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No. 44. AUGUST 1871. 

IX. — Supplement to a u Catalogue of the Zoophytes of South 
Devon and South Cornwall f with Descriptions of new Spe- 
cies . By the Rev. Thomas Hincks, B.A. 

[Plates V. & VI.] 

In 1861-62, I published, in the pages of the * Annals, 7 a 
“ Catalogue of the Zoophytes of South Devon and South 
Cornwall,” including under the term u zoophyte” the Hydroida, 
the Lucernarian section of the Discophora, the Actinozoa, and 
the Polyzoa — in short, the groups embraced in Dr. Johnston’s 
L History.’ As many as 241 species* were recorded as occur- 
ring in the district, of which 18 were new to science and 3 
found a place for the first time in the fauna of Great Britain. 
Others have been met with since, including two or three very 
interesting new forms of Hydroida, which I have lately pro- 
cured by dredging, in Salcombe Bay ; and in the present 
Supplement 24 species are added to the list, raising the whole 
number of south-western forms hitherto observed to 265. 

A few species which had only been found in the north have 
their range of distribution extended southward. Syncoryne 
eximia , which I have noted, in my i Histoiy of the British 
Hydroid Zoophytes,’ as confined to the north-eastern coast, 
where it is the common representative of its family, has just 
occurred to me in great abundance in South Devon. Calycella 
fastigiata (Alder) and Halecium sessile (Norman) are added to 
the group of forms which is common to the western side of 
Scotland and the south-west of England. Diastopora sar- 
nie?isis (Norman), found hitherto only in the Channel Islands, 
proves to be also a native of the Cornish coast. 

The new species of Hydroida which I am about to describe 
are peculiarly interesting. One of them must be referred to a 

* I omit Tubularia Dumortierii , which was inserted in the Catalogue 
by mistake. 

Ann. <f; Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 4. Vol. viii. 


74 Rev. T. Hincks’s Supplement to a Catalogue of 

new genus of Coryniclce , exhibiting curious intermediary cha- 
racters ; the other is a Campanularian distinguished by its 
exquisitely graceful calceoliform capsule. I have also recently 
obtained the gonozooid of the genus Lovenella (Hincks), which 
had not been previously noticed. It presents some very di- 
stinctive peculiarities, and confirms the title of the form to 
generic rank, which hitherto rested on characters supplied by 
the trophosome alone. 

For the sake of convenience, and to mark the connexion 
between the present paper and its predecessor, I have retained 
the term zoophyte in the title in the sense originally given to 
it in the Catalogue. 

Subkingdom C (ELEN TEE A TA . 


Order HYDROIDA. Suborder Athecata. 

Family Clavidse. 

Genus Tubiclava, Allman. 

T. lucerna , Allman. 

On loose stones in a rock-pool, Torbay [Allman) ; on Murex 
erinaceus (living), dredged in Salcombe Bay ( T . //.). 

In the u Catalogue ” I have remarked, under Clava multi - 
cornis , that there is much diversity in the extent to which the 
polypary is developed in that genus, and that in some cases it 
covers a third or more of the body of the polypite. I have 
little doubt that the specimens which exhibited the more fully 
developed polypary, and suggested this remark, should be 
referred to Tubiclava , and not to Clava . 

Family Podocorynidae. 

Genus Podocoeyne, Sars (in part). 

P. carnea , Sars. 

On Nassa reticulata , off the Oar Stone, Torbay ; Salcombe 
Bay, on the same. 

The Nassa is seldom dredged without this zoophyte as a 
u commensal.” 

Family Corynidae. 

Genus Coryne, Gaertner. 

C.pusillaj Gaertner. 

Salcombe, in the higher rock-pools ; common. 

When the u Catalogue” was published, the species of Co- 
ryne and Syncoryne had not been accurately determined. The 

the Zoophytes of South Devon and South Cornwall . 75 

form to which I have assigned Gaertner’s classical name is 
distinguished by its sparingly branched, closely annulated 
stems, and its long linear polypites, with very numerous ten- 
tacles. It prefers the higher and smaller pools, while C. vagi - 
nata usually fringes the sides of the larger and deeper pools, 
nearer to low-water mark, amongst a luxuriant growth of 

Genus Syncoryne, Ehrenberg (in part). 

S. eximia , Allman. 

Salcombe Bay, dredged on stones, sponge, &c. ; abundant. 

The Devonshire specimens were inferior in size to those 
which I have obtained from the Durham and Yorkshire coasts, 
but richly coloured and (in May) profusely laden with gono- 

S. pidchella, Allman. 

Salcombe, North Sands, in rock-pools. The polypites were 
of a watery-white colour, with occasionally a slight tinge of 
orange. Gonophores were obtained towards the close of May. 

Genus Gymnocoeyne, nov. gen. 

Gen. Char. Polypites clavate, sessile, rising immediately 
from a filiform stolon, invested by a delicate chitinous poly- 
pary ; tentacula capitate, very numerous, the uppermost fur- 
nished with large capitula and forming a circle round the oral 
extremity, the rest scattered over nearly the whole of the body. 
Reproduction unknown. 

This interesting form differs from Coryne , as Clava from 
Tuhiclava , in the absence of a distinct stem clothed with a 
polypary ; the polypites are truly sessile. I have not been 
able to satisfy myself that there is even a slight sheath of 
chitine, as in Clava , round the base of the body. If such a 
structure exists, it must be of the most filmy and rudimentary 

Another point in which this genus differs from Coryne is the 
disposition of the uppermost tentacles in a perfect circle (usually 
consisting of 8) round the oral extremity of the body (PL Y. 
fig. 1 j a). They have thicker stems and much larger capitula 
than the rest of the tentacles, and constitute a single verticil 
closely resembling that of Clavatella when in a state of con- 
traction. Nothing of this kind occurs in Coryne: the oral 
tentacles, indeed, are frequently larger than the rest; but they 
are never disposed, as in Gymnocoryne , in a regular wreath so 
as completely to encircle the body a little below the mouth. 

6 * 

76 Rev. T. Hincks’s Supplement to a Catalogue of 

The remaining tentacles in the present form, which are ex- 
tremely numerous, are slender, and have small eapitula ; they 
are scattered over the body, and extend to within a very short 
distance of the base of it. 

In its polypite this genus has points of resemblance both to 
Coryne and Clavatella ) combining some of the characters of 
each. Ry the total absence of a stem clothed with a polypary, 
it is separated from all the rest of the Corynidce. In this re- 
spect Clavatella comes nearest to it. 

Unfortunately I have not had the opportunity of examining 
the gonozooid. No trace of reproductive bodies appeared 
among a large colony which I succeeded in keeping alive and 
in perfect health for about three weeks. 

G . coronata ) n. sp. PL V. figs. 1, 1 a. 

Polypites very minute, slender, enlarging slightly upwards ; 
proboscis opake white, the central part of the body reddish ; 
tentacles about forty (or more), a wreath of eight, with 
rather stout stems and large eapitula, encircling the oral 
extremity, the rest irregularly distributed, slender, and with 
smaller eapitula, extending over more than three-fourths of 
the body. Gonozooid unknown. 

This is an exquisite species. The polypites are extremely 
minute, not more, I should think, than one-sixth of an inch in 
height ; some Clavatellce , which were kept in the same vessel 
with the Gymnocoryne , appeared like giants beside it. The 
verticil of oral tentacles encircles the conspicuous opake-white 
proboscis like a crown ,• it is usually composed of eight ; but 
nine are met with .occasionally . The other tentacles are scat- 
tered over the body, but with the tendency towards a verticil- 
late arrangement which prevails more or less amongst the 
Corynidce ; they are very slender, and surmounted by small 
eapitula, and decrease very markedly in size towards the base 
of the polypite. The endoderm is laden with reddish granules, 
which show through the transparent ectoderm ; the colour is 
most vivid on the upper part of the body, and becomes fainter 
below. The polypites are extensile, and become very slender 
when fully elongated. 

Hob. Salcombe Bay, in a deserted bivalve shell. 

Family Clavatellidse. 

Genus Clavatella, Hincks. 

C. prolifera, Hincks. 

Additional habitat. North Sands, Salcombe Bay, in the 

the Zoophytes of South Devon and South Cornwall. 77 

small basins on the higher blocks of rock. In May the gono- 
zooid was obtained, laden with gemmae in various stages of 
development. One specimen occurred with seven arms (six 
being the more usual number), and bore seven buds — two 
very fully developed, two more with the lobes formed, and 
three in a very rudimentary state. On one of the young, 
buds were already forming. The zooid seemed less active in 
its habits than later in the season, when not burthened by so 
heavy a load. 

Family Eudendriidse. 

Genus Eudendrium, Ehrenberg. 

E. ramosum , Linn, 

Note. — The polypites of this species are furnished with a 
number of bosses, composed of thread-cells piled together, 
which are ranged in a circle round the body, about halfway 
between the base and the tentacles. 

E. capillare , Alder. 

Additional habitat : Salcombe Bay, not uncommon ; gono- 
phores abundant in May. 

Family Atractylidae. 

Genus Perigonimus, Sars. 

P. repens , T. S. Wright. 

Salcombe Bay, on Turritella &c., and in rock-pools. 

P. serpens , Allman, 

u On the stems of Plumularia setacea , from about 12 fathoms, 
Torbay” {Allman). 

P. coccineus 9 T. S. Wright. 

I refer to this species a Perigonimus , obtained at Salcombe, 
which seems to agree on the whole with Wright’s description. 
It is larger than P. serpens , and the polypary not so delicate 
and yielding ; the body does not rise, when extended, high 
above the top of the stem and assume a slender cylindrical 
form, as in the last-named species. The colour is red, very 
vivid just below the arms, but becoming much paler below. 
The tentacles are twelve in number and colourless ; Wright gives 
only eight in P. coccineus. The stem tapers slightly down- 
wards. For safe identification we require much fuller and 
more precise descriptions of many of the minute Hydroids 
than we have yet obtained. 

78 Rev. T. Hincks’s Supplement to a Catalogue of 

Genus Bougainvillia, Lesson. 

B . muscus , Allman. 

u In a rock-pool, Torquay, where it occurred abundantly, 
creeping over the bottom in small moss-like tufts n {Allman). 

Family Tubulariidae. 

Genus Tubularia, Linnaeus (in part). 

T. Jiumilis , Allman. 

Salcombe Bay, between tide-marks and dredged in shallow 

The T. Dumortierii of the u Catalogue,” I suspect, should 
be referred to this species. 

Suborder Thecaphora. 

Family Campanulariidse. 

Genus Campanularia, Lamarck. 

Section c. With branching stems. 

C. calceolifera , n. sp. PI. VI. 

Stem filiform, subflexuous, simply pinnate or very slightly 
branched, ringed above the origin of the pedicels. Hydro- 
thecae alternate, rather small and delicate, campanulate, 
with a plain and everted rim, borne on ringed pedicels of 
varying length. Gonothecae (female) axillary, smooth, 
calceoliform, spirally curved at the upper extremity and 
tapering off below ; orifice a tubular passage projecting into 
the interior, and opening out immediately below the spiral ; 
borne on ringed stalks. Height of the shoot about 1J 

The trophosome of this species is not marked by any very 
distinctive features. The shoots are generally unbranched, 
and very slightly flexuous ; occasionally one or two short 
branches occur, but the habit is eminently simple. The caly- 
cles arc of the usual campanulate shape, delicate, and graceful 
in their proportions, and with a decidedly everted margin, 
which gives them a very elegant appearance. The capsules 
are produced in great numbers, and are ranged along both 
sides of the stem, but seem to be confined to the lower half of 
the shoot. They are perfectly hyaline, and of a unique and 
singularly graceful form (PI. VI. figs. 3, 4). They are best 
described as slipper-shaped; but the upper extremity is curved 
into a most exquisite spiral, while the lower portion tapers 
rapidly away towards the point of junction with the ringed 

the Zoophytes of South Devon and South Cornwall. 79 

stem. Immediately below the spiral a wide opening (PL VI. 
fig. 3, y ) leads into the tubular passage by which the embryos 
make their escape, which bends upwards within the capsule 
and terminates in a circular orifice near the top (Pl. VI. fig. 3, a?). 
The gonophores, which are numerous, form an elongated mass 
nearly filling the cavity of the gonotheca ; the ova seem to be 
discharged successively from the uppermost, and to pass into 
the planule stage while lying free in the capsule. The em- 
bryos, when mature, make their way by means of their cilia 
towards the upper extremity, enter the tubular passage at x , 
and make their escape into the water at y (PL VI. fig, 5). 

If the external tubular orifice of an ordinary Campanularian 
capsule were reversed, and drawn within the cavity, so as to 
project into it instead of projecting from the summit into the 
water, and were then bent round and upwards on one side, 
we should have the very form which is characteristic of this 
species. A slight modification of structure has resulted in the 
production of a most exquisite shape. 

Hab . Salcombe Bay, on stones &c. - not uncommon. 

Genus Lovenella, Hincks. 

L. clausa , Lovdn. 

On small stones, dredged off the Oar Stone, at the entrance 
to Torbay, in about 10 fathoms ; Salcombe Bay, abundant, 
especially on shells of Turritella communis . 

When the genus Lovenella was first characterized, I was 
only acquainted with the trophosome ; but in May I procured 
specimens at Salcombe with gonothecas, and was able to study 
the gonozooid, and so complete the diagnosis. The reproduc- 
tive zooid is medusiform, and bears a general resemblance to 
that of Clytia Johnstoni ; but there are important differences 
in the number and position of the marginal bodies and in the 
tentacles. The following should be added to the generic cha- 
racter as given in my ‘ History of British Hydroid Zoophytes/ 
vol. i. p. 177 : — 

Gonothecce borne on the stems and producing free medusiform 

Gonozooid . — U7nbrella (at the time of liberation) globose ; 
manubrium short , with a simple orifice; radiating canals 4 ; 
marginal tentacles of two kinds — 4 in connexion with the ra- 
diating canals , of which two only are fully developed at the time 
of birth, springing fi'om non-ocellated bulbous bases , 4 interme- 
diate , of smaller size , without bulbs , slightly clavate } ivith 
thread-cells only towards the extremity (?) ; lithocysts 4, one of 

80 Rev. T. Hincks’s Supplement to a Catalogue of 

which is placed halfway between each pair of the larger tenta- 
cles and close to one of the smaller . 

[PL V. figs. 2, 2 a, 2 i.] 

The gonotheca of L, clausa is borne on a rather long ringed 
pedicel, which rises from the stem a short distance below the 
calycle. It is elongate in form, tapering off from the truncate 
top to the base, the sides presenting a slightly sinuated out- 
line. It contains many gonophores, from each of which a 
medusiform zooid is liberated. The latter may probably un- 
dergo important changes as it advances to maturity. At the 
time of birth two only of the principal tentacles are fully de- 
veloped, the remaining pair are represented by the bulbous 
bases. The small intermediate tentacles are destitute of any 
enlargement at the point of origin ; they spring directly from 
the circular vessel, close to the lithocyst, which stands out 
from the inner margin. They are extensile, and when at rest 
are spirally contracted ; they are slightly clavate in outline, 
and, as far as I could determine during a brief examination, 
the extremity is rather thickly covered with thread-cells. 
The lithocysts include a single spherule; numerous thread- 
cells dot the surface of the umbrella. 

The polypite of L . clausa is remarkable for its great length; 
when expanded, it rises high above the top of the calycle 
(Pl.V. fig. 2), and is a most beautiful object. The latter, tall 
as it is, is often insufficient for the accommodation of its 
tenant, and the body has to be bent, as represented in one of 
the figures, or even looped , to find space enough within. 

Genus Gonothyk^ea, Allman. 

G . gracilis , Sars. 

Salcombe Bay, dredged on shell. 

This beautiful species was discovered by Sars at Bergen ; 
it has also occurred on the coast of Connemara. 

Family Lafoeidae. 

Genus Calycella, Hincks. 

C. fastigiata, Alder. 

Cornwall, on Aglaophenia tubulifera and Diphasia pinnata y 
from deep water. Also found in Shetland and the Hebrides. 

Family HaleciidaB. 

Genus Halecium, Oken. 

Id. sessile , Norman. 

Salcombe Bay, on Antennularia and Salicornaria . 

the Zoophytes of South Devon and South Cornwall. 81 



Order INFUNDIBULATA (Gymnolsemata, Allman ). 

(Suborder Cyclostomata. 

Family Tubuliporidae. 

Genus Alecto, Lamouroux. 

A. retiformis , n. sp. 

Polyzoary lobate, the lobes diverging from a common centre, 
much and irregularly branched, the branches anostomosing 
so as to form a rude network, the extremities generally 
bifid ; surface minutely punctate, and often grooved trans- 
versely; zooecia scattered irregularly, the free extremities 
of the tube projecting to a considerable distance, erect, ori- 
fice plain. The polyzoary frequently rises into short cylin- 
drical processes with a cellular apex. 

Specimens of this fine species measure about an inch across, 
and form somewhat circular patches. Four or five much- 
branched lobes radiate from a central point, the ramifications 
anastomosing freely so as to form irregular reticulations. The 
extremities of the lobes and of the branches are bifid. The 
surface is often much thickened and grooved transversely ; 
but in the newer portions towards the end of the branches the 
lines which mark the walls of the zooecia are distinctly visi- 
ble. In one of my specimens the erect processes with cellular 
extremities are numerous and characteristic. The colour of 
the polyzoary is white. 

The A. diastoporides , Norman, is perhaps the most nearly 
allied species. 

Hah. Sal combe Bay, on a valve of Pecten maximus ; Corn- 
wall, on Pinna from deep water. 

Family Diastoporidae. 

Genus DiastopORA, Lamouroux. 

D. sarniensis , Norman. 

Cornwall, on stone from deep water. 

Suborder Paludic ell ea. 

Genus Paludicella, Gervais. 

P. Ehrenbergiy Van Beneden. 

On the underside of the leaves of water-lilies in the river 
Clist, near Bishop’s Clist, South Devon {Par fit). This and 


Rev. T. Hineks’s Catalogue of Zoophytes. 

the following species of freshwater Polyzoa have been recorded 
by Mr. Parfitt in his c Catalogue of the Zoophytes of Devonj’ 
which forms part of a fauna of the county, upon which he has 
been long engaged*. 


Suborder Lophopea. Family Plumatellidae. 

Genus Lophopus, Dumortier. 

L. crystallinusj Pallas. 

In a pond near Exeter, attached to the roots of Glyceria 
ftuitans (Parfitt) . 

Genus Plumateli.a, Lamarck. 

P. repenSj Linn. 

Note . — Mr. Parfitt records the occurrence of Allman’s var. a 
on the leaves of water-lilies in the Clist river, near Bishop’s 

P. limnas , Parfitt. 

On an old shell of Anodon cygneus in the canal, Exeter 

P. lineata^ Parfitt. 

On the leaves of water-lilies in a pond in Yeitch’s old 
nursery, Exeter (Parfitt). 

P. emarginataj Allman. 

I learn from Mr. Parfitt that, since the publication of his 
Catalogue, he has discovered this interesting form in the river 
Clist, at Bishop’s Clist. This is, I believe, the first record of 
its occurrence in England, though Prof. Allman obtained it in 
various parts of Ireland. 

Genus Fredericella, Gervais. 

F. sultana , Blumenbach. 

Near Penzance (Couch). Mr. Parfitt informs me that it 
occurs plentifully in one or two places in Cornwall. 

The affluence of the South-western fauna is abundantly 
proved by the foregoing Catalogue and Supplement. As I 
have remarked before, it is brought out strikingly by com- 
paring the present list with the largest previously published, 
Mr. Alder’s excellent c Catalogue of the Zoophytes of North- 

* In this work an additional habitat is given for the rare 'Aglaophenia 
pennatula , which maybe inserted here: — u Several *tufts of five or six 
plumes each, of the typical form, were dredged in Salcombe Bay by F. 
Walker, Esq The plumes measure from 4 to 5 inches in height.” 


Dr. J. E. Gray on Trionyx Phayrei. 

umberland and Durham/ in which 164 species are recorded 
for the north-eastern district against 265 for the south- 

The species contained in this Catalogue and Supplement 
are thus distributed amongst the various groups : — 


Hydroida .... 


Discophora (Lucemariidse) . . 



Zoantharia ) 

f Coralligena \ 


Alcyonaria J “ 

[ (. Huxley ) J 





Cyclostomata . . , 


Ctenostomata . . . 


Paludicellea . . . 


Pedicellinea . . , 







Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Gymnocoryne cor mat a > Hindis, highly magnified : 1 a, the circle 
of oral tentacles. 

Fig. 2. Lovenella clausa , Loven, with gonotheca, magnified : 2 a, the 
gonozooid j 2 b, the same, seen from below. 


Plate VI. 

Fig. 1. Campamilaria calceolifera , Hincks, nat. size. 

Fig. 2. A portion of a shoot, magnified. 

Fig. 3. A gonotheca, magnified, to show the internal structure : x y the 
internal tubular orifice \ y , the point of exit. 

Fig. 4. Another gonotheca. 

Fig. 5. The upper portion of a gonotheca, more highly magnified, show- 
ing a plauule escaping through the tubular orifice. 

Fig. 6. A gonophore, highly magnified. 

X . — Notes on Trionyx Phayrei of Mr. Theobald and Dr. 
Anderson. By Dr. J. E. Gray, F.R.S. &c. 

There seems an unfortunate fatality attending the tortoises 
named after Lieut. -Col. Sir A. P. Phayre, late Chief Commis- 
sioner of British Birma. Mr. Blyth named a Testudo after 
him which has caused mtich controversy. Mr. W. Theobald, 
in a paper published in the ‘Journal of the Linnean Society’