Skip to main content

We're fighting for the future of our library in court. Show your support now!

Full text of "British marine algae : being a popular account of the seaweeds of Great Britain, their collection and preservation"

See other formats

TLE Me) 



: ae SE pe a Re ee ae Bee re ear aes Srmexy asa ase e TES. 



Ae te a Fae ae oe peta —— 

\ 524 BRoapwav) 

Class a ~~ Book 
Uolumbia College Library , - 
Madison Av. and 49th St. New York. 
Beside the main topic this book also treats of 
Subject No On page Subject No. On pagé 


British OQarine Algae : 








, ° ‘ ; f ~~ ; fovea afi ae 7 
ial , f vine. eu OU Ag 

oe | 

~z Fa bs ( 
4, = 
‘ 7 ® 
« atte, i) aan 
er 2 
° ‘ 
; is 
‘ | Ni s L¢@ ) j 
: Me ‘ ‘ 
ci? 7 ’ j 4 r U " Bayt 
”’ hy Lo vere a {LRA ¢ Cay Mi TROBE : 
ecif ‘ >. »- Fe 
4 - 4 
- < 5 
, / 
oY “te = 
- > 
a 4 
< \ ’ 
, oN 
© e my 
% _ 
4 : . 
, As BST ap - ve Oa 
' . 
‘ i) 
‘ ‘i 
. A 
4 ae 
x > 
a or 
of Ld 
‘i t ' Ps, 14 dv ‘ 
~ 7 ' 
i * é 
4 oat 

British ODarine Algae. 


Visitors to the seaside frequently complain of the want of amusement 
and occupation there. I will endeavour to suggest a source which will 
supply at once amusement, occupation, and instruction. Most people are 
fond of flowers, and many there are who know something about them ; but 
how few among them know anything about seaweeds! The object of this 
book is to call attention to the beauties of marine vegetation, and to help, 
by means of accurate and characteristic illustrations, to the recognition 
and appreciation of the many lovely plants which either in thoughtlessness 
or ignorance people cast aside or tread under foot as they wander on the 
sea shore. 

The vegetable kingdom is classed under two grand sub-divisions, 
described by botanists under the terms Phanerogamia, or flowering plants, 
and Cryptogamia, or flowerless plants. In flowering plants are recognised, 
in all periods of life beyond the earliest, two distinct kinds of the product 
of the growth ; these are an axis or stem, and leaves and flowers, the latter 
being succeeded by the perfect development of special organs containing 
the fruit or seed of the plant. In seaweeds there is no corresponding 
arrangement of seed-producing organs, the axis or stem only is represented, 
but never clothed with leaves and floral organs capable of producing seed 
vessels. The stem assumes a remarkable variety of forms, in some 
instances simulating those of perfect leaves, but never presenting that 
_ distinct separation into leaf and stem, such as we observe in the charac- 
teristic structure of flowering plants. The leaf-like and branching expan- 
sions of seaweeds perform at once the office of stem, root, and leaf, and 
represent what in the cryptogamic division of plants is termed ‘“‘ frond.’’ 

Seaweeds, like all other plants which belong to this great sub-class, are 
reproduced by a simple kind of seed called spore, in which (so scientific 
‘botanists say) no embryo or rudimentary plant exists at the period when it 
is thrown off by the parent plant. “Thus the term “ spore”’ is now applied 
to the reproductive bodies of all flowerless plants, while that of “‘ seed”’ 
specially belongs to the ovules of all the Phanerogamia, or flowering 
plants. The spores of seaweeds are produced in variously-formed capsules, 
which in some are borne on the branches, and in others are immersed in 


£4} Ee oy f 
CF fw tiv? J 



membranaceous expansions. Their form, situation, and characteristic dis- 
tinctions, will be fully described in connection with the figures of species 
which will form the illustrations to these pages. 

There is one fact which makes the study of cryptogamic botany 
peculiarly interesting, and that is that a large portion of fossil vegetation 
is very intimately related to some of the nobler flowerless plants, and 
probably exhibits far grander and more highly organised individuals than 
any which at the present time are found in a living state. The celebrated 
Hugh Miller informs us that fossilized algze were not discovered until so 
recent a period as the year 1856, when some of the fucoids, or kelp-weeds, 
were detected in some ancient rocks in Shropshire. In the ancient Lower 
Silurians of Dumfriesshire, these rock weeds were so abundant that they 
have produced large tracts of anthracite coal several feet in thickness. 
The string-like plant known as Chorda filum, or popularly, “‘ dead mens’ 
lines,’’ had a Lower Silurian representative, known to the paleontologist 
as Palwochorda, or ancient rope. The well-known “Carrageen moss ”’ of 
the Irish had also a Lower Silurian prototype, and our Fuci or rock kelp- 
weeds were represented by Fucoides gracilis of the Lower Silurians of the 
Malverns ; in fact, the Thallogens of the earliest periods of vegetation 
appear to have resembled in their general characteristics the alge or sea- 
weeds of the present era. 

Were I to attempt to give a history of the various systematic arrange- 
ments by different authors, or of the steps by which we have arrived at our 
present knowledge of marine vegetation, I should certainly weary the. 
reader; therefore I will state at once, that the plan I shall adopt in these 
pages is based on the system of the late Professor Harvey, of Dublin, as 
recently revised by Professor Agardh, the celebrated Swedish algologist. 
These admirable botanists have distributed the alge into three large 
groups, which may be briefly described as follows: First, or simplest in 
point of structure, Chlorospermee, mostly grass-green, but varying occa- 
sionally to olive, purple, or other tints; Melanospermee, olive-green, 
sometimes inclining to yellow or brown-olive ; and Rhodospermee, rose-red, 
with every variety of pink, red, or brown-red tints, sometimes purple, but 
very rarely green. These three great sub-divisions are separated into 
orders, genera, and species. The Chlorosperms consist at present of six 
orders and twenty-three genera. The Melanosperms of six orders and 
thirty-five genera, and the Rhodosperms of thirteen orders and sixty-six 
genera. The name alga, which, as Dr. Harvey says, formerly included the 
lichens, is now limited to that large group of flowerless plants which con- 
stitute the characteristic vegetation of the waters, the marine division of 
which is now popularly termed seaweeds. 

Seaweeds may be characterised as cellular flowerless plants, living in or 
entirely under water, and deriving nourishment throughout their whole 
substance from the medium in which they vegetate. Roots, properly so 
called, they have none; the base of the plant, by which it is attached to 
the rocks or other substances, serving merely as a holdfast, to prevent the 

plant from being driven about and destroyed by the action of the waves ; but 
as no vessels of absorption have hitherto been discovered in the roots and 
stems, it is evident that seaweeds do not derive their nourishment from the 
substance to which they are attached, for indeed they are found growing 
luxuriantly alike on iron and floating timber, on rocks and shells, on the 
carapaces of crabs, and even upon each other, in the latter case without 
any detriment whatever to the species on which they are parasitic. The 
roots or holdfasts in some are a flattened or slightly conical disc, in others 
branching and clinging fibres, and in the Laminarie or oarweeds, especially 
as the plants advance in growth, a series of grasping processes are thrown 
down from the stem, which adhere so firmly to the rock that it is extremely 
difficult to detach them. 

The alge, or seaweeds, consist entirely of cellular tissue—little mem- 
branous sacs or cells of various forms, with walls of different degrees 
of tenacity. These minute cells are empty or filled with granular 
organised matter, which divides and developes new cells; these again 
divide and produce others, and thus by this cell splitting, branches 
and spreading fronds or leafy expansions are produced, each order of 
cell-division proceeding according to the 
laws of growth of its own species. The 
cellular tissue of which all seaweeds 
are composed presents several varieties. 
The most common form of cell is that of a 
cylinder, generally much longer in propor- 
tion to its breadth, and when such is the 
case the cells are attached end to end, 
forming threads or filaments, numbers of 
which, branched or otherwise, make up 
the frond by becoming firmly attached in 
bundles. Many of the simpler kinds of 
seaweeds are made up of threads or strings 
of cells, some of which are elaborately 
branched, others unbranched, yet through- 
Fig. 1, Filament of Confervatortuosa. out the whole plant the cells or joints are 
i Spore clothed with atite taht , invariably produced in the unbranched 
oo, or er : _ kinds from the tips of the cells of those 

vice -gsiieas From Porphyralaci- + eneath them, or from the upper side, as 

well as from the tips of the joints in the 
branching species. A portion of a filament of Conferva tortuosa (Fig. 1) 
and a branchlet of Cladophora Hutchinsie (Fig. 2) will illustrate the 
simple cellular or jointed structure of branched and unbranched filaments. 
Polygonal and other forms of cells are found in the leafy and membranous 
species, the particular forms being in most cases due to cell-pressure 
during growth, some adhering very closely together, and accommodating 
their forms to the spaces they have to fill, while in others the cells are set, 
as it were, within a transparent gelatine, each cell being completely sepa- 


rated from its neighbour by a hyaline or colourless space or border. The 
contents of the cells which give to the plants their various hues are termed 
endochrome or chlorophyll, and it is from this colouring matter in con- 
nection with a partial metamorphosis of certain portions of some species 
that the fructification of seaweeds is produced. Of the various forms of 
fructification and other particulars connected with the different systems 
of reproduction I shall speak as occasion arises. Thus much, however, I 
may state at once, that in speaking of the reproductive bodies of some of 
the green plants, the term “ zoospore,”’ in addition to that of spore, will be 
occasionally used, the word zoospore signifying animal seed, from the 
peculiar movements it exhibits in the water by means of the filaments with 
which it is furnished. 

When examined by the microscope, the spores of most of the seaweeds at 
the time of their emission from the cells of the parent plant are found to 
be clothed with very minute hairs, the constant vibratile motion of which 
causes them to move about with the greatest activity. ‘ The little 
spore,”’ says Professor Harvey, “ whilst contained within the mother cell, 
commences life by knocking continually against the walls of the inclosure 
until it has burst through them into the surrounding water, and then with 
many gyrations and rapid changes of place it swims about by means of the 
cilia with which it is clothed, until it finds a substance on which it can 
rest and attach itself. Once fixed, or apparently satisfied with its locality, 
its youthful wanderings are over, and its seemingly yoluntary motions 
cease. The cilia are absorbed or perish, and the vegetable cellule com- 
mences the growth natural to its kind, and finally hecomes a plant 
resembling the species from which it sprang.’? A spore is represented, of 
course very highly magnified, by the little oval figure (Fig, 3) in the group 
of diagrams. . : 

Among the various uses of seaweeds in the economy of nature, especially 
among the green plants, is that of the power they possess, although in a 
small degree, of contributing to the purification of the water in which they 
live. This is due to the oxygen which is generated in their delicate 
tissues, from the carbonic acid which they absorb from the surrounding 
water. Few marine animals will live long healthily in the confinement of 
aquaria, unless the water be properly supplied with growing plants of Ulva 
and other green seaweeds. 

In an interesting little work on British Seaweeds, by the late Dr. Lans- 
borough, I remember reading an account of a rebuff given to an enthusiastic 
young student by a professor of botany, to whom he had shown the contents 
of his vasculum, after a day’s gathering on the sea shore. ‘‘ Pooh, pooh, 
sir,” said the old gentleman, “‘a parcel of seaweeds—pah.”’ Nice encourage- 
ment this must have been for a botanic student, perhaps an incipient 
algologist! This reminds one of the “ Alga projecta vilior’”’ of the old 
Roman poet—terms of contempt for the beauties of the deep, which, I 
suppose, must be forgiven, in consideration for the glorious verses which 
the speaker has bequeathed to us. However, as regards the old professor 


of botany, it is very probable that the extent of his acquaintance with sea- 
weeds was limited to the rejectamenta of the sea; for the rebuff referred 
to took place some sixty or seventy years ago, at which period a knowledge 
of seaweeds was very scanty indeed; numbers of species which are now 
familiar to every collector had not then been discovered, the dredge was 
hardly in use, and the microscope was in its infancy. Things, however, 
are very different now, and there is really no excuse for people who may 
desire some acquaintance with marine algex, talking of the difficulty of 
finding beautiful plants, of learning their names, and of mounting and 
arranging them. I have very often been appealed to for information as to 
the best method of acquiring knowledge on this subject, and my invariable 
advice has been, as I write it once more, read some standard work on sea- 
weeds in the first place, study the figures of the plants, for indeed good 
illustrations are indispensable to a perfect comprehension of the best des- 
criptions of species, and then go and gather the flowers or weeds of the 
ocean, call them what you will, and he or she must be a churl indeed who 
is not quickly fascinated with such an occupation, which not only brings 
health unsought, but elevates the mind, and thus by pointing through 
nature up to Nature’s God, enlarges man’s ideas of the wisdom, power, and 
goodness of the Creator. 

I have often been amused to see the strange, not to say absurd, mistakes 
made by beginners in naming their plants; and I doubt not many a 
botanist as well as myself has been provoked at the disinclination so 
frequently evinced by amateur collectors to anything approaching study 
by means of the microscope, as though it were possible to acquire know- 
ledge in botanical pursuits without its help, or at least that of a good lens 
or magnifier. Look, for instance, at the Cladophora, to a few of which I 
shall call the reader’s attention by means of my figures of magnified 
branchlets. True, an experienced algologist knows at once what is the 
species he has before him, but he did not always know it, and, although the 
eye soon learns to detect differences in appearance, knowledge of specific 
distinctions among the filamentous aud delicately-branched seaweeds can 
only be acquired by means of the microscope. 



Green Seaweeds. 

Among the most abundant of the common species of seaweeds are two, 
Ulwa latissima and Porphyra laciniata, which form together, when pre- 
pared and potted, the laver of commerce ; the latter, although belonging to 
the chlorosperms, in accordance with its system of fructification, is 
brown, or sometimes a lurid purple. There are several tolerably well- 
defined species of each of these plants, some of which are found abundantly 
on rocky shores, while others are somewhat rare. The species most com- 
monly met with is Ulva latissima (Fig. 5), or the very broad Ulva, or 

Fig. 5. Ula latissima. Fie. 6. Ulwa linza. 

amiliarly, lettuce weed or green laver. This species is found on all shores 
and in ali latitudes, except in the Arctic regions, though even there a small 
stunted species called Ulwa crispa is sometimes met with. The frond of 
Ulva latissima is delicately membranaceous and of a bright green colour ; 
in form it is usually a broad, rounded oblong, from Gin. to 14in. long, often 
very much waved at the margin, and attached to the rocks by a very 
minute disc. The spores are usually arranged in groups of fours, and are 
scattered over the whole frond. 


Ulwa linza (Fig. 6), a beautiful and very graceful species, though by no 
means rare, is not so abundant as the former plant. It grows in similar 
situations, and sometimes even in society with it. The plant consists of a 
cluster of fronds from 6in. to 2ft. in length, about lin. in width, and 
tapering gradually to the base. The fronds are generally very much curled 
and waved at the margin, and the whole plant is of a bright grass-green 
colour. The frond of this species consists of two delicate membranes, the 
cells of which are divided vertically and shorizontally, so that they are at 
once leaf-like and tubular. To ordinary observers, this plant bears a 
strong resemblance to Enteromorpha intestinalis; and, indeed, Dr. 
Greville, of Edinburgh, in describing this species, points out the fact of 
its double membrane, forming at least a transition to the genus Entero- 
morpha. Collectors, however, after a very little practice in comparing 
specimens of these plants, will not have much difficulty in distinguishing 
them ; Enteromorpha intestinalis being always tubular and somewhat con- 
stricted at intervals, while Ulva linza is comparatively flattened, never 
constricted, and always more or less waved at the margin. Porphyra 
laciniata bears a striking resemblance to Ulva latissima, not only in out- 
ward form, but in its fructification, which consists of sori or groups of 
spores. Under the microscope the whole membrane of the plant appears 
to be divided into segments or square groups of cells, regularly arranged 
in fours, and within these squares are contained four purple spores, as seen 
in the illustration (Fig. 4). Porphyra, under the name of laver, is boiled 
and eaten with lemon juice or vinegar, and is not only very wholesome, but 
agreeable in flavour, and were it not for the ignorance and prejudice which 
sailors exhibit concerning things they know not, this common seaweed 
might become a valuable article of vegetable diet to the crews of whaling 
vessels and voyagers in the Artic regions, since nearly every marine rock 
is clothed with its dark brown fronds. The plant in our illustration 
(Fig. 7) is Porphyra vulgaris, a much more elegant species, being narrower, 
much longer, and very gracefully waved and curled at the margin, some- 
what like Ulva linza. The colour of Porphyra is a very singular departure 
from the ordinary green tint of the Chlorosperms; the plants of this genus 
being, in the living state, of a dark brown, which after drying and mounting 
on paper changes gradually to a fine purple, or sometimes to a rose red. 

The order Ulvacee contains a genus of interesting plants which at 
present must be merely glanced at, for in the first place they are, with the 
exception of one species, nearly microscopic, and, secondly, anything like a 
description of them will necessitate illustrations, most of which would be 
too minute for the purpose I have in hand, viz., popular information. I 
will merely state, then, that the genus to which I refer is named Bangia, 
in honour of Hoffman Bang, a Danish botanist. All the species of Bangia 
are purple, or sometimes inclined to brown-red, and they are mostly 
parasitic on other algz ; one species, and that the largest, being found 
near high-water mark, growing on rocks and wood. Its name is Bangia 
fusca-purpurea. Inexperienced collectors would hardly imagine this plant 


to be included in the Chlorosperms or green seaweeds; and this is another 
instance of the necessity, as already pointed out by me, of some little 
book-learning at first, otherwise many a pretty plant will be passed by 
unheeded or overlooked. The species in question consists of a bundle of 
purple silky filaments, several inches long, unbranched and very narrow 
throughout their whole length. The broadest filaments of this delicate . 
plant, under the microscope, are seen to be tubular, and to contain four or 
five rows of granular cells, a form of structure which connects these plants 
with the Ulvacew, otherwise to the ordinary observer, they would appear to 
belong to the Conferve, a genus of green unbranched plants which I will 
describe presently. 

The Enteromorphe, of which two common species make their appearance 
about high-water mark clothing rocks and stones with a slippery vesture 
of shining green, have been the cause of many a tumble to the unwary 
pedestrian on the sea shore. I have heard these pretty green plants some- 
times called ‘‘ sea-grass’”’ and ‘‘ mermaids’ hair,’’ and, indeed, some of the 
rarer and finer species may well be termed mermaids’ hair or sea hair. 
But first I must describe the two species that are met with everywhere, 
and these are Enteromorpha intestinalis and E. compressa. The former 
grows in tufts, and is simple, or unbranched; each frond is tubular, and 
somewhat constricted here and there, and in form resembles the intestine 
of an animal, hence its specific name; but EH. compressa (Fig. 8) is a 
branched species, and is compressed or flattened at the margin. These 
plants are very variable in length and width, the filaments of some 
specimens being very narrow, while others are as broad as Ulva linza, and 
very dark in colour. The largest specimens of Enteromorpha always 
appear to me to owe their unusual size to the action of fresh water; I 
have often seen specimens of E. intestinalis, as well as Ulva latissima, 
growing in streams which were scarcely even brackish, more than 2ft. in 
length, and of such breadth that they appeared like large green bags 
floating in the water. The structure of the Enteromorphe is very similar 
to that of Ulva; the whole frond is beautifully reticulated, the cells being 
arranged in fours, or multiples of that number, the endochrome or colouring 
matter of which at maturity is converted into spores. The fronds of these 
green plants are often found partially white, and sometimes wholly so. 
This is due not only toincipient decay, but because the spores have broken 
away from the cells, leaving the membrane of the plant colourless and 
unsightly. Then is the time to look for certain rare microscopic parasites, 
some of which have their special habitat on decaying fronds of Entero- 
morpha, as well as on those of the Ulwe. In addition to these two well- 
marked and easily recognised species, there are several others, more or 
less rare. Among these, the most interesting probably is the species called 
E. clathrata (Fig. 9). It grows abundantly in the rock pools all about 
Torbay, but being a summer annual, it loses much of its bright green colour 
towards the end of September, and soon after turns to a brownish yellow- 
In all stages of its growth the fronds are extremely slender, very much 


‘punbuno x vawafuop 

‘DUDIUVT vydvowmoiaquUy ‘VG ‘OL 

“pssa.duioo ny dwowmoujugy *8 ‘O17 


branched, and set throughout with short, spreading, or recurved ramuli or 

There are several species of Enteromorpha, which, to ordinary observers, 
so strongly resemble each other that reference to the microscope is 
absolutely necessary to distinguish them. At the head of these stands 
Enteromorpha clathrata, just mentioned; the others are now classed as 
varieties of this species, but, although I intend to figure only one of them, 
chiefly on account of the grace and beauty of the specimen I possess (which 
is also highly characteristic of the species), I will endeavour to point out 
certain peculiarities of growth in each of them, so that they will be more 
readily recognised by inexperienced collectors. I therefore direct the 
reader’s attention to the figure of H. Linkiana (Fig. 9A). The frond is 
about 6in. or 8in. in height, with a distinct main stem, throwing out along: 
its whole length branches several inches long, smaller in diameter than 
the main stem, and bearing in their turn a second and third series of very 
fine hair-like branches or filaments, all of which spread out, but incline 
upwards. LE. erecta has also a distinct main stem, but the branches, which 
are set on each side of the stem, are more regular in length and are clothed 
with finely attenuated ramuli, which taper to a needle-like point. In 
E. ramulosa, the main stem is less definite than that of the two former 
species, the fronds are tufted and the branches, which are numerous, but 
of irregular length, are bent, or somewhat curved, in various directions ; 
the ramuli are short and bristle-like, and are set without order on the 
branches from the base to the tip. The fronds of all these species are all 
more or less reticulated like a tessellated pavement, and within the cells 
of the surface the spores are formed, generally in groups of fours. E. 
cornucopie is a singular species (if, indeed, it really be a species), usually 
found on Corallina officinalis and other alge. In early growth the fronds 
are like little elongated bags, which soon break at the apices and expand 
into the form which has suggested their fanciful specific name; some 
botanists regard this plant as merely a form of Ulva lactuca, which, in the 
young state of that species, it certainly very strongly resembles. Other 
smaller and rarer species of Enteromorpha are known under the names of 
distinguished botanists, and these are E. Ralfsii and E. Hopkirkii. There 
is also one other variety of E. clathrata known as E. percursa. 

EL. Linkiana, E. ramulosa, E. erecta, and E. percursa were formerly 
regarded as distinct species, but are now considered as variations of 
E. clathrata. The differences in character are hardly appreciable to any 
but practised botanists, hence a particular description of all of them is 
scarcely necessary, at least in a popular account of British seaweeds. 

The genus Conferva formerly included a large number of green plants 
branched and unbranched, but it is now confined exclusively to a definite 
number of filamentous alge, which are made up of masses, more or less 
tufted or matted together, of strings of cells or joints, which increase in 
length, either by a species of budding from the terminal cells of the fila- 
ments, or from a continual division of the old cells in the centre. The latter 


mode of growth is most general among the Conferve proper, which are all 
unbranched. Recourse to the microscope is necessary for an examination 
of their structure, and also to identify species. These simple plants 
are propagated by zoospores, which 
are formed from the granular con- 
tents of the cells, or from the whole 
mass of endochrome or colouring 
matter of one or more cells being 
concentrated into an enlarged cell 
and forming there a sporangium or 
Spore - bearing conceptacle, from 
which, on the perishing of the old 
plant, new individuals are propa- 
gated. Fig. 10 represents a por- 
tion of a filament, highly magnified, 
of Conferva Youngana, the central 
joint of which contains a binate 
Sporangium. Fig. 11 represents 
portions of two filaments of the 
same species, highly magnified. 
Most of the Conferve inhabit 
fresh water, and are found abun- 
dantly wherever stagnant water 
lies, the oxygen which they continually throw off into the air, helping 
to neutralize the noxious effects which would otherwise arise from decaying 
vegetation in the water beneath them. The marine species of Conferva are 
not now very numerous ; one of the most common perhaps is Conferva 
tortuosa, well represented in the illustration (Fig. 12), a magnified filament 
of which was engraved on p. 5 (Fig. 1). This species is mostly parasitic 
on old stems of the Fuci, near high water mark ; but the masses of its 
entangled tortuous filaments are so inextricably interwoven, that it is 
useless attempting to separate them. The name Conferva is from the 
Latin Conferrwminare, to consolidate, the ancients having made use of 
masses of these plants in binding up wounds and fractured limbs. 

Among the Conferve there are two species by no means uncommon, 
which at a cursory glance strongly resemble each other, especially when 
they are seen growing in the water. One of them, Conferva wrea, is found 
on sand-covered rocks about half-tide level, growing in a tuft of erect 
filaments from 3in. to 4in. in length. The articulations or joints of the 
filaments are about as long as broad, and the whole plant, though harsh 
to the touch, loses its rigidity, and lies prostrate as the tide recedes from 
it. A plant of Conferva wrea is shown in (a) Fig. 124, and beside it a 
fragment of a filament magnified to show the form of the cells. The other 
species (b) is Conferva melagonium. It is usually found in rocky tide 
pools, where its long bristle-like filaments, from 4in. to 12in. in height, 
stand erect, stiff, and straight, even when left uncovered by the ebb of the 

Fig. 12. Conferva tortuosa. 


tide. All the articulations, except the lowest, are about twice as long as 
broad, the endochrome or cell contents being of a dark green colour. A 
plant of this species is represented at b, and beside it, three joints from the 
centre of a filament. 
The long filaments of 
this species are gene- 
rally few in number, and 
are set some little dis- 
tance apart, while those 
of C. wrea are more 
numerous, and grow in 
tufts closely packed to- 
gether. I have described 
these two plants under 
the names by which they 
have been_long known, 
but I must inform my 
readers that their generic 
name now is Cheto- 
morpha, which is at once 

Fic. 12a. (a) Conferva erea, and portion of filament significant and charac- 

magnified ; (b) Conferva anelaag iia and + 4s : 
three cells magnified. teristic, as having refer- 

ence to their bristle or 
hair-like appearance. Of course a good lens is indispensable in examining 
these minutely-jointed plants, otherwise specific distinctions cannot 
- possibly be understood and appreciated. For ordinary purposes a watch- 
maker’s eye-glass is sufficient, but to those who will take the trouble to 
acquire its use, a Stanhope lens is the algologist’s true vade mecum. 

I now come to the puzzling but beautiful sub-genus, Cladophora, or 
branch-bearers. All the plants belonging to this family are branched, 
some most elaborately so; several species are very rigid and exceedingly 
difficult to display on paper, becoming often so entangled and interwoven 
as to tire the patience of the most expert manipulator. They are pro- 
pagated by a conversion of the granular contents of the joints or cells 
into zoospores, which, upon being cast loose from the cells of the plant, 
swim about like so many tiny awimalcule. The process of development 
in the zoospores or reproductive bodies of the Cladophora is so exceed- 
ingly interesting, that I direct the reader’s attention to the group of 
figures (13, 14,15), which represent the different stages of development 
in the endochrome or cell contents of Cladophora letevirens. Fig. 13 
represents a highly magnified portion of a filament at the moment that 
the terminal joint has formed a kind of wall or line of division, this being 
the first step in the process of cell division, and which results in the 
separation of the endochrome into two portions. Beside it (Fig. 14) is a 
filament with the cells and zoospores fully developed. On the upper and 
right wall of each cell is a slight projection, or expansion of the cell 


wall, which soon yields to the pressure from within, is finally ruptured, and 
through these minute orifices the zoospores make their way into the water. 
The ruptured filament on the right (Fig. 15) is empty ; three zoospores 
only are seen in the lower joint, five ciliated zoospores represent the 
active state of these bodies, and the two below represent the quiescent 
stage before germination. The ramification or mode of growth in the 
Cladophora, may be studied from an examination of the branch of Olado- 
phora Hutchinsie, p. 5 (Fig. 2). C. letevirens (d, Fig. 21) or the pale 
green Cladophora is one of the most common species of Cladophora met 
with on rocky shores. It grows in densely tufted masses very profusely 
branched, and beset on all sides with lesser branches and branchlets. The 
species in the illustration (Fig. 16) is C. diffusa, a loosely branched plant, 
rather rare, and the easiest to represent accurately in a drawing of any 
of these delicate alge. Terminal branchlets of two other rare species are 
represented in Figs. 17 and 18, C. rectangularis and C. falcata; the 
former being easily recognised owing to its branchlets and ramuli, all 
being set at right angles throughout the whole plant; the latter having 
branches shaped like sickles, the branchlets being curved in the same 
direction as their primaries and mostly on the inner or curved side. There 
are several other pretty species of this family, and among those which are 
parasitic on other alge may be mentioned the little cotton-like species 
known as C. lanosa, which grows near the forked tips of a dark-red plant 
called Polyides rotundus. I once found this tiny species in a beautiful 

Figs. 13, 14,15. Cladophora letevirens. 

Stages of development in the Fig. 16. Cladophora diffusa. 


rock pool at Whitsand Bay, near Plymouth, growing on Polyides in such — 
profusion that the floor of the pool seemed as though it were carpeted 
with the most exquisite green velvet. Among the many species of Clado- 
phora which Iam tempted to describe, there is one which I may mention, 
though briefly, because it is met with very frequently about half-tide level, 
growing in rock pools and under the shade of the larger algw. Its name is 


C. rupestris (b, Fig. 21) or the Rock cladophora. It is easily recognised by 
its very dark or blackish-green colour, and by the excessive rigidity of its 
filaments, and erect ramuli or branchlets. This species does not readily 
adhere to paper. Therefore, 
the best way in preparing it 
for the herbarium is to mount 
it on paper in the usual man- 
ner in sea water, and after it 
is partially pressed and nearly 
dry, to immerse it, paper and 
all, in skimmed milk, and 
then dry and press it as 
before, after which it will 
adhere closely to the paper 
for an indefinite period. 

To general observers, many 
of the Cladophora look won- 
derfully alike, all of them 

Fie. 17. Cladophora rectangularia. 

Fie. 18. Cladophora falcata, being more or less bushy and 
Fie. 19, Vaucheria velutina (ramuli with excessively branched, and 

green of various shades being 
the prevailing colour; but as the tints vary greatly, according to the age of 
the plants and the situation in which they grow, even in individuals of the 
same species, colour is by no means a character which can be implicitly 
relied on. An examination of at least terminal branchlets with a good 
lens is absolutely neces- 
sary, and thus they will 
all be found to be more 
or less abundantly dif- 
ferent. I have selected 
a few species, which are 
most likely to be met 
with, in illustration of 
my remarks, and because 
I think that my figures 
of magnified branches 
will help students to 
distinguish their charac- 
teristic ramification or 
mode of growth, and the 
peculiarity of branching, 
as well as the differ- 
ences in the form and 
size of the articulations in the terminal ramuli or branchlets. The 
illustration of the species Cladophora arcta (Fig. 20, and c, Fig. 21) is not 
only highly characteristic of this plant, which invariably: presents a 

Fie. 20. Cladophora arcta. 


beautifully arched outline, but it serves to convey a very good general 
idea of the appearance of growing plants of this genus. 

Let me now direct the reader’s attention to the group of drawings, 
Fig. 21. Letter a is the terminal sprig of Cladophora pellucida. I describe 
this plant as among the Cladophora, though, I regret to say, it has been 
removed from that genus, and it is now, I believe, the only British 
representative of the genus Leptocystea. It is most easily recognised, not 
only by its perfect regularity of branching, but by there being only one 
long cell or joint between each furcation or forking of the branches. 
Almost all the branches are set at rather acute angles exactly opposite to 
each other on the sides of the stems, and the terminal ramuli are single 
jointed, much shorter than the other articulations of the plant, and three 
in number. All the branches of this species are stiff and wiry, and the 
dark green endochrome in the joints is surrounded by a pellucid or 
colourless border. Letter 6b, is a lateral branchlet of C. rupestris. In 
all states of this plant the colour is a very dull dark green, and the 
branches and ramuli are stiff and harsh to the touch; the ramification 
is very regular, and, once having had its characters pointed out, the 
student will have no difficulty in recognising the species. Letter c 
embraces two filaments, one is a terminal branchlet of the pretty species 
C. arcta, in which the joints are about thrice as long as broad, the other 
represents a portion of the lower parts of the plant in which the articula- 
tions are pretty nearly of equal dimensions. This is a favourite species 
with collectors, as it adheres very well to paper, and preserves its fine 
glossy green in drying. Letter d is a terminal branchlet of C. letevirens. 
In this species the articulations are of very great length in proportion to 
their breadth. In early growth the plant is a fine bright green, which 
becomes gradually paler as it advances towards maturity. This is one of 
tne commoner forms of marine Cladophora, and is identical with the fresh- 
water species, Cladophora glomerata. Letter e is a terminal sprig of C. 
refracta, one of the most bushy and densely branched of the genus. The 
young student may study this drawing for some time ere he will carry in 
his memory the variety displayed in this one terminal sprig of C. refracta. 
If, however, he chance to find this species, he may easily identify it by a 
comparison with my figure, which, like all the others, has been drawn 
from the living plant as accurately as possible. There are several other 
species of this beautiful tribe of seaweeds, some of which are minute and 
others rare; among the latter is the fine species Cladophora Rudolphiana, 
a specimen of which I possess, but I have never found this species on the 
English shores. It occurs only, I believe, in Roundstone Bay, and in one 
or two other stations on the coast of Ireland. OC. gracilis is one of the 
most delicate and beautiful of the genus. OC. fracta is an exceedingly 
bushy plant. C. albida is a fine species, but turns to a pale whitish green 
in drying, whence its specific name. CO. flexuosa is a pretty species with 
wide-spreading branches. CO. Balliana is a tolerably well-marked species. 
C. uncialis, as its name implies, is about an inch in height and grows on 


rocks, while C. lanosa, of a similar size, is usually parasitic on other alge, 
as already described. C. glaucescens is a beautiful species, occasionally 
reflecting glaucous tints, as referred to in its specificname. C. Gattye, 
Macallana, Brown, and 
two or three others, com- 
plete the list of British 
species of this genus. 
| The curious genus 
| Codium contains some 
| very remarkable species, 
two of which, except that 
they grow generally in 
masses on the surface of 
rocks, rarely attract the 
attention of ordinary col- 
lectors, and are certainly 
not common; but there 
is one species which is 
among the most singular 
of seaweeds, and that is 
Codium bursa, the Purse- 
like Codium. This plant 
is very rare; but, as col- 
lectors may unexpectedly 
meet with it, some little 
description of the curi- 
osity may not be amiss. 
Its habitat or place of 
growth is on rocks, near 
| low water mark, and its 
appearance is that of a 
round hollow’ spongy 
ball, from one to several 
inches in diameter. The 
whole plant is made up 
of a very closely inter- 
woven mass of tubular 
filaments, giving to the 
plant the appearance of 
a round green sponge. Many years ago I used to find this very rare 
and curious species growing on one rock only, at the very verge of 
low water between Brighton and Rotting Dene, and but that the 
little ‘‘ mermaid’s balloons,’’ as I once heard them called, were green, 
one might liken them to the well-known puff-balls of the field. The 
species most commonly met with is C. tomentosum (Fig. 22). This 
plant is also singularly like one of the branching sponges. The stem 

Fig. 21. Branchlets of Cladophora. 


and branches are soft and pliable, and are invested with a sort of slimy 
gelatine very similar to the viscid animal coating of living sponges. 
Indeed, it is owing to this peculiar feel of the frond that the genus was 
named from the Greek, x#dsov, or skin of an animal. The illustration 
shows the mode of growth in a frond of C. tomentoswm. The branches are 
generally divided in a dichotomous manner; in other words, regularly 
forked up to the tips of the divisions, and sometimes the branches throw 
out here and there short lateral ramuli or branchlets. The structure of 
this plant is entirely filamentous, the centre being composed of long string- 
like colourless filaments or fibres, while those which radiate horizontally 
around them are club-shaped, of a dark green colour, and invested with a 
thin layer of colourless slime. Dark green vesicles containing the fruit of 
the plant are borne on the sides of the club-shaped filaments. In mounting 
this species on paper, care must be observed that heavy pressure be avoided 

Fig. 22. Codiuwm tomentosum. Fig. 23. Vaucheria clavata. 

until the water is all drained out of the frond, otherwise it will adhere to the 
linen covering, or break off in pieces, and the specimen will be destroyed. 
The genus Vaucheria, named in honour of M. Vaucher, a distinguished 
French botanist, contains a few very interesting but minute green plants, 
and were it not for the dense masses in which most of the species grow, 
they would be constantly overlooked or disregarded. Some of them are 
parasitic on other larger algw, but they are more generally found on the 
muddy sea-shore, or on mud-covered rocks flooded by the tide. The 
species named Vaucheria velutina, is a summer annual, and consists of a 
dense mass of branching filaments, colourless below, but above, of a 
fine green, and of a delicate velvety texture. The branches, which are 
most intricately interwoven, throw up their little green tips an inch or so 
above the surface of the mud in which they grow. The fructification 
consists of a dark-green mass of endochrome contained within a little 
stalked round vesicle, which sprouts from the side of the erect 
branches, a short distance below the tips. This is well seen in the 


group of magnified filaments at Fig. 19. In the species V. clavata, 
which is frequently found in fresh water, growing in little cushion-like 
tufts, the fruit is formed and perfected in the tips of the filaments, where 
the dark-green granular matter is consolidated, and becomes separated 
from the lower portion by a diaphragm or colourless space. This separated 
mass, which is somewhat bent in at the centre, forces its way through the 
tip of the filament, and moves about by means of vibratile cilia, until it 
has fixed itself, when, by lengthening at each end, it gradually assumes 
the characteristic form of its species, and thus a new individual is produced. 
Fig. 23 represents the little club-shaped tip of a filament, the reproductive 
body forcing its way through the cell wall. The stems and branches of 
all these pretty little green plants are entirely devoid of joints or parti- 
tions, being tubular from the base to the tip of the branches—hence the 
term Siphonacee, the name of the order to which they belong. 

The most attractive species among the Siphonacee is unquestionably 
Bryopsis plumosa, very well represented in the illustration (Fig. 24), from a 
plant taken at St. Leonard’s several years ago. The fronds of this pretty 
green plant arise several from the same base. The plumose or feathered 
portion is generally confined to the upper half of the fronds, and always 
terminates them. Occasionally in very luxuriant specimens, the fronds 
are feathered very nearly to the base, and throw out lateral branches which 
are beset again with numerous little plumes, until the whole plant presents 
the appearance of a bunch of delicate green feathers. Every frond of this 
species is a continuous tube containing a dark green very minutely 
granular matter, and it is from this fluid endochrome, when cast loose 
from the plant, that the 
species is propagated. This 
lovely plant usually grows on 
the shady side of rock pools, 
and generally under shelter 
of some of the larger or mem- 
branous alge. This reminds 
me not only of the exquisite 
groups of seaweeds one finds 
in every rock pool, but of one 
in particular near the end of 
the Southend pier, where 
many years ago, in my early 
seaweeding days, I found the 
first specimen of Bryopsis 

Fie. 24. Bryopsis plumosa, plumosa I had ever seen, 
growing in company with a charming filamentous Rhodosperm, and a 
finely iridescent plant of Chondrus or carrageen moss. On the occasion to 
which I refer, the rainbow tints thrown off by this plant, mingled with the 
green of the Bryopsis, and the crimson waving branches of its other com- 
panion, formed a submarine picture of the utmost grace and beauty. The 


decided rarity of this genus is the very delicate species B. hypnoides. I 
have found this plant at distant intervals of time and in widely different 
situations. For instance I met with it at Plymouth about twelve years 
ago, and in tolerable plenty; but in subsequent visits to the same locality 
I never saw a single 
specimen of it. At 
Torquay I hunted for 
it in vain for three 
seasons, when all at 
once I discovered it 
by the merest chance, 
growing in a rock pool 
at high water mark 
near the abbey rocks 
in Torbay. This ap- 
pearance and dis- 
appearance of certain 
species of seaweeds is 
certainly very remark- 
able, and opens out a 
wide field of specula- 
tion on the probable 
causes of this singular 
caprice in the growth Fic. 25. Bryopsis hypnoides. 

and irregularity of 

appearance in marine alge. I have endeavoured in vain satisfactorily to 
account for it, but experience has pointed out to me two probable causes. 
In the first place I consider the disappearance of some species of rare sea- 
weeds is due to the rapacity of inconsiderate collectors, who, when they 
meet with a rare plant, instead of being content with a portion of it, and 
leaving sufficient for the chance of its bearing spores, and thus producing 
a new crop, ruthlessly seize every specimen upon which they can lay their 
hands, and thus the species is lost, at least for a time. This, I am con- 
vinced, is the most general cause for the disappearance of some species, 
and another may probably be due to the fact that the plants, although 
growing in tolerable luxuriance and abundance, may not have been in fruit, 
and consequently perished without having been able to propagate their 

The genus Bryopsis is ordinarily represented by the justly-admired 
species Bryopsis plumosa. Its companion, B. hypnoides (Fig. 25), is equally 
beautiful, much more delicate in its growth and general appearance, and is 
certainly a rare plant ; indeed, I have heard more than one collector doubt 
that it existed otherwise than as a book species, or, at most, a permanent 
variety. One autumn I took one solitary specimen of the little gem, 
leaving a considerable portion of it still growing on a plant of Corallina 
officinalis, in an out-of-the-way rock pool. The following season I was 







rewarded for my forbearance by finding in the same rock pool, and in 
another adjacent, quite a submarine plantation of this rare and lovely 
chlorosperm. The illustration is from one of the specimens of B. hypnoides 
taken by me in October, 1872, and I rejoice to say that it then exceeded in 
abundance—at least in Torbay—its beautiful but much more generally 
known companion. The little plumes of this species are extremely 
delicate, the ramuli are longer and more attenuated, and the whole 
plant is much more abundantly branched, though with less regularity, than 
B. plumosa. 

There is a very curious plant which grows in immense quantities on some 
sandy shores, usually in shallow places, but sometimes extending into deep 
water, and from such situations it is cast ashore after storms, and rolled 
along the beach in great abundance by the in-flowing tide, forcibly remind- 
ing one of the long lines of grass in a newly mown field. The name of 
this plant is Zostera marina, literally “sea ribbon,” but commonly 
known as ‘‘ grass wrack,’’ from its great resemblance to long blades 
of grass: Zostera marina, although growing in the sea, is not a sea- 
weed at all, but in reality a plant with proper roots, deriving nourish- 
ment from the soil in which it grows, and bearing flowers, followed by 
seed. Its structure is very peculiar, for within the beautiful green envelope 
of its long ribbon-like blades, a series of white fibres traverses the plant 
throughout, but too brittle or wanting in tenacity to be of any real or 
permanent value as an article of manufacture. During the American war, 
when the supply of cotton failed, attempts were made to utilize this 
marine product, but, I believe, with very partial success. I have not 
considered it necessary to figure this plant, but as, from its abundance, 
collectors are certain to meet with it, I have given the above brief descrip- 
tion of it chiefly for the benefit of young beginners in the science of 

Among the many parasitic green seaweeds that are more or less 
abundant, there are three or four species which must be described here 
for the benefit of amateur collectors, who otherwise might be occa- 
sionally puzzled to make out certain curious tufts of short filaments 
which infest some of the plants they gather for preservation. All of 
these parasitic alge are beautiful microscopic objects, especially when 
they are examined fresh from the water, but their forms are so 
simple, and their structure so delicate that they shrink in drying 
almost past hope of identification. On a future occasion I may per- 
haps figure and describe all these minute plants, but at present I will 
call the reader’s attention to a few only of the most common species, such 
as are pretty certain to be found on decaying Ceramiwm rubrum, in 
shallow pools, and on the terminal branches of Halidrys and other Fuci or 
rock-weeds. Among the latter there are two species belonging to the 
genus Lyngbya, which I have found very frequently infesting the terminal 
branches of Halidrys siliquosa, or the “ podded sea-oak;”’ one of them, 
Lyngbya Carmichaeliz, is represented in Fig. 26. It is found sometimes 


growing on floating timber, and also on rocks, where its bright grass- 
green filaments, 3in. or 4in. long, are curved or twisted together in exten- 
sively interwoven masses. Under the microscope the endochrome at 
maturity presents a series of beautifully distinct lenticular or lens-shaped 
cells, which finally burst through the tubular envelope, and reproduce 
the species. Part of a magnified filament is represented at a, (Fig. 27) ; 
a ripe spore is escaping from the terminal cell. The genus Lyngbya was 
dedicated by Dr. Harvey to Hans Christian Lyngbye, a Danish naturalist, , 
and this species was named in honour of Captain Carmichael of Appin, in 
Scotland, who discovered it. Lyngbya majuscula, very well represented 
in Fig. 28, is the largest of this genus, and strongly resembles, except in 
colour, long tresses of curling hair. Collectors sometimes eall it “‘ Mer- 
maid’s hair.”” It usually grows on muddy rocks between tide marks, but 
the finest specimens are 
thrown up from deep 
water. The filaments, 
which are densely inter- 
woven, present, under 
the microscope, the 
appearance of a bundle 
of tiny snakes. The 
endochrome is of a dull 
green or sometimes in- 
clining to purple, and 
is composed of nume- 
rous closely appressed 
ring-shaped cells, but 
here and there inter- 
rupted by a line as if 
broken, and sometimes 
separated into distinct 
joints, as seen in the 
two portions of mag- 
nified filaments at 3}, 
Fig. 27. Lyngbya flacca is another not uncommon species, being found 
on Ceramium rubrum and other algz ; but the filaments are so extremely 
fine, that it is next to impossible to represent them satisfactorily in a 
drawing; however, enough has been said of the plants of this genus to 
call the attention of collectors to a class of interesting species, too fre- 
quently disregarded simply because they require microscopic examination 
for an appreciation of their beauties, or because they are unattractive as 
book specimens. 

The genus Calothria, or ‘‘ beautiful hair,’’ as its name literally signifies, 
contains some remarkably beautiful but very minute plants. The filaments 
of one of them, Calothriz semiplena, seen at a, (Fig. 29), when magnified, 
have a very singular appearance, the little tubes being, as it were, varie- 

Fie. 26. Lyngbya Carmichelit. 



(a) Filaments of Calothrix semiplena ; (b) Calo- 
thiria confervicola. 

F1G. 29. 

Fig. 28. Lyngbya majuscula. 

(a) Filament of Lyngbya Carmichelii ; 

(b) Filaments of Lyngbya majuscula. 




gated, owing to the endochrome being separated here and there by empty 
spaces, as though the tubes were indeed only half full, a character so 
peculiar and constant, that it is referred to in its specific name. Calothriax 
confervicola infests some species of conferva, and also other small alge in 
shallow tide pools. This plant is composed of little star-like tufts seldom 
more than a quarter of an inch long, but crowded on the branches of the 
seaweed, on which they are parasitic to such an extent, as sometimes to 
obscure every portion of it but the root. Little tufts of this parasite are 
represented at b, in Fig. 29, growing on Ceramium rubrum, and above it are 
two cells of the ceramium with the basal part of three filaments of the 
Calothriz highly magnified, to show its simple structure. 

There are several other species of Calothriz still more minute and not so 
common as C.confervicola,and in addition to these two last described genera, 
there are some others containing very interesting species; but as several 
of them are found chiefly in brackish ditches oftener than in the sea, and 
others are inhabitants of fresh water streams or the margins of waterfalls, 
I shal), for the present, bid adieu to the Chlorosperms, and enter in my 
next section on a description of the Melanosperms or olive seaweeds. 

nye Glarn— . 



Olive Seaweeds. 

THE olive seaweeds, though much less numerous than the red, greatly 
exceed the green plants in numbers as well as in size; and, although some 
few of the red and green weeds are used as articles of food, and for other 
purposes, the Melanosperms bring by far the largest revenue to man. As 
manure for the land nearly all kinds are equally serviceable, but in the 
manufacture of kelp, which is a coarse or impure carbonate of soda, the 
Fuci or large rock weeds, are especially valuable, while the various species 
of Laminaria, in combination with the Fuci and other olive weeds, yield 
mannite and a large amount of iodine. On the west coast of Ireland the 
poor peasants are almost entirely dependent on the seaweeds which are 
cast ashore, for manure in the cultivation of their potatoes; and in the 
Channel Islands, the ‘‘ vraicking season”’ (as gathering seaweeds is called 
there) assumes the importance of a hop picking in Kent. In Norway, 
and in the north-west of Scotland and Ireland, some of the Fuci, such as 
F. serratus (Fig. 36) and F. vesiculosus (Fig. 37), are dried as winter 
provender for horses and cattle. On the south coast of Devon I have 
occasionally, while ont on my algological excursions, seen a herd of cows 
descend from the fields to the shore and browse on the Fuci with 
great avidity. 

The name “ Melanosperm’’ or “black seed” is applied to that large 
class of olive-brown plants, several species of which, such as the well- 
known Fuci or Kelp weeds, are characteristic of most rocky shores ; 
they form the leading feature of marine vegetation from high-water mark 
to half-tide level, while the Laminariw or great oar weeds, are rarely 
uncovered by the tide, but vegetate from extreme low-water mark to 
several fathoms deep, where they form a broad belt of marine vegeta- 
tion, usually termed the Laminarian zone. In clear weather, when the 
water is undisturbed, the long strap-like fronds of these seaweeds may 
be seen waving to and fro as the observer passes above in a boat. 
The gigantic alge of the ocean depths are all olive coloured, and to 
these our largest Laminaria is but a pigmy, for the great Nereocystis of 
the Pacific Ocean is said to have, at maturity, a stem 300ft. long, 
bearing at its summit a huge barrel-shaped air-vessel, terminating in a 
tuft of about fifty forked leaves, each of which is above 40ft. in length. 
The large air-vessel supports this immense frond in the water, and here 
the Lulra marina, or sea otter, rests himself or hides among the leaves, 


while he pursues his fishing. The alga which attains the greatest length 
on the British coasts, is that remarkable plant called Chorda filwm 
(Fig. 49), or sea rope, often found in deep water, from 30ft. to 40ft. in 
length. Many an expert swimmer has lost his life while bathing among 
its slimy but tenacious fronds, whence its popular name in some loca- 
lities of ‘‘ dead men’s lines.”’ 

Though most of the Melanosperms are olive coloured, especially when 
fully grown, many of them turn to a pale green, and others to a bright 
verdigris green, either when decay sets in or in drying. ‘This is par- 
ticularly observable in the young plants of the various species of Laminaria, 
all the Desmarestiew, several species of Ectocarpus, and some others, a 
peculiarity which at first misleads young collectors, who imagine from 
the green tint of their mounted specimens that they have gathered 
Chlorosperms ; however, experientva docet. 

As all works on marine algze commence with descriptions of the various 
species of Sargassum, or gulfweed, some mention of this remarkable plant 
will naturally be expected here ; but it is not a British seaweed, and is 
only occasionally wafted to these shores, collectors rarely meeting with it 
anywhere but on the south coast of Cornwall, and even there mere frag- 
ments or seaworn specimens only are picked up among the rejectamenta 
of the sea. There are a large number of species of Sargassum in various 
parts of the world, but that which is known as “gulfweed,”’ is the floating 
species Sargassum bacciferum, or berry-bearing sargassum, the so-called 
berries being really air-vessels which serve as floats to support the plant 
on the surface of the water; and it may be remarked that the vast fields of 
seaweeds which were first described by Columbus when he crossed the 
Atlantic, and which seriously impeded the progress of his small vessels, 
are met with at the present day in very nearly the same situation. These 
floating plants are not propagated by spores, but by gemme or buds; 
sprouts, in fact, that are thrown out from all sides of the old plant, thus 
continuing the life of the plant rather than reproducing it; those species 
only which grow on rocks being propagated by spores, which are produced 
in clusters of stalked receptacles. 

The genus Fucus differs from all other orders of melanosperms in having 
their spores or reproductive bodies attached to the walls of conceptacles 
or spore cavities sunk within the substance of the frond, and communi- 
eating with the surface by means of a pore or minute opening. In F. 
vesiculosus (Fig. 37) these receptacles are filled with a slimy or gelatinous 
matter which, under the microscope, is found to be a beautiful network of 
jointed fibres (Fig. 30), and within the round hollow conceptacles which are 
immersed in the jelly-like masses, the spores in some, and antheridia in 
others, are produced. The endochrome, or whatever the spores consist of, 
is at first simple, or consisting of a single body or substance, but it 
subsequently divides into two, four, or even eight sporules. The antheridia 
are borne on branched filaments, which are also attached to the walls of 
conceptacles, but on separate plants, and these antheridia are filled with 



active granules or spermatozoids, which, upon liberation from the anthe- 
ridia, swim about by means of ‘two vibratile cilia with which they are 
furnished, until they find the spores, around which they swarm, and 
upon which they finally settle, fertilisation of the spores being the result. 
The little ciliated bodies having performed their office, perish, and the 
spores begin to germinate and produce new plants of the species from 
which they sprang. " 

The process of development in the sporules of Fucus vesiculosus, and 
some others of this genus, is so extremely interesting that I will give a 
brief description of it in directing the reader’s attention to the accom- 
panying illustrations, Fig. 30 is a vertical cutting of one of the con- 
ceptacles of Fucus vesiculosus, showing the network-like filaments of 
which the fruit-bearing portion of the frond is composed, and the interior 
of the conceptacle or spore vessel ; the spores in various stages of develop- 
ment seated among projecting filaments, and attached to the wall cells of 
the cavity, the pore or opening above being their means of exit. Fig. 31 
contains more highly magnified portions of the filaments and cells, sepa- 
rated from the conceptacle, to show the gradual development of the 
spores, each of which is enveloped in a double transparent membrane. 
The under figure to the right represents the ruptured membranes, the 
spore having escaped into the water. In Fig. 32, on the left, is represented 
a spore fresh from a conceptacle, still enveloped in its double membrane, 
and exhibiting lines of separation into eight portions or sporules. The 
three next figures represent the complete separation and gradual develop- 
ment of the eight sporules, which assume by degrees a spherical form, and 
draw the inner membrane which incloses them upwards until it presents 
the appearance of a wine glass placed within a glass bowl. The central 
figure in the under line represents the sporules arrived at maturity, having 
ruptured the filmy membranes, and dispersing into the surrounding water. 
On the right is a sporidium, containing developing sporules and surrounded 
by spermatozoids. Fig. 33a represents a tuft of branched filaments from 
another conceptacle, several cells or joints of which are converted into 
antheridia filled with antherozoids or spermatozoids. The large round body 
(b) beside it is a spore, and ciliated granules are represented around and 
upon it. These minute objects are the spermatozoids, which under the 
microscope appear to be of oval form, but pointed at one end, having an 
orange spot in their centre, and being furnished with a filament at each end, 
by means of which they swim about until their brief existence terminates. 

On rocky coasts or wherever seaweeds abound, the various species of 
the genus Fucus occupy the greater part of the shore from high-water mark 
to some distance below half-tide level, and thus as they are the first to 
engage the collector’s attention, 1 will describe some of them at once. 

High up on the rocks, sometimes even above the reach of the tide, but 
moistened by the spray and dash of the waves, grows the small but 
pretty species F’. cancliculatus (Fig. 34). In some situations, where it is 
abundant and in fruit, the rocks upon which it grows present the most 

Sporules in various stages 

of deve 



Concepticle of Fucus vesiculosus. 




Oo & 
i onl 
SH Ss 
= we 
> r-. 



(a) Branched filaments from conceptacle, 



surrounded by 



bearing antheridia ; 


34. Fucus canaliculatus. 




picturesque appearance ; the olive green of the channelled fronds of this 
species mingled with the golden tint of its clustered seed vessels, produces 
the most charming effect. The tufted fronds of this species are from 2in. 
to 6in. high, and are channelled on the upper side, but it has neither air- 
vessels nor midrib like some of its congeners. The fruit is contained in 

Fig. 35. Fucus nodosus. Fig. 36. Fucus serratus. 

oblong wedge-shaped receptacles, which are produced at the tips of the 
branches ; our illustration is from a fruited specimen. The root, as in 
most of the Fuci, is a slightly conical disk, which adheres very firmly to 
the rocks precisely in the same manner as a pneumatic bracket. Descending 
a short distance from high-water mark, the observer very soon meets with 
F, nodosus (Fig. 35), or the “knobbed wrack,’’ which is stunted, and 
sparingly provided with air vessels until it is found in situations where it 
can float on the surface of the water for a considerable part of the day. 
Such specimens when fully grown are above 3ft. or 4ft. long, and the 
air vessels which swell out at intervals along the stem and branches are 
often fully as large as a plover’s egg. These air vessels help to sustain the 
heavy fronds in a floating: position, and when the tide recedes, and the 
plant is spread out on the flat rocks on some shores, pedestrians are 
often startled at the popping sounds under their feet as they tread on the 
air bladders of this rockweed. The illustration shows the plant in a fruited 
and barren condition. The fruit is contained in roundish stalked vessels of 
a bright yellow colour, which spring from both sides of the branches. The 
fronds have no midrib, and are quite smooth and glossy. The rare species, 
F, Mackaii,is found on the west coast of Ireland and Scotland, though 
not to my knowledge on the English shores. It is intermediate between 
the two foregoing species, and is easily distinguished from both by the 
form and position of its fruit vessels, which are pendulous, and are 
produced near the base of the branches. F. serratus (Fig. 36), or the 


“toothed rockweed,’’ is the most easily distinguished, and is the hand- 
somest of its tribe. Although very variable in length, breadth, and 
colour, its regularly toothed or serrated margin affords a ready means by 
which this species is recognised at once. Air-vessels are absent in this 
species, but it has a very distinct midrib. The frond is flat throughout, 
and the fruit is produced in receptacles which terminate the branches. 
Our illustration is from a very characteristic but barren frond of this 
elegant species ; the plant from which it was taken grew on the inside of 
the Plymouth Breakwater, and was upwards of 6ft. in length. F. cera- 
noides, or “‘horned-wrack,’’ is one of the rarities of this group, and is 
found most frequently in situations where a fresh water stream runs into 
the sea. Its substance is far less tough than that of the other Fuci, and 
tbe whole plant is thinner and more delicate, both in the growing state and 
after it is dried. The midrib is very narrow but distinct, and there are 
no air-vessels. The fruit is produced at the tips of dichotomous or forked 
branches, which are set alternately along the sides of the main stem. The 
most abundant species of this group of seaweeds, which may be termed 
par excellence the ‘‘ kelp-weed,’”’ since it is more extensively used in 
the manufacture of kelp and iodine, than all the other species of Fuci 
put together, is F. vesiculosus (Fig. 37). Itis extremely variable in size and 
appearance, so much so in fact, that some writers have constituted varieties 
to characterise peculiarities of form. Specimens growing in salt marshes 
and near high-water mark, where they are only occasionally covered by the 

BM Mt nny 


Fig, 37. Fucus vesiculosus, Fie. 38. Halidrys siliquosa. 

sea, are very narrow in the frond, and often destitute of air-vessels ; while 
those which grow in rock pools, or where they are constantly within the 
influence of the tide, and frequently submerged, are provided with numerous 
air-vessels, which are set in pairs, one on each side of the midrib. Plants 
which vegetate in suck situations are often found from three to four feet 

in -length, and although, like all the Fuci which turn nearly black in 
drying, F. vesiculosus, in the living state, and during the fruiting 
season, is of a fine olive, inclining to green, the midrib being very distinct 
and of a darker tint, the air- 
vessels a pale yellow, and 
the terminal receptacles, 
which are elliptical and 
somewhat wart-like, are a 
bright orange. The illustra- 
tion shows the situation of 
the air-vessels on the frond 
to the left. The lateral divi- 
sion on the right is termi- 
nated with receptacles. 

Halidrys siliquosa (Fig. 38), 
or as its name literally sig- 
nifies, ‘‘ Podded sea oak,’’ is 
a curious and very interest- 
ing plant. When cast ashore 
from deep water, this is a 
very handsome species, and 
it is much to be regretted 
that in drying, it not only 
loses its fine olive tint and 
becomes perfectly black, but 
in the course of a short time after it has been put away in the herbarium, 
the salt which is retained in its densely cellular tissue, oozes out of the 
pod-like receptacles and disfigures the specimen. The only way to avoid 
or to check this annoyance, is to soak the plant in fresh water for some 
hours before drying it, and then to place it between towels and keep it so 
for some time before finally drying and pressing it. Our illustration is 
from a terminal branch of a plant which was about four feet in length. 
The fronds arise from a small expanded disc, and vary in length according 
to the depth of water in which they grow. A stunted but pretty variety. 
about a foot in length, is met with in rock pools about half-tide level. 
The fruit is produced in long-stalked receptacles, which are somewhat 
constricted at the septa or divisions, the seed-vessels being made up of a 
series of chambers having distinct transverse lines of separation, each 
siliqua, or pod, being terminated by a mucro or projecting point. 

Another curious species of fucus, of a fine clear olive colour which 
turns black in drying, is the plant called Pycnophucus tuberculatus, 
in Fig. 39, the fronds of which are from 10in. to 14in. high, rising from 
creeping fibrous roots which spread over the bottom of rock pools, and in 
some situations form perfect little submarine groves. Air-vessels are 
represented rarely present in this species, but when they are, as seen in 
the terminal branch of our illustration they are produced at the base 

Fic. 39. Pycnophycus tuberculatus. 


of the tubercled receptacle which contains the spores, and is itself com- 
posed of very compact cellular tissue. Professor Agardh includes this 
species with some others in a group which he calls Fucodiwm, but 
at present I have thought proper to describe it under its generally 
known name. 

The genus Cystosetra contains some species which are tolerably 
abundant, at least on the southern coasts of Britain. The generic 
name of this group indicates a chain of cysts or bladders, of which 
the branches of all these plants are chiefly composed. The roots of 
all are thick and woody, the, stems are short and cylindrical, and are 
beset on all sides by numerous slender branches variously divided 
and clothed throughout with little spine-like ramuli. In our illustra- 
tion of the species, C. ericoides (Fig. 40), which is very heath-like 
(whence its specific name), the air-vessels are very small and are pro- 
duced near the tips of the branches. The receptacles are also terminal 
and spiny. The fronds are from Ift. to 2ft. high, and when seen 
growing in shallow pools with the sun shining full upon it, the whole plant 
is beautifully iridescent. Young collectors who see this brilliant alga for 
the first time, are naturally enchanted with the exquisite glaucous tints 
which it reflects, but their delight is quickly dispelled, for upon removal 
from the water, it is found to be of a dull brown olive, all the full rich 
tints of blue and green, more like the phosphorescent gleams that flash 
from some of the marine animals than any vegetable colours, vanish 
the moment the plant is removed from its native element. OC. fibrosa, 

Fia. 40. Cystoseira ericoides. Fig. 41. Cystoseira fibrosa. 
very well represented in Fig. 41, is a handsome and very well marked 

species. The air-vessels are larger than in any other British species, and 
are produced in succession along the branches, but at some distance from 

the tips. The receptacles are filiform or string-like, and are produced 
at some distance beyond the air bladders; the branches being all set with 
one or two series of slender ramuli; those which clothe the tips being 
long and bristle-like. Specimens thrown up from deep water on the South 
Coast of Devon are often above 3ft. in length. C. granulata, which 
is not so common as the two foregoing species, may be known by 
the branches, which are long and very slender, having a hard bulb-like 
knob situated at the base of each of them. In the species C. fweni- 
culacea these knobs are absent, and the branches are long and very 
slender, and towards the base are generally bare of ramuli, but in the 
upper parts are clearly set with numerous bushy, much divided, secondary 
branches. All the species are natives of the southern coasts; they are 
perennial, and are in perfection during the summer months. C. barbata 
is' a very doubtful native of these shores. It is usually included 
in the British lists, but I have never 
seen or heard of a specimen having been 
taken in a growing state on any part of 
the coast of England. It grows abun- 
dantly in the Channel Islands, and is 
sometimes found cast ashore in a frag- 
mentary state near Brighton. All the 
Cystoseira are difficult to display satis- 
factorily on paper; they require much 
judicious pruning of the branches, and 
should be soaked in fresh water until 
the salt is well melted out of them, and 
the stems and branches have become 
limp and manageable. The specimen 
should then be dried between towels or 
several folds of strong linen, and after- 
wards pressed. If they do not adhere 
to paper after some days of pressing, 
the under side of the plants may be gummed, or a mixture for the purpose 
may be made by dissolving isinglass in spirits of wine and applied with a 

Himanthalia lorea (Fig. 42), commonly called ‘ sea-thongs, sea- 
strap,” or “‘sea-branch,” is a plant concerning the duration of which 
botanists have been at variance, some asserting that the whole plant is 
annual, others describing it as biennial. I am of the same opinion 
respecting it as Dr. Harvey, because, like that eminent algologist, I 
have proved from actual observation that this singular alga does not 
produce its long forked strap-like fruit-bearing receptacles until the com- 
mencement of the second year, which then rapidly attain their ordinary 
size, perfect their fruit, and soon after decay and fall off. Wherever 
this curious plant vegetates, it is generally gregarious, groups of the 
little cones or top-like fronds growing amongst others which have 

Fie, 42. Himanthalia lorea. 

22 66 



thrown out their long receptacles, and covering the rocks near low 
water mark in vast numbers. These little top-shaped plants gradually 
collapse on the upper surface and become plano-concave, extending 
into a perfect circle, and finally curling over a little at the margin. 
From the centre of this now cup-like disk, in the spring of the 
next season, two little mammille gradually arise, which rapidly grow 
out as described. The illustration represents the cup-like dise and 
the early condition of the lorea or seed vessels. These long strap- 
shaped seed-vessels, for such they really are, attain occasionally a 
length of 10ft. or 12ft, and within their soft inner substance numerous 
spherical receptacles are produced, which appear to the naked eye like 
little dark brown spots dotted about throughout the whole length of the 
thongs. Himanthalia, like some other species of Fucus, has a high 
northern range, being found in the Arctic sea, but they are more generally 
abundant in temperate waters; and, although the British species of Fucus 
are not numerous, yet, from the gregarious habits of most of them, they 
cover a larger extent of rocky shores than all the rest of our sea-weeds put 

The Laminariee, although of an inferior order in point of structure and 
fructification to the Fucacew, are of much larger dimensions. Several 
species, when fully grown, are above twelve feet in length, but when we 
come to the deep-sea species, the fronds are measured by fathoms, and 
not by feet. I have already described the great Nereocystis of the North 
Pacific, with its large air vessel, the favourite resting-place of the sea- 
otter. This, and several other ocean species, rival in size the giant palms 
of the tropics. 

The Laminarieew are mostly plants of deep water, the larger species 
rarely vegetating above low-water mark. On the British and American 
shores they are popularly known as “‘ oarweeds,”’ “‘ tangle and euvy,”’ “‘sea- 
colander,’ and ‘‘devil’s apron.’? All the plants of this order are 
inarticulate or unjointed, the spores being produced in cloudy patches, 
or covering the whole surface of the frond. The root consists of 
numerous clasping fibres, additional ones being thrown down from above 
the older ones as the plant increases in size, and so firmly do they grasp 
the substances on which they grow, that often in boisterous weather tufts 
of this species from 4ft. to 8ft. in length are cast ashore, attached to 
large stones many pounds in weight, which their strong holdfasts have 
enabled them to drag from deep water. The well-known species of the south 
and east coasts of England, Laminaria saccharina (Fig. 48), or the sugary 
Laminaria, in allusion to the sweet, though insipid flavour of its frond, is 
often found east ashore after storms; its long ribbon-like fronds being 
from 6ft. to 12ft. or more in length. When young, the colour of this plant 
is a pale green olive, but as it advances in growth, it gradually assumes 
the normal tint of its species, but varying occasionally from dark yellow 
to brown or brown olive. ‘The stem, which in early growth is very short, 
increases in length with the growth of the frond, and in perennial species 


the plant is renewed by growth from the tip of the stem, a new frond 
arising from the base of the old one, which developes and pushes 
the old frond before it, which finally drops off. This species may 
easily be distinguished from the others of its tribe by its more or less 
waved or curled margin, and by the central portion of the frond being 
divided, as it were, by transverse partitions placed at regular distances 
throughout the whole length of the plant. Fig. 43 represents a group of 
young fronds of this species. In the Arctic Sea, and on the coast of North 
America, there is a noble plant of this widely dispersed group, the stem of 
which is 8ft. long, and the broad plate-like frond is as large as a good-sized 
table cloth. Portions of this great Laminaria are occasionally cast ashore 
on our northern coasts; having been floated hither from Greenland or they 

Fig 43 Laminaria saccharina. 

American coasts by the Gulf Stream. The name of this algais L. longicruris. 
On the South African coast there is a very remarkable species of Laminaria, 
of the beautiful genus Ecklonia, known there as the ‘‘ Trumpet-weed.”’ 
The native herdsmen maké use of its long hollow stem, when dried and 
fashioned for the purpose, as a trumpet for calling the cattle together in 
the evening—performing, in fact, a Ranz des Vaches, like the herdsmen of 
Switzerland. A very beautiful and graceful species of this genus, though 
regarded by some botanists as a variety, and by others as the young, only, 
of the L. saccharina, is described by Dr. Harvey under the name of 
L. phyllitis (Fig. 44), and, although I must confess there is a strong resem- 
blance between it and young plants of L. saccharina, there are certain 


points of difference which I have observed in all stages of its growth, 
sufficient, in my opinion, to establish it as a species distinct from L. sac- 
charina. The substance is more delicate, the colour paler, inclining to 
a greenish yellow ; the stem much shorter, even in older plants, and the 
base of the frond, where it expands from the stem, invariably wedge-shaped ; 
the frond itself being of a more equal width throughout, but tapering 
gradually towards the tip. Itis usually found in rock pools about half-tide 
level. A frond of this graceful plant is represented in the centre of Fig. 
44. It was growing in society with a tuft of Chorda lomentaria, a species 
which will be described shortly. L. fascia (Fig. 45), the band or ribbon 
laminaria, always grows in tufts, and mostly in rock pools where there 
*are little sandy nooks, in which it loves to dwell. The stem is very short, 
and expands gradually into the membranaceous dark olive frond, usually 
from 4in. to 10in. long, but rarely more than an inch in breadth. Fig. 45 
represents a very characteristic tuft of this species. L. debilis is a variety 
of this species; it may be known by its greater breadth, the frond 
expanding from the very short stem much more suddenly. This variety is 
occasionally mistaken for narrow forms of Puncturia latifolia (Fig. 65), 
from which, however, it may be distinguished, with the help of a lens, 
by its densely cellular structure, Punctaria having a reticulated or 
network-like surface, and generally dotted over with sor or groups of 

The species of Laminaria already described are, in all stages of their 
growth, long, simple, or undivided plate-like fronds, produced from a solid 
cylindrical stem ; but the two, which I am about to describe, are (except in 
very early growth, when produced from spores) cleft into numerous long 
strap-like segments, a short distance above that portion of the frond 
which expands abruptly from the thickround stem. Fig. 46 represents the 
well-known species L. digitata, taken from a small but very characteristic 
plant which grew on the Castle rocks at Hastings, a considerable distance 
above low-water mark (hence its small size), the ordinary habitat of this 
species being from extreme low-water mark to several fathoms deep. In 
our illustration the lower part of the frond is seen to be very much bulged 
out, the plant in fact being about to produce a new frond—the lower por- 
tion, in the ccurse of time, expanding, lengthening, and separating into a 
digitated frond, precisely similar to the upper part, to which it is still 
attached, but which gradually turns black and falls off as the new frond 
approaches maturity. Fig. 47 represents the variety Stenophylla, or 
narrow-leaved Laminaria, the frond being usually cleft into two or more 
narrow segments down to a very short distance above its long round stem. 
The roots or holdfasts of these large seaweeds grasp the rocks so firmly as 
to defy all efforts to remove them. I have frequently pulled away in 
vain at an unusually fine or perfect plant; the frond or stem even 
breaking away, but not a single grasping fibre relaxing its hold. ZL. digitata 
is the plant which, in addition to Rhodymenia palmata, is sold in the 
streets of Edinburgh and elsewhere in Scotland; the people who carry 


these seaweeds about, crying, ‘“‘ Wha’ll ‘buy dulse and tangle?’’ Dulse is 
one of the best of the edible seaweeds, and is eaten very generally in the 

Fie. 44. Laminaria phyllitis and Chorda 

Fic 46. Laminaria digitata. 

north. Tangle is the common name of the Laminaria, the dried stems of 
which are used by the poor Scotch for fuel. L. bulbosa (Fig. 48), popularly 


of a . Fig. 47. Laminaria digitata— 
Fie. 45. Laminaria fascia. var. Stenophylla. 

known as “ Sea-furbelows,”’ when grown in deep water is the most bulky 
of its tribe. I have seen specimens’ on the Plymouth breakwater, cast up 


from the deep after a storm, which upon being spread out, formed a cir- 
cumference of nearly 40ft., the whole plant being as much as a man could 
lift from the ground. The large bulbous root of this species is often over 
Gin. in diameter, and the broad flat stem is deeply puckered at the sides for 
a foot or more above the bulb-like root ; hence its popular name. A matnre \ 
plant is represented at Fig. 48, the terminal portions of its deeply cleft ; 
frond being turned over, in order to show the large bulbous root and the : 
puckered sides of the stem. . 

Chorda filum (Fig. 49), or sea-rope, or, as I have already stated it is - 
sometimes called, “dead men’s lines,’’ usually grows in tufts, from a few + 
inches in shallow rock pools, to many feet in length in deep water. At the 
base this long string-like plant is very little thicker than a hog’s bristle, 
but it gradually increases in size, and tapers off again to an extremely 
attenuated point. Its structure is very curious, being cylindrical, but 
tubular within, though divided by transverse membranous diaphragms into 
distinct chambers. The outer. surface of the frond is clothed with very soft 
colourless hairs, among which the spores are produced. A small variety, 
called C. tomentosa, is very densely clothed with these delicate hairs, 
but in this case the hairs are of a fine olive, turning to green in drying. 
Our illustration is from a young plant of C. filum, twined round like a coil 
of rope. OO. lomentaria, as its specific name implies, is constricted, or 
tied in, at intervals. This species also grows in tufts, the fronds being | 
rarely more than 12in. or 14in. in length. They are attenuated at each 
extremity, and the constrictions which occur at irregular intervals, give 
to the simple fronds of this species the appearance of a series of elongated 
bags strung together. Fig. 44 represents a tuft of this plant which was 
growing in society with a beautiful frond of Laminaria phyllitis, already 
described; a small parasite is seen on the tip of the lesser frond, this 
species being constantly infested with one or more parasitic Melanosperms. ~ 
C. lomentarva is very common in rock pools, and on the surfaces of flat 
rocks and stones between tide marks. 

Alaria esculenta (Fig. 50) is unquestionably the most graceful and 
elegant of the British Laminariee. It is sometimes called the “ Hart’s- 
tongue Laminaria,’’ from its similarity to the Scolopendrium or Hart’s- 
tongue Fern. It is found in the greatest luxuriance on the northern shores 
of England, in all parts of Scotland, and on the north and west of 
Ireland. The frond is solitary, and is from 2ft. to over 12ft. long; the 
stem of the plant being continued as a midrib throughout. As the plant 
advances towards maturity the stem throws out from the middle on each 
side several long nerveless ale or leaflets, somewhat club-shaped at the 
tips, in which numervus pear-shaped spores are produced, as represented 
by the dark lines in the pinne or winglets of our illustration. In Scotland, 
where the midrib of this. plant is eaten, it is called ‘‘ Badderlocks,”’ and in 
the Orkneys ‘‘ Honey-ware,”’ and in some parts of Ireland, where it is also 
used as an article of food, it is called ‘* Murlins.’’ 

The smaller and more delicate algze generally produce their fruit in 



summer or early autumn, while the larger kinds seem to prefer the winter 
months. The rapidity of growth observable in some of the larger species 
during the winter is truly 
surprising. A remarkable in- 
stance is related by the cele- 
brated civil engineer, George 
Stephenson, who, in the 
autumn of 1813, was employed 
to erect a stone beacon: on 
the Carr Rock, at the entrance 
of the Frith of Forth. .The 
workmen, having cleared the 
rock of the seaweed .growing 
upon it, chiselled the surface 
to prepare it for the masonry. 
On the approach of winter, 
operations were suspended 
until the May of the following 
year, when, to the surprise 
of the workmen, the rock was 
found to be again covered with 
seaweed. Most of the plants 
of the new crop were of the genus Alaria, many of which were from 4ft. 
to 6ft. in length, all of which must have been the growth of about eight 

Fig, 48. Laminarw bulbosu. 

Fie. 49. Chorda filum. Fig. 50. Alaria esculenta. 

months, from the time that the very minute seeds had vegetated on 
the newly cut sandstone rock. I have often observed instances equally 


remarkable of the rapidity of growth in marine algz on various parts 
of the coasts of England,—rocks, which in December were comparatively 
bare, being in April or May of the following year covered with Fuci of 
various kinds, Laminarie, and other species of alge. 

The Sporochnacee are a small but remarkably beautiful tribe of plants, 
six species only being found on the British coasts. Though chiefly 
characteristic of temperate waters, some of the species of this order are 
widely dispersed. Desmarestia viridis for instance, which is common on 
the shores of these islands, being found in the Antarctic Ocean, while 
Desmarestia ligulata (Fig. 51), also abundant on the British coasts, is found 
on the north-west coast of America, at Cape Horn, and at the Cape of Good 
Hope. Carpomitra Cabrere (Fig. 53c), which is said to be a native of New 
Zealand, is rare on our shores, being found only on the south coast of 
Ireland and in Plymouth Sound. These graceful plants are characterised 
as inarticulate olive-coloured seaweeds, whose spores are attached to 
external jointed filaments, which are either produced from the stems 
and branches in delicate tufts, or compacted together in long oval 
masses, some of which in early growth, as in Sporochnus, are terminated 
by pencils of thread-like filaments. As the plant advances in growth 
these delicate fibres fall away. In two species, Arthrocladia villosa 
(Figs. 58a and 54), and Desmarestia aculeata (Fig. 52), the summer 
and winter states of the plants are so widely different, that they are 
constantly mistaken for separate species, and deceived Linnzus himself. 
All the Sporochnacee, though of a delicate olive while growing, rapidly 
change to a verdigris green in drying, and have also the remarkable 
property of causing decomposition in all kinds of delicate alge with 
which they are placed in contact. Collectors who are aware of this pecu- 
liarity should be prepared with a separate vessel or bag, especially for the 
Desmarestia; for all the plants of this genus decay very rapidly, and it is 
impossible to display their beautiful tufts of pencilled filaments when 
once decomposition has set in. Whenever I have had the good fortune to 
meet with fine specimens of any of this group of plants, I have rarely 
loitered on the shore, or cared to look for anything else, but hastened 
home with my treasures and mounted them on paper as soon as possible 
Although, as observed by Dr. Harvey, there is so much similarity in the 
structure and habits of these plants, a peculiar difference in the organs of 
fructification has obliged botanists to break up this order into two 
families ; the first of which is Arthrocladia, the spores being attached 
to pencilled filaments which spring from the sides of the branches. First 
in this family stands the genus Desmarestia, named in honour of M. 
Desmarest, a French naturalist. It contains three beautiful species, 
which I will deseribe. 

It is very remarkable that no fructification has yet been observed on 
any of the Desmarestiew. Judging from analogy, one would expect to find 
it connected, in some way or other, with the lateral tufts of fibres 
abundantly produced in early growth : but until some fortunate discoverer 


is able to announce the fact, we must be content to pronounce the fruit of 
this genus “ unknown.” 

Desmarestia ligulata (Fig. 51), or the strap-like Desmarestia, is the 
largest of its tribe. On rocks, where it is exposed at low water, beautiful 
specimens from 6in. to 12in: long, may be obtained, but plants which are 
cast up from deep water are often from 4ft. to 6ft. in length. This species 
may readily be known by its broad flat stem and branches. Though very 
variable in breadth, the branches have all a linear lanceolate outline, and 
produce here and there, at their margins, numerous small ramuli or 

Fie. 51. Desmarestva ligulata. 

branchlets, bearing at their tips little tufts of delicate fibres. All the 
branches taper towards the base, and are placed exactly opposite to each 
other. The most beautiful growth of this fine species that I have ever 
met with may be found at extreme low-water mark on the lower rocks in 
Whitsand Bay, near Plymouth. Our illustration was taken from a superb 
specimen which grew in the above charming locality. D. aculeata (Fig. 52), 
is found on most of the British shores, though rarely in a growing state, 
being usually a deep water species. The spring or summer and winter 


conditions of this plant are vastly different. Specimens which are met 
with in spring or early summer, whether growing’ or thrown ashore, are 
clothed throughout with tufts of delicate filaments, which fall away. as the 
plant arrives at maturity. Old fronds of this species are destitute of 
these filaments, and the branches are set on each side with spine-like 
ramuli, hence the specific name, that of aculeata. In perennial specimens, 
when new. branches shoot forth, they are always clothed with tufts of fine 
confervoid filaments, which are apparently a necessity in the progress of 
growth, and probably, as suggested by Dr. Harvey, perform in some way 
the office of leaves in higher plants. The root of this species is a small 
round disk, the stem short and cylindrical, and the branches long, nume- 
rous, repeatedly divided, and irregularly set with a second and third 
series of branches and branchlets. Plants from deep water are often over 
3ft. long. Smaller specimens, when carefully mounted, are extremely 
beautiful, especially when the marginal tufts of fibres are well displayed, 
for in drying they change from olive to a brilliant green colour. No time 
must be lost in putting this species under pressure, as decomposition 
takes place very soon after its removal from the water. Our illustration 
is from a slightly magnified portion of a fine specimen cast ashore at 
Brighton many years ago. OD. viridis is the most delicate, and in its 
summer dress the most attractive of its tribe. The whole plant is much 
more slender ; it is repeatedly and excessively branched, all the branches 
being set exactly opposite and gradually attenuated towards the tips, the 
terminal branches and ramuli being more and more slender and capillary 
or hair-like. The olive tint of this lovely species changes very quickly 
to a delicate green, and it closely adheres to paper in drying. D. viridis is 
a summer annual, and is usually found in rock pools between tide-marks ; 
sometimes on stones in the sea, and occasionally on the larger alge. 
In addition to the three species of Desmarestiew just described, there is 
another which, until very lately, has been considered a plant of extreme 
rarity. Its name is D. pinnatinervia, in reference to the wing-like 
nerve which traverses the frond in the manner of an obscure midrib. 
In outline and general appearance this rare alga bears some resemblance to 
a Punctaria, being unbranched and leaf-like, but having a short though 
distinct stem. It is taken off the Cornish coast, but on no other station 
on the English shores that I am aware of. 
The genus Arthrocladia is represented by one species, viz., A. villosa 
(Fig.53a). The name, Arthrocladia, signifies ‘‘ jointed branch,” the stem and 
branches being furnished at closeintervals with nodes or knob-like swellings, 
from which are produced whorls of delicate tufts of branched filaments, to 
which the specific term of villosa specially refers. The spores of this plant 
are produced in pod-like vessels, borne on the pretty tufted filaments which 
in early growth adorn the stem and branches. Fig. 53 a, represents a 
portion of the stem, magnified to show the situation and form of the whorls 
of branched filaments. At maturity the spores break through the mem, 
brane which incloses them, and, like the pencilled filaments on which the 

Desmarestia aculeata,. 

Fig. 53. (a) Arthrocladia villosa ; (b) Sporochnus pedunculatus (c) Carpomitra Cabrere. 


ES ee 0 ee ene 

site a am eee eee ee nee nee neers 
=n- — —— : 

ene ee en er 
Sine * 
c - 
om ~ 
J : ' 
/ P y, ’ 
1 | Laake 
cll * 
‘ i 
\. - 
' + 
* : 
» ‘ 
xs. * 
=, “a ‘4 
4 : we 
a ‘ ’ 
» e - a 
* * . ’ a - : 
i" ee, 
ry ‘ ‘ ae 


strings of fruit vessels are borne, fall away, leaving the stem and branches 
of the plant rigid and bare. ‘This beautiful plant is a summer annual, 
and is by no means common, though widely dispersed. Fig. 54 is from a 
very fine specimen taken by me at Hastings several years ago. 

The second family of this order, Sporochnacee, contains two British species 
only. The spores of these plants are produced in knob-like receptacles 
composed of whorled filaments, appressed or closely compacted together. 
This small group of plants takes its name from the genus Sporochnus, 
which signifies wool and seed, because tufts of woolly fibres are connected 
with the organs of fructifi- 
eation. In Sporochnus 
pedunculatus (Fig. 55), 
these tufted fibres form a 
crest to the elliptical spore- 
vessels which spring from 
each side of the stem and 
branches, to which they 
are attached by a peduncle 
or stalk, as seen at |b, 
Fig. 53. ‘“ Few of our 
marine algx,’ remarks 
Professor Harvey, “ are 
more attractive to the eye 
of a botanist than this 
beautiful plant, when it is 
seen waving its graceful 
branches in the water, and 
its pear-shaped seed-vessels 
are terminated by their 
tufts of olive-green fila- 
ments.’ A portion of this 
Species is represented at 
Fig. 55. This plant is 
dredged in Plymouth 
Sound, where it grows 
abundantly and in _ the 
greatest perfection. Its 
length is from Gin. to Ift. Fig. 54. Arthrucladia villosa. 
or more. The main stem is filiform or string-like, and is scarcely any 
thicker than the long slender branches which are thrown out on each side, 
getting gradually shorter as they approach the tip of the stem, thus 
giving to the plant an extremely graceful and elegant outline. This species 
is by no means common, but in some seasons it is cast ashore a Brighton 
rather plentifully, though of small size; it is also met with protty gene- 
rally every spring in the Channel Islands. As this plant is a summer 
annual, the spores ripen rather early in the season, and as the pre ty tufts 



of filaments soon fall away, collectors should look for this species in April 
and May, when the spore vessels are tolerably well developed, and the 
plant is in perfection. Its colour is a brownish olive, which changes to a 
yellow green. when the plant is mounted on paper, to which it adheres 
closely in drying. 

Carpomitra Cabrere, the last in this group, is one of the rarest of our 
seaweeds, being dredged in Plymouth Sound only, and sometimes cast 
ashore off Youghal, on the Irish coast. This singular plant arises from a 
tuber-shaped root. The branches, which are numerous and irregularly 
forked, are flat, and are furnished 
with an obscure midrib. They are 
usually erect, rather narrow below, 
but gradually widen upwards, the 
terminal branchlets having blunt or 
rounded tips, others being truncated, 
or cut off, as it were. The spore 
vessel, which has a fanciful resem- 
blance to a bishop’s mitre (hence 
the generic name), is seated on the 
tip of some of the lateral branches, 
and the round oblong spores. which 
are produced within this curious 
receptacle, are attached to _ hori- 
zontal branching filaments whorled 
round an axis or central column, 
the whole forming an extremely in- 
teresting study for microscopic 
examination. Fig. 53 c, represents 
a branch with mitriform fruit vessel ; 
beside it the fruit vessel, highly 
magnified. The specific name of 
this plant is in honour of. Signor 
Cabrera, a Portuguese naturalist. 
There are several species of Carpo- 
mitra on the Australian coasts. The 
rarity of the plant on our coasts has 
been already referred to. It has 
never, so far as I am aware, been 
taken on any other British station besides the two mentioned above. 

The Dictyotacee, most of which I shall describe, are a group 
of plants of a leather-like substance, the fronds of which are spotted 
here and there with sori or groups of spores or spore vessels. ‘The surface 
of all of these plants is seen, even under a moderate magnifier, to be 
highly reticulated, the characteristic term, Dictyotacew, which signifies a 
network-like appearance, being more or less applicable to the whole order. 
Some of these plants are flat, undivided, and expand into a broad or 

Fig. 55. Sporochnus pedunculatus, 


+ 56. Cutleria multijida. 

+. 57. Haliseris polypodioides, 


fan-shaped outline. Others are tufts of simple bag-like fronds, being 
hollow within but closed at both ends, the apices being blunt or rounded, 
and the bases attenuated to a fine point, the roots of such being nothing 
more than a minute disk. In some the fronds are flat, but pinnated or 
divided by repeated forkings, while in others a distinct cylindrical stem 
throws out on each side numerous branches, some of which are hollow, 
while in other species the branches are solid. In no instance is there 
among this assemblage of plants an approach to leafy form or structure, 
as in the Delesseriew ; and in one genus only do we find a distinct midrib. 
This occurs in Haliseris, or sea-endive, a remarkably beautiful plant, in 
which the midrib is strong and wiry, the delicate membrane on each 
side being frequently found in a lacerated condition, owing to its extreme 

Some of these elegant Melanosperms reflect prismatic colours, a pecu- 
liarity specially observable in Padina pavonia (Fig. 58) when seen 
growing in shallow rock pools under the influence of sunlight. This is 
due to the finely articulated hairs with which the segments of the plants 
are clothed, which decompose the rays of light and thus throw off the 
lovely glaucous tints so often described. With the exception of the Fucacew 
this is one of the most extensive orders among the Melanosperms, and 
some of the species are among the most attractive of our native alge. 
Some are of small size, though none of them are microscopic, while a few 
of the deep water species attain a length of several feet. In deep land. 
locked bays the species Asperococcus Turneri grows to a length of three 
or four feet, although the same species when found growing in rock pools 
between tide marks, rarely exceeds eight or ten inches. 

The Dictyotacew are more abundant in the warmer and more sheltered 
parts of the sea than in colder regions. The species which reach high 
northern and southern latitudes are few, while, on the contrary, they 
increase in number and luxuriance as they approach the tropics. Padina 
pavonia and some others abound in warmer climates, the former being met 
with in the Mediterranean and in the Channel Islands in great quantity, 
its northern limit being the southern shore of England. Dictyota 
dichotoma (Fig. 61) is found in all seas from the antarctic lands to the 
tropics. Haliseris and Zonaria are the only English representatives of 
the beautiful genera to which they belong, most of the others being 
natives of warmer latitudes. 

' For convenience of description, I intend to divide this order into three 
separate groups. The first of which contains plants having flat fronds, 
many of which are cleft or divided, but rarely branched. In the second, 
the fronds are cylindrical and branched. The third containing plants with 
tubular, or flat, and unbranched fronds. 

At the head of the first division of the Dictyotacee, is placed the beautiful 
species Cutleria multifida, finely represented at Fig. 56. This is a deep 
water species, and was discovered at Yarmouth by Mr. Dawson Turner in 
1804, and was dedicated by Dr. Greville to Miss Cutler, of Sidmouth, in 


acknowledgement of that lady’s contributions to botanical science. The 
frond of this plant is from 3in. to about 20in. in length, and is cleft into 
numerous wedge-shaped lobes, each of which is cut from the tip down- 
wards, the terminal incisions being gradually narrower and the tips 
somewhat acute or pointed. These characters are well expressed in the 
specific name, that of ‘“‘ multifida.’’? The fructification is of two kinds on 
distinct individuals, and is usually scattered over both surfaces of the 
whole frond. Antheridia, when present, are attached to small tufts of 
filaments, which are produced in the same manner and occupy the same 
position as the sori or groups of spores. These are developed in little 
tufts, each tiny filament of which contains several sporules, usually eight, 
placed in pairs each under the other. The plant is a summer annual, and 
is found pretty generally on the coasts of England and Ireland, though 
rarcly in Scotland. Haliseris polypodioides, or sea-endive, represented 

Fie..58. Padina pavonia. Fic. 59. Zonaria collaris. 

merely by a branch or two at Fig. 57, is rarely found in perfection except 
with the assistance of the dredge. I have taken this beautiful plant at 
Ilfracombe, and in Plymouth, and Torbay in fine condition, but in each. 
instance it was growing in pools under the shelter of over-hanging rocks 
at extreme low-water mark. The fronds are tufted, from 4in. to 14in.. 
high, and divided in a dichotomous manner, or, by regular forking of the 
branches, all of which are traversed by a strong percurrent midrib; a 
peculiarity which sometimes gives it the appearance of young plants of 
Fucus vesiculosus (Fig.37). The fructification is curious, being of two kinds, 
on separate plants. In one, the spores are produced in oblong spots on each 
side of the midrib, somewhat in the manner of the fruit of the common fern, 
Polypodium vulgare, whence the specific name of Haliseris. In the other 
form of fructification, the spores are scattered singly and irregularly over. 
the surface of the plant. The substance of the membrane of Haliseris is 


very thin, and only the tips or younger portions adhere to paper in drying. 
The colour of the living plant is a brownish olive, but the terminal divi- 
sions change in drying to a very delicate tint of yellowish green. This 
species is said to be biennial, and is in perfection in July. 

Concerning that remarkable plant called Padina pavonia (Fig. 58), 
Dr. Harvey has observed, “‘it is without parallel among seaweeds.”’ 
The outspread fronds of this magnificent alga resemble variegated 
feathers, and the curved lines which adorn the surface, together with 
the beautiful fringe of golden-tinted filaments which ornament the 
upper margin of the fronds, have suggested the picturesque and highly 
appropriate specific name of Pavonia, or the Peacock. In the pretty 
village of Shanklin, in the Isle of Wight, near where this lovely plant 
grows in abundance, I have heard it called ‘‘ Prince of Wales’ Feathers.” 
Our illustration is from a tuft of this species which grew in one of the 
prolific rock pools on the shore at Shanklin. This plant is a native of the 
tropics, and is abundant in the Mediterranean and the Channel Islands, its 
northern limit being the southern shores of England. Its favourite place 
of growth is in shallow tide pools, where it can bask in the sunlight during 
the recess of the tide. When viewed thus growing under water it is a 
truly exquisite object, for the golden fringes of its curved segments 
decompose the rays of Jight and reflect the most beautiful rainbow tints. 
The fruit consists of long lines of dark olive spores produced beneath the 
outer coating of the frond along the concentric zones, which at maturity 
burst through the membrane, each spore finally separating into four parts 
or sporules. The under surface of the fronds is covered with a whitish or 
pale blue powdery substance ; and in mounting large tufts of this plant, a 

_ pretty effect may be produced by reversing some of the fronds so as to 

contrast the greenish olive of some with the blue-greyish tint of others, 
care being specially taken to secure those plants which are well provided 
with the beautiful fringe already described, the golden tint of which in 
summer plants, is invariably preserved in drying. 

The genus Zonaria, from the Greek word for a girdle or zone, contains 
two curious species ; one of which, Zonaria parvula, is found occasionally 
on various parts of our coasts, its usual habitat being in rather deep water 
on the story nullipores. Hence its rare appearance unless cast ashore 
after storms. Our illustration, Fig. 59, is from two fronds of the species 
Z. collaris, the collar-like zonaria. This singular plant grows on rocks, 
to which it is attached by numerous woolly fibres, which spring from 
the under surface of the primary fronds. The secondary frond or upper 
portion of the plant, as seen in the upper figure of our illustration, 
springs from the lower or procumbent frond, and is usually cup-shaped, 
slightly notched at intervals, and terminated with a border or fringe of 
delicate fibres. The fruit is produced from beneath both surfaces of 
the frond, which at maturity, bursts through the cuticle or membrane 
of the plant, and is found to consist of sori or groups of spores concealed 
among numerous jointed threads or filaments. 


Taonia atomaria, very well represented at Fig. 60, is one of the most 
attractive of the British Melanosperms. In England it is completely a 
summer plant, attaining perfection in July, and perishing by the end of 
September. The outline of the expanded fronds is usually fan-shaped, 
the terminal divisions being cleft and jagged similarly to those of Cutlerit 
multifida (Fig. 56), the tips being truncated, or cut off as it were. The brown 
olive wavy lines on the frond so strongly resemble the transversely marked 
feathers of the pheasant, that a celebrated botanist proposed the name 
of Phasiana, and it is much to be regretted that this name was not adopted, 
for it is certainly more characteristic than that of Taonia, which is a 
name from the Greek signifying ‘‘ Peacock.’’ The spores are contained in 
sori or groups, which form indeed the wavy lines that adorn the fronds of 
this favourite plant. The spaves between these lines of fructification are 
dotted here and there with spores, scattered singly or sometimes in groups. 
Taonia is widely distributed, though it is nowhere abundant. The finest 
specimens are obtained on the south coast of Devon, and especially so 
in rock pools between tide marks east of the Plymouth breakwater. 

Fig. 61 is from a very characteristic plant of Dictyota dichotoma. The 
frond being regularly dichotomous, or branched by repeated forkings 
from the very base, the segments becoming gradually narrower and smaller 
as they approach the terminal divisions. This pretty plant is one of the 
most widely dispersed of its order. In size and colour it differs greatly, 
according to the depth in which it grows. Specimens from deep water are 
broad and of a light brownish tint, and attain a height of a foot or more ; 
while those which grow in rock pools about half-tide level are a few inches 
only in length, very narrow, and of a greenish olive. In these situations, 
too, may frequently be found, growing abundantly, the curious variety 
called Intricata, the very narrow, curled, and entangled fronds of which are 
a puzzle for the most patient manipulator to display properly on paper. 
The fructification of Dictyota is produced on both surfaces of the frond, 
and consists of groups of egg-shaped spores; or, on other plants of 
the same species, spores scattered singly on all parts of the fronds. Both 
forms of fructification are well represented at Fig. 62 (a and b), and here, 
also, may be seen the characteristic structure of the surface membrane 
of the Dictyotacew. The term being from the Greek for a net, in reference 
to the reticulated surface of these plants wher viewed under the micro- 
scope. Both varieties of Dictyota are annuals, and are common all 
round the British coasts. 

The four plants which I shall now describe, belong to that group 
in the Dictyotacew, in which the fronds are cylindrical and branched, the 
roots of all being a minute disk, destitute of fibres. First in this small 
assemblage of plants I must introduce the curious species Stilophora 
rhizodes, the geueric name being from the Greek, signifying point or dot- 
bearer, in reference to the peculiar dot-like form of fructification, which 
is seated on the branches and ramuli of the plant from the base to the 
tips of the ultimate branchlets. ‘he difticulty of giving a characteristic 

Fic. 60. Taonia at maria. 

Fig. 61. Dictyota dichotoma. 


or satisfactory illustration of this species in its ordinary growing state, has 
induced me to be content with figuring a magnified portion of the stem, on 
which are seated several sori or bunches of moniliform or necklace-like 
filaments, as seen at c (Fig. 62) and at d, a more highly-magnified 
portion of one of the sori, showing three spores seated at the base of 
the filaments. There is no mistaking this plant when it has once 
passed under observation. It is usually found near low-water mark, 
on rocks, or sometimes on other alg. It is a summer annual, and occurs 
on various parts of the English and Irish shores, but is more abundant 

Fig. 62. (a.) and (b.) Forms of fructification of Dictyota. (c.) Stilophora rhizodes. 
(d.) Magnified portion of sori of S. rhizodes. (e.) Stilophora Lyngbyei. 
in the neighbourhood of Plymouth than any other locality that I have 
ever visited. The fronds are from 5in. to 6in.. or sometimes nearly 2ft. in 
height. They are filiform or string-like, and generally excessively branched, 
the primary branches springing irregularly on each side of a more or less 
evident main stem. The colour of this plant is an olive brown, turning to 
a dark green in drying. The much rarer species or variety, known as 
Stilophora Lyngby, is only, so far as my experience goes, obtainable by 
dredging in sheltered bays from ten to fifteen fathoms. It is said to. be. 
abundant in many places ; but I have never taken it, even in dredging, any- 


where but in Lamlash Bay, in the Isle of Arran. Professor Harvey 
considers it to be merely a deep-water form of Stilophora rhizodes, and 
perhaps, indeed, it is nothing more; but, like other Melanosperms in 
similar situations, its growth and general appearance differ from the 
typical form of the genus in having fronds of much greater length, the 
axils or angles of the branchese being more rounded, the tips of the 
branchlets much more attenuated and pointed, and last and most impor- 
tant of all as regards specific distinction, the spores are seated on 
branched filaments, as seen at e, Fig. 62, and not at the bases of simple 
filaments, as in S. rhizodes. The colour is a pale olive-brown turning 
to a light greenish olive in drying. The genus Dictyosiphon contains 
cnly one British species, D. feniculaceus. The generic name signifies 
a reticulated siphon—the surface of the stem and branches of the 
plant being reticulated, the network-like markings being, on this 
species, exceedingly fine. i have usually found this pretty annual, 
during the early summer months, in rock pools, and sometimes growing 
on other seaweeds. The frond, which arises from a small disk-like hold- 
fast, is filiform or string-like, from 6in. to over 2ft. in length. The whole 
plant is excessively branched and bushy, and every branchlet is attennu- 
ated at its extremity to an exceedingly fine point. Fig. 63 is from a very 
well displayed specimen of this species. The fructification, which is rare, 
consists of little egg-shaped spores, which are scattered irregularly on 
various parts of the surface of the frond, but generally on the main 
stem. The plant from which our illustration was taken, grew in one of 
the sheltered bays in Plymouth Sound. It represents the early summer 
state of the species when it isin perfection. The colour is a light olive 
inclining to brown, but it turns to a pale green in drying. 

The genus Striaria also contains only one species. It is found occa- 
sionally between tide marks, though more frequently in five or six fathom 
water. The root is a little bag-like disk. The fronds, which are tufted, 
are from a few inches to about a foot high. The main stems are set 
throughout with numerous branches which are mostly opposite and are 
all more or less similarly branched, every portion being attenuated alike 
at each extremity. In addition to the ordinary reticulation of the surface, 
the frond. of this species, when in fructification, presents an extremely 
pretty appearance, every portion of the plant being marked with striz, or 
transverse lines or bands, which are placed very close to each other, and 
are composed of sori or clusters of spores, the peculiar arrangement of 
which has suggested the generic name, that of Striaria, the specific 
name of attenuata, being equally characteristic of the form of growth of 
its branches and ramuli. Striaria attenwata is well represented in Fig. 64, 
The plant was taken by me at Plymouth many years ago, and although 
very perfect in form, the pretty transverse bands of spore clusters were not 
developed upon it. The colour is a pale olive, but in drying, young plants 
turn to a beautiful shade of green, and but for the transverse markings, 
which are genorally present on mature specimens, this species might occa- 


sionally be mistaken for a delicate form of Enteromorpha compressa 
(Fig. 8). Striaria attenuata is found in the Mediterranean, and is said - 
to be abundant all round the British coasts. I have, however, found it 
only on the sonth Vevonshire coast, from May to July. 

Fic. 63. . Dictyosiphon feniculaceus. 

The third division of the Dictyotacee contains the concluding members of 
the order, some of which have flat, undivided, membranous fronds, others 
are tubular, and all areunbranched. Thegenus Punctaria, from punctum, 

Fic. 64. Striaria attenuata. 

a dot. in reference to the peculiar dot-like fruit of these plants, contains 
three species. The first of these is Punctaria latifolia (Fig. 65), a pretty 
summer annual, which grows in tufts on rocks and on other seaweeds in 
pools between tide marks. The illustration is from a tuft of this species, 


which grew in one of the tide pools in Torbay, where it is usually very 
abundant. The root is a very minute disk; the fronds are from 3in. to 
Sin: or 10in. high, and when fully grown are somewhat more than 2in. 
in width. They are generally oblong, with broadly rounded tips, and are 
tapered suddenly at the base; the margin is generally flat, but sometimes 
waved or curled; the colour is a pale olive green, turning to a lighter tint 
of green in drying ; though occasionally, if mounted fresh from the sea, this 
species preserves its natural pale olive tint. The spores are produced on 
both surfaces of the frond, and, under the microscope, are found to be par- 
tially concealed amongst tufts of little club-headed filaments. Fig. 66 
represents two well-grown fronds of P. plantaginea, the plaintain-leaved 
punctaria. This species grows in tufts in rock pools between tide- 
marks. The fronds are from 3in. to 10in. long, but are much narrower than 
those of P. latifolia, the widest part being near the blunt or rounded 
tips, from which.they gradually taper to the base, the root being a very 
small naked disk... The substance of this plant is thick and tough, and 
of a dark brown coiour, a character which it retains in drying. It is rarely 
curled at the margin, the long narrow leafy fronds giving it some- 
what the appearance.of young plants of Laminaria fascia (Fig. 45), from 
which it may, however, be always. distinguished by the fructification, 
which is usually abundantly present. scattered in spotlike groups over 
both surfaces of the fronds. It is a summer annual, and is found pretty 
generally all round the British coasts. P. tenwissima (Fig. 67, a) is the rarity 
of its tribe. I took asingle specimen of it many years ago at Brighton, but 
have never found it since. Itis said to be parasitic on Zostera marina 
the common grass-wrack, which is so abundant on sandy shores; but 
although I have examined thousands of specimens of this marine plant in 
various parts of Scotland, and all round the shores of England, I have 
never been rewarded witha single plant of P. tenuissima. Of course, I 
cannot presume to say that botanists are wrong in mentioning the 
fronds of Zostera as its parasitic habitat; I can only say I never found 
it growing on that plant, but I have found it on Chorda filum (Fig. 49), as 
represented by a portion of both in Fig. 67, a. The fronds, which grow 
in clusters all round the slimy sea-chord, are from 3in. to about 10in. 
long, and are about jin., or rarely more than fin. wide, gradually 
narrowing towards the tips and much attenuated towards the base, of a 
delicate and almost transparent substance, and of a pale olive colour, turn- 
ing to a bright green in drying. No fruit has hitherto been detected on 
this species, and as my plants are all barren, [ am unable to describe 
the fructification of this rare alga. The late Mrs. Griffiths, of Torquay, 
is said to have considered it asthe young of P. latifolia, and perhaps 
the absence or rarity of fruit on this species may have led to such a con- 
clusion. I, however, do not share that opinion. The only specimens 
of this plant ever found by me were growing in widely different situa- 
tions to any in which I ever met with P. latifolia, and in all the 
numerous rock pools in which I have watched the growth and development 


of P. latifolia and P. plantaginea I have never detected a single specimen at 
all resembling the plant known as P. tenwissima. 
Another parasite, very commonly found on Chorda filum, is the string- 

Fic. 65. Punctarva latifolia. Fic. 66. Punctaria plantaginea. 

like plant known as Litosiphon pusillus (Fig. 67, b), the generic name 
signifying siender tube. Multitudes of these tiny tubular fronds clothe-the 
long floating alga, sometimes for several feet together, spreading out like 

Fig. 67. (a) Punctaria tenvissima on perks jilum, (b) Litosiphon pusillus on Chorda 

the hair of a bottle-brush; in early growth perfectly straight, but as 

the season advances, they become lax, and are twisted or curled and 

everywhere entangled, as represented in the illustration... Oval spores are 


produced on various parts of the tubular fronds, scattered singly or 
sometimes in pairs. In eariy summer this little thread-like plant 
dries a brilliant green; but in the mature state, as represented in our 
illustration, the endochrome of the cells having decayed or perished, the 
fronds turn to a brownish olive. The most effective manner of mounting 
this species on paper, is to cut a longitudinal slice of the Chorda, 
and place the cut side on the paper, takinz care to spread out the 
fronds of the parasite while they are still floating in the water, 
which must be drained away gradually, raising one side of the paper 
at a time, or the limp fronds of the plant will either clot together or 
arrange themselves in an unnatural position. Litosiphon laminariee, is 
an extremely minute parasite, whose place of growth is on the lamina or 
leafy part of Alama esculenta (Fig.50). It consists of little starlike tufts 
rarely an inch in length, and is scattered thus at very short distances apart, 
sometimes over the whole extent of the fronds of the Alaria. This little 
parasite being almost microscopic, is, as regards its fructification, com- 
pletely so. ‘The cellular structure of its tiny fronds is extremely beau- 
tiful though very simple. The cells are arranged in transverse bands 
placed very close together; and within these bands of cells the spores 
are produced. ; 

The genus Asperococcus is named from the Latin and Greek, signifying 
rough fruit or seed ; the spots of fructification, which are thickly scattered 
over both surfaces of the fronds of these plants, causing them to feel 
harsh or rough to the touch. They all vary in size according to the 
depth of water in which they grow. Fig. 68, represents a group of fronds 
of Asperococcus compressus, one of the rarest of this genus. This species is 
a summer annual. It is rarely found growing, being a deep water plant. 
[ have taken it only in the neignbourhood of Plymouth. The fronds are 
from 6in. to about 20in. long. They are tubular but compressed or 
flattened at the sides, hence the specific name. The colour of this species 
is more inclined to a greenish tint than any other of the genus to which 
it belongs, and in drying, it invariably turns to a pale green, thus 
throwing out in strong relief the numerous oblong sori or spots of fructi- 
fication. ‘The flat growth of this plant renders it easily manageable in 
preparing it for the herbarium, and it closely adheres to paper in drying. 
A. Turnert is also rare. It is sometimes found in rock pools, but more 
frequently, with the help of the dredge, in sheltered bays, in five to fifteen 
fathoms. The fronds of this species vary in length from 4in. to nearly 
as many feet, the largest being obtained in deep water. They are like 
long inflated bags, constricted here and there at irregular intervals, and 
taper very suddenly at the base into a short stem, being attached to 
rocks or stones by a very minute naked disk. The colour is pale olive, 
becoming darker in drying, a character which is probably due to the 
minute dots of fruit, which are densely scattered over the whole surface 
ot the fronds. A. echinatus, Fig, 69, is the commonest of its tribe. It 
varies in size, like the others of this genus, but the ordinary length its 


its tufted fronds is from 6in. to 16in. It is found in rock pools between 
tide marks. The fronds are tubular, but here and there slightly con- 

Fie. 68. Asperococcus compressus, 
stricted, rounded at the tip and attenuated at the base, the root being a 
minute disk. The illustration represents a complete plant of the species. 

Fig. 69. Asperococcus echinatus, 

The colour in early growth is a pale olive, turning toa dark brown at 
maturity. The fruit is always abundantly produced, often completely 


covering both surfaces of the fronds. Dr. Harvey mentions a variety of 
this species, called vermicularis, found by Mrs. Griffiths, in Torbay, the 
fronds of which are very narrow, and filiform or stringlike, and more or 
less twisted or curled. This variety is still abundant in various parts of 
Torbay, its habitat being in shallow rock pools about half-tide level. 
Young plants of this variety are sometimes very similar to undeveloped 
specimens of Chorda lomentaria (Fig. 44): the latter are, however, much 
smoother to the touch, and the colour is always a more decided greenish 

The Chordariacee are a group of plants which are usnally characterised 
by botanists as olive-coloured sea-weeds, the fronds of which are, in 
some, of a gelatinous nature, while in others, the whole substance. of the 
plants is cartilaginous, made up, as it were, of a crisp gristle-like body, 
which spreads over rocks and stones and adheres to them by its under sur- 
face. Some of these, as, for instance, Leathesia tuberiformis (Fig. 72), 
are sometimes found about half-tide level, covering the rocks in exten- 
sive masses of a light olive or yellow colour, heaped together like 
variously shaped tubers, and the same species is found frequently 
growing in small roundish groups on other seaweeds. Some others 
of this order are parasitic, composed of densely-tufted filaments, for 
the most part minute, some being entirely microscopic, the structure 
and fructification of which, when viewed under a high power, are 
wonderfully beautiful. Few of this order of plants are particularly 
attractive to the general collector, and many of them are extremely diffi- 
cult to prepare for the herbarium. I shall, however, give a few direc- 
tions as to the proper method of drying and pressing these plants as I 
severally describe them. 

Some of the Chordariacee are very widely dispersed, a few of our 
common species, such as Leathesia and Chordaria, being found as abun- 
dantly on the South African shores and elsewhere, as on those of this 
country. In describing the British species of this order, I purpose grouping 
them. together on the same principle which I observed in describing the 
three divisions in the Dictyotacee. Thus, the two first genera contain 
plants which have cylindrical branching fronds; the two next consist of 
tuber-shaped fleshy or cartilaginous masses; and the two last are dense 
tufts of unbranched thread-like filaments, in almost every instance parasitic 
on some particular species of seaweed. 

The genus Chordaria is so named from the plants which are included in 
it having exactly the appearance of dark-coloured strings or bundles of 
twine. Fig. 70 represents the well-known species Chordaria flagelliformis 
the scourge or whip-like Chordaria. This plant is a summer annual, and 
grows in rock pools between tide marks. The fronds are from a few inches 
to 2ft. or 3ft. long, having a central stem for about half the length of the 
plant, the upper part being irregularly divided or branched, the lower 
portion bearing here and there on each side, short ramuli, mostly of the 
same thickness and consistency as the stem and branches of the plant. In 


the living state the fronds of this species are soft and slimy to the touch, 
a character which is due to the numerous colourless fibres which clothe 
the whole surface of the frond. The spores are concealed among the 
filaments of which the external layer of the plant is composed. C. divaricata 
is much more rare. Belfast Lough, and the shore at Carrickfergus, being 
hitherto the only recorded British habitats. I have, however, taken it at 
Plymouth, at Shanklin in the Isle of Wight, and in rock pools in the Cum- 
brae Islands ; in the latter it was growing in society with C. flagellifor ms, 
to which it bears a strong resemblance although it is much more branched 
and bushy. The branches spread in all directions, and are very irregularly 

Fie. 70. Chordaria flagellifurmis. 

divided. Many of the ramuli are very short, and some are curved, or 
stand out at right angles from the stem. Care should be observed in 
mounting these plants on paper not to employ too heavy pressure at first, 
otherwise the fronds are apt to adhere to the linen so firmly that they 
tear away on its removal. 

The genus Mesogloia contains three species, which in the living state are 
certainly not very attractive plants, having more the appearance of bundles 
of brown or dark greenish slimy worms than any vegetable production. 
Portions of them, however, when submitted to microscopic examination, 
exhibit a remarkably beautiful arrangement of cellular structure. The 


axis or central portion of the stem is composed of elongated interlacing 
fibres, imbedded in gelatine; the outer margin is made up of horizontal 
or radiating tufted branching filaments, among which the dark olive 
coloured spores are produced. The name is from the Greek for “ middle” 
and “‘ viscid,’’ in reference to the viscid or glutinous nature of the axis. 
Mesogloia vermicularis is the common species found all round our coasts. 
It grows on rocks and in tide pools, and is sometimes cast ashore of large. 
size. The fronds are irregularly and usually much branched, being set with 
numerous ramuli, all of which, like the stem and main branches of the 
plant, are flaccid and slimy, and singularly worm-like, hence the specific 
name. The colour is a dark yellowish olive, which it generally retains in 
drying. WM. virescens, a main branch of which is represented at Fig. 71, 
is, in many respects, similar to the former species, but may be known by its 
much lighter colour, which inclines more to a green than an olive tint, 
especially in drying, when it invariably turns to a pale yellowish green. 
These curious plants are very variable in size. The former sometimes 
attains a length of 2ft., but the latter I have never known to exceed 12in. or 
l5in. The species M. Grifithsiana is rare. It was named after the late 
Mrs. Griffiths, of Torquay, who discovered it. The fronds rarely exceed 
a foot in height, and are much more slender and less copiously branched 
than the two species already described. It is said to be found on the West 
of Ireland, and although it is decidedly rare on the English shores, I have 
taken several beautiful specimens near Plymouth, on different occasions. 
All the species of Mesogloia, when displayed on paper, must be allowed 
to dry for several hours before the slightest pressure is attempted. 

At the head of the fleshy or cartilaginous seaweeds is placed the curious 
plant known as Leathesia tuberiformis (Fig. 72), named in honour of Rev. 
Mr. Leathes, an eminent naturalist. This singular marine production has 
exactly the appearance of a mass of distorted tubers variously heaped 
together, suggesting the not inappropriate name of ‘‘ sea potatoes.’’ In 
early growth the roundish lobes of this alga are solid, or filled with densely- 
packed cotton-like fibres, but as they advance in growth they become 
hollow and break away from the rocks or seaweeds on which they grow. 
The structure of this tuberous mass is very remarkable, but it would require 
a large series of diagrams to illustrate a description of its composition. 
The illustration gives a good general idea of its form as it is found in 
various stages of growth on rocks or attached to other seaweeds. L. crispa 
is a small and somewhat insignificant species, parasitic on Chondrus 
crispus. It was discovered not many years since by a naturalist in 
Scotland. L. Berkeleyi, though not so abundant as the type of this genus, 
is not uncommon, but being of a dark brownish olive, and growing close 
to the surface of submarine rocks, it frequently escapes notice, or when 
found is too often rejected on account of its generally unattractive appear- 
ance. When specimens of these fleshy plants are desired for the herbarium, 
portions of the young plants should be selected, and after being cleaned 
from sand or other foreign matter, the mass should be placed on mounting 

Fic. 71. A main branch of Mesogloia virescens. 

f growth, attached 

ges oO 

to a stunted red seaweed. 

Fie. 72. Leathesia tuberiformis in various sta 



paper and allowed to dry or shrink a little ; then-upon immersing it in sea- 
water again, and afterwards draining away the water, it may be treated in 
the ordinary way, always bearing in mind that pressure for fleshy as well 
as gelatinous plants, must be gradually and carefully applied. 

The genus Ralfsic, named in honour of John Ralfs, Esq., of Penzance, 
contains one species only, Ralfsia verrucosa, the frond of which is of a 
leathery or crustaceous nature. It is attached by its under surface to the 
flat rocks which occur in some situations between tide-marks. The colour 
of this leathery-like plant is a dull brown. The fruit is contained in 
dwarf-like prou,inences, which appear on the surface of the plant, scattered 
here and there among the con- 
centric zone-like markings of 
the fronds. 

The genus Elachista — from 
the Greek, signifying ‘‘the 
least,’’ in reference to the small 
size of these plants—contains 
several species, all of which, 
with the exception of one, are 
more interesting as objects for 
microscopic examination than 
as specimens for ordinary collec- 
tions. The largest and com- 
monest of these tiny plants is 
the species Elachista fucicola 
(Fig. 73), which is found con- 
stantly parasitical near the 
terminal branches of Fucus 
vesiculosus (Fig. 37). Four tufts 
of this parasite are represented 
growing on the Fucus (a), and 
under it (b) a branch of the 
eclub-headed jointed filaments 
which arise from the tubercular 
base, among which the pear- 
Fie. 73 (a) Elachista fucieola on Fucus vesi- shaped spores of these minute 

ee ae a filament with spore, plants are produced. The tufts 

of this Elachista are rarely 
more than an inch long, and are of a dark olive colour. F. pulvinata, 
or attenuata, is parasitical on Cystoseira ericoides. Fig. 74 represents 
a terminal branch of the Cystoseira, on which are growing several little 
globular or cushion-life tufts of this minute parasite. An examination 
of this figure, which was carefully taken from the living plant, will help 
students to recognise this species, as well as to give them a general idea 
of the appearance and manner of growth of other species of Elachiste. 
E. stellulata, a minute star-like plant, parasitic on Dictyota dichotoma 


(Fig. 61) is represented at a, Fig. 75, highly magnified, on a portion of the 
frond of the Dictyota. Under the microscope this is a very beautiful object. 
The delicate little filaments radiate from the basal tubercle, and among 
these, for about half their length, are inserted paranemata, or false fila- 
ments, at the base of which the spores are seated. LE. flaccida occurs in 
little tufts about half an inch long, on Cystoseira fibrosa (Fig. 41). E. 
scutulata in oblong wart-like masses about lin. in length, on the thongs 
of Himanthalia (Fig. 42) ; and sometimes in society with it, in little velvety 
patches, the minute species known as E. velutina. 

The genus which I am about to describe consists entirely of minute 
parasites, several of which require the microscope even to detect them. 
And here, again, I once more direct my readers’ attention to the necessity 
for acquiring a knowledge of micro- 
scopic manipulation. 

An examination of the tiny plants 
which are included in the genus 
Myrionema will amply reward the 
student for any amount of trouble 
he may incur in preparing these 
parasitic alge for the various 
powers of the microscope. As 
these plants are usually in per- 
fection when the various species 
on which they grow are in a state 
of decay, I recommend collectors to 
search for them in early autumn 
rather than during spring and sum- 
mer. Those which are constant 
on such plants as the Ulv@ and 
Enteromorphe, for instance, are 
much more easily detected when 
the fronds of those bright green 
plants are bleached or faded, than 

_ when they are in perfection. The 

Fic. 74. ee et On. CUCOSI Seams Myrionema is from the Greek, 
signifying ‘‘ multitudinous threads,”’ 

in reference to the numerous thread-like unbranched filaments of 
which these little seaweeds all consist. Fig. 75, b, represents the 
species Myrionema strangulans, several ring-like masses of which 
encircle the branch of a frond of Enteromorpha compressa (Fig. 8). It is 
found also on the decaying fronds of Ulwa lattissima (Fig. 5), and on them 
it appears like a number of little brownish spots, scattered over the surface 
of the plant sometimes abundantly. M. punctiforme is, at maturity, a 
little globular dot, or rosette, composed of tiny radiating filaments, par- 
asitical on Ceramium rubrum, as represented at c, Fig. 75. It is found also 
on some other red weeds, and on whatever species it does occur, it generally 


infests, at short intervals, every portion of the plant. M. Leclancherii 
is found on faded fronds of the common Rhodymenia palmata, and 
the extremely minute species, M. clavatwm, occurs only on the plant 
known as Hildenbrantia rubra, a purplish-red crustaceous alga, which 
spreads over the surface of stones, and the sides of rock pools, about half- 
tide level. 

The plants included in the order Ectocarpacee, are briefly characterised 
as olive-coloured, jointed, filiform, or string-like seaweeds, whose spores are, 
for the most part, produced externally, attached to jointed ramuli or 
branchlets. The name of this order is derived from the genus Ectocarpus, 
which signifies external or exposed fruit, the fructification of all the species 
of Ectocarpus being more or less exposed or conspicuous. To those 
collectors who desire an accurate knowledge of specific distinction in this 

Fig. 75. (a) Elachista stellulata on Dictyota dichotoma. (b) Myrionema 
stvangulans on Enteromorpha compressa. (c) Myrionema punctiforme on 
Ceramium rubrum. All more or less magnified. 

genus, a microscopic examination of the fruit of these plants will prove 
at once interesting and instructive. To the unassisted eye many of the 
Ectocarpacee are wonderfully alike, but plants in fruit quickly declare 
themselves even under an ordinary lens, and when once a true species 
is secured and studied, subsequent identification, even in barren specimens 
of the same species, is thus rendered far less difficult. Many of the common 
species of this order, are very widely dispersed. The beautiful species 
Mertensii is as plentiful on some of the Scottish shores as on the south 
Devonshire coast, where, especially around Plymouth, this lovely plant 
is taken in great perfection. 


Some of the Sphacelariew, too, are alike plentiful in the north and south 
of this country. Sphacelaria filicina, one of the most delicate and beautiful 
of the filamentous melanosperms, is found on the north and south coast | 
of Devon, in the Channel Islands, and in the Mediterranean; and, in 
fact, there are no continental generic forms of this order known (as 
observed by Dr. Harvey) which are not represented in our marine flora. 
None of the plants of this order are gelatinous ; on the contrary, many 
of them are rigid and adhere very imperfectly to paper. This is especi- 
ally the case with the genera Cladostephus and Sphacelaria, but all the 
others are very manageable, and may be pressed so flat and close to the 
surface of the paper, as to present the appearance of the most exquisite 
engravings, rather than copiously branched and jointed vegetable produc- 

The genus Cladostephus is represented on our shores by two common 
and very easily-recognised species. C. verticillatus (Fig. 76) is found in 
rock pools, on corallines, or growing in exposed situations, often in large 
bushy tufts from 3in. to 10in. high, the stems and branches of which are 
stiff and wiry, and are set throughout at close and regular intervals with 
whorls of little ramuli (b), all of which are incurved near the tips. These 
whorled branchlets are furnished irregularly with one or two shorter 
ramuli, which point outwards and upwards, forming, in fact, a series of little . 
crowns, whence the name of the genus, that of Cladostephus, or ‘‘ branch 
of crowns,” and the regularity with which these crowns or whorls are set 
on the branches is expressed in the specific name of verticillatus. In 
winter these verticillate tufts fall off, and another irregularly disposed 
set of ramuli shoot forth, on the outward and upper side of which little - 
elliptical spores are produced,seated on pedicels or short stalks. C. spon- 
giosus, so called from the thick or spongy nature of the branches, which 
are very densely crowded with closely-set whorled ramuli, is common on 
most rocky shores. In some situations, where the tide leaves: bare flat 
open spaces and overhanging ledges of rocks near low-water mark, this 
plant is often found in great abundance, spreading over the surface, or 
hanging from crevices in the rocks like large masses of black worsted. 
It is extremely difficult to display well on paper, and is by no means 
an attractive book specimen. The fruit is produced during winter in a_ 
similar manner to that of the preceding species. 

The genus Sphacelaria, from the Greek for gangrene, in referenee to the 
withered or decayed tips of the fruitful branches, contains several very 
beautiful plants ; some are of large size, and others are strictly microscopic. 
They are all distinguished by the extreme rigidity of their stems and 
branches, several species being of exquisite symmetry, simulating the form 
and ramification of the most delicate exotic ferns. This is especially the 
case with regard to the species Sphacelaria filicma, branches of which are 
represented at Fig. 77. This charming plant is generally considered to 
be one of the most beautiful of the British marine algw. The plant 
represented in the illustration was taken near Ilfracombe, but this species 






Sphacclaria filicina, 

(b) Magnified portion of same. 

(a) Cladostepnus verticillatus. 

Fig. 76. 

is more frequently met with eastward of Plymouth Breakwater, where I 
have occasionally dredged it of large size, but in no instance have I ever 
detected fruit. The very curious and minute species known as S. ser- 
tularia, is parasitical on algz which grow in deep water. It is rarely met 
with, perhaps on account of its small size and the depths in which it loves 
to vegetate. Dr. Harvey considers it to be merely a deep water variety of 
the foregoing species. It is a very much smaller plant, and the branches 
and ramuli are shorter and generally spread out at right angles with 
the stem. S. scoparia is a large coarsely branching plant found in most 
seas; on the southern shores of the Isle of Wight its large tufted fronds 
frequently strew the beach in great abundance. The summer and winter 
conditions of this species are widely different. In early growth, and during 
the summer its tufted branches are thick and bushy, resembling little 
brooms, but at the close of the season its superabundant branches and 




Fic. 78. (a) Terminal branch of a seaweed, with a tuft of Sphacelaria 
cirrhosa. (b) Plume from the same, magnified. 

ramuli fall away, totally changing its character, specimens of which bear 
occasionally such a striking resemblance to loosely branching forms of S. 
filicina, that many an inexperienced botanist has been deceived as to its 
identity. Fig. 78 (a) represents one of the varieties or forms of the species 
S. cirrhosa, parasitical on a terminal fork of a seaweed, and beside it (b) one 
of the plumes of which this pretty little plant consists. In some varieties 
of this species the filaments form little star-like tufts, as in the illustration ; 
in others the tufts are globular in form and densely branched. I took this 
variety many years ago in great plenty, as it was floated in by the tide on 
the shore of the Great Cumbrae Island. Every specimen I picked up on 
that occasion was in fruit. The spores are like little round balls seated 
near the base of the branchlets, generally one or two, opposite or some- 
times close together. Another very tiny variety of this plant I have taken 


abundantly at Largs, on the Clyde, parasitic on the stems of Desmarestia 
aculeata (Fig. 53). 8. radicans grows on sand-covered rocks, in small 
tufts rarely exceeding an inch in height. S. fusca is a rarity, though 
it was discovered as long ago as the year 1827. It may be known by a 
very peculiar form of ramuli which are borne on some of the filaments near 
the tips. Dr. Harvey describes them as being “attenuated at the base and 
trifid at the apex, the joints of the plant being marked with a pale brown 
band.” The specific name is from the reddish-brown colour of the plant. 
S. racemosa, so named from the clusters of grape-like spores produced on 
each side of the filaments, was discovered by Sir John Richardson in 1821, . 
on the shores of the Frith of Forth. For very many years this curious 
plant eluded the search of algologists in all parts of this kingdom, and 
indeed was generally regarded as a lost species, when all at once, a few 
years since, it was discovered in tolerable plenty, in the river Clyde, by 
Mr. Roger Hennedy. This rare plant I have never met with, and know it 
only by Dr. Harvey’s beautiful figures in his ‘‘ Phycologia.”’ S. plumosa 
(Fig. 79) is, so far as my experience goes, peculiarly an inhabitant of 
northern waters, and even there it is regarded as a rarity. It is said to be 
found at Greenland and in the Arctic regions, while the coast of Corn- 
wall is given as its southern limit. About twelve years ago I took a beautiful 
specimen of this plant in the bay of Lamlash. It was attached to a large 
stone that came up in the dredge from a depth of five-and-twenty fathoms. 
The branches of this species very closely resemble feathers, being regularly 
pinnated with opposite, spreading, generally unbranched pinnz or wing- 
lets, the tips of which are frequently sphacelate or withered. I have 
described this rare and peculiar plant as among the Sphacelariew, but I 
must inform my readers that Professor Agardh, the celebrated Swedish 
) algologist, has removed it from this order, and erected it into the type 
of a new one under the name of Chetopteris, which signifies ‘‘ bristle wing,”’ 
in reference to the erect bristle-like pinnz or ramuli of its branches, the 
original specific and very characteristic name of plumosa being retained. 
Advancing onwards with my description of the Ectocarpacew, I now 
arrive at the genus Ectocarpus, the simplest in point of structure and fructi- 
fication of any of the plants of this order. In tkese the frond is composed 
of a single simple or highly-branched filament, and producing spores and 
active granules or zoospores in pod-like bodies, which are seated on the 
branches of some, or produced conspicuously in the stem or branches 
of other individuals. Many of these fruit-bearing organs afford most 
’ beautiful microscopic objects, as may be seen in the group of: magnified 
portions at Fig. 80. The extreme difficulty of giving anything like a 
satisfactory representation of any living species of Hctocarpus obliges me 
to be content with a slightly magnified portion of one of the shore species, 
and to represent fertile branches of a few others much more highly magnified. 
Fig. 81 represents a lateral branch from a fine specimen of FE. littoralis, 
a common species which is found abundantly on the shore /'uci at all sea- 
sons. The tufts are from 6in. to more than 12in. long, of a brownish- 

Fic. 79. Sphacelaria plumosa. 

Fie. 80. Magnified portions of Ectocarpacee—(a) E. littoralis; (b) E. granu- 
losus ; (c) E. brachiatus; (d) E. fenestratus; (e) E, Mertensii. 


olive colour, very much entangled and matted together, a character which 
is pretty general among the plants of this genus. The fruit is produced 
in oblong masses embedded in the central portion of the branches and 
ramuli, as represented at a (Fig.80). EH. granulosus, under even a moderate 
power, is a pretty and very distinctly marked species, all the branches 
and ramuli being for the most part exactly opposite, the little dark coloured 
elliptical spores being seated on the upper side of the spreading ramuli 
or branchlets, as seen at b (Fig. 80). This species is parasitical on several 
of the lesser algze between tide-marks. FH. brachiatus (c) is another well 

Fic. 81. Ectocarpus littoralis, 

marked species, usually parasitical on Rhodymenia palmata, but rare. 
The filaments are beautifully fine and feathery, excessively branched, 
all the branches and ramuli being generally opposite. The fruit, which is 
binate, or separated intc two portions, is imbedded in the axils of two oppo- 
site ramuli or branchlets, just where the branches are quarternate or cross- 
branched in fact, whence the specific name of ‘“‘brachiatus.’”’ In the 
living state the fruited branches of this species under the microscope are 


extremely beautiful. The joints of the stem and branches are a fine olive 
green, and are distinctly marked, while the two-parted capsular fruit- 
vessel is of a reddish-brown, and is surrounded by a hyaline or transparent 
border, forming a pretty contrast to the olive green stem and branches 
of the plant. A fruited sprig is represented at c (Fig. 80). E. fenestratus, 
(d) so called from the peculiar lattice-like markings on the surface of the 
silicules, is a small and not very attractive species. I have taken it at 
Plymouth and Whitsand Bay. The tufts are about 3in. high, the fila- 
ments are very thread-like and sparingly branched, the ramuli few, 
distant, and usually alternate along the branches. The silicules, or fruit- 
vessels, when present, are abundant, and are stalked, being produced at 
irregular intervals on each side of the branches. These silicules are of a 
larger size than the fruit-vessels of any other species of Ectocarpus, and 
may be known at once by their shape, which is elliptical, but rather 
narrow at each end, and by the peculiar transverse and cross markings 
all over their surface, a character which has suggested the specific name 
of this plant. A portion of the stem, bearing two silicules, is represented 
at d. EH. Mertensii (e), dedicated to Professor Mertens, of Bremen, is one 
of the most charming of its tribe. It was discovered at Yarmouth, in 1779, 
and, although it is widely distributed, it is generally considered a rare 
species. I have had fine specimens sent to me from Peterhead and other 
northern stations, but the plants taken by me at Plymouth exceed in 
size and beauty every other specimen I have seen hitherto. This beautiful 
plant is in perfection in May and June. It is found on muddy rocks at 
low-water mark. The main stems are from 5in. to about 10in. long; the 
branches are numerous, and are of unequal length, being set throughout 
with lesser branches, all of which are branched on the same principle, and 
every division of branches and branchlets is invariably opposite, a re- 
gularity of growth which gives to the plant a beautiful feathery appear- 
ance. The whole plant is abundantly furnished with short pointed ramuli, 
which are placed opposite to each other at very short distances, usually at 
the upper shoulder of every third joint, and it is about the centre of 
these ramuli that the large binate sporiferous mass is produced. The 
jointing of this species is beautifully distinct, as may be seen at e (Fig. 80), 
where also the two-parted spore-vessel is represented. The colour is a fine 
olive green, the substance is flaccid, and, like all these summer annuals, 
this plant adheres closely to paper in drying. Once only have I found this 
rare species in fruit, and that occurred among the specimens I received 
from Peterhead. This fruited plant was so small and poor in appearance 
that I discarded it from my collection; but taking it up subsequently, and 
observing something peculiar on one of its stunted branches, I submitted it 
to the microscope, and found to my great surprise, that my little scrubby 
despised plant was a treasure indeed, being abundantly in fruit. This was 
a lesson to me, which I here record for the benefit of young students, 
never to throw aside any mounted plant, however apparently insignificant, 
until it has been thoroughly examined under the microscope. 


There are several other species of Ectocarpus, some of which are very 
rare, but a few of them must be described, through briefly. E. Hincksie, a 
rare and beautiful but small species, may be looked for on the large 
oarweeds. It was discovered by Miss Hincks, of Belfast (whose name it 
appropriately bears), near the Giant’s Causeway. Fine specimens are to be 
found growing on the larger Laminarie off St. Michael’s Mount, Cornwall, 
and also at Plymouth. FE. tomentosus grows in abundance on the rock 
Fuci; the filaments of the branches are extremely slender, and densely 
interwoven and matted together. LE. crinitus, the filaments of which are 
more delicate than the finest hair, spread over the surface of muddy 
shores like fine fleeces of a light brownish olive, changing to a glossy green 
in drying. E£. pusillus,a small species, parasitical on some of the Poly- 
siphonie ; E. distortus on Zostera marina; and E. Landsburgii, 
obtained only by dredging in deep water. E. longifructus, very similar to E. 
littoralis (Fig. 81), but having long attenuated silicules, which are very 
closely marked with transverse strix. E. spherophorus, a small plant 
parasitical on the beautiful Ptilota elegans, and some other small alge. 
This species may be readily known by the form of its fruit vessels (which 
are spherical), being produced opposite to each other on the upper 
branches, singly or in pairs, and sometimes even in groups of fours, 
attached to the sides of the stems of the plant. LH. tessellatus, an extremely 
rare plant, I have found only occasionally near Plymouth. The fruit vessel 
of this species is a remarkable object under the microscope. The whole 
of the surface is marked like a tessellated pavement, whence the specific 

Young collectors will find at first almost as much difficulty in distin- 
guishing species among this group of algz as is often the case with the 
puzzling varieties of Cladophore. But,as I have already observed, the 
presence of fruit in the Ectocarpew, which is often abundantly produced, 
saves an infinity of trouble, and only requires a little practice with the 
microscope, or even a good ordinary lens, to identify most of the species 
of these delicate alge. The Cladophore, it will be remembered, are all green, 
alike in the living state and after they are pressed and dried, while the 
Ectocarpee, although mostly of a greenish hue when they are mounted on 
paper, are all, while growing, either olive or a brownish-olive colour. 

The genus Myriotrichia, from the Greek for “numberless hairs” (in 
reference to the multitudes of ramuli and fibres which clothe the stems 
of these minute parasitical plants), consists of two species, either or both 
of which are frequently met with where Chorda lomentaria (Fig. 44) and 
Asperococcus echinatus (Fig. 69) occur. These unattractive but curious 
plants are generally abundant during the summer months, parasitical 
chiefly on the constricted fronds of Chorda lomentaria (Fig. 44), encircling 
the long cylinders of this alga at intervals, and crowning the tips with a 
brush-like tuft of slender, twisted or entangled filaments. Fig. 82' re- 
presents the species Myriotrichia filiformis, somewhat magnified, attached 
toa frond of Chorda lomentaria (Fig. 44). Reference to the high powers 



of the microscope is necessary to an appreciation of the growth and 
structure of these parasites. In the species before us, the filaments are 
like a bundle of curly strings which have been partly unravelled and tied 
loosely together at the base; while in the species M. claveformis the 
fronds, although equally produced in bundles, are attenuated at the base, 
and swell out into club-headed tips resembling a fox’s brush. The former 
species is most frequent, though both are sometimes met with growing 
together on the fronds of the same seaweed. There is little or no difficulty 
in mounting these plants on paper, the fronds and ramuli being flaccid and 

Fie. 82. Myriotrichia jivformis on Chorda lomentaria. 

more or less gelatinous. But in order to display the species properly, 
and represent the parasitic growth satisfactorily to the eye of a botanist, 
the whole plant on which the parasite is growing should be secured 
and arranged on the paper while still floating in sea-water, so that the 
tender filaments of the parasite may spread out freely and lie in a natural 
position as the paper is raised gently from the water in a slanting direction. 
The water will thus drain away from the specimen gradually, otherwise the 
string-like filaments will clot together, and the whole process will have 

to be repeated. With this genus I close my description of the British 



ted Seaweeds. 

UNTIL so comparatively recent a period as the summer of 1857, the 
standard work on British Marine Algx, both as regards systematic 
arrangement and nomenclature, was Professor Harvey’s ‘ Phycologia 
Britannica,” in which magnificent publication the “ rose-tangles,’”’ or red 
seaweeds, are described under the general title of Rhodospermee, or 
red-seeded plants. But since the completion of Professor Harvey’s great 
work, a new arrangement of the Rhodosperms has been published by 
Professor Agardh, the Swedish algologist. This arrangement is based 
on a more accurately scientific investigation of the sporiferous nuclei, . 
or spore-producing bodies, in the various species of this great subdivision. 
The Agardhian arrangement of the red seaweeds is divided into two 
series, the lesser organised families being included under the title 
Gongylospermee, or plants whose sporiferous nuclei contain numerous 
spores congregated without order in each nucleus or spore receptacle, 
and the more highly organised families classed under the title Desmio- 
spermee, the sporiferous nuclei of these consisting of tufted spore threads 
or filaments, a single spore being formed in each cell of the tufted threads, 
or only in the terminal cell. Some portions even of this arrangement 
have been modified or altered, and the names of many species have been 
changed by Professor Agardh himself, and as I am convinced that all 
these recent changes have been the result of the most definite and accurate 
observation, it is my intention in describing the British Rhodosperms, to 
adopt Professor Agardh’s arrangement, and most recent nomenclature ; 
although, for my own convenience, particularly as regards the extreme 
difficulty of preparing many of the illustrations, I shall now and then be 
compelled to describe families, or at least genera, somewhat out of regular 
scientific order. However, to the general reader, and even to young 
algological students, this will make no difference whatever as to their 
acquisition of a knowledge of the plants themselves, which is indeed, after 
all, my primary object in writing this work. 

Although, to ordinary observation, the most striking characteristic of 
the plants of this great subdivision is their colour, the scientific student 
finds a more remarkable and distinctive characteristic in the double 
system of fructification, nearly every genus being furnished with two 
different kinds of reproductive bodies, or spore-bearing organs, which are 


produced on different individuals of the sarae species. A complete know- 
ledge therefore of the system of fructification of the red plants includes 
that of two individuals of the same species, one of which exhibits what 
is termed the primary, or conceptacular, the other the secondary, or 
granular, form of fruit. The sporiferous nucleus is described as con- 
sisting of numerous articulated or jointed filaments in distinct and 
variously formed conceptacles or spore-vessels, the joints of which become 
fertile or are transformed into spores. In no instance do the spores of 
the algz exhibit at any period of their development an approach to a 
rudimentary plant, as in the germinating seeds of the Phanerogamia, or 
flowering plants. They are found to consist entirely of a dense deep-red 
granular or starch-like matter, called ‘‘ endochrome,’’ enveloped in a 
nearly colourless skin or pericarp, consisting of two or three membranes. 
The secondary-form of fruit consists of tetraspores or four-parted seeds. 
These are produced from a division of the endochrome of certain privileged 
cells, the spherical mass of which they consist being separated into four 
parts, three of which are so placed within the enveloping membrane 
that the fourth part is completely hidden beneath them. Some forms 
of the tetraspore are, however, arranged so that all the four parts are 
visible at once. This occurs by transverse division of the endochrome, 
and is called ‘‘zoned”’ or ‘annular’? ; when divided by cross-lines into four 
equal parts, the tetraspore is cruciate; and when the division is by 
triradiate lines, and the parts are of unequal size, it is said to be 
ternately parted. Both forms of fructification are alike capable of 
reproducing their species; the tetraspores are, however, now generally 
regarded as gemme or buds, and thus they may be said to extend the 
life of the individual, rather than to reproduce the species. In the 
primary form of fruit the spores are rendered fertile by contact with 
antherozoids, which are produced in variously formed yellow-tinted cases 
called ‘‘antheridia,’’ found abundantly on plants in so many genera that 
they are doubtless developed in all, and always, of course, on plants which 
bear neither spores nor tetraspores. Further descriptions of the form and 
structure of the various fruit-bearing receptacles of the red plants will be 
given as each particular species is described and illustrated. 

I shall commence with a description of the plants which are included in 
the great series Desmiospermee, and follow the order in which they are 
classed in Professor Agardh’s most recent arrangement. Beginning, 
therefore, with the family Rhodomelacee, I shall describe the plants in the 
British genera which the Swedish professor includes in his order Chondriee, 
and these are Polyides, Lomentaria, Laurencia, and Bonnemaisonia. 
Polyides rotundus, now Polyides lumbricalis (Fig. 83), was formerly placed 
in the sub-order Spongiocarpew. On the southern British shores this is 
one of the common red weeds, being found in shallow rock pools between 
tide-marks in very great abundance. It is by no means a favourite species 
with ordinary collectors, being difficult to display effectively on paper, 
owing to its large disk-like root and its numerous forked, thick round 

\ \ 
y \ 

Fig, 84. Lomentaria kaliformis. 


branches, all of which spread out and point upwards, and when well 
mounted on paper may be made to describe a complete circle. The 
fructification of this curious plant constitutes its chief interest, at least 
to an algologist. Tetraspores are found occasionally immersed among 
the filaments of the periphery or outer margin of the frond; but it is 
the primary form of fruit that has caused this species to receive more than 
ordinary attention, and has given British and foreign systematists a 
world of trouble. The illustration, Fig. 83, represents a large frond of 
Polyides lumbricalis, taken by me at Whitsand Bay, near Plymouth ; the 
branches are crowded with dark brown-red spongy or wart-like masses of a 
roundish or oblong form. These warty masses are called “‘ favelle,’’ and 
contain clusters of spores imbedded in their substance, each cluster being 
surrounded by a pellucid or colourless border. 

I now pass on to the plants which are included in Professor Agardh’s 
newly-constituted genus Lomentaria; the name having reference to the 
cross lines, or constrietions, which occur throughout the stems and 
branches of these plants. The fronds of most of the species of this 
group may be briefly described as being, for the most part, tubular, con- 
stricted, or tied in, as it were, at short intervals, and filled with a slimy or 
watery juice, which last peculiarity was referred to in the original name 
of this genus, viz :—Chylocladia or “juicy branch.’’ The spores of these 
plants are contained in round, or sometimes conical, conceptacles, called 
“ ceramidia ;” tripartite tetraspores are imbedded in the branches and 
ramuli. Lomentaria kaliformis, represented at Fig. 84, by the terminal 
portion of a branch, is a summer annual, being found from June to 
September. It varies greatly in size according to its place of growth. 
Plants which are found in tidal rock pools are stunted in form and poor 
in colour, but specimens which are dredged, or are cast ashore, exhibit the 
normal form of this handsome species in perfection, the fronds being from 
12in. to 20in. long, and of a fine purple-red colour. The capsules of this 
species are spherical and very distinct, being of tolerably large size, and 
are seated on the young branches. Tetraspores are immersed in the 
ramuli, and may be seen easily with an ordinary lens. Large specimens 
of this plant are troublesome to mount on paper, on account of the densely- 
packed whorls of branchlets and ramuli, which are set around the stems 
with tolerable regularity at the numerous constrictions, many of the 
whorls bearing one or more series of lesser branches and ramuli, all of 
which taper by degrees as they approach the tips. A little judicious 
pruning, however, helps to form beautiful specimens for the herbarium, 
but great care must be observed in the pressure employed, which must 
be very gradual; indeed, this remark applies to all of these juicy-branched 
plants, many of which should be allowed to drain and contract under 
the calico and blotting paper before they are subjected to any degree 
of pressure. JL. ovalis (Fig. 85) is abundant on the north and south 
coast of Devon. This curious plant, with its little tufts of bud-like 
ramuli, produced irregularly on the stems and branches, has somewhat 


the appearance of a shrub putting forth its spring leaflets. In early 
growth these little leafy ramuli are nearly oval in form, but as the plant 
advances in growth the ramuli lengthen, and even occasionally taper at the 
apex, which, in most instances, is obtuse or rounded, the bases being 
always attenuated and sometimes even slightly stalked. Globular capsules 
are produced on each side of these ramuli; tetraspores are immersed 
within them. JL. articulata (Fig. 86), formerly, and until very lately, 
Chylocladia articulata, is one of the most abundant of its tribe, being 
found under the shelter of large over-hanging weeds, on rocks, and in tide 
pools, clinging to the surfaces by means of its fibrous roots, like a beautiful 
crimson fleece. This, however, is the stunted form of the species. This 
plant is taken in perfection during the summer months only, by means of 

Fig. 85. Lomentaria ovalis. 

the dredge; though occasionally it is thrown up from deep water. Such 
specimens are deservedly very much admired. The illustration represents 
a luxuriant form of one of these. They are sometimes above 12in. long, and 
are excessively branched ; the stems and branches throughout being con- 
stricted at regular intervals, composed in fact of chains of elliptical bead- 
like joints, and here and there, from the articulations of the upper branches, 
spring whorls of similarly constricted ramuli, the beaded joints of which 
are much shorter and the tips usually pointing upwards ; the whole plant 
when spread out having generally a beautifully rounded outline. Spores 
are contained in conical capsules; tetraspores in the elliptical joints of the 
ramuli. L. parvula, formerly Chylocladia parvula, then removed by Dr. 
Harvey to the genus Champia, and recently placed by Agardh in the genus 

é ‘e wi 4 / 

» Lh Naty A. iG: 
sin Ap Ne 

PE Aa 

y ‘ ‘ ‘ia —4 

-s =i) P & | NW Ae o. 
es 22S | yy (Fe ro A 

Fie. 86. Lomentaria articulata. 

wf. (i) 3A 
oe te 
m * SSSs5, 

Fig. 87. Lomentaria parvula. 

4 3 oak 


Ss ay ate \1\ ae 

ee y 
vee i) 
4 : : : 
Bc/e EY NI 
* ¥ 4 v te 
~ OF mai A. 
. PP) 
| ete 
, uy 
oo Ww 
. V 


Lomentaria, is a summer annual, by no means abundant on our shores, 
though very common on the American coasts. It is easily distinguished 
from the others of its tribe by the much shorter joints of its stems 
_and branches, all of which are of nearly equal length and breadth, those 
in the ramuli being proportionally shorter, and the tips of the branches 
and ramuli obtuse or rounded; capsules, which are ovate or egg-shaped, 
are produced on the branchlets; tetraspores in the joints. Fig. 87 represents 
a branch or two of this species. JL. reflexa is the rarity of this genus. I 
have take it but once only, and that was during a dredging excursion at 
Plymouth, when it came up in the dredge attached by little root-like 
processes to a fragment of another alga. This species is very sparingly 
branched ; the branches being mostly what is termed ‘‘ secund,”’ or pro- 
duced on one side only of the stems. The ramuli spread out widely, 
or are curved slightly downwards, hence the specific name reflexa. 

Fig. 88. Laurencia pimnatifida. 

The genus Lawrencia, as recently revised by Professor Agardh, contains 
only three British species, all of which are more or less common; one, L. 
pinnatifida, being found in all seas, and is equally abundant in temperate 
and tropical climates. On our own shores this species is very common ; 
and indeed, it is so extremely variable in size and general appearance, as 
well as colour, according to the depth of water in which it grows, that 
botanists recognise and describe no less than three varieties. The typical 
form of this species, as represented in Fig. 88, rarely grows above extreme 
low-water mark; but in this situation and in deeper water it attains 
a length of 12in. or more, and is of a fine dark purple, or sometimes 
brown-red. As this species advances towards the shore it becomes stunted 
in form and size, though still preserving its characteristic appearance, 


save in colour, which, on high exposed rocks retains no shade of red or 
purple; being of a dirty brownish olive, sometimes even green, or a dull 
yellow ; and when cast ashore is generally bleached white. The substance 
of this plant is firm and leathery, and although the branches are mostly 
flat and pretty regularly disposed, they require to be pruned here and 
there before they are submitted to pressure. Well-grown plants of this 
species, with requisite care in mounting, form beautiful specimens for 
the herbarium. L. pinnatifida has a strong pungent taste, and in Scotland, 
where it is eaten, it is commonly known as “ pepper-dulse.”’ The 
spores of this plant are contained in broad ovate capsules which are 
seated on each side of the branchlets, tetraspores are embedded in the 
ramuli. L. hybrida (Agardh), formerly L. cespitosa, or the tufted Laurencia, 
is found on stones, and in shallow rock pools between tide-marks. This 
species rarely attains the size of the foregoing; its branches are shorter 
and more bushy, and all the divisions of the plant are more or less 
cylindrical, being rarely compressed or flattened, as in L. pinnatifida. 
The ramuli are generally very much crowded, spreading on all sides of the 
branches, tapering towards the base, and truncated at the tips. The 
colour varies from a dark olive to a pale greenish yellow, and occasionally, 
in shady situations, attaining a lurid purple tint. Some writers consider 
this plant to be merely a shore variety of L. pinnatifida (Fig. 88), or, at 
most, as intermediate between it and L. obtusa, two branchlets of which 
are represented at Fig. 89. One bears ovate ceramidia, the other tetra- 
spores, which are immersed without order near the tips of the ramuli. 
This species is a Summer annual, and is most abundant on the southern 
shores of England. It grows on the Fuci, but is generally found cast 
ashore. Mature plants, when properly displayed, form elegant specimens 
for the herbarium, being of a fine pink or rose-red, and having a beautiful 
pyramidal outline. The stems and branches are pretty nearly of a similar 
thickness throughout; the branches and ramuli are mostly opposite; 
and all the terminal divisions are truncate or obtuse, whence the specific 

The elegant plant which is represented by a few branches at Fig. 90 is, 
as Dr. Harvey has observed, ‘‘ one of the most distinctly marked species of 
its tribe, and so unlike any other British alga, that it must be recognised 
ata glance.’ The delicate cilia, or spine-like ramuli, which border every 
part of the frond, and which are arranged with strict regularity, being 
placed alternate to each other, and opposite either to a capsule or to 
a branch, afford marks that cannot be mistaken. The generic name, 
Bonunemaisonia, is in honour of Mons. Bonnemaison, a French naturalist ; 
the specific, that of asparagoides, is very appropriate, its resemblance 
to the mature asparagus plant being very striking. This beautiful annual 
is a deep-water plant. It is often cast ashore on the South Devonshire 
coast, particularly in the neighbourhood of Plymouth, but my finest 
specimens were dredged in Lamlash Bay, Isle of Arran. The colour is 
a brilliant crimson, the substance is soft and delicate, and the fronds being 

Fie. 89. Terminal sprigs of Lawrencia obtusa, showing the capsular and 
granular fructification magnified. 

Fig. 90. Bonnemaisonia asparagoides, 


compressed or flattened, are easy to display on paper, to which they closely 
adhere in drying. 
. Chondriopsis dasyphylla and C. tenwissima-were formerly included in 
the genus Lawrencia, under the name: of L. dasyphylla and L. tenuissima, 
_whence they were removed into the more recently formed genus Chondria, 
and now they stand at the head of Professor Agardh’s most recently 
rearranged order Ahodomelacew. Professor Agardh divides his Orders 
into tribes, genera, and species. Tribe 1, in his Order, Rhodomelacee, 
is termed Chonriopsidew, and the genus Chondriopsis is represented in 
Britain by the two species C. dasyphylla and C. tenwissima. 

Fic. 91. (a) Chondriopsis dasyphylla ; (b) Magnified branchlet, with ceramidia. 

Fig. 91. represents a branch or two of the former species, with a 
magnified portion bearing ovate capsules, which are seated on the inner 
sides of the branchlets. When tetraspores are present, they are produced 
here and there in the ramuli. This summer annual is found pretty gene- 
rally on the English and Irish shores, usually between tide-marks, or cast 
up from deep water. The fronds are from 6in. to 12in. high, the stems 
generally undivided and set throughout on each side with branches, which 
lengthen towards the base of the main stems; the lower branches ‘usually 
bearing a second series, all of which are set here and there with short 
ramuli, which are attenuated towards the base, and are club-shaped or 



obtuse at the tips, the frond throughout being marked at pretty regular 
intervals with distinct transverse lines, as indicated in the magnified 
branchiet in Fig. 91 (b). The colour of the living plant is a light pink, 
the stems inclining to pale yellow; but this species being of a rather 
gelatinous nature, decomposes quickly, and therefore no time should be 
lost in transferring it to paper. This liability to fade and decompose is 
even more characteristic of the species C. tenuissima, a rare summer annual 
which I have taken in perfection at Bovisand near Plymouth, and occa- 
sionally at Brighton. The growth and general appearance of this plant 
bear some resemblance to the foregoing, but it may be distinguished from 
that species at once, as wellas from Lawrencia obtusa (Fig. 89), which 
it also somewhat resembles, by its long slender ramuli, which are 
attenuated at both ends, many of them being tapered at the tips to a 
needle-like point. 

C. tenuissima is represented at Fig. 92, by a magnified branchlet, 
bearing several ovate ceramidia; the tetraspores are always produced 
throughout the whole length of the long bristle-like ramuli. The colours 
of this species have ail the fugitive characters of those of C. dasyphyjlla, 
though occasionally I have mounted young specimens, in which the 
lateral branches and ramuli were a deiicate purple, and the stems a fine 
primrose or chrome yellow. 

Tribe 2, has no British representative, but Tribe 3, contains three beau 
tiful genera, the first of which is represented on our shores and in brackish 
str ams by the curious species Bostrichia scorpioides (Fig. 93), both names 
being equally characteristic of the little curled or involute tips of the 
branches and some of the ramuli. I have taken this plant in the neigh- 
bourhood of Plymouth, but nowhere else. The fruit I have never seen, 
and I am not aware that it has ever been detected on British specimens. 
This species belongs to a group of very curious little plants, some of 
which are found in the tropics, others in the antarctic regions, and all are 
remarkable, according to Dr. Harvey, for their amphibious habits. A 
portion of one of my Plymouth specimens is represented at Fig. 93. 

The genus Rhodomela, signifying “‘ red and black,’’ (because the plants 
of this group, though a fine brown-red, turn black in drying), contains 
two British species. R. lycopodioides, is peculiarly a northern species, 
being found most abundantly on the shores of Scotland, on the north- 
east coast of England, and in the north of Ireland; on the English 
shores I have never taken this species further south than the rock 
pools above Tynemouth, where, in the spring, the beautiful red lateral 
branches of this plant are thrown out on each side of the stems 
throughout the whole frond. These tufted branches are so closely 
beset with multifid ramuli, that when they are mounted on paper they bear 
a fanciful resemblance to a wolf’s foot, whence the specific name. Fig. 94 
is from a long branch of this species. The capsules containing spores are 
produced on the tufted ramuli, tetraspores are immersed in the branchlets. 
R. subfusca is common on the southern shores. The summer and winter 

Fie. 92. Branch of Chondriopsis tenuissima, bearing ceramidia, magnified. 

Fic. 93. Bostrichia scorpioides, 


states of this species are widely different. This plant, like the foregoing, 
is perennial. As winter approaches, 
the tufted branches which clothe 
the fronds throughout, fall away, 
leaving the stems of the plant rigid 
and bare; but, on the return of 
spring, a series of beautiful tufts of 
pencilled filaments, or ramuli, shoot 
forth from the branches, and on 
these, little berry-like capsules are 
produced. The summer tetraspores 
are contained in winged branchlets ; 
those which appear in winter are 
produced in curious tufted pods 
called Stichidia, as _ represented, 
highly magnified, at Fig. 95. 

Odonthalia dentata, or ‘‘ toothed 
sea-branch,’”’ is another of our 
northern species of algz, and one 
so distinctly marked that there is no 
possibility of mistaking it for any- 
thing else. It is abundant in 
Scotland, in the north of Ireland, 
and in the Isle of Man. I have 
taken it very frequently near that 
well-known fishing station called 

Fie. 94, Rhodomela lycopodioides. Cullercoats, north of the Tyne, but 
I have never had the good fortune to meet with a fruited speci- 

The fructification of this 
species is curious and beau- 
tiful. Ceramidia are pro- 
duced from the axils of the 
branches in tufts on a 
delicate little pedicel or 
stalk, and in the same 
situations, on other indi- 
viduals, lanceolate pods or 
stichidia, also tufted and 
stalked, contain a double 
row of tetraspores, form- 
ing a most beautiful micro- 
scopic object. 

Fig. 96 represents a 
Fie. 95. (a) Stichidia with tetraspores of Rhodomela branch of Odonthalia, and 

subfusca, (b) Tetraspore magnified. Pedaae) savas tutte 

the pretty bell-shaped ceramidia, containing spores. The colour of 


this plant is a full blood-red, the older portions turning black in 

Tribe 4, Polysiphoniew, contains the beautiful and extensive genus 
Polysiphonia, as well as the genus Rytiphlea. In fact, three species of 
the latter are now included by Professor Agardh in his genus Polysiphonia, 
the number of species in Rytiphlea being thus reduced, at least in Britain, 
to the well-known species, Rytiphlea pinastroides, which I will first de- 
scribe. This common plant is found pretty frequently on the southern 
shores of England growing in rock-pools, in densely branched bushy tufts 
from 4in. to 10in. high, spreading out on all sides, the branches throwing off 
asecond and third series near the upper portions, and all the divisions 
being set, chiefly on one side of the branches, with short ramuli, which are 
hooked at the tips, or curved inwards; and on these, during winter, small 
roundish capsules are produced, seated usually on the inner sides. Tetra- 
spores, on distinct plants, are imbedded in these incurved ramuli. The 
whole frond of this species is marked with distinct transverse lines, which 
can only be seen when the plant is gathered fresh from the sea, as it always 
turns black in drying. 

Fig. 97 represents a terminal branch of Rytiphlea pinastroides, magnified, 
showing the transverse striz and ceramidia. The fronds of this species 
are extremely difficult to mount on paper, being rigid, and of a cartila- 
ginous substance. My own plan is to display and press those portions 
which I care to retain, in the usual manner, and when the whole is 
tolerably dry, to immerse the specimen in skimmed milk for a quarter 
of an hour, and then dry and press as before; when, in the course of a 
day or two, upon removing the blotters and calico, the plant will be found 
firmly attached to the paper. 

In describing the three transferred species of Rytiphlea, I must confess 
some regret at their removal from the genus, for the external appearance, 
at least, of their stems and branches was certainly characteristic of the old 
name, which signifies “‘.wrinkled bark,’’ the peripheric, or external layer 
of cells, being small and numerous, giving to the surface of the plant when 
dry, a transversely wrinkled appearance; but the inner structure of the 
plants, and their fructification, are clearly those of Polysiphonia, hence 
their removal to that genus. However, before I enter on a description of 
that extensive and beautiful tribe of plants, I will dispose of the three 
species which have hitherto been included in Rytiphlea. Figd 98 
represents a branch of the very rare R. complanata. I have never taken 
this species in any other locality than Cawsand Bay, near Plymouth. 
Possibly its extreme rarity may be due to the fact that fruit on this species 
is of very rare occurrence; indeed, when Dr. Harvey described this plant 
about five and twenty years ago, giving the south of England and the west 
of Ireland as its then known habitats, he remarked “‘ that the fruit of this 
species had not been found in Britain.” The colour of this pretty species 
is a dark brown-red, turning blackish in drying. In freshly gathered 
specimens, and before decomposition has set in, the frond is seen to be 

. ei ae ‘I[NUIBI 94} TO Ssornsdvo—sopro.yspurd “DUPVWwY190 
se tage es a I aydyfy Jo syeTqouvsq yeurmtey, “46 ‘erg  — pedwys-[teg (9) “MM;UWep vYDY;UWOpO (v) *96 ‘PTA 

‘7 i 


¢ tS S 

_ ’ 

i | 
: | 
‘ . 
: eS 


beautifully reticulated, and marked at short distances by transverse striz 
or slightly curved cross-lines, thus indicating the structure of the jointed 
or chambered internal axis, which is clearly visible with the aid of a good 
_ lens. This plant does not readily adhere to paper, but if it be soaked 
in fresh water for some hours, and afterwards subjected to strong pressure, 
careful manipulation will thus be rewarded with a beautiful book specimen. 
R. thuyoides, though not rare, is by no means common, though it is found 
in rocky tidepools in some situations in large quantities. I have occasionally 
found it thus in rock-pools under Mount Edgcumbe. Like the foregoing, 

Fie. 99. Rytiphlea fruticulosa. 

it isa small species, being rarely over 4in. high. The colour is dark brown, 
sometimes even a yellowish olive, but turning nearly black in drying. 
This species is intermediate between the foregoing and R. fruticulosa. 
Fig. 99 represents a branch of this latter highly beautiful species. The 
plant from which it was taken was gathered by me off the rocks at 
extreme low water-mark in Whitsand Bay, where it grows abundantly and 
in high perfection. The colour of this plant in the growing state is 
another instance of the departure from the ordinary characteristic tint of 
the Rhodosperms, being usually a true purple, changing to a greenish tint, 


and, under the influence of sunlight, becoming an amber yellow or pale 
straw colour. The fronds are sometimes from 6in. to 10in. high, very much 
branched, and set with numerous more or less tufted multifid ramuli. 
These ramuli are frequently tipped with antheridia, which are often pro- 
duced so abundantly as to impart a prevailing yellow tint to the whole 
plant. Both forms of fructification are very well represented at Fig. 100: 
a isa branchlet, producing several little capsules, seated here and there 
on the sides of the twig-like branches ; } is a branched ramulus containing 
tetraspores in the swollen or distorted articulations. 

The beautiful and extensive genus Polysiphonia is represented by some 
of its species in all seas, from the poles to the equator. According to 
some writers there are upwards of 200 species of these plants known 
to botanists, some five or six-and-twenty of which are found on various 
parts of the British coasts. They vary greatly in size, in habit, and in 
colour; some being nearly 2ft. in length, and others barely 2in. high. 
Several species, when fully grown, are robust, bushy, and tree-like, while 
others are of extreme delicacy, the branches being finer than the finest 
human hair, resembling the most delicate exotic ferns in miniature. In 
colour they vary from a brilliant crimson to different shades of brown, red, 
and purple, and occasionally even approach a blackish tint. The structure 
of their stems and branches is well expressed in the generic name, which 
signifies ‘‘ many siphons,” the stems of all containing four or more primary 
cells or siphons, those of simple structure having four primaries in each 
articulation or joint, while others have as many as twenty four. These 
siphons are arranged round a central cavity, exactly like the spokes of a 
wheel around the axle-tree, and the regularity with which these siphons 
occur as regards number, is generally, in the absence of fruit, a pretty 
sure guide for the identification of species. A transverse cutting of the 
stem of a Polysiphonia fresh from the sea, placed under the microscope, 
or upon aslip of glass, and held under a lens, will reveal the beautiful 
structure of these plants most satisfactorily. When viewed thus, the 
central tube of some species will be found to be empty, while in others 
it is filled with endochrome like that of the siphons around it; and in those 
species of a more complicated structure, the main stems are seen to be 
coated externally, with more or less numerous small cells, in addition to 
their primaries. All these characters are very well represented in Fig. 101. 

The following are those species which are most commonly met with on 
the British shores. Fig. 102 represents some branches of the well-known 
Polysiphonia nigrescens, which is a very common plant found in rock pools 
in every situation where seaweeds grow, and, being perennial, is met 
with in all seasons; but the only specimens which are sufficiently at- 
tractive to the collector are those which are found in the spring, when 
the branches throw out their pretty tufts of fine red filaments. The 
nearer to low-water mark such specimens are taken the better, otherwise 
the stems and lower branches of this species, when dried, become perfectly 
black and opaque. The dark colour, or opacity, in the stems of this species 


is, doubtless, due to the large number of siphons, which is generally 
twenty, and these being set so closely together, very naturally account 

Fic. 100. Magnified branchlets of Rytiphlea fruticulosa. (a) Capsules. 
(b) Tetraspores in the swollen ramuli. 

for the dark tint of this species. A transverse section of the stem is 
seen at a, Fig.101. P. affinis, usually regarded as a rarity, is a variety of 
P. nigrescens. The stem contains about sixteen siphons. The ceramidia, 

Fie. 101. (a) Transverse section of Polysiphonia nigrescens ; (b) Ditto of P. fastigiata; 
(c) Ditto of Polysiphonia fibrata; (ad) Ditto of Polysiphonia parasitica; (e) Ditto 
of Polysiphonia variegata. 

or spore-vessels of P. nigrescens are ovate and sessile, or produced from 
the sides of the branches, but in P. affinis, they are nearly round, and 



are seated on little stalks. P. fibrata, so named from the tufts of fibres 
which terminate the ramuli of every filament, is a very pretty species, 
found very generally on aJl the European shores, and is generally regarded 
as one of our commonest species. The fronds are densely tufted and very 
much branched, being gradually attenuated upwards to a hair-like fineness. 
The articulations and siphons of this species may be very distinctly seen 
under a lens. They differ in length somewhat in different parts of the 
stem and branches. The siphons are however four, surrounding a small 
central colourless tube (c, Fig. 101). The structure of this species is pretty 
well represented in the drawings of magnified portions at Fig. 103 ; (a) is 
a ramulus or branchlet containing tetraspores in its central articulations, 
and is crowned with a tuft of branching fibres; (b) represents an ovate or 
egg-shaped capsule, containing within it a tuft of pear-shaped spores ; 
(c) is @ more highly magnified branchlet, at the tip of which, and at the 
base of the apical fibres, are three large oblong bodies, which in the living 
plant are of a bright yellow. These are antheridia, filled with active 
granules or antherozoids. These antheridia are frequently so abundant on 
this species, that the branchlets which bear them seem as though 
they were crowned with a tuft of golden fruit. These bodies, which are 
supposed to be the representatives of stamens in flowering plants, are 
found on many species of seaweeds; but, as Dr. Harvey remarks, ‘‘ how 
they act, or whether they act on the spores at all, has not been ascer- 
tained.’”’ A transverse section of the stem of P. fibrata, which contains 
four siphons arranged around a central colourless tube, is represented at 
c., Fig. 101. P. fastigiata is another common species on which antheridia 
are very frequently found. ‘They are produced in tufts at the tips of the 
little forked filaments of the plant, and are so conspicuous that they give 
quite a yellow tint to the plant. This species of Polysiphonia is parasitic 
on Fucus nodosus (Fig. 35), or the “ knobbed wrack.”’ It grows in dense 
brownish tufts on the upper branches of the Fucus, encircling the stems 
of the plant, its little intertwined branches pointing upwards, about 2in. 
in height, and every one of them terminating in a tiny fork. Tetraspores 
are immersed in the terminal branchlets. Spores are contained in egg- 
shaped conceptacles. The stem contains no less than eighteen siphons, 
arranged around a central cavity, which is filled with endochrome. This 
cavity is, however, not, as in other species of Polysiphonia, a continuous 
tube, buta series of bags of colouring matter, which are separated from each 
other at the very slight divisions which occur at the articulations or joints 
of the stem and branches, all of which are shorter than their diameter. 
A transverse section of the stem is seen at b, Fig. 101. This species 
invariably turns black in drying, and adheres very imperfectly to paper. 
P. urceolata, so named from the urceolate or pitcher-shaped form of its 
spore-vessels, is found growing on the stems of Laminaria digitata (Fig. 
46), and some times fringing the shady sides of rock pools, its long red 
silky filaments mingling with those of the green Enteromorphw or 
Cladophora, with occasionally an olive frond or two of a young Laminaria, 


forming one of those lovely combinations of colour in rock pools which 
algologists love to gaze on. The capsules of this species are seated on the 

Fic. 102. Polysyphonia nigrescens, 

sides of the branches and ramuli, as seen in a magnified branch at a, 
Fig. 105. Tetraspores are formed in the joints of terminal ramuli, as 

Fie. 103. Polysiphonia fibrata; (a) Ramulus with tetraspores; (b) Ovate capsules 
with spores; {c) Magnified branchlet with antheridia. 

represented at 6, Fig. 105, which is a more highly magnified branchlet 
of the beautiful variety of this plant, known hitherto as P. formosa. This 


is a more delicate plant than P. urceolata, though its general appearance 
is very similar, and the structure is almost identical ; (c) is a section of 
the stem, highly magnified. The siphons are four in each of these plants, 
and the central tube, though small, is filled with endochrome. There is 
another variety of P. wrceolata, ca'led P. patens, from the patent or spread- 
ing character of its branches, which are often reflexed or curled at the tips, 
and it is very curious that although in the living state this yariety is a 
fine red, it frequently turns black in drying, the capsules contracting 
and appearing only as little black specks on the stems and branches. 
These plants, as well as P. fibrata, are annuals, and should be looked 
for in the spring and early summer. P. fibrillosa (Fig. 104) is another 
summer annual, which in some seasons is tolerably abundant, and is 
met with pretty generally on the British coasts. I have taken speci- 
mens of this plant at Hastings which were 12in. long, and frequently 
the fronds are found from 8in. to 10in. in length. The stem of 
this species is thick and very obscurely jointed, but when the terminal 
branches are examined, the articulations are more evident, and the ramuli 
are generally distinctly two-tubed, the siphons rather longer than broad. 
Tetraspores are produced in these terminal ramuli, which they distort 
greatly, as seen at a, Fig. 104, and the tips of every filament are crowned 
with tufts of branched and jointed fibres, a constant character which sug- 
gested thespecific name of this plant. P. elongata (Fig. 104), commonly known 
as the lobster-horn Polysiphonia, (the winter state of the long bare stems 
and branches being certainly very similar to the antenne of the lobster) 
is a hardy,’robust species, abundant in rock pools and in deep water. 
The summer and winter states of this species are widely different. As 
winter approaches, the ramuli fall away, leaving the lobster-horn stems 
bare and unsightly; but in the spring the branches put forth tufts of 
beautiful crimson filaments, each of which is tipped with finely attenuated 
fibres, the fruit being borne on the young tufted ramuli. There are several 
varieties of this species described by botanists; but I am inclined to con- 
sider them as merely different states of the plant, for in all I find the 
structure and fructification identical. All the branches and ramuli, but 
more particularly the latter, are attenuated at each extremity, an 
invariable character which greatly facilitates identification. The stem and 
larger branches of the plant are very indistinctly jointed, the surface cells 
being so small and so closely packed as nearly to hide the articulations 
and siphons. These are only distinctly apparent in the upper branches 
and terminal ramuli, as represented in a magnified sprig, at 6, Fig. 104. 
The ramulus to the left contains tetraspores, which appear like warty 
swellings produced alternately on each side of the stem. Winter specimens 
of this Polysyphonia adhere but imperfectly to paper; but spring and 
summer plants, when clothed with their flaccid multifid ramuli, are easily 
mounted, and form very attractive book specimens. Fig. 106, represents 
the charming little plant, P. parasitica, one of the most elegant of any of 
the very beautiful genus to which it belongs. Its usual place of growth is 

Fie. 105. Branch of Polysiphonia wrceolata, with eeramidia. (b) Branch of Polyst- 
phonia formosa ; tetraspores in the joints of the ramulus. (c) Section of stem. 



on the calcareous alge in deep water, whence its specific name of parasitica. 
It is sometimes found growing on the sheltered sides of ledges of rock, at 
the extreme limit of low water, and occasionally it is cast ashore in fine 
- condition. Several years ago I found some lovely specimens of this rare 
Polysiphonia on the beach at Whitley, near Tynemouth. I have also 
taken it in Scotland and at Plymouth. The illustration is from the most 
perfect of my south Devonshire specimens. Under the microscope a branch 
of this species is a singularly beautiful object. The ramification of its 
closely set branches is perfectly regular. They are placed on each side of 
the stem in alternate series; the same order being observed throughout 
the entire plant. The tubes in the articulations, when viewed longi- 
tudinally, appear to be pointed at both ends, and are separated by 
transparent or colourless spaces. The siphons are eight in number, sur- 

Fig 106. Polysiphonia parasitica, magnified. 

rounding a narrow cavity. A transverse section of the stem is seen 
at d, Fig. 101. The fronds of this rare little plant rarely exceed 3in. in 
height, but they are found sometimes in such densely bushy tufts, 
that a skilful manipulator may easily make several lovely book specimens 
from a single plant—no small advantage when the rarity of this species is 
considered. It is, however, widely distributed, being found in Scotland 
and as far south as the coast of Cornwall. P. byssoides is so named 
from the multifid byssoid ramuli with which the branches are clothed 
throughout. Dr. Harvey says, ‘‘ these terminal branched ramuli may 
probably be regarded as leaves in an imperfect state of development. 
In other species they are only found on the tips of young fronds, and 
appear to be actively engaged with the growth of those parts; and while 


upon other species they are colourless, in this they partake of the usual 
crimson or brown-red tint of the plant.’? The structure of this species 
under the microscope is remarkably beautiful, every portion of the stem 
and branches being distinctly jointed, and the dissepiments or separations 
between the articulations being perfectly pellucid or transparent. The 
siphons are seven, and surround a colourless tube. Fig. 107 represents two 
highly magnified branchlets. The capsules, seen at a, are very elegant 
in form, and are produced on short stalks from the upper sides of the 
articulations. The tetraspores at b, are arranged in a single series, being » 
transformations of the three central joints of the branchlet which bears 
them. This handsome species is widely distributed. I have taken it 
frequently at Hastings, but much more abundantly at Ventnor, and still 
more so, and in very great luxuriance, at Plymouth. The fronds are from 
6in. to 14in. long, the colour is a fine deep red, which generally changes 
toa brownish red in drying. P. variegata is a remarkably beautiful 
species, and, although widely dispersed, is rare on the British coasts. I 
have taken it abundantly in the muddy rocky nooks about Plymouth, 
but nowhere else. It grows in dense tufts from 5in. to 12in. long. The 
filaments are very slender, and are attenuated upwards to the most delicate 
hair-like fineness. The upper portions of the plant are a beautiful pur- 
plish-red, which is usually retained in drying. A transverse section of the 
stem is seen at e, Fig. 101. The siphons are six, surrounding a colour- 
less central tube. When viewed under the microscope, the joints of the 
base are broader than long, and in the main branches twice as long as 
broad; those in the ramuli are short, but they are distinctly marked 
with three dark coloured oblong tubes. These characters, which are* 
pretty constant in this species, serve to eo it from others 
which it somewhat outwardly resembles. 

I much regret that the extreme difficulty of preparing satisfactory illus- 
trations of this beautiful tribe of plants in the growing state, permits . 
merely a brief mention of many species I would otherwise gladly describe. 
The noble species P. Brodiwi, which I have taken in the Clyde and on 
the Mewstone Rock, near Plymouth, the branches of which were upwards 
of 20in. long, would require a plate of folio size to give a fair idea of its 
grandeur. This species may be known by its large spreading branches, 
which are alternate and have each a distinct main stem throughout. The 
stems usually contain seven siphons, the ramuli three or four, rather 
longer than broad. The colour is a dark brownish-red. P. violacea is 
a beautiful reddish-purple plant, the fronds of which are from 6in. to 12in. 
high, having a principal main stem set throughout with long alternate 
branches gradually diminishing in length upwards, all of which are 
branched again and again, and terminate in tufts of exceedingly slender 
ramuli. These ultimate ramuli give a pretty feathery appearance to the 
plant, and in mounting on paper, clot together, and so display the beautiful 
purple tint of the species to perfection. The joints in the stem, which are 
very indistinct, are usually marked with irregularly shaped tubes. In the 


ramuli the siphons are two or three, and are twice or thrice as long as broad. 
P. elongella, in its summer state, is a highly beautiful plant. It bearsa 
strong resemblance to P. elongata (Fig. 104), and, like that species, being 
biennial, is unsightly during winter, but in spring is clothed with tufts of 
fine rose-red ramuli. The joints of the stem and main branches are all 
distinctly marked, and are of equal length and breadth. The siphons are 
six or seven, and are separated by beautifully pellucid spaces. This species 
is rare, but widely distributed. I have taken it in Scotland and on the 
south Devonshire coast. P. atro-rubescens is a species which I have taken 
in Torbay and in Whitsand-bay only. It may be known by the little 
bundles or bunches of pointed ramuli which are produced alternately along 

Fie. 107. Polysiphonia byssoides ; (a) Branch with capsules; (b) Branch with 

the stems, somewhat in the same manner that similarly-tufted branchlets 
are set on the branches of Rytiphlwa fruticulosa (Fig. 99). Under the 
microscope the tubes in the articulations appear to be spirally curved, a 
character which serves to mark this species. A transverse cutting of the 
stem reveals twelve or thirteen siphons. P. Agardhiana is a small 
variety of this species. P. pulvinata, now P. sertularioides, is a small 
summer annual, growing on rocks and alge in dense intricate tufts rarely 
more than lin. high. P. spinulosa is an extremely rare species found at 
Appin by the late Captain Carmichael. I possess a single specimen of 
this plant, taken at Plymouth many years ago, and ever since I have 
looked for it in vain. P. Richardsoni, taken on the coast of Dumfries 


by the late Sir John Richardson, is unknown to me. P. Griffithsianes 
now regarded as a variety of P. subulata, is found growing on Polyida, 
lumbricalis (Fig. 83), in Torbay, though rarely. P. Grevillii found by Dr. 
Greville on the shores of Bute, parasitical on the larger shore weeds. P. 
Carmicheliana, now a variety of P. fibrillosa, found growing on Desmarestia 
aculeata (Fig. 52) by Captain Carmichael. P. obscura, a small and rather 
insignificant species, growing in out-of-the-way places, on the roots of the 
Fuci and on submerged rocks. P. simulans, a rare though widely- 
dispersed species. It has somewhat the appearance of P. spinulosa, the 
stems being like those of that species, set with spines or short pointed 
ramuli, which hold the branches of the plant together, trying the patience 
of the manipulator in disentangling them. Its similarity to some other 
species is referred to in the specific name of Simulans. P. subulifera is 
another spine-bearing species, possessing little beauty, and not frequently 
met with, though dispersed along the coasts of England and Ireland. P. 
furcellata is a rare and very pretty little species, all the branches being 
terminated by a little fork, the tips of which incline upwards. This 
interesting plant is a deep water species. I dredged it in Plymouth Sound 
some years ago, but have never found it since. It was taken formerly at 
Sidmouth and dredged in Torbay, but for many years it has disappeared 
from every locality in which I have sought it. This rareness of some 
species and occasional disappearance, at least for several seasons, in others, 
is certainly very curious, and has often formed the subject of ingenious 
speculation. The causes are doubtless natural enough, if known ; but here 
I can do no more than record the fact, that while some species are 
abundant, and make their appearance in the same situations with tolerable 
regularity, others are rare, and occasionally disappear for many seasons 
together, then suddenly reappear in their former habitats, and again as 
unaccountably disappear. The genus Polysiphonia contains one species 
which was discovered subsequently to the publication of the “ Phycologia 
Britannica.’”’ Its name is Polysiphonia fetidissima, so called on account 
of the strong and by no means agreeable odour which it emits during the 
process of mounting, forming a strange contrast to that of other species, 
some of which exhale a perfume as delicate as violets. P. foetidissima is 
very similar in growth and ramification to P. fibrata, and indeed some algo- 
logists, I believe, consider it to be merely a variety of P. fibrata, though 
the colour is very much darker, inclining to a blackish tint; and it is 
curious that the odour emitted by each of these species is alike, that of 
_ P. fetidissima being rather the more disagreeable of the two. 

The genus Dasya, or hairy-branch, is a numerous and considerably 
diversified group of plants, all being more or less remarkable for their 
brilliant crimson hue. Of the British species, the largest and most 
abundant is the handsome and well-known Dasya coccinea, or the scarlet 
dasya, a branch of which is represented slightly magnified at Fig. 108. 
The plants in this group are chiefly characterised by the tufts of thread- 
like jointed ramuli which clothe all the branches of these algw, and are of 


a similar structure to the fibres which are found on the tips of many of 
the Polysiphonie, but while in that genus these fibres are nearly always 
colourless, and perish as the plants advance towards maturity, and are not 
jn any way connected with the fructification of the plants, in the Dasye 
they are brilliantly coloured, and are as enduring as the plants themselves ; 
the stichidia, or vessels which bear the tetraspores, being a transformation 
of portions of these tufted ramuli. The ceramidium, or spore-vessel, is 
also a metamorphosis of some of these ramuli, and is an interesting and 
beautiful object for the microscope, a number of crimson pear-shaped 
spores being distinctly visible through the semi-transparent walls of the 

Fie. 108. Dasya Coccinea. 

fruit-vessel. The stichidia are oblong lanceolate pods, suddenly pointed 
at the tips, and contain the tetraspores, which are arranged in a series of 
transverse bands. D. coccinea is a summer annual. Small stunted forms 
are met with growing in pools between tide marks, but luxuriant specimens 
are only obtainable in sheltered situations at extreme low-water mark, 
though occasionally they are cast ashore from deep water. The most 
favourable situations for this species, known to me, are the bays around 
Bovisand near Plymouth, and the shores west of Ventnor, in the Isle of 
Wight. D. ocellata, so named from a fancied resemblance which the tips 


of the tufted branches bear to the eye-like spots on the peacock’s tail- 
feathers, is a small and rare species, seldom more than 2in. high. It 
grows on muddy rocks at extreme low-water mark. The ramuli, which 
are very abundantly produced on each side of the stems, are so fine and so 
Closely set, that a satisfactory figure of the living plant is hardly possible ; 
I therefore present my readers with the representation of a highly magnified 
branchlet (Fig. 109). In this species the ramuli are forked, and are of 
extreme tenuity. Lanceolate stichidia, which point upwards in the 
direction of the main stem, are seated on the upper side of the ramuli. 
D. arbuscula, or the shrub-like dasya, is another small and rare species, 
about 4in. high. It is excessively branched and bushy, the branches being 
densely clothed with forked-spreading ramuli, which are so crowded at the 
tips as to give the outline of the plant the appearance of a bunch of 
crimson feathers. I have taken beautiful specimens of this species on the 
shaded side of the great Mewstone Rock, near Plymouth. Fine specimens 
are sometimes taken on the Irish and Scottish coasts. In this country 
D. ocellata rarely produces ceramidia, but D. arbuscula is as frequently 
found with capsules as with stichidia, but the form of the latter is very 
distinct in these species; those of D. ocellata being long, narrow, and 
drawn out to a fine point; while in D. arbuscula they are oblong, obtuse at 
the tips, and terminate with a mucro or short spine. The ceramidia of 
this genus are very pretty objects. They differ considerably in form in the 
various species. That represented at Fig. 110 is the characteristic capsule 
of the Jersey species, D. Venusta, now D. corymbifera. It is produced, 
as I have said, from the branched ramuli, and is a transformation of one of 
the branches on the lower side of the tufts, the spores being developed 
from the endochrome or colouring matter of the joints of the ramulus. D. 
Venusta, or D. corymbifera, is a highly beautiful species. It is abundant 
in the Channel Islands, and occasionally cast ashore on the coast of 
Sussex. D. punicea, the purple dasya, is another rarity, and is also of 
small size. I have never found it growing, but have picked it up on the 
shore near Brighton, where it has also been taken by my friend Mrs. 
Merrifield, one of the most accomplished algologists in England. D. Catt- 
lowie is unknown to me, and, so far as I know, has been met with in the 
Island of Jersey only, where it was discovered by Miss Cattlow, in 1858. 
The Order Corallinacee, so called from the coral-like appearance of many 
of these vegetable productions, contains a large number of very remarkable 
plants, all of which have the singular property of absorbing carbonate 
of lime into their tissues. Some of them are filiform or stringlike, and are 
branched in a pinnated or dichotomous manner, the wing-like or forked 
branches being composed of a succession of chalky articulations. The 
root of these is an expanded crust-like disc, which is firmly attacked by 
its under surface to the rocky sides of tide pools. Other branching species 
are parasitic on various kinds of seaweeds, while several of the lowest 
forms of this order are thin, stony incrustations, spreading over the surface 
of rocks ; and some others, of a similar structure, are found firmly attached 

Fie. 109. Terminal branch of Dasya ocellata, highly magnified. 

Fig. 110. Portion of a stem with ramulus of Dasya venusta, showing the 
ceramidium with spores. 

: -) 
aneneeeal ar a 

ee me 

ae # 


to the fronds of several of the membranous algz. Most of these latter 
species belong to the sub-crder Nulliporew, some of which vegetate only 
in deep water, and are thus unobtainable except by dredging. The 
plants of this Order are found in all seas, but are most abundant in warm 
climates, and some of the tropical species are among the most beautiful 
and curious of the oceanic flora. Many of these plants were formerly 
regarded as of an animal rather than of a vegetable nature, and until 
lately they were classed among the zoophytes or polyp-bearing corals. 
They are, however, now known to be true vegetables ; for upon the plants 

Fig. 111. Coralluna officinalis. 

being immersed in strong acid, the limy coating of their fronds is 
dissolved, and the vegetable structure is at once revealed. The fructi- 
fication in this Order is tetrasporic, but, curiously enough, is, for the most 
part, contaized in conceptacles which are very similar in form to those 
which, in other genera, contain spores. This assemblage of plants consists 
of two distinctly marked sub-orders. ‘The first of these, called Coral- 
linee, contains the branched and jointed species. Fig. 111, represents a 
branch of the well-known Corallina officinulis, the most abundant of th 


British species. It is found in rock pools at all seasons of the year, its 
pretty rose-red fronds fringing the sides of the pools, and in the fruiting 
season being dotted here and there with little white roundish or urn-shaped 
ceramidia, which are produced from the terminal joints of the ramuli, 
or sometimes from the sides of the branches, two or more egg-shaped 
capsules springing from the same joint, but always of the same chalky 
white colour. The fronds vary in length from 2in. to 6in. or more, 
according to the depth of water in which they grow, or the shelter afforded 
them by the larger algw. The species C. squamata is rare, and though 
very similar to the foregoing, may be known by the form of its upper 
joints, which are much flatter than those of C. officinalis, and the upper 
angles are pointed and distinctly prominent. 

The genus Jania, from Janira, one of the Nereides, contains two small 
species, which are parasitic in dense pinky tufts on several of the smaller 
alge. Jania rubens is found on all parts of the British coasts, while J. 
corniculata is chiefly an inhabitant of the southern shores of England 
and Ireland. Fig. 112 represents terminal branches of both species highly 
magnified; a, is a terminal sprig of Jania rubens, b, of J. corniculata, 
These plants, in the living state, very closely resemble each other, but 
the microscope reveals a very marked difference. In J. rubens, it will be 
seen that the joints have rounded angles, while in J. corniculata, the 
angles are sharp and prominent, and the articulations taper a little at 
the base. The ceramidia in each have long horns like the antennz of 
a beetle, and in J. corniculata these horns are each tipped with a cerami- 
dium, from the upper angles of which spring two horn-like ramuli, generally 
somewhat incurved at the tips. 

The second sub-order of the Corallinacee contains that curious group 
of marine productions which, to outward appearance, bear little resem- 
blance to plants (unless it be some of the crustaceous lichens), and possess 
little beauty to recommend them to the notice of any but scientific 
botanists. These are the Nullipores, some of which are foliaceous, and 
free or unattached; others are merely chalky incrustations, spreading over 
rocks and stones, and some few have their place of growth on the fronds 
of other seaweeds. Most of these are included in the genus Melobesia ; 
but as many of them are inhabitants of deep water, or otherwise not 
generally accessible, and rarely met with in good condition, I will merely 
describe one or two species that are frequently found on the fronds of Phyl- 
lophora rubens (Figs. 113 and 149) and Chondrus crispus (Fig. 162). These 
are Melobesia verrucataand M. pustulata, the former of which is a thinchalky 
expansion of irregular shape attached to one surface of the seaweed ; the 
latter is also of irregular form, but generally oblong, and it sometimes 
incrusts both surfaces of the plant on which it grows. A frond of 
Phyllophora rubens, at Fig. 118, represents the manner in which Melobesia 
pustulata is constantly found attached to this red seaweed, defying all 
attempts at mounting the alga on paper until the calcareous parasite is 
scraped off. The little roundish dots on the surface of the Melobesia 


are ceramidia, with a pore or opening at the top, through which, at maturity, 

the tetraspores escape into the water. The name Melobesia is from one of 
the sea-nymphs of Hesiod. One of the commonest of these encrusting 

Fig. 112. Terminal branches, highly magnified, of (a) Jania rubens; (b) Jania 

marine productions is the well-known Hildenbrandtia rubra, which is 
frequently found in extensive patches ofa beautiful rosy tint on rocks near 
low-water mark, or lining the lower surfaces of tide pools under the 

Fie. 113. Melobesia pustulata, parasitic on Phyllophora rubens. 

shelter of the Fuci or Kelpweeds. This species is a thin membranous 
crust, and is attached so firmly to the surface of the rock, that it is 
impossible to separate a portion for preservation as a specimen. This 


curious production was formerly included in the Oorallinacew; but its 
structure, which is more of a leathery than a stony nature, has caused 
it to be removed from the calcareous order of marine alge, and associated 
with a small group of singular plants, which, like itself, are either circular 
or irregularly shaped patches of a red or brownish-red colour, which are 
found on stones and shells, or attached by means of minute fibres on their 
under sides to the surfaces of rocks. The order Squamariew has been 
formed for their reception. In addition to the species just described, I 
will merely mention the names of the others, since they possess very 
little interest for the ordinary collector. They are as follows: Peyssonelia 
Dubyt, Petrocelis cruenta, Cruoria pellita, and Cruoria adherens. 

The Order Spherococcoidee, so named from the roundish form of the 
fruit, is an assemblage of seaweeds, of a rosy or blood-red colour, some of 
which are leafy, others consist of broad, expanding, cleft, or laciniated 
membranes, and some few are filiform, and more or less branched. At the 
head of this Order stands the genus Delesseria, named in honour of 

M. Delessert, a French botanist; and here I must express my regret that. 

the charming plant, which until recently was known as Delesseria sanguinea, 
has been removed, not only from this genus, but has been placed in 
another Order, ‘‘a measure,” writes Dr.‘ Harvey, ‘‘ rendered necessary 
by the new principles of arrangement developed by Professor Agardh,” 
whose system is now generally adopted by algologists. In outward 
appearance, and even in the internal structure of its stem and leaves, this 
fine species is a true Delesseria, but the structure of its fruit being very 
different from that of the Sphwrococcoidee, it has very properly been 
transferred to the Order Rhodymeniacee, and is now known as Maugeria 
sanguinea, @ name which was given to it by S. O. Gray, Esq., in his 
work on “ British Seaweeds,’ published in 1867. However, for the con- 
venience of those who have been accustomed to regard this plant as Deles- 
seria sanguinea, I will figure and describe it before I pass on to a de- 
scription of the beautiful leafy plants now included in the genus Delesseria. 

Maugeiia sanguinea, represented at Fig. 114, is one of the most striking 
and beautiful of all the British red seaweeds. In its perfect summer state 
when grown in favourable situations in deep water, the fronds are from 
Gin. to 8in. or 10in. long, and from 2in. to 6in. wide; each leafy expansion 
has a short stalk and a distinct midrib with veins on each side, the margin 
of the membranous leaves being entire, and often beautifully waved, so 
that when fully grown plants are mounted on paper, they present the most 
beautiful variety of pink and deep red tints, owing to the folding over of 
the delicate membranous margins. Occasionally in proliferous specimens, 
long narrow leaflets are thrown out from the midrib of the primary 
leaves. Small but beautiful forms of this leafy plant are found sometimes 
in shady rock pools, but always submerged, and mostly under the shelter of 
the larger olive weeds. The winter state of this plant is very different to 
its summer condition. All the delicate wavy margin disappears, and from 
each side of the midrib springs a series of ovate leaflets (sporophylla), in 

Mi YY 
Uy Ys 

Fic. 114. Maugeria sanguinea. 

Fig. 115. Delesseria simuosa. 

i = 




| j n tu J - iE ‘ . 





which the tetraspores are placed. Tubercles (on other individuals of the 
species), which are produced on short stalks, fringe the stems and midribs, 
and contain the spores. Old stems which have not been disturbed during 
winter put forth a new crop of leaves as the spring advances, and I have 
always observed that the colour of these biennial specimens is always 
more brilliant than that of plants of the first season. This species is found 
in tolerable abundance all round the British coasts ; itis met with on most 
of the Atlantic shores of Europe, and in several situations in the southern 
hemisphere. It is easily displayed on paper, and is deservedly a universal 
favourite. Delesseria sinuosa, represented at Fig. 115, commonly known 
as the ‘*‘ Oak-leaf Delesseria,’’ is extremely variable in the size and form of 
its leaves. Some are long, narrow, and sinuated, jagged or cleft from the 
margin to the midrib; while others are broad and hardly cleft at all, being 
very slightly sinuated or indentated, such specimens bearing a very striking 
resemblance to young oak leaves. Its place of growth is on the stems of 
the deep water Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46), portions of which are often 
cast ashore with splendid bunches of this Delesseria attached to them. 
In this species the midrib is very distinct, and in full grown plants is 
strong and wiry, presenting occasionally no small difficulty in mounting 
the specimen in a natural position. Each lobed portion of these oak-like 
leaves is traversed by a prominent vein, which arises on each side of the 
midrib and terminates only with the margin of the leafy membrane. These 
veins in the leaves of the Delesseriw, are nothing more than a closer 
aggregation of deep-coloured cells; but the mid-ribs, although composed 
entirely of cellular matter, thicken and harden into a wiry, stick-like sub- 
stance, and become the stems from which subsequent branches and leaves 
are produced. The colour is a deep brownish red, turning to a greenish 
yellow in decay. Spore-bearing tubercles are produced in the midribs; 
tetraspores are placed in little slender marginal leaflets, which are some- 
times so abundant, that the leaves of such specimens appear as though they 
_were fringed with cilia. This species is biennial, and is abundant on the 
Devonshire coasts, being particularly fine in Torbay and in the neigh- 
bourhood of Plymouth. D. alata is the most common species of this genus. 
It grows in rock pools under the shade of the Fuci, or kelpweeds. and on the 
stems of Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46). The fronds vary in length from 3in. 
to 10in. or more. They are much branched, and all are furnished on each 
side of the midrib with a winglike membrane, which is entire at its margin, 
and varies in width from one line to jin. In mounting luxuriant specimens 
of this plant, it is very desirable to cut away superabundant branches ; 
otherwise the delicate membrane on each side of them cannot be effectively 
displayed ; neither can the beautiful transverse striz with which its surface 
is marked be made out under the lens, unless the branches are separated 
from each other. Spores are contained in spherical tubercles produced 
from the midrib; tetraspores are placed in leaflets which arise from 
the angles of the upper branches, or sometimes on each side of the midrib 
in the tips of the terminal branches. Fig. 116, represents a branch of D. 


alata. In Fig. 117, a, is a magnified branch, showing the manner in 
which the tetraspores are arranged on each sideof the midrib, when they are 
produced in the branches of this species. The variety angustissima is 

Fig. 116. Delesseria alata. 

the narrowest in the frond of any form of this species with which I am 
acquainted ; and so far as my experience goes, it is peculiar to the northern 

Fie. 117. (a) Branchlet of Delesseria alata; (b) D. ruscifolia; (c) vertical 
cutting of tubercle of Nitophyllum Gmelini. 
coasts of England. During two seasons of seaweed gathering, on the shores 
north of the Tyne, I always met with this extremely narrow form, and , 
never with the broader varieties which are common on the southern shores. 


But, as regards the species D. angustissima, I can only say, I have never 
met with it in the growing state; the only specimen I possess was given 
to me by the late Dr. Cocks, of Plymouth, who received it, with some 
_ others, from Mrs. Griffiths, of Torqray, that lady having found it in 
Torbay, about the time it was discovered by Mr. Brodie, more than fifty 
yearsago. The fructification of this rare plant seems to me to be identical 
with that of D. alata, and the only difference that I have been able to 
discover between it and the narrowest form of D. alata in my possession, 
is the extreme tenuity, or perhaps even the absence of the lateral membrane 
which is always present in the narrowest form of D. alata, var. angustis- 
sima. In Fig. 117, b, is represented an enlarged leaf of the pretty species . 
D. ruscifolia. The leaflet arising from the midrib shows the order of 
growth in this proliferous species, luxuriant specimens being like balls of 

Fie. 118. Delesseria hypoglossum. 

crimson leaves. This is the smallest of the genus, and though it is some- 
times found on the stems of Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46), its more frequent 
place of growth is on mud-covered rocks near low-water mark. Many 
years ago I used to take it in great quantity and beauty on the muddy 
rocks near Mount Batten at Plymouth. In our iliustration the coccidium, 
or spore-bearing tubercle, is represented (as is usual in the Delesseriv) as 
produced from the centre of the midrib, a short distance only below the 
tip of the leaf. Tetraspores are arranged in oblong groups on each side of 
the midrib, and generally near the tips of the rounded leaves of the plant. 
The colour is always a rich deep crimson, and with a little judicious 
pruning, this species makes an exquisite book specimen. The only British 
seaweed with which this species may be confounded is D. hypoglossum, 
represented at Fig. 118. In this, however, the fronds are longer and 


narrower, lanceolate, or pointed at the tips, and of a much lighter colour, 
being of a pale rose or delicate pink. The fronds of this species are 
tufted and originate in a single lanceolate leaf, having a distinctly marked 
midrib, from which it throws out other similar leaves, and from these are 
produced others, which in turn bear another series; and in this manner 
the primary leaf-like frond becomes clothed with leaves of various lengths, 
which spread out in the water, and give a somewhat circular outline to 
the plant. Coccidia are produced on the midrib, as represented in our 
illustration ; tetraspores are disposed in long narrow lines on each side 
of the midrib, near the tips of the leaves. Barren specimens are generally 
the most luxuriant, those in fruit being much narrower, and of a paler 
colour. This beautiful species is annual. It grows in shady rock pools 
and on the stems of the Laminaria. It is rare in Scotland, but tolerably 
abundant on the south coast of Devon, and particularly fine at Plymouth, 
and at Bantry Bay, in Ireland. 

Very nearly related to Delesseria is the genus Nitophyllum, a tribe of 
membranaceous plants, which are distinguished chiefly by their more or less 
broad lobes, rather than leaves or branches. None of these plants are 
furnished with a midrib, though some species have tolerably distinct veins, 
very strongly marked at the base, but vanishing gradually as they ascend 
into the upper divisions of the plants. Most of the species in drying have 
a fine polished shining surface, whence the generic name of Nitophyllum, or 
shining leaf. The fine species, Nitophyllum Hillie (Fig. 119) was named 
by Dr. Greville in honour of Miss Hill, who discovered it. The plant 
arises from a small disc-like root, and rapidly expands into a roundish or 
fan-shaped frond, from 8 inches to 20 inches in circumference, which is 
cleft all round its margin into irregularly shaped lobes of large size. Veins, 
more or less waved, arise from the base, and sometimes spread over the 
surface of the frond. Globular tubercles containing spores are scattered 
over the whole of the plant. Tetraspores are produced in the upper part of 
the lobes, and being very minute, appear like little granular spots. The 
colour is a fine rose red, which it preserves in drying. N. Bonnemaison is 
very rare, though found on all the British shores. It grows on the stems 
of Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46). The fronds are seldom more than 4in. long, 
the segments are deeply cleft, and are about as broad as long. The 
tubercles are smaller than those in N. Hilliw, but the groups of tetraspores 
are larger. The substance is much more delicate than that of the fore- 
going species, and the colour is a beautiful rose pink. N. Gmelini is 
another somewhat rare species. I have found it at Hastings, though 
once only; but at Plymouth it is generally abundant and sometimes of 
large size. The fronds are more or less deeply cleft, some specimens being 
even jagged at the margin, others having beautifully rounded lobes, and 
occasionally some are divided into long ribbon-like segments, while all 
have. a distinctly rounded outline. The colour is a deep “red, often 
inclining to a brownish purple. Tubercles are scattered over the surface 
of the frond, but the tetraspores are invariably produced in groups just 


within the margin. A vertical cutting of one of the tubercles or coccidia 
of this species, very highly magnified, is represented at c. Fig. 117. 
The spores are developed in the terminal cells of the branched threads 
which arise from a placenta, or basal projection, in the centre of the 
tubercle. The arrangement of the spore-threads and production of the 
spores at their tips, is very similar in the coccidia of the Delesseriw, but the 
form is a little different. The tubercles in the Nitophylla are usually 
longer than high, when viewed as represented in Fig. 117; but in the 
Delesserie they are more generally spherical, and the spore-threads are set 
more upright and closer together. N. laceratum (Fig. 120) is one of the most 
abundant of the genus. It grows underthe shelter of the larger alge, and is 
often found attached to Corallina officinalis (Fig. 111) in rock poolsabout half- 

Fig. 119. Nitophyllum Hillie. 

tide level. In form and size it is very variable, deep-water specimens only 
being of large size, and broad in the segments of the frond; theseare generally 
found on the stems of Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46). In shallow pools this 
species rarely exceeds 6in., but I have gathered specimens on the shore at 
Exmouth and near Plymouth that would easily have covered a folio page. 
Fig. 120 was taken from one of my Exmouth plants, the fronds of which 
were 12in. long. This species, when viewed in clear rock pools under 
the influence of sunlight, is beautifully iridescent. The fronds are 
dichotomous, or branched by repeated forkings ; the margins are sometimes 
smooth and even, but more frequently waved and notched, and occasionally 
the long segments are twisted or curled, and very much interwoven. 
Some specimens are fringed with little ciliated or narrow leafy processes, 
nN 2 


and one small variety has its laciniations hooked at the extremities in the 
shape of a sickle. The lower parts of the frondsare very distinctly veined. 
Spherical sori or round tubercles are scattered here and there over the 
fronds, but not numerously ; tetraspores are arranged in spots within the 
margin of the segments, or borne in the leaflets which fringe the fronds in 
some specimens. The colour is usually a rosy pink, sometimes inclining to 
a pale purple. This species does not always adhere well to paper. When- 
ever I am troubled in this way, with good plants of this or any other 
species, my invariable rule is to immerse them, paper as well, in skimmed 
milk, and then dry and press them as before. This process does not affect 
the colour or condition of the plants in any way, but it causes them to 
adhere permanently to the paper, more satisfactorily than by any other 
method J have ever heard of. N. versicolor is, par excellence, the rarity of . 
this genus. It is seldom, if ever, found growing, being most probably a 
deep-water plant. Minehead, and down the coast above and below IIfra- 
combe, are the only localities in this country where it is found cast ashore. 
The plant, which is seldom more than 2in. high, arises from a short but 
distinct stem, and expands into a fan-shaped frond, which is cleft into a 
few more or less rounded segments. The colour is rose-red, changing to a 
bright orange by contact with fresh water; hence the specific name of 
versicolor. Tubercles, very recently discovered on a specimen taken at 
Ilfracombe, and identified as such by Mrs. Merrifield, of Brighton, are 
scattered over the upper part of the lobed segments. This is, I believe, 
the first recorded instance of the fruit of this rare species having been 
detected on British specimens. Occasionally specimens are found with the 
tips of the lobes curled over and hardened into processes which, some 
writers believe, dropoff at maturity and develop into new plants. This 
opinion was communicated to me by Miss Gifford, of Minehead, a well- 
known and highly scientific botanist, who has had such frequent opportu- 
nities for observing the appearance of this curious plant, and the constant 
development of the callous tips of its fronds, that I am inclined to accept 
this lady’s explanation of the object of these singular apical processes 
‘on the fronds of N. versicolor, Fig. 121 represents a portion of one of 
Miss Gifford’s plants, of the natural size. I will now describe two 
forms of that highly beautiful species, N. punctatwm, specifically named 
from the numerous and very distinct dots or groups of tetraspores so 
frequently found on these plants. The forms are so numerous that 
botanists name and describe no less than five distinct varieties. 

These beautiful plants are attached to other sea-weeds, but they mostly 
grow in deep water, and are found in some form or other on all the British 
coasts. The typical form, as represented at Fig. 122, is at first a broad 
wedge-shaped membrane, which grows out into a dichotomously divided 
frond; each division terminating in several short, finger-like lobules, with 
rounded axils and tips of a lovely rose-colour, the lower portions of the 
plant being of a paler tint. Mature plants sometimes attain a circum. 
ference of 2ft. or more. Tubercles are scattered over the surfare of the 


Fic. 120. Nitophyllum laceratum. 

Fig, 121. Nitophyllum versicolor. 

fn 4 

ee Se ee 


fronds ; tetraspores, which are very numerous when present, are produced 
in groups of large size, and these are sometimes confined to the segments 
of the frond. Their number, size, and brilliant colour afford marks by 



Fig 122. Nitophyllum punctatum. 
which every variety of this-species may always be recognised. In the 
variety, N. ocellatum, Fig. 123, the tetrasporic spots are particularly large ; 
and they are rendered still more striking by being developed in the long, 

Fie. 123. Nitophyllum punctatum, var. Ocellatum. 

narrow, linear segments into which this variety is cleft down to the base 
of the frond. The margins of all the divisions are perfectly smooth and 
flat; while in the variety crispatum, and others, the segments are similarly 


cleft, and are curled, waved, or fimbriated at the margins—characters 
which serve to denote varieties, though they all undoubtedly belong to the 
Same species—differing in form merely in different localities, or from some 
circumstances connected perhaps with climatic influences affecting their 
growth. My largest specimens were taken in Plymouth harbour, the 
segments of which were from 6in. to 10in. long; but these are pigmies in 
comparison with specimens found in the north of Ireland, some of which 
are over 3ft. in length and 2ft. in breadth. Among the recent additions 
which have been made to the marine flora of this country is that of the 
new species Nitophyllum thysanorhizans, discovered by Mr. Holmes at 
Plymouth. The peculiarities of this new species consist, firstly, in the 
position of the tetraspores, which are placed within the terminal lobes of 
the segments ; secondly,’of a series of minute veins, which traverse the 
fronds throughout; and, thirdly, in the production of tufts of root-like 
processes, which fringe the margins of the segments. 

The two plants Calliblepharis ciliata and C. jubata were, until lately, 
included in the genus Rhodymenia; but as the structure of their spore- 
producing organs does not accord with the principle of fructification in the 
Rhodymeniacee, the genus Calliblepharis has been formed for their recep- 
tion, and now they follow the Nitophylla in the Order Spherococcoidee. 
With the first of these (Calliblepharis ciliata, Fig. 124), both names 
have reference to the beautiful eyelash-like cilia, which border the 
segments of the fronds and contain the spores. The plant arises from a 
creeping fibrous root, and is at first a narrow pointed leaf, from 3in. to 
6in. long, tapered at the base and acute at the tip; the cilia, which are put 
forth from the margin, develop into branches similar in form to the primary 
leaf, and thus the species becomes foliiferous, each leafy segment being 
ciliated on each side, and sometimes even on the surface. At maturity, 
which is reached on the approach of winter, the spherical tubercles begin 
to appear, swelling the cilia about the centre, and bending the tips down 
at an angle which gives these little processes a remarkable resemblance to 
a duck’s head, the sporiferous nucleus in the rounded angle occupying the 
place of the eye of the bird. This peculiarity is represented at b (Fig. 124). 
The tetraspores, which are contained in cloudy patches, are dispersed over 
the surface of the fronds. The colour varies from a dull pink to a full red. 
‘he plant is annual, and is cast ashore allalong the south coast of England. 
U. jubata (Fig. 125), is nearly allied to the former species, and is frequently 
mistaken for it by young collectors. It is, however, a summer annual, 
and fruits before autumn ; it is frequently found growing abundantly in — 
rock pools; but C. ciliata fruits in winter, and is thrown ashore from 
deep water. The tetrasporic fruit of C.jubata is also produced in a different 
situation, being confined to the cilia, in which the spores are also produced, 
In early growth the cilia of this species are short and needle-pointed ; but, 
as the plant advances towards maturity, they lengthen and become filiform, 
and in luxuriant specimens they curl and twist round the fronds, and even 
round those of other plants near them, like the tendrils of a creeping 


land-plant. In shallow pools the colour of this species often loses all its 
fine red tint, and becomes a pale olive or dull yellow; but in shady situations, 

Fig. 124. Calliblepharis ciliata. b. Magnified cilia with tubercles. 

or when cast ashore from deep water, the colour is a full rich red, which 
generaily becomes darker in drying. As the fronds of these plants are 

Fie. 125. Calliblepharis jubata. 

tolerably thick and of a somewhat leathery substance, they are apt to 
shrink in drying, and crimp the paper in an unsightly manner. When 


this is the case (and it always occurs with mature plants), I vefloat the 
specimen in sea water and mount it afresh on another sheet of paper, 
when, if it fail to adhere firmly, I have recourse to the milk jug, as 
already described. 

The curious plant which is represented by a magnified branch at 
Tig. 126 is called Spherococcus coronopifolius, a name which, though 
highly characteristic, makes me regret that this, like multitudes of other 
red seaweeds, has no common name. My non-classical readers must be 
‘content with the information that the names of this species signify, 
** spherical fruit crowning the foliage or branchlets.’? The coccidia, or 
spore-bearing tubercles, are produced just below the tips of the ramuli; the 
apices being continued beyond the fruit-vessel in the form of a short mucro 
or spine. This species is rare in Scotland, but is cast ashore on the South 
of England and Ireland, some seasons rather plentifully. Several years 
ago I took large and beautifully fruited specimens at Ventnor, thrown 
ashore for several days in succession; and in 1873 fine specimens, also 
in fruit, were sent to me from Cornwall, by H. Goode, Esq., an 
enthusiastic and successful collector. The colour of this plant is a fine 
scarlet, but the substance is so crisp and horny, that a considerable amount 
of pruning of its rigid branches is necessary before the plant can be 
mounted effectively on paper. Even then it adheres but imperfectly, and 
recourse must be had to the plan I have more than once recommended in 
these pages, that of refloating and immersing the specimen in skimmed 

The genus Gracilaria, from the Latin gracilis, in allusion to the slender 
branches of the typical species, contains a variety of widely. dispersed 
plants, some of which are employed in the manufacture of glues and 
varnishes. One of our rare species, G. compressa, having a soft brittle 
frond, makes a capital preserve, as well as pickle. The late Mrs. Griffiths, 
of Torquay, presuming this species to be identical with an Indian alga 
known as ‘‘ Ceylon moss,’’ made an experiment with the British plant, and 
found it to answer equally well as a pickle and a preserve. G. compressa is 
a deep-water species, but is thrown ashore on various parts of the 
Devonshire coast. The fronds are tufted, and arise from a disc-like root. 
The branches are long, and are set alternately along the stem, whichis ~ 
cylindrical, but somewhat flattened at the sides, the branches being similarly 
constructed, but tapered at the base and the tips. Tubercles of large size 
are produced plentifully on the sides of the branches. Tetraspores, which 
are very minute, are concealed in the branchlets. The colour is a dull 
pink; the plant is annual, and is in perfection from July to the end 
of August. Fig. 127 represents the common species, G. confervoides. This 
is a most variable plant; the *tronds are tufted, and are from din. to 20in. 
long. The branches are by no means numerous and are very irregularly | 
disposed; they are roundand string-like, and taper at both ends. Roundish 
tubercles are scattered on all sides of the branches. The colour is a dull 
red, which changes to a pale yellow on exposure to sunlight, and in decay 


becomes a waxy white. The species is perennial, and is abundant on the 
British coasts. The rare and beautiful species, G. multipartita, Fig. 128, 
is dredged in Plymouth Sound, where it attains very unusual dimensions, 

Fig. 126. Terminal branch of Spherococcus coronopifolius (magnified). 

the fronds being often over 12in. long, tufted and branched so as to spread 
out into a circle of circumference. The fronds are cleft nearly to 
the base, the branches are flat and are numerously and irregularly divided. 

Fig. 127. Gracilaria confervoides. Fig. 128. Gracilaria multipartita. 
y L 

When first gathered, the fronds are soft and brittle; but in drying they 
shrink and become tough, and adhere tolerably well to paper. The cap- 
sules are large and prominent, and are scattered abundantly over the 


frond. The culour is a dull purplish red, occasionally marked by delicate 
tints of pink, and in drying, is tinged here and there with faint shades 
of green. Although this species is a rarity, it is widely dispersed, being 
found in various situations north and south of the equator. 

The genus Gelidium, which was formerly included in the extensive Order, 
Cryptonemiacee, is now the only British representative of the newly 
arranged Order, Gelidiacee, a group of plants of a horny or cartilaginous 
substance, which are represented in one form or other in almost all seas. 
The well known Gelidiwm corneum is a most variable plant; so mu¢h so, 
indeed, that in order to characterise the numerous forms satisfactorily, 
Dr. Harvey has named and described no less than thirteen varieties, all of 
which are found in various situations around the British coasts. The 
figures of the varieties which I am about to describe are from branches 
of plants in my possession, each of which is typical of its particular variety, 
and these will help students to identify similar plants of this genus, 
the varieties I have figured being those most commonly met with. In 
Fig. 129, a represents a branch of variety flzzwosum, the fronds of which are 
from 2in. to 4in. high. The branches are long and narrow, but decreasing 
in length as they approach the summit of the stems. The branches are 
mostly opposite, spreading out widely from the stem, and sparingly set 
with short, blunt, or sometimes pointed ramuli; b is a larger branch of 
the var. pinnatum. The fronds are from 4in. to 6in. high. They are more 
copiously branched than the foregoing, and the stems are thicker, and they 
are set throughout with spreading pinne or wing-like branches, which are 
blunt at the tips; c is the pretty and very distinct var. latifolium, so 
called from its very broad flat stem and branches. The fronds are usually 
3in. or 4in. high ; the secondary branches are mostly simple, but all are set 
with short bristle-like pinnule or ramuli. In Fig. 130, d is a terminal 
branch (slightly enlarged) of var. pulchellum, the fronds of which are 
about 4in. high, capillary or hair-like: long, thin, and generally straight, the 
stems being set on each side with short pinnez, mostly of uniform length, 
tapered at their insertion, and obtuse or blunt at the tip. The spore-bearing 
tubercle of this genus is called “‘favellidium,” and this is usually elliptical 
in form, and is produced just below the tips of the ramuli, which it 
swells or bulges out, the central portion being of a deeper red than the 
rest of the pinnule. A fruited branch of a narrow form of Gelidium lati- 
folium is represented at e, Fig. 130. Most of the short ramuli on each 
side of the stem bear favellidia near the tips. Var. aculeatum, is a 
somewhat rarer plant than the foregoing, the fronds are about 2in. high, 
irregularly divided, but much branched, the lesser branches being some- 
what crowded towards the summit of the stem. All the branches have 
acute tips, and are set with short, spreading, sharp-pointed ramuli, a 
character which is constant, and is referred to in the specific name. 
A frond of this variety is represented at f, Fig. 130, enlarged about a third 
of the natural size. Two very curious and rather rare varieties are re- 
presented in Fig. 131, where g is a terminal branch of var. crinale, the natural 

7 +". 

Fic. 129. Gelidiwm corneum :—(a) var. fleruosum ; (b) var. pinnatum ; 
(c) var. latifclia.. 

Fig. 130. Gelidiwm cornewm :—(d) var. pulchellum; var, latifolia in fruit ; 
(f) var. aculeatum. 

Fig. 151. Gelidium corneum :—(g) var. crinale; (h) var. abnorme. 


size. The fronds are hair-like and very thin, seldom over 2in. long, sparingly 
branched below, but forked above, and usually terminating in one or two 
trifid tips; h, is a small branch of var. abnorme, a very curious form, 
found chiefly on the Cornish coast. The fronds are about 2in. high, the 
‘branches are alternate, and produce here and there two or three very short 

Fie, 132. Nemaieon multifidum. 

ramuli, which are either deflexed or set at right angles with the stems. This 
variety is also found on the Cornish shores. One of the smallest of this 
group is the tiny var. clavatum, the fronds being scarcely 2in. high; the 
branches and ramuli are attenuated at their insertion and club-shaped at 
the tips. This variety is found in Scotland as well as on the south coast 
of England. The granular fruit of these plants, which is usually disporic, 
being apparently composed of two parts only, is placed in the ultimate 
ramuli or lesser branchlets. The colour of most of them is generally a 
dull red, becoming lighter in decay, but the var. latifolium is always a 
bright rich red, and when found growing in shady rock pools under the F uci, 
the colour is often a brilliant crimson. These horny plants rarely adhere 
well to payer, but when they are nicely displayed and thoroughly dried, 
they may be permanently secured to paper by applying to the under side of 
the fronds a mixture composed of isinglass dissolved in spirits of wine. 
The Order Helminthocladiee is a small group of plants, most of which 
are composed of branching filaments, set in a kindof loose but tenacious 
gelatinous matter. When gathered fresh from the sea they are remark- 
ably like a lot of slimy worms entwined together, hence the name of the 
Order, which signifies ‘‘ worm-like branches.’’ The spores of these plants 
are round and very minute, and are borne on branched filaments which 
radiate from the axis of the stems. They are not produced in conceptacles 
of any kind, but are merely attached to the gelatinous threads which form 
the periphery or outer margin of the frond. Tetraspores are borne in the 
marginal cells of the external filaments. Fig. 132 represents a complete 
plant of Nemaleon multifidum, the names signifying ‘‘much-divided crop 
of threads,”’ in reference to the division or branching of the fronds, and 
the numerous threads or filaments of which they are composed. The 


fronds vary from 3in. to 6in. in length, and are irregularly branched from 
the base, the branches terminating in a fork; some are trifid, and others 
have a terminal tuft of even four or more ramuli of different lengths. 
This plant grows on rocks, but its most frequent place of growth is on the 
shells of the Balani or sea-acorns. Its colour is a dull brownish purple. 
Favellidia, containing a globular mass of spores, are produced within 
the marginal filaments of the frond. This species is annual. It is widely 
dispersed, but nowhere very abundant. Helminthocladia (formerly Nema- 
leon) purpurea, is a rare deep-water plant, though occasionally found 
growing at extreme low-water mark, but of stunted form and sparingly 
branched. Specimens from deep water are from 12in. to over 2ft. in length. 
The main stem is tapered at both ends, and is set on each side with 
branches of similar form, which are irregularly and sparingly provided 
with ramuli. Instances, however, occur, of very luxuriant forms of this 
species, and in such, the stem and branches are very thick, round, and soft 
to the touch, and are plentifully, but always irregularly, set with ramuli of 
various lengths. Two lateral branches from a large deep-water specimen 
are represented at Fig. 133, a third less than the natural size. The colour 
of this plant in the living state is a rich reddish purple, and, under the 
microscope, as Dr. Harvey has so beautifully said, in describing its 
structure, ‘the axis of the stem is composed of colourless, branching, 

Fig. 1383. Helminthocladia purpurea. 

longitudinal threads, and the apical cells of the horizontal filaments, which 
are thrown out on all sides to the circumference, cause the stems and 
branches of this plant to appear as if studded with red beads set in trans- 
parent glass.’ Round masses of spores are concealed within these 
radiating filaments. This fine species is a summer annual. It occurs 

oe ee Ler Nee ee 

4 - e ’ 
A~ | 
é ‘ 
~~. Se 4 
- a d *) 
~ Va sy” : 
ene ” s 
é ; - 4 
2 . f é 
; | . . x 
' 4 
_ ‘ £; 4 2 | 
‘+s Ld 
. = ~ ; | 
. ri ; 
} Noo 
4 f 

2 ‘ 
; i, | : ‘ : 4 “ ’ 4 Ty =. 
. i a +4 ss a i] - A - a 
at - 2 ‘ = | et - ; , 
e: 4 x ’ ‘ «* » ' 
7 fag ‘ ‘ ; a 7 
- *. ' > . 
F | = : 
, # | a 

* Te) 


ere SS 

ld 5 

a a 

Fie. 134. Branch of Helminthora divaricata. 

Fre, 135. Scinaia Furcellata, 


in the west of Ireland, but I have taken it only on the south Devonshire 
coast. Helminthora (formerly Dudresnaia), divaricata, is a summer 
annual, which, in opposition to some writers, I must pronounce to be a 
rarity. It is widely distributed in northern latitudes, and occurs on some 
of the south coasts of England. I have taken it nowhere but in Whiting 
Bay, Isle of Arran, and there I met with it two seasons in. succession. 
Fig. 134 represents a slightly enlarged branch of this species. The fronds, 
which ave from 6in. to 14in. high, are tufted and densely branched, and set 
throughout with short, curved, and divaricating ramuli. The substance is 
very soft and gelatinous. The colour is a brownish purple, and the 
structure, under the microscope, is as remarkable and beautiful as that of 
the foregoing species. Little masses of purple spores are concealed among 
the tufted filaments that radiate from the centre of the stems and branches. 
Scinaia (formerly Ginannia) furcellata, is a summer annual that is cast 
ashore in the south of England, some seasons rather abundantly. The 
fronds are from 3in. to 6in. high, and are branched by repeated forkings, 
the tips regularly ending in a little fork, whence the specific name. 
Fig. 135 represents a branch of this species. The stem and branches are 
cylindrical, and are of a soft pulpy substance. Under the microscope, the 
fibrous axis of the plant appears almost like a midrib, from which slender, 
forked, horizontal filaments radiate towards the margin of the frond, within 
which, and at the tips of the radiating branched threads, the spores are 
produced, being, in fact, a transformation of the terminal cells of those 
filaments. Tetraspores, which have recently been discovered by me in 
Torbay specimens, are immersed in the surface cells of the fronds. The 
colour is a bright red, which, with care in the mounting and pressing of 
this plant, is retained in drying. All the species of this very gelatinous 
tribe of plants require particular treatment in preparing them as specimens 
for the herbarium. The best plan is, after having washed them well in 
sea-water, and freed them from parasites, to display them on paper in the 
usual way, in a dish of sea-water; then place the papers containing 
them in an inclined position for a few minutes, so that the water may 
drain away ; then lay them upon one of the boards of the press, and gently 
place the muslin or calico covering over the plants, then the blotting paper 
over the calico, and a similar piece of blotter under the paper on which the 
plant isdisplayed. On the top of all place a board, but apply no pressure. 
Experience alone will direct the Jength of time the plants should be 
allowed to remain thus, but my advice is to change the blotting paper at 
least twice during the first half hour, and then, after the second change 
of blotters, apply very gentle pressure for a few hours, after which, 
change the blotting papers once more, and increase the pressure some- 
what for a day, and finally give stronger pressure for a day or two, 
-when, upon releasing the plants, the manipulator will be fully rewarded 
for his patience and industry. 

The Order Wrangeliacee consists of two genera, which were formerly 
placed in two widely separated divisions, but owing to the difference of 


structure in the spore-bearing organs of these algz to that of the groups 
with which they were originally associated, and their agreement in 
general structure with each other, they are now included in an Order 
which was named by Professor Agardh in honour of Baron von Wrangel, 
a Swedish naturalist. Fig. 136 represents a branch of the beautiful 
species, Wrangelia multifida. It is usually found on the shaded sides of 
deep rock-pools near low-water mark. It is rare in Scotland, but more or 
less abundant during the summer months on the west coast of Ireland, 
and is generally taken in fine condition from June to the end of August, 
near Plymouth and elsewhere on the coast of Devon. The plant is from 
6in. to 10in. high, but I have taken specimens at Bovisand Bay, below the 
Plymouth Breakwater, which were over 2ft. in circumference. The fronds 
are tufted and densely branched, the stems and branches are composed of 

Fic. 186. (a) Branch of Wrangelia multifida. (b) Portion of stem and 
branchlet magnified. 
single jointed tubes, and each articulation bears, just below the joint, a 
whorled tuft of multifid, incurved, branched ramuli. The joints of 
the stems and branches are many times longer than broad, and they are 
all marked in the centre with a broad siphon filled with crimson endo- 
chrome, The spores are contained in favelle, which are inclosed in what 
is termed an ‘‘involucre,’? and these are produced on stalks which 
arise from amidst the whorls of little ramuli; and it is curious that 
specimens which produce this form of fruit, present a stunted, scrubby 
appearance, as though they were old, or out of condition ; whereas 
barren plants, or those in tetrasporic fruit, are much larger, the branches 
are clothed luxuriantly with crowded secondary branches and branchlets, 
well supplied with bushy tufts of ramuli,and the colour is a brilliant rose- 


red. The tetraspores are seated on the upper side of the joints of the 
whorled ramuli. A variety of Wrangelia, called + 


pilifera,” is found 

Fig. 1387. Branch of Naccaria Wiggji. 
in Plymouth and in Torbay; the chief difference being in the much 
greater length of the ramuli, which appear as though they were drawn 

Fig. 138. Portion of stem and branch of Naccaria Wiggii (magnified), 
with frwited ramult. 
out into long tendrils, most of which are simple or very slightly branched. 
This plant is extremely difficult to figure satisfactorily, but it is hoped 


that the slightly enlarged branch in our illustration, in addition to the 
magnified portion of the stem and branchlet beside it, will help students 
in the identification of this beautiful species, when they may fortunately 
meet with it. The delicate and extremely rare Rhodosperm, Naccaria 
Wiggii, was named in honour of Naccari, an Italian botanist, and speci- 
fically, in compliment to Mr. Wigg, of Norfolk, who discovered it. 
Fig. 187 represents a branch of this species, which is one of the rarest 
of our marine algz. It is a summer annual, and is found chiefly along 
the south coast of England. The fronds are from 4in. to 10in. long, and 
are excessively branched. The stem and branches are solid but flaccid, 
and the whole plant is so soft and gelatinous to the touch that it requires 
the most skilful management and patience to display its beautiful 
branching fronds effectually. It adheres closely to paper, but pressure 
must be applied very gradually, or the soft gelatinous fronds will stick 
to the calico, and tear off upon its removal. The stems and branches of 
this plant are abundantly set with very minute ramuli, which taper at each 
end; and in the centre of these the fructification is produced, which 
causes them to swell and become somewhat spindle-shaped. This is well 
seen in the representation of a magnified portion of a stem and branch at 
Fig. 1388. The granular appearance on the surface of the ramuli indicates 
the sporiferous nucleus within. The colour is a fine rose-red, which is 
destroyed by the slightest contact with fresh water. There is a variety 
of this species known as N. hypnoides, which is extremely rare. It differs 
from the typical form, chiefly in certain peculiarities of structure which 
are only appreciable under careful microscopical examination, a course - 
with which few of my readers are likely to trouble themselves. 

The brief description I have given of the Wrangeliacee concludes 
my account of the British seaweeds which are included in the first 
series or subdivision of Rhodesperms, called Desmiospermee. 

The second great series of red seaweeds contains the lesser organised 
families, and these are included under the title Gongylospermee, or plants 
whose sporiferous nuclei, or spore-bearing organs, contain numerous spores 
congregated without order in each nucleus, or seed receptacle. First in 
this series is placed the order Rhodymeniacee. The plants of this Order 
are characterised as purplish or blood-red seaweeds, with an inarticulate, 
membranaceous, or sometimes filiform frond. The root is generally disc- 
like, sometimes branched, and occasionally very much matted. The leafy 
expansions of the frond are seldom symmetrical, the sole exception being 
that of Maugeria (Delesseria) sanguinea, which is also the only species 
possessing a distinct midrib. The plants of this Order are widely dis- 
persed, representatives of most of our genera being found in various parts 
of the globe. Some of the plants of this group are among the best of our 
edible seaweeds. The well-known Rhodymenia palmata, called “‘ Dulse”’ 
in Scotland, and “ Dillisk” in Ireland, is collected on all parts of the 
coasts, including those of the northern English counties, and is even 
carried to the markets of country towns, where it is sold and eaten with 

Fie. 139. Rhodymenia palnvata. 

Fie. 140. Rhodymenia palmata 

var. sobolifera. 


potatoes, sometimes being boiled, but in many places eaten raw, just as it 
is gathered fresh from the sea. Cattle and sheep are especially fond of 
it, and the latter always eat it with avidity whenever they find their way 
to the rocks where it grows, or is castashore. The genus Rhodymenia, 
as formerly described by Dr. Harvey, contained many beautiful species 
which Professor Agardh has recently transferred to other genera, and now 
it is represented in Britain by two species only. Maugeria sanguinea 
having been already described, I direct the reader’s attention to Fig. 139, 
which represents the characteristic deep-water form of Rhodymenia 
palmata. There are several varieties of this common plant found on our 
shores ; some are attached to rocks, or parasitical on the shore Fuci and 
the stems of the Laminarie. In the Mediterranean it has long been 
extensively used in ragot#/s and many other simple dishes, and Dr. Harvey 
described it as being the chief ingredient in a soup recommended to the 
Irish peasantry by the celebrated Soyer. The fronds of this species are 
from 3in. to 2ft. long, very irregularly divided, the typical form being more 
or less palmate or hand-shaped, the margins of all the divisions being 
entire, the bases of the frondlets or branches always tapered, and the tips 
invariably obtuse or rounded. The colour varies from a dull brown-red to 
a deep red, turning to a pale yellow, or sometimes a greenish tint in decay. 
Tetraspores are scattered in cloudy patches over the whole frond. 
Although this species sports in such a variety of forms, there are four 
recognised varieties, which may be described as follows :—Variety Mar- 
ginifera, the frond of which is fringed all along its margin with a series 
of leaflets of various lengths ; var. Simplex, in which the frond is a long 
wedge-shaped, undivided leaf; var. Sarniensis, the frond being laciniated 

Fig. 141. Rhodymenia palmetta. 

or cleft into a tuft of long, narrow segments; and var. Sobolifera, the 

most distinct and characteristic variety of the species, very well repre- 

sented at Fig. 140. The frond arises from a short stem, and soon expands 

upwards into irregularly cleft wedge-shaped branches, laciniated and very 

much jagged at the margins and tips. This particular form [ have in- 


variably found growing on the long stems of Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46). 
Rhodymenia palmetta (Fig. 141) is a rarer and very much smaller plant. 
It rarely exceeds 2in. or 3in. in height and breadth. Its pretty little 
fronds are usually fan-shaped, and are divided rather numerously by 
repeated forkings, which are rounded at their axils, the tips being pointed 

Fie. 142. Rhodymenia palmetta—var. Nicwensis, 

or tapered. The stem is long in some specimens, but very short in others. 
Tubercles are borne near the tips of the sezments or sometimes on their 
margins. Tetraspores are also produced in the terminal forks, and appear 
like little cloudy spots within the margins. This form of the species is 
usually parasitic on the stems of Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46). It is 
annual, and is found from May to August. The very pretty and distinct 
var. Nicwensis (Fig. 142) I have always found growing on rocks at extreme 
low-water mark. Our illustration was taken from a very perfect specimen 
found by me outside the Castle rocks at Hastings. In this species the 
fronds are tufted, and arise from a narrow horny stem ; the forkings are 
few, and the segments are cleft nearly to the base, each division being 
long, narrow, and rounded at the tips. The substance is at first very 
rigid, but it becomes soft and pliable in drying, and adheres very well 
to paper. The colour is brighter than that of the former plant, being of a 
beautiful rose-pink. The plant is a summer annual, and, like the fore- 
going, is widely distributed, but is usually considered a rarity, its 
diminutive size doubtless causing it to be frequently overlooked. Euthora 
cristata, which was formerly a Rhodymenia, is an extremely rare summer 
annual, found only on the northern coasts of this country, but pretty 
generally on the Scottish shores and at the Orkneys. This beautiful little 
plant, so rare in England, is one of the commonest species in America, 
where it is frequently found producing both kinds of fruit ; the tubercles 
being, however, generally observed on the upper margins of those with 
broad segments, tetraspores on specimens with narrow crested branches. 
Both of these forms of the species are represented at Fig. 143, the 
narrow variety being slightly enlarged. The fronds of this species are 
about 2in. high. Those of the narrow variety are usually divided into 

Fie. 143. Two varieties of Euthora cristata, 

Fie. 144, Two varieties of Rhodophyilis bijida. (a). Form producing tetraspores. 
(b). Luxuriant but barren plant. 




af Sap amate 




’ ? is fg 
Ree ae ee 
nn uate Lats 

yee im ne baa 

r——— ee Le —- 

b | 
i woe ote ou eM ae wane ae 

: = * pe ¥ ‘ 


two or three principal sections, with very crowded branches, which expand 
in a fan-like manner, and are prettily crested at the tips. The colour is 
a fine rose red, that of the tubercles is much darker and the plant when 
-young generally adheres very well to paper. 

Rhodophyllis (formerly Rhodymenia) bifida, is a rare summer annual, 
which grows on rocks in the sea, but is usually a deep-water plant, hence 
the difficulty in obtaining specimens in good condition. It is found 
on most of the British shores, though rather rarely in Scotland. The 
fronds are tufted and very densely branched. In barren specimens the 
segments are usually wide and not so deeply cleft at the margins and tips 
as those which produce fruit. The tubercles are globular, and are either 
seated on the margins or are sometimes dispersed over the surface of the 
upper divisions of the frond. Tetraspores are produced in little cloud-like 

Fie. 145. Plocamiwm coccinewm. 

spots within the margins, or scattered near the tips of the upper lobes. 
Fig. 144 represents the two varieties I have just described. Var. ciliata, 
as described by Dr. Harvey, is now raised to the rank of a species, under 
the name of Rhodophyllis appendiculata. The margins of the frond of 
this plant are fringed with little leaf-like processes or cilia, and in these 
the tetraspores are placed. The colour of these plants is a fine pink or 
rose-red ; and although when taken from the water they are like bunches 
of crisp leaves, they soon become soft and flaccid, and adhere very well 
to paper. 

The genus Plocamiwm is represented by some of its species or varieties 
in both hemispheres. Our own beautiful and well-known Plocamium 
coccineum, dear to amateur algologists and seaweed picture makers, 
is well represented at Fig. 145. This is the commonest and certainly one 


of the most elegant of the branching series of British alge. It is also one 
of the easiest to display on paper; its fine shrub-like branches being 
tolerably fiat, and presenting few difficulties in arranging, even to the 
most inexperienced manipulator. The fronds arise from a fibrous root, 
and are from 3in. to 12in. high. They are very much branched and bushy, 
but vary greatly in the size and breadth of stem and ramuli, according to 
the depth of water in which they grow. Their beautiful little compound 
or comb-like ramuli, on specimens found in shallow rock pools, are so fine 
and closely set, that, without recourse to a magnifier, I have often known 
collectors mistake such plants for Callithamnia; but specimens which are 
cast up from deep water have broad fiat stems, even in the second and 
third series of branches ; the numerous sets of awl-shaped ramuli which are 
set in rows like the teeth of a comb, chiefly on the inner face of the 
branchlets, are distinctly-apparent even to the naked eye, and, when once 
known, serve to distinguish this favourite species at a glance. The colour 
of this plant is generally a bright red, and specimens may he mounted 
equally well in sea or fresh water ; in fact, I have picked up plants on 
the shore after a heavy shower of rain, that were of the deepest crimson; 
but on exposure to strong sunlight for any length of time, the fronds 
become perfectly white or colourless. The capsules of Plocamiwm are 
about the size of small poppy-seed, and are seated on the sides of the 
upper branchlets. Tetraspores are contained in little star-like receptacles 
called ‘‘ stichidip,” which:are seated on the inner face of the ramuli; but 
as they are strictly microscopic a strong lens is necessary even to detect 
them. One of these branvhed receptacles is represented at Fig. 146. The 
tetraspores are scattered near the tips of the terminal divisions. 

‘The genus Cordylecladia is represented on the British shores by the 
solitary species ‘Cordylecladia erecta, a complete plant of which is repre- 
sented the natural size at Fig. 147. This rare little alga was formerly 
included in the. genus Gracilaria. Its new name signifies “chord,” or 
“ string-like branch.’? The fronds, which are tufted and very sparingly 
branched, grow up from a disc-like base, which is usually so imbedded 
in sand that the: -apper portions only of the little erect stems are visible ; 
and this peculiarity of habitat, in connexion with the small size of the 
plant, may probably account for its rarity; for although it is widely 
distributed along the shores of the British Islands, specimens are by no 
means abundant, either in public or private collections. The fronds are 
rarely over 2ing high ; the’ plant grows in rock pools, is perennial, and 
fruits in winter. The capsules of this species are very prominent, and 
are produced, ore or less abundantly, in clusters, or on each side of 
the upper parts of the stems and branches, as seen in our illustration. 
The colour is a’ dull red, ‘the substance is stiff and rigid, and the plant 
does not readily adhere to paper; therefore when specimens are dried, 
I recommend an application, to the under side of the stems, of the 
mixture made from isinglass dissolved in spirits of wine. 

The Cryptonemitcere “are an extensive Order of plants, which may be 


characterised as purplish or rose-red seaweeds, with a stringlike, or some. 
times expanded, and occasionally somewhat leafy, frond, having roots 
generally discoid, but in some instances clasping or creeping fibres. This 
Order is the largest and most widely dispersed of the Rhodosperms, species 

Fig. 146. Stichidium of Plocamiwn, 
highly magnified. 

Fie. 147. Cordylecladia erecta. 

of many of the genera being found on the Atlantic shores of both hemis- 
pheres, in the Mediterranean, and in the Indian oceans. Some species are 
found on the north-west coast of America, and others are abundant in 
the Southern Ocean, while one species at least, which is so rare in this 
country, viz., Gigartina Teedw (Fig. 160), is considered quite a common 
plant on the south European shores, where it is frequently found in fruit— 
a fact which has never been recorded of specimens taken in Britain. Several 
of the Cryptonemiacee might be used as articles of food; the well-known 
Carrageen moss, formerly used medicinally in consumptive cases, is com- 
posed of two species, Chondrus crispus (Fig. 162) and Gigartina mamillosa 
(Fig. 161), both of which may be boiled down to a jelly, and when mixed 
with milk or meal makes a far more wholesome article of food than 
indifferent potatoes or other vegetables; and that pretty membranous 
plant, Iridea edulis, as indeed its specific name implies,is by no means 
an indifferent esculent, in spite of what some writers have said to the 
contrary, for the flavour when cooked, is, as I have found, remarkably like 
roasted oysters. The title of this Order is derived from the characteristic 
form and situation of the Favellidia of most of these plants; each 
favellidium consisting of masses of spores which are developed within 
the substance of the frond, or, as Dr. Harvey says, “ either wholly con- 
cealed beneath the surface cells, or their place is indicated by a minute 


pore through which the spores are finally liberated.’’ Fig. 148 represents 
a frond of the beautiful and very rare species, Stenogramma wterrupta. 
The fronds of this plant arise from a small discoid root. The stem, which 
is very short, soon expands into a broad, fan-shaped branching membrane ; 
the segments are flat and cleft, somewhat in the manner of those of 
Rhodymenia palmetta (Fig. 143), but the colour is much brighter and 
richer, being a deep rose-red, especially so when the plant is in fruit, and 
then it is impossible to mistake this brilliant species for anything else.’ 
The narrow line or nerve which traverses the segments of the frond, but 
broken or interrupted here and there by a short space, is thickened about 
the centre, and is of a brilliant crimson. These swollen portions of the 
nerve contain the conceptacles, which at maturity are filled with a vast 
number of very minute spores. Fig. 148 (b) represents a vertical cutting 
of a conceptacle, the spore mass within raising the upper and depressing 
the under surface of the central portion of the segment, the inner stratum 
being composed of large colourless cells, the rich red endochrome being 
confined to the external layers of small cells on each surface of the 
frond. This rare plant is annual; it is taken in Cork Harbour; at 
Minehead, in Somerset; and washed ashore in several situations near 
Plymouth. Usually, British specimens are from 2in. to 5in. long, but I 
have dredged some in Plymouth Sound, which were over 8in. long, and 
several of the divisions which had been injured at the tips had thrown out 

Fie. 148. (a) Stenogramma interrupta; (b) Vertical cutting of conceptacle 

a new series of segments from the broken parts, all of which were branched 
in the same manner as the primary frond. This curious plant is found on 
the Californian and Spanish coasts, and at New Zealand. It was formerly 
called Delesseria interrupta by the elder Agardh ; butits more recent name 


is very characteristic, as having reference to the narrow nerve or line in 
the centre of the laciniations, which is interrupted at short intervals just 
below the forkings of each segment. 

. The genus Phyllophora has also a very appropriate name, which signifies 
“‘leaf-bearers,’’ in reference to the leaf-like membranes which by prolife- 
rous growth are thrown out from the apices and surfaces of the segments 
below them ; and in luxuriant specimens this system of branching, or leaf- 
bearing, is sometimes repeated by a continuous series of simple or branching 
leafy lobes, especially in the largest and most common species, Phyllophora 
rubens, very well represented at Fig. 149. The fine plant from which this 
illustration was taken, I found in Whitsand Bay, near Plymouth. The 
cvlour was a fine rich crimson, and the expanded fronds described a circle 

Fig, 149. Phyllophora rubens. 

of 2ft.6in. The spores in this species are contained in scattered tubercles 
and also in nemathecia, warty excrescences on the surface of the frond, 
which are composed of strings of jointed filaments, some of the joints 
of which are sometimes converted into spores. Tetraspores are placed in 
small leafy processes or collected in patches, called ‘‘ sori,’”? near the tips 
of the fronds. VP. rubens is perennial and fruits in winter. It is common 
on the southern shores of England and Ireland, but is rare in Scotland. 
P. Brodiwi is, however, abundant on the eastern coast of Scotland, but 
rare in England. The typical form of this species has a more distinctly 
cylindrical stem than the foregoing, and the upper divisions and segments 
of the frond are narrower and fewer, though produced on the same 
principle. The colour is rarely so brilliant as in P. rwbens, and the plaut 


seldom attains the dimensions of that species. Fig. 150, represents a 
beautiful form of this species, described by Dr. Harvey as P. Brodiai, 
var. simplex, the fronds of which have stems about ltin. long, expanding 
into beautiful rose-coloured lobes twice or thrice forked, but not usually 
producing another series of segments. This variety is very rare. The 
plant from which our illustration was taken, was gathered by me in Torbay 
this summer (1873). The fronds were about 2in. in length, the colour of 
the stems was a dark brownish-red, that of the leafy portions, brown-red 
tipped with rose-pink. P. palmettoides (Fig. 151 a) is the smallest and the 
rarest of this genus. The fronds, which are numerous, arise from a broad 
fleshy disc. The stem is short and filiform or string-like, about an inch 
high, terminating in a simple or rarely more than once divided leafy 
expansion of a cuneate or wedge-shaped form. These little fronds some- 
times throw out tiny leaflets from their tips or their surfaces. Tetraspores 
are the only form of fructification I have observed on this species, and 
they are contained in transverse sori in the form of an ellipse near the 
tips of the fronds. I took this pretty little species once only, many years 
ago, in the neighbourhood of Plymouth; this season a very pretty form 
of the plant has been taken on the Meadfoot rocks, near Torquay, by 
Mr. and Mrs. Josiah Field. This rare little plant bears a very strong 
resemblance to the early state of P. Brodiwi, from which it may generally 
be distinguished by the much greater expansion of its discoid base, the 
stems being more distinctly separated from each other, and the leafy parts 
of the fronds being a more decided rose colour, that of P. Brodiwi being 
brown-red or inclining to purple. P. membranifolia, Fig 151 6, is much 
more frequently met with than either of the two species just described. 
The fronds vary from 6in. to 10in. high; the stem is filiform or even 
stick-like, but the branches suddenly expand into prettily fan-shaped 
forked or cloven frondlets, which sometimes, but rarely, bear a second 
series of segments. The tubercles of this species are borne on little 
stalks thrown out from the upper side of the branches. Nemathecia, 
which are frequently produced, occupy the principal inner surface of the 
frondlets; they are of a darker tint than the plant, and are of angular 
form, similar in fact to that of the division or frondlet in which they oceur. 
I have taken this species at Shanklin, in Torbay, and at Plymouth. Itis 
-like the rest of this genus, perennial, and fruits in the autumn and winter, 
Most of the species are troublesome to mount on paper, as they are apt 
to shrink in drying and are often very much encrusted with zoophytes 
or some of the calcareous alge. These annoyances are easily scraped 
away while the plants are still in the mounting dish, and when they are 
partially dried, they may be re-floated and mounted on fresh paper, when, 
with good pressing, they will adhere tolerably well; if not, a slight 
application of dissolved isinglass to the under side of the loose or rigid 
parts will secure them permanently. 

The genus Gymnogongrus, from the Greek, soutien ‘exposed wart-like 
excrescence,”’ in reference particularly to the fructification of one of these 


Fig. 150. Phyllophora Brodiwi— var. simplex. 

Fig. 151. (a) Phyllophora palmettoides. (b) P. Membranijolia. 

Pe as > y 


J 7 ry . 



ne ele 

Ss a 


ft . 
' rs 
* a"? 
> Hi 
*" : 
ta 4 
Fae an 


plants, contains only two species which are found in Britain. Fig. 152 
represents a very characteristic frond of Gymnogongrus Griffithsie, bearing 
several gongri or nemathecia. These curious bodies are composed entirely 

Fic. 152. Gymnogongrus Griffithsie. 

of necklace-like strings of tetraspores, which in the living state under the 
microscope are as brilliant as tiny rubies, and each tetraspore is faintly 
marked with a cross, hence the term “‘cruciate,’’ as applied to tetraspores 

Fie. 153. Gymnogongrus Norvegicus. 

so divided. The fronds of this little plant are tufted, and each has a 
distinct stem about half an inch long, which suddenly branches out into 
@ slender but densely entangled frond, dichotomous or forked, the axi 


rounded, each division terminating either in a lengthened branchiet or a 
fork, the tips of all being obtuse or rounded, the whole plant being of 
nearly uniform thickness throughout. This species is perennial, and fruits 
in the autumn. It is found in various situations from the Orkneys to 
the South of England and in Ireland. 

The companion species to Gymnogongrus Grifithsie, G. Norvegicus, 
Fig. 153 (formerly Chondrus Norvegicus) is very frequently mistaken for 
narrow forms of Chondrus crispus (Fig. 162), from which it may be dis- 
tinguished by its thinner substance and by the axils of the forked divisions, 
which are less rounded than in Chondrus, and, also, the segments of its 
fronds seldom vary much in length and breadth; the stem also is more 
cylindrical and the fronds are more regularly dichotomous. Our illustra- 
tion, like that of the foregoing species, was drawn from the plant the 
natural size. The fronds in each are about 2in. or 3in. high, and more 
or less tufted. Favellidia of small size are sometimes found, imbedded in 
the frond, but nemathecia are more frequent. These are scattered over 
the frond, and, like those of G. Grifithsie, are composed of beautiful 
filaments like strings of minute jewels. The colour of this plantis a full 
rich red. Though originally found in Norway, and specifically named 
** Norvegicus,”’ it is abundant during the spring and summer at Brighton 
and all along the coast to Devon and Cornwall. It occurs also in Ireland 
and in some parts of Scctland. Both of these species are troublesome in 
displaying and mounting, but directions for manipulation in such cases 
have already been copiously given. Ahnfeltia (formerly Gymnogongrus) 
plicata, Fig. 154, is probably one of the least attractive of the Rhodo- 
sperms to the ordinary collector. The fronds, which are from 3in. to 10in. 
ong, are very slender, wiry, and excessively entangled, often infested with 
parasites, which, although disfiguring the specimen, assist somewhat in 
attaching the rigid branches of this species to paper. Once having 
mounted a specimen of this uninviting plant, the student will never fail to 
distinguish it, even by the touch, for there is no other seaweed with fronds 
so stiff, wire-like, and horny. I have found it in various parts of England 
and in Scotland, but its characters are the same everywhere. The 
fructification consists of wart-like masses encircling the stems ; and once 
only I have met with a specimen which bore capsular fruit, the little spore 
vessels being sessile or stalkless, attached to the side of the branches 
somewhat like the tubercles on Gracilaria confervoides (Fig. 127). The 
colour is a brownish purple, but owing to the extreme tenuity of the 
fronds, which are hardly thicker than a hog’s bristles, this plant appears 
almost black when freshly gathered, but it turns a yellowish or waxy 
white in decay or by exposure to sunlight. 

Fig. 155 represents the terminal portion of a branch of Cystoclonium 
purpurascens, better known by its former generic name of Hypnea. This 
is a very common plant on most of the British shores. The fronds vary 
from Gin. to 2ft. in length ; the main stem, which rises from a fibrous root, 
is bare for an inch or two, and then it is thickly set on each side with 


wide-spreading branches, which throw out several series of similar lesser 
branches bearing ramuli more or less abundant, luxuriant specimens being 
excessively bushy and very difficult to display on paper without a con- 

Fic. 154. Ahnfeltia plicata. 

siderable amount of pruning. Tubercles containing spores are produced 
in the ramuli, solitary, or in pairs one above the other; tetraspores are 
imbedded in the branchlets, as represented in our illustration. The colour 

Fie. 155. Cystoclonium purpurascens. 

of this species is very variable; in early growth it is a reddish purple, but 
on exposure for a day or two it turns a pale yellow, and in drying, it 
shrinks and becomes a dull red purple, or sometimes nearly black, and 


does not always adhere very satisfactorily to paper. There is a variety of 
this plant sometimes met with, called ‘‘ cirrhosa,’”’ the branches of which 
are long and less bushy, the terminal portions being prolonged into littie 
curled processes, somewhat like the tendrils of a creeper, by means of 
which the branehes of this variety are occasionally found attached to other 

To those of my readers who have not followed the numerous changes 
which have taken place in the systematic arrangement and nomenclature 
in the science of algology, it will doubtless be matter of surprise to find so 
many familiar plants described in these pages under new and very 
different names. Several of these have been already disposed of, but I 
have yet to speak of many others. About five-and-twenty years ago Dr. 
Harvey, in describing the natural character of the plants included in the 
old genus Rhodymenia, observed, “‘ This is an ill-defined genus, and will 
probably be eventually broken up into several;’’ and most literally have 
his words been verified, for of the various species which originally con- 
stituted this fine group of plants, many have been scattered far and wide, 
and among.those which have been so treated is the splendid alga repre- 
sented by a fruited branch at Fig. 156, formerly Rhodymenia, but now 
Callophyllis laciniata. This handsome species, rather than Rhodymenia 
palmata (Fig. 139), was probably in the mind’s eye of the poet when he wrote 
of its crimson leaves being like “a banner bathed in slaughter;” for 
although he calls it ‘‘ dulse,’’ which is the common name for Rhodymenia 
palmata, the fronds of this species can scarcely be called crimson, while 
those of Callophyllis are always so. The fronds of this species arise from 
a small disc, and are from 3in. to 12in. long. The stem is very short, and the 
fine membranous fronds soon expand into more or less numerously forked 
segments, most of which are rounded or sometimes laciniated at the tips. 
Tubercles are borne in little leafy processes which fringe the margin of 
the segments, as represented in our illustration. Tetraspores are con- 
tained in dark patches along the margins, and I have occasionally found 
specimens with spots of tetraspores thickly scattered over the whole sur- 
face of the frond. This plant is widely distributed. I have taken it in fine 
condition, in fruit as well as in the barren state, in Torbay and around 
Plymouth; and one season, near Tynemouth, on the splendid sands at 
Whitley, the shore was red for upwards of a mile with multitudes of 
specimens of this superb Rhodosperm. It is biennial, and fruits in winter. 
Some specimens do not adhere very well to paper, and are also apt to con- 
tract the surface; when this is the case, the plant should be dried in the 
ordinary manner, and when it has ceased to shrink, the specimen must 
be floated over again and mounted on another piece of paper, when, if 
after drying and pressing once more it fail to adhere, it must be refloated 
in milk, but the blotting papers should be changed once after a quarter of 
an hour’s pressure, and then strong pressure must be applied for a day or 
two, after which the plant will remain permanently fixed to the paper. 

Kallymenia reniformis, Fig. 157, when grown in favourable situations 


is a very showy plant, and though rare, is found in various localities from 
the Orkney Islands to the south coast of Devon; where, particularly at 

Fic. 156. Callophyllis laciniata. 

Plymouth, I have gathered magnificent specimens, the kidney-shaped 
lobes of some being over 4in. wide and Gin. long. The frond of this 
species arises from a tiny stem, and is either solitary or produced in 

Fie. 157. Kallymenia reniformis. 

groups of various dimensions thrown out from the margin of the stem. The 
substance is thick and fleshy and the colour is usually a deep rich red, 



sometimes in decay being tinted with shades of yellow and green. Favel- 
lidia, or masses of spores, but of small size, are scattered over the frond ; 
tetraspores, which are still more minute, are imbedded in its substance. 
The species microphylla, so named from the small size of its membranous 
lobes, might easily be mistaken for the young state of the foregoing, but 
the different position and arrangement of its conceptacles are considered 
of sufficient value to constitute this plant as a species distinct from K. 
reniformis. I have never seen this plant in fruit, but in Dr. Gray’s 
‘‘ Handbook of British Waterweeds’’ the conceptacles are described as 
‘‘ emerging from one side of the frond only, nearly flat above.”’ 

The genus Gigartina, from the Greek for ‘“‘ grapestone,’’ which the tuber- 
cles of these plants strongly resemble, contains several species which the 
uninitiated collector frequently finds extremely difficult to mount on paper, 
chiefly on account of their horny or cartilaginous nature, some being filiform 
or stringlike, others compressed or flat. G. pistillata, very well represented 
by afruited branch at Fig. 158, has been very aptly compared by Dr. Harvey 
to “a bunch of raisins, from which the fruit has been removed, leaving the 
pedicels only.’’ This species is very rare in this country. I have taken 
it nowhere but in Whitsand Bay, but there I had the good fortune, many 
years ago, to meet with specimens bearing tubercles (asin our illustration) 
and others producing tetraspores. The former are very conspicuous; the 
latter are contained in slightly swollen portions of the branches. The 
root is a fleshy disc, the fronds are tufted, and more or less branched, 
forked, and sparingly furnished with ramuli, which are usually simple, 
but sometimes pinnated or winged, the tips of all being acute or pointed. 
The colour is a dark reddish purple, which turns nearly black in drying. 
G. acicularis, or the needle-pointed Gigartina (Fig. 159), though less rare, 
is by no means abundant. It occurs in Ireland, and on the Cornish coast. 
I have taken it in Torbay, on one occasion with tubercles produced on 
the smaller branches ; but fruit on this species, is, I believe, very rarely 
found. The tufted fronds of this species are often very prettily arched, 
and are set, though sparingly, with simple, alternate wide-spreading 
branches, some of which produce a second series, or are merely secund, 
which signifies the production of branchlets or ramulion one side only. 
The form of the expanded plant is somewhat rounded but inclining to a 
pyramid in outline. The tips of all the branches and ramuli are invariably 
acute, a character which gives the specific name and assists the collector 
in recognising the plant. The colour is similar to that of the foregoing. 
G. Teedu (Fig. 160) is taken from a branch or two of a specimen gathered 
by Mrs. Griffiths at Elberry Cove, in Torbay, thirty years ago. This 
plant, I presume, must be considered one of our greatest rarities. I have 
examined every nook and crevice in every accessible rock pool in Torbay 
for three consecutive seasons without meeting with a scrap of this species. 
I have never met with it in the growing state, but I do not despair of 
finding it some day in or near its old habitat in Torbay, although I 
strongly suspect it has receded further from the shore than formerly, and 

Fie. 158. Gigartina pistillata. 

Fic, 159. Gigartina acicularis. 


will now be obtained only by dredging. The colour of this rare plant is 
much more decidedly inclined to a reddish tint thar any of the others of 
this genus, and, like all the rest, it adheres very imperfectly in drying. 

Fic. 160. Gigartina Teedit. 

G. mamillosa is the common species of this group; Fig. 161 represents a 
frond of this plant. It is generally found in company with Chondrus crispus 
(Fig. 162), and forms with that species the carrageen or Irish moss of the 

Fie, 161. Gigartina mamillosa, 

druggists’ shops. The fronds are tufted and are of various dimensions ; 
they are all more or less covered with mamillez or little tongue-like pro- 
cesses, which arise from the margins and broad surfaces of the upper 


divisions of the forked segments. When the plant is in fruit the spores 
are produced in these mamille or leaflets, which are sometimes so abundant 
that the manipulator is sorely puzzled in mounting his specimens effectively. 
The colour of this species is a dark purple, but the plant is so frequently 
exposed to strong sunlight, that luxuriant specimens are often met with 
in the growing state, exhibiting tints of olive, dark brown, black, and, 
sometimes, even a decided shade of green. The fronds rarely exceed 4in. 
in length. The species is perennial and is found pretty generally through- 
out the year on almost all rocky shores. 

Chondrus crispus (Fig. 162) is one of the commonest and most variable 
in form of all the native British seaweeds. The French writer, Lamouroux, 
figures no less than thirty-six different varieties. On our own shores 
the size of the fronds and the breadth of the segments seem to me to 
depend very much on the situation in which the plant is found growing. 
The larger and broader forms are generally met with near high-water mark, 
and particularly so where the plants are exposed to the influence of a 
fresh-water stream, while at low-water mark, or in deep rock pools, the 
fronds, although produced in large bushy tufts, are generally extremely 
narrow throughout. Our illustration represents two widely different 
forms of this species, both being considerably reduced in size; a, is from 
a finely grown plant with broad spreading lobes, somewhat like those of 
Phyllophora Brodici (Fig. 150) ; b, is from a plant with narrow segments ; 
the tuft from which these fronds were taken grew outside a rock where it 
was exposed to the swill and dash of the waves. All the forms of this 
thick cartilaginous species may be easily distinguished. The fronds arise 
from a crisp discoid base, having at first a narrow cylindrical stem, 
which gradually flattens and increases in breadth, from which very 
suddenly the lobed segments are produced, most of which are repeatedly 
forked, the axils of all being invariably and distinctly rounded. The tips 
are obtuse or truncated, besides being what is termed emarginate, which 
means depressed at the margin here and there, rather than cloven, znd one 
side or other of all the divisions, is constantly crisped or inclined to curl 
round, a peculiarity which is referred to in the specific name. The fructi- 
fication consists of prominent tubercles, which not only emit their spores 
at maturity, but fall away from the plant, leaving round hollow spaces in 
the frond; sori or groups of tetraspores are immersed in the fleshy sub- 
stance of the plant, and favellidia are also sometimes found ; these consist 
of masses of minute spores which are imbedded in the frond, but are 
different in structure to the tubercles, or, more properly speaking, 
nemathecia, which rot, or at least, drop off the fronds at maturity. The 
colour of this species is as variable as its forms are numerous; but in 
shady rock pools, where it is occasionally visited by gleams of sunlight, 
the fronds exhibit a mixture of dark red and purple, and the margins 
and tips of the divisions are, at times, beautifully iridescent. As the 
plant advances towards high-water mark, its colours are more sombre, 
being generally a dull brownish-red, or sometimes olive-green, and in 

Fic. 162. Two varieties of Chondrus crispus. 

Fic. 163. (a) Chylocladia clavellosa; (b) Branchlet with capsules magnified. 

ae - ; 
$ ier ~ 
*y Hc My ee: 
i Net! + Ae 
“tore. i“ i at 

7 , wes ie 





pe *. 



decay or when cast ashore, it is often bleached white, or turns to a pale 
The two plants which I shall now describe, formed, until recently, th 

only members of the genus Chrysymenia; both, however, have been 
‘emoved to Chylocladia, and now, according to Professor Agardh’s most 
recent arrangement, they are the only British representatives of the old 
genus Chylocladia. The name of the genus, which signifies ‘‘ juicy 
branch,” is very applicable to these soft red seaweeds, which are so flaccid 
and tender, that with very little care they are easily displayed, and after 
gentle and gradually applied pressure, they adhere most perfectly to 
paper. Chylocladia clavellosa, the larger and more abundant of the two, 
is represented at Fig. 163. Itis the upper half of a most beautiful specimen 
taken in Torbay, where it is cast ashore every summer. This lovely annual 
is found on all the British coasts, but is most abundant and of larger size 
on the south coast of Devon than’ elsewhere. I once found a specimen on 
the shore near Exmouth, fully 2ft. long. The fronds are usually from 4in. 
to 14in. in height. The main stem is very thin at the base, butit gradually 
thickens upwards and tapers off at the apex to a fine point. The branches 
are numerous and closely set on each side of the stem, and are clothed 
with one or two series of similarly arranged branchlets or ramuli, which 
are lanceolate or tavered at their insertion and at the tips. Thus each 
lateral branch is a kind of repetition, in a limited degree, of the order of 
growth of the whole plant. Instances occur in which the branching is 
excessively crowded, and in these the ultimate ramuli spring from all sides 
of the stems and branches. Conceptacles, somewhat conical in form, are 
seated on the upper branches: their form and position are represented in 
the magnified branchlet at b, Fig. 163. Tetraspores, which are microscopic, 
are immersed in the little club-shaped ramuli or terminal branchlets. 
The colour is a rosy red, often a brilliant pink, turning a golden yellow 
in decay: and it was owing to the constant tendency of this species to 
assume the latter tint that the name Chrysymenia, or golden membrane, 
was originally given to it by Mr. Dawson Turner. The pretty little plant 
represented at Fig. 164 was discovered at Skaill (Orkney), and named by 
Dr. Harvey Chrysymenia Orcadensis. It was afterwards found at Filey, 
and many years later by Dr. Cocks and myself on some of the mooring 
buoys in Plymouth Harbour, and still more recently by Mr. John Gat- 
combe in the same locality. My own northern specimens are, however, finer 
and better grown plants than any I ever met with in the south of England. 
The main stems of this little species are about 2in. high, tapered at each 
extremity, but very broad in proportion to their length. They are 
furnished with several pairs of pinne or wing-like branches of similar 
form, but much shorter and narrower, and some of these branchlets 
throw out occasionally a solitary tiny ramulus. In some of the Plymouth 
plants I have observed that the branches were narrow and very much 
attenuated ; but I believe this to be truly a northern species, and although 
it is found rather abundantly some seasons in the south, such forms of 


the plant are’ but waifs and strays from their original home in tne north. 
I have never seen this species in capsular fruit, but tetraspores I have 
often observed. They are imbedded throughout the whole length of the 
little elliptical branchlets and ramuli. The colour is a rose pink ; the 

Fie. 164. Chylocladia rosea. 

interior of the frond is filled with a colourless watery juice, so that in 
preparing the plant for the herbarium, care must be observed in pressure, 
or the specimen will be destroyed or disfigured. 

Of all the red plants that have come under my notice during many 
seasons of seaweed gathering, I know of no species so variable in form and 

Fig, 165. (a) Halymenia ligulata, var. dichotoma; (b) H. ligulata, var. latifolia. 

ramification as the soft gelatinous plant named Halymenia ligulata, or the 
strap-shaped sea-membrane, for that is what its botanical name literally 
signifies. The numerous forms of this curious species are, however, as Dr. 


Harvey observes, “resolvable into three distinct varieties.” The first 
of these, Dichotoma, is very well represented at a, Fig. 165. The fronds 
are from 4in. to Sin. long, with two or three principal divisions of variable 
width ; these are more or less forked with apparently laciniated or jagged 
segments, and here and there throughout the plant, numerous little 
branchlets and ramuli shoot forth, some from the margins, and others 
from the surface or other parts of the frond, giving to this singular 
species a strangely wild and irregular appearance. The second variety is 
termed Ramentacea; in this the frond is from 10in. to 15in. long, divided 
into three or more principal branches, tapered at the base, then swelling 
out into broad thick lobes, and generally attenuated towards the tips. The 
third variety is described as Latifolia, very well represented at b, Fig. 165. 
The plant from which this illustration was taken was gathered at Ply- 
mouth many years ago, and was entirely destitute of branchlets or ramuli. 

Fic. 166. Branch of Fwurcellaria fastigiata. 

The tip is forked, and a short distance below there is the apparent attempt 
to throw out a branch or a broad segment; otherwise this specimen is the 
nearest approach to a perfectly simple or unbranched frond of this 
species that I have ever met with. The length of this plant was 14in., 
that of the branched specimen beside it very little less. The fruit is 
contained in favellidia, or masses of spores, which are concealed beneath 
the periphery or external coat of the frond, and are attached to the inner 
surface of the outer stratum of cells. These curious plants are always 
found in fruit, the favellidia being easily distinguishable through the 
periphery, and appearing little dark red spots scattered all over the 
surface of the fronds. The colour is usually a rose pink, the plant is a 
Summer annual, and is found most frequently on the southern shores of 
England and Ireland, and in the Channel Islands. 


At the commencement of my list of the Rhodosperms, I described a plant 
named Polyides lumbricalis (Fig. 83), which, in outward form and when 

Fie. 167. Gratelowpia filicina. 

not in fruit, is so remarkably similar to the species I am about to speak 
of, that points of difference are at times scarcely distinguishable. The 
plant I refer to is Furcellaria fastigiata, represented by a branch or two 
at Fig. 166. The little fastigiate forks which terminate the branchlets are, 
when the plant is in fruit, swollen in the centre, and gradually tapered 
to a point. In these lanceolate receptacles masses of tetraspores are 
produced, but at maturity all these pod-like bodies fall off, leaving the 
forked branches truncate or jagged at the tips. The fronds arise from 
an entangled fibrous root. and are about 10in. or 12in. high, each having 

Fira. 168. Schizymenia edulis. 

a stem an inch or two in length, and then branching upwards dichoto- 
mously, the divisions being all forked and fastigiate, or terminating in 


acute tips, presenting like Polyides, when spread out on paper, a perfectly 
rounded outline. This plant, which is a very dark red, turns quite black 
and horny in drying, and requires great care and patience in making ita 
presentable book specimen. It is abundant all round our coasts, is 
perennial, and fruits in winter. 

The genus Gratelowpia, dedicated to M. Grateloup, a French naturalist, 
is represented on our shores by one species only, G. filicina, or the fern- 
like Grateloupia, a pretty specimen of 
which is represented at Fig. 167. In 
outward appearance this species has 
a strong resemblance to the variety 
flecuosum of Gelidium corneum, but 
its structure and system of fructi- 
fication are widely different. Faveilidia 
are concealed beneath moniliform or 
necklace-like filaments, of which the 
outer stratum of the frond is composed; 
tetraspores are placed among the peri- 
pheric filaments of the lateral branch- 
lets. The fronds are tufted, each 
having a main stem about 3in. high, 
tapered at each extremity, and set on 
each side with alternate or opposite 
series of flexuous branches, some of 
which occasionally put forth a second 
set of branchlets or ramuli, all of which 
are attenuated at the base, and drawn 
out to a sharp point at the tips. This 
species is rare in Britain, but it is met 
with in several situations, chiefly on 
the south and west coasts. It is peren- 
nial, and fruits during the winter 
months. The colour is dull red, but 
specimens which grow where a fresh- 
water stream runs into the sea, turna 
pale fawn colour in the upper branches, 
as though they were bleached in the 

Under the generic name of Schizy- 
menia, signifying ‘‘cloven membrane,”’ 
are now included two plants, each of which until recently, were in 
separate and very differently constituted genera. The first of these, 
formerly Iridea, is now Schizymenia edulis. Fig. 168 represents a group 
of very perfect young fronds. They arise from a firm expanded disc, 
and are from 3in. to 20in. long, of a fleshy or somewhat leathery sub- 
stance, having a very short round stem, which gradually fiattens and 

Fie. 169. Schizymenia Dubyt. 


expands into a broad, obovate, perfectly smooth lamina or plate-like 
leaf, undivided (except by accidental laceration, or the inward force of 
growth), and beautifully rounded at the top. The ordinary place of 
growth is in shady rock pools, where frequently the fronds are beautifully 
iridescent. I have found this species on all parts of the English coasts ; at 
Plymouth, in Torbay, and on the shores of Durham and Northumberland, 
all equally fine and presenting precisely the same characters. The colour 
is a deep blood-red ; it is in perfection from early summer to the end of 
autumn, and fruits during winter. Spores are collected in immersed 
favellidia near the terminal portion of the frond; tetraspores are also 
produced in the substance of the plant just within the external cellular 
stratum. 8S. Dubyi, dedicated to M. Duby, was formerly Kallymenia 
Dubyi. Fig. 169 represents a mature frond-of this fine species; the plant 
from which our illustration was taken is one of the finest specimens I ever 
met with; it was over 14in. high. The frond is always undivided, except 
by accident or the force of the waves, but the margin is sometimes waved 
or curled, though otherwise perfectly smooth and entire. The rootisa 
small dise, and the base of the leafy frond is wedge-shaped, the tip being 
usually rounded. It is a summer annual, and is met with in fine condition 
in the Falmouth Harbour, in the sheltered bays near Plymouth, and in the 
west of Ireland. This species I have never found growing in tufts, the 
frond is always, I believe, solitary, even when several specimens are met 
witk growing near each other in the same locality. The colour is a 
brownish red ; favellidia of small size are scattered abundantly over the 
surface of the plant. 

The genus Catenella contains a few species of very tiny plants, one of 
them only being found in Britain, known as Catenella opuntia. Fig.170 a, 
represents a plant of the natural size, and b, some of its little branched 
filaments highly magnified. The fronds are scarcely more than lin. high ; 
they arise from creeping fibrous roots, and are densely interwoven, every 
portion of the plant being composed of little strings or chains of elliptical 
joints, whence the name, which is from the Latin for a little chain. This 
diminutive plant is generally considered rare, but its small size doubtless 
causes it to be frequently overlooked. I have, however, found it once 
only in the south of England; but I have received it from collectors near 
Filey, who obtain it there often very abundantly. The spores are contained 
in capsules attached to the upper articulations of the frond, tetraspores 
are immersed in the ramuli; the colour is a dull purple, turning blackish 
in drying. 

Gloiosiphonia capillaris, represented by a few branches at a, Fig. 171, 
is one of the rarest and most beautiful of the British red filiform alge. 
This plant is very difficult to display nicely on paper; the stem and 
principal branches are tubular, but soft and gelatinous, as expressed 
in the generic name; the branchlets and ramuli, although capillary 
or hair-like, are so juicy and flaccid that in drying they press upon 
each other and clot together, so that it is extremely difficult to make a 

Fig. 170. (a) Catenella opuntia; (b) Branches from the same, slightly 

Fie. 171. (a) Branch of Gloiosiphonia capillaris; (b) Branchlet from 
the same magnified. 


satisfactory figure of any portion of this beautiful species. It is asummer 
annual and is very rare, though found in many parts of Britain, and in 
numbers of situations on all the Atlantic shores. My own finest specimens 
were taken years ago near Plymouth. Some of the main stems of these 
were 14in. high, and clothed on each side throughout their whole length 
with closely set bushy branches, gradually getting shorteras they approach 
the apex of the stem, which terminates in a point, the whole plant having 
very much the appearance of a larch firin miniature. The spores are pro- 
duced in small red globular masses imbedded in the marginal filaments 

Fic. 172. (a) Dumontia filijormis; (b) Magnified section of the frond, with 
of the frond; tetraspores are plated in the branchlets, one of which is 
represented, magnified, at b, Fig. 171. The colour is a fine rose pink, the 
stems turning a pale yellow in drying. 

Fig. 172 represents a group of young fronds of Dumontia filiformis, the 
branches of the central frond being intentionally shortened. This is 
another of our native species named in honour of a French savant, by 
name Mons. Dumont. The fronds of this common annual grow in tufts 
of three or more, tapered at the base, and gradually thickened upwards for 
an inch or two, then suddenly furnished with long, alternate, round, 
filiform branches, attenuated at each end, generally simple, but occasio nally 



divided or once forked. This plant is extremely variable in the length 
and number of its fronds. Near high-water mark or in shallow pools, a 
single frond, or at most two or three, grow on the rocks, or are attached 
to limpet shells, about 3in. high, and of a pale brownish-red colour; 
while in shady rock pools, or as it approaches low-water mark, the 
fronds are densely tufted, are often over 16in. long, and of a dark reddish 
purple. There is a curious variety of this species called crispata, in 
which the fronds are flattened and very much curled or twisted. This 
form of the plant is found only in the neighbourhood of fresh-water 
streams, and is another of those peculiarities observable in some species 
of seaweeds, where their character, form, or colour, is merely altered by 
contact with fresh water, while with many others, and particularly so 
with nearly all the species of the Order Ceramiacew, destruction or dis- 
figurement is the immediate result. The stem and branches of Dumontia 
are at first tubular but solid, the internal portion being composed of loosely 
intertwining filaments ; but as the plant reaches maturity these filaments 
are absorbed, leaving the tubular stems and principal branches empty 
within. Favelle, or round clusters of spores are produced within these 
tubes and attached to their sides, being formed out of the cells of which 
the inner surface of the tubes are composed. 0b, Fig. 172, represents a 
portion of the tubular stem of Dwmontia, highly magnified, showing 
favelle attached to the inner wallof the tube. This peculiar production of 
the fruit in Dumontia serves to illustrate the characteristic title of this 
extensive Order, that of Cryptonemiacee, the spore-bearing organs being 
concealed or hidden within the substance of the frond. 

The curious plant, Spyridia filamentosa, was formerly included in the 
Order Ceramiacee, but it now forms the only British representative 
of the very small Order Spyridiacew; the name being from the Greek for 
a basket, in allusion to the form of the favellz of these plants. Fig. 173, 
a, represents a terminal portion of a branch of Spyridia filamentosa. 
I have met with this species in Torbay and in the neighbourhood of 
Plymouth, but on no other part of the British coasts. Most of the 
species of this small group of seaweeds are natives of warm climates, our 
own S. filamentosa being widely distributed; very abundant on ‘the 
American shores, frequent in the Channel Islands, and reaching, I believe, 
its northern limit on the southern shores of England. The fronds of this 
plant are from 3in. to 10in. high. They arise in bushy tufts from a 
discoid root, and are very irregularly branched, the main stems being of 
a densely cellular substance, and very obscurely jointed. The lateral 
branches are mostly short, but, like the main stems, are beset on all sides 
‘with short bristle or hair-like, mostly simple, but jointed scattered ramuli. 
The favellz, which consist of two or three masses of spores, are produced 
on a ramulus which is somewhat altered in form, being divided from 
the tip downwards, and thus constituting a trifid or quadrifid involucre, 
within which the roundish masses of spores are seated, as represented at 
b, Fig. 173, which is a highly-magnified portion of stem, branch, and 



ramuli, a bi-lobed favella being suspended from a trifid ramulus. Tetra- 
spores, when present, are attached to the sides of these little ramuli ; 
they are very minute, roundish, and produced in twos or threes, and 
Sometimes in clusters. The colour of the living plant is a pinky red, 
turning a pale reddish brown in drying. It is said to be perennial, and is 
in perfection from July to September. 

The beautiful and extensive Order Ceramiacee contains many of the 
most delicate and attractive of the British red seaweeds. The structure, 
even in the most compound forms of these plants, is exceedingly simple, 
being for the most part strings of cylindrical cells, more or less 
branched, the little cells or joints each growing out from the tip of the 
one below it, the branches being formed by cells arising, or budding, 

Fig. 173. (a) Terminal branch of Spyridia filamentosa; (b) Portion of the same 
with bi-lobed favella, magnified. 

as it were, from the upper sides of the mature or previously formed 
articulations. In the larger and more compound forms, the stems and 
some of the principai branches are coated or supplied internally with 
closely packed longitudinal filaments, which traverse the fronds and 
render those portions of the plants nearly opaque; but even in these 
apparently more highly organised structures, a very slight examination 
will reveal the original articulated filament, which is the charac- 
teristic structure of most of the species of this interesting tribe of 
marine alge. 

The name of this Order is from the Greek for a pitcher, in reference to 
the form of the fruit, which is much more characteristic of the Ceramidia 
of the Polysiphonie than of any of the spore-vessels of the Ceramiacee, 
which are berry-like, but not in any instance pitcher shaped. However, 


until some recognised algological authority thinks proper to alter the 
name, and the botanical world acknowledges it, we must be content to 
retain what, in my humble opinion, is a misnomer for the Order, a 
description of which I am now entering upon. 

Fig. 174, a, represents a complete plant, the natural size, of the rare and 
very pretty deep-water summer annual Microcladia glandulosa. This 
species was discovered by Mrs. Griffiths in Torbay in the early part of the 
present century, and has been found in several situations on the south 
coast of Devon, and on the east coast of Ireland. The plant from which 
our illustration was taken, was cast ashore near Plymouth, where I have 
taken it occasionally after storms, generally attached to the fibrous roots 
of some of the deep water algex. The pretty little tufts of this plant are 
rarely more than 2ir. high, and are generally of a roundish form, the tips — 
of the branches always fastigiate, and either pointed or terminating in a 
little fork, the tips of which incline inwards, somewhat like the forcipate 
branches of Ceramium rubrum (Fig. 176),a species which is not unfrequently 
mistaken for this rare little rhodosperm. The fructification of this species 
forms an extremely interesting microscopic study. ‘Two magnified 
branches are represented in Fig. 174; } is a terminal branch, on the 
margin of the central division of which is seated a favella, supported 
by two or three little finger-like ramuli, c is a branchlet which contains 
a series of tetraspores imbedded in the cells near the tip of the central 
fork. The fruit is rare, but is producedin autumn. Thecolour is a pale 
rose-red, and the plant adheres very well to paper. Very nearly related 
to this species, and also to some broad forms of Ceramiwm rubrum, is 
the plant which is represented by a branch at Fig. 175, an extremely rare 
and interesting species which I took many years ago, but have never 
met with since. The history of its discovery is as follows: In the summer 
of 1858, I was gathering seaweeds in company with the late Dr. Cocks, of 
Plymouth, when we found attached to the roots of a specimen of 
Plocamium a remarkable form of what I thought at the time was 
Microcladia glandulosa; but Dr. Cocks, not being satisfied with either 
his own or my opinion concerning it, forwarded the specimen to Dr. Harvey, 
who, after a careful examination of its structure, returned the plant, 
saying that “it was undoubtedly new, and must be regarded as inter- 
mediate between Microcladia and Ceramium rubrum, and that he proposed 
naming it Ceramium microcladia Cocksvi.’’ Favelle were faintly apparent 
in some of the forked tips, a situation quite different from that in which 
they occur in either Microcladia or Ceramium rubrum. This particular 
plant is still in my possession. I have never met with another specimen of 
it, neither have I heard of any plant at all answering to its description 
having been taken until this season (1873), when a species of ceramium 
was sent to me from Plymouth, which certainly very closely resembles 
my former novelty, but, as it is not in fruit, I fear, after all, it 
must be referred to one of the broader forms of the protean Ceramiwm 

Fic. 174. (a) Microcladia glandulosa; (b) Branchlet with favella; (c) Branchlet 
with tetraspores, magnified. 

Fic, 175. Ceramium microcladia. 


The genus Ceramiwm comprises several well characterised species, 
several of which occasionally present varieties of form or structure which 
are more or less puzzling to the uninitiated. However, there are at least 
eleven British species which are now generally acknowledged, and as 
they represent the three sections into which this group was divided by 
Dr. Harvey, I shall describe them according to that characteristic arrange- 

The first section, Rubra, contains the well-known Ceramium rubrum 
and its varieties. So widely dispersed is this common-species, that Dr. 
Harvey says, “it is met with almost wherever marine plants will grow, 
from high arctic to high antarctic latitudes.’’ On our own shores this 

Fie. 176. Ceramium rubrum, with favelle, magnified. 

plant assumes such a variety of forms (according to the nature of the 
locality or the depth of water in which it grows), as frequently to puzzle 
experienced botanists as well as young collectors of alge; however, 
well-grown specimens, and particularly those which are in fruit, are 
easily recognized. Fig. 176 represents a branch of one of the forms 
of Ceramium rubrum slightly magnified, bearing involucrate favelle. 
Although, like all the plants of this group, whose stems and branches, 
are regularly more or less chequered by alternate dark-coloured nodes 
or joints, and colourless dissepiments or inter-spaces, the nodes and 
dissepiments of Ceramiwm rubrum, and its varieties, are more or less 
eoated with coloured cells, hence the name of the typical species. The 


little round masses, called favelle, which contain the spores of this 
plant, are produced on the sides of the lateral branchlets, and are sup- 
ported, or partly embraced, as it were, by two or three short ramuli. 
In the living state, or before the plant is mounted on paper, these favellz 
are seen to have a pellucid limbus or border, through which, under the 
microscope, a multitude of minute angular spores are distinctly visible. 
The colour of the plant is properly a clear red, but itis found often enough 
of a brownish tint, sometimes yellowish, and even of as dark a colour 
as Polysiphonia nigrescens (Fig. 102). Plants having the latter tint are of 
the common coarse variety which I have frequently taken at Brighton, 
growing among the fuci or rock-weeds about haif-tide level, the fronds 
of which were often over 20in. long. 

The tetraspores of this species, as in most of the Ceramiee, are 
generally formed from the surface cellules, and are immersed in the 
articulations, but in some they project slightly above the surface, like 
little pimples. One of the most distinct varieties of this species, formerly 
C. botryocarpum, from the grape-like form of its clustered spore-vessels, 
is now known as C. rubrum, var. proliferum, the branches of which are beset 
on all sides with short simple or sparingly branched ramuli, the tips of 
which are straight or pointed, those of C. rubrum being slightly hooked 
inwards. Sometimes this variety produces globular favelle; but its 
distinctive fruit vessels are the clustered masses which are borne on the 
lateral branchlets, but which are not accompanied by involucral or 
clasping ramuli. This, like most of the other species, is a summer annual. 
The colour is rarely so bright a red as that of the foregoing plant, but the 
whole surface of the fronds is coated with cellules, which are sometimes 
purplish, but often change to a greenish yellow. 

The only other variety of C. rubrum which I think it necessary to 
describe is the plant which was figured by Dr. Harvey the under 
name of C. decurrens. It is now regarded by Professor Agardh as a 
variety of C. rubrum; it may be known by its slender fronds, which 
are much more sparingly branched, and by the presence of a narrow 
colourless space which occurs in the centre of the dissepiments or in- 
ternodes, which is caused by the faint tint or even absence of coloured 
cellules. An ordinary lens will readily show the surface cells of these 
plants when they are gathered fresh from the sea; and in the absence of 
fruit, the presence of these cells in all parts of the stems and branches, 
afford the student a ready means of recognition, although, of course, 
it requires practice and experience to distinguish the numerous forms of 
this variable species. The only plant with which C. botryocarpum (or 
proliferum) is likely to be at first confounded, is the curious species C. 
Deslongchampsii, the fruit of which is very similar, being produced in 
clusters, and, like the favelle of that species, equally destitute of 
involucral ramuli, as seen at a, Fig. 177. The colour of the joints of the 
stems and branches is, however, very different, being of a dark purple, 

nd the spaces between them are perfectly colourless; the tips of all 


the branches and ramuli are pointed and not at all hooked in. The 
tetraspores of this species are produced in the dark coloured joints ; 
and what is also very remarkable, they are sometimes found on the 


eS esis 

Fie. 177. Ramuli showing favelle of (a) C. Deslongchampsit. 

(b) C. diaphanum. 
(cd) C. nodosum. 

same specimen which bears favelle. This plant belongs to the section, 

Diaphana, which is beautifully represented by a slightly enlarged branch 

of the elegant species C. diaphanum at Fig. 178. All the stems and 


Fic. 178. Ceramiwim diaphanwm. 

branches of this justly admired plant, are marked at regular intervals 
with fine pink or purplish red nodes, the colourless interspaces being of 
a delicate silvery texture, all of which become shorter and smaller as 



they approach the tips of the branches and ramuli, which terminate in 
little thumb-and-finger-like hooks. 

The branches are set throughout, more or less abundantly, with short, 
jointed, simple or forked ramuli, the tips of which are hooked inwards. 
Favellze are produced at the tips of the ramuli and in the forks of the 
terminal branchlets, surrounded-by a collar of tiny ramuli, as seen at b, 
Fig. 177. The beautiful tufted fronds of this species are usually from 
din. to 6in. long, but I have taken specimens in Bovisand Bay, many 
years ago, a foot in length, finely in fruit, and of the richest mixture of 
reddish purple and silver, the tints of which are as brilliant at this 
moment as the day on which I first mounted the plants. C. nodosum, 
now C. tenuissimum, is one of the finest and most delicate of the genus. 
Its slender filaments are finer than human hair and are of equal diameter 
throughout. The pellucid internodes of the stem are several times longer 
than broad, becoming gradually shorter upwards. The dark-coloured 
nodes are usually broader than the colourless spaces between them, and 
from the sides of these in some of the shorter ramuli, prominent tetra- 
spores are produced, as seen at c, Fig. 177. Favellxw, as represented at 
d, are seated near the tips of the ramuli in an angle formed by the tip 
of the branchlet and a short accessory ramulus. The little erect tufts of 
this species are rarely more than 4in. long, and are of a delicate pinky 
colour. Nearly allied to this species is the exquisite little plant C. 
fastigiatwm, the hair-like tufts of which are truly fastigiate or level-topped, 
the tips being all directed upwards and slightly curved inwards. The 
lower internodes are three or four times longer than broad, the upper 
ones very short. The colour of the nodes is a lovely rose tint. Favelle 
of small size are produced from the sides of the terminal branchlets 
supported by a few very short ramuli. Fig. 179 represents a terminal 
branch of a filament, which is divided with such regularity, that each 
fork, even to the very tips, is an exact repetition of the one below it. This 
pretty species is somewhat rare, but I have taken it in Scotland and in 
several stations on the South Devonshire coast. OC. strictwm is another 
favourite species, abundant during early summer in Torbay and around 
the rocky bays at Plymouth. The fronds are densely tufted, the filaments 
capillary or hair-like, and excessively branched and interwoven. The 
nodes are a loyely purple, the inter-spaces shining like silver, and in the 
lower parts of the filaments several times longer than broad, but gradually 
shorter as they ascend upwards. The branches are set here and there 
with little accessory ramuli; and these as well as all the branches of the 
plant, terminate in a little hook, the tips of which incline inwards, and 

‘close upon each other like a tiny pair of sugar-nippers. Fig. 180 repre- 
sents a terminal branch, the forks of which, like all the rest of the plant, 
are erect and straight, the angles of all being regularly acute. C. gracil- 
limum is the smallest and most delicate of all the British Ceramiew. Its 
tender and very flaccid threads are generally so crowded and entangled, 
that it is a trial of patience and skill to display them properly on paper. 

- bevy 

. * 
ives warts @ ats 

: ! 

Ceramium strictum, 

Fig, 182. Ceramium flabelligerwin, 









Fre, 179. Branch of Ceramium 
Fig, 181 


This species is extremely rare, but is met with generally in muddy pools, ~ 
attached to Corallina officinalis (Fig. 111) and other small algz, between 
tide-marks. It is readily known by the great length of its colourless joints 
and the crimson or purple nodes, from which arise minute fan-shaped lateral 
branchlets, which adorn the main stems, and are repeatedly forked to the 
very tips. Fig. 181 represents one of the terminal branches. The favella 
of this species is a remarkable microscopic object. It consists of two 
lobes, of globular form, enclosed in a pellucid border, and partly surrounded 
by long forked ramuli. This lovely species is met with in several 
situations on the Devonshire coast and in the west of Ireland, but I 
have taken it only at Plymouth and in Torbay. The third section 
of this beautiful group of plants contains four species which are re- 
markable for their spinulose habit, the dissepiments or nodes of all being 
armed with spines or bristle-like hairs. Fig. 182 represents .a magnified 
terminal branch of the species C. flabelligerum, so called from the 
flabellate or fan-like branching of its fronds, which are about 4in. high, and 
set with forked lateral branches, the tips being mostly acute, but 
occasionally terminating in a tiny fork, the apices of which are slightly 
curved inwards, as seen in our illustration. The articulations of the lower 
branches are twice as long as broad, but in the upper parts they are 
mostly equal in length and breadth, and are all armed on the outer and 
upper edge with a single three-jointed awl-shaped spine. The favellz are 
three-lobed, and are produced in the forks of the branches. The whole 
plant is coated with coloured cellules, assuming, in consequence, some 
resemblance to varieties of C. rubrum (Fig. 176), but the presence of spines 
in this species is a constant character which at once distinguishes it. This 
plant is by no means common, but it is found in Torbay, at Plymouth, and 
elsewhere in England, and on some parts of the Irish coasts. C. ciliatum, 
beautifully represented at Fig. 183, by two terminal forked branches, grows 
on rocks and on the smaller algzx in tide-pools, forming dense tufts of 
a pale purplish tint, but prettily chequered with silvery-white joints; 
the nodes only, containing the coloured cellules, which are also set with 
a whorl of three-jointed prickles, as represented highly magnified at a, 
Fig. 184. The branches are repeatedly forked, the tips of the terminal 
ones having yet another tiny fork, the apices of which are strongly curved 
round and inwards; and even the joints of these, minute as they are, are 
all furnished with the characteristic prickles already described. C. 
echionotum, represented by some filaments of this species at Fig. 185, 
is so named from the manner in which the slender, single-jointed spines 
are set on all parts of the nodes, closely resembling the arrangement 
of those on the shell of the Echinus or Sea-urchin. A portion of the 
stem, highly magnified, is seen at b, Fig. 184. The growth and ramification 
of this species are not unlike those of the foregoing, but the stems and 
branches are generally more abundantly supplied with little forked 
lateral ramuli, and the colour is usually dark red. The favellz are 
generally two-lobed, and are supported by a whorl of short in-curved 


‘ramuli. C. acanthonotum, the last of this group, grows’ generally on 
exposed rocks, or on the fronds of other plants, near low-water mark, 
in dense dark purple tufts, from 3in. to 6in. high. The favella of this 
species is as round as a ball (as represented at c, Fig. 184), and is seated 
on a curved jointed ramulus, every articulation of which (like those 
of the stems and branches of the plant), is armed on the outer upper side, 
with a single three-jointed prickle. In this respect it somewhat resembles 
C. flabelligerum (Fig. 182), but the coloured cellules in this are con- 
fined to the nodes, and the inter-spaces are perfectly hyaline, or colourless. 
When properly displayed, this species, like each of the two foregoing plants, 
makes a very attractive book specimen; but most of these ciliated 

eee 56.) 



2 Ls 
\e : ‘ 

ot Adee Ve 

t 4 



ip cece 

Fia. 184, (a) Joint of Ceramium ciliatum ; 

(b) Ceramiwm echionotum; (c) Three 
Fie. 183. Ceramium ciliatum. joints with ramulus and favella of 
Ceramium acanthonotum, 

Ceramiex are so entangled, by reason of their multitudinous spines, that 
the utmost patience and care are necessary to prevent the plants becoming 
an inextricable and unsightly mass. 

The genus Ptilota contains two remarkably beautiful plants, one species 
being common on the northern and western shores of Great Britain, the 
other being found in almost equal abundance in the south of England, and 
on some parts of the north-eastern shores, in Scotland, and in the Isle of 
‘Man. Fig. 186 represents an enlarged branch of Ptilota plumosa, or the 
* plumed wing.’’ The plant from which this was taken, was gathered by 
me in the Isle of Arran. It was growing on a huge specimen of 
Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46), encircling the stem of the great alga as witha 
feather-like collar of the richest brown-red colour. The fronds are 
from 4in. to 14in. long, and are beautifully and very copiously branched, 

Ceramium echionotum, 

Fie. 185. 

Ptilota plumosa. 

Fie. 186. 

ed 7 ’ 
* A OB 

~ oe © w o9*.4m* 


all the branches being set with an opposite series of spreading pinnules, 
which are closely pectinated, or set on each side with comb-like teeth, 
which gradually diminish in length towards the tips of the little branchlets. 
In luxuriant specimens the branches sometimes put forth a second and 
even a third series of branchlets, as seen in our illustration, and all of 
them are furnished with the pretty characteristic pectinated ramuli of 
this elegant species. Spores are contained in clusters of favelle, which 
are produced within little stalked involucres, and these are mainly com- 
posed of several tiny clasping or incurved ramuli. These involucres are 
set along the stems of the ultimate branches alternately with the pectinated 
ramuli, and sometimes they are produced on the teeth of these little 
comb-like pinnules, as represented in the illustration. Tetraspores, 
which are very rare, are produced on the teeth of the ramuli. A very 
splendid form of this plant is abundant on the Australian shores, and 
another, equally beautiful, on the North American coasts. The specimens 
which are taken on the Irish coasts, and in the Isle of Man, have long 
lanceolate branches, with very short pinnules, and, although of very 

Fic. 187. Ptilota elegans. 

elegant growth and brilliant colour, are by no means so luxuriant and 
bushy as our North British specimens. This species does not readily 
adhere to paper. The fronds are very rigid, inarticulate, and of a more 
or less cartilaginous structure; but the branches being compressed, or 
of a very flat growth, they are easily displayed on paper, and with a 
little judicious pruning and the application of disso] ved isinglass, they make 
some of the most attractive of our book specimens. P. elegans (Fig. 187), 
formerly P. sericea,is a much more delicate plant than the foregoing. The 
fronds are soft and silky to the touch ; but they are usually so excessively 
and densely branched, that considerable pruning is necessary before a 
specimen can be effectively displayed. The manipulator is, however, well 
repaid for any amount of patience in arranging this plant, for it is 
assuredly one of the most beautiful of the British rhodosperms. Although 
the stems and principal branches are dark in colour, and of rather dense. 
structure, the branchlets and pinnules are distinctly and beautifully 

jointed, as may’ be seen in Fig. 187, which represents two ultimate 


branchlets, highly magnified, one of which bears bi-lobed favellz at the 
tip, partly embraced by a few curved ramuli, the other produces tetra- 
spores on the tips of the lateral cellules which project on each side 
from the large central cells of the pinnules. This species (like the former) 
is perennial, and is in perfection in summer. It grows on the sides of 
shady rocks near low-water mark. The colour is a dark brown-red, 
and the plant, being somewhat flaccid, adheres closely to paper in drying. 

The genus Dudresnaia, dedicated to M. Dudresnay, a French naturalist, 
contains only one British species, Dudresnaia coccinea, represented at a, 
Fig. 188, by a couple of lateral branches. This curious but very beautiful 
plant is equally difficult to display effectively and to figure satisfactorily. 
Its delicate rose-red fronds are so tender and gelatinous, that they require 
several hours to drain off the paper on which they are Jaid out, before 
the calico and blotters can be placed on them, and the pressure applied ; 
but with careful management they make the most exquisite specimens, 
for they retain their lovely rosy tints and adhere so firmly to the paper 
that it is impossible to remove them. This species is rare, being an 
inhabitant of deep water. I have taken it on the beach at Brighton, also 
in Torbay, and have dredged most beautiful specimens in Plymouth Sound. 
A microscopical examination of this plant reveals a beautiful structure. 
All the branches appear to be composed of articulated, slightly coloured, 
longitudinal filaments, which have disposed around them whorled tufts of 
rose-coloured branched fibres, extremely flaccid and of the utmost tenuity. 
In the water these dichotomons, or forked fibres, radiate around the 
stems ; and when the plant is in fruit the branches appear as if studded 
with rubies, favellidia being borne at intervals among the shorled fila- 
ments; or tetraspores, when present, terminating a ramulus of the 
dichotomous fibres. A terminal branch, magnified, is represented at }, 
Fig. 188, showing the fruit among the whorled filaments ; and ¢ is a more 
highly magnified forked fibre, bearing a four-parted tetraspore, which is a 
transformation of its terminal cell. This charming plant is a summer 
annual, and is, I believe, peculiarly a southern species. 

Crouania atlenuata is an extremely rare, but remarkably beautiful 
plant, parasitical on Cladostephus spongiosus, and sometimes on Corallina 
officinalis. This also is a southern species. It is found on the Cornish 
coast near Penzance, and at the Land’s End. I have taken it several 
times at Plymouth, but nowhere else. Its beauties are microscopic. 
Fig. 189 represents a branch of Cladostephus (one of the olive weeds), on 
the tips of which Crowania attenwata leves to dwell. The little tufts of 
this parasite are rarely over 2in. high. They are represented at a, Fig. 189, 
- a quarter of the natural size; b is one of its forked branches highly 
magnified, and c isa portion more highly magnified, to show the dense tufts 
of multifid ramelli or branched filaments which are set around the stems 
and branches with the most perfect regularity. These little tufts are 
whorled round the joints of the stem, which is a syphon containing a broad 
tube, filled with dark red endochrome. Tetraspores are seated on these 

Fie. 188. (a) Dudresnaia coccinea; (b) branchlet magnified; (c) forked fibre, with 
tetraspore highly magnified. 

Fie. 189. Crouania attenuata. 

| WANE es 

iy i fos gee he 
| ee, 

. » 
we ys 
. Tt 4 te ,. re * 
=, ° 
D . ™ +. 
‘ 5 be 
; Fi fi 
7 é , 
. ; . 
:) et nd 
- “! 
7 ’ = 
Ly a 
4 . 
: 5] Srv 
‘: ‘ ee 
+ ay 


tufted filaments. The name is in honour of two French algologists, the 
brothers Crouan, of Brest. 

Halurus equisetifolius, better known by its former name, Grifithsia 
equisetifolia, is, in appearance (though not in colour), almost a counterpart 
of Cladostephus spongiosus. This curious plant was originally included in 
the genus Griffithsia. Its new name signifies “ equisetum-like sea-tail,”’ in 
reference to the whorled tufts of branched incurved ramuli, which are set 
with perfect regularity round the nodes of the stems and branches, in a 
very similar manner to those of the Hquisetw, or ‘*horse-tails’’’ of our 
lanes and meadows. The fronds of this plant are from 4in. to Ift. in 
length; but only young plants, from 3in. to din. long, make good book 
specimens, owing to the robust growth and thickly tufted branches of 
this species, which turn a very dark or dirty brown in drying ; otherwise, 
in early growth, the whorled ramuli of the young branches are a brilliant 
rose-red. Fig. 190, a, represents a terminal branch, somewhat enlarged, 

Fig. 190. (a) Halurus equisetifolius ; (b) Grifithsia barbata. 

showing the order of growth of the whorled ramuli, and the sta!ked 
involucres containing favelle, which arise from amidst the tufts. This 
species is taken very frequently on the south British shores. It is 
perennial, and is in perfection in summer. There is a beautiful variety of 
this plant, which formerly ranked as a distinct species, under the 
name Halurus equisetifolius, var. simplicifilum. One or two British 
localities have been recorded as habitats for this rarity, but I have never 
met with it on any of the British shores. The genus Grifithsia, named in 
honour of Mrs. Griffiths, of Torquay, is a large group of crimson, filiform, 
articulated alge, the fronds of which consist chiefly of string-like branches 
of elongated transparent cells or joints, within each of which is contained 
a long bag-like ceil of brilliant red endochrome: The type of this beauti- 
ful genus is the plant known as Griffithsia corallina (Fig. 191), the fronds of 


which, in the living state, when gathered fresh from the sea, glisten like 
strings of glass beads of the most lovely carmine or sometimes even a 
brilliant crimson. Fig. 191 represents an enlarged portion of a branch of 
this fine species. The fronds are tufted, and are repeatedly branched, 
the lower articulations being much longer than broad, the upper ones 
gradually shortening, giving to the terminal tufts of the plant the 
peculiar and distinctly beaded appearance which has suggested the specific 
name of corallina. This species is rather rare, but is taken in several 
situations on the south coast of Devon, in the Isle of Wight, and in the 
Channel Islands. The tetrasporie fruit is produced in whorls round 
the joints ; favellze are placed on the 
upper sides of the branchlets just below 
the joints, and are accompanied by a 
few short involucral ramuli. The 
colour of this delicate plant is so 
fugitive, that it is only possible to 
preserve even a vestige of its lovely 
tint by keeping it in sea water, and 
hidden from the light, until it is laid 
out on paper, and then pressure must be 
applied very gradually, or the beautiful 
coral-like structure of the joints of the 
stems and branches will be utterly de- 
stroyed. Griffithsia setacea (Fig. 192), - 
or the bristle-pointed Griffithsia, is 
found on various parts of the British 
coasts, and is particularly fine in the 
Channel Islands. This species is peren- 
nial. Fig. 192 represents a fruited 
branch which I took this summer 
(1873) from a large plant of the species 
growing in a shaded rock pool in Tor- 
bay. The season before, the branches 
of this same plant were all barren. I 
watched the growth of this particular Fig. 191. Grifithsia coraitina, favelles 
plant with the deepest interest, for se at Che foiits, = 4 i 
it is usually an inhabitant of deep é 

water, and I take this opportunity of recording what is certainly, I think, 
a very remarkable circumstance—viz., the presence of a deep-water species 
in a rock pool near high-water mark; luxuriant, yet barren, one season, 
‘and still more luxuriant, and producing fruit in abundance the following 
season. The fronds of this species are from 4in. to 8in. long, very rigid, 
erect, and bristle-like, each filament tapering to a fine point. The joints 
are cylindrical, and are several times longer than broad. ‘The involucres 
containing tetraspores are produced on the sides of the branches, being, 
in fact, transformations of some of the lateral ramuli. They are suspended 

e>! => Sat se, 
sa : 

. SS 2 ey aay oo = = 



== 7 





at the tips of these little branchlets, and, under the microscope, appear 
like little wicker baskets filled with crimson fruit. One of these is re- 
presented at b, highly magnified. This species (like all the others of this 
group) will not bear immersion in fresh water for an instant, for 
although rigid and crisp in its native element, fresh water has the 
power of causing the fronds to discharge their beautiful carmine colour, 
leaving nothing but empty cells or unsightly filaments tinged with yellow 
and green. G. secundiflora, so named from its peculiar system of 
branching, the ramuli or secondary branches being generally produced 
on one side only of the stems. This species has somewhat the appearance 
of the preceding, but its filaments are not so attenuated, and are blunt at 
the tips. The tufts are from 3in. to 6in. high. This is one of the rarest 
of our red seaweeds; it is tolerably abundant in the Channel Islands, but 





Fic. 192. (a) Branch of Griffithsia setacea; (b) involucre, magnified. 

has not been found, so far as I know, in any other situation on the 
British shores, besides the sheltered bay at Bovisand, near Plymouth, 
where it was discovered by the Rev. Mr. Hore in 1846. It is reasonable 
to suppose that this beautiful Giiffithsia is propagated by fruit, though 
all the specimens that I took at Bovisand were destitute of even the 
appearance of fructification; this leads me to conjecture that the plant 
produces its fruit during the month of December or January, during 
which periods its place of growth is altogether inaccessible, for even 
during the lowest spring tides it is submerged to a depth of 4ft. or 
more, and no boat could possibly approach the rocky nook where it 
grows except when the water was smooth or free from swell, which 
is very rarely the case during the winter months. The only fruited speci- 


men I have ever seen of this rare species was brought from the south 
of Europe. Tetraspores are contained in little iuvolucres, borne on short 
stalks, being transformations of lateralramuli. The colour of this plant is 
a full rose-red, and the fronds adhere very well to paper in drying. G.barbata 
(Fig. 190) is another very rare species, which has been taken some seasons 
at Weymouth, and found occasionally by myself on the beach at Brighton. 
In the rock pools at Jersey it is found very frequently; the pretty 
tufted fronds being about 3in. high, and of a lovely rose colour; but 
none of the specimens taken by me on the Brighton shore exceeded 2in. 
in length, and as they were usually wave-worn before they were picked 
up and mounted, their delicate filaments were more or less faded, and 
only some vestiges of colour remained in the terminal branches. Fig. 190, 
b, represents the upper portion of a branch highly magnified, showing the 
beautiful elongated cells of the stem and the whorled ramelli which are 
set around the joints, on the inner faces of which, near the stem, are 
seated the oval or globular tetraspores. These tufts of multifid ramelli 
are very similar to the byssoid fibres on some of the Polysiphonie, 
and their beard-like character, in the plant before us, has suggested 
the specific name of barbata. .This is the smallest and most attenuated 
of all the Griffithsie. It is sometimes mistaken for a Callithamnion, 
but the joints of its stems and branches (which are six or eight times 
as long as broad), in addition to the whorled tufts of jointed ramelli, all 
of which are distinctly apparent, even under an ordinary lens, are 
characters sufficiently definite to distinguish it at once. One of the 
most graceful of this elegant tribe of red seaweeds, is the very rare 
‘species G. Devoniensis, which was discovered by the Rev. Mr. Hore, 
at Plymouth, in 1840. This justly admired plant grows in muddy 
places rarely uncovered by the tide, even at low water. I never failed to 
find it during the summer, cast up on the mud banks opposite the Devon- 
port dockyards. I also dredged it, or rather scraped it up in quantity 
by means of a long rake (taken by my boatman for the purpose) outside 
the banks of Beggar’s Island, near the mouth of St. Germain’s River. 
On one occasion, upon finding a specimen in splendid colour and fully 
in fruit, and well knowing the evanescent nature of its lovely rose-red tint, 
I washed the plant over the side of the boat, fixed it on glass, and 
covered it up from the light as soon as possible, and sailed back to my 
quarters at Plymouth with that peculiar feeling ef satisfaction which few 
but enthusiastic naturalists can appreciate. The filaments of this plant 
are about 3in. high, densely tufted, very slender, forked and fastigiate, 
or pointing upwards. The joints are cylindrical, and many times longer 
‘than broad. ‘Tetraspores are produced in involucres, which are whorled 
round the branches at the dissepiments or junction of the articulations. 
This isa peculiarity which serves to distinguish it from G. setacea (Fig. 192), 
which it otherwise very strongly resembles. ‘The filaments are much more 
flaccid than those of G. setacea, and are therefore rather difficult to 
mount easily in a natural position. Care must be taken always to wash 


and mount these delicate plants in sea-water, and to keep them from the 
light as much as possible until they are displayed and fixed on paper. 

The genus Seirospora is represented in Britain by one species only, the 
. beautiful Seirospora Grifithsiana (Fig.193). The generic name, signifying 


** chain of seeds,’’ very aptly characterises the fruitful cells, which are 
produced in strings or chains, being in fact, transformations of the 
terminal joints of the ultimate ramuli of the tufted fastigiate branctes, 
as represented at Fig. 193; tetraspores, properly so-called, being also 
produced in strings, but scattered on various parts of the plant, and 
suspended on peduncles or short stalks. This charming species has all the 
appearance of a Callithamnion, and indeed Professor Agardh describes 
it under the name of Callithamnion seirospermum ; however, the general 
opinion of algologists seems to be in favour of Seirospora, and as such, 
I am content to letit remain. The fronds are tufted, and have each a 
main stem from 3in. to 6in. high, set on each side with numerous 

Fic. 194. Fruited branchlet 

niet Sere ae er of Corynospora pedicellata. 

alternate spreading branches; the lowest of these are longest, and are 
more or less furnished with secondary branches and ramuli, the tips of 
which generally incline upwards, and in these the strings of fertile cells 
are borne, the contents of which are of a brilliant crimson, the stems and 
branches being of a pale pink, and at maturity becoming fainter, and 
even inclining to a shade of yellow or pale straw colour. The whole 
plant is extremely flaccid and tender, but adheres to paper very readily, 
and forms a most attractive book specimen. It is very rare, though found 
on various parts of the British coasts. The finest specimens in my 
possession were taken at Plymouth, and recently a magnificent specimen 
was sent for my inspection by Mr. John Gatcombe, who gathered it there. 
The rare and beautiful alga now named Corynospora pedicellata (Fig.194), 
was, until recently, included in the Callithamnia, but the peculiarity of its 
tetrasporic fruit has led to its removal, and now it forms the only British 


representative of the genus Corynospora, a name which is characteristic 
of the somewhat club-shaped tetraspores of our species, as may be seen 
at Fig. 194, which is an enlarged terminal branch of C. pedicellata: 
The filaments of this plant are from 3in. to 10in. high, very tender and 
_ flaccid, irregularly branched, more or less divided, and set here and there 
with short forked ramuli, which are frequently produced in little rose- 
red tufts at the tips of the branches, the apices of all being invariably 
rounded. The articulations of the stems and branches are many times 
longer than broad, those of the ramuli being gradually shorter as they 
approach the tips. The tetraspores are produced on little stalks, which 
arise from the axils of the branches, or sometimes from the upper shoulder 
of the joints just below the terminal tufted ramuli. Their colour is 
much darker than any other part of the plant, and their form is either 
elliptical, or pear-shaped, or, as the generic name implies, club-shaped. 
Favelle I have never seen, but they are described as being of large size, 
solitary or bi-lobed, and seated on the stems and larger branches. 
This species is a summer annual, and is taken at Brighton and Wey- 
mouth, in Torbay, at Plymouth, and in Whitsand bay. 

I shall now enter on a description of the most interesting group of 
the British Floridiz, the charming little Callithamnie, or, as their 
generic name signifies, ‘“‘ beautiful shrubs;’’ attractive alike by the 
‘beauty and loveliness of their various tints, thé delicacy and simplicity of 
their structure, and the exquisite grace and elegance of their forms. 
This beautiful genus contains nearly a hundred species, some twenty or 
five-and-twenty of which are found on the British shores. Some are 
tolerably robust, and attain a length of 6in. or 8in., while others are 
much smaller, and some are quite microscopic, forming minute velvety 
spots on rocks and on the stems and branches of other alge. Their 
structure is exceedingly simple, all being composed of a more or less 
branched series of cells filled with pink or crimson endochrome, and 
placed end to end. The primary, or conceptacular fruit, is called a 
‘*‘favella ;’’ it is a berry-like mass, usually produced on the branches, 
singly, in pairs, and sometimes in clusters. The secondary, or tetrasporic 
fruit, is generally scattered along the branchlets; in most cases the tetra- 
spores are seated on the inner face of the joints or cells, and attached at 
their bases to the branchlets or ramuli on which they are seated. Many 
of the species are widely distributed ; some are peculiar to the northern 
coasts, others are found only on the southern shores, while some few are 
met with in widely separated localities. The difficulty, not to say 
impossibility, of figuring most of these extremely attenuated plants, so as 
to convey any idea of their appearance in the living state, at least so 
far as to be of the slightest service in assisting inexperienced collectors 
he identifying species, compels me to have recourse to drawings of 
magnified portions of most of the plants [ shall describe, and to impress 
once more on my readers the absolute necessity for the employment of the 
microscope, or the strongest lens obtainable, otherwise the distinction 


of species in this very delicate group of seaweeds, is entirely out of the 
question. Dr. Harvey in his original description of the British Calli- 
thamnie, classed them under six different characteristic sections, an 
arrangement which has always appeared to me so admirable, that not- 
withstanding the difficulty of arranging my illustrations in groups con- 
venient for my purpose, I intend to follow the order of Dr. Harvey’s 
arrangement in my descriptions of the species, «s closely as possible. 
Section 1. Cruciata, contains all those species in which the ramuli are 
placed on the branches in pairs, generally exactly opposite to each other. 

Callithamnion plumula is one of the most brilliant of this group. It is 
one of the commonest and most widely dispersed of the tribe, being 

Fic. 195. (a) Favellx of Callithamnion plumula; (b) Callithamnion jloccosum ; 
(ce) Callithamnion Turneri, magnified. 

found from the Orkneys to the South of Devon. The beauty and regularity 
of its growth, combined with its graceful outline, its branched froads 
(which are like exquisitely arranged plumes of rose-tinted feathers), have 
long stamped this plant as a universal favourite. The order of growth 
in every part is very remarkable. Hach branch and branchlet has its 
exact counterpart, and all the articulations throughout the plant bear 
each a similar pair of pectinated or comb-like branchlets. Tetraspores, 
like tiny glistening rubies, are seated on the upper side of the terminal 
ramuli. Favelle, which are produced in clusters, are attached to the 
joints of the main branches, as represented at a (Fig. 195.) There is a 


curious brownish-red variety of this Callithamnion, called C. horridulum 
(from the curled or prickly appearance of its crowded branches), which, 
like the typical species, I never failed meeting with all around Plymouth, 
especially during the summer months, in the sheltered bays near Bovisand 
when the tide was gently flowing in. The rare and curious C. cruciatum 
is found on mud-covered rocks on the southern shores of England 
and Wales. I took this species in abundance, many years ago, in 
two or three situations in Plymouth Harbour. The fronds, which are 
about 3in. high, are divided into a number of long erect branches, 
which are occasionally furnished with a second and even third series ; 
the ramuli on all being crowded at the tips, giving the plant a remarkably 
feather-like appearance. The ramuliare usually pinnated or winged, and 
are set on each joint of the branches in pairs, and sometimes more 
numerously, but always exactly opposite; an arrangement which (in addi- 
tion to the division of the tetraspores, which are four-parted or cruciate) 
is referred to in the specific name of this plant. C.owmilum, taken in 
Miltown Malbay, in Ireland, and once by me up the river Plym, is a small 
variety of this species; the ramuli are much more closely set on the 
branches, and the joints of the stems and branches are shorter. C. 
floccosum is a rare early summer annual, found at the Orkneys and on 
various parts of the Scottish shores. I have had most lovely specimens 
sent me from Peterhead, some bearing favelle in abundance, and others. 
full of tetraspores. The fronds of this species are densely tufted, but 
sparingly and distantly branched. The branching is alternate, but every 
joint of the stem and branches throws out from each side of the upper 
shoulder, a pair of opposite, very short and slender, bristle-like ramuli. 
The tetraspores are borne on each side of these little ramuli, seated 
on short pedicles or stalks, as seen at b, Fig. 195, which represents a 
magnified portion of stem, branch, and fruited ramulus. The colour is a 
brownish-red ; the whole plant is very flaccid, and adheres very well to 
paper. A highly magnified fruited branch of C. Turneri is represented at 
c, Fig. 195. The fronds of this small species are rarely 2in. high. They 
grow in little bushy tufts on several species of seaweeds on various 
parts of the British coasts. The joints of the stems and branches are of 
much greater length than almost any other species of Callithaminion, 
and the branches are consequently very far apart, but, as well as the 
ramuli, invariably opposite. ‘The favelle, which are very similar to those of 
Grifithsia setacea (Fig. 192), are produced on stalks, and are enclosed in an 
involucre, or clasped by several tiny incurved ramuli. The colour is rose- 
red, turning a duller tintin drying. C.barbatum, so named from the small 
beard-like ramuli which clothe the upper parts of its long straggling 
branches, is a plant of such rare occurrence, that during the many years I 
have searched the shores of this country, I have met with but a solitary 
specimen. It is said to grow at Weymouth and Penzance, and should 
be looked for on mud-covered rocks, near low-water mark. The fronds 
are about 2in. high; the branches, which are opposite, but sometimes 



alternate along the stems, are bare for about half their length, and then 
produce the little, erect, opposite, spine-like ramuli, which are referred to 
in the specific name of the plant. Tetraspores are seated on the sides of 

the winglets or terminal branchlets. The brownish-red colour of its 
’ fronds sometimes betrays it in its muddy habitat, but it requires ex- 
perience and sharp eyes to detect it at any time. 

C. pluma, a minute species, rarely above half an inch high, grows in little 
erect velvety tufts on the stems of Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46); but is 
very rarely met with, though it occurs in widely separated situations. 
It partakes somewhat of the character of the preceding species, in having 
the upper part of its fronds set on each side, but sometimes on one side 
only, with short setaceous ramuli. This little plant is rather like small forms 
of C. Turneri (Fig. 195). The colour is a bright red; but the whole plant is 
so minute, that, except as a curiosity, itis hardly worth the trouble of 
mounting. Section 2, Fruticosa, includes the species which are essentially 
shrub-like, the main stems being more or less opaque, the basal joints more 
particularly, being coated within or traversed by numbers of filaments, 
which in some species render the jointing nearly undistinguishable. 
The ramuli in all the plants of this group are placed alternately on the 
branches. C. arbuscula is a particularly robust and shrub-like species. 
The branches are so densely clothed with a second series of shorter 
branches, all of which are set with numerous closely placed minute 
pinnated, or winged ramuli, that, unless the whole be considerably 
pruned or thinned out, it is quite impossible to make anything of a 
specimen of this bushy plant. The fronds are from three inches to about 
six inches long, and, in the growing state, are of a very dark blood-red 
colour. This species is, I believe, perennial. It is not found on any of 
the southern shores, but is generally met with on the north-western coasts 
of Scotland and Ireland. I never failed finding it in the deep rock pools 
of Whiting Bay, in the Isle of Arran; but all the specimens I took there 
were thrown up from deep water. Even at the lowest spring tides I never 
found it growing. The tetraspores are produced on the inner side of 
the ramuli; favelle are usually bi-lobed. Next to this northern species 
of Callithamnion, the common C. tetragonwm is perhaps the most bushy 
and shrub-like of this section. Well-grown plants, such as we have 
attempted to depict at Fig. 196, are more or less tufted, each frond having © 
a main stem set with lateral branches, which gradually diminish in length 
as they approach the summit, giving an elegant pyramidal outline to the 
frond. All the branches are set with a second and third series, and the 
tufts of ramuli, which are produced abundantly on each side of the 
branches, are somewhat incurved; the joints are narrow at the base, 
then gradually widen and become suddenly pointed at the tips. The 
tetraspores, which are very minute, are produced near the tips of 
these terminal ramuli. Favelle of large size, solitary, or bi-lobed ; when 
the latter, the large oval masses are attached to the upper forked ramulus 
of the terminal branchlets. The colour is a dark brown red, turning an 


orange or yellowish in decay. This species is a summer annual, and is 
found most frequently growing on the stems of the larger algz near low- 
water mark. Very nearly related to the plant just described is the beautiful 

Fig. 196. Callithamnion tetragonum. 

species C. brachiatum (Fig. 197) ; indeed, by some writers it is considered 
merely a variety of C. tetragonum. It is, however, a much more delicate 
plant, especially in the form and finish, so to say, of the branched or tufted 
ramuli, which in this species are gradually tapered from the base, and 

Fie. 197. (a) Callithamnion brachiatum. (b) Callithamnion Brodie. 
(¢) Calluthamnion Hookeri (highly magnified). 

terminate in a sharp point, while in C. tetragonuwm they are narrow 
at the base, bulged out in the central joints, and suddenly pointed at 

the tips. Fig. 197, a, is a highly-magnified ramulus of C. brachiatum, 


bearing on the inner face of the terminal angle a large favella. 
Tetraspores, when present, are similarly situated to those of the foregoing 
species. I have always found this pretty plant growing on the tips of 
Laminaria digitata (Fig. 46). Many years ago I took a large number of 
> specimens in fruit, all of which were growing on the Laminarie outside the 
well-known Mewstone Rock near Plymouth; and some years later I found 
portions of the fronds of L. digitata cast ashore one stormy day at 
Atherton, in the Isle of Wight, every one of which had a fringe of this 
lovely Callithamnion, both kinds of fruit being found in abundance 
among the numerous specimens I collected on that occasion. The fronds 
of this species in the barren state are occasionally above 5in. long, but no 
specimen taken by me, in either kind of fruit, ever excedeed 2in. in length. 
The colour is generally a rich deep red. C. Brodiwi (Fig. 197), although 
widely distributed in Britain, is certainly by no means abundant in any 
recorded habitat. I have taken it in fine condition at Plymouth, and 
occasionally in Torbay. The fronds are rarely over two inches high, 
densely branched, and set throughout with several series of branchlets, 
which gradually shorten upwards, and all are furnished with tiny winged 
plumules, the little spine-like pinnz which compose them standing. 
out almost at right angles from the joints from which they arise, 
being what is termed “ erecto-patent.’”’? In plants which bear favelle, 
the branching is much more irregular than in those which produce 
tetraspores. The favelle are attached in pairs, one on each side of 
the stems of the branchlets, as seen at 6, Fig. 198. The tetraspores 
are globular in form, and are seated on the inner face of the terminal 
ramuli, which‘ are thrown out in pretty regularly alternate order on 
each side of the lesser branches. I have usually found this rare plant 
on the Fuci at extreme low water mark. The colour is a deep brown- 
red, but loses much of its brilliancy in drying. C. Hookeri (Fig. 197), named 
after the late Sir W. J. Hooker, is also widely distributed in this country, 
but must be considered among the rarities, as it certainly is one of 
the favourites of its tribe. It grows on several species of algx, but I 
have only found it on submerged rocks, near low-water mark, at 
Bovisand, near Plymouth. The fronds of this lovely little plant are 
seldom more than two inches high, and are closely set with rather long 
branches, which, near the tips, bear a second and even a third set; 
and on the terminal or central plumules of the lateral branches the 
pretty pair of oval or lobed favelle are produced, loosely attached to 
each side of the joints, as seen at c, Fig. 197. Tetraspores are seated 
on the inner face of the ramuli on the joints nearest to the stem; 
sometimes they are placed on each side of the ramuli, one or two under, 
and several above. The colour is usually a brownish-red, or sometimes a 
rosy-red; young plants generally retaining their beautiful tints in drying. 
C. tetricum (Fig. 198 and 199) is one of the coarsest and most common 
species of this genus. It is perennial, and is found on all the rocky 
coasts of Britain, hanging from the under side of ledges of rock, whence 


it is easily obtained when the tide recedes, and frequently (grow- 
ing in society with it) pretty specimens of Ptilota elegans (Fig. 
187), finely coloured plants of JDelesseria alata (Figs. 116 and 
117), and sometimes Grifithsia setacea (Fig. 192), will reward the 
diligent collector. C. tetricum requires some careful manipulation 
in order to make a good book specimen, for the fronds are densely 
branched and very bushy. Young plants are most easily managed, 
or such as do not exceed in size the one represented at Fig. 198, other- 

Fie. 198. Callithamnion tetricum . 

wise the pretty and tolerably regular branching of the lateral plumules 
cannot be effectively displayed. The magnified branch in our illustration, 
Fig. 199, with its long plumules and awl-shaped ramuli, which are set 
alternately on the upper half of the branchlets, was taken from one of 
the fronds of the plant, which is represented the natural size at Fig. 198. 
The colour of this species is a dark brown-red; the substance is very 
rigid, and the fronds do not adhere very firmly to paper. The favelle are 
mostly in pairs, and are seated near the tips of the terminal pinnz or 
winglets. 'Tetraspores are attached to the ultimate ramuli. I have always 

Fig. 199. Callithamnion tetricum (magnified). 

Fie. 200. Callithamnion roseum. 


found this common species most abundantly in Torbay and at Plymouth. 
Section 3, Rosea, contains some of the most lovely plants of this genus. 
The main stems of all are mostly very slender, and the joints or articu- 
lations of the branches are pellucid and very distinct. In some of the 
older plants of several species in this group the main stems are nearly 
opaque, being traversed or filled with veins or longitudinal filaments. 
In all, the ramuli are alternate, never opposite. 

C. roseum, represented the natural size at Fig. 200, is found on muddy 
rocks, and sometimes on other weeds near low-water mark, on the coast 
of Norfolk, at Brighton, and down the south coast of Devon and Cornwall. 
At Plymouth I have often found this species in the highest perfection. 
I have taken specimens there, the fronds of which were over 6in. long, 
and the colour an exquisite mixture of light purple and brilliant crimson. 
The fronds of this beautiful species ‘are excessively branched ; all the 
branches are irregularly pinnated or winged, and these pinne or winglets 
are set with wide spreading ramuli, which gradually shorten towards 
the tips, giving to the pretty plumules a graceful pyramidal outline. 
These plumules are generally so crowded in the upper branches, that they 
give a very densely feathery appearance to the outline of the plant, as 
well asa deep rosy tint to the terminal portions of the fronds. Tetra- 
spores are seated on the inner face of the ramuli, about three or four 
on the lower ones, and diminishing in number upwards, as seen 
in the magnified plumule at a, Fig, 201. Favelle are produced near 
the tips of the plumules. The joints of the stems are about three 
times, those of the ramuli about twice as long as broad. The plant 
is an annual, and is in perfection during the summer months. C. 
byssoideum, though met with in many situations, is by no means 
a common species. The fronds of this plant are extremely slender, and 
very difficult to display without mjury. They are densely branched from 
the base, and crowded throughout with lesser branches, all of which are 
clothed with very flaccid byssoid branchlets, set with slender pinnate 
ramuli, which generally shorten upwards and terminate in a fine point. 
The joints of the stem and principal branches are about six times 
longer than broad, and those of the ramuli somewhat less. Tretraspores, 
elliptical in form, are seated on the inner side of the ramuli, as seen in the 
magnified plumule at b, Fig.201. Favelle, which are sometimes three-lobed, 
are attached to the sides of the stems. This species is occasionally mis- 
taken for fine or delicate forms of C. corymbosum (Figs. 203 and 204), 
but the joints in the branches of the latter are much longer, and 
the terminal branchlets are more level-topped, each fork being tipped 
with a pair of divaricating articulations, slightly longer than broad. 
The colour is a delicate rose-pink, in early growth a rich brown-red, 
and the plant firmly adheres to paper in drying. C. polyspermum, so 
named from the abundance of its tetraspores, which are produced on the 
spreading spine-like ramuli of the lesser branches in regular closely set 
series from the base to the tip, as seen at c, Fig. 201. The globular 


tufts of this little plant are from 2in. to 8in. long, and are densely 
branched ; the lesser branches being more or less pinnated or branchedina 
similar manner, the ramuli being subulate or awl-shaped, and of nearly 
uniform length, but shortened towards the tips of the pinnules, and | 
sometimes curved outwards or reflexed. Favelle are usually clustered, 
and are placed about the centre of the stems of the plumules, as re- 
presented at d, Fig. 201. The colour of this pretty summer annual is a 
rose or purplish-red. It is met with at Brighton and in Torbay, but in 
much greater abundance and beauty at Plymouth, where, on muddy 
rocks at low-water mark, I have often detected its little rosy fronds just 
appearing on the surface of its uninviting habitat. C. Borreri, dedicated 
to Mr. Borrer, of Brighton, is a beautiful and very distinctly-marked 
species, all the upper branches being set with distichous plumules 
(or plumed branchlets set in alternate opposite series), the lower portions 
being destitute of ramuli, the upper furnished with wide-spreading pinne, 
the lowest of whichare longest. These little closely-plumed branches give 
a beautifully-feathered outline to the plant, and, under the microscope, 
when this species is in tetrasporic fruit, the ramuli of the little feather- — 
like branchlets seem as though they were bordered with crimson cherries. 
The favellz also are a beautiful sight, being seated in pairs on each side of 
_ the stem of a plumule; each lobe being contained within a transparent 
envelope, as represented at e, Fig. 201. The colour varies froma pale rose. 
red to a dull brown-red. The filaments are also of variable length, 
being from two inches to five inches long. The plant is in perfection in 
May or June, and is taken in various parts of England and Ireland. My 
finest specimens were gathered on the muddy banks near Tor Point, and 
under Mount Edgcumbe in Plymouth Harbour. C. tripinnatum is an 
extremely rare and veryexquisite little annual. Under the microscope it has 
very much the character of the foregoing; but it differs from that, as 
from all others of its tribe, in having a very minute ramulus, which springs 
from the first joint in the angle of each plumule. It has been taken on the 
west coast of Ireland and at Plymouth, but hitherto I have not had the 
good fortune of meeting with it. C.affine, another very rare species, quite 
unknown to me, except through Dr. Harvey’s beautiful figure of it in the 
“ Phycologia Britannica,’’ was found many yearsago on the shores of the 
Isle of Bute. OC. fasciculatum is also very rare, and, like the foregoing 
plant, is, to my mind, a very doubtful species. It was found many years 
agoat Yarmouth by Mr. Borrer. The figure of it in the Phycologia is that 
of an exceedingly beautiful plant, but any lengthened description here of 
such very decided rarities seems to me to be utterly unnecessary. C. gracil- 
limum (Fig. 202) is probably the most graceful and beautiful of all the 
British species of this charming tribe of alge. It was discovered, I believe, 
by Mrs. Griffiths, on the muddy base of the pier at Torquay. The plant was 
published originally under its present name, by Professor Agardh; but it 
is to be regretted that the name C. filicinum, proposed for it by its 
discoverer. was not adopted in the first instance, since the plant .is so 

Fie, 201. Magnified branchlets of (a) Callithamnion rosewm, (b) C. byssoidewm, (c) C. 
polyspermum, with tetraspores ; (d) the same, with favelle; (¢) C. Borreri. 

Fie, 202. (a) Magnified branchlets of C. gracillimwm, with favelle: (b) the same, with 
tetraspores; (c) C. granulatum. 



Teer 4 

1 \ ey te dersadyl nde 

L442 oe er ies ee 
NP See eit gy Set ye Soet 

a sar te ab 4 yy, hs 
"ey Par lL r Pus i 3 
ty iy meee aie ~~ Ana rmeS ate, boon 

ve iy j a tan Py 
MAT, ke 
on om Pan bg pee patil ate 
= - 5 Spee 
ante ied é 2 
— p ’ Ges : f 
en «= 7 a bo, | 
- t . ‘ a 


exactly like one of the most delicately branched exotic ferns in miniature. 
This lovely species grows abundantly at Plymouth, at Falmouth, and also in 
its former habitat here in the Torquay harbour. The graceful filaments 
of this plant are from 2in. to 5in. long. The stems of the branches are 
~ very slender, and are set in alternate series along the main stems. All the 
branches are bi-tripinnate, or furnished with an opposite row of branchlets, 
from which spring short pointed ramuli, some of which are branched, or 
bear a second, and sometimes even a third series of lesser ramuli or 
pinnule. No figure could possibly do justice to such minute and delicate 
branching as we behold in this species ; I must, therefore, be content to 
refer the reader to a and b, in Fig. 202, which represent, severally, 
magnified plumules, showing the form and position of the clustered favelle 
and the tetraspores, the latter being a transformation of the terminal joints 
of shortened pinnules. The colour is a full rose-red, being much paler 
when the plant produces favelle, which appear like little dark red spots 
on the stems and branches. C. thuyoidewm, like a cypress in miniature, 
has a strong resemblance to thé young state of the foregoing plant. Its 
densely branched little fronds rarely exceed 2in. in height ; but, except in 
some minor particulars, the ramification is so similar to that of C. 
gracillimum, that experienced algologists are now and then at a loss to 
decide between them. The branches are, however, shorter, and the 
plumules are set closer together, and the joints throughout the plant are 
proportionately thicker or broader. The tetraspores are produced in 
exactly the same position as those of the preceding, but the favelle are 
very different, being bi-lobed, and thrown out from the under side near the 
base of the pinnules ; those of C. gracillimwm being, as described, produced 
in clusters on the branches or at the junction of two articulations near the 
base of a branched plumule. This rare little annual has been found in 
widely-separated situations in England and Ireland. I have taken it in 
Torbay and at Plymouth ; specimens from the latter place being always of 
a fine rose red. The substance is very soft and tender, and the plant 
adheres very well to paper. Section 4, Corymbosa, contains only two 
British species, the stems of which are distinctly articulated, the lower 
joints of one of these species being, however, traversed by dark-coloured 
veins ; the ramuli are dichotomous, or branched by more or less numerous 
forkings. C.spongioswm, so called originally from the spongy appearance 
of its excessively crowded and matted tufts of ultimate ramuli, is now 
named C. granulatum, in reference to its abundant granular or tetrasporic 
fruit. This curious species is found during the summer on the shady side 
of submarine rocks at low-water mark. Its densely-branched fronds, which 
are rarely over 4in. high, bear a striking similarity to those of the northern 
species, C. arbuscula; and it appears that our C. granulatum occupies the 
place of C. arbuscula on shores where the latter is not found, never grow- 
ing together, in fact, though, as observed by Dr. Harvey, ‘‘both affect 
similar situations on different shores.’ My own experience concerning 
these peculiar species perfectly agrees with these remarks of Professor 


Harvey. C. arbuscula I have taken in Scotland only ; C. granulatum 
I have found in Torbay, and at Plymouth frequently, but on no northern 
shore. The branches of this shrub-like plant are very closely set, but 
are spread out in all directions ; and these throw out a second and third 
series of lesser branches, all of which terminate in little fan-shaped 
branched ramuli, the tips of which are forked, the outline being somewhat 
arched. Tetraspores are produced singly, in or near the base of the forked 
ramuli; as seen in the magnified branchlet at c, Fig. 202, bilobed-favelle 
are placed in the angles of the branches. The colour is a purplish red ; 
but allmy specimens in drying became a most beautiful sepia, or sometimes 
Vandyke brown. C.corymboswmis one of the rarities, as well as one of the 
most delicate of this genus; its general appearance is represented at 

Fig. 208. Callithamnion corymbosum. 

Wig. 203. The terminal branchlets are fastigiate or level-topped at the tips, 
which are of the utmost tenuity, and are crowded together to such an 
extent, as to appear like numbers of little red corymbs crowning the 
branches, whence the specific name. The branching of this species is 
often very irregular, but the great length of the joints in the stem 
and branches, and the bifid tips of its corymbose terminal branchlets, are 
characters so distinct that it cannot very easily be mistaken for any 
_other species. ‘The tetraspores are attached to the sides of the joints just 
below the forkings of the terminal ramuli, as represented at a, Fig. 204, and 
the favelle, which are bi-lobed and of large size, are produced in the axils 
of the branchlets, immediately under the little rosy-red corymbs, as seen 
at b, Fig. 204. The substance is so soft and gelatinous that the plant 
adheres perfectly to paper when drying. A most lovely, and, as it appears 


to me, new species of Callithamnion has been sent to me from Plymouth, 
being found pretty abundantly, growing on the Fuci, at low-water mark in 
some part of Plymouth harbour. It was discovered there by Mr. E. M. 
- Holmes, and published by him in the September number of Grevillea, 
accompanied by some beautiful figures, showing its growth, structure, and 
peculiar system of fructification. Whether it be really a new species or 
not, I donot pretend to decide, though I believe it tobe so. However, as it 
seems to me to possess some characters which bring it pretty nearly to 
the corymbose section, I mention it here in order to inform students and 
collectors what a beautiful plant awaits them on the muddy bank at 
Torpoint, Plymouth ; and doubtless ere long it will be found in others 
situations in that locality. This interesting plant is somewhat similar to 
the beautiful Seirospora Griffithsiana (Fig. 193); but the fructification is 
very differently situated, being produced in branched necklace-like cells, 
which arise in tufts from the rachis of the plumules and pinne, just at the 
junction of two opposite branchlets, some little distance below the tip ; but 
these sporiferous filaments are never produced in the terminal branchlets, 

Fig. 204. (a) Callithamnion corymbosum, with tetraspores; (b) the same, 
with favelle, magnified. 

as is the case in Seirospora. There are other remarkable characters 
observable in this plant, but the brief description given above is sufficient 
for my present purpose; and ere long I trust the discoverer may be 
able to publish this plant with a recognised name, and also be in a position 
to state whether it be really a new species, or merely a variety of some 
exotic which has found its way to these shores, and so become associated 
with our marine flora. 

‘Section 5, Pulvinata, contains three small species, which consist of 
densely branched cushion-like tufts, or sometimes like patches of velvet pile, 
usually found growing on rocks near low-water mark. C. Rothii (Fig. 205), 
dedicated to Herr Roth, is said to be a perennial species, fruiting in 
winter. About seven years ago I found this tiny Callithamnion in very 
great abundance, growing on the rocky sides of a cave on the coast of 
Durham, a little below Tynemouth. This cave could only be entered, 
even at low water, in a boat, and, although (as the boatman informed me) 
many a smuggled keg of spirits had been concealed there, I doubt if 
any algologist had ever been there before me. The filaments of this little 



plant are rarely an inch high. The branches are very short, slender, and 
erect, and lie very close to the filaments from which they arise, which 
is usually near the tips. The joints are about twice as long as broad. 
Tetraspores are the only form of fruit I have met with on this species. 
They are produced in clusters of twos and threes, on the tips of terminal 
branched ramuli, as seen at a, Fig. 205. The colour isa deep purplish red. 
A variety of this plant, called C. purpwrewm, is known by its more minute 
filaments, which are very sparingly branched. The little velvet-like tufts 
are found sometimes on marine rocks in long purplish-red masses, scarcely 
a quarter of an inch high. C. floridulum (Fig. 205), which is so common 
on the west of Ireland that it is carted away from the shore and employed 
as manure, is found in various situations in this country and in the 
Orkneys. I have taken lovely specimens of it at Hastings and at Ply- 
mouth. The filaments are produced in dense erect tufts about an inch 
and a half high, slightly-branched, and furnished with a very few terminal 
branchlets or ramuli, which are densely appressed or arranged almost 
parallel with the branchlets from which they spring. The joints of the 
stems and branches are nearly all about three times as long as broad. 
The fruit of this species, which was discovered by Mr. Ralfs, the well- 
‘known naturalist, consists of very minute tetraspores, which are borne 
on tiny little pedicels, usually in a series of three, ranged on the outer 
side of the terminal branches. A fruited filament 1s represented at b, 
Fig. 205. The colour is a pretty mixture of crimson and purple, and 
when plants in good condition are carefully mounted on paper they 
make very attractive book specimens; as in drying, the filaments 
have the soft texture and glistening appearance of tufts of floss silk. 
C. mesocarpum (Fig. 205), so named from the situation of the tetrasporic 
fruit, which is produced on single or forked pedicels about the middle of 
the little erect filaments, is a very minute and a very rare species, found 
originally at Appin, in Scotland, by the late Captain Carmichael, and 
once only by myself in Lamlash Bay. Portion of a filament bearing 
tetraspores is represented at c, Fig. 205. The joints of the tiny fronds 
of this plant are about four times as long as broad. The colour is a 
brownish red or purple, and, to the unassisted eye, the whole plant 
appears like a mere. dark reddish crust attached to the rock on which 
it grows. The last section of this lovely group of seaweeds contains 
two or three species, which are minute parasites, and, like several of the 
foregoing, are hardly distinguishable as vegetable structures, unless they 
are examined under a tolerably powerful microscope. However, as each 
_ species is pretty constant to some particular plant, which the student will 
easily recognise, a very slight examination of the decaying fronds of those 
I am about to name, will doubtless reward the collector for his search 
after these microscopic Callithimnie. It has often been said that the 
roots of the great Laminariw, which are thrown ashore after a storm, 
are a mine of wealth to the zoologist ; and certainly, if properly examined, 
old fronds and stems of the same species are frequently rich in micro- 


scopic parasites, which, particularly on account of their rarity, are 
the delight of all enthusiastic algologists. Among these minute parasitic 
plants, may occasionally be found, in tiny scattered tufts, less than a 
. quarter of an inch high, the rare and curious species, VU. sparswm, the 
filaments of which are nearly straight, with blunt tips, and very sparingly 
branched, rarely more than a single branch or ramulus being thrown 
out from one side of the erect filaments near the terminal portions. 
The colour of this plant is a pinky-red. Its most frequent place of 
growth is on the stem or decaying frond of Laminaria saccharina (Fig. 
43.) CO. Daviesii is most generaliy parasitic on the decaying fronds of 
Ceramium rubrum (Fig. 176) in rock pools about half-tide level. I once 
dredged in Plymouth Sound a very fine plant of Sporochnus pedunculatus 
(Fig. 55), every branch of which was infested throughout with most 
luxuriant specimens of this lovely little Callithamnion, beautifully in 
fruit.. The little tufts of this plant are about a quarter of an inch 




Fig. 205. Magnified filaments—(a) Callithamnion Rothii; (b) C. floridulum ; 
(ec) C. mesocarpum; (d) C. Daviesii; (e) C. virgatulum. 
high, the branches are alternate, and at intervals of four or five 
joints apart, a short branch is thrown out, which bears on its inner 
face a series of small erect ramuli, the longest of which is nearest the axil, 
so that the three are nearly on a level at the tips. Tetraspores, when 
present, are attached to these axillary ramuli. Part of a terminal branch 
is represented at d, Fig. 205. C. virgatulum, or the twig-like callitham- 
nion, is considered by some writers to be merely a variety of the 
preceding species. It is also parasitic on Ceramium rubrum. The little 
lateral branches are produced much in the same way as those of the 
foregoing, but the ramuli are so short that they appear to consist merely 
of a single cell arising from one side only of the stems and branches. 
A branch of this plant is represented at e, Fig. 205. The tufts of this 
little parasite are about a quarter of an inch long, of a pinky-red colour, 
and they sometimes so completely envelope the fronds of the plant of 


which they giow, that nothing but the parasite itself is visible to the 
unassisted eye. I have met with this species in Scotland, and on various 
parts of the southern shores of England, but most abundantly and 
beautifully fruited, in Torbay and at Plymouth. : 

I have now concluded my description of the British marine alge, in 
which I have endeavoured to fulfil the promise of my introduction to 
this work, viz., to supply any of my readers who may visit the seashore, 
with a subject to occupy their leisure, to interest them in the vegetable 
productions of the deep, and to instruct them in preserving such specimens 
as they may collect for future study. With the exception of a few very 
rare plants and some minute parasites, every species of seaweed which is 
likely to be met with on the shores of the British islands has been 
accurately figured, either from the living plant, or from photographs or 
drawings of magnified portions; so that, with these illustrations before 
them, and the help of even an ordinary lens, I make bold to say that few 
collectors will find any particular difficulty in identifying such plants 
as they may meet with during their rambles on the seashore. 


In describing the Ulve at pages 8 and 9, I unintentionally omitted the 
species Ulva lactuca, so called from its fancied resemblance to a coss- 
lettuce. In early growth this plant is a long pear-shaped bag, which 
bursts at the top and splits down the sides, spreading out into segments of 
irregular shape and size. In structure this species differs from others of 
the genus, on which account, as observed by the late Mrs. Gatty, a sub- 
division of the Ulvew was proposed, under the name of ‘‘ Phycoceris,’’ to 
include Ulva latissima and U. linza. I prefer, however, to retain these 
plants in Ulva. The membranous fronds of these two species are double, 
though adhering closely together, while those of U. lactuca are composed 
of a single layer of cells. The mature frond of this plantis about 6in. 
long, and its colour is usually a pale green. Its place of growth is on 
rocks, shells, and also on other seaweeds, between tide-marks. 

The interesting species Polysiphonia divergens has been added to our 
British Marine Flora by Mrs. Merrifield, of Brighton, who identified it as 
such in a plant which was taken at Falmouth in 1861. It is a native of 
the South Atlantic, and is found at Cadiz, and also in the Adriatic. The 
plant is of small size, the fronds are very slender and much entangled ; in 
general aspect this rare species bears some resemblance to P. spinulosa. 
The siphons of the stem are six or seven, and are of nearly equal 

Fucus anceps is another rarity, which is taken, I believe, only on the 
west coast of Ireland. It was discovered by Harvey and Ward, and 
published as a new species by Mr. S. O. Gray in his “ British Seaweeds.”’ 
I have not seen this species in the growing state, but the dried specimen 
which I poszess, very strongly resembles the barren form of Fucus canali- 
culatus (Fig. 34), except that the fronds are not channelled and the ter- 
minal forks are not quite so blunt at the tips. 

Fig. 47 in this work, is an accurate representation of a young plant of 
Laminaria stenophylla, which Dr. Harvey has described as a var. of L. digi- 
tata (Fig. 46), but which is now regarded by Professor Agardhas a distinct 
species, and I think justly so. The chief points in which they differ are as 
follows. The stem in L. digitata is always round and roughish to the touch, 
especially in mature plants, when the periphery, or outer margin, may pro- 



perly be termed the bark of the stem ; but in L.stenophylla the stem is com- 
pressed or flattened, and is smooth at all stages of its growth, and entirely 
destitute of bark. In L. digitata, when the tide leaves the growing plants 
exposed, the stems stand up out of the water like hard curved sticks, but 
those of L. stenophylla are soft and pliable, and when the tide recedes 
entirely from them, the stems and long leathery fronds lie limp and flat 
upon the rocks where they grow. Again, as regards the manner in which 
the fronds of these species are digitated or cleft, there is a very marked 
difference. In L. digitata the laciniations commence very nearly at the 
base of the lamina, just where it expands above the stem ; and frequently 
as many as a dozen or more radiate from this point, often reaching a 
length of several feet without further division in any of them; but in 
L. stenophylla, the divisions are much less numerous, of far greater pro- 
portional length, and the secondary laciniations are more regular and also 
few in number, and very narrow as they approach the tips. The situations 
in which these plants grow are also very different, for, although L. digitata 
is found in pools often above half-tide level, its ordinary place of growth 
is below tide-marks and extending into deep water, while L. stenophylla 
vegetates within ordinary tides, and may be said to form a zone, as it 
were, between the larger Laminarie and the shore. 

To the Orkney kelp-gatherers, the differences between these two species 
are so marked, that peculiar local names are assigned to them, L. digitata 
being known as ‘‘Cuvy,’’ while L. stenophylla is always called “ Tangle.”’ 

In the north of Scotland a gigantic form of L. saccharina (Fig. 43) is 
met with, which, I am informed, Professor Agardh considers identical 
with L. caperata, a large species which is a native of Spitzbergen. The 
frond of this plant is nearly 2ft. wide, and very much curled and fringed 
at the margins. In conclusion, I may briefly refer to the large species, 
L. bulbosa (Fig. 48), which will henceforth be known as Sacchorhiza 
bulbosa, the bulbous or bag-rooted laminaria; a change of name which 
I consider highly appropriate, the large bulb or bag-like root of this 
curious species being fully as characteristic as the common name of “ sea- 
furbelows” is of the puckered or waved margins of its flattened stem. 



Containing all the most recent changes of the names of the plants as they 
occur in the works of Dr. Harvey, Professor Agardh, and Dr. J. E. Gray. 
(The old names are in italics.) 


Ochlochete hystrix. 


(Lyngbya Carmicheelii) 

Spirulina tenuissima. 
Tolypothrix fascicu- 

speciosum (Lyngbya , lata (Calothrix fascicu- 
Order CONFERVACEX speciosa). : | lata). 
Cladophora albida Leptucy-tea pellucida | 

arcta Cladophora pellucida). | 
Balliana aera sen ripariuw | iia ft: ree 
is : ens. 
Brownii ig! ag amphibium 
diffusa flaccum (Lyngbya aka 
falcata fiacca) tomentosum. 
flavescens Vaucheria clavata 
ecg Order Nostocuinex. marina 
—— Monormia intricata. submarina 
Gattye spermosira litorea velutina. 
glaucescens Harveyana. Bryopsis hypnoides 
gracilis SpherozygaCarmichaelii plumosa. 
— Berkeleyana. 
letevirens areal Order ULVACE 
Magdalene ¥ Porphyra laciniata 
Macallana linearis 
nuda Order OscILLATORIACE vulgaris. 
rectangularis Actinothrix Stokesiana Ulva lactuca 
refracta Arthronema  cespitula latissima 
repens (Calothrix ccespitula). linza. 
Rudolphiana hypnoides (Calcothrix Enteromorpha clathrata 
rupestris hypnoides). compressa 
uncialis. Calothrix confervicola cornucopiz 
Chetomorpha erea luteola erecta* 
arenicola pannosa Hopkirkii* 
arenosa scopulorum | intes:inalis 
implexa semiplena. Linkiana* 
linum Lyngbya ferruginea percursa* 
melagonium majuscula. stalfsii* 
sutoria Microcoleus anguiformis ramulosa.* 
tortuosa Oscillatoria insignis (Those marked * are 
Cytophora litorea. littoralis merely varieties of 
Hormotrichum _bangi- nigro-viridis Enteromorpha clath- 
oides spiralis rata.) 
collabens subsalsa Bangia carnea 
Cutlerie. subuliformis ciliaris 
Younganum Rivularia atra elegans 
(The thirteen foregoing nitida fusca-purpurea. 
plants were formerly p-icata. Goniotrichum cerami- 

included in the genus 

Schizosiphon Warrenie. 

Schizothrix Creswelli. 

colum (Bangia cera- 


Chordaria flagelliformis 

Elachista fucicola 
attenuata (Z. pulvinata) 
stellul ta 

Myrionema clavatum 

Leathesia Berkeleyi 

Mesogloia Griffithsiana 

Ralfsia deusta 

Order DicrroTacE® 
Asperococcus compres- 
Cutleria multifida. 
Dictyota dichotoma. 
Dictyota var. intricata. 
Dictyosiphon foenicula- 
Haliseris polypodioides 
Litosiphon pusillus 
(Chlorosiphon pusillus.) 
Padina pavonia. 
Punctaria latifolia 


Callithamnion affine 


Stilophora rhizodes 
Striaria attenuata. 
Taonia atomaria(Dictyota 
Zonaria collaris 

Order EctocaRPAcE 
Cladostephus spongiosus 
Chetomorpha plumosa 
(Sphacelaria plumosa) 
Ectocarpus amphibius 
| spherophorus 
|  Myriotrichia claveformis 
| Sphacelaria cirrhosa 

Order Fucacez 

|  Oystoseira barbata 







granulatum (C. spongi- 




Fucodium canaliculatum 
(Fucus canaliculatus). 
nodosum (Fucus nodo- 
tuberculatum (Pucno- 
phycus tuberculatus). 
Fucus anceps 
vesiculosus, ; 
Halidrys siliquosa. 
Himanthalia lorea. 
Sargassum vulgare 

Alaria esculenta. 
Chorda filum. 

Laminaria digitata 


fascia, var. debilis. 



Sacchorhiza bulbosa (Z. 


Arthrocladia villosa. 
Carpomitra Cabrere. 
Desmarestia ligulata 

Sporochnus peduncula- 


var. horridulum 



Ceramium acanthono- 

microcladia Cocksii 
var. decurrens 
var. proliferum’ (Ce- 
ramium botryocar- 
tenuissimum (C. nodo- 

Corynospora pedicellata 
(Callithamnion pedi- 

Crouania attenuata, 

Dudresnaia coccinea. 

Griffithsia barbata 


Halurus  equisetifolius 
(Grifithsia  equiseti- 

var. simplicifilum. 
Microcladia glandulosa, 
Ptilota plumosa 

elegans (P. sericea). 
Seirospora Griffithsiana. 

Polyides lumbricalis (P. 
Lomentaria articulata 




(The five foregoing 
were formerly inclu- 
ded in Chylocladia.) 

Laurencia pinnatifida 
hybrida (Z. cxspitosa.) 


Corallina elongata 

Jania corniculata 

Melobesia agariciformis 


Abnfeldtia plicata (Gym- 
nogongrus plicatus). 

Catenella opuntia. 
Chondrus crispus. 
(Chrysymenia clavel- 
Cystoclonium purpuras- 
cens (Hypnxa pur- 
Dumontia filiformis. 
Furcellaria fastigiata, 
Gigartina acicularis 
Gloiosiphonia capillaris. 
Grateloupia filicina. 
Gymuogongrus Grif- 
Norvegicus (Chondrus 
Halymenia ligulata 
var, dichotoma 
var. latifolia 
var. ramentacea. 
Kallymenia microphylla 
Phyllophora Brodizi 
var. simplex 
Schizymenia Dubyi 
(Kallymenia Dubui). 
edulis (Jridwa edulis). 
Stenogramma ipterrupta 



Gelidium corneum 
var. abnorme 
var. aculeatum 
var, capillaceum 
var. clavatum 
var. claviferum 
var. confertum 
var. crinale 
var. flexuosum 
var latifolium 
var. pinnatum 
var. pulchellum 
var. sesquipedale 
var, uniforme 

Helminthora divaricata 

(Dudresnaia  divari- 
purpurea (Nemaleon 


Callophyllis laciniata 
(Rhodymenia laci« | 

clavellosa | 


Nemaleon multifidum. 
Scinaia furcellata (Gi- 
nannia furcellata). 


Bonnemaisonia aspara- 


Bostrichia scorpioides. 

Chondriopsis dasyphylla 

| (Laurencia dasyphylla) 

tenuissima (Laurencia 
| tenuissima). 

Dasya arbuscula 



corynibifera (D.venusta) 

| ocellata 

Odonthalia dentata. 

Polysiphonia affinis 
sertularioides (P. pul- 


Rhodomela lycopodi- 


Rytiphlea pinastroides 


| (The three foregoing 

are now included in 

the genus Polysi- 

Cordylecladia erecta 
(Gracilaria erecta). 
Euthora cristata (Rhody- 
menia cristata). 
| Maugeria sanguinea 
(Delesseria sanguinea). 
Plocamium coccineum. 
Rhodymenia palmata 
var. marginifera 

234, ERRATA. 

var. sarniensis Gracilaria confervoi- | Order SpyripIAcEz 
var. simplex des , Spyridia filamentosa 
baw sobolifera compressa 

palmetta multipartita. 
var. niczensis Nitophyllum Bonnemai- Order sional 

Rhodophyllis appendi- soni Cr eae ee 

culata. Gmelini pete esis 

bifida (Rhodymenia Hillize Hevelidinn Follaetin 
bifida). laceratum ere (Lithocystis 

punctatum | Allmanni). 


var. crispatum | 

Hildenbranatia rubra. 

Calliblepharis ciliata var. fimbriatum : 
(Rhodymenia ciliata) var. ocellatum yo oe 
jubata (Rhodymenia var. Pollexfenii a details = 3 
Jubata). thysanorhizans 
Delesseria alata uncinatum Order WRANGELIACE 
angustissima versicolor Atractophora hypnoides. 
hypoglossum Spherococcus coronopi- Naccaria Wiggii. 
ruscifolia folius. Wrangelia multifida 
sinuosa. var. pilifera. 

5, Fig. 3, for coloured, read colourless. 
9, line 36, The word ‘‘ Order” here, as in all other instances in this work where 
reference is made to groups of plants, should be printed with a capital letter. 

13, line 37, for variations, read varieties. 

17, line 17, for Cladophora, read Cladophore. 

35, line 45, omit the word ‘“ represented.” 

38, line 6, for mammille, read mamille. 

54, line 27, for Haliseris, read polypodioides. 

64, last line, for its, read of. 

72, line 41, for lattissima, read latissima. 

73, line 19, for Ectocarpacex, read Ectocarpes. 

79, Fig. 80, for Ectocarpacer, read Ectocarpes. 

98, line 24, for strams, read streams. 
116, lines 1 and 2, for Griffithsianes, 7ead Griffithsiana ; for subulata, ead subulifera; 

Jor Polyida, read Polyides. 

141, Fig. 150, for latifolia, read latifolium. 

179, line 25, insert the word ‘ like ’’ between the words “ appearing little.” 
192, line 29, for the under, vead under the. 
225, line 11, for others, read other. 
226, line 42, for Callithamnias, read Callithamnie. 


Ahbnfeltia plicata, 166 

Alaria esculenta, 42, 64 

Asperococcus compressus, 

echinatus, 64, 83 

Turneri, 53, 64 

vermicularis, 66 
Arthrocladia villosa, 44, 46 


Bangia fusca purpurea, 9 
Bonnemaisonia asparagoi- 
des, 94 
Bostrichia scorpioides, 98 
Bryopsis hypnoides, 22, 23 
plumosa, 21, 23 


Calliblepharis ciliata, 156 
jubata, 136 

Callithamnion affine, 220 
arbuscula, 213, 223, 224 
barbatum, 212 
Borreri, 220 
brachiatum, 214 
Brodizi, 215 
byssoideum, 219 
corymbosum, 219, 224 
cruciatum, 212 
Daviesii, 227 
fasciculatum, 220 
filisinum. 220 
floccosum, 212 
fioridulum, 226 
gracillimum, 225 
granulatum; 225, 224 
Hookeri, 215 
horridulum, 212 
mesocarpum, 226 
pluma, 215 
plumula, 211 
polyspermum, 219 
pumilum, 212 
purpureum, 226 



| Callophyllis laciniata, 163 | 

| Ceramium acanthonotum, 

| Chordaria divaricata, 67 


roseum, 219 
Rothii, 225 
seirospermum, 209 
sparsum, 227 
spongiosum, 223 
tetragonum, 213, 214 
tetricum, 215, 216 
thuyoideum, 223 
tripinnatum, 220 | 
Turneri, 213, 214 
virgatulum, 227 

Calothrix confervicola, 27 
semiplena, 24 

Carpomitra Caprere, 44, 50 

Catenella opuntia, 182 

botryocarpum, 192 
ciliatum, 197 
decurrens, 192 
Deslongchampsii, 192 
diaphanum, 193 
echionotum, 197 
fastigiatum, 194 
flabelligerum, 197, 198 
gracillimum, 194 
microcladia Cocksii, 
nodosum, 194 
rubrum, 23, 24, 27, 72, 
188, 197, 227 
var. proliferum, 192 
structum, 194 | 
tenuissimum, 194 

flagelliformis. 66, 67 
Chondriopsis dasyphylla, 

tenuissima, 97 
Chondrus crispus, 68, 122, | 
159, 166, 173 
Norvegicus, 166 
iiss * filum, 4, 29, 42, 62, 
» | 

lomentaria, 40, 42, 66, — 
tomentosa, 42 
Chylocladia. articulata, 90 
clavellosa, 177 
parvula, 90 

_ Cladostephus 

| Chrysymenia Orcadensis, 


- Cladophora albida, 18 

arcta, 17, 18 
Balliana, 18 
Brownii, 19 
diffusa, 16 
falcata, 16 
flexuosa, 18 
fracta, 18 
Gattye, 19 
glaucescens, 19 
glomerata, 18 
gracilis, 18 
Hutchinsie, 5, 16 
letevirens, 15, 16, 18 
lanosa, 16, 19 
Macallana, 19 
pellucida, 18 
rectangularis, 16 
refracta, 18 
Rudolphiana, 18 
rupestris, 17, 18 
uncialis, 18 
74, 202, 205 
verticillatus, 74 

| Codium bursa, 19 

tomentosum, 19, 20 
Conferva erea, 34, 15 
melagonium, 14 
Youngana, 14 
tortuosa, 5, 14 

| Corallina officinalis, 13, 22, 

squamata, 122 

122, 131, 197, 

| Cordylecladia erecta, 158 

Corynospora _ pedicellata, 
209, 210 

Crouania attenuata, 202 

Cruoria adherens, 124 

pellita, 124 

| Cutleria multifida, 53, 56 

scens, 166 
var. cirrhose, 168 
Cystoseira barbata, 37 
ericoides, 36, 71 
feniculacea, 37 
fibrosa, 36, 72 
granulata, 37 



Dasya arbuscula, 118 
Cattlowia, 118 
coccinea, 116, 117 
corymbifera, 118 
ocellata, 117, 118 
pumicea, 118 
venusta, 118 

Delesseria alata, 127, 129, | 

var. angustissima, 
128, 129 
hypoglossum, 129 
interrupta, 160 
rascifolia, 129 
sanguinea, 124, 150 
sinuosa, 127 
Desmarestia aculeata, 44, 
45, 78, 116 
ligulata, 44 
pinnatinervia, 46 
viridis, 44, 46 
Dictyosiphon feniculaceus, 
Dictyota dichotoma, 53, 56, 
Dudresnaia coccinea, 202 
divaricata, 147 
Dumoontia filiformis, 185 


Ectocarpus  brachiatus, 
crinitus, 85 
distortus, 85 
fenestratus, 82 
granulosus, 81 
Hincksie; 83 
Landsburgii, 85 
littoralis, 78, 83 
longifructus, 83 
Mertensii, 82 
pusillus, 83 
spheerophorus, 83 
tessellatus, 83 
tomentosus, 83 
Elachista attenuata, 71 
flaccida, 72 
fucicola, 71 
pulvinata, 71 
scutulata, 72 
stelluiata, 71 
velutina, 72 
10, 13 
compressa, 10, 61, 72 
cornucopia, 13 
erecta, 13 
Hopkirkii, 15 
intestinalis, 9, 10 
Linkiana, 13 
percursa, 13 
Ralfsii, 13 
ramulosa, 13 
Euthora cristata, 154 



Fucus anceps, 229 
canaliculatus, 30, 229 
ceranoides, 34 
gracilis, 4 
Mackaii, 33 
nodosus, 33, 108 
serratus, 28, 33 
vesiculosus, 28, 29, 30, 

34, 35, 54, 71 

Furcellaria fastigiata, 180 


Gelidium corneum, 140, 181 | 

var. abnorme, 143 
var. aculeatum, 140 
var clavatum, 143 
var. crinale, 140 
var, flexuosum, 140 
var. latifolium, 140, 
var. pinnatum, 140 
var. pulchellum, 140 
Gigartina acicularis, 170 
mamillosa, 159, 173 
pistillata, 170 
Teedii, 159, 170 
Ginannia furcellata, 147 
Gloiosiphonia capillaris, 

Gracilaria compressa, 138 
confervoides, 138, 166 
erecta, 158 
multipartita, 139 

Grateloupia filicina, 181 

Griffithsia barbata, 208 
corallina, 205 
Devoniensis, 208 
equisetifolia, 205 
setacea, 206, 208, 212, 

secundiflora, 207 
fithsize, 165. 166 
Norvegicus, 166 
plicata, 166 



Halidrys siliquosa, 23, 35 
Haliseris polypodioides, 

Halurus equisetifolius, 205 

var.  simplicifilum, 

Halymenia ligulata, 178 

Helminthocladia purpurea, 

Helminthora  divaricata, 

Hildebrandtia rubra, 73, 

Himanthalia Jorea, 37, 73 

Hypneea purpurascens, 166 


Tridcea edulis, 159 


Jania corniculata 122 
rubens, 122 


Kallymenia Dabyi, 182 
microphilla, 170 
reniformis, 163, 170 


Laminaria. bulbosa, 41, 231 
caperata, 250 

digitata, 40, 108, 127, 
129, 130, 131, 154, 
198, 213, 215, 229, 

var. stenophylla, 40, 


fascia, 40, 62 
longicruris, 39 
phyllitis, 39, 42 
saccharina, 38, 39, 40, 
227, 230 
stenophylla, 230 
Laurencia cespitosa, 94 
dasyphylla, 97, 98 
hybrida, 94 
obtusa, 94, 98 
pinnatifida, 93, 94 
tenuissima, 97, 98 
Leathesia Berkeleyi, 68 
crispus, 68 
tuberiformis, 66, 68 
Litosiphon laminaries, 64 
pusillus, 63 
Lomentaria articulata, 90 
debilis, 40 
kaliformis, 89 
ovalis, 89 
parvula, 90 
reflexa, 93 
Lyngbya Carmichaelii, 23 
flacca, 24 
majuscula, 24 

Maugeria sanguinea, 124, 

Melobesia pustulata, 122 
verrucata, 122 

Mesogloia Griffithsiana, 68 
vermicularis, 68 
virescens, 68 

Microcladia glandulosa, 188 

Myrionema clavatum, 73 
Leclancherii, 75 
punctiforme, 72 
strangulans, 72 

Myriotrichia claveeformis, 


filiformis, 83 | 


Naccaria hypnoides, 150 
Wiggii, 150 | 
Nemaleon multifidum, 143 | 
purpurea, 144 
Nitophyllum SBonnemai- 
soni, 130 
Gmelini, 130 
Hillise, 130 
laceratum, 131 
punctatum, 152 
var. crispatum, 135 
var. oceliatum, 135 
thysanorphizans, 136 
versicolor, 132 


Odonthalia dentata, 101 


Padina pavonia, 53, 55 
Petrocelis cruenta, 124 
Peyssonelia Dubyi, 124 
Phyllophora Brodiei, 161, | 
var. simplex, 162 
membranifolia, 162 
palmettoides, 162 
Tubens, 122, 161 
Plocamium coccineum, 157 
Polyides lumbricalis, 86, 89, | 
116, 180 
rotundus, 16, 86 
Polysiphonia affinis, 107 
arceolata, 108, 110 
atro-rubescens, 115 
Brodiei, 114 
byssoides, 113 
Carmicheliana, 116 
divergens, 229 
elongata, 110, 115 
elongella, 115 | 
fastigiata, 108 | 
fibrata, 108, 110, 116 


fibrillosa, 110, 116, 
foetidissima, 116 
formosa, 109 
furcellata, 116 
Grevillii, 116 
Griffithsiana, 116 
nigrescens, 106, 

obscura, 116 
parasitica, 110 
patens, 110 
pulvinata, 115 
Richardsoni, 115 
sertularioides, 115 
simulans, 116 
spinulosa, 115, 116, 229 
subulifera, 116 
variegata, 114 
violacea, 114 

Porphyra laciniata, 8, 9 
vulgaris, 9 

Ptilota elegans, 83, 201, 



plumosa, 198 
sericea, 201 
Punctaria latifolia, 40, 61, 
62, 63 
plantagina, 62, 63 
tenuissima, 62, 65 
Pyenophycus tuberculatus, 


Ralfsia verrucosa, 71 
Rhodomela lycopodioides, 

subfusca, 98 
Rhodophyllis appendicu- 
lata, 157 ~ 
bifida, 157 
var. ciliata, 157 
Rhodymenia bifida, 157 
var. ciliata, 157 
cristata, 154 
laciniata, 168 

palmata, 40, 73, 8], | 

150, 153 

var. marginifera, 153 

var. sarniensis, 155 

var. simplex, 153 

var. sobolifera, 153 
palmetta, 154, 160, 168 

var. Niceensis, 154 

Rytiphlea complanata, 102 

fructiculosa, 105, 115 
pinastroides, 102 
thuyoides, 105 


Sacchoriza bulbosa, 250) 
Sargassum bacciferum, 29 
Schizymenia edulis, 181 

Dubyi, 182 
Scinaia furcellata, 147 
Seirospora  Griffithsiana, 

209, 225 
Spherococcus coronopi- 
folius, 138 

Sphacelaria cirrhosa, 77 
filicina, 74, 77 
fusca, 78 
plumosa, 75 
racemosa, 78 
radicans, 78 
scoparia, 77 
sertularia, 77 
Sporochnus pedunculatus, 
49, 227 
Spyridia filamentosa, 186 
Stenogramma interrupta, 
Stilophora Lyngbyzi, 59 
rhizodes, 56, 60 
Striaria attenuta, 60, 61 


Taonia altomaria, 56 

Ulva crispa, 8 
lactuca, 15, 229 

latissima, 8, 10, 72, 229 
linza, 9, 10, 229 


Vaucheria clavata, 21 
velutina, 20 


Wrangelia multifida, 148 
pilifera, 149 


Zonaria collaris, 55 
parvula, 55 
Zostera marina, 23, 62, 83 

N.B.—In the foregoing index we have mentioned every page in which 
each plant is referred to, however incidentally, hoping that a searcher may 
thereby readily trace out the history or peculiarities of any plant about 
which he desires to know. ; 






Kennel and Stable—Articles on Dogs and Horses; 
Full and speedy Reports of Shows, Correspondence on all 
matters affecting the Canine world, &c. 

oultry and Habbits.—Articles on Poultry, Pigeons, 
and Rabbits; full, early, and accurate reports of Shows ; 
Discussions on various points of interest to Fanciers. , 

Abiary and Apiary.—Articles and Notes on Cage Birds 
and Bee Keeping, by leading Authorities ; Accurate and 
early Reports of Shows; Speedy and reliable Advice in 
matters of Bird Keeping or Apiculture. 

Fishing and Shootiwg.—Current Events noted; Articles 
and Letters from various Correspondents on the many 
questions embraced by these sports. 

Hatural Science.—Articles and Letters on Entomology, 
Botany, Zoology, from well known Naturalists, &c. 

Far and Hear.—Hmigration fully treated ; Travels in 
all Countries. | 

Farm and Gurden.—Articles interesting to the Farmer, 
professional and amateur ; Gardening in all its branches ; 
Cultural directions for various flowers and fruits, both out 
of doors and under glass. 

Beports,—Fall Reports of Football, Athletics, Cricket, 
owing, Swimming, and other Sports in their Season 
are given Weekly by competent Writers. 
Quarterly Subscription, post free 2s. Sd. prepaid. 


eS BEE-KEEPING: Being Plain Instructions to 

the Amateur for the Successful Management of the Honey Bee. LIllustrated. 
Seconp Epition. Large post 8vo., price 6d. 

ABBITS for PRIZES and PROFIT. By Cuarizs Rayson. 

Contains, Hutches, Breeding, Feeding, Diseases and their Treatment, Rabbits 
as a Food Supply, and careful descriptions of Angora, Belgian Hare, Dutch, Hima- 
layan, Lop, Patagonian, Siberian, Silver Grey, and Polish Fancy Rabbits, with full 
page portraits of prize specimens. Large post 8vo., price 2s. 6d. 

“General Management”? and “Exhibition Rabbits” may be had separately, 
price 1s. each. 

OULTRY for PRIZES and PROFIT. By Jawzs Lone. 

Profusely Illustrated. In parts, large post 8vo., price 6d. each. 
IL—EXHIBITION POULTRY (Part I.).—Third Edition. 

Ill.—EXHIBITION POULTRY (Part IL).—Third Edition. 
IV.—MANAGEMENT of the POULTRY YARD.—Second Edition. 

HE BOOK of the GOAT: containing Practical Directions 

for the Management of the Milch Goat in Health and Disease. Illustrated. 
By STEPHEN HOLMES, Cloth gilt, price 2s, 6d., by post 2s. 8d. 

bi DISEASES OF DOGS: their Pathology, Diagnosis, and 

Treatment. To which is added a complete Dictionary of Canine Materia Medica. 
By HUGH DALZIEL. Large post 8vo.. in paper price Is., in cloth gilt 2s, 

ES and TRAINING DOGS: being concise directions 

for the proper Education both for Field and for Companions, of Retrievers, 
Pointers, Setters, Spaniels, Terriers, &c. By “PATHFINDER” (of ‘“ The Country,” 
&c.). Large post 8vo. Incloth gilt, 5s.; by post 5s. 4d. 

B Piaheathae for AMATEURS, containing full description of the 

lathe, with all its working parts and attachments, and minute instructions 
for the effective use of them on wood. metal. and ivory. Illustrated with 130 first- 
elass wood engravings, Srconp Epirion. Large post 8vo., cloth, price 2s. 6d. 

ORKING IN SHEET METAL: being practical instruction 

for making and mending small Articles in Tin, Copper, Iron, Zinc, and Brass. 
Illustrated. Tuirp Epition. Large post 8vo., price 6d. 

RITISH MARINE ALGA!: Being a Popular Account of the 

SEAWEEDS of GREAT BRITAIN, their Collection and Preservation. By W. H. 
GRATTANN. Magnificently illustrated with 205 engravings. Large post 8vo., 
price 5s. 6d.. by post ds. 10d. 

HE ART of. PYROTECHNY: Being Comprehensive and 

Practical Instructions for the MANUFACTURE of FIREWORKS, specially 
designed for the use of Amateurs. Profusely Illustrated. By W. H. BROWNE, 
Ph.D., M.A., L.R.C.P., &c. Large post 8vo., price 3s. 6d. 

lai aaihes POTTERY and PORCELAIN: being a concise 
account of the development of the Potter’s Art in England  Ilustrated. 
Part L—Pottery. Large post 8vo., price 1s. 6d., by postls. 7d. Part IL—Porcelain, 

price 2s., by post 2s. 2d. In one vol, cloth gilt, with frontispiece, &c., price 5s., by 
post 5s. 4d, 

HE HONITON LACE BOOK: being the second and en- 

larged edition of Honiton Lace-Making; and containing full and practical 
instructions for acquiring the art of Making this Fashionable Lace. By “ Devonia,’’ 
with Illustrations. In cloth gilt, price 3s. 6d., by post 3s. 9d. 

ROsE_BUDDING ; Containing full instructions for the 

snecessful performance of this interesting operation. Illustrated. By D. T. 
FISH. Large post 8vo., price 6d., by post 64d, 

|B apes GROWING for AMATEURS: being practical instruc- 

tions for the successful Culture of Roses, with selections of the best varieties 
adapted to the requirements of the Amateur in Town er Country. By W. D. PRIOR, 
Large post 8vo, Prive 1s, 6d.; by post, ls. 7d. 

USEFUL BOOKS—continued. 


Illustrated with ninety-three diagrams. By D.T. FISH. Large post 8vo., price 
1s., by post 1s, 1d. ! 

INE CULTURE for AMATEURS: being plain directions for 

the successful growing of Grapes, with the means and appliances usually at 
the command of amateurs. Illustrated. By ‘PRACTICAL HAND.” Large post 
8vo. In paper ls., by postls, 1d. 

ae GARDENING: Being plain instructions for the 

proper Laying-out, Planting, and Management of Small Gardens; with lists of 
Trees, Shrubs, and Plants most suitable, and thirteen Designs for small gardens. By 
“PRACTICAL HAND.” Large post 8vo. In cloth gilt, 2s, 6d., by post 2s. 9d. 

THE CANARY BOOK: containing full directions for the 

Breeding, Rearing, and Management of Exhibition Canaries and Canary Mules; 
their Treatment in Health and Disease, the Formation and Management of Canary 
Societies and Exhibitions, together with a full description of all the different varieties, 
and their points of excellence, and all other matters connected with this fancy, 
Illustrated. By ROBERT L. WALLACE. Large post 8vo. Part 1—General Manage- 
ment, now ready, price 2s.; by post, 2s.2d@ Part I1.—-Exhibition Canaries, price 2s., by 
post, 2s. 2d. In one vol. cloth gilt, price 5s., by post, 5s. 4d. 

W OOD CARVING for AMATEURS : containing descriptions 

of all the requisite Tools, and full instructions for their use in producing 
different varieties of Carvings. Lllustrated. Large post 8vo., price ls., by post ls. 1d. 

ARPENTRY and JOINERY for AMATEURS. Contains full 

descriptions of the various Tools required in the above Arts, together with 
practical Instructions for their use. By the Author of “Turning for Amateurs,” 
alias d in Sheet Metal,’’ &c. Large post 8vo. In cloth gilt, price 2s, 6d., by 
post 2s. 9d. 

OREIGN CAGE BIRDS: Containing full directions for 

; successfully breeding, rearing, and managing the various beautiful cage birds 
imported into this couniry. Illustrated. ByC. W.GEDNEY. Large post 8vo. 

[in the press. 

HANS to UNTRAINED TEACHERS: Being directions and 

; suggestions of the greatest service to parents and others engaged in home 
teaching. By JANE ASCHAM, Large post 8yo. [In the press. 

oes DISEASES of HORSES, their Pathology, Diagnosis, 

_ and Treatment; to which is added a complete Dictionary of Equine ‘“‘ Materia 
Medica.” By HUGH DALZIEL, Author of “The Diseases of Dogs,” &c. Large post 

8yvo. [Jn the Press. 
ARDS and CARD TRICKS: Containing a brief History of 

Playing Cards, full Instructions, with Illustrated Hands, for playing nearly all 
known games of chance or skill, and directions for performing a number of amusing 
Trick. Illustrated. By H. E. HEATHER. [In the press. 

oo for AMATEURS: containing descriptions of Orchids 

suited to the requirements of the amateur, with full instructions for their 
successful cultivation. With Illustrations. By JAMES BRITTEN, F.LS., of the 
British Museum, and W. H. GOWER. Large post 8vo. [Lin the Press. 

Saal FESTIVAL DECORATIONS: Comprising Direc- 

tions and Designs for the suitable Decoration of Churches for Christmas, Easter, 
Whiitsuntide, and Harvest. Illustrated. Large post 8vo., price 1s., by post 1s. 1d, 

foo LEATHER WORK BOOK: Containing full Instruc- 

tions for making and ornamenting articles so as to successfully imitate Carved 
Oak; specially written for the Use of Amateurs. By Rosa Bauenan. Illustrated. 

[Un the Press. 

he Bazaar, 
@he Gpefhange and Mart, 

Journal of the Housefold, 



THE DRAWING ROOM.—Dramatic, Scientific, and Musical 1 news 
of the week; Critiques on New Music, &e., &c. 

THE HALG.—Articles upon Canaries and Foreign and British Cage 
Birds; Notes on Places at Home and Abroad; Miscellaneous Articles. 

THE LIBRARY.—Articles upon the Noteworthy Books recently pub- 
lished; Notes upon Various Literary Subjects. 

THE WORKSHOP.—Articles and Notes upon Various Branches of 
Amateur Mechanics. 

THE HOUSEKEEPER’S ROOM.—Articles upon Domestic Mat- 
ters, Recipes of all kinds, &c. 

THE BOUDOIR.—Notes on Present Fashions ; Fancy Work of different 

THE GARDEN.—Articles upon the Cultivation of Flowers, Fruit, and 
Vegetables; Garden Operations; Bee Keeping, &e. 

THE CURTILAGE. — Articles on Dogs; Rabbits; Horses; Farm- 
ing; Poultry; Pigeons; Reports of Poultry, Pigeon, and Rabbit Shows. 

EXCHANGE AND MART, —Thousands of Articles of every 

description for Exchange, or Sale, or Wanted by private persons, 

WANTS AND VACANCIES.—Governesses, Tutors, Clerks, Ser- 

vants, and others Wanting Situations, and Situations Vacant. 
Quarterly Subscription, 5s. 4d., post paid, dwring the season. 
May be had at the Railway Bookstalls, and from all Respectable Newsagents. 

London Office: 32, Wellington-Street, Strand, W.C. 





+ oe eR 

8 a - j 

New York Botanical Garden Library 

a: =~ 

5185 00022 1547 

ee ee es. 


MOMeE NO rte 




“Oy OS EAR Oc. 






it DY 


nt hal 




i is ; 



te Met