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1653 Cast Main StrMt 
Rochester. New York 1 4609 
(716) 483 -OJOO-Ptione 
(716) 2U-M69-Faii 





J. H. Chiillies, Supt. 


R E 1* O R 1^ 




H. E. M. KENSIT, M.I.E.E. 

Prepurcl uiidor tiro direction of tlie Superinte'ident of Water Powo 

No. 12, Part 8, Annual Report 1913. 


O T T AW A . 



Ito'r 4 - I3>» 

•* • 


Previous Inveatlnatlons 7 

Notes from rei.ort by the C'ommlraioner of Irrigation 7 

/iJotes from report by Mr. T. Airii Murray 9 

Notes fiom report by Mr. Walter J. Francis, CR 9 

Uemarl<8 on above reports 10 

Statement of the problem 1 1 

l-;ievations and population. Table 12 

General considerations re sources of power 12 

Percentage of Items in cost of steam power. Table 14 

Access to pumpinir stations 14 

M.^thod of comparison 15 

Quantity of water require! 17 

Horse-power required 17 

Initial installation 18 

Complete installation 18 

Capacity of plant is 

Power plant at river 18 

t'ost of coal delivered at the '■iver 19 

The ron.«umers' Coal '" - >'• 20 

■Ihe water of the South ' ■ river 22 

< ias turbines 22 

The Humphrey Internal f'ump 2.^ 

Summary of alternative »0i 1 rower 32 

Summary of basis of es'.imit 34 

Nummary of estimates — o.-rram and table .■J7 

Hi(th duty pumping enginex — veriical tilple expansion — coal operated 40 

Initial instal'ation — estimates 40 

Complete Installation — estimates 41 

Steam turbine driven centrifugal pumps — coal 42 

Initial installation — estimates 42 

Complete installation — estimates 42 

Steam plint 43 

Natural gas 44 

Steam driven centrifugal pumps — natural gas fuel 4t; 

Initial instal'ation — estimates 46 

Complete installation — estimates 47 

Water-power 47 

Initial Installation — estimates 48 

Complete installation — estimates 49 

Steam reserve to water-power plant 50 

Initial Installation — estimates r>2 

Complete installation — estimates ,'■,2 

Comparative diagram of annual cost of water-power with steam reserve versus steam 

turbines with coal r.J 

I 'loilucer gas plant — general considf rations .■i4 

Producer gas plant on the coal field — initial installation .16 

Estimates r>S 

Recovery of by-products ri7 

I'roducer gas plant on the coal field — complete installation (n, 

Fst'mates AO 

Cost of transmission 61 

Klectrically operated pumping station — estimates 6i 

Summary of total cost, Initial and complete 65 

T'loducer gas versus water-power fig 

Purchase of power B7 

Klectrically driven pumps with purchased power — e.-^timates 89 

Oil engine plant — Diesel engine 71 

Initial installation — estimates 75 

Complete Installation — estimates 76 

Comparison of oil engine and steam turbine plant. Diagram 77 

Cas engines for pumping 7S 

Review of a'ternatives 79 

Klectric transmission versus freight on coal. Diagram 80 

Votal cost of water delivered to consumers 83 

• 'ost due to pipe line. Diagram 84 

.'oncluslons g.^ 

I nrtex to map showing sources of fuel power 85 

Appendix 8T 


iit:i:ininK\r of iiik imkhiou 

rro|H>sf(l iinMiiurc k.vsI.iii of dtllv 'ly Si7 

'■rnvily sy«lciii j^7 

\'l\ HV.IIV HyHtcm MD 

Miniliir wiitrr xuinily syatvm S9 


Thf Humiihi'py line, mil <*iiniliii»li(>ii riiiii|i ('(iinliuKtioii ihaiiilier, lii.iinO.OOO KaUon pump. 

partly fltle.l ■•■; 

'I'lie lluiii:ilirey liitirmil Coinliu.xtiiiii I'imip. SutI;oii viilvr box of unit now eiect lit CliiiiK- 

foi-d. I lir.'hind ;;9 

The Humiijiiey liileiiiiil i 'omliiistioi I'uiiip. I'hiiiKfonl ri-sfivoir. KiiKland. shovini; dis- 

i-harKe from on** 41».i"ni.iHni enllon |-unip L'!t 


lluiiiiiliicy liuiiips. MiTtloual iliaifl.un Jl 

Humphrey iiunip.". gi iieial aiTaiiKeim iits 2ti 

Summary of estimati .« 37 

W'ater-povvei- \er.suw steam turliitien .">3 

o 1 eiiffineH vei»ii« xteam turbines 77 

IMecirif tran.«mi.«a!on \ersus* rate on coal 82 

i'o>i per l.'HUi gallons ilue to pipe line only S4 


South .Saskatehewan water diversion projeet. routes for proposed city water supply 1" 

South Saskatchewan water diversion sources of fuel, power and indications thereof S4 


Ottawa, April 14, 1913. 

J. K ClIAI.UKS, E^i].. 

Sii|M'riiit('ii(lc'iit, \Viitcr|n)wer Brunch, 


v\SKATCIli;WA.\ mVEIl. 

Sir, — In accordance with your instructions of September 25, 1912, to investigate 
the sources of power available for pumping water from the South Saskatchewan 
river for supply to cities and towns iu the central jwrtion of South Suskiitcbcwiui, 
I bejr to report as follows: — 

1 lmv( spent the period from September 30 to Ducembir 5 in the locality, 
niokinp a thorou>rh investiKiition into the nature of the problem and the local con- 
ditions affecting it. It will be understood that in accordance with your iii-.tructioii-i 
this did not include any surveys or tield work, which still remain to be dealt with. 

In compniiy with ^Ir. J. 15. JlcRae, consulting engineer to the department, and 
Mr. I). L. Mcl.can, chief engineer. ^lanitoba Ilydrographic Survey, I visited th3 
South Saskatchewan river near Boldenhurst (Billings Ferry), and at ' the RIbow,' 
and sub=e(iuently I returned alone and made a further careful inspection of the 
nature of the land near the Elbow. 

I have also visited the following places, spending sufficient time in each to 
collect all available information bearing on the subject, and data of power and 
water supply under conditions obtaining in such western towns: — Moosejaw, Regina, 
Weyburn, Saskat on, Winnipeg, Calgary, Eli w, Tugaske, Medicine Hat, Van- 
couver, iid the developed eojii mine of tiie t'ousuniers' Coal Coinpaiiy en the Lake 
of the liivers, 38 miles south of Mooseiaw. 

T have interviewed the following officials and other gentlemen to whom I am 
much indebted for information furnished: — 


A. S. Dawson, chief engineer. Department of iVattira! Resources. C.P.R. 

John F. Sweeting, industrial agent, western lines, C.P.R. 

F. II. Peters, commissioner of irrigation. 

Eugene Coste, president, Canadian Western Natural Gas Light, Heat and 
Power Company. 

J. D. Fleet, general manager, Calgary Power Company. 

William Georgcison, wholesale merchant, principal in the proposed company to 
pipe natural gas from Alberta to Aloosejaw, Regina, Winnipeg and intermediate 

11. 1.. Shimmin, engineer to Mr. Georgeson. 
K. A. Brown, city electrical superintendent. 


Arthur IJeid, city electrical superintendent. 
Mr. Blanchard, city engineer. 


Medicine Hat. 

A. K. Orimmer, city engineer. 

John McNecly, proprietor Medicine Hat Milling Company. 
Mr. Soans, resident engineer, C.P.R. 

B. Winter, gas superintendent, C.P.R. 

Arthur M. Grace, chief engineer. Southern Alberta Land Company. 


H. C. Pope, chairman Light, Heat and Power Committee, City Council. 

L. W. Kundlett, city commissioner. 

W. F. Heal, city commissioner. 

T. Martin, division engineer. C.P.R. 

J. Antonisen, city engineer. 

J. D. Peters, city electrician. 

Theodore Kipp, jr., chairman of the Power Committee, Board of Trade. 

Mr. Patton, secretary Board of Trade. 

W. B. Willoughby, M.P.P., leader of the Oppositicn, Saskatchewan Legislature. 

A. H. Dion, general manager, Moosejaw Street Railway Company. 

John C. Chisholm, LL.D., president, and 

L. E. Bays, manager, Consumers' Coal Co. Lake of the Rivers Mine, near 

T. Steele, superintending engineer to Mirrlees, Bickerton and Day, makers of 
Diesel oil engines. 


A. F. Mantle, Deputy Minister of Agriculture, Go% 'rnment of Saskatchewan. 

C. E. McPherson, chairman of Highways Commission, Government of Saskat- 

Dr. M. M. Seymour, commissioner, Bureau of Public Health, Government of 

Senator J. H. Ross, of the Dominion Senate (named as representative of the 
Saskatchewan Government on the Water Commission to be appointed). 

G. A. Mantle, city commissioner. 

L. A. Thornton, city commi-sioner. 

Dr. G. A. Charlton, bacteriologist, Department of Agri<Milture, (iovernnient of 

R. O. Wynne Roberts, consulting waterworks ouginoer to the city of Regina. 

F. McArthur, city engineer. 

J. McD. Patton, waterworks superintendent. 

Alfred S. Porter, owner of large coal fields near Estevnn. 

Geo. T. Cliirke, city engineer. 

Norman Murray, city engineer. 




Co], Ruttan, city 'jnginccr. 

Mr. Fillmore, manager Winnipeg Oil f'o. 

Henry B. Lake, testing engineer and chemist, Canadian Pacific Railway. 


G. R. (i. Conway, uctiii(f Reiicral iimiiii(f< r, British Co i!:ibiu Kliftric Truetion 

Company. . _. . 

Mr. Johnstone, chief oi)orutin|? fnifiiMHT, Hu? i. (' ,inil>ia Kioctru' Iraition 


1 liiivp also visited ii iiuniicr of coal, pas ami oil plaTits in operation at various 
points in the west, elosely inqiiiri. jt into their operation from the managers and 
operating staffs and ohtaining operating costs and financial results where possible. 

Thes" included plants in Moosejaw, Medicine Ilat, Lethbridge, Saskatoon, Van- 
couver, Weylmni, but in some cases the particulars as to cost of operation were given 
in confidence, to Ic wed for estimating purposes only. 

I now beg to hand you my report on the sources of power available and the esti- 
mated cost of pumping by each metluxK together with a discussion of various possi- 
bilities which appciir to deserve further investigation. 

Yours respectfully, 

H. E. k. 'vENSIT. 

City Watku Si fi'i-v kiiom tiik Sot tii Saskah iikwan Kinkr. 


The primary object of the investig... ms herein reported upon was to ascertain 
what sources of power are available for pumping water from the South Saskatchewan 
river fi>r municipal supply to tlie cities of Moosejaw, Kcgina and Weyburn, and inter- 
mediate towns, and the comparative cost of power from such different sources. 

Prcvio\is reports bearing on this subject have been made by: — 

The Commissioner of Irrigation, dated April 2, 1912, to the Department 

of the Interior. 

Mr. T. Aird Murray, C.E.. consulting engineer to the province under the 

Saskatchewan Public Health Act. in 1011. 

Messrs. Walter .T. Francis A: Co.. of Montrciil. dated June 15, liHl, to the 

city of Moosejaw. 

Brief extracts frcin the above reports are therefore first given, to show in a 
general way the proposals made and for the purpose of ready reference to data quoted 

Notefi from Report lii the Commi/i.iinner of Irrigation. 

Purpose. —To take from the South Saskatchewan river a supply of water for 
town purposes and deliver the same by gravity to towns in the Moosejaw and Regina 

QHantit!i.--Ua» taken the figure of the application of the Saskatchewan Govern- 
ment as 200 cubic feet per second. 

The only feasible scheme, in the writer's opinion, is to dam the river i. i develop 
enough power to pump the water to a sufiicient height on the side hill of the river, 
the available power has been based on the minimum winter flow. (See below under 
' Flow.') 

trravity pipe line. — Circular reinforced concrete pipe covered everywhere by 6 
feet of earth From 10 feet 6 inches to C feet 5 inches inteti il diameter. 


Demand for water. — Assumed equal from intake to delivery nt Ucj^inn. where '»> 
cubic feet per secouil is allowed. Total lenirth of 170 miles is therefore divided iiilo 
four sections havin-:, from the intnko, capacities res; ectively of 200, 15'1, 100 and 50 
cubic feet per second. 

Location of dam. — Somewhere in townships 22 t>r 2'! 'ibout 20 miles S.W. of 
* the Elbow.' 

Flow. — Available L.W. flow assumed at ;5,000 cubic feet i)er second. (See 
' Remarks ' below.) 

Efficiency of turbines and direct eonneeted centrifugal pumps assumed at 52 
per cent. 

Friction in pipes from pumps to delivery to intake on height of land near river, 
assumed at 10 per cent. 

Quantity required in pipe: 200 c.f.s. 

Head on pipe line — 

Intake at Uolilenhiirst din h;'i!,'lit of hind) 1,0.11 

Regina ],S()2 

8!) ft. 

Head at dam^ 

Top of dam 1,C!)0 

Natural low water 1,fl,".:j 

37 f. 

Lift required — 

Canal intake 1,0.")1 

Top of dam l.fiOO 

2fil ft 

Tlieoretic lorse-power roquiied. 12,<t0'.}. 

Summary of estimate of cost — 

Cost of dam $ 1 ,0IM,000 

Cost of turbines and ))umps 1S9,000 

Cost of pressure pipes 184,800 

Cost of concrete pipe lines ll,5!)l,.Vil 


Total cost about ifl3,000,(iOO. 

Jiemarl.'s on llie ahuvv. — Emm the map :\<'('ouipiiuyluf; the report it iipiiears that 
the i)roposed i)ipe line ha > to follow a wiudin;; route to obtain the necessiiry contour 
to reach Re-.'ina. 

This route is 170 miles long and does not include conuectiou to ^loose'aw, abn\it 
14 miles by air line north of the pipe line, nor any other town. (See Plate ^^^.^ 

This is further referred to under the head of ' cost due to the pipe line.' 

The available low-water flow in the river is assiuned at ."5,000 c.f.s. According 
to the Department of the Interior's b.vdropraphie survey of the river at S.W. 2S-.3- 
.l. West 3rd Mer., the minimum dischi'rjr*' was on .Tauuary !• and 10, 1011, 1.382 c.f.s. 

The observations givinir this fiifure covered only a shirt porind, so that it is 
possible the flow may at times he even less than that given. A marfrin of per cent 
on 1,382 leaves 1,300 c.f.s. 

From this there must also be deducted the water required for city water supply 
under the proposed project. This was taken by Mr. Peters at 2v)0 c.f.?. Applica- 
tion was made for rights to divert 100,000,000 gallons per day for this purpose, equal 
to 185 c.f.s. Subtracting this latter figure from 1,300, as above, leaves 1,115 c.f.s. 
so thnt the flow available = l.ll.S o.f.n. 

SOI 111 s.i.s/r.i'/CHKUiv ^y^TF.l{ si rri.v nivEitsin\ i'i{o.n:rr 

Aolcs from Jieport by Mr. '/'. AinI Murray. 

Mooscjair. — Storaf?e supply for only 20.000 i-op\ilnti<!ii. Presoiit siipp'y ,>\' olmit 
1" finllons per day iiofussitntes sh/trtiis off the supply dnily. 

/.'(Y/ini.— Present supply o;ly gr"f><l for about 20.000 impiilntion. 

\\ cyliiirn.— Is in great ilH/<'nltio-. Sii) ply from wells nnly ixntu] fur l,.'i • i luijiii- 

(XoTK.— It is iindersto/. 1 that, sin-e the diite (if Mr. Murray's ri'i'ort. the Iim;\1 
supplies liave, in the aho'.e cas<«. hien conyiilerably increiiscd. thoufjji still imt to 
an extent to provide for future frrovvtli.) 

Sill lUer towns between Ilcfiina and Mooscjaw have extremely limited water 

I'lan propo-si'd. — Any sehenic for brinsriu^ a water supply from the Soulli .*>as- 
katchi'wan river to the Moo-^ejaw and Kcgiua dis»'"cts must depen 1 entirely uiiou 
pumpiuj; water over the height of land or tunuellnicr throujrli tlio height of laud. 
I am inelined to think that a tminel scheme will prove tlie most efficient in every way. 
combined with the construction of a dam .icross the river, but exact d a-a not 

A 2.5-foot dam would allow of a gravity cut through the height of land i jr fourteen 
miles at an average depth of thirty feet. Water would be delivered to RutTalo lake, 
aixty-tive miles from the Elbow, with a total fall of thirty-eight feet. Buffalo hike 
is eighteen feet below normal river level at the Klbow, and is seventy-five feet belnw 
Moosejaw, 200 feet below Kegina and 1S2 feet below Weyburn. 

The water w(.uhl then have to be pumped to points from which it could gravitate. 

Water required for t"ivn mtpitly. — Assuming fifty gallons per head per day and 
100,000 population each for Moosejaw and Regina, with lOO.i'OO for smaller towns 
(total. 300,000). we would re<piire 1.5.000,000 gallons per day. 

Powers should be obtained to divert 100.000,000 gallons per day. 

Total cos/.— $4,000,000 to $.5,000,000. 

Remarks on the above. — The low-water flow of the river was assumed !it 1,340,740,- 
800 gallons per day, which equals 2,500 cubic feet per second. 

Location of pumping station. — It will be observed that with the proposed dam, 
tunnel and gravity feed to Buffalo lake, all the pumping would have to he done nt 
Buffalo lake. This is generally given on the maps as ' Buffalo Pound lake,' and is 
about sixteen miles N.E. of Moosejaw. (See Plate 38.) 

Notes from Report by Mr. Walter J. Fruiici.i, C.E. 

This report was made to the city of Moosejaw with reference to the supply of 
that city only. It deals fully with the sources and development of local water supplies 
and, in a preliminary wa.v, with the possibilities of supply from the South Saskatche- 
wan river in the event of the local supplies proving insufTicicnt. 

The opinion is expressed that ' the South Saskatchewan river must be the ultimate 
source of water, not only for Moosejaw but for the whole of the south central part 
of the province. We cannot find any evidences at present of any other water supply 
suitable for cities of 60,000 population and a densely settled surrounding district. 
We believe the Saskatchewan to be the proper source, primarily because its supply 
is derived from glacial districts and, therefore not dependent upon precipitation in the 
prairie country. It is, moreover, the oidy continujusly flowing supply of any magni- 
tude in the country.' 



As to the nature and quality of the water, some extracts from the report are 
given under the heading of ' The water of the South Saskatchewan river.' 

As to the engineering features of a supply from the river, the report states as 
follows : — 

' The proposed sources of water supply arc the South Saskatchewan river 
at Elbow . . . and near Kiverside in S.W. i section .'50, township 2\, range 
8, west of 3rd meridian. The information obtained in the field has been added 
to our general knowledge of Saskatchewan and supplemented by authentic 
governmental and other records. 

' Since leaving Moosejaw. .... full consideration has been given to 
all the facts which we believe to be ample foundation for the recommendations 

'South Saskatchewan river, near Riverside . . with a view to a possible pipe 
line down the Thunder Creek valley (see Plate 38), a number of observations 
were made with the aneroid to ascertain generally the lowest point over the 
Divide. It appeared that this occurred in the N.E. quarter of township 21, 
range 8. The general level through this part of the township is fairly regular. 
The water level was found to be 250 feet below the prairie level at the edge of 
the banks, which, in turn, are about fifty feet below the top of the Divide towards 
Thunder Creek valley. The river possesses the same characteristics at Elbow . . 
its level varies about thirteen feet from low water. Speaking generally, the 
iTater is 270 feet below the prairie level. The exposures on the bank show 
generally a stiff hea^•y clay. 

' In order to obtain a supply a pipe line can be constructed from ilie river 
to the city. The most feasible route is doubtless that indicated by a black 
dotted line on thi map (see Plate 38), following the valley of Thunder creek 
to its source and then crossing the dividi' five mile* to the river. 

' From the engineering point of view there are no serious obstacles. Tha loca- 
tion of the dam on the river, the details of the pumping station, arrangement and 
size of pipe line and all such features can only be determined by careful study 
after surveys. . . . We are inclined to think that the best construction will be 
found to be a concrete dam in township 21, range 8, to give pondage and 
furnish hydraulic power for pumping to a filter and thence to a reservoir on the 
height of land, whence the purified supply would run by gravity in an enclosed 
pipe to Moosejaw. 

'The on'7 real obstacle to this project is its cost, which will probably run 
into $5,000,000 or more.' 

Comparison of scope and cost of flic forcfioing proposals. 

It will be noticed that the Commissioner of Irrigation estimates the cost at about 
$13,000,000 and Mr. Aird Murray at between $4,000,000 and $5,000,000, and that both 
figure on an ultimate delivery of about 100,000,000 gallons per day in the same district. 

The two estimates, however, really cover quite different proposals. 

The estimate of the Commissioner of Irrigation includes the cost of a pumping 
station at the river and pumping the water to a sufficient height to deliver it by a 
170-mile gravity pi|)e line to the level of the Canadian Pacific railway rails at Ucgiua; 
also the cost of a complete pipe line. 

Mr. Murray's estimate does not include any power station, pumping or pipe line, 
and delivers the water to Buffalo lake, from whence it has to be pumped to a height 
from which it can flow by gravity to the towns, at a cost which is not included in the 
estimate. The distance in an air line from the most southerly point on Buffalo lake 
is about 16 miles to Moosejaw and 34 miles to Regina. 




oea^/?rMLAfr of the if\f7ERioR. 

w^retf ooweff a*^4AfCAf. 
u B. CM^cLtes, sooemt\rTmKM)e/*r. 

ClTt iM^T£f9 SUPfiLY FffOM 





inte| pnati |oisial 
6 5 4 3 2 




Both schemes would involve separate pumping plants in each town served, to add 
the pressure necessary for distribution. 

Messrs. Francis & Company's report considers supply to one city ou'v "••■' '« 
hardl.v coniparahlc with tlie others. It is, however, of iiitre-t in regard to the pro- 
po.scd routf for the pijie liro, the top igraphiciil feiituri^s of the river luid the quality 
of the water. 

Brief Statement of the Problem. 

The central portion of southern Saskatchewan is an area with little precipitation 
and no considerable rivers. Such creeks and lakes as arc found in the area do not 
provide any considerable quantity of water suitable for domestic purposes. 

The cities of Moosejaw, Kegina and Weyburn draw their pre-eut siiiplies of 
domestic water wholly or partly from surface well?. The supply is hiinl and otlierw i.-e 
unsatisfactory and inadequate to provide for the probable future growth of the citie*. 
although large .sums have been spent in developing the local resources a> far as possible. 

The smaller towns between the above-named cities and between Moosejaw and 
Elbow, on the lines of the Canadian Pacific railway, arc also extremely linrtod in tl eir 
water supply. 

Between the above-mentioned points there are some twent.v-si.K cities, town- and 
villages, many of which arc growing rapidl.v. An estimate (pigc 12) bused on the 
latest figures and allowing an average rate of increase of only 15 per cent per annum 
indicates that these places will have a population of at Ica.-t 100,000 witiiiii tlic n .xt 
two years, or about the time it wc dd take to carry out any comprehensive wiitcr 
supply scheme. 

Furthermore, within the same area or closely adjacent thereto, the Ciinadian 
Pacific, Canadian Korthern and Grand Trunk Pacific railroads have built or are 1 nild- 
ing several new lines, and numerous new towns are already established tlicrcon, indi- 
cating the probability of a comparatively dense population in the near futur.'. 

The situation has been investigated or studied and reported upon at different 
times by Mr. T. Aird Murray, C.E., of Toronto, Dr. M. M. Seymour, Commissioner 
of Public Health, Saskatchewan, Messrs. Walter J. Francis and Company of Jlont- 
real, the Conmiissione.- of Irrigation and his assistant, Mr. P. M. Sauder, all of 
whom appear to agree that the ultimate source of town water supply over the said cen- 
tral portion of south Saskatchewan must be from the South Saskatchewan river. 

The nearest part of the South Saskatchewan river is at a distance of about ".'> 
to 80 miles in an air line northwest of Moosejaw and proportionately farther from 
Regina and Weyburn according to the route taken. (Fuller particulars will be 
found in the body of this report.) 

The elevation of the water in the river is considerably below that of the cities 
of Moosejaw, Regina and Weyburn, and intermediate towns, and the water will have 
to be pumped to an intake on the height of land near the river bank. This intake 
must be at a sufficient elevation to give a gravity supply from thence to the above- 
named cities. 

The lift will be from 260 to 330 feet for a gravity supply, and to meet the 
ultimate needs of the district this will probably require finally about 12,000 horse- 
power, though the initial installation need not be more than a part of this capacity. 

It will therefore be seen that a large amount of power will be required and that 
the cost of pumping must be carefully considered. 

On account of the nature of the river, i. e., its slow flow and absence of natural 
fall, its great width and the probable lack of suitable foundations for a dam, it 
cannot be considered a favourable water-power development and would certainl.v be 
a somewhat expensive one. 

It has therefore been considered advisable to make a thorough investigation of 
what sources of power other ihan water-power are available to do this pumping, and 
what the costs by such other sources would be, compared with one another and with 


in-:i'\in]ih:\r or iin: iwkkioi,' 


^hJl "^ "^ r *^" "^P"'*' ^htreforo, i8 to pre.sent suggestions as to 

what other sources of power are available and practicable, and what the costs would 
be by each of such methods, taking into consideration both capital and operating 
co.t8 and the final results in terms of the total cost per 1,000 garh.ns of 
water lifted to the intake of the gn.vity pipe line. gallons oi 

Elevations and Popilatioxs. 



Aiktou (.•«tiiiiiitr<1). 









Driiikwatfr .. 
Pitiiiun (■■stiiirit.-rl) 






Yfllow (;ra>« 



I'aK(|iiia . . 
Belle I'laiii... 


• iraiiil Ciiilw 

- — 



abov*' r*ea le\ t^l. 


1 S'lT 






1 l'.OI."l 

1 '.i7;< 





1 .'.(JS 

1.7411 (*) 







1 Sti'l 



r.-.'.sj " 






1, S.V.I 

I. «■.•!• 


77. IW" 

(*> On arcount ;t hill within city, .S» f..,.t. tlii» sliMuhl hv ti.k.ii .i, I,S:R 

Low water of South Sas^katphewan river, near Boldenhurst, 1,053 
Wevat.ons at Canadian Pacific railway rail level, from official< 
I opulations per latest estimates of Canadian Pacific Railwav Companv. nnle.s 
otn-^rwise stated. 

u'LV'Z"/^ 'T'*'^*'' °^ ^^ P" '■"'' ^" """""' ^^■""•'' '""•^e the atinvo population 
reach 102,000 in January, 1915. 


The object under consideration is to develop power for pumping wat.T ut » 
given point, at the least possible annual expenditure (made up of both annual 
capital charges and operating costs), that will give the maximum reliability of 

Three methods are possible: — 

(1) The development of a water-power. 

(2) The puTPhaso of power in bulk delivered at the 

(.S) The gentration of power from fuel, elth. 

or at a distance with electrical tran 


pumping ststion. 
lit the pumping station. 

.sof 77/ s".(.vAM7<7/A;iri V iri7T/,' St rrr.y ihveksiox vumfj-t 


Alternative (3) covers u large numbor of possible alternBtives which are fur- 
ther (letaile*! mi p.ijfe :i2. 

The nilvaiitapcs, (Ii>ia(lvaiitaf;es ami reliability of each source of power are dis- 
cussed under tlie iiendiu)? relating to that source of power. 

No Rcueral comparison of the cost of power from different sources can be made 
that is of any real value over even a small area, as conditions vary so much that 
eiieh case is a problem in itself. After having uscertain.d the iietu:d .■xi^tin(r con- 
ditions as closely as possible, the different methods must be co.npared by estimates 
of capital expenditure and operating expenses that will meet those particular con- 

Tims, taking one of the simplest possiiile cases, suppose a gns euirine and an 
electric motor of the same rated horse-power, and supplied with gns and electricity 
at fi.\ed rates. Let these rates be as nearly as possible e<iuivalent under average 
conditions of operation. 

Then if both work at steady full load, that is under lest conditions, the advaniagc 
would pri.l.iilily lie iippivi'ial)l,v in liivour of tlie ^as en^'iue. If. oil tlie ntiier haiid, tlu' 
load was viirialde and iiitciiuitt.'iit, the motor would have the advantage, au.l the 
smaller and iiimv vaiialil.. the luad the greater wouhl he the eonini.Teial advantage 
of the electric power. 

Again, if the demaiul for iiower existed near a coal mine, the power might le 
developed at the pit mouth by steam or i.rodii.-er gas cheaper than l.v water-iiower or 
oil, but if the demand was at a .lisianee. involving handling and hauling the coal or 
clectru- transmission, the conditions might l.e completely reversed.. The of elec- 
tric traiismissi,,ii alon,. may turn the scale in any particular case as to where and how 
the power slioiild he developed. 

The coinpaiative value of ditfeieiit fuels, such as coal, oil and gas, at different 

prices, for pro,l,,cing power under similar .onditions, and also the e(,uivalciit amounts 

ot liiff.Teiif lu..|s t.. pioduee the same amount i4 iiower, has been nscertained and. piib- 

ished .V many good authorities and numerous taidcs of the results could he ouoted 

here. (') ' 

Such tallies, however, while they give the comparative values of fuels, do not 
indicate the cost of power, which must also include the other operating costs and the 
annual capital charges, and the eli,.ai«'st fuel will m.t under all conditions give the 
ehea]iest |iower. 

(ienerally spraking, the cost of fuel is about CO per cent of the operating costs 
an.l the operating costs are about tiO per cent of the total costs, including annual 
capital charges on the land, buildings and plant, so that fuel costs in terms of total 
costs are only 60 per cent of 60 per cent, or 30 per cent. 

It is therefore evident that the cost of fuel is not the only important item to he 

This is illustrated in the tMble on page \\ which sho.vs th- diff re .t items of 
cost expressed as a percentage of the total costs. The figur. s represent the average 
of the results obtained in several representative American steam-electric stations, 
supplying a general light and power load, and are given as a typical example. 

All these costs would be lower on a belter load factor— that is, if the annual 
output is increased, without increasing the peak load, then each item will be divided 
by a greater niimlwr of k.w. hours to obtain the cost per k.w. hour. 

Some of the principal factors affecting the cost of power are: — 

(1) Steadiness and continuity of the demand for power (load factor). 

'Tho«. Urquhart. Prnr. Tnst., MF, -Tr-n ISSS. 
William Kent Power, Sept., 1902. 
• Iron Age,' Nov 2, 1893. 

I. R. Bibbins, Tran«. .\.I.E.E.. vol. XXII, p. 767. 
Liquid and Gaoeons Fnel«, Vivian B. Lewes, p. 137. 
Public Water Sapplie'?. Tumeaiire and Rnseell, p. 636. 



I I 

(2) Sifiirity auninot interruption of supply, involving reser\'c plant and 
depending on type of plant. 

(3) Cost and quality of fuel, including provision for storage, or annual 
capital iliurjres on cost of dnni and headworks (excluding power plant mid 

(4) Ciipitul cost of plant and machiner>', depending on type, overload 
capacity, etc. 

(5) Cost of land, buildings and foundations, varying with type of plant, 
as affecting space, etc. 

(0) Depreciation and repairs, varying with type of plant. 
(7) Labour and superintendence, varying with type of plant. 
(S) Length of transmission. 


Average results from several American plants. 

Size, 3,000 to 5,000 k.w. Load factor, about 35 per cent. 

Cost of fuel corrected to be equivalent to coal at $3.50 per ton. 

C<)»t IHT 

K.W. hour. 

Operating cuots - 



Oil, water BU|>|flift« 

Kfitaim anH mainti'iiance. 
Management and office 



Annual capital charges ~ 

Gout (ler k w iuHtalled Jl.W 

Interest, 5 (ler cent ; Kinking fund, 3 |>er cent i 
depreciation, 4 |>er cent -isuraiice and taxes, 
1 lier ttnt ; total, 13 per Cent 


Per cent of 
oiierating coHtf. 

68 2 

It* .'i 

4 B 

4 6 

lU 3 

lUO (> 

Per cent of 

total COHtH . 

U I 
U 8 

I'M 6 


1 524 

3<» ,'•> 

Access to I'umpino Station. 

Two sites have been surveyed for a dam, and the route for a gravity pipe line to 
Regina approximately located from each. 

The lirst site is due west from Boldenhurst, between townships 22 and 23, range 
7, west of 3rd meridian (see Plate 38), and the nearest existing railroad station is 
Aiktow on the Outlook brunch of the Canadian Pacific Railway, about 19 miles dis- 
tant in an air line from the site. 

The second site, in township 21, between ranges 7 and 8, west 3rd meridian, is 
about 15 miles south of the first and the nearest existing railroad station would be 
Tsngraspo, 3 miles east of Ernfold. on the main line of the Canadian Pacific Railway, 
about 23 miles distant in an air line. 

It may be assumed that a branch railroad line would have to be built to the sita 
of the pumping station, and this would probably have to be done at the expense of 
the proposed Water Commission. 

Outside of any question of fuel for power, such a line would appear to be neces- 
sary for the conveyance of building materials, machinery for the initial plant and 
8ul>sequent installations from time to time, supplies and stores, fuel for heating, etc.. 



and practioally lu-cesgnry for the transportntion of the eiiKinetrn, nmiiuKer and other.i, 
and it will ttuTcfore lx> a part of the eost of producing iwwer at the pri(|H sed location. 

Assume that the second location is selected, as it apiM'an to yiwv somewhat the 
shortest mute for the pipe line. 

No surveys have lieen made and only the rouphe: , estimate of eost can be arrived 

To the 23 miles by air line add 20 per cent for deviations to follow contour 
of the laud, sidinK-, &'c., and wc have 2.S miles. A full i;aiigc line would need to be 
lail that co'ild be used by the railroad companies. 

Assunij the cost at $15,00() per mile, complete with sidinps, sheds, &c. 

It may further be assumed that some form of motor ear would have to be maiii- 
ta'ncd for use on this line, and a man to operate it, to convey less than car-load lots 
<if SI pp'ies, and carry passengers. 

Take (his car, with shed, &c., at $3,500, and allow fo. .nterest and depreciation 
siiy 20 per cent. 

On 'le ii-aiich line the annual capital charjres would not be less than: Interest. 
7> per cent; snikinp fund, ii |icr cent; uiiiintcuiiucc. •> per cent; insurance and taxes, 
1 i» r cent ; total, 10 per cent. 

Tl:e cost of this special line would then he appro.\imately thus: — 

First cost — 

Twenty-eight miles of track at $15,000 $420,000 

Motor car, shed, &c 3,1)00 

Annual cost — 

Ten per cent ou $420,000 $ 42,000 

Twenty rer cent on $3,500 700 

Wages of one man 900 

$ 43,600 
Incidentals, 10 per cent 4,300 

$ 47,960 
Annual cost, say $48,000. 

This is a considerable m to add to the annual costs, but, as it applies equally 
to whatever Foiirce of power is used, it has not been added to the estimates in any 

Method of Comparison. 

The comparison between differen .nethods of producinpr power is, in this report, 
trade on the basis that the total annual cost of producing power or pumping water 
is made up of: — 

(1) Annual capital charges, i.e., interest, sinkin? fund, depreciation 
(according to type of plant), insurance, taxes, &c. 

(2) Payments for water rights, water storage charges (for power), leases, 
&'., if any. 

(3) Operating costs, including mana?ement, office, legal and all expenses 
not included elsewhere. 

This covers every item in any way eutering into the total cost, and represenU 
the total annual expenditure, including proper provision for repaying capital and a 
depreciation and reserve fund to cover the ilifferenee iietween the probable life of the 
plant and the period of the loan, unforeseen expeditures (floods, lightning. &c.) and 
obsolescence of plant. 


in.i'MiiMKM or lilt: iwnuunt 


Tlie s.vstcm nf lower |ir«i<liictii)ii which givps s:itisf;ii'tor.v nssiiraiioc of cnpitnl 
8;ifc;y mid itliiibic opirntioii iiiid th»> !()Wp«t )tnl nmninl cxpcndifiiro (hy the above 
mothiid) .-hiiiild be the Le>t tiiinii -iiil mid eiiKiiieeriii-jr proposition. 

There i:^, however, miotlier nictho I of niiiUiiifc' tlirse comparisons which may be 
referred to, ns it is (piite freipiently used. 

This i-r)iisi9ts of i.ddinfT to the to'id capital expenditure tlie caiiitiilized value of 
the e-tiniated annual openitiiiji expenses, and comparing .ogother the totals so 
obtained, eallinpr tiie ratio between tiioni the ' investment efficiency,' or some similar 

This iipp«nir« to lie n lu.rely theoretical way of lookinjr at the matter and one not 
representinpT actual conditions. 

The annual ojieratinR costs are not capital charges except possibly duiing the 
early stiifres or in l!ie event of an unremunerative undertaking, and then only as to 
any deficiency. They are not taken out of capital nor can they be converted into 
capital (as profits could be), since eo'ts must be spent as incurred. 

Operatinj; costs are, on the contrarj-, met as incurred out of revenue earned, they 
vary largely for tiie sanic size of plant according to tile type of plant, the load factor 
and. the etticiency of nianagenient, and have no fi.xed or definite relation to capital 

It would appear tliat whereas the first nietliotl may be suitably applied to compare 
the cost of different designs using the same source of power for the same purpose, 
the second method will be the most suitable for comparing tlie results to be obtained 
from <lifTerent sources of power. 

Tlie sum of the annual capital charges, including proiior provision for the future 
and of the oiiorating costs, gives the to: 1 annual expenditure and liabilities and 
represents the actual conditions in jiractice. 

The latter method has been used in all estimates and comparisons made in this 

When, by a process of elimination, it has been indicated what source or sources 
of power appear most suitable for this particular case, the whole matter will have to 
be again studied from the point of view of location of sedimentation and filtering 
tanks, reservoirs, standpipes, etc., probably involving pumping in two or three stages 
and duplication of pumping plant. It may be pointed out that the capacity of the 
main pipe line is about ."00,000,000 gallons. 

It will be well, however, for the purpose of ascertaining the most suitable source 
of power, to make the comparison on the simplest possible basis, so long as the amount 
of power and size of units are approximately such as will be actually required. 

It has been assumed, therefore, that a definite amount of water is to be taken 
direct from the river and elevated to a certain height by direct pumping, neglecting 
for the present considerations as to purification and reservoirs and putting all esti- 
mates on the basis of the same amount of work under the same condition. 

It has also been assumed that there will be an initial installation of moderate 
size and that this will be gradually extended over a period of say twenty-five years to 
the full capacity for which rights of diversion of water have been applied for. 

Discussions of the ' water required ' and ' horse-power required ' are given under 
those headings. 

In the casp ,i ter-power station the water could be pumped direct from the 

In the case oi . fuel-operated station the additional cost of cribs at the river, 
conduits between the river and the power station, and wells under the pumps, must 
be allowed for, in order to make a fair comparison. 

In neither case, as above stated, is sedimentation or filtering taken into account, 
and if this is undertaken it will add an appreciable amount to the cost of the water 
delivered as given in the estimates. 

sol 111 s AshMrntW i\ \\\lt:U SI I'l'LV l)l\i:i{slo\ I'lin./Htl 






Qiianlilii tiiiiillnl /»/•.— In ii litter of April 11, lltll. !>>• tlio ('i.miiii^'r of Piiblio 
Hciiltli. fJdvcriiniciif of Siisknt.licwiiii, to tin- Jlinistcr of tlio Inferior, it is st.xU't] 
tliat till- Provinciiil (loviTniiiont liml iipplieil to tlio Commissioner of Irriirntion £nr 
authority to divert l(»0,(MH),n<Mt pallons jxt dn.v {1^5 c.{.i>.) in the vieinily of tcwnship 
2r>. riiiim> r., west of .Iril nwridinn. Tliis is in tlio iieinlil.onrlioo.l of tlie Klhow. 

This wonhl supply, on the h;isis of mi :iver:i«e deni:ind of inu ;,Mllons per Ciipitii 
r>er (hiy, n popnhitioii of l.(l(MI,0()(>. 

I'liil.'il.l, i.„i„il.ii;„ii. .\~ -liwUM oil |„ije I:.', it ni:iy h ■ . -tinial.-d ihjt the 
populiitioii ..f the district to I ,■ tir.-t de;ilt with "ill he less fhiin llMHMH) l,v ,Inii- 
iinry. 101.-,. 

It does not appt^ir prolmhle thiit ii populiition of l.(t()i».(i()0 in the .said area i.e.. the 
Moosej^iw-IJeiriiia-Weyhiirn district, will he reaihed for a noo.l many .years to eonie. 

y\ u:'i> It in;iy he iidvisahle to put in a pijie line of eapa<-ity to meet tlio proliablo 
demands for a iinmlK^r oi .Venrs ahead. ,.n .iciom.i of the heavy proportion of tlie cost of 
trenehiii}.', etc.. this does not apply to the pnmpinj; jilant. 

Piimiihir, /)/<jh/.— This ean ho put in in sections as rcpiired. .An initial plant 
of reasoiinhle .size can he iiistalle<l first and this may ho added to from time to time 
by installinfr additional nnits as warranted by the demand. This will assist in 
kcopintr down tlu' animal capital charfres and redncinp the bnrdon on the inidor- 
takiiii;- diirin,!.' its early statues. 

Inifial i,ist„lhlion.—Tr,m the above it woidd appear to offer ample marL'in to 
titrnre on an initial installation of piimpinir plant to .supply im gallons per capita 
per day t.. a p.,pnlation of 200.000, i.e., L'O.OPO.OOO pallons per day or 37 cubic foot 
jicr second. 

The estimate- which follow arc tlicreforo based on an initial installation of 
20,000,000 palloiis [mt day, with an average consumption of 75 per cent of this or 
1,^000,000 gallons per day. 

They arc then e.vt.'nded to show the efTect of a larger output on the cost of 
pumping, lip to the full amount of ]00,0(H),000 gallons per day. 


It is desired to compare the cost of power from coal, oil, etc.. with the cost of 
ualir power, on as ecjiiitablc a basis as possible. 

It will therefore bo first assumed that the power is to be developed or iwcd at 
tlie same point as is proposed for the hydraulic i.laiit, an.l that the water will be 
pumped to the intake for the proposed gravity pipe line. 

If the power iistn] is other than water-power there would be no dam rcpiirod, the lift would therefore be some .•!7 feet higher than that taken in the Annual 
lieport of the Department of the Interior, lf)12, page 223. 

Taking the data from the said report, we have: — 

Intake to gravity pipe at Boldenluirst ("elevation sufficient 
to give a supply without pressure at the elevation of 
the C.P.R. rails at Kegiiia) l<t,-,l.(K) 

Natural low water ,'!.'.., ,^,, 

.„ t t ■ ■ 298-00 

.\l;nw tor friction, etc., 10 per cent 2!)-80 

Total nead, say, 328 feet. 



in:i'Ainvi:\r or riii: iwhiuiuii 

Initial installation. 


Cubic feet per second ■'„„„„„„„ 

Gallons per day ^^'''^^'^^ 

Gallons per minute l5-"00 

Head, inoludinp 10 per cent for pipe friction, 328 feet. 
Theoretic horse-power = weipht x lift 

37 c. f. s. X f.2-355 lbs. xJ23 feet^ ^ ^^^ 
550 . 

Complete installation. 

Imperial gallons per 24 hours ^"^'"S'So 

Imperial gallons per minute 185 

Cubic feet per second. 

Head, including 10 per cent for friction, 328 feet. 

Theoretic '■orse-power 18 5 c. f. s. x 62-355 x 328_gg„g 



Initial Instalhlion.—YTom the foregoing it appears advisable to instal plant for 
an initial capacity of 20,000,000 Imperial gallons per day. To provide reserve, two 
such units must be installed. 

Future Additions.— Vmts should be added as required in sizes to give a number 
of sets and thus provide ample reserve. The ultimate installation should be such that 
if one of the units is laid off, or out of ser^•ice, the full normal capacity remains. 
After the initial installation, further units might be of about 30,000,000 gallons 
capacity each. 

Ultimate Capacity.— The number of units au.l total capacity of the complete 
installation would then be:— 


Piiiii|iing units. 

Cupatit.v pfr day 


Nfillioii» i)f tTBlloiiK. 



N<w. Kacli. Ti)tal. IVr C'lit. 

.... 1.111(1 •' 2tl,nOO,000 40,0110.000 100 

!"""»'. ■iTftndS :«MIO0,0<KI WI.000,0OO t 

!rjf7_77r " I i;«,ooo j 3o 

Coiiiplj-te .JUniM I I 

Output— It is assumed (as stated under 'Quantity of water require<l,') that the 
average load will be T5 per cent of full normal load, and that the plant will operate 
24 hours a day. 305 days a .year. 


1'i,, jnufct be a pumping station at the river, and if the power plant can be 
combined with this there will be but one building, plant and statf instead of two. 
Furthermore, tho power can then bo applied direct and there will be no losses due to 
transformation mid iriiiismissimi of energy. 

soiTfi s.isKArtiiHWW ^y^rl:l{ sin 

.■! "/"v/o', I'ltOJFCT 


The direct application of fuel power at the river is therefore one of the first 
alternatives to be considered and it will be seen that estimates have been prepared 
for the following methods: — 

ITi^h duty steam pumping engines. 
Steam t\irbinc driven centrifugal pumps. 
Natural jras under steam boilers. 
Oil engine plant. 
It should be noted that the water of the South Saskatchewan river is excellent 
I'll- -liMiu iHiiJcr iHiriHiM's. {Si'r "Water of tin- Smitli ."^n-U, ''liinviiu river, piiire •2-2.) 


One of the first alternatives to water-power duo to be considered is the use of 
coal at the pumping station, enabliiif: the use of direct acting higli duty pumping 
engines giving high fuel economy, or steam turbine driven centrifugal pumps giving 
low first cost, since these would avoid all transformation and transmission costs 
and losses. 

The location of the proposed water-power site is described under ' .Kccess to 
imnijiing station," page 14. 

If a gravity pijie line is used, then a fuel-operated pumping station would need 
to be located at or near the same spot in order to pump into the intake of the said 
gravity pipe line. 

The three principal established sources of coal to consider are: F.-itevau and 
The Consumer's Coal Company (which see) for lignite, and the Crowsne^t district 
for bituminous. 

For the latter, a representative coal similar to that now used by the Electric 
Light Department at Moosejaw, and stated to be satisfactory, will be cunsiderod. 

It is not proposed to make any general discussion of the quality and performance 
of western coals and lignites, as this has recently been very- fully investigated by the 
Department of Mines, Ottawa, and is dealt with in their recent reports. (M 

Only the three sources of coal above mentioned will be used for comparisons and 

The Estevan lignites are well known and have established their suitability for 
both steam raising and producer gas making, 

A short account of the Consumer's Coal Company's mine and product is given 
under that heading. It appears to be a fairly good lignite, similar to that from 
Estevan, and would have the advantage of over 100 miles shorter haul, saving about 
95 cents per ton on freight. This mine is situate<l about 8 miles from Expanse and 
has not yet secured a railway connection, (Nov., 1912.) 

The Crowsnest coals are sttperior to the above, but the cost delivered is higher. 

The approximate costs and values for steam raising are given in the following 
table, compiled from official sources and tests: — 

„ I Water ' J'oimiJ« 

Apprux. C.wt. ,. „, „ Kvai).iri»t.-<l „f 

J .Sdurec. UiNtaiici' " Knii of .\t<ii». ,, |,„. iwr iKumi! Wiit.r 

g i '" ' ,*?.""''■ ""•"• i CoLl ^"''' i Kva,Mrate.J 

?! I MUm, , IWiv.Twl. I '"»'■ fr.,11, ;.n.l at f.,r 

'•^ . I 212 K. One Cent. 

! 9 ct». ~~V^'~Ver~r~ \ | 

I 1 cent. cent. I I 

1 Ciileninn CrowKnext Hi' I 

I tnniimnis 423 i ."i fiil 8 , lit S | 11,721) 7 17 i 2.5 .'W 

2 E»tevan-Lijjnite 237 i .'UtO 28 « 8 1 ! 10,fi90 ;i 91 I 2(105 

;', ronaiimerV Coal C'> ' ■ 

I LiKnite 1 ISfl i 30,5 324 79 i 3 tMi j 24 00 

'An investigation of the coals of Cnnnda, vols. 1 and 2, 191?. 


DHi'Ah'TMHxr or nil: i\ri:iinni 


^('I'li thiit for the piu-pi 

jf ^t(•:llll riiisiiiL' lit tlie iinrticular spot iiiidur 

coiitiidi-ratiiiii, the C'row.-iiu'st cniil wmild apiit'nr to yivo the hest viihie for the money, 
and to he tlie most s\iitidde to tifriire on Inr that ])Mrpose. 

Jliiucver. the apparent vahies are so eh)-e lliat it eouM only lie determined hy 
actual test nnck'r worUinj;- conditions which would prove llie eiieapcst in jiracticc^. 

'J'lie a'o\e conipari>ons Inive no hearinj;' on the i'ii>t of producing: jiower at the pit 
mouth, which will he cunsidercd separately. 

('iPuU 1 and - were tested under the >uperinteiid<'nee of the Min<'s Department, 
Ottawa, under the saini' condiliiMis and in the >ame hoiler and furnace. 

i'liiii ;! w;,- -cpar.-ilely tested as de-cri!>ed uniler the head' of 'Consumer's Coal 
Comi)nny,' hut the evaporation is estimated and not the resnlt of test. 

1 1 i- iriilalili' tiiar Ua\\ the liiinites wcnild ;;ive eonsiderahly lu'tti'r results if 
hnrnt in larirer hnilers witli ppociol fiirnaecs. 

It i- al-o ])r.i!ialile that hetter te>t re-ults could he ohtained for the Crow^ni-st 
coa'. with a lar;;cr Imiler, an economizer, etc., hut for an all-the-year-roinul perform- 
ance which iiu-ludcs lu-.-es due to standby a-^ reserve, hlowiufr ■^"\\n and. hankiiif.' 
hiiilcr-. wtallierin;;- I'y storafiv. etc., it would pruhahly not lie sali lo a»ume a nuieh 
hctter ti.iiure. 


l-'i-iniiil //.(/(.v.- In rcfiard to fr<'i>;ht rales a- alh'ctinj;' the total eo^t of eual. it 
may he anlicipalcd ihal tlie-e are more likely to he decreased tiian increased. 

In a repnrt nf the Western l'"reif;lit Hat<'s Ca>e heariuff hefore the Hailway Com- 
mi»iiin ( ' I i' i- stated as follows: ,Mr. M. K. Cowan, K.C., ecuinsel for Saskatchewan 
and .Mhcrla. then tmik up the rales on coal from Kstevan to other Canadiaii Pacific 
Railway stations in Saskatchewan as compared with the Great Northern Railway, 
Xiirthcrn i'acilii- and Sim line rates in North Dakota for similar distances. lli> 
exhiliil »liow .1 that the Saskatchewan rates were from ','2 to li'l ikt cent hijilier than 
the American ones. 

It was also shown hy the Commissioner of the Roard of Trade of Saskatoon. 
(-^ that ^vlierea= the coal freicrht rate from Fdniimton to Saskatoon. invoUinir a drop 
of (514 feet, was^; cents per ton mile, the rate from Port Arthur to Saskation 
iuvolvinj; a ri-i' of 1,ri74 feet, was O.-Wl cents. 

'I'he rate from Kstevan to Klhow, as triven ri'cently fur the purpos<' of this report 
hy the Canadian I'acific Railwa.v, is equivalent to O-O:^) cents per ton mile. 

'J'he (Irand Trunk Pacilic railway have under construction lines from the Kstevan 
district to Moose.jnw via Retina and from Mooscjaw to Klhow. which may also have 
^ome effect on tlie frei>rht rates. 

Jii this coinieetion the secretary-treasurer of the K-tevan Hoard of Trade reeen'ly 
stated (^) tlint when the new Orand Trunk Paeifii' 1 e hetweon Kstevan and Rejrina 
is in o|icration it will le possihie to lay down li?juiti' in that city at ai>proxiinately 
$1.S0 per ton, the cn-t of mining h(Mn;r in thi' neiiihl nurhood of CCi to SO cents. 

It woidd therefore appear desirahle, when the matter is rijie for decision, tu 
revise the estimates hereafter i;i\t'n in acconl with the latest freijilit rates and <piota- 
tiiins for dial and liynite. 

Tlir ('i)iisiiiiiii X ('mil ('oiiiiiiiiiu. 

The neare-t developed cdiil mine to the rivt'r is that of the Consumer's Coal Com- 
paii.v, sitiuited on the I-ake of tlie Rivers, ahont liS miles due south of Moosejaw (see 
Plate •■!>). The head cilice of thi~ company is in .Moosejaw, and. the president is .Mr. 
John ?:. Chisholm, IX.H, 

(1) Ottawa cm 1,1. .laniiiirv 10, llli;) 

(»^ Siiskiileeii Hoi, 11 Slat; N.ivpniln • 18, 191i. 

(■M liVxitui Kvfiiiiifi l.riidrr. NuNPaih' r 2r>, 1912 

soil II sAffKAiciiEn.w w \rt:i! si rru /»/i a./.'n/o.v run.n.vr 


l)islance.~Th\a mine is distant in an air line from Klbow less than 100 miles as 
;iL;iiiii>t aliiiit 2l'0 miles t(i the eual licMs near Kslevaii, wliii'li Wduld lie a larfre cnn- 
•^i<lerati()n in the eest of traiismittinfi eleetrie power to the river. Tlie distance via 
Moosejaw and the Canadian I'aeifie Railway line to Elliow would lie about 11.") miles, 
hut this route would frive an opportunity to supply li<jrht and power to iiilerniediate 
town* and would thereliy reduce the cost of trausmittiu;; power to the punipinn 

Quantity. — This property was inspected by Mr. D. 13. Dowlinp, B. Sc, of the 
(ieolofiiial Purvey, Department of Mines, in June, I'.'li'. He ^aid: 'There is an 
i'ipht-foot seam and an estinuite(l (juantity ■ ' ll.(MHi tcin» per ai'ic ... if would 
be a jiood pas producer as well as fuel for .iieap power ... it will dmdile the 
former est^nate C'^ million tons) of Sasl-ateliewan"s eoal supply . . . With the 
eoid there in sneh larsrc quantities, the projier thinir to do is to put the city ( Mooscjaw) 
. wer plant ri^ht there . . . ^fuch of the coal waste could be utiiizcfj in f;('n- 
oratiuir jiowcr. jiivinir the city a rem.irkable advantage for cheap oirrcnt." 

(Jiinhlii. -\ shipment of eoal was submi*' the company to the .Mines Depart- 

uieiif, Ottawa, for a test of its ipialitiis in ," oducer, ,-i?id a report w:\< uiado 

rnder date of .Tuly ^■2. 1012. 

The cnncln«!ons from this report are tb.t 

The fuel htirnod uniformly withont the formation of trfiiiblesomc cliiiker. 

The pas freneratcd was tar-free and heatiufr value satisfactory. 

The enirinc v.ilves were found to he exceptionally clean after a run of forty honrs. 

T''e liirnite may be pronounced an excellent fuel for the production of power when 
ntilized in a producer pas plant as it arrives from the mine without further treatment. 
The tendency to disintcfirato does not in any way interfere with its operation. 

The approximate analysis by fast cokinp: was ; — 

Per Cent. 

Moisture .^^•42 

Volatile combustible nnitfer 28-29 

Fixed carbon :!1 -32 

-'^sh 7-97 

Coke ,'59.29 

Calorific value of moisture free fuel, 10.000 B.T.U. ])er jmund. 

Averase effective calorific value of pas per cubic foot, 11. I B.T.T^. 

The report also states that the quantity of coal sent was insufficient to determine 
the volume of pas penerated per ton of fuel, so that this and the thermal efficiency 
were not determined, but that the indications were that these would have been satis- 

In a ri'port to the company (mainly concerninp their clay deposits) by Dr. (!. A. 
Charlton, provincial analyst. Kepina, dated October 22. 1912. it is stated that this 
lipnite in appeiiraneo and texture closely resembles the coal now bcinp mined in the 
vicinity of Edmonton. 

Derclopmcit and Price.— The company claim that they control 1,500 acres of coal 
land, that they have so far confined themselves to development work, producing ten 
to thirty-five tons per day for which they have foun.l a ready market, .as fast as pro- 
duced, to railroad camjis, farmers, etc., that the coal is very easy to mine and that the 
output can Iw easib' increased to any desiiv] ,-.x(,.|it. 

They also stated (letter of November 19. 1912) that they would be prepare.l to 
supply screeninpg cons-'stinB of all under 2-ineh and free from slate or "lay. at W 


ini'MtrMEM' or riih: i\tki{ioh 

cents per ton, or run of the mine at ipl.50, at the pit mouth, or either grade loaded on 
ears at 5 cents to 10 cents per ton '?xtra. 

A visit to the mine on November 21. 1912, showed considerable development work. 
A nearly level tunnel has been driven into the side hill for about 250 feet with an 
extension north of about CO feet. Off these there are several cliambers and cross cuts. 
It appears to be a solid seam of fairly Rood lignite and is beinfr mined so that the 
product is practically all clear coal, comparatively hard and solid and cominp away in 
large lumps. The lifmitc, as biirnt under the steam boiler and in the house furnace 
appeared to be clean and free burning, free from smoke or soot and giving a hot 
flaming fire. 

Railway ronnrrtlnii.—M the present time the company have no railway connection 
(November, 1912). The C. P. R. have a line in operation to Expanse, eight or nine 
miles northwest of the mine, and the C. N. R. are constructing (now graded) a line 
which passes about three miles to the north of the mine. (See Plate 38.) 

• r 


■ i 



Suitability for steam boilers.— The C.P.R. Company have a steam-operated pump- 
ing station on tlie river at Elbow and their engineers state that they consider this 
water ' excellent for steam boilers, that it requires no treatment and gives no trouble 
except from being muddy at times.' 

The following is a copy of the C.P.R. Company's analysis and record of this 
water : — 


Name of water station. Elbow. 

Supply, South Saskatchewan river. 

Analysis in parts per 100,000— 

Cal. Cart 8-87 

Cal. Sulph 2-21 

Mag'.' Sul'pl'i ... .'..'. .v.'. .v. .'.'.V '.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.■.'.'.■. . .'.■.■.■.■.'.■.' 2-27 

ScJ! chior n-n 

Sod. 3»» 

Pot. Chlor 0-96 

Si. O, 1-20 

Iron and alumina "'1* 

Scale forminu matter— 

Parts, per 100.000 1 [^ 

Pounds per 1,000 Ralloiis I'S 

Hemarks: Good water. 

The report of Mr. Walter J. Francis, previously referred to, says:— 

' Coming as it does from glacier and mountain streams, it is well suited 
for domestic, manufacturing and municipal purposes. The water has the turbid- 
ity peculiar to all such streams at this time of year (May). Fortunately, ite 
turbidity is easi'y removed by settlement and coagulation. 

' While the water in its present state is probably suflSciently pure to be use<l 
untreated, the growth and devebipment of tlie country and the consequent 
increased pollution of the river, make purification a future necessity which 
might be even now advantageously adopted.' 


Gas turbines are sometimes inquired about as a supposed coming form of prime 


There does not at present appear to be any probability of these developing into a 
oommercial or practical apparatus in the near future. 

soiTH ^•.l^•^^^7(7/^;IVl^ \\.\ri:i! si ri'i.v iu\h:iisi(>\ I'lUhiHcr 


A recent paper l.y Dunnld Clerk, D.Sc.. F.H.S., a well-known authority, read before 
sec. G. of the British Association at Dundee, September 0, 1012 (') K'ives an account 
of past experiments and the present position of this type of engine. 

The following is a brief summary of the conclusions reaelu'd :— 

' Many attempts have been made to produce a cotnmcrciiil gas-turbine. So 
far no attempt has succeeded; the practical difficulties have provcl to be too 


'ijeeently the explosion type has been studied by Mr. Hans Ilolzwarth, who 
has built a gas turbine of a rated power of ],0<)() horse-power. . . Many 
practical difficulties were found, but ultimately the turbiiu^ was operated by 
producer gas made from coke. ... So far as I understand Mr. llolzwarth's 
experiments tho highest power actually obtained was about Kit) brake horse- 

pinver From these e.xi)eriments Mr. Ilolzwarth came to the eonclu- 

sious that the siu'cessive explosions interfered with each other. . . . The 
theory of the Ilolzwarth machine doe^s not appear to me to permit niore tlian 
a 10 per cent heat conversion. So far as I understand ^Ir. llolzwarth's results, 
his actual conversion is nnich less than this 

' Tho existing internal combustion engines are quite .satisfactory for small 
and moderate jiower units; but the weight increases so rapidly with increase of 
cylinder diameter that large units, sueli as 20,000 horse-power per shaft, easily 
attaineti by the steam turbine, have proved quite impossible for the reciprocating 
gas engine. 

' In order to apply internal combustion for the purpose of such large units, 
it ap[)ears to me to be necessary to dispense with the cylinder, piston and crank. 
I fear that this cannot be done on the lines of either constant pressure or explo- 
sion turbines here shortly discussed.' 

On the other hand, it is stated by ^fr. K. A. Fernald in a re<'ent ;,aiHT (-) that:— 

' Results are soon to be expected from the more recent investigations and 
tests relating to gas t\irbines. Some of the tyiK's are believed to be based on 
correct principles, so that after a satisfactory rotary air compressor has been 
designed, rapid progress in the development of this prime mover nn.v be 

In his inaugural address as president of tho Institution of Klectrical I', 
London, Knpland, in November, 1010, Ifr. S. Z. de Ferranti said, in reference to coal 
conservation : — 

' In the future we have to look towards two other means of eonve ■■ — the 
gas-turbine — driven electric generator and the production of electriciiy ni some 
more direct way from the coal, but these two means of conversion, although 
capable of giving the most efficient results, are so much in the distance, that 
they are quite beyond our present cionsideration.' 



Of this type of pump, the furthest developed appears to be the 'Humph. /,' as 
developed by the" Pump and Power Company, Limited, 28 Victoria street, London. 
England. This is not only a new design but embodies an entirely new principle, and 
while not yet a fully demonstrated success for all classes of pumping, its performance 
to date has been so pnomising that it is thought to be worth careful consideration and 

* Reprinted in Engineering, London, September 13. 1912. 
2 Technical Paper 9, I'.S.A., Bureau of Mines, 1912. 


in:i:ii{i\ih:\r or iiii: i\rt:iiiuii 

Til ailditioii fo ;i study of flii> avnilnlilc information on tlip sul>jfct. this branch 
caiisod lino of its engineers, ^Ir. Alfred M. Boalo, B.Se., to visit and reiwrt upon 
pliints in operation and under constnu-tion in Eiijjlaiid, and the information so 
obtained i< incorpornteil in the folhiwinp: — 

Tlie pump is of extreme simplicity — in ilr. Be;\le'- words ' the most strikinjr thing 
iil>out the wlio.e itlant is that there is so little to see,'— nevertheless, a seetional draw- 
ing anil haered doM'ription is essential to a olear \inderstandinfr of its operation, on 
Mci-onnt (if the new principle involved. 

This is. therefore, friven first and is followed by a brief disenssion of the ditfii'id- 
ties that will most readily occur to readers. A description of the present stage of 
jlevelopment i.? then pivcn and a bibliography is added to assist those interested in 
obtaining more detailed information. 


11 ■■ Fii:. 1. Hiim|ihri'y InlHrniil Combust ion I'uiiip. First ixiwiiniental fmir cycle piiiii|i. 

Tn this internal combiistioii pnmp the explosion of the charge of gas takes i)lace 
in direct contact with the column of water, wiiich acts as a water piston. A horizon- 
tal iiipe forms the pump and is connected at one end to a combustion chamber and 
flt the other to an open water tower. The water is able to surge or oscillate freely 
backwards and forwards after an explosion and this surging column of water fulfils 
all the functions of a piston and pump plunger even to controlling tiie valves for 
water, pas and air, and exhaust. 

The following description of the simplest form, together with the accompanying 
cut, Fig. 1. is taken from Mr. Humphrey's paper before the institution of Mechanieal 
Engineer-, London, November, 1009. 

'The pun;p consists essentially of a combustion chamber A, fitted with an 
int.ike valve I> for combustible ui!.\ture, and an c.\li:uist val.'c C fur bufut 
products. A pipe D connects the bottom of the combustion chamber to a low 
level tank E and to a high level tank F, and between this pipe and the former 

suirn sAsK \T<iih:\v\\ iir//;/.' y' /•/•/.» nivhiisins I'lut-iKcr 


tlicre is n water vnlvo (5. Tlio iiilot viilvp V, is iinrmally ki«i>t ^Imt !>>' a -i""'"!^- 
b>it the exhnust valve C has no sprinp to hold it >ip and falls by its own weifiht 
when the pawl II is reniovoil from im(l<>r a rollar J fa-ti'iio<l on the cxliaust 
valve stem. This pawl is operated from the water valve O in the simple man- 
ner shown. ?o that when tlio water valve opens it releases the exhaust valve. 

' Suppose all the valves shut and a compressed combustible charge to exist 
in the toji of the combustion chaniber. The rest of the chamber and the pipt' 
are full of water. Explosion occurs at a sparkinir i)1uk K, and th< increase of 
pres-ure drives the water downwards in the chamber and forces the column "f 
water contained in the pipe to move towanls the hifrh level tank so that a 
quantity of water is diseliarsred into this tank. From the moment when iirni- 
tion occurs to the time when oxpansinn reaches a pressure equivalent to the 
static head of v.ater in the hijih level tank, the excess pres-ure in the combus- 
tion chamber has been increasing the velocity of flow towards the hisih level 
tank, so that at the end of this period the column of water has a consi<lerable 
velocity. The kinetic enerpy thus acquireil causes the water to continue to 
flow in the same direction, until the pressure on the underside of the water 
valve is less than that above the water valve, and the difference of pressure 
causes this valve to open. This occurs when the products of combustion have 
exjianded to about atmospheric pressure. The opening of the water valve 
releases the exhaust valve, and now water from the low level tank flows |)ast 
the water valve partly to follow the column of water still uovinj; towards the 
hijrh level tank and partly to flow into the combustion chamber to expel some 
of the exhaust gases. 

'There is, of course, a tendency for the water to rise in the chamber to ;lie 
same level as the water in the low level tank, but >isually a little before this 
level is quite reached the kinetic energy of the moving cobunn has been 
expended in forcing more water into the high level tank, ami the cohmni has 
therefore come to rest. At this point of the cycle the spring (Hi the water valve 
quietly closes this valve, and is assisted by the water now tryiiiir to flow back 
from the high Icvi! tank to the chamber. It cannot How back far, because there 
is already a considerable quantity of water in the chamber, and as the column 
rises further it reaches the exhaust valve and striking against it, shuts it by 
impact. The exhaust valve is inunidiatcly lucked shut, bv the ji.^ivl >bown 
engaging under the collar of the valve stem, and now that there is no longer 
any outlet for the small <iuantity of burnt products which remain, they are 
imprisoned in the top of the chamber and suffer compression as the water con- 
tinues to use, until the energy thus stored in the compressed elastic cusliion 
is equivalent to the cner;;y given out by the falling water. Thus the elastic 
cushion serves to bring the colimui of water again to rest, and as the compression 
pressure considerably exceeds the static heail of tlie water colunui, a reverse 
flow is set \ip while this cushion expands again. If there were no friction losses 
the water column would be pushed back by the cushion to the sanu' point as that 
from which it started, namely, to a level in the cumbustiou chamber a little 
below tlie level of the water in the low level tank, but it actually docs not move 
quite so far. However, when the water passes the level of the exhaust valve the 
elastic cushion is again at atmospheric pressure, and the further descent of the 
water in the combustion chamber tends to create a vacuum, but the inlet valve 
is only held shut by a light spr'ug, and can therefore readily open to admit a fresh 
combustible charge during the "rest of the descent, and until the water column is 
once more at rest. The state of aflTairs now reachcil is of course still unstable, 
because of the uiibalanceil pressure due to the head in the high level tank, and 
this head produces a second return of the column, so that the water ascends in 
tlie combustion chamber and compresses the fresh eonibustible charge. The 



i)i:i:unMi:\r ity rin: imkiuor 

t x|il<.<i.i|i lit' thi' fliiirH 

<■ li.V IMlMll^ 

it th 

c luiiitinii iihi;: iii.u- >fiirls II t'r«'-li I'vdi' 


..IMTiitiuM of til,. aiMiMriitu. is >,i Mm;,l,. tl,„t wl„.„ ,1,, M.^finil a'.|.iinitii- mi th.-.. liii,- 
"iis tir-t tri.;l it mil sti'iniilv nt tli.. vi'iy Hr-t iitt.-iiipt." 

Several other forms have been devflopod in addition to that above described, 
for suction lifts, h.Rher heads, etc. In the larsrcr pumps there are a large number of 
small water valves instead of one larpc valve. 

^'j<j. f P/m^r 


Off 'd /J.A.. .... PtMnt 

Kic. 2. Thp Hiimplin.y |mi.i|.. Ceiiera :irriiii(?.'niHnt of plant ;it the Brii8»..|» Kxhiliitioii. 
Figure 2 shows the general arrangement of the plant exhibited at the Brussels 
International E.xhibition, as described in Engineering, London, July 22, 1910. This 
pump, giving 36 horse-power on producer gas, consumed less than one pound of anthra- 
cite coal per actual water horse-power hour, and obtained the two 'highest po"ib1e ' 

Accompanying photos show the combustion chamber of a unit of 40,000,000 
gallons per day capacity, the suction valve box and the discharge from one 40-million- 
gallon pump at the Chingford reservoir (described below). 

Til. Hisiriphi.v lutvnui! I'miM' f'..?iil"ip-fi..M ClKiniUi J0,(« (KiKKI (Jill. truiii|i. piiitlv Htt.'<l. ■[ 


ni.i'Mn \ii:\i 111- Tin: t\rh:itii>i; 

Mr Ilim.pirrys ,,.p,.r. -An Ititornal Cniulmsti,,,, I',,,,,,,; ,,m,1 l,.f„rn ti.e 
n.t, n ,o„ of Mo..l.,„m-Ml En.Mn.-rs I..m,lon. in \ov,.,„l,o,-. I'M,-... ..|v,.. ., ..lU nf 
.leM.lo.1 mformat.on on dosi^n .n,i ,.omp;,rntivo ,.o.t. of o„on,ti„n. It .1.,, nro.ln,v,l 
n yory full ,I,s,.nss,„n l.v prominent ....^rinoors nn.l it ,„ny ho of i„to>v~t to .-iv,. .„n.o 
bnof oxtraofs frnn. t „. as<..ntinf, tho views of those who presunnblv i^^ 
niate-ial interest in the matter. 

Dr. W. Cawthorne T'nwin. referrinfr to tlie tests earrie.l „„t on this ,„„„p. -,,i,]:_ 

;0'ie> startr.l it not only un,|<e,| nhsohitclv the sli.-ht.-t hitej, 
but It had a flexibility whieh enahh-d one to ph-iy trieks wit), it-to alter till 
litt and to alter other eonditioiis of worl<iii;.'. 
no notice of them at all.' 

••■' yet the pump sermed t.> take 

Mr. W. B. Bryan, , liief en-ineer, .Metropolitan Water Board, .said that.- 

before'itT'"'"""' '" '''"' "'" ^"" '"' "^'' """ '"""" '""' ■' •"^•^'••i«-"t «eld 

Prof. Vernon C. Boys said:— 

sfrti.^'lT" "" r" ™'-' '""' "' """^ """-' ^''"'■'' "'■ "'^' '"'f'"' i"^tMntaMeon.slv 
.st.irtid the maeluiu. p.nns at lull speed.. . when made la.jier 
instead of bciiiff great, . onfjht to be less.' 

■r the dittieulties 

enjrineer, Irrifiation Departineiit, (;..verniniMit of In,li: 

Mr. Alfred Chattert 

II id:— 

-He would like to eompare these results with those obtained at tho irrijra- 
t.on piinipiM.. station at Divi in the Kistna district of the Madras presi- 
deney. There , i.Wu Diesel enfrines of 100 B.H.R. drivinjr r-.O-indi centri- 

that inder the most favourable conditions Ki.OOO B.T.f. were re.,uired per 

'ek ■.„; ""T "." ', "^ '"'" *''" ^"'""'' "■"•- """^'^"■- "f two-thirds the most 
ethnent load the thermal units expended rose to 17.000. whieh was n great 
eoutra^t to what had Wn obtained at Dudley Port (with Jlumphrey pnmps). 
He thought that the Diyi pumping station represented the highesMimit of 
eftieieney so fnrntta.ned with internal eomhustion engines and eentrifugnl 
pumps, hu the fuel tised was petroleum rcMMues wh!,.], ,.,.t about t'! per t ,u 
delivered (about .^-Tfi eents per gallo,,). Caseous fuel of e„„ivalent value 
whether from wood or eoal. eouid certainly be manufacture.l at Divi tr 

• ft wti t . T "■';,"• .""•' r'"' ""■ ^'" •"'"'" '' --'^ be possible to 
^ l.ft water at nlout o„e-thinl ot the present co.t, as there would als,! I e a verv 

•■in'rilr-di'rier'"'. ■" "'""* "" *''"'''"' ''""•''•"' "^^^ °^ -"«•■- "-i -^t--^. 

ana in salaries and wares. 
Jlr. Ewart C. Amos said :— 

... ■ • •, • ''''"'*'; ■'""' "*•«>'• ("luullv obvious reasons made it evident that 

the actual cost of raising water would le less with a 

^ Humphrey pump than with steam pumps, and further, the efficiencv would 

^ bo maintained for a much longer period and at less cost than with anv other 

torin 01 pump at present known.' 

The n!ii 


ahovc .iuntations are favourable. But various .pieslions were asked as to 
.pace oceupied. oorrosion of the inside of the pump and piping from the products 
of combustion .,i the gas, tarry or oily i.ppearanco o„ the surface of the water, con- 
tamination of the water tor drinking purposes, etc., to which Mr. Ilumphrev ^. plied 
in effect as follows: — ' 

Tlh- HiiiiU'lirt-v ItittTiul f'nnilni?*tinn I*niii|». Surtion \';ilvf Kjx nf unit iittw fn-ctf*! ;it ChiiiKford. 




The Hiimplirfv Iiitiiiial riiiiiliii»tiiin I'liinii. Cliitigfdril K<i- rinir Kii^luni) slumiiig disclmrni' from one 

W,<KXI,iMiOgiil. piiiiip. 


in.i'Mti \ih\ I III nil: i\ii:itiiii; 

Tlie spuco occiipiod by triple expnnsion hijih duty piiint)iii^ enjiiues is 
from six to nine times, or more, thnn tlint oecupioil by Humphrey pumps. 

Witli refcreiiee to tiirry or oily appe.nrance on the surface of the water, — • 
'lookiiifT at water whieli had been pumped around hundreds of times no trace 
' of any tar was observable in the reservoir— he had a certificate from Dr. 
' Hertz, of London, showing that there was no S O'j in tlie water pumpeil 100 
' times.' 

Mr. Bryan, chief engineer, Metrop<ditaii Water Hoard, was invited to arransre 
a test which should be conclusive as reprnrds contamination of drinkinjT water. The 
test was carried out and the water atiiilyzed by the public analyst of the County 
Borouffh. who reported : — 

' From these results I am of opinion that the wafer is not contaminated 
' by tar or sulphurous acid.' 

The test and analysis are given in detail in the paper above referred to. 

In respect to corrosion of pipes: — 

'Water which had been circulated many hundreds of times through the 
' pumps was found to have no deleterious effects . . . iron pipes which 
'had been in use three years showed no evidence of corrosive action . . .' 

Re vibration: — 

' The water valves of the Humphrey pump worked so smoothly and 
' quietly that it took a trained ear, placed against suction tank, to detect 
' their operation at all, and they had never given any trouble. 

'There were types of the pump suitable for working with a suctiin lift 
' ... if the pump was to be used for power production in such large 
' units the arrangement for delivering water at high pressure would probably 
'be adopted and in such case the compression pressure was entirely under 
' control and could be made as high as one pleased . . . the problem of 
' constructing a 1,000 horse-power unit should not involve any insuperable 
'engineering difficulties .... no part of the pump chamber got hot 
' enough to make it unpleasant to hold one's hand on any part.' 

Present development. 

Coming now to the present stage of development, a brief description may be 
given of the large units designed for city water supply in London, England, and for 
drainage operations in Egypt. 

The principal plant in England is tluit of the Metropolitan Water Board, 
London, who have installed four Humphrey pumps of a capacity of 40,000,000 gal- 
lons each per day and one of 20,000,000 gallons at their new Chingford reservoir. 
The combined output of these pumps is ISO millon palloni pc* day, or 
about two-thirds of the average daily supply of the city of Londori. '^ ;.e lift is 
25 to 30 feet, so that a 40,000,000 gallon unit develops about 2.'')2 water horso-jiower. 

The Committee of the Metropolitan Water Board, after a thorough investij-'^ition 
which ineludeil gas engines. Diesel oil engines and electric power, uni'.niniouslv 
reported in favour of the adoption of the Humphrey pump, and their report :^howed 
a saving in hrst cost of f02,U(MJ on the complete installation, including buildings aim 
foundations, as compared w'»h triple e.xpansion engines and centrifugal ,junips at 
350 R.P.M. 

The combustion charn!ier~ and valve boxes of the 40 million gallon units are T 
feet in diameter and the bends connecting them with the horizontal pipe weigh 22 
tons each. 

-(»/ 77/ >i>K 17' //Ml i\ \\ \ii:ii SI rri.i in\ii:.-i<>s run.iKii 


Tlic fiu-I i> II'"'"''"'*''' >•'"' f""'"" I'lit'"""'"''*' •■""• "' ii''"i't *•''■■"' I'"'" '"" "' -'""*' 
pounds, the guaranteeil consumption is 11 of coal per actual \v.i:.p. hour and 
the niiaiantccil fuel cost i* about "Ol cuts jht l.'HM> pillons dclivcrcil into the reser- 
voir, hut it is expecte.1 that the aetual tinure will he ah.. at O. ():!•_' ivut-. 

The pump tlcsigncd for the K.Kyptian Cioveniment at the request of the rousultiuf: 
eUKineer to the Puhlic Works Dcpurtment ', t.) dilivcr 1(K).(M)(),IMH» ^'allons \h-t liav 
with a lift of 19 feet (400 w.h.p.) for druinaR purposes. It ia understoof' fViis pump 
has now heei> shipped. 


It will he seen from the al .ve that these pumps have sutlii-iently demoimtroted 
their .|nalities to he chosen f..r larpe and important work in competition with steam. 
Kus and oil euftincs. hut that the result of actual oiK-ratinj? jHTformance and working; 
posts on a larjie scale are not yet availahlc. The official tests hy the M.'lropolitau 
Water Board will pr.ihnhly have heen carried out heforc this rcpi.rt appears. 

Also it will be noticed that both the installations described are for low lifta, 
19 to 30 feet and for comparatively small horse-powor (250 to 400 w.ji.f.), for though 
the volume of water is lar^e the lift is small. 

The lift required from the Saskatchewan river is about :500 feet and conv.-nietit 
sizes of units would he about 1.40it and 2,000 water horse-power. Tie size of unit, 
however, could be further sub-divided an<l the lift could bo done in more than one 
sta^e. if the advantafics of this type of pump mad*' this i()urs<> desirable. 

The frenerally expre-sed opinion is that this is essentially a low lift pump for 
dealing with large quantities of water. 

The makers, however, say that higher lifts have been devehiped in exi)erimciits 
up to 200 feet, this being the limit the experimental conditions allowed for, that the 
pump then showed no sign- of having attained its limit an<l that the results were as 
satisfactory as for low lifts. 

Jlr. Humphrey has stated: — (') 

'Coming now to high lift pumps, any Humphrey pump . . . may 
1)0 converted into a high lift pump by means of an air vessel fitted with valves 
and called an " intensifier." ' 

In respect to larger units, they woidd. have to feci their way to the special designs, 
but no difficulty was experienced in passing from 2 feet to C feet diameter, and the 
larger pump started without a hitch. The larger the pump the higher the efficiency. 
For high lifts it might be necessary tr, use 500 w.h.p. units, but this is suggested by 
present practice and larger units may [.rove to be possible and economical. 

The makers claim that the pumj) will deliver water under any conditions that 
other pumps will and that any explosive mixture will supply the motive power; that 
the only parts liable to require attention are the valves and sealings on which the 
wear and tear is not large and which can be quickly replaced; that the lubricating oil 
is negligible in amount, and that the plant can be operated hy ' handy ' men with .>ne 
mechanic in charge. 

Cost.-'M the present stage of development and with tiie data so far available, it 
is feh that a detailed estimate of cost would not be sufficiently reliable to be of value. 

However, from a careful consideration of such data and prices as have been 
obtained it may he said^ as an indication of the pos^il ilities, that: 

(1) It appears that the cost of Humphr. y pumi'S cr.cted m Saskatcbewaii 
and complete with producer ga.s pla: ■ would be approximately the -ame as bat 
fi.r stiani turbine plant. (See sinnuiary on pag.- -W and ■'"!'.> 



♦• -'I 

1 1 


Humphrey Pumps and Compressors, 


'if RnKineers, 


UEVMiiMKsr or iiik i\ri:iiioii 

(2) It npponrs tlint the total aiimiul cfpst, or tlio cost per 1,(X>0 gallons 
pumped, plmiild hv at least 25 per cent less than with steam or water-power 
during the initial stages, hut that water-power mipht be about 15 per cent 
cheaiXT on the <Minip1ete installation with full output. 

(3.) There is no doubt that the performance and prospects of the Tlumphrev 
pump are sufficiently established to call for a full investigation of this alterna- 
tive before anj' considerable exi)enditure is incurred. 



Amonjt the most recent deserii>tions arc : — 

' Larjre Ihimphrey pumps for C'hiiififord and K}r>-pt.' This is a detailed descrip- 
tion, with photos and sectional drawings. Engineering, London, December 13, 1912. 

'London Water Supply. The Chingford Keservoir.' liie Times Engineering 
Supplement, 'Sh\y 29, 1912. 

' The New. Keservoir at Chingford.' The Engineer, London, March 14, 191:?, and 
two following issues. 

Other references are : — 

' The Humphrey Gas Pump at the Brussels Exhibition.' Engineering, London, 
July 22, 1910. 

'Proceedings of the Institute of Jlechaniciil Engineers.' London, December, 

' The Steam Engine and other Ilcat Engines.' .1. A. Ewing, third edition, 1910. 

' Humphrey Pumps and Condensers." A paper by Mr. H. A. Humphrey before 
the Manchester Association of Engineers, November 12, 1910. 

' An Internal Combustion Pump.' A paper by Mr. II. A. Humphrey before the 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, London, November, 1909. 

' The Humphrey Internal Combustion Pump.' Prarlical Engineer. August 4, 1911. 

'Humphrey Internal Combustion Pump.' By Edward N. Trump, American 
Machinist, January 5, 1911. 

'The Italn'c'ck Twip Cyclr liitriial CunibusliM;! I'liuD.' Englnpiilni). Londnu. 
May 5 ,1911. 

'Technical Paper 9,' V. S. Bureau of Mines, 1912. 


The principal subdivision is: — 

(1) Wuter-powcr p'ant located on the South Saskatchewan river near the 

(2) Fuel-operated plants located at the river or at a distant point with 
electric transmission. 

Fuel Plants. 

In considering coal-operated plant« it must not Ik" presumed that it is necessarily 
cheaper to generate power on the coal field and transmit electrically to the pumping 
station rather than convey coal by rail. In this case transmission involves two 
separate buildings and plant (power plant and pumping plant) and two separate staffs 
to operate them, i.e., there must be a power station at the mine with boilers or gas 
producers, engines, generators, switchboards and transformers, a more or less lengthy 
transmission line, and a pumping station with transformers, motors and pumps. In 
other words, the additional cost of installing and operating the additiomil plant, 
together with losses in conversion and transmission, must be set against the cost of 
I'onve.viuM coal iiy rail, (.'^ee page sO.) 



In the following list of possible sources of fuel power, some of the alternatives 
are strictly practical and are considered and estimated for in detail in the followmg 
pages; others are merely suggestive of possibi'.ities that may be worthy of further 

(1) Steam plant — . 

A. Located at the coal mine, with electric transmission and motor-driven 
pumps, involving two separate plants and staffs. , , . , 

B Located at the river, coal delivered by raU, enabling the use of high 
duty pumping engines, giving direct application of the power and avoiding 
cost of extra plant, staff and transmission. 

C. Ditto, with steam turbines and centrifugal pumps, giving low capital 

^°^ D. The plant in B or C, with the boilers fired with natural or producer 
gas, or oil. 

(2) Producer gas plant — 

A. Located on a more or less distant coal field, with electric transmission 
to the river and motor-driven centrifugal pumps; involves two separate plants 
and staffs, and losses in conversion and transmission. 

B. Located at the river, coal delivered by rail; saving additional buildmgs, 

plant, staff, losses, etc. . • u 

C. Located on a nearby coal field, if available, transmitted to the river by 
pipe, and used in gas engines or under steam boilers. 

(3) Purchased power supplied, ready for use. to an electrically-operated pumping 
station supplied and worked by the Water Board. (Sec page 07.) 

(4) Oil fuel— , , 

A. Diesel oil engines, located at the river, direct connected to pumps and 

operated by imported fuel oil. 

B. Ditto, operated by oil produced from western shales. 

C. Steam boilers fired with imported fuel oil or shale oil. 

(,">) ^atiiral (fits (see i)a!ie 44.) 

A. In gas engines. 

B. Under steam boilers. 

C. In internal combustion pumps. 

(6) Internal combustion pumps, of the Humphrey or other type, located at the 
river and operated with — 

A. Natural gas. 

B. Producer gaa. 

C. Oil gas, pro(l.\iced from crude petroleum or shale oil. 

^^rnii.v other combinations can be made with the above, but those given are 
believed to cover the principal divisions. . , l 

With respect to the high duty pumping engines and to some extent also with the 
steam turbine equipment, very different resiilts are obtaineil according to the 'duty' 
or foot pounds of work per pound of steam. The higher the jaty the greater the refine- 
ments necessary to obtain the increased economy, and theiviV'-e the greater the first 
cost, but the smaller the consumption of fuel. If the undertaking is proceeded with 
it would lie worth while to work out several estimates of first cost and coal consump- 
tion for different duties, in order to ascertain the minimum first cost that will secure 
the best result with these types of plont. 

It is believed, however, that the estimates which follow will be sufficient to give 
a fairly close idea of the ri^ults that can be obtained with the proved Sources of 

499««— 3 




It limy lie ixiiutci] out tlmt tlic cxjii-t of imhv r will linvc Imt ii i-anipnnitivcly 
small infliioncp on the total cost of water delivered to the consumer, as shown by the 
tnblo oil ynxiic '*.'">. 


("apitiil (•(i>ts fur iiliiiit are based on recent quotations for this or similar plant, 
iiiid siH'eiiil eare has be<'ii taken to jmt nil estiinates on as cinial a basis as possible. 

The fipure for cost of cribs, conduits and wells, while based on sneh work in a 
similar location in the west, is not reliable, for the cost cannot be determined with 
any accuracy without a survey, and no survey has been made for the pun'ose, but it is 
believed that the fipure should bo ample. In any case it is taken at the same fipure 
in all estimates and cannot seriously affect the comparative results as a whole. 

Annual capital eharfres on fuel-operated plant are taken ■= follows: — Interest, 
5 tier cent ; sinkiuf,' fund, :! (ler cent; ov<-rall depreciation, iiK ludiiift buildiiifrs, -2 JXT 
cent; insurance and taxes, 1 per cent; total, 11 per cent; 11 per • ent is eharped on 
plant and build.inps and 8 imt cent on the amount borrowed to cover enjiineering and 
continfrencies and interest during constrnctioii. 

Ertijincering and Contingencies. — It will be noted that 15 per cent has been 
nllowcd for these items for the initial installation and only 7§ per cent for the com- 
plete installation. It is presumed that practically all the surveying and desiRiiing 
work will be done in connection with the initial installation and that subsequent addi- 
tions will be practically a duplication of existing plant, involving but little expense 
for engineering and contingencies. 

liuihlinijs. — Steel framed concrete, of best construction 

Labour. — Three shifts, never less than two men in engine room and two men in 
boiler house, one first-class mechanic with assistant according to size of plant, etc. 

Fuvl. — The calorific value and evaporative power assumed for the different coals 
are based on the values given by the Alines Ucpartmcnt, Ottawa (') or other specified 
sources. The cost of coal and of freight on coal are based on actual prices obtained 
from official sources at the time the report was in preparation. 

The cost of natural gas and oil is dealt with in the chapters relating thereto. 

Sfeam Plant. — Suitability of the water is dealt with under ' The Water of the 
South Saskatchewan Iliver.' Boiler efficieii<',v, in view of fairly large units, soft 
water, and steady operation is taken at 75 per cent, with economizers and super- 
heaters. Superheat l.'iO'' F. Steam pressure, IT.') pounds. 

Capacity of P/an/.— Initial installation, 20,000,000 gallons per day. Complete 
installation, 100,000,000 gpUons per day. 

Oiilimt. — Seventy-five per cent of full normal rated load, that is, of the above 

Reserve. — Initial installation, 100 per cent (two equal units, one as spare). 
Complete installation, 30 per cent (one 30,000,000 gallon spare). 

Head, including 10 per cent friction in pipes to delivery to gravity pipe line, 
828 feet. 

Water Ilorse-power. — It will be seen that in the 'Summary Kstimatos,' pages 
.'JH, ;t!t, the eomi>aris<in is ina<le per "Water horse-power' and per l.(MH» gallons 
delivered on height of land. Water horse-poWer is taken as being iIh; power actually 

' An inrtstiKatioD of th* Coa'.s of Canada, toU. 1 ami 2, IMS. 

sol -I II > l>A i7( //A.ii I \ WMHK SI I'I'l.y /)/ 1 A,7.'>/<*\ l'i;i>.n:rr 


applicil "11 the oolumii of water to raise the required amount :it tln^ roiuiroil rato. This 
i? thought to bo the fairest basis of comparison. 

The cost per ' brake ' or eflFective horse-power, thoujrli given in the separate 
estimates, is necessarily less accurate, as: — 

(1) It depends on the eflSciency of the pumps and varii'^; witli both the type 
and make of pump. 

(2) It depends also on the maker's rutinj; i)f tlie plant and on the margin 
he sees fit to allow, which, in turn, depends largely on the inherent overload 
capacity of the type of plant. 

(3) Units cannot always be supplied of the exact size required without 
unreasonable increase of cost over that for tin* nearest standard size. 

There is, therefore, usuallj' a difference, and sumetinn's a cnnsidorable ditfcrence, 
between the B.H.P. required and the B.II.P. installed, and a coniiiiri-nn niaile on that 
basis would be apt to be misleading in this case. 

The final and most useful comparison is that headed ' Cost per jjallons 
pumped to height of land,' height of land meaning tlie spot on w icli the intake to the 
gravity pipe line is situated. 

Afi'rai/e rout.— In studying the summary on pages 12"' and l-'t' and noting' the 
larjrc dilferenccs between the cost by the initial and complete in^tallati(^ns, it natu- 
rally occurs to one to average these tigures for eacli alternative in iu'dcr to conipan- 
one alternative witii another and get a general idea of tlie average rcsi > The tigures 
are therefore written in for this purpose, but they should not be taken :'.> rci)reseutiug 
a iletinite result at any particular stage of development or output. 

The averages given r- mply the arithmetical averages of the c<ilumn, e.\cept in 

,'allons which is put at the rate <'orresponding to the 
The method of obtaining the cost per 1.<^<M> gallons is 
l>ag<' 411. 
be carefully considered : — 

the case of the cost r 
' average ' total annu. 
-ImWM in tlie tivst i»tii 
Three points shou 

(1) As to the initial installation, that the costs are in all ca.-(\a liigii, due 
to the large exi)enditure for small output, the necessary provision of 100 j>er 
cent reserve, the large proportion of management and general exiienses, the 
large proportion for engineering and contingencies, etc. 

(2) As to the complete installation, that the costs are in some cases, as for 
water-power and producer gas, very largely reduced (per horse-power year) 
from those of the initial installation, but this reduction represents a growtli of 
demand for water from 20,000,000 to 100,000,000 gallons jier day, or 400 per 
cent. Even with the rapidly-growing population of the West it must be many 
years Ix'fore this is achieved, possibly twenty-five years or more. 

The cost of production by the initial installation must therefore be given 
eiiuully careful consideration with that by the complete installation. 

(3) Cost of the complete installation. — While the cost of tlie initial plant 
can bo quite closely estimated, that of the complete installation oannut well be 
figured eipiuUy closely. 

The complete installation will be built up by a series of extensions to the plant 
over a iieriod of, suy, twenty-five years or more. During tiiis period conditions, price 
of material and fuel, ' state of the art,' etc., etc., may cliange very considerably, so tiiat 
it mav lie inadvisable ti iitinue with the same type of plant. 

Furthermore, during this long period, some of the original phint will be worn out 
or it- Mqiiated and have been replaced, and some of the original loans may have tieen 
completely paid off, so that tlie annual capital cliiirges, wliieii in m')sl i-ases form a large 

proportion of the total iiiiiiual <-ost. (see page 4<») iiiiiy In ii<ii|.-ral>l' (litfiToiit from 

those assumed. 


5 SI 



For the purpose of comparison, however, a definite basis had to be assumed, the 
same for all cases; therefore the estimates are for an initial installation and for a com- 
plete installation, and show also the result of averaging these two, in order to give some 
idea of the general result that would be obtained over a series of years. 

Costs. — The price taken for plant, the amount allowed for engineering, contin- 
gencies and interest during construction, and tiie rates allowed for annual capital 
charges, all, of course, affect the cojt of production. 

Xo doubt similar plant could be obtained for lower figures and the amounts 
allowed for engineering, inter: it, depreciation, etc., could be cut down below those 
shown in the estimates. 

The objects, however, have inen to allow for tlie higliest class plant and buildings, 
and to give safe figures both as to capital and operating expenditures, that would not 
be likely to be e-xceeded in practice. 

Summaries of Estimates. — A complete sunuuar.v is given on pages :!h and ;!:» 
and other summaries in different form are given page 4<>. There arc followed li.v the 
detailed estimates, and a " Keview of Alternatives' is given on page T'J. 











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Comparison of Capital Expenditure and Cost per 1,000 gallons pumped, taking the 
coal operated turbine plant as unity, for the reason that it shows average capital 
and operating costs. 

CaIMT.M. ComT KliH I'llWKR 
I'l.AXT «»NI.V. 

TjiH- of I'laiit. 

Cost HKK I.IKK) <i.\I.UJNs 





Hi(fh fluty piiiii|>iiiR fiijrinfi' 

StHuni tiirlHiiHs, ciKil iiiMratinl ... . 

Steam tiir!iiiifH ami natural \fw 

\Vat<'r iM)w«T, nu r^tpani ivr-ci-vc . . . . 
Watfr imwer witli ntfaiii rtw-rie. . 
I'niducer (tan, electric tran-niisnion. . 

l*iirch»se<! |M)\ver 

Oil engines 







i(xi : 




!)4 o 

!•« 6 

■ >l.> 



41 5 

















Comparison of Annual Charges and Fuel Cost, expressed as a percentage of the total 
nnniial cost. (For details see respcctivo estimates on pages noted.) 

Type of Plant. 


t'.M'iT.M. Cii.\iii.K>. Cost ok FlKi. oil I'oWKli. 

Initial. Complete. Initial. Complete. 

Hi»fli liiity (luiiiiiini; engines 40 to 42 tiirliines. i(ialo|)erate<l . 4'.', 4;{ 

Ste:im tiiiliines and niitiiral (fas 4li, 47 

W'ater IxiWer, no steam reseive. . . 4.S to ,50 

Watir (lower Mitli steam reserve. 52 anil .")4 

I'nKliiceidas, electrietransmission Ci.'!, Iit> 

I'lircliaMtl power ti<), 70 

Oilenjrines 75 to 7« 


:i.-) 4 

15 4 

32 S% 
.52 II 

47 3 

(i7 li 

22 ;< 

,S2 !l 
SI 4 

7t> S 
7.-. s 

."lO (1 


r.ii 7 

r.."i 1) 
12 1; 

27 4 

7:1 II 

li 5 

21 7 

!l 25 
•17 7 




Initial Installation. 

Duty, 1T0,000,(K)0 foot pounds per l.(KH( pounds of dry steam. Two units of 
20,000,000 gallons capacity each, 1,375 \vnter hoi^c-povver, 100 per cent reserve. 75 
per cent load factor. 
Capital cost — 

Two pumping units, with foundations, piiiiiij? condensers, etc. . . . $:i44,000 

Two 550 H.P. boilers, with superlicaters, stokers, ete . 29700 

Buildings, including crane, conveyor, etc 4i),500 

Cribs, conduits, wells, suction piping, etc 50,000 

■n. . . , . $473,200 

tuganeermg and <oiilinKen';ie8, 15 per cent 70 980 

T , . J . . $644,180 

InlereBt during construction, 5 per cent 27 209 

$671. ."589 



Annual cost — » „ ^ 

$ Per cent. 

Capital charges, 11 per cent on $473,200, 8 per cent on 

$98,189 -ASSO 43.20 

Fuel, Crowsneet coal at $5.65 45,500 32-80 

Labour, three shifts 11,700 8-45 

Oil, waste and supplies • • • • 3,170 2-30 

Repairs and maintenance fi,350 4-60 

Manaprement, oflSce and general 12,000 8-65 

$138,570 100-00 



VV.II.P. hours = 1,375 x 8,760 x'^ioo = 9,050,000. It 

$138,750 , „ » 
Per w.ll.P. hour ^ „ - - = 1.53 cents. 


„ $138,570 4.„„ 

Per w.ii.P. year = = $100. 


Cost per 1,(X)0 gallons delivered on height of hmd: 75 per wut of 20,(H)0,000 

jfallons = 15,000,000 gallons per day. 

Annual cost, $138,570 = $-'5'*0 per day. 

= 2-54 cents per 1,000 gallons. w 


See estimate for complete plant. 

Compleie hislallatiov. 

Five units, total capacity, 130.000,000, of which 30 per cent is reserve. 
Working capacity, 100,000.0(K) gallons = 6,875 \v.ii.i>. 
Total installed, 1-30,000,000 giillnii? =-- S.O.IO 

Capital cost — 

Two pumping units, 20.000.000 galloTLS $-311,000 

Three pumping units, .30,001 »,000 gallons 6><0,000 

Six 550 H.I', boilers and aecessi.ries 80,100 

Buildings, crane, convewrs, etc 161,000 

Cribs, conduits, well, piping 75.000 

Engineering mid contingencies, 7 J per cent 101,200 

Interest during construction. 5 per cent 72,520 ^1 


*i .500 ,soo 
Per w.H.p. installed, '^•"" =$169. -g, 

8,950 ||| 

Annual cost — 

$ Per cent. 

Capital charges. 11 per cent on $1,349,000, 8 per cent on 

$173,720. 161.900 35-42 

fuel 216,130 47-30 

Labour 32,250 7-05 



Oil, wiisti- mill su|)|ilii-s ^ Si>4(» 1 •<»."> 

Repairs mi'l maintenance 17 880 3-91 

Management, office and general 20,000 4.37 

$457,100 100-00 

W.H.P. hours, 46,250,000. 
Per W.H.P. hour, 1 01 cents. 
Per W.H.P. year (6,875 H.P.), $66.59. 

Per 1,000 gallons delivered on height of land, 1-67 cents. 

Price of coal.— Each 10 per cent difference in cost of coal will make 4-73 per cent 
difference in total cost. 

Steam drive.n CE.NTRiFtGAL pumps. — Coal. — 120,000,000 duty. 

Initial Installation. 
Capital cost — 

Two jtinnpiiiji units, 20,000,000 gallons each, complete $82,.100 

Two 750 horst-powpr boilers and accessories 30 000 

Buildings, iiielndinp crane, conveyor, etc 4]'300 

Cribs, conduits, wells, etc 5o'oOO 

T? ■ ■ , . 212,800 

linguieernig anil contingencies, 15 per cent 31920 

T J . $214,720 

Interest during construction, 5 per cent 12 236 

Per W.H.P. installed, $93.60. 

$ Per cent. 

Capital charges, 11 per cent on $212,800, 8 per cent on $44,156. 26,940 21-70 

I'uel, Crowsnest at $5.65 64,500 62-00 

J'^''"'"" 11,700 9.45 

Oil, waste and supplies 2 500 2-02 

Repairs and iiuiintonaiioe 6 3,')0 5-13 

Manageiiicnt, office and general 12 000 9-70 

$123,990 100-00 

Per W.H.P., 137 cents. 

Per W.H.P. year, $90. 

Per 1,000 gallons delivered on height of land, 2-26 cents. 

CoaL—VAvh 10 per cent difference in cost of coal will make 5-2 per cent difference 
in total cost. 

See estimate for complete plant. 

Complete Installation. 
Capital cost. — 

Two pumping units, 20.000,000 gallons ^ 82,500 

Three pumping units, 30,000,000 gallons .. .. 173I040 

Six 750-H.p. boilers and accessories in.'oOO 

soirii s\.-<K rirHHWw H 177.7.' si ri'i.y nuKKsius ritiUHir 


HuililiiiK'^, iiicluiliujf cruii;'. <'iiiiv«'.vi>r'. Imnkfr-.. etc $ i:!4,'.'.'>ti 

Cribs, conduit-, wells, etc 7r.,(MM» 

Enninwriiiff and continponeios, 7 J per cent «:{.•><••> 

Interest (lurinjr coii-tniction, 5 jht t-eiit ;'.1,'JT(» 


Per w.n.P. installed, $73.50. 
Anniiiil cost — 

« Per cent. 

Capital chn— es, 11 per cmt on $.-)Sl,800, 8 per cent on $74,870 60.980 15-41 

Fuel ;iOfl,000 t57(!0 

Labour.'." •1^.2.'-.<i 7.1-2 

Oil, waste and supplies 7,(tO(> l-.'"i" 

Repairs and maintenance 17,8M> ;>•'•••> 

Management, (iffiee and Keneral 20,0(K) 4-41 

$453,110 lOOtMl 

Per w.ll.r. limir. 1 "iHt cent. 

Per w.ii.p. year, $66. 

Per 1,000 pnllons delivered on height of land, 1-66 cents. 

Coal.— Each 10 per cent difference in cost of coal will make C-70 per cent differ- 
ence in total cost. 


It will lie M-eii l),v reference to tiie >unniiiir.v on \u\in-s :!> anil :!!». and the .letiiiKvl 

estiniater-. tliiit >tei;ni tnrliiiie piiint. iiiider tlu iiilitio!i- to li.' iiicf. offers low en.pitiil 

cost and reasoualde cost |kt 1.<mki (.mHohs pini |mi1. 

Comparisons with the other most favourable alternatives are discussed and 
tal(ulate<l iniH r the Ihm.1 of • \Viiter-p..wer. j.iip- IT-">4. ■ I'unliiise of Power." piifre 
l.">'.» and • Oil Kutrines." pajre 71 and diiit'nnu on pii;.'e 77. 

Some of the special advantages of steam power may be here pointed out and 
these should be considered after studying the questions of first cost and operating cost 
as discussed under the above references. 

Steam plant offers the advantages of: — 

1. Low first cost for both initial and complete installations. 

2. Low total annual cost in the early stajres. 

3. No transmission line losses and risks. 

4. Plant of a type of thoroughly proved reliability. 

5. No risks from ice and floods. 

6. Alternative sources of fuel. Steam boilers could be adapted for coal, 
oil, natural or producer gas firing, as future conditions arising from develop- 
ment of the country may wake desirable. 

7. Large overload capacity. 

Also, in this case, the water is ' excellent for steam boilers ' and in accordance 
with standard waterworks practice, the .in-ulatintr water for «oii<li'nsimr purposes 
could consist of the water pumped for city use. so that the full advantage of ample 
condensing water is obtained at small expenditure. 



1 41 




iiKi'Mn uf:\T in rut: istkhhii; 

'*" 'I tlliT ll;llill. IIS -lliiWll nil pilU'i. ."i4 jinil i| i>i-l|s.<.|| 

of AltiTiiiitivts." on pufri" 7!l stPiini jxiwi-r wniild not ^ri i 
liiiich c.v<>rL'.-..(NMMHMi «riil|,,iis iHT (lay. 

I !rr till' 
i,,.v l-.-f 

f..r .111 (• -imt 


In view of tlie proposjil-^ made by Mr. Williiuii (Jcortrcsoii, of Ciiljwrv, who is 
understood to also represent other local oapitulists, to pijjc -latural pas from .\l!orta 
to Winnipeg, and to .supply other cities on the route, conxi.i.-ration ha> been .11 to 
natural gas as a pos.sible source of jiower for pumping. 

The proposal nia<ie t,, Moosejaw, Ke>rina, Winnipeg' and other cities wn> to supply 
KDS -in bulk' to tiie municipalities, not including di-tribution, at 2.1 cents per 1,000 
cubic feet. 

The subject ..f a supply for punipin)? was discussed uith Mr. (Jeorge.-on. who 
expressed himself as prepared to undertake it at the above price. 

The distau<-e from the Allx-rta (jas Helds to Winnipeg is about 650 miles and to 
Moosejaw about 3(M» miles. It lias been reported that the city of Wiin,i|.esr is ser ,>uslv 
eonsidering an offer from the proposed company to supply and distribute the gas at 40 
cents per 1,U.X). It has also heen reported that the city of Regina is favourably 
disposed to dosing a contract for a supply in bulk at i'5 cents. The cost of tlie com- 
plete undertaking to supply as far as Winnipeg is c-fitnated at f|l20,n(>0,(HMi. 

It has al.-o been stated that it Winnipeg should not enter into a ontrn the 
supply would in any case be taken as far as Kegina. 

'llic toll., Willi.' arc <nmc examples o, '. nir dista 
and 'lic pr.i-. ~ i-l;ar;.'cil ; — 

aiicc traii>iiii-sioii of iintin;ii y. 


Lenptli of 

I'lH>- I- T l.()0>l I'lllii 

iir |«i»iT. 

f'alpiiy, Alts 
Kan»a-< litv . . 

. :T" milts 
. . '-'.Vl 

Tiil^'kii, Kiiii^a^. . . :^Ml 

HklalMMiiH city Ill 

<'iii<-iim,Tti 131 

Pitt-ljiirir H->,,, (ihio ..-liir) 
Kansas rity aii<l ( )1<- 
lalioiitu citv 

. 20 f..iit». i.\,.r .",(1.11011 ciiliii- f...t iKT.l.-.v 1:, (•. Mtsiii 
.><niiiiii,T rat..; tii-st ^OO.IIOO i-uliio I.- t, -.".I (•.■iits i»-r l.iiiHi' .-aili 1 oil« 

\\ iliti'i; ".".1 lints f. .1- aiiv i|iiaiititv. 

10 to 2.'> i.t-iits. 

. W. to,'«i,,iits. 

11 I... {11 cuts. 

. l.Sto lTJ cuts. 

. . .Tn-i'ii's net. ."^i^-iial siiniin. ^ rati- to l.ii!:,- ii.t-i s. 

. rati' til \:\ i>s niaiinfactnicrs. :i ■ ' . ntn. 

I'r, I'l ..liiih it will l.(. seen that the length of traiiMnis- :, t- 
miles) ami HiM^ina (.'3-1.", miles) is not prohibitive. 

Till' co.,t of a I.ranch line from the main )iipe to ilie pimipi 
a con.-ideraMe item. Tt will he seen from 'Access t.. pimipiiig - 
shortest <listaiice in an air line from the Canadian Pa.jtic Railway 
If we add 10 IK r ct'nt for diversions, this is over 2.', mil. s. 

In Mr. Eugene Coste's report to the Canadian Western Xntural 
and Power Company, of Calgary, he estimates the cost of 17.1 mile 
"iiid .•■niiplrte Uetwet-n Br.w Island and Cal^r.irv .-,t .$12,rifrO per liiii. . 
niin. engineer to Mr. Georgeson's company, (climated the co>t of a 
pilKj line from Jloosejaw to Elbow at 17,500 per mile. 


'.law I : 



Would 1 i 



that ti.c 



■-'■'i miles. 



yht, Ileat 

s of 


inch pipe 



L. Shim- 



to 4-inch 

' Include distribution under a franchise. This is state.) to provide tliat of the I profits 
2 per cent sha.I hrst be paid to the city, then 10 per rent to the stock l.olders and en 3 per 
cent of anv fai ther profits to the citj. *^ 

so I II s \sK 111 III WW ir I 7>;a' >//'.''/ > i> ^ ku i'>\ ridut-ji 


The exact sir* of pipe « >iil>l not -reatly ^n t thr ^t, » "ioh ■■'■\\\ti iarecly be 
maiif up of triinsiMirtuti.!!, trem ing, ntrht of way, etc. 

If the cost is tak( at $8,(Xmi [ht Tni|# the c.-tt for ity nv ics would be 

$200.*«"'. on which inu . ••<t. 5 per .ent ; inking fund, 2 !, rs and nmin- 

tenanii, 2 tx^T cent; taxe>. 1 per I'lit; t. I, 10 per nt. iv. mini irge 
of $20,<'<)0. 

RiUahilily.— There is uiway i. ikw- ility . f 
interruption or diminutiou ' thv •iiivi*' i' '■ a" in- 
not he renewed or increaac. 'y new well- feediiu: 
been done in other cases, tl i spital r -^ in t> 

Furthcr.'iiiin-. tin' •imtii n- "f 'i' - 

may be nut out f oervice by tuulty i>rk. .an- 
sprin>r 'x-shets i^r flo. •-. etc. 

There is nlso the p..™-it.ility ol i dry MippI 
its value and serviceability, bu? hriiicini? in th»' 
For the iilwve reasoiiS it d<v not appear <i- 
the only soun'i- ot' power i ■■ tin ter supi ■' 
an alteriiiitivi- --uurce tii it t !ild ix- iinn H. 
fa. lure in the gas stipjiiy. 

A steam 'iint installation gives t; al-"m»tiv- 
if ne<'es!!ary atUi a s ipply of 
^fflllatir to be ope'-std by t 
if ih' jaa supp.v failed th< 
to th 


lure u: th _ Us, II ing 

te per . ie suppl. ild 

the lie \n\»e ]ine», . iioi 

I pe lini vould be lost. 

I'pt on n iiipli |>i|N' lini' which 

>r material, sinking of ground, 

Ih'i. tiling wet, not only diminishing 

-is of interruption from frost. 

rable to depend upon natural gas as 

number of cities. There should be 

lUKht into service in the event of a 

to be hand fi: 

! by 



UU« Ci 







e V<\it 

III ) 

ic inst. 

n <■' 

con.-, ; 

-red i. 



i gas Hi 


1 • 

The boilers can be designed 

1 kept on hand at all times. 

ral gas does not give this 

apital invested in the plant 

in the • pe line. 

at ti: pumping station has therefore not been 
consider the effect on the cost of power of using 
team b<)'' rs aduptf-d to be used wi*h either fuel. 

"(/(/.■/(•(.•iHii. -Ill \\v,i to til' 11111^ . "Ill I'liRis ;!s iind :■>'.». it will U- sihmi, 
com] ring the aver:.- results ir >nj '"e 1 and coinpietc installations, that as 

betwc ! the high dii . and steam t iitrifugal plants, the latter appears to 

offer lowest capital and annual oo also involves the largest fuel conTOmption 

and is ost favour ible to the oomp'u ii ith gas. 

\V. vvill there! " make the comparison between natural gas and coal for opera- 
ting steam tiirbiti riven centrifugal pumps. 

t TH '"• 

i fO il 

i^-> tht= 


. — These Would consist of reduction in cost of fuel and reduc- 

ilers by dispensing with mechanical stokers. The other estimates 

iiclude mechanical handling if the coal and the minimum of labour, 

lid not well be much saving itii this item, especially as it would be 

isolated a plant and one for thi- purpose, to have never less than two 

.lice included in other estimates for coal storage, bunkers, etc., could 
not b. -ed with or much reduced as it would be required for reserve though 

: .t for :3e. 

Taki itural pas at 25 cents per 1,000 cubic feet, 40 cubic feet per boiler 

rse-pow- uour actually used to develop power, and a saving of $4 per boiler 

rs«-pow4 ." installed for mechanical stokers, iie average saving would be about 

Vi.OOO pef rinu!!!!!. or a!-'"it 4--_' por .■•I'lit or. t!i>- ti>t;i! annual cost*. (Si-i- siii!:::::)ry, 

■ages :5s and :iJ>.) 

It therefore appears that the saving due to natural gas at 25 cents per 1.000 
cubic feet would probably be but small. Furthermore, it must be noted that such 
saving would only be made if the gas was delivered at the pumping station at that 

t l\ 


/>A.7'.iwn/A;\7- OF I in: isrKRum 

Tf the cost of the pipe line is $200,000 as above, on which the annual charges 
at 10 per cont would be $20,000, it appears that the purchasers could not afford to 
bear the cost of this pipe line. 

On the above basis of cost of pipe and r^uantity of gas, the cost of the pipe 
would add an average of 2-00 cents per l.OOJ cubic feet to the cost of the gas. 


Initial installation. 

Capital cost — 

Two pumping units as before $ 82,500 

Tto 750 horse-power boilers and aecc'sories 33,000 

Buildings, crane, conveyors, etc 41,300 

Wells, conduits, etc 50,000 

Engineering and contingencies, 15 per cent 31,020 

Interest during construction, 5 per cent 11,890 


Per w.ii.p. installed, $90.70. 

Annual cost — 

$ Per cent. 
Capital charges, 11 per cent on $206,800, 8 per cent on 

$42,910 26.180 22 30 

Fuel, 25 cents per 1,000 cubic feet 58,300 49-96 

Labour 11,700 1000 

Oil, waste and supplies 2,500 2-13 

Repairs and maintenance 6,350 5-40 

Management, office and general 12,000 10<S1 

$117,030 100-00 

Per W.II.P. hour, 1-29 cents. 

Per w.H.P. year, $85.20. 

Per 1,000 gallons delivered on height of land, 214 cents. 

Fuel. — Each IC _ .«r cent difference in price of fuel will make 5 per cent dif- 
ference in total costs. 

See estimate for complete plant. 

sol Til S.\KKMrllh:\\l\ H 177.7/ SI I'l'I.Y IH\t:itslO\ I'ltn.ll.rT 47 

Complefi' hmiaUalion. 

Capital cost — 

Ywo pumpinp units as licfore $ 

Throo puitipinpr units as bcforo 1 T.l.fMO 

Six "riO horso-powpr Ixiilors and lu'in-ssorios !1il,0<K> 

Biiildinps. crane, conveyors, etc 1.'?4,2r)0 

Well, conduits, etc Tr),000 

Enpineerinf,' anj contingencies, "J \vit cent 4:.',20<) 

Interest durinp construction, 5 per cent ;{(i,2!t!) 

Per w.H.p. installed, $71.25. 

Annual cost — 

I Per cent. 

Capital clmrpt>«, 11 per cent on J.lfl.'i.iOO. S per cent on 

$72,500 67.900 l.'i.C.'i 

Fuel 2!I1,(HK> CC.tin 

Labour Wl.iM 71<l 

Oil. waste and supplies T.iMW) l.iio 

Repairs and niaintcnanoe 17.SS0 4.10 

Manapement. office and general L'O.IKK) 4('.0 

$436,<>.3() 100-0(> 

Per w.ii.P. hour, 0-965 cents. 

Per W.II.P., year, $63.50. 

Per 1,(KH) gallons delivered on height of land, 1-60 cents. 

Fuel. — Each 10 per cent difference in cost of fuel will make 0-7 per cent differ- 
ence in total cost. 

I 1 


In milking extensions to a water-power station from time to time, niueli e.vjx'nsc 
and delay would Ih? incurred in carrying oct the ui . essary temporary works to e.\eludc' 

It is therefore assunietl that it woidd in this ease be advisable to complete the 
buildings, wheel pits, and tail-races for the final capacity of the plant, while putting 
in the initial installation. 

Especially is this the case as the difference in cost would be only iibout, 
which is a comparatively snuiU item in the total exiH'iiditure. 

This additional expenditure against the initial installation docs not occur in the 
case of any of the other alternatives. On the other hand all tin' nlternniivcs are 
charged with $50,000 to $75,000 as the cost of cribs, conduits anil wells for supplying 
water to the pumps, which would not bo necessary in the case of the water-p>wer 

The following estimates of the cost of water-power do not include any steam 
r«wrve, and attention is culled to the noti-s on this subject on page ."i(t. 


Water Power. 

Initial Installation. 

Two units of 20,000,000 gallons capacity each ijer day, one being reserve. Thirty- 
••"•en feet head for power. 
Capital cost — 

Approximate cost of dam, sluice gates, etc., as per Mr. 

Peter's estimate $1,000,000 

Two horizontal water turbines direct connected to centri- 
fugal pumps, with governors, flexible couplings, 
etc 9 67,200 

Piping and valves inside station, rough labour for erec- 
tion of sets, accessories, etc 8,000 

Excavations, buildings and foundations, including wheel 
pits and tail-races, of capacity for the final installa- 
tion 93,690 

Racks, stoplogs and gear 15,000 

Crane 6.000 


Engineering and contingencies, 1.5 per cent 178,480 


Interest during construction, 5 per cent, two years on dam, one 

year on power plant 109, -OO 


r . • • . 1. 1 *1.4"8,000 

Per B.ii.P. of turbines installed, . „,„- = "WaO. 


. $1,478,000 

Per w.ii.P. required, „ „,. =ip5d0. 
2, 1 60 

Annual cost — 

$ Per cent. 

Capital charges, dam, interest, 8 per cent; siniting fund, 50 
years, 3 per cent compound = 09 per cent; repairs and 
maintenance, 1 i)er cent; taxes, 1 jrt cent; total, S jtcr 

,.,,„( ><O.OIM» ."i2 >*(» 

Power plant and buildings, interest, 5 per cent; sinking I! 
per cent; depreciation, 2 per cent; insurance and taxes, 2 
per cent; total, 12 per cent; 12 per cent on $189,890, 8 

per cent on $287,970 45,800 30 10 

Labour 0.150 603 

Oil, waste and supplies 1,000 -66 

Repairs and maintenance on power plitiit and buildings, 2 per 

cent 3,800 2 -50 

ICanagcment, ofRi-e and general 12,000 7'01 

$tfil,750 10000 



SOI Til s.inKiTriiKww WMEK Si rri,r ni\Eitsio\ rno-iurr 49 

Effi.-ipney of pumps, 75 p.r .ent. l,:iTr. W.U.I', x ^^^ = 1,835 B.H.P. 

Average load, 75 per cent — 

1.835 X '* X 8.760 = 12,050,000 B.II.P. hours. 

Per B.n.P. hour, jt^^i^) =^-2« -"t*- 


Per w.ii.p. hour, 1.26 x - =^1-68 cents. 

_ $151,750 

Per w.H.p. year. ., „_, =fllO. 


Per 1,000 irallons delivered on heisht of land — 

75 per cent of 20,000,000 pallons =^ 15,000,000 gallons per diiy. 

Annual cost, $151,750 = $416 per day. 

i^^« =2.78 cents. 

Complete Installation. 

Two units of 20,000,000 gallons capacity each per 24 hours. 

Three units of ;i0,000,000 (ralhms capacity each per 24 hours. One 30.000.00ft 
gallon unit being reeerve. 

Capital cost — 

Earn, as before $1,000,000 

Buildings $93,600 

Racks, etc 15.00(» 

Crane 6,000 

Two 2,100 horse- power turbines and pumps, as before. . . . 67.2(i0 

Three 3,150 horse-power turbines and pumps 136,500 

Piping and valves insid< ^i.rion, rough labour for erec- 
tion of seta, acceesf vU*, e. ?., as l)efiore 8,000 

Ditto for next three sn.-^ 18,000 


Engineering and contingencies at previous figure, plus 7* per 

cent on additional $154,600 190,067 

InteroBt during construction, 5 per cent, 2 years on dam, 1 year on 

power plant 117.219 


Per B.II.P. of turbine installpil. \■\^\'■,^^ ='121. 

• ^ $t.rtW.«»<t<' 4,«, 
Per w.u.P. required, ^,^^^^^ = fiw. 

I Per cent. 

Annual cost— , ^. oaoo(» 4'» 10 

Capital charges, dam as before ^^V'w 

Power plant an*! buil.lings, 12 per cent on $344,390, 8 per 

cent on $307.286 «»•»«> «*'' 

4t9K(— 4 



! il 



i>Ki:\HT\n:\r or rut: imerwr 

$ Per lent. 

r'?l>o"'' • 15,120 7-08 

Oil, waste and supplies 2,000 l-OS 

Repairs and maintenance on power plant and building, 

2 per cent 6^90 3.63 

Management, office and general 20,000 10-53 

$189,910 100-00 


Efficiency of pumps, ~Tt pir cent, CnST.'J w.ii.p. x -=S>,160 B.H.P. 

9.166 35 ^^ X 8,760 (averape load 75 i>er cent) ^60,200,000 B.ii.r. 


Per W.II.P. hour, 0.315 x „, = 0-42 cents. 


„ $189,010 

Per W.II.P. year, = $27.60. 

Per 1,000 frallons delivered on height of land— 

.in5-x 75...00 = «-«»^ «'"^- 


It is now very (renerally recognized and the principle is being rapidly applied, 
that steam reserve is in most cases a necessary adjunct to hydro-electric plant, if 
continuity of ser\'iec is to be retiionably assured. 

In the case under consideration, the supply of water for all purposes to a 
number of towns, continuity of operation is of vital importance and every reason- 
able precaution must be taken against interruption of service from the water plant 
due to ice, floods, etc. 

In the report of the Commissioner of Corporations on Water Power Develop- 
ment in the United States, March 4, 1912^ (') it is sUted that: " Hydraulic con- 
cerns usually provide themselves with steam auxiliaries . . . There sometimes 
arise emergencies wlien the steam auxiliary is an absolute necessity.' 

Mr. Charles T. Main, the well-known consulting engineer of Boston, Mass. 
stated before the Boston Society of Civil Engineers C) that: '(Icnerally a water 
power tends to have a rather low factor of reliability, due to the fact that there is 
usually only one dam, one power house and often a long transmission line, beside* 
risks from floods and droughts.' 

Mr. E. A. Graham, assistant engineer to the Winnipeg Electric Railway Com- 
pany states (3) that: 'It is becoming recognized more ind more every day that 
hydro-eieetrii- pliints no nuitter Imw wtjl liiiilt mid niierHted, s«>rvt' the public l)cst 
when they are insured by a well-equipped auxiliary plant ... In the case of a 
single hydro-electric plant the auxiliary plant should be of at least half iu capacity.' 

A nnient number of the Electrical Newt (Jan. 1, 1913) says in an editorial 

' The present day tendency in the larger hydro-electric plants in Canada 
is decidedly in favour of some form of auxiliary e<|uipment. The present 

I') (Idvrrnint'iit I'liiitlnir (tinfr. Wiiphliiirtoit. iwis. 
i'» y.l<¥litvitl Wmlil. N.V.. Owcmhfr 23, 1I1(I!1. 

hr Klutih-al .Viir*, Toronto, Januury 1, IjtlJ. 

sin rii s\.<fi\Tcu t:\y.\s w \ir.ii si I'l'i.v i>i\ t:itsio\ i'it<i.nj r 



issue contains n description of the new steam station of tlio Winnipeg Elec- 
tric Railway Company . . . recent issues have described similar steam 
stations in Victoria and Vancouver of the British Col;inibia Electric Trac- 
tion Company. 

' At the present time the Toronto Railway Company and the Toronto 
Electric Litrht Company (who obtain hydro-electric onerpy from the Electric 
Development Company's modern plant at Niagara Falls) are installing auxi- 
liaries in the form of both steam turbo-generators and very large storage 
batteries. The Electric Power Company is just completing the installation 
of Diesel oil standby in Osliawa in addition to several stenni plants already 
available nt different poinl.^ along their distributing system. 

'The Ottawa Light Heat and Power Company and the Ottawa Street 
Railway Company are also at present increasing their au.'siliary ('(luipment, 
and many other compiinies are following the same policy. It is tiAticcaWe 
ti") that these companies are all or nearly nil possessed of what may be almost 
consirlered as unlimited water-powers Disrating under very fav(i\irable con- 

The following taMr yivis a tVw cxaniplt's of the scale im which Caiuiii 
fliH'trir c-(.Mipanic« arc providiiiL' st<Min cir ntber rc-crvc: - 

laii liyilr.i- 


t'ity i>r ('i>iii|«iiiy. 

Hvdiitiilic I'lant. Sti:iin kf^ne. 

IKiminii'ii !'i>»fr aii^l Tran»nii»Mcm <'iihi|iaiiy. Iluiiiiltim "Jl.Mfi" k «. 

Mciiitri'il Li^'lit. Heat iiiid I'.mrr ("..iiiiBiiiy :;4,(IIHi k w. 

Ottawa Ehrtrir CoiM|iaiiy (iri«l(l II 1' liy.lraiilir |iun>hu«e<li t;,.".'.""! k w. 

Uritinli ("i>lniiiliia KlfCtrii'Trailii'ii ("omiwy .•Ci.iiiii) k w . 

TonmUi Klcctrii- I.iKlit Ci>iii|«iiiy Niattam. 

Citv..f Cnlitary, All»ita f alirary I jiwei < . 

WiiitiiiN-K Eliitric Hallway ('<.iii|>aiiy IT.OIIO k.w. 

Oinaiban LiRht anil I'owiT iSt. Ijiwn-ntT ItiKT) l."i,(Hl"W». 

.■>..1iO 1. . |>. 
".•'■"O li p. 
1,.'iiiOli |>. 

i.".,:t<>ti ii |.. 

LlMHNI ll p. 

ir.oiM) ll i>. 

The I racti(V in the T'nited Stales apfK-ars to be similar; for instance, the 
Southern Power Company, one of the largest hydro-electric conceriis in the country, 
has two 8,«MI0 k.w. auxiliary steam turbine generating stations and the Seattle luuni- 

eipality !ia- alinwe.l I .r a .".."Ml k.w. -team n-^erve plant ii nnectiMn will, it- new 

hydro-electric di'veloi nient. (') 

If it is consid^re 1 that in the present case a steam or other fuel reserve is advia- 
able, then it must be of sufficient size to form an adequate reserve; it should be 
remembered, however, that the proposed gravity pipe line, without counting branch 
lines, wo\ild contain, when full, about .100,000,000 gallons (170 miles of pipe from 10 
feet C Inches to C feet 6 inches in diameter) forming in itself considerable storage 
and reserve. 

If, tlierefore, the refcrve fuel plant was of about one-third the capacity ">f the 
initial plant and about one-fourth the capacity of the complete plant, it would 
probably giw- i.iiffioirnt srcurity, as the gravity pijic could lie punipftl up full durinj? 
hours of light demand. 

t ' ) J<"<> n"' "/ Ulrcliiiilfi I'nxiir tin<l 0«», Han FraneHoo, Auiruiit N. t»l2. 



A iiteain {iliiiit intTcly held as reserve and used only oceasionnlly, would lie subject 
to less repairs ami inaiiitenanoe and less oonsiiniptinn of supplies, thouKh probably 
not to less depreciation. 

Hfiliiirciiirnts for fi''iny, such as suix-rheaters anil economizers, would not be 
neceii-iirv. Tlie ciionitnrs of the water-power plant could U- steam enjjiiicers capable 
of nnniiii^' tlic >ii'iiui jilant when required, but sonic additional men would need to be 
BvnilaMc for attciidiutr t" the boilers and also for attention to the plant to keep it 
ready for .-crvicc. 

I'mlcr the iiloxc ii.iiditions the c< sf of such auxiliary plant wouM le alio\it as 
follow-^: — 


InxHal Plant. 

<^ftpital cost. — 

600 horse-power steam turbine and centrifucal pump unit complete 

with build inps, boilers and accessories $ 54,000 

Cribs, conduits and wells 25,000 

i|t TO.tXKl 

Engineerinp and contingencies, 10 per cent 7,900 

$ Sfi.OOO 

Interest during construction, 5 per cent 4,350 

9 91,250 

Annual cost. — 

Capital charges, 11 per cent on $79,000, 8 \ict cent on $12,250. ... $ 9,670 

Fuel, allow 2,000 

Labour, two extra men at $70 per month 1,680 

Oil, waste, supplies 260 

Repairs and maintenance, 1 per cent 790 

Proix)rtion of manapi'ment, office and general 500 


Complete Plant. 

Capital cost. — 

2,400 horse-jMwer of steam turbine and centrifugal pump plant, 

complete with boilen, buildings and accessories $204,000 

Cribs, conduits and wells 60,000 

Enginecrini; and contingencies, 10 per cent 25,400 

InleH*it during cuiiet ruction, 5 per cent 14,000 







'^01* ~Mf PfifTicuuifT c<wo/T/oA/5 coN^toe^eo 

/Vore: 7^e Pfs^fCT/v£- sd£i2^f costs cffp e5Ti/>7/iTej ^t 



WATef} POW£ff. 

STEJOm TutaiNes 

^ /.S69,oco 

/ »d5. ceo 
656, OPO 



)S/ pes, coo 

■fxo CHOt 

^A. C CiO 


y jk?>- o.-jt- 


•fitViOCJ' — ^ 


Qyy'Aur fo to J© 

Fig. 4. 



Annua] cost. — .li iriii-. II per .-(lit "11 i)i:.'7!»."Miii. >- per ••i-iit mi >i(."!ft.4iNt. . iH:l.1,Tfi<> 

Fuc-i, n'low 6,000 

Labo'i.-, three extra men at $70 per mouth 2,520 

Oil, '.aste nnd supplies 750 

Repairs and maintenance, 1 per cent 2.540 

Proportion of management, office and general 1,000 


Adding the alove jinioiints to the eost of water-power plant without steam reserve, 
llii- ri'-iilt- -ii..«n ill till- -iiiiiniiirv nn page* ■■!>« and .'!!• are olitained. 

It will If .lll^ervpd that the water-power plant will, mainly owing to the cost of 
the dam, involve capital expenditure of about $1,000,000 in excess of that necessary 
for a steam furliine plant. 

The watcr-ii..wcr plant, either with or without steam n-serve. involves greater 
cost per l.fHiO n„|],,ii^ jiumped than the steam turbine plant up to an output of about 
25,000.000 gallons per day (see fig. 4). this point the advantage is in favour of the water-power plant and this 
advantage increases so rapidly that on an output of 7.''..0(K),nno gallons per day the 
cost iier 1.000 gallons pumped is 0-86 cents by the water-power plant (with steam 
reserve) against lOti cents by the steam turbine plant, or about one-half. 

This economy, however, is only secure<I, as pointed out above, by the initial 
expenditure of an additional $1,000,000 or thereabouts and this expenditure not only 
provides no economy in the early stages but would be i burden on account of the 
extra capital charges to be met. 


■"onic "i the prinii|ml 

. t'f'.iii liitiiniiih' 1- im; 


troubles in the production of prodiu'er gas 

I :iiicl liunitt » arc -iiic to: — 

for pdWer piir- 

(1) Tar. or tarry matter in the gas. causing clogging of the pii>es, engine 
valves, etc.. am! necessitating considerable complication and exp.Mise for gas 
washers and ^cruhl]ers. 

(2) Excessive amount of manual labour for stoking and cleaning fires, 
breaking up 'caking' coal, iic, leading to waste of partly burnt fuel. 

(3) Formation of clinker, to avoid which quite large quantities of live 
steam must sometimes 1 .> mixed with the air supply, involving i,ot only con- 
>idiraMe expense, but ais<, decreasing the calorific value of the gas produced. 

(4) Xon-uniform quality of the gas. 

The lignite deposits of south Saskatchewan furnish a fuel which appears to be 
particularly suited for the making of producer gas with a minimum of difficulty from 
the above causw. 

The test made by the Department of Mines, Ottawa, (') on these coals for this 
purpose show very favourable results and are dealt with in considerable detail in the 
refport is.-ued on the subject. 

Taitlurtnn /i</»i/..« — Poncerning this fuel from the Estevan district, the alwve 
quoted report states that while it. has low calorific value, is high in ash and contains 
much intrinsic moisture, the trials showed that it is very suitable for the making of 
prodiieer gas, and that : — 

(1) The gas contained no tar and it was not necessary to use either gas 
washer or scrubber. 

(1) Am liivi'i-iiKiitiiiii iif llif <'nnlii of I'ntiiHhi. xol. II. 1912. 

SOI Til N.INAM7CH..iri\ Ml It: I! si I'l'l-Y DIVKh'slitX I'KO.IUrT 


(2) The fuel W8R I'lisy to work, ihrrp was no Lnkiiijf ami very littlo attention 
fo the fire was required. 

(3) Little or no steiim was required. 

(4) flood efficiency was olitaintil with pn.« of hiph pali.rifii- valm- ami uni- 
form quality. 

t'5) The fuel appeared much more suitatile for >ij-e in a propi-rly il«>sipn<>^ 
ga» pifMlueer than in an ordinary- steam lioiler. 

Lake of the Hirers 7)M/r»c<.-— Par; •> ulars of the fuel produitsl by the ( onsumem 
Coal Company are Rive-i umler that head, but for (•oiiipariH>n tlie c<.iiiliwi..ii» of the 
special report (') of the Mines D.-partnient im tlii- fuel may 1k> niMntel In re: - 

'The fuel bume<l uniformly without the formation «! triMibl.-.ime clinker. 
•The gas giMuruted wa.s tar-friM- and the heatinjr vali'.' 
•The engine valves were found to b«> exeiplionally "Itan after a run «i 40 

•The liBiiite may lie pronoun vd an excellent fuel tor the pr.><luctU)n of 
l>ower when utilized in a pr(«liicer nas plant a.* it arrivtw froii. the mine-, with- 
out further tn-atment. The t^'udeniy t.> disintegrate <bH s not in any way inter- 
fere with its oiK'ration.' 

Tlie principal data c.ncerninif tlur.e fuels as containivl in the above (|vu)ted 
reports, may be summarized thus: — 

Wftttt-rii l>*iiiiiiii(iii 

i '->ii»uiiiciH < 'iial 

t...lli.ii.». I.ivlortim. ,'|„. hi^el■.. 

(•|a«.ofc.»l-LitfMit.- "l"'iV'ii"i'.' 

lloriM. l*owf*r of (ilunt 

l^engtli of U'Bt 

Kiwl, lii»t unit* ill ilry nwl 
Kiifl. ("■lit iiiiitu ii» ili»rK>il 
Kr.i'l'. iiuliiiliinf «u\'liiirif!<. . . 

< it*, ^ ivi' lii-at iinitu 

till", i-i. ic iii-t in-r |ioun<l coal 

i'nuliK' rtiiieni'V 

40 H.H.r. 

■J4 lioiii*. 


•i .vt ;i... 

ifj : ».T.r. 

42 r. 

•,7 X 

Kill) of iiiiiit-. 

40 lioiirx. 
10.tiO« H.T.I'. 


Al'IRoMMATK AN.M.VSIS. f VmI. As • '"MHiK.! >. 

•V-li. Moiotiin'. 




Wtntfrn iKiiiiiiiioii Collii-riwn 
Coni«iiiiifn« foal ('oiii|Miiiy. . . . 

»i 7 
.II 8-.' 


7 2 33 3 

7 !•: :a I'i 

These conclusioMs ai > practically confirmed by the numerous and thorough tesU 
made by the I'liited Suites liiircuu of Mines on North Dakota and other lignites. (•') 
The Saskntehewan (S iris) and North Dakota deposits are stated to be geolo«ically 
port of the same coal ' Field.' 

On patte 118 of the lV|.nrtment of Mines (Ottawa) reiiort before n-ferrod to, 
there is trivon a comparatite table of the heat expenditure for Renerating producer 

<•) Letter of Jnlv 12. 1912. , , .,,.,.„ 

i») liisutflrliMt .|u:intit,v of cui'l ^fiit lo il.-tfriiilMf voliiiiu' of h;ih KFiuTati'il. but iinUi-ulloiiM 

«t>re that it woald li«Te bet-n laHsfartory. 

(') Vox- iletallH »et' Hullitiii ^^ ami Tfrhiiiial I'miiT '.>. 


gas for power purposes with reprrsentatlve Canadian coals. Concerning this table 
it is stated that: — 

' This table . . . would give the proportional cost for fuel assuming 
lliiit 111) thi' i-oiiis were sold nt the siiiiit' price [ht 1,0<H> B.T.U. This order i>f 
arranp^rment is not quite fair to some coals and gives others some slight 
undue adrantage, but affords a general idea of the relative performance of 
the vorious groups.' 

The table includes twenty-eight coals of all classes taken from coast to coast, 
and shows that, in terms of heat units per B.If.P. hour, the Taylorton lignite takes 
second place for producer gas purposes, the first place being held by Edmonton 

This table brings out the point that the higher quality coals are not neces- 
sarily the best for gas producer purposes. 

In Technical Paper 9 of the United States Bureau of Mines, it is stated 
that :— 

' It was found that the low grade lignite of North Dakota developed as 
much piiwiT when converted into priHliicer piis as di<l the best West Virginia 
bituminous coals burned under the steam boiler. It is estimated that on an 
average each coal tested in the producer gas plant developed two and one- 
half times the power that it would develop in the ordinary steam boiler 

From the above it will be seen that the local lignites are in every way suitable 
for a producer gas plant and that they are of a nature to minimize the capital and 
operating costs of such a plant. 

Furthermore, it is probable that the lignite deposits in still closer proximity 
to the proposed pumping station would possess similar characteristics. 


Initial Installation. 

Maximum load = 2,590 b.h.p., avcrn^e 1.940 b.h.p. 
Pressure plant without ammonia n-' overy. 
One spare unit = 100 per cent resti • e. 

Lignite screenings, about 8,500 B.T T. as tired. $1 per ton at the mine direct to 
oonveyors and bunkers. 

Capital cost — 

Two 2,000 D.ii.r. gas electric ^ s ?_'24,000 

(jas jjroducers for 6,000 B.H.P. i lialf reserve) 90,000 

Switchboards, transformers, etc 31,200 

Crane, coal and ash convc, )rg, small bunkers (mine dump forms 

ctorago) 9,000 

Buildings and foundations 56,tiOO 

Engineering and contingencieg, 10 per cent 41.020 

Interesi during construction, 5 per cent 22.500 

Per B.II.P., $91. Per k.w., $1.1.3. 

SOUTH SASKATrimVAy »irf:K SII'N.Y niVKKsluS 1'KuJF.rT 

$ Per wot. 

Annual coat — . , . , j , . 

Capital charge*: Interest, 5 ■.-r cent; ainkn* fund. per 
cent; depreciation, 3 per cent; insurance «"'»'«'''*•- 

per cent: total, 13 per cent. 13 per cent on »410.2<M.. _^ _^^^ ^^^ ^^ 

8 per cent on $63,580 ■)•• s'(h> 18-87 

Fuel, 17,000,000 b.ii.p. hours, 2 80 lbs -'•_^ ^^ 

Labour "■ - tr.o tiOS 

Oil. waste ana supplies. 4r. cents per ^auv .; • 

Repairs and maintenance. 3 per cent on $410.fK>0 -.^J .« 

Mnnngement. oflRce and general " „ 



P« mi r hour ^^'"''^ = 0-74 cents 
Per B.ii.r. Hour, ^- ^^ ^joy 

Per B.1I.P. year, ^^soo = *^ ' '"• 

$48.60 x 1,000 X 100 _ „- 
Per K.W., year, ..^g 92 " ' 

See also complete installation. 


Recovery of By-produch. 

For a plant of tl. size of the j-tial y> J«||;;;^n -iO. an o. . 
at the rate of 1,940 B.ll.i'.. it is doubtful wh.tli.r tin. ro-twrj ' •.' , „ . 

r;'=J. o ;:;n.i «S":;tv.;o'.;r-;,„ti:vi.o..,. ...... . -. ...™> .•-.- 

day would, however, require a .•apacity of about 1...0<H1 lui.i .. .uul 1 

of ga* V^f hour. 

(I) r. S. Hureau of MliieH. Hull'Mii i:!. 
(-( The (SeinTalloii ami DistrilMilicm 
Hiiniplirey. Proc. Inst., C.E., 19U. 

liaise 'I'l 
i)f rriiilui 

Smiih St.ifroriUhiro, H. A. 


i>t:i'.{Hi\n:\r or rut: ixtkrior 

Piil.lir Mipply w.i- .oniiiK'ncMl in Mny, ]!X»5. nnd until th- .late r.f the report 
(about S.",)t.iiilKT, 1}»12) tlnTP is stated not to Imvp been a «in>rlp stoppnue of the ga« 
supply from the station. 

Oat. — The average aiialysis of the gas is:- 


IF .. 
X . . 

Voluiiip Her cent. 

.... 17 40 

.... 10.31 

. . . . ia-'>Tt 

.. . ;i.L'.-. 

.... 4;}.4U 

IliKhiT <vil..rifi.' viiluc. 1.-.l-3;i B.T.K. 



C'oal.~.\ larjip iiuimIkt of fuels liavo btiii used .su.Hes.->fully the puat 


The iinal,v.>i-i of the iirt'^ciit bitiiriiiuous slack is: — 

Pit reiit. 

•^-'' li»-40 

Vcialil.. iiiattor 35.30 

^' '<.'■"*-'"•" MG 

iloisturc Id.'id 

C'aloriHc valuo, ll,4»;<i B.T.U. 

/ViV,' of r/ij*.— In June, 191:.', liif avorage prit-e rcaliz.d was ;!■(! cents per 1,000 
cubic feet, delivered. 

Vostn.'-Tlw rcsult-s actually obtained in I'Jl-J, wiicn fiasifyiu); i-oal at tiic rate of 
40,00(1 tons |ier annum, were: — 


Slack for producers and boilers 1.59 

Cost i>{ nianufacturinjr. including wage.s, materials, acids, stores, 

etc., and all repairs and maintenance \.4-> 

By sale of by-products. 


Net cost, including general charRcs 0.81 

General cJiar^es, includni.1? interest ,jii debentures but not on share 
capital. (Paid-up capital $l,C(iS.iHKi, including U4S,(HK) of 
dtlK-ntures.) \'9 

Cost per l.tXKi cubic feet of gas made 2-(iO 

Ao/c— This includes distribution in an extensive system of pipes, and carriage 
of eoal by rail. 

By-ltruiliirU ohfained.—W'ith 3,:M»0 tons of bituminous slack gasified jwr month 
the by-products sold were appro.ximately : — 

Tar 280 tons jK-r month. 

•Sulpliate ol amin.aiia J-'O tons per nwnth. 

The tar is use<l for roofing, paving, briquet! ing and by tar distilleries. The 
ammonia is used prin<ipal]y in the manufacture of artificial manure. Both the annual 
consumption and the market price of sulphate of ammonia have been increasing 
during the List ten years. 


s,„rn .s.>A.7r//n. .X » ^T^:R .w/-/;,) nn^:l(<ms run.nrT 


'• ' Th. folio..,.. ,«ints >--.v.r mny V. .nk...«s„ ......^^ ^^^^ 

i„ tl^ f,'l. From .... a..ovo it .i.. ..■ ^... ."a. ';-;;:'/;: ■,!,.'' ^ '.h^.u.. 

(') s>nv 1-0.". piT cent. , ■ i . . i-o .„ nn.U im - to.i of 'IS^OO 

The proportion of tar at l)n.ll..y Port .. enu.v«l..n. to 1 . P -- >- ^ ^ ^^,^^,^, 

pound, of T.... rni....l r.ov.rn.nen - y;, ', J 'j^. „,. ..vorage 
a production of fi.l.f.! nnd 07 pounds ,H-r .on fron, .l.tfor. nt ..n.| 
of S.- pounds: in n.l c..-^.^ with wnti-r oxtracte.!. 

It would Mvn, a,lvi-nM... .luTcforr. to rod.xv tl.o .-st.nmtv- ... th. al"-. ir 1 

*"" Tl... coal n.p,i. of t..c co„.p.c,c installn,...n of '•»; V-|»-;;,^i;";:.r Z 

avora«c of thnc-.p.artcr- -d withov.t tnr recovery «• 

annum. i i . i i, .r-,. . 'tra fuel s.iould 

As ,..c rnnoval ..f th- ..- decreases .ho l.oa vahu _ I ■ ; _„. *;;V,,,,, ,„,„„. 
,,. „llo...d for. As ,1. an.ount of tar ,n S-k«t.-h..«an . _^ ;- ■ = r^^.^ ^^^^ ^,^^ 
M, per e, ... will he al! w.mI. a lotal ot l.n.-.'Kt to. 
Dudley I'or. I'asis wuild produce :~ 

Sulphate of aninioiiia. 

ll,ir>0 .oTi* (M^r aiuiu.u. 
4.TX) tons piT a.u.un.. 

- 1 t 1 ..-^iw iiriiTui tioll of ltV-|'rOU>UCtS 

lJ,duei„B .h,s on .he a..ove ..asis for the apparent .ower prop.,...on . . M 
in .he .oral lignites, we '• 

Mve: — 

Ta.-. ll.l-'><> V 

1 or. 

.■..550 loi.s iKT a.i.iu.n. 

. , -w(» V ' i !:>'» .ous per animii'- 

Ammonia, *." •' ^ | (c, ' " ' 

I- 1 ioi"^ ,.-;e>. of cold tar in Montreal is *l.50 per 

Tar.— The present (l-ehruary. lOl- P^ue ot coai 

br.rrel of 4(i jiallons, weighing uhout .it", pounds. 

5,550 x2.l«Nt jj 1^ 5p ^ |j)9^(KXt iKT annum. 

..,„,,„, ., .4,„.,,,...... -Ti„. ,.r,-... i«;''-j|;;;;:~:i;;;;;;:'.'d .Ir;": -hS 


4.330 tons X *•«> ^- *-'5'.».MM) i^r annum. 

Total hi sate of (,ri'<-o-'^«./...-«35'.).:<H) per aununi, less oNiK-nso.. 

1„ anv consideration of the valoe an.l sale of .uch hy-pvoducts '« "-j^.'';-;^;:;;; 
her., that .he plant ir'-trft^'ir't^i^'SSe^Xh".^ ^uX^ ^1 

::::;rLt:;h:;r;:^;:id'tw n::.r:r;Shate- of ammoma «. a w... 

prohahly l)e making itself felt. 

)') \n Iiiv.KtlKatioii of tlu- I t.Hls »1 ' .01.. I.i. vol. .. . > . 
.-•1 Kullrtlll 1:1. f.iltMl Stale. Huiejui -f .Mu"" 


60 in:i'.\itrMt:\T or tiik isruuiuit 

rRuincKR <;.\s ii.wr <>\ tiik coai. kiklk. 
Complete Inntallalion wilK By-product Recovery. 

Miixiiiiiiin l.iml, i:j,n<¥i n.ii.iv Av(•rJl^'l■ bmd. !t,T50 n.ii.r. 
One liimre unit of .1,00(1 b.ii.p. = i'^ -r cent roserve. 
Capital cost — 

Two 2,0«)rt 11,11. 1', pus rlpctrif sonN, a* lioforo $224,000 

(ias producers for (5,(KK) n.ii.ii fM(,(K>0 

I Thrt>«> .'Lltoo n.ii.r. pas-pUftrit sots ' 4lo!ooo 

f <'iis proiliK'frs for i:!,5(M) ii.n.i' 170 ooo 

; Complete equipineiit for ammoniii mid tar recover}- 107.500 

foal and ash conveyors, biinker->, crime 24.400 

Biiildinirs and foundations 177 500 

I .... fH,2O9.40O 

I ngineerint; nnd eontinKcncies, 7} jur cent 00,700 


Interest diirinj; construction, 5 per cent i;."..(iOfl 


iVr B.ll.i'. iii'tidled. - .-^ $^.<J. 


i> 4 . 1.000 100 

Per K.W.. ♦»., X X -- $124. 

740 92 

, , $ Per cent. 

Anniiul cost— 

Capital chiirBcs, l.J jht cent <>n $1.2iUt.KN\ s [jer cent ..n 

$1.''>.''.,7(M» H'.n,4{5() .•!!l..'iO 

Fuel, p.iwer unly, ^.'(,4fKl,(HMI H.ii.e. ||,.ur- nt 2 ^o 

IwiuimU |H'r 11,11. 1-. liiiiir •*n!>,.')i"» 

Fuel, extra if fur ret-overed, It) p.r cent 11,!i,'i<» 

i:!1.4.M> .W.'io 

I^liour, [xiwer priKlncliiM only .'I.'i.OiO S.l.T 

Oil, wBsti- mid 8uppliu4 ,'ls.4(Ht H 91 

Repairs and niHinteniince, .'t |Kr cent .';•'. 2S0 N.42 

Management, oHice tiiid Rf'nernl 20,00<» 4.t!4 

$4.'!0..'.S0 KiOOO 

(Per II. II. p. hour, -.'.o.'.; |Mr k.w.ii.. T'i.".). 

liv -liU- i.f hv-priidiict- iw iicr pre.-.- lin^r cnjciil.iiii.n. !!':!.'i!t.7iK); di*- 
count this .'1.'. iK-r cent for co-.t of ncid, extra Iiihrn'r and cost 
of mnrketiiiK $2:!.'!.snO 

Not cost tin'i.T^O 

I'er n.ii.f. hour, 0.2.12 <ent« 


Per K.W.II., 0..14, 

Per H.ll.l'., year of inaxiniiiin <lciii:iiid — 
13,000 -^•^'•'••- '^'-•*--- 
Per l.noti eii'iic feet of gns •.( nrraliil- 
$l!i(',7so X 1110 

i;ii.».M. X i'.(jo„ X .,o='-^^^-«"»- 



SltlTII S.XSKATt IIHWW H.r/A.-ff Si ri'l.Y /»/» A7.'>7«* V I'ltOJKVT 


See followinp pofftw ns to cost of transmission and oiMTalinu sub-stiitlon at p\niip- 
iiiji i.lmit. nii<l pilars (•..-, iinJ •»! for t.-tul .-.-t with pr.Hliir.T pw in.-hulHiK traiisniis- 
Nion iiiitl |iiinipiii)r. 

In support of these estimated costs it may be stated that the Power flas Corpora- 
tion. Limited, of .19 Victoria Street, London. Enirland. clain-. CI that a larire recovery 
plant in continuous operation can produce at less than 1 cimt per 1.000 cubic feet of 
ffas, and that the total works cost per K.w. hour sold, with slack at $J would be 0-188 
cents. Addinii 13'^^ for ar.n\ial capital charKcs this would 1«> 0-2lL» cents per 
K.w. hour sold. 

At Messrs. Brunner, Mond and Company's works in Cheshire. EuRhmd. the fuel 
coat with continuous running has worketl out at 0.09(1 cents with slack at $1.70 deliv- 
erml. This o<|uivalcnt to O.O.'i? cciit-s \wr K.w. lioiir with <oaI at 11. for fuel only. 

Mr. Leonard Andrews (■^. manacintr director of the Key EnirineerinR Company, 
jfives the total costs with a 10.000 k.w. plant, including 10 per cent interest and 
depreciation at 0.27 cents per K.w. hour. 

Cost of TransmUsion Lines. 

The two established sources of coul nearest to the proi>osed punipinj? station are 
at Lak,' of the Rivera (Consumer's I'oal Company, which sec) and in the Kstcvan 
district. Coal is known to exist at nearer points, as at Outlook on the C. P. R.. ^ut no 
very definite information is at hand as to q\iantity and quality. 

The distance from Lake of the Rivers to the South Saskatchewan river, near 
Biyceton, is about ninety-five miles in an air line; allowinff 10 ycr cent for deviations 
and contours, say 105 miles. The distance from Estevan in a «i:nilar manner wo.ild 
be about 245 miles. 

It may be presumed that it would be desired' — 

(1) To build a line of the best permanent construction. 

(2) To provide two circuits as security against interruption of supply. 

Capacily.— The electrical power require.1 to be delivered at the pumpinj? station 
would be for- 20,000.000 gallons capacity per day— 1 fiOO k.w. (average load assumed 
15.000.000 gallons ^ 1.200 k.w.) 100,000.000 gallons capacity per dn.v— 8.<K)0 k.w. 

Assuming as above, 105 miles transmission from the mines at lake of the Rivers, 
it would require a No. 0000 B. and R. aluminum wire to transmit 8.S00 k.w. (H.OOO 
plu8 10 per cent margin) at H8.000 volts (SO.OOO at receiver end) with about 5 iM>r cent 

It is however questionable whether it would be advisable to instal at first for such 
a distant future as the full requirements. 

If we take three times the initial requirement of 1,600 k.w., i.e.. 4,800 k.w., the 
power could be transmittal by a No. aluminum wire and the total difference in cost 
with aluminum at 23 cents per pound would be $75,000 or about 12 per cent of the 
total cost of the line. 

As, however, this is but a small pcrccnt:igc on the l.lal cost of the complete under- 
taking, and to change the wire with the plant in operation would involve considerable 
expense, it will l)e assumed that the line is built of full capacity in the first place. 

Right of way.— To purchase a (10-foot right o' way at $20 per acre with hgnl 
expenses, fencing, etc., would ccst about $350 ik- miU. but it may be anticipated that 
this could be cousiderably reduced by obtaining easements only over cross-country 
IWTtions and that an average cost of $2(MI \K-r mile will be luflfi.Ment to allow in tho 

(1) Slrelrical Timrt. London, May 28. '»'''• 
(i) Kliilrieul Ptvietr, London. October 25, l'»07. 


i>h:ir\in\in\i «/' iin: iMiKimt 

Sfeel Tower rertiiy Pole Line 

A doubli' circuit steel towor line for S*8,iKK) volts, of the bc,«t cim*tructim, would 
post nbou: nn follows •. — 

Miitcriiil and ercetion, per mile ik5,3(K) 

EnBintvritiir iiiiJ i-ontinRen-ies, 10 per ci'iit M'* 

Riiclit of wny. cuseincnts and feneintf 2<>() 

I $•!.(•:!' » 

-^ A .-iiiRlo circuit wood pol linc of t!ie l»esi construction would cost alKiut: — 

t Material and erc<'tion, |)or mile $2.5ttO 

Enpinecriiijf and oontintrencicr', 10 jkt cent 250 

Right of way. etc 200 


A» two siuKle cin-uit pole lines -.vould be reiiuire<l to jrive pro|M'r sccii'ity ap\inst 
breakdowns it will be s'hmi that the po^t would K; nearly e<|ual. Two siiiKle circuit 
pole lines will usually (rive prentor security n;;ainst interniption than a double circuit 
steel tower line, but for the vtdtajre required it is doubtful if a pole line woidJ be ns 
Mtisfnetory as a ste<'l tower line. Furthennore, the depreciation ami mainteiumce on 
a pole line are so much higher than a steel t.iwer line that the latter would, under the 
eircumstnnces, be ilecidedly the best in estment. A womlen \m\e line is therefore not 
further considered. 

TranxmisiioH from EUeran. — The foregoing has been based on a line fron! the lake 
of the Hivi'rs, a distance of l<'f) milw. The <listatice from the Estevan district, with 
10 per cent margin for deviations, etc., would bo about 245 miles. To transmit the 
same iiii-ount of power witii about the same loss woidd tln-n n'cpiite 110,0<X» volts 
with a No. <Ht00 copper wire. This would involve higher cost per r"ile for wire and 
towers in addition to the increasetl mile.iire, and also higher cost for transform in^: and 
switchinff npparatu . 

roHT ol- !!^\^^.V!lTI i; IIIWKU IIIO.M \.\KY. Ill THK tin KRK SIKKI. ToWKR LINK. 8'*,000 >OI.T8. 

1U5 MILF..-*. 

Initial Itmtalla'i'n. 

Ma.Yimuni I'.ad. 1,000 k.w. .\verau( load, 1,2"N> k.w. 
Capital cost- 
Tower line complete at >.'i,;jOO jier mile $55fi,0«0 

Kiglit of way, euM-nieht- and fencing at 1200 per mile 21,000 

Twi) l,7y) k.w. stcj' up irunsfi.riner- and switching e(|uipme:it at 

power statinn witli extra liuiWiiig s|iace 24,l>20 

Ditt" Ht pi ntpiotf statinn 24,920 


Fiigiheeriiii.' ami coll! irij;eii. !«'«, 10 )r<>r cent 02,680 

Intire!>i diiriii? c-iistnictioii .'> per .ent 34,470 


, $724,000 
Per K.w delivin'tl. $450. 


(Includt^ transfuruicrg, switching itiuipnieiit Hn<l buililiiigs at both end. ..( the 

sni 111 sAsK nriif:\\ w \\Mt:i: si I'l'i.y iu\f:i{sio\ rintirAt 63 

$ IVr cent. 

Annual cost — 

Interest, 5 per cent; sinkinp fund (2r> yeors"). 3 prr rent S'TS 

Repairs and mainfenmu-c, 5 per ovn\\ tsixps, 1 per oeiit 13-75 

Capital changes, 13-75 jn-r cent iin t02fi,S40, ".7.1 per cent 

on $97.150 0:!.r.2i) SX.2() 

Patrollintc the lino at fSO per mile o,100 7 i)2 

l-oi>.s of power in triinsl'iiiiiuiiion and trini.*niis»iiin, ^;i.v .'> per 

cent on 1.203 k.w. nt 75 «>ents per 4,130 3.S« 

llOO.O.nO 10000 


Per K.w. II. delivered.^ „,. ^= 101 cents. 

1,200 X 8.7<'.o 

Complete Instnllalion. 

Maximvini l.mds S.OOO k.w. .\veraKe load. <»,000 k.w. 

Capita! cost- 
Tower line, as before fft.-iO.OOO 

Rijrht of way, OS liefore '.'1.<MH) 

Two 1,780 k.w. transformers, etc ♦24.!i20 

Four 2.000 ditto (1 span) complete with switcliinir 

equipment, etc 50.000 


Ditto at pumpin« station sO,l>20 

EiiBineerinp an<l continponcies. 10 per .-cnt 73,880 

Interest duriuB eoni.tni<l ion, 5 i>«r cent 40,<t3(; 


. . , $8.'.3,400 .,^„ 

Per K.w. deiiver.d. ^^^ = $107. 

( Includes transformeri', -witcliins: equipment and buildinits for same »♦ both ends 

of line.) 

$ I'er cent 

Annual co«t- 

Capitnl cliartifi.. V\'T> yrr rvm nu ♦738,«*10, 7'75 \h'T 

rvut 1.11 ii«lH..".-'0 lli>,;i»!t» 7.! ;i 

Patrollinw line 8.400 .'..fl 

L.,»^ ,,f |h.«er. T* on '(.lOli k.w. nt .75 cents 31,!)00 21 I 

$160,000 lOO-tW 

P.r K.w. II. dclivercl. ^„ . 0.28« cents. 

«,0(M) X (<,7«o 

jV'o/e.— The co«t« per k.w. of capacity and per k.w. hour are very high on this line, 
uwinn to its liciufc of lir!«t-clHs.i und c()iiipiie<l for two eirt'nits and yet 
carryinR only ^.IKMi k.w. If a siiiiilnr line was fnn«tructeil r.> carry say ■J*<,\W»> k.w. 
and the iBhincc distributed for (jeneral |M»wer purposes, the • M {>er k.w. w<.hW be 
greatly reduced. 






The foUowiiijr estimate considers centrifugal pumps driven by electric motors, 
operated by power transmitted from a producer gas plant situated on the coal field, 
the pumping station then beir-g practically a sub-station of the producer plant. 

The cost of transformer.*, switchgear and buildings for same and the loss in 
transmission and transformation is allowed for under ' Cost of Transmission.' 

The cost of ' ^lanogcment. Office and General ' is included under the cost of 
operating the producer gns plant, in which th*; cost of a mechanic is also included. 

In considering the apparently high comparative cost of power from producer gas, 
it must be remembered that in this case this oost covers two separate buildings, plants 
and operating staffs and a long and expensive trantimission with losses in transmis- 
sion and transformation, placing it under a great disadvantage with water power 
generated on the spot where it is required. 



Two 20,000,000 gallon units, one being reserve. 

Initial Installation. 
Capital cost — 

Two electric motor driven centrifugal pumping units • 41,900 

Accessories, rough labour for erection of sets, etc 5,000 

Buildings and foundations 16,850 

Cribs, conduits, wells and piping inside station 60,000 

Engineering and contingencies, 15 per cent 17,060 

Interest during c< instruction, 6 per cent 0,540 


Annual coat — 

Capital charges, 11 per cent on $113,750, 8 per cent on $2.'5,690. . $ 14,3»0 

Labour 7,530 

Oil, waste and supplies 600 

Repairs and maintenance, 2 per cent 2,340 

I 24,760 

(Re management, transformation, etc., see preceding notes.) 


Complete Initallalion. 
Capital cost — 

Two 20,000,000 gallon units as before I 41,900 

Three 30,000.000 gallon units 88,200 

Accessories rough labour for erection of sets, etc 12.000 

soiTH n:iTt:K si riu.Y iuvhrsiox i'iioject 65 

liiiildiii^s, fiiiiniliitioii:- uiid cmiM' #:.N,0<)») 

Cribs, conduits, wells nnd piping inside station 75,000 

Engineering and contingencies, 7} per cent 18,380 

Interest during construction, 5 per cent 13,170 


Annual cost — 

Capital charges, 11 per cent on $245,100, S per cent on $31,650. ... $ 20,520 

Labour 8,340 

Oil, waste and supplies 1,200 

Repairs and maintenance, 2 per cent 4.000 

{Re Management, trannformution, &c., see notes preceding initial inBtnllution.) 


Initial Plant. 

Capital coat — 

I'riHli!<-<>r pliiiit nil ••lull tii'ld (|>hk<' •*><>) $47:i.H(M) 

TriiiiKnii'>r<i<in of power (|>»ku tii) 724,000 

l'um|iiiig pliiiit (I'loctric) (|iagi-i>4) 1.'17,30<l 

ToUl capital coet $1,335,100 

„ . ,$1,3:15.000 ,^^, 

Per w.ii.r. rttiiiirfd _ = $485. 

Per B.II.P. re<iuin'd. ■* " '"' = $364. 

Annual coat — 

I'rmluit'r jfii» plant ( phk<' •'>") $120,000 

TrniMniisnion of power ( imjn- «W) 106,10(1 

Piiiiipin^r pliiiit (pii^rc *'>4) 24,800 

Total annual cost $256,000 

PerB....H. lumr.j.^^,^^,,^^ .L'.lHnenta. 

213 X UN) 
Per w.H.p. hour, _ — 2-84 cents. 


_ $866,lMi(t 

Per w.ii.p. year, -- $187. 

1.3 !•> 

Per 1,000 gallunK delivcn'tl on lieiKlit of land 

75 per rent of 2(MKKMHH) gidlous - IS.tlOO.liOO gallons p«r da.v. 
Annual cost. $2r>«,lHM) ■= I'OS |)er day. 

= 4-60 centa. 


in:r.iKTyK\T or the istkkior 

Complete Plant. 
Capital cost — 

Pr.«lm-.T pli nr on .-oul tiold ( |Hnro «<>) $l,3flr>,100 

Truiiiiini»»ii>ii i<( |mi\v<t (pinri' IW) S.'>3,4flO 

ul*iii|'iii»r plimt (tliM'irif) (pajr"' •'•'') 27fl.70O 

Total capital co«t t2.4»5.20O 

. .»2.40«,2OO -„,„ 
Per w.ii.i". required, aft.,," = "78. 

$278 X 76 ^ana 
Per B.H.P., = 1209. 

Anntial co«t — „^ ,;>^ 

l'r.«lu<-.T n.i^ I'lmit (piiKo m.) i^n'-ftft 

TniiiKiiiifi^i f iM.w.T (iMino •«) l.ift.iOO 

I'liiiilMiijf pliiiit (piitr.- •(.'•) 44.n(»0 

Total annual co«t |-191.6flO 

Per w.ii.P. hour, ^^ O.flo oentg. 

o.nn X i(H» 

Per B.II.P. hour, _, ^ 0.865 wnt». 


Per W.H.P. year, ^ -_^ = W?. 

Ppr l.OOO Kiillona dolivered on lieinht of land— 

mum _,.42,,„„. 

365 X 75.001) 


It will Ih. «■.•.. til.- ..ii pn»r.-s :is .ui.l :»• that th.- .-"tinuiti-H ^how « 
hiffh '-"St for pro,lu.vr k«h i.owor. hlKlH-r than any of tlie altomativ.-!.. an-l that the 
w,.t.T|.o«.r without .tram r—rv.. -h-.w- th. low.-t ■■ .-t |«r horM-p>'«-.r .-xii-pt 

for tlio initial installation. 

The cctimatc*. however, have l>««en prepared to inwt a particular case and not at 
a genernl eoropnriiton. 

To meet thi« case the priKlnccr ira» power has to lio trannmitted aiM.ut 100 mile* 
to conii*tji with water-power to Ik) uw-d at the upot where it in dcvelop«'<l, and >lirectly 
applied without conversion. ... 

Thii tran»fni«»ion of the Ran power involvea in thin case a double circuit steel 
tower lino of tlio be*t construction to carry n coinpnrntivcly small amount of power, 
inrolving a hijfh cost per hors«'-iK>wer year. 

Furthermon'. the producer kus estimate, as a complete catimate for the purpose, 
include'* the cost of traiisforminn stations at hoth ends of the line and all lo»»es. of 
two separate l.tiildinKs and plant* (|).)wcr plant and pumping' plant) atid two staffs 
for operating the same. 

The waler-powT ami other plants arc not Ininlcncd with tlu>se costs, though the 
wateriHiwer iilant has a very cxp«'n«ive dam. 

The eMtimales muitt therefore not lie taken as an indication of the ahility of pro- 
ducer irns to compete under any other conditions. 

The cost hy wal<r and tta* at the n'S|Httivc spot-* where the i)cwct is KCMerate<l 
it, accordinii to the estimates, for a conipltte installation:— 

Pn.ducer (tns p<'r B.II.P. year $1515 

Watcr-|K>wer, uo steam rcnerve \*'r u.ii.P. year 20.70 

Watcr-powt-r, with steam rcHcrvc i»>r ii.ii.P. year 2ft 30 

Rovrn sAHKtTiHnrA\ nATt:R si rriA iu\t:Kxio\ vKttJEvT 


It i» of iiil«T«f«t ti> nmxi.liT. further. Ii..w tlii< .■imi|MiriM.ii wtnii.l if tho phit 
wen- r.'v.r-Mtl iiikI ih.' wMt.r-ix.wir lm<l t.. bo truii« im.l.-r tlio sum.- <oii<lition» 
to compete with producer gas where it i§ produced. 

To make such a comparison properly and fairly, the size of the water power plant 
would have to be increased to allow for transformation nnd transmission losses and 
the size of tho gas plant correspondingly reduced. 

This would involve preparing new estimates, and as it is not an actual case does 
not justify the detail, but a rough idea may l»e (ibtninod by adding the costs per B.H.P., 
due to the transmission, transformation, lino losses and extra plant and staff, to the 
water-power cost instead of to the producer gas cost. 

This gives the following result:— 








,.\» ON 




r»i.ili.l<.».l j»r llll.l' 
«'i»it |HT H.ll.l'. v<iir 
(Vint |»r li.ll.r. IwMir. 

iii>titllt'<l . 





2 2H 


1) «iic. 

This comparison, uguin, lioliW goo.l only for lliis size of plant operating on this 
load factor (about 75 per cent), but it is sufficient to indicate that if power was 
requirecl at a point to which either power would have to be transmitted, the case 
would have to be considered on its merits. 

rrRcUASG or power. 

An alternative that might Ix? considered is the purchase of electric or other 
power by the propo8e<l Commission, delivered ' in bulk ' at their pumping station on 
the South Saskatchewan river. 

Such a i-our»e would relieve the Commission of a large part of the capital 
expenditure and of the operation of a generating station, but still leave in their 
hands the operation of the pumping plant and the distribution cf the water. 

In other words a power supply company could bo organized ami capitalized by 
private interests to develop power, say on one of the proved coal fields, and transmit 
the same electriciilly to the Commission's pumping station, delivering it ready for 
use at a fixed rate per horsepower .year under a contract for a term of years. 

If such .» conipiiny wen- formed it may lie preeumeil that it would also wish to 
undertake the ^upply of light ami itowcr to all niunicipalilii'S and iK)w»r ust-rs within 
their sphere «.r pruclipul radius of transmission, who desiml it, and would thus fill 
a general public nerd. 

Largo numiiers of companies are now in sucivssful operution on such lines. No 
such company is, so far as is known, yet forme<l in the nr>a under consideration, 
though the opi)ortunity, oven without tlie water-pumping project, is obvious. 

A usual preliminary to tho securing of capital and dotation of such a company 
is the obtaining of definite advance contracts for the s;iU> of their product (powwr). 

There can be little doubt that if tlie Commisiti<in announced that they were pre- 
pared to consider offers and gave sufficient time for receiving tenders, competitive 
bids could probably be obtained. 

Such a tender would l>e on the basis of something like 2,000 horsepower of 24 
hour p<iwcr, increasinn, 'ver a term of years, to sixy 6.000 horw-|>ower, ami inmsibly 
to 10,000 horse-power, or more. 

4s»lt«— SJ ' 


ith:i:mTyK\T of the i\tkrioh 


ArtHiiiiiiiiir tliut II |)n-liiiiiiuiry ^viiiliciiti> of iiiKloulitc^l ^tuiuliiiir wiiit fiiriiu><l ami 
iHH-urwl II tiriivisiiiiiiil )-<iiitrii<-t with tin- ("oinmiKnioii for '»ii<'h i. itu|i|>ly, tlu'ro <'fln hn 
littl(> iloiilit thiit tli»«.v I'oiil.l HOMirti oth»«r iiiimidiTnlilc i-nntra-ln with miiiiii-ipnliti*?* 
niul luri;i' imiwit iiM>r« in tho »a.\w iliotrict. 

Thi'.v wiiitlil thru Im- in u ixmition t<> ntnrt witli ii phint if AUttii'ii'iit xizi' to wN-ur<> 
the mo6t economical production possible and with a laiye load secured by long term 
contracts. Under such conditions there would be no ditBculty in financinir a company 
to put in a plant of the best modem cunstruction with every necessary safefpiard. 

Aaauming the source of power to be coal, such a company could secure its own 
*oal lands or enter into contracts for the supply of coal at fixed rates over a term of 

It is not to be lost sight of, that auch a contract with the prupoaed Commission 
would in itaelf make possible the formation and capitalization of a company; that it 
would for financial purposes be on a par with obtaining a good franchise and would 
make a starting point fnr the company to obtain other contracts; and that, therefore, 
it would be worth the whilo of a company to make a special low price to the Commis- 

The Commission would safeguard itself by providing for:— 

(1.) The plans and plant to ; approved by its own engineers. 
(2.) Adequate spare plant . <i .plicate transmission lines. 
(8.) Precedeice as to supply n. the event of interruption or diminution 
of supply from any cause. 

(4.) A sliding scale of charges depending on the amount of power taken 
each year during the life of the contract. 

(S.) The option of renewing the contract at prices to be determined by 

(6.) Compulsory acquisition of the plant in case of bankruptcy or wilful 
default (as in the contract of the Hydro-Electric Commission of Ontario). 

(7.) Their own resident inspector at the generating station (if found neces- 
sary), etc.. etc. 
There is usually a natural desire on the part of any public body undertaking a 
public utility to keep the whole thing in their own handa and under their own control. 
There ar*-, however, rnmerods instancps in Canada and other countries of muni- 
cipal and other public bo.'.*-* taking all or part of their power supply ' in bulk' from 
« company and carrying out the distribution themselves. Some examples are given 
in the Tubli' on |Mg» "1. 

In Ontario, as is well kno^n, many municipalities take their supply from the 
Hydro-Electric Commission of Ontario and ci'.rry out the distribution themselves. 
The Hydro-Electric Commission themselves purchase ' in bulk ' from a private com- 
pniiy and act as intermediariea, and the municipalities have no control over the 

power station. 

In the case under consideration it may bt> anticipated that a Mrong and reliable 
company could be formed with ample capital and thb best and most nicidem of plant 
provided, and in such case there is no inherent reason why the supply of power to 
the pum;>ing station should not be just as satisfai^tory and secure against interruption 
as if t! e Commission operated their own generating station. 

The Commission would have the advantage of reilucing capital expenditure and 
of knowing in advance exactly what the power would cost. This would be of ai>siet 
ancc in detennining closely the tariff rates to be charged for water. 

Such a contract would prol)ably have to be made for a minimum term of 21 years, 
with the option tu the ComniiM<ion of either renewing at a price to )« fixed by arbitra- 
tion, or of terniinalitig fliid constructing their own generating station, or of taking 
supply from some other company who offered better terms. 

A public power compiiny should naturally be in a better position to generate power 
cheaply than an individual user such as the proposed Water lk>ard. The pumping 



load is in itself, owinR to the i-oiilinuou* and steady dcmiind. n load fuvnurnblc to low 
cost of production, and if a power company had sudi a l^nd in addition t<> the ordinary 
load for power and liiilitinfr. they would be in an exceptionally favourable position. 

The advantaiceo to a power company when such a cuetomcr is only one of a 
number of customers are many. For instance:— 

(1.) Thfy can instal a larger plant, givinn lower capital co^t per horse- 
power installed and obtain a higher efficiency duo to lnrB«r units. 

(2.) Their administration chanres are spread over a larger output. 
(3.) Their wages bill is but slightly increased for the larger output. 
(4.) Their transmission lines can carry power for other ctistomers, leav- 
ing only a part of the cost to he charged against pumping load. 

(6.) Their operations are on a large enough scale to make the rcc,.very 
and sale of by-prwiucts from fuel practicable at an earlier stage. 

As an alternative to purchasing power per horsepower year, in which case Uie 
cost usually depends more on the maximum temporary load occurring in a given 
period than on the actual work done, a contract might be made to pay at a certain 
rate yter l.OflO.OflO gallons actu.TJly pumped. 

For instance, it is state*! ") that the city of Minnciip<di(« rc<-eivcd an offer from 
the Minneapolis (Jeneral Electric Company to supply power from its hydro-electric 
plant for pumping city water at the rate of $.3.63 per 1,000,000 jrullons pumped, or 
0-363 cents per 1,000 gallons. This was for a plant of two 20,000,000 gallon units 
pumping against a head of 247 feet, a very similar plant to ihat herein considered. 

To u'V(> another instance of iMissiiiiiitiet in this direction, the offer of Mr. A. S. 
Porter, of licgina, made in writing on Xovcml>er 2S, 1912, may be mentioned. 

Mr. Vorter appears to own a control!''ig interest in 17,000 acres of coal lands in 
the Estevun district shown on map 'Plate SH , ard has for some time past been 
endenviiuring to furm a company to supply power by clivtri*- trnnsmission to Regina, 
Mo.'fW'jaw, etc. Kstimntes on cost of production and transmission have, he states, 
been preparctl for him by u firm of ctigincers in Winniix'jf. 

Hasing his figures on these estimates he made a tentative offer to deliver power 
for pumping nt the Elbow at $:i;1.7.'> p«>r electrir il horsepower per year of .100 days, 
including transformation to the required pressure at the delivery end. Assuming 
16 ptr cent extra cost for a full year the cost would be ISS.SO per electrical horse- 
power year. 

Now, antoimiiit; that the pr<'!M-»e<l Wiiter Commissio, had only to instal an electric 
pumping to rccfivo the powiT ready for use at the alxive rate, the cost would 
work out ftbom as follow-: — 


Inii'iil Inalaltafion. 
Two 20,000,000 gallon units, one being re^erva 

Ciipitiil :'<isl, lis (li'tiiil"(| on \»\\ii- lit I"17,;U<I 

■j'lnui-! cost— 

A- .l..fMi|. • ..M piiKi' '>4 * LM,7tMt 

Purchase o; ivA'cr nt l>:W.^0 |ht i.ii.I". yrnr. ( 'i>iiibiiii' I iMiricn. y 

motors atid v amps, 69 per cent — 


|;^8.H<. X -, X 1,375 w. II. p 77.500 


M»nag> 'nei:t, ofHce ai..l general 12,o00 


Jti.-.:.jVa/ Wr,r\d. Xfw York, Oct. 1. 1918. page 138S, 



Complete In$tailaii&n. 

Two 20,000,000 gallon uniU. Three 30,000,000 gallon uniti. 

Capital ••Off. IIS ilotnil*-.! on |mg«> «r> l^'tl.ft.V) 

Annual coat— . „ „nn 

A- .Mailoil oit patJ.' •!.'. * *•»'""" 

Purchase of power aa aboTe— 

138.80 X ^^ X 6,875 w.H.P 387,000 

Management, office and general 20,000 


Those fijtiircw are >h«wii in the n.mparative suinnwry on page* 3H an<l ^fl, nii<l 
the n-ult* nuiv 1k« coiKlenmHl thus: — 

Soiirii' ••! i«>wi"r. 

Steam turbiiiM and dial 

W»t*r jowt-r 

W»t«r-|i<>«'tT with uteam rwern' 
Purchuseil |io» >r at W8 80 

Tiital <iMt \tfT I.IIOO ^ullonii 
IMiniix^l, in <'fnt» 



■i w 

1 IMi 

2 7« 

•1 Sll 

a lift 

• 1 H«i 

2 OB 

1 IM 

From which it will be aeen that purchased power even at this high price would 
ortVr lulvaiitage in t-.tal eost of pumping: in the early -tiiK.% but that 
water-power would have a large advantage when the complete plant was in operation- 
whit 'i might be 25 years, or more, hence. 

The striking difference, howev.-r. is in capital exi*nditure, wmch compares thus — 

•Source .if |ii>wiT. 

Htpam tiirlMix-K ami o>al 


Water |ii<w«r witli uteuiii merve. 
Hiirchaaei! |«iw<>r 

Initial I'laiit. 

Cumpirt* Plant. 









Furthermore^ the above example in based on the transmission of power from the 
Estevan diutriet, alwut 220 miles. If the transmission was from the Lake of the Rivers 
district (about 100 miles) or possibly some nearer point, the cost should be consider- 
ably reduced. 

It is also probable that on competitive tenders a much better price per hor«e-power 
year could be obtained than that which has been here used. 

Aa further examples of the supply of electric power ' in bulk ' on a large scaif, 
the following reeent instanccft may bo montione<l. 

The Third Avenue Railwa.v Company of New York have entered into a contraet 
with the New York Edison Company to take from that company all the energy 



required for operating iU line., and thi. oontrart include, turning over to the Ldi...u 
Company the Railway Company'. 40.010 horsepower generating station. ( ) 

The Chicago. Milwaukee and St Paul Railway Company haTe entered '"-o ««• 
tract, with th^o'reat Fall. Power Company and the Thomp«.n F.l . P»-";-™P"2 
to take energy for operating 450 mile, of it. line.. TW ~"t"f; ••^"f "^ J*"" 
and 20.000 k.w.. with option, on additional energy »V,\nTf th^^'^SJ^ Water 

In concluaion of thi. action it may bo rcmarke;! that if the ^^^ J^*^ 
ComiS..Tn themxlve. undertook the di.tribution of power f"' •'--•» P" "^ 
thev would have all the potential advantages of a large power company, but they 
wouldTncur ve.; large capital ex,K.nditure „n.l they wouUl not «--"';^^ -^'J.;; 
good economic result, a. a company operating for profit and giving it. whole attmition 
to the prcrluption of power. 


City iir Town. 

Viirt Williwii 

Piirt Arthur 


(inmd Ki'rku, B. C 

llaiiiiltuu. tint 

< )tUw« 


Wentniount, t^n". 

I^cliiw. ^^»' 

St. Laniln-rt, <Jiw . 

.liilifitf, ihi"- • 
ValU-yfielii, quf.. 
Nia|n>rit K»ll». 



IifiiKth of A ppmx. Priee 
Trknnniiuion. |»r H.l'. y««r. 

IV»wer Sai>|>li"l ''V- 

Mikw. I • I 

,- ,^, 111 ar. K»iiim»ti.|iii»l''>»«TCo. H."*!! III'. 

{;■:„, IT . . K«inini«lMiai« I'ow.r. 

li'r!. M •-'9 C»lr»r» «'"*'•' <'"'"i«"y-.. . ,. 

*\'^, IS,..Tl'.m..rAl.iKht <•«. 

a,'!^ ■?. IVmiinim. I'ow.r ft 1r»n.n.i»i.«i ( 

-jS- 2 •-■"•«" » Montn-al l.iKht. I e»t ft Pow-r ( o. 

■Vr-S fflMO M.mti««ll.iKht, ILiUft Howrto. 

';•!!: .-« M.mtmil l.iirlit. Hm.1 ft IWr « o. 

' .VS!, I »2 Wau-nimn K. .mitaiii r'-n J ' • . 

tSS ' *• M.«itt««l Litfl.t. H™t ft P"*.T ( o. 

•>1J3J Shskwiniinn Wntir A Tower < o. 

,;''|!^ \"" Montr«»l Cotton C.^ 

'I",, Ontario l*o««Tr.fc 


Under this heading the .mly engine to l,e oonMdere.1 is tY^?^i..l!.nTlv K 

.^uoe no other ty|H» of oil engine uppi-ars to be at present mii-le '". ^'J' " "*'-^ '"'^^ 

CI The Dieael engine i., ho^vever. made by mwiy different firm, m Europe and by 

;; least one fim in the United Stale., the latter, however, only making in s.«. up 

*° *Th^"ergine. un- .ow m well known and their reliability and economy have been 
«, fully^rovS U ^.r .tationary work and for marine work by the f riUrfi. F«nch 
Tnd Japanese navies, that it i. not deemed n.-.-es.ary to enlarge on »»e- J^^'*^;^ 

A. an instance of their ,.«.• for pumping, it may be ment oned tb.t a -"» ho«e 
,,ow-r engine wa. installed by the Manchester Ship ( anal Company m !•«'. Jhi. 
e^i;e giv Sg an output at the rate- of :n.TOO.«00 gaUon. per 2| ho^ir. «ga.n«t a head 
TlS f.^t! Since that date two other similar plant, have been installed by that com- 
pany at other locks. 


' KUclrical Horld. Augnit 3, 1912, p««. MI. 

iSfe<.trirnl W,>:!d. M-K 2.!. !»IS 





1653 Eott Main StrMt 

RochMttr. Htm York 14609 USA 

(716) ♦« - 0300 - Phofi. 

(?»6) 38S-MM-Fo> 



The following table shows some of the Diesel engines in operation or on order 
for use in Canada : — 



1 Nnmlier i>f 

Hrake Horne Power. 

Kngincs. i„oiwratiim! On OrtU-r. Tcrtul. 

Town of N'm-kton, Sa«k 

Scott, S.i«k 

Wilkif, SaKk 

lUttleford, Sask 

Mflfort, Saxk 

V*er?j<(n, B.f . . 

Pfnticton, B.C 

Sjiwkatclu'wan T'lay l*nHliict» Coni|iany. 

Thf Kleetiic Company, Toronto 

Moosejaw Kl«'i'tric Railway ConiiKiny. . 


























It will be noticed that both the town of Yorkton and the Moosejaw Street Kail- 
way Company have placed repeat orders. 

xhe power for the Moosejaw Street Uailway is provided entirely by Diesel 
engines, and, as shown above, the plant consists of three engines totalling about 90v) 
horse-power. This plant was designed and installed under the advice of Mr. .T. B. 
McRae, consulting engineer, of Ottawa, and as a result of personal inspection and 
inquiries it may be stated that it has given uncjiialitied satisfaction to all concerned. 

Up to a comparatively recent date these engines were only made up to about 500 
B.II.P., but the size is being continually increased. Engines of 2,000 horse-power 
are now in use in Switzerland (') and it is expected to construct them of 1.0(10 and 
possibly 2,000 horse-power per cylinder. Messrs. Carel Frcres, of Ghent, Belgium, 
make in sizes up to 6,000 horse-power. A British firm is stated to have recently 
secured an order for four 4,000 horse-power Diesel cnsinos in competition with 
tenders for steam turbines (-), but under British conditions these engines are not 
burdened with the cost of Customs duty and excessive freight, as in Saskatchewan, 
and the cost of oil in London, England, is about 4 to 8 cents per gallon as against 14 
or 15 cents in Saskatchewan. The freight is exce-iive for a long haul as the weight 
of the engines alone, owing to the thii'kness of metal required for the high pressures 
used, is usually greater than the combined weight of steam turbines and boilers. 

These engines have conspicuous advantages in simplicity compared to a complete 
steam installation, there are no boilers required and no stand-by losses, ind the build- 
ings and labour required are both less than for steam. 

On the other hand, the capital cost of the engines is high, very heavy foundations 
are required and it is widely but not universally considered that owing to small 
clearances, fineness of the valves and their adjustments, etc., more skilled attention 
is neces.sary than with steam engines. Opinions on this point, and on that of depre- 
ciation compared with steam engines, appear to bo about equally divided. 

As to economical performance, there is no question that with cheap fuel oil 
Diesel engines will give so good a performance that it will in many cases more than 
o£E-3et the comparatively high capital cost and give better results than can be obtained 
from other sources of power — esj)ecially is lliia the case with small powers and inter- 
mittent loads. 

' .Tour. In«t. K.K. London, Enu., Sept.. 1912, p. 618. 
'Technical Paper 9, Bureau of Minea, Washington, 1912. 


■Til s.\sK.\TCin:\yi\ ^y^T^:ll srrri.Y nni:nsio\ run./ i:rr 


When, however, there is a combination of:— 

(1) Fairly large plant, 

(2) High capital cost, 

(3) Excessive cost of fuel oil, 

(4) Steady 24 hour load, 

as in the case under consideration, it docs not appear that this power can offer as 
good results, expressed as total annual cost, inohulin^r capital char^.s. as either water- 
power or s„..n. (see su.nn.nry .m pn.vs :ls and :W m.d detailed '-♦""f ;\. ^„,,^ 

Very careful consideration has been given to this matter on account of the many 
advantages possessed by Diesel engines. The .letniled working results nhtamed from 
several plants have been closely analysed and adar'ed as to price of oil, labour etc., 
to meet the conditions required, but the result is i. every case unfavourable for these 
particular conditions. , . , c, . i • i 

For example, take a municipal plant in the eastern T luted States, which con- 
,:i-t< of about '.m n.ii.P. of Diesel ei^iiues in eontimious or)eration and giving ver> 
good results, the cost of oil being equivalent to 3-48 cents per Imperial gallon. 

An analysis of the working results snows that if this plant had been operating a 
pumping load with oil at 15 cents, the total .' would have lH>en $115 per water 
horse-power year, or 28 per cent m.,re than the cost estimated for steam turbines 
(m-c suniiiiiiry. pages :!S and .'5!0. . o i » i, „„ 

On the other hand., if this same plant could have been put down in Saskatchewan 
and operated on fuel oil at 3-48 cents the cost would have been 32 per cent less than 

with steam. ^ iriu 

At a recent date (Dec. 1012) the price of fuel oil in tank car lots at tlbow 
would have been 14 cents; it has been as high as 15 cents in Moosejaw. and it would 
not be safe to assume less than this for estimating purposes; owing luainly to the 
leported decision of the Standard Oil Company to supply no more crude oil, but to 
refine the whole of their product, the market in Western Canada has been much 
disturbed and the future prbe appears to be a very uncertain quantity. 

It is therefore possible that an oil engine plant in Saskatchewan might be 
rendered practically valueless by an increaso in the price of fuel oil that would make 
the cost of operation uneconomical as compared with other sources of power, or even 

prohibitive. , x f i 

The above however, bv no means exhausts the possibilities with reference to fuel 
oil So far only imported crude petroleum at 15 cents per gallon has been cons.dere.L 
There are other liquid fuels, nearly or equally as suitable, if they can be obtained 
in large enough quantities at a low enough price. 

It will be seen from Fig. 5 that with fuel oil at less than C.3 cents, or thereabouts, 
the cost of production with Diesel plant would be lower than with steam for the con- 
ditions required. . . 

Diesel engines are claimed .. v < satisfactorily niul economically, and without 
any important alteration or adj..sti at, on a wide variety of oils, including shale 
oils, gasworks tar oil, creosote oil, and in fact on almost any combustible oil. 

In respect to shale oil, this is extensively used as fuel oil in t.reat 1 r.tain .m.l 
is ^tated to be lighter, cleaner an.l better for the purpose than crmle petroleum 1 he- 
price there is about W to 11 cents per gallon, but this is probably argely controlled 
bv the price of crude petroleum. . „ , .. i 

' No definite information appears to be available as to oil shales in Saskatchewan 
The shales in southwest Snskatcbewan are stated t« carry no oi w-hatever. but 
o'l shal- are stated to exist north of Hattleford. Saskatchewan, north of Kdmonton. 
Alberta, and south of Manitou, Manitoba, and it would appear to be a matter worth 



In 1008, some 45 tons of Xcw Brunswick shnlos were sent to nn oil shale works 
in Scotland and there tested under practical conditions and under the superinten- 
dence of the Department of Mines, Ottawa. The report' states that: — 

' The results were ver^ satisfactory, as the average yield per ton of shale 
was 40-09 gallons of cm oil and 76-04 pounds of sulphate of ammonia. This 
compares very favourablj with the shales which ars worked so extensively in 
Scotland, the yield of wliicli rarel.v cxf-fods 25 to -JO gallon of crude oil.' 

Sulphate of ammonia is at present worth $00 to $C5 per ton in MMontreal, and 
assuming the residue oil wi^s sold for even 5 cents per gallon, the gross return from 
a ton of shale, without taking account of tiie lighter and more valuable distillates, 
would appear to be about as follows: — 

Crude oil, 40 gallons at 5 cents $2 00 

Sulphate of ammonia, 77 pounds at $00 per ton 2 31 

$4 31 

Thir, however, is a subject by itself. Much valuable detailed information as to 
the methods and cost of production of shale oil and by-products is contained in the 
reports above referred to, Nos. 55 and 1,107. 

It is stated (^) that a noticeable feature in the g^'owth of German industries is 
the rapidly increasing use of coal tar oil and residue for fuel in place of petroleum. 
The production from lignite and shale works amounts to some 00,000 tons annually, 
and the coke and gas works produce about 1,000,000 tons of tar annually, from which 
some 300,000 tons of heavy oil are obtained and used as fuel, the calorific value of 
which is very high. In consequence of the rapidly increasing production the cost 
of this oil, now averaging 5 cents per gallon, is becoming less. 

It hag been pointed out by Dr. Diesel (') that the most economical way of using 
coal lies in the extraction of the tar or creosote oil. The two principal methods are : 
First, to coke at a low temperature giving a high yield of gas and a good oil, but 
inferior coke; second, to coke at a high temperature, producing good coke but a small 
yield of oil. 

' In Germany, where the tariffs on crude oil are excessive, the coal is 
coked by an intermediate process, with some slight additions, and a good coke 
for furnace use is produced ; a large yield of good heavy oil is obtained from 
the tar after the more valuable products have been removed.' 

A report on the natural gas and oil in the western provinces, prepared by Mr. 
F. G. Clapp, chief geologist. Bureau of Associated Geological Engineers, Pittsburg, 
is understood to be in hand by the Department of Mines, Ottawa, and to be expected 
to be issued in a few nioiitiis. A Itoyal Coinmissicm on Fuel Oil is now sitting in 
Great Britain— with thes<> and other expected reports it is probable that a good deal 
more information on tli<>se subjects should soon be available. 

In view it the large amounts of easily-mined lignite in Saskatchewan from which 
oil and other by-products could be extracted, and of the possibility of oil or oil shales 
iK'iiitr (U'veloju'd within reasonable ilistance. it is ]M(ssii)l( that the i)ositioii as to fuel 
oil may be ccaiiderably modified. 

* rrndiirHoTi of Natural Qua and Petroleum in Canada, No. 46, 1909. Bituminona or oil 
shales of Ned Urunswick and Nora Scotia, etc., Nos. 55 and 1,107, Department of Mine*. 
Ut 1 u w & 

•Inst, of C.E. Abstracts. London, vol. CLXXXVI, page 46, 191!. 

•Tlir Motor Ship and Motor Boat, editorial. England, Oct. 31. 1912. 



Initial Installation 

1,375 w.H.P. X "^ - 1.-S30 B.H.r. 

The rated capacity is reduced 8 per cent at Moosejaw aHUude and « -"f-^^ 
7 per cent should be allowed on account of small overload capacity, total, per 

1,830 B.H.P., plus 15 per cent = 2,155 b.h.p. 

Two units, one being reserve. 

Capital cost — « o^^ .^qq 

Two 2 160 B.n.P. Diesel oil engines at $60 • ; • • " '" 

Two 20,000,000 centrifugal pumps (very slow speed or gearing; ^^^ 

at $9x1,830 .■; •■ " 5000 

Accessories, rough labour for erection, spares, piping, etc. . . . • • ^^-^^^ 

Buildings and foundations *,.,.... 6.000 

Oif tanks for' 90 days "storage, "excavkiion, pumps and piping. . . . W.^ 

Cribs, conduits, wells and piping ' — 


t- ... 67,660 
Engineering and contingencies, 15 per cent ^ 


.... 22,100 
Interest during construction, 5 per cent ^ 


. $464,000_ - 

Per B.n.P. installed, ^^^^ — *i"'- 

$464,000 4.„a 
PerW.u.P., 2_^50 =$168. 

Anniuil cost— $ Per cent. 

Capital charges, 11 per cent on $384,380, 8 per cent on ^^^^_^ ^^^ 

$79 760 

Fuel oil, 12.050,000 b.h.p. hours, 0-45 pounds per b.h.p. ^^^ ^^^^ 
hour, 15 cents per gallon • • • • ^ ^^^ ^ -^ 

Lubricating' oil, wa'sie' and supplie;," 0.04 cents per b.h.p. ^^_^ ^ ^^ 

n^X'S^'^n^r:.. •ii;dudin;; .^m.,i :.^. ;;.!. ^;^^^ ^^^ 

etc., 3 per cent. . ■ ^^.^^00 C-75 

Management, office and general ^ 

$177,610 lOO-OO 


Per B.H.P. hour, ^i,r^^ q = 1-4T cenvs. 

Per w.H.P. hour, 1-47 x ,. = 1.96 cents. 

_ $177,600 ^,^„ 

Per w.H.P. year, = $129. 


Per 1,000 gallons pumped, ---; --*,, ., = 3-24 cents. 

.i6.5 X 15 mil. 

Fvel. — Each 10 per cent diflFcrence In cost of fuel ivill make 5-2 per cent differ- 
ence in total cost. 


Vomplete installation. 

Five units, total capacity 130 million gallons, of which 30 per cent is reserve. 
Working capacity, 100,000,000 gallons = 6,875 w.H.P. 
Total installed, 130,000,000 gallons = 8,950 w.h.p. 

Capital cost — 

Two 2,160 B.n.p. engines as before $ 259,200 

Two 20,000,000 gallon pumps as before 32,900 

Three 3,230 b.ii.p. engines at $60 582,000 

Three 30,000,000 gallon pumps at $S..50 x 2,750 b.ii.p 70,000 

Acce.-sories, labour, spares, piping 12,500 

Buildings 25,900 

Crane 6,000 

Oil tanks for 90 days storage, pumps, piping, excavation 97,000 

Cribs, conduits, wells and piping. 75,000 

Engineering and contingencies, 7i per cent 87,100 

Interest during construction, 5 per cent 62,380 


T. • . 11 J $1,309,980 

Per B.H.P. installed, ' = $93.50. 


$1,309,980 ^,,„ 

^'^ "•"•'••• 8,950 = ^'''- 

• Per cent. 
Annual cost — 

Capital charges, 11 per cent on $1,160,600, 8 per cent on 

$149.480 139,850 21.73 

Fuel, 60,250.000 b p. hours. 0.4 cents per b.ii.p. 

hour, 16 cent* per gallon 408,000 63-48 

Labour. ... 18,230 2.82 

Lubricating oil, waste and supplies (0-0.16 cents per B.n.p. 

hour for engines) 22,360 3.46 





A/OT£ : /TWILL Be seeN THATrne rermL /^Nf^a^L cost /s 
THB sfi/^E yv/TH cofiL /9r ^s5-65 X o/L /)T 6-3 ce^rs bot 
THIS /s ijiReeLy ooe to oirFeaeNce //v c/^pitaiu cost, 
^ gS7, ooo ro^ sre/jn « •:t^64, ooo ^ofif o/l . 

/NITI^L jnst/illhtion 



'TO, ooo 





if loo, oco 

0JL 3 

Fig 5. 



Bepairs and maintenance, including buildings, cribs, wells, 

etc., 3 per cent 34,800 

Management, office and general 20,000 

Per cent. 


$643,230 10000 

Per B.ii.p. hour, 


= 107 cents. 


Per w.H.P. hour, 1-07 x = 1-42 cents. 


$643,200 ^„„,„ 
Per w.H.P. year, ^ . = $93.50. 

Per 1,000 gallons pumped, 2-35 cents. 

Fuel. — Each 10 per cent difference in cost of fuel makes 6-3 per cent difference 

in total cost. 


Further possible alternatives to those already given would be : — 

(1) Producer gas plant at the river, with coal delivered by rail and gas 
engine driven pumps. 

(2) Natural gas in gas engines. (Natural gas under boilers is considered 
oil pages 44 to 47.) 

Considering the first of these, if the power could then be directly applied, this 
would offer the advantages of: — 

(1) Eliminating the cost of an expensive transmission line for convov- 
ing a comparatively small amount of power. 

(2) Eliminating losses in transmission and in conversion at both ends of 

the line. 

(3) Reduction in capital cost of gas producer and engine plant, as the size 
would be reduced by the saving of losses in transmission and conversion. 

(4) Combining the power and pumping plants in one place with one staff. 

and the only question would be to compare the cost by this method with that of pro- 
ducing gas on the coal field and electric transmission of power. 

There is some question, however, whether the power could be directly applied 
with satisfactory results for a pumping plant of this size and head. In small plants 
the gas driven pamp appears to give good service, but its performance is not equally 
well established for large plants. 

For instance in a recent paper, (i) Mr. Charles A. Hapue, :^r.Am. Soe. C.E., states 

that : 

' The gas engine as a water-works power is entirely undeveloped on any- 
thing like the scale which it will have to reach to be seriously considered in 
fairly large schemes of pumpage. . . . Developments along the line of gas 
power pumping for waterworks are going on, and good results in economical 
and reliable gas production, easy of manipulation, will be one of the improve- 
ments in the future not very far away. The large gas engine available for 
waterworks pumping has not yet come to the front, ... the direct applica- 
tion of power with steam and the indirect application with gas, as expressed by 
a meihanical efficiency of 95 per cent for steam and 75 per cent for gas shows 
why the gas cannot compete in the larger units in the present day pumping plant 
until some more direct application of its power to pumping can be made.' 

(II The rresent Day I'unipinB Kngine for Water Works. Trans. 
December, 1911. 

Am. SCO. C.K., vol. LXXIV, 


The Delaware Avenue fire pumping station in the city ot Philadelphia is equipped 
with gas engines direct connected to triplex pumps and is reported/ ) to have been 
in service for a number of years with great success. A second station was equipped 
with practically duplicate plant, consisting of ten 300 horse-power gas engines direct 
connected to tnplex pumps. These, however, are small units operating on city gas 
with two sources of supply. Also, being for fire purposes. Ihey are only used inter- 
mittently, and would have a considerable advantage over steam in the saving of 

'^""cmisidlr^M the second of the above alternatives, natural gas in gas engines, it 
may be said that gas engines of small and moderate size operate satisfactorily on 
natural gas. but that in this case also there is some question whether they would be 
wholly satisfactory and reliable in large units for direct connection to high lift pumps, 
as in the present ca.=o. It is understood that in the Pittsburg district it is sometimes 
preferred to bum the natural gas under boilers in preference to using it in gas en- 
gines, on account of the trouble caused by fine grit m the natural gas. This may be 
due io diminished pressure in the wells after long use making less back pressure 
necessary and so allowinp the grit to rise with the gas. „ .. . ^ . , 

This trouble does not seem to occur in tho Medicine Hat district, but some of 
the larger gas engine. ' -^ h .ve not given satisfaction. It is worth noting in this 
connection that the 'al Po^er and pumping station at Medicine Hat is 

being equipped with am boilers and electrically driven centrifugal pumps, 

with the intention of u ..k' existing gas engines as a stand-by only. 

If the power of las -ugines is not directly applied, but transmitted by belts or 
ropes or converted by generators or motors, the capital expenditure, operating and 
maintenance coste are increased, and the complication is increased, so that any advan- 
tages are largely discounted. ,.,, , ..IJUJ *tJU*l. 

It would therefore appear desirable that it should be demonstrated, by the satis- 
factory operation of existing plants, that gas engines could be directly applied to 
pumps of similar capacity and operating under a similar head to that o\ the case in 
question before this alternative is fully considered. 


The advantages and disadvantages of the foregoing alternative sources of power 
have been discussed and compared under the respective headings. 

The principal points and considerations may now be briefly reviewed. 

Eigh duty pumping engines and steam turbines. — As between these the results 
appear to be so close that it would be desirable to re-examine the matter on new quota- 
tions for machinery, coal, etc.. when the matter is ripe for decision. 

Producer gas does not appear to offer a promising alternative under the particular 
conditions to be met, except with Humphrey internal combustion pumps. 

Natural Gas.— It is uncertain whether this will be available, and at the price so 
far suggested it would offer no large saving. 

Purchased power would probably offer very considerable advantages both in capital 
expenditure and cost per 1,000 gallons pumped, if obtainable under suitable conditions. 

Oil engines.— Axe high in first cost and at the present price of fuel oil do not 
appear to offer favourable results un ' r the particular condition.'^ to be met. 

Water-poit'er.-Involves very large capital expenditure, nearly the whole of which 
must be incurred when putting in the initial plant The cost per 1,000 gallons pumped 
*ill be higher than with steam plant for a small output, but nuich lower than with 
steam plant for a large output. 

OIThe Canadian Engincpr. May 21. 



in.l'.iKTMEyiT OF Tilt: IXTKRIOR 

Steam turbine plant offers the advantages of low first cost and reliability, with low 
cost per 1,000 gallons pumped compared to water-pow«3r for the first few years of 
operation, after which water-power would have the advantage. 

Humphrey pumps (internal combustion), cannot yet be said to be fully 
proved as a commercial and engineering succese, but the indications are that they 
probably soon will be, and this is a matter that should be further inquired into when 
the Humphrey plants now installed have had time to prove their qualities. Particular 
nttt'iitioii is cnlltNl t" tin- cliHptiT on this pump commonfing on page 2.1 oUpwi re 
in this report. 

Suggestions. — A vital point is that the initial demand will be small compared to 
the size of tlie scheme. 

The purchase of power in bulk, at all events in the early stages, would, if possible 
on favciurable terms, appear to offer very substantial advantages. The Humphrey pump 
should also be further considered. 

Failing these, it appears that steam turbines would give the best results at first 
and water-power would give the best results when the demand was sufficiently large. 

It would, therefore, appear to deserve careful consideration whether it would not 
be desirable to put in an initial installation of steam plant, and subsequently when the 
conditions warrant it, develop the water-power and secure the economy it would give 
under those conditions. 

These conditions would be, assuming that sufficient water-power is available, 
tlat the actual ascertained demand for city water was sufficiently large to justify 
the extra expenditure on a $1,000,000 dam in order to secure low pumping coste. 

The steam plant would be then retained as reserve or stand-by to the water- 
power plant and no part of the expenditure would be lost. 

Such a course would involve but comparatively small expenditure on the power 
plant at first, and outside of the water-power question, would allow time for develop- 
ments in respect to producer gas, location of coal in the vicinity, oil fuel, etc., which 
may change the situation considerably within the next few years. 

Electric transmission versus freight on coal. 

In most cases it is cheaper to transmit electric power than to convey coal, but in 
the cost' under consideration it seems neot^ssnry to install nii cxxxjn U-e double circuit 
line to transmit an amount of power that is comparatively small (for a transmission 
line to carry) even when the undertaking is complete, and very small in the early 

It will be of interest to ascertain separately, that is without including power 
plant, the cost of transmitting the required amount of power electrically and the cost 
of conveying the necessary amount of coal to produce the same amount of power, by 
rail from the same spot. 

As the transmission line has been figured from the Lake of the Kivers district, 
100 miles distant, the coal will be assumed to come from the same point. We 
will assume run of the mine eoal at $l.t50 per ton on cars, (page 24) and that this 
lignite, with large boilers, economizers and superheaters will have an evaporative 
power of four pounds of water per pound of coal. 

The steam turbine plant, which represents average results, would have a duty of 
120,000,000 foot pounds of work per pound of steam. 

The cost of freight on eoal would be aboiit as follows: 

Initial plant — The average demand for water is assumed at T."* per cent of 
20,000,000 gillon.s jht day. (pajre 17) or G2."),(>00 gallons per hour. The head with 
pipe friction is taken at 328 feet. 

SULIU .SisM/'//tU-l\ \\Mi:ii ^-ri'l-LY ItlVKHsluS FKOJKCT 


125,000 x^Ojc 328_x l.oo<. _ ^.^^ ^^^^^^ ^^. ^^^^,_^ ^^.^ ,^^^,^ 

17 100 
• z.-= 2-138 tons of C0..1 per hour. 

4 X 2,000 
2138 X 8.700 = 18,700, plus 10 per cent == 20,570 tons per annum. 

Til.' fr.ijrlit u„ tliis (mi.l.r <• liti..,,- .l.Hnr.l m, l«w 14) wonl.i 1»- :ipi'r"N- 

imately $1.54 per ton. allowing double cost on tl.c private branch line. 
20.570 tons X 11.54 ..^ *31,7(!0 per iinniini. 

Comyh'te /^i(i»<.— Increased <oal in proportion to output. 

$31,700 X ''' (millions of gallon*) =-= «15s,.r„M) per annimi. 

Electric Cransm/.ssion.— The annual cost with a double circuit steel tower line 
(Mv Pii".s '•.- anil i;:!). iiK-ludiuL' traM-foriniiiy ^tr.tion-. I'ws.'s. pMtrollinir and right 
of way, "is $10(i,(X)() for the initial plant and $151,(HI0 for the complete plant. 

The comparison, therefore, on tin- above basis, stands thus: 

i ••■ 1 Di . Cmiiplftf 

I iicrf iKf 
Wt Cent. 

Kli'i'tiic tran:-iiii>"iiiii 
Frri)flit <m •■(|iii.alfiit coal 

.¥liN),(i(HI Sl.-il.iXHI 4-J r> 

:t',0<H) lo".»,(H)U 40t) 

It will be seen that with larger output the cost of freight increases at a much 
greater rat.- than the cost of electri.- transmission, indicating that a point would soon 
be reached at which electric transmission would bo much cheaper than hauling coal. 

This is shown on ' ig. 6. , • , i i • i 

How. /er, even when an output of 75.00(..Oii,. g;dlons per day is reached, which 
represents an averag.- lo;id of 75 per .vut of the mnximum capacity of 1 lO.OOO.OOO 
gallons, the advantage in favour of electric transmission appears to be only about 5 per 
cent, which may be wiped out by an error in the assumptions, change in conditions, 
bettir fuel ocon. my or reduction in rate of freight. ,,, . , ,f 

It would appear therefore that the large expenditure that woubl be iiivolve.l tor 
a first-class transmission system to convey this amount of power this distance would 

hiinllv 1 e justiliid. ^ ^ 

Of the iiUMUid est due to tr^nismis>inii in this <ms,. (pages ()2 and d..) sn per 
cent is due to capital charges with the initial plant and 7:5 per cent with the complete 

'' ""'The cost <'Ould therefore be greatly redu.'cd by building a cheaper line, but it has 
been assumed that nothing less than the best possible construction and greatest 
security would be considered. 


Til 170 miles of gravitv pipe line, providing for supply to Regiiia only (see 
Plate 38) has been estimated by the Irrigation Branch (') to cost $ll,5'Jl,531, and this 
is without counting the cost r.i brnnch lines or right of way. ,..,.,. 

It has been assumed that the demand for water wiU be equal from the intake to the 
delivery at Regina, but no provision is made for branch lines t ' df liver the water. 

The pipe passes about 14 miles south of ALoosejaw. 

(') Kepoit by Mr. K. H. I'eters. 



■fmcee COST o^ascrmc t»ims^/ss,om j/ 

OCTPOT m go X ^o so to to m> .-y} no /o ^il. of a^^s 

re/i/fSAY /&/S /s/e 21 Z3 e6 ^ 3z 3< ^r? '^ 19^3 

Fig. 6 

sorrn s.\sK\rrHEvr\\ w^tkr sirrrr nivERsios i-rojf.ct 

If in order to dispose of the T^ator for whioi, the size of pipe i. .losip... d 
we allow a^ a rough Jtin,nte. 25 per cent additional length (42^r. n>.W f'"" »>;» '^»: 
Hn^ of L'pacity'of r,0 e.f... at a cost of WT.«On ,.r -i o C) the^Ulo^i oo.t w.ll be 
$3,035.-08 and the total cost of the concrete r'PC I'ne only 9.W — ,.• , . ^^..^ 

This concrete pipe line is a comparatively pennam ' struc .re. to repairs 
Kilt not to raoid wear or obsolescence. , ,. n • 

The aZIl capital charges, however, could nnt well W V - than the followmg:- 

Interest. 5 per cent. 

Sinking fund -Assuming a r.o-year life and a loan for the -ame period, the annual 
payment toVe Seed at confpound interest at . per cent to re,.a.v the capital ... that 
time would be O-SSti tier cent, say 1 per cent. 

" Vcpairs an,l maintenance, say 1 per cent. Extensive damage .u^ occur from 
wash-outs frost, etc.. but this 1 per cent would provide $1.^,630 per annun.. 

Taxes, etc., say 1 per cent. 

Total, 8 per cent. 

Eidit per cent on $13,627,239 = $1,090,200. . , u * ♦>,<. 

In addition to this, there is the wrought iron press.,re p pe from the P" to the 
gravttv pipe line intake, which i.s figured at $184,800. On th.s we may low a thirty- 
year life sav a 2 per cent sinking fund, or annual charges of 9 per cen.. 

Nino p- r cent on $184,900 = $16,032. 

The total annual charges wwuld, therefore, be:— 

On the concrete pipe. 
On the pressure pipe. 

$1 .090.200 

. ,'06,830 

or $3,032 per day. 

As shown under the head of ' Quantity of water required,' it is I'^^f le/hat the 

""'The cost per 1,000 gallons due to the pipe line only ww.ld therefore be:- 

GalUms ,H.r day. ' C™t» [km- 1 .0.10 GuUot.-. 

20 20 

15 IH 

6 Oii 

4 02 

3 03 



Toial Cost of Water Delivered to Consumers. 

Pumping at South Saskatchewan river and gravity delivery. Main i '.^pi^ 
cost ba^ed on steam turbines and centrifugal pumps as an average figure-..e ,um- 

""^yuril^tSl^^ii^r- Capacity. 20.000.000 gallons per day. Output, 15,000.000 

^port by "Mr. F. H. Peters. 




^S It 





il 1 


I 5 


i ; 

i i 

\ i 

\ 5 


















1 i 

1 ! 

1 i i 






t 1 








1 : 







1 ^ 















?i 10 










' a 




^ ^ 















^ S! 



SA'&'j'x ffe 



CT 8» 

t, 75,000,000 

VfT tint 
tiital <i»t due 

to main 

>uin|>iiiR (ilaiit 


till- rivfr. 

B 76°„ 

le ('■fffrrent 

C6i ~ - the 
nakes little 
;08t of the 

number of 

the South 
t, and that 
ain locally, 


le substitu- 
> results. 
« line and 
g the cost 

he various 
ig thereby 
ain pump- 

Plate 39). 
nada,' No. 

' D. B. Dowlins. Jan. 27. 191S. 

Shsded f>ori}6na fn^rmsent stress o^Z/^it^ 

ro AceoMMftfrt. Mvwtr m^. H.S./t HImsit. /iLAe^. 


D£/^mM£/\rr of the /ArrERtoR. 

V\/^rgf9 0aov^rf9 M^f^CH. 


V •» » 4 

*» m w_ MO 

Offtn^^iOtft/fireh. g9ff/S/3. 



soLiH sAfiK.\niif:w.\\ iv.i7f.7.' SI rPLY nnEKsios vnn.iFAT 


Complete installation: Capacity, 100,000,000 gallo;is per day. Output, :5,000,<'.00 

fOST IX i-Kxr.> I'BK 1,0»).;.\LU)N!< niETo:— | i „ . 

! Per out 

of ti.tal <iwl diH' 

J. . Ti>tal to main 

I'-impinK Main Mechanical ,„,,„pi*e „na c,«t of .leliv.rin^' punipinK plant 

tohWKhtof !>■ Filtration '"'Xtn to co„.,nn.r,. a 
lan.l. Line. , Inition. 

Initial inKtallation 
Complete installa- 

.Vvcrage. . . . 

2 a; 

1 !Hi 

20 20 
4 (« 
12 11 

1 .-> 
1 .3 



13 J 

o'.l ft Ills, 

lit tentn. 
211 cents. 

ti 75- 


The preceding table shows at a glance the relative importance of the different 
items entering into the total cost of water delivered to the consumer. 

It will be seen that the cost of pumping at the river is but 6 to 9 per cent of the 
total cost and consequently a considerable difference in the cost of power makes little 
difference in the totel cost ; for instance, 25 per cent difference in the cost of the 
power is less than 2 per cent ou the total cost. 

The important items are: — 

(1) Cost due to the pipe line. 

(2) Cost due to local pumping and distribution. 

The figure taken for the last item would be high for a well-mauaged. undertnking 
in a large town, but it is intended to represent the average result of a number of 
towns large and small. i, o *», 

Assuming, as the present knowledge appears to indicate, that the South 
Saskatchewan river is the only satisfactory source of water for the district, and that 
the cities interested must have a larger supply of water than they can obtain locally, 
then the real problems are: — 

(1.) Can the cost of the pipe line bo substantially reduced? 

(2.) Can the cost of local pumping and distribution be reduced? 

It may be possible, and it is at all events worth investigation, whether the substitu- 
tion of a pressure instead of a gravity system would not achieve both these resulte. 

A pressure system, if practicable, would permit of a much shorter pipe line and 
one embraciiig a much larger number of towns, thus probably diminishing the cost 
and distributing it over a larger number of towns. 

Also, if the water can be delivered at a pressure of say 65 pounds to the various 
cities, the local pumping plants could be dispensed with, and the saving thereby 
should much more than compensate for the increased expenditure at the main pump- 
ing station at the river. 

These questions are further considered in the following Appendix. 


Based on Map No. 97 by D. B. Dowling, B.A.Sc, in the ' Coals of Canada,' No. 
83, 1911, issued by the Department of Mines, Ottawa. 

1. Salvador. Seam disclosed here. (') 

2. Kerrobert. Seam disclosed here. (') 

>D. B. Dowling, Jan. 27. IMS. 



3. Eagle lake. The seam here is believed to be the same as that stated to be at 
Eagle hills in No. 5 below. (*) 

4. Brock. Large quantities of lignite are found here. (*) 

5. Eagle hills. Coal seams have been found here. (*) 

6. Outlook. Coal deposits here. (') 

7. Saskatchewan Landing. A 4-foot seam disclosed at range 16, township 20, 
section 14. (•) 

8. Maple creek. Seams of bituminous coal, underlie the adjacent country. Flow 
of natural gas reached at 1,200 feet (^) ; 4-foot seam at depth of 196 feet; 7-foot seam 
at 292 feet. (>) 

9. Swift Current. Coal mine being opened. Company formed to bore for natural 
gas. (2) 

10. Cypress hills. Coal is being mined here. (*) 

11. Moosejaw. A well was sunk 1,200 feet at the city electric power house and 
indications of natural gas obtained. 

12. Pense. A flow of natural gas was struck here, but not of much importance (*) 

13. Rouleau. Large quantities of lignite are found here. (-) 

14. Few Warren. 3-foot 4-inch seam at range 24, township 13, section 24. (*) 

15. Dirt hills. Seams of coal are known to exist here. (') 

16. Lake of the Rivers. Consumer's Coal Company. See under latter heading 
in body of report. 

17. Wood Mountain district. Lignite closely resembles that of Estevan district 
Seams from 3 to 17 feet. Not developed. (*) 

18. Manitoba and Saskatchewan Coal Company. Ultimate capacity, 2,000 tons 
per day. (') 

19. Eureka Brick and Coal Company. Capacity, 200 tons per day. (8) 

20. Western Dominion Collieries. Equipment for 1,(K)0 tons in 10 hours. (•) 

* I). B. Donrling, January 27, 1913. 

* Pamphlets by Minister jf Agriculture, Saskatcbewan, ' Saskatchewan, Canada,' 1914 and 

'C. P. E. Co. nani'-hlet. ' Western Canada,' 1912. 

* Mr. T. Martin, div. engineer, C.P.R., Moosejaw. 

' Memoir 24E, Department of Mines, Ottawa, 1912. 

" Coals of Canada.' Vol. 1, 1912. Department of Mines, Ottawa. 

sunn .» <AM7» //A.iriV n 177.7.' si I'l'l.y UIVEHsIOS I'UOJKVT 



As the primary object of the foregoing report has been to deal with the sources 
and cost of power, it may be considered that a suggestion to use a pressure instead 
of a gravity system of supply is not within its scope. 

The cost of power, however, is only of consequence as aflFecting the total cost of 
the water delivered, and an investigo.tion at once makes it apparent that the greatest 
item in such cost for many years to cuiuc will nut bo that of power but that of the 
pilK? lino (sci' iii\t!v ^."l). 

If it can be shown that an increased cost for jxiwer by an alternative method of 
delivering the water will probably decrease the total ost of water deliveret), tlicn it is 
considered that the discussion of such method is in order, but not the preparo'.ion of 
estimates, which will be a large subject in itself. 

It will have been seen from tlie report that all the propostls so far made have 
been based on ' gravity supply,' meaning in this case pumping I'rom the river to an 
intake on the height of land, and allowing the water to flow from thence to the cities 
by a concrete pipe line which will deliver it with little or no pressure at the level of the 
Canadian Pacific railway rails in each city, this pipe line to be constructed initially 
of Hill (•ai>acity iit ;i i-ii<t i4' l.' to 14 uiiiliuii dollars (scf |):i;ri' ^i'). 

This gravity pipe line necessitates passing through a country more or less remote 
from all towns axcept Regina (spc Plate .IS), and it is by no means clear that the inter- 
mediate towns could be supplied even by long and expensive branch lints; in fact, in 
s>inif cases it ii|i|ii'iirs frniu the ri'-iKi-tivc^ clcviitions (sec table Dage 12) that they 
could not. 

The basic idea appears to be to provide an undertaking of general public benefit 
in the sense of making the supply available not only to two or three- of the larger 
cities, but also to the large number of intermediate smaller towns. The methods and 
routes 80 far proposed do not appear to make this possible, or even to take it into con- 

If the pipe line is to be wholly or partly unproductive of revenue throughout its 
length, the cost will be heavy on the cities at its termination ; if, on the other hand, a 
method can be used which permits of supply to intermediate towns without appreciable 
length of branch lines, the cost to all users should be diminished and the benefit will be 
much more general. 

The first saction of the proposed gravity concrete pipe is 10 feet 6 inches internal 
diameter and is buried 6 feet clear, necessitating a trench about 17 feet deep and 12 
feet 6 inchee wide, and from the nature of the work it would probably not pay to lay 
this as two pipes of smaller diameter at different times, although the full capacity may 
not be required for say 25 years or more. 

On the other hand, with a pressure system a much smaller diameter fteel or wood- 
stave pipe might be laid at probably much less cost, sufficient for 10 or 15 years 
ahead, such pipe following the route of the railroad and centres of population. Later 
on, when conditions warrant it, a second parallel pipe could be laid, or feeder pipes 
could be laid to points of heavy demand. 


Summing up the above, the gravity pipe system appears to entail the following 
disadvanta^ree : 

(1) The pipe line is remote from intermediate towns, and its length is about 
40 per cent more than the distance by railroad. It is also far from being easily 
accessible for inspection and repairs. 



(2) The annual capital charges during the early stages will he an exceesive 

(3.) The water will be delivered without pressure and each town muit main- 
tain its own pumping station to add the necessary pressure for distribution. 

(4.) To get the necessary height of land will necessitate placing the pump- 
ing station about 24 miles from the railroad. 


To avoid these disadvantages it is suggested that a pressure instead of a gravity 
•ystem should be considered. 

The addition of about 65 pounds pressure at the main pumping station would 
probably give all the pressure necessary for domestic supply. 

A pressure system would enable the pipe to be laid by the shortest or most desir- 
able route independently of the contour of the land. 

The pressure system would offer the following advantages: — 

1. The plant can be located at the most advantageous spot independent of the 
elevation of the adjacent height of land. It might be located at 'the Elbow,' within one 
or two miles of the railroad instead of about 20 miles di. ant. This offers groat 
advantages for the delivery of machinery and supplies, and for access to the work» 
when completed. It would also avoid the exi)enditure of about $400,000 and en annual 
cost of about $4S,0(H( for a branch railway line (see paces 14 and 15). 

2. Tie pipe can be laid near the route of the railway, diminishing its length by 
about 40 per cent, avoiding the cost of branch line?, and making it far more acces- 
sible for repairs. 

3. It will probably pay to lay a much smaller steel or wood stave pipe, sufficient 
for fifteen years ahead, diminishing the initial burden on the undertaking (see also- 

4. It can then supply intermediate towns between the principal cities without 
branch lines, thus distributing the costs, increasing the benefits, and producing 
revenue along its whole length. There are fourteen towns on the Canadian Pacific 
Railway line between Elbow and Regina and others coming into existence on the 
routes of other railroads closely adjacent. 

5. The .ecessity for an individual pumping plant in each city or town will be 
done away with, except for fire or reserve purposes. 

Any inequality of pressure due to direct pumping and varying demand could 
probably be met by the addition of standpipes, etc., at suitable points/ but it is possible 
that in the case of simultaneous supply to a number of cities and town^ the resultant 
demand would be so steady that but little would be needed in this direction. 

Or, each city could provide its own elevated tank or reservoir giving such storage 
and pressure as its engineer considered necessary, the supply to such tank being 
delivered from the main pumping station to the top of the tank. Any inequalities of 
pressure due to direct pumping could not then affect supply consumers. 

The elevations of the cities and towns on the proposed route are such that the 
pressure at all points would Ijc nearly uniform (page 12). 

A system of direct pumping under pressure, properly designed, would not appear 
to greatly affect the safety of supply, since in any case the supply must depend upon 
direct pumping from the river to the height of land, and the additional pressure 
would be taken care of by steel or wood stave pipes instead of by concrete pipes for 
a gravity supply. 

To provide for fire pressure, if higher pressure was considered necessary in the 
cities and larger towns, each" city could provide its own steam fire engine or simple and 

sor TH s ASK \T( iif:\y.i\ wmhu si rfi.y in\t:iisio\ vhojevt 


inexpensive iiiotnr dri\en pumps to :irt as lioosters, siu-h methods eostintr but n frac- 
tion of the capital and operating costs necessary to maintain a separate plant in 
constant operation for providinK the pressure necessary for domestic purposes in each 

While increased pressure means preator first cost for plant and prreater cost of 
pumping, it does not mean that these would be increased proportionately. 

If, therefor, the development is to be ca -ried out on a co-operative basis amongst 
the municipalities, it is probable that addintr the necessary pressure at the river 
would considerably diminish the total cost of the water delivered to the consumer, by 
reducing the cost of the pipe line and redu<-ing the cost of local pumping. 


A few notes on what has been or is being done on systems similar to that herein 
contemplated may be of interest to those reading this report. 

New York city has nearly completed an aqueduct largely consisting of pressure 
tunnels, from a point 'M miles, distant in the Catskill mountains, which will have an 
ultimate capacity of 600 million gallons daily. 

Los Angeles, California, has nearly completed an aqueduct 222 miles long, with 
a capacity of 273 million gallons per day. 

San Francisco, California, has drawn plans for obtaining its supply from a dis- 
tance of 180 miles at an elevation of 3,800 feet. The total cost of the scheme, giving 
a supply of 24i) million gallons daily is estimated at $37,000,000. 

Manchester, England, obtains its supply from lake Thirlmere through an aque- 
duct nearly 100 miles long. 

Birmingham, England, obtains its supply from the Elan river, in Central Wales, 
through a 70-mile aqueduct. 

Glasgow, Scotland, is supplied through a 30-mile aqueduct from Loch Katrine. 

Winnipeg, Manitoba. — The city is carrying on surveys for a gravity supply from 
Shoal lake, a portion of the lake of the Woods. The 'distance is about 90 miles and 
the tentative plans contemplate the supply of 25,000,000 gallons per day. Steps are 
being taken to include the surrounding towns and cities in a ' greater Winnipeg 
water district.' Estimated cost, $1' (OO.OOO. 

Mexico. — An interesting description of a water supply pipe line of similar length 
but smaller diameter is given by J. L. Campbell, M. Am. Soc. C.E., in a paper on 
'the Water Supply of El Paso and Southwestern Eailway, New Mexico.' (•) 

This system is a combination of gravity and pressure supply and supplies all the 
requirements of the railway for a distance of 128 miles. 

The system includes 116 miles of wood stave pipe and 19 miles of cast-iron pipe, 
total 135 miles, along an approximately straight route; also, one 422,000,000 gallon 
storage reservoir, four 2,500,000 gallon service reservoirs, two pumping plants in 
duplicate, stand-pipes, &c. 

The pipe line is carried over a very broken and irregular country. 

From a small concrete dam across the creek at an elevation of 7,728 feet the pipe 
line drops down 5J miles to 6,980 feet (difference, 235 feet), continuing 5 miles to the 
storage reservoir. From thence it drops to Coyote at 5,810 feet. This first section 
brings the water from the source to the railway and is 32 miles long. 

The second or pumping section of SOJ miles, extends east along the railway, ris- 
ing from 6,810 feet at Coyote to 6,750 feet (940 feet) on Corona Summit where it 
delivers to a reservoir. 

The third section, which is a gravity system, extends from the reservoir on 
Corona Summit, dropping from 6,750 to 4,570 (2,180 feet) in 80 miles. 

OTraL- .m. Soc. C. E., toI. LXX, Dec.. 1910, p. 164. 



The pressure is limited to 130 pounds per so re inch (300 feet head) except on 
19 miles of the pump main, where the estimntca maximum pressure is 310 poundi 
(718 feet head). 

The maximum diameter of the pipe is IC inches, and this section delivers about 
3,120,000 Imperial gallons per day. 

There are rcKulatinjf, relief check, blow-off and air valves, air chambers and open 
«tnnd-pipes dcsinned to keep the wood pipe full, regulate flow, prevent accumulation 
of pressure and water hammer, and remove sediment. 

All of which ia respectfully submitted.