He  gave  a denial  likewife 
to  Livia,  upon  her  defirihg  the  fame  privilege  for  a tri- 
butary Gaul,  -but  olFered  him  an  immunity  from  taxes 
adding  a declaration  in  thefe  words:  “ I fhall  fooner 
fuffer  the  revenue  of  my  exchequer  to  be  dimlniflied, 
than  the  honor  of  the  freedom  of  Rome  to  be  rendered 
too  common.”  Not  content  with  debarring- flaves  from 
the  benefit  of  complete  emancipation,  by  'various  legal 
difficulties,  relative  to  the  number,  condition,  and  dL 
ilinvflion  of  fuch  as  fliould  be  manumifed,  he  likewife 
K 2 enadied 



enabled  that  none  who  had  been  bound  in  chains,  or  put 
to  the  rack,  fliould  in  any  degree  obtain  the  freedom  of 
the  city.  He  endeavored  alfo  to,  reftore  the  old  habit 
and  drefs  of  the  Romans  ; and  upon  feeing  once  an  af- 
fembly  of  the  people  in  black  togas  he  exclaimed  with 
indignation,  “ See  there  ! 

Romanos  rerum  dominos,  gentemque  togatam. 

Rome’s  fons  whofe  laws  the  fubjeft  world  reprefs  : 

Of  whom  the  toga  is  the  civic  drefs. 


He  gave  order  to  the  u^diles  not  to  permit,  in  future, 
any  Roman  to  fland  in  the  Forum  or  Circus  with 
cloaks  on. 

XLI.  He  difplayed  his  generofity  to  all  ranks  of  peo- 
ple upon  various  occafions.  For  upon  bringing  the  trea- 
fure  belonging  to  the  kings  of  Egypt  into  the  city,  in 
his  Alexandrian  triumph,  he  made  money  fo  plentiful,  that 
intereft  fell,  and  the  price  of  land  rofe  confiderably.,  And 
afterwards,  as  often  as  large  fumsof  money  came  into  his 
poiTeffion  by  means  of  confifeations,  he  w'ould  lend  it 
gratis  to  fuch  as  could  give  fecurity  for  the  double  of  what 
' was  borrowed.  The  eflate  neceflary  to  qualify  a perfon 
for  being  ele6ted  into  the  Senate,  inflead  of  eight  hundred 
thoufand  fefterces,  the  former  Randard,  he  ordered,  for 
the  future,  to  be  twelve  hundred  thoufand ; and  to  thofe 
in  the  houfe  who  had  not  fo  much,  he  made  good  the  defi- 
ciency. He  often  made  donations  to  the  people,  but  gene- 
rally of  different  fums;  fometimes  four  hundred,  fome- 
tiines  three  hundred,  or  two  hundred  and  fifty  fefterces  ; 
upon  w’hich  oceafions,  he  extended  his  bounty  even  to 
little  boys  ; who  before  were  not  ufed  to  receive  any 
thing,  until  they  arrived  at  eleven  years  of  age.  In  a 
fcarcity  of  corn,  he  would  frequently  let  them  have  it  at 
8 a very 


a very  low  price,  or  none  at  all ; and  doubled  the  number 
of  the  money-tickets. 

XLIf . But  to  fliew  that  he  was  a prince  who  regarded 
more  the  good  of  his  people  than  their  favor,  he  repri- 
manded them,  upon  their  complaining  of  the  fcarcity  and 
dearnefs  of  wine,  very  feverely,  in  the  following  terms : 

My  fon-in-law,  Agrippa,  has  fufficiently  provided  for 
the  quenching  of  your  thirft,  by  the  great  plenty,  of  water 
with  which  he  has  fupplied  the  town.”  Upon  their  de- 
manding a gift  which  he  had  promifed  them,  he  faid,  “ I 
am  a man  of  my  word,”  But  upon  their  importuning 
him  for  one  which  he  had  not  promifed,  he  ifiued  a pro- 
clamation upbraiding  them  with  their  fcandalous  impu- 
dence ; at  the  fame  time  telling  them,  “ I fhould  give 
you  nothing,  though  I had  before  intended  it.”  With  the 
like  hrmnefs  of  authority,  when,  upon  a promife  he  had 
made  them  of  a donative,  he  found  many  flaves  had  been 
manumifed,  and  enrolled  amongfl:  the  citizens,  he  declared 
that  none  fhould  receive  any  thing' to  whom  the  promife 
liad  not  been  made,  and  he  gave  the  reft  lefs  than  he  had 
promifed  them,  that  the  fum  he  defigned  them  might  hold 
out.  Once,  in  a feafon  of  fcarcity,  and  when  it  was  ex- 
tremely difficult  to  fupply  the  public  exigence,  he  ordered 
out  of  the  city  all  the  companies  of  flaves  brought  thither 
for  fale,  the  gladiators  belonging  to  the  mafters  of  def  ence, 
and  all  foreigners,  excepting  phyficians,  and  the  teachers 
of  the  liberal  fciences.  A part  of  the  flaves  in  every 
family  were  likewife  ordered  to  be  difmifled.  When,  at 
lafl,  plenty  was  reflored,  he  writes  thus  : “ I was  much 
inclined  to  abolifh  for  ever  the  practice  of  allowing  the 
people  corn  at  the  public  expence,  becaufe  they  trull:  fo 
much  to  it,  that  they  really  negled  their  tillage ; but  I did 
not  perfevere  in  fuch  a delign ; becaufe  I was  pretty  cer- 
K 3 tain 



tain  that  the  pra6^ice  would  foine  time  or  other  be  revived 
fo  gratify  the  people.’-  He  fo  mauaged  that  affair  evqr 
after,  that  he  was  no  lefs  attentive  to  the  interefts  of  the 
hufbandinen  and  traders  abroad,  than  to  thof$  of  the 

XLIII.  In  the  number,  variety,  and  magnificence  of  his 
public  diverfions,  he  furpaffed  all  former  example.  Four 
and  twenty  times,  he  fays,  heprefented  the  people  with  games 
upon  his  own  account ; and  three  and  twenty  times  fo,r 
fuch  magiffrates  as  were  either  ahfent,  or  not  ab’e  to  affor^l 
the  expence : and  this  he  did  fometimes  in  the  ffreets  qf 
the  city,  and  upon  feveral  flages,  by  players  in  all  languages. 
The  fame  he  did  not  only  in  the  Forum,  and  Amphir 
theatre,  but  in  the  Circus  likewife,  and  in  the  Septa*  ; and 
fometimes  he  prefented  only  a hunting  of  wild  beads.  He 
entertained  the  people  with  wreftlers  in  the  Field  of  Mars, 
where  wooden  feats  were  eredled  for  the  purpofe ; as 
alfo  -with  a naval  fight ; for  accommodation  to  which  he 
lowered  the  ground  about  the  Tiber,  where  now  lies  the 
grove  of  the  Caefars.  During  thefe  two  entertainment^ 
he  placed  guards  in  the  city,  leil  robbers,  by  reafon  of  the 
fmall  number  of  people  that  was  left  in  it,  might  feize  the 
opportunity  of  committing  depredations.  In  the  Circus 
he  brought  into  a6iion  charioteers,  foot-racers,  and  killer^ 
of  wild  beads,  and  thofc  often  youths  of  the  fird  quality. 
He  frequently  exhibited  the  Trojan  game,  with  a feledt 
number  of  boys  different  in  dature  ; thinking  it  both 
graceful  in  itfeif,  and  conformable  to  the  pradlice  of  the 
ancients,  that  the  genius  of  the  young  nobility  fhpuld  be 

* Septa  were  inclofiires  made  with  boards,  commonly  for 
the  purpofe  of  didributing  the  people  into  didind  claffes, 
and  ereded  occafioually. 




difplayed  in  fueh  exercifes.  G,  Nonius  Afprenas,  who 
was  lamed  in  this  diverfion,  he  prefented  with  a golden 
chain,  and  allowed  him  and  his  poflerlty  to  bear  the  fur- 
name  of  Torquatus.  But  foon  after,  he  ceafed  to  en- 
courage fuch  fports,  upon  occalion  of  a fevere  fpcech 
made  in  the  Senate  by  Afinius  Pollio  the  orator,  in  which 
he  complained  bitterly  of  the  misfortune  of  ^ferninus 
his  grandfon,  who  likcwife  broke  his  leg  in  the  fame 
diverfion.  He  fometimes  made  ufe  of  Roman  knights  to 
atSl  upon  the  flage,  or  to  fight  as  gladiators  : but  only  be- 
fore the  pra6hoe  was^prohibited  by  a decree  of  the  Senate. 
After  that  period  he  went  no  farther  than  to  prefent  to  the 
view  of  the  people  a young  man  named  Tuciqs,  of  a good 
family,  wdio  was  not  quite  two  foot  in  height,  and 
v/eighed  only  feventeen  pounds,  but  had  a prodigious 
voice.  :In  one  of  his  public  entertainments,  he  brought 
the  hoftages  of  the  Parthians,  the  firft.ever  fent  to  Rome 
from  that  nation,  through  the  middle  of  the  theatre,  and 
placed  them  in  the  fecond  gallery  above  him.  Pie  ufed 
likewife,  at  times  when  no  public  entertainments  Wvte  in 
agitation,  if  any  thing  was  brought  to  town  uncommon, 
and  which  might  gratify  curiofity,  to  expofe  it  to  public 
view,  in  any  place  whatever  ; as  he  did  a rhinoceros  in  the 
Septa,  a tiger  upon  a fiage,  and  a fnake  fifty  cubits  long 
in  the  Comitium.  It  happened  in  the  Circenfian  games, 
which  he  performed  in  confcquence  of  a vow,  that  he 
was  taken  ill,  and  obliged  to  attend  the  Thenfae lying 
upon  a couch.  Another  time,  in  the  games  celebrated 


* The  Thtnfa  was  a fplendid  carriage  with  four  wheels, 
and  four  horfes,  adorned  with  ivory  and  filver,  in  which  the 
images  of  the  Gods  were  drawn  in  folemn  procellion  from 
their  fhrines,  at  the  Circenfian  games,  to  a place  in  the  Circus, 
called  Pulvinar,  where  couches  were  prepared  for  their  recep- 

K 4 tioa. 



for  the  opening  of  Marcelhis’s  theatre,  the  joints  of  his 
ivory  feat  happening  to  give  way,  he  fell  upon  his  back. 
And  in  the  public  diverfion  exhibited  by  his  grandfons, 
when  the  people  were  fo  terrified  with  the  apprehenfioa 
of  the  theatre’s  falling,  that  he  could  not,  by  repeated  en- 
treaties not  to  run  away,  overcome  their  trepidation,  he 
moved  from  his  place,  and  fat  down  in  the  part  which 
was  mod  fufpecled.  _ ‘ 

XLIV.  The  confufed  diforderly  manner  of  fitting  at 
public  diverfions,  he  rectified,  upon  occafion  of  an  affront 
put  upon  a Senator  at  Puteoli,  whom,  in  a full  affembly 
at  the  public  games,  no  perfon  would  make  room  for. 
He  therefore  procured  a decree  of  the  Senate,  that  in  all 
public  diverfions,  in  any  place  whatever,  the  firfl  row  of 
feats  fliould  be  left  empty  for  the  accommodation  of  Se- 
nators. He  would  not  permit  even  the  ainbafTadors 
of  free  nations,  and  fuch  as  were  allies  of  Rome,  to 
fit  in  that  part  of  the  theatre  affigned  to  the  Senators  ; 
having  difeovered  that  fome  manumifed  flaves  had  been 
fent  under  -that  character.  He  feparated  the  foldiery  from 
the  reft  of  the  people,  and  affigned  to  married  men  among  ft 
the  commonalty  their  proper  feats.  To  the  bpys  he 
affigned  his  own  Cuneus  *,  and  to  their  mafters  the  feats 

tion.  It  received  its  name  from  thongs  {lor a tenfa)  ftretched 
before  it ; and  was  attended  in  the  proceffion  by  pe^fons  of 
the  firft  rank,  in  their  moft  magnificent  apparel.  The  at- 
tendants took  delight  in  touching  the  thongs  by  which  the 
chariot  was  drawn  : and  if  a boy  happened  to  let  go  the 
thong  which  he  held,  it  was  an  indifpenfable  rule  that  the 
proceflion  fliould  be  renewed. 

* The  Cuneus  was  a bench  in  the  theatre,  or  other  places 
of  public  entertainment.  One  rofe  above  another  from  the 
front  of  the  ftage  backwards,  and  they  were  diflributed  re- 

fpeftively  to  the  different  Orders  of  fpedators, 

- ' which 



which  were  nearefl:  it;  ordering  that  none  cloathed  in 
black  ihould  lit  in  the  middle  part  of  the  Cavea Nor 
w’onkl  he  allow  the  women  to  look  at  the  combats  of  the 
gladiators,  except  from  the  upper  part  of  the  theatre, 
though  they  formerly  ufed  to  take  their  places  promif- 
cuouily  with  the  reH:  of  the  company  on  that  occafion. 
To  the  Veftal  Virgins  he  granted  a place  in  the  theatre  by 
themfelves,  oppofite  to  the  Praetor’s  bench.  He  excluded, 
how^ever,  the  whole  female  fex  from  feeing  the  wreftlers 
perform  their  parts : fo  that  in  the  games  which  he  ex- 
hibited upon  his  acceffion  to  the  office  of  Higli-prieft,  lie 
deferred  producing  a pair  of  combatants  which  the  people 
called  for,  until  the  next  morning ; and  intimated  by  pro- 
clamation, It  was  his  pleafure  that  no  'woman  fhould 
appear  in  the  theatre  before  five  o’clock.” 

XLV.  He  generally  viewed  the  Circenfian  games  from 
the  apartments  of  his  friends  or  freedmen,  fometlmcs 
from  the  place  appointed  for  the  ftatues  of  the  Gods,  and 
fitting  in  company  with  his  wife  and  children.  He  would, 
upon  occafions,  abfent  himfelf  from  thofe  fpedlacles  for 
feveral  hours,  and  fometimes  whole  days ; but  not  without 
firfi:  making  an  apology,  and  recommending  fome  to  prc- 
fide  at  them  in  his  room.  When  he  'was  prefent,  however, 
he  never  attended  to  any  other  objedf ; either  to  avoid  the 
refledlion  which  he  ufed  to  fay  wascommonly  made  upon 
his  father  Caefar,  for  perufing  letters  and  memoirs,  and 
anfvvering  them  in  writing,  whilft  he  was  prefent  at  the 
public  diverfions  ; or  from  a real  pleafure  he  took  in  the 

* The  Ca'iea  was  the  name  of  the  whole  of  that  part  of 
the  theatre  where  the  fpeclators  fat.  The  foremofl  rows 
were  called  cavea  pt  lma^  or  i»:a ; the  lafi,  cavea  ultima  or 
Jumma  ; and  the  middle,  cavea  mecUa^ 




fight  of  thofe  exhibitions,  which  he  was  fo  far  from  con-f 
cealing,  that  he  often  ingenuoufly  owned  it.  On  this 
account,  he  ufed  frequently  to  make  confiderable  prefents 
to  the  beft  performers,  in  the  diverfions  exhibited  by 
others  ; and  never  was  prefent  at  any  performance  of  the 
Greeks,  without  rewarding  the  moft  defervlng,  accord- 
ing to  their  merit.  He  took  particular  pleafure  in  feeing 
the  conteds  of  the  boxers,  efpecially  thofe  of  the  country, 
not  only  fuch  as  had  been  trained  up  to  it  by  rules  of  art, 
whom  he  ufed  often  to  match  with  the  Greek  champions  ; 
but  even  the  people  of  the  city,  who  would  hght  in  the 
ilreets  without  any  knowledge  of  the  art.  In  fact,  he 
honored  with  his  protection  all  fuch  as  performed  any 
part  in  thofe  public  entertainments  of  the  people.  He 
not  only  maintained,  but  enlarged,  the  privileges  of  the 
wreftlers.  He  would  not  permit  the  gladiators  to  fight, 
without  the  allowance  of  life  to  the  party  that  was 
worded.  He  deprived  the  magidrates  of  the  power  of 
corredling  the  dage-players,  which  by  an  ancient  law 
was  allowed  them  at  all  times,  and  in  all  places  ; rcdridl- 
ing  their  authority  entirely  to  the  time  of  performance, 
and  to  the  dage  He  would  however  admit  of  no  abatement 
in  the  fervice  of  the  wredlers,  or  gladiators,  but  exadled 
from  both  the  mod'drldl  attention  to  difeipline.  He  went 
fo  far  in  redraining  the  licentioufnefs  of  dage-players, 
that  upon  difeovering  that  Stephanio,  an  ador  of  . Latin 
plays,  kept  a married  woman  with  her  hair  cut  fhort,  and 
dreded  in  boy’s  cloaths,  to  wait  upon  him  at  table,  he  or- 
dered him  to  be  whipped  through  all  the  three  theatres, 
and  banifhed  him.  Hylas,  an  adlor  of  pantomimes,  upon 
a complaint  againd  him  by  the  Praetor,  he  commanded 
to  be  fcourged  with  a whip,  in  the  court  of  his  own 
houfe,  and  admitted  all  who  were  dedrous  of  feeing  the 
punilhment  infiidled.  And  Pylades  he  not  only  baniihed 



from  the  city,  but  Italy  llkewife,  for  pointing  with  his 
finger  at,  and  turning  the  eyes  of  the  company  upon,  a 
fpe6lator  by  whom  he  was  liIiTed. 

XLVI.  Having  thus  regiilatcd  the  affairs  of  the  city, 
fie  replenifhed  Italy  by  planting  in  it  twenty-eight  colo- 
nies, and  greatly  improved  it’  by  public  works,  and  a 
beneficial  diilribution  of  taxes.  In  refpe£i  of  privileges 
and  dignity,  he  rendered  it  in  fome  meafure  equal  to  the 
city  Itfelf;  by  inventing  a new  kind  of  fufiVagis,  which 
tlie  members  of  the  governing  council  fhould  give  at 
home,  in  the  eledlion  of  the  raagiftrates  in  Rome,  an4 
fend  under  feal  to  the  city,  about  the  time  of  the  ele61.ion. 
To  encreafe  the  number  of  perfons  of  condition,  and 
encourage  propagation  amongfi;  the  inferior  people,  he 
granted  the  petitions  of  all  thqfe  wl)o  requefted  the  honor 
of  fervlng  in  the  wars  on  horfeback,  provided  they  were 
feconded  by  tfie  reconimendation  of  the  town  in  which 
they  lived  ; and  to  fuch  of  the  commonalty  as,  upon  his 
viewing  the  fevcral  quarters  of  Italy,  prefented  him  with 
fons  or  daughters  lawfully  begotten,  he  difiributed  a 
thoufand  fefierces  a head. 

XLVIL  The  more  powerful  provinces,  and  fuch  as 
COUI4  not  with  eafe  or  fafety  be  entrufied  to  the  govern- 
ment of  annual  magifirates,  he  referved  to  his  own  ad- 
minifiration  : the  reft  he  difiributed  by  lot  amongfi  the 
Proconfuls ; but  fometimes  he  made  an  exchange,  and 
frequently  vifited  mofi  of  both  kinds  in  perfoji.  Some 
cities  that  were  in  alliance  with  Rome,  but  bv  their  great 
licentioufnefs  hafiening  to  defirudlion,  he  deprived  of  their 
liberty.  Others,  wdiich  were  much  in  debt,  he  relieved, 
and  rebuilt  fuch  as  had  been  defiroyed  bv  earthquakes.. 
To  thqfe  that  could  produce  any  infiance  of  their  having 




deferved  well  of  the  Roman  people,  he  prefented  the 
freedom  of  Latium,  or  even  that  of  the  city.  There  is 
not,  I believe,  a province,  except  Africa  and  Sardinia, 
which  he  did  not  vifit.  After  he  had  driven  Sextus  Pom- 
peius into  thofe  provinces,  he  was  indeed  preparing  to 
pafs  over  from  Sicily,  but  was  prevented  by  violent  ftorms, 
which  continued  without  intermiffion,  until  the  occafion 
for  fuch  a voyage  no  longer  remained. 

XLVIII.  Kingdoms,  of  which  he  had  made  himfelf 
mafter  by  the  right  of  conquefr,  excepting  a few,  he 
either  reftored  to  their  former  polTefTors,  or  conferred 
upon  ftrangers.  Kings,  his  allies,  he  cemented  together 
in  bonds  of  the  moft  intimate  union  ; being  always  ready 
to  promote  or  favor  any  propofal  of  marriage  or  friend- 
fhip  amongft  them ; and  indeed  treated  them  all  with  the 
fame  confideration,  as  if  they  were  members  and  parts  of 
the  empire.  To  fuch  amongft  them  as  were  minors  or 
lunatics  he  appointed  guardians,  until  they  arrived  at  age, 
or  recovered  their  fenfes  ; and  the  fons  of  many  he  main- 
tained and  educated  with  his  own, 

XLIX.  With  refpedl  to  the  military  forces,  he  dif. 
pofed  of  the  legions  and  auxiliary  troops  throughout  the  " 
feveral  provinces.  He  ftationed  a fleet  at  Mifene,  and 
another  at  Ravenna,  for  the  fecurlty  of  the  upper  and 
lower  fea.  A certain  number  of  the  forces  he  feledfed, 
partly  for  the  guard  of  the  city,  and  partly  of  his  own 
perfon ; and  difmifled  the  body  of  the  Calaguritanlans, 
which  he  retained  about  him  until  the  overthrow  of  An- 
tony. He  did  the  fame  by  the  Germans,  w^hom  he  had 
amongft  his  guards,  until  the  difafter  of  Varus.  Yet  he 
never  permitted  a greater  force  than  three  battalions  in 
the  city,  and  that  without  any  camp.  The  reft  he  ufed 




to  diftribute  In  the  neighbouring  towns  about  the  city,  in 
winter  and  fummer  quarters.  All  the  troops  throughout 
the  empire  he  reduced  to  one  fixed  model,  with  regard  to 
their  pay,  and  the  rewards  to  be  conferred  upon  them  at 
the  expiration  of  their  fervice  ; determining,  according  to 
every  one’s  ftation  in  the  troops,  both  the  lime  he  was  to 
fervc,  and  the  advantages  he  was  to  enjoy  upon  an  ho- 
*norable  difmiflion ; that  they  might  not  be  tempted  by 
their  age  and  neceffities  to  excite  any  public  commo- 
tion. For  the  purpofe  of  eftablifliing  a perpetual  and 
ready  fund  towards  the  accomplifiiment  of  thefe  objects, 
he  infiituted  a military  exchequer,  with  new  taxes  for  the 
fupply  of  it.  To  have  the  fpeedier  intelligence  of  what 
pafied  in  the  provinces,  he  at  firft  polled  young  men  at 
moderate  diftances,  along  the  military  roads,  and  after- 
wards vehicles,  which  appeared  to  him  the  more  com- 
modious,’ becaufe  the  perfons  who  brought  him  the  letters, 
might  be  queftioned  about  the  bufinefs,  if  there  was  any 

L.  In  the  feallng  of  patents,  Infl:ru6lions,  or  letters,  he 
at  firfi:  ufed  the  figure  of  a Sphinx,  afterwards  the  head 
of  Alexander  the  Great,  and  at  laft  his  own,  engraven  by 
the  hand  of  Diofcorides,  which  the  fucceeding  princes 
likewife  continued  to  make  ufe  of.  He  was  extremely 
precife  in  the  dating  of  his  letters,  putting  down  exadly 
the  time  of  the  day  or  night,  at  which  they  were  di- 

LI.  Of  his  clemency  and  moderation  there  are  abun- 
dant and  fignal  inftances.  For  not  to  enumerate  how 
many  and  what  perfons  of  the  oppofite  party  he  pardoned, 
and  fuifered  to  rife  to  the  highefi:  eminence  in  the  city  ; 
he  thought  it  fufficient  to  punifit  Junius  Novatus,  and 



Caffius  Patavinus,  both  commoners  ; one  of  them  with  a 
fine,  and  the  other  with  an  eafy  banifhment ; though  the 
former  had  pubiiflied,  In  the  name  of  young  Agrippa,  a very 
fcurrilous  letter  againh:  him,  and  the  other  declared  openly^ 
at  an  entertainment  where  there  was  a great  deal  of  com- 
pany, “ that  he  neither  wanted  inclination  nor  courage  to 
flab  him.’^  In  the  trial  of  ^milius  ^lianus  of  Corduba, 
when,  amongfl  other  charges  exhibited  againft  him,  it 
was  particularly  inhlled  upon^  that  he  ufed  to  refledl  upon 
Caefar,  the  latter  turning  about  to,thc  accufer,  faid  to  him 
with  an  air  and  tone  of  paffion,  “ I whir  you  could  make 
that  appear,  1 fliall  let  ^lianus  know  that  I have  a 
tongue  too,  and  return  him  more  abufivc  language  than 
he  ever  ufed  againfl  me.’’  Nor  did  he  either  then  or 
afterwards  make  any  farther  enquiry  into  the  affair.  And 
when  Tiberius,  in  a letter,  complained  of  the  offence  with 
great  earneflnefs,  he  returned  him  an  anfwer  in  the  fol- 
lowing terms  : ‘‘  Do  not,  my  dear  Tiberius,  give  way  to 
the  ardor  of  youth  in  this  affair ; nor  be  fo  much  enraged> 
that  any  perfon  fhould  fpeak  ill  of  me.  It  is  fufficient^ 
that  we  have  it  in  our  power  to  prevent  any  one  from 
doing  us  a mifehief.” 

LIL  Though  he  knew  it  had  been  cuflo’mary  to 
decree  temples  for  the  Proconfuls,  yet  he  would  not, 
in  the  provinces^  permit  any  to  be  eredted,  unlefs  to- 
the  honor  of  himfelf  and  the  city  Rome  in  conjunc- 
tion. But  within  the  limits  of  the  city,  he  pofitively  re^ 
fufed  any  honor  of  that  kind.  He  melted  down  all  the 
filver  hatues  that  had  been  eredled  to  him,  and  con- 
verted the  whole  into  tripods,  which  he  confecrated  to 
Apollo  Palatinus.  And  when  the  populace  importune<l 
him  to  accept  of  the  Didlatorfhip,  he  bent  himfelf 
down  upon  one  knee,  with  his' toga  thrown  over  hift 



fl^oulders,  his  breafl  expofed  to  view,  and  begged  to  be 

LIII.  He  always  abhorred  the  title  of  Lord^  as  a fcan- 
dalous  affront.  And  when,  in  a mimic  piece,  performed 
on  the  theatre,  at  which  he  was  prefent,  thefe  words  were 
expreffed,  “ O juft  and  gracious  lord,”  and  the  w^hole  ' 
company,  with  joyful  acclamations,  teftified  their  appro- 
bation of  them,  as  being  applied  to  him ; he  both  imme- 
diately put  a flop  to  thei^j  indecent  flattery,  by  the  waving 
of  his  hand,  and  the  feverity  of  his  looks,  and  next  day 
publicly  declared  his  difpleafure,  by  a proclamation.  He 
never  afterwards  would  fuffer  himfelf  to  be  addreffed  in  that 
manner^  even  by  his  own  children  or  grandchildren,  either 
in  jefl:  or  earneft,  and  forbid  them  the  ufe  of  all  fuch  com- 
pllinentary  expreflions  to  one  another.  He  fcarcely  ever 
entered  any  city  or  great  town,  or  departed  from  it,  but 
in  the  evening  or  the  night,  to  avoid  giving  any  perfon 
the  trouble  of  attending  him.  During  his  Confulfliips, 
he  commonly  walked  the  ftrects  on'  foot ; but  at  other 
times  was  carried  in  a covered  chair.  He  admitted  the 
commonalty,  promlfcuoufly  with  people  of  fuperior  rank, 
to  pay  their  refpecSls  to  him  ; receiving  the  petitions  of 
fuch  as  came  to  wait  upon  him  with  fo  much  affability, 
that  he  once  jocofely  rebuked  a man,  by  telling  him, 
“ You  prefent  your  memoir  with  as  much  hefitatlon  as  If 
you  were  offering  money  to  an  elephant.”  Upon  the 
days  that  the  Senate  affembled,  he  ufed  to  pay  his  refpe(3s 
only  in  the  houfe,  and  as  they  fat,  addrefling  them  imgly 
by  name,  without  any  prompter ; and  at  his  leaving  the 
houfe,  he  in  the  fame  manner  bid  each  of  them  farewell. 
He  maintained  with  many  a conflant  intercourfe  of  civi- 
lities, giving  them  his  company  upon  any  particular  oc- 
caflon  of  joy  in  their  families ; until  he  became  advanced 



in  years,  and  was  incommoded  by  the  crowd  at  a wedding. 
Being  informed  that  Gallu's  Terrinius,  a Senator,  with 
whom  he  had  only  a flight  acquaintance,  was  fuddenly 
taken  blind,  and  for  that  reafon  had  refolved  to  fl:arve 
himfelf  to  death,  he  paid  him  a vifit,  and  by  the  confola- 
toiy  admonitions  he  fuggefted,  diverted  him  from  his 

LIV.  Upon  his  fpeaklng  in  the  Senate,  he  has  been 
told  by  one  of  the  members,  “ I did  not  underftand  you,** 
and  by  anotlier,  “ I would  contradict  you,  could  I do  it 
w'ith  fafety.*’  And  fometimes,  upon  his  being  fo  fliuch 
oiTended  at  the  heat  with  which  the  debates  w'ere  con- 
ducted in  the  Senate,  as  to  quit  the  houfe  in  anger,  fome 
of  the  members  have  repeatedly  exclaimed  : “ Surely,  the 
Senators  ought  to  have  the  liberty  of  fpeech  with  refpeCb 
to  matters  of  government.**  Antiftius  Labeo,  in  the 
election  of  a new  Senate,  when  every  one,  as  he  was 
named,  chofe  another,  nominated  M.  Lepidus,  who  had 
formerly  been  Auguftus’s  enemy,  and  was  then  in  baniih- 
ment ; and  being  alked  by  the  latter,  “ Is  there  no  other 
perfon  more  deferving  ?**  he  replied,  Every  man  has  his 
fancy.’*  Nor  was  any  perfon  ever  molefled  for  oppoflng 
cither  his  fentiments,  or  inclination. 

LV.  When  fome  infamous  libels  againfi:  him  were 
fcattered  in  the  Senate,  he  was  neither  diflurbed  at  the 
incident,  nor  gave  himfelf  much  trouble  to  refute  them. 
He  would  not  fo  much  as  order  an  enquiry  to  be  made 
after  the  authors’;  only  gave  it  as  his  opinion  to  the 
houfe,  that,  for  the  future,  thofe  flhould  be  called  to  an 
account,  who  publiflbed  libels  or  lampoons,  in  a borrov/ed 
name,  againft  any  perfon. 

LVL  Being 



LVL  Being  provoked  by  fome  petulant  jefls,  which 
were  defigned  to  render  him  odious,  he  anfwered  them 
by  a proclamation  : and  yet  he  prevented  the  Senate  from 
pafling  an  a6l,  to  reftrain  the  licentious  freedom  that  was 
taken  in  wills.  Whenever  he  attended  at  the  eleddion  of 
raagiflratcs,  lie  went  round  the  tribes,  with  the  candidates 
of  his  nomination,  and  requeued  the  votes  of  the  people 
in  the  ufual  manner.  He  likewife  gave  his  vote  in  his 
tribe,  as  one  of  the  people.  He  fuifered  himfelf  to  be 
fummoned  as  a wdtnefs  upon  trials,  and  not  only  to  be 
queflioned,  but  to  have  the  accuracy  of  his  evidence  ex- 
amined. In  building  his  Forum,  he  made  it  lefs  than  he' 
wiflied,  not  prefuming  to  force  the  owners  of  the  neigh-«^ 
bouring  houfes  to  a furrender  of  their  property.  He  ne- 
ver recommended  his  fons  to  the  people,  without  adding 
thefe  words,  If  they  deferve  it.’’  And  upon  the  com- 
pany ’s  rifing  up  to  them  at  the  theatre,  while  yet  under- 
age, and  clapping  them  handing,  he  made  a moll  heavy 
complaint.  He  was  defirous  that  his  friends  hiould  be 
great  and  powerful  in  the  city,  but  equally  fubjedl  to  the 
laws  with  any  other  perfon.  When  Afprenas  Nonius,  an 
intimate  friend  of  his,  was  tried  upon  a charge  of  ad- 
miniilerlng  poifon  at  the  inhance  of  Caffius  Severus,  he 
confiilted  the  Senate  for  their  opinion  what  was  his  duty 
upon  that  occafion  : “ For,  faid  he,  I am  afraid,  left,  if  I 
hiouid  hand  by  him  in  the  caufe,  I might  be  thought  to 
fereen  him  in  denance  of  the  laws ; and  if  I do  not,  to 
defert  him,  and  prejudge  him  by  an  unfavorable  opinion.” 
By  the  unanimous  confent  of  the  houfe,  he  fat  amongft 
his  advocates  for  fevcral  hours,  but  without  faying  fo 
much^as  one  word  in,  his  commendation,  according  to 
ciiftom,  upon  thofe  occafions.  He  likewife  appeared  for 
his  clients  ; as  for  Scutarius  an  old  foldier  of  his,  in  an 
adlion  of  flandcr.  He  never  delivered  any  from  profecu- 
lion  but  one,  by  whom  he  had  been  informed  of  the  con- 

L fpiracy 



fpiracy  of  Mursna  ; and  that  he  did  only  by  prevailing 
upon  the  accufer,  in  open  court,  to  drop  his  profecution, 

LVIL  How  much  he  was  beloved  for  his  meritorious 
behaviour  in  all  thefe  refpecls,  it  is  eafy  to  imagine.  I 
fay  nothing  of  the  decrees  of  the  Senate  in  his  favor, 
which  may  feem  to  have  been  the  efFecls  of  neceflity  or 
modefly.  The  Roman  knights  voluntarily,  and  with  one 
accord,  always  celebrated  the  anniverfary  of  his  birth  for 
two  days  together ; and  all  ranks  of  the  people,  every 
year,  in  confequcnce  of  a vow  which  they  had  made  for 
that  purpofe,  threw  a piece  of  money  into  the  Curtian 
lake,  as  a facrilice  for  his  health.  They  llkewife,  upon 
the  firll  of  January,  prefented  ,for  his  acceptance  new- 
year’s  gifts  in  the  Capitol,  though  he  was  notprefent : with 
which  donations  he  puichafed  fome  coftly  images  of  the 
Gods,  which  he  ere61;ed  in  feveral  ftreets  of  the  city  ; as 
that  of  Apollo  Sandaliarius,  Jupiter  Tragoedus,  and 
others.  When  his  houfe  in  the  Palatium  was  accidentally 
deftroyed  by  hre,  the  veteran  foldiers,  the  judges,  and  all 
the  people,  jointly  and  feparately  contributed,  each  man 
according  to  his  ability,  for  rebuilding  it;  though  he 
would  accept  only  of  fome  fmall  portion  out  of  the  feve- 
ral films  colledfed,  and  would  take  no  more  from  any 
fingle  heap,  than  one  denarius  Upon  his  return  home 
from  any  of  the  provinces,  they  attended  him  not  only 
with  joyful  acclamations,  but  fongs ; and  w’hen  he  en- 
tered the  city,  they  conflantiy  fufpended  during  that  day 
the  punifliment  of  malefaclors. 

LVIIT.  The  whole  body  of  the  people,  upon  a fudden 
motion,  and  with  unanimous  confent,  offered  him  the 

* A coin,  in  value  about  eight  pence  half-penny  farthing 
of  our  money, 

8 title 



title  of  Father  of  his  Country,  It  was  fent  to  him  firft  at 
Antium,  by  a deputation  from  the  commonalty  ; and  upoiiE 
his  declining  the  honor,  they  repeated  their  offer  in  a full 
theatre,  with  laurel  cro\^ns  on  their  heads.  The  Senate 
foon  after  adopted  the  piopofal,  not  in  the  way  of  accla- 
mation or  decree,  but  by  commiffion  to  M.  Meffala,  who 
was  ordered  to  compliment  him  with  it,  as  he  accordingly* 
did  in  the  following  terms  : “ With  hearty  wifhes  for  the 
happinefs  of  yourfelf  and  your  family,  Casfar  Auguftus, 
(for  fo  we  think  we  moft  effedlually  pray  for  the  public 
welfare)  the  Senate,  in  conjun6lion  with  the  people,  fa» 
lute  you  by  the  title  of  Father  of  your  Country^  To  this 
compliment  Auguflus,  with  tears  in  his  eyes,  replied  in 
thefe  wmrds  (for  I put  them  down  exadlly,  as  I have  done 
thofe  of  Meffala)  : Having  now  obtained  the  utmoft  of 
my  wifhes,  O Confeript  Fathers  what  elfe  have  I to 

, beg 

^ The  Senate  was  inftituted  by  Romulus,  to  be  the  per- 
petual council  of  the  Republic.  It  confifted  at  firft  of  a 
hundred  members,  who  were  called  Patres,  i.  e.  Fathers, 
either  upon  account  of  their  age,  or  their  paternal  care  of 
the  Rate.  The  number  received  fome  augmentation  under 
Tullus  Heftilius ; and  Tarquinius  Prifeus,  the  fifth  king  of 
Rome,  added  a hundred  more,  who  w*ere  called  Patres  mi- 
liorum gentium  ; thofe  created  by  Romulus  being  diftinguiflied 
by  the  name  of  Patres  majorum  gentium.  Such  as  w^Cre  chofen 
into  the  Senate  by  Brutus,  after  the  expulfion  of  Tarquin 
the  Proud,  to  fupply  the  place  of  thofe  whom  that  king  had 
llain,  were  called  Conferipti,  i.  e.  perfons  written  or  en- 
rolled with  the  old  Senators,  who  alone  were  properly  ffyled 
Patres,  Hence  arofe  the  cuRom  of  fummoning  to  the  Senate 
thofe  who  were  Paires,  and  thofe  who  were  Conferipii  ; and 
hence  alfo  was  applied  to  the  Senators  in  general  the  defigna- 
tion  of  Patres  Conferipti,  the  particle  <?/,  and,  being  under- 
Rood  to  connect  the  two  claffes  of  Senators.  In  the  time  of 

L Julius 



beg  of  the  immortal  Gods,  but  the  continuance  of  this 
your  affe(fl;ion  tor  me  to  the  lail:  moments  of  my  life  ?” 

LTX.  To  the  phyfician  Antonius  Mufa,  who  had 
cured  him  of  a dangerous  iilnefs,  they,  by  common  con- 
tribution, creded  a hatue  near  that  of  jEfculapius.  Some 
perfons  ordered  in  their  wills,  that  their  heirs  fhould  carry 
vi61;ims  into  the  Capitol,  with  a fcroll  before  them,  ex- 
preffing  that  they  were  to  be  offered  for  the  completion 
of  a vow,  made  by  the  tellators,  “ Becaufe  they  had  left 
Auguftus  behind  them  in  the  world.’’  Some  cities  of 
Italy  appointed  the  day  upon  which  he  firft  came  to 
them,  to  be  for  ever  after  the  firft  day  of  their  year.  And 
moft  of  the  provinces,  befides  temples  and  altars  eredled 
to  his  honor,  inflituted  games,  to  be  celebrated,  in  almoft 
every  town,  for  the  fame  purpofe,  every  five  years. 

LX.  The  kings  his  friends  and  allies,  each  of  them  in 
their  refpedlive  kingdoms,  built  cities  under  the  name  of 
Ca^farea  ; and  all  by  confent  refolvcd  to  finifh,  at  their 
common  charge,  a temple  of  Jupiter  Olympius,  w’hich 
had  been  begrun  at  Athens  a long  time  before,  and  confe- 
crate  it  to  his  Genius.  They  would  often  likewife  leave 
their  kingdoms,  and  laying  afide  the  badges  of  their  royal 
dignity,  in  a Roman  drefs,  attend  and  pay  their  refpedfs 
to  him  daily,  in  the  maimer  of  clients  to  their  patrons,  not 
only  when  he  was  at  Rome,  but  as  he  w^as  travelling 
through  their  provinces. 

Julius  Caefar,  the  number  of  Senators  was  encreafed  to  nine 
hundred,  and  after  his  death  to  a thoufand ; many  worthlefs 
perfons  having  been  admitted  into  the  Senate  during  the 
civil  wars.  Augufius  afterwards  reduced  the  number  to  fix 

LXT.  Having 



LXI.  Having  thus  given  an  account  of  his  bejiaviour 
in  his  offices  both  civil  and  military,  and  his  conduci  in 
the  government  of  the  empire,  both  in  peace  and  war ; I 
lhall  now  delineate  his  private  and  domeftic  life,  his  be- 
haviour at  home  amongft  his  friends  and  dependents,  and 
the  fortune  attending  him  in  thofe  feenes  of  retirement, 
from  his  youth  to  the  day  of  his  death.  He  loft  his  mo- 
ther in  his  ftrft  Confulftiip,  and  his  fifter  Odfavia  when 
he  was  in  the  fifty-fourth  year  of  his  age.  He  behaved 
towards  them  both  with  the  utmoft  kindnefs  whlift  living, 
and  after  their  deceafe  paid  the  higheft  honors  to  their 

LXII.  He  was  contra61:ed  when  very  young  to  the 
daughter  of  Publius  Servilius  Ifauricus  ; but  upon  his  re- 
conciliation with  Antony  after  their  iirft-  rupture,  the 
armies  on  both  fides  infifting  upon  a clofer  alliance  by 
marriage  betwixt  them,  he  efpoufed  Antonyms  ftep- 
daughter  Claudia,  the  daughter  of  Fulvia  by  Publius 
Claudius,  though  at  that  time  fcarcely  marriageable;  and 
upon  a difference  arifing  with  his  mother-indaw  Fulvia, 
he  divorced  her  untouched,  and  a pure  virgin.  Soon  after 
he  took  to  wife  Scribonia,  who  had  before  been  twice 
married  to  men  of  Confular  rank,  and  was  a mother  by 
one  of  them.  With  her  likewife  he  parted,  being  quite 
tired  out,  as  he  hlmfelf  writes,  with  the  perverfenefs  of 
her  temper ; and  immediately  took  Li  via  Druftlla,  though 
then  pregnant,  from  her  hufband  Tiberius  Nero ; for 
whom  he  ever  after  maintained  the  moft  tender  aifedlion. 

LXIIL  He  had  his  daughter  Julia  by  Scribonia,  but  no 
children  by  Livia,  though  extremely  defirous  of  iffue. 
She  indeed  conceived  once,  but  mifearried.  He  difpofed 
of  his  daughter  Julia  ftrft  to  Marcellus  his  fifter's  fon, 

L 3 who 



who  had  juft  completed  his  minority ; and,  after  his  death, 
to  M.  Agrippa,  having  prevailed  with  his  fifter  to  refign 
her  fon-in-law  to  him  ; for  at  that  time  Agrippa  wa? 
married  to  one  of  the  Marcellas,  and  had  likewife  had 
children  by  her.  His  new  fon-in-law  being  alfo  dead,  he 
for  a long  time  thought  of  feveral  matches  for  Julia  in 
the  Equeftrian  Order,  and  at  laft  refolved  upon  choofuig 
for  her  Tiberius  his  ftep-fon,  whom  he  therefore  obliged 
to  part  with  his  wife,  at  that  time  pregnant,  and  who  had 
already  brought  him  a child.  M.  Antony  wu'ites. 

That  he  firft  contradled  Julia  to  his  fon,  afterwards  to 
Cotifo  king  of  the  Getae,  demanding  at  the  fame  time  the 
king’s  daughter  in  marriage  for  himfelf.’- 

LXIV.  He  had  three  grandfons  by  Agrippa  and  Julia, 
Caius,  Lucius,  and  Agrippa  ; and  two  grand-daughters, 
Julia  apd  Agrippina.  Julia  he  married  to  Lucius  Paullus, 
the  Cenfor’s  fon,  and  Agrippina  to  Gerrnanicus  his  fifter’s 
grandfon.  Caius  and  Lucius  he  adopted  at  home,  by 
the  ceremony  of  purchafe  from  their  father ; advanced 
them,  \yhilft  yet  but  very  young,  to  pofts  in  the  govern- 
jnent ; and  after  he  had  procured  them  to  be  chofen 
'Confuls,  fent  them  upon  a tour  through  the  provinces  of 
the  empire,  and  the  feveral  armies.  In  the  breeding  of 
his  daughter  and  grand-daughters,  he  accuftomed  them  to 
domeilic  employments,  and  obliged  them  to  fpeak  and 
adl  every  thing  openly  before  the  family,  that  it  might 
be  put  down  in  the  diary.  He  fo  ftri<ftly  prohibited  them 
from  all  converfe  with  ftrangers,  that  he  once  wrote  a 
letter  to  Lucius  Vinicius,  a handfome  young  man  of  a 
good  family,  in  which  he  told  him,  “ You  have  not  be- 
haved very  modeftly,  in  making  a vifit  to  my  daughter  at 
Baiae.”  He  ufually  inftrudfed  his  grandfons  himfelf  in 
reading,  fwimming,  and  other  rudiments  of  knowledge  ; 




and  he  labored  notliing  more  than  to  perfe6l  them  in  the 
imitation  of  his  hand-writing.  He  never  fupped  but  he 
had  them  fitting  at  the  foot  of  his  bed ; nor  ever  travelled 
but  with  them  in  a chariot  before  him,  or  riding  bef  de 

LXV.  But  in  the  midft  of  all  his  joy  and  expe£l:ations 
of  happinefs  in  his  children,  from  the  care  he  took  in 
their  education,  his  fortune  failed  him.  The  two  Julias, 
his  daughter  and  grand-daughter,  proceeded  to  fuch  a 
height  of  lewdnefs  and  debauchery,  that  he  banifiied  them 
both.  Caius  and  Lucius  he  loft  within  the  fpace  of 
eighteen  months;  the  former  dying  in  Lycia,  and  the 
latter  at  Marfeilles.  His  third  grandfon  Agrippa,  with 
his  ftep-fon  Tiberius,  he  adopted  in  the  Forum,  by  a law 
pafed  for  the  purpofe  by  the  Curise  * ; but  he  foon  after 
renounced  Agrippa  for  his  rude  and  infolent  temper,  and 
confined  him  at  Surrentum.  He  bore  the,  death  of  his 
relations  with  more  patience  than  their  fcandalous  be- 
haviour : for  he  was  not  much  concerned  at  the  lofs  of 
Caius  and  Lucius ; but  his  misfortune  with  refpedb  to  his 
daughter,  he  fet  forth  before  the  Senate  in  a narrative 
read  to  them  by  the  Quaef  or  ; and  was  fo  much  afhamed 
of  her  infamous  behaviour,  that  he  for  a long  time  de- 
clined all  company,  and  had  thoughts  of  putting  her  to 
death.  It  is  certain,  that  when  one  Phoebe,  a freed- 
woman  and  confident  of  hers,  hanged  herfelf  about  the 
fame  time,  he  faid  upon  it,  “I  wifh  I had  been  the  father 

* The  Curice  were  public  aflemblies  of  the  people.  Ro- 
mulus divided  the  people  of  Rome  into  three  tribes ; and  each 
tribe  into  ten  Curia,  The  number  of  tribes  was  afterwards 
encreafed  by  degrees  to  thirty-five  ; but  that  of  the  Curia  al- 
ways remained  the  fame. 




of  Phcsbe  rather  than  of  Julia.”  In  her  bariifhrnent,  he 
would  not  allow  her  the  ufe  of  wine  nor  any  thing  of 
finery ; nor  would  he  fuffer  her  to  be  waited  upon  by 
any  male  fervant,  either  freeman  or  Have,  without  his 
permiffion,  and  a particular  information  in  refpedl  of  his 
age,  flature,  completion,  and  what  marks  or  fears  he  had 
about  him.  At  the  end  of  five  years  he  removed  her  from 
the  ifiand  of  her  confinement  to  the  continent,  and  per- 
mitted her  a little  better  treatment,  but  could  never  be  pre- 
vailed with  to  recall  her.  Upon  the  Roman  people’s 
interpofing  with  him  in  her  behalf  feveral  times,  and 
ufing  much  importunity,  hefaid  to  them  in  a fpeech  upon 
the  occafion,  “ I wdfh  ye  had  all  fuch  daughters  and 
wives  as  fhe  is.”  He  likewife  forbid  a child,  of  which 
his  grand-daughter  Julia  was  delivered  after  fentence  had 
pafled  againft  her,  to  be  either  owned  as  a relation,  or 
brought  up.  Agrippa,  who  v/as  equally  intractable,  and 
became  more  diforderly  every  day,  he  tranfported  into  an 
ifland,  and^  placed  a guard  of  foldiers  upon  him  ; pro- 
curing at  the  fame  time  an  aCt  of  the  Senate  for  his  con- 
finement there  during  life.  Upon  any  mention  of  him 
ai;d  the  two  Julias,  he  would  fay  with  a heavy  figh, 

Ai9’  o(pz'hev  (xyaixo^  r ayovq^  rj  aTTo^zBai ! 

Would  I without  a wife  or  child  had  died  * 

nor  did  he  ufually  call  them  by  any  other  name  than  that 
of  his  “ three  impofihumes  or  cancers.”  ' 

LXVI.  He  was  flow  in  forming  friendfliips,  but  w’hen 
once  they  were  contraCled,  he  maintained  them  with 
great  conflancy  ; not  only  rewarding  very  handfomely 
the  virtues  and  good  fervices  of  his  friends,  but  bearing 
likewife  with  their  faults  and  vices,  provided  that  they 


were  of  a venial  kind.  For  araongrl:  all  his  friends,  we 
fcarcely  find  any  who  fell  into  difgrace  with  him,  except 
Salvidienus  R.ufus,  whom  he  raifed  to  the  Confullhip, 
and  Cornelius  Gallus  whom  he  made  governor  of  Egypt, 
both  of  them  men  of  the  lowed  extra6lion.  One  of 
thefe,  being  engaged  in  a defign  to  excite  a rebellion, 
he  delivered  up  to  the  Senate,  that  he  might  be  con- 
demned ; and  the  other,  on  account  of  his  ungrateful  and 
malicious  temper,  he  difmiffed  from  his  family  and  the 
provinces  under  his  government.  But  when  Gallus,  by 
the  threats  of  his  accufers,  and  the  votes  of  the  Senate 
againfl  him,  was  driven  to  the  defperate  extremity  of 
laying  violent  hands  upon  himfelf ; he  commended  in- 
deed the  attachment  of  the  Senate,  that  had  expreiTecl  fo 
much  refentment  on  his  account,  but  he  died  tears,  and 
lamented  his  unhappy  condition,  “ That  I alone,  faid  he, 
cannot  be  permitted  to  be  angry  with  my  friends  to  fuch 
ti  degree  as  I think  proper.”  The  refl;  of  his  friends  con-, 
tinned  during  their  whole  lives  to  make  a diftinguifhed 
figure  in  their  feveral  orders,  both'  in  power  and  eftate, 
notwitliflanding  fome  occafional  incidents  of  a difagree- 
able  nature.  For,  to  fay  nothing  of  others,  he  would 
fometimes  complain  of  impatience  in  Agrippa,  and  of 
loquacity  in,  Mecsenas  : the  former,  from  a fufpicion 
of  a coolnefs  in  Auguflus  towards  him,  and  becaufc 
Marcellus  received  greater  marks  of  favor,  having 
withdrawn  himfelf  from  all  concern  in  the  government, 
and  retired  to  Mitylene  ; and  the  latter  having  confi- 
dentially imparted  to  his  wife  Terentia  the  difeovery  of 
Mursna’s  confpiracy.  He  likewife  expedfed  from  his 
friends,  both  living  and  dying,  a mutual  proof  of  their 
benevolence.  For  though  he  was  far  from  coveting  their 
eftates  (as  he  never  would  accept  of  any  legacy  left  him 
by  a ftranger),  yet  he  examined  their  laft  fentinients  of 




him,  exprefled  in  their  wills,  with  an  anxious  attention : 
not  being  able  to  conceal  his  chagrin,  if  they  made  but  a 
flight,  or  no  very  honorable  mention  of  him,  nor  his 
joy  on  the  other  hand,  if  they  exprefled  a grateful  fenfe 
of  his  favors,  and  a hearty  afFedion  for  him.  And  what 
was  left  him  by  fuch  as  had  children,  he  ufed  to  reffore 
*^o  the  latter,  either  immediately,  or  if  they  were  under 
age,  upon  the  day  of  their  afluming  the  manly  habit,  or  of 
their  marriage,  with  interefl:, 

LXVIL  As  a patron  and  mafler,  his  behaviour  iu 
general  was  mild  and,  conciliating ; but  when  occaflon 
required  it,  he  could  be  fevere.  He  employed  many  of 
his  freedmen  in  confiderable  pofls  about  him,  as  Licinius, 
Enceladus,  and  others.  And  when  his  flave  Cofmus  had 
refleded  bitterly  upon  him,  he  refented  the  injury  no  far- 
ther than  by  putting  him  in  fetters.  When  his  fteward 
Diomedes,  as  they  were  walking  together,  left  him  ex- 
pofed  to  a wild  boar,  which  came  fuddenly  upon  them, 
he  chofe  rather  to  charge  him  with  cowardice  than  any 
ill  deflgn,  and  turned  an  incident  of  no  fmall  hazard  to 
his  perfon  into  a jefl,  becaufe  it  had  proceeded  from  no 
treachery.  Proculus,  who  was  one  of  his  greatefl:  fa- 
vorites amongfl;  all  his  freedmen,  he  put  to  death,  for 
maintaining  a criminal  commerce  with  other  meiPs 
wives.  He  broke  the  legs  of  his  fecretary  Thallus,  for 
taking  a bribe  of  five  hundred  denarii  to  difcover  the  con- 
tents of  a letter  of  his.  And  his  fon  Caius’s  tutor,  and 
other  attendants,  upon  the  occafion  of  his  ficknefs  and 
death,  behaving  with  great  infolence,  and  committing  ads 
of  rapacloufnefs,  he  tied  great  weights  about  their  necks, 
and  threw  them  into  a river. 

LXVIIL  In  his  youth  he  lay  under  the  infamy  of 




various  afperfions.  Sextus  Pompey  reproached  him  as  an 
effeminate  fellow  ; and  M.  Antony,  that  he  had  earned 
his  adoption  from  his  uncle  by  proftitution.  L,  An- 
tony likewdfe  upbraids  him  with  the  fame  ; and  that 
he  had,  for  a gratification  of  three  hundred  thoufand 
fefterces,  fubmitted  to  A.  Hirtius  in  the  fame  way,  in 
Spain ; adding,  that  he  ufed  to  finge  his  legs  with  the 
flame  of  nut-fhells,  to  make  the  hair  become  fofter.  Nay, 
the  body  of  the  people,  at  fome  public  diverfioiis  in  the 
theatre,  when  the  following  fentence  was  recited,  alluding 
to  a priefl  of  the  Mother  of  the  Gods  beating  a drum,  , 

Videfne  ut  cinsedus  orbem  digito  temperet  ? 

See  how  the  catamite  his  orb  commands  I 

confidercd  it  as  intended  to  refle61:  upon  him,  and  fignlfied 
their  approbation  of  it  by  great  applaufe. 

LXIX.  That  he  was  guilty  of  various  acfs  of  adul- 
tery, is  not  denied  even  by  his  friends  ; but  they  alledgc 
in  excufe  for  it,  that  he  engaged  in  thofe  intrigues  not 
from  lewdnefs  but  policy,  to  difcover  more  eaTily  the  de- 
figns  of  his  enemies  by  their  wdves.  M.  Antony,  be- 
fides  the  precipitate  marriage  of  Livia,  charges  him  with 
taking  from  the  table  the  wife  of  a man  of  Confular  rank, 
ill  the  prefence  of  her  hufband,  into  a bed-chamber,  and 
bringing  her  again  to  the  entertainment,  with  her  ears 
very  red,  and  her  hair  in  great  diforder:  that  he  had 
divorced  Scribonia,  for  refenting  with  fome  freedom  the 
exceffive  fway  which  a miftrefs  of  his  had  over  him : 
that  his  friends  were  employed  to  pimp  for  him,  and  ac- 
cordingly obliged  both  matrons  and  virgins  to  ftrip,  for  a 
complete  examination  of  their  perfons,  in  the  fame  man- 
ner as  if  Thoranius  the  dealer  in  flaves  had  them  under 
lale.  And  before  they  came  to  an  open  rupture,  he 




writes  to  him  in  a familiar  manner  thus  : ‘‘  What  has 
altered  you  ? that  I ly  with  a queen  ? fhe  is  my  wife. 
Is  this  a new  thing  with  me,  or  have  I not  done  fo  for 
thefe  nine  years  ? And  do  you  take  a freedom  with  Dru- 
filla  only  ? May  health  and  happinefs  fo  attend  you,  as 
when  you  read  this  letter,  you  are  not  in  dalliance  with 
Tertulla,  Terentilla,  Ruhlia,  or  Salvia  Titifcenia>  or  all 
of  them.  What  matters  it  to  you  where,  or  upon  whom 
you  employ  your  vigor 

LXX.' A fupper  which  he  gave,  commonly  called  the 
Supper  of  the  Twelve  Gods,  and  at  which  the  guefls 
were  all  dreffed  in  the  habit  of  Gods  and  Goddeffes,  and 
himfelf  in  that  of  Apollo,  afforded  fubje£l;  of  much 
converfation,  and  was  imputed  to  him  not  only  by  An- 
tony in  his  letters,  who  likewife  names  all  the  parties 
concerned,  but  in  the  following  well-known  and  anony- 
mous verfes. 

Cum  primum  iftorum  conduxit  menfa  choragum, 

Sexque  deos  vidit  Mallia,  fexque  deas : 

Impia  dum  Phoebi  Csefar  mendacia  ludit. 

Dum  nova  divorum  coenat  adulteria : 

Omnia  fe  a terris  tunc  numina  declinarunt : 

Fugit  et  auratos  Jupiter  ipfe  thronos. 

When  Mallia  late  beheld,  in  motley  train, 

Twelve  mortals  ape  twelve  deities  in  vain  ; 

When  Caefar  feiz’d  what  was  Apollo’s  due, 

And  impious  robb’ry  rag’d  throughout  the  crew  ; 

Ac  the  foul  fight  the  Gods  avert  their  eyes, 

And  from  his  throne  great  Jove  indignant  flies. 

What  rendered  this  fupper  more  obnoxious  to  public 
cenfure,  was,  that  it  happened  at  a time  when  there  was 
a great  fcarcity,  and  almofl;  a famine  in  the  city.  Tiie 
day  after,  a complaint  was  current  amongft  the  people, 

“ that 


that  the.Gods  had  eaten  up  all  the  corn  ; and  that  C^far 
was  indeed  Apollo,  but  Apollo  the  Tormentor;”  under 
which  title  that  God  was  worjfhipped  in  the  city.  He  was 
likewife  charged  with  being  exceffively  fond  of  fine  furni- 
ture, and  Corinthian  veffels,  as  jwell  as  with  being  ad- 
clldled  to  gaming.  For  during  the  time  of  the  pro  crip- 
don,  the  following  line  was  written  upon  his  flatue : 

Pater  argentarius,  ego  Corinthiarius.  ^ 

Silver  my  father  ferv’d  ; no  other  mafs 
Delights  my  fancy,  but  Corinthian  brafs. 

becaufe  it  was  believed,  that  he  had  put  fome  upon  the 
lift  of  the  profcrlbed,  only  to  obtain  the  Corinthian 
veffels  in  their  poffeffion.  And  afterwards  in  the  war  of 
Sicily,  the  following  epigram  was  publiftied  ; 

Poftquam  bis  claffe  viftus  naves  perdidit, 

Aliquando  ut  vincat,  ludit  airidiie  aleam. 

Twice  having  loft  a fleet  in  lucklefs  fight. 

To  beat  at  laft,  he  games  both  day  and  night. 

LXXL  With  refpedi  to  the  charge  of  proftitution 
abovementioned,  he  very  eafily  refuted  it  by  the  chaftity 
of  his  life,  at  the  very  time  when  the  imputation  was 
made,  as  well  as  ever  after.  His  condudb  likewife  gave 
the  lie  to  that  of  a luxurious  extravagance  in  his  furni- 
ture, when,  upon  the  taking  of  Alexandria,  he  referved 
for  himfelf  nothing  of  all  the  furniture  of  the  palace,  but 
a cup  of  porcelain  ; and  foon  after  melted  dowm  all  the 
golden  veffels,  even  fiich  as  were  intended  for  common 
ufe.  But  he  never  could  difcountenance  the  imputation 
of  lewdnefs  with  women  ; being,  as  they  fay,  in  the  lat- 
ter part  of  his  life,  much  addidled  to  the  deflowering  of 
vir  ins,  who  were  procured  for  him,  from  all  parts, 
even  by  his  own  wife.  To  the  remarks  concerning  his 




gaming,  he  paid  not  the  fmaiieft  regard  ; but  played 
frankly  and  openly  for  his  diverfion,  even  when  he  was 
advanced  in  years  ; and  not  only  in  the  month  of  Decem- 
ber, but  at  other  times,  and  upon  all  days,  whether 
feftivals  or  not.  This  evidently  appears  from  a letter 
under  his  own  hand,  in  which  he  fays,  “ 1 fupped,  my 
dear  Tiberius,  with  the  fame  company.  We  had  befides 
Vinicius,  and  Silvius  the  father.  We  gamed  like  old 
fellows  at  fupper,  both  yeflerday  and  to-day.  And  as 
any  one  threw  upon  the  tall  ^ aces  or  fixes,  he  put 
down  for  every  talus  a denarius  ; all  which  w'as  gained 
by  him  who  threw  a Venus.’’  In  another  letter  he  fays : 
“ We  had,  my  dear  Tiberius,  a pleafant  time  of  it 
during  the  fehival  of  Minerva  : for  we  played  every  day, 
and  kept  the  gaming  board  warm.  Your  brother  uttered 
many  exclamations  at  a defperate  run  of  ill  fortune  ; but 
recovering  by  degrees,  and  unexpedlediy,  he  in  the  end 
loft  not  much.  [ loft  tw^enty  thoufand  fefterces  for  my 
part ; but  then  I was  profufely  generous  in  my  play,  as  I 
commonly  am  ; for  had  I inftfted  upon  the  ftakes  which 
I declined,  or  kept  what  I gave  aw^ay,  I fliould  have 
won  above  fifty  thoufand.  But  this  I like  better : for 
my  generofity  will  raife  me  to  celeftial  glory.”  In  a 
letter  to  his  daughter,  he  writes  thus ; “ I have  fent  you 
two  hundred  and  fifty  denarii,  which  I gave  to  every  one 
of  my  guefts ; in  cafe  they  were  inclined  at  fupper  to 

The  Romans,  at  their  feafts,  during  the  intervals  of 
drinking,  often  played  at  dice,  of  which  there  were  two 
kinds,  the  tej/er^e  and  tali.  The  former  had  fix  fides,  like 
the  modern  dice;  the  latter,  four  oblong  fides,  for  the  two 
ends  were  not  regarded.  In  playing,  they  ufed  three  tejfera 
and  four  tali^  which  were  all  put  into  a box  wider  below 
than  above,  and  being  fiiaken,  were  thrown  out  upon  the 
gaming  board  or  table. 



divert  themfelves  with  the  tali^  or  at  the  game  of  even  or 

LXXIl.  In  other  parts  of  his  life,  it  is  certain  that  he 
conducted  himfelf  with  great  difcretion,  and  was  free 
from  all  fufpicion  of  any  vice.  He  lived  at  firfl;  near  the 
Roman  Forum,  above  the  Kingmaker’s  Stairs,  in  a houfe 
which  had  once  been  occupied  by  Calvus  the  orator. 
He  afterwards  moved  to  the  Palatium,  where  he  refided 
in  a fmall  houfe  belonging  to  Hortenfius,  no  way  remark- 
able either  in  refpe£t  of  accommodation  or  ornament ; the 
piazzas  being  but  fmall,  the  pillars  of  Alban  ftone,  and  the 
rooms  without  any  thing  of  marble,  or  fine  paving.  He 
continued  to  ufe  the  fame  bed-chamber,  both  winter  and 
fummer,  during  forty  years : for  though  he  was  fenfible 
that  the  city  did  not  agree  well  with  his  health,  he  never- 
theiefs  refided  conftantly  in  it  through  ' the  winter.  If  at 
any  time  he  wiflied  to  be  perfedlly  retired,  and  fecure  from 
interruption,  he  fhut  himfelf  up  in  an  apartment  in  the 
top  of  his  houfe,  which  he  called  Syracufe,  or  'V£x^o(pwoy 
or  he  went  to  fome  feat  belonging  to  his  freedmen  near 
the  city.  But  when  he  was  indifpofed,  he  commonly 
took  up  his  refidence  in  Mecaenas’s  houfe.  Of  all  the 
places  of  retirement  from  the  city,  he  chiefly  frequented 
thofe  upon  the  fea-coafl,  and  the  iflands  of  Campania, 
or  the  towns  near  the  city,  as  Lanuvium,  Prseneffe,  and 
Tibur,  where  he  often  ufed  to  lit  for  the  adminiflration 
of  juftice,  in  the  porticos  of  Hercules’s  temple.  He  had  a 
particular  averfion  to  large  and  fumptuous  palaces  ; and 
fome  that  had  been  raifed  at  a vail  expence  by  his  grand- 

* This  word  may  be  interpreted  the  Clofet  of  Arts.  It  was 
common,  in  thehoufes  of  the  great,  amongll  the  Romans,  to 
have  an  apartment  called  the  Study  : but  perhaps  Augultus 
tlroiight  fuch  a name  too  formal  for  the  place  of  his  retirement. 




daughter  Julia,  he  levelled  with  the  ground.  Thofe  of 
his  own,  which  were  far  from  being  fpacious,  he  adorn- 
ed not  fo  much  with  flatues  and  pictures,  as  with 
walks  and  groves,  and  things  which  w^ere  curious  either 
for  their  antiquity  or  rarity  ; fuch  as  at  Caprea,  tlie  huge 
limbs  of  fea-monhers  and  wild  beafts,  which  fome  aiFedt 
to  call  the  bones  of  giants,  and  the  arms  of  old  heroes. 

LXXIIL  His  frugality  in  the  furniture  of  liis  houfe 
appears  even  at  this'  day,  from  fome  beds  and  tables  ftill 
extant ; moft  of  w'hich  are  fcarcely  fit  for  any  genteel 
private  family.  It  is  reported  that  he  never  lay  upon  a 
bed,  but  fuch  as  was  low,  and  meanly  furnifhed.  He 
feldom  wore  any  garment  but  what  was  made  by  the 
hands  of  his  wnfe,  filler,  daughter,  and  grand-daugh- 
ters. His  togas  ^ were  neither  fcanty  nor  full ; nor  the 
clavus  of  his  tunic  either  remarkably  broad  or  narrow. 
His  flioes  were  a little  higher  than  common,  to  make  him 

* The  T oga  was  a loofe  woollen  robe,  which  covered  the 
whole  body,  clofe  at  the  bottom,  but  open  at  the  top  down 
to  the  girdle,  and  without  lleeves.  The  right  arm  was  thus 
at  liberty,  and  the  left  fupported  a flap  of  the  ioga^  which 
was  drawn  up,  and  thrown  back  over  the  left  flioiilder; 
forming  what  was  called  Sinus,  a fold  or  cavity  upon  the 
breafl-,  in  which  things  might  be  carried,  and  with  which 
the  face  or  head  might  be  occafionally  covered. 

When  a perfon  did  any  work,  he  tucked  up  his  foga^  and 
girded  it  round  him.  The  tega  of  the  rich  and  noble  was 
finer  and  larger  than  that  of  others;  and  a new  toga  was 
called  Pexa,  None  but  Roman  citizens  were  permitted  to 
wear  the  toga  ; and  baniflied  perfons  were  prohibited  the  ufe 
of  it.  The  color  of  the  to^a  was  white.  Maajftrates  and 
certain  priefts  had  it  bordered  with  purple;  as  had  aifo  pri- 
vate perfons  when  they  exhibited  games. 




appear  taller  than  he  was.  He  had  always  deaths  and 
ftioes,  proper  to  go  abroad  in,  ready  by  him  in  his  bed* 
chamber,  for  any  fudden  occafion. 

LXXIVi  At  his  table,  which  was  always  plentiful 
and  elegant,  he  conftantly  entertained  company ; but  was 
very  fcrupulous  in  tlie  choice  of  them.  Valerius  Mef- 
fala  informs  us,  that  he  never  admitted  any  freedman  tef 
his  table,  except  Menas,  after  he  }iad  betrayed  to  him 
Pompey^s  fleet,  but  not  until  he  had  promoted  him  to  the 
flate  of  the  free-born.  He  writes  himfelf  that  he  invited 
to  his  table  a perfon  in  whofe  country -houfe  he  lodged^ 
that  had  formerly  been  a fpy  to  him.  He  often  would 
come  late  to  table,  and  withdraw  foon,  fo  that  the  company 
began  fupper  before  his  coming  in,  and  Continued  at  table 
after  his  departure^  His  entertainments  confifled  of  three 
difhes,  or  at  mod;  only  fix*  But  if  the  expence  w^as  mo- 
derate,: the  complaifance  with  which  he  treated  his  com- 
pany was  extraordinary.  For  fuch  as  were  filent,  or  talk- 
ed low,  he  excited  to  bear  a pare  in  the  common  conver- 
fation  ; and  ordered  in  mufic  and  ftage-players  and  dan- 
cers from  the  Circus,  and  very  often  itinerant  declaimersj 
to  enliven  the  company. 

LXXV.  Feflivals  and  folemn  days  of  joy  he  ufually 
celebrated  in  a very  expenlive  manner,  but  fometimes 
only  in  a jocular  manner,  In  the  Saturnalia,  or  at 
any  other  time  when,  the  fancy  took  him,  he  would 
diftribute  to  his  company  deaths,  gold,  and  filver : fome- 
times coins  of  all  forts,  even  of  the  ancient  kings  of  Rome 
and  of  other  nations : fometimes  nothing  but  hair-cloth, 
fponges,  peels  and  pincers,  and  other  things  of  that  kind, 
with  obfeure  and  ambiguous  inferiptions  upon  them.  He 
ufed  like  wife  to  fell  tickets  of  things  of  very  unequal  value? 

M and 



and  pictures  with  the  back  fides  turned  towards  the  com-* 
pany  at  table  ; and  fo,  by  the  unknow'n  quality  of  the  lot, 
difappoint  or  gratify  the  expecflation  of  the  purchafers. 
This  fort  of  traffic  went  round  the  whole  company,  every 
one  being  obliged  to  buy  foinething,  and  to  run  the  chance 
oflofs  or  gain  with  the  reft, 

LXXVL  He  was  a man  of  a little  ftomach  (for  I muft 
not  omit  even  this  article),  and  commonly  ufed  a plain 
diet.  He  was  particularly  fond  of  coarfe  bread,  fmall 
fifties,  cheefe  made  of  cow’s  milk,  and  green  figs  of  that 
kind  that  comes  twice  a year.  He  would  eat  before  fup- 
per,  at  any  time,  and  in  any  place,  when  he  had  an  ap- 
petite. The  following  paflages  relative  to  this  fubje^,  I 
have  tranfcribed  from  his  letters.  “ I ate  a little  bread 
and  fome  fmall  dates  in  my  chaife.”  Again.  In  re- 
turning home  from  the  palace  in  my  chair,  I ate  an  ounce 
of  bread,  and  a few  raifins.”  Again.  “ No  Jew,  my 
dear  Tiberius,  ever  keeps  a faft  fo  ftridlly  upon  the  Sab- 
bath, as  I have  kept  one  to-day  ; who  in  the  bath,  and 
after  the  firft  hour  of  the  night,  ate  two  mouthfuls  of 
bread,  before  I began  to  be  anointed.”  From  this  great  in- 
difference about  his  diet,  he  fometimes  fupped  by  himfelf, 
before  his  company  began,  or  after  they  had  done  ; and 
would  not  touch  a morfel  at  table  with  his  guefts, 

LXXVII.  He  w^as  naturally  extremely  fparing  in  the 
ufe  of  wine.  Cornelius  Nepos  fays,  that  he  ufed  to  drink' 
only  three  times  at  fupper  in  the  camp  at  Modena  ; and 
when  he  indulged  himfelf  the  moft,  he  never  exceeded  a 
pint ; or  if  he  did,  he  threw  it  up  again.  Of  all  wines,  he 
gave  the  preference  to  theRhaetic,  but  fcarcely  ever  drank 
any  in  the  day-time.  Inftead  of  drinking,  he  ufed  to  take 
a piece  of  bread  dipped  in  cold  water,  or  a llice  of  cu- 


cumber,  or  forne  leaves  of  lettuce,  or  a green  Iharp  juicy 

LXXVIIL  After  a little  food  at  noon,  he  ufed  to  take 
a nap  with  his  cloaths  and  fhoes  on,  his  feet  covered,  and 
his  hand  held  before  his  eyes.  After  fupper  he  common- 
ly withdrew  to  a couch  in  his  ftudy,  where  he  continue* 
ed  late,  until  he  had  put  down  in  his  Diary  all  or  mod 
of  the  remaining  tranfadlions  of  the  day,  which  he  had 
not  before  regiftered.  He  would  then  go  to  bed,  but  ne-*- 
ver  flept  above  feven  hours  at  mod,  and  that  not  wdthoug 
interruption  : for  he  would  wake  three  or  four  times  in 
that  fpace.  If  he  could  not  again  fall  afleep,  as  fome- 
times  happened,  he  would  call  for  fome  perfon  to  read 
or  tell  dories  to  him,  until  deep. fu per vened,  which  was 
ufually  protradled  till  after  day-break.  He  never  would 
ly  awake  in  the  dark,  without  fomebody  to  fit  by  him. 
Very  early  riling  was  apt  to  difagree  with  him.  On 
which  account,  if  religious  or  focial  duty  obliged  him  to 
get  up  early,  that  he  might  guard  as  much  as  poflible 
againd  the  inconvenience  refulting  from  it,  he  ufed  to 
lodge  in  fome  apartment  belonging  to  any  of  his  domedics, 
that  was  neared  the  place  at  which  he  was  to  give  his  at- 
tendance. If  at  any  time  a fit  of  drowfinefs  feized  hirn 
in  pading  along  the  dreets,  he  would  order  the  chair  to 
be  fet  down,  until  he  had  taken  a little  deep. 

LXXlX.  In  perfon  he  was  handfome  and  graceful, 
through  all  the  dages  of  his  life.  But  he  was  carelefs  of 
drefs ; and  fo  little  attentive  to  the  adjudment  of  his  hair, 
that  he  ufually-  had  it  done  in  great  hade,  by  feveral  bar- 
bers at  a time.  He  would  fometimes  clip,  and  fometimes 
fhave  his  beard  ; and  during  the  operation,  would  be  ei- 
ther reading  or  writing.  His  countenance,  either  when 

M a he 



he  fpok’e  or  held  his  tongue,  was  fo  calm  and  ferene^  that 
a Gaul  of  the  firft  rank  declared  amongft  his  friends,  that , 
he  was  fo  much  mollified  by  it,  as  to  be  reftrained  from 
throwing  him  down  a precipice,  in  his  paflage  over  the 
Alps,  upon  being  admitted  to  approach  him,  under  the 
pretext  of  fpeaking  with  him.  His  eyes  were  clear  and 
bright ; and  he  was  willing  it  fhould  be  thought  that  there 
was  fomething  of  a divine  vigor  in  them.  He  was  like- 
wife  not  a little  pleafed  to  fee  people,  upon  his  looking 
ftedfaftly  at  them,  lower  their  countenances,  as  if  the  fun 
fhone  in  their  eyes.  But  in  his  old  age,  he  faw  very 
imperfe6lly  with  his  left  eye.  His  teeth  were  thin  fet, 
fmall  and  rough,  his  hair  a little  curled,  and  inclining  to 
a yellow  color.  His  eye-brows  met;  his  ears  were  fmall, 
and  he  had  an  aquiline  nofc.  His  complexion  was  be- 
twixt brown  and  fair ; his  ftature  but.  low  ; though  Julius 
Marathus  his  freedman  fays,  he  was  five  foot  and  nine 
inches  in  height.  This  however  was  fo  much  concealed 
by  the  jufb  proportion  of  his  limbs,  that  it  was  only  per- 
ceivable upon  comparifon  with  fome  taller  perfon  Hand- 
ing by  him. 

LXXX.  He  is  faid  to  have  been  born  with  many  fpots 
Upon  his  breaft  and  belly,  anfwering  to  the  figure,  order, 
and  number  of  Hars  in  the  celeflial  Bear.  He  had  befides 
feveral  callofities  refembling  tetters,  occaHoned  by  an  itch- 
ing in  his  l)ody,  and  the  conflant  and  violent  ufe  of  the  flri- 
gil  in  being  rubbed.  He  had  a weaknefs  in  his  left  hip, 
thigh,  and  leg,  infomuch  that  he  often  halted  on  that  fide. 
But  he  received  much  benefit  from  the  ufe  of  fand  and  reeds. 
He  likewife  found  the  fore-finger  of  his  right  hand  fo  weak 
fometimes,  that  when  it  was  benumbed  and  contravSled 
with  cold,  to  ufe  it  in  writing,  he  was  obliged  to  have  re- 
courfe  to  a circular  piece  of  horn^  He  had  occafionally 
, a complaint 


a complaint  in  the  bladder ; but  upon  voiding  fome 
ftones  by  urine,  he  was  relieved  from  that,  pain. 

LXXXI.  In  all  the  ftages  of  his  life,  he  experienced 
Xome  dangerous  fits  of  ficknefs,efpecially  after  theconqueft 
of  Cantabria,  when  his  liver  being  injured  by  a defluxion 
of  rheum  upon  it,  he  was  reduced  to  fuch  a condition, 
that  he  was  obliged  to  undergo  a defperate  and  doubtful 
methodof  cure:  for  warm  applications  having  no  eiFedt, 
Antonius  Mufa  diredled  the  ufe  of  thofe  which  were  cold# 
He  was  likewife  fubjedl  to  fits  of  ficknefs  at  ftated  times 
every  year ; for  about  his  birth-day  he  was  commonly  a 
little  indifpofed.  In  the  beginning  of  fpring,  he  was  at- 
tacked with  an  inflation  of  the  midriff;  and  when  the  wind 
was  foutherly,  with  a cold  in  his  head.  By  all  thefe  com- 
plaints, his  conftitutlon  was  fo  fhattered,  that  he  could 
not  eafily  bear  either  heat  or  cold. 

LXXXII.  In  winter,  he  was  fortified  againlf  the  in- 
clemency of  the  weather  by  a thick  toga,  four  tunics,  a 
ihirt,  a flannel  flomacher,  and  wrappers  upon  his  legs  and 
thighs.  In  fummer,  he  lay  with  the  doors  of  his  bed- 
chamber open,  and  frequently  in  a piazza,  with  water  flow- 
ing along  the  place,  and  a perfon  Handing  by  to  fan  him. 
He  could  not  bear  even  the  winter’s  fun ; and  at  home,  ne- 
ver walked  in  the  open  air  without  a broad-brimmed  hat  on 
his  head.  He  ufually  travelled  in  a chair,  and  in  the  night; 
and  with  fo  flow  a pace,  that  he  would  be  two  days  in 
going  to  Praenefle  or  Tibur.  And  if  he  could  go  tO'  any 
place  by  fea,  he  preferred  that  mode  of  conveyance  to  tra- 
velling by  land.  He  fupported  however  his  crazy  conflitu- 
tion  with  great  care,  and  chiefly  by  being  fparing  in  the 
ufe  of  the  bath.  He  was  often  rubbed  with  oil,  and  ufed 
$0  fweat  by  a fire  ; after  which  he  was  wafhed  witli  wa- 

M 3 ter, 

166  THE  MFE  OP 

ter,  warmc-d  cither  over  a fire,  or  by  being  cxpofed  to 
the  heat  of  the  fun.  When,  upon  account  of  his  nerves, 
he  was  obliged  to  have  recourfe  to  fea-water,  or  the 
waters  of  Albula,  he  always  placed  himfelf  upon  a wooden 
feat,  which  he  called  by  a Spanifh  name  Dureta,  and  tolT- 
ed  about  his  hands  and  feet  in  the  water  by  turns, 

LXXXIII.  Immediately  after  the  conclufion  of  the 
civil  wars,  he  laid  afide  the  ufual  exercifes  of  arms,  and 
riding  in  the  Field  of  Mars  ; inftead  of  which  he  betook 
himfelf  at  firfl:  to  the  larger  ball ; but  foon  after,  ufed  no 
other  exercife  than  that  of  going  abroad  in  his  chair,  or 
walking.  Towards  the  end  of  his  walk,  he  would  run 
leaping,  wrapped  up  in  linen  or  flannel.  For  amufe- 
inent  he  would  fometiraes  angle,  or  play  with  the  tali, 
checquers,  or  nuts,  with  pretty  prattling  little  boys,  whom 
he  ufed  to  procure  from  various  parts,  particularly  Mau- 
ritania and  Syria.  But  dwarfs,  and  fuch  as  were  in  any 
way  deformed,  he  held  in  abhorrence,  as  lufus  nature^ 
(the  fport  of  nature)  and  ominous  creatures. 

LXXXIV.  From  early  youth  he  devoted  himfelf  with 
great  diligence  and  application  to  the  fiudy  of  eloquence, 
and  the  -other  liberal  arts.  In  the  war  of  Modena,  not- 
withftanding  the  weighty  affairs  in  which  he  was  engaged, 
he  is  faid  to  have  read,  written,  and  declaimed  every  day. 
He  never  addreffed  the  Senate,  people,  or  foldiery,  but  in 
a premeditated  fpeech,  though  he  was  not  deftilute  of  the 
talent  of  fpeaking  extempore.  And  left  his  memory 
fhould  fail  him,  as  well  as  to  prevent  the  lofs  of  time  in 
getting  his  fpeeches  by  heart,  he  refolved  to  read  them  ail. 
In  his  intercourfe  with  individuals,  and  even  with  his  wife 
Livia,  upon  a fubjedi  of  importance,  he  had  all  he  would 
fay  down  in  writing,  left,  if  hp  (poke  extempore,  he  fhould 



fay  more  or  Icfs  than  was  proper.  He  delivered  himfelf 
in  a fweet  and  peculiar  tone,  in  which  he  was  diligently 
inftrudkd  by  a mafter.  But  when  he  had  a cold,  he  fome- 
times  made  ufe  of  a crier  for  the  delivery  of  his  fpeeches 
to  the  people, 

LXXXV.  He  compofed  a great  many  pieces,  and 
upon  various  fubjedts,  in  profe,  fome  of  which  he  read 
occafionally  at  a meeting  of  friends  as  to  an  auditory  ^ as 
his  “ Anfwers  to  Brutus  in  regard  to  Cato.’’  Thofe 
volumes  he  read  almoil  quite  through  himfelf ; but  being 
then  advanced  in  years,  and  fatigued  with  the  exercife, 
he  gave  the  reft  to  Tiberius  to  read  for  him.  He  like- 
wife  read  over  to  his  friends  his  “ Exhortations  to  Philo- 
fophy,”  and  “ The  Hiftory  of  his  own  Life,”  which  he 
continued  in  thirteen  books,  as  far  as  the  war  of  Cantabria, 
but  no  farther.  He  likewife  made  fome  attempts  at  poe- 
try. There  is  extant  one  book  written  by  him  in  hexa- 
meter verfe,  of  which  both  the  fubjedt  and  title  is  Sicily. 
There  is  another  book  of  Epigrams  likewife,  as  fmail  as 
.the  preceding,  which  he  compofed  almoft  entirely  in  the 
time  of  bathing.  Thefe  are  all  his  compolitions  in  the 
poetical  department:  for  though  he  had  begun  with  great 
eagerncfs  a Tragedy,  yet  the  ftyle  of  it  not  pleafing  him, 
he  cancelled  tlie  whole  ; and  his  friends  faying  to  him, 
“ What  is  your  Ajax  a doing  ?”,he  anfwered,  “ My  Ajax 
has  fallen  upon  a fpunge.” 

LXXXVI.  He  had  a neat  chafte  ftyle,  untainted  with 
any  frivolous  or  impertinent  fentiments,  and  free  from  the 
otFenftvenefs,  as  he  calls  it,  of  obfolete  words.  His  chief 
objedt  was  to  deliver  his  thoughts  with  all  poftlble  per- 
fpicuity.  To  obtain  this  end,  and  that  he  might  no  where 
perplex,  or  retard  the  reader  or  hearer,  he  made  no 

M 4 fcrnple 



fcruple  to  add  prepofitlons  to  his  verbs,  or  to  repeat  the 
fame conjundlion  feveral  times;  which,  when  omitted,  oc- 
cafion  fome  little  obfcupty,  but  give  a grace  to  the  ftyle. 
The  aukward  imitators  of  others,  and  fuch  as  afFedled  ob- 
folete  words,  he  equally  defpifed,  as  faulty  in  a different 
manner.  He  Ipmetimes  indulged  himf^f  in  jefting,  par- 
ticularly with  his  friend  Mecaenas,  whom  he  rallied  upon 
all  occafions  for  his  “ perfumed  locks,**  and  bantered  by 
imitating  the  manner  of  his  expreffion.  Nor  did  he  fpare 
Tiberius,  who  was  fond  of  obfolete  and  antiquated  words. 
He  attacks  M.  Antony  as  a madman,  writing  rather  to 
make  men  ft  are,  than  to  be  underftood  ; and  by  way  of 
farcafm  upon  his  depraved  and  hckle  tafle  in  the  choice 
of  words,  he  writes  to  him  thus  ; “ And  arc  you  yet  in 
doubt,  whether  Cimber  Annius  or  Veranius  Flaccus  be 
more  proper  for  your  imitation  ? fo  as  to  make  ufe  of 
words  which  Salluftius  Crifpus  has  borrowed  from  the 
♦ Origines*  of  Cato  ? or  do  you  think  that  the  verbofe 
empty  bombafl  of  Afiatic  orators  is  ht  to  be  transfufed 
into  our  language  ?**  And  in  a letter  where  he  commends 
the  ingenuity  pf  his  grand-daughter  Agrippina,  he  fays, 
**  But  you  rnuft  be  particularly  careful,  bqth  in  writing 
and  fpeaking,  to  avoid  affe6lation.** 

LXXXVII.  In  ordinary  converfation,  he  made  ufe  of 
expreflions  peculiar  to  himfelf,  as  appears  from  feveral 
letters  in  his  own  hand-writing:  in  which,  now  and 
then,  when  he  means  to  intimate  that  fome  perfons  would 
never  pay  their  debts,  he  fays,  “ They  will  pay  at  the 
Greek  Calends.**  And  when  he  advifes  to  patience  un- 
der the  fituatioh  of  ^ffairs,  fuch  as  it  then  was,  he  would 
fay,  “ Let  us  be  content  with  this  Cato,**  To  exprefs 
the  expedition  with  which  any  thing  was  done,  he  faid, 
‘f  It  was  fooner  done  than  fparrowgrafs  was  boiled.’* 



He  conllantly  puts  haceolus  for  Jiultus,  pullejaceus  for  pul- . 
lus,  vacerrofus  for  cerltus,  vapide  fe  habere  for  male,  and 
hetijfare  for  languere,  which  is  commonly  called  lachanlf- 
fare,  Likewife  Jimus  for  fumus,  domos  for  domus  in  the 
genitive  fingular.  With  refped  to  the  laft  two  peculi- 
arities, left  any  perfon  fhould  imagine  that  they  were  only 
flips  of  his  pen,  and  not  cuftomary  with  him,  he  never 
varies.  I have  likewife  remarked  this  Angularity  in  his 
hand- writing : he  never  divides  his  words,  fo  as  to  carry 
the  letters  which  cannot  be  inferted  at  the  end  of  a line  to 
the  next,  but  puts  them  below  the  other,  enclofed  with  a 

LXXXVni.  He  did  not  adhere  ftri6lly  to  orthography 
as  laid  down  by  the  grammarians,  but  feems  to  have  been 
of  the  opinion  of  thofe,  who  think  that  we  ought  to  write 
as  we  fpeak  ; for  aS  to  his  changing  and  omitting  not  only 
letters  but  whole  fyllables,  it  is  a vulgar  miftake.  Nor 
fhould  I have  taken  notice  of  it,  but  that  it  appears  ftrangc 
to  me,  any  perfon  fhould  have  told  us,  that  he  fent  a 
fucceftbr  to  a Confular  lieutenant  of  a province,  as  an  ig- 
norant illiterate  fellow,  upon  his  obferving  that  he  had 
written  ix'i  for  ipf.  When  he  had  a mind  to  write  in 
the  way  of  cypher,  he'  put  b for  a,  c for  h,  and  fo  forth ; 
and  inftead  of  %,  aa. 

LXXXIX.  He  vras  no  lefs  fond  of  Grecian  literature, 
in  which  he  made  confiderable  proficiency ; having  for 
this  purpofe  had  the  affiftance  of  Apollodorus  of  Perga- 
mus, as  his  mafter  in  rhetoric,  whom,  though  much  ad- 
vanced in  years,  he  took  with  him,  when  he  was  very 
young,  from  the  city  to  Apollonia.  Afterwards,  being 
inftrucfted  in  philology  by  Sphieriis,  he  took  into  his  fa- 
mily Arcus  the  philofoplier,  and  his  Tons  Dionyfius  and 




Nicanor;  but  he  never  could  fpeak  the  Greek  tonguo 
readily,  nor  ever  ventured  to  compofe  in  it.  For  if  there 
■was  occafion  for  him  to  deliver  his  fentiments  in  that 
language,  he  always  expreffed  what  he  had  to  fay  in 
Latin,  and  gave  it  another  to  tranflatc.  He  was  evident-  ’ 
ly  not  unacquainted  with  the  poetry  of  the  Greeks,  and 
had  a great  tade  for  ancient  comedy,  which  he  often 
brought  upon  the  ftage,  in  his  public  entertainments  of 
the  people.  Jn  reading  the  Greek  and  Latin  authors,  he 
paid  particular  attention  to  precepts  and  examples,  which 
might  be  ufeful  in  public  or  private  life.  Thofe  he  ufed 
to  tranferibe  verbatim,  and  fend  either  to  his  domeflics, 
or  to  fuch  as  had  the  command  of  his  armies,  or  the  go- 
vernment of  his  provinces,  or  to  the  magidrates  of  the 
city  ; as  any  of  them  feemed  to  Hand  in  need  of  admoni- 
tion. He  likewife  read  whole  books  to  the  Senate,  and 
made  them  known  to  the  people  by  proclamation ; as  the 
orations  of  Metellus  “ for  the  Encouragement  of  Ma- 
trimony,” and  thofe  of  Rutilius  about  “ a Method  of 
Building  to  fhew  the  people  that  he  was  not  the  fird; 
■who  had  profecuted  thofe  obje6}:s,  but  that  the  ancients 
likewife  had  thought  them  w^orthy  their  attention.  He 
w^as  a great  encourager  of  men  of  parts  and  learning.  He 
would  hear  them  read  their  works  with  a great  deal  of 
patience  and  good  nature;  and  not  only  pieces  of  poetry 
and  hidory,  but  fpeeches  and  dialogues  likewife.  He 
was  difpleafed  however  that  any  thing  fhould  be  written 
upon  himfelf,  except  in  a grave  manner,  and  by  men  of 
the  mod  eminent  abilities : and  he  enjoined  the  Prstors 
not  to  fufFer  his  name  to  be  made  too  common  in  the  con- 
teds  amongd  orators  and  poets  for  vidlory. 

XC.  With  refpedl  to  his  obfervation  of  omens  or  the 
like,  we  have  the  following  account  of  him.  He  had  fo 




great  a dread  of  thunder  and  lightning,  that  he  always 
carried  about  him  a feal’s  Ikin,  by  way  of  prefervation. 
And  upon  any  apprehenlion  of  a florm,  he  would  retire 
to  fome  vault  under  ground  ; having  formerly  been  ter- 
rified by  a flafh  of  lightning,  as  he  was  travelling  in  the 
pight,  which  we  have  already  taken  notice  of, 

XCI.  He  neither  flighted  his  own  dreams,  nor  thofe 
of  other  people  relating  to  himfelf.  At  the  battle  of  Phi- 
lippi, though  he  had  refolved  not  to  ftir  out  of  his  tent,  on 
account  of  being  indifpofed,  yet,  upon  the  occafion  of  a 
dream  which  a friend  of  his  had,  he  altered  his  refolu- 
tion  ; and  it  was  fortunate  for  him  that  he  did  fo ; for  the 
camp  was  taken,  and  his  couch,  upon  a fuppofition  of 
his  being  in  it,  was  pierced  in  feveral  parts,  and  cut  to 
pieces.  He  had  many  frivolous  filly  dreams  during  the 
fpring ; but  in  the  other  parts  of  the  year,  his  dreams  were 
lefs  frequent,  and  more  lignificative.  Upon  his  frequently 
vifiting  a temple  in  the  Capitol,  which  ho  had  dedicated 
to  Thundering  Jove,  he  dreamt  that  Jupiter  Capitolinus 
complained  that  his  worfhippers  were  taken  from  him, 
and  that  upon  this  he  replied,  he  had  only  given  him  the 
Thunderer  for  his  porter.  He  therefore  immediately 
Jiung  the  ceiling  of  the  temple  round  with  little  bells ; be- 
caufe  fuch  commonly  hung  at  the  gates  of  great  houfes. 
Upon  occafion  of  a dream  too,  he  always,  on  a certain 
• day  of  the  year,  begged  an  alms  of  the  people,  reaching 
out  his  hand  to  receive  the  dole  with  which  they  prefent- 
cd  him. 

XCIL  Some  figns  and  omens  he  regarded  as  infallible. 
If  in  the  morning  his  flioe  was  put  on  wrong,  or  the  left 
jnflead  of  the  right,  that  was  with  him  a difmal  prefage, 
Jff  upon  his  fetting  out  on  a long  journey  b^'fea  or  land, 




there  happened  to  fall  a milling  rain  he  held  it  to  be  a 
good  fign,  of  a fpeedy  and  happy  return. . He  was  much 
affected  likewife  with  any  thing  out  of  the  common 
courfe  of  nature.  A palm-tree,  which  chanced  to  grow 
up  betwixt  fome  flones  in  the  pavement  before  his  houfe, 
he  tranfplanted  into  a court  where  the  houfehold  Gods 
were  placed,  and  took  all  pollible  care  to  make  it  thrive. 
When,  in  Capreae,  fome  decayed  branches  of  an  old  oak, 
which  hung  drooping  to  the  ground,  recovered  themfelves. 
upon  his  arrival  in  that  illand,  he  was  fo  rejoiced  at  it, 
that  he  made  an  exchange  with  the  government  of  Naples, 
of  the  illand  of  Unaria,  for  that  of  Capreae.  He  likewife 
obferved  certain  days  ; as  never  to  go  from  home  the  day 
after  the  Nundinae  nor  to  begin  any  thing  of  ferious 
bulinefs  upon  the  Nonps  f ; avoiding  nothing  elfe  in  it, 
as  he  writes  to  Tiberius,  than  the  unluckinefs  of  the 

* The  'Nundina  were  every  ninth  day,  when  a market  was 
held  at  Rome,  and  the  people  came  to  it  from  the  country.  The 
pra6lice  was  not  then  introduced  amongft  the  Romans,  of  di^- 
viding  their  time  into  weeks,  as  we  do  in  imitation  of  the 
Jewst  Dion,  who  flourillied  under  Severus,  fays  that  it  firft 
took  place  a little  before  his  time,  and  was  derived  from  the 

d-The  Romans  divided  their  months  into  Calends,  Nones, 
and  Ides.  The  firll  day  of  the  month  was  the  Calends  of 
that  month ; whence  they  reckoned  backwards,  diftinguilh- 
ing  the  time  by  the  day  before  the  Calends,  the  fecond  day 
before  the  Calends,  and  fo  on,  to  the  Ides  of  the  preceding 
month.  In  eight  mpnths  of  the  year,  the  Nones  were  the  fifth 
day,  and  the  Ides  the  thirteenth  ; but  in  March,  May,  July, 
and  October,  the  Nones  fell  on  the  feventh,  and  the  Ides  on 
the  fifteenth.  From  the  Nones,  they  reckoned  backwards 
to  the  Calends,  as  they  alfo  did  from  the  Ides  to  the  Nones* 

XCIIL  With 



XCIII.  with  regard  to  the  religious  ceremonies  of 
foreign  nations,  he  was  a ftridl  obferver  of  fuch  as  had 
been  eftabliifhed  by  ancient  cuftom ; but  others  he  held  in 
no  efteem.  For  having  been  initiated  at  Athens,  and  be* 
ing  afterwards  to  hear  a caufe  at  Rome,  relative  to  the 
privileges  of  the  priefts  of  the  Attic  Ceres,  when  fome  of 
the  myfteries  of  that  worfhip  were  to  be  Introduced  in  the 
pleadings,  he  difmifled  thofe  who  fat  upon  the  bench  as 
judges  with  him,  as  well  as  the  bye-ftanders,  and  heard 
the  debate  upon  thofe  points  himfelf.  But  on  the  other 
hand,  he  not  only  declined,  in  his  progrefs  through  Egypt, 
calling  to  vibt  Apis,  but  he  likewife  commended  his 
grandfon  Caius  for  not  paying  his  devotions  at  Jerufalem 
in  his  paffage  by  Judea.  ' 

XCIV.  Since  we  are  upon  this  fubje61:,  it  may  not  be 
improper  to  fubjoin  an  account  of  the  omens,  before  and 
at  his  birth,  as  well  as  afterwards,  that  gave  hopes  of  his 
future  grandeur,  and  the  good  fortune  that  conftantly  at- 
tended him.  A part  of  the  town-wall  at  Velitrse  having 
in  former  times  been  ftruck  with  thunder,  the  foothfayers 
gave  their  opinion  upon  it,  that  a native  of  that  place 
would  fome  time  or  other  be  mafter  of  the  Roman  ftate: 
in  confidence  of  which  predidlion,  the  Velitrini,  both  im- 
mediately, and  at  feverai  times  after,  made  war  with  the 
Roman  people,  until  they  brought  themfelves  upon  the 
brink  of  deftrudtion.  At  laft  it  appeared  by  the  event, 
that  that  omen  had  portended  the  rife  of  Augufiius.  Ju- 
lius Marathus  informs  us,  that  a few  months  before  his 
birth,  there  happened  at  Rome  a prodigy,  by  which  was 
fignlfied  that  Nature  was  in  travail  with  a king  for  the 
Roman  people  ; and  that  the  Senate  being  alarmed  came 
to  a refolution  that  no  cldld  born  that  year  fhould  be 
brought  up  ; but  that  thofe  amongO;  them,  whofe  wives 


The  life  of 

*74  ' 

were  pregnant,  to  fecure  to  themfelves  a profpe6l  of  tfiat 
dignity,  took  care  that  the  refolution  of  the  Senate  {houl4 
not  be  regiftered  in  the  treafury.  I find  in  the  theologi- 
cal books  of  Afclepiades  the  Mendefian,  that  Atia,  upon 
attending  at  midnight  a religious  foleinnity  in  honor  of 
Apollo,  when  the  reft  of  the  matrons  retired  home,  took 
a nap  in  her  chair  in  the  temple,  and  that  a ferpent  im- 
mediately crept  to  her,  and  foon  after  withdrew.  She 
awaking  upon  it,  purified  herfelf,  as  ufual  after  the  em- 
braces of  her  hufband  ; and  inftantly  there  appeared  upon 
her  body  a mark  in  the  form  of  a ferpent,  which  fhe 
never  after  could  efface,  and  which  obliged  her,  during 
the  fubfequent  part  of  her  life,  to  decline  the  ufe  of  the 
public  baths.  Auguftus,  it  is  added,  was  born  in  the 
tenth  month  after,  and  for  that  reafon  was  thought  to  be 
the  fon  of  Apollo.  The  fame  Atia,  before  her  delivery, 
dreamt  that  her  bowels  ftretched  to  the  ftars,  and  ex- 
panded through  the  whole  circuit  of  heaven  and  earth. 
His  father  Octavius  likewife  dreamt  that  a fun-beam 
iffued  from  his  wife’s  womb.  Upon  the  day  he  was 
born,  the  Senate  being  employed  upon  the  confideratlon 
of  Catiline’s  confpiracy,  and  Octavius,  upon  account  of 
his  wife’s  condition,  coming  late  into  the  houfe,  it  is  a 
well  known  fa6t,  that  Publius  Nigidius,  upon  hearing 
the  occafion  of  his  coming  fo  late,  and  the  hour  of  his 
wife’s  delivery,  declared  that  the  world  had  got  a mafter. 
Afterwards,  when  06tavius,  upon  marching  with  his  ar- 
my through  the  wilds  of  Thrace,  according  to  the  ufage 
of  the  country,  confulted  the  oracle  of  father  Bacchus 
about  his  fon,  he  received  from  the  priefts  an  anfwer  to 
the  fame  purpofe  ; becaufe  when  tliey  poured  wine  upon 
the  altar,  there  burft  out  fo  prodigious  a flame,  that  it 
afeended  above  the  roof  of  the  temple,  and  reached  up  ta 
the  heavens,  a circumftance  which  had  never  happened 



to  any  one  but  Alexander  the  Great,  upon  his  facriflcing 
at  the  fame  altars.  And  next  night  he  dreamt  he  faw 
his  fon  under  a more  than  human  appearance,  with  thun- 
der and  a fceptre,  and  the  other  habiliments  of  Jupiter, 
having  on  his  head  a crown  ornamented  with  rays,  mount-  . 
ed  upon  a chariot  decked  with  laurel,  and  drawn  by  hx 
milk-white  horfes.  Whihl  he  was  yet  an  infant,  as  C, 
Drufus  relates,  being  laid  in  his  cradle  by  his  nurfe,  and 
in  a low  place,  the  next  day  he  was  not  to  be  found,  and 
after  he  had  been  fought  for  a long  time,  he  was  at  laft 
difcovered  upon  a very  high  tower,  lying  with  his  face 
towards  the  eaft.  When  he  firft  began  to  fpeak,  he  or- 
dered the  frogs  that  happened  to  make  a troublefome 
noife,  upon  an  eftate  belonging  to  the  family  near  the 
town,  to  be  filent ; and  there  goes  a jeport  that  frogs 
never  croaked  there  fmee  that  time.  As  he  v/as  dining 
in  a grove  about  four  miles  from  Rome  on  the  road  to 
Campania,  an  eagle  fuddenly  fnatched  a piece  of  bread 
out  of  his  hand,  and  flying  to  a prodigious  height  with 
it,  came  unexpedledly  down  again  by  an  eafy  motion, 
and  returned  it  to  him.  Catulus,  for  two  nights  fiic- 
ceflively  after  his  dedication  of  the  Capitol,  had  a dream. 
The  firft  night  he  dreamt  that  Jupiter,  out  of  feveral  boys 
that  were  playing  about  his  altar,  fele6led  one  into  whofe 
bofom  he  put  the  public  feal  of  the  commonwealth, 
which  he  had  in  his  hand;  but  in  his  vifion  the  next 
night,  he  faw  in  the  bofom  of  Jupiter  Capitolinus,  the 
fame1)oy,  whom  he  ordered  to  be  taken  down,  but  v/as 
forbid  by  the  God,  on  account  of  his  being  educated 
for  the  prefervation  of  the  commonwealth.  And  the 
next  day,  meeting  with  Auguftus,  whom  till  that 
hour  he  had  not  the  leaft  knowledge  of,  looking  at 
him  with  admiration,  he  faid  he  was  extremely  like 
the  boy  that  he  had  dreamt  of.  Some  give  a dif- 


iy6  THE  LIFE  01^ 

ferent  account  of  Catulus’s  firfl:  dream,  as  if  Jupiter,  tipofl 
feveral  boys  requefting  of  him  that  they  might  have  a 
guardian,  had  pointed  to  one  amongft  them,  ^ to  whom 
they  were  to  prefer  their  requefts  ; and  putting  his  fmgers 
to  the  boy’s  mouth  to  kifs,  he  afterwards  applied  them  to 
his  own*  • M.  Cicero,  as  he  was  attending  C.  Caefar  to 
the  Capitol,  happened  to  be  telling  fome  of  his  friends  a 
dream  which  he  had  had  the  preceding  night,  of  a comely 
youth  let  down  from  heaven  by  a golden  chain,  who 
flood  at  the  door  of  the  Capitol,  and  had  a whip  delivered 
him  by  Jupiter.  And  immediately  upon  fight  of  Au- 
guflus,  who  had  been  fent  for  by  his  uncle  Csefar  to  the 
faciifice,  and  was  as  yet  perfedlly  unknown  to  the  reft  of 
the  company,  he  affirmed  that  was  the  very  boy  he  had 
feen  in  his  dream*  When  he  aflumed  the  manly  habit, 
his  Senatori  an  tunic  becoming  loofe  in  the  feam  on  each 
fide,  fell  at  his  feet.  Some  would  have  this  to  forebode, 
that  the  Order,  of  which  that  was  a mark  of  diftin6lion, 
would  fome  time  or  other  be  fubjedl  to  him.  Julius 
Caefar,  in  cutting  down  a wood  to  make  room  for  his 
camp  near  Munda,  happened  to  fight  upon  a palm-tree, 
and  ordered  it  to  be  preferved  as  an  omen  of  viiflory. 
From  the  root  of  this  tree  there  put  out  immediately  s 
fucker,  which  in  a few  days  grew  to  fuch  a height  as  not 
only  to  equal,  but  overfhade  it,  and  afford  room  for  many 
nefts  of  wild  pigeons  which  built  in  it,  though  that  fpecies 
of  bird  particularly  avoids  a hard  and  rough  leaf*  It  is  like*- 
wife  reported,  that  Caefar  was  chiefly  influenced  by  this 
prodigy,  to  prefer  his  fifter’s  grandfon  before  all  others 
for  his  fucceffor.  In  his  retirement  at  Apollonia,  he  went 
with  his  friend  Agrippa,  to  vvait  upon  The'Ogencs  the 
aftrologer.  And  Agrippa,  who  flrft  defired  to  know  his 
fortune,  being  affured  that  it  would  be  almoft  incredibly 
great , he  did  not  chufe  to  difcover  his  nativity,  and  per- 
8 ^ hfted 


fifted  fome  time  in  the  refufal,  from  a mixture  of  ihame 
and  fear,  left  the  prcdi61:ion  in  refpe61;  of  him  fhould  be 
inferior  to  that  which  had  been  announced  to  Agrippa. 
Being  perfuaded  however,* after  much  importunity,  to  de- 
clare it,  Theogenes  ftarted  up  from  his  feat,  and  paid  him 
adoration.  Not  long  after,  Auguftus  was  fo  confident  of 
the  greatnefs  of  his  deftiny,  that  he  publifhed  his  nati- 
vity, and  ftruck  a filver  coin,  bearing  upon  it  the  fign 
of  Capricorn,  under  the  influence  of  which  he  was 

XCV.  After  the  death  of  CsefaiV'upon  his  return  from 
Apollonia,  as  he  was  entering  the  city,  on  a fudden,  in  a 
clear  and  bright  fky,  a circle  refembling  the  rainbow  fur- 
rounded  the  body  of  the  fun  ; and  immediately  after,  the 
tomb  of  Julia,  Caefar^s  daughter,  was  ftruck  by  light- 
ning. In  his  firft  Confulfhip,  whilft  he  was  fitting  for 
the  obfervation  of  omens,  twelve  vultures  prefented  them- 
felves,  as  they  had  done  to  Romulus.  And  when  he  of- 
fered facrifice,  the  livers  of  all  the  vidlims  w'ere  folded  in- 
ward in  the  lower  part ; a circumftance  which  w’as  re- 
garded by  all  prefent,  who  had  fkill  in  things  of  that  na- 
ture, as  an  indubitable  prognoftic  of  great  and  wonderful 

XCVI.  He  certainly  had  a pre-fentiment  of  the  iffue 
of  all  his  wars.  When  the  troops  of  the  Triumviri  were 
colledted  about  Bononia,  an  eagle,  which  fat  upon  his 
lent,  and  was  attacked  by  tw’o  crows,  beat  them  both, 
and  knocked  them  down  to  the  ground,  in  the  view  of 
the  whole  army ; who  thence  inferred  that  a difference 
would  arife  amongft  the  three  colleagues,  which  would 
be  attended  with  the  like  event : and  it  accordingly  hap- 
pened. At  Philippi,  he  was  aflured  of  fuccefs  by  a Thef- 
falian,  upon  the  authority,  as  he  pretended,  of  Casi'ar 

N himfclf, 



hlmfelf,  who  had  appeared  to  him  wliile  he  was  travels 
ling  in  a bye-road.  At  Perufia,  the  facritice  not  pre- 
renting  any  favorable  intimations,  but  the  contrary,  he 
ordered  an  additional  number  of  vieSlims  to  be  cut  up  ; 
but  the  enemy  by  a fudden  Tally  carrying  ail  away,  it  was 
agreed  among  11:  the  augurs  as  an  infallible  event,  that  all 
the  danger  and  misfortune  which  appeared  in  the  entrails, 
vyould  fail  upon  the  heads  of  thofe  who  had  got  pofTef- 
fion  of  them.  And  accordingly  it  happened  fo.  The  day 
before  the  fea-fight  near  Sicily,  as  he  was  walking  upon 
the  fhore,  a filli  leaped  out  of  the  fea,  and  laid  itfelf  at  < 
his  foot.  At  Adlium,  while  he. was  going  down  to  his 
fleet  to  engage  the  enemy,  he  was  met  by  an  afs  with  a 
fellow  driving  it.  The  name  of  the  man  was  Eutychus, 
and  that  of  the  animal,  Nicon*.  After  the  vidlory,  he 
erefted  a brazen  ftatue  to  each,  in  a temple  built  upon  the 
ground  where  he  had  encamped. 

XCVII.  His  death,  of  vvhich  I fliall  now  fpeak,  and 
his  fubfequent  deification,  were  intimated  by  divers  ma-* 
nifefi:  prodigies.  As  he  was  finifliing  the  Cenfus  amidil 
a great  crowd  of  people  in  the  Field  of  Mars,  an  eagle 
flew  about  him  feveral  times,  and  then  dire6l:ed  its  courfe 
to  a neighbouring  temple,  where  it  fat  down  upon  the 
name  of  Agrippa,  and  at  the  firfi:  letter.  Upon  obferving 
this,  he  ordered  Tiberius  to  put  up  the  vows,  which  it  is 
ufual  to  make  on  fuch  occafions,  for  the  fucceeding  Luf- 
trum.  For  he  declared  he  would  not  meddle  wjth  what  it 
was  probable  he  lliould  never  accompli fh,  though  the  tables 
were  ready  drawn  for  it.  About  the  fame  time,  the  firfi 

* The  good  omen,  in  this  inflance,  was  founded  upon  the 
etymology  of  the  names  of  the  afs  and  its  driver;  the  former 
of  which,  in  Greek,  fignifies  'vldorious^  and  the  latter,  for- 






letter  of  liis  name,  in  an  infcription  upon  a flatue  of  him, 
was  ftruck  out  by  lightning ; which  was  interpreted  as  a 
prefage  that  he  would  live  only  a hundred  days  longer  f 
which  number  the  letter  C {lands  for,  and  that  he  would 
be  placed  amongft  the  Gods ; as  i^lfar,  which  is  the  re- 
maining part  of  the  word  Caefar,  fignifies,  in  the  Tuf- 
can  language^  a God.  Being  therefore  about  difpatching 
Tiberius  to  Illyricum,  and  defigning  to  go  with  him  as 
far  as  Beneventum,  but  being  detained  by'  ieveral'  per- 
fons  who  applied  to  him  upon  account  of  caufes  they 
had  depending^  he  cried  out,  which  was  afterwards  re- 
garded as  an  omen  of  his  death,  Not  ail  the  bufmefs 
that  can  occur,  fhali  detain  me  at  Rome  one  moment 
longer  and  fetting  out  upon  his  journey,  he  went  as 
far  as  Aftura ; wrhence,  contrary  to  his  cuflom,  he  put 
to  fea  in  the  night-time,  upon  the  occafion  of  a favorable- 

XCVIIT.  His  ficknefs  was  occafioned  by  diarrhoea  ? 
notwithftandino  which,  he  went  round  the  coafc  of  Cam- 
pania,  and  the  adjacent  iflands,  and  fpent  four  days  in 
that  of  Caprese  ; where  he  gave  himfelf  up  entirely  to  his 
eafe  ; behaving,  at  the  fame  time^  to  thofe  about  him  with 
the  utmofl;  good  nature  and  complaifance.  As  he  hap- 
pened to  fail  by  the  bay  of  Puteoli,  the  paiTengers  and 
mariners  aboard  a Ihip  of  Alexandria  juft  then  arrived, 
clad  ail  in  white,  with  crowns  upon  their  heads,  loaded 
him  with  praifes  and  joyful  acclamations,  crying  out, 

By  you  we  live,  by  you  we  fail,  by  you  enjoy  our  li- 
berty'and  our  fortunes;”  At  which  being  greatly  pleafed, 
he  diftributed  to  each  of  his  friends  that  attended  him, 
forty  gold  pieces,  requiring  from  them  an  afturance  by 
oath,  not  to  employ  the  fum  given  them  any  other  v/ay, 
than  in  the  purchafe  of  Alexandrian  goods.  A^id  dui  ing, 

N 2 feverai 



feveral  days  after,  he  diflributed  Togas  and  Pallia*,  upon 
condition  that  the  Romans  Oiould  ufe  the  Grecian,  and 
the  Grecians  the  Roman  drefs  and  language.  He  like- 
wife  conftantly  attended  to  fee  the  boys  perform  their 
exercifes,  according  to  an  ancient  cuflom  ftill  continued 
at  Capreae.  He  gave  them  likewife  an  entertainment  in 
his  prefence,  and  not  only  permitted,  hut  required  from 
them  the  utmoft  freedom  in  jefting,  and  fcrambling  for 
fruit,  vi£luals,  and  other  things  which  he  threw  amongfi: 
them.  In  a word,  he  indulged  himfelf  in  all  the  ways  of 
amufement  he  could  contrive.  He  called  an  ifland  near 
Capres  ATu^aFoTroT^igf  “ the  city  of  the  Do-littles^^^  from 
the  indolent  life  which  feveral  of  his  company  led  there. 
A favorite  of  his,  one  Mafgabas,  he  had  ufed  to  call 
K.Ti<T%if  as  if  he  had  been  the  planter  of  the  ifland.  And 
obferving  from  his  parlour  the  tomb  of  this  Mafgabas, 
who  died  a year  before,  frequented  by  a great  company 
of  people  with  torches,  he  pronounced  upon  it  this  verfe 

KtictIou  h rifpL^ov  itcropco  TTJpoufxgvov. 

I fee  the  founder’s  tomb  difplay’d  with  lights. 

Then  turning  to  Thrafylliis,  a companion  of  Tiberius’s, 
that  lay  oppofite,  he  alked  him  what  poet  he  thought 
was  the  author  of  that  verfe : who  demurring  upon  it, 
he  brought  out  another  : 

*Opa^  (pccscrai  Maa-faCav  TiptMifxivov* 

Honor’d  with  flambeaux  Mafgabas  you  fee. 

* The  Tog^  have  been  already  defcribed  in  a note  upon 
Chapter  LXXIIL  The  Pallium  was  a cloak,  or  upper  gar- 
ment, worn  by  the  Greeks,  men  and  w’omen,  freemen  and 
fervants,  but  almoft  always  by  philofophers,  and  commonly 
by  both  fexes  at  table. 




and  put  the  fame  queftion  to  him  concerning  that  like- 
wife.  'T’he  latter  replying,  that,  whoever  was  the  author, 
the  verfes  were  good,  he  fet  up  a great  laugh,  and  .fell 
into  an  extraordinary  vein  of  jefting  upon  it.  Soon  after, 
palling  over  to  Naples,  though  at  that  time  greatly  dif- 
ordeied  in  his  bowels,  by  the  frequent  returns  of  his  dif-' 
cafe,  he  continued  a fpe(ftator  to  the  end  of  fome  folemn 
games  which  were  performed  every  five  years  -in  honor 
of  him,  and  came  with  Tiberius  to  the  place  intended. 
But  in  his  return,  his  diforder  encreafing,  he  flopped  at 
Nola,  fent  for  Tiberius  back  again,  and  had  a long  dif- 
courfe  with  him  in  private  ; after  which  he  gave  no 
farther  attention  to  bufinefs  of  any  importance, 

XCIX.  Upon  the  day  of  his  death,  he  now  and  then 
enquired,  if  there  was  any  difturbance  in  the  town  about 
him  ; and  calling  for  a mirror,  he  ordered  his  hair  to  be 
combed,  and  his  falling  cheeks  to  be  adjufted.  Then  alk- 
ing  his  friends  that  were  admitted  into  the  room,  <‘Do 
ye  think  that  I have  adted  my  part  in  life  w^ell  he  im- 
mediately fubjoined, 

Ei  Ka>,u^,  ra  Traiyvi^ 

Aols  Ktorov,  KOLi  Travre^  vf/,£tg  xa^aq  xtvttvjctxts^ 

If  all  be  right,  with  joy  your  voices  raife 

In  loud  applaufes  to  the  a6tor’s  praife. 

after  which,  having  difmiffed  them  all,  whilfl  he  was  en- 
quiring of  fome  that  were  juft  come  from  Rome,  con- 
cerning Drufus’s  daughter,  who  was  in  a bad  flate -of 
health,  he  expired  amidft  the  kifles  of  Livia,  and  with 
thefe  words  : “ Livia,  live  mindful  of  our  marriage,  and 
farewell  !”  dying  a very  eafy  death,  and  fuch  as  he  him- 
feif  had  always  wiflied  for.  For  as  often  as  he  heard 
that  any  perfon  had  died  quickly  and  without  pain,  he 

N 3 wiflied 


wilhed  for  himfelf  and  his  friends  the  like  2v&ava(rioiy  (ar^ 
cafy  death),  for  that  was  the  w’ord  he  made  ufc  of.  He 
difcovered  but  one  fymptom  before  his  death  of  his  being 
delirious,  which  waathis  : he  was  all  on  a fudden  much 
frightened,  and  complained  that  he  was  carried  away  by 
forty  men.  But  this  was  rather  a prefage,  than  any  de- 
lirium : for  precifely  that  number  of  foldiers  carried  out 
his  corpfe. 

C.  He  expired  in  the  fame  room  in  which  his  father 
Odlavius  had  died,  when  the  two  Sextuses,  Pompey  and 
Apuleius,  were  Confuls,  upon  the  fourteenth  of  the  calends 
of  September,  at  the  ninth  hour  of  the  day,  wanting  only 
five  and  thirty  days  of  feventy-fix  years  of  age.  His  re- 
mains were  carried  by  the  magiftrates  of  the  municipia  * 
and  colonies,  from  Noia  to  Bovillae,  and  in  the  night- 
time, becaufe  of  the  feafon  of  the  year.  During  the  in- 
tervals, the  body  lay  in  fome  court,  or  great  temple,  of 
each  town.  At  Bovillae  it  was  met  by  the  Equeflrian 
Order,  who  carried  it  to  the  city,  and  depofited  it  in  the 
porch  of  his  own  houfe.  The  Senate  proceeded  with  fo 
much  zeal  in  the  arrangement  of  his  funeral,  and  paying 
honor  to  his  memory,  that,  amongft  feveral  other  propo- 
fals,  fome  were  for  having  the  funeral  procefiion  made 
through  the  triumphal  gate,  preceded  by  the  image  of 
Victory,  which  js  in  the  Senate-houfe,  and  the  children 

* Municipia  were  foreign  towns  which  obtained  the  right 
of  Roman  citizens,  and  were  of  different  kinds.  Some  en- 
joyed all  the  rights  of  Roman  citizens,  except  fuch  as  could 
not  be  held  without  refiding  at  Rome.  Others  were  invefled 
with  the  right  of  ferving  in  the  Roman  legions,  but  not  that 
of  voting,  nor  of  holding  civil  offices.  The  7nunicipia  ufed 
their  own  laws  and  cuftoms ; nor  were  they  obliged  to  re- 
ceive the  Roman  laws  unlefs  they  chofe  it. 




of  the  iirft  quality,  of  both  fexea,  finging  the  funeral 
ditty.  , Others  moved,  that  on  the  day  of  the  funeral,  they 
fliould  lay  alide  their  gold  rings,  and  wear  rings  of  iron  ; 
and  others,  that  his  bones  fliould  be  colledfed  by  the 
pricfls  of  the  fuperior  orders.  One  likewife  propofed  to 
transfer  the  name  of  Auguflus  to  September,  becaufe  he 
was  born  in  the  latter,  but  died  in  the  former.  Another 
moved,  that  the  whole  period  of  time,  from  his  birth  to 
his  death,  fhould  be  called  the  Auguftan  age,  and  be  in- 
ferted  in  the  calendar  under  that  title.  But  at  laft  it  was 
judged  proper  to  be  moderate  in  the  honors  to  be  paid  to 
his  memory.  Two  funeral  orations  wfere  pronounced  in 
his  praife,  one  before  the  temple  of  Julius,  by  Tiberius  ; 
and  the  other  before  the  Roftra,  under  the  old  fhops,  by 
Drufiis,  Tiberius’s  fon.  The  body  was  then  carried  upon 
the  flioulders  of  Senators  into  the  Field  of  Mars,  and 
there  burnt.  A man  of  Praetorian  rank  affirmed  upon 
oath,  that  he  faw  his  fplrit  afcend  into  heaven.  The  mofi; 
diftinguifhed  perfons  of  the  Equeftrian  Order,  bare-footed, 
and  with  their  tunics  loofe,  gathered  up  his  relics,  and  ' 
flepofited  them  in  the  maufokum,  which  had  been  built 
in  his  fixth  Confulfhip,  betwixt  the  Flaminian  way  and 
the  bank  of  the  Tiber,  at  which  lime  likewife  he  gave 
the  woods  and  walks  about  it  for  the  ufe  of  the 

■ ■ 

Cl.  He  had  made  a will  a year  and  four  months  be- 
fore his  death;  upon  the  third  of  die  Nones, of  April,  in 
the  Confulfliip  of  Lucius  Plancus,  and  C.  Silius.  Jt 
confifted  of  two  lldns  of  parchment,  wiitten  partly  in  his- 
hand,  and  partly  by  his  freedmen. Polybius  and  Hilarion. 

It  had  been  committed  to  the  cuftody  of  the  V eftal  Virgins, 
t>y  whom  it  was  now  produced,  with  three  other  volumes, 



all  fealed  tip  as  well  as  the  will,  which  were  one 

read  in  the  Senate.  He  appointed  for  his  firll  heirs, 
Tiberius  for  two  thirds  of  his  eftate,  and  Livia  for  the 
other  third,  whom  he  likewife  defired  to  afTume  his  name. 
The  heirs  fubftituted  in  their  room,  in  cafe  of  death? 
were  Drufiis,  Tiberius’s  fon,  for  a third  part,  and  Ger- 
manicus with  his  three  fons  for  the  refl.  Next  to  them 
were  his  relations,  and  feveral  of  his  friends.  He  left  in 
legacies  to  the  Roman  people  forty  millions  of  feflerces ; 
to  the  tribes  three  millions  five  hundred  thoufand ; to  the 
guards,  a thoufand  each  man  ; to  the  city-battalions  five 
hundred  ; and  to  the  foldiers  in  the  legioias  three  hundred 
each ; w^hich  feveral  fums  he  ordered  to  be  paid  imme- 
diately after  his  death.  For  he  had  taken  care  that  the, 
money  Ihould  be  ready  in  his  exchequer.  For  the  reft 
he  ordered  different  times  of  payment.  In  fome  of  his  be- 
quefts  he  went  as  far  as  twenty  thoufand  fefterces,  for 
the  payment  of  which  he  allowed  a twelvemonth;  al- 
Jedging  for  this  procraftination  the  fcantinefs  of  his  eftate  ; 
and  declaring  that  not  more  than  a hundred  and  fifty 
millions  of  fefterces  would  come  to  his  heirs  : notwith- 
ftanding  that  during  the  twenty  preceding  years,  he  had 
received,  in  legacies  from  his  friends,  the  fum  of  fourteen 
hundred  millions  ; almoft  the  whole  of  which,  with  his 
two  paternal  eftates,  and  others  that  had  been  left  him,  he  ' 
expended  upon  the  public.  He  left  order  that  the  two 
Julias,  his  daughter  and  grand-daughter,  ftiould  not  be 
buried  in  his  fepulchre.  With  regard  to  the  three  vo- 
lumes before  mentioned,  in  one  of  them  he  gave  orders 
about  his  funeral  ; another  contained  a narrative  of  his 
adlions,  which  he  intended  ftiould  be  inferibed  on  brafs- 
platcs,  and  placed  before  his  maufoleum  ; in  the  third  he 
had  drawn  up  a concife  account  of  the  ftate  of  the  em- 
pire ; 



pire ; as  the  number  of  foldiers  in  pay,  what  money 
there  was  in  the  treafury,  exchequer,  and  arrears  of 
taxes  ; to  which  ‘were  added  the  names  of  the  freedmen 
and  (laves,  from  whom  the  feveral  accounts  might  be 

OCTAVIUS  Csefar,  afterwards  Auguftus,  had  now 
attained  to  the  fame  fituation  in  the  (late  which  had  for- 
merly been  occupied  by  Julius  Ctefar ; and  though  he' 
entered  upon  it  by  violence,  he  continued  to  enjoy  it 
through  life  with  almoft  uninterrupted  tranquillity.  By 
the  long  duration  of  the  late  civil  War,  with  its  concomi- 
^ tant  train  of  public  calamities,  the  minds  of  men  were 
become  lefs  averfe  to  the  profpedl:  of  an  abfolute  govern- 
ment; at  the  fame  time  that  the  new  emperor,  naturally 
prudent  and  politic,  had  learned  from  the  fate  of  Julius 
the  art  of  preferving  fuprerne  power  without  arrogating 
to  himfelf  any  invidious  mark  of  dihindlion.  He  affedled 
to  decline  public  honors,  difclaimed  every  idea  of  per- 
(bnal  fuperiority,  and  in  all  his  behaviour  difplayed  a de- 
gree of  moderation  which  prognodicated  the  mod  happy 
eftecls,  in  redoring  peace  and  profperity  to  the  haraded 
empire.  The  tenor  of  his  future  condudl  was  iuitable 
to  this  aufpicious  commencement.  While  he  endea- 
vored to  conciliate  the  affedlions  of  the  people  by  lend- 
ing money  to  thofe  who  dood  in  need  of  it,  at  low  in- 
tered,  or  without  any  at  all,  and  by  the  exhibition  of 
public  (liews,  of  which  the  Romans  were  remarkably 
fond  ; he  was  attentive  to  the  prefervatlon  of  a becoming 
dignity  in  the  government,  and  to  the  correclion  of 
riiorais.  The  Senate,  which,  in  the  time  of  Sylla,  had 




encreafed  to  upwards  of  four  hundred,  and,  during  the 
civil  war,  to  a thoufand  members,  by  the  admiffion  of 
improper  perfons,  he  reduced  to  fix  hundred  ; and  being 
inveiled  with  the  ancient  ofEce  of  Cenfor,  which  had  for 
fome  time  been  difufed,  he  exercifed  an  arbitrary  but  legal 
authority  over  the  condu6t  of  every  rank  in  the  ftate  ; by 
which  he  could  degrade  Senators  and  Knights,  and  inflidt 
upon  all  citizens  an  ignominious  fentence  for  any  im- 
moral or  indecent  behaviour.  But  nothing  contributed 
more  to  render  the  new  form  of  government  acceptable 
to  the  people,  than  the  frequent  diftribution  of  corn,  and 
fometimes  largelTes,  amongft  the  commonalty : for  an 
occafional  fcarcity  of  provifions  had  always  been  the  chief 
caufe  of  difcontents  and  tumults  in  the  capital.  To  the 
interefts  of  the  army  he  llkewife  paid  particular  attention. 
It  was  by  the  afliflance  of  the  legions  that  he  had  rifen 
to  power ; and  they  were  the  men  v/ho,  in  the  laft  refort, 
if  fuch  an  emergency  fhould  ever  occur,  could  alone  en^ 
able  him  to  preferve  it. 

HIdory  relates,  that  after  the  overthrow  of  Antony,^ 
Augufbus  held  a confultation  with  Agrippa  and  Mecaenas 
about  reftoi  ing  the  republican  form  of  government,  when 
Agrippa  gave  his  opinion  in  favor  of  that  meafure,  and 
Mecsenas  oppofed  it.  The  objedl  of  this  confultation, 
in  refpedi  of  its  future  confequences  on  fociety,  is  perhaps 
the  moft  important  ever  agitated  in  any  cabinet,,  and  re-- 
quired,  for  the  mature  difcuflion  of  it,  the  whole  col- 
ledlive  wifdom  of  the  ablefl;  men  in  the  empire.  Bu 
this  was  a refource  which  could  fcarcely  be  adopted, 
either  with  fecurity  to  the  public  quiet,  or  w’ith  unbiaffed 
judgment  in  the  determination  of  the  queftion.  The  bare 
agitation  of  fuch  a point  would  have  excited  an  imme- 
diate and  ftrong  anxiety  for  its  final  refult ; while  the 




friends  of  a republican  government,  who  were  ftili  far 
more  numerous  than  thofe  of  the  other  party,  would  have 
Arained  every  nerve  to  procure  a determination  in  their 
own  favor ; and  the  Praetorian  guards,  the  fureft  protec- 
tion of  Auguftus,  finding  their  fituation  rendered  pre- 
carious by  fuch  an  unexpedled  occurrence,  would  have 
readily  llfiened  to  the  fecret  propofitions  and  intrigues  of 
the  Republicans  for  fecuring  their  acquiefcence  to  the  de- 
cifion  on  the  popular  fide. ' If,  when  the  fubjedf  came 
into  debate,  Auguftus  Ihould  be  fincere  in  the  declara- 
tion to  abide  by  the  refolution  of  the  council,  it  is  be- 
yond all  doubt,  that  the  refioration  of  a republican  go- 
vernment would  have  been  voted  by  a great  majority  of 
the  aflembly.  If,  on  the  contrary,  he  fliould  not  be  fin- 
cere,  which  is  the  more  probable  fuppofition,  and  ihould 
incur  the  fufpicion  of  pradlifing  fecretly  with  members 
for  a decifion  according  to  his  wifii,  he  would  have 
rendered  himieif  obnoxious  to  the  public  odium,  and 
given  rife  to  difeontents  which  might  have  endangered 
fiis  future  fecurity. 

But  to  fubmit  this  important  quefiion  to  the  free  and 
nnbiafied  decifion  of  a numerous  aflembly,  it  is  probable, 
neither  fuited  the  inclination  of  Auguftus,  nor  perhaps, 
in  his  opinion,  correfponded  with  his-  pcrfonal  fafety. 
With  a view  to  the  attainment  of  unconflitutional  powder, 
he  had  formerly  deferted  the  caufe  of  the  Republic  when 
its  affairs  were  in  a profperous  fltuation  ; and  now  when 
his  end  was  accomplilhed,  there  could  be  little  ground  to 
expedl,  that  he  fliould  voliintarily  reiinquifli  the  prize  for 
which  he  had  fpilt  the  beft  blood  of  Rome,  and  contended 
for  fo  many  years.  Ever  flnee  the  final  defeat  of  An- 
tony in  the  battle  of  A6tium,  he  had  governed  the  Roman 
flate  with  uncontroled  authority;  and  though  there  is  in 




the  nature  of  unlimited  power  an  intoxicating  quality, 
injurious  both  to  public  and  private  virtue,  vet  all  hiftory 
contradicts  the  fuppofition  of  its  being  endued  with  any 
which  is  unpalatable  to  the  general  tafle  of  mankind.' 

There  were  two  chief  motives  by  which  Auguftus 
would  naturally  be  influenced  in  a deliberation  on  this 
important  fubjeCt ; namely,  the  love  of  power,  and  the 
perfonal  danger  whicli  he  might  incur  from  reiinquifliing 
it.  Either  of  thefe  motives  might  have  been  a fufficient 
inducement  for  retaining  his  authority  ; but  when  they 
both  concurred,  as  they  feem  to  have  done  upon  this  oc- 
cafion,  their  united  force  was  irrefiftible.  The  argu- 
ment, fo  far  as  relates  to  the  love  of  power,  refts  upon  a 
ground,  concerning  the  folidity  of  which,  little  doubt  can 
be  entertained : but  it  may  be  proper  to  enquire,  in  a few 
words,  into  the  foundation  of  that  perfonal  danger  which 
he  dreaded  to  incur,  on  returning  to  the  flation  of  a pri- 
vate citizen. 

Augiiftus,  as  has  been  already  obferved,  had  formerly 
fided  with  the  party  which  attempted  to  reftore  public 
liberty  after  the  death  of  Julius  Caefar  : but  he  afterwards 
abandoned  the  popular  caufe,  and  joined  in  the  ambitious 
views  of  Antony  and  Lepidus  to  ufurp  amongfl:  them- 
felves  the  entire  dominion  of  the  flate.  By  this  change 
of  conduCl,  he  turned  his  arms  againfl  the  fupporters  of 
a form  of  government  which  he  had  virtually  recognized 
as  the  legal  conflitution  of  Rome  ; and,  what  involved  a 
direCl  implication  of  treafon,  againfl  the  facred  reprefen- 
tatives  of  that  government,  the  Confuls,  formally  and 
duly  cleCled.  Upon  fuch  a charge  he  might  be  amenable 
to  the  capita}  laws  of  his  country.  This,  however,  was 
^ danger  which  might  be  fully  obviated,  by  procuring 




from  the  Senate  and  people  an  a£l:  of  oblivion,  previoufly 
to  his  abdication  of  the  fu preme  power  ; and  this  was  a 
preliminary  which  doubtlefs  they  would  have  admitted 
and  ratified  with  unanimous  approbation.  It  therefore 
appears  that  he  could  be  expofed  to  no  inevitable  danger 
on  this  account : but  there  was  another  quarter  where 
his  perfon  w'as  vulnerable,  and  where  even  the  laws 
might  not  be  fufficient  to  protegi  him  againfl;  the  efforts 
of  private  refentment.  The  bloody  profcription  of  the 
Triumvirate  no  adi  of  amnefly  could  ever  erafe  from  the 
minds  of  thofe  w'ho  had  been  deprived  by  it  of  their 
neareft  and  deareft  relations ; and  amidft  the  numerous 
€onne6hons  of  the  illuflrious  men  facrificed  on  that  horri- 
ble occafion,  there  might  arife  fome  defperate  avenger, 
whole  indelible  refentment  nothing  lefs  would  fatisfy 
than  the  blood  of  the  furviving  delinquent.  Though  Au- 
guflus,  therefore,  might  not,  like  his  great  predeceffor, 
be  ftabbed  in  the  Senate-houfe,  he  might  receive  into  his 
vitals  the  fvvord  or  poniard  in  a lefs  confpicuous  fitua- 
tion.  After  all,  there  feems  to  have  been  little  danger 
from  this  quarter  likewife  : for  Sylla,  who  in  the  pre- 
ceding age  had  been  guilty  of  equal  enormities,  was  per- 
mitted, on  relinquifhing  the  place  of  perpetual  Didfator, 
to  end  his  days  in  quiet  retirement ; and  the  undifturbed 
fecurity  which  Auguftus  ever  afterwards  enjoyed,  affords 
fufficient  proof,  that  all  apprehenfion  of  danger  to  his 
perfon  was  merely  chimerical. 

We  have  hitherto  confidered  this  grand  confultation  as 
it  might  be  influenced  by  the  paflions  or  prejudices  of  the 
emperor  : we  fhall  now  take  a fhort  view  of  the  fubjedf 
in  the  light  in  which  it  is  connecfded  with  arguments  of  a 
political  nature,  and  with  public  utility.  The  arguments 




handed  down  by  hiftory  refpeding  this  confultatlon  are 
few,  and  imperfecSlly  delivered  ; but  they  may  be  ex- 
tended upon  the  general  principles  maintained  on  each 
fide  of  the  queftion. 

For  the  rcftoration  of  the  republican  government,  it 
mig’ht  be  contended,  that  from  the  expulhon  of  the  kings 
to  the  Didlatorfhip  of  Julius  Csefar,  through  a period  of 
upwards  of  four  hundred  and  fixly  years,  the  Roman 
Hate,  abating  a (hort  intermiilion  only,  liad  flouriftied 
and  encreafed  widi  a degree  of  profperity  unexampled  in 
the  annals  of  human  kind:  That  the  republican  form  of 
government  was  not  only  beft  adapted  to  the  improve- 
ment of  national  grandeur,  but  to  the  fecurity  of  general 
freedom,  the  great  objedf  of  all  political  aiTociation : That 
public  virtue,  by  which  alone  nations  could  fubhii  in 
vigor,  was  cherilhed  and  prote6led  by  no  mode  of  ad- 
miniflration  fo  much  as  by  that  which  conne6led,  in  the 
flrongefl:  bonds  of  union,  the  private  interehs  of  indi- 
viduals with  thofe  of  the  community:  7'hat  the  habits 
and  prejudices  of  the  Roman  people  were  unalterably  at- 
tached to  the  form  of  government  eftablilhed  by  fo  long 
a prefcription,  and  would  never  fubmit,  for  any  length  of 
time,  to  the  rule  of  one  perfon,  without  making  every 
pofiible  effort  to  recover  their  liberty : That  though  de- 
fpotifm,  under  a mild  and  wdfe  prince,  might  in  fome  re- 
fpedls  be  regarded  as  prefe,rable  to  a conftitution  which 
•was  occafionally  expofed  to  the  inconvenience  of  fadtion 
and  popular  tumults,  yet  it  was  a dangerous  experiment 
to  abandon  the  government  of  the  nation  to  the  contin- 
gency of  fiich  a variety  of  charadlers  as  ufually  occurs  in 
the  fucceffion  of  princes  ; and  upon  the  whole,  that  the 
interehs  of  the  people  were  more  fafely  entrufled-  in  the 




hands  of  annual  magiftrates  elected  by  themfelves,  than 
in  thofe  of  any  Individual  whofe  power  was  permanent, 
and  fubjedl  to  no  legal  control, 


In  favor  of  defpotic  government  it  might  be  urged,  that 
though  Rome  had  fubfifted  long  and  glorioufly  under  a 
republican  form  of  government,  yet  fhe  had  often  ex- 
perienced fuch  violent  Ihocks,  from  popular  tumults  or 
the  fadlions  of  the  great,  as  had  threatened  her  with  im- 
minent deftrudlion : That  a republican  government  was 
only  accommodated  to  a people  amongft  whom  the  divi- 
fion  of  property  gave  to  no  clafs  of  citizens  fuch  a degree 
of  pre-eminence  as  might  prove  dangerous  to  public  free- 
dom : That  there  was  required  in  that  form  of  political 
conflitution,  a fimpliclty  of  life  and  ftridfnefs  of  manners 
which  are  never  obferved  to  accompany  a high  degree  of 
public  profperity  : That  in  refpecl  of  all  thefe  confidera- 
tions,  fuch  a form  of  government  was  utterly  incompati- 
ble with  the  prefent  circumflances  of  the  Romans : That 
by  the  conquefl;  of  fo  many  foreign  nations,  by  the  lucra- 
tive governments  of  provinces,  the  fpoils  of  the  enemy  in 
war,  and  the  rapine  too  often  pradtifed  in  time  of  peace, 
fo  great  had  been  the  aggrandizement  of  particular  fa- 
milies in  the  preceding  age,  that  though  the  form  of  the 
ancient  conflitution  fliould  flill  remain  inviolate,  the  peo- 
ple would  no  longer  live  under  a free  Republic,  but  an 
ariflocratlcal  ufurpation,  which  was  always  productive 
of  tyranny : That  nothing  could  preferve  the  common- 
wealth from  becoming  a prey  to  feme  daring  confederacy, 
but  the  firm  and  vigorous  adminiflration  of  one  perfon, 
invefled  with  the  whole  executive  power  of  the  ftate,  un- 
limited and  uncontroled  : In  fine,  that  as  Rome  had  been 
nurfed  to  maturity  by  the  government  of  fix  princes  fuc- 
cefllvely,  fo  it  was  only  by  a fimilar  form  of  political 


igl  THE  LIFE  OF 

conflitution  that  ihe  could  now  be  faved  from  ariflocrati- 
cal  tyranny  on  one  hand,  or,  on  the  other,  from  abfolute 

On  whlchei^er  fide  of  the  queflion  the  force  of  argu- 
ment may  be  thought  to  preponderate,  there  is  reafon  to 
believe  that  Auguftus  was  guided  in  his  refolution  more 
by  inclination  and  prejudice  than  by  reafon.  It  is  related, 
however,  that  hefitating  between  the  oppofite  opinions  of 
his  two  counfellors,  he  had  recourfe  to  that  of  Virgil, 
who  joined  with  Mecaerias  in  advihng  him  to  retain  the 
imperial  power,  as  being  the  form  of  government  moll 
fuitable  to  the  circumftances  of  the  times. 

It  is  proper  in  this  place  to  give  fome  account  of  the 
two  minifters  abovementioned,  Agrippa  and  Mecaenas, 
who  compofed  the  cabinet  of  Auguftus  at  the  fettlement  of 
his  government,  andfeem  to  be  the  only  psrfons  employed 
by  him  in  a minifterial  capacity  during  his  whole  reign. 

M.  Vipfanius  Agrippa  was  of  obfeure  extracSlion,  but 
rendered  himfelf  confpiciious  by  his  military  talents.  He 
obtained  a vidtory  of  Sextus,  Pompey  ; and 
^‘Jgnppa^^  in.  the  battles  of  Philippi  and  Adlium, 
where  he  difplayed  great  valor,  he  con- 
tributed not  a little  to  eftablifh  the  fubfequent  power  of 
Auguftus.  In  his  expeditions  afterwards  into  Gaul  and 
Germany,  he  performed  many  fignal  atchievements,  and 
for  which  he  refufed  the  honors  of  a triumph.  The  ex- 
pences  which  others  would  have  lavidied  on  that  frivo- 
lous fpedlacle,  he  applied  to  the  more  laudable  purpofe 
of  embellifhing  Rome  with  magnificent  buildings,  one  of 
which,  the  Pantheon,  ftill  remains.  In  confeqiience  of  a 
difpute  with  Marcellus,  the  nephew  of  Augufius,  he  re- 

Cw^SAR  augustus;  195 

tire^  to  Mitylene,  whence,  after  an  abfence  of  two  years, 
he  was  recalled  by  the  emperor.  He  firft  married  Pom- 
ponia, the  daughter  of  the  celebrated  Atticiis,  and  after- 
wards one  of  the  Marcellas,  the  nieces  of  Auguftus. 
While  this  lady,  by  whom  he  had  children,  was  ftill 
living,  the  emperor  prevailed  upon  his  fiffcer  Odiavia  to 
refign  to  him  her  fon-in-law,  and  gave  him  in  marriage 
bis  own  daughter  Julia  ; fo  ftrong  was  the  defire  of,Au- 
guilius  to  be  united  with  him  in  the  clofefl:  alliance.  The 
high  degree  of  favor  in  which  he  flood  with  the  emperor 
was  foon  after  evinced  by  a farther  mark  of  efleem  : for 
during  a vifit  to  the  Roman  provinces  of  Greece  and 
Afia,  in  which  Auguflus  was  abfent  two  years,  he  left 
the  government  of  the  empire  to  the  care  of  Agrippa. 
While  this  miniiler  enjoyed,  and  indeed  feems  to  have 
merited,  all  the  partiality  of  Auguflus,  he  was  likewife  a 
favorite  with  the  people.  He  died  at  Rome  in  the  fifty- 
firfl  year  of  his  age,  univeifally  lamented  ; and  his  re- 
mains were  depofited  in  the  tomb  which  Auguftus  had 
prepared  for  himfelf.  Agrippa  left  by  Julia  three  fons, 
Caius,  Lucius,  and  Poflhumus  Agrippa,  with  two  daugh-* 
ters,  Agrippina  and  Julia. 

C.  Cilnius 

C.  Cilnius  Mecsenas  was  of  Tufcan  extradion,  and 
derived  his  defcent  from  the  ancient  kings  of  that  country. 
Though  in  the  highefl  degree  of  favor 
with  Auguflus,  he  never  afpired  beyond 
the  rank  of  the  Equeflrian  Order ; and 
though  he  might  have  held  the  government  of  extenfive 
provinces  by  deputies,  he  was  content  with  enjoying  the 
Prsfedure  of  the  city  and  Italy  ; a fituation,  however, 
which  mull  have  been  attended  with  extenfive  patronage. 
He  was  of  a gay  and  focial  difpofition.  In  principle,  he 




is  faid  to  have  been  of  the  Epicurean  Seel:,  and  in  hIS 
drefs  and  manners,  to  have  bordered  on  effeminacy. 
With  refped  to  his  political  talents,  we  can  only  fpeak 
from  conjedture:  but  from  his  being  the  confidential 
minifter  of  a prince  of  fo  much  difeemment  as  Auguftus, 
during  the  infancy  of  a new  form  of  government  in  an 
extenfive  empire,  we  may  prefume  that  he  was  endowed 
with  no  common  abilities  for  that  important  flation. 
The  liberal  patronage  which  he  difplayed  towards  men 
of  genius  and  talents,  will  render  his  name  for  ever  cele- 
brated in  the  annals  of  learning.  It  is  to  be  regretted 
that  hiilory  has  tranfmitted  no  particulars  of  this  extraor- 
dinary perfonage,  of  whom  all  we  know  is  derived 
chiefly  from  the  writings  of  Virgil  and  Horace  : but 
from  the  manner  in  which  they  addrefs  him,  amidft  tlie  ' 
familiarity  of  their  intercourfe,  there  is  the  ftrongeft 
reafon  to  fuppofe,  that  he  was  not  lefs  amiable  and  re- 
fpe6lable  in  private  life,  than  illuftrious  in  public  fitua- 
tion.  “ O my  Glory  is  the  emphatic  expreflion  em- 
ployed by  them  both. 

O decus,  O famse  merito  pars  maxima  noilr^.  Vir.  G.  II. 

O et  prsefidium  et  dulce  decus  meum.  Hor.  Ode  I. 

One  would  be  inclined  to  think,  that  there  was  a nicety 
in  the  fenfe  and  application  of  the  word  decus^  amongfl 
the  Romans,  with  which  we  are  unacquainted,  and  that, 
in  the  paffages  now  adduced,  it  was  undcrflood  to  refer 
to  the  honor  of  the  emperor’s  patronage,  obtained  through 
the  means  of  Mecsenas  ; otherwife,  fuch  language  to  the 
minifter  might  have  excited  the  jealoufy  of  Auguftus. 
But  whatever  foundation  there  may  be  for  this  conjec- 
ture, the  compliment  was  compenfited  by  the  fuperior 
adulation  which  the  poets  appropriated  to  the  emperor, 



•whofe  deification  is  more  than  infinuated,  in  fublime 
intimations,  by  Virgil. 

Tuque  adeo,  quern  mox  quse  fint  habitura  deorum 
Concilia,  incertum  eft  j urbifne  invifere,  Caefar, 
Terrarumque  velis  cufam  ; &:  te  maximus  orbis 
Auctorem  frilgum,  tempeftaturlique  potentem 
Accipiat,  cingens  materna  tempora  myrto : 

An  Deus  immenft  venias  marisj  ac  tua  nautae 
Numina  fola  colant : tibi  ferviat  ultima  Thule ; 

Teque  libi  generUm  Tethys  emat  omnibus  undis. 

Geor.  1, 

Horaee  has  elegantly  adopted  the  fame  ftrain  of  com^^ 
pliment,  > 

Te  multa  prece,  te  profequitur  mero 
Defufo  pateris  ; & Laribus  tuum 
Mifcet  numen,  uti  Graecia  Caftoris 

Et  magni  memor  Herculis.  Carm.  IV.  5. 

The  panegyric  beftowed  upon  Augufttis  by  the  great 
poets  of  that  time,  appears  to  have  had  a farther  objeci 
than  the  mere  gratification  of  vanity.  It  was  the  am- 
bition of  this  emperor  to  reign  iii  the  hearts,  as  well  as 
over  the  perfons  of  his  fubje6ts  ; and  with  this  view  he 
tvas  defi roils  of  endearing  bimfelf  to  their  imagination; 
Both  he  and  Mecserias  had  a delicate  fenfibility  to  the 
beauties  of  poetical  compofition  ; and  judging  from  their 
own  feelings,  they  attached  a high  degree  of  influence 
to  the  charms  of  poetry.  Impreflfed  with  thefe  fenti- 
ments,  it  became  an  objeft  of  importance,  in  their  opi- 
nion, to  engage  tlie  Mufes  in  the  fervice  of  the  imperial 
authority  : on  which  account,  we  find  Mecasnas  tam- 
pering with  Propertius,  and  we  may  prefume  likewife 
with  every  other  riling  genius  in  poetry,  to  undertake  a 
heroic  poem,  of  which  Auguflus  fiiould  be  the  hero.  As. 

O 2 the 



the  application  to  Propertius  cannot  have  taken  place 
until  after  Auguftus  had  been  amply  celebrated  by  the 
fuperior  abilities  of  Virgil  and  Horace,  there  feems  to  be 
fome  reafon  for  afcribing  Mecaenas’s  requefl:  to  a political 
motive.  Cains  and  Lucius,  the  emperor’s  grandfons  by 
his  daughter  Julia,  were  ftill  living,  and  both  young.  As 
one  of  them,  doubtlefs,  was  intended  to  fucceed  to  the  go- 
vernment of  the  empire,  prudence  juftified  the  adoption 
of  every  expedient  that  might  tend  to  fecure  a quiet  fuc- 
ceilion  to  the  heir,  upon  the  demife  of  Auguftus.  As  a 
fubfidiary  refource,  therefore,  the  expedient  above-men- 
tioned was  judged,  highly  plaufible ; and  the  Roman 
cabinet  indulged  the  idea  of  endeavoring  to  confirm  im- 
perial authority  by  the  fupport  of  poetical  renown. 
Lampoons  againft  the  government  were  not  uncommon 
even  in  the  time  of  Auguftus  ; and  elegant  panegyric  on 
the  emperor  ferved  to  countera(51:  their  influence  upon  the 
minds  of  the  people.  The  idea  was  perhaps  novel  in  the 
time  of  Auguftus ; but  the  hiftory  of  later  ages  affords 
examples  of  its  having  been  adopted,  under  different  forms 
of  government,  with  fuccefs. 

The  Roman  empire,  in  the  time  of  Auguftus,  had  at- 
tained to  a prodigious  magnitude  ; and  in  his  teftament  he 
recommended  to  his  fucceffbrs  never  to  exceed  the  limits 
which  he  had  preferibed  to  Its  extent.  On  the  Eaft  it 
ftretched  to  the  Euphrates  ; on  the  South  to  the  cataradls 
of  the  Nile,  the  deferts  of  Africa,  and  Mount  Atlas ; on 
the  Weft  to  the  Atlantic  Ocean  ; and  on  the  North  to  the 
Danube  and  the  Rhine  ; including  the  beft  part  of  the 
then  known  world.  The  Romans,  therefore,  were  not 
improperly  called  rerum  dominl^y  and  Rome,  pulcher-^ 
rima  rerum  f,  maxima  rerum  J.  Even  the  hiftorians 

* Virgil,  f Ibid.  J;  Ibid. 

' Livy 



Livy  and  Tacitus,  a^Sliiated  likcwife  with  admiration’, 
beftow  magnificent  epithets  on  the  capital  of  their 
country.  The  fucceeding  emperors,  in  conformity  to 
the  advice  of  Auguflus,  made  few  additions  to  the  em- 
pire. Trajan  however  fubdued  Mefopotamia  and  Ar- 
menia, eafi;  of  the  Euphrates,  with  Dacia,  north  of  the 
Danube  ; and  after  this  period  the  Roman  dominion 
was  extended  over  Britain,  as  far  as  the  Frith  of  Forth 
and  the  Clyde, 

It  would  be  an  object  of  curiofity  to  afcertain  the 
amount  of  the  Roman  revenue  in  the  reign  of  Auguflus : 
but  fuch  a problem,  even  with  refpecfl  to  contemporary 
nations,  cannot  be  elucidated  without  accefs  to  the  public 
regiflers  of  their  governments  ; and  in  regard  to  an  ancient, 
monarchy,  the  invefligation  is  impradlicable.  We  can 
only  be  affured  that  the  revenue  mufi;  have  been  iramcnfe, 
which  arofe  from  the  accumulated  contribution  of  fuch  a 
number  of  nations,  that  had  fupported  their  own  civil 
eflablifhments  with  great  fplendor,  and  many  of  which 
were  celebrated  for  their  extraordinary  riches  and  com-» 
merce.  The  tribute  paid  by  the  Romans  themfelves,  to- 
w^ards  the  fupport  of  the  government,  was  very  confider- 
able  during  the  latter  ages  of  the  Republic,  and  it  receiv- 
ed an  encreafe  after  the  confulfhip  of  Hirtius  and  Panfa. 
The  eflablifliments,  both  civil  and  military,  in  the  differ- 
ent provinces,  were  fupported  at  their  own  expence : the 
emperor  required  but  a fmall  naval  force,  which  adds 
much  to  the  public  expenditure  of  maritime  nations  in 
modern  times ; and  the  flate  was  burdened  with  no  diplo- 
matic charges.  The  vafl  treafure  accruing  from  the 
various  taxes  centered  in  Rome,  and  the  whole  was  at  the 
difpofal  of  the  emperor,  without  any  control.  We  may 
tlicreforejuflly  conclude,  tliat,  in  the  amount  of  taxes, 

Q 3 cufloms, 



cufloms,  and  every  kind  of  financial  refources,  Auguftus 
exceeded  all  fovereigns  'who  had  hitherto  ever  fwayed  the 
fceptre  of  imperial  dominion  : a noble  acquifition,  had  it 
been  judicioufly  employed  by  his  fuccelTors,  in  promoting 
public  happinefs,  with  half  the  profufion  in  which  it  wa^ 
lavifbed  in  difgracing  human  nature,  and  violating  the 
j'ights  of  ni^nkind. 

The  reign  of  Auguflus  is  diftinguifhed  by  the  moil  ex- 
traordinary event  recorded  in  hiftory  either  facred  or  pro- 
fane, the  nativity  of  the  favioiir  of  mankind  ; which  has 
fince  introduced  a new  epoch  into  the  Chronology  of  alf 
Chriflian  nations.  The  commencement  of  the  new  sera 
being  the  mofl:  flourifliing  period  of  the  Roman  empire, 
a general  view  of  the  flate  of  knowledge  and  tafte  at  this 
period,  may  here  not  be  improper. 

Civilization  was  at  this  time  extended  farther  over  the 
world  than  it  had  ever  been  in  any  preceding  period : 
but  polytheifm  rather  encreafed  than  diminifhed  with  the 
advancement  of  commercial  intercourfe  between  the  na- 
tions of  Europe,  Afia  and  Africa  ; and  though  philofophy 
had  been  cultivated  during  feveral  ages,  at  Athens,  Cyrene, 
Rome,  and  other  feats  of  learning,  yet  the  morals  of 
tnankind  were  little  improved  by  the  diffufion  of  fpecu- 
lative  knowledge.  Socrates  had  laid  an  admirable  foun- 
dation for  the  improvement  of  human  natuj  e,  by  the  exer- 
tion of  reafon  through  the  whole  economy  of  life : but 
fucceeding  enquirers,  forfaking  the  true  path  of  ethic  in- 
vefligation,  deviated  into  fpecious  difcuffions,  rather  in- 
genious than  ufeful ; and  fome  of  them,  by  gratuitoufly 
adopting  principles,  which,  fo  far  from  being  fupported 
by  reafon,  were  repugnant  to  its  di6tates,  endeavored  to 
eredl  upon  the  bafis  of  their  refpedive  do6trines  afyllcm 




peculiar  to  themfelves.  The  dodtrines  of  the  Stoics  and 
Epicureans  were  In  fa6l  pernicious  to  fociety  ; and  thofe 
of  the  different  academies,  though  more  intimately  con- 
nedled  with  reafon  than  the  two  former,  were  of  a nature 
too  abftradf.  to  have  any  immediate  or  ufeful  influence  on 
life  and  manners.  General  difcuffions  of  Truth  and  Pro- 
bability, with  magnificent  declamations  on  the  to  naXovy 
and  the  fummum  honurriy  conflltuted  the  chief  objects  of 
attention  amongfl:  thofe  who  cultivated  moral  fcience  In 
the  fhades  of  academical  retirement.  Cicero  endeavored 
to  bring  back  philofophy  from  fpeculation  to  pradfice, 
and  clearly  evinced  the  focial  duties  to  be  founded  in  the 
unalterable  didlates  of  virtue : but  it  was  ealier  to  demon- 
Hrate  the  truth  of  the  principles  which  he  maintained, 
than  to  enforce  their  obfervance,  while  the  morals  of 
mankind  were  little  adfuated  by  the  exercife  of  reafon 

The  fcience  chiefly  cultivated  at  this  period  was  Rhe- 
toric, which  appears  to  have  differed  confiderably  from 
what  now  paffes  under  the  fame  name.  The  objedl  of  it 
was  not  fo  much  juflnefs  of  fentiment  and  propriety  of 
expreflion,  as  the  art  of  declaiming,  or  fpeaking  copiouf- 
ly  upon  any  fubjedl:.  It  is  mentioned  by  Varro  as  the 
reverfe  of  logic ; and  they  are  diflinguifhed  from  each 
other  by  a fimile,  that  the  former  refembles  the  palm  of 
the  hand  expanded,  and  the  latter,  contradfed  into  the  fift. 
It  is  obfervable  that  logic,  tliough  a part  of  education  in 
modern  times,  feems  not  to  have  been  cultivated  amongfl; 
the  Romans.  Perhaps  they  were  apprehenfive,  lefl:  a fci- 
ence which  concentered  the  force  of  argument,  might  ob- 
flrudf:  the  cultivation  of  that  which  was  meant  to  dilate 
it.  Aftronomy  was  long  before  known  in  the  eaftern 
nations ; but  there  is  reafon  to  believe,  from  a paflage  in 

O 4 Virgil, 

3.00  THE  LIFE  OF 

Virgil  that  it  was  little  cultivated  by  the  Romans ; and 
it  is  certain,  that  in  the  reformation  of  the  Calendar,  Julius 
Caefar  was  chiefly  indebted  to  the  fcientific  knowledge  of 
Sofigenes,  a mathematician  of  Alexandria.  The  laws  of 
the  folar  fyftem  were  flill  but  imperfedfly  known  : the 
popular  belief,  that  the  fun  moved  round  the  earth,  was 
univeifally  maintained,  and  continued  until  the  fixteenth 
century,  when  the  contrary  was  proved  by  Copernicus. 
There  exifted  many  celebrated  trails  on  mathematics ; 
and  feveral  of  the  mechanical  powers,  particularly  that  of 
the  lever,  were  cultivated  with  fuccefs.  The  more  ne- 
ceflfary  and  ufeful  rules  of  arithmetic  were  generally 
known.  The  ufe  of  the  load-fl:one  not  being  as  yet  dif- 
covered,  navigation  was  condudfed  in  the  day-time  by 
the  fun,  and  in  the  night,  by  the  obfervation  of  certain 
flars.  Geography  was  cultivated  during  the  prefent  pe-» 
riod  by  Strabo  and  Mela.  In  natural-  philofophy,  little 
progrefs  was  made ; but  a flrong  defire  of  its  improve- 
nient  was  entertained,  particularly  by  Virgil.  Human 
anatomy  bqing  not  yet  introduced,  phyfiology  was  im- 
perfe61.  'Chemiftry,  as  a fcience,  was  utterly  unknown. 
In  medicine,  the  writings  of  Hippocrates,  and  other  Greek 
phyficians,  were  in  general  the  ftandard  of  pradbice  : but 
the  Materia  Medica  contained  few  remedies  of  approved 
quality,  and  abounded  with  ufelefs  fubflances,  as  well  as 
with  many  which  flood  upon  no  other  foundation  than 
the  whimfical  notions  of  thofe  who  firfl  introduced  them. 
Architedlure  flourifhed,  through  the  elegant  tafle  of  Vi- 
truvius, and  the  patronage  of  the  emperor.  Painting, 
Statuary,  and  Mufle,  were  cultivated,  but  not  with  that 
degree  of  perfedlion  which  they  had  obtained  in  the  Gre- 
cian flates.  The  mufical  inflruments  of  this  period  were 


* Geor.  II. 



the  flute  and  the  lyre,  to  which  may  be  added  the  liflriim, 
lately  imported  from  Egypt.  But  the  chief  glory  of  this, 
period  is  its  literature,  of  which  we  proceed  to  give  fome 

At  the  head  of  the  writers  of  this  age,  flands  the  empe- 
ror, himfelf,  with  his  minifter  Mecaenas  ; but  the  works 
of  both  have  almofl;  totally  perifhed.  It  appears  from  the 
hiflorian  now  tranflated,  that  Auguftus  was  the  author 
of  feveral  produdfions  in  profe,  befides  fome  in  verfe. 
He  wrote  Anfwers  to  Brutus  in  relation  to  Cato,  Exhor- 
tations to  Philofophy,  and  the  Hiftory  of  his  own  Life, 
which  he  continued,  in  thirteen  books,  down  to  the  war 
of  Cantabria.  A book  of  his,  written  in  hexameter  verfe, 
under  the  title  of  Sicily,  was  extant  in  the  time  of  Sue- 
tonius, as  was  iikewife  a book  of  Epigrams.  He  began 
a Tragedy  on  the  fubjecl  of  Ajax,  but  being  difTatis- 
fied  with  the  compofition,  deflroyed  it.  Whatever  the. 
merits  of  Auguftus  may  have  been  as  an  author,  of  which 
no  judgment  can  be  formed,  his  attachment  to  learn- 
ing and  eminent  writers  affords  a ftrong  prefumption  that 
he  was  not  deftitute  of  tafte.  Mecsenas  is  faid  to  have 
written  two  tragedies,  Odlavia  and  Prometheus  ; a Hif- 
tory of  Animals  ; a treatife  on  Precious  Stones;  a Journal 
of  the  Life  of  Auguftus  ; and  other  produdfions.  Curi- 
ofity  is  flrongly,  interefted  to  difeover  the  literary  talents 
of  a man  fo  much  dlftlnguiftred  for  the  efteem  and  patron- 
age of  them  in  others  ; but  while  we  regret  the  impoftibility 
of  fuch  a development,  we  fcarcely  can  fuppoie  the  pro- 
ficiency to  have  been  fmall,  where  the  love  and  admira- 
tion were  fo  great. 

Hiftory  was  cultivated  amongft  the  Romans  during  the 




prefent  period,  with  uncommon  fuccefs.  This  fpecies  of 
compofition  is  calculated  both  for  informa^ 
^ entertainment ; but  the  chief  de- 

fign  of  it  is  to  record  all  tranfadions  rela- 
tive to  the  public,  for  the  purpofe  of  enabling  mankind  to 
draw  from  paft  events  a probable  conjedlure  concerning 
the  future  ; and,  by  knowing  the  fteps  which  have  led 
either  to  profperity  or  misfortune,  to  afcertain  the  beft 
means  of  promoting  the  former,  and  avoiding  the  latter  of 
thofe  objedls.  This  ufeful  kind  of  narrative  was  introduced 
about  five  hundred  years  before  by  Herodotus,  who  has 
thence  received  the  appellation  of  the  Father  of  Hiflory. 
His  flyle,  in  conformity  to  the  habits  of  thinking,  and  the 
fimplicity  of  language  in  an  uncultivated  age,  is  plain  and 
unadorned  ; yet,  by  the  happy  modulation'  of  the  Ionic 
dialedf,  it  gratified  the  ear,  and  afforded  to  the  ftates  of 
Greece  a pleafing  mixture  of  entertainment,  enriched  not 
only  with  various  information,  often  indeed  fabulous  or 
inauthentic,  but  the  rudiments,  indiredfly  interfperfed,  of 
political  wifdom.  This  writer,  after  a long  interval,  was 
fuccceded  by  Thucydides  and  Xenophon,  the  former  of 
whom  carried  hiflorical  narrative  to  the  highefl  degree  of 
improvement  it  ever  attained  in  the  Grecian  climates. 
The  plan  of  Thucydides  feems  to  have  continued  to  be  the 
model  of  hiftorical  narrative  to  the  writers  of  Rome:  but 
the  circumftances  of  the  times,  aided  perhaps  by  the 
fplendid  exertion  of  genius  in  other  departments  of  litera- 
ture, fuggefled  a new  refource,  which  promifed  not  only 
to  animate,  but  embellifh  the  future  produ61:ions  of  the 
hiftoric  Mufe.  This  innovation  confifted  in  an  attempt 
to  penetrate  the  human  heart,  and  explore  in  its  inner- 
moft  receffes  the  fentiments  and  fecret  motives  which  ac- 
tuate the  conduit  of  men.  By  conneiting  moral  effeifs 


I /■ 

C^SAR  AUGUSTUS#  « 20^ 

with  their  probable  internal  and  external  caufes,  it  tended 
to  eftablifh  a fyftematic  confillency  in  the  concatenation 
of  tranfa6lions  apparently  anomalous,  accidental,  or  to- 
tally independent  of  each  other.  The  author  of  this  im- 
provement in  Hiftory  was  Salluft,  who  likewife  introdu- 
«ed  the  method  of  enlivening  narrative  compofition,  with 
the  occafional  aid  of  rhetorical  declamation,  particularly 
in  his  account  of  the  Catilinarian  Confpiracy.  The  no- 
torious characters  and  motives  of  the  principal  perfons 
concerned  In  that  horrible  plot,  afforded  the  moil;  favor- 
able opportunity  for  exemplifying  the  former ; while  the 
latter^  there  is  reafon  to  infer  from  the  fa6ls  which  muft 
have  been  at  that  time  publicly  known,  were  founded 
upon  documents  of  unqueflionable  authority.  Nay,  it  is 
probable  that  Salluft  was  prefent  In  the  Senate  during  the 
debate  refpedling  the  piinifhment  of  the  Catilinarian  con- 
fpirators  ; his  detail  of  which  is  agreeable  to  the  charac- 
ters of  the  feveral  fpeakeis  : but  in  detra6ling,  by  invi- 
jdious  filence,  or  too  faint  reprefentation,  from  the  me- 
rits of  Cicero  ^n  that  important  occafion,  he  exhibits  a 
glaring  inftance  of  the  partiality  which  too  often  debafes 
the  narratives  of  thofe  who  record  the  tranfadfions  of 
their  own  time.  He  bad  married  Terentia,  the  divorced 
wife  of  Cicero  ; and  there  fubfifted  between  the  two  huf- 
bands  a kind  of  rivalfhip  from  that  caufe,  to  which  was 
probably  added  fome  degree  of  animofity,  on  account  of' 
their  difference  in  politics,  during  the  late  Di6taterfl)ip  of 
Julius  Casfar,  by  whom  Salluft  was  reftored  to  the  Senate, 
whence  he  had  been  expelled  for  licentioufnefs,  and  was 
appointed  governor  of  Numidia.  Abftrafting  from  the 
injuftice  of  Salluft  in  refpe61:  of  Cicero,  he  is  entitled  to 
high  commendation.  In  both  his  remaining  produdfions, 
of  the  Confpiracy  of  Catiline,  and  the  War  of  Jugurtha, 

8 ‘ there 



there  is  a peculiar  air  of  philofophical  fentiment,  which, 
joined  to  the  elegant  concifenefs  of  ftyle,  and  animated 
defcriptlon  of  characl:ers,  gives  to  his  writings  a degree  of 
intereft,  fuperior  to  what  is  excited  in  any  preceding  work 
of  the  hlftorical  kind.  In  the  occafional  ufe  of  obfolete 
words,  and  In  labored  exordiums  to  both  his  hiftories,  he 
is  liable  to  the  charge  of  afFe(!^ation ; but  it  is  an  afFedla- 
tion  of  language  which  fupports  folemnity  without  excit- 
ing difgufl: ; and  of  fentiment  which  not  only  exalts  hu- 
man nature,  but  animates  to  virtuous  exertions.  It  feems 
to  be  the  defire  of  Salluft  to  atone  for  th'e  diffipatlon  of 
his  youth  by  a total  change  of  condudl ; and  whoever  per- 
ufes  his  exordiums  with  the  attention  which  they  deferve, 
mud:  feel  a ftrong  perfuafion  of  the  juftnefs  of  his  re- 
marks, if  not  the  incentives  of  a refolution  to  be  govern- 
ed by  his  example.  It  feems  to  be  certain,  that  from  the 
firft  moment  of  his  reformation,  he  inceflantly  pradlifed 
the  induftry  which  he  fo  warmly  recommends.  Fie  com- 
pofed  a Hidory  of  Rome,  of  which  nothing  remains  but 
a few  fragments.  Salluft,  during  his  adAiinifttatlon  of 
Numidia,  is  faid  to  have  exercifed  great  oppreffion;  On 
his  return  to  Rome,  he  built  a magnificent  houfe,  and 
bought  delightful  gardens,  the  name  of  which,  with  his 
own,  is  to  this  day  perpetuated  to  the  ground  which  they 
formerly  occupied.  Sallufi:  was  born  at  Amiternum,  in 
the  country  of  the  Sabines,  and  received  his  education 
at  Rome.  He  incurred  great  fcandal  by»^  an  amour  with 
Faufta,  the  daughter  of  Sylla,  and  wife  of  Milo  ; who 
detefting  the  criminal  intercourfe,  is  faid  to  have  beat 
him  with  flripes,  and  extorted  from  him  a large  fum  of 
money.  He  died,  according  to  tradition,  in  the  fifty-firfl 
year  of  his  age. 



Cornelius  Nepos  was  born  at  Hoflilia,  near  the  banks 
of  the  Po.  Of  his  parentage  we  meet  with 
no  account ; but  from  his  refpedable  con- 
ne6lions  early  in  life,  it  is  probable  that  he 
was  of  good  extradion.  Among  his  moft  intimate  friends 
were  Cicero  and  Atticus.  Some  authors  relate,  that  he 
compofed  three  books  of  Chronicles,  with  a biographical 
account  of  all  the  moft  celebrated  fovereigns,  generals, 
and  writers  of  antiquity. 

The  language  of  Cornelius  Nepos  is  pure,  his  ftylc 
perfpicuous,  and  he  holds  a middle  and  agreeable  courfe 
between  diffufenefs  and  brevity.  He  has  not  obferved 
the  fame  rule  with  refpe£l;  to  the  treatment  of  every  fub- 
je61: ; for  the  account  of  fome  of  the  lives  is  fo  ftiort,  that 
we  might  fufpedb  them  to  be  mutilated,  did  they  not  con- 
tain evident  marks  of  their  being  completed  in  miniature. 
The  great  extent  of  his  plan  induced  him,  as  he  informs 
us,  to  adopt  this  expedient : Sed  plura  perfequi,  turn  mag- 
nitudo voluminis  prohibet  ^tum  fejlinatio^  ut  ea  explicem^  quee 
ex  or  Jus  fum^ 

Of  his  numerous  biographical  works,  twenty-two  live^ 
only  remain,  which  are  all  of  Greeks,  except  two  Car- 
thaginians, Hamilcar  and  Hannibal ; and  two  Romans, 
M.  Porcius  Cato  and  T.  Pomponius  Atticus.*  Of  his 
own  life,  who  had  written  the  lives  of  fo  many,  no  ac- 
count is  tranfmitted  ; but  from  the  multiplicity  of  his  pro- 
ductions, we  may  conclude  that  it  was  devoted  to  litera- 

Titus  Livius  may  be  ranked  among  the  moft  celebrated 
hiftorians  that  the  w'orld  has  ever  pro-  . 

duced.  He  compofed  a hiftory  of  Rome 
from  the  foundation  of  the  city,  the  conclufion  of  the 




German  war  conducted  by  Drufus,  In  the  time  of  the 
emperor  Auguflus.  This  great  work  confitled  origi- 
nally of  one  hundred  and  forty  books  ; of  which  there 
now  remain  only  thirty-hve,  viz.  the  firft  Decade,  and 
the  whole  from  book  twxnty-one  to  book  forty-five, 
both  inclufive.  Of  the  other  hundred' and  five  books,- 
nothing  more  has  furvived  the  ravages  of  time  and  bar- 
barians than  their  general  contents.  In  a perfpicuous 
arrangement  of  his  fubjedi,  in  a full  and  circumftantial 
account  of  tranfadlions,  in  the  expreffion  of  charadters 
and  other  objedls  of  defeription,  in  juftnefs  and  aptitude 
of  fentiment,  and  in  an  air  of  majefly  pervading  the  whole 
compofition,  this  author  may  be  regarded  as  one  of  the 
beft  models  extant  of  hiftorical  narrative.  His  ftyle  is 
fplendid  without  meretricious  ornament,  and  copious 
without  being  redundant ; a fluency  to  which  Quintili- 
an gives  the  expreffive  appellation  of  ladlea  ubertas, 
Amongfl  the  beauties  which  we  admire  in  his  writings, 
befides  the  animated  fpeeches  frequently  interfperfed,  are 
thofe  concife  and  peculiarly  applicable  eulogiums,  wdtii 
which  he  charadlerifes  every  eminent  perfon  mentioned, 
at  the  clofe  of  their  life.  Of  his  indullry  in  collating, 
and  his  judgment  in  deciding  upon  the  preference  due  ta 
diffentient  authorities,  in  matters  of  teftimony,  the  work 
affords  numberlefs  proofs.  Of  the  freedom  and  impar- 
tiality, with  which  lie  treated  even  of  the  recent  periods 
* of  hiftory,  there  cannot  he  more  convincing  evidence, 
than  that  he  was  rallied  by  Auguflus  as  a favorer  of 
Pompey  ; and  that,  under  the  fame  emperor,  he  not  only 
bcflowed  upon  Cicero  the  tribute  of  w^arm  approbation, 
but  dared  to  aferibe,  in  an  age  when  their  names  were 
obnoxious,  even  to  Brutus  and  Caflius  the  virtues  of  con- 
fiflency  and  patriotifm.  If  in  any  thing  the  coiiduft  of 
Livy  violates  our  fentiments  of  hiftorical  dignity,  it  is  the 
a]>paient  complacency  and  reverence,  w’ith  which  he 



every  where  mentions  the  popular  belief  in  omens  and 
prodigies : but  this  was  the  general  fuperilition  of  the 
times;  and  totally  to  renounce  the  prejudices  of  fuperili- 
tious  education,  is  the  lad  heroic  facritice  to  philofophicai 
fcepticifm.  In  general,  however,  the  credulity  of  Livy 
appears  to  be  rather  afFedled  than  real ; and  his  account 
of  the  exit  of  Romulus,  in  the  following  paffage,  may  be 
adduced  as  an  inftance  in  confirmation  of  this  remark. 

His  immortalihus  editis  operibus,  quum  ad  exercitum  re*- 
cenfendum  concionem  in  campo  ad  Capree  paludem  haberet^ 
fubita  coorta  tempejiate  cum  magno  fragore  tonitrihufque 
tam  denfo  regem  operuit  nimbo,  ut  confpe^lum  ejus  concioni 
abfulerit  : nec  deinde  in  terris  Romulus  fuit,  Romana  pu- 
bes, fedato  tandem  pavore,  pofquam  ex  tam  turbido  die 
ferena  ^ tranquilla  lux  rediit,  ubi  vacuam  fedem  regiam 
vidit ; etji  fatis  credebat  Patribus,  qui  proximi  feterant, 
fublimem  raptum  procella  ; tamen  veluti  orbitatis  metu  ida, 
mcefum  aliquamdiu  flentium  obtinuit.  Deinde  a paucis 
initio  fatto,  Deum  Deo  natum,  regem  parentemque  urbis 
Romana  falvere  univerf  Romulum  jubent ; pacem  precibus 
expofeunt,  uti  volens^ propitius  fuam  femper  fofpitet  proge- 
niem. Fuifje  credo  tum  quoque  aliquos,  qui  difeerptum 
regem  Patrum  manibus  taciti  arguerent : manavit  enim  hac 
quoque,  iff  pero  bf cur  a,  fama.  Illam  alteram  admiratio  viri, 
iff  pavor  pr  a fens  nobilitavit.  Conf lio  etiam  unius  hominis 
addita  rei  dicitur  fides  : namque  Proculus  fuUus  foUicita 
civitate  defiderio  regis,  iff  infenfa  Patribus,  gravis,  ut 
traditur,  quamvis  magna  rei  aubior,  in  concionem  prodit. 
“ Romulus,  inquit,  Quirites,  parens  urbis  hujus,  prima  ho- 
dierna luce  calo  repente  delapfus,  fe  mihi  obvium  dedit : 
quum  profujus  horrore  venerabundufque  afiitijfem,  petens 
precibus,  ut  contra  intueri  fas  ejjet ; Abi,  nuncia,  inquit,  Ro- 
manis,' Calefies  ita  velle,  ut  mea  Roma  caput  orbis  terra- 




Yum  Jit : proinde  rem  militarem  colant : fetant  q^ue^  it  A 
pojleris  tradant^  nullas  opes  humanas  armis  Romanis  refijiere 
pojfe.  Hac,  inquit,  locutus,  fub limis  abiit.  Mirum,  quan- 
tum illi  viro  nuncianti  hac  fidet  fuerit ; quamque  defiderium 
Romuli  apud  plebem  exercitumque,  fada  fide  immortalitatis^ 
lenitum  ft.. 

Scarcely  any  incident  in  ancient  hiHory  favors  more  of 
the  marvellous  than  the  account  above  delivered  refpedl- 
ing  the  firfh  Roman  king : and  amidil  all  the  folemnity 
with  which  it  is  related,  w^e  may  perceive  that  the  hillo- 
rian  was  not  the  dupe  of  credulity.  There  is  more  im- 
plied, than  the  author  thought  proper  to  avow,  in  the 
fentence,  Fuijfe  credo,  &c.  In  whatever  light  this  anecdote 
be  viewed,  it  is  involved  in  perplexity.  That  Romulus 
alFecIed  a defpotic  power,  is  not  only  highly  probable, 
from  his  afpiring  difpofition,  but  feems  to  be  confirmed 
by  his  recent  appointment  of  the  Celeres,  as  a guard  to 
his  perfon.  He  might  therefore  naturally  incur  the  odium 
of  the  Patricians,  whofe  importance  was  diminifhed,  and 
their  inftitution  rendered  abortive,  by  the  encreafe  of  his 
power.  But  that  they  fliould  choofe  the  opportunity  of 
a military  review,  for  the  purpofe  of  removing  the  tyrant 
by  a violent  death,  feems  not  very  confifient  with  the 
didlates  even  of  common  prudence ; and  it  is  the  more 
incredible,  as  the  circumftance  which  favored  the  execu-. 
tion  of  the  plot,  is  reprefented  to  have  been  entirely  a 
fortuitous  occurrence.  The  tempefi:  which  is  fa  id  to  have 
happened,  is  not  eafily  reconcilable  with  our  knowledge 
of  that  phenomenon.'  Such  a cloud,  or  mift,  as  could 
have  enveloped  Romulus  from  the  eyes  of  the  affembly^ 
is  not  a natural  concomitant  of  a thunder-dorm.  There 
is  fome  reafon  to  fufpedl,  that  botli  tlie  noife  and  cloud,, 
if  they  adlually  exifted,  were  artificial  j the  former  intended 




to  divert  the  attention  of  the  fpedtators,  and  the  latter  to 
conceal  the  tranfadlion.  The  word  fragor^  a noife  or 
crafh,  appears  to  be  an  unneceflafy  addition  where  thun-* 
der  is  exprefTed,  though  fometimes  fo  iifed  by  the  poets  ; 
and  may  therefore,  perhaps,  imply  fuch  a noife  from  fome 
other  caufe.  If  Romulus  was  killed  by  any  pointed  or  fliarp- 
edged  weapon,  his  blood  might  have  been  difcovered  on  the 
fpot ; or  if  by  other  means,  ftill  the  body  was  equally  an 
objedt  of  public  afcertainment.  If  the  people  fufpedled 
the  Patricians  to  be  guilty  of  murder,  why  did  they  not 
endeavor  to  trace  the  fadh  by  this  evidence  ? and  if  the  Pa- 
tricians were  really  innocent,  why  did  they  not  urge  the 
examination  ? But  the  body,  without  doubt,  was  fecreted 
to  favor  the  impoflure.  The  whole  narrative  is  ftrongly 
marked  with  circum  fiances  calculated  to  afFedf  credu- 
lity with  ideas  of  national  importance  j and  to  counte- 
nance the  defign,  there  is  evidently  a chafm  in  the  Roman 
hillory  immediately  preceding  this  tranfa6lion,  and  inti- 
mately connedded  with  it. 

Livy  was  born  at  Patavium,  and  has  been  charged  by 
Afinius  Pollio  and  others  with  the  provincial  dialedi:  of 
his  country.  The  objedlions  to  his  Patavinity,  as  it  is 
called,  relate  chiefly  to  the  fpelling  of  fome  words  ; in 
which,  however,  feems  to  be  nothing  fo  peculiar, 
as  either  to  occaflon  any  obfcurity  or  merit  reprehenfion. 

Livy  and  Sailufl:  being  the  only  two  exifling  rivals  in 
Pvoman  hillory,  it  may  not  be  improper  to  draw  a Iliort 
comparifon  between  them,  in  refpecl:  of  their  principal 
qualities,  as  writers.  With  regard  to  language,  there  is 
lefs  apparent  afFedlation  in  Livy  than  in  Salluft.  The 
narrative  of  both  is  diflingulfhed  by  an  elevation  of  ftyle  ; 
the  elevation  of  Sailufl  feems  to  be  often  fuppcrted  by  the 

P dignity 


THE  - LIFE  6^ 

dignity  of  affumed  virtue  j that  of  Livy  by  a majeliic  air 
of  hiftorical,  and  fometimes  of  national  importance.  In 
the  drawing  of  charadlers,  Salluft  infufes  more  expreflion, 
and  Livy  more  fulnefs  into  the  features.  In  the  fpeeches 
afcribed  to  particular  perfons,  thefe  writers  are  equally 
elegant  and  animated. 

So  great  was  the  fame  of  Livy  in  his  own  life-time, 
that  people  came  from  the  extremity  of  Spain  and  Gaul, 
for  the  purpofe  only  of  beholding  fo  celebrated  a hiflorian, 
who  was  regarded,  for  his  abilities,  as  a prodigy.  This 
affords  a ftrong  proof,  not  only  of  the  literary  tafle  which 
then  prevailed  over  the  moft  extenfive  of 'the  Roman  pro- 
vinces, but  of  the  extraordinary  pains  with  which  fo  great  a 
work  mufl:  have  been  propagated,  when  the  art  of  printing 
was  unknown.  In  the  fifteenth  century,  upon  the  revival  of 
learning  in  Europe,  the  name  of  this  great  writer  recovered 
its  ancient  veneration ; and  Alphonfus  of  Arragon,  with 
a fuperftition  charadleriftic  of  that  age,  requelled  of  tho 
people  of  Padua,  where  Livy  was  born,  and  is  faid  to 
have  been  buried,  to  be  favored  by  them  with  the  hand 
which  had  written  fo  admirable  a work. 

The  celebrity  of  Virgil  has  proved  the  means  of  af- 
certaining  his  birth  with  more  exa6lnefs  than  is  common 
in  the  biographical  memoirs  of  ancient 
^ writers.  He  was  born  at  Andes,  a village 

ill  the  neighbourhood  of  Mantua,  on  the 
15th  of  Odfober,  feventy  years  before  the  Chriftian  aera. 
His  parents  were  of  moderate  condition  ; but  by  their  in- 
duftry  they  acquired  fome  territorial  pofTeffions,  which 
devolved  to  their  fon.  The  firft  feven  years  of  his  life 
were  fpent  at  Cremona,  whence  he  went  to  Mediolanum, 
now  Milan,  at  that  time  the  feat  of  the  liberal  arts,  and 




ilenomlnated,  as  we  learn  from  Pliny  the  younger,^  Novse 
AthenaeJ  From  this  place^  he  afterwards  moved-  to  Na-^ 
pies,  where  he  applied  himfelf  with  great  alTiduity  to  Greek 
and  Roman  literature,  particularly  to  the  phyfical  and 
mathematical  fciences ; for  which  he  expreffes  a ftrong 
predile6lion  in  the  fecond  book  of  his  Georgies^ 

vero  pi'imum  dulcis  ante  omnia  Mufa^y 
^larum  facra  few  ingenti  percutfus  amore. 

Accipiant ; ccelique  vias  et  Jider a monjirent ; ' " ’ 

DefeSius  Solis  varios.  Lunaque  labores : 

Unde  tremor  terris  : qua  vi  maria  alta  tumefcatit 
Obicibus  ruptis,  rurjufque  in  feipfa  rejidant : 

^id  tantum  Oceano  properent  fe  tingere  foies 
Hiberni : vel  qua  tardis  mora  noLiibus  obfteti 

When  by  a profeription  of  the  Triumvirate,  the  lands 
of  Cremona  and  Mantua  were  diflributed  amongft  the 
veteraii  foldlers,  Virgil  had  the  good  fortune’  to  recover 
his  poiteffions,  through  the  favor  of  Afinius  Pollio,  the 
deputy  of  Auguftus  in  thofe  parts  ; to  whom,  as  well  as 
to  the  emperor,  he  has  teftified  his  gratitude  in  beautiful 

The  firft  produ6lion  of  Virgil  was  his  Bucolics,  con- 
lifting  of  ten  eclogues,  written  in  imitation  of  the  Idyllia 
or  paftoral  poems  of  Theocritus.  It  may  be  qiieftioned, 
whether  any  language  which  has  its  provincial  dialects, 
but  is  brought  to  perfedtiouj  can  ever  be  well  adapted,  in 
that  ftate,  to  the  ufe  .of  paftoral  poetry.  There  is  fuch 
an  apparent  incongruity  between  the  fimple  ideas  of  the 
rural  fwain  and  the  p'oliftied  language  of  the  courtier, 
that  it  feems  impoffible  to  reconcile  them  together  by  the 
utmoft  art  of  eomp'ofition.  The  Doric  dialed!  of  Theo- 
critus, therefore,  abftradledly  from  all  conftderation  of 
fimplicrty  of  fentiment,  muft  ever  give  to  the  Sicilian 
P bard 



bard  a pre-eminence  in  this  fpccies  of  poetry.  The 
greater  part  of  the  Bucolics  of  Virgil  may  be  regarded  as 
poems  of  a peculiar  nature,  into  ^vhich  the  author  has 
happily  transfufed,  in  elegant  verfihcation,  the  native 
manners  and  ideas,  without  any  mixture  of  the  rufticity 
of  paftoral  life.  With  refpe6t  to  tlie  fourth  eclogue,  ad- 
drefled  to  Pollio,  it  is  avowedly  of  a nature  fuperior  to 
that  of  palloral  fubje6ls : 

Sicelides  Mufo'^  paullo  majoYa  canamus. 

Virgil  engaged  in  bucolic  poetry  at  the  requefl:  of 
Afinius  Pollio,  whom  he  highly  efteemed,  and  for  one  of 
whofe  fons  in  particular,  with  Cornelius  Gallus,  a poet 
likewife,  he  entertained  the  warmed;  affeclion.  He  has 
celebrated  them  all  In  thefe  poems,  which  w’ere  begun, 
we  are  told,  in  the  twenty-ninth  year  of  his  age,  and  com- 
pleted in  three  years.  They  were  held  in  fo  great  efteem 
amongfl  the  Romans,  immediately  after  their  publica- 
tion, that  it  is  faid  they  were  frequently  recited  upon  the 
flage,  for  the  entertainment  of  the  audience.  Cicero, 
'upon  hearing  fome  lines  of  them,  perceived  that  they 
were  written  in  no  common  ftrain  of  poetry,  and  defired 
that  the’  whole  eclogue  might  be  recited  : which  being 
done,  he  exclaimed,  “ Magna  fpes  altera  Romad'*  An- 
other hope  of  great  Rome  * 1 



* Commentators  feem  to  have  given  an  erroneous  and  un- 
becoming fenfe  to  Cicero’s  exclamation,  when  they  fuppofe 
that  the  objeef  iinderftood,  as  conne(d:ed  with  altera.^  related 
to  himfelf.  Hope  is  never  applied  in  this  fighification,  but 
to  a young  perfon,  of  whom  fomething  good  or  great  is  ex-  . 
pefled  ; and  accordingly  \^irgil,  who  adopted  the  expreffiori, 
lias  very  properly  applied  it  to  Afeanius : 

' E'  juxta  Apaniui^  magTKE fjes  altera  Roms.  jEneid.  ^1T. 

Cicero, ' 



Virgil’s  next  v/ork  was  the  Georgies,  the  idea  of  which 
is  taken  from  the  the  Works  and  Daysj 

of  Hefiod,  the  poet  of  Afcra.  But  between  the  produc- 
tions of  the  two  poets,  there  is  no  other  fimilarity  than 
that  of  their  common  fubjedl.  The  precepts  of  Hchod, 
in  refpedl  of  agriculture,  are  delivered  with  all  the  fiin- 
plicity  of  an  unlettered  cultivator  of  the  fields,  intermixed 
with  plain  moral  reflexions,  natural  and  appofite ; while 
thofe  of  Virgil,  equally  precife  and  important,  are  embel- 
liflied  with  ail  the  dignity  of  fublime  verfification.  The 
wmrk  is  addreiTed  .to  Mecjenas,  at  whofe  requefi:  it  appears 
to  have  been  undertaken.  It  is  divided  into  four  books. 
The  firfi;  treats  of  ploughing  ; the  fecond,  of  planting  ; 
the  third,  of  cattle,  horfes,  fheep,  goats,  dogs,  and  of 
things  that  are  hurtful  to  cattle  ; the  fourth  is  employed 
on  bees,  their  proper  habitations,  food,  polity,  the  difeafes 
to  which  they  are  liable,  and  the  remedies  of  them,  with 
the  method  of  making  honey,  and  a variety  of  other  con- 
lideratlons  conneTed  wdth  the  fubjedd.  The  Georgies 
were  wnltten  at  Naples,  and  employed  the  author  during 
a period  of  feven  years.  It  is  fa  id  that  Virgil  had  con- 
cluded the  Georgies  with  a labored  eulogium  on  Ihs 
poetical  friend  Gallus  ; but  the  latter  incurring  about 
this  time  the  difpleafure  of  Augufius,  he  was  induced  to 

Cicero,  at  the  time  when  he  could  have  heard  a fpecirnen  of 
Virgil’s  Eclogues,  mufi;  have  been  neat  his  grand  clima6t;eric  ; 
befides  that  his  virtues  and  talents  had  long  been  confpi- 
cuous,  and  were  pafl;  the  fiate  of  hope.  It  is  probable, 
therefore,  that  altera  referred  to  fome  third  perfon,  fpoken 
of  immediately  before,  as  one  who  promifed  to  do  honor  to 
his  country.  It  might  refer  to  Odlaviiis,  of  whom  Cicero, 
at  this  time,  entertained  a high  opinion;  or  it  may  have 
been  fpoken  in  an  abfoiute  manner,  without  a reference  to 
any  perfon. 





.cancel  it,  and  fubftitute  the  beautiful  epifode  of  Ariftsus 
and  Eurydice. 

Thefe  beautiful  poems,  confidered  merely  as  dida6licj 
have  the  jufleft  claim  to  utility.  In  what  relates  to  agri- 
culture in  particula]-,  the  precepts  were  judicioufly  adapt- 
ed to  the  climate  of  Italy,  and  muft  have  conveyed  much 
valuable  information  to  thofe  who  were  defircus  of  culti- 
vating that  important  art,  which  was  held  in  great  honor 
amongft  the  Romans.  The  fame  remark  may  be  made, 
with  greater  latitude  of  application,  in  refpedl  of  the  other 
fubjedls.  But  when  we  examine  the  Georgies  as  poetical 
compofitions,  when  we  attend  to  the  elevated  fiyle  in 
which  they  arp  written,  the  beauty  of  the  fimiles,  the  em- 
phatic fentiments  interfperfed,  the  elegance  of  didlion,  the 
animated  drain  pf  the  w'hole,  and  the  harmony  of  the 
yerfification  ; our  admiration  is  excited,  to  behold  fubjedls 
fo  common  in  their  nature,  embellilhed  with  the  mod  mag- 
nificent decorations  of  poetry. 

During  Four  days  which  Augudus  pafled  at  Atella,  to 
refrefh  himfelf  from  fatigue  in  his  return  to  Rome,  after 
the  battle  of  Adlium,  the  Georgies,  jud  then  finifhed,  were 
read  to  him  by  the  author,  who  was  occafionally  relieved 
in  the  talk  by  his  friend  Mecsenas.  We  may  eafily  con- 
ceive the  fatisfaclion  enjoyed  by  the  emperor,  to  find  that 
while  he  himfelf  had  been  gathering  laurels  in  the  at- 
chievements  of  w'ar,  another  glorious  wreath  was  pre- 
pared by  the  Adufes  to  adorn  his  temples  ; and  that  an  in- 
timation was  given  of  his  being  afterwards  celebrated  in 
a work  more  congenial  to  the  fubjedl  of  heroic  renowm. 

It  is  generally  fuppofed  that  the  ^neid  was  written  at 
the  particular  defire  of  Augudus,  who  was  aqibitious  of 



having  the  Julian  family  reprefentecl  as  lineal  defcendants 
of  the  Trojan  yEneas.  In  this  celebrated  poem,  Virgil 
has  happily  united  the  charadleriftics  of  the  Iliad  and 
OdylTey,  and  blended  them  fo  judicioiifly  together,  that 
they  mutually  contribute  to  the  general  effedl  of  the  whole. 
By  the  efteem  and  fympathy  excited  for  the  filial  piety 
and  misfortunes  of  ^neas  at  the  catafirophe  of  Troy, 
the  reader  is  ftrongly  interefted  in  his  fubfequent  adven- 
tures ; and  every  obfiacle  to  the  eftablifiiment  of  the  Tro- 
jans in  the  promifed  land  of  Hefperia,  produces  frefii  fen- 
fations  of  encreafed  admiration  and  attachment.  The 
epifodes,  charadlers,  and  incidents,  all  concur  to  give 
beauty  or  grandeur  to  the  poem.  The  picture  of  Troy 
in  flames  can  never  be  fufiiciently  admired.  The  incom- 
parable portrait  of  Priam,  in  Homer,  is  admirably  accom- 
modated to  a different  fituation,  with  the  addition  of  An- 
chifes,  in  the  AEneid.  The  prophetic  rage  of  the  Cumas- 
an  Sibyl  difplays  in  the  ftrongefl:  colors  the  enthufiafin 
of  the  poet.  For  fentiment,  paflTion,  and  interefllng  de- 
fcripilon,  the  epifode  of  Dido  is  a mafler-piece  in  poetry. 
But  Virgil  is  not  more  confpicuous  for  flrength  of  de- 
scription than  propriety  of  fentiment ; and  wherever  he 
takes  a hint  from  the  Grecian  bard,  he  profecutes  the 
idea  with  a judgment  peculiar  to  himfelf.  It  may  be 
fufficient  to  mention  one  inflancc.  In  the  fixth  book  of 
the  Iliad?  while  the  Greeks  are  making  great  flaughter 
amongfl;  the  Trojans,  Hedlor,  by  the  advice  of  Helenus, 
retires  into  the  city,  to  defire  that  his  mother  would  offer 
up  prayers  to  the  Goddefs  Pallas,  and  yow  to  her  a noble 
facrifice,  if  Ihe  would  drive  Diomed  from  the  wails  of 
Troy.  Immediately  before  his  return  to  the  field  ot  battle, 
he  has  his  lafl  interview  with  Andromache,  wnom  lie 
meets  with  his  infant  fon  Aftyanax,  who  is  earned  by  i 
purfe.  There  occurs,  upon  this  occafion,  one  of  hie 

P 4 mef: 




nioft  beautiful  fcenes  in  the  Iliad,  where  He£lor  dandles 
the  boy  in  his  arms,  and  pours  forth  a prayer,  that  he 
may  one  day  be  fuperior  in  fame  to  his  father.  In  the 
fame  manner  ^neas,  having  armed  himfelf  for  the  decnV 
five  combat  with  Turnus,  addrelTes  his  fon  Afeanius  in 
a beautiful  fpeech,  which,  while  expreflive  of  the  flrong- 
eft  paternal  alFedlion,  contains,  inftead  of  a prayer,  a 
noble  and  emphatic  admonition,  fuitable  to  a youth  who 
had  nearly  attained  the  period  of  adult  age.  It  is  as 
follows  : 

Difce,  puen  •virtutem  ex  me:,  verumque  laborem  j 
fortunam  ex  aliis  : nunc  te  mea  dextera  bello 
Defenfum  dabit,  rnagna  inter  preemia  ducet. 

*Tu  facito,  mox  cum  matura  adoleverit  aias. 

Sis  memor : zd  te  animo  repetentem  exempla  tuorum, 
fit  pater  JEneas^  csf  avunculus  excitet  Heblor. 

AIneid.  XII. 

Virgil,  though  born  to  ftiine  by  his  own  intrinfic  powers, 
certainly  owed  much  of  his  excellence  to  the  wonderful 
merits  of  Homer.  His  fufceptible  imagination,  vivid  and 
corredb,  was  impregnated  by  the  Odyfler",  and  warmed 
with  the  fre  of  the  Iliad.  Rivalling,  or  rather  on  fome 
pccaftons  furpafling  his  glorious  predeceftbr  in  the  cha- 
radlers  of  Heroes  and  of  Gods,  he  fuftains  their  dignity 
with  fo  uniform  a luftfe,  that  they  feem  indeed  more 
than  mortal. 

Whether  the  Iliad  or  the  Aineid  be  the  more  perfe6l 
compofition,  is  a queftion  which  has  often  been  agitated, 
but  perhaps  will  never  be  determined  to  general  fatisfac- 
tion.  In  comparing  the  genius  of  the  two  poets,  however, 
allowance  ought  to  be  made  for  the  difference  of  circum- 
Aances  in  which  they  compofed  their  refpe6cive  works. 




Homer  wrote  in  an  age  when  mankind  had  not  as  yet 
made  any  great  progrefs  in  the  exertions  either  of  intellei^r 
or  imagination,  and  he  was  therefore  indebted  for  his  rc- 
fources  to  the  vafl  capacity  of  his  own  mind.  To  this 
we  niuO;  add,  that  he  executed  both  his  poems  in  a fitua- 
tion  of  life  extremely  unfavorable  to  the  cultivation  of  po- 
etry, Virgil,  on  the  contrary,  lived  in  a period  when  litera- 
ture had  attained  to  a higli  hate  of  improvement.  He  had 
likewife  not  only  the  advantage  of  finding  a model  in  the 
works  of  Homer,  but  of  pcrufing  the  laws  of  epic  poetry, 
which  had  been  digefied  by  Ariftotle,  and  the  various  ob- 
fervations  made  on  the  writings  of  the  Greek  bard  by 
critics  of  acutenefs  and  tafie  ; amongft  the  chief  of  whom 
Vk-’as  his  friend  Horace,  who  remarks  that 

qzuindcque  boms  dormitat  Homerus. 

De  Arte  Poet. 

Virgil,  befides,  compofed  his  poem  in  a frate  remote  fronl 
indigence  ; where  he  was  roufed  to  exertion  by  the  exam- 
ple of  fevei'al  contemporary  poets  ; and,  what  muR:  have 
animated  him  beyond  every  other  confideration,  he  wrote 
both  at  the  defire,  and  under  the  patronage,  of  the  empe- 
ror and  his  minifter  Mecaenas.  In  what  time  Homer 
compofed  either  of  his  poems,  we  know  not ; but  the 
.ZEneid,  we  are  informed,  was  the  employnnent  of  Virgil 
during  eleven  years.  For  fome^years,  the  repeated  en- 
treaties of  Auguftus  could  not  extort  from  him  the  fmallefl: 
fpecimen  of  the  work  ; but  at  length,  when  conhderably 
advanced  in  it,  he  condefeended  to  recite  three  books,  the 
feccnd,the  fourth,  and  the  fixth,  in  the  prefencs  of  the  em- 
peror and  his  fifterOdlavia;  to  gratify  the  latter  of  whom  in 
particular,  the  recital  of  the  lad:  book  now  mentioned  was 
intended.  When  the  poet  came  to  thiefe  woj  ds,  Tu  Mar- 




cellus  erls,  alluding  to  Odavia’s  fon,  a youth  of  great 
hopes,  who  had  lately  died,  the  mother  fainted.  After 
ihe  had  recovered  from  this  fit  by  the  afiiduity  of  the  at- 
tendants, /he  ordered  ten  feftertia  to  be  given  to  Virgil 
for  every  line  relating  to  that  fubjecl;  a gratuity  which 
amounted  to  about  two  thoufand  pounds  fterling. 

In  the  compofition  of  the  ^neid,  Virgil  fcrupled  not 
to  introduce  whole  lines  of  Homer,  and  of  the  Latin 
poet  Ennius,  many  of  whofe  fentences  he  admired.  In  a 
lew  inftances  he  has  borrowed  from  Lucretius.  He  is 
faid  to  have  been  at  extraordinary  pains  in  polifliing  his 
numbers  ; and  when  he  was  doubtful  of  any  paflage,  he 
would  read  it  to  fome  of  his  friends  that  he  might  have 
their  opinion.  On  fuch  occafions,  it  was  ufual  with  him 
to  confult  in  particular  his  freedman  and  librarian  Erotes, 
an  old  domefiic,  who,  it  is  related,  fupplied  extempore  a 
deficiency  in  two  lines,  and  was  defired  by  his  mafter  to 
write  them  in  the  manufcTrpt, 

When  this  im.mortal  work  was  completed,  Virgil  refolv- 
ed  on  retiring  into  Greece  and  Afia  for  three  years,  that 
he  might  devote  himfelf  entirely  to  the  polifhing  of  it,  and 
have  leifure  afterwards  to  pafs  the  remainder  of  his  life  in 
the  cultivation  of  philofophy.  But  meeting  at  Athens 
with  Augufius,  who  was  on  his  return  from  the  Eaft,  he 
determined  on  accompanying  the  emperor  back  to  Rome. 
Upon  a vifit  to  Megara,  a town  in  the  neighbourhood  of 
Athens,  he  was  feized  with  a languor,  which  encreafed 
during  the  enfuing  voyage  ; and  in  a few  days  after  land- 
ing at  Brundifium  he  expired,  on  the  2 2d  of  September, 
in  the  fifty-fecond  year  of  his  age.  He  defired  that  his 
body  might  be  carried  to  Naples,  where  he  had  pafied 
many  happy  years ; and  that  the  following  diftich,  wrrt-^ 


ten  in  his  laft  ficknefs,  ihould  be  infcribcd  ppoti 
toipb ; 

Mantua  me  gemiit : Calabri  rapuere  ? tenet  nunc 
Parthenope : cecini  pafcua,  rura,  duces. 

He  was  accordingly  interred,  by  the  order  of  Augufliis, 
with  great  funeral  pomp,  within  two  miles  of  Naples, 
near  the  road  to  Puteoli,  where  his  tomb  ftill  exifts.  Of 
his  eftate,  which  was  very  confiderable  by  the  liberality 
pf  his  friends,  he  left  the  greater  part  to  Valerius  Pro- 
culus and  his  brother,  a fourth  to  Auguidus,  a twelfth  to 
Mecaenas,  befides  legacies  to  L.  Varius,  and  Plotius  Tucca, 
who,  in  confequence  of  his  own  requeft,  and  the  com- 
tnand  of  Auguftus,  revifed  and  corrected  the  j$^neid  after 
his  death,  Their  infl;ru6lions  from  the  emperor  were,  to 
expunge  whatever  they  thought  irqproper,  but  upon  no 
account  to  make  any  addition.  This  reftridlion  is  fup- 
pofed  to  be  the  caufe  that  fo  many  lines  in  the  ^neid 
are  imperfc(5ly 

^ r 

Virgil  was  of  large  ftature,  had  a dark  complexion, 
^nd  his  features  are  faid  to  have  been  fuch  as  exprefled 
no  uncommon  abilities.  He  was  fubje6l  to  complaints 
of  the  ftomach  and  throat,  as  well  as  a head-ach,  and  had 
frequent  difeharges  of  blood  upwards ; but  from  what 
part,  we  are  not  informed.  He  was  very  temperate  both 
in  food  and  wine.  His  modefty  was  fo  great,  that  at 
Naples  they  commonly  gave  him  the  name  of  Parthenias, 
the  modefl  man.--  In  refpedt  of  his  modefty,  the  fol- 
lowing anecdote  is  related. 

Having  written  a diflich,  in  which  he  compared  Au- 
gullus  to  Jupiter,  he  placed  it  in  the  night-time  over  the 
gate  of  the  emperor’s  palace.  It  was  in  thefe  words : 




}^o£ie  pluit  tvtd,  redeimt  JpeSlacula  Tnane  : 

Di'vifum  imperium  cum  Jo-ve  Civfar  habet. 

By  the  order  of  Auguftus,  an  enquiry  was  made  after 
the  author  ; and  Virgil  not  declaring  himfelf,  the  verfes 
were  claimed  by  Bathyllus,  a contemptible  poet,  but 
who  was  liberally  rewarded  on  this  occahon.  Virgil, 
provoked  at  the  falfehood  of  the  impoftor,  again  wrote 
the  verfes  on  fome  confpicuous  part  of  the  palace,  and 
under  them  the  following  line : 

Hos  ego  ^erjiculos  feci,  tulit  alter  honores  ; 
with  the  beginning  of  another  line  in  thefe  w'ords : 

Sic  n:os  non  njobis, 

’ repeated  four  times.  Augultus  expreffing  a defire  that 
the  lines  fliould  be  fini/hed,  and  Bathyllus  proving  un- 
equal to  the  talk,  Virgil  at  lafl  filled  up  the  blanks  in 
tins  manner : 

Sic  VOS  non  vobis  nidificatis.^  aves. 

Sic  vos  non  vobis  vellera  fertisy  oves. 

Sic  vos  non  vobis  mellificatis^  apes. 

Sic  vos  non  vobis  fertis  aratra,  boves. 

The  expedient  immediately  evinced  him  to  be  the  author 
of  the  diflich,  and  Bathyllus  became  the  theme  of  public 

When  at  any  time  Virgil  came  to  Rome,  if  the  peo- 
ple, as  was  commonly  the  cafe,  crowded  to  gaze  upon 
him,  or  pointed  at  him  with  the  finger,  in  admiration, 
he  bluflied,  and  flole  away  from  them  ; frequently  tak- 
ing refuge  in  fome  fliop.  When  he  w^nt  to  the  theatre, 
the  audience  univerfally  rofe  up  at  his  entrance,  as  they 
did  to  Auguftus,  and  received  him  wdth  the  loudefl  plau- 
dits ; 



ilhs ; a compliment  which,  however  highly  honorable, 
he  would  gladly  have  declined.  When  fuch  was  the  juft 
refpefft  which  they  paid  to  the  author  of  the  Bucolics 
and  Georgies,  how  would  they  have  exprefTed  their 
eftceni,  had  they  beheld  him  in  the  effulgence  of  epic 
renown  ! In  the  beautiful  epifode  of  the  Elyfian  fields, 
in  the  ^neid,  where  he  dextroufly  introduced  a glorious 
difplay  of  their  country,  he  had  touched  the  moft  elaftic 
fprings  of  Roman  enthufiafm.  The  palTion  would  have 
rebounded  upon  himfelf,  and  they  would,  in  the  heat  of 
admiration,  have  idolized  him. 

Horace  w'as  born  at  Venufia,  on  the  loth  of  Decem- 
ber, in  the  Confulfliip  of  L.  Cotta,  and  L.  Torquatus. 
According  to  his  acknowledgment,  liis  fa- 
ther was  a freedman  ; by  fome  it  is  faid,  a 
colledlor  of  the  revenue,  and  by  others,  that 
he  was  a fifhmonger,  or  dealt  in  falted  meat.  Whatever 
he  was,  he  paid'  particular  attention  to  the  education  of 
his  fon,  whom,  after  receiving  inftrudlion  from  the  beft 
mafters  in  Rome,  he  fent  to  Athens  to  ftudy  philofophy. 
From  this  place,  Horace  followed  Brutus,  in  the  quality 
of  a military  Tribune,  to  the  battle  of  Philippi,  w'here, 
by  his  own  confeffion,  being  feized  with  timidity,  he 
abandoned  the  profeffion  of  a foldier,  and  returning  to 
Rome,  applied  himfelf  to  the  cultivation  of  poetry  In 
a fhort  time  he  procured  thefriendftiip  of  Virgil  and  Va- 
rius, whom  he  mentions  in  his  Satires,  in  terms  of  the 
moft  tender  affedlion. 

Pojlcra  lux  oritur  multo  gratijjirna : namque 
Plotius  ^ Farius  Siniiejf^^  Firgiliufque, 

Occurrunt ; animat,  quales  neque  catiduiiores 
Terra  tulit,  neque  queis  me  Jit  de~jin£lior  alter. 

O qui  complexus,  gaudia  quanta  fuerimt  / 

Nil  ego  contulerim,  jucundo  Jatius  conico.  Sat,  I.  5. 

^ By 


Ey  the  two  friends  abovementioned,  he  was  fecom^* 
inended  to  the  patronage  not  only  of  Mecaenas,  but  Au^ 
guftus,  with  whom  he,  as  well  as  Virgil,  lived  on  a foot- 
ing of  the  greatefl  intimacy.  Satisfied  with  the  luxury 
which  he  enjoyed  at  the  firfl:  tables  in  Rome,  he  was  fa 
unambitious  of  any  public  employment,  that  when  the 
emperor  offered  him  the  place  of  his  feeretary,  he  de- 
clined it*  But  as  he  lived  in  an  elegant  manner,  hav- 
ing, befides  his  houfe  in  town,  a cottage  on  his  Sabine 
farm,  and  a villa  at  Tibur,  near  the  cataract  of  the 
Anio,  he  enjoved,  beyond  all  doubt,  a handfome  efia- 
blifhment,  from*  the  liberality  of  Auguffus.  He  indulg- 
ed himfelf  in  indolence  and  focial  pleafure,  but  was  at 
the  fame  time  much  devoted  to  reading.  He  enjoyed  a 
tolerable  good  fiate  of  health,  but  was  often  incommoded 
with  a fluxion  of  rheum  upon  the  eyes* 

Horace,  in  the  ardor  of  youth,  and  when  his  bofom 
beat  high  with  the  raptures  of  fancy,  had,  in  the  purfuk 
of  Grecian  literature,  drunk  largely,  at  the  fource,  of 
the  delicious  fprings  of  Caftalia  ; and  it  feems  to  have 
been  ever  after  his  chief  ambition,  to  tranfplant  into  the 
plains  of  Latium  the  palm  of  lyric  poetry.  Nor  did  he 
fail  of  fuccefs  : 

Exegt  monumentum  are  perennius.  CarM.  HI.  30. 

In  Greece,  and  other  countries,  the  Ode  appears  to 
have  been  the  moil:  ancient,  as  well  as  the  moft  popular 
fpecies  of  literary  production.  Warm  in  expreffion, 
and  fliort  in  extent,  it  concentrates  in  narrow  bounds  the 
fire  of  poetical  tranfport  : on  which  account,  it  has  becii 
generally  employed  to  celebrate  the  fervors  of  piety,  the 
raptures  of  love,  the  enthufiafm  of  praife  ;•  and  to  ani- 
mate warriors  to  glorious  exertions  of  valor  : 



Mufa  dedit  fidibus  Droos^  puerojque  DeorutHf 
Et  pugilem  ^iSiorem^  ^ equum  certamine  primumy 
Et  ju‘venum  curas,  libera  ’vina  referre, 

Hor.  De  Arte  Poet, 

Mifenum  JEoliden,  quo  non  preefiantior  alter 
JEre  ciere  'viros,  Martemque  accendere  cantu 

Virgil.  AIneid.  VL 

^ed  turn  forte  cava  dum  perfonat  aquor  a concha 
Demens,  cantu  vocat  in  certamina  Divos.  Ibid. 

There  arofe  In  this  deparment,  amongft  the  Greeks,  nine 
eminent  poets,  viz.  Alcseus,  Aleman,  Anacreon,  Bac- 
chylides,  Ibicus,  Sappho,  Stefichorus,  Simonides,  and 
Pindar.  The  greater  part  of  this  diftinguifhed  clafs  are 
now,  known  only  by  name.  They  feem  all  to  have  dif- 
fered from  one  another,  no  lefs  in  the  kind  of  meafurc 
which  they  chiefly  or  folely  employed,  than  in  the 
ftrength  or  foftnefs,  the  beauty  or  grandeur,  the  ani- 
mated rapidity  or  the  graceful  eafe  of  their  various  com- 
pofitions.  Of  the  amorous  effufions  of  the  lyre,  we  yet 
have  examples  in  the  odes  of  Anacreon,  and  the  incom- 
parable ode  of  Sappho  : the  lyric  drains  which  animated 
to  battle,  have  funk  into  oblivion  ; but  the  victors  in 
the  public  games  of  Greece  have  their  fame  perpetuated 
in  the  admirable  productions  of  Pindar, 

Horace,  by  adopting,  In  the  multiplicity  of  his  fub- 
jedts,  almoft  all  the  various  meafures  of  the  different 
Greek  poets,  and  frequently  combining  different  meafures 
in  the  fame  compofition,  has  compenfated  the  dialedts  of 
that  tongue,  fo  happily  fuited  to  poetry,  and  given  to  a 

* The  laft  members  of  thefe  two  lines,  from  the  commas 
to  the  end,  are  what  are  faid  to  have  been  fupplied  by  Ero- 
tes,  Virgil’s  librarian, 




language  Icfs  Jiflinguifhed  for  foft  indcr-TTonSj  a!!  the  ten-» 
♦ler  and  delicate  modulations  of  the  Eaflern  fong.  While 
he  moves  in  the  meafilrcs  of  the  Greeks  with  an  eafe  and 
gracefulnefs  that  rivals  their  own  acknowledged  excel- 
lence, he  has  enriched  the  fund  of  lyric  harmony  with 
a ftanza  peculiar  to  hiinfelf.  In  the  artificial  conflruc- 
tion  of  the  Ode,  he  may  jufely  be  regarded  as  the  firfi:  of 
lyric  poets.  In  beautiful  imagery,  he  is  inferior  to  none  : 
in  variety  of  fentinient  and  felicity  of  exprefiion,  fupe^ 
rior  to  every  exlfting  competitor  in  Greek  or  Romaa 
poetry.  He  is  elegant  without  affcdlation  ; and,  what  is 
more  than  all  remarkable,  in  the  inidil;  of  gaiety  he  is 
moral.  W^e  feldom  meet  in  bis  Odes  v.dtli  the  abrupt 
apoflrophes  of  paffionate  excurfion  ^ but  his  tranfitions 
are  condudled  with  eafe,  and  every  fubjedl  introduced 
with  propriety. 

The  Carmen  Peculare  was  written  at  the  exprefs  defire 
of  Auguflus,  for  the  celebration  of  the  Secular  Games, 
performed  once  in  a hundred  years,  and  which  continued 
during  three  days  and  three  nights,  whilll;  all  Rome  re- 
founded with  the  mingled  eftufions  of  choral  addrefTes 
to  Gods  and  GoddefTes,  and  of  fefllve  joy.  An  occafioii 
which  fo  much  interefted  the  ambition  of  the  poet,  called 
into  exertion  the  mofl:  vigorous  efforts  of  his  genius. 
More  concife  in  mythological  attributes  than  the  hymns 
aferibed  to  Homer,  this  beautiful  production,  in  variety' 
and  grandeur  of  Invocation,  and  in  pomp  of  numbers, 
furpaiTes  all  that  Greece,  melodious  but  fimple  in  the 
fervice  of  the  altar,  ever  poured  forth  from  her  vocal  , 
groves  in  folemn  adoration.  Ey  the  force  of  native  ge- 
nius, the  ancients  elevated  their  hei-oes  to  a pitch  of  fuh- 
iimity  that  excites  admiration,  but  to  foar  beyond  wmich 
they  could  derive  no  aid  iroin  mythology  ; and  it  was  re- 
g ferved 



fervid  for  a bard,  infpired  with  nobler  fentiments  than  the 
Mufes  could  fupply,  to  fing  the  praifes  of  that  Being 
whofe  ineffable  perfections  tranfcend  all  human  imagi* 
nation.  Of  the  praifes  of  Gods  and  Heroes,  there  is 
not  now  extant  a more  beautiful  compofition,  than  the 
1 2th  Ode  of  the  firft  book  of  Horace  ; 

^em  n)irum  aut  heroa  lyrd  niel  acri 
, Tibia  fumes  celebrare^  Clio  ? 

^em  Deum  ? cv.jus  recinet  jocofa 
Ihmen  imago., 

Aut  in  umbrofis  Heliconis  oris, 

The  Satires  of  Horace  are  far  from  being  remarkable 
for  poetical  harmony,  as  he  himfelf  acknowledges.  In- 
deed, according  to  the  plan  upon  which  feveral  of  them 
are  written,  it  could  fcarcely  be  otherwife.^  They  are 
frequently  colloquial,  fometimes  interrogatory,  the  tranf- 
itions  quick,  and  the  apoftrophes  abrupt.  It  was  not 
his  object  in  thofe  compofitions,  to  footh  the  ear  with 
the  melody  of  polifhed  numbers,  but  to  rally  the  frailties 
of  the  heart,  to  convince  the  underftanding  by  argument, 
and  thence  to  put  to  fhame  both  the  vices  and  follies  of 
mankind.  Satire  is  a fpecies  of  compofition,  of  v/hich 
the  Greeks  furnillied  no  model,  and  the  preceding  Ro- 
man writers  of  this  clafs,  though  they  had  much  im- 
proved it  from  its  original  rudenefs  and  licentioufncfs,  had 
hill  not  brought  it  to  that  degree  of  perfeClion  which 
might  anfwer  the  purpofe  of  moral  reform  in  a polilhed 
Bate  of  fociety.  It  received  the  mod  elTential  improve- 
ment from  Horace,  who  has  dextroufly  combined  wit 
and  argument,  raillery  and  farcafm,  on  the  fide  of  mora- 
lity and  virtue,  of  happinefs  and  truth. 

The  Epiflles  of  this  author  may  be  reckoned  amongft 
the  mod  valuable  productions  of  antiquity.  Except 
' thofe 



thofe  of  the  fecond  book,  and  one  or  two  in  the  firll,  they 
are  in  general  of  the  familiar  kind  ; abounding  in  moral 
fentiments,  and  judicious  obfervations  on  life  and  manners. 

The  poem  De  Arte  Poetica  comprifes  a fyftem  of  cri- 
ticifm,  in  juftnefs  of  principle  and  extent  of  application, 
correfpondent  to  the  Various  exertions  of  genius  on  fub- 
jc6ls  of  invention  and  tafte.  That  in  compofing  this  ex- 
cellent production,  he  availed  himfelf  of  the  moft  approved 
works  of  Grecian  original,  we  may  conclude  from  the 
advice  which  he  there  recommends  ; 

„ ygs  exemplaria  Graca 

Noiiurnd  ^erfate  manu^  ’verjate  diurnd. 

In  the  writings  of  Horace  there  appears  a fund  of  good 
fenfe,  enlivened  with  pleafantry,  and  refined  by  philofo- 
phical  reflexion.  He*  had  cultivated  his  judgment  with 
great  application,  and  his  tafte  was  guided  by  an  intui- 
tive perception  of  moral  beauty,  aptitude,  and  propriety. 
The  few  inftances  of  indelicacy  which  occur  in  his  com- 
pofitions,  we  may  afcribe  rather  to  the  manners  of  the 
times,  than  to  any  blam cable  propenfity  in  the  author. 
Horace  died  in  the  flfty-feventli  year  of  his  age,  furviving 
his  beloved  Mecainas  only  three  weeks  ; a circumftancc 
which,  added  to  the  declaration  in  an  ode  to  that  per- 
fonage,  fuppofed  to  have  been  written  in  Mecaenas’s  lafl 
illnefs,  has  given  rife  to  a conjedlure,  that  Horace  ended 
his  days  by  a violent  death,  to  accompany  his  friend. 
But  it  is  more  natural  to  conclude  that  he  died  of  exceflfivo 
grief,  as,  had  he  literally  adhered  to  the  affirmation  con- 
tained in  the  ode,  he  would  have  followed  his  patron 
more  clofely.  This  fecms  to  be  confirmed  by  a facf  im- 
inediatelv  precedmg  his  death ; for  though  he  declared 

^ Carm,  I.  17. 

' Auguiuis 



Augudus  heir  to  his  v/hole  eftate,  he  was  not  able,  on 
account  of  Weaknefs,  to  put  his  fignature  to  the  will ; a 
failure^  which  it  is  probable  that  he  Would  have  taken 
care  to  obviate,  had  his  death  been  premeditated.  He 
was  interred,  at  his  own  defife,  near  the  tomb  of 

P.  OvidhiS 
Nafo.  . 

Ovid  vvas  born  of  an  Equeflrian  family,  at  SulmO,  a 
town  of  the  Peligni,  on  the  21ft  of  Marchj  in  the  Con- 
fulfhip  of  Hirtius  and  Panfa.  His  father 
intended  him  for  the  bar;  and  after  palling 
through  the  ufual  courfe  of  inftrudlion  at 
Rome,  he  was  fent  to  Athens,  the  emporium  of  learnings 
to  complete  his  education.  On  his  return  to  Rome,  iii 
obedience  to  the  defire  of  his  father,  he  entered  upon  the 
olEces  of  public  life  in  the  Forum,  and  declaimed  with 
great  applaufe.  But  this  was  the  efFedf  of  paternal  au- 
thority, not  of  choice : for,  from  his  earlieft  years,  he 
dlfcovered  an  extreme  attachment  to  poetry ; and  no 
fooner  was  his  father  dead,  than,  renouncing  the  bar,  he 
devoted  himfelf  entirely  to  the  cultivation  of  that  faR 
cinating  art,  his  propenfity  to  which  was  invincible.  His 
produdiions,  all  written  either  in  heroic  or  pentametef 
verfe,  are  numerous,  and  on  various  fubjedts.  It  will  be 
fufficienr  to  mention  them  briefly. 

The  Heroides  confifl:  of  tvventy-onc  Epiflles,  all  which, 
except  three,  are  v/ritten  from  celebrated  women  of  an- 
tiquity, to  their  hufbands  or  lovers  : fuch  as  Penelope  to 
iJlyffes,  Dido  to  ^neas,  Sappho  to  Phaon,  &c.  Hiefe 
compofitions  are  nervous,  animated  and  elegant : they 
difeover  a high  degree  of  poetic  enthuriafm,  but  blend- 
ed with  that  iafcivioirs  turn  of  thought,  which  pei- 

Q.2  vade»? 



vades  all  the  amorous  produdlions  of  this  celebrated 

The  elegies  on  fubjetSls  of  love,  particularly  the  Jrs 
Amandi,  or  Ars  Amatoria,  though  not  all  uniform  in  ver- 
iification,  polTefs  the  fame  general  charadler,  of  warmth 
of  paffion,  and  lufeious  defeription,  with  the  Epiflles  now 

The  Fajli  were  divided  into  twelve  books,  of  which 
only  the  firll  fix  now  remain.  The  dehgn  of  them  was 
to  deliver  an  account  of  the  Roman  feftivals  in  every 
month  of  the  year,  with  a defeription  of  the  rites  and 
ceremonies,'  as  well  as  the  facrifices  on  thofe  occafions. 
It  is  to  be  regretted,  that,  on  a fubjedb  fo  interefting  to  cu- 
riohty,  this  valuable  work  Ihould  not  have  been  tranf- 
mitted  entire,  for  the  information' of  fucceeding  times  : 
but  in  the  part  which  remains,  we  are  furnilhed  with  a 
beautiful  defeription  of  the  ceremonial  tranfadbions  in  the 
Roman  Calendar,  from  the  firft  of  January  to  the  end  of 
June.  The  verfification,  as  in  all  the  compofitions  of 
this  author,  is  eafy  and  harmonious. 

The  mod  popular  produdlron  of  this  poet  is  his  Me^ 
tamorphofes,  not  lefs  extraordinary  for  the  nature  of  the 
fubjecSl,  than  for  the  admirable  art  with  which  the  whole 
is  condudled.  The  work  is  founded  upon  the  traditions 
and  theogony  of  the  ancients,  which  confided  of  various 
detached  fables.  Thofe  Ovid  has  not  only  fo  happily 
arranged,,  that  they  form  a coherent  feries  of  narratives, 
one  rifing  out  of  another ; but  he  deferibes  the  different 
changes  with  fuch  an  impofing  plaufibility,  as  to  give 
a natural  appearance  to  the  mod  incredible  fidlions. 




This  ingenious  produ6i;ion,  however  perfe£l:  it  may.  ap- 
pear, we  are  told  by  himfelf,  had  not  received  his  laft 
corredlions  when  he  was  ordered  into  banifhment. 

In  the  Ihis^  the  author  imitates  a poem  of  the  fame 
name,  written  by  Callimachus,  It  is  an  invecllve  againft 
fome  perfon  who  publicly  traduced  his  chara6ler  at 
Rome,  after  his  banifhment.  A ftrong  fenfibillty,  in- 
dignation, and  implacable  refentment,  are  co'nfpicuous 
through  the  whole. 

The  Trijiia  were  eompofcd  in  his  exile,  in  which, 
tirough  his  vivacity  forfook  him,  he  ftill  retained  a genius 
prolific  in  verfification.  In  thefe  poems,  as  well  as  in 
many  epiftles  to  different  perfons,  he  bewails  his  unhappy 
fituation,  and  deprecates  in  the  ftrongeft  terms  the  inex- 
orable difpleafure  of  Augufbus. 

Several  other  produiSlions  written  by  Ovid  are  now 
loft,  and  amongft  them  a tragedy  called  Medea,  of  which 
Quintilian  expreffes  a high  opinion.  Ovidii  Medea  vide- 
iur  niihi  ojiendere  quantum  vir  ille  prajiare  potuerit^  fi  in- 
genio fuQ  temperare  quam  indulgere  maluiJJ'et.  Lib.  x.  c.  I. 

It  is  a peculiarity  in  the  produdlions  of  this  author, 
that,  on  whatever  he  employs  his  pen,  he  exhaufts  the 
fubje6l ; not  with  any  prolixity  that  fatigues  the  attention, 
but  by  a quick  fucceflion  of  new  ideas,  equally  brilliant 
and  appofite,  often  exprefled  in  antithcfes.  Void  of  ob- 
fcenity  in  expreflion,  but  lafcivious  in  fentlment,  he  may 
be  fald  rather  to  ftimulate  immorally  the  natural  paftions, 
_than  to  corrupt  the  imagination.  No  poet  Is  more  guided 
in  verfification  by  the  nature  of  his  lubje61:  than  Ovid. 
Jn  common  narrative,  his  ideas  are  exprefied  with  almoft 
0^3  collo-juial 



colloquial  fimpilcity  ; but  when  his  fancy  glows  with 
fentiment,  or  is  animated  by  objedls  of  grandeur,  his 
flyle  is  proportionably  elevated,  and  he  rifes  to  a pitcl:^ 
of  fublimity. 

No  point  in  ancient  hiflory  has  excited  fuch  variety 
pf  conjedlures  as  the  banjfhment  of  Ovid  ; and  after  all 
the  efforts  of  different  writers  to  elucidate  the  fubjedd,  the 
caufe  of  this  extraordinary  tranfadion  remains  hitherto 
involved  in  obfcurlty.  It  may  therefore  not  be  improper, 
in  this  place,  to  examine  the  foundation  of  the  feveral 
conjedlures  which  have  been  formed,  and  if  they  appear 
to  be  utterly  inadmiffible,  to  attempt  a folution  of  the 
quefiiion  upon  principles  more  conformable  to  probabi- 
lity, and  countenanced  by  hiffoncal  evidence. 

The  oflenfible  reafon  affigned  by  Auguftus  for  banifh- 
ing  Ovid,  was  his  corrupting  the  Roman  youth  by  laf- 
civious  publications ; but  it  is  evident,  from  various  paf- 
fages  in  the  poet’s  produdllons  after  this  period,  that  there 
was,  befides,  fome  fccret  reafon,  which  would  not  admit 
of  being  diyulged.  He  fays  in  his  Trijiia^  Lib.  II.  i. 

Perdiderint  cum  me  duo  crimina.^  carmen  ^ error. 

It  appears  from  another  paffage  in  the  fame  work,  that 
this  inviolable  arcanum  was  fomething  which  Ovid  had 
feen,  and,  as  he  infinuates,  through  his  own  ignorance 
and  miftake. 

Cur  aliquid  njidi  ? cur  confcia  lumina  feci  ? 

* . Cur  imprudenti  cognita  culpa  mihi  eji  ? Ibid. 

jnfeia  quod  crimen  njiderunt  lumina^  pleSior : 

Peccatumque  oculos  eft  habnijfe  meum. 

Pe  Trist.  hi.  5, 



It  feems  therefore  to  be  a fa6l  fufficiently  eflabllflied, 
tliat  Ovid  had  feen  fomething  of  a very  indecent  nature, 
in  which  Auguftus  was  concerned.  What  this  was,  is 
the  quefiion.  Some  authors,  conceiving  it  to  have  been 
of  a kind  extremely  atrocious,  have  gone  fo  far  as  to 
fuppofe,  that  it  mufl:  have  been  an  adl:  of  criminality 
between  Auguflus  and  his  own  daughter  Julia,  who,  not- 
withftanding  the  hridl  attention  paid  to  her  education  by 
her  father,  became  a woman  of  the  mofl;  infamous  cha- 
radler;  fufpedled  of  incontinence  during  her  marriage 
with  Agrippa,  but  openly  profligate  after  her  union  with 
her  next  hufband  Tiberius.  This  fuppofition,  however, 
refls  entirely  upon  conjedlure,  and  is  not  only  difcredited 
by  its  own  improbability,  but  by  a yet  more  forcible  argu- 
ment. It  is  certain  that  Julia  was  at  this  time  in  banifh- 
ment  for  her  fcandalous  life.  She  was  about  the  fame 
age  with  Tiberius,  who  was  now  forty-feven,  and  they 
had  not  cohabited  for  many  years.  We  know  not  exadlly 
the  year  in  which  Auguftus  fcnt  her  into  exile,  but  we 
may  conclude  with  confidence,  that  it  happened  foon  after 
her  feparation  from  Tiberius  ; whofe  own  interefl;  with 
the  emperor,  as  well  as  that  of  his  mother  Livia,  could 
not  fail  of  being  exerted,  if  any  fuch  application  was 
neceflTary,  towards  removing  from  the  capital  a woman, 
•yvlio  by  the  notoriety  of  her  proftltution  refledled  dlf- 
grace  upon  all  with  whom  Hie  was  connedled,  either  by' 
blood  or  alliance.  But  no  application  from  Tiberius  or 
his  mother  could  be  neceffary,  when  we  are  aflfured  that 
Auguflus  even  prefented  to  the  Senate  a narrative  re- 
fpedling  the  infamous  behaviour  of  his  daughter,  which 
was  read  by  the  Qusflor.  He  was  fo  much  afliamed  of 
her  profligacy,  that  he  for  a long  time  declined  all  com- 
pany, and  had  thoughts  of  putting  her  to  death.  She  was 
baniflied  to  an  illand  on  the  coafb  of  Campania  for  five 

0.4  5 



years;  at  the  expiration  of  which  period,  /he  was  re-* 
moved  to  the  continent,  and  the  feverity  of  her  treatment 
a little  mitigated  ; but  though  frequent  applications  were 
made  in  her  behalf  by  the  people,  Auguftus  never  could 
be  prevailed  upon  to  permit  her  return. 

Other  writers  have  conjedured,  that,  inftead  of  Juli^ 
the  daughter  of  Auguftus,  the  perfon  feen  with  him  by 
Ovid  may  have  been  Julia  his  grand-daughter,  who  in- 
herited the  vicious  difpofition  of  her  mother,  and  was  or^ 
that  account  likewife  baniflied  by  Auguftus,  The  epoch 
of  this  lady’s  banifhment  it  is  impoflible  to  afcertain  ; and 
therefore  no  argument  can  be  drawn  from  that  fource  to 
invalidate  the  prefent  conje61;ure.  But  Auguftus  had 
fhewn  the  fame  folicitude  for  her  being  trained  up  iri 
virtuous  habits,  as  he  had  done  in  refpefl  of  her  mother, 
though  in  both  cafes  unufccefsfully ; and  this  confidera- 
■tion,  joined  to  the  enormity  of  the  fuppofed  crime,  and 
the  great  fenfibility  which  Auguflus  had  difcoyered  with 
regard  to  the  infamy  of  his  daughter,  feems  fufheient  to 
exonerate  his  memory  from  fo  odious  a charge.  Befides, 
is  it  poffible  that  he  could  have  fent  her  into  banidiment 
for  the  infamy  of  her  proftitution,  while  (upon  the  fup- 
pofition  of  inceft)  (lie  was  miftrefs  of  fo  important  a 
fecrct,  as  that  he  himfelf  had  been  more  criminal  with 
her  than  any  other  man  in  the  empire  I 

Some  writers,  giving  a wider  fcope  to  conjedlure,  have 
fuppofed  the  tranfa^lion  to  be  of  a nature  ftill  more  de- 
teflable,  ^ndhave  even  dragged  Mecaenas  the  minifter  into 
a participation  of  the  crime.  Fortunately,  however,  for 
the  reputation  of  this  llluftrious  patron  of  polite  learning, 
a?  well  as  for  that  of  the  emperor,  this  crude  conjedlure 
n?ay  bp  refuted  upon  the  evidence  of  chronology.  The 




commencement  of  Ovid’s  exjle  happened  in  the  ninth 
year  of  the  Chriftian  aera,  and  the  death  of  Mecsenas^^ 
eight  years  before  that  period.  Betw^een  this  and  other 
calculations,  we  find  a difference  of  three  or  four  years ; 
but  allowing  the  utmoft  latitude  of  variation,  there  in- 
tervened, from  the  death  of  Mecaenas  to  the  banifhment 
of  Ovid,  a period  of  eleven  years ; an  obfervation  which 
fully  invalidates  the  conjedure  abovementioned. 

Having  now  refuted,  as  it  is  prefumed,  the  opinions  of 
different  commentators  on  this  fubjec^,  we  fhall  proceed 
to  offer  a new  conjedlure,  which  feems  to  have  a greater 
claim  to  probability,  than  any  that  has  hitherto  been  fug- 

Suetonius  Informs  us,  that  Auguftus,  in  the  latter  part 
of  his  life,  contra61ed  a vicious  inclination  for  the  enjoy- 
ment of  young  virgins,  who  were  procured  for  him 
from  all  parts,  not  only  with  the  connivance,  but  by  tho 
clandefline  management  of  his  confort  Livia.  It  has 
therefore  probably  been  with-one  of  thofe  vidlims  that  he 
was  difeovered  by  Ovid.  Auguflus  had  for  many  years 
affe6led  a decency  of  behaviour,  and  he  would  therefore 
naturally  be  not  a little  difcopcerted  at  the  unfeafonablc 
intrufion  of  the  poet.  That  Ovid  knew  not  of  Au- 
guflus’s  being  in  the  place,  is  beyond  all  doubt : and 
iVugufius’s  confeioufnefs  of  this  circumfiance,  together 
with  the  charadler  of  Ovid,  would  fuggefl  an  unfavor- 
able fufpicion  of  the  motive  which  had  brought  the  latter 
thither.  Abftradling  from  the  immorality  of  the  emperor’s 
own  condudl,  the  incident  might  be  regarded  as  ludicrous, 
and  certainly  was  more  fit  to  excite  the  fhame  than  the 
indignation  of  the  emperor.  But  the  purpofe  of  Ovid’s 
vifit  appears,  from  his  own  acknowledgement,  to  haye 


234  the  life  of 


been  not  entirely  free  from  blame,  though  of  what  na^ 
ture  we  know  not : 


Non  equidem  totam  pojfum  defendere  culpam  f 
$ed partem  noftri  criminis  error  habet. 

De  Trist.  Ljb.  III.  Eleg.  5. 

Ovid  was  at  this  time  turned  of  fifty,  and  though  by  3 
\ much  younger  man  he  would  not  have  been  regarded  a^ 
any  obje61:  of  jealoufy  in  love,  yet  by  Auguflus,  now  in 
his  fixty-ninth  year,  he  might  be  deemed  a formidable 
rival.  This  paffion  therefore  concurring  with  that  which 
arofe  from  the  interruption  or  difappointment  of  gratifi^ 
cation,  inflamed  the  emperor’s  refentment,  and  he  refolved 
on  banifhing  to  a diftant  country  a man  whom  he  con- 
lidered  as  his  rival,  and  whofe  prefence,  from  what  hac^ 
happened,  he  never  more  could  endure. 

Auguflus  having  determined  on  the'  banifhment  of 
Ovid,  could  find  little  difficulty  in  accommodating  the 
oflenfible  to  the  fecret  and  real  caufe  of  this  refolution. 

No  argument  to  eftablifli  the  date  of  publication,  can  be 
drawn  from  the  order  in  which  the  various  produdlions 
of  Ovid  are  placed  in  the  colledlion  of  his  works  : but 
reafoning  from  probability,  we  fhould  fuppofe  that  the 
Ars  Amandi  was  written  during  the  period  of  his  youtLj 
and  this  feems  to  be  confirmed  by  the  following  paflage 
in  the  fecond  book  of  the  Fajii : 

Certe  ego  "VOS  habui  faciles  in  amore  minijiros  ; 

Cum  lujit  numeris  prima  juventa  fuis. 

That  many  years  mull:  have  elapfed  fince  its  original 
publication,  is  evident  from  the  fubfequent  lines  in  the  fe- 
cond book  of  the  Triftia  : 




qmque  jam  pridem  Jcripto  peccavimus  uno. 

Supplicium  patitur  non  nova  culpa  novum. 

Carminaque  edideram^  cum  te  delidia  notantem 
Prater  a toties  jure  quietus  eques. 
jErgo,  qua  juveni  mihi  non  nocitura  putavi 
Scripta  parum  prudens^  nunc  iiocuere  Jeni  ? 

With  what  fhow  then  of  juhice,  it  may  be  afked, 
could  Auguftus  now  punilh  a fault,  which,  in  his  folemu 
capacity  of  Cenfor,  he  had  fo  long  and  repeatedly  over- 
looked ? The  anfwer  is  obvious : in  a produ6lion  fo 
popular  as  we  may  be  affured  the  Jrs  Amandi  was 
amongft  the  Roman  youth,  it  mufi  Ifave  paflTed  through 
feveral  editions  in  the  courfe  of  fome  years  ; and  one  of 
thofe  coinciding  with  the  fatal  'difcovery,  afforded  the 
emperor  a fpecious  pretext  for  the  execution  of  his  pur- 
pofe.  The  feverity  exercifed  on  this  occafion,  however, 
when  the  poet  was  fuddenly  driven  into  exile,  unaccom- 
panied even  by  the  partner  of  his  bed,  who  had  been  his 
companion  for  many  years,  was  an  a6l  fo  inconfillent 
with  the  ufual  moderation  of  Auguflus,  that  we  cannot 
juftly  afcribe  it  to  any  other  motive  than  perfonal  refcnt' 
ment ; efpecially  as  this  arbitrary  punilhment  of  the  au- 
thor could  anfwer  no  end  of  public  utility,  while  the 
obnoxious  produ6lion  remained  to  afFcdf,  if  it  really  ever 
did  elTentially  affedf,  the  morals  of  fociety.  If  the  fenh- 
bility  of  Auguflus  could  not  thenceforth  admit  of  any 
perfonal  intercourfe  with  Ovid,  or  even  of  his  living 
within  the  limits  of  Italy,  there  w^ould  have  been  little 
clanger  from  the  example,  in  fending  into  honorable  exile, 
W'ith  every  indulgence  which  could  alleviate  fo  diflrefsful 
a neceffity,  a man  of  refpe6lable  rank  in  the  flate,  w'ho 
was  charged  ^wlth  no  a6lual  offence  againft  the  laws, 
and  whofe  genius,  wdth  all  its  indifcretion,  did  immortal 
honor  to  his  country.  It  may  perhaps  be  urged,  that, 
8 coafidering 



conlidering  the  predicament  in  which  Auguflus  flood,  he 
difeovered  a forbearance  greater  than  might  have  been 
expedled  from  an  abfolute  prince,  in  fparing  the  life  of 
Ovid.  It  will  readily  be  granted,  that  Ovid,  in  the  fame 
circumflances,  under  any  one  of  the  four  fubfequent 
emperors,  would  have  expiated  the  incident  with  his 
blood.  Auguflus,  upon  a latp  occalion,  had  fhown  him- 
felf  equally  fanguinary  : for  he  pul  to  death,  by  the  hand 
of  Varus,  a poet  of  Parma,  named  Cafliiis,  on  account 
of  having  written  fome  fatirical  verfes  againft  him.  By 
that  recent  example,  therefore,  and  the  power  of  pardon- 
ing, which  the  emperor  flill  retained,  there  v/as  fuSi cient 
hold  of  the  poet’s  fecrefy  refpedling  the  fatal  tranfadlion, 
which,  if  divulged  to  the  world,  Auguflus  would  repro- 
bate as  a falfe  and  infamous  libel,  and  punifh  the  author 
accordingly.  Ovid,  on  his  part,  was  fenfible,  that,  fhpuld 
he  dare  to  violate  the  important  but  tacit  injundlion,  the 
imperial  vengeance  would  reach  him  even  on  the  fliores 
of  the  Euxine.  It  appears,  however,  from  a pafTage  in 
the  IhiSf  which  can  apply  to  no  other  than  Auguflus, 
that  Ovid  was  not  fent  into  banifhment  deflitute  of  pe- 
cuniary provifion : 

Di  melius  ! quorum  longe  mihi  maximus  illCy 
^i  nojiras  inopes  noluit  ejfe  'vias. 

Huic  igitur  meritas  grateSy  'ubicumque  licebity 
Pro  tam  manfueto  pePiore  femper  agam, 

What  fum  the  emperor  bellowed,  for  the  fupport  of  a 
banifhment  which  he  was  refolved  fhould  be  perpetual, 
it  is  impoffible  to  afeertain  : but  he  had  formerly  been 
liberal  to  Ovid,  as  well  as  to  other  poets. 

If  we  might  hazard  a conjedlure,  refpedling  the  feene 
of  the  intrigue  which  occafioned  tlie  banifhment  of 
Ovid,  we  fliould  place  it  in  fpme  recefs  in  the  emperor’s 



gardens.  His  houfe,  though  called  Palatiunty  the  palace, 
as  being  built  on  the  Palatine-hill,  and  inhabited  by  the 
foverelgn,  was  only  a fmall  manfion,  which  had  formerly 
belonged  to  Hortenlius,  the  orator.  Adjoining  to  this 
place,  Auguflus  had  built  the  temple  of  Apollo,  wl)ich 
he  endowed  with  a public  library,  and  allotted  for  the 
ufe  of  poets,  to  recite  their  compofitions  to  each  other. 
Ovid  was  particularly  intimate  with  Hyginus,  one  of 
Auguftus’s  freedmen,  who  was  librarian  of  the  temple. 
He  might  therefore  have  been  in  the  library,  and  fpying 
from  the  window  a young  female  fecreting  herfeif  in  the 
gardens*  he  had  the  curiofity  to  follow  her. 

The  place  of  Ovid’s  banifhment  was  Tomis,  now  faid 
to  be  Babba,  a town  of  Bulgaria,  towards  the  mouth  of 
the  liler,  where  is  a lake  ftill  called  by  the  natives* 
Ouvtdouve  Jcfe7'o^  the  lake  of  Ovid.  In  this  retirement, 
and  the  Euxine  Pontus,  he  pafTed  the  remainder  of  his 
life,  a melancholy  period  of  fcven  years.  Notwith- 
(landing  the  lafcivious  writings  of  Ovid,  it  does  not  ap- 
pear that  he  was  in  his  conducl:  a libertine.  He  was  three 
times  married  : his  firft  wife,  who  was  of  mean  extrac- 
tion, and  wdiom  he  had  married  wlien  he  was  very 
young,  he  divorced  ; the  fecond  he  difmiffed  on  account 
of  her  immodefl:  behaviour;  and  the  third  appears  to  have 
furvived  him.  He  had  a number  of  refpeiStable  friends, 
and  feems  to  have  been  much  beloved  by  them. 

Tibullus  was  defcended  of  an  Equeftrian  family,  and 
is  faid,  but  erroneoufly*  as  will  afterwards  appear,  to  have 
been  born  on  the  fame  day  with  Ovid. 

His  amiable  accomplifhments  procured 
him  the  friendfhip  of  Meffala  Cor.vinus,  whom  he  accom- 
panied in  a military  expedition  to  the  ifland  of  Corcyra. 




But  an  indlfpofitlon  with  which  he  was  feized,  and  d 
natural  averfion  to  the  toils  of  war,  induced  him  to  re- 
tura to  Rome,  where  he  feems  to  have  reiigned  himfelf* 
to  a life  of  indolence  and  pleafure,  amidft  which  he  de- 
voted a part  of  his.  time  to  the  compofition  of  elegies. 
Elegiac  poetr^r  had  been  cultivated  by  feveral  Greek 
writers,  particularly  Callimachus,  Mimnermus,  and  Phi- 
letas ; but,  fo  far  as  we  can  find,  had,  until  the  prefent 
age,  been  unknown  to  the  Romans  in  their  own  tongue. 
It  conlifted  of  a heroic  and  pentameter  line  alternately, 
and  was  notj  like  the  Elegy  of  the  moderns,  ufually  ap-» 
propriated  to  the  lamentation  of  the  deceafed,  but  em- 
ployed chiefly  in  compofitions  relative  to  love  or  friend- 
fhip,  and  might  indeed  be  ufed  upon  almoft  any  fubjecSi; ; 
though,  from  the  limp  in  the  pentameter  line,  it  is  not 
fuitable  to  fublime  fubjecis,  which  require  a fulnefs  of 
cxpreflion,  and  an  expanfion  of  found.  To  this  fpecies 
of  poetry  Tibullus  reftricled  liis  application ; by  which 
he  cultivated  that  fimplicity  and  tendernefs  and  agreeable 
eafe  of  fentiment,  which  confdtute  the  charadleriftic  per- 
fe61:ions  of  the  elegiac  Mufe. 

In  the  defeription  of  rural  feenes,  the  peaceful  oceu- 
pations  of  the  field,  the  charms  of  domeftic  happinefs, 
and  the  joys  of  reciprocal  love,  fcarcely  any  poet  fur- 
paffes  Tibullus  in  his  claims  to  our  applaufe.  His  luxu- 
riant ima ruination  colie6ls  the  mofl:  beautiful  flowers  of 


nature,  and  he  difplays  them  wu’th  all  the  delicate  attrac- 
tion of  foft  and  harmonious  numbers.  With  a dexterity 
peculiar  to  himfelf,  in  whatever  fubjedl  he  engages,  he 
leads  his  readers  imperceptibly  through  devious  paths  of 
pleafure,  of  which,  at  the  cutfet  of  the  poem,  they 
could  form  no  conception.  He  feems  to  have  often 
. written  without  any  previous  meditation  or  defign.  Sc; 




•veral  of  his  elegies  may  be  fald  to  have  neither  middle 
nor  end : yet  the  tranfuions  are  fo  natural,  and  the  gra- 
dations fo  eafy,  that  though  we  wander  through  Ely  Gan 
feenes  of  fancy,  the  mofl:  heterogeneous  in  their  nature, 
we  are  fenfible  of  no  defe£l:  in  the  concatenation  which 
has  joined  them  together.  It  is  however  to  be  regretted, 
that,  in  fome  infiances,  Tibullus 'betrays  that  licentiouf- 
nefs  of  manners  which  formed  too  general  a charadle- 
rihic  even  of  this  rehned  age.  His  elegies  addrefled  to 
Meflala  contain  a beautiful  amplihcation  of  fentiments 
founded  in  friendfliip  and  efteem  ; in  which  it  is  difficult 
to  fay,  whether  the  virtues  of  the  patron  or  the  genius 
of  the  poet  be  more  confpiciious. 

Valerius  MefTala  Corvinus,  whom  he  celebrates,  was 
defeended  of  a very  ancient  family.  In  the  civil  wars 
which  followed  the  death  of  Julius  Caefar,  he  joined  the 
republican  party,  and  made  himfelf  mafter  of  the  camp 
of  Oclavius  at  Philippi ; but  he  was  afterwards  recon- 
ciled to  his  opponent,  and  lived  to  an  advanced  age  in 
favor  and  efteem  with  Auguftus.  He  was  diftinguiftied 
not  only  by  his  military  talents,  -but  by  his  eloquence, 
integrity  and  patriotifm. 

From  the  following  paftiige  in  the  writings  of  Tibul- 
lus, commentators  have  conjedlured  that  he  was  deprived 
of  his  lands,  by  the  fame  proferiptioa  in  which  tliofe  of 
Virgil  had  been  involved  : 

Cui  fuerant  fla^i  ditantes  ordine  fulci 
Horrea,  fee  eundas  ad  deficientia  niejfes. 

Cuique  pecus  detifo  pafcebant  agmine  colles-. 

Et  domino  fatis,  c£f  nhnium  furique  hipoque : 

Nunc  defitderium  fuperejl : nam  cura  nonsatur. 

Cum  memor  anteaSios  femper  dolor  admo^oet  annos. 

Ljb.  IV.  El.  X. 



THE  Ll^E  OF 

But  this  feems  not  very  probable,  when  we  confi^er  that 
Horace,  feveral  years  after  that  period,  reprefents  him 
;is  opulent, 

D'i tibi  divitias  dederant,  artemque  fruekdi, 

Efist.  Lib.  I.  4.  * 

We  know  not  the  age  of  Tibullus  at  the  time  of  his 
death  ; but  in  an  elegy  written  by  Ovid  upon  that  occa- 
fion,  he  is  fpoken  of  as  a young  man.  Were  it  true, 
as  is  faid  by  biographers,  that  he  was  born  the  fame  day 
with  Ovid,  we  mull  indeed  allign  the  event  to' an  early 
period.  For  Ovid  cannot  have  written  the  elegy  after 
the  forty-third  year  of  his  own  life,  and  how  long  be- 
fore, is  incertain.  In  the  tenth  degy  of  the  fourth  book 
De  Trlftibus,  he  obferves,  that  the  fates  had  allowed  lit- 
tle time  for  the  cultivatiop  of  his  friendlhip  with  Ti- 

Virgilium  vidi  tayitum : nec  avara  Tibullo 

' Tempus  amicitiec  fata  dedere  me  ce» 

Succejfor  fuit  hic  tibi,  Galle  \ Propertius  illi ; 
fartus  ab  his  fer  i e temporis  ipfefui. 

Utque  ego  majores,  fic  me  coluere  minores^ 

As  both  Ovid  and  Tibullus  lived  at  Rome,  were  both' 
of  the  Equeftrian  Order,  and  of  congenial  difpofitions, 
it  is  natural  to  fuppofe  that  their  acquaintance  commen- 
ced at  an  early  period  ; and  if,  after  all,  it  was  of  fliort 
duration,  there  would  be  no  improbability  in  concluding, 
that  Tibullus  died  at  the  age  of  foine  years  under  thirty. 
It  is  evident,  however,  that  biographers  have  committed 
a miftake  with  regard  to  the  birth  of  this  poet : for  in 
the  paflage  above  cited  of  the  Trijlia,  Ovid  mentions 
Tibullus  as  a writer,  who,  though  his  contemporary, 
was  much  older  than  himfelf.  From  this  palTage,  we 
ihould  be  juftified  in  placing  the  deatli  of  Tibullus  be- 
tween the  fortieth  and  fiftieth  year  of  his  age,  and  ra- 




ther  nearer  to  the  latter , period  : for  otherwife,  Horace 
would  fcarcely  have  mentioned  him  in  the  manner  he 
does  in  one  of  his  Epiftles. 

Albij  nojirorum  fermonum  candide  judeXy 
^id  nunc  te  dicam  facere  in  regione  'Pedana  T 
^ Scribere  quod  Cafsi  Parmenjis  opufcula  ^oincat ; 

Ayi  taciturn  Jilvas  inter  reptare  falubres, 

Curantem  quicquid  dignum  fapiente  bonoque  ejl  ? 

Epist.  I.  4. 

This  fuppohtion  is  In  no  degree  inconfiftent  with  the 
authority  of  Ovid,  where  he  mentions  him  as  a young 
man  ; for  the  Romans/extended  the  period  of  youth  to 
the  fiftieth  year. 

Propertius  was  born  at  Mevania,  a town  of  Umbria, 
feated  at  the  confluence  of  the  Tina  and 
Clitumnus.  This  place  was  famous  for  its  ^ %tpertius 
herds  of  white  cattle,  brought  up  there  for 
facrifice,  and  fuppofed  to  be  impregnated  with  that  color 
by  the  waters  of  the  river  laft  mentioned. 

Mine  albiy  CUtumney  greges,  ^ maxima  taurus 
FiPtima,  Jape  tuo  perfuji  fium'ine  facro, 

Romanos  ad  templa  Deiim  duxere  triumphos.  G.  II. 

His  father  is  faid  by  fome  to  have  been  a Roman  knight, 
and  they  add,  that  he  was  one  of  thofe  who,  when  L. 
Antony  was  fiarved  out  of  Perufia,  were,  by  the  order  of 
Oiflavius,  led  to  the  altar  of  Julius  Cjefar,-  and  there 
flain.  Nothing  more  is  known  with  certainty,  than  that 
Propertius  loll:  his  father  at  an  early  age,  and  being  de- 
prived of  a great  part  of  his  patrimony,  betook  himfelf 
to  Rome,  where  his  genius  foon  recommended  him  to 
public  notice,  and  he  obtained  the  patronage  of  Me- 
caenas.  From  his  frequent  introduction  of  hiflorical 

R and 


THE  LIEE  op 

and  mythological  fubjedts  into  bis  poems,  he  rcceivctj 
the  appellation  of  “ the  Learned/’ 

Of  all  the  Latin  elegiac  poets,  Propertius  has  the  juft- 
efi:  claim  to  purity  of  thought  and  expreffion.  He  of- 
ten draws  his  imagery  from  reading,  more  than  from 
the  imagination,  and  abounds  lefs  in  defeription  than 
fentiment.  For  warmth  of  paffion  he  is  not  confpicu- 
ous,  and  his  tendernefs  is  feldom  marked  with  a great 
degree  of  fenfibility ; but,  without  rapture,  he  is  animat- 
ed, and,  like  Horace,  in  the  midfl;  of  gaiety,  he  is  mo- 
ral. The  ftores  with 'which  learning  fupplies  him,  diver- 
fify  as  w^ell  as  illuftrate  his  fubjedl,  while  delicacy  every 
where  difeovers  a tafl;e  refined  by  the  habit  of  reflexion. 
His  verfification,  in  general,  is  elegant,  but  not  uni- 
formly harmonious^ 

Tibullus  and  Propertius  have  each  written  four  books 
of  Elegies  ; and  it  has  been  difputed  which  of  them  is 
fuperior  in  this  department  of  poetry.  Quintilian  has 
given  his  fufFrage  in  favor  of  Tibullus,  who,  fo  far  as 
poetical  merit  alone  is  the  ohjedt  of  confideration,  feems 
entitled  to  the  preference. 

Gallus  was  a Roman  knight,  diftinguilhed  not  only 
for  poetical  but  military  talents.  Of  his  poetry  we  have 
only  fix  Elegies,  written,  in  the  perfon 
GaUuu^^  of  an  old  man,  on  the  fubjedl  of  old 
age,  but  which,  there  is  reafon  to  think, 
were  compofed  in  an  earlier  part  of  the  author’s  life. 
Except  the  fifth  Elegy,  which  is  tainted  with  immodefly, 
the  others,  particularly  the  firfl,  are  highly  beautiful, 
and  may  be  placed  in  competition  with  any  other  pro- 
ilu6tions  of  the  elegiac  kind.  Gallus  was,  for  fomc 




time/  in  great  favor  with  Auguftus,  who  ap|)ointed  hiiii 
governor  of  Egypt.  It  is  faicl,  however,  that  he  not 
only  opprefled  the  province  by  extortion,  but  entered 
into  a confpiracy  againft  his  benefadfor^  for  which  he 
was  banifliedi  Unable  to  fuftain  fuch  a reterfe  of  for- 
tune, he  fell  into  defpair,  and  laid  violent  hands  on  him- 
felf.  This  is  the  Gallus  in  honor  of  whom  Virgil  com- 
pofed  his  tenth  Eclogue. 

Such  are  the  celebrated  produdions  of  the  Augiihan 
age,  which  have  been  happily  preferved,  for  the  delight 
and  admiration  of  mankind,  and  wdll  furvive  to  the  latefl 
poherity.  Many  more  once  exifted,  of  various  merits 
and  of  different  authorsj  which  have  left  few  or  no  me- 
morials behind  them,  but  have  periflied  promifcuoufly 
amidft  the  indifcriminate  ravages  of  time,  of  accidents, 
and  of  barbarians^  Amongft  the  principal  authors  whofe 
works  are  loft^  are  Varius  aiid  Valgius  ; the  former  of 
whom,  befides  a panegyric  upon  Augtiftus,  compofed 
fome  tragedies.  According  to  Quintilian,  his  Thyeftes 
■tvas  equal  to  any  compofition  of  the  Greek  tragic  poets. 

The  great  number  of  eminent  writers,  poets  in  parti- 
cular, that  adorned  this  age,  has  excited  general  admira- 
tion, and  the  phenomenon  is  ufually  aferibed  to  a fortu- 
itous occurrence,  w^hich  baffles  all  enquiry : but  we  fliall 
endeavor  to  develop  the  various  caufes  which  feem  to 
have  produced  this  effedl ; and  fhould  the  explanation 
appear  fatisfadlory,'  it  may  favor  an  opinion,  that  under 
fimilar  circumftances,  if  ever  they  fhould  again  be  com- 
bined, a period  of  equal  glo'ry  might  arife  in  other  ages 
and  nations. 

The  Romans,  whether  from  the  influence  of  climate, 

R a 




or  their  mode  of  living,  which  in  general  was  temperate, 
were  endowed  with  a lively  imagination,  and,  as  we  be- 
fore obferved,  a fpirit  of  enterprife.  Upon  the  final  ter- 
mination of  the  Punic  war,  and  the  conquefl  of  Greece, 
their  ardor,  which  had  hitherto  been  exercifed  in  military 
atchlevements,  was  diverted  into  the  channel  of  literature ; 
and  the  civil  commotions  which  followed,  having  now 
ceafed,  a frefh  impulfe  was  given  to  a6livity  in  the  am- 
bitious purfuit  of  the  laurel,  which  was  now  only  to  be 
obtained  by  glorious  exertions  of  intelledl:.  The  beauti- 
ful productions  of  Greece  operating  flrongly  upon  their 
minds,  excited  them  to  imitation ; imitation,  when  roufed 
amongfl  a number,  produced  emulation ; and  emulation 
cherifhed  an  extraordinary  thirft  of  fame,  which,  in  ?very 
exertion  of  the  human  mind,  is  the  parent  of  excellence. 
This  liberal  contention  was  not  a little  promoted  by  the 
fafhion  introduced  at  Rome,  for  poets  to  recite  their  com- 
pofitions  in  public  ; a praClice  which  feems  to  have  been 
carried  even  to  a ridiculous  excefs. — Such  was  now  the 
rage  for  poetical  compofition  in  the  Roman  capital,  that 
Horace  defcribes  it  in  the  following  terms : 

Mutanjit  mentem  populus  levis^  calet  uno 

Scribendi  Jludio : pueri  patrefciue  fe^eri 

Fronde  comas  •vindti  coenant^  carmina  diBant. 

Efist.  II.  I. 

* * vf-  * 

Scribimus  indoBi  doBique poemata  pajfim.  Ibid. 

The  third  of  fame  abovementioned  was  a powerful  in- 
centive, and  is  avowed  both  by  Virgil  and  Horace.  The 
former,  in  the  fecond  book  of  his  Georgies,  announces  a 
refolution  of  rendering  himfelf  celebrated,  if  poflible. 

. teyiianda  n/ia  ejl  qua  me  qtioque  pojjim 

Toll  ere  humo^  ^’iBoroue  'vinim  •volitare  per  ora. 



And  Horace,  in  the  conclufion  of  his  firft  Ode,  exprefies 
himfelf  in  terms  which  indicate  a fimilar  purpofe. 

^od Ji  me  lyricis  natibus  inferes^ 

Sublimi  feriam  fidera  vertice. 

Even  Salluft  a hiftorian,  in  his  introdudlion  to  Catiline’s 
Confpiracy,  fcruples  not  to  infinuate  the  fame  kind  of 
ambition.  Quo  mihi  realms  videtur  ingenii  quam  virium 
opibus  gloriam  quarere  \ tsf  quoniam  vita  ipfa^  qua  f ruimur ^ 
brevis  eji^  memoriam  nojiri  quam  maxume  longam  efficere, 

- Another  circumftance  of  great  importance,  towards  the 
produdlion  of  fuch  poetry  as  might  live  through  every 
age,  was  the  extreme  attention  which  the  great  poets  of 
this  period  difplayed,  both  in  the  compofition,  and  the  po- 
lilhing  of  their  works.  Virgil,  when  employed  upon  the 
Georgies,  ufually  wrote  in  the  morning,  and  applied 
much  of  the  fubfequent  part  of  the  day  to  corre<5i:ion  and 
improvement.  He  compared  himfelf  to  a bear,  that  licks 
her  cub  into  form.  If  this  was  his  regular 'pra6lice  in  the 
Georgies,  we  may  juftly  fuppofe  that  it  was  the  fame  in 
the  ^heid.  Yet,  after  all  this  labor,  he  intended  to  devote 
three  years  entirely  to  its  farther  amendment.  Horace 
has  gone  fo  far  in  recommending  careful  corre6lion,  that 
he  figuratively  mentions  nine  years  as  an  adequate  period 
for  that  purpofe.  But  whatever  may  be  the  time,  there 
is  no  precept  which  he  urges  either  oftener  or  more  for- 
cibly, than  a due  attention  to  this  important  objedt. 

Scope  Jlylum  vertas^  iterum  quee  digna  legi  Jint 
Scripturus.  Sat.  I.  10. 



Pompilius  fanguis^  carmen  reprehendite^  quod  non 
Multa  dies  ^ multa  litura  coercuit^  atque 
R 3 


THE  LIFE,  &C. 

S^erjeHum  decies  non  cajligavit  ad  unguem, 

De  Art.  Poet. 

To  the  feveral  caufes  above  enumerated,  as  concurring 
to  the  great  fuperiority  of  the  Auguftaii  age,  with  refpedf 
to  the  productions  of  literature,  one  more  is  to  be  fubjoin- 
cd,  of  a nature  the  moft  eflential ; the  liberal  and  unpar- 
alleled encouragement  given  to  diftinguidied  talents  by 
the  emperor  and  his  minifter.  This  was  a principle  of 
the  mod  powerful  energy  : it  fanned  the  flame  of  genius, 
invigorated  every  exertion ; and  the  poets  who  bafl-Led  in 
’the  rays  of  imperial  favor,  and  the  animating  patronage 
of  Mecaenas,  experienced  a poetic  enthufiafin  which  ap- 
proached to  real  infpiration. 

Haying  now  finifhed  the  proppfed  explanation,  relative 
to  the  celebrity  of  the  Auguftan  age,  we  lliali  conclude 
with  recapitulating  in  a fevy  words  the  caufes  of  this  ex- 
traordinary occurrence. 

The  models,  then,  which  the  Romans  derived  frorri 
Grecian  poetry,  were  the  fined  productions  of  human  ge- 
nius ; their  incentives  to  emulation  were  the  flrongefl:  that 
could  actuate  the  heart.  With  ardor,  therefore,  and  in- 
duftry  in  compofing,  and  with  unwearied  patience  in  po- 
li filing  their  compofitions,  they  attained  to  that  glorious 
^iftinCtion  in  literature,  which  no  fucceeding  age  has  ever 


{ 247  ) 


L THE  Patrician  family  of  the  Claudii  (for  there 
was  a Plebeian  family  of  the  fame  name,  no  way  inferior 
to  the  other  either  in  power  or  dignity),  came  originally 
from  Regilli,  ^ town  of  the  Sabines.  They  removed 
thence  to  Rome  foon  after  the  building  of  the  city,  with 
a great  body  of  their  dependants,  under  Titus  Tatius, 
who  was  partner  with  Romulus  in  the  kingdom,  or  per- 
haps, what  is  related  upon  better  authority,  under  Atta 
Claudius,  head  of  the  family,  fix  years  after  the  expulhon 
of  the  Tarquins ; at  which  time  they  were  by  the  Senate 
chofen  into  the  body  of  the  nobility  ; receiving  llkewife 
from  the  government  lands  beyond  the  Anio,  for  their 
dependants,  and  a burying-place  for  themfelves  near  the 
Capitol.  After  this  period,  in  procefs  of  time,  the  family 
had  the  honor  of  eight  and  twenty  Confulfhips,  five . 
Di6latorfhips,  feven  Cenforfiiips,  feven  triumphs,  and 
two  ovations.  Their  defcendants  were  diftinguifhed  by 
various  praenomina  and  cognomina  but  reje61:ed  by 


* The  Romans  were  divided  into  various  clans  {Gentes), 
and  each  Gens  into  feveral  families,  {in  Familias  vel  Stirpes), 
Thofe  of  the  fame  Gens  were  called  Gentiles,  and  thofe  of  the 
fame  family.  Agnati,  Relations  by  the  father’s  fide  were 
alfo  called  Agnati,  to  diftinguifii  them  from  Cognati,  relations 

% R 4 onJy 



confent  the  praenomen  of  Lucius,  after  two  of  them  with 
that  name  were  convidled,  one  of  robbery  and  the  other 
of  murder.  Amongft  other  cognomina,  they  affumed  that 
of  Nero,  which  in  the  Sabine  language  fignifies  ftrong 
and  valiant. 

II.  It  appears  from  record,  that  many  of  the  Claudii 
have  performed  fignal  fervices  to  the  (late,  as  well  as 
committed  adls  of  delinquency.  To  mention  the  moH: 

only  by  the  mother’s  fide.  An  Agnatus  might  alfo  be  called 
Cognatus^  but  not  the  contrary. 

To  mark  the  different  gentes  and  familia;^  and  to  dillin- 
gnifii  the  individuals  of  the  fame  family,  the  Romans  had 
commonly  three  names,  the  Prienomen^  ISlomen^  and  Cognomen, 
The  Prsnomen  was  put  firfi,  and  marked  the  individual. 
It  was  ufually  written  with  one  letter;  as  A.  for  Aulus  ; C. 
Caius ; D.  Decimus : fometimes  with  turn  letters  / as  A^.  for 
Appius  ; Cn,  Cneius  : and  fometimes  with  three  ; as  Mam,  for 

The  Nomen  was  put  after  the  Franomen^  and  marked  the 
gens.  It  commonly  ended  in  ius  ; as  Julius^  Tullius^  Cornelius. 
The  Cognomen  ,was  put  laft,  and  marked  familia  ; as  CicerOy 

Ceefar^  &C. 

Some  gentes  feem  to  have  had  no  furname ; as  the  Ma- 
rian ; and  gens  and  familia  feem  fometimes  to  be  put  one 
for  the  other ; as  the  Fabia  gens,  or  Fabia  fa?nilia. 

Sometimes  there  was  a fourth  name,  properly  called  the 
Agnomen^  but  fometimes  likewife  Cog7iQmen,  which  was  added 
upon  account  of  fome  illiifirious  adion  or  remarkable  event. 
Thus  Scipio  was  named  Publius  Cornelius  Scipio  Afrkanusy 
from  the  conqiieft  of  Carthage  in  Africa.  For  the  like 
reafon,  his  brother  was  called  Lucius  Cornelius  Scipio  Afa- 
ticus.  In  the  fame  manner,  Fabius  Maximus  received 
the  Agnomen  of  CunSiator.,  from  his  checking  the  impetuofity 
of  Hannibal  by  declining  battle. 



remarkable  only,  Appius  C^ECUS  difluadeJ  the  Senate 
from  agreeing  to  an  alliance  with  Pyrrhus,  as  prejudicial 
to  the  public.  Claudius  firfl:  pafTed  the  ftrait  of  Sicily 
with  a fleet,  and  drove  the  Carthaginians  out  of  the 
ifland.  Claudius  Nero  cut  oiF  Afdrubal  with  a vaft  army 
Tupon  his  arrival  in  Italy  from  Spain,  before  he  could  join 
his  brother  Annibal.  On  the  other  hand,  Claudius  Ap- 
pius Regillanus,  one  of  the  Decemvirs,  attempted  in  a 
violent  manner,  from  a criminal  paflion,  to  have  a young 
woman,  who  was  free-born,  declared  by  judicial  fen- 
tence  a flave ; a tranfadlion  which  occafioned  a fecond 
reparation  of  the  commons  from  the  Senate.  Claudius 
Drufus  erected  a flatue  of  himfelf  covered  with  a crown’ 
in  the  Forum  of  Appius,  and  endeavored  by^  the  meaiis 
of  his  dependants  to  make  himfelf  mafler  of  Italy.  Clau- 
dius Fulcher,  near  the  coaft  of  Sicily,  when  tile  pullets, 
upon  his  uflng  them  in  the  way  of  augury,  would  not 
■eat,  in  contempt  of  the  ominous  prefage,  funk  tliem  in 
the  fea,  as  if  he  was  refolved  they  fliould  drink  at  leafl, 
if  they  would  not  eat ; and  immediately  engaging  the 
enemy,  was  defeated.  Being  ordered  by  the  Senate  to 
name  a Di£lator,  as  if  he  w'as  refolved  to  make  a jefl  of 
the  public  danger,  he  named  his  purfuivant  Glycias.  Of  the 
women  of  this  family,  llkewife,  the  annals  of  the  Repub- 
lic afford  examples  equally  repugnant  to  each  other.  For 
both  the  Ciaudias  were  of  this  family  : flie,  who,  when 
the  Blip  with  the  holy  things  appertaining  to  the  Idaean 
mother  of  the  Gods  fluek  faff  upon  the  fands  of  the 
Tiber,  brought  it  off,  after  fne  had  with  a loud  voice 
prayed  to  the  Goddefs,  “ Follow  me  if  I am  chafte 
and  fhe  alfo,  that,  contrary  to  the  cuftom  of  the  Romans, 
who  were  not  uftd  to  proceed  In  that  manner  againfl: 
women,  was  tried  by  the  people  for  treafon ; becaufe, 
when  her  chariot  met  with  an  accidental  obflruiSlion 




from  a great  crowd  in  the  ftreets,  Ihe  openly  exclaimed, 
“ I with  my  brother  Pulcher  was  alive  again,  to  lofe  an^ 
other  fleet,  that  there  might  be  lefs  throng  at  Rome,”  Be- 
lides, it  is  notorious  from  the  records  of  paft  times,  that 
all  the  Claudii,  excepting  only  P.  Claudius,  who,  to  ac- 
complilh  the  banifhment  of  Cicero,  procured  a commoner,^ 
and  one  likewife  younger  than  himfelf,  to  adopt  him, 
were  always  of  the  Patrician  party,  as  well  as  great 
fticklers  for  the  honor  and  power  of  that  Order  ; and  fo. 
violent  and  obftinate  in  their  oppofition  to  the  commons, 
that  not  one  of  them,  even  in  the  cafe  of  a trial  for  life  by 
the  people,  would  ever  condefcend  to  put  on  mourning, 
according  to  cuftom,  or  make  any  fupplication  to  them 
for  favor ; and  fome  of  them,  in  their  contefts  with  the 
commons,  have  even  proceeded  to  lay  hands  on  their 
Tribunes.  A Veflal  virgin  likewife  of  the  family,  when 
her  brother  was  refolved  to  have  the  honor  of  a triumph 
in  fpite  of  the  authority  of  the  people  to  the  contrary, 
mounted  the  chariot  with  him,  and  attended-  him  into 
the  Capitol,  to  prevent  the  Tribunes  from  interpofing  to 
forbid  it. 

III.  From  this  family  Tiberius  Caefar  is  defcended,  an4 
indeed  both  by  the  father  and  mother’s  fide ; by  the  for- 
mer from  Tiberius  Nero,  and  by  the  latter  from  Ap- 
pius Pulcher,  who  were  both  fons  of  Appius  Cacus.  He 
likewife  belonged  to  the  family  of  the  Livii,  by  the  adop-? 
lion  of  his  mother’s  grand-father  into  it : w'hich  family, 
though  plebeian,  made  a difinguifhed  figure,  having  had 
the  honor  of  eight  Confulfhips,  two  Cenforfliips,  three 
triumphs,  one  DirSlatorfhip,  and  the  office  of  Mafler  of 
tile  Horfe  ; and  was  famous  for  eminent  men,  particularly 
Salinator  and  the  Drufi.  Salinator,  in  his  Cenforlhip, 
put  a mark  of  infamy  upon  all  the  tribes,  for  their  incon- 



ftancy  in  making  him  Conful  a fecond  time,  and  Genfor, 
though  they  had  condemned  and  fined  him  after  his  firfi: 
Confulfhip.  Drufus  procured  for  himfelf  and  his  pofieri- 
ty  a new  furname,  by  killing  in  clofe  fight  Draufus,  a 
general  of  the  enemy.  He  is  likewife  faid  to  have  re- 
covered, when  Pro-prstor  in  the  province  of  Gaul,  the 
gold  which  had  been  formerly  given  to  the  Senones,  in 
the  fiege  of  the  Capitol,  and  had  not,  as  is  reported,  been 
forced  from  them  by  Camillus.  His  great-great-grand- 
fon,  who  for  his  extraordinary  fervices  againfi:  the  Gracchi, 
was  flyled  the  patron  of  the  Senate,  left  a fon,  who,  pro- 
jedling  a variety  of  fchemes,  during  a fimilar  diflenfion, 
was  murdered  in  a treacherous  manner  by  the  oppolite 

IV,  But  the  father  of  Tiberius  C^far,  being  Qusefior 
to  C.  Caefar,  and  commander  of  the  fleet  in  the  war  of 
Alexandria,  contributed  greatly  to  the  fuccefs  of  it.  He 
was  therefore  made  one  of  the  high-priefis  in  the  room  of 
P.  Scipio  ^ and  was  fent  to  fettle  fome  colonies  in  Gaul,  and 
amongfl;  the  reft  thofe  of  Narbonne  and  Arles.  After  the 
death  of  Casfar,  however,  wlien  th^  reft  of  the  Senators, 
for  fear  of  public  difturbances,  were  for  having  the  tranf- 
adlion  buried  in  oblivion,  he  even  moved  exprefsly  the 
boufe  for  rewarding  thofe  who  had  killed  the  tyrant. 
When  his  Praetorflrip  was  expired,  upon  occafion  of  a 
difturbance  breaking  out  amongft  the  Triumviri,  in  the' 
end  of  the  year,  he  kept  the  badges  of  his  office  beyond 
the  legal  time  ; and  following  L.  Antonius  the  Conful, 
brother  to  the  Triumvir,  to  Perufia,  though  the  reft  fub- 
mitted,  yet  he  by  himfelf  continued  firm  to  the  party,  and 
got  off  firft  to  Praenefte,  and  then  to  Naples  ; whence, 
having  in  vain  invited  the  flaves  to  liberty,  he  fled  over  to 
Sicily.  But  conceiving  refentment  ai  not  being  imme- 
g diatcly 



diately  admitted  into  the  prefence  of  Sextus  Poinpey,  and 
being  befidcs  forbid  the  ufe  of  the  Fafces,  he  went  over 
into  Achaia  to  M.  Antony ; with  whom,  upon  a recon- 
ciliation foon  after  brought  about  amongft  the  feveral 
contending  parties,  he  returned  to  Rome  ; and,  at  the  re- 
queft  of  Auguftus,  gave  up  to  him  hi's  wife  Livia  Dru- 
filla,  though  Ihe  was  then  big  with  child,  and  had  before 
borne  him  a fon.  He  died  not  long  after  ; leaving  Ire- 
hind  him  two  foils,  Tiberius  and  Dfufus  Nero. 

V.  Some  have  imagined  that  Tiberius  was  born  at 
Fundi,  but  upon  a trifling  foundation  for  the  conjedlure, 
becaufe  his  mother’s  grandmother  was  of  Fundi,  and  that 
the  image  of  Good  Fortune  was  by  a decree  of  the  Senate 
ere61:ed  in  a public  place  in  that  town.  But  according 
to  the  greatefl  number  of  writers,  and  thofe  too  of  the 
beft  authority,  he  was  born  at  Rome,  in  the  Palatium, 
upon  the  fixteenth  of  the  Calends  of  December,  when  M. 
^milius  Lepidus  was  fecond  time  Conful,  with  L.  Mu- 
natius Plancus,  after  the  battle  of  Philippi  ; for  fo  it  is 
regiflered  in  the  calendar,  and  the  public  adfs.  Accord- 
ing to  fome,  however,  he  was  born  the  preceding  year, 
in  the  Confulfhip  of  Hirtius  and  Panfa ; and  others  fay, 
in  the  year  following,  during  the  Confulfhip  of  Servilius 
Ifauricus  and  Antony. 

VI.  His  infancy  and  childhood  were  pafTed  amidft  a 
great  deal  of  danger  and  trouble.  He  accompanied  his 
parents  every  where  in  their  flight,  and  had  like  to  have 
betrayed  them  by  his  crying  at  Naples,  as  they  were  pri- 

• vately  making  towards  their  fhip,  upon  the  enemy’s 
breaking  into  the  town : once,  when  he  was  taken  from 
his  nurfe’s  breaft,  and  again,  from  his  mother’s  bofom, 
by  fome  of  the  company,  who  on  that  fudden  emergency 



w'lfhed  to  eafe  thb  women  of  their  burden.  Being  car- 
ried through  Sicily  and  Achaia,  and  entruhed  fome  time 
to  the  care  of  the  Lacedemonians,  who  were  under  the 
protection  of  the  Claudian  family,  upon  his  departure 
thence  by  night,  he  ran  the  hazard  of  his  life,  by  a fire 
fuddenly  burfting  out  of  a wood  on  all  hands,  wLich  fur- 
rounded  the  whole  company  fo  clofely,  that  part  of  Li- 
via’s  cloaths  and  hair  were  burnt.  The  prefents  which 
were  made  him  by  Pompeia,  fifter  to  Sextus  Pompey,  in 
Sicily,  viz.  a cloak,  a clafp,  and  golden  bullae,  are  ftiil  ex- 
tant, and  fhewn  at  Baise  to  this  day.  After  his  return  to 
the  city,  being  adopted  by  M.  Gallius,  a Senator,  in  his 
will,  he  entered  upon  the  eftate ; but  foon  after  declined 
the  ufe  of  his  name,  becaufe  Gallius  had  been  of  the  party 
againft  Auguilus.  When  only  nine  years  of  age,  he 
pronounced  a funeral  oration  in  praife  of  his  father  upon 
the  Roftra ; and  afterwards,  when  he  had  nearly  attained 
the  age  of  manhood,  he  attended  the  chariot  of  Auguftus, 
in  his  triumph  for  the  vidlory  at  A6lium,  riding  upon  the 
outfide  horfe  of  his  chariot  on  the  left  hand,  whilll  Mar- 
cellus, Odfavia’s  fon,  rode  upon  the  right.  He  likewife 
prefided  at  the  games  celebrated  upon  account  of  that 
vidtory ; and  in  the  Trojan  games  intermixed  with  the 
Circenfian,  he  commanded  a troop  of  the  tallell  boys. 

VII.  After  afluming  the  manly  habit,  he  fpent  his 
youth,  and  the  reft  of  his  life  until  he  came  to  the  go- 
vernment, in  the  following  manner.  He  gave  the  people 
an  entertainment  of  gladiators,  in  memory  of  his  father, 
and  another  for  his  grandfather  Drufus,  at  different  times 
and  in  different  places  : the  firft  in  the  Forum,  the  fe- 
cond  in  the  amphitheatre  ; fome  gladiators  who  had  been 
honorably  difcharged,  being  induced  to  engage  again,  by 
a reward  of  a hundred  thoufand  fefterces.  ‘Tde  likewife 


^254  LIFE  CfP 

|)refentcd  the  public  with  plays,  but  was  not  prefent  himfelf. 
All  thefe  he  did  in  a fplendid  in>nner,  at  the  charge  ofhis 
mother  and  father-in  law.  He  married  Agrippina,  the 
daughter  of  M.  Agrippa,  and  grand-daughter  of  Cseci- 
iius  Atticus,  a Roman  knight,  the  fame  perfon  to  whorrf 
Cicero  has  addreffcd  fo  many  epiftles.  After  he  had  by  her 
his  fon  Drufus,  he  was  obliged  to  part  with  her,  though 
file  retained  his  afteclion,  and  was  again  pregnant,  to  marry 
Auguftus^s  daughter  Julia.  But  this  he  did  with  extreme 
reluctance ; for,  hefides  having  the  warmeft  attachment 
to  Agrippina,  he  was  difgufted  with  the  behaviour  of 
Julia,  who  had  made  indecent  advances  to  him  during 
the  life-time  of  her  former  hufband  ; and  that  fhe  was  a 
woman  of  fuch  a character,  was  the  general  opinion  of 
her.  After  the  divorce  of  Agrippina  he  felt  the  deepeli 
regret ; and  upon  meeting  her  afterwards,  he  looked  af- 
ter her  with  eyes  fo  palfionately  expreflive  of  afFeClion,- 
that  care  was  taken  fhe  fhould  never  come  more  in  his 
light.  At  firft,  however,  he  lived  quietly  and  happily 
with  Julia : but  a rupture  foon  enfued  5 which  became  fo 
violent,  that,  after  the  lofs  of  their  fon,  who  was  born  at 
Aqiiilela,  and  died  an  infant,  he  never  would  deep  with 
her  more.  He  loft  his  brother  Drufus  in  Germany,  and 
brought  his  body  to  Rome,  travelling  all  the  way  on  foot 
before  it. 

VIIL  In  his  firft  eftays  in  the  offices  of  civil  life,  he 
pleaded  the  feveral  caufcs  of  king  Archelaus,^  the  Tral- 
lians,  and  ThelTallans,  before  Auguftus,  who  fat  as 
judge  at  the  trial  of  them.  He  interceded  with  the  Se- 
nate in  behalf  of  the  Laodiceans,  the  Thyatircans,  and- 
Chians,  who  had  faifered  greatly  by  an  earthquake,  and 
folicited  relief  of  the  Romans.  He  profecuteJ  Fannius 
Caepio,  who  had  been  engaged  in  a confpiracy  with- 



Varro  Mursena  againft  Auguftus,  and  procured  fentence 
of  condemnation  againft  him.  During  thefc  tranfacfions, 
he  had  a double  charge  upon  his  hands,  that  of  fuppiying 
the  city  with  corn,  which  was  then  very  fcarce,  and 
that  of  purging  the  work-houfes  throughout  Italy  ; the 
mafters  of  which  were  fallen  under  an  odious  fufpicioa 
of  feizing  and  keeping  confined,  not  only  travellers,  but 
thofe  whom  the  fear  of  being  obliged  to  ferve  in  the 
wars,  had  driven  to  feek  refuge  in  fuch  places. 

IX.  He  made  his  firft  campaign  in  the  war  of  Can- 
tabria,  in  quality  of  a Tribune.  Afterwards  he  led  an 
army  into  the  Eaft,  where  he  reftored  the  kingdom  of 
Armenia  to  Tigranes  ; and  being  feated  upon  a tribunal, 
put  a crown  upon  his  head.  He'  likewifc  received  from 
the  Parthians  the  ftandards  which  they  had  taken  from 
Craftus.  He  next  governed,  for  near  a year,  die  pro- 
vince of  Gallia  Comata,  which  w^as  then  in  great  dif- 
order,  on  account  of  the  incurfions  of  the  barbarians, 
and  the  feuds  of  the  grandees.  He  afterwards  commanded 
in  the  feveral  wars  againft  the  Rhretians,' Vindelicians, 
Pannonians,  and  Germans.  In  the  Rhaetian  and  Viiide- 
lician  wars,  ‘he  fubdued  the  nations  in  the  Alps  ; and  in 
the  Pannonian,  the  Bruci  and  the  Dalmatians.  In  the 
German  war,  he  tranfplanted  into  Gaul  forty  thou- 
fand  of  the  enemy  that  had  fulimitted,  and  aftigned  them 
lands  near  the  banks  of  the  Rhine,  For  thefe  acftions, 
he  entered  the  city  in  ovation,  but  mounted  on  a cha- 
riot, and  is  faid  by  fome  to  have  been  the  firft  that  ever 
vvas  honored  with  this  'diftindiion.  He  entered  very 
young  upon  the  public  offices  of  ftate  ; and  ran  through 
the  Quaeftorfiiip,  Prastorfhip,  and  Confulate  aimoft  fuc- 
ceffively-  After  fome  interval,  he  was  chofen  Coaftil  a 


the  life  of 

fecond  time,  and  held  the  Tribunitlaii  authority  during 
five  years, 

X.  In  the  niidd  of  all  his  profperity,  in  the  prime  of 
his  years,  and  a good  flate  of  health,  he  all  on  a fudden 
formed  a refolution  to  withdraw  to  a great  diflance  from 
Rome.  It  is  uncertain  whether  this  was  owing  to  any 
confideration  of  his  wife,  whom  he  neither  durfl  com- 
plain of,  nor  divorce,  and  with  whom  the  connexion  be- 
came every  day  more  intolerable  ; or  to  prevent  that  in- 
difference towards  him,  which  his  conflant  rehdence  in 
the  city  might  in  time  produce  ; or  to  the  hope  of  fup- 
porting  and  improving  by  abfence  his  authority  in  the 
flare,  if  the  public  fliould  have  occafion  for  his  fervice. 
Some  are  of  «opinion,  that  becaufe  Auguflus^s  fons  were 
now  grown  up  to  years  of  maturity,  he  voluntarily  re- 
iinquifhed  the  poffeffion  he  had  long  enjoyed  of  the  fecond 
poll  in  the  government',  as  Agrippa  had  done  before 
him  ; who,  when  M.  Marcellus  was  advanced  to  public 
oinces,  retired  to  Mitylene,  that  lie  might  not  feem  to 
Hand  in  the  way  of  his  promotion,  or  in  any  refpeifi 
jeffen  him  by  his  prefence.  The  fame  reafon  likewife 
Tiberius  gave  afterwards  for  his  retirement  ; but  his  pre- 
text at  this  time  was,  that  he  was  fatiated  with  honors, 
and  defirous  of  being  relieved  from  the  fatigue  of  bufi- 
finefs  ; requefting  therefore  that  he  might  have  leave  to 
withdraw.  And  neither  the  earneft  entreaties  of  his  mo- 
ther, nor  the  complaints  of  his  father-in-law  in  the  Se- 
nate, that  he  was  deferted  by  him,  could  prevail  upon 
him  to  alter  his  refolution.  Upon  their  perhfiing  in  the 
defign  of  detaining  him,  he  refufed  to  take  any  fufte- 
nance  for  four  days  together.  At  lad,  having  obtained 
permiffion,  he  quitted  the  city  with  his  wife  and  fon,  and 



^veiit  immediately  for  Oflia,  without  fpeaking  a word  to 
any  perfoii  that  waited  upon  him  thither  j and  faluted  but 
Very  few  at  parting. 

XL  From  Oftia  coafting  along  Campania,  upon  ad- 
vice of  Auguftus’s  being  taken  ill,  he  flopped  a little  ; but 
this  circumflance  giving  rife  to  a rumor  that  he  flaid  wdth 
a view  to  fomething  extraordinary,  he  refumed  his  voy- 
age, and  with  the  wind  almofl  full  againfl  him  arrived 
at  Rhodes  ; having  been  much  taken  with  the  pleafant- 
nefs  and  wholfonienefs  of  the  ifland,  from  the  time  of  his 
landing  there  in  his  return  from  Armenia.  Here  con- 
tenting himfelf  with  a moderate houfe,  and  a eoimtry-feat 
not  much  larger,  near  the  town,  he  led  entirely  a private 
life  ; taking  his  walks  fometimes  about  the  Gymnafia 
without  any  fervant  to  attend  him,  and  returning  the 
civilities  of  the  Greeks  with  almofl  as  much  complaifance 
as  if  he  had  been  upon  a level  with  them.  Gne  morn-' 
ing  in  fettling  the  rout  of  his  diurnal  excurfion,  he  hap- 
pened to  fay,  that  he  fhould  vifit  all  the  fick  people  in 
town.  This  being  not  rightly  underilood  by  thofe  about 
him,  the  fick  people  w^ere  brought  into  a public  portico, 
and  ranged  in  order,  according  to  their  feveral  diftem^ 
pers.  Being  extremely  embarraffed  by  this  unexpedled 
occurrence,  he  was  for  fome  time  irrefolute  how  he 
fliould  acl  ; but  at  laft  he  determined  to  go  round  them 
all,  and  made  an  apology  for  the  iniftake  even  to  the 
meanell  amongfl  them,  and  fuch  as  were  entirely  unknown 
to  him.  One  inflance  only  is  mentioned,  in  which  he 
appeared  to  exercife  his  Tribunitian  authority.  Being  a 

* The  Gynthajla  were  places  of  exercife,  and  received 
their  denomination  from  a Greek  word  fignifying  naked  j 
becaufe  the  contending  parties  wore  nothing  but  drawers. 

S ‘conflant 



conftant  attendant  upon  the  fchools  and  auditories  of  die 
profefTors  of  the  liberal  arts,  upon  occafion  of  a quarrel 
amongft  the  counter-fophifters,  in  which  he  interpofed  to 
reconcile  them,  fome  perfon  took  the  liberty  to  abufe 
him  as  partial  in  the  affair.  Upon  this,  withdrawing 
privately  home,  he  fuddenly  returned  with  his  officers  at* 
tending  him,  fummoned  before  him,  by  a public  crier,  the 
perfon  who  was  the  objedf  of  his  rcfentment,  and  order- 
ed him  to  be  carried  to  prifon.  Afterwards  he  received 
advice  that  his  wife  Julia  had  been  condemned  for  her 
iewdnefs  and  adultery,  and  that  a bill  of  divorce  had  been 
fent  to  her  in  his  name,  by  the  authority  of  Auguftus. 
Though  he  fecretly  rejoiced  at  this  intelligence,  he 
thought  it  incumbent  upon  him,  in  point  of  decency,  to 
interpofe  in  her  behalf  by  frequent  letters  to  Auguftus, 
and  to  allow  her  to  retain  the  prefenls  which  he  had  made 
her,  notwithftanding  the  little  regard  Ihe  merited  of 
him.  When  the  time  of  Tribunitian  authority  expired, 
declaring  at  laft  that  he  had  no  other  objedl  in  his  retire- 
ment than  to  avoid  all  fufpiclon  of  rivalfhip  with  Cains 
and  Lucius,  he  petitioned,  that,  fince  he  was  now  fecure 
in  that  refped,  as  they  were  come  to  the  age  of  man- 
hood, and  would  eafily  maintain  theinfelves  in  the  pof- 
feffion  of  the  fecond  polls  of  government,  he  might  be 
permitted  to  vifit  his  friends,  whom  he  was  very  defirous 
of  feeing.  But  his  requeft  was  denied  ; and  he  was  ad- 
- vifed^to  lay  afide  all  concern  for  his  relations,  whom 
. he  had  left  with  fuch  eagerncfs  for  feparation, 

XIL  He  therefore  continued  at  Rhodes  much  againfl: 
his  will,  obtaining  with  difficulty,  by  his  mother,  the 
title  of  Auguftus’s  lieutenant,  to  conceal  his  dlfgrace. 
He  thenceforth  lived  however  not  only  as  a private  per- 
fon, but  in  danger  and  perplexity,  retiring  up  into  the 



tountry,  and  avoiding  the  vifits  of  thofe  v/ho  failed  that 
way,  which  were  very  frequent ; for  no  one  paffed  for 
the  command  of  an  army,  or  government  of  a province 
in  thofe  parts,  without  putting  in  at  Rhodes.  But  there 
were  other  reafons  which  gave  him  yet  greater  difturh- 
ance.  For  paffing  over  into  Samos,  upon  a vifit  to  hiS 
ftep-fon  Caius,  who  had  been  made  a governor  in  the 
Eaft,  he  found  him  prepoflTefTed  againft  him^  by  the  in-* 
finuations  of  M.  Lollius^  his  companion  and  diredfor» 
He  likewife  fell  under  a fufpicion  of  fending  by  fome 
captains  who  had  been  promoted  by  himfelf,  upon  their 
return  to  the  camp  after  a furlough,  dark  kinds  of  mef- 
fages  to  feveral  perfons  there,  as  if  intended  to  found 
them  how  they  were  dlfpofed  to  revolt.  This  jealoufy 
refpedling  his  defigns  being  intimated  to  him  by  Auguf- 
tus,  he  begged  repeatedly  that  fome  perfon  of  any  of  the 
three  Orders  might  be  placed  as  a fpy  upon  him  in  every 
thing  he  either  faid  or  did. 

XIIT.  He  laid  afide  likewife  his  uftial  exefcifes  of  rid- 
ing and  arms ; and  quitting  the  Roman  habit,  made  ufe 
of  the  Pallium  and  Crepida  In  this  condition  he  con- 
tinued almofl  two  years,  becoming  daily  more  contempt- 
ible and  odious ; infomuch  that  the  Nemaufenfians  pull- 
ed down  all  the  images  and  flatues  of  him  in  their  town. 
Upon  mention  being  made  of  him  at  Caius’s  table,  one 
of  the  company  faid  to  that  governor,  “ I will  go  over 
to  Rhodes  immediately,  if  you  dehre  me,  and  bring  you 
the  head  of  the  exile for  that  was  the  appellation  now 
given  him.  Thus  alarmed  not  only  by  apprehenfions, 
but  real  danger,  he  renewed  his  felicitations  for  leave  to 
return  ; and  feconded  by  the  moft  urgent  fupplications  of 

* A low  ilioe,  or  flipped 
S 7r 




his  mother,  he  at  laft  obtained  his  requefl ; to  -which  a a 
accident  fomewhat  contributed.  Auguftus  had  refolved 
to  determine  nothing  in  the  affair,  but  with  the  confent 
of  his  eldcil:  fon.  The  latter  was  at  that  time  out  of  hu- 
mor with  M.  Lollius,  and  therefore  eafily  engaged  to  a 
compliance  in  favor  of  his  father-in-law.  Caius  thus 
acquiefeing  in  the  meafure^  he  was  recalled,  but  upon 
condition,  tliat  he  fliould  take  no  concern  whatever  in 
the  adminiftration  of  affairs^ 

XIV.  He  returned  to  Rome  after  an  abfence  of  near 
-eight  years,  with  great  and  confident  hopes  of  his  future 
elevation,  which  from  his  youth  he  had  entertained  from 
various  prodigies  and  predictions.  For  Livia,  wdien 
pregnant  with  him,  being  anxious  to  difeover,  by  differ- 
ent ways  of  divination,  whether  her  offspring  would  be 
a fon  j amongfl  the  reft  took  an  egg  from  a hen  that  was 
litting,  and  kept  it  warm  with  her  own  hands,  and  her 
maids^  by  turns,  until  a fine  cock-chicken  with  a large 
comb  was  hatched.  Scribonius  the  aftrologer  predicted 
great  things  of  him  when  he  was  but  a child.  “ He 
will  come,”  faid  the  prophet,  “ in  time  to  be  a king  too, 
but  without  the  ufual  badge  of  royal  dignity the  dig- 
nity of  the  Caefars  being  as  yet  unknown  to  the  world. 
As  he  was  going  upon  his  firft  expedition,  and  leading 
his  arjny  through  Macedonia  for  Syria,  the  altars  which 
had  been  confecrated  at  Philippi  by  the  victorious  legions 
blazed  out  of  themfelves  all  on  a fudden  with  fire.  Soon 
after,  as  he  was  marching  to  Illyricum,  he  called  to 
confult  the  oracle  of  Geryon  at  Patavium  ; and  having 
drawn  a lot  by  which  he  was  defired  to  throw  golden 
tali  into  the  fountain  of  Aponus,  for  an  anfwer  to  his 
enquiries,  he  did  fo,  and  the  higheft  numbers  came  up. 
And  thofe  very  tali  are  ftill  to  be  feen  at  the  bottom  of 




the  fountain.  A few  days  before  his  leaving  Rhodes, 
an  eagle,  a bird  never  before  feen  in  that  ifland,  fat  all 
day  long  upon  the  top  of  his  houfe.  And  the-day  before 
he  received  advice  of  the  permiffion  granted  him  to  re- 
turn, as  he  was  changing  his  cloaths,  his  tunic  appeared: 
to  be  all  on  fire.  He  then  likewife  had  a remarkable 
proof  of  the  (kill  of  Thrafyllus  the  aftrologer,  whom,  for 
his  proficiency  in  philofophical  refearches,  he  had  taken 
into  his  family.  For  upon  fight  of  the  fliip  that  brought 
the  advice,  he  faid,  good  news  was  coming  : whereas 
every  thing  going  wrong  before,  and  quite  contrary  to 
expectation,  Tiberius  had  intended  that  very  moment  to 
throw  him  into  the  fea,  as  an  impoflor,  and  one  to  whom 
he  had  too  haflily  entruhed  his  fecrets, 

XV,  Upon  his  return  to  Rome,  having  introduced  his 
fon  Drufus  into  the  Forum,  he  immediately  removed 
from  Pompey’s  houfe  in  the  Garinaa,  to  the  gardens" of 
Mecsenas  in  the  EfquilijE,  and  refigned  himfelf  entire- 
ly to  his  eafe,  performing  only  the  common  offices 
of  civility  in  private  life,  without  any  preferment  in 
the  government.  But  Caius  and  Lucius  being  both 
carried  off  in  the  fpace  of  three  years,  he  was  adopt- 
ed by  Auguftus  with  their  brother  Agrippa ; being 
obliged  in  the  firft  place  to  adopt  Germanicus,  his  bro-? 
ther’s  fon.  After  this,  he  never  more  adled  as  mafter  of 
a family,  nor  exercifed  in  the  fmalleft  degree  the  rights 
which  he  had  loft  by  adoption.  For  he  neither  difpofed 
of  any  thing  in  the  way  of  gift,  nor  manumifed  a flave  ; 
nor  fo  much  as  received  any  eftate  left  him  by  will,  nor 
any  legacy  without  reckoning  it  as  a part  of  his  pecu- 
lium or  property  held  under  his  father.  From  that  day 
forward,  nothing  was  omitted  tliat  might  contribute  to 
the  advancement  of  his  grandeur,  and  much  more,  whenj 

S 3 upon 


Tuppii  the  difcarding  and  bariiihing  of  Agrippa,  it  was 
evident  that  the  hope  of  fuqeflion  refted  upon  him  alone, 

XVI.  The  Tribunitian  authority  was  again  conferred 
upon  him  for  five  years,  and  a commiffion  given  him  to 
fettle  the  jflate  of  Germany,  The  ambafTadors  of  the 
Parthians,  after  having  had  an  audience  of  Auguflus,  were 
ordered  to  apply  to  him  likewife  in  his  province.  But 
upon  advice  of  an  infurreftion  in  Illyricum,  he  went 
over  to  fuperintend  the  management  of  that  new  war, 
which  proved  the  moft  dangerous  pf  all  the  foreign  wars, 
fince  the  Carthaginian,  This  he  conducted  during  three 
years,  with  fifteen  legions  and  an  equal  number  of  auxi- 
liary forces,  under  great  difficulties,  and  an  extreme  fcar- 
city  of  corn.  And  though  he  was  feveral  times  defired 
to  come  home,  he  neverthejefs  perhfted  ; fearing  left  an 
enemy  fo  powerful,  and  likewife  fo  near,  fhould  fall 
upon  them  \n  their  retreat.  This  refolutipn  was  attend- 
ed with  good  fuccefs  ; for  he  at  laft  reduced  to  complete 
fubje6lion  all  Tllyricurn,  lying  betwixt  Italy  and  the 
kingdom  of  Noricum,  Thrace,  Macedonia,  the  rivei^ 
Panube,  and  the  Adriatic  gulf, 

XVII.  The  glory  he  acquired  by  thefe  tranfa61:ions 
received  an  encreafe  from  the  conjundlure  in  which  they 
happened.  For  almoft  about  that  very  time  Quintilius 
Varus  was  cut  off  with  three  legions  in  Germany  ; and 
it  was  generally  believed  that  the  vidlorious  Germans 
would  have  joined  the  Pannonians,  had  not  the  war  of 
Illyricum  been  previoufly  concluded.  A triumph  there- 
fore, exclufive  of  many  other  great  honors,  was  decreed 
him.  Some  propofed  that  he  fhould  have  the  appella- 
tion of  “ Pannonicus,”  others  that  of  Invincible,”  and 
others,  pf  Dutiful,”  But  with  refpedl  to  any  of  thefe 




appellations  Auguftus  interpofed,  as  unneceflary  ; engag- 
ing for  him  that  he  would  be  fatisfied  with  what  he 
fhould  leave  him  at  his  death.  He  poflponed  his  tri- 
umph, becaufe  the  hate  was  at  that  time  under  great 
afflidlion  for  the  difafter  of  Varus  and  his  army.  Ne- 
verthelefs,  he  entered  the  city  in  a triumphal  robe,  with 
a crown  of  laurel  on  his  head,  and  mounted  a tribunal  in 
the  Septa,  whilft  the  Senate  gave  their  attendance  hand- 
ing, and  fat  with  Auguhus  betwixt  the  two  Confuls  ; 
whence,  after  he  had  paid  his  refpecSls  to  the  people,  he 
, was  attended  by  them  on  a vifit  to  the  feveral  temples. 

XVJII.  Next  year  he  went  again  to  Germany,  where 
finding  that  the  defeat  of  Varus  had  happened  through 
the  rafhnefs  and  negligence  of  the  commander,  he  thought 
proper  to  be  guided  in  every  thing  by  the  advice  of  a 
council  of  war  : whereas  at  other  times,  he  ufed  to  fol- 
low the  di dilates  of  his  own  judgment,  and  confidered 
himfelf  alone  as  fufficiently  qualified  for  the  diredfion  of 
affairs.  He  likewife  took  more  care  than  ufual.  Being 
to  pafs  the  Rhine,  and  having  given  particular  orders 
about  provifions  for  the  army,  he  would  not  fuffer  the 
waggons  to  go  over,  until  he  had  fearched  them  at  the 
water-fide,  to  fee  that  they  carried  notliing  but  what  was 
permitted  or  neceffary.  Beyond  the  Rhine,  fuch  was 
his  way  of  living,  that  he  would  eat  fitting  on  the  bare 
ground  ; often  lie  all  night  without  a tent ; and  his  regu- 
lar daily  orders,  as  well  as  thofe  upon  fudden  emergen- 
cies, he  gave  all  in  writing,  with  this  injundlion,  that 
in  cafe  of  any  doubt  as  to  the  meaning  of  them,  they 
fhould  apply  to  him  for  fatisfadfion,  even  at  any  hour  of 
the  night. 

XIX,  He  maintained  the  flriddefl:  difcipline  amongft 
• S 4 the 



the  troops ; reviving  many  old  cuftonis  relative  to  the 
punifhing  and  difgracing  of  offenders ; fetting  a mark  of 
infamy  even  upon  a lieutenant-general,  for  fending  a 
few  foldiers  with  a freedman  of  his  beyond  the  river  a 
hunting.  Though  it  was  his  defire  to  leave  as  little  as 
poffible  in  the  power  of  fortune  or  accident,  yet  he  al- 
ways felt  a ftronger  impuife  to  engage  the  enemy,  as  of- 
ten as  upon  his  reading  by^  night,  his  lamp  fell  and  went 
out  of  itfelf,  confiding,  as  he  faid,  in  an  omen  which 
had  been  fully  evinced  by  himfelf  and  his  ancefiors  in 
the  command  of  armies.  But  after  all  his  fuccefs  in 
the  war,  he  was  very  near  being  affafiinated  by  a Bruc- 
terian,  who  mixing  with  thofe  about  him,  and  being  dif- 
covered  by  his  trepidation,  was  put  to  the  torture,  and 
confeffed  that  he  had  entertained  a defign  upon  his  life, 

XX.  After  two  years  he  returned  from  Germany  to 
town  again,  and  celebrated  the  triumph  which  he  had 
deferred,  attended  by  his  lieutenant-generals,  for  whom 
he  had  procured  the  honor  of  triumphal  ornaments.  Be- 
fore he  turned  up  to  the  Capitol,  he  alighted  from  his 
chariot,  and  threw  himfelf  at  his  father’s  feet,  who  fat 
by  to  fuperintend  the  folemnity.  Bato  the  Pannonian 
general  he  fent  loaded  with  rich  prefents  to  Ravenna,  in 
gi'atitude  for  his  having  fuffered  him  and  his  army  to 
march  off,  from  a place  where  he  had  fo  enclofed  them 
that  they  were  entirely  at  his  mercy.  He  afterwards 
gave  the  people  a dinner  at  a thoufand  tables,  befides 
thirty  fefterces  to  each  man.  He  llkewife  dedicated  the 
temple  of  Concord ; as  alfo  that  of  Caftor  and  Pollux, 
which  had  been  eredled  out  of  the  fpoils  of  the  war, 
jiis  own  and  his  brother’s  name, 

iXXI.  A law  being  not  long  after  preferred  and  pa  fled 

TIBERltrs  KERO  CJESAR.  265 

hy  fhe  Confuls  for  his  being  joined  with  Angnftus  In  the 
adminiftratsoii  of  the  provinces,  and  likewife  to  take  the 
Cenfus  with  him,  upon  the  conclufion  of  that  affair, 
he  went  into  Illyricum.  But  being  hahily  recalled, 
•whilft  he  was  yet  upon  his  journey,  he  found  Auguftus 
alive  indeed,  but  pafl  all  hopes  of  recovery,  and  was 
with  him  in  private  a whole  day.  I know,  it  is  gene- 
rally believed,  that  upon  Tiberius^s  quitting  the  rooin> 
after  their  private  conference,  thofe  who  were  in  wait- 
ing over-heard  Auguflus  fay,  “ Ah!  unhappy  Roman 
people,  that  are  like  to  be  in  the  jaws  of  fuch  ^ flovy- 
grinding  beaft.”  Nor  am  I ignorant  of  its  being  report- 
ed by  fome,  that  Auguftus  fo  openly  and  undifguifedly 
.condemned  the  fournefs  of  his  temper,  that  fometitnes 
upon  his  coming  in,  he  would  break  pfF  any  jocular  coh- 
verfation  in  which  he  was  engaged ; and  that  he  was 
jonly  prevailed  upon  by  the  importunity  of  his  wife  to 
adopt  him  ; or  adluated  with  an  ambitious  view  of  re- 
commending his  own  memory  from  a comparifon  with 
fuch  a fucceffor.  Yet  I muft  be  of  opinion,  that  a prince 
fo  extremely  circumfpe6l  and  prudent  as  he  was,  efpe- 
cially  in  an  affair  of  fo  great  importance,  did  nothing 
rafhly  ; but  that,  upon  weighing  the  vices  and  virtues  of 
Tiberius  with  each  other,  he  judged  the  latter  to  prepon- 
derate ; and  this  the  rather,  fmce  he  fwore  publicly  in  an 
affembly  of  the  people,  that  “ he  adopted  him  for  the 
public  good.’’  Befides,  in  feveral  of  his  letters,  he  ex- 
. .tols  him  as  a confummate  general,  and  the  foie  fecuriiy 
of  the  Roman  people.  Of  fuch  declarations  I fubjoin  the 
following  inftances  ; “ Farewell,  my  dear  Tiberius,  and 
may  fuccefs  attend  you,  whilft  you  command  for  me 
and  the  Mufes.  Farewell,  my  moft  dear,  and  (let  me 
profper  according  to  my  fincerity)  moft  gallant  man,  and 
accompliftied  generah’*  Again,  “ The  difpofitlon  of 




your  fummer-quarters  ? In  truth,  my  dear  Tiberius,  I 
do  not  think,  that  amidft  fo  many  difficulties,  and  with 
an  army  fo  little  difpofed  for  adlion,  any  one  could  have 
behaved  more  prudently  than  you  have  done.  All  thofe 
likewlfe  who  were  with  you,  acknowledge  that  verfe 
applicable  to  you 

Unus  homo  nobis  vigilando  reftituit  rem, 

• This  man  by  vigilance  reflor*d  the  ftate. 

Whether,’’  fays  he,  any  thing  happens  that  requires^ 
more  than  ordinary  conli deration,  or  I am  out  of  humor 
upon  any  occaflon,  I ftill,  by  Hercules,  long  for  my 
dear  Tiberius ; and  thofe  lines  of  Homer  frequently  oc-* 
^ur  to  my  thoughts 

T»Ta  5“’  la-TTO/AEVOlO  HM  £K  TTVpO^  at9ofJ(.£VOlO 

vo(7%a'ai[Jt.£v,  sttei  Trspi  oih  voncnxi. 

Bold  from  his  prudence,  I could  ev’n  afpire 

To  dare  with  him  the  burning  rage  of  fire. 

“ When  I hear  and  read  that  you  are  much  impaired 
by  the  continued  fatigues  you  undergo,  let  me  die  if  it 
don’t  fet  my  whole  body  a trembling.  And  I beg  you 
to  fpare  yourfelf,  left,  if  we  fhould  hear  of  your  being 
ill,  the  news  prove  fatal  both  to  me  and  your  mother, 
and  the  Roman  empire  fhould  be  endangered.  It  matters 
nothing  whether  I be  well  or  no,  if  you  be  not  well.  I 
pray  heaven  preferve  you  for  us,  and  blefs  you  with 
health  both  now  and  ever,  if  the  Gods  have  any  regard 
for  the  Roman  people.” 

XXII.  He  did  not  make  the  death  of  Auguftus  public, 
until  he  had  taken  off  young  Agrippa.  He  was  flain  by 
a Tribune  who  commanded  the  guard  about  him,  upon 



reading  a written  order  for  that  purpofe  : which  order,  it 
was  then  a doubt,  whether  Auguftus  left  behind  him  at  his 
death,  to  prevent  any  occafion  of  public  diflurbance  after 
his  dcceafe,  or  Livia  had  iffued  it,  and  whether  with  the 
knowledge  of  Tiberius  or  not.  When  the  Ti  ibune  came 
to  inform  him  that  he  had  executed  his  command,  he 
replied,  ‘‘  I commanded  you  no  fuch  thing,  and  you 
muft  anfwer  for  it  to  the  Senate avoiding,  as  it 
feems,  the  odium  of  the  a6l  for  that  time.  For  the  af- 
fair was  buried  in  filence. 

XXIII.  Having  fummoned  the  Seriate  to  meet,  by  vir- 
tue of  his  Trlbunitlan  authority,  and  begun  a fpeech  to 
them  relative  to  the  (late  of  public  aifairs,  he  fetched  a deep 
(igh,  as  if  unable  to  fupport  himfelf  under  his  alilldllon ; 
wlhied  that  not  only  his  voice  but  his  breath  too  might 
fail  him,  and  gave  his  fpeech  to  his  fon  Drufus  to  read. 
Augnftus’s  will  was  then  brought  into  the  houfe,  and 
read  by  a freedman  ; none  of  the  witnelTes  to  it  being  ad- 
mitted, but  fuch  as  were  of  the  Senatorlan  Order,  the  red 
owning  their  hand-writing  without  doors.  The  will 
began  thus  : “ Since  my  ill  fortune  has  deprived  me  of 
niy  two  fons  Cains  and  Lucius,  let  Tiberius  Caefar  be 
heir  to  two  thirds  of  my  ehate.’’  Thefe  words  counte- 
nanced the  fufpicion  of  thofe  who  were  of  opinion,  that 
Tiberius  was  appointed  fuccelTor  more  out  of  neceffity 
than  choice,  lince  Auguflus  could  not  refrain  from  pre- 
facing his  will  in  that  manner. 

XXIY.  Though  he  made  no  fcruple  to  alTume  and 
exercife  immediately'  the  imperial  authority,  by  giving 
orders  that  he  might  be  attended  by  the  guards,  which 
were  the  fecurity  and  badge  of  the  fupreme  power  ; yet  he 
affedfed,  by  a moil  impudent  piece  of  grimace,  to  refufe  it 




for  a long  time  ; one  while  fharply  reprehending  his 
friends  who  entreated  him  to  accept  it,  as  little  knowing 
what  a monfter  the  government  was  ; another  while 
keeping  in  fufpenfe  the  Senate,  that  requefled  the  fame 
of  him,  and  threw  themfelves  at  his  feet,  by  ambiguous 
anfwers,  and  a crafty  kind  of  difiimulation  ; infomuch  that 
fome  were  out  of  patience,  and  one  during  the  confu- 
lion  of  the  houfe  upon  this  occafion  cried  out,  “ Either 
let  him  accept  it,  or  decline  it  at  once  and  a feoond  told 
him  to  his  face,  Others  are  flow  to  perform  what  they 
promife,  but  you  are  flow  to  promife  what  you  atSlually 
perform/'  At  laft,  as  if  perfe6tly  foi  ced  to  it,  and  com- 
plaining of  that  miferable  load  of  flavery  that  was  laid 
upon  him,  he  accepted  the  government,  but  yet  in  fuch 
a manner,  as  to  give  hopes  of  his  refigning  it  fome  time 
or  other.  The  words  he  ufed  upon  this  occafion  were 
thefe  : “ Until  the  time  fhall  come,  when  ye  may  thmk 
it  reafonable  to  give  fome  reft  to  my  old  age.’^ 

XXV.  The  caufe  of  his  demurring  fo  much  upon  the 
occafion,  was  his  fear  of  the  dangers  w'hich  threatened 
him  on  all  hands  ; infomuch  that  he  faid,  “ I have  got  a 
wolf  by  the  ears.”  For  a flave  of  Agrippa’s,  Clemens 
by  name,  had  drawn  together  a confiderable  force  to  re- 
venge his  mafter^s  death  ; L.  Scribonius  Libo,  a Sena- 
tor of  the  firft  diftin61;ion,  was  fecretly  attempting  a re- 
bellion ; and  the  troops  both  in  Illyricum  and  Germany 
w^cre  all  in  an  uproar.  Both  armies  infifted  upon  high 
demands,  particularly  that  their  pay  ftiould  be  made  equal 
to  that  of  the  guards  at  Rome.  The  army  in  Germany 
abfolutely  refufed  to  acknowledge  a prince  who  was  nols 
of  their  own  choofing ; and  urged  with  all  poftible  im-> 
portunity  Germanicus,  who  commanded  them,  to  take 
the  government  upon  him,  though  he  obftiaately  refilled 



It,  It  was  Tiberius^s  apprehenfion  from  this  quarter, 
that  made  him  beg  of  the  Senate  to  afflgn  him  fome  part 
only  in  the  adminiftration,  fuch  as  they  Ihouid  judge 
proper,  fince  no  man  could  be  fufficient  for  the  whole, 
without  one  or  more  to  affift  him.  He  pretended  like* 
wife  to  be  in  a bad  ftate  of  health,  tliat  Germanicus 
might  the  more  patiently  wait  in  hopes  of  fpeedily  fuc- 
ceeding  him,  or  at  leaft  of  being  taken  into  a lhare  of 
the  adminiftration.  When  the  mutinies  in  the  armies 
were  fupp refled,  he  got  by  ftratagem  Clemens  into  his 
hands.  That  he  might  not  begin  his  reign  by  an  adi  of 
feverity,  he  did  not  call  Libo  to  an  account  before  the 
Senate  until  his  fecond  year,  being  content,  in  the  mean 
time,  with  taking  proper  precautions  for  his  own  fccurity. 
For  upon  Libo’s  attending  a facrifice  amongft  the  high- 
priefts,  inftead  of  the  ufual  knife,  he  ordered  one  of 
lead  to  be  given  him  ; and  when  he  deftred  a private  con- 
ference with  him,  he  would  not  grant  his  requeft,  but 
upon  the  condition  that  his  fon  Drufus  fliould  be  prefent; 
and  as  they  walked  together,  he  held  him  faft  by  the 
right  hand,  under  the  pretence  of  leaning  upon  him,  un- 
til the  converfation  was  over. 

XXVI.  When  he  was  delivered  from  his  apprehen- 
fions,  his  behaviour  at  ftrft  was  unafluming,  not  much 
above  the  level  of  a private  perfon  ; and  of  the  many 
and  great  honors  offered  him,  he  accepted  but  few,  and 
fuch  as  were  very  moderate.  His  birth-day,  which 
happened  to  fall  in  the  time  of  the  Plebeian  Circenfian 
games,  he  with  difficulty  fuffered  to  be  honored  by  the 
addition  of  a Angle  chariot,  drawn  with  only  two  horfes. 
He  forbid  temples,  Flamens,  or  priefts  to  be  appointed  tor 
him,  as  like  wife  the  eredfion  of  any  ftatues  or  effigies  for 
him,  without  his  permiflion;  and  this  he  granted  only 




upon  condition  tliat  they  fhould  not  be  placed  amongH: 
the  images  of  the  Gods,  but  only  amongft  the  ornaments 
of  houfes.  He  alfo  interpofedto  prevent  the  Senate  frdni 
fwearing  to  maintain  his  acls  ; and  that  the  month  of 
September  iliould  not  be  called  Tiberius,  nor  06lober, 
\Livy.  The  piai-nomen  likewife  of  Imperator,  with  the 
cognomen  of  Father  of  his  country,  and  a civic  crown 
to  hang  conftantly  at  the  entrance  of  his  houfe,  he  would 
not  accept  of.  He  never  ufed  the  nai^e  of  Auguftus, 
though  hereditary  to  him,  in  any  of  his  letters,  except- 
ing thofe  to  kings  and  princes.  Nor  had  he  more  than 
three  Confullhips,  one  for  a few  days,  another  for  three 
months,  and  a third,  during  his  abfence  from  the  city, 
until  the  Ides  of  May. 

XXVII.  He  had  fuch  an  averfion  to  flattery,  that  he 
would  never  fuffer  any  Senator  to  approach  his  chair,  as 
he  pafTed  the  flreets  in  it,  either  to  pay  him  a civility,  or 
upon  bufinefs.  And  when  a man  of  Confular  rank,  in 
begging  his  pardon  for  fome  offence  he  had  given  hiih, 
made  a motion  to  fall  at  his  knees,  he  darted  from  him 
in  fuch  a hurry,  that  he  fell  flat  upon  his  back.  If  any 
compliment  was  paid  him,  either  in  converfation  or  a fet 
fpeech,  he  would  not  fcruple  to  interrupt  and  reprimand 
the  party,  and  alter  what  he  faid.  Being  once  called 
“ Lord,”  by  fome  perfon,  he  defired  that  he  might  no 
more  be  affronted  in  that  manner.  When  another,  to 
excite  veneration,  called  his  occupations  “ facred,”  and 
a third  had  exprefled  himfelf  thus  : “ By  your  authority 
I have  waited  upon  the  Senate,”  he  obliged  them  to  alter 
fheir  words  ; one  of  them  to  ufe,  inftead  of  “ authority,’’* 
perfuajion,  and  the  other,  for  facred,”  laborious.- 

XXVIII.  He  remained  unmoved  at  all  the  afperflonsy 



fcandalous  reports,  and  lampoons,  which  were  fpread 
againft  him  or  his  relations ; and  would  now  and  then  fay, 
“ In  a free  ftate,  both  the  tongue  and  mind  otight  to  be 
free.”  Upon  the  Senate’s  defiring  that  fome  notice  might 
be  taken  of  thofe  offences,  and  the  perfons  charged  with 
them,  he  replied,  “We  have  not  fo  much  time  upon  our 
hands,  that  we  ought  to  engage  in  more  bufinefs.  If  ye 
once  make  an  opening  for  things  of  this  nature,  ye  will 
foon  have  nothing  elfe  to  do.  All  private  quarrels  will 
be  brought  before  you  under  that  pretence.”  The  fol- 
lowing is  another  fentence  ufed  by  him  in  the  Senate,  and 
far  from  affuming : “ If  he  fpeaks  otherwife  of  me,  I 
fhall  take  care  to  behave  in  fuch  a manner,  as  to  be  able 
to  give  a good  account  both  of  my  words  and  a6lions ; 
and  if  he  goes  on,  I fhall  hate  him  in  my  turn.” 

XXIX.  Thefe  things  were  fo  much  the  more  remark- 
able in  him,  becaufe,  in  the  refpedf  he  paid  to  individuals, 
or  the  whole  body  of  the  Senate,  he  went  beyond  all 
bounds.  Upon  his  differing  with  Haterius  in  the 
houfe,  “ Pardon  me,  fir,”  faid  he,  “ I befeech  you,  if 
I fhall  as  a Senator  fpeak  my  mind  very  freely  in  oppofi- 
tion  to  you.”  Afterwards,  addrefling  the  whole  houfe, 
he  expreffed  himfelf  thus : “ Confcript  Fathers,  I have 
often  faid  it  both  now  and  at  other  times,  that  a good 
prince  who  has  a regard  to  the  welfare  of  the  people, 
whom  ye  have  invefted  with  fo  great  and  abfolute  a 
power,  ought  to  be  a flave  to  the  Senate,  to  the  whole 
body  of  the  people,  and  often  to  individuals  likewife  : nor 
am  1 forry  that  I have  faid  it.  I have  alw^ays  found  you 
good,  kind,  and  favorable  mafters,  and  ftill  find  you  fo.” 

XXX.  He  likewife  introduced  an  appearance  of  liber- 
ty» by  preferving  to  the  Senate  and  magiflrates  their 

8 - former 

272  tHE  LIFE  Of  - 

former  majelly  and  power.  All  affairs,  whether  cf  great 
or  fmall  conffderation,  public  or  private,  were  laid  be- 
fore the  Senate  5 as  the  taxes,  monopolies,  the  bulinefs  of 
raifing  or  repairing  buildings,  the  levying  and  diibanding 
of  foldiers,  the  difpofal  of  the  legions  and  auxiliary 
forces  in  the  provinces,  the  appointment  of  generals  for 
the  management  of  extraordimary  wars,  and  the  aiifwer^ 
ing  of  letters  from  foreign  princes,  were  all  fubmitted  to 
the  Senate.  He  never  entered  the  houfe  but  alone  ; and 
being  once  brought  thither  in  a chair,  becaufe  he  was 
iiidifpofed,  he  difmiffed  his  attendants  at  the  door. 

'XXXT.  When  fome  things  were  decreed  agalnfl  his  ad- 
vice, he  did  not  fo  much  as  complain  of  it.  And  though  he 
gave  it  as  his  opinion  that  no  magiftrates  after  their  elec- 
tion ffiould  be  fuffered  to  abfent  themfelves  from  the  city, 
but  refide  in  it  conftantly,  to  enjoy  the  honor  they  had  ob- 
tained, a Praetor  ele61:  procured  liberty  to  leave  the  town, 
under  the  honorary  title  of  a free  lieutenant.  Again,  when 
he  prepofed  to  the  houfe,  that  the  7h'ebians  might  have 
leave  granted  them  to  employ  fome  money  which  had 
been  left  them  by  will,  for  the  building  of  a new  theatre, 
towards  the  making  of  a caufeway,  he  could  not  prevail 
to  have  the  intention  of  the  teflator  fet  afide.  And  when, 
.upon  a divifion  of  the  houfe,  he  went  over  to  the  mino- 
rity, no  body  follow'ed  him.  Alh other  things  of  a pub- 
lic nature  were  likewife  tranfadled  by  the  magiftrates,  and  ' 
in  the  ufual  forms  ; 'the  authority  of  the  Confuls  remain- 
ing  fo  great,  that  fome  ambafiadors  from  Africa  waited 
upon  them  with  a complaint,  that  they  could  not  have 
theii  bufinefs  difpatched  by  Caefar,  to  whom  they  had 
been  fent.  ' And  no  wonder ; fince  it  was  obferved  that 
he  ufed  to  rife  up  to  them,  and  give  the  way. 

XXXir.  He 



XXXII.  He  reprimanded  forne  perfons  of  Confulat 
J-ank  at  the  head  of  the  feveral  armies,  for  not  writing  to 
the  Senate  an  account  of  their  tranfadions^  and  for  con-, 
fulling  him  about  the  diftribution  of  fome  military  pre- 
fents ; as  if  they  themfelves  had  not  a right  to  bellow 
them  as  they  judged  proper.  Ke  commended  a Prastor, 
whoj  upon  entering  on  his  office^  tevived  an  old  cuftoni 
of  celebrating  the  memory  of  his  anceftors,  in  a fpeech 
to  the  people*  He  attended  the  corpfes  of  fome  perfons  of 
diflindion  to.  the  funeral  pile.  He  difcovered  the  fame 
moderate  condud  with  regard  to  perfons  and  things  of 
inferior  confideration.  He  fent  for  the  magiftratcs  of 
Rhodes,  who  had  difpatched  to  him  a public  lej;ter< 
which  was  not  as  ufual  fubfcribed  ; and  without  giving 
them  fo  much  as  one  harfh  word,  he  defired  them  to 
fubfcribe’  it,  and  difmilTed  them.  Diogenes,  the  gram- 
marian, who  ufed  to  read  ledures  at  Rhodes  every  Satur- 
day, had  once  refufed  him  admittance  upon  his  coming 
to  hear  him  out  of  c'ourfe,  and  ordered  him  by  a fervant 
to  come  again  feven  days  after.  This  fame  perfon  com- 
ing to  Rome,  and  waiting  at  his  door,  for  admiffion  to 
pay  his  refpeds  to  him,  he  fent  him  word  to  come  again 
at  the  end  of  feven  years;  To  fome  governors  of  pro- 
vinces, wdio  advifed  him  to  load  them  wdth  taxes,  he 
anfwered,  It  is  the  part  of  a good  jQiepherd  to  Iliear, 
not  to  ilea  his  fheep.’* 

XXXIIL  By  degrees  he  afTumed  the  exercife  of  the 
fovereignty,  but  for  a long  time  v^ith  great  variety  of 
condud.,  though  generally  with  a due  regard  to  the  pub- 
lic good.  At  firft  he  only^  interpofed  to  prevent  ill 
management.  Accordingly  he  reminded  fome  decrees  of 
the  Senate  ; and  when  the  magiftratcs  fat  for  the  adminif- 
tration  of  juftic  he'  w’ould  offer  his  fervice  as  an 

T affeftbr^ 



afTeiTor,  and  fit  amongft  them,  or  in  the  oppofite  part  of 
the  court,  fronting  ihein.  If  a rumor  prevailed,  that  any 
perfon  under  profecution  was  likely  by  his  intereft  to  be 
acquitted,  he  would  fuddenly  make  his  appearance  in 
court,  and  from  the  ground-benches,  or  the  Prsetor’s  feat, 
would  remind  the  judges  of  the  laws,  their  oath,  and  the 
nature  of  the  charge  brought  before  them.  He  likewife 
took  upon  him  the  corredlion  of  the  public  manners, 
where  any  abufe  had  been  countenanced,  either  by  negr 
le61:-  of  duty  in  the  magiflrates,  or  the  prevalency  of 

XXXIV.  He  reduced  the  expence  of  public  fports  and 
diverhons  for  the  entertainment  of  the  people  ; by  dimi- 
nifhing  the  allowance  to  flage-players  for  their  fervice, 
and  abridging  the  number  of  gladiators  upon  thofe  occa- 
fions.  He  made  grievous  complaint  to  the  Senate,  that 
the  price  of  Corinthian  vefiels  was  rifen  to  a prodigious 
height,  and  that  three  barbels  had  been  fold  for  thirty 
thoufand  feherces  ; upon  which  he  moved  in  the  houfe, 
that  a new  fumptuary  law  Ihould  be  enabled  : that  the 
fhambles  fhould  be  fubjedled  to  fuch  regulations,  as  to 
the  Senate  fhould  appear  proper  ; and  the  ^diles  com- 
iniflioned  to  refirain  taverns  and  vi6Iualling-houfes,  fo 
far  as.  not  to  permit  even  the  fale  of  bifcuit,  or  cakes  of 
any  kind.  And  to  encourage  frugality  in  the  public  by 
his  own  example,  he  would  often,  at  his  entertainments 
upon  folemn  occafions,  have  at  his  table  vi6Iuals  which 
had  been  ferved  up  the  day  before,  and  were  half-eaten, 
and  the  half  of  a boar,  .declaring,  “ It  has  all  the  fame 
good  bits  that  the  whole  had.”  He  forbid  by  proclama- 
tion the  daily  ufe  of  the  kifs,  in  the  way  of  civility  ; as 
likewife  the  pradlice  of  prefenting  new-year’s-gifts  after 
the  firfl  of  January,  He  had  been  ufed  to  make  a return 



of  four  times  as  much  as  he  received  in  that  way,  and 
with  his  own  hand ; but  being  offended  at  the  continual 
difturbance  which  was  given  him  during  the  whole 
month,  by  thofe  who  had  hot  the  opportunity  of  attend- 
ing him  upon  the  feftival,  he  returned  none  after  that  day. 

XXXV.  Married  women  guilty  of  adultery,  and 
whom  none  appeared  to  profecute,  he  authorifed  the 
nearefl;  relations  to  punilh  by  concert  amongft  themfelves, 
according  to  ancient  cuftom.  He  difcharged  a Roman 
knight  from  the  obligation  of  an  oath  he  had  taken,  never 
to  turn  away  his  wife  ; and  allowed  him  to  divorce  her, 
upon  her  being  caught  in  criminal  intercourfe  with  her 
fon-in-law.  Scandalous  women,  diverting  themfelves  of 
the  rights  and  dignity  of  matrons,  had  now  begun  a 
pradlice  of  profeffing  themfelves  prortitutes,  to  avoid 
the  punifliment  of  the  laws  ; and  the  mort  profligate 
young  men  of  the  Senatorian  and  Equertrian  Orders,  to 
fecure  themfelves  againrt  a decree  of  the  Senate,  which 
prohibited  their  acting  upon  the  ftage,  or  fighting  as 
gladiators  in  the  theatre,  voluntarily  fubjedfed  themfelves 
to  an  infamous  fentence,  by  w^hich  they  were  degraded. 
All  thofe  he  banifhed,  that  none  for  the  future  might 
evade  by  fuch  artifices  the  intention  and  efficacy  of  the 
law.  He  took  from  a Senator  the  laticlavian  tunic,  upon 
information  of  his  having  before  the  Calends  of  July  re- 
moved into  his  gardens,  that  he  might  afterwards  hire 
a ho  life  cheaper  in  the  city.  He  likewife  difmifled 
another  from  the  office  of  Qusrtor,  for  divorcing,  the 
day  after  his  province  had  been  affigned  him  by  lot,  a 
wife  whom  he  had  married  only  the  day  before. 

XXXVI.  He  fupprefled  all  foreign  religions,  the 
Egyptian  and  Jewiffi  rites  of  worrtiip,  obliging  all  fuch 

T 2 as 


51/6  THE  LIFE 

as  followed  that  kind  of  fuperllition,  to  bum  their  holy 
vellmentS,  and  every  inftrument  of  religious  ceremony- 
The  young  men  amongft  the  Jews  he  difpofed  of,  under 
the  pretence  of  their  ferving  in  the  wars,  in  provinces  of 
an  unhealthful  air ; and  banifhed  from  the  city  all  the  reft 
of  that  nation,  or  profelytes  to  that  religion,  under  a pe- 
nalty of  being  condemned  to  flavery  for  life,  if  they  did 
not  comply  with  his  orders.  He  banifhed  the  aftrolo- 
gers  ; but  upon  their  begging  pardon,  and  promifing  to 
renounce  their  profelTion,  he  revoked  liis  decree, 

XXXVII.  But  above  all  things  he  was  careful  to 
fecure  the  public  quiet  againft  the  attempts  of  houfe- 
breakers,  robbers,  and  fuch  as  were  difafFe61:ed  to  the 
government.  For  this  purpofe  he  polled  in  the  different 
quarters  of  Italy  more  guards  of  foldiers  than  had  been 
nfual ; and  formed  a camp  at  Rome  for  the  Praetorian 
battalions,  wdio  till  then  had  lived  difperfed  in  the  city. 
He  fuppre fled, with  great  feverlty  all  tumults  of  the  peo- 
ple at 'their  commencement ; and  took  every  precaution 
to  prevent  them.  Some  perfons  having  been  killed  in  a 
quarrel  which  happened  in  the  theatre,  be  banifhed  the 
leaders  of  the  parties,  and  the  players,  upon  whofe  ac- 
count the  dlflurbance  had  arlfen.  Nor  could  all  the  en- 
treaties of  the  people  afterwards  prevail  upon  him  to  re- 
call them.  The  commonalty  of  Pollentia  having  refufed 
to  permit  the  removal  of  the  corpfe  of  a Centurion  of  the 
firft  rank  from  the  Forum,  until  they  had  extorted  from 
his  heirs  a fum  of  money  fora  public  fhow  of  gladiators, 
he  fent  upon  them  a battalion  from  the  city,  and  another 
from  the  kingdom  of  Cotius ; who  concealing  the  occa- 
fion  of  their  march,  entered  the  town  by  different  gates, 
with  their  arms  all  on  a fudden  uncovered,  and  trumpets 
founding;  by  whom  the  greateft  part  of  the  common 



people,  and  tnembers  of  the  council  of  ftate,  being  feized, 
he  imprifoned  them  for  life.  He  abolirtied  every  where’ 
the  privileges  of  all  places  of  refuge.  The  Cyzicenlans, 
for  an  outrage  committed  upon  fome  Romans,  he  de- 
prived of  the  liberty  they  had  obtained  for  their  good 
fervices  in  the  Mithridatic  war.  Difturbances  from 
foreign  enemies  he  quelled  by  his  lieutenants,  without 
ever  going  againfi:  them  in  pcrfon.  Nor  would  he  even 
employ  his  lieutenants,  but  with  much  reludlance,  and 
when  an  interpofition  was  neceffary.  Princes  who  were 
ill  alFedled  towards  him,  he  kept  in  fubje^lion,  more  by 
menaces  and  complaints,  than  by  the  force  of  arms. 
And  fome  that  he  induced  to  come  to  him  by  fair  words 
and  promifes,  he  never  would  permit  to  return  home  ; as 
Maraboduus  the  German,  Thrafcypolis  the  Thracian, 
and  Archelaus  the  Cappadocian,  whofe  kingdom  he  like- 
wife  reduced  into  the  form  of  a province. 

XXXVIII.  He  never  fet  foot  out  of  the  gates  of  Rome, 
for  two  years  together,  from  the  time  he  affumed  the 
fupreme  powder  ; and  after  that  period,  went  no  farther 
from  the  city  than  to  fome  of  the  neighbouring  towns  ; 
his  fartheft  excurfion  being  to  Antium,  and  that  but 
very  feldom,  and  for  a few  days,  though  he  often  gave 
out  that  he  would  vifit  the  provinces  and  armies,  and" 
made  preparations  for  It  almofl:  every  year,  by  taking  up 
carriages,  and  ordering  provifions  for  his  retinue  in  the 
municipia  and  colonies.  At  laft  he  fuffered  vows  to  be 
put  up  for  his  good  journey  and  fafe  return,  iiifomuch 
that  he  was  called  jocofely  by  the  name  of  Callipides, 
who  is  famous  in  a Grecian  proverb,  for  being  in  a 
great  hurry  to  go  forward,  but  widiout  ever  advancing 
a cubit,. 

XXXIX.  But 



XXXIX.  But  after  the  lofs  of  his  two  fons,  of  whom 
Germanicus  died  in  Syria,  and  Drufus  at  Rome,  he  with- 
drew into  Campania  ; at  which  time,  the  opinion  and  re- 
port likewife  were  almoft  general,  that  he  never  would 
return,  and  would  die  foon.  Both  the  opinion  and  re- 
port had  like  to  have  been  true.  For  indeed  he  never 
more  came  to  Rome ; and  a few  days  after,  as  he  was 
at  a feat  of  his  called  the  Cave,  near  Terracina,  there 
happened  to  fall  a great  many  huge  flones,  which  killed 
feveral  of  the  guefts  and  attendants:  but  he  unexpe£l:edly 

XL.  After  he  had  gone  round  Campania,  and  dedi- 
cated a Capitol  at  Capua,  and  a temple  to  Auguftus  at 
Nola,  which  he  made  the  pretext  of  his  journey,  he  re- 
tired to  Caprese  ; being  greatly  delighted  with  the  ifland, 
becaufe  it  was  accelTible  only  by  a fmall  fliore,  being  in 
all  other  parts  furrounded  with  craggy  rocks,  of  a flu- 
pendous  height,  and  a deep  fea.  But  immediately  the 
people  of  Rome  being  extremely  clamorous  for  his  re^ 
turn,  on  account  of  a difafler  at  Fidena,  where  upwards 
of  twenty  thoufand  perfons,  at  a public  diverlion  of  gladi- 
ators, had  been  killed  by  the  fall  of  the  amphitheatre,  he 
pafled  over  again  to  the  continent,  and  gave  all  people  free 
accefs  to  him  ; fo  much  the  more,  becaufe,  at  his  departure 
from  the  city,  he  had  by  proclamation  forbid  any  one  to 
difturb  him,  and  declined  all  company  upon  the  road, 

XLI.  Returning  to  the  ifland,  he  fo  far  laid  afide  all 
care  of  the  government,  that  lie  never  filled  up  the  de- 
curiae of  the  knights,  never  changed  any  military  Tri- 
bunes nor  commanders  of  horfe,  nor  governors  of  pro- 
vinces, and  kept  Spain  and  Syria  for  feveral  years  with- 
put  any  Confular  lieutenants.  He  likewife  fufiered  Ar- 


■ 279 

menia  to  be  feized  by  the  Parthiaiis,  Mcjefia  by  the  Daci- 
ans and  Sarmatians,  and  Gaul  to  be  ravaged  by  the  Ger- 
mans, to  the  .great  difgrace,  and  no  lefs  danger  of  the 

XLII.  But  having  now  the  advantage  of  privacy,  and 
being  remote  from  the  obfervation  of  the  people  of  Rome, 
he  abandoned  himfelf  to  all  the  vicious  propenfLties,  which  ' 
he  had  long  but  imperfe6tly  concealed  ; and  of  which  I 
fliall  here  give  a particular  account  from  the  beginning. 
While  a young  foldler  in  the  camp,  he  w’as  fo  remarkable 
for  his  exceffive  inclination  to  wine,  that,  for  Tiberius^ 
they  called  him  Biberius  \ for  Claudius^  Caldius  \ and  for 
NerOy  Mcro.  And  after  he  came  to  the  empire,  and  had 
upon  him  the  charge  of  reforming  die  public  manners,  he 
fpent  a whole  night  and  two  days  together  in  feafting  and 
drinking  with  Pomponius  Flaccus,  and  L.  Pifo,  to  one 
of  w’hom  he  immediately  gave  the  province  of  Syria,  and 
to  the  other  the  Prsefedture  of  the  city  ; declaring  them, 
in  his  patents,  to  be  “ very  pleafant  companions,  and  al- 
ways agreeable/’  He  made  an  appointment  to  fup^with 
Seftius  Gallus,  a lewd  prodigal  old  fellow,  who  had  been 
difgraced  by  Auguftus,  and  reprimanded  by  himfelf  but  a 
few  days  before  in  the  Senate -houfej  upon  condition  that 
he  thould  not  recede  in  the  leaft  from  his  ufual  method  of 
entertainment,  and  that  they  fliould  be  attended  at  table 
by  naked  girls.  He  preferred  a very  obfeure  candidate 
for  the  Qu^florfliip,  before  the  mold  noble  competitors, 
only  for  taking  off,  in  pledging  him  at  table,  an  amphora 
of  wine  at  a draught  He  prefented  Afellius  Sabinus 


^That  any  man  could  drink  an  Amphora  of  wine  at  a 
draughtj  is  beyond  all  credibility  ; for  the  Amphora  was  near^ 

T 4 y 



with  two  hundred  thoufand  fefterces,  for  writing  a dia^ 
logue,  in  the  way  of  difpute,  betwixt  the  mulhroom  and 
the  hg-pecker,  the  oyfler  and  the  thruih.  He  likewife 
jnftituted  a new  office  for  the  advancement  of  his  plea^ 
fures,  into  which  he  put  Titus  Caefonius  Prifcus,  a Roman 

' XLIII.  In  his  recefs  at  Capreae,  he  contrived  an  apart- 
ment for  the  practice  of  abominable  lewdnefs  ; where  he 
entertained  companies  of  girls  and  catamites,  and  the  devi- 
fers  of  a monftrous  kind  of  copulation,  whom  he  called 
Spintria^  that  defiled  one  another  in  his  prefence,  to  in- 
flame by  the  fight  the  languid  appetite.  He  had  feveral 
chambers  fet  round  with  pi61;ures  and  ftatues  in  the  mofl; 
lafcivious  attitudes,  and  furniihed  with  the  books  of  Ele- 
phantis ; that  none  might  want  a pattern  for  the  execution, 
of  any  lewd  projeil  that  was  preferibed  him.  He  like- 
wife contrived  in  woods  and  groves. receffes  for  the  like 
Juffful  gratifications  ; where  young  perfons  of  both  fexes 
proftituted  themfelves  in  caves  and  hollow  rocks,  in  the. 
dlfguife  of  Pans  and  Nymphs  So  that  he  was  openly 
and  commonly  called,  in  allufion  to  the  name  of  the  iflandj 

XLIV.  But  he  was  dill  more  infamous,  if  poffible,  for 
an  abomination  not  fit  to  be  mentioned,  or  heard,  much 

ly  equal  to  nine  gallons,  Englifli  meafure.  The  probability 
is,  -that  the  man  had  emptied  a large  vefTel,  which  was  fliaped 
Jike  an  /Amphora. 

* Pan,  the  God  of  the  ffiepherds,  and  inventor  of  the  flute, 
w'as  faid  to  be  the  fon  of  Mercury  and  Penelope.  He  w'as 
worfliipped  chiefly  in  Arcadia,  and  reprefented  with  horns  and 
goat’s  feet.  The  Nymphs,  as  well  as  the  Graces,  wererepre- 
feiited  naked. 




lefs  credited,  ^ 

^ # f 


* ^ 
% ^ 

^ ^ » 

* « ^1?  .3ki  ^ ^ 

* ' * # * When  a ])i£Lure,  executed 

by  the  Iiand  of  Parrhafius,  in  which  the  artift  had  repre- 
fented  Atalanta  as  a6ling  a moh;  unnatural  piece  of  obfc- 
quioufnefs  to  Meleager,  was  left  him  for  a legacy,  wnth 
this  provifo,  that  if  he  did  not  like  the  pidure,  he  might 
receive  in  lieu  of  it  a million  of  fefterces,  he  not  only 
gave  preference  to  the  former,  but  hung  it  up  in  his 
bed-chamber.  He  is  reported,  likewife,  once  at  a facri- 
fice,  to  have  been  fo  captivated  with  the  face  of  a youth 
attending  with  a cenfer,  that,  before  the  fervice  was  well 
over,  he  took  him  afide  and  abufed  him ; as  alfo  a bro- 
ther of  his  that  played  at  the  facrifice  upon  the  flute ; and 
foon  after  broke  the  legs  of  both  of  them,  for  upbraiding 
one  another  with  their  fliame. 

XLV.  How  much  he  was  guilty  of  abufing,  in  a mofl: 
unnatural  way,  women,  and  thofe  too  of  the  firft  quality, 
appeared  very  plainly  by  the  death  of  one  Mallonia,  wdiom, 
being  brought  to  his  bed,  but  refolutely  refufing  to  comply 
with  his  luft,  he  delivered  up  to  the  common  pra6litioners 
in  the  buflnefs  of  information.  When  fhe  w’as  upon  her 
trial,  he  frequently  called  out  to  her,  and  afkedher,  “ Do 
you  repent?’*  until  flie,  quitting  the  court,  went  home, 
and  ftabbed  herfelf ; openly  upbraiding  the  vile  old  lecher 
for  his  abominable  pradfice.  Hence  an  allufion  to  him  in 
a farce,  which  was  adled  at  the  next  public  fports,  was  re- 
ceived with  great  applaufe,  and  became  a common  topic 
of  ridicule.  . 

XLVL  He  was  of  fo  niggardly  and  tenacious  a tem- 



per,  that  he  never  allowed  to  thofe  who  attended  him.  m 
his  travels  or  expeditions,  any  wages,  but  their  diet  only. 
He  gave  them  once  indeed,  and  but  once,  an  inilance  of 
generofity,  at  the  inftigation  of  his  ftep-fatber  ; when  di- 
viding them  into  three  diflindl  ciaffes,  according  to  their 
equality,  he  gave  the  iirft  fix,  the  fecond  four,  and;  the 
third  two  hundred  thoufand  fefterces,  w'hich  lafi;  clafs  he 
called  by  the  name,  not  of  friends,  but  Greeks. 

XLVII.  During  the  whole  time  of  his  government,  he 
never  eredled  any  noble  edifice;  for  what  alone  of  that 
kind  he  did  undertake,  as  the  temple  of  Augufius,  and  the 
rebuilding  of  Pompey’s  Theatre,  1^  left  at  lafi;,  after  many 
years,  unfinifiied.  Nor  did  he  ever  entertain  the  people 
with  public  fports  and  diverfions  ; and  was  feidom  prefent 
at  thofe  which  were  given  by  others,  left  any  thing  of 
that  kind  ftiould  be  requefted  of  him  ; efpecially  after  he 
was  obliged  to  manumife  the  comedian  Adlius.  Having 
relieved  the  poverty  of  a few  Senators,  that  he  might  not 
do  the  fame  for  many  more  of  them,  he  declared,  he 
fhould  for  the  future' relieve  none,  but  fuch  as  gave  the- 
houfe  full  fatisfadlion  with  regard  to  the  caufe  of  their  ne- 
ceffity.  Upon  this,  moft  of  the  needy  Senators,  from 
modefty  and  fiiame,  declined  'troubling  him.  Amongft 
thefe  was  Hortalus,  grandfon  to  the  celebrated  orator 
Hortenfius,  who,  at  the  perfuafion  of  Auguftus,  • had 
lirought  up  four  children  upon  a very  fmall  eftate. 

XLVni.  He  difplayed  only  two  inflances  of  his  pub- 
lic bounty.  One  was  an  offer  to  lend  gratis  for  three 
years  a hundred  millions  of  fefterces  to  fuch  as  wanted  to 
borrow ; and  the  other,  when  fome  large  houfes  being  burnt 
down  upon  mount  Coelius,  he  indemnified  the  owners.  To 
the  former  of  thefe  he  was  obliged  by  the  clamors  of  the 



people,  in  a great  fcarcity  of  money  ; when  an  a£t  of 
the  Senate,  paffed  upon  a motion  of  his,  to  oblige  ail  ufu- 
rers  to  lay  out  two  thirds  of  their  money  in  land,  and  the 
debtors  to  pay  in  the  like  proportion  of  their  debts,  w^as 
found  infufficient  to  remedy  the  grievance.  The  other  he 
did  to  qualify  in  fome  degree  the  feverity  of  his  govern- 
ment. The  benefadlion  to  the  fufferers  by  fire,  he  efti- 
mated  at  fo  high  a rate,  that  he  ordered  mount  Goelius  to 
be  called  for  the  future  Augullus.  To  the  foidiery,  after 
his  doubling  to  them  the  legacy  left  by  Auguftus,  he 
never  gave  any  thing,  except  a thoufand  denarii  a man 
to  the  guards,  for  not  joining  the  party  of  Sejanus  ; and 
fome  prefents  to  the  legions  in  Syria,  becaufe  they  alone 
had  not  worfhipped  the  effigies  of  Sejanus  amongft  their 
ftandards.  He  very  feldom  would  difcharge  the  veteran 
foldiers,  in  hopes  of  faving,  by  their  dying  in  the  fervice 
(which  from  their  age  there  was  a profpedl  of  hap- 
pening foon),  the  prasmiums  which  would  have  been  due 
upon  their  difcharge.  . Nor  did  he  ever  relieve  the  pro- 
vinces by  any  add  of  generofity,  excepting  Afia,  where 
fome  cities  had  been  deflroyed  by  an  earthquake. 

XLIX.  In  a little  time  his  difpofition  broke  forth  into 
open  rapine.  It  is  certain  that  Cn.  Lentulus  the  Augur, 
a man  of  vafl  eflate,  was  fo  terrified  and  teazed  by  his 
threats  and  importunities,  that  he  was  obliged  to  leave 
him  his  heir  ; and  that  Lepida,  a lady  of  a very  noble  fa- 
mily, was  condemned  by  him,  to  gratify  Quirinus,  a man 
of  Confular  rank,  extremely  rich  and  childlefs,  who  had 
divorced  her  twenty  years  before,  and  then  charged  her 
with  an  old  defign  to  poifon  him.  Several  perfons,  like- 
wife,  of  the  firfl  diftindtion  in  Gaul,  Spain,  Syria,  and 
Greece,  had  their  eflates  confifeated  upon  fuch  defpicably 
trifling  and  lhamelefs  pretences,  that  againft  fome  of  them 



- 284 

no  other  charge  was  preferred,  than  their  having  too  great 
a part  of  their  eftates  in  money.  Old  immunities,  the 
right  of  digging  mines,  and  exa6ling  duties,  were  taken 
from  feveral  cities  and  private  perfons.  And  Vononcs, 
king  of  the  Parthians,  who  had  been  driven  out  of  his  do- 
minions by  his  own  fubjedls,  and  fled  to  Antioch  with  a 
great  deal  of  treafure,  to  put  himfelf  under  the  protedion 
of  the  Roman  people,  was  treacheroufly  robbed  of  all  his 
money,  and  afterwards  murdered. 

L.  He  firfl  difcovered  a hatred  towards  his  relations  in 
the  cafe  of  his  brother  Drufus,  by  producing  a letter  in 
which  he  (Drufus)  made  a propofal  to  him,  to  oblige 
Augufliis  by  force  to  reftore  the  public  liberty.  Soon 
after,  he  betrayed  the  fame  difpofition  with  regard  to  the 
reft  of  his  family.  So  far  was  he  from  Ih owing  any  ci- 
vility or  kindnefs  to  his  wife,  who  had  been  baniihed, 
and  by  the  order  of  her  father  confined  to  one  town,  that 
he  forbid  her  to  ftir  out  of  the  houfe,  or  converfe  with 
any  company.  He  even  deprived  her  of  the  property  al- 
lowed her  by  her  father,  and  of  her  yearly  income,  under 
pretence  of  law ; becaufe  Auguftus  had  not  fecured  them 
to  her  in  his  will.  Being  weary  of  his  mother  Livia,  as 
claiming  an  equal  ftiare  of  the  government  with  him,  he 
frequently  declined  feeing  her,  as  alfo  all  long  and  private 
conferences  with  her,  left  it  ftiould  be  thought  that  he  was 
governed  by  her  counfel,  which  yet  he  fonietimes  w^ant- 
ed,  and  likewife  made  ufe  of.  He  was  much  oifended  at 
the  Senate,  when  they  propofed  to  add  to  his  other  titles 
that  of  the  fon  of  Livia,  as  w’ell  as  Auguftus.  On  which 
account,  he  fulfered  her  not  to  be  called  “ the  Parent  of  her 
Country,”  nor  to  receive  any  extraordinary  honor  from 
the  public.  Nay  he  frequently  admoniftied  her  “ not  to 
meddle  with  weighty  alFairs,  and  fuch  as  did  not  fuit  her 

8 . lexi’* 

'‘tiberius  nero  cjesar.  2S5 

fex  efpecially  when  he  found  her  appear  at  a fire  which 
broke  out  near  the  Temple  of  Vefia,  and  encouraging  the 
people  and  foldiers  to  work  hard,  as  flie  had  been  ufed  to 
do  in  the  rime  of  her  hufband, 

LI.  He  afterwards  proceeded  to  an  open  rupture  with 
her,  and,  as  is  faid,  upon  this  occafion.  She  having  been 
feveral  times  extremely  urgent  with  him  to  choofe  amongfi: 
the  judges  one  that  had  been  made  free  of  the  city,  he 
refufed  to  do  it,  unlefs  fhe  would  allow  this  reafon  for 
it  to  be  put  down  in  the  lift  of  the  judges’  names,  “ That 
the  appointment  had  been  extorted  from  him  by  his  mo- 
ther.” Livia,  enraged  at  this  procedure,  produced  fome 
letters  from  Auguftus  to  her,  relative  to  the  fournefs  and 
infolence  of  his  temper,  and  read  them.  So  much  was  he 
offended  at  thefe  letters  having  been  kept  fo  long,  and  now 
produced  with  fo  much  bitternefs  againft  him,  that  fome 
confider  this  incident  as  the  principal  occafion  of  his  re- 
tiring. During  the  whole  three  years  ftie  lived  after,  he 
faw  her  but  once,  and  that  for  a few  hours  only.  When 
file  fell  fick,  which  happened  in  a fiiort  time  fubfequent 
to  the  interview,  he  would  not  vifit  her ; and  when  file 
was  dead,  he  kept  thofe  about  her  fo  long  in  expectation 
of  his  coming,  that  the  body  was  become  putrefied  before 
the  interment ; and  he  then  forbid  her  to  be  enrolled 
amongft  the  Gods,  pretending  her  own  order  to  that  pur- 
pofe.  He  likewife  abrogated  her  will,  and  in  a fiiort  time 
ruined  all  her  friends  and  acquaintance;  not  fparing  thofe 
to  whom,  on  her  death-bed,  fiie  had  recommended  the 
care  of  her  funeral,  condemning  one  of  them,  a man  of 
Equeftrian  rank,  to  the  drudgery  of  drawing  w^ater  in  a 

f LII.  He  entertained  no  paternal  affeeftion  either  for 




his  own  fon  Drufus,  or  his  adopted  fon  Germanicus. 
Oitended  at  the  vices  of  the  former,  who  led  a diffolute 
life,  he  was  not  much  afFedled  at  his  death,  but,  almoft 
immediately  after  the  funeral,  refumed  his  ufual  occupa- 
tions, and  obliged  the  public  to  do  the  fame.  The  ambaf- 
fadors  of  the  Ilienhans  coming,  after  a confiderable  inter- 
val, with  their  compliments  of  condolence  on  this  occa- 
fion,  the  memory  of  which  being  now  much  diffipa- 
ted,  he  faid  to  them  by  way  of  banter,  “ And  1 heartily 
condole  with  you  in  regard  to  the  lofs  of  your  excellent 
countryman  Hedlor.”  He  fo  much  affedfed  to  depreciate 
Germanicus,  that  he  would  fpeak  of  his  great  atchieve- 
ments  as  utterly  infignificant,  and  rail  at  his  moft  glorious 
vidtories  as  ruinous  to  the  public;  complaining  of  him  to 
the  Senate  for  going  to  Alexandria  without  his  know- 
ledge, upon  occafion  of  a great  and  fudden  famine  at 
Rome.  It  is  believed  tliat'he  took  care  to  have  him  di- 
fpatched  by  Cn.  Pifo,  the  lieutenant  of  Syria.  This  per- 
fon  was  afterwards  tried  for  the  murder,  and  would,  as 
was  fuppofed,  have  produced  his  orders,  had  they  not  con- 
tained a pohtive  injunction  to  fecrefy.  The  following 
words  therefore  were  polled  up  in  many  places,  and  fre- 
quently bawled  out  in  the  night:  ‘‘  Give  us  Germanicus 
again.”  This  fufpicion  he  afterwards  confirmed  by  the 
barbarous  treatment  of  his  wife  and  children. 

LTII.  His  daughter-in-law  Agrippina,  after  the  death 
of  her  hufband,  complaining  upon  fome  occafion  with 
more  than  ordinary  freedom,  he  took  her  by  the  hand,  and 
addreiTed  her  in  a Greek  fentence  to  this  effed  : My  dear 
child,  do  you  think  yourfelf  injured,  becaufe  the  govern- 
ment is  not  in  your  hands?”  Nor  did  he  ever  fpeak  to 
her  after.  Upon  her  refufing  once  at  fupper  to  tafte  fome 
fruit  which  he  prefentedto  her,  he  declined  inviting  her  to 


hIs  table  ; pretending  that  the  in  efFeit  charged  him  with 
a delign  to  poifon  her ; whereas  the  whole  was  a contriv- 
ance of  his  own.  He  was  to  offer  the  fruit,  and  fhe  to 
be  privately  cautioned  againft  it,  as  what  would  infallibly 
be  her  death.  At  laft,  charging  her,  without  any  foun- 
dation, with  a defign  to  fly  to  the  ftatue  of  Auguflus,  or 
the  army,  he  banifhed  her  to  Pandataria.  Upon  her  re- 
viling him  for  it,  he,  by  means  of  a Centurion,  beat  out 
one  of  her  eyes : and  when  fhe  refolved  to  ftarve  herfelf 
to  death,  he  ordered  her  mouth  to  be  forced  open,  and 
meat 'to  be  crammed  down  her  throat.  But  flie  perfift- 
ing  in  her  refolution,  and  dying  foon  after,  he  perfecuted 
her  memory  with  the  bafefl  afperfions,  and  adviied  the 
Senate  to  put  her  birth-day  amongfl;  the  number  of  un- 
lucky days  in  the  Calendar.  He  likewife  accounted  it  a 
favor  that  he  had  not  thrown  her  body  upon  the  Scalse 
Gemoniae,  and  fuffered  a vote  of  the  houfe  to  pafs,  to 
thank  him  for  his  clemency,  and  a prefent  in  gold  to  be 
made  to  Jupiter  Capitolinus  upon  the  occafion. 

LIV.  He  had  by  Germanicus  three  grandfons,  Nero, 
Drufus,  and  Caius,  and  by  his  fon  Drufus,  one  named 
Tiberius.  Of  thefe,  after  the  lofs  of  his  fons,  he  recom- 
mended Nero  and  Drufus  to  the  Senate  ; and  at  their  be- 
ing folemnly  introduced  into  the  Forum,  he  diftributed 
money  among  the  people.  But  when  he  found  that  vows 
had  been  offered^  up  by  the  magiflrates  in  the  beginning 
of  the  year  for  their  health,  he  told  the  Senate,  “ Such 
honors  ought  not  to  be  conferred  but  upon  thofe  who  had 
been  tried,  and  were  advanced  in  age.”  Having  thus  be- 
trayed his  fecret  difpofition  towards  them,  he  occafioned 
their  being  perfecuted  with  a variety  of  information  againft 
them ; and  after  pradfiling  many  artifices  to  provoke 
them  to  rail  at  and  abufe  him,  that  he  might  be  furnifhed 




with  a pretence  to  deftroy  them,  he  charged  them  with 
it  111  a letter  to  the  Senate ; at  the  fame  time  acculing  them, 
in  the  bittereil  terms,  with  the  mod;  fcandalous  vices. 
Upon  their  being  declared  enemies  by  the  Senate,  he  flarv« 
cd  them  to  death  ; Nero  in  the  ifland  of  Pontia,  and 
Urufus  in  the  lower  part  of  the  Palatium.  It  is  thought 
by  fome,  that  Nero  was  put  upon  making  away  with 
himfelf,  by  the  executioner’s  fliewing  him  fome  halters 
and  hooks,  as  if  fent  to  him  by  the  order  of  the  Senate, 
Drufus,  it  is  faid,  was  fo  rabid  with  hunger,  that  he  at- 
tempted to  eat’  the  huffing  of  his  bed.  The  relics  of  both 
W'ere  fo  difperfed,  that  it  was  with  difficulty  they  were 

LV.  Befides  his  old  friends,  and  intimate  acquaintance, 
be  demanded  the  affihance  of  twenty  of  the  moft  eminent 
perfons  in  the  city,  as  counfellors  in  the  adminiftration  of 
public  affairs.  Out  of  all  this  number,  fcarcely  two  or 
three  efcaped  the  fury  of  his  favage  difpofition.  All  the 
reft  he  deftroyed  upon  one  pretence  or  another  ; and 
amongft  them  ^lius  Sejanus,  whofe  fall  was  attended 
with  the  ruin  of  many  others.  He  had  advanced  this  mi- 
nifter  to  the  higheft  pitch  of  grandeur,  not  fo  much  from 
any  real  regard  for  him,  as  that  by  his  bafe  and  ftnifter 
contrivances,  he  might  ruin  the  children  of  Germanicus, 
and  thereby  fecure  the  fucceffion  to  his  own  grandfon 
by  Drufus, 

LVL  He  treated  with  no  greater  miidnefs  the  Greeks 
in  his  family,  even  thofe  with  whom  he  was  moft  pleafed. 
Having  afked  one  Zeno,  upon  his  talking  fomewhat  ob-r 
feurely,  “ What  offenfive  dialed!:  is  that?”  he  replied, 

the  Doric.”  For  this  anfwer  he  baniflied  him  to  Ci- 
naiia,  upon  a fufpidon  tirat  he  upbraided  him  with  his 



, former  refidence  at  Rhodes,  where  the  Doric  dialed);  is 
ufed.  It  being  his  ctiftom  to  ftart  queftions  at  fupper,  fucli 
as  the  authors  he  had  been  reading  in  the  day  furniflied 
him  with,  and  finding  that  Seleucus  the  grammarian  ufcd 
to  enquire  of  thofe  who  attended  him,  what  authors  he 
read  every  day^  and  fo  came  prepared  for  his  interroga- 
tories ; he  firfl:  turned  him  out  of  his  family,  and  then 
drove  him  to  the  extremity  of  laying  violent  hands  upon 

'LVII.  His  cruel  aild  fuilen  temper  appeared  in  him 
when  he  was  a boy  ; which  Theodorus  of  Gadara,  his 
mailer  in  Rhetoric,  firft  difcovered^  and  expreffed  by  a 
very  appofite  fimile,  calling  him  now  and  then,  in  repri- 
manding  him,  “ Dirt  mixed  with  blood.”  But  his  dif- 
pohtion  appeared  hill  more  evidently  upon  his  attaining 
to  the  imperial  power,  and  even  in  the  beginning  of  his 
adminiftration,  whilft  he  was  endeavoring  to  gain  the 
favor  of  the  people,  by  affedling  moderation.  Upon  a 
funeral  paffing  by,  a w^ag  called  out  to  the  dead  manj 
“ Tell  Augufcus^  that  the  legacies  he  left  to  the  com- 
monalty are  not  yet  paid.”  This  man  he  ordered  to  be 
brought  before  him,  to  receive  what  was  due  to  him,  and 
then  to  be  led  to  execution,  that  he  might  deliver  the  mef- 
fage  to  his  father  himfelf.  Not  long  after,  when  one 
Pompey,  a Roman  knight,  denied  foraething  in  oppofitioni 
to  him  in  the  Senate,  he  threatened  to  put  him  in  prifon, 
and  told  him,  “ Of  a Pompey  I fliall  make  a Pompeian  of 
you  by  a bitter  kind  of  pun  playing  upon  the  man’s 
name,  and  the  ill  fortune  of  the  party. 

LVIII.  About  the  fame  time,  w'hen  the  Prsetor  confult- 
ed  him,  whether  it  was  his  pleafure  that  the  courts  fhould 
fit  upon  accUfations  of  treafon  againfl  his  perfon,  he  re- 

U plied, 



plied,  I'he  laws  ought  to  be  put  in  execution  and 
he  did  put  them  in  execution  moll  feverely.  Some  per- 
fon  had  taken  off  the  head  of  Auguftus  from  a ftatue  of 
him,  and  put  another  upon  it.  The  affair  was  brought 
before  the  Senate ; and  becaufe  the  cafe  was  not  clear, 
fome  were  examined  by  torture  concerning  it.  The  party 
accufed  being  found  guilty,  and  condemned,  this  kind  of 
procefs  grew  to  fuch  a height,  that  it  became  capital  for 
a man  to  beat  his  flave,  or  change  his  cloaths,  near  the 
flatue  of  Augufl;us  ; to  carry  his  head  ftamped,  upon  the 
coin,  or  cut  in  the  ftone  of  a ring,  into  a neceffary  houfe, 
or  the  flews  5 or  to  refledl  upon  any  thing  that  had  been 
either  faid  or  done  by  him.  In  fine,  a perfon  was  con- 
demned to  death,  for  fuffering  fome  honors  to  be  decreed 
to  him  in  the  colony  where  he  lived,  upon  the  fame  day 
on  which  they  had  formerly  been  decreed  to  Auguflus. 

LIX.  He  was  befides  guilty  of  many  barbarous  ac- 
tions, under  the  pretence  of  flridtnefs  and  reformation 
of  manners,  but  more  to  gratify  his  own  favage  difpofi- 
tlon.  In  verfes  in  which  his  cruelties  were  lampooned, 
the  authors  difplayed  the  prefent  calamities  of  his  reign, 
and  anticipated  the  future. 

Afper  et  immitis,  breviter  vis  omnia  dicam  ? 

Difpeream  fi  te  mater  amare  poteft. 

Non  es  eques,  quare  ? non  funt  tibi  miliia  centum  : 

Omnia  fi  quasras,  et  Rhodos  exfilium  eft. 

Aurea  mutafti  Saturni  fsecula,  Caefar  : 

Incolumi  nam  te,  ferrea Temper  erunt. 

Faftidit  vinum,  quia  jam  fitit  ifte  cruorem  : 

Tam  bibit  hunc  avide,  quam  bibit  ante  merum. 

Adfpice  felicem  fibi  non  tibi,  Romule,  Sullam  : 

Et  Marium,  fi  vis,  adfpice,  f.d  reducem. 

Nec  non  Antoni  civilia  bella  moventis 
‘ Nec  femel  infeiftas  adfpice  caede  manus. 




Et  die,  Roma  perit':  regnabit  Tanguine  multo,  . 

Ad  regnum  quifquis  venit  ab  exfilio.  , 

Obdurate  wretch  ! too  fierce,  too  fell  to  move 
The  lead  kind  yearnings  of  a mother’s  love  I 
No  knight  thou  art,  as  having  no  eftate  ; 

Long  fufFered’jft  thou  in  Rhodes  an  exile’s  fate. 

No  more  the  happy  Golden  Age  we  fee  ; 

The  Iron’s  come,  and  fure  to  laft  with  thee. 

Inftead  of  wine  he  thirfted  for  before, 

Jle  wallows  now  in  floods  of  human  gore. 

Refleft,  ye  Romans,  on  the  dreadful  times, 

I Made  fuch  by  Marius,  and  by  Sylla’s  crimes. 

Refleft  how  Antony’s  ambitious  rage 
Twice  fear’d  with  horror  a diftrafted  age. 

And  fay,  Alas  ! Rome’s  blood  in  ftreams  will  flow, 

When  banifh’d  mifereants  rule  this  world  below. 

At  firft  he  would  have  it  underftood,  that  thefe  fatirical 
reflexions  proceeded  from  the  refentment  of  thofe  who 
were  impatient  under  the  difeipline  of  reformation,  rather 
than  their  real  fentirnents ; and  he  would  frequently  fay, 
“ Let  them  hate  me,  'fo  long  as  they  do  but  approve  my 
condu6t.’^  At  length  however,  his  behaviour  fhowed* 
that  he  was  fenfible  they  were  too  well  founded, 

LX.  A few  days  after  his  arrival  at  Capreae,  a fifher- 
man  coming  up  to' him  unexpectedly  as  he  was  alone, 
and  prefenting  him  with  a large  barbel,  he  ordered  the 
man’s  face  to  be  ferubbed  with  the  fifh  ; being  terrified  at 
the  thought  of  his  having  been  able  to  make  his  way  to 
him  over  fuch  rugged  and  fteep  rocks.  The  man,  while 
undergoing  the  punifliment,  exprefling  his  joy,  that  he 
had  not  likewife  prefented  him  with  a large  crab  which 
he  had  taken,  he  ordered  his  face  to  be  farther  lacerated 
with  the  claws  of  that  creature.  He  punifhed  a foldier 
of  the  guards  with  death,  for  having  flolen  a peacock 

U % OMt 



out  of  his  garden.  His  chair,  as  he  was  travelilng,  be- 
ing obflrudred  by  fome  bufhes  in  the  road,  he  ordered 
the  perfon  that  had  been  fent  before  to  examine  the  road, 
who  was  a Centurion  of  the  firfl;  rank,  to  be  laid  on  his 
face  upon  the  ground,  and  to  be  whipped  almoft  to 

LXI.  Soon  after,  he  abandoned  himfelf  to  every  fpe- 
cies  of  cruelty,  never  wanting  occafion  of  one.  kind  or 
other,  to  ferve  as  a pretext.  He  firfl:  fell  upon  the  friends 
and  acquaintance  of  his  mother,  then  thofe  of  his  grand- 
fons,  and  his  daughter-in-law,  and  laftly  thofe  of  Seja- 
nus ; after  whofe  death  he  became  cruel  in  the  extreme. 
From  this  it  appeared,  that  he  had  not  been  fo  much  in- 
fligated  by  Sejanus,  as  fupplied  with  occafions  of  grati- 
fying his  favage  temper,  when  he  wanted  them.  Though 
in  a fhort  memoir  which  he  compofed  of  his  own  life, 
he  had  the  effrontery  to  wmife,  “ I have  puniflied  Seja- 
nus, becaufe  I found  him  bent  upon  the  deftrudfion  of 
the  children  of  my  fon  Germanicus,’*  one  of  thefe  be 
put  to  death,  when  he  was  now  become  jealous  ot  Seja- 
nus ; and  another,  after  he  was  taken  off.  It  would  l>e 
tedious  to  relate  all  the  numerous  inftances  of  his  cru- 
elty : fujffice  it  to  give  a few  examples,  in  their  different 
kinds.  Not  a day  paffed  without  the  punifliment  of 
fome  unfortunate  perfon  or  other,  not  excepting  holi- 
days, or  thofe  appropriated  to  the  worfhip  of  the  Gods. 
Some  were  punifhed  in  the  beginning  of  the  new  year. 
Many  were  accufed  and  condemned  in  conjundfion  with 
their  wives  and  children  ; and  for  fuch  as  were  fentenced 
to  death,  the  relations  w^cre  forbid  to  mourn.  Confi- 
derable  rewards  were  voted  for  the  profecutors,  and  fome- 
times  for  the  witneffes  likewife.  The  information  of  any 
perfon,  without  exception,  was  taken  ; and  all  offences 



%vere  capital,  even  the  fpeaking  of  a few  words,  though 
without  any  ill  intention.  A poet  was  impeached  for 
abufing  Agamemnon  ; and  a hiftorian,  for  calling  Brutus 
and  Caffius  the  laft  of  tlie  Romans.’^  The  two  au- 
thors were  immediately  put  to  death,  and  their  writings 
fupprelTed  ; though  they  had  been  well  received  fome 
years  before,  and  read  in  the  hearing  of  Auguftus.  Some, 
who  were  thrown  into  prifon,  were  not  only  denied  the 
fblace  of  fludy,  but  debarred  from  all  company  and  con- 
verfation.  Many  perfons,  when  fummoned  to  trial, 
ftabbed  themfelves  at  home,  to  avoid  the  diflrefs  and  ig- 
nominy of  a public  condemnation,  which  they  were  cer- 
tain would  enfue.  Others  took  poifon  in  the  Senate- 
houfc,  Amongfl  the  former,  the  wounds  of  fuch  as  had 
not  expired  were  bound  up,  and  they  were  all  carried, 
half-dead,  and  panting  for  life,  to  prifon,  All  that  were 
put  to  death,  were  thrown  down  the  Seals  Qemonlae,  and 
then  dragged  Into  the  Tiber.  In  one  day,  twenty  were 
treated  in  this  manner  ; and  amongfl:  them  boys  and  wo- 
men. Becaufe,  according  to  an  ancient  cuftom,  it  was 
not  lawful  to  llrangle  virgins,  the  young  girls  were  firft 
deflowered  by  the  executioner,  and  afterwards  ftrangled. 
Such  as  were  defirous  to  die,  were  forced  to  llve.<  For 
he  thought  death  fo  flight  a piiniflunent,  that  upon  hear- 
ing that  one  Carnulius,  who  was  under  profecution,  had 
killed  hlmfelf,  lie  exclaimed,  “ Carnulius  has  efcaped 
me.’^  In  calling  over  his  prifoners,  when  one  of  them 
requefled  the  favor  of  a fpeedy  death,  he  replied,  “ I am 
not  friends  with  you  yet.’*  A man  of  Confular  rank 
writes  in  his  Annals,  that  at  table,  where  a large  com. 
pany  and  he  himfelf  was  prefent,  he  was  on  a fudden 
and  aloud  afked  by  a dwarf  w'ho  flood  by,  amongfl  the 
buffoons  that  attended,  why  Paconius,  who  was  under 
a profecution  fof  treafon,  lived  fo  long.  Tiberius  imme- 

U 3 diately 



diately  reprimanded  him  for  his  pertnefs  ; but  wrote  to 
the  Senate  a few”  days  after,  to  proceed  without  delay  to 
the  punilhment  of  Paconius. 

LXII.  Exafperated  by  an  information  about  the  death 
of  his  fon  Drufus,  he  carried  his  cruelty  dill  farther. 
He  imagined  he  had  died  of  a dife^fe  occafioned  by  his 
intemperance ; but  finding  that  he  had  been  poifoned  by 
the  contrivance  of  his  wife  Li  villa  and  Sejanus,  he  fpar- 
ed  no  perfon,  but  tortured  and  put  to  death,  without 
mercy.  He  was  fo  entirely  occupied  with  the  examina- 
tion of  this  affair,  for  whole  days  together,  that,  upon 
being  informed  that  a gentleman  of  Rhodes,  in  whofe 
houfe  he  had  lodged,  and  whom  he  had  by  a friendly 
letter  invited  to  PvOme,  was  arrived,  he  ordered  him  im- 
mediately to  be  put  to  the -torture,  as  if  he  had  been  a 
party  concerned  in  that  tranfadion.  Upon  finding  his 
miflake,  he  commanded  him  to  be  put  to  death,  that  he 
might  not  publifh  the  injury  done  him.  The  fpot  on 
which  he  was  executed  is  ftill  fliown  at  Caprete,  where 
he  ordered  fuch  as  w^ere  condemned  to  die,  after  long  and 
exquifite  tortures,  to  be  thrown,  before  his  eyes,  from 
a precipice  into  the  fea.  There  a party  of  foldiers  be- 
longing to  the  fleet,  w^aited  for  them,  and  broke  their 
bones  with  poles  and  oars,  left  they  fliould  have  any  life 
left  in  them.  Amongft  various  kinds  of  torture  invented 
by  him,  one  was,  to  perfuade  people  to  drink  a large 
quantity  pf  wine,  and  then  to  tie  up  their  members 
tight  with  firings,  to  torment  them  at  once  by  the  conflricr- 
tion  of  the  ligature,  and  the  floppage  of  their  urine.  Had 
not  death  prevented  him,  and  Thrafyllus,  defignedly,  as 
fome  fay,  prevailed  with  him  to  defer  fome  of  his  cruel 
proje6ls,  in  hopes  of  longer  life,  it  is  believed  that  he 
would  have  deflroyed  many  more;  and  not  have  fpared 



even  the  reft  of  his  grandchildren  : for  he  was  jealous 
of  Caius,  and  hated'  Tiberius  as  having  been  conceived 
in  adultery.  This  conjecture  is  indeed  highly  probable ; 
for  he  ufed  often  to  fay,  “ Happy  Priam,  who  furvived 
his  whole  family ! 

LXIIT.  Amidft  thefe  tranfaClions,  how  fearful  -and 
apprehenftve,  as  well  as  odious  and  deteftable  he  lived, 
is  evident  from  many  indications.  He  forbid  the  footh- 
fayers  to  be  confulted  in  private,  and  without  fome  wit- 
nefles  being  prefent.  He  attempted  to  fupprefs  the  ora- 
cles in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  city;  but  being  terri- 
fied by  the  manifeft  appearance  of  a divine  authority  in 
that  of  Prsenefte,  he  abandoned  the  defign.  For  though 
the  lots  were  fealed  up  in  a box,  and  carried  to  Rome, 
yet  they  were  not  to  be  found  in  it,  until  it  was  returned 
to  the  temple.  Two  men  of  Confular  rank,  whom  he 
had  appointed  governors  of  provinces,  he  never  durft  let 
go  upon  their  refpedive  deftinations,  but  kept  them  un-- 
til  feveral  years  after,  when  he  nominated  fucceflbrs,  be- 
ing then  prefent  upon  the  fpot  with  him.  In  the  mean 
time,  they  bore  the  titles  of  their  office  ; and  he  frequent- 
ly gave  them  orders,  which  they  took  care  to  have  exe«» 
cuted  by  their  deputies  and  alfiftants. 

LXIV.  He  never  removed  his  daughter-in-law,  or 
grandfon,  after  their  condemnation,  to  any  place  but  in 
chains,  and  a clofe  chair,  with  a guard  to  hinder  all  that 
met  them  on  the  road,  from  ftanding  to  gaze  at  them. 

LXV.  After  Sejanus  had  formed  his  defign  againft 
him,  though  he  faw  that  his  birth-day  was  folemnly  kept 
by  the  public,  and  golden  images  of  him  worftiipped 
every  where,  yet  it  was  with  difficulty  at  laft,  and  more 

U 4 by 


bj  artifice,  than  his  imperial  authority,  that  he  efFe61ed 
his  death.  In  the  firft  place,  to  remove  him  from  about 
his  perfon,  under  a pretext  of  doing  him  honor,  he 
made  him  his  colleague  in  his  fifth  Confulfhip  ; which, 
tliough  then  abfent  from  the  city,  he  took  upon  him  for 
that  purpofe,  a long  time  after  his  preceding  Confulfhip  : 
and  having  flattered  him  with  the  hopes  of  a match  with 
a lady  of  his  own  kindred,  and  the  Tribunitian  autho- 
rity, he  all  on  a fudden,  while  Sejanus  little  expedled 
it,  charged  him  with  treafon,  in  an  abjedb  miferable  ad- 
drefs  to  the  Senate,  in  which,  amongfl  other  things,  he 
begged  thOm  “ To  fend  one  of  the  Confuls,  to  fetch  him^ 
felf,  a poor  folitary  old  man,  with  a guard  of  foldiers.” 
Still  diflruflful,  however,  and  apprehenlive  of  a public 
infurredlion,  he  ordered  his  grandfon  Drufus,  v/hom  he 
kept  confined  at  Rome,  to  be  fet  at  liberty,  if  occafioii 
required,  to  head  the  troops,  and  fuch  as  might  appear 
in  his  fupport.  He  had  like  wife  fliips  in  readinefs,  to 
tranfport  him  to  any  of  the  legions  to  which  he  might 
think  proper  to  apply.  Meanwhile,  he  was  upon  the 
watch,  on  the  top  of  a very  hlgli  rock,  for  the  fignals 
which  he  had  ordered  to  be  given,  as  any  thing  happen- 
ed, led  the  mefTengers  fhould  be  tardy.  But  though  he 
had  now  quite  defeated  the  defigns  of  Sejanus  againfl: 
him,  he  was  neverthelefs  dill  haunted  as  much  as  ever 
with  fears  and  apprehenfions  ; infomuch  that  he  never 
once  dified  out  of  the  Villa  Jovis  for  nine  months 

LXVI.  To  the  extreme  anxiety  of  mind  which  he 
now  experienced,  he  had  the  mortification  to  find  fuper- 
added  the  mod  poignant  reproaches  from  all  quarters. 
Thofe  who  were  condemned  to  die,  heaped  upon  him 
the  mod  opprobrious  language  in  hjs  face,  or  by  libels 




fcattered  in  tlie  Senators’  feats  in  the  theatre  *,  with 
which  he  was  differently  affedled.  Sometimes  he  wifhed, 
out  of  ffiame,  to  have  all  fmothered  and  concealed : at 
other  times  he  would  flight  what  was  faid,  and  publiQi 
it  himfelf.  To  this  accumulation  of  fcandal  and  open 
farcafm,  there  is  to  be  fubjoined  a letter  from  Artabanus 
king  of  the  Parthians,  in  which  he  upbraids  him  with 
Jiis  parricides,  murders,  cowardice  and  luxury,  and  ad- 
vifes  him  to  fatisfy  the  furious  rage  of  his  own  people, 
which  he  had  fo  juftly  excited,  by  putting  an  end  to  his 

LXVII.  At  lafl  being  quite  weary  of  himfelf,  he  in- 
timated his  extreme  mifery,  in  a letter  to  the  Senate, 
which  began  thus:  “ V/hat  to  write  to  you,  Confcript 
Fathers,  or  how  to  write,  or  what  not  to  write  at  this 
time,  may  all  the  Gods  and  Goddeffes  pour  upon  my 
head  a more  terrible  vengeance  than  that  which  I feel 
myfelf  daily  finking  under,  if  I can  tell.”  Some  are  of 
opinion  that  he  had  a foreknowledge  of  thofe  things, 
from  his  Ikill  in  the  fcience  of  divination,  and  that  he  knew 
long  before  what  'mifery  and  infamy  would  at  lafl;  come 
upon  him  ; and  that  for  this  reafon,  at  the  beginning  of 
his  reign,  he  had  abfolutely  refufed  the  title  of  the  “ Far- 
ther of  his  Country,”  and  the  propofal  of  the  Senate  to 
fwear  to  his  adls,  leil;  he  Ihould  afterwards,  to  his  greater 
fhame,  be  found  unequal  to  fuch  extraordinary  honors. 
This  indeed  may  be  juftlv  inferred  from  the  fpeeches 
which  he  made  upon  both  thofe  occafions  ; as  when  he 
fays,  “ I fhall  ever  be  the  fame,  and  fliall  never  change 
my  condudl,  fo  long  as  I retain  my  fenfes  ; but  to  avoid 
giving  a bad  precedent  to  pofterity,  the  Senate  ought  to 
beware  of  engaging  themfelves  to  maintain  the  adds  of 
any  perfon  whatever,  who  might  by  fome  accident  or 

8 other 


Other  be  influenced  to  alter  his  condu6i:.”  And  again  : 
“ If  ye  fhould  at  any  time  entertain  a jealoiify  of  my 
condudl,  and  entire  afFe6Iion  for  you,  which  heaven 
prevent,  by  putting  a period  to  my  days,  rather  than  I 
fhould  live  to  fee  fuch  an  alteration  in  your  opinion  of 
me,  the  title  of  Father  will  add  no  honor  to  me,  but  be 
a reproach  to  you,  for  your  raflinefs  in  conferring  it 
upon  me,  or  inconftancy  in  altering  your  opinion  of 

LX VIII.  He  was  in  his  perfon  large  and  robufl; ; of  a 
flature  fomewhat  above  the  common  fize ; broad  in  the 
flioulders  and  cheft,  and  in  his  other  parts  proportion- 
able.  He  ufed  his  left  hand  more  readily  than  his  right ; 
and  his  joints  were  fo  ftrong,  that  he  would  bore  a frefli 
found  apple  through  with  his  finger,  and  would  wound 
the  head  of  a boy,  or  even  a young  man,  with  a fillip. 
He  was  of  a fair  complexion,  and  had  his  hair  fo  long 
behind,  that  it  covered  his  neck,  which  was  obferved  to 
be.  a mark  of  dlftindlion  afFecSted  by  the  family.  He  had 
a handfome  face,  but  often  full  of  pimples.  His  eyes, 
which  w'ere  large,  had  a wonderful  faculty  of  feeing  in 
the  night-time,  and  in  the  dark,  but  for  a fliort  time 
only, and  immediately  after  awaking  from  fleep  ; for  they 
foon  grew  dim  again.  He  walked  with  his  neck  ftifF 
and  unmoved,  commonly  with  a frowning  countenance, 
being  for  the  moft  part  filent : when  he  fpoke  to  thofe 
about  him,  it  was  very  flowly,  and  generally  accompa- 
nied with  an  effeminate  motion  of  his  fingers.  All  thofe 
tilings  being  difagreeable,  and  expielfive  of  arrogance, 
Auguftus  remarked  in  him,  and  often  endeavored  to  ex-.- 
cufe  to  the  Senate  and  people,  affui  ing  them  that  “ they 
were  natural  defedls,  which  proceeded  from  no  viciouf- 
nels  of  mind.”  He  enjoyed  a good  flate  of  health,  and 



without  any  interruption,  almoft  during  the  whole  time 
of  his  government ; though,  from  the  thirtieth  year  of 
his  age,  he  managed  himfelf  in  refpedl:  of  his  health  ac- 
cording to  his  own  difcretion,  without  any  medioal  af- 

LXIX.  In  regard  to  the  Gods,  and  matters  of  reli-^ 
gion,  he  difcovered'  much  indifference  ; being  greatly  ad- 
didted  to  aftrology,  and  full  of  a perfuaflon  that  all  things 
were  governed  by  fate.  Yet  he  was  extremely  afraid  of 
lightning,  and  in  cloudy  weather  always  wore  a laurel 
crown  on  his  head  ; becaufe  an  opinion  prevails  among 
many,  that  the  leaf  of  that  tree  is  never  touched  by  the 

LXX.  He  applied  himfelf  with  great  diligence  to  the 
liberal  arts,  both  Greek  and  Latin.  In  his  Latin  flyle, 
he  affedled  to  imitate  Meffala  Corvinus,  a refpedlable  old 
man,  whole  company  he  had  much  frequented 'in  his 
youth.  But  he  rendered  his  llyle  obfcure,  by  excels 
of  affedlation  and  nicenefs  ; fo  that  he  was  thought  to 
talk  better  extempore,  than  in  a premeditated  difcourfe. 
He  corapofed  like  wife  a Lyric  Ode,  under  the  title  of 
“ A Lamentation  upon  the  Death  of  L.  C^far,’^  as  alfo 
fome  Greek  poems, in  imitation  of  Euphorion,  Rianus, 
and  Parthenius.  Thefe  poets  he  greatly  admired,  and 
fet  up  their  works  and  flatues  in  the  public  libraries, 
amongd;  the  eminent  authors  of  antiquity.  On  this  ac- 
count, mofl  of  the  learned  men  of  the  time  vied  with 
each  other  in  publifhing  obfervations  upon  them,  which 
they  addreffed  to  him.  What  he  chiefly  attended  to  was 
the  knowledge  of  the  fabulous  hiflory  ; and  this  he  pro- 
fecuted  with  a zeal  that  might  juftly  be  deemed  ridiculous. 
For  he  ufed  to  try  the  grammarians,  a cjafs  of  people 



which  I have  already  obferved  he  much  alFecled,  wifh 
fuch  queftions  as  thefe  : “ Who  was  Hecuba’s  mother? 
What  had  been  Achilles’s  name  amongft  the  young  wo- 
men ? What  fong  were  the  Sirens  ufed  to  hng  ?”  And  the 
hrft  day  that  he  entered  the  Senate-houfe,  after  the  death 
of  Augiiftus,  as  if  he  intended  to  pay  a refpedl  both  to 
the  memory  of  his  father,  and  the  Gods,  in  imitation  of 
Minos  upon  the  death  of  his  fon,  he  made  an  offering  of 
frankincenfe  and  wine,  but  without  any  mullc, 

LXXI.  Though  he  was  ready  and  converfant  with 
* the  Greek  tongue,  yet  he  did  not  ufe  it  every  where,  but 
chiefly  declined  it  in  the  Senate -houfe  ; infomuch  that 
having  occafion  to  ufe  the  word  mompoUum  (monopoly), 
he  firfl  begged  pardon  for  being  obliged  to  trouble  the 
houfe  with  a foreign  word.  And  when  in  a decree  of 
the  Senate,  the  word  emblema  (emblem)  was  read,  he 
advifed  to  have  it  changed,  and  that  a Latin  word  ihould 
be  fubftituted  in  its  room  ; or,  if  no  proper  one  could  be 
found,  to  exprefs  the  thing  in  a circumlocutory  manner, 
A foldier  who  was  examined,  as  a witnefs  upon  a trial,  in 
Greek,  he  would  not  allow  to  make  any  anfwer  but  m 

LXXIT.  During  the  whole  time  of  his  recefs  at  Ca- 
pres,  he  attempted  only  twice  to  come  to  Rome.  Once 
he  came  in  a galley  as  far  as  the  gardens  near  the  Nau- 
machia, but  placed  guards  along  the  banks  of  the  Tiber, 
to  keep  off  all  who  fhould  offer  to  come  to  meet  him. 
And  a fecond  time  he  advanced  along  the  Appian  way, 
within  feven  miles  of  the  city  ; but  taking  only  a view 
of  the  walls  at  a dilfance,  he  immediately  returned.  For 
what  reafon  he  came  not  to  the  town,  upon  his  progrefs 
up  the  Tiber,  is  uncertain ; but  in  the  latter  excurfio»* 




he  was  deterred  by  a prodigy.  He  ufed  to  divert  himfelf 
with  a fnake,  which  going  to  feed  with  his  own  hand, 
according  to  his  cuftom,  he  found  it  devoured  by  ants, 
and  was  therefore  advifed  to  beware  of  the  fury  of  the 
mob.  On  this  account,  returning  in  all  hafte  to  Cam- 
pania, he  fell  ill  at  Aftura  ; but  recovering  a little,  went 
on  to  Circeii.  And  to  obviate  any  fufpiclon  of  his  be- 
ing in  a bad  ftate  of  health,  he  was  not  only  prefent  at 
the  diverfions  of  the  camp,  but  encountered  in  perfon, 
from  an  eminence,  with  javelins,  a wild  boar,  which 
was  let  out  for  the  purpofe.  Being  immediately  felzed 
with  a pain  in  the  hde,  and  catching  cold  upon  his  over- 
heating himfelf  in  the  exercife,  he  relapfed  into  a worfe 
condition  than  he  was  at  firft.  He  held  out  however 
for  fome  time  ; and  failing  as  far  as  Mifenum,  omitted  no- 
thing in  his  ufual  manner  of  life,  not  even  his  entertain- 
ments, nor  other  pleafures,  partly  from  an  ungovernable 
appetite,  and  partly  to  conceal  his  condition.  For  Cha- 
rlcles,  a phyfician,  having  obtained  leave  to  retire  fome 
time  from  court,  at  his  rifmg  from  table,  felzed  his  hand 
to  klfs  it ; upon  which  Tiberius,  fuppofing  he  did  it  to 
feel  his  pulfe,  defired  him  to  Ifay  and  take  his  place  again, 
and  continued  the  entertainment  longer  than  ufual.  At 
laft,  however,  according  to  his  ufual  pradlice,  he  flood 
up  in  tlie  middle  of  the  room,  with  an  officer  attending, 
and  took  leave  of  every  one  in  the  company  by  name. 

I.XXIII.  Meanwhile,  finding  upon  a perufal  of  the 
acts  of  the  Senate,  “ that  fome  perfons  under  profecution 
Irad  been  difeharged,  without  being  brought  to  a hear- 
ing,” concerning  whom  he  had  wTitten  but  very  briefly, 
mentioning  no  more  than  that  they  had  only  been  named 
by  an  informer  ; complaining  in  a great  rage  that  he 


^02  THE  LIFE  OF 

was  treated  with  contempt,  he  refolved  at  all  events  ta 
return  to  Caprea  ; not  daring  to  attempt  any  thing  upon 
the  occafioii  but  in  a place  of  fecurity.  But  being  de- 
tained by  flormsj  and  the  violence  of  the  difeafe,  which 
encreafed  upon  him,  he  died  foon  aftpr,  at  a country- 
feat  belonging  to  Lucullus,  in  the  feventy-eighth  year  of 
his  age,  and  the  twxnty-third  of  his  reign,  upon  the  fe- 
venteenth  of  the  Calends  of  April,  when  Cn.  Acerro- 
nius  Proculus  and  C.  Pontius  Niger  were  Confuls.  Some 
are  of  opinion  that  a flow-confuming  poifon  was  given 
him  by  Caius.  Others  fay,  that  during  the  intermiflion 
of' a fever  with  which  he  happened  to  be  feized,  upon 
afking  for  food,  it  was  denied  him.  Others  report,  that 
he  was  ftided  by  a pillow  thrown  upon  him,  at  his  reco- 
vering from  a fwoon,  and  calling  for  his  ring,  which 
had  been  taken  from  him  in  the  fit.  Seneca  wTites, 
“ That  finding  himfelf  a-dying,  he  took  his  ring  off  his 
finger,  and  held  it  a while,  as  if  he  would  deliver  it  to 
fomebody  ; but  put  it  again  upon  his  finger,  and  lay  for 
fome  time,  with  his  hand  clinched,  and  without  ffirring  : 
when  fuddenly  calling  upon  his  attendants,  and  no  per- 
fon  making  anfwer,  he  rofe  ; but  his  ffrengh  failing  him, 
he  fell  down  a little  way  from  his  bed. 

LXXIV.  Upon  his  laft  birth-day,  he  had  brought  a 
, large  beautiful  ftatue  of  Apollo  of  Temenis  from  Syra- 
cufe,  with  the  view  of  placing  it  in  the  library  of  the 
new  temple,  which  had  been  built  for  that  God  ; but 
dreamt  that  he  appeared  to  him,  and  affured  him  “ that 
his  ffatue  could  not  be  ereded  by  him.”  A few  days 
before  he  died,  the  watch-tower  of  Caprese  fell  down. 
And  at  Mifenum,  fome  embers  and  coajs,  which  were 
brought  in  to  warm  his  parlour,  went  out,  and  after 



being  quite  cold,  burft  out  into  a flame  again  in  the 
evening,  and  continued  burning  very  bright  for  feveral 

LXXV.  The  people  rejoiced  fo  much  at  his  death,  that, 
upon  the  firft  news  of  it,  they  ran  up  and  down  the  city, 
fome  crying  out,  “ Away  with  Tiberius  into  the  Tiber 
others  exclaiming,  “ May  the  earth,  the  common  mother 
of  mankind,  and  the  infernal  Gods,  allow  no  place  for 
the  dead,  but  amongfl;  the  wicked.’*  Others  threatened  his 
body  with  the  hook  and  the  Scalas  Gemoniae,  their  indig- 
nation at  his  former  cruelty  being  encreafed  by  a recent 
inftance  of  the  fame  kind.  It  had  been  provided  by  an 
adl  of  the  Senate,  that  the  punifhment  of  perfons  con- ' 
demned  to  die  fliould  always  be  deferred  until  the  tenth 
day  after  the  fentence.  Now  it  happened  that  the  day 
on  which  the  news  of  Tiberius’s  death  arrived,  was  the 
time  fixed  by  law  for  the  execution  of  fome  perfons  that- 
had  been  fentenced  to  die.  Thefe  poor  creatures  implored 
the  protedlion  of  all  about  them  ; but  becaufe  Caius  was 
not  in  town,  and  there  was  none  elfe  to  whom  applica- 
tion could  be  made  in  their  behalf ; the  men  who  were 
charged  with  the  care  of  their  execution,  from  a dread 
of  oflending  againfl:  that  law,  ftrangled  them,  and  threw 
them  down  the  Scal^  Gemoni^.  This  excited  in  the  minds' 
of  the  people  a flill  greater  abhorrence  of  the  tyrant’s  me- 
mory, fince  his  cruelty  fubfifted  even  after  his  death. 
As  foon  as  his  corpfe  began  to  move  from  Mifenum,  many 
cried  out  for  its  being  carried  to  Atella,  and  broiled  there 
in  the  amphitheatre.  It  was  however  brought  to  Rome, 
and  burnt  with  the  ufual  ceremony. 

LXXVI.  He  had  made  about  tw^o  years  before  two 


TH£  llFE  OF 


draughts  of  his  will,  one  with  his  ,own  hand,  and  the 
ether  with  that  of  one  of  his  freedmen  ; and  both  were 
witneffed  by  fome-  perfons  of  very  mean  rank.  He  left  his 
two  grandfons,  Caius  by  Germanicus,  and  Tiberius  by 
Drufus,  conjunct  heirs  to  his  efrate  ; and  upon  the  death 
cf  one  of  them,  the  other  w'as  to  inherit  tire  whole.  He 
gave  likewdfe  many  legacies  ; amongft  which  were  be- 
qiieds  to  the  Veftai  VirginSj  to  all  the  foldiers,  to  every 
commoner  of  Rome,  and  to  the  overfeers  of  the  feverai 
divifions  of  the  city» 

AT  the  death  of  Aiiguflus,  there  had  elapfed  fo  loirga 
period  from  the  overthrow  of  the  Republic  by  Julius  Caefarj 
that  few  were  now  living  who  had  been  botn  under  the  an- 
cient conftitution  of  the  Romans ; and  the  mild  and  profper- 
ous  adminiftration  of  Augultus,  during  forty-four ’years, 
had  by  this  time  reconciled  the  minds  of  the  people  to  a 
defpctic  government.  Tiberius,  the  adopted  fon  of  the 
former  fovereign,  was  of  mature  age  ; and  though  he  had 
hitherto  lived,  for  the  moft  part,  abftraded  from  any  ' 
concern  with  public  affairs,  yet,  having  been  brouglu  up 
in  the  family  of  Auguftus,  he  was  acquainted  with  his 
method  of  government,  which,  there  w^as  reafon  to  ex- 
pedf,  he  would  render  the  model  of  his  own.  Livia,  too, 
his  mother  and  the  reli£l  of  the  late  emperor,  was  ftilH 
living,  a woman  venerable  by  years,  who  had  long  beei> 
familiar  with  the  councils  of  Auguftus,  and  from  her 
high  rank,  as  well  as  uncommon  affability,  pofTefTed  ai> 
extenlivc  influence  amongfl  all  claffes  of  the  people» 

Such  were  the  circumftaiices  in  favor  of  Tiberius’s 
fucceflion,  at  the  demife  of  ALUguftus ; but  there  were 



Others  of  a tendency/  difadvantageous  to  his  views.  His 
temper  was  haughty  and  referved : Auguftus  had  often 
apologifed  for  the  ungracioufnefs  of  his  manners  : he 
w'as  difobedient  to  his  mother  ; and  though  he  had  not 
openly  difeovered  any  propenfity  to  vice,  he  enjoyed  none 
of  thofe  qualities  which  ufually  conciliate  popularity. 
To  thefe  confiderations  it  is  to  be  added,  that  Poftumus 
Agrippa,  the  grandfon  of  Auguftus  by  Julia,  was  living ; 
and  if  confanguinity  was  to  be  the  rule  of  fucceffion,  his 
right  w^as  indifputably  preferable  to  that  of  an  adopted 
foil.  Auguftus  had  fent  this  youth  into  exile  a few  years 
before  ; but,  towards  the  dofe  of  his  life,  had  expreiTed  a 
eleftgn  of  recalling  him,  with  the  view,  as  was  fuppofed, 
of  appointing  him  his  fucceffor.  The  father  of  young 
Agrippa  had  been  greatly  beloved  by  the  Romans  ; and 
the  fate  of  his  mother  Julia,  though  notorious  for  her 
proftigacyj  had  ever  been  regarded  by  them  with  peculiar 
fympathy  and  tendernefs.  Many  therefore  attached  to 
the  fon  the  partiality  entertained  for  his  parents  ; which 
was  encrcafed  not  only  by  a ftrong  fufpicion,  but  a gene- 
ral furmife,  that  his  eider  brothers,  Caius  and  Lucius, 
had  been  violently  taken  olF,  to  make  way  for  the  fuc- 
ceflion  of  Tiberius.  That  an  obftrudion  was  appre- 
hended to  Tiberius’s  fucceffion  from  this  quarter,  is  put 
beyond  all  doubt,  when  we  find  that  the  death  of  Au- 
guftus was  induftriouily  kept  fecret,  until  young  Agrippa 
fhould  be  removed  ; who,  it  is  generally  agreed,  was  di- 
fpatched  by  an  order  from  Livia  and  Tiberius  conjundfly, 
or  at  leaft  from  the  former.  Though  by  this  adl  thei  e re- 
mained no  rival  to  Tiberius,  yet  the  confeioufnefs  of  his 
own  want  of  pretenftons  to  the  Roman  throne,  feemstohave 
Itill  rendered  him  diftruftfui  of  the  fucceffion  ; and  tliat  he 
Ihould  have  quietly  obtained  it,  without  the  voice  of  tire 
people,  the  real  inclination  of  the  Senate,  or  the  fupport 

X of 



of  the  army,  can  be  imputed  only  to  the  influence  of  Iris 
mother,  and  his  own  diflimulation.  Ardently  folicitous  to 
attain  the  objedl,  yet  afFedling  a total  indifference  ; artfully 
prompting  the  Senate  to  give  him  the  charge  of  the  go- 
vernment, at  the  time  that  he  intimated  an  invincible  rc- 
ludtance  to  accept  it ; his  abfolutely  declining  it  in  per- 
petuity, but  fixing  no  time  for  an  abdication  ; his  deceit- 
ful infinuation  of  bodily  infirmities,  with  hints  likewife 
of  approaching  old  age,  that  he  might  allay  in  the 
Senate  all  apprehenfions  of  any  great  duration  of  his 
power,  and  reprefs  in  his  adopted  fon,  Germanicus,  the 
emotions  of  ambition  to  difplace  him ; form  altogether  a 
fcene  of  the  moft  infidious  policy,  inconfiflency  and 

In  this  period  died,  in  the  eighty-fixth  year  of  her  age, 
Livia  Drufilla,  mother  of  the  emperor,  and  the  relidi  of 
Auguflus  whom  fhe  furvived  fifteen  years.  She  was 
the  daughter  of  L.  Drufus  Calidianus,  and  married  Ti- 
berius Claudius  Nero,  by  whom  fhe  had  two  fons,  Ti- 
berius and  Drufus.  The  conducl  of  this  lady  feems  to 
juflify  the  remark  of  Caligula,  that  “ fire  was  an  Ulyffes 
in  a woman’s  drefs.”  Oclavius  firfl;  faw  her  as  fhe  fled 
from  the  danger  which  threatened  her  hufband,  who  had 
efpoufed  the  caufe  of  Antony ; and  though  fhe  was  then 
pregnant,  he  refolved  to  marry  her,  whether  with  her  owa 
inclination  or  not,  is  left  by  Tacitus  undetermined.  To 
pave  the  way  for  this  union,  he  divorced  his  wife  Scribo- 
nia, and  with  the  approbation  of  the  Augurs,  which  he 
could  have  no  difEculty  to  obtain,  celebrated  his  nuptials 
wu'th  Livia.  There  enfued  from  this  marriage  no  ifTuc, 
though  much  defired  by  both  parties  ; but  Livia  retained, 
without  Interruption,  an  unbounded  afcendency  over  the 
emperor,  whofe  confidence  fhe  abufed,  while  the  uxorious 



huibancl  little  fufpedled  that  he  was  cherilhing  in  his 
bofoin  a viper  who  was  to  prove  the  deftrudllon  of  his 
houfe.  She  appears  to  have  entertained  a predominant 
ambition  of  giving  an  heir  to  the  Roman  empire  ; and 
fmce  it  could  not  be  done  by  any  fruit  of  her  marriage 
Vv^ith  Auguhus,  flic  refolved  on  accompliililng  that  end  in 
the  perfon  of  Tiberius,  the  eldeft  fon  by  her  former  huf- 
band.  The  plan  which  fhe  devifed  for  this  purpofe,  was 
to  exterminate  ail  the  male  offspring  of  Auguftus  by  his 
daughter  Julia^  who  w^as  married  to  Agrippa  ; a firata- 
gem  which,  when  executed,  would  procure  to  Tiberius, 
through  the  means  of  adoption,  tlie  eventual  fucceffion  to 
the  empire.  The  cool  yet  fanguinary  policy,  and  the  pa- 
tient perfeverance  of  refolution,  with  which  fhe  profe- 
cuted  her  defign,  have  feldom  been  equalleid.  While  the 
fons  of  Julia  were  yet  young,  and  while  there  Vvas  hill  a 
poffibility  that  fhe  herfelf  might  have  iffue  by  Auguflus, 
fhe  fufpended  her  projedl  for  fome  time,  in  the  hope  per- 
haps, that  accident  or  difeafe  might  operate  in  its  favor  ; 
but  when  the  natural  term  of  her  conflitution  had  put  a 
period  to  her  hopes  of  progeny,  and  when  the  grandfons 
of  the  emperor  were  rifing  into  the  years  of  itianhood, 
and  had  been  adopted  by  him,  fhe  began  to  carry  into  ex- 
ecution what  file  long  had  meditated.  The  firft  objedl 
devoted  to  deftrudlion  was  C.  Csefar  Agrippa,  the  eldeft 
of  Auguflus’s  grandfons.  This  promifing  youth  was  fert 
to  Armenia,  upon  an  expedition  againfl  the  Peril ans  ; and 
Lollius,  who  had  been  his  governor,  either  accompanied 
him  thither  from  Rome,  or  met  him  in  the  Eafl,  where 
he  had  obtained  fome  appointment.  From  the  hand  of 
this  traitor,  perhaps  under  the  pretext  of  exercifing  the 
authority  of  a preceptor,  but  in  reality  inftigated  by  Li  via  j 
the  young  prince  received  a fatal  blow,  of  which  he  died 
fome  time  after. 

X'2  Th« 



The  occafion  of  Calus’s  death  feems  to  have  been 
carefully  kept  from  the  knowledge  of  Aiiguflus,  who  pro- 
moted Lollius  to  the  Confulhiip,  and  made  him  governor 
of  a province  ; hut  by  his  rapacity  in  this  ilation,  he  af- 
terwards incurred  the  emperor’s  difpleafure.  The  true 
character  of  this  perfon  had  efcaped  the  keen  difeernment 
of  Horace,  as  well  as  the  fagacity  of  the  emperor  ; for 
in  two  Epiflles  addreffed  to  Lollius,  he  mentions  him  as 
great  and  accompli Ihed  in  the  fuperlative  degree  : maxime 
Loin,  liberrime  LoUi  ; fo  impofing  had  been  the  manners 
and  addrefs  of  this  deceitful  courtier. 

Lucius,  the  fecond  fon  of  Julia,  was  banifiied  into 
Campania,  for  ufing,  as  is  faid,  feditious  language  againfl: 
his  grandfather.  In  the  feventh  year  of  his  exile,  Au- 
gufrus  propofed  to  recall  him  ; but  Livia  and  Tiberius, 
<lrea'ding  the  confequenccs  of  his  being  reflored  to  the 
emperor’s  favor,  put  in  pradtice  the  expedient  of  having 
him  immediately  alTaiTinated.  Poftumus  Agrippa,  the 
third  fon,  incurred  the  difpleafure  of  In's  grandfather  ki 
the  fame  way  as  Lucius,  and  w^as  confined  at  Surrentum, 
where  he  remained  a prifoner,  until  he  was  put  to  death 
by  the  order  either  of  Li  via  alone,  or  in  conjundlion 
with  Tiberius,  as  was  before  obferved. 

Such  was  the  cataftrophe,  through  the  means  of  Livia, 
of  all  the  grandfons  of  Auguitus  ; and  reafon  jufiifies  the 
inference,  that  Ihe  wdio'  fcruplcd  not  to  lay  violent  hands 
upon  thofe  young  men,  had  formerly  praclifed  every  arti- 
fice that  could  operate  towards  rendering  them  obnoxious 
to  the  emperor.  We  may  even  aferibe  to  Jicr  dark  in- 
trigues the  dlffclute  condiuSl  of  Julia.  For  the  woman 
who  could  fecretly  acl  as  procurefs  to  her  owm  hufoand, 
w'ould  feel  little  refiraint  upon  her  mind,  againil  corrupt- 
8 ing 



iiig  his  daughter,  when  fuch  an  efFe6l  might  contribute  to 
anfwer  the  purpofe  which  (he  had  in  view.  But  in  the  in- 
gratitude of  Tiberius,  however  undutiful  and  reprehen- 
fihle  in  a fon  towards  a parent,  flie  at  lafl:  experienced  a 
juft  retribution  for  the  crimes  in  which  ftie  had  trained 
him,  to  procure  the  fucceftion  to  the  empire.  To  the  dlf- 
grace  of  her  fex,  flie  Introduced  amongft  the  Fvomans  the 
horrible  pra6lice  of  domcftic  murder,  little  known  before 
the  times  wdien  ^the  thirft  or  intoxication  of  unlimited 
power  liad  vitiated  the  focial  affeclions ; and  flie  tranf- 
mitted  to  fucceeding  ages  a pernicious  example,  by  w’hich 
immoderate  ambition  might  be  gratified,  at  the  expence 
of  every  moral  obligation,  as  well  as  of  humanity. 

One  of  the  firft  vifllms  In  the  fanguinary  reign  of  the 
prefent  emperor,  w^as  Germanicus,  the  fon  of  Drufus, 
Tiberius’s  own  brother,  and  who  had  been  adopted  by  his 
uncle  himfelf.  Under  any  fovereign,  of  a temper  differ- 
ent from  that  of  Tiberius,  this  amiable  and  meritorious 
prince  would  have  been  held  in  the  higheft  efteem.  At 
the  death  of  his  grandfither  Augiiftus,  he  was  employed 
in  a. war  in  Germany,  where  he  greatly  diftinguiftied  Iiim- 
felf  by  his  military  atchievements  ; and  as  foon  as  intelli- 
gence of  that  event  arrived,  the  foldiers,  by  whom  he 
was  extremely  beloved,  unanlmoufly  faluted  liim  empe- 
ror. Refufing,  however,  to  accept  this  mark  of  their 
partiality,  he  perfevered  in  allegiance  to  the  government 
of  his  uncle,  and  profecuted  the  war  with  fuccefs.  Upon 
the  concluuon  of  this  expedition,  he  was  fent,  with  die 
title  of  Emperor  of  the  Eaft,  toreprefs  the  feditions  of  the 
Armenians,  in  which  he  was  equally  fucccfsful.  But  the 
fame  which  he  acquired,  ferved  only  to  render  him  an  ob- 
jeff  of  jealoufy  to  Tiberius,  by  w'hofe  order  he  was  fe- 
(tretly  pcifoned  at  Daphne,  near  Antioch,  in  the  thirty- 

X 3 fourth 


fourth  year  of  his  age.  The  news  of 'Germanicus’s  death 
was  received  at  Rome  with  univerfal  lamentation ; and 
all  ranks  of  the  people  entertained  an  opinion,  that,  had 
he  furvived  Tiberius,  he  would  have  reflored  the  freedon^ 
of  the  Republic.  The  love  and  gratitude  of  the  Romans 
decreed  many  honors  to  his  memory.  It  was  ordered, 
that  his  name  Ihould  be  fung  in  the  folemn  proceffion  of 
the  Sal'll  ; that  crowns  of  oak,  in  allufion  to  his  vitflo- 
ries,  jfhould  be  placed  upon  Curule  chairs  in  the  hall  per- 
taining to  the  prieifs  of  Auguflus  ; and  that  an  effigy  of 
him  in  ivory  Ihould  be  drawn  upon  a chariot,  preceding 
the  ceremonies  of  the  Circenfian  games.  Triumphal 
arches  were  eredfed,  one  at  Rome,  another  on  the  banks 
of  the  Rhine,  and  a third  upon  Mount  Amanus  in  Syria, 
with  inferiptions  of  his  atchievements,  and  that  he  died 
for  his  fervices  to  the  Republic^. 

His  obfequies  were  celebrated,  not  with  the  difplay  of 
images  and  funeral  pomp,  but  with  the  recital  of  his 
praifes,  and  the  virtues  which  rendered  him  illuflrious. 
From  a jefemblance  in  his  perfonal  accompliihments, 
his  age,  the  manner  of  his  death,  and  the  vicinity  of 
Daphne  to  Babylon,  many  compared  his  fate  to  that  of 
Alexander  the  Great.  He  was  celebrated  for  humanity 
and  benevolence,  as  well  as  military  talents,  and  amidffc 
the  toils  of  war,  found  Icifure  to  cultivate  the  arts  of 
literary  genius.  He  compofed  two  comedies  in  Greek, 
fome  epigrams,  and  a tranflation  of  Aratus  into  Latin 
yerfe.  He  married  Agrippina,  the  daughter  of  M. 
Agrippa,  by  whom  lie  had  nine  children.  This  lady, 
who  had  accompanied  her  hufband  into  the  eafl,  car- 
ried Ills  alhes  to  Italy,  and  accufed  his  murderer  Pifo, 
who,  unable  to  bear  up  againfl;  the  public  odium  inenr- 

* Tacit.  Annal.  Ub.  ii. 



re<i  by  that  tranfa6i:ioii,  laid  violent  hands  upon  himfelf. 
Agrippina  was  now  nearly  in  the  fame  predicament  with 
regard  to  Tiberius,  that  Ovid  had  formerly  been  in  re- 
fpedl  of  Auguftus.  He  was  fenfible,  that  wlien  fhe  ac- 
eufed  Pifo,  llie  was  not  ignorant  of  the  perfon  by  whom 
the  perpetrator  of  the  murder  had  been  inftigated  ; and 
her  prefence,  therefore,  feeming  continually  to  reproach 
him  with  his  guilt,  he  refolved  to  rid  himfelf  of  a perfon 
become  fo  obnoxious  to  his  fight,  and  banifhed  her  to  the 
ifland  of  Pandataria,  where  fhe  died  {o/me  time  afterwards 
of  famine.  . 

But  it  was  not  fuificient  to  gratify  this  fanguinary  ty- 
rant, that  he  had,  without  any  caufe,  cut  off  both  Ger- 
manicus and  his  wife  Agrippina  : the  diftinguifhed  mei  lts 
and  popularity  of  that  prince  were  yet  to  be  revenged 
upon  his  children  ; and  accordingly  he  fet  himfelf  to  in- 
vent a pretext  for  their  defi;ru6lion.  After  endeavoring 
in  vain,  by  various  artifices,  to  provoke  the  refentment 
of  Nerp  and  Drufus  againfi;  him,  he  had  recourfe  to  falfe 
accufation,  and  not  only  charged  them  with  feditious  de- 
ligns,  to  which  their  tender  years  were  ill  adapted,  but 
with  vices  of  a nature  the  mofl  fcandalous.  By  a fen- 
tence  of  the  Senate,  which  manifefied  the  extreme  fervilitv 
of  that  aflTembly,  he  procured  them  both  to  be  declared 
open  enemies  to  their  country.  Nero  he  banifhed  to  tlie 
itland  of  Pontia,  where,  like  his  unfortunate  mother,  he 
miferably  perlflied  by  famine  ; and  Drufus  was  doomed  to 
the  fame  fate,  in  the  lower  part  of  the  Palatium,  after 
fulFering  for  nine  days  the  violence  of  hunger,  and  haw 
ing,  as  is  related,  devoured  part  of  his  bed.  The  remain- 
ing fon,  Caius,  on  account  of  his  vicious  difpofition,  he 
refolved  to  appoint  his  fucceflbr  on  the  throne,  that,  after 
Jiis  ow'u  death,  a comparlfon  might  be  made  in  favor  of 

X 4 his 



his  memory,  when  the  Romans  fhould  be  governed  by  a 
•fovereign,  yet  more  vicious  and  more  tyrannical,  if  pof- 
fible,  than  himfelf. 

Sejanus,  the  minifter  in  the  prefent  reign,  imitated 
with  fuccefs,  for  fome  time,  the  hypocrify  of  his  mafler; 

and,  had  his  ambitious  temper,  impatient 
jElius  Sejanus.  ^ . 

of  attaining  its  objedf,  allowed  him  to  wear 

the  mafk  for  a longer  period,  he  might  have  gained  the 
imperial  diadem  ; in  the  purfuit  of  which,  he  was  over- 
taken by  that  fate  which  he  merited  ftill  more  by'his 
cruelties  than  his  perfidy  to  Tiberius.  This  man  was  a 
native  of  Volfinium  in  Ttifcany,  and  the  fon  of  a Roman 
knight.  He  had  firft  infinuated  himfelf  into  the  favor  of 

o - 

Caius  Caefar,  the  grandfon  of  Auguflus,  after  w^hofe  death 
he  courted  the  friendfliip  of  Tiberius,  and  obtained  in  a 
Ihort  time  his  entire  confidence,  which  he  improved  to 
the  beft  advantage.  The  objedf  which  he  next  purfued, 
was  to  gain  the  attachment  of  the  Senate,  and  the  ofEcers 
of  the  army  ; befides  whom,  with  a new  kind  of  policy, 
he  endeavored  to  fecure  in  his  interefls  every  lady  of  di- 
ibinguifhed  connexions,  by  giving  fecretly  to  each  of  them 
a promife  of  marriage,  as  loon  as  he  fhould  arrive  at  the 
fovereignty.  The  chief  obflacles  in  his  way  were  the 
fons  and  grandfons  of  Tiberius ; and  them  he  foon  facri- 
ficed  to  his  ambition,  under  various  pretences.  Drufus, 
the  eldeft  of  this  progeny,  having  in  a fit  of  paffion  flruck 
the  favorite,  was  defllned  by  him  to  deflrudlion.  For  this 
purpofe,  he  had  the  prefumption  to  feduce  Livia,  the  wife 
of  Drufus,  to  whom  Ihe  had  borne  feveral  children  ; and 
fhe  confented  to  marry  her  adulterer  upon  the  death  of  her 
hufband,  who  was  foon  after  poifoned,  through  the 
means  of  an  eunuch  named  Lygdus,  by  the  order  of  her 
and  Sejanus. 




Drufus  was  the  fon  of  Tiberius  by  Vipfanla,  one 
of  Agrippa’s  daughters.  He  difplayed  great  intrepi- 
dity during  the  war  in  the  provinces  of  Illyricum  and 
Pannonia,  but  appears  to  have  been  difiolute  in  his  mo- 
rals. Horace  is  faid  to  have  written  the  Ode  in  praife 
^ of  Drufus  at  the  defire  of  Auguflus  ; and  while  the  poet 
celebrates  the  military  courage  of  the  prince,  he  inh- 
nuates  indirectly  a falutary  admonition  to  the  cultivation 
of  the  civil  virtues  : 

DoBrlna  Jed  vim  promovet  injitam, 

Redtique  cultus  pediora  roborant : 

Utcunque  defecere  mores, 

' Dedecorant  bene  nata  culpa. 

Upon  the  death  of  Drufus,  Sejanus  openlv  avowTd  a 
defire  of  marrying  the  widowed  princefs  ; but  Tiberius 
oppofing  this  meafure,  and  at  me  fame  time  recommend- 
ing Germanicus  to  the  Senate  as  his  fuccelTor  in  the 
empire,  the  mind  of  Sejanus  was  more  than  ever  in- 
flamed by  the  united,  and  now  furious  paffions  of  love 
and  ambition.  He  therefore  urged  his  demand  with  eii- 
creafed  importunity  : but  the  emperor  hill  refufing  his 
confent,  and  things  being  not  yet  ripe  for  an  immediate 
revolt,  Sejanus  thought  nothing  fo  favorable  for  the 
profecution  of  his  defigns  as  the  abfcnce  of  Tiberius 
from  the  capital.  With  this  view^,  under  the  pretence  of 
relieving  his  mafter  from  the  cares  of  government,  he 
perfuaded  him  to  retire  to  a di (lance  from  Rome.  The 
emperor,  indolent  and  luxurious,  approved  of  the  pro- 
pofal,  and  retired  into  Campania  ; leaving  to  his  ambi- 
tious minlflier  the  whole  dlredlion  of  the  empire.  Flad 
Sejanus  now  been  governed  by  common  prudence  and 
moderation,  he  might  have  attained  to  the  accomplhh- 
snent  of  all  his  wifhes  ; but  a natural  impetuoGty  of 




temper,  and  the  intoxication  of  power,  precipitated  him 
into  meafures  which  foon  eifeded  his  deftrudbion.  As 
if  entirely  emancipated  from  the  control  of  a mafter,  he 
publicly  declared  himfelf  fovereign  of  the  Roman  em- 
pire, and  that  Tiberius,  who  had  by  this  time  retired  to 
Capreae,  was  only  the  dependent  prince  of  that  tributary 
ifland.  He  even  went  fo  far  in  degrading  the  emperor, 
as  to  have  him  introduced  in  a ridiculous  light  upon  the 
flage.  Advice  of  Sejanus’s  proceedings  was  foon  carried 
to  the  emperor  in  Capreae  ; his  indignation  was  imme- 
diately excited  ; and  with  a confidence  founded  upon  an 
authority  exercifed  for  feveral  years,  he  fent  orders  for 
accufing  Sejanus  before  the  Senate.  This  mandate  no 
fooner  arrived,  than  the  audacious  minifier  was  deferted 
by  his  adherents  : he  was  in  a Ihort  time  after  ^feized 
without  refifiance,  and  fcrangled  in  prifon  the  fame  day. 

Human  nature  recoils  with  horror  at  the  cruelties  of 
this  execrable  tyrant,  who,  having  firfl  imbrued  his  hands 
in  the  blood  of  his  own  relations,  proceeded  to  exercife 
them  upon  the  public  with  indiferiminate  fury.  Neither 
age  nor  fex  afforded  any  exemption  from  his  infatiable 
thirfi;  of  blood.  Innocent  children  were  condemned  to 
death,  and  butchered  in  the  prefence  of  their  parents  : 
virgins,  without  any  imputed  guilt,  were  facrificed  to  a 
fimilar  defiiny  : but  there  being  an  ancient  cufiom,  of 
not  ftrangllng  females  in  that  fituation,  they  were  firll 
deflowered  by  the  executioner,  and  afterwards  firanglcd  ; 
as  if  an  atrocious  addition  to  cruelty  could  fanclion  tlie 
exercife  of  it.  Fathers  were  conft rained  by  violence  to 
witnefs  the  death  of  their  own  children  ; and  even  the 
tears  of  a mother,  at  the  execution  of  her  child,  were  pu- 
ni ihed  as  a capital  offence.  Some  extraordinary  cala- 
mities, cccafioned  by  accident,  added  to  the  horrors  of 




this  reign.  A great  number  of  houfes  on  mount  Ccelius 
were  deftroyed  by  fire ; and  by  the  fall  of  a temporary 
building  at  Fidenre,  eredfed  for  the  pnrpofe  of  exhibit- 
ing public  fliows,  about  twenty  thoufand  perfons  were 
either  greatly  hurt,  or  crufhed  to  death  in  the  ruins. 

By  another  fire  which  afterwards  broke  out,  a.  part  of 
the  Circus  was  defiroyed,  with  the  numerous  buildings 
on  mount  Aventine,  The  only  adt  of  munificence  dif- 
played  by  Tiberius  during  his  reign,  was  upon  the  0-*-ja- 
lion  of  thofe  fires,  when,  to  qualify  the  fevcrity  of  his 
government,  he  indemnified  the  mofi;  confiderable  fuffer- 
crs  for  the  lofs  they  had  fufiained. 

Through  the  whole  of  his  life,  Tiberius  Teems  to  have 
condudted  himfelf  with  a uniform  repugnance  to  nature. 
Affable  on  a few  occafions,  but  in  general  averfe  to  fo- 
ciety,  he  indulged,  from  his  earliefi;  years,  a morofenefs 
of  difpofition,  which  counterfeited  the  appearance  of  au- 
ffere  virtue  ; and  in  the  decline  of  life,  when  it  is  com- 
mon to  reform  from  juvenile  indifcretions,  he  launched 
.forth  into  exceffes,  of  a kind  the  moft  unnatural  and 
mofl:  detefiable.  Gonfidering  the  vicious  pafiions  which 
had  ever  brooded  in  bis  heart,  it  may  feem  fuiprifing, 
that  he  refirained  himfelf  within  the  bounds  of  decency 
during  fo  many  years  after  his  acceffion  ; but  though  ut- 
terly deftitute  of  reverence  or  affedlion  for  his  mother, 
he  fiill  felt,  during  her  life,  a filial  awe  upon  his  mind  ; 
and  after  her  death,  he  w^as  adiuated  by  a flavi.fii  fear 
of  Sejanus,  until  at  lafi:  neceffity  abfolved  Iiim  likewife  from 
this  reftraint.  Thefe  checks  being  both  removed,  he  rioted 
without  any  control,  either  from  fentiment  or  authority, 

Piiny  relates,  that  the  art  of  making  glafs  malleable 
y/as  adlually  diicovered  under  the  reign  of  Tiberius,  and 





that  the  fliop  and  tools  of  the  artift  were  deilroyed,  led, 
by  the  eftabliihment  of  this  invention,  gold  and  filver 
fhould  lofe  their  value.  Dion  adds,  that  the  author  of 
the  difcovery  was  put  to  death. 

The  gloom  which  darkened  the  Roman  capital  during 
this  melancholy  period,  fired  a baleful  influence  on  the 
progrefs  of  fcience  throughout  the  empire,  and  literature 
languifhed  during  the  prefent  reign,  in  the  fame  propor- 
tion as  it  had  flouriflied  in  the  preceding.  It  is  doubtful 
whether  fuch  a change  might  not  have  happened  in  fome 
degree,  even  had  tire  government  of  Tiberius  been  equally 
mild  with  that  of  his  predeceflbr.  The  prodigious  fame 
of  the  writers  of  the  Auguflan  age,  by  reprefling  emu- 
lation, tended  to  a general  diminution  of  the  efforts  of 
genius  for  fome  time ; while  the  banilhment  of  Ovid,  it 
is  probable,  and  the  capital  punifhment  of  a fubfequent 
poet,  for  cenfuring  the  charadler  of  Agamemnon,  ope- 
rated towards  the  farther  difcouragemeirt  of  poetical  ex- 
ertions. There  now  exifted  no  circumftance  to  counter- 
balance thcfe  difadvantages.  Genius  no  longer  found  a 
patron  either  in  the  emperor  or  his  minifter  ; and  the  gates 
of  the  palace  were  fhut  againfl:  all  who  cultivated  tl\e 
elegant  purfuits  of  tlie  Mufes.  Panders,  catamites,*  aflaf- 
fins,  wretches  Ifained  with  every  crime,  were  the  con- 
flant attendants,  as  the  only  fit  companions,  of  the  tyrant 
who  now  occupied  the  throne.  We  are  informed,  how- 
ever, that  even  this  emperor  had  a tafle  for  the  liberal 
arts,  and  that  he  compofed  a lyric  poem  upon  the  death 
of  L.  Caefar,  with  fome  Greek  poems  in  imitation  of  £u- 
piiorion,  Rhianus,  and  Parthenius.  But  none  of  thefe 
has  been  tranfmitted  to  poflerity  : and  if  we  fhould  form 
an  opinion  of  them  upon  the  principle  of  Catullus,  that 
to  be  a good  poet  one  ought  to  be  a good  man,  there  is 
little  reafon  to  regret  that  they  have  periflied. 




We  meet  with  no  poetical  prodiidlion  In  this  reign  ; 
and  of  profe-writers  the  number  is  ii-i^onfiderable,  as  will 
appear  from  the  following  account  of  them. 

M.  P'elleius 

Velleius  Paterculus  w^as  born  of  an  Equeftrian  faiTiIiy 
in  Campania,  and  ferved  as  a military  Tribune  under  Ti- 
berius, in  his  expeditions  in  Gaul  and 
Germany.  He  compofed  an  Epitome  of 
the  Hiflory  of  Greece,  and  of  Rome,  with 
that  of  other  nations  of  remote  antiquity : but  of  this  work 
there  only  remain  fragments  of  the  hiftory  of  Greece  »rid 
Rome,  from  the  conqueft  of  Perfeus,  to  the  feventeentli 
year  of  the  reign  of  Tiberius.  It  is  written  in  two  books, 
addrefled  to  M.  Vinicius,  who  held  the  office  of  Confui. 
Rapid  in  the  narrative,  and  concife  as  well  as  elegant  in 
Ryle,  this  produ£tion  exhibits  a pleafing  epitome  of  an- 
cient tranfa(5i:ions,  enlivened  occafionally  with  anecdotes, 
and  an  expreffive  defcription  of  characlers.  In  treating  of 
the  family  of  Auguftus,  Paterculus  is  juftly  liable  to  the 
imputation  of  partiality,  which  he  incurs  Rill  more  in  the 
latter  period  of  his  hiRory,  by  the  praife  which  is  lavhh- 
ed  on  Tiberius  and  die  miniRer  Sejanus.  He  intimates 
a defign  of  giving  a more  full  account  of  the  civil  war 
which  followed  the  death  of  Julius  Casfar ; but  this,  if  he 
ever  accompliOied  it,  has  not  been  tranfmitted  to  poReri- 
ty.  Candid,  but  decided  in  his  judgment  of  motives  and 
adtions,  if  we  except  his  invedives  againR  Pompey,  he 
Riows  little  propenRty  to  cenfure  ; but  in  awarding  praife, 
he  is  not  equally  parRmonious,  and,  on  fome  occafions, 
rifles  the  imputation  of  hyperbole.  The  grace,  how- 
ever, and  the  apparent  Rncerity,  with  which  it  is  beRow- 
ed,  reconcile  us  to  the  compliment.  This  author  con- 
cludes his  hiRory  with  a prayer  for  the  profperity  of  the 
Roman  empire. 



Vaierlus  iv^aximus  was  defcendecl  of  a Patrician  fami- 

ly ; but  we  learn  nothing  more  c6ncerning  him,  than  that 

for  fome  time  he  followed  a military  life 
under  Sextus  Pompey.  He  afterwards  be- 
took himfelt  to  writing,  and  has  left  an  ac- 



count,  in  nine  books,  of  the  memorable  apophthegms  and 
adlions  of  eminent  perfons  ; hrft  of  the  Romans,  and  af- 
terwards of  foreign  nations.  The  fubjedls  are  of  various 
kinds,  political,  moral,  and  natural,  ranged  into  diflindt 
claffes.  His  tranfitions  from  one  fubjedl  to  another  are 
often  performed  with  gracefulnefs  ; and  where  he  offers 
any  remarks,  they  generally  fhow  the  author  to  be  a man 
of  judgment  and  obfervation.  Valerius  Maximus  is 
chargeable  with  no  affedlation  of  ftyle,  but  is  fometimes 
deficient  in  that  purity  of  language  which  might  be  ex- 
pedred  in  the  age  of  Tiberius,  to  whom  the  work  is  ad- 
dreffed.  What  inducement  the  author  had  to  this  dedica- 
tion, we  know  not ; but  as  it  is  evident  from  a paffage  in 
the  ninth  book,  that  the  compliment  was  paid  after  the  death 
of  Sejanus,  and  confequently  in  the  mofi;  fiiamefiil  period 
of  Tiberius^s  reign,  we  cannot  entertain  any  high  opinion 
of  the  independent  fplrit  of  Valerius  Maximus,  who  could 
fubmit  to  ilatter  a tyrant,  in  the  zenith  of  infamy  and  de^ 
teftation.  But  we  cannot  afcrlbe  the  caufe  to  any  delicate 
artifice,  of  conveying  to  Tiberius,  indlredlly,  an  admoni- 
tion to  reform  his  condudf.  Such  an  expedient  would  have 
only  provoked  the  fevereft  refentment  from  his  jealoufy. 

Phffidrus  was  a native  of  Thrace,  and  was  brought  to 
Rome  as  a flave.  He  had  the  good  fortune  to  come  into 
^ the  fervice  of  Auguflus,  where,  improving 

Ills  talentsby  reading,  he  procured  the  fa- 
vor of  the  emperor,  and  was  made  one  of  Ins  freedmem 
In  the  reign  of  Tiberius,  he  tranfiated  into  iambic  verfe 


the  Fables  of  ^fop.  They  are  divided  into  fivfe  books, 
and  are  not  lefs  confpiciious  for  precifion  and  fimplicity 
of  thought,  than  for  purity  and  elegance  of  ftyle  ; con- 
veying  moral  fentimenls  with  unafFe61:ed  eafe,  and  im- 
preflive  energy.  Phaedrus  underwent,  for  fome  time,  a 
perfecution  from  Sejanus,  who,  confcious  of  his  own  de- 
linquency, fufpe61;ed  that  he  was  obliquely  fatirifed  in  the 
commendations  bellowed  on  virtue  by  the  poet.  The 
work  of  Phaedrus  is  one  of  .the  lateft  which  have  been 
brought  to  light  fince  the  revival  of  learning.  It  remain- 
ed in  obfcurity  until  two  hundred  years  "ago,  when  it  was  > 
difcovered  in  a library' at  Rheims. 

Hyginus  \s  faid  to  have  been  a native  of  Alexandria,  or, 
according  to  others,  a Spaniard.  He  was,  like  Phaedrus, 
a freedman  of  Augullus ; but,  though  in- 
duhrious,  he  feems  not  to  have  improved 
himfelf  fo  much  as  his  companion,  in  the 
art  of  compofition.  He  wrote,  however,  a mythologi* 
cal  hiftory,  under  the  title  of  Fables  ; a work  called 
Poetlcon  Ajironomicon-,  with  a treatife  on  agriculture, 
commentaries  on  Virgil,  - the  lives  of  eminent  men,  and 
fome  other  produ6lions  now  loll.  His  remaining  works 
are  much  mutilated,  and,  if  genuine,  afford  an  un- 
favorable fpecimen  of  his  elegance  and  corredlnefs  as  a 

Celfus  was  a phylician  in  the  time  of  Tiberius,  and 
has  written  eight  books  De  Medicina^  in  which  he  has 
colledled  and  digelled  into  order,  all  that 
is  valuable  on  the  fubje6l,  in  the  Greek  , 
and  Roman  authors.  The  profelTors  of 
medicine  w^ere  at  that  time  divided  into  tliree  fedls,  viz. 
the  Dogmatifls,  Empirics,  and  Metbodifts ; the  hrH  of 



THE  LIFE,  &C. 

whom  deviated  lefs  than  die  others  from  the  plan  of  Hip- 
pocrates : but'they  were  in  general  irrecoiicilable  to  each 
other,  in  refpe6t:  both  of  their  opinions  and  pradfice. 
Cclfus,  with  great  judginent,  has  occafionally  adopted 
particular  dod l ines  from  each  of  them  ; and  whatever  he 
admits  into  his  fyflem,  he  not  only  edablidies  by  the  mod; 
rational  obfervations,  but  confirms  by  its  practical  utili- 
ty. In  jufinefs  of  remark,  in  force  of  argument,  in  pre- 
cifion  and  perfpicuity,  as  w'eil  as  in  elegance  of  expref- 
fion,  he  defervedly  occupies  the  moft  diftinguiOied  rank 
amougfc  the  medical  writers  of  antiquity.  It  appears  that 
Celfus  likewife  wrote  on  agriculture,  rhetoric,  and  mili- 
tary afrairs  ; but  of  thofe  fcveral  treaiifes  no  fragment  now 

To  the  writers  of  this  reign  we  mud;  add  Apicius  Coe- 
lius,  who  has  left  a book  De  Re  Coquinaria,  of  Cookery. 
There  were  three  Romans  of  the  name  of  Apicius, 
all  remarkable  for  their  vluttonv.  The  firit  lived  in 


the  time  of  the  Republic,  the  laft  in  that  of  Trajan, 
and  die  intermediate  Apicius  under  the  emperors  Au- 
guftiis  and  Tiberius.  'T'his  man,  as  Seneca  informs 
us,  waded  on  luxurious  living-  fexcemies  fejlertiiim^ 
a fum  equal  to  484,375  pounds  flerling.  Upon  ex- 
amining the  flate  of  his  affairs,  he  found  that  there  re- 
mained no  more  of  his  eflate  than  centics  fejierti-fim^ 
80,729/.  35.  4«^.  which  feeming  to  him  too  fraall  to 
live  upon,  he  ended  his  days  by  -poifon. 


( 32^  ) 


I.  GERMANICUS,  the  father  of  C.  Ctefar,  and  fori 
6f  Drufus  and  the  younger  Antonia,  was,  after  his  adop- 
tion  by  Tiberius,  his  uncle,  preferred  to  the  Qusdorfhip 
five  years  before  he  had  attained  the  legal  age,-  and,  im- 
mediately upon  the  expiration  of  that  office,  to  the  Con- 
fulfliip.  When  he  was  fent  to  the  army  in  Germany^ 
he  quieted  the  legions,  which,  upon  the  news  of  Auguf- 
tus’s  death,  obftinately  refufed  to  accept  of  Tiberius  for 
their  prince,  and  offered  him  the  government.  In  which 
affair  it  is  difficult  to  fay,  whether  his  regard  to  filial 
-duty,  or  the  firmnefs  of  his  refolution,  was  more  confpi- 
cuous.  Soon  after  he  defeated  the  enemy,  and  triumphed 
upon  it.  Being  then  made  Conful  a fecond  time,  before 
he  could  enter  upon  bis  office^  he  was  obliged  to  fet 
out  fuddenly  for  the  eaft,  where,  after  he  had  con- 
quered the  king  of  Armenia,  and  reduced  Cappadocia 
into  the  form  of  a province,  he  died  at  Antioch  of 
a lingering  difiemper,  in  the  thirty-fourth  year  of  his 
age,  not  without  the  fufpicion  of  being  poifoned.-  For 
befides  the  livid  fpots  which  appeared  all  over  his  body, 
and  a foaming  at  the  mouth ; when  his  corpfe  was  burnt, 
the  heart  was  found  entire,  the  nature  of  which  is  fup- 
pofed  to  be  fuoh,  as,  when  tainted  by  poifon,  to  refifl;  all 
tonfumption  by  fire 

II.  It 

' 5 opinion j like  fome  others  which  occur  in  Sue- 

y tonius. 


I 322 

II.  It  was  a prevailing  opinion,  that  he  was  taken  off* 
by  the  contrivance  of  Tiberius,  and  through  the  means 
of  Cn.  Pifo.  This  perfon  being  about  the  fame  time 
made  governor  of  Syria,  and  declaring  openly  that  he 
mufl  either  offend  the  father  or  the  fon,  as  if  there  was 
an  abfolute  neceffity  for  it,  abufed  Germanicus,  at  that  n 
time  fick,  in  the  moft  fcurrilous  and  extravagant  manner, 
both  by  words  and  deeds  : for  which,  upon  his  return  to 
Rome,  he  narrowly  avoided  being  torn  to  pieces  by  the 
people,  and  was  condemned  to  death  by  the  Senate. 

III.  It  is  generally  agreed,  that  Germanicus  poffeffed 
all  the  noble  endowments  of  body  and  mind  in  a higher 
degree  than  had  ever  before  fallen  to  the  lot  of  any  man  : 
handfomenefs  of  perfon,  extraordinary  courage,  great  pro* 
ficiency  in  the  eloquence  and  other  branches  of  literature 
both  of  Greece  and  Rome ; befides  a fingular  humanity, 
and  a behaviour  fo  engaging,  as  to  captivate  the  affe6lions 
of  all  about  him.  The  fmallnefs  of  his  legs  did  not  cor- 
refpond  with  the  fymmetry  and  beauty  of  his  perfon  in 
other  refpeds ; but  this  defe6l  was  at  length  corre61:ed  by 
a conftant  cuftom  of  riding  after  meals.  In  battle,  he 
frequently  encountered  and  flew  the  enemy  with  his  own 
hand.  He  pleaded  caufes,  even  after  he  had  the  honor  of 
a triumph.  Amongft  other  fruits  of  his  ffudies,  he  left 
behind  him  fome  Greek  comedies.  Both  at  home  and 
abroad  he  always  conduiSted  himfelf  in  a manner  the  moff 
unaffuming.  On  entering  any  free  and  confederate  town, 
he  never  would  be  attended  by  his  Liclors.  Whenever  he 
heard  in  his  travels  of  the  fepulchres  of  famous  men,  he 

tonius,  may  juftly  be  confidered  as  a vulgar  error:  and  if 
the  heart  was  found  entire.  It  muft  have  been  owing  to  the 
weaknefs  of  the  fire,  rather  than  to  any  quality  communi- 
eated,  of  refifting  the  power  of  that  thment.  •• 




paid  his  refpedls  at  them  to  their  memory,  by  the  ufual 
ofFerings.  He  buried  in  one  tomb  the  fcattered  relics  of 
thofe  who  had  been  flain  with  Varus,  and  was  the  fore- 
moft  to  put  his  hand  to  the  work  of  colledting  and  bring- 
ing them  to  the  place  of  burial.  He  was  fo  extremely 
mild  and  gentle  to  his  enemies,  whoever  they  were,  or  on 
what  account  foever  they  bore  him  enmity,  that,  though 
Pifo  cancelled  his  decrees,  and  for  a long  time  haraffed 
his  dependents  extremely,  he  never  Ihowed  the  fmalleft 
refentment,  until  he  found  himfelf  attacked  by  magic 
charms  and  imprecations  ; and  even  then  he  proceeded 
no  farther  than  to  renounce  all  friendfhip  with  him^  ac- 
cording to  ancient  ufage,  and  to  recommend  to  his  friends 
about  him  the  revenge  of  his  death,  if  he  ftiould  be  cut 
off  by  any  violence. 

IV.  He  reaped  the  fruit  of  his  noble  qualities  in  abun- 
dance, being  fo  much  efteemed  and  beloved  by  his  friends, 
that  Auguftus  (to  fay  nothing  of  his  other  relations)  being 
a long  time  in  doubt,  whether  he  fhould  not  appoint  him 
his  fucceffor,  at  lalt  ordered  Tiberius  to  adopt  him.  He 
w^as  fo  extremely  popular,  that  many  authors  tell  us,  the 
crowds  of  thofe  who  went  to  meet  him  upon  his  coming 
to  any  place,  or  to  attend  him  at  his  departure,  were  fo 
prodigious,  that  he  was  fometimes  in  danger  of  his  life: 
tliat  upon  his  return  to  Germany,  after  he  had  quelled 
the  mutinies  in  the  army  there,  all  the  battalions  of  the 
guards  went  to  meet  him,  notwithffanding  the  public  or- 
der that  only  two  fliould  go  for  that  purpofe  ; and  that 
all  the  reft  of  the  people,  both  men  and  women,  of  all  ages 
and  conditions,  went  as  far  as  twenty  miles  to  attend  him 
to  town. 

V.  About  the  time  of  his  death,  however,  and  aftcr- 

Y % wards, 



wards,  they  difplaycd  ftill  greater  and  flronger  proofs  of 
their  extraordinary  attachment  towards  him.  The  day 
on  which  he  died,  the  temples  w^ere  floned,  the  altars  of 
the  Gods  demolifhed,  the  houfehold  Gods  were  by  fome 
thrown  into  the  ftreets,  and  new-born  infants  were  expof- 
ed.  It  is  even  faid  that  barbarous  nations,  both  fuch  as 
were  at  variance  amongfl:  themfelves,  and  thofe  that  were 
at  war  with  us,  all  agreed  to  a ceflation  of  arms,  as  if  they 
had  been  all  in  mourning  for  fome  very  near  and  common 
friend  : that  fome  petty  kings  fhaved  their  beards  upon 
it,  and  their  wives’  heads,  in  token  of  their  extreme  for- 
row ; and  that  the  king  of  kings  * forbore  his  exercife  of 
hunting  and  feafting  with  his  nobles,  which,  amongft  the 
Parthians,  is  equivalent  to  a cefTation  of  all  bufinefs  in  a 
time  of  public  mourning  with  us. 

VI.  At  Rome,  upon  the  firfl:  news  of  his  hcknefs,  the 
city  was  thrown  into  great  conflernation  and  grief,  wait- 
ing impatiently  for  farther  intelligence  ; when  fuddenly, 
in  the  evening,  a report  without  any  certain  author  was 
fpread,  that  lie  was  recovered  j upon  which  the  people 
flocked  with  torches  and  vidlims  to  the  Capitol,  and  were 
in  fuch  hafte  to  pay  the  vows  they  had  made  for  his  re- 
covery, that  they  almofl  broke  open  the  doors.  Tiberius 
was  awakened  out  of  his  fleep  with  the  noife  of  the  peo- 
ple congratulating  one  another,  and  finging  all  round: 

* The  magnificent  title  of  King  of  Kings  has  been  alfumed, 
at  different  times,  by  various  potentates.  The  perfon  to  whom 
it  is  here  applied,  is  the  king  of  Parthia.  Under  the  kings 
of  Perfia,  and  even  under  the  Syro-Macedonian  kings,  this 
country  was  of  no  confideration,  and  reckoned  apart  of  Hyr- 
cania. But  upon  the  revolt  of  the  Eaft  from  the  Syro-Mace- 
donians,  at  the  inftigation  of  Arfaces,  the  Parthians  are  faid 
to  have  conquered  eighteen  kingdoms^ 




Salva  Roma,  falva  patria,  falvus  eft  Germanicus. 

Rome  is  fafe,  our  country  fafe,  Germanicus  is  fo. 

But  when  certain  advice  came  of  his  death,  the  mourn- 
ing of  the  people  could  neither  be  afluaged  by  confola- 
tion,  nor  retrained  by  edicts,  and  it  continued  during  the 
feflival  of  December.  What  contributed  much  to  the. 
glory  of  Germanicus,  and  the  endearment  of  his  memory, 
was  the  difmal  feverity  of  the  fubfequent  times all  peo- 
ple fuppofing,  and  with  reafon,  that  the  fear  and  awe  of 
him  had  laid  a rclfraint  ^ipon  the  cruelty  of  Tiberius, 
which  broke  out  foon  after. 

VII.  He  married  Agrippina,  the  daughter  of  M.  Agrippa 
and  Julia,  by  whom  he  had  nine  children,  two  of  whom 
died  in  their  infancy,  as  did  another  a few  years  after  ; 
a very  fprightly  pleafant  boy,  whofe  efBgy,  in  the  charac- 
ter of  a Cupid,  Livia  fet  up  in  the  temple  of  Venus  in  the 
Capitol.  Auguftus  alfo  placed  another  of  him  in  his  bed- 
chamber, and  ufed  to  kifs  it  as  often  as  he  entered  the 
apartment.  The  refl;  furvived  their  father  : three  daugh- 
ters, Agrippina,  Drufilla,  and  Livilla,  wdao  were  born 
fucceffively  in  three  years  ; and  as  many  fons,  Nero, 
Drufus,  and  C.  Caefar.  Nero  and  Drufus,  at  the  accufa- 
tioD  of  Tiberius,  were  declared  enemies  to  the  public. 

VIII.  Caius  Caefar  was  born  the  day  preceding  tlie 
Calends  of  September,  when  his  father  and  C.  Fonteius 
Capito  were  Confuls.  But  where  he  was  born,  is  render- 
ed uncertain  from  the  number  of  places  which  are  faid  to 
have  given  him  birth.  Cn.  Lentulus  Gaetulicus  fays  that 
he  was  born  at  Tibur  ; Pliny  the  younger,  in  the  coun- 
try of  the  Treviri,  at  a village  called  Ambiatinus,  above 

Y 3 ^ Confluentes  j 



Confluentes  ; and  he  alledges,  as  a proof  of  it,  altars 
which  are  there  iliown,  with  this  infpription  : For  the 
Delivery  of  Agrippina.”  Some  verfes  which  were  pub- 
iiflied  in  his  reign,  intimate  that  he  was  born  in  the  win-^ 
ter  quarters  of  the  army. 

In  caftris  natus,  patriis  nutritus  in.  armis, 

Jam  delignati  principis  omen  erat. 

Born  in  the  camp,  and  train’d  in  ev’ry  toil 
, Which  taught  his  fire  the  haughtieft  foes  to  foil ; 

Defiin’d  he  Teem’d  by  fate  to  raife  his  name, 

And  rule  the  empire  with  Augufian  fame. 

I find  in  the  public  regifters  that  he  was  born  at  Antium,- 
Pliny  charges,  Gsetulicus  as  guilty  of  an  arrant  forgery, 
merely  to  footh  the  vanity  of  a conceited  young  prince, 
by  giving  a luftre  to  his  birth,  from  a city  facred  to  Her-^ 
cules  ; and  fays  that  he  advanced  this  lye  with  the  more 
afliirance,  becaufe,  the  year  before  the  birth  of  Caius,  Ger- 
manicus had  a fon  of  the  fame  name  born  at  Tibur,  con- 
cerning whofe  amiable  childliood  and  premature  death 
I have  fpoken  above.  Pliny,  it  is  plain,  mufl;  be  mlftaken, 
by  the  account  left  us  of  thofe  times.  For  the  writers  of 
Auguftus’s  hiftory  all  agree,  that  Germanicus,  at  the  expi- 
ration of  his  Confulfliip,  was  Tent  into  Gaul,  after  the  birth 
of  Caius.  Nor  will  the  infcription  upon  the  altar  ferve  to 
eftabliih  Pliny’s  opinion;  becaufe  Agrippina  was  delivered 
of  two  daughters  in  that  country,  and  any  delivery,  with- 
out regard  to  fex,  is  called  puerperium^  on  acount  that  the 
ancients  were  ufed  to  call  girls  puer^e,  and  boys  puelll. 
There  is  likewife  extant  a letter  of  Auguflus’s,  written  a 
few  months  before  his  death,  to  his  grand-daughter  Agrip- 
pina, about  the  fame  Caius  (for  there  was  then  no  other 
child  of  hers  living  under  that  name).  He  writes  as  fol- 
lows ; “Yefterday  I gave  order  for  Talarius  and  Afellius 


to  fet  out  on  their  journey  towards  you,  if  the  Gods  per- 
mit, with  your  child  Caius,  upon  the  fifteenth  of  the  Ca- 
lends of  June.  I fend  with  him  a phyfician  of  mine, 
whom  I wrote  to  Germanicus  he  may  retaih  if  he  pleaf- 
es.  Farewell,  my  dear  Agrippina,  and  take  what  care  you 
can  to  come  fafe  and  well  to  your  Germanicus.^’  I ima- 
gine it  is  fufficiently  evident  that  Caius  could  not  be  born 
there,  whither  he  was  carried  from  the  city  when  almoft 
two  years  old.  The  fame  confiderations  muff  likewife 
invalidate  the  authority  of  the  verfes,  and  the  rather,  be- 
caufe  the  author  is  unknown.  The  only  authority  there- 
fore, upon  which  we  can  depend  in  refpe6l  of  this  matter, 
is  that  of  the  A61s,  and  the  public  regifler  ; efpeciaily  as 
he  always  preferred  Antium  to  every  other  place  of  retire- 
ment, and  entertained  for  it  all  that  fondnefs  which  is 
commonly  attached  to  one’s  native  foil.  It  is  faid  too, 
that,  upon  his  growing  weary  of  the  city,  he  defigned 
to  have  transferred  thither  the  feat  of  empire. 

IX.  He  acquired  the  name  of  Caligula*  from  the  mer- 
riment of  the  foldiers  with  him  in  the  camp,  becaufe  he 
was  brought  up  amongfl  them  in  the  drefs  of  a common 
foldier.  How  much  his  education  amongfl;  them  recom- 
mended him  to  their  favor  and  affedlion,  was  fufficiently 
apparent  in  thaf  furious  mutiny  of  the  army  upon  the 
death  of  Auguftus,  when  the  fight  of  him  only  appeafed 
them.  For  they  perfifled  in  their  uproar,  until  they  ob- 
ferved  that  he  was  fent  off  to  a neighbouring  city,  to  fe- 
cure  him  againft  all  danger.  Then  at  lafl:  they  began  to 
irelent,  and,-  flopping  the  chariot  he  was  in,  earneftly  begged 

* This  name  was  derived  from  Caliga^  a kind  of  flioe, 
fludded  with  nails,  and  chiefly  ufed  by  the  common  foldiers 
in  the  Roman  army. 

Y 4 




that  they  might  not  be  expofed  to  the  general  hatred  and  re^ 
fentment  which  by  fuch  a proceeding  they  mull  incur. 

X.  He  likewife  attended  his  father  in  his  expedition  into 
Syria.  After  his  return,  he  lived  firll  with  his  mother, 
and,  when  Ihe  was  banilhed,  with  his  great-grandmother 
Livia  Augufla  ; in  praife  of  whom,  after  her  deceafe, 
though  then  only  a boy,  he  pronounced  a funeral  oration 
in  the  Rollra.  He  then  went  into  the  family  of  his  grand- 
mother Antonia,  and  afterwards,  in  the  twentieth  year  of 
his  age,  being  caUed  by  Tiberius  to  Caprese,  he  in  one 
and  the  fame  day  affumed  the  manly  habit,  and  fhaved  his 
beard,  but  without  receiving  any  of  the  honors  which  had 
been  paid  to  his  brothers  upon  the  like  occafion.  While 
he  remained  in  that  illand,  many  inhdious  artifices  were 
praClifed,  to  extort  from  him  a complaint  againll  Tibe- 
rius ; but  by  his  circumfpe6lion  he  avoided  falling  into 
the  fnare.,  He  afie6led  to  take  no  more  notice  of  the  ill 
treatment  of  his  relations,  than  if  nothing  had  befallen 
them.  With  regard  to  his  own  fufFerings,  he  feemed  ut- 
terly infenfible  of  them,  and  behaved  with  fuch  obfequi- 
oufnefs  to  his  grandfather  and  all  about  him,  that  it  was 
jullly  faid  of  him,  ‘‘  There  never  was  a better  Have,  nor 
a worfe  mafier.’- 

XL  But  he  could  not  even  then  conceal  his  natural  dif- 
pofition  to  cruelty  and  lewdnefs.  He  was  extremely  ‘fond 
of  feeing  executions,  and  would  flroil  about  the  llreets  in 
the  night-time,  difguifed  in  a periwig  and  a long  coat ; 
and  was  paflionately  addi6led  to  the  theatrical  arts  of  fing- 
ing  and  dancing.  All  thefe  levities  Tiberius  readily  con-- 
nived  at,  in  hopes  that  they  might  perhaps  corredt  the 
roughnefs  of  his  temper,  which  the  fagacious  old  man 
fo  well  knew,  that  he  would  often  declare,  “ That  Caius 




iived  for  the  deftrudlion  of  himfelf,  and  mankind ; and 
that  he  brought  up  a water- fnake  for  the  Roman  people, 
and  a Phaeton  for  the  world,” 

XII.  Not  long  after,  he  married  Junia  Claudilla,  the 
daughter  of  M.  Silanus,  a man  of  a very  great  family. 
Being  tnen  chofep  Augur  in  the  room  of  his  brother  Dru- 
fus,  before  he  could  be  inaugurated  he  was  advanced  to 
the  Pontificate,  with  no  fmall  commendation  of  his  dutiful 
behaviour,  and  great  capacity.  The  fituation  of  the 
court  likewife  was  at  this  time  favorable  to  his  fortunes  : 
for  Sejanus  being  now  fufpedled,  and  foon  after  taken  off, 
a new  fupport  was  wanted  to  the  adminiffration,  and  he 
was  by  degrees  flattered  with  the  hope  of  fucceeding  Ti- 
berius in  the  government.  Towards  fecuring  more  ef- 
fedlually  this  profpe6t,  upon  Jiinia’s  dying  in  child-bed, 
he  engaged  in  a criminal  commerce  witlr  Ennia  Nsevia, 
the  wife  of  Macro,  at  that  time  commander  of  the  guards, 
promifng  to  marry  her  if  ever  he  came  to  the.  empire; 
and  gave  her  not  only  his  oath,  but  a,  written  , obligation 
under  his  hand,  for  the  accomplifliment  of  that  promife. 
Having  by  her  means  infinuated  himfelf  into  Macro’s 
favor,  fome  are  of  opinion  that  he  attempted  to-  poifon 
Tiberius,  and  ordered  his  ring  to  be  taken  from  him,  be- 
fore the  breath  was  out  of  his  body  ; and,  becaufe  he 
feemed  to  hold  it  fall:,  a pillow  to  be  thrown  upon  him, 
feifing  and  fqueezing  him  by  the  throat,  at  the  fame  time, 
with  his  own  hand.  One  of  his  freedmen  crying  out  at 
the  horrid  barbarity  of'this  adf,  he  was  immediately  cruci- 
fied for  it.  That  fuch  a tranfadflon  really  took  place.  Is 
far  from  being  improbable  : for  fome  authors  relate,  that 
afterwards,  though  he  did  not  acknowledge  his  having 
a hand  in  the  death  of  Tiberius,  yet  he  frankly  declared 
he  had  formerly  entertained  fuch  a defign ; and  as  a 



proof  of  his  afFe6lion  for  his  relations,  he  would  frequent-* 
ly  boaft,  “ That,  to  revenge  the  death  of  his  mother  and 
brotliers,  he  had  entered  the  chamber  of  Tiberius,  when 
he  was  afleep,  with  a poniard,  but  being  feized  v/ith  a fit 
of  compaffion,  threw  it  away,  and  retired  ; and  that  Ti- 
berius, though  fenfible  enough  of  the  defign,  yet  durft 
not  take  any  notice  of  it,  nor  attempt  any  mode  of 

XIII.  Having  thus  obtained  pofleflion  of  the  imperial 
powder,  he  fulfilled  by  his  elevation  the  wilh  of  the  Ro^ 
man  people,  I may  venture  to  fay,  of  mankind.  He  was 
long  the  object  of  expedlation  and  defire  to  the  greater 
part  of  the  provincials  and  foldiers,  who  had  known  him 
when  a child  ; and  to  the  whole  body  of  the  commonalty 
at  Rome,  from  their  affedlion  for  the  memory  of  Ger- 
manicus his  father,  and  compaffion  for  the  family  almofi;  , 
entirely  defiroyed.  Upon  his  moving  fromMifenum  there- 
fore, though  he  was  in  mourning,  and  attended  the  corpfe 
of  Tiberius,  yet  he  made  his  way  amidft  altars,  vi^lims  and 
lighted  flambeaux,  with  prodigious  crowds  of  people  every 
wffiere  attending  him,  in  tranfports  of  joy,  and  calling  him, 
befides  other  aufpicious  names,  by  thofe  of  their  “ Star, 
chicken,  pretty  puppet,  and  dear  child.” 

XIV.  Upon  his  entering  the  city,  immediately  by  the 
confent  of  the  Senate,  and  the  people  who  broke  into  the 
houfe,  Tiberius’s  will  being  fet  afide,  who  had  left  his 
other  grandfon,  then  a minor,  joint  heir  with  him,  the 
whole  government  and  adminiftration  of  affairs  was  put 
into  his  hands  ; fo  much  to  the  joy  and  fatisfa6lion  of  the 
public,  that,  inlefsthan  three  months  after,  above  a hundred 
and  fixty  thoufand  victims  are  faid  to  have  been  offered  in 
facrifice.  Upon  his  paffing,  a few  days  after,  into  th« 




jflands  upon  ihc  coall:  of  Campania,  vows  were  made  for 
his  fafe  return  ; every  perfon  emuloufly  teflifying  their 
care  and  concern  for  his  fafety.  But  when  he'  fell  iJi, 
the  whole  body  of  the  people  continued  all  night  about 
the  Palatium  : fome  engaged  themfelves  by  vow  to  ex- 
pofe  their  perfons  in  combat  as  gladiators,  and  others,  in 
like  manner,  to  lay  down  their  lives,  for  his  recovery  ; 
which  they  intimated  by  bills  publicly  polled  up  in  the 
city.  To  this  extraordinary  love  entertained  by  his 
countrymen  for  him,  was  added  an  uncommon  refpecl 
from  perfons  of  other  nations.  For  Artabanus,  king  of 
the  Parthians,  who  had  always  manifehed  a hatred  and 
contempt  of  Tiberius,  folicited  his  friendfhip,  came  to 
hold  a conference  with  a Confular  lieutenant  of  his,  and 
palling  the  Euphrates,  paid  his  adoration  to  the  eagles, 
with  the  other  Roman  handards,  and  the  images  of  C^efar. 

XV.  The  love  and  refpe£l  which  the  world  difplayed 
towards  him,  he  improved  by  pradliling  all  the  arts  of 
popularity.  After  he  had  delivered,  with  abundance  of 
tears,  a fpeech  in  praife  of  Tiberius,  and  interred  him 
with  the>  utmoll  pomp,  he  immediately  hallened  over  to 
Pandataria  and  the  Pontian  illands,  to  bring  thence  the 
alhes  of  his  mother  and  brother  ; and,  to  tellify  the  great 
regard  he  had  for  their  memory,  he  performed  the  voy- 
age  in  a very  tempelluous  feafon.  He  approached  their 
remains  with  a profound  veneration,  and  put  them  into 
the  urns  with  his  own  hands.  Having  brought  them  in 
grand  folemnity  to  Ohia,  with  a llreamer  upon  the  hern 
of  his  Ihip,  and  thence  up  the  Tiber  to  Rome,  they  were 
borne  by  perfons  of  the  firh  dihin£lion  in  the  Equehrian 
Order,  on  two  biers,  into  the  raaufoleum,  at  noon-day. 
He  appointed  yearly  olFerings  to  be  folemnly  and  publicly 
piade  in  honor  of  tlreir  memory  ; and  to  that  of  his  mo- 



ther  Ciixenfian  games  befides,  and  a chariot  in  the  pro- 
ceffioD.  The  month  of  September  he  called  Germanicus 
in  honor  of  his  father.  By  a decree  of  the  Senate,  he 
heaped  upon  his  grandmother  Antonia  all  the  honors  that 
ever  Livia  Augufta  had  received.  His  uncle  Claudius, 
who  till  then  had  continued  in  the  Equeftrian  Order,  he 
took  for  his  colleague  in  the  Confulfhip.  He  adopted  his 
brother  Tiberius  on  the  day  he  took  upon  him  the  manly 
habit,  and  conferred  upon  him  the  title  of  “ Prince  of  the 
"Y  outh.”  With  regard  to  his  fiflers,  he  ordered  an  addition 
in  all  the  oaths  taken  upon  his  account,  in  thefe  words  : 

Nor  do  I love  myfelf  or  my  own  children  more  dearly 
than  I do  Caius  and  his  fifters:”  and  commanded  all  pro- 
pofals  of  the  Confuls  to  the  Senate  to  be  prefaced  thus  : 

May  what  we  are  going  to  offer  prove  fortunate  and 
happy  to  C.  Ctefar  and  his  fifters.^’  With  the  like  popu- 
larity he  reflored  fuch  as  had  been  condemned  and  banifh- 
ed,  and  granted  an  adf  of  indemnity  for  all  crimes  paffed. 
To  deliver  from  all  apprehenfjon  fuch  as  had  been  in- 
formers or  witneffes  againfl  his  mother  and  brotliers,  he 
brought  all  the  records  or  memoirs  relating  to  their  trials 
into  the  Forum,  and  then  with  a loud  voice  calling  the 
Gods  to  witnefs  that  he  had  not  read  or  meddled  with  them, 
he  burnt  them.  A memoir  which  was  offered  him  re- 
lative to  his  own  fecurity,  he  would  not  receive,  declar- 
ing, ‘‘  that  he  had  done  nothing  to  render  him  odious  to 
any  body  and  at  the  fame  time  faid,  he  had  no  ears 
for  informers.” 

XVI.  The  Spintrise,  thofe  pra6litioners  in  a monBrous 
kind  of  new-invented  lewdnefs,  he  was  indeed  prevailed 
upon  not  to  throw  into  the  fea,  as  he  had  intended  ; but 
he  banifhed  them  the  city.  The  writings  of  Titus  La- 
bienus, Cordus  Cremutius,  and  Cafiius  Severus,  which 
6 ' had 


had  been  fuppreffed  by  an  a6l  of  the  Senate,  he  permitted 
to  be  drawn  from  obfcurity,  and  univerfally  read  5 obferv- 
ing,  ‘‘  that  it  would  be  for  his  own  advantage  to  have  the 
tranfaclions  of  former  times  delivered  to  pofterity/^  He 
publilhed  accounts  of  all  that  paffed  in  the  government,  a 
praftice  which  had  been  introduced  by  Auguftus,  but  dif- 
continued  by  Tiberius.  He  granted  the  magiflrates  a full 
and  free  jurifcli6lion,  without  any  appeal  to  himfelf.  He 
took  a very  fl:ri6l  andexadl  furvey  of  the  Equeftrian  Order, 
but  with  a mixture  of  moderation ; taking  away  openly 
the  horfe  from  each  knight  who  lay  under  the  reproach 
of  any  thing  bafe  and  difhonorable;  paffing  by  the  names 
of  fuch  knights  as  were  guilty  of  fmall  faults,  in  calling  ^ 
over  the  lift  of  the  Order.  T o eafe  the  j udges  a little  of  their 
fatigue,  he  added  a fifth  clafs  to  the  former  four.  He  at- 
tempted likewife  to  reftore  the  people  to  their  ancient 
right  of  voting  in  the  choice  of  magiftrates.  He  paid 
very  honorably,  and  without  any  difpute,  the  legacies  left 
by  Tiberius  in  his  will,  though  it  had  been  fet  afide  ; as 
likewife  thofe  left  by  the  will  of  Livia  Augufta,  which 
Tiberius  had  fupprefted.  He  remitted  the  hundredth  pen- 
ny, due  to  the  government  in  all  auctions  throughout  Italy^ 
He  made  up  to  many  the  lofs  they  had  fuftained  by  fire ; 
and  if  he  reftored  to  any  princes  their  kingdoms,  he 
likewife  allowed  them  all  the  arrears  of  taxes,  or 
other  revenue,  during  the  time  of  privation ; as  to 
Antiochus  of  Comagene,  the  confifcation  of  whofe 
kingdom  amounted  to^  a hundred  millions  of  fefterces. 
To  evince  to  the  world,  that  he  was  ready  to  encourage 
goml  examples  in  every  kind,  he  gave  to  a freedvi^onian 
eighty  thoufand  fefterces,  for  not  difcovering  a crime 
committed  by  her  patron,  though  fhe  had  been  put  to 
cxquifite  torture  for  that  purpofe.  For  all  thefe  adls 
ol  beneficence,  amongft  other  honors,  a golden  ftiield 



was  decreed  to  him,  which  the  different  companfes  of 
priefls  were  to  carry  annually,  upon  a fixed  day,  into 
the  Capitol,  with  the  Senate  attending,  and  the  youth  of 
the  nobility,  of  both  fexes,  celebrating  the  praife  of  his 
virtue  in  fongs.  It  was  likewife  ordained,  that  the  day  on. 
which  he  began  his  reign  fhould  be  called  Palilia,  in  token 
ot  the  city’s  being  at  that  time  as  it  were  new^  founded'*. 

XVII.  He  bore  four  Confulfhips : the  firfi;  from  the 
Calends  of  July  for  two  months  : the  fecond  from  the  Ca- 
lends of  January  for  thirty  days  : the  third  until  the  Ides 
of  January  ; and  the  fourth  until  the  feventh  of  the  fame 
Ides.  Of  all  thefe,  he  held  the  two  laft  fuccefiively. 
The  third  he  entered  upon  by  himfelf  at  Lyons  ; not 
from  any  pride,  or  a difregard  to  the  ufage  of  his  coun- 
try ; but  becaufe,  at  that  diffance,  it  was  impoflible  for 
him  to  know  that  his  colleague  died  a little  before  the  be- 
ginning of  the  .new  year.  He  twice  diftributed  to  the 
people  three  hundred  fefterces  a man,  and  as  often  gave  a 
very  plentiful  entertainment  to  the  Senate  and  the  Equef- 
trian  Order,  with  their  wives  and  children.  In  the  latter^ 
he  prefented  to  the  men  forenfic  garments,  and  to  the  w^o- 
men  and  children  red  fcarfs.  To  make  an  addition  to  the 
public  joy  for  ever,  he  added  to  the  Saturnalia  one  day, 
which  he  called  Juvenalis  f. 


The  city  of  Rome  began  to  be  built  on  the  twenty-firR 
day  of  April,  which  was  called  Falilia.^  from  Pales,  the  God- 
defs  of  fliepherds,  and  was  ever  after  kept  as  a feftival. 

t The  Saturnalia^  held  in  honor  of  Saturn,  was,  amongft 
the  Romans,  the  moft  celebrated  feflival  of  the  whole  year, 
and  kept  in  the  month  of  December.  All  orders  of  the  peo- 
ple were  then  devoted  to  mirth  and  feaRing ; friends  fent 
prefen  ts  to  one  another ; and  maRers  treated  thejr  flaveS  up- 


XVIII.  He  prefented  fome  Iliows  of  gladiators,  partly 
in  the  theatre,  partly  in  the  amphitheatre  of  Taurus,  and 
partly  in  the  Septa,  with  which  he  intermixed  troops  of  the 
choiceft  boxers  from  Campania  and  Africa.  He  did  not 
always  prefide  in  perfon  upon  thofe  occafions,  but  fome- 
tlmes  gave  a commiflion  to  the  magiftrates  or  his  friends 
to  fupply  his  place.  He  frequently  entertained  the  people 
with  ftage-plays  of  various  kinds,  and  in  feveral  parts  of 
the  city,  and  fometimes  by  night,  with  lights  fet  up  all 
over  the  city.  He  likewife  made  fcrambles  amongfi: 
the  people,  and  diftributed  to  every  man  a bafket  of  bread 
with  other  vidluals.  Upon  this,  occafion,  he  fent  his  own 
fhare  to  a Roman  knight,  who  was  placed  oppofite  to 
him,  and  was  eating  very  heartily.  To  a Senator,  for 
the  fame  reafon,  he  fent  a patent,  by  which  he  appointed 
him,  in  an  extraordinary  manner,  a Przetor.  He  likewife 
exhibited  a great  number  of  Circenlian  games  from  morn- 
ing until  night;  intermixed  with  the  hunting  of  wild 
beafts  from  Africa,  or  the  Trojan  game.  Some  of  thefe 
games  were  celebrated  with  peculiar  circumftances  ; the 
Circus  being  overfpread  with  vermilion  and  chryfocolla  j 
and  none  rode  the  chariots  but  thofe  of  the  Senatorial! 
Order..  Some  he  prefented  upon  the  fudden,  when  upon 
his  viewing  from  the  Gelotiana  the  furniture  of  the  Cir- 
cus, he  was  alked  to  do  fo  by  a few  perfons  from  tlie 
neighbouring  Maeniana. 

XIX.  He  invented  belides  a new  kind  of  fpedlacle, 
and  fuch  as  had  never  been  heard  of  before.  For  he  made  a 
bridge,  of  about  three  miles  and  a half  in  length,  from 
Baise  to  the  Moles  of  Puteoli,  drawing  together  from  all 

on  a footing  of  equality.  At  jfirfl  it  was  held  only  one  day, 
afterwards  three  days,  and  now  received  farther  duration  by 
the  order  of  Caligula. 




parts  fhips  of  burden,  fixing  them  in  two  rows  by  thelf 
anchors,  and  overlaying  them  with  earth,  in  the  form  of 
the  Appian  way.  He  palTed  and  repafled  this  bridge, for 
two  days  together  : the  moimied  upon  a horfe 
with  accoutrements,  wearing  on  his  head  a crown  of 
oaken  leaves,,  armed  with  a battle-ax,  light  fliield  and 
fword,  and  in  a cloak  made  of  cloth  of  gold  : the  day 
following,  in  the  habit  of  a charioteer,  and  mounted  upon 
a chariot  drawn  by  two  famous  horfes,  having  with  him 
a young  boy,  Darius  by  name,  one  of  the  Parthian  hoft- 
ages,  with  ” a body  of  the  guards  attending  him>  and  a 
party  of  his  friends  mounted  on  Britiih  chariots.  Mod: 
people,  I know,  are  of  opinion,  that  this  bridge  had 
been  projedfed  by  Caius,  in  imitation  of  Xerxes,  who,  to 
the  aftonifiiment  of  the  world,  laid  a bridge  over  the 
Heliefppnt,  which  is  fomewhat  narrower  than  the  di- 
ftance  betwixt  Baise  and  Puteoli ; and  that  others  thought 
he  did  it  to  ftrike  a terror  into  Germany  and  Britain, 
which  he  wa‘^  upon  the  point  of  invading,  with  the  fame 
of  fome  prodigious  work.  But  I once,  when  a boy,  heard 
my  grandfather  fay,  that  the  reafon  affigned  by  fome 
courtiers  who  were  in  the  greatefi;  intimacy  with  him, 
was  this ; That  when  Tiberius  was  in  fome  anxiety 
about  the  nomination  of  a fuccefibr,  and 'more  inclined 
to  pitch  upon  his  grandfon,  Thrafyllus  the  afirologer  had 
affured  him,  “ That  Caius  would  no  more  be  emperor,- 
than  he  would  ride  on  horfeback  over  the  bay  of  Baiae.” 

XX.  He  likewife  exhibited  public  diverficns  in  Sicily^ 
Grecian  games  at  Syracufe,  and  mifcelianeous  fports  at 
Lugdunum  in  Gaul : befidcs  a eontefi;  for  pre-eminence 
in  the  Grecian  and  Roman  eloquence ; in  which  we  are 
told  that  fuch  as  were  baffled  bellowed  rewards  upon  the 
t)ell  performers,  and  were  obliged  to  compofe  fpeeches  in 




their  praife : but  -that  thofe  who  performed  the  word, 
were  forced  to  blot  out  what  they  had  written  with  a 
fponge  or  their  tongue,  unlefs  they  chofe  rather  to  be 
beaten  with  a rod,  or  plunged  over  head  and  ears  into  the 
next  river. 

XXL  He  finifhed  the  works  which  were  left  imper- 
fe6l  by  Tiberius,  viz.  the  temple  of  Auguftus,  and  the 
theatre  of  Pompey.  He  began  likewife  the  aquedudb 
from  the  neighbourhood  of  Tibur,  and  an  amphitheatre 
near  the  Septa  ; of  which  worksj  one  was  completed  by 
his  fuccelTor  Claudius,  and  the  other  remained  as  he  left 
it;  The  walls  of  Syracufe,  which  by  length  of  time  were 
much  decayed,  he  repaired^  as  he  likewife  did  the  temples 
of  the  Gods.  He  entertained  a defign  to  rebuild  the  palace 
of  Polyci  crtes  at  Samos,  to  finifti  the  temple  of  the  Didy- 
msean  Apollo  at  Miletus,  and  to  build  a city  upon  the  top 
of  the  Alps  ; but  of  all  things  to  make  a cut  through  the 
Ifthmus  irj  Achaia  ; and  fent  a Centurion  of  the  ftrft  rank 
to  meafure  out  the  work, 

XXIT.  Thus  far  we  have  fpoken  of  him  as  a prince. 
What  remains  to  ^be  faid  of  him,  befpeaks  him  rather  a 
monfter  than  a man.  He  alfumed  a variety  of  titles,  fuch 
as  “ Dutiful,  the  Son  of  the  Camp,  the  Father  of  the  Ar- 
mies, and  the  Greateft  and  the  Beft  Csefar.’*  Upon  hear- 
ing foine  kings,  who  came  to  the  city  to  pay  their  re- 
fpedls  to  him,  contending  amongft  themfelves  at  fupper, 
about  the  noblenefs  of  their  birth,  he  exclaimed,  Let 
there  be  but  one  prince,  one  king.’^  He  was  ftrongly 
inclined  to  have  taken  a crown  immediately,  and  to  haye 
turned  the  imperial  dignity  into  the  form  of  a kingdom ; 
but  being  told  that  he  far  exceeded  the  grandeur  of  kings 
and  princes,  he  began  to  arrogate  to  himfelf  a divine  ma- 

Z jcfty.. 



jefty.  He  ordered  all  the  iniages  of  the  Gods,  that  were 
famous  either  for  their  beauty  or  the  veneration  paid  them» 
amongft  which  was  that  of  Jupiter  Olympius,  to  be 
brought  from  Greece,  that  he  might  take  the  heads  ofF, 
and  put  on  his  own.  ' He  carried  on  a part  of  tlie  Pala- 
tium as  far  as  the  Forum  ; and  the  temple  of  Callor  and 
Pollux  being  converted  into  a kind  of  porch  to  his  houfe, 
he  would  often  fland  betwixt  the  two  brothers,  and  fo 
prefent  himfelf  to  be  worfhipped  by  all  votaries  ; fome  of 
whom  faluted  him  by  the  name  of  Jupher  Latialis,  He 
ordered  likewife  a temple  and  priefts,  and  the  moft  choice 
vidfims  for  his  own  godhead.  In  his  temple  ftood  an 
image  of  gold,  exactly  of  the  fame  fize  with  himfelf,  and 
which  was  every  day  dreffed  up  in  the  fame  fort  of  gar- 
ment as  what  he  ufed.  The  mofl;  opulent  perfons  in  the 
city  offered  themfelves  as  candidates  for  the  honor  of  be- 
ing his  priehs,  and  purchafed  it  fuccelTively  at  an  immenfe 
price.  The  vidlims  were  flamingos,  peacocks, _bufl:ards, 
Numidicae,  turkey-hens,  and  pheafant-hens,  each  facrificed 
on  their  refpedlive  days.  In  the  night  he  ufed  conftantly 
to  invite  the  moon,  when  full,  to  his  'embraces.  In  the 
day-time  he  talked  in  private  to  Jupiter  Capitolinus  ; one 
while  whifpering  to  him,  and  another  turning  his  ear  tQ 
him  : fometimes  he  would  talk  aloud,  and  in  railing  lan- 
guage. For  he  was  over-heard  to  threaten  the  God  in 
the  following  terms : 

Ei^  yaiav  TTE^ixciy  <rs'' 

Into  the  land  of  Greece  I will  tranfport  thee : 

until  being  at  laft  prevailed  upon  by  the  entreaties  of  tlic 
God,  as  li'e  Xaid,  and  being  invited  to  live  with  him,  he 
made  a bridge  over  the  temple  of  Auguftus,  by  which  he 
joined  the  Palatiurn  to  the  CapitoL_ 

XXII!.  He 


XXIII.  He  was  unwilling  to  be  thought  or  called  thd 
grandfon  of  Agrippa,  becaufe  of  the  obfcurity  of  his 
birth  ; and  he  was  ofFended  if  any  one,  either  in  profe  or 
verfe,  ranked  him  amongR-  the  Cjufars.  He  faid  that  hiS 
mother  was  the  fruit  of  an  inceftuous  commerce,  main- 
tained by  Auguftus  with  his  daughter  Julia.  And  not 
content  with  this  vile  reflexion  upon  the  memory  of  Au- 
guflus,  he  forbid  his  vi6lories  at  Adlium,  and  upon  the 
coafl:  of  Sicily,  to  be  celebrated,  as  ufual ; affirming  that 
they  had  been  of  the  moft  pernicious  and  fatal  Cbnfe- 
tjuence  to  the  Roman  people.  He  called  his  gfaiidmo-^ 
ther  Livia  Augufta  Ulyfles  in  a woman'^s  drefs,’*  and 
had  the  indecency  to  refleffi  upon  her  in  a letter  to  the 
Senate,  as  of  mean  birth,  and  defcendedj  by  the  mother’s 
fide,  from  a grandfather  who  was  only  a member  of  the 
council  of  ft  ate  at  Fuildi ; whereas  it  is  certain^  from  au- 
thentic documents,  that  Aufidius  Lingo  held  public  of- 
fices at  Rome.  His  grandmother  Antonia  defiring  a pri- 
vate conference  with  hliUj  he  denied  the  requeft^  unlefg 
Macro,  commander  of  the  guards,  might  be  {irefenh 
By  affronts  of  this  kind,  and  ill  ufage,  he  was  the  occa* 
fion  of  her  death;  but,  as  fome  think,  net  without  giv- 
ing her  a dofe  of  pOifon.  He  paid  not  the  fiiialleft  re- 
fpe6l  to  her  memory  after  her  death  ; and  gratified  him- 
felf  with  beholding,  from  his  parlour,  her  funeral  pile 
6n  fire. . His  brother  Tiberius,  who  had  no  expectation 
of  any  violence;  he  difpatched,  by  fuddenly  fending  to 
him  a military  Tribune  for  that  piirpofe.  He  forced  Sila- 
iius  his  father-in-law  to  kill  himfelf,.  by  cutting  his  throat 
with  a razor.  The  pretext  he  alledged  for  theie  murders 
Was,  that  the  latter  had  not  followed  him  upon  tb 
fea  in  ftormy  weather;  but  ftaid  behind  with  the  view  of 
felzing  the  city,  if  he  ihoiild  have  been  loft  in  the  voyage.- 
The  other,  he  faid,  fmelt  of  an  antidote,  which  he  h?A 


'7  ^ 



taken  to  prevent  his  being  poifoned  by  him : whereas  Sila- 
nus was  only  afraid  of  being  fea-fick,  and  of  the  trouble 
, of  the  voyage  ; and  Tiberius  had  only  made  ufe  of  a me- 
dicine for  a habitual  cough,  which  was  conlfantly  en- 
, creahng  upon  him.  As  to  his  fucceffor  Claudius,  he 
only  fayed  him  to  make  fport  with. 

XXIV,  He  lived  in  the  habit  of  incefl  with  all  his 
fillers  ; and  at  table  when  much  company  was  prefent, 
he  placed  them  every  one  by  turns  below  him,  whilft 
his  wife  lay  above  him.  It  is  believed,  that  he  deflower- 
ed one  of  them,  Drufilla,  before  he  had  arrived  at  the 
age  of  manhood ; and  was  taken  in  her  embraces  by  his 
grandmother  Antonia,  with  whom  they  were  educated 
together.  When  /lie  was  afterwards  married  to  Cafiius 
Longinus,  a man  of  Confular  rank,  he  took  her  from 
him,  and  kept'  her  openly  as  his  wife.  In  a fit  of  fick- 
pefs,  he  by  his  will  appointed  her  helrefs  of  his  ejflate, 
and  the  empire  likewife.  After  her  death,  he  ordered  a 
public  mourning  for  her  ; during  which  it  was  capital  for 
any  perfon  to  laugh,  ufe  the  bath,  or  fup  with  parents, 
wife,  or  children.  Being  inconfolable  under  his  afflidion, 
he  went  haftily,  and  in  the  night-time,  from  the  city ; going 
through  Campania  to  Syracufe,  and  then  fuddenly  re- 
turned without  lhaving  his  beard,  or  trimming  his  hair 
all  that  time.  Nor  did  he  ever  after,  in  matters  of  the 
greateft  importance,  not  even  in  the  aflfemblies  of  the 
people  and  foldiers,  fwear  any  otherwife,  than  “ By  the 
Divinity  of  Drufilla.”  The  reft  of  his  fiflers  he  did  not 
treat  ^vith  fo  much  fondnefs  or  regard ; but  would  fre- 
quently proflitute  them  to  his  catamites.  He  therefore 
the  more  readily  condemned  them  in  the  cafe  of  ^milius 
Lepidus,  as  guilty  of  adultery,  and  privy  to  that  confpi- 
racy  againft  him.  Nor  did  he  only  divulge  their  own 




hand-writing  relative  to  the  ajfFalr,  which  he  procured  by 
bafe  and  lewd  means,  but  likewife  confecrated  to  Mars 
the  Revenger  three  fwords  which  had  been  prepared  to 
flab  him,  with  an  infcription,  letting  forth  the  occafion 
of  their  confecration. 

XXV.  Whether  in  the  marriage  of  his  wives,  in  part- 
ing with  them,  or  retaining  them,  he  a£led  with  greater 
infamy,  it  is  difficult  to  lay.  Being  at  tite  wedding  of 
C.  Pil'o  with  Livia  Oreftilia,  he  ordered  the  bride  to  be 
carried  to  his  own  hoiife,  but  w'ithin  a few  days  divorced 
her,  and  two  years  after  haniJhed  her  ; bccaufe  it  was 
thought,  that  upon  licr  divorce'  ihe  returned  to  the. em- 
braces of  her  former  hufband.  Some  fay,  that  being  in- 
vited to  the  wedding -fupper,  he  fent  a melfenger  to  Pifo, 
who  fat  oppofite  to  him,  in  thefe  words  : “ Do  not  prefs 
upon  my  wife,”  and  that  he  immediately  carried  her 
away  wdth  him.  Next  day  he  publihred  a proclamation, 
importing,  “ That  he  had  got  a wife  as  Romulus  and 
Auguflus  had  done.”  Lollia  Paulina,  who  was  married 
to  a man  of  Confular  rank  and  a general  of  the  army,  he 
fuddenly  called  from  the  province  where  fhe  was  with  her 
hulhand,  upon  mention  made  of  her  grandmother,  as 
formerly  a very  beautiful  woman,  and  manied  her,  but 
foot!  after  parted  with  her  ; difcharging  her  at  the  fame 
time  from  having  ever  afterwards  any  commerce  with 
man.  He  loved  with  a moft  palfionate  and  conflant  af- 
fedlion  Caafonia,  who  was  neither  handfome  nor  young, 
and  was  befides  the  mother  of  three  daughters  by  another 
mlin  ; but  a woman  of  unbounded  luxury  and  lafciviouf- 
nefs.  Her  he  would  frequently  fhow  to  the  foldicrs, 
drelfed  up  in  a military  cloak,  with  fhield  and  helmet,  and 
riding  by  his  fide.  To  his  friends  he  fhow'ed  her  naked. 
After  die  had  a child,  he  honored  her  with  the  title  of 

Z 3 \yifes 



\vife,  in  one  and  the  fame  day,  declaring  himfelf  her 
huxband,  and  father  of  the  child  of  which  fhe  was  deli-^ 
yered.  He  named  it  Julia  Drufilla,  and  carrying  it  round 
the  temples  of  all  the  GoddelTes,  laid  it  on  the  lap  of  Mi- 
nerva ; to  whom  he  recommended  the  care  of  bringing 
up  and  inftrudling  her.  He  confidered  her  as  his  own 
child  for  no  other  reafon,  fo  much  as  the  favage  cruelty 
of  her  temper,  which  was  fuch  even  in  her  infancy,  that 
ihe  would  attack  with  her  nails  the  face  and  eyes  of  the 
children  at  play  with  her. 

XXVI.  It  would  be  frivolous  and  difgufting  to  add  to 
all  this  an  account  of  the  manner  in  which  he  treated  his 
relations  and  friends  ; as  Ptolemy,  king  Juba’s  fon,  his 
coufin  (for  he  was  the  grandfon  of  M.  Antony  by  his 
daughter  Selene),  and  efpecially  Macro  himfelf,  and  Ennia 
likewife,  by  whofe  affiftance  he  had  obtained  the  empire; 
all  whom,  for  their  alliance  and  eminent  fervices,  he  re- 
warded with  a violent  death.  Nor  was  he  more  mild  or 
rcfpe6lful  in  his  behaviour  towards  the  Senate.  Some 
who  had  borne  the  highdl  offices  in  the  government,  he 
fuffered  to  run  by  his  chaife  in  their  togas  for  feveral  miles 
together,  and  to  attend  him  at  fupper,  fometimes  at  the 
head  of  his  couch,  fometimes  at  his  feet,  with  napkins. 
Others  of  them,  after  he  had  privately  put  them  to  death, 
he  would  neverthelefs  continue  to  fend  for,  as  if  they  were 
flill  alive,  and  after  a few  days  pretended  that  they  had 
laid  violent  hands  upon  themfelves.  The  Confuls  for- 
getting to  give  notice  by  proclamation  of  his  birth-day, 
he  difplaced  ; and  the  government  was  for  three  days 
without  any  to  fill  that  high  office.  A Quseflor  who  was 
faid  to  be  concerned  in  a confpiracy  againfl:  him,  he 
feourged  feverely,  having  firft  hripped  off  his  cloaths,  and 
fpread  them  under  the  feet  of  the  foldiers  employed  in  tlie 




work,  that  they  might  ftand  the  more"  firm.  The  other 
Orders  likewife  he  treated  with  the  fame  infolence  and 
violence.  -Being  dihurbed  by  the  noife  of  people- taking 
their  places -in  the  Circus,  wliich  they  were  to  have  gratis, 
he  drove  them  all  away  with  clubs;  in  the  hurry  and 
confuhon  occafioned  by  which,  above  hventy  Roman 
knights  w'ere  fqueezed  to  death,  with  as  many  married 
women,  befides  a great  number  of  other  people.  When 
flage -plays  were  added,  he  would,  to  occallon  a difputc 
between  the  commonalty  and  the  Equeftrian  Order,  fcat^ 
ter  the  money-tickets  fooner  than  ufual,  that  the  feats  af- 
iigned  to  the  knights  might  be  all  feized  by  the  mob. 
In  the  fliow  of  gladiators,  fometimes,  when  the  fun  was 
violently  hot,  he  would  order  the  cover  of  the  theatre  to 
he  taken  oiF,  and  forbid  any  perfon  to  be  let  out : with- 
drawing at  the  fame  time  the  ufual  apparatus  for  the  en- 
tertainment, and  prefenting  wild  bealds  almoh  pined  to 
death,  the  mofi  ferry  gladiators,  decrepit  with  age,  and 
fit  only  for  the  pegma,  befides  noted  houfe -keepers, 
fuch  however  as  were  remarkable  for  fome  bodily  in- 
firmity. Sometimes  fbutting  up  the  public  granaries,  he 
w^ould  oblige  the  people, to  flarve  for  a while. 

XXVIT.  He  evinced  tlie  favage  barbarity  of  his  temper 
chiefly  by  the  following  indications.  When  cattle  was 
only  to  be  had  at  a high  price,  for  the-feeding  of  his  wild 
beads  defigned  for  tire  diverfion  of  the  public,  he  ordered 
that  criminals  fliould  be  made  ufe  of  for  that  purpofe  ; 
and  upon  .taking  a view  of  his  prifoners  who  were  drawm 
up  in  a row  before  him,  without  troubling  himfelt  to  ex- 
amine the  caufe  of  commitment  of  any  one  ol  them,  only 
Banding  in  the  middle  of  the  portico  where  they  were, 
he  ordered  them  to  be  led  away  to  execution,  frouj 

fiald  pate  to  balJ-pate.”  Of  one  who  had  engaged  him- 
Z 4 feif 



felf  to  expofe  his  life  as  a gladiator  for  his  recovery,  he 
exa61:ed  the  performance  of  his  vow  ; nor  would  he  al- 
low him  to  defift  from  the  combat,  until  he  came  off  con- 
queror, and  after  a great  many  entreaties.  Another  who 
had  vowed  to  facrifice  his  life  upon  the  fame  account, 
but  felt  fome  backwardnefs  .to  the  performance,  he  de- 
livered, drefled  up  with  facred  leaves  and  ribbons,  to  fome 
boys,  who  were  to  drive  him  along  the  ftreets,  demanding 
from  him  the  accomplifhment  of  his  vow,  until  he  was 
thrown  head-long  from  the  town  rampart.  After  deform^ 
ing  many  perfons  of  honorable  rank,  by  branding  them  in 
the  face  with  hot  irons,  he  condemned  them  to  the  mines, 
to  work  in  the  repairing  of  high-ways,  or  to  fighting  with 
wild  beafts  ; or  tying  them  by  the  neck  and  heels,  in  the 
manner  of  beafts  carrying  to  flaughter,  would  fhut  them 
up  in  cages,  or  fav/  them  afunder.  Nor  were  all  thefe 
feverities  infli61;ed  for  crimes  of  great  enormity,  but  for 
refleffing  upon  his  public  fports  for  the  entertainment  of 
the  people,  or  becaufe  they  had  never  fworn  by  his  Ge- 
nius. He  obliged  parents  to  be  prefent  at  the  execution 
of  their  fons ; and  to  one  who  excufed  hlmfelf  on  account 
of  indlfpofition,  he  fent  his  own  chair.  Another  he  in- 
vited to  his  own  table  immediately  after  the  fight,  and 
with  great  complaifance  was  for  engaging  him  in  a 
merry  jocular  converfation.  The  overfeer  of  his  public 
diverfions  of  gladiators  and  the  hunting  of  wild  beafts, 
he  ordered  to  be  beat  with  chains,  during  feveral  days 
fucceflively,  in  his  fight,  and  did  not  put  him  to  death, 
until  he  was  offended  with  the  ftench  of  his  putrefied 
brain.  He  burnt  alive,  in  the  middle  of  the  amphi- 
theatre, the  writer  of  a farce,  for  a fhort  jocular  fentence 
with  a double  meaning.  A Roman  knight,  who  had 
been  expofed  by  him  to  wild  beafts,  crying  out  that  he 



was  innocent,  he  fetched  him  back,  and  cutting  out  his 
tongue,  remanded  him  to  his  former  fituation. 

XXVIII.  Afking  a certain  perfon,  whom  he  rellored 
to  his  country  after  a long  banilhment,  how  he  ufed  to 
fpend  his  time,  he,  in  flattery,  replied,  ‘‘  I was  always 
praying  the  Gods  for  what  has  happened,  that  Tiberius 
might  die,  and  you  be  emperor.”  He  fuppofing  from 
this,  that  thofe  whom  he  had  baniflied  prayed  for  his 
death  likewife,  fent  orders  round  the  iflands  to  have  them- 
all  put  to  death.  Being  very  defirous  to  have  a Senator 
torn  to  pieces,  he  employed  fome  perfons  to  call  him  a 
public  enemy,  fall  upon  him  as  he  entered  the  houfe, 
flab  him  with  their  flyles,  and  deliver  him  to  the  reft  to 
tear  in  pieces.  Nor  was  he  fatisfled,  until  he  faw  the 
members  and  bowels  of  the  man,  after  they  had  been 
dragged  through  the  flreets,  piled  up  in  a heap  before 

XXIX.  He  aggravat&d  his  barbarous  a6lIons  by  lan- 
guage equally  outrageous.  “ There  is  nothing  in  my 
nature,”  faid  he,  “ that  I commend  or  approve  fo  much, 
as  my  aoiccrpE^Pia  (inflexible  rigor).”  Upon  his  grandmo- 
V,  ther  Antonia’s  giving  him  fome  advice,  as  if  to  pay  no 
regard  to  it  was  not  fufflcient,  he  faid  to  her,  “ Remember 
that  ail  things  are  lawful  for  me.”  When  he  was  going 
to  murder  his  brother,  whom  he  fufpedled  to  take  anti- 
dotes for  fear  of  poifon,  he  expreflTed  himfelf  thus  : “ An 
antidote  againfi;  Csefar  r”  And  when  he  baniflied  his  flflers, 
he  threateningly  told  them  that  he  had  not  only  iflands  at 
command,  but  likewife  fwords.  A man  of  Praetorian 
rank  having  fent  feveral  times  from  Anticyra,  whither  he 
had  gone  for  his  health,  for  leave  to  continue  longer,  he 




ordered  him  to  be  put  to  death;  adding  thefe  words; 

Bleeding  is  neceffary  for  one  that  has  found  no  benefit 
from  the  ufe  of  hellebore  for  fo  long  a time.”  He  ufed 
every  tenth  day  to  denounce  in  his  hand-writing  the  num- 
ber of  prifoners  appointed  for  execution  ; and  this  he  call- 
ed ‘‘  clearing  his  accounts.”  And  having  condemned  fe- 
veral  Gauls  and  Greeks  at  one  time,  he  exclaimed  in 
triumph,  1 have  conquered  Gallogr^cia.” 

XXX.  He  fcarcely  ever  fufFered  any  perfon  to  be  put 
to  death,  but  by  flight  and  frequently  repeated  ftrokes  ; 
this  being  a well-known  and  conflant  order  of  his  upon 
thofe  occafions  ; ‘‘  Strike  fo  that  he  may  feel  himfelf 
die.”  Having  by  a miftake  of  his  name  punifhed  one 
perfon  for  another,  he  faid,  “ he  had  deferved  as  much*.” 

, He  had  frequently  in  his  mouth  thefe  words  of  the  tra^ 

Oderint  dum  metuant. 

I fcorn  their  hatred,  if  they  do  but  fear  me. 

He  would  often  inveigh  againfl  all  the  Senators  without 
exception,  as  the  clients  of  Sejanus,  and  informers 
againfl  his  m.otlier  and  brothers^  producing  the  memoirs 
which  he  had  pretended  to  burn,  and  exculing  the  cru- 
elty of  Tiberius  as  necefiary,  fince  it  was  impoffible  to 
queftion  the  veracity  of  fuch  a number  of  accufers.  He 
was  continually  reviling  the  whole  Equeftrian  Order,  as 
paffionately  fond  of  adling  upon  the  flage,  and  fighting 
as  Radiators.  Being  in  a rage  at  the  people  for  favor- 
ing a party  at  the  Circenfian  games  in  oppofition  to 
him,  he  exclaimed,  “ I wifh  the  Roman  people  had 
but  one  neck.”  When  Tetrinius  the  hlghv/ayiuan  was  ' 
profecuted,  he  fgid  the  profecutors  too  were  all  Tetri- 




nius’s.  Five  Retiarii  * in  tunics  fighting  in  a company, 
yielded  to  fo  many  purfuers,  without  once  contending 
for  vi6lory  ; and  being  ordered  to  be  all  flain,  one  of 
them  taking  up  l^is  fork  again,  killed  all  the  conquerors. 
This  he  lamented  in  a proclamation  as  a moft  cruel  butch- 
ery, and  curfed  all  thpfe  who  were  able  to  endure  the 
fight  of  it. 

XXXI.  He  iifed  likewife  to  complain  openly  of  the 
condition  of  the  times,  becaufe  they  were  not  rendered  re- 
markable by  any  public  calamities  : that  the  reign  of  Au- 
guftus  had  been  made  memorable  to  poflerityby  the  difafler 
of  Varus  ; and  that  of  Tiberius  by  the  fall  of  the  theatre  at 
Fidena3 ; but  that  his  was  like  to  be  unknown  to  future  ages, 
from  an  uninterrupted  feries  of  profperity.  And  he  would 
now  and  -then  wiflr  for  fome  terrible  flaughter  of  his 
troops,  a famine,  a peftilence,  conflagrations,  or  that 
the  earth  would  open. 

* Gladiators  were  diftinguiflied  by  their  armor  and  man- 
ner of  fighting.  Some  were  called  Secutores^  whofe  arms 
were  a helmet,  a hiield,  a fword,  or  a leaden  bullet.  Others, 
the  ufual  antagonifts  of  the  former,  were  named  Retiarii, 
A combatant  of  this  clafs  was  dreffed  in  a fliort  tunic,  but 
wore  nothing  on  his  head.  He  carried  in  his  left  hand  a 
three-pointed  lance,  called  Tridens  or  Fufeina^  and  in  his 
right,  a net,  with  which  he  attempted  to  entangle  his  adver- 
fary,  by  calling  it  over  his  head,  and  fuddenly  drawing  it 
together  ; when  with  his  trident  he  ufually  flew  him.  But 
if  he  miffed  his  aim,  by  throwing  the  net  either  too  fuort  or 
too  far,  he  inflaiitly  betook  hirnfelf  to  flight,  and  endeavor- 
ed to  prepare  his  net  for  a fecond  call.  His  antagonifl,  in 
the  mean  time,  piirfiied  to  prevent  his  defign  by  difpatch- 
ing  him.. 

XXXII.  Even 



XXXII.  Even  in  the  midft  of  his  diverfions,  in  his 
gaming  or  feafling,  this  favage  ferocity  both  in  his  lan- 
guage and  adfions  never  forfook  him.  Perfons  were  of- 
ten put  to  the  torture  in  his  prefence,  whilft  lie  was  din- 
ing or  caroufing.  A foldier,  who  was  an  adept  in  the  art  of 
beheading,  ufed  at  fuch  times  to  take  off  the  heads  of 
prifoners,  who  were  brought  without  diftindlion  from  the 
jails  for  that  purpofe.  At  Puteoli,  upon  his  hrf};  mount- 
ing the  bridge,  which  has  been  already  mentioned  as  of 
his  contrivance,  he  invited  a number  of  people  to  come 
to  him  from  the  fhore,  and  then  all  on  a fudden  threw 
them  headlong  into  t|ie  fea  ; thrufting  down  with  poles 
and  oars  thole  who,  to  lave  theinfelves,  had  got  hold  of 
the  rudders  of  the  fhips.  At  Rome,  in  a public  feaft,  a 
{lave  having  ftolen  a little  filver  from  the  beds,  he  deli- 
vered him  immediately  to  an  executioner,  with  orders  to 
cut  off  his  hands,  and  to  lead  him  round  the  feveral  com- 
panies with  them  hanging  from  his  neck  before  his  breaff, 
and  a label,  fignifyiag  the  caufe  of  his  punifhment.  A 
gladiator  chat  was  pradlifng  with  him,  and  voluntarily 
threw  himfelf  at  his  feet,  he  flabhed  with  a poniard,  and 
then  ran  about  with  a branch  of  palm  in  his  hand,  after 
the  manner  of  thofe  who  are  vidlorious  in  the  games. 
When  a vidfim  was  to  be  offered  upon  an  altar,  he,  clad 
in  the  habit  of  the  Popas  and  holding  the  axe  aloft 
feme  time,  at  laft,  inflead  of  the  animal,  flaughtered  an 

* Popa  were  thofe  who,  at  public  facrifiees,  led  the  viftim 
to  the  altar.  They  had  their  cloaths  tucked  up,  and  were 
naked  to  the  waifl.  The  viftim  was  led  with  a flack-rope, 
that  it  might  not  feem  to  be  brought  by  force,  which  was 
reckoned  a bad  omen.  For  the  fame  reafon,  it  was  allowed 
to  ffand  loofe  before  the  altar ; and  it  was  thought  a very  bad 
omen  if  it  fled  away. 



'officer  who  attended  to  cut  up  the  facrifice.  And  at  a 
Tumptuous  entertainment,  falling  fuddenly  into  a violent 
fit  of  laughter,  and  the  Confuls,  who  were  next  him, 
very  refpedlfully  alldng  him  the  occafion  ; ‘‘  Nothing,’* 
replied  he,  “ but  that,  upon  a fingle  nod  of  mine,  ye  may 
both  of  you  have  your  throats  cut.” 

XXXIII.  Amongfi  many  other  jefts,  this  was  one.  As 
he  ftood  by  the  ftatue  of  Jupiter,  he  alked  Apelles  the 
tragedian,  which  of  them  he  thought  the  bigger  ? Upon 
his  demurring  about  it,  he  lafhed  him  moft  feverely,  now 
and  then  commending  his  voice,  whilft  he  begged  par- 
don, as  very  fweet  in  the  midfl:  of  groans.  As  often  as 
he  kiffed  the  neck  of  his  wife  or  mifirefs,'  he  would  fay, 
“ So  fine  a neck  muft  be  defiroyed  when  I pleafe  and 
now  and  then  he  would  threaten  to  put  his  Ca3fonia  to 
the  torture,  for  the  purpofe  of  finding  out  the  reafon  why 
he  loved  her  fo  much. 

XXXIV.  In  his  behaviour  towards  men  of  almoO:  all 
ages,  he  difcovered  a degree  of  envy  and  malignity,  equal 
to  that  of  his  cruelty  and  pride.  He  fo  demolifhed  and 
difperfed  the  flames  of  feveral  illuilrio,us  perfons,  that 
had  been  removed  by  Auguflus  for  want  of  room,  fioin 
the  court  of  the  Capitol  into  the  Field  of  Mars,  that  it 
w'as  imppffible  to  fet  them  up  again  with  their  infcriptioris 
entire.  And  for  the  future,  he  forbid  any  ftatue  what- 
ever to  be  ere6led  without  his  knowledge  and  leave.  He 
had  thoughts  too  of  fupprefling  Homer’s  poems  : “ For 
why,”  laid  he,  may  not  I do  what  Plato  has  done  be- 
fore me,  who  has  turned  him  out  of  his  commonwealth  ?” 
He  w^as  like  wife  very  near  banifhing  the  waitings  of  Vir- 
gil and  Titus  Livius,  with  their  effigies,  out  of  all  libra- 
ries ; cenfuring  one  of  them  as  ‘‘  a man  of  no  wdt,  and 
6 very 

Titi:  LIFE  oi* 


very  little  learning and  the  other  as  a verbof<S  ind 
carelefs  hlftoriani’’  He  often  talked  of  the  lawyers  as  if 
he  intended  to  abolilh  their  profeffion.  “ By  Hercules,” 
he  would  fay,  “ I lhall  put  it  out  of  their  power  to  an- 
fwer  any  queflions  in  law,  otherwife  than  by  referring 
to  me.” 

XXXV.  He  took  from  the  nobleft  perfons  in  the  city 
the  ancient  marks  of  diflindtion,  ufed  by  their  families  5 
as  from  Torquatus  '^'  the  chain,  from  Cincinnatus  the 
lock  of  hair  f,  and  from  Cn.  Pompey,  of  an  ancient  fa- 
mily, the  furname  of  Great.  Ptolemy,  mentioned  above^ 
whom  he  fent  for  out  of  his  kingdoirij  ahd  received  very 
honorably,  he  fuddenly  took  off,  for  no  other  reafon,  but 
becaufe  he  obferved  that  upon  entering  the  theatre,  at  a 
public  diverfion  of  gladiators,  he  attra61:ed  the  eyes  of  ail 
the  fpedfators,  by  the  fplendor  of  his  fine  fcarlet  robe. 
As  often  as  he  met  with  handfome  men,  that  had  fine 
heads  of  hair,  he  would  order  the  back  of  their  heads  to 
be  fhaved,  to  make  them  appear  ridiculous.  There  was 
one  Efius  Proculus,  the  fon  of  a Centurion  of  the  firfi; 

* The  golden  chain,  taken  off  the  gigantic  Gaul,  who 
was  killed  in  fingie  combat  by  Titus  Manlius,  called  after- 
wards Torquatus,  was  worn  by  the  lineal  male  defcendents 
of  the  Manlian  family.  But  that  illuftrious  race  becoming 
extincfi:,  the  badge  of  honor,  as  well  as  the  cognomen  of 
Torquatus,  was  revived  by  Augufius,  in  the  perfon  of  C.^ 
Nonius  Afprenas,  who  perhaps  claimed  defcent  by  the  fe- 
male line  from  the  family  of  Manlius. 

t I have  met  with  no  account  of  the  lock  of  hair  in  Livy, 
nor  in  any  other  writer  whom  I have  confulted.  It  is  there- 
fore probable,  that  the  tradition  concerning  it,  though  exift- 
ing  in  the  time  of  Suetonius,  is  now  totally  iofi. 



rank,  who,  being  a lufty  comely  perfon,  went  by  the  name 
of  Colofleros.  Him  he  ordered  to  be  dragged  out  of  his 
feat  into  the  middle  of  the  theatre,  and  matched  with  a 
gladiator  in  light  armor,  and  another  completely  armed  } 
and,  upon  his  worfting  them  both,  commanded  him  forth- 
with to  be  bound,  to  be  led  clothed  in  rags  up  and  down 
the  ftreets  of  the  city,  to  be  fhown  in  that  fituation  to 
the  women,  and  afterwards  to  be  butchered.  There  was 
no  man  of  fo  abjedt  or  mean  condition,  whofe  excellency 
in  any  kind  he  did  not  envy.  The  Rex  Nemorenfis  hav- 
ing many  years  enjoyed  the  honor  of  the  priefthood,  he 
procured  an  able-bodied  antagonifl  to  oppofe  him.  One 
Pori  us  an  Effedarian  * having,  at  a public  fhow  of  gla- 
diators, manumifed  a flave  of  his  for  his  fuccefs  in  light- 
ing, and  being  clapped  extremely  for  it,  he  arofe  in  fuch 
a hurry  from  his  feat,  that,  treading  upon  the  lap  of  his 
toga,  he  tumbled  down  the  fleps,  full  of  indignation,  and 
crying  out,  “ A people  v/ho  are  maflers  of  the  world 
pay  greater  refpedl  to  a gladiator  for  a trifle,  tlian  to 
princes  received  amohgfl:  the  Gods,  or  to  myfelf  here 
prefent  amongfl;  the'm.^’ 

XXX VI.  He  never  had  the  leafl  regard  either  to  the 
chaflity  of  his  own  perfon,  or  that  of  others.  He  is  faid 
to  have  been  inflamed  with  an  unnatural  paffion  for  M, 
Lepidus  Mnf-fter  the  pantomimic,  and  fome  hoflages  i 
and  to  have  engaged  with  them  in  a pradlice  of  mutual 
pollution.  Valerius  Catullus,  a young  man  of  a Confu- 
lar  family,  bawled  out  publicly  that  he  had  been  jaded  by 
him  in  that  abominable  a6t.  Befidcs  his  incefi;  with  his 

* An  EiTedarian  was  one  who  fought  from  an  Ej/eduni^ 
a kind  of  fwift  carriage  employed  in  war  by  the  Gauls  and 
Britons,  and  adopted  at  Rome  for  common  ufe, 





fifters,  and  his  notorious  paflion  for  the  proflitute  Pyfal-^ 
Jis,  there  was  hardly  any  lady  of  diftin61;ion,  that  he  did 
not  make  free  with.  He  ufed  commonly,  to  invite  them 
with  their  hufbands  to  fupper,  ^nd  as  they  paffed  by  his 
feet,  viewed  them  very  attentively,  like  thofe  who  trafhc 
in  flaves ; and  if  any  one  from  modefty  held  down  her 
face,  he  raifed  it  up  with.his  hand.  Afterwards,  when 
the  humor  feized  him,  he  would  quit  the  room,  fend 
for  her  whom  he  liked  befl,  and  in  a fliort  time  return- 
with  the  marks  of  lewdnefs  frefli  upon  him.  He  would 
then,  in  prefence  of  the  company,  command  or  difparage 
her,  recounting  the  qualities  or  defe61:s  of  her  perfon  ahd 
behaviour  in  private.  'To  fome  he  fent  a divorce  in  the 
name  of  their  abfent  hufbands,  and  ordered  it  to  be  re- 
giftered  in  the  public  a61s. 

XXXVII.  In  the  contrivance  of  profufe  expences  he 
furpalTed  ail  the  prodigals  that  ever  lived  ; inventing  a 
new  kind  of  bath,  with  flrange  diflies  and  fuppers ; fo 
that  he  would  bathe  in  precious  unguents,  both  warm  and 
cold,  drink  pearls  of  immenfe  value  diffolved  in  vinegar, 
and  ferve  up  for  his  guells  bread  and  other  vi(51:uals  of 
gold ; often  faying,  ‘‘  that  a man  ought  either  to  be  a 
' good  economifl:  or  an  emperor.”  Nay,  he  fcattered  money 

likewife  to  a prodigious  amount  amongfl:  the  people,  from 
the  top  of  the  Julian  court,  during  feveral  days  fuccef- 
fively.  He  built  two  fhips  with  ten  banks  of  oars,  after 
the  Liburnian  fafhion,  the  flerns  of  which  were  decked 
with  jewels,  and  the  fails  were  parti-colored,  with  large 
baths,  porticos,  and  rooms  of  entertainment,  and  with 
great  variety  likewife  of  vines,  and  other  fruit-trees. 
In  thefe  he  would  fail  along  thecoafl;  of  Campania,  feafl;- 
ing  in  the  day-time  amidfl;  dancing  and  concerts  of  muiic* 
In  the  building  of  his  palaces  and  country-feats,  in  deh^ 




atice  of  all  teafon,  he  defired  to  effe61:  nothing  fo  much, 
as  what  was  accounted  impoffible.  Accordingly  moles 
were  formed  in  a deep  and  boifterous  fea,  rocks  of  the 
hardeft  hone  cut  away,  plains  raifed  to  the  height  of 
mountains  with  a vail;  niafs  of  earth,  and  the  tops  of 
mountains  levelled  by  digging  ; and  all  thefe  were  to  be 
executed  with  incredible  fpeed;  for  the  leah  remiffnefs 
was  capital.  Not  to  mention  particulars,  he  lavifhed 
away  a moll:  prodigious  eflate,  and  all  the  trealures  which 
had  been  amaffed  by  Tiberius  Csefar,  amounting  to  two 
thoufand  feven  hundred  millions  of  fellerces,  within  lefs 
than  a year. 

XXXVIII.  Being  therefore  quite  exhaufled  and  iit 
want  of  money,  he  fell  to  plundering  his  fubjedls,  by 
every  mode  of  falfe  accufation,  conhlcation,  and  taxes, 
that  could  be  invented.  He  declared  that  thofe  had  no 
right  to  the  freedom  of  the  city  of  Rome,  whofe  ancef- 
tors  had  obtained  it  for  themfelves  and  their  poflerity,  un- 
lefs  they  were  fons,  for  that  none  beyond  that  degree 
ought  to  be  confidered  as  pojierity.  When  the  grants  of 
Julius  and  Auguflus  were  fhown  upon  thefe  occafions, 
he  afFedled  an  air  of  concern,  but  faid  they  were  old  and 
out  of  date.  He  charged  likewife  all  thofe  with  giving  a 
falfe  account  of  their  ellates,  who,  after  the  taking  of  the 
Cenfus,  had  by  any  means  whatever  improved  them.  He 
cancelled  the  wills  of  all  thofe  who  had  been  Centurions 
of  the  hrfl  rank  in  the  army,  as  tedimonies  of  their  bafe 
ingratitude,  if  from  the  beginning  of  Tiberius^s  reign  they 
had  not  left  either  that  prince  or  hirafelf  their  heir.  He 
a61ed  in  the  fame  manner  with  refpedl  to  the  wills  of  ail 
others,  if  any  perfon  only  pretended  to  fay,  that  they  de- 
figned  at  their  death  to  leave  Caefar  their  heir.  The  pub- 
lic* being  terrihed  at  this  proceeding,  he  was  now,  by  per- 

A a fons 



fons  imknov/n  to  him,  joined  heir  with  their  friends,  and 
by  parents  with  their  children.  Thofe  who  lived  any 
' confiderable  time  after  making  fuch  a will,  he  faid,  ex- 
pofed  him  to  ridicule  ; and  accordingly  he  fent  many  of 
them  poifoned  cakes.  He  ufed  to  fit  for  the  trial  of  fuch 
caufes  himfelf;  determining  previoully  the  fum  for  the 
raifing  of  which  he  propofed  to  fit,  and,  after  he  had  fe- 
cured  it,  quitting  the  bench.  He  was  upon  all  thofe  oc- 
cahons  impatient  of  deliberation,  condemning  by  one 
hngie  fentence  forty  perfons,  charged  with  different  ac- 
cufations  ; and  boafling  to  Caefonia  when  flie  awaked, 
‘‘  how  much  buflnefs  he  had  difpatched  while  fhe  was 
taking  her  mid-day  lleep.”  He  expofed  to  fale,  in  the 
way  of  au6lion,  all  that  was  left  of  the  furniture  of  his 
public  fhows  for  the  diverfion  of  the  people,  and  obliged 
the  company  to  purchafe  his  commodities  at  fo  high  a 
price,  that  fame  were  ruined  in  their  fortunes  by  it,  and 
bled  themfelves  to  death.  It  is  a well  known  (lory  that  is 
told  of  Aponius  Saturninus,  who  happening  to  fall  afleep 
as  he  fat  by  at  the  fale,  Caius.  called  out  to  the  au6lioneer, 
not  to  overlook  the  Prastorian  perfonage  that  nodded  to 
him  fo  often  ; and  accordingly  the  falefman  went  on  with 
his  bufinefs,  pretending  to  take  the  nods  for  tokens  of 
affent,  until  thirteen  gladiators  were  knocked  off  to  him 
at  the  fum  of  nine  millions  of  feflerces. 

XXXIX.  Having  likewife  fold  off  in  Gaul  all  the 
cloaths,  furniture,  flaves,  and  even  freedmen  belonging  to  his 
fiflers,  at  prodigious  prices,  he  was  fo  much  pleafed  with 
tlie  profit,  that  he  fent  for  all  the  old  furniture  of  the  court 
from  the  city ; taking  up  for  the  conveyance  of  it  to  him 
all  the  hackney  carriages,  with  the  horfes  and  mules  be- 
longing to  the  bakers  every  where  upon  the  road,  fo  that 
they  often  wanted  bread  at  Rome;  and  many  that  had 



ftiits  at  law  in  progrefs,  becaufe  they  could  not  make 
their  appearance  in  due  time  according  to  their  bail-bond^ 
loft  their  caufes.  In  felling  off  this  furniture,  every  arti- 
fice of  fraud  and  impolition  was  employed.  Sometimes 
he  would  rail  at  the  bidders  for  their  tenacioufnefs  of 
money,  and  “ becaufe  they  were  not  afhamed  to  be  richer 
than  he  was  another  while  he  would  affert  to  be  forry 
for  having  alienated  to  private  perfons  what  belonged  to> 
the  court.  He  had  difeovered,  that  an  opulent  man  of 
that  province  had  given  two  hundred  thoufand  fefterces  to 
thofe  who  were  employed  by  him  to  invite  company  to 
his  table,  to  be  admitted  to  that  honor  5 and  he  was  much 
pleafed  to  find  it  valued  at  fo  high  a rate.  The  day  fol- 
lowing, as  the  fapie  perfon  was  fitting  at  the  fale,  he  fent 
him  fome  bauble,'  for  which  he  told  him  he  miift  pay  two» 
hundred  thoufand  fefterces,  and  “ that  he  ftiould  fup  with 
Caefar  upon  his  own  invitation.”  ^ 

XL.  He  levied  his  new  taxes,  and  fuch  as  were  never 
before  known,  at  firft  by  the  tax-farmers,  but  after w^ards^ 
becaufe  the  money  thence  arifing  was  prodigious,  by 
Centurions  and  Tribunes  of  the  guards  ; no  kind  either  of 
things  or  perfons  being  exempted  from  the  payment  of 
fome  duty  or  other.  For  all  eatables  fold  in  the  city,  a 
certain  excife  was  exa6led  : for  all  law-fuits  or  trials  in 
whatever  court,  the  fortieth  part  of  the  fum  in  difpute ; 
and  fuch  as  were  convi6i:ed  of  compromifing  litigations, 
were  made  liable  to  a penalty.  Out  of  the  day-wages  of 
porters,  lie  received  an  eighth  part,  and  of  the  gains  of 
common  proftitutes,  as  much  as  they  received  for  one  a6f 
of  criminal  comnnerce.  A claufe  was  in  the  law,  that  all 
thofe  fhould  be  liable  to  pay,  who  kept  women  for  profti- 
tution  or  fale,  and  that  matrimony  itfclf  fhoOld  not  be 

A a 2 

XLL  Thefo 



XLI.  Thefe  taxes  being  impofed,  but  the  ail  by  whick 
they  were  levied  never  fubmitted  to  public  infpe61ion,  great 
grievances  were  experienced  from  the  want  of  fufEcient 
knowledge  of  the  law.  At  length,  upon  the  urgent  re- 
(]iie{l:  of  the  people,  he  hung  up  the  a£l:,  but  written  in  a 
very  fmall  characl;er,  and  in  a narrow  place,  tkat  nobody 
might  tranfcribe  it.  To  leave  no  fort  of  extortion  un^ 
tried,  he  opened  a public  Ifew  in  the  Palatium,  with  a 
great  variety  of  apartments,  furniflied  in  a manner  fuit- 
able  to  the  dignity  of  the  place  ; in  which  married  women 
and  boys  free-born  were  ready  for  the  reception  of  all 
vifitants.  He  fent  likewife  his  nomenclators  about  the 
forums  and  courts,  to  invite  people  of  all  ages  to  his 
brothel ; and  to  fuch  as  came,  he  lent  money  upon  in- 
terefi: ; clerks  attending  to  take  down  their  names,  as  of 
perfons  who  were  promoters  of  the,  emperor’s  revenue. 
Another  method  of  raifmg  money,  which  he  thought  not 
below  his  notice,  was  gaming  ; which,  by  the  help  of 
lying  and  perjury,  he  turned  to  confiderable  account. 
Leaving  once  the  management  of  his  play  to  a ' fello w- 
gamefter  that  fat  next  him,  he  ftbpped  to  the  door,  and 
obferving  two  rich  Roman  kniglits  paffing  by,  he  ordered 
them  immediately  to  be  feized,  and  their  eftates  con- 
fifeated.  Then  returning  overjoyed  to  his  company,  he 
boafted  that  he  had  never  better  luck  at  play  in  his  life. 

XLII.  After  the.  birth  of  his  daughter,  complaining  of 
his  poverty,  and  the  burdens  to  which  he  w^as  fubjecled, 
not  only  as  an  emperor  but  a father,  he  publicly  received 
contributions  for  her  maintenance  and  fortune.  He  like- 
wife gave  notice  by  proclamation,  that  he  would  receive 
new-year’s  gifts  the.  £ifl  of  January  following,  and  ac- 
cordingly flood  at  the  door  of  liis  houfe,  to  take  poflefTion 
of  the  prefents  which  people  of  all  ranks  threw  dowm  be- 
8 for<& 


fore  him  by  handfulls  and  lapfulls.  At  laft  being  feized 
with  an  invincible  delire  of  feeling  money,  he  would  of- 
ten walk  over  great  heaps  of  gold  coin  fpread  upon  a 
large  floor,  and  then  laying  himfelf  down,  would  roll  his 
whole  body  over  and  over  again  upon  them^ 

XLIII.  He  never  but  once  in  his  life  concerned  himfelf 
with  military  affairs,  and  then  not  deliberately,  but  in  his 
journey  to  Mevania,  to  fee  the  grove  and  river  of  Cli- 
tumnus. Being  put' in  mind  of  recruiting  his  company 
of  Batavians,  which  he  had  about  him,  he  refoived  upon 
an  expedition  into  Germany.  Immediately  he  drew  to^ 
gether  feveral  legions  and  auxiliary  forces  from  all  quar- 
ters, and  made  every  where  new  levies  with  the  utmofl: 
rigor.  Laying  in  provilions  of  all  kinds,  beyond  what 
had  ever  been  done  upon  the  like  occafion,  he  fet  out  on 
his  march  ; and  purfued  it  with  fo  much  hafte  and  hurry 
fometimes,  that  the  guards  were  obliged,  contrary  to 
cuftom,  to  lay  their  ftandards  upon  the  backs  of  horfes 
or  mules,  and  fo  follow  him.  At  other  times,  he  would 
march  with  fuch  flownefs  and  delicacy,  that  he  would 
be  carried  in  a chair  by  eight  men  ; ordering  the  roads  to 
be  fwept  by  the  people  of  the  neighbouring  towns,  and 
fprinkled  with  water  to  lay  the  dufl. 

XLIV.  Upon  arriving  in  the  camp,  to  fliovv  himfelf 
an  adlive  general,  and  feveredifciplinarian,  hecaihiered  the 
lieiitenant-geneials  that  came  up  late  with  the  auxiliary 
forces  from  different  parts.  In  reviewing  the  army,  he 
took  their  companies  from  meft  of  the  Centurions  of  the 
flrll  rank,  who  had  now  ferved  their  legal  time  in  the 
w^ars,  and  from  fome  but  a fev/  days  before  their  time 
would  have  expired  ; alledging  againfl  them  their  great 
age  and  infirmity  ; and  railing  at  the  covetous  difpofition 

A a 3 of 



of  the  reft  of  them,  he  reduced  the  premiums  due  to  fuch 
as  had  ferved  out  their  time  to  the  fnm  of  fix  thoufand 
fefterces.  Though  he  only  received  the  fubmiihon  of 
Adminius,  the  Ion  of  Cinbbelinus  a Britlfh  prince,  who 
being  forced  from  his  -native  country  by  his  father,  came 
over  to  him  -with  a fmall  body  of  troops  ; yet  as  if  the 
whole  ifland  had  been  furrendered  to  him,  he  difpatched 
magnificent  letters  to  Rome  upon  the  occafion,  ordering 
the  bearers  to  proceed  in  their  chaife  dlret'^ly  up  to  the 
Forum  and  the  Senate-houfe,  and  not  to  deliver  the  let- 
ters but  to  the  Confuls  in  the  temple  of  Mars,  and  in  the 
prefence  of  a full  afiembly  of  the  Senators. 

XLV.  Soon  after  this,  there  being  a general  tranquil- 
lity, he  ordered  a'few  Germans  of  his  guard  to  be  carried 
over  and  concealed  on  the  other  fide  of  the  Rhine,  and 
word  to  be  brought  him  after  dinner,  in  a great  hurry, 
that  an  enemy  was  advancing.  This  being  accordingly 
done,  he  immediately  pofted  away  with  his  friends,  and 
a party  of  the  horfe-guards,  into  the  adjoining  wood, 
where  lopping  the  branches  of  fome  trees,  and  drefling 
them  Up  in  the  manner  of  tropliies,  he  returned  by  torch- 
light, upbraiding  thofe  who  did  riot  follow  him,  with 
timoroufnefs  and  cowardice ; but  prefented  the  com- 
panions and  ftiarers  of  his  vidlory  with  a new  kind  of 
crowns,  and  under  a new  name,  with  the  reprefentation 
of  the  fun,  moon,  and  ftars  upon  them,  which  he  called 
Exploratorice.  Again,  fome  hoftages  were  by  his  order 
taken  out  of  a fchool,  and  privately  fent  off;  upon  notice 
of  which  he  immediately  rofe  from  table,  purfued  them 
with  the  horfe,  as  if  they  had  run  away,  and  coming  up 
with  them,  brought  them  back  in  chains  ; proceeding  to 
an  extravagant  pitch  of  oftentation  likewife  in  this  mili^ 
tary  comedy.  Upon  again  fitting  down  to  table,  whea 


359  ' 

fome  came  to  acquaint  him  that  the  army  was  all  come 
in,  he  ordered  them  to  fit  down  as  they  were  in  their 
coats  of  mail,  animating  them  in  the  words  of  that  well 
known  verfe  of  Virgil : 

Durate,  et  vofmet  rebus  ferrate  fecundis. 

Bra  vely  bear  up  again  ft  the  ftorm  of  fate, 

And  fave  your  perfons  for  a happier  ftate.  _ 

In  the  mean  time,  he  reprimanded  the  Senate  and  peo- 
ple of  Rome  by  a -very  fevere  proclamation,  “ For  revel- 
ling and  frequenting  the  diverfions  of  the  Circus  and  the- 
atre, and  enjoying  themfelves  in  their  country-houfes, 
whiill;  their  emperor  was  fighting,  and  expofing  his  per- 
fon  to  the  greatefc  dangers.” 


XLVI.  At  laft,  as  if  refolved  to  make  an  end  of  the 
war  at  once,  drawing  up  his  army  upon  the  fhore  of  the 
ocean,  with  his  halijl^e  and  other  engines  of  war,  whilft 
no  body  could  imagine  what  he  intended  to  do,  on  a fud- 
den  he  commanded  them  to  gather  up  the  fea  ihells,  and 
fill  their  Jhelmets,  and  the  laps  of  their  coats  with  them, 
calling  them  ‘‘  the  fpoils  of  the  Ocean  due  to  the  Capitol 
and  the  Palatium.”  As  a monument  of  his  fuccefs,  he 
railed  a high  tower,  upon  which  he  ordered  lights  to  be 
put  in  the  night-time,  for  the  direftion  of  fhips  at  fea  ; 
and  then  promifmg  the  foldiers  a donative  of  a hundred 
denarii  a man,  as  if  he  had  furpaffed  the  moft  eminent  ex- 
amples of  generofity,  “ Go  your  ways,”  faid  he,  “ and 
be  merry  : go  and  be  rich.” 

XLVII.  Upon  his  applying  himfelf  to  make  prepara- 
tions for  his  triumph,  befides  prifoners  and  thofe  who  had 
deferted  from  the  barbarians,  he  picked  out  the  men  of 

A a 4 greatefl 



greatefl:  ftature  in  all  Gaul,  fuch  as  hc-faid  were  fittefi: 
for  a triumph,  wita  fome  of  the  moft  confiderable  perfoiis 
m the  province,  and  referved  them  to  grace  the  folemni- 
ty ; obliging  them  not  only  to  die  their  hair  of  a yellow^ 
ifh  colour,  and  let  it  grow  long,  but  to  learn  the  Ger- 
man lan^aiage,  and  aflTuine  the  names  commonly  ufed  in 
that  country.  He  ordered  like  wife  the  galley  in  which 
he  had  entered  the  ocean,  to  be  carried  a great  part  of  the 
way  to  Rome  by  land,  and  wrote  to  the  coliedors  of  his 
revenue  in  the  city,  “ to  make  proper  preparations  for 
a triumph  agaiofl  his  arrival,  at  as  fmall  expence  as  poffi- 
ble  ; but  fuch  a one,  however,  as  had  never  been  feen  be^ 
fore,  fince  they  had  full  power  and  authority  to  feize  th^ 
efiates  of  all  men  whatever, ’• 

XLViil.  Before  he  left  the  province,  he  formed  a de^t 
fign  of  the  rnofi  horrid  cruelty,  to  maffacre  the  legions 
which  had  mutinied  upon  the  death  of  Auguftus,  for  feiz-* 
jng  and  detaining  by  force  his  father  Germanicus  their 
commander,  and  himfelf  then  an  infant,  in  the  camp. 
Though  he  was  with  great  difficulty  difTuaded  from  fo 
\rafh  a defign,  yet  neither  the  mofl  urgent  entreaties  nor 
reprefentations  could  reftrain  him  from  putting  to  death 
every  tenth  man.  Accordingly  he  ordered  them  to  afTem- 
hle  unarmed,  without  fo  much  as  their  fwords  ; and  when 
they  w^ere  met,  furrounded  them  with  armed  horfe.  But 
fnding  that  many  of  them,  from  a fufpicion  of  intended 
violence,  were  making  off,  to  a’rm  in  their  own  defence,  he 
quitted  the  afTembly  as  fall;  as  he  could,  and  immediately 
)n;irchcdfor  Rome  ; bending  now  all  his  fury  againft  the 
Benate,  whom  he  publicly  threatened,  to  divert  the  gene- 
ral attention  from  the  clamor  excited  by  the  defign  above- 
mentioned.  Amongll:  other  pretexts  of  offence,  he  com- 
plained that  he  was  defrauded  of  a fair  triurnph^  though 



he  had  juft  before  foiblddeii,  upon  pain  of  death,  any 
honor  to  be  decreed  him. 

XLIX.  In  his  march  he  was  waited  upon  by  deputies 
from  the  Senatorian  Order,  entreating  him  to  haften  hi^ 
return.  He  replied  to  them,  “ I will  come,^I  will  come, 
and  this  with  me,”  ftriking  at  the  fame  time  the  hilt  of 
the  fword  which  he  had  on.  He  ifTued  likewife  this  pro- 
clamation ; “ I am  coming,  but  for  thofe  only  who  wifh 
for  me,  the  Equeftrian  Order  and  the  people  ; for  I fliall 
no  longer  behave  as  a fellow  citizen  or  a prince  to  the  Se- 
nate.” He  forbid  any  of  the  Senators  to  come  to  meet  him  ; 
and  either  dropping  or  deferring  his  triumph,  he  entered 
the  city  in  ovation  on  his  birth-day.  Within  four  months 
from  tliis  period  he  was  flain,  after  he  had  perpetrated 
enormous  crimes,  and  was  meditating  the  execution,  if 
pofiible,  of  Hill  greater.  Ele  had  entertained  a defign  of 
removing  to  Antium,  and  afterwards  to  Alexandria  ; but 
firfl  refolved  to  murder  all  the  flow^er  of  the  Equeftrian 
and  Senatorian  Orders.  This  is  placed  beyond  all  queftioii, 
by  two  books  which  were  found  in  his  cabinet  under  dif- 
ferent tides  ; one  being  called  fword^  and  the  other,  dag- 
ger. They  both  contained  private  marks,  and  the  names 
of  fuch  as  had  been  devoted  by  him  to  future  deftrudlion. 
There  was  found  likewife  a large  cheft,  filled  wdth  a va- 
riety of  poifons,  wdiich  being  afterw^ards  thrown  into  the 
fea  by  the  order  of  Claudius,  are  faid  to  have  fo  infedled 
the  waters,  that  the  fifli.w^ere  poifoned,  and  thrown  out 
dead  upon  the  neighbouring  fhores,  ‘ 

L,  He  was  tall,  of  a pale  complexion,  ill  fhaped,  his 
neck  and  legs  very  {lender,  his  eyes  and  temples  hollow; 
his  forehead  broad  and  grim,  his  hair  thin,  and  about  the 
crown  quite  decayed.  The  other  parts  of  his  body  were 



much  covered  wdth  hair.  On  this  account,  it  was  reck- 
oned a capital  crime  for  any  perfon  to  look  down  from 
above,  as  he  was  paffing  by,  or  fo  much  as  to  name  a 
goat.  His  countenance,  which  was  naturally  hideous 
and  frightful,  he  purpofely  rendered  more  fo,  forming  it 
by  a glafs  into  the  moft  horrible  contortions.  He  was 
crazy  both  in  body  and  mind,  being  fubjedl;  when  a boy 
to  the  falling  ficknefs.  When  he  arrived  at  the  age  of 
manhood,  he  would  endure  fatigue  tolerably  well,  yet  fo 
that,  occafionally,  he  w’^as  liable  to  a faintnefs,  during 
W'hich  he  remained  incapable  of  any  effort,  even  for  his 
own  prefervation.  He  was  not  infenfible  of  the  diforder 
of  his  mind,  and  fometimes  had  thoughts  of  retiring  to 
purge  his  brain.  Tt  is  believed  that  his  wife  Csefonia  adr 
minifiered  to  him  a love-potion  which  threw  him  into  a 
frenzy.  What  mofl  of  all  difordered  him,  was  want  of 
fleep,  for  he  feldom  had  more  than  three  or  four  hours 
rell  in  a night ; and  eVen  then  he  flept  not  found,  but  dif- 
turbed  by  It'i  ange  dreams  ; fancying  one  time,  that  the 
ocean  fpoke  to  him.  Being  therefore  often  w^eary  wuth 
lying  awake  fo  great  a part  of  the  night,  he  would  one 
while  fit  upon  the  bed,  another  while  walk  in  the  longefi; 
porticos  about  his  houfe,  and  now  and  then  invoke,  and 
look  out  for  the  approach  of  day.  • 

LT.  To  this  crazy  conftitution  of  mind  may,  I think, 
very  juflly  be  aferibed  two  faults  vvhich  he  had,  of  a na- 
ture diredlly  repugnant  one  to  the  other,  namely,  an  ex- 
cefs  of  affurance.  and  timidity.  For  he,  who  affc61;ed  fo 
much  to  defpife  the  Gods,  wmuld,  if  there  happened  only 
a little  thunder  and  lightning,  fhut  his  eyes,  and  wrap  up 
his  head  in  his  coat;  but  if  it  thundered  and  lightened 
much,  would  get  up  and  hide  himfeif  under  the  bed.  • In 
his  vifit  to  Sicily,  after  ridiculing  many  ftrange  objects 

6 which 



W’hich  that  country  affords,  he  ran  away  fuddenly  in  the 
night  from  Meffana,  being  terrified  at  the  fmoke  and 
noife  of  Mount  ^tna.  And  tliough  he  was  in  fpeech 
very  valiant  againfl  the  barbarians,  yet  upon  palling  a 
harrow  defile  in  Germany  in  his  chaife,  and  furrounded 
by  his  troops,  fomebody  happening  to  fay,  “ There 
would  be  no  fmall  conflernation  amongfl  us,  if  an  enemy 
fhould  appear,”  he  immediately  mounted  his  horfe,  and 
rode  towards  the  bridges  in  great  hafle;  but  finding  them 
crowded  wdth  foldiers,  fervants  and  carriages,  he  was  in 
fuch  a confiernatlon  as  to  be  unable  to  proceed,  and  was 
tranfported,  on  foot,  by  Jiis  attendants,  over  the  heads  of 
the  crowd.  Soon  after,  'upon  hearing  of  the  wars  break- 
ing out  again  in  Germany,  he  was  making  ready  to  qui|: 
Rome,  and  providing  fleets  for  the  purpofe,  comforting 
himfelf  with  this  confideration,  that  if  the  enemy  fliould 
prove  vidlorious,  and  poflTefs  themfelves  of  the  tops  of 
the  Alps,  as  the  Cimbri  had  done,  or  of  the  city,  as  had 
the  Senones,  he  fhould  ftill  have  in  referve  the  ti'anfma- 
rine  provinces.  For  this  reafon,  I fuppofe,  it  was,  that 
thofe  who  killed  him  thought  proper  to  perfuade  the 
foldiers,  all  in  commotion  upon  his  death,  that  he  had  laid 
violent  hands  upon  himfelf,  in  a fit  of  terror  occafioned 
by  the  news  brought  him  of  the  defeat  of  his  army. 

LIL  In  his  cloaths,  fhoes,  and  other  parts  of  his  drefs, 
he  neither  followed  the  ufage  of  his  country,  his  fex,  nor 
indeed  any  fafliion  fuitable  to  a human  creature.  He  would 
often  appear  abroad  dreffed  in  an  embroidered  coat  fet  with 
jewels,  in  a tunic  with  fleeves,  and  with  bracelets  upon 
his  arms  ; fometimes  all  in  fllks  and  habited  like  a woman  ; 
at  other  times  in  the  crcpid<^  or  bufkins  ; fometimes  in  a 
fort  of  flioes  ufed  by  the  meaner  foldiers,  or  thofe  of  wo- 
juen,  and  commpnly  with  a golden  beard  fixed  to  his 



cliin,  holding  in  his  hand  a thunder-bolt,  a trident,"  or  a 
caduceus,  marks  of  diftindfion  belonging  to  the  Gods  on- 
ly. Sometimes  too  he  appeared  in  the  di  els  of  Venus. 
He  wore  very  commonly  the  triumphal  drefs,  even  before 
his  expedition,  and  fometimcs  die  breaft-plate  of  Alexan- 
der the  Great,  taken  out  of  the  vault  where  his  body  lay. 

LIII.  In  refpedt  of  the  liberal  fciences,  he  was  little 
converfant  in  philology,  but  applied  himfelf  with  afuduity 
to  the  fiudy  of  eloquence,  being  indeed  in  point  of  enun- 
ciation fuflSciently  elegant  and  ready  ; and  thefe  qualities 
appeared  molt  confpicuous  when  he  happened  to  be  in  a 
paiTion.  In  fpeaking,  his  adlion  was  vehement,  and  his 
voice  fo  flrong,  that  he  was  heard  at  a great  diftance. 
When  he  was  about  to  harangue,  he  threatened  “ the 
fvvord  of  his  lucubration.”  He  fo  much  defpifed  a foft 
fmooth  ftyle,  that  he  faid  Seneca,  who  was  then  much 
admired,  “ wrote  only  boyifh  declamations,”  and  that 

his  language  was  nothing  elfe  but  fand  without  lime.” 
When  pleaders  were  fuccefsfuMn  a caufe,  he  often  wrote 
anfwers  to  their  fpeechcs  ; and  would  exercife  himfelf  in 
compoling  accufations  or  vindications  of  eminent  perfons 
that  were  impeached  before  the  Senate  ; and  according  to 
his  fuccefs  he  would  exafperate  or  aiTuage  the  fituation 
of  the  party  by  his  vote  in  the  hoiife  ; inviting  the  Equef? 
trian  Order,  by  proclamation,  to  hear  him. 

LTV.  He  likewife  applied  himfelf  with  alacrity  to  the 
pradfice  of  feveral  other  arts,  as  fencing,  riding  the  cha-r 
riot,  finging,  and  dancing.  In  the  hrO:  of  thefe,  he 
pra6lifed  with  the  weapons  ufed  in  fighting  ; and  drove 
the  chariot  in  Circus’s  built  in  feveral  places.  He  was  fo 
extremely  fond  of  finging  and  dancing,  that  he  could  not 
refrain  in  the  theatre  from  finging  with  the  tragedians, 



an<]  iitiltating  the  geflures  of  the  adfors,  eitlier  in  the  way 
of  approbation  or  corredion.  A peryigiUum  whicli  he 
had  ordered  the,day  upon  which  he  was  flain,  was  thought 
to  be  intended  for  no  other  reafon,  than  to  take  the  op- 
portunity afforded  by  the  licentioufnefs  of  fuch  a feafoii, 
to  make  his  hrft  appearance  upon  the  ftage.  Sometimes  he 
danced  likewife  in  the  night.  Sending  once,  in  the  fecond 
watch  of  the  night,  for  three  men  of  Confular  rank,  who 
were  under  great  apprehenfions  from  the  meffage,  he 
placed  them  by  the  ffage,  and  then  all  on  a fudden  came 
burfting  out,  with  a loud  noife  of  flutes  and  Scahella^ 
dreffed  in  a palla  and  tunic  reaching  down  to  his  heels. 
Having  danced  out  a fong,  he  retired.  Yet  he  who  had 
acquired  fuch  dexterity  in  other  exercifes,  could  never 

LV.  Thofe  for  whom  he  once  conceived  a regard,  he 
favored  even  to  madnefs.  He  ufed  to  kifs  Mnefler  tire 
pantomimic  publicly  in  the  theatre  ; and  if  any  perfon  made 
the  leaft  noife  while  he  was  dancing,  he  would  order  him 
to  be  dragged  out  of  his  feat,  and  fcourged  him  with  his 
own  hand.  A Roman  knight  once  making  fome  buftlc. 
he  fent  him,  by  a Centurion,  an  order  to  go  forthwith 
down  to  Oflia,  and  cairy  a letter  from  him  to  king  Pto- 
lemy in  Mauritania.  The  letter  was  comprifed  in  thefe 
words  : Do  neither  good  nor  harm  to  the  bearer. He 
made  fome  gladiators  captains  of  his  German  guards.  He 
took  from  the  gladiators  called  Mirmillones  fome  of  theh 
arms.  One  Columbus  coming  off  with  vidlory  in  a com- 
bat, but  being  flightly  wounded,  he  ordered  fome  pc'ifon 
to  be  Inluied  into  the  wound,  which  he  thence  called  Co- 
lumbinum.  For  thus  it  certainly  was  put  down  with  his 
own  hand  amongfl;  other  poifons.  He  was  fo  extravagantly 
fond  of  the  party  of  chariotecis  that  rode  in  green,  that 


366  THE  LIFE  OF 

he  fupped  and  lodged  for  fome  time  conflantly  in  the  {ta- 
ble where  their  horfes  were  kept.  At  a certain  revel, 
he  made  a prefent  of  two  millions  of  feflerces  to  one 
Cythicus  a driver  of  a chariot.  The  day  before  the 
Circeniian  games,  he  ufed  by  his  foldiers  to  enjoin  filence 
in  the  neighbourhood,  that  the  repofe  of  bis  horfe  Inci- 
tatus might  not  be  difturbedi  For  this  favorite  animal, 
befides  a marble  liable,  an  ivory  manger,  fcarlet  body- 
cloaths,  and  a bracelet  of  jewels,  he  appointed  a houfcj 
with  a retinue  of  {laves,  and  fine  furniture,  for  the  re- 
ception of  fuch  as  were  invited  in  the  horfe’s  name  to  fup 
wdth  him.  It  is  even  faid  that  he  deiigned  to  have  made 
Irim  Conful. 

LVI.  During  this  frantic  and  favage  behaviour,  ma- 
ny had  formed  adefign  of  cutting  him  off ; but  one  or  two 
confpiracies  being  difcovered,  and  others  poflponed  from 
• the  want  of  opportunity^  at  lafc  two  men  concerted  a 
plan  together  ; and  accompli thed  their  purpofe,  not  with- 
out the  privity  of  fome  of  the  greatefl  favorites  amongh: 
his  freedmen,  and  the  commanders  of  the  guards  ; be- 
caufe  having  been  named,  though  falfely,  as  concerned 
in  one  ccnfpiracy  againh  him,  they  perceived  he_  was 
jealous  of  them,  and  hated  them  ever  after.  For  he  had 
immediately  endeavored  to  render  them  obnoxious  to 
the  foldiery,  by  drawing  his  fwmrd,  and  declaring, ' 
‘‘  That  he  would  kill  himfelf  if  they  thought  him  wor- 
thy of  death and  he  was  continually  ever  after  aecufing 
them  to  one  another,  and  fetting  them  all  mutually  at  va- 
riance. The  confpirators  having  refolved  to  fall  upofi 
him  as  he  returned  at  noon  from  the  Palatine  games, 
CalTiUS  Chasrea,  Tribune  of  a battalion  of  the  guards, 
claimed  the  pan  of  beginning  the  onfet.  This  Chserea 
was  now  an  elderly  man,  and  had  been  often  reproached 



by  Caius  for  effeminacy.  When  he  came  for  the  watch-  • 
word,  the  latter  would  give  him  Priapus  or  Venus ; and 
upon  his  occafional  expreflion  of  thanks,  would  offer 
him  his  hand  to  kifs'  in  a figure  and  gefture  of  lewd 

LVII.  His  approaching  fate  was  indicated  by  many 
prodigies.  The  ftatue  of  Jupiter  at  Olympia,  w'hich  he 
had  ordered  to  be  taken  down  and  brought  to  Rome,  all 
on  a fudden  burfl;  out  into  fuch  a violent  fit  of  laughter^ 
that  the  machines  employed  in  the  work  being  put  into 
diforder,  the  workmen  ran  away.  'Immediately  upon 
this  incident^  there  came  up  a man  named  Cafiius,  who 
faid  that  he  w^as  commanded  in  a dream  to  facrifice  a bull 
to  Jupiter.  The  Capitol  at  Capua  was  fliruck  with  light- 
ning upon  the  Ides  of  March  ; as  was  likewife,  at  Rome, 
the  apartment  of  the  principal  flave  belonging  to  the  Pa- 
latium. Some  conftrued  the  latter  into  a prefage  that 
the  mafter  of  the  place  w^as  in  danger  from  his  own 
guards  ; and  the  other  they  regarded  as  a fign,  that  an 
execution  fimilar  to  what  had  formerly  happened  on  that 
day,  would  foon  take  place.  Sylla  the  aflrologer  being 
confulted  by  him  refpedling  his  nativity,  affured  him, 

“ That  death  would  unavoidably  and  fpeedily  befall  him.’* 
The  oracle  of  Fortune  at  Antium  likewife  forewarned 
him  of  Caffius  ; on  which  account'he  had  given  orders 
for  putting  to  death  Caffius  Longinus,  at  that  time  Pro- 
Conful  of  Afia,  not  confidering  that  Cbserea  w^as  alfo  of 
that  name.  The  day  preceding  his  death  he  dreamt  that 
he  was  flanding  in  heaven  by  the  throne  of  Jupiter,  who 
giving  him  a pufli  with  the  great  toe  of  his  right  foot,  he 
fell  headlong  down  upon  the  earth.  Some  things  which 
happened  the  very  day  of  his  death,  and  only  a little  be- 
fore it,  were  likewife  confidered  as  ominous  prefages 



of  that  event.  Whilfl:  he  was  at  facrihce,  he  was  be-» 
fpattered  with  the  blood  of  a fiainingo.  And  the  pan- 
tomimic Mneftcr  danced  a tragedy,  which  the  tragedian 
Neoptolemus  had  formerly  aCled  at  the  games,  in  which 
Philip  the  king  of  the  Macedonians  was  fiain.  And  in 
the  piece  called  Laureolus,  in  which  the  a6lor  running 
out  in  a hurry  and  falling  vomited  blood,  feveral  of  the 
fecondary  adfors  vying  with  each  other  to  give  the  beft 
fpecimen  ot  their  art,  made  the  whole  flage  be  overflowed 
with  blood.  And  for  the  night  was  intended  a fort  of  play, 
in  which  the  fabulous  accounts  of  the  infernal  regions 
were  to  be  reprefented  by  Egyptians  and  Ethiopians. 

LVIll.  Upon  the  ninth  of  the  Calends  of  February, 
and  about  the  feventh  hour  of  the  day,  being  in  fome 
doubt  whether  he  fhould  rife  to  dinner,  as  his  flomach 
was  dlfordered  by  what  he  had  eaten  the  day  before,  at 
lad,  by  the  advice  of  his  friends  he  came  out.  Some  boys 
of  noble  extraction,  w'ho  had  been  brought  from  Ada  to 
a6t  upon  the  ftage,  waiting  for  him  in  a private  portico 
through  which  lie  was  to  pafs,  he  made  a flop  to  view 
and  to  fpeak  to  them  ; and  had  not  the  chief  of  them  faid 
he  had  got  cold,  he  would  have  gone  back,  and  have 
made  them  add  immediately.  In  refpedt  of  what  follow- 
ed, two  different  accounts  are  given.  Some  fay,  that, 
whilfl  he  was  fpeaking  to  the  boys,  Chserea  came  be- 
hind him,  and  gave  him  a great  cut  in  the  neck,  firfl 
crying  out,  “ Mind  this that  then  a Tribune,  by 
name  Cornelius  Sabinus,  another  of  the  confpirators,  ran 
him  through  the  brcaif.  Others  fay,  that  the  crowd 
being  kept  at  a dilfance  by  fome  Centurions  who  were 
privy  to  the  dedgn,  Sabinus  came,  according  to  cuflom, 
for  the  word,  and  that  Caius  gave  him  “ jupitcr^'^  upon 
which  Chserea  cried  out,  ‘‘  Here’s  for  thee  thy  wifh  ful- 
filled f' 

CAIUS  C^SAR  cALlGtJLA.  3^9  ‘ 

Rlied!”  and  then,  as  he  looked  about,  cleaved  one  of  his 
jaws  with  a blow.  As  he  lay  on  the  ground,  crying  out 
that  he  was  hill  alive,  tile  reft  difpatched  him  with  thirty- 
wounds.  For  the  word  amongft  them  all  was,  “ Strike 
again.”  Some  likewife  run  their  fwords  through  his 
privy  parts.  Upon  the  firft  buftle,  the  chairmen  came 
running  in  with  their  poles  to  his  afliftance,  and,  imme- 
diately after,  his  German  guards;  who  killed  foine  of  the 
confpirators,  and  likewife  foine  Senators  who  had  no 
concern  in  the  tranfa6liori. 

LIX.  He  lived  twenty-nine  years,  and  reigned  three 
years,  ten  months,  and  eight  days.  His  body  was  carried 
privately  into  the  Lamian  Gardens,  where  it  was  half 
burnt  upon  a pile  haftily  raifed,  and  then  as  carelefsly 
buried.  It  was  afterwards  taken  up  again  by  his  fifters, 
upon  their  return  ft  om  baniftirnent,  eiTedlually  burnt,  and 
buried.  Before  this  was  done,  it  is  well  known  that  the 
keepers  of  the  gardens  were  greatly  difturbed  by  appari- 
tions ; and  that  not  a night  paiTed  without  fome  terrible 
fright  or  other  in  the  houfe  where  he  was  flain,  until  it 
was  deftroyed  by  fire.  His  wife  Caefonia  was  killed  with 
him,  being  ftabbed  by  a Centurion  ; and  his  daughter  had 
her  brains  knocked  out  againft  a wall. 

LX.  Of  the  miferable  condition  of  thofe  times  any 
perfon  may  eafily  form  an  efi;imatc-from  the  following 
circumftances.  For  after  his  death  was  made  public,  it 
was  not  prefently  credited.  People  entertained  a fufpi- 
cion  that  the  report  of  his  being  killed  had  been  contrived 
and  fpread  by  himfelf,  with  the  view  of  difcoveiing  how 
they  ftood  alFecled  tow'ards  him.  Nor  had  the  confpira- 
tors pitched  upon  any  one  to  fucceed  him.  The  Senators 
were  fo  unanimous  in  their  refolutioii  to  aftert  the  liberty 




of  their  country,  that  the  Confuls  afTembled  them  at  firfl 
not  ill  the  ufual  place  of  meeting,  becaufe  that  had  its 
name  from  Julius  Caifar,  but  in  the  Capitol.  Some  pro- 
pofed  to  the  houfe  to  aboliili  the  memory  of  the  Caefars, 
and  level  their  temples  with  the  ground.  It  was  parti- 
ticularly  remarked  on  this  occafion,  that  all  the  Cajfars, 
who  had  the  praenomen  of  Cains,  died  by  the  fword, 
ever  lince  him  who  was  llain  in  the  times  of  Cinna. 

UNFORTUNATELY  a great  chafm  in  the  Annals 
of  Tacitus,  at  this  period,  precludes  all  information  from 
that  hillorian  refpc^ling  the  reign  of  Caligula  ; but  from 
what  he  mentions  towards  the  clofe  of  the  preceding 
chapter,  it  is  evident  that  Caligula  was  forward  to  feize 
the  reins  of  government,  upon  the  death  of  Tiberius, 
whom,  though  he  rivalled  him  in  his  vices,  he  was  far 
from  imitating  in  his  diffimulation.  Amongll  the  people, 
the  remembrance  of  Germanicus^s  virtues  cherilhed  for 
his  family  an  attachment,  which  was  probably  encreafed 
by  its  misfortunes  ; and  they  were  anxious  to  fee  revived 
in  the  fon  .the  popularity  of  the  father.  Conlidering, 
however,  that  Caligula’s  vicious  difpofition  was  already 
known,  and  that  it  had  even  been  an  inducement  with 
Tiberius  to  procure  his  fucceffion,  as  vvhat  might  prove 
a foil  to  his  own  memory  ; it  is  furpriiing  that  no  effort 
was  made  at  this  jumflure  to  Ihake  off  the  defpotifm  which 
had  been  fo  intolerable  in  the  lafl  reign,  and  rellore  the 
ancient  liberty  of  the  Republic.  Since  the  commence- 
ment of  the  imperial  dominion,  there  never  had  been  any 
period  fo  favorable  for  a counter-revolution  as  the  pre- 
fent  crilis.  There  exihed  now  no  Livia,  to  influence 
die  minds  of  the  Senate  and  people  in  refpe6t  of  the  go- 
vernment ; 


vernmeilt ; nor  was  there  any  otlier  perfon  allied  to  the 
family  of  Germanicus,  whofe  countenance  or  intrigues 
could  , promote  the  views  of  Caligula.  He  himfelf  was 
now  only  in  the  twenty-fifth  year  of  his  age,  was  totally 
inexperienced  in  the  admiiiifcration  of  public  affairs,  had 
never  performed  even  the  fmallefl  fervice  to  his  country, 
and  was  generally  known  to  be  of  a chara6ter  which  dif- 
graced  his  illuftrious  defcent.  Yet,  in  fpite  of  all  thefe 
circumftances,  fuch  was  the  deftiny  of  Rome  that  his  ac- 
ceffion  afforded  joy  to  the  foldiers,  who  had  known  him 
in  his  childhood,  and  to  the  populace  in  the  capital,  as 
well  as  the  people  in  the  provinces,  who  were  flattered 
with  the  delufive  expectation  of  receiving  a prince  who 
fhould  adorn  the  throne  with  the  amiable  virtues  of  Ger- 

It  is  difficult  to  fay,  whether  a weaknefs  of  underfland- 
ing,  or  a corruption  of  morals,  was  more  confpicuous  in 
the  character  of  Caligula.  He  fcems  to  have  difcovered 
from  his  earlieft  years  an  innate  depravity  of  mind,  which 
was  undoubtedly  much  encreafed  by  a defeCt  of  educa- 
tion. He  had  loft  both  his  parents  at  an  early  period  of 
life  ; and  from  Tiberius’s  own  character,  as  well  as  his 
views  in  training  the  perfon  who  fliould  fucceed  him  on 
the  throne,  there  is  reafon  to  think,  that  if  any  attention 
whatever  was  paid  to  the  education  of  Caligula,  it  was 
directed  to  vitiate  all  his  faculties  and  paflions,  rather  than 
to  correct  and  improve  them.  If  fuch  was  really  the  ob- 
jeCt,  it  was  indeed  profecuted  with  fuccefs. 

The  commencement,  however,  of  his  reign  was  fuch 
as  by  no  means  prognofticated  its  fubfequent  tranfition. 
The  fudden  change  of  his  conduCt,  the  aftonifhing  mix- 
ture of  imbecility  and  prefumption,  of  moral  turpitude 

B b 2 and 




and" frantic  extravagance,  which  he  afterwards  evinced  5 
fuch  as  rolling  himfelf  over  heaps  of  gold,  his  treatment 
of  his  horfe  Incitatus,  and  his  defign  of  making  him 
Conful,  feem  to  juftify  a fufpicion  that  his  brain  had  ac- 
tually been  afFe61;ed,  either  by  the  potion,  faid  to  have  been 
given  him  by  his  wife  Csefonia,  or  otherwife.  Philtres, 
or  love-potions,  as  they  were  called,  were  frequent  in 
thofe  times ; and  the  people  believed  that  they  operated 
upon  the  mind  by  a myfterious  and  fympathetic  power. 
It  is,  however,  beyond  a doubt,  that  their  efFe6ls  were 
produced  entirely  by  the  a6lion  of  their  phyfical  qualities 
upon  the  organs  of  the  body.  They  were  ufually  made 
of  the  fatyrion,  which,  according  to  Pliny,  was  a provo- 
cative. They  were  generally  given  by  women  to  their  huf- 
bands  at  bed-time  ; and  it  was  necelfary  towards  their  fuc- 
cefsful  operation,  that  the  parties  fbould  fleep  together. 
This  circumftance  explains  the  whole  myfeery.  The  phil- 
tres were  nothing  more  than  medicines  of  a ftimulating 
quality,  which,  after  exciting  violent,  but  temporary 
effedts,  enfeebled  the  conftitution,  and  occafioned  nervous 
diforders,  by  w^hich  the  mental  faculties,  as  well  as  the 
corporeal,  might  be  injured.  That  tliis  was  really  the- 
cafe  with  Caligula,  feems  probable,  not  only  from  the 
falling  ficknefs,  to  which  he  was  fubjed,  but  from  the 
habitual  watchfulnefs  of  which  he  complained. 

The  profufion  of  this  emperor,  during  his  fhort  reign  of 
three  years  and  ten  months,  is  unexampled  in  hiftory.  In 
the  midft  of  profound  peace,  without  any  extraordinary 
charges  either  civil  or  military,  he  expended,  in  lefs  than 
one  year,  befides  the  current  revenue  of  the  empire, 
the  fum  of  21,796,875  pounds  fterling,  which  had  been 
left  by  Tiberius  at  his  death.  To  fupply  the  extrava- 
gance of  future  years,  new  and  exorbitant  taxes  were'im- 

6 pofed 

CAIUS  CAiSAR  caligula; 


pofed  upon  the  people,  and  thofe  too  on  the  neceflaries  of 
life.  There  exifted  no  w amongft  the  Romans  every  motive 
that  could  excite  a general  indignation  againll  their  govern- 
ment ; yet  fuch  was  ftill  the  dread  of  imperial  power,  though 
vefted  in  the  hands  of  fo  weak  and  defpicable  a fovereign, 
that  no  infurredfion  was  attempted,  nor  any  extenhve 
confpiracy  formed  ; hut  the  obnoxious  emperor  fell  atlaft 
a facrifice  to  a few  Centurions  of  his  own  guard. 

This  reign  was  of  too  fliort  duration  to  afford  any  new 
produdlions  in  literature  : but,  had  it  been  extended  to  a 
much  longer  period,  the  effedfs  would  probably  have  been 
the  fame.  Polite  learning  never  could  flourifh  under  an 
emperor  who  entertained  a dehgn  of  deftroying  the  writ- 
ings of  Virgil  and  Livy.  It  is  fortunate  that  thefe,  and 
other  valuable  produdlions  of  antiquity,  were  too  widely 
diffufed  over  the  world,  and  too  carefully  preferved,  to  be 
ill  danger  of  perifhing  through  the  frenzy  of  this  capri- 
cious barbarian. 


Bb  3 



1.  LIVIA  having  married  Auguftus  when  jfhe  was 
big  with  child,  was  within  three  months  after  delivered 
of  Drufus,  the  father  of  Claudius  Caefar,  who  had  at  firft 
the  pronomen  of  Decimus,  but  afterwards  that  of  Nero  ; 
and  it  was  fufpe6ted,  that  he  was  begotten  in  adultery  by 
his  father-in-law.  The  following  verfe,  however,  bC'» 
c;ime  immediately  very  common  upon  it. 

Toig  xai  rpi(jLv]vot  Trai^ia» 

Ninp  months  for  common  births  the  fates  decree ; 

But,  for  the  great,  reduce  the  term  to  three. 

This  Drufus,  during  the  time  of  his  being  Quasllor  and 
Praetor,  commanded  in  the  Rhaetic  and  German  wars,  and* 
was  the  firfl  of  all  the  Roman  generals  that  failed  the 
Northern  Ocean.  ^He  made  likewife  fome  prodigious 
trenches  beyond  the  Rhine,  which  to  this  day  are  called 
by  his  name.  He  overthrew  the  enemy  in  feveral  battles, 
and  drove  them  up  a great  way  into  the  defert  parts  of 
the  country.  Nor  did  he  delift  from  the  purfuit  until  a 
barbarian  woman  of  more  than  human  ftze  appeared  to 
him,  and  in  the  Latin  tongue  forbid  him  to  proceed  any 
farther.  For  thefe  atchieveraents  he  had  the  honor  of 
an  ovation,  and  the  triumphal  ornaments.  After  his 
Praetorftiip,  he  immediately  took  upon  him  the  Confulate, 
gnd  returning  again  to  Germany,  died  in  the  fummer-r 



camp,  which  tbence  obtained  the  name  of  “ the  wicked 
camp.”  His  corpfe  w^as  carried  to  Rome  by  the  princi- 
pal perfons  of  the  feveral  borough  towns  and  colonics 
upon  the  road,  being  met  and  received  by  the  public 
feribes  of  each  place,  and  buried  in  the  Field  of  Mars. 
In  honor  of  his  memory  the  army  erc6led  a monument, 
round  which  the  foldiers  ufed,  annuallv,  upon  a certain 
day,  to  march  in  folemn  proceffion,  and  perfons  deputed 
from  the  feveral  cities  of  Gaul  made  their  fupplications 
to  his  ghoft.  The  Senate  likewife,  amongft  various  other 
honors,  decreed  for  him  a triumphal  arch  of  marble  wdth 
trophies  in  the  Appian  way,  as  alfo  the  cognomen  of 
Germanicus^  for  him  and  his  pofterity.  He  was  confider- 
cd  as  a perfon  by  no  means  of  an  affuming  temper,  but 
ambitious  of  glory.  For  befules  his  vidlories  he  brought 
off  the  fpoils  called  Opima  *,  and  frequently  hngled  out 
and  purfued  the  German  commanders  up  and  down  their 
army,  with  the  utmoh  hazard  of  his  life.  He  likewife 
often  declared,  that  he  wmuld  fome  time  or  other,  if  pof- 
lible,  reftore  the  ancient  government.  On  this  account, 
I fuppofe,  fome  have  ventured  to  affiem  that  Auguhus 
was  jealous  of  him,  and  recalled  him  ; and  hecaufe  he 
made  no  hafte  to  comply  with  the  order,  took  him  off  by 

* The  Spolia.  Opima  w^ere  the  fpoils  taken  from  the  gene- 
ral of  the  enemy,  when  he  was  (lain  in  fingle  combat  by 
the  general  of  the  Romans,  They  were  always  hung  up  in 
the  temple  of  Jupiter  Feretrius.  During  the  whole  time  that 
the  Roman  ftate  exifled,  thofe  fpoils  had  been  obtained  only 
thrice ; the  firh  by  Romulus,  who  flew  Acron,  king  of  the 
CiEuinenfes  ; the  next  by  A.  Cornelius  Coflus,  who  flew 
Tolumnius,  king  of  the  Velentes,  A.  U.  318  ; and  the  third 
by  M.  Claudius  Marcellus,  who  flew  Viridomarus,  king  of 
phe  Gauls,  A.  U.  330, 

Eb  4 




poifon.  This  I mention,  that  I may  not  be  guilty  of  any 
omiffion,  more  than  becaufe  T think  it  either  true  or  pro- 
bable ; fince  Auguftus  loved  him  fo  much  when  living, 
that  he  always,  in  his  wills,  made  him  joint  heir  with  his 
fons,  as  he  once  declared  in  tlie  Senate,  and  upon  his  de- 
•ceafe,  extolled  him  in  a Ipeech  to  the  people,  to  that  degree, 
that  he  prayed  the  Gods  “ to  make  his  Csefars  like  him, 
and  to  grant. him  as  honorable  an  exit  out  of  this  world 
as  they  had  given  him.”  And  not  fatished  wnih  infcrib- 
^ ing  upon  his  tomb  an  epitaph  in  verfe  compofed  by  Iiim- 
felf,  he  wrote  likewife  the  hiftory  of  his  life  in  profe. 
He  had  by  the  younger  Antonia  feveral  children,  but  left 
behind  him  only  three,  viz.  Germanicus,  Livilia,  and 

II. ‘Claudius  was  born  at  Lyons  in  the  Confuldiip 
of  Julius  Antonius,  and  Fabius  Africanus,  upon  the 
jhrft  of  Augufl,  the  very  day  upon  which  an  altar  was 
firh:  dedicated  there  to  Auguftus,  and  was  named  Tibe- 
rius Claudius  Drufus.  Soon  after,  upon  the  adoption  of 
his  elder  brother  into  the  Julian  family,  he  affumed  the 
cognomen  of  Germanicus.  He  was  left  an  infant  by  his 
father,  and  during  almoft  the  whole  of  his  minority,  and 
for  fome  time  after  he  attained  the  age  of  manhood,  was 
aftlidled  with  a variety  of  ftubborn  complajnts  ; infomuch 
that  his  mind  and  body  being  greatly  impaired,  he  was, 
even  after  his  arrival  at  years  of  maturity,  never  thought 
fufficiently  qualihed  for  any  public  or  private  employment. 
He  was  therefore  during  a long  time,  and  even  after  the 
expiration  of  his  minority,  under  the  direction  of  a peda- 
gogue, who,  he  complains  in  a certain  memoir,  “ was 
a barbarous  wretch,  and  formerly  a mafter-mule-driver, 
that  was  retained  as  his  governor,  on  purpofe  to  correcSl 
himfeverely  on  every  trifling  occafion,”  On  account  of 




this  crazy  confliitutlon  of  body  and  mind,  at  the  fhow  of 
gladiators,  wiiich  in  conjunddion  with  his  brother  he  gave 
the  people  in  honor  of  his  father’s  memory,  he  prefided 
muffled  up  in  a pallium,  contrary  to  cuftom.  When  he 
fiffumed  the  manly  habit,  he  was  carried  in  a chair  at 
mid-night  into  the  Capitol  without  the  ufual  ceremony. 

in.  He  applied  himfelf,  however,  from  an  early  age, 
with  great  aiTiduity  to  the  ftudy  of  the  liberal  fciences,  ‘ 
and  frequently  publifh,ed  ipecimens  of  his  fkill  in  each  of 
them.  But  never,  with  all  his  endeavors,  could  he  attain 
to  any  public  pod;  in  the  government,  or  afford  any  hope 
of  arriving  at  diftindlion  in  a future  period.  His  mother 
Antonia  frequently  called  him  “ a monfter  of  a man,  that 
had  been  only  begun,  but  never  tinilhed  by  nature.” 
And  w’hen  fire  would  upbraid  any  one  with  dulnefs,  fh<? 
faid,  ‘‘  he  was  more  a fool  than  her  foil  Claudius.”  His 
grandmother  Augufta  always  treated  him  with  the  utmofl 
contempt,  very  rarely  fpoke  to  him,  and  when  fhe  did 
admonifh  him  upon  any  occafioii,  it  was  in  writing, 
very  briefly  and  feverely,  or  by  mcflengers.  His  After 
Livilla,  upon  hearing  that  he  w^ould  be  created  em^ 
peror,  openly  and  loudly  expreflTed  her  indignation  that 
the  Pvoman  people  fhould  experience  a fate  fo  fevere  and 
fo  much  below  their  grandeur.  To  fliow  the  opinion, 
both  favorable  and  otherwife,  entertained  concernintr  him 
by  Aiiguftus  his  great-uncle,  I have  here  fubjoined  fome 
extradts  from  the  letters  of  that  emperor. 

IV . I have  had  fome  converfation  with  Tiberius,  ac- 
cording to  your  deflre,  my  dear  LIvia,  as  to  what  muft 
be  done  with  your  grandfon  Tiberius  at  the  games  of 
Mars.  We  are  both  agreed  in  this,  that  once  for  all  we 
pught  to  determine  what  courfe  to  take  with  him.  For 



if  he  be  really  perfe6l  and  entire,  as  I may  fay,  with  rc» 
gard  to  his  intellecls,  why  ihould  we  hefitate  to  promote 
him  by  the  fame  fleps  and  degrees  we  did  his  brother  ? 
But  if  we  find  him  indeed  unfinifhed,  and  defedtive  both 
in  body  and  mind,  we  mull  beware  of  giving  occafion  for 
him  and  ourfelves  to  be  laughed  at  by  the  world,  which 
is  ready  enough  to  make  maters  of  this  kind  the  fubjedt  of 
mirth  and  derilioji.  For  we  never  {liali  be  eafy,  if  we 
are  alv/ays  to  be  debating  upon  every  occafion  of  this 
kind,  without  coming  to  a final  decifion,  whether  he  be 
really  capable  of  public  ojSices  or  not.  With  regard  to 
wdiat  you  confult  me  about  at  prefent,  I am  not  againft 
his  fuperintending  at  the  feaft  of  the  priefis,  if  he  will  fuf- 
fer  himfelf  to  be  governed  by  his  kinfman  Silanus’s  fon, 
that  he  may  do  nothing  to  make  the  people  flare  and 
laugh  at  him.  But  I do  not  approve  of  his  feeing  the 
Circenfian  games  from  the  Pulvinar.  He  will  be  there 
expofed  to  view  in  the  very  front  of  the  theatre.  Nor 
do  I like  that  he  fhould  go  to  the  Alban  mountain,  or  be 
at  Rome  during  the  Latin  feftival.  For  if  he  be  capable 
of  attending  his  brother  to  the  mountain,  why  is  he  not 
made  Praefedl  of  the  city  ? Thus,  my  dear  Livia,  you 
have  my  thoughts  upon  the  matter,  I am  of  opinion  we 
ought  to  fettle  this  affair  pnee  for  all,  that  we  may  not 
to  be  alvv^ays  in  fufppnfe  between  hope  and  fear.  You 
may,  if  you  think  proper,  give  our  kinfwoman  Antonia 
this  part  of  my  letter  to  read.”  In  another  letter  lie 
writes  as  follows : “ I fliall  invite  the  youth  Tiberius,  every 
day  during  your  abfence,  to  fupper,  that  he  may  not 
fup  alone  with  his  friend  Sulpicius  and  Athenodorus.  I 
wifh  he  was  more  cautious  and  attentive  in  the  choice  of 
fome  perfon,  whofe  motion,  air  and  gnit,  might  be  proper 
for  tlie  poor  creature’s  imitation : 


Ary^si  'Jtavv  £V  roicn  crTTov^aioi;  7\.iav, 

. In  things  of  confequence  he  fadly  fails. 

Where  his  mind  does  not  run  aftray,  he  d’fcovcrs 
noble  difpofition.”  In  a third  letter  he  fays,  “ Let  me 
die,  my  dear  Livia,  if  1 am  not  aftonilhcd,  that  your 
grandfon  Tiberius  fhoiild  declaim  to  pleafe  me:  for  how 
he  that  talks  fo  obfcurely,  fliould  be  able  to  declaim  fo 
clearly  and  properly,  I cannot  imagine.”  There  is  no 
doubt  but  Auguftus,  after  this,  came  to  a refolution  upon 
the  fubje61:,  and  accordingly  left  him  inverted  with  no 
other  honor  than  that  of  the  Augural  Prierthood  ; naming 
him  amongft  the  heirs  of  the  third  degree,  and  fuch  as 
ivere  but  diftantly  allied  to  his  family,  for  a fixth  part  of 
his  eftate  only,  and  left  him  a legacy  of  no  more  than 
eight  hundred  thoufand  ferterces- 

V.  Tiberius,  upon  his  requerting  fome  preferment  iri 
the  government,  granted  him  the  Confular  ornaments. 
But  he  perfirting  in  his  requifition,  the  former  wrote  to 
him,  that  he  fent  him  forty  gold  pieces  for  his  expences, 

. during  the  fertivals  of  the  Saturnalia  and  Sigillaria,^' 
Upon  this,  laying  afide  all  hope  of  advancement,  Ue  refigned 
himfelf  entirely  to  an  indolent  life ; living  in  great  privacy, 
one  while  in  his  gardens,  or  a country-feat  which  he  had 
near  the  city  ; another  while  in  Campania,  where  he  palT- 
ed  his  time  amongrt  the  vilell;  company  ; by  which  means, 
befides  his  former  charadfer  of  a dull  heavy  fellow,'  he  ac- 
quired that  of  a drunkard  and  gamerter, 

VI.  Notwithrtanding  the  infamous  life  he  led,  much 
refpedt  was  fhown  him  both  by  the  public,  and  private 
perfons.  The  Equertrlan  Order  twice  made  choice  of 
him  to  carry  a merta ge  in  their  names  ; once  to  requeft 


of  the  Confuls  the  favor  of  bearing  on  their  fhoulders  the 
corpfe  of  Auguftus  to  Rome,  and  a fecond  time  to  conora- 
tulate  the  Confuls  upon  the  death  of  Sejanus.  When  he 
entered  the  theatre,  they  ufed  to  rife,  and  putofF their  cloaks. 
The  Senate  likewife  voted,  that  he  fhould  be  added  to 
the  number  of  the  Sodales  Augujlales  who  were  chofen 
by  lot : and  foon  after,  that  his  houfe,  which  was  burnt 
down,  fliould  he  rebuilt  at  the  public  charge. ; and  that  he 
fhould  have  the  right  of  delivering  his  fentiments,  upon 
any  fubje<51:  that  came  before  the  houfe,  amongfl:  the  men 
of  Confular  rank.  This  decree  was'  however  repealed  ; 
Tiberius  infilling  to  have  him  excufed  on  account  of  his 
weaknefs,  and  promifing  to  make  good  his  lofs  at  his 
own  expence.  But  at  his  death,  he  named  him  in  his 
wdll,  amongfl:  his  third  heirs,  for  a third  part  of ’his  eftate ; 
leaving  him  befides  a legacy  of  two  millions  of  fefterces, 
and  exprefsly  recommending  him  to  the  armies,  the  Senate 
and  people  of  Rome,  amongfl  his  other  relations. 

VIL  At  lafl,  Caius  his  brother’s  fon,  upon  his  advance- 
ment to  the  empire,  endeavoring  to  gain  the  affedlions 
of  the  public  by  all  the  arts  of  popularity,  he  likewife  was 
admitted  to  public  offices,  and  bore  the  Confulfhip  in 
conjun6lion  with  his  nephew  for  two  months.  As  he' 
was  entering  the  Forum  for  the  firfl  time  wdth  the  Faf- 
ces,  an  eagle  which  was  flying  that  way,  alighted  upon 
his  right  flioulder.  He  likewife  took  his  lot  for  the  go- 
vernment of  a province  as  Pro-Conful,  at  the  expiration 
of  the  year.  And  he  fometlmes  prefided  at  the  public  di- 
verfions  of  the  theatre,  in  the  room  of  Caius ; being  al- 
ways, on  thofe  occafions,  complimented  with  the  acclama- 
tions of  the  people,  wifliing  him  all  happinefs,  fometimes. 
under  the  title  of  the  emperor’s  uncle,  and  fometimes 
under  that  of  Germanicus’s  brother. 

VIII.  Amidfl 


VIII.  AmidjQ:  all  this  refpedl:,  he  nevertheleTs  frequent- 
ly experienced  contumelious  treatment.  For  if  at  any  time 
he  came  late  in  to  flipper,  he  was  obliged  to  walk  round 
the  room  fome  time  before  he  could  get  a place  at  table. 
When  he  indulged  himfelf  wdth  a deep  after  eating,  which 
was  a common  pradlice  with  him,  the  company  ufed  to 
throw  olive-ftones  and  dates  at  him.  And  buffoons  that 
attended  would  w'ake  him,  as  if  it  were  only  in  jefl,  with'  . 
a cane  or  a whip*  Sometimes  they  would  put  fhoes  upon 
his  hands,  as  he  lay  fnoring,  that  he  might,  upon  awak- 
ing, rub  his  face  with  them. 

IX.  He  was  not  only  expofed  to  contempt,  but  fome- 
times  likewife  to  confiderabie  danger : firft,  in  his  ConfuU 
'fhip  ; for,  having  been  too  remifs  in  providing  and  ere61ing 
the  datues  of  Caius’s  brothers,  Nero  and  Drufus,  he  was 
very  near  being  ejedled  from  his  office  of  Conful ; and  af* 
terwards  he  was  continually  haiaffed  with  informations 
agalnfl  him  by  one  or  other,  fometimes  even  by  his  own 
domedics.  When  the  confpiracy  of  Lepidus  and  Gaetu-  , 
licus  v/as  difeovered,  being  fent  with  fome  othef  deputies 
into  Germany,  to  congratulate  the  emperor  upon  the  oc- 
cafion,  he  was  in  danger  of  his  life  ; Caius  being  greatly 
enraged,  and  expreffing  his  refentment,  that  his  uncle 
diould  be  fent  to  him,  as  if  he  was  a boy  that  wanted  a 
governor.  Some  even  fay,  that  he  was  thrown  into  a ri- 
ver, in  his  travelling  habit.  From  this  period,  he  fpoke 
in  the  Senate  always  the  lad  of  the  members  of  Confular 
rank  ; being  called  upon  after  the  red,  on  purpofe  to  dif- 
grace  him.  An  indiStment  likewife  for  the  forgery  of  a 
will  was  allowed  to  be  profecuted,  though  he  had  figned  it' 
as  a witnefs.  At  lad,  being  obliged  to  pay  into  the  trea- 
fury  eight  millions  of  federces  for  his  entrance  upon  a new 
office  of  priedhood  conferred  upon  hiinj  he  w^as,  for  that 

* purpofe, 



purpofe,  reduced  to  the  neceffity  of  expofing  to  fale  his 
whole  eftate,  by  an  edi6t  of  the  commilTioners. 

X.  Having  fpent  the  greater  part  of  his  life  under  thefe 
and  the  like  circumftances,  he  came  at  laft  to  the  empire 
in  the  fiftieth  year  of  his  age,  by  a very  furprifing  turn  of 
fortune.  Being  amongfl  others  prohibited  by  the  confpi- 
rators  from  approaching  the  emperor,  under  the  pretext  of 
his  defiring  to  be  private,  he  retired  into  an  apartment 
called  the  Hermasum:  and  foon  after,  terrified  by  the  re- 
port of  his  being  flain,  he  crept  into  an  adjoining  balco- 
ny, where  he  hid  himfelf  behind  the  hangings  of  the  door. 
A common  foldier  that  happened  to  pafs  that  way,  fpying 
his  feet,  and  defirous  to  difcover  who  he  was,  pulled  him 
out ; when  immediately  knowing  him,  he  threw  himfelf  in 
a great  fright  at  his  feet,  and  fainted  him  by  the  title  of  em- 
peror. He  then  condu6led  him  to  his  fellow-foldiers,  all 
in  great  rage,  and  irrefolute  what  tliey  fhould  do.  ‘They 
put  him  into  a chair,  and  becaufe  the  flaves  of  the  palace 
had  all  fled,  took  their  turns  of  carrying  him,  and  brought 
him  into  the  camp,  very  melancholy  and  in  great  conifer- 
nation  ; the  people  that  met  him  lamenting  his  fituation,  as 
if  the  poor  innocent  man  was  carrying  away  to  execution. 
Being  received  within  the  ramparts,  he  continued  all  night 
with  the  watch,  recovered  fornewhat  from  his  fright,  but 
in  no  great  hopes  of  the  fiicceffiou.  For  the  Confuls,  with 
the  Senate  and  city,  battalions,  had  poffefled  themfelves  of 
the  Forum  and  the  Capitol,  with  a refolutlon  to  affert  the 
public  liberty : and  he  being  fent  for  likewife,  by  a Tri- 
bune of  the  commons,  to  the  hoiife,  to  give  his  advice 
upon  the  prefent  jumSfure  of  affairs,  returned  anfwer, 
“ I am  under  conftralnt,  and  cannot  poffibly  come.^* 
The  day  after,  the  Senate  being  flow  in  the  execution  of 
their  projedt,  on  account  of  great  divifions  amongft  them- 



felves,  and  the  infolence  of  the  populace,  who  infifted 
upon  being  governed  by  one  perfon,  and  Claudius  by 
name,  he  fulFered  the  foldiers  to  affemble  under  arms,  and 
fwear  to  fupport  him  ; when  he  promifed  them  fifteen 
thoufand  feflerces  a man,  he  being  the  firft  of  the  Csefars 
that  purchafed  the  hdelity  of  the  foldiers  with  money. 

XL  Having  thus  fecured  to  himfelf  the  adminiftration 
of  affairs,  his  firft  objedt  was  to  abolifli  all  remembrance 
of  the  two  preceding  days,  in  which  a change  of  govern- 
ment had  been  debated.  Accordingly  he  paffed  an  adl  of 
perpetual  oblivion  and  pardon  for  every  thing  faid  or  done 
during  that  time  ; and  this  he  faithfully  obferved,  with 
the  exception  only  of  putting  to  death  a few  Tribunes  and 
Centurions  concerned  in  the  confpiracy  againft  Caius,  both 
as  an  example,  and  becaufe  he  underftood  that  they  had 
propofed  to  kill  himfelf  likewife.  He  now  turned  his 
thoughts  towards  paying  his  refpedf  to  the  memory  of  his 
relations.  His  moft  folemn  and  ufual  oath  was,  “ By 
Auguftus.”  He  prevailed  with  the  Senate  to  decree  divine^ 
honors  to  his  grandmother  Livia,  with  a chariot  in  the 
Circenftan  proceftion  drawn  by  elephants,  as  had  been 
appointed  for  Augtiftus,  and  public  offerings  to  the  glmfts 
of  his  parents.  For  his  father,  likewife,  he  obtained 
Circenftan  games,  to  be  celebrated  every  year,  upon  his 
birth-day,  and  for  his  mother  a chariot  to  be  drawn 
through  the  Circus,  with  the  title  of  Aiigiifta,  which  had 
been  refufed  by  his  .grandmother.  To  the  memory  of 
his  brother,  to  which,  upon  all  occaftons,  he  fhowed  a 
great  regard,  he  ordered  a Greek  comedy  of  his  own  to 
be  added  to  the  games  at  Naples,  and  received  the  honor 
of  a crown  upon  it,  by  the  fentence  of  the  judges  in  that 
folemnity.  Nor  did  he  omit  to  make  honorable  and 
grateful  mention  of  M,  Antony  ; declaring  by  a procla- 

8 ma  on. 



mation,  “ That  he  the  more  earneftly  infixed  upon  the 
obfervation  of  his  father  Drufus’s  birtli-day  becaufe  it 
waslikewife  that  of  his  grandfather  Antony.’’  He  com- 
pleted the  marble  arch  near  Pompey^s  theatre,  which  had 
formerly  been  decreed  by  the  Senate  in  honor  of  Tiberius, 
but  negledled.  And  though  lie  cancelled  all  the  adls  of 
Caius,  yet  he  forbid  the  day  of  his  affaffination,  notwith- 
ftanding  it  \vas  that  of  his  own  acceffion  to  the  empire,  to 
be  reckoned  amongd  the  fehivals. 

XII.  But  in  refpecl:  of  his  own  aggrandifement,  he  was 
fparing  and  modeft,  declining  the  title  of  emperor,  and 
tefufing  all  exceffive  honors.  He  celebrated  the  marriage 
of  his  daughter  and  the  birth-day  of  a grandfon  with 
great  privacy,  at  home.  He  recalled  none  of  thofe  who 
had  been  baniflied,  without  a decree  of  the  Senate  for  it  ; 
and  requefled  of  them  the  favor,  to  bring  into  the  houfe 
with  him  the  commander  of  the  guards^  and  a few  mi- 
litaiy  Tribunes  ; and  alfo  that  they  would  be  pleafed  to 
bellow  upon  his  procurators  a judicial  authority  in  the 
provinces.  He  afked  of  the  Confuls  likewife  the  privi- 
lege of  holding  fairs  upon  his  private  eftate.  He  frequent- 
ly alTifled  the  magiftrates  in  the  trial  of  caufes,  as  one  of 
their  alTciTors.  And  when  they  prefented  the  people  witli 
any  public  diverfions,  he  would  rife  up  to  them  with  the 
reft  of  the  fpedlators,  and  pay  his  refpedls  to  them  both 
by  words  and  geftures.  When  the  Tribunes  of  the  com- 
mons came  to  wait  upon  him  while  he  was  on  the  bench, 
he  begged  to  be  excufed  if  he  defired  them  to  fpeak  to 
him  ftanding,  becaufe  otherwife  he  could  not  hear  them, 
by  reafon  of  the  crowd.  By  this  behaviour^  in  a Ihort 
time,  he  wrought  himfelf  fo  much  into  the  fivor  and  af- 
feilion  of  the  public,  that  when,  upon  his  going  to  Oftia, 
a report  was  fpread  in  town  that  he  Iiad  been  way-laid 



and  flain,  the  people  never  ceafed  curfing  the  foldiers  for 
traitors,  and  the  Senate  as  parricides,  until  one  or  two 
perfons,  and  prefently  after  feveral  others,  were  brought 
by  the  magifcrates  upon  the  Roftra,  who  aflured  them 
that  he  was  alive,  and  not  far  from  the  city,  upon  his  re- 
turn home. 

XIIL  Confpiracies  however  were  formed  againfl;  him^ 
not  only  by  individuals  feparately,  but  by  feveral  in  con-' 
j unilion;  and  at  laid  his  government  was  difturbed  with  a 
civil  war.  A common  man  was  found  with  a poniard, 
near  his  chamber,  at  mid-night.  Two  men  of  the  Equef- 
trian  Order  were  difcovered  waiting  for  him  in  the 
Idreets,  armed  wdth  a tuck  and  a huntfman’s  dagger  ; one 
of  them  intending  to  attack  him  as  he  came  out  of  the 
theatre,  and  the  other  as  he  was  facrificing  in  the  tem- 
ple of  Mars.  Gallus  Afinius,  and  Statilius  Corvinus, 
grandfons  of  the  two  orators,  Pollio  and  MelTala,  formed 
againfl;  him  a confpiracy,  in  which  they  engaged  many 
of  his  freedmen  and  flaves.  Furius  Camillus  Scriboni- 
anus,  his  lieutenant  in  Dalmatia,  raifed  a civil  war 
againfl  him,  but  was  reduced  in  the  fp'ace  of  five  days  ; 
the  legions  which  had  been  feduced  by  him  to  revolt,  re- 
linquifhing  their  purpofe,  upon  a fright  occafioned  by  ill 
omens.  For  when  orders  were  given  them  to  march,  to 
meet  their  new  emperor,  the  eagles  could  not  be  drefled, 
or  the  other  flandards  pulled  out  of  the  ground,  whether 
it  was  by  accident,  or  a divine  interpofltion. 

XIV.  Befides  his  former  Confulfhip,  he  held  the  of- 
fice afterwards  four  times  : the  firfl  two  fucceflively,  but 
the  following,  after  an  interval  of  four  years  each  ; the 
lafl  for  fix  months',  the  refl  for  two  ; and  his  third,  upon 
being  chofen  in  the  room  of  a Conful  that  died ; which 

C c had 



had  never  been  done  by  any  of  the  emperors  before  hirfi.- 
Whether  he  was  Conful  or  not,  he  gave  conftant  attend- 
ance in  the  courts  for  the  adminiftration  of  juhice,  even 
upon  fuch  days  as  were  folemnly  obfei  ved  as  days  of  re- 
joicing in  his  family,  or  by  his  friends ; and  fometimes 
upon  the  public  feftivals  of  ancient  inftitution,  or  unlucky 
days.  Nor  did  he  always  adhere  ftridlly  to  the  letter  of 
the  laws,  but  over-ruled  the  rigor  or  lenity  of  many,  ac- 
cording to  his  fentiments  of  juflice  and  equity.  For 
where  perfons  loft  their  fuits  by  infilling  upon  more  than 
appeared  to  be  their  due,  before  the  judges  of  private 
caufes,  he  granted  them'  the  indulgence  of  a fecond  trial. 
And  with  regard  to  fuch  as  were  convidled  of  any  great 
villainy,  he  would  even  exceed  the  punifhment  appointed 
by  law,  and  condemn  therh  to  be  expofed  to  wild  beafts.  . 

XV.  But  in  the  hearing  and  determining  of  caufes,  he 
fhowed  a ftrange  variety  of  humor,  being  one  while  cir- 
€umfpe6l  and  fagacious,  another  while  inconftderate  and 
ralh,  and  fometimes  frivolous,  and  like  one  in  a ftate  o-f 
infipiency.  In  cancelling  the  names  of  perfons  upon  the 
judges’  lift,  he  ftruck  off  one,  who,  concealing  the  privi- 
lege he  had  by  his  children  to  be  excufed  from  that  fer- 
vice,  had  anfwered  to  his  name,  as  too  fond  of  the  office. 
Another  that  was  fummoned  before  the  emperor  upon  a 
caufe  of  his  own,  but  alledged  that  the  affair  did  not  pro- 
perly come  under  his  cognizance,  but  that  of  the  ordinary 
judges,  he  ordered  to  plead  the  caufe  himfelf  immediately 
before  him,  and  give  a fpecimen  in  a bufinefs  of  his  own, 
hpw  equitable  a judge  he  would  prove  in  that  of  other 
perfons.  A Woman  refufing  to  acknowledge  her  own 
fon,  and  there  being  no  clear  proof  on  either  fide,  he  ob- 
liged her  to  confefs  the  truth,  by  enjoining  her  to  marry 
the  young  man.  He  was  much  inclined  to  determine 

' caufes 


caufes  in  favor  of  the  party  that  appeared,  againft  fuch. 
as  did  not,  without  enquiring  whether  their  abfence  was 
bccafioned  by  their  own  fault,  or  real  neceflity.  On 
proclamation  of  a man’s  being  convicted  of  forgery,  and 
that  he  ought  to  have  his  hand  cut  ofF,  he  infifted  that  an 
executioner  fhould  be  immediately  fent  for,  with  a fword 
and  a butcher’s  block.  A perfon  being  profecuted  for 
falfely  affuming  the  freedom  of  Rome,  and  a difpute 
ariling  betwixt  the  advocates  in  the  caufe,  whether  he 
ought  to  make  his  defence  in  the  Roman  or  Grecian 
drefs,  to  (hew  his  impartiality^  he  commanded  him  to 
change  his  cloaths  feveral  times  according  as  he  was  ac- 
cufed  or  defended.  An  anecdote  is  related  of  him,  and 
believed  to  be  true,  that,  in  a particular  caufe,  he  deliver- 
ed his  fentence,  which  he  had  in  writing  before  him,  in 
the  following  words  t “ I give  it  for  tliofe  who  have  fup- 
ported  their  pretenlions  with  truth.”  By  this  kind  of  be- 
haviour he  fo  much  forfeited  the  good  opinion  of  the 
world,  that  he  was  every  where  and  openly  defpifed.  A 
perfon  making  ^n  excufe  for  the  non-appearance  of  a 
witnefs  whom  he  had  fent  for  from  the  provinces,  declar- 
ed it  was  impofBble  for  him  to  appear,  concealing  the 
feafon  for  fome  time  : at  laft,  after  feveral  interrogatories 
were  put  to  him  on  the  fubjedt,  he  anfwered,  ‘‘  The  man 
died  lately  at  Puteoli.”  Another  thanking  hiin,  for  fuffer- 
ing  a perfon  that  was  profecuted  to  make  his  defence  by 
counfel,  added,  And  yet  it  is  no  more  than  what  is 
ufual.”’  1 have  likewife  heard  fome  old  men  fay,  that 
the  pleaders  in  court  ufed  to  abiife  his  patience  fo  grofsly; 
that  they  would  not  only  call  him  back,  as  he  was  quit- 
ting the  bench,  but  would  feize  him  by  the  lap  of  his  coat, 
and  fometimes  catch  him  by  the  heels  to  make  him  flay. 
That  fuch  behaviour,  however  ftrange,  is  not  incredible, 
will  appear  from  this  anecdote.  Some  obfeure  Greek 

G c 2 that 



that  had  a caufe  before  him,  in  a warm  debate  which  hap- 
pened upon  it,  cried  out  to  him : “ Thou  art  an  old  fel- 
low, and  a fool  too.’’  It  is  certain  that  a Roman  knight, 
who  was  falfely  profecuted  by  a malicious  contrivance  of 
his  enemy’s,  as  guilty  of  unnatural  lewdnefs  with  wo- 
men, obferving  that  common  ftrumpets  w re  fummoned 
and  allowed  to  give  evidence  againft  him,  upbraided  him 
in  very  fevere  language  with  his  folly  and  cruelty,  and 
then  threw  his  flyle,  and  fome  books  which  he  had  in 
his  hand,  ftraight  in  his  face,  with  fuch  violence  as  to 
give  him  a confiderable  wound'in  the  cheek. 

XVI.  He  likewife  took  upon  him  the  office  of  Cenfor, 
which  had  been  difeontinued,  fince  the,  time  that  Paullus 
and  Plancus  had  held  it  in  conjundlion.  But  upon  this 
occahon,  again,  he  behaved  very  unequally,  and  with  a 
flrange  variety  of  humor  and  condudl.  In  his  review  of 
thofe  who  were  allowed  a war-horfe  by  the  public,  he 
difmiffed,  without  any  mark  of  infamy,  a profligate 
young  man,  only  becaufe  his  father  exprefled  his  appro- 
bation of  his  behaviour,  faying,  “ He  has  his  own  pro- 
per cenfor.”  Another,  who  w’as  infamous  for  the  de- 
bauching of  youth,  both  male  and  female,  and  adultery,  he 
only  admoniihed  to  indulge  his  youthful  inclinations 
more  fparingly,  or  at  leafl:  more  cautioufly  adding, 
“ Why  inuft  I know  what  miftrefs  you  keep  ?”  When, 
at  the  requeft  of  his  friends,  he  had  taken  off  a mark  of 
infamy  which  he  liad  fet  upon  one  gentleman’s  name,  he 
faid,  “ Let  the  blot  however  remain.”  He  not  only  ftruck 
out  of  the  lift  of  judges,  but  likewife  deprived  of  his  free- 
dom of  Rome,  a man  of  great  diftindlion,  and  of  th(i  firft 
rank  in  Greece,  only  bccaufe  he  w^as  ignorant  of  the  La- 
tin language.  Nor  did  he  fufler  any  one  to  give  an  ac- 
count of  his  life  by  an  advocate,  but  obliged  each  man  to 




fpeak  for  himfelf,  however  meanly  he  was  qualified  for 
the  purpofc.  He  difgraced  many,  and  fome  that  little 
expected  it,  and  for  a reafon  entirely  new,  namely,  for 
going  out  of  Italy  without  his  knowledge  and  permifiion  ; 
and  one  likewife,  for  having  attended  in  his  province  upon 
a king,  as  his  companion : obferving  that,  in  former 
times,  Rabirius  Poflhumus  had  been  profecuted  for  trea- 
fon,  only  upon  the  account  of  attending  Ptolemy  to  Alex- 
andria, to  fecure  payment  of  a debt.  Several  others, 
whom  he  attempted  to  difgrace,  through  the  great  negli- 
gence of  the  perfons  employed  to  enquire  into  people’s 
charadlers,  he,  to  his  own  greater  fhame,  found  perfedl- 
ly  innocent ; thofe  whom  he  charged  with  living  in  celi- 
bacy, want  of  children,  or  efrate,  proving  themfelves  to 
be  hufbands,  parents,  and  in  afiluent  circumftances.  One 
that  was  accufed  of  an  attempt  made  upon  his  own  life 
by  the  fword,  ftripped  hinifelf  to  let  him  fee  there  was 
not  the  lead:  mark  of  violence  upon  his  body.  The  fol- 
lowing incidents  were  remarkable  in  his  Cenforfiiip.  He 
ordered  a filver  chaife,  of  very  furaptuous  workmanfliip, 
and  which  was  expofed  to  fale  at  the  Sigillaria,  to  be 
purchafed,  and  hewed  in  pieces  before  his  eyes.  He  pub- 
lifhed  twenty  proclamations  in  one  day  ; in  one  of  which 
he  advifed  the  people,  “ Since  the  vintage  was  very  plen- 
tiful, to  have  their  calks  well  fecured  at  the  bung  with 
pitch  And  in  anotlier  he  told  them,  “ that  nothing 
would  fooner  cure  the  bite  of  a viper,  than  the  fap  of  the 

XVII.  He  undertook  only  one  expedition,  and  that 
only  of  fhort  continuance.  The  triumphal  ornaments 
decreed  him  hy  the  Senate,  he  confidered  as  below  the 
imperial  dignity,  and  was  therefore  refolved  to  have 
the  honor  of  a complete  triumph.  For  this  purpofe,  he 

C c 3 made 

THE  LIFE  op 


made  choice  of  the  province  of  Britain,  which  had  never 
been  attempted  by  any  lince  Julius  Caefar,  and  was  then 
in  an  uproar,  becaufe  the  Romans  would  not  reftore  to 
them  fome  deferter3  from  that  ifland.  Accordingly  he  fet 
fail  from  Oftia,  but  was  twice  very  near  being  funk  by 
the  boifterous  wind  called  Circius,  upon  the  coaft  of 
Liguria,  and  near  the  iflands  called  Stcechades.  Making 
therefore  his  way  by*  land  from  Maffjia  to  Geflbriacum, 
he  thence  pafTed  over  into  Britain,  A part  of  the  ifland 
fubmitting,  within  a few  days  after  his  arrival^  without 
battle  or  bloodlhed,  he  returned  to  Rome  in  lefs  than  fix 
months  from  the  time  of  his  departure,  and  triumphed  in 
the  moll  folemn  manner  ; to  the  light  of  which,  he  not  only 
permitted  fome  governors  of  provinces  to  come  to  town, 
but  fome  likewife  who  were  in  baniihment.  Amongft 
the  fpoils  taken  from  the  enemy,  he  fixed  upon  the  dome 
of  his  houfe  in  the  Palatium,  a naval  crown  near  the  ci- 
vic which  was  there  before,  in  token  of  his  having  pafT- 
ed,  and  as  it  were,  conquered  the  Ocean.  MefTalina  his 
wife  followed  his  chariot  in  a Carpentum^.  Thofe  who 
had  attained  the  honor  of  triumphal  ornaments  in  the  fame 
war,  came  after  in  chariots,  the  reft  pn  foot,  and  clad  in 
the  robe  ufed  by  the  great  officers  of  ftate.  Craftus  Frugi 
was  mounted  upon  a horfe  richly  accoutred,  in  an  em- 
broidered robe,  becaufe  this  was  the  fecond  time  of  his  at- 
taining that  honor. 

XVIII.  He  was  partkularly  attentive  to  the  city,  and  to 
have  it  well  fupplied  with  proviftons.  A dreadful  fire 

* The  Carpeiitum  was  a carriage,  commonly  with  two 
wheels,  and  an  arched  covering,  but  fometimes  without  a 
covering ; ufed  chiefly  by  matrons,  and  named,  according 
to  Ovid,  from  Carmenta,  the  mother  of  Evander.  Women 
were  prohibited  the  ufe  of  it  in  the  fecond  Punic  war,  by  the 
Oppian  law,  which  however  was  foon  after  repealed. 



happening  in  the  ^miliana,  which  continued  forne  time, 
he  pafled  two  nights  in  the  Diribitorium^^  ; and  the  fol- 
diers  and  gladiators  not  being  fufficient  to  extinguifh  it, 
he  fummoned  the  commonalty  by  the  rnagiftrates  out  of 
all  the  flreets  in  town,  to  their  afTiflance,  Placing  baf- 
kets  full  of  money  before  him,  he  encouraged  the  people 
to  do  their  utmoll,  declaring,  that  he  would  immediately, 
upon  the  fpot,  reward  every  one  of  them  according  to 
their  merit. 

XIX.  During  a fcarcity  of  provifions,  occafioned  by 
bad  crops  for  fome  years  fucceffively,  he  was  flopped  in 
the  middle  of  the  Forum  by  the  mob,  who  attacked 
him  with  fuch  fcurrilous  reproaches,  and  pieces  of  bread, 
that  it  was  with  fome  difficulty  he  at  laft  efcaped  by  a 
back-door  into  the  palace.  He  therefore  ufed  all  pof- 
iible  means  to  bring  provifions  to  the  city,  even  in  the 
winter.  ^He  propoied  to  the  merchants  employed  in  that 
traffic  a fure  profit,  by  taking  upon  himfelf  any  Iflfs  that 
might  befall  them  at  fea  ; and  to  fuch  as  built  fhips  for 
that  purpofe,  he  granted  great  privileges,  according  to 
their  refpeiSfive  circumflances  : to  a citizen  of  Rome 
he  gave  an  exemption  from  the  penalty  of  the  Papia- 
Poppsean  law ; to  one  who  had  only  the  privilege  of  La- 
tium, the  freedom  of  the  city ; and  to  women  the  right  which 
by  law  belonged  to  fuch  as  had  four  children : which  con- 
flitutions,  regulated  by  him,  are  obferved  to  this  day. 

* The  Dirihitorium  was  a houfe  begun  by  Agrippa,  and 
finiOied  by  Aiiguftus,  in  which  foldiers  were  muftered  and 
received  their  pay.  It  was  alfo  a place  where,  when  the 
Romans  went  to  give  their  votes  at  the  eledfion  of  magi- 
Urates,  they  were  condndled  by  officers  named  Diribitores, 
It  is  poflible  that  one  and  the  fame  building  may  have  been 
ufed  for  both  purpofes. 

C c 4 

XX.  He 



XX.  He  executed  feveial  proje6ls  which  were 
rather  great  than  neceffary.  The  principal  were,  an 
aquedudl:,  which  had  been  begun  by  Caius,  a canal  for 
the  difeharge  of  the  Fucine  lake,  and  the  harbour  of 
Oftia ; though  he  knew  that  one  of  thefe  had  by  Au- 
guftus  been  denied  to  the  Marfians,  who  frequently  ap- 
plied to  him  upon  the  fubje6l ; and  that  the  other  had 
been  feveral  times  intended  by  Julius  Csefar,  but  as  often 
abandoned  on  account  of  the  difficulty  of  execution.  He 
brought  to  the  city  the  cool  and  plentiful  fprings  of  the 
Claudian  water,  one  of  which  is  called  Caeruleus,  and 
the  other  Curtius  and  Albudinus  : as  likewife  the  river  of 
the  new  Anio  in  a hone  canal,  and  difpofed  of  them  in- 
to many  fine  lakes.  He  attempted  the  Fucine  Lake,  as 
inuch  from  the  expedfation  of  advantage,  as  the  glory  of 
the  execution  ; fmee  fome  offered  to  drain  it  at  their  own 
expence,  upon  condition  that  they  might  have  a grant  of 
the  land  which  it  occupied.  He  completed  a canal  three 
miles  in  length,  partly  by  cutting  through,  and  partly 
levelling  a mountain,  but  with  great  difficulty  ; thirty 
thoufand  men  being  conftantly  employed  in  that  work 
during  eleven  years.  He  formed  the  harbour  at  Oifia,  by 
raifing  to  the  right  and  left  two  prodigious  works,  with 
a bend  into  the  fea,  making  a mole  at  the  entrance  in  a 
deep  water.  To  fecure  the  foundation  of  the  fuperfliruc- 
ture,  he  funk  the  veffel  in  which  the  great  obelifk  had  been 
brought  from  Egypt ; and  built  upon  piles  a high  tower, 
in  imitation  of  that  of  Pharos,  upon  which  to  fix  lights, 
for  the  dire61ipn  pf  mariners  in  the  night., 

XXI.  He  often  gave  largeOes  to  the  people,  and  en- 
tertained them  with  a great  variety  of  public  diverfions, 
not  only  fuch  as  were  ufual,  and  in  the  ufual  places,  but 
fpme  of  new  invention,  others  revived  from  antiquity, 

8 and 


and  in  places  where  nothing  of  the  kind  had  ever  before 
been  exhibited.  In  the  games  that  he  prefented  upon  the 
opening  of  Pompey’s  theatre,  which  had  been  burnt,  and 
was  rebuilt  by  him,  he  prefided  upon  a throne  ere6led 
for  him.  in  the  Orcheftra  ; having  firfl  paid  his  devotions 
in  the  upper  part ; then  coming  down  through  the  middle 
of  the  Cavea,  whllft  all  the  people  kept  their  feats  with 
profound  filence.  He  likewife  exhibited  the  Secular  Games 
under  pretence  of  their  having  been  anticipated  by  Au- 
guftus  ; though  he  Iiimfelf  fays  in  his  hiftory,  “ That 
they  had  been  negledled  before  Auguflus,  who  had  made 
an  exa6l  calculation  of  the  time,  and  again  brought  them 
into  their  former  order.”  The  crier  was  therefore  ridiculed, 
when  he  invited  people  in  the  ufual  form,  ‘‘To  games 
which  no  perfon  had  ever  before  feen,  nor  ever  would 
again  when  many  were  hill  living  who  had  feen  them  ; 
and  fome  of  the  players  who  had  formerly  a6led  upon 
the  occafion  were  now  again  brought  upon  the  hage^ 
He  likewife  frequently  prefented  the  Circenhan  games  in 
the  Vatican,  fometimes  with  a hunting  of  wild  beahs, 
after  every  five  courfes.  He  beautified  the  great  Circus 
with  marble  barriers,  and  gilded  goals,  which  before  were 
of  common  hone  and  wood,  and  afligned  proper  places 
for  the  Senators,  who  v/ere  ufed  to  fit  promifcuoufly 
with  the  other  fpe6iators.  Befldes  the  chariot-races,  he 
exhibited  there  the  Trojan  game,  and  wild  beads  from 
Africa,  which  were  encountered  by  a troop  of  the  horfe- 
guards,  with  ^'ribunes,  and  the  commander  in  chief  at 
the  head  of  them  : befides  Theffalian  horfe,  that  drive 
mad  bulls  round  the  Circus,  leap  upon  their  backs  when 
they  are  tired,  and  puli  them  down  by  the  horns  to  the 
ground.  He  gave  flmws  of  gladiators  in  feveral  places, 
pnd  of  various  kinds  : an  anniverfary  one  in  the  Pi’seto- 
rian  camp ; but  without  any  Irunting,  or  the  ufual  ap- 
paratus : 



paratus  : another  as  ufual  in  the  Septa  ; and  in  the  fame 
place,  another  out  of  the  common  way,  and  of  a few 
days’  continuance,  only,  which  he  called  Sportula  ; be- 
caufe  when  he  was  going  to  prefent  . it,  he  informed  the 
people  by  proclamation,  “ that  he  invited  them  as  it  were 
to  a fmall  fupper.”  Nor  was  he  in  any  kind  of  public 
"diverfion  more  free  or  chearful ; infomuch  that  he  would, 
^with  the  common  people,  hold  out  his  left  hand,  and 
count  upon  his  fingers  aloud,  the  gold  pieces  prefented 
to  fuch  as  came  off  conquerors.  He  would  invite  the 
company  by  earneft  exhortations  to  be  merry ; now  and 
then  calling  them  his  “ mafters,”  wdth  a mixture  of  infi- 
pid,  far-fetched  jefis.  Thus,  when  the  people  called  for 
Palumbus  * (a  gladiator},  he  faid,  He  would  give  them 
one  when  it  was  catched.”  And  the  following  llkewife, 
though  well-intended,  and  well-timed,  when  having  with 
great  applaufe  difcharged  an  Efledarian,  upon  the  intern, 
ceffion  of  his  four  fons,  he  fent  a billet  immediately  round 
the  theatre,  to  remind  the  people,  “ how  much  it  con- 
cerned them  to  have  children,  fince  they  had  before  them 
an  inffcance,  how  ufeful  they  had  been  to  procure  favor 
and  fecurity  for  a gladiator.”  He  likewife  reprefented 
in  the  Field  of  Mars,  the  taking  and  facking  of  a town, 
as  alfo  the  lurrender  of  the  Britifii  kings,  and  pie- 
fided  in  his  generaFs  cloak.  Immediately  before  the  dif- 
charging  of  the  Fucine  lake,  he  exhibited  upon  it  a naval 
fight.  But  thofe  on  board  the  fleets  crying  out,  “ Health 
attend  you,  noble  emperor  : dying  men  falute  you  and 
he  replying,  “ Health  attend  you  too,”  they  all  refufed 
to  fight  upon  it,  as  if  by  that  anfwer  he  had  meant  to 
excufe  them.  Upon  this  incident,  he  was  in  doubt  with 
himfelf  whether  he  Ihould  not  deflroy  them  all  by  fire 

* A pun  upon  the' name  of  Palumbus,  which  fignifies  a 



and  fword.  At  laft  leaping  from  his  feat,  running  along 
the  fide  of  the  lake,  and  reeling  to  a ridiculous  degree, 
he,  partly  by  fair  words,  and  partly  by  reproaches,  per- 
fuaded  them  to  engage.  One  of  the  fleets  was  from  Si- 
cily, 'the  other  from  Rhodes  ; confifting  each  of  twelve 
fliips  of  war,  of  three  banks  of  oars.  The  fignal  of 
charge  was  given  by  a filver  Triton^  raifed  by  mecha- 

XXII.  With  regard  to  religion,  the  management  of  af- 
fairs both  civil  and  military,  and  the  condition  of  the  feve- 
ral  Orders  of  the  people  at  home  and  abroad,  fome  ufages 
he  corrected,  others  which  had  been  laid  afide  he  revived, 
and  fome  regulations  he  introduced  entirely  new.  In 
chooflng  new  priefts  into  tfle  feveral  companies  of  them, 
he  nominated  none  but  upon  oath.  As  often  as  an  earth- 
quake happened  in  the  city,  he  never  failed  to  fummom 
the  people  together  by  the  Praetor,  and  appoint  holidays 
for  religious  worfliip.  And  upon  the  light  of  any  omi- 
nous bird  in  the  city  or  Capitol,  he  ifiued  an  order  for  pub- 
lic prayers,  the  words  of  which,  by  virtue  of  his  office 
of  high-prieftj  after  an  exhortation  to  the  people  from  the 
Roftra,  he  repeated  before  them,  for  them  to  join  in, 
all  common  mechanics  and  flaves  being  firfl:  ordered  to 

XXIII.  The  courts  of  judicature,  which  had  formerly 
been  ufed  to  fit  only  fome  months  in  the  fummer,  and 
fome  in  winter,  he  ordered,  for  the  difpatch  of  buflnefs, 
to  lit  the  whole  year  round.  The  jurifdidlion  in  matters 
of  truft,  which  ufed  to  be  granted  annually  by  fpecial 
commiffion  to  certain  magiflrates,  and  in  the  city  only, 
he  granted  in  perpetuity,  and  the  fame  to  the  provinces 
likewife.  He  repealed  a claufe  added  by  Tiberius  to  the 
Rapia-Poppsean  law,  as  if  men  of  flxty  years  of  age 




were  incapable  of  begetting  chi’dren.  He  ordered  that 
orphans  fhould  have  guardians  appointed  them  by  the 
Confuls;  and  that  thofe  who  were  bamihed  from  any 
province  by  the  chief  magi (Irate,  fhould  be  debarred  from 
coming  into  the  city,  or  any  part  of  Italy.  He  infiifted 
upon  fome  a new  fott  of  banifhment,  by  forbidding  them 
to  (lir  above  three  miles  from  Pvome.  When  any  affair 
of  importance  came  before  the  Senate,  he  ufed  to  fit  be- 
twixt the  two  Confuls  upon  the  tribune-bench.  He  ar- 
rogated to  himfelf  the  power  of  granting  licence  to  tra- 
vel out  of  Italy,  which  before  had  belonged  to  the  Se- 

XXIV.  He  likewife  granted  the  Confular  ornaments 
to  his  procurators  called  Ducenarii.  From  fuch  as  de- 
clined the  Senatorian  dignity,  he  took  away  that  of  the 
Equeftrian  ; though  he  had  in  the  beginning  of  his  reign 
declared,  that  he  would  eledl  no  man  into  the  Senate  that 
was  not  the  great-grandfon  of  a Roman  Senator.  Yet 
he  gave  the  Latus  Clavus  to  the  fon  of  a freedman,  up- 
on condition  that  he  (Iiould  be  adopted  by  a Roman 
knight.  Being  afraid  however  of  incurring  cenfure  by 
fuch  an  adl,  he  informed  the  public,  that  his  anceftor 
Appius  Caecus,  the  Cenfor,  had  eledted  the  fons  of  freed- 
men  into  the  Senate ; for  he  was  ignorant,  it  feems,  that 
in  the  times  of  Appius,  and  a long  while  after,  perfons 
manumifed  were  not  called  Libertini,  but  their  fons  that 
were  free-born.  Inftead  of  the  expence  wdiich  the  Qj^iasf- 
tors  were  obliged  to  be  at,  for  the  paving  of  the  high- 
ways, he  ordered  them  to  give  the  people  a (liow  of  gla- 
diators ; and  divefling  them  of  the  provinces  of  the  Oftian 
and  Gallic  coafi,  he  reftored  to  them  the  charge  of  the 
treafury,  which,  fince  the  time  it  was  taken  from  them, 
had  been  managed  by  the  Prastors,  or  thofe  who  had  for- 
merly been  fuch.  He  gave  the  triumphal  ornaments  to 



SilanuSj  contra6led  to  his  daughter,  though  he  was  under 
age  ; but  to  elder  people  in  fuch  numbers,  and  fo  eafily, 
that  he  was  unanimoufly  addreffed  by  all  the  legions  “ to 
grant  his  Confular  lieutenants  the  triumphal  ornaments 
with  their  commiflions,  to  prevent  their  engaging  in  un- 
neceffary  wars.’’  He  gave  A.  Plautius  the  honor  of  an 
ovation,  and  meeting  him  at  his  entering  the  city,  walked 
with  him  into  the  Capitol,  and  back  again.  And  he  al- 
lowed Gabinius  Secundus,  upon  his  conquefl  of  the 
Chauci,  a nation  of  Germany,  to  ailume  the  cognomen 
of  Chaucius. 

XXV.  His  management,  with  regard. to  the  promotion 
of  the  Equefbrian  Order  in  the  army,  was  this.  After 
the  command  of  a battalion,  he  granted  that  of  the  horfe 
in  a legion,  and  fubfequently  the  commiffion  of  a Tri- 
bune. He  raifed  a body  of  militia,  which  he  called  Su- 
pernumeraries) who,  though  only  nominal  foldiers,  yet 
received  pay.  He  procured  an  a6l:  of  the  Senate  to  pro- 
hibit all  foldiers  from  attending  Senators  at  their  houfes, 
in  the  way  of  refpe61:  and  compliment.  He  confifcated 
the  eftates  of  all  freedmen  who  prefumed  to  take  upon 
them  the  Equeftrian  dignity.  Such  of  them  as  were  un- 
grateful to  their  patrons,  and  were  complained  of  by 
them,  he  reduced  to  their  former  condition  of  flavery  ; 
and  declared  to  their  advocates,  that  he  w^ould  never  give 
judgment  agalnh  their  freedmen,  in  any  fuit  at  law  w’hich 
they  might  happen,  to  have  with  them.  Some  perfons 
having  expofed  their  hck  flaves,  w*ho  were  in  a languilh- 
ing  condition,  in  the  ifland  of  ^Efculapius,  becaufe  of 
the  tedioufnefs  of  their  cure  ; he  declared  all  who  were 
fo  expofed  perfedflv  free,  never  more,  if  they  fheuld  re- 
cover, to  return  to  their  former  fervitude  : and  that  if 
any  one  chofe  rather  to  kill  than  expofe  a Have,  he  (liould, 
in  that  cafe,  be  liable  to  a profecution  for  murder,  fie 

8 publiOied 


publifhed  a proclamation,  forbidding  all  travellers  to  pafe 
through  the  towns  of  Italy  any  otherwife  than  on  foot, 
or  In  a litter  or  chair.  He  quartered  a baittalion  of  fol- 
diers  at  Puteoli,  and  another  at  Ollia,  to  be  in  readinefs 
againfl  any  accidents  from  £re.  He  forbid  foreigners  the 
ttfe  of  fuch  Roman  names  as  were  appropriated  to  families. 
Thofe  who  faifely  pretended  to  the  freedom  of  R'ome^ 
be  beheaded  in  the  field  of  Efquiliae.  He  returned  to 
ttie  Senate  the  provinces  of  Achaia  and  Macedonia,  which 
Tiberius  had  taken  under  his  own  care.  He  took  from 
the  Lycians  their  liberty,  to  puniih  them  for  theii*  civil 
diffenfions  , but  reftored  to  the  Rhodians  their  freedom,' 
upon  their  repentance  for  their  former  rnifdemeanors. 
He  abfolved  from  the  payment  of  all  tajtes  for  ever, 
the  Ilienlians,  as  being  the  founders  of  the  Roman 
people,;  reciting  upon  the  occafion  a letter  in”  Greek, 
from  the  Senate  and  people  of  Rome  to  king  Seleu- 
cus, in  which  they  promifed  him  their  friendfhip  and 
alliance,  provided  that  he  would  grant  their  kinfmeri 
the  Ilienfians  an  immunity  from  all  burdens.  He  banifh- 
ed  from  Rome  all  the  Jew^*^,  who  w^ere  continually  mal* 
itig  difturbances  at  the  infiigation  of  one  Chreftus.  He 
allowed  the  ambalTadors  of  the  Germans  to  fit  at  the  pub- 
lic diverfions  in  the  feats  affigned  to  the  Senators,  being 
induced  to  this  indulgence  by  the  franknefs  and  alTurance 
cf  their  behaviour.  For  having  been  feated  amongfl  the 
common  people,  upon  obferving  the  ambafiadors  from 
Parthia  and  Armenia  fitting  with  the  Senators,  they  went 
over  to  them,  as  being,  they  faid,  no  way  inferior  to 
them  in  point  eitlier  of  merit  or  quality.  The  favage 
religion  of  tlie  Druids,  which  had  only  been  forbidden 
the  citizens  of  Rome,  during  the  reign  of  Aiiguftus,  he 
utterly  abolifiied.  . On  the  other  hand,  he  endeavored 
to  transfer  the  Eleufinian  myfteries  from  Attica  to  Rome; 
He  likewife  ordered  the  temple  of  Venus  Erycina  in  Si- 
6 cily. 


tllv,  which  was  old  and  in  a ruinous  condition,  to  be^ 
repaired  at  the  public  cxpence*  He  concluded  treaties 
with  foreign  princes  in  the  Forum,  with  the  facrifice  of  a 
fow,'  and  the  form  of  words  ufed  by  the  heralds  in  for- 
mer times.  Bitt  in  thefe  and  other  things^  and  indeed  the 
greater  part  of  his  admiiiiftration,  he  adted  not  fo  much 
by  himfelf,  as  by  the  influence  of  his  wives  and  freed- 
meir;  being  for  the  moft  part,  diredled  in  conformity  td 
their  interefls  and  humor. 


XX VI.  He  was,  at  a very  early  age,  contrad^ed  td 
two  wives,  Emilia  Lepida,  the  grand-daughter  of  Au- 
guftus,  and  Livia  Medullina,  who  had  the  cognomen  of 
Camilla,  and  was  defcended  from  the  old  Didtator  Ca- 
millus. The  former  he  divorced  in  a ftate  of  virginity^ 
becaufeiher  parents  had  incurred  the  difpleafure  of  Au- 
guflus ; and  the  latter  died  of  ficknefs  upon  the  day  fixed 
for  their  nuptials.  He  next  married  Plautia  Urgulaniila, 
whofe  father  had  enjoyed  the  honor  of  a triumph  ; and 
foon  after  ^lia  Paetina,  the  daughter  of  a man  of  Con- 
fuiar  rank.  But  he  divorced  them  both : Paetina,  upon 
fome  frivolous  offence  ; and  Urgul anilla,  for  fcandilouS 
lewdnefs,  and  the  fufpicion  of  murder*  After  them  he 
took  in  marriage  Valeria  Meflalina,  the  daughter  of  Bar- 
batus Meflfala,  his  coufin.  But  finding  that,  befides  her 
other  fliameful  debaucheries,  fhe  had  ifiarried  C.  Silius^ 
the  document  relative  to  her  fortune  being  formally  fign- 
cd,  as  ufual,  in  the  prefence  of  Aufpices,  he  put  her  to 
death.  Then  furamoning  his  guards  into  his  prefence, 
he  made  to  them  this  declaration  : As  I have  been  fo 
unhappy  in  my  marriages,  I am  refolved  to  continue  in 
future  a widower ; and  if  I fliould  not,  I give  you  leave 
to  flab  me.”  He  was  however  unable  to  perfifl;  in  this 
refoiution  ; for  he  began  immediately  to  think  of  another 
wife ; and  of  taking  back  again  Psetina,  whom  he  had 




formerly  divorced  ; as  alfo  Lollia  Paullina,  who  had  becil 
married  to  Caius  Casfar.  But  being  enticed  by  the  arts 
of  Agrippina,  the  daughter  of  his  brother  Germanicus, 
upon  the  occafion  of  that  familiar  dalliance  which  their 
near  relation  admitted,  he  ihduftrioufly  procured  a mem- 
ber of  the  Senate,  at  the  next  meeting,  to  declare  it  to 
be*  his  opinion,  that  they  fhould  oblige  the  emperor  to 
marry  Agrippina,  as  a meafure  highly  conducive  to  the 
public  good  ; and  that  alLothers  ought  to  be  allowed  the 
liberty  of  fuch  matches,  which  until  that  time  had  been 
confidered  as  incefluous.  In  lefs  than  twenty-four  hours 
after  this  he  married  her.  No  perfon  was  found,  how- 
ever, to  follow  the  example,  excepting  one  freedman, 
and  a Centurion  of  the  firft  rank,  at  the  folemnization  of 
whofe  nuptials,  ^both  he  and  Agrippina  attended. 

XXVII.  He  had  children  by  three  wives : by  Urgu- 
lanilla,  Drufus  and  Claudia ; by  Paetina,  Antonia  ; and 
by  MefTalina,  Odlavia,  and  a fon,  whom  at  firft  he 
called  Germanicus,  but  afterwards  Britannicus.  He  loft 
Drufus  while  a mipor,  at  Pompeii,  being  choaked  with 
a pear,  which  in  play  he  tofted  up  into  the  air,  and 
catched  upon  its  defcent  in  his  mouth.  He  had  but  a few 
days  before  concluded  a match  betwixt  him  and  one  of 
Sejanus’s  daughters  : for  which  reafon,  I am  furprifed  that 
fome  authors  fliould  fay  he  loft  his  life  by  the  treachery 
of  Sejanus.  Claudia,  who  was  indeed  the  daughter  of 
Boter  his  freed-man,  though  Ilie  was  horn  live  months 
before  his  divorcing  her  mother,  he  ordered  to  be  thrown 
naked  at  her  door.  He  married  Antonia  to  Cn.  Pompey  the 
Great*,  afterwards  to  Faujdus  Sylia,  both  youths  of  very 

* It  would  feem  from  tliis  palTage,  that  the  cognomen  of ‘‘  the 
Great”  had  now  been  reftored  to  the  defeendents  of  Cn. 
Pompey  who  had  lirft  obtained  that  appellation. 



Koble  parentage  : Octavia  to  his  fhep-fon  Nero,  after  ilie 
had  been  contra6ted  to  Silanus.  Britannicus  was  born 
upon  the  twentieth  day  of  his  reign,  and  in  his  fecond 
Confullhip;  He  would  often  hold  him  in  his  arms,  and 
recommend  him  to  the  favor  of  the  foldiers  ; and  he 
would  likewife  to  the  common  people  in  the  theatre,  fet- 
ting  him  upon  his  lap,  or  before  him,  whihl  he  was  as 
yet  but  very  little,  and  would  join  in  their  acclamations, 
and  good  wifhes  in  his  behalf  Of  his  fons-indaw,  he 
adopted  Nero.  He  not  only  difmiffed  from  his  favor , 
' both  Pompey  and  Silanus,  but  put  them  to  death. 

XXVIII.  Amongft  'his  freedmen,  the  greatefl:  favo- 
rite  was  the  eunuch  Pofides,  whom,  in  his  Britifh  triumph, 
he  prefented  with  the  Haifa  Pura/  as  he  did  iikewife  fe- 
veral  others  of  the  army.  Next  to  Jiim,  if  not  equal, 
in  favor  was  Felix  whom  he  not  only  dignified  with  a 
command  both  of  foot  and  horfe  in  the  troops,  but  made 
governor  of  Judea  ; and  he  became,  in  confequence  of  his 
elevation,  the  hufband  of  three  queens.  Another  favo- 
rite was  Harpocras,  to  wdiora  he  granted  the  privilege  of 
ufing  a chair  in  the  city,  and  ofentertaining  the  people  with 
public  diverlions.  In  this  clafs  w'as  likewife  Polybius  who 

* This  is  the  Felix  mentioned  in  the  twenty-fourth  chap-* 
ter  of  the  AAs  of  the  Apoftles ; who,  when  St.  Paul  fpoke 
of  ‘‘  j'uftice  and  temperance,  and  the  judgment  to  come,  trem-- 
bled.”  Whether  his  agitation  arofe  from  any  compunftioa 
of  mind,  for  having  been  concerned  in  the  dark  and  bloody 
tranfa6tions  which  palled  at  the  court  of  Claudius,  it  is  im- 
poffible  to  determine.  His  fortune,  however,  in  marrying 
three  queens,  was  extraordinary ; and  to  the  completion  of  it, 
he  feems  to  have  only  wanted  what  the  fame  apoftle  benevo- 
lently wiflied  to  Feftus,  his  fuccelTor  in  the  government  of 

D d 




him  in  his  fludies,  and  had  often  the  honor  to  walk 
betwixt  the  two  Confuls.  Bat  above  all  others,  NarcifTus 
his  fecretary,  and  Pallas  the  comptroller  of  his  houfehold, 
were  highly  in  favor  with  him.  Thefe  he  not  only  fuf- 
fered  to  be  honored,  by  a decree  of  the  Senate,  with  im-. 
menfe  prefents,  but  with  Quseftorian  and  Praetorian  or- 
naments. So  much  did  he  indulge  them  in  amaffing  trea- 
fure,  and  plundering  the  public,  that,  upon  his  complain- 
ing once  of  the  lownefs  of  his  exchequer,  fome  perfons 
made  the  remark,  that  “ It  would  be  full  enough,  if 
thofe  two  freedmen  of  his  would  but  take  him  into  part- 
nerihip  with  them.” 

XXIX.  Being  entirely  governed  by  thefe  men_,  and 
his  wives,  as  I have  already  faid,  he  was  a tool  to  the 
purpofes  of  others,  rather  than  a prince.  He  diftributed 
offices,  or  the  command  of  armies,  pardoned  or  punifhed, 
according  as  it  fuited  their  interefls,  their  paffions,  or 
their  caprice  ; and  for  the  mofi:  pa'rt,  without  perceiving, 
or  being  fenfible  of  what  he  did.  Not  to  recount  parti- 
cularly every  inferior  tranfadlion  relative  to  the  revoca- 
tion of  grants,  the  reverfion  of  judicial  decifions,  the 
prefenting  him  with  falie  patents  of  offices  to  fign,  or 
the  bare-faced  alteration  of  them  after  figning  ; he  put 
to  death  Appius  Silanus,  the  father  of  his  fon-in-law  , 
and  the  two  Julias,  the  daughters  of  Drufus  and  Germa- 
nicus, without  any  pofitive  proof  of  the  crimes  witli 
which  thev  were  charged,  or  fo  much  as  permitting  them 
to  make  any  defence.  He  adled  in  the  fame  manner  to- 
^/ards  Cn.  Pompey,  the  hufband  of  his  elder  daughter, 
and  L.  Silanus,  who  was  contra6led  to  the  younger. 
Pompey  was  ilabbed  in  the  adl  of  unnatural  lewdnels 
whth  a favorite  paramour.  Silanus  v/as  obliged  to  quit 
the  office  of  Praetor  upon  the  fourth  of  the  Calends  of 
8 January, 


January,  and  to  kill  himfelf  in  the  beginning  of  the  year 
following,  upon  the  very  day  when  Claudius  and  Agrip-» 
pina  were  married.  He  condemned  to  death  five  and 
thirty  Senators,  and  above  three  hundred  Roman  knights, 
with  fo  little  attention  to  what  he  did,  that  when  a Cen- 
turion brought  him  word  of  the  execution  of  a man  of 
Confular  rank,  who  was  one  of  the  number,  and  told 
him  that  he  had  executed  his  order,  he  declared,  “ he 
had  ordered  no  fuch  thing,  but  that  he  approved  of  it 
becaufe  his  freedman,  it  feerns,  had  faid,  the  foldiers 
did  nothing  more  than  their  duty,  in  running  of  their 
own  accord  to  revenge  the  emperor  upon  his  enemies.  But 
it  is  beyond  all  belief,  that  he  hirafelf,  at,  the  marriage 
of  Meflalina  with  the  adulterous  Silius,  fiiould  fign  the 
writings  relative  to  her  dowry;  induced,  as  is  faid,  by  a 
pretence,  that  the  tranfadlion  was  meant  only  to  divert 
and  transfer  upon  another  that  danger,  which,  from  ill- 
boding  omens,  feemed  to  threaten  himfelf. 

XXX.  Either  fianding  or  fitting,  but  efpecially  when 
he  lay  afleep,  he  had  a majefiic  and  graceful  a ’^earance  ; 
for  he  w’as  tali,  but  not  flender.  His  grey  Iocks  became^ 
him  well,  and  he  had  a fat  neck.  But  his-  hams  were 
feeble,  and  failed  him  in  walking  ; and  his  adion,  whe- 
ther in  mirth  or  bufinefs,  was  very  ungraceful.  His 
laughter  was  unbecoming,  and  his  paffion  yet  more  fo  ; 
for  then  he  wouM  froth  at  the  mouth,  and  his  nofe  would 
drop.  He  had  befides  a fiammering  in  his  fpeech,  and  a 
tremulous  motion  of  the  head,  at  all  times,  but  particu- 
larly w’^hen  he  was  engaged  in  a61;ion,  were  it  ever  fo 

XXXI.  Though  in  the  former  part  of  his  life  he  was 
valetudinary,  yet,  after  his  advancement  to  the  empire,  he 

' D d enjoyed 

" 4*^4  LIFE  OF 

enjoyed  a good  ftate  of  health,  except  only  that  he  was 
fubjedl:  to  a pain  of^  the  ftomach.  In  a ht  of  this  com- 
plaint, he  faid,  he  had  thoughts  of  killing  himfelf. 

XXXIT.  Ill  his  convivial  entertainments  he  was  no 
lefs  frequent  than  fplendid,  and  commonly  gave  them  in 
places  fo  very  fpacious,  that  it  was  ufual  with  him  ]:o 
have  fix  bundled  gueflis  at  his  table.  Upon  his  feafting 
clofe  by  the  trench  made  for*  draining  the  Fucine  Lake, 
he  narrowly  efcaped  being  drowned  ; the  water  at  its 
difcharge  rufliing  out  with  fuch  violence,  that  it  over- 
flowed the  canal.  At  fupper,  he  had 'always  his  own 
children,  with  thofe  of  feveral  of  the  nobility,  who,  ac- 
cording to  an  ancient  cuflom,  fat  at  the  feet  of  the- 
touches.  One  of  his  guefls  having  been  fufpedted  of 
flealing  ^ gold  cup,  he  invited  him  again  the  next  day, 
but  ferved  him  with  an  earthen  jug.  It  is  faid  too  that 
he  intended  to  publifh  a proclamation,  “ allowing  to  all 
people  the  liberty  of  giving  vent  to  any  diflention  from 
flatulence,  at  table, upon  hearing  of  a perfon,  whofe 
modefly,  in  a rpftraint  of  that  nature,  had  like  to  have 
^ cofl;  him  his  life 

, XXXIII.  He  would  cat  and  drink  very  heartily  at- 
any  time,  or  in  any  place.  As  he  was  fitting  for  the 
trial  of  caufes  in  the  Foriim  of  Auguflus,  upon  fmelling 
the  dinner  which  was  preparing  for  the  Salii  f,  ia  the 


' * Hiflory  bluflies  in  recording  anecdotes  ofFenfive  to  de- 
licacy ; but  truth,  and  jiifiice  require  that  the  names  of  thofe 
. princes  fnould  be  fligmatized  through  all  ages,  who  have  de- 
graded the  throne  by  their  folly,  as  much  as  they  have  pol- 
luled  it  by  their  crimes. 

f The  Salii  v/e:e  the  prlefls  of  Mars,  twelve  in  number, 

' , and 


temple  of  Mars  adjoining,  he  quitted  the  bench,  and  went 
to  partake  of  the  feafl  with  the  priefls.  He  fcarcely  ever 
left  the  table,  until  he  was  thoroughly  crammed  and 
drunk  ; when  he  would  immediately  fall  afleep,  lying 
upon  his  back  with  his  mouth  open.  While  in  tins  con- 
dition, a feather  was  put  down  his  throat,  to  make  him 
difgorge  again.  Upon  compofing  himfelf  to  reO-,  his 
fleep  w'as  fhcrt,  and  he  ufually  awaked  before  midniglu  ; 
but  he  would  fometimes  fieep  in  the  day-time,  and  that 
even  upon  the  bench  ; fo  that  the  advocates  ofien  found 
it  difficult  to  aw'ake  him,  though  they  raifed  their  voices 
for  that  purpofe.  In  refpecl  of  women  he  was  extremely 
libidinous,  but  never  betrayed  any  unnatural  paffion  for 
the  other  fex.  He  w^as  fond  of  gaming,  and  publiihed  a 
book  upon  the  fubjedl.  He  even  ufed  to  play  as  he  rode 
in  his  chariot ; having  the  tables  fo  fitted,  that  the  game 
was  not  diftiirbed  by  the  motion  of  the  carriage. 

XXXIV.  The  favage  cruelty  of  his  dlfpofition  w^as 

and  inftituted  by  Numa.  Their  drefs  was  an  embroidered 
tunic,  bound' with  a girdle  ornamented  with  brafs.  They 
had, on  their  head  a conical  cap,  of  a confiderabie  height  j a 
fword  by  their  fide  ; in  their  right  hand,  a fpear  or  rod,  and 
in  their  left,  one  of  the  Ancilia^  or  fliields  of  Mars.  On  fo- 
lemn  occafions,  they  ufed  to  go  to  the  Capitol,  through  the 
Forum  and  other  public  parts  of  the  city,  dancing  and  fing- 
ing  facred  fongs,  faid  to  have  been  compofed  by  Numa  ; 
which,  in  the  time  of  Horace,  could  hardly  be  underftood  by 
any  one,  even  the  priefis  themfelves.  The  mod  folemn  pro- 
ceffion  of  the  Salii  was  on  the  firft  of  March,  in  commemo- 
ration of  the  time  when  the  facred  fhield  was  believed  to 
have  fallen  from  heaven,  in  the  reign  of  Numa.  After  their 
proceffion,  they  had  a fplendid  entertainment,  the  luxury  of 
■vvhich  was  proverbial. 






evident  upon  many  occafions,  both  of  great  and  fmalj 
confideration.  When  any  fiifpedled  perfon  was  to  be 
put  to  the  torture,  or  any  criminal  puniihed  for  parricide, 
he  was  impatient  for  the  execution,  and  would  have  it 
performed  before  his  eyes.  When  he  was  at  Tibur,  being 
defirous  of  feeing  an  example  of  the  old  way  of  putting 
malefadlors  to  death,  fome  were  immediately  tied  to  a 
flake  for  the  purpofe  ; but  there  being  no  executioner  to 
be  had  at  the  place,  he  fent  for  one  from  Rome,  and 
waited  for  his  coming  until  night.  In  any  fliow  of  gla- 
diators, prefeilted  either  by  himfelf  or  others,  if  any  of 
the  combatants  happened  to  fall,  he  ordered  them  to  be 
butchered  ; efpecially  the  Retiariu  that  he  might  fee  their 
faces  in  the  agonies  of  death.  Two  gladiators  happen- 
ing to  kill  each  other,  he  immediately  ordered  fome  little 
knives  to  be  made  of  their  fwords  for  his  own  ufe.  He 
took  great  pleafure  in  feeing  men  engage  with  wild  beafts, 
and  the  combatants  that  performed  their  parts  at  noon. 
He  would  therefore  come  to  the  theatre  by  break  of  day^ 
and  at  noon  would  difmifs  the  people  to  dinner,  but  con- 
tinue fitting  himfelf ; and  befides  fuch  as  were  devoted 
to  that  fanguinary  fate,  he  would  match  others  with  the 
beafls,  or  one  another,  upon  flight  or  fudden  occafions ; 
-as,  for  inflance,  the  carpenters  and  their  affiflants,  if  a 
machine,  or  any  piece  of  work  in  which  they  had  been 
empluyed  about  the  theatre,  did  not  anfwer  the  purpofe 
for  which  it  had  been  intended.  To  this  defperate  kind 
of  encounter  he  forced  one  of  his  nomenclators,  and,  what 
' was  an  aggravation  of  the  cruelty,  in  the  incommodious 
habit  of  the  toga. 

XXXV.  But  the  chara^flerifiics  moil  predorrdnant  in 
him  were  fear  and  diftrufl.  In  the  beginning  of  his 
reign,  though  he  much  affedled  a modefl  and  humble 



appearance,  as  has  been  already  obferved,  yet  he  durft 
not  venture  himfelf  at  an  entertainment  without  his  guard 
of  lances  to  attend  him,  and  foldiers  to  wait  upon  him 
at  table.  He  never  vifited  a fick  perfon,  until  the  cham- 
ber had  been  hrft  fearched,  and  the  bed  and  bedding  tho- 
roughly examined.  At  other  times,  all  perfons  who  came 
■to  pay  their  relpecls  to  him  were  ilriclly  fearched,  by 
officers  appointed  for  that  purpofe  ; nor  was  it  until  after 
a long  time,  and  with  much  difficulty,  that  he  was  pre- 
vailed upon  to  excufe  wmmen,  boys,  and  girls,  from  the 
rude  handling  they  underwenr  upon  thofe  occahons,  or 
fuffer  their  attendants  or  writing-mafters  to  keep  their 
cafes  for  pens  and  ftyles,  which  ufed  to  be  taken  from 
them.  When  Camillus  entered  upon  his  defign  againft 
him,  not  doubting  but  he  might  be  terrified  out  of  his 
imperial  dignity,  without  a war,  he  wrote  to  him  a fcur- 
rilous,  petulant,  and  threatening  letter,  defiring  him  to 
refign  the  government,  and  betake  himfelf  to  a private 
life.  Upon  receiving  this  requifition,  he  fumnioned  to- 
gether the  principal  men  of  the  city,  to  confult  with  them 
■whether  he  ought  not  to  comply, 

XXXVI.  He  was  fo  much  alarmed  with  the  rumor, 
though  without  any  fufficient  foundation,  of  confpira- 
cies  formed  againff  him,  that  he  thought  of  immediately 
abdicating  the  government.  And  when,  as  I have  re- 
lated, a man  with  a fwcrd  was  difcovered  near  him,  as  he 
was  at  faci'ifice,  he  inftantly  convoked  the  Senate  by  the 
public  criers,  and  with  tears  and  difmal  exclamations 
lamented  his  condition,  that  could  be  fecure  in  no  place  ; 
and  for  a long  time  after,  abftained  from  appearing  in 
public.  He  withdrew  his  violent  paffion  for  MefTalina, 
not  fo  much  upon  account  of  the  bafenefs  of  her  beha- 
viour towards  him,  as  from  an  apprehenfion  of  danger ; 

D d 4 believing 



believing  that  jfhe  had  a dehgn  to  raife  Silius  her  gallant 
to  the  imperial  dignity.  Upon  this  occafion,  he  ran  in  a 
great  fright,  and  a very  fhameful  manner,  to  the  camp, 
afking  all  the  way  he  went,  “ if  his  government  was 

XXXVII.  The  mofl  trifling  fufpicion,  even  of  a per-* 
fon  the  mofl:  contemptible,  never  failed  to  throw  him  into 
a panic,  and  was  with  him  a fufficient  reafon  for  pro- 
ceeding to  p'unifliment,  as  neceflTary  to  his  own  fecurity. 
A man  who  had  a fuit  tovcome  before  him,  at  his  waiting 
upon  him,  took  him  afide,  and  told  him  he  dreamt  that 
he  was  murdered ; and  prefently  after,  when  his  adverfary 
came  to  prefent  a narrative  of  his  cafe  to  the  emperpr,  as 
if  he  had  difcovered  the  murderer,  he  told  him  that  was 
the  perfon ; upon  which,  as  if  feized  in  the  attempt,  he 
■Was  hurried  away  to  execution.  We  are  informed,  that 
Appius  Silanujs  was  taken  oiiF  in  the  fame  manner,  by  a 
contrivance  betwixt  Meflfalina  and  Narciifus.  The  lat- 
ter burfl  into  his  lord’s  chamber  before  day,  apparently 
in  great,  fright,  and  told  him  he  had  dreamt  that  Appius 
Silanus  had  murdered  him.  The  emprefs,  upon  this,  af- 
fedling  a great  furprife,  declared  (lie  had  the  like  dream 
for  feveral  nights  fuccelTively.  Prefently  after,  word  being 
brought  in,  that  Appius  was  come  to  court,  who  had 
received  orders  the  preceding  day  to  be  tliere  at  that 
time,  as  if  the  truth  of  the  dream  was  fufficiently  con- 
firmed by  his  appearance  at  that  jundlure,  he  ■was  imme- 
diately ordered  to  be  profecuted  and  put  to  death.  Thp 
day  following  Claudius  related  the  whole  affair  to  the 
Senate,  and  acknowledged  his  great  obligation  to  his 
frecdman  for  watching  even  in  his  fleep  for  his  fqcurity. 

XXXVIII.  Senfible  of  his  being  fubjed  topaflion  and 
* refentment, 


jefcntment,  he  excufed  himfelf  on  this  head  by  a prodat 
ination,  affuring  the  public,  “ that  the  former  (hould  be 
fliort  and  harmlefs,  and  the  latter  never  without  good 
caufe.”  After  he  had  very  feverely  reprimanded  the  Ofli- 
enfians  for  not  fending  fome  boats  to  meet  him  upon 
his  entering  the  mouth  of  the  Tiber,  and  as  if  he  intended 
to  expo'e  them  to  the  refen tment  of  the  public  on  that 
account,  he  wrote  to  Rome  that  he  had  been  treated  as 
a private  perfon  ; yet  he  immediately  pardoned  them,  and 
in  a way  that  had  the  appearance  of  making  them  fatis- 
fadion,  or  begging  pardon  for  fome  injury  he  had  done 
them.  Some  people  that  addreffed  him  unfeafonably  in 
public,  he  puihed  away  with  his  own  hand.  He  likcwife 
baiiiihed  one  wdio  had  been  fecretary  to  a Quasftor,  and 
a. Senator  wdio  had  been  Prsetor,  unheard  and  innocent : 
the  former  only  becaufe  he  had  appeared  in  great  heat 
againfl  him,  before  he  .came  to  be  emperor;  and  the  other, 
becaufe  in  his  -^Tdileililp  he  had  fined  fome  tenants  of 
his,  for  felling  drefled  viduais  contrary  to  law^ ; and  or- 
dered a baililt  of  his  that  interpofed  in  the  affair  to  be 
w’hipped.  On  this  account  likewife  he  took  from  the 
^^.diles  the  jurifdidion  they  had  over  vidualling-honfcs. 
He  refrained  hot 'from  mentioning  his  own  folly,  and  de- 
clared infome  fliort  fpeeches  which  he  pubiillied,  that 
he  had  only  counterfeited  himfelf  a fool  in  the  reign  of 
Caius,  becaufe  otherwife  it  would  have  been  impoflihle 
to  have  cfcaped,  and  arrive  at  the  flation  in  which  he 
then  was.  He  could  not  however  gain  public  credit  to 
this  declaration  : for  a fhort  time  after,  a book  w’as  pub- 
Jillied  under  the  title  of  “ The  Refurredion  of  Fools,’* 
jlje  defign  of  which  was  to  ihow  “ that  no  body  ever 
.counterfeited  folly.’’ 

XXXIX.  Amongfl  other  things,  people  admired  in 




him  his  forgetfulnefs  and  want  of  thought;  or,  to  exp  refs 
it  in  Greek,  his  and  Placing  himfelf  at  ta- 

ble a little  after  he  had  put  MelTalina  to  death,  he  enquired, 
Why  don’t  the  emprefs  come  ?”  Many  of  thofe  whom 
he  had  condemned  to  death,  he  ordered  the  day  after  to  he 
invited  to  his  table,  and  to  game  with  him,  and  fent  to 
reprimand  them  as  fluggardly  fellows  for  making  no  more 
hafte.  When  he  was  about  his  inceftuous  marriage 
with  Agrippina,  he  was  perpetually  calling  her,  “ My 
daughter,  my  nuriling,  born  and  brought  up  upon  my 
lap.”  And  when  he  was  going  to  adopt  Nero,  as  if  he 
was  not  fufficiently  cenfured  for  adopting  his  fon-in-law, 
when  he  had  a fon  of  his  own  come  to  years  of  maturity; 
he  now  and  then  declared  publicly,  “ that  nobody  had 
ever  been  taken  by  adoption  into  the  Claudian  family.” 

XL.  He  frequently  appeared  fo  carelefs  in  what  he 
faid,  and  fo  inattentive  to  circum  (lances,  that  it  was  be- 
lieved he  never  refle6ted  who  he  himfelf  was,  or  amongfl 
whom,  or  at  what  time,  or  in  what  place  he  fpoke.  Upon 
a debate  in  the  Senate  relative  to  the  butchers  and  vintners, 
he  cried  out,  “ I beg  of  you  to  know  w^ho  can  live 
without  a bit  of  meat  ?”  He  recounted  to  them  the  great 
plenty  of  old  taverns,  from  which  he  himfelf  ufed  for- 
merly to  have  his  wine.  Amongfl  other  reafons  of  his 
favoring  with  his  interefl  a certain  perfon  w^ho  flood  can- 
didate for  the  Quceflorfliip,  he  adduced  .this  as  one,  “ His 
father  once  gave  me,  very  feafonably,  a draught  of  cold 
w^ater  when  I was  fick.”  LFpon  his  bringing  a woman 
as  an  evidence  in  feme  caufe  before  the  Senate,  he  ex- 
prefTed  himfelf  in  thefe  w^ords— “ This  w’oman  was  my 
mother’s  freedwoman  and  dreffer,  but  (he  always  con- 
fidered  me  as  her  patron  ; and  this  I fay,  becaule  there 
are  forne  ftill  in  my  family  that  do  not  look  upon  me  as 


fuch.”  The  Oftienfians  addreffing  him  in  open  court 
with  a petition,  he  flew  into  a rage  at  them,  and  faid, 

I have  no  reafon  to  oblige  you  : if  any  one  elfe  is  free 
to  add  as  he  pleafes,  fureiy  I am.”  The  following  ex- 
preflions  he  had  in  his  mouth  every  day,  and  at  ail  hours 
and  feafons : “ What ! do  you  take  me  for  a Theogonius 
And  in  Greek,  “ Speak,  but  do  not  touch  me  befldes 
many  other  familiar  fentences,  below  the  dignity  of  a pri- 
vate perfon,  much  more  of  an  etoperor,  who  was  not 
deficient  either  in  eloquence  or  learning,  as  having  ap- 
plied himfelf  very  clofely  to  the  liberal  fcienccs. 

XLL  By  the  encouragement  of  Titus  Livius,  and  with 
the  affiftance  of  Sulpicius  Flavus,  he  attempted  at  an  early 
age  the  compofition  of  a hiflory  ; and  having  called  to- 
gether a numerous  atiditory,  to  hear  and  give  their  judge-' 
ment  upon  it,  he  read  it  over  with  much  difficulty,  and 
after  feveral  interruptions  from  himfelf.  For  when  he 
had  begun,  a great  laugh  being  raifed  amongfl:  the  com- 
pany, upon  the  breaking  of  feveral  benches  by  the  weight 
of  a fat  over-grown  man,  after  the  confufiori  was  over, 
he  could  not  forbear  from  burfling  out  into  a violent  fit 
of  laughter,  at  the  remembrance  of  the  accident.  During 
his  reign  likewife  he  wrote  a great  deal,  wdiich  he  con- 
flantiy  had  rehearfed  to  his  friends  by  a reader.  He  began 
his  hiftory  after  the  death  of  Caefar  the  Didlator:  but  af- 
terwards he  came  lower  down,  and  commenced  at  the 
concluficn  of  the  civil  wars  ; becaufe  he  found  he  could 
not  fpeak  with  freedom,  and  a due  regard  to  truth,  con- 
cerning the  latter  period,  having  been  often  reproved  for 
his  freedom,  both  by  his  mother  and  grandmother.  Upon 
the  former  fubjecl,  he  left  two  books,  but  of  the  latter 
one  and  forty.  He  compiled  likewife  the  hiflory  of 
his  own  life,”  in  eight  books,  full  of  impertinence,  but  in 




no  bad  flyle  ; a_s  alfo  “ A Defence  of  Cicero  againft'tlie 
Books  of  Afinius  Galius,’’  which  difcovered  a conhderable 
degree  of  learning.  He  befides  invented  three  new  let- 
ters, and  added  them  to  the  former  alphabet,  as  highly  ne- 
ceiTary.  On  this  fubjefl,  he  publiflied  a book,  whilft  he 
was  as  yet  but  a private  perfon.  After  his  advancement 
to  the  empire,  he  introduced  them  into  common  ufe  ; and 
that  kind  of  writing  is  ftiil  extant  in  many  books,  regis- 
ters, and  infcriptions  upon  buildings. 

XLIL  He  applied  himfelf  with  no  lefs  attention  to  the 
fludy  of  Grecian  literature,  declaring  upon  ail  occafions 
his  love  of  that  language,  and  the  excellency  of  it.  A 
ftranger  once  holding  a difcourfe  both  in  Greek  and 
Latin,  he  replied  to  him  in  thofe  words ; “ Since  you 
are  billed  in  both  our  tongues.**  Arid  recommend- 
ing Achaia  to  the  favor  of  the  Senate,  he  faid,  “ 1 have 
a particular  attachment  to  that  province,  upon  account  of 
our  common  Hudies.’*  He  often  harangued  in  that  lan- 
guage, before  the  Senate,  by  way  of  anfwer  to  ambaf- 
fadors.  Upon  the  bench  he  frequently  made  ufe  of  the 
verfes  of  Homer.  When  at  any  time  he  had  revenged 
himfelf  upon  an  enemy  or  a confpirator,  he  fcarcely  ever 
gave  to  the  Tribune  upon  the  guard,  who  had  come  to 
him  according  to  cuflom  for  the  word,  any  other  thar^ 
this  : ' ' 

Av^p*  ETTtxrxuvaa-^ai  ors  rig  'Tr^ors^og  xa^£7ra{V|i.  . 

When  outrage  loud  demands  the  vengeful  blow, 

*Tis  glorious  juilice  to  o’ervvhelm  the  foe. 

To  conclude,  he  wrote  fome  hiftories.  like  wife  in  Greek, 
as  twenty  books  of  the  Tufcan  affairs,  eight  of  the  Gar- 
thaginian  ; upon  account  of  which  another  mufeum  w'as 



added  to  the  old  one  at  Alexandria,  called  by  his  name* 
At  the  fame  time,  an  order  was  ilTued,  tliat,  upon  certain 
days  every  year,  his  Tufcan  hiftory  ihouid  be  read  over 
in  one  of  thefe,  and  his  Carthaginian  in  the  other,  as  in 
an  auditory,  each  of  them  by  their  feveral  readers  in 

- XLIII.  Towards  the  clofe  of  his  life,  he  gave  fomc 
manifeil:  indications  of  repenting  of  his  marriage  with 
Agrippina,  and  his  adoption  of  Nero.  For.fome  of  his 
freedmen  taking  notice  of  his  having  condemned  the  day 
before  a woman  accufed  of  adultery,  and  applauding  him 
for  it,  he  obferved  to  them,  “ It  has  been  my  misfortune 
to  light  upon  wives  that  have  all  been  unfaithful  to  my 
bed : but  they  Ihall  not  all  go  unpuniflied.’*  Now  and 
then  when  Britannicus  came  in  his  wav,  he  would  em- 
brace  him  tenderly,  and  exprefs  a defire  “ that  he  might 
grow  apace,  and  receive  from  him  an  account  of  all  his 
addions  ufing  a Greek  expreffion,  the  fenfe  of  which 
is,  “ He  that  has  wounded  will  heal  thee.”  And  intend- 
ing  to  give  him  the  manly  habit,  whilft  he  was  yet  under 
age,  and  a tender  youth,  becaufe  his  flature  would  allow 
of  it,  he  added,  “ I do  fo,  that  the  Roman  people  may 
have  a genuine  Csefar.” 

XLIV.  Not  long  after  he  made  his  will,  and  had  it 
figned  by  all  the  magiflrates  as  witnelTes.  But  he  was 
prevented  from  going  farther  by  Agrippina,  whom,  be- 
fides  alarms,  her  own  guilty  coiifcience,  and  feveral  in- 
formers, accufed  of  a variety  of  crimes.  It  is  agreed  that- 
he  was  taken  off  by  poifon  ; but  where,  and  by  whom 
adminiftered,  remains  an  uncertainty.  Some  authors  fay 
that  it  was  given  hiiu  as  he  was  feafting  with  the  priefls 
in  the  Capitol,  by  the  eunuch  Halotus  his  tafler.  Others 




fay  by  Agrippina,  at  his  own  table,  in  a mulhroom,  a 
thing  of  which  he  was  very  fond.  The  accounts  of  what 
followed  are  likewife  different.  Some  relate  that  he  in- 
ffantly  became  fpeechlefs,  was  racked  with  pain  through 
the  night,  and  died  about  day-break ; others,  that  at  firft 
he  fell  into  a found  fleep  ; and  afterwards  his  ftomach 
heaving,  he  threw  up  the  whole,  but  had  another  dofe 
given  him ; whether  in  water-gruel,  under  pretence  of  re- 
frefhment  after  his  difcharge,  or  in  a clyfter,  as  if  defigned 
to  relieve  his  bowels,  is  likewife  uncertain. 

XLV.  His  death  was  concealed  until  every  thing  was 
I fettled  relative  to  his  fucceffor.  Accordingly  vows  were 
made, for  his  recovery,  and  comedians  were  brought  to 
court  to  divert  him,  as  was  pretended,  at  his  own  defire. 
He  died  upon  the  third  of  the  Ides  of  Odtober,  in  the 
Confullliip  of  Aiinius  Marcellus,  and  Acilius  Aviola,  in 
the  fixty-fourth  year  of  his  age,  and  fourteenth  of  his 
reign.  His  funeral  was  celebrated  with  all  the  magnifi- 
cence ufual  upon  fuch  an  occafion,  and  he  himfelf  ranked 
amongfl:  the  Gods.  This  honor  was  taken  from  him  by 
Nero,  but  reftored  by  Vefpafian, 

XLVI.  The  chief  prefages  of  his  death  were  the  ap- 
pearance of  a comet,  the  deftrudlion  of  his  father  Drufus’s 
monument  by  lightning,  and  the  death  of  mofi  of  the  ma- 
gifirates  of  all  denominations  that  year.  It  appears  from 
feveral  circum  fiances,  that  he  was  fenfible  of  his  ap- 
proaching diffolution,  and  made  no  fecret  of  it.  For 
when  he  nominated  the  Confuls,  he  appointed  none  to  fill 
that  office  beyond  the  month  in  which  he  died.  At  the 
lafi  affembly  of  the  Senate  in  which  he  made  his  appear- 
ance, he  earnefily  exhorted  his  two  fons  to  a good  agree- 
ment betwixt  themfelves,  and  with  importunate  entreaties 



recommended  the  protedlion  of  their  youth  to  the  houfe. 
And  the  laft  time  he  fat  in  judgement,  he  repeatedly  de- 
clared in  open  court,  “ That  he  was  now  arrived  at  the 
laft'flage  of  mortality,”'whilft  all  who  heard  it  exprelTed 
their  abhorrence  of  the  omen. 

THE  violent  death  of  Caligula  afforded  the  Romans  a 
frefh  opportunity  to  have  afferted  the  liberty  of  their 
country ; but  the  confpirators  had  concerted  no  plan,  by 
which  they  fliould  proceed  upon  the  airaffination  of  that 
tyrant ; and  the  indecihon  of  the  Senate,  in  a debate  of 
two  days,  on  fo  fudden  an  emergency,  gave  time  for  the 
caprice  of  the  foldiers  to  interpofe  in  the  fettlement  of  the 
government.  By  an  accident  the  mod  fortuitous,  a man 
devoid  of  all  pretenfions  to  perfonal.  merit,  fo  weak  in 
underftanding,  as  to  be  the  common  fport  of  the  empe- 
ror’s houfehold,  and  an  objedl  of  contempt  even  to  his 
own  kindred;  this  man,  in  the  hour  of  military  infolence, 
was  nominated  by  the  foldiers  as  fucceffor  to  the  Roman 
throne.  Not  yet  in  pofieffion  of  the  public  treafury, 
which  perhaps  was  exhaufted,  he  could  not  immediately 
reward  the  fervices  of  his  eledlors  with  a pecuniary  gra- 
tification ; but  he  promifed  them  a largefs  of  fifteen  thou- 
fand  federces  a man,  upwards  of  a hundred  and  forty 
pounds  flerling  ; and  as  we  meet  with  no  account  of  any 
fubfequent  difeontents  in  the  army,  we  may  juftly  con- 
clude that  the  promife  was  foon  after  fulfilled.  This 
tranfaction  laid  the  foundation  of  that  military  defpotifm, 
which,  through  many  fucceeding  ages,  convulfed  the  Ro- 
man empire. 

Befides  the  interpofition  of  the  foldiers  upon  this  occa- 




iioii,  it  appears  that  the  populace  at  Rome  were  extreme- 
ly clamorous  for  the  government  of  a fmgle  perfon,  and 
for  that  of  Claudius  in  particular.  This  partiality  for  a 
monarchical  government  proceeded  from  tv^^o  caufes. 
The  commonalty,  from  their  obfcure  lituation,  were  al- 
ways the  lead:  expofed  to  oppreffion,  under  a tyrannical 
prince.  They  had  likewife  ever  been  remarkably  fond  of 
ftage-plays  and  public  fhows,  with-which,  as  well  as  with 
fcrambles,  and  donations  of  bread  and  other  vicluals,  the 
preceding  emperor  had  frequently  gratified  them.  They' 
had  therefore  lefs  to  fear,  and  more  to  hope,  from  the 
government  of  a fingle  perfon  than  any  other  clafs  of 
Roman  citizens.  With  regard  to  their  partiality  for 
Claudius,  it  may  be  accounted  for  partly  from  the  l6w 
habits  of  life  to  which  he  had  been  addidled,  in  confe- 
quence  of  which  many  of  them  were  familiarly  acquaint- 
ed with  him  ; and  this  circumftance  likewife  encreafed 
their  hope  of  deriving  fome  advantage  from  his  accef- 
fion.  Exclufive  of  all  thefe  confiderations,  it  is  highly 
probable  that  the  populace  was  infiigated  in  favor  of 
Claudius  by  the  artifices  of  his  freedmen,  perfons  of  mearv  ' 
exfradtion,  by  whom  he  was  afterwards  entirely  govern- 
ed, and  who,  upon  fuch  an  occafion,  would  exert  their 
utmofl;  efforts  to  procure  his  appointment  to*"  the  throne. 
From  the  debate  in  the  Senate  having  continued  during 
two  days,  it  is  evident  that  there  was  fiill  a-firong  party 
for  reftoring  the  ancient  form  of  government.  That  thev 
were  in  the  end  overawed  by  the  clamor  of  the  multitude, 
is  not  furprifing,  %vhen  we  confider  that  the  Senate  was 
totally  unprovided  with  refources  of  every  kind,  for  af- 
fertlng  the  independence  of  the  nation  by  arms,  and  that 
the  commonalty,  who  interrupted  their  deliberations, 
were  the  only  people  by  whofe  affifiance  they  ever  could 
eSedl  the  reO.itution  of  public  freedom.  ' To  this  may  be’ 



gjded,  that  the  Senate,  by  the  total  redu6i;lon  of  their  po- 
litical importance,  ever  fince  the  overthrow  of  the  Re- 
public, had  loft  both  the  influence  and  authority  which 
they  formerly  enjoyed.  The  extreme  cruelty,  likewifej 
which  had  been  exercifed  during  the  laft  two  reigns,  af- 
forded a farther  motive  for  relinquifhing  all  attempts  in 
.favor  of  liberty,  as  they  might  be  feverely  revenged  upon 
themfeives  by  the  fubfequent  emperor  : and  it  was  a de-^ 
gree  of  moderation  in  Claudius,  which,  palliates  the  in-» 
jufiiice  of  his  caufe,  that  he  began  his  government  with 
an  a6l  of  amnefty,  refpedling  the  public  tranfaclions 
Vvhich  enfued  upon  the  death  of  Caligula, 

Claudius,  at  the  time  of  his  acceflion,  w'as  fifty  years 
of  age  ; and  though  he  had  hitherto  lived  apparently  un-* 
ambitious  of  public  honors,  accompanied  with  great  of- 
tentation,  yet  he  was  now  feized  with  the  defire  of  en- 
joying  a triumph.'  As  there  exifted  no  war,  in  which  he 
might  perform  fome  military  atchievement,  his  vanity 
could  only  be  gratified  by  invading  a foreign  country, 
.where,  contrary  to  the  advice  contained  in  the  tefiamenC 
of  Auguflus,  he  might  attempt  to  extend  fiill  farther  the 
limits  of  the  empire.  Either  Britain,  therefore,  or  fomO 
nation  on  the  continent,  at  a great  difiailce  front  the 
capital,  became  the  obje61:  of  fuch  an  enterprife  ^ 
and  the  former  was  chofen,  not  only  as  more  con- 
venient, from  its  vicinity  to  the  mavitime  province  of 
Gaul,  but  on  account  of  a remonfiraoce  lately  prefented 
by  the  Britons  to  the  court  of  Rome,  rerpe61:ing  the  pro- 
tedlion  afforded  to  fome  perfons  of  that  nation,  who  had 
fled  thither  to  elude  the  laws  of  their  country.  Confider- 
ing  the  ftate  of  Britain  at  that  time,  divided  as  it  was  into 
a number  of  principalities,  amongfl:  which  there  w^as  no 
general  confederacy  for  mutual  defence,  and  where  the 

E § alar.m^ 



alarm j excited  by  the  invafion  of  Julius  C^efar,  upwards 
of  eighty  years  before,  had  long  fince  been  forgotten  ; a 
fudden  attempt  upon  the  illand  could  not  fail  of  being  at- 
tended with  fuccefs.  Accordingly  an  army  was  fent  over, 
under  the  command  of  Aulus  Plautius,  an  able  general, 
who  defeated  the  natives  in  feveral  engagements,  and  pe- 
netrated a confiderable  way  into  the  country.  Prepara- 
tions for  the  erhperor’s  voyage  now  being  made,  Clau- 
dius fet  fail  from  Oftia,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tiber ; but 
meeting  with  a violent  ftorm  in  the  Mediterranean,  he 
landed  at  Marfeilles,  and  proceeding  thence  to  Boulogne 
in  Picardy,  pafled  over  into  Britain.  In  what  part  he  de- 
barked, is  uncertain,  but  it  feems  to  have  been  at  fome 
place  on  the  fouth-eaft  coaft  of  the  ifland.  He  immedi- 
ately received  the  fubmiffion  of  feveral  Britifh  hates,  the 
Cantii,  Atrebates,  Regni,  and  Trinobantes,  who  inha- 
bited thofe  parts ; and  returning  to  Rome,  after  an  ab- 
fence  of  fix  months,  celebrated  with  great  pomp  the  tri- 
umph, for  which  he  had  undertaken  the  expedition. 

In  the  interior  parts  of  Britain,  the  natives,  under  the 
command  of  Caradlacus,  maintained  an  obftinate  refift- 
ance,  and  little  progrefs  was  made  by  the  Roman  arms, 
until  Oftorius  Scapula  was  fent  over  to  profecute  the 
war.  He  penetrated  into  the  country  of  the  Silures,  a 
warlike  tribe,  who  inhabited  the  banks  of  the  Severn  ; 
and  having  defeated  Cara61acus  in  a great  battle,  made 
him  prifoner,  and  fent  him  to  Rome.  The  fame  of  the 
Britilh  prince  had  by  this  time  fpread  over  the  provinces 
of  Gaul  and  Italy;  and  upon  his  arrival  in  the  Roman  ca- 
pital, the  people  flocked  from  all  quarters  to  behold  him. 
The  ceremonial  of  his  entrance  was  condudled  with  great 
foiemnity.  On  a plain  adjoining  to  the  Roman  camp, 

the  Frsetorian  troops  w^ere  drawn  up  in  martial  array  : 



the  emperor  and  his  court  took  their  flation  in  the  front 
of  the  lines,  and  behind  them  was  ranged  the  whole  body 
of  the  people.  The  proceflion  commenced  with  the  dif- 
ferent trophies  which  had  been  taken  from  the  Britons 
during  the  progrefs  of  the  war.  Next  followed  the  bro- 
thers of  the  vanquilhed  prince,  with  his  wife  and  daugh- 
ter, in  chains,  exprefling  by  their  fupplicating  looks  and 
geftures  the  fears  with  which  they  were  adfuated.  But 
not  fo  Cara61;acus  himfelf.  With  a manly  gait  and  an 
• undaunted  countenance,  he  marched  up  to  the  tribunal, 
where  the  emperor  was  feated,  and  addrelTed  him  in  the 
following  terms : 

“ If  to  my  high  birth,  and  diftingulfhed  rank,  I had 
added  the  virtues  of  moderation,  Rome  had  beheld  me 
rather  as  a friend  than  a captive ; and  you  would  not  have 
rejedled  an  alliance  with  a prince,  defeended  from  illuf- 
trious  anceftors,  and  governing  many  nations.  The  re- 
verfe  of  my  fortune  to  you  is  glorious,  and  to  me  humi- 
liating. I had  arms,  and  men,  and  horfes  : I poflefled 
extraordinary  riches  ; and  can  it  be  any  wonder  that  I 
was  unwilling  to  lofe  them  ? Becaufe  Rome  afpires  to 
imiverfal  dominion,  muff  men  therefore  implicitly  refign 
themfelves  to  fubje6fion  ? I oppofed  for  a long  time  the 
progrefs  of  your  arms,  and  had  I acled  otherwife,  would 
either  you  have  had  the  glory  of  conqueft,  or  I of  a 
brave  refiftance  ? I am  now  in  your  power  : if  you  are 
determined  to  take  revenge,  my  fate  will  foon  be  forgot- 
ten, and  you  will  derive  no  honor  from  the  tranfa^lion. 
Preferve  my  life,  and  I ihall  remain  to  the  lateft  ages  a 
monument  of  your  clemency.** 

Immediately  upon  this  fpeech,  Claudius  granted  him 
his  liberty,  as  he  did  likewife  to  the  other  royal  cap- 
E e 2 lives, 



lives.  They  all  returned  their  thanks,  in  a manner  the 
mofi:  grateful  to  the  emperor  ; and  as  foon  as  their  chains 
were  taken  off,  walking  tow^ards  Agrippina,  who  fat  upon 
a bench  at  a little  diftance,  they  repeated  to  her  the  fame 
fervent  declarations  of  gratitude  and  efteem, 

Hiftory  has  preferved  no  account  of  Cara61;acus  after 
this  period  ; but  it  is  probable,  that  he  returned  in  a fhort 
time  to  his  own  country,  where  his  former  valor,  and 
the  magnanimity  which  he  had  difplayed  at  Rome,  would 
continue  to  render  him  illuflrious  through  life,  even 
amidft  the  irretrievable  ruin  of  his  fortunes. 

The  moft  extraordinary  chara 61;er  in  the  prefent  reign 
was  that  of  Valeria  Meffalina,  the  daughter  of  Valerius 
Meffala  Barbatus.  She  was  married  to  Claudius,  and 
had  by  him  a fon  and  a daughter.  To  cruelty  in  the 
profecution  of  her  purpofes,  Ihe  added  the  mod  abandon- 
ed incontinence.  Not  confining  her  licentioufnefs  with- 
in the  limits  of  the  palace,  where  (he  committed  the  mod 
diameful  exceffes,  die  prodituted  her  perfon  in  the  com- 
mon dews,  and  even 'in  the  public  dreets  of  the  capital. 
As  if  her  condu61;  was  already  not  fufficiently  fcandalous, 
die  obliged  C.  Silius,  a man  of  Confular  rank,  to  divorce 
his  wife,  that  die  might  procure  his  company  entirely  to 
herfelf.  Not  contented  with  this  Indulgence  to  her  cri- 
minal padion,  die  next  perfuaded  him  to  marry  her  ; 
and  during  an  excurfion  which  the  emperor  made  to 
Odia,  the  ceremony  of  marriage  was  a6lually  perform- 
ed between  them.  The  occafion  was  celebrated  with  a 
magnificent  fupper,  to  which  die  invited  a large  com- 
pany ; and  led  the  whole  diould  be  regarded  as  a frolic,  not 
meant  to  be  confummated,  the  adulterous  parties  afeend- 
ed  tire  nuptial  couch  in  the  prefence  of  the  adonidied 



fpe6lators.  Great  as  was  the  facility  of  Claudius’s  tem- 
per in  refpe61:  of  her  former  behaviour,  he  could  not 
overlook  fo  flagrant  a violation  both  of  puhlic  decency 
and  the  laws  of  the  country.  Silius  was  condemned  to 
death  for  the  adultery  which  he  had  perpetrated  with  re- 
ludbance;  and  Meffalina  was  ordered  into  the  emperor’s 
prefence,  to  anfwer  for  her  condudl.  Terror  now 
operating  upon  her  mind  in  conjundlion  with  remorfe, 
flic  could  not  fummon  the  refolution  to  fuppoit  fuch  an 
interview,  but  retired  into  the  gardens  of  Lucullus,  there 
to  indulge  at  lafl  the  compunction  which  die  felt  for  her 
crimes,  and  to  meditate  the  entreaties  by  which  die  diould 
endeavor  to  footh  the  refentment  of  her  hufband.  In 
the  extremity  of  her  diftrefs,  die  attempted  to  lay  violent 
hands  upon  herfelf,  but  her  courage  was  unequal  to  the 
emergency.  Her  mother  Lepida,  who  had  not  fpoken 
with  her  for  foiiie  years  before,  was  prcfent  upon  the  oc- 
cafion,  and  urged  her  to  the  a6l  which  could  alone  put 
a period  to  her  infamy  and  wretchednefs.  Again  die 
made  an  effort,  but  again  her  refolution  abandoned  her  ; 
W'hen  a Tribune  burd  into  the  gardens,  and  plunging  his 
fword  into  her  body,  fhe  inftantly  expired.  Thus  pe- 
ridieda  woman,  the  fcandal  of  whole  lewdnefs  refounded 
througliout  the  empire,  and  of  whom  a great  fatirid, 
dieii  living,  has  faid,  perhaps  witliout  a hyperbole, 

El laJjfata^iris^necduTrifatiatajreceJ/lt.  Juvenal.  Sat.VT. 

It  has  already  been  obferved,  that  Claudius  was  entire- 
ly governed  by  his  frecdmeii  ; a clafs  ^of  retainers  wliich 
enjoyed  a great  diare  of  favor  and  confidence  with  their 
patrons  in  thofe  times.  7'hey  had  before  been  the 
Haves  of  their  maders,  and  had  obtaihed  their  free- 
dom as  a reward  for  their  faithful  and  attentive  ferviccs. 
Of  the  edeem  in  which  they  often  were  held,  we  meet 
E e c*  with 




with  an  inftance  in  Tiro,  the  freedman  of  Cicero  ; to 
whom  that  illuftrious  Roman  addreiTes  feveral  Epifties, 
written  in  the  mofl:  familiar  and  afFedionate  ftrain  of 
friendlhip.  As  it  was  common  for  them  to  be  taught  the 
more  ufeful  parts  of  education  in  the  families  of  their 
mafters,  they  were  ufually  well  qualified  for  the  manage- 
ment of  domeftic  concerns,  and  might  even  be  competent 
to  thefuperior  departments  of  the  hate  ; efpecially  in  thofe 
times,  when  negotiations  and  treaties  with  foreign  princes 
feldom  or  never  occurred  ; and  in  arbitrary  governments, 
where  public  affairs  were  dire6led  more  by  the  will  of 
the  fovereign  or  his  minihers,  than  by  refined  fuggeftions 
of  policy. 

From  the  charadfer  generally  given  of  Claudius,  before 
his  elevation  to  the  throne,  we  fhould  not  readily  imagine 
that  he  was  endowed  with  any  tafie  for  literary  compofi- 
tion  ; yet  he  feems  to  have  enjoyed,  exclufively,  this  di- 
fiindfion  during  his  own  reign,  in  which  learning  was  at 
a low  ebb.  Befides  hiftory,  Suetonius  informs  us,  that 
he  wrote  a Defence  of  Cicero  againfi;  the  Charges  of  Afi- 
nius  Gallus.  This  appears  to  be  the  only  tribute  of  efieein 
or  approbation,  paid  to  the  charadfer  of  Cicero,  from  the 
time  of  Livy  the  hiftorian,  to  the  extindfion  of  the  race 
of  the  Caefars.  Afinius  Gallus  was  the  fon  of  Afinius 
Pollio,  the  orator.  Marrying  Vipfania,  after  the  had 
been  divorced  by  Tiberius,  he  incurred  the  difpleafure  of 
that  emperor,  and  died  of  famine,  either  voluntarily,  or 
by  order  of  the  tyrant.  He  wrote  a comparifon  between 
his  father  and  Cicero,  in  which,  with  more  filial  partia- 
lity than  jufiice,  he  gave  the  reference  to  the  former. 



{ 423  ) 


I.  FROM  the  houfe  .of  the  Domitii  fprung  two  celebrat- 
■ed  families,  the  Calvini  and  iEnobarbi.  The  latter  de- 
rive their  extraction  and  cognomen  likewife  from  one  L. 
Domitius,  who,  it  is  related,  as  he  was  returning  from 
the  country  to  Rome,  was  met  by  two  young  men  of  a 
moll  auguft  appearance,  7'hcy  defired  him  to  carry  to 
the  Senate  and  people  the  news  of  a victory,  concerning 
which  no  certain  advice  had  at  that  time  reached  the  city. 
To  aiTure  him  that  they  were  more  than  mortals,  they 
flroaked  his  cheeks,  and  by  that  means  changed  his  beard 
from  a black  to  a ruddy  color,  refembling  that  of  brafs ; 
which  mark  of  diHindlion  defcended  to  his  poflerity,  for 
they  had  generally  red  beards.  The  family  had  after  this 
the  honor  of  feven  Confulfliips,  one  triumph,  and  two 
Cenforlliips  ; and  being  advanced  to  the  rank  of  nobility, 
all  continued  the  ufe  of  the  fame  cognomen,  and  no 
other  praenomina  than  thofeof  Cneius  and  Lucius  ; which 
they  retained,  however,  with  remarkable  irregularity  ; 
fometimes  adhering  to  one  of  them  for  three  perfons  fuc- 
celUvely,  and  then  again-changing  them  alternately.  For 
the  firft,  fecond,  fand  third  of  the  ^nobarbi  had  that  of 
Lucius,  and  again  the  three  following,  fuccellively,  that 
of  Cneius ; but  thofe  who  came  after  were  called,  one, 
Lucius,  and  the  other,  Cneius,  by  turns.  It  appears  to 
me  proper,  to  give  a ihort  account  of  feveral  of  the  fa- 

E e 4 «hly, 



n'iily,  to  fliow  that  Nero  fo  far  degenerated  from  the  no- 
ble qualities  of  his  anceflors,  that  he  retained  only  the 
vices  of  the  family,  as  if  thofe  alone  had  been  tranfmitted 
to  him  by  his  defcent,. 

' II.  To  begin  therefore  at  a remote  period,  hjs  great- 
grandfather’s grandfather,  when  he  was  Tribune  of  the 
commons,  being  offended  with  the  high  priefls  for  eledl- 
jng  another  than  him  into  their  number,  in  the  room  of 
his  father,  procured  the  promulgation  of  a law  for  tranf- 
ferring  the  right  of  thofe  elections  from  the  priefls  to  the 
people.  In  his  Confuldiip,  having  conquered  the  Alio-? 
broges  and  the  Arverni,  he  made  a tour  of  the  province, 
mounted  upon  an  elephant,  with  a body  of  foldiers  attend- 
ing him  in  a fort  of  triumphal  pomp.  Of  this  perfon  the 
orator  Licinius  Craffus  fajd,  “ It  v/as  no  wonder  he  had 
a brazen  beard,  who  had  a face  of  iron,  and  a heart  of 
lead.”  His  fon,  during  his  Prsetorfhip,  propofed  that  C. 
Caefar,  upon  the  expiration  of  his  Confulate,  fhould  be 
called  to  an  account  before  the  Senate  for  his  adminidra- 
> tion  of  that  office,  which  was  fuppofed  to  be  contrary  both 
to  the  aufpicia  and  the  laws.  Afterwards,  when  he  was 
Conful,  he  attempted  to  have  him  recalled  from  the  ar^ 
my,  and  having  been  by  intrigue  and  cabal  appointed  his 
fucceffor,  he  was  in  the  beginning  of  the  civil  war  made 
prifoner  at  Corfinium.  Being  difmiffed  upon  that  oc- 
cafion,  he  went  fome  time  after  to  Marfeilles,  which  then 
was  befieged ; where  having  by  his  prefence  animated 
the  people  to  hold  out,  he  on  a fudden  left  them  again, 
and  at  laft  was  flain  in  the  battle  /^f  Pharfalia.  He  was 
a man  of  little  conhancy,  and  of  a fullen  temper.  Having 
once  in  a defjperate  fituation  had  recourfe  to  poifon,  he 
was,  immediately  upon  taking  it,  fo  terrified  with  the 
thoughts  of  dying,  that  he  took  a vomit  to  throw  it  up 



again,  and  manumiied  his  phyrician,  for  having  purpofe-» 
ly  given  him  only  a gentle  dofe  of  the  poifon.  When 
Cn.  Pompey  was  confulting  with  his  friends  in  what 
manner  he  Hiould  condndt  himfelf  towards  thofe  who 
were  neuter,  he  alone  gave  his  opinion  that  they  ought 
to  be  treated  as  enemies. 

III.  He  left  behind  him  a fon,  who  was  without 
doubt  the  bell:  man  of  the  family.  He  was  by  the  Pedian 
law  condemned,  though  innocent,  amongll  others  v/ho 
were  concerned  in  the  death  of  Csefar.  .Upon  this,  he 
went  over  to  Brutus  and  Caffius  his  near  relations  ; and 
after  their  death,  not  only  kept  the  fleet,  the  command 
of  which  had  been  given  him  fome  time  before,  but  aug- 
mented it  likewife.  At  lafl,  when  the  party  had  every 
where  been  defeated,  he  voluntarily  furrendered  it  to  M. 
Antony  ; confidering  it  as  a piece  of  fervice  for  which 
the  latter  owed  him  no  fmall  obligations.  Of  all  thofe 
who  w’ere  condemned  by  the  law  abovementioned,  he  was 
the  only  man  that  was  reftored  to  his  country,  and  ob- 
tained the  feveral  offlces  of  flate.  Upon  a frefli  difference 
breaking  out,,  he  had  the  commiflion  of  a lieutenant-ge- 
neral under  the  fame  Antony,  and  was  offered  the  chief 
command  in  that  war,  by  thofe  who  were  afhamed  of 
Cleopatra  ; but  not  daring,  on  account  of  a fudden  indif- 
pofition  with  which  he  was  feized,  either  to  accept  or 
refufe  it,  he  went  over  to  Auguflus,  and  died  a few  days 
after,  not  without  an  afperflon  cafl  upon  his  memory. 
For  Antony  openly  faid,  that  his  changing  fldes  was 
pv/ing  to  an  impatience  to  be  with  his  miflrefs,  Servilia 

IV.  The  perfon  abovementioned  was  the  father  of 
that  Domitius,  who  was  afterwards  w’ell  known  as  the 




purchafer  of  Iiis  family  in  Augiiftus’s  will ; being  no  lefs 
famous  in  his  youth,  for  his  dexterity  in  chariot-driving, 
than  he  was  afterwards  for  the  triumphal  ornaments 
which  he  obtained  in  the  German  war.  But  he  was  a 
man  of  great  arrogance,  prodigality,  and  cruelty.  When 
he  was  75],diie,  he  obliged  L.  Plancus  the  Cenfor  to  give 
him  the  way  ; and  in  his  Prsetorfhip,  and  Confulfhip,  he 
brought  upon  tlie  ftage  Roman  knights  and  married  wo- 
men, to  adf  in  a mimic  piece.  Pie  gave  chafes  of  wild 
beafts,  both  in  the  Circus  and  in  all  the  wards  of  the 
city ; as  alfo  a fliow  of  gladiators  ; but  with  fuch  barba-, 
rity,  that  Auguflus,  having  given  him  a private  reprimiand 
for  it,  to  no  purpofe,  was  obliged  to  lay  a reftraint  upon 
him  by  proclamation. 

V.  He  had  by  the  elder  Antonia  the  father  of  Nero,  in 
every  part  of  his  life  a man  of  execrable  charadter.  In 
his  attendance  upon  C.  C^far  into  the  eaft,  he  killed  a 
freedman  of  his  own,  for  refufingto  drink  as  much  as  he 
commanded  him.  He  was  on  this  account  difmiffed  from 
Csefar’s  company,  but  profited  nothing  by  the  difgrace. 
Por  in  a village  upon  the  Appian  road,  he  drove  his 
chariot  over  a poor  boy,  -and  crufhed  him  ail  to  pieces. 
At  Rome,  he  flruck  out  an  eye  of  a Roman  knight  in  the 
Forum,  only  for  fome  free  language  in  a difpute  that  hap- 
pened betwixt  them.  He  was  likewife  fo  fraudulent  that 
he  not  only  cheated  fome  bankers  of  the  price  of  goods  he 
had  bought  of  them,  but,  in  his  Praetorihip,  defrauded  the 
furnifliers  of  chariots  for  the  Circenfian  games,  of  the 
prizes  due  to  them  for  their  vidlory.  His  fifler  interpof- 
ing  with  him  upon  the  fubjedl:,  and  a complaint  being 
likewife  made  by  them,  he  procured  a law  to  be  pafied, 
“ That  for  the  future,  the  prizes  Ihould  be  immediately 
paid  them.”  A little  before  the  death  of  Tiberius,  he 




was  profecuted  for  treafon,  adultery  with  feveral  women, 
and  inceft  with  his  filler  Lepida  ; but  efcaped  by  a change 
of  the  times,  and  died  of  a dropfy  at  Pyrgi,  leaving  be- 
hind him  his  fon  Nero,  wiiom  he  had  by  Agrippina, 
daughter  of  Germanicus. 

VI.  Nero  was  born  at  Antium,  nine  months  after  the 
death  of  Tiberius,  upon  the  eighteenth  of  the  Calends  of 
January,  juft  as  the  fun  rofe  ; fo  that  its  beams  reached 
him,  before  they  could  well  reach  the  earth.  Whilll  ma- 
ny and  difmal  conje6tures,  with  regard  to  his  future  for- 
tune, were  formed  by  different  perfons,  from  the  circum- 
ftances  of  his  nativity,  a faying  of  his  father  Domitius 
was  regarded  as  an  ill  prefage,  who  told  his  friends  that 
were  congratulating  him  upon  the  occafion,  ‘‘  That  no- 
thing but  what  was  deteflable,  and  pernicious  to  the  pub- 
lic, could  ever  be  produced  of  him  and  Agrippina.”  Ano- 
ther manifeft  prognoflic  of  his  future  unhappinefs  occur- 
red upon  his  luflration-day.  For  C.  Caefar  being  requeu- 
ed by  his  filler  to  give  the  child  what  name  he  thought 
proper,  looking  at  his  uncle  Claudius,  who  was  after- 
wards emperor,  and  adopted  him,  faid  he  gave  his  ; and 
this  not  ferioully,  but  only  in  jeft  ; Agrippina  rejedfing  it 
with  indignation,  becaufe  Claudius  at  that  time  was  a 
mere  laughing-llock  at  court.  He  loll  his  father  when 
he  was  three  years  old,  being  left  heir  to  a third  part  of 
his  ehate ; of  which  he  never  got  polTelfion,  the  whole 
being  feized  by  his  co-heir  Caius.  His  mother  being  foon 
after  baniihed,  he  lived  with  his  aunt  Lepida  in  a very 
neceffitous  condition,  under  two  tutors,  a dancing-ma- 
iler and  a barber.  After  Claudius  came  to  the  empire,  he 
not  only  recovered  his  father’s  eftate,  but  was  enriched 
with  the  additional  inheritance  of  that  of  his  hep-father 
Ci'ifpus  Palilenus.  Upon  his  mother’s  recall  froin  banihi- 




ment,  by  means  of  her  intereft  with  the  emperor,  he  made 
fucb  a figure  at  court,  that  fome  afTalTins,  it  was  reported, 
were  employed  by  MefTalina,  Ciaudius’s  wife,  to  flran- 
gle  him,  as  the  rival  of  Britannicus,  whiifl;  he  was  taking 
a fleep  about  mid*day.  In  addition  to  the  ftory,  it  was 
faid  that  they  were  frightened  by  a ferpent,  which  crept 
from  under  his  pillow,  and  ran  away.  The  tale  was  oc- 
cafioned  by  finding  near  the  bolfter  the  fkin  of  that  fpe- 
cies  of  animal,  which,  by  his  mother’s  order,  he  Wore 
for  fome  time  upon  his  right  arm,  inclofed  in  a bracelet 
of  gold.  This  ornament,  at  laft,  from  an  averfion  to 
her  memory,  he  laid  afide,  but  fought  for  again,  in  vain, 
in  the  time  of  his  extremity. 

VII.  Before  he  was  arrived  at  the  age  of  puberty,  during 
the  celebration  of  the  Circenfian  games,  he  perform.ed 
his  part  in  the  Trojan  diverfion  with  great  firmnefs,  and 
the  general  approbation  of  the  fpedlators.  In  the  eleventh 
year  of  his  age,  he  was  adopted  by  Claudius,  and  placed 
under  the  tuition  of  Annseus  Seneca,  at  that  time  a Se- 
nator. It  is  faid,  that  Seneca  dreamt  the  night  after,  that 
he  v/as  giving  a ledlure  to  Caius  Casfar.  Nero  in  a fhort 
time  verified  his  dream,  betraying  by  all  the  means  in  his 
power  the  favage  cruelty  of  his  difpofition.  For  he  at- 
tempted to  perfuade  his  father  that  his  brother  Britanni- 
cus was  nothing  but  a fuppofititious  boy,  only  becaufe  the 
latter  had  fainted  him  after  his  adoption,  by  the  name  of 
.^nobarbus  as  ufual.  V/hen  his  aunt  Lepida  was  brought 
upon  her  trial,  he  appeared  in  court-  as  an  evidence  againfl: 
her,  to  gratify  his  mother,  who  entertained  a virulent 
enmity  againfl  her.  Upon  his  folemn  introdudlion  into 
the  Forum,  he.  gave  a largefs  to  the  people  and  foldiers : 
for  the  Praetorian  band,  he  appointed  a folemn  proceffion 
under  arms,  and  marched  at  the  head  of  them  with  a 


HERO  CLAtTDirs  C^SAR.  429 

{hield  in  his  hand  ; after  which  he  went  to  return  thanks 
to  his  father  in  the  Senate.  Before  Claudius  likewife,  when 
Conful,  he  made  a fpeech  for  the  Bononlans  in  Latin, 
and  for  the  Rhodians  and  Ilienfians  in  Greek.  He  fat  for 
the  firfl  time  as  a judge  for  the  hearing  of  caufes,  when 
he  was  made  Praefedl  of  the  city  in  the  Latin  holidays  ; 
at  which  time  the  moft  celebrated  pleaders  employed  his 
attention,  not  with  eafy  hiort  trials,  as  ufual  in  that  cafe, 
but  with  trials  of  importance,  notwithftanding  they  had 
inflrudlions  from  Claudius  himfelf  to  the  contrary.  Not 
long  after,  he  married  Odtavia,  and  prefented  the  people 
with  Circenfian  games,  and  a hunting  of  wild  beails,  for 
the  health  of  Claudius. 

VIII.  He  was  fevcnteen  years  of  age  at  the  death  of  that 
prince  ; and  as  foon  as  that  event  was  made  public,  he  went 
out  to  the  foldiers  upon  the  guard  before  the  palace  be- 
twixt the  hours  of  hx  and  feven : for  an  earlier  time  of 
the  day  w^as  judged  improper  for  his  entering  upon  the 
imperial  dignity,  on  account  of  the  direful  omens  that  ap- 
peared. Upon  the  fteps  before  the  palace-gate,  he  was 
unanimoufly  faluted  by  the  foldiers  prefent  as  their  empe- 
ror, and  then  carried  in  a chair  into  the  camp  ; thence, 
after  making  a fliort  fpeech  to  the  troops,  into  the  Senate- 
houfe,  where  he  continued  until  the  evening  : of  all  the 
immenfe  honors  which  were  heaped  upon  him,  refufing 
none  but  the  title  of  Father  of  his  Country ^ on  account  of 
his  youth. 

IX.  He  began  his  reign  with  an  oftentatlon  of  dutiful 
regard  to  the  memory  of  his  deceafed  father,  whom  he 
buried  with  the  utmoft  pomp  and  magnificence,  pro- 
nouncing the  funeral  oration  himfelf,  and  then  had  him 
enrolled  amongfr  the  Gods.  He  paid  likewife  the  higheil: 

8 honors 




honors  to  the  memory  of  his  father  Domitius.  He  left 
the  management  of  affairs,  both  public  and  private,  to 
his  mother.  The  word  which  he  gave  the  firft  day  of 
his  reign  to  the  Tribune  upon  the  guard,  was  “ the  befl 
of  mothers, and  afterwards,  he  frequently  appeared  in 
the  flreets  of  Rome  with  her  in  her  chair.  He  fettled  a 
colony  at  Antium,  in  which  he  provided  for  the  veteran 
foldlers  belonging  to  the  guards;  feveraf  of  the  richeff 
among  the  moft  honorable  Centurions  being  obliged  to 
live  In  that  place,  where  he  likewife  made  a fine  harbour 
at  a prodigious  expence. 

X.  To  give  the  public  yet  farther  afTurance  of  his 
good  difpofition,  he  declared,  “ that  he  defigned  to  go- 
vern according  to  the  model  of  Auguftus  and  omitted 
no  opportunity  of  fhowing  his  generofity,  clemency,  and 
complaifance.  The  more  burdenfome  taxes  he  either 
entirely  took  off,  or  diminiflied.  The  rewards  appoint- 
ed for  informers  by  the  Papian  law,  he  reduced  to  a 
fourth  part ; and  diftributed  to  the  people  four  hundred 
fefterces  a man.  To  the  nobleffc  of  the  Senators  who  were 
much  reduced  in  their  circumffances,  he  granted  penfions, 
and  to  fome  five  hundred  thoufand  fefterces  ; and  to  the 
Pi  jEtorian  battalions  a monthly  allowance  of  corn  gratis. 
When  the  warrant  for  the  execution  of  a criminal  con- 
demned to  die  was  brought  him  to  fign,  according  to 
cuftoin  “ I wifli,”  faid  he,  “ I had  never  learnt  to  read 
and  write.”  He  now  and  then  faluted  the  feveral  Orders 
of  die  people  by  name,  without  a prompter.  When  the 
Senate  returned  him  their  thanks  for  his  good  behaviour, 
he  replied  to  them,  “ It  will  be  time  enough  to  do  lo 
when  I deferve  it.”  He  admitted  the  common  people  to  fee 
him  perform  hisexercifes  in  the  Field  of  Mars.  He  frequent- 
ly declaimed  in  public,  and  recited  verfes  of  his  own  com- 



j)oring,  not  only  at  home,  but  in  the  theatre,  fo  much  to  the 
joy  of  all  the  people,  that  public  prayers  were  appointed 
to  be  put  up  to  the  Gods  upon  that  account ; and  the  verfes 
which  had  been  publicly  read,  were,  after  being  wnitteu 
in  gold  letters,  confecrated  to  Jupiter  Capitolinus. 


XI.  He  prcfented  the  people  with  a great  number  of 
public  diverfions,  and  of  various  kinds  ; as  the  Juvenal 
and  Circenfian  games,  ftage-plays,  and  a Hiow  of  gladi- 
ators. In  the  Juvenal,  he  admitted  Senators  and  aged 
matrons  to  perform  their  parts.  In  the  Circenfian  games, 
he  affigned  the  Equeftrian  Order  feats  apart  from  the  reft 
of  the  people,  and  had  races  performed  by  chariots  drawn 
each  by  four  camels.  In  the  games  which  he  inftituted 
for  the  eternal  continuance  of  the  empire,  and  therefore 
ordered  to  be  called  Maximi^  many  of  the  Senatorian  and 
Eqiieftrian  Order,  of  both  fexes,  adled  their  parts  A 
diftinguifhed  Roman  knight  rode  down  a rope  upon  an 
elephant.  A Roman  play,  likewife,  compofed  by  Afra- 
nius, was  brought  upon  the  ftage.  It  was  entitled,  The 
Fire  and  in  it  the  adlors  were  allowed  to  carry  off,  and 
keep  to  themfelves,  the  furniture  of  the  houfe,  which,  as 
the  plot  of  the  play  required,  was  burnt  dowm  in  the  the- 
• atre.  Every  day  during  the  folemnity,  various  things 
were  thrown  amongft  the  people  to  fcramble  for  ; as 
fowls  of  different  kinds,  corn,  tickets,  cloaths,  gold,  fi- 
ver, gems,  pearls,  pi61;ures,  faves,  beafts  of  burden, 
wild  beafts  tamed  ; at  laft,  flips,  large  houfes,  and  iands, 
were  offered  as  prizes  to  be  contended  for. 

XII.  Thefe  games  he  beheld  from  the  top  of  the  JPro~ 
fcenium.  In  the  fhow  of  gladiators,  which  he  exhibited 
in  a wooden  amphitheatre,  built  within  a year  in  the 
wood  of  the  Field  of  Mars,  he  ordered  tlrat  none  fioidd 




be  flain,  not  even  of  the  criminals  employed  upon  that 
occafion.  He  engaged  four  hundred  Senators,  and  fix  hun- 
dred Roman  knights,  amongfl;  whom  were  fome  of  great 
eftates,  and  amiable  charadters,  to  engage  as  gladiators. 
From  the  fame  Orders,  he  procured  peiTons  to  encounter 
wild  beads,  and  for  various  other  fervices*in  the  theatre. 
He  prefented  the  public  with  the  reprefentation  of  a na- 
val hght,  upon  Tea-v/ater,  with  large  iidies  fwimming  in 
it;  as  alfo  with  the  Pyrrhic  dance,  performed  by^certain 
youth,  to  each  of  whom,  after  the  performance  was  over, 
he  granted  patents  for  their  freedom  of  Rome.  During 
this  diverfion,  a bull  leaped  Pafiphae,  concealed  within  a 
wooden  flatue  of  a cow,  as  many  of  the  fpedlators  be- 
lieved. Icarus,  upon  his  hrft  attempt,  fell  down  clofe  by 
where  he  reclined,  and  befpattered  him  with  his  blood.  For 
he  very  feldom  prefided  in  the  games,  but  ufed  to  view  them 
lying  upon  a couch,  at  firfl:  through  fome  little  holes,  but 
afterwards  with  the  Podium'^  quite  open.  He  was  the 
fird  that  indituted,  in  imitation  of  the  Greeks,  a trial 
of  Ikill  in  the  three  feveral  exercifes  of  mufic,  wredling, 
and  horfe-racing,  to  be  performed  at  Rome  every  five 
years,  and  which  he  called  Neronia.  Upon  the  fird 
opening  of  a hot-bath,  and  a fchool  of  exercife,  'vybicli 
lie  built,  he  furnilhed  the  Senate  and  the  Equedrian  Or- 
der with  oil.  He  appointed  as  judges  of  the  trial  men  of 
Confular  rank,  chofen  by  lot,  who  fat  with  the  Praetors. 

* The  Podium  was  the  part  of  the  amphitheatre  allotted  to 
the  Senators,  and  the  ambafTadors  of  foreign  nations ; and 
■where  alfo  was  the  feat  of  the  emperor,  of  the  perfon  who 
exhibited  the  games,  and  of  the  Vedal  Virgins.  It  projedl- 
ed  over  the  wall  which  furrou tided  the  area  of  the  amphi- 
theatre, and  was  raifed  between  twelve  and  fifteen  feet  above 
it ; fecured  with  a bread -v/ork  or  parapet  againd  the  irrup- 
tion of  wild  beads. 



At  this  time  he  took  his  feat  in  the  Orcheflra  amongfl;  the 
Senators,  and  received  the  crown  intended  for  the  heft 
performer  in  L'atin  profe  and  verfe,  for  which  feveral 
perfons  of  the  higheft  quality  were  candidates,  hut  iina- 
nimoufly  yielded  to  him.  The  crown  for  the  heft  per- 
former on  the  harp,  being  likewife  awarded  to  him  by  the 
judges  in  that  difpute,  he  adored  it,  and  ordered  it  to  be 
carried  to  Auguflus’s  ftatiie.  In  the  gymnic  exercifesj 
which  he  prefented  in  the  Septa,  during  the  preparations 
for  facrificing  an  ox,  he  fliaved  his  beard  for  the  frft  time^ 
and  putting  it  up  m a box  adorned  with  pearls  of  great 
price,  he  confecrated  it  to  Jupiter  Capitolinus.  He  in- 
vited the  Vefial  Virgins  to  fee  the  wreftlers  perform,  be- 
caufe,  at  Olympia,  the  priefteffes  of  Ceres  are  allowed  the 
privilege  of  feeing  that  diverfion. 

XliL  Amongft  the  fpe61;acles  prefented  by  him,  the 
entrance  of  Tiridates  into  the  city  deferves  to  be  mention- 
ed. This  perfonage,  who  was  king  of  Armenia,  he  by 
very  large  promifes  invited  to  Rome*  But  being  prevent- 
ed from  ih owing  him  to  the  people ’upon  the  day  fixed  for 
it  by  proclamation,  on  account  of  the  badnefs  of  the  wea- 
ther, he  cook  the  fir  ft  opportunity  that  occurred  ; pofting 
feveral  battalions  under  arms,  about  the  temples  of  the 
Forum  ; and  fitting  himfelf  upon  an  ivory  feat  in  the 
Roftra,  in  a triumphal  drefs,  amidft  the  military  ftandards 
and  banners.  Upon  the  king’s  advancing  towards  him, 
on  a ftage  made  fhelving  for  tlie  purpofcj  he  permitted 
Tiridates  to  throw  himfelf  at  his  feet,  but  quickly  raifed 
him  with  his  right  hand,  and  kifted  him.  The  emperor 
then,  upon  the  king’s  humble  fupplication,  taking  the 
turban  from  his  head,  put  on  a crown,  whilft  a perfon  of 
Praetorian  rank  proclaimed  in  Latin  the  words  in  wdiich 
the  prince  addrefted  the  emperor.  After  this  ceremony, 

F f the 



the  flranger  being  brought  into  the  theatre,  and  there 
again  renewing  his  addrefs,  the  emperor  feated  him  upon 
his  right  hand.  Being  now  univerfally  complimented 
with  the  title  of  Imperator,  and  fending  his  laurel-crown 
into  the  Capitol,  he  fliut  the  temj>le  of  double-faced 
Janus,  as  though  there  now  exifled  no  war  throughout 
the  Roman  empire. 

XIV.  He  held  the  Confulfhip  four  times : the  firfi;  for 
two  months,  the  fecond  and  laft  for  fix,  and  the  third  for 
four  ; the  two  middlemofl:  he  held  fucceflively,  but  the 
reft  at  the  diftance  of  fome  years  from  them. 

XV.  In  the  adminiftration  of  juftice,  h^  fcarcely  ever 
gave  an  anfwer  to  fuch  as  preferred  their  caufes  to  him 
for  trial,  before  the  next  day,  and  in  writing.  His  man- 
ner of  hearing  the  caufes  was ‘not  to  allow  the  parties  to 
plead  in  long  harangues,  but  to  difpatch  the  feveral  parti- 
culars in  their  order,  in  the  way  of  debate.  When  he 
withdrew  to  confult  his  affeftbrs  in  any  caufe,  he  did  not 
debate  the  matter  openly  vhth  them ; but  filently  and 
privately  reading  over  their  opinions,  which  they  gave 
feparately  in  writing,  he  gave  fentence  upon  the  bench 
according  to  his  own  pleafure,  as  if  the  fame  was  the  opi- 
nion of  the  majority.  For  a long  time  he  would  not  ad- 
mit the  fons  of  freedmen  into  the  Senate;  and  fuch  as 
had  been  admitted  by  former  princes,  he  excluded  from 
all  public  offices  in  the  government.  The  fupernumerary 
candidates,  to  comfort  them  under  the  delay  of  their 
hopes,  he  put  into  fome  command  of  the  legions.  The 
Confullhip  he  commonly  gave  for  fix  months;  and  one  of 
the  two  Confuls  dying  a little  before  the  firft  of  January, 
he  fubftituted  no  other  in  his  room  ; difiiking  what  had 
been  formerly  done  for  Caninius  Rebilus  upon  fuch  an 



Ocfcafion,  who  was  Conful  for  one  day  only.  He  aU 
lowed  the  triumphal  honors  only  to  thofe  of  Quaeflorian 
dignity,  and  to  fome  of  the  Equeftrian  Order,  and  that 
not  upon  any  military  account.  And  inhead  of  the 
Quaeftors^  whofe  office  it  properly  was,  he  commonly- 
ordered  that  the  fpeeches,  which  he  fent  to  the  Senate 
upon  certain  occafions,  fliould  be  read  by  the  Confuls. 

XVL  He  contrived  a new  model  for  building  in  the 
city,  ordering  piazzas  to  be  ere6led  before  ail  houfes  great 
and  fmall,  that  from  the  top  of  thenij  if  any  fire  happen*- 
ed,  it  might  be  more  ealily  prevented  from  fpreading  ; and 
thefe  he  built  at  his  own  expenee.-  He  likewife  defign- 
ed  to  extend  the  walls  of  Rome  as  far  as  Oflia^  and  thence 
to  bring  the  fea  by  a canal  into  the  old  city.  Many  fevere 
regulations  and  new  orders  were  made  in  his  time*  A 
fumptuary  law  was  enadled.  Public  fuppers  were  re- 
duced to  the  Sportula  ; and  vi6lualling-houfes  reftrained 
from  felling  any  dreffied  vidfuals,  except  pulfe  and  herbs, 
whereas  before  they  fold  all  kinds  of  meat.  The  Chrif- 
tians  likewife  were  feverely  punifhed,  a fort  of  people  who 
maintained  a new  and  mifchievous  fuperftition  He 
forbid  the  fports  of  the  Quadrigarii j who  had  long  taken 
the  liberty  of  ftrolling  about,  and  eftabliflied  for  them- 
felves  a kind  of  prefcriptive  right  to  cheat  and  commit 

* This  characffer  of  the  Chriftian  religion  exhibits  the 
prejudice  of  a Pagan  author  in  firong  colors.  It  is  probable 
that  Suetonius  confidered  it  as  mifchievous  upon  two  ac- 
counts ; one  was,  that  it  exploded  the  fuperllition  of  the 
Gentiles ; and  the  other,  that,  by  declaring  God  to  be  no 
refpe£l:er  of  perfons,  it  tended  to  flacken  all  the  bands  of 
civil  authority,  and  fubordination.  But,  had  he  taken  the 
pains  to  inveftigate  its  principles,  he  would  have  been  unde- 
ceived in  refpe(5l  to  this  apprehenfion, 

F f 2 theft 

43^  tHE  LIFE  OF 

theft  in  jefl.  The  parties  of  the  pantoiiiimics  were  ba- 
nifhed,  as  well  as  themfelves* 

XVII.  Againfl:  the  forgers  of  writings^  the  method  was 
then  hril:  invented,  to  have  the  writings  bored,  run  through 
three  times  with  a thread,  and  then  fealed.  It  was  like- 
wife  ena61ed  that  in  wills,  the  two  firft  pages,  with  only 
the  teftator’s  name  upon  them,  fhould  be  prefented  blank 
to  thofe  wh