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Encyclopedia  of 

the  history  of  Missouri 

Howard  Louis  Conard 

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OF  J!:»;- 

History  of  MissorRi, 

A  COMPENDILM  C>F  IIISK'K^  \.N.>  I  i— ii.A'  \\\ 


IIOW^Kij  L.  Cn.N  Ai  ii. 

VOL.  I. 

Nhw*  Y«  'KK.  l.<  'i  isviLi ;..  sr.  I  • 
THI:  SC'l  TF'ERN  HISK.M'^  q  '  A  . 

Hull  1.    ^A»'.   *t  C  ■..  r.'i  1-  !• 

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History  of  Missouri, 




VOL  I. 

Haidiman.  Cotwn  U  Co..  pROPtnTon. 


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COL.  R.  T.  VAN  HORN. 





COL.  M.  J.  PAYNE. 


C.  LESTER  HALL.  .M.  D., 
W.  D.  FOSTER.  M.  D., 



REV.  J.  W.  LOVE. 

REV.  T.  P.  HALEY. 
REV.  C.  H.  BRIGGS. 

REV.  J.  O'B.  LOWRY, 




W.  A.  FORSTER.  M.  D., 



S.  C.  DELAP,  M.  D., 
MRS.  H.  N.  ESS. 




HON.  O.  M.  SPENCER,  • 

R.  L  McDonald. 

HON.  S.VM  B.  COOK. 


COL.  H.  H.  GREGG. 



HON.  M.  G.  McGregor, 


S.  A,  WIGHT. 


E  L.  MOORE. 
E.  H.  An.\MS. 

HON.  W.  W.  GRAVES, 
F.  J.  TYGARD, 


J.  v..  TEFFT,  M.  D., 
HON.  F.  M.  CARTER, 

RBV.  W.  POPE  YEAMAN,  D.  D.. 

HON.  S.  M.  GREEN. 

JOHN  H.  BRITTS,  M.  D.. 

J.  WAD1-,  GARDENER.  M.  D„ 
\^^  J.  ROUSE, 

HON.  W.  R.  SAMUEL, 



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HON.  S.  S.  BASSfiTT. 


HON.  T.  J.  C.  FAGG, 
ELI  D.  AKE. 

HON.  E.  C.  LACKS. 
R.  L.  JURDEX. 

T.  F.  B.  SOTHAM, 

J.  D.  GRIFFITH,  M.  D., 
C.  B.  HEWITT.  D.  D.  S., 








GEORGE  C,  PITZER,  .M.  D., 


REV.  WILLARD  W.  BOYD,  D.  D., 




MRS.  P.  G.  ROBERT. 








REV.  WALTER  H.  HILL,  S.  J., 






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N  this  busy  age  that  which  saves  time  and  labor  in  the  acquisition 
of  knowledge  is  not  less  appreciated  than  are  labor-saving 
appliances  in  the  arts  and  industries.  As  civilization  has 
advanced,  Encyclopedias  have  multiplied,  until  they  now  lighten 
the  \dbovs  of  the  student  in  almost  every  field  of  investigation. 
Hitherto,  however,  no  attempt  has  been  made  to  apply  this  plan  to  the 
compilation  and  arrangement  of  local  history,  and  a  search  for  information 
concerning  any  event  of  local  interest  has  usually  been  far  more  laborious 
than  the  effort  to  obtain  knowledge  of  the  happenings  of  remote  ages  in 
far-away  countries.  It  has  been  well  said  that  "history,  like  charity,  begins 
at  home.  The  best  American  citizens  are  those  who  mind  home  affairs  and 
local  interests."  And  again,  that  "  the  first  step  in  history  is  to  know  thoroughly 
the  district  where  we  live.  .  .  .  American  local  history  should  be  studied  as 
a  contribution  to  general  history."  Ignorance  of  the  history  of  the  country, 
the  city,  or  community  in  which  we  live,  is,  in  this  age,  "a reproach  to  any 
people.'*  and  those  who  think  it  safe  to  rely  solely  upon  traditions  for  their 
knowledge  of  family  or  local  history  cherish  a  sentiment  which  should  have 
passed  away  with  the  aborigines. 

Believing  that  the  cyclopedic  plan,  which  has  so  greatly  facilitated  the 
acquisition  of  knowledge  in  broader  fields,  could  not  fail  to  be  productive  of 
the  most  satisfactory  results  when  applied  to  the  preservation  of  local  history, 
I  planned  the  Encyclopedia  of  the  History  of  JIftissouri,  and  the  first  encyclo- 
pedia of  a  State  is  herewith  presented  to  the  public.  The  compilation  of  that 
portion  of  the  encyclopedia  relating  to  the  city  of  St  Louis  was  begun  early 
in  the  year  1897,  with  the  lamented  William  Hyde  as  editor-in-chief.  Upon 
this  last  labor  of  his  life  he  entered  in  the  spirit  of  the  true  historian, 
determined  that  it  should  be  a  witness  of  the  times,**  past  and  present,  and 
that  he  would  '*  nothing  extenuate  nor  set  down  aught  in  malice.**  For  neariy 
two  years  thereafter,  Mr.  Hyde  and  myself  were  co-laborers,  and  then  the 
dark-winged  angel  beckoned  my  beloved  associate  away  from  the  crowning 
work  of  his  life.  When  this  talented  writer  and  chivalrous  gentleman— who 
had  himself  been  so  much  a  part  of  the  history  of  the  State— passed  away, 
the  completion  of  our  joint  task  devolved  upon  me.  In  the  same  spirit  in 
which  it  was  begun,  the  work  has  been  carried  forward,  and  on  behalf  of  my 

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dead  friend  and  myself,  1  now  submit  ttie  results  to  the  people  of  Missouri. 
Tliat  perfection  lias  been  attained,  and  that  our  woric  wiil  be  found  absolutely 
free  from  error,  cannot  of  course  be  claimed,  for— 

'*  Whoever  thinks  a  faultless  piece  to  see, 
Thinks  what  ne'er  was,  nor  Is.  nor  e'er  shall  be." 

Nevertheless,  I  feel  confident  that  these  volumes  will  commend  them- 
selves to  fair  and  just  critics,  and  fmd  favor  with  an  intelligent  public,  proud 
of  this  imperial  State,  loyal  to  its  welfare,  and  deeply  interested  in  its  history. 

To  more  than  two  hundred  citizens  of  IVlissouri,  who  have  contributed 
special  articles* or  aided  in  the  preparation  of  this  work,  in  an  advisory  capacity 
I  desire  to  return  sincerest  thanks,  and  to  Dr.  Alexander  N.  De  Men il,  ex-Chief 
Justice  Shepard  Barclay,  Mr.  Theophile  Papin,  Mr.  Daniel  M.  Grissom,  Capt 
F.  Y.  Hedley.  Col.  R.  T.  Van  Horn,  Mr.  W.  H.  Winants,  Mr.  Howard  M.  Holden, 
Hon.  M.  G.  McGregor,  Col.  H.  H.  Gregg,  Hon.  Charles  B.  McAfee,  Mr.  Dabney 
C.  Dade,  Hon.  F.  A.  Sampson,  Hon.  William  B.  Napton,  Hon.  William  H.  Chiles, 
Hon.  Charles  G.  Burton,  Mon.  George  Robertson,  Hon.  Thomas  H.  Bacon  and 
Hon.  Will  O.  Rothwell,  the  editor  has  been  especially  indebted  for  counsel  and 
assistance  in  the  compilation  of  the  encyclopedia.  To  those,  also,  who  have 
generously  aided  us  to  illustrate  this  work  more  elaborately  and  beautifully 
than  any  historical  work  previously  published  in  the  State,  I  beg  to  return  the 
thanks  of  the  publishers  as  well  as  my  own.  This  cordial  co-operation  has 
alone  made  its  publication  possible.  The  warm  welcome  which  has  been 
extended,  in  so  many  ways,  to  this  undertaking,  by  the  men  and  women  of 
Missouri,  is  but  one  manifestation  of  that  spirit  of  liberality  which  is  universally 
recognized  as  a  distinguishing  trait  of  this  people.  We  are  grateful  for  that 
welcome,  and  for  the  opportunity  we  have  had,  in  the  preparation  of  this  great 
memorial,  to  shape  into  permanent  form  the  annals  of  such  citizenship  as 
this  State  can  proudly  boast 

In  these  records  of  public  and  private  achievement  may  be  easily  found 
the  secret  of  that  wonderful  development  which  has  won  for  the  State  her 
present  proud  rank ;  and  in  these  records,  moreover,  may  be  seen  the  evidences 
of  that  impulse,  energy  and  resistless  force  which  promise  to  Missouri  the  yet 
-  more  brilliant  role  of  leadership  which  manifest  destiny  has  marked  out  for 
her  in  the  civilization  and  culture  of  the  great  Southwest. 


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Adams,  Elmer  I*.   8  Illecs  Military  Academy — 

Allen.  .Arthur  M   21  Academic  Hall  .. 

Allen,  John  M  26  .         The  Aula   

Armour.  Andrew  W  '.  58  Athletic  I'"icld  ... 

Askew.  Frank   70  Dludscit.  Wells  H  

Autenricth,  George   90  Boulware,  Theodrick  L. 

Aylor,  Joseph  W  9$  Boyce,  Joseph   

Boyd.  James  W.  ...... 

B  Ikandoni,  Charles  P.  . . 

Baker,  John  W  loi  Brashear.  Richard  M.  . 

Barclay,  Shepard  147  Hudson  E  

Barnes.  Baron  S  149  I'-nnkerhoflf.  VVilham  E. 

Barron.  Henry   163  Broadhead,  James  O.  . . 

Bartlett,  Eayre  0  166  Browning.  William  T.  . 

Barton.  Abraham  P  168  Pryant,  Walter  G  

Barton,  David  •  170  Burnett.  S.  Grovcr  .... 

Barton,  C.  Josephine  W  172  B*"^,  WUliam  D  

Baskett.  James  N  176 

Bedford,  Henry  H  190  ^ 

Bell,  Charles  C  193  Cain.  George  W  

Bell,  Nicholas  M  196  Cantwell,  Harry  J  

Benton.  Thomas  H  Frontispiece.  Cass,  Amos  A  

Bernays.  Augustus  C  209  Chambers,  Dynes   

Binder,  Frederick  H  272  Chambers,  George  W. 

Black.  James  262  Chiles,  Cornelius  C.  ... 

Blanke,  Cyrus  F  290  Chrisman,  George  L.  . 

Blees,  Frederick  W.  V  293  Christy,  John  M  


They  who  lived  in  history  ....  seemed  to  wallc  the  earth  again. 

— Longfellow. 

We  may  gather  out  of  history  a  policy  no  less  wise  than  eternal. 

— Sir  Waller  Raleigh. 

Histories  malce  men  wise.— ^aaw. 

Truth  comes  to  us  from  the  past  as  gold  is  washed  down  to  us  from 
the  mountains  of  Sierra  Nevada,  in  minute  but  precious  particles. — Bovee. 

Examine  history,  for  it  is  "philosophy  teaching  by  example."— Giri^/f. 

History  is  the  essence  of  innumerable  biographies. — CarlyU, 

Biography  is  the  most  universally  pleasant*  the  most  universally 
protltable,  of  all  reading.— Car/y/^". 

Both  justice  and  decency  require  that  we  should  bestow  on  our 
forefathers  an  honorable  remembrance.— TXiMydEu/^f. 

"If  history  is  important,  biography  is  equally  so.  for  biography  is  • 
but  history  individualized.   In  the  former  we  have  the  episodes  and  events 
illustrated  by  communities,  peoples,  states,  nations.    In  the  latter  we  have 
the  li\  es  and  characters  of  individual  men  shapmg  events,  and  becoming 
instructors  of  future  generations." 


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Encyclopedia  of  the  History  of  Missouri. 

Aaron,  William  Lucas,  lawyer,  was 
born  April  ai,  1856,  in  Quincy,  Adams 
Coanty,  Illinois.  His  parents  were  John  and 
Remember  (Hull)  Aaron.  The  father  was 
bom  in  Camden,  Delaware,  from  which  State 
he  sailed  to  Mobile,  Alabama,  whence  he  trav- 
eled to  the  city  which  became  the  birthplace 
of  his  son,  in  1849.  '^^'^^  mother  was  a  daugh- 
ter of  Captain  Hull,  and  a  niece  of  Commo- 
dore Hull,  of  the  United  Stttcs  Navy.  Cap- 
tain TItill,  who  was  a  native  of  Virginia, 
moved  to  Illinois  in  1817,  making  tlie  passage 
by  river  with  a  flatboat  to  wfiat  is  now  East 
St.  Louis.  During  the  Indian  troubles  he 
commanded  a  company  in  the  First  Illinois 
Militia  Regiment.  His  hat  plume,  eighteen 
inches  long,  made  of  redbird  feathers  and 
whalebone,  is  now  in  possession  of  the  grand- 
son, William  Lucas  Aaron.  The  last  named 
was  reared  as  a  farm  boy,  ai^  as  «n  incident 
of  this  portion  of  his  life,  had  charge  of 
an  extensive  orchard.  After  completing  the 
branches  taught  in  the  ordinary  ptd>fic  scSnols 
he  took  an  academic  course  under  Professor 
Pike,  an  accomplished  educator  of  Jerseyville, 
Illinois,  and  later  completed  the  L^n-Scien- 
tific  course  of  the  Wesleyan  University,  at 
Bloomington,  Illinois.  In  1R74  he  attended 
a  commercial  college  in  Quincy,  and  during 
vacation  read  law  under  the  pmceptorsfaip  of 
Judge  Joseph  C.  Thompson,  of  the  same  city. 
He  then  entered  the  law  school  of  the  Michi- 
gan University,  at  Ann  Arbor,  from  which  he 
was  gradtratcd  in  the  class  of  1879,  In  1876 
the  Honorable  Scott  Wike,  member  of  Con- 
gress from  tiie  TWdMi  Iflinds  Congressional 
District,  tendered  him  an  appointment  to  the 
^Tilitary  Academy  at  West  Point,  which  he  de- 
clined. He  was  engaged  in  practice  in 
Quincy,  Illinois,  until  1886,  when  he  made  a 
trip  to  the  West  for  improvement  in  health. 
His  journey  was  broken  at  Hays  City,  Kansas, 
on  account  of  a  blizzard.  A  murder  trial  was 
about  to  begin,  and,  it  becoming  known  that 
he  was  a  lawyer,  be  was  engaged  to  defend 


the  case,  in  which  he  was  successful.  This  was 
the  occasion  of  his  locating  in  that  place,  and 
he  entered  upon  practiee.  He  was  twice 
elected  pnosecirting  attorney,  and  declined  re- 
nomination  for  a  third  term.  He  was  then 
nominated  by  the  Democrats  for  judge  of  tlie 
Court  of  Appeals,  and  was  defeated  at  the 
polls.  In  1897  he  removed  to  Joplin,  Mis- 
souri, and  engaged  in  a  practice  which  has 
proven  successful  and  remimerative.  At  pres* 
ent  he  is  a  mpin!)f  r  of  the  law  firm  of  Aaron  & 
Shepherd,  located  in  the  Masonic  Block, 
where  they  occupy  a  handsome  suite  of  nooms, 
whh  an  extensive  library.  He  has  taken  some 
)  interest  in  mining  affairs,  and  has  developed 
I  good  mines  in  the  Lone  Elm  neighborhood. 
In  politics  he  is  a  consistent  Democrat,  and  in 
religion  a  member  of  flie  First  Presbyterian 
Church,  Mr.  Aaron  was  married,  December 
22,  1880,  at  Carth^,  Illinois,  to  Miss  Alice 
G.  Johnson,  daugliter  of  James  G.  Johnson,  a 
manufacturer  of  farm  implements.  They  are 
the  parents  of  three  children,  Lawrence  J., 
Ella  M.  and  William  L.  Aaron,  Jr. 

Abbaclie,  D%  was  Governor  of  Louisiana 
from  1763  to  1765,  and  exercised  civil  and 

niilitary  jurisdiction  over  the  territory  now 
included  ni  ilic  State  of  Missouri,  at  the  time 
St.  Louis  was  founded.  He  was  sent  by  the 
King  of  France  to  New  Orleans,  in  1763,  to 
take  charge  of  certain  royal  business  interests, 
and  was  authorized  also  to  assume  the  func- 
r.f  Director  General  of  the  Province  of 
Louisiana,  with  the  powers  ol  a  military  com- 
mandant As  the  result  of  the  cenion  of 
Louisiana  to  Spain,  in  1762,  he  was  ordered 
to  turn  over  the  command  to  a  reipresentative 
of  the  Spanish  government,  and  did  so  at  tlie 
close  of  the  year  1764.  Grief  at  this  change 
in  his  fortunes  causf-d  his  dpatli.  Februarv  4. 
1765.  Abbadie  was  a  man  of  noble  impulses ; 
he  protected  the  Indians,  caused  the  masters 
to  treat  their  slaves  more  kindly,  and,  in  many 
ways,  endeared  himsdf  to  the  Louisianians. 

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AblHitt,  CharloH  Lincoln,  dentist,  was 
bom  OctobtT  20,  i860,  in  North  Reading, 
Massachust'tts,  son  of  Joel  Augustus  and 
Sarah  Ann  ( Parker)  Abbott.  The  parents 
were  b(Xh  natives  oi  Massachusetts,  and  came 
from  families  that  had  settled  there  in  an  early 
day,  playing  a  cons{)icti(nis  part  in  tlic  tlcvcl- 
opment  and  growth  of  the  Commonwealth  of 
which  they  came  to  be  a  substantial  part.  The 
M>n  attended  the  gratntnar  and  liigii  sduxils 
of  Lowell,  Massachusetts,  applying  himself 
with  such  faithfulness  that  he  acquired  a  thor- 
ough knowledge  of  the  higher  literary 
brandies,  and  was  well  prepared  for  the  pro- 
fessional course  of  which  he  liad  determined 
to  avail  himself.  In  1881  he  entered  the 
Harvard  Dental  ("nllege,  and  atlendcil  that 
institution's  course  of  lectures  rlirce  year», 
giadtuitinir,  in  1884,  with  the  degree  of 
D.  M  I)  After  receiving  liis  diploma  he  de- 
termined to  enter  upon  active  practice  at  once, 
and,  therefc»re,  removed  to  Kansas  City,  Mis- 
souri, in  1885,  where  he  has  since  tended .  a 
prominent  member  of  the  profession  and  a 
man  highly  esteemed.  Beginning  with  the 
year  i88<;,  he  was  for  three  years  connected 
with  the  Kansas  City  Dental  College  as  an  in- 
structor in  Operative  Dentistry.  He  filled 
that  chair  with  great  credit  to  himself  and  to 
the  best  interests  of  the  institution,  but  re- 
signed in  order  that  he  might  devote  his  entire 
time  to  the  practice  of  his  profession.  He 
holds  to  the  principles  of  the  Democratic 
party,  but  is  not  an  active  worker  in  political 
affairs.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Kansas  City 
Clttfo,  is  popular  in  the  social  circles  in  which 
he  moves,  and  enjoys  not  only  the  confidence 
of  the  public,  but  the  unhmited  respect  of 
those  with  whom  he  is  asaociMed  in  a  profcs- 
sional  capacity. 

Able»  Barton*  was  bom  in  Trinity, 

Alexander  County,  Illinois,  July  31.  1823,  and 
died  in  St.  Louis,  May  6,  1877.  His  father 
was  of  Irish  descent,  and  his  mother  came  of 
a. Scotch  family.  Leaving  home  when  he  was 
seventeen  years  of  age,  Mr.  Able  started  out 
to  make  his  own  way  in  the  world,  and  in 
1845  accumulated  one  hundred  dol- 

lars capital,  with  which  he  came  to  St.  Louis. 
Immediately  after  his  coming  here  he  became 
connected  with  the  river  4>iiikness,  as  a  cleric 

on  the  steamer  "Ocean  Wave."  Two  year> 
later  he  was  made  captain  (A  this  boat,  and 
afterward,  until  1854.  cocmnanded  the  atewn- 

ers  "Time  and  Tide  '  and  "Cataract,"  then 
running  in  the  Illinois  trade.  From  1854  to 
1858  he  was  in  the  Missouri  River  trade,  as 
Certain  of  the  steamers  "Cataract"  and 
''Edinburgh."  From  1858  to  1864  he  con- 
ducted a  large  commission  house  on  the  cor- 
ner of  Pine  and  Commercial  Streels,  in  St. 
Louis.  Thereafter,  until  the  end  <A  his  life, 
he  was  prominently  identified  with  the  busi- 
ness interests  of  St.  Louis,  and  during  the 
year  1865  was  president  of  the  Merchants' 
Exchange.  For  some  years  he  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  National  Board  of  Trade,  and  fre- 
quently represented  the  Merchants'  Exchange 
at  Washington,  in  the  interest  of  Western 
trade  and  co<nmerce.  In  the  early  years  of 
his  residence  in  St.  I-ouis  he  began  taking  an 
interest  in  politics,  and  was  one  of  the  "old- 
line"  Denracrats  who  took  part  in  the  "Free 
Soil"  movement  in  Missouri.  Tn  1856  lie  was 
a  member  of  the  State  Legislature,  and  while 
serving  in  that  capacity  he  placed  Thomas  H. 
Benton  in  nomination  for  the  United  States 
Senate,  and  cast  the  first  vote  for  "emancipa- 
tion" in  this  State.  He  was  a  Benton  dele- 
gate to  the  Cincinnati  Convention  of  1856, 
which  nominated  Buchanan  for  President,  and 
four  years  later  sat  in  the  Chicago  Conven- 
tion of  the  newly  orga»i>c<l  Republican  party. 

which  nominated  Abraham  Lincoln  for  Presi- 
dent. When  the  Civil  War  began  he  became 
known  as  one  of  the  ardent  Unionists  of  Mis- 
souri, and  rendered  valuable  ser\'ices  to  the 
government,  and  was  the  personal  friend  and 
coniklailt  of  General  John  A.  Logan.  He  was 
entrusted  whh  the  command  of  government 
transportation  at  St.  Louis,  in  which  capacity 
he  had  sole  charge  of  the  expedition  which 
conveyed  Lyon  and  Bbir  to  Boonville.  He 
also  commanded  tlie  ficrt  that  left  St.  Louis 
with  General  Fremont  and  the  expedition  to 
Cairo  in  i86t.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he 
was  among  the  first  to  favor  a  conciliatory 
policy  in  Missouri,  and  the  restoration  to  ex- 
Confederates  of  the  rights  which  they  had 
previoasly  enjoyed.  He  was  a  member  of  the 
Conservative  delegation  to  the  Baltimore 
Convention  of  1864,  and  was  chairman  of  the 
delegation  sent  from  Missouri  to  the  Phifakdel- 
phia  Convention  of  1866.  which  met  to  con- 
sider the  state  of  the  country.  In  later  years 
he  was  pronrinent  in  the  councils  of  the  Dem- 
ocratic party,  and  was  .1  conspicuous  figure  in 
various  National  Conventions  of  that  party. 
Captain  Able  married,  in  1847,  Miss  Mary 

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Hariiilton.  of  Kaskaskui,  Illinois,  who  sur- 
vived him. 

Aboriginal  AnMqnltiea. — On  the 

hi<,^lier  Muffs  of  our  larger  streams,  especially 
along  the  Missouri  and  its  tributaries,  there 
are  ^ten  seen  rounded  mounds  five  to  fifteen 
feet  high,  and  some  are  even  higher,  and 
twenty  to  fifty  feet  in  diameter,  and  sometifties 
they  may  be  longer  one  way  than  the  other. 
On  these  trees  are  sometimes  seen  gro\ving 
of  two  to  three  feet  in  diameter.  These 
mounds  were  here  when  the  white  man  firil 
came  into  tilis  country. 

In  the  western  part  of  Clay  County,  on  the 
Missouri  bluffs,  there  are  a  number  of  tiiese 
mounds.  After  digfginir  into  them  three  to 
four  feet  there  was  disclosed  a  walled  sepul- 
cher  just  d^iht  feet  square,  built  of  stone,  per- 
fectly strai^t  ^thin  and  two  feet  high.  No 
care  seems  to  have  been  taken  to  have  the  wall 
straight  on  the  outside.  Within  tiiese  walls 
several  human  skeletons  were  found,  as  many 
as  five  or  six  in  one  inclosnrc.  Mounds  re- 
sembling  these  outwardly  have  been  opened 
on  Hinkson  lilulTs,  Boone  County,  some  of 
them  walled,  but  more  roughly  than  those  in 
Clay  County.  Human  skeletons  were  also 
found ;  also  earthen  pots,  flints  and  stone  axes. 
Over  the  bodies  there  seem  to  have  been 
placed  flat  stones,  then  dirt  well  packed,  and 
fire  was  aiterward  applied,  as  shown  by  booes 
partly  burned  and  partly  burned  clay.  Simi- 
lar mounds  and  stone  structures  have  been 
observed  in  St.  Louis,  Pike,  Montgomery  and 
Ralls  Counties. 

St.  Louis  has  been  called  the  "Mound  Gty," 
from  the  number  of  mounds  originally  found 
there,  especially  a  large  one  at  the  intersection 
of  Broadway  and  Mound  Streets.  In  New 
Madrid  County  there  are  many  mounds,  from 
which  nmch  pottery  has  been  taken.  BtK  it  is 
not  so  perfect  as  fhat  of  tiie  Mexican  PncbhMi. 

On  the  surface,  at  many  places,  are  foond 
flint  arrow  heads,  both  small  and  lao^,  ■ocne 
roughly  made,  some  very  finely  worked;  oltO 
axes  of  exquisite  workmanship.  The  rouglier 
flints  may  have  been  shaped  by  tnc  present 
Indians,  but  there  is  no  evidence  that  any  of 
tfie  present  tribes  could  shape  and  polish  these 
stone  implements  in  any  way  btrt  roughly. 
Other  persons  of  higher  artistic  attainments 
most  have  rfn|>ed  tiiem,  and  tiiese  may  have 
been  driven  off  by  the  present  races  several 
bandred  years  9f^.  The  Tohecs  of  Mexico 

have  legends  that  they  were  driven  away  from 
a  country  inhabited  by  them,  away  to  the 
northeast,  htmdreds  o$  years  ago. .  (Sec  also 
"Archaedogy"  and  "Indian  Miounds.") 


Academy  of  Arehitectiiro  and 
Building. — An  institution  founded  in  St. 
Louis,  in  1885,  at  the  corner  of  Ninth  and 
Arsenal  Streets,  with  Henry  Maack  as  prin- 
cipal. .Xs  indicated*  in,  its  name,  the  jiurposes 
of  the  institution  are  to  give  practical  instruc- 
tion in  architecture  and  buUdinf^,  and  it  is 
said  to  have  been  the  first  school  of  its  kind 
founded  in  the  United  States.  After  being 
conducted  for  some  years  at  the  location  first 
named,  this  school  was  removed  to  the  corner 
of  Eighth  Street  and  Chouteau  Avenue,  and 
from  there,  in  the  fall  of  1898,  to  1742  Chou- 
teau Avenue. 

Academy  of  Medleal  and  Sargrl- 

cal  ScIeilceH.— An  association  of  the  pli  vsi- 
cians  and  surgeons  of  St.  Louis,  organized 
November  6,  1895,  by  Drs.  James  M.  Hall, 
Emory  Lanpluar,  Wellington  Adams  and 
others.  Its  purpose  is  to  elevate  the  stand- 
ard of  the  profession,  to  promote  scientific 
research  and  increase  the  skill  and  efficient 
of  practitioners  of  medicine.  It  had  in  1898 
an  active  membership  of  fifty  physicians  and 

Aead«iiiy  of  Medicine,  Kansas 

City.  — ^The  Academy  of  Medicine,  incorpo- 
rated, grew  out  of  the  Kansas  City  Physicians' 
Club,  organized  in  1890.  The  organizing 
members  were  Dr.  H.  C.  Crowell,  Dr.  Charles 
F.  Wainwright,  Dr.  W.  G.  Douglas,  Dr.  John 
Punton,  Dr.  Hal  Foster  and  Dr.  A.  P.  Parker, 
of  whom  tiie  three  first  named  were,  reaipcc^ 
tively,  elected  president,  vice  president  and 
secretary.  The  academy  has  become  one  (rf 
the  most  useful  and  most  widely  known  medi- 
cal  socit"ties  in  the  countrv.  Its  weekly  meet- 
ings, habitually  attended  by  about  one-half  of 
its  membership  of  one  hundred,  are  for  ad- 
dresses and  discussions  Upon  iM'ofesstonal 
topics.  An  elaborate  prcogramme  and  a  ban- 
quet are  features  of  the  annual  meeting.  A 
library  valued  at  $ao,ooo,  located  in  the  Riako 
Building,  is  accessible  at  all  times;  it  com- 
prises exclusively  professional  works,  gifts 
from  audiorB  and  publtriicrt,  and  receives  con- 
stant  accessions  as  new  worUli  are  issued  from 
the  press. 

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Academy  of  Our  Lady  of  Horcy.— 

See  "Joplin." 

Academy  of  Selence,  St.  Louis.— 

About  the  year  1843  five  or  six  young  men, 
among  whom  were  Dr.  W.  G.  Eliot  and  Dr. 
George  Engelmaitn,  met  in  tiie  office  of  Judge 
Marie  P.  Lcduc  to  found  what  for  a  time  was 
known  as  the  Western  Academy  of  Science. 
Their  organization  purduaed  a  few  sera  of 
ground  near  irittt  il  HOW  Eighth  Street  and 
Chouteau  Avemic,  and  on  a  small  scale  a 
botanical  garden  and  arboretum  were  begun 
there  by  Dr.  Engeimann ;  but  the  numbers 
were  small,  and  the  Western  Academy  of 
Science  soon  ceased  to  exist.  On  the  lodi  of 
March,  1856,  some  of  these  same  men,  with 
others,  came  together  in  tlie  hall  of  the  Board 
of  Public  Schools  of  the  city,  and  then  organ- 
ized wfnt  has  since  ocisted  as  llie  Academy  of 
Science  of  St.  Louis.  Dr.  George  Engeimann 
was  the  first  president,  and  that  office  has  since 
been  filled  by  such  well  known  scientific  men 
and  representative  citizens  of  St.  Louis  aS 
B.  F.  Shumard,  Adolphus  Wislizenus,  Hiran^ 
A.  i'rout,  Dr.  Jdtin  B.  Johnson,  James  B. 
Eads.  William  T.  Harris,  Charles  V.  Riley. 
Francis  E.  Nipher.  Henry  S.  Pritchett,  John 
Green,  Melvin  L.  Gray  and  Edmund  A. 
Engler.  Under  Idie  constitttdon,  active  mem- 
bership  is  limited  to  persons  interested  in 
science,  but  it  has  never  been  the  rule  of  the 
academy  that  they  should  be  actively  engaged 
in  research.  The  roll  of  759  members  who 
Inve  been  elected  since  the  organization  of 
the  academy,  of  whom  202  are  now  carried 
on  the  active  list,  includes  many  names  of  per- 
.9ons  who  stand  high  in  the  bnsincss  and  pro- 
fessional comnmnity.  A  considerable  list  of 
non-resident  corr^xmding'  members  has 
been  elected,  who  arc  connected  with  some  of 
the  larger  scientific  establishments  of .  the 
worid  and  noted  for  their  attsdnments.  One 
person,  Mr.  Edwin  Harrison,  for  eminent 
service  and  large  donations  to  the  academy, 
has  been  elected  a  patron. 

The  act  of  incorporation  declares  the  object 
of  the  academy  to  be  the  advancement  of 
science  and  the  estabKshment  in  St.  Louis  of 
a  museum  and  library  for  the  illustration  and 
study  of  its  various  branches.  The  constitu- 
tion provides  for  holding  meetings  for  the 
constderaAion  and  discossion  of  scientific  sub- 
jects,  procurinc:  orip^inal  papers  upon  such 
subjects,  publishing  worthy  scientific  matter. 

establishing  and  maintaining  a  cabinet  of  ob- 
jects illustrative  of  science  and  a  Ubrary  of 
worlcs  rdating  thereto,  and  the  institution  of 
rdatioas  with  other  scientific  organizations. 

The  regular  meetings  of  the  academy  are 
held  at  8  o'clock  on  the  first  and  third 
Monday  evenings  of  each  month,  excepting 
the  summer  season,  and  they  are  open  to  all 
persons,  without  special  invitation.  They  are 
devoted  to  the  reading  of  technical  papers 
designed  for  publication,  and  to  the  presenta- 
tion of  more  popular  abstracts  of  recent  inves- 
tigation or  progress.  Occasional  p«d>lic  h> 
tures,  calculated  to  interest  a  larger  audience^ 
are  provided  for  in  some  suitable  hall. 

Beginning  wiili  Uie  officers  for  1857,  the 
charter,  approved  January  17,  and  accepted 
February  9,  1857,  the  by-laws  and  the  record 
and  papers  from  March  10,  1856,  the  trans- 
actions of  the  Academy  of  Science  of  St. 
Louis  have  now  extended  through  seven  oc- 
tavo volumes,  averaging  700  pages  each,  in 
addition  to  which  several  spedal  publications 
have  been  issued. 

In  its  early  years,  the  academy  met  in  Pope's 
Medical  Cdlege,  where  a  snnll  library  and 
museum  had  been  brought  together;  btrt  in 
May,  1869,  the  building  was  destroyed  by  fire, 
and  the  academy  saved  only  its  library.  The 
library  now  contains  over  20,000  books  and 
pamphlets,  and  is  very  rich  in  the  proceedings 
of  the  learned  bodies  of  tfie  entire  civilized 
world,  with  many  Irandreds  of  which  the  acad> 
emy  stands  in  intimate  exchange  relation: 
and,  though  it  is  not  a  circulating  library,  nor, 
in  the  proper  sense,  a  public  library,  it  is 
alwa\  s  available  for  consultation  by  persons 
wishing  to  mako  s(  rious  use  of  it,  by  arrange- 
ment wiA  the  proper  officers.  Since  tiie  loss 
of  its  museum  the  academy  has  lacked  ade- 
quate room  and  funds  for  the  maintenance  of 
a  public  museum,  but  it  is  each  year  obtain- 
ing a  finner  hold  on  the  interest  and  affection 
of  the  community,  through  widened  member- 
ship, and  its  officers  are  looking  forward  to 
the  possibility,  in  the  not  distant  future,  of 
securing  for  .St.  Louis  a  carofullv  planned 
educational  museum  of  natural  history,  which 
can  not  faa  to  be  of  great  use  in  stfanulating 
research  and  promoting  popular  education  in 
science,  especially  titrough  its  availability  for 
the  use  of  the  teadiers  in  the  public  schools. 

Academy  of  St.  Josopli.— A  private 
school  at  Hannibal,  under  the  direction  of  the 

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Sisters  of  St.  Joseph,  whose  mother  house  is 
in  St.  Louis.  In  1864  the  Catholic  Church  of 
Hannibal  raised  fimdc  1^  popular  snbacrip- 

tion  and  purchased  the  building  and  grounds 
of  the  Hannibal  Institute,  an  unsuccessful  pri- 
vate school,  and  deeded  the  property  to  the 

Sisters  of  St.  Joseph,  who  first  opened  the  in- 
stitution as  a  parochial  school,  which  was  so 
successful  that  it  was  soon  evolved  into  an 
academy.  Extensive  improvements  have  been 
made  at  different  times,  and  the  value  of  the 
grounds  and  buildings  are  now  estimated  at 
neatly  $5o,ooa 

Academy  of  the  Sacred  Heart,  St. 
Oharlea*— An  academyfor  young  ladiesatSt. 

Charles.  It  was  the  fir<;t  instituted  in  America 
by  the  Society  of  the  Sacred  Heart  of  Jesus. 
In  1818  lifaidanie  Duchesne,  one  of  tiie  first 
associates  of  the  founder  of  the  order,  Mother 
Madeline  Soi^iie  Barret,  arrived  in  New  Or- 
leans from  France.  She  soon  came  to  St. 
Louis,  accompanied  by  Octavie  Berthold,  Eu- 
genie Ande  and  others,  with  the  desire  of 
working  for  the  conversion  of  Indians.  Bishop 
Dubourg  gave  her  plan  bis  approbation,  and 
St.  Charles  was  fixed  upon  as  a  location. 
There  a  log  cabin  of  two  rooms  was  provided, 
but  porerty  soon  drove  the  little  band  to  St. 
IjOUia.  They  soon  established  a  house  at 
Florissant^  where  the  school  became  success- 
ful. In  1828  Madame  Duchesne,  vritt  Mes- 
dmca  Berthold,  Lucille  and  O'Conner,  ac- 
companied by  Bishop  Rosatti  and  several 
Jesuit  Fathers,  returned  to  St.  Charles  and 
erected  a  small  chapel.  October  29,  Mes- 
dames  Lucille  and  O'Conner  opened  school 
with  five  pupils,  and  in  a  few  months  this 
number  was  increased  to  fifty.  In  1844  the 
property  was  enlarged  to  meet  the  require- 
ments of  increased  numbers  of  pupils,  and  ten 
years  later  large  and  substantial  stdditions 
were  erected.  In  1875  one  of  the  buildings 
was  damaged  by  fire,  and  in  1876  by  a  tor- 
nado, but  without  loss  of  life. 

Academy  of  the  Sacred  Heart,  St. 
Joseph. —  In  1853  four  Sisters  of  the  Sacred 
Heart  went  from  St  Louis  to  St.  Joseph  and 
founded  this  institution,  which  is  now  the  old- 
est school  in  the  city.  The  foundation  of  the 
present  convent  building  was  laid  in  1856. 
The  institution  is  now  one  of  the  most  popular 
of  its  kind  conducted  in  the  West  under  the 
anspiees  <rf  'tiiis  sisterhood. 

Adair  County. — A  county  in  the  north- 
em  part  of  the  State,  bounded  on  tiic  north  by 
Putnam  and  Schuyler;  east,  by  Scotland  and 
Knox;  south,  by  Macon,  and  west,  by  Sulli- 
van County ;  area,  367,000  acres.  The  surface 
(rf  the  county  is  undnhtting,  and  about  equally 
divided  between  prairie  and  timber.  The 
Chariton  River  flows  through  the  county  from 
nortii  to  south,  a  few  mUes  weit  of  the  center, 
heavy  growths  of  timber  extendin{^  for  many 
miles  on  either  side.  The  chief  tributaries  of 
the  Chariton  are  Blackbird,  Shuteyc,  Spring, 
Billy,  Hog  and  Walnut  Creeks  on  the  west, 
and  Hazel,  Rye,  Bi^  and  Sugar  Creeks  on  the 
east.  East  of  a  gentle  divide,  which  passes 
through  the  county  from  noitii  to  south,  east 
of  the  center,  are  South  Fabius,  Cottonwood, 
Lloyd,  Steer,  Timber,  Bear  and  Bee  Creeks, 
and  Salt  River,  all  flowing  in  an  easftwardly 
direction  toward  the  Mississippi.  Beautiful 
forests  of  timber  fringe  these  winding  streams. 
The  principal  woods  are  maple,  black  walnut, 
different  kinds  of  oak,  elm,  lind,  hickory, 
hackberry  and  cottonwood.  The  soil  is  vari- 
able, but  is  principally  a  dark,  sandy  loam  of 
mndi  productiveness,  and  capable  of  growdng 
great  crops  of  the  different  kinds  to  which  it  is 
adapted.  Corn  yields  an  average  of  30  bushels 
to  the  acre;  oats,  23  bushds;  wheat,  15 
bushels,  and  i>otatoes,  i GO  bushels.  About  75 
per  cent  of  the  land  is  under  cultivation,  10 
per  cent  in  pasture  and  the  remainder  in  tim< 
ber.  A  stratum  of  bituminous  coal  underlies 
the  greater  part  of  the  county,  and  a  number 
of  mines  are  extensively  operated.  Coal  min- 
ing is  fast  increasing  in  importance,  giving 
employment  to  about  2,000  hands  in  the 
county.  The  county  contains  abundance  of 
limestone,  sandstone  and  fire  day  of  great 
purity.  The  report  of  the  Piireau  of  Labor 
Statistics  shows  that  in  1898  the  surplus  pro- 
ducts shipped  from  the  county  were:  Gatde, 
3,406  head;  hogs,  25,290  head;  sheep,  1,148 
head;  horses  and  mules,  95  head;  oats,  1.996 
bushels;  com,  31,067  bushels;  hay,  98,500 
pounds ;  flour,  635,740  pounds ;  com  meal,  5,- 
900  pounds,  shipstufT,  58,750  pounds;  clover 
seed,  27,000  pounds;  timothy  seed,  87,020 
pounds;  lumber,  607,700  feet;  walnut  logs, 
18,000  feet;  pilingf  and  posts,  66,000  feet; 
cross-ties,  18,614;  cordwood,  156  cords; 
cooperage,  13  cars;  coal,  58,320  tons; 
gravel,  8  cars ;  lime,  24  barrels ;  tobacco,  400 
pounds;  potatoes,  549  bushels; poultry,  2,550,- 
299  pounds;  eggs,  155,979  dojten';  butter. 

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5i.i»>o  pounds;  taJlow,  21,855  pounds;  hides 
and  pelts,  62,9^2  pounds ;  apples,  790  barrels ; 
ireth  fruit,  908,610  pooiHls;  veg«iab1es,  15400 

f>ountls  ;  meats,  2,215  p'^nn'l^^;  canned  pixids, 
40,ocx)  pounds;  nursery  stock,  9,000  pounds; 
furs,  7,752  pounds;  fttHien,  28,960  pounds. 
Other  articles  exported  were  dressed  meats, 
gfamc,  fii?h,  mol.T^scs,  cider  and  wool.  It  is  a 
niatu:!  iliat  rciuauis  in  obscurity  just  who  was 
the  first  white  man  to  visit  the  territory  now 
Adair  County.  As  near  as  tradition  can  fix. 
the  date  o(  first  settlement  is  1828,  when  a 
number  of  whites  settled  near  tiie  present  site 
of  Kirksvillc.  and  the  little  colony  beratnc 
known  to  the  Indians  as  the  "Cabins  of  W  hite 
Folks."  There  is  little  known  of  the  members 
of  this  colony,  where  they  came  from  or 
whitluT  they  went.  It  is  generally  thoug^lit 
that  they  came  from  Kentucky.  They  were 
in  tlie  settlement  about  a  year  wiien  they  were 
visited  by  a  l^r^c  band  of  Iowa  Indians,  who 
shamefully  abused  the  women  and  committed 
mmieroas  depredations.  The  settlers  not  be- 
inp  of  suflRcient  number  to  protect  tluinselvcs, 
and  becoming  tiioroughly  alarmed,  dispatched 
a  courier  to  the  settlements  fai  Randolph 
County.  On  the  night  of  July  24,  1829,  tlie 
messenger  arrived  at  the  house  of  W  illiam 
Blackwell,  who  resided  about  four  miles  north 
of  the  site  of  Macon  City,  some  fifty  miles 
from  the  "Cabins."  His  story  of  the  Indian 
outrages  passed  quickly  through  the  settle- 
ments, and  before  the  next  evening  a  com- 
pany Itad  been  or<:^nized,  and,  under  com- 
mand ol  Captain  Trammel,  marched  to  a  point 
now  in  Macon  County,  called  tfie  "Grand  Nar- 
row;;," an  opening  in  the  tini!'(  r  bordering  a 
prairie.  There  they  camped  for  the  night, 
and  the  following  day  marched  to  the 
"Cabins,"  a  distance  of  more  than  f.  .rtv  nnk^ 
Tho  next  morning  a  coimcil  was  lu-ld,  and  it 
was  determined  to  request  the  Indians  to  re- 
turn to  their  homes.  A  march  of  several  miles 
was  »)ia<le  to  the  rear  of  the  Indian  encamp- 
ment. A  call  for  an  interpreter  was  made. .  As 
the  Indians  approached,  one  of  the  white  men. 
named  Myers,  who  was  (  no  <f  tlie  olany  at 
the  "Cabins."  shot  and  instantly  killed  an  In- 
dian whom  he  recognized  as  one  who  had 
grossl\  abused  his  wife.  Without  pariey  the 
Indiajis  began  to  "'^ad  their  gnns.  the  squaws 
retreating.  Captain  Trammel  gave  his  men 
orders  to  fire,  which  were  obeyed,  but  his  men, 
not  waiting  to  rel.^nd.  awed  bv  tlie  larcjo  num- 
ber of  the  Indians,  retreated,  followed  for 

some  distance  by  the  Indians.    Going  to  the 
"Cabins,"  the  women  and  children  were  bun- 
dled up,  and  the  party  marched  all  night  and 
part  of  the  next  day,  until  they  reached  a  place 
witliin  five  miles  of  Huntsville.   There  a 
short  rest  was  taken,  after  which  the  women 
and  children  were  sent  to  Howard  Coanty. 
Another  company  of  about  sixty-five  men  was 
organized,  and,  under  command  of  Captain 
Sconce,  returned  to  where  the  battle  with  the 
Indians  had  taken  place.    There  they  found 
the  bodies  of  three  men,  Winn,  Owenly  and 
Myers,  who  had  been  kilted  by  the  Indians, 
.ind  also  the  bodies  of  tlirce  braves.    The  re- 
mains of  tlie  white  men  were  buried,  and  those 
of  the  Indians  were  left  where  they  were 
found.   Returinng  to  Howard  County,  a  regi- 
ment was  formed  and  placed  under  corniTiand 
of  Colonel  John  B.  Clark,  and  an  expedition 
was  made  against  the  Indians,  who  were 
driven  ovtT  into  Iowa  Territory.    The  trouble 
with  the  Indians  prevented  furtlier  attempts 
at  settlement  in  Adair  County  territory  mitil 
the  spring  of  183 1,  when  a  number  of  Ken- 
tuckians  located  upon  land.    Among  these 
settlers  were  John  Stewart,  JcAn  Cain,  An- 
drew Thompson,  Robert  Meyers,  Frayel  Mey- 
ers, Jesse  Jones,  James  A.  Adkins  and  W  ash- 
ington  and  Lewis  Conner.   John  Cain  settled 
about  five  miles  northwest  of  Kirksville ;  the 
Stewarts  about  six  miles  north  of  Kirksville, 
and  near  them  tlie  Adkins  settled ;  Jesse  Jones 
settled  sooth  of  John  Cain,  on  the  Chariton 
River.    On  the  land  located  by  Cain  a  fort 
was  built,  called  Fort  Clark,  after  Colonel 
John  B.  Clerk,  and  one  at  the  headwaters  of 
Salt  River,  in  wliat  is  now  Section  36.  Adair 
County  was  organised  January  2<),  1841,  and 
named  for  a  courty  in  Kentucky,  from  which 
came  nearly  all  the  early  settlers  in  Adair 
C'Muitv  territory.    Tho  cn-arive  act  named 
Jetlcrson  Ct>llins,  of   Lewis  County ;  L.  B. 
Mitchell,  of  Clark,  and  Thomas  Ferrell,  of 
Monroe  County.  comniissioniTS  to  locate  a 
pennanent  seat  of  justice,  and  directed  that  a 
site  be  selected  within  two  and  a  half  miles 
of  the  ci  tiicr  01  tlic  i  >>iuuy.    A  public  meeting 
was  held  at  a  place  about  one  mile  southeast 
of  Kirksville  on  the  day  of  the  first  meeting 
of  the  County  seat  commissii>ners,  and  an  ef- 
fort made  to  have    the   comity  ^tat  located 
there.    Jesse  Kuk  had  settled  on  a  tract  of 
land  now  part  of  the  town  of  Kirks\ille.  He 
had  only  a  settlement  ricrht  to  the  property, 
but  offered  to  donate  fifty  acres  of  the  tract  to 

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tiie  county  for  county  seat  purposes.  His 
offer  was  accepted,  and  the  report  of  tiie  com- 
missioners to  that  effect  was  made  to  the  cir> 
cuit  court,  December  30,  1841.  The  report 
was  not  approved,  as  there  was  no  perfect  title 
to  the  land.  Later  the  tract  was  dtily  entered 
and  the  title  to  the  property  perfoc  ttNl  The 
land  was  laid  out  in  town  lots,  which  were  sold 
att  ptfbtie  auction.  The  first  courthouse  was  a 
log  structure,  and  was  built  during  1843.  and 
first  occupied  in  October  of  tha*  year.  It  oc- 
cupied the  site  where  the  National  Bank  of 
Kirksvillc  now  Stands.  This  building  was 
used  for  about  six  years,  when  it  was  replaced 
by  a  brick  building,  wliich  was  burned  on  the 
night  of  March  35,  1865.  In  this  fire  a  few 
rtvonls  were  burned,  though  there  was  no 
serious  loss  suffered.  From  tbat  time  until 
1898  the  county  -had  no  courthouse,  rooms  for 
coimty  offices  and  court  puq)Oses  being 
rented.  In  1898  a  fine  courthouse  was  com- 
menced, and  completed  in  1899,  aJL  a  cost  of 
$50^000.  It  is  a  beautiful  structure  from  base- 
ment to  roof,  built  of  Ohio  limestone,  and 
finely  tinished  throughout.  It  is  one  of  the 
most  substantial,  artistic  and  best  equipped 
courthouses  in  Missouri.  Prior  to  the  Civil 
War  a  small  jail  was  buih,  and  is  still  in  use. 
The  county  has  a  small  poor  farm.  The  cost 
of  keeping  the  county  f>oor  is  about  $1,000  a 
year.  The  first  circuit  court  for  Adair  County 
was  held  at  the  house  of  John  Cain,  who  lived 
about  five  iniks  northwest  of  the  titt  of  Kirks- 
villc, on  April  23,  1841,  Honoraible  James  A. 
Clark,  presiding  judge,  with  David  James, 
clerk,  and  Isaac  N.  Eby,  sheriff.  The  mon- 
bcrs  of  the  first  grand  jury  were  Jesse  Jones, 
E.  Braggs,  James  A.  Adkins,  John  Warner, 
WilKam  Sholt,  John  Nickel,  Westel  Mason, 
David  Floyd,  Spencer  Googan,  Quitley 
Henry,  William  Hurley  and  Walter  Crocket, 
and  a  few  others  whose  names  are  not  obtatn< 
able  on  account  of  the  partial  burning  of  the 
first  circuit  court  records.  The  first  indict- 
ments returned  were  for  trading  with  Indians, 
playing  cards,  slander,  etc.  The  first  lawyer 
to  he  admitted  to  practice  in  the  rourts  of 
Adair  County  was  E.  Fish,  of  Massacliuselts, 
who  was  granted  permission  to  practice  by 
Judge  Clark  at  the  Aupfust.  1841,  Icnn  of 
court.  From  the  April,  1842,  term  to  Octo- 
ber 30, 1843,  the  circuit  court  met  at  the  house 
of  Jesse  Kirk.  October  30,  1^43.  the  session 
was  opened  in  the  first  courthouse  of  the 
county.   The  members  of  die  first  county 

court  were  Jonathan  Floyd,  Benjamin  Mor- 
row and  one  Wilson.  The  first  meeting  of 
the  county  court  was  hdd  atlhe  house  of  John 
Cain,  and  subsequent  meetings  were  held  at 
the  house  of  Jesse  Kirk  until  the  first  court* 
house  was  finished,  in  1843.  At  the  outbreak 
of  the  Civil  War  the  sympathies  of  the  resi- 
dents of  Adair  County  w<ere  very  nearly  evenly 
divided,  perhaps  wiA  a  slight  majority  in 
favor  of  the  Union.  August  6,  1862,  with  a 
force  of  abom  2,000  men,  Colonel  Porter,  Con- 
federate, took  possession  of  the  town  of 
Kirksvillc.  He  was  pursued  by  McNeil's 
Federal  troops,  and  a  lively  battle  took  place, 
in  which  the  Confederates  were  defeated,  with 
a  loss  of  about  300  men,  in  killed,  wounded 
and  prisoners.  Little  damage  n-suUcd  to  the 
town  during  the  fight.  One  of  Ute  most  awful 
events  in  die  history  of  the  county  was  the 
cyclone  of  .'\pril  27.  1899,  which  passed  over 
the  central  part  of  the  county,  leaving  death 
and  destruction  in  its  path.  The  frightful 
storm  caused  the  loss  of  forty-two  lives  in 
Kirksvillc  and  the  surrounding  country,  and 
destroyed  property  to  the  extent  of  nearly  half 
a  million  dollars.  Recovery  from  the  effects 
of  this  calamity  was  rapid,  and  while  there 
were  left  many  sorrowing  hearts,  a  united  ef- 
fort was  made  to  rebuild  the  shattered  homes, 
and  in  less  tlian  a  year  all  evidence  of  the  work 
of  tlie  cyclone  was  wiped  out.  Adair  County 
is  divided  into  ten  townships,  named,  respec- 
tively, Benton,  Clay,  Liberty.  Morrow,  Nine- 
veh, Pettis,  Polk,  Salt  River,  Walnut  and  Wil- 
son. The  assessed  value  of  real  estate  and 
town  lots  in  the  county  in  l8</)  was  $3,656,- 
200;  estimated  full  value,  $10,500,000:  as- 
sessed value  of  personal  property,  including 
stocks,  bonds,  etc.,  $1,302,935;  estimated  full 
value,  $2.^>fj5.?5o ;  value  of  railroads,  $5'')5,- 
301.  There  are  sixty-six  miles  of  railroad  in 
tiie  county,  the  Wabash  passing  through  near 
the  center  from  north  to  soutfi;  the  Omaha. 
Kansas  City  &  Eastern,  from  east  to  west, 
and  the  Atchison,  Topeko  &  Santa  Fe,  cross- 
ing the  southeastern  comer.  The  number  of 
schools  in  the  county  in  1899  was  78;  teachers 
employed,  115;  pupils  enumerated,  6,457 ;  per- 
nument  school  fund,  $30,$74jgg.  The  popula- 
tion in  1900  was  21.726. 

Adamiif  Ctaarleff  B.,  lawyer,  was  bom 

Aucfust  26,  i86r,  in  Boonville,  Mt.';si->uri.  ITis 
father,  Andrew  Adams,  came  to  Missouri  from 
his  native  State,  Kentucky,  in  1812,  and 

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located  in  Howard  County,  near  Rocheport. 
There  he  resided  for  a  number  of  years,  and 
finaUy  engaged  in  the  Santa  Fe  trade,  then  so 
lucrative  a  calling.  This  line  of  business,  to- 
gether with  merchandising  in  Old  Mexico, 
eonsumed  about  twenty  years  of  hit  active  life, 
at  the  end  of  which  time  he  returned  to  Mis- 
souri and  located  at  Boonville.  There  he  died, 
in  1887.  Mr.  Adams'  mother,  whose  maiden 
nme  was  Sarah  Floumoy.  was  born  at  Inde- 
pendence! Missouri^  and  came  from  one  of  the 
oldest  and  most  prominent  funilies  in  the 
western  part  of  the  State.  The  father  of  An- 
drew Adams,  who  was  a  native  of  Virginia, 
where  the  family  lived  in  Colonial  days,  emi- 
grated to  Kentucky  and  married  a  sister  of 
Chief  Justice  Boyle,  of  that  State.  Washing- 
ton Adams,  a  well  known  lawyer  of  Kansas 
City,  is  a  brother  of  the  subject  of  these  lines. 
Charles  B.  Adams  attended  Hayncs  Academy, 
at  Boonville,  Missouri,  and  graduated  from 
tiiat  institatlon  in  18B0.  He  then  entered  the 
law  department  of  the  University  of  Virginia, 
and  received  his  diploma  from  that  institution 
in  1885.  He  removed  at  once  to  Kansas  City, 
Missouri,  where  he  arrived  in  September  of 
the  year  last  named,  and  has  since  been  a  resi- 
dent of,  and  practitioner  in,  that  city.  He  was 
first  associaied  with  hts  brother,  Washington 
Adams,  who  was  then  city  counselor  of  Kan- 
sas City.  This  business  relation  continued 
two  years,  at  the  end  of  which  time  Charles  B. 
Adams  opened  an  office  for  the  practice  of  law 
alone.  In  1889  formed  a  copartnership 
with  E.  E.  Porteriield,  which  existed  three 
years.  At  the  end  of  that  time  Mr.  Adams 
became  associated  witli  N.  F.  Heitman,  of 
Kansas  City,  and  they  practiced  together  for 
three  years,  after  which  he  again  associated 
himself  with  his  brother.  They  are  now  to- 
gether in  the  conduct  of  much  of  their  legal 
business,  and  a  strong  combination  of  talent 
and  ability  is  the  result.  Mr.  Adams  has  a 
general  practice  along  civil  lines.  Politically 
he  is  a  Democrat,  but  takes  no  active  part  in 
party  affairs.  He  is  identified  with  the  Pres- 
byterian Church,  in  which  faith  he  was  raised ; 
is  a  member  of  the  order  of  Modem  Wood- 
men of  America,  the  Kansas  Oty  Bar  Asso- 
ciation, and  other  wholesome  organizations 
of  benefit  to  the  individual  and  tiie  com- 
munity. Although  not  old  in  years,  Mr. 
Adams  ranks  with  the  most  able  lawvers  in 
Kansas  City,  is  a  willing  supporter  of  public 
emerpriscst  and,  wifhal,  a  loyal  supporter  of 

his  city,  his  State  and  everjlhing  pertaining  to 
the  Commonwealth's  best  interests. 

Adams,  Elmer  B.,  lawyer  and  jurist, 
was  born  October  27,  1842,  in  the  town  of 
Pomfret,  Windsor  County,  Vermont,  son  of 
Jarvis  and  Eunice  (Mitchell)  Adams.  He  is 
a  Uncal  descendant  of  that  Henry  Adams  who 
recehred  a  grant  of  forty  acres  of  land  in  Brtdn- 
trce,  Massachusetts,  in  the  year  1636,  and 
soon  afterward  emigrated  from  Devonshire, 
England,  with  his  eight  sons,  thus  becoming 
the  American  progenitor  of  the  distinguished 
family  which  has  given  to  the  country  two 
Presidents  of  the  United  States  and  surpassed 
all  other  American  families  in  the  mmiber  of 
its  illustrious  rei>r(*sentatives.  Reared  in 
New  England,  Judge  Adams  was.  fitted  for 
college  at  Kimball  Union  Academy,  of  Meri- 
dcn,  New  Hampshire,  and  w.'is  graduated  from 
Yale  College  with  ttie  degree  of  bachelor  of 
arts  in  the  class  of  1865.  Soon  after  his  grad- 
uation he  was  commissioned  by  certain 
wealthy  and  philanthropic  citizens  of  New 
York  and  Philadelphia  to  travel  through  the 
Southern  States — then  sufTtTing  from  the 
blighting  effects  of  the  Civil  War — to  establish 
a  system  of  free  schools  to  be  devoted  to  the 
education  of  the  children  of  the  indigent  white 
people  of  that  region.  Under  these  auspices 
he  erected  schoolhouscs,  employed  teachers 
and  inaugurated  schools,  which  were  sup- 
portcil  for  a  year  by  the  contributions  of  the 
New  York  and  Philadelphia  people.  Return- 
ing to  Vermont  in  1866,  he  l)egan  the  study 
of  law  under  the  preceptorship  of  Governor 
P.  T.  Washburn  and  C.  P.  Marsh — \)nrh  emi- 
nent lawyers,  practicing  togetlier  at  that  time 
in  WoodsttKk — and  also  attended  a  course  of 
lectures  at  Harvard  Law  School.  He  was 
admitted  to  the  bar  in  Vermont  in  1868,  and, 
coming  to  Missouri  immediatdy  afterward, 
was  admitted  also  to  the  bar  of  this  State. 
Entering  upon  the  practice  of  his  profession 
in  St.  Louis,  his  scholarly  attainments  and  evi- 
dent  ability  and  force  of  character  soon  gained 
due  recognition,  and  as  a  practitioner  he  en- 
joyed a  large  measure  of  success.  From  1872 
until  1879  he  was  associated  professionally 
with  Major  Bradley  D.  Lee,  their  partnership 
being  dissolved  by  his  election  to  the  circuit 
court  bench  in  the  autumn  of  the  year  last 
named.  He  had  been  a  mesnber  of  the  St. 
Louis  bar  and  in  active  practice  something 
more  than  ten  years  when  he  was  made  the 

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candidate  of  his  party  for  the  circuit  judge- 
ship, and  at  the  election  following  he  was 
chosen  over  Judge  David  Wagner,  an  ex- 
judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Missouri. 
Taking  his  place  upon  the  bcncli,  the  youngest 
member  of  the  judiciary  of  St.  Louis,  his  phys- 
ical and  mental  vigor  supplemented  a  broad 
knowledge  of  the  underlying  principles  of 
jurisprudence  and  thorough  familiarity  with 
the  forms  and  processes  of  Isiw  in  such  a  way 
as  to  make  his  services  to  the  puhlic  pt'ciiliarly 
valuable  as  a  judicial  oihcer.    While  on  the 
State  circuit  bench,  certain  cases  involving 
the  validity  of  laws  providing  for  the  collec- 
tion of  delinquent  taxes  and  for  winding  up 
the  affairs  of  insolvent  insurance  companies 
came  before  him  for  adjudication,  which  at- 
tracted general  attention.    In  dealing:  with 
these  cases,  judge  Adams  evidenced  profound 
research  and  legal  acumen,  settling  principlet 
of  law  which  had  not  previously  been  passed 
upon  by  the  courts,  and  establishing  prcc*:- 
dents  irfiicli  )iave  been  far-reaching  in  their 
consequences.    .Admirably  systematic  in  his 
methods,  and  having  the  happy  faculty  of 
facilitating  to  the  greatest  extent  possible  the 
business  of  the  courts,  he  established  an  en- 
viable reputation  during  the  six  years  of  his 
term  of  service  upon  the  circuit  bench,  and 
was  pressed  to  stand  for  re-election,  but  pre- 
fcrrpfi  to  rHtirn  to  the  practice  of  law.  I'pnn 
his  retirement  from  the  judgeship  he  became 
«  member  of  the  law  firm  of  Boyle,  Adams  ft 
McKeicrhan,  succeeded  seven  years  lattT  by 
the  law  firm  of  Boyle  &  Adams,  both  regarded 
■s  among  the  stroagest  law  firms  in  the  State. 
After  an  interval  of  ten  years— during  which 
he  appeared  as  counselor  and  advocate  in 
many  of  the  most  important  cases  tried  in  the 
State  and  Federal  courts  of  Missouri  and  en- 
joyed a  lucrative  practice — he  was  again  called 
to  the  exercise. of  judicial  functions,  which  his 
tastes  and  temperaunent  render  peculiarly 
agreeable  to  him.    In  1895  President  Cleve- 
land appointed  him  United  States  district 
judge  for  the  Eastern  District  of  Missouri) 
and  as  a  member  of  the  United  States  judi- 
ciary he  has  gained  additional  renown  as  an 
able,  impartial  and  aecomplidMd  jurist.  Stu- 
dious, painstaking  and  thorough  in  his  re- 
searclies,  lie  brings  to  bear  upon  problems 
presented  to  him  for  solution  a  clear  conceo- 
tion  of  the  principles  of  law  ^plicable  thereto, 
aptness  in  analyzing  the  issues  involved  and  a 
determination  to  spare  no  effort  to  reach  cor- 

rect conclusions.  Fearless  in  the  discharge 
of  his  duties,  clear  and  incisive  in  his  state- 
ments of  legal  proi)ositions  and  prompt  in  his 
ruKngs,  his  conduct  of  the  business  of  the 
court  over  which  he  presides  commends  him 
to  lawyers  and  litigants  alike,  and  a  demeanor 
always  as  courteous  as  it  is  dignified  is  a 
charming  characteristic  of  his  judicial  mien. 
He  is  a  Presbyterian  churchman,  and  has  been 
identified  with  the  most  prominent  dubs  of 
St.  Louis  in  a  social  way.  lie  married,  in 
1870,  Miss  Emma  U.  Richmond,  like  himself 
a  native  of  Venn<mt,  Woodstock  having  been 
the  place  of  her  birth. 

Adams,  Oeorpro,  physician,  was  bom 
February  22,  1865,  in  Riciiland  County,  Illi- 
nois, son  of  Dr.  John  K.  and  Martha  (Snyder) 
Adams.  The  elder  Dr.  Adams  removed  to 
Poplar  Bluff,  Missouri,  in  the  year  1878,  and 
for  twenty  years  thereafter  was  one  of  the 
prominent  medical  practitioners  of  that  por- 
tion of  the  State.  Dr.  George  Adams,  the  son. 
was  born  to  the  inheritance  of  a  fondness  for 
the  medical  profession,  and  all  his  early  train- 
ing was  conducive  to  the  development  of  hit 
natural  tastes.  From  early  boyhood  he 
passed  much  of  his  time  in  his  father's  office, 
and  it  never  occurred  to  him  that  he  should  be 
anything  else  than  a  doctor  when  he  grew  to 
manhood  As  a  natural  consequence,  his  ed- 
ucation was  designed  to  fit  him  for  this  calling, 
and  the  lines  followed  all  tended  in  this  direc- 
tion. After  completing  his  academic  educa- 
tion, he  matriculated  in  Missouri  Medical  Col- 
lege of  St.  Louis,  and  was  graduated  from 
that  institution  with  high  honors  at  the  age  of 
twenty  years  and  in  the  class  of  1885.  Imme- 
diately after  his  graduation  from  the  medical 
college,  he  returned  to  Poplar  Bluffs  and  be- 
gan the  practice  of  the  profession  for  which 
he  had  so  well  fitted  himself,  as  an  associate  of 
his  father.  Within  a  short  time  thereafter  the 
elder  I'tr  .Xdarns  retired  from  active  profes- 
sional labor  and  turned  over  to  his  son  the 
large  practice  which  he  had  built  up,  and 
which,  for  a  time,  they  continued  together. 
Smcc  then  Dr.  George  Adams  has  been  one 
of  the  most  active  and  successful  praetitiQiiers 
of  southeast  Missouri,  and  is  recognized,  both 
by  his  professional  brethren  and  the  general 
public,  as  a  physician  of  superior  attainments, 
high  character  and  conscientious  devotion  to 
his  calling.  A  member  of  the  Republican 
party,  he  has  at  times  taken  a  somewhat  active 

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interest  in  politics,  and  has  served  as  chair- 
man of  the  Republican  County  Central  Com- 
fiiittc«  of  Btttler  County.  He  was  also  put 
forward  at  one  time  as  the  candidate  of  his 
party  for  representative  in  the  General  Assem- 
bly from  that  county,  but  the  Democrats  being 
Ivgely  in  die  majority,  he  was  defeated.  He 
is  a  member  of  the  Benevolent  and  Protective 
Order  of  Elks,  holding  membership  with  the 
lod^e  of  that  order  at  Texarkana,  Arkansas. 
In  February  of  1886  Dr.  .Xdams  married  Miss 
Lizzie  I'erguson,  who  belongs  to  one  of  the 
prominent  families  of  Butler  County*  Mis- 
souri.  Their  children  are  Roscoe,  (Charles 
and  Clara  Adams. 

Adnnis,  Caeorgro  C,  who  was  for  more 
than  a  decade  one  of  the  leading  ministers  of 
St.  Louis,  was  born  and  reared  in  Now  Eng- 
land, and  was  graduated  from  Amiicrst  Col- 
lege. Tic  then  ramr  west  and  filled  pastorates 
at  Ilillsboro  and  Alton,  Illinois,  until  1881. 
In  that  year  he  came  to  St.  Louis  as  pastor 
of  Tabernacle  Congregational  Church,  and 
later  was  pastor  of  Compton  Hill  Church,  of 
the  same  denomination,  until  iBgiSt  when  he 
accepted  a  call  to  one  of  the  leading  Congre- 
gational churches  of  San  Francisco,  Califor- 

AdaiiiSt  Robert,  Jr.,  lawyer  and  mem- 
ber of  the  bar  of  Kansas  City,  is  a  nartive  of 
the  State  of  New  York.  In  young  manhood 
he  went  to  Chicago,  Illinois,  where  lie  spent 
some  time  in  literary  studies.  He  afterward 
acquired  considerable  knowledge  of  law  in  the 
office  r>f  .1  relative,  F.mory  A.  Storrs,  for  many 
years  one  of  the  most  conspicuous  lawyers  at 
tfie  Illinois  bar.  Upon  the  opening  of  Ae 
Civil  War  he  entered  the  Twenty-third  Regi- 
ment Illinois  Vtrfunteers,  in  which  he  ser\'ed 
as  captain  of  Company  C.  With  his  regiment, 
commanded  by  Colonel  Mulligan,  he  partici- 
pated in  the  battle  of  Lexington,  Missouri. 
In  1862  he  was  commissioned  assistant  adju- 
tant general,  with  the  rank  of  captain,  but  had 
the  unique  experience  of  performing  no  scr\'- 
ice  in  his  department  of  the  staR  corps,  being 
immedtatdy  assigned,  by  a  special  order  of 
Sfcretary  of  War  Stanton,  to  duty  in  tlu"  judge 
advocate  general's  department,  in  which  he 
served  until  the  close  of  ^e  war.  His  first 
duty  was  in  the  Department  of  West  Virginia, 
on  the  staff  nfGencralt"rrH»k  :  at)d  afterward  in 
Louisiana,  on  the  staff  of  General  Sheridan. 

He  accompanied  the  last  named  officer  to  the 
Rio  Grande  River,  where  was  massed  an 
American  Army  on  account  of  the  French  in- 
trigues in  Mexico,  and  ho  was  not  nuistcred 
out  of  service  until  1867,  when  the  emergency 
had  passed.  While  stationed  at  Wheeling. 
West  Virginia,  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar, 
and  immediately  upon  leaving  the  army  he 
located  at  Pleasant  Hill,  Missouri,  and  en- 
tered upon  the  practice  of  his  profession.  In 
1875  he  was  appointed  an  attorney  for  the 
Missouri  Pacific  Railway  Company,  and  he 
sustained  that  relation  with  it  for  more  than 
twenty-two  years,  his  flutics  calling  him  .Tt 
various  times  to  all  portions  of  the  country 
traversed  by  the  Western  Division  of  the  road. 
In  1897  he  relinquished  liis  jX)sition  with  the 
company,  since  which  time  he  has  carried  ou 
a  general  practice.  Captain  Adams  holds 
membership  with  the  Missouri  Comniandery 
of  the  Mi!itar\  <  Irder  of  the  Loynl  Legion, 
and  witii  l  arragut- Thomas  Post,  (irand  .\rn)y 
of  the  Republic.  He  married,  in  October, 
186.4,  Miss  Josephine  Magill,  of  Westmore- 
land County,  Pennsylvania.  Politically  Mr. 
Adams  has  always  been  a  Republican. 

Adams,  Wasliiugtoii,  lawyer  and  judge 
of  the  Supreme  Court  of  Missouri,  was  born 
in  Todd  County,  Kentucky,  in  1814,  and  died 

at  Boonville,  Missouri.  May  7,  1883.  He 
came  to  Missouri  about  1838,  and  locatcti  at 
Boonville.  His  talents  and  learning  brought 
him  info  protniiience,  even  among  the  bril- 
liant lawyers  and  public  men  at  that  time  com- 
posing the  bar  of  central  Missouri,  and  he 
took  rank  with  the  best  of  them.  In  187 (  he 
was  appointed  by  Governor  Brown,  judge  of 
the  Supreme  Court  of  the  State  in  place  of 
Warren  Currier,  who  resigned.  At  the  fol- 
lowing election,  in  187J,  he  was  elected  to  till 
out  the  term.  He  held  tho  position  until  1874, 
when  he  resigned.  In  1875  he  was  elected  a 
memhiT  of  the  Constitutional  ( Vmvention,  and 
took  a  full  part  in  the  work  of  framing  the 
Constitution  of  1875. 

Adams,  Washington,  lawyer,  was  born 
in  Boonville.  Missouri,  April  16,  1849.  His 

mother  was  .Sarah  Flonrnoy.  of  Independence, 
and  his  father,  Andrew  Adams,  who  was 
known  as  an  enterprising  Santa  Fe  trader,  who 

penetrated  Mexico  as  far  as  Chihualiua.  was 

usually  sttccossfnl  and  ac(|nirt'(I  a  cnmprtencv, 
so  that  he  retired  to  spend  his  old  age  in  peace 

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and  en?c.  He  had  nine  children,  six  of  whom 
were  living  in  1900.  Washington  Adams,  the 
uncle  of  oar  subject,  was  one  of  Missouri's 
gfreat  lawyers,  and  was,  for  many  years,  a 
judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  tliis  Stale.  His 
mother  was  the  sister  of  Giief  Justice  Boyle, 
of  Kentucky.  After  takingf  a  prcparatcwy 
course  at  KtMn])cr  Schon!,  at  Iloonvillo,  the 
younger  Washington  Adams  entered  tlic  Uni- 
versity of  Virginia.  He  graduated  from  part 
of  its  literary  course,  and  also  from  the  junior 
course  in  law,  in  1869.  Retuniing  then  to 
Boonville,  he  read  law  for  a  year  in  the  office 
of  his  uncle,  Judge  Wa.shini:^ton  Adams,  and 
was  admitted  to  the  bar.  He  went  to  Kansas 
Gty  in  1870,  and  established  a  good  practice. 
In  1874  and  1875  he  was  elected  dty  attorney. 
He  was  twice  appotnte<l  city  cwmselor,  first 
in  1880,  and  again  in  1884.  The  county  court 
appCMnted  him  county  counsehir  in  January, 
l80I,  and  hv  was  reappointed  two  years  later. 
Pf^tttcally  he  is  a  sound-money  Democrat.  \s 
a  member  of  the  bar  he  is  wdl  grounded  in 
die  principles  of  the  law,  and  as  an  all-around 
tewyer  takes  high  rank  in  the  prafesnon  in 
Kaosas  City.  For  years  he  has  enjoyed  a 
large  practice  in  tiie  Federal  courts.  On  June 
5,  1877,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Ella  B.  Lin- 
coln, of  Platlsburg,  she  being  a  daughter  of 
John  K.  Uncoln,  a  prominent  farmer  of  Clin- 
ton County,  and  a  distant  relative  of  Abraham 
Lincoln.  They  have  but  one  child,  a  son, 
John  W.,  a  graduate  of  the  Kansas  City  High 
School,  class  of  1900,  who  expects  to  enter 
Harvard  University. 

Adaiii»,  Willinm  Brown,  physician, 
was  born  October  28, 1818,  at  Florissant,  Mis- 
souri, son  of  Burwell  B.  and  Harriet  (Allen) 
Adams.  His  grandfather.  William  Adams, 
removed  from  Virginia  to  Missouri,  and  was 
one  of  the  pioneers  who  helped  to  lay  the 
fonndaticm  of  the  present  Commonwealth. 
Btirwell  B.  Adams  was  born  in  Virginia,  in 
1794,  and  died  in  Danville,  Missouri,  in  1876. 
He  was  a  man  of  steriing  integrity  and  re- 
markable strength  of  character.  During  the 
War  of  181 2  he  served  in  the  Patriot  Anny,  in 
the  company  commanded  by  Captain  (after- 
ward Judge)  Beverly  Tucker.  In  1816  he 
came  to  Missouri  with  old  command<*r, 
and  for  some  years  afterward  was  in  his  em- 
ploy. For  several  years  he  lived  near  Pond 
Fort,  in  St.  Charles  County,  removing  from 
there  to  Franklin  County,  in  1823,  and  in  1844 

to  Montgomery  County.  Dr.  William  R. 
Adams  was  of  an  inquiring  turn  of  mind  from 
Ms  youth  up,  and  was  never  quite  saiHsfied 
to  accept  any  statement  as  correct  until  he  had 
satisfied  himself  beyond  doubt  that  it  should 
be  so  accepted.  His  friends  used  to  relate,  as 
an  amusing  instance  of  this  il:si><  isition  on  his 
part,  an  incident  of  his  early  boyhood.  His 
father  returned  one  day  from  a  camp  meeiuig, 
which  was  being  held  in  the  neighborhood  of 
their  home,  and  announced  his  conversion  and 
his  determination  to  live  thereafter  a  religious 
life.  The  boy  was  told  by  his  mother  that  his 
father  wa.s  ji^oing  to  be  a  good  man,  and  that 
he  would  not  hear  him  swear  any  more»  pro- 
fanity having  theretofore  been  one  of  the 
weaknesses  of  the  elder  Adams.  This  state- 
ment the  youth  took  with  some  gTain,<:  of  al- 
lowance, and  when,  on  the  following  da\ ,  his 
father  began  plowing  a  piece  of  new  land,  he 
resolved  to  follmv  him  and  note  the  character 
of  his  remarks  when  provoked  by  such  diffi- 
culties as  he  know  wotfld  be  encoantered.  All 
day  he  followed  the  rltlcr  .\tlams.  but  not  a 
single  oath  did  he  hear,  and  the  result  was 
that  he  was  fully  convinced  tiiat  a  man  who 
could  plow  around  stumps  and  roots  such  as 
the  farmers  of  that  day  and  region  had  to 
contend  with,  without  swearing,  must  have 
experienced  a  great  change  of  heart.  The 
mother  of  Dr.  Adams  was  a  daughter  of  John 
Allen,  who  came  from  Connecticut,  and  was 
also  a  Missouri  pioneer.  In  the  early  settle* 
ment  in  which  they  lived  she  was  the  only 
woman  whom  Dr.  Adams  remembered  who 
was  not  a  tobacco  smoker.  Dr.  Adams  passed 
his  boyhood  in  Franklin  County,  and  all  his 
early  recollections  were  of  pioneer  life.  His 
home  was  a  log  cabin,  and  his  sleeping  room 
was  the  cabin  loft,  into  which  the  snow  sifted 
in  winter  time,  and  the  sunshine  crept  through 
cracks  in  the  roof  and  walls  in  the  summer 
time.  Much  of  his  boyhood  was  spent  In  as- 
sisting his  mother,  and  many  evenings  were 
passed  in  picking  over  the  cotton  which  at 
that  time  was  grown  in  considerable  quantities 
in  Franklin  Crviintv  He  obtained  his  rudi- 
mentary education  in  the  common  schools  of 
Franklin  County*  and  when  nineteen  years  of 
age  entered  Marion  College.  After  si)rit  ling 
two  and  a  hdf  years  at  this  institution,  he  be- 
gan the  study  of  medicine  in  the  oflRce  of  Dr. 
J.  I.  T.  Mcllroy,  who  was  then  the  leading 
physician  of  Ralls  County,  Missouri.  In  1844 
he  entered  McDowell  Medical  College  of  St. 

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Louis,  and  was  graduated  with  the  first  class 
sent  out  from  that  institution,  in  1846.  After 
completing  his  medical  studies  he  located  at 
Danville,  Missmiri,  and  practiced  there  until 
1881.  In  that  year  he  removed  to  Montgom- 
ery County,  where  he  has  since  resided.  Not- 
withstanding  the  fact  that  his  ancestors  came 
from  one  of  the  old  slave  States,  and  he  him- 
self lived  in  a  slave  State  tip  to  the  time  the 
institution  of  slavery  passed  out  of  existence, 
he  was  opposed  to  slavery,  and  when  the  Re- 
publican party  was  organized  he  became  an 
active  member  of  the  new  party.  When  the 
issues  of  the  Civil  War  period  arrayed  Missou- 
rians  against  each  other  he  was  compelled  for 
a  time  to  leave  Montgomery  County,  his  life 
being^  endangered  on  account  of  his  pro- 
nounced loyalty  and  devoticMi  to  the  Union. 
During  the  early  part  of  the  war  be  was  ex- 
amining  physician  in  connrction  with  the  en- 
rollment of  Union  volunteers,  and  later  was 
appohited  a  member  ol  the  Board  of  Enroll- 
ment for  the  Ninth  Congressional  District. 
Still  later  he  became  provost  marshal  for  the 
district,  with  headquarters  first  at  Mexico, 
Missouri,  and  afterward  at  St.  Charles  In 
1864  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  State 
Constitutional  Convention,  called  to  revise  the 
orgaxuc  law  of  tiie  State  asid  place  its  govem- 
ment  under  the  control  of  its  loyal  citizens. 
After  the  war  he  was  elected  a  member  oi 
the  Missouri  House  of  Representatives  from 

M'lnf irotnery  County,  and  in  1866  was  chosen 
a  member  of  the  State  Senate  to  represent  the 
district  composed  of  Pike,  Montgomery  and 
Lincoln  Counties.  During  this  troublous 
period,  and  also  during  the  war  period,  he  was 
noted  for  his  fearlessness  in  giving  expression 
to  his  sentiments  and  convictions,  and  in 
championing  the  cause  of  national  supremacy 
and  the  preservation  of  the  Union.  He  be- 
came a  member  of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in 
early  life,  and  a  member  of  the  Masonic  order. 
February  17,  1852,  Dr.  Adams  married  Miss 
Susan  Bass  Drury,  daughter  of  Charles  John- 
ston and  SallieAnn  (Wiseman)  Drury.  Mrs.  Ad- 
ams' father  first  settled  in  Loutre  Lick,  where 
he  cnjraged  in  merchandising.  He  removed  to 
Danv  illc,  Missouri,  in  1834,  and  there  opened, 
in  a  log  house,  the  first  store  in  the  place. 
Susan  B.  (Drury)  Adams  was  the  first  child 
bom  in  Danville,  Missouri,  and  was  the  great- 
great-granddaughter  of  Colonel  Charles  John- 
ston, who,  with  eleven  men,  captured,  at  the 
battle  of  Bennington,  Vermont,  a  company  of 

British  soldiers.  The  sword  carried  by  the 
Captain  of  that  British  company  is  still  in  pos- 
session of  Colonel  Johnston's  descendants,  and 
was  exhibited  at  the  centenni.1l  anniversary  of 
the  battle  oi  Bennington.  The  children  born 
to  Dr.  and  Mrs.  Adams  were  Charles  Johnston 
Drury  Adams,  Julia  A.  Adams,  who  married 
S.  P.  Fish;  Mary  Hope  Adams,  Leigh  Hunt 
Adams,  William  Brown  Adams,  Jr.,  and 
Ernest  Raymond  Adams. 


Adams,  W.     was  bom  March  13,  1836, 

within  two  miles  of  his  present  home,  at  Atil- 
erton,  Jackson  County,  Missouri.  His  par- 
ents were  Lyncliburg  and  Elizabeth  Adams, 
the  first  born  near  Lynchburg.  Virginia,  and 
the  latter  born  in  Missouri.  The  parents  of 
Lynchburg  Adams,  with  eight  children,  re- 
moved, in  i8s»,  to  Missouri,  and  made  their 
home  at  Fort  Osage,  on  the  site  of  the  present 
town  of  Sibley.  The  son,  W.  C,  attended  a 
subscription  school  until  he  was  seventeen 
years  of  age,  and  then  took  courses  in  Chapel 
Hill  College,  and  William  Jewell  College,  at 
Liberty.  His  studies  in  the  latter  institution 
ceased  with  its  close  on  account  of  the  Kansas 
border  troubles.  He  spent  two  succcediTig 
years  u|}on  the  home  fann,  and  again  entered 
Chapel  Hill  College,  in  which  he  was  a  student 
until  its  suspension.  For  eleven  months  he 
taught  sdiool,  a  part  of  the  time  near  Lee's 
Stnnmit  At  the  beginning  of  the  Chril  War 
he  entered  the  Confederate  Army,  and  served 
until  the  surrender  under  tlie  command  of  Gen- 
erals Price,  Bragg,  Jolinson,  Beauregard  and 
Hood,  holding  the  rank  tirst  of  first  lieutenant, 
and  then  of  captain.  He  was  twice  wounded 
in  action,  and  was  twice  made  prisoner ;  ten 
months  of  his  imprisonment  were  passed  at 
Johnson's  Island.  He  was  originally  a  Dem- 
ocrat, and  acted  with  that  party  until  1876, 
when  he  voted  for  Peter  Cooper.  In  1880  he 
affiliated  with  the  Greenback  party,  and  was 
elected  to  the  General  Assembly,  where  his 
service  was  distingmshed  by  high  ability  and 
sincerity  of  purpose.  He  has  always  been  an 
earnest  advocate  of  popular  education,  and 
during  the  greater  part  of  his  later  life  has 
served  as  a  school  director,  and  as  president  of 
the  School  Board.  He  is  a  consistent  mem- 
ber of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Churcli,  South. 
His  interest  in  agriculture  led  him  to  eariy 
membership  in  the  Grange  and  the  Farmers' 
Alliance,  and  his  zeal  and  ability  gave  him 
prominence  as  a  leader  in  both  these  orden. 

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He  u'as  married,  in  April,  1868,  to  Miss  Jane 
Herd,  a  daughter  of  Jesse  Herd.  Four  chil- 
dren were  bom  of  this  marriage,  Edward  L., 
Susan  E.,  Dora  M.,  and  Charles  F.  Adams. 
His  wife  having  died,  in  1884  he  married  Mrs. 
Fannie  Jepson.  Six  children  were  bom  of 
tfiis  marriage,  Jessie  H.,  James  W.,  Mary  H., 
John  Q.,  Pauline  Ruth  and  George  Carroll 
Adams.  Captain  Adams  is  highly  esteemed 
for  his  many  good  qualities,  and  enjoys  the 
confidence  and  respect  of  tiie  excellent  com- 
munity in  which  he  has  passed  his  life.  While 
his  effort  has  been  constantly  given  to  farai- 
tng,  he  is  a  man  of  studious  habits,  and  his 
mind  is  richly  stored  with  information  derived 
from  close  and  intelligent  applicatioti  to  the 
works  of  tlie  best  autibors,  as  well  as  to  the 
narrative  of  current  events. 


Admlnlslrratloii. — The   settlingr  up 

Of  management  of  the  estate  of  a  drcensed 
perKMi.  It  may  be  done  by  an  executor  named 
io  the  win  of  die  deceased  person,  or  by  an 
administrator  appointed  by  the  probate  court, 
where  there  is  no  will.  Their  duties  are  sim- 
ilar, and  consist  in  the  collecting  of  debts  due 
to  the  estate,  the  payment  of  debts  owed  by 
the  estate  and  legacies,  and  the  distribution 
of  property  among  the  heirs.  The  Missouri 
1am  on  the  subject  of  administration  is  com- 
prehensive and  minute.  If  there  is  a  will  it 
must  be  subjected  to  the  probate  court  and 
proved.  Then  follows  a  public  notice  to  cred- 
itors, whose  claims  must  be  presented  in  two 
years ;  the  inventory  of  all  property,  real  and 
personal,  'belonging  to  the  deceased  at  the  time 
of  his  desth,  and  the  appraisement  of  the  per- 
sonal property,  made  by  three  disinterested 
householders — the  inventory  and  appraise- 
ment to  be  filed  in  the  clerk's  office  of  the  pro- 
bate court  within  sixty  days  from  the  granting 
of  letters  of  administration.  Perishable  prop- 
erty inttst  be  sold,  and  other  personal  property 
also,  if  need  be,  and  all  debts  and  legacies  paid. 
Executors  and  administrators  are  required  to 
make  annual  settlements  until  the  estate  is 
finally  settled,  and  when  all  the  available  assets 
ol  the  estate  have  been  collected,  and  all  debts 
paid,  a  final  settlement  should  be  made,  pre- 
vious notice  of  which  must  have  been  irivcn  in 
a  newspaper.  If  there  be  minor  children,  and 
guardians  are  appointed,  they,  also,  must 
make  annual  settlements  until  the  ward  k 
twenty-one  years  of  age,  or,  if  a  female,  until 
she  is  eighteen  years  of  age,  or  marries,  when 


the  guardian  makes  final  settlement  and  is 


Administrator*— An  official  appointed 

by  a  probate  court  to  administer  on  the  estate 
of  a  person  who  dies  intestaite;  that  is,  with- 
out leaving  a  will.  The  administrator  thus 
appointed  is  usually  some  one  interested  in  the 
estate,  the  widow,  or  husband,  or  smi,  or  near 
relative  of  the  deceased.  If  a  woman,  she  is 
called  administratrix.  The  difference  between 
an  administrator  and  an  executor  is  that  the 
former  is  appointed  by  the  probate  court,  and 
distributes  the  estate  according  to  the  laws  of 
the  State ;  the  latter  is  appointed  by  the  will  of 
the  deceased  person,  and  distributes  the  estate 
according  to  the  will. 

AdministratortPublic— A  coumy  (in 
St  Loois  city)  official  ^o  has  dnrge  of  the 

settlement  of  all  estates  where  there  is  no  will 
with  an  executor  named,  and  of  estates  in 
which  no  penoa  entitled  to  the  privilege  ap- 
plies for  the  administration. 

Adreon,  Edward  Lawrence,  manu- 
facturer and  ex-city  comptroller  of  St.  Louis, 
was  born  in  that  city,  DecembtT  2_^,  1847,  son 
of  Dr.  Stephen  W.  Adreon.  lie  was  reared 
in  the  city  and  educated  at  Wyman's  City 
University,  in  its  day  the  leading  private  edu- 
cational institution  of  St.  Louis.  After  leav- 
ing sdvool  he  was  appointed  to  a  position  in 
the  office  of  the  city  comptroller,  where  his 
merits  gained  for  him  promotion,  from  time  to 
time,  trough  six  successive  administrations 
of  varying  politics.  At  the  end  of  that  time 
his  thorough  knowledge  of  all  the  affairs  of 
the  comptroller's  office  and  his  eminent  fit- 
ness for  the  position  caused  him  to  be  nomi- 
nated on  the  Republican  ticket  for  city  comp- 
troller, and  at  the  ensuing  election  he  was 
chosen  to  that  office.  Altering  apon  the  dis^ 
charge  of  his  duties  in  this  connection,  in 
1877,  re-elected  at  the  end  of  his  first 

term,  and  served,  ki  all,  eight  years  at  the  head 
of  one  of  the  most  important  departmenfts  of 
the  city  government.  His  connection  with 
this  department,  which  he  entered  originally 
for  one  month  "on  trial,"  covered  in  all  a 
period  of  twenty  years,  and  when  he  retired  to 
private  life  he  had  made  an  enviable  recorl, 
not  only  for  the  integrity  of  his  conduct  as  a 
public  official,  but  for  his  ability  as  a  finan- 
cier.   Soon  after  the  close  of  his  term  of  ofh  :e 

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as  city  comptroller,  he  was  made  manager  of 
the  American  Brake  Company,  and  when  the 

plant  which  had  been  established  by  this  cor- 
poration was  leased  to  the  Westinghouse  Air 
Brake  Company,  he  became  manager  for  the 
lessors  and  the  representative  of  both  corpora- 
tions in  St.  Louis.  Tie  lias  since  been  no  less 
prominent  and  po])ular  as  a  business  man  than 
he  had  previously  been  as  a  public  c^cnl.  In 
fraternal  circles  Mr.  Adrcon  is  well  known  as  a 
member  of  the  Masonic  order,  the  Legion  of 
Honor  and  tite  Ancient  Onler  of  United 
Workmen.     December  23,  he  married 

Miss  Josephine  L.  Young,  of  St.  Louis. 
Their  children  are  Edward  L.  Adreon,  Jr., 
Josephine  M.  Adreon  and  Robert  E.  Adreon. 

Adrian* — A  city  of  the  fourth  class,  in 
Bates  County,  on  the  Lexington  &  Soothem 
Division  of  the  Missouri  Pacific  Railway,  ten 
miles  north  of  Butler,  the  county  scat.  It  haj» 
a  public  school.  emplo3ring  five  teachers;  an 
independent  new  sitajxr,  the  "Jonrnal";  a 
bank,  a  steam  Houring  mill  and  an  elevator. 
In  the  vicinity  are  churches  of  the  Baptist, 
Christian.  Dunkard,  Methodist  and  United 
Brethren  denominations.  In  1899  the  popu- 
lation was  1,000. 

Advent ists. — .\  sect  foundeii  by  William 
Miller,  originally  a  dreen  Mountaui  farmer, 
who  in  183 1  began  preaching  tliat  Clirist's 
second  coming  and  the  end  of  the  world  were 
at  hand.  He  predicted  that  some  time  be- 
tween the  aist  of  March,  1843,  and  the  aist 
of  March,  1H44,  Jesus  Christ  woiild  appear  in 
person  to  judge  the  world.  Multitudes  pressed 
to  hear  him  preach  everywhere,  and  the  excite* 
ment  culminated  in  October  of  1844,  when 
thousands  of  people  gathered  themselves  to- 
gether in  difFerent  places  to  await  Christ's 
comitl^^  They  were  disappointed,  but,  al- 
though it  wzs  demonstrated  that  a  mistake 
had  been  made  in  fixing  a  date  for  tlie  second 
advent,  many  continu^  to  believe  that  they 
were  "living-  in  the  last  days."  and  that  "the 
end  of  the  world  was  at  hand."  A  conven- 
tion of  Miller's  followers  was  called'  in  1845, 
at  which  a  declaration  of  faith  was  agreed  upon 
and  tiie  name  "Adventists"  was  adopted. 
Since  then  they  have  become  known  as  "Sev- 
cndi  Day  Adventists"  on  account  of  their  ob- 
servance of  the  seventh  day  r.f  tli-  week,  or 
Saturday,  as  tlie  Christian  .Sabbath.  The 
"Adventists'  Qiristian  Association  and  Gen- 

eral Conference  of  America"  was  organized  in 
i860,  and  in  1896  fifteen  hundred  ministers 

were  preaching  the  doctrines  of  the  church 
under  its  auspices,  and  church  organizations 
were  in  existence  in  every  part  of  the  Unked 
States.    There  was  at  that  time  one  church 

of  this  fahh,  with  a  membership  of  121,  in  St. 
lx)uis,  and  the  nuniber  of  Adventists  in  the 
State  of  Missouri  was  estimated  at  1,700. 
The  church  in  St.  Louis  worships  in  a  com* 
fortable  edifice  at  2955  Garrison  Avenue. 

Agency. — .\n  incorporated  town  in  Buch- 
anan County,  on  the  Santa  Fe  Railroad, 
phitted  by  William  B.  Smith,  in  1865.  Ito 
population  is  400,  and  it  contains  a  bank,  two 
mills,  six  general  stcM-es,  churches,  etc 

Agency  Ford. —  A  shallow  ford  over 
the  Platte  River,  where  the  road  from  Clay 
County  to  Blacksnake  Hills  crossed.  Andrew 
S.  Hughes,  Indian  agent  to  the  Sacs  and 
Foxes,  conducted  his  business  with  the  In- 
dians at  this  point. 

Agrictiltiiral  and  Merluinlcal  Col- 
lege.—This  institution,  called  also  the  Col- 
lege of  Agriculture  and  Mechanic  Aits,  is  a 

department  of  the  State  University,  at  (  oluni- 
bia  (which  seeV  It  was  estaljlished,  in  1870, 
in  pur.suaiice  ot  an  Act  of  Congress,  approved 
July  2.  1862,  making  a  grant  of  lan<te  to  the 
State  of  Missouri  for  educational  piirposes. 
The  statutes  fix  the  status  of  the  institution  as 
one  of  the  colics  of  the  State  University. 
The  fK'oplc  of  Boone  County  donated  to  the 
institution  640  acres  of  land  adjoining  the 
University  campus  and  $30,000  in  cash.  An 
experiment  station  is  connected  with  the 
college  of  agriculture,  which  is  devoted  to  orig- 
inal research  and  demonstration  in  agricul- 
ture, vt'terinarv  .■science,  horticulture,  entomol- 
ogy, clu  iiiistry  and  !n)t;in\  ,  wliicli  luis  hceii  of 
great  value  to  the  agricultural  uidustries  of  the 

Agricultural  and  Mechanical  Fair. 
Agricultural  fairs  were  hdd  in  St.  Louis 

County  at  as  e^rly  a  date  as  1H22.  but  no  per- 
manent organizations,  having  for  their  object 
the  giving  of  such  exhibitions,  were  in  exist- 
ence ])rior  to  1841.  On  the  first  Tuesday  in 
November  of  that  year  the  fair  of  the  Agricul- 
tural Society  of  St.  Louis  County  was  opened 
at  the  St  Louis  race  course,  and  on  the  34di 

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of  the  same  montli  tlie  Mechanics'  Fair  was 
inaugurated  in  buildings  located  near  the 
Planters'  House,  on  Fourth  Street.  Among 
the  founders  of  these  associations,  one  of 
which  was  designed  to  give  an  exhibition  of 
agricultural  and  the  other  of  mechanioad  pmod- 
ucts.  were  William  Bird,  S.  V.  Farnsworth, 
C".  I'ullis,  Joseph  Charless,  D.  L.  Ilolbrook, 
and  others.  Thereafter  exhibitions  were  held 
under  the  auspices  of  these  associations  sep- 
arately until  if^55,  when,  in  pursuance  of  a 
plan  to  combine  the  agricultural  and  mechan- 
ical interests  of  St.  Louis  for  the  purpose  of 
holdini^  annual  fairs,  the  .Agfricuitural  and  Me- 
chanical Fair  Association  was  chartered  by 
legislative  enactment.  The  first  fair  was  held 
under  the  auspices  of  this  association  in  Octo- 
ber of  1856.  Since  then  its  exhibitions  have 
been  held  regularly  each  year,  the  successor 
if  the  original  association  being  the  present 
St.  Louis  Fair  Association  (which  see). 

Agrlcultoral  Wlieel* — An  organiza- 
tion started  about  in  a  number  of  coun- 
ties in  central  Missouri.  It  was  modeled 
after  the  Farmers'  Alliance  and  the  Grange, 
its  chief  object  beinp  in  combine  against  mid- 
dlemen, and  to  enable  the  farmers  to  buy 
goods  aft  reduced  rates — in  foct,  at  about  10 
per  cent  over  cost  of  manufacture.  The  or- 
ganization was  secret  in  character,  and  in 
eich  county  several  branches  were  started; 
also  stores  on  die  co-operative  plan  att  promi- 
nent trading  points.  None  were  eligible  to 
membership  but  farmers  and  wage-workers, 
and  it  was  intended  that  none  other  than  mem- 
bers should  have  the  licnofits  of  tlu-  "Wheel." 
After  a  few  years  of  experimenting — more 
profitable  to  the  organizers  and  promoters 

than  to  the  members — the  Tuovcmcnt  proved 
a.  failure.  The  chief  fields  of  operation  were 
in  Benton,  Osage,  Maries,  Miller  and  other 
counties  in  the  central  part  of  the  Staite. 

Agrrlculture.— Missouri  shares,  with  the 

other  States  of  the  Mississippi  Valley,  the 
fertile  soil  and  salubrious  climate  of  this 
favored  region,  and  is,  perhaps,  favored  above 
the  others  in  being  diversified  with  timber  and 
prairie.  It  is  not  a  prairie  ."^tatc,  in  the  sense 
that  Illinois  is,  nor  was  it  covered  entirely  with 
forest,  like  Kentucky,  but  it  possessed  both 
|M^rie  and  forest,  blended  in  a  way  admirably 
adapted  to  successful  husbandry.  All  crops 
and  nearly  aH  fruits  suited  to  the  north  tem- 

perate zone  thrive  in  Missouri,  but  the  crops 
that  tlirive  best,  and  are  cultivated  most  suc- 
cessftrily  for  ppoSet,  are  the  staple  cereals,  com, 
wheat  and  oats,  and  the  various  grasses  thut 
yield  pasturage  and  hay.  The  State  seems  to 
be  the  home  of  these,  and  in  its  rich  soil  and 
favored  cliinale  lliey  attain  great  perfection. 
The  first  farmers  of  Missouri  came  from  Vir- 
ginia and  Kentucky,  and  if  the  former  were 
astonished  at  the  prolific  yield  of  corn  their 
new  farms  in  Missouri  turned  out,  the  others 
were  not  less  surprised  at  the  quantity  and 
quality  of  its  wheat  yield.  At  first  these  two 
cereals,  with  tobacco,  were  the  onl\  crops 
raised  in  the  State,  but  at  a  later  day  Uie  deep, 
rich  soil  of  Lafayette  and  Howard  Coumties 
were  found  to  be  suited  to  hemp,  and  from 
1830  to  i860  large  quantities  of  that  crop  were 
raised  for  manufacturing  into  bagging  and 
rope,  for  cotton  bales.  With  the  disappear- 
ance of  slavery,  hemp-raising  disappeared  also, 
and  the  staple  no  longer  has  a  place  in  the 
farm  ptxxlucts  of  Missouri.  At  tiie  first  set- 
tlement of  the  State,  and  for  fifty  years  after, 
the  cultivation  of  tobacco  was  an  important 
feature  in  Missouri  farming,  becaitae  tobacco 
was  not  only  always  salable  for  cash,  but  in 
the  early  days  was  used  as  current  money  to 
a  limited  extent.  But  after  the  Civil  War  the 
crop  began  to  fall  oflF,  declining  from  25.0^x1.- 
000  pounds,  in  i860,  to  9,4a4«ooo,  in  1890. 
But  the  entire  abandonment  of  henH>-raising. 
and  partial  abiindnnment  of  tobacco,  was  fol- 
lowed by  greater  attention  to  stock-raising, 
aiui  this  has  now  become  one  of  the  cliiei  fea- 
tures in  Missouri  husbandry,  if  not  the  most 
important  of  all.  The  soil  and  climate  of  the 
State  are  well  suited  to  fruit,  and  apples, 
peaches,  pears,  plmns,  quinces  and  apricots 
are  extensively  cultivated.  The  Ozark  rc^^ion 
of  southern  Missouri  shares,  with  the  adjoin- 
ing region  of  Arkansas,  the  name  of  the  "Big 
Red  Apple  Country,"  on  account  of  the  high 
color,  flavor  and  size  of  the  apples  grown 
there,  and  the  reliability  of  the  crop.  Mis- 
souri grapes  enjoy  a  high  reputation  for  their 
([uality.  and  for  the  wine  made  from  them,  and 
althougli  wine-making  is  not  followed  to  the 
same  extent  as  in  the  two  decades  between 
i860  and  1880,  large  quantities  of  grapes  are 
raised  for  table  use.  Since  the  year  1880 
melon<4aising  has  grown  to  be  an  important 
business  in  some  of  llic  counties  of  southeast 
Missouri,  and  large  quantities  in  car  loads  are 
shipped  to  St  Louis,  Chicago  and  other  cities 

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of  the  North  and  West.  In  the  year  1850 
diere  were  54458  farms,  embracing  2,938425 
■cret  of  improved,  and  6,794,245  acres  of  un- 
improved, land  in  the  State,  having  an  esti- 
nated  cash  value  of  $63,225,000.  In  i860  tlie 
number  of  farms  had  incrnsed  to  92,792,  and 
their  value  to  $293,037,307;  and  in  i8</5  the 
number  was  238,043,  valued  at  $786,390,253. 
The  cereal  prodtict  of  die  Sute  in  1890  was 
197,000,000  bushels  of  Indian  corn.  30,113,821 
bushels  of  wheat,  39^820,149  bushels  of  oats, 
34,863  bushds  t>f  barley,  28440  bushels  of 
buckweat,  and  308,807  bushels  of  rye.  The 
other  products  were,  wool,  4,040,084  pounds; 
milk,  193,931,103  gallons;  butter,  43,108,521 
pounds;  cheese,  fl68/iao  pounds;  22,785,848 
chickens,  and  2,405,940  other  fowls;  53,147,- 
418  dozen  eggs,  4492,178  pounds  of  honey, 
15,856  bates  of  cotton,  450^31  bushels  of  flax- 
seed, 2,721,240  gallons  of  sorghum  syrup. 
3,567,635  tons  of  hay,  93,764  bushels  of  clover 
seed,  and  216,314  bushels  of  other  grass  seed; 
9,424,823  pounds  of  tobacco,  8,188,921  bushels 
of  Irish  potatoes,  and  561,551  bushels  of 
sweet  potatoes;  1.051,139  potmds  of  broom 
com,  22,500  tons  of  grapes,  and  1,250,000  gal- 
lons of  wine.  The  estimated  value  of  all  fann 
products  was  $109,751,024,  and  the  value  of 
market-garden  products,  including  small 
fruits,  was  $1,107,076.  The  number  of  lu-a'l 
of  live  stock  on  farms  in  the  State  was,  horses, 
946,401;  mules  and  asses,  931,714;  working 
oxen,  14,006;  milch  cows,  851,076;  ollior  cat- 
tle, 2,104.634;  swine,  4,987432;  sheep,  950,- 

Alabama  So«iety.^A  society  organ- 
ized at  the  St.  Nicholas  Hotel,  in  St.  l.ouis, 
October  18,  1898,  which  is  composed  of  native 
Alabamians  and  is  designed  to  promote  friend- 
ship and  social  intercourse  among  those  born 
in  that  State,  who  are  now  residents  of  St. 
Louts.  William  H.  Clopton,  M.  Stone,  C.  R. 
Cook,  H.  R.  Grubbs  and  otiiois  were  the 
founders  and  first  officers  of  the  society. 

Alba. — A  town  in  Jasper  County,  seven 
miles  west  of  Carthage,  the  county  seat.  U 
was  named  for  an  early  settler,  who  was  the 

first  postina?:er.  The  town  was  platted  in 
1882  by  Stephen  Smith.  It  has  a  sc1i(k>1,  a 
Baptist  Church,  a  Methodist  Church,  and  a 
Quaker  Church.  There  is  a  steam  flourmill 
in  the  town,  and  lead  and  silicate  mines  in  the 
vicinity.  The  estimated  population  January  i, 
1900,  was  30a 

Albauy,— A  city  of  the  fourth  class,  the 
judicial  seat  of  Gentry  County,  sitt»ted  near 

the  center  of  the  county,  one  mile  east  of  the 
Grand  River,  on  the  St.  Joseph  branch  of  the 
Chicago,  Burlington  &  Quincy  Railroad,  and 
five  miles  from  Darlington,  on  the  Wabash. 
It  has  seven  rlmrrlies  —  Free  Methodist. 
Methodist  Episcopal,  Methodist  Episcopal, 
SouA,  Presbifterian,  Cumberland  Presbyte- 
rian, Christian  and  Baptist.  There  is  a  fine 
public  school  building,  handsome  courtliouse, 
opera  house,  a  fine,  three-story  temple,  owned 
jointly  by  the  Masons  and  the  Odd  Fellows, 
two  banks,  four  hotels,  three  newspapers,  the 
"Advocate,"the  "Advance"  and  the  "Ledger," 
a  flouring  mill,  foundry,  and  about  sixty  mis- 
cellaneous business  places.  The  city  has  elec- 
tric lights,  local  and  long-distance  telephone 
service,  and  is  the  seat  of  two  colleges,  the 
Central  Christian  College  and  the  Northwest- 
em  Missouri  College,  under  control  of  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  South,  and  con- 
nected with  Central  College,  at  Fayette,  Mis- 
souri.  The  population  in  1900  was  2,025. 

Albert*  Leon  Joseph,  banker,  was 

born,  November  6,  1840,  in  Jefferson  Countv, 
Kentucky,  son  of  Nicholas  and  Anna  (Hoin) 
Albert.  Nicholas  Albert  removed  from  Ken- 
tucky to  Cape  Girardeau,  in  1852,  and  died 
there  in  1876.  The  elder  Albert  was  a  mer- 
chant and  a  thoroughly  public-spirited  ckizen, 
who  spent  ninrli  of  his  time  and  monev  to 
make  the  "Cape  City"  a  commercial  center. 
He  established  there  a  shipyard,  and  built  at 
Cape  Girardeau  the  "Alfred  T.  Lacy,"  the  only 
steamboat  ever  buUt  there.  For  a  number  of 
years  he  was  United  States  gauger  at  Cape 
Girardeau.  Speaking  both  the  French  and 
German  languages  fluently,  he  had  the  conti- 
(Icncc  of  the  French  and  German  citizens  of 
that  place,  and  was  their  counselor  and  adviser 
on  all  occasions.  Ho  himself  was  French,  an»l 
his  father,  John  Albert,  the  grandfather  of 
Leon  J.  Albert,  served  in  the  Napoleonic  war* 
on  the  staff  of  the  great  leader  of  the  French 
Army.  In  his  early  boyhood,  Leon  J.  Albert 
lived  in  Portland — ^now  a  part  of  Louisville, 
Kentucky — and  there  he  began  his  edttcation, 
with  Honorable  Norman  T  Colman,  now  of 
St.  Louis,  as  his  teacher.  Coming  with  his 
parents  to  Mi.<;s<>uri,  his  further  education  was 
such  as  to  fit  him  for  business  pursuits,  and 
when  he  was  seventeen  years  of  age  he  re- 
turned to  Louisville,  where  he  clerked  in  a  dry 

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goods  store  until  1861.  He  then  came  back 
to  Cape  Girardeau  and  became  connected  with 
the  J.  &  S.  Albert  Grocery  Company.  Thi« 
connectioii  continued  until  187 j,  except  dur- 
ing two  years  of  the  Civil  War,  when  he  was 
employed  as  clerk  on  a  Mississippi  River 
steamboat,  tihen  under  management  of  the 
Memphis  &  St.  Louis  Packet  Company.  In 
the  fall  of  187 1  he  embarked  in  the  commis- 
sion business  in  St.  Louis  on  his  own  account. 
At  the  end  of  a  i\-\v  iiionllis  he  was  prevailed 
upon  by  Colonel  Robert  Sturdivant  to  return 
to  Caf>e  Girtrdeitt  and  accept  tiie  position  of 
cashier  in  what  was  then  known  as  the  Bank 
of  R.  Sturdivant.  In  1881  this  bank  was  incor- 
porated under  the  State  banking  laws  of  Mis- 
souri* as  the  Sturdivant  Bank,  and  Mr.  Albert 
was  made  cashier  of  the  reorganized  institu- 
tion, lie  has  since  continued  to  hold  tliat 
position,  and  a  sennce  of  nearly  thirty  years 
in  this  capacity  has  caused  him  to  be  r^^gar(led, 
in  the  banking  circles  of  the  State,  as  one  of 
its  most  thoroughly  eflRcient,  capable  and  hon- 
est bank  nianaf::;^ers.  During  tho  period  .since 
1882  there  has  been  but  one  clumge  in  the 
board  of  director^  of  the  Sturdivant  Bank^  and 
this  was  occasioned  by  the  death  of  Judge 
Jacob  H.  Burrough.  Mr.  Albert  was  a  direc- 
tor and  treasurer  of  the  St.  Louis,  Cape  Girar- 
deau &  Vort  Smith  Railroad  COmpany  from 
the  time  of  the  organization  of  that  corpora- 
tion until  the  road  was  sold  to  the  South  Mis- 
souri &  Arkansas  Railroad  Company,  in  i9gff, 
and  he  is  now  a  director  of  the  last  named 
company.   From  1875  ^  was  secre- 

ury  of  the  Sontiieast  District  Agricuttoral  So* 
ciety,  and  in  that  capacity  did  much  to  benefit 
the  farming  interests  of  that  region.  In  poli- 
ics  he  is  a  Democrat,  but  has  only  taken  .the 
mterest  which  every  good  eittien  shooU  take 
in  political  movements  and  campaigns.  Dur- 
ing the  year  1874-5  he  was  a  member  of  the 
Board  cf  Aldermen  of  Cape  Girardeau,  and 
from  1877  to  1878  he  was  mayor  of  the  city, 
and  from  1885  to  1890  he  again  filled  the 
mayonrfty.  During  Ms  first  administration 
he.  witli  athcrs,  formulated  and  secured  the 
passage  of  an  ordinance,  under  which  the  rail- 
road subscription  of  Oipe  Girardeau  to  the 
building  of  a  railroad  into  the  city  was  com- 
promised and  refunded.  The  ordinance  was 
unpopular  at  the  time,  but  the  wisdom  of  the 
action  has  since  been  made  apparent  to  all. 
He  has  been  treasurer  of  the  State  Normal 
School,  at  Cape  Girardeau,  and  in  1889  Gov- 


ernor  Francis  appointed  him  a  member  of  the 
board  of  regents  of  that  institution,  to  serve 
for  a  term  of  six  years.  Governor  Stone  ap- 
pointed htm  to  a  second  term,  which  he  is  n<  < \v 
serving  Tune  2,  1864,  Mr.  .Albert  married 
Miss  Llaru  (jiveii  ilaydock,  daughter  of 
Gideon  A.  and  Harriet  (Conway)  Haydock. 
of  Smithland,  Kraitucky.  and  of  Scotch-Eng- 
lish descent.  Their  children  are  liattie  Con- 
way Albert,  now  the  vMom  of  Ralph  W.  Mor- 
ton.  of  Cape  Girardeau ;  Leon  Joseph  Albert, 
Jr.,  assistant  cashier  of  the  Sturdivant  Bank ; 
Harry  Lee  Albert,  professor  of  biology  at  the 
State  XormalScbool  of  Cape  Girardeau ;  Alma 
Edith,  Clara  Given,  Leland  Stanford,  and 
Helen  Roseborough  Albert. 

Aldrlcll.— A  village  in  Polk  County,  on 
the  Kansas  City,  Fort  Scott  &  Memphis  Rail- 
way, twelve  miles  southwest  of  Bdivar,  the 
county  seat.  It  has  a  local  newspaper,  the 
"Enterprise,"  and  a  flour  mill,  and  a  number 
of  stores  and  shops.  In  1899  the  population 
was  335. 

Alexander,  B.  W.,  merchant,  was  bom 
in  Fleming  County,  Kentucky,  November  14, 
1809,  son  of  William  and  Cynthia  Alexander. 
When  he  was  twelve  years  old  he  was  appren- 
ticed to  a  bricklayer,  and  while  serving  this 
apprenticeship  gained  the  major  part  of  hi> 
education  through  attendance  at  night  schools 
and  tiie  reading  of  all  books  which  came  with- 
in  his  reach.  Tii  1828  he  ranu-  to  St.  Louis, 
where  he  worked  at  his  trade  for  some  years, 
and  afterward  opened  a  commission  house, 
which  first  did  business  under  the  firm  name 
oi  Alexander  &  Lansing,  and  later  as  B.  W. 
Alexander  &  Co.  He  conducted  this  business 
with  rare  tact  and  sagacity,  accumukited  a  for^ 
tune  and  became  identified  with  various  prom- 
inent corporations,  being  president  of  the 
Commercial  Insurance  Company,  a  director  of 
the  St.  Louis  Bank,  a  director  of  the  Pacific 
Railroad  Company,  and  a  director  of  the 
Boatmen's  Saving  Institution,  of  which  he  was 
an  incorporator. 

Alexander,  Jerae  Penrlance,  was 

horn  March  4,  1821,  in  Nicholas  County, 
Kentucky.  He  came  to  Missouri  in  1850, 
and  before  his  arrival  in  the  western  part  of 
the  State,  which  was  then  an  undeveloped 
wilderness,  he  prophesied  that  at  some  future 
time  a  great  city  would  be  built  where  West- 

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port  Landing  then  was.  The  prophecy  proved 
to  be  a  true  one,  as  the  present  greatness  oC 
Kansas  City  shows.  After  coining  to  Mis- 
souri he  visited  St.  Joseph,  Leavenworth, 
Kansas,  and  Omaha,  Nebraska,  together  with 
other  growing  towns  in  tiie  West,  but  finally 
decided  that  Jackson  County,  Missouri,  was 
the  most  favorable  location.  He,  therefore, 
bought  a  farm  one  mile  south  of  Wtstpon. 
Ik-  sold  this  farm  a  few  years  later  and  pur- 
chased a  farm  at  what  is  now  Thhteenth 
Street  and  Troost  Avenue,  in  Kansas  City, 
and  a  portion  of  which  is  included  within  the 
borders  of  Troost  I 'ark  In  1866  he  disf>osed 
of  this  second  farm  and  removed  to  Blue 
Township,  Jackson  County,  where  he  had  pre- 
viously bouci'ht  a  farm  near  Salem  CliiirclK 
His  education  was  gained  in  tlie  common 
schools.  At  one  time  he  received  an  appoint- 
nicn:  as  cadet  at  West  Puiiit  from  his  district 
in  Kentucky.  He  surrendered  this  honor  to 
his  brother.  General  Barton  Alexander,  de- 
ceased, wlio  had  tried  for  the  same  appoint- 
ment and  failed.  Barton  Alexander  was  an 
olTiccr  in  tin-  corps  of  engineers  imder  Gen- 
erals Grant  and  Sheridan,  and  was  with  Sheri- 
dan on  his  famous  "ride"  from  W'incliestcr. 
After  the  close  of  the  war  Barton  Alexander 
buiH  the  "Minot's  Ledge"  lighthouse.  J.  P. 
Alexander  was  a  well  informed  man,  and  ab 
sorbed  knowledge  of  men  and  affairs  from 
the  busy  world,  being  successful  in  business 
and  popular  with  hi.s  associate'^  D  irinfj  ih  ■ 
Civil  War  he  was  a  captain  in  the  Westport 
Home  Guards.  For  a  number  of  years  he 
represented  a  constituency  in  the  Missouri 
Legislature,  and  also  served  as  a  member  of 
the  city  council  of  Independence,  Missouri. 
He  adhered  to  the  principles  of  the  Repuh- 
liean  party,  but  was  a  leader  durinj:^  the 
"Greenback"  campaign,  and  was  the  nominee 
of  that  party  for  the  ^ce  of  Governor  of  Mis- 
souri. Mr.  Alexander  held  membership  in 
the  Christian  Church  of  Independence.  He 
was  married,  in  1866,  to  Marian  Carter, 
daughter  of  Edwin  Carter,  a  prominent  resi- 
dent of  Virginia,  .\fter  spending  the  first 
eight  years  of  their  married  life  on  the  fann 
near  Salem  Church,  Mr.  and  Mr.s.  Alexander 
removed  to  Independence,  where  he  died,  De- 
cember 10,  1896.  Mrs.  Alexander  is  living, 
being  in  her  sixty-third  year.  To  them  four 
children  were  born  :  F.lla  Bright,  wife  of  Ed- 
vrin  R.  Gill,  an  electrician  in  New  York  City; 
Jesse  Pauline,  wife  of  John  C.  Lovrien,  a  rail- 

road man  of  St.  Louis;  Virgfinia  Carter,  wife 
of  Frederick  A.  Taylor,  a  dry  goods  merchant 
of  Kansas  City;  Walter  Gilbert,  who  resides  on 
the  old  liome  farm.  Walter  Gilbert  Alexander 
was  born  February  18,  1878,  in  Independence, 
Missouri.  He  was  educated  at  Woodbnd 
Collep;-e.  Independence,  and  the  Kansas  Ci£y 
High  School.  In  1898  he  took  charge  of  the 
homestead  farm,  and  has  given  evidence. of 
his  abilities  as  a  manager  in  the  imi^rovenient 
of  the  place  and  its  general  de\'elopmenit.  It 
is  now  one  of  the  most  luxurious  country 
homes  in  Jackson  Count\ .  Mr.  Alexander  is 
a  faithful  Republican,  but  has  never  sought 
office.  He  possesses  high  ideals  of  good  citi- 
zenship, and  is  loyal  to  the  best  interests  of 
the  State  and  community.  Prop^ressive  in  his 
methods  and  honest  in  his  dealings,  he  has 
formed  a  circle  of  friends  that  is  a  tribute  to 
the  memory  nf  hi.«i  lamented  fatlier.  Mr. 
Alexander  was  married,  May  25,  1899,  to  Miss 
Blanche  Mohler,  daughter  of  Martin  Mohler, 
nf  Kansas  City,  Kansas,  and  a  sister  of  Mrs. 
J.  A.  Rose,  of  Kansas  City,  Missouri. 

Alexander,  Joshua  iiciiry,  for  manv 

vears  a  prominent  man  of  affairs  in  St.  Louis, 
was  born  April  10,  181 7,  in  Philadelphia. 
Pennsylvania,  and  died  in  St.  Louis,  June  30, 
i87<;.  His  parents  were  William  and  Hester 
Alexander,  who  lived  and  reared  their  chil- 
dren in  Philadelphia.  He  was  educated  and 
fitted  for  a  business  career  in  the  pidjlic 
schools  of  that  city,  and  came  west  in  1835, 
when  he  was  eighteen  years  of  age.  He  ob- 
tained his  earliest  business  experience  at  Al- 
ton, Illinois,  where  he  was  employed  in  the 
commission  house  of  his  elder  brother,  An- 
drew Alexander.  In  1841  he  came  to  St. 
Louis  and  embarked  in  the  steamboat  busi- 
ness, then  so  profitable  and  attractive,  becom- 
uig  conneoted  with  a  line  of  boaits  plying  be- 
tween St.  I.nuis  and  Xew  Orleans.  Some 
time  later  he  formed  a  partnership  with  Sam- 
uel Copp  and  established  a  general  commis- 
sion business  in  St.  Louis  under  the  firm  name 
of  Alexander,  Copp  &  Co.  Later  he  became 
connected  with  the  famous  old-time  banking 
house  of  Page  &  Bacon,  and  was  afterward 
vice  president  and  treasurer  of  the  Ohio  & 
Mississippi  Railway  Company,  then  building 
its  tine  of  railway  from  Cincinnati  to  St.  Louis. 
This  latter  connection  caused  him  to  become 
interested  in  other  transportation  enterprises, 
one  of  which  was  the  establishment  of  the 

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fast  freight  liqe  owned  by  Valentine  &  Cb^ 
the  first  fast  freight  line  which  came  into  ex- 
istence in  the  West.  He  also  started  the  first 
omnibus  line  wMdn  carried  punmgen  from 
East  St.  Louis,  and  established  the  St.  Louis 
Transfer  Company,  which  has  since  developed 
into  an  nutituHoa  of  great  importance.  At  a 
later  date  he  was  head  of  the  firm  Kil  J.  H.  & 
F.  R.  Alexander,  his  nephew,  Fiank  R.  Alex- 
ander, being  the  junior  menAtcr  off  this  firm. 
During  the  years  1863  and  1864  he  was  aecre- 
fary  of  the  Union  Merchants'  Exchange,  and 
afterward  was  a  member  of  the  commission 
finn  of  Ricfaeson,  Able  &  Oo.,  Tbomas  Siche- 
son  and  Barton  Able  being  his  partners,  lie 
was  senior  member  of  the  firm  of  Alexander, 
Cbzcens  ft  McGill  when  that  firm  conducted 
one  of  the  leading  dry  goods  commission 
houses  of  the  city,  and  during  the  later  years 
of  his  life  was  engaged  in  business  SB  a  nSl' 
road  contractor.  During  all  the  years  of  his 
active  career  as  a  business  man  in  St.  Louis 
he  was  recc^ized  by  his  contemporaries  as  a 
man  of  sterling  integrity  and  great  moral 
worth,  and  he  was  honored  at  ditTemu  times 
with  official  positions,  which  evidenced  the 
esteem  in  which  he  was  held.  At  one  time  he 
served  as  city  comptroller  of  St.  Louis,  and 
he  was  one  of  the  early  presidents  of  the  Mer- 
cantile Library  Assoda/tion.  A  I^sbyterian 
in  hk  religious  faith,  he  was  prominently  iden- 
tified with  the  history  of  that  denomination  in 
St.  Louts,  and  for  many  years  served  the  Pine 
Street  Presbyterian  Church  as  deacon  and 
elder.  May  20,  1841,  he  married  Miss  Mary 
J.  Chappell,  daughter  of  William  L.  Chappell, 
who  lost  his  life  in  tiie  memmdiie  Gaseouade 
Bridge  disaster  of  1855. 

Alexander,  Manriee  W.,  merchant 

and  pharmacist,  was  bom  February  9,  1835, 
in  Philadelphia,  Pennsylvania,  and  died  in  St. 
Louis,  June  6.  1898.  His  parents  wen  John 
and  Mary  (Rittenhouse)  Alexander,  both  na- 
tives of  Philadelphia,  and  his  paternal  grand- 
father, William  Alexander,  and  his  maternal 
grandfether,  Joseph  Rittenhouse,  were  also 
born  in  that  city.  Reared  in  Philadelphia. 
Maurice  W.  Alexander  obtained  both  his 
academic  and  professional  education  in  fht 
schools  of  the  Otiaker  City.  After  complet- 
ing his  course  of  study  at  the  high  school  he 
entered  iSie  Phihtdelptua  Goflcgv  of  Pharmacy, 
one  of  the  oldest  and  most  noted  in.stitutions 
of  its  kind  in  the  United  States,  and  was  grad- 

uated from  that  college  in  the  class  of  1854. 
Immediately  after  his  graduation  he  came  to 
St.  Louis  and  entered  the  employ  of  Baooo, 
Hydt  &  Coi,  wholesale  idruegists,  engased  in 
business  on  Main  Street.  Leaving  thrir  em- 
ploy in  August  of  1856,  he  begaji  business  on 
his  own  account,  purchasing  the  drug  store 
located  at  the  southeast  corner  of  Fourth  and 
Market  Streets,  of  which  he  was  owner  for 
twenty-three  years  thereafter.  While  operat- 
ing tliis  dri^  store,  noting  tlie  trend  of  trade 
toward  Olive  Street,  he  also  opened  another 
store  on  the  nortliwest  comer  ot  Broadway 
and  Olive  Streets,  m  a  htril^g  then  owned 
hv  Stilson  Hutchins,  connected  then  with  the 
newspaper  press  of  St.  Louis  and  famous  later 
as  an  Eastern  newsfMper  publisher.  This  store, 
which  was  at  that  time  the  handsomest  in  the 
West  in  furnishings  and  Che  most  complete 
in  its  equipment  for  every  fmaidh  of  Ihe  dnig 
business,  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1877.  A 
year  later,  however,  Dr.  Alexander  opened  a 
new  drug  store  at  the  same  location,  in  a 
building  which  had  been  erected  by  J.  Gon- 
zelman,  who  had  purchased  the  ijround  from 
Hutchins.  In  this  building,  wliich  later 
passed  into  the  hands  of  Enatus  and  is 
still  owned  by  his  son,  he  continued  to  con- 
duct a  large  and  profitable  drug  business  undl 
1892,  in  which  year  he  purchased  the  stock 
of  goods  belonging  to  the  Mellicr  Drug  Com- 
pany and  consolidated  the  two  stores.  For 
forty-two  years  and  more  he  was  a  recognized 
leader  among  the  retsiH  druj^ts  of  St.  Louis, 
and  for  many  years  his  establishment  hod 
few  rivals  in  its  line  in  Western  cities. 

Alexian  RrotherH'  Monastery. — 
A  Roman  Catholic  institution  founded  in  St. 
Louis,  in  1869,  hf  BftMlher  Peten,  of  Hue 
Alexian  Brotherhood.  This  is  one  of  the 
four  branches  of  that  order  in  the  United 
States*  There  were  five  members  in  tiie 
brotherhood  in  St.  Loni.s  at  the  bet^inning, 
but  the  order  grew,  and  in  1898  it  munbered 
thirty-five.  Under  its  auspices  have  been 
erected  a  hoqntal  and  insane  asylum  at  3933 
Broadway,  and  the  cost  of  its  buildings  has 
reached  a  quarter  of  a  million  dollars.  About 
fifteen  hundred  patients  are  caved  lor  anmafly 
at  these  insthuttons. 

Alexandria.— At  one  time  the  county 

seat  of  Lincoln  County.  It  was  made  the 
county  seat  in  1823  and  continued  such  until 

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1829.  Its  pnimlation  never  exceeded  fifty 
people.  It  was  situated  five  miles  north  of  the 
present  she  of  Troy.   For  many  years  a  poat- 

oftice  called  Old  Alexandria  was  kept  there, 
but  it  was  discontinued  more  than  a  quarter 
of  a  century  ago. 

Alexandria.— A  specially  chartered  city, 
on  the  Mississip|)i  River,  in  Clark  County,  on 
the  Keokuk  &  Western  and  the  St.  Louis, 
Keokuk  &  Northwestern  Railnxids,  fifteen 
miles  southeast  of  Kaiioka.  It  was  settled  in 
tiie  winter  of  1834-5,  a  ferryman  building'  the 
first  cabin  in  the  place.  It  was  the  county 
seat  of  Clark  County  for  some  years.  The 
town  is  nicdy  situated,  and  has  well  graded 
streets.  It  has  a  good  gratled  public  school, 
Baptist,  Methodist  Episcopal,  Presbyterian 
and  CathoKc  Churches.  The  business  of  the 
town  is  represented  by  a  grain  devator,  saw- 
null,  planing  mill,  pickle  works,  hotel,  and 
about  a  dozen  stores  and  shops.  Population, 
1899  (eatimated),  30a 

Alexis,  Grand  Duke»  Visit  of'.— 
During  the  first  admfaiistratioa  of  President 

Grant  the  Grand  Duke  Alexis,  younger  son  of 
Emperor  Alexander  II  of  Russia,  made  a 
protracted  visit  to  the  United  States,  and  was 

received  everywhere  with  disting^iishcd  con- 
sideration, on  account  of  his  rank  and  the 
friendly  relations  at  that  time  existing  be- 
tween the  Russian  government  and  that  of 
the  United  States.  Accompanied  bv  a  royal 
suite,  he  arrived  in  St.  Louis  on  the  evening 
of  January  5,  1872,  and  remained  in  the  city 
several  days.  He  was  entertained  at  the 
SouUiern  Hotel,  and  a  ball  was  given  there  in 
his  honor  on  the  evening  of  January  8th. 

Allee,  William  S*»  physician,  was  born 
in  185a,  In  Moniteau  County,  Missouri,  son  of 

James  V.  and  Sahra  (Bowlin)  Allee,  both  of 
whom  were  natives  of  this  State.  His  grand- 
father, who  was  a  native  of  Kentucky,  came  to 
Missouri  at  an  early  day,  and  his  great-grand- 
father, who  was  a  soldier  in  the  Revolutionary 
War,  died  in  this  State.  James  V.  Allee,  after 
fwming  some  time  in  Moniteau  County,  re- 
moved to  Morgan  County,  Missouri,  and  was 
filling  the  ofHce  of  probate  judge  of  that 
county  at  the  time  of  his  death,  in  1875.  His 
wife,  the  mo'!uT  <<{  Dr.  .-Xllcc,  died  wIk^h  the 
son  was  a  small  boy.  Dr.  Allee  was  educated 
in  file  public  aduiols  of  Moniteau  Oounty  and 

at  the  State  University  of  Missouri,  at  Co- 
lumbia. After  leaving  college  he  taugtit  school 
for  a  time  and  then  entered  Rush  Medical  Col- 
lege, at  Chicago,  Illittoia.  Later  he  attended 
Missouri  Medical  College,  at  St.  Louts,  and 
received  his  doctor's  degree  from  the  last 
named  institution  in  1875.  Immediately  after- 
ward  he  began  the  practice  of  his  profession 
at  California,  Missouri,  but  removed  the  fol- 
lowing year  to  Highpoint,  in  the  same  county, 
where  he  continued  his  professional  lal)ors 
until  1882.  He  then  removed  to  Olean,  in 
Miller  County,  Missouri,  where  he  baa  ever 
since  been  prominent,  both  a.<?  a  physician  and 
business  man.  In  1889  he  was  the  principal 
ofiganiser  of  the  Miller  Oounlty  Exdcange 
Bank,  and  in  1890  he  was  made  jirosidont  of 
the  bank,  a  position  which  he  has  filled  up  to 
the  present  time.  When  he  first  established 
his  home  in  Olean  he  opened  a  drug  store 
thcne,  which  has  l>een  the  leading  business 
house  of  its  kind  in  the  town  ever  since. 
Sinee  1890  he  has  been  a  partner  in  the  hard- 
ware  houso  <>f  F.  W.  Ing-lish  &  Co.,  at  Olean. 
In  addition  to  giving  attention  to  a  large  gen- 
eral practice,  he  is  local  surgeon  at  Olean  for 
the  Mi.ssouri  Pacific  Railroad,  and  is  a  mem- 
ber of  the  International  Association  of  Rail- 
road Surgeons,  the  American  Medical  Asso- 
ciation, and  the  Missouri  State  Medical  Asso- 
ciation. He  is  also  a  member  of  the  board 
of  examining  surgeons  for  United  States  pen- 
sions, at  Eldon,  Missouri.  In  politics  Dr. 
.Mlee  is  a  Democrat,  and  was  the  nominee  mF 
his  party  for  representative  in  1900,  being  de- 
feated by  only  sixty  votes,  although  the 
county  \N'as  Republican  by  374  votes.  He  is 
a  member  of  Motmt  Pleasant  Lodge,  No.  134, 
of  Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons.  In 
1875  he  was  married,  in  St.  Louis,  to  Miss 
Laura  C.  Huston,  who  was  a  native  of  Cape 
Girardeau,  Missouri,  daughter  of  Ihr.  WilliMn 
A.  Huston,  and  granddaughter  of  Dr.  P.  R. 
Pitman,  one  of  the  pioneer  physicians  of  Cape 
Girardeau.  The  children  born  to  them  have 
been  Gail,  Rca,  Logan  and  Henry  Priest 

Allen,  Andrew  A**  railway  manafsvr. 

was  bom  March  19.  1853.  near  ^fo^motIth, 
Illinois.  He  was  educated  in  the  public 
sclAiols,  (}tntting  wliirfi  he  enterad  fhe  ttail- 
w.iv  service  in  iS^>8.  when  !ie  was  fifteen  year.* 
of  age.  He  began  as  messenger  in  a  railway 
telegraph  office,  was  given  a  position  as  opera- 

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and  sci vcd  in  that  capacity  and 
.  •        n  fhir  Cli:,:i^->.  liurlinRton  fit  Oiiini-y 
'  ••'t'R'i''  at  .--.ajjetown,  Illinois,  until 
in  t"  at  'n  becan'se  an  employe  of 
:-"j.>.  IV-^ria  vt  Warsaw 'Railway  Coni- 
.   .  .«» inch  hf  stTvt'l  one \i."ar  as  ticket  agent 

-  :ali»r  at  Bn:iii';;:-'i.,  Iowa;  onr  yvar 

,.<•;- ,  ■■  .n  ■!  -;>:ii.  '  •  i  -  .,:•.!     ■■.t-y.  \ 

'rt.i'i  c'.;>i  .i;i.iu  r  a;  I"-  <i  ..i.  li.  In 
•••  lit  l".va!iie  i"v  ti  k:*!  a^>»nt  the  \Va« 
Sa.-!i,  St.  Lcniis  J  .-.n  '-  K.ii.w.;y  iV.inpanv 
at  I.  liionqo,  lliii. -ih,  ar>'l  h- '-l  i  .tx  j  ..>iii'>n 
v.r'W  January  <jf  <>'V!.  i-i-oti  Lmnarv  to 
i;i;n  of  that  year  !tc  w.^s  t;  'T  of  ti." 

sa'::.-  road.  \v;:'i  In-a. ;  ■>  at  i'trt>.'..i.  llli- 
n  In  June  of  its^,'  i.-  s^ds  ir.,ulc  s'i>n.;=n- 
t-:i.knt  f>f  the  M:"..' .11  1- "f.  I.u-'tern  ai.-l 
>  iKljcrn  Divisions  ut  tiie  -nsin  (Vntral 

K.iiircad.  and  held  titat  p  .  Uion  unt.l  Dcc-ni- 
her.  1884.  From  that  date  ninll  Au-:;-t  i.'<S5, 
he  was  superintendfnt  i-'  t!io  .Mu .<-.n:k<-t:, 
raatern.  ^uulhern.  and  NiTtlitin  Di\i- 

sions  of  the  Wisconsin  Central,  ieavin^r  th<it 
p<>siiir.ti  at  the  date  last  n.i-iu'd  to  1>-  .-.•'i>f:  as- 
S'  general  manaR-er  of  tli-t«l.  Later, 
^vi  :!','  ac'intif  as  assistant  ^'enerat  n.-tnaper  .-f 
'Wi  road,  he  had  under  ills  »Mp<  :  v.  tlic 
i:..-. s  known  as  the  \V'isci»ii."-in  <>«'•:.•!.  tijc 
.....vaukce  &  Winnehaf^j',  \\  :,s.-.'t»-«'«  \-  Min- 
i;  -ita,  and  tho  Minnesuia.  ,'^t.  (  "ri»:\.  W  '-v,  mi- 
iin  &  (  iiivavro  I'"i-.m.  t'<ii>  -■'\-.<t.'  he 
v\ f.  called  lo  that  of  tJie  uni:,  l\an?;u<;  & 
T'.'kr.s  Kailway  Coii'pany,  wJ-kIi  he  is  now 
S'.rving  as  vice  president  and  H(  i:<  ral  mau- 
fc;.sT.  His  long  expL-rience  in  il-**  C'.>i)dTi<-f  .>i 
rtt.lway  aflFairs  has  made  him  «>pe  »'  »•  mrmt 
oa:  I'i!  :  hi  r;-  f  the  lK-.t  h.- .wii,  of 
\* ;  Stern  railroad  men. 

All(*ll,  Art  liur  >Ihh<mi,  Iawyc:,\s  i!il».»rn 
:.•  ir  (  cnterviile.  Faiinix  Cniiniy.  \w-.:'-\. 
I  14,  1831,  son  01  W  illiam  T.  and  R">a 
■:.•»..••:)  Allen,  the  farmer  beinf?  a  proini- 

'  •  :i:'<*n  of  couiitv.    His  ]Mt'.':i:i! 
•  .:.  .  \'-     was  Jo,^hua  .-^ilt  n.  of  i'rnu  e  \Vd- 
.    .   d.t:-»v.    His   maternal  grandfather, 
. .''rit  -Iiftt,  ser\'ed  in  ihv  defense  of  Balti- 
:.  ••    :•  the  War  of  1812.     His  maternal  was  born  Rosa  I'lickUy.  Hcac- 
•  11.1.  ru  nts  of  F.n;;l:.sli  in  the  neigh- 

■>.•<!-,  .'iff cr  wliicli  he  was  Si-iit  to  an 
t  lat'tl.t  by  I'atrick  Raney,  wlio  was 

 I  mathematics,  and  in  the  Latin, 

'  •  'icli  and  .Spanish  langtiaffos.  After 

'  scholastic  education  he  taugiit 

St.h'^u!  .'iii'l  studied  l.'-v  in  In 
'•^.■^.^  ex-Mr.:ncd  Ik-;. -ii    !  ••'.;»  W*  !■•> 

Tyler.  Richard  Field  and  K'  l.f!  i«  ''.irkct. 
who  licenfd  !  ini   to   |i:,iiiir(  l.^'V  .il! 
cni:iis  01  \  ir'^ij  1     lie  ln  j^-an  the  |>''a.licf  ot 

piules-i  >u  at  l'airKi.\,  and       •      ,•■"*•  t 
d'-;»iity  i  jinv.  v  .  nr  \  >  y.>r,  makii.^;  •.*  *. 
C'-t.  l.M.i"  t        in  tliat  c>>;;'!"y.    i.i   .  "  . 

lit-.;"  il  i  f  ."-i-.i  n!i,'aitt  1  i.v  *a>o  »*!  ■  •• 
aj>p*.:.T  'Ti      .       u  -i  .••f'  ''.e '1 

to:  :cs  <  r  .• .  *    '    •     :'.«••.•  '  ••.  •! 

•  •r%<:j>'d  ''.r  •  *    :.    •  ■  

landed  ar  . 

wooil.  ' 

inp  U  \ai.ii  It-  .  . 

C'<uld  be  ot-.u':.*     .  ' 
of   K;«T'«-ts  and  .  ■  : 
ai»p  "nl:iU'nl  as  depuM  i  :    .  •; 

coii.inued  in  this  i>eM-Ke  :  •  • 
ccp;;;!;,'  i!Mr::Ti,'  li:c  sever''  we..  i     ■  . 

ter  f  i  i-'^jr,  V  lien  he  served  .-is  •  r;.<-  .i      •  • 
\Vestpt)rt  tcl'.'  u..         .-.'»o  ta"»-.!>i  •  • 

fall  tenn  .«  i^;-^.    1- '  n  \v"   '  :  l>  1  " ■  • 

been  dc  '^d        ri  ••1  j-n  '  .*•»•«  «  •  <  •  . 
p'/iiitcd  ,Mr  AIV'T      !'n  'hw*  .    .  •  « 

jMtity  he  Servi  i  nii  li  the  l  a'.:  :  ir  ,1 
lS<.|.  He  coiiuni  .ri  r:  r  1  :••(  -.••»•  • 
tiH\>  e  in  I<;<ii';c  .V'!.  l>'it  ma'  !r  ai  i  ^  >!s  and  t»  »;.>- 
acted  l>usiin  in  oiIkt  parts  <rf  the  '.ity 
']  he  Kaw  i  Avnslni*  t  "onrt  of  (  '■jnini'>'i  I'.tas 
then  a  !::n-'.'d  i<:'is.lieti.i"  ,»cr  Ka".  -  *» 
In  i8(io  li.'  '\  <»  .  •  •    • »  1  .H  ^  »•  . 

■^-^  ]\y  f  M"  .  •       '•  ■-.      <.'<       •  •' 

the  chi'  f  .1  •  •  •  ■*  .   ..I  I .   i  .  .•"  . 

performifsf  «<r  t  i»*  ihit  •■.>  "f  tint  i-n..  »• 

and  co!'-  •  •  •  •  »  .1  !»•  from  iS(>i  t(»  iS  5. 
Mr.  All.^n  -a        "  to  the  KnnsiL>  (.hv 

bar  in  l8oi,  ;  1  i\  <i  beci"  H""  i-rartu  e  >»l 
his  iirofe>5;iun  until  iKOj,  when  he  ..»i.4t-ii  ..  • 
ot'tiof  in  Kansas  City,  at:  1  cvi! Mr."*<|  ;  .  'o.k'- 
-lice  until  1^*74,  when  he  was  elc.  :. .(  ..t  'ii" 
county  judges,  and  became  site  ti.-.  1 
judge  tjf  l!ie  eouwty  court  in  1^77.  tiHer  \.  >  1 
he  resumed  the  pr.ictiee  of  law.  wiiith  he  ' 
continues.  Mr.  Allen  milk's  among  the  be«f 
lau  vtT.s  at  the  l)nr.  Me  ha.i  boi  n  enf^a^^'ed  in 
n)anv  of  t!ic  ii'jjinnanl  cases  'ii  eircui' 
couit,  the  Court  ««f  Anpeals  and  the  '^nireme 
COU)  I.  He  i.>  a  iv  r.^;  lent  advocate,  and  a  suc- 
cessful and  ;  I  'If  i>tai.-litioner,  1»c!:  ;;  at  ■■•]] 
times  thoroucinN  prepared.  Mr.  Aiien  s  po- 
litical atBh'ati-.^tts  are  witli  the  Democratic 
party.  In  t'"*i  !  was  elected  to  the  Missouri 
House  of  K  ^'itfeiitatives  and  .served  upon 

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tor  in  1869,  and  sen-ed  in  that  capacity  and 
iM  clerk  in  the  Chicago,  Burlington  &  ^uincy 
Railroad  ofRce  at  S^retoam,  Illinois,  wftil 
1871.  In  that  year  he  became  an  employe  of 
the  Toledo,  Peoria  &  Warsaw  Railway  Com- 
pany, which  he  served  one  year  as  ticket  agent 
and  operator  at  Burlington,  Iowa ;  one  yaur 
as  assistant  train-dispatcher,  and  seven  years 
as  train- dispatcher  at  Peoria,  Illinois.  In 
1880  he  beoHne  dty  ticket  agent  of  the  Wa- 
bash, St.  Louis  &  Pacific  Railway  Coinpany 
at  Ohicago,  Illinois,  and  held  that  position 
until  January  ol  i8fo.  From  Jaatiary  to 
June  of  that  year  he  was  trainmaster  of  the 
same  road,  with  headquarters  at  Peoria,  Illi- 
nois. In  June  of  1882  he  was  made  superin- 
tendent of  the  Milwaukee,  Eastern  and 
Southern  Divisions  of  the  Wisconsin  Central 
Railroad,  and  held  that  position  until  Decem- 
ber, 1884.  From  that  date  until  August,  1885, 
he  was  superintendent  of  the  Milwaukee, 
Eastern,  Southern,  Middle  and  Northern  Divi- 
rions  of  the  Wisconsin  Central,  leaving  Aat 
position  at  the  date  last  nained  to  become  as- 
sistant general  manager  of  that  road.  Later, 
while  acting  as  assUrtant  general  manager  of 
this  road,  he  had  under  his  supervision  the 
lines  known  as  the  Wisconsin  Central,  the 
Milwaukee  &  Winnebapfo,  Wisconsin  &  Min- 
nesota, and  the  Minnes'  »ta,  St.  Croix,  Wiscon- 
sin &  Chicag-o  roads.  From  this  service  he 
was  called  to  that  of  the  Missouri,  Kansas  & 
Texas  Railway  Company,  whidi  he  is  now 
serving  as  vice  president  and  general  man- 
ager. His  long  experience  in  the  conduct  of 
railway  affairs  has  made  him  one  of  the  most 
capable,  as  he  is  one  of  the  beat  known,  ol 
Western  railroad  men. 

Alleilf  Arthur  Mason,  lawyer,  was  born 

near  Ccnterville,  Fairfax  County,  Virj^inia, 
January  14,  1831,  son  of  William  T.  and  Rosa 
(Pritdiett)  Allen,  the  former  being  a  promi- 
nent citizen  of  that  county.  His  paternal 
grandfather  was  Joshua  Allen,  of  Prince  Wil- 
fiam  Comity.  His  maternal  grandfiidier, 
Travis  Pritchctt,  served  in  the  defense  (rf  Balti- 
more in  the  War  of  1812.  His  maternal 
grandmother  was  born  Rosa  Buckley.  He  ac- 
quired the  rudiments  of  English  in  the  neigh' 
borhood  scliools,  after  which  he  was  sent  to  an 
academy  taught  by  Patrick  Raney,  who  was 
proficient  in  mathematics,  and  in  the  Latin, 
Greek,  French  and  Spanish  languages.  After 
completing  his  scholastic  education  he  taaglit 

school  and  studied  law  in  the  interim.  In 
1853  he  was  examined  beiore  John  Webb 
Tyler,  Riclianl  FMd  and  Rklnnil  H.  Fiarker, 
who  licensed  him  to  practice  law  in  all  the 
courts  of  Virginia.    He  began  the  practice  of 
his  profession  at  Fairfax,  and  was  appointed 
dcimty  county  surveyor,  making  snrveys  in  all 
contested  land  cases  in  that  county.    In  1855. 
his  health  having  been  impaired  by  too  close 
applhaitilon  to  wofk  and  study,  aitd  4he  Tetri- 
tories  of  Kansas  and  Nebraska  havinc:  been 
opened  for  settlement,  he  came  west  and 
luided  ait  Atdiism,  Kansas.  Two  of  his 
friends,  Alfred  W.  Jones  and  Edward  H.  Har- 
wood,  had  stopped  at  Westport,  and  on  visit- 
ing Wyandotte  ascertained  that  a  contract 
could  be  obtained  to  survey  the  public  lands 
of  Kansas  and  Nebraska.    He  obtained  an 
appointment  as  deputy  United  States  surveyor, 
and  continued  in  tins  service  nntil  1858,  ex* 
ccpting  during  the  severe  weather  of  the  win- 
ter of  1857,  when  he  served  as  principal  of  the 
Westport  schools.  He  also  taught  (hiring  the 
fall  temi  of  1858.   John  W.  Burrus  had  just 
been  elected  sheriff  of  Jackson  County  and  ap- 
pointed Mr.  Allen  as  his  deputy,  in  which  ca- 
pacity he  served  until  the  death  of  Burrus,  in 
1 86 1.    He  conducted  all  the  business  of  the 
office  in  Range  33,  but  made  arrests  and  trans- 
acted business  in  other  parts  of  the  county. 
The  Kaw  Township  Court  of  Common  Pleas 
then  had  a  limited  jurisdiction  over  Range  33. 
In  i860  he  was  appointed  assessor  of  Range 
33  by  the  county  court.    In  1^65  he  became 
the  chief  deputy  of  Sheriff  John  G.  Hayden, 
performing  most  of  the  duties  of  lhat  office 
and  collecting  taxes  due  from  1861  to  1865. 
Mr.  Allen  was  admitted  to  the  Kansas  City 
bar  in  1861,  but  did  not  begin  tlie  practice  of 
his  profession  until  1867,  when  he  opened  an 
office  in  Kansas  City,  and  continued  to  prac- 
tice until  1874,  when  he  was  elected  one  of  tlie 
cotmty  judges,  and  became  the  presiding 
judge  of  the  county  court  in  1877,  nfter  which 
he  resumed  the  practice  of  law,  which  he  0till 
continues.  Mr.  Allen  ranks  among  Hhe  best 
lawyers  at  the  bar.    He  has  been  engaged  in 
many  of  the  important  cases  in  the  circuit 
court,  the  Court  of  Appeals  and  the  Supreme 
Court.  He  is  a  persistent  advocate,  and  a  suc- 
cessful and  skillful  practitioner,  being  at  all 
times  thoroughly  prepared.    Mr.  Allen's  po- 
Htieal  affiliations  are  with  the  Democrsitic 
pjuly.    In  l88l  he  was  elected  to  the  Missouri 
House  of  Representatives  and  served  upon 

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tlir  ninrr  itM|M»rlanf  rcmimittrrs  (if  tlint  liody. 
Ill  the  callt-«i  srssion  of  1883  he  was  chairman 
of  the  conitnittee  on  coni^restional  tpportion- 
nirnl.  lie  was  cliainnnti  t>f  tlic  DciiuH-ratic 
comity  etMiimittcc  in  i^j,  and  so  ort^anized 
the  party  and  manairrd  the  campaign  that  the 
entire  Dnnocralic  ticket  was  elected,  thus  rc- 
dectniii)c  ilu*  party  from  the  defeat  tht-y  suf- 
fered two  scars  previously.  In  1884  lie  was 
clectrd  Sl.-vlc  Senatc»r  from  Jackson  County, 
which  (onstitutrd  the  Hi irty  first  Distriot. 
lie  scrvi>l  t<>ur  years  and  was  in:>trumcntal  in 
•ertirlnRf  Ir^islation  beneficial  to  hit  conAitu- 
Cnt9.  In  I  lie  last  session  he  intro<hiced  and 
trt'ured  tlic  passage  of  onc-tcnth  of  all  the  bills 
passed,  and  the  work  he  performed  haa  not  as 
yet  hron  c\>  ccded.  Frr»m  |8S.(  to  iSxi  lio  was 
a  mcmhcrof  tljc  Democratic  State  central  com- 
ndttee,  hut  has  sitice  retired  from  active  poli- 
tus.  As  Mr.  Allen  is  hberally  educated,  he 
has  natiually  taken  .1  keen  interest  in  educa- 
tional niaticrs.  For  twenty-nine  consecutive 
yeoni  he  wa«  a  member  of  the  Weatpoit  Board 
of  lMn>\iti.>n  and  -ii-rvtvl  a.s  its  treasurer.  There 
was  a  surplus  of  ^jiS.ocw  in  the  county  tre«isury 
afiainfr  ont  of  a  suKscription  made  by  the 

\\  estiv>rt  >lt<trict  to  the  K.iik.k  Titv  \\\st- 
|H»n  lliKsc  Railway,  llirough  the  strenuous 
efforts  of  Mr.  AHen  this  sum  was  secured,  and 
w  )ih  it  tl)e  \!len  I  .ihr.irv.  at  Westpoit,  was  e$- 
taMishc\l  \lthou);h  \Vestp*"»rt  is  now  merited 
inM  l'it> ,  |>rv)vi»is>n  h,is  t>ecn  niadc  to 
nwtntain.  c,M»tinue  and  Increase  this  library. 
In  tSt"  M;  Allen  was  married  to  Miss  Mary 
VWcn  Mv  ».u  c,  daughter  of  Allen  U.  H.  McGee. 
of  \Ve»tpKWt,  Mtasoori.  Of  this  union  four* 
teefl  ehil»hen  hav  r  hern  boni,  eii^h;  w!H'»m 
«re  still  hvms,  namclv,  Mr*.  Annie  Morris, 
A.  M.  Allen.  Ir .  ]  \V.*  Allen,  W.  F.  AHen.  E. 
H.  Allen,  Kohert  .Mien.  Rosa  .Mien  and  Maty 
Allen.  He  has  a  splendid  home  at  Fiftieth 
Street  and  Utvtadwav.  where  he  spends  his 
leisure  tune  in  the  K^soln  of  his  family,  be- 
Kn-ed  and  respected  by  all  who  know  him. 

Alltpiit  llf»T<^ii]r*  lawyer  and  a  citixen  of 

^  I  «M'.;s.  w  V.>  siampc\i  the  impre««  of  his  in- 
dn  -.d;"A.  :'.x  r.  v>n  the  hist.vy  of  that  city,  was 
K*m  .V\tp^«t  15.  t^xv  in  RrohmiMtd,  Virpini*. 
ar.i  m;<s^  S.- ^rcir>er  u\  1^5.  in  Nrw  Y.^-k  U»s  :A:her  »**  l»'»s;ah  .\'.'cn.  a  lcia,!:n(; 
r-jero^ant  *v  Rv>.m.>rd,  Vii^Sria,  and  the  *» 
jr^w  r.  ;hat  citv.  .\:>cr  rece:\"in^  a  fin- 
is^e.?  <\^.vj»- ^^T;  M  Uw.  c\v 

New  Jersey,  from  whicli  institution  he  received 
the  d'^iree  of  bachelor  of  laws.    He  came  to 
Miasonri  in  1827,  and  first  eattablished  himself 
in  practice  at  Stc.  Cicnevicve,  wlicrc  he.  was  a 
partner  of  John  Scott,  who  was  the  first  mem- 
ber of  Congress  elected  from  this  State.  Very 
soon  after  his  coming  to  the  State,  however, 
he  was  appointed  United  States  district  at- 
torney by  President  John  Quincy  .Adams,  the 
notilicaition  of  his  appointment  to  that  posi- 
tion, written  by  Henry  Clay,  then  Secretary 
of  State,  bearing  date  of  March  5,  1827.  This 
appointment  caused  him  to  remove  to  St. 
I.ouis,  .111(1  from  that  time  until  his  death  he 
was  in  active  practice  in  that  city,  and  was  rec- 
ognized as  an  able  and  accomplished  lawyer 
and  an  influential  member  of  tiie  bar  of  the 
State.    He  served  at  different  times  in  the 
city  council  and  as  city  attorney,  and  as  a 
State  Senator  was  prominent  also  among  the 
earlv  legislators  of  Missouri.    In  1838  he  can- 
vassed the  State  as  a  Whig  congressional 
nominee,  but  failed  of  election  in  consequence 
of  his  party  being  largely  in  the  minority  in 
the  State.    No  man  stood  higher  at  what 
may  be  called  the  "old  bar"  of  St  Louis  than 
ilid  he,  his  contemp<irarics  and  the  iiciieral 
public  having  unbounded  admiration  for  his 
talents  and  professional  aUli^,  and  esteeming 
him  no  less  for  his  social,  moral  and  Christian 
virtnei:.     He  is  remenibered  bv  the  few  of  hi?; 
contemporaries  still  Iivuig  as  a  Southern  jjcn- 
tlemnn  of  the  old  school,  whose  courtliness 
v-vf  manner  charming,  whose  ho<rjiitaIity 
was  without  stint,  and  whose  home  was  one 
of  the  most  deligbtfnl  social  centers  of  the 
oitv     Men  r ->\v  qrown  gray  remember  with 
peculiar  pleasure  a  custom  of  his  iriiicfa  cvi> 
dcnced  not  only  tfie  nobiKty  of  his  nature,  bat 
his  pr.K-ticaJ  methvxJs  0/  doing  good.    In  the 
e«Tlv  da\-»,  w^en  St.  Louis  was  a  small  city 
and  the  adrem  of  newcomers  was  easilv  noted, 
he  was  in  the  habit  of  calling  upon  yoon^ 
men-.'-ers  of  the  Sar  an  !  >:hers      :^  came  there 
to  becvvne  a  part     the  life  and  activity  of  the 
city,  and  csctendmg  to  them  ccnani  tuui  testes 
wV  v-h  had  t^e  effect  cf  making  them  feel  at 
hvVite  in  the  commanity  and  giving  them 
stant{:n;r  and  prestige  in  SMsal.  professional 
ard  b::<ines.5  circle*.     IT?  -was.  d.'.ring  the  en- 
tire perrcvl  o«  his  rc*:irnce  in  St.  Louis,  ai 
jrert 'eman  o!  c-v^rr.:\>ruMe  nrtune.  and  his  hos- 
p:ta^:tv  was    tfise  hms:  grt^eroos  and  giatiuuft 
cSaracTfT.    .\^cv>~->-'i-i-r.-.  wife,  he  went 

to  :>e  jvx::\  vx  F-*ncT  eirly  ;r.  r>e  year  1845, 

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in  the  hope  of  effecting  a  restoration  of  his 
health,  and  it  was  on  his  return  from  this  trip 
abroad  that  his  death  occurred  in  New  York 
City.  Mr.  .\IIcn  married,  in  1834,  Miss  Pene- 
lope Pope,  daughter  of  the  distinguished 
jurist,  Nathaniel  Pope,  first  United  States  dis- 
trict judge  of  Illinois,  and  sister  of  Major 
General  John  i'ope  of  the  United  States 

Alleu»t'liarl«HChaiiniiiK, dentist,  was 
born  May  13,  1862,  in  Butler  County,  Iowa, 
ton  of  Dr.  E.  B.  and  Mary  J.  (Gar- 
rison) Allen.  His  father  was  one  r>f 
tfie  pioneers  oi  Iowa  and  Kansas,  and 
his  prominence  in  the  pubUc  affairs  of  tlie 
State  last  named  is  attested  in  the  fact  that 
from  1S64  to  1888  he  held  the  important  office 
of  Secretary  of  State.  He  was  a  native  of 
Ohio,  hut  removed  westward  at  a  time  when 
the  advanced  stages  of  civilization  in  that  sec- 
tion of  Che  country  w«re  almost  unknown. 
The  mother  was  bom  in  Indiana.  She  was 
married  to  Dr.  E.  B.  A^en  May  23,  1861,  and 
Charles  C.  is  the  oldest  son  of  a  family  of  three 
children.  Both  his  paternal  and  maternal  an- 
cestors were  active  participants  in  Revolution- 
ary affairs,  several  of  the  members  of  both 
bmilies  havingf  fougfht  for  the  Colonial  cause. 
Qiarles  C.  Allen  received  his  early  education 
in  the  common  schools  of  Wichita,  Kansas. 
Deciding  upon  a  professional  career,  he  en- 
tered the  University  of  Maryland  and  later 
attended  the  Kansas  City  Dental  College.  His 
boyhood  days  were  spent  on  the  extreme 
boundaries  of  civilization.  He  became  accus- 
tomed to  border  life  and  primitive  ways,  but 
the  iiardships  and  rugged  experiences  were  of 
immeasurable  value  to  him.  His  parents 
went  to  Kansas  in  1865  and  became  residents 
of  that  State,  settling  at  Wamego.  In  i8;o 
they  removed  to  Wkhita,  Kansas,  and  his  ex- 
periences  of  boyhood  and  young;  manhood 
were  much  the  same  as  those  of  the  average 
Western  youth.  At  the  age  of  twenty-nine  he 
began  the  study  of  dentistry,  and  in  iRt).;  grarl 
uated  from  the  Kansas  City  Dental  College. 
For  two  years  he  has  been  a  mcmlnr  of  the 
facuhy  of  that  institution  as  professor  of  den- 
tal anatomy,  instructor  in  technics  anrl  an  as- 
sistant demonstrator.  He  is  tlie  president  of 
(he  Kansas  State  Dental  Association,  although 
a  resiflent  of  Missouri,  an  unusual  honor.  He 
was  a  resident  of  that  State  for  several  years, 
however,  and  practiced  his  profession  in  To- 

peka  from  1894,  the  year  of  his  graduation, 
until  1897,  when  he  removed  to  Kansas  City. 
He  has  added  to  tlie  dental  science  a  valuable 
invention  in  the  Allen  Illuiiiinated  Rubber 
Dam,  an  invention  that  is  meeting  witli  great 
success  and  that  bids  fair  to  become  accepted 
and  used  by  the  jirofession  in  general.  This  is 
tlie  only  rubber  dam  on  wiiicli  there  is  a  pat- 
ent, although  the  device  has  been  in  use,  in 
one  form  or  another,  for  many  years.  He  is  a 
Republican  in  politics,  and  is  affiliated  with 
the  Presbyterian  Church.  He  is  a  member  of 
the  Masonic  order,  is  a  Royal  Arch  Mason  and 
a  Knight  Templar.  He  was  married,  Novem- 
ber 18,  1896,  to  Miss  Linnie  L.  Ummethun,  of 
Leavenworth,  Kansas.  Doctor  Allen  and  his 
estimable  wife  are  held  in  highest  regard  by  a 
host  of  friends.  He  is  a  progressive,  energetic 
practitioner,  is  well  thought  of  by  his  co- 
workers in  the  profession,  and  richly  deserves 
the  success  which  the  brightening  future 
seems  certainly  to  have  in  store  for  him. 

Allendale* — ^A  hamlet  in  Worth  County, 
on  Grand  River,  seven  miles  east  of  Grant 
City.  It  lias  a  church,  a  school,  a  flouring 
mill,  sawmill  and  about  lilteen  miscellaneous 
stores  and  shops.  Population,  1899  (esti- 
mated), 300. 

Allon,  DoWitt  Clinton,  was  born  No- 
vember 11,  1835,  in  Clay  County,  Missouri, 
son  of  Colonel  Shubael  Alien.  He  was  but 
five  years  of  age  when  his  father  died,  and  he 

came  under  tlie  influence  and  training  of  his 
mother,  a  woman  in  every  way  fitted  for  the 
discharge  of  the  duties  devolved  upon  her. 
In  1850  he  entered  Jewell  College, 
from  which  he  was  graduated  in  1855  with 
first  honors.  After  his  graduation  he  became 
principal  of  the  preparatory  department  of  the 
Masonic  College,  at  Lexington,  Missouri,  and 
filled  that  position  for  a  year  with  entire  satis- 
faction to  curators  and  patrons.  Having  de- 
termined upon  the  law  as  his  profession,  dur- 
ing the  year  following  his  connection  with  the 
Masonic  College  he  devoted  himself  to  those 
historical  and  special  studies  which  are  consid- 
ered a  proper  introduction  to  the  comprehen- 
sive Study  of  that  science,  under  the  guidance 
of  his  friend.  Colonel  Alexander  \V.  Doniphan, 
whose  interest  in  him  was  ardent  throughout 
fads  life.  For  twatly  two  years,  ending  in 
Mav.  if 60,  he  read  law  in  the  office  of  Richard 
R.  Rees,  in  Leavenworth,  Kansas,  and  occa- 
sionally during  that  period  he  assisted  his 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 



tutor  in  the  trial  of  cases  in  order  to  acquire 
familiarity  wkh  the  procedure  in  the  courts. 
In  May,  1R60,  he  returned  to  Liberty  and  en- 
tered upon  practice.  In  November  following 
he  was  elected  circuit  attorney  of  the  Fifth  Ju- 
dicial  Circuit,  comprising  the  counties  of  Clay, 
Clinton,  Caldwell,  Ray  and  Carroll,  and  dis- 
charg:L  c]  the  dtfties  of  that  office  with  ability 
and  j>roniptncss  until  December  17,  1861, 
when  he  declined  to  take  the  oath  testing  the 
loyalty  of  officers,  and  retired.  During  the 
years  1866-7  he  was  general  attorney  of  the 
Kansas  City  &  Cameron  Railroad  ri>nipanv, 
and  in  that  position  afforded  efficient  aid  in 
aecnring  ita  eariy  oompletion.  Mr.  Allen  haa 
attained  a  high  and  honorable  position  at  the 
bar,  which  he  yet  adorns.  Dealing  with  the 
law  as  a  science,  and  discerning  the  logical 
connection  of  its  principles,  lie  surveys  the 
fields  of  legal  lore  with  the  clear,  calm  vision 
of  a  jurist.  He  h  noted  for  the  power  of  hb 
analysis,  the  quickness  of  his  perception  of 
tlie  most  remote  analogies,  the  fineness  and 
delicacy  of  his  distinctions,  and  the  rapidity  of 
his  dttection  of  inconsistencies  in  ai^unient. 
In  forensic  conflict  he  brings  into  requisition 
tfie  best  materials  of  law  and  fact,  and  his  po- 
rtions are  always  dear,  logical  and  concise. 
His  voice  is  distinct  and  penetrating,  and  his 
rhetoric  is  faultless.  When  occasion  demands, 
he  ascends  by  easy  gradation  from  the  smooth, 
graceful  and  conversational  style  to  a  higher 
plane  of  oratory.  His  manner  is  earnest,  and 
his  ideas  form  in  quick,  unbroken  succession, 
but  his  greatest  power  as  a  speaker  is  in  the 
elevation  of  his  sentiments  and  his  rich  and 
sparkling  thoughts.  Ringing  tones,  electric 
fire  and  aptly  chosen  words  merely  form  their 
drapery.  During  court  vacations  he  remains 
in  his  office,  engaged  in  work  or  investigation. 
He  deals  witft  his  dients  with  the  ntmost  can> 
dor.  A  distinguishing  characteristic  is  fidel- 
ity to  his  friends.  He  is  possessed  of  a  lofty 
sense  of  honor,  and  is  bold  and  unyielding  in 
defense  of  right.  Fully  recognizing  the  truth 
that  of  all  men  the  reading  and  thought  of  the 
lawyer  should  be  the  most  extended,  he  de- 
votes his  leisure  to  literary  reading,  but  with- 
out  allowing  it  to  infringe  upon  his  profes- 
sional study  or  work.  Surpassingly  skillful 
as  a  writer,  it  is  to  be  regretted  that  profes« 
si<mal  exactions  have  restricted  his  efforts  ta 
occasional  contributions  to  the  periodical 
press  and  a  few  addresses.  Hit  style  h  dear, 
logical,  chaste  and  inqnssioiwd,  alxMinding  in 

poetic  thought  at  once  virile  and  charming. 
His  dionghts  are  expressed  widi  force  and 

sententiousness,  and  never  descend  to  an  ig- 
noble or  profitless  tlieme.  A  spleivdid  piece 
of  work  from  Ms  pen  was  his  "Sketch  orf  the 
Life  and  Character  of  Colonrl  .'McxaiKkr  W. 
Doniphan,"  which  he  read  on  invitation  be- 
fore the  Kansas  City  Bar  Association,  Decem- 
ber 7,  1895,  and  which  was  pubH<>he<l  in  the 
Kansas  City  "Bar  Monthly,"  and  afterward  re- 
printed in  pamphlet  form.  This  was  a  real 
labor  of  love  and  an  eloquent  tribute  to  the 
noble  man  who  was  the  lifetime  friend  of  his 
panegyrist.  On  various  occasions  Mr.  .Mien 
has  penned  for  die  press  historical  and  bio- 
graphical matter  of  great  interest,  pertaining 
to  Clay  County  and  the  adjacent  region,  and 
the  use  of  his  writings  in  the  preparation  of 
matter  for  the  "Encyclopedia  of  the  History 
of  Missouri"  is  gratefully  acknowledged.  Mr. 
Allen  it  not  connected  with  any  church,  but 
entertains  a  high  respect  for  religion  and  its 
institutions,  believing  them  to  he  lu  cdftil  to 
healthful,  well-ordered  society.  \\  ith  a  lofty 
pubHc  spirit,  he  has  ever  been  ready  to  aid  in 
those  movements  which  tend  to  increase  the 
material  happiness  and  promote  the  culture  of 
the  community.  In  politics  ever  a  firm,  con- 
sistent  TefTersonian  Democrat,  his  ambition 
has  been  bounded  by  his  firm  conviction  that 
faithfal  performance  of  the  duty  of  the  hour 
in  one's  chosen  occupation,  and  in  society,  is 
the  highest  duty  and  privilege.  He  was 
dected  presidential  elector  at  large  for  Mis- 
souri in  the  election  of  1896,  and  a  member 
of  the  Constitutional  Convention  of  1875, 
which  framed  Uie  now  oi>erative  organic  law 
of  the  State.  He  was  elected  without  opposi- 
tion, in  connection  with  Honorable  K.  H. 
Norton,  to  represent  the  Third  Senatorial  Dis- 
trfet,  comprising  the  counties  of  Qay,  Clinton 
and  Platte.  In  that  body,  composed  of  matiy 
of  the  most  learned  and  able  men  in  the  State, 
he  bore  hfmsdf  with  ability,  and  won  respect 
and  confidence  as  an  intelligent  and  indefati- 
gable worker,  his  services  on  the  committees 
on  education  and  legislation  being  recognized 
as  particularly  meritorious.  Mr.  Allen  was 
married.  May  18,  1864,  to  Miss  Emily  E.  Set- 
tle, born  in  Culpeper  County,  Virginia,  daugh- 
ter of  Hiram  P.  Settle,  of  Ray  Omnty,  Mis- 
souri. Born  of  this  marriage  were  three 
children.  Perry  S. ;  Juliet,  wife  of  Lyman  H. 
Howard,  and  Lee  Allen,  who  died  November 
4. 1897- 

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Allen,  Gerard  B.,  manufacturer  and 
financier,  was  born  in  the  city  of  Cork,  Ireland, 
November  6, 1813,  and  died  in  St.  Louis,  July 
21,  1887.  His  father,  Thomas  Allen,  was  a 
weU-^o-do  silk  manufacturer  of  Cork,  and  the 
Mn  ivas  reared  under  fayorable  auspices,  re- 
cdving  an  education  which  fitted  him  ad- 
mirably for  business  pursuits  and  for  various 
activities  in  the  higher  walks  of  life.  His  am- 
bitious nature  prompted  him,  in  his  yovmg 
manhood,  to  leave  his  early  home  and  come 
to  this  country,  and  he  landed  in  New  York 
when  he  was  twenty-three  years  of  age.  After 
remaining  in  New  York  a  year  he  came  to  St. 
Louis,  in  1837,  and  at  once  engaged  in  busi- 
ness there  as  a  contractor  and  builder.  His 
natural  safracity,  exactness  in  making  calcula- 
tions, and  intense  energy  soon  gave  him  a 
good  start  on  the  road  to  fortune,  and  within 
a  few  years  he  became  the  owicr  of  two  saw- 
mills, one  of  which  was  located  in  St.  Louis 
and  the  other  on  the  Gasconade  River.  After 
manufecturing  lumber  for  a  rime  lie  disposed 
of  his  sawmills  and  invested  his  capital  in  the 
iron  business,  becoming  a  member  of  the  well 
known  and  preaperous  firm  of  Gaty,  McCune 
&  Co.  He  was  a  member  of  this  firm  until 
1855,  when  he  withdrew  to  establish  the  I*ul- 
ton  Iron  Works,  tiie  business  of  which  grew 
to  very  large  proportacMis  under  his  manage- 
ment, and  which  is  still  carried  on  by  his  son. 
As  his  wealth  and  influence  increased  he  be- 
came recognized  as  a  leader  in  all  movements 
which  had  for  their  aim  and  purpose  the  ad- 
x-ancement  of  the  general  busmess  uuerests  of 
St.  Louis,  the  development  of  its  commerce 
and  the  building  up  of  its  industries.  He 
helped  to  estabhsh  various  corporations  and 
was  connected  with  many  such  institutioos  in 
an  official  capacity.  He  was  elected  president 
of  the  Covenant  Mutual  Life  Insurance  Com- 
pany of  St  Louis  in  1853,  and  in  1857  he  and 
other  wc-H  known  business  men  organized  the 
Hope  Mutual  Fire  Insurance  Company,  of 
which  he  was  many  years  a  director.  He 
was  also  a  director  of  the  Bank  of  the  State 
of  Missouri,  vice  president  of  the  O'Fallon 
Polytechnic  Institute,  and  vice  president  of  the 
North  Missouri  Railroad  at  one  time.  In  the 
golden  age  of  steamboating  on  the  Mississippi 
and  Missouri  Rivers  he  was  largely  interested 
u)  various  fltemboats,  and  was  a  director  of 
the  St.  Louis  &  Vicksburg  Anchor  Line  Cbm- 
pany,  and  also  of  the  New  Orleans  Anchor 
Une  Company.    Thoae  who  were  bnMght 

into  contact  with  him  in  the  conduct  of  affairs 
trusted  his  judgment  and  had  implicit  confi- 
dence in  his  integrity  and  rectitude  of  pw- 
pose.  He  was  a  frifud  in  tinu'  of  need.  Wlien 
a  friend  was  in  financial  trouble  Mr.  Allen  was 
invariably  appealed  to  for  advice  and  assist- 
ance, and  these  appeals  were  never  made  in 
vain.  His  activities  during  life  covered  a 
vast  field  of  enterprise,  and  a  multitude  of  in- 
dustries and  conunercial  ventures  fek  die 
stimulus  of  liis  genius  and  sagacity.  For  some 
years  he  was  largely  interested  in  the  "Mis- 
souri Republican"  newspaper,  now  the  St 
Louis  "RepuliHc,"  and  was  one  of  the  influen- 
tial factors  in  directing  its  policy  and  infiuenc- 
ing  public  sentimeirt  through  that  channel. 
Few  men  who  have  lived  in  St.  T.ouis  have 
contributed  more  to  the  progress  and  advance- 
ment of  the  city  Hmn  did  he,  and  his  death  was 
mourned  by  all  classes  of  people.  He  wis 
twice  married — first,  to  Miss  Frances  Adams, 
of  Pike  County,  Missouri,  and  after  her  death 
to  Mrs,  W  alter  Carr,  whose  maiden  name 
was  Paschall.  He  left  at  his  death  four  chil- 
dren, of  whom  Mary  married  Robert  Newton 
Cnme,  of  London,  England ;  George  L.  Allen 
married  Lilly  McCreery,  of  St.  Louis ;  Grace 
married  J.  Geale  Dickson,  of  Southampton, 
England.  Taylor  Allen  is  unmarried. 

Alien,  Jacob  D.,  editor  and  owner  of 
tite  "Butler  Weekly  Times,"  is  a  repmcakar 

tivc  of  a  Kentucky  family  whose  members  at- 
tained positions  of  prominence  in  that  State. 
His  father.  Major  Richard  N.  Allen,  was  a 
son  of  Rev.  Richard  Allen,  a  clergyman 
in  the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church,  who  left 
his  home  in  Ireland  to  escape  religious  per- 
secution and  came  to  America,  settUng  In 
Maryland.  Richard  N.  Allen  married  Jean- 
nette  Campbell,  whose  grandfather  immi- 
grated from  Scotland  and  located  in  CaCtanui- 
gus  County,  New  York  Our  subject's  father 
was  a  native  of  Baltimore,  Maryland,  and  was 
educitted  for  the  law  in  Allegheny  College,  at 
Allegheny,  Pennsylvania.  After  graduating 
from  college  he  engaged  in  teaching  for  a 
while  and  subsequently  conducted  a  farm.  In 
1849  he  joined  an  expedition  of  the  California 
Argonauts  in  the  great  rush  for  gold,  but 
soon  returned  to  Frankfort,  Kentucky,  where 
he  manied  Jeannette  Canipbell,  engaged  in 
teaching  and  other  pursuits,  and  reared  a 
family.  Colonel  R.  T.  P.  Allen,  his  brother, 
wlio  received  a  diaBskal  and  nrffifeary  edtiosltioa 

Digitized  by  Coogle 



at  the  West  Point  MUitaxy  Academy,  re- 
•igfned  bis  position  in  <th«  United  States  Army 

after  the  Seminole  War  and  founded  the  Ken- 
tucky Military  Institute,  located  near  Frank- 
fort. In  this  institntion,  in  hs  time  a  cele- 
brated one,  Major  Richard  N.  Allen  served  as 
a  member  of  the  faculty  for  some  time.  In 
1875  he  removed  to  Bates  County,  Missouri, 
and  located  on  a  farm  in  New  Home  to^vn- 
ship,  where  he  resided  until  a  short  /time  be 
fore  his  deaith,  which  occurred  in  the  spring  of 
1899,  St  tbe  home  of  liis  son,  in  Butler.  His 
wife  passed  away  in  1896.  Jacob  D.  Alk-ti 
was  bom  in  Frankfort,  Kentucky,  September 
12,  1859.  His  edtxation  ms  begun  tn  the 
public  schools  there  and  concluded  in  the 
Kentucky  Military  Institute,  founded  by  his 
uncle,  from  which  he  was  graduated  in  1882 
with  the  degree  of  bachelor  oi  arts.  Before 
entering  college  he  had  come  to  Mis'^ouri  with 
his  parents  in  1875,  an<l  from  that  year  to 
1879,  when  he  began  his  college  course,  he  at- 
tended the  schools  of  Bates  County.  Upon 
his  return  home  in  1882  he  was  almost  imme- 
diately appointed  deputy  county  clerk,  in 
which  office  he  served  for  a  year  and  n  half. 
In  the  summer  of  1884  he  purchased  tlie  "But- 
ler Weekly  Times,"  which  he  has  since  owned 
and  edited.  During  the  second  administra- 
tion of  President  Cleveland  he  served  as  post- 
master of  Butler,  administering  the  affairs  of 
ikat  office  in  «  manner  highly  satisfactory  to 
its  patrons.  Always  a  staunch  Democrat,  he 
was  a  member  of  the  Missotiri  delegation  to 
the  National  Convention  in  189a,  wfak^i  nomi- 
nated Grover  Cleveland,  reprc<;rnting  the  Sixth 
District.  In  October,  1899,  Governor  Lon  V. 
Stephens  appointed  him  a  member  of  the  com- 
mission having  in  charge  the  erection  and 
equipment  of  State  Lunatic  Asylum  No;  4,  lo- 
cated at  Farmington,  St.  Francois  County,  and 
the  commission  at  its  first  meeting  elected  him 
to  the  chairmanship.  This  body  drci'Ied  upon 
an  innovation,  as  far  as  Missouri  asylums  are 
concerned,  adopting  plans  for  several  cotuges 
for  the  use  of  the  inmates,  in  the  place  of  the 
prison-like  building  commonly  devoted  to  this 
purpose.  Fire  cottages  will  be  erected  alt  the 
start,  besides  the  domestic  buildings  neces- 
sary, as  the  appropriation,  $150,000,  is  too 
Mnrited  to  warrant  Ae  erection  of  a  larger 
nnnrt)er.  By  tlie  {rfan  adopted  the  inmates  of 
the  new  asylum  will  be  accorde<l  residential 
privileges  more  like  those  of  a  private  home, 
and  liie  most  expert  aKeniats  in  the  country 

now  agree  that  this  plan  is  more  conducive  to 
the  speedy  recovery  of  demented  persons  than 

tlie  sy^-teii!.  more  ooiiiinoiily  in  use,  of  slieltcr- 
ing  all  in  one  large  building.  Mr.  Allen  has 
never  been  a  candidate  for  pt^lic  elective  of- 
fice, preferring  to  devote  all  the  time  possible 
to  the  management  of  his  newspaper,  which 
has  become  a  potent  factor  in  the  affairs  of  the 
State,  especially  in  Southwest  Missouri.  In 
Masonry  he  is  a  member  of  the  Blue  L<xlge. 
and  Itas  passed  all  the  chairs  in  Odd  Fellow- 
ship hi  the  lod^  at  Botier.  He  was  married, 
October  6,  1886,  at  Butler,  to  Ida  R.  Wood, 
daughter  of  George  C.  Wood,  of  tha/t  oity. 
The  last  named,  yAio  was  a  niAive  d  Mary- 
land, came  to  Bates  County,  Missoirri,  from 
Iowa  and  engaged  in  business  as  a  carpenter 
and  cabinetmaker  in  Butler.  He  and  his 
wife  wn  both  deceased.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Allen 
are  the  parents  of  three  sons,  RobtTt  D.,  Wil- 
liam Ilcnry  and  Jacob  W'o<xl  Allen,  in  his 
college  days  Mr.  Allen  fraternized  with  the 
Sigma  Alpha  Epsilon  Society,  whose  chapters 
were  composed  exclusively  of  students  in 
Southern  colleges.  The  history  of  the  fmter- 
nity,  under  tlic  heading,  C1as=;  of  1S82,  Ken- 
tucky Chi,  contains  the  following:  "Jacob 
Dickinson  Allen,  editor.  Butler.  Missouri, 
A.  B.,  1882;  lieutenant,  1880  1  :  senior  cap- 
tain of  corps,  1881-2;  salutatorian.  1882;  con- 
gressional committeeman,  1886-8;  delegate 
to  National  Democratic  Convention,  1892 ; 
editor  and  publisher,  1884 — ."  Perhaps  the 
best  estimate  of  the  character  of  Mr.  Allen, 
suedne^  S^ven,  is  contained  ki  the  following, 
which  appeared  in  lhc  "Missouri  F.ditor,"  in 
October,  1896,  from  the  pen  of  one  of  the  best 
known  editors  of  the  State :  "As  an  editor  Mr.  ' 
Allen  is  conscientious,  bright,  bold  and  able ; 
as  a  postmaster  he  is  obliging;  as  a  friend  he 
is  manly,  true  and  steadfast.  No  power  can 
swerve  him  from  the  pathway  of  right ;  and  as 
lie  sees  a  duty,  cither  public  or  private,  he  pur- 
sues it  to  the  end.  This  cliaractoristic  has  won 
htm  many  warm  and  devoted  friends,  and  his 
power  in  southwest  Missouri  is  keenly  felt 
whenever  he  attempts  to  assert  his  sway." 

A  lion,  John  3Iar8linll,  physician,  was 
born  July  23,  1833,  in  Clay  County,  Missouri, 
son  of  Colonel  Shnbael  Allen,  a  dtstingui^ed 
pioneer  of  northwestern  Missouri.  Reared 
in  his  native  county,  he  began  his  education  in 
the  common  schools  and  completed  it  at  W^il- 
liam  Jewdl  Cbll^.  In  iS^i  he  b^an  the 

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study  of  medicine  under  the  preceptorship  of 
the  accomplished  Dr.  Joseph  M.  Wood,  then 
a  praetitioner  at  liberty.  The  same  year  he 
entered  the  St.  Louis  Medical  College,  from 
which  he  was  graduated  in  March,  1854.  His 
talent  and  proficiency  in  his  studies  had  won 
for  him  the  regard  and  admiration  of  the 
foculty,  and  Dr.  Charles  A.  Pope,  the  dean, 
urged  him  to  apply  for  the  position  of  physi- 
cian at  the  St.  Louis  Hospital.  While  much 
gratified  with  this  eviflcnoc  of  appreciation, 
Dr.  Allen  decUned,  preferring  to  mta-  upon 
general  practice,  and  at  once  located  at  Clays- 
ville.  Clay  County.  He  was  then  four  him- 
dred  dollars  in  debt,  and  his  sole  possessions 
were  six  dollars  In  money,  a  limited  wardrobe, 
"Ru.^scir..  Modem  Eorope,"  the  "Lord's 
Prayer,"  and  a  few  medkal  works.  He  made 
frank  confession  of  Ida  drcumstances  to  Dip- 
tain  William  CummonSt  a  genial  Southern 
gentleman,  noted  for  purity  of  character  and 
kindly  disposition,  who  proflfered  to  take  him 
into  his  home,  trust  him  for  his  board  and  sup- 
ply him  with  such  funds  as  he  might  need. 
Colonel  A.  W.  Doniphan,  Edward  M.  Samuel 
and  odher  friends  also  pra^fered  assistance,  bnt 
he  gratefully  declined  all  loans  and  began 
practice,  relying  solely  upon  his  own  efforts. 
He  remained  in  Qaysvilte  for  seven  years,  and 
became  one  of  the  leading  physicians  in  that 
region,  enjoying  a  large  practice,  which  ex- 
tended into  Ray  County.  In  1861  he  went  to 
Sl  Lotris  to  take  a  post-graduate  medical 
course.  Soon,  however,  occurred  the  first 
acts  marking  the  conflict  between  tlie  North 
and  the  South,  and  loyalty  to  his  State  im> 
pdled  him  to  abandon  his  studies  and  go  to 
Richmond,  Missouri,  where  he  organized  a 
company  of  State  Gaards,  of  wirieh  he  was 
elected  captain.  This  company  became  a  part 
of  the  regiment  of  Colonel  Benjamin  A.  Rives, 
who  was  killed  in  action  at  Elk  Horn.  In 
ICay,  1861,  Captain  Allen  was  commissioned 
flurgeon  of  this  regiment,  attached  to  the 
Fourth  Division  of  the  Missouri  State  Guard. 
Upon  the  expiration  of  the  six  months'  term 
of  enlistment  he  was  one  of  seventeen  men 
who  voluntarily  took  an  oath  binding  them- 
selves to  lervioe  "far  forty  yean,  or  during  the 
war,"  and  this  little  company  formed  the  lui- 
cletJS  for  the  Third  Missouri  Infantry  Regi- 
ment, First  Missouri  Brigade,  Confederate 
Slates  Army.  In  December,  1861.  Captain 
Allen  was  rommisstoned  surgeon  of  his  regi- 
ment, and  became  brigade  surgeon  by  senior- 

ity. While  serving  in  this  capacity  he  was 
placed  in  charge  of  the  wounded  from  the 
bkxidy  battle  at  Port  Gibson,  Mississrppi, 
where  his  careful  attention  to  the  sufferers,  the 
thoroughness  of  his  hospital  organization,  and 
his  punctual  and  accurate  reports  to  his  su- 
periors, attracted  the  attention  of  General 
Joseph  E.  Johnston,  who  promoted  him  to  the 
position  of  chief  surgeon  of  the  District  of 
Mississippi  and  East  Louisiana,  attaching  him 
to  the  staff  of  CciuTal  Wirt  Adams,  and  he 
served  in  this  capacity  until  the  close  of  the 
war.  He  participated  in  many  of  the  great 
battles,  including  thnsc  f)f  Wilson's  Creek, 
Carthage,  Dry  Wood  and  Lexington,  in  Mis- 
souri ;  Elk  Horn,  in  Arkansas ;  Corinth,  fuka. 
Grand  Gulf  and  Port  Gibson,  in  Mississippi, 
and  others  of  less  impoitaiice.  At  all  times, 
when  not  occupied  with  actual  care  of  the 
wounded,  Surgeon  Allen  ignored  his  rights  as 
a  non-combatant,  and  was  found  at  the  front 
in  every  engagement  in  which  his  regiment 
took  a  part,  and  from  the  beginning  of  the 
war  until  the  end  he  was  never  absent  from  his 
command,  even  temporarily.  He  was  dis- 
charged in  May,  1865,  at  Gainesville,  Ala- 
bama, and  returning  to  Clay  County,  resumed 
practice  at  Liberty,  which  has  since  been  his 
place  of  residence.  Long  and  arduous  service 
in  his  profession  has  given  him  a  high  place 
among  the  best  of  Missouri  physicians.  Re- 
garding the  practice  of  medicine  as  one  of  the 
noblest  of  callings,  his  constant  effort  has  been 
to  uplift  its  standards,  and  to  aid  in  improving 
the  attainments  of  practitioners.  As  early  as 
1856  he  was  active  in  the  organisation  of  tlie 
C!av  County  Medical  Society,  of  which  he  was 
president  at  various  times.  In  1858  he  be- 
came a  member  of  the  American  Medical  As- 
sociation, and  in  1899  he  was  elected  its  first 
vice  president.  He  was  an  original  member 
of  the  Kansas  City  District  M^ical  Society, 
and  became  its  first  president.  In  1868  he 
became  a  member  of  the  Missouri  State  Medi- 
cal Society,  of  which  he  was  subse{]uently 
•elected  president ;  he  was  the  first  to  urge  ^e 
organization  of  a  State  Board  of  Health,  by  a 
resolution  which  he  introduced  in  that  body, 
and  he  has  constantly  maintained  a  zealous  in- 
terest in  its  [it:rposes  and  conduct.  In  1878 
he  was  appointed  a  special  lecturer  on  diseases 
of  the  gastro-lntestinal  canal,  before  the  medi- 
cal department  of  tlic  Statr  University,  and 
resigned  the  position  in  1881  to  take  the 
chair  of  Principles  and  Practice  of  Medicine  in 

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the  University  Medical  College  ot  Kansas 
City.  In  1887  he  was  elected  president  of  the 
latter  institution,  and  under  his  guidance  its 
thirty  students  were  increased  to  three  hun- 
dred. Overburdened  with  labors,  he  resigned 
the  presidency  in  1898,  but  retained  hit  pffO- 
fcs<orship  and  is  yet  serving.  For  many  years 
he  has  been  a  liberal  contributor  to  the  high- 
est cUttS  of  periodical  medical  literature,  and 
has  advanced  many  original  views  in  relation 
to  diseases  of  the  gastrointestinal  canal,  a 
branch  of  medical  science  to  which  he  has  de- 
voted much  attention,  and  in  whicli  he  is  rcc- 
opni^.ed  not  only  as  a  practitioner  ol  sur- 
passing ability,  but  as  pre-eminently  a  pioneer. 
He  was  a  representative  in  the  Missouri  Leg- 
islature in  the  session  of  1884-5, 
known  as  an  intelligent  and  industrious  mem- 
ber. Among  notable  measures  whidi  he 
originated  was  one  for  the  establishment  of 
a  State  Inebriate  Asylum,  and  a  funding  bill 
regulating  the  sale  of  State  bonds,  which 
saved  to  the  i>eople  many  tlitMi^ands  of  dollars. 
A  gentleman  of  culture  and  education,  he  has 
been  for  many  years  an  active  memba-  of  the 
Liberty  Literary  Club,  and  has  given  much 
systematic  study  to  literary  subjects  and  to 
educational  afttirs.  He  was  (or  more  than 
twenty-five  years  a  trustee  of  William  Jewell 
College,  and  was  largely  instrumental  in  plac- 
ing it  upon  a  substantial  basis  when  its  condi- 
tion was  precarious.  In  recognition  of  his 
services,  and  of  his  literary  and  professional 
attainments,  the  college  conferred  upon  him 
(he  degree  of  doctor  <rf  laws.  He  has  been  a 

lifelong  advocate  of  tcmin-ranrc,  and  has 
been  concerned  in  all  temperance  roove- 
menli  since  1848.  He  is  a  floent  and 
forceful  public  speaJcer,  and  his  utterances 
command  attention  and  respect.  In  busi- 
ness concerns  he  has  been  habitually  suc- 
cessful, and  he  is  nundiered  among  the 
most  successful  of  the  men  of  affairs  in  the 
portion  of  the  State  in  which  he  has  so  long 
resided.  While  careful  in  his  transactions,  he 
is  scrupulotisly  upright,  as  well  as  generous  in 
his  relations  with  his  fellows,  and  liberal  in  his 
benefactions  to  all  worthy  public  objects. 
With  his  mental  powers  at  their  best  and  a 
superb  physique,  he  affords  no  evidence  of 
age,  whQe  he  is  youthful  in  his  cheery  dispo- 
sition and  unaffected  afTabilrty.  Dr.  AUen 
was  married,  April  15.  1866,  to  Miss  Agnes 
Mc.^lpine,  daughter  of  William  R.  McAlpine, 
of  Poit  Gibson,  Miisinippi  The  living  chil- 

dren bom  of  the  marriage  are  Shabad  W. 
Allen,  a  very  successful  btniness  man,  now  !«• 

sidintj  in  Houston,  Texas,  and  Malvina,  a 
graduate  of  Liberty  Ladies'  College,  residing 
at  hone.  The  second  child,  Marshall  Allen, 
died  in  1895.  He  was  a  young  man  of  splen- 
did attainments,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death 
was  just  on  the  eve  of  completing  has  medical 
education  at  the  Universtly  Medical  OoUeg^ 
Kansas  Gty. 

Allea»  John  W.»  clergyman,  was  bom 
February  1,  1837,  in  Belmont  County,  Ohio. 
His  parents  were  William  and  Jane  Allen. 
Like  so  many  of  those  who  have  acquired 
leadership  and  distinction  in  society,  he  was 
a  farmer's  son,  spending  his  first  years  on  the 
farm  and  there  acquiring  tliat  strong  and 
healthy  physical  devdopment  whicsh  lies  at  the 
foundation  of  an  active  and  useful  life.  His 
academic  studies  were  pursued  in  Miller  Acad* 
emy,  Guernsey,  Ohio,  which  institntion  he  en- 
tered in  the  year  1855.  In  1857  he  entere<l  the 
sophomore  class  of  Washington  College, 
Pennsylvania,  and  viras  graduated  in  the  class 
of  i860.  Immediately  after  his  graduation 
he  entered  the  Western  Theological  Seminary, 
where  he  remained  two  years.  Tlie  third 
year  of  his  theological  course  was  spent  in 
McConnick  Theological  Seminary,  where  he 
finished  his  theological  studies  in  1863.  After 
leaving  the  learinafy  he  was  called  to  the  pas- 
torate of  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  Van 
Wert,  Ohio.  During  this  pastorate,  in  the 
year  1865,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Roxanna 
Love  Purmort.  Ill  health,  resulting  from  a 
malarious  climate,  compelled  his  resignation 
from  his  first  charge.  Removing  to  Minne- 
sota he  served  one  year  as  stated  supply  for 
the  church  at  Lake  City;  subsequently  he  re- 
moved to  Kirkwood,  Illinois,  where  he  served 
two  years  as  stated  supply.  In  the  spring  of 
1868  he  removed  to  Kansas  City,  Missouri, 
where  for  a  ^faort  time  he  occupied  the  pulpit 
of  the  First  Chnrdi  of  that  city.  While  thus 
engaged  he  was  elected  by  his  presbytery  to 
be  the  presbyterial  missionary  of  Kansas  Gtj 
Presbytery.  His  efficiency  and  success  in  dis- 
charging the  duties  of  his  new  office  drew  to 
him  the  attention  of  the  Synod  of  Missouri,  as 
the  man  best  qualified  for  the  important  office 
of  aynodical  missionary,  to  which  office  he 
w^as  unanimously  elected  by  the  synod  in  1873. 
The  duties  of  his  office  necessitated  his  re- 
movil  to  St  Looit,  where  he  has  since  resided. 

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His  wisdom  and  fidelity  in  the  discharge  of 
hit  official  dtrtics  won  for  him  the  confidence 
of  his  brediren  to  nich  a  degree  tliat  for  eight 

successive  years  he  was  tinanimoosly  re- 
elected as  synodical  missionary. 

In  1880  he  resigned  his  poeitioa  to  accept 
that  of  superintendent  of  the  Board  of  Publi- 
cation of  the  Soudiwest.  The  administrative 
abOtty  which  he  had  shown  as  sopeiintendent 
of  niiKsions  was  conspicuously  manifested  in 
hi5  new  work,  and  he  had  the  satisfaction  of 
wetng  it  gTXMir  from  small  beginnings  to  its 
pcesent  large  propoitions.  The  position  which 
he  occupied  and  his  accurate  knowledge  of  the 
idd  led  him  to  see  and  urge  the  expediency  of 
establishing  a  religious  new^aper  in  the  in- 
terest of  tfie  Southwest.  Accordingly  he  be- 
gan the  publicaition  of  a  monthly,  known  as 
The  St.  Louis  EvangeKst,"  of  which  he  was 
the  editor  The  success  of  this  effort  led  to 
the  forma^n  of  a  company  to  publish  "The 
St  Lonb  Evangelist"  weekly.  Dr.  AHen 
was  chosen  as  treasurer  of  the  new  company 
and  publisher  of  the  parper.  Subsequently  the 
name  of  the  paper  was  changed  to  that  of  "The 
liid-Continent"  He  retained  his  connection 
with  it  until  it  was  transferred  to  Cincinnati, 
ottcn  contributing  to  its  columns  and  oon- 
dncting  it  editorially.  The  laiborioas  and 
manifold  duties  of  his  office  have  not  limited 
the  labors  of  Dr.  Allen.  No  one  in  his  pres- 
bytety  has  been  more  earnest  and  efficient  in 
tlw  work  1  >f  evangelization  tlian  he.  He  is 
a  recognized  leader  in  the  mission  work  of 
tiie  Presbyterian  Chttreh  in  State  and  in 
St.  Louis.  He  is  also  the  secretary  and  one  of 
Ihe  managers  of  the  St.  Louis  Bible  Society. 
In  1875  lie  was  elected  moderator  of  the 
Synod  of  Missonri  In  1879  the  degree  of 
doctor  of  divinity  was  conferred  upon  htm  by 
the  University  of  Wooster. 

Allen  Library — An  institution  estab- 
lished at  Westport  (now  Kansas  City)  by  the 
Westport  BoM^  of  Edncation,  in  1896.  It 
is  hotiscrl  in  a  fine  huildiiifj-  costing  $io,00O. 
In  1893  the  Legislature  appropriated  money, 
which  had  been  refttnded  by  the  Kansas  City 
&  Westport  Horse  Railway,  for  this  purpose, 
but  the  project  was  retarded  by  a  lawsuit  tn 
•est  the  constitutionalhy  of  the  law.  The 
Birary  has  1.300  volumes  and  a  reading  room. 

Allen,  Slitibael,  one  of  the  most  dis- 
tmguished  of  the  pioneer  settlers  of  Missouri, 

and  conspicuous  in  the  development  of  Clay 
County,  was  born  February  27.  1793,  near 
Goshen,  Orange  County,  New  York.  His 
parents  were  Thomas  and  Bathsheba  (Stod- 
dard) Allen,  both  from  English  families  long 
established  in  America.  Cohmd  Shubad  Al- 
len was  liberally  educated,  and  was  a  civil  en- 
gineer by  profession.    As  early  as  1816  he 
constructed  a  bridge  over  the  Stnqudianna 
River  at  Columbia,  Pennsylvania;  and  in  1817 
he  constructed  another  over  the  Kentucky 
River  sit  Frankfort,  Kentndcy ;  the  latter  was 
a  one-span  bridge,  of  wood,  and  its  building 
in  those  days  of  meager  mechanical  appli- 
ances could  only  have  been  accomplished 
through  unusual  engineering  skill.    Late  in 
1817  he  removed  to  St.  Louis,  Missouri,  and 
the  following  year  to  Old  Franklin,  Howard 
Connfty.  In  i8ao,  ha  company  with  Cotond 
John  Thornton,  whose  wife's  sister  he  subse- 
quently married,  he  kxrated  in  what  is  now 
Clay  County,  and  made  a  farm  in  the  Missonri 
River  bottom  at  the  western  base  of  the  bluffs 
at  Liberty  Landing,  his  property  embracing  a 
large  portion  of  the  contiguous  hill  region. 
This  farm  he  made  one  of  the  most  beatttifol 
and  romantic  in  the  State,  and  his  home  was 
a  place  of  interest  to  many  distinguished  trav- 
ders,  among  whom  were  military  officers, 
statesmen  and  literateurs.  who  were  enters 
taincd  with  lavish  and  unaffected  hospitality. 
A  large  portion  of  this  property  has  since  been 
swept  away  by  the  ever  changing  river.  While 
conducting  his  farm  Colonel  Allen  also  trans- 
mited  a  lai^  bushiess  as  a  comnrission  mer- 
chant.   His  warehouses  were  located  at  the 
western  extremity  of  the  bluffs,  and  the  lix-al 
ity  was  known  as  Allen's  Landing,  whicli  was, 
fnmi  1826  to  184 1,  the  main  point  of  exit  and 
entrance  of  nearly  all  the  commerce  and  travel 
of  mMtliwest  Missoiui,  having  regular  steam- 
boat servkc  to  St.  Louis.   Allen's  Landing 
was  also  for  many  years  the  starting  point  fnr 
many  of  the  employes  of  the  American  Fur 
Company  in  their  expeditions  to  the  interior, 
and  an  outfitting  point  for  French  voyagers 
and  emigrants,  presenting  an  ever  varying 
scene  of  activity  and  picturesqueness.  .\ 
man  nf  wonderful  energy  and  industr>'.  Col- 
onel Allen  not  only  gave  diligent  attention  to 
the  improvement  of  his  farm  and  the  conduct 
of  his  mercantile  business,  but  he  assumed 
various  public  burdens.    From  1826  to  iR^n 
he  was  sheriff,  and  from  1831  to  1834  he  was 
a  justice  of  the  County  Court  of  Clay  County. 

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These  y«n  covered  aii  important  period  in 
the  insugnration  of  civil  order  and  the  eMail- 

lishment  of  public  institutions,  and  his  duties 
were  onerous  ,  and  exacting.  In  no  instance 
did  he  fail  to  perform  unsdfiih  Ml  Vice  witii 
sipnal  ability  and  integrity,  :inc]  his  native 
dignity  and  decision  of  character  gave  him  a 
peculiar  exattsdion  in  the  catfinatiott  of  a  peo~ 
pic  whose  conceptions  of  the  position  which 
he  occupied,  and  of  the  type  of  man  who  could 
worthily  fill  them,  were  derived  from  the  tradi- 
tions of  colonial  days  under  Eng-listi  rule. 
( 'Mlr»nel  Allen  derived  his  military  title  frxmi 
his  service  in  command  (A  the  Clay  County 
regiment  of  tirilMa  daring       Black  Hacwk 

War,  in  lH,^2.  He  again  commanded  the 
Qay  County  troops  (see  "Clay  County")  dur- 
ing the  "Heathcriy  War,"  in  1836.  Included 
in  the  latter  was  the  "Liberty  Blues,"  famous 
for  its  discipline  and  the  elegance  of  its  equip- 
ments, as  well  as  for  the  social  posHion  of  its 
members;  this  company  was  commanded  by 
('ai)tain  David  R.  Atcliisr>ii,  afterward  United 
States  Senator  from  Missouri.  Colonel  Allen 
was  married,  September  19,  1822,  to  Miss 
Dinah  Ayres  Trigg,  daiiglucr  of  the  late  Gen- 
eral Stephen  Trigg,  of  Howard  County,  origi- 
nally from  Virghiia.  Miss  Trigg  was  a  lady 
of  great  beauty  and  a  brilliant  conversationist. 
Her  family  probably  originated  in  Corn- 
wall, England,  and  came  from  Wales,  near  the 
year  171  o,  to  Virginia,  where  rt  attained  con*' 
sidcrable  distinction.  Major  John  Trigg,  pa- 
ternal grandfather  of  Miss  Trigg,  was  an  ar- 
tillery officer  under  Washington,  and  aerved 
at  the  siege  of  Yorktown.  He  wa,'=;  a  member 
of  the  Virginia  Convention  of  1788,  which 
ratified  the  Federal  Constitution  of  1787,  and 
served  therein  with  James  Mndis^n,  Patrick 
Henry,  George  Mason  and  other  men  of  great 
emtncnoe ;  and  afiberwaid  ft  iitpwjaerttative 
from  Virginia  in  the  Fifth,  Sixth,  Seventh  and 
Eighth  Congresses,  and  in  and  out  of  Con- 
gress was  a  .strong  opponent  of  the  alien  and 
sedition  laws.  Born  to  Colonel  and  Mrs.  Al- 
len were  the  following  children :  Elizabeth 
Rathsheba,  who  became  the  wife  of  the  late 
General  Alexander  B.  Dyer,  U.  S.  A.;  Trigg 
T,  a  druggist,  of  Liberty,  Missouri;  Eugene 
6.,  a  business  man  at  Leavenworth,  Kansas ; 
Shtibad,  who  died  in  early  manhood,  at  the 
beginning  of  a  legal  career  which  promised 
usefulness  and  distinction ;  Robert  E.,  a  mer- 
chant, who  died  in  1900;  Augustus  Evans, 
who  died  at  the  age  erf  five  yean,  and  John  IL 

and  DeVVitt  C,  both  of  Liberty,  Missouri,  the 
former  a  fbftkaaat  and  tiie  latter  a  lawyer. 

Colonel  Allen  died  January  18,  1841.  In 
height  and  size  he  was  beyond  the  medium. 
He  was  quick  and  energetic  in  movement,  and 

his  mental  characteristics  corresponded  with 
the  physical.  Quick  and  accurate  in  his  men- 
tal processes,  action  immediately  followed  de* 
cision.  He  was  a  bom  leader  of  flMn  and  pos- 
sessed the  faculty  of  commanding  confidence 
without  inviting  it.  An  admirably  equipped 
man  of  affairs,  it  was  said  of  him  that  none 
could  in  the  same  time  dispatch  more  business 
with  greater  precision,  or  with  less  discooniort 
to  others  or  to  himself.  His  firmness  of  pur- 
pose  and  absorption  in  business  gave  to  his 
countenance  a  certain  austerity,  but  tliis  dis- 
appeared in  social  life,  where  his  conversation 
was  fluent,  graceful  and  ajrt,  with  an  inde- 
scribable charm  peculiar  to  himself.  His  man- 
ners were  dignified  and  courtly,  but  so  un- 
affected as  to  be  oitirely  becoming.  His 
personal  appearance,  mental  qualities  and  idio- 
syncrasies were  chiefly  the  gifts  of  his  mother. 
In  public  enterprises,  benevolences  and  ad- 
justment of  bu.siness  affairs  he  was  liberal 
without  ostentation.  He  was  the  tirst  Clay- 
and- Webster  Whig  in  northwest  Missouri,  and 
while  not  in  any  sense  a  politician.  In-  t<xik 
great  interest  in  the  success  of  his  party,  and 
was  widely  influential  in  its  counsels  in  tfaait 
part  of  the  Sute. 

Allen,  Thoma.H,  was  bom  in  Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts,  Augnst  2i),  1H13,  son  of  Jona- 
than and  luinice  Williams  (Lamed)  Allen. 
He  obtained  his  early  education  in  the  village 
academy  of  Ptttsfield  and  was  fitted  for  college 
at  the  Berkshire  Gymnasium.  In  1829  he 
entered  Union  College  and  was  graduated 
from  that  institution  in  the  class  of  1832.  Im- 
mediately afterward  he  began  the  study  of  law 
at  Albany,  Ne^v  York.  He  was  admitted  to 
the  bar  in  1835.  and  the  same  year  was  honored 
by  I'nion  College,  which  conferred  upon  him 
the  degree  of  master  of  arts,  and  by  the  "Phi 
Beta  Kappa"  Society  of  New  York,  which 
made  him  an  honorary  member.  He  began, 
in  August,  1837.  the  publication  of  a  paper 
called  "The  Madisonian,"  in  Washington,  D. 
C,  which  took  strong  ground  against  tiie  sub- 
trcas'irv  scheme  supported  by  President  Van 
Buren's  adnrintstration.  He  had  supported 
Mr.  Van  Bnren  in  1836  as  a  presidential  can- 
didate, making  his  entree  into  politics  as  a 

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public  speaker  and  writer  in  that  campaigTi. 
In  1840,  however,  he  supported  General 
Harrison,  and,  as  editor  <rf  an  inflnentiaJ  news- 
paper, was  brought  into  an  intimate  relation- 
ship with  the  successful  presidential  candi- 
date of  that  year.  In  1842  he  removed  to  St. 
Louis,  and  at  once  became  a  tector  in  the  in- 
auguration of  measures  which  tended  greaitly 
to  advance  tiie  material  interests  of  the  dty. 
•  He  opened  a  law  office  there,  but  soon  became 
10  absorbed  in  other  affairs  that  his  mind  was 
iflverted  from  professional  labors,  and  he 
adtieved  fame  as  a  railroad  builder,  banker 
and  financier,  instead  of  tlie  peculiar  distinc- 
tion which  he  would  doubtless  have  gained 
at  Ae  bar  had  he  continued  the  pntcAice  of 
law.  In  1848  he  delivered  his  first  public  ad- 
dress in  favor  of  the  building  of  a  railroad  in 
Missouri,  and  from  tiiat  thne  forward  he  was 
intimartely  associated  with  the  leading  rail- 
road men  of  the  West  and  conspicuously  ac- 
tive in  promoting  railroad  development.  In 
1849  he  formulated  resolutions  favoring  the 
building  of  a  railroad  to  the  Pacific  Coast, 
which  were  adopted  at  a  large  meeting  of  tlie 
citizens  of  St.  Louis  and  subsequently  in- 
dorsed by  the  Missouri  Legislature.  In  Oc- 
tober of  that  year  he  also  addressed  a  national 
convention  held  in  St.  Louis  to  consider  tiie 
enterprise,  and  was  designated  to  prepare  an 
address  to  the  people  of  the  United  States  end 
a  memorial  to  Congress  bearii^  on  the  sub- 
ject. When  this  enterprise  finally  assumed 
tangible  form  and  the  Pacific  Railroad  Com- 
pany was  organized  he  was  elected  first  presi- 
dent 'oi  the  company  and  inaugurated  the  work 
of  construction.  Four  years  later  he  resigned 
the  presidency  of  this  corporation,  after  thirty- 
dght  miles  of  its  road  had  been  completed  luid 
one  hundred  miles  more  put  under  contract. 
In  1858  he  founded  the  banking  house  of 
Allen,  Copp  9t  Nid>et,  in  St.  Louis,  and  soon 
afterward  negotiated  the  sale  of  nine  hundred 
thousand  dollars'  worth  of  guaranteed  Mis- 
souri bonds  in  aid  of  the  Pacific  Railroad,  an 
intportamt  financiai  aidhievement  at  that  time. 
.After  the  war  he  again  turned  his  attention  to 
railroad  matters,  and  -in  1867  purchased  the 
Iron  Mountain  Railway,  which  had  been  sur- 
rendered to  the  State  of  Missouri,  and  of  which 
eighty-six  miles  had  been  completed.  This 
road  be  extended  one  hundred  and  tweiily 
mi!es,  to  Belmont,  in  1869,  and  during  tltt 
years  1871-3  he  built  a  branch  of  this  road 
from  Pilot  Knol^  into  Aricansaa.   In  187a  he 

and  other  gentlemen  purchased  the  Cairo  & 
I'ulton  Railroad,  and  during  Uiat  and  the  year 
following  completed  the  line  to  Texarkana,  a 
di.<;tance  of  three  hundred  and  seventy-five 
miles.  In  1874  four  lines  of  railway,  con- 
trolled by  different  corporations,  of  ebdh  of 
whicli  he  was  president,  were  consolidated,  tlie 
new  corporation  controlling  them  becoming 
known  as  the  St.  Louts,  mm  Mountain  s 
Southern  Railway  Company.  Si.x  hundred 
and  eighty-si.x  miles  of  railroad  were  brought 
under  the  control  of  this  corporation,  and  the 
system  which  was  thus  perfected  by  Mr.  Allen, 
made  tributary  to  St.  Louis,  in  a  commercial 
sense,  a  vast  area  of  territory  in  the  Southwest, 
and  at  once  added  nc^  less  than  a  hundred 
million  dollars  annnnlly  to  the  city's  trade. 
He  retained  a  controlling  interest  in  this  splen- 
did railroad  property  until  toward  the  close  of 
the  year  1880,  when  he  sold  his  stock  and  in- 
terests to  Jay  Gould  for  a  cash  consideration 
of  two  million  dollars.  He  was  not  only  the 
father  of  one  of  the  principal  railway  systems 
of  the  Southwest,  but  was  also  the  author  of 
a  plan  jor  State  aid  of  railroads,  wliicii,  al-  » 
though  not  adopted  at  the  time  he  proposed  it, 
was  later  jnit  iiilo  operation.  He  also  secured 
for  the  Tacilic  Railway  Conijjauy,  the  pioneer 
railway  erf  Missouri,  a  loan  of  two  million  dol- 
lars from  the  State,  which  was  a  m<isf  impor- 
tant factor  in  advancing  the  construction  of 
that  railway.  The  vast  fortune  which  he  ac- 
<|uired  after  he  came  to  .St.  Louis  was  utilized 
in  many  ways  to  benefit  the  city,  and  one  of 
the  splendid  monuments  to  his  memory  is  the 
Southern  Hotel,  which  lie  rebuilt  after  its 
destruction  by  fire  in  1877.  In  1875  he  ob- 
tained a  cliarter  for  a  double-track  railway  in 
St.  Louis  and  constructed  and  equipped  the 
Cass  Avenue  line  within  ninety  days  there- 
after. His  acts  of  beneficence  were  numerous, 
and  both  his  adopted  city  Mid  his  native  town 
profited  by  his  generosity.  He  endowed  the 
Allen  I^fessofihipof  Mining  and  Metallurgy 
in  Washington  University,  St.  Louis,  and  es- 
tablished a  free  library  in  Pittsfield,  Massadiu- 
setts,  erecting  a  building  for  its  accommoda- 
tion at  a  cost  of  fifty  thousand  dollars.  While 
serving  as  a  member  of  the  .uri  Board 
of  Managers  for  the  Centennial  Exposition, 
held  at  Philadelphia  in  1876,  he  found  him- 
self embarrassed  by  the  failure  of  the  State 
to  provide  funds  for  the  erection  of  a  suitable 
building,  and  at  his  own  expense  erected  the 
building  in  Faimu»mt  Park  which  became 

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Missouri  headquarters.  In  consideration  of  iiis 
distingaisiied  attainmcfits  Union  College  con- 
ferred upon  him  the  deforce  of  doctor  of  laws, 
and  he  was  also  honored  hy  election  to  fellow- 
ships in  the  American  Academy  of  Design  and 
the  American  Geographical  Society.  He 
served  four  years  as  a  member  of  tlie  State 
Senate  of  Missouri,  and  in  that  capacity  ren- 
dered exceptionally  valuable  services  to  the 
State  in  the  matter  of  extending  internal  im- 
provements. During  the  Civil  War  he  es- 
poused with  his  customary  ardor  liie  Union 
cause,  and  in  1862  was  a  candidate  for  Con- 
gress on  the  "Unconditional  Union  ticket," but 
was  defeated.  In  1880,  responding  to  a  prac- 
tically tinaniinoiis  sentiment  within  his  party, 
he  became  the  Democratic  candidate  for  Con- 
gress from  tiie  Second  Gmgressional  District 
of  Missouri,  and  received  a  majority  of  more 
than  two  thousand  votes  over  a  ver>'  popular 
competitor.  He  entered  upon  his  term  of 
service  in  December  of  1881,  but  soon  after- 
ward become  seriously  ill,  and  died  in  the  cap- 
ital city,  April  8,  1882. 

Allenton.— A  village  thirty^wo  miles  west 
of  St.  Louis,  on  the  Missouri  Pacihc  and  St. 
Louis  &  San  Francisco  Railroads*  which  was 
laid  out  by  Thomas  R.  Alten,  ni  1853. 

AUeiivllle.— An  unincorporated  village 
on  the  Belmont  branch  of  the  Iron  Mountain 
Railroad,  in  Cape  Girardeau  County,  one  mile 
fnom  Delta  Junction  and  fourteen  miles  south- 
west of  Jackson,  the  ccmty  seat.  It  has  a 
hfytel.  a  few  stores  and  other  business  places. 
Population,  about  200. 

Allsinaii,  Andrew,  whose  name  is  con- 
spicuously connected  with  tlic  "Palmyra  Mas- 
sacre," as  it  is  called,  was  a  citizen  of  Pahnyra 
and  an  active  and  zealous  I/nionist  in  tlu-  Civil 
IVar.  At  one  time  he  belonged  to  the  Third 
Missouri  Cavalry,  and  was  detailed  as  special 
provost  marshal's  guard,  in  which  capacity  he 
was  called  upon  to  give  information  about  the 
loyalty  and  disloyalty  of  persons,  and  this 
made  h'lm  ofTCTTsive  to  55outhem  sympatliizers. 
On  the  occasion  of  the  Confederate  Colonel 
Joseph  Porter's  raid  into  Palmyra,  in  October, 
l86ia,  he  was  seized  and  earned  off.  Shortly 
afterward  General  John  McNeil,  commandinff 
the  Federal  forces  in  northeast  Missouri,  cap- 
tured a  number  of  Porter's  men,  and  gave  no- 
tice 00  the  8th  of  October  that,  if  Allsman  was 

not  r-eturned  unharmed  to  his  family  within 
ten  days,  ten  of  tiiese  prisoners  would  be  shot 

No  reply  was  made  to  this  notice,  and  it  was 
asserted  that  Porter  never  saw  it,  and  the  ten 
prisoners  were  riiot  to  death  at  Palmyra.  Alls- 
man  was  never  heard  of  after  his  seizure, 
though  it  was  said  years  after  the  close  of  the 
war  that  a  few  surviving  members  of  Porter's 
command  were  cognizant  of  his  fate.  It  is 
probable  that  he  was  killed. 

AlniA*— A  village  in  Lafayette  County,  on 
the  Kansas  City  Division  of  the  Chicago  & 
Alton  Railway,  twenty-two  miles  southeast  of 
Lexmgton,  the  county  seat  It  has  a  public 
school  and  a  bank.  In  1900  the  population 
was  estimated  at  550. 

Aloe,  Albert  S*»  merchant,  was  born  in 
1841,  in  the  city  of  Edinburgh,  .Scotland,  and 
died  in  St.  Louis,  January  30,  1893.  While 
still  a  child  he  came  to  America,  and  in 
1856  left  New  York  ("itv  <in  a  sailing  vessel 
bound  for  the  Pacific  Coast.  He  sailed  before 
the  mast  around  Cape  Horn,  and  at  the  end  of 
this  lonq-  voyape  arrived  in  San  Francisco, 
where  he  remained  one  year.  At  the  end  of 
that  time,  in  quest  of  further  adventure  and 
more  profi table  employment,  he  went  to  South 
America,  and,  having  considerable  knowledge 
of  mechanics  and  much  Scotch  ingenuity  and 
tact,  he  secured  employment  there  as  a  me- 
chanical engineer  and  was  placed  in  chargfe  of 
the  construction  uf  a  sugar  mill.  He  com- 
pleted this  work  successfully,  accumulating 
what  seemed  to  him  at  the  time  a  small  fortune 
as  the  reward  of  his  enterprise  and  mechanical 
skin.  Returning  to  this  country  in  i86a,  he 
came  to  St.  Louis  and  established  himself  as 
a  dealer  in  optical  goods  and  built  up  an  insti- 
tution which  became  one  of  the  most  femous 
of  its  kind  in  the  West.  He  married,  in  1863. 
Miss  Isabella  Prince,  who  was  bom  in  Belfast, 
Irdand,  and  whose  grandfaither  was  governor 
of  one  of  the  blands  of  the  West  Indies.  Mr. 
Mop  Is  siir\-ived  hv  his  widow  and  four  sons. 
Sidney,  Louis,  David  and  Alfred  Aloe,  of  whom 
the  three  sons  first  named  are  in  business  in 
St.  Louis,  while  the  younpfcst  is  servinp;-  in  the 
United  States  Army  as  sergeant  of  Troop  E, 
of  the  Eighth  Cavalry. 

AltaiMont.  — An  incorporated  village  in 
Daviess  County,  eight  miles  from  Gallatin,  in 
TJberty  township.  It  has  a  public  schooU 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 




Christian.  'Methodist  Episcopal  and  Evan- 
gclical  Churches,  a  newspaper,  the  "Index, 
two  liotels  and  about  twenty  miicdlaneotw 
stores,  shops,  etc.    Population,  1899  (esti- 
mated), 300. 

Alton. — The  county  seat  of  Oregon 
County,  located  in  the  central  part,  sixteen 
miles  northeast  of  Thayer,  the  nearest  railroad 
point.  It  was  laid  out  in  1859  and  made  the 
seat  of  justice  of  the  county.  A  courthouse 
and  jail  were  built,  and  both  were  burned  dur- 
ing the  tnr  (1863),  witli  nearly  half  of  all  the 
other  buildings  in  the  town.  A  new  court- 
bouse  and  jail  were  built  after  the  war.  The 
toirn  has  two  churches,  a  good  school  build- 
ing, bank,  flouring  mill,  sawmill,  about  half  a 
dozen  stores,  and  two  newspapers,  the  "South 
Missourian,"  formerly  published  at  Thomas- 
ville,  and  the  "Oregon  County  Democnit" 
Population,  1899  (estimated),  65a 

Altona. — A  village  in   Bates  County, 

twelve  miles  northeast  of  Butler,  the  county 
seat.  It  has  a  church,  built  by  the  Missionary 
Baptists,  and  also  used  hy  the  Methodists,  a 
public  school  and  a  mill.  Tt  was  platted  in 
January,  i860,  by  William  Crawford.  Popu- 
ladon,  100. 

Alum  ('a\  o.— In  the  Belleview  Valley,  in 
Wa^ington  County,  is  a  small  cave  where,  in 
the  eariy  history  of  the  State,  alum  was  found. 
Reference  to  this  cave  is  made  by  Schoolcraft 
in  his  nates  on  the  minerals  of  Missouri. 

Aliiniul  AsHOciatioii  of*  Missouri 
Medical  College. — ^An  association  of  the 
graduates  of  this  college,  organiaed  in  1893  for 

the  purpose  of  maintaining  friendly  relations 
between  those  who  have  been  students  <A  this 
institution,  and  to  aid  also  in  tiie  advancement 
of  the  interests  of  the  college.  Regular  meet- 
ings of  the  association  are  held,  at  which 
scientific  papers  are  read  and  discussed.  At 
one  of  these  meetings,  held  in  1895,  the 
"X-Ray"  discovery  was  first  introduced  to  the 
medical  profession  of  St  Lous  by  Prc^essor. 
C  O.  Cwtman.  At  the  end  of  i8gB  die  as- 
sociation had  a  membcfridp  of  about  five  hun- 

.Mtiinni  Association  of  St.  Louis 
College  of  Pharmacy. — An  association 
composed  of  those  who  have  scttended  the  Col- 


let^e  of  Pharmacy,  organized  by  twenty  stu- 
dents in  1875.  Its  purposes  are  to  work  for 
the  interest  of  die  college  and  to  promote  fra- 
ternal  feeling  among  those  who  have  gradu- 
ated from  that  institution.  The  association 
numbers  between  four  and  five.hundred  mem- 
bers, a  large  proportion  of  whom  are  residents 
of  St.  Louis,  although  its  representatives  are 
to  be  found  in  all  parts  of  the  country. 

Alumni  Associution  of  8t.  Louis 
College  of  Fliysicians  and  Surgeons. 
A  society  composed  of  li»  graduates  of  St. 
Louis  College  of  Physicians  and  Surgeons, 
which  was  organized  in  1878.  It  was  re- 
organized in  li^a,  but  soon  afterward  pasMd 
out  of  existence. 

•  Amasonla.— A  thriving  town  of  400  in- 

habitants,  in  Lincoln  Township,  Andrew 
County.  It  was  laid  out  in  1857  by  P.  S.  Rob- 
erts, Joshua  Bond  and  others.  In  1878  it  was 
incorporated,  but  the  charter  was  forfeited  in 
1882.  The  village  stood  on  the  bank  of  the 
Missouri  River,  but  a  shifting  of  the  channel 
made  a  "cut-off,"  which  placed  it  a  mile  from 
the  stream.  There  arc  four  churches,  Meth- 
odist, Christian,  German  Reformed  and  Epis- 
copal.  It  is  an  important  shipping  point. 

Amelia  Home  for  Children.— This 
home  was  started  in  St.  I^uis,  in  1889,  by  A. 
R.  Olmstead,  under  whose  sole  management 
it  has  been  conducted.  The  purpose  of  its  es- 
tablishment and  continuance  is  to  provide  a 
hcmie  for  such  littie  ones  as  may  not  have  a 
haven  elsewhere.  Those  who  receive  its  hcnt - 
fits  are  chiefly  children  oi  working  people, 
orphans  and  half-orphans.  The  home  was  self- 
supporting  for  the  first  four  years  through  the 
small  charges  asked,  but  as  many  were  unable 
to  pay  these,  a  Httle  hdp  has  been  received  of 
late  years  through  charitable  contributions. 

American  Association  of  Planters 
aadPilots.^A  naitional  association  com- 
posed of  the  masters  and  pilots  of  steam  ves- 
sels, represented  in  forty-seven  ports  of  the 
United  States.  It  is  both  a  sodal  and  bene- 
ficiary organization,  death  benefits  being  paid 
to  the  families  of  its  members.  A  branch  of 
the  association  was  formed  in  St  Louis  on  the 
4th  day  of  November,  1892,  which  has  taken 
the  name  of  Harbor  No.  28.  This  harbor  had 
eighty-six  members  in  1898.   The  officers  arc 

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entitled  captains,  pilots,  etc.,  nautical  terms 
being  used  altogether  in  this  connection.  The 
Grand  Harbor  of  Masters  and  Pilots  of  the 
United  States  was  formed  by  represenutives 
of  local  harbors,  who  meet  in  Washington, 
D.  C,  in  1898. 

AiinTit'iui  Heiievoli'iit  Association. 
A  fraternal  and  In-neficiary  association,  organ- 
ized in  St.  Louis,  in  iH<^4,  by  William  R.  Eid- 
son  and  others,  and  chartered  under  the  laws 
of  Missouri.  Its  objects  are  to  pfx»vide  sick, 
accident,  funeral  and  death  benefits  to  its  mem- 
bers and  beneticiaries.  In  1898  it  had  issued 
over  13,000  certificates  and  had  locat  assem- 
blies in  most  of  the  Southern  and  Western 

American  Fur  Company.— This  was 

not  an  orp^ni/ation  of  W  estern  orii,''iii.  thoup-h 
its  last  hcadijuarters  and  the  pUutf  wliere  it 
passed  out  of  existence  was  St.  Louis.  John 
Jacob  Astor,  the  great  New  York  fur  trader 
and  merchant,  was  the  author  of  it,  the  char- 
ter for  H  having  been  granted  to  him  by  the 
New  York  I-egis!ature  in  1809.  Mr.  Astor 
knew  something  about  the  value  of  the  fur 
trade  in  what  in  his  day  was  regarded  as  the 
far  West,  having  gained  knowledge  of  :t 
through  the  operations  of  the  Chouteaus,  Gra- 
tiots,  Berthold,  Sarpy,  and  other  enterprising 
traders  of  St.  -Lottis;  and  he  knov  also  that 
the  United  States  government  desired  to  se- 
cure the  benefits  of  it  to  its  own  citizens.  The 
securing  of  the  charter  of  the  American  Fur 
Company  was  the  first  step  in  a  scheme  con- 
ceived by  him  for  establishing  a  line  of  trad- 
ing posts  akmg  the  Missouri  and  Columbia 
Ri\crs  to  the  Pacific  Ocean  at  the  month  of 
the  Columbia.  The  chief  trading  post  was  to 
be  on  the  Pacific,  and  the  entire  trade  with  the 
Indians  in  the  interior  was  to  converge  at 
that  point.  Once  a  year  a  ship  sent  out  from 
New  York,  loaded  with  Indian  goods  aiid  sup- 
plies, was  to  sail  around  Cape  Horn  and  land 
its  cargo  at  the  post,  take  on  the  packs  of  furs 
collected  during  the  year  and  cross  the  Pacitic 
with  them  to  China.  There  die  furs  were  to 
be  sold  and  the  proceeds  invested  in  Chinese 
goods  and  products,  laden  with  which  the  ves- 
sd  would  return  to  New  York.  It  was  an  en- 
terprise worthy  of  the  sagacious  mcrcliant 
who  planned  it,  and,  but  for  the  succession  of 
disasters  it  encountered  m  die  outset,  might 
have  brought  the  full  measure  of  success  upon 

which  he  counted.  Astor  submitted  his 
scheme  to  President  Jefferson,  who  warmly 

approved  it.  and  encouraged  him  with  the 
assurance  of  the  protection  of  the  government. 
PoMiified  widi  these  promises,  he  sent  out  a 
ship,  which  landed  in  the  mouth  of  the  Colum- 
bia River,  and  Astoria  was  founded,  seventy- 
five  miles  northwest  of  the  site  of  the  present 
city  oi  Portland,  in  181 1.  About  the  same 
time  an  expedition,  under  charge  f>f  W  ilson  P. 
Hunt,  of  New  Jersey,  was  organized  at  St. 
Louis  Co  go  o^land  to  the  new  poilt,  estab- 
lishing relations  with  the  Indian  tribes  on  the 
way,  and  preparing  the  field  for  friendly  and 
successful  trade.  This  expedition  encotm- 
tered  great  hardships  and  difficulties  which 
had  not  been  expected  and  prepared  for,  and 
reached  Astoria  broken  and  dispirited;  the 
chief  agent  at  Astoria  acted  so  strangely  in 
yielding  to  the  claims  of  the  Northwest  r'ur 
Company  of  Muntn-al  as  to  excite  suspicions 
of  recreancy  to  Mr.  Astor's  interests ;  and,  in 
adfiition  to  these  discouragements,  the  War 
of  1812,  between  the  United  States  and  Great 
Britain,  came  on  before  arrangements  for  con- 
ducting the  fur  trade  with  the  Indians  were 
completed,  and  Astoria  fell  into  the  hands  of 
the  British  in  1813.  However,  when  the  war 
ended  Astoria  was  given  up  ]i\  tlie  British 
and  came  into  possession  of  Mr.  Astor,  and 
for  many  years  thereafter  was  the  seat  of  a 
large  and  prosperous  trade  carried  i>n  by  the 
American  Fur  Company  with  the  Indians  in 
the  Northwest,  on  tiie  west  side  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  During  these  same  years  the 
Missouri  Fur  Company  of  St.  I-ouis  \vas  con- 
ducting equally  vigorous  and  prosperous  trad- 
ing operations  in  the  region  east  of  the  moun- 
tains, and  when  the  two  companies  met  on 
common  ground  in  the  pursuit  trade  it 
was  natural  diat  they  should  agree  to  unite 
and  act  together  under  one  organization.  This 
was  done;  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  passed 
out  of  existence,  and  tiie  St.  Louis  traders 
tlunc  tforth  conducted  their  operations  with 
Mr.  Astor  iimler  the  American  Fur  Company 
until  the  withdrawal  of  Mr.  Astoiv  Then  the 
American  Fur  Gmipany  fell  into  the  hands  of 
Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr..  and  he  continued  to  pros- 
ecute the  still  prosperous  business  for  thirty 
years  thereafter,  enjoying  a  complete  monop- 
olv  of  the  business  south  of  the  region  con- 
trolled by  the  Hudson  Bay  Company.  Grad- 
ually, as  the  Northwest  became  settled,  the 
trade  became  broken  up  hito  the  fur  and  pdtry 

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billini^s';,  di^  idcd  among  a  number  of  inde- 
peodcnt  dealers^  and  about  the  year  1863  the 
Americm  Fur  Company  paued  out  of  ejcisl- 

American  Guild. — S^e  "Progressive 
Endowment  Guild." 

American  I^egrioii  of  Honor. — A  fra- 
ternal and  benefit  order,  organized  in  Boston, 
Massachusetts,  in  1878,  regularly  incorporated 
in  1S70,  and  having  in  1897  a  membership 
of  26,000  in  the  United  States.  The  govcrn- 
iag  body  of  tiie  order  it  Hie  Supreme  Cbuncil, 
vhich  has  its  ofTiccs  in  Boston.  Subordinate 
bodies  are  Grand  Councils  and  Subooxlinaite 
LOoncuB.  iiie  oraer  was  uuroauoea  wno  sx. 
Louis,  June  14,  1880,  when  the  first  council 
ws»  instituted  by  Michael  Brooks,  a  represen- 
tative of  the  Supreme  Council.  September 
19,  1881,  the  Grand  Council  of  Missouri  was 
instttntcd,  vAth  the  following  named  charter 
members:  Michael  Brooks,  Andrew  B.  Bar- 
bee,  Wilber  B.  Cook,  Thomas  S.  Hogan, 
James  S.  Hannan.  Asa  B.  Ecoff,  James  J. 
Dockery,  Edward  F,  Schultz,  W.  Wardoff,  M. 
TkdibbMtni?,  Charles  J.  Wendltn?,  John  C. 
Rirers,  John  M.  Collins,  and  Edward  W. 
Denes.  There  were  twenty-two  lodges  in  the 
State  of  Missouri  in  1897,  wift  a  membership 
cf  about  1,800,  all  in  St.  Louis,  except  one 
council  at  Crystal  City.  The  order  admits 
both  men  and  women  to  membership. 

Aiiiericuii  3Iedical  College.— A  med- 
ical educational  institution,  founded  under  the 
auspices  of  the  eclectic  school  of  medicine, 
in  1873,  ^  Drs.  George  C.  IHtxer,  John 
W.  Thrailkill.  Jacob  S.  Mcrrcll,  Albert  Mer- 
rell  and  W.  V.  Rutledge.  The  institution  first 
occupied  a  building  at  the  comer  of  Seventh 
and  Olive  Streets,  but  later  removed  to  its  own 
building  at  407  South  Jefferson  Avenue.  It 
has  been  developed  mto  one  of  the  leading 
medical  colleges  of  tlie  eclectic  school  in  the 
United  States,  and  has  graduated  in  all  more 
than  seven  hundred  physicians,  representing 
all  parts  (rf  the  country. 

American  Minnie  Men. — ^A  patriotic 
t>eneficiary  and  military  organization,  incor- 
porated under  the  laws  of  Missouri,  Novem- 
ber 23,  1895.  It  takes  its  name  from  the 
"minute  men"  of  the  American  Revolution. 

Among  the  founders  were  Dr.  James  McClure, 
H.  A.  TlKMnsoQ,  Geoi::ge  J.  Hagard,  A.  L.  Sea- 
man, H.  G.  Beifidle  and  Charies  E.  Sargent. 
It  admits  to  membership  male  American  citi- 
zens between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  fifty- 
six,  and  those  past  fifty-six  may  be  received 
at  soda!  or  honorary  members.  The  objects 
of  the  society  are  to  extend  financial  aid  to  its 
members,  to  instill  regard  for  American  insti- 
tutioat,  protecting  them  from  all  encrattch- 
mcnts  of  any  church  or  ecclesiastical  power, 
to  advance  the  interests  of  the  free  public 
school  system,  to  prevent  the  appropriation 
for  and  the  diversion  of  any  public  moneys 
to  sectarian  ptuposes,  and  to  teach  that  the 
allegiance  df  citizenship  is  incompatible 
with  political  partisanship.  Under  a  cer- 
tificate of  the  State  Insurance  Depart- 
ment, the  society  is  authorized  to  do 
business  as  a  fraternal  beneficiary  asso- 
ciation. The  governing  bodies  consist  of 
a  Supreme  Garrison,  Board  of  Survey,  De- 
partment and  Co-ordinate  Garrisons.  They 
have  also  a  uniform  rank  for  military  drill,  and 
military  terms  are  used  throughout  the  organ- 
ization, the  offieera  of  Ifie  Supreme  Gantem 
bearing  the  title  of  general,  and  the  next  in 
command  lieutenant  general.  Four  garri- 
sons are  organized  in  St.  Louis,  George  Wash- 
ington Garrison  No.  i,  Lincoln  Garrison  No. 
2,  Paul  Revere  Garrison  No.  3,  and  Martha 
Washington  Garrison  No.  4.  A  ladies'  de- 
partment of  die  society  it  knoum  at  the  Co- 
ordinate  Depjee  of  the  American  Minute 
Men,  and  Martha  Washington  and  Lincoln 
Garrisons  of  St.  Louts  are  composed  of 
women.  Tlic  supreme  headijuarters  of  the 
American  Minute  Men  is  permanently  located 
in  St  Louis,  where  the  order  had  its  origin. 

American  Osteopathic  Society. — 
A  society  organized  April  10,  1897,  by  Dr. 
A.  T.  Still,  of  Kirksville,  and  Others,  for  the 
furtherance  of  the  science  of  osteopathy  and 
the  advancement  and  protection  of  the  inter- 
ests of  osteopaitfaic  practitioners.  In  1900  it 
l»d  a  membership  of  nearly  1,000. 


American  "PBrty, — A  political  organi- 
zation, which  first  made  its  api^arance  in  this 
country  in  1853,  and  almost  immediately 
gained  great  strength  in  Missouri,  as  in  other 
Western  States.  Its  candidate  for  ("on^^ress 
defeated  Thomas  H.  Renton  in  the  .St.  Louis 
district  in  1854,  and  in  the  spring  of  1855 

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elected  the  mayor  of  St.  Louis.  It  was  at 
first  a  secret  political  organization,  the  chief 
object  of  whkh  was  the  prascriptiofi  of  for- 
eig^ncrs  by  the  repeal  of  the  naturalization 
laws  ol  the  United  States  and  the  choice  of 
native  Americant  only  for  office.  Itwuespe- 
cidly  hostile  to  the  Catholic  Church,  and  in 
many  pfaces  ks  adherents  came  into  violent 
conflict  with  the  members  of  that  church.  Its 
narrow  views  and  intolerant  spirit  were  in- 
compatible with  the  genius  of  American  in- 
stitutions and  it  passed  out  of  exigence  at  the 
end  of  a  brief  and  attogeliier  ingtorlMia  ca- 
reer. A  second  political  organization  bearing 
this  name  was  bom  in  St.  Louis  in  May  of 
i^.  On  the  35th  of  that  month,  in  response 
to  a  call  issued  by  Colonel  E.  H.  Sellers,  a 
lawyer  of  Ddtrott,  Michigan,  a  small  number 
of  persons,  whose  places  of  residence  made 
them*  in  a  sense,  the  representatives  of  nine 
different  States,  met  in  Druids'  Hall,  at  the 
comer  of  Ninth  and  Market  Streets,  and  en- 
npon  the  work  of  formmg  a  new  party. 
Its  sessions  continued  two  days,  much  of  its 
work  being  done  behind  closed  doors.  Little 
interest  was  taken  in  its  proceedings  by  the 
general  public,  and  the  most  notable  incident 
of  the  conference  was  the  election  to  the  secre- 
taryship of  the  national  committee  of  tlie  near 
party  of  Frederick  Carlisle,  of  Detroit,  Michi- 
gan, who  had  acted  as  secretary  of  the  con- 
vention which  had  met  at  Jackson,  Michigan, 
in  1854  and  inaugurated  tiie  movement  which 
led  to  the  organization  of  the  Republican 
party.  The  resuh  of  the  labors  of  tiie  con- 
vention was  the  adoption  of  the  name  "Ameri- 
can Party"  for  the  proposed  new  organization, 
the  adoption  of  a  party  emblem  and  platf(»-m 
of  principles,  and  die  apptrfntment  of  a  na« 
tional  committee  to  take  charge  of  the 
party's  interests.  The  platform  consisted  of 
ddrty^nine  declarations,  among  the  most  tm- 
poctant  being  those  endorsing  a  taidff  for  rev- 
enue and  the  establishment  of  reciprocal  trade 
relations  with  foreign  countries ;  the  demone- 
tinBion  of  both  gold  and  silver  and  the  substi- 
tution of  metallic  tokens  for  minor  coins ;  the 
issuance  of  all  currency  in  the  form  of  treasury 
noies,and*the  withdnmal  of  aU  other  forms  oif 
currency  notes  from  ctreolalion ;  the  issuance 
of  low-interest-bearing  savings  certificates,  ex- 
changeable at  all  tfanes  for  non-interest-bear- 
wg  nntps  of  the  United  States;  the  opening 
of  the  United  States  mints  to  the  free  "assay- 
ing, refining  and  casting  of  all  gold  and  silver 

produced  from  our  mines  in  our  own  coun- 
try" ;  the  holding  of  all  government  lands  for 
sale  or  bomestesid  entry  to  bona  fide  acMllcn 
only;  the  ownership  and  control  of  mineral 
lands  by  the  government;  owneiahip  of  all 
pabGe  conveniaices  and  ntiHlies  hy  the  na- 
tional, State,  county  or  municipal  govern- 
ment ;  taxaitkx)  of  all  real  or  personal  prop*erty 
not  owned  and  oontiolled  by  the  govern- 
ment ;  equal  suffrage  in  all  the  States ;  the  es- 
tablishment of  an  income  tax  ;  exclusion  of  the 
pauper  labor  and  criminal  classes  of  other 
countries  from  the  United  States  by  the  Im- 
position of  a  head  tax  of  $200  on  all  single  pe'  - 
sons  over  sixteen  years  of  age,  and  $50  on  each 
minor  child  of  a  family ;  requiring  aliens  to 
reside  in  the  United  States  seven  years  before 
being  entitled  to  vote ;  the  enactment  of  a  na- 
tional compulsory  educational  law;  amend- 
ment of  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States 
so  as  to  provide  for  the  election  of  President, 
and  Vice  President,  United  States  Senators 
and  Speaker  of  the  House  of  Representsitives 
by  direct  vote  of  the  people;  constitutional 
provision  for  a  system  of  initiative  and  referen- 
dnm ;  and  the  mahitenance  by  the  general  gov^ 
ernment  of  a  national  public  school  system. 
The  headquarters  of  the  first  national  com- 
mittee of  tiie  American  party  were  established 
at  Detroit,  Michigan. 

American  Protective  Associat  ion, 
A  secret  political  society,  organized  at  Clinton, 
Iowa,  in  March  of  1887.  by  H.  F.  Bower. 
Vigorous  efforts  were  at  once  made  to  so  ex- 
tend the  organization  as  to  make  It  a  power 
in  the  politics  of  the  country,  and  a  national 
council  was  instituted  at  a  convention  of  rep- 
resentatives of  local  conncHs  held  hi  Chicago, 
in  iRSf?,  II  F  P,n\vcr  being  made  president 
of  this  first  national  council.  The  members 
of  the  association  were,  at  the  beginning  and 
have  since  been,  sworn  to  secrecy  as  to  its 
aims,  purposes  and  methods  of  procedure  in 
political  affairs.  Its  public  declarations  have 
been  in  favor  of  tiie  purification  of  the  ballot, 
the  complete  separation  of  church  and  State, 
the  preservation  of  free  speech  and  a  free 
press;  preMrvstfcm  of  tiie  pubHc  sdioof  system 
uncontaminated  by  sectarian  inflnrnces;  the 
taxation  of  church  property,  the  restriction  of 
foreign  immigration,  the  dection  of  American- 
born  citizens  to  office,  and  in  opposition  to 
the  appropriation  of  public  moneys  to  the  sup- 
port of  sectarian  instittitions.    It  has  also 

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been  declared  to  be  one  of  the  chief  objects 
of  th«  association  to  resent  the  attempts  of  any 
religious  organization  to  influence  legislation 
or  governmental  action  m  its  favor.  While 
disclaimin£j  hostility  1o  any  particular  church, 
the  organization  is,  in  effect,  anti-Catholic, 
and  all  its  influences  are  apparently  arrayed 
agiinst  members  of  that  church  who  becoine 
candidates  for  office.  It  has  generally  been  re- 
garded by  tite  miinhiated  as  a  revival  of  the 
so-called  "Know-nothing"  movement,  which 
sw^t  over  the  oounitry  between  1853  and 
1856,  and  dcNdrtles*  has  the  same  objoets  in 
the  main,  althou^  k  has  never  proposed  pro~ 
scription  of  foreigners  to  the  same  extent. 
The  association  has  wielded  an  important  in- 
fluence in  politics  in  many  purely  local  politi- 
cal contests  and  has  determined  the  results 
ol  State  elections  in  some  instances,  but  has 
never  niateriaUy  affected  a  mtSooBl  cpwleet. 
The  first  council  was  organized  in  St.  Louis  at 
Druid's  Hall,  in  the  spring  iA  1890,  with  A.  L. 
Brigfgs  as  president,  and  about  twenty  mem- 
bers. Tlie  memberships  increased  rapidly 
and  councils  numbered  up  to  twelve,  in  regu- 
lar order,  were  established  within  a  few  years. 
The  populv  superstition  concerning  (the  num- 
b<T  thirteen  operated  to  prevent  the  organi- 
zation of  a  council  bearing  that  number,  but 
bqiinning  again  with  fourteen,  cotuicils  9uh- 
sequently  organized  were  numbered  in  regu- 
lar order  up  to  seventy-one,  many  ol  these 
eooncils,  hoiwever,  being  established  in  the 
State  outside  of  St.  Louis.  In  1895  the  asso- 
ciation attained  its  greatest  degree  of  pros- 
perity in  Missouri,  its  membership  being  esti- 
mated at  35,000  in  the  State.  In  St.  Louis  the 
organization  admittedly  exercised  a  control- 
ling influence  in  politics  and  has  given  con- 
vincing proofs  of  its  power.  The  ndtkmal 
advisory  board  of  the  association,  composed 
of  representatives  from  each  State  and  Ter- 
ritory of  the  UnKm,  met  m  St  Louis,  in  1893, 
and  the  meeting  was  c:enerally  regarded  as 
one  of  very  considerable  political  importance. 
Soon  after  this,  however,  many  leading  tnevn- 
bers  in  St.  Loin's  withdrew,  claiming  that, 
while  pledged  to  non-partisan  action,  the  or- 
gasnsation  was  being  msmipulated  in  the  in-' 
teres t  of  the  Republican  party.  As  a  result  of 
these  dissensions,  the  membership  of  the  as- 
sociation has  since  largely  decreased,  and  in 
1897  there  were  but  twenty-five  councils  in 
existence  in  the  ci^,  as  against  thirty-two  in 

Ameri<fan  ProteHtant  Association. 
This  association  was  organized  in  Philadel* 
phia  in  1850,  having  for  its  avowed  object  tiie  .. 
promotion  of  Protestantism  as  against  Roma^ 
Catholicism  in  the  United  States,  the  fostering  > 
of  civil  liberty  and  the  upbuilding  of  the  pub- 
lic school  system.  Only  Protestants  are  ad- 
mitted to  membership  in  the  organization. 
It  combines  life  insurance  with  fraternal  fea- 
tures, and  pays  death  benefits,  collected  by  as- 
sessments on  its  members.  The  first  lodge 
was  established  in  St  Louis,  July  26, 1856,  and 
tiie  Grand  Lodge  of  Missouri  was  oiganized 
in  that  city,  July  4,  1863.  The  charter  mem- 
bers of  the  Grand  Lodge  were  James  C.  Camp- 
bell, Charles  Myer,  August  Heusnerr,  Julius 
C.  Schmidt,  Frederick  Damschroeder,  Frank 
Hussman,  Charles  E.  Boehmer,  Ernest 
Koemg,  August  Timke,  John  Conzdman, 
Frederidc  Stefaibrecher  and  HKiyGeriiold. 
The  membership  in  St  Lottis  is  largely  coin- 
posed  of  Germans. 

Ames,  Edgrar,  one  of  the  builders  of  a 
great  industry  in  St.  Louis,  and  a  prominent 
and  influential  man  of  affairs,  was  born  Octo- 
ber fl6,  1824,  in  Oneida  County,  New  York, 
youngest  of  the  three  children  of  Nathan 
Ames,  whose  ancestors  settled  in  Massachu- 
setts in  1643.  father  removed  to  Cincin- 
nati,  Ohio,  when  the  son  was  four  years  old, 
and  Edgar  Ames  was  educated  in  that  cky, 
completing  his  studies  at  Gncinnati  College. 
After  the  removal  of  the  elder  Ames  to  St. 
Louis  he  was  admitted  to  a  partnership  in  the 
pork-packing  business  whidi  his  father  estaA>- 
lished  in  that  city,  and  in  conjunction  Mrith  Iiis 
brother,  Henry  Ames,  continued  the  business 
after  the  death  of  their  father.  They  were 
among  the  pioneers  in  building  up  a  burincsa 
which  has  since  grown  to  such  vast  propor- 
tions in  Illinois  and  Missouri  that  these  two 
States  may  be  said  to  cmitrol  the  poric  trade 
of  the  world.  Tn  their  day  the  Ames  brothers 
were  among  the  largest  operators  in  pork 
products  in  the  United  S6aites,  both  careful/ 
conscientious  and  rons(  rvativc  men  of  affairs, 
and  useful  and  enterprising  citizens.  Henry 
Ames  died  in  1866,  and  Edgar  Ames  continued 
the  business  which  they  had  conducted  to- 
gether until  December  9,  1867.  wlion  he,  too, 
passed  away.  He  had  accumulated  large 
wealth,  of  whidi  he  made  generous  use  to  ad- 
vance the  interests  of  the  city,  and  his  death 
was  mourned  by  all  classes  of  people.  He 

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was  one  of  the  men  who  set  on  foot  the  move- 
ment to  build  the  first  grain  elevator  in  St. 
Loais,  and,  after  overcoming  determined  op- 
position to  the  project,  finally  erected,  in  1864, 
the  St  Louis  Grain  Elevator,  which  b  still  in 
existence.  The  State  Savings  Institution,  the 
Pacific  Instiraiicc  Cotnpany,  the  Atlantic  & 
Mississippi  Steamship  Company,  the  Mem- 
phis Pacleet  Company,  and  tlie  Belcher  Sugar 
Refining  Company  were  corporations  witli 
which  he  was  also  identified,  and  in  which  he 
served  at  different  times  as  a  director.  Al- 
most every  public  enterprise  seemed  to  seek 
his  counsel  and  advice,  and  whatever  lielped 
to  build  up  St.  Louis  interested  him  and  re- 
ceived his  substantial  aid  and  encouragement. 
He  helped  to  build  the  Lindell  Hotel  in  1864, 
subscribing  $ioo,o(x>  to  that  enterprise,  and 
in  all  the  commercial  circles  of  tiie  city  his 
ripe  wisdom  and  sound  judgment  gave  value 
to  his  views  and  made  him  a  trusted  guide  and 
counselor  for  financiers  and  men  of  affairs. 
He  was  exceedingly  popular,  and  his  popu- 
larity was  based  on  his  high  personal  worth. 
Strict  integrity  characterized  all  his  transac- 
tions. Large-hearted  and  large-minded,  he 
was  a  man  of  liberal  culture,  loving  wealth  not 
for  itself,  but  for  what  it  would  bring.  When 
asked  once  why  he  worked  so  hard  and  untir> 
ingly  to  increase  his  wf'^ilTli,  w'hen  he  was  al- 
ready possessed  of  an  amount  far  beyond  his 
needs,  his  answer  was:  "I  work  to  make 
money  to  beautify  our  dty."  He  died  sud- 
denly while  still  in  the  prime  of  life  and  in 
the  full  tide  of  success,  at  a  time  when  his 
cneirgies  were  engaged  in  plans  from  the  exe- 
cution of  which,  it  is  bclicvefl.  the  community 
in  which  he  Hved  wKSuld  have  reaped  large 
benefits.  The  devotees  of  literature,  art  and 
science  found  in  him  a  friend  and  patron.  His 
privaite  benefactiooB  were  many.  His  sympa- 
thies  were  qtrick  and  active,  and  often  he  did 
not  wait  for  an  appeal  for  help.  In  number- 
less instances,  if  misfortune  overtook  a  friend, 
or  only  loomed  up  threatteningly,  he  proffered 
both  oounsel  and  financial  assistance,  and  his 
timely  and  energetic  action  often  arrested  im- 
minent disaster.  Personally  he  was  gracious 
and  genhd,  and  distinguished  for  his  suave 
amd  courteous  manners.  But  only  those  who 
knew  him  well  were  aware  of  his  rare  excel- 
lencies and  virtues.  The  relations  whidi  ex- 
isted between  him  and  his  brother,  Henry 
Ames,  throughout  their  lives,  were  of  an  ideal 
dMracter,  and  an  incident  of  exceptional  devo- 

tion on  his  part  should  be  mentioned  in  this 
connection.  After  Henry  Ames  had  been 
Stricken  with  paralysis  and  had  tried  many 
remedies  for  the  dread  disease  unavailingly, 
physicians  advised  that  the  poison  of  the 
"crotahn**  ^ould  be  administered  to  him. 
After  the  ophidian  virus  had  been  procured 
Edgar  Ames  refused  to  allow  it  to  be  admin- 
istered to  his  brother  until  its  effect  upon  the 
human  system  had  first  been  tested  by  a  series 
of  experiments  upon  himself.  Such  deep  fra- 
ternal regard  as  this  is  sddom  witnessed,  but 
it  was  only  one  of  many  evidences  of  IC<l}rar 
Ames'  boundless  affection  for  those  endeared 
to  him  by  family  ties.  June  5,  i860,  he  mar- 
ried Miss  Lucy  Virginia  Semple,  second 
daughter  of  Judge  James  Semple,  of  Illinois, 
at  one  time  a  United  States  Senator  from  that 
State.  The  children  who  survived  him  were 
Ada  Semple  .Ames,  Henry  Semple  AmeSt 
Mary  Semple  Ames  and  Edgar  Ames. 

Amos,  Edg^r  R.*  clerg^'man,  was  born 
in  Adams  County,  Ohio,  May  20,  1806,  and 
was  educated  in  Ohio  University.  During  his_ 
collegiate  course  he  united  with  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church,  and  entered  the  Illinois 
Conference  in  1830.  In  1837  he  was  trans- 
ferred to  tiie  Missouri  Conference,  and  was 
stationed  in  St.  Louis  for  two  years.  He  was 
transferred  to  the  Indiana  Conference,  and  in 
t&fo  was  elected  missionary  secretary,  giving 
special  attention  to  the  duties  of  his  office  in 
the  West.  In  1848  he  became  president  of 
the  Indiana  Asbury  University.  In  1852  he 
was  elected  bishop,  and  filled  tfie  office  till  his 
death.  His  hrter  years  were  spent  in  Balti- 

Ames,  Henry,  who  was  for  many  years 
a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  commercial  cir- 
cles of  St  Louts,  and  who  was  also  one  of  tiie 

city's  most  public-spirited  citizens,  was  born 
in  Oneida  County,  New  York,  March  4,  18 18. 
His  fetiier  was  Nathan  Ames,  who  was  en- 
gagfed  in  agricultural  pursuits  in  eariy  life, 
later  embarked  in  pork-packing  in  Cincinnati, 
Ohio,  came  from  there  to  St.  Louis  and 
founded  a  great  pork-packing  establishment 
in  thait  city  in  1841,  and  died  there  in  1852. 
After  receiving  a  thorough  English  education 
Henry  Ames  began  his  business  career  as  an 
employe  in  his  father's  pork-packing  house  in 
Qndimati.  The  elder  Ames  was  a  sagadous 
man  of  afiUrs,  and  the  son  recdved  under  hb 

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nq>erviaion  a  very  careful  training  for  com- 
mercial pursuits,  and  demonstrated,  while 
sdli  ayouti),  that  he  had  a  genius  for  trade  and 
rate  judgment,  and  could  be  trusted  to  dis- 
charge important  duties.  W  hen  only  tifu-cn 
years  old  he  began  making  trips  down  ihc 
river  on  his  father's  flatboats  Laden  for  the 
New  Orleans  market,  and  so  well  did  he  man- 
age the  business  commitled  to  his  charge  in 
this  connection  that  he  soon  became  ncog- 
nized  by  those  with  wlioin  lie  came  into  con- 
tact in  the  river  trade  as  a  man  in  ability,  al- 
though only  a  boy  in  years  and  Stature.  When 
his  &ther  removed  bis  business  to  St  Louis 
the  son  became  a?";ocia1ed  whh  him  as  a  part- 
ner, and,  alter  the  elder  Ames"  death,  con- 
ttoned  the  pork-packing  enterprise  inaugu 
rated  by  him  with  sncli  success  that  the  house 
ultimately  took  rank  among  the  greatest  pork- 
packing  institutions  of  the  United  States,  and 
operated,  especially  during  the  Civil  War,  on 
a  colossal  scale.  As  his  wealth  increased  his 
activities  extended  into  various  fields  of  en- 
terprise,  and  he  became  identified  officially 
and  as  an  investor  with  many  important  cor- 
porations. He  wTis  at  one  time  vice  president 
of  the  State  Savings  I nstitution,  was  a  director 
in  the  Merchants'  Insurance  Company,  a  di- 
rector of  the  Belcher  Sugar  Refinery,  of  the 
Adantic  &  Mississippi  Steamship  Company, 
oi  the  United  States  Insurance  Company,  of 
the  State  Savings  Association,  and  of  the 
Memphis  &  St.  Louis  Packet  Company.  He 
and  his  brother,  Edgar  Ames,  built  the  Lindell 
Hotel  in  1864,  and  in  1869  he  organized  the 
St.  Louis  &  New  Orleans  Packet  Company, 
which  became  the  successor  of  the  Atlantic  & 
Mississippi  Steamship  Company.  Mr.  Ames 
was  one  of  the  largest  stockholders  in  this  en- 
terprise, was  a  director  of  the  corporation,  and 
the  old-!inic  steamer  "Hcnr>'  Ames"  was  .so 
named  in  his  honor.  In  i8<6o,  acting  in  con- 
junction with  Edgar  Ames  and  Albert  Pearce, 
he  M  t  on  foot  a  movement  to  construct  the 
first  grain  elevator  erected  in  St.  Louts,  but 
met  widi  such  opposition  from  city  officials 
that  it  was  not  until  1864  that  the  projected 
elevator  was  built.  It  stood  on  the  levee,  be- 
tween Biddle  and  Ashley  Streets,  and  was  the 
property  of  what  was  known  as  the  St.  Louis 
Elevator  Company.  Mr.  .Ames  was  noted  al- 
ways for  his  devotion  to  the  welfare  of  St. 
Lottis,  and  every  movement  which  had  for  its 
object  the  advanccnnent  of  its  material  inter- 
ests received  his  substantial  aid  and  encour- 

agement. He  had  remarkable  energy  and  an 
indomitable  will,  and  during  the  later  years 
of  his  life,  after  he  had  been  prostrated  by  a 
paralytic  stroke  and  rendered  totally  unable 
to  walk,  he  was  driven  regularly  to  his  place 
oi  business,  carried  into  his  office  and  per- 
sonally directed  the  c<jnduct  of  afTairs  of  large 
magnitude.  While  suffering  from  this  illness 
he  visited  CaUfornia,  Canada,  Cuba  and  South 
America  in  the  hope  of  regaining  his  health, 
but  his  eflTorts  in  this  direction  were  fruitless, 
and  he  died  at  Minneapolis,  Minnesota, 
August  14, 1866. 

Amity. — A  small  village  six  miles  from 
Maysville,  in  De  Kalb  County,  on  the  Chi- 
cago. Rock  Island  &  Pacific  Railroad,  and 
natned  after  Amity  Church,  which  stood  in  tlie 
neighborhood.  It  has  two  stores,  the  Bank  of 
Amity,  with  a  capital  of  $10,000,  and  a  Con- 
gregational Church.  It  is  an  important  ship- 
ping point  for  stock  and  grain.  Population, 
about  aoo. 

Amsterdatn.— A  village  in  Bates  County, 

on  the  Kansas  City,  Pittsburg  &  Gulf  Rail- 
way, twenty  miles  northwest  of  Butler,  the 
county  seat.  It  has  a  public  school,  a  Baptist 
Church,  a  Metliodist  ( "hurch,  aii  independent 
newspaper,  the  "i'.order  Breezes,"  a  bank,  and 
a  flour  and  sawmill.  In  1900  the  estimated 
population  was  300. 

Ancient  Order  of  Hlbemlaas^An 

Irish-Catliolic  fraternal  organization,  which 
traces  its  origin  to  the  latter  part  of  the  seven- 
teenth century.  After  the  capitulation  of  the 
Catholic-Irish  to  King  William  III,  ait  Lim- 
erick, in  169T,  and  the  cstahlislimcnt  of  Eng- 
land's authority  in  Ireland,  tlie  continued  per- 
secutions of  the  CafhdHcs  led  to  the  fomuvHon 
of  societies  designed  to  perpetuate  the  history 
and  traditions  of  the  Irish  people  and  to  pre- 
serve as  much  as  possiMe  of  their  religious 
libeitx.  Tliese  organizations,  wfaich  took 
upon  themselves  an  obligation  to  protect  their 
women  and  children  and  the  priests  of  the 
Catholic  Church  from  the  insults  and  persecu- 
tions of  their  English  masters,  form<-<l  the 
nucleus  of  a  .society  which  became  kno^v^n  as 
the  Ancient  Order  of  Hibernians.  When 
Irish  immigrants  began  flocking  to  this  coun- 
try it  was  natural  that  they  should  seek  to  per- 
petuate this  order  in  America,  and  in  the  year 
1836  the  first  division  ■  >f  the  Ancient  Order  of 
Hibernians  was  instituted  in  the  city  of  New 

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York.  Since  then  it  has  extended  through- 
out the  United  States  and  now  has  a  large 
membership,  all  of  the  hrgtr  and  many  oi  the 
smaller  cities  of  the  country  supporting 
branches  <A  the  order.  Its  objects  are  de- 
clared to  be  to  provide  funds  for  At  rdief  of 
members  in  distress ;  to  give  substantial  aid  to 
the  sick  and  those  in  need  of  assistance  among 
its  members,  and  to  give  Cfntetiatt  haxitl  to 
its  dead ;  to  care  for  the  widows  and  orphans 
of  its  deceased  members,  and  to  elevate  and 
ennoble  those  coming  within  the  sphere  of  its 
influence.  In  1896  tiw  order  contributed 
$50,000  to  the  endowment  of  a  chair  of  Celtic 
in  the  Roman  Catbdic  University  of  Wash- 
ington Qty.  In  t&M  the  order  was  divided 
into  two  factions,  which  became  known,  re- 
spectively, as  the  National  Order  of  Hiber- 
nians of  America,  and  the  Andent  Order  of 
Hibernians  of  the  United  States.  Controver- 
sies relative  to  the  extent  to  which  the  parent 
organization  in  Ireland  should  exercise  juris- 
diction over  the  order  in  America,  and  as  to 
what  should  constitute  eligibility  to  member- 
ship, were  the  chief  causes  of  this  division  and 
of  much  subsequent  bitterness  between  the 
■factions.  In  1897  steps  were  taken  at  the  na- 
tional conventions  of  the  two  bodies  to  bring 
•bout  a  reunim,  and  as  a  result  the  matters 
of  difference  lietween  fhem  wore  referred  to 
Bishop  McFauIt  of  fbe  OttfaoUc  Church,  for 
adjudication.  Bishop  McFatd  submitted  a 
plan  of  reunion  which  was  satisfactory  to  both 
factions,  and  which  pro\nded  tliat  the  reunited 
organizations  should  be  known  as  tlie  Ancient 
Order  of  Hibernians  in  America.  The  order 
was  instituted  in  St.  Louis,  in  1S55,  and  is  said 
to  have  disbursed  a  million  dollars  in  its  char- 
itable and  benevolent  enterprises  in  tliat  city* 
prior  to  iJV)8  At  the  dose  of  the  year  1897 
there  were  in  existence  in  the  city  ten  divi- 
sions of  the  order,  and  wdl  disciplined  and 
well  drilled  bodies  of  the  "Hibernians"  have 
constituted  a  notable  feature  of  many  parades 
and  public  demonstrations.  The  governing 
body  of  the  order  in  the  city  is  what  is  known 
as  the  County  Board  of  Directors,  the  mem- 
bership of  which  consists  of  the  officers  of  the 
several  divisions.  A  plat  of  groond  at  the 
comer  of  Jefferson  .^venue  and  Pine  Street 
belongs  to  the  order,  and  upon  this  it  is  pro- 
posed to  build  a  handsome  hall  and  business 
block.  The  average  membership  of  each  of 
tiie  ten  divisions  in  the  city  is  about  one  hun- 

Anderson,  Galusha,  clergyman  and 
educator,  was  born  March  7,  1832,  in  Bergen, 
New  York.  He  was  reared  and  educated  in 
the  Empire  State,  being  graduated  from  Roch- 
ester University,  in  1854,  and  from  the  Theo- 
logical Seminary  of  Rodnsttr  in  1856.  He 
then  entered  the  Baptist  ministry,  soon  be- 
came distinguished  as  a  preacher  of  that  de- 
nomination, and  was  largely  instrumental  in 
building  up  the  Second  Baptist  Church  of  St. 
Louis.  He  was  called  from  this  church  in 
1866  to  the  professorship  of  homiletics,  church 
polity  and  pastoral  duties  in  Newton  Theolog- 
ical Institute.  From  1873  to  1878  he  preached 
in  Brooklyn,  New  York,  and  then  in  Chicago. 
In  the  year  last  named  he  was  chosen  presi- 
dent of  Chic^po  University,  and  held  that 
position  until  the  autumn  of  1885.  He  is  still 
•  member  of  tiie  faiculty  of  tiurt  instittition. 

Anderson,  Bei^amiu  M.,  legislator, 
was  bom  in  1855,  in  Boone  County,  Missouri, 
which  has  ever  since  been  his  home,  which 
has  honored  him  with  positions  of  honor  and 
trust,  and  which  he  in  turn  has  honored  by 
able  and  faithful  public  services.  -Ifis  par> 
ents  were  Benjamin  and  Sara  Anderson,  who 
came  west  from  Orange  County,  Virginia. 
His  gnrndfather  came  to  lliisotiri  in  1832. 
He  was  educated  in  tha  public  schools  of 
Boone  County,  and  in  his  young  manhood  en- 
gaged in  mercantile  pursuits.  In  i88z  he 
abandoned  merchandising  and  turned  his  at- 
tention to  farming,  stock-raising  and  dealing 
in  real  estate,  in  which  he  has  met  with  flaitter- 
ing  success.  A  man  of  superior  executive 
ability,  much  personal  mag^netism.  nnd,  withal, 
a  genial  and  courteous  gentleman,  he  was  rec- 
ognized by  the  pec^e  of  Boone  County  as  a 
nntural  leader  of  men  and  became  influential 
in  politics  and  public  affairs  in  early  life.  A 
Democrat  of  tmswerving  loyalty  to  his  party, 
he  became  prominent  in  the  conduct  of  its  af- 
fairs and  entered  official  life  in  1886,  when  he 
was  elected  county  collector  of  Boone  County. 
This  office  he  held  for  two  terms,  and  in  1894 
he  was  elected  presiding  judge  of  the  County 
Court  of  Boone  County.  In  1896  he  was 
elected  a  member  of  the  State  Senate  from  the 
district  composed  of  Boone,  Macon  and  Ran- 
dolph Counties.  He  served  in  the  Senate 
during  the  sessions  of  1897  and  1899,  and 
was  one  of  the  recog'nizcd  leaders  of  the  ma- 
jority in  that  body,  being  especially  influential 
and  effective  in  riiaping  legislatkm  through 

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judicious  committee  work.  His  forceful  ut- 
terances on  the  floor  oi  the  Senate  were  always 
sttncttve,  logical  and  convincing,  and  his  dili- 
gence in  looking  after  public  interests  resulted 
in  the  placing  of  various  wise  laws  upon  the 
statute  books  of  the  State.  Among  the  more 
prominent  of  these  laws  was  the  act  making  it 
a  felony  for  officers  of  building  and  loan  asso- 
ciations to  accept  deposits  when  sucli  associa- 
tiona  are  in  a  failing  conditioii ;  the  act  known 
as  the  "Anti-Trust  Fire  Insurance  LaAv,"  and 
the  "Inheritance  Tax  Low."  In  procuring 
'  the  enactment  of  tiie  last  named  law  Senator 
Anderson  evidenced  his  resourcefulness  and 
tenacity  of  purpose.  Wliat  was  known  as  the 
"Collateral  Inheritance  Tax  Law,"  which  pro- 
vided, among  other  things,  for  free  scholar- 
ships  for  worthy  young  men  at  the  State 
University,  having  been  declared  defective, 
Senaitor  Anderson  undertook  to  incorporate 
the  free  scholarship  provision  in  Uie  University 
Endowment  Bill.  His  contention  was,  that 
as  the  vniversitjr  is  supported  by  revenue  de- 
rived from  taxes  collected  from  all  the  people 
— although  no  special  levy  is  made  for  its 
maintnumce— ft  stands  in  the  same  rdation  to 
ibt  people  of  Missouri  as  tlie  ooaunon  schools 
and  high  schools,  and  that  no  tuition  fees 
should  be  cliarged  to  the  young  men  of  this 
State.  He  refused  to  support  the  endowment 
bill  without  this  provision.  His  influence  and 
the  high  personal  regard  entertained  for  him 
in  the  Senate  secured  the  indorsement  of  the 
proposition  by  that  body  by  a  two-thirds  vote. 
In  the  House  it  was  defeated  by  six  votes. 
Undismayed  by  this  defeat,  and  believing,  Kke 
his  former  fellow-townsman,  Major  J.  S.  Rol- 
hns,  that  in  Missouri  there  should  be  "freedom 
and  education  for  all,"  Senator  Anderson 
originated  another  plan  for  accomplishing  the 
desired  results.  After  consulting  with  friends 
at  Columbia,  Colonel  J.  M.  Seibcrt,  State 
Auditor,  and  Captain  Allen,  chief  cleric  in  the 
Auditor's  office,  he  decided  that  a  new  in- 
heritance tax  bill,  which  had  been  drawn  with 
great  care  by  Judge  Alexander  Martin  and 
Professor  Isador  Loeb,  should  be  introduced 
in  the  General  Assembly.  Accordingly  J.  G. 
Babb,  secretary  of  the  hoard  of  cnratora  of 
the  university,  was  sent  to  JeflFerson  City  with 
this  bill.  He  submitted  it  to  Governor  Ste- 
phens, who  selected  a  member  of  each  branch 
of  the  Legislature  to  introduce  it.  It  was  intro- 
duced in  the  House  by  Honorable  O.  M.  Har- 
nett, of  Pettis  County,  and  finally  passed  both 

the  Senate  and  House.  This  law  makes  tui- 
tion free  at  the  State  University,  and  the 
younger  generation  of  Missourians  will 
gratefully  remember  Senator  Anderson  for 
his  efforts  in  this  bdialf.  Among  his  distin- 
guishing characteristics  are  intense  activity, 
remarkable  industry  and  broad  capacity  for 
the  conduct  of  afTairs.  The  agriculturists  of 
Central  Missouri  know  him  as  a  farmer  of  the 
practical  and  thoroughgoing  kind,  and  he  has 
demonstrated  conclusively  that  a  fanner  may 
be  a  wise  legislator.  He  was  the  promoter  of 
tiie  Midland  Railroad,  which  connects  Colum- 
bia with  the  Missouri,  Kansas  &  Texas  Rail- 
way, and  ^ich  has  added  materially  to  the 
wenldi  and  population  of  his  native  town,  and 
ia  various  ways  he  has  done  much  for  the 
coniinunity  in  which  he  lives.  One  of  his  col- 
leagues in  the  Senate  says  of  him :  "He  never 
failed  to  make  good  his  promises,  and  whether 
before  committees,  on  the  street  or  at  his 
rooms,  any  statements  made  or  agreement  en- 
tered inlio  by  Ae  Senaitor  from  BMMie  wen  ac- 
cepted without  doubt  or  reserve."  Warm- 
hearted and  generous  and  ready  at  any  time 
to  extend  favors  to  those  whom  he  can  assist, 
either  in  public  or  prii«te  life,  he  was  one 
of  the  most  popular  members  of  the  Senate 
during  his  term  of  service,  and  he  is  equally 
popular  with  all  classes  of  people  with  whom 
he  is  brought  into  contact.  Senator  Ander- 
son was  married  to  Miss  Fannie  Bowling, 
daughter  of  James  D.  Bowling,  of  Columbia, 
Missouri,  in  i88a,  and  they  have  four  children. 

Anderson,  George  W.,  lawyer,  soldier 

and  member  of  Conpress,  was  born  in  Jeffer- 
son County,  Tennessee,  May  22,  1832.  He 
graduated  at  Franklin  College,  in  his  native 
State,  and  in  1853  came  to  Missouri.  In  1859 
he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature,  and  in  i860 
was  a  presidential  elector,  in  the  Civil  War 
he  ser\'ed  in  the  Union  Army,  and  in  1864  was 
elected  to  the  Thirty-ninth  Congress,  and  in 
1866  was  re-elected  to  represent  the  Ninth 
Missouri  District. 

Anderson,  James  Abram,  presiding 
judge  of  the  County  Court  of  Johnson 

County,  was  born  near  Lexington,  Missouri, 
June  20,  1838,  son  of  William  Henry  and  Di- 
dama  (Dyer)  Anderson,  both  natives  of  Ken- 
tucky. His  father  came  to  Missouri  in  tiie 
sprinq-  of  1820,  locating  at  Lexington,  then 
nothing  but  a  landing  on  the  river,  entered 

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government  land  and  devoted  his  life  to  farm- 
ing'. He  was  a  man  of  prominence  and  influ- 
ence in  that  community,  and  in  the  Black 
Hawk  War  was  captain  of  a  company  which 
saw  active  service.  He  died  oi  cliolera  in 
1851.  Judge  Anderson's  mother's  fathir  was 
a  soldier  in  the  Revolutionary  Army  from  V'ir- 
ginia.  and  afterward  removed  to  Kentucky. 
James  A.  Anderson  was  educated  in  the  com- 
mon scli(X>ls  and  afterward  si)ent  several  years 
on  the  plains,  in  the  employ  of  Jones  &  Cart- 
wright,  freighting  from  Leavenworth,  Kansas, 
to  Pike's  IVak  and  Ke\v  Mexico.  In  1861  he 
began  the  study  of  law.  but  abandoned  the 
idea  of  professional  life  on  account  of  the  Ci\nl 
War,  and  in  1864  engaged  in  farming  and 
trading  in  stix-k,  to  which  he  has  devoted  liis 
life.  I'^or  eiglit  years  he  lield  the  office  of  jus- 
tice of  the  peace  at  Columbus.  In  1890  he  was 
elected  jiidg^e  of  the  count;  onrt,  and  since 
1894  has  served  as  tlie  presiding  judge,  hav- 
ing remained  in  office  continuously  for  more 
than  ten  m  ars  and  liaving  yet  two  vears  to 
serve.  During  his  incumbency  of  the  office 
the  new  courthouse  at  Warrensburg  was  con- 
tracted for  and  erected  at  a  cost  of  $50,000,  and 
is  one  of  the  best  buildingp  in  the  State,  con- 
sidering its  cost.  Judge  Anderson  has  al- 
ways been  a  consistent  Democrat.  He  is  a 
metnber  of  the  Christian  Church,  in  which  he 
was  for  several  years  an  elder.  Vor  years  he 
was  a  member  of  the  School  Board  of  Colum- 
bus. During  rei'cnt  years  he  has  spent  most 
of  his  time  in  Warrensburg,  living  in  practical 
retirement  aside  from  the  performance  of  his 
duties  as  a  jxihlic  officer.  He  was  married, 
February  16,  1864,  to  Mary  E.  Roach,  a  native 
of  Virginia,  and  a  tfaugfitcr  of  Thornton 
Roach,  who  came  to  Johnson  County  about 
1858.  She  died  OcfoJx'r  21,  1885,  leaving 
seven  children,  namely,  Charles  R.,  a  farmer 
residing  near  Columbus ;  Carrie,  wife  of  E.  R. 
Lowrey.  residing  near  Faycttcville ;  Flora, 
wife  of  Charles  E.  Morrow,  prosecuting  attor- 
ney of  Johnson  County,  residing  at  Warrens- 
burg; James  H.,  on  tile  home  farm;  Ella,  wife 
of  Dr.  J.  M.  Rice,  of  Columbus,  Missouri ;  Ar- 
thur D.  and  Willie  A.  Anderson,  on  the  home 

Aiulerson,  JaiiicH  Ihiiuc,  physician 
and  surj^'tun,  was  born  April  7,  1859,  in  War- 
rensburg, Missouri,  son  of  W  illiam  Harrison 
and  Mary  A.  (Davis)  Anderson.  His  father, 
for  many  years  a  merchant  and  banker,  was 

one  of  the  most  influential  and  highly  re- 
spected citizens  of  Warrensburg.   He  was 

bom  in  Campbell  County,  Tennessee,  March 
28,  1813.  His  grandfather,  a  native  of  Scot- 
land, settled  in  \  irginia,  where  he  died  at  the 
age  of  one  hundred  and  one  years.  At  the 
age  of  twenty  years  W.  II.  Anderson  mounted 
a  horse  and  rode  all  the  way  to  Johnson 
County,  Missouri,  which  he  had  decided  to 
make  his  home.  For  three  years  he  engaged 
in  any  manual  labor  that  presented  itself,  and 
for  the  next  two  years  was  engaged  as  a  clerk 
in  the  store  of  James  A.  Gallaher.  In  1838 
he  removed  to  Warrensburg,  and  in  1839  was 
made  dqnity  sheriff.  ser\'ing  two  years.  Five 
years  following:  wire  spent  as  clerk  in  a  gen- 
eral stiifo.  Ik'  then  embarked  in  the  general 
mercliandising  business  for  hiinselt.  which  he 
continued  until  1857,  when  he  sold  out  with 
tlio  intention  of  engaging  in  fanning  and 
stock-raising  But  at  tliis  time  a  branch  o<  the 
Utiion  Bank  of  Mtsisouri  was  establMlMftl  ut 
Warrensburg  and  he  was  elected  cashier,  serv- 
ing until  the  bank  was  discontinued  in  1862 
on  account  of  the  war.  Fearing  that  a  raid 
mig^t  be  made  upon  WafTenflburg.  Mr.  .\n- 
derson  took  the  money  in  the  vaults  of  the 
bank,  amounting  to  about  $50,000,  and  buried 
it  under  the  hearth  of  the  house  on  the  Cram- 
ner  farm,  now  tlic  KodI  farm,  about  two  and 
a  half  miles  southeast  oi  Warrenisburg.  Later 
on,  when  he  found  he  would  be  compelled  to 
join  the  ranks  of  the  refugees,  he  removed  to 
St  Louis  with  his  family,  carrying  the  bank's 
funds  wHh  him.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he 
engaged  in  the  mercantile  l)usiness  at  Pleasant 
Hill.  In  1869  he  returned  to  Warrensburg 
and  soon  afterward  assisted  in  the  organiza- 
tion of  the  Johnson  County  Savings  Bank,  in 
which  he  served  as  cashier  for  two  years. 
Subsequently  he  engaged  in  the  retail  grocery 
trade.  Mr.  Anderson  served  in  various  public 
offices.  In  1848  he  \v:is  elected  treasurer  of 
Johnson  County,  occupying  that  office  until 
rendered  ineligible  by  law.  It  was  largely 
through  his  efforts  that  the  management  of 
the  Missouri  Pacific  Railroad  was  induced  to 
extend  its  line  westward,  through  Warrens- 
burg instead  of  through  Lexington,  as  at  first 
projected.  His  interest  in  the  cause  of  educa- 
tion is  attested  by  the  fact  tiiat  he  served  for 
a  long  time  on  the  local  School  Board  and 
contribtited  to  the  foundation  of  Central  Col- 
lege, at  Fayette,  Missouri,  this  entitling  him 
to  the  dispositton  of  a  scholarship  in  that  insti- 

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fution.  He  died  December  24,  1892.  The 
education  of  Dr.  James  I.  Anderson  was  be- 
gan in  the  fraUk  scboiDls  of  km  native  town. 
After  a  course  in  the  Warrensburg  Xonnal 
School  he  entered  the  medical  department  of 
Vanderbilt  University,  at  Nashville,  Tennes- 
see, from  which  he  was  graduated  in  1882. 
Since  that  time  he  has  ffracticed  continuously 
in  his  present  office  at  Warrensburg.  In  1892 
and  1893  he  took  post-graduate  courses  in 
the  Xcw  York  Polyclinic.  He  is  a  mcinber 
of  the  State  and  Ilodgen  District  Medical  So- 
cieties, was  pension  examiner  under  both  ad- 
ministrations of  President  Cleveland,  and  for 
some  time  has  been  local  surgeon  for  the  Mis- 
KMiri  P^fic  RaMraad.  During-  fhe  «af1y  years 
of  his  professional  career  he  served  one  term 
as  coroner  of  Johnson  County.  Politically  he 
ts  a  Democrait,  and  fraternally  he  is  identified 
with  the  Masonic  order,  being  a  past  master 
of  the  Blue  Lodge.  Since  1807  he  has  been 
a  member  of  the  board  of  regents  of  the  State 
Normal  School  at  Warrensburg.  He  was 
married,  May  21,  1890,  to  Elizabeth  Plunicr, 
a  native  of  Pennsylvania,  and  a  daughter  of 
M .  A.  Flumer,  now  of  Warrensburg.  They 
are  the  parents  of  four  chiUlrcn.  filadys, 
Flumer,  Carrie  and  Albert  M.  Anderson.  Dr. 
Anderson's  contemporaries  accord  htm  a  place 
in  the  front  rank  of  his  profession,  in  which 
his  worlc  has  been  attended  by  unusual  success. 

AndersoDf  John  J.,  pioneer  merchant 

and  banker,  was  born  January  19,  1813,  in 
Cahukia,  Illinois,  son  of  Reuben  Anderson,  a 
naeiv«  of  Delaware,  and  a  soldier  in  the  War 
of  181 2.  ^^^.  Anderson  wtis  reared  and  edu- 
cated at  Belleville,  Illinois,  and  then  came  to 
St  Louis,  where  he  was  trained  to  commercial 
pursuits.  In  the  early  years  of  his  business 
career  he  was  a  siKcessfut  merdumt  in  tJiait 
city,  but  in  1842  he  met  with  financial  losses 
wfaidi  swept  tway  his  accumulations  and 
made  it  necessary  for  him  to  begin  life  anew. 
After  that  he  became  associated  with  Joseph 
S.  Morrison,  of  Pennsylvania,  in  the  banking 
business,  was  long  head  of  the  liouse  of  John 
J.  Anderson  &  Co.,  and  occupied  a  prominent 
position  among  old-time  bankers.  He  was 
also  identified  with  the  building  of  the  Ohio  & 
Mississippi  Railroad,  the  Pacific  Railroad,  the 
Iron  Mountain  Railroad  and  the  North  Mis- 
souri Railroad.  He  married,  in  1835,  Miss 
Theresa  Billon,  daughter  of  Charles  L.  Billon, 
of  Philadelphia. 

Aiiclorson,M  atthewWilliam, banker, 
was  burn  December  20,  1836,  on  the  farm  uf 
his  lather,  four  miles  from  Independence,  Mb- 

souri.  His  parents  were  (norge  W.  and  Sally 
(Stewart)  Anderson,  both  of  whom  were  na- 
tives of  Kentucky  and  members  of  splendid 
Southern  families,  wiiosc  records  for  thrift  and 
int^rity  are  spotless.  They  were  married  in 
Kentucky  and  removed  to  Missouri  in  1836, 
the  year  M.  W.  Anderson  was  born.  11  u  . 
!ix-ated  od  the  acres  that  composed  the  okl 
homestead  fur  so  many  years,  near  Indepcntl- 
ence,  and  played  no  small  part  in  the  wonder- 
ful transformation  which  caused  Western 
Missouri  to  blossom  from  a  pioneer  wilderness 
into  luxurious  cultivation  during  their  years. 
The  son  was  left  iip  pii  !iis  o-svii  re.soiirccs  early 
in  life,  on  account  of  the  deatli  of  his  father, 
but  proved  equal  to  the  stem  task  before  him. 
He  received  a  common  school  eclucation  in 
the  schools  of  Jackson  County,  and  had  a 
good,  practical  preparation  for  the  numerous 
undertakings  which  were  to  combine  in  mak- 
ing his  life  successful.  In  1H60  he  was  elected 
constable  of  Blue  Township,  in  Jackson 
Countf,  defeating  six  opponents  in  a  race  that 
was  hotly  contested.  In  those  days  the  <^ce 
of  constable  was  equally  renumeraiive  whh 
the  office  of  sheriff.  It  was  My  filled  by  the 
young  man  until  the  edict  went  forth  that 
officeholders  must  take  the  "Gamble  oath." 
That  order  having  been  promulgated  and  Mr.' 
Anderson  being  unwilling  to  swear  against 
convictions  which  came  from  Southeni  1)lood, 
he  gave  up  the  office.  In  1862  he  went  to 
New  Mexico  and  engaged  in  the  business  of 
overland  freighting,  in  the  employ  of  Trvin, 
Jackman  &  Co.  He  followed  that  line  of 
work  for  about  six  months.  After  resuming 
to  Missouri  he  became  deputy  sherifT  of  Jack- 
son County,  in  186S,  under  Charles  Dough- 
erty, and  served  in  that  capacity  until  1870. 
Between  the  time  of  his  return  from  New 
Mexico  and  his  acceptance  of  (he  office  of 
deputy  sheriff  he  engaged  in  farniuig  wi  jack- 
son  County.  The  Democratic  party  nomi- 
nated him  for  collector  of  Jackson  County.  l)ut 
his  first  race  was  followed  by  defeat,  James  L. 
Gray  being  dected.  His  second  candidacy 
was  successful,  however,  and  in  1872  he  was 
elected  collector  by  a  large  majority.  The 
oath  of  office  was  taken  in  1873  and  he  served 
as  coUector  four  years.  During  this  time,  hav- 
ing prospered  in  financial  affairs,  he  was  a 
silent  partner  in  the  banking  house  of  Brown, 

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Haghes  &  Co.,  paid  coiniderftble  attention  to 
the  raking  of  &nt  stock  and  looked  after  a 
large  ranch  which  he  had  purchased  in  New 
Mexico.  When  the  Anderson-Chiles  Banking 
Company  of  Independence  was  organized  he 
waa  made  presideiit  of  the  concern,  and  for 
several  years  it  was  one  of  the  strongest  pri- 
vate banking  houses  in  western  Missouri.  In 
1889  this  ibaak  was  natiomlised  and  Mr.  An- 
derson was  chosen  president.  Since  that  time 
he  has  been  president  of  this  strong  establish- 
ment, which  is  known  as  the  "Pint  National 
Bank,  and  his  reputation  as  a  careful,  success- 
ful business  man  is  firmly  established.  Mr. 
Anderson  has  large  property  holdings  which 
require  much  attention,  and  not  all  of  his  time 
is  devoted  to  the  banking  business.  He  is  one 
of  the  most  prominent  dealers  in  fine  cattle  in 
Missouri,  and  his  splendid  herd  of  Bates  short- 
horns which  graze  on  the  pastures  of  his  four- 
hundred  acre  farm  near  Indqwndence  is 
oonsideTCfdliie  standard  of  its  kind.  InwMitkm 
to  the  office  of  county  collector  Mr.  Anderson 
received  other  honors  from  tlie  people  of 'his 
commtmity,  serving  for  eighteen  years  tts  a 
member  of  the  city  council  of  Independence. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  Episcopal  Church  and 
holds  the  office  of  senior  warden  in  Trinity 
Church,  Independence.  He  was  married,  in 
1861,  to  Miss  Julia  Daniel,  of  Jackson  County, 
Missouri.  To  tliem  two  children,  daughters, 
were  bom.  Mrs.  Anderson  died  in  1888.  The 
husband  was  the  second  time  married  in  1892, 
his  bride  being  Miss  Mary  W.  Ervin,  daugh- 
ter of  Colonel  Eugene  Ervin,  of  Lexington, 
K(  nnn-ky.  Colonel  Ervin  was  a  grandson  of 
the  distinguished  Kentucky  statesman,  Henry 
Clay,  and  of  such  noble  ancestry  Mrs,  Ander- 
son and  her  two  bright  sons,  Henry  Clay  and 
Matthew  William,  have  reason  to  be  proud. 

Anderson,  Samuel  Hahnemann* 

physician,  was  bom  July  8,  1850,  at  Greenfield, 
Highland  County,  Ohio.  His  parents  were 
Samael  B.  and  Nancy  L.  (Davis)  Anderson, 
both  natives  of  Ohio,  now  roi^iding  in  Denver, 
Colorado.  The  father  was  descended  from  a 
Pennsylwnta  family,  and  an  inmnditte 
tor  served  in  the  War  of  i8i3;  he  waaaphysi- 
sician  and  practiced  in  Lawrence,  Kansas,  for 
thirty  years.  The  mother  was  related  to  the 
family  to  which  belonged  Jeffefson  Davis,  the 
Confederate  President ;  her  ancestors  were 
North  Carolinians,  among  whom  were  those 
who  figured  hi  tiie  events  of  tiie  Revolutionary 

War  period.  The  son,  Samuel  Halmeniann, 
named  for  the  founder  of  homeopathy,  was  a 
student  in  a  seminary  in  his  native  town  at 
the  age  of  eighteen  years,  when  the  family 
removed  to  Lawrence,  Kansas.  Here  he  en-  * 
tered  the  Kansas  State  University  and  contin- 
ued his  education  in  the  classics  and  the 
higher  mathematics.  He  did  not  remain  to 
graduate,  but  left  school  to  make  preparation 
for  entering  the  medical  profession  under  the 
tttlorship  of  his  father,  with  whom  he  had  pre- 
inously  read  for  some  years.  At  a  later  day 
he  entered  the  Homeopathic  Medical  College 
of  Missouri,  from  which  he  was  graduated  in 
the  spring  of  1876.  Immediately  thereafter 
he  began  practice  in  connection  vrith  hit 
father,  and  while  so  engaged  became  a  mem- 
ber of  the  Kansas  Homeopathic  Institute,  and 
was  for  some  >'^rs  a  member  of  the  Kansas 
State  Board  of  Examiners.  Tn  May,  1881,  he 
located  in  Kansas  City,  Missouri,  and  engaged 
in  general  practice,  in  which  obstetrics  and 
surgerv'  came  to  claim  a  large  share  of  his  at- 
tention. For  one  year  he  was  physician  to 
tiie  Children's  Home.  In  ^e  Kansas  City 
Homeopatthic  Medical  College  he  has  occu- 
pied the  chair  of  surgery,  and  for  a  number  of 
years  past  has  been  professor  of  obstetrics. 
Tie  is  a  member  of  the  Western  Academy  of 
Homeopathy,  of  the  Missouri  Valley  Home- 
opathic Society,  and  of  the  Missotui  State 
Homeopadiic  Institute.  H«  has  frequently 
read  before  these  societies  papers  which  have 
attracted  wide  attention  by  their  literary  ex- 
cellence, as  well  as  their  professkma)  merit* 
and  have  found  publication  in  various  scien- 
tific journals.  He  has  made  a  valuable  addi- 
tion to  the  appliances  of  tJie  surgeon,  in  a 
splint  of  his  own  invention.  This  is  a  modifi- 
cation of  the  well  known  TTodcren  splint;  it  is 
doublc-inclnied  and  counier-balancing,  remov- 
ing all  pernicious  strain  from  the  injured  limb, 
allowing  it  the  utmost  freedom  and  obviating 
all  necessity  for  circular  bandaging.  It  has 
been  brongfat  into  use  by  many  otd-schbol 
practitinnrrs,  as  well  as  bv  those  of  his  own  de- 
partment who  have  seen  its  practical  opera- 
tions under  his  own  direction,  or  have  heard 
him  exemplify  its  USes  in  lectures  wliich  he 
has  been  called  upon  to  deliver.  He  has  been 
importuned  to  apply  for  a  patent  and  to  enter 
into  partnership  with  sur,c:ical  instrument 
manufacturers  for  its  production  and  market- 
ing, but  with  conscientious  regard  for  the 
editcs  of  die  profession  he  hat  declined  such 

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overtures.  In  politics  he  is  a  libernl  Dem- 
ocrat. Without  church  connection,  he  is  rev- 
erent in  disposition,  and  his  personal  condnct 
and  relations  with  his  follow  men  find  their 
inspiration  and  government  in  the  great  law 
of  hnman  kindness.  Witii  a  broad  and  Hber- 
ally  stored  mind,  be  finds  his  chief  delight  in 
the  best  of  literature  and  in  traversing  fields, 
forests  and  streams  untouched  by  man.  Dr. 
Anderson  was  married,  September  ao,  l88o^ 
to  Miss  Julia,  daughter  of  Joel  Hostetter,  a  re- 
tired merchant  of  Lawrence,  Kansas.  Mrs. 
Anderson  is  highly  cultivated,  a  deeply  inter* 
csted  member  of  leading;  literary  clubs  and  a 
gifted  artist.  Her  liome  is  adorned  with  many 
gems  from  her  brash,  and  in  china  painting 
her  work  challenges  the  admiration  of  the  art 
lovers  of  the  community. 

AnderHonN  Oaerrllla  Warfare^r^ 

William,  better  known  as  "Bill"  Anderson, 
was  one  of  the  most  cruel  and  desperate 
guerrilla  chiefs  in  Missouri  during  the  Civil 
War.  His  field  of  operations  was  in  the  two 
tiers  of  counties  on  the  north  side  of  the  Mis- 
souri River,  and  his  band  were  almost  con- 
Standy  moiving  throuf::h  that  region  in  the 
years  1863  and  1864,  carrying  on  their  busi- 
ness of  plundering  and  killing.  It  is  said  that 
Anderson's  mother  and  sister  were  arrested 
for  their  outspoken  Southern  S)rmpathies  and 
confined  at  Kansas  City,  in  an  insecure  build- 
ing, which  fell,  killing  several  prisoners, 
among  them  .'Xnderson's  sister;  and  this  was 
what  made  him  the  desperado  he  became.  On 
the  23d  of  September,  1864,  lie  and  Geoi^ 
Todd,  another  noted  guerrilla  chief,  with  one 
hundred  ami  fifty  men,  attacked  and  captured 
a  government  tndn  of  fourteen  wagons  while 
moving  under  an  escort  of  seventy  men  of  the 
Third  Missouri  Militia,  Captain  McFadden  in 
command,  from  Sturgeon  to  Rocheport,  in 
Boone  County.  The  guard  was  put  to  flight, 
leaving  eleven  Union  soldiers  and  three  ne- 
groes dead  on  the  ground.  The  train  was 
phmdered  of  everything  the  guerrillas  could 
carry  off  and  then  burned.  Four  days  after- 
ward Anderson,  with  Todd,  John  Thrailkill, 
David  Pool  and'HoltcIaw,  all  as  desperate  as 
himadf,  with  several  hundred  men,  appeared 
in  the  vicinity  of  Centralia,  Boone  G;>unty, 
teicing  horses,  nibbing  the  stores  and  com- 
mitting other  acts  of  violence.  On  the  arrival 
of  the  stage  from  Columbia  they  halted  it, 
robbed  tiie  pasaengers  of  their  pocketbooks 

and  took  the  horses.  On  the  arrival  of  the 
train  from  St.  Louis,  Anderson  arranged  his 
men  on  the  sides  of  the  track  near  (he  d^t 
and  took  possession  of  it,  robbing  the  passen- 
gers and  breaking  open  the  express  safe  and 
taking  vdiat  money  there  was  m  it.  But  all 
this  was  as  nothing  to  what  followed.  There 
were  twenty-three  Union  soldiers  on  the  train. 
Anderson  took  them  out,  formed  them  in  line 
under  guard  in  the  street,  and  ordered  them 
shot,  an  order  which  was  executed  as  brutallv 
as  it  was  given.  Several  of  the  soldiers  ran 
and  sought  to  escape,  but  the  last  one  of  them 
was  overtaken  and  killed.  This  bloody  work 
completed,  and  the  depot  and  the  train  burned, 
Anderson,  with  his  baWd,  left  tiie  town  and  en- 
tered the  woods  two  miles  off.  He  had 
hardly  departed  when  Major  Johnson,  with  a 
battalion  of  the  Thirty-ninth  Missouri  Voiim- 
teers,  entered  the  town,  and  on  being  informed 
of  what  had  taken  place  determined  to  pursue 
the  guerrillas.  It  was  a  rash  resolution,  for 
Major  Johnson's  men  were  pocnly  mounted 
and  armed  only  with  muskets,  while  the  guer- 
rillas, double  in  number,  were  finely  mounted, 
and  eadi  of  them  carried  four  to  six  revohrers. 
On  the  approach  of  the  Federal  force  the  guer- 
rillas came  out  of  the  woods  to  meet  them,  and 
the  engagement  began  wMi  a  fierce  charge 
from  Anderson's  men,  which  broke  the  Union 
line  and  caused  the  men  to  flee  in  disorder 
over  tile  prairie.  The  guerrillas  pursued  them 
with  pitiless  fury,  shooting  them  down  witit 
their  revolvers  as  they  ran.  Major  Johnson, 
Captain  Smith  and  several  other  officers,  with 
one  hundred  and  ihirtjMiine  men,  were  killed. 
In  the  fall  of  1864  Anderson  and  his  band, 
while  in  Glasgow,  went  to  the  residence  of 
William  J.  Lewis,  a  wealthy  oM  Union  dimu, 
and  by  a  course  of  cnid  treatment,  knfock- 
ing  him  on  the  head  with  thdr  pistok,  prick- 
ing him  with  knives,  firing  their  pistols  in  his 
face  and  thrusting  the  muzzles  in  his  mouth, 
extorted  from  him  and  his  friends  $5,000.  In 
the  latter  part  of  October,  one  month  after  the 
"Ifossacre  at  Centralia,"  Anderson  made  his 
appearance  in  Ray  County,  and  Lieutenant 
Colonel  S.  P.  Cox,  of  the  Thirty-third  En- 
rolled Missouri  MiKtia,  who  was  at  Richmond, 
made  a  forced  march  to  meet  him.  He  found 
him  near  Albany  and  a  battle  ensued,  Ander- 
son, with  three  hundred  men,  raising  the  In- 
dian yell  and  charging  in  full  guerrilla  style 
with  revolvers  upon  the  Federal  line.  "The 
brigand  chief,  with  one  companion,  charged 

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through  the  ranks,  but  was  shot  dead  titiy 
paces  in  the  rear,  a  ball  having  struck  him  in 

the  head.  His  companion,  supjxysed  to  be  a 
son  of  General  James  S.  Raans,  made  his  es- 
cape, and  the  guerrillas,  disconcerted  at  die 
loss  of  their  captain,  rode  of!  at  full  speed, 
pursued  for  several  milfs  by  Colbnel  Cox's 
men.  Upon  Anderson's  body  was  found  $300 
in  gold»  $150  in  United  States  currency  and 
six  revolvers.  Hanfjing  from  the  sa<l<lle  of 
the  dead  guerrilla  were  several  human  scalps, 
mute  but  effective  witnesses  of  the  diaracter 
of  warfare  he  liad  wafted.  Ilis  brxly  was 
taken  to  Richmond  and  buried  in  the  cemetery 

Anderson,  Thomas  Lilboumv,  law- 
yer, was  born  December  8.  1808,  in  Greene 
County.  Kentucky,  son  of  David  and  Jane  R. 
(Bullock)  Anderson,  lloth  his  parmts  were 
born  in  Albemarle  County,  Virginia.  Jolin 
BaUock,  the  father  of  'Mrs.  Anderson,  was  a 
captain  in  Washington's  army  in  the  Revolu- 
tionary War.  David  Anderson  emigrated  to 
Kentticky  in  1806.  where  the  subject  of  this 
sketch  was  Iwrn.  Thomas  T..  .\ntltTson  lo- 
cated in  St.  Charles,  Missouri,  in  1830,  but  two 
years  later  removed  to  Palmyra,  where  he  re- 
mained until  his  death.  In  1832  he  UTarricd 
Miss  Russella  Easton,  daughter  of  Colonel 
Rufus  Easton,  of  St.  Cliarles,  Missouri,  then 
an  aged  lawyer  in  St.  Charles,  who  had  been 
a  delegate  in  Congress  from  the  Tt  rritory  of 
Missouri ;  also  Attorney  General.  Three  sons 
were  born  of  tMs  tmioii,  Rufus  Easton  An- 
derson, a  wi-ll  known  lawyer  of  Hannibal,  Mis- 
souri; Honorable  WiiUam  R.  Anderson,  of 
Ptilmyra,  Missouri,  and  Samuel  S.  Anderson, 
who  became  a  prominent  lawyer  and  died  at 
Memphis,  Tennessee,  in  1869,  of  disease  con- 
tracted in  the  Confederate  Army.  Colonel 
Anderson's  wife  dying,  he  married,  in  1845, 
Miss  Eanny  M.  Winchell,  of  Shelby  County, 
Missouri.  The  Whigs  erf  his  county  elected 
him  to  the  Missouri  Legislating  in  1840,  and 
he  then  began  a  long  at^d  honorable  public 
career.  In  1844  he  was  a  delegate  to  tbe  State 
Constitutional  Conventkm,  reusing,  however, 
to  affix  his  name  to  the  document  adopted  by 
that  body.  It  was  submitted  to  a  vote  of  the 
people  and  by  them  rejected.  His  district 
dected  him  to  Congress  in  1856  as  an  "Amer- 
ican" or  "Know-nothing."  In  1858  he  ran 
as  an  independent  anti-Douglas  Democrat 
and  was  rendected,  defeating  Hocranble  John 

iJ.  Henderson,  of  Pike  County,  the  Demo- 
cratic candidate,  by  a  large  majority.  He 

served  with  great  credit  to  himself  and  satis- 
faction to  his  intelligent  constituents,  in 
1861  he  retired  from  Congress  to  resume  the 
practice  of  law  at  his  home  in  Marion  County. 
lie  was  in  hearty  accord  with  the  Soutli.  and 
from  conscientious  motives  advocated  its  duty 
and  right  to  secede.  At  tiie  special  election 
in  April.  1861,  he  was  a  secession  candidate 
for  the  Legislature,  but  was  defeated  by  Col- 
onel Lipscomb.  The  war  breaking  out  soon 
after,  he  wa'^  tiirown  out  of  practice  and  re- 
tired to  private  life.  He  was  arrested  and 
placed  under  bond,  and  endured  much  during 
those  troublous  times.  Colonel  Anderson 
resumed  his  practice  upon  the  restoration  of 
their  rights  and  privileges  to  all  Missourians. 
He  was  able  and  active,  and  during  his  pro- 
fessional career  was  engaged  in  most  of  the 
leading  cases  in  North  Missouri.  Of  the  pro- 
ceeds of  his  large  and  lucrative  practice  he 
gave  liberally  to  charities.  His  int(  L,'ritv  u-as 
of  the  strictest  sort  and  not  a  penny  ever 
found  its  way  into  his  pocket  by  any  doubtftd 
means.  His  name  slixxl  for  all  that  was  noble 
and  honorable.  He  took  an  active  part  in  the 
prohibition  mo%'ement  in  Missouri,  never 
touching  liquor  himself.  To  benefit  mankind 
was  his  aim.  whether  politically  or  morally. 
He  joined  the  Presbyterian  Church  in  1833 
and  was  a  devout  member.  The  community 
in  which  he  lived  was  dear  to  his  heart  and  his 
people  were  justly  proud  of  him.  He  died 
March  5,  1885,  deeply  regretted  by  alt. 

AnderHouy  William  T*»  one  of  the 
leading  representatraes  of  the  grain  trade  in 

St.  Louis,  was  born  November  24,  1842,  in 
Boone  County,  Missouri,  son  of  Beni.amin  and 
.Sarah  (Westlake)  Anderson.  Of  Virginia 
birth  and  antecedents,  his  father  came  from 
the  "Old  Dominion"  to  this  State  in  1830.  .md 
here  married  Miss  Westlake,  who  was  born 
in  Missouri,  her  parents  having  been  num-  , 
bercd  among  its  pioneer  settlers.  After  re- 
ceiving a  public  school  education  William  T. 
Anderson  attended  for  a  tame  the  State  Uni- 
versity at  Columbia,  Missouri,  leaving  thai 
institution  to  enter  the  Confederate  military 
service  at  the  beginning  of  the  Civil  War.  He 
was  a  participant  in  the  battles  of  Boonville, 
Carthage,  Dr>^vood.  Lexington  and  Wilson's 
Creek,  and  was  taken  prisoner  by  the  I-'ederal 
forces  in  southwestern  Missouri.   After  the 

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war  he  established  himself  in  trade  at  Colum- 
bia, hifi  old  home,  and  after  liaving  been  en- 
gaged in  mercantile  pursuits  there  for  seven 
or  eight  years  purchased  the  CoUimbia  flour 
mills,  which  he  operated  successfully  until 
1883.  This  connection  with  the  millmg  and 
grain  business  led  up  to  his  embarking  in  the 
gnin  trade  on  a  larger  scale,  and  in  the  year 
list  named  he  (tiapoaed  of  his  Coltimbia  flour 
mills  and  came  to  St.  Louis,  where  he  founded 
the  grain  commission  house  of  W.  T.  Ander- 
son &  Co.,  which  was  for  many  years  an  im- 
portant factor  in  the  gnin  trade  of  St.  Louis, 
continuing  in  existence  until  1893.  In  that 
year  this  firm  was  dissolved,  and  since  then 
Mr.  Anderson  has  continued  in  die  grain  tmde 
alone,  handling  c.ich  year  enormous  quanti- 
ties of  farm  products  and  embracing  within 
the  field  of  his  operations  a  wide  extent  of 
territory.  Conducting'  his  business  with  rare 
ability  and  with  strict  regard  for  all  the  ethics 
of  trade,  Mr.  Anderson  enjoys  the  unbounded 
confidence  of  his  patrons  and  those  liaving 
business  ndations  with  him.  He  is  president  of 
the  1  anncrs'  Elevator  Company.  \\  hilc  he  is 
known  to  the  public  chiefly  as  a  business  man 
of  high  character,  iwhose  station  in  life  has 
been  attained  through  his  own  earnest  and 
well  directed  efforts,  he  has  served  the  people 
in  public  and  semi-public  capacities  since  he 
came  to  St.  Louis,  denKmstrating  hi£  fitness 
for  officla!  station,  and  evidencing  also  his  un- 
tttual  popularity.  In  1891  he  was  nominated, 
without  solicitation  on  his  part,  and  without 
his  knowledge,  even,  of  the  intention  of  his 
party  friends,  for  member  of  the  city  council, 
and  as  the  result  of  nnich  pressure  on 
part  of  tlicse  friends,  accepted  the  nomina- 
tion. At  the  ensuing  election  he  ran  far 
ahead  of  his  ticket  and  received  the  largest 
majority  ever  given  to  a  candidate  for  coun- 
cilman in  the  city. 

Andrew  (/ounty. — ^A  coimty  in  the 
northwestern  part  of  the  State,  bounded  on 

'the  north  by  Nodaway  County,  on  tfie  cast  bv 
Gentry  and  Dc  Kalh,  on  the  south  by  Piuch- 
anan,  and  on  the  west  by  Holt  County.  It  is 
nearly  sqtuu«  and  containa  an  area  oif  433.63 
square  miles,  or  278,035  acres.  The  surface 
is  rolling,  broken  along  the  streams  by  deep 
ravines  and  abrupt  hills.  A  part  of  the  south- 
ern line  of  the  county  is  on  the  Missouri  River, 
and  at  Amazonia,  along  this  line,  are  bluffs 
nxty  to  two  hundred  feet  high.  The  county 

was  originally  about  two-thirds  forest  and  one- 
third  prairie,  the  latter  gently  undulating,  with 
a  black  loam  soil,  exceedingly  fertile  and  easy 
of  cultivation.  Empire  Prairie,  in  the  north- 
west corner  oi  the  county,  is  nearly  level  and 
a  most  attractive  farming  spot.  The  county 
is  well  watered,  the  beautiful  Xodaway  form- 
ing the  western  boundary,  the  One  Hundred 
and  Two  River— talcing  its  name  from  the 
number  of  miles  in  its  length — flowing  paral- 
lel to  the  Nodaway  on  the  east  at  a  distance 
of  ten  to  fifteen  miles,  and  the  Platte  flowing 
parallel  also  to  the  other  two  in  the  east 
Mowing  intr)  the  Nodaway  are  Pedler,  Arra- 
pahoe  and  Lincoln  Creeks ;  and  into  the  One 
Hundred  and  Two,  Nedy's  Branch,  Long 
l^ranch,  Riggin  Branch  and  Kelly's  Branch. 
The  other  important  streams  are  the  Muddy, 
Third  Fork,  Caples,  Hickory,  Crooked  and 
Niagara  Creeks — all  the  streams  with  Iticir 
affluents  running  into  the  Missotu-i  River,  after 
thoroughly  watering  the  county.  The  Platte 
and  the  One  Hundred  and  Two  Rivers  have 
good  water  power,  and  a  number  of  mills  have 
been  erected  along  them  to  turn  it  to  profit. 
Flowing  springs  ot  good  water  abound.  The 
timber,  which  at  one  time  was  extensive  and 
valuable,  consisted  of  black  walnut,  oak,  ash, 
maple,  elm,  cottonwood  and  linden.  Every 
water  course  ran  through  forest,  and  it  greatly 
facilitated  the  first  settlement  in  providing  the 
settiers  witii  cheap  materials  for  their  hoasct. 
Limestone  is  abundant  and  many  quarries  are 
worked;  and  there  are  reasons  for  believing 
that  the  covmty  is  underlaid  with  coal.  Sev- 
eral mineral  springs  yielding  imdicinal  waters 
exist  in  the  county.  An<lre\v  Coimty  is  in 
the  Platte  Purchase,  included  between  the 
origmal  western  boundary  of  tiie  State,  whidi 
ran  due  north  and  south  through  the  mouth 
of  the  Kaw  River  and  the  Missouri  River,  and 
tike  the  other  counties  of  the  "Purchase"  is 
admirably  adapted  to  agriculture,  nearly  the 
entire  surface  being  tillable.  During  good 
seasons  liie  com  yield  averages  seventy  to 
ninety  bushels  to  the  acre.  Wheat  is  the  next 
best  crop  raised,  and  oats,  rye,  barley  and  grass 
thrive  and  yield  well.  The  climate  and  soil 
are  said  to  be  adapted  to  tobacco,  and  it  may 
yet  be  more  extensively  cultivated.  .Apples 
do  well,  and  so  also  do  the  smaller  fruits.  The 
abundant  grain  yields  and  tiie  rich  pasture  of 
the  county  mark  it  for  stock-raising,  and  the 
shipment  of  cattle  is  an  important  business. 
The  surplus  products  shipped  from  the 

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county  in  1ih«  year  1898  were:  CMde,  12^16 
head;  hogs,  53,262  head;  sheep,  8,488  head; 

horses  and  mules,  281  head;  wheat,  4,831 
bushels;  corn,  3,929  bushels;  hay,  10  tons; 
flour,  160.000  pounds;  lumber,  20,600  feet; 
log*,  zo6,8oo  feet ;  wood,  5,554  cords ;  stone, 
15  cars ;  lime,  10,920  barrels ;  ice,  5  cars ;  wool, 
2,330  pounds ;  poultry,  182,398  pounds;  brick, 
10,250;  eggB»  60,673  <locen;  butter,  38,368 
pounds;  cheese,  5,740  pounds;  tallow,  4,786 
pounds ;  hides  and  pelts,  43,401 ;  apples,  10,- 
044  barrels.  Andrew  County  was  named  after 
Andrew  Jackson  Davis,  of  St.  Louis,  and  was 
organized  under  an  act  of  the  Legislature 
passed  January  29,  1841.  The  contmtssioners 
appointed  to  select  the  permanent  seat  of  jus- 
tice were  Elijah  Armstrong,  of  Daviess 
County ;  Elijah  P.  Howdl,  of  Clinton  County, 
and  Harlow  Hinkston,  of  Buchanan  County. 
The  first  term  of  the  county  court  was  held  at 
tJte  residence  of  Gallant  Rains,  near  the  pres- 
ent site  of  Savannah,  on  the  9th  of  March, 
1841,  Upton  Rnhrer,  Samuel  Crowley  and 
William  Deakin  being  justices  of  the  court, 
and  Etekiel  W.  Smith,  sheriff.  Edwin  Toole 
was  appointe<l  clerk  pro  tcm  ;  and  Honorable 
Upton  Rohrer  was  chosen  president  pro  teni. 
Four  towndhipa  were  established,  Jtflenon, 
Nodswajr.  Jaqter  and  Jackson ;  I  lenry  Eppler 
was  appointed  assessor,  and  Jonatlian  Earls, 
county  treasurer.  At  the  second  term  of  the 
court,  hdd  March  29,  1841,  ferry  licenses  were 
granted  to  Daniel  Toole  at  the  rapids  of  No- 
daway River,  and  to  Andrew  Lackey  on  the 
Nodaway  River.  The  report  of  Ae  COHHYUS- 
sioners  on  the  permanent  seat  of  justice  was 
received  and  Benjamin  K.  Dyer  was  appointed 
to  lay  off  the  site  in  lots,  squares  and  streets. 
The  Circuit  Court  of  Andrew  County  was  for- 
mally organized  on  the  8th  of  March,  1841. 
Honorable  David  R.  Atchison,  afterward 
United  States  Senator,  being  jtulge  of  the 
Twelfth  Judicial  Circuit  to  which  it  was  at- 
tached, convened  the  court  at  the  residence  of 
Gallant  Rains,  where  the  county  court  also 
held  its  first  session,  and  the  following-  day 
Peter  H.  Burnett  produced  his  commission  as 
circuit  attorney  from  tfie  Governor,  took  the 
oath  and  entered  upon  his  duties;  Andrew  S. 
Hughes  was  appointed  clerk  pro  tern. ;  £zek- 
id  Smith  produced  his  commission  as  sheriflF 
from  the  Governor  and  was  recognized.  An- 
drew S.  Hughes,  John  W.  Kelley,  Theodore 
D.  Wheaton  and  Peter  H.  Burnett  were  en- 
rolled as  at!tonie3fs.  The  inoneer  settler  in 

Andrew  County  was  Joseph  Walker,  from 
Kentucky,  who  had  been  Ihnngr  in  Cay 
County.  He  entered  the  district  now  known 
as  Lincoln  Township  and  built  a  round  log 
cabin.  This  was  in  1836,  before  the  Platte 
Purchase  had  been  acquired.  Mr.  Walker 
kept  something  of  a  public  house  for  tlie  ac- 
commodation of  travelers,  and  built  a  small 
mill  and  a  distillery.  He  lived  a  long  life 
and  was  highly  esteemed.  In  1837  Samuel 
Crowley,  from  Georgia,  who  had  lived  in  Clay 
Cbunty,  settled  in  Jefferson  Township  and  be- 
came the  pioneer  there.  He  was  one  of  the 
first  judges  of  the  county  court.  Jeptha  and 
ZepheniSh  Todd,  two  brothers,  coming  from 
Clay  County,  settled  in  the  southwest  comer 
of  Jefferson  Township,  in  1837.  John  Carr, 
who  came  from  Ohio,  settled  in  Jackson  Town- 
ship in  1837,  he  being  accompanied  by  Upton 
Rohrer  and  Hamilton  Smith,  the  former  be- 
coming one  of  the  judges  of  the  first  county 
court,  and  the  latter  one  of  the  first  physicians 
in  the  county.  James  Officer,  who  came  from 
Kentucky,  settled  in  Lincoln  Township  during 
tiie  same  year.  The  first  settler  in  Rochester 
Township  was  Levi  Thatcher,  who  laid  a  claim 
on  the  present  site  of  the  village  of  Rochester 
in  1838.  One  of  the  first  setders  in  Empire 
Townshi])  was  Marshal  McQuinn,  who  located 
his  claim  at  Fla^  Springs  in  1839.  He  was 
from  Kentucky  and  did  not  live  many  years 
in  the  county.  John  Riggin,  from  Virginia, 
settled  on  Hackberry  Ridge,  three  miles  north- 
west of  Savannah,  in  1839,  and  raised  the  first 
crop  of  wheat  in  the  county.  In  1837  Joseph 
Hurst  built  a  house  a  few  miles  northeast  of 
the  present  site  of  Savannah  and  became  one 
of  the  first  settlers  in  Nodaway  Township.  He 
joined  the  Baptist  Church  during  an  early  re- 
vival, and  was  said  to  have  been  the  first  per- 
son baptized  in  One  Hundred  and  Two  River. 
The  rich  lands,  tlic  rivers  offering  good  water 
power,  and  the  abundance  of  choice  game 
made  the  settlement  of  Andrew  County  easy, 
and  in  the  year  1844  many  fsmilies  from  Ken- 
tucky and  Tennessee  came  in.  ne-.irly  all  of 
them  locating  on  timber  lands  and  near  the 
mill  sites.  The  cotmty  in  some  parts  was 
crowded  with  A  few  bear  were  still  to 
be  found  in  the  early  forties,  and  deer  were  to 
be  encountered  in  herds  of  a  hundred,  while 
wild  turkeys,  grouse,  cranes  and  ducks  were 
almost  without  limit.  The  demand  for  flour 
and  meal  caused  the  mill  sites  to  be  turned  to 
account  Joseph  Walker  put  up  a  horse  mill 

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on  Hackberry  Ridge,  a  few  miles  from  Savan- 
nah, at  an  early  day,  and  shortly  aftervsard 
Abram  Dillon  put  up  a  log  water  mill  on  Dil- 
lon Creek,  in  Jefferson  Township.  In  1841 
John  Lincoln  put  up  a  small  mill  on  the  creek 
which  bears  his  name,  in  Jackson  Township. 
The  first  Itinibcr  made  in  the  county  is  said  to 
have  been  sawed  with  a  whipsaw  by  Spencer 
Gee,  and  aiioAer  man  yAiose  name  is  forgot- 
ten. The  first  steam  sawniill  was  built  by  a 
man  named  Eisaminger  in  1848,  about  three 
miles  north  of  ^ere  Amazonia  now  stands. 
The  most  atrocious  crime  that  ever  occurred 
in  Andrew  (^)unty  was  the  murder  of  the  Mc- 
Laughlin children,  two  little  girls,  aged,  re- 
apectivdy,  seven  and  nine  years,  which  was 
perpetrated  on  a  Sunday  afternoon  in  Septem- 
ber, 1884,  near  Flag  Springs.  The  children 
had  gone  to  spend  part  of  the  day  at  Thomas 
Bateman's  house,  which  was  a  mile  and  a 
quarter  distant,  and  at  half  past  2  o'clock  tliey 
started  home.  At  3  o'clodc  in  the  afternoon 
they  passed  the  house  of  Eli  Knappenberger, 
and  as  they  passed  were  seen  and  spoken  to. 
That  was  the  last  seen  of  them  until  9  o'clock 
next  day.  tlieir  dead  bodies  being  found,  after 
a  night's  se^irch  by  the  entire  community,  in  a 
cornfield.  The  two  bodies  were  175  yards 
apart,  one  shot  through  llie  head,  with  the 
body  cut  open,  and  the  other  with  lu*r  throat 
•  cut  and  shockingly  bruised.  The  sight  of 
die  mtntlered  chn<fa'en  ^brew  the  community 
into  a  fury  of  excitement  and  the  search  for 
the  murderer  began  at  once.  It  was  found 
that  half  an  hour  after  (die  children  Utt  the 
Batenum  house  to  go  home  two  boys,  Newton 
Bateman.  son  of  Captain  T.  Hatcman,  at 
whose  house  they  had  been  visiting,  and 
Harry  Knappenbei^er,  started  along  the  same 
road.  After  going  a  short  way  together  they 
separated,  Newton  Bateman  saying  he  would 
go  to  his  uncle,  William  Bateman,  and  young 
Knappcnberc^cr  conttnuine^  on  the  road  over 
which  the  girls  had  passed.  The  bullet  taken 
from  the  head  of  the  elder  girl  was  fcMnd  to 
fit  one  of  the  barrels  of  a  double-barreled  pis- 
tol dug  up  near  a  tree  in  the  Bateman  yard, 
and  this  directed  suspicion  to  the  Bateman 
lamily ;  and  when  it  was  learned  from  a  state- 
ment niaiie  by  one  of  the  Bateman  daughters 
that  her  brother,  Oliver,  left  the  house  about 
*  2  o'clock  on  the  fatal  Sunday  afternoon,  and 
did  not  return  until  5  o'clock,  the  suspicion  he- 
came  so  strong  that  he  was  arrested  and  put  in 
jail  at  Savannah.  Additional  evidence  suffi- 

cient to  fasten  the  crime  upon  the  prisoner  was 
brought  to  hght,  and  he  then  made  a  complete 
confession.  He  had  left  home  shortly  after 
the  girls  left  his  father's  house,  with  ma- 
licious intent,  and  by  taking  a  sliort  cut 
through  the  woods  intercepted  them  on  tlie 
road  and  enticed  them  into  a  cornfield.  He 
shot  the  elder  girl  twice,  and  when  the 
younger  one  ran  off  he  followed  her,  cauglit 
her  and  cut  her  throat  and  then  returned  and 
abused  the  dead  body  of  the  elder  one.  There 
was  an  evident  disposition  to  Ijmdi  tiie  pris- 
oner, but  no  outbreak  occurred,  and  on  the 
6th  of  October  the  trial  took  place.  It  was 
short.  The  prisoner  pleaded  guilty,  refused 
to  have  counad  and  asked  the  court  to  sen- 
tence him  and  hang  him  as  quickly  as  possible. 
Judge  Kelly  accordingly  pronounced  the  sen- 
tence, which  was  tfiat  he  ahould  be  hanged  on 
the  2 1  St  of  November,  1884,  and  the  prisoner 
was  executed  on  that  day,  mounting  the  scaf- 
fold with  a  firm  step  and  meeting  death  with- 
out a  sign  of  fear.  The  first  religious  services 
in  Andrew  County  were  probably  held  by 
Methodist  preachers,  vrfio  began  to  preach  in 
private  houses  soon  after  ifae  settlement  be- 
gan. In  Savanna!)  they  conducted  services 
in  the  courthouse.  In  1845  ^^v.  Benjamin 
Baxter  visited  the  town  and  was  followed  by 
Rev.  Jesse  Bird,  Rev.  Mr.  Devlin  and  Rev. 
W.  G.  Miller.  In  1845  *  brick  church  was 
erected.  Rev.  Mr.  Baxter  preaching  the  first 
sermon  in  it.  In  1848  a  Methodist  Epiacopal 
Church  was  organized  in  Savannah,  which 
held  worship  in  tiie  courthouse  and  odicr 
places  until  1R70,  when,  after  much  delay,  a 
commodious  cluirch  edifice  was  erected  at  a 
cost  of  $7,000,  under  tlie  pastoral  super\'ision 
of  Rev.  Samuel  Huffman  and  Rev.  W.  J.  Mar- 
tindale.  One  of  the  first,  probably  the  very 
first,  church  organized  in  Andrew  County  was 
the  (New  School)  Presbyterian  organization,, 
at  a  schoolhouse  three  miles  west  of  Savannah, 
on  the  7th  of  August,  1841,  by  Rev.  E.  A.  Car- 
aon,  witfi  twenty-four  members.  In  1842  they 
opened  services  in  Savannah  in  the  court- 
house and  worshiped  there  until  1848,  wh<  n 
a  brick  churdi  was  built.  The  earlv  settlers 
showed  an  iirterest  in  the  subject  of  education, 
and  schools  were  provided  in  the  chief  sett!.  - 
ments  as  soon  as  the  number  of  famiUes  made 
it  necessary.  In  1840  a  teacher  named  Wil- 
son  opened  a  school  in  Lincoln  Township,  in 
a  small  cabin  a  short  distance  northwest  of 
Savannah.  Another  early  school  was  opened 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 


not  long  after,  six  miles  west  of  Savannah,  by 
John  D.  Boland,  who  maintained  it  for  several 
years  and  enjoyed  the  reputation  of  a  success- 
ful and  popular  teacher.  In  1841  Rev.  E.  A. 
Carson  taught  in  the  courthouse  in  Savannah. 
In  1853  a  movement  was  made  to  establish  a 
seminary  in  Savannah,  at  the  head  of  which 
was  Prince  L.Hudgens,an  iutluential  and  pub- 
lic-spirited cilizen,  who  afterward  was  elected 
a  member  of  tlic  Stati-  Convention  of  1861. 
After  the  building  had  been  commenced  the 
enterprise  was  a:bandoned  Ihrough  disagree- 
ments, and  the  unfinished  edifice  afterward 
•  became  a  public  district  school.  In  1872  it  was 
remodeled  and  enlarged  and  made  a  capacious 
and  beautiful  building  of  nine  rooms.  The  re- 
port of  the  county  soh(K->l  commissioners  for 
1^99  showed  for  Andrew  County  a  to4al  of 
4,3&>  pupils;  number  of  teachers  employed, 
no;  number  of  schools.  87:  estimated  value 
of  school  property,  $74,255 ;  total  receipts  lor 
school  purposes  were  $45,843;  permanent 
scliool  fund  of  the  county,  $74,2 The  Civil 
War  and  the  disputes  which  preceded  it  in 
Andrew  county  were  marked  by  unusual  ran- 
cor and  snimosity.  In  1856  a  Methodist 
clergA'man  named  Sellers  incurred  the  enmity 
of  the  pro-slavery  people  in  Rochester,  and  he 
was  seised  and  tarred  and  featiiered,  an  old 
citizen  name<l  Holland,  who  attempted  to  pro- 
tect him,  being  shoit  and  killed  by  the  mob. 
The  s«ne  year  an  encounler  occurred  at 
Rochester,  in  which  a  pTO-slavery  man  named 
Samuel  Simmons  was  killed  by  William  Hard- 
esty.  In  the  spring  of  1861  both  sides  held 
meetings  on  the  same  day  in  Savannah,  the 
Union  meeting  being  addressed  by  Willard  P. 
Hall  and  ex-Governor  R.  M.  Stewart,  of  St. 
Josqph;  and  the  Southern  sympathizers  by 
Prince  I..  Hudefens  and  others,  of  Savannah. 
Tiie  stars  and  stripes  were  raised  on  a  pole  in 
the  public  square,  and  a  Palmetto  flag  from 
the  courthouse  cupola.  During  the  day  an 
affray  occurred  on  the  public  square,  in  which 
a  young  man  named  Thompson,  a  Soudiem 
sympathiser,  was  shot  in  the  eye  but  not 
killed.  In  die  evening  Mr.  Hall  and  Governor 
Stewart  had  to  flee  from  the  town  to  escape 
the  mob.  Later  on  the  "Northwest  Demo- 
crat," a  Southern  paper,  at  Savannah,  was 
taken  by  a  detachment  of  Union  troops  from 
St.  Joseph  and  the  material  and  press  carried 
off.  Several  days  after\s'ard  a  company  of 
Southern  sympathizers  from  Camp  Highly 
took  possession  of  the  office  of  the  "I^hi- 

dealer,"  a  Union  paper,  and  carried  o&  the 
type.  Camp  Highly  was  establidied  as  a  ren- 
dezvous for  Southern  sympaitlitsen  to  muster 
into  the  State  Guards,  and  a  camp  was  estab- 
lished in  Geiitry  County  as  a  rallying  point  for 
Unionists  by  Colonel  Craynor.  The  l.'nion 
camp,  re-enforced  by  accessions  from  Iowa, 
at  last  marched  against  the  Confederates,  who 
were  under  command  of  Colonel  J.  P.  Saun- 
ders and  Colonel  JcfTcrson  Hatton,  and  the  lat- 
ter were  forced  to  leave  tiie  county,  marching . 
to  Lexington,  where  tiiey  j<Mned  the  army  oi 
General  Sterling  Price.  This  left  the  coun^ 
in  possession  of  the  Unionists,  and  Southern 
sympathizers  were  at  the  mercy  of  the  irregu- 
lar and  irresponsible  bands  of  outlaws  calling 
themselves  soMicrs,  who  terrorized  the  coun- 
ty, warning  men  to  leave.  Deeds  of  blood, 
with  the  constant  menace  which  they  implied, 
nearly  broke  up  society  for  the  time  being,  and 
made  it  so  unsafe  for  men  of  Southern  sympa- 
thies to  live  in  peace  in  ttie  county  that  many 
families  broke  up  and  left,  finding  temporary 
or  permanent  homes  in  St.  Joseph,  St.  L^ouis 
and  other  places. 

There  are  ten  townships  in  Andrew  County, 
named,  respectively,  Benton,  Clay,  Jackson, 
Jcflferson,  Lincoln,  Monroe,  Nodaway,  Platte 
and  Rochester.  The  first  railroad  enterprise 
in  ,'\ndre\v  County  was  the  Platte  County 
Railroad,  to  which  the  county,  by  a  vote  of  its 
people,  subscitbed  for  $t0OAX>  stock  and  is- 
-sued  its  bonds  in  that  amount  to  pny  for  it. 
This  road,  after  being  built  to  Savannah,  came 
into  the  possession  of  the  Missouri  VaUley 
Railroad,  which  afterward  became  a  part  of 
the  Kansas  City,  St.  Joseph  &  Council  Bluffs 
Railroad,  which,  with  its  branch,  runs  through 
the  county  in  two  directions.  The  Qiicago, 
Burlington  &•  Oviincy  also  runs  across  the 
southeastern  corner  of  the  county.  The  pop- 
ulation, of  the  county  in  1900  was  I7i332. 

Aiidruss,  Edward,  physician  and  sur- 
geon, is  regarded  as  one  of  the  most  successful 

homeopathic  prnrtitioners  in  the  western  part 
of  the  State,  and  the  uniformity  of  his  success 
in  the  treatment  of  disease  has  been  instru- 
mental, as  an  educational  force,  in  enlighten- 
ing the  people  on  the  principles  and  practice 
of  the  school  founded  by  Hahnemann.  He 
was  bom  in  Warrensburg,  Missouri,  October  * 
I,  1863.  son  of  Orville  Rice  and  Wealthy  Jane 
(Cox)  Andruss.  His  father  moved  to  Mis- 
souri in  1849  and  went  to  work  on  a  form  in 

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C«nterview  Township,  Johnson  County.  In 

that  township  he  finally  purchased  a  tract  of 
land,  upon  which  he  engaged  in  farming  and 
stock-nusing  until  his  death,  September  fl8, 
i8f>7.  He  served  during  most  of  the  Civil 
War  in  the  Union  Army  (Missouri  State  Mili- 
tia), and  among  the  engag^ements  in  which  he 
participated  were  the  batrtlcs  of  Little  Blue, 
Georgetown  and  Mine  Creek.  He  was  ever 
at  his  post  and  attended  to  all  duties,  in  the 
face  of  the  enemy,  in  soldierly  fashioQ  and  like 
a  true  patriot.  He  was  a  lifelong  member  of 
the  Presbyterian  Church  and  a  highly  re- 
spected and  influential  member  of  society. 
His  wife,  whose  death  occurred  at  the  home 
of  Dr.  Andruss,  in  Holden,  July  6,  1900,  re- 
moved with  her  parents  to  Missouri  in  1847. 
Dr.  Andruss  was  reared  on  the  farm  and  in 
boyhood  obtained  a  rudimentary  educaitaon  in 
the  country  schools.  Subsequently  he  pur- 
sued a  course  in  the  State  Normal  School,  at 
Warrenshurg,  and  finally  entered  the  Gem 
City  Business  College,  at  Quincy,  Illinois, 
from  which  he  was  graduated  in  February, 
1892.  He  was  then  elected  assistarrt  teacher 
in  the  advanced  bookkeeping  department 
Tilts  position  he  filled  until  he  resigned  to  re- 
turn home  April  ist.  AfttT  a  ciurfTil  jirrpara- 
tory  course  of  study  in  his  chosen  profession 
he  enteral  the  Kansas  Gty  Homeopathic 
Medical  CbUege,  which  conferred  upon  him 
the  degree  o(  doctor  of  medicine,  March  25, 
1897.  During  his  course  in  college  the  young 
docipr's  merits  were  readily  rcoognized  and 
he  was  elected  assistant  house  surgeon,  which 
position  he  held  for  six  months,  afterward  be- 
ing promoted  to  house  surgeon,  remaining 
one  year  in  this  station.  Two  days  later  he 
opened  an  oihce  in  Holden,  where  he  has  con- 
tinued to  practice  with  abundant  success, 
being  the  only  representative  of  tlie  homeo- 
pathic school  in  that  town.  Brief  as  his  ca- 
reer has  been,  h  has  demonstrated  the  fact  that 
he  is  a  credit  to  his  profession,  and  Ihe  confi- 
dence accorded  him  is  attested  by  a  constantly 
increasing  and  remunerative  practice.  Pro- 
fessionally he  is  identified  witii  the  Missouri 
Institute  of  Homeopathy,  upon  whose  meet- 
ings he  is  a  regular  attendant.  His  fraternal 
assodarions  are  with  the  Masons,  Odd  Fel> 
lows,  Modern  Woodmen  of  America  and 
order  of  the  Eastern  Star.  He  is  also  an  ac- 
tive member  of  the  Cumberland  Presb>-tertan 
Church.  A  staunch  Republican  in  politics, 
he  was  Hit  candidate  of  that  party  for  coroner 

of  Johnson  County  in  1900,  and,  though  de- 
feated, he  headed  tlic  ticket  by  a  large  vote. 
He  was  married,  January  30, 1&95,  to  Florence 
May  Allison,  daughter  of  Oscar  L.  Allison,  of 
Knobnoster,  Missouri,  a  native  of  Virginia 
and  a  Union  veteran.  Mrs.  Andruss  was  born 
near  Knobnoster.  educated  at  tiie  State  Noi^ 
mal  School  at  Warrensburg,  and  for  ten  years 
was  engaged  in  teaching  in  Johnson  County 
and  Harlem,  Clay  County,  Missouri.  Dr.  and 
Mrs.  Andruss  have  three  children,  Edward 
Allison  and  Oakley  Bluhm  (twins),  and  Annie 
Onota  Andruss.  They  have  a  pleasant  home 
in  Holden  and  are  sturounded  by  a  large  cirde 
of  friends.  Dr.  Andruss  also  has  a  farm  in 
Centerview  Township,  Johnson  County. 

Angela  of  the  Crib.— A  name  given  to 
a  society  formed  In  May,  1897,  by  the  friends 
and  Sinters  of  St.  Ann's  Catholic  Foundling 
Asylum  of  St.  Louis,  to  provide  for  the  main- 
tenance of  that  institution. 

Annapolis — A  town  on  Big  Creek,  in 
Union  Township,  Iron  County,  on  the  St. 
Louis,  Iron  Mountain  &  Southern  Railway, 
twenty  miles  south  of  Ironton.  It  contahis 
two  hotels,  two  sawmills,  a  flouring  mill  and 
about  a  half  dozen  ether  business  houses. 
Popuhrtion,  1899  (estimated),  600. 

Anniston.— A  village  in  St.  James  Town- 
ship, Mi^issippi  County,  on  the  St.  Louis 
Southwestern  Railway,  eight  miles  south  off 
Charleston.  It  has  Methodist  and  Christian 
Churches,  flouring  mill,  lumber  and  stave  fac- 
tory, medictne  manufaotory  and  diree  general 
stores.  Population,        (estimated),  20a, 

Aiitl-BentoiiiBin.^  The  reopening  of 

the  slavery  agitation  that  followed  the  Mexi- 
can War,  growing  out  of  the  question  of  ad- 
mitting slavery  into  the  new  territory  acquired 
from  Mexico,  was  attended  in  Missouri  by  a 
rupture  in  the  Democratic  party,  which  had 
maintained  unbroken  ascendency  in  the  State 
from  the  time  of  its  admission  into  die  Union. 
The  fifth  senatorial  term  of  Thomas  H.  Ben- 
ton, who  had  been  the  unchallenged  leader  of 
his  party  in  the  State,  as  well  as  United  States 
Senator  for  nearly  thirty  years,  was  drawing 
to  its  dose ;  and  as  Colonel  Benton's  speeches 
in  the  Senate  and  his  controversy  with  John 
C  Calhoun,  of  South  Carolina,  clearly  placed 
him  against  allowing  slavery  to  be  introduced 

Digitized  by  Coogle 



into  any  part  of  the  new  territory,  a  powerful 
organized  movement  was  made  to  overthrow 

his  leadership.  The  oontest  in  Missouri  was 
part  of  the  rontcst  in  the  whole  country.  Tlie 
slavery  question  was  at  the  bottom  of  it,  and 
as  all  tlie  States  in  die  Union  were  success- 
ively defining  their  position,  the  Missooiri  Leg- 
islature felt  called  upon  to  do  so  too.  Accord- 
ingly, on  <he  15th  of  January,  1849,  famons 
"Jackson  resolutions"  were  reported  tn  thi- 
Senate  at  Jefferson  City  by  Senator  Qaiborne 
F.  Jackson,  of  Howard  Coonty,  afterward 
Governor  of  the  State.  These  resolutions  de- 
nied the  authority  of  Congress  to  pass  laws 
that  would  "affect  the  institution  of  slavery  in 
the  States,  in  the  District  of  Columbia,  or  in 
the  Territories" ;  asserted  that  "the  right  to 
prohibit  slavery  in  any  territory  belongs  ex- 
dnsivdy  to  tlie  people  fbereoff,  and  can  only 
be  exercised  by  them  in  forming  their  Con- 
stttution  for  a  State  government,"  and  de- 
clared -that  "in  the  event  <rf  the  passage  of  any 
act  of  Congress  conflicting  with  the  principles 
herein  expressed,  Misaotm  will  be  found  in 
hearty  co-operation  with  the  slave-holding 
States  in  such  measures  as  may  be  deemed 
necessary  for  our  mutual  protection  against 
the  encroachments  of  Xorthern  lanalicisin." 
Missouri's  Senators  in  Congress  were  in- 
structed, and  her  representatives  requested  ?o 
act  in  conformity  with  these  resolutions.  The 
passage  of  the  resolutions  imparted  increased 
fur>'  to  the  contest.  Colonel  Benton  de- 
nounced them  and  appealed  to  the  people,  and 
on  the  36th  of  May,  at  Jefferson  City,  made  a 
speech  in  which  he  asserted  that  the  resolu- 
tions contained  the  germ  of  nullification  and 
disunion;  that  they  were  firebands,  and  that 
they  not  only  contemplated  a  rupture  of  the 
Union,  but  pledged  Missouri  to  cast  its  for- 
times  with  the  slave  States  in  tlie  division.  He 
traveled  over  a  ku^  portion  of  die  State  mak- 
ing speeches,  and  his  unsparing  personal  de- 
ntmciation  of  the  leaders  in  the  movement 
againsit  him  made  the  quarrel  bitter  and  re- 
lentless. Tlie  opposition  against  him  was  for- 
midable, embracing  nearly  all  the  prominent 
Democrats  in  the  State  outside  of  St.  Louts, 
and  many  in  St  Louis.  Colonel  P.enton's  col- 
league in  the  Senate,  David  R.  Atchison,  was 
conspicuous  in  it.  and  SO  were  Robert  M. 
Stewart,  Trusten  Polk  and  Claiborne  F.  Jack- 
son, each  of  whom  afterward  became  Gov- 
ernor of  the  State ;  James  S.  Green  and  Lewis 
V.  Bogy,  each  of  whom  afterward  became 

United  States  Senator,  and  James  11.  Birch, 
John  B.  Clark,  Sr.,  Carty  Wells  and  William 
C.  Jones,  all  prominent  in  the  councils  of  the 
Democratic  p;irtv  and  skilled  in  debate.  The 
Democratic  parly  was  rent  ni  twain,  the  two 
factions  being  known  as  Benton  and  anti- 
Rcnton,  the  latter  recognized  as  advocates  of 
•the  Calhoun  theory  on  the  subject  of  admit- 
ting slavery  into  the  territories,  and  making 
common  cause  with  the  other  slave-holding 
States  in  measures  of  defense  againait  anti- 
slavery  legislation.  Indeed^  so  conspictious 
was  the  person  of  Colonel  Benton  in  ccmtro- 
versy  that  the  Whigs,  the  minority  party  in 
the  State,  came  to  be  recognized  as  Benton 
Whigs  and  anti- Benton  Whigs,  according  a» 
their  sympathies  were  with  one  or  the  other 
faction  of  their  opponents.  Anti-Bentonism 
was  predominant  outside  St  Louis,  while  in 
the  city  Frank  P.  Blair,  Jr.,  and  Jolin  D  Stev- 
enson, successfully  maintained  the  fortunes  of 
their  veteran  chidF.  When  the  electron  for 
Senator  came  on  in  January,  185 1,  the  contest 
was  protracted  over  ten  days  and  through 
forty  ballots,  resulting  at  last  in  the  choice  of 
Henry  S.  G^er,  an  anti-Benton  Whig, 
through  the  support  of  a  number  of  anti-Ben- 
ton Democrats.  Tliis  was  the  end  of  Colonel 
P.cmon  s  ascendency  in  Missouri,  which  he 
had  maintained  since  1820.  The  following 
year  he  was  chosen  to  represent  the  St.  Louis 
district  in  Congress,  and  in  1856  he  stood  as 
independent  candidate  for  Clovernor,  but  was 
defeated  by  Trusten  Polk,  and  this  ter- 
minated his  public  career. 

Anti-Horse  Thief  Association  of 
Miftsonri. — ^This  body  was  organized  in  the 
winter  of  1862-3  at  Luray,  Clark  County,  by 
David  McKee.  George  N.  Sansom  and  other 
prominent  and  iniiuential  citizens,  Darid  Mc- 
Kee being  the  first  president.  Its  object  is 
declared  to  be  "the  better  protection  of  our- 
selves against  the  depredations  of  thieves,  rob- 
bers, counterfeiters,  incendiaries,  tramps,  and 
all  other  criminals,"  and  it  pledges  its  mem- 
bers to  "co-operate  with  and  assist  the  civil 
authorities  in  the  capture  and  protection  of  alt 
such  ofTcnders,  and  to  aid  each  other  in  the  re- 
covery of  stolen  property."  It  is  a  part  of  and 
acts  with  the  National  Anti-Horse  Thief  .\s- 
sodation.  The  officers  are  a  State  president. 
State  vice  president.  State  secretary.  State 
treasurer,  State  marshal  and  State  organizer, 
chosen  every  year,  and  holding  office  for  one 

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year.  An  annual  meeting  is  held  on  the  third 
Wednesday  in  October,  except  such  years  as 
the  national  order  meets  in  Missouri,  when 
the  State  association  meets  at  the  same  plaee 
on  the  following^  day.  It  has  subordinate  or- 
ders in  otiier  counties,  all  subject  to  the  State 
association.  Each  sobordimrte  order  keeps  a 
"black  book,"  in  which  are  rt'cordcd  the 
names  and  places  of  residence  of  6usp«icious 
characters  and  known  criminals ;  ahd  there  is 
also  a  book  in  which  is  recorded  a  minute  de- 
scription of  all  horses  and  mules  owned  by 
members  of  the  order.  The  association  has 
power  to  levy  an  ad  valorem  tax  on  the  per> 
sonal  property  of  members  to  defray  expenses 
incurred  in  an  emergency.  The  order  is  se- 
cret and  has  its  ^gns  and  passwords. 

Anti-Poverty  Society. —  See  "Single 
Tax  League." 

Appleton. — A  village  on  Apple  Creek,  in 
the  northern  part  of  Cape  Girardeau  County, 
formerly  known  as  Apple  Creek.  There  was 
made  one  of  the  earliest  settlements  in  the 
county.  It  has  a  populatioa  of  about  lOO. 

Appleton  01ty.^A  city  of  the  fourth 

class,  in  St.  Qair  County,  on  the  Parsons 
branch  of  the  Missouri,  Kansas  &  Texas  Rail- 
way, twenty-five  miles  northwest  of  Osceola, 
the  county  seat.  It  has  a  public  school,  in- 
cluding a  high  school,  and  is  the  seat  of  Apple- 
ton  City  Academy,  a  coeducational,  non- 
sectarian  school*  with  four  teachers  and  134 
pupils,  occupying  property  valued  at  $3,000. 
Newspapers  are  the  "Journal,"  Republican, 
and  the  "Herald,"  Democratic.  The  churdies 
are  Baptist,  Christian,  Lutheran,  Methodist 
Episcopal,  Methodist,  South,  and  Presbyte- 
rian. There  are  an  operahonse.  a  public  U« 
brary,  two  banks,  flourmill  and  an  elevator. 
In  1899  the  population  was  1,800.  The  town 
was  platted  in  1868  by  William  M.  Prior,  un- 
der the  name  of  Arlingtoa.  It  developed  but 
little  until  1870,  when  it  was  replatted  under 
its  present  name. 

Arbela.— An  incorporated  town  on  the 
Keokuk  &  Western  Railroad,  eipht  miles  east 
of  Memphis,  in  Scotland  County.  It  has  a 
public  school,  two  churches,  a  flouring  mill, 
hotel  and  a  small  number  of  stores.  Popula- 
tion, 1899  (estimated),  200. 

Arcadia. — ^A  village  in  Arcadia Toiwnship, 
Iron  County,  one  mile  south  of  Ironton  and 
eighty-nine  miles  from  St.  Louis,  on  the  St. 
Louis,  Iron  Mountain  &  Southern  Railway. 
It  had  its  origin  in  1849,  when  the  Arcadia 
High  School  was  established,  which  is  now 
the  Ursuline  Academy  and  one  of  die  flour- 
ishing in<5titutions  of  the  State  under  the  di- 
rection of  the  Ursnline  Sisters.  It  contains 
two  general  stores.  The  first  stores  in  the 
township  were  cstaljh'shed  by  Ezekicl  Mat- 
thews and  Smith  Sc  Lave.  In  1847  a  steam 
mill  was  built.  In  1859  a  paper  called  die 
"Prospect"  was  established,  but  later  was 
moved  to  Ironton  and  discontinued.  The 
place  is  a  p<^ular  summer  resort.  The  popu- 
lation is  about  300w 

Aroadia  College.— A  school  chartered 
by  the  State  Legishrture  and  locaited  at  Area- 

dia,  Iron  County,  Missouri.  It  succeeded  the 
Arcadia  High  School,  founded  in  1849.  About 
1870  a  large  fonr-story  brick  building  was 
erected  at  a  cost  of  $40,000,  and  for  a  few 
years  the  school  was  run  under  the  patronage 
of  tiie  Methodist  Episcopal  Church.  It  was 
a  financial  failure,  and  about  1878  the  property 
was  acquired  by  the  UrsuHne  Sisters,  and 
since  has  been  a  successful  Catholic  institu- 
tion, under  the  nanre  of  UrsuHne  Academy. 
The  academy  has  a  libraiy  of  i,floo  volumes. 

Arehaeolog;y«— To  all  diose  who  de- 
light in  delving'  Into  the  mysteries  of  antiquity 
the  most  interesting  features  of  tlie  archaeol- 
ogy of  St.  Louis  and  die  adjacent  rcg^ion  have 
always  been  the  extensive  earthworks  con- 
structed by  a  prehistoric  race  of  people  desig- 
nated as  the  "mound-builders."  A  writer  who 
visited  St.  Louis  in  1810  says  there  were  at 
that  time  nine  of  these  mounds  on  the  site  of 
the  city,  the  most  conspicuous  being  that 
known  as  the  "Big  Mound,"  which  did  not 
disappear  until  the  year  1869.  On  the  oppo- 
site side  of  the  river  was  a  famous  group  of 
these  ancient  tumuli,  which  have  beeome 
known  as  the  "Cahokia  Mounds,"  Monk's 
Mound — so-called  because  it  was  for  some 
years  the  site  of  an  institudon  founded  by 
Trappist  monks — ^being  one  erf  the  most  inter- 
esting of  the  protip.  Says  a  writer  in  Scharf's 
History  of  St.  Louis :  "There  can  be  no  ra- 
tional doid>t  of  the  artificial  character  of  the 
mounds  in  the  Mississippi  Valley.  There 
can  equally  be  no  rational  doubt  that  mound- 

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builders  were  very  different  in  their  liabits  and 
manners  of  life  from  the  wild  Indians  of  the 
present  day.  The  latter  are  notnads ;  the 
former  dwelt  in  towns  and  cities,  liad  tem- 
ples, fortifications,  and  permanent  structures 
of  great  extent  The  Ptieblo  Indians  of  New 
Mexico  approach  to  wliat  we  may  conceive 
to  have  been  the  habits  of  this  race,  but  it 
can  not  be  determined,  and  perhaps  never 
will,  tha!  these  Indians  are  the  descendants  of 
the  preliistoric  race  which,  at  a  very  remote 
period,  peopled  the  Mississippi  Valley  from 
the  Rocky  Mountains  to  the  Alleghanics,  and 
from  Lake  Superior  to  the  Gulf.  As  to  the 
genuineness  of  their  remains,  however,  all 
doubt  must  be  set  aside.  Drift,  erosion,  loess, 
— no  possible  geological  hypothesis  can  set 
aside  the  tacts  which  prove  these  remains  to 
be  the  work  of  man.  This  was  proved  long 
ago  by  Thomas  Jefferson.  Bishop  Madison 
and  Dr.  Barton,  The  works  of  the  mound- 
bnilders  comprise  fortifications,  of  which  there 
are  almost  innumerable  examples  throughout 
the  great  valley,  barrows,  or  places  of  burial, 
and  rootmds  or  pyramids,  llie  fortifications 
are  usually  such  an  intrcndied  bank  as  we 
might  suppose  to  have  l)cen  thrown  up  to 
guard  and  make  firm  the  base  of  a  stockade 
or  a  row  of  palisades.  The  barrows  were  the 
ordinary  burial  motmds  of  savages,  found  al- 
ways in  the  vicinity  of  a  village  site.  The 
mounds  are  more  elaborate,  perhaps  more  an* 
dent,  larger,  and  may  have  ser\'cd  for  tem- 
ples, burial  places,  forts,  or  all  three  together." 
Of  tiie  mounds  and  mound-builders  of  this 
region.  \\  ills  dc  Haas  has  written  as  follows: 
"Two  grand  groups  of  ancient  tumult  loom  up 
on  the  broad  surface  of  the  .American  Bottom. 
They  are  distant  from  the  central  figures 
about  six  miles,  but  connected  by  a  series  of 
smaller  mounds,  forming  a  continuous  chain, 
and  constituting  one  grand  and  extensive  sys- 
tem of  tumular  works — imeqiialcd  for  size, 
number  and  interesting  features  on  either  of 
the  snbcontinents  of  America.  One  ol  these 
groups  Stands  within  the  city  limits,  and  ad- 
jacent to  Eaat  St.  Louis ;  the  other  six  miles 
to  the  nordieast,  lying  chiefly  north  of  the 
Ohio  &  Mississippi  Railway.  These  are  con- 
nected, a  series  of  tiimtdi  stretching  along 
Indian  Lake  and  Cahokia  Creek;  the  entire 
system,  including  those  along  the  bluflf,  num- 
bering over  two  hundred.  These,  collec- 
tively, present  a  vast  city  of  mounds  in  ruin. 
They  tindoubtedly  constituted  the  seat  of  a 

great  |)owor — a  community  a  little  less  popu- 
lous, perhaps,  than  that  now  centering  withhi 
an  area  of  twenty  miles  of  the  modern  metrop- 
olis of  the  West.  The  upper  group,  contain* 
ing  the  most  important  monuments,  was 
doubtless  the  citadd  of  the  andent  empire. 
It  comprises  over  sixty  mounds,  arranged 
with  great  system,  and  in  marked  position  to- 
ward eadi  other.  The  great  mound  consti- 
tuting the  principal  feature  is  supported  by 
four  elevated  squares  and  numerous  large 
tnnralt  of  manifest  Importance  in  the  system. 
The  mounds  comprising  these  respective 
grotips  are  conical,  dlipsoidal,  square,  and 
parallelogram.  Some  are  perfect  cones, 
others  the  frustrum.  Th^  vary  in  hdght 
from  five  to  ninety  feet,  in  some  instances  pre- 
senting an  angle  of  nearly  sixty  degrees. 
They  are  all  of  earth  taken  from  the  sur- 
rounding plain  or  bluff,  and  constructed  with 
symmetry,  neatness  and  manifest  design.  It 
is  claimed  as  a  noticeable  fact  that  corre- 
sponding excavations  can  be  obsiTved  near 
most  of  the  mounds.  I  have  noticed  this 
quite  marked  in  some  instances,  but  only  in 
such  localities  where  the  v^^Cftable  mould  was 
found  underlaid  with  a  deposit  of  sand.  With 
their  rude  implements  and  facilities  for  re- 
moving the  soil  the  mound-builders  could  not 
make  heavy  excavations,  but  would  rather 
avail  themselves  of  that  most  readily  removed.  • 
I  have  failed  to  detect  near  any  of  diese 
mounds  the  fosse  so  frequently  noticed  near 
the  Ohio  Valley-  tumuli.  They  compared  in 
genera!  extem'd  appearance,  internal  struc- 
ture and  arrangement  with  the  ancient  tumuK 
of  other  parts  of  the  country,  except  tiiose  of 
an  elliptical  type.  This  class  occurs  more  fre- 
quently here  than  elsewhere.  The  square 
mounds  find  counterparts  in  the  elevated 
squares  at  Marietta,  Ohio.  A  general  design 
is  manifest  in  all  the  ancient  earthworks  of 
America.  In  the  Ohio  Valley  thoy  are  found 
in  connected  systems.  In  the  Mississippi  Val- 
ley, or  m  that  part  lying  opposite  this  dty, 
they  occur  alone  in  tuinnlar  erections,  ar- 
ranged in  groups,  with  outstanding  guards, 
system  and  tmmistakable  design,  "nie  re- 
mains of  art  found  among  these  mound»— 
stone  implements,  fictilia.  etc. — indicate  a 
knowledge  quite  equal  to,  if  not  in  advance  of, 
art  remains  from  the  mounds  of  Ohio,  West 
Virginia,  Kentucky,  Indiana,  etc.  There  is  a 
decided  difference  between  some  of  their 
Stone  implements,  whiek  will  be  more  particu- 

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larly  noticed  liercafter.  This  fact  induces  the 
belief  that  they  belong  to  a  ditTerent  people. 
As  to  the  object  of  the  mound,  witlioui  at- 
tempting to  advance  a  hypotlicsis  based  <  n 
incomplete  observations,  it  may  be  safely  as- 
sumed that  an  mounds,  wherever,  whenever  ar 
by  whomsoever  constriu-trd.wcre  primarily  de- 
signed as  phces  of  sepulture.  This  wc  read 
alike  in  -the  simple  and  often  scarcely  distin- 
guishable tumuli  in  the  valley  of  the  Missis- 
sippi or  the  isles  of  Britain,  as  we  do  in  the 
huge  tumuli  on  die  Cahokia  or  the  vast 
earthen  and  mqiialithic  monuments  of  Xorth- 
ern  Europe  or  tlie  valley  of  the  Xilc.  They 
are  often  devoted  to  other  uses,  but  the  first 
great  ptirpose  was  sepulchral.  They  doubt- 
less often  served  a  triple  purpose — tomb,  icni- 
ple,  dwelling-place.  The  large  square  works 
possibly  supported  the  houses  of  important 
personages,  or  picketed  amund  as  i)laocs  of 
defense.  The  great  mound  probably  sup- 
ported the  principal  temple,  also  the  house  of 
their  cazique  or  king.  Others  served  as 
guard-posts,  and  still  others  as  places  of 
defense."  The  writer  in  Schart's  History  be- 
fore  quoted  further. says:  "The  early  inhab- 
itants on  the  Mississippi  had  three  modes  of 
burial,  inhumation  in  a  horizontal  position, 
the  body  Intvhigr  a  r^:ttlar  grave,  generally 

stonc-h'iicd  ;  inluimation  in  a  standing  or  sit- 
ting poskion ;  and  cremation,  the  body  burnt 
and  the  ashes  and  caH)onfized  bones  preserved 
in  a  vase  or  urn.  Many  cinerary  urns  have 
been  discovered  in  the  course  of  the  explora- 
tion of  barrows  and  mounds.  AW  the  art  and 
industrial  remains  of  the  mound-builders  show 
them  to  have  beloncrcd  to  wliat  is  called  the 
Stone  Age.  But  few  metallic  remains  liave 
been  found  in  the  mounds  of  St  Louis  and 
the  American  Bottom,  and  these  only  copper 
and  for  omnment.  \  arious  curved  shells 
have  been  found,  showing  the  use  of  wampum 
and  the  fact  that  the  mound-builders  had  in- 
tercourse with  the  coasts  of  the  Gulf  of  Mex- 
ico and  tbt  Atlantic  or  Pacific  Ocean.  The 
mound-builders  had  attained  g^eat  proficiency 
in  working  stone.  Tlieir  weapons  are  often 
of  exquisite  design  and  perfect  workmanship. 
Thdr  tools  were  rude,  chisels  and  hatchets, 
hammers  and  knives,  of  granite,  hornblende, 
nephrite,  and  their  arrow-heads,  spear-points, 
knives,  fluting  tnstrameiits,  etc,  are  of  quartz 
of  every  grade,  from  black  chert  to  opalescent 
chalcedony.  .  .  .  The  pottery  found  in 
connectwn  with  the  mounds  of  St.  Louis  and 

the  .American  Bottom  presents  a  great  num- 
ber of  curious  and  instructive  examples  of  the 
fictile  art  Mr.  de  Haas  thinks  that  the  an- 
cient potter  of  the  Mississi]>pi  X'allcv  l)Ut 
little  inferior  in  skill  to  the  potters  among  the 
ancient  Egyptians.  The  mound-builder  did 
not  use  the  potter's  wheel;  his  ware  was  all 
liand-made ;  and  much  of  it  was  only  sun-dried 
or  fire-baked  in  a  very  inadequate  and  ineffi- 
cient manner.  Two  or  three  different  styles 
of  manufacture  have  been  discovered — one, 
a  breccia  of  clay  and  pulverized  mussel-shell 
or  white  spaithic  carbonate  of  lime.  Tiie  \vare 
is  of  irregular  thickness,  tough  and  cajKiblc  of 
resisting  the  effects  of  moisture,  dilation  and 
shrinking.  The  ornamentation  is  neat  and 
plain,  rude  lines,  dots,  cheATons,  an  1  /ig/ags 
being  the  chief  patterns.  The  vessels  found 
comprise  urns,  vases,  cups,  dishes,  etc.,  and 
some  of  them  have  handles  made  in  imitation 
of  familiar  animals.  They  are  chiefly  mor- 
tuary in  their  purposes,  it  is  probable.  .  .  . 
A.  J.  Conant  divides  the  mounds  of  Missouri 
and  the  American  Bottom  into  four  general 
classes,  burial  mounds,  caves,  eft  artificial  cav- 
erns; sacrificial  or  temple  mounds;  garden 
mounds;  and  miscellaneous  works.  He  first 
considers  mounds  in  their  relations  to  town 
sites,  producing  very  good  evidence  from  the 
explorations  of  Dr.  Reck,  in  1822-3,  ^'^^t 
Louis  was  a  town  site  with  numerous  sacriii- 
cial  and  bunal  mounds.  In  Dr.  Beck's  dia- 
gram we  f\nd  two  square  pynmids,  tliree 
large  conical  moimds,  and  six  smaller  cones 
forming  a  rude  parallelogram,  the  Big  Mound 
covering  its  left  flank  at  a  distance  of  si.\  hun- 
ilred  \  ards.  The  late  Colonel  John  O'Fallon's 
mansion,  on  the  BcUcfoiitainc  Road,  was  built 
on  one  of  tliese  Indian  mounds,  and  he  rt- 
I)ortcd  that,  in  excavating  the  foundation,  hu- 
man bones  by  the  cart-load,  with  stone  axes 
and  arrow-heads  in  great  numbers,  were  taken 
nut.  The  wcxxls  west  of  the  dwelling  were 
full  of  small  mounds,  thrown  up  appasiently 
by  the  mound-builders  as  sites  for  their 
houses,  all  having  heartli-places,  whereon 
were  vestiges  of  charcoal  and  ashes.  Mr. 
Conant  looks  upon  the  Rig  Mound  of  .'^t. 
Louis  as  a  typical  burial  ground.  If  its  mag- 
nitude and  the  siTie  of  its  vault  is  to  he  taken 
for  a  standard,  he  thinks  it  \\x>uld  seem  to 
have  been  the  tomb  of  the  most  holy  prophet 
or  the  royal  race.  The  sepulchral  chamlier 
within  it,  which  long  ago  fell  in,  was  of  un- 
known  length,  but  could  be  traced  for  seventy- 


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two  feet.  T!ie  manner  of  its  construction 
seems  to  have  been  as  follows:  The  surface 
of  the  ground  was  first  made  perfectly  level 
and  hard ;  then  the  walls  were  raised,  with  an 
outward  inclination,  made  compact  and  solid, 
and  plastered  over  with  moist  clay.  Over 
these  a  roof  was  formed  of  heavy  timbers,  and 
above  all  the  mound  was  raised,  of  the  desired 
dimenstms.  The  bodies  were  placed  evenly 
upon  the  floor  of  the  vault,  a  few  feet  apart, 
equidistant  from  each  other,  their  feet  toward 
the  west.  A  great  number  of  beads  and  shells 
were  found  mingled  with  the  black  mould  that 
enveloped  tiie  bones.  These  bead.s,  identical 
with  those  found  in  the  Ohio  mounds,  are 
cut,  according  to  Professor  Foster,  from  the 
shell  of  the  busycon,  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico, 
though  some  are  made  of  the  common  mus- 
sel-shells of  the  neighborhood.  .  .  .  The 
great  Monk's  Mound  at  Cahokia  is  looked 
upon  as  the  most  perfect  specimen  of  a  temple 
mound  in  the  United  States.  It  is  better  pre- 
served and  the  most  finished  model  we  have 
of  the  forms  of  the  Mexican  teocallis  and  the 
temples  of  Yucatan.  On  the  top  of  these 
mounds,  in  one  comer,  was  always  a  smaller 
elevation,  upon  which  fhe  sacred  fire  was  kept 
burning,  and  in  front  of  which  all  sacrifices 
were  made.  The  garden  mounds,  small,  flat 
elevation?,  M'r.  Conant  thinks,  were  thrown  up 
by  the  mound-builders  for  the  cultivation  of 
maize  and  odier  crops.  Iti  thin  lands  a  richer 
soil  was  thus  obtained ;  in  flat  lands  the  dis- 
aster of  floods  and  moisture  were  avoided.  It 
is  possible  also  that  the  edges  of  these  garden 
mounds  were  defended  by  stakes,  to  prevent 
them  from  beintr  tramped  down  by  the  deer 
and  the  immense  herds  of  bison  which  roamed 
everywhere.  .  .  .  Among  the  potteries 
fmtnd  in  the  Missouri  mounds  are  drinking 
vessels,  moulded  in  the  form  of  owls,  of 
gourds,  etc.  Dr.  Foster,  in  his  excursus  upon ' 
t!ic  prehistoric  races  of  NorthAmerica, thinks 
that  the  mound-builders  attained  a  perfection 
in  the  ceramic  arts  that  places  them  far  ahead 
of  the  people  of  the  Stone  and  Bronze  Ages  in 
Europe.  '\\>  can  readily  conceive,'  he  says, 
'that  in  the  absence  of  metallic  vessels,  pottery 
would  be  employed  as  a  stibstitute,  and  the 
potter's  art  would  be  held  in  the  highest  es- 
teem. From  making  useful  forms,  it  would 
be  natural  to  advance  to  the  ornamental.'  The 
commonest  forms  of  the  mound-builders'  pot- 
tery represent  kettles,  cups,  water-jugs,  pipes, 
vases.   They  ornamented  the  surfaces  of 

these  with  curved  lines  and  fretwork,  and 
moulded  them  or  their  parts  in  the  image  of 
birds,  quadrupeib,  and  the  human  figure. 
The  clay  which  they  used  was  finelytempered 
and  did  not  crack  or  warp  in  baking.  Some 
of  their  designs  are  said  to  be  true  to  nature, 
tasteful, and  show  a  degree  of  refined  feeling 
which  approximates  to  the  sense  of  beauty. 
Some  of  the  human  figures  indicate  a  study 
of  the  living  model  and  a  distinction  of  form 
and  attitude  such  as  reveal,  in  a  rudimentary 
fashion,  the  artistic  feeling.  .  .  .  All  the 
evidence  in  regard  to  this  prehistoric  race 
which  has  been  so  far  collected  tends  to  show: 
I.  That  the  mound-builders  had  an  organized 
automatic  government,  in  which  the  individ- 
ual was  merged  in  the  state,  and  thus  their 
rulers  could  undertake  and  complete  the  great 
works,  the  renuins  of  which  are  found  in  this 
age.  2.  The  mound-builders  were  a  Idjori- 
ous  people.  Nothing  but  the  united  labor  of 
many  thousands  of  men  could  accomplish 
such  great  works  as  have  survived  the  leveling 
influence  of  time  through  thousands  of  years. 
3.  The  mound-builders  were  not  nomads,  but 
had  fixed  haibitations.  4.  They  were  numerous 
and  gregariotis,  dwelling  in  populous  cities,  as 
attested  by  the  grouping  of  the  mounds. 
5.  The  mound'builders  were  acquainted  widi 
many  of  the  practical  arts  of  civilized  life. 
They  smelted  copper,  wrought  stone,  moulded 
clay  into  useful  forms,  built  houses,  reared 
mounds,  which,  like  those  of  Otolum,  Uxmal, 
Palenqup,  and  San  Juan  Tectihuacan,  were 
no  doubt  temple-crowned  in  the  distant  past. 
They  manufactured  salt,  made  cloth,  and  had 
vessels  fitted  for  many  uses.  They  cultivated 
the  soil,  raised  com,  melons,  pumpkins  and 
squashes,  and  subsisted  in  a  large  degree  on 
the  fruits  of  the  earth." 

(See  also  "Aboriginal  Antiquities,"  "Mound- 
Builders"  and  "Indian  Mounds.") 

Archie.— .\  village  in  Cass  County,  on  the 
Lexington  &  Southern  Division  of  the  Mis- 
sotni  Pacific  Railway,  tliirteen  and  <Mie-haIf 
nu'les  south  of  Ilarrisonville.  the  county  seat. 
It  has  a  school,  a  Congregational  Church  and 
a  local  newspaper,  the  "News."  In  1899  the 
population  was  35a 


Arctatteets,  AmeTlcaa  Institnto  of. 

A  national  org^anization  of  the  architects 
of  the  United  States,  which  came  into  exist- 
ence in  tiie  city  of  New  York,  and  was  char- 

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tered  March  19,  1867.  The  St.  Louis  chap- 
ter of  this  national  organization  was  chartered 
March  8,  1890.  The  objects  of  the  institute 
are  to  unite  in  fellowship  the  architects  of  the 
country,  to  combine  their  efforts  so  as  to  pro- 
mote the  artistic,  scientiiic  and  practical  efii- 
cien^  of  their  profession,  and  to  estaiblish  a 
proper  standard  by  which  the  practice  of  ar- 
chitects may  be  regulated  in  the  different 
localities  where  chapters  exist.  The  St.  Louis 
chapter  has  adopted  a  code  of  ethics  govern- 
sDg  the  professional  conduct  of  its  members, 
strict  adherence  to  which  is  essential  to  reten- 
tion of  membership.  This  code  of  ethics  pro- 
vides that  no  member  shall  be  a  partv  to  a 
building  contract  except  as  owner;  that  no 
member  shall  guarantee  an  estimate  of  oost; 
and  that  soliciting  employment  by  advertis- 
ing or  the  display  of  signs  on  buildings  in 
courte  of  erection  shall  be  hdd  to  be  unpro- 
fessional. Efforts  have  been  made  by  the  St. 
Louis  chapter  of  architects  belonging  to  the 
American  Institute  to  secure  the  enactment 
by  the  Missouri  legislature  of  a  law  licensing 
and  regulating  the  practice  of  architects,  and 
it  has  already  secured  changes  and  modifica- 
tions in  various  ordinances  relating  to  build- 
ing opwations  in  St.  Louis.  In  1898  there 
were  thirty  active  members  and  five  honorary 
members  of  this  chapter. 

Architectural  Club,  St.  LouIh.— 
This  club  was  organized  in  May  of  1894,  un- 
der the  name  of  the  St.  Louis  Sketch  Club. 
In  1896  the  club  adopted  a  new  constitution, 
under  which  it  confined  hself  to  the  study  of 
architecture  and  the  allied  arts.  The  society 
is  composed  of  architects,  draftsmen,  artists, 
engineers  and  others  interested  in,  or  identi- 
fied with,  architecture  and  the  kindred  arts. 
Meetings  of  the  society  are  held  at  regular 
intervals,  study  classes  are  conducted  under 
its  auspices,  and  monthly  receptions  are  hdd, 
which  are  open  to  the  public.  A  volume  of 
over  two  hundred  pages,  compiled  under  the 
auspices  of  the  club,  and  entitled  "Building 
Laws  of  the  City  of  St.  Louis,"  was  published 
in  1898.  At  the  beginning  of  the  year  1899 
there  were  one  hundred  and  thirty  members 
of  the  club,  and  its  meeting  place  was  at  918 
Locust  Street. 

ArchiTOB.— "Hie  documents  deposited 

in  the  archives  of  the  French  and  Spanish 
days  of  St.  Louis  comprise  concessions  or 

grants,  deeds,  leases,  marriage  contracts,  wills, 
inventories,  powers  of  attorney,  agreements, 
and  many  miscellaneous  documents  peitain- 
ing  to  individuals.  These  papers  were  ahMfsy* 
executed  in  the  presence  of  the  Governor,  or, 
in  his  absence,  in  the  presence  of  his  official 
representative,  and  were  left  for  safety  in  the 
custody  of  the  goverrmient  authorities ;  and, 
as  at  least  nineteen-twentieths  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  that  day  could  not  reaid,  much  less 
write  their  names,  but  made  their  signatures 
with  a  cross,  as  is  evidenced  by  an  examina- 
tion of  them,  they  were  deemed  safer  in  the 
keeping  of  the  government  than  in  the  posses- 
sion of  the  individuals  to  whom  they  mostly 
belonged.  At  the  date  of  the  execution  of 
these  papers  no  otiier  record  was  made  of  them  . 
than  to  register  tliem  alphabetically  under 
proper  heads  on  sheets  of  foolscap  paper, 
loosely  stuck  together  for  the  purpoee,  and  at 
the  close  of  the  administration  of  each  succes- 
sive Governor  this  alphabetical  list  of  his  offi- 
dal  acts  was  certifi«l  to  by  him  in  person, 
and  together  with  the  documents  themselves 
handed  over  into  the  possession  of  his  succes- 
sor in  the  government ;  and  it  was  not  until 
after  the  country  had  passed  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  United  States  that  these  loose 
sheets  were  stitched  together  ui  the  order  of 
their  dates,  the  last  of  the  series  being  that 
of  Captain  Amos  Stoddard,  who  acted  in  the 
capacity  of  Civil  Governor  for  the  United 
States  until  September  30, 1804,  and  who,  per- 
haps not  being  authorizciL  or  not  i!rrm:ng  it 
advisable  to  make  any  change  in  the  modus 
operandi  in  regard  to  these  matters,  porsued 
the  same  course  as  his  predecessors  under  the 
former  dominations. 

"Of  these  documents  there  were  over  three 
thousand,  many  of  which  still  remain  in  the 
recorder's  office  in  St.  Louis  to  the  present 
day.  When,  at  the  change  of  the  government, 
Mardi  10,  1804,  these  documents,  togtether 
with  such  books  and  papers  of  the  old  French 
and  .Spanish  authorities  as  rdated  to  conces- 
sions of  lands  and  lots,  came  into  the  posses- 
sion of  the  authority  of  the  United  States, they 
consisted  of  six  small  books  of  ordinary  fools- 
cap size,  containing  about  three  quires  each, 
called  the  'Livres  Terrienf*  Oand  books),  in 
which  were  entered  the  concessions  or  grants 
of  lands  and  lots,  and  four  smaller  books  in 
size,  with  leather  covers,  in  which  were  re- 
corded about  three  thousand  documents,  be- 
tween the  years  1797  and  1799. 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 


"What  are  now  designated  as  the  'Archives' 
comprise  six  hvge  volumes,  in  which  are 

copied  the  meet  important  of  the  foregoing 
three  thousand  documents,  particularly  all 
those  relating  to  real  property,  lands,  lots  and 
bouses,  and  of  a  personal  nature.  These 
record-books  were  commenced  in  November, 
1816,  twelve  years  after  the  change  of  govern- 
ment, 'when  the  country  begao  to  increase  in 
population  from  abroad,  and  a  consequent  in- 
crease in  the  value  of  lands  and  lots  pointed 
out  to  individuals  the  safety  of  having  tiietr 
thles  recorded,  and  for  some  years  thereafter 
only  those  were  put  on  record  whose  owners 
were  willing  to  pay  the  fees  for  recording  the 
same  " 

Frederick  L-  Billon. 

Arkoe. — A  hamlet  of  one  hundred  inhabi- 
tants in  White  Qoud  Township,  Nodaway 

Count V,  five  and  a  half  miles  south  of  Mary- 
ville.  it  was  laid  out  by  Dr.  P.  H.  Talbott 
and  S.  K.  Snhrely  in  1874,  Dr.  TaHratt  takinflr 
the  name  from  the  book,  "Twenty  Thousand 
Miles  Under  the  Sea."  It  is  beautifully  lo- 
cated a  quarter  of  a  mile  west  of  the  One  Hun- 
dred and  Two  River.  It  has  two  churches — 
Methodist  Episcopal  and  Christian. 

Armonr,  Andrew  WatHon,  for  many 

years  conspicuously  identifiixl  with  the  com- 
mercial and  financial  development  of  Kansas 
City,  was  bom  in  1829,  in  Madison  County, 
New  York.  His  parents  were  Danforth  and 
Julia  Ann  (Brooks)  Armour,  both  of  Scotch- 
Irish  descent,  who  were  school  teachers  in 
early  life.  The  father  was  a  man  of  indomit- 
able energy  and  sterling  integrity,  qualities 
which  found  fitting  counterpart  in  tlie  great 
intelligence  and  force  of  character  of  the 
mother.  These  combined  parental  traits  were 
transmitted  in  remarkable  degree  to  their  sons, 
five  of  whom  entered  upon  business  life  and 
became  world-renowned  for  the  magnitude 
and  success  of  their  great  enterprises.  But 
one  of  the  brothers  is  now  livings — ^Herman  O., 
a  prominent  business  man  of  New  York  Citv. 
Philip  D.  was  the  head  of  the  renowned  Ar- 
mour Packing  Company  of  Chicago.  Simeon 
B.  and  Andrew  Watson,  both  deceased, 
founded  the  family  interests  in  Kansas  City. 
Joseph  Francis,  also,  deceased,  was  interested 
in  the  packing  business  in  Milwaukee  and  Chi- 
cago. Giarles  Eugene,  the  only  one  of  the 
brothers  who  did  not  engage  in  cotnnierciai 
aflEairs,  died  while  in  the  military  service  of  hit 

country  during  the  Civil  War.  Andrew  W., 
second  of  the  brothers,  was  reared  on  the 

home  farm  in  New  York,  and  his  education 
was  limited  to  that  aflforded  by  the  district 
schools  and  an  unpretentious  academy.  His 
training  and  tastes  inclined  him  to  farm  life, 
which  he  pursued  successfully  until  he  was  ap- 
proaching his  fiftieth  year,  when  his  life  found 
new  direction,  and  he  entered  upon  a  career 
altogether  foreign  to  his  previous  habits  and 
thought.  In  1870  his  older  brother,  Simeon 
B.  Armour,  founded  in  Kansas  City  a  branch 
of  the  Chicago  packing  business  conducted  by 
PhiUp  D.  Armour.  At  their  solicitation  then* 
brother*  Andrew  W.,  went  to  Kansas  in 
1^16  and  became  associated  with  them  in  the 
organization  of  the  Armour  Packing  Com- 
pany, successors  to  a  partnership  firm,  with 
which  he  remained  officially  connected  until 
the  time  of  his  death.  As  an  adjunct  to  the 
business,  in  association  with  his  brothers,  he 
organised  the  Amiioar  Brothers'  Banking 
Company,  of  which  he  became  president  and 
manager.  The  situation  was  unpromising, 
and  few  aside  from  those  immediatdy  inter- 
ested had  faith  in  the  enterprise.  A  disastnous 
bank  failure  had  recently  occurred,  and  local 
finances  were  apparently  hopelessly  disorgan- 
ised. Besides,  President  .\nnour  was  a  srtran- 
ger,  and  was  totally  inexperienced  in  banking 
affairs.  That  one  of  his  years  and  previous 
occupation  could  so  readily  adaipt  hunself  to 
a  new  pursuit,  under  such  disconrai^ring  con- 
ditions, and  accomplish  such  phenotnenal  suc- 
cess, was  a  marvel  in  the  history  of  a  city  of 
wonderful  achievements.  He  held  closely  to 
a  purely  commercial  business,  aiding  to  the 
fullest  of  his  ability  all  legitimate  business  en- 
terprises, but  resolutely  holding  aloof  from  the 
visionary  and  siu-culative.  With  accurate  dis- 
cernment of  existing  conditions,  anil  acute 
perception  of  men,  he  afforded  aid  to  many 
business  houses  during  periods  of  great  finan- 
cial stringency,  at  Uie  same  time  adding 
largely  to  the  prestige  and  resources  of  his 
liank  and  establishing  himself  in  the  estima- 
tion of  the  business  community  as  a  master  of 
finance.  In  1887  impaired  health  warned  him 
to  retire  from  active  life,  and  January  2,  i888» 
he  effected  the  consolidation  of  the  Armour 
Brothers*  Banking  Company  with  the  Mid- 
land National  Bank,  in  which  he  became  vice 
president  and  director.  The  sticcess  attend- 
ing his  financial  operations  is  discerned  in  the 
fact  that  the  quarter  million  doUars  capital 

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wHh  which  he  bcg^n  business  had  brought  to 
him  deposits  amounting  to  two  and  one-half 
millioti  dollars  at  the  end  of  his  ten  yean'  man- 
agement.  His  activity  was  not  restricted  to 
twnking  and  packing  interests,  bat  be  gave 
liberal  aid  to  various  enterprises  conducive  to 
tiie  wterests  ol  ^  dty.  He  was  an  organiz- 
ing' member  and  president  of  the  Land  Title 
Company  ot  Kansas  City,  a  corporation  which, 
during  the  most  important  period  of  the 
growth  of  the  city,  facih'tated  rral  estate  trans- 
actions by  safeguarding  titles  through  exami- 
nation, guaranty,  and  l^pal  defense  when  con- 
troverted. He  was  also  among  the  organizers 
of  the  Missouri  River  Packet  Company,  which 
at  gresft  cost  established  a  river  freight  service 
and  maintained  it  until  adequate  railway  con- 
cessions were  secured.  He  was  an  incoirpo- 
rator  and  the  treasurer  of  the  Metropolitan 
Street  Railway  Company,  which  laid  the 
foundations  for  the  present  extensive  local 
transit  service.  He  was  among  the  most  en- 
terprising and  sagaciotis  membtts  of  the  Kan- 
sas City  Club,  and  was  the  honored  president 
of  that  body.  He  was  a  regular  attendant 
upon  the  services  of  the  Seeond  Presbyterian 
Church,  of  which  his  wife  was  a  member.  His 
death  occurred  from  ht-jirt  failure,  May  28, 
1892,  at  Exeelrior  Springs,  Missouri,  where 
he  was  seeking  recuperadon.  The  fervent  ex- 
pressions from  local  pnlpit-;,  and  touching 
tributes  paid  by  tlie  press  and  commercial  or- 
ganizations, proclaimed  that  no  death  since 
that  of  his  intimate  friend,  Kersey  Coates,  had 
excited  such  universal  mourning,  or  brought 
to  so  many  a  sense  of  personal  bereavement. 
The  great  successes  of  his  life,  accomplished 
through  wholly  irreproachable  means,  were 
hdd  up  as  a  lasting  incentiTe  to  honest  eflbrt 
and  strict  integrity,  and  his  simplicity  and  sin- 
cerity of  character  as  assurance  that  the 
highest  type  of  old-school  manhood  was  pre- 
•ervable  in  spite  of  the  exactions  of  immense 
concerns  and  the  intense  activities  of  modern 
business  life.  Unassuming  an  deportment,  lie 
aided  commercial  and  benevolent  enterprises 
for  the  sake  of  the  good  to  be  accomplished, 
r^iardless  of  preferment  or  praise,  while  out 
of  his  great-beartedness  be  was  glad  to  be  the 
confidant  of  young  men,  and  aided  many  to 
enter  upon  active  and  successful  business  ca- 
reers. In  all  his  relations  he  was  a  power  for 
good,  exerting  a  salutary  influence  in  the  com- 
miinitv,  not  only  through  its  commercial  chan- 
nels, but  in  its  moral  life.    Mr.  Armour  was 

mnrriod.  ^^av  10,  1853,  to  Mtss  Adeline  H. 
Sinionds,  who  survives,  making  her  home  in 
Kansas  City.  Of  this  marriage  were  bom 
two  sons — Kirkland  R.,  .'\pril  10,  1854,  and 
Charles  W.,  June  10, 1857.  The  family  policy 
was  striedy  a^ered  to  in  their  training.  After 
receiving  a  liberal  education,  Kirkland  B.  Ar- 
mour entered  the  service  of  the  Armour  Pack- 
ing Company,  and  was  engaged  in  turn  in  all 
departments  of  the  business,  ptu-chasing  cat- 
tle on  the  range,  marketing  the  product  and 
assisting  in  every  detail  of  packing-house 
labor  and  office  work.  After  the  death  of  hi? 
fathe  r  he  was  placed  in  his  present  position  as 
president  and  general  manager  of  the  com- 
pany. He  was  married,  April  27,  1881,  to 
Miss  Annie  P.  Heame.  Of  this  marriage 
were  bom  Andrew  Watson,  Lawrence  Heame, 
Kirkland  B.,  Jr.,  and  Mary  Augfusta  Armour. 
Kirkland  B.,  Jr.,  died  in  infancy.  Charles  W. 
Armour  entered  the  house  later  than  did  his 
brother ;  he  now  occupies  the  positions  of  first 
vice  president  and  treasurer.  He  was  married, 
June  3,  1885.  to  Miss  Annie  Magic,  who  died 
January  4,  1889.  In  1895  he  married  Miss 
Rebecca  B.  Camp.  In  addition  to  the  man- 
agement of  the  great  hiisincss  known  by  their 
family  name,  the  brothers  are  actively  con* 
cemed  in  the  directories  of  many  of  the  most 
important  enterprises  entering  into  the  com- 
mercial and  financial  relations  of  Kansas  City, 
including  railroads,  streets  railways,  electric 
light  companies,  banking  houses  and  manu- 
facturing industries,  maintaining  in  conduct 
of  all  the  strict  ideas  of  probity  and  the  liberal 
progressiveness  vAnch  charaoterized  their 
family  predecessors  and  associates. 

Armour,  Simeon  Brooks,  banker  and 

a  man  very  prominently  identified  with  the  In- 
dustrial interests  of  the  West,  was  born  Feb- 
ruary I,  1828,  at  Stockbridge,  New  York,  and 
died  March  29,  1899,  at  his  home  in  Kansas 
City,  Missouri.  He  was  the  son  of  Danfortli 
and  Julia  Ann  (Brooks)  Armour,  of  Scotch- 
Irish  ancestry,  and  the  eldest  of  a  family  com- 
posed of  six  sons  and  two  daughters.  Brought 
up  on  a  farm,  he  was  given  an  opportunity 
early  in  Kfe  to  learn  the  lessons  of  thrift  and 
industry,  and  it  may  be  said,  in  the  light  of  his 
great  achievements  in  the  commercial  world, 
that  he  learned  those  lessons  well.  He  re- 
ceived a  common  school  education  and  at- 
tended the  seminary  at  Cazenovia,  New  York. 
At  the  age  of  twenty-two  he  engaged  in 

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business  for  himself  and  entered  upon  a  ca- 
reer that  was  marked  by  continued  successes 
throughout  bis  useful  life.  During  the  first 
four  years  of  this  practical  experience  he  was  a 
I>artner  in  the  ownership  ol  a  woolen  mill  at 
Stockbridge,  Nevr  Yoilc.  At  a  later  time, 
with  others,  he  purchased  the  plant  and  con- 
verted it  into  a  distillery.  After  being  thus 
engaged  for  five  years  he  disposed  of  his  in- 
terest in  the  establishment  and  returned  to 
fanning.  In  t!ic  fall  of  1870.  de<;irous  of  cast- 
ing his  lot  in  the  great  West,  for  wluch  such  a 
promising  future  was  held  out,  he  remoived  to 
Kansas  City,  Missouri,  and  entered  into  the 
packing  business  with  his  brother,  FhiUp  D. 
Armour,  of  Chicago,  Illinois.  The  wonderful 
growth  of  the  house  established  by  the  Ar- 
mours is  too  well  known  to  require  lengthy 
recounting  in  tiiis  comiceition.  The  plant  at 
Kansas  City,  under  the  name  of  the  Ammar 
Packing  Company,  was  given  over  to  the  man- 
agement of  S,  B.  Armour,  and  hcAv  well  that 
trust  was  discharged  is  shown  in  the  fact  that 
the  house  grew  to  be  the  second  largest  in  the 
world,  exceeded  only  by  the  great  Armour 
plant  in  Chicago.  In  1871  the  first  building 
of  the  present  plant  was  erected,  and  since  that 
time  the  growth  of  the  establishment  has  been 
steady  and  anbnoken.  Hie  packing  industry 
was  one  of  the  broad  foundation  stones  for 
Kansas  City's  present  material  strength,  and 
Ifr.  Armour  stood  at  the  head  of  those  who 
received  tiie  thanks  and  merited  the  gratitude 
of  a  progressive,  loyal  people.  For  eleven 
years  he  was  vice  president  of  tlie  Armour 
Brodicn'  Banking  Company.  This  institu- 
tion was  succee<led,  in  1888,  by  the  Midland 
National  Bank,  of  which  Mr.  Armour  was 
elected  president.  He  was  one  of  the  organiz* 
ers  and  vice  president  rif  the  Interstate 
National  Bank,  located  in  the  Exchange  build- 
ing at  the  Kansas  Gty  stock  yards ;  was  a  di- 
rector in  the  New  ^gland  Safe  Deposit  & 
Trust  Company,  the  Metropolitan  Street  Rail- 
way Company,  the  Kansas  City  Stock  Yards 
Company  and  the  Union  Stock  Yards  Com- 
pany of  Deirver,  Coloni<lo.  Shortly  after  the 
death  of  Mr.  Armour  a  beautiful  memorial 
was  prepared  by  tiie  members  of  tins  Kaims 
City  Board  of  Park  Commissioners,  of  which 
he  was  a  most  faithful  and  enthusiastic  mem- 
ber. This  memorial  contained  resolutions  ex- 
pressincr  appreciation  of  his  hif^h  character  and 
of  the  enthusiasm, deep  interest, strict  integrity 
and  devotion  to  duty  irfiich  distinguished  hU 

labors  in  behalf  of  Kansas  City.  The  resolu- 
tions were  signed  by  August  R.  Meyer,  Ad- 
rianee  Van  BraiA.  Robert  Gillham  and  J.  K. 
Burnham,  and  constituted  a  tribute  that  will 
long  be  cherished  by  bis  friends  and  the  mem- 
bers of  his  femily.  Mr.  Armonr  was  married 
in  1856  to  Margaret  E.  Klock.  of  Vernon, 
New  York.  Their  church  affiliations  were 
with  the  Presbyterians.  To  every  worthy 
cause  he  was  a  generous  donor,  and  many  a 
movement  and  institution  received  encourage- 
ment at  his  hands  at  a  time  when  the  clouds 
of  threatened  failure  hung  low.  Mrs.  Armour 
is  an  active  woman  in  philanthropic  work,  and 
is  a  leader  in  many  oi  the  important  efforts 
that  are  made  to  ameliorate  tiie  unhappy  con- 
dition  of  the  sick  and  poor.  She  is  the  presi- 
dent of  the  Woman's  Christian  Association, 
wbOM  present  work  is  the  management  of  tiie 
Children's  Home,  a  noble  institution  de- 
scribed elsewhere  in  this  work,  and  to  which 
Mr.  Armour  gave  $50,000. 

Armstrong. — -\n  incorporated  village  in 
Prairie  Township,  Howard  Coumy,  thirteen 
miles  northwest  of  Fayette,  on  the  Chto^>o  & 
Alton  Railway.  It  was  first  settled  in  1879 
and  has  a  good  public  school,  Baptist,  Chris- 
tian, Methodist  Episcopal,  Soodi,  and  PreAy- 
terian  Churches.  Its  business  interests  con- 
sist of  a  hotel,  two  banks,  an  elevator  and 
mill,  a  newspaper,  the  "Herald,"  and  about 
twenty-five  other  business  places,  including 
stores  and  shops.  Population,  189Q,  248; 
1899  (estimated),  600. 

ArniHtronpr,  Andrew  Stioc,  w!io  has 
gained  prominence  in  southeastern  Missouri, 
bodi  as  a  business  man  and  public  oflictd,  was 
born  August  4,  1833,  in  Jersey  County,  Illi- 
nois, son  of  Maurice  and  Elizabctli  (Sims) 
Armstrong,  both  of  whom  were  natives  of 
Kentucky.  The  elder  Armstrong  was  bom 
in  the  year  1800  and  died  in  1875,  and  his  wife 
was  bom  in  1805  and  died  in  1880.  At  an 
early  age  Maurice  Armstrong  went  with  his 
parents  to  Illinois,  which  was  then  a  Territory. 
There  be  grew  up,  and  during  the  years  of  his 
active  life  was  engaged  in  farming  on  an  ex> 
tensive  scale.  Tie  was  a  man  much  esteemed 
by  his  fellow  citizens  and  for  some  years 
served  as  county  judge  of  Jersey  County,  Illi- 
nois. Andrew  S.  Armstrong,  his  son,  who 
was  one  of  a  family  of  twelve  children,  grew 
up  in  Illinois  and  was  educated  in  the  old-time 

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private  schools  of  that  State.  Until  1861  he 
lived  on  a  farm  and  devoted  himselt  to  agri- 
eallunl  pursuits,  but  in  tint  year  he  wait  to 
Girard,  Illinois,  and  in  comijany  with  one  of 
his  brothers  engaged  in  a  general  merchan- 
dising businen  at  tint  place.  After  spending 
seven  years  at  Girard  he  returned  to  Jersey 
County  and  resumed  farming  operations,  at 
the  same  time  conducting  a  country  store  near 
his  home.  In  1880  he  came  to  Missouri  and 
settled  in  Butler  Coimty,  where  he  gave  his 
attention  to  ag^cultural  pursuits  exclusively 
ontil  1888.  His  identification  with  the  farm- 
ing interests,  and  his  thorough  knowle'dge  of 
merchandising  as  well,  caused  him  to  be  se- 
lected at  that  time  as  business  manager  of  the 
Farmers'  Alliance  Co-operative  Ap?oc;ation, 
whose  stores  were  located  in  Poplar  Bluff.  He 
was  admirably  fitted  for  this  position,  and  dur- 
ing the  two  years  that  he  had  charge  of  the 
affairs  of  the  association  it  was  remarkaibly 
prosperous  and  paid  good  dividends  to  the 
promoters  of  t<he  enterprise  and  members  of 
the  association.  TTi?  rigid  honesty  and  busi- 
ness sagacity  were  recognized  by  all  witli 
whom  he  was  brought  into  contact,  and  as 
merchant  and  farmer  he  was  eqiuilly  success- 
ful. In  latter  years  he  has  been  chiefly  inter- 
ested in  farming  openitions  and  in  promoting 
dn  intrrcst  of  the  farmers  of  Butler  County, 
fivly  in  his  career  as  a  citizen  oi  that  county 
hts  fitntM  for  oflScial  poshfaMi  was  recognized, 
and  from  1883  to  1885  he  served  as  a  judge  Of 
the  county  court.  He  was  also  appointed  to 
superintend  the  building  of  the  county  jail,  and 
in  this  oooneotion  he  rendered  valuable  senr- 
ices  to  the  people  among  whom  he  has  now 
lived  for  twenty  years.  Later  he  was  chosen 
a  justice  of  the  peace  and  proved  himself  a 
capable  and  efficient  mafjistratc.  In  politics 
he  W31S  an  ardent  Democrat,  and  from  time  to 
time  he  has  rendered  effective  services  tn  pro- 
moting  the  welfare  and  success  of  his  party. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  Masonic  order  and  is 
tnuch  eAeemed  by  those  associated  with  him 
in  that  myatie  brotherhood.  In  1856  Judge 
ArmstronpT  married  Mi,ss  Martha  L.  Everts,  a 
native  of  Vermont,  and  they  have  had  six 
children,  five  of  Kriiom  are  living. 

Armstrongs  David  H.,  United  States 
Senator,  was  bom  October  di,  iStfl^  in  Nova 

Scotia,  nnd  died  in  St.  Louis,  March  18,  1893. 
He  was  educated  at  Wesleyan  Seminary,  of 
Redfidd,  Maine,  and  after  completing  his  col- 

lege course  became  a  school  teacher.  In 
1837  he  taught  at  McKendree  College,  of  Ldi- 
anon,  Illinois,  and  in  1838  became  prinetpal 
of  the  Benton  School  of  St  Louis.  lie  sev- 
ered his  connection  with  the  public  schools  of 
the  city  in  1847  ^  becomt  city  comptroller 
of  St.  Louis,  and  held  that  office  for  three 
years.  Governor  Sterling  Price  appointed  him 
an  aid-de-camp  on  his  staff,  with  the  rank  of 
colonel,  in  1853.  In  1854  President  Pierce 
appointed  him  postmaster  of  St.  Louis,  and  he 
held  tha»t  office  four  years.  In  1873  he  was 
appointed  a  member  of  the  board  of  police 
commissioners  of  St.'  Louis  and  was  reap- 
pointed to  that  office  by  Governor  Phelps. 
He  was  a  member  of  the  board  of  freehold- 
ers which  framed  tlic  present  city  cliartrr  of 
St  Louis,  in  1876,  and  in  1877  was  appointed 
United  States  Senator  to  fill  Hie  vacancy 
created  by  the  destb  of  Senator  Lewis  \ 
Bogy.  For  many  years  he  was  a  member  of 
the  Democratic  State  Central  Committee,  and 
as  chairman  of  that  committee  he  directed 
the  fusion  of  Democrats  and  Liberal  Republi- 
cans in  the  campaign  of  1870,  which  resulted 
in  the  Democrats  regaining  control  oi  Mis- 
souri.  At  the  time  of  his  death  he  was  the 
oldest  living  member  oi  George  Washington 
Lodge,  No.  9,  A.  F.  &  A.  M..  of  St.  Louis. 

Armstrong,  James  C.»  clergyman  and 
editor,  was  bom  in  Franlclm  County,  Mis- 
souri, in  1847.  He  g^c^v  up  on  a  farm,  en- 
during the  hardship  of  tliat  manner  of  life, 
but  deriving  from  it  at  the  same  time  the 
benefits  which  come  from  Aoroogh  indus- 
trial traininfT  and  the  best  opportunities  for 
physical  development.  Reared  in  a  "new 
country,"  his  early  educational  advantages 
were  such  as  were  afforded  at  one  of  the  old- 
time  log  schoolhouses,  in  a  community  com- 
posed chiefly  ci  Germans.  Imtelligertt,  Chris- 
tiaTi  parents,  however,  gave  direction  to  his 
aspirations  and  energies,  and,  making  the  best 
use  of  his  opportunities,  he  crossed  the 
threshold  of  manhood  fairly  well  fitted  to 
enter  upon  an  advanced  course  of  Study.  At 
twenty-one  years  of  age  he  became  a  student 
at  William  Jewell  College,  of  Liberty,  Mis- 
souri, where  he  pursued  his  studies  througfh 
a  complete  course  of  seven  years.  In  1875 
that  institution  conferred  upon  himthedegree 
of  master  of  arts,  and  a  few  years  later  honored 
him  with  the  degree  of  doctor  of  divinity. 
While  still  an  undergraduate  he  began  writing 

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the  Sunday  school  lessons  for  the  "Central 
Baptist,"  evincing  even  then  his  capacity  and 
fondness  for  rdigions  journalism.  After  com* 
pleting  his  academic  and  theological  studies 
he  was  for  two  years  pastor  of  a  church  at 
Miami,  Missouri,  and  then  became  associate 
editor  of  the  "Central  Baptist"  with  William 
Ferguson,  serving  at  the  same  time  as  pasitor 
of  Delmar  Avenue  Baptist  Qiurch.  Subse- 
quently he  filled  a  pastorate  of  five  years  at 
Mexico,  and  another  of  seven  years  at  West- 
port,  Kansas  City,  Missouri.  During  most 
of  this  time  he  was  an  editorial  writer  for  the 
denominational  organ  of  the  State,  and  in 
1893  he  returned  to  its  editorial  management, 
a  position  which  he  has  since  filled  with  honor 
to  himself  and  to  the  ^m^]  of  the  church  and 
the  cause  of  Christianity.  He  has  also  been 
for  years  a  trustee  of  William  Jewell  College, 
and  recording  secretary  of  the  "Board  of  State 
Missions."  In  1896  he  made  a  brief  trip 
abroad,  but  aside  from  this  he  has  spent  his 
life  in  the  State  of  liis  nativity.  Because  of  his 
position  he  is  intiinatrly  acfmainted  wHth  the 
Baptist  people  and  all  affairs  of  the  Baptist 
Church  in  Missouri,  is  directly  oonnected 
with  all  its  (fhirntional,  charitable  and  other 
enterprises,  and  is  an  influential  factor  in  ad- 
vancing' all  its  interests. 

Arnold,  Frank  De  Witt,  a  survivor  of 
the  Baxter  Springs  (Kansas)  massacre,  now  a 

resident  of  Lajnar,  Missouri,  was  bom  April 
5,  1845,  "^3r  Candor,  New  York.  His  parents 
having  removed  to  Wisconsin  when  he  was 
five  years  of  age,  I'rank  received  his  education 
in  that  State.  In  1861,  at  the  beginning  of 
the  Civil  War,  when  in  his  sixteenth  year,  he 
flttempted  to  enlist  in  the  Tenth  Wisconsin 
Infantry  Regiment,  but  was  rejected  on  ac- 
count of  his  youth.  February  10,  1862,  he 
enlisted  in  Company  I,  Third  Wisconsin  Cav- 
alry Regiment,  and  with  that  command  partici- 
pated in  the  arditous  and  bloody  service  of  the 
army  of  the  frontier,  taking  part  in  the  battles 
of  Prairie  Grove  and  Cane  Hill,  as  well  as  in 
many  less  important  but  severe  eniracfements, 
and  in  almost  daily  skirmishing  with  the  forces 
of  Shelby  and  numerous  guerrilla  bands.  He 
was  one  of  the  heroes  in  the  awFii!  massacre  on 
the  site  of  the  present  Baxter  Springs,  Kansas, 
and  escaped,  dreadfully  tmumed  and  disfig- 
ured, when  su[  pnscd  !o  he  dead.  He  was  one 
of  117  men  of  his  own  company,  and  Com- 
pany A,  of  the  Fonvteenlh  Kansas  Cavalry 

Regiment,  forming  the  escort  of  General 
Blunt,  who  was  en  route  from  Fort  Scott, 
Kansas,  to  Fort  Gibson,  Indian  Territory. 
The  march  began  on  the  night  of  October  4. 
1863.  Soon  after  noon,  October  6th,  tlie 
troops  were  attacked  by  Quantrdl  and  four 
hundred  men,  who  were  not  known  to  be  in 
the  vicinity.  Many  of  them  wore  Federal 
clothing,  and  the  greater  part  of  their  force 
were  near  before  they  were  suspected  uf  hos- 
tile intentions.  .After  receiving  the  first  fire 
only  the  Wisconsin  company  attempted  re- 
sistance, the  others  having  fled,  being  without 
aumiunition.  It  withheld  fire  until  the  guer- 
rillas were  within  ten  rods  and  then  discharged 
a  deadly  volley,  emptying'  several  saddles  and 
causing  considerable  confusion.  Before  arms 
could  be  reloaded  the  enemy  had  recovered 
and  came  in  a  resistless  charge.  Arnold's 
hocse  was  shot  tmder  him.  and  he  himself  re- 
ceived four  wounds;  two  balls  entered  his  face 
and  one  broke  his  arm.  While  he  was  lying 
helpless  a  trooper  leaned  over  him,  demanding 
his  surrender.  He  was  too  weak  to  make  re- 
ply. His  revolver  was  taken  from  him  and 
discharged  into  his  fece,  with  ^tte  fiendish  re> 
mark :  "Young  man,  when  you  go  to  hell  say 
to  the  devil  that  the  last  man  you  saw  on  earth 
was  Quantrell.'*  Arnold  is  ignorant  as  to 
whether  his  assailant  was  the  guerrilla  chief 
himself,  or  one  of  liis  men.  Apparently  dead, 
he  was  stripped  of  his  clothing,  but  was  not 
molested  further,  and  the  enemy  rode  away. 
He  lay  on  the  field  until  10  o'clock  at  night, 
when  he  was  found  by  a  comrade  and  taken 
to  camp.  Of  the  117  men  attacked  98  were 
killed  rn  action  or  in  flight.  Besides  Amold 
only  two  others  on  the  scene  of  battle  escaped 
with  their  •lives,  and  of  the  three  Arnold  alone 
sun'ives.  He  was  nursed  in  the  hospital  at 
Fort  Scott,  and  upon  recovery  entered  upon 
active  service  against  the  Indians.  Wliile 
thus  engaged  a  horse  was  shot  under  him  in 
an  action  west  of  Fort  Larned.  He  was  of- 
fered a  commission  as  captain,  but  declined  it, 
not  caring  to  assume  the  responsibilities  of  the 
position  and  preferring  the  comparative  inde- 
pendence of  the  scout.  He  was  discharged 
from  service  Mardi  14,  1865.  In  October  of 
that  year  he  located  in  Lamar  and  entered 
upon  an  active  business  career.  In  1874  he 
opened  the  Lamar  House,  which  he  conducted 
until  1898,  when  he  closed  it  to  take  charge  of 
the  more  modern  Pickwick  Hotel,  in  the  man- 
agement of  which  he  yet  continues.   July  24, 

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1894.  he  founded  the  "Barton  County  Repub- 
lican," and  in  the  following  January  bought 
and  consolidated  with  it  the  "Southwest  Mte- 
touriaii/'  He  conducted  the  paper  with 
marked  success  and  obtained  for  it  a  lar^e  cir- 
culation, through  its  merit  entirely,  without 
personal  solicitation.  He  afterward  disposed 
of  it,  and  it  is  contintierl  as  the  "Lamar  Re- 
publican." He  has  occupied  many  respon- 
sible positions,  and  has  discharged  every  duty 
intelligently  and  with  entire  fidelity. 

Arnold,  Marsliallt  lawyer  and  member 
of  Congress,  was  bom  in  St  Prancms  Qninty, 

Missouri,  October  21.  1845.  He  received  his 
education  in  the  common  schools,  and  in  1870 
was  made  professor  in  Arcadia  C<Mlege.  He 
actixl  as  deputy  clerk  of  the  county,  circuit 
and  probate  courts  of  St.  Francois  County, 
and  after  removing  to  Scott  County  and  es- 
tablishing himself  in  (he  practice  of  law  was 
elected  prosecuting  attorney,  and  ser\'ed  two 
terms  in  the  Legislature.  He  was  presidential 
elector  on  the  Hancock  ticket  in  1880,  and  in 
1890  was  elected  as  a  Democrat  to  Congress 
from  the  Fourteenth  Missouri  District,  and 
in  1892  was  re-elected,  by  a  vote  of  1,933  to 
13,037  for  J  W.  Rogers,  Republican. 

Arnold's  Station.— A  hamlet,  the  post- 
office  name  of  which  was  formerly  Bltie  E^gle. 

It  is  located  on  the  Hannibal  &  St.  Joseph 
Railroad  in  Clay  County,  seven  miles  noith- 
cast  of  Kansas  City.  It  takes  its  name  from 
its  founder,  M.  S.  Arnold,  and  is  an  important 
shipping  point.  On  the  4th  of  March,  1 880, the 
western  portion  of  the  town  was  destroyed  by 
fire,  hut  was  promptly  rebuilt  The  popula- 
tion in  1899  was  estimated  at  15a 

Arpent. — A  French  measure  of  both  length 
and  surface,  of  which  frequent  mention  is 
made  in  the  French  and  Spanish  records  of 
St.  Louis.  In  some  provinces  of  France  the 
arpent  was  the  equivalent  of  five-sixths  of  an 
English  acre  of  land,  while  in  others  it  was 
equivalent  to  seven-eighths  of  an  acre.  When 
applied  to  land  measurenwRt  in  Upper  and 
Lower  Louisiana,  this  variation  in  superficial 
quantity  occasioned  more  or  less  confusion  in 
the  verification  of  French  and  Spanish  land 
surveys  by  American  surveyors,  and  led  to  the 
establishment — after  the  cession  of  this  terri- 
tory to  the  United  States — of  an  arbitrary 

value  for  the  French  measure.  Under  this 
arbitrary  arrangement  one  (i)  arpent  and 
17.551  perches  were  made  equivalent  to  one 

(1)  English  acre,  and  in  lineal  measurement 
one  (i)  arpent  became  the  equivalent  of  two 

(2)  chains  91.666  links.  "Arpens"  is  the 
plural  of  "arpent"  and  is  used  to  denote  both 
lineal  and  surface  measurements  in  the  French 
and  Spanish  rec<M'ds.  Thus  a  line  or  street 
was  said  to  be  so  many  ''arpens"  long,  or  a 
tract  of  land  to  contain  a  certain  number  of 
"arpens."  The  arpent  is  now  obsolete  as  a 
land  measure  in  France,  the"hectare"  having 
been  snbatituted  therefor. 

Arrow  Rock. — A  village  on  the  Mis- 
souri I  i\  rr.  in  Saline  County,  eighteen  miles 
east  of  Marshall,  the  county  seat.  It  has  a 
public  school,  churches  of  the  Baptist,  Chris- 
tian, Methodist  Episcopal  and  Presbyterian 

denoniinations,  a  Democratic  newspaper,  the 
"Statesman,"  and  a  bank.  In  1899  the  popu- 
lation was  600.  It  is  the  oldest  town  in  the 
county.  In  1807  or  1808  George  Sibley  built 
a  log  house  for  the  sale  of  goods  to  the  In- 
dians, and  in  181T  Henry  Becknell  established 
the  first  ferry  across  the  Missouri  River  west 
of  Old  Franklin.  Dr.  Sappington  was  the 
first  physician.  The  first  church  in  the  county 
was  organized  here  in  1830  by  Peyton  Nowlm, 
a  Baptist.  The  same  year  Jacob  Ish  per- 
formed the  first  marriage  ceremony,  the 
couple  Mng  John  Tarwater  and  Ruth  Odle, 
probably  Odell,  The  first  school  teacher  was 
Ned  Mulholland,  an  Irishman.  The  first 
schoolhouse  was  built  hi  1835.  In  1839  the 
county  seat  was  removed  to  this  place  from 
Jonesborough,  and  was  subsequently  removed 
to  Marshall.  The  town  became  an  important 
shipping  point.  In  1859  it  was  the  seat  of  a 
branch  of  the  Bank  of  Missouri.  In  i860  G. 
W.  .Allen  and  his  son,  James,  established  the 
"Saline  County  Herald" ;  they  suspended  pub- 
lication and  entered  the  Confederate  .^rmy  in 
1861.  In  1873  ^^^^  mines  were  operated  in 
the  vicinity,  but  were  subsequently  abandoned 
on  nrco'.int  of  repeated  river  overflows.  The 
name  of  the  town  was  formerly  New  Phila- 
delphia. The  origin  of  the  later  name  is  in 
dispute.  Some  assert  tiiat  it  was  called  Ar- 
row Rock  on  account  of  the  Indians  making 
their  arrow  heads  from  stone  found  tl>cre. 
Others  contend  that  the  name  is  corrupted 
from  Airy  Rock,  so  called  from  the  high 
winds  prevalent  upon  the  eminence. 

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ArHenal. — ^The  St  Louis  Arsenal,  up  to  a 
recent  period,  was  one  of  the  most  notable  and 

best  appointed  military  cstabKshmcnts  of  the 
kind  in  the  whole  country.  With  Us  numer- 
ous quarters  for  officers  and  men,  and  work- 
shops, shaded  by  noble  forest  trees,  it  pre- 
sented to  visitor^;  an  attraction  additional  to 
its  military  ieaturt-s,  novel  and  unitjue  and  dif- 
ferent from  ordinary  parks.  The  arsenal  was 
established  as  a  distributing  post  hi  1826.  At 
that  date  a  commission  reported  to  the  War 
Department  thait,  on  account  of  the  inconven- 
i<iuc  tlic  ])ost  at  r>(dIcfontaine  -twenty- 
three  miles  distant  from  St.  Louis — it  neces- 
sitated making  St.  Louis  a  place  of  deposit 
and  shipment  for  all  supplies  destined  for  the 
Upper  Missouri  and  Mississippi  Rivers 
They  thereupon  recommended  that  the  exi- 
gencies of  the  service  required  the  erection  of 
a  new  poet,  and  they  selected  as  a  site  the 
beautiful  place  of  Mr.  A.  Kutgcr,  located  on 
tiie  river  bank,  at  that  time  three  miles  below 
the  city.  The  erecti  on  of  huitdinfjs  was  com- 
menced in  1827,  and  continued  from  time  to 
time  until  1840,  when  they  were  finished  and 
ready  for  nse.  The  main  arsenal  was  120  feet 
in  lengtli,  40  in  width,  and  three  stories  hi£^. 
A  liouse  for  quartermaster's  storage,  an  ar- 
mory for  repairit^  small  arms,  smiths'  forges, 
a  shop  for  repairingf  artillery  carriages,  steam 
engine  house,  three  laboratories  for  the  manu- 
facture  of  fixed  ammunition  and  pyrotechnic 
preparations,  and  a  house  for  making  gun 
cartridges — all  built  of  gray  limestone — ^were 
the  principal  buildings  put  up.  The  grounds 
were  surrounded  by  a  substantial  stone  wall, 
enclosing  some  forty  acres.  Up  to  1843 
surroundhigs  of  the  arsenal  grounds  presented 
a  primitive  aspect,  little  improved  from  a  state 
of  nature.  The  southern  side  was  still  in 
woods.  A  cart  road — ^sincc  Carondelet  Ave- 
nue, and  now  Broadway— led  to  Carondelet 
The  western  side  was  ovcrgfrown  with  under- 
bnish,  the  heavy  timber  having  been  cut  off 
years  before.  The  north  side  was  still  wooded 
up  to  about  the  present  line  of  Lynch  Street, 
where  were  two  rope-walks,  in  long,  low  stone 
houses,  extending  from  Carondelet  Avenue 
to  the  river,  emplnyincf  six  hundred  slaves. 
These  rope-walks  were  burned  down  in  1845. 
The  powder  magazine,  which  was  owned  by  a 
stock  company,  and  whidi  blew  up  in  1834, 
was  half  a  mile  from  the  arsenal.  From  some 
meagre  records,  still  preserved,  are  gleaned  a 
few  names  of  subsequent  officers  at  the  arsenal 

In  1833  Lieutenant  Robert  Anderson  was 
commissary  of  subsistence.  In  1836  Lieu- 
tenant D.  H.  Tuft  filled  that  p>osition.  Cap- 
tain John  Symmington  was  commanding 
officer  from  1837  to  October,  1838.  In  1839 
Second  Lieutenant  A.  H.  Dearborn  was  the 
officer  in  command.  In  1841  Lieutenant  R. 
A.  W  amwright  was  commissary  of  subsist- 
ence. From  1841  to  1849  Captain  William  H. 
Bell  was  in  command.  He  ordered  the  old 
wall  to  be  replaced  by  a  new  and  much 
stronger  one,  under  tiie  superintendence  of 
William  Fitzpatrick,  a  civilian.  On  his  pro- 
motion from  captain.  Major  Bell  was  again 
placed  in  command  of  the  arsenal  and  con- 
tinued in  command  until  the  outbreak  of  the 
Civil  War,  when  he  was  relieved  by  Major 
Hagner,  who  in  turn  was  superseded  by  Cap- 
tain Nathaniel  Lyon.  Meantime  between 
twenty  and  thirty  thousand  stand  of  arms 
and  some  ten  thousand  pounds  of  powder  were 
removed  from  the  arsenal  to  Springfield,  Illi- 
nois, to  g:iiard  against  their  seizure  by  un- 
aothorized  parties.  Major  Hagner  was  in 
command  of  the  arsenal  and  had  charge  of  lihe 
ordnance  and  all  the  btnklin^s  and  stores, 
while  Captain  Lyon  had  command  only  of 
the  troops  within  the  arsenal,  and  both  officers 
were  subject  to  the  orders  of  General  Harney, 
in  command  at  St.  Louis.  Ca|>tain  I^yon  be- 
lieved in  the  existence  of  a  plot  to  capture  the 
arsenal.  He  wished  to  strengthen  the  de- 
fenses, but  considered  his  efforts  hampered  by 
Major  Hagner  and  General  Harney,  who 
ratiier  ^Mscredited  the  flyfaigr  rumors  of  an  at- 
tack. W'hatever  lie  wanted  had  to  be  drawn 
by  Lyon  upon  a  requisition  on  Hagner,  ap- 
proved by  Harney.  As  everywhere  else,  sus- 
picion and  distrust  prevailed  and  madness 
seemed  to  rule  the  hour.  Events  hurried  on 
and  Captain  Lyon  was  promoted  brigadier 
general  of  the  Home  Guards.  Troops  gath- 
ered at  the  arsenal  ami  other  places, and, with 
General  Lyon  in  supreme  command,  on  the 
lOth  of  May,  1861,  a  large  force  marched  out 
and  captured  Camp  Jackson.  The  State  troops 
were  escorted  to  the  arsenal  and  there  paroled. 
One  month  after  this  tSbar  General  Lyon^ 
with  an  expeditionary  foTce,  left  the  arsenal* 
never  to  return. 

The  arsenal  from  its  origin  to  1877  was  an 
ordnance  depot,  then  a  recruiting  dqxit  for 
cavalry  until  1878,  when  the  cavalry  were  re- 
moved to  Jefferson  Barracks  by  General 
Gregg,  superintendent  of  the  mounted  recniit- 

Dlgitlzed  by  Google 




ing  service.  Since  1879  the  arsenal  buildings 
have  been  titilifed  as  a  elotfaing  depot,  under 
direction  of  the  United  States  Quartermaster 
General,  and  have  no  connection  with  Jefier- 
K>n  Barracks.  On  Mardi  3.  1869,  liie  western 
portion  of  ibit  arsenal  grotmds,  endifacing  ten 
acres,  by  an  act  of  Congress  was  granted  to 
ttie  city  as  a  public  park,  on  condition  that  a 
monument  to  General  Lyon  be  completed 
within  three  years.  The  condition  being  com- 
plied witli,  the  grounds  were  transferred  to  the 
chy  in  September,  1871,  by  Ihe  Secretary  of 
War,  W.  W.  Belknap.  A  small  obelisk  mon- 
ument was  erected  and  dedicated  to  tlie  mem- 
oiy  of  General  Lyon  SeptenAer  13,  1874.  The 
diminished  arsenal  grounds  now  cover  thirty - 
one  and  eight-tenths  acres.  It  has  not  only 
shrunk  from  its  former  dimensions,  hut,  as  a 
garrisoo  occupied  by  soldiers  and  brisitlinfp 
wth  guns,  its  glory  has  departed.  Who  that 
in  its  palmy  days  visited  the  post  does  not 
recall  to  mind  liie  hundred  cannon,  relics  of 
many  battlefield.s,  thus  preserved  as  historic 
trophies  ?  These  pieces  were  dismounted  and 
arranged  in  rows  on  skids,  like  sawlogs  in  a 
lumber  yard.  After  the  Civil  War  some  of 
these  interesting  trophies  of  war  were  con- 
demned as  old  iron  and  sold  by  the  govern- 
ment to  the  foundries  for  pot  metal,  to  be 
meked  up  and  cast  into  water-main  and  sewer 
pipes.  At  the  present  time — 1899 — there  is 
not  a  piece  <if  artilleiy  at  the  arsoud  to  fire 
even  a  satnte.  Wiluam  Pavhl. 

Anenal  ItfawdtlSee  other  accretsoas  of 

sand  in  tfw  St.  Lotas  diiannel,  was  formed 
by  the  transporting  power  of  the  currents  dur- 
ing the  early  half  of  the  last  century.  In  1841 
the  head  of  the  island  was  300  yards  above 
the  line  of  Arsenal  Street.  It  then  extended 
down  the  river  three-fourths  of  a  mile,  and  its 
breadth  in  the  widest  part  was  nearly  half  a 
mile.  The  island  was  covered  with  willows 
and  occupied  by  a  squatter  named  Morris, 
who  eked  out  a  livelihood  by  pasturing  a  few 
cattle.  The  cattle  were  taken  across  at  a  sea- 
son when  the  water  was  shallow  enough  to 
cross  over.  Since  then  the  island  has  been 
translated  a  long  distance  from  the  original 
site.  Like  some  huge  marine  monster,  it  has 
slowly  crawled  down  the  river.  In  1862,  when 
we  first  have  a  record  of  the  shore  line,  the 
head  of  the  island  was  opposite  the  north  line 
of  the  arsen^.  By  1865  ^  island 

had  mored  down  300  feet,  in  which  year  die 

main  channel  was  on  the  east  side.  In  1874 
the  head  of  the  island  had  moved  down  1,300 

feet  from  its  position  in  1865.  In  1880  the 
survey  of  John  G.  Joyce,  city  engineer, 
showed  that  the  island  had  moved  down  4.800 
feet — nearly  a  mile  from  the  surv^  of  t$68. 
The  area  of  the  island  covert-d  over  247  acrct* 
In  1864,  while  the  island  was  thus  in  a  stsAe 
of  transition,  it  was  patented  to  the  St  Loub 
school  board  by  the  commissioner  of  the  Gen- 
eral Land  Office  at  Washington,  in  conformity 
wkh  the  educstional  policy  of  the  government. 
In  1866  the  city  of  St.  Louis  purchased  the 
island  from  the  school  board  for  the  sum  of 
$33,ooa  The  deed  to  tiie  city  was  signed  by 
Felix  Coste,  president  of  the  school  board,  and 
George  Fitchenkamp,  the  secretary.  During 
the  Civil  War  the  upper  portion  of  the  island 
was  used  as  a  burial  groand  by  the  govern- 
ment. After  the  city  g-ot  possession  it  was 
used  for  quarantine  purposes  and  called  Quar- 
antine Ishpd.  The  old  graves  were  stibse- 
quently  washed  away  and  the  bones  scattered 
from  here  to  the  Gulf.  In  1867-8  City  Engi- 
neer Mouhon  constructed  a  dyke  at  the  foot 
of  Bryant  Street,  the  effect  of  which  was  to 
divert  the  channel  from  the  west  to  the  east 
side  of  the  island,  and  also  washed  the  head 
of  the  idand  down  some  3,000  feet.  Property- 
owners  on  the  Illinois  side  instigated  by  St. 
Louis  lawyers,  raised  a  howl  of  opposition 
against  the  destruction  caused  by  the  diverted 
currcnt.s  and  the  prospective  dismemberment 
of  the  island  from  their  territory.  The  Gov- 
ernor of  Illinois  was  appealed  to,  and,  in  a 
correspondence  with  Mayor  Brown,  opposed 
the  construction  of  the  dyke  on  account  of  the 
damage  that  would  accrue  to  farmers  on  the 
Illinois  shore.  The  building  of  the  dyke  was 
stopped.  The  government  interposed  by 
erecting  revetments  and  a  dyke  from  the  east- 
em  shoulder  of  the  island.  This  work  formed 
a  sand-bar  on  the  south  of  and  adjoining  the 
island  and  increased  the  accretion,  which  be- 
came as  high  as  ^  island  proper.  Neverthe- 
less suits  were  instituted,  which  reached  the 
Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States,  that 
court  decreeing  that  tiie  island  bdonged  to 
Illinoi.s.  Thus  the  government  which  granted 
the  island  to  St.  Louis,  by  its  highest  court  re- 
claimed and  granted  it  to  Illinois.  Looking 
from  the  arsenal  in  a  sootheriy  directitMi,  the 
migratory  island  is  seen  some  distance  down 
the  river,  snugly  reposing  near  the  Illinois 
shore.  At  night  a  l^fat  is  seen  glinMuering 

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from  the  same  island  that  formerly  lay  abreast 
of  the  arsenal.  Now  the  great  river  sweeps 
past  with  no  obstruction  to  the  view,  and  the 
entire  channel  passes  the  island  on  the  western 
side,  thus  sundering  its  former  connection 
whb  the  Missouri  shore  by  the  whole  widOi  of 
the  river.  Wiluam  Paysi» 

Art  League  of  St.  Ijont«.— In  No- 

vcmber,  1895,  the  Art  League  nK.n  cnient  was 
brought  to  the  attention  of  the  art  section  of 
the  Wednesday  Qub  by  Miss  Mary  E.  Bulk- 
ky.  Her  suggestions  excited  great  interest, 
and  at  once  the  Art  League  of  the  Wednesday 
Oub  was  formed,  with  Miss  Bulkley  as  its 
head;  Miss  Amelia  C.  Fruchte,  chairman  of 
the  press  and  school  committee;  Mrs.  Everett 
W.  Pattison,  chairman  of  gifts  and  purchases 
cominittee;  Mrs.  Charles  L.  Mioss,  chairman 
of  distribution  committee;  and  Mrs.  E.  B. 
Leigh,  chairman  of  ways  and  means  commit- 
tee. Having  obtained  permission  from  die 
school  board  to  place  works  of  art  in  the  school 
rooms  of  St.  Louis,  on  condition  that  the  board 
should  incur  no  expense,  this  little  band  of 
women  began  hs  work.  The  first  gift  of 
monev  vras  the  sum  of  fifty  dollars  received 
from  Mrs.  J.  C.  \'an  Blarcom.  At  the  sajne 
time  Mrs.  WilKam  Lee  Htise  gave  a  collec- 
tion of  twenty  framed  photog:raph<;.  and  on  the 
24th  of  December  the  five  original  members 
of  the  league  went  with  these  pictures  to  the 
Columbia  school,  and,  after  a  few  btncf  re- 
marks, placed  them  in  that  school.  In  May, 
1897.  the  league  felt  it  had  proved  its  useful* 
ness  and  its  ability  to  sund  alone.  Leaving 
ifie  protection  of  the  Wednesday  Club,  it  for- 
mally organized,  taking  as  its  name  "The  Art 
League  of  St.  Louis."  The  avowed  objects  of 
the  association  are  to  increase  interest  in  art ; 
to  teach  the  future  citizens  of  St.  Louis,  by 
pictures  and  casts  in  school  rooms,  what  has 
been  already  accomplished  in  painting,  sculp- 
ture and  architecture ;  to  familiarize  youth  with 
the  faces  of  the  world's  great  men  and  with 
historic  and  beautiful  places,  and  to  create  a 
demand  for  beauty  in  every-day  life.  The 
plan  which  the  league  has  adopted  to  accom- 
plish these  results  is  to  furnish  to  the  public 
schools  cngravingfs,  pho^orrraphs.  casts,  ptc. 
of  recognized  merit,  including  reproductions 
of  the  work  of  the  old  masters,  photographs 
of  historic  and  artistic  interest,  and  portraits  of 
eminent  people,  prominently  connected  with 
Uie  world's  progress.    The  system  of  distri* 

bution  which  has  been  followed  is  to  divide 
the  schools  mio  districts  of  four  schools  each. 

The  pictures  furnished  to  the  schools  in  any 
district  are  changed  from  one  school  to  an- 
other in  the  same  district  four  times  during  the 
year,  thus  giving  each  school  the  benefit  of 
from  forty  to  forty-eight  pictures  each  year, 
there  being  at  present  from  ten  to  twelve  pic- 
tures allowed  to  each  school.  These  pic- 
tures are  either  hung  in  different  rooms,  and 
changed  every  few  days  until  all  the  chil- 
dren in  eadi  room  have  seen  tiiem,  or  tfiey  are 
hung  in  the  halls,  where  all  the  children  see 
them  several  times  a  day,  the  teacher  sending, 
from  time  to  time,  for  such  pictures  as  are 
most  suitable  for  the  age  of  her  pupils.  This 
plan  arouses  and  holds  interest,  and  is  unique 
in  the  history  of  public  school  leagues.  The 
league  purposes  also  to  lend  portfolios,  which 
will  contain  collections  varying  in  number,  of 
works  illustrating  schools  of  art,  historical 
subjects,  or  famous  places.  They  will  be 
loaned  to  thc»e  teachers  who  apply  for  theni 
for  use  in  history,  geography  or  literature 
classes.  During  the  summer  vacations  the 
league  lends  its  collertions  to  reading-rooms, 
clubs  and  social  settlements.  A  committee 
from  ^e  league  visits  the  schools  occasionally 
to  ascertain  the  effect  of  the  pictures  and  get 
suggestions  from  the  principals  and  teachers, 
thus  enabling  the  league  to  make  wise  selec- 
tions. To  show  what  it  hopes  to  do  in  ti>e 
fmure,  the  league  decorated  one  room  by 
tinting  the  wails  and  providing  pictures  and  a 
large  cast,  and  also  beanliful  plants  which  re- 
qtiirc  no  sunlight,  since  the  room  chosen  was 
very  large  and  dark.  The  funds  of  the  league 
are  raised  entirely  by  voluntary  subscriptions. 
Twenty-five  dollars,  or  its  equi\'alent,  makes 
the  donor  an  honorary  life  member  of  the 
league,  while  an  annual  subscription  of  one 
dollar  entitles  the  pver  to  associate  member- 

Asheraft*  GranTllle  Pinmmer, 

mine  operator.  Webb  City,  was  born  Dcrt-m- 
ber  13,  1842,  in  Bates  County,  Missouri.  His 
parents  were  Elihu  and  Emily  (Plummer) 
Ashcraft,  natives  of  Kentucky,  who  removed 
to  Missouri,  and  there  died,  the  former  when 
the  son  was  fourteen  years  old,  and  the  latter 
when  he  was  but  two  years  old.  Beyond 
learning  to  read  and  write  he  was  without  ed- 
ucation. When  seventeen  years  of  age  he 
went  to  California  with  a  tnin  of  ox-teams; 

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fbe  party  numbered  flofiie  two  hundred  per- 
sons, and  was  commanded  by  his  brother-in- 
law,  J.  L.  Downing,  whose  wi<low,  si»ter  of 
Ifrs.  Ashcraft,  yet  lives  in  San  Francisco.  The 
Indians  were  turbulent  in  those  days ;  the  men 
were  heavily  armed,  and  preserved  a  discipline 
almost  equal  to  that  of  the  army.    He  worked 
in  the  mines  from  1859  nntil  1864.  witli  little 
profit.   In  the  latter  year  he  came  back  far 
as  Denver,  where  he  was  engaged  fur  a  tune 
bf  the  government  as  a  plains  guide  for  troops 
and  trains,  receiving  compensation  at  the  rate 
of  ten  dollars  a  day.   In  1873     came  to  Mis- 
soari  and  located  on  tiie  present  site  of  Webb 
City.  Mr.  Webb  had  been  engaged  in  mining, 
but,  being  inexperienced,  was  discouraged. 
Mr.  Ashcraft  fomed  a  partnership  with  Wil- 
liam A.  Daugherty,  and  the  two  operated  to- 
pethrr  for  five  years  on  Centre  Creek,  on  lands 
leased  from  Mr.  Webb.    Their  work  was  suc- 
cessful almost  from  the  beginning.  In  sinking 
their  -fiaft  thcv  took  out  about  20,000  pounds 
of  lead,  and  soon  struck  a  cave  deposit  which 
yielded  as  much  more.   It  was  this  success 
which  attracted  attention  to  the  Webb  City 
mineral  district,  and  soon  covered  a  farm 
tract  with  the  tents  and  cabins  of  thousands 
of  miners.    In  1880  Ashcraft  and  Daugherty 
disscalved  partnership,  and  the  former  devel- 
oped various  mines  in  the  Centre  Creekneigh- 
borhood  on  his  own  account.   In  1891  he  as- 
sociated with  himself  Charles  Reynold^,  from 
Dayton,  Ohio,  in  some  of  his  mining  ventures, 
locating  on  a  160  acre  ti«ct  five  miles  south- 
east of  Duenweg.    Until  1895  Mr.  Ashcraft 
labored  in  and  about  his  mining  properties 
from  7  o'clock  in  the  momtng  until  5  o'clock 
in  the  evening,  daily.    Of  late  years  he  has 
only  directed  operations  and  looked  after  his 
various  holdings,  which  comprise  four  hun- 
dred and  eighty  acres  of  lani,  upon  which  are 
some  twenty-five  shafts,  operated  under  lease- 
hold rights.    His  early  association  with  J.  C. 
Webb,  the  founder  of  Webb  City,  made  Mr. 
Ashcraft  one  of  the  early  residents  of  that 
dty,  and  his  was  the  sixth  house  erected  in  the 
town.   He  is  a  free-silver  Democrat  in  pon- 
tics ;  he  has  no  preference  for  any  religious  de- 
nomination, but  holds  the  golden  rule  in 
strict  r^ard.  He  holds  connection  with  the 
fraternity  of  Odd  Fellows.    He  was  married 
in  Vernon  County,  October  31,  1864,  to  Miss 
Theresa  B.  Baker,  an  orphan.    Of  this  union 
have  been  bom  three  children.    Bemice  G.  is 
the  wife  of  Earl  Burch,  wiio  is  a  grandson  of 

his  old-time  friend  and  former  mining  part- 
ner, William  A.  Daugherly.  and  a  drv  goods 
merchant  in  Webb  City:  May  is  the  wife  of 
Allen  Hardy,  a  mine-  proprietor,  and  Elihu, 
aged  seventeen  years,  is  a  student  at  Webb 
City  College.  Mr.  Ashcraft  is  a  well  pre- 
served man,  energetic  in  the  prosecution  of  his 
purposes,  and  one  of  the  best  informed  men  in 
the  mineral  fields  on  all  matters  relating  to 
those  interests.  His  integrity  has  never  been 
brou^t  into  question,  and  in  every-day  life 
he  is  a  genial  ami  companionable  roan. 

Asherrllle*— A  village,  sometimtt  called 

St.  Francisville,  tn  Duck  Credc  Township, 
Stoddard  County,  sixteen  miles  west  of 
Bloorafidd,  and  four  and  a  half  miles  from 
Puxico,  the  nearest  railroad  point.  It  has  two 
general  stores.  Population,  1899  (estimated), 

Ash  Grove. -A  city  of  the  fourtli  class,  in 
Greene  County,  on  the  Springfield  Division  of 
the  Kansas  City  ,  Fori  Scott  &  Memphis  Rafl- 
way,  twenty  miles  northwest  of  Springfield, 
the  county  seat.  It  has  a  superior  graded 
public  school,  occupying  a  handsome  building 
of  modern  construction ;  a  Baptist  Church,  or- 
ganized by  Elder  Thomas  J.  Kelley,  in  1859, 
and  a  Cumberland  Presbyterian  Church, 
founded  in  1868;  two  newspapers,  the  "Com- 
monwealth," Dcnincratic,  and  the  "AdTOnce," 
independent;  a  mill  and  numerous  business 
houses.  In  1900  the  populatkm  was  1,350.  It. 
is  a  large  shipping  point  for  wheat,  live  stock, 
lime,  lead  and  zinc.  Joseph  Kimbrough  built 
the  first  house  and  opened  a  store  in  1853. 
February  2,  1870,  the  town  was  incorporated,, 
but  the  incorporation  was  defective,  and  re- 
incorporation was  effected  in  May,  1871.  One 
and  one-half  miles  north  is  the  unmarked 
grave  of  Captain  Kathan  Boone,  who,  with  his^ 
five  sons,  settled  here  in  1834,  in  the  heart  of 
an  ash  grove.  He  was  a  son  of  Danid  Boone» 
the  famous  pioneer. 

A«Uand.>-A  town  site  laid  out  at  the 

mouth  of  Fox  Creek,  on  the  north  bank  of 
Meramec  River,  by  an  adventurous  real  estate 
operator,  who  came  frxmi  Pittsburg  to  St. 
Louis  at  an  early  date.  Lots  were  sold  to  qwe- 
ubtively  inclined  persons,  who  were  beguiled 
by  an  alluring  prospectus,  but  no  headway  was 
made  toward  the  building  up  of  a  town  and 
ui  ^xxess  of  time  the  property  was  acrid  for 

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taxes,  although  the  place  continued  to  have 
an  existence  on  the  map. 

Ashland. — town  in  Boone  County, 

which  takes  its  name  from  the  g^ove  of  ash 
trees  in  which  the  town  was  laid  out  in  1852. 
Colonel  EK  E.  Boss  owned  the  original  town 
site.  The  town  is  sixteen  miles  southeast  of 
Columbia,  on  the  Columbia  &.  Jefferson  City 
Turnpike,  and  is  a  . beautiful  and  prosperous 
inland  village,  with  stores,  shops,  steam  flour- 
ing' milt,  a  good  school  building,  churches,  a 
hotel,  bank,  newspaper,  etc.  It  is  in  tlie  midst 
of  a  rich  agricultural  region,  settled  by  as  good 
people  as  Missouri  can  boast  of.  Its  popula- 
tion in  1890  was  373. 

Ashloy.— A  village  in  Pike  County,  six 
miles  south  of  Bowling  Green,  the  nearest 
railroad  and  !>anking  point.  It  was  laid  out 
in  1836  by  William  Kerr  and  named  -iftcr  On- 
eral  William  H.  Ashley.  It  has  a  public 
school,  flour  and  saw  mills,  a  Christian 
Church,  two  hotels  and  a  few  stores.  Popu- 
lation, 1899  (estimated),  300. 

AshleytKlmball  Proctor,  dentist,  was 

bom  October  31,  1839,  in  Spencer,  Medina 
County,  Ohio,  son  of  Joiin  and  Sarah  Frances 
(Proctor)  Ashley.  The  father  was  bom  in  To- 
ronto, Canada,  and  rmioved  to  Ohio  with  his 
parents  at  about  the  age  of  twelve  years. 
About  half  of  his  life  was  spent  in  southern 
Michigan,  the  family  locating  in  that  State 
when  Kimball  Proctor  was  a  small  boy.  Af- 
terward the  parents  went  back  to  Ohio  and 
again  took  up  residence  in  that  State.  The 
mother  was  born  in  New  Hampshire,  but  at 
the  lime  of  her  marriage  her  parents  were  resi- 
dents of  Ohio.  Kimball  P.  Ashley  received 
training  in  the  fimdamental  branches  of  learn- 
ing in  the  high  school  of  Homer,  Michigan. 
Later  he  attended  the  college  at  Hillsdale, 
Miclii^ran.  He  began  the  study  of  dentistry 
at  Columbus,  Kansas,  his  preceptor  being  his 
brother,  Dr.  E.  D.  As*iley,  of  that  city.  The 
two  were  a.ssociatcd  tocjether  about  one  year, 
at  the  end  of  which  time  Kimball  P.  opened  an 
office  at  Oswego,  There  he  enpacf'^d 
in  the  practice  of  the  jirofi  ssion  for  about  tvn 
years,  at  the  end  of  which  time  lu-  t<xik  a  den- 
tal course  at  the  Iowa  University,  the  follow- 
ing year  becoming  a  student  at  the  Western 
Dental  Colletre  of  Kansa?  Titv.  From  the  lat- 
ter institution  he  was  graduated  in  the  spring 

of  l8<^).:,  the  degree  of  D.  D.  S.  being  con- 
ferred u]).)n  him.  After  receiving  his  diploma 
he  returned  to  CJswego,  Kansas,  where  he  re- 
mained until  the  spring  of  1895,  when  he 
moved  to  Kansas  City.  During  the  latter  por- 
tion of  his  residence  in  Oswego,  Dr.  Asliley 
was  an  instructor  in  the  Western  Dental  Col- 
lege, holding  the  chair  of  prosthetic  dentistry 
and  visiting  the  institution  one  day  in  each 
week  for  the  purpose  of  deliyering  lectures. 
He  held  the  chair  six  years,  resigning  in  the 
summer  of  1899.  He  is  a  member  of  the  Kan- 
sas State  Dental  Society  and  of  the  Missouri 
State  Dental  Society.  Although  he  takes  lit- 
tle active  part  in  political  afYrnrs.  he  holds  to 
the  principles  of  Republicanism,  and  has  al- 
ways been  identified  with  tiiat  party.  He  is  a 
member  r>f  the  Independf-nrt-  .\venue  Method- 
ist Episcopal  Church  of  Kansas  City,  and  his 
high  standing  in  that  society  is  demonstrated 
in  his  occupancy  of  a  place  on  the  official 
board.  His  connection  with  fraternal  organi- 
latiotts  includes  the  Knights  of  Pythias  and 
the  Modern  Woodmen  of  America.  He  was 
niarrirri,  I'ebniary  25.  in  Miss  Klla  F,u- 

dora  Davis,  daughter  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Thomas 
Davis,  of  Steuben,  Ohio.  Tlie  father  of  Mrs. 
Davis  was  prominent  in  the  affairs  of  the  lo- 
cality where  he  long  resided.  Dr.  Ashley's 
connection  with  dentistry  in  western  Missouri 
has  been  marked  by  a  dignified  activity,  his 
honors  have  been  well  earned  and  deserved, 
and  the  position  he  occupies  in  the  estimation 
of  the  public  and  of  his  cowerkers  is  steadfast. 

Ashley,  William  H. — Among  the  many 
picturescjuc  and  dashing  Western  character.-; 
who  have  either  lived  at  St.  Louis  or  had  rela- 
tions with  it,  and  whose  adventures  and  ex- 
ploits illustrate  the  early  history*  of  the  far 
West,  there  is  none  more  picturesque  and 
dashing  than  William  H.  Ashley.  Without 
being  hiferior  to  any  hi  the  game  and  manly 
qualities  for  which  they  were  all  distinguished, 
he  was  superior  to  most  of  them  in  education 
and  the  acquirements  and  manners  of  polite 
society ;  he  was  as  accomplished  a  genUemam 
in  the  drawing  room  as  he  wa<!  a  fearless  ex- 
plorer and  fighter  in  the  Rocky  Mountains — 
and  it  is  not  strange,  therefore,  that  he  has 
come  to  be  recognized  as  chief  among  the  class 
which  embraced  the  Sublctts,  Bridger,  Camp- 
•ben,  Smith  and  I^ttpatrick.    Ashley  was  a 
\'irqnnian,  born  in  Pmvhattan  County,  in  that 
State,  m  1785,  and,  like  many  others  of  the 

Digitized  by  Goo<?Ie 



youth  of  tlu-  "Old  Dominion"  in  that  day, 
came  io  Missouri  in  quest  of  a  fortune.  He 
went  to  Ste.  Genevieve  in  1803,  and  engaged 
in  the  manufacture  of  saltpeter  in  \Vasliiiis:t<m 
County.  After  a  time  he  became  a  merchant, 
and  then  surveyor  under  General  William 
Rector,  the  first  surveyor  general  of  Missouri, 
and  in  iSii)  made  his  Iioine  in  St.  Louis.  IIo 
owned  a  place  of  eight  acres  outside  of  the  city 
00  the  nordi,  near  what  is  now  the  intersect 
tion  of  Broadway  and  Biddlc  Street,  wlu-re  lie 
built  a  spacious  and  stately  mansion  for  those 
times,  and  which  he  made  the  seat  of  a 
free-handed  hospitality.  His  experience  as 
surveyor  had  given  him  information  about 
valuable  lands  in  the  territory,  and  his  name 
appears  frequently  in  the  records  of  the  times 
as  purrliaser  <if  property  outside  of  the  city.  It 
is  nieiuioned  as  proof  of  his  high  honor,  and 
also  as  a  conspicuous  event  in  the  history  of 
the  times,  that  a  wealthy  EngIishman,William 
Stokes,  who  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1819  to 
make  investments,  deposited  with  Ashley 
S^io.f^x),  to  he  invested  at  his  discretion.  His 
popular  manners  and  affable  bearing,  together 
with  his  capacity  for  buriness,  made  him  in- 
fluential in  the  field  of  politics,  and  he  was 
chosen  Lieutenant  Governor  in  the  first  elec> 
tion  held  in  the  State  after  its  admission  to  the 
Union.  For  several  years  he  was  engaged 
in  tlic  fur  trade,  the  most  profitable  as  well  as 
the  most  respectable  business  of  that  day,  and 
in  the  prosectition  of  the  business  he  exhibited 
all  the  enten)risc,  courac^e,  daring  and  control 
over  men  which  it  demanded,  and  laid  the 
foundation  of  the  liberad  fortune  which  af- 
forded liim  leisure  for  public  afT.iirs  and  social 
enjoyments.  When  Ashley  embarked  in  tlie 
fur  trade  the  American  Fur  Company  was  al- 
ready established  in  the  region  east  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  doing  an  extensive  business 
and  owning  forts,  at  which  it  was  accustomed 
to  hold  annual  gatherings  for  the  sale  of  goods 
and  supplies  and  the  purchase  of  skins  from 
the  Indians,  hunters  and  trappers.  These 
meetings  were  important  events,  and  the  com- 
pany liarl  turned  them  to  such  good  account 
in  establishing  friendly  relations  with  the 
tribes  and  attaching  the  white  trappers  to  its 
fort\incs  that  it  seemed  likeahopeless  task  for 
an  opponent  to  enter  the  field  against  it.  But 
Ashley  proved  to  be  an  antagonist  able  to  hold 
his  own  in  a  contest  even  with  this  powerful 
company;  he  was  as  p;^enerous  as  he  was  chiv- 
alric,  and  was  singularly  successful  in  attract- 

ing choice  young  spirits  to  his  standard,  for  he 
made  their  fortunes  as  well  as  his  own.  AU 
the  Subletts— Captain  WilfiamL.  and  his  tiiree 
brothers — were  a.ssociated  with  him,  and  so 
also  were  Robert  Campbell,  Bridger  and  Fitz- 
patrick.  His  first  venture  in  the  business  Was 
not  only  a  failure,  but  a  disaster  as  wdl.  He 
had  obtained  a  first-class  barge  at  St.  Louis, 
loaded  it  witli  a  stock  of  goods,  including  guns 
and  ammunition,  and  carrying  a  full  comple- 
ment of  men,  the  boat  being  in  charge  of  Jo- 
seph Labargc,  and  Ashley  himself  being  in 
charge  of  the  enterprise.  All  went  smoothly 
until  they  reached  the  region  inhabited  by  the 
Arrickaree  Indians,  who  received  the  party 
with  the  usual  signs  of  friendship  and  desired 
to  trade.  Ashley  concluded  to  purchase  horses 
from  them  and  divide  his  force,  sending  one 
party  with  pack-horses  direct  overland  to  a 
point  several  hundred  miles  aibove  on  the 
river,  while  the  other  party  continued  to  pro- 
ceed more  slowly  on  the  boat.  But  the  treach- 
erous savages  had  no  sooner  stipplied  them- 
selves \v:l!t  ',ve.'iii<in>  ll!;;n  they  turned  thein 
against  the  wiiites,  making  an  attack,  unex- 
pected and  without  warning,  upon  the  land 
party  as  it  was  getting  ready  to  start.  Ashley 
and  his  men  bravely  defended  themselves,  but 
they  were  taken  at  a  disadvantage;  several 
were  killed  and  others  wounded,  and  the  In- 
dians captured  their  goods,  packs  and  the  very 
horses  which  they  had  sold  them  a  few  da)S 
before.  At  the  beginning  of  the  fight,  and 
while  the  Indians  were  prqiaring  to  seize  tlie 
barge.  Captain  Labarge  cut  the  rope  and 
pushed  off,  and  in  a  few  minutes  the  rapid  cur- 
rent bore  tlie  craf?  (jut  of  reach,  .\shley  and 
the  survivors  of  the  land  party  managed  to 
fight  their  way  against  the  savages  and  uiter- 
cept  the  boat  some  distance  below  and  return 
with  it  to  St.  Louis.  Xotwithstanding  this  in- 
auspicious and  disheartening  beginning,  .\sh- 
ley  organized  a  second  expedition  and  sent  it 
out  into  the  Green  River  country.  It  was 
fortunate  enough  to  escape  attack  from  the 
Indians.but  the  venturedid  not  prove  success- 
ful, and  .\shley  found  his  resources  greatly 
exhausted  by  the  two  successive  failures,  with 
nothing  to  show  for  all  his  outlay  and  trouble. 
A  man  of  tamer  spirit  would  have  withdrawn 
from  the  business  and  left  the  fur  trade  to  the 
two  great  companies,  the  .American  and  the 
Un  is  on  Bay,  which  were  already  in  the  field, 
ami  supplies  of  men  and  means  were 
practically  unlimited.    But  Ashley  was  not 

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made  of  tame  material.  He  managed  to  send 
out  another  expedition,  which  was  attended  by 
a  small  measure  of  sticcess.  Another  followed 
which  yieldi  (!  ample  returns,  and  Ashley  had 
the  wisdom  and  seU-control  to  retire  on  his 
fortune  and  turn  the  business  overtohis  asso- 
ciates. His  policy  in  the  conduct  of  the  tnde 
differed  from  that  of  the  two  great  companies 
with  which  he  had  to  compete  in  avoiding  all 
commercial  relations  with  the  Indians.  He 
dealt  exclusively  with  white  trappers  and  hunt- 
ers. These  silent  men  were  found  all  along 
Hit  eastern  base  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  pur- 
suing their  vocation  of  trapping  heaver  on  the 
headwaters  of  the  Missouri,  Platte  and  Green 
Riven,  and  Ashley's  plan  of  business  was  to 
attract  them  to  his  headquarters,  provide  them 
with  supplies  and  pay  them  for  their  year's 
service,  and  take  their  skins  and  furs  once  a 
year  at  die  annual  meeting.  One  of  his 
achievements  was  the  haulinfj  of  a  cannon, 
with  an  ox^team,  a  distance  of  twelve  hundred 
tafin  to  his  fort  in  the  mountains,  and  mount- 
tag  it  as  a  weapon  of  defense  apainst  the  In- 
dians. When  he  drew  out  of  the  business  with 
a  genetious  fortune,  the  young  men,  Sublett, 
Campbell  and  others,  win  mi  he  had  taken  into 
his  service  succeeded  to  it,  organized  the 
Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  and  continued 
operations  until  they  had  met  with  as  large  a 
measure  of  success  as  their  patron  and  friend 
bad  achieved.  In  1831  General  Ashley  was 
elected  to  Coos^ress  to  fill  tiie  unexpired  term 
of  Spencer  Pettis,  killed  in  the  duel  with 
dle,  and  at  the  succeeding  election  was  chosen 
for  a  full  term,  and  re-dected  for  a  Ifiird  term 
in  1834,  making  a  congressional  record  of  five 
years.  His  title  of  general,  which  is  always 
associated  with  his  name,  comes  from  his  ap- 
pointment as  brigadier  general  in  the  Missouri 
militia.  His  first  wife  died  in  5>t.  I.nnis  in 
1821,  and  he  married  Eliza  B.  Christy,  daugh- 
ter of  William  Christy,  and  after  her  death  he 
married  Mrs.  Wilcox,  widow  of  Dr.  Wilcox, 
and  daughter  of  Dr.  Maas,  of  Howard  County. 
He  died  at  St.  Louis  in  1839.  in  his  fifty- 
fonrth  year,  and  his  body  was  taken  on  the 
Steamboat  "Booneville,"  Captain  Joseph  La- 
barge,  to  his  farm  on  Lamine  River,  Cooper 
Granty,  where  he  owned  a  tract  of  20,000 
acres.  He  left  no  children,  and  this  land 
passtni  into  other  hands,  but  his  solitary  grave 
ia  pointed  out  in  the  burial  reservation  of  one 
acre  on  a  beautiful  eminence  in  sight  of  the 
Missouri  River.    lie  is  described  by  those 

who  knew  him  as  a  man  about  five  feet  nine 
inches  in  height,  and  one  hundred  and  thiriy- 
five  pounds  in  weight :  thin  faee  and  prominent 
r,re<'irin  iir^sc.  with  an  attractive  presence  and 
pleasant  manners.  jj  jj  Gbissom. 

Ashton. — A  hamlet  on  the  Keokuk  & 

Western  Railroad,  in  Clark  County,  six  miles 
northwest  of  Kaiioka.  It  has  a  school,  a 
church,  two  gristmills,  a  fiourmill,  two  saw- 
mills, a  distillery,  hotel  and  two  general 
stores.   Population  in  1899  (estimated),  175. 

Askew, Frank, one  of  the  pioneer  found- 
ers of  an  important  manufacturing  industry, 
and  especially  conspicuous  in  public  school  es- 
tablishment during  the  formative  period,  was 
born  January  9,  1837,  at  St.  Clairsville.  Ohio. 
His  parents  were  Isaac  and  Elizabeth  (Mc- 
Elroy)  Askew,  bodi  natives  of  the  village 
where  their  son  was  born.  The  father  was  de- 
scended from  a  Quaker  family  in  Delaware, 
and  was  a  saddle  and  harness  manufacturer  by 
occupation ;  the  mother  was  of  Scotch-Irish 
descent.  Frank  Askew  began  his  education 
in  a  public  school,  prepared  for  college  at 
Madison  Seminary,  at  Antrim,  Ohio,  and  was 
graduated  from  the  University  of  Michigan  in 
1858.  At  a  reunion  of  the  alumni  of  the  latter 
named  institution,  held  in  Kansas  City  in  i<)oo, 
he  was  the  oldest  alumnus  present,  and  at  that 
meeting  was  elected  president  of  the  associa- 
tion. Hh  studies  at  college  were  intermitted 
to  admit  of  him  engaging  in  various  occupa- 
tions; he  was  for  some  time  a  clerk  in  a  dry 
goods  store,  and  again  clerk  in  the  office  of  tiie 
county  auditor.  After  completing  his  educa- 
tion he  was  engaged  in  the  office  of  the  clerk 
of  tiie  court  (rf  eommon  pleas  at  St.  Oairs- 

ville,  and  during  this  period  he  devoted  him- 
self assiduously  to  a  course  of  law-reading, 
but  did  not  seek  admission  to  the  bar,  al- 
though well  prepared  to  pass  a  satisfactory  ex- 
amination. Tie  relinquished  his  position  in 
April,  1 86 1,  and  was  commissioned  lieutenant 
in  the  Seventeenth  Raiment  Ohio  Volunteer 
Infantry,  one  of  the  first  regiments  organized 
at  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War.  His  com- 
mand served  in  West  Virginia  until  the 
end  of  its  three-montlis'  term  of  enlistment. 
He  then  assisted  in  the  organization  of  the 
Fifteenth  Regiment  Ohio  Volunteer  Infantry, 
and  was  commissioned  certain.  In  Decem- 
ber, 1862,  he  was  promoted  to  the  rank  of 
lieutenant  colonel,  and  to  that  of  colonel  in 

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July,  1864.  At  the  close  of  the  war  he  re- 
ceived frorn  the  President  the  brevet  of  brig- 
adier general,  "for  gallant  and  meritorious 
services  durii^  the  war."    His  service  was 
with  the  famous  Army  of  the  CumberlaiKl» 
and  included  the  battles  of  Stone  River — or 
Murfreesboro— Chickainauga,  i^'ranklin  and 
l^ashvflte,  and  all  the  connecting  campaigns, 
including  the  operations  about  Atlanta,  occu- 
pying more  than  ^ree  months  of  daily  con- 
ffiet  During  tiie  last  two  years  of  tiie  war 
he  was  almost  constatttly  in  command  of  his 
regiment,  and  was  esteemed  as  a  fearless  and 
capable  officer.    Out  of  honor  to  the  memory 
of  his  fallen  comrades,  and  regard  for  those 
who  survived,  he  maintains  membership  in 
Farragut-Thomas  Post  of  the  Grand  Army  of 
tte  Republic,  and  in  the  Missouri  Coimnaii- 
dery  of  the  Military  Order  of  the  Loyal  Le- 
gion.  In  1866  he  located  in  Kansas  City, 
Missouri,  and  was  one  of  the  founders  of  the 
firm  of  Askew,  Dubois  &  Co.,  dealers  in 
leather,  hides  and  harness  hardware.  Asso- 
ciated with  him  in  the  firm  was  his  uncle,  Wil- 
liam, and  his  brother,  Wilson  Askew.   In  1873 
Mr.  Dubois  retired,  and  the  firm  became  W.. 
W.  &  F.  Askew.   That  year  was  begim  the 
manufacture  of  harness  and  saddles,  the  nun- 
ofacturing  department  being  under  the  man- 
agement of  Wilson  Askew,  a  practical  hamess- 
maW.   In  1878  William  Askew  retired,  and 
•  the  business  was  continued  by  the  brothers 
under  the  firm  name  of  Askew  Brothers.  In 
1894  the  business  was  incorporated  under  the 
flame  of  the  Aslcew  Saddlery  Company,  with 
Wilson  Askew  as  president  and  treasurer,  and 
Frank  Askew  as  vice  president  and  secretary, 
diia  constituting  the  present  OTganisation. 
From  an  employed  force  of  a  half  dozen  men, 
when  the  manufactory  was  estaUished,  the 
first  in  its  line  m  the  Missouri  Valley,  the  num- 
ber has  grown  to  one  hundred  and  thirty-five 
men,  of  whom  one  hundred  are  operaitives. 
The  product  of  the  house,  a  specialty  of  which 
is  the  Askew  saddle,  of  various  desig^ns  and 
weipfhts,  noted  for  excellence  of  material  and 
skill  in  workmanship,  finds  a  market  in  the 
femotest  districts  reached  by  Kansas  Gty 
trade.     In    politics  a  Republican.  General 
Askew  has  never  taken  part  in  political  man- 
agement, nor  aspired  to  a  potittcal  c^ct.  He 
is  held  in  high  honor  for  his  distinguished 
service  in  bdialf  of  popular  education,  cover- 
ing eight  years  of  rapid  devek>pment,  not 
<oinparable  with  any  like  period  in  magnitude 

of  accomplished  results  and  large  outlay  of 
means.   In  1879  he  became  a  member  of  the 

board  of  education,  and  was  chosen  chairman 
of  the  building  comniiltee  of  that  body,  occu- 
P3ring  that  position  during  the  continuance  of 
his  membership.  Lo)'aIly  devoted  to  the  im- 
portant interests  committed  to  him,  be  gave 
them  the  major  part  of  his  time  and  energy, 
relegating  his  personal  concerns  to  second 
place.  During  his  term  of  office  the  number 
of  teachers  and  pupils  in  the  public  schools 
was  something  more  than  trebled,  and  he  was 
the  prime  mover  in  laying  designs  to  provide 
suitable  school  accommodations  for  these 
laigely  increased  numbers,  and  personal  di- 
rector of  the  work  of  construction.  Among 
the  school  buildings  erected  were  the  Karnes, 
Chace,  Switzer,  Garfidd,  Bryant,  Adams, 
Webster  and  the  New  Central,  and  numerous 
and  costly  additions  were  made  to  all  old 
school  buildings.  During  the  same  period 
the  Public  Library  was  placed  upon  a  sub- 
stantial foundation  under  the  operations  of  a 
new  State  law  authorizing  support  out  of 
means  provided  by  boards  of  education.  The 
entire  outlay  during  this  period,  for  new  build- 
ings and  betterments,  was  about  $300,000.  In 
1^6,  when  M  requirements  for  material 
school  facilities  had  been  fully  met,  and  his 
own  business  pressed  urgently  upon  his  atten- 
tion, General  Askew  tendered  his  resignation, 
which  was  reluctantly  accepted,  his  former  as- 
sociates commending  him  upon  their  records 
as  "a  faithful  and  intelligent  member,  who  has 
contributed  much  to  the  success  of  the  schools, 
and  whose  valuable  service  the  district  can 
illy  afford  to  lose."  General  Askew  was  mar- 
ried, NovenAer  10,  iZ^o,  to  Miss  Mary  Upde- 
graiT,  a  well  educated  and  cultured  lady, 
daughter  of  David  Updegraff,  for  many  years 
an  active  real  estate  operator  in  Kansas  Ci^. 
Mrs.  Askew  died  April  18,  1S98.  She  was  a 
member  of  Westminster  Presbyterian  Church. 
Four  children  were  born  of  this  marriage: 
Francis  D.,  educated  at  the  Ohio  State  Uni- 
versity, is  a  bookkeeper  for  the  Askew  Sad- 
dlery Company ;  Arthur  B.,  died  at  the  age  of 
six  months;  Mary,  wife  of  Hal  C.  Whitehead, 
was  educated  in  a  private  seminary  in  Kansas 
City  and  at  Smltfa's  College,  at  Northampton, 
Massachusetts;  Ralph  Kirk,  graduated  from 
Andover  College  in  1897,  completed  the 
course  of  study  in  the  Kansas  City  Law  School 
in  1900,  and  is  connected  with  the  Askew  Sad- 
dleiy  Company.  General  Askew  is  a  fine 

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type  of  manhood,  erect  in  stature,  and  acti%'e 
in  both  physical  and  mental  operations.  In 
poMessiofi  of  a  rare  equability  of  mind  and 
well  tempered  judgment,  his  conduct  of  busi- 
ness is  characterized  by  promptness  and  ac- 
curacy, yet  witli  sin.plicity  and  avoidance  of 
all  a()pearaiice  of  sclf-sufliciency.  He  li<j!ds 
to  the  liif^'licst  ideals  of  personal  integrity  and 
gentility  in  intercourse  with  others,  and  is  es- 
teemed amon^  the  tnoet  honored  and  trust- 
worthy of  the  many  noble  men  whose  lives 
have  been  given  to  the  upbuilding  of  a  city 
which  is  a  marvd  in  the  history  of  ti[ie  country. 

AHkew,  William,  was  bom  November 
i8, 1824,  in  St.  Clairsville,  Ohio,  and  died  Jan- 
nary  a6,  1900,  at  hit  home  in  Kansas  City, 

Missouri.  He  was  one  of  the  pioneer  manu- 
facturers of  Kansas  Chy,  and  his  name  is 
funiliar  in  all  parts  of  this  and  otiier  countries 
on  account  of  its  association  with  standard 
leather  goods,  harness  and  saddles.  He  was 
the  youngest  of  four  brothers,  had  the  advan- 
tage of  only  a  nieagje  education  and  was 
typically  a  self-made  man.  At  the  age  of  fif- 
teen he  was  apprenticed  to  the  saddler's  trade 
for  a  term  of  six  years.  In  1848,  after  recov- 
erinp  from  the  effects  of  the  Mexican  War.  in 
which  he  perfornied  valiant  service,  he  went 
into  tiie  ntirsery  business  with  his  father. 
Tlien  came  the  Civil  War,  for  which  he 
promptly  enlisted,  and  at  the  close  of  his  serv- 
ice he  engaged  tn  the  tanning  business.  In 
1866  he  rcniovdl  to  Kansas  City,  and  resided 
there  until  his  death.  He  engaged  in  the  har- 
ness, saddlery  and  leather  burinesi,  retiring 
from  active  connection  with  mercantile  af- 
fairs in  1878.  The  name  of  Askew  is  well 
known  wherever  harness  and  saddles  are  used. 
The  reputation  of  the  great  establishment 
fouiulrd  by  this  man  is  familiar  in  the  world 
of  manufacture  and  trade,  and  under  the  man- 
agement of  his  successors  the  house  has  con- 
tinued  to  flourish  and  i:r«n\.  Mr.  \>kc,v 
accumulated  a  large  fortune  and  owned  much 
real  estate  and  personal  property  in  Kansas 
City  and  other  places  at  the  time  of  his  death. 
At  the  age  of  twenty-one  he  enlisted  for  ser>-- 
ice  in  the  Mexican  W  ar,  the  year  bcing^  1846, 
and  he  rose  to  a  commission  rank  in  the  com- 
mand of  Colonel  Curtis,  of  the  Tliird  Ohio 
Regunent.  At  the  expiration  of  a  year,  his 
term  of  enlistment  having  come  to  an  end,  Mr. 
Askew  returned  to  his  home  in  Ohio,  and 
there,  for  eighteen  months,  lay  seriously  ill 

from  a  dbease  contracted  during::  Ids  service  in 
camp  and  on  the  field.  When  the  Civil  War 
broke  out  he  enKsted  in  Company  A,  Twenty- 
fifth  Ohio,  and  in  May,  1862,  was  promoted  to 
the  position  of  first  lieutenant  of  his  company. 
In  October  of  the  same  year  he  was  advanced 
to  the  rank  of  captain,  in  command  of  Com- 
pany I  of  the  same  repfiment.  He  was  in  the 
Union  service  twenty-five  months,  and  expe- 
rienced the  terrors  oif  the  battles  of  Chancel* 
lorsville.  Second  P>ull  Run  and  <>*!irr  riiL;agfe- 
ments  that  live  in  history  as  among  the  most 
bloody  of  the  war.  Thus  was  Mr.  Askew'a 
life  interrupted,  in  his  effort  to  succeed  in  a 
business  capacity,  by  the  stern  duties  of  strife 
in  defense  of  his  country.  Notwithstanding 
tiie  interruptions,  however,  he  followed  each 
term  of  service  with  renewed  determination 
and  fresh  vigor,  and  before  his  death  had  es- 
t^Iished  a  reputation  as  one  of  the  most  suc- 
cessful business  men  in  the  entire  West.  He 
was  married  in  1867  to  Miss  Laura  £.  Patton, 
of  St.  Qatrsville,  Ohio.  She  died  January  13, 
1900.  They  had  one  son,  John  W.  Askew, 
who  died  at  the  age  of  seven  years.  The  sub- 
ject of  these  lines  was  esteemed  by  his  fellow- 
men  and  honored  by  all  who  were  acquainted 
with  his  methods  and  dealings. 

Asper,  Joel       lawyer,  journalist,  aol* 

dier  and  member  of  Congress,  was  born  in 
Adams  County,  Pennsylvania,  April  20,  1822, 
and  died  in  Livingston  County,  Missouri,  Oc> 
toluT  I.  1 87 J.  While  still  a  child  his  parents  re- 
moved to  Ohio,  and  he  received  a  common 
sduwl  educatkm  in  that  State,  studied  lawr, 
and  in  1844  was  admitted  to  the  bar.  In  1846^ 
he  was  elected  prosecuting  attorney,  and  in 
1848  was  sent  as  a  ddegate  to  the  lUiffalo 
Freesoil  Convention.  His  tastes  ran  to  news- 
paper life,  and  while  he  lived  in  Ohio  he  was 
editor  of  the  "Western  Reserv-e  Chronicle." 
In  1850  4ie  removed  to  Iowa  and  published  the 
"Garendon  Democrat."  In  1861  he  raised 
a  company  and  entered  the  Union  service,  and 
was  wotmded  in  the  battie  of  Winchester,  Vir- 
ginia. He  was  promoted  to  Heirtenant  colonel 
for  gallant  conduct.  In  1864  he  came  to 
Mi.ssouri  and  published  the Chillicothe "Spec- 
tator." In  1868  he  was  a  delegate  to  the  Xa- 
tional  Republican  Convention  at  Chicajro.  and 
the  same  year  was  elected,  from  ilic  Seventh 
Misratni  Disto-ict,  to  the  Forty-first  Congress 
as  a  Radical  Republican,  by  a  vote  of  l$;2y9 
to  8.029      Oliver,  Conservative. 

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A88ayer*s  Office,  United  States. — 

The  United  States  Assayer  s  Office  main- 
tained in  St.  Louis  occupies  rooms  in  the  old 
Customhouse  Building,  and  was  established  by 
act  of  Conpjess  approved  February  i,  1R81. 
The  purpose  of  its  iiiaintenancc  is  to  facilitate 
the  conversion  of  gold  bullion  into  gold  coins 
of  the  United  States.  The  gold  is  brought 
here  in  the  shape  of  bullion  from  all  parts  of 
die  West,  and  its  weight  and  fineness  are  de- 
tennincd  by  the  assaycr,  who  forwards  it  to 
die  United  States  mints.  As  no  charge  is 
made  at  the  mints  for  converting  gold  bulUoa 
into  United  States  coins,  the  owner  of  btdlioa 
accepted  for  the  mints  through  the  St.  Louis 
assay  office  receives  at  once  a  warrant  on 
the  United  States  Subtreasury  for  the  fall 
amount  of  m-oney  which  the  assaycr  has  ascer- 
tained can  be  coined  ^om  his  bullion.  The 
transaction  is  like  that  in  which  the  farmer 
takes  his  wheat  to  the  mill  and,  instead  of 
mittng  for  his  own  grain  to  be  ground  and  re- 
turned to  him,  accepts  from  the  miller  the 
amount  of  flour  which  his  wheat  would  make, 
except  that  the  miller  takes  toll  for  converting 
wheat  into  flour,  while  the  government  does 
not  take  toll  for  converting  gold  bullion  into 
coins.  When  the  bullion  sent  from  the  St. 
Louis  assay  office  reaches  the  mint  it  is  reas- 
sayed.andsoaccnrate  are  the  established  gold 
measurements  that  it  is  said  there  has  never 
been  a  difference  of  one  cent  between  the 
values  shown  by  the  mint  and  the  St.  Lonis 
assay  office.  For  each  standard  ounce  of  gold 
deposited  at  the  assay  office  by  the  bullion- 
owner  the  assayer  is  authorized  to  return  to 
him  $18.60,  and  for  each  fine  ounce  of  gold 
$20.67.  these  being  the  values  of  the  metal 
fixed  in  tlie  money  markets  of  the  world,  and 
also  the  values  respectively  represented  by  die 
coins  made  from  an  ounce  of  standard  or  fine 
gold.  Alttiough  the  transactions  of  the  assay 
office  amount  in  effect  to  purchases  of  gold 
bullion  for  coinage,  the  gold  is  not  really  pur- 
chased. It  is,  in  fact,  measured  by  the  assayer, 
who  determines  how  many  dollats  it  will 
make  and  gives  the  man  who  deposits  the 
bullion  that  many  dollars  in  exchange  for  it. 
Thus,  if  the  depositor  leaves  at  the  assay  office 
an  amount  of  gold  bullion  which  will  make  ten 
double  eagles,  he  is  given  a  warrant  which  will 
enable  him  to  draw  from  the  United  States 
Treasury  ten  twenty-dollar  gold  pieces,  or  two 
hundred  dollars  in  United  States  currency,  in- 
stead of  waiting  for  his  own  gold  to  be  coined 

and  returned  to  him.  To  enable  him  to  make 
these  advances,  the  assaycr  has  such  amounts 
placed  to  his  credit  at  the  Treasury  from  time 
to  time  as  the  Secretary  of  the  Treasury  may 
direct.  Prior  to  the  enactment  of  the  law  of 
1893,  .which  .suspended  tlie  coinage  (A  silver 
dollars,  purchases  of  consideraible  quantities  of 
silver  bullion  for  coinage  purposes  were  made 
at  the  United  States  Assayer's  Office  in  St. 
Lotris,  the  price  paid  from  time  to  time  being 
governed  by  market  (piotations.  Since  the 
passage  of  tiiat  act  no  silver  bullion  has  been 
purchased.  Considerable  gold  coming  to  th« 
office  in  the  shape  of  jewelry  is  accepted  at  its 
bullion  value.  A  description  of  the  apparatus 
and  operations  of  the  assay  office  would  be  too 
long  and  technical  to  be  given  in  this  connec- 
tion, but  it  may  be  said  that  what  impresses  a 
visitor  most  is  the  wonderful  accuracy  of  the 
weighing  scales.  Some  of  the  weights  are  so 
infinitesimal  that  a  breath  blows  them  away, 
and  even  a  pencil  mark  on  paper  is  heavy 
emiugh  to  turn  diese  delicate  scales. 

Associated  Charities  of  Kansas 
City* — An  association  formed  to  bring  into 
intimate  relation  the  various  charitable  agen- 
cies of  Kansas  City  and  vicinity,  to  facilitate 
the  bringing  together  under  one  management 
of  societies  doing  similar  work;  to  encoiuage 
and  promote  the  labors  of  all  charitable  work- 
ers ;  to  inform  the  public  in  regard  to  the  gen- 
eral work  of  local  charitable  organizatkms ; 
to  exchange  information  with  charitable  or- 
ganizations throughout  the  United  States  or 
elsewhere;  to  discourage  solicitation  for  un- 
worthy charities  and  duplication  of  relief  ;  to 
make  investigations  for  cliaritable  organiza- 
tions and  charitably  inclined  individuals ;  to 
keep  a  record  of  the  work  of  all  such  chari- 
table organizations  for  their  use  and  !)enefit, 
and  to  promote  the  general  welfare  and  self- 
dependence  of  the  poor  by  voluntary  friendly 
visits,  by  cncotirni^iiig  the  accuinidation  of 
small  savings  and  otherwise,  it  is  not  the 
purpose  to  interfere  with  die  management  of 
any  charitable  organization,  or  to  administer 
relief  from  its  own  treasury.  Kach  charitable 
association,  wliose  purposes  and  work  arc  ap- 
proved by  the  associated  charities,  annually 
elects  one  member  thereto  —  the  niavor  of 
Kansas  City  is  a  member  ex  officio — these 
.elect  by  ballot  a  sufficient  number  to  make  the 
membership  thirty-three,  the  restricted  con- 
stitutional number.     The  association  was 

Digitized  by  Coogle 



incorporated  October  i8,  iSi/i.  The  officers 
and  executive  committee  then  elected  were: 
W.  C.  Scarritt,  president;  Rev.  H.  Hopkins, 
D.  p.,  vice  president ;  Rt.  Rev.  J.  J.  Glennon, 
D.  D.,  vice  president ;  S.  A.  Pierce,  secretary ; 
I.  E.  Bernheimer,  treasurer.  The  societies 
constituting  the  associated  charities  are :  The 
Provident  Association,  the  Helping  Hand  In- 
stitute, Llic  Salvation  .Army,  the  Volunteers  of 
America,  the  Protestant  Door  of  Hope,  the 
Georpe  H.  Nettleton  Home  for  Ap^rd  W'nnu  ii, 
the  Humane  Society,  the  Mattie  Rhodes  Day 
Nursery,  the  Hebrew  General  Relief  Society, 
the  Woman's  Christian  Association,  the  Visit- 
ing Nurses'  Association^  the  Young  Men's 
Christian  Association,  the  Day  Nursery  Asso* 
ciation,  the  Colored  Old  Folks'  and  Orphans' 
Home, the  Children's  Home  Sdciotv.thc  I  loi - 
ence  Crittenton  Mission  and  Home,  the  Jew- 
ish Woman's  Charitable  Association,  the 
North  End  Day  Nursery,  the  Colored  Chil- 
dren's Orphan  Home,  the  Kansas  City  Boys' 
Orphan  Home,  the  Robert  Khtley  Mission, 
the  Catholic  Ladies'  Aid  Society,  the  St.  Vin- 
cent de  Paul  Society,  the  House  of  the  Good 
Shepherd,  St.  Joseph's  Female  Oiphan  Asy- 
lum, the  Catholic  Home  for  the  Aged,  and 
St.  Anthony's  Home  for  Foundlings. 

Asylum  Home.— An  institution  estab- 
lished in  St.  Louis  durinp:  the  Civil  War,  for 
the  purpose  of  caring  for  the  refugees  who 
came  to  that  city  from  all  parts  of  the  South. 
It  was  at  first  supported  by  assessments  upon 
Southern  sympathizers,  but  later  by  the  con- 
tributions of  loyal  and  generous  people  in  St 
Louis  and  daewhere. 

AtehiBim  Oonnty. — ^A  county  in  the 
northwestern  part  of  the  State,  beinq;  one  of 
the  six  coiintirs  carved  out  of  the  Platte  Pur- 
chase, and  named  after  David  R.  Atchison,  a 
United  States  Senator  from  Missotni.  It  is 
bounded  on  ttie  north  by  the  Iowa  line;  east, 
by  Nodaway  County ;  south,  by  Holt  County, 
and  west,  by  the  Missouri  River  and  the  State 
of  Xchraska.  It  is  in  the  same  latitude  with 
Philadelphia,  and  in  the  same  longitude  with 
Lake  Itasca  and  Galveston.  It  has  an  area 
of  521  7-8  square  miles,  or  334.000  acres.  The 
surface  is  mainlv  undtibtlnc:^  prairie  and  river 
bottom,  the  rich  alluvial  land  of  the  Missouri 
River  bottom  extending  eastward  for  a  dis- 
tance of  four  to  eig'ht  miles,  and  constitntinfj 
more  than  a  fourth  of  the  area  of  the  county. 

The  Missouri  bluflFs  are  steep  and  broken  into 
pealcs,  presenting  a  picturesque  appearance, 
and  from  the  summit  of  these  a  fine  view  is  ob> 
tained  of  a  great  part  of  the  county.  The  soil 
is  black,  deep  and  very  productive,  yielding 
large  crops  of  ail  the  grains  that  grow  in  the 
latitude  of  northern  Missouri,  including  corn, 
wheat,  oats,  rye  and  barley,  and  being  equally 
adapted  to  gjass.  About  one-fifth  of  the 
county  is  prairie,  and  there  was  at  the  first  an 
abundance  of  gcxnl  timber  along  the  streams — 
black  walnut,  oak  of  several  kinds,  maple,  ash, 
ehn  and  wild  cherry-— and  this  made  house- 
building to  the  first  settler  a  simple  and  easy 
task.  'There  was  a  line  of  timber  along  every 
stream,  and  occasionally  an  isolated  grove. 
The  county  is  abundantly  watered.  The  Nish- 
nebotna  River,  Big  and  Little  Tarkio  Creeks 
and  Rock  Creek  flow  through  it,  and,  with 
their  affluents,  give  an  ample  supply  of  rim* 
ning  water;  and.  in  addition  to  this,  springy 
are  found  all  over  the  county,  and  wells  sunk 
to  the  depfth  of  thirty  feet  strike  undergromd 
streams'.  The  Missouri  River  borders  the 
county  for  fifty  miles.  Atchison  County  was 
set  apart  by  act  of  the  Legislature  passed  in 
1844,  which  defined  the  limits  of  the  new 
county,  gave  its  name,  and  appointed  Alex- 
ander McElroy,  David  Hunsaker  and  Elijah 
Needles  conunissioners  to  organize  the 
county.  These  commissioners  met,  in  obedi- 
ence to  this  law,  at  the  house  of  Conrad  Clif- 
field,  on  April  14,  1845,  and  chose  Alex. 
McKlroy  president  of  the  court,  Alex.  A. 
Bradford  clerk,  and  L.  T.  Tate  sheriff.  Five 
townships  were  named  and  defined,  Gark, 
Xishncbotna,  Polk,  Tarkio  and  Blufif.  The  first 
meeting  erf  the  circuit  court  of  the  new  county 
took  plabe  September  i,  1895,  Honorable 
-Solomon  L.  Leonard  presiding.  A.  A.  Brad- 
ford, who  had  already  been  appointed  county 
clerk,  was  appointed  circuit  clerk  also;  Wil- 
lard  P.  Hall  was  made  circuit  attorney,  and  L. 
T.  Tate  was  recocrnized  as  sheriff.  John  Wil- 
son, James  B,  Gardenhire,  T.  D.  Wheaton, 
Levi  Carr,  John  C.  Morris,  D.  G.  Price,  P.  L, 
Huds:cns,  James  Foster.  John  W.  Kelly. 
James  Craig,  F.  M.  Warmcastle  and  Willard 
P.  Halt  were  enrolled  as  attorneys.  H.  B. 
Roberts  and  Thomas  Wilson,  both  single  men, 
the  former  frotn  Illinois  and  the  latter  from 
Clay  County,  Missouri,  put  up  a  cabin  and 
made  a  crop,  on  ground  which  afterward  be- 
came the  site  of  Sonora,  on  the  Missouri 
River,  in  the  year  i839,and  they  were  the  first 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 



lettlcrs  in  Atchison  County.  There  were  two 
Other  men,  Hughes  and  Alley,  already  in  the 
connty,  trading  with  the  Indians,  but  they 
were  not  settlers,  and  soon  disappeared.  Rob* 
erts,  after  living  in  the  county  several  years, 
moved  to  Nebraska,  and  thence  to  Hamburg, 
lomt.  November  ii,  1839,  Callaway  Mill- 
nps,  comings  from  Saline  County,  Missouri, 
bttt  originally  from  Cocke  County,  Tennes- 
•ee,  came  in  and  settled  near  Roberts  and  Wil- 
son. Along  with  Millsaps  came  Charles 
Beauchamp  and  Archibald  and  Alexander 
Handley,  from  Clay  County,  all  tiiree  in  Mill- 
saps'  employ.  Reverts  had  a  wood  yard  on 
tiie  river,  and  Mr.  Millsaps  was  accustomed  to 
tell  how  cheerful  a  sight  it  was  in  the  spring  of 
1840^  after  a  long  and  severe  wipter,  to  see 
a  steamboat  land  and  take  on  a  supply  of 
wood.  In  the  spring  of  1840  John  Matthews, 
an  Englishman,  setded  at  a  place  afterward 
called  English  Grove,  in  honor  of  him.  eight 
miles  southeast  of  Rockport ;  and  tihe  follow- 
ing year  a  eokmy  of  Iriili  people,  under  Mar- 
tin Murphy,  from  Canada,  settled  in  the  same 
township,  in  a  place  which  was  afterward 
called  Irish  Grove.  In  the  fall  of  1842  John 
Bender,  from  Platte  County,  Missouri,  located 
on  the  east  bank  of  the  Missouri,  about  a  mile 
above  the  place  where  Brownvillc,  Nebraska, 
now  stands;  and  shortly  afterward  George 
Harmon,  from  Illinois,  located  at  Sonora.  A 
little  later  in  the  same  year  £.  D.  Scammon, 
from  Lafayette  County,  Missouri,  settled  two 
miles  southeast  of  Rockport ;  and  William 
Hunter,  from  Clinton  County,  Missouri,  set- 
tfed  on  Rock  Creek,  tiiree  miles  sotithwest 
from  Rockport,  at  a  place  afterward  called 
"Hunter's  Ridge."  In  1843  Elijah  .S  Ncrdles. 
from  Indiana,  located  near  him,  at  a  place  af- 
terward called  "Needles  Bridge."  Both  Hun- 
ter and  Needles  became  judges  of  the  coimty 
court  and  prcmiinent  citizens.  Another  early 
settler  was  Richard  Rupe,  from  Lafayette 
County,  wbosc  neighborhood  was  afterward 
called  "Rupe's  Grove,"  about  six  miles  south- 
cast  from  Rockport.  Mr.  Rupe  afterward  be- 
cune  county  judge  also.  About  1843  John 
Fowler  put  up  a  sawmill  on  Rock  Creek,  two 
and  a  half  miles  south  of  where  Rockport  now 
stands.  The  same  year  Nathan  Meek  began 
the  biiildinitr  of  a  t^ristmill  on  the  f^'rotnid 
where  Rockport  stands.  All  these  early  set- 
tlers were  in  the  territory  before  Atchison 
County  was  organized.  In  the  year  1846  a 
colony  of  Germans,  ten  in  number,  established 

themselves  a  mile  and  a  half  north  of  Rock- 
port, and  attempted  to  form  a  socialistic  com- 
munity ;  but  a  heavy  rainfrdl  swept  away  their 
mill,  their  first  crop  turned  out  poorly  and  die 

colony  broke  up,  some  of  the  members  locat- 
ing claims,  each  for  himself  in  the  county,  and 
others  sedcing  homes  elsewhere.  The  early 
settlers  in  Atchison  County  did  not  need  to 
bring  a  supply  of  provisions  with  them,  for 
there  wm  never,  probably,  a  place  on  earth 
where  forest,  prairie  and  stream  afforded  finer 
game,  or  more  of  it.  The  buffalo  had  disap- 
peared, indeed— crossed  the  Missouri  River 
and  were  then  roaming  in  vast  herds  on  the 
plains  beyond — ^but  deer  and  turkey  were  so 
plentiful  that  one  could  not  go  amiss  for  them. 
.'\n  old  resident  used  to  tell  that  in  1841, while 
going  a  distance  of  six  miles,  he  counted  as 
many  as  seventy-three  deer  in  herds  of  six  and 
ten.  Wild  dudes  and  geese  were  stiH  more 
abundant,  and  squirrels  were  not  worth  kill- 
ing. The  streams  were  full  of  fish,  and  both 
forest  and  stream  afforded  beaver,  otter,  mink, 
muskrat,  raccoon,  fox,  wolf  and  wild-cat  in 
such  nimibers  that  a  little  trapping  and  hunt- 
ing yielded  a  stock  of  furs  which  were  as  good 
as  gold  and  silver  at  the  nearest  town.  A 
settler  who  was  handy  with  his  rifle  generally 
managed  to  pay  his  taxes  in  wolf  scalps  and 
have  the  fkins  of  the  animals  over.  Wild 
honey  was  so  abtnidant  in  the  hollow  trees 
along  the  streams  that  the  taking  of  it  was  a 
common  business,  and  both  honey  and  bees- 
wax  always  commanded  a  good  price  at  the 
neighboring  store.  William  Millsaps,  who 
was  bom  December  14,  1839,  was  the  first 
white  child  born  in  Atchison  County,  and  his 
sister,  Elizabeth  Millsaps.  in  December,  1842, 
when  she  was  ten  years  old,  accidentally 
burned  to  death,  was  the  first  white  person  to 
die  in  the  county.  In  1841  Mr.  Millsaps  built 
a  boat  of  boards,  hewed  out  with  his  axe,  and 
established  a  ferry  across  theNishnebotna,the 
first  in  the  cn;mtv.  Dr.  Richard  Buckham, 
one  of  the  first  physicians  in  the  county,  was 
an  eariy  settler  in  Gay  Township.  William 
Sickler,  w4io  settled  in  the  limits  of  what  is 
now  the  town  of  Rockport,  about  184 1,  made 
the  first  plow  manufactured  in  the  county. 
The  first  distillery  in  the  cotmty  was  put  up  in 
Clay  Towniship  by  Satmtel  King  in  1843.  The 
first  mill  in  the  county  was  in  Clay  Township, 
on  Rock  Creek,  put  up  by  John  Fowler  in 
1842.  King's  Mill,  a  water  pnwcr  gristmill, 
was  afterward  erected  on  the  same  site.  The 

Digitized  by  Google 



first  postoffice  in  the  present  limits  of  Atchison 
County,  was  Fugitt's  Mill,  and  the  tirst  post- 
master was  named  Booth.  Before  this  there 
was  a  postoffice  at  1  lis^h Ocik.anil  anotlur  nt 
Austin,  botii  supposed  to  be  in  Atchison 
County,  but  afterward  found  to  be  in  the  State 
of  Iowa.  The  scat  of  justice  in  ,\tchisr>n 
County  was  first  established  in  1846,  at  the 
town  of  Linden,  in  what  is  now  Polk  Town- 
ship, about  five  miles  north  of  the  present 
town  of  Rockport,  and  there  the  first  court- 
house was  built,  a  frame  edifice,  twenty  by 
thirty  feet  and  two  stories  high,  costing  $475. 
At  the  time  of  the  selection  of  Linden  for  the 
county  seat  it  was  near  the  center  of  tlie 
county,  but  wden  the  Iowa  boundary  was 
afterward  remarked,  a  ten  mile  strip  of  .Atchi- 
son County  was  transferred  to  Iowa.  This 
left  the  cotmty  seat  too  close  to  the  northern 
line  of  the  connty.  atid  on  the  2ISt  oS  June. 
1856,  on  petition  of  three-fifths  of  the  tax- 
payers of  the  county,  an  election  was  held  on 
the  proposition  to  remove  the  county  seat. 
The  proposition  was  carried,  and  commission- 
ers appointed  for  tlie  purpose  selected  Rock- 
port  fcM-  the  permanent  seat  of  justice,  and  on 
the  19th  of  August  the  county  court  me^  at 
Rockport  for  the  first  time.  In  August  of  the 
following  year  tiie  court  appropriated  $9,500 
for  a  new  courthouse,  and  a  building  of  brick, 
two  stories  high  and  containing  seven  rooms, 
was  hv6H  at  a  cost  of  $15,000. 

According  to  the  report  of  the  Bureau  of 
Labor  Statistics,  the  exports  shipped  from  the 
county  in  1898  were:  49.600  head  of  cattle, 
61,706  head  of  hogs,  770  head  of  shet^.  333 
head  of  horses  and  mules,  112,121  bushels  of 
wheat,  20,636  bushels  of  oats,  885,000  bushels 
of  com,  20  tons  of  hay,  106,1000  pounds  of 
flour.  473.Ro()  feet  of  himl>er.  336  cords  of 
wootl,  41,000  brick,  420  barrels  of  lime,  4.510 
pounds  of  wool,  399>^  pounds  of  jpouhry, 
70.170  dozen  efjg-s.  19.753  Pounds  of  butter, 
800  pounds  of  lard,  34,090  pounds  of  tallow, 
121,845  pounds  of  hides  and  pelts,  4,398  bar- 
rels of  apples,  9,823  pounds  of  fresh  fruit, 
4,430  pounds  of  nursery  stock,  405  poimds  of 
furs,  and  other  products  in  smaller  quantities. 

The  first  stTmon  delivered  in  the  county  is 
said  to  have  been  preaclied  by  Rev.  Richard 
Baxter,  of  the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church, 
to  a  small  coninvgation  at  the  house  of  Calla- 
way Millsaps,  in  Clay  Township,  in  the  sum- 
mer of  1841.  Rev.  Isaac  Odcll,  a  Baptist 
minister,  held  several  meetings  about  the 

same  time  in  a  new  schoolhouse  just  built  on 
Mr.  .Millsaps'  farm.     In  1846  Rev.  Jesse  Al- 
len, from  Howard  County,  held  a  protracted 
n>ceting  near  Hunter's  Bridge,    Rev.  Richard 
Buckham  and  John  Mulltns  and  a  minister 
named  Foreman  were  among  the  pioneer 
prcaclurs  of  the  county.    The  first  school  in 
the  county  was  kept  in  a  dugout  by  Cornelius 
Schubert,  a  member  of  the  unfortunate  Ger- 
man colony  that  settled  near  Rockport  in 
1846;  it  did  not  last  long,  but  shared  the  fate 
of  the  colony.    In  the  year  1898  there  were 
118  public  schools  in  operation  in  the  county, 
employing  118  teachers;  estimated  value  of 
the  school  property,  $99,500;  children  enu- 
merated, 5,042 :  total  receipts  for  school  pur- 
poses,  $84,844;   permanent   cmmty  school 
fund,  $111,288.   The  first  ne\vspaper  pub- 
lished in  Atchison  County  was  the  "Weekly 
Baniu T,"  begun  at  Rockport  in  July,  1857,  by 
L.  C.  Kulp  Sl  Co.,  who  kept  it  up  until  1859. 
In  Noveml»er  of  that  year  the  "Rockport  Her- 
ald" was  started  by  George  W.  Reed,  and  after 
a  time  suspended.    December  16.  1870,  the 
"Rockport  Sentinel"  was  lirst  published.  In 
1872  it  changed  hands  and  was  called  the 
"Missouri    Express,"   and   two   years  later 
changed  hands  again,  and  was  then  called  tlie 
"Rockport  News."  A  short  time  after  it  was 
named  "Grangers' .Advocate,"  and  in  July,  1874, 
it  suspended.  In  August,  1876,  llie  "Atchison 
Democrat" was  founded.and  in  i88ithe  name 
was  changed  to  "The  .Sun."    In  August,  1878, 
the  first  issue  of  the  "Democratic  Mail"  was 
made,  and  in  1880  the  name  was  changed  to 
the  "Atchison  County  Mail/'    It  is  the  Demo- 
cratic organ  of  the  county,  and  the'  Atchison 
County  Journal,"  first  published  in  Septem- 
ber, 1M3,  is  the  recognized  Republican  organ, 
both  of  them  spirited,  enterprising  and  \'alu- 
able   journals.   The   "Tarkio   Blade"  was 
started  in  1881,  and  after  a  few  months  its 
name  was  changed  to  the  "Tarkio  Republi- 
can."   The  "Fairfax  Independent"  was  estab- 
lished in  Febrttar>',  1882.   The  "Phelps  City 
Rt  C'>riI  "  was  published  for  a  few  months  in 
186'^.  anil   the  "Watson  Times"  for  a  few 
months  in  1876.    The  first  railroad  built  in  the 
county  was  the  Kansas  City,  St.  Joseph  & 
Cotmcil  BlufTs,  running  tlirotigli  the  western 
part  of  tlic  county,  a  distance  of  nearly  twenty- 
five  miles,  buitt  in  1868.   The  Tarkio  Valley 
Railroad,  a  branch  of  this  first  road,  was  built 
in  1881.    It  has  about  twenty-four  miles  of 
track  in  the  county.  The  other  roads  in  the 

Digitized  by  Google 



county  are  the  Omaha  &  St.  T-Ouis,  and  the 
Rockport,  Langdon  &  Northern.  The  tax- 
alble  property  in  1898  of  Atdiison  County  con- 
sisted of  real  estate,  valued  at  $5,1 1 1,825  ;  per- 
sonal property,  $2,648,665;  railroad,  bridge 
and  telegraph  property,  $407,621 ;  total  tax- 
able wealth,  $8,258,111.  Atchison  County 
has  no  county  or  township  bonded  debt.  The 
population  in  1900  was  16,501. 

Atchison,  David  R.,  lawyer  and  United 
States  Senator  from  Missouri,  and  for  a  brief 
time  acting  President  of  the  United  States, 
born  at  Frogtown,  Kentucky,  1807,  and 
died  in  Clinton  County,  Missouri,  January  26, 
1886.  He  received  a  gfood  education  in  his 
nathre  State,  and  while  a  young  man  came  to 
llissotiri  and  settled  at  Liberty,  where  he  en- 
gaged in  the  practice  of  law.  In  1836  he  was 
elected  to  the  L^slature  and  again  in  1838. 
In  1841  he  was  appointed  judge  of  the  circuit 
court,  and  in  1843,  on  the  death  of  United 
States  Senator  Linn,  he  was  appoiflftcd  to  the 
vacancy.  On  the  meeting;  of  the  Legislature 
he  was  elected  to  fill  out  the  term,  and  on  its 
expiration,  in  1849,  was  re-dected,  serving 
until  1855.  He  took  a  prominent  part  on  the 
pro-slavery  side  in  the  Kansas-Nebraska  legis- 
lation in  Congress,  and  on  his  retirement  from 
the  Senate  took  a  still  more  proniinent  pan  in 
the  scheme  to  make  Kansas  a  slave  State  by 
encouraging  the  settlement  of  Southern  im- 
mif^rants  in  the  territory.  When  the  conltest 
was  ended  by  Kansas  becoming  a  free  State 
he  withdrew  from  publtc  life  and  retired  to  his 
farm  in  Clinton  County.  He  was  United 
States  Senator  when  President  Polk's  term  ex- 
pired on  the  3d  of  March,  i849,and  as  tlie  ne.Kt 
day,  March  4th,  the  usual  day  ior  inaugurating 
Ae  President,  was  Sunday,  the  cereoiony  of 
inangnratincj  President  Taylor  was  postponed 
to  the  5th — and  this  made  Senator  Atchison, 
of  Missouri,  who  was  president  of  the  Senate 
at  the  time,  acting  President  of  the  United 
States  for  a  day. 

Athene,  Battle  of.— On  the  i5(h  of  Au- 
gust, 1861,  a  battle  was  fouglu  at  Athens,  a 
viflage  in  Clark  County,  Missouri,  on  the 

Iowa  lx>rder,  twenty  miles  from  Keokuk,  be- 
tween eight  hundred  mounted  Confederate 
sympathizers,  under  Colonel  Martin  E.  Green, 
brodier  of  United  States  Senator  James  ?. 
f>reen.  and  four  hundred  I'nion  Home  Guards 
of  Clark  County,  under  Colonel  David  Moore, 

supported  by  two  hundred  Union  volunteers 
from  Keokuk.  The  Confederates  began  the 
attack  at  9  o'clock  in  the  morning,  and  the 
fight  was  si)iritcdly  maintainrd  on  both  sides 
for  an  hour,  when  the  Confederates  retreated, 
leaving  nine  men  dead  on  the  field,  iMstdes  a 
number  of  wounded.  The  Union  men  lost 
three  killed  and  eighteen  wounded.  ' 

Atkinnun,  Edwin  Jefferson,  physi- 
cian, was  born  at  Emerson,  near  Palmyra,  Ma- 
rion County,  Missouri,  July  12,  1830,  scm  of 
Joel  and  Jane  C.  (Jones)  Atkinson.  Both  his 
parents  were  natives  of  Garrett  County,  Ken- 
tucky, and  both  were  descended  from  old  Vir- 
ginia stock.  They  came  to  Missouri  from 
Kentucky  in  October,  1828,  and  took  up  land 
in  Marion  County,  developing  the  farm  which 
became  the  homestead  on  which  the  subject  of 
this  sketch  was  born.  They  brought  with 
them  two  children,  and  Dr.  Atkinson  was  the 
third  child  in  the  family.  After  attending  the 
district  schools  of  Emerson,  the  latter  devoted 
three  years  tothc  joint  task  of  teaching  country 
schools  auid  reading  medicine.  After  as  thor- 
ough a  preparatory  course  of  reading  as  those 
early  times  in  Missouri  permitted,  he  entered 
the  American  School  of  Medicine  at  Cincinnati, 
Ohio,  from  which  he  was  graduated  in  March, 
1856,  with  the  degree  of  doctor  of  medicine. 
Returning  to  Emerson  he  engaged  in  practice 
there  for  about  a  year,  and  then  removed  to 
Novelty,  Knox  County,  Missouri,  where  he 
opened  an  office,  remaining  there  until  1867. 
In  that  year  he  located  near  CarroUton,  Car- 
roll County,  Missouri,  and  continued  in  prac- 
tice until  June,  1872,  when  he  located  in 
Nevada.  Since  the  latter  year  he  has  enjoyed 
an  extensive  practice  in  tiie  last  named  city 
and  vicinity,  becoming  recognised  as  one  oif 
the  most  skillful  of  physicians,  as  well  as  one 
of  the  most  useful  members  of  society.  In 
18K4,  upon  the  organization  of  the  Citizens' 
Bank  of  Nevada,  he  became  vice  president  of 
that  institution,  which  position  he  filled  one 
year.  He  is  now  a  stockholder  and  director 
in  the  Thornton  Bank  of  Nevada.  Dr.  Atkin- 
son has  been  a  member  of  the  Masonic  frater- 
nity shice  1862,  and  his  name  is  now  enrolled 
with  .Ararat  Temple  of  Kansas  City,  Missouri, 
as  a  Noble  erf  the  Mystic  Shrine.  He  is  also 
a  member  of  the  ordtTS  of  Odd  Fellows,  the 
Knights  of  Pythias  and  the  Ancient  Order  of 
L'nited  W^orkmen.  He  takes  especial  pride  in 
the  fact  tliat  he  has  filled  every  chair  in  every 

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temperance  order  which  has  existed  in  the 
United  Staetes,  beginning  with  the  old  Wa«hmg^ 

toiiian  Society.  He  took  the  total  abstainer's 
oath  when  he  was  a  youth  of  seventeen  years, 
which  he  has  faithfully  observed  ever  since; 
and  since  his  marriage  he  has  never  used  to- 
bacco  in  any  form.  These  facts  account  in  a 
large  measure  for  his  splendid  physical  con- 
dition at  the  age  of  seventy  years,  for  he  is 
now  apparently  in  the  prime  of  his  manhood 
and  bears  little  indication  of  having  attained 
that  age.  He  has  been  a  member  of  the  Chria- 
tian  Cliurch  since  1S47,  .md  for  a  long  period 
held  ofhce  in  that  society.  Dr.  Atkinson  was 
married  at  Emerson,  Missom-i,  February  3, 
1853,  to  Eliza  C.  Kelly,  daughter  of  John  and 
Minerva  (Mann)  Kelly.  .She  is  a  native  Ken- 
tucky, and  a  representative  of  an  old  taniUy  of 
the  Blue  Grass  State.  They  have  been  the 
parents  of  five  children,  of  whom  three  are  liv- 
ing— Minerva  Jane,  wife  of  W.  S.  Creel,  of 
Nevada;  Edwin  K.,  a  coal  merchant  of  Ne- 
vada, and  Mary  Joel,  wife  of  John  T.  Harding, 
who  is  associated  in  the  practice  of  Uie  law 
with  HotK>rable  Charles  G.  Burton,  of  Ne- 
vada. Dr.  Atkinson  is  one  of  the  oldest  and 
most  highly  e.<;tccmcil  medical  practkioners  in 
southwest  Missouri,  and  his  practice  in  Ne- 
vada, covering  a  period  of  twenty-eight  years, 
has  been  attended  with  success  such  as  has 
fallen  to  the  lot  of  few  of  his  contemporaries. 
He  is  a  man  of  very  high  moral  character,  and 
his  career  has  been  of  a  nature,  viewed  from 
any  point,  such  as  to  render  it  a  splendid 
model  for  die  youth  of  die  twentieth  century. 

AtkiiiHoii,  Henry. — A  distinguished  of- 
ficer of  the  United  States  Army,  who  saw 
much  service  in  the  West  and  died  at  Jefferson 
Barracks,  June  i  |.  1842.  He  was  !)orn  in 
1782.  and  was  appointed  to  the  army  from 
the  State  of  North  Carolina  in  1806,  being 
a'^signecl  to  dtitv  as  a  captain  of  t!ie  Third  In- 
fantry. In  1813  he  was  made  inspector  gen- 
eral and  became  colonel  of  the  Forty-fifth 
Infontry  in  1R14.  In  1821  he  WttS  made  a 
brigadier  general,  and  a  little  later  adjutant 
general  of  the  army.  He  commande<l  the 
regulars  engaged  in  the  Black  Hawk  \\  ar  and 
defeated  the  Indians  in  the  battle  on  Bad  Axe 

Atlanta. — A  village  in  Macon  Coiintv,  on 
the  Wabash  Railroad,  twelve  miles  north  of 
Macon.  It  was  laid  out  in  1858.  The  town 

has  a  good  public  school.  Baptist  and  Method- 
ist Episcopal  Churches,  a  bank,  flouring  mill, 
a  hotel,  and  about  twenty  stores  and  other 
business  places.  A  paper,  the  "News,"  is  pub- 
lished in  the  place.  Population  in  1899  (esti- 
mated), 8oa 

Atterbury,  G.  B.y  a  pioneer  of  DeKalb 
County,  was  bom  in  South  Carcdina  in  1799, 
and  died  in  DeKalb  County,  Missouri,  in 
1882.  In  1803  he  was  taken  with  his  fatlier's 
family  to  Kentucky,  where  he  lived  until  1817, 
when  he  came  to  Missouri.  He  lived  three 
years  in  Cooper  Coimty,  and  then  crossed  the 
^lissouri  River  into  Howard  County,  where 
he  lived  until  1844,  when  he  removed  to  De- 
Kalh  ("onnty  and  engaged  in  farming.  He 
held  various  oihces  and  was  an  influential  and 
honorable  citixen. 

Attorney  General. — The  chief  law  of- 
ficer and  counselor  of  the  State.  He  gives  his 
opinions  in  law  points  and  on  the  meaning  of 
statutes  when  requested  by  the  Governor  and 
othtT  State  officers,  and  represents  the  State 
in  all  cases  in  which  the  State  is  a  party  in  the 
Supreme  Court,  and  has  authority  to  institute 
and  prosecute,  in  tlie  name  of  the  State,  suits 
necessary  to  protect  its  rights  and  interests. 
The  Attorney  General  is  elected  by  the  people 
and  holds  office  for  four  years. 

Attorney 8  General. — ^The  following  is 
a  full  and  accurate  list  of  the  Attomejrs  Gtn- 
eral  of  Missouri  from  1820  to  1900 : 

Edward  Bates,  St.  Louis. — Appointed  by 
Governor  McNair,  September,  1820.  Re- 
signed in  1821.    Died  March  25,  1869. 

Riifus  I'aston.  St.  Louis. — Appointed  by 
Governor  McMair,  December,  1821.  Died 
January  31,  i8a6. 

Robert  W.  Wells,  Cole  County. — Appointed 
by  Governor  Miller,  January  21,  1826,  and. 
continued  in  office  to  Sqitember,  1856,  ten 
years,  and  died  at  Bowling  Green,  Kentttcky» 
September  22,  1864. 

Wm.  B.  Napton,  Howard  Cotnty. — Ap- 
pointed by  Governor  Dunklin,  September, 
1836  Resigned  February,  1839^  and  died 
January  8,  1883. 

Samuel  M.  Bay,  Cole  County. — ^Appcnnted 
by  Governor  Boggs,  February,  1839.  contin- 
ued to  March,  1845,  years,  and  died  in 
July,  1849; 

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Benjamin  F.  String^ellow,  Chariton  County. 
Appointed  by  Governor  Price,  March,  1845 ; 
reined  January^  1849,  and  died  in  Chicago 
while  on  a  \nsit  to  a  son-in-law,  April,  1891. 

Wm.  A.  Robards,  Boone  County. — Ap- 
pointed by  Governor  King,  Jamary,  1849. 
Died  in  JeffenKMi  Qtyt  of  chDlera»  SqifiBinber 
3. 185 1. 

Junes  B.  Gifdenhire,  Buchanan  County. — 
Appointed  by  Governor  King,  September, 
185 1.  Elected  by  the  people,  August,  1852, 
for  four  years.  Total  term  of  service,  five 
years.    Died  in  Fayette,  February  20,  1862. 

Ephraini  B.  Ewing,  Ray  County. — Elected 
for  four  years,  August,  1856.  Resigned  Sep- 
tember I,  t8s9w  Died  June  23, 1873. 

James  Proctor  Knott,  Scotland  County. — 
Appointed  by  Governor  Stewart,  September  2, 
fSssK  in  place  of  E.  B.  Ewing,  resigned. 
Elected  August,  i860,  for  four  years,  but  failed 
to  qualify.    Now  a  citizen  of  Kentucky. 

Aikman  Welch,  Johnson  County.  —  Ap- 
pointed by  Governor  (iamble,  December  21, 
1861,  in  place  of  J.  Proctor  Knott,  who  failed 
to  qualily.   Died  July  29,  1864. 

Thomas  T.  Critteiulen,  Lalayette  Ootinty. 

Appointed  by  (invornf>r  Hall,  September  3, 
1864,  in  place  of  Aikman  Welch,  deceased. 
Is  yet  livfaig  in  Kansas  City. 

Robert  F.  Wingate,  St.  Louis  .  Elect  eri 
November,  1864,  for  four  years.  Died  in  St. 
Louis,  November  12,  1897. 

Horace  P.  Johnson,  Cole  County. — ^Elected 
Novemlx^r,  186S.  for  two  years.  Do  not  know 
whether  living  or  dead. 

A.  J.  Baker.  Putnam  County. — Elected  No- 
vember, 1S70,  for  two  years.  Resides  in  Iowa. 

Henry  Clay  Ewing,  Cole  County. — Elected 
November,  1873,  for  two  years.  Still  lives  in 
JeflFerson  City. 

John  A.  Hockaday.  Callaway  County. — 
Elected  November,  1874,  for  two  years.  Is 
yet  living  in  Fulton,  and  is  judge  of  the  circuit 

Jackson  L.  Smith,  Cole  County. — Elected 
November.  1876.  for  four  years.    Is  yet  living. 

Daniel  H.  Mclntyre,  Audrain  County. — 
Elected  November,  1880,  for  four  years,  and 
Hves  in  Mexico,  Missouri. 

Banton  G.  Boone.  Henry  County. — Elected 
November,  1884,  for  four  years.  EKed  in  Qin- 
ton,  Missouri,  February  11,  igoo. 

J.  NT.  \\'ood,  Clark  County. — Elected  No- 
vember, 1888.  for  four  years.  Resides  in  St. 

R.  F.  Walker,  Morg^an  County. — Elected 
November,  1892,  for  lour  years.  Resides  in 
St.  Louis. 

Edward  C.  Crow.  Jasper  County.^ — Elected 
November,  1896,  for  four  years,  and  is  yet  in 

Total  number  of  .Attorneys  General,  twenty- 
three.  Now  living,  ten,  namely,  J.  Proctor 
Knott,  T.  T.  Crittenden,  A.  J.  Baker,  H.  Clay 
Ewing,  John  A.  Hockadav,  Jackson  L.  Smith, 
D.  H.  Mclntyre.  J.  M.  Wood.  R.  F.  Walker 
and  E.  C.  Crow. 

WnxxAM  P.  SWITZUtX. 

Atwood,  LeGrand,  physician  and  med- 
ical educator,  was  born  October  16,  1832,  in 

La  Grang^e,  Tenn«ssee,  snn  of  Nathaniel  B. 
and  Elizabeth  (Fisher)  Atwood.  His  father, 
who  was  bom  at  Newburyport,  Maesachu-> 
setts,  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1819  and  engaged 
in  merchandising  m  that  city.  In  company 
with  Dr.  Samuel  Merry,  who  was  receiver  of 
United  States  moneys  in  St.  Louis,  the  elder 
Atwtx>fl,  cirlv  in  the  twenties,  dispatched  a 
train  to  Santa  l-'e,  New  Mexico,  whidi  was  one 
of  the  earliest  trading  ventures  of  St.  Louis 
ni'  Tvli.iiits  extended  to  that  remote  n-j^ion. 
Prominent  in  Masonic  circles,  Nathaniel  B. 
Atwood  was  a  member  of  the  committee  of 
Freemasons  appointed  to  extend  a  welcome  to 
General  Lafayette  on  the  occasion  of  his  visit 
to  St.  Louis  hi  1825.  He  £ed  in  i860.  The 
family  to  which  he  belonged  was  planted  in 
this  country  by  one  of  the  Pilgrims  who  came 
to  Pl>Tnouth,  Massachusetts,  in  1635.  Thia 
immigrant  ancestor  of  the  family  came  from 
Coulsdon,  a  parish  in  Surrey  County,  twelve 
miles  soutJi  of  Lmdon,  England,  and  among 
hb  descendaiAs  were  some  of  the  active  and 
prominent  participants  in  the  Revolutionary 
War.  Of  this  family  also  was  Harriet  At- 
wood Newell,  wife  of  Rev.  Samuel  Newell, 
both  of  u^hom  were  famous  as  missionaries  to 
India.  Elizabeth  Fisher  .Atwood,  the  mother 
of  Dr.  Atwood,  who  was  bom  at  Murfrees- 
boro»  Tennessee,  and  who  died  in  1887,  was  a 
descendant  of  Pierre  Le  Grand,  who  settled 
on  the  James  River,  near  Richmond,  Virginia, 
early  in  the  seventeenth  century.  The  Le 
Grand  family  emigrated  from  Roliain.  France, 
to  escape  religious  persecution,  in  1699,  and 
settled  at  Tenby,  South  Wales.  From  there 
they  came  with  the  Flournoy  and  Nash 
families  to  this  country.  The  son  of  Pierre 
Le  Grand  married  Lucy  Nash,  a  sister  of 

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Governor  Abncr  Nash,  who  was  Governor  oi 
North  CBit^na  from  1779  to  1761,  and  wai 

prominent  and  influential  in  Revolutionary  af- 
fairs. Lucy  Nash  was  also  a  sister  oi  Francis 
Nash,  brigadier  general  of  the  Nortfi  OuoUna 
contingent  in  the  Revolutionary  War,  who  fell 
mortally  woimded  at  the  battle  of  German- 
town,  October  4,  1777.  Both  General  Francis 
Nash  and  Governor  Abner  Nash  were  grand- 
nncles  of  Dr.  Le  Grand  Atwood.  Dr.  Arvvood 
was  reared  in  St.  Louis,  and  was  educa/ted 
chiefly  ait  the  cbssieid  school  of  Profesaor  Ed- 
ward Wyman.  In  1847  he  began  the  study 
oi  medicine  under  the  preceptorship  of  his 
kinsman.  Dr.  Joseph  Nash  McDowell,  one 
of  Hie  most  cminem  surgeons  of  his  day.  He 
aMended  lectures  at  Missouri  Medical  College 
and  was  graduated  from  that  institution  in 
1851,  before  he  was  nineteen  years  oi  age. 
During  the  spring  and  summer  of  1851  he 
practiced  his  profession  ai  St.  Louis  and  then 
removed  to  Pofeori,  Missouri.  In  ilie  spring 
of  1852  he  crossed  the  plains  to  California,  and 
for  a  year  thereafter  practiced  in  one  of  the 
mining  camps  of  the  Pacific  Coast  r^on.  At 
the  end  of  that  time  he  established  himsi-lf  in 
practice  in  San  Francisco  and  remained  there 
until  1855.  In  the  year  last  named  he  re- 
turned to  St  Louis,  and  during  the  two  years 
following  practiced  at  Miami,  Missouri. 
Thereafter,  until  1863,  he  was  in  practice  at 
Marshall,  Missouri,  and  from  1863  until  1878 
at  Bridgcton,  Missouri.  He  then  rrturncd  to 
St  Louis, and  continued  his  professional  labors 
in  that  cky  until  1886,  when  he  was  appointed 
superimendent  of  the  St  Louis  Insane  Asy- 
lum. After  filling  that  position  for  five  years 
he  was  made  superintendent  of  the  State  In- 
sane Asylum  at  Fulton,  Missouri,  and  filled 
that  position  for  one  year,  after  which  he  re- 
sumed liie  private  practice  of  his  profession  in 
St  Louis,  having  his  residence  at  Ferguson, 
Missouri  At  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil  War 
Dr.  Atwood  was  appointed  surgeon,  with  the 
rank  of  csftain,  in  the  first  regiment  of  die 
Missouri  State  Guard,  coininandcd  by  Colond 
— afterward  General — ^John  Marmaduke.  He 
w«s  a  participant  in  the  first  battle  ait  Boon- 
ville  against  Lyon  and  Blair,  and  afterward 
was  appointed  surgeon  of  the  second  regi- 
ment, under  Colonel  Dills,  of  Cooper  County. 
While  serving  as  surgeon  of  the  last  named 
regiment  he  took  part  in  the  engagement  at 
Drywood,  and  was  post  surgeon  in  charge  of 
aU  the  Southern  wounded.  In  the  battle  of 

Lexington,  after  the  first  engagement,  he  was 
a  prisoner  to  Ccriond  Mulligan,  under  orders 
from  General  Price,  for  scA  cral  days,  being  as- 
signed to  the  duty  of  attending  the  Southern 
wounded  wMiin  the  Federal  picket  line.  After 
the  engagement  he  was  instructed  to  remove 
severely  wounded  officers  to  a  place  of  safety 
and  then  to  report  for  other  duty.  While  obey- 
ing these  orders  he  was  captured  by  Fedcval 
soldiers.  Throughout  the  war  he  was  an 
earnest  and  consistent  champion  of  the  South- 
ern cause,  and  contributed,  as  far  as  lay  in  his 
power,  to  advance  that  cause.  In  politics  he 
has  always  been  a  staunch  Democrat,  and  at 
different  times  he  has  taken  a  prominent  and 
active  part  in  political  campaigns.  He  was 
chairman  of  the  Democratic  congressional 
committee  of  tiie  Hiird  District  from  1876  to 
1884,  and  acting  dector  on  the  Tilden  presi- 
dential ticket  from  the  Third  District  in  1876. 
In  1896  he  was  a  congressional  nominee  in  the 
Tenth  District ;  was  mayor  of  Ferguson,  Mis- 
souri, during  the  years  1897  and  1898,  and  at 
the  present  time  is  the  representative  of  Mis- 
souri in  the  National  Association  of  Demo* 
cratic  Clubs.  In  the  educational  work  of 
bis  profession,  and  as  a  member  of  various 
medical  societies,  he  has  been  no  less  promi- 
nent than  as  a  practitioner.  He  has  been 
president  of  the  St.  Louis  Medical  Society, 
vice  president  of  the  Missouri  State  Medical 
Association,  and  chairman  of  the  committee 
on  arranEfeinenfs  of  the  .Xnu-rican  Medical 
Association.  He  has  also  held  tiie  diairs 
of  physiohigy,  therapeutics  and  t(»ricoIo^, 
and  mental  and  nervous  diseases,  .uh!  still 
retains  the  last  named  professorship  in  Beau- 
mont HospitBl  Medi^  College.  He  was 
mainly  instrumental  in  obtaining  the  largest 
appropriation  ever  made  by  the  State — an  ap- 
propriation of  $80,000 — for  the  St.  1-ouis  In- 
sane Asylum,  and  has  materially  a.s.sisted  in 
the  preparation  of  health  bills  and  bills  regu- 
lating the  practice  of  medicine  in  Missouri, 
and  in  securing  their  passage  by  the  Legisla- 
ture. In  the  many  responsible  positions  to 
which  he  has  been  assigned  by  his  profession, 
it  has  been  a  labor  of  love  wi^  him  to  uphold 
the  hit;Iiest  standards  of  professional  honor, 
and  he  has  devoted  himself  to  the  inculcation 
and  maintenance  of  the  principles  contained  in 
the  American  code  of  ethics,  winning  thereby 
the  plaudits  of  his  worthy  professional  breth- 
ren. He  was  baptized  into  the  Presbyterian 
Church  in  1835,  by  Rev.  William  Potts,  <rf  St 

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Louis,  and  has  alwavs  been  an  attendant  of 
that  church.  Since  1865  he  has  been  a  mem- 
Iwr  of  the  Masmiic  fraternity,  and  has  held 
various  offices  in  that  order,  being-  at  the  pres- 
ent time  worshipful  master  of  Ferguson 
Lodge,  No.  543.  February  21,  i860,  Dr.  At- 
wood  married  Miss  Eliza  J.  Cowan,  of  Shelby- 
ville,  Tennessee.  Mrs.  Atwood  was  a  devoted 
Presbyterian,  who  came  of  Scotch-Irish  par- 
entage, lived  and  died  in  the  faith  of  her  an- 
cestors, and  was  an  exemplar  of  e\'ery  Chris- 
tian virtue  and  excellence.  She  died  January 
II,  1894.  Hieir  diildren  are  Hden  L.,  John 
C,  Annie  E.,  \\'iniaai  L.,  Tom  C,  and  Le- 
Grand  L.  Atwood. 

Aubrey, F.  X.— A  citizen  of  St  Louis  and 
a  Santa  Fe  trader,  who  became  prominent  in 
1848  for  a  famous  ride  which  he  made  from 
Santa  Pe,  New  Mexico,  to  Independence,  Mis> 
souri,  and  who  a  few  years  afterward  met  with 
a  tragic  death.  Aubrey  was  a  French  Cana- 
dian, who  came  to  St.  Louis  in  the  thirties,  and 
was  for  a  time  clerk  in  the  carpet  store  of 
Eugene  Kelly,  who  subsequently  removed  to 
New  York  and  became  wealthy  and  eminent 
as  a  banker.  While  still  a  young  man,  Aubrey 
went  out  to  Santa  Fc  and  established  a  tradinp; 
store.  There  was  a  constant  intercourse  be- 
tween St  Loais  and  Saitta  Fe,  and  freighting 
trains — as  they  were  called — were  continually 
going  out  in  the  spring  and  summer  from  In- 
dependence to  points  in  New  M«dco.  It 
took  these  trains  about  three  months  to  make 
the  trip,  and  on  horseback  it  consumed  usually 
diRe  or  fotir  weeks.  Aubrey  undertook  to 
make  the  ride  without  stop^ng,  by  means  of 
relays  of  horses  -and  he  accomplished  the 
feat,  riding  from  Santa  Fe  to  Independence  in 
nine  days  and  a  few  hours,  not  hahing  rither 
to  eat  or  sleep.  After  the  second  day  out,  as 
he  reached  th<e  successive  stations  on  the  way, 
and  made  a  remount,  he  had  himself  strapped 
to  his  horse,  so  that  he  miglit  not  fall  off  as  he 
slept — the  true  and  faithful  plains  horses  fol- 
lowing;^ the  plain  trail  and  bearing  htm  in  a 
gallop  from  station  to  station.  His  arrival  at 
Independence  was  a  triumph,  and  the  ride  was 
announced  throughout  the  West  as  a  great 
achievement  of  courage  and  endurance.  One 
of  the  fastest  and  most  popular  Missouri  River 
boats,  bulk  and  brought  out  a  year  after- 
ward, was  named  X.  Aubrey."  The  hero 
of  the  feat  was  killed  in  a  bar-room  at  Santa 
Fe  about  the  year  1854,  by  Mayor  Waitman, 

who,  for  some  slight  and,  as  it  was  considered, 
insufficient  provocation,  stabbed  him  through 
tiie  heart  Aubnqr  was  of  small  ataitnn,  about 

five  feet  two  inches,  and  weifjhed  a  little  over 
one  hundred  pounds.  He  was  not  quarrel- 
some nor  violent,  but  quiet  and  modest  in 
manner,  and  there  was  universal  regret  among 
plainsmen  and  traders  at  his  untintely  death. 

D.  M.  Grissom. 

Aiichly,  Ijjiiat/,  one  of  the  prominent 
farmers  of  St.  Charles  County,  was  bom  De- 
cember 15,  1837,  in  St  Charles  Township,  in 
the  l  ounty  in  which  he  still  resides.  His  par- 
ents were  Antoine  and  Mary  (Lilleman) 
Auchly.  Tliey  were  natives  of  Lucerne, 
Switzerland,  who  immigrated  to  the  United 
States  in  1833.  When  they  reached  St.  Louis 
they  had  seven  children  to  care  for,  and  their 
entire  capital  with  which  to  hegm  life  in  a 
strange  land  was  seven  dollars.  They  located 
in  St.  Charles  Township,  where  the  father  en- 
gag:ed  in  farming  and  worked  at  his  trade  of 
carpenterinp;-.  Through  industry  and  econ- 
omy he  was  able,  after  a  time,  to  buy  a  forty- 
acre  farm,  and  this  he  added  to  in  succeeding 
years,  until  he  had  acquired  an  extensive  and 
valuable  holding  of  farm  property.  His 
death  occurred  in  1866,  and  that  of  his  wife  in 
1871.  The  son  alttended  the  public  and  private 
schcK^ils  in  the  neighborhood,  but  the  strnpglcs 
of  his  parents  in  making  a  home  curtailed  the 
time  he  would  have  been  glad  to  give  to  more 
thorough  school  training,  as  he  had  to  assist 
in  caring  for  the  family.  He  succeeded,  how- 
ever, in  acquiring  an  education  which  has 
been  ample  equipment  for  the  business  con- 
cerns of  life.  During  this  time  of  preparation, 
and  after  leaving  school,  he  remained  at  the 
family  home,  assisting  in  the  management  oT 
the  farm  and  performing  a  full  share  of  the 
labor.  Upon  the  death  of  his  parents  he  suc^ 
eeeded  to  the  ownership  of  tfie  homestead. 
He  is  recognized  as  one  of  the  most  pro- 
gressive and  successful  fanners  in  St.  Charles 
County,  and  has  succeeded  in  amassing  an 
extensive  and  valuable  landed  proj)crtv.  Dui^ 
ing  the  Civil  War  he  rendered  honorable  ser\'- 
ices  as  a  corporal  in  Company  G,  of  the  St. 
Charles  reginu  nt  of  enrolled  Missouri  militia. 
In  politics  he  is  a  Democrat,  and  his  religious 
affiliations  are  with  the  Catholic  Church.  He 
»  a  trustee  and  one  of  the  most  active  and  lib- 
eral members  of  the  historic  old  church  of  St 
Peter's,  which  gives  its  name  to  the  town  in 

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which  it  is  situated.  Mr.  Auchly  was  married, 
June  2,  1869,  to  Mus  Katherine  Brown, 

daughter  of  Godfrey  and  Theresa  Brown,  of 
St.  Charles  Township.  Her  father  was  one  of 
the  early  settlers  there,  having  immigrated 
frxjm  Baden,  GcrinaDy.  To  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Auchly  eleven  children  have  been  Ixtrn,  of 
whom  nine  are  living.  They  arc  Joseph  God- 
frey, Mary  Ann,  Albett  Ignatz,  Matilda  The-,  Lec.  Robert  George,  Oscar  Charles, 
\\  alter  Joseph,  and  John  Auchly. 

Andit<»r  of  Statt'. — The  office  of  State 
Auditor  is  in  some  respects  the  most  impor- 
tant one  in  the  State  government.  The  Aud- 
itor ascertains  the  amount  of  taxes  due  from 
each  county,  and  settles  with  the  cmmty  col- 
lectors fur  these  amounts ;  issues  warrants  on 
4he  State  treasury  to  persons  entitled  to  them, 
and  makes  the  estimates  upon  wliioli  the  Gen- 
eral .Assembly  votes  appropriations.  His  re- 
ports are  comprehensive  and  valuable  state- 
niejits  *if  the  receipt.s,  expendittire.s.  debt, 
resources  and  funds  of  tlie  State,  iinanciai 
condition  of  all  the  State  penal  and  eleemosy- 
nary tnstituticim,  and  of  the  history  and  con- 
dition of  the  county  and  towuslii])  debts.  He 
is  chosen  by  the  people,  holds  his  oHice  for  a 
term  of  fotir  years,  and  receive*  a  salary  of 
$3dOOO  a  year. 

Audrain  County.— A  county  in  the 

northeast  central  part  of  the  State,  bounded  on 
the  north  by  Monroe  and  Ralls;  on  the  east 
by  Pike  and  Montgomery;  aotitli  by  Mont- 
gomery, Callaway  and  Boone;  and  west  by 
Boone  and  Randolph  Counties ;  area  439,000 
acres.  Audrain  is  one  of  the  counties  that 
lie  on  the  "divide"  between  the  Missouri  and 
Mississippi  Rivers.  Tlie  surface  of  the  county 
is  R^ciierally  high  and  undulating,  with  s^ut 
three-fourths  of  its  area  pndrie,tiie  remahider 
nri^^inally  wooded,  with  some  small  tracts  of 
bottom  lands  along  the  streams,  the  largest 
of  which  are  scarcdy  of  sufficient  size  to  de> 
serve  the  name  of  river.  The  principal  stream 
of  the  county  is  Salt  River,  which  rises  in  the 
•otttiiem  part,  and  flows  nt  a  nortlierfy  dtrec* 
tion  near  the  center.  Salt  River  has  numerous 
small  tributaries,  the  chief  ones  being  known 
as  Saling  Creek,  Long  Branch,  South  Creek, 
Young's  Creek,  Davis  Fork.  Beaver  Dam, 
Littleby  and  Skull  I.ick  Creeks.  In  the  east- 
em  part  of  the  county  is  West  Fork  of  Cuiver 
River  and  Hickory  and  Sandy  Credct.  The 

county  has  few  natural  flowing  springs,  and 
the  atreams  are  not  of  sufficient  faill  to  afford 

water  power.  Tlic  soil  is  generally  a  dark 
loam  containing  in  places  consideraible  sand, 
having  a  day  subsoU,  and  is  stnoeptiUe  of 
high  cultivation.  Nearly  90  per  cent  of  the 
land  is  arable  and  85  per  cent  is  under  culti- 
vaticm,  the  remainder  in  timber,  chiefly  white, 
black  and  burr  oak,  maple,  walnut,  hickory, 
sycamore  and  lind.  The  mineral  «if  the 
county  are  coal,  limestone,  potter's  clay  and 
fire  clay.  The  average  jridd  per  acre  of  tbie 
cereals  and  grasses  are  corn,  35  bushels  ;  wheat, 
12  btuhels;  oats,  30  bushels ;  clover  seed  3 
bushds;  timothy  seed,  3  i-a  Imahds;  timothy 
hay,  I  1-2  tons;  clover  hay,  2  tons.  Accord- 
ing to  the  report  of  the  Bureau  of  Labor 
Statistics  the  surplus  products  shipped  from 
the  county  in  i8q8.  were  cattle.  12,355  head; 
hogs,  66,815  head  ;  sheep,  12,529  head  ;  horses 
and  mules,  3,207  head ;  wheat,  633  bushels ; 
oats,  18,764  bushels ;  com,  3,766  bushels ;  flax 
seed,  2,132  bushels;  hay,  205.000  pounds; 
tlour,  3,963,530  ix)unds ;  corn  meal,  785 
pounds;  ship  stuff,  36.675  pounds ;  clover  seed, 
48,745  pounds :  timothy  seed,  588,080  pounds; 
logs,  12,000  feet ;  walnut  logs,  6,000  feet;  coal, 
8,704  tons;  brick,  1,371,300;  wool.  111,170 
pounds;  potatoes,  3,136  bushels,  poultry,  058.- 
082  pounds;  eggs,  540,390  dozen  ;  butter,  41,- 
634  pounds;  game  and  fish,  8,157  pounds ;  tal- 
low, 32,145  pounds;  hides  and  pelts,  116,950 
pounds;  apples  1,009  barrels;  fresh  frait,  21,- 
iSo  pounds;  honey,  6,141  pounds;  nursery 
stock,  31,280  pounds;  furs,  4,062  pounda; 
feathers,  27,780  pounds.  Other  articles  ex- 
ported were  cooperage,  clay,  ice,  melons,  vege- 
tables, lard,  beeswax,  cider  and  vinegar. 

It  is  probable  that  the  early  French  trappers 
and  hunters  visited  the  territory  that  is  now 
Audrain  Gmnty,  before  the  beginning  of  the 
nineteenth  century.  Long  before  the  advent 
of  white  men  there,  according  to  Schoolcraft, 
the  tribe  of  Indians  known  as  the  Missouria 
made  it  their  hunting  ground,  and  by  the  ag^ 
!.rrc?sive  Sacs  and  Foxes  and  the  Towas  wore 
driven  from  the  land.  For  many  years  after 
there  were  cultivated  farms  in  the  Audrain 
County  section,  the  Indians,  principally  the 
Sacs,  Foxes  and  lowas,  hunted  over  the  prai- 
ries, and  if  the  evidence  of  the  earliest  letitlers 
is  not  erroneous,  buffalo  was  the  chief  game 
they  sought,  in  different  places  skeletons  of 
those  animals  having  been  found.  The  earliest 
aulfaentic  record  of  w4iite  men  vidting'  tlic 

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"Sail  River  Region,"  as  the  country  now 
Audrain  County  was  called,  places  the  date  at 
i8i3,  when  a  ntunber  of  semen  on  Loutre 
Island  foUowed  a  band  of  horse-thieving  In- 
dians northwest  of  the  site  of  Mexico,  to  a 
point  on  a  creek  which  is  known  as  Skull  Lick. 
Here  the  party  camped  for  the  night,  and  were 
surprised  by  the  Indians,  who  killed  all  but 
one  member  of  die  party,  an  account  of  which 
is  given  in  the  sketch  of  Montgomery  County 
in  these  volumes.  Some  years  afterward  some 
travders  discovered  in  a  Uck  on  the  banks  of 
tins  stresun  some  human  skulls,  sufyposed  to 
be  those  of  the  men  killed,  and  from  these  facts 
the  creek  was  given  its  name.  It  was  about 
four  yean  after  this  massacre  that,  acoording 
to  the  most  reliable  tradition,  which  is  sub- 
stantiated by  irrefutable  evidence,  the  first 
permanent  settlement  was  made  in  the  country 
afterward  Audrain  County.  Tlie  name  of  the 
first  settler  was  Ro!>crt  Littlchy,  an  Ivncjlish- 
man,  who  in  1816  settled  on  a  small  stream,  a 
tributary  of  the  South  Fork  of  Salt  River, 
which  is  now  known  as  Littleby's  Creek. 
Traditions  of  the  other  early  settlers  are  that 
Littleby  lived  the  fife  of  a  hermit,  and  sus- 
tained himself  by  lutntint::  'i'><^'  trapping^.  For 
five  years  he  was  the  only  known  white  resi- 
dent of  the  bigr  territory  tint  became  Audrain 
County.  In  1822  Uttleby  removed  to  the 
Platte  River  country, where,  it  is  supposed, he 
died  a  few  years  later.  The  next  one  of  whom 
fbere  is  a  rdiiable  record  of  his  early  settlement 
in  the  territory  was  Benjamin  Younp.  a  native 
of  Stokes  County,  North  Carolina,  who,  in 
18I21,  took  tip  his  residence  in  iriiat  is  nowrthe 
northwestern  part  of  the  county,  on  the  creek 
w4iich  bears  his  name.  Young  had  been 
raised  wiA  the  Indians  and  took  unto  himsdf 
a  squaw  wife,  whom  he  later  cast  aside  for  a 
white  woman,  who  accompanied  him  to 
Missouri,  and  who  bore  him  a  number  of 
children.  He  was  killed  in  1833,  gored  to 
death  by  a  pet  bull.  Up  to  1827  there  were 
but  few  families  located  upon  land  in  Audrain 
County  territory,  and  there  was  no  marlced 
imrrirration  until  after  1830,  when  numerous 
emigrants  from  Kentucky,  North  Carolina, 
Virginia  and  Tennessee,  located  upon  land. 
Manyof  these  had  previously  settled  in  Mont- 
gomery, Boone,  Callaway  and  Howard  Coun- 
tict,fr(Mn  which  they  removed.  It  is  said  that 
in  1825,  two  brothen,  John  and  William 
Willingham,  who  had  for  some  time  resided  in 
Boooe  County,  took  up  their  residence  upon 

land  within  the  limits  of  what  is  now  .\udrain 
County.  In  1830,  among  those  who  located 
in  tiie  territory^  were  Joseph  McDonald,  Wil- 
liam Lavaugh,  John  Bamett,  Caleb  Williams, 
Black  Isam  Kilgore,  John  Kilgore  and 
Richard  Willingham.  Nearly  all  of  these 
here  named  moved  from  nearby  counties, 
where  some  years  before  they  had  located,  and 
about  all  were  natives  of  Kentucky.  John 
Kilgore,  according  to  a  short  history  of 
Audrain  County,  written  by  Judge  S.  M. 
Edwards,  now  (ic^)  a  resident  of  Mexico, 
located  upon  the  south  side  of  Davis  Fork, 
on  what  was  later  known  as  the  Mcllhanay 
iarm,  and  in  1831  there  was  born  to  him 
and  wife,  a  son,  the  fint  white  diild  bom  in 
Audrain  County  territory. 

.\ccordinj^  to  the  same  authority,  in  1834 
the  total  population  of  the  section  now  Audrain 
'County  did  not  exceed  thirty  families.  The 
people  were  noted  for  their  hospitality  and 
si>ciability.  To  go  fifteen  or  twenty  miles  to 
assist  a  "neigiibor"  at  a  liouse  raisin' "  or  to 
help  harvest  a  crop  was  considered  a  pleasur- 
able ta&k,  and  trips  on  horseback  to  St. 
Charles,  for  many  yean  the  nearest  trading 
point,  were  lo<^)ked  upon  as  plca'ianl  journeys. 
There  was  abundance  of  game  in  the  country 
and  the  hunt  supplied  all  ^e  fresh  venbon  and 
other  meats  that  constituted,  along  witii  com 
bread  and  rye  coffee,  the  chief  food  of  the 
settlers.  The  large  game  in  the  country  at 
that  time  was  elk,  deer,  bear  and  weaves,  the 
latter  causing  the  pioneers  great  annovance 
by  the  destruction  of  the  few  domestic  animals 
they  brought  into  tlie  country.  An  incident 
of  about  two  years  ago  discloses  that  the  early 
inhabitants  of  the  county  had  some  super- 
stitions ideas  regarding  cures.  J.  T.  Johnson, 
who  now  owns  the  farm  improved  by  the  late 
Judge  Doan,  was  clearing  away  some  timber 
near  where  the  old  residence  stood,  and  on 
cutting  down  a  large  oak  tree  and  splitting  it 
up,  found  near  the  center,  a  few  feet  above  the 
ground,  a  well  preserved  lock  of  human  hair. 
Inquiry  devek)ped  tint  a  aupeiaUtion  believed 
by  many,  years  ag-o,  was  that  croup  in  children 
could  be  cured  by  cutting  a  lock  of  hair  from 
the  child's  head  and  boring  a  hole  in  a  tree 
just  as  high  as  the  top  of  its  head  and  putting 
the  hair  into  it,  and  that  when  the  child  gre\v 
above  the  hole,  the  croup  would  disappear. 
Inqidry  from  some  of  the  olde^  memben  of 
the  Doan  family  revealed  that  this  belief  had 
been  prevalent  in  the  family,  and  that  about 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 



fifty  years  ago,  one  of  the  children  since  dead, 
was  severely  afiected  with  croup  and  phthisis. 

What  is  warn  Andi^  Coantjr  was  originally 
indttded  in  tlie  old  St.  Charles  District.  When 
Montgt>mer>'  County  was  organized,  Decem- 
ber 14,  1818,  the  unorganized  territory  west 
of  it  was  attached  to  it  for  militar>  and  civil 
purposes.  Callaway,  Boone  and  Ralls  Coun- 
ties were  created,  however,  in  November,  1820, 
and  for  civil  and  military  purposes  parts  of 
what  is  now  Audrain  County,  were  attached 
to  each,  and  when  Monroe  County  was  organ- 
ized, January  6,  183 1,  a  portion  of  the  unor- 
ganized territon,'  lying-  south  was  attached. 
January  12th  of  the  same  year  the  Legislature 
passed  a  supplemental  act,  defining  the  bound- 
aries of  Monroe  County,  and  also  "defined 
and  designated  a  completed  county,  to  be 
known  as  Audrain  County,  and  as  soon  as 
inhabitants  sufHcient  to  justify  a  representa- 
tive, it  shall  be  organized  and  entitled  to  all 
the  rights  and  privileges  of  all  01  the  other 
counties  in  the  State.  The  parts  of  aforesaid 
county  shall  remain  attached  to  CallaAvay, 
Monroe  and  Ralls  Counties"  for  civil  and 
military  purposes.  Thus  it  can  be  seen  that, 
when  the  counties  contiguous  m  AihIts  p. 
were  organized,  Audnun  remained  not  a  part 
of  St.  Charles,  as  erroneously  stated  by  some 
histofica]  writers,  but  an  unorganized  terri- 
tory, more  the  result  of  the  faulty  or  accidental 
outlining  of  the  boundaries  of  the  counties 
surrounding  it.  This  also  accounts  for  its 
peculiar  form,  which  is  different  from  any 
Other  county  in  Missouri.  Audrain  County 
was  formerly  organized  by  l^slative  act,  ap- 
proved December  17,  1836.  and  named  in 
honor  of  Charles  H.  Audrain,  a  prominent 
pioneer  of  St  Charles  County,  who  was 
a  member  of  the  State  Lejrislature  in 
1830.  In  1842  the  Legislature  passed 
an  act  further  defining  the  boundaries 
of  Monroe  and  Audrain  Counties,  and  a  strip 
of  territory  one  mile  wide — in  all  thirtv-one 
square  miles — was  taken  from  the  southern 
part  of  Monroe  and  added  to  Audrain  Ownity. 
As  at  that  time  defined,  the  boundaries  of 
Audrain  County  have  since  remained.  The 
act  organizing  Audrain  County  named  as 
commissioners  to  locate  a  permanent  seat  of 
justice,  (  "ornclius  Edwards,  of  Monroe,  Wil- 
liam iMartin,  ot  Callaway,  and  Robert  School- 
ing, of  Boone  County,  and  directed  that  they 
meet  on  the  first  Monday  in  June,  1837,  at  the 
house  of  Edward  Jennings,  in  "New  Mexico." 

An  amendatory  act  passed  January  20,  1837, 
changed  the  day  of  meeting  to  the  first  Mon- 
day in  March,  1837,  on  whidi  day  the  com- 
missioners met  at  the  place  designated.  In 
April,  1836,  Rev.  Robert  C.  Mansfield  and 
James  H.  Smith  laid  out  a  town  on  land  which 
they  had  entered  at  the  government  land  office 
and  called  the  town  Xew  Mexico.    They  plat- 
ted fifty  acres  into  lots  and  donated  to  the 
county  a  public  sqtmre  and  each  alternate  lot 
upon  condition  that  the  town  be  made  the  per- 
manent seat  of  justice.   This  donation  was 
accepted  by  the  commissioners,  and  was  ap- 
proved by  the  circuit  and  county  courts.  May 
4*  1^37*  ^  auction  sale  of  town  k>ts  was  held 
for  the  benefit  of  the  county  building  fund, 
and  later  that  year,  in  block  8,  lot  6,  fronting 
the  public  square,  a  log  courthouse  was  built. 
It  was  of  white  oak  logs,  18  x  36  feet,  one  story 
high,  "ten  feet  between  floor  and  ceilitig,"  and 
contained  two  rooms.     Tliis  building  was 
used  until  the  spring  of  1839,  when  the  second 
courthouse,  of  brick,  two  stories  high,  was 
built  on  the  public  square,  the  COUnty  court 
appropriating  $1,600  for  its  building.  This 
structure  served  tiie  county  until  i8<^,  when 
the  prr"«ent  substantial  courthouse  was  com- 
pleted at  a  cost  of  $42370.71.    In  July,  1870, 
the  county  purchased  a  farm  on  which  to  sus- 
tain its  poor.   Fortunately  the  number  of 
paupers  in  the  county  is  small  and  are  stip- 
ported  at  a  minimum  expense  to  the  taxpayers. 
The  members  of  the  first  county  court  were 
James    Harrison,   James   E.   Fenton  and 
Hezekiah  J.  M.  Doan.   February  6,  1837,  the 
first  meeting  of  the  court  was  held  at  the  house 
of  Edward  Jennings,  in  the  to^wn  of  Xew 
Mexico,  James  Harrison  and  James  E.  I'en- 
tott,  two  of  the  justices  being  present.  Jod 
Haynes  was  the  first  county  clerk.  The  session 
was  opened  by  William  Levaugh,  elisor,  who 
was  appointed  by  the  court,  James  Jackson, 
who  was  commissioned  sheriff  by  the  Gov- 
ernor, having  refused  to  qualify.   Later  James 
M.  Hicks  was  appointed  to  the  office  of  sheriff. 
The  first  business  of  the  county  court  was  the 
acccptrincc  uf  t!ie  bond  of  the  county  clerk. 
The  first  order  made  by  the  court  was  leave  to 
James  E.  Fenton,  one  of  its  number,  "for  sell- 
ing and  retailing  spirituous  liquors  and  gro- 
ceries at  his  house  in  the  town  of  New  Mexico 
for  six  months,  from  the  17th  of  December, 
1836,  upon  hi»  paying  a  tax  of  five  dollars ;  also 
a  tax  of  one-eighth  per  cent  on  ever}'  $150.'* 
After  making  this  order  the  County  of  Audrain 

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was  iiivided  into  five  townships,  named  re- 
ipectivdy,  Sa\mg,  Wilson,  Salt  Rtver,  Prairie 

and  Loutre,  and  it  was  ordered  that  elections 
in  each  township  be  held  on  the  28th  01  I-'eb- 
niarv-,  for  the  purpose  of  electing  two  justices 
ot  the  peace  and  two  constables.  John  A. 
Henderson  was  appointed  the  first  treasurer 
of  the  county.  At  a  subsequent  meeting  of  the 
cotut  die  report  of  the  eommisrioners  to  locate 
a  permanent  seat  of  justice  was  adopted,  and 
the  original  town  of  New  Mexico  became 
officially  known  as  Mexico.  The  amount  of 
non^  found  necessary  to  defray  the  ccunty 
expenses  in  1837,  was  $204.36.  From  the  sale 
d  town  lots  and  from  taxes  cdketod  at  tiie 
dose  of  the  year  1838,  the  county  had  in  its 
treasury,  after  payinp  all  expenses,  nearly 
$i.5uo,  which  was  used  for  the  purpose  of 
building  the  second  courthouse  of  the  county.^ 
At  the  first  general  election  held  in  the  county 
io  1838,  Jonah  B.  Hatten,  James  E.  Fenton 
and  GecN^  W.  GsMwdl  were  elected  county 
jnstices ;  John  B.  Morris,  county  clerk ;  John 
Willin^iam,  sheriff;  William  White,  county 
trcasnrer;  and  James  Jackson  was  deeted  tl^ 
first  representative  to  the  Lcgfislature  from  the 
county.  The  first  term  of  the  Circuit  Cotut 
for  Audrain  County,  as  directed  by  the  General 
Assembly,  was  held  on  March  13,  1837,  at  the 
house  of  Edward  Jennings,  Honorable  Priestly 
H.  McBrkle,  judge  of  the  second  judicial  dis- 
trict, presiding,  with  John  Heard,  circuit  at- 
torney: Tames  M.  Hicks,  sheriff;  and  Joel 
Haynes,  clerk.  The  first  case  before  the  court 
was  entMed,  The  Stale  of  Missouri  v.  Richard 
P.r\ant,  upon  indictment  of  larceny."  The 
members  of  the  first  g^and  jury,  were  Thomas 
Kilgore.  foreman;  William  Wood,  Eli  Smith. 
William  C.  West,  Adam  Cluck,  Joseph  Mc- 
t)onaId,  John  Peery,  Delaney  Willingham, 
John  Wood,  John  H.  Kilgore,  Roland  Mc- 
Intyrc,  James  Davis,  John  B,  Kilgore,  John 
W.  Barnett,  Joseph  Brown  and  Harrison 
Norvel.  The  first  attorneys  enrolled  for  prac- 
tice in  the  courts  of  Audrain  County  were 
John  Heard,  James  R.  Abemathy,  Sinclair 
Kirtley,  William  H.  Russell,  Henry  Cave, 
Phillip  Williams.  W.  R.  VarmsdaU  and 
Thomas  Miller.  During  the  earliest  sessions 
of  the  court  the  cases  to  call  for  attention, 
and  which  were  most  numerous,  were  the  bet- 
tiag  on  poker,  betting  on  three  up,  guidng, 
playing  poker  and  cards,  selling  liquor  without 
license,  etc.  The  first  indictment  for  murder 
wtt  returned  at  tiie  July  term  of  court,  1840, 

when  one  Monroe  or  Milroy  Powell  was 
charged  with  die  murder  of  George  Enbanks 
by  striking  him  over  the  head  with  a  weeding 
hoe.  In  this  case  the  instructions  to  the  jury 
by  the  court  were  of  considerable  length.  The 
trial  resulted  in  a  verdict  of  "manslaughter  in 
the  fourth  degree,"  and,  in  the  words  of  the  ver- 
dict rendered,  the  jury  "do  find  him  in  the 
sum  of  three  hundred  and  twenty-five  dollars.** 
I'owcll  was  sentenced  to  six  months'  imprison- 
ment in  the  county  jail  by  the  court.  How- 
ever, he  was  released  before  the  expiration  of 
his  term.  The  second  indictment  for  murder 
was  in  June,  1854,  when  one  Hart,  a  slave,  waa 
found  guilty  of  admimitering  poison  to  tiie 
slaves  of  John  R.  Croswhite,  and  in  1856 
Emily,  another  slave,  the  property  of  Thomas 
Lakin,  was  tried  for  infanticide.  One  of  the 
most  sensational  criminal  trials  to  occupy  the 
attention  of  the  court  was  that  of  James  N. 
Rodman  for  the  murder  of  Captain  John  W. 
Ricketts,  February  24,  1857,  on  the  outskirts 
of  the  western  part  of  the  town  of  Mexico. 
Ricketts  was  found  dead,  an  inquest  showing 
he  was  killed  by  a  shot  gun.  Rodman  was  ar- 
rested, tried  for  the  crime,  and  strong  circum- 
stantial evidence  was  adduced  against  him. 
After  two  or  three  trials  l3ie  defendant  was  ao- 
quitted  after  which  he  left  the  country.  On 
the  15th  of  June,  1878,  Stephen  J.  Moore  shot 
and  killed  his  brother-in-law,  Gentry,  in  a 
quarrel  over  Gentry's  dog  killing  hogs  belong- 
ing to  Moore.  ^Toore  was  tried  and  acquitted. 
On  the  night  of  September  30,  1879,  Octave 
Inlow  was  shot  and  killed  near  Mexico.  Joe 
Hicks,  Jake  Muldrow  and  Nathan  Faucett,  all 
colored,  were  accused  of  the  murder,  and 
Emma  Prilly,  a  white  girl,  was  charged  with 
being  an  accessory.  All  accused  were  of  the 
lowest  stratum  of  society.  The  four  accused 
were  arrested  and  tried,  and  Faucett  and  Mul- 
drow found  guilty,  Hicks,  who  afterward  con- 
fessed to  firintr  the  shot,  was  acquitted  and  the 
girl  released  and  ordered  to  leave  Mexico. 
Later  she  returned,  confessed  to  her  complicity 
in  the  crime  .md  was  sent  for  a  tonn  of  ten 
years  to  the  penitentiary.  April  16,  1880,  Fau- 
cett and  Muldrow  were  executed  in  Mexico. 
On  the  6th  of  the  month  prior  (March  6, 1880) 
Walker  Kilgore  was  hanged  on  the  same 
scaiTold,  and  was  the  first  criminal  to  be  legally 
executed  hi  Audrahi  County.  Kilgore  was 
found  guilty  of  killing,  by  shooting,  S.  D. 
Willingham,  a  farmer*  January  27,  1879. 
There  have  been  numerous  other  murders,  bat 

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no  other  executions  in  the  county  since,  but 
generally  serious  crimes  have  been  confined 
to  the  lower  element  of  society.  I'rior  to 
l878An<iraiii  Countywas  iinfortunatf  in  hav- 
ing prosecuting  attorneys  whose  duties  were 
hampered  by  conditions  arising  out  ol  the 
Civil  War.  During  this  period  there  were 
some  murders,  but  cases  against  lawbreakers 
were  not  vigonratly  jranished  tintil  John  McD. 
Trimble  was  elected  to  the  office  of  prosecut- 
ing attorney.  He  immediately  set  about  to 
reform  abtnes  and  succeeded  adminbty.  Of 
nine  defendants  prosecuted  for  homicide  by 
him,  seven  were  convicted.  There  has  never 
been  a  lynching  in  Audrain  County,  and  only 
three  legal  executions,  as  herein  mentioned. 
Tlie  residents  of  the  county  from  its  earliest 
settlement  have  been  of  the  most  law-abiding 
class  and  crime  has  been  kept  at  the  mtnimnm. 

The  first  deed  recorded  in  the  county  was 
a  transfer  of  the  northeast  quarter  of  tlie  south- 
west qnarterof  Section  36,  Township  51,  Itaonge 
9,  containing  forty  acres,  to  John  F?.  M  orris 
by  William  Wood  and  his  wife,  Isabella,  the 
consideration  being  $102.50.  Tlie  fost  mar- 
riage in  the  county  took  place  Feibruary  a, 
1337,  the  contracting  parties  being  Samuel 
Riggs  and  Nancy  DoIIins,  who  were  married 
by  Robert  A.  Younger  (father  of  the  notorious 
Younger  hrothersX  a  minister  of  the  Methodist 
Episcopal  Church.  The  first  school  of  whidi 
there  is  any  reliable  recoid  was  started  in  iSsa* 
in  what  is  now  the  southern  part  of  the  county, 
in  a  log  building,  which  was  built  on  the  north- 
east comer  of  Section  35,  Township  50,  Range 
9,  about  six  miles  south  of  the  present  site  of 
Mexico.  Archibald  Gregg  was  the  first  teacher 
employed,  and  some  of  the  children  who  at- 
tended came  from  Callaway  County.  The 
first  sermon  preached  by  a  minister  was  in 
1832,  in  the  settlement  where  the  school  was 
located,  by  Rev.  Mr.  Hoxie,  of  the.Presbyte> 
rian  Church,  wlio  was  at  that  time  pastor  of  a 
chiu'ch  at  .-\uxvasse  in  Callaway  County. 
About  the  same  time  Rev.  Robert  A.  Younger 
and  a  Rev.  Mr.  Taze,  both  of  the  Metliodist 
Episcopal  Churcli  commenced  hoMing  meet- 
ings at  the  house  of  Madison  Dysart,  which 
was  later  known  as  Calhoun  Place,  located 
about  eight  miles  sotithwest  of  Mexico,  Tlie 
first  church  undoubtedly  to  be  established 
mthin  the  limits  of  Audrain  County  was  the 
Hopewell  Missionary  Baptist  Church,  organ- 
ized August  6,  1836,  with  a  menibersliij)  of 
fourteen  including  William  M.  Jesse  and  wife, 

and  William  Black  and  wife.  On  May  16, 
ii>40,  tlie  Davis  Pork  Regular  Baptist  Church 
at  Mexico  was  organtaed  with  a  membersliip 
of  nine.  The  same  year  the  Littleby  Metho- 
dist Episcopal  Church,  South,  was  organizctl. 
In  1850  the  Mexico  Presbyterian  Church  was 
esta^ilislicd.  Ten  years  prior,  in  1840,  the 
Mexico  Christian  Church  was  organized.  Be- 
fore the  building  of  churches  in  Mexico  all 
ministers  of  different  denominations  held  serv- 
ices in  the  courthouse,  wbich  was  a  recognized 
place  fcMT  rdigious  worship,  regardless  of  de- 
nomination. In  the  courthouse  nearly  all  the 
church  organizations  of  Mexico  first  held 
ser\'ices,  and  before  tlie  Catholics  had  a  diurch 
visiting  priests  from  other  parishes  read  mass 
in  the  court  room  to  the  members  of  tlieir  (lock. 
The  first  newspaper  published  in  Audrain 
County  was  the  "Weekly  Ledger,"  which  was 
established  at  Mexico  in  the  summer  of  1855, 
by  John  B.  Williams.  Mr.  Williams,  who  was 
well  known  as  a  newspaper  man  in  central 

Missouri, cnndtictcd  the  paper  un':!  iR56,\vhcn 
he  sold  it  to  William  D.  H.  Hunter  who  con- 
tinued its  publication  until  January,  x96a,  when 
fire  destroyed  the  office.    In  January,  1863,  a 
paper  called  the  "Audrain  County  Beacon" 
was  estabKshed  by  Captain  Amos  I^dd  and 
O.  A.  A.  Gardener.    In  1866  it  was  purchased 
by  John  T.  Brooks  who  changed  its  name  to 
the  "Mexico  Ledger."   In  March,  1872,  Col- 
ond  J.  E.  Htttton  purchased  the  paper  and  re- 
christened  it  the  "Intelligencer."    In  1879 
Colonel  Hutton  began  publishing  a  daily  edi- 
tion of  the  paper.  In  1885  the  paper  was  pur- 
chased by  Samuel  B.  dink,  who,  in  i8i>8, 
accepted  C.M.Baskett  as  partner,  and  in  1^00 
Cook  sold  his  interest  to  Baskett,  who  is  now 
its  publisher.    In  October.   1865.  W.  W. 
Davenport  established  the  "Messenger"  and 
soon  afterward  sold  it  to  M.  F.  Simmons,  who 
conducted  it  until  Sq»tember,'i874,  when  it 
was  purchased  by  J.  Linn  Ladd,  who  changed 
its  politics  from  Republican  to  Democratic,  re- 
christened  it  the  "Ledger."  and  in  1876  sold 
it  to  its  present  publisher,  R.  M.  White.  Mr. 
White  began  publishing  the  "Daily  Ledger" 
in  1886.    In  1859  the  "Audrain  County.  Ban- 
ner" was  started  by  William  H.  Martin,  but 
existed  only  a  few  montlis.   .\  paper  called  the 
"Signal"  was  established  in  1858  by  William 
A.  Thompson,  who  ran  it  for  about  two  yeara 
and  then  sold  it  to  Joseph  A.  Armstead,  who, 
after  publishing  it  for  about  a  year,  discontin- 
ued it.    In  October,  1868,  the  "Agriculturist" 

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was  started  hv  W.  G.  Church,  and  liver!  one 
year.  John  Beal  began  publishing  the 
"Mexico  MeiuBge'*  November,  1899.  The 
"State  Leader,"  a  Prohibition  paper,  is  pub- 
lished at  Mexico  by  Charles  E.  Stokes,  the 
candidate  of  that  party  for  Governor  in  1900. 
lo  October,  1868,  the  "Audrain  Expositor"  was 
Started  by  Ira  Hall.  J.  D.  Macfarlano  and  Mil- 
ton F.  Simmons,  and  existed  about  a  year. 
The  "Mexico  Union"  was  estal>lished  in  1878 
by  Harry  Day,  and  in  1879  was  acquired  by  C. 
A.  Keeton,  who  changed  its  name  to  the 
"Audrain  County  Press,"  which,  after  an  exis- 
tence of  a  few  years,  ceased  publication. 
At  diflfcrent  times  journalistic  ventures  were 
put  forth,  flourished  for  a  while,  and  died  nat- 
ural deaths  Prior  to  the  outbreak  of  the  Civil 
War  the  Whigs  and  the  Democrats  in  the 
county  were  about  equally  divided.  In  i860 
Lincoln  received  only  one  vote  in  Hie  county. 
When  the  realities  of  war  were  DO  longer  chi- 
merical, apparently  the  sympochies  of  the  peo- 
ple were  about  evenly  divided.  There  was  a 
large  conservative  element.  In  the  election 
of  1863  there  were  two  county  tickets  in  the 
fidd,  the  Anti-Emancipation  and  the  Uncon- 
dilioiial  Union.  So  evenly  divided  was  the 
sentiment  that  some  on  each  ticket  were 
deeted.  The  feeling  of  the  people  is  better 
explained  by  the  number  of  s^diers  furnished 
each  side.  The  records  of  the  Confederacy 
fail  to  throw  much  light  on  the  exact  nun:>ber 
from  the  county  who  took  up  aims  against  the 
Union.  Some  historical  writers  estimate  the 
number  at  from  three  to  four  hundred.  A 
careful  examination  of  the  poll  lists  and  the 
other  available  data  of  the  war  period  riiows 
tiiat  the  estimate  is  greatly  in  excess  of  the 
real  figure,  and,  as  near  as  can  be  ascertained, 
die  total  number  from  the  county  who  entered 
the  regular  Confederate  Army  was  104,  while 
the  number  enrolled  in  the  militia  and  regular 
service  in  support  of  the  Union  was  in  excess 
of  350,  During  ;he  war  there  was  one  small 
licirmish  within  the  county,  that  at  McClin- 
todc'a  barn,  in  the  northern  part  of  the  county. 
The  Confederates  were  under  the  command  of 
Captain  William  O.  Johnson. and. being  mostlv 
undisciplined  farmers  of  the  neighborhood, 
<lttickly  gave  way  at  the  first  fire  from  a  com- 
pany of  fiisciplined  Federal  troops.  No  one 
was  killed  on  either  side,  and  only  a  few  were 
slifshtly  wounded.  There  was  some  bush- 
whacking;, and  a  few  good  citizens  killed. 
Federal  soldiers  doing  guard  duty  at  Mexico 

shot  two  men,  William  Lockridge  and  Gar- 
land Surber.  Lockridge  was  trying  to  leave 
^e  town  on  hKNrseback  when  shot,  and  Smher, 
a  farmer,  had  brought  a  lotad  of  potatoes  to 
town,  and  his  horses,  becoming  friglitened  art 
the  shooting,  ran  away,  and  while  he  was  try- 
ing to  check  them  he  was  killed  by  an  igno- 
rant guardsman.  June,  1861,  a  portion  of  the 
Second  and  Eighth  Missouri  Regiments,  in  all 
about  600  men,  under  commaiid  of  Colonel 
Morgan  Smith,  took  possession  of  Mcxir  ^, 
and  remained  about  a  week.  Colonel  Smith 
was  relieved  by  Colonel  U.  S.  Gmt,  in  charge 
of  the  Twenty-first  Illinois,' who  remained  for 
abmit  three  weeks,  when  he  was  ordered  to 
Bird's  Point.  Colonel  Grant,  by  the  orderly' 
conduct  of  himself  and  soldiers,  gained  tlie 
respect  of  the  citizens  of  Mexico.  He  had 
his  headquarters  in  West  Mexico.  It  is 
stated  in  some  histories  published  that,  while 
at  Mexico,  Grant  was  made  a  brigadier  gen- 
eral, but  this  is  a  mistake.  He  received  his 
commission  as  brigadier  general  at  Ironton,  in 
Iron  County,  a  few  weeks  after  leaving  Mex- 
ico, and  the  spot  which  is  now  known  as 
Emerson  Park,  where  he  stood  when  his  com- 
mission was  received,  is  marked  by  a  fine  stattie 
of  him.  In  his  memoirs  Grant  speaks  of  his 
sojourn  at  Mexico.  In  1866  the  county  court 
of  Audrain  County  voted  $300,000  in  bonds  in 
favor  of  the  T>ouisiana  &  Missouri  River  Rail- 
road, known  at  present  as  the  Chicago  & 
Alton.  In  October,  1871,  ^e  company  com- 
pleted its  line  through  the  county  from  east 
to  west,  and  the  Fulton  branch  was  finished 
in  March,  1872.  As  in  other  counties  where 
railroad  bonds  were  voteda  some  of  the  people 
failed  to  heartily  support  the  scheme,  and 
tried  to  create  dissatisfaction  among  the  tax- 
payers. However,  the  conservative  and  pro- 
gressive element  in  the  county  prevailed,  with 
the  resuh  that  in  1880  the  last  cent  of  indebted- 
ness on  account  of  the  railroad  bonds  was 
paid,  with  the  utmost  satisfaction  to  the  tax- 
payers of  the  county  and  all  concerned  as  well. 
Had  the  elements  antagonistic  to  the  bonds 
predominated,  as  in  some  other  counties  of 
Missouri,  Audrain  would  have  been  precipi-  ' 
tated  into  costly  and  lengthy  litigation  that 
no  doubt  would  -have  caused  the  original  debt 
to  be  increased  into  the  millions.  Audrain 
County  is  divided  into  seven  townships  named 
respectively.  Cutver,  Lotilre.  Unn.  Prairie, 
Saling,  Salt  River  and  Wilson  The  assessed 
valuation  of  real  estate  and  town  lots  in  the 

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county  in  1899  was  $5,513,250;  estimated  full 
value,  $11,0^,500,  assessed  value  of  personal 
property,  including  stocks,  bonds,  etc,  $a,797,> 
495 ;  estimated  full  value,  $5,454,990 ;  assessed 
value  of  merchants  and  manufacturers,  $2^8,- 
835;  estimated  full  value,  $457,<^;  assessed 
value  of  railroads,  $1,435,35969.  Thrrc  are 
78  1-4  miles  of  railroad  in  the  county,  the  Chi- 
cago &  Alton  passing  from  the  nortiieast  cor- 
ner to  the  western  line,  with  a  branch  from 
Mexico  south  to  the  southern  boundary  line, 
and  the  Wabash,  entering  near  the  southeast 
corner,  and  passing  in  a  northwesterly  direc- 
tion to  the  center  of  the  western  boundary 

The  nmnlber  of  public  adiools  hi  the  county 
in  1900  was  99;  amount  of  permanent  school 
funds,  boCh  county  and  township,  $62,946.68. 
The  population  of  tiie  county  in  1900  was 
\fnx  f?ec  al^o  "Live  Stock  Interests  of  Au- 
drain County.")       GaOKOB  Robmwok. 

Anglais  B1t^«— This  is  a  small  stream 
thirty  miles  in  length,  which  rises  in  Laclede 
County  and  flows  north,  through  Camden  and 
MlUer  Counties,  uito  the  Osage,  fifteen  miles 
below  linn  Cfcek. 

Augrusta^A  town  hi  St.  Charles  County, 
on  the  Missouri,  Kansas  &  Texas  Railway, 
thirty^o  miles  southwest  of  St.  Charles.  It 
was  formerly  a  river  town  of  considerable  im- 
portance, but  a  change  in  the  river  channel 
made  the  landing  useless.  It  was  platted  by 
Leonard  Harold,  a  Pennsylvanian,  in  1836, 
and  was  eaUed  Mount  Pleasant.  The  village 
ers  were  German  immigrants  of  1834-6.  In 
1837  Julius  Mallinckrodt  laid  out  the  town  of 
Dortnrand,  one  mile  west,  but  tiie  river  left 
the  site,  and  the  project  was  abandoned.  His 
brother,  Charles,  taught  the  first  public  school 
in  the  county,  at  Augusta.  In  1856,  during 
the  existence  of  the  stringent  anri-liquor  laws, 
^e  Augusta  Harmonie-Verein,  a  social  organ- 
ization, -was  formed  in  a  tent  on  the  ice  in  mid- 
stream. For  twdve  years  afterward  it  met  on 
a  flatboat  in  the  river.  In  1867  it  was  incor- 
porated and  built  a  hall.  There  are  a  number 
of  churches  and  a  good  school.  Population. 

Anrora^A  city  in  Lawrence  County,  on 
the  St.  Louis  &  San  Francisco,  and  the  Kan- 
sas City,  Fort  Scott  &  Memphis  Railways, 
twelve  miles  southeast  of  Mount  Vernon,  the 

county  seat,  and  269  miles  s<-)uthwest  of  St. 
Lotiis,  skuatcd  upon  the  Ozark  Plateau,  at  an 
altitude  of  1,378  feet.   Waterworks,  erected  at 
a  coet  of  $37,500;  distribute  an  ample  supply 
of  die  purest  water,  derived  from  the  great 
spring,  covering  an  acre  in  area,at  the  head  of 
Spring  River;  the  pressure  affords  efficient  aid 
in  case  of  fire.    A  volunteer  fire  department 
inchides  two  hose  companies  and  one  hook- 
and-ladder  company;  there  are  two  depart- 
mental buildings,  with  reels  and  hose,  a  club 
room  and  a  gymnasium.    Excellent  electric 
light  and  telephone  service,  the  latter  connect- 
ing all  principal  points  in  tlie  mining  field,  are 
provided.  The  City  Hall  is  a  handsome  two- 
stofy  brick  edifice,  containing  the  city  offices 
and  a  spacious  auditorium,  erected  at  a  cost  of 
$6/xx).   The  police  force  consists  of  a  marshal 
and  four  men,  costing  $2,100  per  annum. 
Near  the  center  of  the  city  is  a  park,  compris- 
ing a  block  of  land,  the  gift  of  S.  G.  Elliott. 
Maple  Park  Cemetery,  comprising  forty  acres, 
situated  one  and  one-fourth  miles  south  of  the 
city,  was  bought  by  the  municipality  in  Jan- 
uary, 1900,  at  a  cash  outlay  of  $3,125.  The 
city  indebtedness  is  $14,^,  $ia,500  of  wMch 
is  on  waterworks  accourrt.    There  are  three 
substantial  brick  public  school  buildings,  two 
stories  high,  costing,  for  erection,  $20,000; 
$8,000  per  annum  is  expended  for  mainte- 
nance of  the  schools.   The  bonded  indebted- 
ness is  $9,000.    Seventeen  teachers  are  em- 
ployed, and  the  enrollment  of  pupils  in  attend- 
ance is  1,100.    The  high  school,  beginning  in 
1890,  has  graduated  hfty-six  pupils,  admissible 
to  die  Unhrersity  of  Missouri.  There  are  com- 
moflinns  churches  of  handsome  design,  of  the 
Baptist,  Christian,  Congregational,  Methodist 
Episcopal  and  Cumberland  Presbyterian  de- 
nominations.   The  fraternal  societies  include 
a  lodge,  chapter,  coromandery,  and  Eastern 
Star  Chapter  of  the  Masonic  order,  a  lodge 
an<l  encampment  of  Odd  Fellows,  the  Modem 
Woodmen,  tlic  Woodmen  0/  the  World,  the 
United  Workmen,  the  Knights  of  Pythias,  the 
Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  the  Home  Fo» 
rum,  the  Home  Paladium,  and  the  Select 
Knights  and  Ladies  of  America.   The  Aurora 
Fishing  and  Hunting  Qub,  wiHi  a  menrf>er- 
slii[)  of  forty-two,  o\\  n  a  cliibhonse  and  prop- 
erty valued  at  $2,000,  on  the  James  River, 
twenty-two  miles  south  of  the  city.  The  news- 
papers are  the  "News,"  daily  and  weekly, 
Democratic:  the  "Herald,"  daily  and  weekly, 
Republican;  the  "Argus,"  weekly,  Repub- 

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lican  ;  the  ".\<Jvertiscr,"  weekly.  Democratic; 
and  the  "Signal  Light,"  monthly,  Populist 
The  Miners'  and  Merchants'  Bank,  founded 
in  1884,  and  the  Bank  of  Aurora,  founded  in 
1887,  have  aggregate  capital  of  $60,000,  and 
as^gregate  deposits  of  nearly  a  half-million  dol- 
lars. The  indiutries  include  two  extensive 
tloiirmil!?; ;   a   foundry  and    machine  shop, 
largely  engaged  in  manufacturing  mining  ma- 
chiner>- ;  a  commill,  a  novelty  factory,  an  ice 
factoPi',  and  business  establishments  covering 
every  line  of  trade.   In  1900  the  population 
was  6,191.   The  town  was  platted  May  9, 
1870,  by  Stephen  G.  Elliott.    North  Aurora 
was  platted  in  June,  1886,  by  Carr  McNatt. 
Various  additions  were  made,  and  in  October 
following  the  town  was  incorporated  as  a  city 
of  the  fourth  class,  with  Carr  McXatt,  mayor; 
A.  R.  Wheat,  J.  D.  Coiuad,  Warren  Vertrees 
and  Henry  Weed,  aldermen,  and  Charles  Wal- 
lich.  marshal.    Aurora   derives  its  principal 
importance  from  its  extensive  and  highly  valu- 
able mineral  interests,  and  ranks  second  only 
to  Joplin  in  production.  In  1873  George  Ha- 
ley and  George  Connell  discovered  and  worked 
surface  lead  in  the  vicinity.    No  systematic 
mining  was  attempted  until  January,  1887, 
when  the  Aurora  Syndicate  Mining  Company 
was  organized,  and  began  work  on  an  exten- 
•hre  scale  on  the  Boyd  form  adjoining  t^e 
town.   In  October  following  the  richest  min- 
etal  depoiits  in  the  district  were  found  on  the 
Brinckeriioff  and  McCoy  lands.  The  princi- 
pal mines  now  in  operation  extend  east  and 
northeasterly  to  a  distance  of  nearly  three 
miles  from  the  business  center  of  the  city,  but 
some  mining  is  earned  farther,  and  in  other 
directions.  A  large  part  of  the  mining  grounds 
is  known  as  "Orchard  Camp,"  from  the  fact 
thflft  the  earlier  discoveries  were  made  hi  apple 
orchards.    All  the  mining  lands,  by  reason  of 
tiieir  contour,  have  natiu'al  drainage,  and  are 
covered  iritii  concentiiting  plants,  derricks, 
drill  plants,  cnulien,  mills,  and  the  debris 
from  excavation  and  crushing.    The  value  of 
concentrating  plants  runs  from  $4,000  to  $10,- 
000.  The  opmRhrea  employed  number  aiboat 
1. 000  men.  Saturday  payments  are  made,  and 
the  banks  are  open  under  electric  light  until 
10  o'clock  ait  night  for  the  aoeommodation  of 
the  long  line  of  men  who  receive  their  wages 
m  the  form  of  pay  checks.  In  1899  iQAny  cash 
•ales  of  mining  property  were  niade  aft  high 
prices,  in  one  instance  reacfaiiig  die  sum  of  a 
half-million  ddlars.   The  same  property  waa 

afterward  capitalized  at  an  enormous  sum,  the 
deed  requiring  internal  revenue  stamps  to  the 
value  of  $3,150.  In  1899  die  aggregate  out- 
put of  the  Aurora  mines  was  54,661,610 
pounds  of  zinc,  and  2S3.060  pounds  of  lead. 
The  aggregate  value  was  $954,178.  In  1900 
die  attendon  of  large  proprietors  was  centered 
upon  deep  mining.  Until  recently  it  was  be- 
lieved that  ore  existed  only  at  comparadvely 
shallow  depths.  On  the  Wheat  &  Loy  and 
the  Sand  Ridge  Mining  Company  lands  shafts 
have  been  stmk  to  a  depth  of  200  feet,  and 
drilling  haa  been  carried  on  to  a  total  depdi 
<rf  340  feet,  demonstrating  the  presence  of  a 
zinc  ore  deposit  sixty  feet  in  thickness,  and 
yielding  a  higher  grade  tlian  taken  from  any 
of  the  shallow  minea. 

Aurora  Springs.— An  incorporated  vil- 
lage in  die  western  pait  of  Miller  County,  on 

the  Jefferson  City  &  Lebanon  branch  of  the 
Missouri  Pacific  Railroad.  It  was  founded  in 
1880  and  enjoys  considerable  poptdarity  as  a 
health  resort,  a  mineral  spring  of  marked 
medicinal  properties  being  located  there. 
About  1885  it  reached  its  height  of  popularity. 
There  is  a  school,  a  private  academy,  churdi 
and  four  general  stores  located  there.  Popu- 
lation in  1899  (estimated),  421. 

Austin,  3IoseH. — A  native  of  Durham, 
Connecticut,  who,  after  a  residence  of  some 
years  in  Vii^finia,  settled  in  Upper  Loni^ana 
about  1780.  About  1797  he  was  granted  a 
league  of  land  in  what  is  now  Washington 
County,  Missouri,  and  which  is  known  as  the 
"Austin  Survey."  Forty  acres  of  this  land  he 
laid  oirt  in  town  lots,  and  it  now  comprises  a 
part  of  tlie  site  of  Potosi.  He  built  an  exten- 
sive lead  smelter  at  Potosi,  or,  as  it  was  then 
called.  Mine  a  Breton,  the  first  improved 
smelting  plant  in  the  territory  now  Missouri, 
and  west  of  the  Mississippi  River.  He  also 
started  a  shot-tower  and  a  sheet-lead  factory. 
His  reports  upon  the  mines  of  Missouri  Terri- 
tory, made  to  Captain  Amos  Stoddard  in  1804, 
are  the  most  authoritative  statements  of  the 
condition  of  mining  in  the  Territory  at  that 
period,  and  are  highly  valuable  for  the  histori- 
cal daita  they  contain.  In  1890  he  was  granted 
permission  by  the  Mexican  government  to  lo- 
cate a  colony  of  300  Americans  in  the  territory 
now  the  Stafte  of  Texas.  The  hardships  of  his 
long  ride  on  horseback  to  Mexico  resulted  in 
an  illness  that  caused  his  death.   He  died  on 

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the  Terre  Bleu,  now  in  St.  Francois  County, 
Missouri,  June  lo,  1821.  His  remasns  are 
buried  in  itfie  Presbyterian  cemetery  at  Potosi. 
For  many  years  his  prave  was  nej^lccted. 
Some  years  ago  a  report  had  been  circulated 
diat  hii  remains  had  been  petrified.  An  at- 
tempt was  made  by  vandals  to  steal  tlutti 
Digging  down  to  the  coffin  they  found  only 
tfie  tkdelon.  In  1895  a  dierry  tree  eig^een 
inches  ia  diameter,  which  had  grown  over  the 
grave,  was  cut  down,  and,  with  money  sub- 
scribed by  some  of  his  distant  relatives,  a  plain 
Stone  tomb  was  built,  wWch  now  marks  the 
I>lace  where  his  remains  rqwae. 

Austin,  Stephen  F.,  Missouri  states- 
man and  Texas  patriot,  was  born  in  Wythe 
County,  Virginia,  November  8, 1793,  and  died 
in  Texas,  December  27,  1836.  He  was  the 
son  of  Mosea  Austin,  the  pioneer  in  improved 
methods  of  lead-smelting  in  America,  a  Mis- 
souri pioneer,  and  the  founder  of  the  town  of 
Potosi,  in  Washington  County,  Missouri. 
Stephen  F.  Austin  accompanied  his  parents  to 
Missouri  in  1799.  He  was  educated  in  Con- 
necticat,  his  father's  native  State,  and  at  the 
Transylvania  University,  at  Lexing-tnn,  Ken- 
tucky. In  1818  he  was  elected  a  mender  of 
the  Missotni  territorial  Legislatore,  and  in 
1821  was  appointed  United  States  circuit 
judge  for  Arkansas.  His  father,  in  1820,  was 
granted  concessions  in  Mexico  upon  condi- 
tion that  he  locate  a  colony  of  three  htmdred 
families  there.  Dying  in  1821,  he  requested 
his  son  to  finish  the  work  of  colonization  that 
he  liad  undertidcoi.  By  tlie  Mexican  govern- 
ment the  privileges  granted  Moses  Anstin 
were  confirmed  to  his  son,  and  the  latter  faith- 
fnlly  carried  out  the  scheme  of  colonisation, 
locating  his  colony  on  tlie  P.razos.  It  is  a  fact 
well  authenticated  that  not  a  single  member  of 
Austin's  colony  was  ever  charged  with  theft 
or  misdejneanor,  nor  did  any  of  them  ever  oc- 
cupy a  felon's  cell.  After  reaching  the  Brazos 
with  his  colonists,  Austin  found  that  during 
his  absence  of  a  year  the  govemmeitt  of  Mex- 
ico had  changed,  necessitating  a  journey  on 
horseback  to  the  City  of  Mexico.  There  his 
ri^^ts  were  secured  on  April  4, 1823,  and,  after 
several  months  at  the  capital,  he  returned  to 
Texas.  Later  he  served  in  the  Coahuila  and 
Texas  Legislatures.  In  1833  he  was  sent  as  a 
commissioner,  with  a  draft  of  a  proposed  Con- 
stitution, asking  that  Texas  be  made  a  sepa- 
rate State.    His  request  was  never  answered. 

Starting  homeward,  in  December,  he  was  ar- 
rested, cast  into  prison,  and  lay  in  a  dungeon 
in  tlic  City  of  Mexico  until  July,  1835.  Re- 
turning to  Texas  the  following  September,  he 
found  a  revolution  opening  and  volunteers  or- 
ganising for  battle.  He  was  chosen  com- 
mander-in-chief, and  at  the  head  of  Ins  forics 
moved  upon  the  fortified  town  of  San  Antonio. 
In  the  nManttme  a  provisional  government 
was  fonned,  and  Anstin,  Branch  Archer  and 
William  WhartOQ  were  appointed  commis- 
sioners to  seek  aid  from  the  United  States. 
Wharton  and  Archer  favored  absolute  inde- 
pendence from  Mexico,  while  Austin  was  in 
favor  of  making  Texas  a  Mexican  State. 
Austin  visited  tlie  United  States  and  returned 
home  in  June»l836.  His  suflFerinf;:?  in  the  Mex- 
ican prison  had  wrecked  his  health,  and  in  a 
few  months  he  took  to  liis  bed,  from  which  he 
never  arose.  In  August  of  1836,  tliough  a 
sick  man,  he  was  a  candidate  for  President  of 
Texas  against  (General  Sam  Houston. 

Autt'iirieth,  George,  was  bom  in 
Stuttgart,  Germany,  August  1 1,  1843,  ^'^^ 
in  Oayton,  St  Louis  County,  Missouri, 
March  23,  1899.  He  was  the  son  of  Philip 
Adam  and  Cathrine  Barbara  (Roggenliauser) 
Autenrieth.  The  elder  Autenrieth  was  a  farmer 
and  wine-grower  of  Stuttgart,  who  emi- 
grated to  the  United  States  in  1864,  locating 
on  a  farm  near  Kirkwood,  Misscmri,  and  later 
in  Clayton,  where  he  died  in  October,  1881. 
After  acquiring  a  practical  education  in  the 
public  schools  in  his  native  town,  young  Au- 
tenrieth was  emplcnred  as  clerk  in  a  hotel  until 
1864,  when  he  came  to  the  United  States  with 
his  parents,  settling  with  them  on  the  farm 
near  Kirkwood,  where  he  remained  six  3rear8. 
In  1870  he  removed  to  Kirkwood  and  opened 
a  hotel,  remaining  there  nine  years.  In  1879 
he  moved  to  Qayton,  Missouri,  and  leaseo  the 
Edwards  House,  and  ten  years  later  purchased 
the  property  now  known  as  the  Autenrieth 
Hotel,  whkh  he  conducted  until  bis  death. 
The  Autenrieth  Hotel  was  known  fsM'and  wide 
by  the  traveling  public  as  one  of  the  promi- 
nent landmarks  of  Clayton,  where  genuine 
hospitality  and  good  cheer  was  dispensed  to 
its  gtiestS  by  its  popular  landlord.  In  1870 
Mr.  Autenrieth  began  to  attain  prominence  in 
politics,  and  for  thirty  years  was  one  of  the 
most  conspicuous  characters  in  public  life  in 
St.  Louis  Counfv.  TTe  was  a  memlier  of  the 
Republican  County   Central  Committee,  of 

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•'  '    'I     ••'  .»'•'. 

'    a   .  -         .  .  ..  ^  '  ■  •    .  *  • 

.  '    .     •  •      '        «.  -. 

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,  •;  A--  ii-.'cih.  and  in  a 

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I'l  .\t:;r'*?  "I  '*,•<».  r!'«>ti>,'li  a 

I  ••.'.r.h  i.if  :'»r  I'n  sidriit  of 

••••.•»•:•»,  <f4;4M'};o*  was    h<>ni  iti 
.  \»';nsr  ii.  iS^.^.  atid  ■unl 
:    Lui.:»    {'aiin'v,  Mi«i-'r:!. 
■  Ii'<-  \v:i<  tiic  son  of  t'hi.  p 

.   •       •  l'.arl>pra  ( Kuj^ijci'Uau-."  > 
.  ..  r  \'»t<*t>ri.'thw:tsai:iti'i'  ! 

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•  .t  KirkwoiMl.  MtN.sf>iiri.  and  lat*  r 
•  wiifre  I'f  <!«nl  in  '.'>ctobcr,  iS^r. 
,  .T'njj  a  i-r.univ  tl  ei!tic;iJi<.>ii  in 

'II  ' naiuc  town.  w: 
>•  ..s  i  n  a<-  clerk  in  a  l)'>t«  !  'tM'i'. 

when  Ik*  <  ;itiie  to  the  Unitvd  Si:it'    .<  '  ^i 

•  I    .  ..^  parer*-  s  tiiint;  with  thcin  on  tlic  la.  iii 
«'t                     n'  If  Ki'':    •  «l,  where  he  remained  six  yar-« 

.  r  In  'S^"    '  '       I'-.M--!      r  -r!  'A-. M -d  and  opined 

s"»t  ?  ♦  -t    a  i   ■'       niainiu;;  thero  nine  years.    lo  iSjo 

"   .•  '  ro  Clayton,  Missouri,  and  lea"<<ii  tlj«» 
Mou.-»e.  ard  ten  year 1 1'<  pnrco.i«;'d 
■  ••  •  ».'i--:'v  n,*w  known    .is  the  Aatcniit^h 

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I.  ■  I"*  n»"io;h  H<«trl  was  known  far  ar  d  wi<> 
•  ".ivi-'inff  pnlilic  n«  ono  of  tiic*'rr,-.  •- 
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%.  iHj^.  :.rt  '.  <!v  and  jr«i.Ml  cheer  wa^  disperiiifd  t.> 

,•  .].  \\p  TV"  •■   ;«••       its  p<i|iutar  iandlA-d.    In  iS-.* 

•  I  in  the  O..  '  .  .•  •  :>.-i«Th  hepan  to  attain  proi.iiiKtifc  in 

I         he  w  •  •  .uid  fi»r  thirty  years  was  'me  of  rlii* 

I   rajir  fvispifv;  . ns  rli,irac'.<  rs  in  |-i:!>i:<-  hU  ".\ 

•  •  .      ."i.  I.  »«!•«  I'nnnty.    He  was  a  riu  in  .<  r  ..  ••. 
•  :•.  ii  •\er  ansv.f!  1  d.    Rqr.ihheJin  County  CVntral  Conmuuce 

1  . 

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which  he  was  chairman  for  the  last  ten  years 

of  his  life,  and  attended  many  conventions  of 
his  party  as  a  delegate.  He  was  one  of  t!ie 
founders  of  the  St.  Louis  County  Bank,  and 
its  vice  president  at  the  date  of  his  death  ;  a  di- 
rector of  Mount  Olive  Saengerbund,  presi- 
dent of  ihe  Clayina  School  Board,  member  of 
the  orders  of  Knicrhts  of  TTonrir.  Sons  <y(  Her- 
mann, Odd  Fellows,  Ilarugah,  and  other  or- 
ganizations. He  was  also  a  mealier  of  the 
Lutheran  Church.  Mr.  Avteiuidil  tras  thor- 
oughly identified  with  every  worthy  o?)ject 
calculated  to  promote  tlie  public  welfare,  and 
contrtbtited  liberally  to  educationa],  rdigious 
and  charitable  objects,  without  regard  to  sect 
or  nationality.  Successful  in  his  business  ca- 
reer, he  left  a  handsome  fortwMT  to  his  family. 
He  was  twice  married,  first  to  Miss  Kathrine 
Barbara  Hoffmann, a  native  of  Wurtteniberg, 
Germany,  in  1865.  She  died  m  August,  1875, 
leaving  four  sons,  Henry  Autenrieth,  Fred- 
erick Autenrieth,  Charles  .Autenrieth  and  Al- 
bert Autenrieth.  His  second  marriage  was 
with  Miss  Marie  Schmidt,  also  a  ruMive  of  Ger- 
many, March  2,  1876.  Six  children  were  born 
of  the  second  marriage,  named,  respectively, 
Emma  Avtenrietih,  George  Ailtenrie«h,  Cath- 
arine .Autenrieth,  Rertha  .Autenrieth,  Louisa 
Autenrieth  and  William  Autenrielii. 

Autumnal  FestiviticH  Association. 

An  association  formed  in  St.  Louis,  Julv  25. 
1891,  which  had  for  its  object  the  advancement 
of  tte  bnaineas  interests  of  thai  city,  through 
sen  anntial  pageant  and  c<her  attractions  to  be 
given  in  the  fall  of  each  year,  which  would 
bring^  to  die  citjr  visltofs  from  all  parts  of  the 
country.  Among  the  founders  of  the  associa- 
tion were  Captain  Frank  Gaiennie,  Honorable 
S.  M.  Kennard,  Goodman  King,  Honorable 
E.  O.  Stanard,  Cokmel  M.  C.  Wetmore  and 
odiers.  The  association  passed  out  of  exist- 
ence and  was  succeeded  by  the  Business  .Men's 
Leagne  of  St  Loab  in  1894. 

Anxvasae. — ^An  incorporated  village  in 
Callaway  Coonty,  diirteen  miles  nortii  of  Ful- 
ton, on  the  JefTcrson  City  branch  of  the  Chi- 
cago &  Alton  Railroad.  The  town  is  on  the 
edge  of  Grand  Prairie,  in  the  center  of  a  rich 
agricultural  section.  It  was  founded  in  1871 
by  J.  A.  Harrison,  and  for  some  time  was 
known  as  Chariton  City.  It  has  a  graded 
school,  four  churches,  a  roller  flouring  mill,  a 
bank.  bold,  extensive  lime  kilns  near  by,  a 

weekly  pap^,  the  "Review,"  and  alK>ut  twenty 
business  houses,  includinjj  stores  of  different 
kinds  and  small  shops.  Population,  1899  (es- 
timated), 500. 

Ava* — The  judicial  seat  of  Douglas  County, 
in  Benton  Township,  located  a  little  west  of 

the  center  of  the  roimty,  ruu!  frmrtcni  miles 
from  Mansfield,  in  Wright  County,  the  near- 
est railroad  pciut.  It  was  founded  in  1864,  at 
which  time  it  succeeded  Vera  Cruz  as  the  seat 
of  justice  of  the  county.  It  has  a  subsftancial 
courthouse,  three  cliurches,  a  good  public 
school,  lodges,  fraternal  orders,  a  bank,  flour- 
ing mill,  brick  yard,  two  hotels,  six  general 
and  eight  other  stores,  and  one  newspaper,  the 
''Doaghs  Coonty  Herald,"  published  by  Ben> 
jamin  J.  Smith.  The  village  is  one  of  the  best 
inland  business  places  in  the  State.  Popula- 
tion, 1899  (estimated),  600. 

A  Villon. — A  village  in  I.ivinp^ston  Cotiiifv, 
fifteen  miles  southeast  of  ChiUicothe  and  lune 
miles  from  Hale,  in  Carroll  County,  the  near- 
est railroad  and  shipping  point.  It  has  four 
churches,  a  public  school,  and  it  is  the  scat 
of  Avaion  Obllege,  which  is  under  control  of 
the  Presbyterian  denomination.  It  has  a 
large  steam  flouring  mill,  a  newspaper,  the 
"Aurora,"  and  about  ten  stores  and  riiops  in 
different  lines  of  trade.  Popuhtion,  1899  (es- 
timated), 500. 

ATery,  Henrj,  one  of  the  eariiest  settlers 

of  Henry  County,  was  a  native  of  Tcnnes-ce. 
In  181 2  he  served  under  General  Jack-^on 
against  the  Seminole  Indians ;  he  attracted  the 
attention  of  General  Jackson,  whom  be  served 
as  secretary;  the  acquaintance  was  maintained 
until  broken  by  death,  and  they  kept  up  a 
friendly  and  confidential  corresjK^ndence. 
Henry  Avery  married  Miss  Elizabeth  '  jrcen, 
of  White  County,  Tennessee,  in  1819.  In  1830 
they  immigrated  to  Missouri,  stopping  in  the 
counties  of  St.  Louis  and  Morgan.  ,\v(^-  v 
visited  Henry  County  the  same  year,  and 
staked  the  claim  upon  which  he  settled  and  to 
which  he  removed  his  family  in  iSy.  He 
made  his  home  in  Tebo  Township,  the  first 
part  of  Henry  (Rives)  County  which  was 
opened  by  white  men ;  he  was  probably  the 
first  to  break  prairie;  he  put  up  the  first  hewn 
log  house  in  the  comity,  and  about  1835  was 
the  first  topol  winili  iw  glass  in  a  flwelling.  In 
that  housewas  born  his  daughter,  Susan,  after- 

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ward  Mrs.  Henry  Roberts,  the  first  white  child 
born  in  ^  county.  The  first  birth  was  that 
of  a  colored  child,  whose  mother  belonged  to 
him.  He  was  the  first  justice  of  the  peace 
after  the  creation  of  Rives  County,  and  the 
first  county  court  sat  att  his  house.  Upon  his 
land  thi-  i\r<{  store  was  opcnoil,  by  Steplien 
Clark.  He  was  an  old  school  Baptist,  and  was 
ordained  to  the  ministry  in  1833 ;  he  preached 
all  through  central  and  southwest  Missouri, 
to  Indians  as  well  as  to  whites,  without  recom- 
pense ;  meanwhile,  he  canted  on  farming  in- 
dustriously and  amassed  a  competency.  He 
was  an  earnest  and  forcible  speaker,  fairly 
well  educated,  and  commanded  great  atten- 
tion. In  1842  he  engaged  in  a  debate  with 
Joshua  Page,  a  Christian,  which  was  regarded 
for  years  afterward  with  admiration.  He  died 
September  96,  1845,  "IPBd  fifty-two  years.  Of 
his  children.  Aufrust  Clark  became  one  of  the 
most  influential  men  in  Henry  County,  and 
Jcim  M.  became  a  leading-  fimnder.  Both 
reside  in  Omtoo. 

A  villa. — A  town  in  Jasper  County  eight 
miles  east  of  Carthage,  the  couiUy  seat.  It 
haa  a  school,  a  Methodist  Church,  a  Christian 
Church,  and  a  Baptist  Church,  lodges  of  Ma- 
sons and  Odd  Fellows  and  a  fkrarmill.  In 
1890  the  population  was  180.  The  town  was 
platted  in  1858  by  David  S.  Holman  and  An- 
drew L.  Love. 

Axtellf  Samuel  W.,  was  born  in  Knox 
County,  Ohio,  June  17,  1850,  son  of  George 
R.  and  Amanda  (Farnham)  Axtell.  Taken  at 
six  years  old  to  Beech  Creek  Township, 
Greene  County,  Indiana,  he  was  sent  to  the 
common  sdioola  at  his  home  and  later  to  the 
Indiana  State  University,  graduating  in  the 
class  of  1874.  He  was  very  poor,  and  for  a 
time  while  in  the  University  had  only  bread 
and  water  as  a  daily  ration.  Leavincr  the  Uni- 
versity, he  located  at  Bloomfield,  Indiana,  and 
commenced  the  practice  of  law.  In  1876  he 
was  elected  county  school  superintendent. 
Mr.  A.xtf'll  introduced  the  graded  schools  in 
his  county,  and  worked  for  better  conditions, 
overcoming  great  opposition  and  prejudice. 
Hp  held  the  office  of  county  superintendent 
until  1884,  when  he  was  elected  prosecuting 
attorney  in  the  Fourteenth  Judicial  District, 
and  in  1892  he  was  the  candidate  for  the  nomi- 
nation for  Lieutenant  Governor.  Becoming 
mnch  interested  in  paydiology,  or  mental  sci- 

ence, he  began  to  read  everything  available  on 
the  subject,  and  attended  (in  1891)  a  course 
tmder  Dr.  Still,  tlie  renowned  foundtT  of  the 
new  school  of  medicine — Osteopathy — but 
believing  that  to  be  but  included  in  the  broader 
field  of  mental  science,  he  visited  Professor 
Dewey,  of  Xcw  York,  the  recognized  authority 
in  psycholog>',  and  followed  this  with  wide 
reading  on  psychomelry,  or  the  power  of  the 
soul.  lie  also  familiarized  himself  with  all 
authors  on  psychic  phenomena,  such  as  Bu- 
dianan,  of  California,  Bftiss  Helen  Wilmans,  of 
Sea  Breeze,  Florida,  and  other  rci)uted  writers. 
He  met  and  studied  with  the  famed  masters  of 
psychic  phenomena  of  India,  such  as  Professor 
Bettiro,  of  Chicago,  finally  attending  the  New 
York  Institute  of  Science  at  Rochester,  and  in 
the  summer  of  1897  graduated  at  tlie  Wellmer 
School,  of  Nevada,  Missouri.  He  had  long  ere 
this  fully  realized  the  value  of  applying  these 
principles  to  every  day  life,  especially  to  the 
healing  of  diseased  bodies  and  the  correcting 

of  distorted  minds,  and  had  begun  their  a.])pli- 
cation  among  his  friends  who  were  in  touch 
somewhat  witii  his  own  abafruae  and  trained 
intellect.   As  a  lawyer  he  had  applied  his 
knowk-df^'c  of  mental  science,  and  finally,  >n 
1896,  decided  to  abandon  the  law  and  devote 
himself  to  healing  and  to  teaching.  Locating 
in  Missouri,  he  spent  several  months  in  travel- 
ing about  the  State,  and  his  success  was  so 
great  and  his  followers  so  many  he  finally  de> 
cided  to  locate  permanenUy,  and  so  established 
the  Axtell  School  of  Magnetic  Healing  and 
Infirmary  at  Sedalia.  There  no  longer  remains 
in  the  minds  of  the  thoughtful  and  investiga- 
tive any  doubt  as  to  the  rightful  claims  of 
mental  science  as  being  founded  upon  truth 
and  a  purely  scientific  basis.   "Evolution  is  the 
bottom  plank  of  mental  science  and  evolution 
teaches  us  there  is  no  death ;  nothing  is  called 
dead ;  it  is  one  perpetual  circle  of  life.  Intellio 
genre  is  life;  and  when  the  brain  becomes 
ruler  of  our  lives  we  shall  be  as  God.  The  will 
of  man  is  the  Supreme  Ruler.  Unfortunatdy, 
we  look  upon  the  occult  as  something  super- 
natural, while  it  is  the  most  natural  thing*  in 
the  world.    It  is  simply  mental  control,  and 
mental  control  leads  to  clear  vision.  Meta- 
physical   healing.  di\n'ne    healing.  Christian 
science,  osteopathy  and  hypnotism  are  all  but 
lesser  ideas,  and  are  all  included  in  Ibe  general 
subject  of  mental  science. 

"To  crown  all,  Professor  .Axtell  has  devel> 
oped  the  recently  formulated  idea  of  soul  com- 

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munication  called  telepathy,  whereby  minds  can 
be  in  touch  and  oommuraoaitive  even  at  great 
distances,  and  has  applied  the  knowledge  of 
healing  absent  patients.  Thoug-ht  is  the  only 
creative  power  m  all  the  world.  There  is  no 
pomver  in  disease  compiarable  to  the  power  in- 
TMUfdin  the  human  mind,  and  thb  knowU-dge 
he  transmits  to  hh  patients  by  the  force  of 
telqjathy,  and  whqn  they  are  brought  into 
refation  with  the  mind  of  die  healer  dseajse  is 
replaced  with  normal  conditions,  health." 

Hundreds  of  letters  from  grateful  patients 
show  iht  proof  of  efficiency  of  this  absent 
healing.  These  come  from  persons  thousands 
of  miles  apart,  but  all  breathe  the  same  spirit 
of  diankfulness  for  returned  health.  Professor 
Axtell  is  a  pleasant  gentleman  to  meet.*  of  a 
highly  sensitive  organization  and  with  natural 
strong  mentality,  the  power  of  thought  and 
will  beings  strongly  illustrated  in  his  own  life. 

Seeking  the  hroarlest  field  for  th?  exercise 
of  his  talent  as  a  healer  of  disease,  Proicssor 
Axtdl  has  recently  accepted  one  of  the  most 
responsible  positions  in  the  faculty  of  the  S.  A. 
Weltmer  School  of  Healing  at  Nevada,  Mis- 
souri. In  this  inststution,  which  is  known 
over  the  entire  world,  Ke  will  haive  a  splendid 
opportunity  for  the  practice  of  his  profession 
sod  the  further  development  of  his  marked 
sbility  hi  that  line. 

Ayers,  Howard,  educator,  was  born 
Msy  21,  1861,  at  Olympia,  Washington, 
son  of  William  X.  and  Sarah  Sanborn) 
Aycrs.  He  was  one  of  a  family  of  seven 
children,  of  whom  three  brothers  and  two 
sisters  arc  still  H\incr.  From  early  boy- 
hood he  determined  upon  tlie  acquisition  of 
a  liberal  education,  and  obtained  his  prepara- 
tory training  in  the  common  schools  of  Fort 
Smith,  Arkansas.  He  was  graduated  from 
Harvard  University  in  1883,  with  the  highest 
honors,  at  the  a^e  of  twenty-twn  years.  Inci- 
dental to  his  university  studies,  he  won  the 
First  Walker  Prize  of  the  Boston  Society  of 
Natmal  History  for  die  best  scientific  memoir, 
the  contest  being  open  to  competitors  in  all 
lands.  His  monograph  was  published  by  the 
society,  and  gave  a  world-wide  fame  to  its 
author  as  an  original  investigator.  Upon 
graduating  from  Harvard,  Mr.  Ayers  went  to 
Germany  and  studied  for  two  years  in  the  uni- 
verritics  at  Heiddbergr.  Strasburg  and  Frei- 
burg under  such  famous  professors  as  Gcg>en- 
baiir,  Wiedersheim,  Schmidt,  Butschli,  Weis- 

mann  and  Benecke.  His  studies  included 
original  investigations,  the  results  oi  which 
form  three  scie^ifie  papers  whidi  were  pub- 
lished in  German  periodicals,  two  of  the  num- 
ber being  in  the  German  language.  At  the 
conclusion  of  his  course  in  the  Fraiburg  Uni- 
versity he  received  the  degree  of  doctor  of 
philosophy,  magna  cum  laude.  Afterward  he 
continued  his  scientific  investigation  in  the 
Marine  Zodogical  Station  of  Vienna  Univer- 
sity, at  Trieste  and  the  Station  Maritime  of 
the  University  of  Paris,  at  Banyuls-sur-Mcr, 
France.  He  also  attended  the  lectures  of  fa- 
mous teachers  at  the  College  de  France  and 
the  Sorbonne,  Paris.  Upon  his  return  to  the 
United  States  Dr.  Ayers  at  once  entered  upon 
his  work  as  a  teacher  in  one  of  the  largest  uni- 
versities in  the  United  States.  He  was  called 
to  Harvard  University  the  following  year  as 
an  instructor  in  biolog>'.  He  occupied  this 
position  for  two  years,  displaying  marker!  al)il- 
ity  and  untiring  zeal  and  industry.  During 
this  time  he  contributed  to  the  scientific  jour- 
nals in  .America,  F.ngland  and  Germany  papers 
which  evoked  high  commendation  of  his  abil- 
ity ss  an  investigator  and  author.  This  effort  in 
the  class  room  and  laboratory  bmiuflit  Iiim  the 
distinction  of  election  as  Fellow  in  the  Ameri- 
can Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Sci- 
ence. Thereafter,  for  four  years,  beginninj:  in 
1889.  Dr.  .Ayers  was  director  of  the  Lake  Labo- 
ratory at  Milwaukee,  Wisconsin.  Here  his 
oppixtumties  for  continuing  his  researches 
were  unusual,  and  here  he  accomplished 
much  of  his  most  important  work,  his 
contnbtitions  to  scientific  knowledge  In 
special  lines  being  recognized  throuijhout 
the  world  as  of  the  highest  importance. 
Here  he  wrote  his  "(^mparaftive  Anat- 
omy of  the  Vertebrate  Ear,"  a  volume 
which  is  regarded  as  the  highest  authority  up- 
on the  subject  of  which  it  treats,  and  as  neces- 
sitating the  rewriting  of  leading  chapters  in 
works  on  physiology  and  psychologn/^.  Durin;^ 
the  period  of  his  connection  with  the  Lake 
Laboratory  and  thereafter  until  1898  Dr. 
Ayers  spent  his  summer  vacations  a*  Wodils' 
Hall,  Massachusetts,  where  he  had  charge  of 
investigations  in  animal  morphology  in  the 
Marine  Biolop'cal  Laboratory.  Incidental  to 
this  was  his  delivery  of  public  lectures  upon 
morphological  subjects  fr»m  time  to  time.  He 
was  made  a  corresponding  member  of  the 
Pliiladelphia  Academy  of  Science  and  an  active 
member  of  the  American  Society  of  Natural- 

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tsts.  He  is  a  charter  member  of  the  American 
Society  of  Morphologists  and  president  of  tlie 
Scientific  Association  of  the  University  of  Mis- 
souri. He  is  collaborating  with  the  National 
Museum  at  Washington  Oty  and  with  a  coqM 
of  I'ritish  scientists  at  Cape  Town,  Africa,  in 
the  scientific  work  connected  with  the  survey 
of  that  province.  He  is  also  an  associate  edi- 
tor of  two  important  scientific  journals,  the 
"Zoological  Bulletin"  and  the  "Jou™^'  of  Ap- 
plied Microscopy."  In  1894  Dr.  Ayers  was 
elected  to  the  chair  of  biology  in  the  Univer- 
sit\-  of  Missouri,  in  which  position  he  won  ad- 
ditional honors  for  himself  and  gave  a  higher 
prominence  to  the  faistittttiott  with  which  he 
had  become  connected.  His  period  of  service 
with  the  University  of  Missouri  terminated  in 
1B99,  when  he  was  called  to  the  presidency  of 
the  University  of  Cincinnati.  This  call  came 
as  a  due  recognition  of  the  distinction  which 
he  had  achieved  as  an  educator  and  a  scientist 
The  frit-mis  of  science  in  Missouri  deeply  re- 
gret the  loss  to  the  State  of  the  services  of  so 
distinguished  a  teacher  and  investigator. 

.Vyers,  Snmucl,  physician  and  surgeon, 
was  born  June  2,  1858,  at  Danville,  Kentucky. 
His  parents  were  Samuel  and  Mildred  (Shouse) 
.\yers,  botii  natives  of  that  State.  The  father, 
who  was  a  dentist  by  profession,  was  descended 
from  a  Scotch  family  which  immigrated  to 
America  prior  to  the  Revolution,  and  rendered 
service  to  the  patriot  cause  in  that  struggle. 
Their  son,  Samuel,  received  his  early  educa- 
tion in  Centre  College  at  the  place  of  his  birth, 
whicli  he  entered  at  tlic  early  age  of  fourteen 
years. receiving  his  diploma  as  baclielor  oi  arts 
at  the  age  of  eighteen  years.  He  then  engaged 
as  a  teacher,  having  charpe  of  schools  in  Lin- 
coln Coimty  and  in  Fayette,  Kentucky,  for 
three  years.  During  this  same  time  he  was 
closely  engaged  in  medical  studies  under  the 
tutorship  of  Dr.  L.  S.  McMurtry,  now  an  emi- 
nent surgeon  of  Louisville,  Kentucky,  whom 
he  tended  in  the  office  and  accompanied  on 
sick  calls,  gainincj  at  once  all  the  advantage  to 
be  derived  from  actual  practice,  as  well  as  from 
theoretical  instruction.  His  medical  studies 
were  pursued  with  great  diligence,  and  he  left 
his  tutor  well  groimded  in  the  elementary 
branches  of  his  chosen  profession.  In  the 
autumn  of  1880  he  eotered  the  Medical  College 
of  Ohio  at  Cincinnati,  and  attended  lectures 
and  clinics  for  one  year.  The  year  following 
he  devoted  to  obaervation  of  hospital  pnctice 

in  Chicago,  engaging  in  the  work  himself,  in 
order  to  gain  a  deeper  insight  into  the  science 
he  had  adopted  for  his  life  work.  He  followed 
tills  with  taking  a  scholarsliip  in  tlie  medical 
department  of  the  University  of  Louisville, 
Kentucky,  and  in  1883  was  graduated  from 
that  institution  with  the  degree  oi  doctor  of 
medicine  and  the  additional  high  honor  of  re- 
ceiving the  faculty  medal  for  general  hi^ 
class  standing.  He  was  almost  at  once  ap- 
pointed to  a  high  position  in  the  Louisville 
Oty  Hoapllal,  and,  after  being  so  engaged  for 
one  year,  entered  upon  practice  in  that  city, 
in  which  he  continued  until  1886.  During  this 
period  he  was  connected  with  the  Hospital  Col- 
lege of  Medicine,  having  been  appointed  to  the 
chair- of  surgical  anatomy  in  1884  dean  oi 
the  faculty  in  1885.  In  1886  his  arduous  atten- 
tion to  his  professional  and  college  duties  had 
so  worn  upon  his  heaJtli  tliat  he  was  obliged  to 
seek  rest,  and  he  went  to  Kansas,  where  he 
spent  two  \ears  in  recuperation.  In  Septem- 
ber, 18SS,  having  regained  his  old-time  vigor, 
he  removed  to  Kansas  City,  Missouri,  and  en- 
gaged in  a  practice  which  has  grown  to  laiige 
dimensions,  stirgery  being  a  principal  feature, 
as  often  in  an  advisory  way  as  otherwise.  In 
this  department  of  hts  profession  he  is  widely 
knoun  in  western  Mi.-;soiiri  and  in  Kansas, 
and  his  distinguished  ability  has  led  to  his  ap- 
pointment as  chief  soi^peon  of  the  Kansas  Gty, 
Pittsburg  &  Gulf  Railway  and  of  the  Kansas 
City  &  Suburban  Bek  Railway.  He  holds 
membership  with  the  Jackson  County  Medical 
Association  and  with  the  Academy  of  Medicine 
of  Kansas  City.  In  all  his  professional  asso- 
ciations he  is  regarded  as  an  eminently  capable 
practitioaer.  Politicdly  he  affiliates  wMi  the 
Democratic  party.  Since  the  age  of  fourteen 
years  he  has  been  a  member  of  the  Christian 
Chnrch.  His  fraternal  connections  are  limited 
to  the  Blue  Lodge  in  Masonry.  He  was  mar- 
ried in  1885  to  Miss  Stella  Hobhs,  of  Louis- 
ville, Kentucky,  and  of  this  marriage  two  chil- 
dren were  bom— Nannie  Louise,  who  died  in 
l8f>o  at  the  age  of  eleven  months  ;  Samuel,  Jr., 
the  only  hving  child,  was  bom  January  3, 1893. 
Dr.  Ayers  is  a  gentleman  of  broad  views,  and 
is  a  favorite  in  all  social  and  other  circles  in 
which  he  moves.  While  abating  nothing  of 
his  devotion  to  his  profession,  he  is  genial  and 
companionable,  and  is  very  highly  regarded 
throughout  the  community  for  his  personal 
worth,  as  well  as  for  his  professranal  attain- 

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A\It»r,  Jox'mIi  \^.,v>iu-  of  :\\:-*  »;  .-'Vciri- 

:»        t..:..  ■  t./  i!t  :.-  .  i        ".r  I  •••(.i!u.-.  ;  : 

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I' I  ■.•••••1  ,.rk  I '-'ini.x .  \  MiTinia,  .-••M  ;  p"'  •;  '.  •  »• 

•  .  !  p  \  .t^:i::a,  .nu!  rt  'f  .'i'l  liiniml  <i!iu  •  'h   >»\:  -  .  ' 

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•.•►•».  .-r',- rind  iri:cU  1 11 ii'  ■  .h       i;..  ' 

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»:  Ir-rstry  .in'l  i!-  lor  i'  ••  •>!    «  \vl     '• .  '1  •.  . 

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•  :  •  ti,'-  '  i-:.!:!  A:.;.  ,  -c:;)  -;;  1.*  •  i.'.'.Li,  Mr  *  '  ;t.iN';;.Ni'  .'.|,  U.. 
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;•.  !h' nai.  :iiiistcrni  itit')  llie  r^«- '„.r  siT-  i  '•■t'»*c  ♦»>  In  r  i.'.:  -mi 

iilcc!' -au-  S^aic-   \'ni».  .tk'   -rs-  :  •!  •■•h.  11:  •.••jti  .»•!•• 

','      -ifrtr  ■•..'.ii  i'!?  cli'.t  v>l  t;-v  t'.i  •.?  •  -'ri  li    '  •  t-n,'     <  ;'  1  •  ■• 

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i.  ■'.If'  v\'.T  r!r>sn(!.  :in  i  'ii.-;  rt-^'^'ruMit  v.  r<s'.;i'      :"i<-  A;.!"r  '1  •:■ 

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•   •      In         he  r.turnc'J  ;  i  '  '      '  iii  .ir.d  ■,  Ua; 

»•  .  .,';U  in  fomiiiig  and  5»'»clc  misirij:^  .■»;.';ra-  .  '•I.'  c     !,  •  -a  C.  A;  •  ..  • 

•  •    j-t  liis  own  account.   About  iH^i  he  bt»-  A:-  .-,  •    I  •  •  '  <  .it  W  • 

:!itcrestcd  in  various  mining>ni;t'ii.  lu  .  •    •        '•  \n^A...--..' 

'•  •.  »«*  t'.'Cif  Iw'np  the  Mcwnrh  Mini's  ••     j---^  -  ■ 

.»    :         MoCork'e  WW.  iMincs.  uf  \\  ii''h  \u:  >•  •  "i  :  • 

.  .  •     More  than  tv.i>  nnlli'»n  dollars'  lie  s-  i  .   ;  .»  V  .  .  •• 

■\  •:  I'  'A   lead  ;in(!  /mr  ore  i:as      i  !i  taken  !<■;.'<.'  u':  *  ••  .  •> 

•  VP  'ht  i.:evcm]i  H'tur  Mii.c  witli.n  The  past  .«tiii;i«.s 

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Aylor,  Joseph  W.,  one  of  tlie  leading 
cajjiialists  aiid  mine  owners  of  Ja^er  County, 
«nts  born  September  29,  1839.  in  Rap- 
pahannock Conntv.  Virgfinia,  son  of  Staunton 
and  Malinda  (.yuaintance)  Ayior.  He  was 
reared  in  Vii^nia,  and  enjoyed  Kmked  educa- 
tional advantages,  attending  school  in  all  but 
two  months  and  nineteen  days.  He  had  a  nat- 
ural genius  for  business  aflhire,  however,  and 
by  dint  of  industry  and  the  best  use  of  his  op- 
portunities acquired  much  of  that  kind  of 
knowledge  which  helps  to  build  up  fortunes. 
When  he  was  twenty  years  old  he  went  to  work 
for  himself,  and  smm  afterward  came  to  Mis- 
sottri,  where  he  went  to  work  on  a  farm,  re- 
ceiving twenty  dollars  per  month  as  wages. 
He  was  tlius  employed  until  1S61,  when  he 
entered  the  Confederate  Army,  serving  first 
onder  Captain  Grigsby  and  later  in  the  bat- 
talion commanded  by  Major  Brace,  now 
Judge  Brace,  of  the  Missouri  Supreme  Court. 
In  1862  he  was  mustered  into  the  regfular  ser- 
vice, Confederate  States  Army,  and  ser>'ed 
thereafter  until  the  close  of  llie  war,  first  under 
Genenil  Martain  Green,  then  in  General  Par- 
sons' brigade  of  General  Price's  division. 
When  the  war  closed,  and  his  regiment  was 
disbanded  at  Shreveport,  Louisiana,  he  went 
to  Texas  and  again  began  work  as  a  farm  la- 
borer. In  1866  he  returned  to  Missouri  and 
engaged  in  fanning  and  stock  raising  opera- 
tions on  his  own  aoconnt.  About  1880  he  be- 
came interested  in  various  mining  enterprises, 
among  these  being  the  Eleventh  TTonr  Mines 
and  the  McCorkle  Hill  Mines,  of  which  he  is 
iole  ovtmer.  More  than  two  million  dolfauv' 
worth  of  lead  and  zinc  ore  has  been  taken 
from  the  Eleventh  Hour  Mine  within  the  past 

si.xteen  years,  and  the  McCorkle  Hill  Mine  has 
produced  half  a  million  dollars'  wortli  of  ore. 
These  operations  have  made  Mr.  Aylor  a  con- 
spicuous figure  among  the  mine  magnates  of 
southwest  Missouri,  and  there  are  few  men  in 
the  State  whose  operations  have  been  so  uni- 
formly successful  as  have  his.  He  has  built 
Up  a  splendid  fortune,  and  what  he  has  accom- 
plished may  well  prove  an  incentive  to  young 
men  who  have  their  own  way  to  make  in  the 
world.  All  his  life  he  has  been  a  member  of 
the  Democratic  party,  it  may  be  said,  because 
he  was  reared  in  that  faith  and  has  never  wa^ 
vered  in  his  devotion  to  Democratic  principles. 
His  Church  connections  are  with  the  Method- 
ist Episcopal  denomination,  South,  and  he  is 
a  member  of  the  Masonic  order.  January  21, 
1866,  Mr.  Aylor  was  married  to  Miss  C.  M.  E. 
Webb,  who  passed  her  early  childhood  in  Ten- 
nessee, coming  from  there  to  Jasper  County* 
Missouri.  She  was  in  every  way  a  worthy 
helpmate  to  her  husband  up  to  the  time  of  her 
death,  in  1899,  and  their  union  was  a  long  and 
happy  one.  Of  four  children  bom  to  them, 
two  were  living  in  1900.  Their  eldest  child,  Ida 
Aylor,  married  Mr.  S.  Nilson,  and  th^  now 
reside  in  the  Aylor  homestead  in  Webb  City. 
Mrs.  Nilson  was  educated  in  the  public  schools 
of  Webb  City  and  at  St  Ann's  Academy  at 
Osage  Mission,  Kansas.  Mr.  Aylor's  other 
surviving  child,  Ben  C.  Aylor,  married  Miss 
Anna  Hirdy,  and  resides  at  Webb  City,  where 
he  is  interested  in  the  management  of  his 
father's  affairs  and  in  mining-  operations  of  his 
own.  Ben  C.  Aylor  was  educated  in  the  pub- 
lic schools  of  Webb  City  and  at  Neosho  Col- 
lege under  Dr.  J.  C.  Wood,  and  completed  his 
studies  at  Washington  University  of  St.  Loui& 

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Babbt  Jt*re  <»lenn,  proctor  i^f  the  Uni- 
versity of  Missouri,  and  secretary  of  the  Board 
of  Curators,  Columbia,  Missouri,  was  bom 
December  12,  1854,  in  Abbeville  County, 
South  Carolina.  His  parents  were  Robert 
Franklin  and  Virginia  A.  (Cooper)  Babb,  both 
natives  of  South  Carolina,  who  removed  to 
Audrain  County,  Missouri,  about  1850,  and 
settled  in  Columbia  in  1872.  The  fattier  was 
a  minister  of  the  Baptist  Church.  The  son 
attended  the  public  schools  in  Audrain  and 
Boone  Counties  until  1872,  when  he  entered 
the  University  of  Missouri,  from  which  he  was 
gradiiatcd  in  1877  with  the  degree  of  bachelor 
of  arts  and  as  valedictorian  of  his  class.  He 
tiien  entered  the  law  school  of  the  same  insti- 
tution, and  graduated  in  1881  with  the  highest 
honors.  TTis  studies  during  all  these  years 
were  interrupted,  many  months  in  the  aggre- 
gate being  devoted  to  teaching.  ImmediaX;ely 
following  the  completion  of  his  law  studies,  he 
opened  an  otiice  in  Columbia,  where  he  prac- 
ticed for  seven  years,  establishing  a  remunera- 
five  I'l'siiiess  and  a  liipli  reputati^Mi  for  abilitv 
and  integrity.  In  February,  1888,  a  promising 
opportunity  opened  before  him  at  WtchHa, 
Kansas,  and  he  removed  to  that  city,  where  he 
practiced  until  June,  1889,  when  was  held  the 
annual  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Curators  of  the 
University  of  Missouri.  That  body  elected 
him  to  the  secretaryship  of  the  board  and  also 
to  the  position  of  proctor  of  the  university. 
He  accepted,  and  at  once  returned  to  Colum- 
bia, whcre^  !ie  continues  to  reside,  havinfj  con- 
tinuously remained  to  the  present  time  in  the 
positions  to  which  he  was  chosen  ten  years 
previously.  His  political  affiliations  have  al- 
ways been  with  the  Democratic  party;  in  re- 
ligion he  is  a  Baptist.  His  fraternal  society 
relationship  is  confined  to  the  Masonic  order, 
in  which  he  has  attained  to  the  Commandery 
and  Scottish  Rite  degrees.  August  16,  1893, 
he  was  married  to  Miss  Clara  Louise  Beau- 
champ,  an  accomplished  lady,  and  of  this  union 
two  children  have  been  born.  Mr.  Babb  is  a 
gentleman  of  culture  and  education  and  an 
earnest  advocate  of  the  higher  education.  His 
abilities  and  personal  worth  are  amply  assured 
by  the  responsible  and  bonorafale  positions  he 

has  so  long  bdd  in  connection  Avith  the  insti- 
tution wherein  he  gained  his  education,  to  the 
interests  of  which  he  devotes  his  most  aealous 
and  intelligent  effort 

Bacout  Henry  D.«  merchant  and  bank- 
er, was  bom  May  3,  1813,  at  East  GtaimUe, 
Massachusetts.    While  a  youUi  he  w^nt  to 
Hartford,  Connecticut,  where  he  found  em- 
ployment ui  mercantile  ptnrsuits;  but  his  dar- 
ing and  enterprising  spirit  suggested  the  West 
as  a  wider  and  better  field  for  building  his  for- 
tune and  entering  on  a  career  of  UMfulness, 
and  in  1835  he  came  to  St.  Louis,  where  for  a 
time  he  was  engaged  in  the  dry  goods  business. 
Subsequently  he  embarked  in  the  iron  trade, 
and  continued  in  it  until  the  year  1844,  when 
he  cnjrapfrf!  in  rho  ll mr  business  with  his  fa- 
ihcr-in-law,  Daniel  D.  Page.  In  all  taesc  voca- 
tions he  revealed  a  sagacity,  energy  and  public 
spirit  that  niarked  him  for  a  leader  in  the 
world  of  business,  and,  being  a  young  man  of 
exemplary  and  diligent  haibits  and  aflbble  man- 
ners, he  [irospered  in  whatever  business  he  en- 
gaged in  and  easily  took  posidon  as  a  popular 
and  influential  citizen.  In  1848  he,  with  his 
father-in-law,  organized  the  banlcbi^  house  of 
Page  &  Bacon.    Page  himself  was  a  wealthy 
and  estimable  old  citizen,  owning  a  large 
amount  of  real  estate  in  the  city,  and  this,  to- 
gether with  Bacon's  admirahle  business  habits, 
sound  judgment  and  cordial  bearing,  inspired 
public  confidence  in  the  house,  and  it  began 
at  onre  to  build  up  an  extensive  and  profitable 
business.    St.  Louis  was  an  important  outfit- 
ting point  for  army  supplies  in  the  Mexican 
War.and  large  amounts  of  Government  money 
passed  through  it,  establishing  its  credit  and 
increasing  its  popularity  in  the  West.    In  1850 
the  house  opened  a  branch  in  Califonria,  and 
this,  too,  l)ecame  prosperous.    It  was  an  era 
of  prosperity  for  St.  Louis.    That  large  Ger- 
man immigration  which  gave  to  the  city  a  new 
and  valuable  element  in  its  population  bcLraTi 
flowing  in,  and  the  vast  movement  overland  to 
California  was  making  the  levee  and  streets 
animated  with  every  kind  of  business.    It  is 
not  strange  that  credit  was  expanded  beyond 
reasonable  limits  and  that  real  estate  buying- 

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and  mortgaging  was  overdone.  In  1854  the 
collapse  came,  and  the  house  of  Page,  Bacon 
&  Co.,  which  had  gone  into  the  building  of  the 

Ohio  ^l-  Mississippi  Railroad,  f<Hin(l  itself  crip- 
pled aiid  was  forced  to  suspend  and  wind  up 
its  business.  Mr.  Bacon  subsequently  re- 
moved to  San  Francisco  and  died  there  in  the 
year  1896. 

Bag:by,  Jo.seph  David,  a  resident  of 
western  Missouri  from  1835  until  the  lime  of 
his  death, was  bom  January  17, 183 1, in  Boone 
County,  Kentucky,  and  died  June  2,  1897,  at 
his  home  in  lnde[)pndLiu-e,  Missouri.  He  was 
the  son  of  John  and  Charlotte  (^Iluglies)  Bag- 
by.  The  father  was  born  in  Virginia.  January 
II,  1797.  and  died  on  the  same  day  of  184 J. 
The  mother  was  born  August  7, 1807,  and  died 
July  16,  1869.  John  Bagfoy  came  to  Missouri 
in  i>!35  with  Iiis  wife  and  twi^  children,  and  lo- 
cated in  l-'ort  Osage  Township,  Jackson  Coun- 
ty, where  he  spent  the  remainder  of  his  days. 
The  farm  where  he  settled  was  in  its  r)riine- 
val  condition,  not  one  fool  of  it  being  cleared, 
and  the  entire  surface  wild  and  undeveloped. 
It  was  here  that  the  subject  of  this  sketch  and 
his  sister,  Mary,  who  became  the  wife  of  James 
Calvert,  a  mechanic  and  merchant  of  Weston, 
Missouri,  were  reared.  Joseph  Bagby  was 
educated  in  the  common  schools  of  Jacksoti 
County,*  Missouri,  and  at  Cliapel  Hill  College, 
that  historic  old  institution,  now  removed,  lo- 
cated in  I^afayette  County.  He  was  sixteen 
years  of  age  when  he  went  with  Taylor's  army 
into  Mexico,  and  made  several  trips  across  die 
plains  with  different  wagon  trains.  It  was  aft- 
er this  experience  that  he  attended  Chapel  Hill 
College.  In  1849  he  became  a  victim  of  the 
gold  fever,  but  the  precious  metal  did  not  re- 
ward his  labors  liberally.  He  returned  from 
California  by  way  of  Cape  Horn  and  New 
York  in  1853.  Following  this  experience,  he 
entered  upon  the  business  nf  stock-rai«:ncj.  and 
was  very  successful,  at  one  time  owning  one 
of  the  finest  herds  of  Shorthorn  cattle  in  all 
the  country  tributary  to  Independence,  near 
which  city  his  fine  farm  was  located.  Mr. 
Bagby's  sympathies  were  with  die  South  in 
tite  unpleasant  clash  and  bloody  conflict  be- 
tween the  two  sections  of  the  coutitry.  Al- 
though he  did  not  enlist  in  the  Confederate 
Army,  he  participated  in  the  memorable  fight 
at  Rock  Cr^ek,  was  a  prisoner  for  a  time  at 
Fort  I_eavenworth,  and  suffered  witli  many 
Others  <A  his  views  under  the  penalties  of  "Or- 

der No.  II."  Politically  he  was  a  Democrat, 
but  did  not  allow  ambition  for  office  to  con- 
sume hit  time,  with  the  exception  that  upon 
one  occasion  the  wishes  of  his  friends 
prompted  him  to  become  a  candidate 
for  the  office  of  county  marshal.  He 
affiliated  with  the  Christian  Church,  of 
which  organization  his  parents  were  mem- 
bers. Mrs.  Bagby,  who  survives  him,  is  a 
member  of  the  Methodist  Church  South.  He 
was  a  charter  member  of  the  Masonic  lodge 
at  Sibley,  Missouri,  and  was  also  a  member  of 
Ihe  order  of  Knights  of  Pj-thias.  Mr.  Bagby 
was  married  December  18,  1866,  to  Miss  Mary 
King,  daughter  of  Jefferson  V.  and  Virhnda 
(Fearn)  Khig,  oi  Covington,  Kentucky.  Her 
father  was  a  native  of  Kentucky,  wa,s  born 
April  II,  1806,  and  came  to  Missouri  in  1872, 
settling  at  Independence.  Mrs.  King  was 
born  May  16,  1803.  As  a  business  man  "Sh. 
Bagby  was  aggressive  and  ambitious  within 
the  lines  of  honor.  His  experiences  were  of 
a  varied  sort,  and  are  an  index  to  the  versatil- 
ity that  was  required  in  a  man  in  order  to  sur- 
mount the  obstacles  and  overcome  the  diffi- 
culties of  pioneer  days.  He  succeeded  in 
worldly  affairs  by  lionorable  methods,  was  a 
loyal  supporter  of  public  enterprises,  and  kept 
faith  whh  the  best  interests  of  the  great  State 
where  he  chose  to  cast  his  lot  at  a  rime  when 
her  greatness  was  all  hidden  behind  the  veil  of 
the  uncertain  future. 

Bagby,  Robert  .1.,  physician  and  sur- 
geon, was  bom  in  Howard  County,  Missouri, 
September  11,  1832.  His  father,  John  Baf^by, 
was  a  native  of  A'ircfinia  and  a  soldier  in  the 
War  of  At  tlie  close  of  the  war  he  set- 

tled in  Kentucky,  where  he  married  Miss  Mil- 
dred W  ard,  and  in  1827  came  to  Howard 
County,  Missouri,  where  he  settled  on  a  farm. 
On  this  farm  Dr.  R.  J.  Bi^by's  boyhood  was 
spent.  He  attended  the  public  schools  of  his 
neighboriiood,  and  at  the  age  ot  eighteen  years 
he  entered  the  Fayette  High  School,  where  he 
pursued  his  studies  two  years.  He  then 
taught  school  one  year,  and, havincrdecidid  to 
become  a  physician,  he  studied  a  year  with  Dr. 
l\  r  (  hilds  and  one  year  with  Dr.  Thomas  J. 
Blake.  He  then  spent  the  year  1854-5  in  at- 
tendance at  tlie  St.  Louis  Medical  College, 
when  he  returned  to  Roanoke  and  began  prac- 
tice, which  continued  with  slifflit  interruptions 
until  his  death.  The  only  interruptioa  was 
one  year,  which  he  spent  in  practice  in  Chad- 

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During  the  winter  months  he  attended  the 
district  school.  When  he  reached  his  majority, 
he  engaged  in  teaching  sdiool,  in  Grant  Coun- 
ty, Kentucky,  and  after  a  few  months  in  this 
business  came  to  Missouri,  with  the  purpose 
of  passing  through  the  State  to  Kansas  and 
making  that  State  his  permanent  home.  Land- 
ing at  La  Grange,  he  started  to  the  West,  but 
when  he  reached  Kkksville  found  the  roads  so 
nearly  impassable  that  he  abandoned  the  jour 
ney  and  settled  down  there — a  step  which 
n^her  he  nor  Kirksville  has  ever  had  occasion 
to  regret.  He  arrived  there  March  21,  1857, 
and  for  the  next  seven  months  he  taught 
school  in  Judge  Ely's  district,  and  four 
months  in  Wilson  Township,  and  then  en- 
gaged in  partnership  with  Professor  Nason, 
in  the  school  at  Kirksville.. 

August  34, 1858,  Mr.  Baird  married  Martha 
C.  daiif,difer  i>f  Matthew  P.  Hannah.  S(»n 
thereafter  he  accepted  a  position  as  clerk  for 
J.  C.  Thatcher,  at  $15  a  nmath,  and  when  his 
ivages  were  raised  to  $20  he  thought  he  was 
doing  well.  His  wife  was  a  most  efficient  aid, 
and  rocked  their  first  baby  in  a  cradle  impro- 
vised from  a  shoe  box.  Their  eldest  child, 
Frank  H  ,  is  now  a  resident  of  Denver,  Colo- 
rado, is  a  ixradiiate  of  the  Nortlicrn  School  of 
Osteopathy,  and  is  engaged  in  the  practice  of 
his  profession.  He  was  married  in  1880,  to 
Helen  F.,  daughter  of  N.  Hunt,  of  Macon, 
Missouri.  Ella  died  at  *e  age  of  two  years, 
and  Aggie  Myrtle  at  two  months  of  age  ;  Alta 
Meione  was  educated  in  Missouri  Valley  Col- 
1^  and  gradusfted  from  lite  Academy  and 
School  of  Music  of  that  institution,  and  also 
took  a  cotirsr  in  vocal  music  in  Chicago.  She 
is  now  married  to  Mr.  £.  L.  Belshe,  and  resides 
in  Chicago.  In  1859,  Mr.  Bdrd  was  employed 
to  make  out  the  tax  books  for  Adair  County 
and  the  same  fall,  when  a  branch  of  the  Bank 
of  St.  Louis  was  organized  here,  he  was  made 
clerk,  and  did  all  the  janitor  woric  as  well.  In 
1863,  he  was  appointed  cashier,  and  contintird 
to  hold  that  position  until  the  bank  closed  up 
its  business  in  compliance  with  an  act  of  the 
Legislature.  In  1866  he  took  charge  of  the 
bank  of  Stebbins  &  Porter,  and  a  year  later, 
in  partnership  with  S.  Reed,  bought  out  the 
bank.  After  a  year  his  partner  disposed  of  his 
interest  to  Meione  &  Epperson,  of  Macon, 
Missouri,  and  the  new  firm  took  the  name 
of  Baird,  Meione  &  Co.  It  commanded 
the  public  confidence,  and  for  ten  years  did  an 
extensive  and  prosperous  business,  passing 

safely  through  the  severe  crisis  of  1873, 
exhibiting  proofs  of  prudent  managemeiH, 
which  increased  its  hold  on  the  paWc  In 
1878  Mr.  Baird  bought  out  the  interest  of  his 
partners  and  conducted  the  business  under  the 
name  of  Hie  &cdnnge  Bank  of  W.  T.  Baird. 
In  1882  he  organized  the  First  National  Bank 
of  Kirksville,  he  being  cashier,  manager  and 
prtndpal  owner.  In  1894  the  First  Inters 
national  Bank,  successor  to  the  First  National, 
was  organized  under  State  laws,  and  he  became 
ComMcted  with  it  in  same  relation  as  above — 
in  an  ^ese  enterprises  and  relations  display- 
ing a  sagfacity,  judgment  and  probity  tliat  com- 
manded the  respect  of  his  fellow  citizens,  and 
made  his  name  the  surety  of  success  in  what- 
ever undertaking  he  identified  hirnself  with. 
He  has  served  in  many  local  offices  in  Kirks- 
ville, Iwving  be«i  a  memiber  of  the  Sdiool 
Board,  treasurer  of  the  State  Normal  School 
twenty-five  years,  and  for  four  years  was 
acting  county  treasurer  of  Adair  County,  and 
treasurer  r.f  the  city.  Mr.  T'aird  is  a  member 
and  ruling  elder  of  the  Cumberland  Presby- 
terian Church,  and  actively  connected  with  its 
educational,  missionary  and  church  extension 
enterprises  He  is  a  member  of  the  Board  of 
Publication  located  at  Xasliville,  Tennessee, 
treasurer  of  the  Synod  of  Missouri,  member 
and  vice  i)rcsidont  of  the  Board  of  Trustees  of 
Missouri  Valley  College,  and  chairman  of  the 
filumce  committee  managing  the  endowment 
fnnd.  He  is  also  a  life  member  of  the  Ameri- 
can Bible  Society,  New  York.  The  Missouri 
Valley  College  is  one  of  tiie  histitations  of  Hiat 
church,  ranking  high  in  Missouri  for  its  ad- 
mirable management,  and  the  thoroughness  of 
its  instruction  and  discipline;  and  perhaps  the 
best  evidence  of  Mr.  Baird's  faiendship  for  that 
college  and  the  position  he  occupies  in  the 
church  was  the  action  of  the  Board  of  Trustees 
in  1890,  thanking  him  for  the  gift  of  $5,000, 
making  $10,000  in  all  toward  the  endowment 
of  the  institution,  and  requesting  him  to  nom- 
inate one  of  the  chairs.  In  compliance  with 
this  rc<jU(->t,  he  gave  the  name  of  Haird- 
Mitohcll  to  the  chair  of  Greek — associating 
with  himself  in  that  permanent  honor  Rev.  -  J. 
B.  Mttchdl,  D.  D.,  the  faithful  pastor  under 
whose  ministrations  he  sat  for  eighteen  years. 
A  literary  society  in  the  college  bears  the  name 
"Bairdean"  in  honor  of  him.  Mr.  Baird  is  as 
ready  to  do  good  m  humble  and  small  ways  as 
well  as  in  greater,  and  for  over  thirty-five  years 
he  has  been  superintendent  of  the  Cumber- 

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land  Presbyterian  Sunday  sdiool  in  Kirks- 


Mr.  Baird  has  been  president  of  the  Kirks- 
ville  roinniercial  Club  since  its  organization, 
an  institution  which  has  done  much  for  the 
betterment  of  the  dtjr  in  many  ways.  The  city 
is  indebted  to  this  club  for  the  beautiful  Oak- 
land Park,  which  has  been  purcliased  by  the 
dty,  and  just  opened  to  the  publtc.  The  dub 
has  raised  and  uded  aboat  $800  in  fan- 
movements  in  the  park. 

Baker*  John  Weldon,  mining  broker 
and  promoter,  was  bom  February  8,  1866,  at 
Souih  Enf,'!ish,  Iowa.    His  parents  were  John 
Henr>'  and  Annie  (Burner)  Baker,  botii  bom 
in  1840.  in  the  Shenandoah  Valley,  Virginia, 
where  they  were  married  in  i860,  and  lived 
mtil  1861,  when  they  removed  to  Iowa;  they 
now  reside  at  Wellington,  Kansas,  where  the 
lather  is  engaged  in  a  mercantile  business. 
Thdr  ancestors  were  natives  of  Holland  or 
Germany,  who   immiqjated   to   America  in 
colonial  days  and  settled  in  Pennsylvania. 
Thomas  Baker,  great-grandfather  of  our  aob- 
ject,  was  a  soldier  in  the  War  of  1812 ;  he  re- 
moved to  \'irfrinia,  where  his  son,  also  named 
Tlionias,  worked  as  a  wagonmaker,  and  upon 
his  farm  near  Woodstock.    Tlu-  famil\  i< 
noted   for   Innq-evity.     Tliomas   Baker  and 
wife,  grandparents  of  J.  Weldon  Baker,  died 
when  more  than  sixty  yean  of  age ;  the  grend- 
parcnts  on  his  maternal  side  died  at  the  aj^es 
of  eighty- five  and  ninety-four  years  respect- 
ively. J.  W^eldon  Baker  was  reared  upon  a  farm 
in  Dickinson  County,  Kansas,  and  attendefd 
schools  at  various  places  in  that  State,  com- 
pleting his  education  in  the  high  school  at 
Enterprise.   In  1885  he  and  his  father  left  the 
farm,  and  removed  to  Wakeeny,  where  they 
engaged  in  a  real  estate  business.   The  son 
was  admitted  to  practice  in  the  United  States 
I-and  Courts,  and  .'iuccessfully  managed  more 
than  five  hundred  contest  cases  through  the 
land  office  at  Wakeeny,  Kansas.    In  1886,  in 
connection  with  his  father,  he  platted  the  town 
of  Quinter,  in  Gove  County,  Kansas,  for  a 
syndicate,  and  made  his  home  at  that  place, 
engaged  in  the  sale  of  town  lots  for  the  pro- 
prietors, and  large  tracts  of  railroad  lands.  lie 
now  experienced  serious  reverses.     In  iSSS 
occurred  the  failure  of  the  Union  Bank,  of 
Fairmont,  Nebraska,  involving  the  loss  of  his 
entire  fortune,  which  was  deposited  there,  and 
the  following  year  his  home  was  broken  up  by 

the  death  of  his  wife.    In  1890  he  traded  for 
property,  and  refnoved    to    Pawnee  City, 
Nebraska,  where  he  was  engaged  ftlT  a  time 
in  the  real  estate  business.    He  then  returned 
to  Kansas,  locating  at  Hutchinson,  where  he 
followed  the  same  business,  and  also  published 
the  "Real  Estate  Reporter."    While  so  oc- 
cupied, he  was, elected  state  secretary  and 
general  organizer  for  the  Kansas  Rod  Estate 
and  Immigration  Association,  a  position  wliich 
he  occupied  until  February,  1892,  when  his 
removal  to  Galena  necessttaied  h»  rengnation. 
At  the  latter  place,  he  became  interested  in 
zinc  and  lead  mining,  his  operations  not  only 
proving  satisfactory  in  a  financial  way,  but 
affording  him  opportunity  to  gain  valuable  b> 
formation  concerning  practical  mining  opera- 
tions, and  the  resources  and  values  of  mineral 
lands.    In  1897  he  became  associated  with 
Colonel  J.  V.  Pierce,  and  they  opened  a  real 
estate  and  mine  brokerage  office.   The  foUonv- 
ing  year  he  withdrew  from  this  partnership, 
and  vnth  his  brother,  George  T.,  formed  the 
firm  of  J.  W.  Baker  &  Co.,  which  entered 
upon  business  as  mining  brokers  and  pro- 
meters.    In  1899  the  firm  move<l  their  office 
to  JopHn,  where  the  larger  field  afforded  them 
the  opportunity  for  which  they  were  peculiarly 
fitted  by  their  long  experience  in  mining 
affairs.    Tlicir  relations  to  the  banking  and  • 
brokerage  firm  of  Colley  &  Co.,  of  Boston, 
New  York  and  Providence,  the  lai^efcst  dealers 
in  zinc  properties  in  the  United  States,  whom 
they  represent  in  this  market,  is  the  highest 
possible  evidence  of  their  expert  ability,  in- 
tegrity and  financial  responsibility  Hieir 
transactions  are  mainly  confined  to  the  sale  of 
large  mineral  tracts,  and  the  firm  enjoy  the 
distinction  of  having  successfully  managed  t 
greater  number  of  large  transfers  than  any 
Other  house  in  the  Joplin  district,  the  aggregate 
value  exceeding  the  vast  sum  <k  three  miUoa 
dollars  during  the  first  eight  months  of  thdr 
dealings.     In  politics  Mr.  Baker  is  a  pro- 
nounced Republican,  holding  to  the  firtancial 
and  commercial  prindples  of  that  party  as 
afFordinq-  the  only  substantial  rituulatirm  for 
business  enterprise  and  governmental  stability. 
He  is  a  member  of  the  Christian  Church,  and 
of  the  Order  of  United  Workmen.    He  was 
married  December  30,  1886,  to  Miss  Lillie  A. 
Hill,  of  Ranilolph  County,  Indiana,  who  died 
childless,  December  5,  iSSg,  at  Quinter,  Kan- 
sas.   March  27,  1895,  he  was  married  to  Mrs. 
Ollie  J.  Dorsett,  daughter  of  Judge  and  Mrs. 

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W.  O.  Parke,  of  Galena,  Kansas.  Of  this 
marriage  a  daughter,  Edith  Baker,  has  been 
born.  Mr.  Baker  is  a  fine  representative  of  the 
youthful  energy  and  determination  which  has 
developed  and  brought  to  the  attention  of  the 
financiers  of  the  world,  the  richest  and  most 
productive  of  mineral  regions.  In  local  mat- 
ters, he  is  public-spirited  and  liberal,  giving 
personal  effort  and  means  freely  to  the  ad- 
vancement of  all  laudable  enterprises. 

liakorslinlU.— A  village  in  the  south- 
eastern part  of  Ozark  County,  twenty  miles 
from  Gainesville,  and  twenty-three  miles  from 
West  Plains,  in  Howell  County,  the  nearest 
railroad  point.  It  has  two  flouringr  mills,  two 
hotels,  several  stores  in  difTcrcnt  hranc!-e.<;  <>{ 
trade,  two  weekly  newspapers,  the  "Informer" 
and  the  "Boomerang,"  both  published  1^ 
Walter  II.  Robinson.  There  is  a  good  school 
and  two  churches.  Population,  1899  (esli- 
maXed),  300. 

Bakouell,  Robert  Arniytapr<N  law- 
yer and  jurist,  was  bom  in  Edinburgh,  Scot- 
land, in  1826.  His  faiber  was  an  Episcopal 

dergyman,  who  for  many  years  filled  a  pastor- 
ate at  Norwich,  England,  and  there  the  son 
obtained  bis  early  education.  While  sdU  a' 
youth,  he  came  to  the  United  States  and  con- 
tinued his  scholastic  studies  at  the  Western 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  from  which  he 
was  g^duated  in  the  class  of  1845.  Being  in- 
clined then  to  follow  in  the  fooftsteps  of  his 
father  and  enter  the  Episcopal  ministry,  he 
went  to  the  General  Theological  Seminary  ol 
the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church,  in  New 
York,  and  took  a  three  years'  divinity  course 
at  that  institution.  In  i848>  however,  he  was 
swept  into  the  Catholic  Church  by  what  has 
been  termed  "the  wave  of  Newmanism," 
which  swept  over  the  seminary  at  that  time, 
and  thus  was  carried  away  from  the  calling  for 
which  he  had  fitted  himself.  For  a  time  after 
leaving  the  theological  school  he  was  pro- 
fessor of  Greek  and  Latin  in  a  newly  estab- 
lished college  at  Rochester,  New  York,  and 
after  that  he  was  connected  with  journalism, 
first  in  Fittri»ur|r,  Pennsyl  vanta,  and  Ifien  in 
St.  Louis.  Meantime  he  studied  law,  and  in 
1855  began  the  practice  of  his  profession  in 
that  city.  He  was  at  first  associated  with  1'. 
Bauduy  Garesche,  and  later  whh  E.  T.  Parish, 
and  during  more  than  twenty  years  of  active 
practice  at  the  bar  of  St.  Louis  he  was  known 

as  a  conscientious  devotee  to  his  profession. 
Broadened  by  years  of  experience,  in  tiie 
course  of  which  he  had  demonstrated  his  fit- 
ness for  the  exercise  of  the  highest  judicial 
functions,  he  was  appointed  by  Governor 
Hardin  a  member  of  the  St  Louis  Court  of 
Appeals  when  that  court  was  created  by  legis- 
lative enactment  in  1875.   The  act  creafting 
tiiit  court— whid%  was  designed  to  rdiere  the 
Supreme  Court  ol  Missouri  of  a  portion  of  its 
tabors  and  responsibilities — provided  that  the 
terms  for  which  the  first  judges  were  ap- 
pointed should  expire  January  i,  1877,  and 
that  their  successors  should  be  chosen  at  the 
general  eleaion  of  November,  1876.   At  this 
dection  Judge  Bakewdl  was  chosen  to  the 
bench  of  the  Court  of  Appeals  by  the  people, 
and  at  the  subsequent  adjustment  of  terms  by 
lot  die  eight-year  term  fell  to  him.  He 
served  thereafter  until  January  of  1885,  when 
he  retired  with  the  enviable  record  of  having 
been  not  only  a  just  and  upright  jurist  but  a 
broad-minded  ami  able  administrator  of  the 
law.     lie  is  now — i8<x; — the  only  surviving 
member  of  the  court  as  at  first  constituted, 
and  since  he  left  the  bendi  faat  ted  a  some- 
what  retired  life.    Judge  BakOwell  married. 
May  3,  1853,  Miss  Marie  Aime  Coudroy  de 
Lanrol,  whose  family  came  to  St.  Louis  in 
1848.    Mrs.  Bakewell  was  born  May  26,  1832, 
at  Guadaloupe,  in  the  West  Indies,  of  French 
parents.   Her  father  was  a  weakhy  planter, 
and  she  was  reared  in  luxury  and  educated  at 
the   family   seat  in   Versailles,  near  Paris, 
France,    When  France  summarily  abolished 
slavery  in  her  colonies,  in  1848,  the  act 
wrought  the  ruin  of  the  West  Indian  planters, 
and  it  was  this  misfortune  which  brought  the 
de  Laurcal  fomily  to  the  United  States  and  St. 
Louis.    I'ight  children  have  been  born  to 
Judge  and  Mrs.  Bakewell,  all  of  whom  were 
living  in  1899. 

Baladau. — See  "Indian  Springs." 

Baldwin,  James  Andrew,  a  promi- 
nent physician  of  Platte  City,  was  born  .\pril 
12,  1847,  in  Platte  County,  Missouri,  and  is 
the  only  living  child  of  Dr.  William  and  Ann 
Letitia  (Joimson)  Baldwin.  He  was  reared  in 
his  native  coiuity,  and  there  began  his  ecluca- 
tion  in  the  common  schools,  afterward  taking* 
an  academical  dourse  in  the  Gaylonl  Insti- 
tute. At  the  age  of  eighteen  years  he  bcgran 
reading  medicine  under  his  accomplished 

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father,  and  for  three  years  and  eight  months 
devoted  himseli  to  his  books  and  to  oral  in- 
•truction  for  nine  hours  daily,  but  few  da3rs 
of  icllcnt-ss  intermitting-  With  this  methodical 
and  long-continued  study  he  was  well  quali- 
fied for  practice,  but  he  took  a  regular  two- 
ttrm  course  in  tiie  medical  department  of  the 
University  of  Louisville.  Kentucky,  and  was 
graduated  from  that  institution  March  2.  1869. 
He  practiced  for  six  months  at  Minneapolis, 
Minnesota,  but  finding  the  climate  too  rigor- 
ous for  cotnfort,  he  removed  to  Spring  Hill, 
Kansas,  -where  he  remained  for  seven  years, 
and  built  up  an  excellent  practice.  He  then 
embraced  an  opportunity  to  succeed  Dr.  F.  M. 
Johnson,  at  Platte  City,  Missouri,  who  was  de- 
sirous of  removing  elsewhere,  and  entered 
upon  the  practice  in  which  he  is  yet  engaged, 
standing  with  the  leaders  of  the  profession  in 
knowledge,  skill  and  natural  aptitude  for  all 
departments  of  general  medicine  and  surgery. 
During  his  residence  in  Kansas  he  was  a  mem- 
ber of  the  State  Medical  Society,  and  for  some 
years  secretary  of  the  Johnson  County  and  the 
Miami  County  Medical  Societies,  and  he  has 
been  treasurer  of  die  Platte  County  Medical 
Society  from  its  organization.  He  has  served 
levcriU  terms  as  a  member  of  the  city  council 
of  Platte  City,  and  is  the  present  president  of 
that  body.  He  has  also  served  as  health  c^- 
cer  at  various  times.  Warmly  interested  in 
educational  affairs,  lie  has  been  a  mcmbcT  of 
the  Board  of  Education  for  fifteen  years  past, 
and  is  the  present  vice  president.  He  was  a 
charter  meinber  of  Platte  City  Lxxlge,  No.  504, 
Ancient  Free  and  Accepted  Masons,  and  has 
attained  to  the  commaiidcry  degrees  ;  he  is  also 
an  Odd  Fellow,  and  is  treasurer  of  all  these 
bodies.  Tn  religion  he  is  a  Presbyterian,  and 
in  politics  ;i  Democrat.  Dr.  Baldwin  married 
Miss  Minnie  Redman.  Octoher  t.  187S  Slie 
was  a  daughter  of  Dr.  Elias  C.  Redman,  a 
most  capahh-  physician,  who  entered  upon 
practice  in  F'latte  City  some%vhat  later  than  Dr. 
William  Baldwin;  she  was  educa:tcd  at  tlie 
Daaghters'  Coll^.  Platte  City,  and  is  a  mem- 
ber of  tlic  Christian  Church.  Two  children 
were  bom  of  the  marriage.  Dixie  was  edu- 
cated at  the  Gaylord  Institt^,  Platte  City,  and 
at  the  Christian  College,  Columbia,  being  a 
graduate  of  the  latter  institiAion.  She  is  well 
versed  in  music,  but  has  special  talent  for 
painting  and  drawing,  and  at  her  graduation 
ranked  immediately  after  the  two  prizc-wnn- 
ners;  she  took  a  special  art  course  in  1898-9  in 

the  art  department  of  the  State  University. 
William  Redman  has  been  a  student  at  Gay- 
lord  Institute,  at  Kemper  Military  School,  and 
at  Blecs  Military  .Academy.  Dr.  Baldwin  has 
for  many  years  given  intdligent  attention  to 
prehistoric  relics,  and  bis  collection  of  Indian 
antiquities,  weapons  and  domestic  articles  of 
stone  is  the  most  complete  in  Platte  County. 

Baldwin^  Wllliaiiit  an  early  and  promi- 
nent physician  of  f'latte  County,  was  born 
March  4,  181 3,  at  W  ashington.  Mason  County, 
Kentucky.  His  parents  were  James  and 
Sarah  ( 1 1  arris)  Haltlwin.  Tlic  father  was  born 
at  Gettysburg,  Pennsylvania,  and  became  an 
early  settler  in  Kentucky;  his  mother  and  the 
mother  of  General  .MlxTt . "Sidney  Joh^s^1Il  were 
sisters.  Janies  Baldwin  married  Sarah  Harris, 
descended  from  a  Scotch  family  which  settled 
at  Charlestown,  Massachusetts,  prior  to  the 
Revolutionary  War.  Her  father,  Edward 
Harris,  made  gunpowder  used  by  the  patriots 
at  the  battle  of  Bunker  HHl,  and  his  mortar  is 
now  in  St.  Paul,  Minnesota,  in  possession  of 
Miss  Sarah  Webb,  one  of  his  descendants.  He 
became  the  first  postmaster  of  Washington, 
Kentucky,  appointed  by  President  Creorge 
Washingtion.  A  son  of  James  and  Sarah  Bald- 
win was  James  H.  Baldwin,  a  distingtiished 
lawyer,  and  a  partner  and  brother-in-law  of 
CoJoik  I  .Alexander  W.  Doniphan.  Tlie  oldest 
son,  William  Baldwin,  received  his  hterary  ed- 
ucation in  the  University  of  Ohio,  and  studied 
medicine  in  the  medical  department  of  the 
University  of  Pennsylvania,  at  f^hiladelphia, 
graduating  from  the  latter  with  honors.  At  a 
later  time  the  I'niversity  of  Ohio  conferred 
upon  him  an  honorary  degree.  For  three 
years  follo^ng  his  graduaition  he  practiced 
at  Wetumpka.  Alabama.  Desirous  perma- 
nent establishmetU  in  Missouri,  he  visited  St. 
I-ouis,  and  was  warmly  solicited  to  remain  in 
that  vicinity  by  his  kinsman,  Albert  Sidney 
Johnston,  then  a  lieutenant  in  the  army,  sta-  • 
tioned  at  Jefferson  Barracks, but  continued  his 
journey  to  Martinsville.  Platte  County,  nnder 
the  influence  of  his  brother,  James  H.  Raid- 
win,  already  established  in  that  region.  For 
nearly  thirty  years  following  he  practiced  at 
Platte  City,  and  was  known  throughotit  the 
Missouri  Valley  for  his  eminent  professional 
ability,  which  enabled  him  to  acquire  high 
honor  and  generous  means.  Hi^  scholarly  at- 
tainments in  the  fields  of  history,  philosophy, 
science  and  general  literarture  were  equally  am- 

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pie,  and  association  with  him  was  eagerly 
sought  by  the  best  kiformed  reridents  and 
travelers.  An  eamert  advocate  of  liberal  edu- 
cation, he  was  a  movinp;'  spirit  in  the  founding 
of  the  Platte  City  Male  Academy,  tlie  first 
local  institution  of  its  kind,  in  1851,  and  was 
one  of  its  incorporators.  In  1845  he  marricl 
Miss  Ann  L.  Johnson,  daughter  of  Captain 
Andrew  Johnson,  of  Kentucky.  Captain 
Johnson  commanded  a  mounted  rifle  com 
pany  at  the  ba;ttles  of  the  Raisin  and  of  the 
Thnnes  dtm'ng  the  War  of  i8f3.  In  he 
was  Indian  agent  at  St.  Louis,  and  in  1S38  he 
visited  the  Platte  region  and  entered  land  at 
Pleasant  Ridge.  He  had  served  as  a  repre- 
sentative in  the  Kentucky  Legislature,  and  he 
was  a  State  Senator  in  Missouri  in  1844,  the 
first  from  tlie  Platte  County  district.  Mrs. 
Baldwin  died  November  39,  1853,  leaving  a 
son.  Tames  Andrew  Baldwin;  a  daughter  died 
at  the  age  of  three  years,  previous  to  the  death 
of  the  motiier.  Dr.  BsJdwin  memed  Miss 
Harriet  Gage,  a  native  of  New  Jersey,  about 
1858.  A  son  born  of  this  marriage,  William 
Baldwin,  died  at  the  age  of  four  years.  In 
1868  Dr.  Baldwin  removed  to  St.  Paul,  Minne- 
sota, where  he  died  January  iq,  1886.  He  was 
actively  engaged  in  liis  profession  until  shortly 
before  his  death,  and  was  endeared  to  his  as- 
sociates for  the  same  marked  traits  which 
made  him  a  favorite  at  his  former  home,  and 
he  occupied  various  honorable  and  responsible 
positiom  in  professional  bodies. 

Bales,  Walter,  a  pioneer  settler,  whose 
farm  embraced  many  acres  of  the  land  now 
within  the  corporate  limits  of  Kan?.Ts  Citv, 
was  bom  in  tlie  eastern  part  of  Tennessee  m 
1803.  In  1831  be  came  to  Missouri  and  lo- 
cated in  the  western  part  of  the  State.  He  was 
married,  in  1832,  to  Sarah  Johnson,  and  the 
same  year  purchased  the  farm  of  her  father, 
John  Johnson,  Sr.,  little  reali7:ing  that  upmi 
his  possessions  would  spring  up  a  city  of 
marvelous  growth  and  development  Tliere 
were  then  a  number  of  farms  held  by  the  mem- 
bers of  the  Johnson  family,  upon  which  now 
stand  stately  buildings  and  miles  of  palatial 
residences.  Tlie  one  purchased  by  Walter 
Bales  from  his  father-in-law,  who  died  in  1832, 
a  few  months  after  the  transfer  was  made,  in- 
cluded tiieland  now  bounded  by  Porter  Road, 
Bellefontaine  Street,  Independence  Avenue 
and  Seventeenth  Street.  Kansas  City  was  then 
unknown.  The  hills  which  were  afterward  re- 

duced by  the  hand  of  civilization,  and  the  hol- 
lows filled  in  to  make  room  for  structures  of 

a  modem  city,  were  unmarked  by  ci\'iUzation. 
The  country  was  a  vast  stretch  of  elevations 
and  dcpres«;ion5,  mantled  with  heavy  timber. 
A  few  white  families  had  settled  in  the  coun- 
try at  the  time  Mr.  Bales  was  married,  but 
when  his  wife  came  to  western  Missouri,  in 
1835,  her  family  was  tiie  first  of  the  race  to 
take  np  a  permanent  abode  within  the  limits 
of  the  present  Jackson  CounQr  and  engage  in 
Canning.  This  is,  therefore,  one  of  the  real 
pioneer  families  of  the  State,  and  its  members 
are  among  the  most  prominent  and  highly  re- 
spected of  the  commumty  in  whose  develop- 
ing affairs  they  have  figured  so  conapicnously. 
Mrs  r.alcs  was  Y>om  in  west  Tennessee  in 
1808,  and  witli  her  fatlier  and  brothers  came  to 
Missouri  in  181 5,  ten  yean  later,  entering  the 
land  upon  which  a  part  of  K.iiisas  City  now 
stands.  In  that  year  even  Independence,  one 
of  the  oldest  towns  in  the  State,  wae  just  be* 
ginning  to  see  the  first  white  "campers,"  as 
they  halted  on  their  long  journeys  in  search 
of  homes,  and  prepared  to  found  a  settlement 
on  the  fertile  land  which  skirts  the  Blue 
River.  The  Indians  were  numerous,  neigh- 
bors were  far  apart,  and  the  scene  was  one 
of  lonesome  wildness.  The  Johnsons  drove 
live  stock  as  they  proceeded  on  their  way  and 
searched  for  suitable  ranges  on  which  to  feed 
their  cattle.  They  crossed  Blue  River  south  of 
Westport.  In  the  latter  p.-irt  of  1825  and  in 
1826  other  pioneers  arrived  and  proceeded  to 
prepare  homes  for  tiiemselves  and  families. 
The  ancestry  of  the  Johnson  family  has  been 
traced  back  by  one  of  its  members  about  four 
hundred  years,  and  it  is  found  to  be  of  Scotch 
descent  Walter  Bales  was  an  active,  indus- 
trious man.  During  the  first  year  of  his  resi- 
dence in  Missouri  he  was  employed  by  others. 
After  his  purdiase  of  the  Ja<hnson  farm  he  put 
all  of  his  best  efforts  irrto  improving  the  prop- 
erty which  he  had  acquired,  and  was  one  of  the 
most  influenlaal  figures  in  the  early  life  of 
Jackson  County  and  Kansas  City.  The  old 
homestead  stood  at  what  is  now  the  comer  of 
Fourteenth  Street  and  Benton  Boulevard,  and 
when  it  was  torn  down  a  few  \  ears  ago  was 
nearly  sixty  years  old.  In  tlie  caHv  davs  the 
Bales  home  was  a  landmark,  a  familiar  spot. 
The  influence  exerted  by  die  head  of  the  fam- 
ily, his  abilities  as  a  coimselor  and  advisor, 
his  willingness  to  assist  the  one  in  trouble  and 
to  lighten  tiie  biardens  of  the  oppressed,  made 

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him  a  man  much  soug-ht  after.    Honesty  was 
the  ruling  characteristic  of  the  pioneer.  In- 
dtistry  and  strict  integfrity  marked  the  daily 
lives  of  the  early  settlers.   Troubles  between 
men  were  few,  but  when  disputes  arose  Mr. 
Bales  was  frequently  called  into  service  as  ar- 
bitrator.  He  was  well  read  in  laiw,  and  for 
over  twenty  years  was  a  mapfistratc  in  Kaw 
Township.    For  about  seven  years,  m  the  fif- 
ties, he  served  as  county  judge,  and  his  ptiblic 
duties  were  always  as  faithfully  attended  to  as 
were  his  private  affairs.   As  a  business  man  he 
was  active  and  progressive,  his  dealings  being 
iiKirkcd  by  strict  honesty  and  a  careful  observ- 
ance of  the  rules  of  integrityj  as  they  were 
bidifally  observed  in  the  good  old  pioneer 
days.   He  was  a  true  friend  of  the  school  sys- 
tem and  for  many  years  served  as  sc'hool  di- 
rector in  Jackson  County.    As  an  evidence  ot 
his  faidi  in  (the  future  of  Kansas  City,  and  his 
uiMing^ess  to  assist  in  the  promotion  of  en- 
terprises looking  toward  the  advancement  of 
the  city,  it  may  be  cited  that  lus  was  ^  first 
signature  attached  to  the  petition  in  which 
Thomas  Corrigan  asked  for  the  franchise  per- 
nritttng  the  constntction  of  the  Twelfth  Street 
cable  line  in  Kansas  City.    Politically  he  was 
a  Whig,  and  after  the  dissolution  of  that  party 
exercised  a  degree  of  independence  from  party 
lines.    Mr.  Bales  died  in  August.  1887.  leav- 
ing a  family  eminently  capable  of  raring  for 
the  large  esta^te  wliich  he  had  accutnulafted 
during  his  years  of  successful  effort.   Prior  to 
his  death  he  had  sold  eighty  acres  of  the  land 
which  embraced  so  large  a  portion  of  the 
ground  upon  which  Kansas  Cky  stands,  and 
tfie  remainder  was  le  ft  to       I'ainny,  composed 
as  follows :   John,  formerly  a  farmer  near  Bel- 
ton»  MtSBouri,  now  a  retired  resident  of  that 
|dace  and  a  most  influential  man ;  WilUam,  ac- 
tively identified  with  the  real  estate  interests  of 
Kansas  City;  Samuel  H.,  a  resident  of  Kan- 
sas City,  and  one  of  its  moat  pubKc-spirited 
men;  J.  E.,  whose  handsome  home  on  East 
Twelfth  Street,  in  Kansas  City,  adjoins  that  of 
bis  brother,  Samuel,  and  who  is  in  close  rela- 
tion with  the  latter  in  !)n>iness  transactions 
and  matters  affecting  the  interests  of  the  es- 
tate; Mary  E.,  who  makes  her  home  with  her 
brother,  Samuel  H. ;  and  Walter,  a  resident  of 
Wyoming.    Walter  J.  Bales,  a  son  of  William, 
is  one  of  the  foremost  representatives  of  the 
real  estate  and  insurance  interests  of  Kansas 
Citv.    Bales  Chapel,  a  cozy  stnicture  for  re- 
hgious  worship,  which  stands  near  the  home 

of  ?;inniel  Bales,  on  I'.ast  Twelfth  Street,  in 
Kansas  City,  was  erected  by  him,  with  tlie  co- 
operation of  Mary  E.  Bales,  m  1890.  There 
was  then  no  church  in  that  part  of  the  city,  and 
the  chapel  supplied  a  real  want.  The  Chris- 
tian denomination  used  the  btiilding  for  five 
years,  and  in  1895  the  owners  deeded  it,  with- 
out cost,  to  the  Baptist  Church,  with  which 
they  arc  identified.  The  wife  of  the  subject  of 
this  sketch  died  May  12,  1893,  after  a  con- 
tinuous residence  in  Missouri  of  sixty-eight 
years.  She  was  one  of  a  noble  family,  a  true 
Missouri  pioneer.  The  Johnsons  had  lived  hi 
Cole  County  for  about  ten  years  previous  to 
their  removal  to  Jackson  County  in  1825. 
Robert  Johnson,  a  brother  of  Mrs.  Bales,  was 
a  member  of  the  Missouri  Legislature  about 
1828.  Samuel  Johnson  was  a  well  known  jus- 
tice of  the  peace,  and  Charles  Johnson  was  the 
first  captain  of  State  militia  )n  Jackson  County. 

Ball,  Duvid  Alexander,  lawyer,  ex- 
Lieutenant  Governor  and  ex-State  Senator  of 

Missouri,  was  born  in  Lincoln  County,  Mis- 
souri, June  18,  185 1,  son  of  John  E.  and  Eliza- 
beth (Dyer)  Ball.  Early  in  the  settlement  of 
America  an  English  family  named  Ball  set- 
tled in  the  Virginias.  James  Ball,  who  was 
born  in  Fauquier  County,  Virginia,  waa  a  de- 
scendant of  this  family.  There  he  married 
Miss  Mary  Sinitli.  also  descended  from  an  old 
Virginia  family,  and  a  native  of  i-"auquier 
County.  James  Ball  was  a  plantation  owner 
and  reared  a  family  of  six  children,  three  sons 
and  tliree  daughters.  In  1840  he  left  his  na- 
tive place  and,  with  his  family,  located  on  a 
farm  near  P.ridgcton,  Missouri,  where  he  died 
in  1850.  His  second  son  was  John  E.  Ball, 
who  was  bom  in  Fauquier  County,  Virginia, 
in  1804.  He  removed  with  the  family  from 
Virginia  to  Missouri,  and  is  a  veteran  of  both 
the  Mexican  and  the  Civil  War.  In  the  Mex- 
ican War  he  served  under  General  Sterling 
Price.  In  1861,  when  the  war  of  the  rebellion 
broke  out,  though  a  native  Virginian,  iiis  sym- 
palhies  were  wi^  the  Union,  and  he  organized 
a  military  company,  with  which  he  \va.s  con- 
nected for  two  years ;  then  he  joined  tJie  Forty- 
ninth  Missouri  and  was  soon  promoted  to  the 
rank  of  captain.  He,  with  his  company,  was 
engaged  in  a  number  of  skirmishes  and  bat- 
tles, among  others,  the  defense  of  Spanish 
Fort  and  Fort  Blakely.  In  1S50,  aftt  r  he  had 
returned  from  the  Mexican  War,  he  niarriecf 
Elizabetli  Dyer,  daughter  of  David  and  Nancy 

Digitized  by  Google 

(Sammons)  Dyer,  and  a  sister  of  David  1*. 
Dyer,  prominent  among  tJic  members  of  the 
St.  Louis  bar.  Of  this  union  nine  children 
were  born,  David  A..  Nettie,  James  F.,  John 
B.  M.,  Galen  R.,  Claude  R.,  Laura,  William 
and  Edward.  The  father  of  Mrs.  Ball, 
David  Dyer,  was  a  volunteer  in  the  War  of 
l8i2,  was  proniineiU  in  Virginia  as  a  Whig, 
and  served  both  in  the  tipper  and  lower  bouses 
of  the  Virginia  Assembly.  In  1844  he  re- 
moved with  bis  family  to  Missouri  and  took  up 
his  residence  in  Lincoln  Cotinty.  His  wife, 
who  was  Miss  Nancy  Sammons.  was  a  native 
of  Henry  (  iiiintv,  Virginia;  she  vras  a  noi^le 
woman  and  a  member  of  the  Baptist  Church. 
David  Alexander  Ball  was  the  fMat  child  of 
John  E.  and^abeth  Ball,  both  of  whom  are 
living  in  Montgomery  County,  and  his  boy- 
hood days  were  spent  on  h»  father's  farm, 
where  his  muscles,  as  well  a.s  his  brain,  re- 
ceived such  exercise  as  tended  toward  sub- 
stantial development.  He  attended  the  countr}' 
schools  under  difficulties,  having  to  walk  from 
three  to  five  miles.  He  was  studious  and  had 
the  ability  to  easily  grasp  and  retain  sudi  rudi- 
ments of  knowledge  as  the  schools  and  study 
It  home  afforded.  At  tlie  age  of  seventeen 
years,  notwithstanding  the  meager  schooling 
he  had  received,  he  was  equipped  for  teaching 
school, and  served  mie  term  as  a  country  school 
teacher.  After  remaining  two  years  longer  on 
hit  Mher's  farm  he  went  to  Louisiana,  Pike 
County,  where  he  attended  the  pubKc  schools 
for  two  terms,  sustaining  himself  in  tlie  mean- 
time by  working  in  A.  Tinsley  &  Co.'s  tobacco 
factory  and  utilizing  the  spare  moments  in  ac- 
quiring the  fundamental  principles  of  law. 
Leaving  school  he  studied  law  in  the  ofHce  ol 
Fagg  &  Dyer,  and  in  May,  1873,  was  admitted 
to  the  practice  of  law  by  Judge  Porter  Gil- 
christ. In  1874  he  was  elected  city  attorney  of 
Louisiana  and  served  in  that  capacity  one 
year.  In  1878  he  was  elected  prosecuting  at- 
torney of  Pike  County,  and  re-elerted  at  the 
end  of  his  term.  Tlis  record  as  prosecuting 
attorney  is  without  a  blemish.  Of  the  many 
indictments  he  formulated  and  presented  not 
one  was  quashed.  In  1884  he  was  elected  to 
<tie  State  Senate  from  the  Eleventh  District, 
comprised  of  the  rouiitirs  of  Audrain,  Pike 
and  Lincoln,  and  during  the  first  session  in 
which  he  served  fie  demonstrated  his  ability  as 
a  sf.ift  stiian.  and  made  such  an  excellent  re- 
cord that  in  1887  his  colleagues  made  him 
president  of  the  Senate.    He  proved  himself 

a  highly  capable  presiding  oflficer,  just,  and  at. 
the  same  time  firm  to  a  degree  that  com- 
manded the  admiration  and  respect  of  his  fel- 
low Senators     In   1887  Governor  John  M. 
Marmaduke  died,  and  Senator  Ball  became 
Lieutenant  Governor,  whtdi  office  he  occu- 
pied until  i!^<).    .As  a  member  of  the  unp<  r 
house  of  the  Missouri  Legislature  he  acquired 
high  reputation  as  «  leader  and  an  able  and 
eloquent  supporter  of  measures  he  deemed 
important  for  the  public  good.    He  was  the 
author  of  a  nunrt>er  of  bills  which  became 
laws,  and  also  of  the  important  bill  providing 
for  uniform  text-books  for  schools,  which  he 
put  through  the  Senate,  but  which  failed  of 
passage  in  the  House.  He  labored  with  ear- 
nestness and  success  in  securing  t'(|uitable 
and  much  needed  railroad  legislation,  and  was 
prominent  as  a  leader  in  the  support  of  odier 
measures  of  benefit  to  the  State.    He  was 
chairman  of  the  committee  to  visit  State  insti- 
titttons,  and  by  his  recommendation  tite  State 
Insane  .\syluBi  at  Nevada  was  established. 
While  always  an  active  politician.  Governor 
Ball  can  not  be  accused  of  being  an  otiice 
seeker.   He  is  a  nsAmal  political  leader,  ever 
active  in  campaigns,  and  his  influence  is  felt 
in  every  part  of  the  State.    He  lias  held  nu- 
Rierous  honorary  portions  in  his  party,  and 
fw  years  there  have  been  few  DfTtKK  ratic  COO- 
veotions,  either  of  his  State,  district  or  county, 
to  wiiicfa  !ie  baa  not  been  a  deiqiale  In  18^ 
he  was  dected  a  member  of  the  State  Demo- 
cratic committee,  and  was  made  a  member  of 
the  executive  conmiittee  of  tliat  body,  and 
through  his  efficient  work  in  fhalt  capacity  a 
solid  Democratic  delegation  was  elected  to 
Congress.    In  1896,  through  the  efforts  of  his 
friends,  he  was  induced  to  beoome  a  candidate 
for  Governor,  and  failed  by  only  a  few  votes  of 
nomination.    Again  in  1900,  urged  by  his 
friends  he  became  a  candidate  for  the  same 
office,  and  though  there  was  bright  pixxniae  of 
success  a*  the  convention,  early  in  tlie  cam- 
paign he  withdrew  from  the  field,  so  as  to  give 
no  occasion  for  other  than  the  greatest  har- 
mony in  the  party  which  he  has  so  faithfully 
served.    Later  in  the  same  year  he  was  ohosen 
one  of  the  four  delegates  at  large  from  Mis- 
souri to  the  Deni'KT.itir  N.itional  Convenlicm 
and  took  a  prominent  f>art  in  the  deliberaitions 
of  the  historic  assemblage  wMdh  met  at  Kanaaa 
City.  Missouri.  July  4th,  and  nominated  Wil- 
liam Jennings  Bryan  and  Adlai  E.  Stevenson 
for  President  and  Vice  President,  respectively. 

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of  the  United  States.  The  personality  of  Mr. 
Ball  is  notable.  His  integrity,  honesty  and 
faithfulness  to  duty  has  never  been  questioned. 
He  is  pri -eminently  a  Missourian,  one  «]n 
dcspisrs  a!!  that  is  not  honorable.  He  is  a 
man  who  has  advanced  by  overcoming  many 
obstacles,  and  fills  a  plaice  before  llie  people  of 
the  State  which  he  has  gained  by  merit  alone. 
When  a  young  man,  as  heretofore  mentioned, 
he  worked  in  the  large  tobacco  factory  of  A. 
Tinsley  &  Co.,  to  support  himself  while  at- 
tending school  and  stud}-ing  law.  He  gained 
die  confidence  of  his  employers  then,  and  they 
are  tttill  his  employers,  and  for  many  years  he 
has  been  their  legal  representative.  Tlirough- 
out  Missouri  he  is  noted  both  as  a  criminal  and 
civil  lawyer.  With  Nat  Dryden,  decea.sed,  he 
abty  and  successfully  defended  Dr.  Hearne, 
who  was  charged  with  tlie  murder  of  million- 
aire Amos  Stillwell,  at  Hannibal,  Mieaoari. 
His  first  law  partnership  was  with  Honorable 
Ctiamp  Clark,  now  a  leading  member  of  Con- 
gress. Later,  in  1891,  he  became  associated 
with  his  old  preceptor,  ex-Supreme  Judge 
Thomas  J.  C.  Fagg.  He  is  now  associated 
with  Sanmel  Sparrow,  under  the  firm  name  o< 
Ball  &  Sparrow.  He  is  a  member  of  tiie 
Masonic  and  other  fraternal  orders.  May  13, 
1875,  he  was  married  to  Miss  Jessie  Minor, 
daogiiter  of  Samad  O.  and  Elizalbelli  (Cuter) 
Minor.  Mrs.  Ball  was  born  in  Pike  County, 
and  both  her  parents  were  natives  of  Virginia. 
They  have  no  children.  Governor  and  Mrs. 
Ball  are  both  members  of  tiie  Mctfiodist  Epis* 
oopal  Church,  South.  , 

Ban*  Howard  H.»  dentist,  was  bom  in 
Fana,  Illinois,  December  10,  1865,  son  of 
Howard  J.  and  Helen  (Besier)  Ball.  Howard 
J.  Ball  was  a  physician  of  reptite,  wlio  prac- 
ticed his  profession  in  Pana  until  his  decease, 
in  lEga.  Mrs.  Ball  still  resides  in  Pana.  From 
Hie  age  of  six  to  twelve  years  Dr.  Ball  attended 
the  public  schools  of  his  native  town,  and  then 
completed  a  college  course.  He  engaged  in 
the  practice  ol  dentistry  in  his  native  town 
when  but  sfacteen  years  of  age.  After  some 
years  of  successful  practice  there  he  deter- 
mined to  travel  extensively  abroad.  This  he 
did,  "circKng^'  the  entire  globe.  Returning  to 
his  native  land,  Dr.  Ball  located  in  Joplin,  Mis- 
souri, in  1895,  v^here  he  has  since  been  located, 
and  where  he  has  built  up  an  extensive  and 
lucrative  practice.  In  politics  he  was  formerly 
a  Democrat,  bat  lately  has  cast  his  vote  and 

influenirc  witli  the  Republican  party,  its  prin- 
ciples being  more  in  acoordance  with  his 
views  on  the  questions  of  the  day.  He  is  a 

nu  inljiT  of  the  order  of  Ancient  Free  and  Ac- 
cepted Masons,  and  of  the  Benevoleiiit  and 
Protective  Order  of  Elks.  In  1891  lie  was 
ntarried  to  Miss  Carrie  Jefferson,  of  La  Crosse, 
Wisconsin,  daughter  of  D.  C.  and  Rhoda 
(Martin)  Jefferson.  They  have  one  son,  How- 
ard Jefferson  Ball,  bom  November  18,  1896W 

Ballin^al,  Goorj^e  F'leld«*r,  lawyer 
and  legislator,  was  born  ad  Blue  Lick  Springs, 
Nicholas  County,  Kentucky.  His  fadior  was 
Neal  Ballingal,  of  Scotch-Irish  origin.  His 
mother  was  Louisa  Fielder.  Both  his  faither 
and  mother  were  natives  of  Kentucky.  George 
F.  Ballingal  attended  private  schools  and  en- 
tered the  Ohio  University  in  1859.  After 
spending  two  years  in  tint  institution  he  went 
to  Indiana  Univer^ty,  where  he  spent  the 
years  1861  and  1862.  From  there  he  refturncd 
to  Louisville,  and  was  graduated  from  the 
Louisville  Law  School  in  1866.  In  1869  he 
went  to  Kansas  City  and  entered  upon  the 
practice  of  law,  and  has  closely  applied  himself 
to  his  chosen  profession  ever  since.  He  has 
had  a  wide  and  profitable  practice  in  the  va- 
rious courts,  State  and  Federal,  his  practice  in 
land  cases  being  especially  large.  In  1876  he 
was  elected  a  State  Senator,  and  was  a  promi- 
nent factor  in  promoting  peace  among  the  dis- 
cordant political  elements.  He  was  one  of  the 
committee  who  revised  tiie  laws  of  the  State 
to  make  them  conform  to  the  new  State  Con- 
stitution, and  he  served  as  chairman  of  the 
Democratic  congressional  committee  of  the 
Fifth  District  of  Missouri  from  1880  to  1894, 
during  which  time  he  labored  to  harmonize  the 
disconl  tfiat  then  existed  in  ihe  Democritic 
party  in  that  district.  A  Democrat  in  political 
faith,  progressive  in  his  ideas  and  in  the  in- 
terest of  his  party,  he  participated  earnestly  in 
the  movement  by  which  George  G.  Vest  was 
first  elected  to  the  United  States  Senate,  and 
in  making  the  nominating  spc*ech  in  support 
of  his  candidacy  he  entreated  his  party  to  elim* 
inate  from  its  contentions  the  rancor  engen- 
dered by  the  late  Civil  War,  and  face  the  living 
issues  instramental  in  the  betterment  of  State 
and  party.  He  was  largely  instrumental  in 
having  Democratic  control  established  in  the 
Fifth  Congressional  District,  and  through  his 
management  made  Democracy  more  efficient 
and  controlling.  January  6, 1879,  he  was  mar- 

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ried  to  Miss  Bettie  Allen  Buckncr,  of  St 
Louis.  A  son  and  two  daughters  have  blessed 
their  marriage. 

Balltown.— See  "Little  Oaagfe." 

Ball  win. — A  place  of  about  200  inhabi- 
tants on  the  Manchester  Road,  twent]r>two 

miles  west  of  St.  Louis.  It  takes  its  name 
from  John  Ball,  who,  in  1804,  settled  the  farm 
upon  wWch  the  town  was  subsequently  laid 
out  It  is  in  the  midst  of  a  beautiful  agjicul- 
tural  region,  with  thriving,  well  tilled  farms 
all  around  it. 

BallouuH. — Inventive  genius  has  been 
exercised  in  recent  years  to  a  greater  extent 

than  ever  before  toward  developing  contriv- 
ances to  navigate  the  air.  Results  so  far,  how- 
ever, can  not  be  said  to  have  repaid  the  eflForts 
thus  expended.  In  the  field  of  science  more 
has  been  learned,  perhaps,  by  the  use  of  cap- 
tive balloons  and  self-registering  instruments, 
and  more  in  the  line  of  observation  of  military 
movements,  than  with  balloons  afloat.  With 
favoring  breezes,  balloons  have  been  employed 
to  carry  the  life  line  from  shore  to  a  wrecked 
vessel.  But  there  has  been  no  material  ad- 
vancement with  regard  to  the  ascensive  or 
propelling  power,  control  and  guidance  of 
vessels  in  the  air.  There  is,  indeed,  no  au- 
thentic information  leading  to  the  belief  that 
any  successful,  maintained  attempt  has  been 
made  to  steer  this  kind  of  craft,  much  less  to 
take  a  course  ronfrarv  to  the  wind.  An  air 
ship  of  our  day,  therefore,  like  a  balloon  in  the 
days  of  Montgolfier,  is  the  toy  of  the  winds, 
which,  as  Wordsworth  says,  "keep  no  certain 
intervals  of  rest,"  but  blow  when  as  well  as 
where  they  list.  The  use  of  coal  gas  instead 
of  hot  air  is  available  to  lift  balloons  and  keep 
them  afloat,  but,  as  the  quality  of  levity  is 
essential,  no  substitute  is  found  in  their  con- 
struction for  silk  or  other  textile  Mrics. 
which  must  be  made  as  impervious  as  pos- 
sible to  prevent  leakage.  The  necessary 
frailness  of  aierial  'machines,  together  with 
thiir  unwieldiness  when  preparing:  for  the 
iiight,  and  the  uncertainties  of  descent,  give  to 
aeronautics  nearly  all  their  dread  and  danger. 
Fi  v  accidents  have  happened  to  balloons 
afloat,  such  as  ripping  of  seams,  upsetting,  etc. 
Of  course,  there  must  be  an  entire  absence  of 
fire,  lest  escaping  gas  ignite  and  set  the  bal- 
loon ablaze.  A  sudden  escape  of  all  the  {;:jis 
would  not  necessarily  involve  to  the  aeronaut 

a  fatal  fall,  for  in  most  cases  the  fabric  would 
fill  out  and  form  an  umbrella-like  resistance 
to  the  law  of  gravitation.  Hence  the  pam- 
rhufe,  with  which  premeditated  descents  have 
been  made  from  great  heights.  Unfortu- 
nately, the  use  of  this  contrivance  by  daring 
but  inexperienced  persons  for  exhibition  pur- 
poses have  filled  the  annals  of  aerial  trespass, 
so  to  speak,  with  sickening  casualties. 

From  Carr  Place  in  St.  Louis,  1857-8, 
Mons.  Godard,  a  French  aeronaut,  gave  a 
number  of  ascensions  with  his  wife  and  son, 
the  boy  using  a  paiachiite  to  come  down  with, 
while  his  father  or  mother  pursued  the  journey 
without  him.  On  one  occasion  a  i>ony  was 
taken  up,  attached  to  the  balloon.  Mons. 
Godard  never  had  an  accident,  and  no  great 
distances  were  ever  traveled  by  him.  At  a 
later  date  S.  M.  Brooks,  connected  with  the 
St.  Louis  Museum,  and  a  Mr.  Stout,  made 
several  successful  ascensions  with  small  but 
well  made  balloons,  and  invariably  effected 
safe  landings,  thouph  not  at  remarkable  dis- 
tances from  the  place  of  departure.  A  notable 
balloon  voyage  was  made  from  St.  Louis, 
July  I,  1859,  indeed  by  far  the  longest  of 
which  there  is  a  record  anywhere  iti  tlie  world. 
Mr.  A.  O.  Gager,  then  of  Bennington,  Ver- 
mont, but  afterward  a  member  of  tfte  firm  of 
Haviland  &  Co.,  in  the  queensware  busi- 
ness, was  the  promoter  of  the  enterprise. 
His  design  was  to  test  the  correctness  of  a 
theory  that  at  some  definhe  distance  above 
ground  there  is  a  con.stant  air  current  blowing 
ftxjm  tlie  West  to  the  East,  produced  by  the 
earth  in  its  daily  revolutions.  He  associated 
with  him  John  Lainomifain,  with  whom  he 
had  made  one  ascension  at  Troy,  New  York, 
and  who  at  that  time  had  acquired  a  name  for 
building  balloons  of  extraordinary  staying 
qualities.  Later  Professor  John  Wise,  who 
had  made  over  one  hundred  ascents,  was  in- 
vited to  aid  the  project  with  his  advice  and  to 
accompany  Gager  and  Lainountain  on  their 
experimental  trip.  St.  Louis  was  selected  as 
the  departing  point  The  balloon,  made  of 
stout  (  "liriicse  silk,  varnished  thoroughly  and 
enveloped  in  a  network  of  fine  cordage,  was 
brougfit  to  fhe  dly  and  preparations  were  at 
once  begun  for  the  vovage.  \\  illiam  Hyde, 
a  newspaper  reporter,  secured  the  privilege  of 
going  as  historian.  The  ascent  was  made 
from  near  the  southeast  corner  of  Washington 
Square — on  the  Spot  where  President  Mc- 
Kinley  was,  in  1896,  nominated  for  President 

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— at  7:20  o'clock  in  the  evening,  in  the  pros- 
eoce  of  a  great  crowd.    The  surrounding 
Areets  were  filled  with  people  and  tnry 
avaiUiblc  point  of  observation  in  the  dty  was 
oocnined.    The  monster  air^ip,  named  the 
"kindc,**  rate  majestically,  the  eaith  seem- 
iog^  to  tbe  occnpanta  to  sink  beneath  them, 
they  experiencinqf  no  sense  of  motion.  Dur- 
ing the  ni^hl,  an  altitude  was  attained  of 
nearly  two  miles,  as  indicated  liy  the  instru- 
ments, and  in  the  morning  a  film  of  ice  was  on 
the  water  in  the  buckets.  Lamountain,  having 
overworked  himself  duringf  the  day,  was  un- 
able to  withstand  the  cold  and  the  difTiculty  of 
breathing  in  the  rarity  of  the  atmosphere. 
He  was  bleeding  from  the  nose  and  ears, 
when  a  quantity  of  gas  was  allowed  to  escape 
and  a  lower  stratum  reached,  which  was  more 
comfortable.    The  sun  in  the  evening  had 
set  in  fnll-orbed  grandeur,  and  at  night  the 
stars  shone  brOliantly  through  the  thin  lace  of 
white  vapon  that  could  scarcely  be  called 
ckiuds.   At  sunrise  on  die  morning  of  <0ie  ad, 
an  immense  sheet  of  water  presented  itsdf 
to  the  wondering  voN-agers.    It  proved  to  be 
Lake  Erie.    Over  almost  the  entire  length  of 
this  lake  tfie  balloon  rode  the  wind  at  varying 
heights.    But  it  was  found  that  there  had  been 
a  considerable  expenditure  of  carrying  power 
and  corresponding  loss  of  ballast,  or  sand, 
•^t  noon  banks  of  angry-looking  cloud.s  were 
in  the  sky,  and  the  balloonists  realized  that 
they  were  traveling  very  fast,  for  from  out  of 
the   universe  of  silence  came  the  roar  of 
Niagara.    The  great  cataract,  almost  directly 
over  which  Die  "Atbntic"  sailed,  seemed  to 
her  crew  far  too  insignificant  at  their  view 
point  to  produce  so  great  a  noise    In  fact,  to 
this    incessant    thundering  was    added  the 
wrackage  of  a  windstorm  which  was  raging 
bdow.     In  a  flash  came  the  thouglit  simul- 
taneously to  the  now  much  interested  quartet 
tiiat  there  was  mischief  ahead.    More  bal- 
last was  thrown  overboard,  and  away  above 
the  waters  of  Lake  Ontario  soared  the  queen 
of  the  upper  deep.    At  length,  her  tendency 
was  decidedly  to  come  down.    Bags  of  sand 
were  quickly  emptied  in  the  vain  attempt  to 
keep  the  vessel  above  the  waves,  which  were 
flinging^  up  their  white  caps  niadl>  and  mak- 
ing troughs  ten  or  fifteen  feet  deep.  La- 
mountain  stayed  in  the  boat,  while  Gagcr  and 
Hyde  clambered,  hand  oyer  hand,  into  the 
wicker  basket  with  Wise.    The  boat,  a  frail 
sassafras  concern,  enveloped  in  stout  canvas, 

was  swung  several  feet  below  llie  basket,  but 
was  useless  in  such  an  emergency.  La- 
motmtabi  wanted  to  cut  it  loose,  and  a  htnried, 

friendly  discussion  arose  as  to  whether  this 
was  best.  Then  tlie  boat  struck  tlie  crest  of 
a  high  wave  and  the  balloon  instantly  bounded 
into  the  air.  Meanwhile  everything  that 
could  be  spared  that  had  even  an  ounce  of 
weight  was  pitched  out,  including  extra  cloth- 
ing and  all  tlie  paraphernalia  of  the  trip. 
Three  times  tlie  little  boat  struck,  crushing  in 
its  timbers,  and  eacli  time  the  silken  globe 
righted  and  skimmed  Uke  a  gall  the  tops  of 
the  frantic  waves.  At  last  the  shore  <>i 
Sackett's  Harbor  was  descried.  But  a  new 
peril  was  ahead. 

"Chance  seiids  the  breeae, 
But  if  the  pilot  •lumber  at  the  helm. 
The  wiy  wind  that  walls  u*  towRrd  tlw  port 
May  da«li  iu  on  tiw  ilwl««a." 

The  grapnd,  with-  a  conuderable  length  of 

rope,  which  Lamountain  had  refused  to  put 
overboard  as  ballast,  was  thrown  out.  It 
snapped  like  a  pipe  stem  and  tiie  rope  stood 
out  almost  horizontally,  such  was  the  rate  of 
speed.  All  hands  now  tugged  at  the  valve 
rope  to  let  out  the  gas,  but  the  valve,  which 
had  been  frozen  in  titrht.  failed  to  work  at 
first.  Oil  went  the  balloon,  dragging  its  de- 
pendencies over  liie  treetops,  the  boat  and 
basket,  hitched  to  a  steel  concentric  ring, 
crashing  through  the  limbs  and  swaying  to  and 
*fro  with  fearful  force.  By  hanging  on  to  the 
concentric  ring,  the  voyagers  kept  titemselves 
from  being  spilled  to  the  ground.  At  length, 
when  about  three  miles  from  the  lake  shore, 
after  phmging  about  in  the  forest  in  this  dash- 
ing and  rashing  manner,  the  boat  became 
fastened  in  the  fork  of  a  tree,  pulling  the  great 
gas  bag  down  sufiiciently  to  be  punctured  and 
torn,  and  all  was  over.  The  agitated  but 
thankful  explorers,  all  unhurt  but  T.aiiioim- 
tain,  whose  body  was  slightly  contused, 
clambered  down  by  the  aid  of  die  collapsed 
meshes  and  found  themselves  at  the  edge  of 
the  village  of  Henderson.  Jefferson  County, 
New  York ;  time,  2 130  p.  m.,  19  horn's  lO 
minutes  from  St.  Louis.  By  the  closest  con- 
nections, the  distance  by  rail  is  992  miles  ;  time 
schedule,  39  hours  50  minutes.  The  distance 
traveled  by  the  "Atlantic,"  allowing  for 
changes  of  current,  is  estimated  at  900  miles, 
making  the  average  nearly  47  miles  per  hour 
from  start  to  finish.  Lamountain,  in  Septem- 
ber following,  made  an  ascension  from  Water- 
town,  New  York,  landing  in  the  Bosketong 

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St.  Louis,  and  to  hav«  been  played  on  tiie 
only  two  grand  pianos  then  in  existence  in  the 

city.  The  concerts  given  under  Professor 
Balmer's  direction  contributed  to  the  advance- 
ment of  various  church,  charitable  and  other 
enterprises,  and  Christ  Churcli,  tin-  Scv-ond 
Presbyterian  Churchy  the  Orphan  Asylum 
and  the  Mercantile  Library  were  each  his 
debtors  in  tliat  connection.  In  1840— May 
1st — Christ  Church  was  dedicated,  and  a  line 
musical  programme  was  rendered  on  oc- 
easlon.  Miss  Weber  sang  two  of  the  solos  on 
the  progranntu',  and  sang  for  tlu-  last  tinu', 
tliat  night,  as  Miss  Weber.  It  was  alter  tlie 
concert  (hat  Professor  Balmer  firoposed  to 
her,  and  in  July  following  they  were  married. 
In  1846  he  purchased  the  business  of  Shep> 
pard  &  Phillipps,  and,  associating  with  hint  hb 
brother-in-law,  Henry  Weber,  founded  the 
music  emporium  which,  at  the  end  of  more 
than  half  a  century,  is  still  in  existence,  and 
is  s;ill  conducted  by  the  Balmer  81  Weber 
Music  Company.  Thereafter,  as  before,  he  con- 
tinued to  be  a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  con- 
duct of  diarity  eoncerts,  and  in  all  the  musical 
functions  of  the  city.  Foreign  artists  who 
came  to  the  city  called  on  him  for  advice  and 
assistance,  and  many  of  the  moat  famous  were, 
from  time  to  time,  his  guests.  Henry  Vieux- 
temps  enjoyed  his  hospitality  in  1S43,  and 
Ole  Bull  was  a  visitor  at  this  home  in  1844. 
On  the  o  \  as;  >n  of  Ole  Bull's  visit  to  the  city 
Professor  iialiner  played  his  accompanhnents 
on  the  piano,  and,  being  obliged  to  uansposs 
one  of  his  compoaiHont,  did  it  ao  wen  tfwt  the 
great  violinist  presented  him  with  a  handsome 
ruby  ring,  and  embraced  him  affectionately  in 
'  token  of  his  appreciation  of  the  service.  This 
ring,  a  cherished  memento  of  the  greaitest  vio- 
linist of  his  day,  is  now  in  possession  of  Pro- 
fessor Balmer's  daughter,  Mrs.  Therese  Bal- 
mer Smith.  In  1845  Professor  Balmer  organ- 
ized the  first  male  cliurus  in  St.  Louis,  and  in 
1846  the  Oratorio  Society,  of  which  he  be- 
came conductor.  The  same  year,  in  company 
with  Leopold  de  Meier,  and  later  with  otlier 
notable  musical  artists,  he  gave  memorable 
performances  in  St.  Louis.  When  President 
I.inrriln  was  buried  at  Springfield,  Ii'itiiii>,  in 
1865,  he  was  called  upon  to  conduct  the  music 
at  his  funeral,  and  the  baton  used  on  lhat  oc- 
casion is  still  cherished  by  the  family  as  an 
interesting  relic  of  a  memorable  occasion. 
For  forty-six  years  he  held  the  position  of 
organist  at  Christ  Church,  and  during  all  that 

time  he  was  one  of   the  most  devoted  and 
helpful  friends  of  the  chtu-ch.    His  business 
partner  retired  from  the  firm  in  1851,  but  Pro- 
fessor Balmer  retained  the  old  firm  name  in 
honor  of  his  former  partner,  his  wife  and 
father-in-!aw.     Mis  father  in  l.iw  was  Ilenry 
Weber,  formerly  counselor  at  the  court  of 
Frederick  WiUiam  III,  king  of  Prussia,  a 
gentleman  of  grc:tt  learning,  a  noted  linguist 
and  a  correspondent  and  friend  of  such  dis- 
tinguished men  as  Goethe,  Humboldt,  Rau- 
mer  and  Longfellow.    Mr.  Weber,  who  trans- 
lated Longfellow's  poems  into  the  r.cnuan 
language  in  the  rhythm  of  the  original,  was 
also  a  fine  musician,  and  composed  masses, 
songs  and  organ  oflfertorii-s.     On  his  death- 
bed he  composed  his  own  funeral  hymn,  pre- 
pared it  for  a  male  quartette  and  copied  it  in 
a  clear,  firm  hand.    It  was  sung  at  his  funeral, 
and  the  words,  as  printed,  were  cut  on  his 
monument  in  Beltefontaine  Cemetery.  He 
died  at  St.  Charles,  at  the  age  of  eighty-nine 
years.     <  hie  of  tlie   great   musical  societies 
organized  by  Professor  Halmcr  was  the  Phil- 
harmonic Society,  which  began  its  existence 
in  i85(;,  and  was  composed  of  the  remnants 
of  former  societies.  He  was  chosen  president 
of  this  society  and  held  that  position  for  many 
years,    .\fter  it  icasod  to  exi'^t  as  a  regular 
organization  on  account  of  the  dishonest 
practices  of  one  of  its  officials,  the  members 
were  held  together  in  a  social  way,  and  dur- 
ing the  war  perioil,  at  the  stmimons  of  Pro- 
fessor Balmer,  gave  the  opera  ■"M.u-tlia"  for 
the  benefit  of  sick  and  wounded  soldiers, 
which  provc^l  a  great  success  financially,  and 
received  unstinted  praise  on  account  of  its 
artistfe  merits.  So  much  a  part  of  the  musical 
life  of  St.  Loviis  was  Pnifcssnr  Rainier  that 
he  greatly  endeared  himself  to  people  of  all 
classes  with  whom  he  was  brought  into  con- 
tact.   He  lived  a  long  and  useful  life,  and  on 
the  occasion  of  the  celebration  of  his  golden 
wedding  anniversary,  in  1890,  messages  and 
letters  of  congratulation  came  to  him  from  all 
parts  of  tiic  W'lrld.    His  remains  now  rest  in 
Bellefonuine  Cemetery,  and  his  last  resting- 
place  is  marked  by  a  magnificent  montmient, 
erected  by  his  wife,  and  crowned  with  a  bust 
ol  tlie  distinguished  composer  and  artist,  re- 
markably lifelike  in  appearance. 

Baltimore  &  Ohio  Souths csf ern 
Railroad.— A  system  whose  main  line  ex- 
tends from  Belpre,  Ohio,  to  East  St.  Louis,  a 

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iUstance  of  5^  miles,  with  branches  to  Louis- 
Tflle,  Kentucky,  and  to  various  points  in  Ohio, 

and  Indiana,  together  with  the  Springfield 
division,  which  is  a  road  228  miles  in  length 
from  Beardstown,  Illinois,  to  Shawncetown, 
in  the  same  State.  It  had  its  origin  in  1893, 
the  absorption  by  the  Baltimore  &  Ohio  Rail- 
road system  of  what  had  previously  been 
knoiRi  as  the  Ohio  &  Mississippi  Railroad  and 
its  branches.  The  Baltimore  Ohio  Railroad 
was  the  pioneer  railroad  of  America.  Tlie 
original  company  was  organized  under  a  char- 
ter granted  by  the  Legislature  of  Maryland, 
February  28,  1827.  The  corner  stone  of  the 
i»oric  was  laid  July  4, 1828,  by  Charles  CafTOll, 
of  C^rroUton,  one  of  the  signers  of  the  Decla-> 
ration  of  Independence,  and  the  road  vas 
opened  from  Baltimore  to  Eiiicott  s  iMills,  tour- 
teen  miles,  May  da,  1830^  the  motive  power 
being  horses.  August  25,  1830,  the  first  loco- 
motive, "Tom  Thumb,"  was  used  on  the  road. 
It  was  boilt  by  Peter  Cooper,  and  weighed  one 

ton.  The  Ohio  &  Mississippi  Railroad  was 
made  up  oi  roads  chartered  by  the  States  of 
Indiana,  Ohio  and  Illinois,  the  first  act  of  in- 
corporation being  granted  by  the  State  of  In- 
diana, February  14,  1848.  The  Legislature  of 
Illinois  was  long  hostile  to  any  road  which 
should  not  terminate  at  Alton,  wliich  was 
soiig'ht  to  be  made  a  formidable  rival  of  St. 
Louis.  This  opposition  was  overcome  tlirough 
the  hifluence  of  leading  citizens  of  the  States 
named.  Among  these  \va.s  John  Brotig^h,  then 
editor  of  the  Cincinnati  "Enquirer,"  and  after- 
ward Governor  of  Ohio,  and  the  road  was 
lonij  known  as  the  "Brough  Road,"  on  ac- 
count of  his  prominence  in  connection  with  it. 

Band  of  Hope. — A  temperance  society 

organized  in  St,  Louis,  April  14,  1861,  by  H. 
D.  Moone,  and  which  was  an  offspring  of  the 
Chapter  of  Temperance  and  Wisdom.  The 
youth  of  l>oth  sexes  were  admitted  to  tlie  band, 
pledging  themselves  to  abstain  from  profanity 
and  the  use  of  intoxicating  liquors  and  to- 
bacco Its  first  president  was  one  of  the 
youths  who  joined  the  order,  but  Mr.  Moone 
later  became  president  and  held  that  office  for 
twenty-eight  years.  The  parent  aociety  grew 
rapidly  into  popular  favor  and  its  member- 
ship has  ranged  from  three  hundred  to  five 
hundred  at  different  periods  of  its  existence. 
Father  John  Libby,  famous  in  h!';  day  as  a 
temperance  worker,  was  for  many  years  super- 
intendent of  the  society  and  had  under  his 

charge  in  all  more  than  five  thousand  children, 
who  graduated  from  the  organization  as  ^ejr 
grew  up.  He  was  succeed^  as  superintend- 
ent by  J.  W.  Barnes,  who  still  holds  the  po- 
sition. The  Band  of  Hope,  celebrated  its 
thirty-third  anntversaiy  in  1894,  in  which  frre 
hnndrcd  chihin-n  were  participants,  and  an- 
other notable  anniversary  celebiation  was  held 
April  14, 189B. 

Bauk  ClerkH*  AsHoclHtlou  of  Mis- 
souri.— An  association  organized  in  St. 
Louis,  May  22,  1871,  with  William  Shields,  of 
St.  Louis,  for  first  president ;  O.  E.  Owens,  of 
St.  Louis,  vice  president;  James  T.  Howen- 
stein,  of  St.  Louis,  corresponding  seerelary; 
George  D.  Barklage,  of  St.  Louis,  recording 
secretary;  C.  D.  Affleck,  of  St.  Louis,  treas- 
urer. The  objects  are  "to  promote  soda! 
acqtiaintance  and  personal  friendship  among 
its  members;  afford  relief  to  tiie  aged 
and  disabled,  and  beiwfit  the  families  of 
deceased  members;  and  aid  members  who 
are  out  of  employment  to  secure  situations." 
Membership  is  limited  to  persons  between 
eighteen  and  forty-five  years  of  age  holding 
positions  in  bank  or  banking  house,  clearing 
house  or  trust  company  in  Missouri — honorary 
memberdiip  being  extended  to  bankers, 
officers  and  directors  of  banks,  on  the  payment 
of  an  annual  fee  of  $10.  The  monthly  dues 
from  active  members  are  fifty-  cents ;  on  the 
death  of  a  member  an  assessment  of  $2  is 
made  upon  every  active  member,  and  vidthin 
thirty  days  oi  the  death,  the  sum  of  $1,000  is 
paid  to  the  beneficiary  of  the  deceas«l.  In 
case  of  sickness  or  temporary  disability  of  a 
member,  an  allowance  of  $25  a  month  may 
be  made,  if  desired,  provided  the  aggregate  go 
not  over  $too.  The  annual  meeting  is  held 
the  third  Tuesday  in  May.  In  the  year  1899^ 
over  $3,000  was  paid  out  in  ride  benefits,  md 
there  was  a  considerable  permanent  fund  be- 
longing to  the  association.  The  original 
charter  having  expired,  it  wis  rediartered  in 

Banking  iu  Missouri.— The  history  of 
banking  in  MissQori  may  be  dhrided  into  four 

periods — the  first  being  that  uncertain  time 
prior  to  1837,  marked  by  the  opening  of  three 
banks,  one  after  another,  in  St  Lovh — the 
Hank  of  St.  T  iii?  in  1816,  the  Bank  of  Mis- 
souri in  1817,  and  the  Branch  of  the  United 
StotM  Bank  in  1899.   The  first  was  a  failure. 

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the  second  was  not  a  success,  and  the  third  had 
to  be  closed  up  when  the  parent  bank  m  Phila- 

delpliia  went  down  under  the  veto  of 
President  Jackson,  in  1832.  Then  followed 
makeshifts  of  one  kind  and  another,  the  chief 
of  which  was  the  Cincinnati  Coniniercial 
Agency,  through  wliich  the  government  at 
Washington  nude  its  payments ;  but  the  grow- 
ing commerce  of  St.  Louis,  the  tlirivintj  le.'ul 
trade  of  Washington  County,  the  fur  trade 
with  the  upper  Missouri  River,  and  the  fn- 
creasing  intercourse  between  St.  Louis  and 
New  C)rleans  by  steamboats  called  for  more 
perfect  and  satisfactory  methods  of  exchange 
than  any  liithertu  siipplictl,  ami,  therel«>rc,  in 
i8y,  the  Bank  of  the  State  of  Missouri  was 
established  by  act  of  the  Legislature — and  this 
began  the  second  era.  The  enterprise  was  a 
j^reat  success,  and  for  twenty  years  the  "Old 
Bank,"  as  it  came  to  be  called,  was  the  money 
autocrat  of  the  West— its  capital  $5^)00,000. 
its  field  of  circulation  and  operation  the  whole 
region  between  die  Mississippi  River  and  the 
Pacific  Coast,  and  its  management  so  wise  and 
safe  as  to  aecure  absolute  popuku-  confidence. 
Its  notes  were  pfood  in  the  foreign  countries  of 
New  Mexico  and  Chihuahua,  and  when  the 
emigration  to  California  came,  in  1849,  ^^^y 
were  carried  in  considerable  quantity  to  Cali- 
fornia and  Oregon,  wlierc  they  commanded  a 
premium  over  gold.  One-third  of  the  capital 
of  the  bank  was  contributed  by  the  State, 
which  had  authority  to  name  several  of  the 
directors.  The  parent  hank  was  in  St.  Lotrii, 
with  branches  at  Fayette.  Palmyra,  Jackson, 
Springfield  and  Lexington.  In  1852,  a  com- 
mittee of  the  Legislature  appointed  to  examine 
into  tile  conditions  of  the  constitution  reported 
the  assets  of  the  parent  bank  at  St.  T^uis  at 
$3.983.»3i;  Jackson  branch,  $349,850;  Pal- 
myra branch,  $358,917:  Fayrtlebratich.  $384,- 
So^i  Lexington  branch,  $402,966;  Spring- 
field Bnmch,  $291,067;  total  $5,770,039.  The 
State's  investmento  in  the  stock  of  the  bank 
were  $100,000  on  account  of  the  Seminary 
fund  ;  $575,667  on  account  of  the  State  School 
fund ;  $6,273  on  account  of  the  sinking  fund ; 
and  $272,263  in  Its  own  right.  The  circulatitm 
of  the  bank  in  1852  was:  Parent  bank, 
461,090;  Fayette  i>ranch,  $237,690;  Palmyra 
branch.  $208,390;  Jackson  branch,  $199,050; 
Springfield  branch,  $139,770;  Lexington 
branch,  $238,050.  The  net  profits  from  May 
8,  1837,  to  June  30,  1852  (fifteen  years),  were: 
Parent  Bank,  $1,227,659;  Fayette  branch 

$178,894 ;  Palmyra  branch,  $105,1 19 ;  Jackson 
branch,  $79,628 ;  Springfield  branch,  $82,771 ; 
Lexington  branch,  $123,538  ;  total,  $1,824,109- 
Tliese  profits  being  at  tlie  rate  of  about  two 
and  a  half  per  cent  per  annum,  show  that  the 
good  which  the  institution  accomplished  for 
the  public  was,  in  some  measure,  aX  the  cost  of 
its  stodcholders. 

The  next  era  of  Missouri  banking  began  in 
1857,  with  the  enactment  of  a  law  providing 
for  a  general  bai^ng  system  to  supply  the 
people  with  an  ample,  sound  and  safe  cur> 
rency  of  notes  payable  in  spede  on  demand, 
to  circulate  within  the  State  at  par.   Such  a 
currency  had  become  an  urgent  need,  for,  the 
limitwl  circulation  emitted  by  the  old  bank 
was  inadequate,  and  the  constantly  increasing 
demands  of  business  encouraged  irresponsible 
"wild  cat"  and  "red  dog"  banks  in  TlHnois, 
Wisconsin  and  Nebraska,  to  flood  Missouri 
trith  their  notes,  which,  though  taken  at  a  dis- 
count  of  five  to  twenty  per  crnt.  ni.innpcd  to 
circulate  because  there  were  no  better  ones,  in 
sufficient  quantity,  to  be  had.  This  law  of 
1857  pa\'e  se\'en  new  banks  oS  issue — the  Mci> 
chants',  the  Mechanics',  the  Southern,  the 
Exchange,  the  Union  and  the  St.  Louis,  and 
the  Farmers'  Bank  of  Lexington.   The  notes 
of  these  banks,  issued  on  a  basis  of  three  dol- 
lars to  one  in  specie  in  their  vaults,  constituted 
a  currency  which  was  accepted  at  par  in  all 
parts  of  the  State,  expelling  the  depreciated 
notes  issued  under  the  free  banking  laws  of 
other  iftates  and  accomplishing  great  good  in 
facilitating  the  transaction  of  business.  The 
oki  hank  of  the  State  was  by  the  law  of  1857 
authorized  to  establish  additional  branches 
and  this  system,  a  great  improvement  on  any- 
thing that  had  been  tried  in  the  State  before, 
continued  until  the  year  1862,  when  it  bcgpin 
to  be  superseded  by  the  national  bank  system. 
The  national  hank  notes,  with  the  greenbacks 
and  certificates  issued  from  the  Unked  States 
treasury  at  Washington,  have  completely  dis- 
placed the  issues  of  the  State  banks ;  but  the 
State  banks,  though  ceasing  to  be  banks  of 
issue,  have  not  disappeared.    So  far  from  tliis, 
tliey  outnumber  the  national  banks,  and  ex- 
ceed them  in  capital  and  deposits.    May  5, 
1899,  there  were  in  Missouri  495  State  banks, 
showing  capital  stock  paid  in,  $19,934,805 ; 
surplus  funds  on  hand,  $6,127,084;  r.m'ivided 
profits,  $1,575,607;  total  of  these  three  iftems 
$27,627,496 ;  deposits  subject  to  draft  at  sight 
by  banks  and  bankers,  $6,351,709;  dcpoaita 

Digitized  by  Google 



subject  to  drafts  at  sight  by  individuals,  $65,- 
882,888;  deposits  subject  to  draft  at  given 
dates,  $18,162,665— total  deposits,  $90,397,- 
262.  Among  their  resources  were,  loans  un- 
doubtedly good,  $73,496,257;  bonds,  $6,545,- 
332 ;  national  currency  of  all  kinds,  $4,674,880; 
gold  and  silver  coin,  $3,526,737.  In  1899  there 
were  63  national  banks  in  Missouri,  show- 
ing capital,  $17,615,000;  surplus,  $4,023,000; 
undivided  profits.  $3,546,000;  total  of  these 
three  items,  $25,184,000;  dqKisits,  $68,870,- 

000,  Among  their  resources  were,  loans  and 
discouiits,  $87,088,000;  United  States  bonds, 
$6,974,000;  cash  an<l  cash  items,  $16,708,000. 
In  April,  1899,  there  were  88  privajte  banks  in 
Missouri,  having  capital,  $933'37«;  surplus, 
$304,479;  undivided  profits.  $132,982;  total  of 
these  three  items,  $1,270,831 ;  deposits,  $6,- 
106,178.  Among  their  resources  were,  loans 
and  discounts  of  all  kinds,  $4,789,623.  June 

1,  1899,  the  whole  number  nf  hanks,  state, 
national  and  private,  in  Missouri  was  644  and 
Ihdr  aggregaie  ei  capital,  surphts,  undivided 
profits  nnd  individual  deposits  was  $203,227,- 
674,  or  $61.21  average  per  capita,  for  the 
estimated  population  of  the  State.  December 

2,  1899,  there  were  tq  banks  in  St.  Tx>uis. 
having  an  aggregate  c«^ital  of  $16,900,000; 
surplus.  $9,732,999 ;  total  iA  these  two  Hems. 
$a6g633.999;  deposits,  $104,002,784.  Their  re- 
sources were,  loans,  $81,232,264;  bonds  and 
Stocks,  $13.549.355 ;  cash  and  exchange,  $36,- 
S36.994.  There  were  also  four  trust  ooro- 
panies  having  aggregate  capital  of  $7,500,000; 
surplus,  $2,999,764;  total  of  these  two  items, 
$10^499.764;  deposits,  $31,(^,761.  Their  re- 
sources included  loans,  $25,948,687  ;  bonds  and 
Stocks,  $7,135,608;  cash  and  exchancfc,  $8,- 
152.977.  The'banfcs  and  trust  companies 
combined  showed  capital  and  surplus,  $37,- 
132,763;  deposits,  $135,681,545;  loans,  $107,- 
180,951;  bonds  and  stocks,  $20,684,964;  cash 
and  exdumge,  $44,389,972.    The  national 

banks  in  ?t.  T.oiii-  pai'l.  in  i^^<;o,  $47').«xi  in 
dividends;  the  State  banks  $729,000;  and  the 
tmat  companies  $270,000;  total,  $1478,000. 
On  the  7th  of  September,  1899.  there  were  five 
natforal  banks  in  Kansas  City,  with  capital 
stock  of  $2,300,000;  surplus,  $642,500;  un- 
divided profits,  $402,190;  total  of  these  three 
items,  $3,344,690;  individual  deposits  $17,363,- 
400 ;  loansand  discou»ts,$23,638,7i5;  cash  and 
carfi  items,  $4,501,639.  The  Stete  banks  ci 
that  city  showed  capital  stock  $420,000;  sur- 
plus, $40/xx>;  undivided  profits,  $8,214;  ^oUL 

of  these  three  items,  $468,214;  individual  de- 
posits, $2,291,693.  Their  loans  and  discounts 
were  $1,276,777;  cash  and  etrii  items,  $137,- 
454.  The  national  banks  and  State  banks  to- 
gether showed  capital  surplus  and  undivided 
profits,  $3,.Hi2.9t:)4;  deposits,  $19,655,093; 
lonns  and  discounts,  $04,915493;  cash  and 
cash  items,  $4,639,093. 

Joplin  lias  two  national  and  three  State 
banln-^e  former  showing'  aggregate  capital 
and  surplus  of  $245,000  and  deposits  of  $1,- 
108,000;  and  the  latter  capital  and  surplus  of 
$210,000  and  deposits  of  $395,340;  making 
total  capital  of  $460^000  and  total  deposits  <rf 

Carthage  has  ttree  national  banks,  witb  an 
aggregate  capitd  and  sttrphu  of  $347,000,  and 

dcpr>sits  of  $T,Too,ooo;  and  one  State  bank 
with  a  capital  and  surplus  of  $105,500;  and 
deposits  of  $130,000;  making  a  total  capital 
and  surplus  of  $453,500;  and  deposits  of  $!«- 

Cattenrffle  has  one  national  bank,  wMi  a 

capital  and  surplus  of  $53,110;  and  deposits  of 
$140,010.  Webb  City  has  one  bank  with  a 
capita!  and  surplus  of  $34,000,  and  deposits  of 


St.  Joseph  has  two  national  banks,  with 
capital  and  surplus  of  $507,000;  and  deposits 
of  $2,397,007  ;  and  six  State  and  private  banks 
with  capital  and  snrphi^  of  .'>50T,46o;  and  de- 
posits of  $3,950,480;  making  a  total  capital  and 
surplus  of  $1,008,460;  and  deposits  of  $6,- 

Sedalia  has  three  national  banks,  with  ag- 
gregate capital  and  surplus  of  $363,000.  and 
deposits  of  $736,000;  nnd  three  State  hanks 
with  aggregate  capital  and  surplus  of  $426,> 
470;  and  dep<»lt8  of  $502490;  making  total 
capital  and  surplus  of  $79(V^;  and  of  de* 
posits  of  $1,238,490. 

Springfield  has  two  national  banks  and  four 
State  biidcs,  with  afgregate  capital  and  sur- 
plus of  $474/)oo^  and  dq>osits  of  $943,000. 

DakiBL  M.  GaxssoM. 

Bank  of  Niangua. — About  1833  there 
was  formed  in  St.  Louis,  with  headquarters 
at  Waynesville.  in  Pulaski  County,  an  organi- 
zation known  commonly  as  the  Bank  of 
Niangua.  It  had  a  president,  cashier,  clerks, 
board  of  directors,  and  for  some  time  paid 
enormous  dividends..  Internal  discord,  re- 
sulting from  one  stockholder  not  receiving 
dividends  he  thought  he  was  entitled  to,  rc- 

Digitlzed  by  Gopgle 



vealed  that  the  organization  was  a  ban'!  of 
counterfeiters,  and  had  in  the  mounuins  oi 
Pidaski  Coiuitf  a  eMn  wbtn  the  counter- 
feiting  was  done  The  workmanship  on  the 
notes  was  so  perfect  as  to  deceive  bankers  at 
PUtaddpliia  and  etsewfaere,  and  himdreds  of 
tbousonds  of  dollars  of  the  spunotis  money  was 
put  in  circulation.  After  the  work  of  the  band 
became  known,  the  leaders  quickly  left  the 
country.  Details  of  the  operations  of  the  band 
are  lost  to  tradition,  though  mention  of  their 
doings  is  made  in  "VVetmore's  Gazetteer  of 
Missouri,"  published  in  1837,  and  reference  to 
the  same  is  made  in  "CanqibeU'a  Gazetteer/' 
published  in  1874. 

Banks  and  Itanklnfr  in  Kansas 
City.— The  time  when  the  merchanU  U  Kan- 
sas City  were  obliged  to  take  charge  of  the 

money  of  customers  and  small  dealers,  and 
furnish  such  commercial  exchange  as  was  pos- 
sible with  the  limited  means  at  command,  is 
in  the  memory  of  the  old  resident  (A  western 
Missonri.  Dnrinp  the  years  of  Kansas  City's 
early  history  the  nearest  banks  were  at  Lex- 
ington, and  to  tiiat  point  prospective  borrow- 
ers and  holders  of  large  checks  and  drafts  were 
compelled  to  go.  During  the  winter  season 
very  little  business  requiring  exchange  was 
done.  Occasionally  such  accnmmcKlations 
were  obtained  from  the  government  at  Fort 
Leavenworth.  Branches  of  banks  organized 
under  the  State  laws  were  established  early  in 
the  fifties  at  Liberty  and  Independence,  Mis- 
souri, and  the  banking  facilities  for  Kansas 
City  business  men  were  thus  broui^t  much 
nearer  home.  Tn  a  few  years  Kansas  City  had 
far  outstripped  the  neighboring  towns  which 
boasted  of  banking'  facilities  when  she  had 
none.  Since  the  year  1^56,  when  the  first 
bank  was  established,  imtil  the  writing  of  these 
lines,  the  banks  of  Kansss  .Gty  have  steadily 
grown  in  patronage  and  influence,  and  are 
now  strong  and  indispensable  factors  in  the 
great  financial  schcrhe  of  the  developing 

The  first  banking  house  in  Kansas  City  was 
that  of  Northnip  &  Chick,  established  in  1856. 
Dnrin^r  the  preceding  year  these  wholesale 

merchants,  who  had  acquired  a  bicrli  standing 
in  financial  circles,  and  who  held  large  de- 
posits for  the  people  of  town  and  country, 
opened  an  office  for  'buying  and  selling  ex- 
change, and  this  grew  into  the  first  bank  in 
a  city  chat  has  reason  to  be  proud  of  her  insti- 

tutions of  this  class.  In  1865  Northrup  & 
Chick  sold  their  bank  to  J.  Q.  Watkins  &  Co. 

In  1857  a  brandi  of  the  Medianks'  Bank  of 
St.  Louis  was  established  in  Kansas  City.  The 
business  done  by  this  institution  during  the 
first  few  years  of  hs  existence  was  satisbctory. 
The  troubles  attending  the  Civil  War  reduced 
profits  and  caused  complications,  but  in  the 
fsee  of  tiiese  numerous  difficulties  the  bank 
continued  business  until  1871,  when  its  a£Eain 
were  closed. 

A  branch  of  the  Union  Bank  of  St.  LouiS 
was  organized  in  Kansas  Otf  la  1857.  The 
business  of  this  bank,  like  that  of  the  branch 
of  the  Mechanics'  Bank  of  St.  Louis,  was  en- 
tirely satisfactory  up  to  the  time  of  the  Gvil 
War.  In  1861  the  Union  Bank  removed  its 
Kansas  City  funds  to  St.  Louis,  and  closed  up 
the  affaira  of  the  branch  establishment. 
Thomas  Johnson,  a  well  known  pioneer  of 
western  Missouri,  took  an  important  part  in 
the  affairs  of  this  bank  during  the  war,  at  one 
time  going  to  Leavenworth,  Kansas,  with  the 
bank's  cash  and  securities  in  ord^  to  insure 
their  safety. 

The  Kansas  City  Savings  Association  was 
organized  in  April,  1865,  witli  a  capital  of  $jo,- 
000.  In  1873  Dr.  James  Buchanan  Hell,  who 
had  been  identified  witii  the  banking  interests 
of  Chillicothe,  Missouri,  became  the  president, 
and  C.  J.  White,  cashier.  W.  A  Powell  after- 
ward bought  the  interest  of  Dr.  Bell,  and  be- 
came president  of  the  association.  The  cap- 
ital was  increased  from  time  to  time  and  the 
organization  grew  stronger.  In  1881  Dr.  W. 
S.  Woods  bought  Powell's  interest  and  be- 
came president.  The  statutes  regulating  banks 
were  changed  by  the  L^;ishkture,  so  tliat  the 
stockholders  found  it  es^pedient  to  surrender 
their  charter  as  a  savings  bank  and  organize  as 
the  Bank  of  Commerce.  The  capital  was  then 
$200,000,  and  organization  vras  eflfected  in 
1881.  The  afturs  of  the  old  bank  were  ab- 
sorbed by  the  new  and  the  former  officers  were 
retained.  In  the  summer  of  1887  the  bank  was 
put  under  government  control,  and  has  since 
been  kmmn  as  tbe  Nattooal  Bank  of  Com- 

J.  Q.  Watkins  ft  Co.  purchased  die  pioneer 

banking  business  of  Northrup  &  Chick,  the 
transaction  being  made  in  1865.  This  firm 
continued  btisiness  until  December,  1877, 
when  its  interests  were  sold  to  the  National 

Bank  of  Kansas  City.  W.  H.  Seeger,  the 
present  second  vice  president  of  the  Union 

Digitized  by  Google 



National  Bank,  mn  connected  with  the  Wat- 
kins  bank. 

In  1865  die  old  First  National  Bank  was 
organized,  and  two  years  later  Howard  M. 
Holden  bought  a  controlling  interest  in  it  and 
became  the  cashier.  This  bank  was  prosper- 
OUS,  and  in  1872  its  capital  was  increased  10 
$500,000,  its  capital  up  to  this  time  having 
been  only  a  qoarter  of  a  mHHon  dollars.  In 
1872,  when  the  increase  was  made,  Mr.  Hol- 
den became  the  president,  M.  W.  St.  Clair  was 
made  cashier,  and  W.  H.  Wtnants  was  chosen 
assistant  cashier.  September  2$,  1873,  the 
First  National  temporarily  suspended  pay- 
ment, as  a  result  of  the  hnancial  panic  of  that 
year.  A  short  tkne  later  it  was  reopened  and 
became  the  chief  promoter  of  the  grain  and 
cattle  business.  January  29,  1878,  the  bank 
Was  compelled  to  close  Its  4oon  again,  and 
passed  into  the  hands  of  a  receiver  appointed 
by  the  comptroller  of  the  currency.  The  bank 
had  become  the  correspondent  of  a  large  num- 
ber of  Western  banks  at  this  time,  and  its  sus- 
pension naturally  brought  about  much  em- 
barrassment, but.  the  unmarketed  products 
found  purchasers  in  the  East,  and  the  currency 
necessary  to  move  the  salable  g^ain,  cattle, 
etc.,  was  soon  at  hand.  James  T.  Howenstein 
was  first  appointed  receiver  for  this  bonk  and 
Walter  J-  Johni^nn  succeeded  liim,  closing  up 
the  bank's  afiairs  in  1881.  The  dq>ositors 
were  paid  in  full. 

The  Mastin  Bank  was  organized  in  Febru- 
ary, 1866.  August  3,  1878,  tliis  State  organi- 
zation, with  deposits  aggregating  $1,300,000, 
closed  its  doors.  It  was  first  a  private  bank- 
ing house,  under  the  name  of  John  J.  Mastin 
&  Co.  In  1871  it  was  reorganized  under  the 
State  laws,  with  Seth  Ward  as  president. 

Tlie  Cierman  Savings  Association  was  or- 
ganized in  1868,  with  a  capital  of  $100,000, 
20  per  cent  of  vrhiA  was  paid  in.  Anthony 
Sauer  was  president  of  this  association,  and 
Henry  L.  Huhn  was  cashier.  The  Union  Ger- 
man Savings  Bank  was  also  organized  in  186S, 
with  a  capital  of  $ioo,ockj  Teter  W.  Ditsch 
was  president,  and  John  S.  Harris  was  cashier. 
These  two  banks  were  consolidated  in  1871, 
with  Henry  Tobener  as  presitot,  and  under 
the  name  of  the  Union  German  Savings  Bank 
continued  business  until  1873,  when  final  fail- 
ure csme. 

N'member  27,  1871,  the  Kansas  City  Na- 
tional Bank  opened  for  business  and  continued 
mtil  November  13,  1875.  when  it  went  into 

voluntary  liquidation.  Attention  is  called  to 
the  name  of  this  bank,  and  to  the  fact  that  it 
should  not  be  confused  with  the  National 
Bank  of  Kansas  City,  referred  to  in  another 
part  of  this  article.  John  B.  Womall  was  the 
first  president  of  the  Kansas  Oty  National, 
and  D.  L.  Shouse  was  the  first  cashier.  In  the 
cessation  of  business  its  affairs  were  trans- 
ferred to  the  Bank  of  Kansas  Qty,  ia.  1875, 
which  in  1878  became  the  National  Bank  of 
Kansas  City. 

A  business  record  of  six  years  was  made  by 
the  Commercial  National  Bank.  June  3,  1873, 
it  was  authorized  to  begin  business.  Opera- 
tions were  continued  until  February  il,  1878, 
when  the  affairs  of  the  bank  were  placed  in 
the  hands  of  a  receiver. 

In  1875  the  Bank  of  Kansas  City  was  organ- 
ized, with  J.  S.  Chick  as  president.  In  1878  it 
became  a  national  bank,  under  the  name  of  the 
National  Bank  of  Kansas  City.  From  1884  to 
1887  it  was  the  largest  bank  in  tiie  city,  and 
when  the  panic  of  1893  struck  the  financial 
world  its  deposits  were  about  $4,000,000. 
These  deposits  were  rapidly  withdrawn,  caus- 
ing  the  bank  to  close  its  doors  in  July  of  diat 
year.  The  following  October  the  bank  was 
again  opened,  with  Mr.  Chick  as  presidei\t, 
and  J.  Q.  Watkins,  Jr.,  as  cashier.  Business 
was  continued  until  Marcli,  1896,  when  the 
doors  were  finally  closed  and  the  affairs  of  the 
bank  given  over  into  the  hands  of  John  Perry, 
the  government  receiver.  The  depositors  have 
all  been  paid  in  full,  6  and  55-100  per  cent  in- 
terest being  paid  on  the  face  value  of  all  * 

The  Armour  Brothers  Banking  Company 
was  organized  in  1878.  A.  W.  Armour  was 
president,  S.  B.  Armour  was  vice  presidetit, 
and  C.  H.  Prescott  was  cashier.  Upon  the 
resignation  of  the  latter  W.  H.  VV^inants  was 
dected  cashier.  January  i,  1889,  the  Midland 
National  Bank,  which  had  been  organized  bat 
a  few  months  before  that  date,  purchased  the 
business  of  the  Armour  Brothers  Banking 
Company,  and  the  two  banks  were  united 
under  the  name  of  (he  Midland  National 
Bank.  Its  officers  were  VVitten  McDonald, 
president;  A.  W.  Armour,  vice  president; 
W.  H.  Winants,  cashier.  In  July.  1897,  the 
business  of  this  bank  was  absorbed  by  the 
National  Bank  of  Commerce. 

The  Citizens'  National  Bank  was  organized 
in  1882,  with  J.  A.  Cooper  as  president,  and 
J.  J.  Squier,  vice  president.   The  latter  after- 

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ward  became  president  and  manager  of  the 
t>ank.  A.  A.  Whipple  and  S.  J.  Fitzhugh  were 
also  connected  with  this  bank.  In  1898  its 
business  was  sold  to  the  Union  National  Bank. 

H.  I'.  Ciuircliiil  and  others,  in  1883.  organ- 
ized the  Kansas  City  Safe  Deposit  and  Sav- 
ings Bank.  It  failed  in  1893,  with  Hahilitics 
amounting  to  about  $2,000,000,  having  at  that 
time  about  seven  thousand  depositors.  In 
Septemher,  1893,  Howard  M.  H<^den  WIS  ap- 
pointed assignee  for  this  bank,  and  he  is  still 
engaged  in  the  work  of  settling  its  affairs. 

The  Traficrs'  Uank  was  established  in  1883, 
James  T.  Thornton  and  others  being  associ- 
ated in  its  organization.  The  particular 
accommodation  of  cattle  dealers  and  the  han- 
dling nl  paper  !>asid  on  business  of  this  char- 
acter were  tile  prime  ends  the  organizers  had 
in  view.  In  this  bank  was  purchased  by 
the  I'nion  N'atioiia!  Bank. 

The  leading  banks  of  Kansas  City  had  im- 
mense interests  at  the  stockyards  from  the 
time  of  the  establishment  of  the  great  packing 
industries  there.  Before  the  organization  of 
a  bank  at  the  stockyards  this  class  of  business 
was  looked  after  by  clerks  especnlly  appointed 
for  that  purpose.  This  was  not  a  satisfactory 
oondiiion  of  tilings,  however,  and,  in  order  to 
supply  a  real  need,  the  Kansas  CRy  Stock 
Yards  Bank  was  organized  in  1884,  with  a 
capital  of  $200,000.  C.  F.  Morse,  president  of 
the  Kansas  City  Stock  Yards  Compaii\ .  was 
made  president  of  the  bank,  and  M.  \\'.  St. 
Clair  was  made  cashier.  In  1890  it  was  found 
•  that  the  capital  was  insufficient,  and  the  bank 
was  reorganized  under  the  name  of  the  Inter- 
State  National  Dank. 

The  New  England  Safe  Deposit  and  Trust 
Company  was  organiaed  and  began  business 
January  I,  1889,  with  a  paid  up  r:\i  it.i!  i- 
$I0O,aXK  A.  W.  Armour  was  president.  J. 
F.  Downing,  as  vice  president,  and  A.  W. 
Childs,  as  treasurer,  were  in  active  manage- 
ment of  the  business.  Tlie  banking,  trust  and 
safe  deposit  business  of  this  concern  had  been 
very  profitable,  but  a  decision  of  th<  Supr  eme 
Court  of  Missouri  to  the  effect  that  the  char- 
ters of  Missouri  trust  companies  required  them 
to  pay  interest  on  deposits  caused  the  direc- 
torv  to  separate  the  trnvt  ntul  safe  flepostt  de- 
partments from  the  banking  department.  This 
resulted  in  the  organiaatton  of  the  New  Eng- 
land National  Banlr  in  1896,  with  a  capital  of 

In  1889  die  bank  of  H.  S.  Mills  was  organ- 

ized, with  a  capital  ,ol  $100,000.  January  1, 
1899,  after  a  successful  and  prosperous  busi- 
ness, it  was  succeeded  "by  the  \\  cstern  Ex- 
change Bank,  oi^nized  under  the  laws  of 


The  Aetna  National  Bank  was  organized  in 
March,  1890.  and  went  into  voluntary'  liquida- 
tion in  March,  1893.  The  depositors  were 
paid  in  full.  The  officers  of  this  bank  were: 
A.  \V.  Allen,  president;  R  E.  Tapley,  vice 
president ;  R.  J.  Hawkins,  cashier. 

The  Metropolitan  National  Bank  was  estab- 
lished in  November,  1890,  and  at  that  time  the 
German  American  National  Bank  and  the 
Mercantile  Bank  were  absorbed  by  it.  In  No- 
vember, 1891,  the  Merchants'  National  Bank 
wa<  also  absorbed  l)v  tlic  Metropolitan.  In 
1895  the  business  of  the  Commercial  Bank  was 
wound  up  and  the  affairs  of  that  institution 
were  settled  over  the  counters  of  the  ^^et^o- 
politan.  In  January,  1895,  R.  W.  Hocker  and 
W.  E.  Hall  retired  from  the  management  of 
this  bank,  being  succeeded  by  J.  K.  Bumham 
as  president.  C.  S.  Morey  as  vice  president  and 
J.  G.  Strean  as  cashier.  In  May,  1897,  the 
bonness  of  the  Metropolitan  became  a  part  of 
the  National  Bank  of  Commerce,  Uie  depos- 
itors 4>eing  paid  in  full. 

The  private  banking  Iwuse  of  Lombard 
Brothers  was  established  in  April,  1885,  with 
a  paid-in  capital  of  $100,000.  Tiie  partners  in 
this  bank  were  B.  Lombard,  Jr.,  of  Boston, 
Massachusetts,  and  James  L.  Lombard,  of 
Kansas  City,  the  latter  having;  the  active  man- 
agement of  the  bank  s  affairs.  The  deposits 
were  about  $600,000,  and  the  business  was 
profitably  continued  until  1886,  when  the  First 
National  Bank  was  organized.  To  the  latter 
institution  the  interests  of  Lombard  Brothers 
wi-re  transferred,  James  L.  Lombard  becominjj 
the  president  of  the  new  First  National  Bank. 

The  Missouri  Valley  Bamk  was  established 
in  1878,  and  did  a  good  business  for  several 
years,  but  finally  failed.  It  was  the  outgrowth 
of  the  l-arniers'  and  Drovers'  Bank,  located  in 
the  West  Bottoms  of  Kansas  City,  and  win  eh 
moved  up  town  and  became  the  Missouri  Val- 
ley Bank.  Theodore  Kraus  was  the  first 
president  and  Robert  J.  Alther  was  the  first 

The  Missouri  National  Bank  was  organ- 
ized in  1891,  with  a  capital  of  $250,000.  D. 

V.  Reiper.  who  was  chiefly  instrumental  in  its 
establishment,  was  the  first  president  and  R. 
D.  Covington  was  the  cashier.   The  financial 

Digitized  by  Coogle 



panic  erf  1893  found  the  bank  unable  to  stem 
the  tide,  and  the  doors  were  closed  for  a  short 
time.  Business  was  resumed  and  carried  on 
until  1896,  when  the  doors  were  agnin  closed, 
and  the  bank's  affairs  passed  into  the  hands  of 
a  receiver. 

The  German  Savings  Bank  was  organized 
in  1891  by  Dr.  Jos^i  Feld.  In  1893  ks  busi- 
ness was  liquidated  through  the  Mechafincs' 

The  life  of  the  Continental  National  Bank 
was  short.  It  was  established  rn  1892,  opening 
its  doors  August  2d  of  that  year,  and  went  into 
volTintary  liquidatkm  November  nth  of  the 
same  year. 

The  Mechanics'  Bank  was  the  outgrrowtii  of 

the  Mechanics'  Savings  Rank,  which  was  or- 
ganized in  1890  by  Robert  M.  Snyder,  with  a 
capital  of  $50,000.  In  1893  it  was  oi^iantzed 
as  a  State  bank,  with  a  capital  of  $50,000.  Rol)- 
ert  M.  Snyder  was  chosen  president,  and 
George  P.  Snyder  was  made  casiiier.  The 
bank  had  a  snrjrius  of  $5,000,  and  deposits 
amounting  to  $250,000.  The  officers  and  di- 
rectors were  as  follows:  Robert  M.  Snyder, 
president;  George  P.  Snyder,  cashier;  A.  L. 
McBride,  assistant  cashier;  J.  P.  Jackson,  L. 
S.  Cady,  R.  M.  Snyder,  Milton  Moore,  George 
P.  Sny^kr  and  J.  W.  Jones.  TMs  bank  ceawd 
baniicsa  January  31,  igoo. 

The  German  American  National  Bank  was 
organized  in  1888,  and  was  kx:ated  at  Seventh 
and  Ddaware  Streets  in  a  building  that  has 
since  been  occupied  hv  other  finatu-ial  insti- 
tutions. J.  K.  Burnliani,  of  the  wiiolesale  dry 
goods  firm  of  Bumham,  Hanna,  Munger  ft 

Co..  was  the  president  of  this  bank.  W. 
F.  Wyman,  who  was  the  vice  president  at  the 
time  of  organintiion,  was  sucoMded  in  this  po- 
sition by  J.  W.  Swain.  Louis  Bauerlein,  the 
first  cadver,  was  succeeded  by  J.  G.  Strean. 
The  bank  ceased  business  November  13,  1890, 
when  its  accounts,  together  with  those  of  the 
Mercantile  Bank,  were  turned  over  to  the  Met- 
ropolitan National  Bank. 

The  Mercantile  Bank  was  in  business  for 
several  years  until  1893,  when  its  depositors 
were  paid  in  full  and  the  affairs  sold  to  the 
Metropolitan  National  Bank.  Charles  Russell 
was  the  first  president,  and,  after  serving  in  fhis 
capacity  for  one  year,  served  as  vice  president 
for  aboot  six  months,  at  the  end  of  that  time 
retiring  from  active  connection  with  the  bank. 
E.  L.  Martin  was  elected  presirlenf  to  suc- 
ceed Mr.  Russdl.    This  bank  purchased  the 

German  Savings 'Bank  from  Dr.  Joseph  Fdd, 
and  its  capital  was  $200,000. 

The  Merchants'  .National  Bank  of  Kansas 
City  was  orcranirt  d  November  28,  iS/*),  with 
a  capital  ot  $250,000.  The  incoiporators  and 
first  board  of  ^bectors  were :  Victor  B.  Buck, 
T.  K.  Ilanna.  .Mvah  Mansur.  \V.  A.  M. 
Vaughan,  John  C,  Gage,  John  Long,  F.  L.  L'n- 
den^'ood  and  J.  M.  Cobum.  The  first  officers 
were :  F.  L.  Underwood,  president ;  W.  A.  M. 
Vaughan,  vice  president;  and  J.  M.  Cobum, 
cashier.  June  16,  1881,  the  capital  was  in- 
creased -to  $500,000 ;  the  only  change  in  the 
organization  was  tlic  election  of  C.  S.  W  heej-'r 
to  succeed  Alvah  Alansur.  The  bank  was  lo- 
cated at  the  comer  of  Missouri  Avenue  and 
Delaware  Street  until  September.  1880.  when 
it  moved  to  the  New  York  Life  Building  on 
West  Nindi  Street.  October  22, 1889,  the  cap-  increased  to  St,ooo,ooo,  and  tlie  fol- 
lowing officers  were  elected :  W.  B.  Clarke, 
president;  C  S.  Wheeler,  vice  president;  O. 
P.  Dkkiaaon,  second  vice  president;  J.  W. 
Barney,  cashier,  and  C.  R.  Rockwell,  assistant 
cashier.  The  bank  transacted  a  successful  busi- 
ness until  November.  1891,  when  the  directors 
determined  to  retire  from  business.  This  con- 
clusion was  reached  after  the  collapse  of  tlie 
real  estate  boom»  which  had  caused  losses 
which  might  be  increased  by  continuance  hi 
business.  The  stockholders  coincided  with 
the  directors,  and  the  bank  retired  November 
7,  1 89 1.  .\11  depositors  were  immediately  paid, 
the  lK>ard  of  directors  retaining  custody  of  the 
cai>ital  and  surplus  invested  in  loans  and  other 
securities  for  collection  and  distribution  to  the 

I  he  foregoing  list  represents  Uie  financial 
institnttons  whose  names  have  been  stricken 
from  the  records  of  business  l)y  tlie  changes  of 
time.  Appended  hereto  is  a  histor>'  of  each 
bank  now  open  in  Kansas  City  for  the  trans- 
action of  business.  During  the  last  few  years 
the  city  in  which  these  strong  institutions  are 
located  has  grown  to  be  the  financial  caiter  A 
a  vast  stretch  of  fertile  territory.  The  money 
with  which  to  handle  great  herds  of  cattle  and 
market  countless  tons  of  grain  and  field  prod- 
ucts comes  from  or  passes  through  the  chan- 
nels of  trade  in  Kansas  Citv.  Tier  banking 
business  outranks  in  volume  ttutt  of  much 
larger  cHies.  She  occupies  the  tenth  place 
among  the  clearing  houses  of  the  L^nited 
States.  The  clearings  of  nine  banks  in  Kan- 
sas City,  recent  rccortls  proved,  equaled  the 

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clevings  of  twenty-two  banks  of  Cincinnati, 
the  st:cteen  banks  of  New  Orleans  or  the  twen- 
ty-nine banks  of  Buffalo  and  Milwaukee  com- 
bined, ricveland,  with  fifty-one  banks,  docs 
not  equal  Kansas  City  in  the  amount  of  her 
clearings,  and  Providence,  with  thirty-five 
banks,  has  not  half  the  amount.  As  an  evi- 
dence that  Kansas  City  is  rapidly  becoming  a 
money  center  of  much  fanporbmce  it  may  be 
stated  that  its  surplus  funds  are  being  invested 
in  Eastern  bonds  and  other  securities,  where- 
as it  was  f<»tnerly  the  almost  unbroken  rule 
that  Easteni  money  came  to  this  part  of  the 
country  for  investment  in  our  own  bonds.  In 
February,  1900,  the  money  on  deposit  in  the 
banks  of  Kansas  City  aggregated  $45,000,000, 
and  the  total  capital  stock  of  the  same  bonks 
amounted  to  $3,970,000. 

The  Bank  of  Grand  Avenue  was  estabhshed 
August  25,  1884,  with  a  capital  of  $50,000.  L. 
A.  Lambert  was  its  first  president,  and  Henry 
C.  Lambert  was  cashier.  In  January,  1899, 
L.  A.  I-ambert,  whose  death  had  occurred  a 
short  time  before,  was  succeeded  by  Henry  C. 
Lambert  as  president.  J.  W.  Lambert  became 
cashier.  This  bank  is  located  in  a  portion  of 
the  city  apart  from  the  banking-  district,  and 
has  built  up  a  profitable  business.  Its  deposits 
amount  to  ^fiojooo,  and  the  officers  and  direc- 
tors arc  as  follows:  President,  HcTiry  C. 
Lambert ;  vice  presidents,  James  H.  Ruckeland 
Henry  Steubenrauch ;  cashier.  J.  W.  Lambert; 
assistant  cashier,  Gustave  Kesting;  John  W. 
Wagner,  John  E.  Lach,  E.  C.  Lambert,  James 
H.  Leonard  and  J.  J.  Rcdnhardt. 

The  American  National  Bank  was  organ- 
ized in  1886,  with  a  capital  of  $1,250,000.  It 
was  reorganized  in  1898,  with  a  capital  of 
$2SOfioo.  W.  B.  Grimes  was  its  first  presi- 
dent, and  H.  P.  Stimson  was  the  cashier.  This 
bank  was  closed  for  about  seventy  days  in 
but  was  reorganized  and  again  opened 
for  business,  the  depositors  being-  paid  .six  p".- 
cent  interest  on  their  deposits  for  the  time 
their  funds  were  hdd.  The  deposits  in  Feb- 
ruary, 1900,  amounted  to  $2,150,000.  The 
president  of  this  bank  is  R.  W.  Jones.  Jr. :  vice 
president,  J.  Martin  Jones ;  cashier,  J.  R.  Dom- 
inick ;  assistant  -cashiers,  Lamar  Ross  and  Gil- 
son  B.  Gray.  The  directors  are  Andrew 
Drutnm,  Dr.  J.  P.  Jackson,  W.  C.  Scarritr, 
George  Eyssell,  Hugh  J.  McGowan,  O.  W. 
Butt.  Frank  IT.  Woodburv,  Charies  Weill,  C. 
H.  R.  McElroy,  R.  W.  Jones,  Jr.,  J.  Martin 
Jones  and  J.  R.  Dominick. 

By  special  permission  of  the  comptroller  a 
bank  organired  in  Kansas  City  in  1886  was 

given  the  name  of  the  First  National  Bank. 
As  will  be  noticed  by  reference  to  the  history 
of  defunct  banks  in  Kansas  City,  another  insti- 
tution of  this  name  had  been  in  existence,  but 
had  gone  into  the  hands  of  a  receiver  and  its 
affairs  closed  up.  The  second  First  Nation- 
al Bank  was  a  new  and  entirdy  separate 
establishment.  James  L.  Lombard  was  made 
president,  the  bank  practically  growing  out  of 
the  banking  house  of  Lombard  Brothers.  C. 
H.  V^.  Lewis  was  the  first  cashier,  but  in  1887 
E.  F.  Swinney  became  cashier.  The  First 
National  Bank  has  a  capital  of  $250,000 ;  sur- 
plus fund,  $250,000;  undivided  profits,  $93,- 
000;  deposits,  $9,000,000.  The  directors 
elected  at  tfie  beginning  of  the  year  1900  were 
as  Ibtkyws:  J.  L.  Abernathy,  J.  F.  Richards, 
J.  S.  Loose,  John  Perry.  K.  D.  Fisher.  R.  L. 
Yeager,  E.  S.  Washburn,  H.  T.  Abernathy,  P. 
E.  Havens,  E.  F.  Swinney,  J.  L.  Loose.  At 
this  time  the  officers  were:  E.  F.  Swinney, 
president;  J.  F.  Richards,  vice  president;  H. 
T,  Abernathy,  cashier;  C.  G.  Hutcheson,  as- 
sistant cashier. 

During  the  summer  of  1887  the  Bank  of 
Commerce,  a  prosperous  financial  institution 
which  grew  out  of  the  Kansas  Gty  Savings 
Association,  was  organized  under  the  national 
banking  laws,  and  the  name  became  the  Na- 
tional Bank  of  Commerce.  Since  tiiat  time 
this  hank  has  g^rown  to  be  one  of  the  strongest 
in  the  United  States.  In  May,  1897,  it  ab- 
sorbed the  Metropolitan  National  Bank.  The 
Midland  National  Bank,  which  in  January, 
i88'i.  lionght  the  business  of  the  Armour 
Brothers  lianking  Company,  was  consolidated 
with  the  National  Bank  of  Commeroe  in  July, 
1807.  The  officials  of  the  latter  named  bank 
own  the  capital  stock  of  the  Stock  Yards  Bank 
of  Commerce  and  the  Union  Avenue  Bank  of 
Commerce,  both  of  which  arc  organized  under 
the  State  laws.  The  first  k>cation  of  the  Na- 
tional Bank  of  Commerce  was  at  Third  and 
Main  Streets.  Later,  it  was  at  Fourth  and 
Delaware  Streets;  then  Si.xth  and  Delaware; 
later  occupied  commodious  quarters  in  the 
New  Yoric  Life  Building,  and  January  I,  1899, 
removed  to  the  bank's  own  building  at  Tenth 
and  Walnut  Streets,  a  fine  office  structure  val- 
ued at  $400,000.  The  capital  of  this  bank  is 
$1,000,000;  surplus  rind  undivided  profits  at 
the  beginning  of  the  year  1900,  $482,266.98 ; 
deposits,  over  $20,ooo,ooa   It  b  ^ht  largest 

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bank  west  of  Chicago,  with  one  exception  in 
St.  Louis,  and  has  a  remarkably  large  client- 
age ixntmg  the  country  banks  in  the  territory 
tributary  to  Kansas  City.  The  directors 
elected  at  the  beginning  of  the  year  1900  were, 
as  follows :  WiUiatn  Askew,  William  Huttig, 
J.  K.  Biirnham,  Bernard  Corrij^an,  J.  J.  Swof- 
ford.  Hugh  C.  Ward,  H.  C.  Arnold, 
G.  M.  Cole,  J.  H.  Arnold,  J.  C.  Egel- 
hoff,  R.  H.  Keith.  W.  S.  Woods,  W^  H.  Win- 
ants,  W.  A.  Rule,  Charles  H.  Uoore.  The 
officers  of  this  bank  in  1900  were :  President, 
W.  S.  Woods;  vice  president,  W.  H.  Win- 
ants;  cashier,  W.  A.  Rule;  assistant  cashier, 
Charles  H.  Moore. 

The  Union  National  Bank  succeeded  the 
Traders'  Bank,  and  was  organized  in  1887  by 
David  T.  Beals,  George  R.  Barse,  C.  W^ 
Whkehcad,  F.  L.  LaForce,  H.  J.  Rosencrans 
and  others.  It  has  grown  to  be  one  of  the 
solid  financial  institutions  ai  the  West.  In 
1896  the  business  of  the  Citizens'  National 
Bmk  was  sold  to  the  Union  National.  The 
capital  of  this  bank  is  $600,000;  surplus.  $i'k  ),- 
000 ;  undivided  profits,  over  $88,000 ;  deposits, 
over  $6y000d000.  The  directors  chosen  for  the 
year  1000  were  :  David  T.  Beals,  L.  T.  James, 
Felix  L.  LaForce,  George  W.  Jones,  W.  E. 
Thome,  Edwsrd  George,  Fernando  P.  Neal, 
0.  H.  Dean,  William  Vineyard,  J.  P.  Merrill, 
George  D.  Ford,  H.  J.  Rosencrans,  George  R. 
Barse,  C.  W.  Whitehead,  A.  J.  Snyder,  G.  W. 
Lovejoy,  Charles  J.  Schmelzer.  The  officers 
chosen  for  that  year  were  as  follows :  Presi- 
dent, David  T.  Beals ;  vice  president,  Fernan- 
do P.  Neal ;  second  vice  president,  W.  H.  See- 
gcr;  cashier,  Charles  H.  V.  Lewis. 

October  23,  1888,  the  Kansas  City  State 
Bank  ww  organized,  with  a  cai>ital  of  $200,- 
000.  It  has  grown  to  be  one  of  the  most  im- 
portant banks  of  its  kind,  with  surplus  amount- 
ing to  $io,oao  and  deposits  of  about  $600,000. 
The  officers  and  directors  are  as  follows :  Pres- 
ident. W.  O.  Cox ;  vice  president,  Robert  L. 
Gregory ;  cashier,  vacant ;  assistant  cashier, 
F.  C.  Adams ;  Daniel  B.  Holmes,  Commy  F. 
Holmes,  Fdq-ar  L.  Scarritt  and  Milton  Welch. 

The  Inter-State  National  Bank  was  estab- 
lidied  fai  1890.  Several  years  previous  to  this 
time  the  National  Bank  of  Commerce  and  the 
Bank  of  Kansas  City  had  large  interests  ait  the 
stock  yards,  and  tbk  business  was  looked  after 
by  clerks  appointed  especially  for  this  work. 
It  proved  to  be  an  unsatisfactory  condition  of 
things,  however,  and  the  banks  of  Kansas  City 

organized  the  Kansas  City  Stock  Yards  Bank 
in  1884,  with  a  coital  of  $200,000.  C.  F. 
Morse  was  made  president  and  M.  W.  St.  Clair 
cashier.  In  i8cx5  it  was  found  that  the  capital 
was  insufficient,  and  the  bank  was,  therefore, 
succeeded  by  a  national  orgmizaition,  wMi  a 
capital  of  Si,ooo.oo(5.  J.  J.  Squier  was  chosen 
president  and  M.  W.  St.  Clair  cashier.  In  Jan- 
uary, 1896,  the  officers  now  at  the  head  of  the 
bank  were  elected.  The  officers  and  directors 
are  as  follows :  President,  J.  D.  Robertson ; 
vice  president,  Lee  Clark ;  cashier,  W.  C.  Hen- 
rici ;  J.  V.  Andrews,  K.  C.  Armour,  Lec  Clark, 
C.  Hood,  C.  W.  .Armour,  P.  A.  Valentine,  L. 
V.  McKcc,  G.  W.  McKnight.  E.  N.  MorriU, 
C.  F.  Morse,  Clinton  Angevine,  J.  R.  Mulvane^ 
J.  D.  Robertson,  J.  J.  Squier.  G.  W.  Williams, 
£.  S.  W.  Drought,  L.  £.  James.  The  surplus 
fund  is  $250,000;  undivided  ptolits,  $225,000; 
deposits,  about  $3,500,000. 

The  Missouri  Savings  Bank  was  organized 
in  1891 .  with  a  capital  of  $50,000.  Watt  Webb 
was  made  president  of  this  bank,  and  W.  S. 
Webb  was  made  cashier.  It  has  a  surplus  of 
$25,000,  which,  with  its  capital,  is  invested  in 
United  States  l>onds,  and  the  deposits  amount 
to  $325,000.  'Hie  bank  !.<  prosperous,  and  its 
affairs  are  looked  after  by  the  following  officers 
and  directora :  Watt  Webb,  president ;  W.  S. 
Webb,  cashier;  Eugene  Carlat,  Stuart  Car- 
kener,  Oliver  Carlat  and  W.  L.  Kessinger. 

A  Supreme  Court  decision  led  to  lite  organ- 
ization of  the  New  England  National  Bank. 
It  grew  out  of  the  New  England  Safe  Dciwsit 
&  Trust  Company,  which  was  organized  Jan- 
uary 1 , 1889,  widi  a  paid-in  capital  of  $100^000. 
A.  W.  Armour  was  the  president  of  the  com- 
pany, J.  F.  Downing  was  vice  president  and 
A.  W.  Childs  was  treasurer.  The  court  de* 
cision  referred  to  was  to  the  rffcct  that  the 
charters  of  Missouri  trust  companies  required 
them  to  pay  interest  on  deposits.  This  resulted 
in  the  organization  of  a  separate  banking  insti- 
tution in  1898,  one  thai  has  taken  a  place  in 
the  front  rank  of  financial  affairs.  The  capital 
of  the  New  England  National  was  made  $200,- 
000.  J.  F.  Downingf  was  elected  president,  and 

A.  W.  Childs,  cashier.  The  surplus  erf  this 
bank  amounts  to  $65,000;  deposits  about  $2,- 
000,000.  The  directors  chosen  January  i, 
1900,  were  C.  V.  Morse,  K.  B.  Armour,  J. 
Wni  Merrill,  C.  J.  Hubbard,  J.  F.  Dowmni^, 

B.  F.  Stevens,  W.  A.  Nettletoo,  A.  W.  Childs, 

E.  W.  Shields.   The  officers  are,  president,  J. 

F.  Downing;  vice  president,  C.  J.  Hubbard; 

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cashier,  A.  W.  Childs ;  assistant  cashier,  K.  G. 

The  Western  Exchange  Bank,  of^fanued 
Jamiarv  i,  1800.  under  the  State  laws,  suc- 
ceeded the  Bank  of  H.  S.  Mills,  which  was  or- 
ganized in  1889.  The  capital  of  the  latter 
named  institution  was  $ioo,aTo  and  the  busi- 
ness was  satisfactorily  profitable.  Its  suc- 
cessor organized  with  J.  S.  Lillis  as  president, 
and  H.  Koehler  as  cashier.  This  bank  is  cap- 
italized at  $100,000,  has  a  surplus  of  $10,000 
and  deposits  afjgroj^ting  $550,000.  Its  offi- 
cers and  directors  are  as  follows :  J.  S.  Lillis, 
president ;  William  T.  Johnson,  \-icc  president ; 
H.  Koehler,  cashier;  Henry  L.  Waldo,  Wil- 
liam H.  Lucas,  D.  S.  McGonigle. 

The  Stock  Yards  Rank  of  Comniercc  and 
the  Union  Avenue  Bank  of  Commerce  are 
both  organized  under  the  laws  of  the  State  of 
Missouri  and  are  pro-jju-rous  concerns.  Tlie 
capital  stock  of  each  is  owned  by  the  officers 
of  the  Nstional  Bank  of  Commerce,  and  the 
latter  bank  practically  controls  tho  business  of 
the  branch  institutions.  The  officers  of  the 
Stock  Yards  liank  of  Commerce  are  James  .A. 
Patton,president,and  H.  E.  Sudemian,  cashier. 
This  hank  has  a  capital  of  $10,000  and  dejv^sils 
amounting  to  over  $484,000.  The  officers  of 
the  Union  Avenue  Bank  of  Commerce  are  W. 
V.  Clark,  president,  and  Heorfje  A  Hig-in- 
botham,  cashier.  This  bank  has  a  capiul  of 
$tO,ooo  and  a  line  of  deposits  amounting'  to 
over  $325,000. 

The  City  National  Bank  was  opened  l-'ebru- 
ary  2,  1900.  with  charter  No.  5250,  a  paid-up 
capital  of  $250,000  and  a  surplus  of  $25,000. 
This  bank  bej^an  business  under  most  auspi- 
cious circumstances.  R.  M.  Snyder  is  presi- 
dent. J.  G.  Strean  is  vice  president,  and  George 
P.  ."^nyder  is  cashier.  The  bank  owns  its  own 
building,  the  handsome  structure  at  545  Dela- 
ware Street,  formerly  occupied  by  the  National 
Bank  of  Commerce,  and  one  suited  to  the  pur- 
poses. Eleven  days  after  the  bank  opened  for 
business  the  deposits  were  over  $400,000.  The 
directors  are  Jolin  Lonp,  J.  Crawford  James. 
Millon  Moore  and  P,  I.  Bonebrake.  The  lat- 
ter is  the  president  of  the  Central  National 
Bank  of  To|>eka.  Kansas. 

Tlie  Traders'  Bank  of  Kansas  (^itv  was  or 
g^ized  in  1900,  and  opened  for  business  Oc- 
tober 15th,  with  a  cap?tal  stock  of  $100,000. 
The  directors  were  r,cor<,'f  W,  Fuller,  Frank 
H.  Woodbury,  Sanfor.l  V,.  Ladd.  C.  C.  dem- 
ons, Ellis  Short,  John  S.  Morrin  and  A.  J. 

Poor.  The  officers  were  J.  R.  Uotninick, 
president;  E.  J.  Colvin,  vice  president;  J.  C. 
English,  cashier,  and  L.  C.  Parmenter,  assist- 

ant cashier. 

W.  H.  WiMAMTS. 

Banks  and  Banklnir  In  St.  Joseph. 

In  the  year  1852,  nine  years  after  the  cmnity 
seat  of  Buchanan  County,  Missouri,  liad  been 
removed  from  the  old  town  of  Sparta  to  the 
section  of  country  designated  at  that  time  as 
the  Blacksnake  Hills,  now  the  site  erf  the  city 
of  St.  Joseph,  the  business  interests  of  the  new 
seat  of  county  government  had  increased  at 
such  a  rate,  and  advaiued  to  so  important  a 
stage,  that  a  financial  nislitution  was  found  to 
be  a  necessity.  As  a  trading  point  St.  Joseph 
had  experienced  a  growth  that  was  little  short 
of  phenomenal,  and  her  business  men  felt  the 
need  of  a  convenient  means  of  exchange  and 
of  the  other  now  indispensable  acconinioda- 
tions  which  are  the  offspring  of  the  banking 
business.  .Armstrong  Reattie  was  the  man 
who.  in  1852,  established  the  first  bank  in  St. 
Joseph,  the  capital  sl(xk  beintr  $20,000.  James 
M.  Wilson,  now  a  director  in  the  Merchants' 
Bank  of  St.  Joseph,  was  its  first  clerk.  The 
Beattie  Bank  continue<l  in  business  success- 
fully until  the  death  of  its  founder,  in  1878. 
The  Farmers'  and  Mechanics'  Savings  Institu- 
tion was  chartered  in  1853,  and  continued  un- 
der that  name  until  1865.  when  it  became  the 
First  National  Bank  of  S^.  Joseph.  In  1855 
the  Buchanan  Life  and  General  Insurance 
Company  opened  a  banking  house,  which 
maintained  operations  until  after  the  opening 
of  the  Civil  War.  During  the  years  1857  and 
1858  A.  I..  Lee  and  ItTonie  B.  Chaffee  were 
at  the  head  of  a  banking  institution.  In  1857 
the  State  Savings  Bank  was  organized  as  a 
branch  of  the  State  Bank  of  Missouri.  Fro  n 
1865  to  1871  it  was  conducted  as  a  national 
bank.  It  was  known  as  the  State  Savinga 
Bank  from  1871  until  1890,  when  Itwasftgiln 
made  a  national  bank.  This  bank  is  now  out 
of  business  and  its  affairs  arc  being  settled  up, 
all  depositors  having  been  paid  on  demand.  It 
is  characteristic  of  thme  engaged  in  the  bank- 
ing business  in  St.  Joseph  to  discontinue  (jper- 
attons  as  soon  as  they  find  that  the  ventures 
are  not  pri)ving  succes.<ful.  Tns*(\T(l  r.f  fight- 
ing against  fate  and  hoping  against  fruitless 
hopes,  they  cease  business  promptly  and  go 
into  liquidation  while  still  solvent,  rather  than 
subject  their  patrons  to  embarrassment  and 
loss  and  themselves  to  the  unpleasantness  and 

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disgrace  which  compulsory  liquidation  in- 
volves. In  this  way  the  confidence  of  de- 
positors is  not  impaired,  and  the  banks  of  St. 
Joseph  have  come  to  be  looked  upon  as 
among  ithe  safest  organizations  of  their  class. 
The  first  bank  of  issue  in  St.  Joseph  was  the 
Western  Rank,  with  a  capital  of  $500,000.  Mil- 
ton Tootle  was  president  and  Janios  (  )'Ncill, 
cashier.  John  Calhoun  &  Co.  inaugurated  a 
huddng  btislneas  Jtme  9, 1864,  which  was  very 
siiccessfvil  imtil  the  partnership  expired,  in 
1871.  when  it  became  a  pout  of  the  Calhoun 
Bank,  organized  under  <the  laws  of  Missouri. 
It  continued  in  operation  until  December  i, 
1875,  when  it  became  the  Calhoun  Savings 
Bank.  The  St.  Joseph  Savings  Bank  was  in- 
corporated in  June,  1873,  and  it  was  also  con- 
solidated whh  the  Calhoun  Savings  Bank.  In 
1864  the  First  National  Bank  was  organized, 
with  Thomas  E.  Tootle  as  president,  and 
Josrph  C.  Hull  as  cashier.  Tins  bank  was 
closed  in  1878.  The  German  Savings  Bank  was 
chartered  in  1869  and  went  into  liquidation 
{111876.  G.  H.  Koch  was  president  of  this  in- 
atitution,  and  I.  C  Kappner  was  casiiier.  In 
1876  the  St.  Joseph  Qearin^  House  was  es- 
tablished, the  membership  includinp  the  First 
National  Bank,  the  State  Savinp^s  Rank,  tlie 
Beaitie  Bank,  the  Buchanan  Bank — wlucii  was 
the  outgrowth  of  the  Buchanan  Life  and  Gen- 
eral Insurance  Company — the  Calhoun  Sav- 
ings Bank  and  the  Bank  of  St.  Joseph.  Arm- 
slrang  BeaKtie  w«s  the  first  president  of  the 
clearing  liousc,  and  F.  O.  Sayle  was  man- 
ager. The  Commercial  Bank  was  organized 
m  1887  went  into  liquidation  ten  years 
later.  The  Saxton  National  P.ank  was  organ- 
ized April  2.  iHH}.  witli  a  capital  of  $200,000. 
which  was  afterward  increased  to  $400,000. 
A.  M.  Saxton  was  president,  and  J.  Mc- 
•Mister,  cashier.  In  1878  a  private  bank  was 
organized  by  A.  N.  Shuster,  Louis  Hax,  James 
N.  Bumes,  John  Calhoun  and  S.  A.  Walker, 
under  the  name  of  Shuster,  Hax  &  Co.  This 
institution  was  a  successor  to  the  Cattioun 
Savings  Bank  and  contintted  in  business  until 
the  Shuster- Hax  Natkm^  Bank  succeeded  it. 
The  latter  bank  was  organized  July  i.  i^^, 
with  a  capital  of  $500,000.  A.  N.  Shuster  was 
president,  and  S.  A.  Walker,  cashier.  The 
Saxton  N'attional  Bank  and  the  Shnster-TTa^: 
National  Bank  joined  interests  and  became 
the  First  National  Bank  of  Buchanan  County, 
February  6.  1894.  The  Central  Savings  Bank 
was  organized  in  1889,  with  a  capital  of  $50,- 

000.  and  failed  December  31,  1898,  There  are 
now — 1899— seven  banking  houses  in  St. 
Joseph.  The  Bank  of  St.  Joseph  was  organ- 
ized in  1874  by  James  \'.  Burnes  and  Calvin  F, 
Burnes.  Later  it  bouglit  the  business  of  the 
German  Savings,  and  the  tmo  banks  became 
the  National  Bank  of  St.  Joseph,  in  1883.  It 
has  a  capital  stock  of  $100,000  and  a  surplus  of 
$131,000,  with  deposits  amounting  to  $3,000,- 
000.  Its  oflicers  are  L.  C.  Bumes,  president; 
\V  M.  Wyeth  and  James  N.  Burnes,  Jr.,  vice 
presidents ;  E.  D.  McAlistcr,  assistant  cashier. 
The  Merchants'  Bank  was  orgWHzed  hi  1878 
as  the  successor  of  the  First  National  P.ank. 
Its  cai)iTnI  stock  has  been  increased  from  $50,- 
000  to  $200,000.  The  officers  and  directors 
are  Louis  Boder,  president:  J.  H.  Robison, 
vice  president;  Thomas  \\'.  Evans,  cashier; 
Samuel  Westhcimer,  James  M.  Wilson,  V\'.  H. 
Griffith  and  R.  W.  McDonald.  October  4, 
1897,  this  bank  had  in  its  vanhs  $378,000  and 
a  line  of  deposits  amounting  to  $844,000.  The 
German  American  Bank  was  organized  June 
6,  1887,  with  a  capital  of  $50,000,  which  has 
since  been  increased  to  $100,000.  Its  ofhcers 
and  directors  are  Henry  Krug,  president; 
Henry  Krug,  Jr.,  vice  presidctut;  J.  G. 
.Schneider,  vice  president;  O.  J.  Albrecht, 
cashier;  H.Schncidex,  John  DoiK)\'an,  Jr.,  and 
H.  G.  Buckingham.  The  growth  of  this  bank 
has  been  remarkable  and  its  business  is  rapidly 
increasing.  In  1897  it  had  $180,000  cash  in 
its  vaults,  atnd  its  deposfits  amounied  to  $631,- 
000.  The  hanking  house  of  Tootle,  Lemon  & 
Co.  is  a  large  private  concern,  organized  in 
July.  1889,  by  Thomas  E.  Tootle,  John  S. 
Lemon,  James  McCord  and  Samud  Nave.  In 
.•\pril,  1893,  Milton  Tootle,  Jr.,  became  a  mem- 
ber of  the  firm,  and  in  1897,  on  account  of  ill 
health,  Thomas  E.  Tootle  disposed  of  his  in- 
terest. Tn  December  of  tlie  same  year  the 
imerests  of  Messrs.  McCord  and  Nave  were 
purchased  by  the  other  partners,  and  Graham 
G.  Lac\ ,  wlio  is  now  cashier,  became  a  mem- 
ber of  the  firm.  The  nominal  c«4)ital  is  $50,- 
000,  but  tiie  financed  responsiblfity  of  the 
members  of  the  firm  makes  the  caphal  equal 
to  $3,000,000.  Tliis  bank  has  nearly  $800,000 
cash  in  its  vaults,  witli  a  line  ol  deposits  reach- 
ing $1,800,000.  The  bank  has  had  a  phenom- 
enal tfrowth.  the  deposits  havinpf  increased 
twenty-fold.  The  Park  Bank  was  organized 
in  1889  in  a  new  and  growing  part  of  the  dty. 
It  has  paid  8  per  cent  in  annual  dividends.  Its 
officers  are  B.  B.  Fnazer,  president;  Jo  Han- 

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sen,  vice  president ;  C.  L.  Wiehl,  cashier.  The 
directors  are  A.  P.  Qayton,  W.  H.  Prindle, 

William  Morrison,  John  Gooding,  Christian 
Bock.  M.  C.  Powell  and  John  F.  Merriam. 
This  bank  has  a  capital  of  $40,000,  with  $150,- 
000  in  deposits.  The  Fkit  National  Bank  of 
Buchanan  County  has  a  capital  of  $250,000. 
Stephen  C.  Woodson  was  its  lirst  president. 
The  present  officers  and  directors  are  J.  M. 
Ford,  president;  J.  W.  McMister,  cashier;  R. 
L.  McDonald,  Edward  C.  Smith,  Louis  Hax, 
H.  K.  Judd,  6.  B.  Frazer,  A.  P.  Qayton  and 
A.  Kirkpatrick.  In  1897  this  bank  had  in  its 
vaults  $1 ,075,000  in  cash  and  deposits  amount- 
ing to  $2,228,000.  It  held  $150,000  in  United 
States  4  per  cent  bonds.  The  business  of  the 
bank  is  constantly  increasing.  The  Stock 
Yards  Bank  was  organized  Marcii  15,  1898, 
with  a  capital  of  $5D,ooa  Its  officers  are 
Gordon  Jones,  president;  Ernest  Lindsay, 
vice  president ;  Charles  E.  Waite,  cashier ;  di- 
rectors, John  Donovan,  Jr.,  and  Joseph  A. 
Maxwell.  The  deposits  of  this  bank  amount 
to  $490,000,  and  the  amount  of  cash  in  the 
vaults  is  $290,000. 

The  aggr^iate  amounts  of  the  resources  and 
liabilities  of  the  seven  banks  of  St.  Joseph  for 
April,  1899,  were  as  follows : 


Loans  $5,845,368  92 

Overdrafts   50,742  40 

Bonds  and  stocks   335.1 16  67 

Real  estate  and  fixtures   1064 15  59 

Cash,  etc   3. 965.653  24 

$10,303,296  Sa 


Capital  $  690,000  00 

Surplus   107,250  00 

Circulation   99>ooo  00 

Undivided  profits   104,663  86 

Deposits  9,302,382  96 

$10,303,396  8a 

The  clearings  are  the  total  amount  of 
checks  and  drafts  on  the  other  banks  cashed 

by  or  deposited  in  each  bank.  The  amount  of 
the  clearings  in  1877  was  $23,000,000,  while  in 
1897  they  were  $67^x10,000,  or  three  times 
greater  than  twenty  years  before.  The  clear- 
ings of  1898  were  $124,000,000.  an  increase 
of  85  per  cent  over  the  preceding  year.  The 

increase  of  the  first  quarter  of  1899  over  the 
sanie  period  of  1898  was  39  per  cent  While 

these  figures  are  no  index  of  the  volume  of 
business,  they  show  an  increasing  business 

Thom.\s  W.  Evans. 

BiiiikM  ami  Banking  in  St.  Lonif^. 
— It  was  many  years  after  the  trading-post 
of  St.  Louis  was  established  by  Laclede 
and   the   Chouteaus  before  the  people  of 
the  village  felt  the  need  of   banks.  The 
population  grew  so  slowly  at  first  that  in 
1800,  thirty-six  years  after  the  settlement 
was  begun,  it  was  less  tlian  one  thou- 
sand, and  tiie  conditions  of  trade  were  10  rode 
and  primitive  as  not  to  call  for  tiie  comflkx 
machinery  through  which  modem  transac- 
tions are  conducted.    What  business  there 
was  consisted  in  barter,  the  simple  exchange 
of  one  commodity  for  another,  with  mutual 
delivery.    For  a  time  money  was  almost  un- 
known. The  poet  was  too  far  remote  from 
the  Eastern  cities  to  permit  the  circulation  of 
bank  notes  issued  there;  and  as  to  gold  and 
even  silver  coins,  they  were  liCtle  less  dmn 
cm  idsitie.s  down  to  the  bce^innine:  of  the  nine- 
teenth century.     Fur  trading  was  the  chief 
interest  of  the  post,  and  it  not  only  supplied  ft 
livelihood  to  the  i>opulation  but  furnished 
something  that  answered  very  well  in  the 
place  of  money  also.  All  skins  that  were  good 
enough  for  the  fur  trade— beaver,  bear,  buf- 
falo, wolf,  lynx,  otter,  deer,  elk  and  raccoon- 
were  good  enough  for  currency,  though  the 
skins  that  afforded  the  greatest  value  in  die 
smallest  compass  and  weight  were  preferred. 
The  very  best  were  beaver  and  otter,  on  ac- 
count of  the  rich  fur  th^  bore.  The  skin  and 
fur  currency  of  those  times  was  not  kept  in 
vaults,  but  in  warehouses  and  sheds,  packed 
and  tied  up  in  bales,  and  carefully  counted. 
Deer  skins  were  the  standard,  because,  while 
they  were  abundant,  they  always  had  a  steady 
value.   At  first  the  furs  were  sent  to  New 
Orleans  on  barges,  afterward  to  Mackinaw, 
Detroit  and  Montreal,  and  later  .still  to  Phila- 
delphia.   The  shipments  were  then  drawn 
against,  returns  being  chiefly  in  dry  goods, 
sugar,  coffee,  and  hardware.    But  it  was  a 
slow  process.    *It  tcKtk  from  six  to  eight 
months  to  receive  returns  from  New  Orleans, 
a  year  to  a  year  and  a  half  from  'Mmtreal ;  and 
when  .1  very  precious  packnpe  of  furs  was 
shipped  to  London,  the  returns  in  foreign 
goods  wodkl  not  readi  St  Louis  f<Hr  three,  and 

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sometimes  four,  years.  After  the  transfer  of 
St  Louis,  along  with  the  Territory  of  Upper 
Looitiun,  to  the  United  States,  iatereoone 
with  the  Ohio  River  towns  increased,  the  ex- 
changes being  usually  effected  in  deer  skins, 
or  their  eqtUTalent  in  other  peltries.  St.- 
Louis  had  no  whisky,  salt,  iron,  steel,  lead, 
nor  cloth  goods  of  any  kind,  but  it  had  an 
abtmdaiice  of  barter  money  tn  (he  bales  of 
merchantable  furs  continually  received  by  its 
trading  houses;  and  the  trade  in  lead  witti  Ste. 
Genevieve,  and  in  the  commodities  which  the 
Ohio  River  towns  were  able  to  supply,  easily 
brougfht  about  shipping'  bills  and  exclianjjc 
drafts  for  the  conduct  of  the  business.  The 
reputation  of  the  prosperous  St.  Louis  fur 
trader.s  extended  to  alt  places  witli  which  they 
dealt,  and  promise  notes  issued  by  them  for 
their  own  convenience  were  good  current 
money,  not  only  among  the  hunting:  and  trap- 
ping people  all  over  the  Northwest  but  in  the 
towns  and  setdenienits  south  and  east  of  the 
post.  After  the  cession,  in  1803,  another  Idud 
of  paper  currency  was  added  to  the  money 
system — bills  drawn  at  New  Orleans  on  the 
Usited  States  Treasury  to  pay  the  civil  of- 
ficers and  military  at  St.  Louis.  It  is  no 
wonder,  then,  that  with  these  facilities  for  the 
tnnsaction  of  its  esndtanges  with  the  outside 
world  ?t.  Louis  managed  to  pret  atong  with- 
out a  bank  for  half  a  century  after  it  was 
founded.  It  was  not 'until  t8t6  that  tiie  lack 
of  such  an  institution  wa?  felt  to  be  .1  repr^.ich 
to  the  thriving  town  of  3,500  population  into 
which  die  trading  post  liad  developed,  and  it 
was  in  that  year  that  the  first  bank  was  opened. 
It  was  called  the  "Bank  of  St.  Louis,"  and  the 
following  year  the  Bank  of  Missouri,  with  a 
capita  of  $250,000,  was  established.  The 
first  experiments  in  banking  in  a  new  city  are 
rwdy  attended  with  permanent  success,  and 
fhese  two  banks  were  not  exceptions.  They 
had  a  good  effect  in  stimulatinp:  busines?;  and 
reducing  it  to  the  discipline  of  established 
regolattons,  and  in  focilttating  exchanges  widt 
outside  points ;  but  the  first  one  failed,  after 
three  years,  through  unfortunate  speculative 
investments,  followed  by  divisions  among  its 
Sectors;  sjid  the  other,  though  hutting  for 
5everal  years  longer,  at  last  disappeared  also. 
Some  of  the  notes  of  the  Bank  of  St.  Louis 
have  been  preserved.  One  of  these  reads  as 
follows:  "The  President,  Directors  &  Co.  of 
the  Bank  of  St.  Louis  promise  to  pay  Five 
Dollars  to  Fowler,  or  Bearer,  on  demand. 

St  Louis,  Missouri  Territory,  June  18,  1817. 
S.  Hammond,  President;  John  B.  Smith, 
Gaiflfaier."  The  vignette  Aowa  •  beBvier4i«p, 

with  a  beaver  caught  in  it — a  considerate 
tribute  to  the  fur  trade,  which  had  so  much 
to  do  widi  die  founding  and  early  prosperity 
of  St.  Louis.  This  bank  was  located  on  the 
first  floor  of  a  house,  the  upper  story  of  which 
was  a  dwellmg,  on  Main  Street,  bdow  Mar- 
ket.  Some  of  the  bills— ones,  threes,  fives  and 
twenties — of  the  Bank  of  Missouri  are  also 
still  preserved  in  frames  as  relics  of  the  early 
history  of  St.  Louis.  One  01  them  bears  the 
foUmving  inscription:  "Tlie  President,  Di- 
rectors &  Co.  of  the  Bank  of  Missouri  prom- 
ise to  pay  One  Dollar  on  demand,  at  their 
office  of  Deposit  and  Discount  in  Ste.  Gene- 
vieve, to  William  Shannon,  President  thereof, 
or  to  the  Bearer.  St.  Louis,  October  i,  1818. 
Aug.  Chouteau,  President ;  J^hn  Dales, 
Cashier."  The  fives  of  this  bank  show  in  the 
vignette  a  bust  of  Jefferson,  with  a  fiboty  cap, 
behind  it  four  ships  in  a  harbor,  and  in  the 
background  mountains  with  a  sunrise.  This 
bank  was  located  on  the  first  floor  of  Auguste 
Chouteau's  mansion,  on  the  west  side  of  Main 
Street,  between  Market  and  Chest  nut.  In 
1829  a  branch  of  the  United  States  Bank  at 
Philadelphia  was  establi^ed  in  St.  Louis, 
with  Colonel  John  O'Fallon  as  president,  wlio 
was  chosen  to  the  place  for  four  years  in  sue* 
cession.  This  bank  was  prudently  managed 
and  was  of  great  service  to  business,  but  when 
the  bill  to  extend  the  charter  of  the  parent 
bank  was  vetoed  by  President  Jadcson  m 
1832,  the  St.  Louis  branch  shared  fht  faXc  of 
the  parent  and  was  wound  up.  The  veto  of 
the  United  States  Bank  was  sharply  felt  in 
St.  Ixjuis  and  provoked  a  strong  protest  from 
leading  citizens.  A  meeting  was  held  July 
24,  1832,  at  which  William  Can*  Lane  pre- 
sided, willi  Jamea  L.  Mutvay  as  seorttary, 
and  Edward  Bates.  Pierre  Chontcan,  Jr., 
George  Collier,  Thornton  Grimsley,  Henry  S. 
Geyer,  and  N.  Ranney  as  committee  on  reso- 
lutions, and  which  declared  that  "we  receive 
with  deep  mortification  and  regret  the  Presi- 
dent's veto  of  the  bill  to  continue  for  a  time 
the  charter  of  the  Bank  of  die  United  Stated." 
But  the  President  was  not  without  many 
friends  in  St.  Louis,  who  would  not  permit  this 
expression  to  go  unchallenged ;  and  therefore 
a  second  meeting  was  held  the  evening  of  the 
same  day,  which  was  presided  over  by  Dr. 
Samuel  Merry,  with  William  Milbum  sccre- 

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fdiy,  and  £.  Dobyns,  John  Shade,  James  C. 
Lynch,  L.  Brown,  B.  W.  Ayn»,  J.  H.  Bald- 
win and  P.  Taylor,  committee  on  resolutions. 
This  meeting  approved  the  veto  and  resolved 
that  "we  view  ihe  stand  which  General  Jade- 
son  has  taken  against  the  moneyed  powers  of 
Europe  and  America  as  a  mark  of  tirmness 
and  patriotism  W*  sufpossed  by  any  paitriot 
or  statesman  since  the  light  of  liberty  first 
dawned  upon  our  country."  But  St.  Louis 
had  now  become  a  vifjorous  city  of  six  thou- 
sand population,  with  ir.tcainlK>ats  running  to 
New  Orleans,  Louisville,  Cincinnati,  and 
Pittsburg,  and  to  Galena,  and  when  occasion 
required,  to  the  towns  on  the  Missouri  River, 
and  its  cxpandinfj  trade  demanded  additiimai 
means  and  agencies  for  its  accommodation. 
A  Cincinnati  inalittftion,  called  the  Commer- 
cial Agency,  established  a  branch  in  the  city  in 

1836,  which  became  the  agent  through  which 
the  government  made  its  payments,  and  whidi 
contributed  somewhat  to  the  expediting  of 
business ;  but  it  was  recoq-nizcd  that  some- 
thing more  than  branches  and  agencies  of 
outside  institutions  was  needed  in  the  State  of 
Missouri  and  its  chief  chy.    Tlierefore,  in 

1837,  when  the  population  of  the  city  liad  be- 
oome  twelve  thousand,  the  Bank  of  the  State 
of  Missouri  was  established,  under  a  charter 
from  the  State,  with  a  capital  of  $5,000,000, 
one-third  belonging  to  the  State,  which  had 
the  right  to  name  several  of  the  directors. 
The  bank  went  into  operation  April  11,  1837, 
with  John  Brady  Smith  as  president,  and 
Hugh  O'Neill.  Edward  Walsh,  Samuel  S. 
Reybum,  Edward  Dobyns,  William  L.  Sub- 
lett.  and  John  O'Fallon  for  directors.  Its 
amf^  dfrftal,  the  support  of  the  State,  the 
wide  area  served  by  it — virtually  the  whole 
country  west  of  the  Mississippi — and  the 
sound,  conservative  spirit  that  dittinguiAed 
its  management,  made  it  a  power  from  the  be- 
ginning. It  was  a  bank  of  issue,  and  its  notes 
were,  for  thirty  years,  not  only  as  good  as 
gold,  but  in  the  mountains,  among  trappers 
and  hunters,  and  at  military  posts  among 
officers  and  soldiers,  esteemed  better  than 
gold.  When  trade  was  opened  with  New 
Mexico  and  Chihuahua,  before  the  Mexican 
War,  they  circulated  in  those  countries;  and 
when,  on  the  discovery  of  gold  in  Cafifomia, 
the  overland  migration  set  in,  they  were  car- 
ried to  the  Pacific  Coast  and  were  held  in  as 
higfi  &vor  there  as  within  sight  of  the  Innk 
from  which  they  were  itsued.  It  wa$  the  only 

bank  of  issue  in  St.  Louis  for  twenty  years, 
and  the  only  bank  of  any  kind  untO  the  Boat- 
men's Saving  Institution  was  opened,  in  1847, 
although  in  1837,  the  year  in  which  it  was 
opened,  tiie  Chamber  of  Commerce  addressod 
a  petition  to  Congress  in  favor  of  the  estab- 
li^mient  of  a  national  bank,  and  the  mer- 
chants of  the  city  never  relaxed  their  eS<»tt 
to  secure  additional  faaakiiig  fKiUtici.  Tht 
need  of  such  facilities  grew  more  pressing  as 
the  business  of  St.  Louis  increased.  The  war 
with  Mexico,  in  1846,  provoked  an  activity 
in  the  West  that  had  never  been  witnessed  be- 
fore. The  rivers  were  alive  with  boats  con- 
veying troops  and  supplies  to  New  Orleana,, 

and  St.  Louis  was  the  outfitting  point  for  the 
operations  against  New  Mexico  and  Utah,. 
It 'was  the  beginning  of  a  trade  which,  after 
the  close  of  the  war,  expanded  into  still  larger 
proportions,  when  the  Mormons  settled  in 
Utah,  followed  by  the  freighting  business  from 
Independence  and  St.  Joseph  to  the  army 
posts  and  settlements  in  the  far  West,  and 
later  still,  by  the  great  emigration  to  Cali- 
fornia, in  1849.  The  need  of  more  money  to 
meet  the  requirements  of  the  profligious  bus- 
iness in  the  West,  which  found  a  converging 
point  at  St.  Louis,  was  severely  felt,  and  at- 
tempts were  made  to  meet  it  by  the  issuing 
of  notes  by  private  bankers  of  good  reputa- 
tion and  cre^t,  and  latter  through  the  "wild 
cat"  s'em  of  banks  opened  in  Illinois,  In- 
diana, and  other  Western  States.  Tliese 
banks,  established  under  a  free  banking  law, 
authorized  to  emit  notes  on  State  bonds, 
territory  bonds,  county  bonds,  city  l>onds, 
and  township  bonds,  were  usually  located  in 
obscure,  out-of-tfie-way  towns  and  villages. 
diflRctdt  of  access,  to  avoid  the  presentation  of 
their  notes  for  redemption.  Notwithstanding 
this,  the  greed  for  somedifaig  in  the  shape  61 
money  to  meet  the  demands  of  legitimate  bus- 
iness and  the  nearly  as  great  demands  of 
reckless  speculation  was  so  great  that  the 
"wild  cat"  currency  circulated  fredy  in  the 
West  and  Northwest,  and  was  poured  into  St. 
Louis  in  payment  for  the  goods,  manuiaaures 
and  supplies  furnished  by  its  merchants. 
Tliis  currency  went  at  a  discount  of  three  to 
fifty  per  cent,  according  to  the  measure  of  dis- 
tmst  of  the  bank  issuing  the  note,  or  iSie 
amount  of  profit  demanded  by  the  brokers 
who  dealt  in  them ;  and  as  the  rates  of  discount 
on  them  were  constantly  varying,  the  brokers 
were  accustomed  to  issue,  once  a  month  and 

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cometimes  oftener,  counterfeit  detectors,  quot- 
ii^  the  value  of  the  qotes  of  all  banks  on  the 
fint  of  the  tnomh.   A  bank  note  would  aome- 
tUDCS  lose  half  its  face  value,  or  become  en- 
tirely wortJilcss,  during  tiic  tew  days  a  person 
carried  it  in  his  pocket;  and  the  contents  of 
a  merchant's  cash-drawer  mig-ht  suffer  a  loss 
of  five  to  ten  per  cent  in  a  single  day.  There 
were  no  "wild  cat"t}anks  in  Missouri,  but  there 
was  a  large  ciuantitv  of  "wild  cat"  currency  in 
the  State,  poured  in  frotn  the  surrounding 
Stttes  in  the  coarse  of  trade;  and  it  was  partly 
as  a  measure  of  self-defense  against  this  con- 
dition of  things,  and  partly  to  supply  the  mer- 
chants and  manufacturers  oi  St.  Louis  with  the 
accommodattmis  wliioh  the  old  bank  of  the 
State  took  no  pains  to  furnisli,  that  the  Legis- 
lature of  the  Starte,  in  1857,  on  the  earnest 
representatioas  of  the  business  interests,  made 
provisions  for  a  general  banking  system  to 
supply  the  people  with  a  sound  and  safe  cur- 
rency of  bulk  notes  payable  in  specie  on  de- 
mand.  The  basis  of  the  svsfcni  was  authority 
to  issue  two  dollars  in  paper  to  one  of  paid-up 
capital,  the  notes  to  be  redeemable  on  presen- 
tation.   The  banks  were  subject  to  examina- 
tion by  a  commissioner,  and  were  required  to 
make  regular  and  full  repotts  of  their  con- 
dition.   The  form  of  these  reports  has  been 
maintained  ever  since,  and  is  strictly  observed 
by  all  State  banks  to  this  day.    Under  this 
^eral  law,  six  banks  were  organized  in  St. 
I/5uis :    Tlie  Merchants',  the  Mechanics',  the 
Southern,  the  Exchange,  the  Union,  and  the 
Bank  of  St.  Lods— «nd  the  Farmers'  Bank 
w  as  orjr^nizcd  at  Lexington.    TTiree  of  the  six 
St.  Louis  banks  still  exist :  the  Mechanics',  in 
its  ori^na!  form ;  the  Merdumts',  in  the  Mer^ 
chant s'-Laclede  National;  and  the  Southern, 
in   the   Tliird    National ;   and    their  forty 
odd  years'  record  is  a  history  of  honor, 
BSeiBlnm  and  proaperky.   Their  notes,  which 
at  once  came  imo  general  circulation,  served 
two  good  purposes ;  they  supplied  the  people 
iridi  a  sotmd,  acceptable  and  id>nndant  cur- 
fMcy  that  passed  freely  from  hand  to  hand, 
witiiout  scrutiny  and  distrust,  and  they  ex- 
pelled the  "wild  catt"  paper  of  neighboring 
Slates  and  Territories  that  had  become  a 
nuisance,  endured  only  because  there  was 
nothing  to  take  its  place.   When  the  national 
banking  system  was  established  ^  Congress, 
in  1862,  the  notes  of  the  Missouri  banks  dis- 
appeared before  the  tax  of  ten  per  cent  which 
the  natioaal  iMUikiiv  law  inqwaed  on  them; 

and  the  St.  Louis  banks  of  issue  were  trans- 
formed, one  by  one,  into  national  bank^ — all 
except  the  Mechanics',  which,  though  shocn 
of  its  circulation,  remained  and  still  remains  a 
State  bank,  under  its  original  incorporation, 
and  with  a  record  of  honoraible  management, 
efficient  service  to  the  community,  and  profit 
to  its  i>tuckhoiders,  of  which  St.  Louis  may 
w«41  be  proud. 

Ten  ycar.s  before  these  banks  were  char- 
tered the  Boatmen's  Saving  Institutran,  as  al- 
ready stated,  had  been  establi^ed.  It  had 
no  aiithority  to  issue  bills,  being,  as  its  name 
indicates,  a  savings  bank,  having  no  capital 
stock.  Its  stockholders  were  its  depositors, 
and  tlie  profits  were  divided  pro  rata  among 
those  who,  during  the  first  six  months,  should 
deposit  $100  and  upwards  and  allow  Uie  same 
to  remain  undisturbed  until  the  expiration  of 
the  charter,  in  twenty  years.  The  name  of 
the  institution  was  a  recognition  of  the  pre- 
eminence of  the  river  interests  of  that  day, 
when  one-sixth  of  the  population  of  St,  Louis 
was  connected  with  and  dependent  upon  the 
river  bttsiness.  The  mime  was  changed  ill 
1873  to  the  Boatmen's  Saving  Bank,  and 
again  in  1890  to  the  Boatmen's  Bank;  but 
from  the  beginning,  its  career  has  been  one  of 
uninterrupted  prosperity  and  usefulneis  to 
prosperity  being  illustrated  in  its  progress 
from  the  first  location  in  a  small  house.  No. 
16  Locust  Street,  at  a  rental  of  $150  a  year,  to 
the  present  statelv  building  on  the  northwest 
corner  of  Fourth  Street  and  Washington 
Avenue,  built  by  itsdf  and  first  oocapled  in 
ifV)i,  and  its  attested  by  the  large 
measure  of  popular  confidence  it  has  en- 
joyed throughout  the  more  than  fifty  years  of 
its  existence.  A  feature  of  the  good  fortune 
that  has  attended  this  bank  is  the  fact  that  it 
has  had  but  three  presidents — Adam  L.  Mills, 
from  1847  to  1854 ;  Sullivan  Blood,  from  1854 
to  iS-i  :  and  Rufus  J.  Lackland,  the  present 
incumbent  (1899),  who,  upon  Mr.  Bkiod's 
resignation  in  1871,  was  chosen  to  suceeed 
him  and  has  held  the  position  continuously 
for  twenty-eight  years.  Of  its  cashiers,  two 
have  served  in  that  capacity  throughoat 
forty-three  of  the  bank's  fifty-two  years — 
Charles  Hodgnian,  fourteen,  and  William  H. 
Thomson,  the  present  incumbent,  twenty- 
nine  years.  Mr.  Lackland  has  been  unin- 
terruptedly connected  with  the  bank  for  forty- 
five  years,  and  Mr.  Thomson  for  forty-two 

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In  the  year  1855  the  State  Savings  In- 
ttittition  was  establiihed  and  began  Irasinest 

in  the  building  on  the  southeast  comer  of 
Bfain  and  Vine  Streets,  which  had  been  the 
•eat  of  the  famoos  banking  boose  of  Page, 
Bacon  &  Co.  Although  possessing  the  name 
of  "Savings,"  it  was  from  the  beginning  an 
active  business  bank,  and  distinguished  not 
less  for  [)ritdoiu  management  than  for  its 
prompt  liberality  in  furthering  healthful  en- 
terprise. Its  first  three  successive  presidents ; 
R.  M.  Henning,  John  How,  and  John  J.  Roe, 
were  successful  merchants,  and  its  fourth  presi 
dent,  Charles  Parsons,  lias  a  national  reputa- 
tion as  an  autfwrity  on  finance  and  banidnj?. 
In  1859  its  name  was  changed  to  the  State 
Savings  Association ;  later  it  took  the  very  ap- 
propriate title  of  State  Bank,  and  is  now  the 
State  National  Rank. 

In  1857  an  institution  called  the  St.  Louis 
Building  &  Savings  Assodation,  with  an 
authorized  capital  of  $500^000  and  with  certain 
banking  privilege?,  was  organized,  with  Mar- 
shall Brotherton  as  president,  and  A.  P. 
Ladew  cashier.  It  w^s  admirably  managed 
and  prosper'ty  attended  it  from  t'le  beginning. 
In  1869  it  took  the  name  of  Bank  of  Com- 
merce, and  subsequently  became  a  nationa! 
bank.  Its  earnings  were  allowed  to  accumt:- 
late  until  1878,  when  they  amounted  to 
$775,000;  and  in  1898  its  capital  and  surplui 
amounted  to  $4,011,474,  and  its  depoaits  to 

In  1866  the  old  Bank  of  the  State  of  Mis* 
souri,  which,  notwithstanding  its  great  capital, 
had  not  kept  pace  with  the  spirit  of  the  age, 
and  was  being  outstripped  by  the  newer  insti« 
tntions  in  active  usefulness,  underwent  a 
change.  The  State  sold  its  stock  to  a  com- 
bination of  capitalists,  with  Capuin  James  B. 
Eads  at  the  head,  who  tfansfermed  it  into  a 
national  bank,  with  eight  branches  in  the 
State,  and  removed  it  from  its  old  quarters  on 
the  east  side  of  Main  Street,  between  WoA* 
ington  and  Lucas  Avenues,  to  the  noitiiweit 
corner  of  Third  and  Pine.  The  change  was 
not  followed  by  the  brighter  career  of  useful- 
ness that  had  been  confidently  expected.  In 
1876  it  had  suffered  such  an  impairment  of  iis 
resources  through  ill  advised  investments  that 
it  was  found  advisable  to  reduce  its  capital 
from  $3,410,300  to  $2,500,000,  and  •  few  years 
later  it  passed  out  of  existence. 

In  the  twenty  years  from  1837  to  1857  there 
were  bat  two  chartered  banks  in  the  dlty«  and 

only  one  of  them,  the  Bank  of  the  State  of  Mis- 
souri, with  the  authori^  to  emit  InUs.  But 

this  left  a  free  field  for  private  bankers,  and 
there  were  many  of  these,  located  chiefly  on 
Main  Street,  who  did  a  terge  and  profitable 
business,  carrying  the  bulk  of  the  deposits,  and 
supplying  to  business  men  the  accommoda- 
tions which  they  required  in  their  operations. 
The  most  conspicuous  and  powerful  of  these 
private  firms  was  Page,  Bacon  &  Co.,  the  lead- 
ing members  of  which  were  Daniel  D.  Page, 
an  ex-mayor  of  the  city,  and  his  son-in-law, 
Henry  D.  Bacon.  The  house  was  located  at 
the  southeast  corner  of  Main  and  Vine 
Streets,  and,  with  its  branch  in  San  Frandsco, 
did  a  large  and  profitable  business  for  many 
years;  but,  unfortunately,  it  undertook  the 
building  of  the  Ohio  &  Mississippi  Railroad, 
and  when  the  panic  of  1R55  came  its  resources 
were  tied  up  in  that  enterprise  and  unavailable, 
and  there  was  no  alternative  but  Idhtre.  Anr 
other  leading  firm  of  bankers  was  Lucas, 
Turner  &  Co.,  with  a  branch  in  San  Francisco, 
of  which  W.  T.  Sherman,  afterward  the  dis- 
tinguished general,  was  a  member ;  and  others 
were  L.  A.  Benoist  &  Co.,  John  J.  Anderson 
&  Co.,  Darby,  Barksdale  &  Co.,  Bog^,  Milten- 
berger  &  Co.,  B.  M.  Runyon  &  Co.,  Tesson  & 
Dangen,  Loker  &  Renick,  E.  W.  dark  &  Co., 
and  Allen,  Copp  &  Nesbit. 

In  January,  1855,  when  the  banking  house 
of  Page,  Bacon  &  Co.  suspended  under  a 
heavy  run  of  depositors,  there  was  precipitated 
a  run  on  all  the  other  banking  houses  of  tiie 
city,  threatening  ruin  to  them,  and,  akmg  with 
this,  utter  derangement  of  the  machinery  of 
business  of  the  city.  The  run  continued 
throughout  Saturday,  the  isth  of  Jaantfy* 
when,  fortunately.  Sunday  allowed  an  oppor- 
tunity for  counsel  and  preparation  for  Mon- 
day. It  was  said  that  over  $700,000  had  been 
paid  out  to  depositors,  and  it  was  of  the  ut- 
most iniportaiuc  that  a  repetition  of  Satur- 
day's proceedings  should  be  prevented  hy 
some  action  that  would  allay  the  excitement 
and  restore  popidar  confidence.  Accordingly, 
Monday  morning  a  card  was  published, 
signed  by  John  OTalton,  Edward  Walsb.  J. 
R.  Brant.  L.  A.  I^aBeaume.  L.  M.  Kennett, 
John  How,  James  Harrison,  Charles  P. 
Chouteau,  and  Andrew  Christy,  pledging 
Aetr  fortunes  as  guaranty  tint  all  deports 
would  be  made  good  in  the  houses  of  Lucas  & 
Simonds,  Bogy,  Miltenberger  &  Co.,  Tesson 
&  Dangen,  L.  A.  Benoist  ft  Co.,  J«4m  J.  Ander- 

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son  &  Co.,  Darby  I'-arksdale,  and  the  Boat- 
men's Saving  institutiun.  This  card  had  the 
denred  effect ;  the  run  of  Saturday  was  not  re« 
peated.  and  tlie  bankinp^  houses  were  saved. 
Two  and  a  hah  years  later,  in  August,  1857,  a 
general  panic  was  precipitated  on  the  whole 
country  by  tlu-  faihiro  of  the  Ohio  Life  & 
Truft  Company,  oi  Cincinnati,  this  failure 
marking  the  collapse  of  an  era  of  wild  and 
recklcs.<;  speculation,  stimulated  by  tlie  great 
yield  of  pold  in  California.  The  Cincinnati 
failure  was  followed  by  the  suspension  of  the 
banks  in  New  York  and  other  Eastern  cities. 
An  attempt  was  made  to  withstand  the  effect 
in  St.  Louis  by  the  publication  oi  a  card 
similar  to  that  of  1855,  signed  by  wealthy  and 
wc!!-knf)\vti  citizens,  guaranteeing  the  bank- 
ing houses  of  James  H.  Lucas  .&  Co.,  and 
Renick  &  Peterson ;  but  the  effect  of  this  was 
only  temporary — tlic  strinjjcncy  inorea.scd, 
and  the  houses  in  St.  ].^uis  were  forced  to 
suspend ;  and  even  the  old  Bank  of  the  State 
ceased  specie  payment. 

In  the  fall  of  i860  and  the  sprinfj  of  1861 
the  St.  Louis  Banks  shared  the  universal  tlc- 
pression  that  preceded  the  outburst  of  the 
("ivil  War.  and  were  forrcd  to  suspend  tlio  pay- 
ment of  specie,  this  .sii.spen.sion  lasting  until 
resumjidoa  by  the  government  in  1879.  This 
was  not,  however,  altogether  a  period  of  mis- 
fortune to  them.  After  the  close  of  the  war, 
in  1865,  and  indeed  1>efore.  when  the  relaxa* 
tion  of  rigorous  military  regulations  allowed 
St.  Louis  to  resume  it.s  legitimate  busifiess  re- 
lations, there  was  an  extension  of  its  commerce 
into  the  South  and  West,  attended  by  a  won- 
<!erful  prosperity,  in  which  the  banks  h:u\  tlieir 
full  share  ;  and  when,  in  1873,  the  iailurc  ot  the 
Phitaddphia  banking  house  of  Jay  Cooke  & 
Co  precipitated  another  general  monetary 
collapse  in  the  country,  it  found  this  city  better 
able  to  meet  these  disasters  than  ever  before. 
Our  bankers  revealed  surprising  strength,  and, 
by  resorting  to  the  temporary  expedient  of 
certificates  of  indebtedness,  l>ased  upon  ap- 
proved assets  and  guarantce<l  by  all  the  banks 
in  the  Clearing  House  .AsMxiation,  tlicy  kept 
the  weaker  ones  from  failing,  and  thereby 
averted  the  collapse  which  menaced  the  banks 
and  the  business  firms  with  a  .common  mis- 
fortune. Indeed,  the  experience  of  1873  and 
also  of  1893  so  signally  demonstrated  an  tin- 
expected  affluence  of  resources  in  the  St. 
Louis  banks,  their  prudent  management  and 
their  powers  of  resistance  when  acting  to- 

i:ctlier  in  a  common  danger,  that  it  has  come 
to  be  hoped  that  no  general  prostration  of 
banks  in  St.  Louis  will  ever  be  seen  again. 
The  simple  truth  is  that  in  the  last  third  of 
the  nineteenth  century  St.  Louis  has  in- 
creased marvelously  in  all  the  agencies  and 
accom])lishnients  of  wealth  and  p<iwer.  It 
is  a  great  and  prosperous  city  in  a  prosperous 
State,  and  it  is  the  exchange  and  distributing 
point  for  a  wide,  prosfHrrous  region  ;  and  the 
fact  that  in  I-'cbruary,  1898,  its  banks  and 
trust  companies  showed  aggregate  capital, 
surplus  and  deposits  of  $140,923,778  marks  it 
as  one  of  the  great  centers  where  capital  must 
continually  accumulate  through  a  vast  system 
of  productive  and  distributive  agencies  not 
excelled  by  any  city  in  the  country. 

In  1898  there  were  twenty -one  banks  in 
St  Louis,  whose  names,  tc^pether  witli  a  brief 
sketch  of  their  history  and  condition,  are  here 
given : 

The  Boatmen's  Bank  was  established  atid 

opened  for  business  October  18,  1847,  *s  the 
lioatmen's  Saving  Institution,  without  capital, 
the  profits  to  be  divided  among  the  depositors. 
The  first  officers  were  Adam  L.  Mills,  presi- 
(len; :  Robert  Simpson,  treasurer;  and  B.  R. 
Ciiamberlain,  secretary.  In  1856  it  took  its 
second  charter,  with  a  capital  of  $400/300.  In 
1873  it  took  the  name  of  Boatmen's  Saving 
Bank,  and  in  iSgo  it  took  its  present  name  of 
Boatmen's  Bank.  Tn  May.  i8g8.  its  state- 
ment slvowcd  capital.  $2,000,000;  surplus  and 
profits.  $905,377:  deposit,  $8,233,681;  presi- 
dent. Rtifas  J.  Lacktand ;  vice  president,  Ed- 
wards Whitaker;  cashier.  William  H,  Thom- 
son; assistant  cashier,  Jules  Desloge;  and 
second  assistant  cashier,  Ernest  M.  Hubbard. 

The  German  .Savings  Institution  was 
opened  in  May,  1853.  at  No.  35  Main  Street, 
with  $5,000  paid  in  on  a  subscribed  capital  of 
$60,000,  and  with  Robert  Barth  as  president, 
and  Isaac  Roscnfcld,  Jr..  as  treasurer.  In 
May,  1898,  its  statement  showed  capital, 
$250,000;  surplus  and  profits.  $509,955;  de- 
posits, $4,735.534 :  president,  F.  \V.  Mcister; 
vice  president.  Jolin  Wahl ;  cashier  Richard 
Hospes ;  assistant  cashier,  H.  Hunicke. 

The  State  Bank  of  St.  Louis  had  its  be- 
ginning in  the  State  Savings  Institution,  estab- 
lished in  1855,  with  a  capital  of  $650,000;  R. 
M.  Henning,  president ;  and  Isaac  Rosenfdd, 
Jr.,  cashier.  In  May,  1898.  its  statement 
showed  capital,  $650,000 ;  surplus  and  profits, 

$1,180373;  deposits,  $4,068,233;  president 

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Charles  Parsons,  wlio  has  occupied  that  po< 
sition  since  1870;  vice  president,  John  A. 

Scuddcr;  cashier,  John  H  McChmcy;  assist- 
ant cashier,  Logan  Toinpkias.  In  January, 
1899,  by  an  agreement  entered  into  by  over 
two-thirds  of  the  stockholders  of  the  State 
Bank  of  St.  Louis  and  the  Commercial  Bank 
of  St.  Louis,  the  two  were  consolidated  into 
the  State  National  Banlc  of  St.  Louis,  with  a 
capital  of  $2,000,000. 

The  National  Bank  of  Commerce  had  its 
origin  in  the  St  Louts  Building^  &  Savings 
Association,  organized  and  opened  in  1857, 
with  an  authorized  capital  of  $500,000,  and 
witii  Marshall  Bnotherton  as  president ;  R.  M. 
Funkhouscr,  vice  |irosidcnt;  and  A.  P.  Ladew, 
cashier.  In  1S69  it  became  a  national  bank,^ 
with  its  present  name.  In  May,  1898.  its* 
statement  showed  capital,  $3,000,000;  surplus 
and  profits  $1,011,474;  deposits,  $16,552,774; 
circulation,  $<>39.9[7;  president.  William  H. 
Thll>nii)s<>n  ;  first  vice  president,  Nathan  Cole; 
Second  vice  president,  S.  M.  Oodd;  cashier, 
J.  C.  Van  Blarcom;  assistant  casliier,  B.  F. 
.Edwards;  second  assistant  cashier,  C.  L^ 

The  Third  National  Bank  of  St.  Louis  was 
originally  the  Sotfthem  Bank  of  St  Louis, 

estnblislied  in  1857,  with  a  capital  of  $1,000,- 
000,  and  with  James  S.  Watson  as  president, 
and  James  H.  Britton  as  cashier.  In  1864  it 
became  a  national  bank  under  its  present 
name,  and  Thomas  A.  Stoddart  ^vas  made 
cashier,  retaining  that  position  until  1897, 
when  he  was  chosen  manager  of  the  St  Lotlis 
Clearing  TTousc.  In  May,  1898,  its  statement 
showed  a  capital  of  $1,000,000;  surplus  and 
profits,  $183,783;  deposits,  $7.0733S<S*> 
bltion.  $313.350 ;  president,  Charles  H.  Httt- 
tig;  vice  president,  W.  B.  Wells ;  cashier,  G. 
W.  Galbreath;  assistant  cashier,  John  R. 

The  St.  Louis  National  Bank  Was  originally 
the  Bank  of  St  Louis,  organized  in  1857,  with 
a  capital  stock  of  $500,000,  and  with  Jdhn  J. 
Anderson  as  president.  In  1865  it  became  a 
national  bank  under  its  present  name.  In 
May,  1898,  its  statement  showed  capital, 
$r,ooo,ooo;  surplu.s  and  profits,  $169,213;  de- 
posits, $5,247,892  ;  president,  John  Nickerson; 
first  vice  president,  Lewis  C.  Nelson ;  second 
vice  president,  Charles  G.  Warner;  cashier, 
F.ugcnc  Karst.  Tlie  latter  officer  had  been  as- 
sociated with  this  bank  for  twenty-four  years. 
In  December,  1898,  parties  interesi^ed  in  tlie 

National  Bank  of  Commerce  purchased  a  ma- 
jority of  stock  of  the  St  Louis  National,  and 

it  was  mcrgeil  in  the  former  bank. 

The  Medianics'  Bank  was  organized  in 
1857,  with  Joseph  Charless  as  president,  and 
J.  \V.  Wflls  as  cashier.  In  May,  1898,  its 
statement  showed  capital,  $600,000;  surplus 
and  profits,  $732,835 ;  deposits,  $3,960,547 ;  R. 
R.  Hutchinson,  prerident;  C  O.  Austin, 

The  Fourth  National  Bank  was  established 
in  1864,  with  a  capital  of  $160,000;  president, 

Joseph  J.  Mersman ;  cashier,  Fred.  W.  Bie- 
binger.  In  May,  1898,  its  statement  showed 
capital,  $1,000,000;  surplus  and  profits,  $722,- 
249 ;  deposits,  $5,027,867  :  circulation,  $44,340  ; 
president,  Fred  W.  Biebinger;  vice  president, 
H.  L.  Comet;  cashier,  G.  A.  W.  Augst 

The  Atncrican  F.xchange  Bank  was  or- 
ganized as  the  Union  Saving?;  Association,  in 
1864,  with  T.  S.  Rutherford  as  president,  and 
Tiiotnas  E.  Souper  as  cashier.  In  January, 
1888,  its  name  was  changed  to  tlic  American 
Exchange  Bank.  In  May,  1898,  its  state- 
ment showed  capitil,  $500^000;  smptus  and 
profits,  $357,268;  president.  Walker  Hill; 
vice  president,  Ephron  CatJin;  cashier,  L.  A. 

The  International  Bank  was  organized  No- 
vember 12, 1865,  and  reorganized  in  1885,  with 
a  cash  capital  of  $100,000,  and  with  William 
C.  Lange  as  president.  In  May,  1898,  its 
statement  sho\ve<l  a  capital  and  surplus  of 
$248,956;  deposits.  $<wo.304;  August  W. 
Straub,  president ;  and  A.  Berthel,  cashier. 

The  Comniereial  Rank  was  opened  in 
March.  1866.  with  a  capital  of  $100,000;  £.  M. 
Samuel,  president ;  John  M.  Piatt,  vice  pres- 
ident ;  J.  W.  DonaUlson.  cashier  In  May, 
1898,  its  statemem  showed  capital,  $500,000; 
surplus  and  profits,  $592,820:  deposits, 
$4,311,506;  William  Nichols,  i)n  ident;  D.  S. 
H.  Smith,  vice  president;  .\.  1'.  Ccombe, 
cashier.  In  January,  1889,  it  was  consoli- 
dated with  the  State  Bank  cf  St.  Louis,  in  the 
State  National  Bank  of  St.  Louis. 

The  Continental  National  Bank  was  or- 
ganbed  in  March,  1866,  with  a  capital  of  $1 50,- 
000,  and  with  T.  B.  Edgar  as  president,  and 
W.  H.  Maurice  as  cashier.  In  May,  1898,  its 
statement  showed  capital,  $1,000,000;  surplus 
and  profits,  $3i6,74iB;  deposits,  $8,102,363; 
circulation.  $234,000;  president,  George  A, 
Baker;  vice  president,  Joseph  M.  Hayes; 
second  vice  president,  Geoii^  W.  Parker; 

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cashier,  F.  E.  Marshall;  assistant  cashier,  J. 

A.  Lewis. 

The  Franklin  Bank  was  incorporadcU  in 
1867  as  the  Franklin  Avenue  Gennnn  Sav* 

ings  Institution,  with  a  capital  of  $60,000;  II. 
Meier,  president;  A.  Wippcrn,  vice  president; 
G.  W.  Garrels,  cashier.  In  May,  1898,  its 
statement  sliowcd  capital.  !?6<:)o,0(X) ;  .sur])his 
and  profits,  $167,943 ;  deposits,  $3,352,170;  H. 
Meier,  president ;  G.  W.  Garrels,  cashier. 

The  Bremen  Savings  Bank  was  opened 
October  i,  1868.  with  an  authorized  capital  of 
$100,000,  $30,000  paid  up.  and  with  Marshall 
Brotherton  as  president,  Horace  Fox  as  vice 
president,  and  C.  D.  Aftlcck  as  cashier.  On 
July  14,  1898,  its  statement  slvowed  capital, 
$100,000;  surplus  and  profits,  %fgofiO0;  de- 
posits. $i,i.}2,.n5:  president,  F.  W.  Pftuige; 
cashier,  J.  G.  Gerichten. 

The  German-American  Bank  was  organ- 
ized and  oi>encd  November  3,  1872,  with  a 
capital  of  $150,000,  and  with  John  J.  Menges 
as  president:  Martin  Lammert,  vice  president ; 

E.  A.  Mysenhurf,'.  ca.shier.  In  May,  1898,  its 
statement  showed  capital,  $150,000;  surplus 
and  profits,  $899,953;  deposits,  $2,652,789; 
president,  August  Gdiner;  cashier,  C.  E. 
Kirch  er. 

The  Northwestern  Savings  Bank  was 
Opened  May  1 5, 1873,       >  capital  of  $50,000; 

C.  G.  Stifel.  president:  T.  IT.  Evers,  vice 
president;  P.  Obermier,  cashier.  In  May, 
189S,  its  statement  showed  capital.  $200,000; 

surplus  and  profits.  $02,409;  deposits,  $1,582.- 
654;  president,  Arnold  Beck;  cashier,  R.  A. 

The  Lafayette  Bank  was  orpanized  in  1876. 
with  a  capital  of  $100,000;  F.  Arendcs.  presi- 
dent; Henry  Ziegenhdn,  vice  president;  F. 
Leser,  cashier  In  Itfoy,  1898.  its  statement 
showed  capital,  $100,000;  surphts  and  profits. 
$385,759;  deposits,  $2,534,726;  F.  Areiides, 
president ;  P.  J.  Doerr,  cashier. 

The  South  Side  Bank  was  established  in 
1891.  In  May,  1898,  its  statement  showed 
capital,  $200,000 ;  surplus  and  profits,  $51483 ; 
deposits,  $571,882;  president,  Henry  Kbehkr, 
Jr.;  casltier,  Guidij  D'Ocncli. 

The  Southern  Commercial  and  Savings 
Bank  was  opened  June  12, 1891,  with  a  capital 
of  $100,000,  and  with  John  Krausse  as  presi- 
dent ;  L.  P.  Andrews,  vice  president ;  and  W. 

F.  Street,  cashier.  In  May,  1898,  its  state- 
ment show  ed  capital,  $100,000;  surplus  and 
profits,  $4,235;  deposits,  $174,320;  president. 

Frank  W.  Feueri»cher;  cashier,  W.  A,  Kam^ 


The  Jetlerson  Bank  opened  in  August,  1892, 
with  a  paid-up  capital  of  $100,000;  president, 

James  M.  Carpenter;  vice  president,  J.  F. 
Conrad;  cashier,  Uussell  E.  Gardner.  In 
May,  1898,  its  statement  showed  capital  $ioo,- 
fjoo;  surplus  and  profits  $30,493;  deposits, 
$343,^95 :  president,  H.  Wood;  vice  president, 
J.  F.  Conrad ;  casliier,  W.  F.  BerRcr. 

The  Mercliants**Laclcde  Nattonal  Bank  was 
formed  by  the  union  of  the  Merchants'  and 
the  Laclede  I'anks.  The  Mercliants'  was  es- 
tablished in  1857,  with  a  capital  of  $700,000; 
J.  A.  BroAvnlee,  president;  R.  F.  Barry, 
cashier.  In  1865  it  became  a  national  bank, 
with  William  L.  Ewin^r  as  president,  and 
James  E.  Yeatman,  cashier.  Tlic  Lac!e<!e 
Bank  grew  out  of  the  banking  house  of 
Bartholow,  Lewis  &  Co.,  which  in  1873  w«n 
incorporated  as  the  Laclede  Bank,  with 
Thomas  J.  Bartholow  as  president,  and  F.  J. 
Iprlehart,  cashier.  In  1895  these  two  banks 
went  into  voluntary  liquidation,  and  the  Mer- 
chants'-Laclede  National  Bank  was  orpranized 
by  the  stockholders  of  these  two  banks  and 
omtlnued  their  business,  with  a  capital  of 
$1,400,000  and  deposits  of  $6.168473 i  Its 
present  officers  are  W.  H.  Lee,  president; 
David  R.  Francis,  vice  president ;  A.  L.  Shap- 
leigh,  second  vice  president ;  George  E.  Hoff- 
man, cashier;  R.  T.  Sturgeon,  assistant 
cashier;  and  D.  A.  Phillips,  second  assistant 
cashier.  Its  public  statement  in  May,  1898, 
showed  capital  and  surplus,  $1460,000;  de- 
posits, $8,989,320. 

In  the  year  1882  the  capital  and  surplus  of 
the  twenty-four  banks  then  in  St.  Louis 
amounted  to  $13,492,964,  and  the  deposits  to 
$41,729,011.  In  1890  the  figures  were: 
Capital  and  surplus,  $21,637,401 ;  deposits, 
$60,795,305.  In  1898  the  figures  were: 
Capital  and  surpltis,  $23,398,482;  deposits, 
$92,683,370 — the  increase  in  capitsd  and  sur- 
plus in  this  period  of  si.xtecn  years  having  been 
39.905.518,  or  76  per  cent,  and  in  the  deposits, 
$50,963.35<),  or  more  than  double. 

The  State  National  Hank  of  St.  Louis,  the 
new  bank  constituted  in  January,  1899,  by  the 
consolidation  of  the  State  Bank  of  St.  Louis 
and  the  Commercial  Bank  of  St,  Louis,  was 
formally  announced  and  opened  January  30, 
1899,  at  the  banking  house  before  that  oc- 
cupied by  the  State  Bank  of  St.  Louis,  Se^ 
ctu-ity  Building,  OMiier  of  Fourth  and  Locust. 

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Its  capital  was  $2,ooo,cxx),  and  surplus  $400,- 
000,  and  its  first  officers  were:  President, 
Giarles  Parsons;  first  vice  president,  Wm. 
Nichols;  second  vice  presi<lcnt,  John  H.  Mc- 
Cluney  ;  cashier,  Lopan  Tompkins  ;  assistant 
cashier,  A.  P.  Cuombe;  seooml  assistant 
cashier,  Chas.  S.  Cone. 

The  official  statement  of  the  twenty-nne 
banks  in  St.  Louis  on  the  5th  of  May,  1898, 
allowed  the  following  aggregates:  Loans  and 
discounts,  S71 ,834.51/) ;  bonds,  stocks  and 
premiums.  $9402,500;  real  estate  and  fixtures, 
$2,356,242;  cash  and  exchange,  $34*  105,680; 
total  resources,  $117,699,020.  Capital,  $14.- 
650,000;  surplus  and  profits,  $8,748,482;  cir- 
culation, 1,617,167:  (Icposits,  $c»2,683.37o ; 
total  liabilities,  $1 1 7,6(^9.020. 

The  statement  of  the  four  trust  companies 
for  December,  1897,  showed  in  die  aggregate : 
Loans,  $15,354,^^;  bonds  and  stocks.  $8,- 
455,046;  reti!  estate  anil  fixtures,  $718,715 ; 
cash  due  from  banks,  $3,946,119;  total  re- 
sonrces,  $33,374,766.  Gtpitall,  $6,600,000; 
suri)hi>.  ?i. 720.017;  (lejiosits,  $14,054,749; 
total  liabilities,  $22,374,766. 

In  1873  the  clearings  amounted  to  $551.- 
951,451 ;  in  1880,  to  $711,459,489;  in  1890.  to 
$1,118,573,210:  and  in  1897.  to  $1,366,703,956. 

The  trust  companies  were  not  received  with 
favor  by  the  banks  when  they  first  appeared, 
because  they  were  r.eKT^nle<l  as  cncroachini; 
Upon  a  domain  belonging  exclusively  to  them 
and  seekinfT  to  share  the  privileges  of  banks 
without  being  suhjcrt  to  their  restrictions  and 
obligations.  They  receive  deposits  and  invite 
them  by  payini?  interest  thereon ;  and  they  loan 
nionev  and,  in  some  cases,  l)uy  and  sell  bills  of 
exchange — these  dealings  belonging  to  the 
regular  functions  of  banks;  and  it  was  held 
that  they  ought  to  make  statement^  of  tlicir 
condition  an<d  be  subject  to  the  same  discipline 
as  the  regular  banks.  But,  although  tlic  op- 
position to  the  trust  companies  has  not  en- 
tirely disappeared,  it  is  f^rcntly  mo<lified  by 
an  increasing  community  of  interest  and 
ownership  b^ween  the  two  classes  of  institu- 
tions, and  by  the  recognized  fact  that,  while 
the  trust  companies  do  perform  certain  bank 
functions,  they  also  perform  certain  services 
for  the  public  which  the  banks  do  riot  and 
can  not  perform.  'Hiey  administer  trusts  for 
estates,  protect  the  interests  of  minors  and  in- 
'capable  persons,  and  act  as  receivers  in  liti* 
gation  and  as  trustees  in  mortgages.  For 
these  reasons  they  have  secured  a  large 

measure  of  public  confidence  and  support, 
ami  may  now  be  regarded  as  liniily  established 
in  St.  Louis.  Tlie  business  done  by  them  is 
large  and  profitable,  and  the  statement  of  their 
condition  in  Dei  etnlKT.  i8<)7,  shows  that  they 
enjoy  tlie  i)ublic  favor  in  no  small  degree. 
(See  also    I  rust  Companies.") 

The  .^Nt.  Louis  Trust  Comi>any  was  orf^an- 
ized  October  18,  1889,  with  Tliomas  H.  West 
as  president ;  Jdhn  T.  Davis,  first  vice  presi- 
dent; John  A.  Scudder,  second  vice  presi<lcnt ; 
and  A.  C.  Stewart  as  secretary  and  counseL 
On  the  1st  of  July,  1898,  it  had  a  fully  paid- 
up  capital  of  $2,500,000,  surplus  $500,000.  and 
undivided  profits  of  $50,136;  its  officers  at  that 
date  being  Thomas  H.  West,  president;  Henry 
C.  ilaarstick,  first  vice  president;  John  A. 
Scudiler.  second  vice  president ;  John  D. 
l-'illey,  secretary ;  Allen  T.  West,  assistant  sec- 
retary ;  A.  C.  Stewart,  counsel ;  and  Isaac  H. 
Orr,  trust  officer. 

Tlie  Union  Trust  Company  of  St.  Louis 
was  incorporated  June  t6,  1890,  with  an  au- 
thorized capital  of  $500,000,  onc-lialf  paid  up. 
Its  first  officers  were  George  W.  Parker, 
president;  Girlos  S.  Greeley,  first  vice  presi- 
dent; ]•".  W,  Riebinger,  second  vice  president; 
Julius  S.  WaMi,  third  vice  president;  Coc- 
nelius  Tompkins,  secretary.  Its  officers  in 
1898  were  George  A.  Madill,  president; 
^\'iI1iam  Taussi][r,  vice  president ;  Robert  S. 
l!nx)kings,  second  vice  president;  Benjamin 
B.  Graham,  diird  vice  president;  Irwin  Z. 
Smith,  secretary;  \.  ,'\.  McMillan,  treasurer. 
Its  public  statement,  October  i,  1898,  showed 
capital,  $t  ,000,000;  surplus.  $400,000;  de- 
]»osits.  $3,747,201 

The  Mississippi  Willcy  Trust  Company  was 
organized  October  3. 1890,  with  an  anthorixed 
capital  of  $3,000,000;  president,  Julius  S. 
Walsh:  first  vice  president.  John  D.  Perry; 
.second  vice  president,  John  Scullin  ;  secretary, 
Breckinridge  Jones.  In  1898  the  officers 
were  Julius  S.  Walsh,  president;  Breckinridg'e 
Jones,  first  vice  president;  Samuel  £.  Hoff- 
man, second  vice  president;  DeLacy  Giand- 
ler,  secretary :  James  E.  P.rock,  assistant  sec- 
retary; Predcrick  Vicrling,  trust  officer;  and 
Nathaniel  W.  Ewing,  superintenderit  of  safe 
deposit  vaults.  Its  public  statement,  Jtme  30, 
1898,  showed  capital,  $2,600,000;  surplus, 
$500,000;  undivi<lcd  profits,  $305,097;  de- 
posits, $6,469,183. 

The  Lincoln  Trust  Company  of  St.  LouiA 
was  organized  .-Vpril  15,  1894,  with  a  capital 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 



of  $500.000 ;  J.  B.  Case,  president ;  Georp:c  F. 
Durent,  vice  president;  A.  A.  B.  Wocrlicide, 
secretary  and  treasurer;  and  W.  E.  Fisse, 
ruun^cl.  Its  pnblislied  statement.  Tune  30, 
1898,  showed  capital.  $500,000;  surplus  and 
andivided  profits,  $65,282;  and  deposits, 
$730fitO.  WiLUAM  H.  THomoN. 

Baptist  DepoHitory. —  An  institution 

founded  in  Si.  Louis  by  tlic  Anterican  Baptist 
I'ublication  Society,  which  came  into  exist- 
ence February  21,  1824,  at  VVashfngton,  D.  C. 
This  publication  society  established  branch 
houses  in  N  ew  York  and  St.  Louis  in  1868,  for 
the  purpose  of  promoting  rcUgious  work  by 
means  of  the  Bible. the  printing  press.colpor- 
tapc  and  Sumlay  school.  Ten  central  deposi- 
tories and  thirty-eipirt  auxiliary  societies  were 
located  and  established  at  different  points  in 
tiie  United  States.  A  vast  quantity  of  reli- 
gious literature  has  been  distributed  through- 
out ttic  W  est  and  Southwest  through  the  St. 
Louis  depository.  It  was  located,  in  i8g6,  at 
316  N'.  F.if,'hth  Street,  and  was  under  Che  man* 
agement  of  .M.  P.  Moody. 

BnptiHt  Female  College. — This  insti- 
tution was  founded  in  1853  at  Lexington,  and 
was  ihen  known  as  the  Lodngton  Female 
Seminary.  At  the  time  of  its  founding  it  was 

an  undenominational  scliool.  Two  years  later 
it  was  incorporated  under  tiie  present  name 
and  has  ever  since  been  under  the  control  of 
the  luiptist  Church.  Dr.  K.  S.  Dulin,  who  was 
the  acting  president  of  the  W  illiam  Jewell  Col- 
lege, at  Liberty,  Missouri,  had  charge  of  the 
schodi  up  to  the  Ijepnninf;  of  the  war.  Dur- 
ing the  period  of  his  management  the  kxration 
of  the  town  of  Lexin^on  was  shifted  from  its 
early  position  to  tlie  presei»t  commanding  site. 
The  I5a|)tist  i'nnale  ("ollepc  then  occupietl  the 
courthouse  buildinjif  in  the  old  portion  01  the 
town.  During  the  civil  strife  the  building  was 
occii]Mcd  by  the  I'edcra!  tn^ips.  who  afttTwartI 
destroyed  it.  The  government  subsequently 
allowed  the  college  management  several  thou- 
sand dollars  for  rental  and,  .md  in 
1867  the  school  was  reopened  at  its  present  lo- 
cation. PkVMdcnt  DuUn  was  succeeded  by 
Rev.  Sdph,  who,  in  1872,  was  succeeded  by 
Professor  A,  F.  Fleet,  later  chairman  of  the 
faculty  of  the  Missouri  State  I'niversity,  and 
now  in  charge  of  the  Culver  Military  Institute 
at  Culver.  Indiana.  Professor  J.  F.  Lanneau 
was  the  next  president  of  the  college,  serving 

eight  years.  In  1887  Rev.  Flournny  Menefeo, 
ilow  president  of  the  Washington  Ladies'  Col- 
lege at  Washington,  D.  C,  became  the  active 
head  of  tlic  institution  anil  served  until  i8<x>, 
when  he  was  succeeded  by  Professor  R.  L. 
Binford,  who  held  the  position  one  year.  He 
gave  way  to  Rev.  W.  A.Wilson.  D.  D.,  who  is 
now  president  of  the  Baylor  Female  College 
at  Belton,  Texas.  In  1896  Professor  W.  H. 
Buck  became  |>rcsident  of  the  college  and 
served  tnitil  i8(>8.  when  Professor  James  .\. 
Beauchamp,  who  had  served  as  vice  president 
for  six  years,  was  elected  to  the  presidency. 
His  term  expired  iu  Time,  ir>(TO.  .Mthough  it 
is  classed  as  a  sectarian  institution,  the  Baptist 
Female  College  is  not  circumscribed  by  creed 
or  precept  and  is  supported  by  people  of  many 
denominations.  It  is  a  schood  of  high  stand- 
ing and  dignified  reputation.  Professor  Ru- 
dolph Richter  is  vice  president  and  nmsicat 
director,  and  has  done  much  to  make  the 
school  the  popular  institution  it  now  is.  The 
school  is  now  conducted  under  the  direction 
of  Messrs.  Cook  and  White,  of  Clinton,  Ken- 

BaptiMt  Orpliaiis'  Home. — This  or- 
piianage,  located  in  St.  Louis,  was  incorpo- 
rated June  10.  1884.  Tyro  years  later  It 
opened  its  doors  in  a  small  rented  house  on 

Morgan  Street,  for  the  ]«irpose  of  caring  for 
babies  exclusively,  this  Ijeing  at  that  time  the 
only  Protestant  iiome  in  the  city  taking  in- 
fant.s.  One  year  later  the  present  property  at 
1906  Lafayette  Avenue  was  purchased.  The 
building  has  been  remodeled  and  enlai^d.and 
has  accormuiidation  fur  sevciity-rivc  children. 
The  age  has  been  extended  to  seven  years  for 
•boys  and  twelve  years  for  girls.  Orphans, 
half-oqdians  and  d>andoned  children  of 
Protestant  parentage  are  received.  (  hildren 
given  to  the  home  are  placed  by  it  tlirougu 
legal  adoption  in  Christian  families.  No 
children  are  put  out  to  domestic  service.  For 
those  who  are  temporarily  placed  in  the  home 
such  small  compensation  is  received  as  the 
|)arent  or  friend  is  able  to  pay,  and  in  cases 
of  extreme  poverty  they  are  supported  by  the 
home.  There  are  at  present  (1899)  sixty  in- 
mates, thirty-five  of  whoni  attend  the  sehool 
in  the  bttilding,  which  is  under  the  charge  of 
an  able,  salaried  teacher.  .A  separate  infirmary 
will  .soon  be  erected  on  the  grounds.  The 
home  is  tni<Ier  the  control  of  a  board  of  man- 
agers, consisting  of  thirty-eight -ladies  reprc- 

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senting^  the  different  Baptist  Churclu'ij  of  the 
city.  The  officers,  who  arc  elected  by  the 
board,  were,  in  1898,  as  follows:  President, 
Mrs.  A.  II.  Eilers;  vice  presidents,  Mrs.  Ma- 
rion Pcckham,  Mrs.  D.  R.  Bates,  Mrs.  C.  A. 
Carpenter,  Mrs.  S.  V.  Monks,  Mrs.  A.  M. 
Averill,  Mrs.  H.  E.  Roach ;  recording  secre- 
tary, Mrs.  C.  M.  Shirley;  corresponding  sec- 
retary, Mrs.  W.  B.  HarriBOtt ;  treasurer,  Mrs. 
J.  B.  Thompson.  Children  are  received  from 
any  part  of  the  State,  and  the  State  Baptist 
Associ&tion  has  made  some  contribution  to 
the  support  Ol  the  home.  The  property  is 
w<»rth  $30,000,  and  is  entirely  free  from  debt. 
The  present  endowment  is  $9,000,  and  a  com- 
mittee of  five  gentlemen  appointed  by  the 
board  will  undertake  during  the  coming  year 
to  raise  this  endowment  to  $20,000.  The 
nttmber  of  mfants  necessitates  an  unusual 
amount  of  help,  and  the  estimated  cost  of  car- 
ing for  a  child  is  $85.  A  memorial  endow- 
ment fund  was  started  by  a  Ihtle  ^rl  giving, 
on  her  death-bed.  $2.50  -311  she  had— to  the 
home.  .'\  memorial  bed,  with  its  furnisliin<^s, 
is  placed  at  tlie  instance  <A  any  contributor  of 
$15  for  this  purpose.  Five  dollars  annually 
will  !<ee[)  the  bed  ui>,  or  $100  will  endow  it 
permanently.  The  home  in  its  incipiency 
owed  much  to  the  zed  of  the  late  Mrs.  Wil- 
liam M.  Page  and  Mrs.  Joseph  B.  Tliompson, 
through  whose  efforts  the  first  meeting  was 
held.  Dr.  W.  W.  Boyd  lent  his  energies  to 
its  active  establishment ;  Mrs.  D.  B.  Gale  con- 
trihiitcf!  S^i.fKX),  and  Mrs.  Harriet  I'ratt  Char- 
piot  bcqueatlicd  $5,000,  and  many  others  have 
ably  seconded  the  earnest  labors  of  the  board 
of  nianagcrs.  During  the  tliirfeen  years  of  its 
history  the  home  has  cared  for  1,321  children, 
and  122  have  been  adopted  into  good  homes. 

BaptiHts. — ^There  are  in  Missouri  about 
136.000  white  Baptists,  and  about  x>,ooo  col- 
ored Baptists.  The  wliite  membenthipisdistrib- 

uted  among  1,700  churches.  There  are  seventy- 
five  local  or  district  Baptist  Associations,  of 
which  these  churches  are  the  constituents.  Of 
ordained  Baptist  ministers  there  are  alxnit  i,- 
000.  In  connection  with  Baptist  Churches  there 
are  1,031  Sabbath  schools;  enrolled  in  these 
schools  are 60. 1 34  scholars ;  these  are  officered 
and  taught  by  6,577  workers ;  the  average  at- 
tendance of  Sunday  school  scholars  is  43,324. 
These  schools  contributed,  iti  $22,357.68 
to  the  work  of  the  schools  and  to  other  mis- 
sionary and  benevolent  objects.  Sixty-four  of 

the  seventy-five  associations  rejjort  working 
Sabbath  schools  in  the  churches  composing 

liaptists  in  Missouri,  like  Baptists  tlie  world 
over,  since  the  times  of  the  apostles,  are  or- 
ganized into  separate  and  independent  «mgre- 
gatians,8Cripturally  designated  churches.  Tliere 
is,  therefore,  no  such  thing  as  Uie  Baptist 
Church,  ^ch  congregation  is  a  separate 
and  independent  democracy.  There  is  no  or- 
ganic or  constitutional  bond  of  union  between 
these  separate  organizations.  The  only  bond 
that  binds  them  in  fellowship  is  agreement  in 
faitli  and  itrartice.  Each  church  has  its  own 
declaration  of  faith,  but  in  these  different  dec- 
larations there  is  almost  exact  concordance— 
they  are  si;lisrantially  tlic  same.  But  notwith- 
standing these  declarations,  Uie  Bible  is  taken 
and  accepted  as  the  only  authority  in  deter- 
mining questions  of  doctrine  and  manner  of 
life.  This  order  of  ecclesiasticism — ^while 
jure  Divino  (as  claimed  by  Baptists) — presents 
a  remarkable  feature  of  general  churcli  liis- 
tory.  For  millions  of  people  to  be  held  in  the 
closest  bonds  of  fellowship  and  co-operation 
for  many  centuries  wkbout  a  conventional 
basis  of  union  is  at  once  unique  and  sugges- 
tive. For  many  thousands  of  cliurches,  hav- 
ing contemporaneous  existence  over  conti- 
nents \vith  organic  union,  to  call  and  feel 
themselves  one  people,  is  unlike  any  other  in- 
stittrtronal  history.  No  one  Baptist  Church 
sustains  any  ecclesiastical  relation  to  any  other 
Baptist  Church.  Nevortheles';,  as  a  ride,  there 
is  co-c^eration  in  general  evangelical  and 
other  benevolent  enterprises. 

Baptists  were  the  Protestant,  or  rather,  non- 
Roman  Cadiolic  Christian  pioneers  of  Mis- 
souri. Before  the  purchase  of  the  Louisiana 
country  by  Thomas  Jefferson  from  Napoleon, 
Baptists  came  into  tlie  region  from  Kentucky, 
Tennessee  and  the  Carolinas.  The  first  of 
these  adventurous  immigrants  stopped  in  the 
southeastern  portion  of  the  territory,  in  what 
is  now  Cape  Girardeau  County.  Here  the  first 
non-Roman  Catholic  church  was  ortifanized. 
This  was  a  congregation  of  the  Ba|Vistv,  and 
the  organization  was  called  the  "Tywappity 
Baptist  Church'* — this  word,  Tywappity.  is  an 
Indian  word,  and  its  meaning  is  not  known  at 
this  late  day.  This  pioneer  church  had  but  a 
brief  existence.  It  was  succeeded  by  an  or- 
ganisation effected  in  1806,  in  4  neighlKMr- 
liood  in  Cape  Girardeau  County,  a  few  miles 
from  where  the  town  of  Jackson  is  now  lo- 

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cated,  as  the  countv  seat  of  the  county  najned. 
This  organizatton  was  named  "iiethel  Baptist 
Ghttith."  A  lioase  of  worship  was  «recled» 
made  of  the  timber  of  the  forest  in  which  it 
was  located.  Large  poplar  logs,  hewn  so  as  to 
present  two  flat  surface,  were  prepared  by  the 
Stttrdy  pioneers;  tlten  followed  a  "house-iais- 
ing" — a  term  familiar  to  old-time  settlers. 
This  unpretentious  "house  of  <hc  Lord"  was 
gladly  used  by  the  obscure,  humble  but  de- 
voted worshipers  for  sevetal  years,  whcai  the 
church  became  extinct;  but  die  membership 
became  the  constitttent  dement  for  oilier  Bap- 
iSet  Churches  in  contiguous  neighlxirhoods. 

The  next  church  organization  was  eHoctcd 
fai  1807.  This  was  about  twdve  miles  from  St. 
Louis, on  the  St.  Diaries  Road.  Tliis  orgEtniza- 
tion  was  named  "Fee  Fee's  Creek  Baptist 
Church,"  taking  the  name  of  4he  stream  by  Che 
waters  of  which  the  new  church  was  to  make 
its  home.  Tliis  honored  cluirch  survives  until 
the  present — 1899 — a  prosperous  and  intlueii- 
ttal  congregation.  It  has  had  several  promi- 
nent pastors,  among  whom  were  Joshua  Hick- 
man, and  John  Hill  Lutlier,  the  founder  and 
long  while  editor  of  "The  Central  Baptist." 
the  organ  of  the  denomination  in  the  State. 

The  pioneer  Baptist  preachers  in  Missouri 
were  John  Clark,  Thomas  Johnson,  James 
Kerr  and  Thomas  R.  Muskk.  These  men,  in 
their  voluntary  missionary  toils,  were  con- 
fronted by  difhcuities  greater  than  the  liard- 
shipc  of  pioneer  life  and  the  ilangers  of  savage 
enemies.  Roman  Cari>oHcism,  under  alter- 
nating French  and  Spanish  government,  was 
Ae  established  reKgion.  Ovil  Istw  had  in- 
vested the  church  with  authority  over  the 
forms  of  worship,  and  as  far  as  possible  over 
the  consciences  of  the  people  of  the  territory. 
"Heretks"  (?)  were  forbidden  under  severe 
penalties  frooti  preachincr  and  teaching  tlieir 
distinctive  doctrines  and  from  observing  their 
own  forms  of  worship.  The  priesChood  was 
jealous  of  its  authority,  and  not  slow  to  inter- 
pose obstacles  to  heretical  ( ?)  preaching  and 
worship.  Besides  these  hindrances,  Frendi  in- 
fidelit>'  was  rampant  in  the  village  of  St.<Louis. 
Opposition  to  Christianity  was  carried  to  the 
extent  of  declaring  that  the  Sabbath  should 
never  cross  the  Mis5is.sii)pi  River  westward; 
imder  thdtee  conditions  Baptists  could  not  as- 
semble themselves  for  worship  cxcq>t  clandes- 
tinely, and  this  only  occasionally  and  at  night 
in  the  log  ral)iti  homes  of  fh(>  setllers. 

Notwithstanding  these  painful  interferences 

with  conscience  and  sou!  librrfv,  Protestants 
continued  to  emigrate  to  the  far-off  Missouri 
country.  Among  these  advedntoreni  was  a  lib- 
eral proportion  of  Baptists.  New  churches 
were  formed;  associations  of  churches  were 
constituted.  These  associations  were  for  vol- 
untary  co-operation  in  the  spread  of  divine 
truth  and  the  evangelization  of  the  people. 
Such  associations  have  never  had,  nor  do  they 
now  have,  any  aifthority  of  any  kind  OveF  the 
churches  or  the  ministry.  They  are  composed 
of  such  churches  as  voluntarily  enter  into  the 

It  is  worthy  of  note  in  this  connection  that, 
in  the  times  of  these  early  missionary  opera- 
tions, and  in  the  yeau- 1817,  the  Baptist  Graeral 
Convention — known  as  the  "Triennial  Con- 
vention"— an  organization  of  American  Bap- 
tists for  foreign  misskxiary  work,  but  extinct 
since  1845,  and  tlie  work  of  which  has  since 
been  done  by  the  .American  Baptist  Mission- 
ary Union,  sent  two  able  missionaries  into  the 
Missouri  country.  Tliesc  were  the  Revs.  John 
M.  Peck  ami  James  E.  Welch.  These  were  re- 
markable men.  They  were  not  only  well 
equipped  for  the  work  of  the  ministry,  bat 
were  endowed  as  well  with  moral  and  physical 
strength  and  courage,  equal  to  any  probable 
emergencies.  Tht  hardshipB  to  be  endured, 
the  rebuffs  to  be  encountered,  the  hindrances 
to  be  tactfully  manipulate<l  and  the  obstacles 
to  be  overcame  and  the  confidence  to  be 
gained  required  more  than  pul|rit  talent. 
Without  the  inspiration  and  support  of  a  reli- 
gious atmosphere,  and  confronted  on  all  sides 
by  antagonisms,  it  was  well  that  these  men 
had  knowledge  of  tuen  and  were  possessed  of 
a  wise  patience.  To  the  labors  of  these  two 
men  arc  due  the  beginning  of  Baptist  work 
and  churc]i  ortrani/ation  in  St.  Louis.  Writing 
of  this  period,  the  Rev.  Dr.  W.  W.  Boyd,  pas- 
tor of  Second  Baptist  Church,  St.  Louis,  says: 
"With  seven  other  Baptists  they— Peck  and 
Welch  —  began  religioois 
Baptists  of  St.  Louis,  services  in  the  stone  house 
of  Joseph  Robidottx.onthe 
east  side  of  Main  Street,  north  of  Myrtle 
Street.  Amidst  profane  ribaldry  on  the  one 
hand,  and  polite  indifference  on  the  other, 
these  two  men  labored  tli  rough  the  year  1817, 
increasing  their  little  band  to  thirteen  persons, 
onc-iialt  ot  all  tiie  Prcrtestant  professors  at  that 
time  in  St.  Louis.  And  in  February.  18 18, 
with  eleven  others,  they  organized  the  First 
Baptist  Church  of  St.  Louis."   The  house  of 

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worship  erected  by  this  church  was  the  hr&t 
Protestant  meetinghouse  ever  erected  in  St. 

Louis.    It  tuiilt  at  a  cost  of  $6,ooo. 

Through  municipal  claim  to  right  of  eminent 
domain  this  house  was  soon  lost  to  tiie  little 
band  of  self-sacrificing  Gfariilians.  By  Janu- 
ary of  1833  this  cliiircli  was  practically  extinct. 
In  tliat  month  six  of  tlie  members  received  let- 
ters of  dismission ;  these,  with  six  others,  or- 
ganized the  Second  BapHst  Cluirch  of  St. 
Louis.  Concerning  tliis  step  Dr.  Boyd  says : 
'The  way  had  been  prepared  by  Rev.  Archer 
B.  Smith,  a  missionary  of  the  American  Bap- 
tist Home  Missionary  Society,  who  came  to 
the  city  in  September  of  Ae  previous  year. 
Three  months  of  earnest  toil  on  Mr.  Smith's 
part  resulted  in  the  holding  of  a  preliminary 
meeting  on  Saturday.  January  5,  1833,  and  on 
the  next  day  twelve  Baptists,  six  of  whom  had 
been  members  i>i  i1k-  I'irst  I'.ajnist  Cluirch, 
met  in  Elihu  Shepherd's  school  room  and 
constitttted  the  Second  Paptist  Church  of  St. 

I'his  new  organization  was  served  in  the 
pastoral  office  by  Archer  6.  Smith  and  Wil- 
liam Hurley,  respectively,  until  June,  1835, 
when  the  Home  Mission  Society,  ait  the 
church's  request,  sent  the  Rev.  Thomas  Green 
to  serve  in  the  pastorate.  The  pastors  of  this 
church  since  Mr.  Green's  time  liave  been  the 
Revs.  B.  V.  Brabrook,  R.  E.  Patterson,  Isaac 
HintonandS.W.Lynd.  Dr. Boyd  says:  'Two 
months  after  the  arrival  of  Dr.  Lynd  a  lot  was 
bought  at  the  southwest  corner  of  Sixth  and 
Locust  Streets,  where  Barr's  now  stands,  for 
$7,000,  and  the  erection  of  a  new  meeting- 
house, to  cost  $15,000,  began.  On  August 
13,  4848,  the  new  edifice  was  dedicated."  In 
1849  ^  Gennan  Baptist  organization  was  ef- 
fecte«l.  whicli,  in  Januarv,  1850,  was  consti- 
tiMed  the  I'irst  German  Baptist  Church  of  St. 
Louis.  This  was  a  result  of  Second  Church 

In  Uctobcr,  14449,  J.  B.  Jeter,  of 

Virginia,  became  pastor  of  the  Second  Bap- 
tist  Church.  Of  this  period  Dr.  Boyd  says: 
'The  church  was  strong  and  ready  for  aggres- 
sive work.  Under  his  (Jeter's)  inspiring 
leadership  the  church  united  to  send  out  colo- 
nies to  constitute  new  churches.  Thus,  in 
1850,  the  Third  liaptist  Church,  now  one  of 
the  strongest  in  the  State,  was  organized ;  and 
in  December  of  tlie  same  year  the  Fourtli  Bap- 
tist Church,  from  which  sprang  the  Grand 
Avenue  Church.  Here  Baptist  city  missions 

took  thdr  rise."  The  Second  Baptist  Church 
has  for  many  years  been  a  strong,  influential 

and  useful  church.  Since  Dr.  Lynd's  time  the 
pastors  have  been  the  Rev.  Drs.  Daniel  Read, 
Galusha  Anderson,  A.  A.  Kendrick,  A.  H. 
Burlingham,  W.  W.  Boyd  and  J.  W.  Ford. 
Dr.  Boyd  is,  at  tliis  writing  (1890),  pastor  of 
this  church  for  tlie  second  time.  His  first 
term  began  May  I,  1877,  and  oontinued  just 
ten  years.  During  that  pastorate  a  new  meet- 
in^^KMise  was  erected  in  coimectiou  witli  an 
el^fant  stone  chapel  that  had  been  built  and 
finished  under  the  i>astorate  of  Dr.  Burling- 
ham. on  Beaumont  and  l.ocust  Streets.  This 
magnificent  struoture— 4niditorium  and  chapel 
^was  destroyed  by  fire  dtiring  the  first  year 
of  Dr.  Boyds  first  pastorate.  Within  nine 
months  after  this  great  loss  the  chapel  and 
church  were  rebuilt  and  dedicated  free  of  debt. 
On  May  l,  1894,  Dr.  Boyd  was  reca!le<!  and 
entered  upon  his  present  (1899;  pastoral 
chai^  of  the  Second  Church. 

The  Third  Baptist  Church  of  St.  Louis  had 
for  its  first  pastor  tlie  Rev.  Jdseph  Walker. 
During  this  missionary  pastorate  the  church 
was  sustained  in  part  by  the  Missouri  Baptist 
General  Association,  and  the  Home  Mission 
Board  of  the  Southern  Baptist  Convention. 
The  subsefjuent  pastors  were  Washington 
Barnhurst,  John  Teasdale,  J.  \'.  Schofield,  a 
brother  of  the  distinguished  General  Schofield  ; 
W.  Pope  Yeaman,  under  whose  seven  years' 
pastorate  irreat  numerical, social. financialand 
spiritual  strength  wae  added  to  the  church. 
He  was  succeeded  by  the  Rev.  Geo.  A.  Loftoa, 
and  he  by  the  Rev.  John  P.  Greene,  under 
whose  pastorate  the  church  enjoyed  great 
prosperity  for  ten  years.  During  this  pastor- 
ate the  <iiurch  moved  its  location  from  Clark 
Avenue,  near  Fourteenth  Street,  to  Grand 
Avenue,  near  Washington  Avenue,  where  the 
church  erected  a  large  and  elegant  house  of 
worship.  Dr.  Crc(  tie  was  called  from  thia 
church  to  the  presidency  of  the  William  Jew^ 
College,  and  was  succeeded  in  the  pastorate 
by  the  Rev.  W.  R.  L.  Smith,  who  for  several 
years  served  most  successfully  and  acceptably, 
when  he  was  called  to  and  accepted  a  promi- 
nent pastorate  in  Ricluuoiid.  Virginia, and  was 
succeeded  l)y  the  Rev.  K.  V.  Johnston,  who  is 
now  (iJ<<j</)  the  pastor.  Atiiou).;^  Missouri  Baj>- 
tists  the  Third  Church  at  St.  Louis  is  the  most 
{xjpular  and  influential  church  in  the  State. 
The  .social  life  of  the  membership,  their  liberal 
contributions  to  all  denominational  enter- 

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prises  in  the  State, their  manifested  sympathy 
vilh  Baptists  out  of  the  State,  have  drawn 
to  the  chardi  the  cordial  fellowship  of  Bap- 
tists {jciierally.  To  tliis  church  is  (hic  the 
founding  and  maintenance  of  the  Missouri 
Baptist  Sanitariam. 

From  the  Third  Baptist  Church  went  forth 
the  Ddmar  Avenue  Baptist  Qiurch,  now  lo- 
cated on  Delmar  Avenue  and  Forty-lhird 
Street.  Here  the  church  has  a  tnagnificetit 
and  commodious  house  of  worshij),  erected  of 
stone  and  admiraibly  appointed  for  all  of  the 
requirements  of  a  metropolitan  church.  Un- 
der the  efficient  administration  of  the  i)resent 
(1899)  pastor,  the  Rev.  J.  T.  M.  Johnston,  this 
chtnrh  has  been  relieved  of  all  d^t  on  account 
of  btiildinff.  The  former  pastors  of  this  church 
have  been,  in  tlie  order  here  named,  the  fol- 
lowing ministers:  \V.  Pope  Yeaman,  J.  C. 
Armstrong,  J.  11.  (  urry,  Wm.  Harris  and  J.  S. 
Kirtl> .  The  church  was  orp^nized  in  1877, 
with  a  constituent  membership  of  thirty-live; 
there  are  now  about  five  hundred  members. 

Tlic  Fourth  Baptist  Church  of  St.  Ix)uis 
.  came  into  being,  as  before  written,  at  tlie  in- 
stance of  the  Second  Church.  This  organiza- 
tion could  not  liavc  we^ithcrcd  the  storm  nf 
adversity  but  for  the  timely  and  commendable 
fiberality  of  the  late  Honorable  Marshal 
Brotherlxm,  who,  to  save  the  cliurch  and  its 
property,  removifl  !iis  mt'mhiTship  from  the 
Second  Church  and  united  with  the  Fourth, 
and  with  his  own  money  redeemed  the  church 
property  from  mortgage.  Subsequently,  after 
having  owned  the  property  in  fee  simple,  he 
conveyed  it  to  the  church  unencumbered. 
.\nionp:  tlie  pastors  of  the  Fourth  Qiurch  have 
been  the  Revs.  Abram  Coles  Osborne,  D.  T. 
Morrill,  J.  V.  Schofield  and  Joshua  Hickman. 
The  present  (1899)  pastor  is  the  Rev.  A.  P. 
Howells.  For  many  years  this  church  con- 
ducted the  largest  Sabbath  school  in  the 
West,  having  at  times  as  niany  as  l,flOO  schol- 
ars. At  that  tiino  Mr.  K.  1).  joncs  was  the 
active  and  enterprising  superintendent.  To 
this  school  Marshal  Brotherton  presented  a 
large  library,  which  the  school  cause<l  to  be 
elegantly  encased  and  named  "Brotherton  Li- 
brary." To  this  worthy  man  honorable  men- 
tion is  due  not  only  for  his  zeal  in  church 
work,  but  also  for  his  general  benevolence 
and  sterling  and  useful  qualities  as  a  citizen. 

Other  Baptist  Churches  as  fruits  of  mis- 
sionary enterprise,  liave  been  constituted  in 
St.  Louis.    These  are  Lafayette  Park,  Rev. 

T.  C.  Carlton,  pastor;  Carondelot,  W  D.  Bol- 
ton, pastor;  Grand  Avenue,  F.bsha  Aiulerson, 
pastor;  First  Swedish,  A.  Lagerquist,  pastor;  • 
Maplewood.  W.  L.  Xash,  pastor;  Taylor  Ave- 
mi€,  J.  A.  M.  Crousii,  pastor;  Tower  Grove, 
Menta  Sturgeon,  pastor;  Water  Tower.  J.  P. 
Herget,  pastor;  Jefferson  .'\vcnue,  German, 
A.  Konzelmann,  pastor;  Imnianuel,  A.  A. 
Kendrick,  pastor;  West  Park,  Mission,  W.  O. 
Le^vis,  pastor.  These  were  the  pastors  in  1899. 

The  white  Baptists  of  St.  Ix>uis  aggregate 
6,000,  holding  membership  in  the  several 
churches.  The  colored  Baptists  of  the  city  are 
numerous  and  prosperous.  The  value  of 
church  property  in  the  city  is  about  $500,000. 

From  datafumiahed  by  the  Rev.  Dr.  J.  O'B. 

Lowry,  pastor  of  tbt-  Cal- 

Btftltu  is  ffssssi  vary  Baptist  Church  in 
Cttjr.  Kansas  City,  the  following 
facts  are,  in  part,  gathered : 
Baptist  beginnings  in  that  city  were  small; 
now  it  is  the  center  oi  ilie  largest  con- 
stituency west  of  the  Mississippi  River.  In  1 855 
the  enrolled  memborslii])  was  in;  in  18H2  it 
was  500;  in  1899  the  total  a^jproximates  5,000. 
The  first  organization  of  Baptists  was  effected 
April  21,  i^SS-  ^  house  on  F'ifth  Street, 
owned  by  another  denomination.  Rev.  R.  S. 
Thomas,  at  •Hiat  time  president  of  the  William 
Jewell  College,  was  the  first  pastor.  In  1859 
a  habitat  was  secured.  Early  in  the  work 
rrovidence  gave  an  impetus  to  the  movement 
througli  the  efforts  of  Ri  v  A  P.  Williams,  at 
that  time  tlie  most  eminent  Baptist  preacher 
in  Missouri.  Later  came  the  Rev.  J.  W. 
Warder,  and  later  still  the  Rev.  J.  C.  Maple, 
and  latiT  still  came  tlic  Rev.  I'.  M.  F!llis,  who 
afterward  rose  to  eminence  as  pastor  in  Den- 
ver, Boston,  BaHimore  and  Brooklyn.  Con- 
nected with  the  work  were  such  laymen  as  I). 
L.  Shouse,  T.  M.  James,  John  B.  Wornall, 
Johnson  Lykens  and  T.  S.  Case.  Of  riiis  num- 
ber T.  M.  James  alone  survives.  In  the  year 
1899  there  were  ten  Baptist  Onirches  sus- 
tained by  white  Baptists.  Some  of  these  have 
edifices  representing  large  money  value.  One 
of  these,  the  Calvary  Church.  Rev.  Dr.  J.  O'R. 
Lowry,  pastor,  is  one  of  the  finest  structures 
in  the  denomination,  East  or  West. 

"A  part  of  the  May  Street  membcrshii)  found 
a  new  home  in  the  bright  chapel  presented  by 
the  family  of  W.  H.  Harris.  This  is  the  home 
of  the  First  Church  to-day.  Here  such  men 
as  Ellis  and  \'assar  luive  ministered,  and  here 
an  earnest  work  goes  forward." 

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The  Calvary  Baptist  Church  was  organized 
in  1876,  with  thirty-eight  members  7  now 
(1899)  there  arc  nearly  700  mcnilicrs  This 
church  has  had  but  two  pastors,  the  Rev.  J.  E. 
Chauibliss,  D.  D.,  and  the  Rev.  J.  O'B.  Lowry, 
D.  D.,  for  seventeen  years. 

Jn  1880  a  13a])t!st  City  Mission  was  formed. 
Through  the  efforts  of  (iiis  organization  in  co- 
operation with  the  Bhie  River  Assodatioii  and 
tile  board  of  the  Missouri  Baptist  General  A*.- 
sociation,  missions  have  been  started  and  new 
cfiurches  origanized  and  aided  until  they  num- 
ber half  a  score,  with  a  membership  of  about 
2,500.  These  are  Olive  Street  Church,  where 
Rev.  W.  T.  Campbell  was  the  first  pastor,  and 
through  whose  wise  and  untiring  labors  a  self- 
sustaining  church  was  built  up  and  a  lionse  of 
worship  erected.  The  Rev.  J.  R.  lirown  is  the 
(1899)  paAor.  The  Immanud  Church,  Rev. 
M.  Fiibank,  pn^^Vtr;  tl'<'  Ta?icniacle,  Rev. 
W.  J.  Williamson;  the  Elmwood,  Rev.  A. 
Ingle;  the  South  P^rk,  Rev.  W.  T.  Cambell; 
the  Micliigan  Avenue,  Rev.  S.  M.  Rrown;  to 
these  should  be  added  the-Second  Church,  col- 
ored, Rev.  L.  W.  Bacote,  pastor.  Besides 
these,  the  Scandinavian  Baptists  have  an  or- 
ganizatioa,  and  a  numl>er  of  otliers,  unitedly 
representing  tlie  remarkable  progress  of  tlie 
denomination  in  a  city  of  phenomenal  growth. 
Tlie  Wcstport  Church,  of  which  the  Rev.  J. 
S.  Kirily,  D.  D.,  is  tlie  pastor  (1*^99),  is  one  of 
the  oldest  in  point  of  organization,  but  at  this 
writing  it  lia.^  hut  recently  become  a  Kans.'is 
City  churchy  through  the  extension  <A  the  city 
limits.  Here  dte  Honorable  John  B.  Woinall 
lived  and  labored  for  many  years. 

"The  personal  element  is  an  interesting  part 
of  the  liistory  of  progress.  In  a  new  country 
subsoil  plows  are  in  demand,  and  Providence 
sent  into  Missouri  stalwart  men  as  Christian 
Pioneers.  With  those  already  mentioned,  tlie 
names  of  F.  W.  Furguson  and  Honorable 
John  I..  Peak,  late  United  States  minister  to 
Switzerland,  arc  connected  with  the  cause  in 
its  earlier  and  later  development.  In  tiie  busi- 
ness world  P.aptist  laymen  are  wofldiily  promi- 
nent. In  1898  the  Calvary  congregation  fur- 
nished five  diairmen  of  cotnniittees  in  tlie 
leading  commercial  body  in  the  city.  The 
religions,  six  ial  anri  commercial  influence  of 
the  denoimnalion  is  felt  in  the  civic  life." 

Early  in  the  history  of  Missouri,  Baptist 
nnssionnrv  work  was  bc- 
Bsftitts  ol  St.  Jotepb.  gun  in  tltc  then  village  of 
St.  Joseph,  situated  in  what 

was  known  as  the  "Black-Snake  Hills."  As 
early  as  1844,  if  not  a  year  earlier,  the  R^. 

P.  N.  Hay  craft  did  missionary  work  there 
and  spoke  of  St.  Joseph  as  a  "rapidly  growing 
\nllage — an  important  station."  Now  (1899), 
in  the  large,  wtakliy,  substantial  and  cukured 
city  of  St.  Joseph,  Baptists  are  an  influential 
people.  As  far  back  as  1852  the  Rev.  Joshua 
Hickman  ministered  to  a  smalt  diurdi  in  that 
place — an  organization  now  known  as  the 
First  Baptist  Church.  This  is  a  numerous  and 
wealthy  membership,  worshiping  in  one  of  tlie 
finest  church  houses  in  the  State,  built  and 
finished  during  the  pastorate  of  R.  P.  John- 
ston, now  a  pastor  in  9t.  Louis.  Among  the 
pastors  of  this  church  since  the  time  of  Mr. 
Hicknian  have  been  Wm.  Price,  J.  M.  C. 
Breaker,  D.  D.,  Wm.  Harris,  J.  L.  Lawless, 
D.  D.,  R.  P.  Johnston,  D.  D.,  and  the  (1899) 
incumbent,  the  Rev.  J.  Kniest  Cook. 

The  Paittee  Park  Church  ol  St  Joseph  was 
organized  in  1880  as  a  mission  of  the  Baptist 
General  .\ssociation,  with  the  late  Rev.  Dr.  E. 
S.  Dulin  as  missionary  pastor.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  the  Rev.  N.  R.  Ptttman,  under  . 
wiiose  efficient  administration  the  church 
prospered  and  grew,  and  a  commodious  brick 
house  of  worship  was  built.  He  was  succeeded 
by  the  Rev.  Dr.  Lawless,  who  at  this  writinsr 
(i8<")q)  is  the  pastor. 

The  Savannah  Street,  and  other  mission 
churches  in  St.  Joseph,  illustrate  Baptist  en- 
terprise in  that  city. 

Nearly  every  city  and  town  in  the  State,  be- 
sides those  already  mentioned,  has  one  or 
more  r.aptist  Churches.  Prominent  of  these 
are  Hannibal,  Sedalia.  Springfield,  Moberly, 
Mexico,  Columbia.  Marshall,  Lexington,  Car- 
rollton,  Liberty,  Jefferson  City,  Charleston, 
Boonvillc,  Trenton,  ("liillicollio,  Macon  City, 
Nevada.  Carthage,  Joplin,  Pulton,  i  a>-«tte, 
Bowlingr  Green,  Louisiana,  Warrensbur^. 
Platlsbtirj,'  and  others.  .\  larc^c  prnporlioii  of 
the  1 .700  Missouri  Baptist  Churches  are  in  the 
rtiral  districts,  and  are  composed  mainly  of 
agriculturists  and  their  families.  Many  of 
these  churches  are  wealthy  and  influential  in 
giving  character  and  life  to  denominational 

Missouri  Baptists,  as  a  rule,  are  a  missionary 
pe<^le,  and  have  agencies 
JUntaswy       for  nfsgrtuim  Christian 
O^iidoBS.       work.  Thioagh  tlicse  agen- 
cies they  endeavor  to  sup- 
ply the  gospel  to  destitute  regkms,  and  to  aid 

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in  the  sustentation  of  weak  churches.  For 
this  purpose  the  seventy-five  local  or  district 
anodatioRS  were  organized.  The  chief  or^ 
ganizcd  agency  is  the  Missouri  Baptist  Gen- 
eral Association.  Tliis  body,  organized  in 
1834,  is  not  «n  MKKhe&m  of  unaUer  assocta- 
tions,  nor  of  ehurchcB,  bult  a  voluntary  con- 
vention of  persons  chosen  by  such  churches 
and  district  associations  as  choose  to  co- 
operate in  the  general  objects  of  the  body.  It 
disclaims  legislative  or  judicial  autliority  over 
the  churches,  and  never  interferes  with  their 
local  affaire  nor  with  the  ministry.  It  gives  its 
attention  and  effort  to  State  mission  work  and 
to  education,  general  home  and  foreign  mis- 
Mos;  besides  these  it  fosters  several  chari- 
table enterpriiflB.  The  cfiicicticy  of  this  asso- 
ciation in  the  propfress  of  rcligfion  in  Missouri 
is  now  a  tiling  of  historic  verification.  Besides 
aid.  in  the  work  of  local  associations,  in  the 
supply  of  rural  dt-stitntion,  aid  has  been  af- 
forded city  and  town  chiu-ches  until  they  be- 
came self-sustaining.  A  lai^  number  of  the 
rlnirc!i(  s,  now  self-su staining  and  influential, 
were  in  their  early  days  sustained  in  whole  or 
in  part  by  'this  General  Association.  The 
afflount  of  money  collected  and  expended  an- 
nually by  this  body  for  State  missions  is  from 
$i 2,000  to  $15,000.  The  district  associaitions, 
aggreg;ated,  expend  approximately  the  same 
amoun  t,  making  a  grand  total  of  alx->ut  $30,- 
000  annually  for  evangelical  missions  in  the 
State.  The  supervision  of  State  missions  is 
by  a  hoard  of  the  Genera!  Association,  whicli 
commits  the  work  mainly  to  a  corresponding 
secretary.  The  present  (1899)  efficient  incum- 
bent of  that  office  is  the  Rev.  T.  L.  West.  The 
work  of  General  Home  and  Foreign  Missions, 
as  represented  by  this  association,  is  purely 
financial,  givinc^  moneyed  aid  to  more  general 
organizations  representing,  resperlivcly,  those 
two  fields  of  christian  endeavor.  This  work 
is  directed  by  a  "Board  of  General  Home  and 
Foreign  Missions,"  appointed  by  the  Genera! 
Association.  Of  this  board  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Manly  J.  Breaker  is  the  corresponding  secre> 
t.iry.  who  is  an  able  minister  and  successful 
financial  agent. 

The  whole  amount  expended  by  the  Mis- 
souri Baptist  General  Association  since  its  or- 
ganization in  1834,  exclusively  for  State 
missions,  is  approximately,  down  to  1899,  tlie 
sum  ot  $3aOdOO(K  The  largtest  amount  ex- 
pendcfl  in  any  one  year  was  $15,700-25.  Thi; 
was  in  1884.   From  the  time  of  the  organiza- 

tion of  the  General  Association  to  October, 
1898,  the  missionaries  under  commission  from 
that  association  had  preadied  190,331  sermoas 
to  the  people  of  the  religiously  destitute  re- 
gions of  the  State,  and  had  baptized  into  the 
diurches  over  26,000  persons  upon  thdr  indi- 
vidual confession  of  faith  in  Christ.  This  was 
exclusive  of  the  work  of  pastors  and  independ- 
ent evangelists.  The  General  Association  does 
not  receive  statistical  or  other  reports  from  the 
churches  or  local  associatk>ns.  It  tabulates 
nothing  but  its  own  missionary  operations  and 
die  results  of  the  work. 

Tlic  presiding  officers  of  the  Missouri  Bap- 
tist General  Association,  from  its  organization 
<to<he  present,  have  been  Jeremiah  Vardeman, 
for  two  yeare ;  J.  B.  Longan,  four  years ;  Jamet 
Sugget,  one  year ;  Uriel  Sebre.  six  years ;  Ro- 
land Hug'hes,  seven  years ;  Wni.  Carson,  two 
years;  David  H.  Hickman,  two  yean;  R.  E. 
McDaniel,  five  years  ;  Win.  Crowel,  one  year; 
A.  P.  Williams,  four  years ;  Xoah  Flood,  two 
years:  X.  X.  Buckner,  one  year;  John  B. 
W'ornall,  two  years;  L.  B.  Ely,  three  years; 
\V.  Pope  Yeaman,  twrenty  years,  and  E.  W. 
Stephens,  since  October,  1897,  to  the  present 

Baptists  have  ever  been  the  friends  and  pro- 
moters of  general  and  min- 
EdHcattoui  isterial  education.  As  far 
iBilHstiSBS.  back  as  1843  steps  were 
taken  k>oking  to  tlie  es- 
tablishment of  a  Baptist  college  in  the  Slate. 
This  movement  was  in  response  to  a  liberal 
offer  of  $10,000  by  W  ni.  Jewell,  M.  D.,  as  a 
nucleus  of  peimanent  en^wmemt  of  such  an 
institution.  In  1849  *  legislative  charter  was 
granted,  and  the  William  Jewell  College  was 
founded  and  located  at  the  town  of  Liberty,  in 
Clay  County.  After  years  of  atruggfe  and 
much  anxit-tv  this  college  has  attained  great 
prosperity  and  usefulness.  It  has  numerous 
and  c(mimodx>os  buildings ;  an  endowmenC  of 
over  $225,000,  securely  tnvestetl ;  a  full  and 
able  faculty,  and  an  enroilmeu't  of  about  300 
Students.  The  Rev.  Dr.  John  P.  Greene  is  at 
this  writing  the  learned  and  efficient  presi- 
dent. The  former  presidents  have  been  R. 
S.  Thomas,  E.  S.  Dulin,  E.  I.  Owens,  Wm. 
Thompson,  Thomas  Rambeaut,  W.  R.  Roth- 
well  (chairman  of  faculty).  These  were  emi- 
nent scholars  and  able  administrators. 

Ministerial  education  has  been  a  prominent 
factor  in  the  work  of  the  William  Jewell  Col- 
lege f.'-om  the  beginning.  At  this  writing  there 

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is  an  enrollment  of  about  one  hundred  minis- 
terial students.  There  is  in  connection  with 
the  colleges  Board  of  Ministerial  Education, 
of  which  for  years  tlve  Rev  C,_  L.  Black,  D.  D., 
was  the  efficient  corresponding  secretary. 

Stephens  College,  at  Columbia,  was  tncor- 
p<->ratcd  as  an  institution  of  the  Misst>iiri  Bap- 
tist General  Association  in  1870.  This  insti- 
tution is  for  the  education  erf  young  ladies. 
It  has  beautiful  g;rotin(Ls  am!  ommn odious 
buildings,  and  a  substantial  nucleus  of  en- 
dowment. The  college  was  named  in  honor 
of  the  Honorable  James  L.  Stephens,  of  Co- 
lumbia, in  hecominp'  recognition  of  his  lihernl 
interest  in  education  and  of  his  eminent  worth 
as  a  citizen  and  st^esman.  The  Rev.  Sam 
l""rank  Taylor  is  the  present  (iSqc))  president 
of  the  college.  He  is  aided  by  a  large  and 
accomplished  faculty.  The  former  presidents 
have  heen  J  A  TTolIis,  W.  R.  Rolhwell,  Jdin 
T.  W  illiains,  X.  X.  Buckner,  E.  S.  Dulin,  R. 
P.  Rider,  T.  W.  Barr«tt. 

Baptist  College  at  Lexington  is  one  of  tlie 
oldest  and  most  distinguished  colleges  for  the 
education  of  females  in  tlic  State.  Its  line  of 
able  prt  sidi  uts  and  professors,  together  with 
a  host  itf  i^aiiduates  distrihuted  throiiglunit  the 
country,  ^^'ivo  it  a  general  aiid  intluemial  repu- 
tation Among  the  former  presidents  have 
been  J-.  S.  Dulin.  D.  IT.  Self,  A.  F.  FIei-1,  W. 
A.  \\  iUon  and  l>".  Menefee.  The  present  in- 
cumbent is  the  Rev.  James  A.  Beaudamp, 
whose  administration  18  lemtnently  worthy  of 
his  predecessors. 

Hardin  College,  at  Mexico,  Missouri,  was 
f(Mm(led  by  the  late  ex-Gcrvernor  Charles  H. 
Hardin,  and  by  him  endowed  with  a  simi  and 
on  a  basts  that  promises  permanence  and  con- 
tintious  increase  of  endowment  The  build- 
ings are  extensive,  erected  under  direction  of 
Governor  Hardin  himself.  The  grounds  are 
ample  and  attractive.  This  Inrtitution  is  for 
the  educadon  of  young  ladies.  John  W.  Mil- 
lion, A.  M.,  is  tlie  president  at  tliis  writing, 
with  Geoi^  A.  Ross,  A.  M.,  as  vice  president. 
These  are  assisted  by  twenty  professors  and 
tutors.  Tlie  former  presidents  have  been  A. 
W.  Terrill,  Mrs.  H.  T.  Baird  and  A,  K-  Yancy. 

La  Grange  Cirflege,  in  La  Grange,  was 
foundc^l  l>y  the  Wyoming  Baptist  Ass^K-iation. 
Its  first  president  was  the  Rev.  Joshua  Flood 
Cook,  LL.  D.,  who  continned  in  that  relation 
for  about  thirty  years,  doing  an  eminently  use- 
ful work.  Many  of  his  graduated  students 
have  taken  high  positions  in  the  civic  and 

spiritual  vocations.    Since  1897  J.  W.  Muir, 
Ph.  D.,  has  been  the  president. 

Grand  River  College  was  established  at  Ed- 
inburg,  in  Gnuuly  County,  in  1850.  It  was 
removed  to  Gallatin,  in  Daviess  County,  in 
1893.  when  W.  Pope  Yeanian  was  called  to 
and  accepted  the  presidency.  He  remained 
with  the  institution  for  four  years,  laboring  to 
elevate  dte  standard  of  scholarship.  Upon  his 
retirement,  J.  H.  Hatton,  A.  M  ,  was  caller!  to 
the  presidency.  Under  this  management  the 
inttHntion  enjo>'s  large  prosperity.  The  col- 
1^  edifice  is  new,  large  and  admirably 
adapted  to  school  work. 

Soutlnvest  Baptist  College  is  located  at 
riolivar.  in  Polk  County.  This  sdiool  was 
founded  by  the  Rev.  J.  R.  Maupin.  assisted  by 
the  late  the  Rev.  B.  McCord  Roberts.  The 
former  presidents  after  Mr.  Maupin  were  W. 
H.  Bumham,  D.  D..  and  the  Rev.  R  F.  L. 
Burks,  D.  D.,  under  whose  administraiion  the 
college  is  assuming  larger  proportions  and 

Famiington  College,  at  Farmington.  the 
county  seat  of  St.  Francois  County,  is  an 
academy  of  high  grade.  It  is  firiancially  fee- 
ble, but  undiT  the  heroic  principalship  of  E.  J. 
Jennitigs.  encourageil  by  an  entcTprising  board 
of  management,  the  institution  has  a  future. 

Webb  City  College.  This  new  school  is  at 
Webb  City,  in  Jasper  County.  Dr.  J.  F.  Cook 
was  the  president  from  1894  to  1899.  The 
Rev.  Milford  Riggs  sucoeedeil  him. 

At  an  early  day  in  the  history  of  Mis- 
souri Baptists,  efforts  were 
BsplM  PsMkaHsBSi  made  to  establish  a  week- 
ly denominaitional  journal. 
These  eflForts  were  attended  with  varying  ior- 
time,  i;  iiallv  adverse  and  disastrous,  until 
i8r/»,  when  the  Revs.  Jolm  Hill  Luther  and  R. 
M.  Rlu»ades  established  a  journal  called  "The 
Missouri  Baptist  Journal."  The  publicailtion 
of  this  sheet  was  begim  at  Palmyra.   The  un- 
dertaking was  a  questionable  one  aX  the  time. 
The  Civil  War  had  just  ckised,  and  religion, 
society  and  business  were  sadly  unsettled, 
chaos  reigned  and  a  general  lack  of  confidence 
unsettled  the  minds  and  plans  of  the  peo;)lc. 
The  Rev.  W.  R.  Pamter  volunteered  to  brook 
these  unfavorable  conditions  and  test  the  fea- 
sibleness of  the  undertaking.   But  for  his  faith 
and  unconquerable  piwpose  (he  effort  would 
have  failed.   This  journal  was  removed  to  St. 
Louis  and  consolidated  with  a  journal  started 
about  the  same  time,ca]led  "The  Record."  The 

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Mliie.  "The  Central  Baptist,"  was  given  to  the 
<-ons{)li(latefi  joiirna!.  of  wliich  Dr.  Luther  was 
ior  several  vears  editor-in-chief.  Asdociated 
whb  him  at  th«  beg^nning^  were  the  Revs.  A.  A. 
Kendriok  and  Norman  Fox.  Dr  Kendrick 
was  at  the  time  editor  of  "Th«  Record"  and 
pulor  of  a  church  in  St  Louts.  Dr.  Fox  wu 
professor  in  the  Williajii  Jewell  C'ollege.  Dr. 
Kendrick  afterward  became  president  oS 
Shurtleff  Colleg:e,  at  Upper  Ahon,  in  the  State 
of  Illinois,  and  Dr.  l-ox  removed  to  the  city 
of  .Viw  York,  wluTi'  lie  hccame  eminent  in  the 
ministry  and  in  literature.  In  1870  VV.  Pope 
Ycaman  was  associated  with  Dr.  Luther  as 
proi>rietor  and  editor  of  "The  Centra!  R.^|)tist.** 
In  1875  Dr.  Luther  retired  from  the  paf>er,  aaid 
W.  Pope  Yeaman  and  the  Rev.  W.  J.  Partrick 
became  joint  owners  and  e<lit»rs.  Upon  the 
retirement  of  Dr.  Patrick,  Dr.  Ycwnan  suc- 
ceeded to  the  sole  proprietorship  and  editorial 
manaf^ement  of  the  paper.  In  1879  he  was 
sticccodfd  by  the  Rev.  Wm.  Ferg'uson,  who 
was  followed  by  the  Rev.  William  Harrison 
WiUiams.  Dr.  WiUiam*  died  m  1893.  and  his 
widow,  wlro  V>e<MnH"  sole  proprietress  of  the 
journal,  effected  an  arrangement  with  the 
Rev.  Dr.  J.  C.  Armstrong  and  A.  W.  BiQrne, 
Esq.,  by  which  the  entire  business  passetl  into 
their  control.  Dr.  Armstrong  becoming  the 
editor  and  Mr.  Pajne  the  business  manager. 
Under  this  fortunate  combination  the  journal 
commands  a  large  and  deserved  influence  in 
and  beyond  the  State. 

Ford's  "Christian  Repository,"  established 
in  1853,  is  a  monthly  maprazine  dcvo^eil  to 
theological  discussions,  Christian  history,  bi- 
ofi:raphy,  general  religious  Hterature  and  "The 
Home  rircle."  This  magazine  is  ably  edited 
by  the  Kcv.  S.  H.  Ford,  D.  D.,  LL.  D.,  an  able 
and  thoroughly  informed  writer  and  distin- 
jriii'^hefl  f)ratMr,who  abates  naught  of  intellec- 
tual vigor  with  the  venerableness  of  an  octo- 
genarian. He  is  assisted  in  the  conduct  of  tiie 
the  literary  department  by  his  wife,  Mrs.  Sallie 
Rochester  Ford,  who  has  woii  distinction  as 
an  author.  This  magazine  has  a  large  circu- 
lation in  the  United  States,  and  Vbeni  reoog'- 
nition  in  Furopc. 

"The  Word  and  Way"  is  a  denominational 
joomal  published  in  Kansas  Qty,  and  edited 
by  the  Rev.  S.  M.  Brown  and  the  Rev.  Dr. 
R.  K.  Maiden.  This  journal  was  established 
in  1896^  and  is  an  able,  actiTe  and  aggresnve 
paper,  with  increasmg  dfculation  and  influ* 

A  Baptist  paper  is  published  at  Bolivar  bv 
the  Rev.  Dr.  D.  fi.  Ray,  caUed  "The  National 
Baptist  Flag." 

The  American  Baptist  Publication  Society, 

at  Philadelphia,  has  a  branch  house  an  316 
North  Eighth  Street,  St.  Louis,  with  Mr.  M. 
P.  Moody  as  business  manager.  This  branch 
house  was  established  in  1867  or  1868,  through 
the  generous  enterprise  of  Marshal  Broither- 
ton,  Nathan  Cole,  Daniel  B.  Gale  and  others 
of  like  spirh.  However,  but  for  the  frenerous 
trift  of  $1,500  at  one  time  by  Marshal  lirother- 
ton,  the  house  would  likely  not  have  been  es- 
tablished when  it  was,  if  ever.  Through  its  en- 
terprise  and  gratuitous  distribution  of  Bibles 
and  general  Christian  literature  this  society 
has  done  a  grcAt  work  in  general  evangdiaa- 
tion  of  the  people  of  this  country.  For  many 
years  the  Rev.  G.  J.  Johnson,  D.  D..  was  the 
active  and  efficient  manager  of  the  St.  Louis 
branch  house.  To  his  intdligent  energy  and 
tactful  address  the  success  of  this  sonu  what 
jiroblcmatical  enterprise  is  due.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded, upon  being  called  to  the  main  house 
at  Pl-.iladelphia.  by  the  Rev.  D.  T.  Morrill.  D. 
D.,  who  was  succeeded  by  Mr.  Lewis  E.  Kline, 
who  for  a  number  of  years  was  the  courteous 
and  efficient  manager;  he  was  followed  by  Mr. 

The  constant  and  urgent  demand  upon  the 

time  an<I  toil  of  the  minis* 
B*»dil  Artfcit.     try  in  Missouri  for 
al   and  missionary  wtM'k 
has  allowed  but  little  opportunity  for'literary 

pursuits;  nevt^theless,  a  few  contributions 
have  been  made  by  some  of  them  to  perma- 
nent Christian  literature.  The  Rev.  Dr.  S.  H. 
1-  onl  is  the  author  of  "The  Great  Pvramids  ot 
}'.gypt,"  "Brief  History  of  Baptists,"  "What 
Baptists  Baptize  For.'^etc.,  etc.  Mrs.  Saltle 
Rochester  Ford  is  the  author  o(  "Grace  Tru- 
man," a  religious  romance  of  extensive  read- 
ing and  permanent  influence;  besides  this 
popular  book  she  has  written  "The  Dreamer's 
Hlind  Daughter"  and  other  works.  Wm.  M. 
Pago,  Fsq.,  of  St.  Louis,  wrote  "The  Faitli  of 
Abraham."  and  an  astronomical  work  off  some 
merit.  The  Rev.  Dr  W  R.  Rothwell,  who 
died  December  28,  i8y8,  was  the  author  of 
"Denominational  Self-Examination."  and  a 
valuable  work  on  P.iblc  study.  Professor 
James  C.  Clark,  of  the  William  Jewell  College, 
wrote  a  history  off  that  institution.  The  Rev. 
R.  S.  Duncan  is  the  author  of  a  "History  of 
Baptists  in  Missouri."  The  Rev.  Dr.  W.  J. 

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Patrick  was  selected  by  Mrs.  Hardin,  the 
widow  of  the  late  ex-Governor  Cliarles  H. 
Hardin,  io  edit  the  life  works  Ot  that  great 
statesman  and  founder  of  Hardin  Collejjc. 
The  work  is  wortiiy  oi  the  sttbject  aud  a  credit 
to  the  scholarly  editor.  Dr.  A.  W.  Cliainbliss» 
deceased,  was  the  author  of  a  work  entitled 
"God's  Ministry,"  an  able  discnsston  of  the 
subject  suKgested  by  the  title.  W.  i'ope  Vea- 
man  wrqte  a  "History  of  the  Missouri  Baptist 
General  Association,*'  which  was  written  and 
published  by  request  of  the  General  Associa- 
tion in  1899,  and  forthwith  received  the  high- 
est commendations  of  tlie  press  and  leading 
members  of  tiie  denomination. 

The  Mistonri  Baptist  Sanitarium,  located 
on  Taylor  Avenue  and  tiie 
Eltfoiyaaor  Suburban  Klectric  Rail- 
InlltitlMn.  road,  in  St.  Louis,  iia<l  its 
origin  in  tlie  humanitarian 
spirit  and  generous  charity  of  the  Third  Bap 
tist  Church  of  that  city.  It  has  since  been  in- 
oorpCMated  with  the  benevolent  work  of  tfie 
General  Association.  T!ic  btiildinfijs  nf  this 
institution  are  commodious  and  admirably 
tttited  to  the  purposes  of  a  home  infirmary ; 
the  gromids  are  spacious  and  cheerful.  B.  .A. 
W.  Wilkes,  M.  D.,  is  the  physician  in  charge. 
Munificent  patrtms  d(  this  hospital  have  been, 
and  are,  Wm.  M.  Scnter,  and  A.  D.  Brown. 
Frank  Ely,  deceased,  while  living  a  prominent 
merchant  of  St.  Louis,  was  one  of  the  most 
active  and  generous  patrcms  of  the  institution. 
The  design  of  this  sanitarium  is  to  furnish  to 
Baptists,  and  others  who  may  desire  it,  a  home- 
like retreat  for  medical  and  surgfical  treaitment 
of  disease.  It  is  a  Christian  home,  where 
scientific  treatment  and  genial  influences  are 
brought  to  bear  in  the  relief  and  cure  of  the 
afflicted.  The  principal  officers  of  the  board 
of  management  are  A.  D.  rJrown,  Wm.  ^f. 
Senter,  J.  L.  Applegate  and  Silus  B.  Jones. 
The  St.  Louis  Baptist  Hospital  is  "a  Christian 
home  established  and  controlled  by  Baptists." 
It  was  incorporated  in  1893,  and  is  located  on 
the  comer  of  Garrison  and  Franklin  Avenues. 
C.  C.  Morris,  M.  D..  is  superintending  physi- 
cian and  surgcon-in-chief.  The  Mayfield  San- 
itarium is  located  at  912  Taylor  Avenue,  and 
is  "owned  and  controlled  by  Baptists."  Dr. 
W.  II.  Mayfield,  the  originator  of  the  Baptist 
Sanitarium  spirit  and  enterprise  in  St.  Louis, 
is  the  founder  of  tliis  invalids'  home. 

The  Baptist  Orphans*  Home  was  organized 
in  1882  and  incorporated  in  18^4.    It  is  lo- 

cated at  1906  Lafa\  ettc  Aveinie,  St.  Louis. 
This  home  makes  annual  report  of  its  work, 
wants  and  general  condition  to  die  Missouri 
Baptist  (ieneral  Association,  and  the  seltvti:^n 
(A  its  board  of  directors  is  confinned  by  that 
body;  thus  the  home  is  brought  into  touch 
with  the  denomination  of  the  State,  while  its 
management  is  left  untrammcled.  The  or- 
phanage is  to  afford  a  home  to  orphans,  half- 
orphans  and  abandoned  children  of  Protestant 
parents.  There  are  (1899)  sixty  such  cliildren 
in  tlie  home.  Boys  not  exceeding  seven  years 
of  ag«.  and  girts  not  exceeding  twelve,  are  ad- 
mitted. Xone  of  these  children  arc  put  out  to 
domestic  service,  but  arc  placed  by  the  home 
in  Christian  families  by  process  of  legal  adop- 
tion. There  is  a  school  in  connection  with 
this  home,  the  advantages  of  which  are  af- 
forded the  inmates. 

The  Baptist  Ministers'  Aid  Societv  was 
organized  in  iSSi.and  was  soon  thereafter  in- 
corporated under  the  laws  of  the  State  oi  Mis- 
souri. Its  object  is  to  provide  and  minister 
help  to  aged  and  indigent  Baptist  ministers, 
who  have  devoted  their  lives  to  preaching  the 
gospel.  The  society  has  a  small  permanent 
endowment  fund,  and  annual  dues  of  one  dol- 
lar per  member.  Other  contributions  are 
made  as  charitably  inclined  persons  are  im- 
pressed with  tlic  demand  for  such  a  fund.  Al> 
ready  a  number  of  aged  ministers  h:i\c  been 
assisted  by  this  socic-ty.  The  organization 
came  into  being  at  the  suggestion  and  upon  a 
plan  submitted  to  the  Ccneral  .Association  bv 
the  Rev.  Dr.  A.  C.  Raflferty.  W.  Pope  Yc.i- 
man  was  the  first  president ;  after  serving  two 
years  he  resigned,  and  at  his  noniinatioii  Ciov- 
ernor  C.  H.  Hardin  was  elected  to  tliat  posi- 
tion. He  took  an  active  interest  and  was  a. 
liberal  patron,  continuing  in  ofhcc  untU  hts 
death,  which  was  in  July,  1892.  He  was  suc- 
ceeded by  Mr.  L.  B.  Ely,  the  most  beloved  and 
influential  lay  Baptist  in  the  State,  who  con- 
tinued in  the  oftice  until  his  death,  which  wa5 
on  the  18th  day  of  June,  1897.  Mr.  Ely  was 
succeeded  by  W.  F.  Elliot,  bf  Moberly.  who 
at  this  writing  holds  tlie  position,  and  is  ten- 
derly and  actively  interested  in  the  objects  of 
the  society. 

In  1876  a  society  named  "Missouri  Baptist 
Woman's  Foreign  Mission  Society"  was  or- 
ganized. Mrs.  O.  P.  Moss,  of  Liberty,  was 
made  president;  Miss  Maggie  Emerson  was 
chosen  secretary;  a  board  '>f  directors  was  ap- 
pointed.  This  society  continued  to  do  active 

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and  ctTectivc  work  for  foriii;n  inisstuiis  until 
1885,  when,  upon  the  reconinienilation  ut  a 
coaimittee  consistinlf  of  Mcsdames  W.  F.  El- 
liot, S.  H.  Foril.  John  Farringtftn,  G.  \\".  llydc 
and  C.  H.  Hardin,  the  held  of  work  was  so 
enlarged  as  to  include  f^eneral  home  and  State 
missions^and  the  constitution  was  amended  by 
striking  out  tlje  word  ""Foreign";  thus  the  or- 
ganization became  the  '".Missouri  Baptist  \Vo- 
man'sMissionary  Society."  -Thi.s  cluui,i:c  left  the 
sfK-icty  an  iiiiliinitcd  field.  In  1886  .Mr.s.  W.  F. 
EUiot  was  elected  president ;  Mrs.  J.  L.  Burn- 
ham,  corresponding:  secretary,  and  Mrs.  J.  B. 
Womall,  trea.stircr.  I'p  to  i8<)8  tlic  stx-icty 
had  done  a  great  work.  It  had  collected  and 
expended  for  distridt  missions,  $1,768.57;  for 
State  mission.';,  $3,730.02;  for  geiuTal  lioonc 
missions,  $17,342.17;  for  foreign  missions, 
$34,082:65;  for  ministerial  education,  $5.- 
0Si40  ;  for  other  objects,  $12,664.35 ;  making 
a  grand  total  of  $74,640.16.  At  this  writing 
(l8y9^  the  society,  with  Mrs.  Elliot  as  presi- 
dent, and  Mrs.  Bumliam  as  corresponding 
secretary,  is  prosecuting  its  great  and  good 

The  Baptist  Historical  Society  was  organ- 
ized in  1885  for  tlic  purpose  of  f^atherinj::  to- 
gether and  preserving  all  facts  of  general  and 
personal  interest  relating  to  the  origin  and 
prepress  of  Baptists  in  Missouri.  It  was  or- 
ganized at  the  instance  and  through  the  un- 
tiring and  intelligent  zeal  of  A.  F.  Fleet,  Ph. 
D.,  then  professor  of  Greek  language  and 
litiminrc  in  tlic  Missouri  State  Univt-rsity, 
and  now  (i8yy)  president  of  the  Culver  Mili- 
tary Academy,  at  Culver,  Indiana.  The  so- 
ciety has  its  oflRce  at  Liberty,  Missouri,  and  a 
fire-proof  vault,  in  which  arc  stored  many  val- 
uable books,  pamphlets,  manuscripts  and 
rclic.'^,  which  would  otherwise,  no  doubt,  !)e 
k>st  to  the  future  historian.  The  society  holds 
an  annual  meeting.and  at  each  meeting  hears 
an  historical  address  provided  for  at  the  pre- 
cedinpr  merting-.  These  .addresses  are,  as  a 
rale,  printed  and  filed  wiili  the  archives  01  the 
society.  President  J.  P.  Greene,  of  the  Wil- 
liam Jewell  College,  is  tlic  president  of  this  so- 
ciety, having  succeeded  Colonel  Fleet  upon 
his  removal  from  tiie  State. 

This  brief  sketch  suggests  to  the  reader  that 
Baptists  in  Missouri  have  been  greatly  aided 
in  their  aggressive  enterprise  by  a  member- 
ship having  many  representatives  of  the  higher 
walks  ol  social,  commercial  and  civic  life. 

W.  POI'K  Yeaman. 

Baptist  Yoiinv:  People'x  I'liioii  of 
Aiiierica. — An  international  organization 
of  Baptist  young  people,  including  the  Amer- 
ican Continent  in 'the  scc^e  of  its  opera- 
tions. It  was  organized  at  Chicago  in  July, 
1891.  Its  objects  are  the  education  of  young 
people  in  Bajjtist  doctrines,  Baptist  history 
and  Baptist  missionary  duties.  The  organi- 
ntion  has  ^mtd  throughout  the  United 
States,  Canada,  and  .some  of  the  South  Amer- 
ican c'vmfries.  The  first  local  orsjanization 
bct,''an  in  .St.  I^ouis  in  1891,  among  the  differ- 
ent Baptist  Qiurches.  It  i.s  conducted  by  a 
city  union,  representing  all  the  cbUTChes  ci 
that  denomination. 

Bar  Association,  St.  Louis. — .\n  in- 
corporated association,  having  a  constitution 
and  by-laws  whose  object  is  "to  maintain  the 
honor  ami  dignity  of  the  pfofession  of  the  law  ; 
to  cultivaite  social  interoonrse  among  its  mem- 
bers, and  for  the  promotion  of  legal  science  and 
theadminiaitration  of  justice/'  Ithad  its  ban- 
ning in  a  meeting;  held  in  circuit  court  room 
No.  2,  in  the  courthouse,  on  the  i6t'h  of 
March.  1874.  with  T.  T.  Gantt  as  ctoainnan, 
and  E.  W.  Pattison  secretary.  .-Me.x.  Martin 
stated  the  object  of  the  meeting,  and  on  his 
nM>tion  a  committee  of  five  was  appointed  by 
the  chairman  to  report  a  constitution  and  by- 
laws at  an  adjourned  meeting.  The  commit- 
tee, composed  of  Alex,  lifoitin,  Henry  Hitdt- 
cnck.  K.  F..  Ronibauer,  George  ^T,  Stewart 
and  Given  Campbell,  brought  in  their  report 
at  the  adjourned  meeting  heM  March  33d, 
and  it  wa-s  adopted.  John  R.  Sheplcy  wks 
made  the  first  president  :  G.  .\.  Finkelnburg, 
A.  N.  Crane  and  E.  T.  Farisli.  vice  presidents ; 
£.  W.' Pattison,  secretar>';  A.  M.  Thayer, 
treasurer;  and  .\lex.  Martin.  Edward  C.  Kehr 
and  Charles  S.  liayden,  members  of  the  ex- 
ecutive committee.  The  Bar  Assodatioa  of 
St.  T.oiiis  rq^resents  the  highest  professional 
spirit  and  standard,  and  is  expected  to  vindi- 
cate llie  honor  of  tiie  profession  whenever  ciF> 
cumstances  require  it. 

Barbers'  l*roltM'tive  Assuciat  ion. — 
The   Missouri   State    Barbers'  Protective 

Association  was  organized  at  St.  Louis,  Jan- 
uary 25,  1898,  the  first  officers  being  Rudolph 
Koerper,  president;  Henry  Geminger,  ^rice 

president;  John  C.  Burgy,  secretary;  H.  X. 
Buchanan,  treasurer;  J.  F.  KilHan,  sergcant- 
at-arms;  J.  G.  Tottman,  financial  secretary. 

Digitized  by  Google 



The  object  is  to  maintain  and  enforce  tlie  law 
of  the  State,  reg^ilating  the  occupation  of 
barber,  and  have  it  made  applicable  to  the  en- 
tire State,  instead  of  being  confined  to  cities  of 
50,000  population  and  over.  In  the  year  1900 
the  association  had  650  membcn. 

BarberH*  State  Buard  of  Exuiiiiii- 
•ra.— A  board  estaUbhed  by  act  of  the 

Legislatiire,  May  5.  if^jf).  "to  regulate  the 
occupation  uf  barbers,  and  prevent  the  spread 
of  contagious  diseases."  It  is  composed  of 
three  persons  appointeil  by  the  (jovenior — 
one  of  whom  shall  have  been  recommended  by 
the  Missouri  State  Barbers'  Protective  Asso- 
ciation, one  l)y  the  lloss  Barbers'  Protective 
Association  of  Missouri,  and  one  by  the  Jour- 
neymen Barbers'  Union.  Tliey  hold  office 
for  a  term  of  three  years,  and  are  paid  their 
travclin^jf  expenses  and  three  dollars  a  day 
while  engaged  in  the  discharge  of  their  duties. 
The  board  holds  examinations  at  least  four 
times  a  \car,  to  i  xaniiiK-  persons  wim  arc 
applicants  fur  registration  as  barbers,  and  issue 
certificates  to  such  as  are  fonnd  qualified. 
These  certificates  run  for  a  year  ami  are  re- 
newable. They  cost  one  dollar  a  year,  and  the 
examination  fee  is  five  dollars.  No  person  is 
allowed  to  follow  the  occupation  of  barber 
without  a  certificate  or  license  from  the  P.oarf! 
of  Examiners,  under  a  penalty  of  fine  <if  not 
less  than  $10  nor  more  than  $fOO,  or  imprison- 
ment. The  law.  as  passcrl.  applies  only  to 
cities  in  the  State  having  a  population  of  50,- 
000  am)  over,  which  takes  in  St.  Louis,  Kansas 
City  a!i(!  St.  Joseph.  The  first  l)oard  ap- 
pointed under  the  law  was  coniposeil  of  John 
L.  Hanks,  Kansas  City,  president ;  John  J. 
Ryan,  ."^t  Ixjuis.  secretary;  and  John  J.  For- 
sting,  St.  Louis,  treasurer. 

BarelBj,  David  Robert,  law>'er,  jour- 

nahst  and  author,  was  born  at  Elderton,  Arm- 
strong County,  Pennsylvania,  June  21,  1827, 
His  parents,  William  Dey  Barclay  and  Mary 
Ann  VVbodwanl,  were  married  .Vovember  25, 
an<l  raised  a  large  family,  of  which 
RolHTt  was  the  tliird  child  and  second  son. 
I'otli  parents  were  active  members  of  the 
Cunil)crland  I*resl)yterian  Church,  aixl  zeal- 
ous workers  in  the  cause  of  religion,  charity 
and  temperance.  While  Robert  was  still 
quite  younj,'  they  removed  t«i  l.^niontown, 
Fayette  County,  Pennsylvania,  for  the  pur- 
pose of  giving  better  educatioiial  advantages 

to  their  children.  After  this  removal  bis 
father  gave  up  his  former  business  as  a  mer- 
chant, and  the  rest  of  his  fife  occupied  the 

position  of  sccrWary  and  treasurer  for  promi- 
ncm  insurance  companies.  He  was  an  "Old- 
Line  Whig"  until  the  organiation  of  the  Re- 
publican party,  when  he  became  one  of  its 
most  faithful  adherents.  His  wife,  Robert's 
mother,  died  when  scarcely  forty  years  old,  in 
1843,  '''^  married  again  in  1844.  He  was 
remarkable  for  his  accuracy  ami  promptitude 
in  all  business  matters,  and  for  his  integrity 
and  piety.  When  his  death  came,  a  few  hours 
only  after  the  close  of  tiie  annual  meeting  of 
the  directors  of  his  dnnpanies,  his  books  were 
found  closed  to  date,  with  no  tmfinished  work 
left  to  his  successor.    He  diet!  May  15.  1865. 

Mr.  Barclay "s  Uncage  is  a  ix>l)le  one,  and 
has  been  traced  back  authoritatively  by  his 
son,  Dr.  Robert  Barclay,  to  Roger  Barchlai, 
time  of  Edward  the  Confessor,  through  the 
successive  generations  to  the  present  time. 
Alexander  Itarclay  (1483")  was  the  first  one  in 
this  line  to  adopt  the  present  spelling  of  the 
himily  name.  One  of  Ms  most  nouble  an> 
cestors  was  David  Barclay — entailer  of  the 
estate  of  Uri — tltc  "Barclay  of  Cry"  immortal- 
ized by  the  poet  Whittier  in  the  poem  of  that 
name.  He  was  also  the  first  Governor  of 
l*"ast  (now  Xewl  Jersey.  His  son,  Robert 
Barclay,  was  also  distinguishe<l  as  the  author 
of  "Barcby's  Apology" — a  defense  of  the 
Quaker?,  or  Friends — and  known  as  the 
"Quaker  Apolfjgist." 

John  Barclay,  the  first  American  ancestor, 
canio  I0  this  country  in  1684,  an<l  sdtlc^l  first 
at  I'lainfield,  East  Jersey.  He  was  one  of  the 
"original  proprkSors**  <rf  East  Jersey,  and 
was  at  different  times  commissioned  as  sur- 
veyor general  and  receiver  general  Later 
he  removed  to  Perth  /\mboy.  New  Jersey, 
and  was  the  founder  and  first  senvor  wanien 
of  .'^t.  Peter's  Episcopal  Church  in  that  town. 
His  grandson,  Rev.  Dzvid  Barclay,  became 
a  misskMary  of  the  Presbyterian  Church,  and 
was  for  fifty  years  an  active  clergyman.  He 
was  the  paternal  grcat-grandfsrtlier,  after 
whom  the  subject  of  this  sketch  was  named; 
and  Robert  .also  was  a  family  name. 

I'rom  Mr.  I'arclay's  father's  maternal  an- 
cestry came  the  Scotch  blood  of  the  Brucea, 
Stewarts,  and  that  of  the  Erskines  and  Gor- 
dons. 'File  mother  of  his  first  .\merican  an- 
cestor, John  Barclay,  was  Catherine  Gordon, 
daughter  of  Sir  Robert  Gordon,  a  second 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 



cousin  of  King  James  I  of  England.  But 
Mr.  Barclay  prki^  trimsdf  most  on  his  Amer* 
ican  ancestors,  tlu-y  having  been  prominent 
in  civil,  religious  ami  military  scnicc  in  the 
early  days  of  our  country's  history,  especially 
in  cokmial  times.  Many  were  distinguiKhed 
a<^  'officers,  ministers  and  missionaries,  as  well 
as  authors. 

Mr.  Barclay  attended  private  schools  in 

Uniontowii,  I'lMinsylvaiiia,  until  he  wa*;  four- 
teen years  of  age,  when,  rather  than  prepare 
fot  and  accept  a  collegUfte  educaitkm,  he  pre- 
ferred to  learn  a  trade.  Select injj  that  of  a 
plinter,  and  wishing  to  become  a  journalist, 
he  went  infto  the  office  of  the  "Genius  of 
Liberty/'  a  Democratic  newspaper  in  Union- 
town,  Pennsylvania,  where  he  learned  not 
only  the  printer's  trade,  but  the  principles  of 
the  Democratic  jxirty  so  thoroughly  Hiat  he 
ne^'cr  forsook  them.  Here  he  also  acquired 
his  love  of  reading  and  his  taste  for  politics 
and  for  general  historical  research. 

In  184^)  lif  left  home  for  the  first  time,  and 
served  his  last  year  as  a  printer  and  book- 
keeper in  the  city  of  Phfladelphia. 

Leaving:  that  city  in  1847,  became  clerk 
on  an  Ohio  River  steamboat,  owned  by  his 
broUier-in-law,  Captain  Thos.  Gregg,  remain- 
ing with  him  until  the  lattcr's  death  in  1849, 
after  which  he  entered  the  steamboat  trade  on 
Southern  rivers.  Through  his  business  and 
social  intercourse  with  Southern  people  at 
that  time  he  acquired  a  love  for  tliem  and  their 
institutions,  adopted  their  habits  and  princi- 
ples, and  ever  after  espoused  their  cause. 

In  March,  1850,  he  visit<-<!  his  relative,  Mr. 
John  S.  Watson,  of  St.  Louis,  who  induced 
him  to  forsake  river  fife  aiid  become  a  resi- 
dent  of  that  city,  ofTering  him  a  posit ir.n  at 
once  as  bookkeeper  for  tlic  firm  of  VVilgus 
&  Watson  (.\sa  Wilgus  and  JoTm  S.  Wat- 
son).   This  he  accepted  and  retaiiuxl  until  the 
dissolution  of  that  firm,  and  continued  tlic 
same  with  its  successors,  John  S.  Watson  & 
Co.,  until  their  interests  were  sold  to  Thos. 
R.  CcK^r  &  Co.,  T.  R.  Cooper  bein-;.,'  the 
practical  printer,  and  D.  R.  Barclay  the  busi- 
ness manager  of  tiie  new  firm.    This  co> 
partnership  existdd  but  one  year,  and  that 
enterprise  closed  permanently  in  1853.  Mr. 
Barclay  then  opened  a  general  collecting 
agency,  at  the  same  time  devoting  all  his 
spare  hours  to  preparation  for  a  future  pro- 
fessional career,  either  as  a  journalist  or  a 
lawyer.    Dtiring  all  these  years  he  had  been  a 


great  reader,  especially  of  the  current  events 
of  the  period,  and  of  American  and  p(riitical 
history,  so  that  in  his  later  years  he  was  re- 
garded as  an  authority  on  the  political  and 
general  history  of  his  country.  He  had  also 
been  reading  and  studying;  law  under  the 
direction  of  hi^  friend,  Judj^c  Alexander 
Hamilton,  and  m  March,  1854,  was  admitted 
to  the  bar  of  St.  Louts.  He  did  not  begin 
the  practice  of  law,  however,  until  January 
I,  1855,  and  then  confined  himself  almost  ex- 
clustvdy  to  office  work,  seldom  appearing  in 
the  courts  as  counsel.  Tlie  result  of  these 
years  of  application  aften^ard  appeared. 

In  1857  he  began  his  work  kaown  as  "Bar- 
clay's  Digest  of  the  Decisions  of  the  Supreme 
Court  of  Missouri."  tlic  first  edition  of  which 
was  published  June  i,  1859.  A  second  edi- 
tion was  issued  in  December,  1868.  "Bar- 
clay's Digest"  is  still  considered  a  valuable 
and  necessary  acquisition  to  every  law  library, 
and  bids  fair  to  perpetuate  the  name  of  its 

In  18O0  he  became  more  interested  in  poli- 
tics, and  accepted  the  nomination  of  the  State 
Democratic  Convention  for  the  office  of  Rep- 
resentative from  St.  Louis,  but  was  defeated, 
and  but  for  the  sake  of  his  party  would  have 
rejoiced  in  h\s  own  defeait,  fbr  he  was  not  an 

When  the  Gvil  War  began,  in  i86r,  he 
openly  espoused  the  cause  of  Siouthem 
rights,  and  fearlessly  a\x>wed  his  Southern 
sympathies.  After  the  capture  of  Camp  Jack- 
son. May  10,  1861,  by  the  Federal  troops  and 
Home  Guards  under  Generals  N.  Lyon  and 
Ffank  P.  Blair,  and  after  tiie  subsequent  cap- 
ture of  Che  Federal  camp  and  sohlierB  under 
the  command  of  Colonel  Mulligan  at  Lexing- 
ton, Missouri,  by  General  Sterling  Price,  of 
the  Southern  army,  Mr.  Barclay,  at  tiie  solici- 
tation of  many  friends  in  both  camps,  inter- 
ested himself  in  their  exchanppe.  General 
Price  had  refused  to  negotiate  for  an  ex- 
change, declinmg  to  recognize  the  Camp 
Jackson  prisoners  as  opponents  to  Federal 
authority  or  violators  oi  militia  law,  many  of 
them  having  then  entered  the  United  SlAtes 
service.  But  there  were  many  who  believed 
he  mij^ht  be  influenced  to  change  his  views 
by  a  special  appeal,  and  Mr.  Barclay  and 
Major  Henry  W.  Williams,  beii^  dose  per- 
sonal  friends  of  General  Price,  were  solidtcd 
to  secure  an  authorized  conference  with  him 
and  make  an  eflFort  to  accomplish  the  much 

Digitized  by  Coogle 



desired  exchange.  Alter  some  delay  permis- 
sion W8S  secured  from  Colonel  Curtis,  then  in 

conimaixl  in  St.  lx»uis,  for  Mr.  r.arclay  and 
Major  Williams  to  visit  General  Fremont's 
camp  at  Springlield,  Missouri,  and  get  bis 
consent  to  proceed  further  on  this  business. 
This  w-a.s  reluctantly  R^iven,  and  by  order  of 
Geo.  K.  W  aring,  major  conmianding  Fre- 
mont's Hussars,  these  gentlemen  were  pro- 
vided uiih  an  escort  and  a  pass  across  the 
Federal  lines  to-  visit  the  camp  of  General 
Price  at  Wiison*s  Creek,  Missouri.  October 
31,  1861.  After  their  interview  with  General 
Price  he  consented  to  an  excliange  o£  prison- 
ers on  condition  that  Mr.  Barclay  would 
pledfje  himself  to  act  on  his  (fieneral  Price's) 
behalf  as  commissioner  of  exchange.  This 
pledpre  was  ^ivm  and  fatthfully  kept  and  the 
exclianp^e  effected,  but  it  marked  ^Ir.  Barclay 
still  more  strongfly  as  a  .Southern  sympa- 
thizer, and  subjected  him  to  many  unpleas- 
ant experiences.  Nothing  but  his  peculiar 
position  in  other  respects,  his  serious  and 
more  imperative  obligations,  and  other  cir- 
cumstances not  proper  to  be  here  mentioned, 
prevcntc^l  him  at  that  time  from  offerinff  !ii> 
services  and  life,  if  need  be,  to  the  cause  he 
loved  so  well. 

The  following  Decend)er  12,  iRru.  Major 
General  Halieck  issued  General  ( Jrdcr^  No. 
24,  for  the  assessment  of  many  prominent 
citizens  of  St.  Louis,  tnale  and  female,  as 
Southern  sympathizers.  Mr.  Barclay  was 
one  of  these,  and  also  one  of  the  twenty-five 
on  that  list,  who  on  Deccml)er  26,  1861, 
signed  a  protest  to  General  Halieck  against 
the  execution  of  that  unjust  order.  The 
order,  however,  was  soon  after  executed, 
an«!  ^T^  P.arclay's  law  and  miscellaneous 
library  and  other  personal  property  sold 
iinder  it  at  public  auction.  This  loss  and  his 
inability  to  take  the  iron  clad  oath  then 
necessary  in  order  to  practice  law  in  Missouri 
resulted  in  the  abandonment  of  hts  professkm, 
and  in  an  entire  change  of  his  pursuits. 

In  1862,  on  February  i8th,  Mr.  Barclay  was 
arrested  as  a  Southern  sympathizer  by  or- 
der of  Provost  Marshal  General  Bernard  G. 
Ferrar,  and  confined  in  the  Myrtle  Street 
Prison,  being  one  of  the  first  ciWhaus  placed 
therein.  After  two  months'  imprisonment 
without  trial,  no  special  charges  having  been 
made  against  him,  he  was  released  without 
oath,  bond  or  parole  by  Assistant  Provost 
Marshal  Colonel  Thos.  C.  Fletcher,  April, 

186.2.  The  following  month  lie  went  to  Un- 
iontown,  Pennsylvania,  and  remained  at  his 
father's  imtil  .\ugust,  when  he  went  to  To- 
ronto, Canada,  and  remained  uiuil  April,  1863, 
the  military  authorities  requiring  his  absence 
from  tlte  District  of  .Missouri.  Kesolvcil  tiicn 
to  return  liome  at  all  hazards,  he  went  to  Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio,  to  await  orders  from  St.  Louis. 
Here  he  was  arrested  by  Gencnd  Hunisidc's 
on  lor,  April  jo,  1863,  but  released  by  him  after 
only  iwx>  days'  surveillance.  But  General 
Curtis  and  Provost  Manhal  FrankHn  A.  Dick 
demanded  terms  for  his  return  which  he 
could  not  possibiy  accept,  and  again  he  went 
to  his  fiather's  home  in  Ptonsylvania  to  await 
events,  Mmntime  Colonel  James  O.  Hroad- 
head  became  provost  marshal  geacnl,  and  on 
more  reaaoinMe  and  genennis  terms  author- 
ised his  return.  These  he  accr})ted.  and  ar- 
rived once  more  in  St.  Louis  July  2,  1863. 

Mr.  Barclay's  first  effort  to  resume  active 
business  after  the  dose  of  the  war,  in  1865, 
was  the  purdiase  from  Thomas  Marsh;ill, 
ICsq.,  of  his  abstracts,  records,  maps,  etc.,  com- 
piled from  the  records  and  surveys  of  St. 
T.onis  city  and  county,  and  the  opening  of 
offices  k>r  the  "investigation  of  real  estate 
titles  and  conveyancing."  He  soon  after  em« 
])Iovcd  as  an  assistant  Mr.  TT.  W.  Williams, 
and  entered  into  partnership  with  htm  Jan- 
uary T,  1868.  For  four  years  this  business 
was  a  great  success,  when  Mr.  Barclay  sold 
his  interest  in  it  to  Mr.  Williams  an<l  retir<t1 
from  the  firm.  Some  of  the  most  beautiful 
and  perfect  abstracts  of  titles  ever  filed  lor 
record  in  St.  Louis  Countv  were  from  the 
hands  of  these  experts,  Barclay  &  Williams. 

Mr.  Barday  sCffl  desired  to  emer  the  field 
of  journalism,  and  in  April,  1872,  the  lo-ng- 
soug^t-for  opportunity  came,  when  he  pur- 
chased a  one-third  interest  in  the  St.  Louis 
"Evenintj  Dispatch."  and  the  following  Octo- 
ber bought  the  entire  interest  of  Mr.  W.  H. 
McHenry,  becoming  the  sole  owner,  where- 
upon he  organized  a  Mode  omnpany  and 
became  its  president.  Per  a  tituc  s'tcccss 
seemed  certain,  but  reverses  came,  and  on 
February  16^  1876,  he  dissolved  all  connectkm 
with  that  journal.  After  this  he  never  entered 
into  any  permanent  business. 

Mr.  Barclay  was  baptized  in  infancy  in  the 
Cumberlan<l  Presbyterian  Church,  but  never 
connected  himself  with  it.  His  preference 
was  for  the  Episcopal  Church,  and  on  April 
24,  1873,  he  and  his  son,  Robert,  then  a  pupil 

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at  the  '       . .  .    I .  •• 
wcrf  c  •••  •  .    J  ; 

J-«  •  •«   III  • 

\  •riritiia.  :  •  '  ■■  ".  • 

\\  a-"'"!'"^;  Ml    ,  •  •!  -iM-  i. 

Mr.  r.i''«.l.i»  A.i-  I  \  -  «»•■^ 

St.    I .  'Ill*       I  !<•   ■■^    '  .• 

I  .i"kt  ',->  i  i<  ►>['::;»',  .til  i  •  •!  ;  < 
tutj'in  fr»r  tiu  K«Ih.-:i' «     <•»  ■  « 

•  wen  I'^'tMMVti  <I  .\      '  '• 
••■'.i.-ns  will  r'.T.n-Pii'cT       <  • 

the  m-i-:)i»n  :iii>l  •' 
J '..,;»''ral,  ami  t  t  ;!)»'  roi'.«  .  • 

•  "..'jri'li  aitor  iu  «!' -triu  ;■  ii  '  • 
i..r  r'lv  t'cueral  wc'.iaro  ih  \.:-  •  i 

-  11.  vt  r-rniMtij;  iiHi  :f«.l  .••  ' 
::k'  I-  iura;'. >n  d  'h>-   !  ■ 
I  ."'l.v- spirited  maw  aiitl  a!  .,  r  • 
••l-.iritablc  \\»>rk  ami  i»(ii!.imiir--. 

lit-  uas  nol  f<nul  <>i  -'-.Tft  . 
J'f  s«>li»'ita'ii«»n  -if        •.•••.ml  ••. 
:)•«•  ilauphtoT  i.f  a  .Ma><>ii  aii«l  an  • 

be.  "i»vrMi  af(fr  !'•       Mi.i!!!.!;.  !•■ 

M  Ii)'lti><*mk"nt  (  Jr-lcr  «>l  < '-t  '  ' 
:•• '.aHv  attrmird  WiUlcy  I  «   •  . 

•  y»-ar  on'y.  but  ri*t.iim<l  i,  • 
.:. !' «;  •  tnlcr  for  ten  year-;, 

S'.'.  T.arrlay  was  fwii-«*  iiinnN*: 
«!•<■  wn-  Mi^s  >;i\rA  \  irpni.'t  \V.  . 
I  'l-.riM.  .\rka!isas.  to  wliom  \:<-  > .  - 
'.•:;.''vr  24,   1831.     Sli<-  fli'M  M 
I\vcinl»er  14.  1H5J.     II--  s»v»t 
v'<>m  lie  was  mirriotl  'imic 
I  f-»'i>.  was  Mary  .Mi  liiula  fi;i;.  1  . 
<.nr  >.<in,  ShefianlK  tlio  only  -i.-if 
Sliepard  atvl  Mary  Tlmin.-is  .- 
marriacc  lie  became  llio 

lll^  hT- 

•11    y[  \ 

■■■  •  •   \  \'. 

•i.     1  .ni,. 

'  wife. 

VI.  : 


"  ]"<• 

■  >    1  1 

:Mrcn  —one   .wm  an«l  ibt»— 
Mary  h-ilier  Harclay.  RoIhtt  !'.  i-i 

:■■  " -I  tirintf  phy-irian  in  St.  <■  ; 

i    .i  i^«r,  wife  of  lvliui»ii'l  L  .Nfol'le" 


I..  \ 
I'.-  I.. 

Jv.'.ius  llowani  Pratt,  I'h.  |).,  of  .MiSv. -il..  .•. 
Wi-conMH,  all  of  wlumi  ami  -1  n"*I:  t  ■ 
vi\e  bim. 

Mr.  Barclay  wa.s  a  man  "f   1..  n 
:''iis'*s  and   uniiinitcd  hospuai-  v 
A      of  the  Civil  War,  in  iWij;,.  , 
Siuthemer>  came  to  St.  l/nn«  !  » 
for  lines,  and  not  a  few  of  tbi 

.V*  t!ic 
V  vonnp 
•vk  their 


"  irratffnl  pleasure  his  perv  n.ii  kifidncss 
.x'f^  the  frenial  wrelcome  and  f>cp>  rou>  hoftpi- 
tu';  >  tvhich  always  awaited  ihein  and  tbe:r 
I  ■  -d^at  the  liarclay  homestead. 

«va^  a  fjithful  friend,  a  bitt>^r  fue,  a 

aiul  o  I  . 
in  iX;  -.  I 

I.-IA-  ,ll 

n->Ui|  ant!)  r  . 
■'  .1  :;i":n  •«  '.■ 


ti{  tii 

the  St.  • 
in  iH;^  • 

and  dnrii 



.\tv;.--  ■. 

An.  .  r  .-■ 
In  u." 
and  ]■• 


clfOtOii  • 

iiy  of  5 
bcn.  n  ;ir 
Thayer.  • 
and  Wi'ir 


>  »• 

'  leorpc  v. 

'  ke 

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at  the  Epispocal  Hipfh  School  of  Virginia, 
were  confirmed  together  by  the  Rt.  Rev. 
Biriiop  Johns,  in  Christ  Churdi,  Alexandria. 
Virginia,  tlie  historic  church  in  which  General 
\Va>liinfjton  worshiped.  For  many  years 
Mr.  Barclay  was  a  vestryman  in  Triaky  Par- 
ish, St.  Louis.  He  was  also  a  trustee  of  St. 
Luke's  Hospiul,  and  oi  the  "Missouri  Insti- 
tation  for  the  Education  of  <he  BKnd."  All 
who  were  connccte<l  with  him  in  these  insti- 
tutions will  remember  his  enthusiastic  efforts 
for  the  erection  and  support  of  St.  Luke's 
Hospital,  and  for  the  rebuil<Hnp  of  Trinity 
Church  after  its  destruction  by  tire,  and  also 
for  the  general  welfare  of  that  parish,  as  well 
as  his  never-ceasing  interest  in  the  Instrtution 
frjr  rhc  I-jha-atioti  of  the  Blind.  He  atos  a 
pubhc-spiriied  man  and  always  active  in  all 
charitable  work  and  philanthropic  enterprises. 

Ho  was  not  fond  of  secret  societies,  hut  at 
the  solicitation  of  his  second  wife,  wlio  was 
the  daughter  of  a  Mason  and  an  Odd  Fellow, 
lie,  soon  nfter  their  marriajxc  in  1854.  joined 
the  Imlependent  Unler  of  Odd  Fellows,  and 
regrulariy  attended  WiM^  Lodge  No.  3  for 
one  year  only,  but  retained  his  membership 
in  the  order  for  ten  years. 

Mr.  Barclay  was  twice  married.  His  first 
wife  was  Miss  Sallie  Virginia  WaXson.  of  Van 
■Rurcn.  Arkansas,  to  whom  he  was  united  l>c- 
cember  24,  1851.  .She  died  in  St.  Louis, 
December  14,  1852.  His  second  wife,  to 
whom  he  was  married  June  2h.  1854,  in  St. 
Louis,  was  Mary  Mclinda  Hill,  a  widow  (with 
one  son,  Shepaiiil).  the  only  daughter  of  Elihu 
H.  Shepard  and  Mary  Thomas  S!iepard.  By 
this  marriage  he  became  the  father  of  four 
children — one  son  at»d  three  daughters; 
Mary  Esther  Barclay,  Robert  Barclay  (now 
a  practicing  physician  in  St.  Louis) ;  Lucy 
Eleanor,  wife  of  Edmond  L.  McClelland,  Esq., 
of  Washington,  D.  C,  and  Annie,  wife  of 
Julius  Howard  Pratt,  Ph.  n.,  of  Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin,  ail  of  whom  and  tlieir  mother  sur- 
vive him. 

Mr.  Barclay  was  a  man  of  i^enerons  im- 
pulses and  unlimited  hospitahty.  At  the 
dose  of  tfie  Civil  War,  in  1865.  many  young 
SouChemers  came  to  St.  Louis  to  seek  their 
fortunes,  and  not  a  few  of  these  remember 
with  grateful  pleasure  his  personal  kmdncss 
and  the  genial  welcome  and  generous  hospi- 
tality which  always  awaited  them  and  tiieir 
friends  at  Uie  Barclay  homestead. 

He  was  a  faithful  friend,  a  bitter  foe,  a 

"royal  host"  and  a  zealous  partisan,  fearless 
in  the  defense  of  his  friends  and  his  principles. 
He  was  handsome,  of  fine  form  and  presence, 

courteous  and  dignified  in  manner,  and  of 
cultivated  and  refined  tastes,  gentle  in  nature, 
triTthfid  in  spirit,  and  in  ev«ry  aense  of  the 
word  a  gentleman. 

He  died  after  only  a  few  days'  illness  at  the 
residence  of  his  son,  Dr.  Robert  Bafday»  in 
St.  Louis,  September  11,  1886. 

'■  After  lifc'>  fitful  fever  be  tleeiM  well." 

Barelay,  Shepard,  lawyer  and  judge, 
was  bom  November  3,  1847,  in  St.  Louis. 
Captain  Ehhu  H.  Shepard,  his  grandfother, 
was  a  pioneer  American  settler,  who  came  to 
that  city  in  1823  from  Xew  York  Sta*e. 

Judg^e  Ilarclay's  etlucation  began  in  the 
public  sclwJtols  oiF  St.  Louis.  From  the  High 
.'^chcx)I  he  went  to  the  St.  Louis  Universitv, 
and  was  graduated  there  in  the  classical  course 
in  1867.  He  then  commenced  the  study  of 
law  at  the  University  of  \'irginia  under  the 
tutelage  of  Professor  }<Ani  B.  Minor,  the 
noted  airthor  of  the  "Institutes,"  and  in  1869 
he  attainc^l  his  degree  of  law  there,  and  was 
also  graduated  in  the  Scliool  of  Medical  Juris- 
])rudence.  Judge  Barclay,  during  his  univer- 
sity career,  was  elected  final  president  of 
the  Jefferson  Society  by  a  unanimous  vote. 
In  1869  he  started  to  Europe,  where  he  re- 
mained until  1872,  attending  two  terms  in  the 
I'niversity  of  Berlin,  in  the  study  of  the  civil 
law,  under  the  guidance  of  Drs.  Gneist  and 
Brans.  He  spent  also  a  oonsiderahle  time  in 
Paris  in  1870,  and  saw  the  close  rif  the  empire 
of  the  third  Napoleon.  During  his  stay 
abroad  he  witnessed  some  of  the  great  events 
of  the  last  Eranco-Prussian  War,  and  wrote 
accounts  of  them,  which  appeared  in  one  of 
the  St.  Ix)uis  journals.  On  returning  home 
in  1872  he  commenced  the  practice  of  law, 
and  during  the  early  days  of  his  law  practice 
wrote  for  the  press  in  St.  Louis  as  editorial 
contributor.  In  1873  he  was  married  to  Hisa 
Anderson,  daughter  of  Honorable  Charles  R. 
Anderson,  a  well  known  citizen  of  St.  Louis. 
In  the  same  year  Honorable  Wm.  C.  Marshall 
and  he  formed  a  law  partnershij),  w+iieh  con- 
tinued until  1882,  when  Judge  Barclay  was 
elected  circuit  judge  in  St.  Louis  by  a  major- 
ity of  Sfi^  His  associates  on  the  circuit 
benlch  at  that  time  were  Judges  .\nios  M. 
Thayer,  Elmer  B.  Adams,  George  W.  Lubke 
and  William  H.  Homer. 

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From  1877  until  after  his  eleciion  to  the 
ludiciary  he  participated  in  organizingf  the 
local  militan,-  force  in  St.  Louis,  whicli  became 
the  Third  Regiment  of  the  National  Guard  of 
Missouri.  It  was  at  the  time  re^rded  as  a 
verj'  efficient  body  of  citizen  soldiery.  Tlie 
regiment  was  commanded  by  Colonel  James 
G.  Butler,  and  one  of  the  best  companies 
therein  was  the  Lafayette  Guard,  of  which 
tlie  vultject  of  this  sketch  was  for  many  yean 

In  1888,  near  the  close  of  his  term  of  service 
on  the  circuit  bench,  he  was  elected  judge  of 
the  Supreme  Court  of  Missotui.  His  first 
opinion  as  supreme  judge  is  reported  in  the 
97th  Missouri  l\q>nrts,  paj^c  2^).  and  liis  opin- 
ions appear  thereafter  in  nK>re  than  forty-five 
volumes  of  the  official  dectsions.  In  1897 
Judge  Barclay  was  chosen  chief  justice  of 
the  court  by  his  associates  on  the  bench,  and 
in  June  of  that  year  the  University  of  Mis- 
souri  at  Columbia  conferred  upon  him  the 
hotiornrv  deforce  of  doctor  of  laws. 

Uct'ore  going  on  the  bcnc'n  Juilg'c  Barclay 
served  for  several  years  as  .secretary  of  the 
Missouri  Historical  Society.  In  1882  lie  was 
elected  secretary  of  the  Conference  of  Judges 
of  Missouri,  an  association  fcrmed  by  mem- 
bers of  tiic  jiuliciary  of  the  State  for  t!ie  pur- 
pose of  considering  and  reporting  to  the  Legis- 
lature upon  omissions,  uncertainties  and  in- 
congruities in  the  statute  law — a  duty  imposed 
on  the  judges  by  Section  3272  of  the  Revised 
Statutes.  He  iilloil  that  office  for  more  than 
fifteen  years,  and  until  his  resignation  as 
judge.  He  also  filled  for  a  long  pericxl  the 
office  of  vice  president  of  the  American  Bar 
Association,  an  important  national  organiza- 
tion of  members  of  the  bar  from  all  parts  of 
the  United  States. 

In  1898  he  resigned  his  ofKce  as  chief  jus- 
tice of  Missouri  to  practice  law  in  St.  Louis, 
in  conjunction  with  Messrs.  J.  E.  McKeighan 
and  ^I.  V.  Watts.  Since  the  termination  of 
that  association  in  tpoi  he  continues  in  prac- 
tice on  his  own  account,  and  maintains  the 
high  place  in  his  profession  which  his  record 
on  the  bench  established. 

In  deference  to  the  wishes  of  the  su<>jcct  of 
this  sketch  we  have  given  merely  the  un- 
vanushed  facts  of  his  career  to  the  present 
time,  and  have  not  essayed  any  culc^y  of  his 
public  services,  or  of  his  personal  qualities; 
but  we  may  be  pardoned  the  remark  that  the 
record  he  has  already  made  is  probdily  in 

il»clf  sufficient  evidence  of  his  ability  as  a 
hwyer  and  judge,  as  wdl  as  of  the  regard  in 
which  he  is  held  by  his  fellow-dtizens  of  St 
Louis,  and  of  Missouri. 

BiiriiiK* — An  incorporated  village  in 
Knox  County,  on  tlie  Atchison,  Topeka  & 
Santa  Fe  Railroad,  six  and  a  half  miles  north- 
cast  of  Edina,  the  county  seat.  It  has  a  good 
public  school,  two  churches,  a  bank,  a  news- 
_  paper,  the  "Herald,"'  two  hotels  and  about 
'  twenty  other  busfness  i^ces.  Population* 
1899  (estimated),  400. 

Barlow,  Stephen  Doiiflrl«ii«  disttn- 

gui.shcd  as  railway  official  and  public  man, 
was  bom  in  Middlcbury,  V  ermont,  February 
4,  1816,  and  died  in  St.  Louis  August  8,  1895. 
His  father  was  Jonathan  K.  Barlow,  mem- 
ber of  a  New  England  family,  whidt  has 
had  numerous  eminent  representatives.  His 
mother  was  Miss  Honor  Douglas  before  her 
marriage,  ajid  was  an  aunt  of  tlie  late  dis- 
ting\iishetl  IlHnois  Senator  and  statesman, 
Steplicn  A.  Douglas.  Reared  mainly  in  New 
York  State,  Stephen  D.  Barlow  obtained  his 
early  education  in  tlie  common  schools  of 
Genesee  County,  and  completed  his  educa* 
tion  at  the  Wesleyan  Seminary,  near  Roches- 
ter, New  York.  He  read  law  in  the  office  of 
a  prominent  attorney  of  BataVta,  New  York, 
and  was  admitted  to  tlir  l>ar  in  1839.  The 
same  year  he  came  to  St.  Louis,  arriving  on 
November  12th.  Shortly  afterward  he  was 
appointed  assistant  to  General  Jolin  Ruland, 
clerk  of  the  Circuit  Court  of  .St.  I>ouis  County, 
and  in  1842,  after  the  creation  of  tiie  Court 
of  Common  Pleas,  he  was  made  chief  deputy 
to  Tames  \V.  Walsh,  clerk  <>f  that  court.  T\\t> 
years  later  the  county  court  appointed  him 
county  clerk  and  recorder  of  deeds  to  fill  out 
the  unexpired  term  nf  a  ilcccased  official.  In 
1847  he  was  elected  to  this  office  by  the  peo- 
ple, and  in  1848  entered  upon  a  six  years' 
term,  which  expired  in  1854.  W  hile  servinsf 
the  people  with  vx)nspicuou<;  ability  as  a 
county  official,  he  had  also  been  active  in  pro- 
moting railway  and  other  enterprises  of  im- 
portance to  the  city,  and  when,  in  1853.  t!ie 
St.  Ix>uv>  <\:  Iron  Mountain  Railroad  Com- 
pany was  permanently  organized,  he  was 
made  its  secretary  and  treasurer.  Upon  the 
expiration  of  his  term  as  clerk  aiul  recorder 
he  turned  his  entire  attention  to  railroad  af- 
foirs,  and  by  successive  re-dections  continued 

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BAkNAKl'  .\RNi:s. 

in  tlie  posit imi  <>i  .  rctary  aii<l  treasiinr  -': 
.  the  railroad  company  until  1859.  when  he  ^•■ 
come  president.  For  seven  >ear!s  tliercaiu*: 
he  remained  at  the  head  of  this, 
and  was  known  a?  one  of  ilic  altlc>t  of  tVo 
old-time  Western  railway  iii.iiia.:;crs.  In  iJ>i  ^ 
the  Iri)n -Monntain  aixi  it>  iraiu-hi-i-* 
wore  t*>  satisfy  a  claim  vrWwli  ihc  State 
of  MisMiuri  held  against  it  i>T  ai<l  rt  i<<'.>-n-d 
to  the  enterprise,  A  reorpfanizaiion  i.f  t;,c 
co!iif>an>  I'lliovscd  tliis  satr.  and  f'>r  a  f<  w 
years  tljereafter  Mr.  I'.arhnv  va<  not  >j\:>.  .  '..y 
identified  witli  the  ci>rporaii  -ii  In 
however,  he  resumed  cf»nnectii-:'  with  it  as 
assistant  to  Honorable  Thomas  .\"'  n.  ]>n,si- 
dcnt.  Later  he  1>ccamc  local  tt«'a  tl-e 
C'.  H'nany.  and  ;iii<  ;  i  nc  purclia-:  »  *  •*  r-vid 
hy  fay  {rt")nl(i  in  1878,  which  roii  '  .ii  its 
copsoiidati. >n  w't'i  the  Mi»?onri  I'a  •  >>- 
teni,  he  \v.4^  rct.inufj  as  s<*crctary  of  t  ..  ■  -i 
Mountain  branch  and  coninii«si<)mr  oi  i. 
in  Missouri,  lioth  these  oftics  he  coniim. 
to  hoM  until  the  diiy  of  his  <U'ath.  Djirin}, 
his  lontr  r\nd  active  connection  wi*h  the  rail- 
way interests  of  Missouri  he  wa»>  tnuoh  in  tlie 
puNio  eye,  and  in  that  sen'-e  was  a  puM.'-  jnan 
for  more  'h?.i\  i'lrw  \i,ii">.  A,-  .1  city  and 
«"»iiiiity  official  he  also  rcndei  'd  iii'iny  \i-.iri 
'•f  faithful  and  efficient  service  t  •  the  p^^<  ;;'o, 
and  the  force  and  influence  of  hiN  cou^in  ' « i- 
Ccn'M?  was  felt  in  rdinoist  everv  d  ••  :  f'  ' m  .,f 
•*ie  *.ily  jyovernnient.  As  car  n>  1  \; "  h-.' 
-."pved  as  a  member  <A  the  Buc-nl  <ii  I  id  lie 
--!i''«>lji.  and  was  several  times  re d-r'xl  t  i 

•  'At  \wyiy.    As  its  presitleiit  paiti..!dar!y  he 
.  iitHbuted  ffreatly  to  the  nphuildiit^  «•(  tlic 

ndid  pid>!ic  school  system  of  .*^f.  T^-'ii-?. 
♦••r.ntf  the  \iars  1865-6.  while  a  meinher  of 
.  <  Mi-»i!Ouri  Legislature,  lie  oV.UiUe'l  a  char- 
I.  •  i-«r  the  Public  Schod  Library  .A^xtciatioii, 

•  '1  founded  the  present  public  li'-  arv,  aii'! 
!U  first  pre>iderrt.    In  lie  was  ajj- 

vv'  a  member  of  the  boartl  of  managers 

•  •  •   -  -^^.itc  Asylum  f>r  the  Insane,  a;  I-nlmn. 

•  n.    In  1867-8  he  served  a<  a  njcmUer 
•  ■  Tioard  uf  \Vat«r  Coinmi.-^io'nr.'j  of  Sit." 

•  ..   -    .tnd  in  i860  was  elected  city  ounp- 

•  rrvinjr  until  1S71.    While  aotinj?  in 

•  .•  .rhy  lie  fornuilaled  ilie  "l\t!e-lJarlow 

which  was  «M'a.  ;i  1  by  thr  Lcfji.i- 
\ficr  the  ailoidiLiii  i>f  the  cxi^tinp 
And  cliarter"  iic  «as  elected  a  mcin- 
•'•e  first  city  emmcil  providcl  for 
••••!  scncil  until  1879.  beini;;^  ohairman 
*mmitteet»      wa>i>  and  means,  and 


.1  .." 

■  lit 

the  •• 

of  the  ! 
p:i!iy :  A'.;! 
j.-^'i'leut  ol  • 
;>:iMishcr  ni  . 
.v'..l  Af.die* 
"••ntes  c  >n- 

1  '  I  iinnl. 

( '««u: 


Iiy  M  a:  • 

I'tdm-:  ..: 
Stands  in  : 
a-5 1  T\\  ,^  ■ 

ni'.-.>.  in  >h  '  ' 
of  T.  K.  i.. 
C  ue.  St.  ! 

Ban  • 

years  Ci 
of  that  . 
of  Conrr  . 
in  the 
and  Ju'-  i 
in  the 
cinl  p-i' 
nianho«  • ! 
in  1876.  •• 

in  t!:r 

nu"i>!!>cr.-ii  ;• 

•*  ? 

■  •<  c 
•  ••eolii, 

•      i  St.  Lou:.- 

•  .!•  's\ely  interested 

•  •'v.  Admitted  to 
••  •  of  Commerce,  he 

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in  tbe  position  of  secretary  and  treasurer  of 
the  railroad  company  until  1859,  when  he  be- 
came president.  For  seven  years  thereafter 
be  renmtned  ait  the  head  of  this  corporation, 
and  was  known  as  one  of  the  ablest  of  the 
old-time  Western  railway  managers.  In  1S66 
the  Iron  Mountain  Railroad  and  its  franchises 
were  sold  to  satisfy  a  claim  which  the  State 
of  Missouri  held  against  it  for  aid  rendered 
to  the  enterprise.  A  reorganizatiott  of  the 
company  followed  this  sale,  and  for  a  few 
years  thereafter  Mr.  Barlow  was  not  officially 
identified  with  the  corporaetion.  In  1873, 
however,  he  resumed  comiection  with  it  as 
assistant  to  Honorable  Thomas  Allen,  presi- 
dent. Later  he  became  local  treasurer  of  the 
company,  and  after  the  purchase  of  the  road 
by  Jay  Ciould  in  1878,  which  resulted  in  its 
consolidation  with  the  Missouri  Pacific  sys- 
tem, he  was  retained  as  secretary  of  the  Iron 
^fountain  branch  and  commissioner  of  lands 
in  Missouri.  Both  these  offices  he  continued 
to  hold  tinttl  the  day  of  his  death.  During 
his  long  and  active  connection  vath  the  rail- 
way interests  oi  Missouri  he  was  muoli  in  tlie 
puMic  eye,  and  hi  that  sense  was  a  public  man 
for  more  than  forty  years.  As  a  city  and 
county  official  he  also  rendered  nrany  years 
of  faithful  and  efficient  service  to  the  {xtople, 
and  the  force  and  influence  of  his  constructive 
genius  vrss  felt  in  almost  even'  department  of 
the  city  government.  As  early  as  1857  he 
senred  as  a  member  ol  the  Boanl  of  Public 
Schools,  and  was  several  times  re-elected  to 
that  body.  As  its  president  particularly  he 
ctmtribtited  greatly  to  the  upbuilding  of  the 
splendid  public  schwl  system  of  ?t.  Louis. 
During  the  years  1865-6,  while  a  member  of 
the  Missouri  Legislature,  he  obtained  a  char- 
ter for  the  Public  School  Library  AsiodUdxm, 
which  founded  the  present  public  library,  and 
was  its  first  president.  In  1866  he  was  ap- 
pmnted  a  member  of  the  board  of  managers 
of  the  State  .\sylum  for  the  Insane,  at  Fulton, 
Missouri.  In  1867-8  he  served  as  a  member 
of  the  Board  of  Water  Oommissioners  of  St. 
Louis,  and  in  1869  was  elected  city  comp- 
troller. ser\'in£r  "ntil  1871.  While  acting  in 
that  capacity  he  formulated  the  "Cole-Barlow 
ohaiter,"  which  was  enacted  by  the  Legis- 
lature. .'\fter  the  adoption  of  the  existing; 
"scheme  and  cltartcr"  he  was  elected  a  mem- 
ber of  the  first  city  council  provided  for 
therein,  and  served  until  1879,  being  ohainnan 
of  the  committees  on  ways  and  means,  and 

railroads.  He  was  originally  a  Whig  in  his 
political  affiliations,  but  early  joined  the  "Free 
Soil"  movement,  being  one  of  the  small  num- 
ber  of  Missourians  who  took  a  1>  >ld  stand 
apiainst  the  extension  of  slavery.  He  natur- 
ally became  a  supporter  of  the  Republican 
party,  and  was  a  steadfast  but  conservative 
member  of  it  to  the  end  of  his  life.  From 
1842  until  his  death  he  was  a  member  of  St. 
John's  Episcopal  Ghtnch  of  St.  Louis,  and 
during  the  later  years  of  bis  life  was  senior 
warden  of  its  vestry.  September  12,  1839,  he 
married  Miss  Lucy  A.  Dickson,  of  Peny, 
New  York.  His  widow  and  four  children  are 
the  surviving  members  of  his  famHy.  These 
children  arv.  Stephen  D.  Barlow,  Marg^et  D. 
Turner,  wife  of  Charles  H.  Turner,  president 
of  the  St.  Louis  &  Suburban  Railwtiv  Com- 
pany; Agnes  Houser,  wife  of  D.  M.  Ilouser, 
president  of  the  Globe  Priming  Company  and 
publisher  of  the  St.  Louis  "Globe-Democrat"  ; 
and  Andrew  D.  Barlow,  present  United 
Staltes  consul  general  in  Mexico. 

Barnard. — ^A  village  in  Nodaway  County, 
twelve  miles  sotith  of  Maryville,  on  ^e  lifery- 
ville  branch  of  the  Kansas  Citv,  St.  Joseph  & 
Council  Bluffs  Railroad.  It  contains  the 
Barnard  State  Bank,  capital  and  surplus  $20,- 
400;  deposits,  $49,000;  a  larjcre  griatnull,  nm 
by  water  pc^ver ;  twelve  business  houses ;  Pres- 
b\tcrian,  Methodist  Episcopal  South,  Chris- 
tian, and  Methodist  Episcopal  Churdhes,  and 
lodq-es  of  various  fraternal  orders.  The  town 
stands  in  tlie  ridi  \'aJley  of  the  One  Hundred 
and  Two  River,  one  of  the  most  productive 
districts  in  the  county  and  does  a  large  busi- 
ness in  shipping  grain.  It  was  named  in  honor 
of  J.  E.  Barnard,  superintendent  of  the  Kansas 
City,  St.  Joseph  &  Council  Bluflfs  Railroad. 
Population.  1899  (estimated),  400.  Tlie  "Bul« 
letin"  supplies  the  local  news  to  readers. 

BarncH,  Baron  S.,  who  was  for  many 
years  conspicuous  in  St.  Louis  as  a  member 
of  that  body  of  traders  known  as  the  Chamber 
of  Commerce,  was  born  .September  21,  1844, 
in  the  city  of  I'tica,  Xcw  York,  son  of  .\mos 
and  Julia  (Bush)  Barnes.  He  was  educated 
in  the  schools  of  Uttca  and  trained  to  commer- 
cial pursuits.  Coniiiiit,'-  West  in  his  young 
manhood,  he  became  a  resident  of  St.  Louis 
in  1876,  and  at  once  became  actively  interested 
in  the  grain  trade  in  that  city.  Admitted  to 
membership  in  the  Chamber  of  Commerce,  he 

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embarked  in  l)iisiness  as  a  grain  broker,  and 
for  more  than  twenty  years  was  cutuinuously 
engaged  in  that  bnstnch  of  ft-ade.  In  fais  oper- 
ations as  a  member  of  the  Chamber  of  Com- 
merce, he  evinced  rare  judgment  and  evidenced 
tbit  keen  sagacity,  witkh  results  from  a  careful 
study  of  martets  and  trade  conditions,  a  broad 
sur\'ey  of  the  sources  of  supply  and  accurate 
estimates  oi  the  demand  fur  ilie  cereal  products 
of  our  country.  While  he  was  a  fearless 
operator  in  tlic  sense  of  backing  his  judg^nent 
by  his  investments,  he  was,  at  the  same  time, 
careful  in  reaching  conclusions,  and  as  a  result 
of  til  is  conservatism  and  Iiis  long  experience, 
he  was  seldom  found  on  tlie  wrong  side  of  the 
market.  Successful  in  the  accumulation  of  a 
fortune  and  known  among  his  associates  and 
acquaintaiu  cs  as  a  business  man  of  high  char- 
acter and  Mipcri^/r  capacity,  he  was  recognized 
also  as  a  gentlemsin  of  cultured  tastes,  a  lover 
of  gtHxl  liu  ratnre  and  of  tlie  best  tilings  in  art. 
His  home  on  the  heights  \ve^t  of  St.  Louis,  on 
what  is  known  as  the  Bonhomme  Road,  is  one 
of  the  most  beautiful  i)f  St.  Louis  residences, 
and  evidences  the  artistic  tastes  of  its  late 
owner  in  its  furnishings  and  embellishments. 
I '])rii^''ht  in  business,  sinci-rc  in  his  fricndsliips, 
hospitable  in  his  entertainments,  and  genial  in 
his  interoourse  with  his  fellow  men,  fie  w«s 
esteemed  alike  in  business  and  social  circles, 
a  popular  and  useful  citizen.  He  served  in  the 
Union  Army  in  the  Civil  War  as  a  member 
of  the  One  Hundred  and  Fifth  Illinois  Regi- 
ment of  \'olunteer  Infantry,  and  as  a  soldier 
discharged  fjiithfully  every  duty  and  performed 
every  obligation  resting  upon  him.  In  p<Ji- 
tics,  he  was  a  Republican,  and  he  wns  identi- 
fied with  fraternal  organizations  as  a  member 
of  the  Masonic  order  of  the  Knight  Templar 
degree.  He  was  married  at  Oskaloosa,  Iowa, 
June  4,  1890,  to  Miss  Iiva  Salisbury,  and  three 
children  were  bom  to  them.  The  children  are 
Edith  .Margaret,  Baron  Anderson  and  Annis 
I^uiise  llames.  Mr.  l>arncs  died  June  16, 
1899,  and  tlic  esteem  in  which  he  was  held  by 
the  Merchants'  Exchange,  of  which  he  had  so 
long  been  a  nuMnbcr,  u-a<  ('vi<lencc'l  bv  a  series 
of  resolutions  adopted  by  that  body.whicli  gave 
expression  to  the  following  sentence :  "His 
dcadi  removes  from  the  ranks  business  men 
of  St.  Louis  one  wlio  will  long  be  rememl>ered 
for  his  higii  qualities  of  mind  and  heart.  A 
ooorteous,  generous  gentleman,  upright  and 
honorable  in  all  his  dealings  w^ith  his  fellow 
men,  and  ever  ready  to  respond  to  any  wx>rthy 

call  for  the  relief  of  sufYerittg  humanity,  or  for 
the  benetit  of  mankind." 

Barnes,  Koltort  A.,  merchant,  banker 
and  public  benefactor,  was  bora  November 
29,  1808,  in  Washington,  D.  C,  and  died  in 
St.  Louis,  April  2,  1892.  His  father  was 
Jesse  Barnes,  of  Charles  County,  Maryland; 
and  his  mother,  .Mary  livans,  of  Prince 
George  County,  same  State.  He  was  ol 
English  dcsceiu,  his  paternal  ancesJtor  having 
emigrated  in  the  year  1662  from  tlie  County 
ol  Suffolk,  England,  settling  in  Maryland 
near  the  present  site  of  I'ort  Tobacco.  Ilis 
father  died  when  he  was  thirteen  years  of  age, 
and  he  was  placed  under  the  care  of  an  uncle, 
Richard  Barnes,  of  Louisville,  Kentucky,  with 
whom  be  lived  for  several  years.  At  that 
early  date  die  advantages  of  literary  training 
were  meager,  embracing  only  a  common 
school  education,  which  he  received;  but  in 
after  years  by  extensive  reading  he  became 
well  iiu'ornutl  on  all  ordinan,-  subjects,  fitting 
him  for  the  intercourse  of  cultmcd  societv. 
In  equipment  for  his  career  the  lack  of  early 
litenvy  training  was  amply  supplied  by  a 
stixmg  character,  a  vigorous  intellect,  and 
especially  by  sound,  common  sense,  wfiich  is 
nothing  but  sound  judgment  applied  to  the 
questions  of  daily  life  as  they  arise,  aivd  which 
was  one  of  Mr.  Barnes'  most  marked  char- 

On  May  i;.  1830,  he  removed  to  St.  Louis, 

which  he  made  his  pcnnanetit  home.  In  his 
marriage.  January  28,  1845,  he  became  con- 
nedcd  with  one  of  the  most  prominent  families 
of  the  city,  his  wife.  Louise  de  Mun,  being  the 
third  daughter  of  Jules  de  Mun  and  Isabellc 
Gnrtiot.  • 

Mr.  Barnes  chose  f>  )r  hi-;  career  ci)intniToi:L' 
pursuits ;  and  in  his  later  life,  retiring  from  his 
business  as  a  wholesale  grocer,  he  became  a 
capitalist,    three-fourths    of   his  fortune  of 
$1,000,000  consisting  of  cash  and  convertible 
securities,  and  at  the  time  of  his  death  having 
on  dqxtsit  $500,000  in  cash,  and  an  additional 
one  quarter  of  Iiis  estate  bci;ig  in  choice 
stocks  and  bonds.  This  inmiensc  fortune  was 
the  product  of  his  own  labor  and  skill,  hav- 
ing begim  business  life  without  capital  and 
without  intlnential  patronage.     He  was  a 
born  tinancicr.    In  the  principles,  ain\s  ami 
methods  of  business  life  there  are  few  ex- 
anii)!('s  that  wonM  be  fuller  of  soinid  instruc- 
tion to  young  business  men  than  his.  He  laid 

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the  foundation  of  his  fortune  and  gives  the 
Mcret  of  its  growth  in  what  he  is  reported  to 
have  decided  when  he  entered  on  tliat  first 
employment  in  St.  Louis:  "If  I  am  ever  go- 
ing to  get  ahead  I  must  some  time  begin  to 
get  ahead,  and  now  is  the  time  to  begin ;  and  I 
determined  that  year  to  save  $ioo,  wliich  I 
did  and  put  at  interest  and  felt  myself  a  cap- 
italist ;  and  every  year  during  tSie  rest  of  my 
life  I  always  came  out  ahead."  Several 
years  before  his  death  he  placed  in  the 
bands  of  trustees  $27,000  in  bonds  for  the 
benefit  of  the  St.  Louis  Methodist  Orphans' 
!V>nic,  l)tit  with  the  strict  injunction  tb;it  it 
was  to  be  kept  secret  while  he  lived;  and  a 
similar  injunction  was  imposed  in  reference 
to  his  purpose,  necc>5arily  confided  to  one  of 
his  trustees,  to  devote  his  estate  to  the  found- 
ing of  a  hospital,  whidi  was  formed  and  pro- 
vided for  by  will  ten  years  before  his  death. 
His  benevolence  was  not,  however,  merely 
sentimental,  and  therefore  indiscritninate  and 
nnintdligent.  He  seldom,  if  ever,  gave  to  the 
itinerant  bctrgtir  unless  ho  was  also  a  helpless 
cripple.  He  believed  everyone  not  mentally 
or  ^ysically  disabled  ought  to  earn  his  own 
living,  and  could  if  he  was  anxious  to  do  it. 
and  if  he  wwild  not  work  he  ouglit  to  starve. 

The  bc<]uests  of  his  will,  with  few  excep- 
tions, were  in  the  line  of  benefactions  to  the 
poor  and  friciullcss.  In  those  made  to 
nephews  and  nieces  there  appears  the  thought 
and  purpose  to  limit  the  amount  to  each,  so  as 
not  to  release  thctii  from  self-help,  while 
enough  to  lay  the  foundation  oi  a  fortune  if 
they  had  the  ambition  and  energy  to  earn  it. 
The  beneficiaries  were  orphan  asylums  and 
private  hospitals  and  institutions  for  the  care 
of  friendless  old  men  and  wx>mcn,  and  the  re- 
mainder, estimated  at  $1,000,000,  lor  the 
erection  and  maintenance  of  a  hosjutal  "for 
sick  and  injured  persons,  without  distinction 
of  creed." 

Barn  OH,  St'tli  S.,  merchatit  and  railroad 
niajiagcr,  was  born  July  12,  1845,  in  Ripley 
County,  Indiana,  son  of  Seth  S.  and  EUzajbetfa 
(Love)  Barnes,  the  first  named  a  native  of 
New  York  Staite,  and  the  last  named  of  Ken- 
tucky. The  elder  Barnes,  who  was  m  fisnner 
and  (KhUt  in  live  stock, diedin Ripley Conn^, 
Indiana,  in  1847,  when  the  son  was  two  years 
of  age.  The  latter,  when  ten  years  of  age, 
came  to  New  Madrid  County,  Missouri,  where 

he  attended  school  a  portion  oif  the  time,  and 
found  employment  the  remainder  of  the  time. 

When  tlie  Civil  War  began,  and  in  the  year 
1861,  he  enlisted  in  the  United  States  Navy 
and  was  assigned  to  duty  on  the  irancbd  gun- 
boat, "ChiUicothe,"  on  the  Missinippi  River. 

For  four  years,  thereafter,  he  was  in  active 
service  in  this  connection  and  was  mustered 
out  in  June  of  1865,  beii^  one  of  the  twenty- 
five  out  of  one  hundred  and  thirty  com- 
rades who  enUstcd  with  him,  to  escape  being 
killed  or  wounded  in  action.  iSoon  after  his 
dischai^  from  the  naval  service,  he  settled  on 
a  fann  in  Heiulcrson  Coiiiitv,  Illinois.  He 
was  married  in  that  county  and  rcmaijicd 
there  ttntil  1873,  when  he  returned  to  New 
Madrid  0)unty.  and  established  his  home  un  a 
farm,  wlrich  he  had  purchased  there  some  two 
years  earKer.  In  1881,  he  removed  irom  his 
form  to  New  Madtid  and  engaged  in  mer- 
chandising at  that  place.  He  was  appointed 
postmaster  of  New  Madrid  and  held  the  office 
for  two  years,  when  he  resigned  on  account  of 
ill  health.  At  the  same  time  he  sold  a  half  in- 
terest in  his  store,  ami  leaving  die  business  in 
chat^  of  his  partner,  returned  to  the  country, 
hoping  through  this  change  to  regain  his 
ph}'sical  vigor.  He  resumed  merchandising 
in  1886,  and  was  successfully  engaged  in  this 
business  until  January  15,  1HH8,  when  his  entire 
stock  of  merchandise  and  also  liis  hou.selinld 
goods  were  destroyed  by  fire.  He  at  once 
rebuilt  the  store,  and  thereafter  continued  his 
merchandising  operations  on  a  larger  scale 
than  before  until  1899,  when  he  sold  out  and 
became  sole  owner  of  the  Memphis  &  St. 
Louis  Railroad,  which  he  had  helped  to  build. 
Since  then  he  has  given  bis  entire  time  to  tlie 
improvement  and  operatk>n  of  this  road. 
While  this  is  a  short  line  of  railway,  it  runs 
tlirough  a  rich  farming  and  tindjcr  country, 
has  a  good  business,  and  has  aided  greatly  to 
develop  the  region  lying  between  New  Madrid 
and  Portagcvilk'  and  adjacent  to  those  towns. 
Mr.  Barnes  has  been  one  of  the  most  active 
and  energetic  of  the  business  men  in  New 
Madrid  County,  and  is  one  of  those  contribu- 
ting most  largely  to  t!io  di-veli >])Tnont  of  a 
region  which  is  rich  in  natural  resources.  In 
politics  he  is  a  Republican,  bolt  has  never 
been  an  active  politician.  In  September  of 
1 886  he  married  Miss  Laura  Marston.  Their 
children  are  William,  Charles,  Mabel  an  l 
Cora  Barnes. 

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Barnes  Medical  Cullegts — This  in- 
stitution was  founded  in  1892,  by  Drs.  Pinck- 
ney  French,  Charles  II.  Ilupflies  and  A.  N. 
Carpenter.  It  was  incorporated  under  the 
laws  of  Missouri  the  same  year,  and  named  in 
honor  of  R'>lHrt  A.  I'.anu  'i,  the  noted  mer- 
chant and  philamhropiiK  of  St  Louis,  who  left 
a  bequest  of  more  than  a  million  dollars,  to  be 
used  in  founding  and  maintaining  a  hto^ttal 
in  that  city.  Dr.  Hughes  was  chosen  presi- 
dent oi  the  college  at  its  organization,  and  has 
since  continued  to  fill  (that  position.  The  in- 
stitution has  had  a  prosperous  career  and  a 
large  number  of  students  were  enrolled  at  the 
beginning  of  the  year  1899. 

Barnettf  George  Ingram,  architect, 
and  at  the  time  of  his  death  the  oldest  mem- 
ber (if  hi^  ])r' ifessif  111  in  St.  T.rmis,  was  Ix.irn  in 
Nottingham,  England,  March  20,  US15,  and 
died  in  St.  Louis,  December  29,  1898.  He 
was  the  son  of  Alisalom  and  Sarah  (Injjram) 
Bamett,  both  of  whom  belonged  to  old  Eng- 
lish families  of  highest  rcspectabiHty.  His 
father  was  tlic  senior  elder  of  the  Baptist 
Chnrcli  in  Xottiiipliain,  a  position  which  car- 
ried with  it  many  of  the  duties  which  usually 
devolve  upon  a  clergyman.  At  his  house 
the  learlinq'  Baptist  mini.sters  of  Kn^'lnnd 
often  visited;  among  them  Andrew  Fuller, 
who  married  a  sister,  and  Robert  Hall,  the 
most  eloquent  man  the  denomination  has  ever 
produced,  and  one  of  the  most  famous.  Mr. 
Bamett  was  educated  at  a  good  school  in 
Xottinfjham,  and,  while  a  schocrf  boy,  saw  the 
funeral  cortege  of  I^ord  I'.\  ron  arrive  from 
London  on  its  way  to  the  family  vault  in 
Huchnall,  Torkard  Church,  near  Newstead 
Abbey.  He  left  sdiool  at  an  early  age.  and,  as 
a  then  indispensable  preliminary  to  the  pro- 
fession of  architecttnre,  learned  the  trade  of  a 
prsfctical  carpenter.  TTo  was  aftcnvard  ap- 
prenticed to  Patterson  &  Hine,  the  leading 
architects  in  that  ])art  of  England,  and  re- 
mained with  them  six  years.  The  first  out- 
side work  assigned  to  him  by  the  firm  was  the 
superintendence  of  important  cliangcs  and  re- 
pairs at  Annesley  Hall,  the  ancestral  home  of 
Mary  Chawortli — Byron's  "Mary."  He  catne 
to  America  in  1839,  and  after  a  stay  of  some 
months  in  New  York  reached  St.  Louis  in 
the  spring  of  the  following  year,  and  resided 
there  until  his  deatli.  His  first  professional 
work  in  St.  Louis  was  the  drawing  of  a  per- 
spective view  of  the  present  courthouse  for 

Singleton  &  Foster,  then  the  only  arciiitectS 
in  the  town,  who  had  charge  of  the  construc- 
tion. Sliortly  afterward  he  was  engaged  by 
Lewis  &  Clark  a&  assistant  in  the  planning  of 
l4ie  Church  ol  St.  Vmcent  de  Paul,  and  when 
that  was  completed  he  opened  an  office  of  his 
own.  Mr.  Bamett  in  his  long  professional 
life  probably  did  far  more  woric  than  any 
other  one  architect  in  St.  Louis.  Among  the 
more  prominent  structures  erected  by  him  are 
the  present  Southern  Hotel,  as  well  as  its 
predecessor ;  the  present  Lindell  Hotel,  Barr's 
Dry  Ci<xk!s  Store,  tlie  Kcpiitable  BiiiliHn'^',  the 
Tliird  Presb\"terian,  the  Centenary  and  Union 
Methodist  Churches,  and  the  water-works 
building  :it  Bisscll's  Point,  while  his  private 
residences,  stores,  etc.,  are  innumerable. 

Barney,  Cliarh's  E.,  merchant,  was 
bom  May  25,  1834,  in  the  httle  city  of  Water- 
ville,  Maine,  and  died  in  St.  Louis  July  11, 
1898.  His  father  was  a  furniture  manufacturer 
in  moderate  circumstances,  and  the  son  was 
born  to  a  condition  ol  life  wiiidi  impressed 
upon  him  the  necessity  of  honest  effort  and 
the  practice  of  strict  economy  on  Ins  part  in 
early  cliildhood.  When  he  was  eleven  years 
old  he  was  put  out  to  service  as  a  farmer's 
boy.  and  a  y>lain  English  education,  obtained 
in  the  schools  of  Waterville,  constituted  the 
scholastic  equipment  with  which  he  entered 
upon  a  commercial  career  in  later  years. 
.After  working  on  a  farm  until  he  was  sixteen 
years  old  he  wertt  to  Chelsea,  Massachusetts, 
cdebrated  for  its  manufacttires  of  tiles  and 
pottery,  and  clerked  for  two  years  thereafter 
in  a  grocery  store  in  that  city.  Then  he  went 
to  Boston,  the  "Mecca"  of  every  ambitious 
New  l-'ngland  youth  who  goes  in  search  of 
fame  and  fortune  in  the  commercial  world, 
and  in  that  dty  gained  his  first  knowledge  of 
the  dry  goods  trade.  From  Boston  he  \vont 
to  New  York  in  1852,  and  waB  an  employe 
of  tiw  dry  goods  hocne  of  Lord  &  Taylor 
thet«affcer  until  1859.  He  came  to  St.  Louis 
in  the  year  last  named,  and  during  the  next 
year  was  connected  with  the  dry  goods  house 
of  C.  B.  Hubbell,  Jr.,  &  Co.,  of  tfiat  chy.  In 
iHCm^  he  transferred  his  services  to  :hc  firm 
ut  McClelland  &  Scruggs,  and  thus  began  his 
connection  with  the  great  dry  goods  house 
with  which  he  was  so  conspicuously  identified 
<hiring  the  remainder  of  his  life.  Ciiangies  in 
the  partnership,  which  occurred  from  lime  to 
time,  were  followed  by  changes  oC  the  firm 

Digitized  by  Coogle 



name  sucoessivdy  to  W.  L.  Vandervoort  & 
Co.,  Vaudervoort,  McClelland  &  Co.,  and  the 
Scruggs,  Vandenoort  &  Barney  Dry  Goods 
Company.  Under  tlie  name  last  mentioned 
this  noted  establishment, wliich  has  \oug  been 
a  leadingr  <fa7  goods  house  of  St.  Louis  and 
is  known  thrniit:!i<Mit  the  entire  Southwest, 
was  incorporated  in  1883.  Of  this  corpora- 
tion  Mr.  Barney  was  vice  presidenit,  and  his 
connection  with  the  house  as  employe,  part- 
ner, stocldiolder  and  manager  extended  over 
a  period  of  thirty-eight  years. 

Barney,  Reuben,  physician  and  sur- 
geon, was  born  at  Arlington,  Vermont,  April 
20,  1844,  son  of  Nathan  1".  and  Fanny  (Out- 
field) Barney.  His  first  American  ancestor 
was  Jacob  Barney,  who  was  provisional  Gov- 
ernor of  what  is  now  the  State  of  New  Hamp- 
shire, and  lived  at  Ciuildford.  Dr.  Rarncy's 
great-grandfather,  Constant  Barney,  served  in 
the  Revolutionary  War.  Shortly  before  the 
war  he  removed  to  Arlington,  Bennington 
County,  Vermont,  where  his  house  is  still  oc- 
cupied by  his  descendant.'?.  Reuben  Barney. 
Dr.  Barney's  grandfatlicr.  was  judge  of  a  court 
in  X'cnnont.  Nathan  F.  Barney,  his  father, 
was  an  enterprising  and  prosperous  business 
man,  an  extensive  farmer,  lumberman  and 
manufacturer.  On  the  maternal  side  he  is  a 
descendant  of  the  Cantield  family  cA  tlie  New 
Haven  colony  in  Connecticut.  Dr.  Barney  re- 
ceived his  education  at  a  select  private  school 
in  Arlington  and  then  turned  his  attention  to 
medicine,  studying  with  Dr.  I.  G.  Johnson,  of 
Saratoga  Springs,  New  York,  and  in  the 
winters  attended  the  Albany  Medical  Col- 
lege of  Albany,  New  York,  where  he  gradu- 
ated in  1865.  Previous  to  this,  with  the  pur- 
pose of  availing  himself  of  every  opportimity 
to  become  proficjent  in  the  profession  to  which 
his  life  W9S  to  be  devoted,  he  spent  two  years 
in  the  United  States  Army  medical  service  at 
the  hospital  in  Boston,  where  he  was  executive 
officer  for  a  year,  and  wiicrc  he  learned  much 
that  was  advantageous  to  him  afterward.  Af- 
ter graduating  he  %s-ent  to  Long  Island  College 
Hospital,  where  he  took  an  additional  course 
of  one  year.  After  finishing  there  and  feeling 
himself  thoroughly  equipped  for  the  practice 
of  his  profession,  he  settled  at  Hoffman's 
Ferry,  New  York.  He  practiced  at  that  place 
for  two  years  and  then  resolved  to  come  west, 
and  accordingly  came  to  Missouri  and  located 
at  Chillicothe.  There  he  found  himself  in  the 

midst  of  all  the  conditions  and  inducements  of 
usefulness  and  success,  and,  with  the  active 
and  enterprising  spirit  that  distinguishes  him, 
set  to  work  to  improve  the  oj>portunity  for  all 
it  olTcrcd  and  promised.  Under  his  skillful 
and  successful  treatment  of  cases  to  which  he 
was  called  his  practice  grew  rapidly,  and  his 
reputation  as  surgeon  and  physician  extended 
to  the  surrounding  region,  until  he  found  him- 
self obliged  to  make  special  arrangements  for 
the  accommodation  of  his  patients.  For  a 
time  he  awatkid  himself  of  die  advantages  o! 
St.  Marjr's  Catbolk  Hospital  in  Chillicothe, 
but  this  arrangement  was  attended  with  some 
inconvenience,  and  the  increasing  practice  re- 
quired every  facility  for  bringing  the  physician 
and  his  patients  in  frequent  contact,  and  in 
1899  he  carried  out  a  purpose  long  cherished 
by  building  a  sanitarium  within  easy  readi 
and  fitted  with  all  modern  appliances  for  the 
treatment  of  afilicted  persons.  This  building 
is  built  of  brick,  heated  with  steam,  lij^ited 
with  electricity  and  gas,  and  provided  with 
accommodations  for  twenty-five  patients,  and 
within  less  than  a  year  of  its  completion  tlie 
need  of  it  was  demonstrated  by  having  its  ca- 
pacity almost  fully  taxed.  In  this  establish- 
ment, which  is  known  as  the  Barney  Sanita- 
rium, the  skilUut  and  enterprising  sm^gcon 
and  physician  enjoys  special  advantages  for 
dealing  with  diseases,  and  his  rq>utation  for 
successful  treatment  extends  over  all  north 
Missouri.  Tlie  staff  of  the  sanitarium  consisits 
of  Dr.  Reuben  Barney,  Sr.,  president  and  gen- 
eral practitioner;  Dr.  Reuben  Barney,  Jr., 
gynecologist;  Dr.  Mortimer  D.  Barney,  nose 
and  throat,  bacteriologist  and  inicro- 
scopist;  and  Hawley  N.  Barney,  eye  and  ear 
specialist  and  neurologist.  Dr.  Barney  has 
been  United  States  examining  surgeon  for 
pensions  for  twenty-eight  years,  and  he  is  now 
surgeon  for  three  railroads — tiie  Chicago,  Mil- 
waukee &  St.  Paul,  the  Hannibal  &  .'^t.  Jo- 
seph, and  the  Wabash — a  proof  of  the  confi- 
dence that  intelligent  railroad  men  have  in  his 
skill  and  experii  t  He  is  also  surgeon  to  St. 
Mary's  Hospital,  ii  i  :iiber  of  the  National  So- 
ciety of  Railway  ^surgeons,  member  of  the 
American  Medical  Association  and  the 
State  and  District  Medical  Societies,  med- 
ical examiner  for  all  the  leading  life  in- 
surance companies  of  the  United  States,  and 
has  been  president  of  the  Chillicothe  Board  of 
Hcaltli,  tlie  City  Medical  Society  and  the 
Grand  River  District  MeiKcal  Society.  He  is 

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ail  aciive  and  inHucntial  I  reemason,  and  lias 
been  worshipful  master  of  ChilKcothe  Lodge 
No.  333  :  hii^li  priest,  Royal  Arch  (71i:ipt(T  No. 
30,  and  eminent  commander  of  Paschal  Com- 
mandery.  He  i$  a  Scoiitish  Rite  Mason»  and  a 
noble  of  the  Myctic  Shrine;  past  thrice  illus- 
trious master  oS  Chtllicothe  Council  No.  28, 
Royal  and  Select  Masons;  past  worshipful  mas- 
ter I  t  IVotective  Lodge  No.  29,  Ancient 
OrdiT  of  United  Workmen,  and  past  grand 
higli  priest  Gram!  Chapter  Royal  Arcli  Ma- 
sons of  Missouri.  At  the  present  time  (1900) 
he  is  grand  commander  Kniglits  Templar  of 
Missouri,  and  deputy  grand  master  of  Grand 
Council  -Royal  and  Select  Masters  of  Missouri ; 
district '  deputy  grand  master  Ancient  Free 
and  Accepted  Masons,  and  past  commander 
Tyndal  Post  29,  Grand  Army  of  the  Republic. 
His  spirit  of  enterprise  and  his  sound  judg- 
ment in  matters  of  hnsiness  give  great  value 
to  his  name,  and  he  has  been  president  cjl  the 
Five  Wells  Land  &  Cattle  Company  at  Mid- 
Ian<l,  Texas,  which  has  35o.n<xi  acres  of  land 
under  feiicc.  He  is,  and  for  the  past  ten  years 
has  been,  president  of  the  Missanri  Vineyard 
Company  at  ]<"(>\vler,  California,  which  has 
in  cultivation  160  acres  in  raisin  grapes;  he 
has  been  ior  twelve  years  president  of  the 
ChOlicOthe  Loan  &  Building  AsscK-iatiun.  and 
he  is  president  of  the  Masonic  Temple  Asso- 
ciation, a  director  in  the  Chillicothe  Canetcry 
Association,  and  a  stockholder  and  one  of  the 
organizers  of  the  Citizens'  National  Bank  of 
Chillicothe.  He  was  also  president  of  the  Pub- 
lic School  Board  of  Chillicothe  for  ten  years. 
Dr.  Barn cv  was  married.  \'mm  tuber  15,  iSf>ri, 
to  Mattie  Prindle,  of  Arlington,  Vermont. 
They  have  four  children,  all  sons.  One  of 
them,  Percy  Canfidd  Barney,  is  an  engineer 
in  the  United  States  N'avy  at  Boston,  and  the 
other  three  are  educated  and  accomplished 
physicians,  associated  with  tfaetr  father  in  the 
Barney  Sanitariiun. 

Banmni,  Th«r<m,  one  of  the  most 

noted  old-time  hotel-keepers  of  St.  T.ouis,  was 
born  in  Addison  County,  Vermont,  April  23, 
ifto3.  During  the  early  years  of  his  life  he 
was  engaged  in  agricultural  pursuits,  but  in 
1824  went  to  \ViIkesbarre.  Pennsylvania, 
where  he  clerked  in  a  store  until  1827.  In 
that  year  he  went  to  Baltimore  to  take  the 
position  of  confidential  clerk  to  his  uncle. 
David  Barnum,  who  gave  to  Barmim's  Hotel 
of  that  city  ti^  deserved  fame  of  being  at  that 

time  "the  best  hotel  in  tiic  United  States." 
There  he  was  trained  to  the  bunness  'vidiich 

made  him  famous  as  a  boniface  in  St.  Louis. 
In  1840  he  came  to  that  city  and  took  cliai'ge 
of  the  City  Hotd,  located  ait  the  comer  of 
Third  and  Vine  Streets.  After  keeping  this 
house  twelve  years  he  sold  out,  and  later  took 
charge  of  what  became  known  as  "Barnum's 
Hotel,"  located  at  the  comer  of  Second  and 
Walnut  Streets.  Prior  to  the  Civil  War  this 
was  one  of  the  widely  known  hotels  of  the 
West,  and  no  hotd  man  of  tbe  region  was 
more  pqnilar  with  (he  public  than  was  Mr. 

Bar  of  Biiclianaii  County. — The  first 
circuit  court  in  Buchanan  County  was  held  in 
the  store  room  of  Joseph  Robidoux  in  1839. 
One  of  the  lawyers  present  at  that  court  was 
William  Marshall  Paxton,  a  nephew  of  Cliief 
Justice  Marshall.  He  is  still  a  practicing  at- 
torney at  Platte  City,  Missouri.  Austin  A. 
King,  afterward  Governor,  was  the  circuit 
judge;  Peter  H.  Burnett,  of  Platte  County, 
was  circuit  attorney.  Andrew  S.  Hughes  was 
the  only  resident  attorney.  In  1840  ilie  court 
was  removed  to  Sparta,  where  it  remained  un- 
til 1847,  when  the  county  seat  was  permanently 
located  at  St.  Joseph.  While  the  court  re- 
■mained  at  Sparta,  among  the  resident  lawyers 
there  were  Amos  Kces.  a  brilliant  young  law- 
yer, who  soon  removed  to  Platte  City,  where 
he  had  a  large  practice,  and  to  Leavenworth 
in  1854,  as  a  Kansas  pioneer.  He  died  in  1885, 
at  ^e  age  of  eighty-four,  full  of  years  and 

Henry  M.  Vories,  a  Jventuckian  of  great 
origirml  genius,  followed  tiie  county  seat  to  St. 
Joseph,  and  diod  in  1876,  holding  the  posi- 
tion of  Supreme  judge  of  the  State.  His  epi- 
taph can  be  lined  in  the  Shakespearian  phrase, 
"He  was  an  honest  man,"  and  the  writer  of 
this  sketch  can  add :  a  great  one.  Lawrence 
Archer,  a  South  Carolinian,  who  left  St.  Jo- 
seph in  1850,  rose  to  eminence  in  California, 
and  still  lives  at  San  Jose,  in  that  State. 

James  B.  Gardenhier,aTennesscean.young, 
ambitious  and  talented,  was  appointed  Attor* 
ney  General  by  Governor  King  in  1851,  and 
died  at  Jefferson  City  long  before  liis  {xnvers 
of  intciiect  had  matureil.  Kobert  M.  Stewart, 
afterward  Governor,  one  of  the  brainiest  men 
that  ever  filled  the  gubernatorial  chair  of  Mis- 
souri, was  born  in  New  York  in  181 5.  He 
emigrated  to  Missouri  in  1837,  edited  a  paper 

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in  St.  Charles  in  1838,  st-ttUd  in  DcKalb  in 
1839,  and  soon  afterward  defeated  Jesse  B. 
Thompson,  the  leadings  Democrat  of  thtf 
county,  for  the  Lci^islntiirc.  His  fjreat  feat 
was  the  building  of  a  railroad  fnoni  Hannibal 
to  St.  Joseph.  In  1848,  as  a  Senator,  he  se- 
cured the  pas.-^agc  of  a  bill  chartering  the  road 
and  then  traveleil  over  the  line  for  months,  be- 
ing often  carried  from  the  liack  to  the  hotel, 
as  he  was  i)ent  almcst  doulilc  with  rheuma- 
tism. He  olnained  the  means  for  a  survey  and 
afterward,  in  1852,  a  land  grant  of  68,000  acres. 
In  1855,  as  Senator,  he  procured  State  aid  by 
passings  the  bill  over  the  veto  of  Sterling  Price, 
the  Governor.  He  gave  way  to  habits  of  dis- 
sipation in  his  later  years,  which  ended  his  life 
in  a  cloud,  and  prevented  his  being  nomi- 
nated and  elected  Vice  President  in  1864,  in- 
stead of  Andrew  Johnson.  The  idea  had  been 
canvassed  and  an  agreement  reached  to  i)ut 
on  the  ticket  with  Mr.  Lincoln  a  loyal  mm 
from  a  slave-holding  State.  A  man  born  in  the 
North  was  preferred,  and  Governor  Stewart 
was  the  choice  of  a  majority  of  the  intimates 
of  Mr.  Lincoln,  but  on  the  momentous  day 
Governor  Stewart  i^>peared  in  (he  convention 
hall  at  Philadelphia  in  bad  condition  and  lost 
the  prize.  He  died  in  St.  Joseph  in  1870.  The 
next  attorney  at  Sparta  was  Peter  H.  Hiirnctt, 
the  circuit  attorney  for  the  Platte  i  ir  liase, 
who  emigrated  to  Oregon  in  1843  and  l)ecanie 
its  chief  justice,  and  from  there  went  to  Cali- 
fornia in  1848,  and  became  the  Governor  and 
first  chief  justice  of  that  State,  dying  in  San 
Francisco,  May  17, 1894,  at  the  age  of  eighty- 
seven  years.  The  next  in  date  of  settlement 
w.T^  William  B.  Almond,  who  lived  a  life  full 
of  incident  and  romance.  Born  in  Virginia,  as 
a  youth  he  reached  St  Louis  in  the  early 
thirties,  and  joiiung^  the  Missouri  Fur  Com- 
pany spent  several  years  on  the  Yellowstone, 
trapping.  Returning  he  stopped  at  Lexing- 
ton, read  law  and  married,  and  in  1840  moved 
to  old  Sparta  and,  after  two  years,  back  to 
Platte  City.  He  went  to  California  in  1849, 
Mas  deeted  district  judg«  the  same  year,  re- 
turned to  Platte  City  the  next  year,  and  in 
1851  was  elected  circuit  judge  of  the  St.  Joseph 
Circuit.  Called  back  to  California  the  next 
year  on  business  he  again  became  a  judge 
there,  in  the  trying  times  of  the  vigilance  com- 
mittee. He  soon  returned  to  Platte  City,  and 
went  over  to  Kansas  to  try  and  settle  the  vexa- 
tioiK  fni'itical  qiicstions  involved  in  her  terri- 
torial pupilage,  and  died  in  Leavenworth  in 

i860,  of  Hright's  disease,  .\nothcr  resident 
attorney  at  Sparta  was  Benjamin  F.  Loan. 
Bom  in  Breckinridge  County,  iCentueky,  he 
came  to  Jackson  County  as  a  boy,  studied  law 
and  settled  in  old  Sparta  in  the  fall  of  1840. 
He  won  Came  and  fortune  by  his  ability,  hon- 
esty and  devotion  to  his  profession,  and  died 
in  St.  Joseph  in  1881,  after  serving  six  years  in 
Congress  and  two  years  in  the  Civil  War  as  a 
brigadier  general.  \\  illiam  Cannon.a  Tennes- 
seean  of  the  .\ndrew  Jackson  scIkx)!,  was  a 
rough  and  unhewn,  but  a  strong  and  success- 
ful man,  a  logical  lawyer.  He  emigrated  to 
Texas  in  1.S45  and  died  in  1852.  \\'illard  P. 
Hall,  born  at  Harper's  Ferry  in  1820,  was  of 
Puritan  stock  and  Revolutionary  ancestry. 
He  had  a  clear  and  strong  mind,  and  was  the 
successor  of  Burnett  as  circuit  attx>rney  in 
1843,  and  an  elector  of  James  K.  Polk  in  1844. 
In  the  spring  of  1846  he  was  nomitiated  as  the 
Dein«KTatic  candidate  for  Congress  in  his  dis- 
trict, and  during  the  canvass  he  volunteered 
at  a  privitte  in  llie  company  of  Captain  O.  P. 
Mos'i.of  ( "Inv  ^ervc  in  Mexican 
War,  in  the  Missouri  regiment  conmianded  by 
Colonel  A.  W.  Doniphan,  and  at  Santa  Fe  was 
detailed  to  assist  in  preparing  a  code  of  laws. 
He  was  elected  to  Congress  and  served  six 
years :  was  brigadier  general  in  the  Civil  War ; 
was  Lieutenant  Governor  and  Governor  of  the 
State.  He  twice  refused  a  position  on  the  Su- 
preme bench  of  tlie  State,  tendered  him  by 
Governor  Hardin  in  1876.  The  writer  of  this 
article  was  solicited  by  the  Governor  In  urge 
his  acceptance  of  the  commission  and  he  de- 
clined each  time.  He  died  at  his  home  in  St. 
Joseph  in  i8<82,  at  the  age  of  sixty-two  years. 
The  last,  but  not  the  least,  of  the  old  Sparta 
lawyers  was  Andrew  S.  Hughes,  a  Kentuckian 
of  Revolutionary  ancestry,  sent  b\  President 
Adams  to  Missouri  as  agent  for  the  Indians  in 
the  Iowa  Territory.  He  had  charge  of  the 
Pottawottomi  In<lians  in  the  Platte  Purchase. 
General  Hughes  had  been  a  lawyer  and  State 
Senator  in  Kentucky,  and  when  the  Platte  ter- 
ritory was  ceded  to  the  State  of  Missouri  his 
wards,  the  Indians,  vanished,  and  he  returned 
to  his  first  love,  the  law.  He  settled  in  St. 
Joseph,  while  his  family  remained  in  Liberty, 
Missouri.  He  was  the  only  Sparta  lawyer 
that  the  writer  did  not  know  personally,  and  of 
each  he  has  a  warm  and  genial  recollection 
that  invohmtarily  starts  a  sigh  and  tear,  cou- 
pled with  the  pleasing  memory  that  all  of  them 
were  warm  friends  of  his  youth.  Genera! 

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Hughes  was  a  brilliant  and  successful  lawyer, 
but  too  indolent  to  labor  very  much,  which  ac- 
counts for  his  not  reaching  such  position  as 
his  talents  deserved.  His  few  forensic  efforts 
put  him  at  tiie  front  of  the  profession,  where 
he  stood  as  long  as  he  practiced  it.  He  left 
one  child,  an  industrious  son,  General  Bela  M. 
Hughes,  oi  Denver,  Colorado,  who  inherited 
much  of  the  sparklmg  wH,  genial  anecdote  and 
real  genius  of  his  father.  Venerable  in  years 
and  honors,  at  eighty-two  he  dispenses 
genial  hospitality  with  a  patrician  simplicity, 
which  suggests  that  the  days  of  Metellus 
mifxht  return  again. 

Tiicse  old  settlers  of  Sparta  wert  supple- 
mented and  re-enforced  at  court  times  by 
David  R.  Atchison,  General  A.  W.  Doniphan, 
John  Wilson,  William  T.  Wood  and  Judge 
James  H.  Birch,  every  one  of  vnhocn,  like  the 
argonauts  of  old,  was  tlostincd  to  become 
famous.  John  Wilson  of  Platte,  as  he  liked 
to  be  known,  was  the  last  man  in  the  State  to 
furl  the  Whig  banner.  He  was  the  fatlier-io- 
law  of  E.  If.  Norton,  late  of  the  Supreme 
bench,  and  father  of  the  Honorable  R.  P.  C. 
Wilson,  Congressman  from  the  Fouith  Dis- 
trict, an  able  lawyer  and  practitioner,  and  the 
grandfather  of  Francis  M.  Wilson,  the  present 
State  Senator  from  the  PlaMe  District.  He 
left  to  his  descendants  a  leijaoy  of  talent  more 
valuable  than  ingots  or  argosies. 

James  H.  Birch,  of  Ointon  County,  became 
a  judge  of  the  Supreme  Court  and  a  distin- 
guished leader  of  the  anti-lienton  faction  in 
State  politics.  He  was  a  gifted  lawyer  and 
popular  leader. 

William  T.  Wood,  now  living  at  I,exington, 
Missouri,  in  his  ninety-first  year,  bold,  aggres- 
sive and  learned,  filled  the  circuit  bench  a 
quarter  of  a  century.  Tn  the  years  from  1840 
to  1845  there  were  four  great  bars  in  the 
United  States,  distinguished  for  learning, 
talent  and  oratory.  First  was  the  Boston  bar, 
composed  of  Webster,  Choate,  Sumner,  Par- 
ker and  their  compeers.  The  second  was  the 
Richmond. X'irginia, bar. with  men  like  1-eigh, 
Wise.  Piotts  and  Smith.  Tlie  third  was  at  Lex- 
ington, Kentucky,  represented  by  Clay,  Meni- 
fee, Breckinridge,  Rc^ison,  Tom  Marshall  and 
other  bright  men.  The  la-:  of  t!u  ■  bars  was 
that  of  Mississippi,  numbering  among  its 
members  S.  S.  Prentiss,  Alex  McGung,  Jeffer- 
son Davis,  Henry  S.  Foote,  Baldwin,  Clai- 
bournc  Marshall,  Smede,  Colman  and  others. 
They  were  the  most  brilliant  bars  of  the  Un- 

ion, and  their  representatives  may  well  be 
termed  the  "last  of  the  Mohicans,"  as  common 
4aw  expounders ;  for  in  less  than  a  decade  the 
common  law  was  largely  superseded  by  code 
procedure.  Science,  form  and  precedent  gave 
place  to  agrarian  platitudes  of  simfdicity.  The 
efTort  to  obtain  simpler  forms  was  like  the 
worm  that  smote  Jonah's  gourd,  to  the  old 
system;  or  the  parliamentary  edict  of  the 
fourth  year  of  James  I,  which  reduced  com- 
mon  law  to  statute  and  dethroned  Coke 
and  Littleton,  and  deprived  the  crown  of 
kingly  prerogative  as  a  court  of  last  resort. 
It  was  the  dynamo  that  wnrked  the  govern- 
ment and,  in  1649,  beheaded  Charles  I.  Per- 
haps in  the  wisdom  of  an  All  Wise  Provi> 
dence  it  was  and  may  be  for  the  best ;  who  cnn 
tell?  Common  law  dominated  the  courts  of 
this  country  until  code  practice  was  established 
in  New  York  in  1847.  Under  it  the  bar  has 
grown  in  learning  and  authority,  but  has  lost 
in  form,  eloquence  and  force,  as  wdl  as  in 
courtesy,  dignity  and  that  professional  aplomb 
which  put  and  rt-taincd  the  lawyer  in  the  front 
rank  as  a  leader  and  legislator.  It  seems 
Strange  that  at  the  western  edge  of  civiliza- 
tion, and  on  the  verge  of  the  great  .\merican 
<lesert,  the  old  Sparta  bar  should  have  been 
the  peer  of  any  of  the  great  bars  of  the  Union, 
and  should  have  developed  a  remarkable  frui- 
tion of  talent,  success  and  greatness ;  but  such 
is  its  history.  President  of  the  United  States 
Senate  twelve  \ears,  Vice  President  four 
years,  and  President  for  one  day,  were  the 
achievements  of  David  R.  .\tchison.  The 
cotuiuest  of  Kl  I'aso  and  Chihuahua,  with  mil- 
lions of  leagues  of  land  and  billions  of  wealth, 
was  the  result  of  the  march  of  the  i-irst  Mis- 
souri Regiment  under  General  A.  W.  Doni- 
phan in  the  Mexican  ^^'ar.  Governor  AN'o.^d- 
son  declared  in  a  public  address  tiiat  Doniphan 
was  the  gresttest  jury  lawyer  he  had  ever 
known  ;  that  be  had  listened  to  Clay,  Menifee, 
Breckinridge,  Tom  Marshall  and  S.  S.  Pren- 
tiss, and  that  Doniphan  was  the  peer  of  any 
of  tbein  in  the  court  room.  He  had  a  voice 
cliarming.  persuasive  and  penetrating,  a  rhet- 
oric chaste,  terse  and  pathetic ;  a  logic  strong, 
bold  and  convincing.  In  the  field  he  was  a 
Xenophon,  and  at  the  baraTully  ;  and  be  was 
truly  one  of  the  most  talented  men  of  the  age. 
One  Vice  President,  four  Governors,  six  dis- 
trict judges,  four  Supreme  Court  judges,  seven 
generals,  and  all  successful  and  profound  la^w- 
yers — this  is  a  eulogy  of  the  old  Sparta  bar. 

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which  was  well  deserved.  In  April,  1849, 
when  tiie  'writer  became  a  member  of  the  St. 

Joseph  bar,  seven  of  the  old  S])arta  lawyers 
were  settled  there.  Jonatlian  M.  Barrett  set- 
tled in  St.  Joseph  in  1844.  He  was  bom  in 
Connecticut,  but  was  as  little  like  the  faiiK-<l 
"nutmeg^  man"  as  coul<l  he  conceived  0]K'n, 
bold,  liberal,  eloiiiunt  and  resourceful,  lie  was 
able  to  break  a  lance  with  the  best  nu  n  of  the 
Sparta  bar.  His  partner  was  John  Wilson,  a 
son  of  Senator  Robert  Wilson,  and  a  promis- 
ing attorney,  who  died  young.  A.  W.  Terrill, 
late  United  Stales  minister  to  Turkey,  now  of 
Texas,  was  city  attorney  in  1850.  Judge 
Henry  Tutt,  a  Virgfinian,  who  commanded  the 
Richmond  Blue.s,  the  body  guard  of  Lafayette 
in  1825,  frt>ni  Washington  to  Richmond,  had 
removed  from  Virginia  to  the  "Kingdom  of 
dllaway"  in  1836,  and  ref)rcsented  that 
county  in  the  Missouri  Legislature  in  1840. 
He  removed  to  Buchanan  County  in  1844  and 
took  up  law  as  a  profession,  having  before 
that  time  been  a  planter.  He  was  probate 
judge  of  this  county  about  twenty  years,  and 
died  in  1893,  after  a  successful  practice.  Men- 
tion has  been  made  of  nearly  all  xhe  lawyers 
who  had  practiced  at  llie  bar  of  Buchanan 
County  prior  to  1850,  since  which  lime  many 
new  names  have  been  added  to  the  roll.  Wil- 
liam Rroadiis  Thompson  and  his  brother, 
Meriwedier  Jefferson  Tliompsoti,  from  the 
'valley  ct  Virginia,  were  lawyers  here  in  1849, 
and  while  they  were  m-rt  prarticiiig,  they  were 
boonnug  the  town,  building  railroads  and  en- 
fivening  St.  Joseph  Society.  M."Je(f*  Thorap- 
son,  .IS  familiarly  known,  was,  next  to  Gov- 
ernor Stewart,  most  adtive  in  building  tlie 
Hannibal  &  St.  Joseph  Railroad.  He  fought 
through  tbe  war  as  a  Confederate,  and  died  in 
St.  Joseph  in  1874.  His  brother,  Broadus,  re- 
moved to  Washington  City,  where  he  lived 
the  latter  part  of  his  life  with  his  kinsman,  R. 
W.  Thompson,  Secretary  of  the  Navy,  or,  as 
sometimes  known,  "the  Mariner  of  the  Mighty 

The  bench  has  been  ably  filled  most  of  the 
time;  the  first  judge,  in  1839,  was  Governor 
A.  A.  King,  of  Ray  Counfty;  tiie  next  was 
David  R.  Atchison;  then  Henson  Young,  of 
Jackson  County,  occupied  the  bench  in  184.^ ; 
Solomon  L.  Leonard,  a  Tennesseean,  in  4845 ; 
Wm.  B.  Almond,  in  1852,  and  E.  H.  Norton 
succeeded  him  and  scr\'ed  until  T859,  when  he 
was  followed  by  Governor  Silas  Woodson ;  he, 
in  1863,  by  William  Herron,  and  in  1864  Isaac 

C.  Parker  became  judge.  Afterward  Parker 
was  Congressman  from  this  district  for  four 

years,  and  for  over  tweiwy  years  United  States 
judge  at  Fort  Smith,  .Arkansas.  He  was 
known  as  the  "Bloody  Judge,"  as  he  sentenced 
to  death  over  four  hundred  criminals.  While 
living  here  he  was  es'teemexl  a^  a  mild,  gener- 
ous and  truthful  man.  His  district  included 
the  Indian  Territory.  Half-breeds,  mongrels 
and  fugitives  from  the  States  formed  a  popula- 
tion abounding  in  crime.  He  was  succeeded 
in  1871  by  Bennett  Pike,  who  was  in  turn  suc- 
ceeded by  Joseph  P.  Gruhb  the  next  \ear. 
Grubb's  successor  was  Williaim  Sherman,  who 
died  on  the  bench  in  1882.  O.  M.  Spencer, 
Henry  ^L  Ramey,  A.  M.  W^oodson,  Tliomaa 
P.aonish,  Charles  Strop  and  Wm.  K.  James 
have  all  occupied  the  circuit  court  bench,  while 
the  criminal  court  has  been  presided  over  by 
Silas  Woodson,  Roniules  E.  Culver  and  B.  J. 

Since  the  return  of  the  seat  of  justice  from 

old  Sparta  the  roll  has  shown  many  bright 
men,  among  whom  may  be  named  W.  A.  Cun- 
ningham, who  came  bene  in  1850  from  Ken- 
tucky ;  B.  M.  Hughes,  a  son  of  General  Andre 
S.  Hughes,  from  Platte,  an  exceptionally  bril- 
liant man;  General  James  Shields,  a  hero  of 
two  wars,  and  a  United  States  Senator  from 
three  States;  ncncral  it.  I-".  Stringfeliov.',  .\t- 
torney  General  of  the  State  in  1840,  and  an 
able  law>'er  and  Kansas  pioneer;  Joseph 
Toole,  since  Governor  of  Montana ;  Silas 
Woodson,  Governor  of  Missouri  in  1874; 
Warren  Toole,  head  of  the  Montana  bar ;  John 
C.  C.  Thornton,  a  colonel  in  the  Confederate 
service,  one  of  the  most  distinguished  pioneers 
of  Montana,  famed  for  his  reckless  daring  as 
lieutenant  colonel  of  Winston's  Confederate 
regiment;  Philomen  Bliss,  judge  of  the  .Su- 
preme Court ;  "Jeff  Chandler,"  now  of  St. 
Louis ;  A.  W.  Slayback,  killed  in  St.  Louis  by 
Editor  Jolm  Cockerill  since  the  war ;  General 
James  Craig,  for  many  years  the  president  of 
the  Hannibal  &  St.  Joseph  Railroad,  a  mem- 
ber of  Congress,  and  otic  of  ilie  most  earnest 
and  active  friends  the  city  of  St.  Joseph  has 
ever  had ;  John  R.  Boyd,  a  Confederate  officer, 
killed  at  the  battle  of  Independence  on  the 
same  day  as  Colonel  John  T.  Hughes,  who 
wrote  "Doniphan's  E.xpcdition" ;  L.  M.  I..;iw- 
son,  a  most  elo<iuent  speaker,  who  abandoned 
law  for  a  banker's  life;  Sam  T?.  Green,  a  lognl 
giant,  who  died  young;  Mordecai  Oliver,  Con- 
gressman and  Secretary  of  State,  who  lived 

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until  i8(j8 :  John  Doniphan,  for  fifteen  years 

counselor  i^f  the  St  Josoph  &  Grand  Island 
Railroad,  four  years  State  Senator,  and  a 
member  of  two  revising  sessions  of  the  Mis- 
souri Leg^islature ;  and  liennett  Pike,  who  re- 
cently died  in  St.  Louis.  Since  tlie  Civil  War 
closed  as  many  as  two  hundred  lawyers  have 
settled  in  St  Joseph  at  different  times,  many 
of  whom  have  been  able  men  and  fj(x^<l  law- 
yers. Many  have  removed,  ami  not  a  few  have 
sunk  under  their  burdens.  Hieir  names  and 
achievements  must  be  left  io  another  pen. 

John  Doniphan. 

Bar  of  Jackson  County.— The  bar  of 

Jackson  Comity  was  orfj^anizcd  when  Davi<l 
Todd,  judge  of  the  l  irst  Judicial  Circuit,  held 
the  first  circuit  court  at  the  house  of  John 
Younp.  Marrh  jo.  1S27.  In  tln»sc  ilays  tlu-ri" 
was  neither  a  county  seat  nor  a  courthouse, 
and  the  lawyers  present  had  come  from  other 
counties.  The  following  six  lawyers  were  en- 
rolled :  Peyton  R.  Ilayden.  of  P.ixjnville; 
Abiel  Leonard,  of  I'ayette;  John  R.  Ryland, 
of  Lexington ;  John  Willson.  .\inos  Recs  and 
Robitison  Boauclianip.  A  grand  jury  was  im- 
paneled, and  John  Willson,  in  the  absence  of 
the  Attorney  General,  was  appointed  to  prose- 
cute for  the  State.  (  )n  Xovemlior  13.  1827. 
Robert  W.  Wells,  Attorney  General,  and 
James  H.  Birch,  were  enmlled.  The  follow- 
ing lawyers  were  admitted  during  the  ne.\t  five 
years:  Joseph  Davis,  March  27,  iS^t^  John 
D.  AIcRae  and  W  in.  S.  Woods.  .August  10, 
1829;  Littlebcrry  Hendricks,  December  14. 
i82():  Rus.sell  lliiks,  Dectinber  13.  1830:  and 
Willis  C.  Chapman,  July  18,  1832.  Most  of 
tiiese  men  were  noted  lawyers,  and  have  left 
their  impress  tipon  the  jiirisprn<lencf  of  the 
State.  In  1840  Sanmel  H.  W  oodson  emi- 
grated from  Lexin^on,  Kentucky,  and  settled 
at  Independence.  In  1843  J.  Brown  lluvi  v.  a 
natural  lawyer,  with  fine  training,  great  indus- 
try and  uncommon  tact,  came  to  lndq)i-n(l- 
ence  from  the  State  of  Ne^v  York.  Jolm  W. 
Reid,  who  had  been  a  captain  in  Colonel  Doni- 
phan's expedition,  located  at  Independence  in 

.-\bnim  Comingo  and  William  Chrisman 
came  from  Kentucky  in  1848,  and  in  1849 
the  celd>r«ted  law  fiirm  of  Woodron,  Chris- 
man  &  Comingo  was  formed.  T]\'s  firm  con- 
tinued for  seven  years,  when  Mr.  Woodson 
became  a  W  hig  member  of  Congress,  in  1856, 
and  Chrisman  &  Comingo  continued  the  busi- 

ness iiiidl  ^e  courts  were  iMoken  up  by  the 
Qvil  War.  John  W.  Reid,  triio  was  promi- 
nent in  railroad  projects,  removed  to  Liberty, 
and  tiience  to  Kansas  City,  in  1866.   The  first 
attorney  who  settled  in  Kansas  City  was 
Henry  B.  Houton.  in  1851,  where  he  practiced 
continuously  until  his  death,  in  1868.  James 
K.  Sheley,  a  Kentuckian,  came  to  Independ- 
ence in  1852.   He  was  devoted  to  the  interests 
of  his  clients,  and  was  implicitly  trusted.  Sev- 
eral lawyers  located  at  Westport  in  the  fifties, 
among  whoni   were  Thomas  J.  ln>fortli.  in 
1852;  Park  Lea  and  D.  D.  Wood  worth,  in 
1853;  and,  in  1855,  A.  M.  .\llen.  wlvo.  how- 
ever, did  not  begin  the  practice  of  law  till  1867. 
Philip       Urown  came  to  Kansas  City  from 
Pennsylvania  in  1858,  and  has  now  turned  his 
practice  over  to  his  son,  William  H.  Brown. 
M.  D.  Trefren  came  to   Kansas  City  from 
I  renton,  ^iew  Jersey,  in  1858,  and  John  C. 
Cage  came  from  New  Hampshire  in  1859. 
Hefore  the  war,  John  W.  Henry,  now  a  circuit 
judge,  locatetl  at   lndq>endcnce.  and  ^lure 
were  a  number  of  law  firms  in  the  city  of  Kan- 
sas, such  as  Ramage  &  Withers,  Clayborn  & 
Caio.  I'.oliing  i^t  Hodgscm.  Russell  &  Hell,  and 
Groome  &  X'aile.   Of  all  the  lawyers  wiio  be- 
longed to  the  Jackson  County  bar  prior  to 
1862,  John  C.  Ciage,  the  senior  meml>er  of  the 
law  firm  of  Gage,  Ladd  &  Small,  is  the  only 
one  now  in  active  practice.  William  Holmes 
came  to  Kansas  City  in  1862.  but  had  Studied 
law  under  Samuel  T.  <  ilover,  at  Palmyra.  Mis- 
souri, where  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in 
1839.  He  became  a  Methodist  preacher,  and 
was  conneote<l  with  Shawnee  Mission  when 
(iovernor  Robinson  appointed  him  judge  of 
the  Probate  Court  of  Johnson  County,  Kan- 
sas, in  1857.  He  was  a  noted  lawyer,  a  Chris- 
tian gentleman,  and  never  grew  old.  Samuel 
Locke  Sawyer  went  from  I^exington  to  Inde- 
pendence in  1866,  and  became  the  law  partner 
of  William   Chrisman.    When  the  Twentv- 
fourth  Judicial  District  was  created  in  1871. 
at  the  earnest  rfcpiest  of  the  bar.  he  was  ap- 
IK>inted  judu;!'    lie  died  al>out  1896.   In  1865 
William  Douglass  came  to  Kansas  City  from 
Boonville,  and  formed  a  law  partnership  with 
John  C.  C.agr.    He  had  been  associated  with 
Peyton  K.  Ilayden,  and  was  a  man  of  com- 
manding presence,  a  fine  scholar,  an  able  law- 
yer and  an  eloquent  orator.   In  1864  Francis 
Marion  Black  came  to  Kansas  Ctty,  and  in 
1880  was  elected  as  an  additional  circuit  judge, 
and  from  that  position  was  elevated  to  the 

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bench  of  tlie  Supreme  Court  of  Missouri  in 
1885.  From  1865  to  1869,  about  thirty  lawyers 

located  in  Kansas  City,  many  of  whom  have 
obtained  prominence  at  the  bar.  Among 
these  are  William  Warner,  L.  C.  Slavens, 

Stephen  Prince  Twiss,  Daniel  S.  Twitchell,  C. 
O.  Tichcnor.  J.  \".  C.  Karnos.  A.  A,  Tom- 
linson.  Ermine  Case,  Jr..  J.  \V.  Jenkins, 
Henry  N.  Ess,  and  Edward  P.  Gcies.  William 
Warner.  ex-Coiijjressinan,  is  now  I  niic*! 
States  district  attorney.  Stephen  P.  Twiss 
was  for  eight  years  associate  jtistice  of  the  Sti- 
preme  Court  of  Utah.    Tn  the  bar  wis 

re-enforced  by  such  lawyers  as  Chas.  I.  Thom- 
son, J.  H.  Slover»  Henry  P.  White,  Robert  W. 
Quarles,  John  K.  Cravens  and  T.  V.  Bryant. 
Clia,s.  I.  Thomson  is  now  one  of  the  judges  of 
tlic  Appellate  Coairt  of  Colorado.  Judge 
Slover  located  at  Independence  and  became 
the  junior  member  of  the  firm  of  Comingo  & 
Slover,  and  is  now  one  of  the  circuit  judges. 
Henry  P.  White  became  jtid|^  of  the  crim- 
inal cunrt  ill  i?^74.  Warwick  I Iou<^h  located  in 
Kansas  City  in  1867,  and  was  elected  one  of 
the  judges  of  theSttpretne  G>nrt  in  1874.  He 
went  to  St.  Louis  in  1885.  Among  tlie  law- 
yers admitted  to  the  Jackson  County  bar  in 
1868  were  Sanford  li.  Ladd,  Robert  C.  Cowan, 
R.  L.  Yeager,  G.  F.  Ballingal,  C.  J.  Bower  and 
John  L.  Peak.  Robert  C.  Cowan  was  n  law 
partner  of  Warwick  Hough  and  John  T.  Crisp, 
and  was  subseqtiently  the  only  judge  of  the 
Kansa.s  City  Court  of  Law  and  Equity.  John 
L.  Peak  was  minister  to  Switzerland  in  1895 
and  1896.  Abont  1870  a  ntnnber  of  promi- 
nent lawyers  came  to  Kansas  City,  among 
whom  may  be  mentioned  J.  W.  Dniila]),  Rol)- 
ert  C.  Kwing,  John  D.  S.  C(xik,  (ianliiier  La- 
throp,  Wallace  Pratt,  Nelson  Cobb.  B.  L. 
Woodson.  Frank  Titus,  Benj.  J.  Franklin. 
W'ash  Adams,  R.  H.  Field  and  Jefferson 
Bmrnboek.  Amos  Green  came  to  Kansas 
City  from  Lexington,  Missouri,  and  ()i.-cii])ie(l 
a  very  prominent  position  at  the  bar  and  in  tlie 
politics  of  western  Missouri.  John  C.  Tarsney 
was  a  member  of  Congress  and  a  justice  of  the 
Stiprpmc  Court  of  Oklahoma.  Benjamin  J. 
1  rauklin  was  a  prtMuincnt  lawyer,  a  member 
of  Congress  and  Governor  of  Arizona.  John 
W.  rt  rUi"  was  a  great  criminal  lawyer.  Oliver 
Hayes  Dean  was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1870, 
and  has  been  associated  with  such  lawyers  as 
F.  M.  Black,  Wm.  Holmes,  C.  O.  Tichcnor, 
James  Hagerman,  Janies  Gibson  and  Win. 
Warner.  James  Gibson,  now  a  circuit  judge, 

was  admitted  to  the  bar  in  1872.  In  1871  the 
establishment  of  a  law  library  was  agitated 

and  finally  took  shape  at  a  meeting  held  Sep- 
tember 13th,  at  which  L.  C.  Slavens  acted  as 
chairman,  and  A.  A.  Tomlinson  as  secretary. 
The  other  members  of  the  bar  present  were 
Warwick  Hough,  E.  W.  Kimball,  C.  C).  Tichc- 
nor, John  C.  Gage,  J.  V.  C.  Karnes,  J.  W. 
Jenkins,  Wallace  Pratt,  F.  M.  Black,  Ermine 
Case,  Jr.,  John  K.  Cravens  and  Wm.  Simms. 
These  thirteen  gentlemen  associated  them- 
selves for  a  term  of  fifty  years  as  the  Kansas 
City  Law  Library  Assoeiatioti.  with  a  capital 
of  $25,000,  divided  into  one  hundred  shares. 
On  October  4th  there  were  nineteen  members, 
who  cicctwl  as  directors,  L.  C.  Slavens,  Jolin 
C.  Gage,  W  allace  Pratt,  Warwick  Hougli,  V. 
M.  Black,  Nelson  Cobb,  E.  W.  Kimball.  J.  W. 
Jenkins  and  A.  A.  Tomlinson.  The  following 
officers  were  elected :  John  C.  Gage,  presi- 
dent;  Wallace  Pratt,  vice  president;  John  K. 
Cravens,  secretary ;  and  Henry  N.  Em,  treas- 
urer. Rooms  at  tlie  old  courthouse  were  se- 
cured for  the  library,  which  was  begun  by  the 
purchase  of  3,000  volumes  from  Honorable  A. 
C.  Baldwin,  of  Pontiac.  Michigan,  for  $13,500. 
This  library  consisted  of  a  complete  set  of 
American  Reports,  with  the  accompanying 
Statutes  and  digests.  On  the  27th  of  January, 
1872,  James  (iibson  was  chosen  librarian. 
With  such  a  full  library  as  this  to  begin  with, 
and  a  continual  addition  of  new  law  pablica- 
tions,  the  members  and  subscribers  have  had 
access  to  the  best  legal  lore  extant,  so  that 
studiotis  and  capable  attorneys  may  gain  pro- 
found legal  knowledge.  This,  no  doubt,  ac- 
counts, in  a  measure,  for  the  large  number  of 
able  attorneys  an<l  learned  judges  connected 
with  the  Jackson  County  courts.  By  means  of 
annual  fees  and  stibscriinions.  the  library  is 
kept  up  to  the  times.  There  are  now  thirty- 
two  active  members,  who  pay  fifteen  dollars  a 
\ car,  and  forty-five  contributors,  who  each  pay 
twenty-five  dollars  a  year.  By  a  vote  of  the 
board  <rf  directors,  and  the  payment  of  an  an- 
nual fee  of  twenty-five  dollars,  resident  attor- 
neys are  granted  the  privileges  of  the  law 
library.  Xon-residents.  when  introduced  to 
the  librarian  by  a  stockholder,  may  have  ac- 
ce<^  to  the  library.  The  .'vtatc  don.ates  five 
copies  each  o»  the  reports  of  the  Supreme 
Court  and  of  the  Kansas  City  Court  of  Ap- 
peals, and  also  of  the  arts  (if  each  session  of 
the  Legislature.  In  1886  the  library  was  re- 
moved to  the  Nelson  Building,  and  in  1893  to 

Digitized  by  Gopgle 



Fair,  a  member  of  the  banking  firm  of  Wil- 
liam Nkbet  &  Co.,  and  in  close  touch,  at  all 
times  during  his  residence  in  that  city,  not 
only  with  the  Icadinpf  men  of  affairs  in  St. 
Louts,  but  with  the  leading  men  of  tlie  West. 
When  the  financial  panic  of  1857  was  pre- 
cipitated Dr.  Barret  was  in  the  enjoyment  of 
an  income  of  twenty  thousand  dollars  a  year, 
but  the  rapid  shrinkage  of  values  and  an 
impairment  of  his  health,  whicli  deprived  him 
of  the  wonderful  vigor  and  energy  of  his 
earlier  years,  caused  a  large  proportion  of  his 
handsome  fortune  to  disappear  like  the  mists 
of  tfu-  morninf^.  lie  continued,  however,  to 
be  an  active  and  moving  spirit  in  business 
circles  to  the  end  of  his  life,  and  died  at  the 
hotel  which  he  had  built  in  Hurlinp^ton  nearly 
a  quarter  of  a  century  earlier,  while  tem- 
porarily sojourning  there  to  give  attention  to 
business  interests  In  manner  and  appear- 
ance he  was  a  typical  Kentuckian  of  the  old 
school.  His  figure  was  commanding,  his 
manners  courtly  and  his  hotne  a  center  of  old- 
fashioned  hospitality.  He  enjoyed  diirinj^ 
his  life  the  acquaintance  of  many  men  promi- 
nent in  pablk  life,  among  them  Clay,  Ren- 
ton.  I,og;an,  Douglas,  Trumbull.  Browning. 
Walker  and  Grimes,  and  his  friendship  witli 
Abraham  Lincoln,  bom  in  an  adjoining 
cotmty  in  Kentucky,  began  in  boyhood  and 
lasted  to  tbe  end  of  his  life.  He  died  on  the 
eire  of  the  Civil  War,  but  he  bad  noted  the 
coming  storm,  and  with  rare  prescience  had 
forecast  the  character  and  duration  of  the 
struggle.  His  widow,  a  woman  of  many  so- 
cial and  domestic  graces  and  sterling  char- 
acter, survived  until  iJ^^;,  and  passed  awav  in 
SL  Louis.  Their  son,  RiCH.\RD  AYLETF 
BARRET,  physician,  lawyer  and  journalist, 
was  bom  at  "ClilTiand,"  Green  Coimty,  Ken- 
tucky, June  21,  1834.  Cliffland  was  the 
home  <A  his  grandfather,  a  place  famed  for  the 
beauty  of  its  location  and  its  picturesque  en- 
vironments. Situated  on  an  elevated  plateau, 
the  old  homestead  could  be  seen  miles  awav, 
bordered  on  one  side  by  overhanging  cliff8,and 
on  the  ottier  by  grand  old  forest  trees  wearing 
the  livery  of  centuries.  Through  the  valley 
coursed  Green  River,  its  rocky  bed  keeping 
the  wat.  rs  in  constant  turmofl,  and  the  river, 
forest,  cliffs  and  plateau  combined  to  create 
a  very  carnival  of  scenic  beauties.  In  this 
region,  so  prolific  of  nature's  charms,  Richard 
Aylett  Barret  spent  the  earliest  days  of  his 
childhood,  learned  his  first  lessons  in  the  new 

State  of  Illinois,  and  came  with  his  parents 
to  St.  Louis  when  he  was  six  years  of  age. 

His  earliest  education  was  o4>tained  under 
private  t