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1 2 3 










>, ) - 






BY — 

New Yoc^ A X X September, 1697. 

... V .1 *< ■ 




Assiniboine River, Description of. .... . 1? 

" *' Purification and Softening of. 19 

" Cost of Plant 20 

" " Chemicals required 21 

Artesian Wells, Description of ; . . . ; . . • 22 

" Cost of Plant. 24 

" Chemicals required 25 

Analyses of Waters ;............,... \9 

Conclusions from Pumping teat ... . . . , 5 

Comparison of sources of supply . 31 

Canadian Pacific Railway Well test 45 

Description of present Water Works .i, , ., , t 

Daily Consumption estimated ...........>........ 12 

Distribution system Proposed 34 

•• " Cost of 37 

Data assumed in Comparisons; &c , ,. 53 

Hardness, how removed, &c . . 15 

Introductory 3 

Meters, Use of . . . .*. 13 

Objectionable Features of Present Supply i 11 

Pumping Experiments 4 

Poplar Springs 6 

" " 26 

" ; " Cost of Plant 27 

",!..•, !,'f?'r Chemicals tfequired 26 

Present .system. Utilization of 38 

Ppymerits, Methods of Proportioning • 39 

Prices, Labbr and Materials . . 54 

Plates, at end of report ? . ■■ 

Soft Water, Advantages of. 14 

Sources of Supply 17 

Softening Waters, Dr. Button's Report 52 

Utilization of Present System 38 

Winnipeg River 6 

" '• , , ,, 29 

" Cost of Plant 31 





















Compliments of 


Hydraulic and Sanitary Engineer. 




Future Water Supply 





New York, XXX Sejrtember, 1697. 

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New YoiiK, August, 1897. 

T/iC Fire, Water and Light Goraviittee, of Win'/iipeg, Man. 

B. E. Chaffey, Esq., Chairman. 


Complying with your request and in accordance with 
a resolution, passed by the City Council on February 22nd, 1897 
that I make an examination and report on certain questions 
submitted, concerning the water supply and waterworks for the 
City of Winnipeg, I now beg leave to present the results of 
my investigation, 


The questions submitted were : 

(1) What is the best source of supply, taking into considera- 
tion the quantity and quality of the water ? 

(2) What are the best means of pumping, filtering, softening 
and distributing the water ? 

(3) What portion or the present system, if any, can be used 
to advantage in connection with the recommended system ? 

(4) A revision and approval of plans. 

(5) Subsequently another question was added by the Chair- 
man, npniely: What method of proportioning the payment for such 
works, is, in your opinion, most equitable and proper ? 

On my fvrrival in the City of Winnipeg on March 23rd, I met 
the members of your Committee, His Worship the Mayor and Col. 
H. N. Ruttan, City Engineer. Detailed information was then furn- 
ished me regarding the present status of the waterworks problem 




■■; ■. I 


and also the results of the previous investigations and reports that 
had been made on the subject. Mr. Isaac CaDipbell.. City Solicitor, 
furnished me with some of the le^al facts in the case, and from 
Messrs. Nanton and Bissett, representing the Winnipeg Waterworks, 
I received data concerning these works as they now exist. During 
that visit the plant was inspected and a general examination made 
of the territory of the City with reference to the subject under 

By the courtesy of Mr. Wm. Whyte, General Superintendent 
of the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, it was ma<le practicable 
to undertake a pumping test to show the yield of a large artesian 
well, situated on the Company's grounds, and also the effect of 
such pumping on the other wells in the neighborhood. (Appendix I). 
This test indicated that an artesian well supply for the city 
might be feasible, and Dr. W. A. B. Hutton, professor of chemistry 
at the Manitoba Medical College, was requested to examine bv 
well-known methods into the chemical features of softening such 
water, and also other waters that would be considered available 
for the City's supply. Samples for analysis and softening were 
selected from artesian wells in tbe western part of the City, and 
from the Poplar Springs lying about 17^ miles north of City 
Hall. The water of the Assiniboine River, the present source ot 
supply, had previously been analyzed and reported upon, and it 
was therefore not further examined. (Appendix II). 

Besides these investigations, a number of maps, profiles and 
topographical data were prepared and compiled at my request, 
prior to the second visit to your City, which was made in July. 

The pumping experiments at the Canadian Pacific Railway 
well, conducted during the last days of March, had meanwhile 
been worked up. Profiles of the water levels in many private and 
public wells of the neighborhood had been plotted, and from these 
Plate I was compiled. One profile shows the levels on Sunday, 
March 28th after pumping had Vieen stopped for a day, another 
repre,sents the levels at ordinary times, and was taken on March 
27th ; and a third shows the levels when the pump was throwing 
water at a maximum practicable rate. 

Plate I. shows two sections, one along the line of the Canadian 
Pacific Railroad and another at right angles to it, both passing 
through the test well. 

The latter section shows approximately how far in a lateral 
direction the draft from this one well extended during the time of 
maximum pumping, namely, from south of Pacific Avenue to north 

nd reports that 
, City Solicitor, 
lase, and from 
!g Waterworks, 

exist. Durino; 
mination made 

subject under 

lade practicable 
large artesian 
) the effect of 
I. (Appendix I). 

y for the city 
or of chemistry 
to examine by 

softening sucn 
Jered available 
softening were 

the City, and 
north of City 
?sent source of 
d upon, and it 


3s, profiles and 
at my request, 
lade in July. 
Pacific Railway 
had meanwhile 
any private and 
and from these 
els on Sunday, 
a day, another 
aken on March 
p was throwing 

of the Canadian 
it, both parsing 

T far in a lateral 
iring the time of 
Avenue to north 

of Dufierin Avenue, in all a distance of about 4000 feet. The 
other section shows that the effect of this pumping was lost at the 
Dog Pound, was slight at the Fair Grounds and was quite material 
easterly of the tested well. 

From these results, and from the further statement made to 
me, that at low water in the Red River there are innumerable 
small springs emptying into its bed, we may conclude ; 

(1) That the artesian wells in the City generally draw from 
the same underground source. 

(2) That this draft, when the water had been lowered to a 
depth of +11 feet above city (jatum, extended to a distance of 
about 2000 feet in a southerly and about 2000 feet in a northerly 
direction. The draft was noticed, however, at a much greater 
distance in a westerly direction, and at a still greater distance in 
an easterly direction, indicating a western source for the artesian 

(3) That there is a downward slope of the natural water 
level of these wells in an easterly direction, both when pumping 
hi d ceased for a day and when it had been continued for a day at 
the maximum rate of flow. 

(4) That this maximum rate of flow at the Canadian Pacific 
Railway well after a day's continuous pumping was at the rate of 
about 150,000 gallons per 24 hours, or about ^ of a cubic foot per 

(5) That, in view of these observations, and further justified 
by the geological formation of the near country, there is a continu- 
ous flow of water from the west, through crevices and fissures in 
the limestone rock, into the Red River. 

(6) The continuous flow increases with the depth to which 
the water is pumped, because this can then be drawn from a cor- 
respondingly greater distance and therefore from a larger territory. 
At a depth of +4 feet above city datum, or about 30 feet below 
the surface of the ground in the western part of the City, it is, in 
my opinion, reasonable to expect on average daily flow of at least 
40 cubic feet per lineal foot on a lino running about north and 
south and extending north of the City. 

Dr. Hutton's report, dated July 17th (Appendix III), indicates 
the quantity of lime and soda with which the water of the City 
wells and that of the Poplar Springs could be rendered satisfactory 
for domestic and boiler purposes. 

On August 9th, in the presence of Mr. Chaffoy, Col. Ruttan 
and myself, Dr. liutton experimented on the softening of the 






water obtained from the Ross Avenue wells, using the amounts 
Tflim. and soda stated in his report. The demonstration was 
satistac. ry, as the water was not only softened but found to have 
been improved also in taste. , , . j 

In view of the favorable report on the natural charpcter and 
hardness of the Poplar Springs water, a visit was made to the 
sprinc^s on July 27th. The water was then found to be excellent 
in" aste and appearance, and another sample was taken and sent 
t^ Dr Edgar B. Kenrick. Professor of Chemistry in the University 
of Manitoba, for analysis. (Appendix "^.^n.approxmmte gaug- 
ing was made by float measurements which indicated a flow ot 
!"3 cubic feet per second, or at the rate of 2,854,000 gallons per 

**''^" There are other springs in the neighborhood, and it was said 
that borings have always yielded water wherever ^e"« ;^«^« «"'?^ 
on the territory between the springs and Stony Mountain, the 
water flowing out on the surface in every case. , ,, , 

Stonv Mountain is formed of limestone rock, similar to that 
underlvint? Winnipeg and cropping out at the City quarries. There 
can hardly be a doubt that the entire territory between the moun- 
tain and the City is underlaid by the same hmestone formation, 
and therefore would yield water by boring into it. 

This rock is slightly soluble in water and the solution makes 
the water hard after it has long been in contact with the r«>ck 
The gradual dissolving of the limestone by the flowing water has 
caused the originally minute fissures to enlarge and multiply in 
numb r betweL the%oints where tli. rock has been penetra ed by 
the rain, river or lake waters and the Red River, where it now 
finds outlets and freely flows off". 

Any defi-'.iency in the water found in the Poplar Springs could 
therefore be made up by wells bored along the line of the co"d",t 
either near the Springs or between them and the City. (A profile 
of this conduit is shown on Plate II.) 

A report was made to the City Council in February, lS9i>, by 
Mr. Walter Moberly. C.E.. advor>r,ting the Winnipeg River as the 
best source of supply for the ^.i-y. , , ^ , 

His grounds for urging this source, which had also been urged 
by others are apparently that the supply is plentiful and the 
water soft. No engineering data existed by which the merits of 
Uitplan for supplying the City could be definitely a.cer a.ned 
and therefore it was determined to have a survey made of the best 
line along which a conduit could be built, also to make a personal 


g the amounts 
lonstration was 
t found to have 

I charpcter and 
18 made to the 
to be excellent 
taken and sent 
1 the University 
jroxiniate gaug- 
cated a flow of 
[)00 gallons per 

, and it was said 
wells were sunk 
iT Mountain, the 

similar to that 

quarries. There 

iween the moun- 

stone formation, 

! solution makes 
ct with the rock, 
lowing water has 
and multiply in 
en penetrated by 
p, where it now 

liar Springs could 
le of the conduit, 
City. (A profile 

jbruary, 1S95, by 
leg River as the 

,d also been urged 
(lentiful and the 
ch the merits of 
litely ascertained, 
' made of the best 
make a personal 

visit to the river and to have the water analyzed. Tt was a favor- 
able time for a visit and for making an analysis, because the 
water was probably at its least good condition, owing to the large 
amount of vegetable matter foundin such iri vera during the latter 
part of the summer. (■ . , 

Colonel Ruttan, City Engineer, accompanied me on this inspec- 
tion made July 3lst: The profile of the route (Plate II) and the 
chemical analyses of the water (Appendix II) are attached to. this 

The present source of the City's public water supply is the 
Assiniboine River, and it is also available for supplying the city in 
the future. No inspection cf|this river was made by me, other 
than within the city limits, as several reports* had already been 
made thereon, and as little else could be gained from further in- 

In case this source might bo found preferable to the others 
that have been proposed, it would be desirable to retain as much 
of the present waterworks plant as could be used to advantage in 
connection with new works. Another examination was therefore 
made of the pump house on August 5th, and an interview had with 
Mr. Bissett on August 7th. A brief description follows : 

The works are owned by The Winnipeg Waterworks Com- 

Eany, E. H. Bissett, Esq., Manager. The charter was granted 
►ecember 23rd, 1880, but they were not put in operation until 
1882. The franchise is exclusive, and was awarded for a terra of 
twenty years, therefore terminating December 23rd, 1900. 

The source of supply is the Assiniboine River. The intake 
and pumping station are located at Armstrong's Point on the north 
bank of the river just below Maryland street bridge, and near the 
lower end of Mulligan Avenue. 

The station consists of an old and a new plant adjoining each 
other and surrounded by ornamental grounds. The buildings and 
grounds are in good condition. 

A brick conduit or tunnel, 30 inches in diameter, draws the 
wau for the old plant from the edge of the low-water channel 
and discharges it into a pump-well under the engine room erected 
near the bank of the river. Its present condition was not ascer- 

tt PooTNOTK ; Report on thn Afwinllmino Klvor iind Arteslun Wolls iw sources of supply 
Uy H N. ifiitiim, City KnKlneor. Ocloljcr 20ih, l«W. 



TKn m«<.Viinfirv was built by R. Laidiaw & Son, Glasgow, and 
conits o?^o ve^ira^pXs. double acting and driven by cranks 
fZ a shaft T^e 8ha?t is turned by gearing, driven by two 
enZes qu"Wi^^^^ the same. The engines are double honwrn- 
J JS?p3are^and condensing, but not compounding. The nom- 
JnLl SsrSwer issaid to be 60, and the original capacity was 
ratld rrSSo oSo gdlons per day. Their present condition is not 

^^^'Afthe nresent time the Laidiaw pumps are used only to 

°' " ThTnettm^g .t»«on w« completed in 1894 ^ . -w 

'tl^»t■n1oSg .Uh. intak. Its p,«enl coodmoo w« 
not Mcertained, but was stated to be good. . ^ p„ 

The pumping m«=hinety wjs built by Arthu, J. Loret. & Co., 
of Mlentown, Pa., and was ftnished m 189*. , , . . .„,„ 

The pumping engine is of the waging beam '?{». W*"'J' 
and oomtSunI t)ne end of the beam is connected with *« P'stj"- 
j « ilS^j^n i.vlindere while the other is connected with a Hy- 
"i^ Ihenumw.™ operated from the beam at half distances, 
wheel. 1""P?"'!",'„\* °P„imnm caoacitv was stated as being 
rs^OoSorXns. TtTngr™wrmalJng 26 .revolutions per 
SuiewhS examined by me at the hours of maximum draft. It 
wrstated that it had been run up to 33 revolutions. 

The nresent condition of these engines does not appear to be 
firstllass^ With FOP^^^ care they can* however, be macfe service- 

JJrer ThTca'ry 95 to 105 lbs. pressure, and appear to be m a 

«°°^rm sUtements made to me I «"/.f^*\t\rorwXTf 
used at the present time to supply a f ' X JJJ^^gL'^^^^^^^^ „ 
about 1.250,000 gallons in summer and about 850,000 gallons in 



, Glasgow, and 
iven by cranks 
iriven by two 
[oublo, horizon- 
Jing. The nom- . 

capacity was 
iondition is not 

e used only to 
eatest consump- 
leen 85,000 and 
or a part of the 
I boilers are out 

1894, and a new 
(tends nearly to 
4 inch cast iron 
a donkey pump 
lot well and to 
it condition was 

J. Loretz & Co., 

type, high duty 
with the piston- 
lected with a fly- 
at half distances, 
; stated as being 
) revolutions per 
ximum draft. It 

not appear to be 
, be made service- 

era, built by the 
Ont. Each one is 
furnish 45 horse- 
appear to be in a 

he new pumps are 
Etntity of water of 
1)50,000 gallons in 


Adjoining the new engine room is the filter house, containing 
five filters made by the National Water Purifying Company of 
New York, three of which were erected in 1887, and the other two 
in 1889. They operate under the full pressure of the pumps and 
therefore are, what is termed, pressure filters. They are said to 
consume from 6 to 15 lbs. of pressure, depending upon the charac- 
ter of the water. The casings are 10 feet in diameter and 7 feet 
deep. They are washed once daily in winter, at the present time 
twice daily, and in spring when the water is very muddy it is 
necessary to wash them as often as once every two hours. They 
are apparently in good condition. 

It is stated, that formerly during the spring J grain of alum 
per gallon was added to the* supply, to aid in coagulating the 
organic matter, and thus assist the clarification. But for two years 
the practice has been discontinued, and it could not be done with- 
out materially reducing the pressure in the City. 

From the fact that the number of filters is insufficient for the 
quantity of water that must pass through them, when it contains 
much suspended matter, also from the fact that therefore no alum 
is used and that they are pressure and not gravity filters, they do 
not always deliver clear water. They can often but partially remove 
the turbidity, and when the river is very muddy they clog up so 
quickly as to be rendered entirely useless at such times. 

No attempt is made to soften the water. 

It is estimated that the quantity of water supplied to the 
City by all the pumps at the station now ranges from 850,000 to 
1,415,000 gallons per day, the yearly average being given as 
1,000,000 gallons. 

The distribution system of pipes supplies only a part of the 
City, namely : The tract lying betwepn Kennedy and Main Streets 
from Portage Avenue to the Assiniboine River ; the tract south of 
Main Street, between Notre Dame and Common Streets ; and the 
tract north of Main Street liounded by Notre Dame, Ellen, Jemima, 
Isabel, Mc William, Machray and Logan Streets. 

From the pumping station a twelve inch main extends along 
Mulligan Avenue to Broadway and thence a ten inch main to 
Portage Avenue and down the latter to Kennedy Street. From 
Mulligan Avenue an eight inch main extends down Broadway to 
Main Street and along the latter to the C.P.R. station. From tliese 
mains six inch, five inch and four inch branch lines extend in 
difl'erent directions, 

.-.feti,i>.t. >tf) V. aa y< ia-taS'jeS3^miiteB., 


: lit: 

i ! 

When the works were inaugurated the pipes laid in the ground 
were cast-iron, apparently of good quality, but cast horizontally, 
and therefore they have uneven thickness. As they have turned 
and bored joints, no lead being used, they are also apt to allow of 
leaka<ye under high pressures. There are between four and six 
miles'of such pipe still in . je, according to different statements 
made to me. Since 1887 nothing but cast-iron pipes have been 
used, having bell and socket joints caulked with lead. It is said 
that some lead jointed pipe was laid previous to that year. They 
are believed to be in good condition. 

The service pipes that were first laid were of wrought or gal- 
vanized iron. They were not found to be durable, as has also been 
found elsewhere. They are apt to corrode rapidly and then will 
not deliver sufficient water nor stand much pressure. The newer 
service pipes are of lead and should therefore be satisfactory. 

There are somewhere between 1500 and 1600 taps now sup- 
plied with water by the Company. Exact figures were not given. 
During the last fiscal year the City consumed for public pur- 
poses about 12,400,000 gallons of water supplied by the Company, 
or about 34,000 gallons per day. There are four drinking foun- 
tains which together flow about 5,000 gallons per day. Elevators 
consume about 10,000 gallons. For filter washing purposes at the 
works there are used about 30,000 gallons and for condensing 
purposes about 13,000 gallons. In all there are 92,000 gallons 
consumed on the average per day for other than domestic pur- 
poses, leaving for the latter but 908,000 gallons per day. 

Assuming that there are 1500 taps in use, we have 605 
gallons daily per tap. If we reckon six persons per tap, then 
9 000 persons are furnished with water by the Company. For 
public' purposes, including elevators, 49,000 gallons are daily 
furnished. If we assume that 36,000 persons are at present 
benefitted by this quantity, then 9,000 would have the \ienefit of 
one-fourth of the quantity, or about 12,000 gallons, which, added 
to the above amount, gives 920.000 gallons as the domestic and 
pro rata public consumption for 9,000 persons, or 102 gallons per 
head per day. If we reckon 7 persona per tap, a population of 
10,500 would be supplied, or 88 gallons per head per day. 

This amount represents a large consumption per person, and 
may be due, as I am informed, partly to leaky pipes and hydrants, 
and partly to the wastefulness of the users, who are said often to 
allow the water in the house to run freely and continuously, in 
order to prevent th'iir pipes from freezing in winter and for lawn 
sprinkling in summer. 

i in the ground 
st horizontally, 
y have turned 
apt to allow of 
1 four and six 
ent statements 
ipes have been 
lad. It is said 
lat year. They 

wrought or gal- 
as has also been 

and then will 
re. The newer 

taps now sup- 
were not given, 
for public pur- 
y the Company, 

drinking foun- 
day. Elevators 

purposes at the 

for condensing 
•e 92,000 gallons 
1 domestic pur- 
sr day, 

, we have 605 
I per tap, then 

Company. For 
illons are daily 

are at present 
e the benefit of 
s, which, added 
le domestic and 

102 gallons per 

a population of 
)cr day. 

1 per person, and 
les and hydrants, 

are said often to 

continuously, in 
iter and for lawn 


With the idea of indicating the large amount of water which 
can be wasted by leaky faucets, a gauging was made of one which 
was observed by me to leak, in March and also in July, and is said 
to have been in this condition between these dates. The washer 
was probably worn out and the faucet could not be shut tightly. 
The small dribble amounted to 75 gallons per day. When informed 
that there were hundreds of faucets in the City which were in the 
same condition ; when considering the disposition of careless per- 
sons not to turn the water off immediately after use ; when 
noticing many leaks at public hydrants ; and being informed that 
an inspection last February showed 99 to be leaking, from indica- 
tions on the surface of the street and in the sewers, it is not 
surprising to me that tbe consumption per capita is so high. 

It should be added that, as the Assiniboine water furnished 
by the Compar^y is hard, many persons do not use it for laundry 
purposes, but instead use rain-water .joUected in cisterns, or use 
melted ice. 

The objectionable features of the present supply, which it is 
sought to remedy, are : 

1. The distribution system does not extend over all parts of 
the City needing water. 

2. There is insufficient fire pressure in most parts of the City 
which are supplied with mains. 

3. There is an insufficient number of eflScient fire hydrants, 
and therefore also a lack of water immediately available for large 

4. The water as furnished in spring, summer and autumn is 
at times liable to be quite turbid, and has once also had a very 
disagreeable taste, due to foul organic matter that was washed into 
the river and which the filters could not remove. There is no 
reason why this condition should not occur again. 

5. There is a suspicion of organic pollution, indicated by the 
analysis (Appendix II.) and due probably to settlements along the 
shores, to the habit of dumping manure and other refuse into the 
stream, and possibly also to the city dump for garbage and excreta, 
which lies near a water course discharging its water above the 
Waterworks intake. 

In order to examine into the relative merits of the different 
sources of supply which have now been mentioned, and to calculate 
the right proportions for the distributing system, and also to esti- 
mate the cost of the works, it is necessary to establish the quantity 
of water which is to be daily furnished the City for domestic and 

TTiwitmwB-waaiisssai. - 




I ' 

1 I 


public purposes, and also the water pressures which are to be 
maintained in the pipes at ordinary times and during the occur- 
rence of fires. 

In his report of May 6th, 1895, Colonel Ruttan states that the 
new supply should provide at once for 40,000 people and later be 
capable of supplying 100,000 persons. Fire protection is to be 
secured by 10 contiguous hose streams, each of which discharges 
3.5 cubic feet per minute, at a pressure of 75 pounds per square 
inch at the hydrants in the business centre. This is a larger sup- 
ply for fire protection, he says, than has been usual, but adds that 
it is warranted by the local conditions. 

We must realize that a good water supply for Winnipeg will 
not be inexpensive. All of the water must be pumped and perhaps 
purified and softened. The territory to be. supplied is large com- 
pared with the population to be served. Tnerefore, the quantity 
should be kept down as low as possible. 

As already stated, the daily consumption per head is probably 
between 88 and 102 gallons, which is quite large, and there apnears 
to be much leakage and unnecessary waste. It is reasonable to 
suppose that the requisite quantity of water can be materially 
reduced and kept within proper limits by preventing such leakage 
in the public mains and hydrants and by placing meters for pr»yate 
consumers. At the present time, both in Europe and the United 
States, this waste is greatly reduced by metering the water for 
private consumption, in the same way that gas is metred. 

It has been said, in objection thereto, that among certain 
classes metering would prevent the use of a sufficient quantity of 
water for keeping clean and other sanitary purposes ; but this 
criticism would be rendered invalid by the practice of charging 
each consumer a certain fixed minimum rate for an allowance ot 
water considered reasonable and ample. Whatever quantity is 
consumed in addition thereto is paid for at fair meter rates. 

This method not only guards against a disposition to stint in 
the use of water, but at the same time it makes every water user 
pay more nearly in proportion to what he consumes. Incidentally, 
the consumer himself will be interested in preventing Undue waste 
and leakage from the faucets in his house, and therefore will 
assist the City in maintaining a fair supply and in reducing the 
expenses of pumping and softening. 

To reduce the consumption it will also be wise, while furnish- 
ing a high pressure in the mains during a fire, to maintain only a 
moderate pressure during ordinary times and a still lower one at 


hich are to be 
ring the occur - 

n states that the 
>ple and later be 
bection is to be 
hich discharges 
inds per square 
is a larger sup- 
il, but adds that 

• Winnipeg will 
iped and perhaps 
ed is large com- 
re, the quantity 

head is probably 
md there appears 
is reasonable to 
in be materially 
Ing such leakage 
neters for private 

and the United 
g the water for 


t among certain 
jient quantity of 
irposes ; but this 
bice of charging 
an allowance of 
sver quantity is 
eter rates, 
ntion to stint in 
very water user 
ics. Incidentally, 
ting Undue waste 
d therefore will 

in reducing the 

so, while furnish- 
D maintain only a 
still lower one at 


night. Both the legitimate use of water, as well as the waste, 
dispose of larger quantities under high pressures than under low 

As you are about to change or re-arrange your water supply, 
it will therefore be a favorable time to introduce meters. Such 
introduction can be very strongly recommended to you. 

The following table gives the consumption anu pressure in 
several cities having conditions which allow comparison in one way 
or another with those in Winnipeg : 


London, England .... 
St. Petersburg, Russia . 
Hamburg, Germany . . 
Dublin, Ireland 

Providence, R. I 

Fall River, Mass 

Atlanta, G<i 

Dayton, O 

Lynn, Mass 

Lincoln, Neb 

Lawrence, Mass 

Sioux City, la 

Fort Wayne, Ind 

Quincy, 111 




Average Consniption- 

Daily in 
miilions of 
imp. Galls 



Per Head 
in Imp. 


Pressure, lbs- per st- in- 








73 to 86 







Col. Ruttan holds the opinion that by the use of meters the 
present consumption can be reduced to an average of 60 gallons 
per head per day. I fully agree with him in this opinion, provided 
the works are well designed and well managed, if the present leaks 
are avoided and meters are introduced on all service pipes and a 
moderately low pressure of from 30 to 40 pounds per square inch 
is kept on at ordinary times during the day, and a still lower one, 
say 20 to 25 pounds at night, while a high pressure of 75 pounds 
per square inch is maintained only during fires. 

I also agree with him that, at the present time, it is not 
necessary to calculate on more than 40,000 persons taking water 





from the City's supply. At 60 gallons per head this gives an 
average daily supply of 2,40().0()() gallons. The maximum rate of 
consumption during the day should be placed at 75 per cent above 
Jhis average, which°gives a rate of 4,200,000 gallons for which the 
City mains and pumping machinery should provide at the outset, 
together with arrangements for future extensions, as may be found 

Provision should at once be made in such parts of the work 
which cannot easily be extended or enlarged, for a population ot 
100,000 persons. 

There is an irregular draft of water during the day, liable at 
times to be nearly double the average daily draft and as the 
suDPlv will be delivered at a uniform rate, whether it comes from 
a Knt source through a conduit, or from softening works and 
filters in the City, it is in every case necessary, therefore, to have 
a reservoir in which the regular flow of water can be received 
and stored, to be drawn by the City pumps and forced into the 
mains in such quantities as may be required at any moment, buch 
a distributing reservoir should have a capaciiy of at least one 
million gallons when the works are started. When the population 
to be served reaches 100,000 the total reservoir capacity should be 
at least between 2.000,000 and 3,000,000 gallons. 

The high degree of hardness of the natural waters near Wm- 
nirea and the desire to have a soft water for the City's use, make 
it advisable to state here in a general way why the water is hard, 
and how it can be softened. 

Water is hard, generally, when it contains in solution bicar- 
bonates or sulphates of lime or magnesia, or both. The hardness 
is commonly recognized by the fact that when soap is added in 
the usual quantity for washing, a curdling 18 produced instead of 
a lather Hard water is objectionable mainly on this account and 
also because the precipitation of lime or magnesia iu boiling water 
causes the formation of scale in boilers. 

The advantages of soft over hard water for a community may 
be stated briefly as follows : . 

Hot water is obtained aore quickly and less fuel is required. 
The saving of soap and soda in the househo'd is considerable. 1 he 
labor of washing is muc. reduced. The wear and tear of clothing 
is diminished. Flannels last longer and do not become harsh and 
felted. Cooking is facilitatec. The same quantity of tea that 
will make three cups with hard water will make five cups with 
soft water. (Evidence before Royal Commission). The palata- 


^ fT^M^mf^ A-t.-.MfXP»<g*i * j ^t« 9* ' > 

d this gives an 
maximum rate of 
!5 per cent above 
)ns for which the 
'ide at the outset, 
, as may be found 

,rts of the work 
ir a population of 

he day, liable at 
raft, and as the 
ler it comes from 
enintr works and 
iherefore, to have 
can be received 
I forced into the 
ny moment. Such 
' of at least one 
len the population 
apacity should be 

waters near Win- 
e City's use, make 
the water is hard, 

in solution bicar- 
>th. The hardness 
n soap is added in 
oduced instead of 
n this account and 
ia in boiling water 

a community may 

!8S fuel is required, 
considerable. The 
nd tear of clothing 
become harsh and 
antity of tea that 
,ke five cups with 
jion). The palata- 


bility is often increased. The softening process does not make 
water insipid like distilled or rain water. 

There are two kinds of hardness : Temporary and permanent. 
The former is usually caused by the carbonates and the latter by 
the sulphates of lime or magnesia. 

Temporary hardness can be removed : 

1st. By a sufficient quantity of soap. 

2nd. By carbonate of soda (washing soda). The carbonate 
of soda unites with the bicarbonate of lime dissolved in the water, 
resulting in the formation of bicarbonate of soda and carbonate 
of lime. The former remains in solution and does not harden the 
water, the latter is precipitated as a fine, white powder, 

3rd. By boiling. The bicarbonate of lime is decomposed by 
heat into carbonic acid, which escapes, and carbonate of lime, 
which is precipitated as a fine white powder. 

4th. By a solution of freshly burnt lime, or lime-water. The 
carbonates of lime and magnesia are changed into mono-carbonates 
by the hydrate of lime uniting with the extra carbonic acid, which 
is either free or combined as bicarbonate in the hard water. The 
resulting insoluble mono-caTbonates deposit as a fine powder. 
Carbonate of lime is not entirely insoluble in water, and a small 
portion always remains in it. The soluble bicarbonates of lime or 
magnesia, having thus lost half their carbonic acid, are reduced to 
the same insoluble mono-carbonates and are also precipitated. This 
process, being the least expensive, is the one here recommended. 

Permanent hardness can be removed : 

1. By a sufficient quantity of soap, as before. 

2. By carbonate of soua. The soda in this case unites with 
the sulphate of lime or magnesia dissolved in the water, resulting 
in the formation of the neutral and inert sulphate of soda, and the 
insoluble carbonate of lime or magnesia. The former remains in 
solution and does not harden the water, the latter is precipitated 
as a fine, white powder. In cool v/ater the presence of free car- 
bonic acid, or of bicarbonates, interferes somewhat with this 
reaction ; but the combined lime-and-soda process obviates this 
difficulty to a large extent. As permanent hardness is usually 
present with temporary hardness, the lime and soda can be mixed 
and together added to the water. 

To remove permanent hardness this process is the least expen- 
sive one for city supplies. 


The soda should be dissolved and the «ol"{;«" ,*^''J"Sj;!y 
mixed with the water to be softened. The hme should be freshly 
burnt aL added not as milk-of-lime. but as lime-water. Accurate 
nroSortrons c^be more readily obtained with the atter than with 
FKr^r The precipitate settles slowly and in practice it is 
Jound best to s rain it out of the water by filters The solid 
Srbonates are then either allowed to settle and Jry, and are 
removed by excavation, or they are at once passed through hi er 
presses the water draining tVom the precipitate often contains 
sufficient lime in solution to be used over again. 

If the work of softening is properly done there is no tree lime 
left i the 8o?tene1 water. TheUtening with lime ^nllin^^^^^^^^^^ 
al y also remove a certain quantity of iron contained m the water. 
It has also the effect of removing some organic matter. 

Cloths may not filter efficiently until a thin layer of deposit 

or caused bv hydrate of magnesia, which is net cryf^-lliue, or oy 
orSc niaUerf the speed is°rapidly lessened, and the cloths soon 
S UD Td therefore require more frequent washing. In such a 
S seKg tZs shoulS be -d to accompHsh the heavy part of 
the work bifore the water is passed through the filters^ 

Soda is somewhat destructive to cloth. When there is much 
of it contained in the water, cloth filters may not be economical. 

After considering this preliminary information, the V^^^^'om 
submitted to me by four Chairman were carefully considered . a 
the licht of the facts before me. 

In answer thereto the following conclusions have presented 

themselves : 








ition thoroughly 
should be freshly 
-water. Accurate 
5 latter than with 
in practice it is 
liters. The solid 
nd jdry, and are 
ised through filter 
ate often contains 

ere is no free lime 
lime will incident- 
ined in the water, 

in layer of deposit 
ice the sizes of the 
, glutinous nature, 
t crystalline; or by 
nd the cloths soon 
ashing. In such a 
1 the heavy part of 

'hen there is much 
it be economical, 
ition, the questions 
fully considered in 

ms have presented 






A. — Assiniboine River, 

The Assiniboine River is a branch of the Red River and dis- 
charges into the latter at Winnipeg. Its drainage area is about 
58,000 square miles and is almost all prairie land. 

The annual rainfall upon the area is estimated at 18 inches 
per annum. The maximum flow is given as 1.0283, the minimum 
flow as ,016, and the ordinary flow as .044 cubic feet per second 
per .square mile of drainage area. 

High water occurs in April and May, and low water in the 
early winter, from which time until spring the river is covered 
with ice and remain? at about the same level. 

The above fljw per square mile is very small, which is due 
partly to the small rainfall and partly to the great evaporation 
which takes place from so flat a watershed, on account of the low 
average degree of humidity prevailing in that part of the country. 

It has been intimated that Lake Manitoba may pertly drain 
into the Assiniboine River, but this can hardly be so, because its 
flow is much smaller per .square mile of drainage than that of most 
other streams, the flow of which is known. 

The river has but a slight fall and many sinuosities. 

Regarding the quality of the water it may be well to quote 
the reriiarks made by James Patterson, M.D., Chairman of the 
Board of Health, and H. N. Ruttan, Esq., Citj?^ Engincir, in their 
joint report on the condition of the Assiniboine River, dated Sep- 
tember 30th, 189C. 



" On the settled portions of the river, on account of the higher 
" land of the banks affording drier building sites '^T^^^it 
" in" shelter and the convenience to water in the river toi stocK m 
" Anil' a r the dwellings, barns and stock yards are placed upon 
"he innnediato banks, and it is the almost "n^^^--^/ P^j^^^f^, fj^^;^ 
"residents to use the river as a dumping place for all kinds of retuso 
"and offal Manure is got rid of by throwing it into the river. 
"Surface washings from^arnyards. stockyards and hogpens during 
" everv rahif all find their way into it directly by natural ravines or 
"Scial ditls, whilst the'soakage from all is cont-ualy going 
" on In fact the river is used as the common sewer of the country. 
"The number of persons per square mile in the Assmiboine 
" wate shed robably does not exceed h person per square mile at 
" Te prosent^ime, a number so small that under ordinary circum- 
" stLcerthey would have no appreciable influence in the sewage 
.< ntaminatfon of the stream but of more -por ance on accoun 
"of the loner narrow shape of the river lots; the location of their 
" dweUinS^out-buildings and yards; the large proportion of stock 
" kl bfeach and the common mode of disposing o manure 
"insteadof Sa it as a fertilizer. While, there ore, there is no 
<'Lround for p "sent alarm from this cause, the indications ave that 
"Ke not distant future, as settlement increases. stringent 
"measures will have to be enforced^ to^ prevent a continually m- 
" creasinc pollution of this stream, 

" Between Portage la Prairie and Winnipeg the river banks 
.<are segmentary and'at all stages of water, except f^^^ -^ ' "« 
<■ subject to constant and very great erosion, so t^^^^t ««' ^^^ "«»<^hs 
.' in the year the water carries in suspension great quantities ot 
«• finely divided clay and sand. * * ,. . :„j 

"It is considered that this large quantity ot sedinientcarne^^ 
" by the water i. at the present time its most objectionable feature. 
My own examinations, so far as they could bo made, would 

tend to endorse these views. 

The chemical analyses of the Assiniboine River water ate 
aDPendeil. (Appendix II). „ , . • u- i 

^ The solid matter contained in the water of the river is high 
and the hardness is also high, as the r ver passes through a ine- 
stom country. The high percentage of albuminoid ammonm is duo 
ma?nlv t . ve./etablo pollution, such as leaves, stems and roots 
V"a ennUter is {o.uparatively unchangeable -d < -s not 
Xcmnpose as rapidly as animal matter, winch fact ,« shown by 
the slmiU percentage of free ammonia contained in the water. 

, x»*%'im>Kisim:,!tt.' r»mvmMt'iH i 


•unt of the higher 
the woods afford- 
river for stock in 
s are placed upon 
sal practice of the 
all kinds of refuse 
it into the river, 
id hogpens during 
natural ravines or 
continually going 
I'er of the country, 
in tlie Assiniboine 
per square mile at 
r ordinary circum- 
ence in the sewage 
ortance on account 
le location of their 
sroportion of stock 
iposing of manure 
erefore, there is no 
ndications aie that 
ises, most stringent 
it a continually in- 

eg the river banks 
cept the lowest, are 
that for six months 
great quantities of 

ot sediment carried 
jectionablc feature.' 
Id be made, would 

e River water are 

f the river is high 
«'s through a lime- 
loid ammonia is duo 
H, stems and roots, 
'able and docs not 
icli fact is shown by 
d in the water. 




The attempts made, up to the present time, to purify the 
Assiniboine River water have only been partly successful. The 
filters, as already mentioned, do not operate satisfactorily, and 
sometimes are entirely useless, 

In order to render the Assiniboine River water satisfactory 
as a public water supply it should be purified and softened. 

Purification can only be obtained by the use of settling basins 
and filters. Filters alone will not be successful. This is due, 
partly to the irregular character of the water, being sometimes 
quite clear, and at other times very muddy and carrying in sus- 
pension much fibrous organic ftiatter. For the same reason it has 
not been found satisfactory to clarify the Citissouri and lower 
Mississippi waters by passing them through filters alone. 

Settling basins, arranged so as to allow the suspended matter, 
in its greater part, to subside, are a necessary preliminary to 
obtaining clear water. The water must subsequently be filtered 
so that not only the slight turbidity which will remain is removed, 
but also the organic matter and the objectionable bacteria. 

It is not neces-sary in this case to adopt slow sand filters, such 
as are used for most of the European water supplies, as the water 
has not a sufficiently high bacterial pollution to favor such a pro- 
cess. Rapid mechanical filters will answer the purpose and render 
the water, after it leaves the settling basin, entirely clear, and 
there need be no difficulty in their operation. These mechanical 
filters should operate under a slight head securing a constant flow, 
rather than under high pressure and a varying flow, as at present. 

ThQ water of the AssiniboVae River can bo softened, so as to 
make it serviceable for washing purposes, by the addition of a 
solution of lime and soda. These materials could be added while 
the water is being pumped into the settling basin. Here the car- 
bonates removing the hardness are precipitated, together with the 
bulk of the suspended river silt and organic matter. The water is 
thus partially clarified. Subsequently it is pa.ssed through filters 
to be thoroughly clarified, as mentioned above. 

It is estimated that for the purpose of clarifying a daily 
supply of 2,400,000 gallons tho settling basins should have a capac- 
ity for at least half this amount, i.e., 1,200,000 gallons, or 192,000 
cubic feet. It would be well to have a division into at least four 
basms giving each one a capacity of 48,000 cubic feet. 

Allowing the water to stand 15 feet deep, each basin would 
have an area of 8,200 square feet. They should bo covered so as 





to W pvotectea from the influence of frost. These assumptions 
„"i'ht^require modification when the reservoir is located. 

" Aftc.- passing the settling basins the w^^^J. -°"^ ^/J^^^^^^^^ 
.ntomochallical gravity filters ^ rate f^^^^^^^^l^^;;, 

LiS; ::ula «^8lJf 5„. of th. filter, would be eonimu- 
allv out of service for cleaning. . 

^ From these filters the water would flow into the reservoir and 
thence be pumped into the distributing system. 

The water used for washing the filters and settling basins, as 
weU I thrsediment from the latter, would be earned back into 

^^'' 'to avoid the necessity for large settling basins it has recently 

been proposed to use fllte'rs having «P--"y -^«^f ?,^«^ ^S 
"*' r r a„„i. tiU.i>rR are now m use in Elmira, iN.i.. uurmu, 

T^'lT Kansas C^y Mo Whether or not they ultimately 

" "Il'l';«':te of large .ettUng b«i»..ihe cost of «,. plant 
is estimated as follows : 

Land for pumping stations, settling basins, filter- ^ ^ ^^^^ 
ing plant, etc g'.OOO 

S^^EXaiulfouniationfo^machi^iery 20^0 

and heating, two vertical triple expansion 
pumps and two horizontal simple .luplex ^^^^ 
pumps . • • S 000 

s^at^^^rts^s ""••'■ -°"-'"«' ■■'■■■ i^ 

Mechanical filter plant ^'^^ 

Drains for waste water ' 


Contingencies and engineering, 15% __^^^ 

f 103,130 

-- 'tew.*t«|4*' (WvW*^ 


l.X. ^ J a i^, - . -HfJJ t A . ^- . M .«fl tf . (rttM aii . 

hese assumptions 

would be lifted 
)0 cubic feet per 
ring 1280 square 
eiency the rate of 
ave estimated for 
r. The head re- 
would be continu- 

) the reservoir and 

settling basins, as 
carried back into 

sins it has recently 
onstructed set-tling 
Imira, N.Y., Lorain, 
)t they ultimately 
ng the Assiniboine 
ice with such filters 

;he cost of the plant 







• > • • • 












f 163,130 


Assuming the use of filters with small settling compartments 
attached, this figure would be reduced by the cost of two pumps 
and the large settling basins, and increased by the cost oi' a g-reater 
number of filters of larger size. The cost of this plant would be 
about $123,000. 

The chemicals required for softening the daily quantity of 
water (2,400,000 gallons) and for precipitating the suspended 
matter, are estimated as follows : 

Lime 6720 lbs. at \ cent 316 80 

Soda Carbonate, 960 lbs. ^t 1 cent 9 CO 

Alum 600 lbs. at 2 cents.... 12 00 

$38 40 

The daily cost of operating the softening plant 
and mechanical filters, removing the sediment 
and organic impurities from the settling basin, 
and repairs, is estimated at $10.00 per million 

gallons, or 24 00 

Pumping 2,400,000 gallons into the Distribution 

Reservoir , 19 60 

Daily operation of softening, filtering and deliv- 
ering into Reservoir $82 00 

Therefore, the annuiii expense for purifying and softening the 
Assiniboine River water to the ext-^nt of 2,400,000 gallons per day, 
and of delivering it into the Distribution Reservoir, would be : 

Interest on cost of plant, at 4 per cent $6,525 

Repairs and renewals of buildings and machinery, 2,000 
Operation of softening, purifying and pumpinw, 

at $82.00 per day *. 30,075 


If filters with settling compartments are used, the cost of 
the daily operation might be reduced from $82 to $75, making 
the total annual cost : 

Interest on cost of plant, at 4 per cent $4,920 

Repeif's 1,900 

Operation, at $75 per day 27,375 

• $34,195 
To ascertain the net expense of softening the water, as ap.ninst 
supplying it unsoftened. bi.t passed through settling basins and 




i i 


filters I append an estimate for supplying purified but hard Assi- 
"'"TLrHouut a reduction of $3,560 in the cost of the chem- 

distribution reservoir would be : 

Interest on cost of plant, at 4 per cent. ....... • - 55U..i»^ 

RepIiS and renewals of buiUiingsand machinery 1.800 
Operation of purifying and putrping at S30 per ^^^^^^ 

day ! 


annual cost: « xTrs 

Interest on cost of plant, at 4 per cent ........ • ■ » *J ^» 

Repairs . . - g'loo 

Operation, at $26 per day '_ 

From the above figures it is computed that the dai|y cost of 
softenin. 2.400.000 g«,"-« P^ ^//X . "^ seui-^^^^^^^^^ 
settling lasins are "f J^^^^^te^t t^^ '^^^^ ''''' o? softening 

Tm ^gllloTon^^i^w!;"^^^^^ by the former method is 2.22 
J£. and by the latter method 2.08 cents. 

B.— Artesian Wells. 

1 • *i,^ Umoatnne rock which underlies the City 
Bor ngs made m tho limesto^^^^ „,entioned. It is 

of Winnipe^r, Y^^^^J^!'.^^' nost cases palatable as a drinking 
clear in appearance and m JT^ j ^ j ^^^„^ ^,f ^,,, ^,x\h 

water, but \t la very ^an^ (APFJ»^»^ ^ ^^ .^ ^^ .^.tic 

d but hard Assi- 

Bost of the chera- 
total cost of the 
asina, and about 

ig is estimated at 
I where the water 
il be S16 per day. 
10,950 per annum. 

urifying, but not 
ivering it into the 


lincry. l.SOO 
10 per 


ied, the daily cost 
making the total 

.S 4,778 

. 1,700 

, . 9,*90 


lat the daily cost of 
$53.33, when large 
ly settling compart- 
ihe cost of softening 
rmer method is 2.22 

h underlies the City 
jn mentioned. It is 
itable as a drinking 
In some cf the wells 
itly, but it is practic- 
ilting the pipes, and 


also by the process of softening. The excessive quantity of .salt 
which it contains is not sufficient to condemn the water for drink- 
ing, or other purposes, as it is not due to orgahic pollution. The 
analyses show it to be entirely free from such pollution. 

From the overlying strata of itnperraeablo clay it is impossible 
that any surface water in the City, as for instance from the streets, 
sewers, priv -s or cemeterie.s, would penetrate into the artesian 
water. This fact is demonstrated in the western part of the City 
by the water rising above the .surface "of the ground when a well 
is piped. Its source must .therefore have a higher elevation and 
consequently be at a dLstant poinf from the City. 

The analyses of the water from ilifferent wells, made at differ- 
ent times, agree fairly well. (A.p\ ix II.) 

It is stated that in no case wiiere the boring was made deep 
enough has such a well failed to furnish water. It is also said 
that sometimes the water has had an unpleasant taste, but *■ it by 
sinking the well deeper this taste has dis-ippeared. 

From the test made at the Canadian Pacific Railroad well it 
was demonstrated that a continuous .supply of this water can 
be obtained. It was also demonstrated that the water came from 
a westerly direction, and that to collect the same, it would be 
necessary to sink a row of wells along a line having a northerly 

It has been remarked that the possible source of the artesian 
water might be Lake Manitoba. While this is possible it is not at 
all necessary for our purpose to suppose such a source, as the 
amount which ma}' be drawn from the wells to supply the City of 
Winnipeg might be supplied by the rainfall which soaks down 
into the ground between this City and Lake Manitoba. The 
iiiipprvious clay stratum overlying the limestone rock is found 
only in the Red River Valley. Beyond it the soil is more porous. 
The rock croos out at the surface but a few miles west of Winnipeg. 
Between such outcroppings and Lake Manitoba there i.s abundant 
opportunity for that part of the rainfall, which does not evaporate 
or run off into the streams, to penetrate the ground and enter the 
fissures of the rock. 

In my opinion, there will be no great difficulty in obtaining 
all the water recpiired for the City from this arttsian .source. It 
is only a question as to how far north to extend the pipe line and 
the wells to get the necessary ciuantity. For the purj^oso of milk- 
ing an estimate of cost it has been assumed that .such an intercepting 
f)ipe line to supply 2,400,000 gallons per day will have to be at 
eust 5,000 feet long. 




The waler derived from this source, being always clear and 
without oT^Inic pollution, need not be purified As its hardness 
2Trert;bdng a Lie greater than that ot the Assimbome Rwer 
water, it would be desirable to soften it. ,•«,•„ 

No settling basins are necessary, as no preliminary clarification 
is required Tie precipitate which is caused by the softening 
;^S must, howe^ver, 'be removed from t^^^.^.^^ 
miner mechanical filters for this purpose, cloth filters will answer 
ri?fr nnH hP ess exoensivc. Such cloth filters have been used 
t sevSalye in ^eVa^^ plant at Southanipton 

EngS an^d to clarify the Spring Valley water supply of San 

^'^TisVssible that some use might be found for the material 
wV^ioVi is strained out by the filters, but it is more probable that 
It itt t vThave to b^e stored upon the ground near Uie work. 
From 2!loO,000 gallons of water there would ba about six cubic 
yards of precipitate. (Appendix 111). 

The water used for washing the filters and washing out the 
preciptatrwoiJd have to be removed in a sewer or dr.«n to be 
precipiiaie, v> u ^„ . . ^g^ks are bcated north of the 

K^tt,n°G oLT,'th:draiLtu7d°^ into the ditch now 
runmn' aJong^e of the Selkirk Branch of the Canadian Pacitic 
Sway or would have to be built to the Red River. 
The cost of this plant is estimated as follows : 
Land for pumping station, softening plant and ^^^^^ 
wells " ' j'gQQ 

5rKl°^/itrconnecting'pii>e.' laid in a brick con- ^^ ^^ 
Buildings forpumVs,' boilers, 'fuel and softening ^^^^ 

Chim^itj'and foundations "for" machinery 3,600 

Softening plant and filters :;.• u' m" " 

Two horizontal triple expansion pumps, with boiler 

plant for power and heating, ete l/.'J^ 

Drains for waste water • 

Deposit tank for precipitate ' ' ""'^^^ 

Contingencies and engineering, 15 per cent, ^1.120 





Iways clear and 

As its hardness 

.ssiniboine River 

inary clarification 
)y the softening 
ftter. Instead of 
liters will answer 
have been used 
at Southampton, 
ir supply of San 

for the material 

ire probable that 

near the works. 

ba about six cubic 

washing out the 
it or drain to be 
ited north of the 
ito the ditch now 

Canadian Pacific 

s : 

it and 



;k con- 






li boiler 




cent, 21,120 




The chemicals required for softening the daily quantity of 
water (2,400,000 gallons) and for precipitating the suspended mat- 
ter, are estimated, according to Dr. Hutton's data (Appendix III), 
using the average amounts of chemicals given by him, as fol- 
lows : 

Lime 7800 lbs. at I cent $19 50 

Soda carbonate, 1080 lbs at 1 cent 10 80 

Alum 600 lbs. at 2 cents 12 00 

$42 30 

Labor for the softening plant and for repairs. ... 12 00 
Pumping 2,400,000 gallons from the wells into the 
tanks (maximum lift) at the city distribution 
pumping station '. 12 00 

Daily operation of softening and delivering into 

reservoir $66 30 

Therefore, the annual expense of softening the artesian well 
water, to the extent of 2,400,000 gallons per day, and of delivering 
it into the distribution reservoir, would be : 

Interest on cost of plant, at 4 per cent s . . $6,476 

Repairs and renewals of buildings and machinery 1,500 
Operation of softening and pumping, at $66.30 

per day 24,200 


To ascertain the net expense of softening this water, as 
against supplying it unsoftencd, I append an estimat' of cost for 
supplying it in its natural condition. 

There would be a deduction of $54,470, for decrease in the 
necessary land, size of buildings, puni[)ing and softening machinery, 
drains, deposit tank, and foundations. The total cost of the work 
is estimated at $107,400. 

The average daily cost of pumping, maintenance and delivery 
into the reservoir at the pumping station, is $12.00, or $4380 per 

Therefore, the annual expense of delivering the natural artesi- 
an well water into the distribution reservoir would be : 

Interest on cost of plant, at 4% $4,296 

Repairs and renewals 1,000 

Pumping, at $12 4,380 



nii ii r i nwn n iw r tn ii 



From the above figures it is computed that the daily cost of 
softening 2,400,000 gallons per day will be S6L64 Theretore, the 
cost of softening 1,000 gallons ot artesian well water is 2.57 cents. 

C— Poplar Springs, 

These springs are located to the north of the City and 17i 
miles therefrom. They have an elevation of 8 feet above the City 
The territory between is flat, as shown by the prohle attached 
hereto (Plate II), the greatest rise being 16 teet above the e.evation 
of the City, at 11 miles therefrom. • • ti 

The quantity of water, as gauged at the large spring in July, 
is about 2,800,000 gallons per day. It may be less later in the 

season and in the winter. , , . ■. • l i 

As stated above, it is probable that by bormg and intercept- 
ing, a much larger quantity of water of a similar character could 
be obtained. It is certain that the quantity first demanded by the 
City can be secured from the large spring alone and later, by 
reaching the other springs, or by intercepting sufficient artesian 
water between the springs and the City, the future average amount 
of 6 000,000 gallons per day can ba obtained. 

The water of the Poplar Springs is very clear, without organic 
pollution, and need not be purified. Its hardness is not as great as 
that of the city artesian water, nor as great as the Assmiboine 
River water, and according to Dr. Kenrick its hardness is only 
temporary and can be removed with lime alone. (Appendix 11.) 

While it is by no means a soft water, it might perhaps be 
considered sufficiently soft for ci^y use. Fo^rwashmg purposes it 
would be desirable to add some soda to it This should be done 
The day before using it. so that the precipitate will settle, the clear 
water can be poureS off for use. and the sediment thrown away 

If subjected to a softening pro. . ss by the City, the works 
should be located near the springs. The water would .there be 
lifted into a softening basin, receive the necessary chemicals and 
be filtered through cloth, as in the case of the artesian well water 
The water used in washing the filters could be led into a ditch 
near by. which now carries off the water of the springs. 

The distance from the City necessitotes the laying a conduit 

to it from the springs. It would be sufficiently large and durable 

o carry not onlv the quantity of water at once required, but the 

future quantity of 6,000.000 gallons per day. or 11.14 cubic feet 

^^' ^Wooden stave pipe, if it is constantly under pressure, is. I 
believe, as good, in your climate and conditions, as iron pipe. It 

nnn i mHWiWBa 

-.■^. .. ..—jt ^ N'i^ y; * 

t the daily cost of 
J*. Therefore, the 
cater is 2.57 cents. 

f the City and 17 J 
;eet above the City, 
le protile attached 
above the e.evation 

arge spring in July, 
be less later in the 

oriiig and intercept- 
ilar character could 
st demanded by the 
ilone, and later, by 
y sufficient artesian 
ure average amount 

ear, without organic 
3S3 is not as great as 
, as the Assiniboine 
ts hardness is only 
e. (Appendix II.) 
1 might perhaps be 

washing purposes it 
'his should be done 

will settle, the clear 
ent thrown away, 
be City, the works 
iter would there be 
ssary chemicals and 

artesian well water. 
Id be led into a ditch 
le springs. 

;he laying a conduit 
ly large and durable 
ce required, but the 

or 11.14 cubic feet 

uider pressure, is, I 
ns, as iron pipe. If 


under pressure and not painted, the wood remains saturated, the 
sap is removed and decay postponed, if not entirely prevented. 
Such pipe will readily stand 100 feet pressure. The .steel bands 
used should be of the best material, of ample strength and care- 
fully made. They should be well coated with properly prepared 

The total length required is about 92,400 feet, or 17.5 miles. 
The diameter should be 36 inches. The loss of head in this conduit 
due to friction is assumed at 0.329 per thousand, when carrying 
6,000,000 gallons per day, and 0.064 ger thousand when carrying 
2,400,000 gallons per daj*. In case a stave pipe is used, the friction 
might be slightly reduced. 

The necessary total lift to deliver the water of the springs 
into the City's reservoir is 31.5 feet for 6,000,000 gallons daily, 
and 11 feet for 2,400,000 gallons daily, not considering the special 
lift for the softening process, which is 10 feet additional in each 

There would probably be several summits in the pipe at which 
air-escape valves would be required. It is estimated that the top 
of the pipe is covered with at' least six feet of earth to prevent the 
water from freezing. The conduit would discharge into the dis- 
tribution reservoir in the City, fvora which, as in the other cases, 
the water would be pumped into the City mains. 

The cost of plant is estimated as follows : 
Lund for pumping station, softening plant, 

springs and pipe line $ 1,200 

Preparing grounds 500 

Developing springs, well, etc 3,000 

Buildings for pumps, boilers and softening plant 25,000 

Chimney and foundation for machinery 3,500 

Dwellings for men 2,500 

Softening plant and filters 25,000 

Two horizontal compound condensing engines 

and two simple high pressure engines with 

boiler plant for power and heating 18,250 

92,400 feet of 36 in. stave pipe, including valves, 

etc 388,000 

Deposit tank for precipitate 2,000 

Contingencies and engineering, 15 per cent .... 70,340 


mm-titmttmimMfi- ■ 


Although requiring a smaller quantity of chemicals, the cost 
of softening would bfi nearly as much as softening the artesian 
well water, owing to the fact that but few parts of the plant could 
be reduced in size. 

The chemicals required, according to Dr. Button's average 
fi(Tures, for softening the daily average quantity of water (2,400,000 
gallons) and precipitating the suspended matter, soda being omit- 
ted in this case, are estimated as follows : 

Lime, 6,6001bs. at i cent S16.50 

Alum, 600 lbs. at 2 cents 12.00 

$ 28.50 

Daily cost of operating the softening plant, and 

repairs 1-00 

Pumping water from the springs into the tanks 

and conduit (maximum lift) 24.00 

Daily o^^eiation of softening and delivering into 

City reservoir > $64.50 

Therefore, the annual expense of softening the Poplar Springs 
water, to the extent of 2,400,000 gallons per day, and of delivering 
it into the city distribution reservoir, would be : 

Interest on plant, at 4% • ^^^'"^J^ 

Repairs and renewals of buildings and machinery. 1,500 
Operation of softening and pumping, at $64.50 

per day • • 23,543 

To ascertain the net expense of softening this water, as against 

supplying it unsoftened, I append an estimate of cost for supplying 

it in it3 natural condition. 

There would be a deduction of $51,990 for decrease of size of 

buildings, in the number of pumps and omis.sion of softening 

plant, etc. The total cost of the work is estimated at $487,300. 
The average daily cost of pumping, maintenance and delivery 

into the city distribution reservoir is $18, or $6,570 per annum. 
Therefore, the annual expense of delivering the natural Poplar 

Springs water into the city distribution reservoir would be : 

Interest on cost of plant, at 4% $19,492 

Repairs and 1.00^' 

Pumping, at $18 psr day 6,570 


i Miuml i iiim— ti l l 


chemicals, the cost 
'tening the artesian 
ts of the plant could 

r. Button's averajje 
y of water (2,400,000 
ber, soda being omit- 



$ 28.50 

at, and 

12 00 

; tanks 

ng into 


jg the Poplar Springs 
lay, and of delivering 
3e : 


lachinery. 1,500 
at $64.50 

this water, as against 
I of cost for supplying 

for decrease of size of 
)mis.sion of softening 
mated at $487,300. 
ntenance and delivery 
$6,570 per annum, 
ing the natural Poplar 
I'voir would be : 





From the above figures it is computed that the daily cost of 
softening 2,400,000 gallons per day will be $53.57. Therefore, the of .softening 1,000 gallons of Poplar Springs water is 2.23 

D, — Winnipeg River, 

The only object in considering^ this somewhat distant source, 
lay in the reputed natural purity and softness of its water. 
Instead of draining a limestone country, its water passes through 
a country of azoic rockp, such as granite and gneiss, which do not 
contain minerals that by solution materially harden the water. It 
is only necessary to tap the river and bring the water in its 
natural state into the City. 

The nearest point at which it can be reached is above the 
mouth of the Whitemouth River, a tributary fi'om the south, and 
about 54 miles from the City. 

It has been suggested to go below this point and take the 
water from Lac du Bonnet,- requiring a conduit perhaps 10 miles 
longer and a corresponding loss of head by friction. The only 
justification for this suggestion would be the advantage of allowing 
the suspended matter to settle in the lake by the reduced velocity 
of the water in pa.ssing through it, and thus to get clearer water. 
The turbidity of the water, existing during the latter part of 
the summer, is, however, mainly caused by very fine and light 
particles of vegetable matter, and most of these would probably 
remain in suspension, unless the water came to an absolute rest, 
which it does not. The additional expense of going to Lac du 
Bonnet would therefore not be justified by getting at best but a 
very slight improvement in the clearness of the water during a 
.short time in the summer. A .survey was therefore made from 
Brokenhead River to the nearest point where the river could be 
reached. Between the City and Brokenhead River the territory 
was sufficiently well known. 

The character of the water cannot vary much between the 
mouth of the English River and Lac du Bonnet, excepting that the 
Whitemouth River might somewhat decrease the purity below its 
mouth. Between the English and Whitemouth Rivers there are 
many rapids and falls, as well as bend.s, which vertically and 
laterally so thoroughly mix the water that its quality can be 
considered the .same anywhei'e in the current. The velocity being 
rapid th(! water must retain fine matter in .suspension. 



1: I 

mill 1 1 li iiinaMBIfaflatfc. 

:fi:: I 


The best point at which to take the water for the City is just 
above the mouth of the Whilemouth River. The Winnipeg River 
was examined as far up as three miles beyond this point. 

The water was carefully scrutinized It had a distinct 
brownish-yellowish color, was slightly turbid and full of hne 
suspended matter, which was evidently of vegetable ongia The 
water was frequently tasted. Its taste was not pleasant, and in- 
variably slightly bitter, which is usual in waters containing much 
vegetable matter. No doubt for perhaps 9 or 10 months in the 
year this water is clear and very palatable. 

Samples for analysis were taken near the point where an 
intake should be placed, and they well represent the average char- 
acter of the Winnipeg River water at that time The analyses 
flnpendix II) show a moderately good water, but a very high 
ptrSage of albuminoid ammonia, several times the quantity 
EtTs considered permissible in England for the dnnking water 
of that coui.try. But this high percentage, as already stated, is 
L to vegetable matter and is explained by the large areas of 
forests an3 muskegs situated on its drainage area. The very small 
percentage of free ammonia indicates almost no pollution by animal 

matter. i ^ -i. 

The plan (Plate III) and profile (Plate II) show the territory 
over whic^h the water wiuld \Le to be brought to the City The 
elevation of the Winnipeg River where it could be tapped is 843 
feet above sea level. The lowest elevation at which a pipe line 
could cross the high land between the Winn peg -"d Brokenhead 
rivers is 940 feet, or 97 feet above the Winnipeg River. Frmn 
this point the pipe would fall 163 feet to the City reservoir, f he 
total length of pipe is about 285.000 teet. or 54- miles. 

The pipe should be sufficiently large and durable to carry, as 
cumated .efore, 6,000.000 gallons per day, or 11.14 cubic eefc per 
second. Due to the different gradients available, the diameter 
would be thirty inches from the Winnipeg River to Birds HiU, 
and 28 inches thence to the City. 

The loss of head in this conduit due to friction is assumed at 
0784 per 1,000, when carrying 6,000,000 gallons per day. and at 
145 per l.OOO when carrying 2,400,000 ga Ions per day. If stave 
pipe h used, the friction may be slightly reduced. 

There would be nuu.erous summits on this pipe line where air- 
escape valves would have to be provided. The pipe is supposed 
to be laid in the ground so that the minimum earth covenng would 
be Ci feet, or .so that its centre would be 7^ feet below the 
surface to prevent the water from freezing. The pipe would, 


i nwKii a Mm i iiiwmiiMWtf 


f for the City is just 
rhe Winnipeg River 
this point. 

It had a distinct 
d and full of fine 
igetable origin. The 
not pleasant, and in- 
ers containing much 

or 10 months in the 

the point where an 
!nt the average char- 
time. The analyses 
er, but a very high 
times the quantity 
the drinking water 
IS already stated, is 
the large areas of 
irea. The very small 

pollution by animal 

I) show the territory 
rht to the City. The 
lid be tapped is 843 
t which a pipe line 
peg and Brokenhead 
tinipeg River. Frcm 

1 City reservoir. The 
5+ miles. 

. durable to carry, as 
>r 11.14 cubic feet per 
iilable, the diameter 
River to Bird's Hill, 

friction is assumed at 
Ions per day, and at 
Ions per day. If stave 

is pipe line where air- 
The pipe is supposed 
n earth cove-ing would 
5 7^ feet below the 
a. The pipe would, 


as in the other projects, discharge into the distribution reservoir 
in the City. 

It is found that the necessary total lift to deliver the water 
of the river into the City's reservoir, is 146 feet for 6,000,000 
gallons daily, and 106 feet for 2,400.000 gallons daily. 

There is an ample quantity of water and depth of fall at the 
proposed intake to allow the pumping to be done by water- 
power. Yet, to build works for this purpose alone, and which 
would operate economically and without failure at both high and 
low water stages, would be a more expeHbive undertaking than 
to erect a steam pumping plant and use as fuel, wood which 
abounds in the neighborhood. 

The cost of th's plant is estimated as follows : 

Land for pumping station and pipe line S 2,600 

Preparing ground and roads 1,500 

Intake works, well, etc . , 1,000 

Building for pumps and boilers , 6,000 

Chimney and foundations 1,000 

Dwellings for men 2,000 

Two horizontal triple expansion engines, 

with boilers 19,500 

Pipe line to City, 34 miles 1,246,700 

Contingencies and engineering, 15 percent.. 192,100 

The pnnual expense of delivering the Winnipeg River water 
to the extent of 2,400,000 gallons per day, into the City dis- 
tribution reservoir would be : 

Interest on cost of plant, at 4 per cent $58,895 

Repairs and renewals of buildings, pipe line and 

machinery 2,000 

Pumping, at $25 per day 9,125 

E. — Comparison. 

It remains now to compare the several projects which have 
just been examined, us to the quantity and quality of their water, 
and as to their relative economy. 

Both the Assiniboine and Winnipeg Rivers are so large that 
even at fieasons of greatest drought they can supply sufficient 
water for the City. 





The Poplar Springs deliver sufficient water for about 40.000 

.!,« Rv Snkin<. wells along the line of the conduit this quan- 
Sv could b^ £eKeveral «^mes. and without question furmsh 
aufecient water for 100,000 persons. . 

The artesian well supply can likewise f--V.tv7o"Sk 
quantity. In order to obtain the same, it is only "^J.^jy f/^^J 
2 sufficient number of wells in the western part of the City and 
extend them in a northerly direction. 

If we compare the natural waters as to P^^f ^^L^'fy-J"* 
irrespectTve of™heir softness, we may place them in the following 

°'***'' '' 1. Poplar Springs. 3. Winnipeg River 

2. Artesian Wells. 4- Assmibome River 

If we compare them as to softness, we must give them the 
following order :^^^^^ 3. Assiniboine River. 

2. PoplarVprings. 4- Artesian We Is. 

them in the followiag order : . . • w lu 

1. Poplar Springs. 3. Arte.uin Wells 

9 Winnipeg River. 4. River. 

Tf the hard waters are softened by a chemical process and the 

projects, as follows : . 

^ 1 Poplar Springs. 3. Assmiboine River. 
2 Arfe wells. 4 Winnipeg R.ver. 
Theccstof softening 1.000 gallons of water in the several 
projects is as follows : 
^ 1. Assiniboine River 2.22 cent . 

2. Poplar Springs ^^'^ «^"J«- 

3. Artesian wells 2.57 cents 

■ These differences of cost are .so slight as to have hardly any 

woiffht in deciding upon the preference. , „. u,,„ 

The "ost of softening any of the Winnipeg waters a^ here 

determined, is not so gi4t. in -y. ^-^'^.'^t in^E^d. U 

adoption, although it "^"^V^'^Llllons Ttrr per day the est 
ftfainilyof five persons use 300 gallons. uw^^^^^^ cent per day. 



"-''"-^ ■■'j'BJiy.'-'?'«'S™^SK -, 

er for about 40,000 
! conduit this quan- 
ut question furnish 

rnish the required 
y necessary to sink 
art of the City and 

lo palatability, but 
em in the following 

ipeg River. 

iboine River. 

must give them the 

iboine River, 
ian Wells. 

iiess of these waters, 
3I i lolined to place 

lian Wells, 
liboine River, 
lical process, and the 
Ul consider the order 
bhfulness of all four 

niboine River. 

mipeg River. 

water in the several 

2.22 cents. 
2 2M cents. 
3.57 cents. 
I to have bardly any 

lipeg waters, as here 
I, as to prevent it.s 
cost in England. If 
ater per day tbe cost 
in one cent per day. 
;ess would reduce tbo 


carbonate of lime from 28 to 17 grains per gallon, a reduction of 
11 grains. If we assume approximately that each grain of car- 
bonate of lime per gallon increases the amount of soap necessary 
for 100 gallons by 2 ounces, then, if sufficient soap is ordinarily 
added to make the water soft, the softening process proposed for 
the City would save IJ pounds of soap per 100 gallons of water 
used for washing purposes. 

Comparing the projects as to cost, I shall state them,, in 
the order of the necessary capital which must be expended at the 
outset, to deliver the water into the city reservoir : 


1. Artesian Wells 8 107,400 

2. AssiniboineRiver, filtered, ($119,440),... 159,-570 

3. Poplar Springs 487,300 

4. Winnipeg River 1,472,400 


1. Artesian Wells S 161,870 

2- Assiniboine River, filtered, (S123,000) .... 163,130 

3. Poplar Springs 539,290 

The figures given in parenthesis cover the cost of u.sing filters 
that have settling compartments attached to them, thus obviating 
the use of large settling basins. 

The Artesian well project, it will be seen, requires tho least 
outlay, both when the water is softened, and when it is delivered 
in its natural state, excepting in the case where settling compart- 
ments are substituted for large settling basins in the Assiniboine 
River soft water project. 

Secondly, projects are given in the order of annual 
expense, including both interest on outlay and cost of operation. 


1. Artesian Wells S 9,670 

2. Assiniboine River, ($15,968) 19,133 

3. Poplar Springs 27,062 

4. Winnipeg River 70,020 


1. Artesian wells $32,175 

2. Assiniboine River ($34,195) 38,600 

3. Poplar Sprnigs 46,615 

This comparison indicates that the artesian well supply is the 
least expensive, whether natural or softened water is supplied. 


J, ^j^-f^i^ni^UaiiieBr- 



NcxtinoiJerisfche Assiniboine River supply. Using small set- 
Sing compartments attached to the filters the annual cos^s 
reduced several thousand dollars. Owing to tl^7°«»«^hat ex^en- 

mental character in the use of such ('"'"P*'.^™^"*'^' / PT^J^Ji^or 
ever at the present time to use the larger figure for comparison. 

The greater cost of the Assiniboine River project is accom- 
panied also with the disadvantage, that in its naturd state the 
water is obiectionable at certain seasons ok the year and that the 
7uture may see H ,nore or less polluted. While filtration should 
"e^ovethfs olfaction almost entfrely, the l-^ent danger will never 
theless still exist, and conscientious care and attention must be 
exeSed to overcome it. No such danger exists in the artesian 

water. , . . ^„i„ 

It therefore appears t^^^the artesian supply is not on^7 
cheaper, but also safer to use. than that obtained trom the Assini 
boine River. , , 

In view of the advantages of soft over hard water as stated 
in the in roduct on. the small expense per family v.ould surely not 
be resisted! and I shall assume that you will prefer the supply of 
softened water. 


Aflpr the water, soft and clear at all times is deUvered into 
the city reservdr. i is then necessary to distribute it m such a 
manner as to furnish the citizens with the quantity they need and 
also with a fire pressure. 

It has already been said that for reasons of economy ^iro 
t,reJure should Cfurnished only when required. At other times 
Pressure shouM be mo.lerate Jnd reduced to a minimum during 
the fatter half of the night. (Appendix IV A.) 

The quantity of water consumed is greatest during the day 
and leastTuring the night. The pipe and pumping system must 
Xrefo e be p^-oportioned to supvly these varying quantities 
K Tt is ass^ume.!. that the maxUum consumption .s one and 
three nuarter times the average; or. for a mean -uppiv "f 2.400.000 
gallons per day. it is taken at the rate of 4.200.000 gallons per day. 



- .^i^^g^f^gmMJ^/grM^iii^^fimfigafui^tg^mtxi. 

Using small set- 
ho annual cost is 
3 somewhat ex leri- 
its, I prefer, how- 
3 for comparison. 
• project is accom- 
i natural state the 
year, and that the 
lie filtration should 
t danger will, ncver- 
attention must be 
sts in the artesian 

lupply is not only 
led from the Assini- 

rd water, as stated 
ily \. ould surely not 
prefer the supply of 

mes, is deUvered into 
istribute it in such a 
antity they need and 

ons of economy flro 
ired. At other times 
to a minimum during 

jatest during the day 
pumping system must 
e varying quantities, 
nsumption is one and 
iin 'supply of 2.400,000 
)0,000 ga'llons per day. 


A distribution reservoir is therefore required to receive the 
water from the softening plant at a uniform rate, to store it and to 
enable the pumps to draw the quantity that may be required at 
any moment. (Introductory.) 

The capacity of such a compensating reservoir is assumed at 
1,000,000 gallons. While it is usual to make this capacity greater, 
so as. to allow of a temporary stoppage of the delivery works for 
repairs, it is thought that the greater expense is hardly warranted 
in your case, owing to the proposed method of collecting and soft- 
ening the water. 

A tank reservoir is sometimes used in order to allow the 
pumping to be suspended during the night, when the draft is least. 
But such a suspension is not advisable in your city, unless the 
tank were placed sufficiently high to furnish fire pressure. Such 
a height is impracticable. Pumping must be continuous, and the 
sole purpose of the reservoir is to compensate for the irregular 

A stand pipe is sometimes used to equalize the varying pres- 
sures, and to relieve the pumps of sudden strains and shocks. 
Modern pumping machinery, however, does not necessarily require 
this safeguard, as protection can be provided in other ways. More- 
over a stand pipe would not be advisable in your climate for other 

The distribution resejrvoir should be built underground, and 
covered with masonry arches resting on piers. Its dimensions 
have been assumed at 106 feet square and the depth of water at 
15 feet. 

The pumping station, at which the water is pumped from the 
reservoir into the mains, should be the same as that at which it is 
pumped from the wells to the basin of the softening plant. The 
economy of operating a combined station is apparent. It should 
be located beyond the Fair grounds and near McPhillips street. 

The pumps have been estimated in duplicate and are to lie of 
the best class, with triple expansion, so as to economize as much 
as possible in fuel. 

The pipe system starts with a twenty inch main, and conducts 
the water to the inhabited parts of the city. 

Colonel Ruttan has suggested a pipe distribution system for 
this purpose, which I have examined and can fully approve as 
being well adapted to give both the quantity and pressure required. 
I can also fully «ndoi*8e his a 1 vice to have no mains smallor than 
si.x inches in tfiameter, except in connecting two pipes from one 


mi miiiiii - 


Wock to another, for which purpose a four i^^Jj P'P« «*';;^J^ ^^^^^ 
if 1.0 lire hydrant is connected with it No tour-mch pipes, 
however, have been included in the estimate ot cost. 

Fire hydrants in your climate shouUl be of the post pattern, 
sothatthejcanbe readily seen when snow ««;;«'« fjf f^^^^ 
Thev should, if practicable, have a drip connection with a sewer 
or with a small pit provided for the purpose and filled with coarse 

^"*''The lencth of pipes necessary for a population of 40,000 
persons I ha?e estimated at 65 miles, while for a Pop« "^t'O" °J 
?S"rOO JersU this length might have ^^^ be in-e^^^^^^^^^ 
^«n^ As the buildincs are now somewhat scattered ana as iney 
Tould tS t suppUed^ith water, excepting those at the outskirts. 
I did not think it well to estimate a smaller mileage. 

The number of valves and hydrants are given at the minimum 
allowance raUs usually considered permissible for the above pipe 

ft was stated in the Introduction that the consumption per 
inhabiirt. particularly when the pressures wi I ^e '--^^ed^^^^^^^ 
not be kcDt as low as the rate assumed in this report. tne 
water supplied to .nsumers is metered. I have theretore allowed 
for metering the entire supply. 

It should be added hero that the metres should be the piop- 
^rtv of the City No control could otherwise be exercised over 
Uit^m. nof a guLnL offered that their registration was fairly 

Tl? TiT T: Sr/tTb^st thatlhe^e touM t"'! 
l^ntipaVltVol'of ^^UVloSd^n public property and 
TeauirL the temporary removal of parts of pavements But 
L^^thesei vice pipes are entirely in the interest and for the 
riefit of the fesFCtive consumers, it is proper that their cos 
should be borne by them and that these service pipes should be 
considerSi as a diJ^ect benefit to the property. ^hc.r cost is. 
therefore, not charged to municipal plant. , , , , , 

In establishing a waterworks plant provision should be made 
for a storehouse and repair shop, which arc necessary adjuncts to 

the distribution system. ,. . .^ .• * « r,.««^ 

An estimate of cost of the entire distribution «yft«'n. " Jjf 
of which will answer for a much larger population than 40,0 
perrons is iiven Inflow. It has been the intention to make this 
Suate 1 b?ral, so as to fully cover all contingent expenses. U 


h pipe can be used, 
'Ho four-inch pipes, 
f cost. 

(f the post pattern, 
covers the ground, 
ction with a sewer 
id filled with coarse 

opulation of 40,000 
for a population of 
ncreased only 40 per 
attered and as they 
hose at the outskirts, 

riven at the minimum 
)le for the above pipe 

the consumption per 
ill be increased, could 
lis report, unless the 
ave therefore allowed 

should be the prop- 
ise be exercised over 
gistration was fairly 

lins to the buildings 
,t there should be u 
I public property and 
of pavements. But, 
interest and for the 
proper that their cost 
ervicc pipes should be 
perty. Their cost is, 

vmon should be made 
1 necessary adjuncts to 

tribution system, most 
population than 40,000 
intention to make this 
ontingent e.xpensos. U 


is of course unnecessary to lay a greater length of pipe or to 
set more hydrants than may be required at any given time. 

Distribution Reservoir $45,000 

Pumping Station : 

Land S 2,000 

Preparing grounds 2,000 

Buildings, foundations, chimneys, etc 15,000 

Two hoiizontal, triple expansion, high duty 

pumps 76,000 

Distribution Pipes : 

4,800 M 
GOOO .. 
12,.500 M 
27,000 M 
3(),.500 .. 
54,000 I. 
200,000 .. 


* 60 per ft. . 


3 80 M 

. 18,240 

y.20 M 

. 19,200 

2.60 H 

. 32..500 

2.10 .. 

. 56,700 

1.70 M 

. . 62,050 

1..W „ 


0.90 .. 

. . 180,000 



Valves : 

3—20 inch valves, in position, at S230 S 690 


50— 8 
333— 6 



Hydrants : 

3.50—8 inch hydrants, in position, at $130 $45,500 
220—6 M .. .. <- 100 22,000 


Meters : 

4950— § inch meters, set in place, at $12.20 $60,390 

1230—1 .. .. .. 18.30 22,509 

350—1 .. .1 .. 24.40 8,540 

60— li .. H M 42.00 J,520 

10-2 .. H M 68.40 684 






Storehouse and uiBcfcine repair shop ^^'^^" 

Contingencies and engineering, 10 per cent. ^^'^^^ 


The annual cost of the distribution system, as above estimated, 
will therefore be as follows : ao- -ap 

Interest on $889,145, at 4 per cem^ ^o'lZ 

Pumping 2,400,000 gallons per day ^^.JJJJ 

Maintenance and repairs ' 





The foregoing investigation has been made on the ««PPOBit^|; 

that the franchise of the company now supplying the city w th 

water soon expires, and that every obligation on the part of the 

Citv towards the company then ceases. „ . , ^ 

In such a case, the City would be free thereafter to adopt 

whatever ource of supply, and to build whate^;er sptem of di«- 

TributLn it might deem best for its interests. The investigation 

for a new supply has therefore been made us though the present 

works were wholly private. 

The resu'tintr conclusions have indicated that another source 
than the present%ne would furnish better water and at a less 
exnense A question then arises: Cannot some P;rts of the 
Sent works\e embodied in the better system ? 1 so there is 
So ntcLli^y for duplicating them, and the City should buy them 
from the company at a fair valuation. 

As the pumping station of the proposed works would be in a 
different locality, oHly the pumping machinery and hlters might 
perhaps be utilized. . i • 

The pumps operated by the company neither appear to be m 
tirst-class^ondition, nor are they designed to do «« economical 
work as can bo done by a higher type of machinery. At the time 






, as above estimated, 






de on the supposition 
plying the city with 
)n on the part of the 

e thereafter to adopt 
latever system of dis- 
ts. The investigation 
ivs though the present 

jd that another source 
• water and at a less 
it some p»rts of the 
^stem ? if so, there is 
City iihould buy them 

d works would be in a 
nery and filters might 

neither appear to be in 
J to do as economical 
ichinery. At the time 

when the franchise expires, it is a question whether the present 
pumps would be worth moving and re-erecting to perform so 
important a duty as would be expected of them. I therefore do 
not advise their purchase and have estimated for new machinery. 

The filters are of a design which is not well adapted to the 
purpose of removing the crystaline precipitate caused by the soft- 
ening of the well water. Their operation would be at least 
troublesome and expensive, and I can not recommend them as a 
part of the new .system. 

On the other hand, the pi[ ^ can largely be utilized. I am 
informed that there are a few miles of old pipe, joined simply by 
contact and without load. If these pipas cannot withstand the 
increased fire pressure, they have of course little or no value in the 
distribution .system. The other pipes, namely, those having joints 
caulked with lead, and which constitute the major part of the 
system, are reported to be in good condition. These pipes could 
therefore be embodied in the new works, wherever they allow 
sufficient circulation and pressure. Where they do not allow of 
this, the smallest pipes could be discarded and replaced by larger 
ones to act as feeders. 

The value of the pipes of a distribution system, when they 
have been in the ground .for some years, is of course less than the 
value of new pipes, because their life is limited by being subject to 
gradual corrosion. 

The value of the hydrants and valves is also dependent upon 
their actual condition, and those which are suitable might be 
embodied in the new system. 


The total annual cost of supplying t' e city with 2,400,000 
gallons of water from Artesian wells, us estimated above, is as 
follows : 

Softened and delivered into reservoir $32,175 

Distributed throughout city 53,706 






At tMs plaee it U prop- '» «d^ » annual ^^l^ow^ee Jor^ ad- 
rS^^r ^T-S^^-^Wera^rfSi *^05,881, to 

cover which a revenue must be provided. , . „ . 

T^is revenue is assun.ed to be met by the following pay- 

™^"*rTUpoUvatlaraepays for the water ':ised for public pur- 
posesl-su'Jh a"t: eXang. street sprinkling, fountains, sewer 

""■"ty 'the use of meters or by estimate it is P-ticable t^^^^^^^^^^^^ 


='rw^rw:ter!'anT,t*:rbe .0 charged in the toUowmg 
estimates^ ^^ ^^_^^^, charge per run- 

„i„,iot'„f"ne'»ren'°£S in £ro,Jt li their property, whether .t 
is improved and water is used or not. ,^t^rsf^'S^iSSSS 

assessment is $2.oU. Assurainj, ^ pc added water 

r;n fnnf lot should have been increased »oU by tne auaeu w«ti, 
50 toot lot s'^o""*, ";,, ^ doubted that the real increase of value 

-iTbur^^gn 1.^^^ with^:--; 

Bini lar aU«^^"««' ,f"^. ^^'^ ^^^t the asses^^^e frontage is about 
sections, it is "«"f ^J ,^3^,^^ lathis was assumed at 65 miles. 
ZTTit Itr f t^^^^^^^ on both sides of the pipe.' at 

Last 4ot00O K^^^^ f-nt'^^^ ^^'^^^ ^' '^^^"'^^^^ ^'' '^" '^''^" 
3 Consumers to pay for the quantity of water they use. 
There can be no question as to the propriety of paying in pro- 

valuable commodities. 



"" "'T l ' j . 

al allowance for ad- 
h I place arbitrarily 
iture of $105,881, to 

r the following pay- 
used for public pur- 
:lins, fountaiKS, sewer 

s practicable to deter- 
1. As the water does 
purposes, it might be 
arae at the cost of the 
rged in the following 

innual charge per ruii- 
ir property, whether it 

ater main adjoins a lot, 
and the cause of such 
tor instance, the lot has 
;s per foot, the annual 
interest, the value of a 
50 by the added water 
le real increase of value 
bo charge corner lots for 
:tiou should be made on 
of the house line. This 
ible that a second house 
I feet. With this, or a 
)n for the street inter- 
issable frontage is about 
was assumed at 65 miles, 
both sides of the pipe,* at 
ail able for this charge, 
ity of water they use. 
opriety of paying in pro- 
good water supply, and 
it of water used. The 
in America and Europe 
)f measuring gas or other 


Assuming that you will adopt this modern and just mode of 
charging consumers, a rate per 1,000 gallons should be fixed ; but as 
mentioned in the Intoductory, each consumer should be charged 
with a minimum price, irrespective of the quantity consumed, and 
pay the meter rates only for excessive quantities. 

You will best know what you would prefer to state as a 
minimum rate, or how to adjust it. For purposes of estimate I 
shall assume that it is placed at 30 gallons per head per day. This 
quantity of water is nearly equal to that used per inhabitant in 
London, England. It should therefore be sufficiently liberal. On 
the other hand, if we compare it with the cousumption per in- 
habitant in the United States, it cannot be considered too liberal, 
and therefore a hardship upon the poorer classes. The average 
private consumption per head will be much greater, and, so far as 
the income is concerned, I think it can safely be placed at 60 gal- 
lons per head. 

The works as estimated are to serve 40,000 persons. There- 
fore, the revenue should be based upoL> this number. This 
population, however, will not be served for a number of years after 
the works have been built. Therefore, an allowance should be 
made to cover the deficiency in the revenue. This purpose is 
served, I think, by proportioning the charge against consumers 
among 33,000 inhabitants, or, assuming 5 jpersons to the family, 
among 0,600 families or water takers. There is at present a 
smaller number within the territory to be furnished with water ; 
but there may be 8,000 families when the population taking water 
reaches 40,000 persons. 

From what has been said regarding the method of paying for 
the works and for the water to be furnished, it is seen that the 
income is to be deri 'ed from three sources, the City at large, the 
abutters and the consumers. The City at large is charged for 
water, because it does not need to be softened, at a smaller rate 
than the consumers, on whose account the entire supply must be 

The following statement shows the probable income per 
annum : 

1. City at large: 

200,000 gallons per day at 12.5 cents per M ... . $ 9,125 

2. Abutters: 

400,000 feet frontage at 5 cents per foot 20,000 



3. Consumers (average) : 

33,000 persons at 60 gallons, or 1,980,000 gallons 

pel- day at 15 cents per M 108,o65 

4. Lost, or not chargeable. 220,000 gallons 

Therefore, the annual charges would probably be $137,680. 
It is thus seen that the charges apparently exceed the cost by 
over 30 per cent. In an enterprise like this one. haying a few 
uncertain^ factors, it is a good business P^nciple to res jt «p^ 
safe basis. It is better to assume high rates, ^'^h a prol«ib.hty ot 
reducing them in the future, than to resort to t-e unpopular 
necessity of i'-creasing them. 

The rates can be practically reduced at any time by a "owing 
a discount -or prompt payment. The following statement shows- 
the resu"t when 20 per cerit is allowed the abutters and consumers 
for thts prou.ptness,^nd supposing that every one were to avail 
himself of the privilege : 

^.^ . , $ 9,125 

City at large ^^^^^ 

Abutters ■ ^.r. 041 

Consumers (average) ______ 


While this figure still exceeds the estimated cost, it js wise to 
keep it in, "patticularly at the beginmng of the period when 
the water takers are comparatively few and the outlay is great 
In flct the privilege of a discount should depend upon the actud 
tacc, line P"J^' S , ., amount of the discount should be 

Tntuy flfed 4thTci';^(S»dl, in aecord»nce with the necea.- 
ities of the case. 

It was stated to me that many of the P°°'«\ *^";"'f "^ 
furnished with hard water by watermen at the rate of 2o cents 
n^ barrel which is furthef said to last them about a week. 
&s thev pay about $12 per annum. For the same money 
Sie city c^n furnish them with many times this quantity of clear 
and soft water throughout the year. 

Let us suppose that a family does not use more than 30 
gallons per head or in all 150 gallons per day At this rate 
C woS d consume 5*,750 gallons per annum. They may choose 
toTake advantage of a 20% discount for prompt payment or not. 






bly be $137,680. 

exceed the cost by 

one, having a few 

>le to rest it upon a 

ith a proUability ol: 

to t'^e unpopular 

ly time by allowing 
ig statement shows 
[iters and consumers 
J one were to avail 

....% 9,125 




,ed cost, it is wise to 
of the period, when 
the outlay is great, 
end upon the actual 
e discount should be 
,nce with the necess- 

poorer families are 
the rate of 25 cents 
them about a week. 
• the same money 
ihis quantity of clear 

»t use more than 30 
day. At this rate 
1. They may choose 
(rapt payment or not, 


provided the city can give this reduction. They may reside on a 
25 foot, or on a 50 foot lot. The annual payments und these four 
conditions would be as follows : 

50 foot lot,— 

No discount .' $10 71 

Discount 8 57 

25 foot lot,— 

No discount 9 46 

Discount ^ 7 57 

It is thus seen that the poorer classes would have but a 
moderate rate to pay, and get an ample supply of water therefor. 

I have assumed a constant meter rate, whether the consump- 
tion is lai-ge or small. Sometimes large consumers are given a 
lower rate. This practice, however, is not just to the small con- 
sumers, ajs the cost of furnishing the water is practically the same 
per gallon in one case as in the other. 

It should be added that the question of water supply must 
also be considered as to its influence on fire insurance rates. If a 
good lire pressure over the entire city can be furnished there will 
be a marked reduction in these rates, which will somewhat offset 
the water rates. 

In conclusion, it should be said that the cost of water per 
1,000 gallons decreases as the consumption increases. Therefore, 
the above-mentioned rates, which have been based on a consump- 
tion of 2,400,000 gallons per day, while they may not allow of 
being discounted at first, they may allow of even a greater discount 
than the one given above, when the consumption becomes greater. 
For this reason it was not thought necessary at present to estimate 
the actual cost of supplying water for a population of 100,000 

It must also be stated that, as instructed, no allowance has 
been made for a sinking fund to pay off the debt which must be 
incurred for the works. As the machinery and other perishable 
parts thereof must in time be replaced, new appropriations will be 
therefore required. 

Thei8 have been several assumptions made in this report 
merely for the purpose of illustrating certain features or con- 
clusions. It is practicable for you to change those assumptions 
which do not pertain to strictly engineering questions if, in your 


wisdom, othera would bettor accommodate the citizens. I t^u^t that 
I have stated such cases with sufficient clearness so that^^^ 
whatever change you might make, you can still follow my 
anniment to its legitimate conclusion. 

Respectfully presented, 


Attached to this report arc j 

Appendix I,— Canadian Pacific Well Test; 
II,— Chemical A.nalyse3 ; 
III,— Dr. Button's Report on Softcnirg 
Winnipeg Waters. 

" IV, — Assumed Data and Prices. 

Plate I, -Profiles of Artesian Wells; 
«. II,— Profile of Conduit to Poplar Springs; 

Profile of Conduit to Winnipeg River; 
« III, Plan showing Conduit Lines. 




iizens. I trust that 
less, so that, with 
i still follow my 



Test ; 

I Softcnirg 


ir Springs; 
lipeg River; 


Test of Canadian Pacific Railway Well. 

Winnipeg, Ist April, 1897. 

From 18 o'clock, March 27th, until IS o'clock, March 2Sth, no 
water was pumped, and at the end of this time the water in large 
well had risen to within a few inches of the ground level. 

From 13 o'clock, March 29th, till 13 o'clock, March 30th, the 
large Dayton pump in the engine room was kept pumping contin- 
uous' y up to its greatest capacity, drawing water from the large 
well, and also from the old well between engine room and car 

The level of the water was measured each hour and is given 
below. At the end of the 24 hours it had not gotten quite 
down to the suction valve, as the combined flow of the two 
wells was more than the pump could overcome. 

At 12:30, March 30th, the old we'd was shut off from the 
pump, and water pumped from the large well only, when the 
water rapidly sank in the large well, and was kept within a 
short distance above the suction valve for 24 hours, from I* 
o'clock, March 30th, till 15 o'clock, March 31st. 

Two tests were made to determine the slip of the pump, the 
strokes being counted for one hour while water was pumped 
into the tank and note taken of the volume of water pumped, 
the first test being made when the water was just covering the 
suction valve, and the second when there were about 12 feet of 
water over the suction valve. These gave 1.88 and 1.78 Imperial 
gallons respectively for each stroke of the pump, or an average of 
1.83 Imperial gallon.s. The diameter of pump barrel is 7|", 
stroke H", 

i w i wwiiMliiwy ' 





n,irin(T the 24 hours from 13 o'clock, M«rch 29th, to 13 

Durincr the 24 hours from 14 o'clock March 30th, to 1* J^idck 
Mar^Tsist, the pump made 82,740 strokes, or an average of 57.46 
Plr^kes pcr'minu^te. ^At 1.83 gallons f J ^^'^^^ ^'neTmLte 
151.414 gallons per 24 hours, or about lOo gallons per mmute 

The average pressure of water in the discharge FPe jj th« 
pump was, during the first 2t I'ours' test about 50 PO»^d Per 
square inch, and during the second 24 hourS.aboutJO pounds per 
square inch. The pump could not be run so ^^f <>/"""» the^^sT^^^^ 
24 hours, as during the first, as the Ap.'^ »« ^ater into the well was 
not sufficient to keep the pu-p supplied at that pace. 

Attached are tables showing the level of the water m well 
and the speed of pump at various times during the test. 

A. C. Frith, 

Assistant Can. Pac. Ry. Co. 




dwrch 29th, to 13 
okes, or an average 
r stroke this would 
gallons per minute. 
30th, to U o'clock 
an average of 57.46 
this would come to 
jns per minute, 
scharge pipe of the 
jout 50 pounds per 
bout 30 pounds per 
jt during the second 
er into the well was 
it pace. 

,f the water in well 
the test. 

it Can. Pac. Ry. Co. 

Distances of Water Below Platform in Well, 

(Platform is 13.1 feet below the ground level.) 












March 29 



March 30 



























II < 








8 60 



















March 31 









March 30 

















































































Noi'K.— At tl.OS feot below platform the Huotlon valvo beKins to draw nlr. 


1r!l ' 

Number of Strokes made by Pump. 



March 29, 



March 30, 




20 . 58 
8.. '2 
9 35 
13 00 

No of 



March 30, 

March 31, 


No. of 


pump Hlr^ken not counted between .i.:40 «m, U VHocU on March mh. 






oiU on March ilOth. 







• 5! 













«8 5-3 

1 .-^ 


Sd 2 
a e 



i « * 


CS u 

-IS P 

■V ". 


S !2 


13 O 1(5 









.sp.s - 8 

^11 --'Sf 

^ JS u TS . 

B c - w y >' 
S o « g-o 
S t, > -3 5 

- § S 8 •? 2 

<n u P .X- 5 V 








































u) l« . 

•V V 


B ^. C 

S ■" 

5 mS ■ 

-.5 B 

.S V 











3 "" 





— c 







5 t~> S 
Si S ^ 


































• w 

*-* o 






U) « 










B .. 

a i/i 


.S V 




_ w .... 










d d 









2 gJ « 2 
c o H » 



8 2 




a * ■ 




















c ■<« 

"3 * 
o ^ 

X^u; be 

B 15 B 
















< < 






S o 

£ Q 

9' >, 

_?* Ill 

.. . a.t b 


u ^ 

> c ST a S •! 

u 5 

n^~.S C « o 8 

5 Ja- a o » Ji bi 
iS-oS ° " u 2 " 

8 S.§ss 

~ B "13.3 S 




« 41 " 

S "I— » 














1 1 

& & & 




a S'i 
Q . 


us „- 

3 ^r. -y-. < 2 



Abstract of a Report by Dr. Huttoii on the Softening of 

Winnipeg Waters, 

To render the water from the Artesian wells of Winnipeg 
satisfactory for domestic pvrposes, treatment with a mixture of 
milk of lime and a solution of carbonate of sodmm would, in my 
opinion, be the best and most available process. 

The quantities of materials required are as follows : 

Lime. 300 to 350 lbs. per 100,000 gallons. Sodium carbonate, 
40 to 50 lbs. per 100,000 gallons. 

A very simple test, whereby it may be known when the 
proper quantity of lime has been added, is as follows : 

A few drops of a 5 per cent solution of nitrate of silver added 
to the treated water causes the formation of a faint yellow pre- 
cipitate. The color of this precipitate is white when insufficient 
lime has been used, but is brownish when too much lime has been 

added. . .x a- * i- 

To make the treatment sucessful thorough agitation of tne 
water after adding the softening materials is essential. 1 he lime 
and the soda should be prepared separately, but may be added to 
the water at the same time. A small quantity of alum would 
hasten the settling, but is not absolutely necessary, because of the 
absence of organic matter. 

The Poplar.Spring water could be sufficiently softened by 
the addition of milk of I'me alone, and would require about 260 
to 800 lbs. of lime per lOU.OOO gallons. There is very little differ- 
ence in total hardness between this spring and the present water 

The follo'-ing observations on the rate of clarification with 
lime alone have been made : 

Ross Ave Well— One-third of a 30-inch tube was com- 
paratively clear in four minutes; the whole of the tube was com- 
paratively clear in 25 minutes, and had completely settled m lo 


Sohening of 

s of Winnipeg 
b a mixture ol 
n would, in my 


lium carbonate, 

)wn when the 
'S : 

of silver added 
unt yellow pre- 
hen insufficient 
1 lime has been 

agitation of the 
itial. The lime 
nay be added to 
of alum would 
r, because of the 

ly softened by 
quire about 250 
^ery little differ- 
te present water 

ilurification with 

tube was com- 
e tube was com- 
ely settled in 15 


hours. An addition of 0.025 parts of alum per 1000 paiis of 
water caused settlement in 4* hours. 

Poplar SPRiNG.-One-third of the tube was comparative y 
clear in four minutes; the whole of the tul^ was cj^P-f-^y 
clear in 40 minutes, and had completely settled in 18 hours. An 
addition of 0.025 parts of alum per 1000 parts of water caused 
settlement in five hours. , ^ ^ , x 

After softening, the water is bright and clear and tasteless at 
room temperature. *" When lime alone is "^ed ^he^"^/ «^*^f '^ 
;?.niminuti .1 of calcium and magnesium carbonates by about 60 
per ceT Thirty pounds of lime fdded to 10.000 gallons of water 
would give a deposit of 61^ lbs. of calcium carbonate. 

When sodium carbonate is added as well as lime it reacts on 
the sulphates of calcium and magnesium, changing them into the 
ess so uWe carbonates, and leaves in solution an equivalent quan- 
tity of "odium sulphate which 1^ very soluble, harmless and non- 

soap-destroying. ., . j c 

The addition of the soda further decreases the hardness of 

the water from 10 to 20 per cent. 

The rate of settling of the precipitates would be more rapid 

in shallow than in deep tanks, and much more rapid in tanks than 

in the glass tubes used for experiments. 

(Signed) W. A. B. HUTTON. 
Winnipeg, July 17th, 1897. 


A^Data assumed for purposes of comparison and for 
estimating cost of works. 

Ij„.edi.te„ i^TZ. JOOOO person. 

Future provision tor iw.vw ,/« 

Water prehsures : ^ . , • 

Fire pressure. 75 lbs. per square inch at hydvants in business 

centre, and 10 adjoining fire streams, each 35 cubic feet 

per minute. 
Ordinary domestic pressure, 30-40 lbs. per square inch. 
Minimum night pressure, 20-25 lbs. per square inch. 



Consumption per head per day : 


Cubic Peet. 

Average rate, 



Maximum rate, 



Immediate total provision per day: 

Averaj3;e rate, 



Maximum rate, 



Future total provision per day : 

Average . te, 



Maximum rate, 




B, — ^Prices assumed for labor, material, land, etc, in estimate 
ing cost of the works, in consultation with Col, 
H. N. Ruttan. 

Excavation, Etc. : 

Earth, in trencho-s S 

Earth, with boulders, part of conduit line. . 1 


Rock, limestone in trench 2 

Rock, granite in trench . , 3 

Excavation for reservoirs, etc. 

Removal pf surplus earth 

Sodding over Distribution Reservoir 

Ma:;10>IHY, Etc. : 

Brick laid in Portland cement 20 

Brick laid in Portland cement (700 brick per 

cubic yard) 14 

Concrete, piers, B.rches, bottom and walls of 

reservoir 8 00 to 10 

Stone masonry 16 00 to 20 

Cement (400 lbs. put bbl, delivered in city) 4 
Sand, in quantity 1 



























00 per M. 

00 per cu. yd. 

00 '• 

00 " 

00 per bbl. 

00 per cu. yd. 




Cubic Feet. 




tc„ in estimate 
ion with Col. 

30 per cu. yd. 

1 00 " 
60 " 

2 60 " 

3 50 " 
26 " 
25 " 

15 per sq. yd. 

00 per M. 

4 00 

per cu. 








4 00 




1 00 





Brick (delivered anywhere in city) 10 50 per M. 

2 inch tile drains, laid OS per foot. 

6 inch drains, laid i "j.* ' -i" " " 

Asphalt waterproofing for roof of distribu- 

^ .. ^ • ~ 40 ner su- 'V'J. 

tion reservoir n,V ^ m 

Lumber and timber framed in structures . . 30 00 per M. 

Lumber and timber, f.o.b. Winnipeg 18 00 

Pipe, Castings, Etc. : 

Cast-iron pipe, f.o.b. Winnipeg !i^32 00 per ton. 

Hauling pipe in city f „ 

Special castings ' 4A per lb. 

Lead « « 

Wrought iron, bars, straps, bolts, etc " 

Valves AND Hydrants : (Chapman Valve Co 

• 36 inch stop valves, f.o.b. Winnipeg 576 00 per valve, 

nn It « " " ioi OU 

ri ,< .< « « 112 00 

:l « « . « " 70 00 

:? .: « .< ' 55 00 

• I ,. .. « « 42 00 

,0 « " «' " ...... 31 00 

^^ .< ., « «' 21 00 

g u « .' " 13 00 

24 inch check valves, f.o.b. Winnipeg .... 273 00 

« •< i< " " " .... 22 00 

8 " hydrants, " '• .•.• f ^Operhydr'nt 

a " " " .... bi 01) 

Water Mains in City : 

6 inch pipe laid, incl. valves, connections, &c 8 90 per toot. 

J. ,r ^ << " ■' " 1 30 

,« « .. « « " 1 70 

VL „ « « « ' 2 10 

{2 « " " . " ' " 2 60 

}: .. .. " « " 3 20 

tL .. « « " " 3 80 

10 <. « " " ■' 4 60 

Fuel, &c;. : «, .« j 

Cordwood, at Winnipeg River. . SJ oO per cord. 

Cordwood in City or at Poplar Springs .... u 00 

Coal, bituminous (Pcnn.) 8 00 per ton. 


Chemicals, in large quantities. 

Soda • 1 cen<> V^^ ^^^ 

Alum 2 cents .• 

Lime i cent .. 

Lime 15 cents per bushel of 60 to 70 lbs. 

Land, Etc. : 

Near present pumping station $1,000.00 per acre. 

McPhillips street 300.00 

Strip of land for artesian wells 250.00 

Conduit line to Poplar Springs 20.00 

Conduik lino to Winnipeg River 5.00 

At Popiar S;irings *0.00 

Pumping station site at Winnipeg River. . 1,000.00 

Wages, Salaries, Etc. 

Common labor 16c. to l1\c. per hour. 

Skilled labor 25 

Bricklayers 50 m 

Carpenters (ordinary) 26 u 

Masons 50 u 

Salaried Men : Foremen SJIOO.OO per month. 

Common laborers 40.00 « 

Engineer at Pumping Station 120.00 n 

Asst. II II .11 75.00 II 

Firemen n "• 6000 h 

I ■■■■I JMiBBiigWaB 

;~* -,T^iVi^S»fc..rf««*-*M 

, . 1 cent per lb. 
. 2 cents » 
. \ cent M 
of 60 to 70 lbs. 

300.00 per acre. 





17^. per hour. 


50 M 

25 M 

50 i< 

0.00 per month. 


O.OO .1 

5.00 t. 

000 M 

Approximate Section near Nona and Powers Sfs. 

Approximate Section on line of Can Pac Rwy. 


To aeeomjxmjf-Rep^ 
(^ Rudd^Herin^. IS3T. 



' ^ ItlUM-laHMI 





TKsmm^mwfSimfswifmssm^'^mi'f'^yi^'m.-v'i^mjy- ■>*« 



Plan shDwing CoruMt lines w Poplar Springs and Winnipeg Bii/er. 

to acwmpany Report of Rtidjolptv Herlng, 1897.