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NISTIR 4383 

Center for Electronics and 
Electrical Engineering 




Covering Center Programs, 
October to December 1 989, 
with 1990 CEEE Events Calendar 

National Institute of Standards 
and Technology 
Center for Electronics and 
Electrical Engineering 
Semiconductor Electronics Division 
Gaithersburg, MD 20899 

August 1990 

Robert A. Mosbacher, Secretary 

John W. Lyons, Director 


NISTIR 4383 

Center for Electronics and 
Electrical Engineering 




Covering Center Programs, 
October to December 1989, 
with 1990 CEEE Events Calendar 

National Institute of Standards 
and Technology 
Center for Electronics and 
Electrical Engineering 
Semiconductor Electronics Division 
Gaithersburg, MD 20899 

August 1990 

Robert A. Mosbacher, Secretary 

John W. Lyons, Director 


This is the twenty- third issue of a quarterly publication providing information on 
the technical work of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly the 
National Bureau of Standards) Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering. This 
issue of the CEEE Technical Publication Announcements covers the fourth quarter of 
calendar year 1989. 

Organization of Bulletin : This issue contains citations and abstracts for Center 
publications published in the quarter. Entries are arranged by technical topic as 
identified in the table of contents and alphabetically by first author within each 
topic. Following each abstract is the name and telephone number of the individual to 
contact for more information on the topic (usually the first author) . This issue also 
includes a calendar of Center conferences and workshops planned for calendar year 1990 
and a list of sponsors of the work. 

Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering : Center programs provide national 
reference standards, measurement methods, supporting theory and data, and traceabil- 
ity to national standards. 

The metrological products of these programs aid economic growth by promoting equity 
and efficiency in the marketplace, by removing metrological barriers to improved 
productivity and innovation, by increasing U.S. competitiveness in international 
markets through facilitation of compliance with international agreements, and by 
providing technical bases for the development of voluntary standards for domestic and 
international trade. These metrological products also aid in the development of 
rational regulatory policy and promote efficient functioning of technical programs of 
the Government. 

The work of the Center is divided into two major programs: the Semiconductor Tech- 
nology Program, carried out by the Semiconductor Electronics Division in Gaithers- 
burg, MD, and the Signals and Systems Metrology Program carried out by the 
Electricity Division in Gaithersburg and the Electromagnetic Fields and 
Electromagnetic Technology Divisions in Boulder, CO. Key contacts in the Center are 
given on the back cover; readers are encouraged to contact any of these individuals 
for further information. 

Center sponsors : The Center Programs are sponsored by the National Institute of Stan- 
dards and Technology and a number of other organizations, in both the Federal and 
private sectors; these are identified on page 27. 

Note on Publication Lists : Guides to earlier as well as recent work are the publica- 
tion lists covering the work of each division. These lists are revised and reissued 
on an approximately annual basis and are available from the originating division. The 
current set is identified in the Additional Information section, page 20. 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Page 1 


INTRODUCTION inside title page 


Silicon Materials 2 

Dimensional Metrology 2 

Photodetectors 2 

Device Physics and Modeling 3 

Packaging 4 

Other Semiconductor Metrology Topics 5 



DC and Low Frequency Metrology 6 

Fundamental Electrical Measurements 6 

Cryoelectronic Metrology 6 

Antenna Metrology 7 

Microwave & Millimeter-Wave Metrology 9 

Optical Fiber Metrology 9 

Electro-Optic Metrology 10 

Electromagnetic Properties 11 

Complex Testing 12 

Other Fast Signal Topics 12 


Power Systems Metrology 13 

Superconductors 15 


Radiated Electromagnetic Interference 19 







back cover 

Pape 2 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 


Silicon Materials 

Krause, S.J., Visitserngtrakul , S., 

Cordts , B.F., and Roitman, P., Effect 

of Annealing Conditions on Precipitate 
and Defect Evolution in Oxygen 
Implanted SOI Material, Proceedings of 
the 1989 IEEE SOS/SOI Technology 
Conference, Stateline, Nevada, October 
3-5, 1989, pp. 81-82. 

Silicon wafers were implanted with 
oxygen to a dose of 1.8 x 10^® cm”^ at 
200 keV at a temperature of 620 “C. The 
wafers were annealed at temperatures 
between 1250 and 1350 "C for times 
between 1 and 6 hours in a nitrogen or 
argon ambient. The wafers were studied 
with a scanned electron microscope, a 
transmission electron microscope, and by 
secondary ion mass spectrometry. For a 
given annealing ambient, there is a 
threshold temperature for the reduction 
and elimination of precipitates and 
associated lateral dislocations in the 
range of 1300 “C to 1325 °C. Nitrogen 
ambients result in nitrogen pileup at 
the oxide interfaces. 

[Contact: Peter Roitman, (301) 975- 


Dimensional Metrology 

Postek, M.T. , Scanning Electron 
Microscope -Based Metrological Electron 
Microscope System and New Prototype 
Scanning Electron Microscope Magnifica- 
tion Standard, Scanning Microscopy, 
Vol. 3, No. 4, unpaged (1989). 

A metrological electron microscope has 
been developed at the National Institute 
of Standards and Technology traceable to 
national standards of length, and a new 
prototype magnification standard meeting 
the current needs of the scanning 
electron microscope (SEM) user community 
has been fabricated. This metrology 
instrument is designed to certify 
standards for the calibration of the 
magnification of the SEM and for the 
certification of artifacts for linewidth 

measurement done in the SEM. The 

artifacts will be useful for various 
applications in which the SEM is 

currently being used. The SEM-based 
metrology system is now operational at 
the Institute, and its design criteria 
and the progress on the characterization 
of the instrument are presented. The 

design and criteria for the new 
lithographically produced SEM low 

accelerating voltage magnification 
standard to be calibrated on this system 
are also discussed. 

[Contact: Beverly Wright, (301) 975- 


Postek, M.T. , Larrabee, R.D., and Keery, 
W . J . , A New Approach to Accurate X-Ray 
Mask Measurements in a Scanning 
Electron Microscope, IEEE Transactions 
on Electron Devices, Vol. 36, No. 11, 
pp. 2452-2457 (November 1989). 

This paper presents the basic concept 
and some preliminary experimental data 
on a new method for measuring critical 
dimensions on masks used for X-ray 
lithography. The method uses a scanning 
electron microscope in a transmitted- 
electron imaging mode and can achieve 
nanometer precision. Use of this 
technique in conjunction with measure- 
ment algorithms derived from electron- 
beam- interaction modeling may ultimately 
enable measurements of these masks to be 
made to nanometer accuracy. Further- 
more, since a high-contrast image 
results, this technique lends itself 
well to automated mask defect recogni- 
tion and inspection. 

[Contact: Beverly Wright, (301) 975- 



Geist, J., Current Status of, and Future 
Directions in, Silicon Photodiode Self- 
Calibration, Proceedings of SPIE (The 
International Society for Optical 
Engineering, P.O. Box 20, Bellingham, 
Washington 98227) , Optical Radiation 
Measurements II, Vol. 1109, pp. 246-256 
(1989) . 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Page 3 

Photodetectors (cont'd.) 

The current status of silicon photodiode 
self-calibration and its applications 
are reviewed, including the results of a 
number of intercomparisons that 
establish the suitability of self- 
calibration for high-accuracy metrology 
applications. Some current research 
directions known to the author are 
described, and possible future direc- 
tions are considered. 

[Contact: Jon Geist, (301) 975-2066] 

Geist, J., Stapelbroek, M. G., and 
Petroff , M. D. , The Absorption Cross 
Section of As in Si, Proceedings of 
SPIE (The International Society for 
Optical Engineering, P.O. Box 20, 
Bellingham, Washington 98227), Test 
and Evaluation of Infrared Detectors 
and Arrays, Vol. 1108, pp. 51-55 
(1989) . 

Infrared absorption cross sections of As 
in Si near zero Kelvin have recently 
been measured in two different inves- 
tigations. The average of the integrals 
of the cross section over photon 
wavenumber was 8.64 x 10"^^ cm" ^ . This 
is nearly equal to the value predicted 
by the oscillator-strength Siam rule. 
Between 500 and 1000 cm"^, the absorp- 
tion cross sections reported here agree 
very well with 0.7 times the currently 
accepted formula for the photoionization 
cross section of As in Si. Calibration 
errors in spreading resistance measure- 
ments on epitaxial layers seem to be the 
cause of the 0.7 multiplicative error in 
the photoionization formula. Above 
1000 cm"^, 0.7 times the value from the 
formula predicts a larger photoioniza- 
tion cross section than the absorption 
cross section reported here. This is 
apparently caused by the impact 
ionization of donor electrons from 
impurity atoms by energetic photoionized 
electrons . 

[Contact: Jon Geist, (301) 975-2066] 

Rasmussen, A.L. , Simpson, P.A. , and 
Sanders, A.A. , Improved Low-Level 
Silicon-Avalanche- Photodiode Transfer 

Standards at 1.064 Micrometers, NISTIR 
89-3917 (August 1989). 

Three silicon- avalanche -photodiode 

transfer standards (APD TS) were 
calibrated from =10”® to ~10"^ W/cm^ 
peak power density at approximately 10% 
uncertainty. Calibrations were 

performed for 1.064-/xm wavelength 
pulses, having 10- to 100-ns durations. 
For this calibration, an acousto- 
optically modulated laser beam provided 
alternately equal levels of pulsed power 
and cw power into a low-level beam 
splitter. The cw power measured by a 
transfer standard in the transmitted 
beam of the splitter was used to 
determine the pulsed power into the APD 
transfer standard in one of the low- 
level reflected beams of the splitter. 
The APD detector had about 1-cm^ 
aperture and a 3.8-cm focal length lens 
in front of it. Lens, window, and 
detector surfaces had narrow-band anti- 
reflection coatings. The commercial 
detector package is a temperature - 
compensated, infrared- enhanced APD 
preamplifier module. To increase the 
sensitivity, one or two 20-dB, 500-MHz 

band-width amplifiers followed the 
preamplifier. At very low pulsed power 
levels, a 30-MHz low-pass filter with 
gaussian roll-off was attached to the 
amplifier output to reduce the noise. A 
transient digitizer recorded the impulse 
responses of the APD detectors at 1.064 
/xm. These data were read into computer 
programs that convolved the unity area 
impulse response with unity height 
gaussian pulses. From these data, 

correction factors of the pulse peak for 
observed pulse durations from 10 to 100 
ns were determined. Instructions, 

calibrations, error budgets, and system 
descriptions are included. 

[Contact: Alvin L. Rasmussen, (303) 


Device Physics and Modeling 

Gaitan, M. , Enlow, E.W., and Russell, 
T.J., Accuracy of the Charge Pumping 
Technlqtie for Small Geometry MOSFETs , 
IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Pape 4 

Device Physics and Modelinp (cont'd.) 

Vol. NS-36, No. 6, pp . 1990-1997 

(December 1989) . 

The channel length dependence of the 
charge pumping current for MOSFETs is 
investigated using a two-dimensional 
simulation technique. The dependence of 
charge pumping current on signal offset 
voltage for various MOSFET channel 
lengths is studied using energy- 
dependent interface trap distributions. 
Simulations are compared to experimental 
charge pumping measurements on irra- 
diated MOSFETs with different gate 
lengths with good agreement for the 
shape of the curves. It is found that 
as the effective channel length 
decreases, the accepted charge pumping 
model has decreasing accuracy that 
results in an underestimation of the 
mean interface trap density. The loss 
in accuracy is due to the nonuniformity 
of surface potential across the channel 
caused by source/drain proximity. Using 
the charge pumping technique to measure 
interface trap densities on advanced 
devices with an effective channel 
length less than 1 fim may result in 
unacceptable errors. 

[Contact: Michael Gaitan, (301) 975- 


Gaitan, M. , and Roitman, P. , Small 
Signal Modeling of the MOSOS Capacitor, 
Proceedings of the 1989 IEEE SOS/SOI 
Technology Conference, Stateline, 
Nevada, October 3-5, 1989, pp. 48-49. 

The high-frequency and quasi-static 
capacitance of an MOS capacitor on a 
layer of insulator metal-oxide-silicon- 
oxide-silicon (MOSOS) has been modeled 
using numerical solution by perturbation 
analysis of the basic semiconductor 
equations . 

[Contact: Michael Gaitan, (301) 975- 


Lowney, J.R., The Effect of Electron- 
Hole Plasmas on the Density of States 
of Silicon and GaAs, J. Appl. Phys . , 
Vol. 66, No. 9, pp. 4279-4283 

(1 November 1989) . 

The densities of states of the conduc- 
tion and valence bands of silicon and 
GaAs have been calculated at 300 K for 
the case of an electron-hole plasma, 
which can occur at high- injection levels 
in bipolar devices or in bulk material 
under intense optical excitation. The 
results show considerable narrowing of 
the band gap, which needs to be included 
in the analysis of device measurements 
or the interpretation of photolumines- 
cence data. Furthermore, the band- gap 
narrowing that results from dopant ions 
is reduced by excess carriers because of 
the reduced free-carrier screening 
radius . 

[Contact: Jeremiah R. Lowney, (301) 



Harman, G.G. , Reliability and Yield 
Problems of Wire Bonding in Microelect- 
ronics, The Application of Materials 
and Interface Science, International 
Society for Hybrid Microelectronics 
(ISHM) Monograph, (1989), 202 pages. 

This book describes the conditions for 
making reliable wire bonds with a high 
yield by describing all potential 
sources of failures, from the final 
stages of wafer processing, through 
handling, bonding, testing, and 
screening. Sources of contamination are 
identified that adversely affect the 
reliability of wire bonds. In addition, 
the degrading effects of temperature, 
temperature cycling, and mechanical 
forces such as ultrasonic cleaning are 
described. Bonding machine setup 

parameters also play a critical role. 
In addition, the severity of the above 
problems may depend on the ambient 
atmosphere, the metallurgy of the wire, 
and/or the morphology of the bonding pad 
metallization. Wafer sawing and die 
attach can also adversely affect bond 

Basic concepts of bonding methods, wire 
metallurgy and aging, and cleaning 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Page 5 

Packaging (cont'd.) 

techniques (uv and/or ozone, solvent, 
plasma, and burnishing) are described. 
Classical plague failure, its metal- 
lurgy, and the effect of corrosion and 
impurities are extensively treated. 
All bond testing methods are described 
and compared. Problems with electro- 
plating, various metal systems, and 
machines and setup are described. 
Thermal and ultrasonic effects on wire 
fatigue are discussed. Mechanical 

problems as cratering, cracks in wedge 
bonds, and the effect of acceleration 
and vibration are extensively given. 
[Contact: George G. Harman, (301) 975- 


Other Semiconductor Metrology Topics 

Belanger, B.C., Bennett, H.S., Linholm, 
L.W. , Russell, T.J., and Schafft, H.A. , 
Technology Transfer at NIST, Proceed- 
ings of the 1989 Government Micro- 
circuit Applications Conference 
(GOMAC) , Orlando, Florida, November 7- 
9, 1989, pp. 1-9. 

The National Institute of Standards and 
Technology (NIST) , has been engaged in 
semiconductor device and materials 
research and development for many years. 
NIST emphasized technology transfer to 
industry and other government agencies 
long before "tech transfer" became as 
fashionable as it is today. For 
semiconductor electronics as well as for 
other fields, NIST generally does not 
engage in product development, but 
rather emphasizes measurement and test 
methods and quality assurance tools 
needed throughout the microelectronics 
industry. We choose our priorities to 
complement research and development 
under way in industry, universities, and 
other government agencies. 

Work in semiconductor electronic devices 
and materials is primarily in NIST's 
Center for Electronics and Electrical 
Engineering (CEEE) , which also includes 
work in electrical and electronic 
instrumentation and standards, electric 

power and energy measurements, micro- 
waves, lightwaves, and superconducting 
materials and devices. Work on 

linewidth measurements is carried out by 
NIST's Center for Manufacturing 
Engineering (CME) . This paper describes 
the mechanisms that CEEE and CME have 
found effective and concludes with 
several examples of technology which has 
been transferred or is being trans- 

[Contact: Robert I. Scace, (301) 975- 

2220 ] 

Kopanski , J . J . , and Novotny , D . B . , 
Electrical Characterization of Beta 
Silicon Carbide MIS Capacitors with 
Thermally Grown or Chemical-Vapor- 
Deposited Oxides, Extended Abstract of 
the Electrochemical Society Meeting, 
Hollywood, Florida, October 15-20, 
1989, pp. 722-723. 

Metal -Insulator- Semiconductor (MIS) 

capacitors were fabricated on beta 
silicon carbide single crystals. The 
insulating layers were thermally grown 
oxides or chemical-vapor-deposited 
oxides. Various oxidation conditions 
and post-deposition densif ication 
treatments were investigated. Capac- 
itors were characterized by capacitance- 
voltage measurements. The effects of 
measurement frequency, voltage sweep 
rate, illumination, and temperature (to 
300 “C) on the C-V response were 

determined. Interface trap distribu- 
tions were estimated from the high- 
frequency capacitance. Oxide fixed 
charges were 5 to 9 x 10^^ cm'^ , and 
interface trapped charge density at 
mid- gap levels was 0.5 to 2.0 x 10^^ 
cm* ^ eV ^ . 

[Contact: Joseph J. Kopanski, (301) 


Littler, C.L., Zawadzki, W. , Loloee, 
M.R. , Song, X.N. , and Seiler, D.G. , 
Donor-Shifted Phonon-Assisted Magneto- 
Optical Resonances in N-InSb, Physical 
Review Letters, Vol. 63, No. 26, pp. 
2845-2848 (25 December 1989). 

We have observed and described new 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Page 6 

Other Semiconductor Topics (cont'd.) 

optical transitions between magneto- 
donor states in InSb , both with and 
without optic phonon assistance. The 
phonon-assisted transitions provide a 
unique opportunity to investigate high 
excited states of the magneto -Coulomb 
system, which imitates the hydrogen atom 
in gigantic magnetic fields. High 
resolution data also reveal the presence 
of excited state magneto-donor transi- 
tions unknown until present. 

[Contact: David G. Seiler, (301) 975- 




DC & Low Frequency Metrology 

Hamilton, C.A. , Lloyd, F.L. , Chieh, K. , 
and Goeke , W.C., A 10-V Josephson 

Voltage Standard, IEEE Transactions on 
Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 
38, No. 2, pp. 314-316 (April 1989). 

This paper describes the design and 
operation of an 18992 Josephson- junction 
array which can generate reference 
voltages up to 12 V. This device has 
applications for the direct calibration 
of Zener reference standards, calib- 
rators, and digital voltmeters at the 
10-V level, and for very accurate 
linearity and ratio measurements. 
[Contact: Clark A. Hamilton, (303) 497- 

Fundamental Electrical Measurements 

Cage, M.E., Seni classical Scattering 
Corrections to the Quantum Hall Effect 
Conductivity and Resistivity Tensors, 
Journal Phys . : Condens . Matter, Vol. 1, 
No. 32, pp. 5531-5534 (1989). 

Ando, Matsumoto, and Uemura published an 
important paper in 1975 that greatly 
influenced the early experimental work 
on the quantum Hall effect. Their paper 
showed that, in both a semiclassical 

scattering model and in a self-consis- 
tent Born approximation, there is a 
correction to the quantum Hall conduc- 
tivity component of the conductivity 

tensor that is directly proportional to 
the diagonal conductivity component 
We provide a detailed derivation of 
their results using the semiclassical 
scattering (relaxation- time approxima- 
tion) model. We then present the 
surprising result that, in the semiclas- 
sical scattering model, there is no 
correction to the quantum Hall resis- 
tivity tensor component due to a 

finite value of p^^ . 

[Contact: Marvin E. Cage, (301) 975- 


Crvoelectronic Metrology 

Hamilton, C.A. , Lloyd, F.L. , Chieh, K. , 
and Goeke, W.C. , A 10-V Josephson 
Voltage Standard, IEEE Transactions on 
Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 
38, No. 2, pp. 314-316 (April 1989). 

This paper describes the design and 
operation of an 18992 Josephson- junction 
array which can generate reference 
voltages up to 12 V. This device has 
applications for the direct calibration 
of Zener reference standards, cali- 
brators, and digital voltmeters at the 
10-V level, and for very accurate 
linearity and ratio measurements. 
[Contact: Clark A. Hamilton, (303) 497- 

Hamilton, C.A. , McDonald, D.G. , 
Sauvageau, J.E., and Whiteley, S., 
Standards and High Speed Instrumenta- 
tion, Proceedings of the IEEE, Vol. 77, 
No. 8, pp. 1224-1232 (August 1989). 

This paper reviews four applications of 
superconductivity which are of current 
interest in the field of metrology. 
These applications are Josephson series- 
array voltage standards, cryogenic 
current comparators , a superconducting 
sampling oscilloscope, and a new 
bolometer based on a kinetic inductance 
thermometer . 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Pape 7 

Crvoelectronic Metrology (cont'd.) 

[Contact: Clark A. Hamilton, (303) 497- 

Antenna Metrology 

Francis, M.H. , Antenna Far-Field Pattern 
Accviracies at Millimeter Wave Frequen- 
cies Using the Planar Near-Field 
Technique, Proceedings of the Eleventh 
Annual Meeting and Symposium of the 
Antenna Measurement Techniques Associa- 
tion, Monterey, California, October 9- 
13, 1989, pp. 11-16 to 11-21. 

In recent years there has been an 
increasing demand for antenna calibra- 
tions at millimeter-wave frequencies. 
Because of this, the National Institute 
of Standards and Technology (NIST) has 
been developing measurement capabilities 
at millimeter-wave frequencies. The 
development of gain and polarization 
measurement capabilities has been 
previously reported. This paper reports 
on the development of the capability to 
measure an antenna pattern which has 
been achieved during the last year. 
Measurement accuracies of better than 
4 dB have been achieved for sidelobes 
which are 40 dB below the mainbeam peak. 
NIST is now providing a new measurement 
service for antenna patterns in the 30- 
to 50-GHz frequency range. 

[Contact: Michael H. Francis, (303) 


Guerrieri, J.R., and Kremer, D.P., 
Automated Multi-Axis Motor Controller 
and Data Acquisition System for Near- 
Field Scanners, Proceedings of the 
Eleventh Annual Meeting and S)rmposium 
of the Antenna Measurement Techniques 
Association, Monterey, California, 
October 9-13, 1989, pp. 12-24 to 12-28. 

The National Institute of Standards and 
Technology (NIST) has developed a multi- 
axis controller and software data 
acquisition system that has improved 
probe position accuracies in near- field 
scanning. This extends the usefulness 
of the NIST planar near-field scanner to 

higher frequencies. This system 

integrates programmable power supplies 
into an existing planar measurement 
system with new software that controls 
the power supplies and the data 
acquisition. It provides the higher 
positioning accuracy required for 
millimeter-wave measurements at a 
reasonable cost. 

This system uses the NIST planar near- 
field scanner's existing dc motors, 
computer, and laser. The programmable 
power supplies are connected to the 
motors, with a separate power supply for 
each motor's armature and a common power 
supply for each of the motor's field 
windings. This allows for concurrent 
movement in each axis and eliminates 
delays in switching between axes. 
Directional control, motor protection, 
and special software features are 
implemented by logic control. 

[Contact: Jeffrey R. Guerrieri, (303) 


Muth, L.A. , and Lewis, R.L. , Iterative 
Technique to Correct Probe Position 
Errors in Planar Near-Field to Far- 
Field Transformations, Proceedings of 
the 1989 International Symposium on 
Antennas and Propagation, Tokyo, Japan, 
August 22-25, 1989, Vol. 4, pp. 901- 

904. [Also published as NIST 

Technical Note 1323 (October 1988)]. 

We have developed a general theoretical 
procedure to take into account probe 
position errors when planar near-field 
data are transformed to the far field. 
If the probe position errors are known, 
we can represent the measured data as a 
Taylor series , whose terms contain the 
error function and the ideal spectrum of 
the antenna. Then we can solve for the 
ideal spectrum in terms of the measured 
data and the measured position errors by 
inverting the Taylor series . This is 
complicated by the fact that the 
derivatives of the ideal data are 
unknown; that is, they can only be 
approximated by the derivatives of the 
measured data. This introduces 

additional computational errors, which 

Pape 8 

Antenna Metrology (cont'd.) 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - Aupust 1990 

must be properly taken into account. We 
have shown that the first few terms of 
the inversion can be easily obtained by 
simple approximation techniques, where 
the order of the approximation is easily 
specified. A more general solution can 
also be written by formulating the 
problem as an integral equation and 
using the method of successive approxi- 
mations to obtain a general solution. 
An important criterion that emerges from 
the condition of convergence of the 
solution to the integral equation is 
that the total averaged position error 
must be less than some fraction of the 
sampling criterion for the antenna under 
test . 

[Contact: Lorant A. Muth, (303) 497- 


Muth, L.A. , and Lewis, R.L. , Planar 
Near-Field Codes for Personal Com- 
puters, NISTIR 89-3929 (October 1989). 

We have developed planar near- field 
codes, written in FORTRAN, to serve as a 
research tool in antenna metrology. We 
describe some of the inner workings of 
the codes , the data management schemes , 
and the structure of the input/output 
sections to enable scientists and 
programmers to use these codes effec- 
tively. The structure of the codes is 
seen to be open, so that a user should 
be able to incorporate a new application 
into the package for future use with 
relative ease. The large number of 
subroutines currently in existence are 
briefly described, and a table showing 
the interdependence among these 
subroutines is constructed. Some basic 
research problems, such as transforma- 
tion of a near-field to the far-field 
and probe position error correction, are 
carried out from start to finish, to 
illustrate use and effectiveness of 
these codes. Sample outputs are shown. 
The advantage of a high degree of 
modularization is demonstrated by the 
use of disk-operating-system (DOS) batch 
files to execute FORTRAN modules in a 
desired sequence. 

[Contact: Lorant A. Muth, (303) 497- 


Newell, A.C. , Guerrieri, J.R., Per- 
singer, R.R. , Stiles, J.A., and 
McFarlane, E.J., Comparison of Antenna 
Boresight Measurements Between Near- 
Field and Far-Field Ranges, Proceed- 
ings of the Eleventh Annual Meeting and 
Symposium of the Antenna Measurement 
Techniques Association, Monterey, 
California, October 9-13, 1989, pp. 1- 
24 to 1-29. 

This paper describes the results of 
electrical boresight measurement 
comparisons between one far-field and 
two near-field ranges. Details are 
given about the near-field alignment 
procedures and the near- field error 
analysis. Details of the far-field 
measurements and its associated errors 
are not described here, since the near- 
field technique is of primary interest. 
The coordinate systems of the antenna 
under test and the measurement ranges 
were carefully defined, and extreme care 
was taken in the angular alignment of 
each. The electrical boresight 

direction of the main beam was deter- 
mined at a number of frequencies for two 
antenna ports with orthogonal polariza- 
tions. Results demonstrated a maximum 
uncertainty between the different ranges 
of 0.018 degrees. An analytical error 
analysis that predicted a similar level 
of uncertainty was also performed. This 
error analysis can serve as the basis 
for estimating uncertainty in other 
near- field measurements of antenna 


[Contact: Allen C. Newell, (303) 497- 


Newell, A.C. , Kremer, D.P., and 

Guerrieri, J.R., Improvements in 
Polarization Measurements of Circularly 
Polarized Antennas, Proceedings of the 
Eleventh Annual Meeting and Symposium 

of the Antenna Measurement Techniques 
Association, Monterey, California, 

October 9-13, 1989, pp. 1-30 to 1-36. 

A new measurement technique that is used 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Pape 9 

Antenna Metrology ( cont ' d . ) 

to measure the polarization properties 
of dual-port, circularly polarized 
antennas is described. A three -antenna 
technique is used, and high- accuracy 
results are obtained for all three 
antennas without assuming ideal or 
identical properties. This technique 
eliminates the need for a rotating 
linear antenna, reduces the setup time 
when gain measurements are also 
performed, and reduces error for 
antennas with low axial ratios. 

[Contact: Allen C. Newell, (303) 497- 


Microwave & Millimeter-Wave Metrology 

Adair, R.T., and Livingston, E.M. , 
Coaxial Intrinsic Impedance Standards, 
NIST Technical Note 1333 (October 
1989) . 

This paper discusses how impedance 
standards are derived from the basic 
definition of impedance, constructed, 
and used in metrology with coaxial air- 
line systems. Basic transmission line 
equations are reviewed with emphasis 
given to intrinsic or derived standards 
for obtaining the impedance in low- loss 
transmission line systems. A brief 
description is given of how impedance 
standards are used to calibrate the 
vector automatic network analyzer, and 
specifically, the six-port system 
automatic network analyzer used at the 
National Institute of Standards and 
Technology (NIST) for calibration 
services in the radio -frequency, 
microwave, and millimeter-wave areas. 
Measurement uncertainties are given for 
7 -mm coaxial devices measured with the 
NIST six-port system. The resolution of 
this six-port system is several orders 
more precise than that of the present 
impedance standards from which it is 
calibrated. Required improvements in 
the physical dimensions of air- line 
standards which permit the capability of 
the automatic network analyzer to be 
more fully utilized are given. 

[Contact: John R. Juroshek, (303) 497- 


Hoer, C.A. , Systematic Errors in Power 
Measurements Made With a Dual Six-Port 
ANA, NIST Technical Note 1332 (July 
1989) . 

The purpose of this report is to 
determine the systematic error in 
measuring power with a dual six-port 
automatic network analyzer (ANA) . Most 
of the report concentrates on developing 
equations for estimating systematic 
errors due to imperfections in the test 
port connector, imperfections in the 
connector on the power standard, and 
imperfections in the impedance standards 
used to calibrate the six-port for 
measuring reflection coefficient. These 
are the largest sources of error 
associated with the six-port. For 7-mm 
connectors, all systematic errors which 
are associated with the six-port add up 
to a worst-case uncertainty of ±0.00084 
in measuring the ratio of the effective 
efficiency of a bolometric power sensor 
relative to that of a standard power 

[Contact: David H. Russell, (303) 497- 


Optical Fiber Metroloev 

Danielson, B.L. , and Whittenberg, C.D., 
Group Index and Time Delay Measurements 
of a Standard Reference Fiber, NISTIR 
88-3091 (July 1988). 

We describe measurement techniques for 
establishing a standard reference fiber 
with a well-characterized group index 
and time or group delay. Evaluation of 
an interferometric method indicates that 
fiber group index can be determined 
with a total estimated uncertainty of 
about 0.03% in small samples. Group 
delay of the reference fiber was 
measured with an overall uncertainty 
less than 0.004% in a 7 -km waveguide. 
We discuss the application of a standard 
reference fiber to calibration of the 
distance measurement accuracy of an 

Page 10 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Optical Fiber Metrology (cont'd.) 

optical time-domain ref lactometer . 
[Contact: Bruce L. Danielson, (303) 


Electro-Optic Metrology 

Deeter, M.N. , Rose, A.H. , and Day, G,W. , 
Characteristics of Polarimetric 

Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Yttrium 
Iron Garnet, Conference Digest of the 
1989 LEOS (IEEE Lasers and Electro- 
Optics Society) Meeting, Orlando, 

Florida, October 17-20, 1989, Vol. 

M7.3, p. 110. 

We describe the performance character- 
istics of polarimetric Faraday-effect 
magnetic field sensors employing 

ferrimagnetic-sensing elements, such as 
yttrium iron garnet (YIG) , Experimental 
results of sensor sensitivity, lin- 
earity, and directionality are presented 
for three cylindrical YIG samples, each 
having a different length- to -width 
ratio . 

[Contact: Merritt N. Deeter, (303) 497- 

Gallawa, R.L. , and Tu, Y. , Analysis of 
Circular Bends in Planar Optical 
Waveguides, Fiber and Integrated 
Optics, Vol. 8, pp. 87-97 (November 21, 
1988) . 

Waveguides with circular bends are 
analyzed by means of a conformal 
transformation in conjunction with the 
WKB method of dealing with the non- 
uniform refractive index that results 
from the transformation. The result is 
a prediction of the operational 
parameters of the bent guide, including 
the loss. The transformation makes 
possible an intuitive understanding of 
the cause of the loss. 

[Contact: Robert L. Gallawa, (303) 497- 

Lee, K.S., New Compensation Method for 
Bulk Optical Sensors with Multiple 
Birefringences, Applied Optics, Vol. 

28, No. 11, pp. 2001-2011 (1 June 

1989) . 

The dielectric tensor of an anisotropic 
crystal with multiple perturbations is 
presented to include the effects of 
multiple perturbations. To study 

electromagnetic wave propagation in 
anisotropic crystals subject to various 
influences, the perturbed dielectric 
tensor is substituted into Maxwell's 
equation. Then, a 2 x 2 transmission 
matrix formalism, based on a normal-mode 
approach, is extended to anisotropic 
crystals possessing multiple birefrin- 
gences to develop compensation schemes 
for ac optical sensors employing the 
crystal. It is shown that a new 
compensation method utilizing two 
analyzers can eliminate the effects of 
both unwanted linear birefringences and 
unwanted circular birefringences on the 
stability of the ac bulk polarimetric 
optical sensor. The conditions (here 
referred to as the quenching conditions) 
in which the compensation method becomes 
important are also derived for both 
voltage (or electric field) and current 
(or magnetic field) sensors. 

[Contact; G. W. Day, (303) 497-5204] 

Rasmussen, A.L. , Simpson, P.A., and 
Sanders, A.A. , Improved Low-Level 
Silicon- Avalanche-Photodiode Transfer 
Standards at 1.064 Micrometers, NISTIR 
89-3917 (August 1989). 

Three silicon- avalanche -photodiode 

transfer standards (APD TS) were 
calibrated from «10'® to ~10”^ W/cm^ 
peak power density at approximately 10% 
uncertainty. Calibrations were 

performed for 1.064-/im wavelength 
pulses, having 10- to 100-ns durations. 
For this calibration, an acousto- 
optically modulated laser beam provided 
alternately equal levels of pulsed power 
and cw power into a low-level beam 
splitter. The cw power measured by a 
transfer standard in the transmitted 
beam of the splitter was used to 
determine the pulsed power into the APD 
transfer standard in one of the low- 
level reflected beams of the splitter. 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Paee 11 

Electro-Optic Metrology (cont'd.) 

(September 1989) . 

The APD detector had about 1-cm^ 
aperture and a 3.8-cm focal length lens 
in front of it. Lens, window, and 
detector surfaces had narrow-band anti- 
reflection coatings. The commercial 
detector package is a temperature - 
compensated, infrared- enhanced APD 
preamplifier module. To increase the 
sensitivity, one or two 20-dB, 500-MHz 
band-width amplifiers followed the 
preamplifier. At very low pulsed power 
levels, a 30-MHz low-pass filter with 
gaussian roll-off was attached to the 
amplifier output to reduce the noise. A 
transient digitizer recorded the impulse 
responses of the APD detectors at 1.064 
fim. These data were read into computer 
programs that convolved the unity area 
impulse response with unity height 
gaussian pulses. From these data, 
correction factors of the pulse peak for 
observed pulse durations from 10 to 100 
ns were determined. Instructions, 
calibrations, error budgets, and system 
descriptions are included. 

[Contact: Alvin L. Rasmussen, (303) 

Schlager, J.B., Yamabayashi, Y. , and 
Franzen, D.L. , Soliton-Like Compression 
of Pulses from Erbium-Fiber Lasers, 
Proceedings of the European Conference 
on Optical Communications, Gotenburg, 
Sweden, September 10-14, 1989, Vol. 3, 
pp. 62-65. 

Erbium- fiber lasers with cavity lengths 
of 5 to 5000 m are mode -locked at the 
fundamental cavity frequency. Pulse 
durations vary from 13 to 80 ps; the 
shorter pulses exhibit soliton-like 
compression and higher order effects 
when propagated through external fibers. 
[Contact: John B. Schlager, (303) 497- 

Schlager, J.B., Yamabayashi, Y. , 
Franzen, D. , and Juneau, R.I., Mode- 
Locked, Long-Cavity, Erbium Fiber 
Lasers with Subsequent Soliton-Like 
Compression, IEEE Photonics Technology 
Letters, Vol. 1, No. 9, pp. 264-266 

Erbium fiber lasers with cavity lengths 
of 20 to 5000 m are mode- locked at the 
fundamental cavity frequency using an 
integrated-optic intensity modulator 
driven by a novel pulse generator. 
Resulting optical pulses at 1536 nm are 
recorded with a synchroscan streak 
camera and have durations of 18 to 80 ps 
with peak powers over 6 W. The shorter 
cavities yield nearly transform- limited 
pulses which are narrowed by soliton- 
like compression to approximately 5 ps 
after propagation through an external 
14-km fiber. 

[Contact: John B. Schlager, (303) 497- 


Electromagnetic Properties 

Kremer, D.P., Newell, A.C. , and Agee, 
D.A. , Absorber Characterization, 
Proceedings of the Eleventh Annual 
Meeting and S)nnposium of the Antenna 
Measurement Techniques Association, 
Monterey, California, October 9-13, 
1989, pp. 13-7 to 13-11. 

When a laboratory considers replacing an 
old microwave absorber or a new 
installation, it needs a method that 
makes possible quick, inexpensive, and 
accurate measurements on individual 
absorber samples. Different types and 
sizes of absorber need to be quickly 
analyzed at multiple frequencies to 
determine which t 3 rpe best maintains or 
improves the facility's radio -frequency 
characteristics . In response to this 
need, the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology has devised an 
improved version of the Doppler-shift 
method to measure the scattering levels 
of different sizes and types of 
microwave absorber. This technique is 
useful as an inexpensive and simple 
method for measuring individual absorber 
pieces with good accuracy and sen- 
sitivity. The system described does 
not require a large anechoic facility or 
a sophisticated measurement system for 
minimizing the effects of background 
scattering. Using this method. 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Pape 12 

Electromapnetic Properties (cont'd.) 

reflectivity levels on the order of -80 
dB can be measured and relative changes 
of 1 dB can be detected. Sample results 
for an absorber with and without fire 
retardant salts and different sizes are 

[Contact: Douglas P. Kremer, (303) 497- 

Complex Testing 

Stenbakken, G.N., Souders , T.M. , and 
Stewart, G.W. , Ambiguity Groups and 
Testability, IEEE Transactions on 
Instrumentation and Measurement, Vol. 
38, No. 5, pp. 941-947 (October 1989). 

An efficient method has been developed 
for determining component ambiguity 
groups which arise in analog circuit 
testing. The method makes use of the 
sensitivity model of the circuit. The 
ambiguity groupings are shown to depend 
on the test points selected and the 
measurement accuracy, and is, therefore, 
a useful tool for determining where to 
add or delete test points. The concept 
of ambiguity groups can be used to 
refine the testability measure of a 
circuit . 

[Contact: Gerard N. Stenbakken, (301) 


Other Fast Signal Topics 

Haggerty, J., and Young, M. , Spatial 
Light Modulator for Texture Classifi- 
cation, Applied Optics, Vol. 28, No. 23 
(1 December 1989). 

This paper describes a hybrid computer- 
optical processor devoted to the 
analysis of texture. Textures are 
displayed on a spatial light modulator, 
and their power spectra are calculated 
optically by a Fourier optical tech- 
nique . A video camera and a computer 
with a frame digitizer process the power 
spectra. We define a multidimensional 
feature space and associate each texture 
with a point in this feature space. 
After a training set, the system can 

distinguish several textures. This 
hybrid computer is a step toward real- 
time texture classification because of 
the nearly instantaneous optical Fourier 

[Contact: Matt Young, (303) 497-3223] 

Leedy, T.F., NIST Developing Neutral 
Format for HMA Manufacturers , Navy 
Manufacturing Technology Program 
Report, pp. 4-5 (November 1989). 

The National Institute of Standards and 
Technology (NIST) Electricity Division 
of the Center for Electronics and 
Electrical Engineering and the NIST 
Automated Manufacturing Research 
Facility of the Center for Manufacturing 
Engineering have started a three -year 
program entitled, "A Data Format 
Specification for Hybrid Microelectronic 
Assemblies," sponsored by the Naval 
Ocean Systems Center, San Diego. The 
two centers are part of NIST. Project 
objective is to develop a specification 
for a neutral format to promote the 
exchange of design and manufacturing 
data for hybrid microcircuit assemblies. 
Comments from industry are being 
solicited at two special workshops. 
[Contact: Thomas F. Leedy, (301) 975- 


Ramboz, J.D., Special Test and Eval- 
uation Methods Used for a Nine-Axis 
Accelerometer, NISTIR 89-4195 (October 

The test methods used to characterize 
and evaluate the performance of a 
miniature nine-axis accelerometer are 
discussed. A special transducer 

containing nine separate linear 
accelerometers was examined. The 

intended application for this type of 
device is to derive angular acceleration 
data for dynamic-head motion measure- 
ments relating to automobile crash 
studies. The accelerometers, ampli- 
fiers, multiplexer, FM telemetry 
transmitter, and power supply are all to 
be molded into an athletic orthodontic 
mouthpiece, and data will be obtained 
from measurements taken from boxers' 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Pape 13 

Other Fast Signal Topics (cont'd.) 

head motions. The angular head motions 
of boxers is thought to be similar to 
those in automobile crashes. The 

transducer parameters tested include 
axial and transverse linear-vibration 
sensitivities, equivalent acceleration 
noise, effects of power supply voltage 
variations, and mouthpiece vibration 
transmissibility . Special test 

apparatus described includes a dual 
centrifuge and a dual spin- axis rate- 
table. Test philosophy and some test 
results are used to illustrate how 
apparently conflicting test results can 
be used to explain transducer perfor- 
mance under test conditions of combined 
environments . 

[Contact: John D. Ramboz , (301) 975- 


Schoenwetter , H.K. , Leedy, T.F. , and 
Laug , 0 . B . , Electrical Performance 

Tests for Storage Oscilloscopes, NISTIR 
89-4220 (December 1989). 

Electrical performance test procedures 
for a dc to 100-MHz storage oscilloscope 
were developed for the purpose of 
evaluating samples submitted by 
electronic instrument manufacturers in 
response to specifications issued by the 
U.S. Army Communications -Electronics 
Command. The detailed, step-by-step 
test procedures are based on the 
specifications supplied by the Army and 
include sample data sheets and tables 
for the recording of interim data and 
final test results. 

This report discusses the measurement 
principles and techniques underlying the 
most significant procedures. In 

addition, the sources of measurement 
uncertainty are discussed. 

[Contact: Owen B. Laug, (301) 975-2412] 


Power Systems Metrology 

Martzloff , F.D. , and Leedy, T.F. , A 
Glimpse at Long-Term Effects of 

Momentary Overvoltages on Zinc Oxide 
Varistors, Ceramic Transactions, Vol. 
3, pp . 306-311 (1989), Proceedings of 

the Second International Varistor 
Conference, Schenectady, New York, 
December 4-5, 1988. 

Because the prime function of varistors 
is diversion of high-energy surges, 
most of the attention is directed toward 
selecting the appropriate device rating 
to ensure long life under surge 
conditions. Some attention is also 
given to matching steady- state rating of 
the device to the power system voltage. 
However, during abnormal (and not well- 
defined) power system conditions, the 
line voltage can reach values that will 
cause substantial current in the 
varistor. Until the effects of these 
momentary overvoltages are better 
identified and understood, there will be 
a risk of near-term failure at worst and 
accelerated aging at best. 

[Contact: Francois D. Martzloff, (301) 


Misakian, M. , and McKnight, R.H. , DC 
Electric Field Effects During Measure- 
ments of Monopolar Charge Density and 
Net Space Charge Density Near HVDC 
Power Lines, IEEE Transactions on Power 
Delivery, Vol. 4, No. 4, pp. 2229-2234 
(October 1989) . 

The influence of a dc electric field on 
the measurement of monopolar charge 
densities using an aspirator- type ion 
counter and the measurement of net space 
charge density using a Faraday cage or 
filter is examined. Optimum configura- 
tions which minimize the effect of the 
electric field are identified for each 
type of instrumentation. 

[Contact: Martin Misakian, (301) 975- 


Pace, M.O. , Wintenberg, A.L. , Blalock, 
T.V., Kelley, E.F. , FitzPatrick, G.J., 
Fenimore, C. , and Yamashita, H. , 
Pressiire Effects on Partial Discharges 
in Hexane Under DC Voltage, 1989 Annual 
Report, Conference on Electrical 
Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, 

Page 14 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Power Systems Metrology (cont'd.) 

Leesburg, Virginia, October 29-November 
1, 1989, pp. 87-92 (1989). 

The pressure dependencies of the early 
partial discharges (PD) have been 
experimentally investigated at a needle 
in hexane from subatmospheric pressure 
(near hexane vapor pressure) to several 
atmospheres . Each PD is photographed in 
synchronism with a characteristic 
pattern of current pulses. An image- 
preserving optical delay allows 
photography to commence just before or 
at inception. Individual current pulses 
comprising a characteristic pattern are 

[Contact: Gerald J. FitzPatrick, (301) 


Petersons, 0., Review of book entitled, 
"The Current Comparator," by W.J.M. , 
Moore and P.N. Miljanic, Metrologia 
(Journal published in France by the 
Bureau International des Poids et 
Mesures) , Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 77-78 
(March 1989) . 

This review covers the book, "The 
Current Comparator," by W. J. M. Moore 
and P. N. Miljanic. The review includes 
an overall assessment of the coverage of 
the subject, and addresses the clarity 
and effectiveness of the authors in 
reaching their intended audience. The 
book is a concise, yet comprehensive 
monograph covering the basic principles, 
construction, details, error sources, 
and error reduction techniques for 
magnetic current comparators. Alter- 
nating- (power frequency) and direct- 
current comparators are covered. 
Numerous applications and instruments 
utilizing current comparators are 
described. The book serves both as 
tutorial material for the uninitiated 
and as a reference volume for the 
expert . 

[Contact: Oskars Petersons, (301) 975- 


Van Brunt, R.J., Research for Electric 
Energy Systems - An Annxial Report, 

NISTIR 89-4167 (October 1989). 

This is a report of technical progress 
in four investigations conducted at the 
National Institute of Standards and 
Technology and supported by the U.S. 
Department of Energy under Task Order 
Number 137. The first investigation is 
concerned with the measurements of 
electric fields and ions in the vicinity 
of high-voltage transmission lines and 
biological exposure facilities. For 
this investigation, results are reported 
on evaluations of two methods for 
measuring ion mobilities at atmospheric 
pressure and an aspiratory- type ion 
counter for measuring monopolar charge 
densities in air. The second investi- 
gation is concerned with development of 
advanced diagnostics for compressed gas- 
insulated power systems. For this 
investigation, results are reported on 
measurements of collisional electron 
detachment and negative ion conversion 
reactions in SFg and on a new technique 
for measuring the stochastic behavior of 
partial discharges. The third inves- 
tigation is concerned with measurement 
of prebreakdown phenomena at solid- 
liquid dielectric interfaces. Results 
are presented here from optical 
observations of the influence of 
hydrostatic pressure on prebreakdown 
partial discharge development and 
measurement of nanosecond impulse 
breakdown at liquid-solid interfaces. 
The fourth area of research is concerned 
with electrical measurement of fast 
transient phenomena. Results are 

presented from an investigation into the 
interactions between two dividers used 
simultaneously to measure fast impulse 
voltages . 

[Contact: Richard J. Van Brunt, (301) 


Van Brunt , R . J . , and Kulkarni , S . V . , 
Method for Measuring the Stochastic 
Properties of Corona and Partial- 
Discharge Pulses, Review of Scientific 
Instruments, Vol. 60, No. 9, pp. 3012- 
3023 (September 1989), 

A new method is described for measuring 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Page 15 

Power Systems Metrology (cont'd.) 

the stochastic behavior of corona and 
partial-discharge pulses which utilizes 
a pulse selection and sorting circuit 
in conjunction with a computer-con- 
trolled multichannel analyzer to 
directly measure various conditional and 
unconditional pulse-height and pulse- 
time-separation distributions. From 
these measured distributions it is 
possible to determine the degree of 
correlation between successive discharge 
pulses. Examples are given of results 
obtained from measurements on negative, 
point- to-plane (Trichel- type) corona 
pulses in an N 2 /O 2 gas mixture which 
clearly demonstrate that the phenomenon 
is inherently stochastic in the sense 
that development of a discharge pulse is 
significantly affected by the amplitude 
of and time separation from the 
preceding pulse. It is found, for 
example, that corona discharge pulse 
amplitude and time separation from an 
earlier pulse are not independent random 
variables. Discussions are given about 
the limitations of the method, sources 
of error, and data analysis procedures 
required to determine self-consistency 
of the various measured distributions . 
[Contact: Richard J. Van Brunt, (301) 



Ekin, J.W., VAMAS Inter laboratory 
Comparisons of Critical Current vs . 
Strain in Nb 3 Sn [Original title: VAMAS 
Round Robin Results of Critical Current 
vs. Strain in NbgSn], Proceedings of 
the Sixth Japan/United States Workshop 
on High Field Superconductors, Boulder, 
Colorado, February 22-24, 1989, pp. 94- 

A comparison is made of measurements of 
the effect of axial tensile strain on 
the critical current of multifila- 
mentary NbgSn superconductors by three 
different laboratories. Two of the 
laboratories used short- sample testing 
apparatus wherein a straight section of 
conductor was cooled in a force-free 

state. One of the laboratories utilized 
a spring apparatus wherein a long sample 
was reacted in a coil shape and attached 
to a spring sample holder. The 

agreement between the results for the 
two laboratories utilizing the straight- 
sample apparatus was quite good, within 
15% for all three conductors at 15 T, 
except at very high strain for one 
conductor which had an upper critical 
field close to the measurement field. 
To make a comparison with the data 
obtained using the spring method, it was 
necessary to fit the data to the 
compressive prestrain determined using 
the straight- sample technique. Making 
such a fit, the agreement was found to 
be variable, between 15 and 25% 

depending on the conductor. Values of 
the prestrain and irreversible strain 
obtained from the straight -sample data 
agreed within 0.06% and 0.05%, respec- 
tively. Values of the maximum (strain- 
free) upper critical fields agreed 
within several tenths of a tesla. 
[Contact: Jack W. Ekin, (303) 497- 


Ekin, J.W., Bray, S.L. , Danielson, P. , 
Smathers, D. , Sabatini, R.L. , and 
Suenaga, M. , Transverse Stnress Effect 
on the Critical Current of Internal Tin 
and Bronze Process Nb 3 Sn Supercon- 
ductors, Proceedings of the Sixth 

Japan/United States Workshop on High 
Field Superconductors, Boulder, 

Colorado, February 22-24, 1989, pp. 50- 

The effect of transverse stress on the 
critical current density, , has been 
shown to be significant in bronze - 
process Nb 3 Sn, with the onset of 
significant degradation at about 50 MPa. 
In an applied field of 10 T, the 
magnitude of the effect is about seven 
times larger for transverse stress than 
for axial tensile stress. We have also 
measured the effect in an internal tin 
conductor with excess tin, which yields 
a more equiaxed Nb 3 Sn grain morphology 
than for bronze-process Nb 3 Sn, in which 
the grains tend to be more columnar. 
The effect of transverse stress on J,. 

Pape 16 

Superconductors (cont'd.) 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

was nearly identical for the two 
conductors, indicating that the 
transverse stress effect is probably not 
dependent on grain morphology. 

[ Contact : 

Jack W. 




Ekin, J.W. 

, Goodrich, 

L.F. , 


S.L. , 


N . F . , and 

Goldfarb , 

R.B. , 

Electromechanical Properties of 
Superconductors for High-Energy Physics 
Applications, Part II, NISTIR 89-3912 
(November 1989) . 

This report presents data on supercon- 
ductor performance under mechanical 
load. The data are needed for setting 
mechanical design constraints and 
measuring the electro-mechanical 
performance of NbTi superconductors for 
DOE high-energy physics magnet applica- 
tions. The effect of axial tensile 
stress, applied at room temperature, on 
the critical current of NbTi supercon- 
ductor strands has been measured. The 
data show a simple result that the 
effect on the critical current is 
independent of the temperature at which 
the stress is applied; this allows the 
existing 4 K database to be used to 
determine critical current degradation 
from room temperature fabrication 
stress, from cool-down stress introduced 
by differential contraction, and from 4 
K stress generated by the Lorentz force 
when the magnet is energized. A study 
of the critical-current variations along 
NbTi strands extracted from a Rutherford 
cable has been made also. The results 
show that the principal mechanical 
degradation is extremely localized at 
the regions where the NbTi strand is 
bent around the edge of the cable. For 
example, only 3% of the total strand 
length can contribute 92% of the total 
strand voltage. A further study has 
been made of the effects of bending 
strain on the critical current of NbTi 
conductors . The degradation of the 
critical current from bending strain is 
much greater at low values of electric 
field than at high, suggesting that 

irregularity of the filament cross- 
sectional area introduced by bending may 
be the source of the I^, degradation. 
The bend tolerance of a NbTi conductor 
can be enhanced by increasing the local 
copper- to-super conductor area ratio. 
Measurements of the permeability, 
saturation magnetization, and intrinsic 
coercivity of several high-permeability 
steel alloys were made. The overall 
differences of saturation magnetization 
and intrinsic coercivity between cold- 
rolled steel samples were not sig- 
nificant . 

[Contact: Jack W. Ekin, (303) 497- 


Ekin, J.W., and Larson, T.M. , Magnetic- 
Field Angle Dependence of the Critical 
Current in Y- , Bi- , and Tl-Based High- 
TC Superconductors, Proceedings of the 
Sixth Japan/United States Workshop on 
High Field Superconductors, Boulder, 
Colorado, February 22-24, 1989, pp. 61- 

The change in J^, with angle between 
applied field and current depends on the 
magnetic field regime. There is 

essentially no change at low fields, 
where is not determined by pinning 

but rather by self-field effects. At 
intermediate fields in the plateau 
regime, the effect t 3 rpically amounts to 
a 50 to 300% enhancement in J^. for the 
force-free case, comparable in magnitude 
to conventional superconductors, 

indicating a nearly isotropic well- 
connected network of percolation paths. 
At high fields, field angle effect 
becomes negligible, indicating that the 
percolation paths in the high- field 
regime become more disconnected and 
highly convoluted with some section of 
each percolation path perpendicular to 
the applied field independent of the 
angle . 

[Contact: Jack W. Ekin, (303) 497- 


Ekin, J.W., Larson, T.M. , Hermann, A.M. , 
Sheng, Z.Z., Togano, K. , and Kumakura, 
H., Double-Step Critical Cuirreiit vs. 
Field Characteristic in Y- , Bi- , and 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Pape 17 

Superconductors (cont'd.) 

Tl-Based Bulk High-T^ Superconductors, 
Physica C, Vol. 160, pp . 489-496 

(1989) . 

A double-step characteristic is observed 
at 76 K in the plot of transport 
critical current as a function of 
magnetic field in bulk sintered Y- , Bi-, 
and T1 -based high-T^ superconducting 
materials. The low field step- like drop 
in the critical current commences at 
magnetic fields between about 0.3 and 2 
mT. This is followed by a plateau 
region of relatively constant critical 
current extending from about 30 to 300 
mT, and then a second drop at fields 
between about 0.3 and 10 T. These 
features occur for all three supercon- 
ductor systems and are interpreted, 
respectively, as a weak- link regime, a 
remnant percolation path regime, and a 
flux flow regime. 

[Contact: Jack W. Ekin, (303) 497- 


Goodrich, L.F., Bray, S.L., and 
Stauffer, T.C., Thermal Contraction of 
Fiberglass -Epoxy Sample Mandrels and 
Its Effect on Critical -Current Measure- 
ments, Proceedings of the Sixth Japan- 
U.S. Workshop on High Field Supercon- 
ductors, Boulder, Colorado, February 
22-24, 1989, pp. 91-93. 

A systematic study of the effect of 
sample -mounting techniques on the super- 
conducting critical -current measurement 
was made in conjunction with the VAMAS 
(Versailles Agreement on Advanced 
Materials and Standards) inter laboratory 
comparison measurements . A seemingly 
small change in mandrel geometry can 
result in a 40% change in the measured 
critical current of a NbgSn sample at 
12 T. This is a result of a change in 
the conductor pre-strain at 4 K caused 
by variation in thermal contraction 
between thick- and thin-walled fiber- 
glass-epoxy composite (G-10) tubes. An 
approximate measure of the variations 
in thermal contraction (from room to 
liquid nitrogen temperature) indicates a 

0.2% greater contraction for the thick- 
walled tube. This difference, combined 
with strain sensitivity measurements, is 
consistent with the obseirved decrease in 
critical current. Previous publications 
on the thermal contraction of G-10 have 
addressed the plate geometry, but not 
the tube geometry. The contraction of a 
G-10 plate is highly anisotropic. The 
radial contraction of a tube is 
different from the contraction of a 
plate, however, because the circumferen- 
tial fiberglass is put into hoop 
compression by the epoxy, and the 
resulting contraction is a competition 
between the two structural components. 
This appears to be the source of the 
variation in thermal contraction with 
tube wall thickness. 

[Contact: Loren F. Goodrich, (303) 497- 

Moreland, J., Ginley, D.S., Venturini, 
E.L. , and Morosin, B., Break Junction 
Measurement of the Tunneling Gap of a 
Thallium-Based High-Temperature 

Superconductor Crystal, Applied Physics 
Letters, Vol. 55, No. 14, pp. 1463-1465 
(2 October 1989). 

We have used the break junction method 
to measure the tunneling gap of a 
thallium-based high- temperature 

superconductor crystal in liquid helium 
at 4 K. The crystal was predominately 
Tl 2 CaBa 2 Cu 2 07 and had a superconducting 
onset temperature of 105 K. Tunneling 
data showed a symmetric gap about zero 
bias between two well-defined conduc- 
tance peaks in the conductance versus 
voltage curve. The gap is consistent 
with a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer energy 
gap (A) of 30 meV assuming a supercon- 
electrode configuration. In addition, a 
supercurrent could be detected when the 
break junction was operated in a point- 
contact mode at temperatures as high as 
95 K. 

[Contact: John Moreland, (303) 497- 


Peterson, R.L. , Bean Model Extended to 
Magnetization Jumps, Physics Letters A, 

Pape 18 

Superconductors ( cont ' d . ) 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Vol. 131, No. 2, pp. 131-134 (8 August 
1988) . 

The Bean model of magnetization in hard 
superconductors is extended to include 
the trains of magnetization jumps seen 
at low temperature in moderate- to-high 
magnetic fields. As in the original 
Bean model, no particular mechanisms for 
flux pinning or dynamics are invoked. 
The model correctly accounts for the 
general dependence of the size of the 
magnetization jumps on sample size and 
critical current density. The data 
together with the model show that the 
shielding fields are approximately equal 
after each jump. 

[Contact: Robert L. Peterson, (303) 


Peterson, R.L., Magnetization of 
Imperfect Superconducting Grains , 
Physical Review B, Vol. 40, No. 4, pp. 
2678-2681 (1 August 1989). 

A critical -state theory of the magne- 
tization of superconducting grains 
containing nonsuperconducting regions 
is presented which shows that the 
thickness of the sheath of supercurrents 
around these regions can be more 
important than the grain dimension in 
determining the magnetization. This 
may explain some apparently conflicting 
results on the magnetization of high- 
Tg powders of different sizes. 



Robert L. 




R.L. , 


Ekin , J . W . , 


Pattern, Weak-Link Modeling of Critical 
Currents in Higb-T^ Superconductors , 
Physica C, Vol. 157, (North-Holland, 
Amsterdam) pp. 325-333 (1989). 

We have measured the transport critical 
current density at very low magnetic 
fields in samples of superconducting 
bulk sintered YjBa 2 Cu 3 0jj, YiBa 2 Cu^ 0 jj, 
and HoiBa 2 Cu 3 0jj obtained from several 
sources. The results are analyzed at 
low fields (< 10 mT) with a statistical 

model which assumes that the current is 
limited by Josephson weak links (SNS or 
SIS Josephson junctions or microbridges) 
whose locations are to be determined. 
Each weak link is assumed to be 
described by an Airy current- field 
pattern rather than a Fraunhofer 
pattern. The former has a better 
theoretical foundation and is in better 
agreement with the data, varying as 
upon averaging. The fitting 
procedure yields the average cross- 
sectional area of the weak links. By 
assuming the link thickness to be twice 
the London penetration depth at 77 K, we 
find that the average linear dimensions 
of the links are in all cases comparable 
to the grain dimensions. The quantita- 
tive analysis also confirms the 
percolation concept, in which a subset 
of weakest links controls the transport 
current . 

[Contact: Robert L. Peterson, (303) 

497-3750 or 3227] 

Peterson, R.L. , and Ekin, J.W., 
Josephson-Junction Model of Critical 
Current in Granular Y^ Ba 2 Cug Oy _ ^ 

Superconductors, Physical Review B, 
Vol. 37, No. 16, pp. 9848-9851 (1 June 
1988) . 

We calculate the transport critical- 
current density in a granular supercon- 
ductor in magnetic fields below about 5 
X 10”^ T. The field dependence in this 
region is assumed to be controlled by 
intragranular or intergranular Josephson 
junctions. Various model calculations 
are fitted to transport critical-current 
data on bulk YiBa 2 Cu 307 _^ ceramic 
superconductors , whose average grain 
size somewhat exceeds 10 /xm. The 
results yield an average junction cross- 
sectional area (thickness x length) of 4 
to 6 fjim^ . If the junctions are at the 
grain boundaries, a London penetration 
depth of about 150 to 300 nm is 
inferred, consistent with other 
estimates. We conclude that Josephson 
junctions are limiting the transport 
critical current in these samples and 
that they lie at the grain boundaries. 
The parameters of the fit are not 

Page 19 

- August 1990 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements 

Superconductors (cont'd.) 

consistent with Josephson junctions at 
twinning boundaries. 

[Contact: Robert L. Peterson, (303) 


Peterson, R.L. , and Ekin, J.W., Modeling 
of Critical Currents in Granular Hig^h- 
Tj. Superconductors, Proceedings of 
Workshop on Materials Science of High 
Tg Superconductors, Gaithersburg, 
Maryland, October 11-13, 1988, pp, 190- 

The transport critical current density 
of several samples of bulk sintered 
high-Tg superconductors was measured at 
very low magnetic fields and fitted to a 
model which assumes that the impediments 
to current at such fields are Josephson 
weak links. A sample of particular 
interest was Yj^Ba 2 Cu 3 0jj made from 
hydroxycarbonate precursors; the final 
bulk sintered sample was very fine- 
grained, having an average grain size of 
about 1.8 fim as determined by a linear 
intercept analysis. The fit to the 
model is excellent if the average 
linear dimension of the weak links is 
chosen to be 2.0 /xm. We conclude that 
this sample, as well as the others, has 
Josephson weak links at its grain 

boundaries, and that any intragrain 

defects which may be responsible for 
flux pinning are not the primary weak 
links limiting the transport J^ of bulk 
samples at very low magnetic fields. 
[Contact: Robert L. Peterson, (303) 


Roshko, A., Moodera, J.S., and Chiang, 
Y-M. , S-N-S Behavior of Grain Boun- 
daries in Polycrystalline 

Laj ss^^o Physica C, Vol. 

162-164, pp. 1625-1626 (1989). 

The field and temperature dependence of 
transport critical current J^ in well- 
characterized, polycrystalline 

Lai gjSro isCuO^.y has been inves- 
tigated. The behavior at low fields, 

close to critical temperature T^ , 
corresponds to that of superconductor- 

normal -superconductor (S-N-S) junctions. 
[Contact: Alexana Roshko, (303) 497- 



Radiated Electromagnetic Interference 

Adams, J.W., Ondrejka, A.R. , .Cavcey, 

K.H. , Cruz, J.E., Medley, H.W. , and 

Grosvenor, Jr., J.H., Recent Improve- 
ments in Time -Domain QIC Measurement 
System, NISTIR 89-3927 (November 1989). 

Improved techniques for determining 
critical resonant frequencies and the 
current response of internal wiring due 
to external fields for rotary-wing 
aircraft are given. The measurement 

method uses a train of low-level, 

radiated pulses. These do not disturb 
other spectrum users, nor do other 
spectrum users significantly disturb 
these measurements. The fields are low, 
a distinct advantage from both cost and 
personnel hazard standpoints. The 

problems that should be addressed before 
the full potential of the technique can 
be realized are discussed. 

[Contact: John W. Adams, (303) 497- 


Hill, D.A. , and Ehret, R.L. , Near-Field 
Gain of Pyramidal Horns from 18 to 40 
GHz, NISTIR 89-3924 (November 1989). 

Generating a standard electromagnetic 
field requires knowledge of the gain of 
the transmitting antenna. Using the 
two -antenna method, we have measured the 
near-field gain of pyramidal horns at 
frequencies from 18 to 40 GHz. The 
discrepancy between the measured and 
theoretical near-field gain is typically 
within ±0.3 dB for distances from 0.5 
to 4 m from the horn aperture . An 
accurate laser alignment of the horns 
was necessary to obtain this level of 
agreement . 

[Contact; David A. Hill, (303) 497- 

Ma, M.T. , and Crawford, M.L. , Facilities 
for l 0 q»roving Evaltiations of Electro- 

Page 20 

Radiated EMI (cont'd.) 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

magnetic Susceptibilities of Weapon 

Systems and Electronic Equipment, 

NISTIR 89-3928 (November 1989). 

A preliminary design of an improved 
testing facility for evaluating the 
electromagnetic susceptibility of weapon 
systems and electronic equipment is 
presented. This facility features a 
combination of the transverse electroma- 
gnetic (TEM) cell for low-frequency 
testing and the reverberating chamber 
for high-frequency operation. As a 
system, a coverage of the wide spectrum 
from 10 kHz to 18 GHz or even to 40 GHz 
is possible. The TEM/reverberating 
combination is designed for an input 
impedance to 50, 75, or 100 Q to 

generate a continuous -wave electric 
field up to 200 V/m, or a pulsed 

electric field up to 50 kV/m with an 
approximate rise time of 10 ns. The 
average field for the reverberating mode 
of operation is described in a statisti- 
cal sense. Theoretical characteristics 
for a case study, to meet a given set of 
requirements, are given. 

[Contact; Mark T. Ma, (303) 497-3800] 

Randa, J.P., and Kanda, M. , Standard 
Field Generation for Microwaves and 
Millimeter Waves, Navy Metrology, 
Research & Development Requirements 
Conference Report, Corona, California, 
April 4-6, 1989, pp. 97-100 (April 

1989) . 

The requirements for electromagnetic 
field measurements at microwave and 
millimeter-wave frequencies in both the 
laboratory and the field are discussed. 
Current National Institute of Standards 
and Technology (NIST) capabilities and 
intended extensions are presented. The 
NIST anechoic -chamber facility can 
generate calibrated fields up to 18 GHz 
and will soon be extended to 40 GHz. 
Future extensions will be 2-GHz bands 
centered at 60 GHz and 95 GHz. 
Transfer-standard probes developed by 
NIST are available up to 18 GHz, and 
work is in progress to develop probes 

which would operate to 110 GHz. It is 
not clear whether these probes (if 
successfully developed) would be 
suitable for field use, as hazard 
meters, for example. For measurements 
in the field, electric-field probes 
which are claimed to operate to 40 GHz 
are available commercially. Small, 
transportable facilities for calibration 
of probes in the field are not readily 
available. This paper discusses the 
present situation in these areas, 
presents current NIST work to extend our 
relevant capabilities, and notes present 
and probable future deficiencies. 
[Contact: James P. Randa, (303) 497- 


Lists of Publications 

Lyons, R.M. , and Gibson, K.A. , A 
Bibliography of the NIST Electromagnetic 
Fields Division Publications, NISTIR 89- 
3920 (September 1989). 

This bibliography lists publications by 
the staff of the National Institute of 
Standards and Technology's Electromag- 
netic Fields Division for the period 
from January 1970 through August 1989. 
Selected earlier publications from the 
Division's predecessor organizations 
are included. 

[Contact: Kathryn A. Gibson, (303) 497- 

DeWeese, M.E., Metrology for Electromag- 
netic Technology: A Bibliography of 
NIST Publications, NISTIR 89-3921 
(August 1989). 

This bibliography lists the publications 
of the personnel of the Electromagnetic 
Technology Division of NIST in the 
period from January 1970 through 
publication of this report. A few 
earlier references that are directly 
related to the present work of the 
Division are included. 

[Contact: Sarabeth Moynihan, (303) 497- 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Page 21 

Additional Information (cont'd.) 

Palla, J.C., and Meiselman, B. , 
Electrical and Electronic Metrology: A 
Bibliography of NIST Electricity 
Division's Publications, NIST List of 
Publications 94 (January 1990) . 

This bibliography covers publications of 
the Electricity Division, Center for 
Electronics and Electrical Engineering, 
NIST, and of its predecessor sections 
for the period January 1968 to December 
1989. A brief description of the 
Division's technical program is given in 
the introduction. 

[Contact: Jenny C. Palla, (301) 975- 

2220 ] 

Walters, E.J., Semiconductor Measurement 
Technology, NBS List of Publications 72 
[a bibliography of NBS publications 
concerning semiconductor measurement 
technology for the years 1962-1989] 
(March 1990) . 

This bibliography contains reports of 
work performed at the National Institute 
of Standards and Technology in the field 
of Semiconductor Measurement Technology 
in the period from 1962 through December 
1989. An index by topic area and a list 
of authors are provided. 

[Contact: E. Jane Walters, (301) 975- 


The explosive growth of optical fiber 
use in the communications industry has 
resulted in a demand for calibration 
services. NIST's Boulder, Colorado, 
laboratory now offers measurements of 
optical laser power and energy at 
wavelengths and power levels of Interest 
to fiber optic producers and users . 
Measurements are based on a standard 
reference instrument called the C- series 
calorimeter. An electrically calibrated 
pyroelectric radiometer (ECPR) is 
calibrated against the calorimeter and 
is then used to calibrate optical power 
meters at wavelengths of 850, 1300, and 
1550 nm. To improve calibration 

capabilities, NIST is preparing test 
measurement systems for detector 
linearity, detector uniformity, and 
detector spectral responsivity . These 
systems should be available in 6 months. 
For a paper outlining NIST's optical 
power measurement capabilities, contact 
Fred McGehan, Div. 360, NIST, 325 
Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80303. For 
more information on calibration 
services, contact Thomas R. Scott, Div. 
724, same address, or phone (303) 497- 


NIST has announced the availability of 
Research Material 8458, a well -charac- 
terized artificial flaw used as an 
artifact standard in eddy current 
nondestructive evaluation (NDE) . The 
new Research Material (RM) is the 
outcome of work carried out by the 
Division to address the need for 
calibration standards for eddy-current 
NDE, for example as used to detect 
fatigue cracks in aircraft structures. 
The RM flaw is produced in an annealed 
aluminum alloy block by first indenting 
the block and then compress ively 
deforming the resulting notch until it 
is tightly closed. The next operation 
is to restore a flat finish to the block 
face, after which the block is heat 
treated to the original temper. The 
controlled flaw has been named the "CDF 
notch," after its inventors (listed on 
patent application) Thomas E. Capobianco 
(Electromagnetic Technology Division) , 
William P. Dube (Division 583), and Ken 
Fizer (Naval Aviation Depot, NAS 
Norfolk, Virginia) . 

In the past, the challenge has been to 
manufacture artificial flaws that 
closely simulate the mechanical 
properties of fatigue cracks . Currently 
used artifacts include electrical- 
discharge -machined and saw-cut notches, 
both of which are relatively poor 
representations of fatigue cracks as 
their widths are too great. The 
Division- developed method provides 
notches that can be made control lab ly in 

Pape 22 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

New NIST Research Material (cont'd.) 

a variety of geometries, have known 
dimensions, with widths that are narrow 
enough to provide an acceptable 
representation of fatigue cracks. 

An NIST Research Material is not 
certified by NIST, but meets the 
International Standards Organization 
definition of "a material or substance 
one or more properties of which are 
sufficiently well established to be used 
in the calibration of an apparatus, the 
assessment of a measurement method, or 
for assigning values to materials." The 
documentation issued with RM 8458 is a 
"Report of Investigation." Contact; 
technical information -- Fred Fickett, 
(303) 497-3785; order information- - 
Office of Standard Reference Materials, 
(301) 975-6776. 


Effective January 1, 1990, the U.S. as- 
maintained (i.e., "practical") units of 
voltage and resistance were increased by 
9.264 ppm and 1.69 ppm, respectively. 
The increases in the U.S. legal units of 
current and of electrical power will be 
about 7.57 ppm and 16.84 ppm, respec- 
tively. These changes result from 
efforts by the major national standar- 
dizing laboratories, including the 
National Institute of Standards and 
Technology (NIST) , formerly the National 
Bureau of Standards (NBS) , to re- 
evaluate their as -maintained units in 
terms of the International System of 
Units (SI). The consequence of this 
activity has been the introduction of 
standards representing the SI units of 
voltage and resistance by the Interna- 
tional Committee of Weights and 
Measures , an international body created 
by the Treaty of the Meter. ^ The use of 
these standards world-wide beginning 
January 1, 1990, will result in 
international consistency of electrical 
measurement as well as coherence among 
the practical units of length, mass, 
electricity, time, etc., inherent in the 

definitions of the SI. 

Implementation of Changes at NIST 

These changes have been instituted in 
the U.S. by NIST using the new, 
internationally-adopted constants Kj.go 
= 483 597.9 GHz/V exactly and R^-go “ 25 
812.807 fJ exactly with the Josephson and 
quantum Hall effects to establish 
representations of the SI volt and ohm, 
respectively. The representation of the 
SI volt is attained by using in 
the formula 


Uj(n) = n = 1,2,3, .. . 


to give the voltages Uj (n) of the steps 
produced by the ac Josephson effect at a 
frequency f. The past value, Kj. 72 . was 
483 593.42 GHzA(NBS-72) , thus leading 
to the 9 . 264 ppm change . Likewise , 
Rk -90 is used in the following formula 
for the resistance of the i^^ plateau of 
a quantum Hall effect device. 

Rad) = (Rk = Red)) 


to realize a representation of the SI 
ohm. The most recent past national unit 
of resistance, 0(NBS-48)t , was based on 
a group of five Thomas one -ohm standards 
and had an uncompensated drift rate of 
approximately -0.053 ppm per year. 
Since the quantum Hall effect is used as 
the national standard, the U.S. 
representation of the ohm has no drift. 
(The past unit of voltage, V(NBS-72), 
was based on the Josephson effect since 
1972, and accordingly had a zero drift 
rate . ) 

^Note that the SI Units have not been 
redefined; rather, they have been 
realized more accurately and a quantum 
physics representation of the ohm has 
been introduced, thus leading to the 
changes in magnitude of the practical or 
as-maintained units. 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Page 23 

Changes in U.S. Elec. Units (cont'd.) 

Reassigrmients to Non-adiustable 


Since the U.S. practical volt and ohm 
units increased on January 1, 1990, the 
changes must be implemented in non- 
adj us table standards calibrated in terms 
of V(NBS-72) and/or n(NBS-48) only by 
reducing the values assigned to them 
proportionally. The examples given 
below show how to do this for a standard 
cell and a standard resistor. 

Sample Adjustments of Values of 


Standard cell: 

"Old" emf 1.0180564 V(NBS-72) 

Multiply "Old" emf by 0.999990736 to 
get emf in terms of the present volt 
representation 1.01804697 -1.0180470 V 

Standard resistor: 

"Old" resistance value 

9999.976 n(NBS-48)oi/oi/90 

Multiply "Old" resistance by 0.99999831 
to get the resistance in terms of the 
present ohm representation 

9999.9591 « 9999.959 fi 

In the above, "Old" refers to the value 
of the standard which would have been in 
use on January 1, 1990, had the changes 
not been made; i.e., if a correction 
curve based on its past assigned values 
has been employed to obtain the 
currently-used value for a standard, the 
above represents a downward shift of the 
curve starting January 1, 1990. For 

resistance, the slope of the curve also 
changed (slightly) since 0(NBS-48) has a 
drift rate and n(NIST-90) does not. 

Do not send your standards to NIST for 
recalibration on January 1, 1990, unless 
they are normally due then. The changes 
are accurately known and corrections to 
existing standards may be applied. 

Adjustment of Instrumentation 

An assigned or calibrated value of a 
standard is merely a label giving the 
magnitude of the parameter embodied in 
the standard. The actual emf or 
resistance of a standard did not change 
on January 1, 1990; only what it is 
called should have changed. In the same 
sense, meter readings are labels giving 
the magnitudes of the parameters being 
measured. Readings taken after January 
1, 1990 vising unadjusted meters will be 
too large in magnitude. Adjustments to 
meters must have the effect of reducing 
the amplitudes of readings for fixed 
emf's or resistances. 

Adjustable voltage and current sources 
or adjustable resistors for which 
nominal output is desired, on the other 
hand, must have their outputs increased 
proportionally by the above amounts. 
DVM calibrators are probably the largest 
class of this type of instrument. 


The National Conference of Standards 
Laboratories (NCSL) and NIST have formed 
NCSL ad hoc Committee 91.4, Changes in 
the Volt and Ohm to assist industry and 
government laboratories in coming into 
compliance with the changes. A major 
responsibility of the committee is the 
generation and publication of a set of 
guidelines which describes unambiguous 
methods for adjusting standards and 
instruments, or their values, and 
delineates other types of problems which 
may arise, e.g., voltage values called 
out explicitly in maintenance proce- 
dures, values imbedded in software, and 
the like. These guidelines have been 
published as NIST Technical Note 1263, 
"Guidelines for Implementing the New 
Representations of the Volt and Ohm 
Effective January 1, 1990." This 
document is available at no charge 
through the NIST Electricity Division. 
To receive a copy, contact Sharon Fromm 
at 301-975-4222. 

For further information, contact Norman 

Page 24 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Changes in U.S. Elec. Units (cont'd.) 

B. Belecki (301-975-4223), Ronald F. 
Dziuba (301-975-4239), Bruce F. Field 
(301-975-4230), or Barry N. Taylor (301- 
975-4220) . 


Watt, Var, Volt-Ampere 
Joule, Watthour, Varhour 
Volt-Ampere-hour, and Q-hour 


By international agreement, starting on 
January 1, 1990, the U.S. put into place 
new representations of the volt and ohm 
based, respectively, on the Josephson 
and Quantum Hall effects and which are 
consistent with the International 
Systems of Units (SI). Implementation 
of the new volt and ohm representations 
in the U.S. required that on January 1, 
1990, the value of the present national 
volt representation maintained by the 
National Institute of Standards and 
Technology (NIST, formerly the National 
Bureau of Standards) be increased by 
9.264 parts per million (ppm) and that 
the value of the national ohm represen- 
tation be increased by 1.69 ppm (1 ppm = 
0.0001%). The resulting increase in the 
national representation of the ampere is 
7.57 ppm. The resulting increase in the 
national representations of the 
electrical quantities of power, namely 
the watt, var, and volt-ampere, and the 
quantities of energy, namely the joule, 
watthour, varhour, volt-ampere-hour, and 
Q-hour is 16.84 ppm. 

The adjustment for electrical power and 
energy is generally very small compared 
to revenue metering measurement 
uncertainties (typically greater than 
±0.1%) and therefore are not likely to 
have a significant effect. Adjustments 
do not need to be applied in these 
instances. However, for the highest 
accuracy calibrations of power and 
energy standards having uncertainties 
less than ±0.020% (±200 ppm), adjust- 

ments should be made. Accordingly, all 
Reports of Calibration and Reports of 
Test issued by NIST after January 1 , 
1990, reflect the appropriate changes. 

For instruments calibrated prior to 
January 1, 1990, adjustments to the 

calibration values due to the change in 
the volt and ohm can be made without 
instrument recalibration. The adjust- 
ments are exact and, if properly 
applied, will not introduce any errors. 
Examples given below illustrate proper 
procedures for applying the new 
adjustments . 

Adjustments for Wattmeters. Varmeters. 

and Volt-Ampere Meters 

Calibrations of wattmeters, varmeters, 
and volt-ampere meters at NIST provide 
customers with corrections and uncer- 
tainties given in units of watts , vars , 
or volt-amperes, as appropriate. 
Applying the appropriate adjustment due 
to the new representations of the volt 
and ohm for power measuring instruments 
(i.e., wattmeters for "real power" and 
varmeters for quadrature or imaginary 
power) requires minor calculations. 
First, it is necessary to assess the 
magnitude of the calibration uncertainty 
in percent and then decide if applying 
the adjustments for the change in the 
volt and ohm are required. To determine 
the percentage uncertainty, divide the 
uncertainty in watts, vars, or volt- 
amperes by the product of the applied 
voltage and current times the power 
factor (the real power) and multiply 
that quantity by 100, as 

U% = [(U^, Uv. or U^.)/ 

(V. X I, X PF)] X 100, 



is the 


in percent. 

is the 
watts , 





is the 
vars , 





is the calibration 
volt-amperes , 



CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Page 25 

Electrical Power & Energy (cont'd.) 

is the applied voltage in volts, 

Ig is the applied current in amperes, 

PF is the power factor (including its 
sign) . 

For example, if the uncertainty is 
stated on a Report of Calibration as 
±0.060 watts for the calibration of a 
wattmeter at an applied voltage of 120 V 
and an applied current of 5 A at unity 
power factor, then 

Percent Uncertainty = U% = [(±0.060 W)/ 
(120 V X 5 A X 1)] X 100 
= ± 0 . 010 %. 

If the percentage uncertainty, as 
calculated above, is less than ±0.020" 
(as it is in the above example) , then it 
is recommended that an adjustment due 
to the new representations of the volt 
and ohm of 0.0017% (0.001684% rounded 

to four significant decimal places) be 

The second step is the calculation of 
how large the adjustment will be (in 
units of watts, vars, or volt-amperes, 
as appropriate) , due to the reassignment 
of the volt and ohm. For the same 
example given above, if the calibration 
correction was given in a Report of 
Calibration as +0.052 watts, then the 
adjustment due to the change in the volt 
and ohm may be calculated by multiplying 
the product of the applied voltage and 
current times the power factor by 
0.000017 (0.0017% expressed in propor- 
tional parts) , as 

Adjustment = (V^ x x PF) x 0.000017 
Adjustment = (120 VxSAxl )x 
0.000017 = 0.010 watts. 

The resulting product should be rounded 
to the same number of significant 
decimal places as the old calibration 
correction was given. This result is 
then subtracted from the old calibration 
correction, as in the following example: 

Old Calibration Correction 

(prior to 1/1/90) = {+0.052 watts) 

less 0.000017 x Applied 

Volt-amperes x PF = -{+0.010 watts) 

New Calibration Correction 

(after 1/1/90) = {+0.042 watts) 

If the old calibration correction (prior 
to 1/1/90) at test conditions of 120 V, 
5 A, and at a power factor of 0.5 lag, 
happened to be a negative quantity, for 
example, -0.031 watts, then the old 
calibrations correction would be 
decreased (made more negative) by 
0.0017% of the applied volt-ampere 
product times the power factor, as in 
the following example: 

Old Calibration Correction 

(prior to 1/1/90) = {-0.031 watts) 

less 0.000017 x Applied 

Volt-amperes x PF = -{+0.005 watts) 

New Calibration Correction 

(after 1/1/90) = {-0.036 watts) 

The process of making the corresponding 
change for the varmeter corrections is 
identical to that shown above . For 
volt-ampere meters, the adjustment is 
made independent of the power factor 
(i.e., a value of PF = 1 may be used). 
However, most varmeter and volt-ampere 
meter calibrations have stated uncer- 
tainties greater than ±0 . 020% , and hence 
would not require an adjustment. 

Adjustments for Joule. Watt-. Var- , 

Volt- Ampere- and 0-Hour Meters 

Applying adjustments to electric energy 
measuring instruments (i.e., joule, 
watthour, varhour, volt-ampere-hour, and 
Q-hour meters) for changes in the 
representation of the volt and ohm, is 
more straightforward because the common 
calibration constant for energy metering 
is expressed as a "percentage registra- 
tion." The amount the registration is 
to be adjusted can be subtracted 
directly as a percentage, regardless of 
power factor. 

For example, if a watthour meter has a 
registration of 100.015% before January 

Page 26 CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Electrical Power & Energy (cont'd.) Nelson (310) 975-2427, or write: 

1, 1990, then after that date, the new 
assigned registration would be decreased 
by 0.0017% (rounded from 0.001684%) as 

Old percentage registration 
(prior to 1/1/90) = 

less amount due to change 
in volt and ohm = 

New percentage registration 
(after 1/1/90) = 

Rounded to three significant 
decimal places = 





The process of making the corresponding 
changes for the joule, varhour, volt- 
ampere-hour and Q-hour meters are 
identical to that shown above. If the 
associated uncertainty of the calibra- 
tion is greater than ±0.020%, no 
adjustments are necessary, as stated in 
the instances for wattmeters, varmeters, 
and volt-ampere meters. The uncer- 
tainties for varhour, volt-ampere- 
hour, and Q-hour meters are seldom less 
than ±0.020%, and hence adjustments 
generally do not need to be made. 

National Institute of Standards and 

Electricity Division, MET B344 
Gaithersburg, MD 20899 


Standard Reference Materials for 
Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology 
lists a series of SEUls for use in 
characterizing semiconductor materials 
and processes. The SRMs include a 
series of silicon resistivity materials 
for calibrating four-probe and eddy- 
current test equipment, sizing materials 
for calibrating optical and scanning 
electron microscopes, SRMs for mechani- 
cal testing, optical measurements. X-ray 
and photographic films. X-ray diffrac- 
tion, and the chemical analysis of 
materials . 

[Contact: Roger Rensberger, (301) 975- 



August 28-31 (Vail and Boulder, CO) 


N.B. Belecki, R.F. Dziuba, B.F. Field, 
and B.N. Taylor, Guidelines for 
Implementing the New Representations of 
the Volt and Ohn Effective January 1 , 
1990, NIST Technical Note 1263, June, 

Copies of the above document are 
available at no cost from: 

National Institute of Standards and 

Electricity Division, MET B146 
Gaithersburg, MD 20899 
Telephone: (301) 975-4222 

For Further Information 

For further information concerning the 
above information, contact either John 
D. Ramboz (301) 975-2434 or Thomas L. 

Laser Measurements Short Course . In 
cooperation with the University of 
Colorado and industry, NIST is offering 
a three -and- one -half day course 
emphasizing the concepts, techniques, 
and apparatus used in measuring laser 
parameters. Topics in the course 
syllabus include optics for laser 
measurements , attenuation techniques , 
laser operation, basic laser power/ener- 
gy standards, laser power/energy 
measurement techniques , optical fiber 
power measurements , pulse measurements , 
transfer standards, beam-profile 
measurements, diode lasers, laser 
measurements for optical communications, 
statistics and error analysis, laser 
safety, and detectors. The course will 
incorporate a visit to the NIST laser 
measurement laboratories . 

[Contact: Thomas Scott, (303) 497-3651 
or Office of Conference Services, 
University of Colorado at Boulder, (303) 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

Pape 27 

1990 CEEE Calendar (cont'd,) 

September 11-12, 1990 (Boulder, CO) 

Symposium on Optical Fiber Measurements. 
NIST, in cooperation with the Institute 
of Electrical and Electronics Engineers 
Optical Communications Committee and the 
Optical Society of America, will sponsor 
the 6th Biennial Symposium on Optical 
Fiber Measurements. The symposium will 
be devoted entirely to measurements on 
fiber, related components, and systems. 
Typical topics will include telecom- 
munications fibers, fiber lasers and 
amplifiers, fibers for sensors, 
couplers, connectors, multiplexers, 
integrated optics, sources, detectors, 
modulators, switches, long haul systems, 
LANs, subscriber loops, field and 
laboratory instrumentation, and 

standards. Experimental and analytical 
papers are solicited on any aspect of 
measurements for guided- lightwave 

[Contact: Douglas L. Franzen, (303) 


September 17-19, 1990 (Boston, MA) 

VLSI and GaAs Chip Packaging Workshop. 
The IEEE CHMT Society and the National 
Institute of Standards and Technology 
are co-sponsoring the Ninth VLSI 
packaging Workshop. Topics to be 
discussed include VLSI package design; 
multichip module design; WSI packaging; 
package thermal design; package 
electrical design; GaAs IC packaging; 
VLSI package interconnection options; 
VLSI package materials and die-attach 
solutions; and failure mechanism and 
quality of VLSI packages. All attendees 
are expected to be specialists working 
in the field and to participate in 
discussions . 

[Contact: George G. Harman, (301) 975- 


October 24-26 (Boulder, CO) 

Symposium on Optical Materials for High 
Power Teasers (Boulder Damage Symposium) . 
The Symposium is the principal forum for 

the exchange of information on the 
physics and technology of materials for 
high-power lasers. Co-sponsors in 
addition to NIST are ASTM -- Standards 
for Materials, Products, Systems & 
Services; the Center for Research in 
Electro-Optics and Lasers at the 
University of Central Florida; the 
Defense Advanced Research Projects 
Agency; Lawrence Livermore National 
Laboratory, Los Alamos National 
Laboratory; SPIE -- the International 
Society for Optical Engineering; and the 
Weapons Laboratory of the U.S. Air 
Force. Topics on the agenda include new 
materials, bulk damage phenomena, 
surface and thin- film damage, prepara- 
tion of optical material, measurement of 
optical material properties, design 
consideration for high-power systems, 
and fundamental mechanisms of laser- 
induced damage . 

[Contact: Aaron A. Sanders, (303) 497- 


National Institute of Standards and 
U.S. Air Force 

Hanscom Field; Rome Air Development 
Center; Space & Missile Organization; 
U.S. Air Force Headquarters; Wright- 
Patterson Air Force Base 
U.S. Army 

Fort Belvoir; Fort Monmouth; Fort 
Huachuca; Materials & Mechanics 
Research Center; Strategic Defense 
Command; Dugway Proving Ground; 
Strategic Defense Initiative Organiza- 
tion; AVRADCOM (Aviation) 

Department of Defense 
Advanced Research Projects Agency; 
Defense Communication Agency; Defense 
Nuclear Agency; Combined Army /Navy /Air 
Force (CCG) 

Department of Energy 
Energy Systems Research; Fusion Energy; 
Basic Energy Sciences; High Energy & 
Nuclear Physics 
Department of Justice 
Law Enforcement Assistance Administra- 

Page 28 

CEEE Sponsors (cont'd.) 

CEEE Technical Publication Announcements - August 1990 

U . S . Navy 

Naval Ocean Systems Center; Naval Sea 
Systems Command; Weapons Support 
Center/Crane; Office of Naval Research; 
Naval Ship Research Development Center; 
Naval Air Systems Command; Aviation 
Logistics Center/Patuxent 
National Science Foundation 

National Aeronautics and Space Admin 

Goddard Space Flight Center; Lewis 
Research Center 
Nuclear Regulatory Commission 
Department of Transportation 
National Highway Traffic Safety 
MIMIC Consortium 

Various Federal Government Agencies 





NISTIR 4383 



Aucmst J.99(D 


Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering Technical Publication Announcements 

Covering Center Programs, October to December 1989, with 1990 CEEE Events Calendar 


J. A. Gonzalez, compiler 







October-December 1989 


U.S. Department of Commerce 

National Institute of Standards and Technology 
National Engineering Laboratory 

Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering 



This is the twenty- third issue of a quarterly publication providing information on 
the technical work of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (formerly the 
National Bureau of Standards) Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering. This 
issue of the Center for Electronics and Electrical Engineering Technical Publication 
Announcements covers the fourth quarter of calendar year 1989. Abstracts are provided 
by technical area for papers published this quarter. 


antennas; electrical engineering; electrical power; electromagnetic interference; 
electronics; instrumentation; laser; magnetics; microwave; optical fibers; 
semiconductors ; superconductors 



















Canter Haadquartors (720) 

Elactroinagnatic FMds Division (723) 
Elactromaonatic Tachnology Division (724) 
Samlconductor Elactronics Division (727) 
Eiactricity Division (728) 

Dlractor, Mr. Judson C. French (301) 975-2220 
Deputy Director, Mr. Robert L Scaca (301) 975-2220 
Chief, Dr. Ramon C. Baird (303) 497-3131 
Chief, Dr. Robert A. Kemper (303) 497-3535 
Chief, Mr. Frank F. Oettinger (301) 975-2054 
Chief, Dr. Oskars Petersons (301) 975-2400 


For additional information on the Center for Electronics and Electrical Enoineering, write or call: 
Canter for Electronics and Electrical Engineering 
National lirstitute of Standards and Technology 
Metrology BuDdIng, Room B-3S8 
Gaithersburg, MD 20899 
Telephone (301) 975-2220