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..  hi-"^ 






DiBiimd, Google 





j  D,Biiii.d,Gcogle 

DiBiimd, Google 



DiBiimd, Google 







Apbil,  1901. 




Hon.  Aleixandbb  Ramsey, 
Col.  William  P.  Clough, 
Gbk.  John  B.  Sanborn, 
Henby  p.  Upham, 
Warren  Upham,   - 



Second  fioe- President. 


Secretary  and  Liltrarkm. 

David  L.  Kingsbury  and  Josiah  B.  Chaney, 

Assistant  Librarians. 


Nathaniel  P.  Langpord. 
Gen.  Jambs  H.  Baker. 

Rkv.  Edward  C.  Mitchell. 
Josiah  B,  Chaney. 


Hon.  John  D.  Ludden, 
Hon.  Charles  E.  Flandrau. 

Hon.  Henry  I>.  Moss. 
Gen.  James  H.  Baker. 

The  Secretary  of  the  Societj  is  ex  Q&cio  a  member  of  these  Committees- 




nuTOBX  o»  TraubportatiOh  ni  Udwesota,  by  Gen.  Jaubb  H. 

Baxxb   1_34 

Abwigtual  trftneportatloD  and  traffic 2 

Period  of  French  exploration i 

Later  traSBc  of  the  Ulnneeota  valley 6 

Lake  Bnperlw  and  the  for  trade 7 

Transportatfon  by  canals 14 

Steamboating  on  the  Mlesfsslppl  and  Minnesota  riven 16 

Onr  wagon  roads  and  etaee  lines is 

The  Bed  River  ox  cart  trade 20 

Whiter  travel  by  dog  trains 21 

Present  transportation  on  Lake  Superior 21 

The  advent  of  rallwaya , 28 

Snmmary  review 83 

How  wi  Wow  THK  Saf  Jdam  Abohifxlago,  by  Gen,  Edwin  C. 

Makm 35-M 

Tki  Ojibwatb  im  Mihhbbota,  by  Bxv.  Jobbph  a.  .  55-12S  I'S"'.  'OJ" 

Their  geographic  distribution .■. 56 

The  OJibway'B  love  of  hla  native  place. 56 

Personal  appearance  57 

InA«qnenoe  of  Insanity 69 

Obanges  during  the  past  twenty-flve  years 60 

Home  life  In  the  wigwam 62 

Oonversatlon  with  vlaltora  and  among  themselves 03 

Attecflon  for  their  chUdrm 64 

The  dmm  and  chants 60 

Sleeping  In  the  wigwam 67 

Endurance  of  cold 61^ 

Succession  of  occupations  during  the  year 70 

Frequent  scarcity  of  food  In  winter 72 

Habtt  of  going  In  debt 73    " 

>y  Google 



Chiefs  and  orators T4 

The  OJIbwajs  of  Bed  lake 70 

Tbe  OJibways  of  Cass  and  Leech  lakes TS 

HearUutss  Is  eating,  and  fUh  the  staple  food 80 

OJlbTrar  gambling;  feaats  and  councils;  hie  Ideal 81 

IndUBtry  of  the  women;  their  aerrlle  poBitloa 83 

Marriage,  aod  abandoning  wife  and  children 84 

Bat^liood  and  childhood 86 

Mechanical  ingenultr  and  skill 88 

Intellectual  tralte;  comparison  with  the  vblte  race 88 

Murder  rare,  except  when  due  to  Intoxication 92 

Natural  politeness  and  paU^ice 98 

The  diristlBn  OJlbway M 

Treatment  of  tbe  aged &6 

Tobacco  smoking  and  chewing 97 

Mortallt7  of  children 07 

Aversion  to  bathing;  honses  of  one  room 98 

Hunting  and  killing  game SO 

Neglect  of  domestic  animals 101 

Oreat  endurance  In  walking , lOS 

IxingeTlty;  recollections  by  old  men 106 

Habits  tn  work;  logging,  river  driving,  gardening 107 

Salutations— Asiatic  origin 108 

Visiting;  deltberatenesB  In  thinking  and  speaking 108 

OJibway  girls  and  women  In  housework 108 

Advice  to  travelers  In  the  OJlbway  country Ill 

OJIbway  personal  names ■-..  Ill 

Regard  to  promises 112 

Expectation  of  i^fts 118 

Lack  of  sympathy;  sense  of  humor 113 

Bcalhen  daoces  and  their  Influence 114 

United  States  government  sgents  and  schools 117 

Treaties  with  the  OJlbways 120 

Payment  of  annuities;  gambling  and  drinking 121 

Oatheriog  wild  rice;  Indolence  of  tie  men 12S 

Rations  from  the  government 125 

Rate  of  mortality:  mixed-bloods  Increasing ^25 

Destructlveness  of  Intemperance 126 

The  OJIbway  language 127 


soTA.  by   the  Bight  Beverend  Henrt   B.   Whipple.  D.    D., 

LL.  D.,  Bishop  of  Minnesota 129-142 



SiooaAPHic  Notes  of  Ouj  Settlkbb,  by  Uor.  Hkkbt  L.  Uobb.  .143-162 

Henry  Jackson J44 

Jacob  W.  Bass 148 

WUlt&iD  H.  Forbes 147 

Jam«s  M.  Boal 148 

Dr.  Jobn  J.  Dewey 149 

Wlllfam-R.  Marshall 148 

Darld   Olnwted 150 

Uorton  8.  Wilkinson 150 

Jeremlata  Russell 151 

SylTanas  Trask 151 

Josepb  W.  Pnrber IBl 

James  S.  Norrla 152 

lioreDEo  A.  Babcodc IS2 

Oldeon  H.  Pond 153 

Da.Tld  B.  LoomlB 153 

PareoDs  K.  Johnson 154 

Benjamin  W.  Bnmson 154 

Henry  N.  Setzer 155 

Mahlon  Black 156 

Hiss  Harriet  B.  Btehop 157 

Other  oW  settlers  still  living 160 

Bablt  Tkadb  and  Traders  ui  St.  Pavl,  by  Chables  D. 
Blfelt  183-166 

rPHK    Eablt    FOLrncAL    Hibtobx    op    Minnxsota,    by    Hon. 

CHAKLB8    D.    GlLFHiAN ItfT-lSO 

BconntDios  of  the  Kpiscopal  Chuboh  m  Mihhesota,  abd  the 
BIablt  Mibsiorb  ow  Pare  Place,  St.  Pattl,  by  Bishop  M.  N. 
GII.BBRT  181-196 

ABinnBoincxs  of  MraitBeoTA  Dusraa  the  Tkbkitobial  Period, 

by  Hon.  Ghablkb  B.  FLAflDRAir 197-222 

peculiar  eariy  Immigrants 197 

Celebration  of  New  Year's  Day 199 

Early  social  condlUons. 201 

Pioneer  missionaries 204 

Territorial  politics 200 

A  pollOeal  epiBocIe 210 

SIsnIflcance  of  geographio  names 212 

Descriptive  oamee  given  by  theffit»<ut 21B 

"^^e  Slonx  maiden  feaat 218 




Origin  of  the  name  Itasca 211) 

Old  natneE  passing  awaj 221 

Indian  medicine  men 221 

HEnnEPm  as  DiacoTKRBB  and  Authob,  by  Samuxl  M.  Davib.  .  .223-240 

Earlier  discover;  to  tbe  time  4^  La  Salle 223 

Hennepin's  captlvit7  and  diBcoveries  in  Minnesota 225 

l^e  life  and  character  of  Hennepin 234 

HiBTORT  or  Dtjluth,  abd  of  St,  Louis  Oodutt,  to  thb  Tbab 

1870.  by  Hon.  Jonn  R,  Oarbt 241-278 

Daniel  Grcyaelon  Du  Lhut 241 

Fond  du  Lac 243 

Treaties  wKh  the  OJIbways 244 

Counties  of  northeastern  Minnesota 244 

Road  from  the  St  Croix  valley  to  Lake  Sopertor 245 

Early  mlaslonartes 246 

,The  Urat  election 248 

Members  of  the  legislature 250 

Duluth  and  other  towns  platted  and  Incorporated 2S3 

Biographic  sketches  of  pioneers 257 

The  first  boom,  followed  by  depres8i(»i  In  1857 280 

rirat  saw  and  grist  mills 262 

Barly  sailing  vessels  on  Lake  Superi<« 268 

First  railroads 266 

First  postofflces  and  mails 267 

Decreased  cold  of  recent  winters 270 

Volunteers  frmn  St  Looiis  county  in  the  dvll  war 271 

The  town  of  Buchanan  and  the  land  office 272 

First  sermons  and  churches 273 

School  districts  and  schools 274 

Location  of  the  county  seat 276 

Beginnings  In  this  county  and  the  city  of  Dnlnth 277 

The  Eakly  Sxttlxxent  akd  History  op  Bkdwood  Countt,  by 
Hon.  Oblando  B.  Tdbsxll 21^290 


OSAFHIG  SsiTCHES,  by  William  B.  0.  Folsoic 291-324 

Beginning  of  settlements,  steamboatlng,  and  lumbering 293 

Establishment  of  the  Interstate  boundary 295 

Pioneer  lumbering  CND  government  lands 296 

Forest  flres  and  decrease  of  rainfall 297 

The  village  of  Marine 297 

Osceola,  Wisconsin 299 



The  Old  St.  Croix  county '. 298 

The  city  of  Stillwater 301 

Lahekmd.  Afton  and  Point  Douglas 305 

Preseott,  WIscodbIh 306 

District  of  the  Apple  aod  Willow  rivers 806 

SLiae  on  tHe  C,  St.  P.,  M.  and  O.  railway 800 

Pine,  Carlton  and  Kanabec  conntlea 810 

Dulutb  and  tbe  St  Lonia  river 312 

Clam  river  and  Burnett  county,  Wleconsln 313 

Taylor's  Falls  and  vicinity 314 

Areola,  Washington  county 816 

The  Nevere  dam 816 

Log  booms  and  raiTta 317 

Lumber  manufactutlng  farther  south  to  Minnesota 81H 

Summary  and  atatistlca ; 321-334 

Amount  of  logs  cut  from  1837  to  1898 821 

Rooapltulallon  of  logs  and  sawn  lumber 322 

Co9t  of  labor  In  Inmbering,  1S37  to  1898 323 

Loasee  by  Ores 323 


Its  TRIBUTABIK8,   With  Bioqrafhio  Skxtohss,   by  DAniBL 
Stancktikld   S26-S62 

Personal  narration 32&-350 

Arrival  In  Minnesota 820 

Bxidoratlon  of  tbe  pineries  on  tbe  Bum  river 820 

Loss  of  the  first  log  drive 833 

First  logging  near  the  Crow  Wing  river 380 

Exploration  of  the  upper  streams  and  lakes 338 

Growth  of  the  town  of  SL  Anthony 33S 

OutQta  for  lomberlug  repaid  by  logs 341 

Relation  of  lumbering  to  agricultural  settlement 844 

Incidents  during  exploration  and  logging 344 

Changes  In  this  industry  since  flf^  years  ago 346 

Lumbermen  of  St  Anthony  and  MinneapollB  prior  to 

1860  347 

Bftrly  lumber  manufacturing  above  Minneapolis 3ri0 

Biographic  sketches 853-361 

Franklin  Steele 354 

Caleb  D,  Dorr 355 

Snmncr  W.  FanUnun. 356 

John  Martin 357 

Dorllua  Morrison 368 

Johns.  Plllsbury 359 

Statistics 861 



Recou-BCTiohs  of  the  Cirr  axd  Pzofle  of  St.  Paul.  1843-1898, 

by  August  L.  Larpektedr 868-394 

Kindred  and  migration  to  St  Paul ; 364 

Population  and  trade  In  1843 368 

Marriage,  and  our  pioneer  store  and  borne 371 

HoetllltlPB  between  tbe  OJibways  and  Slonx 374 

Tbe  Jackson  hotel,  with  an  anecdote 375 

First  surveys  and  land  claims 878 

Organization  and  growth  of  Minnesota  territory 379 

BxperJences  ot  the  early  tnders 879 

BelaUves  come  to  St  Paul 383 

Treaties  with  the  Slonx 384 

Trade  with  the  (ot  Northwest 385 

Oame,  and  Its  decrease 386 

Steamboat  travel,  freighting,  and  adveatures 386 

Vindication  and  eulogy  of  the  ploneeis 390 

OAPTivrrr  Amono  the  Sioux,  Auoust  18  to  Seftqibeb  26, 1862. 

by  Mrs.  N.  D.  White ;^. ....  .3«i-42« 

Fight  ambnah,  and  maaaacre K". : !  kl ). .* . "M/^-  ■■■  39T 

Oaptlves  taken  to  LltUe  Crow's  village 402 

On  the  march  westward 409 

Camp  Release 418 

Betnm  through  St  Peter  and  St  Paul  to  Wisconsin 422 

Karration  or  a  FiaEnDLY  Sioux,  by  Snaka,  tbe  Rescuer  of 
Mary  Schwandt 427-430 

The  Sioux  Qdtbbeak  in  the  Year  1882,  with  Notes  op  MIB-xi)^.  t  (,^3'"  J/ 
BiONABi  WoHK  Aiiono  THE  Sioux,  by  RET.  MosEB  N.  Adaus. ..431-452         '>(' 

Causes  of  the  outbreak 432 

Little  Crow,  coHflpf rator  and  leader. . . .'. 434 

The  massacre 435 

Events  of  the  following  twelve  days 438 

Reconnolseance  and  bnrlal.or  the  dead 442 

Battle  of  Birch  OouUe 444 

Summary  of  losses  by  tbe  massacre  and  war 446 

Aid  by  friendly  Dakotaa 446 

ChrlsUan  mtseloDs  and  thetr  results 449 

The  LouiBiAHA  Pdbchabk  apid  Pbecediro  Spahish  Intbiquxs 
FOB  DiBHEUBEBitERT  OF  THE  Union,  by  Nathakiel  Pitt  Iiako- 


Foresight  of  Washington 




DlssatJBfactlon  of  western  eettlers 4S9 

Prophecies  of  Nararro 457 

Gen,  WllUnsou's  intrlsuea 460 

Spanish  Inquisition 463 

Siate  of  Frankland 466 

Invasion  of  Louisiana  Qirestened 470 

Trea^  of  Madrid in 

Treaty  of  St.  Ildepbonso. 472 

Olalm  of  oar  governmeat 474 

Talleyrand's  cnplomacy 475 

Tedlons  delay 476 

Eight  of  deposit  prohibited 478 

Monroe  appointed  minister  extraordinary 480 

Bonaparte's  proposition 4S2 

Lonlalana  Purchase  treaty  Blgned 468 

Texas  Included  in  the  Louisiana  Purchase 486 

Views  of  Congressmen 490 

I.etteFs  of  Jefferson 498 

Opinion  of  Chief  Justice  Marshall 49S 

Anglo-American  alliance 406 

Pears  of  eastern  statesmen 408 

Mode  of  dining  western  boundary GOO 

Discovery  of  the  Columbia  by  Gaptaln  Gray BOO 

Attitude  of  Jefferson (SOI 

Lewis  and  Clark  expedition SOS 

Astor  expedition 503 

Florida  treaty 604 

Pinal  settlement  of  boundary 606 

Sota  Leqacub  or  the  Obdiiiakoe  or  17S7,  by  Hon.  Jambb  Osoab 

PiXBCE 600-518 

Nationality  509 

The  dual  syrtem  of  govemment BW 

TVeedom   617 

Beilgions  liberty  and  popular  edocatlon 518 

The  Duai,  Obioqi  or  MuransoTA,  by  Sakukl  M.  Davis 519-648 

Cession  of  the  Northwest  Territory 619 

Tbe  Ordinance  of  1787 624 

The  Louisiana  Purchase 627 

Territorial  goremments 541 

Adndssioa  of  Minnesota  to  the  TTulon 546 



Celebration  of  the  Fiftieth  Arntvebsary  of  the  Okoahiza- 
TioN  OF  THE  Utonesota  Histobical  Sooiett,  in  the  Hall  of 
TKB  House  of  EEPBEasNTATivES,  St.  Paol,  Mibn.,  Wedbes- 

DAT,  Novembeb  15,  188B 549-636 

Afteenoos  Session 551-606 

Invocation,  by  Ret.  Robert  Fobbbb 551 

Qbeetino,  by  Hon.  John  Lind,  Oovemor  of  Minnesota . . .  Ki3 
Besponse,  by  the  President,  Hon.  Alexander  Ramsey..  .  iS55 
Oboanization  and  Gbowth  of  the  Mimwebota  HiBxoni- 

OAL  Societt,  byOxR.  William  O.  liE  Dxro SSS-CeS 

The  LiBBABY,  MusEUU,  akd  Portbait  Collection  of  the 
Minnesota  Hibtobioai.  Society,  by  Nathaniel  Pitt 

Lanofobd  56d-67B 

The  library 570 

The  tnnBeum 572 

Portmlta  6T3 

Increase  of  these  collections 573 

•       EotitispecHon 574 

Recollections  of  Persons  and  Events  in  the  History 

OF  Minnesota,  by  Bishop  Henbt  B.  Whipple 570-686 

Progress  of  Minnesota  During  the  Half  Century,  by 

Hon.  Charles  B.  Flandrau 587-590 

Atnj)  I.JANO  Syne 508 

BvENiKQ  Sesston 507-630 

Openino  Address,  tiy  Hon.  John  S.  Puxsbubt 587-Wl 

Eddcation  in  the  Csitkd  States  and  in  Minnesota 

Dl'SING    THE    I'AST    FIFTY    TEARB,    by    CYHUB    NORTHBOP, 

Fresldent  of  the  State  Unlveralty 002-616 

The  common  schools Gl>2 

Academies  -        003 

Collegea GM 

Dovelopmeat  of  our  educational  system 605 

Nonnal  schools 609 

Instruction  In  Bclence« 610-#14 

Phyrfcs  (by  Prof.  Frederick  S.  Jodcs) 610 

Botany  (by  Prof.  Conway  MacMlllan) 612 

Summary  and  slatlstlcs  of  educational  progress 014 

Donations  this  year  for  public  education 615 

I'ROaBEBS  OF  THE  United  States  buriko  the  Half  Cen- 
TOTiT,  by  Hon.  Cushman  K,  Davis,  United  Sf»t"S  Sen- 
ator   617-622 

Note  by  the  Secretary 622 

Minnesota  in  the  National  Congress  Dtmrno  TitESE 
Fifty  Tears,  by  Gen.  John  B.  Sanborn (>23-62A 


CONTENTS.  xiii 


TOBT,  AMD  ITS  DOTY  TO  THE  FUTUEE,  by  COL.  Wtt.i.tam 
P.  Clodgh 627-636 

AuERiOA  636 

Obitoarieb 637-680 

Bllns  Franklin  Drake 637-653 

Henry  Mower  Klce 654-K8 

Charles  Edwin  Mayo .66(Mt64 

Russell  Blakeley 665-670 

Othsb  Deceased  MEUBEEfi  of  Thib  Socibtt,  1898-1901 671-680 

Franklin  G.  Adams 671 

Levi   Atwood 671 

"Wmiam  II.  BushneU 671 

Alexander  H.  Oathcart 671 

Robert  Clarke 672 

Elliott  Cones 072 

Chnries  P.  Daly 072 

'William  Dewaon 673 

Samuel  a  Baton 678 

Wtlllam  H.  Egle 673 

OUarlesD.  BWelt 674 

Mablon  N.  Gilbert 674 

William  Wirt  Henry 675 

Cliarles  J.  Hoadly 07.5 

John  K.  Jones 075 

William  H.  Eelley 670 

Patrick  H.  KeUy 676 

John  Jay  Lane 677 

Edward  Gay  Mason 677 

Fraab  Blackwell  Mayer 677 

DtjloB  A.  Monfort 677 

AmoB  Perry 078 

John  Thomas  Scharf 678 

,    Isaac  Staples 678 

George  C.  Stone 679 

William  S.  Stryker 679 

G^-orKc  W.  Sweet 679 

Charles  L.  Willis RSO 

John  C.  Wise 680 

Index 081-694 



I.   Map  of  Uie  Sao  Joan  Archipelago 

X    Portrait  of  Hon.  Henrj-  L.  Mow 

:L    Portrait  of  Hod.  ObarleB  D.  GIlflllBii 

V.    Portrait  of  Hon.  John  R.  Carey 

A.  eiret  frame  touse  In  Dolnth,  bnllt  hy  Robert  E.  Jef- 

V.    Portrait  of  William  H.  O.  FOsom 

I.    Portrait  of  Daniel  Stanchfleld 

I.    Portrait  of  Franklin  Stede 

.1.    Portrait  of  Oaleb  D.  Dorr 

E.    Portrait  of  Somner  W.  Faniham. 

K.   Portrait  of  Oapt  John  Martin 

I.    Portrait  of  Hon.  Doirllue  Morrison 

I.    Portrait  of  Hon.  John  S.  Plllsbnrr 

I.   Portrait  of  Angnst  L.  Larpentenr '. 

V.    Portraits  of  iO-.  and  Mrt.  N.  D.  White 

V.    Portrait  of  Snana 

I.    Portrait  of  Nathamlel  P.  Langford 

1.  Map-ahowiog  the  territorial  growtli  of  the  United 

I.    Portrait  of  Hon.  Alexander  Ramee; 

k.    Portrait  of  Gen,  William  G.  Le  Due 

t.    Portrait  of  Hon.  Bllaa  Franklin  Drake 

I.    Portrait  of  Hon,  Henry  Mower  Rice 

I.    Pwtralt  of  Charles  Bdwin  Mayo 





Onr  present  ByBteme  of  transportation  are  the  ontgrowth  of 
a  method  and  order  of  evolntion,  not  as  slow  aa  the  Darwinian, 
bat  steadfast  in  the  principles  which  have  governed  their  de- 
velopment. From  the  carrier  in  the  Soudan,  with  his  load 
upon  his  back,  or  the  Indian  in  his  birch  bark  canoe,  down  to 
the  modem  splendidly  equipped  railway,  or  the  snperb  ocean 
steamer,  it  has  been  a  continnous  development,  and  one  that 
has  caused  and  marked  the  progressive  steps  of  man  in  trade 
and  commerce,  I  being,  in  itself,  the  highest  mark  of  the  best 
civilization.  Safe  and  rapid  transportation  is  the  fraitfal 
mother  of  material  wealth.  There  seems  to  be  no  limit  to  its 
growth,  and  we  wonder  what  next  will  quicken  the  movement 
of  peoples  and  of  products.  In  peace,  or  in  war,  safe  and  rapid 
transit  has  been  the  synonym  of  power.  That  upon  China,  a 
vast  empire,  but  without  the  means  of  rapid  or  reasonable 
transportation,  the  very  curtain  of  history  should  drop  as 
blankly  as  if  it  belonged  to  some  other  planet,  is  perfectly  ap- 
parent; while  England,  but  a  little  island,  by  means  of  every 
modern  system  of  transportation,  has  carried  her  arms,  her 
commerce,  and  her  power,  into  all  the  regions  of  the  globe, 
gathering  wealth  in  her  movements  as  a  universal  carrier. 

Rapid  transportation  sets  in  motion  mighty  tides  of  immi- 
gration, and  is  the  spur  to  all  commerce.  It  tunnels  the 
mountains,  it  bridges  the  valleys,  it  deepens  the  rivers,  it  opens 
the  wilderness,  and  builds  new  empires.  It  opened  the  Suez 
canal  as  a  new  gateway  to  the  opulent  East,  and  will  yet  cut 

•t  the  MlnnMota  Hlatoiical  Boclsty. 



itB  way  throogh  the  Istbmns  of  Panama,  bringing  the  two 
great  western  oceans  together.  It  brings  the  most  distant  na- 
tions into  familiar  intercoarse,  and  banishes  the  spectre  of 
famine  by  the  even  and  speedy  distribution  of  every  human 

The  annual  export  and  import  trade  of  the  world  has  been 
estimated  at  |4,250,000,000,  a  snm  so  vast  as  to  be  practically 
incalcalable ;  bat  it  all  turns  upon  tbe  single  pivot  of  trans- 
portation. Think  of  its  currents  and  counter-currents,  like 
millions  of  mighty  shuttles,  weaving  the  stately  web  of  the 
world's  trade  and  wealth!  All  lands  and  all  seas  are  now 
open  to  the  wondrous  modem  facilities  of  transportation,  and 
if  we  can  forefend  the  cataclysm  of  nniversal  war,  where  will 
it  all  end?  These  gigantic  movements  call  for  merchants  and 
statesmen,  clothed  with  the  highest  faculties,  to  meet  the 
weighty  problems  which  this  volume  of  trade,  with  its  intri- 
cacies and  complexities,  is  pressing  for  consideration  over  the 
whole  sphere  of  the  earth. 

To  trace  the  history  of  our  own  transportation  in  the  domain 
of  Minnesota  is  to  mark,  step  by  step,  our  growth  and  develop- 
ment, from  savagery,  to  our  present  stature  among  the  great 
powers  of  the  world.  From  the  "drag"  of  two  poles  tied  to  the 
pony  of  a  Sioux  Indian,  to  a  modem  steam  engine,  or  from  the 
birch  bark  canoe  to  a  "whaleback,"  or  steel  steamer  on  lake 
Snperior,  is  the  very  measure  of  our  growth  in  power  and 


The  North  American  Indians,  as  foond  by  Columbus,  were 
the  earliest  historic  people  who  vexed  our  rivers  and  lakes 
with  the  paddle  of  the  canoe.  The  Dakota  nation  and  related 
tribes  occupied  tbe  Missouri  and  upper  Missisrippi  basins, 
while  the  Ojibways  possessed  our  lake  region,  at  the  time  of 
the  advent  of  the  French.  Learning  and  research  have  not  yet 
been  able  to  unravel  the  mystery  of  the  origin  of  the  Indian 
race  of  North  America.  With  their  primitive  modes  of  trans- 
portation, however,  we  are  all  familiar. 

Preceding  these,  in  tbe  order  of  time,  were  the  Mound  Build* 
ers,  a  prehistoric  race,  who  conducted  trafSc  on  oar  rivers  and 



lakes  more  than  a  tltODsand  years  ago,  as  proTen  b;  the  fact 
that  two  forests  of  timber  have  grown  over  the  tomoli,  near  the 
Mississippi  river,  each  forest  requiring  five  hundred  years  to 
complete  its  growth  and  decay.  In  these  groups  of  monnds  we 
find  virgin  copper,  that  mast  have  come  from  mines  in  the  re- 
gion of  lake  Superior,  which  establishes  the  fact  of  that  early 
trafBc  across  our  state.  It  is  now  fully  substantiated,  that 
they  penetrated  as  far  north  as  Itasca  lake,  and  were  on  every 
branch  of  the  Mississippi  in  its  upper  basin,  and  had  even 
pushed  their  way  across  the  continental  divide  into  Canadian 
territory.  It  is  also  in  evidence  that  the  very  portages  nsed 
by  oar  historic  Indians  were  nsed  by  the  Mound  Builders,  and 
that  these  shortest  and  most  eligible  routes  between  oar  water 
ways  were  discovered  and  occupied  for  centuries,  and  long 
prior  to  their  occupation  by  our  present  Indian  tribes. 

Who  these  people  were,  we  know  not;  but  that  they  were 
here  is  incontestable,  and  that  they  bad  modes  of  transporta- 
tion is  beyond  doubt  Our  aboriginal  historic  Indians,  of  whom 
'  we  have  some  knowledge  for  about  foar  hundred  years,  have 
even  DO  legendary  information  concerning  the  people  who  bailt 
the  moanda,  nor  have  they  themselves  ever  been  mound  build- 
ers. Oar  first  transportation  was  conducted,  therefore,  by 
that  prehistoric  people. 

Bat  if  we  desire  to  be  really  carious  and  learnedly  inqaisi- 
tive,  we  can  go  back  of  all  these.  There  are  on  deposit,  in  the 
vaults  of  this  society,  prehistoric  clipped  flints  found  at  little 
Falls,  Minnesota,  which  date  back  probably  five  thousand 
years,  according  to  the  opinion  of  Prof.  F.  W.  Putnam,  the 
curator  of  the  Peabody  Museam.  These  implements,  found 
by  Miss  Frances  E.  Babbitt,  were  under  sand  and  gravel,  which 
formed  the  flood  plain  of  the  Mississippi  river  in  the  closing 
stage  of  the  Qlacial  period.  They  bring  us  face  to  face  with 
Glacial  man,  existing  upon  the  southern  boundary  of  the  great 
ice  sheet  which  once  enveloped  the  Northwest.  Did  these  peo- 
ple possess  the  means  of  transportation  of  their  persons  and 
property?  and  if  so,  what?  Without  pursuing  this  inquiry, 
we  know  enough  to  be  fully  assured  that  a  thousand  years 
before  the  keel  of  Oolumbas  plowed  the  waters  of  the  Atlantic 
in  quest  of  a  new  world,  transportation  was  In  active  operation 



on  the  lakes  and  riverB  of  Minnesota,  b;  the  strange  and  name- 
less people  who  left  as  the  tnmall  scattered  over  oar  state  as 
the  indabitable  evidence  of  their  occnpancj'  and  activity. 


Following  the  Korth  American  Indians,  if  we  look  for  the 
first  white  men  who  navigated  oar  waters,  we  find  them  in 
Peter  Esprit  Badisson  and  his  brother-in-law,  Siear  des  Oro- 
seilliers.  In  their  "fonrth  voyage"  these  intrepid  Frenchmen 
visited  the  southwest  portion  of  lake  Baperior,  fourteen  years 
before  JoHet  and  Marquette  explored  the  lower  part  of  the 
Mississippi  river.  Badisson  and  his  companion  discovered  the 
apper  Mississippi  in  1659.  They  coasted  along  the  south  shore 
of  lake  Superior,  probably  to  the  bay,  Chequamegon,  meaning 
a  "long  point  of  land,"  near  Ashland,  in  Wisconsin.  The  In- 
dian name  of  the  bay  was  Bha-ga-wa-ma-kon.  They  probably 
passed  to  a  point  between  Kettle  and  Snake  rivers,  not  far 
from  Hinckley,  Minnesota,  thence  to  Mille  Lacs  and  thence  to 
discovery  and  crossing  of  the  Mississippi  river,  at  an  unknown  ' 
and  nnascertainable  point,  probably  between  the  mouth  of 
Sauk  river  and  the  mouth  of  Bum  river.  They  were  the  first 
white  men  who  visited  the  country  now  embraced  in  our  state 
and  paddled  the  first  canoe  through  our  waters.  They  came, 
as  they  themselves  state,  "in  search  of  fur-bearing  countries." 
It  was  commerce  and  trade,  therefore,  which  opened  this  re- 
gion to  the  knowledge  of  the  world. 

I  am  well  aware  that  I  stood  in  this  very  place  January  24, 
1879,  Henry  Hastings  Sibley  being  in  the  chair,  and  delivered 
the  annual  address,  then  as  now,  of  this  society.  My  topic  be- 
ing "Lake  Superior,"  I  then  said:  "Beligion  was  the  grand 
inspiring  motive  which  first  gave  lake  Superior  to  the  knowl- 
edge of  onr  era."  The  publication  of  Badisson's  "Voyages," 
by  the  Prince  Society  in  1885,  constrains  me  to  note,  in  con- 
trast with  the  missionary  labors  of  Marqnette  and  others,  that 
the  earliest  Frenchmen  to  explore  the  west  part  of  lake  Supe- 
rior, to  enter  the  area  of  Minnesota,  and  to  see  the  Mississippi 
river,  were  led  here  for  traffic  and  commercial  gain. 
.  There  is  no  sufficient  reason,  in  my  judgment,  even  to  at- 
tempt the  impeachment  of  Badisson's  quaintly  told  story.    It 



abeds  ligbt  apon  the  first  navigation  of  oar  waters  in  tbe  very 
twilight  of  onr  history.  It  comes  to  ob  lilce  a  voice  from  the 
dead  past,  oat  of  the  Bodleian  Library  and  British  Museum.  I 
am  the  more  confirmed  in  my  views  as  'to  the  integrity  of  the 
BadisBon  annals  by  reason  of  the  fact  that  the  late  Alfred  J. 
Hill,  long  an  honored  member  of  this  society,  and  Hon.  J.  V, 
Brewer,  the  moat  carefol  and  laborious  archeological  scholars 
this  state  has  yet  prodaced,  both  fully  agree,  after  a  carefal 
consideration  of  all  the  facta  for  a  period  of  fonr  years,  that 
Badisson's  stcH^  is  tme,  and,  in  their  judgment,  onght  not  to  be 
farther  questioned. 

Next  in  the  order  of  time  came  the  Jesuit  Fathers.  In  1666, 
on  the  shore  of  Cheqaamegon  bay,  Allones  established  the 
Mission  of  the  Holy  Spirit,  and  foar  years  later  was  succeeded 
in  the  same  mission  by  Marqaette.  The  Jeanits  foand  apon 
the  shores  of  this  inland  sea,  many  warlike  tribes,  bat  chief 
among  these  were  the  Chippewas,  who  filled  almost  the  entire 
basin  of  Superior.  The  EVench  early  formed  an  alliance  with 
these  Indians,  and  the  attachment  has  continued  to  this  day. 
Their  nomenclatnre  was  given  to  many  places  by  the  Jesuit 
Fathers;  and  it  is  a  debatable  question  whether  Minnesota 
did  not  receive  its  name  from  Chippewa,  rather  than  Sioux 

A  most  noteworthy  French  adventurer  came  into  this  coun- 
try as  early  as  1683,  named  Le  Sueur,  who,  twelve  years  after- 
ward built  a  fort,  or  trading  post,  on  the  Mississippi  a  few 
miles  below  the  month  of  the  St.  Croix.  He  came  from  Mon- 
treal, through  the  northern  lakes,  following  the  line  of  trade 
then  establishing  itself  within  the  area  that  is  now  Minne- 
sota, Le  Sueur  returned  to  France,  and  received  from  the 
Qrand  Monarch  a  license  to  open  certain  mines  on  the  St.  Peter 
river.  The  whole  story  of  this  mineral  search  is  shrouded  in 
romance  and  mystery.  Instead  of  entering  the  country  by  the 
old  route,  he  went  to  the  month  of  the  Mississippi  river,  and 
then,  organizing  bis  expedition,  which  consisted  of  twenty-five 
men,  mostly  miners,  he  eqnipped  a  felucca,  and  in  April,  1700, 
started  upon  a  journey  as  visionary  as  Jason's  in  search  of 
the  Oolden  Fleece.  After  some  time  he  increased  his  means  of 
transportation  by  the  addition  of  two  canoes,  and  wifh  these 



little  boats  he  bravely  stemmed  the  corrent  of  the  great  riTer 
a  distance  of  more  than  2^00  miles.  His  felucca  was  the  first 
boat  with  sails  which  ever  ascended  the  Mississippi.  Near 
the  conflaence  of  the  Blae  Earth  river  with  the  UinneBota,  he 
seems  to  have  found  the  object  of  his  search.  Here  they  spent 
the  winter  of  1700.  When  the  last  detachment  of  Le  Bneor's 
party  left  the  next  year,  they  cached  their  tools  in  that  vicin- 
ily,  and  I  have  often  endeavored  to  find  the  spot,  but  without 
snccese.  Le  Saear  failed  in  the  object  of  his  expedition,  to 
discover  and  open  valaable  mines,  as  did  De  Boto  in  his  pnniait 
of  gold,  and  Ponce  de  Leon  in  quest  of  the  fonntain  of  eternal 
youth;  but  he  opened  ap  onr  rivers  to  transportation,  and  car- 
ried back  to  France  1,000  pounds  of  supposed  copper  ore,  being 
the  first  boat  load  of  freight,  a  native  product,  carried  by  a 
white  man  on  the  Minnesota  river. 


While  speaking  of  the  Minnesota  river,  it  is  as  well  to  com- 
plete  such  reference  to  its  early  navigation  as  is  deemed  im- 
portant.  After  Le  Snenr,  it  was  sixty-six  years  before  we  bear 
of  another  white  man  ascending  the  old  St  Peter's  river.  Ten 
years  before  the  Declaration  of  Independence,  a  medical  stu- 
dent from  Counectlcnt,  who  bad  become  a  captain  in  the  colo- 
nial French  war,  Jonathan  Carver,  turned  his  canoe  into  the 
waters  of  the  fit  Peter's  river,  to  the  vicinity  of  the  site  of  New 
TJlm,  where  he  spent  the  next  winter  with  friendly  Dakotaa. 
Carver  was  confident  that,  if  he  could  have  continued  hie  trav- 
els,  he  would  find  some  river  flowing  westerly  and  leading  to 
the  Pacific  ocean. 

In  the  year  1800,  we  find  trading  posts  established  in  the 
St  Peter's  valley  by  the  Northwest  Company  of  Montreal. 
The  first  one  was  located  at  Lac  Travers,  the  next  at  Lac  qui 
Parle,  and  the  third  at  Traverse  des  Sioux.  These  forts  were 
erected  by  that  wonderful  race  of  men  called  coureurs  des  Me, 
who  came  in  by  way  of  the  Bed  river.  This  was  the  establish- 
ment of  an  early  and  fixed  trade  on  that  river.  After  these 
came  Lieut.  Zebnlon  M.  Pike,  in  1805.  He  was  an  officer  of  the 
TTnited  States  army,  and  came  to  require  obedience  to  United 
States  laws  by  certain  Britieh  traders  who  still  hoisted  the 



BritiBh  flag  over  their  trading  posts  In  violation  of  the  treaty 
ot  1783.  He  foQDd  these  trading  posts,  ap  the  St.  Peter's  rtver, 
and  others  on  the  upper  waters  ot  the  Miaaissippi,  in  full  opera- 
tion. In  1823,  Major  Stephen  H.  Long,  of  the  United  States 
topographical  engineers,  ascended  the  St.  Peter's  river.  A  little 
later,  oar  army  officers  found  some  remarkable  men  in  charge 
of  the  growing  trade  of  the  St.  Peter's  valley.  At  Lao  Trav- 
ers  was  Joseph  B.  Brown;  at  Lac  qui  Parle,  Joseph  Benville; 
at  Traverse  desBionXjLoaia  Frovencalle;  and  at  little  Bapids, 
Jean  B.  Faribanlt.  These  men  were  identified  with  every  move- 
ment of  trade  in  that  era.  The  trade  was  carried  on  by  pack- 
ers, dog  trains,  and  canoes.  The  earliest  of  these  trading  posts 
was  transferred  from  the  Northwest  Company  to  John  Jacob 
Astor,  in  1811;  Astor  transferred  them,  in  1834,  to  the  Ameri- 
can Far  Company,  of  which  Bamsay  Crooks  was  president; 
and  they'  were  finally  transferred,  in  1842,  to  Pierre  Choutean, 
Jr.,  and  Company,  of  St  Loois.  H.  H.  Sibley  became,  in  1834, 
a  partner  of  the  American  Far  Company,  and  the  same  year  he 
established  his  headquarters  at  the  mouth  of  the  St  Peter's 

Thus  were  trade  and  commerce  firmly  established  in  the 
valley  of  the  St  Peter's  river.  This  was  the  first  era  of  trade 
of  white  men  in  that  region.  The  next  era  was  the  advent  of 
steamboats  on  that  river  in  1850,  to  be  followed  by  the  rail- 
ways in  1^67. 


We  mast  always  remember  that  Minnesota  was  discovered 
by  the  way  of  lake  Superior;  that  onr  earliest  traders,  voy- 
ageors  and  missionaries,  all  came  to  us  by  way  of  the  great 
lakes.  Commerce  and  transportation  began  from  that  direc- 
tion; and  oar  Indian  coadjutors  there  were  Chippewas,  not 
Sioux.  We  recoant  with  pride  our  early  settlements  and  trade 
at  Fort  Soelling,  Meodota,  and  St  Paul;  but  long  before  these 
there  were  bold  and  daring  men  on  our  northeastern  frontier, 
leading  a  strange  life,  and  abounding  in  commercial  activity. 
It  is  two  hundred  and  twenty-eight  years  since  Charles  II 
ceased  toying  with  his  mistresses  long  enough  to  sign  a  royal 
license  to  a  company  of  traders,  known  as  the  "Honourable 
Company  of  Merchants-Adventurers  trading  into  Hudson's 



Bay."  Tbe  splendor  of  the  precioas  metals  of  Mexico  and 
Peru  had  hitherto  dazzled  the  eyes  of  Earope.  Bat  royalty 
and  beauty  were  now  wrapping  themselveB  in  costly  f  opb.  So 
Prince  Bnpert  went  to  his  royal  consin  one  day  and  asked  and 
received  the  sole  privilege  of  trade  and  commerce  in  all  this 
vast  region,  larger  than  Europe,  extending  from  the  Atlantic 
to  the  FacLflc,  and  from  our  great  lakes  to  Hadson  bay.  For 
this  grand  monopoly  he  was  to  pay  annually  to  his  royal  mas- 
ter, the  king,  two  elk  and  two  black  beaver  skins.  The  royal 
grant  so  made  still  remains  and  covers  more  than  three  million 
square  miles.  By  the  intervention  of  the  crown,  the  new  Do- 
minion of  Canada  has  secured  Manitoba,  British  Columbia 
and  Vancouver's  Island,  from  the  grasp  of  the  Hudson  Bay 
company;  but  the  vast  area  north  of  these,  to  the  Arctic  seas, 
still  belongs  to  the  old  monopoly.  Under  this  charter,  granted 
'  in  1670,  this  great  company  received  not  only  the  absolute 
rights  of  trade,  but  tbe  privilege  to  build  castles  and  forts,  to 
carry  on  war,  and  to  make  peace,  with  any  non-Christian  peo- 
ple. With  wonderful  energy,  the  company  raised  and  palisad- 
ed posts  along  the  remote  inlets  of  Hudson  bay,  extending 
their  operations  as  far  south  as  our  own  territory,  and  thns 
built  up  a  colonial  trade  in  fors.  And  when  the  French  came 
into  possession  of  Quebec,  tbe  company  boldly  pushed  their 
fortunes  to  tbe  west  and  established  themselves  along  our  own 

As  a  competitor  to  the  Hudson  Bay  Company  there  was 
organized,  in  the  winter  of  1783,  the  Northwest  Company  of 
Montreal.  These  companies  became  bitter  rivals  and  contest- 
ed tbe  barbaric  field  with  obstinate  pertinacity.  Their  feuds 
only  ceased  after  the  Earl  of  Selkirk,  in  the  years  1811  to  1817, 
founded  tbe  Bed  River  Settlement  The  rival  companies  con- 
solidated in  1821,  the  Northwest  Company  being  merged  in  the 
Hudson  Bay  Company.  Long  years  before  the  adventurous 
foot  of  the  white  man  had  pressed  the  soil  where  St.  Paoi  now 
stands,  and  while  St  Anthony's  Palls  was  yet  a  myth  in  the 
wilderness,  the  bold  voyagenrs  of  these  aggressive  companies 
had  foond  their  way  to  the  west  end  of  lake  Superior;  had 
thence  threaded  the  intricate  communicationB  which  lead  by 
lakes,  streams  and  portages  to  Lake  Winnipeg  and  the  Saa- 



katcbewan;  and  had  penetrated  even  to  lake  Athabaaca  and 
Great  Slave  lake. 

Fort  William,  built  In  1801  to  1804,  on  the  Eaministiqnia 
river,  was  the  chief  weetem  fort  of  the  Northwest  Company. 
Another  important  fort,  of  earlier  date,  was  on  oar  own  soil, 
at  the  Bonthem  terminus  of  the  Grand  Portage.  The  first  im- 
portant road,  lying  partly  in  onr  state,  was  the  one  built  be- 
tween these  two  forts,  the  bridges  being  made  of  cedar  logs, 
the  remains  of  some  of  which  I  myself  have  seen.  The  road 
was  thirty-six  miles  long,  and  was  built  in  the  earliest  years 
of  this  century. 

The  locality  called  Grand  Portage,  at  the  site  of  the  old 
trading  post  and  fort,  on  the  sonth  end  of  the  portage  of  this 
name,  is  on  a  small  crescent-shaped  bay,  which  has  an  island 
at  its  entrance,  146  miles  from  Duluth.  There  is  still  a  band 
of  Chippewa  Indians  located  there.  I  have  read,  at  Fort  Wil- 
liam, in  a  jonmal  of  one  of  the  employees  of  the  Northwest 
Company,  a  very  minate  and  detailed  account,  in  a  mde  diary, 
of  the  scenes  of  enterprise  and  traffic  which  he  saw  at  Grand 
Portage  in  (he  summer  of  1800.  It  appears  that  at  that  time 
there  stood  in  the  center  of  the  semicircular  shore  of  this 
bay  a  large  fort,  well  picketed,  enclosing  several  acres  of 
ground.  I  have  camped  npon  the  spot  several  days,  and  found 
the  place  most  eligibly  situated  for  the  purposes  intended. 
Here,  the  diary  says,  was  a  house  for  officers  and  men,  and  a 
building  for  storage  and  stores.  There  was  a  canoe  yard  con- 
taining one  hundred  canoes  of  all  sizes.  Seventy  canoes  were 
contracted  for  annually  for  the  commerce  of  that  place.  His 
diary  notes  that  on  Jnly  3d,  1800,  thirty-flve  great  canoes  ar- 
rived from  Mackinaw,  each  carrying  from  three  to  five  tons  of 
goods,  with  eight  voyageurs  to  a  canoe.  Over  seventy  canoes 
bad  already  arrived  from  the  west,  coining  from  Lake  Winni- 
peg through  Bainy  river,  from  the  Saskatchewan,  and  from 
the  Athabasca  and  Great  Slave  lakes.  These  were  laden 
with  fars  and  pelts.  The  thirty-flve  great  canoes,  from  Mon- 
treal, 1,800  miles  away,  were  laden  with  a  year's  supply  of 
goods,  food,  liqnors,  tea,  etc.  Grand  Portage  was  at  that  time, 
and  as  early  at  least  as  1767,  the  grand  exchange  and  distribut- 
ing center  for  the  fur  trade  in  that  part  of  the  world.  The 
factors  themselves  were  present  for  the  great  annual  settle- 



ment  of  basinese.  The  diary  goes  on  to  relate  tbat  sereral 
htmdred  wbite  men  were  there  aasembled,  and  that  over  seven 
hundred  Indian  women  were  retained  by  the  company  to 
Borape  and  olean  the  ekine,  and  to  make  np  the  packagee  of 
pelts.  The  writer  describes  the  scene  as  having  all  the  air  of 
a  busy  city. 

On  tbat  night  of  the  3rd  of  Jaly,  ISOO,  aocOTding  to  the 
diary,  the  factors  gave  a  "great  bail."  ITie  large  dining  room, 
with  its  puncheon  floor  sixty  feet  long,  was  cleared,  and  in- 
spiring mnsio  was  famished  by  the  bagpipe,  violin,  and  Ante. 
Tbirty-siz  gallons  of  mm  were  issued  by  the  factors,  which 
made  the  night  hiiarions.  There  was  a  plenty  of  women,  too, 
and  "beantifnl  half-breeds"  who  danced  well.  One  Indian 
woman  got  dmnk  and  killed  her  husband. 

These  soenes  at  Grand  Portage  took  place  twenty  years  be- 
fore the  comer  stone  of  Fort  Snelling  was  laid,  and  thirty- 
eight  years  before  the  flrst  wbite  man  claimed  land  in  the 
vicinity  of  8t  Paul.  Here  waa  a  bosy  town,  a  mart  of  ex- 
change and  trade,  with  a  commerce  extending  to  Montreal, 
1,800  miles  east,  and  to  Great  Slave  lake,  2,000  miles  northwest. 
Transportation  must  have  been  vigorously  conducted  for  the 
vast  distances  covered.  Count  Andriani,  an  Italian,  was  at 
Grand  Portage  in  1791,  and  its  activitiM  were  the  same.  Snre' 
ly  trade  and  commerce  in  Minnesota,  and  pretty  good  trans- 
portation, too,  did  not  begin  with  the  men  of  this  generation. 

A  romantic  interest  attaches  to  some  of  these  bold  and  dar- 
ing early  voyageurs  and  traders,  brave  Scotchmen,  whose  for- 
tunes were  lost  in  the  memorable  battle  of  Cnlloden,  in  1746, 
and  who  fled  to  British  America.  Their  blood  gave  vigor  and 
force  to  the  affairs  of  the  traders.  In  the  veins  of  many  of 
the  half-breeds  and  bright  boia  Ttruli  girls  on  the  Bed  river  flows 
the  blood  of  the  men  who  fonght  for  Lochiel  and  the  Gamer- 
ons,  near  Inverness,  in  1746.  It  only  needs  the  glamour  of  the 
glittering  pen  of  a  Walter  Scott,  or  the  power  which  warms 
Cooper's  thrilling  stories,  to  weave  their  wild  annals  into  ro- 
mances as  fascinating  as  Waverley,  and  as  charming  as  the 
border  scenes  depicted  in  the  Leatherstocking  tales.  I  Iiave 
also  read,  in  Parkman's  histories  of  New  France,  bow  Cardinal 
Bfchelien  headed  the  company  of  the  "One  Hundred  Associ- 
ates," in  1627,  who  engaged  in  the  fur  trade  in  Canada.    That 



oompanr  was  at  last  merged  in  the  Northweet  Oompany,  which 
links  these  noted  characters  to  oar  territory,  and  to  a  time 
within  the  memory  of  men  yet  living.  Upon  our  own  border 
we  are  allied  back  to  the  days  of  Lonig  XIV,  of  France;  to 
Charles  II,  of  England;  and  to  the  great  chiefs  and  clans  of 
Scotland,  who  fought  at  Oolloden  when  the  flag  of  the  Stnaits 
went  down  forever. 

Thas  began  the  era  and  the  reign  of  the  celebrated  fnr  com- 
panies in  and  abont  the  basin  of  lake  Superior.  They  were 
the  lords  of  the  lake.  They  dwelt  in  semi-baronial  Btate  in 
their  grand  chateao  at  the  Sanlt  Ste.  Marie,  or  transacted  the 
yearly  basinesB  at  their  castellated  rendezroos, .  Qrand  Por- 
tage, now  in  Cook  cotmty,  Minnesota. 

We  mnat  here  notice  a  very  r^uarkable  body  of  men, 
bronght  into  action  by  the  far  companies,  who  rapidly  became 
a  distinotiTe  class.  The  vogageurt  and  ooureurt  dea  l&ie  (rang- 
ers of  the  woods)  were  the  pioneers  of  the  commerce  of  lake 
Superior,  and  of  oor  northern  waters.  They  were  the  com- 
mon carriers  of  that  era.  Bold,  daring,  coorageone,  they  nav- 
igated the  entire  chain  of  lakes  and  rivers  from  Montreal  to 
Athabasca,  freighting  pelts  and  transporting  sopplies  over  an 
area  of  country  as  large  as  Europe.  Swarthy,  Bunbnmt,  and 
fearless,  they  were  the  heroes  of  the  paddle;  and  for  years 
their  cheery  songs  were  heard  and  their  fleets  were  seen  along 
the  ra^ed  shores  of  our  great  lake  and  in  all  the  country 
northwestward,  portaging  over  rocks,  shooting  rapids  along 
roaring  rivers,  and  traversing  mighty  wildernesses.  They 
would  have  laughed  at  the  obstacles  of  the  Klondike.  At  a 
later  date,  they  performed  the  almost  incredible  feat  of  cross- 
ing and  recrOBSing  the  continent  in  birch  bark  canoes,  in  a 
single  season,  and  passed  from  the  moath  of  the  Oolumbia, 
on  the  Pacific,  to  Fort  William,  on  Lake  Superior,  with  all  the 
regularity  of  a  steamboat.  They  were  indeed  a  wonderful 
race,  lively,  fickle,  polite,  reckless,  and  immoral,  full  of  song 
and  stories  of  wild  adventure.  They  crossed  and  recrossed 
the  continent  long  years  before  Jay  Cooke  or  James  J.  Hill 
ever  dreamed  of  marrying  our  inland  sea,  with  steel  bands,  to 
the  Pacific  ocean,  and  nearly  opon  the  same  geographic  lines. 
One  has  to  read  the  brilliant  pages  of  Irvine's  Astoria,  or  the 
adventures  of  Oapt  Bonneville,  to  fully  appreciate  the  cbar- 



acter  of  the  eafly  ToyagearB  wbo  so  boldly  croMed  the  ood- 
tinent  in  canoes  more  than  a  btindred  yeara  ago. 

In  1765,  by  an  edict  of  royal  authority,  the  traders  were  re- 
qaired  to  procare  a  license,  and  the  first  aathorized  trader  was 
Alexander  Henry,  grandfather  of  oar  late  friend  and  asso- 
ciate, Norman  W.  Kittson.  Henry  received  the  ezclnsiTe 
right  to  trade  on  Lake  Saperior.  He  was  methodical,  and 
kept  a  diary  to  which~we  are  deeply  indebted.  His  first  stock 
consisted  of  the  freight  of  fonr  large  canoes,  on  twelve 
months'  credit,  to  be  paid  in  beaver  pelts.  All  accounts  were 
kept  in  beaver  skins.  I  have  found  the  market  price  at  that 
period,  in  the  Hudson  Bay  Company's  jonmals.  A  single  blan- 
ket was  worth  ten  skins;  a  common  gun,  twenty;  a  pound  of 
powder,  two;  a  ponnd  of  shot,  one;  and  a  pint  of  ram  woald 
bay  anything  an  Indian  had.  The  amazing  extent  of  this 
trade  is  evidenced  from  the  fact  that  Henry,  in  one  expedition, 
secured  12,000  beaver  skins,  besides  great  numbers  of  otter 
and  marten,  and  the  skins  of  some  silver-tailed  foxes. 

Some  idea  of  the  extent  of  the  canoe  commerce  along  the 
shores  of  oor  great  lake  may  be  further  gathered  from  Har- 
mon's joamal  (published  in  1820),  who  records  that  be  left  the 
Saalt  Ste.  Marie,  on  his  way  to  Grand  Portage,  Jane  1st,  1800, 
in  company  with  three  hundred  men,  in  thirty-five  canoes.  On 
bis  way  beyond  Grand  Portage,  in  the  descent  of  Bainy  river, 
he  met,  on  July  26th,  twenty-four  canoes  from  Lake  Athabas- 
ca, laden  with  furs  to  be  seat  to  Montreal.  Surely  there  were 
men  here  engaged  in  all  the  activities  of  a  wonderful  com- 
merce, before  our  advent  upon  the  stage.  Neither  Duluth,  St. 
Paul,  nor  St.  Anthony,  were  the  first  commercial  marts  of  our 
territory;  for  the  records  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Oompany,  seen 
at  Fort  William,  pertaining  to  dates  earlier  than  those  already 
noticed,  show  that  Grand  Portage  was  a  commercial  emporium, 
fnll  of  trade,  shops,  style  and  fashion,  with  drinking  places 
and  police  officers,  the  very  day  John  Hancock  signed  the  Dec- 
laration of  Independence. 

But  we  must  no  longer  pursue  this  fascinating  theme, 
which  might  be  profitably  continued  through  the  wars  and 
consolidations  of  the  great  fur  companies. 

The  period  of  their  extensive  trade  on  Lake  Superior  and  in 
the  area  of  the  great  Canadian  Northwest,  under  the  British 



flag,  with  encroachment  on  territory  in  Minnesota  surrendered 
to  the  United  Statee  bj  the  treat;  of  1783,  extended  no  later 
than  forty  years  from  that  date.  In  1823  the  expedition  of 
Major  Long,  visiting  Fort  William  on  their  eastward  retnm 
from  Lake  Winnipeg,  found  the  large  fort  nearly  deserted,  the 
fnr  trade  on  this  rente  north  of  Lake  Snperior  having  greatly 
declined.  This  traffic  had  passed  to  the  rivals  and  soccessora 
of  the  Korthwest  company,  being  diverted  northward  to  the 
Hndson  Bay  Company,  and  aonthward  to  far  traders  of  the 
United  States. 

John  Jacob  Astor,  a  Oerman  farrier  and  merchant  of  New 
York,  who  had  the  highest  enterprise  for  the  extension  of  do- 
mestic and  foreign  trade,  went  to  Montreal  in  1816  and  boagfat 
all  the  posts  and  factories  of  the  Northwest  Company  south  of 
the  line  which  Franklin's  sagacity  and  foresight  had  given 
ns  as  the  international  boundary.  American  lads  from  Ver- 
mont were  brought  out,  and  under  the  inflnence  of  the  Ameri- 
can Fur  Company  la^e  Snperior  began  to  be  gradually  Ameri- 
canized. Aster's  first  agent  was  Bamsa;  Crooks,  father  of 
CoL  William  Crooks  of  St  Paul.  Their  headqaartere  were  at 
La  Pointe,  on  an  island  partly  inclosing  Chequamegon  bay 
near  the  head  of  the  laka  Charles  H.  Oakes,  a  youth  from 
Vermont,  appeared  upon  the  scene.  Associated  with  Oakes 
was  Charles  William  WuIfE  Borup,  a  young  Dane,  from  Copen- 
hagen, and  many  other  names  of  strong  and  able  men,  like 
William  and  Allan  Morrison.  In  1842,  the  American  Fnr  Com- 
pany closed  its  business  and  sold  its  interests  to  Pierre  Chou- 
teau, Jr.,  and  Company,  of  St.  Louis,  who  were  represented  by 
Henry  M.  Bice.  In  1849  Bice  retired  from  the  tmde,  and  the 
fur  interests,  no  longer  represented  by  a  powerful  company, 
soon  ceased  to  maintain  the  ancient  supremacy,  and  gradually 
melted  away  before  the  advent  of  new  interests.  Thus  iwacti- 
cally  closed  the  most  remarkable  era  of  early  trade  and  com- 
merce ever  connected  with  the  history  and  fortunes  of  any 

The  Indian  title  existed  around  the  entire  extent  of-  lake 
Superior  until  the  year  1820,  when,  on  June  16th,  Lewis  Caw 
formally  hoisted  the  United  States  flag  at  the  entrance  of  the 
lake,  and  made  the  treaty  by  which  the  Indians  ceded  a  tract 
of  land  four  miles  square  adjoining  the  Sault  Ste.  Marie.    A 



treat;  made  bix  years  later  opened  the  south  shore  to  com- 
meroial  activity,  and  thenceforward  a  new  life  of  trade  and 
commerce  was  gradually  developed  apon  oar  Inland  sea. 
These  treaties,  and  two  aabseqaent  ones  in  1812  and  in  1S64, 
completed  the  cession  of  the  shores  of  the  great  lake,  so  tar 
aa  they  lie  within  the  United  States,  and  transferred  the  titie 
from  the  former  Chippewa  possesBors  to  onr  national  govern- 

We  can  give  no  bett»  illnstration  of  the  transportation  in 
Qse  daring  that  early  period  tlian  is  related  by  the  great  Bchool- 
oraft  in  describing  the  first  advent  of  a  body  of  United  States 
troops  along  the  shore,  after  one  of  the  treaties;  how  they 
came,  sixty  men  and  officers,  with  a  commissariat  and  a  medical 
department,  borne  on  three  great  twelve-oar  barges,  attended 
by  fonr  boats  of  sabsistence  and  a  fleet  of  canoes,  with  mar- 
tUl  mnsic  and  with  flags  flying.  As  the  fleet  stretched  out 
in  grand  procession,  Schoolcraft  declares  it  "the  most  noble 
and  imposing  spectacle  ever  yet  seen  on  the  waters  of  lake 

The  advent  of  the  flnit  sail  vessels' is  not  yet  lost  in  obson- 
rity.  Henry  records  that  in  the  winter  of  1770-71  he  bnilt  at 
Pine  point  on  lake  Snperior,  nine  miles  from  the  Banlt,  "a 
barge  fit  for  the  navigation  of  the  lake,"  and  his  narration 
shows  it  to  have  been  rigged  with  sails.  In  Angnst,  1772,  he 
lannched,  from  the  same  shipyard,  a  sloop  of  forty  tons.  These 
vessels,  nsed  in  anremnnerative  mining  operations,  were  the 
earliest  sailing  craft  known  in  the  history  of  lake  Snperior. 
Barmon  mentioned,  in  1800,  a  vessel  of  abont  ninety-flve  tons 
borden  in  nse  then  by  the  Northwest  Company,  plying  fonr  or 
five  trips  each  summer  between  Pine  point  and  Grand  Portage. 
Schoolcraft  relates  that  on  the  9th  day  of  November,  1833, 
'^heat  in  bulk,  and  flonr  in  bags  and  barrets,  were  bronght 
down  for  the  flrst  time"  This  ia  the  earliest  record  of  the 
shipping  of  any  native  prodocts  from  lake  Snperior,  other 
than  pelts  and  the  commodities  exchanged  for  them. 


The  rapids  in  the  Ste.  Marie  river  were  the  one  great  ob- 
stacle to  good  transportation  on  lake  Superior,  and  In  1S37 
Qov.  Mason,  of  Michigan,  by  authority  of  the  legislature,  an- 



thorized  tbe  flret  sarrey  of  a  proposed  canal,  and  Henrr  M. 
Bice,  then  a  ;oiuig  man,  carried  tbe  cbain.  A  grant  of  lands 
was  given  by  congress,  760,000  acres,  in  1852;  and  Erastna 
Coming,  Joseph  Fairbanks,  and  others,  constitnting  the  St. 
Hajya  Falls  Ship  Canal  Company,  finished  the  first  work  on 
the  canal  May  2l8t,  1856. 

It  shODld  be  here  noted  that  Harmon's  jonmal  records  the 
fact  that  previons  to  the  year  1800  tbe  Northwest  Company 
had  made  a  smaller  canal  and  locks  at  the  Sanlt  Ste.  Marie 
of  sofSdeDt  size  for  the  passage  of  large  loaded  canoes  without 
breaking  bnlk.  Bnt  no  eye  can  foresee  or  pen  predict  the 
swelling  commerce  from  a  doable  empire — the  British  and 
American — ^in  the  n^id  progress  of  eveDts  yet  destined  to  pass 
over  those  mighty  lakes,  throagh  those  gates,  in  its  march  to 

Ood  never  bnilt  a  railroad,  but  He  did  create  and  establish 
rivers,  takes,  and  oceans.  Here  there  are  no  charges.  They 
are  the  highways  of  the  Almighty.  Tbey  are  the  ever  present 
and  constant  competitors  of  every  artificial  form  of  transpor- 
tation. They  confront  every  railway  corporation,  and  saper- 
vise  its  Bchedole  of  rates.  The  great  lakes  say  to  every  rail- 
way company  in  the  Northwest,  "Before  you  fix  your  sche^- 
olea,  come  and  see  aa"  These  waterway' potencies  are  strong- 
er than  governmental  interferences.  Minnesota,  by  its  snperb 
situation,  commanding  the  Mississippi  and  the  western  limit 
of  lake  navigation  at  Duluth,  has  its  fnll  measure  of  satisfac- 
tion and  protection  by  means  of  its  waterways. 

There  has  been  more  than  one  effort  made  to  extend  onr 
great  lacnstral  waterway  farther  west  into  the  continent  In 
1878  a  convention  was  held  at  Duluth  for  the  purpose  of  pro- 
jecting a  canal  from  lake  Superior  across  the  state  to  the 
Bed  river.  Three  routes  were  proposed:  one  was  the  Winni- 
bigoahieh  line;  the  second,  called  the  sonthern  route,  by  the 
Crow  Wing  river  and  Otter  Tail  lake,  to  Fergus  Falls;  and  still . 
another,  by  Pigeon  river,  called  the  international  route.  Some 
of  these  canal  routes  were  deemed  as  practicable  as  the 
improvement  of  the  Fox  and  Wisconsin  rivers,  connecting 
Oreen  bay  and  the  Mississippi.  This  whole  project  was  very 
serionsly  considered,  and  more  than  one  survey  was  under- 
taken.   The  purpose  was  to  penetrate  into  tbe  world's  best 



zone  of  wheat,  with  water  carriage.  The  project  derived  some 
stimuluB  from  the  fact  that  oar  Canadian  neighbors  were  then 
building  what  is  known  as  the  "Dawson  route,"  to  connect 
lake  Superior  tbroagh  manj  lakes  and  water  Btretcbes,  with 
the  Lake  of  the  Woode.  This  included  an  immeuBe  lock  at 
Fort  Frances,  near  the  mouth  of  Bainj  lake,  to  pass  the  Koo- 
chiching falls  of  Baiuf  river,  which  was  actaally  nearl;  com- 
pleted at  an  immense  cost.  The  Canadian  government  really 
established  this  roate,  putting  tags  on  the  lakes,  and  ox  carts 
on  the  portages,  and  thas  carried  thoasanda  of  their  emigrants 
to  Manitoba.  I  doabt  not  that  somewhere  in  oor  northern 
lacnstrine  region  lies  the  undeveloped  form  of  a  great  East 
and  West  canal,  planned  hy  engineers  and  once  confidently 
expected  to  be  finished;  but  the  iron  horse  which  came  to 
browse  in  the  haunts  of  the  elk  and  the  bnffalo  has  relegated 
these  projects  to  the  limbo  of  abandoned  schemes. 


We  must  now  return  a  moment  to  the  grekt  Father  of  Wa- 
ters, on  whose  bosom  had  floated,  in  the  twilight  of  long  ago, 
Hennepin,  Do  Lath,  Le  Sueur,  and  the  intrepid  French  voy* 
ageurs  and  traders. 

May  10th,  1823,  occurred  a  stirring  event,  the  arrival  of 
the  first  steamboat,  the  "Virginia,"  from  St.  Lonis,  loaded 
with  stores  for  Fort  Snelling.  This  was  the  first  steamboat 
ever  seen  by  onr  Dakota  Indians,  and  their  fright  was  extreme, 
as  they  thought  it  some  supernatural  monster.  The  Virginia 
opened  the  upper  Uississippi  to  steam  navigation,  and  up  to 
May  26th,  1826,  fifteen  steamers  had  arrived  at  Fort  Snelling. 
In  1839,  about  nine  steamboats  were  running  pretty  regularly 
to  Fort  Snelling.  In  1847  and  1848  there  was  organized  what 
waa  known  as  the  Galena  and  Minnesota  Packet  Company. 
Among  the  list  of  the  company  we  find  the  names  of  H.  L. 
Dousman,  of  Prairie  da  Chien,  and  H.  H.  Sibley,  of  Mendota. 
This  company  first  purchased  the  steamer  Argo,  of  which  M. 
W.  Lodwick  was  captain,  and  oar  honored  vice  president,  Rus- 
sell Blakeley,  then  of  Galena,  was  clerk.  In  the  antamn  of 
1847  this  boat  struck  a  snag  near  Wabasha  and  sank.  Dar- 
ing the  next  winter  the  captain  and  clerk  went  to  Cincinnati, 



Ohio,  and  parcbaaed  the  Dr.  Franklin,  which  was  ran  very 
Buccessfally  for  many  years.  Buasell  Blakeley,  having  been 
clerk  of  this  steamer  Are  years,  in  1862  became  its  captain, 
and  afterwards  was  captain  of  the  Nominee  and  the  Galena, 
bringing  to  8t.  Paol  on  thme  boats  thousands  of  onr  earlier  and 
best  citizens. 

The  organisation  of  the  Galena  and  Minnesota  Packet  Com- 
pany established  system  and  regularity  of  our  river  transpor- 
tation; and  from  that  time  the  river  became  the  chief  artery 
of  onr  trade  and  the  inlet  to  oar  immigration,  till  superseded 
by  railways.  In  the  "forties,"  St.  Paul  averaged  from  forty 
to  ninety  steamboat  arrivals  per  annnm.  Following  the  Ga- 
lena company  came  the  Dubuque  and  St.  Faal  Packet  Com- 
pany, the  St  Lonis  and  St.  Paul  Line,  and  many  others,  to  the 
last,  the  Diamond  Jo  Packet  Company,  which  still  exists. 
This  review  calls  up  the  honored  names  of  Davidson,  Reynolds, 
Rhodes,  and  many  others.  The  steamboat  bnsiness  became 
vast  in  extent.  The  culmination  of  this  method  of  transporta- 
tion was  abont  1857  and  1868.  The  former  year  there  were 
965  arrivals,  and  in  the  latter  year,  1,090.  The  arrival  of  a 
MiBsissippI  steamer  in  that  earlier  era  was  a  matter  of  the 
greatest  importance,  and  cnrions  crowds  gathered  at  the  land- 
ing to  witness  the  scene.  When  I  first  came  to  Minnesota,  in 
May,  1857,  on  the  old  War  Eagle,  1  thonght  the  whole  iwpnla- 
tion  had  tnrned  ont  to  give  me  a  welcome! 

The  advent  of  steamboats  into  the  Minnesota  river  gave  a 
wonderful  impetus  to  the  settlement  and  development  of  that 
fertile  valley.  I  have  verified  the  statements  by  the  files  of 
the  old  PJoneer,  whose  editor,  James  M.  GKtodbue,  accompanied 
both  of  the  earlier  expeditions  np  the  river  and  wrote  a  de- 
tailed account  of  each.  On  Friday,  the  28th  of  June,  1850,  the 
steamer  Anthony  Wayne,  which  had  just  arrived  at  St.  Paul 
with  a  pleasure  party  from  %t.  Louis,  agreed,  for  the  sum  of 
1226,  to  take  all  passengers  desiring  to  go,  as  far  up  the  river 
as  navigation  was  possible.  Abont  three  hundred  guests,  with 
a  band  of  mnsic  from  Qoincy,  111.,  and  the  Sixth  Regiment 
band  from  Fori:  Snelling,  started  up  the  river.  They  fought 
mosquitoes,  danced,  and  passed  a  dozen  Indian  vUlages,  till 
they  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Blue  Earth  river,  above  Man- 



kato.  Again,  Bays  Ooodhne,  on  the  24th  day  of  Jaly,  1860, 
the  steamer  Yankee  ascended  the  stream,  and,  picking  np  the 
shingle  of  the  Anthony  Wayne,  carried  it  as  far  as  the  mouth 
of  the  Cottonwood  river.  After  the  Indian  treaty  of  1851, 
navigatioo  gradaally  became  regalar;  and  the  Tiger,  Nominee, 
Hnmboldt,  Equator,  Time  and  Tide,  Jeannette  Bol>erta,  Frank 
Steele,  and  Favorite,  appeared  succeasively  in  the  trade,  till 
the  advent  of  the  iron  horse  drove  them  oat  of  business. 


Our  wagon  roads  in  the  beginning  were  very  crude.  The 
Arst  road  has  been  referred  to,  ranniog  from  Grand  Portage 
to  Fort  William.  The  second  was  from  St.  Paul  to  Meodota, 
crossing  the  ferry  at  Fort  Snelling.  The  next  one  was  to  the 
Falls  of  St.  Anthony.  In  1849,  Amherst  Willougbby  and 
Simon  Powers  commenced  running  a  daily  line  of  wagons, 
daring  the  summer  only,  between  St.  Paul  and  St.  Anthony. 
In  1861,  these  same  parties  brought  to  Minnesota,  and  put  on 
the  line,  the  first  Concord  stages  ever  ran  in  our  state.  In 
1851,  also,  Lyman  L.  Benson  and  Mr.  Pattison  came  from 
Kalamazoo,  Mich.,  and  brought  a  large  livery  outfit.  They 
put  on  a  yellow  line  in  opposition  to  Willougbby  and  Powers' 
coaches,  which  were  red.  A  furious  opposition  resulted,  and 
gave  birth  to  the  first  "cut  rates"  in  the  history  of  our  state. 
Afterward,  in  18S6,  onr  good  friend  Alvaren  Allen  and 
Charles  L.  Chase  appeared  upon  the  scene,  and  run  a  line  to 
the  upper  Mississippi  j  and  in  1859  they  consolidated  with  J. 
C.  Bnrbank  and  C^pt  Russell  Blakeley,  forming  a  new  com- 
pany under  the  name  of  the  Minnesota  Stage  Company.  In 
1853,  M.  O.  Walker  established  a  winter  line  down  through 
Minnesota  and  Iowa  to  Dubuque,  and  had  the  mail  contract. 
But  in  185S  J.  C.  Burbank  &  Co,  got  the  winter  mail  contract 
and  drove  the  other  line  out.  In  1854  and  1855,  William  Net- 
tieton  establislied  a  line  of  stages  to  Duluth;  but  this  line 
also  was  soon  absorbed  by  the  Minnesota  Stage  Company. 

In  1851,  J.  C.  Burbank  established  the  first  express  business, 
and  he  was  the  father  of  that  sort  of  transportation  in  this 
state.  He  was  himself  the  first  express  meHsi-njrer,  and  car- 
ried the  first  package  entrusted  to  him,  from  Qalena  to  St. 



Paul,  ID  bis  pocket  Later,  !□  1856,  Capt.  Rnssell  Blakeley 
bought  an  interest  in  the  growing  basiness;  and  with  these 
enterprieing  spiritB,  Barbanit  and  Blakeley,  new  life  was  in- 
fnaed  into  onr  jonng  transportation  ayBtem.  The  Mioneaota 
Stage  Comi>any  and  the  Northwestern  Express  Company  were 
very  closely  identified  in  business  relations.  In  1860,  John 
L.  Merriam  bought  oat  the  interest  of  Allen  and  Chase  in  the 
stage  company;  and  for  the  t:nsuiDg  seTen  years  this  firm  of 
Bnrhank,  Blakeley  &  Merriam  carried  on  the  stage  and  ex- 
press bosinesB  with  wonderfnl  energy  and  activity.  Their  ag- 
gregate routes  covered  about  1,300  miles,  besides  300  miles 
more  by  "pony"  routes.  In  1865  they  worked  over  seven  hun- 
dred korses,  and  employed  more  than  two  bnudred  men.  This 
firm  left  a  splendid  name  for  the  energy,  fairness,  and  justice 
which  always  characterized  their  dealing  with  the  public  as 
common  carriers.  But  this  very  enterprising  firm  did  not 
stop  there. 

In  1867  and  18S8,  Ramsay  Crooks,  agent  of  the  Hudson 
Bay  Company,  sought  transportation  for  the  goods  of  that 
company  through  Minnesota  to  the  far  North.  Captain  Blake- 
ley himself  made  the  contract  with  Crooks  in  Washington, 
and  Blakeley  visited  the  Red  river  late  in  the  autumn  of  1858, 
and  decided  that  it  could  be  navigated.  The  next  season  a 
steamboat,  the  Anson  Korthup,  was  built  on  the  Bed  river, 
and  was  run  by  the  company  under  the  command  of  Capt. 
Edwin  Bell.  This  was  followed  by  a  contract  with  Sir  George 
Simpson,  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  to  transfer  their  goods 
to  the  Bed  River  Settlement,  now  Manitoba,  from  Montreal, 
through  St.  Paul.  Soon  the  company  built  the  steamboat  In- 
ternational, and  thus  was  navigation  established  on  the  Red 
river  of  the  North. 

The  history  which  I  have  here  glanced  at  affected  the  set- 
tlement and  development  of  our  state  in  the  most  substantial 
manner.  Early  transportation  was  thus  eBtablisbed,  amid  in- 
numerable obstacles,  and  carried  over  the  whole  extent  of 
our  territory,  with  a  degree  of  energy  and  success  that  marks 
the  men  identified  with  it  as  bold,  aggressive,  and  grand  char- 
acters in  the  history  of  our  early  transportation. 

We  must  recur  a  moment  to  an  early  and  important  road, 
established  by  the  War  Department  as  a  military  road,  from 



Mendota  to  the  Big  Sioux  river.  Tbe  work  was  began  in  1863, 
and  vas  completed  io  1857,  bj  authority  of  an  act  of  coogress. 
This  road  was  located  along  the  MioneBota  river  valley.  It 
was  the  first  road  with  bridges,  and  famished  good  facilities 
for  travel  and  early  immigration.  At  one  time,  a  system  of 
plank  roads  was  sought  to  be  established,  and  our  Territorial 
Legislature  organized  no  less  than  six  separate  companies, 
but  none  ever  materialized. 


It  would  be  a  serioDS  omission  to  neglect  to  mention  tbe 
extraordinary  cart  trade  with  Pembina.  The  beginning  of  this 
trade  is  undoubtedly  due  to  Korman  W,  Kittson,  our  well- 
known  pioneer,  and  he  blazed  out  that  tine  of  travel  which 
was  altimately  adopted  by  the  Minnesota  Stage  Company. 
Kittson,  in  1843,  established  a  trading  poet  at  Pembina.  This 
trade  grew  till  1854,  when  tbe  firm  of  Forbes  &  Kittson  bad 
fnlty  established  a  great  line  of  bnsiness.  For  a  period  of 
about  twenty  years,  the  furs  from  the  Pembina  region  were 
shipped  in  the  most  curious  vehicle  known  to  modern  com- 
mercial life.  It  was  a  two-wheeled  concern,  of  very  rude  but 
strong  workmanship,  made  entirely  of  wood  and  leather,  with- 
out a  particle  of  iron,  and  would  carry  from  six  to  seven  hun- 
dred pounds.  This  cart  cost  about  fl5.  To  tbe  cart  an  ox 
was  geared  by  broad  bands  of  buffalo  hide.  Sometimes  there 
were  two  oxen,  driven  tandem.  No  grease  was  used,  and  the 
creaking  axles  were  beard  far  away.  From  Pembina  to  St 
Paul  was  about  448  miles.  They  generally  consumed  some 
thirty  or  forty  days  in  the  trip,  and  would  arrive  in  St.  Paul 
early  in  July. 

The  drivers  were  not  less  striking  in  their  appearance  than 
the  carts  and  oxen.  The  Bed  river  half-breeds  {bois  bruM^f 
were  a  peculiar  people  with  a  character  and  dress  half  civil- 
ised and  half  barbaric.  They  generally  camped  near  what  was 
called  Larpenteor's  lake,  near  tbe  intersection  of  Dale  and 
Marshall  streets.  They  brought  down  pemican,  buffalo 
tongnes,  and  buffalo  robes,  with  furs  and  pelts,  and  took  back 
teas,  tobacco,  alcohol,  hardware,  etc.  In  1844  there  were  only 
six  carts  in  tbe  trade;  in  1851,  one  hundred  and  two;  and 



in  1857,  five  hnndred.  The  value  of  this  trade  was  a  helpfal 
anxiliary  to  oar  bnsiness  in  those  early  times.  While  in  1844 
it  was  reported  at  only  f  1,400,  in  1863  it  reached  J260,000. 
But  the  Increase  of  the  Borbank  &  Co.  freight  lines,  the  estab- 
lishment of  steam  naTigation  on  the  Red  river,  and  the  Sionr 
war  of  1862,  combined  to  drive  these  primitive  prairie  carts 
oot  of  the  field  of  trade.  The  far  trade,  it  should  be  re- 
membered, was  always  one  of  the  chief  sources  of  our  early 
commerce  and  Income.  The  prices  of  furs  in  some  cases 
showed  great  flactnation  on  account  of  changing  demands  of 
fashion.  A  mink  skin,  which  is  1857  brought  only  twenty 
cents,  in  1863  had  risen  to  five  dollars  and  even  seven  dollars 
In  value. 


TLe  dog  trains  ought  not  to  be  forgotten,  for  dnring  the 
long  winters  they  did  much  freighting.  Travellers  would  gen- 
erally have  these  dogs  driven  tandem,  and  would  travel  from 
thirty  to  forty  miles  a  day.  Some  traders,  with  great  pride, 
would  have  a  cariole,  with  jingling  bells,  such  as  Kittson  and 
Bolette  came  in,  when  they  had  been  elected  to  the  Legislature 
of  1862;  and  their  coming  attracted  as  mnch  attention  as'the 
arrival  of  a  Mississippi  steamboat  in  the  summer.  When 
Commodore  Kittson's  first  wife  died,  on  the  sjwt  where  the 
Byao  Hotel  now  stands,  her  remains  were  taken  from  St.  Paul 
to  Pembina,  in  the  dead  of  winter,  by  a  dog  train. 


Let  us  return  and  resume,  for  a  moment,  the  story  of  our 
developing  commerce,  on  the  most  prodigious  body  of  pure 
water  in  the  world.  That  from  the  feeble  beginnings  we  bare 
noted  this  inland  sea  should  have  developed  its  present  vast 
traffic,  is  one  of  the  most  extraordinary  facts  of  the  commer- 
cial world.  What  would  Alexander  Henry  or  Henry  Bowe 
Schoolcraft  think,  if  they  could  witness  the  magnitude  of  the 
fleets  which  now  cover  its  bright  waters?  Hie  Sault  Ste. 
Marie  river  is  the  key  to  lake  Superior.  The  rapids  of  this 
river,  from  the  level  of  one  lake  to  the  level  of  the  other,  fall 
twenty  feet  To  overcome  this  barrier  was  a  necessity  of  our 
lake  commerce.    This  natural  obstacle  has  been  practically 



Bormounted  b;  oar  goveruuieiit;  and  in  1896  we  have  the 
olBcial  total  of  vessels  passing  throagb  the  "800"  canals  as 
18,615,  with  a  registered  tonnage  of  over  17,000,000.  More 
than  8,820  of  the  Teasels  were  for  Minnesota  ports.  To  more 
fallj  comprehend  the  magnitude  of  this  lake  commerce,  we 
may  compare  it  with  an  official  report  which  shows  that  bat 
8,434  TOBsels  passed  throagh  the  Soez  canal  in  1895,  with  a 
registered  tonnage  of  only  8,448,225.  The  commerce  passing 
the  *<Soo"  was  thus  more  than  doable  that  of  the  great  inter- 
ocean  canal  of  De  Lesseps.  Every  year  this  trade  expands. 
!New  vessels,  with  new  designs  and  enlarged  capacities,  con- 
tinoe  to  astonish  us.  That  remarkable  class  of  vessels  known 
as  the  "wbalebacks"  appeared  in  July,  1888,  the  first  one 
being  named  "No.  101."  The  first  of  the  enormous  steel  steam- 
ships of  James  J.  Hill  was  lannched  in  the  winter  of  1892-93, 
and  entered  on  basiness  the  following  Jane.  It  was  named 
the  "Northwest,"  It  was  followed  by  the  "Northland,"  a  sister 
ship,  the  following  year.  Snch  fioating  palaces  are  scarcely 
to  be  seen  on  any  ocean  of  the  world.  Let  me  here  note,  for 
the  enlargement  of  oar  minds  to  the  measure  of  the  lake 
trafBc,  that,  for  the  year  1896,  47,942  carloads  of  grain  were 
emptied  into  oar  lake  vessels,  or  59,828,999  bushels,  all  of 
which  arrived  at  Dulath  that  year  and  was  shipped  throagh 
oar  lake  on  its  jonrney  to  the  east  and  to  Europe. 

Think  of  the  big  "400-footers"  now  on  the  lake,  which  can 
carry  the  products  of  a  hundred  farms!  In  1896  the  "Belim 
Eddy"  carried  121,000  bushels  of  wheat.  Within  the  past 
year  the  "Empire  City"  took  ont  205,445  bushels.  This  is 
'  aboat  the  product  of  17,000  acres,  at  the  average  of  oar  pro- 
duction. It  would  load  342  cars,  and  at  forty  care  to  the 
train  would  make  more  than  eight  great  trains  of  grain.  It 
is  6,163  tons  of  grain.  Converted  into  flour,  it  would  make 
^6,000  barrels! 

The  growth  of  our  lake  trade  is  simply  unparalleled  in 
the  history  of  transportation.  Deeper  waterways  and  bigger 
ships  go  hand  in  hand.  New  enterprises  are  constantly  in  the 
air.  It  is  now  whispered  that  the  transcontinental  lines  are 
to  open  up  trade  from  the  lake  with  Asia;  while  another 
dream  is  to  make  deep  waterways  connecting  with  the  At- 



lantlc  80  that  Tessela  may  pais,  withoat  breaking  balk,  to  tbe 
waters  of  the  ocean.  It  may  be  BOmetbing  more  than  a  dream, 
that  we  Shalt  yet  bear  the  ebb  and  flow  of  the  Atlantic  on 
the  Bhorea  of  the  Zenith  City.  Onr  lake  steamship  trade  is 
the  marrel  of  the  world.  Oreat  records  are  made  only  to  be 

Bat  we  are  not  yet  done  and  mnst  linger  to  note  that  an 
entirely  new  commerce  has  appeared  on  the  north  shore  of 
lake  Saperior.  Originating  within  onr  own  territory,  the  rapid- 
ity and  magnitnde  of  its  growth  is  absolately  astonnding.  In 
1883,  not  a  pound  of  iron  ore  h^d  yet  been  shipped  from  Min- 
nesota. The  Vermilion  range  was  opened  in  1884,  and  the 
great  Mesabi  not  till  1892.  In  1897,  the  Mesabi  produced 
twice  as  moch  ore  as  either  the  Marquette,  Gogebic,  or  Me- 
nominee ranges.  The  port  of  Two  Harbors  takes  both  Ver- 
milion and  Mesabi  ores,  while  Dalath  handles  Mesabi  ores 
only.  The  ioTestment  in  the  lake  Saperior  ore  trade,  inclod- 
ing  mines,  bnildlnga,  railroads,  and  docks,  has  been  estimated 
at  f  150,000,000;  and  the  valae  of  the  fleet  doing  this  special 
transportation  is  bat  little  short  of  150,000,000.  The  latest 
movement  in  tbe  transportation  of  this  ore  appears  in  the 
fleet  of  steel  steamers,  put  in  our  trade  by  the  Bessemer 
Steamship  Company  of  Cleveland,  behind  which  is  John  D. 
Bockefeller.  They  are  now  building  these  steam  monsters 
with  a  capacity  of  7,000  gross  or  long  tons,  with  barges  of 
eqnal  capacity.    The  lakes  control  tbe  entire  ore  traffic. 

This  inland  navigation  starts  with  Minnesota.  Among  the 
components  of  its  volume,  ore  stands  first,  grain  second,  lum- 
ber third,  and  then  comea  general  merchandise.  In  1867,  it 
cost  nearly  ten  cents  per  bushel  to  ship  wheat  from  Chicago 
to  Buffalo;  but  in  1897  wheat  was  shipped  from  Duluth  to 
Buffalo  at  rates  slightly  over  one  and  a  half  cents.  Ore  has 
been  carried  from  our  ports  to  lake  Erie,  in  1897,  for  57  cents 
a  long  ton;  and  returning  vessels  have  carried  coal  to  Duluth 
for  16  cents  a  short  ton. 


It  has  been  well  said,  that  the  highways  of  nations  are 
the  measure  of  their  civilization.    By  means  of  speedy  transit. 



Booietf ,  government,  commerce,  arts,  wealth,  intelligence,  are 
developed  and  advanced  to  tlieir  liigheBt  excellence.  The 
tbirty-one  roads  which  radiated  from  the  fomm  of  Borne  into 
her  vast  provinces,  like  spokes  from  the  nave  of  a  wheel,  were 
proofs  of  the  wisdom  and  grandeur  of  the  Roman  rale.  The 
substitution  of  turnpikes  for  muddy  lanes  is  on  the  line  of 
tme  progress.  In  the  pre-railway  times  of  England,  freight 
transportation  by  earth  roads  averaged  twenty-six  cents  per 
ton  per  mile  The  railways  came  and  soon  carried  a  ton  of 
goods  twenty-five  miles  an  hour  for  two  cents  per  mile.  The 
value  of  a  wagon  load  of  wheat  Is  totally  consumed  in  hauling 
it  on  an  earth  road  three  hundred  miles.  The  advent  of  the 
locomotive  into  our  territory  swept  away  other  modes  of  trans- 
portation, except  by  water,  and  became  the  swift  civilizer  of 
the  prairie  and  wilderness.  No  other  known  power  could 
have  accomplished  what  we  now  behold,  in  the  compass  of  a 
single  generation. 

In  the  spring  of  1862  there  was  not  a  mile  of  railway  in 
Minnraota.  On  June  30tb,  1897,  the  aggregate  length  of  our 
railways  was  6,086.35  miles.  It  is  quite  difficult  to  fix  the 
precise  time  of  the  very  first  agitation  for  a  railway  within 
our  borders.  There  is  some  unwritten  history  which  may 
here  be  snatched  from  oblivion.  In  1847,  Prof.  Increase  A. 
Lapham  ontlined  a  plan  for  two  railroads,  one  from  lake  Su- 
perior and  another  from  ^.  Paul,  which  were  to  meet  on  the 
Bed  river,  below  where  Fergns  Falls  now  is;  and  that  point 
of  junction  was  to  be  called  Lapham.  This  gentleman  care- 
fully viewed  the  country  and  made  a  map  of  the  routes  and 
a  written  outline  of  his  plans,  which  are  in  existence  to  this 
day.  James  M.  Goodhue,  in  an  editorial  is  the  Pioneer,  in 
1860,  gave  the  first  prophetic  vision  of  a  Northern  Pacific  rail- 
way, <and  specifically  outlined  a  northern  route,  which  he  be- 
lieved was  shorter  and  safer  than  the  one  then  proposed  from 
St  Louis  to  San  Francisco.  He  cited  the  fact  that  there  was 
then  a  trail  from  the  Bed  river  to  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia 
river,  over  which  mails  were  regularly  carried  by  the  Ameri- 
can Fur  Company.  His  article  was  headed  "A  Short  Bonte 
to  Oregon." 



Before  ibe  admissioa  of  Minnesota  as  a  state,  id  1858,  many 
railroad  companies  had  been  chartered  by  the  Territorial 
iegislatnre.  The  first  recorded  effort  was  by  J.  W.  Selby  of 
thiB  city,  who  gave  notice  of  the  introdoction  of  a  bill  on 
March  2nd,  in  the  session  of  1852,  to  incorporate  the  Lake  Ba- 
perior  and  Mississippi  Birer  Bailroad  Company.  It  passed 
in  the  Honse,  bot  failed  in  the  Council ;  bnt  it  actually  became 
a  law  March  2ad,  1853,  by  a  subsequent  legislature.  The  sec- 
ood  charter  vaa  granted  to  the  Minnesota  Western  Bailroad 
Company,  March  3rd,  1863;  and  the  third  to  the  Louisiana  and 
Minnesota  Bailroad  Company  March  6th,  1868.  Not  less  than 
twenty-seven  railroad  companies  were  authorized  and  char- 
tered from  1853  to  1867.  Hot  there  was  no  life  in  any  of  them 
till  March  8rd,  1857,  when  Congress  made  a  magnificent  grant 
of  lands  '^or  the  purpose  of  aiding  in  the  construction  9f  rail- 
roads in  the  Territory  of  Minnesota."  Then  the  scene  changed, 
and  on  May  22nd,  1867,  the  Territorial  legislature  passed  an 
act  granting  these  Congressional  lands  to  four  corporations, 
uamely,  the  Minnesota  and  Pacific  Bailroad  Company,  the 
Transit  Bailroad  Company,  the  Boot  Biver  Valley  and  South- 
ern Minnesota  Bailroad  Company,  and  the  Minneapolis  and 
Cedar  Valley  Bailroad  Company. 

The  state  constitution,  adopted  October  13th,  1857,  pro- 
Tided  in  Art  9,  Sec.  10,  as  follows:  "The  credit  of  the  state 
shall  never  be  given  or  loaned  in  aid  of  any  individual,  asso- 
elation,  or  corporation."  But  on  March  9th,  1868,  the  state 
legislature  passed  an  act  submitting  to  the  people  ao  amend- 
ment of  this  section  of  the  constitution,  so  as  to  permit  the 
loaning  of  the  credit  of  the  state  to  the  land  grant  railroad 
companies  to  the  amount  of  five  million  dollars;  and  it  was 
adopted  by  popular  vote  on  April  16th.  Grading  on  each  of 
the  recognized  lines  began,  and  Gov.  Sibley  delivered  to  each 
of  the  roads  such  bonds  as  they  had  earned  under  the  condi- 
tiODB  of  the  grant 

The  railroad  companies,  however,  failed  to  pay  the  interest 
on  the  bonds;  work  on  the  lines  was  practically  suspended, 
and  the  five  million  loan  amendment  was  repealed  by  a  nearly 
unanimous  popular  vote,  November  6th,  1860.  During  the 
year  1860,  the  state  enforced  its  lien  on  each  of  the  lines,  and 



'became  the  owner  of  tlie  franchises,  lands,  and  roadbeds. 
Sabeeqaentlr,  in  1862,  tbe  state  made  new  grants  of  these  f  ran- 
cliiBes  and  lands  to  other  companies,  tbos  infusing  new  life 
into  these  dead  railways. 

The  first  company  to  get  the  ben^t  of  tUs  new  effort  to 
rerlTe  the  lapsed  roads,  was  tlie  MiDoesota  and  Pacific,  which 
reappeared  with  a  new  name,  the  St.  Panl  and  Pacific  Railroad 
Company.  The  franchiees  of  the  old  line  vece  conferred, 
March  10th,  1862,  on  Dwight  Woodbniy,  Henry  T.  Welles,  B. 
B.  Nelson,  Edmnnd  Bice,  Edwin  A.  C.  Hatch,  James  E.  Thomp- 
son, Leander  Gorton,  mdhard  dmte,  William  Ijee,  and  their 
associates  and  snccessors.  A  contract  was  made  with  Elias 
F.  Drake,  of  Ohio,  and  V.  Winters,  to  construct  that  portion 
of  the  line  between  St.  Panl  and  St  Anthony,  and  it  was  oom- 
pleted  and  running  June  28th,  1862,  and  was  the  first  railway 
in  operation  within  the  limits  of  our  State.  The  establish- 
ment of  this  line  gave  an  impetns  to  railway  matters  in  Min- 
nesota. Edmund  Bice  was  the  first  president  of  this  road. 
The  first  engine  was  named  "William  Crooks,"  and  was  ran 
by  Webster  C.  Gardner.  President  Bice  went  to  Enrope  abont 
this  time,  to  solicit  the  first  foreign  capital  in  aid  of  railways 
in  our  state.  He  shipped  back  3,000  tons  of  rails,  and  work 
was  pushed  on  toward  Breokenridgo. 

The  second  railway  was  b^;no  in  186S.  Section  25  of  the 
original  charter  of  the  Minnesota  and  Pacific  Batlroad  Com- 
pany had  authorized  a  line  from  Winona  to  St.  Panl.  On 
March  6th,  1863,  a  grant  of  state  swamp  lands  was  made  to 
this  line,  and  St  Paul  gave  it  a  bonus  of  $60,000,  being  the 
first  bonns  to  a  railway  in  our  state.  The  name  was  now 
changed  to  the  St.  Paul  and  Chicago  Bailroad  Company. 
Edmnnd  Rice  was  also  the  first  president  of  this  company. 
He  again  visited  England  and  secured  aid  for  the  construc- 
tion of  the  road,  and  work  was  prosecuted  with  diligence.  He 
also  went  to  Washington  to  secure  an  enlargement  of  the  land 
grant  It  was  there  I  first  met  Edmund  Bice.  He  was  dis- 
tribnting  magnificent  bouquets  to  the  wires  of  members  of 
(Jongress  with  a  princely  hand.  It  is  needless  to  add  that  be 
secured  his  land  grant  This  line  was  completed  to  La  Cres- 
cent in  1872.    Through  eastern  trains  began  running,  via 



Winona,  in  September,  1872.  In  a  abort  time,  this  line  was 
consolidated  witb  the  Chica^,  Milwaukee  and  St.  Paol,  and 
its  separate  existence  ceased. 

In  contrast  with  the  convenience  of  travel  and  transporta- 
tion of  freight  now  afforded  b;  this  river  rallej  ronte,  I  m^ 
recall  the  conditions  of  sixty  years  ago.  En-me-ga-bow,  the 
aged  Indian  pastor  and  co-worker  of  Bishop  Whipple  and 
Bev.  J.  A.  Oilflllan  among  the  Ojibways  of  northern  Minne- 
sota, who  has  been  a  welcome  visitor  at  the  White  Hoase  in 
Washington,  and  who  is  yet  living  on  the  White  Earth  Reser- 
vation, has  related  the  experiences  encountered  in  his  yoath 
when  be  passed  down  the  Mississippi,  transporting  his  effects 
in  his  bark  canoe  from  the  Pillager  bands  in  the  north  to 
Prairie  dn  Chien  and  retam,  meeting  no  white  man  on  the 
way  except  at  Fort  Snelling. 

To  follow  the  birth  and  development  of  oar  great  railway 
lines  is  a  task  far  beyond  the  limits  of  tliis  pi^r.  ■  Bat  we 
most  notice  the  growth  and  inflnence  of  two  or  thre«  systems 
npon  the  fortanes  of  onr  state,  and  from  them  learn  the  io- 
floencM  of  all.  Take  the  St.  Paul  and  Sioaz  City  Railroad 
Company.  This  company  was  incorporated  in  1867,  to  build 
one  of  the  lines  of  the  Boot  Biver  Valley  and  Sonthem  Minne- 
sota railroad.  Bat  in  1864  it  was  organized  anew,  and  was 
called  tbe  Minnesota  Valley  Bailroad  Company.  Under  the 
operation  of  the  Five  Million  Loan,  some  work  had  been  done 
in  1868,  between  Mendota  and  Shakopee.  This  work  had  been 
suspended  as  upon  other  lines,  bat  was  revived  under  the  act 
of  1864.  The  new  incorporators  were  snch  men  as  E.  F. 
Drake,  John  L.  Merriam,  J.  0.  Barbank,  Capt.  Bnssell  Bt^e- 
ley,  and  others.  It  was  essentially -a  home  institution,  these 
men,  who  were  citizens  of  St  Paul,  furnishing  the  money  to 
constract  and  equip  the  road.  It  was  opened  from  Mendota 
to  Shakopee  on  November  16th,  1865;  to  Belle  Plaine,  No- 
vember 19th,  1866;  to  Mankato,  October  12th,  1868;  and  to 
Sioux  City  in  1872.  The  telegraph  was  opened  through  at 
the  same  time.  Daring  all  its  building  period,  this  railroad 
was  owned  and  operated  exclusively  by  St  Paul  men.  Its  first 
president  was  E.  P.  Drake;  its  chief  engineer  was  John  B. 
Fish;  its  first  superintendent  was  John  F.  Lincoln;  and  its 



flfBt  conductor  was  Alanson  AtesBer,  who  still  retaine  tbe  same 
positioD,  and  is  an  honored  citizen  of  St.  Paal.  It  is  probable 
tbat  Mr.  Messer  and  tbe  Hon.  James  Bmitb,  Jr.,  attorney  of 
tbe  St  Paal  and  Dulutb  Bailroad  Company,  are  tbe  two  oldest 
railroad  men  in  tbe  state,  in  continaoas  service  on  tbe  same 
line,  their  railway  service  being  always  within  tbe  limits  of 
onr  state.  The  building  of  this  line  gave  a  most  important 
and  valuable  highway  to  the  commerce  of  the  great  Minne- 
sota valley.  It  famished  that  character  of  transportation 
which  the  times  demanded.  It  invited  immigration,  and 
speedily  created  a  grand  civilized  kingdom  in  those  ricb  soli- 
tudes which  Le  Sueur  had  bravely  penetrated  nearly  two  hun- 
dred years  ago. 

Take  also  the  St  Paul  and  Duluth  line.  This  first  ap- 
peared nnder  the  name  of  the  Nebraska  and  Lake  Superior 
Bailroad  Company,  chartered  in  1867.  It  brings  to  our  vialou 
the  honored  names  of  Lyman  Dayton,  Capt  WUIiam  L.  Ban- 
ning, James  Smith,  Jr.,  Parker  Paine,  and  others,  identified 
with  its  battles,  its  dark  days,  and  its  final  triumph.  It  was 
completed  to  Dulutb  in  1S70,  by  the  aid  of  Philadelphia  cap- 
italists. The  great  fanction  of  this  line  was  to  unite  tbe  Mis- 
siBsippi  river  with  the  great  lake  waterways,  and  thns  it  be- 
came  a  powerful  agent  in  regulating  tariffs  in  the  state.  It 
is  so  situated  that  it  coald  not  make  tariffs  of  its  own,  except 
for  local  purposes;  but  it  was  the  regulator  of  tarifTs.  It  was 
a  sort  of  common  highway  for  all  the  other  lines  to  the  bead 
of  tbe  lake,  and  the  great  systems  have  always  prorated  with 
it.  Bat  its  supreme  function  was  to  regulate  our  traffic  in  its 
relation  to  the  great  waterways,  and  in  this  it  has  served  a 
noble  purpose. 

The  Northern  Pacific  railroad  early  occupied  a  commanding 
position  among  our  transportation  systems.  The  building  of  a 
line  from  the  head  of  the  lake  to  the  Pacific  ocean,  through  the 
great  northern  zone,  was  pregnant  with  vast  commercial  in- 
terests  to  the  future  of  Minnesota.  Its  building  generated  for 
us  forces  of  trade  and  immigration  which  have  been  stupen- 
dous. Jay  Cooke  stands  at  the  beginning  of  tbe  great  pano- 
rama, as  its  most  conspicuous  character;  while  Henry  Villard 
rises  before  us  as  a  monument  at  the  completed  end  of  this 



tranacontinental  line.  Ita  charter  was  granted  by  CkiBgress, 
Jul;  2Dd,  1861,  and  was  signed  by  Abraham  Lincoln.  It  re- 
ceired  a  land  grant  commensurate  with  the  magnitude  of  the 
nndwtaking.  The  16th  day  of  February,  1870,  near  Thomson 
Junction,  on  a  winter's  day,  the  first  dirt  was  thrown  in  the 
presence  of  a  great  crowd  by  Ool.  J.  B.  Culver,  of  Duluth.  On 
the  8th  day  of  September,  1883,  the  last  spike  (not  a  gold  one) 
was  driven  at  Gold  Creek,  Montana.  I  witnessed  the  event, 
while  holding  a  chair  on  which  stood  Gen.  U.  8.  Grant,  the 
silent  observer  of  this  historic  scene.  Like  some  startling 
romance  reads  the  history  of  the  inception  aud  the  constrnc- 
tiOD,  amid  almost  insuperable  dlfflculties,  to  its  final  com- 
pletion, of  this  first  northern  continental  highway.  It  was 
the  new  artery  of  the  great  northern  zone  of  production. 
From  lake  Superior  to  Puget  sound,  the  hum  of  activity  pre- 
vailed. Cities  sprang  into  existence,  water-powers  were  de- 
veloped, lumber,  fishing,  and  mining  interests  were  nnfolded, 
under  the  incentive  of  this  national  highway.  And  it  was 
Minnesota's  good  fortune  to  stand  at  the  gateway,  where  her 
merchants  were  to  toll  this  wonderful  wealth.  This  colossal 
enterprise  sent  fresh  blood  into  every  vein  of  onr  young  state, 
and  no  pen  can  dare  even  now  to  predict  the  multitude  of 
benefits  Minnesota  will  continue  to  derive  from  the  fulfillment 
of  the  dreams  of  Carver,  of  Whitney,  and  of  Cooke. 

No  better  illustration  can  be  given  of  the  growth,  mnta- 
tions,  f  ribnlations,  and  influence  of  a  system  of  transportation 
Dpon  our  state,  than  is  to  be  found  in  the  history  of  the  old 
"Bt  Pan!  and  Pacific  railroad."  Its  original  charter  was 
granted  May  22Dd,  1867,  to  the  Minnesota  and  Pacific  Ball- 
road  Company.  By  act  of  the  legislature,  March  lO^h,  1862, 
it  became  the  St  Paul  and  Pacific.  We  note  how  grandly  each 
of  these  early  titles  uses  the  terminus  Taclfic;"  and  yet  not 
one  person  connected  with  its  early  fortunes  ever  dreamed  of 
its  reaching  the  waters  of  the  western  ocean.  That  was  re- 
served for  a  later  and  more  a^ressive  personage.  Subse- 
quently, May  23rd,  1879,  it  became  the  St  Paul,  Minneapolis 
and  Manitoba  railway;  and  finally,  March  lOtb,  1886,  it  was 
merged  into  a  giant  system,  the  Great  Northera  Railway  Com- 
pany, and  that  wbloh  bad  been  provincial  became  continental. 



Wben  fiuoDCial  cloDda  lowered  over  this  line,  in  the  era  of 
the  St.  Paol  and  Pacific,  the  mortgages  npon  the  property 
were  foreclosed,  an^the  entire  property  passed  into  the  bands 
of  a  remarkable  syndicate,  in  whose  control  it  became  the 
St  Paul,  Minneapolis  and  Manitoba,  and  under  their  power- 
fnl  sway,  Its  destinies  were  wholly  changed.  The  syndicate 
making  the  pnrchase  were  James  J.  Hill,  Creoi^  Stephen  (now 
Lord  Moant-Stephen),  Donald  A.  Smith  (now  Sir  Donald  A. 
Smith,  Lord  Strathcona  and  Mooot  Boyal),  and  Norman  W. 

On  the  10th  day  of  Jnly,  1866,  there  came  to  this  territory 
from  out  of  the  woods  of  Canada,  a  young,  unknown,  black- 
eyed  and  black-haired  lad,  seeking  fortune  beneath  Minne- 
sota's propitious  skies.  That  young  man  has  had  a  greater 
influence  upon  the  history  of  transportation  in  this  st&te  than 
any  other  person.  His  name  is  James  J.  Hill.  He  has  wit- 
nessed and  promoted  the  extraordinary  development  from  the 
old  system  of  transportation,  in  the  era  of  Kittson,  or  of 
Blakeley,  to  the  most  modern  railway.  He  has  been  boldly 
aggressive,  continuously  pounding  away  at  the  one  purpose 
of  achieving  great  results  in  the  ever  expanding  problem  of 
better  transportation.  During  the  five  years  when  I  was  rail- 
way commissioner  of  the  state,  from  1882  to  1887,  he  prac- 
tically rebuilt  all  the  old  lines  of  the  Great  Northern  system 
in  Minnesota.  He  improved  the  curves  and  established  new 
gradients.  The  wooden  trestles  became  roadways  of  earth 
and  stone,  and  the  old  bridges  steel.  He  made  a  standard 
system,  where  be  found  a  temporary  one.  He  found  iron  rails, 
and  changed  them  to  steel.  The  lines  and  spnre  of  his  sys- 
tem penetrate  every  great  grain  district  of  our  state.  Cast 
your  eyes  upon  onr  railway  map,  and  see  how  its  lines  cross 
and  recrosB,  how  they  ramify  and  spur  into  every  part  of  the 
territory  they  seek  to  serve.  Four  times  within  a  hundred 
miles,  distinct  lines  of  this  system  cross  the  international 
boundary  to  the  Canadian  side,  and  they  have  thrown  iheir 
bands  of  steel  all  over  the  Dakotas.  They  have  brought  many 
thousands  of  immigrants,  and  have  added  new  counties  to  this 
state,  new  towns  and  cities,  new  wealth.  Mr.  Hill  found 
freight  rates  about  three  cents  per  ton  per  mile,  and  he  has  re- 



dnoed  them  to  about  one  cent.  His  system  has  been  essentiallv 
a  Minnesota  system.  It  has  entered  Titall;  into  the  ballding 
of  oar  great  commonwealth.  With  increasing  prosperity,  and 
without  land  grants  or  government  subsidies,  he  has  ext^ided 
this  railway  to  the  waters  of  Puget  sound,  opening  an  im- 
perial highway  across  tbe  continent  in  falflllment  of  the 
prophecy  of  its  earlier  names. 

His  energy  has  wronght  oat  one  of  tbe  most  instructive 
stories  of  haman  achievement.  Hostile  criticism  falls  harm- 
less before  snch  a  career  of  nnvarying  success.  Mr.  Hill  has 
fought  his  way  into  the  anointed  family  of  great  men,  and 
there  is  where  history  will  leave  him.  This  railway  system, 
of  which  he  has  been  the  head,,  has  achieved  for  us  the  most 
wonderfal  results,  having  created  an  empire  by  the  services 
it  has  rendered,  which  will  be  an  enduring  monument  of  what 
a  singie  system  of  transportation  can  do,  when  loyally  and 
energetically  directed  to  the  welfare  of  the  state. 

It  wonld  be  pleasant  to  linger  and  recount  what  other  great 
railway  systems  have  done  for  the  state,  such  as  tbe  Chicago 
and  Northwestern,  the  Chicago,  Milwaukee  and  St  Paul,  and 
others,  but  time  will  not  admit. 

We  have  twenty-four  distinct  railway  systems  within  our 
state,  aggregating  6,086  miles,  not  including  sidetracks  and 
yard  facilities.  Thirty-six  years  ago  we  did  not  possess  one 
mile.  Minnesota  has  about  one  mile  of  railway  to  every  13^ 
square  miles  of  teritory;  Iowa,  one  to  every  10;  Wisconsin, 
one  to  IT;  Kansas,  one  to  23.  If  we  consider  population  as 
well  as  territory,  we  are  about  as  well  served  as  Massachu- 
setts, or  any  of  the  older  states.  Such  means  of  transporta- 
tion and  communication  were  never  before  the  good  fortune 
of  any  people.  The  elements  inciting  railway  construction  are 
still  at  work.  Railways  beget  railways,  and  the  end  la  not 

The  twenty-four  systems  moved,  within  our  state,  in  18&6, 
no  less  than  62,000,000  tons  of  freight,  and  carried  over  31,- 
000,000  passengws.  We  are  actually  startled  at  such  figures, 
but  they  are  official  facts.  The  power  of  some  of  the  com- 
panies is  severely  taxed  to  handle  the  traffic.  The  volume  of 
railroad  business  is  a  good  barometer  of  trade,  and  .official 



tables  show  that  oara  is  conBtantly  on  the  increase.  With 
these  facts  before  us,  we  can  see  that  the  days  of  Red  riTer 
carts,  stage  coaches,  and  prairie  schooners,  are  past.  And 
even  our  rivers,  as  a  squeezed  orange,  are  qaite  thrown  aside. 
As  if  by  magic,  oar  state  has  been  tranformed  into  a  checker- 
board of  steel  bars,  bringing  modern  transportation  to  the 
very  doors  of  onr  people. 

The  colossal  character  of  the  grain  moTements  in  Minne- 
sota are  so  stapendons  tliat  few  persons  have  an  adequate 
knowledge  of  their  extent  I  give  yoo  flgnres  nerer  before 
summarized  for  the  public.  The  number  of  bashels  of  grain 
moved  on  Minnesota  lines  during  the  year  1897  was  186,704,- 
130,  being  255,640  carloads.  The  average  cost  per  ton  per 
mile,  to  move  the  same,  was  li  cents.  The  average  freight 
on  wheat  and  com  from  Dnluth  to  Buffalo,  in  1897,  was  1.9 
cents  per  bushel;  in  1886,  it  was  5.2  cents;  and  in  1872, 
12  cents.  The  average  cost  for  freight,  insnrance,  elevator 
charges,  commission,  and  all  other  incidental  charges  (m'wheat 
from  Dnluth  to  London,  in  1897,  was  13}  cents.  Ton  could 
not  procure  the  carriage  of  a  single  bushel  of  wheat  from  the 
capitol  to  the  union  depot,  in  this  city,  for  less  than  25  cents! 
Nothing  has  more  specifically  and  materially  affected  our 
transportation  problem  than  the  constant  and  extraordinary 
reduction  of  tariff  rates.  Ko  other  necessity  of  human  life 
has  been  more  regularly  and  certainly  cheapened  to  the  people 
than  the  transporting  of  their  persons  and  property.  It  is 
not  only  betterments  and  cheaper  material  that  cheapen  trans- 
portation, but  the  ever  swelling  volume  of  trade.  It  is  the 
only  thing  known  to  me  of  which  it  can  be  said  that,  the  more 
you  feed  it,  the  less  it  gets. 

We  have  come  through  experience,  and  a  system  of  evolu- 
tion, to  a  better  understanding  of  the  laws  which  govern  trans- 
portation. <3ovemmental  regulations  should  be  few  and 
simple,  and  strictly  in  accord  with  commercial  and  natural 
conditions.  Every  rate  that  is  made  to-day  is  made  by  in- 
fluences beyond  the  control  of  the  carrier.  Yon  cannot  put 
railroads  in  straight  jackets.  Within  reasonable  restrktions, 
they  should  be  left  free,  like  other  business,  to  the  operations 
of  competition. 




ThQB  bave  I  attempted  to  present  to  yon  the  more  salient 
features  o(  the  rise  and  growth  of  oar  varied  systems  of  trans- 
portation, that  mighty  factor  of  oar  civilization.  We  have 
ascended  the  stream  of  time  to  the  tumali  of  the  unknown 
dead.  We  have  carried  copper  with  them,  in  nameless  boats, 
throngb  tahelet  and  river.  We  have  paddled  in  the  birch 
oanoe  of  the  hdstorio  Indian.  We  have  seen  strange  fleets  of 
early  craft,  loaded  with  pelts,  stealing  beneath  the  beetling 
rocks  of  onr  great  lake,  at  the  very  twilight  dawn  of  onr  story. 
We  have  stood  with  Le  Baenr,  on  the  deck  of  his  felacca,  as 
be  ascended  onr  rivers  two  centories  ago.  We  have  beheld 
the  lordly  fur  companiee  as  they  strode  npon  the  scene,  carry- 
ing their  transportation  to  the  far  off  Great  Slave  lake,  a  region 
so  distant  that  iwe  ourselves  have  not  yet  dared  to  invade  it. 
We  have  been  with  the  scholarly  Bchoolcraft,  in  1820,  as  he 
proudly  waved  his  hand  to  the  advent  of  his  country's  flag 
and  vessels  when  they  first  made  entry  to  the  waters  of  the 
"nnsaited  sea."  We  have  stood,  with  the  early  immigrants, 
on  the  decks  of  the  first  steamboats  which  ascended  our 
streams.  We  have  been  with  Kittson  and  heard  the  screech- 
ing of  the  greaseleBs  wheels  of  a  wonderful  commerce  that 
arose  in  the  far  Korth.  We  have  travelled  by  dog  sledges 
amid  the  solltnde  of  snows.  We  have  welcomed,  with  Ed- 
mund Bice,  the  scepter  of  a  new  king  in  that  wonderful  horse 
whose' sinews  are  steel,  and  whose  breath  is  steam,  and  have 
listened  to  the  far  echoes  of  his  shrill  whistle  over  our  prairies, 
as  it  proclaimed  the  death  of  the  old  carriers  and  the  birth 
of  the  new.  We  have  beheld  our  railways  rivet  their  bracelets 
of  steel  all  over  the  bosom  of  onr  commonwealth,  till  every 
hamlet  is  served  with  highways  better  than  Bome  under  the 
empire  of  the  Cssars  ever  dreamed  of  possesBing.  But,  not 
content  with  granting  superb  facilities  within  our  own  limits, 
we  have  seen  onr  aggressive  men  of  affairs  pick  up  the  ends 
of  the  steel  ribbons,  pass  beyond  the  barriers  of  the  state,  and 
carry  them  across  a  continent  to  the  waters  of  the  Pacific. 

We  are  pleased  to  remember,  this  day,  that  this  admirable 
system  of  transportation  rests  upon  a  base  of  inexhaustible 



reeources.  We  offer  no  Kl<m<dike,  with  apecioas  gates  of  gold, 
amid  pillars  of  ice,  bat  tbat  which  is  a  thonsand  times  better 
for  moralit;  and  stability.  Our  resoarcea  challenge  all  that 
is  good  in  the  genius  and  energy  of  oar  Bona  Over  every 
aqnare  mile  of  our  commonwealth,  nature  has  spread  her 
prodigal  gamitnre  with  a  princely  hand.  Ceres  pours  over  ua 
her  wealth  from  the  horn  of  plenty.  But  turn  onr  soil  and 
plant,  and  God's  sun  will  kiss  it  into  wealth.  Only  the  volun- 
tarily idle  can  be  disinherited  in  Minnesota. 

PoBsesaing  all  these  enriching  conditions,  even  with  but  a 
reBpectable  government  and  only  a  moderate  race  of  states- 
men, onr  Bplen4id  body  of  business  men  will  still  carry  our 
state  forward  to  a  superb  destiny.  When  we  consider  that  the 
greater  and  better  part  of  all  this  has  been  wrought  during 
the  span  of  a  single  human  life,  we  behold  a  miracle  of  per- 
formance, in  which  most  of  yon  were  the  living  actors.  Never 
again  will  life  present  the  same  ma^iflcent  drama  of  events 
ae  the  panorama  you  have  witnessed. 

In  surveying  it  all,  I  feel  that,  as  the  wise  men  of  the 
East  followed  that  star  which  came  and  stood  over  the  place 
where  the  infant  Savior  was  bom,  so  we,  impelled  by  some 
good  Providence,  followed  the  Star  of  the  North,  till  it  stood 
above  a  virgin  empire  of  undeveloped  wealth,  which  was  for 
UB,  and  for  onr  children,  the  promised  land. 


DiBiimd, Google 






I  pF«[KHBe  to  r^ate  eome  incidentB,  not  generally  knomi  to 
the  public,  in  the  final  settlement  of  the  North-weat  Boandat7 
between  the  United  States  and  the  British  PosHessione. 

Part  of  my  inf(»mation  is  derived  from  the  rec(»dB  of  the 
War  Department,  bnt  chiefly  from  conversations  vrith  acton 
in  the  scene.  For  many  years  I  was  the  Inspector  General 
of  the  Military  Department  of  the  Columbia,  which  includes 
within  its  boondaries  the  Pnget  fionnd  region,  where  the  difB- 
catties  occnrred.  My  dntiee  required  me  to  make  frequent 
visits  to  Ban  Jnao  island  daring  tiie  period  of  the  joint  occupa- 
tion, and  I  became  interested  in  this  bit  of  American  history 
because  we  were  never  nearer  a  war  with  England  than  at 
that  time.  The  story  I  shall  tell  brings  out  one  feature  in  the 
trauiing  of  the  American  professional  soldier.  He  is  taught 
that  every  means  for  the  peaceable  settlement  of  a.  difDoul^ 
shenld  be  tried  befwe  force  is  used,  bnt  that  there  must  be  at 
tike  same  time  no  surrender  of  the  rights  and  dignity  of  the 
natioB.  Tlw  patience  and  forbearance  of  our  trained  army 
and  naval  otBcers  has  saved  our  country  from  bloodshed  and 
loss  of  treasure,  in  more  than  one  difficulty  with  for^gn  pow- 
ers, with  the  Indians  on  onr  plains,  and  the  lawless  mobs  in 
«ar  eitks.  In  the  San  Juan  aSaix  QeBeral  Winfleid  Scott  won 
the  title  «4  '^be  Great  Pacificator."  His  coantrymen  did  well 
in  bestowing  npon  him  this  title,  for  bis  pacific  coarse  on  that 
occasion  saved  us  from  war. 

■R«UI  ftt  tlM  monthly  mMtlDjr  of  tb«  S^ecutlve  Council,  Novemb«r  Sl 
USa.    a«nem  Huod  died  April  80,  1S8& 



Ever;  stadeot  of  American  history  knows  tliat  the  cry 
"61.40  or  fight"  was  sufficient  at  one  time  to  rooee  the  spirit 
of  the  American  people  against  what  were  considered  the  un- 
just demands  of  Great  Britain  in  the  matter  of  the  boundary 
line  between  the  United  States  and  her  Majesty's  possessions 
in  the  Northwest 

The  Hudson  Bay  Company  claimed  what  is  now  Washing- 
ton and  Oregon  down  to  the  California  line.  It  waa  anrea- 
aonable;  not  so  the  American  claim  to  territory  above  the 
49th  parallel  of  latitude. 

The  treaty  of  Washington,  June  15th,  1846,  fixed  the 
boundary  line  on  that  parallel.  The  treaty  reads:  "Along  the 
said  forty-ninth  parallel  of  north  latitude  to  the  middle  of  the 
channel  which  separates  the  continent  from  VanconTer*8  Isl- 
and; and  thence  southerly  through  the  middle  of  the  said 
channel,'  and  of  Fuca's  Straits,  to  the  Pacific  ocean."  The 
vagueness  and  uncertainty  of  the  wording  of  this  section  led 
to  the  subsequent  difAcnlties.  The  value,  and  the  commercial 
And  military  importance,  of  the  San  Juan  archipelago  were 
not  appreciated  by  the  distinguished  gentlemen  who  n^o- 
tiated  the  treaty.  A  glance  at  an  atlas  in  use  in  1846.  will 
flhow  how  little  was  really  known  of  the  vast  region  north- 
west from  the  junction  of  the  MisaiBsippi  and  Misaonri  to  the 
Pacific  ocean.  But  if  the  statesmen  of  Washington  and  Lon- 
don did  not  appreciate  the  value  of  the  group  of  islands  sepa- 
rating the  waters  of  the  Bay  of  Oeorgia  from  Puget  sound, 
the  Hudson  Bay  Company  did.  This  powerful  and  influential 
corporation,  created  in  1670  by  Charles  the  Second  of  England, 
was  invested  with  the  absolute  proprietorship,  subordinate 
sovereignty,  and  exclusive  traffic,  over  an  undefined  territory 
which,  under  the  name  of  Bupert's  Land,  comprised  all  the 
regions  discovered,  or  to  be  discovered,  within  the  entrance 
of  Hudson  bay. 

Pushing  westward,  by  1770  the  company  had  reached  the 
Pacific,  and  buying  up  or  coalescing  vrith  rival  companies, 
French  and  English,  and  claiming  jurisdiction  through  75  de- 
grees of  longitude,  from  Davia'  Strait  to  Mount  St  Elias,  and 
through  28  degrees  of  latitude,  from  the  mouth  of  the  Mac- 



kenzie  to  the  borders  of  California,  it  virtnally  ruled  the  west- 
ern world  north  of  the  ondiaputed  territory  of  the  Dnited 
States.  The  cession  of  Oregon  and  the  fixing  of  the  boundary 
line  on  the  49tb  parallel  destroyed  of  coorse  the  rights  of  the 
company  sonth  of  that  line. 

At  the  time  when  this  story  begins  fhe  beadqnartere  of 
the  Hndson  Bay  Company  were  established  at  Victoria  on 
Vanconver  island,  and  Bir  James  Donglae,  C,  B.,  was  gOT- 
emor  and  commander  in  chief  in  and  over  Vanconver  island 
and  its  dependencies,  as  well  aa  chief  factor  of  the  Hndson 
Bay  Oompaoy. 

A  glance  at  the  map  {plate  I)  will  show  five  chanuela  tot' 
the  passage  of  vessels.  Of  these  the  Bosario  straits  to  the 
eastward  and  the  Canal  de  Haro  to  the  westward  we're  alone 
In  controversy. 

I  have  said  that  the  Hndson  Bay  Company  appreciated  the 
value  of  the  archipelago,  and  was  not  slow  in  taking  advan- 
tage of  the  doabtfot  wording  of  the  treaty  and  assuming  con- 
trol  of  the  islands.  The  islands  in  the  group  number  nineteen 
and  contain  about  200  square  miles.  They  vary  in  size,  from 
a  few  acres,  to  San  Juan,  which  is  about  fifteen  miles  long 
and  from  three  to  six  miles  wide,  comprising  some  60  square 
miles.  The  climate  of  the  region  is  very  mild  and  humid,  thus 
offering  special  advantages  for  sbeep  raising  and  the  cultiva- 
tion of  fmite,  flowers,  and  vegetables.  The  strat^ic  advan- 
tage of  the  group  is  apparent  to  the  most  casual  observer. 
The  power  that  holds  these  islands,  controls  the  waters  of 
Puget  Sound  and  the  vaat  waterways  to  the  northward.  The 
great  coal  fields  of  Nanaimo  and  other  points  in  British  Co- 
lombia are  only  accessible  throagh  the  channels  of  this  group; 
and  indeed  British  Columbia  is  dominated  by  the  power  tliat 
holds  with  a  military  and  naval  force  the  islands  and  their 
navigable  channels. 

The  foreign  policy  of  England  in  regard  to  her  territorial 
claims  commends  itself  to  a  military  man  by  its  promptness 
and  certainty.  She  generally  acts  first  and  talks  afterward. 
In  this  case  she  assumed  at  once  that  the  Bosario  strait  was 
the  boundary  line  and  acted  on  this  assumption  by  directing 



Brltisb  ma^tratea  to  exercise  dvil  jariBdictioa  throngkont 
the  groop.  Before  tbe  days  of  the  telegrapb  or  the  transooa- 
tinental  railway,  news  from  the  far  west  traveled  atowly,  a»d 
it  i^as  Bome  time  before  the  goyemment  at  WasfaiDgton  awoke 
to  tbe  condition  of  affairs. 

Under  date  of  July  14th,  1855,  Mr.  Marcj,  Secretary  of 
Btate,  wrote  to  Governor  Stevens  of  Washington  Territory  aa 
follows:  "He  [President  Kerce]  has  instracted  me  to  eaj  to 
yon,  that  the  officers  of  the  territory  shoald  abstain  from  all 
acta  on  the  dispnted  groands  which  are  calculated  to  provoke 
any  confilcts,  ao  far  as  it  can  be  done  without  im^yisg  tiie 
concession  to  the  anthority  of  Great,  Britain  of  an  exclusive 
right  over  the  premises.  The  title  ought  to  be  settled  before 
either  party  ehonld  exclude  the  other  by  force,  or  ^erciae 
complete  and  exclusive  sovereign  right  within  the  fairly  dis- 
pnted  limits " 

On  the  17th  of  July,  Mr.  Marcy  wrote  to  Mr  Crampton,  the 
Britiah  minister,  informing  him  of  the  letter  to  the  governor 
of  Washington' Territory  and  expreesing  the  hope  that  all  col- 
lision may  be  avoided.  Tbe  Americans  who  had  settled  on 
San  Joan  island  were  restless  under  the  anomaloos  cooditioo 
of' affairs,  and  it  was  certain  that  difHculty  would  sooner  or 
later  occur. 

A  humble  and  generally  inoffensive  pig  was  the  innocent 
cause  of  a  disturbance  that  came  nearer  to  bringing  on  a  war 
between  England  and  America  than  any  event  since  1812. 

One  day  in  June,  1859,  an  American  by  the  name  of  Lyman 
A.  Cutler  shot  and  killed  a  pig  that  was  the  property  of  the 
Hudson  Bay  Company.  This  pig  had  been  found  damaging 
the  field  or  garden  of  Cutler,  whose  request  to  the  person  in 
charge  to  have  the  pig  confined  was  treated  with  contempt. 
Provoked  by  this.  Cutler  shot  the  animal.  He  afterward  of- 
fered money  in  payment  to  twice  its  value,  which  was  refused. 
The  next  day  the  British  ship  of  war  Satellite,  with  a  Mr. 
Dallas,  a  factor  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  aboard,  visited 
the  island.  Mr.  Dallas  threatened  to  ts^e  the  American  by 
force  to  Victoria  for  trial.  Cutler  resisted,  and,  arming  him- 
self, threatened  to  shoot  anyone  who  would  attempt  his  arrest. 
Tbe  arrest  was  not  made. 



Geoepal  W.  S.  Harney  commanded  at  that  time  the  De- 
partment of  Or^^Q,  with  headquarters  at  Fort  Vancouver  on 
the  Colombia  river.  These  matters  came  to  his  ears  throngh 
a  petition  from  the  Americans  of  6an  Juan  island  for  protee* 
tioD,  In  making  his  report  to  Washington  the  general  says: 
'^o  attempt  to  take  b;  an  armed  force  an  American  citizen 
from  onr  soil  to  be  tried  b;  British  law,  is  an.  insult  to  oar 
flag  and  an  outrage  upon  the  rights  of  our  people  that  has 
roused  them  to  a  high  state  of  indignation.  It  will  be  well 
for  the  British  Government  to  know  the  American  people  on 
this  coast  will  never  sanction  any  claim  they  may  assert  to 
any  other  islands  in  Fuget  Sonnd  than  that  of  Vancouver, 
sooth  of  the  19th  parallel  and  east  of  the  Canal  de  Haro.  Any 
attempt  at  possession  by  them  will  be  followed  by  a  collision." 

Without  waiting  for  instrnctious  from  Washington,  which 
would  have  taken  thirty  days  by  pony  express  across  the  con- 
tinent, or  sixty  by  steamer  via  the  isthmus  of  Panama,  Gen- 
eral Harney  took  prompt  action  on  the  petition  of  the  Ameri' 
cans  for  protection,  and  immediately  ordered  Capt.  George  E. 
Pickett,  of  the  9th  Infantry,  to  proceed  at  once  from  Fort  Bell- 
ingbam  to  San  Juan  island  and  take  station  with  his  company 
D  of  the  9th  Infantry.  His  orders  provided  for  the  protection 
of  the  people  from  the  northern  Indians  of  Bridsfa  Colombia 
and  the  Russian  possessions  (now  onr  Alaska);  he  was  also 
informed  that  another  serious  and  important  duty  would  de- 
volve npon  him  in  the  occupation  of  the  islands,  ariaing  from 
the  conflicting  interests  of  the  American  citizens  and  the  Hud- 
son Bay  Company.  He  was  informed  that  it  would  be  his 
duty  to  afford  adequate  protection  to  the  AiAerican  citizens  in 
their  rights  as  such,  and  to  resist  all  attempts  at  interference 
by  the  British  authorities  residing  on  Vancouver  island,  by 
intimidation  or  force,  in  the  controversies  of  the  above  men- 
tioned parties.  General  Harney  goes  on  to  say  that  protection 
has  been  called  for  in  conaequence  of  the  action  of  the  chief 
factor  of  the  Hudson  Bay  Company,  Mr.  Dallas,  in  having  re- 
cently visited  8an  Juan  island  with  a  British  sloop  of  war  and 
threatened  to  take  an  American  citizen  by  force  to  Victoria 
for  trial  by  British  laws.    "It  is  hoped  a  second  attempt  of 



this  kind  will  sot  be  made;  bnt  to  insare  tbe  safety  of  our 
citizens  the  general  commandiiig  directs  yon  to  meet  the  aa- 
thoritiea  from  Victoria  at  once,  on  a  second  arrival,  and  in< 
form  them  they  cannot  be  permitted  to  interfere  with  onr  citi- 
sens  in  any  way.  Any  grievanceB  th^  may  allege  as  reqnlr- 
ing  redress  can  only  be  examined  under  onr  own  laws,  to 
which  they  mnst  enbmit  their  claims  in  proper  form." 

Captain  Pickett  was  a  brave  and  gallant  officer,  cool,  and 
of  excellent  judgment.  He  was  a  sonthem  man  and  on  the 
outbreak  of  the  rebellion,  two  years  after  these  events,  re- 
signed his  commission  in  the  United  States  Army  and  took 
service  with  the  Confederacy.  He  rose  to  high  rank  in  the 
southern  army,  and  commanded  the  Confederate  troops  in  that 
jnstly  famons  charge  on  Cemetery  Bidge  at  GettyBbni^.  That 
8d  day  of  July,  18^,  when  at  one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  Gen- 
eral Lee  made  his  aapreme  effort  to  retrieve  the  fortunes  of 
the  day,  and  tauuched  a  grand  assault  upon  the  Union  center 
along  Cemetery  Ridge,  George  PicketfB  division  was  probably 
tbe  most  distinguished  in  that  splendid  army  of  northern  Vir- 
ginia for  discipline  and  valor.  It  was  composed  of  fifteen  Vir- 
(pnia  regiments,  the  very  flower  of  southern  chivalry.  The 
bold,  determined  and  enterprising  spirit  he  had  manifested 
in  Indian  aconts  and  campaigns  on  the  frontier,  where  he  had 
been  ordered  immediately  after  graduating  from  the  Military 
Academy,  fitted  him  for  dealing  with  the  emergency  that  had 
been  precipitated  by  tbe  acticm  of  tbe  British  authorities.  It 
was  his  fine  soldierly  qualities,  developed  by  active  service  on 
tbe  frontier,  that  made  him  one  of  Oeneral  Lee's  trusted  lien- 

But  to  return  to  my  subject  Captain  Pickett  did  not  wait 
for  the  quartermaster's  transport  steamer  to  come  out  of  Pu- 
get  sound  and  move  his  company  and  stores,  for  be  had  heard 
that  a  British  man-of-war  was  maneuvering  about  the  island, 
and,  appreciating  tbe  importance  of  gaining  a  foothold  on  San 
Juan  unmolested,  he  shipped  bis  men  with  their  stores  and 
supplies  on  a  fishing  schooner,  and  quietly  sailed  away  from 
Fort  Bellingham  in  the  night,  passing  Lummi  island  into 
Bosario  strait,  and  through  the  narrow  channel  between 



B)ake1;  and  Orcas  ielandB  into  Upright  obannel,  pasaiDg  be- 
tween  Shaw  and  Lopez,  and  before  dayligbt  cast  anchor  off  a 
smooth  gravelly  beach  in  Griffin  bay. 

A  thick  fog  shrouded  his  morements  from  observation  and 
he  effected  his  landing  withont  being  seen  and  withoot  oppo- 
sition, if  any  was  intended.  When  the  morning  son  scattered 
the  fog,  the  astonished  British  seamen,  from  the  decks  of  their 
men-of-war  lying  outside  San  Jnan,  saw  a  few  white  tents 
pitched  on  the  ridge  that  extends  along  the  middle  of  the 
'  island,  and  over  them,  on  a  flagstatF  brought  for  the  purpose, 
the  United  States  flag  dancing  in  the  sommer  breeze 

If  yon  were  to  visit  the  island  now,  yon  wonld  find,  after 
landing  in  Griffin  bay,  the  ground  sloping  gently  upward  from 
the  water's  edge  nntil  after  abont  a  mile  it  cnlminatea  in  qnite 
a  ridge,  highest  where  Pickett  pitched  his  camp. .  Standing  on 
the  rains  of  the  little  earthwork  at  that  point,  you  command 
a  fine  and  extensive  view  of  both  sides  of  the  island,  and  of 
the  bays,  channels,  and  inlets,  that  separate  the  islands  of  the 
archipelago.  The  gronnd  sloping  away  in  all  directions,  you 
wonld  see  to  the  north  and  west  the  waters  of  the  Canal  de 
Haro  and  Vancoaver'B  island  beyond;  southward,  the  broad 
sweep  of  the  waters  of  the  strait  of  Juan  de  Fnca,  extending  as 
far  as  the  eye  can  reach  toward  the  Pacific  ocean;  and  east- 
ward and  northeastward,  the  waters  of  Boaario  straits  and 
the  chief  islands  of  the  group. 

The  defensive  position  selected  by  Pickett  was  an  excel- 
lent one  and  gave  him  complete  command,  in  every  direction, 
of  the  approaches  to  his  fort  The  fort  he  afterwards  bailt 
had  a  profile  only  on  the  south,  east  and  west  sides,  the  top 
of  the  parapet  on  the  north  merging  there  into  the  general 
level  of  the  ridge. 

The  action  of  that  prompt  old  soldier.  General  Harney,  in 
sending  Captain  Pickett  to  take  military  possession  of  San 
Jnan  did  not  meet  the  fall  approval  of  the  President  Under 
date  of  September  3d,  1859,  the  Acting  Secretary  of  War  -in- 
formed him:  "The  President  [Mr.  Bachanan]  was  not  pre- 
pared to  learn  that  you  had  ordered  military  possession  to 
be  taken  of  the  Island  of  San  Joan  or  Bellevne.    Although  he 



beliereB  the  Straits  of  Haro  to  be  the  trae  boandazy  betrreen 
Great  Britain  and  the  United  Staten  under  the  treaty  ot  Jnne 
15, 1846,  and  that,  conseqaently,  this  island  belongs  to  as,  7«t 
he  had  not  anticipated  that  so  decided  a  step  would  have  been 
resorted  to  withoat  instmctione."  Bat  he  fnrtfaw  adds,  "If 
yon  had  good  reason  to  believe  that  the  colonial  antboritiee 
of  Great  Britain  were  about  to  disturb  the  staUu,  by  takii% 
pcMseesion  of  the  island  and  aBSiuning  jorisdictton  over  it,  yon 
were  in  the  right  to  anticipate  their  action." 

Immediately  upon  its  being  known  that  Captain  Pickett 
Iiad  landed  on  the  island,  the  Hndson  Bay  Agent  sent  him  the 
following  note: 

Bellevne  Farm,  San  3nan  Islntid,  Jnlr  30,  1869. 
Sir,— I  have  tbe  bonor  to  Inform  70a  that  the  Island  of  San  Juan, 
on  which  TOOT  camp  le  pitched,  Is  the  propertr  and  In  the  occupation 
of  tbeBndwMi's  Buj  Oompan?.  and  to  request  that  yon,  and  the  whole 
of  the  party  who  have  landed  from  the  American  veeeels,  wUl  Imme- 
diate]; cease  to  occup7  the  aame.    Should  foa  be  nnwilUog  to  comfily 
with  my  request,  I  feel  bound  to  apply  to  the  cIt!!  authorlttea.    AwatN 
iag  your  reply,  I  have  the  bontv  to  be,  air,  yonr  obedient  serrant, 
Acent,  Hndeon  Bay  Gompaay. 

Whateyer  doubts  may  have  existed  in  Washington  in  re- 
gard to  the  attitude  of  the  BritiBfa  government  in  regard  to  tlie 
ownership  of  these  islands,  this  letter  and  the  proclamation 
of  Governor  Douglas,  issued  at  once  on  the  2nd  day  of  August, 
make  it  plain  that  nothing  less  than  the  sovereignty  of  the 
archipelago  was  claimed.  The  proclamation  reads:  The  sov- 
ereignty of  the  leland  of  San  Juan,  and  of  the  whole  of  the 
Haro  Archipelago  has  always  mLdeviatingly  claimed  to  be  in 
the  crown  of  Great  Britain.  Therefore,  I,  James  Douglas,  do 
hereby  formally  and  solemnly  protest  against  the  occupation 
of  the  said  island,  or  any  part  of  the  said  archipelago,  by  any 
person  whatsoever,  for  or  on  behalf  of  any  other  power,  here- 
by protesting  and  declaring  that  the  sovereignty  thereof  by 
right  now  is,  and  always  hath  been,  in  her  Majesty  Qoeen 
Victoria,  and  her  predecesBora,  kings  of  Great  Britain." 

Captain  Picketf  s  answer  to  the  letter  of  Agent  Griffin  is 
as  follows: 



MUitaiT  Camp,  San  Juan,  W.  T.,  Jul;  30, 18W. 
Sir,— Yoor  commonlcation  of  this  instant  la  received.   I  bave  to 
■tate  In  repl7  ttiat  I  do  not  acknowledge  the  rlg^t  of  tbe  Hudson's  Bay 
OompaD7  to  dictate  mf  -course  of  action.    I  am  here  by  rlrtne  of  on 
order  from  my  KOTernment,  and  shall  remain  until  recalled  by  tbe  same 
antborlty.   I  am,  air,  very  tespectfnllj,  yonr  obedleot  servant, 
Captain,  &th  U.  S.  Infantry,  Gommasdlng. 

Governor  PoaglaB  lost  do  time  in  asaetnbling  a  fleet  to  en- 
force hia  proclamation,  and  on  the  next  day  after  it  was  isHoed, 
Angnat  3rd,  at  10  p.  m.,  Captain  Pickett  wrote  a  dispatch  to 
General  Harney,  stating:  that  three  Britiah  war  ships,  the 
Tribone,  the  Plamper,  and  the  Satellite,  were  lying  off  his 
camp  in  a  menacing  attitade.  He  then  gave  the  snbatance  of 
the  interviews  held  daring  the  day  with  the  captains  of  these 
ships.  Captain  Hornby,  the  senior  officer  of  the  fleet,  arged 
Captain  Pickett  to  retire,  or  to  consent  to  a  joint  military  occu- 
pation nntil  replies  coold  be  received  from  their  reapeotive 
governments,  and  proposed  that  daring  such  time  the  com- 
manding officers  of  the  forces  should  control  and  adjudicate 
between  their  respective  countrymen. 

Captain  Pickett  requested  Capt  Hornby,  commanding  the 
Britiab  fleet,  to  submit  his  proposition  in  writing,  and  said  he 
would  transmit  it  to  General  Harney,  his  superior  and  com- 
manding officer.  This  was  done  and  in  a  few  days  the  Adju- 
tant General  of  the  Department  replied:  "The  General  ap- 
proves the  coarse  yoa  have  pursued  and  farther  directs  that 
no  joint  occupation  or  any  civil  jurisdiction  will  be  permitted 
on  San  Juan  island  by  the  British  authorities  under  any  cir- 
cnmstancea.  Lient.  ColMiel  Casey  is  ordered  to  reinforce  you 
without  delay." 

Ueat  Colonel  Silas  Casey  proceeded  with  his  command 
on  the  steamer  Julia  from  Fort  Steilacoom  and  Port  Town- 
send;  he  had  with  him  companies  A,  C,  and  I,  4th  Infantry, 
and  H,  &tb  Infantry,  together  203  men,  aud  companies  A,  B, 
D,  and  M,  3rd  Artillery,  181  men.  Most  fortunately  he  too 
made  the  trip  in  a  thick  fog  and  landed  on  the  island  under 
the  guns  of  the  Britiah  fleet  and  without  the  knowledge  of  the 



BritiBh  oiBcera.  The  fortunate  circnmstance  of  the  fog  doobt- 
leea  prcTcnted  at  this  time  the  commencemeDt  of  hoBtilitiea, 
for  the  British  frigate  Tribune  was  crniBing  off  the  landing, 
and  her  orders  were  to  prevent  Captain  Pickett  from  being  re- 
inforced. The  morning  light  and  the  lifting  tog  showed  the 
American  force  materially  strengthened,  lie  chagrin  and 
mortiflcation  of  the  British  captaine  were  intense  at  being 
again  oatmanenTered  by  the  American  soldiers. 

Lieat  Colonel  Caeey  was  now  in  command.  Inolnding 
Picketf  e  Company  hie  force  numbered  461  ofBcers  and  men. 
The  British  fleet,  under  Captain  Hornby,  comprised  three 
ships,  with  62  guns,  and  975  men,  part  being  Boyal  Engineers 
and  Marines. 

Captain  Hornby's  orders  from  Governor  Douglas  bad  been 
to  force  a  landing  upon  the  island  at  once.  Fortunat^y  he 
was  a  wiser  man  than  Governor  Douglas,  and  did  not  attempt 
It;  undoubtedly  it  would  have  been  successful,  for  he  had  a 
greatly  superior  force  of  sailors  and  nkarines,  with  the  guoB 
of  his  ships  to  cover  the  movement,  but  be  knew  that  the  at- 
tempt meant  war,  and  wisely  refrained. 

Very  soon  after  the  landing  of  Colonel  Ca«ey,  Bear  Admiral 
Baynes,  commander  in  chief  of  her  Majesty's  navy  on  the  Pa- 
cific coast,  came  in  from  a  cruise  to  Esqolmanlt,  the  naval  sta- 
tion near  Victoria.  His  flagship,  the  Ganges,  of  84  guns  and 
840  men,  with  her  consort,  the  Pylades,  of  21  guns  and  326 
men,  increased  the  British  fleet  to  five  men-of-war  with  2,140 
men,  seamen  and  marines,  a  very  formidable  force  for  those 

ColoneJ  Casey,  bearing  of  the  arrival  of  Admiral  Baynes, 
concluded  to  waive  ceremony  and  pay  that  olScer  a  visit  He 
wrote  to  Captain  Alfred  Pleaeanton,  at  Fort  Vancouver,  un- 
der date  of  August  12th,  1859,  that  he  invited  Captain  Hornby 
of  the  British  fleet  to  an  interview,  and,  on  his  arrival  in  the 
camp,  intimated  a  wish  to  have  an  interview  with  the  admiral, 
saying  that  he  would  go  down  to  Esqnimault  the  next  day  for 
that  purpose.  The  captain  and  the  British  commissioner  with 
him  seemed  pleased  with  the  suggestion. 



The  next  day,  accompanied  by  Captain  Pickett  and  by  Mr, 
Campbell,  the  TTnited  States  commissioner,  Colonel  Oas^ 
went  down  to  Esqoimaalt  on  the  steamer  Shnbrick.  He  an- 
chored near  the  Oangea,  the  British  flagship,  and  sent  to 
the  admiral  a  note  by  an  ofBcer  asking  for  an  interview  on  the 
ShabriclL  The  admiral  declined  the  interrlew  on  the  Ameri- 
can vessel,  but  stated  he  would  receive  the  gentlemen  on  his 
own  ship.  Colonel  Casey  says:  "I  was  of  opinion  that  I  Ikad 
carried  etiquette  far  enough  in  going  twenty-flve  miles  to  see 
a  gentleman  who  was  disinclined  to  come  one  faondred  yards  to 
see  me.  The  proposition  wliich  I  intended  to  have  made  the 
admiral  waB  this:  ....  that  in  case  he,  the  admiral, 
woDld  pass  his  word  on  honor  that  no  threats  dioald  be  made, 
or  molestation  given,  by  the  force  nnder  his  command,  for  the 
purpose  of  preventing  Captain  Pickett  from  carrying  out  the 
orders  and  iuBtractions  with  which  he  is  intrusted,  I  would 
recommend  to  the  commanding  general  the  withdrawal  of  the 
reinforcement  which  bad  landed  on  the  island  under  my  com- 
mand, and  that  affairs  should  so  remain  until  the  sovereign 
authorities  should  announce  their  intentions."  He  closed  his 
dispatch  by  saying:  "I  have  so  far  had  no  farther  intercourse 
with  any  of  the  otBcers  of  the  fleet The  Brit- 
ish have  a  sufflcieot  naval  force  here  to  effectually  blockade 
this  island  when  they  choose.  I  don't  know  what  the  inten- 
tions of  the  British  naval  authorities  with  respect  to  this 
island  are.  I  shall  resist  any  attack  they  may  make  upon  my 

Oolonel  Casey's  attempt  to  avoid  a  hostile  collision  between 
the  forces  of  two  friendly  nations  was  well  meant,  but  to  visit 
a  foreign  port  in  an  armed  vMsel  and  seek  an  interview  with 
a  flag  offlcer  nnder  the  clrcamstances  was  an  extraordinary 
step  to  take,  and  it  was  promptly  disapproved  by  his  military 
superiors.    It  was  a  case  where  zeal  oatran  discretion. 

Although  Admiral  Baynes  would  not  meet  Colonel  Casey 
in  the  informal  manner  suggested  by  that  officer,  he  did  a  wise 
thing  in  immediately  countermanding  Governor  Douglas's 
warlike  and  menacing  orders  to  toree  a  lauding.  This  jodi> 
cious  action  immediately  relieved  the  strain  and  both  parties 



tacitly  agreed  to  await  fnrtlier  iiwtructioDB  from  their  govern- 

By  this  time  the  news  of  what  bad  occarred  bad  reached 
Washington,  and  the  President,  seeing  that  some  decisive 
steps  most  be  taken  to  prevent  collision  between  the  fwcea 
thus  brought  face  to  face  on  a  question  of  national  rights,  con- 
eeired  the  idea  of  sending  the  Commander  in  Chief  of  the 
Army  to  the  scene  of  difBcalty  with  foil  powers  to  act  as  the 
emergency  might  require. 

Under  date  of  September  18th,  1859,  the  Secretary  of  War 
wrote  to  General  Winfield  Scott: 

"Sir, — The  President  has  been  much  gratified  at  the  alacrity 
witii  which  yon  have  responded  to  his  wish  that  yoo  would 
proceed  to  Washiitgton  Territory  to  assume  the  immediate 
command,  if  necessary,  of  the  United  States  forces  on  the  Pa- 
cific coast."  The  letter  then  goes  on  to  recite  the  situation, 
and  continues:  "It  is  impossible,  at  this  distance  from  He 
scene,  and  in  ignorance  of  what  may  have  already  transpired 
on  the  spot,  to  give  ytm  positive  instmctionB  as  to  your  course 
of  action.  Much,  very  much,  must  be  left  to  your  discretion, 
and  the  President  is  happy  to  believe  that  discretion  could  not 
be  entmsted  to  more  competent  hands." 

After  expressing  his  desire  to  preserve  the  peace  and  for 
adjcdication  of  the  difBcnIties  by  the  two  governments,  he 
says:  '  "It  would  be  desirable  to  provide,  daring  the  intrar- 
veniug  period,  for  a  joint  occupation  of  the  island,  under 
such  guards  as  will  secure  its  tranquillity  without  interfer- 
ing with  our  rights.  The  President  perc^ves  no  objection 
to  fbe  plan  proposed  by  Captain  Hornby,  of  Her  Majesty's 
ship  Tribnne,  to  Captain  Pickett;  it  being  understood  that 
Captain  Picketfs  conupany  shall  remain  on  the  Island  to 
resist,  if  need  be,  the  incnnrifms  <rf  ihe  norHiem  Indians  on 
our  frontier  settlements,  and  to  afford  protection  to  American 
citiEenB  resident  thereon.  In  any  arrangement  which  may  be 
made  for  joint  occuiwtion,  American  citisens  must  be  placed 
on  a  footing  equally  favorable  with  that  of  British  snbjecta" 
The  letter  closes  with  the  oi»ifldent  hope  that,  if  a  collision 
Bhonid  occur  before  the  general's  arrival,  he  will  not  softer  the 
national  honor  to  be  tarnished. 



General  Scott  sailed  from  New  York  for  the  lethmuB  of 
Panama  a  few  days  after  receiving  hia  inatmctionB.  The  pas- 
sage to  Panama,  and  np  the  Pactflc  coast  to  San  Frascisco,  oc- 
cDpied  nearly  a  month,  and  a  few  days  more  were  reqaired  for 
the  jonmey  to  Paget  soand.  So  it  was  October  20th  when  he 
appeared  apoa  the  scene.  In  the  meantime  the  status  quo  had 
been  maintained  by  the  Ant^can  and  Britlsti  troops.  The 
English  ships  emised  off  the  island,  or  lay  with  their  guns, 
bearing  «i  the  United  States  camp,  where  the  troops  were 
kept  bnsy  bnilding  breastworks  and  redoabts,  and  monnting 
gans  takoi  from  the  Massachnsetts,  an  armed  transport  of  the 
Qoartermaster  Department. 

Immediately  npon  his  arriral,  General  Scott  pnt  himself 
in  communication  wltii  OorenuH*  Dooglas  and  Admiral 
Baynee;  and  after  several,  conferences  these  experienced  offi- 
cers entered  into  an  agreement,  afterwards  approved  by  both 
gOTemments,  by  which  a  joint  occupation  of  the  islands  of 
the  archipelago  shoald  be  maintained  by  the  military  forces 
of  both  goTernmentB  until  the  qaestions  in  dispute  shonld  be 
Anally  settled.  The  agreement  provided:  1st,  that  each  power 
should  nkaintain  on  the  island  of  San  Joan  a  force  of  not  more 
tlian  one  hnndred  men;  2nd,  that  neither  power  shonld  exer- 
cise ezclnsive  jnrisdlctkni;  3rd,  that  all  the  affairs  of  the 
island,  civil  and  military,  should  be  Jointly  administered  by 
the  two  commaocHng  otBcers;  4th,  that  fall  protection  and 
equal  rights  of  person  and  property  were  guaranteed  to  all 
the  people,  both  British  and  American. 

This  agreement  went  into  force  at  once.  Captain  Pickett 
and  his  company  formed  the  United  States  garrison,  which 
was  located  at  the  south  end  of  San  Jaan  island,  and  a  de- 
tachment of  the  Boyal  Marines  under  Captain  Banalgette, 
landing  from  the  British  ships  March  20th,  1860,  took  post  at 
the  north  end  of  the  island.  Colonel  Casey,  with  his  troops, 
had  withdrawn;  and  the  British  fleet  no  longer  threatoied  the 
camp  with  its  gans,  but  returned  to  Esqoimanlt  harbor. 

In  the  eastern  United  States,  already  the  mntterings  of  the 
great  storm  of  the  rebelHcm  were  heard,  and  day  by  day  events 
marched  toward  the  outbreak  in  April,  1861.    Pickett  re- 



mained  at  his  post  in  San  Jaao  until  be  was  swept  away  by 
the  tidal  wave  of  sentiment  that  took  him  with  other  Soathern 
twrn  officers  into  rebellion.  Colonel  Silas  Casey  remained  true 
to  the  flag,  and  rose  to  high  rank  in  our  army. 

During  the  war  of  the  rebellion  the  San  Jnan  matter,  like 
many  others,  was  poshed  into  the  backgronnd  by  the  supreme 
question  of  the  national  existence,  and  the  matter  of  settle- 
ment was  not  taken  up  by  this  govemment  until  1871.  From 
1861  nntil  1865,  the  garrison  was  from  the  9th  Infantry  and 
the  2nd  Artillery.  Immediately  after  the  war,  it  was  from 
the  28rd  and  2lBt  Infantry;  and  the  last  named  regiment,  of 
which  I  was  at  one  time  major,  furnished  the  garrison  at  the 
time  of  the  final  settlement  of  the  matter  in  dispute. 

My  este^ned  friend.  Captain  Ebstein,  of  the  21st  Infantry, 
who  was  at  one  period  of  the  joint  occupation  stationed  at 
San  Juan  island,  says  in  reference  to  the  practical  working 
of  the  agreement  entered  Into  by  Admiral  Baynes  and  General 
Scott:  "The  dntles  of  the  two  commanding  officers  were  mani- 
fold and  delicate;  they  were  not  only  military  commanders, 
bat  also  judges,  notaries,  cuetoms  offlciaU,  land  commission- 
ers, registrators,  and  even  coroners.  There  was  no  other  ao- 
tbori^  on  the  islands  of  the  archipelago,  than  that  of  these 
officers.  The  population  exclusive  of  the  garrison  was  abont 
600,  nearly  equally  divided  in  national  adherence.  All  British 
subjects  were  required  to  register  their  land  claims  at  the  Brit- 
ish camp,  and  in  like  manner  American  settlers  made  their 
registry  at  our  camp.  Breaches  of  the  peace  and  misdemean- 
ors were  tried  before  the  commander  of  the  power  whose  pro- 
tection the  offender  claimed.  If  the  offense  involved  citizens 
of  both  nations,  the  two  commanders  sat  in  joint  court  The 
punishments  were  imprisonment  in  the  guard  house,  flne,  or, 
in  aggravated  cases,  banishment  from  the  island.  The  inhab- 
itants paid  no  tax  of  any  kind  on  articles  brought  from  the 
British  poesessions.  They  had  the  choice  of  taking  their  prod- 
uct to  either  the  British  or  American  market,  without  paying 
duty,  on  the  certificate  of  the  commanding  officer  that  the 
articles  were  the  product  of  the  island.  Schools  were  main- 
tained by  private  subscription." 



To  the  credit  of  the  various  commandiDg  officers  on  both 
Bides,  it  ma;  be  stated  that  the;  performed  their  difficult  and 
complicated  duties  with  the  greatest  care  and  impartialitj, 
and  without  the  slightest  d^i;ree  of  friction,  during  the  thir- 
teen rears  that  this  an<Hualoua  condition  of  affairs  was  main- 
tained. The  persouai  and  social  relations  of  the  officers  and 
their  families  were  the  most  amicable,  and  the  enlisted  men 
fraternized  as  though  the;  belonged  to  one  and  the  same 

We  come  now  to  the  final  settlement  of  the  difference  con- 
cerning which  Sir  Robert  Peel  once  said  in  the  Hoose  of  Com- 
mons that  it  mast,  unless  speedil;  terminated,  involve  both 
countries  in  the  necessit;  to  an  appeal  to  arms.  And  there 
seemed  to  be  no  escape  from  this  when  we  remember  the  atti- 
tude of  the  two  governments. as  expressed  b;  Lord  John  Bus- 
sell  and  Mr.  Cass.  Lord  Bassell,  under  date  of  August  24th, 
1859,  thus  wrote  to  Lord  Lyons,  the  envoy  to  the  United  States: 
"Her  Majesty's  government  must,  therefore,  under  any  circum- 
stances, maintain  the  right  of  the  British  Crown  to  the  island 
of  San  Juan.  The  interests  at  stake  in  connection  with  the  re- 
tention of  that  island  are  too  important  to  admit  of  compro- 
mise, and  yonr  lordship  will  consequently  bear  in  mind  that 
whatever  arrangement  as  to  the  boundary  line  is  Anally  ar- 
rived at,  no  settlement  of  the  qaesti<Hi  will  be  accepted  by  Her 
Majesty's  government  which  does  not  provide  for  the  island 
of  San  Juan  being  reserved  to  the  British  Crown." 

Mr.  Cass,  our  Secretary  of  State,  replied,  October  20th, 
1859 :  "It  this  declaration  is  to  be  insisted  upon,  it  must  termi- 
nate the  negotiation  at  its  very  threshold;  because  this  gov- 
ernment can  permit  itself  to  enter  into  no  discussion  with  that 
of  Qreat  Britain,  or  any  other  power,  except  upon  terms  of 
perfect  eqnali^."  Later,  on  February  4th,  1860,  he  says: 
"Since,  therefore,  Lord  John  Bussell  repeato  with  great  frank- 
ness bis  original  declaration,  that  'no  settlement  of  the  ques- 
tion will  be  accepted  by  Her  Majesty's  government  wMcb  does 
not  provide  for  the  island  of  San  Juan  being  reserved  to  the 
British  Crown,'  I  am  directed  by  the  President  to  state  with 
eqnal  frankness  that  the  United  States  will,  under  all  circnm- 
stances,  maintain  their  right  to  the  island  in  controversy  until 



the  qaestioD  of  title  to  it  shall  be  determined  b;  some  amicable 
arraogement  between  the  partiee." 

When  a  deadlock  like  this  occnrs,  settlement  is  only  possi- 
ble by  one  of  four  methods,  surrender  of  rights,  compromise, 
arbitration,  or  war.  Snrrender  of  rights  was  not  to  be  thought 
of  by  two  prond  nations;  compromise  had  proved  to  be  impos- 
sible; war  shoald  be  the  last  resort  of  kindred  and  Cbristiatt 
nations.  Arbitratitm  seemed  an  honorable  and  pleasant  way 
ont  of  the  difflcolty.  On  the  10th  of  December,  1860,  Lord 
Lyons  proposed  settlement  by  arbitration,  proposing  the  king 
of  the  Netherlands,  or  the  king  of  Sweden  and  Norway,  or 
the  president  of  the  Federal  Conncil  of  Switzerland,  as  the 

None  of  these  parties  named  proved  agreeable  to  the  tTnited 
States,  the  War  of  the  Rebellion  came  on,  and  the  matter 
slept  until  more  settled  times  came  to  the  country.  The  treaty 
of  Washington  settled  the  difficalties  between  the  United 
States  and  Great  Britain  growing  ont  of  the  Alabama  claims 
and  other  international  questions  liaving  their  birth  during  the 
War  of  the  Rebellion.  It  was  signed  May  8th,  1871,  and  its 
3ith  and  S5th  articles  provide  that  "whereas  the  government 
of  Her  Britannic  Majesty  claims  that  such  boundary  line  [refer- 
ring to  the  one  we  are  now  discussing,  and  describing  it  accord- 
ing to  the  treaty  of  1846]  should,  under  the  terms  of  the  treaty 
above  recited,  be  mn  through  the  Roeario  Straits,  and  the 
Oovemment  of  the  United  States  claims  that  it  should  be  run 
through  the  Canal  de  Haro,  it  is  agreed  that  the  respective 
claims  of  the  government  of  Her  Britannic  Majesty  and  of  the 
government  of  the  United  States  shall  be  submitted  to  the 
arbitration  and  award  of  His  Majesty  the  Empovr  of  Ger- 
many, who,  having  regard  to  the  above-mentioned  article  of 
the  said  treaty,  shall  decide  thereupon  finally  and  without 
appeal  which  of  these  claims  is  most  in  accordance  with  the 
true  interpretation  of  the  treaty  of  June  15,  1846.  The  award 
of  His  Majesty'  the  Emperor  of  Germany  shall  be  considered 
as  absolutely  final  and  conclusive,  and  full  effect  shall  be  given 
to  snch  award  without  any  objection,  evasion,  or  delay  what- 
soever." Other  articles  provide  for  each  party's  submitting  its 
case  either  in  writing  or  by  counsel. 



The  ofBcera  of  my  regiment  Btationed  on  San  Jnan  island 
were  informed  by  the  British  officers  that  they  consid^^  the 
case  won,  because,  the  Crown  Prince  of  Germany  having  mar^ 
ried  a  danghter  of  Qaeen  Victoria,  his  influence  and  that  of 
bis  wife  would  be  brought  to  bear  on  the  Emperor  William  to 
induce  him  in  his  final  jadgm«tt  to  favor  the  Engliah  ciaiuL 
Time  went  on,  the  respectiTe  memorials  of  the  goTernments 
were  presented,  and  the  ailments  made  before  the  three  emi- 
nent  judges  of  the  Imperial  Court  of  Berlin.  The  English  offi- 
cers on  the  island  and  the  ofBcials  in  Victoria  grew  more  and 
more  confident  of  an  award  in  their  favor;  but  one  day  it  waa 
whispered  abroad  that  a  commission  of  German  lawyers  were 
in  Victoria  asking  questions  of  Engliah  shipmasters.  From 
the  extensive  coal  fields  of  British  Columbia,  as  Nanaimo,  on 
Vancouver  island,  in  particalar,  fleet  after  fleet  of  English 
ships  sail  with  coal  for  Pacific  ports  in  the  United  States,  and 
for  Japan,  China,  Australia,  and  the  islands  of  the  South  Sea. 
Now  these  deeply  laden  vessels  most  be  taken  to  sea  through 
the  best  channel,  the  main  ship  channel;  and  it  can  be  confi- 
dently stated  that  no  English  shipmaster  would  have  held  bis 
warrant  an  hour  after  it  was  known  to  the  underwriters  that 
he  had  failed  to  take  the  ship  through  the  main  channel,  the 
Canal  de  Haro,  with  its  six  and  a  half  miles  of  unbroken  width 
and  180  fathoms  of  depth,  but  had  chosen  the  Rosario  strait, 
with  the  entrance  to  its  waters  obstructed  by  sevwal  rocky 
islets  making  its  safe  navigation  by  sailing  vessels  dependent 
on  favorable  winds  and  tides. 

In  answer  to  the  plain  question  of  the  commissioners, 
"What  do  you  consider  the  main  channel  through  the  San  Juan 
archipelago?"  the  reply  of  the  English  ship  captains  was  in 
every  case,  I  believe,  "The  Canal  de  Haro;"  for,  however  much 
national  feelings  may  bave  inclined  them  to  favtH-  the  British 
claim  to  Rosario  strait,  professional  pride  would  compel  the 
troe  answer. 

After  these  facts  became  known,  the  British  ofBcers  were 
less  sanguine  of  a  favorable  award,  and  I  think  they  were  not 
surprised  when  it  was  made  in  our  favor. 

On  the  21st  of  October,  1872,  the  Emperor  William  made 
his  award.     Be  said:     "After  hearing  the  report  made  to  us  by 



the  ezpertB  and  jurists  summoned  by  us  upon  the  contents  of 
the  intercbanged  memorials  and  their  appendices,  we  have 
decreed  the  following  award:  Most  in  accordance  with  the 
true  interpretations  of  the  treatj  concluded  on  the  15fii  of 
June,  1846,  between  the  goremments  of  Her  Britannic  Majesty 
and  of  the  United  States  of  America,  is  the  claim  of  the  gov- 
ernment of  the  United  States  that  the  boundary  line  between 
the  territories  of  Her  Britannic  Majesty  and  the  United  States 
should  be  drawn  tiirough  the  Haro  Channel." 

The  news  of  the  award  must  have  been  sent  from  Berlin 
by  the  British  minister  at  once  and  cotmnunicated  instantly 
to  the  authorities  in  Victoria,  and  through  them  to  the  ofScer 
in  command  of  the  British  camp  on  the  island.  The  first  in- 
formation our  ofScers  received  was  a  message  from  Capt. 
Bazalgette,  who  for  thirteen  years  had  held  the  British  com- 
mand. The  messenger  arrived  in  the  American  camp  soon 
after  reveille.  Capt  Bazalgette  said  he  would  evacuate  the 
island  at  once,  in  accordance  with  the  terms  of  the  award, 
notice  of  which  he  bad  just  received. 

Captain  (then  lieutenant)  EbBtein  of  my  regiment,  to  whom 
I  have  before  referred,  started  at  once  with  a  small  detach- 
ment of  mounted  men  and  rode  rapidly  over  the  sixteen  miles 
that  separated  the  two  camps.  His  instructions  from  his  com- 
manding officer  were  to  receipt  for  any  buildings  or  other 
property  the  British  officers  might  desire  to  turn  over.  He 
also  had  with  him  a  flag  to  run  up  on  the  flagstaff  after  the 
British  should  have  taken  their  departure.  He  says:  "As  I 
rode  Into  the  camp,  a  number  of  sailors  and  marines  were  en- 
gaged, under  the  direction  of  an  officer,  in  cutting  down  the 
handsome  flagstaff  which  stood  in  the  middle  of  the  parade 
gronnd.  In  a  few  moments  it  fell  with  a  loud  crash.  The 
ostensible  reason  given  for  this  act  was  that  the  staff  was 
needed  for  a  spar  on  board  one  of  the  naval  vessels  then  lying 
at  the  dock  waiting  to  transport  the  troops.  These  were  the 
Scout  and  the  Petrel,  British  men-of-war.  A  young  subaltern, 
however,  with  perhaps  more  candor  than  judgment,  put  it 
more  correctly  when  he  said,  'You  know  we  could  never  have 
any  other  flag  float  from  a  staff  that  had  borne  the  cross  of 
St.  George.' " 



Capt.  EbsteiD  rao  up  biB  Sag  on  a  telegraph  pole,  and  tbe 
few  Americans  present  greeted  it  with  hearty  cheere  as  the 
English  soldiers  sailed  away  to  Victoria. 

In  the  meanwhile  the  information  bad  been  recrfved  by  onr 
goTemment  and  communicated  to  Oen.  E.  8.  Canby,  command- 
ing  tbe  Department  of  the  Colombia,  with  headqaarters  in 
Portland,  Oregon,  who  immediately  took  steps  to  send  a  de- 
tacbment  of  troops  to  San  Juan  to  salute  the  British  fla^,  and 
pay  the  other  nsnal  honors  on  the  occasion  of  an  evacnation; 
but  the  hasty  departure  of  tbe  English  garrison  had  prevented 
this  act  of  courtesy  on  our  part.  Circnmatances  indicated 
that  this  pleasant  duty  would  hare  devolved  upon  me.  I  have 
always  regretted  that  I  could  not  have  been  personally  asso- 
ciated with  the  final  act  in  a  series  of  events  which  had  com- 
menced with  the  first  boundary  treaty  ninety  years  before. 

Many  anxious  hours  bad  been  spent  by  statesmen,  English 
and  American,  over  the  questions  raised  by  national  and  local 
jealousies  and  rivalries,  and  the  conflicting  claims  of  colonies, 
companies  of  tradera,  states  and  provinces,  combined  with  an 
uncertain  geographical  knowledge  of  the  country,  and  an  ig- 
norance of  its  commercial,  agricultural  and  political  value,  aa 
the  boundary  line  slowly  marched  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pa- 
cific ocean,  through  almost  a  century  of  time.  The  disputes 
had  more  than  once  threatened  to  end  in  war.  It  was  the 
good  sense  of  military  commanders  that  opened  the  way  for  a 
peaceful  settlement.  It  was  the  word  of  a  soldier  king  that 
put  the  vexed  question  forever  at  rest. 

More  and  more,  thoughtful  men  expect  that,  in  the  settle- 
ment of  international  difficulties,  nations  should  arbitrate 
whenever  possible,  fight  only  when  they  must 

But  I  would  have  my  friends  understand  that  war  is  not 
an  unmixed  evil.  Indeed  it  has  more  than  once  proved  a 
blessing  to  a  people. 

'T\'ar  is  honorable  in  those 
Who  do  their  native  right  maintain. 
Whose  swords  an  iron  harrier  rear 
Between  the  lawless  spoiler  and  the  weak." 

In  our  own  country  we  are  a  better,  a  stronger  people  from 
tbe  necessity  laid  upon  as  to  open  the  continent,  step  by  step. 


54  Minnesota  historical  societt  collections, 

to  the  progress  of  civilizatlOD,  from  New  England  to  the 
Golden  Gate,  by  the  strong  hand  of  the  military  power.  Much 
of  crnelty,  much  of  injafltice,  has  marked  oar  dealings  with 
the  native  race,  the  Indian  tribes  whom  we  fonad  in  pMseuion 
of  the  land;  and  for  these  acts  I  have  no  word  of  excrise,  for, 
next  to  Blavery,  the  treatment  in  many  cascB  of  the  native  raoe 
is  the  darkest  page  in  American  hiBtory.  Bat  blessings  have 
followed  in  the  train  of  war.  The  War  of  the  Berolntion  made 
as  a  nation  of  freemen.  The  War  of  1812  gave  as  confidence 
in  onrBelves  and  gained  ns  the  respect  of  England  and  of  Ea- 
rope.  The  war  with  Mexico,  although  in  my  Judgment  not  jastl' 
flable,  opened  new  fields  to  American  enterprise.  The' War 
of  the  Bebellion  made  as  what  we  were  not  before,  one  people 
from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific,  from  the  Lakes  to  the  Galf 
of  M^co. 

I  woald  not  fire  the  hearts  of  the  yoang  with  military  ardor 
for  the  last  of  glory.  I  wonld  not  have  them  forget  the  dark 
Bide  of  war.  But  I  woald  have  them  eo  filled  with  love  of 
coQntry  that  they  woald  willingly  follow  in  the  footsteps  of 
their  fathers,  and  if  the  emei^ncy  shall  demand  the  sacriflce 
of  life,  freely  give  it,  that  the  blessings  which  follow  in  the 
train  of  a  righteous  war,  freedom  for  persons,  property,  and 
conscience,  and  the  reign  of  law,  may  be  the  heritage  of  those 
who  follow  them. 




In  deecribing  the  Ojibwa;  people  as  seen  during  more  jhau 
twenty  years  of  miesionary  work  among  them,  I  cannot  claim 
infallibility  for  the  impreflsions  I  am  about  to  record,  bnt  only 
that  they  appeared  so  to  me.  It  shoald  be  stated  also  that  the 
names  Ojibway  and  Chippewa  are  exactly  Byntmymons,  the 
latter  being  a  more  anglicized  form  of  the  same  word, 


In  1873  the  local  distribntion  of  the  Ojlbways  in  Minnesota 
was  not  mach  different  from  what  it  is  now.  There  were  800 
or  900  about  Mille  Lacs;  abont  1,200  at  Bed  lake;  abont  1,000 
aronnd  Leech  lake;  and  abont  600  aroond  Cass  lake  and  lake 
Winnibigofibish.  At  Onll  lake  abont  200  lingered  who  had  not 
been  remored  to  the  White  Earth  reservation,  and  th^e  were 
600  or  800  scattered  through  the  immense  pine  forests 
stretching  from  Winnibigoshish,  by  Bandy  lake,  to  the  North- 
em  Paciflc  railroad;  while  at  White  Earth  abont  1,700  were  lo- 
cated, very  largely  French  mixed-bloods.  Those  who  lived  at 
White  Earth  had  been  removed  there  within  five  years,  mostly 
from  Ctnll  lake  and  Crow  Wing;  bnt  the  mixed  bloods  had 
come  from  many  different  parts  of  northern  Minnesota  and 

The  Pembina  band  were  then  living  at  Pembina  river,  and 
the  Boifl  Forts  or  Lake  Vermilion  Indians  where  they  still 

The  principal  changes  since  that  time  have  been  that  per- 
haps 300  of  the  Mille  Lacs  band  and  the  remaining  200  G-all 

*R«a.4  at  the  monthly  meeting  of   the   Executive   Council,   Novetnb«r  8, 

DiBiimd, Google 


Lake  Indians  have  removed  to  Wliite  Earth;  and  about  300 
Leech  Lake  Indians  and  100  Cass  Lakers,  and  perbai»  1,000 
more  French  Canadian  mixed-bloods,  who  had  been  living 
scattered  among  the  whites  in  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin,  have 
oome  to  the  same  place.  Also  a  band  of  Pembinas,  largely 
mixed-bloods,  removed  to  the  White  Earth  res«>vation  about 
twenty-font  years  ago. 

On  the  White  Earth  reservation  more  than  three-fourths 
of  the  present  3,000  population  are  mlxed-bloods,  mostly 
Frencb.  At  Bed  Lake  Agency  and  at  Leech  lake  there  are 
also  many.  About  Leech  laie  there  are  perhai»  a  hundred 
descendants  of  the  negro  Bnngo;  nearly  all  these  are  very 
muBcnIar,  and,  some  have  been  of  unoanally  fine  physique. 
The  mixed-bloods  generally  are  inferior  to  the  full-bloods 
morally,  and  I  think  also  mentally  and  physically.  However, 
as  they  speak  French  and  generally  English  also,  they  have 
advantage  over  the  full-blood  Ojibwiays.  It  should  be  said, 
moreover,  that  there  are  some  mixed-bloods  who  are  as  good 
and  as  nice  in  every  way  as  any  white  people. 

The  beautiful  and  fertile  land  of  the  White  Earth  reserva- 
tion, and  the  rations  given  by  the  United  States  government 
for  from  one  to  five  years  to  each  member  of  the  families  who 
would  remove  there,  since  the  treaty  of  1889,  have  be«i  the 
inducements  which  have  influenced  those  who  came,  both 
mixed-bloods  and  Indians.  In  addition,  they  had  houses  built 
for  them,  land  broken,  stoves,  wagons,  sleighs,  cows  and  oxen 
given  them,  and  many  other  inducements,  enabling  them  to 
make  a  good  start  in  life. 


Bat  the  Indian  is  very  strongly  attached  to  Ws  old  home, 
where  he  waa  bom;  and,  unlike  tiie  white  man,  he  gen«?ally 
lives  and  dies  in  his  native  village.  He  knows  every  tree  and 
pond  for  miles  around,  and  be  knows  he  can  make  a  living 
there  for  he  has  always  done  so;  but  he  has  a  dread  of  going 
elsewhere,  even  to  far  more  fertile  land,  to  try  to  make  hie 
living,  for  that  is  launching  out  on,  to  him,  an  unknovm  sea. 
Hence  the  offer  of  four  or  five  years'  rations  of,  to  him,  most 
laxnrious  food,  and  of  oxen,  plows,  wagons,  and  everything 



to  b^n  farming  with,  hafl  not  tempted  the  Ojibwayg  Id  large 
nambers  from  their  native  laJtes,  as  Mille  Lacs,  Leech  lake, 
CasB  lake,  and  others.  The  Ojlbway  reasons  to  himself:  1. 
have  here  as  inexhanstible  supply  of  fish ;  I  have  venison,  wild 
rice,  and  other  things;  bot  if  I  go  on'  the  prairie,  where  there 
are  none  of  these  things,  and  where  I  must  plow  and  work  for 
a  living,  perhaps  I  ^all  have  a  hard  time.  Bo  perhaps  I  had 
better  not  leave  the  flsh,  nor  let  these  often  tempt  me." 

The  Ojibway  always,  in  bis  natural  state,  lives  on  lakes  or 
rivers.  He  is  a  flsb  Indian,  and  draws  his  subsistence  largely 
from  the  water.  Formerly  he  lived  on  other  flesh.  Old  In- 
dians still  living  tell  of  the  countless  herds  of  boifalo,  moose, 
elk,  reindeer,  and  other  animals,  which  filled  the  country  in 
their  young  days,  and  which  they  say  were  in  such  vast  nam- 
bers that  they  did  no*  think  then  it  would  ever  be  possible  by 
any  ^ort  of  man  to  diminish  them.  They  tell  of  the  moose 
yarding  together  in  tbose  days,  in  vrinters  when  the  snow  was 
very  deep,  in  droves  of  hundreds,  and  of  their  going  and  killing 
them  all  with  their  axes.  But  with  the  nearer  approach  of 
the  white  man  the  game  was  driven  off,  and  the  Ojibway  be- 
came of  necesBity  a  flsh  Indian.  The  fish  conid  not  be  driven 
oft  like  the  bnffalo.  In  their  natural  state,  fish  is  aboat  three- 
fourths  of  their  living.  It  may  be  proper  here  to  say  that 
when  the  earliest  Indians  were  removed  to  White  Earth,  in 
16<e,  there  were  still  a  few  buffalo  to  be  seen  on  the  prairies 
there,  and  for  some  years  afterward. 


In  appearance  the  Ojibway  is  a  fine  looking  man,  especially 
when  living  in  the  freedom  of  his  native  forests,  and  before 
he  has  been  enfeebled  by  the  vices  he  has  learned  from  white 
men.  Many  are  quite  tall,  the  tallest  I  have  seen  being  from 
6  feet  and  4  inches  to  6  feet  8  inches.  They  have  well  devel- 
opeH  chests  and  sinewy  frames^  Their  limbs  are  not  nearly 
BO  heavy  as  those  of  many  white  men.  They  very  generally 
have  small  and  beautifully  shaped  bands;  indeed,  from  their 
bands  one  would  take  them  to  be  of  nature's  aristocracy.  The 
men  have  an  ereot,  graceful,  and  easy  carriage,  and  a  beantif ol 
springy  step  and  motion  in  their  native  wilds,  where  they 
walk  and  look  like  the  lords  of  creation.    In  their  beauty  of 



motion  in  walking  the  men  far  sarpaBs  onr  race;  tiiere  ie  no 
swinging  of  the  arms,  or  oiber  awkward  motitma,  bat  grace 
and  a  beautifnl  poise  and  carriage  d  the  body. 

As  is  well  known,  the;  have  abundant  thick  and  strong 
hair.  I  can  only  recall  about  two  Indians  of  the  whole  Ojib- 
way  nation  who  are  bald,  and  they  only  partially  so.  Nor  does 
their  hair  early  torn  gray,  as  often  with  ne;  this  change  comes 
only  in  extreme  old  age.  When  apinDacUng  the  age  of  ^hty 
years,  an  Ojibway's  hair  tarns  gray,  bat  not  mncfa  before. 
Often  at  the  age  of  Berenty-flve,  their  hair  is  as  black  and 
thick  as  at  twenty.  Their  hair  never  toms  qaite  white,  so 
far  as  I  can  remember. 

The  Ojibway  man  has  asoally  beautiful,  white,  evea  teeth, 
till  far  past  middle  age,  although  he  never  cleans  them  and 
takes  no  care  of  them  whatever.  The  T<rice  is  nsaally  high 
pitched  and  resonant;  the  ^e  black  and  liquid.  The  man 
does  not  usnally  get  stoat  as  he  grows  old;  he  rather,  if  any- 
thing, dries  np.  It  is  rare  to  see  a  fat  Indian  man,  except 
when  it  has  been  caused  by  excessive  drinking.  Their  lean- 
ness, as  they  grow  older,  has  been  accounted  for,  in  my  mind, 
by  their  incessant  spitting  from  their  great  ose  of  tobacco,  and 
by  the  spare  diet  to  which  they  are  nsaally  condemned. 

The  women  are  in  many  respecto  a  great  contrast  to  the 
men.  Instead  of  the  beautifnl  springing  step,  they  trudge 
along  with  a  heavy,  plodding  tread,  devoid  of  all  beanty  of 
motion.  They  have  not  a  particle  of  the  grace  in  motion  of 
their  white  sifters.  Their  heavy  gait  I  have  accounted  for  in 
my  own  mind  by  the  heavy  packs  and  burdens  which  for  gener- 
ations they  tiave  had  to  bear.  Many  of  the  women  have 
packed,  all  their  lives,  burdens  of  two  hundred  pounds.  With 
this  continued  for  centuries,  it  is  no  wonder  that  their  step 
is  heavy.  The  Ojibway  man^in  his  native  state,  rarely  carries 
any  pack,  if  there  be  a  woman  along  to  do  it,  nnlras  there  is 
so  much  that  both  must  pack.  He  puts  it  upcm  tlie  woman, 
while  he  strides  along  in  front,  magniflcently,  with  his  gun. 
Both  parties  seem  to  look  on  that  as  natural  and  prc^r. 
Sometimes  when  a  man  marries  a  young  woman,  he  puts  his 
own  pack  on  her  in  addition  to  her  own  and  soon  breaks  her 
down.    In  this,  as  in  nearly  all  here  written,  I  am  speaking 



of  the  heathen  lodian;  for  when  the?  become  ChriBtians,  they 
view  thinga  in  a  very  diflerent  light,  and  their  practice  ap- 
ppoachee  onr  own.  The  woman  always  walks  behind,  neva* 
by  the  side  of  a  man.  Often  on  the  top  of  her  enormous  pack, 
if  the  articles  be  bnlky,  as  when  moving  her  wigwam,  «tc.,  from 
place  to  place,  one  can  see  the  baby  perched  high  above  her 
head,  securely  tied  to  beep  it  frc«a  falling  from  its  perilooe 
height  On  a  jonmey  the  woman  packs  the  birch  bark  for  the 
wigwam,  the  msh  mat«  to  Bleep  on,  the  cooking  ntensils,  the 
food.  Sometimes  I  have  seen  the  woman  invert  the  heavy 
caooe,  weighing  80  or  100  pounds,  over  her  head,  and  carry  it 
for  miles  and  miles  over  all  portages,  while  her  fansband  took 
the  light  traps.  The  women  generally  have  very  large  waists. 
In  middle  life  they  are  nsnally  qoite  stout  and  fleshy,  and  I 
think  would  arerage  mure  in  weight  than  the  men.  They 
seem  to  be  just  as  expert  with  the  axe,  and  as  strong  for  all 
kinds  of  labor. 

At  Bed  Lake  the  women  especially,  but  also  the  men,  are, 
for  some  reason  unknown  to  me,  exceedingly  tall.  The  Bed 
Lake  Indians  are  by  far  taller  than  the  aOter  Ojibways,  which 
is  the  more  remarkable  as  th^  have  not  lived  at  Bed  Lake 
very  long.  Many  of  the  men  there  are  6  feet  4  inches  in  stat- 
ure. I  have  known  some  bo  tall  as  6  feet  8  inches.  I  know 
considerable  numbers  of  old  women  there  who  must  be  about 
5  feet  10  inches  to  6  feet  tall.  It  would  be  interesting  to  know 
what  there  is  in  the  soli,  water,  or  food,  which  has  bo  soon 
produced  SQCh  a  tall  race. 


It  is  strange  that,  considering  the  hardships  of  their  lives, 
insanity  is  extremely  rare  among  the  Ojibways.  Only  once, 
along  in  tlie  TO's  or  80*8,  daring  an  Indian  payment  at  Mille 
Lacs,  wh»)  many  hundreds  were  collected,  did  I  see  an  Indian 
who  seemed  to  be  insane,  and  he  not  very  violent.  A  crowd  of 
yoong  men  and  boys  were  around  him,  teasing  and  mocking 
him,  and  he  was  striking  at  them.  That  is  the  only  crazy  man 
I  happened  to  see,  or  to  knctw  of.  A  yoang  mixed-blood  man 
from  White  Earth,  nearly  white,  was  in  an  insane  asylum  for 
some  time;  also  a  woman  from  Leech  lake  was  under  sach  care 
for  a  time.    Also  a  middle-aged  man  wandered  off  into  the 



woodB  in  a  semi-demented  state  and  died.  I  have  known  only 
two  feeble-minded  or  idiotic,  one  a  young  man  of  twenty-three 
years,  whose  idiocy  was  cauBed  before  his  birtb  by  bis  mother's 
seeing  for  the  first  time  a  railroad  train,  which  rushed  oat  at 
her  from  a  cat  on  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad.  She  fell  in  a 
dead  faint  and  lay  thus  for  some  time,  and  her  son  is  an  idiot. 
It  is  also  a  matter  of  thankfalnees  that,  considering  the  hard- 
ships, suicide  is  extremely  rare.  There  baa  been  only  one 
case  in  twenty-flve  years,  this  being  an  elderly  woman  who 
hong  herself  at  the  gate  in  front  of  her  door,  after  a  family 


It  may  be  interesting  to  compare  a  first  look  at  the  Ojib- 
ways  with  what  one  sees  to-day.  It  was  in  1873  on  the  Wliite 
Earth  reservation.  Many  of  the  Indians  then  dressed  in  the 
old  Indian  garb  of  blankets,  cotton  leggings,  and  moccasins. 
Kow  there  are  only  a  few  old  men  who  are  so  dressed,  though 
all  who  can  get  tbem  atill  prefer  the  moccaains.  The  White 
Earth  Indians  were  then  rapidly  rising  in  all  respects,  nnder 
the  infinence  of  the  mission  and  the  admirable  managemrat 
of  the  agent,  E.  P.  Smith.  There  was  a  little  cfanrch  well  at- 
tended; but  old  Indian  habits,  as  might  be  expected,  were  still 
BtroDg.  Sometimes  they  would  go  from  the  church,  at  -Qie 
conclusion  of  serrice,  to  the  Indian  dance  which  was  in  full 
blast  not  far  from  the  church  door  with  all  its  drumming, 
whooping,  and  jumi^ng  up  and  down.  There  waa  thus  1^ 
mixture  of  Christianity  and  heathenism  which  might  be  ex- 

That  winter  there  came  from  Red  late,  where  they  were 
all  at  that  time  wild  men,  about  sixty  old  grand  medicine  men, 
in  January,  when  the  thermometer  was  about  forty  degrees 
below  iBero,  bringing  the  big  medicine  drum  with  tbem,  and 
sleeping  out  about  four  times  on  the  way,  80  or  90  miles.  Their 
coming  created  a  greater  sensation  than  would  that  of  Pa^ 
derewski  to  your  city.  The  big  drum  was  brought  oat,  with 
all  the  old  fellows  from  Red  lake  singing  around  it  so  loud 
that  their  voices  could  be  beard,  it  would  seem,  for  miles;  and 
Boon  most  of  the  inhabitants  of  White  Earth,  discarding  the 
garments  of  civilization  which  they  had  lately  put  on,  and 



painting  themselTes  once  more  as  wild  men,  were  whooping 
and  dancing  aroand  the  drum,  telling  storiee  about  the  Sioox 
the;  had  scalped,  and  having  a  veritable  oig;  which  made 
night  and  day  hideoos  for  weeks.  Thus  the  infant  Christianily 
and  the  infant  ciTilization  of  the  place  seemed  for  the  time  to 
be  swallowed  up  find  loef.  The  old  Bed  Lake  medicine  men 
ate  BO  many  dogs  in  continnal  medicine  feasts,  that,  as  Paul 
Beanlieu  wittily  said,  they  went  home  barking. 

In  the  fall  of  1873  I  first  saw  the  Leech  Lake  Indiana.  It 
was  aunual  payment  time,  and  there  were  perhaps  a  thousiind 
or  more  assembled  in  the  public  square.  They  were  all,  bo 
far  as  I  can  remember,  wild  blanket  Indians,  with  faces 
painted,  long  scalp  locks,  and  feathers;  th^  were  wrapped 
in  blankets  of  green,  white,  bine,  red,  and  all  colors.  It  was 
a  cold  Octobo*  day,  the  wind  blowing  and  some  anow  dying, 
so  that  we  felt  the  cold  in  thick  overcoats;  and  I  was  surprised 
to  see  great  nnmbers  of  little  children,  running  around  every- 
where,  entirely  naked,  or  some  of  them  with  only  a  thin  cotton 
shirt  flying  loose  in  the  hitter  wind,  affording  really  no  protec- 
tion at  all.  Now,  most  of  the  Leech  Lake  Indians  wear  citi- 
zens' clothes. 

In  1876  I  first  saw  the  Bed  Lake  Indians.  On  all  the  large 
stones  about  their  village  there  were  offerings  of  tobacco,  laid 
there  for  the  gods  who  were  supposed  by  them  to  inhabit  those 
rocks.  They  lived  in  bark  wigwams,  and  there  were  many 
fields  of  corn.  They  were  all  wild  blanket  Indians,  fantastic- 
ally painted.  We  had  gone  to  speak  to  them  about  founding 
a  mission,  and  had  taken  along  with  us  some  Christian  Indians 
from  White  Earth  who  were  considered  the  very  best  speakers, 
to  speak  to  them  on  the  subject  Besides  we  bad  a  present 
of  some  sacks  of  flour,  some  pork,  and  tea,  to  dispose  them  to 
a  favorable  hearing.  They  filed  in,  dressed  in  gay  colored 
blankets,  and  with  all  their  Indian  paint  and  bravery.  They 
eagerly  seized  the  present  of  provisions  and  carried  it  off;  but, 
as  often  happens,  they  cared  nothing  for  the  eloquence  we  had 
brought  them,  and  indeed  would  not  listen  to  it  When  they 
had  got  the  provisions,  they  wanted  nothing  more.  Now, 
among  the  1,200  Bed  Lake  Indians  there  are  few  blankets  to 
be  seen,  and  most  of  the  scalp-locks  have  been  cut  off. 



An  intelligent  American  employee,  who  lived  among  them 
about  ten  years  before  that  time  and  had  married  one  of  their 
women,  told  me  that  vhen  be  was  there  they  had  a  custom, 
both  men  and  women,  of  plastering  their  naked  backs  in  the 
summer  time  all  over  with  white  claj,  which  dried  and  bard- 
etned  and  adhered  to  the  skin,  and  that  upon  the  clay  the; 
painted  all  kinds  of  carious  figures,  so  that  it  looked  very 
strange  to  see  them  stalking  aronnd  all  summer  witii  those 
painted  figures  on  their  backs.  That  was  about  thirty  years 
ago;  DOw.they  are  mostly  dressed  like  other  people,  the  change 
In  that,  as  in  other  respects,  having  been  rapid. 

HOME)   UFE   IN   THB    WlOWAlf. 

In  1873  nearly  all  the  Ojibways  everywhere,  except  the 
few  newly  removed  to  White  Earth,  lived  wintw  and  summer 
in  birch  bark  wigwams.  Now,  neuly  all  of  them  have  built 
for  themselves,  or  have  had  built  for  them  by  the  United 
States  government,  one-roomed  log  cabins,  in  which  they  win- 
ter; but,  in  front  of  these,  nearly  every  family  puts  op  in 
summer  an  old  style  birch  bark  wigwam,  in  which  they  pass 
the  summer,  returning  to  the  log  house  when  the  cold  weather  ' 
sets  in.  They  properly  prefer  the  wigwam  for  its  greater  cool- 
ness, better  circnlation  of  air  and  greater  cleanness.  There 
are  still,  however,  some  families  who  from  preference  winter 
in  birch  bark  wigwams.  That  wonld  be  to  as  a  life  of  extreme 
and  intolerable  suffering  from  cold.  The  strips  of  birch  bark 
are  laid  loosely  on,  and  there  are  great  chinks  everywhere 
through  which  one  can  put  his  hand,  and  there  is  the  open  top. 
The  family  sit  round  the  fire  in  a  circle,  on  rush  mats  made  by 
the  women  from  rushes  which  grow  in  the  lakes;  and  as  long 
aa  the  fire  is  kept  up  one's  face  is  warm  while  facing  the  Are, 
but,  if  it  be  cold  weather,  one's  back,  opposite  the  open  chinks, 
is  never  comfortably  warm.  It  would  seem  that  it  is  only 
because  they  have  become  so  used  to  suffering  extreme  cold 
in  these  wigwams,  through  so  many  centnries,  that  they  ever 
survive  a  winter.  They  do  not  complain  of  it,  however,  and 
do  not  seem  to  mind  it.  It  is  certain  that  from  long  habit  and 
from  heredity  they  can  endure  a  degree  of  cold  that  to  us 
would  be  intolerable. 

On  approaching  a  wigwam,  the  custom  is  to  raise  the  blan- 
ket which  hangs  over  the  doorway  and  go  in  without  asking 



permission  or  knocking  as  with  na.  EverTone  seems  privi- 
leged to  go  in  by  da;  or  nigbt  If  the  inmates  look  on  the 
newcomer  with  favor  the;  sa;  when  he  raises  the  blanket  door 
and  looks  in,  '^ind  nbimlD,  nind  nbimin  (We  are  at  home,  we 
are  at  hom^,"  which  is  a  welcome,  though  nothing  is  thought 
on  either  side  if  silence  is  preserved.  The  best  seat  is  con- 
sidered to  be  that  directly  opposite  the  opening  or  door,  be- 
hind the  Are.  That  is  the  seat  and  bed  of  the  master  of  the 
honse  and  his  wife,  while  along  the  sides  is  the  place  of  the 
children  and  others.  If  the  master  of  the  honse  wi^es  to 
treat  the  newcomer  with  great  respect,  he  moves  from  his  seat 
on  the  mat,  saying  to  the  visitor  in  cheerf  al  words  to  sit  there, 
smoothing  ont  the  mat  for  him,  and  broshing  away  any  dost, 
so  that  it  will  be  clean.  Aronnd  the  fire  in  the  center,  and  at 
a  distance  of  perhaps  two  feet  from  it,  are  placed  sticks  as 
large  as  one's  arm,  in  a  sqaare  form,  guarding  the  fire;  and 
it  is  a  matter  of  etiqaette  not  to  pat  one's  feet  nearer  the  flre 
than  that  boondary.  One  or  more  pots  or  kettles  are  hnng 
over  the  flre  on  the  crotch  of  a  sapling.  In  the  sides  of  the 
wigwam  are  stowed  all  the  clothing,  food,  cooking  ntensils, 
and  other  property  of  the  family,  altbongh  the  space  available 
is  extremely  small. 


The  owner  of  the  lodge  inquires  of  his  visitor  the  news; 
and  the  visitor  is  expected  to  tell  anything  Interesting  that 
has  happened,  especially  if,  as  often  is  true,  the  wigwam  is  the 
only  one  for  five  or  ten  miles  distance.  He  tells,  not  the  gen- 
eral news  of  the  world,  of  which  neither  the  host  nor  the  vis- 
itor knows  anything,  or  indeed  would  be  particalarly  inter- 
ested to  hear,  but  anything  that  has  happened  among  the  In- 
dians, as  deaths,  sickness,  or  what  the  other  families  of  In- 
dians known  to  both  are  doing.  If  he  comes  from  a  strange 
village,  as  from  Leech  lake  or  Bed  lake,  he  tells  the  news  of 
that  village,  the  coancilings  that  are  going  on,  the  subjects 
that  are  being  discossed.  Oenerally  each  Indian  man,  and 
oft€ai  the  wife,  knows  individnally  the  men  and  women  of  all 
the  other  Indian  villages  witiiin  fifty  or  a  hundred  miles  and 
is  intereetea  in  all.  The  coming  of  a  visitor  is  therefore  like  a 
newspaper,  by  which  the  host  posts  himself  to  date,  on  all 



that  is  going  on.  The  Indiana  have  a  great  deal  of  cnrioait?, 
and  like  to  know  all  that  is  hai^ning.  Although  a  man  may 
be  out  with  his  family,  bunting,  perhaps  ten  miles  from  an; 
other  human  beings,  he  keeps  a  mental  roister  of  ttie  po8iti<Hi 
of  every  other  man  and  family,  and  seems  to  be  able  to  tell 
just  where  each  one  is,  no  matter  how  far  in  the  heart  of  the 
wilderness  he  is  buried,  or  what  he  is  doing.  The  probable 
nearness  or  remoteness  of  the  annual  payment  Is  always  a  sub- 
ject of  interest,  and  generally  that  is  the  first  thing  inquireci 

Are  the  Indians  silent  and  reserved  in  their  domestic  life? 
Just  the  reverse.  There  is  continual  laughter,  and  jests  flying 
all  round  the  wigwam  from  the  time  th^  wake  in  the  morning 
till  the  last  one  goes  to  sleep.  As  long  as  they  have  anything  to 
eat,  and  if  no  one  is  very  sick,  they  are  as  cheerful  and  happy 
as  can  be.  The  laughter  and  droll  remarks  pass  from  one  to 
the  other,  a  continual  fusillade  alI.round.  The  old  woman  says 
something  funny;  the  children  take  it  up,  and  laugh  at  it;  all 
the  others  repeat  it,  each  with  some  embelliehment,  ot  adding 
some  ludicrous  feature,  and  thus  there  is  continual  merriment 
all  day  and  all  evening  long.  They  have  the  advantage  of  us 
in  having  the  cheerful  fire  shedding  its  light  and  warmth  upon 
them  instead  of  stoves;  and  there  being  no  chairs  or  seats, 
they  have  an  easier  position  than  we,  reclining  any  way  they 


In  the  center  of  the  wigwam,  the  little  children  go  stagger- 
ing round,  just  beginning  to  walk,  whose  mishaps  and  falls 
furnish  endless  merriment  to  the  other  children  and  to  all. 
They  are  either  entirely  naked  or  wear  only  a  cotton  shirt 
reaching. to  the  hips,  once  white  but  now  black,  as  it  seems 
never  to  be  washed.  This  little  one,  with  its  bright  black 
eyes  and  dirty  face,  stumbles  in  a  droll  way  over  the  legs  of 
those  reclining;  then  its  father  takes  it  and  plays  with  it,  and 
fondles  it  a  long  time.  Then  it  gets  hungry  and  goes  and  takes 
a  pull  at  it»  mother's  breast,  and  this  it  keeps  np  till  three 
or  four  years  of  age;  even  after  a  younger  baby  has  come,  the 
mother  nurses  both  together.  Bometimes  I  have  seen  the  old 
grandmother,  long  past  child-bearing,  take  and  nurse  the  large 
child  at  her  breast;  and  from  the  persistence  and  diligence 



with  which  it  worked,  its  wanta  seemed  to  be  relieved.  The 
father  is  jast  as  fond  of  his  little  children,  and  fondles  them 
just  as  mnch,  as  an;  white  father. 


Take  it  altogether,  life  is  vet;  happy  in  the  wigwam,  so 
long  as  honger  does  not  invade  it  With  food  in  abnndance, 
life  seems  to  be  a  continual  feast,  a  merrr-making  alt  da;  long. 
Kone  of  them  seem  to  have  anTthing  to  do,  excepting  the  wife 
or  the  old  woman.  To  prepare  a  meal,  if  it  be  in  winter,  one 
of  these  goes  ontside  and  from  somewhere  brings  in  the  frozen 
fish.  She  deftl;  cleans  off  the  scales,  removes  the  entrails, 
and  cats  the  flsh  into  pieces,  which  she  pnts  in  the  pot  over 
the  fire,  antil  enough  for  a  meal  has  been  put  in.  Then,  if 
thev  have  tea,  that  great  luxury,  as  it  is  considered  by  the 
Indians,  ib  provided.  If  in  addition  they  have  flour,  hot  bread 
is  baked,  and  a  perfect  meal,  according  to  their  ideas,  is  pro- 
duced. The  woman  stirs  up  the  dough  in  a  tin  dish,  without 
kneading;  tlten  sets  it  ap  slantwise  in  the  disb  on  the  ashes, 
facing  the  fire;  and  turns  occasionally  the  other  side  of  the 
cake  toward  the  fire,  testing  it  by  tapping  it  with  her  knnckle, 
until  she  sees  it  is  done.  Then  she. sets  a  plate  of  boiled  fish 
before  each  one  where  he  sits,  pours  out  tea  in  a  tin  cup,  and, 
if  they  have  it,  breaks  off  a  liberal  piece  of  warm  bread.  As 
there  are  no  tables  or  chairs,  the  housekeeping  is  easy  and 
simple,  and  the  woman  of  the  house  can  do  most  of  it  without 
rising  from  where  she  is  sitting.  Sometimes  there  is  only  flsh, 
without  anything  else,  and  a  few  years  ago  that  was  consid- 
ered good  enongb;  but  the  nearness  of  the  whites  has  pro- 
duced the  desire  for  a  more  varied  diet,  and  tea  and  bread  are 
now  thought  very  necessary.  Sometimes  I  have  seen  wildcat 
alone,  or  some  other  kind  of  flesh  alone,  if  the  head  of  the 
honse  had  been  hnnting;  and  everybody  seemed  to  be  satis- 
fled  with  it.  There  is  never  any  dessert,  and  they  care  nothing 
for  pies  or  cakes. 

The  visitor  has  his  portion  set  before  him,  as  well  as  the 
others;  and  formerly  it  was  etiquette  for  him  to  say  when  the 
dish  was  set  before  him,  "Oongh  ondjita,"  which  might  roagfaly 
be  translated,  "O,  this  goes  to  the  right  spot)^'  The  Ojibways 
are  very  hospitable  indeed.    The  visitor  Is  always  fed,  is  given 



a  share  wltbont  qaestion,  bo  long  as  tbey  have  anTthing  them- 
flelyea.  No  matter  if  he  be  utterly  lazy,  never  doing  a  stroke 
of  work,  or  if  be  be  a  gambler  and  bae  jost  come  from  tbe  game, 
be  seems  to  have  jnet  as  good  a  right  to  the  food  as  any  one 
who  is  there.  A  whils  visitor  is  expected  to  pay  something, 
perhaps  ten  c^ts  for  the  meal,  or  twenty-five  cents,  bat  tbe 
Indian  gets  it  ae  a  matter  of  course.  Sometinkee,  vh.ta  they 
wish  to  pay  great  respect  to  the  vifiitor,  a  white  cotton  cloth 
aboQt  two  feet  square  is  spread  on  the  mat  wh««  he  sits,  and 
upon  it  bis  food  is  placed.    That  1b  the  tablecloth. 

There  are  no  regular  bourH  for  eating;  juBt  whenever  they 
get  bnngry  and  the  good  woman  prepares  something.  In  addi- 
tion to  tbe  articlefl  enumerated  above,  there  are  often  deiicions 
wild  rice,  docks,  venison,  potatoes,  or  boiled  cora  There  may 
be  partridges,  or  moose  or  bear  meat,  or  many  delicacies. 
Often  one  will  get  as  delicious  and  well-cooked  a  meal  as  eonid 
be  foond  anywhere.  They  are  all  very  good  cooks.  Especially 
do  they  excel  in  cooking  fish,  which  they  nearly  always  boil, 
but  sometimes  fry.  I  have  heard  excellent  white  women 
cooks,  who  bad  lived  long  among  them,  say  that  an  Indian 
woman  could  give  a  turn  to  flsh  that  no  white  woman  could 
equal.  After  the  meal  is  over  tbe  dishefl  are  gathered  np  by 
the  women,  and  set  eiantwise  on  their  edges  around  the  oot- 
fiide  of  the  wigwam  until  the  next  meal. 

the:  drum  and  chants. 

Very  often  the  man  of  the  house,  tired  of  doing  nothing 
all  day,  takes  his  drum  out  of  the  bag  that  holds  it,  and  set- 
tling himself  begins  to  cbant  or  sing,  accompanying  himself 
bj  beating  his  drum.  He  has  many  different  kinds  of  chants, 
war  songs,  gambling  songs,  Bionx  songs,  songs  of  Bionx  and 
Ojibways  approaching  each  other  with  offers  of  peace,  and 
many  others.  The  chant  is  very  intricate  and  beautiful.  He 
sings  it  with  his  face  directed  upward,  a  sort  of  ecstatic  look 
upon  it,  his  month  open,  the  drum  between  his  knees,  and  a 
sort  of  shaking  motion  of  his  body.  His  voice  is  loud,  high- 
pitched,  and  resonant;  on  a  still  evening  it  would  seem  that 
be  could  be  heard  for  a  mile.  The  little  children  look  at  him 
with  a  sort  of  eftranced  wonder,  while  the  women  ply  their 
work  of  preparing  food,  tanning  a  skin,  or  making  beadworb 



or  moccasins.  He,  inspired  b;  bis  own  efforts,  naturally  feels 
bimBelf  to  be  a  sort  of  superior  being.  At  last  he  has  sung 
all  the  chants  be  knows,  chants  which  are  extremely  difBcnlt 
for  the  most  practiced  masician  to  reduce  to  note  or  to  repro- 
doce;  and  after  a  few  final  flonrisbes,  be  pnts  the  dnim  away, 
and  comparatiTe  silence  once  more  r^gns. 


Gradually  the  yonng  children  begin  to  grow  sleepy.  The 
mother  asks  the  little  one,  "Do  yon  wish  to  lie  down?"  and 
holds  up  the  little  blanket  or  qailt  which  is  to  be  its  sole  cov- 
ering. She  wraps  it  round  the  child,  and  lays  it  down  on  the 
mat  beside  her,  tucking  the  blanket  in  under  its  feet  and  over 
itB  head,  and  soon  the  tittle  one  is  in  the  land  of  dreams. 
Gradually  the  old«-  children,  and  then  each  member  of  the 
family,  takes  his  or  ber  blanket  and  a  pillow,  or  makes  a  pil- 
low out  of  something,  and  lies  down  in  the  place  be  or  she 
has  prCTlously  occupied,  all  coTering  up  the  head,  bat  gen- 
erally leaving  the  feet  exposed  against  the  bright  fire.  In* 
dians  always  sleep,  winter  and  summer,  with  their  heads 
tightly  covered  up.  It  seems  that  they  could  not  go  to  sleep 
othCTwise.  White  people  living  with  them  soon  learn  the 
same  habit,  which  for  six  months  of  the  year  is  a  necessity. 
The  breathing  of  the  same  air  over  and  over  again  within  the 
blanket  does  not  seem  to  produce  any  bad  results;  and  the 
warm  breath  retained  adds  much  to  the  slender  stock  of  heat 
Each  person  sleeps  alone  except 'that  husband  and  wife  have 
one  blanket.  The  day  clothes  are  never  ronoved,  either  by 
men,  women,  or  children,  though  in  old  times  they  are  said 
to  have  been  removed.  They  are  said  to  have  formerly  slept 
naked,  rolled  in  their  blanket  only;  but  the  example  of  tbe 
French  voyageurs  changed  this.  Even  the  moccasins  smnetimes 
are  not  removed.  In  a  long  sickness  of  weeks  or  months,  it 
is  common  for  the  sick  man  to  continue  to  wear  his  moccasins. 
The  feet  are  at  first  exposed  to  the  fire,  and  there  is  a  row  of 
them  all  round  it;  but  as  it  dies  down  the  sleepers  instinc- 
tively draw  them  up  under  the  blanket  and  tuck  it  in.  Ottea 
every  foot  of  the  wigwam  is  covered  with  the  prostrate  bodies. 

In  about  an  hour  the  Are  of  the  winter  evening  dies  down, 
and  the  air  coming  in  through  the  open  top  and  the  many 



chinks  makes  it  almost  as  cold  in  the  wigwam  aa  oat  of  doom. 
It  may  be  anywhere  from  ten  to  thirty  degree*  below  aero  in- 
side and  yeA  one  blanket,  old  and  worn  at  that,  and.  not  warm, 
is  all  that  each  sleeper  has  to  corer  him.  Bometimes  a  thin 
quilt  ie  spread  in  addition  over  the  lower  limbs,  bnt  (me  blan- 
ket seems  to  be  the  regnlar  standard  allowance,  and  1b  oon- 
fiidered  enough.  The  wonda  is  that  they  survive  a  week  of 
Buch  cold,  but  they  do  not  aeem  to  mind  it.  The  white  traveller 
who  has  been  hoepitably  taken  in  has  his  thick  underclothing 
on,  moccasins  and  arctic  overshoes,  coat  and  fur  overcoat,  for 
cap  polled  over  his  ears,  a  warm  new  blanket  enveloping  all, 
head  and  foot,  bo  that  his  breath  Ib  kept  in  like  all  the  rest  to 
add  the  greater  warmth ;  and  yet  he  lies  there  shiv«ing,  un- 
able to  sleep.  At  last  in  sheer  desp«^tion  he  starts  up,  and 
begins  groping  round  the  door  of  the  wigwam  and  oatside  it, 
trying  to  find  some  wood  to  make  a  fire  to  relieve  his  sufFus 
ingB.  Yet  all  around  him  are  Bleeping  calmly  th<we  who  have 
on  only  a  cotton  shirt,  cotton  leggings,  and  the  one  thin  blan- 
ket; not  a  tithe  of  the  clothing  he  hag.  There  is  no  doubt  that 
such  life,  long  continued,  puts  a  strain  on  the  constitution, 
especially  of  the  young.  Oftentimes  when  the  traveller  is  feel- 
ing round  for  wood,  a  child  will  rise,  throw  aside  its  blanket, 
and  stand  there  in  the  arctic  temperature,  coughing  and  again 
coughing.  Its  mother  will  rouse  for  a  minute,  and  say,  "My 
little  son,  are  yon  cold?"  and  the  answer  will  come,  "Yes,  I  am 
almost  cold."  Such  a  bard  life,  even  though  it  be  not  consid- 
ered by  them  to  be  hard,  along  with  other  things,  accounts  for 
the  high  mortality  among  Indian  children. 

I  have  never  been  refused  admission,  and  the  privilege  of 
passing  the  night,  in  any  wigwam.  When  one  has  been  travel- 
ling all  day  through  the  virgin  forest,  in  a  temperature  far  be- 
low zero,  and  has  not  seen  a  house  nor  a  human  being  and 
knows  not  where  or  how  be  is  to  pass  the  night,  it  is  the  most 
comforting  sight  in  the  whole  world  to  see  the  glowing  colnmn 
of  light  from  the  top  of  the  wigwam  of  some  wandering  family 
out  hunting,  and  to  look  in  and  see  that  happy  group  bathed 
in  the  light  and  warmth  of  the  life-giving  Are.  No  princely 
hotel  in  a  great  city  can  equal  the  blessedness  of  that  wigwam. 
And  no  one,  whether  Ojibway  or  white,  is  ever  rinsed  admia- 



■ion;  on  the  contrary,  they  are  made  heartily  welcome,  as  long 
as  there  Ib  an  inch  of  apace. 


The  Ojibway  women  wear  sarprisingly  little  clothing,  even 
in  the  coldest  weather.  A  white  cotton  chemise,  a  calico  dress, 
and  a  petticoat,  are  all,  even  in  the  coldest  weather;  and,  of 
coarse,  the  blanket  over  all,  for  protection  and  ornament  by 
day,  and  for  a  complete  wardrobe  by  night.  Besides  there  are 
mittens,  not  very  thick,  made  by  themselves,  osaally  out  of 
old  pieces  of  cloth;  and  moccasins,  with  either  socks  or  pieces 
of  cloth  wrapped  roond  the  foot  to  take  the  place  of  a  stock- 
ing. Every  winter  many  women,  along  with  the  men,  start, 
say  in  Janaary,  to  visit  the  Indians  of  another  village  a  hnn- 
dred  miles  off,  either  travelling  on  foot  and  packing  their 
loads,  or  going  vrith  their  ox  teams  and  sleighs;  but  in  any 
case  they  camp  ont  every  night,  about  fonr  or  five  times  each 
way.  They  enjoy  every  minnte  of  it,  and  look  forward  to  it 
with  the  keenest  pleasnre.  White  women,  on  the  contrary, 
going  over  the  road  in  a  stage  or  covered  sleigh,  wrapped  in 
fnrs  and  generally  managing  to  get  inside  some  sort  of  a  house 
at  night,  where  they  sleep  warm,  are  nearly  always  sick  at  the 
end  of  the  route.  To  have  gone  with  only  the  cotton  chemise 
and  calico  dress  and  blanket,  and  to  have  slept  ont  with  only 
that  covering,  would  have  killed  them. 

The  Pembina  band  of  Ojibways  have  a  custom  of  patting 
ont  the  fires,  and  sitting  all  day,  and  lying  all  night,  in  the  cold, 
for  a  few  days  before  setting  oat  on  a  winter  jonrney,  in  order 
apparently  to  toughen  themselves  to  it  None  of  the  other 
Ojibways  do  so.  It  may  be  that  becanse  the  former  are  prairie 
Indians,  and  so  are  exposed  to  the  more  severe  blasts  and 
greater  hardships,  they  have  adopted  this  method. 

When  an  Indian  is  travelling  and  camps  for  the  night,  he 
always  makes  a  fire,  if  possible,  and  if  he  has  a  fire  and  his 
blanket  he  considers  that  he  is  perfectly  comfortable  in  any 
weather.  If  for  any  reason  he  cannot  make  a  fire  he  curls  him- 
self up,  like  a  ball,  inside  his  blanket,  resting  only  on  his  back 
on  the  snow.  I  have  known  them  to  sleep  so  out  of  doors, 
without  a  flre,  when  the  temperature  was  forty  degrees  be- 
low zero,  in  the  coldest  nights  that  I  remember  in  Minnesota, 



and  yet  sorriTe  and  continae  tbe  journey  the  next  moming. 
Aa  a  general  thing,  however,  the  Ojibwa;  considerB  it  pretty 
hard,  and  himBelf  in  bad  case,  if  he  cannot  have  a  fire,  in  a 
cold  night,  sleeping  out  of  doors. 

Althongh  they  are  constantly  travelling  and  exposed  to 
blizsarda  far  from  home  on  the  bant,  I  cannot  recall  any  who 
have  frozen  to  death  in  tbe  last  tw^ity-flve  yeara,  except  one. 
He  was  one  of  oar  Indian  catechiBts  from  Canada,  in  chai^ 
of  the  Casa  La^e  chnrch  and  mission,  George  Johnson.  On 
the  night  of  the  26th  of  Febmary,  1897,  be  was  frozen  to  death 
while  hunting  deer.  The  thermometer  was  perhaps  forty  de- 
grees below  zero,  and  he  was  not  a  well  man,  having  heart  dis- 


From  the  time  when  spring  opens,  there  is  a  constant  sac- 
cession  of  events  in  Indian  life,  covering  every  week  of  the 
year  until  the  winter  sets  in  severely.  These  I  cannot  give  in 
their  exact  order  and  sequence,  and  some  of  them  I  do  not 
know.  Bnt,  roughly  speaking,  there  is  first  tbe  arrival  of  the 
crow,  about  March  20th,  tbe  Indian's  much  looked  for  sign 
that  grim  winter  is  over,  and  that  spring  is  at  hand.  When 
an  Indian  sees  the  crow,  he  knows  that  he  has  survived  the 
starving  time,  winter,  and  that  be  will  live;  for  he  can  always 
find  abundant  food  during  the  spring  and  summer  and  fall 
months.  The  seeing  of  tbe  first  crow  or  bearing  his  call  is 
therefore  an  occasion  of  great  rejoicing,  heralded  everywhere. 
There  is  always  anxious  inquiry  about  that  time,  whether 
anyone  has  seen  or  heard  a  crow.  Then  follows  moving  to  the 
sugar  maple  woods  and  the  making  of  maple  sugar  by  the 
women,  while  the  men  go  trapping  mnskrats,  and  hunting 
generally.  Tbe  women  are  so  fond  of  sugar-making  that  no 
power  and  no  money  could  keep  them  from  it.  The  children 
alt  run  away  from  tbe  schools  about  the  22nd  of  March  and 
go  too.  All  are  overjoyed  to  be  living  once  more  "under  tie 
greenwood  tree."  Often  in  their  baste  and  anxiety  they  move 
oat  six  weeks  too  soon,  if  there  comes  a  spell  of  mild  weather, 
and  wait  there  freezing  and  starving.  The  sap  usually  begins 
to  run  April  5th,  and  the  buds  come  out  May  5th,  when  sagajv 
making  is  over.    Some  families  at  Leech  lake,  which  seems  to 



be  the  great  sngar-making  place,  make  2,000  pounds  each.  At 
Bed  lake  and  White  Earth  they  woald  not  average  ovct  500 
poonds  a  family.  It  is  bard,  exhaastlDg  work,  owing  to  the 
antiqaated  methods  they  age,  of  deep  pots  and  kettles  instead 
<rf  evaporators.  No  explanation  can  induce  them  to  adopt  the 
latter.  Their  moccaeins,  feet,  and  lower  limbs,  are  stuping 
wet  in  the  melting  snows  in  the  woods  for  a  month  or  six 
weeks;  and  they  sleep  so,  being  wet  ali  the  time,  night  and 
day.  They  are  very  ba^  carrying  sap  in  pails,  chopping  wood, 
and  keeping  ap  Area  all  night  long.  The  exposure,  poor  food, 
and  exhansting  work,  are  a  great  strain  on  their  constitutionfl, 
and  a  good  many  die  every  year.  Especially  those  children 
who  have  been  kept  warm  in  schoolhonses  all  winter,  catch 
colds  from  being  continDally  wet  and  sleeping  wet,  and  go 
oir  into  quick  consumption.  1  knew  that  a  man  who  did  ch<»re8 
for  me  had  not  bad  oft  his  wet  moccasins  nor  his  feet  dry  once 
for  six  weeks,  night  or  day,  in  spring.  It  seemed  to  do  him 
no  harm,  but  would  have  killed  any  white  man. 

While  the  women  are  making  maple  sngar,  the  men  go  oft 
fifty  or  a  hundred  miles  to  trap  muskf^ts  and  other  small 
animals.  Very  often  they  bring  back  about  one  hundred  dol- 
lars' worth  of  furs  apiece  in  a  month's  time.  Then  they  are 
with  their  women  for  some  time  at  the  end  of  sugar-nuLking. 
Then  planting  whatever  potatoes  they  plant,  and  later  com, 
comes  on.  Then  after  an  interval,  the  strawberries  are  ripe, 
and  successively  later  the  raspberries  and  blueberries.  Next 
is  the  taking  of  birch  bark  from  the  trees,  for  wigwams  and 
to  make  canoes;  then  hoeing  the  gardens;  then  pulling  rushes 
from  the  lakes  to  make  mats;  then  making  canoes;  then  gath- 
ering wild  rice,  and  afterward  cranberries.  All  these  imply 
Journeys  to  the  places  wh««  these  happen  to  abound,  as 
twenty  or  perhaps  fifty  miles  and  back.  The  exact  succession 
of  these  events  I  cannot  recall,  bat  each  has  its  own  particular 
time;  and,  taken  together,  they  occupy  the  entire  year  until 
cold  weather.  When  one  family  starts  for  the  particular 
berry  that  is  ripe  jaet  then,  or  for  the  particular  thing  that 
should  be  done,  that  starts  oft  all  the  others,  aa  no  one  wishes 
to  be  left  behind.  This  is  heathen  life;  when  they  become 
Christians  and  farmers,  this  continual  wandering  life  becomes 
modified  to  a  certain  extent 



Wben  the  cold  weather  begins  in  November  each  fanul; 
QBuall^  starts  off  ten  or  twent;  miles  for  a  prolonged  bnnt 
The;  stay  oat  tiBnall;  till  Jannai?  1st,  when  tlie  severe  weather 
drives  them  home  to  their  vrinter  quarters.  Very  often  a  fam- 
ily claims  a  certain  spot  as  their  banting  ground,  and  thej 
go  to  it  year  after  year,  and  it  is  understood  that  no  other 
family  is  to  intrude  on  their  territory.  Of  coorse  they  take 
the  children  and  everything  with  them;  and  daring  that  time 
they  always  live  in  bircb  bark  wigwams.  They  kill  deer,  bear, 
moose,  and  many  other  animals,  and  live  high,  and  make  a 
great  deal  of  money  oat  of  f  ars. 

Captain  Wallace,  who  was  killed  at  Wounded  Knee,  made 
an  investigation  of  the  Uille  Lacs  Indians,  and  fonnd  that 
from  all  soarces,  fnrs,  wild  rice,  venison,  etc.,  the  Indians  of 
Mille  Lacs  got  bold  of  a  great  deal  more  money  in  tbe  coarse 
of  a  year  than  tbe  average  white  faroier.  The  same  is  doabt* 
less  trne  of  all  the  Indians.  In  tbe  coarse  of  a  year  they  have 
Qp  to  this  time,  from  various  sonrces,  got  hold  of  a  great  deal 
of  money.  It  is  a  mistake  to  try  to  force  them  to  be  farmers 
only,  as  our  government  has  heretofore  seemed  to  try  to  do. 
Farming  Is  too  hard  work,  and  means  too  long  waiting  for  re- 
turns. They  like  very  much  better  something  which  brings 
qpick  returns,  as  they  had  in  their  old  life. 


Prom  January  Ist  till  tbe  crows  come,  about  March  20th, 
the  Indian  remains  qniet  in  his  log  bouse,  in  bis  village,  to 
which  he  hafi  returned,  with  nothing  particular  to  do.  Then, 
if  at  all,  especially  towards  spring,  is  his  starving  time.  Tbe 
snow  is  deep,  there  is  no  game  to  be  got,  the  produce  of  tbe 
little  fields  bas  been  eaten  up,  also  the  wild  rice  and  the  flesh 
that  was  brought  from  the  hunt.  If  pains  have  not  been  taken 
to  lay  in  an  ample  stock  of  frozen  fisb  in  November,  there  is 
apt  to  be  hunger;  for  it  is  very  bard  or  impossible  to  take 
fish  now  under  the  great  depth  of  snow  and  ice.  The  wife  of 
one  of  our  Indian  clerygmen  told  me  that  oftentimes  in  the 
village  where  tbey  were  missionaries,  Cass  Lake,  no  one  bad 
anything  to  eat  but  themselves,  sometimes  for  three  days  at  a 
time.  This  of  course  was  owing  to  their  own  improvidence,  for 
a  very  few  days'  labor  would  have  raised  all  the  corn  and  po- 



tatoes  the;  could  use;  or  a  few  days'  flsluDg  in  November, 
when  the  winter's  supply  of  fish  is  taken,  would  liave  pat  tbem 
beyond  want  And  it  does  not  apply  to  all  the  Tillages,  bnt 
to  that  one  in  which  the  people  were  the  most  improvident  of 
all.  OftentimeB  when  suffering  severely  from  hanger  in  the 
dead  of  vrinter,  they  bitterly  lament  their  own  improvidence 
in  not  having  planted  some  com  and  potatoes,  and  vow  that 
if  they  live  through  till  spring  they  will  do  difTerently,  and 
provide  food  enough  for  the  next  winter.  But  when  the 
abandaoce  of  sammer  comes,  the  starving  of  the  past  winter 
Is  forgotten,  and  the  time  is  passed  in  dancing  and  pleasure, 
with  no  thought  for  the  future  and  no  provision  made  for  it. 
Ail  the  Indians  who  are  middle-aged  recall  the  severe  starva- 
tion to  which  when  young  they  wct©  periodically  subjected, 
and  throngh  which  they  hardly  lived.  Yet  these  severe  les- 
sons did  not  lead  them  to  provide,  what  they  might  so  easily 
have  provided,  abundance. 


Since  the  first  French  traders  came  among  the  Ojibways, 
it  was  their  custom  to  outfit  the  Indiiyi  for  the  hunt,  to  give 
him  in  advance  ammunition,  tobacco,  and  everything  he  needed 
as  clothing  for  himself  and  for  bis  family.  When  he  brought 
back  his  pack  of  furs  he  paid  this  debt  with  them,  and  imme- 
diately took  a  fresh  debt  apon  him,  as  much  as  his  trader 
would  permit  Tliis  has  come  down  to  the  present  day,  and 
has  become  ingrained,  so  that  every  Ojibway  goes  in  debt  to 
his  trader  jnst  as  deeply  a«  he  will  allow  him.  It  is  not  con- 
sidered right  to  contract  a  second,  third  or  fourth  debt,  to  aa 
many  different  traders;  and  the  traders  often  have  a  tacit 
understanding  among  themselves  to  prevent  that,  nev«*thele8S 
it  is  frequently  done,  and  very  generally  attempted.  The  Ojib- 
way is  no  more  dishonest  than  any  other  man,  bnt  owing  to 
the  vicious  system  in  which  he  has  been  brought  up,  of  going 
in  debt  all  that  his  trader  will  allow  him,  and  also  owing  to 
his  usually  not  working,  and  so  having  nothing  to  pay  with, 
he  Is  usually  deeply  in  debt  <u>d  finds  his  necessities  driving  ' 
him  to  go  in  debt  more.  The  experience  of  the  traders  with 
the  heathen  Indians  is  that  every  man  is  trying  to  go  in  debt 
all  he  can,  while  the  payment  ia  slow  and  with  many  doubtful. 



Ab  the  traders  express  it,  '^Tery  man  is  Rtririug  to  get  some- 
'  thing  for  nothing."  The  annoity  also  that  was  promised  to 
th%m  tmder  the  Bice  treat;  of  1S89,  ha«  operated  disaatroosl; 
to  them  in  that  way,  as  in  many  others,  for  the  Indian  goes 
in  debt  on  the  strengrtli  of  bia  annaity,  and  many  persons  will 
trnst  him  on  the  strength  of  it;  so  it  is  nsnally  swallowed  ap 
man;  times  over  beforehand.  And  being  y^7  small,  at  the 
most  only  $9.20,  it  operates  as  a  bait  to  go  in  debt  on  the 
Btrengfli  of  it,  rather  than  as  a  help.  Many  Ojibwaj^  how- 
ever, are  conscientions  to  make  payment,  and  it  is  astMilBhing 
to  ns  how  mnch  their  traders  will  allow  them  to  go  in  debt. 
Some  of  them  go  in  debt  to  the  amoant  of  |200,  with  no  prop- 
erty in  the  world  bnt  a  gnn  and  some  traps,  and  the;  pa;  it 
The  traders,  being  mixed-bloods,  nnderstand  getting  it  oat 
of  them;  bnt  it  is  donbtf  ol  that  a  white  man  conld. 


The  ofBce  of  chief  does  not  now  amoant  to  an;thing,  owing 
to  the  great  nnmbers  of  chiefs  that  have  recently  been  created 
b;  United  States  Indian  agents.  Formerly  there  were  only 
two  or  three  chiefs  of  the  whole  Ojibwa;  nation;  now  smne 
chiefs  enroll  only  eight  in  their  band,  connting  men,  women, 
and  children.  The  chiefs  are  no  wiser  nor  better  than  the 
mass  of  the  people,  but  rather  inferior  to  them  if  anything. 
It  is  now  a  mere  bonorar;  title,  withont  power  or  authority. 

We  hear  mnch  said  of  the  eloquence  of  the  Indians.  Many 
of  them  are  good  and  read;  speakers  and  present  things  clearly 
and  forcibly.  The;  do  not  mnch  nse  the  metaphors  and  sim- 
iles that  popular  imagination  has  credited  them  with,  bat 
talk  like  sensible  and  therefore  trul;  eloqurait  men.  While 
man;  are  admirable  speakers,  thwe  is  onl;  <me  who  is  a  gen- 
ins,  a  trnl;  remarkably  eloquent  man.  He  is  the  Chi^  Wendji- 
madub  (Where  he  moTes  from  sitting),  or,  as  his  French  name 
is,  Joseph  Gharette.  He  lives  at  White  Earth,  and  is  about 
flft;-flTe  years  of  age.  He  has  a  little  French  blood.  I  con- 
sider him  perhaps  the  best  speaker.'the  greatest  oratw,  I  have 
ever  met  Although  withont  education — he  does  not  know  a 
letter — his  powers  are  remarkable.  He  has  all  the  vehemence 
the  flre,  the  energy,  command  of  language,  range  of  thought, 
of  the  true  orator.  As  another  said,  "Every  word  comes  like  an 



electric  spark  from  bis  heart"    I  think  he  would  be  oonaldered 
a  woDderfol  speaker  in  an;  nation. 

The  lineal  descendant  of  the  old  hereditary  chiefs  of  the 
Ojibwajs  lives  at  White  Earth,  Mesh-a-ki-gi-zhick  {Sky  reach- 
ing to  the  gronnd  all  round).  He  is  now  aboot  sixty-ei^t 
years  of  age,  a  mnarkably  line  looking  man,  with  a  strong, 
typical  Indian  face.  He  wonld  attract  notice  anywhere.  He 
is  a  man  of  many  noble  qnallties. 

There  was  one  of  the  chiefs  who  towered  above  all  the 
others  in  the  great  nobility  of  his  nature,  and  who  falAlled 
any  ideal  of  the  nobility  of  the  Indian  that  Cooper  or  any 
other  person  ever  drew.  That  was  Med-we-gan-on-int,  fhs 
head  chief  of  Red  Lake,  who  has  jngt  died,  at  the  age  of  about 
eighty-four  years.  He  was  made  by  nature  one  of  the  greatest 
men  in  mind  and  body  that  I  think  I  have  ever  seen.  He  was 
of  commanding  stature,  dz  feet  four  inches,  and  of  imposing 
presence.  Nobility  was  stamped  upon  all  his  actions  and 
words  and  in  his  looks.  It  would  seem  that  he  could  never 
have  done  a  mean  thing.  He  was  very  level-headed,  true  to 
bis  friends,  patient  under  seeming  neglect,  unaelflah,  and  of 
Buch  a  broad  vision  and  sound  judgment  as  wonld  have  made 
him  an  ideal  rulw  anywhere.  His  distii^^uishing  character- 
istic  was  his  wonderful  judgment  Amid  all  the  perplexing 
questions  that  he  had  to  deal  with,  and  where  the  wisest  man, 
white  OF  Indian,  could  hardly  discern  what  was  the  proper 
thing  to  do,  his  unerring  judgment  infallibly  picked  out  the 
true  path  among  so  many  misleading  ones  and  followed  it . 
He  never  was  carried  off  his  balance,  never  mistook  the  trait 
He  was  as  sagacious  as  Washington  himself.  Even  when  he 
was  a  heathen  man,  he  was  always  noble.  For  the  last  twenty 
years  of  his  life  he  was  a  Christian.  When  Christianity  came 
to  his  village,  be  at  once  accepted  it,  and  had  all  his  children, 
grandchildren,  and  relatives  do  likewise. 

When  a  young  man  he  was  a  great  warrior  and  hunter  and 
of  remarkable  bodily  powers.  A  young  man  came  out  from 
Washington,  provided  with  instruments  to  measure  Indians 
for  the  Columbian  ezpraition;  but  the  width  of  the  chiefs 
Bhottldere,  the  length  of  his  arms,  the  size  of  his  head  and 
ohest,  made  all  the  measuring  instniments  useless.  He  told 
the  writer  that  when,  as  a  young  man,  he  picked  up  his  canoe 



and  inverted  it  over  his  head,  he  wonld  not  lay  it  down  for 
twenty  miles.  About  two  miles  Is  as  far  as  most  men,  even 
the  strongest,  wish  to  carry  a  canoe,  without  a  rest  He  was 
no  orator,  and  said  very  little;  bat  when  he  did  say  a  few 
words,  that  ended  the  matter.  All  felt  that  "Daniel  had  come 
to  judgment"  He  alone  of  all  chiefs  was  revered  and  obeyed 
by  all  the  people.  He  was  free  from  all  the  weaknesses  which, 
in  different  forms,  attached  to  all  the  others,  as  they  do  to  all 
men,  and  he  towered  over  them  all.  Looking  back  on  his 
career  closed,  one  sees  that  he  was  niade  by  natare  and  Us 
Creator  a  truly  great  man.  It  was  his  delight  to  go  every 
summer,  on  foot,  even  up  to  eighty  years  of  age,  with  a  party 
of  men  of  his  band,  hundreds  of  miles  over  the  prairies  to  visit 
the  Piegan  Indians.  He  could  not  understand  a  word  they 
said,  but  they  were  relatives,  he  said;  their  fathers  had 
bunted  together  long  ago,  and  the  pleasure  of  seeing  them 
was,  to  him,  great.  His  nature  craved  that  excarsion  on  the 
boundless  prairies  every  year.  He  pointed  out  places  on  the 
White  Earth  reservation  where  the  Sloax  had  chased  him,  and 
the  clumps  of  poplars  where  he  hid  from  them  and  was  safe. 


About  eight  hundred  Ojibways  live  along  the  south  shore 
of  Bed  lake,  and  about  four  hundred  on  the  long  point  at  the 
"Narrows  between  the  southern  and  northern  parts  of  the  lake. 
The  houses  of  those  living  on  the  south  shore  are  built  by 
themselves  of  logs,  plastered  with  clay,  being  small  and  with 
one  room  only.  A  feature  of  the  Bed  Lake  home  is  the  chim- 
ney, made  by  themselves  out  of  a  whitish  clay.  It  burns  a 
very  great  deal  of  wood,  but  is  admirable.  There  are  no  chairs, 
tables,  beds,  or  stoves,  in  the  house;  but  there  is  a  board 
floor  cleanly  swept,  with  rush  mats  all  round,  on  which  the 
inmates  sit,  eat,  and  sleep.  The  chimney  is  in  the  comer  far- 
thest from  the  door,  and  nothing  can  exceed  the  warmth,  com- 
fort, and  cheerfulness  of  a  Red  Lake  home  on  a  winter  even- 
ing when  the  bright  Are  in  the  chimney  floods  the  room  with 
light  and  heat  The  wood  is  pine,  cat  four  feet  long,  and  is 
placed  on  end  in  the  chimney.  It  ignites  readily,  and  boms 
with  a  bright  flame.  The  family  or  families  and  visitors  are 
sitting  all  round  on  the  mats,  with  their  bed-covering  neatly 



folded  ap  b;  the  wall,  and  animated  conversation  and  cheerfal 
laughter  are  heard  on  every  Bide.  No  enjoyment  that  we  have 
in  onr  homes,  with  the  Ate  shut  up  in  an  iron  box,  is  eqaal  to 
the  flooded  light  and  warmth  of  the  Bed  Lake  home.  The 
food — it  may  be  boiled  com  alone  or  perhaps  with  fieh — ^is 
neatly  and  cleanly  served  on  plates  laid  on  the  mats,  beside 
each  i>erBon. 

It  takes  a  great  pile  of  wood  to  keep  the  fire  going  in  the 
open  chimney  for  twenty-four  hours.  It  is  the  bosiness  of  the 
women  to  BQpply  it.  Every  day  one  can  see,  about  four  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon,  long  strings  of  women,  each  with  her  ax  and 
packing  strap,  going  oat  into  the  woods  perhaps  a  mile;  sotm 
the  woods  are  vocal  with  the  axes;  and  then  equally  long 
strings  of  women  are  seen  issaing  from  the  woods,  each  with 
her  load  upon  her  back,  and  each  woman  packs  an  immense 
quantity.  This  is  thrown  down  at  the  door  of  the  house,  aod 
brought  in  as  needed.  If  a  woman  at  Bed  lake  meets  a  man 
on  the  patii,  she  goes  oB  to  one  side,  perhaps  into  the  anow 
above  her  knees,  about  four  feet  from  the  path,  and  there  pa- 
tiently waits  for  the  man  to  pass. 

The  Bed  X^ake  Indians  are  the  most  iDdustrions  of  all  the 
Indians;  they  are  apt  to  be  always  doing  something  to  make 
a  liring.  They  will  starve  with  the  seed  com  by  them,  rather 
than  eat  it  They  have  raised  quantities  of  com  in  their  little 
fields  by  the  shore  of  the  lake,  for  a  hundred  years  past,  plant- 
ing the  same  ground  over  and  over  again,  and  It  does  not  seem 
to  be  exhausted.  Sometimes  the  land  is  not  even  plowed,  or 
hoed  over  deeply,  for  the  new  crop,  but  just  planted  as  it  is. 
Along  in  the  70's  one  could  see  strings  of  women  packing  com 
on  their  backs  a  distance  of  five  miles  or  more,  to  sell  it  to 
the  traders  at  a  cent  a  pound  for  goods.  As  the  railroad  was 
then  far  from  Bed  lake,  perhaps  a  hundred  miles,  the  prices 
of  the  provisions  they  got  in  exchange  for  their  com  were 
very  high,  flour  95  a  sack,  common  tea  50  cents  a  pound,  four 
or  five  pounds  of  pork  for  a  dollar,  and  sugar  about  the  same, 
so  that  their  com  brought  them  very  little,  only  equal  to  a 
small  fraction  of  a  cent  a  pound. 

The  four  hundred  Ojibways  at  the  Narrows  lived  in  a  more 
heathenish  way,  in  those  days,  than  any  others  of  this  people. 
There  was  the  log  house,  bnt  extremely  small,  and  extremdy 



flltby  aod  ill-smelliiig,  never  swept  cor  tidied,  bot  having  all 
HortB  of  refuse  inside.  The  iomateB  looked  unwashed  and  nn- 
ken^pt;  the  children  wore  no  clothes,  or  only  the  white  cotton 
Bhirt,  if  any;  and  the  grown  op  people  in  aammer  wore  very  lit- 
tle. Instead  of  glass  a  piece  of  white  cotton  cloth  would  be  nailed 
acrosB  the  window,  as  in  many  other  villages  where  they  are 
poor.  Th^  have  always  a  particularly  abundant  supply  of 
flsh  there;  and  they  lived  on  fish  alone,  sometimeB  for  months 
without  even  salt.  They  did  not  seem  to  crave  even  salt.  Yet 
they  seemed  to  be  perfectly  healthy.  They  have  a  splendid 
rich  black  loam  soil,  much  finer  than  I  have  seen  anywhere 
else  in  the  Bed  Lake  region,  bearing  a  magnificent  deciduous 
forest  Anytliing  they  plant  grows  to  the  greatest  perfection. 
Around  their  villages  we  saw  images  of  birds,  etc.,  their 
protecting  deities  to  ward  off  ill  luck  and  sickness.  The  gam- 
bling drum  and  the  medicine  drum  were  always  sounding; 
and  all  they  wanted  was  to  be  left  undistorbed  in  their  hea- 
thenish ways.  They  would  liave  no  school,  church,  or  mission. 
We  saw  women  sitting  round  a  fire  in  the  night.  That  was 
where  a  person  had  died  within  three  days;  the  wigwam  had 
been  polled  down,  and  they  had  made  a  fire,  because  then  the 
soul  on  its  way  to  its  future  abode  would  have  a  Are  and  be 
comfortable.  If  they  made  no  fire,  the  season  being  winter, 
the  departed  soul  would  have  no  fire,  and  its  sufferings  could 
be  imagined.  After  three  days  it  was  no  longer  necessary,  for 
the  soul  had  reached  its  abode.  When  a  mother  puts  her 
little  boys  to  sleep  at  night,  she  first  draws  what  seems  to  be 
a  quart  of  water  into  her  mouthy  and  then  squirts  it,  with  force 
enough  apparently  to  turn  a  mill  wheel,  into  the  ears  of  each, 
first  on  one  side  of  the  head  and  then  on  the  other.  That  is 
to  keep  off  evil  spirits.  She  feels  that  she  can  keep  house  just 
to  i>erfeetion,  and  can  raise  children  just  as  they  ought  to  be 
raised.  The  unusual  heathenism  of  the  Indians  at  the  Nar- 
rows arises  from  their  living  in  such  a  remote  place,  where 
civilization  has  never  penetrated.  A  few  years  a^o  they  were 
living  apparently  as  they  did  when  Columbus  landed. 


The  life  of  the  Indians  at  Cass  Lake  differs  little  from 
that  of  the  others,  except  that  they  are  the  most  improvident 



of  all  tbe  Indians.  They  raise  very  little  corn  or  potatoes  and 
therefore  softer  most  frequently  and  severely  from  starration. 
All  through  the  spring,  sommer  and  fall,  food  provided  by  the 
bonnty  of  natnre,  as  T«iiBon,  moose-meat,  wild  rice,  and  fli^, 
is  extremely  ahnndant;  and  they  then  target  the  long  cold 
winter,  and  the  need  to  provide  for  it  Many  families  start  in 
to  pass  the  winter  without  even  a  potato  or  any  other  food 
ahead.  Their  sufferings  in  conseqaence  are  severe,  year  after 

There  are  two  kinds  of  homes  at  Leech  lake,  which  are 
very  different,  the  heathen  and  the  Christian.  The  former  is  a 
small  \og  shanty,  with  earthen  fioor,  and  so  low  that  one  can 
touch  the  roof.  There  is  no  fireplace,  bat  an  old  broken  cook- 
ing stove  and  also  a  heating  stove.  There  is  no  bed,  table, 
nor  chair,  but  the  nsnal  mats.  The  house  is  never  swept  nor 
cleaned  In  any  way;  the  day  clothing  and  bed  coverings  are 
as  dir^  as  they  can  be;  and  spittle  and  hawkings  from  the 
throat  and  nose  are  everywhere  so  that  one  cannot  sit  down, 
or  put  his  hand  anywhere,  withont  touching  them.  The  hoase 
is  nearly  as  full  of  people  as  it  oan  hold;  sometimes  big  girts 
and  yoang  women  lolling  over  each  other,  and  in  each  other's 
laps.  The  old  man  is  smoking,  and  the  yonng  man  may  be 
painting  his  face,  greasing  his  hair,  and  tying  sleigh  bells 
roond  his  ankles  for  a  dance.  The  dram  is  tied  in  a  bag  sas- 
pended,  and  there  is  a  pack  of  cards.  Everything  speaks  of 
idleness,  heathenism,  and  fllthinees.  There  is  one  dim  window 
light,  and  the  place  is  dark  and  forbidding. 

The  Christian  home  at  Leech  lake  is  also  a  1<^  honse,  bnt 
it  is  large,  light,  and  airy.  There  is  a  board  floor,  and  it  Is  so 
clean  yon  might  bake  bread  on  it  any  time,  It  b^ng  scrabbed 
to  whiteness;  there  are  a  table,  chairs,  ccwk  stove  and  heat- 
ing stove.  The  bed  in  one  comer  looks  clean  and  inviting, 
and  it  is  as  well  made  as  any  white  winnan  coold  make  hers, 
and  has  decorated  pillow  shams.  Fictares  are  on  tbe  walls, 
and  altogether  it  is  an  inviting  home  that  anyone  might  be 
pleased  to  live  in.  The  meals  ore  nicely  served,  on  a  clean 
white  tablecloth,  and  in  clean  dishes.  There  is  nice  warm 
bread,  pork,  potatoes,  and  tea.  The  comfort  and  cleanliness 
are  qaite  equal  or  superior  to  those  of  the  average  wltite  set- 



tier.  The  inmateB  axe  cleanly  dreeaed,  the  man  has  a  white 
Bhirt,  and  they  look  respectable.  The  reason  of  the  difference 
ia  that  they  are  ChriatianB. 


If  the  Ojibw^  can  get  flesh,  as  renison  or  beef,  he  likes  it 
best  of  all  and  will  make  bis  meal  almost  ezclDBively  of  it  I 
have  Been  a  woman,  lately  delivered  of  an  infant,  eat  what 
seemed  to  me  to  be  two  pounds  of  beef,  withoat  anything  else, 
and  it  did  her  good. 

We  hear  a  great  deal  of  how  mnch  Indians  eat  The  Ojlb- 
way  eats  no  more  than  any  other  man,  when  once  his  banger 
iB  satisfied.  Often  he  has  had  veiy  little  to  eat  for  a  long  time, 
and,  like  any  of  ns,  he  wonld  make  a  good  hearty  meal  when 
be  does  get  to  good  food.  The  Indian  children  in  a  school  do 
not  eat  as  much  as  white  children  when  once  they  get  filled  np. 

The  Ojibway's  staple  food  now  is  fish.  Every  morning  the 
first  thing  the  woman  living  on  Leech  lake,  Cass  lake,  or  Win- 
Dibigoshish,  does  when  she  awakes  is  to  take  her  paddle,  Jomp 
into  her  canoe,  and  draw  ber  nets.  Usnally  she  takes  more 
fish  than  they  can  nse.  Indians  have  averred  to  me  that  no 
Indians  living  on  those  lakes  were  ever  haugry,  and  that  if  any 
said  they  were  they  lied.  With  a  very  little  forethought  in 
laying  in  a  snpply  of  fish,  no  one,  I  am  snre,  need  ever  suffer 
hanger.  In  tbe  fall,  when  tbe  lakes  are  jnst  freezing  up,  is 
the  time  of  their  laying  in  their  supply  of  fish  for  tbe  winter. 
An  Indian  woman  at  Leech  lake  lately  told  me  that  she  set 
ber  nets  four  n^hts  at  that  time  and  cangfat  eight  hundred 
splendid  tnllibees,  a  species  of  white  fish.  That  was  abont 
the  nsual  catch.  Every  family  can  take  an  anlimited  quan- 
tity, (or  winter  use,  at  that  season.  They  are  hung  np  by  tbe 
tails  to  freeze  dry.  In  front  of  every  house  on  tbe  lakes  at 
that  season  1b  a  rude  frame,  with  thouBandB  of  fish  bang  on 
rods  driven  through  the  tails,  the  winter's  supply  of  food.  Out 
of  tbe  1,000  Indians  at  Leech  lake,  only  one  man  was  ever 
known  to  draw  or  set  a  net;  it  is  left  exclusively  to  women. 

What  then  is  the  life  of  tbe  Ojibway  man  in  his  native 
state?  I  mean  the  heathen  man.  The  only  thing  he  does 
that  ever  I  couM  see,  is  to  bunt  a  little,  in  spring  and  fall. 
Occasionally  a  man  will  be  found  who  will  raise  Bome  com  and 



potatoes.  The  rest  of  Ids  time,  vben  not  banting,  ia  spent  in 
gambling;  or  in  lying  on  bis  mat  in  tl>e  lionse  or  wigwam,  gos- 
siping; or  in  visiting  other  vigwame  or  bands  of  Indians;  or, 
for  some  part,  in  dancing.  He  also  spends  a  good  deal  of  time 
in  dramming  and  singing.  The  woman  is  the  bread-winner 
of  the  famil;. 


9e  does  not  think  gambling  an;  barm;  he  has  been  ased 
to  it  all  his  life.  It  in  winter,  it  is  done  in  bis  wigwam  or 
honse,  where  be  is  warm;  if  in  summer,  oat  of  doors.  A 
blanket  is  spread,  beside  which  from  one  to  three  drnmmers, 
holding  aloft  small  drams  in  their  hands,  keep  dramming  and 
singing  the  gambling  chant  or  song  while  the  game  goes  on. 
Usnally,  when  approaching  a  village,  one  can  hear  the  gam- 
bling dmms  at  a  long  distance;  and  coming  nearer  be  finds 
tbe  men  collected  in  a  groap,  the  gamblers,  who  may  be  six  or 
eight  in  number,  hard  at  their  business,  and  the  rest  of  the 
men  interested  spectators  aronnd  them.  As  fast  aa  the  drum- 
mers are  ezhaiiBted  with  the  continual  high-pitched  singing, 
others  are  snbstitnted  for  them.  They  do  not  aeem  to  be  able 
to  gamble  well  without  tbe  drumming  and  singing.  The 
women  of  the  village  are  all  qnietly  going  aboot  their  work, 
but  no  man  is  doing  anything;  they  have  all  been  attracted 
by  tbe  game.  The  gamblers  often  seem  to  have  a  kind  of  At 
on  when  engaged  in  it;  their  bodies  seem  to  be  disjointed,  and 
each  particnlar  limb  to  be  shaking  a  shake  of  its  own.  Tbe 
game  often  lasts  three  days,  and  till  it  is  finished  they  hardly 
take  time  to  eat  or  sleep.  The  stakes  are  anytbii^  a  man 
has,  his  gnn,  his  blanket,  his  coat.  I  have  sometimes  seen  a 
man  go  through  the  winter  in  bis  shirt  sleeves,  who  had 
gambled  away  his  coat.  One  man  took  off  and  gambled  away 
his  only  pair  of  pants.  It  is  nsnally  done  in  their  own  way, 
the  bullet  and  moccasin  game;  bnt  some  use  cards.  The  little 
boys  begin  at  a  very  early  age,  and  sometimes  tbe  women  gam- 
ble in  their.  honseB  or  in  the  street;  but  the  wmnen  are  not 
nearly  such  incessant  gamblers  as  the  men. 

Sometimes  the  heathen  Ojibway  goes  through  a  perform- 
ance manifesting  forth  to  himself  and  to  others  that  he  is  a 



god,  tbat  be  bas  snpematDral  powers.  He  sits  down  outside, 
collects  all  the  moTable  articles  aroaad  him,  and  ke^«  tbem 
fl^g  into  the  air,  tossing  tbem  abont  and  all  aroand  in  every 
conceivable  manner.  His  admiration  of  himself  grows  as  he 
witnesses  bis  miracnIODs  performances  until  be  conies  to  look 
on  himself  as  indeed  a  g6d. 

In  ever;  liidian  village  there  is  always  something  going 
on.  Some  are  striving  for  superiority,  just  as  it  is  among  onr- 
selves;  and  others  are  trjing  to  poll  them  down.  Every  day 
the  men  meet  to  dlscosa  matters;  there  is  continaal  conncil- 
ing.  One  of  our  Indian  clergymen  who  lived  at  Bed  lake 
twelve  years  said  that  never  once  in  that  time  did  there  cease 
to  be  something  going  on,  tbat  took  np  their  attention.  Often 
when  sitting  in  the  wigwam  one  will  see  the  blanket  door 
pnlled  aside  for  a  moment,  a  face  appears,  and  "Ton  are  in- 
vited to  a  feast"  is  said  to  the  good  man  of  the  house.  He 
thereupon  rises,  picks  up  a  wooden  mng  and  Bpoon,  and  goes. 
The  feast  consists  probably  of  whole  boiled  com,  and  perhaps 
dsh,  of  which  the  gnest  gets  a  magfnll ;  bat  there  Is  some- 
thing to  be  talked  about  tbat  seems  vitally  important  to  tbem. 
Of  late  years  electing  some  of  their  number  to  go  to  Waah- 
ington  about  their  aifalrs  takes  months  of  counciling,  and 
keeps  their  minds  continually  on  the  stretch. 

Then  sometimes  it  takes  the  man  many  hours  in  a  day  to 
paint  his  face  properly  for  the  dance,  and  to  oil  his  hair  and 
arrange  bis  head-dress  of  feathers.  So  his  time  is  very  folly 
occupied.  In  summer  he  goes  off  a  hundred  miles  or  more  to 
visit  another  band  of  Chippewaa;  or  he  goes  to  visit  the  Sioox 
two  or  three  hundred  miles  away,  and  is  gone  most  of  the 
summer.    So  his  time  slips  away,  and  he  effects  nothing. 

The  conception  of  life  by  the  Ojibway  and  by  the  white 
man  is  fundamentally  different  the  White  man's  thought  is 
to  do  something,  to  achieve  something;  the  Indian's  is  that 
life  is  one  long  holiday.  He  has  no  wish  for  any  improvement, 
nor  to  live  differently;  be  jnst  wishes  to  take  his  ease  and 
enjoy  himself.  He  sees  the  white  lumberman,' for  instance, 
out  two  miles- from  his  logging  camp,  waiting  for  daylight  to 
begin  work;  sees  him  toiling  all  day,  "dinnering  out,"  and  go- 
ing home  tired,  in  the  dark,  to  bis  logging  camp.  The  Ojib- 
way thinks  be  has  a  far  better  way,  be  has  been  lying  in  his 



Wigwam  alJ  day,  enjoying  hituielf,  warm  and  comfortable  If 
he  gets  baogry,  he  goes  out  and  catches  a  rabbit,  for  ihete  are 
a  plenty  of  rabbits  eTerywhere.  So  he  finds  far  more  «ijoy* 
ment  in  his  life  than  he  would  in  the  toiling,  Blaving  life  of  the 
white  man. 


The  Ojibway  woman,  on  the  other  hand,  is  industrlons, 
especially  the  middle-aged  and  old  woman.  Besides  fishing 
for  the  family,  the  women  usually  raise  all  the  com  and  po- 
tatoes raised,  pot  away  the  produce  of  the  gardens,  gather 
the  wild  rice,  and,  generally  speaking,  do  all  the  work.  The 
women  every  afternoon,  as  was  before  stated,  t^e  thdr  axes, 
chop  the  wood,  and  carry  it  to  the  lodge  door  with  their  pack- 
ing straps.  It  may  be  a  short  or  a  long  distance.  If  the 
woods  have  all  been  cut  away  near  the  village,  and  if  there 
are  ponies  as  at  White  Earth,  Leech  lake,  and  other  places, 
then  ponies  are  used  to  bring  it;  but  when  the  logs  have 
been  deposited  at  the  door,  the  woman  always  takes  her  az 
and  chops  it.  No  family  ever  thinks  of  keeping  a  day's  wood 
ahead;  so  if  there  is  a  blizzard  and  excessive  cold,  say  at 
Leech  lake,  every  pony  and  sled  that  can  bejmastered  has  to  be 
out  in  the  midst  of  the  blizzard  on  the  ice  going  for  wood.  It 
is  tliat  or  freeze 

The  women,  though  far  superior  to  the  men  in  point  of  use- 
fulness, and  it  seems  to  me  their  equals  in  bodily  strength,  are 
made  to  occupy  a  position  of  great  inferiority.  The  woman 
always  walks  behind  the  man;  and  she  turns  out  of  the  path 
for  9  man  when  she  meets  him.  At  a  feast  women  never  sit 
with  the  men;  even  the  young  boys  have  to  be  served  first; 
and  then.  Last  of  all,  the  women,  who  have  had  all  the  labor  of 
preparing  the  feast,  can  sit  down  and.  consume  the  fragments. 
Even  the  exclamations  of  the  language  are  not  common  to 
both  sexes  as  with  us;  the  woman  has  her  own,  exclusively 
(or  women,  and  must  not  use  those  a  man  does.  The  Indians 
look  on  our  deference  for  women  as  foolish,  aifected,  a  fad. 

The  heathen  man  thinks  it  liis  undoabted  right  to  whip  his 
wife,  and  he  exercises  his  privilege  freely.  That  is  one  objec- 
tion that  even  some  Christian  Indians  find  against  the  Chris- 
tion  religion;  namely,  that  the  wives,  knowing  they  will  no 



longer  be  whipped,  since  their  huBbanda  bare  become  Ohris- 
tians,  preflome  Dpon  that  and  are  not  nearly  so  good  and  sab- 
miBSive  as  they  formerly  were,  or  as  they  ought  to  be.  Gen- 
erally the  wife  yields  to  the  argument  of  the  ax  helve  on  her 
acalp,  and,  like  a  spoiled  child,  aeems  to  feel  better  after  she 
has  been  whipped.  But  that  is  not  alwayB  the  case.  An 
Ojibway  whose  name  is.  In  translation,  The  one  with  the  far 
Bounding  and  penetrating  voice,  andertook  to  whip;  his  wife, 
bnt  she  tamed  on  him  and  broke  his  arm,  then  tenderly  nursed 
him  till  he  was  well,  and  they  have  been  a  most  loving  coaple 
ever  since.  And  it  is  true  that  among  the  Ojibways  there  is 
about  the  same  proportion  of  women  as  among  the  white 
people,  who,  being  stronger  mentally  and  with  m(we  energy 
and  Bense,  rule  and  govern  their  husbands,  to  the  good  of  all. 
Especially  in  middle  and  later  life  the  intellectuality  and  mafl- 
cnline  powers  of  the  wife  are  apt  to  come  to  the  front 


Many  of  the  heathen  Ojibways  have  two  wives,  and  WMoe 
three.  It  is  considered  perfectly  proper  to  have  as  many  wives 
as  one  can,  and  as  there  are  government  annuities  for  each 
woman  and  each  child,  which  the  man  as  head  of  the  house 
draws,  it  is  an  induaement  to  add  more.  Sometimes  the  two 
wives  are  sisters.  Usually  they  live  in  far  better  peace  with 
each  other  than  white  women  would  under  such  circnmstances. 
The  man  Dsoally  has  two  separate  homes  or  wigwams  iov  his 
two  familicB;  but  sometimes  they  live  in  one  bouse.  Often 
the  first  wife  feels  aggrieved  at  the  taking  of  a  second,  but 
does  not  actively  object 

There  is  no  marriage  ceremony  among  the  Ojibways.  Usu- 
ally all  the  girls  (I  am  speaking  here  as  everywhere  else  in  this 
paper,  unless  the  contrary  is  expressly  stated,  of  the  heathen 
Ojibways)  begin  to  bear  children  as  soon  as  nature  will  per- 
mit, and  keep  on  bearing  as  long  as  nature  will  allow.  I  have 
never  known  an  Indian  girl  to  live  aB  an  unmarried  wonuui, — 
I  am  speaking  of  the  heathen.  But  I  have  known  Christian 
Ojibway  young  women  who  lived  single  always,  and  whose 
characters  were  as  spotless  as  any  woman's  could  be.  Among 
the  heathen  a  girl  usually  Uvea  a  while  with  one  man,  and 
then  with  another,  and  there  is  a  great  deal  of  changing 



aroimd.  llBually,  tfaoagh,  the  elderly  and  old  people  are  faith- 
fal  to  each  other  and  coatiitDe  to  live  together.  But  any  hea- 
then woman,  one  will  find  on  iaqniry,  baa  lived  with  a  good 
many  difFerent  hnsbandB.  There  was  only  one  man  among  the 
Ojibways  who  never  married.  He  was  in  consequence  called 
"The  everlasting  young  anmarried  man."  He  lived  to  the  age 
of  seventy  years. 

It  is  quite  common  (or  a  hueband,  after  having  lived  with 
a  woman  for  a  long  time  and  raised  qaite  a  family,  to  abandon 
her  and  his  children  vrithout  any  cause,  and  to  take  another 
woman  and  begin  to  rear  a  new  family.  A  man,  for  instance, 
vrilt  abandon  his  wife  and  children  at  Leech  lake,  and  go  to 
Bed  lake,  seventy-five  miles  distant,  and  take  a  new  wife  there. 
Or  he  may  do  bo  in  tlte  same  village.  In  Bocb  circumstances 
he  never  does  anything  to  support  the  wife  and  children  he 
has  abandoned.  I  have  never  known  a  man  in  such  a  case  to 
do  the  slightest  thing  for  the  children.  But  when  the  time 
of  the  annual  payment  comes  round,  he  always  tries  to  get  the 
annnities  coming  to  the  children  and  to  his  abandoned  vrife, 
and  generally  succeeds.  If  he  be  opposed,  he  makes  a  bitter 
fight  before  the  Indian  agent,  to  that  end.  And  when  be  gets 
hold  of  the  money,  he  never  gives  any  of  them  one  cent  One 
can  constantly  hear  the  poor  woman  lamenting  that  not  only 
has  all  the  money  of  the  children,  whom  sbe  is  supporting, 
been  taken,  but  that  he  has  got  hers  also.  The  woman  always 
supports  the  children.  The  man  only  helps  his  children,  even 
when  they  are  members  of  the  family  in  which  he  is  living. 
He  does  not  seem  to  lose  caste  in  the  slightest  degree  by  such 
desertion  or  non-support  of  his  children.  It  is  so  common  that 
it  is  looked  on  as  the  regnlar  tbing. 

Let  no  one  think  from  this  that  the  Ojibway  man  does  not 
love  bis  children.  He  seems  to  love  them  dearly.  In  his  wig- 
wam or  lc%  cabin  he  fondles  them  and  plays  with  them  by  the 
hour,  jost  like  a  white  father.  When  they  are  sick  he  seems 
just  as  much 'distressed  as  a  white  father  would  be.  He  will 
not  let  them  go  away  to  school,  if  it  be  any  long  distance  away, 
for  fear  that  something  may  befall  them,  and  he  far  away. 
When  they  sicken  and  die,  he  shows  the  greatest  dejection 
and  the  most  bitter  grief.    I  have  seen  him  burst  into  tears. 



Often  I  have  thbugbt,  and  still  think,  that  the  OJibwa;  loves 
his  children  more  than  the  white  man;  and  I  have  accounted 
for  it  to  m?  own  mind  by  the  fact  that  they  lose  so  many  of 
their  children,  making  those  who  remain  doubly  preciooa. 
And  yet  so  often  he  abandons  them,  apparently  withoat  a 
cause,  and  apparently  without  ever  giving  them  a  thought 
again.  It  is  a  much  more  rare  thing  for  an  Indian  woman  to 
abandon  her  children.  Like  her  white  idster,  she  clings  to 
them  and  manages  to  support  them  somehow.  It  is  under- 
stood that  it  devolves  on  the  woman  to  support  her  children. 

I  have  never  seen  the  sligMest  endearment  pass  between 
husband  and  wife,  not  the  slightest  outward  tokens  of  affec- 
tion. Yet  there  is  no  doubt  that  they  are  as  much  attached 
to  each  other,  especially  in  middle  and  later  life,  as  those  of 
our  own  race. 


For  the  first  year  of  its  life,  the  Ojibway  baby  is  taken 
most  excellent  care  of  in  its  well  known  cradle.  It  is  wrapped 
in  a  great  many  thicknesses  of  flannel  and  soft  material,  which 
effectaally  exclude  all  cold,  and  it  is  perfectly  warm  and  com- 
fortable in  any  weather.  Its  head  is  protected  from  injury 
by  the  wooden  piece  surrounding  it.  It  likes  the  firm  feeling 
of  being  bound  and  swathed  in  this  frame,  and  will  cry  to  be 
put  into  it.  The  frame  can  be  leaned  against  the  wall  at  any 
angle,  and  so  it  can  be  relieved  by  change  of  position;  or, 
best  of  all,  the  mother  carries  it  suspended  on  her  back,  by  a 
strap  passed  round  her  forehead,  while  she  goes  about  her 
work.  I  have  seen  a  mother  at  Bed  lake,  while  waiting  all 
day  out  of  doors  for  the  annual  payment,  take  out  in  the  open 
air  and  nurse  her  baby  in  a  temperature  of  about  thirty  de- 
grees below  zero,  and  the  baby  was  not  over  six  weeks  old. 
An  intelligent  United  States  Indian  agent,  observing  them, 
remarked,  "An  Indian  woman  can  doubly  discount  a  white 
woman  in  taking  care  of  her  baby." 

But  with  the  emancipation  of  the  baby  from  its  cradle,  a 
surprising  change  in  its  treatment  occurs.  It  goes  naked,  or 
almost  so,  winter  and  summer,  having  only  a  shirt  and  moc- 
casins until  Ave  or  six  years.  The  parents  seem  to  think  that 
it  needs  no  clothes.    One  will  see  it  outdoors  playing  in  the 



mow,  when  it  is  rer;  cold,  clad  onl;  witb  the  cotton  shirt,  fly- 
ing loose,  and  moccwilns.  Then  the  parents  go  on  long  winter 
jonrneys,  or  they  very  frequently  travel  mile«  in  the  night  to 
some  heathen  dance,  the  mother  carrying  the  yoong  child  on 
her  back  when  the  mercnry  stands  thirty  or  forty  degrees  be- 
low zero.  The  dance  honse  may  be  hot,  and  then  there  is  the 
b^e  joorney  in  the  middle  of  the  night  These  carryings  to 
dances  canse  the  death  of  great  numbers  of  children.  Their 
life  is  hard  in  every  way,  the  constant  moving  aboat  in  winter, 
the  insntBcient  food,  the  ezposnre,  the  insnfflcient  clothing, 
the  one  blanket  in  which  the  little  child  sleeps.  The  wond^ 
is  that  any  children  snrvive  it,  and  only  the  strongest  consti- 
tutions  do.  And  when  the  child  becomes  sick,  the  only  idea 
they  have  of  doing  anything  tor  it  is  to  drum  over  it  night  and 
day,  or  to  perform  the  "grand  medicine"  rites  for  its  recovery. 

Whatever  is  good  for  them,  the  parents  think  most  be  good 
for  their  children  also.  So  they  give  than  the  strongest  tea 
to  drink  as  soon  as  they  are  able  to  drink  anything;  and  all 
the  flesh  they  can  eat,  or  anything  they  happen  to  have.  From 
the  same  idea,  the  little  children  very  early  get  to  using  tobac- 
co. I  have  seen  a  boy  of  four  beating  bis  mother  with  his 
tiny  fists,  to  make  her  give  him  more  tobacco.  Every  boy  and 
girl  thinks  be  or  she  most  have  tobacco,  and  plenty  of  it 

The  parents  have  no  goveniment  whatever  over  their  chil- 
^en.  Th^  are  absolnte  masters  from  the  first  dawn  of  in- 
telligence, and  tliey  very  quickly  find  it  out  and  role.  Some- 
times the  mother  gives  the  child  a  pash  or  a  cuff,  saying  to  it, 
"You  are  spoiled;"  but  lets  it  take  its  own  way.  lliey  never 
correct  them,  nor  try  to  bend  them  to  their  wiil.  I  suppose 
the  reason  is  that  they  lose  so  many  children  and  therefore 
cannot  bear  to  correct  nor  cross  in  any  way  those  that  sur- 

When  a  child  is  crying,  the  mother  tries  to  quiet  it  by  say- 
ing, "Hush,  that  Frenchmao.  will  strike  you,"  pointing  to  the 
white  BtraDger  who  is  there.  Frenchman  is  the  common  name 
for  asy  white  man,  as  the  French  were  the  first  white  men  they 
saw.  When  that  is  not  enough,  she  tells  it  the  owl  will  come 
and  carry  it  off;  and  when  that  from  long  use  has  lost  its 
terrors,  she  shows  it  a  piece  of  the  owl's  ear,  into  which  it 
will  be  put.    As  fast  as  one  lie  is  worn  out,  another  is  in- 



vented;  and 'threatening,  vrbicb  U  never  carried  oat,  is  also 
used.    The  moral  effect  on  the  child  cannot  be  good. 

Indian  children  are  mncb  more  amiable  than  vhite  chil- 
dren. They  do  not  qaarrel  to  with  each  other.  Perhaps 
from  heredity,  several  families  living  in  one  long  wigwam,  the; 
have  learned  to  bear  with  each  other's  frailties  and  to  keep  the 
peace.  The  grown  ap  people,  also,  I  think,  live  mncb  mwe 
peaceably  with  each  other  than  white  people.  Indian  chil- 
dren in  a  school  are  not  nearly  so  troublesome  to  their  teach- 
ers as  white  children,  and  tbey  are  mncb  more  easily  con- 


Does  the  Ojibway  have  any  mechanical  ingenuity?  A 
great  deal  more  tban  we  give  tli«ii  credit  for.  In  fact,  they 
seem  to  be  able  to  make  anytbing  they  want  to  make  One 
of  onr  Indian  clergymen  makes  a  cotter  or  sleigh  that  is  good 
and  serviceable,  although  he  never  bad  any  instmctiotL  A 
mixed-blood  young  man  at  White  Earth  was  with  bis  mother, 
when  her  wagon  wheel  broke.  He  took  bis  ax,  went  into  the 
woods,  and  made  a  new  wheel  that  answered  the  purpose. 
Since  that  time  be  has  established  himself  as  a  regnlar  wheel- 
wright, and  seems  to  be  able  to  do  that  work  perfectly  well. 
Yet  be  never  bad  a  day's  instruction.  To  another  Indian 
yoaog  man  I  lately  intrusted  the  building  of  a  frame  parson- 
age. He  had  boilt  only  one  little  board  shanty  before,  and 
had  bad  no  training  or  experience  excepting  that.  Yet  be 
bnilt  the  two-stoiy  parsonage,  costing  about  {500,  very  well, 
and  it  looks  well.  They  undoubtedly  have  a  great  deal  of 
mechanical  ingennity,  if  tbey  wish  to  exerb  it  One  of  these 
Indians  made  a  fiddle. 

The  women,  too,  make  most  beautlfnl  patterns  in  their  bead 
work,  which  is  often  marvelous.  Lately  some  of  tbem  have 
been  taught  lace-making,  and  the  beantifnl  lace  tbey  turn  oat 
astonishes  white  experts.  A  highly  educated  yoong  white 
lady,  a  teacher  of  iace-making,  told  me  that  she  spent  two 
weeks  learning  a  certain  lace-stitch,  and  then  took  as  a  pupil 
an  Indian  girl  with  no  previous  training  in  this  work,  who 
learned  it  in  half  an  hour,  and  oould  do  it  better  than  she. 
The  Indian  children  also  model  in  clay  very  beautiful  figures. 



It  is  8  pit?  that  their  nodoubted  genius  cannot  be  made  to 
benefit  the  world.  TJBiially  from  indifference  and  lack  <^ 
desire  to  apply  it,  anle&s  called  oat  by  some  necessity,  it  ii 
never  nsed.  Bat  it  is  there  in  high  degree,  and  it  has  already 
permanently  enriched  onr  drilisatlon  in  giving  ns  the  bireh 
bark  canoe,  the  moccasin,  and  many  other  things  that  might 
be  mentioned,  which,  for  beauty  and  perfect  adaptation  to  the 
purposes  int^ded,  cannot  be  sarpassed. 


This  leads  me  to  remark  that  in  my  opinion  the  intellecta- 
ality  of  the  raoe  is  very  high.  I  think  it  snrpoueB  that  (A 
oar  own  race,  though,  from  oircmstances,  not  being  called 
oat,  it  is  not  used  nor  known.  Bat  let.any  one  listen  to  them 
discussing  anything  that  is  propounded  to  them  concerning 
their  own  affairs,  and  he  will  be  surprised  to  note  how  they 
look  at  it  in  every  light,  discnssiog  it  fnHu  points  of  view  that 
he  never  would  have  thought  of,  and  to  observe  how  strong  and 
original  their  minds  are.  I  think  no  lawyer  can  equal  an 
Indian,  who  yet  does  not  know  a  letter,  in  making  a  skillfol 
and  telling  presentatiMi  of  his  case,  in  marshaling  his  argu- 
ments eifectiTely,  and  in  concealing  the  weak  points.  And 
yet,  with  all  their  intellectnality,  in  another  point  of  view  they 
are  sometimes  grown  ap  children. 

The  Indian  is  a  highly  educated  man,  althoagh  this  may 
sound  absurd  to  those  who  hear  me.  Said  an  Oxford  graduate, 
then  an  inmate  of  my  family,  who  often  sat  with  Indians  at  ' 
meals,  "These  men  seem  to  me  like  highly  educated  vaca;  the 
linea  of  their  faces  -seem  like  the  lines  of  the  faces  of  highly 
educated  men."  And  I  think  tt  is  tme,  that,  though  in  a  dif- 
ferent way  from  ns,  the  Indian  is  sa  In  everything  that  is 
needed  for  his  life,  or  related  to  it,  and  even  beyond  it,  he  is 
so.  The  open  page  of  nature,  all  about  plants  and  animals, 
abont  life,  a  thonsand  things  that  are  unknown  to  as,  be  knows 
perfectly.  His  faculties  are  far  more  highly  trained  than 
onta;  bis  perceptions  are  far  more  keen.  He  will  see  fish  In 
the  water,  animals  on  land,  the  glance  of  a  deer's  eye  behind 
a  bash,  or  his  ear  sticking  up,  where  a  white  man  cannot  see 
anything.  Canoeing  with  Indians,  one  will  constantly  hear 
them  pointing  oat  flsh,  nnmbers  of  them,  naming  them  as  bass. 



pike,  etc.;  but  the  white  man  can  see  nothing.  So  eren  when 
going  along  in  the  can,  tiiey  will  see  many  deer  or  other  aa< 
imaiB  where  no  one  else  can  see  anything. 

In  one  reepect  the  Indian  is  remarkabla  He  is  sach  a 
reader  of  character.  There  is  no  ase  in  tiTing  to  deceire  him. 
He  seems  to  look  right  throngh  a  perscm,  and  "sizes  him  up," 
as  the  phrase  goes,  mach  more  accurate;  than  we  can.  They 
are  very  accurate  judges  oi  a.  person's  social  standing. 

What  does  the  Indian  think  of  the  white  man?  We  show 
them  our  electric  lights  and  our  other  wonders,  and  think 
they  will  fall  down  and  worship  ns  as  anperior  beings.  It  is 
not  so.  The  Indian,  it  is  tnie,  sees  his  white  brother  do  many 
wonderfol  things.  Bat  put  the  white  man  in  bis  circnm- 
stances,  and  he  is  a  miserably  helpless  creature,  far  inferior 
to  the  Indian.  He  does  not  know  how  to  make  a  camp,  how 
to  protect  himself  from  the  cold,  how  to  find  the  game.  Pnt 
an  Indian  and  a  white  man  into  the  woods;  the  white  man 
oan  see  nothing  and  will  starve  to  death,  tbe  Indian  can  find 
a  good  liring.  In  the  Indian's  country  and  in  his  circum- 
stances, the  white  man  needs  the  constant  hdp  of  his  red 
brotiier  to  keep  him  alive.  No  Indian  has  been  drowned  on 
the  great  lakes  of  Minnesota,  as  Leech,  Cass  and  Winnlbi- 
goshish,  within  the  memory  of  man,  unless  he  was  loaded  with 
whisky;  the  white  men  have  jnat  settled  about  those  lakes,  and 
already  consld«abIe  numbers  ot  them  have  been  drowned.  In 
brief,  the  Indian  sees  that  he  is  jnst  as  superior  ia  his  sphere 
'   as  the  white  man  is  in  his. 

The  Indian  has  a  far  higher  ojdnion  of  himself  than  the 
white  man  of  himself.  "Do  yon  not  know,"  said  one  of  onr 
Indian  clergymen  to.  me,  "that  the  Indian  thinks  his  body 
Ood?"  That  translated  into  our  idiom  means  that  be  has  a 
very  high  idea  of  his  own  personally.  Consequently  the  one 
who  treats  him  with  very  great  respect  is  the  one  who  gains 
his  esteem  and  love. 

It  is  strange  also  that  with  the  Indian  amiability  is  the 
test  by  which  he  judges.  One  of  themselves  nay  dp  anything, 
no  matter  how  outrageonsly  bad,  even  according  to  th^r  own 
standard,  and  he  will  not  lose  caste  in  the  least.  He  will  as- 
sociate vrith  the  others  precisely  as  before,  without  a  thought 
en  his  part,  or  on  theirs,  of  there  being  any  differrace.    But 



it  be  loeeB  his  temper,  <v,  ae  we  say,  "gets  mad,"  lie  bas  atterly 
fallen  ia  the  Indian's  estlinatioiL  To  lose  control  of  one's  self, 
to  get  in  a  passioot  to  scold,  is  with  the  Indian  the  anpard(Hi' 
able  ain.  I  cannot  remember  ever  to  have  seen  an  Ojibway 
ia  a  passion. 

The  OjibvaTS  have  certainly  many  strong  points.  "Rielr 
speech  ia  clean.  I  can  hear  more  bad  language  among  my  own 
people  in  half  an  honr  than  I  hare  beard  among  the  Ojibways 
in  over  tw«ity-fotir  jears.  Thej  never  swear,  and  I  have 
beard  very  little  obscene  language.  Once  at  Sandy  l4tke  I 
did  hear  sncb'  language;  almoat  every  word  was  foal,  hot  I 
saw  that  they  were  only  imitating  some  of  the  scum  of  the 
frontier,  whom  tbey  had  met,  and  that  they  thought  it  was 
smart  That  is  saying  a  great  deal  for  them,  cleanness  of 

Also  they  are  tax  more  honest  than  tihe  whites.  I  have 
intjaired  everywhere  among  the  Inmhermen,  for  hundreds  of 
ndlea,  and  the  testimony  is  always  the  same,  namely,  that 
where  the  Indians  are  they  can  leave  things  lying  about  and 
nothing  is  taken,  but  when  the  whites  come  there  is  a  sad 
change.  From  Bemidji,  through  by  Fokegama  lake  to  Mille 
Lfkcfl,  the  testimony  is  always  the  same.  They  have  also  more 
respect  for  the  law,  and  more  fear  of  the  law,  when  they  know 
a  thing  to  be  law,  than  the  whites  have. 

Among  the  poor  Ojibways  life  and  property  are  absolntely 
safe.  There  has  been  no  instance  of  any  man  or  woman  hav- 
ing robbed  or  "held  up"  another,  red  or  white,  in  a  quarter 
of  a  centnry.  They  would  never  think  of  such  a  thing,  and  it 
makes  no  difference  how  mnch  money  a  man  may  be  known 
to  have  on  him,  he  it  perfectly  safe.  A  helpless  woman  or 
child  might  go  from  end  to  end  of  their  country  by  day  or 
night,  and  wonld  never  be  molested.  Among  the  Indians  one 
has  the  feeling  of  absohite  secority  in  person  and  property. 
During  twenty-four  years  I  have  never  carried  a  gun  or  pistol 
when  traveling  among  them,  and  that  was  almost  constantly, 
in  a  circuit  of  about  300  miles,  except  once  for  fear  of  wolves; 
and  never  have  I  had  firearms  in  my  honse  except  once,  when 
some  white  tramps  were  reported  to  be  meditating  an  attack, 
of  whom  the  Indians  also  were  mortally  afraid.  My  family 
and  I  never  received  anything  bnt  kindness  from  the  Indians, 



and  never  felt  one  moment'e  apprehension.  Once  we  were 
gone  for  three  mtMiths,  and  the  hoase,  ontenanted,  and  flUed 
with  things  th^  needed,  stood  bj  the  roadside.  When  we 
came  back  it  was  ontoacbed.  All  of  as,  when  among  the 
whites,  at  certain  times  and  in  c«^n  places,  fear  and  are  on 
oar  gnard;  when  we  want  abaolnte  secarity,  we  go  among  the 
poor  OjibwE^a 

The  Indian  is  ertremelj  snspicioas;  he  hardly  ever  ^ves 
his  confidence  to  any  man,  especially  a  white  man.  For  in- 
stance, let  him  hare  fcnown  a  white  man  ever  so  long,  and 
have  always  fonnd  him  perfectly  opri^t,  and  his  friend;  yet 
If  that  white  man  proposes  something  new  to  him,  he  will 
never  take  it  on  trnst,  nor  think,  "Here  is  this  man  who  is 
wiser  thaji  I,  and  he  proposes  this  thing  for  my  good;  therefore 
I  will  accept  it"  Instead  he  will  view  it  with  suspicion  and 
think  that  it  is  some  plan  to  injure  him,  and  will  ^uunine  it 
with  that  thought  constantly  in  his  mind.  He  views  every- 
thing with  suspicion.  He  is  the  least  trustfut,  and  the  most 
suspicious  of  ill,  of  all  beings. 

I  have  never  met  an  Indian  who  did  not  believe  in  the 
existence  of  deities  and  the  life  beyond  the  grave.  I  do  not 
believe  such  a  one  can  be  found,  or  that  there  ever  was  such 
an  Indian.  It  is  a  part  of  the  warp  and  woof  of  their  thought. 
At  the  same  time  their  belief  in  a  future  life  does  not  seem 
to  have  any  inflaence  on  their  conduct  here;  nor  do  they  seem 
to  have  any  fear  of  retribution  beyond  the  grave. 


I  cannot  recall  any  mnrders  by  Ojibways  of  their  fellow 
Indians,  when  not  intoxicated,  except  that  one  man,  a  mixed- 
blood,  killed  a  woman  who  rejected  his  improper  jvoposals; 
and  that  another  mixed-blood  killed  his  wife  and  an  Indian, 
who,  aided  by  this  second  wife,  had  killed  hia  first  or  real  vrife. 
Also  at  Bed  Lake  a  man  was  shot  by  another,  whether  acci- 
dentally or  not  was  never  determined. 

One  or  two  white  perscms  have  been  killed  in  collisions  with 
the  Indiana  within  the  past  twenty-five  years;  but  not  so 
many  as  there  have  been  Indians  killed  by  whites. 

Until  about  twenty-five  years  ago,  great  numbers  of  In- 
dians were  killed  by  each  other  in  drunken  fights.    Our  aged 



Indian  clergTman  haa  a  record  o{  the  murders  in  Crow  Wing, 
a  Tillage  of  perhape  five  or  six  hundred  inhabitants,  vhere  he 
was  then  living;  and  in  one  year,  there  were,  I  think,  abont 
one  hundred  and  twen^-flve  each  marders.  Those  were  in 
the  sad  times  of  debanchery,  before  the  present  mlasions  were 
started.  And  at  Hille  Lacs,  where  there  is  no  mission,  the 
mortallt;  in  dmnken  fights  haa  been  very  great  all  through 
the  years.  Bot  in  the  rest  of  the  Indian  country,  as  at  Leeoh 
lake.  Bed  lake,  Cau  lake,  and  on  the  White  Bartii  reserratlon, 
th^  have  learned  the  sacredness  of  human  life.  At  Hille 
Lacs,  until  within  a  very  few  years,  and  perhaps  now,  a  com- 
mon Bight  was  to  see  the  women  gathering  up  all  the  gnns 
and  knives,  and  taking  them  away  into  the  woods  to  hide 
them,  the  men  being  about  to  engage  in  a  drunk,  and  they  be- 
ing anziona  that  none  should  be  killed. 


A  pleasing  characteristic  of  the  Indian  is  his  politeness. 
He  is  never  rude,  rough,  and  boorish,  as  tlie  white  man  often 
is.  When  a  stranger  comes  into  ,tbe  wigwam,  no  matter  how 
much  the  curiosity  of  the  inmates  is  excited,  they  will  not 
stare  at  him.  One  can  see  them  check  the  little  children, 
when,  their  onrioslly  being  excited,  they  stare  at  the  new  comer 
too  intently.  They  are  naturally  polite.  They  very  quickly 
learn  table  manners  that  are  unexceptionable,  and  to  conduct 
themselves  in  company  with  ease  and  grace,  and  often  with 
great  dignity.  When  the  wife  of  our  aged  Indian  cle^yman 
was  attending  a  reception  at  the  White  Houae,  there  was  a 
greater  crowd  of  distingaished  people,  congressmen  and  others, 
around  her  and  her  hosband,  than  there  was  around  the  presi- 
dent; bnt  she  was  equal  to  the  occasion,  and  received  with  the 
grace  and  dignity  of  a  queen.  Indians  say  that  when  they  go 
among  white  people  the  latter  often  crowd  np  to  them  and 
stare  into  their  faces,  as  if  they  were  wild  beasts.  They  would 
never  do  that  The  average  white  man  whom  they  meet  np  in 
the  pine  country  shouts  to  them  from  as  far  as  he  can  see 
them,  "Bo  shoo,  necbe,"  and  then  follows  it  np  with  laonohing 
at  than  a  few  of  the  most  obscene  words  in  the  Ojibway 
langoage,  which  -they  have  all  learned.  The  Ojibways  would 
never  do  so  to  white  people. 



Nearly  every  sanuner  I  have  been  on  a  Itmg  csnoe  trip, 
lasting  a  week  or  two,  witli  white  gentlemen  as  passengera, 
and  Indian  caaoe  men;  and  nearly  always  I  have  found  tbat 
before  the  end  of  the  trip  the  Indiaas  established  themselves 
as  the  better  gentlemen  of  the  two.  The  white  m^i  woald  be 
impatient,  cross,  fretful,  on  account  of  mosqaitoes,  rain,  cold, 
or  the  mishaps  of  travel;  the  ludiaiiB  always  preserved  their 
eqnanimity  in  the  most  trying  circumstances.  No  matter  if 
they  were  packing  very  beavyloadB,  while  the  white  gentt^nen 
walked  empty-handed;  no  matter  if  they  w«re  devoured  by 
mosquitoes,  while,  their  haads  being  fall,  they  eoald  not  switcAi 
them  off;  no  matter  if  the  trail  was  horrible,  encumbered  with 
fallen  logs,  and  they  sinking  to  their  middle  in  the  swampa, 
weighed  down  by  their  heavy  loads,  while  perhaps  at  the  same 
time  a  sudden  shower  would  fall;  there  never  was  a  word 
nor  a  look  of  impatience,  but  they  smiling  as  tranquilly  as  if 
it  had  been  a  good  path  and  a  sunny  day.  Their  manhood 
vroald  not  allow  them  to  demean  th^nselves  by  showing  Qie 
slightest  fretfalness  or  impatience  under  any  circumstances. 
Their  conduct  was  a  aileat  rebuke  to  their  white  brothers. 
Seeing  them  so  petulant,  so  easily  worried,  often  so  unreason- 
able, they  felt  for  them  a  good-natured  contempt. 


Can  the  Indian  rise  to  the  standard  of  the  white  man?  To 
answer  this  question,  one  looks  backwards,  and  thinks  of  tbe 
Indians  he  has  known;  and  as  the  picture  of  them  rises  b^ore 
the  memory,  I  have  to  confess  that  some  of  the  best  men  I 
'  have  ever  known,  and  the  freest  from  faults,  w««  Indians. 
There,  for  instance,  is  Edward  Beese,  a  full  Indian,  for  twenty 
years  government  teamster  at  Leech  Lake.  Industrious,  faith- 
ful to  every  duty,  a  good  neighbor,  a  kind  father  and  husband, 
patient  and  torbearing,  honest  and  loving,  the  sweet  spirit  of 
Ohrist  looking  out  of  bis  face,  in  his  daily  life  he  has  been  an 
inspiration  to  every  one  who  meets  him,  whether  whites  or 
Indians.  Sunning  my  mind  over  twenty  years  of  intimate 
knowledge  of  this  man,  I  cannot  recall  an  act,  or  a  vrord  ev«i, 
that  Edward  Beese  did  or  apoke,  that  was  not  a  manly  and  a 
Christian  act  or  word.  Yes,  one  wonld  bare  to  go  even  far- 
ther than  that,  and  say  that  he  never  saw  Edward  Reese  show 



a  temper  eren,  that  waa  not  a  CbriatiaD  temper.  Of  how 
man;  white  men  me  knows  can  one  ea;  the  same?  Yet  Ed- 
ward Beese  is  not  a  whit  better  than  the  old  chief,  David 
Kirk,  of  the  aame  Tillage.  Nor  is  he  any  l>etter  than  waa  the 
blacksmith,  bow  deceased,  Ke-zhi-oih.  Nor  was  he  any  bet- 
ter than  was  old  Bocky  Mountain  of  Bed  Lake,  or  Shay-day- 
ence  of  White  Earth,  or  a  great  many  others,  including  some 
in  eTory  Tilli%&  So  the  answer  to  that  question,  after  sum- 
moning up  witnesses  to  the  bar  of  memwy  and  trying  the  case, 
has  to  be,  if  it  is  the  answer  ot  truth,  by  one  who  knows  them 
intimately,  that  even  in  one  generation,  and  with  all  the  di»- 
advantage  of  heredity  and  most  anfavorable  early  surround- 
ings, a  great  many  Indians  are  just  as  good,  and  aa  nearly  per- 
fect characters  as  any  white  men  or  white  women  ever  get 
to  be. 

And  what  has  been  said  above  of  the  men  applies  equally  to 
the  women.  They  may  not  know  how  to  dress  as  nicely,  and 
not  be  so  well  acquainted  with  points  of  etiquette,  but  there 
are  just  aa  good  women,  and  plenty  of  them,  among  the  In- 
dians as  there  are  in  any  white  commanity.  It  would  make 
this  paper  too  long  to  ^ve  examples. 

But  here  a  word  of  caution  has  to  be  put  in.  Every  one 
of  those  I  have  been  speaking  of  are  Christiana.  I  have  rather 
a  poor  opinion  of  heathen  character,  and  would  not  expect  to 
find  much  that  is  lovable  there;  a  few  noble  traits,  perhaps, 
that  show  what  the  original  edifice  was  intended  to  be,  amidst 
a  mass  of  ruins.  There  is  not  much  that  is  desirable  in  the 
old  life;  nearly  athhas  to  be  boilt  up  anew  out  of  Christianity. 
I  am  not  writing  here  an  essay  on  Christianity  or  missions; 
so  I  pass  that  side  of  the  question  over  entirely,  only  saying 
that  the  most  sincere,  conslBtent,  lovable  and  zealous  Chris- 
tians I  have  ever  known  in  my  life  were  Indians.  Some  of 
them  have  passed  away;  a  great  many  are  still  living.  Nor 
do  I  speak  of  the  Indian  clergy  still  living,  now  eight  in  num- 
ber, who  are  all  of  them  all  that  such  men  ought  to  be.  Tak- 
ing it  on  the  whole,  I  think  that  Shay-day-ence,  who  frwu 
being  the  great  grand  medicine  man  of  the  Ojibway  nation  and 
a  chief  servant  of  Batan,  became  late  in  life  a  Christian  and 
a  wonderful  volunteer  missionary,  was  the  most  wonderful 
Indian  I  have  known.    Paul  did  not  have  a  stranger  conver- 



sion,  nor  a  more  barning  zeal,  than  did  old  Shay-da^.-Mice. 
There  is  a  very  Imperfect  sketch  of  Mm  in  this  SocietT'B  Li- 
brary, so  I  will  say  no  more  of  him. 

With  what  feelings  does  the  Ojibway  r^ard  tlie  coining 
of  the  white  man  into  his  Ticinity?  With  a  feeling  of  appre- 
hendon,  and  a  wish  that  he  wonld  not  cwne.  When  the 
whites  within  the  last  Ave  years  were  about  to  come  near  Cass 
lake,  the  chief,  an  excellent  man,  told  me  that  he  wished  they 
woDld  not  come,  becanae  it  would  break  in.  upon  their  "right- 
eoDsnesB  of  life."  We,  who  saw  how  they  lived,  wonld  not 
regard  it  in  many  respects  as  "righteoosness  of  life,*"  bnt  that 
waa  their  feeling. 


How  are  the  old  treated  by  the  Ojibwaysf  Oftentimes  a 
daughter  will  do  a  good  deal  for  her  aged  parents;  but  a  son 
cares  very  little  for  them  (I  am  speaking  of  the  heathoi),  and 
does  lesa  It  is  with  them  as  with  onrselres,  the  women  are 
a  good  deal  better  than  the  men.  But  It  seems  to  be  an  no- 
written  law  among  them  that  an  old  man,  and  especially  an 
old  woman,  most  shift  for  himself  or  herself  somehow.  They 
have  a  contempt  for  the  aged  and  useless,  like  all  heathen. 
The  son  never  seems  to  think  he  is  under  any  obligation  to  do 
anything  for  Ids  aged  father  or  mother.  Nor  do  they  make 
any  complaint  of  him,  for  they  do  not  seem  to  expeot  any- 
thing. And  one  always  hears  the  complaint  that  food  given 
by  the  govemmeift,  or  by  charitable  persons,  does  not  get  to 
the  old  persons  for  whom  it  was  intended,  bnt  ia  eaten  by  tho 
well  and  strong. 

Going  a  few  years  ago  to  the  bonse  of  one  of  our  Indian 
missionaries,  I  noticed  an  old  heathen  woman  lying  on  the 
floor,  who  seemed  so  feeble  she  conld  not  sit  up.  On  inquiry 
it  appeared  that  her  son  had  told  her,  in  the  very  coldest  of 
January,  to  go  out  of  doors  and  make  her  bed  in  the  snow, 
because  he  was  afraid  to  sleep  in  the  bouse  with  her,  fearing 
that  she  was  about  to  turn  into  a  man-eating  witch.  That, 
of  conrae,  was  only  an  excuse;  the  real  reason  was  that  he 
was  tired  of  her,  and  yet  she  had  been  a  good  and  devoted 
mother.  So  she  had  to  go,  and  slept  out  several  nights,  and 
waa  BO  badly  frozen  that  she  died  in  the  hospital  to  whidi  we 
bad  her  taken.    The  miasionary  and  bis  wife  had  bronftbt  her 



to  their  hoose,  as  soon  as  they  learned  of  it  When  dying 
she  sent  for  her  flon,  bat  be  paid  no  attention  to  it,  and  left  It 
to  rtrangere  to  bory  her.  It  eicited  no  comment,  nor  was  he 
^paiently  lowered  in  the  estimation  of  the  commanil^  in 
which  he  llTed.  Taking  a  general  view,  we  must  say  that  the 
old  are  badly  neglected  and  have  ft  hard  time.  One  good  old 
woman  who  was  blind  was  generally  reported  to<  have  atarved 
to  death,  thongh  her  relatives,  who  were  nnmerons,  might 
eat^y  have  given  her  rabbits  or  a  little  something  to  eat. 


Ttribacco  is  iargelj  naed  by  the  OjibwayB,m«),  women,  and 
children.  Th^  smoke  it  mixed  with  the  inner  bark  of  the 
fed  willow,  and  also  chew  it  'All  the  childrm  think  they 
must  have  tfaejr  tobacco  the  sune  as  their  ^dera.  The  womrai 
from  Gnt-Foot-Sloaz  are  the  greatrat  chewers  I  have  seen. 
Ordinarily  the  heathen  man  thinks  he  most  have  a  plag  as  long 
as  one's  arm  and  as  thick.  It  is  donbtfnl,  though,  whether 
the?  use  mere  of  it  than  certain  classes  of  onr  own  people. 
I  once  asked  the  principal  mercliaiit  at  Leech  Lake,  how  much 
money  be  took  in  In  a  year  from  the  Indians  tor  tobacco. 
Hemade  a  calenlatlon,  and  said  12^000.  There  were  three  stcnres 
tikere,  and  if  the  others  sojd  as  mach  it  would  make  |6,000  s 
year  in  that  one  village.  There  wen  about  1,000  pn-stms 
arooud  the  lake,  and  perhaps  two-thirds  of  them  got  their 
tobacco  there.  The  total  government  annultiea  for  X,600  In- 
dians were  |10,M6.  For  a  people  as  poor  as  they  were,  often 
starviBg,  this  was  a  serious  drain  on  their  resources,  and  it 
seema  strange  to  as  that  they  did  not  apply  that  90,000  to 
food.  An  Indian  at  Leech  lake  lately  went  to  a  merchant  and 
told  him  that  be  end  his  family  were  in  such  a  state  of  abso- 
lute stuvation  that  he  most  have  five  dollars'  worth,  on  credit, 
to  save  tb«m  alive.  The  good-hearted  merchant  consented, 
and  told  him  to  name  the  kinds  and  amounts  of  provisions 
to  take  np  the  five  dollars.  The  first  item  the  man  gave  was 
tobaooo,  a  d<dlar  and  a  half. 

HOHTAi^rrr  op  children. 

Although  the  Indian  women,  beginning  early,  bear  so 
many  children,  comparatively  few  live  to  maturity.    Ask  any 



aged  wcanan  how  many  childreo  she  has  had,  and  the  answer 
will  Qsnally  be  from  eight  to  twelve.  Ask  her  how  man;  are 
alive  and  the  answer  will  nsnall;  be  one,  two,  or  ntMie  at  all. 
The  hardships  of  the  life,  cold,  hanger,  insnlBcient  clothing, 
the  carrying  children  to  heathen  ^nces,  and  the  want  of 
knowledge  how  to  care  for  them  in  sickness,  are  the  canses 
of  their  dying  yonng.  For  instance,  in  the  winter  of  1873 
there  was  an  epidemic  of  whooping  cough  in  White  Earth.  I 
constantly  saw  children  clad  only  in  the  cotton  shirt,  cotton 
leggings,  and  moccanns,  standing  in  the  road  in  the  cold 
snowy  weather,  conghing  violently  with  the  whooping  congh; 
no  wonder  that  over  Atty  died,  oat  of  a  population  of  some 
hundreds,  while  ont  of  the  same  number  of  people  in  the  white 
town  from  which  I  had  come,  and  where  there  bad  also  been 
an  epidemic  of  the  same  disease,  not  one  had  died. 


I  have  never  known  the  adult  heathen  Ojibways  to  wash 
their  bodies  or  bathe.  The  lK>ys  and  girls  and  yoang  people 
sometimes  bathe,  bat  never  the  grown  ap  people  that  I  have 
seen.  As  they  all  live  in  one-roomed  houses,  they  have  no 
facilities  for  doing  so.  Yet  I  have  known  some  to  live  to 
ninety-two  years,  and  some  indeed  to  be  considerably  older, 
with  very  poor  food,  and  in  defiance  of  all  sanitary  laws,  who 
I  am  sure  had  not  washed,  except  their  faces  and  hands,  for 
sixty  years.  Th^  do  not  seem  to  think  it  necessary  or  ben- 
eficial. When  children  are  taken  into  a  boarding-school,  theee 
is  apt  to  be  a  great  fight  with  the  paroits  to  allow  them  to  be 
washed,  as  they  think  that  water  will  seriously  injure  them. 

The  reason  why  they  prefer  the  one-roomed  house  is  on  ac- 
count of  the  sociability  and  for  greater  warmth.  They  are 
gregarious.  They  love  to  see  and  hear  each  other,  love  laugh- 
ter and  jests,  and  as  they  have  no  books  or  newspapers  or  any 
other  means  of  passing  their  time,  they  find  their  amusement 
in  each  other's  society.  It  is  therefore  by  preference  and  not 
from  poverty  that  they  have  the  one-roomed  house.  Then  in 
their  cold  winter  climate  one  room  is  much  more  easily  heated 
than  several.  The  chief  of  Cass  lake,  a  Christian  man,  when 
his  three  daughters  married,  bnilt  for  each  one  and  her  hua- 



band  ED  addition  to  bis  hoaae,  a  log  kmhq  at  -the  end,  each 
room  communicatiDg  by  a  door  with  the  rest  of  the  hooBa. 
In  thiB  room  the  new  family  was  installed,  and  so  were  prirate; 
Bnt  I  have  never  known  a  heathen  family  to  have  more  than 
one  room,  in  any  honse  they  built  themaelTes.  The  mission- 
aries and  some  of  the  Christians  hare  more  than  one  room, 
and  in  the  new  honsee  bnilt  by  the  Chippewa  Commission 
within  the  !aat  fire  years  for  the  new  remoTals  to  White 
Earth  there  was  nsnally  an  npstairs  part,  which  conld  be 
nsed  as  a  sleeping  room.  Bat  to  the  mass  of  the  people  the 
idea  of  shotting  one  person  alone  in  a  box  of  a  bedroom  seems 
an  tinnatnral  way,  and  far  inferior  to  their  own.  They  can 
sleep  far  better  with  the  children  crawling  oyer  them,  and 
a  warm  tie  at  their  feet. 


The  Indians  kill  game  at  all  seasons,  everything  that  has 
life.  All  summer  long  they  hnnt  deer  by  torchlight  A  few 
years  ago  we  sent  an  Indian  clergyman  to  Cass  lake  in  May, 
and  in  two  months  he  killed  twenty-five  deer,  mostly  by  torch* 
light,  np  the  Mississippi,  in  his  canoe.  The  Indians  at  the 
Karrows  of  Bed  lake,  opposite  to  the  Agency,  killed  in  one 
tall,  by  actual  count,  eighty-seven  moose,  swimming  in  the 
lake,  near  their  village,  to  escape  from  the  flies.  That  was 
in  1887,  I  think.  Last  winter  many  Indians  about  Bandy  lake 
had  killed,  by  Decembor,  Bixteoi  deer  each  since  the  snow  fell. 
Many  of  the  Indiana  of  the  White  Earth  reservation  killed 
that  winter,  of  1896-97,  forty  deer  each,  as  owing  to  the  nn- 
nsnally  deep  snow  the  deer  could  not  get  away  from  them. 
They  pursued  them  on  snowshoea,  and  ^led  tiiem  with  axes. 
I  myself  saw  deer  pursued  and  floondering  in  the  deep  snow, 
making  very  little  headway.  Last  winter  I  was  at  the  village 
of  Home-retuming-Cloud,  near  Leech  lake,  and  found  be  was 
absent  with  most  of  the  women.  I  learned  that  they  bad 
gone  to  pack  home  five  moose,  which  he  had  killed  about 
twenl7  miles  away.  He  had  previously  killed  two  moose. 
One  wonld  think  that  this  indiscriminate  slaughter  of  the 
deer  and  otbee  animals  winter  and  summer  would  resnlt  In 
their  extermination;  bnt,  strange  to  say,  their  numbers  have 



been  constantly  increasing  within  tlie  Indian  reierTatim,  on- 
til  last  winter.  For  instance,  when  the  Indian  clergTmen 
went  to  Red  lake  first  in  1877,  they  noticed  that  it  was  a  rare 
thing  for  any  deer  to  be  killed;  there  were  Tcry  few  deer,  bat 
afterward  they  kept  constantly  increasing,  and  the  Indians 
every  year  kept  killing  ni(»«  and  more.  This  continual  in- 
crease of  the  deer  famishes  a  carloos  confirmation  <rf  what 
tjie  Indians  are  always  saying,  that  "the  Great  Spirit  always 
sends  something  for  His  Indian  children,  and  seems  to  special- 
ly provide  for  their  wants.  He  s^ds  them  the  wild  rice  which 
they  n^their  plant  nor  cultiTate  nor  fence,  bnt  only  reap,  and 
He  sends  them  many  other  things."  I  sappose  the  explana- 
tion  of  the  increasing  plentiDess  of  the  dew,  notwithstanding 
the  ctmtioiial  slaughter  of  them  wint^  and  sonmier,  is  that 
giren  by  the  Indians,  namely,  that  as  the  coantry  soath  be- 
comes settled  the  deer  go  north  into  the  reservations,  the  only 
ansettled  pairt  of  the  country,  and  altbo>agli  so  many  are 
killed  off  they  still  keep  c(Hning  in.  It  may  be  also,  though 
the  Indians  do  not  say  so,  that  the  English  working  aa  tbe 
Canadian  Pacific  railway  scare  them  down  this  way.  Bnt 
their  numbers  reached  and  passed  tiie  high  water  mark,  I 
think,  hi  1896  and  1397,  in  that  last  winter  of  deep  snow,  when 
almost  ever;  man  was  ont  after  them,  and  many  banters,  as 
has  been  said,  killed  forty  each. 

Indians,  as  is  well  known,  never  leave  any  game  for  a  fo- 
tore  time,  or  far  fntore  needs,  but  kill  everything  in  siglf^ 
vvenif  they  have  so  mach  flesh  that  they  are  miable  to  nse  it 
Usoally,  all  winter  long,  one  can  bny  moose  meat  and  venteen 
in  Bed  Lake  village  and  Leech  Lake  for  five  cents  a  poond, 
ajid  sometimes  (or  ma<di  less.  In  the  beginning  of  Norrember 
most  of  the  men  move' oat  and  establish  deer-honting  camps, 
and  stay  ont  till  aboat  the  first  of  Jansary.  Heretofore  abont 
Oass  lake  has  been  the  beat  place  for  deer  and  inooB&  Some 
reindeer  were  also  killed  theie  several  years  ago,  bat  v«7 
few  of  late  years.  In  a  letter  to  the  state  fire  wardm  a  few 
years  ago  I  gave  an  estimate,  made  with  the  aid  of  the  best- 
infonned  Indiaas,  of  the  nombers  <rf  deer  annoally  killed  by 
the' Indians  of  the  dcSerent  villages,  and  it  ran  np  Into  mmy 
thonssAda    The  deer  and  moose  skins  are  all  ntiUzed  for 



BoccasiiiB.  The  Mille  Laca  people  hare  bo  man;  that  they  can 
Bell ;  those  in  the  other  vUlages  beep  them  for  liieir  own  tiBe. 
The  Ojibway  jastl;  pr^en  the  mocoaain,  winter  and  snouner, 
to  any  other  foot-wear. 

traoLBcT  ov  douestic  iNiuALa 
The  Ojibways,  like  Indians  everywhere,  have  no  feeling 
whaterer  for  the  sofferings  of  animals.  They  always  allow 
nnmbera  of  domestio  animals  to  starre  in  winter  and  spring, 
thonii^  with  two  or  three  days  of  labor  they  might  cat  hay 
eaoBfth  to  keep  them  txt  Yery  often  they  do  not  honse  them; 
sod  tlie  oxen  and  ponies-  stand  ont  night  and  day  for  weeks 
when  the  ci^  is  thirty  or  forty  degrees  b^ow  Eero.  It  is 
pitifal  also  to  see  the  stazring  creatores  wandering  throagh 
the  Tillages,  as  Leeeb  Lake,  trying  to  eat  horse  dang  that  has 
a  little  straw  or  old  hay  mixed  with  it  It  neTer  se^us  to 
occor  to  the  Indians  to  feel  the  least  pity  for  their  sofferings. 
Towards  spring  especially  ia  the  time  when  most  of  the  cattle 
and  ponies  die  of  starvation.  All  arennd  are  native  hay  mead- 
ows, sod  in  one  day  a  man  shoald  oat  grass  enough  to  feed  a 
hoiae  «r  an  OK  for  a  year.  One  of  the  evil  ^ects  of  maple 
logar-mahing  is  that  when  they  move  from  their  homes  to 
Oe  sagar  woods,  tfaey  abandon  any  animals  they  do  not  om 
to  trantpott  them  there;  so  the  cattle,  hogs,  or  ponies  being 
tsraed  omk  iato  the  deep  snow  and  having  nothing  either  to 
cat  or  drink,  waadet  about,  ansfieltered  and  starving,  till  they 
die.  TUs  continual  loss  of  cattle  and  ponies,  erery  year,  crii)>- 
ples  them  very  moch,  as  may  be  imagined,  in  ^tAe  feeble  ef- 
forts at  f  armingt 

The  winter  of  1899^7,  on  aeoonnt  of  its  deep  snow,  was 
BBnsTially  disastroas  to  the  cattle  and  ptmiea  Some  Indians 
had  cnt  and  stacked  some  hay  on  the  meadows  a  few  milM  ftom 
iriwre  tb^  lived,  but  had  not  banled  it  home;  and  when  tSie 
snow  became  deep,  the  ponies,  being  feeble,  were  anaible  to  haul 
it,  and  so  they  nearly  all  died.  At  Cass  lake- there  were  only 
two  or  tidree  ponies  that  sorvived;  th^  neariy  all  died  at 
Bed  lake,  on  the  White  Earth  reservation,  everywhere.  Some 
tried  to'  ke^  them  alive  by  feeding  them  brancbea  of  trees; 
bat,  as  may  be  imagined,  y^th  poor  snocess.    One  would  won- 



der  tihat,  with  tbe  contioDal  hard  treatment  every  winter,  and 
the  great  nomberB  that  ■tarre,  there  are  any  ponies  left;  hot 
the  explanation  Is  that  they  get  a  fresh  supply  of  ponies  every 
summer  from  the  Sioox,  who  aboond  in  ponies.  Most  of  the 
Ojibway  men  have  their  women  make  quantities  of  their  bean- 
tifnl  b«id-work  every  winter  and  store  it  np.  When  snmmer 
comes,  the  basband  carries  it  to  the  Sioox  country,  and  brings 
back  as  masy  ponies  as  he  had  tobacco-poaches  (kashkibita" 
ganog).  One  of  the  bead-work  pooches  is  the  great  ornament 
of  an  Ojibway,  and  any  person  wearing  it  is  considered  to  be 
in  foil  dress;  it  is  worth  a  pony  among  the  Sioox.  Thns  tlie 
stock  of  horses  is  every  sommer  replenished.  The  OJibways 
are  not  horse  Indians;  naturally  they  have  no  hcMrses,  ezoept- 
ing  those  they  get  from  the  Sioox. 

The  United  States  government  occasionally  has  issoed 
yokes  of  oxen,  perhaps  twelve  yokes  at  a  time,  to  as  many 
Bed  Lake  Indians.  With  these  they  banled  freight  tor  the 
government,  from  the  then  nearest  railroad  station,  Detroit, 
100  to  110  miles  distant;  and  later,  when  the  railroad  was  boilt 
to  FosBton,  frun  that  place,  66  miles.  They,  of  coarse,  camped 
oot  by  the  way.  The  roads  were  in  many  places  shocking, 
and,  between  tbe  severity  of  the  labw  and  the  want  of  feed 
and  care,  the  oxen  were  nsnally  all  dead  vrithin  two  years. 
Oxen  were  often  similarly  issaed  to  theWbite  EariSi  Indians; 
and  they,  too,  often  starved  to  death,  from  their  owners  not 
making  hay  for  them  in  sommer.  Then  instead  of  using  them 
for  farming  they  were  used  to  take  their  families  to>  Indian 
dances,  at  great  distances,  as  Leech  Lake,  M  miles,  Bed  Lake, 
90  miles,  or  to  the  Sioox  coontry,  several  hundred  mites;  and 
on  such  trips  they  were  very  po«»ly  fed,  and  were  oiherwiae 
abused.  It  is  no  wonder,  therefor^  that  osually  the  oxen 
soon  all  died.  They  were  nsed  also  to  carry  their  owners  and 
families  where  the  different  berries  abounded,  as  they  became 
ripe,  often  fifty  or  sixty  miles  distant 

Cows  were  also  issued  to  the  White  Earth  Indians,  bat 
they  never  milked  them,  as  they  do  not  care  for  milk  and  never 
drink  it  The  first  Indian  agent,  E.  P.  Smith,  who  was  there 
in  1872  and  1873,  being  a  man  of  most  admirable  judgment^ 
bonght  the  finest  cattle  of  the  best  breeds  and  issued  them  to 



the  Indiana.  The  coDseqaence  was  that  io  the  following  yean 
visitors  from  St  Fanl  and  other  places,  who  were  jadges  of 
stock,  said  tliat  the  cattle  which  they  saw  in  sntnmer  grazing 
on  the  White  Earth  reservation  were  the  finest  they  had  evw 
seen  in  their  lives.  Within  a  few  years  broncho  men  have 
bronght  in  tiiat  kind  of  horses,  and  traded  them  to  the  Indians 
for  their  cattle  and  got  away  from  them  nearly  all  that  re- 
mained. The  bronchos  enable  them  to  get  about  quicker, 
visiting  Biooz  or  going  to  dances,  but  are  worthless  for  farm- 
ing porposes.  The  genuine  Indian  pony  (not  the  broncho)  is 
the  toughest  thing  in  the  world,  and  it  is  astonishing  what 
loads  the  Indians  will  haul  with  them.  The  Indians  at  Leeoh 
Lake,  for  many  years,  haoled  floor  and  goods  for  the  mer- 
chants and  supplies  for  the  government,  first  from  Brainerd, 
68  miles  distant,  and  later  from  Park  Bapids,  16  miles.  The 
roads  for  part  of  the  way  were  indescribably  bad,  the  wagons 
frequently  sinking  to  the  hub.  Yet  with  small  ponies  and 
heavy  wagons  they  managed  to  hanl  loads  of  from  eighteen  to 
twenty-^two  hundred  weight  I  do  not  think  any  white  men 
could  have  got  those  loads  orer  such  roads  with  those  small 
ponies.  They  kept  ait  them  day  and  night,  often  when  they 
were  staggering  from  weakness,  until  they  got  them  to  Leecdi 
Lake.  The  prices  paid  them  were  perhaps  from  50  to  76 
ceatM  a  hundred,  from  Paxk  Bapids. 


The  Ojibways  are  good  walkers.  The  Bev.  Mai^  Hart  left 
Bed  Lake  at  two  o'clock  in  the  afternoon  of  a  November  day, 
camped  on  the  road  about  thirty-fonr  miles  ont,  and  the  next 
evetdng  was  at  my  hoose,  eighty  or  ninety  miles  from  Bed 
Lake.  He  thought  nothing  of  it  They  do  not  consider  walk- 
ing work.  Even  children  of  sir  years  will  walk  twenty-flve 
miles  in  a  day  for  several  days  in  succession  and  do  not  seem 
to  mind  it  Bev.  Mark  Harf  s  son,  six  years  old,  walked  from 
Oass  I^e  to  Bed  Lake,  forty-flve  miles.  In  two  days,  and  slept 
out  on  the  road.  I  have  known  Indians  to  leave  Bed  lake  at 
noon,  and  get  to  the  shore  of  Leech  lake  by  midnight,  the 
distance  being  sixty-flve  miles. 



Old  Hockj  MoQntalD,  living  at  Bed  Lake,  heard  that  his 
anunit?  money,  Ave  dollars,  was  at  White  Earth,  Bome  ninety 
mileB  distant,  and  started  to  walk  there  to  get  it.  He  was 
between  eighty  and  ninety  yeais  of  age.  When  he  got  to  the 
Twin  lakes,  dxty-five  miles  distant,  on  the  second  da^  ont, 
he  learned  that  the  money  had  been  retomed  to  Washington. 
Consequently  he  tnmed  and  in  the  next  two  days  walked  back 
to  Bed  Lake/  walking  on  the  last  day  forty  miletL  He  said 
he  was  not  a  particle  tired  when  he  got  back,  but  was  skip* 
ping  abont  bringing  peile  of  water.  His  eon,  who  was  with 
him,  was  tired.  The  tame  old  man  ased  to  walk  every  year, 
at  payment  tim^  from  Bed  Lake  to  Leech  Lake,  nearly  seveaty 
miles,  and  baok,  to  receire  his  annuity,  which  was  flre  dol* 
lars,  camping  oat  in  all  wealhers. 

These  Indians  enumerate  the  great  walkers  who  have  bem 
among  than  in  the  last  two  hnndred  years.  One  was  an 
Ojibway,  one  a  Frenchman,  and  the  third  James  Ll<^d  Breok, 
the  first  misBionary  of  the  Episcopal  Ghnreh  among  than.  Be 
walked  in  one  day  from  the  old  agency  near  Crow  Wing  to 
I<eech  lake,  and  back  the  next,  a  distance  of  sereutK  miles 
eaoh  way.  He  was  always  doing  sach  things,  but  never  speks 
of  them  and  never  thoagbt  of  them.  The  Indians  acknowledge 
that  he  could  oatwalk  any  of  iihem.  He  walked  so  fast  that 
they  had  to  run  to  keep  up  with  him.  When  I  was  coming 
onoe  from  Leech  lake,  and  stopping  for  dinner  at  Pine  river, 
thirty-foor  miles  distant,  an  old  Indian  appeared,  pursoing 
OS,  with  a  letter  that  had  been  forgotten.  He  delivered  it, 
and  turned  round  to  trot  home  again,  another  thirty-four 
miles,  when  one  of  the  party  kindly  sent  him  into  the  hotel  to 
get  his  dinner.    He  was  an  old  man,  of  about  sixty  years. 

Along  in  the  70's  and  80*8  the  mail  was  carried  by  an  Ojib- 
way on  foot  from  White  Earth  to  Bed  I«ke,  and  back,  once 
a  week.  The  distance  between  the  places  is  80  or  90  miles, 
and  was  through  an  uninhabited  wilderness,  with  only  one 
house  on  the  way.  On  Uonday  the  man  usually  walked  25  or 
82  miles,  and  camped ;  the  next  day  he  walked  32  or  10  miles, 
and  camped ;  the  third  day  he  arnved  at  Bed  Lake  by  noon. 
After  resting  a  day  he  repeated  the  trip  by  retitfu  to  White 
Earth.    His  mail  sack  weighed  sometimes  from  50  to  76 



pemds;  and  in  addition,  lie  had  to  carry  Ms  proTlBi<Mifl  and 
blanket  In  winter  the  roada  were  deep  -with  snow,  the  trail 
hardi;  broken,  and  in  Rvmmer  he  w^  devonred  night  and 
daj  b;  tnosqnitoea,  and  conid  only  live  at  alt  by  switching  his 
neeh  and  face  constantly  with  twigs  and  leaves.  He  was  paid 
one  dollar  a  daj,  and  his  prorislons.  Usnally  one  Indi&n  car- 
ried the  mail  only  a  little  time,  f^en  he  govt  way  to  another. 
Allan  Joordan,  now  deceased,  a  half-breed,  carried  it  the 
longest,  three  months.  Once  while  the  pocr  crzbansted  car-> 
rier  was  sleeping  at  Wild  BJce  rirer,  his  clothing  caaght  Are 
from  his  camp  fire,  and  his  limbs  were  dreajdfnlly  bnraed.  He 
waa  carried  by  men  ob  a  litter  to  White  Earth,  and  after  a 
long  Qlness  recoTered. 

To  illostrate  how  the  Indians  look  on  walking,  eren  the 
most  scv>rae,  as  no  work,  I  may  tril  the  reosark  of  an  old 
blind  woman,  Bn^wndj^iqne  CThe  Woman  of  tiie  Wildernefls). 
She  was  In  my  study  when  on  Indian,  the  Bed  Laix  mail-car- 
rier, came  in.  After  some  conveisaiion,  she  foond  he  was  B 
relatiTe  and  tenderly  kissed  Uni.  Then  she  aiAed  him^  what 
be  did  for  a  living;  He  told  her  he  carried  the  mail.  "O— o,"* 
said  she,  Oi^g  the  woman^  Itag  dr^wn  ont  «iclamation  of 
sorpriae,  "isn't  that  niccv  m  wvrk  at  all  to  do;  only  to  pick 
ap  yoor  money  at  the  end  of  Ote  road." 


Many  Indians  live  to  ninety  years  and  upwards^  In  con- 
stant soflering  from  hsnger,  lack  of  clothing,  and  cold,  and  tn 
the  most  nneanitary  conditions.  In  1897  died  2flndlbewiniiil; 
at  the  age  of  nlnety^two  yearst  He  was  the  Leech  Lake  In- 
dian who  in  1839  remained  behind,  hiding  in  ambnah,  after  the 
treaty  of  peace  near  Fort  Boelling,  and  killed  the  EUoux,  bring- 
ing as  a  resclt  the  diaastrons  battle  In  Battle  Hollow  at 
fitniwater,  and  another  battle,  which  proved' fatal  to  morv 
thftn  a  hsndred  OJibways.  Foe  many  years  his  life  was  !■ 
danger  from  the  rage  of  ttiose  who  had  tost  lelatiTes  on  that 
disastroas  day.  Thoogh  often  urged,  lie  never  would  become 
a  Chzistion,  saying  that  he  had  been  the  eanse  of  too  moeb 
blood  having  been  shed,  that  Qod  woald  not  forgive  hiOL. 
nie  oldest  man  who  has  died  ta  the  prescmt  gescmtion  wwi 



OegwedjiBa  (Trying  to  Walk,  as  nearly  a»  it  can  be  tpanalated) 
of  Leeota  I^ake,  wbo  was  conaid^^d  by  the  traders,  after  care- 
fol  fnTestigation,  to  be  a  hnndred  and  fifteen  yeara  old.  Con- 
versing with  him  about  twelve  or  fifteen  years  ago,  I  fonnd 
that  he  perfectly  remembered  General  Pike's  visit  to  Leedt 
lake,  which  was  in  February,  1806,  and  described  bim.  Being 
asked  at  what  age  he  was  then,  he  said  he  was  married  and 
had  a  daughter  *^  higjh,"  mnning  about  He  was  probably 
twenty-flve  years  old  then.  Indians  never  know  their  age,  bat 
describe  themselves  as  being  "so  high,"  if  it  was  in  their  child- 
hood, when  some  noted  event  happened,  snch  as  "when  the 
Indians  nearly  all  died  of  the  Bmall-pox,"  or  "at  the  time  of 
the  great  sickness  cansed  by  the  rotten  flour  issued  after  the 

Old  Bhay-day-ence  told  me  that  when  a  child  he  remem- 
bered seeing  old  men  with  the  hair  of  their  heads  all  pulled 
out  (such  as  we  see  in  the  pictures  of  Indians)  and  only  the 
scalp  lock  left  He  s^d  the  old  fellows  used  to  come  into  the 
wigwam  where  he  was,  and,  bowing,  as  it  were,  alternately  to 
one  side  and  the  other,  would  say  in  a  deep  gattural  voioe, 
'K)ongh,  oongh."  He  said  he  was  mortally  afraid  of  them  and 
their  smooth  scalps.  He  said  the  hair  was  palled  oat  vec7 
quickly,  a  handful  at  a  time,  and  that  it  caused  them  very  lit- 
tle pain.  The  same  old  man  was  once  with  me  in  St  Paul, 
about  the  year  1882,  I  think,  and  we  salt  on  a  hill,  the  Park 
Place  property,  1  believe,  overlooking  ttie  city.  For  some  time 
be  did  not  recognlee  the  place,  it  was  bo  changed  by  the  balld- 
ings;  then  all  of  a  endden  it  came  back  to  him  and  he  reo- 
oguired  it  "There,"  said  he,  pointing  to  a  certain  place,  "was 
little  Crow's  village;  and  tb««  was  where  the  road  led  out 
of  his  village  into  the  country,  and  it  was  beside  that  road  that 
two  Indiana  and  I  were  secreted,  when  two  women,  I  think, 
and  a  man,  not  suapecting  any  danger,  came  out  along  the 
path  and  were  killed  and  ecalped  by  our  party,  who  then  made 
off  to  the  Ojibway  country."  Such  was  life  in  St  Paul  at 
that  early  time.  He  did  not  say  that  he  killed  any  of  them, 
and  I  hope  be  did  not;  but  ev^i  if  he  did,  b^ng  a  heathen  man 
at  that  time,  and  a  recognized  state  of  war  existing,  and  it  be- 
ing according  to  their  ideas  of  right  or  even  merit,  we  shonid 
be  Blow  to  pr4»iounce  judgment  in  the  case. 




When  the  Ojibway  man  works,  strange  to  sa;,  he  tvorki 
Ter7  fast,  mnoh  faster  than  a  white  man.  Perhaps  that  la 
one  reason  why  they  so  soon  get  tired  of  it  andl  give  it  np, 
becanse  they  exert  themselves  so  strongly  while  they  are  at 
it  This  is  seen,  tot  example,  in  hodng  a  field.  The  men,  and 
the  women  also,  are  excellent  with  the  ax,  being  trained  to  It 
from  earliest  infancy.  When  some  boys  whom  I  sent  to  seliool 
were  in  Illinois,  the  people  thoe  used  to  turn  out  to  see  those 
boys  chop.  Thongh  it  was  a  wooded  country,  none  there 
conid  handle  the  bjc  as  they. 

OJibwayg  hired  in  a  logging  camp  nsnally  do  not  stay  Tery 
long;  a  week  or  two,  till  they  get  a  little  money  ahead.  Then 
they  go  iHime  to  spend  it  and  rest  This  Is  a  relic  of  the  old 
life,  when  a  p^od  of  Ti<dent  exertion  was  sncoeeded  by  a  pro- 
longed rest  Occaai<»ially,  howerer,  one  will  be  found  who 
will  stay  in  a  lo^ng  camp  all  winter.  The  lombermen  say 
that  while  they  do  work  they  are  as  good  hands  as  any.  Th^ 
like  working  with  the  ax  better  than  almost  any  oth^  labor. 

One  kind  of  work  they  excel  Id  and  are  particnlarly  fond 
of,  rlTer-driving,  The  excitement,  the  continual  change,  jast 
salts  them.  Monotony  in  anything  they  cannot  stand.  The 
constant  repetition  of  performing  the  same  act  over,  over  and 
over  again,  as  white  people  do,  for  instance,  in  mannfaotnr- 
ing,  is  insupportable  to  them. 

Contrary  to  what  woald  be  supposed,  the  Ojlbway  excels 
the  white  man  in  making  a  farm  or  garden,  when  he  wants 
to  do  it;  not  in  wheat-farming,  however,  <»  such  farming  as 
he  has  not  been  used  to,  bnt  such  as  he  Imows,  vegetable  rais- 
ing. A  skilled  white  former  and  gardener  went  on  a  joomey 
of  a  hnndred  and  twenty  miles  through  the  white  man's  coun- 
try from  Oull  Lake  settlement  to  Hnbbard  and  back;  and  he 
told  me  the  best  gardens  by  far  that  he  saw  on  the  road  were 
Indians'  gardens.  The  white  men  could  not  b^^in  to  equal 
them.  Similarly  a  resident  of  Bemidji,  an-  old  farmer,  told 
me  that  the  best  garden  in  all  that  region  was  that  raised  by 
Sbenaw-ishkunk,  the  old  Ojibway  who  had  always  lived  <m 
the  town-Bite  of  Bemidji.    The  Indian  has  genius;  he  can  do 



anythiag  he  wanti  to,  and  hie  geaias  ehawa  in  Uie  looki  of 
hie  garden,  even  thoagh  it  be  a  email  spot  he  cnltlTatee. 


The  Ojibwaye  have,  in  their  own  language,  no  word  of 
lalntation  at  meeting  or  parting.  Tbej  have,  howev^,  adoptr 
ed  from  the  French  the  phrase,  "Bon  Jonr."  Ae  thw-e  is  no 
V  in  their  language,  the  nearest  the;  can  come  to  it  ia  "Bo 
zhoo,".  which  is  now  tlieir  ealntation  at  maeting  and  parting. 
However,  when  a  goeet  ia  leaving,  the  proper  thing  to  say  to 
him  ie  '^adjan,  madjan"  (go,  go).  Often  I  have  sem  OjibmtrB 
who  were  good  friends  and  bad  not  seen  each  other  toe  a  long  . 
time  meet  onexpectedlj  on  the  trail  in.  titc  wooda^  look  at 
each  other,  affectionately  for  quite  a,  long  time^  and  then  pasa 
on.  witboot  a  single  'wotA  being  said  oo  either  aide,  not  even 
'^  zhoo." 

Some  of  the  Indiana  have  a  verj  Chineae  cast  of  feataret. 
The  way  the  e^«s  are  set,  and  the  color  of  tSie  akin,  leave  no 
donbt  of  a  Chinese  or  Ja|Miie«e  ori^n.  I  saw  one  Indian 
near  WinnihigortuBh  who  in  hia  looka  seoned  to  me  as  Testa- 
ble a.  Chinazoan  as  any  that  er^  left  OUna. 

naiTiNa;  dblibsbatsitebs  in  thinking  and  sp bakino. 

When  the  Ojibway  pays  a  visit  to  a  w3iite  man,  bis  time 
is  any  time  from  the  dawn  till  after  bedtime,  and  he  enjoys 
making' a  good  long  visit,  of  many  boors'*  daEation  or  all  day. 
This  is  becaose  he  has  no  partlcniar  bnsinesa  to  call  him  away, 
and  he  is  deliberate  in  all  his  movem^ts.  If  a  man,  he  smokes 
bis  long-stemmed  Indian  pipe  a  good  part  of  the  time,  and 
talke.  Smoking  seems  to  aseiat  bis  mental  operations;  and 
when  anything  difficult  is  to  be  thought  out  he  instinotivdy 
reaches  for  his  pipe.  He  does  not  need  to  be  entertained,  aft 
a  white  visitor  would,  with  small  talk;  he  is  content  to  sit 
and  think,  and  absorb  tihe,  to  him,  nnfamiliar  sarrouodings. 
However,  like  every  other  man,  he  is  pleaaed  at  being  ocoar 
sionally  spoken  to,  and  taken  notice  of. 

When  a  woman  pays  a  visit  she  does  not  need,  as  a  white 
woman,  to  be  amused  or  entertained;  ehe  will  elt  for  honra 



-fl^taig  DOfhing,  bot  perfectly  satiafled,  taking  in  erwytliing, 
"tbe  appearance  of  the  lioaee,  Ibe  manner  of  hooaekeeping,  the 
people.  It  would  be  a  bore  to  her  to  be  talked  to.  She  has 
come  there  to  enjoy  herself  in  her  own  qaiet  way  by  looking. 
White  women  at  first  think  they  mnst  entertain  their  Indisn 
rtster  visitor  by  talking  to  her,  as  tiiey  would  to  a  white 
Tisitor;  bot  soon  they  find  oat  the  better  way,  namely,  to  let 
her  alone.  If  she  is  talked  to'  she  answers  in  monoeyllableB, 
aad  manifests  no  wish  to  keep  up  an  animated  cooveraation. 
Bnt  all  the  tine  ^e  ie  taking  in  everything.  By  and  by, 
after  she  has  sat  perhaps  for  honra,  and  not  before,  she' will 
tell  what  she  has  come  for,  get  it,  and  leare;  In  the  same 
-way  a  man  willsit  a  long  time,  and  not  tell  his  basiness;  or,  If 
a^ed,  will  merely  say  that 'he  came  "for  nothinj;."  By  and 
by,  when  he  is  ready  to  leave,  he  will  at  hist  do  his  errand. 

Indians  are  moch  more  delib^ate  in  thinking  and  in  spetA- 
ing  than  white  people.  Wc  know  how  fast  white  people, 
women  especially,  will  sometimes  clutter,  tdJkiug  fast,  three 
or  four  at  once.  Oftentimes  no  thinking  aetm»  to  accompany 
tbe  speaking.  The  Indian  always  thinks  as  be  qwaks,  and 
only  speaks  so  far  as  he  thinks.  There  is  a  TOlnme  of  small 
talk  amoflg  us  that  ts  absent  amtmg  them.  With  them  is 
deliberation.  For  instance,  if  one  gees- into  the  bonse  or  wig- 
wam, and  makes  the  formal  friendly  inqaity,  "Are  you  all 
well?"  the  man  or  woman  thinks  a  considerable  time  b^ore 
answering,  and  then  gives  the  exact  state  of  the  health  of  the 
family.  Willi  as  it  woaM  be  answered  as  nnthinkingly  as 
it  is  asked.  The  same  deliberation  and  thoaght  of  what  is 
=s8id  runs  throagh  all  tbeir  interctmrse.  T%ere  are  some  wom- 
en, never  men,  who  talk  at  once  and  somewhat'  fast,  bnt  rare- 
ly so. 


If  the  women  ha've  a  piece  of  yrvtk  to  do,  89  washing  a 
efaarrti  fexxr,  or  anything  dae,  th^  like  to  do  It  as  a  frolic,  a 
mmber  joltdng  together'in  it,  and  making  it  easy  by  confintial 
Jokes  and  langhter.    To  do  it  Alone  would  8e«n  much  harder. 

In  doing  any  work,  or  anything  else,  an  Indian  cannot  be 
forced  or  driven;  he  can  only  be  led,  and  allowed  to  do  it 



Tolantaiily.  If  attempted  to  be  driTen,  he  will  Blmply  stoi^ 
and  not  do  anytbing,  and  he  cannot  be  compelled.  For  in- 
stance, my  wife,  who  had  Indian  girls  to  help  in  the  hooseworb 
for  many  years,  fonnd  tbat  if  ehe  would  saj  to  an  Indian  girl, 
as  she  woald  to  a  white  girl,  "Do  this  now,"  pointing  ont  some 
piece  of  work,  however  simple,  she  conld  not  get  it  done.  But 
if  she  wonld  show  it  to  the  girl,  and  say  that  she  wished  it 
done,  and  go  oft  aod. leave  her  alooe  f<Nr  Ave  minutes,  elie 
wonld  find  it  done  when  Bhe  came  back.  The  Indian  nature 
rebels  against  being  driven  to  do  anything,  but  most  do  it  v<A- 
untarilj  if  at  oil.  So  all  people  who  have  sense  never  try  to 
drive  Indians  to  anything.  By  leading  them  to  it,  it  can  be 
got  dooe.  That  is  the  way  tttey  are  made;  no  people  in  the 
world  so  unlikely  candidates  for  slaves  as  they.  Every  In- 
dian is  innately  proud  and  rebels  against  obeying  any  direct 

Indian  girls  do  not  take  naturally  to  housework.  The 
mcmotony  of  doing  the  same  acts  over  and  over  again,  as  wash- 
ing dishes,  cooking,  etc,  is  insupportable  to  them.  Conse- 
quently a  few  weeks  of  it  is  as  much  as  they  neually  can  stand. 
The  old  life  was  a  life  of  continual  change  and  eicitement; 
the  treadmill  contes  hard.  My  wife  ha«  never  found  any  In- 
dian woman  who  could  do  three  good  days'  work  in  a  week; 
a  few  can  do  two,  bat  the  majority  can  only  brace  up  once  a 
week  to  do  a  real  good  day's  work. 

In  an  Indian  village  where  there  are  hundreds  of  women 
and  girU,  very  poor  and  v^y  much  in  need  of  everything, 
there  are  yet  very  few  or  none  at  all  whom  one  can  get  evra 
to  attempt  to  do  any  housework.  For  instance,  I  have  known 
the  government  blacksmith  at  Leech  Lake,  where  there  must 
have  been  hundreds  of  women  and  girls,  scour  the  white  man's 
country  for  a  distance  of  sixty-five  miles  from  Leech  liake  try- 
ing to  hire  a  white  girl  to  help  in  the  housework.  No  ^1 
or  woman  at  Leech  Lake  could  be  hired.  People  may  think 
that  when  they  go  to  the  Indian  country  they  will  be  waited 
on  like  lords;  bnt  the  troth  is  that  each  one  moat  do  evoy- 
thing  for  himself.  A  very  high  price  must  be  paid,  and  very 
imperfect  service  will  be  rendered,  if  at  all. 




■  Time  does  not  nm  in  the  Indian  coontry.  One  may  make 
all  arranB^meBts,  (or  instaace,  to  start  on  a  journey  at  a  cer- 
tain hoar,  bat  when  the  time  comes  a  great  many  things  will 
be  fonnd  to  be  wanting,  and  the  start  cannot  be  made.  The 
canoe  has  not  been  made  watertight  with  pitch,  or  paddles  are 
wanting,  or  provisions,  or  something,  or  many  things.  There 
is  no  nse  in  fretting  or  faming;  it  is  the  castom  of  lie  conntry, 
and  the  only  thing  to  do  is  to  fall  in  with  it.  The  Indian  is 
a  leisarely  man,  and  does  not  wish  to  be  harried;  in  fact,  he 
does  not  harry,  and  there  Is  no  use  In  trying  to  hnrry  hiuL  It 
will  only  mabe  things  worse.  There  is  plenty  of  time;  one 
day  will  do  Jast  as  well  as  anothw,  or  one  time  as  well  as 
another.  Bo  the  traveler  has  need  of  patience,  and  mast  oon- 
fonn  to  the  ideas  of  the  people. 

If  the  traveler  vrishes  some  piece  of  work  done,  and  tells 
his  head  man  to  have  it  done  at  once,  he  will  probably  not 
get  it  done  in  that  way.  The  head  man  will  answn  that  he 
will,  after  a  while,  call  bis  men  together,  and  they  will  talk  it 
over.  They  will  have  a  sort  of  conncil  over  it  and  smoke,  and 
then  do  it  The  men  are  all  admirable  canoemen  and  pack- 
as,  and  will  do  a  good  day's  work,  bat  in  their  own  way, 
and  according  to  their  ideas. 


One  of  the  things  aboot  die  Ojibways  that  ae^ns  strange  to 
ns  is  the  mystical  importance  attachtaig  to  a  name,  and  the 
concealment  of  names.  No  OJibwi^  man  or  wcnnan  will  tell 
his  name,  nnless  he  has  become  very  mnch  Americanized.  If 
a  name  has  to  be  given,  say  to  be  put  to  some  docnment,  and 
the  man  is  ashed  his  name,  be  will  not  give  it;  hot,  aft»  a 
long  period  of  hesitation  and  embarrassment,  he  will  indicate 
some  other  man  who  will  tell  his  name  That  man,  finally, 
after  prolonged  con8iderati<m,  mentions  it,  and  when  it  comes 
out,  a  sensation  goes  over  the  assembly  as  if  some  great  secret 
had  been  let  oat  Bo  in  a  store,  if  tiie  name  of  the  intending 
debtor  be  not  known  to  the  storekeeper,  and  he  has  to  know 
It  to  charge  the  goods,  he  asks,  with  a  manner  indlcatiiv 
protonnd  secrecy,  tome  ome  else  to  tell  him  the  man's  name, 



and  it  is  Efiven  to  him  in  a  whisper,  as  a  great  secret.  Often 
I  hare  asked  a  man  bis  wife's  name,  and  after  long  hesitation 
be  wooid  oooiesB  tliat  he  had  never  heard  It.  On  qaestiwalng, 
he  woold  admit  that  he  had  been  married  to  her  fifteen  or 
twenty  years.  This  secrecy  is  about  their  Ojibway  name; 
aboat  tb^  English  nune,  if  tbey  have  any,  tb^  have  no  sacb 

The  reason  of  this  reticence,  which  seems  so  queer  to  «,  is 
tbat  by  them  ^reat  imiXHrtance  is  attached,  as  in  tbe  Old 
Testament,  to  a  name;  that  the  oaittcs  all  meaa  simteUifiig, 
as  Abraham,  father  of  a  maltitade,  Isaa^,  laogliter,  Jaoob, 
Hnpplanter,  and  that  the  nasie  is  given  as  a  -rdigions  act  So 
a  father  says  to  his  sod,  '^y  son,  I  give  yoa  tUs  name;  it  has 
a  ■piritoal  «ixniflcati<Hi;  it  is  to  yon  a  saaed  thing;  tbe  ipintB 
give  it  to  yon;  if  you  make  light' of  it,  or  mock  it^  ct  diseloee 
it,  I  do  not  say  tltat  the  Great  Spirit  will  kill  yoa,  bvt  yon 
will  have  disgraced  yonnelf."  Hence  is  the  conoealment  «< 
names,  the  reverence  vritb  which  names  are  regarded. 


The  lieatheai  Indian  does  not  have  tbe  regard  to  a  promise 
on  his  part,  or  to  his  pledged  word,  that  tradition  on  that  anb- 
ject  woald  make  as  believe.  While  it  is  true  that  treaitiea  ate 
not  first  broken  by  him,  it  is  also  trae  that  in  ordinary  things 
be  does  not  consider  bis  word  or  engagement  very  binding  on 
him.  His  ]«romise  to  do  anything,  <x  to  retom  money  loaned, 
or  to  work,  or  an  engagement,  in  fact  his  promise  in  anything. 
Bits  very  lightly  apon  him.  It  is  a  little  singular  thait  in  the 
face  of  this  It  is  his  habit  to  htAA  the  white  man  very  strictly 
to  bis  promisee  to  him,  and  to  the  very  time,  ouHnent,  and 
every  partlcalar  circumstance.  He  is  not  willing  to  admit 
any  excuse,  and  will  hold  liisi  to  it  to  tbe  very  last  p<rinL  It 
is  proper  to  say,  tbongh,  tliat  women,  as  with  ourselves,  are 
a  great  deal  more  reliable  than  men,  for  if  one  loans  a  smaJl 
som  of  money  to  an  Ojibway  woman,  the  chances  ore  that 
abe  will  pay  it.  The  opposite  is  more  probable  with  the  man. 
I  have  always  foaud,  too,  more  of  the  mUk  of  hnman  kindness 
in  old  wom«t  than  in  any  other  class.    Let  one  be  lost,  «r 



Boifering,  or  belated,  or  cold,  or  needing  direction,  and  be  will 
find  the  old  woman  one  who  will  help  him,  more  probably 
than  any  one  elee.  Perhaps  their  own  long  experience  of 
great  suffering  has  taaght  them  compassion  for  others. 


When  a  white  man  approaches  a  camp  of  heathen  Indians, 
they  will  often  call  ont  from  a  long  distance,  as  far  as  the? 
can  see  him,  *TVe  are  very  hungry;  we  are  starving  to  death; 
we  haTe  not  eaten  a.  morsel  for  three  days."  At  the  same 
time  they  laugh  heartily  and  slap  their  thighs,  as  if  it  was  the 
best  joke  in  the  world.  Likewise  they  often  tell  their  visitors, 
with  great  insistence,  of  their  extreme  poverty,  and  the  hunger 
they  suffer.  They  seem  to  think  there  is  a  special  merit  in  It, 
in  fact  seem  proud  of  it  Their  poverty  is  a  fa/rorite  subject 
of  talk  with  theoL  Otten  two  families  will  chafl  each  other, 
in  a  good-natnred  way,  about  it 

From  the  habit,  in  former  times,  of  United  States  Indian 
agents  and  military  otBcers,  to  give  something  to  the  Indians 
when  they  met  them,  it  has  come  now  to  be  very  natural  for 
the  heathen  Indians  to  expect  the  white  man  to  give  them 
something,  as  food  or  money,  when  he  meets  them,  and  th^ 
are  apt  to  ask  him  for  it  but  especially  tor  tobacco.  From 
that  old  custom,  the  first  thought  that  naturally  arises  now 
in  the  heathen  man's  mind,  when  he  sees  a  white  man  ap- 
proaching, is  that  he  will  get  something  from  him.  Knowing 
also  that  the  white  man  is  so  rich,  and  they  so  poor,  naturally 
strengthens  that  feeling. 


The  Indians,  strange  to  say,  are  not  proiie  to  assist  each 
other  in  misfortune  or  necessity,  as  other  people  are.  Where, 
for  instance,  a  number  are  hauling  loads  together,  with  teams, 
and  something  befalls  one,  the  others  are  apt  to  pass  him  by 
and  leave  him  to  shift  for  himself  as  best  he  can.  Two  or 
three  years  ago  an  old  man  and  his  wife  were  about  eighteen 
miles  from  the  White  Earth  Agency,  when  in  attempting  to 
monnt  his  horse  he  broke  his  thigh.    They  had  five  horses, 



and  tbe;  bad  to  give  an  Indian  who  wa£  there  one  ot  thoBe 
borses,  before  be  would  take  a  message  to  the  doctor,  only 
eighteen  miles  distant.  It  was  worth  aJ)oot  a  dollar  to  do  it. 
That  IB  about  tbe  usual  way;  they  are  apt  to  exact  a  very 
high  and  extortionate  price  for  anything  they  do  for  each 

This  brings  to  mind  also  that  tbey  are  very  calculating 
and  mercenary.  A  thing  ia  never  done  out  ot  generosity  or 
goodness,  but  wlt3i  an  eye  to  advantage.  If  one  gives  a  pres- 
ent, for  instance,  to  another,  it  is  calculated  that  by  a  return 
{H^esent,  or  in  84Mne  othn  way,  a  greater  advantage  is  to  ac- 
crue to  the  giver.  It  ifi  true  that  they  sliare  food  with  any 
one  who  comes,  so  long  as  they  have  it;  and  in  that  way,  if 
one  happens  to  be  iuduBtrions  and  have  food,  he  10  eaten  out 
of  house  and  borne  by  a  multitude  of  idle  ones  wbo  flock  there 
for  that  purpose.  Apart  from  that  cuBt(»u  of  bospitalily, 
tbey  are  not  given  to  be  generooB  in  assisting  each  other,  and 
from  the  unfortunate  they  are  ready  to  exact  the  highest  rata 

Tbey  are  also  apt  to  be  very  jealous  of  any  one,  as  a  mck 
person  or  one  in  misfortune,  having  bis  or  her  wants  relieved. 
Tbey  feel  that  tbey  also  ought  to  have  a  similar  amount,  or 
even  try  to  get  it  away  from  tSie  sick  person.  In  tbia,  aa  in 
BO  many  other  instances,  I  am  speaking  of  tbe  heathen  Indians. 

Their  sense  of  humor  and  of  the  Indicrous  is  exceedingly 
keen,  more  so  than  in  our  own  race.  Ifo  people  are  quicker 
than  they  to  see  the  fnuny  side  of  anything;  and  no  people 
laugh  at  it  more.  Utey  are  capital  Bit  telling  funny  stories, 
and  thoroughly  enjoy  fnn.  They  seek  after  it  constantly; 
they  brighten  their  lives  with  it.  Some  ct  tb«n  are  what 
one  would  call  "jolly"  always. 


Tbe  heathen  dance,  with  tbe  beating  of  tbe  drum,  exer- 
cises a  wonderful  fascination  over  the  Indians.  When  tbey 
become  GbristianB,  they  themselves  understand  that  they  give 
up  tbe  heathen  dance,  tor  tbe  two  are  the  opposites  of  each 
other;  but  yet  tbey  are  drawn  into  it  again  and  again.  There 
seems  to  be  a  chord  that  carries  tbe  throbbing  of  the  drum 
into  the  Indian's  heart    Tbe  drummera  sit  in  the  center. 



chanting;  the  men  start  np,  and  dance  round  them,  excited, 
quivering,  whooping.  They  go  through  ail  the  motiomi  of 
BightiDg,  pnrsning,  killing,  and  scalping  an  enemy;  and  it  is 
most  interesting  to  see  them.  Then  there  is  an  iuterral  or 
rest;  the  drums  cease,  the  dancers  sit  down,  and  all  ie  quiet 
Next  some  man  dressed  in  ancient  Indian  garb,  nearly  naked, 
painted,  with  feathers  in  his  hair  and  a  tomahawk  in  his 
hand,  gets  into  the  arena  and  makes  an  address.  The  never- 
exhansted  subject  of  the  addresses  is  aboat  killing  and  scalp- 
ing enemies,  perhaps  tearing  out  their  hearts  and  drinking  the 
blood.  As  the  man  describes  how  the  shot  brongbt  down  the 
enemy,  or  bow  the  tomahawk  cleft  his  sknll,  the  dmm  gives  a 
sympathetic  tap,  as  each  life  goes  out  When  he  has  finished, 
the  dmms  start  with  redoabled  vehemence,  the  drummers  ac- 
companying them  with  a  higb-pitcbed  chant;  while  a  circle  of 
women  singers  ontside  add  their  shrill  voices.  The  men  are 
dressed  in  moccasins,  cotton  leggings  which  leave  the  thighs 
bare,  breecb-clonts,  and  perhaps  shirts,  perhaps  none.  Strings 
of  beads  adorn  their  bodies,  skunk  skins  are  tied  under  their 
knees,  and  strings  of  sleigh  bells  are  wonnd  round  their  ankles 
or  waists.  Their  faces  have  all  the  colors  of  the  rainbow; 
and  their  hair  is  stiff  with  pomatnm.  After  they  have  danced 
again,  there  is  silence  once  more,  and  another  orator  rises. 
This  time  the  address  may  be  about  something  of  the  present 
that  is  uppermost  on  their  minds^  some  grievance  onder  which 
they  are  laboring,  or  some  important  project  that  is  on  hand. 
At  the  dances  all  important  things  are  discussed;  and  if  there 
be  any  deviltry  on  hand,  there  is  the  place  where  they  work 
themselves  np  to  it.  The  dance  is  the  ar«ia  where  they  strive 
to  oatshine  each  other  in  eloquence,  in  boldness  of  design;  and 
where,  in  the  originality  of  ibeir  projects,  they  bid  for  popu- 
lar favor. 

In  the  excitement  of  the  dance,  moreover,  and  in  order 
to  gain  the  reputation  of  great  men,  they  give  away  their 
property  to  each  other,  a  horse,  a  blanket,  a  gun,  anything 
they  have.  The  man,  as  he  goes  capering  round  the  ring  and 
whooping,  looking  here  and  there  as  if  lie  was  uncertain  what 
to  do,  suddenly  sticks  a  rod  in  the  ground  before  another 
man.    That  is  the  pledge  of  a  horse  that  he  gives  to  that 



man,  and  tben  all  the  otli«^  look  on  him  with  admiration; 
he  is  stroDg-hearted  and  brave;  he  does  not  mind  giving  away 
the  only  horse  he  has.  It  is  wonderful  how  the  excitement 
of  the  dance  works  on  them  to  give  away  aJI  they  have.  I 
have  known  a  government  employee  to  go  and  siilp  the  bed 
clothing  from  his  wife's  bed,  and  give  it  away  in  fbe  dance. 
That  is  one  reason  why  they  keep  np  the  dajice,  to  get  pres- 
ents. The  little  children  from  the  schools,  if  there  are  any 
schools,  are  there,  imitating  their  elders;  they  have  jumped  out 
the  school  windows  to  get  to  the  dance,  and  are  taking  otT 
their  school  clothes,  given  them  by  the  United  States  govern- 
ment or  by  charitable  p^^ons,  and  are  giving  them  away. 

Off  to  one  side  of  the  dance  is  a  group  of  perhaps  thirty 
men,  who  do  not  seem  to  care  for  it,  but  are  engaged  in  some- 
thing more  snbstantial.  They  are  gambling.  Every  dance 
appears  to  require  a  gambling  annex.  Outside  the  circle  of 
the  actnal  dancers  are  large  numbers  of  spectators^  both  men 
and  women,  who  sometimes  join  in,  but  aona  are  merely 

"When  night  has  drawn  a  veil,  then  commences  a  sad  scene 
of  debauchery  between  the  sexes.  That  is  one  of  the  prin- 
cipal reasons  for  having  the  dance;  and  that,  as  well  as  the 
gambling  annex  and  other  things,  is  considered  to  be  proper 
and  a  legitimate  part  of  the  carousal.  The  dance  and  tlie 
drnm  are  the  religion  of  the  heathen  Indians.  Ask  a  man 
what  religion  he  is  of,  and  he  will  reply  that  he  belongs  in 
the  dance. 

The  next  day  one  will  see  the  household  gooda  violently 
cast  out  of  a  cabin,  and  will  hear  sounds  of  violent  quarreling 
within.  The  husband  and  wife  were  at  the  dance  last  night; 
one  was  unfaithful,  and  this  is  the  breaking  up  of  the  family. 
All  the  young  girls  get  ruined  in  the  excitement  of  the  dance 
as  they  grow  np.  When  a  CliriBtiaD  man  begins  to  danc^  or 
a  farmw,  he  loses  manhood,  industry,  every  manly  quality, 
and  speedily  goes  back  to  the  blanket  and  the  wigwam  again. 

The  fascination  of  the  dance  carries  them  long  distances, 
perhaps  a  hundred  miles,  on  foot,  men  and  women,  to  the 
next  Indian  village  to  dance.  I  have  seen  the  women  go  from 
Pine  Point  to  Leech  Lake,  sixty-five  miles,  to  dance,  in  the 



dead  of  winter,  wading  through  enow  up  to  their  knees,  over 
an  unbroken  trail  that  I  could  not  go  through  with  my  ponies 
till  they  broke  the  road;  yet  they  carried  their  children  on 
their  backs,  and  dragged  some  of  ^em  through  the  snow, 
packing  their  blankets  and  provisions,  pots  and  kettles,  and 
ramping  out  every  night.  And  when  they  arrived  at  Leech 
Lake,  they  were  as  proud  of  jumptog  higher,  or  of  showing 
off  some  new  touch  in  which  they  thought  ttiey  excelled,  as 
any  belle  among  us. 

The  authorities,  as  in  Canada,  should  long  ago  have  pro- 
~  hibited  the  heathen  dance,  aa  the  very  antipodes  of  all  civiliza^ 
tion  and  of  all  pn^reas;  Instead  of  tOiat,  most  of  the  Indian 
agents,  caring  nothing  for  the  lodians,  notwithstandiug  the 
entreaties  of  the  miBsiosaries,  have  given  it  full  swing  or  en- 
couraged it.  The  winter  before  the  Wounded  Knee  outbreak, 
a  party  of  fifty  of  the  worst  Sioox  came  to  White  Earth 
Agency,  and  taught  the  Ojibways  the  new  "Sioux  dance," 
which  caught  among  them  like  wildfire.  In  spite  of  the  re- 
moDBtrances  of  the  missiouaries  that  they  should  be  smt  home, 
they  were  furnished  with  pauses  to  go  to  every  village  of  the 
Ojibways,  and  were  fed  with  government  proTieions,  Tet  the 
Goths  and  Vandals  did  not  play  any  more  havoc  with  the  civ- 
ilization of  the  Roman  Empire  than  those  fellows  did  with 
everything  that  the  gov«iiment  sliould  do,  and  that  the  mis- 
sionaries were  trying  to  do  for  tb«n.  By  the  new  dances  they 
introduced,  the  practice  of  which  lived  tor  years  aJid  until 
the  present  time,  they  did  more  harm  to  the  Ojibways  than 
all  the  money  the  government  expended  on  them  did  them 
good.  Later  the  government  ordered  all  Sioux  excluded;  hot 
the  agents  allowed  them  there  just  the  same,  and  sometimes 
encouraged  them. 


In  1872  there  was  a  most  admirable  Indian  agent  over  the 
Ojibways,  under  whom  they  made  progress  that  was  most 
wonderful,  the  Bev.  E.  P.  Smith,  He  aurrounded  himself  wltii 
employees  who  were  like  himself,  and  under  them  the  Indians 
progressed  like  something  growing.  But  he  was  promoted  to  be 
United  States  Commissioner  of  Indian  Affairs,  and  for  a  time 



the  progress  stoppecl.  Soon  another  eqaall;  admirable  agent 
came,  Hon.  Lewis  Stowe.  He  and  bis  excellen*  wife  were  like 
a  father  and  mother  to  the  Indians,  and  did  everything  for 
them  that  love  and  devotion  and  ability  coald  do.  They  were 
the  Indians'  dear  and  loving  friends.  He  was  a  practical 
farmer,  a  practical  carpenter;  and  one  could  see  him  oat  in 
the  field  all  the  time  with  the  Indian^  showing  them  how  to 
plow,  how  to  do  all  idnds  of  work.  A  better  agent  never  went 
among  the  Indians,  nor  one  who  knew  better  how  to  raise 
them  than  Major  Stowe;  and  if  he  coald  have  had  his  own 
way  and  been  snetaiued,  he  coald  have  brought  them  to  any- 
thing. But  he  was  worried,  hounded,  and  abnsed  by  inter- 
ested parties;  and  at  the  end  of  Ms  term  he  had  to  leave. 
There  has  since  been  one  admirable  agent.  Col.  T.  J.  Bheehan, 
the  hCTo  of  Fort  Eidgely,  and  he  had  exactly  the  same  experi- 
ence as  the  other  two  agents,  Smith  and  Stowe.  Col.  Shee- 
han's  heart  was  fully  set  in  him  to  do  13ie  Indians  good,  and 
he  knew  exactly  how  to  set  about  it  He  had  a  natural  faculty 
of  being  an  admirable  Indian  agent.  He  was  very  energetic, 
was  kind  and  just  to  all,  and  kept  a  sort  of  mother's  hand 
over  everything.  But  the  same  inflnence  that  had  spoiled  the 
salvation  of  the  Indians  under  agents  Smith  and  Stowe  were 
opposed  to  him,  and  he  had  to  leave. 

Besides  these  three  admirable  agents,  there  have  been  six 
others,  nine  in  all;  and  what  sort  of  men  they  were  and  what 
sort  of  administrations  they  gave  may  be  sofBciently  under- 
stood by  its  being  stated  tliait  they  were  politicians,  appointed 
by  politicians,  as  a  reward  for  political  services.  Under  them 
everything  that  had  been  done  under  Smith,  Stowe,  and  Shee- 
han,  went  down.  The  Indians  largely  gave  up  farming  and 
civilization;  fields  were  abandoned;  and  they  went  back  to  old 
heathen  dances  and  heathen  ways.  Those  of  the  missionaries 
who  tried  coald  not  make  head  against  the  maladminiBtration 
of  the  agents  and  their  employees.  One  of  those  agents  was 
fair;  the  rest  were  the  poorest  that  could  be  imagined,  and 
their  influence  upon  the  Indians  was  disaatrous.  Some  of 
them  openly  encouraged  the  Indians  to  go  back  to  the  old 
heathen  dances  and  ways.  The  employees  of  those  agents 
naturally  took  their  tone  from  them,  so  all  government  in- 



flneoce  w&s  on  tlie  side  of  demoralizatioD.  There  were  sucb 
ageatB  and  such  influenpes  reigning  for  about  sizteen  out  of 
the  laat  twenty-five  years.  There  were  three  good  agents,  one 
fair,  and  five  of  the  kind  spoken  of.  Politics  haii  been  the 
curse  of  the  Indian  service,  and  giving  the  Indians  into  the 
charge  of  soch  men  and  snch  employees  has  blighted  them. 
The  good  agents  were  most  bitteriy  fought,  and  the  govern- 
ment relieved  two  of  them;  tihe  evil  agents  were  left  in  peace 
and  quiet,  and  the  government  usually  allowed  them  to  com- 
plete their  terms. 

At  Red  Lake  a  typical  event  occurred.  In  1872  and  187S, 
an  admirable  son  of  Vermont  'was  agent,  a  one-armed  soldier 
of  his  country.  Major  Pratt.  Like  Smith,  Stowe,  and  Sheehan, 
his  devotion  to  the  Indians  and  his  success  were  remarkable. 
While  everything  was  Id  the  full  swing  of  progress,  there 
walked  in  one  day  a  creature,  and  presented  a  paper  to  Pratt, 
superseding  him.  He  was  almost  broken-hearted,  went  to 
the  President  and  showed  him  Itis  sleeve  emptied  at  Bull  Run, 
proved  to  him  the  progress  made,  and  that  there  had  been  no 
single  complaint;  but  all  was  in  Tain.  He  went  back  to  milk- 
ing cows  in  Vermont,  squeezing  two  teat«  in  his  remaining 
hand,  and  the  Red  Lake  Indiana  have  never  had  a  good  agent 
since.  The  man  who  superseded  him  soon  gave  a  sample  of 
what  he  was  by  trying  all  ways  to  marry  an  Indian  woman  of 
bad  character,  tliough  he  had  a  wife  still  living  in  the  East. 
Reviewing  this  quarter  of  a  century,  we  must  pronounce  the 
United  States  treatment  of  the  Indians  as  bad,  owing  to  their 
being  handed  over  to  be  the  prey  of  politiciana. 

The  good  thing  that  the  government  has  done  in  the  last 
twenty-five  years  is  in  educating  many  Indian  children,  but 
mostly  those  of  mixed  blood,  in  schools.  Here  again  for  polit- 
ical purposes  a  great  mistake  was  made  In  having  these 
schools  mostly  away  from  the  reservations,  so  that  'the  con- 
gressmen's couBtitnentB  could  get  the  money  used  in  the  erec- 
tion and  carrying  on  of  the  schools,  instead  of  having  them 
right  among  the  Indians  where  they  live.  Communities  of 
many  hundreds  of  Indians  were  thus  left  without  schools, 
every  <^hUd  being  allowed  to  grow  up  in  idleness,  ignorance, 
and  vice,  starving  and  freezing;  while  somewhere  at  hundreds 



of  miles  distance,  and  where  not  an  Indian  lived  witlun  wiles 
and  milee,  a  coetl;  building  was  put  np  at  an  expense  of  per- 
haps fBO.OOO,  which  money  alone,  if  aeed  where  it  ought  to 
have  been  used,  would  have  anpplied  every  Indian  settlement 
with  a  modest  school,  costing  $5,000,  sofflcient  for  their  needs. 
The  consequence  of  this  policy,  wlhich  was  oftentimes  really 
a  policy  to  benefit  some  congressman's  constitoMitB  under  the 
gnise  of  educating  Indians,  is  that  the  mixed-bloods,  mostly 
French,  got  all  the  benefit,  for  they  sent  their  children  away 
to  those  schools;  but  the  full-blood  Indians,  who  loved  their 
children  too  dearly  to  let  them  go  far  away  from  them,  got 
ver7  little  benefit. 


Bishop  Whipple,  Judge  Wright,  and  Mr.  Larrabee,  along 
in  the  80's,  negotiated  a  most  excellent  treaty  with  the  Indians 
for  their  pine  and  lands.  It  was  the  best  that  coold  have 
been  framed,  both  for  the  Indians  and  for  the  whites.  Inter- 
ested parties,  who  did  not  see  their  way  to  getting  what  they 
wanted  under  that  treaty,  found  means  to  break  it  up,  aud 
thereby  inflicted  a  cmshing  blow  upon  the  Indiana  Then 
the  same  parties  clamored  for  ex-Senator  Bice  to  make  the 
proper  kind  of  a  treaty  for  them.  He,  with  Bishop  Martin 
Marty,  did  so,  and,  with  the  best  intentions  on  their  part,  they 
made  a  treaty  that  has  worked  very  disastrously  to  the  In- 
dians. To  instance  one  provision  of  it,  tbe  promising  them  an 
annuity  for  fifty  years  was  done  to  please  the  Indian  tradera, 
who  wasted  the  money.  The  practical  effect  of  it  upon  the 
Indians  was,  as  every  one  who  knew  them  foresaw  would  be 
the  case,  to  make  them  almost  entirely  give  up  farming  or 
even  doing  anything  for  a  livelihood;  because  ev^ry  Indian 
said  to  himself,  and  many  said  openly,  "I  have  an  annuity,  to 
come  every  year  for  fifty  years,  so  has  my  wife,  so  has  each 
of  my  children;  no  need  for  me  to  do  anything."  If  thdr 
worst  enemy  had  tried  to  devise  the  best  scheme  for  keeping 
them  worthless  blanket  Indians  always,  he  could  have  thought 
of  nothing  more  effective  than  the  annuity  for  fifty  years. 
The  general  feeling  of  the  heathen  Indians,  and  of  many  Chris- 
tians, when  the  provision  was  put  in  the  treaty,  was,  "The 



gOTenuneDt  tiaa  now  got  onr  lands;  we  wish  to  be  fed  alwajs, 
and  just  to  dance."  It  i»  scarcely  necessary  to  say  that  the 
Bice  treaty  of  188d,  besides  containing  the  above  very  objec- 
tionable point,  baa  beoi  broken  by  the  goTemment  in  many 

The  govenunent  also  is  admittedly  in  debt  to  the  Indiains 
for  large  sams,  arrears  of  former  treaties.  This  condition 
keeps  liiem  from  settling  down  to  work,  for  they  natarally 
think  and  say,  "The  government  owes  me  so  many  hundreds 
of  thoasands  of  dollars;  let  it  pay  me  these  arrears,  and  I 
shall  be  rich;  no  need  for  me  to  work."  It  would  be  better 
if  the  government  should  dump  down  before  them  whatever  it 
owes  them;  and  wben  that  is  spent,  then  and  not  before,  they 
will  go  to  work. 


October  is  payment  month;  bat  verj  often  payment  is  not 
made  till  January  or  later,  entailing  great  loss  oa  the  Indians. 
They  are  afraid  to  go  off  hunting  or  even  It^ging,  lest  pay- 
ment Bhonld  be  made  in  their  absence;  and  so  they  loee  maeh 
more  than  the  amount  of  the  payment  by  waiting  for  it  As 
the  time  approaches,  their  anxiety  for  it  is  extreme;  almost 
as  far  oft  as  one  can  see  them,  the  first  question  is,  "When  is 
payment  going  to  be?"  Wben  it  is  made  in  January  they 
must  come  about  thirty  miles  to  I^eech  Lake,  from  Cass  lake 
and  Winnibigoshish,  over  the  frozen,  wind-swept  lakes;  and 
they  must  camp  about  Leech  Lake  village  in  a  temperature 
of  perhaps  thirty  degrees  below  zero,  witii  vwy  little  fire- 
wood, for  near  tiie  village  it  has  all  been  cot  off;  and  th^ 
usually  bring  only  the  one  blanket  with  them.  We  would 
not  spend  the  long  time,  and  endure  the  sufferings,  for  the 
amount,  perhaps  five  dollars  a  head,  which  they  get  Had 
tiiey  let  the  payment  go,  and  gtme  hunting  or  working  in  a 
logging  camp,  they  would  have  earned  many  times  that 
amount  At  payment  they  are  all  dressed  up;  it  is  a  great 
frolic.  All  the  sleigh  bells,  featSiers,  paint,  and  blankets,  that 
can  be  mustered,  are  then  put  on.  There  are  great  dances 
every  evening  for  joy  ot  the  payment  The  young  fellows 
spend  hours  in  painting  tb^r  faces.    Yet  they  are  quiet  and 



orderly  in  their  enjoyment.  It  seems  to  be  a  great  pleasure 
to  them  merely  to  see  each  other  and  the  crowds.  There  are 
more  Indians  assembled  at  that  time  than  at  any  other. 

There  are  always  many  hooBes  rented  as  gambling  honses 
at  payment  time,  and  one  can  malce  a  tonr  of  them,  and  find 
them  all  literally  packed  fnll  of  participants  or  spectators. 
Th«%  are  always  many  professional  Indian  gamblera,  who  go 
to  every  payment,  walking  perhaps  a  hundred  miles  to  the 
place.  One  meets  companies  of  these  a  few  days  before  pay- 
ment b^n&  A  large  amount  of  the  annaities  paid  is  imme- 
diately gambled  away,  and  a  large  amouDt  of  it  goes  for 
whisky.  The  gambling  is  all  open  and  aboTe  board,  in  sight 
of  everybody;  and  nobody  seems  to  think  there  is  anything 
wrong  in  it,  except  the  ChriBtiane,  Spectators  go  from  <Mie 
gambling  house  to  another,  and  the  fortunes  of  those  who 
win  or  lose  are  of  deep  interest  to  them. 

The  traders  at!  lay  in  large  stocks  of  goods  then,  and  hire 
many  extra  clerks.  All  day  long  the  stores  are  packed  full 
of  people,  and  a  great  part  of  the  night.  Some  are  buying, 
some  looking  at  the  crowds;  but  all  are  enjoying  themselves 
in  a  quiet  way.  The  girls  are  dressed  in  their  best;  the  young 
men  have  flutes  of  their  own  making,  on  which  they  play  lore- 
songs  to  them.  Outside  of  the  store,  tb««  is  darting  about 
here  and  there,  and  good-natured  revelry.  From  a  distance 
the  drum  sounds,  showing  that  the  dance  is  in  progress,  and 
the  groups  visit  all  in  turn,  the  dance,  the  stores,  the  gam- 
bling placea  It  is  the  time  of  the  great  annual  frolic  of  the 
Ojibway,  and  every  one  feels  happy. 

The  trader  stands  near  the  paying  place,  with  his  book  in 
hia  hand  showing  the  amount  each  man  owes.  As  the  man 
comes  out  with  his  payment,  he  looks  wistfully  at  him,  as  any 
of  US  would;  perhaps  he  asks  the  debtor  for  the  money,  per- 
haps not.  The  Indian  will  not  be  forced  into  paying;  so  scHue 
traders  think  it  just  as  well  to  say  nothing  to  them,  to  leave 
it  to  themselves.  If  they  pay,  they  get  a  farther  credit;  but  if 
not,  credit  stops.  There  is  no  taking  money  from  any  one  by 
force;  nor  is  the  creditor  allowed  in  the  paying  place. 

When  the  payment  was  made  at  Mille  Lacs  this  year,  it 
was  in  May;  and  the  weather  being  fine,  the  Indians  were  all 



camped.  They  danced  every  evening  before  the  payment,  for 
Joy  that  it  waa  to  be.  Ab  bood  as  the  money  b^an  to  be  paid, 
blankets  were  spread  aptm  the  ground  in  scoreB  of  piaces, 
right  cloee  to  the  paying-booth,  and  almost  the  entire  popu- 
lation seemed  at  once  to  be  engaged  in  gambling.  Some  had 
cards,  some  used  the  bnllet  and  moccasin  game.  Even  those 
who  seemed  to  be  aIm<Mrt:  dying  were  flonrisliing  the  cards. 
It  seemed  more  aniversal  there  than  elsewhere,  because  there 
is  no  misBion  at  Mille  Lacs.  Within  the  next  two  days,  foar 
{as  I  remember)  died  of  drinking  paio-killer  or  something  of 
that  sort,  and  two  became  totally  blind  from  lemon  extract 
that  had  wood  alcohol  in  it^  notwithstanding  the  labors  of  the 
missionary  with  each  one  individaally,  many  days  beforehand, 
warning  and  entreating  them  not  to  toach  liqaor  in  any 
form  and  not  to  gamble.  But  white  men  are  just  as  liable  to 
these  evils,  for  some  of  them  on  the  frontier  die  of  lemon  ex- 
tract, and  some  become  blind. 

Old  Indians  often  lament  the  degeneracy  of  the  present 
days;  for  when  they  were  yonng,  they  say,  only  middle-aged 
or  old  men  were  allowed  to  drink  liquor,  and  it  was  done  in 
an  orderly  way,  as  the  drinkers  would  be  ranged  in  rows,  and 
some  young  men  were  there  to  keep  order,  and  if  amy  of  the 
drinkers  became  obstfeperoas,  one  of  the  yonng  aCtendanits 
would  silence  him,  saying,  "Now,  yon  ke^  still."  Bat  in 
these  degenerate  days,  they  say,  everybody,  even  little  chil- 
dren, are  allowed  to  drink. 

At  au  Indian  payment  also  is  the  time  when  yonng  men 
phow  off  on  horseback  before  the  people,  and  jerk  and  pull, 
and  cra'elly  abase  their  horses,  to  make  them  rear  and  plunge, 
and  so  to  gain  a  little  cheap  admiration. 


Wild  rice  gaithering  time,  which  comes  in  'September,  is  an 
interesting  occasion.  There  is  a  vei^  large  wild  rice  lake  in 
the  north  part  of  the  White  Earth  res^^ation;  suppose  that 
we  visit  it  We  would  find  there  six  or  seven  hundred  peo- 
ple, half-breeds  and  Indians,  living  in  temporary  wigwams  or 
tents,  who  have  come  to  gather  wild  rice.    They  have  brought 



their  families  witb  tbem.  When  the  son  arises,  bandreds  of 
smokes  go  np  from  as  many  fires  made  outside  their  wigwams, 
where  the  women  are  cooking  breakfast  Soon  the  breakfast 
is  spread  on  the  ground,  and  they  reclining  around  it;  and  a 
delicioTiB  breakfast  it  is,  nice  light  biscoit,  docks  delicioosly 
cooked,  with  wild  doe  and  tea.  Not  many  hotels  ooald  (ar- 
nisb  BDch  a  meal,  and  none  sack  a  dining-room.  After  break- 
fast the  women  get  into  the  canoes  and  laundh  oat  to  beat  off 
and  gather  the  rice;  but  ont  of  all  the  handreds  there,  only  a 
very  tew  men.  Christians,  perhaps  five  or  six,  go  with  th^n. 
There  has  been  a  failnre  of  crops;  they  have  nothing  at  home, 
and  only  the  wild  rice  they  may  gather  now  to  depend  on  tJo 
carry  them  through  the  winter.  The  wild  rice  is  sach  an 
abundant  crop  that  a  Norwegian  man  (the  <mly  white  man 
working  there,  he  being  employed  for  wages),  says  that  a  man 
can  make  seven  dollars  a  day,  at  tlie  market  price  for  rice,  by 
gathering  it.  Here  then  is  a  God-send,  and  something  that 
calls  for  a  great  effort  But  the  fascination  of  the  game  is 
so  great  that,  with  the  exception  of  a  very  few,  all  the  m^i 
spend  the  day  lying  <m  the  ground  gambling.  So  the  gold^i 
opporianity  is  missed.  In  a  month  they  will  have  nothing  at 
home;  while  by  exCTtlng  themselveB  for  a  very  few  days  in 
the  rice-field  they  might  have  had  plenty  all  the  year.  One 
family  brings  away  twen^-one  large  sacks  of  rice;  all  might 
have  done  so,  bad  the  men  cared  to  help.  But  some  even  com- 
plained that  they  were  hungry,  because,  though  the  ducks 
were  flying  about  thick  and  they  might  have  shot  all  they 
wanted,  they  could  not  bear  to  tear  themselves  awajr  from  the 
game  long  enough  to  do  so.  Such  is  Indian  life,  laud  the 
mixed-bloods  generally  are  just  the  same;  but  some  of  the 
mixed-bloods  are  just  as  nice  as  any  white  people  in  all  re- 
spects, and  in  nothing  inferior  to  them. 

Within  the  last  three  years  large  numbers  of  mixed-bloods 
on  the  White  Earth  reservation  have  rented  their  farms  to 
Germans  from  the  Sank  valley,  while  they  have  moved  into 
White  Earth  village  and  built  th^nselves  little  shanties, 
where  they  will  live  on  the  rents.  This  movement  seems  to 
be  spreading,  and  all  are  anxious  to  rent  who  can. 




The  Indians  and  mixed-bloods  who  witMn  the  last  seven 
7ear8  hare  remoTed  to  the  White  Earth  reservation  have  been 
fed  by  the  government  with  food  of  all  kinds,  pork,  flour,  tea, 
sugar,  etc.,  some  of  them  being  so  fed  daring  a  period  of  Ave 
yean,  and  some  during  a  less  time.  Tbe  Chippewa  Conunis- 
rioners,  who  had  that  matter  in  charge,  paid  the  chief  of 
those  who  had  inmiigrated  to  exhort  the  others  to  raise  a 
crop.  The;  thought  his  influence  and  exhortation  would  be 
worth  the  mone;  spent  He  took  tSie  salary,  but,  realizing 
that  if  the  Indians  raised  an  abundance  the  rations  would  be 
cut  oti,  he  exhorted  them  all,  instead,  and  charged  them,  not 
to  plant  a  single  thing,  concluding  that  if  the;  raised  nothing 
and  bad  nothing  they  would  continue  to  be  fed,  but  otherwise 
not.  So  sometimes  in  the  same  village  where  the  chief  lived, 
prolonged  councils  were  held,  and  the  people  of  t!he  neighbor- 
ing villages  were  called  in  a  body;  and  the  result  they  aimed 
at  was  to  pass  a  law  that  no  oike  should  plant  anything,  for 
the  above  reason.  In  consequence,  they  planted  very  little. 
At  first  sight,  this  conduct  seems  very  strange  to  us;  but 
when  we  realize  t!hat  these  rations  came  out  of  their  own 
funds,  the  proceeds  of  their  pine  forests,  and  also  that  severaJ 
hundreds  of  thousands  of  dollars  of  arrears  were  due  to  them, 
we  see  that  it  was  natural,  from  their  standpoint,  that  they 
should  wish  to  get  out  of  their  own  funds  all  they  could,  and 
that  whatever  they  succeeded  in  getting  was  to  them  bo  ranch 
clear  gain.  For  iiie  same  reason  they  will  work  all  kinds  of 
games  on  the  govemment  doctor  to  get  sick  rations;  or  on 
those  in  charge  of  a  school,  to  get  cloithtng  for  the  children. 
They  know  it  comes  out  of  their  funds,  and  is  their  own, 
though  trickery  and  deception  have  been  used  in  getting  it. 


The  mortality  among  their  chUdren  when  in  schools  is  ex- 
tranely  low,  only  a  small  fraetiMi  of  what  it  is  among  those 
outside.  Good  food,  good  clothing,  regular  hours,  and  the 
weekly  bath,  make  the  difference. 

Consumption  ia  now  very  rife  among  the  Indiansi  They 
say  that  in  old  times,  when  they  lived  practically  in  the  open 



air  always,  and  snbsisted  on  flesh  almost  ezclasively,  con- 
sumption was  almost  unknown  among  them.  Man;  reasons 
for  its  prevalence  now  might  be  given,  bat  one  andoabtedly 
is  the  spitting  over  everything  by  the  sick,  while  closely 
packed  in  one  small  room.  The  sputa  dry,  rise  as  dnst,  are 
inhaled  by  tbe  others,  and  in  that  way  the  sick  give  this  dread 
disease  to  the  well.  Many  middle-aged  and  old  persons,  who 
do  not  have  consumption,  coDgh  for  a  great  many  years;  ap- 
parently frtHn  the  irritating  effects  on  the  air-passages  of 
the  lungs  occasioned  by  drawing  such  quantities  of  smtAe 
into  them.  Yet  many  such  live  to  a  good  old  age.  The  mor- 
tality in  any  Indian  settlement  is  many  times  that  in  a  white 
commnnity  of  equal  numbers. 

The  pare-blood  Indiaas  are  slowly  decreasing  in  number; 
the  mixed-bloods  are  rapidly  increasing.  Owing  to  the  great 
preponderance  of  men  on  the  frontier,  many  white  men  mar- 
ry Indian  and  mized-blood  women.  Aa  the  latter  also  have 
each  eighty  acres  of  land,  and  if  tbej  remove  to  White  Earth 
tbey  and  all  the  children  will  be  raitioned  for  years,  while  the 
man  in  addition  will  get  ozeu,  cows,  plows,  wa^ns,  sleds,  a 
house,  in  right  of  his  wife,  etc.,  these  things  have  their  influ- 


As  is  well  known,  liquor  has  an  aittractivenees  for  the  In- 
dians and  does  destructive  work  among  them;  but  white  men 
also  suffer  in  that  way.  Like  all  races  of  wild  men,  the  In- 
dians first  rapidly  and  greedily  learn  the  vices  of  the  superior 
race;  and  only  later,  slowly  and  with  extreme  difficalty,  they 
acquire  their  virtues.  Thus  the  ezcee^ve  use  of  liquor,  the 
excessive  use  of  tobacco,  all  such  things,  they  eagerly  seize; 
and  therefore  necessarily,  unless  Christianity  be  taught  to 
counteract  such  things,  unless  there  be  a  Christian  mission  to 
protect  them,  the  contact  with  the  superior  race,  and  with 
what  is  called  civilization,  is  death  to  the  Indian,  death  physi- 
cal and  moral. 

One  illustration  only  I  may  give.  Befwe  the  town  of 
Grand  Rapids  was  founded,  there  lived  near  its  site  an  anusu- 
ally  progressive  band  of  Indians,  called  the  Babbit  band  from 
a  patriarch  of  that  name.    Tbey  numbered  perhaps  sixty  to 



eighty.  They  had  honsea,  Btoves,  good  gardens  and  flelde,  and 
a  great  deal  of  stock,  horses  and  cattle.  They  made  much 
hay  and  sold  it  to  the  lumbermen,  and,  for  heathen  Indians, 
made  great  progress  and  were  very  comfortable.  Thwe  came 
a  white  man  from  down  the  river  and  planted  a  saloon  about 
two  miles  from  tihem.  He  was  the  first  settler  in  Grand  Bap- 
ids,  I  think.  In  abont  two  years  half  of  that  Babbit  band  were 
dead,  and  the  Burvivors  were  wretched  shivering  vagabonds, 
while  the  white  man  had  all  their  fwmer  wealth.  Some  were 
frozen  to  death  when  drunk;  some  were  drowned  by  the  np- 
setting  of  their  canoes,  when  they  were  drunk;  some  lay  down 
in  the  snow  and  took  pneumonia;  some  were  burned  to  death. 
The  saloon-keeper  had  all  their  cattle,  horses,  stoves,  and 
household  goods;  and  those  who  remained  alive  had  only  an 
old  blanket  each. 

When  the  white  men  reached  Leech  lake,  the  town  they 
reared  on  its  banks  had  one  drug  store,  one  hardware  store, 
two  dry  goods  and  provision  stores,  and  seven  saloons,  one 
of  which  was  capacious  enough  to  contain  whisky  sufficient 
to  poison  alt  the  1,100  Indiana  of  Leech  lake.  It  was  on  a 
high  bluff  overlooking  their  lake,  accessible  from  every  pert 
of  it  by  tiieir  canoes.  It  was  a  deadly  trap  set  for  the  simple 
natives,  right  in  their  midst,  by  thdr  strong  white  brother. 
The  civilization  of  the  white  man,  without  the  Gospel,  is 
death  to  the  simple  Indian. 


The  children  who  have  been  brongbb  up  in  tbe  schools 
speak  English;  but  those  who  have  not  been  so  taught,  find 
our  langnage  excessively  difficult  and  nev^  leam  it  Taking 
the  people  generally,  OJibwi^  is  almost  exclusively  their  lan- 
guage; hut  among  the  mixed-bloods  French  also  is  very  ex- 
tensively used. 

The  Ojibway  language  is  a  most  beantiful,  copious,  and 
expressive  one.  It  is  most  euphonious;  there  is  not  a  harsh 
or  guttural  sound  in  it  All  its  soaods  are  perfectly  familiar 
to  us,  but  many  of  those  in  our  language  the  Ojibways  cannot 
utter  at  all.  Strange  to  say,  th^r  language  is  very  highly  in- 
flected. The  Ojibway  verb,  for  instance,  is  much  more  highly 
inflected  than  the  Greek  verb;  it  has  whole  conjagatiraa  of 



vhicli  we  in  onr  English  tangaa^  know  notbing.  Nearly  all 
parts  of  speech  are  tnmed  into  verbs  and  conjagated.  Any 
idea  wQiich  is  expressed  in  oar  langaage  can  be  perfectly  well 
expressed  in  theirs.  Being  so  highly  inflected,  and  with  many 
particles  varionsly  dovetailed  In,  it  is,  though  so  beantifnl, 
and  really  a  work  of  art,  a  most  dilQcnlt  langaage  to  acqaire. 
A  learned  ecclesiastic,  who  told  me  he  spoke  nine  langaa^es, 
including  a  little  of  this,  told  me  he  wonld  rather  learn  the 
other  eight  than  the  single  Ojibway.  The  greatest  authority 
on  Indian  languages  in  our  coantry  some  time  ago  made  the 
statement  that  any  verb  in  the  Algonquin  tongue  is  habitually 
used  in  a  million  different  forms.  The  wonder  is  bow  each  a 
rade  people  ever  constructed  or  ever  banded  down  such  a 
highly  inflected  language.  To  one  who  studies  it,  it  is  as 
great  a  surprise,  to  use  the  words  of  another,  "as  it  would  be 
to  come  on  a  beautifully  sculptured  Corinthian  temple  out  on 
one  of  our  prairies." 

In  this  paper  I  have  left  out  altogether  everything  about 
the  mission  to  the  Ojibways,  the  ten  congregations,  and  the 
eleven  Indian  clergy;  though  the  history  of  Gbristianity  among 
these  people  would  be  the  more  interesting  narrative  of  the 



By  The  Right  Bhtbbkm>  Hekbx  B.  Whippi^  D.  D.,  LL.  D., 
Bishop  of  HntttBsoTA. 

OeiKtlemen  of  the  Historical  Society:  It  ie  a  great  pleaaore 
t»  tell  ;oB  tbe  story  ot  oar  missions  to  the  Ojibways,  whom 
I  have  learned  to  lore  as  tbe  brown  children  of  our  Heavenly 
Father.  The  North  American  Indian  is  the  noblest  type  of 
a  wild  man  is  the  world.  He  recognizes  a  Great  Spirit;  has 
an  unwavering  tsi&i  in  a  fatnre  life,  a  passionate  love  tot 
his  children,  and  will  lay  down  his  life  onflinchiDgl;  for  his 
people.  I  have  never  known  an  Indian  to  tell  me  a  lie, — a 
characteristic  of  the  Indian  character  to  which  tbe  oflDcera 
of  the  United  States  Army  will  bear  testimony. 

The  Ojibways  belong  to  the  Algonquin  division  of  the 
abori^nal  American  people,  which  included  all  tbe  Indians 
from  the  Atlantic  to  tbe  forests  of  Minnesota,  north  of  the 
Cherokees,  except  tbe  Six  Nations  of  New  York.  Their  lan- 
gnage  is  both  beantif  nl  and  intereating,  and  exhibits  the  nicest 
shades  of  meaning.  The  verbs  bare  more  inflections  than  in 
the  O-reeb  langaage.  Perhaps  the  Epistles  of  St  Paal  are 
the  cmx  to  test  a  language,  but  in  that  respect  tbe  richness 
of  the  Ojibway  tongne  cannot  be  exceeded.  Polygamy  has 
existed  with  them  to  a  much  less  degree  than  among  other 

At  the  time  of  my  consecration.  Bishop  Kemper,  honored 
by  all  men,  said  to  me,  "Dear  brother,  do  not  forget  the  poor 
Indians  who  are  committed  to  your  care  and  whom  yoo  may 
gather  into  the  fold  of  Christ."  Three  weeks  after  coming 
to  Minnesota,  in  1860,  I  visited  tbe  Indian  conntry.  The 
Indians  bad  fallen  to  a  depth  of  degradation  unknown  to 
their  heathen  fathers.    Our  Indian  affairs  were  at  their  worst. 

■An  addr«M  slven  before  the  Minnesota  Historical  Society,  Mar  2,  1806. 



The  Indians  were  regarded  by  politician  as  a  bey  to  aniocb 
the  pablic  treaBor;,  and  even  Cbrietiaii  folk  said,  in  the  lan- 
guage of  Gain,  "Am  I  my  brother's  keeper?"  Hach  as  I  had 
heard  of  t3ieir  sorrow  and  wretchedness,  I  was  appalled  by 
t!he  revelation  of  my  first  visiL  As  we  entered  the  fiH'est, 
we  foand  a  dead  Indian  by  the  wayside,  who  had  been  killed 
in  a  drnnken  fight  A  few  miles  farther  on  we  came  to  a 
wigwam  where  the  moth^  wa«  stripping  the  oiit»  bailc  from 
a  pine  tree  that  she  might  give  the  pitch  to  her  children  to 
satisfy  the  gnawings  of  hnnger.  Almost  at  every  step  we 
were  met  by  some  sign  of  the  existing  degradaitioD. 

At  Gall  lake,  James  Lloyd  Breok,  of  blessed  memory,  had 
gathered  a  little  band  of  Christian  Indians.  He  had  left  them 
to  establish  anoliher  mission  at  Leech  laka  The  Indians 
while  maddened  with  drink  had  driven  him  and  his  family 
from  the  coantry.  They  afterward  told  me  that  white  men 
had  assured  them  that  thrir  grand  medicine  was  as  good  as 
any  religion,  and  that  if  they  did  not  want  tlie  missionary 
they  might  drive  him  away.  I  held  sorrices  in  the  log  church, 
and  I  remember  how  deeply  my  heart  was  tonched  by  the 
devotion  of  a  few  Christian  Indians  as  I  heard  for  the  first 
time  the  services  of  the  Church  in  their  musical  langoage. 

That  same  night  the  deadly  fire-water  made  a  pande- 
monium, and  I  coQld  only  say,  "How  Icmg,  O  Lord?"  Bub  I 
then  settled  the  question  that,  whatever  success  or  failure 
might  attend  my  ^orte,  I  would  never  turn  my  back  upon 
the  heathen  at  any  door.  Friends  within  and  without  my 
diocese  advised  me  to  have  nothing  to  do  with  Indian  mis- 
sions, sfl^ng  that  a  young  bishop  could  not  afford  to  make 
a  failure  in  his  work.  I  carried  it  where  I  have  learned  to 
carry  all  troubles,  and  I  promised  my  Saviour  that,  God  help- 
ing me,  I  would  never  cease  my  efforts  for  this  wronged  race. 
The  Bev.  E.  8.  Peake  was  a  missionary  residing  at  Grow 
Wing,  and  the  Bev,  John  Johnson  Enmegahbowh,  ordained 
a  deacon  by  Bishop  Kemper,  was  living  at  Gull  lake.  I  spent 
the  following  summer  visiting  all  tlhe  scatto^d  bands  of  the 
Ojibways,  and  holding  services.  After  one  of  them,  a  chief 
asked  me  if  the  Jesus  of  whom  I  spoke  was  the  same  Jesus 
that  my  white  brother  talked  to  when  he  was  angry  or  drunk. 
The  head  chief  of  Sandy  lake  said  to  me:    "You  have  'Bpc^en 



strong  words  a^uBt  flre-wttter  and  imporit;;  but,  my  friend, 
ytm  ^ve  made  a  miatake.  *Ehsae  are  words  yoa  should  tarr; 
to  Tonr  irtdte  brothers  who  bring  as  the  flre-water  and  cor- 
rupt oar  dao^tera.    They  are  the  sioDers,  not  we." 

Bat  there  were  gleaim  of  light.  An  Indian  woman,  the 
queen  of  the  VokegamaB,  followed  me  thir^  miles  to  attend 
a  service;  She  said  to  me:  "Yoar  missionary  bcptiEed  my 
daughter.  The  Oreat  Spirit  called  her  hooK.  I  have  heard 
a  whisper  in  my  heart,  'Ton  most  he  a  Christian  aad  follow 
your  child  to  tiie  Great  Spirit's  home.' "  At  another  place 
I  Iraried  the  child  <rf  a.  woman  who  bronght  me  a  lock  of  hair, 
saying:  "Eech^anekadaiooui,  the  C^eait  Spirit  has  called 
my  child.  1  have  heard  that  when  white  mothers  lose  tb^ 
babies  they  SMoetimea  have  tteir  hair  made  into  a  cross  tO' 
remind  them  of  the  baby  who  has  gone,  and  oi  JeeoB  who 
called  it.  Will  joa  have  my  baby's  hair  made  into  a  cross?" 
The  following  year,  this  woman  walked  forty  miles  to  give 
me  a  large  m^Auk  of  dried  hemes.  She  said  nothing,  bat 
pointed  to  the  little  cross  Which  I  had  made  for  her.  They 
were  simple  things,  but  they  told  me  that  the  hearts  of  an 
Indian  mother  and  a  white  motiier  are  alike. 

I  will  mention  an  incident  of  oar  Sioax  mission.  Some 
9i  my  hearers  will  remember  the  noted  Sioux  orator,  Red 
Owl.  He  never  attraided  a  church  service.  One  day  he  came 
into  the  school-room.  There  hung  on  the  wall  the  picture 
of  the  Ecce  Homo, — that  sweet,  sad  face  vt  the  Saviour.  He 
asked,  "Who  is  that7  Why  are  His  hands  bound?  Why 
ar«  those  thorns  on  His  bead,  and  blood  on  His  brow  7*^ 
Again  and  again  he  came  to  the  school-room  and  sat  ttefore 
the  pictnre,  asking  questions  about  the  "Son  of  the  Grea^ 
Spirit,"  xmtil  he  had  learned  the  story.  One  day  as  I  vras 
driving  over  the  prairie,  I  saw  a  wood  cross  over  a  newly 
made  grave,  and  when  I  asked  what  it  meant,  Wabasha  told 
nte  that  Bed  Owl  was  dead;  that  he  had  saddenly  been  taken 
ill,  and  that  when  he  was  dying  he'called  his  yonng  men 
around  him  and  said,  "The  story  of  the  Great  Spirit  is  true. 
I  have  it  in  my  heart  When  1  am  dead  put  a  cross,  like  that 
on  the  mission  honse,  over  my  grave,  that  the  Indians  may 
see  what  was  in  Bed  Owl's  heart." 

For  three  years  we  labored  faithfully,  but  the  clouds  were 
ofb^  black  and  there  was  much  to  perplex  in  the  example 



of  a  GhriBtian  nation.  On  one  occasion  tbe  Sloax  had  killed 
one  of  onr  Ojibways  near  Onll  i4ver.  On  m;  next  visit  to 
the  Sioux  country  I  said  to  tltieir  head  chief,  'TVabasha,  your 
people  have  murdered  one  of  my  Ojibways,  and  yesterday 
you  had  a  scalp  dance  in  front  of  oar  mission.  The  wife  and 
children  of  the  mardered  man  are  asking  for  him.  The  Qreat 
Spirit  is  angry."  Wabasha  drew  his  pipe  from  bis  month, 
and,  slowly  blowing  a  cload  of  smoke  into  the  air,  said: 
'^hite  men  go  to  war  with  th«r  own  brothers,  and  kill  more 
men  than  Wabasha  can  count  all  the  days  of  his  life  Great 
Spirit  looks  down  and  says,  'Qood  white  man;  he  has  my 
book;  I  love  him,  and  will  give  him  good  place  when  he  dies.' 
Indian  has  no  Great  Spirit  book.  He  wild  man.  Kill  one 
man;  has  scalp  dance.  Great  Spirit  very  angry.  Wabasha 
don't  believe  it!" 

In  1862,  I  visited  the  Stonx  Mission  on  the  npper  Minne- 
sota river.  There  were  forerunning  signs  of  the  coming  of 
that  awfnl  massacre.  These  Indians  had  sold  to  tbe  TTnited 
States  goTemment  ^ght  hundred  thousand  acres  of  tb^ 
pesen-ation,  for  which  they  bad  never  received  a  penny,  ex- 
cept a  few  worthless  goods  sent  to  the  Upper  Sioni.  They 
had  been  told  by  tbe  traders  that  all  had  been  paid  out  for 
claims,  and  that  a  lai^e  part  of  their  annuities  had  also  been 
th^s  used.  It  was  true.  Of  the  money  which  came  too  late, 
twenty-flve  thousand  dollars  had  been  taken  from  other  tnurt 
funds  to  pay  these  annuities. 

I  visited  the  Ojibways,  on  my  return,  at  Crow  Wing,  and 
while  1  was  there  a  letter  came  to  HoIe-in-the-Day,  in  care 
of  the  Bev.  Mr.  Peake,  marked  "In  baste."  Hole-in-the-Day 
was  at  Leech  lake.  I  sent  for  his  head  warrior,  who  opened 
tbe  letter.  It  was  from  Little  Crow,  and  said:  "Your  men 
killed  one  of  our  farmer  Indians.  I  tried  to  ke^  my  moi 
back.  They  have  gone  for  scalps.  Look  out  I"  On  my  way 
to  Red  lake,  I  found  the  Indians  turbulent,  and  felt  that  an 
impending  cloud  hung  over  our  border.  When  it  broke  the 
only  light  which  fell  upon  the  scenes  of  bloodshed  -was  that 
which  came  from  the  loyalty  of  those  Christian  Indiana  who 
rescued  so  many  women  and  children  from  death.  Enme- 
gahbowh,  who  had  been  made  a  prisoner,  escaped  and  trav- 
elled thirty  miles  in  the  night  to  warn  Fort  Ripley  of  its 
danger.    He  sent  Chief  Bad  Boy  to  the  Mille  Lacs  Indians 



to  call  them  to  the  defenee  of  the  fort;  and  before  Ho)e~in- 
tlie-Day  conid  begin  war,  the  north^m  border  was  protected. 
I  can  never  forget  the  love  and  bravery  of  those  Christian 
Indians  who  proved  their  fidelity  at  the  risk  of  their  lives. 

Both  of  onr  misBions,  to  the  Sioax  and  to  the  Ojibways, 
were  destroyed,  and  during  tSiose  dark  days  it  seemed  as  if 
the  gronnd  was  drifting  from  ander  my  feet  We  began 
work  again,  and  in  1S67  we  secured  a  valuable  reservation 
for  the  Ojibways  at  White  Earth.  My  heart  was  fall  of  hope, 
but  when  I  visited  the  Ojibways,  they  said  that  this  was  the 
first  march  towards  the  setting  son;  that  all  Indians  who 
had  left  thedr  own  homes  had  perished,  and  that  their  shad- 
ows rested  upon  their  graves.  Nabonaskong,  the  most  fear- 
less warrior  I  have  ever  known,  said:  "The  Bishop  has  a 
straight  tongna  He  says  we  shall  be  saved  if  we  go  to 
White  Earth.  We  know  it  is  a  beautiful  country.  My  chil- 
dren are  looking  in  a  grave.  Ton  know  me.  I  will  kill  any 
man  who  tries  to  hinder  me  from  going  to  that  new  home." 
Other  Indiana  followed  his  example,  and  a  little  company 
removed  to  White  Earth,  with  Enmegahbowh  as  their  clergy- 

Some  months  afterward,  Ifabonaskong  went  to  Enme- 
gahbowh and  said:  "That  story  aboot  Jesus  is  true.  I 
know  it  The  trail  brought  by  the  Christian  white  man  is 
good.  But  I  have  been  a  warrior.  My  hands  are  covered 
with  blood.  Can  I  be  a  Christian?"  Enmegahbowh  made 
the  crucial  test  by  asking  it  be  mi^t  cut  his  hair.  The 
Indian  wears  his  scalp-lock  for  his  enemy;  and  when  his 
hair  ia  cut,  it  is  a  sign  he  vrill  no  longer  go  on  the  war  path. 
I  have  had  a  man  tremble  under  the  shears  as  he  would  not 
if  a  pistol  were  pat  at  his  head.  Nabonaskong'B  hair  was 
cut,  and  he  started  for  home.  He  met  some  wild  Indians 
on  the  way,  who  shonted  with  laughter  and  said,  "Yesterday 
you  were  our  leader.  To-day  you  are  a  squaw !"  It  stung 
the  man  to  madness.  He  roshed  to  his  wigwam,  and,  throw- 
ing himself  on  the  gronnd,  cried,  for  the  first  time  in  his 
life.  His  Christian  wife  knelt  by  his  side  and  said,  "Na- 
bonaskong, no  man  can  call  you  a  coward.  Can  you  not  be 
as  brave  for  Him  who  died  for  you  as  you  were  to  kill  the 
Sioux?"    Springing  to  his  feet,  he  cried,  "I  can  and  I  will!" 



He  was  trae  to  his  tow;  his  iafiQence  orer  other  Indians 
was  great,  and  Id  his  last  illDess  he  sent  for  his  people  and 
urged  them  to  throw  aside  their  wild  life  aod  hecorae  CSniB- 

One  of  those  whom  he  led  to  Christ  was  Sbadayence,  the 
head  grand  medidne  man  of  the  nation.  In  the  early  days 
I  Dsed  to  call  this  man  my  Alexander  Coppersmitli,  for  he 
was  the  moBt  cnnning  apponent  of  Christianity.  The  only 
CfariadaB  Indian  in  a  certaia  village  died,  and  left  messages 
for  his  frioidH  to  follow  him  to  the  Qreat  Biririt's  home.  It 
made  a  deep  impression  upon  his  people,  and  a  few  days 
afterward  the  medicine  men  left  the  village,  and  were  not 
heard'  from  for  weeks.  When  they  returned  thrir  faces  were 
blackened  and  they  were  in  rags,  the  sign  of  monming.  The 
Indians  gathered  around  them  and  asked  what  it  meant. 
After  mneh  persnasion  they  told  their  story,  saying  that  they 
had  foand  the  Indian  who  had  jnst  died,  in  great  troable. 
l%e  Great  S]ririt  had  permitted  them  to  see  the  other  world, 
and  tiiey  had  found  their  friend  wandering  alone.  He  told 
them  that  when  he  died  he  went  ap  to  the  white  man's  heaven, 
and  the  angel  who  guarded  the  gate  asked  him  who  be  was. 
He  said  tiiat  he  was  a  Christian  Ojibway.  The  angel  sfaat 
the  gate,  saying,  "This  is  a  white  man's  heaven.  There  are 
Happy  Hooting  Oronnds  for  the  Ojibways,  in  the  west." 
He  then  went  to  the  Happy  Hunting  Grounds;  but  when  he 
asked  for  admission,  the  angel  asked  who  he  was,  and  upon 
hearing  that  he  was  a  Christian  Ojibway  answered:  "The 
Ojibways  are  medicine  men.  If  yon  are  a  Christian  you  must 
go  to  the  other  heaven."  He  waa  shut  out  of  both,  and  mnst 
wander  alone  forever. 

In  the  early  days  of  my  Indian  miselouB,  I  took  a  load  of 
Indian  children  to  Faribaolt.  At  Little  Falls,  a  number  of 
frontier  men,  who  loooked  upon  me  as  a  tenderfoot,  gathered 
about  the  wagon  and  said,  "I  wonder  if  the  Bishop  expects  to 
make  Christians  out  of  th«n.  It  can't  be  done  any  more  than 
you  can  tame  a  weasel."  After  the  Bioux  outbreak,  the  Ojib- 
ways were  afraid  to  trust  their  children  in  Faribault,  which 
they  regarded  as  a  part  of  the  Bious  country,  and  they  were 
taken  away.  One  day  I  met  a  lumberman  at  Bnunerd,  who 
said  to  me,  "Biefaop,  I  don't  take  any  stock  in  your  Indian 



missioBS."  I  replied,  "I  do  not  think  yon  take  etock  in  any 
misritHiB."  He  Bmiled  and  responded,  "That's  so;  bat  I  know 
an  Indian  In  my  camp  who  is  a  Christian  sore!  He  is  the 
Mily  man  who  don't  swear  or  drink  whisky.  His  only  fanlt 
is  that  he  wont  work  Bandays."  I  visited  the  camp,  and 
fonnd  the  son  of  Shadayence.  I  educated  him,  and  ordained 
him;  and  when  his  father  saw  him  for  the  first  time  in  a 
surplice,  preaching  the  g»^>el  of  Christ,  he  vaa  deeply  moved 
and  became  himself  a  Christian. 

Another  of  th^e  Indian  boys  was  employed  as  a  chain- 
maii  by  a  United  States  snrr^or.  A  few  days  after  he  began 
his  work,  he  asked  permis^on  to  return  to  his  home,  aaying, 
"Tohr  yonng  men  swear.  There  are  oo  oaths  in  the  Indian 
language.  1  am  afraid  that  I  may  learn  to  use  these  word*" 
The  surveyor  called  his  employees  tt^ether  and  told  them 
the  story,  wtiich  so  touched  them  that  it  ended  profanity  in 
the  camp.  This  boy,  Fred  Bmith,  I  also  educated  and  or- 
dained, and  he  is  now  in  charge  of  the  beautiful  church  at 
White  Earth,  -of  which  Enmegahbowh  is  the  rector  emeritus. 
Still  another  of  those  boys  has  been  ordained,  and  has  made 
fall  proof  of  his  ministry. 

There  are  to-day  ten  Ojibway  churches  in  the  state  of 
Minnesota,  and  seven  Ojibway  clergymen, .  besides  sereral 
catecluBts  and  lay  readers.  I  once  asked  a  border  man  about 
one  of  my  Indian  clergymen,  and  he  replied,  "Bishop,  he 
doesn't  let  the  grass  grow  nnder  his  feet,  and  he  doesn't  wake 
up  anybody's  sleeping  dogs." 

I  have  often  been  asked  if  all  Indians  who  wer«  baptized, 
remained  true  to  their  profusion ;  and  I  have  answered,  "Did 
you  ever  know  of  a  white  man,  with  fifteen  hundred  yea^e 
of  civilization  back  of  lilm,  to  fail  as  a  model  of  Christian 
character?"  But  I  do  say  that  there  are  no  memories  in  my 
heart  dearer  than  those  of  many  of  the  brown  children  wh<un 
we  have  been  permitted  to  lead  out  of  heathen  darkness. 

I  have  not  spoken  of  the  Christian  labors  of  other  religions 
bodies.  I  have  made  it  a  role  of  my  life  never  to  interfere 
with  other  Christian  work.  One  of  the  noblest  specimens 
of  the  Indian,  Mahdwagononint  (a  brief  sketch  of  whose  life 
I  recently  published),  came  to  me  In  1865,  and  asked  me  for 
a  missionary.    The  Congregatlonalists  had  sent  a  mis^onary 



to  Bed  lake,  bat  MaLdwagononint  said  to  me,  "I  want  joar 
kind.  You  have  been  m;  friend  and  have  helped  save  m; 
people."  After  repeated  appeals,  I  wrote  to  the  secretary 
of  the  American  MisBionary  Association,  and  a^ed  permis- 
sion to  send  an  Indian  clergyman  to  Bed  lake,  saying  that 
their  mission  liad  not  been  a  success,  and  that,  although  in 
.  my  diocese,  I  was  nnwilling  to  present  a  divided  Christianity 
to  heathen  folk.  I  received  a  courteous  letter  from  the  sec- 
retary, in  which  he  said,  1  believe,  for  the  interest  of  the 
Indians,  that  it  is  best  to  leave  thin  field  in  yonr  care,  and 
we  will  withdraw  our  misaionary."  I  consulted  with  Arch- 
deacon GilflUan  as  to  a  name  for  the  ni>w  mission,  and,  re- 
membering that  the  Book  of  Eevelation  speaks  of  "my  servant 
Antipas  where  Satan  dwelleth,"  we  decided  that  it  rfiould 
be  called  St  Antipas.  Ood  has  blessed  us.  Mahdwagononint 
became  one  of  the  noblest  Christians  1  have  knovm,  and  his 
village  is  the  only  village  in  Minnesota  where  all  are  Chris- 

We  owe  a  debt  of  gratitude  to  our  deaconess,  Miss  Sybil 
Carter,  who,  with  all  the  energy  and  devotion  of  her  honored 
great-grandfather,  Samuel  Adams  of  Revolutionary  fame,  has 
made  a  grand  snccess  of  the  six  lace  schools  which  she  has 
established  among  the  Indians,  fonr  of  which  are  in  Minne- 
sota. This  lace  compares  favorably  with  the  beat  imported 
laces,  and  received  high  commendation  at  the  World's  Pair 
in  Chicago.  There  have  been  many  instances  where  the  In- 
dians would  have  suffered  from  hanger,  by  the  loss  of  their 
crops,  had  it  not  been  for  this  industry.  The  lace-making  ha< 
a  refining  influence  upon  these  people.  An  Indian  woman 
Bcdd  to  me,  '^e  wash  hands  to  keep  thread  clean;  me  wash 
apron  to  keep  lace  clean;  clean  dress  to  keep  apron  clean; 
clean  floor  to  keep  dress  clean;  lace  make  everytlhing  clean, 
me  like  it." 

The  story  of  our  labors  (or  the  Indians  would  not  be  com- 
plete if  I  did  not  speak  of  the  conflicts  which  I  have  had,  to 
secure  justice  for  them,  and  to  reform  our  Indian  system. 
At  the  time  when  Qeneral  Sibley  appointed  Christian  Indiana 
as  his  scouts,  I  asked  him  what  he  would  do  with  their  wives 
and  children.  Tears  came  into  his  eyes  as  be  said,  "I  shall 
have  to  send  them  with  the  others,  to  the  Missouri."    I  said 



that  I  shoDld  take  them  to  FaribtLolt,  which  I  did.  Alexander 
Faribault^  with  his  asaal  generosity,  allowed  them  to  camp 
oD  his  land,  and  I  was  enabled,  by  the  gifts  of  friends,  to  aid 
in  their  snpport  At  that  time  there  was  a  sea  captain  living 
at  Paribaolt  He  one  day  overheard  a  party  of  bordermen' 
say  with  an  oath,  *^ishop  Whipple  has  taken  a  lot  of  those 
savages  down  to  Faribanlt.  Lefs  go  down  and  clean  him 
out"  "Do  yoo  know  Bishop  Whipple?"  said  the  capttUn. 
"1  do,  and  I  will  tell  yon  what  will  happen  if  yoo  try  to  clean 
him  oat.  He  will  come  out  and  talk  to  yon  for  five  minntes, 
and  yon  will  wonder  how  yon  ever  made  snch  cnssed  fools  of 
yourselves."  The  leading  papers  of  the  State,  however  mnch 
they  differed  from  me,  always  published  my  appeals  for  the 
Indians;  but  there  were  papers  that  denounced  me  as  the 
patron  and  friend  of  savages,  and  in  one  I  saw  an  article, 
headed  in  large  type,  "Avrful  Sacrilege!  Holiest  Bites  of  the 
Chnrcfa  administered  to  red-handed  Murderers!"  I  am  glad 
to  say  that  the  anthor  became  one  of  my  firm  friends,  after 
he  had  received  his  sight 

In  1864,  the  legislature  of  Minnesota  demanded  that  the 
Ojibways  should  be  removed  from  their  reserrationa  The 
Department  selected  a  tract  of  land  north  of  Leech  lake,  and 
sent  oat  a  special  commissioner  to  make  the  treaty.  He  came 
to  see  me,  and  asfced  for  my  help  in  making  the  treaty.  I 
told  him  that  the  Indians  were  not  fools,  and  that,  as  the 
country  which  had  been  selected  was  the  poorest  in  Minne- 
sota, only  valuable  for  its  pine  land,  I  knew  that  not  an  Indian 
would  sign  the  treaty.  He  answered,  "If  you  will  not  help 
me,  I  will  show  that  I  can  make  it  without  help."  He  called 
the  Indians  together,  and  said,  "My  friends,  your  Oreat  Father 
has  beard  how  you  have  been  wronged.  He  looked  in  the 
North,  the  East,  and  the  West,  to  find  an  honest  man;  and 
when  be  saw  me,  he  said,  'Here  is  an  honest  man;  I  will  send 
him  to  my  red  children.'  Now,  my  friends,  look  at  me.  The 
winds  of  flfty-flve  winters  have  blown  over  my  head,  and  have 
silvered  it  over  with  gray,  and  in  all  that  time  I  have  done 
no  vrrong  to  a  single  person.  As  your  friend,  I  advise  yon 
to  sign  this  treaty  at  once"  Old  Shabaskong,  a  Mille  Lacs 
ehief,  sprang  to  his  feet,  and,  with  a  wave  of  the  hand,  said: 
"Look  at  me.    The  winds  of  flfty-flve  winters  have  blown  over 



my  head  and  have  BilTered  it  over  vith  gray,  bat — they  have 
sot  blown  my  brains  awayl  I  hare  done."  That  coancil  was 

In  those  dark  days,  I  Tinted  Washington  three  or  foar 
timefi  each  year,  to  i^ead  for  theee  Indians.  There  were  times 
when  they  were  in  danger  ot  starvation.  At  one  time  I  re- 
ceived a  message  that  there  were  not  jwovisions  enongh  at 
oae  o(  the  reserratfons  to  last  three  weeks.  I  borrowed  five 
hundred  dtdlars  trma.  J.  E.  'Riompson,  and  pnrchased  tonr 
for  them.  Mr.  Thompson  often  loaned  me  money  for  my  In- 
dian missions,  for  in  those  days  their  snpport  rested  npon 
myself.  He  always  refused  to  take  interest,  saying,  "I  do  not 
think.  Bishop,  that  oar  Heavenly  Father  oaght  to  pay  int»est 
for  mMiey  used  in  His  work." 

The  first  lig^t  that  I  had  was  when  General  Grant  was 
elected  Preadent  He  loved  the  Indians,  and  political  pres- 
sure never  made  him  turn  from  what  he  believed  to  be  for 
their  interest.  Officers  of  the  United  States  Army  have  al- 
ways been  my  frieods.  General  Sherman  once  said,  'l^ie  In- 
dian problem  can  be  solved  by  one  sentence  of  an  old  book, 
*Do  unto  others  as  yon  wonld  Ihave  them  do  onto  you.' " 

One  of  the  most  exciting  conflicts  that  I  had  with  the 
Indiana  was  at  Leech  lake.  I  was  on  a  visitation  in  the 
southern  part  of  the  State,  when  I  received  a  telegram  from 
QeoTge  Bonga,  "The  Indians  at  Leech  l^e  have  killed  the 
Government  cattle  and  taken  the  Government  goods,  and  I 
fear  an  outbreak."  I  repeated  the  tel^ram  to  General  Grant, 
adding  that  Bonga  waa  reliable.  The  answer  came,  "Go  into 
the  Indian  country  and  settle  this,  and  we  will  ratify  yonr 
act."  It  was  a  terrible  journey,  with  the  thermometer  below 
zero,  and  the  roads  blocked  by  snowdrifts.  Captain  McCas- 
key,  a  noble  soldier,  accompanied  me  When  we  reachd  Leech 
lake,  the  Indians  met  me  in  council.  Flat  Month  arose  and 
said:  "I  suppose  yon  came  to  ask  who  killed  the  Government 
cattle,  and  who  took  the  Government  goods.  My  young  men 
did  it  by  my  authority.  Do  yon  want  to  know  why?  Our 
pine  land  has  been  sold  without  our  consent.  We  have  been 
robbed.  We  slmll  suffer  no  more.  Our  shadows  rest  on  our 
graves,"  He  spoke  for  a  half  hour,  with  bitter  sarcasm  and 
denunciation  of  the  United  States  government.    I  knew  my 



<»U7  hope  of  ooDtrolUog  tbe  Indians  la;  in  silebciDg  Flat 
UoutlL  Am  heeatdowB,Iaro»&aadMidqnicd7,''nat  Uoatli, 
how  long  have  ;on  known  meV  *TwelTe  years,"  wa«  the 
—www:.  "Bave  1  ever  told  yon  a  HeT'  "No,"  came  the  reply, 
"yon  hart  not  a  forked  tongne."  "I  shell  not  lie  to  yon  to- 
day," I  continned.  "I  am  not  a  BerT«ot  of  tbe  Oreat  Fathw; 
I  am  a  servant  of  tbe  Oreat  Spirit  I  cannot  tell  yon  what 
tiie  Great  Father  will  do;  bat  if  he  does  what  he  ought  to  do, 
if  it  takes  ten  thoasand  men  he  will  arrest  every  Indian  who 
has  committed  crime."  As  I  expected,  be  was  7^7  angry, 
and  sprang  to  his  feet  with  flashing  eyes  and  bitter  words. 
When  he  stopped  to  take  breath,  for  I  bad  folded  my  arms 
and  sat  down,  I  asked  qnietly,  "Flat  Month,  are  yon  talking 
or  am  I  talking?  If  yon  are  talking,  I  will  wait  till  yon 
Anisfa.  If  I  am  talking,  1  prefer  yon  to  wait."  All  tbe  In- 
dians sbooted,  "Ho!  ho!  bo!"  Flat  Month,  by  intermpting 
me,  had  broken  their  most  sacred  law  of  politeness,  and  tbe 
chief  sat  down  overwhelined  with  confosion,  and  I  was  left 
majBter  of  the  situation.  I  told  them  that  when  I  heard  of 
the  Bale  of  the  land,  I  informed  the  porcbaser,  who  was  my 
friend,  that  I  shoald  break  np  the  sale.  I  wrote  tbe  Secretary 
<tf  the  Interior  that  I  would  carry  it  throngb  ail  tbe  coorts  tf 
necessary.  I  consulted  the  Chief  Juetice  of  tbe  United  States. 
"Bnt,"  I  said,  "when  I  ask  good  men  to  help  me,  and  tb«y 
ask  if  tbe  Indians  for  whMn  I  plead  are  the  ones  who  stole 
the  Uovemment  goods,  killed  tbe  Government  cattle,  and 
threatened  to  murder  white  men,  what  shall  I  Bay?  Yon  are 
not  fools.  Ton  know  that  yon  have  gagged  my  tongne  and 
fettered  my  hands.  Talk  this  over  among  yourselves,  and 
when  yon  have  made  up  your  minds  what  to  do  send  for  me." 
I  left  tbe  council,  and  the  next  morning  Flat  Month  and  his 
fellow  chiefs  came  to  me,  and  said,  "We  have  been  foolish. 
Tell  UB  what  to  do,  and  we  will  follow  your  advice." 

I  will  here  mention  that  the  responsibility  for  this  sale 
did  not  belong  either  to  tbe  agent,  the  Rev.  Mr.  Smith,  or  to 
the  purchaser.  I'know  better,  perhaps,  than  any  of  my  fellow 
citizens,  the  history  of  that  unfortunate  transaction,  and  I 
know  that  these  men  were  innocent.  It  would  weary  you  to 
tell,  ever  so  briefly,  of  those  fierce  conflicts.  I  should  have 
failed  if  God  had  not  given  me  strength  beyond  my  own  weak 



The  history  of  onr  dealings  witli  the  Indians  is  a  sad  one. 
Wemaj  begin  far  back  to  whoi^  our  Pilgrim  fathers  marched 
aroand  a  charch,  with  the  head  of  King  Philip  on  a  pole,  to 
the  music  of  a  flfe  and  drum,  and  then  in  sol^nn  conclave 
decided  that  it  was  the  will  of  Ood  that  the  sins  of  the  fatiiers 
Bfaonid  be  visited  upon  the  children,  and  therefore  sold  Philip's 
son  as  a  slave  to  Bermuda. 

Follow  on  to  the  time  when  Worcester,  that  noble  Pres- 
byterian missionary  to  the  Ch^vkees,  was  tried,  and  sen- 
tenced to  prison,  for  teaching  the  Cherokees  to  read.  The 
case  was  carried  to  the  Bapreme  Court  of  the  United  States, 
by  Mr.  Evarts,  the  father  of  William  M.  Evarts.  Chief  Justice 
Marshall  decided  that  the  law  was  anconstitutional.  But 
the  Supreme  Court  has  no  power  to  execute  its  mandates, 
and  Worcester  remained  in  prison.  Little  did  the  people 
of  Georgia  think  that  the  day  would  come  when  a  host  of 
men,  under  the  flag  of  that  outraged  Constitution,  would 
descend  from  the  t(^  of  Missionary  Ridge,  the  h<Hue  of  that 
martyred  servant  of  Ood,  and  lay  waste  all  of  that  land  which 
bad  been  taken  trom  the  Cberokees. 

Yon  may  still  follow  on  to  where  a  Moravian  church  was 
burned  on  the  Lord's  day,  and  the  men,  women,  and  children 
of  a  Christian  Indian  village  were  put  to  death.  And  so  on 
to  that  fearful  Cheyenne  massacre,  under  Colonel  Cbivington, 
of  which  a  commission  (Oeneral  Sherman  was  the  president, 
and  our  honored  fellow  citizen.  General  fianbom,  was  a  mem- 
ber) said  that  the  scenes  which  took  place  would  have  dis- 
graced the  most  savage  tribe  of  the  interior  of  Africa. 

We  have  spent  more  money  in  Indian  wars  than  all  the 
Christian  churches  of  America  have  expended  for  missions; 
and  in  these  wars  (of  which  officers  of  the  army,  such  as  Sher- 
man, Grant,  Miles,  and  Crooks,  have  told  me  that  they  never 
knew  an  instance  where  the  Indians  were  the  first  to  violate 
a  treaty),  ten  white  men  have  been  killed  to  one  Indian, 

Much  of  the  wrong  heaped  upon  the  Indians  was  the  direct 
fniit  of  a  bad  system.  The  men  entnisted  with  the  elevation 
of  a  heathen  race  were  ^pointed  agents  as  a  reward  for 
political  service.  The  hands  of  the  Commissions  of  Indian 
Affairs  were  tied  by  Congress.  The  Secretary  of  the  Interior 
had  the  care  of  eight  bureaus,  and  tbe  government  felt  thai 
it  had  fulfilled  its  duty  to  its  Indian  wards  when  it  estab- 



Ushed  almshooBes  to  graduate  savage  paupers.  The  deadly 
flre-water,  and  the  evil  example  of  bad  white  men,  completed 
the  work  of  degradation. 

Many  of  onr  preeidentB,  whom  I  have  known  personally, 
have  felt  keenly  the  wrongs  of  the  Indians.  At  my  first  visit 
to  President  Lincoln,  after  the  Sionx  maamcre,  thwe  were 
tears  in  his  eyes  as  I  told  him  of  onr  desolated  border,  and 
be  said  with  impassioned  voice,  ''When  this  clTi)  war  is  over, 
if  I  live,  this  Indan  system  of  iniqaity  shall  be  reformed." 
Secretary  Stanton  said  to  a  friend  of  mine:  "What  does 
Bishop  Whipple  wantt  If  he  came  to  tell  as  of  the  iniquity 
of  oar  Indian  system,  tell  him  we  know  it.  But  this  govem- 
ment  never  reforms  an  evil  until  the  people  demand  it  When 
the  Bi8h(9  has  reached  the  hearts  of  the  people  of  the  United 
States,  the  Indians  will  be  saved."  Presidents  Arthur  and 
Hayes  gave  me  their  entire  sympathy. 

Id  the  first  administration  of  President  Cleveland,  I  called 
upon  my  friend,  Chief  Justice  Waite,  and  said,  '^ill  you  tell 
me  what  you  think  of  President  Cleveland?"  He  answered, 
"I  believe  that  he  wants  to  know  the  truth;  and  when  he 
knows  it,  no  one  can  swerve  liim  from  his  course;"  He  took 
me  to  the  President  and  introdnced  me.  I  told  him  that  the 
Oovemment  had  bnilt  dama  on  onr  Indian  reservation,  which 
had  overflowed  ninety-one  thousand  acres  of  pine  land,  de- 
stroyed their  rice  fields,  and  injnred  their  fisheries;  and  that 
they  had  plead  in  vain  for  redress.  Mr.  Cleveland  responded, 
*It  is  a  great  wrong.  I  will  send  for  the  Secretary  of  the 
Interior."  He  said  to  him,  "I  have  asked  Bishop  Whipple  to 
address  yon  a  letter  giving  the  facts  concerning  these  dams. 
When  Congress  meets  send  the  letter  promptly  to  me."  He 
sent  a  special  message  to  Congress  with  my  letter,  and  the 
appropriation  was  made. 

In  correspondence  with  President  McKinley,  before  his 
inauguration,  I  was  deeply  impressed  by  his  Christian  char- 
acter. Secretary  Bliss  feels  keenly  the  government's  respon- 
sibility for  its  Indian  wards.  There  is  much  yet  to  be  done, 
but  the  difference  at  the  end  of  thirty-eight  years  is  as  between 
■darkness  and  daylight 

The  following  facts  speak  volumes.  Of  the  two  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  Indians  in  the  United  States,  besides  those 



in  AlasliA,  eight;-«Egbt  thoesand  irear  the  ciTilieed  drew; 
twenty-five  tboQBODd  lire  in  hoaws;  twei^-flve  tflMmeand 
are  commniiicaDtB  of  GhriBtiaii  charchM;  twenty^wo  thou* 
Biuid  ore  fOfUa  in  acboola;  thktr-ei^bt  tboosand  can  read. 
Tlie  past  year  there  were  one  bondred  and  Bevent?  more 
births  than  deatha  among  the  Ojibways  in  Minnesota.  The 
records  of  the  Interior  Department  show  that  in  the  past 
year  fourteen  Indiana  were  Idlled  by  »tfcer  In^ana,  and  forty* 
four  Indians  were  hilled  by  i^te&  The  Indiana  last  year 
■old  to  the  United  States  goTeroment,  and  to  others,  more 
than  a  millijon  boshela  of  wheat  and  com. 

Yes,  thank  God,  the  atmosphere  is  clearing.  The  senti- 
ment of  jnstice  is  beginning  to  vibrate  In  the  hearts  of  men 
everywhere.  I  owe  a  debt  of  gratitude  to  the  Christian  peo- 
ple of  America  and  of  Great  Britain  for  their  sympathy  and 
help.  The  Qnakera  of  Pfailadel^ia  sent  me  two  tiLonsand 
dollars,  with  which  the  first  cattle  for  the  White  Earth  ros- 
erration  were  pnrchased.  My  friend,  the  Dnke  of  Ai^yll,  in 
writing  me  some  years  ago  concerning  oor  Indian  wars,  said, 
"That  the  government  has  treated  the  poor  Indiana  with  great 
injustice  I  have  little  donbt,  for  it  is  the  habit  of  the  white 
man  ao  to  treat  all  his  balf-civiliised  brethren  all  over  t^e 
world."  Bnt  the  time  has  come  when  the  cry  ttiat  "there  ia 
no  good  Indian  save  a  dead  Indian"  rings  hollow,  and  he 
who  otters  it  Is  no  longer  on  the  popular  side.  It  may  not 
be  ont  of  place  in  this  jubilee  year  of  that  gracious  Queen 
whom  all  Christian  nations  revere  and  honor  for  her  noble 
Christian  reign,  to  aay  that  in  that  heart  I  have  foand  a  sym- 
pathy for  my  work  for  my  brown  children  that  conld  not  be 
exceeded  by  the  loving  loyalty  of  my  own  countrymen. 

For  myself  I  have  received  an  hundredfold  for  all  my 
lattors;  and  when  I  have  finished  my  work,  I  would  rather 
have  one  of  these  men,  of  the  trembling  eye  and  wandering 
foot,  drop  a  tear  over  my  grave  and  say,  "He  helped  us  when 
he  conld,"  than  to  have  the  finest  monument 


DiBiimd, Google 




Mr.  President  and  fellow  members  of  the  Old  Settlera'  Ag- 
aociation:  It  gives  me  pleasare  to  greet  ;oa  once  more,  on 
the  annual  recurrence  of  the  day  when  Minnesota  became 
known  to  the  world  as  an  organized  government,  under  the 
laws  of  the  Federal  Union. 

The  ctialrman  of  your  Executive  Committee,  from  the  day 
that  he  assumed  to  exercise  executive  authority  over  the  new 
Territory  of  Minnesota  forty-eight  years  ago,  haa  at  all  times 
been  active  in  lieepiiig  alive  the  memories  of  the  days  of  our 
b^inning,  and  the  developments  of  the  new  territory  and  fa- 
ture  state.  He  has  requested  me  to  present  on  this  anniver- 
sary of  our  association  a  review  of  the  events  which  preceded 
the  organization  of  the  territory,  and  of  the  men  who  were 
active  in  perfecting  it 

While  there  has  been  much  written  and  published  concern- 
ing the  early  days  of  our  history  as  a  state  and  territory,  and 
the  men  who  were  active  and  participated  in  its  organization, 
a  farther  record  thereof  might  seem  unnecesHary  and  cumula- 
tive; yet  it  will  never  be  considered,  1  think,  out  of  place  for 
the  "Old  Bettlefs"  of  Minnesota,  on  the  occasion  of  their  annual 
gathering,  to  have  their  memories  revived  and  refreshed  of 
those  who  were  once  our  associates  and  companions  in  the  ad- 
ventures of  our  early  history  and  the  struggles  of  a  pioneer 
life,  some  of  whom  still  remain  with  ns,  while  the  greater  num- 
ber are  enrolled  among  the  departed. 

What  then  can  be  more  appropriate,  on  this  occasion  of 
our  annual  meeting,  than  to  mingle  in  memory  with  those  who 

■A  p&per  re&d  before  the  Old  Settlers'   Aasodatlon  of  MtnnesotA,   at  Its 
ecntlTe  CouncS 

annual  roeetlnr.  June  L  ISffT;   also  read  at  the  monthly  meetlne  of  the  Six- 
"  -incfl  or  the  Ulnneaota  Historical  Society,  Drcunbar  18,  1897, 

>y  Co  Ogle 


were  the  charter  members  of  oar  organization?  and  also  wltb 
the  members  of  the  Territorial  Legiedatare,  who  first  exercised 
authority  to  enact  laws  to  govern  Minnesota?  It  is  especially 
suitable  thas  to  celebrate  this  semi-centennial  of  1847,  as  oar 
existence  had  its  foundation  in  the  events  of  that  year. 

I  therefore  assume  this  A.  D.  1897  as  the  fiftieth  anniver- 
sary of  the  "Old  Settlers;"  for  several  among  our  number  were 
prominent  and  active  in  1847  in  the  incipient  movements  of 
laying  the  foundations  of  the  future  Minnesota.  The  events  of 
that  year  are  bo  intimately  associated  with  the  culminating 
period  of  1849,  the  year  of  our  Territorial  birth,  and  with  the 
men  who  became  the  charter  membera  of  the  Old  Settlers'  As- 
sociation, that  the  purposes  of  this  paper  would  be  incomplete, 
did  It  not  refer  to  those  who  were  prominent  in  1847.  Think 
of  the  contrast  between  then  and  nowl  The  developments 
and  changes  of  fifty  years  1 

In  1847,  the  location  of  8t  Paul  was  unsold  government 
land,  a  rough  broken  conntry,  comprielDg  tamarack  swamp, 
sand  bills,  rocky  ravines,  and  quagmires  and  sloughs  that  were 
the  abode  of  maskrats  and  other  aquatic  animals.  A  portion 
of  about  ninety  acres  was  that  part  of  the  present  city  area 
lying  between  Seventh  street  and  the  Mississippi  river  and 
extending  from  the  "Seven  Comers"  to  Sibley  street.  This 
tract  was  occupied  by  squatters  who  had  a  law  unto  them- 
selves, which  recognized  the  rights  and  claims  of  the  settlers 
to  be  as  sacred  and  effective  as  under  a' patent  from  the  United 
States  government. 


Of  the  persons  prominent  in  those  days  I  will  first  mention 
Henry  Jackson.  He  was  bom  in  Abington,  Virginia,  Febru- 
ary Ist,  1811.  He  arrived  in  St  Paul  on  the  night  of  June 
9th,  1842,  with  his  wife,  and  found  shelter  in  a  cabin  occupied 
by  one  Abraham  Perry.  Within  a  few  days  he  rented  a  smalt 
cabin  of  Pierre  Parrant,  who  had  been  the  founder  and  pro- 
prietor of  that  more  ancient  settlement  known  as  "Pig's  Eye," 
of  which  Saint  Paul  was  the  western  suburb.  Jackson's  rented 
cabin  was  on  the  levee  near  the  foot  of  the  present  Jackson 
street,  where  be  remained  tilt  he  built  a  log  cabin  for  himself 



on  the  point  of  the  blatF  in  the  rear  of  the  present  8t.  Paul 
Fire  and  Maripe  Inanrance  building.  In  the  new  cabin  he 
opened  a  stock  of  goods  suitable  for  the  Indian  trade  and  also 
*iept  tavern." 

Henry  Jackson  was  a  remarkable  man,  shrewd,  active,  jolly, 
and  ever  equal  to  any  emergency.  He  was,  in  his  day,  legis- 
lator, postmaster,  justice  of  the  peace,  merchant,  and  hotel 
keeper.  On  April  7th,  1846,  the  postofflce  of  8t  Paul  was  estab- 
bllshed,  and  on  the  aame  day  Mr.  Jackson  was  appointed  post* 

Only  three  postoffices  had  been  previously  established 
within  the  limits  of  the  pres^it  state  ot  Minnesota.  The  office 
at  Fort  Snelling  was  established  January  ^nd,  1834,  and  the 
flrst  poBtmaater  was  Samuel  C.  Btambaugh.  The  bnslneas  done 
at  tlds  office  was  limited  chiefly  to  the  military  poat  and  the 
Indian  agency.  The  second  postoffice,  sitabllshed  July  8th, 
1810,  was  known  as  Lake  St.  Croix,  and  was  disconl^aed  De- 
cember 11th  of  the  same  year,  the  receipts  having  amounted 
to  only  123.63.  It  was,  however,  reestablished  December  23rd, 
1841,  and  is  now  known  as  Point  Douglas,  in  Woahington 
county.  The  third  office  was  established  January  14th,  1846, 
at  Stillwater,  and  Elam  Greeley  was  appointed  the  postmaster. 
Its  flrst  year's  receipts  amounted  to  |101.d3.  For  the  year 
1896  its  receipts  were  |14,064.70. 

The  next  or  fourth  postofflce  was  established  at  St.  Paul, 
April  7th,  1846,  as  before  stated.  The  receipts  for  the  year 
1846  amounted  to  |14.70;  and  the  receipts  from  the  same  office 
for  the  year  1896  amounted  to  f433,706.99.  These  figures  illus- 
trate the  growth  of  this  dty  in  the  past  fifty  years. 

I  first  became  acquainted  with  Henry  Jackson  in  1847,  when 
he  was  a  member  of  the  Legislature  of  Wiaconeun  Territoi?. 
The  district  represented  by  him  was  composed  of  the  counties 
of  Crawford,  Chippewa,  St.  Croix,  and  La  Pointe,  which  to- 
gether embraced  the  entire  country  northweat  of  the  Wiscon- 
sin river,  extending  to  lake  Superior  and  the  British  possea- 
sions.  ^  both  the  territorial  legislature  and  the  convention 
to  form  the  constitution  of  the  state  of  Wisconsin,  Mr.  Jack- 
son took  an  active  part  for  securing  the  St.  Croix  lake  and 
river  aa  the  western  boundary  of  the  proposed  state  of  Wis- 
consin.   Thereby  he  foresaw  that  a  new  Territory  would  be 



assured.  From  him  I  had  1117  first  informatiOD  of  the  proba- 
bility of  the  new  proposed  Territory  of  Minn^pota.  Upon  its 
organization  he  was  one  of  the  representatiTes  from  St.  Panl 
in  the  first  session  of  the  Territorial  legislature. 

Mr.  Jackson  removed  with  his  family  from  St.  Paul  to  Man- 
kato  in  April,  1853,  being  among  the  first  settlers  of -that  proa- 
perons  city,  where  he  died  Jnly  31st,  1867. 

Did  the  purposes  of  this  article  admit,  I  might  make  it  con- 
dst  entirely  of  a  relation  of  incidents  in  the  life  of  this  pioneer 
merchant  and  magistrate.  I  will,  bowerer,  only  mention  one 
more,  as  evidence  of  his  tact  and  Ingenuity  in  solving  a  di- 
lemma. Sometime  during  the  winter  of  1843-41,  Qovemor 
Dodge  of  Wisconsin  Territory  appointed  Mr.  Jackson  justice  of 
the  peace.  On  account  of  the  infrequency  of  the  transmission 
of  the  mail  during  the  winter  season,  a  long  time  elapsed,  after 
his  bonds  were  sent  to  the  Ooremof,  before  his  commission 
was  received.  In  the  meantime  a  young  man  and  woman  ap- 
plied to  Mr.  Jackson  to  be  married.  Jackson  knew  he  had  been 
appointed  justice  of  the  peace;  but  he  had  not  received  his 
commission,  and  requested  them  to  wait  a  few  days.  This 
they  were  unwilling  to  do,  as  they  were  aniioos  to  be  manied 
without  any  delay.  Mr.  Jackson  at  once  solved  the  difficulty 
by  proposing  to  them  to  give  a  bond,  that  they  would  come 
and  l>e  l^ally  married  after  he  had  received  his  commission; 
they  at  once  consented  to  this  arrangement,  and  the  bond  was 
executed  and  delivered,  whereupon  Jackson  told  the  youthful 
couple  to  go  their  way  and  be  happy,  and  when  he  received 
his  commission  they  could  come  again  and  be  legally  married. 

JACOB   W.    BASS. 

It  was  in  August,  1847,  that  Jacob  W.  Bass  came  to  Bt. 
Paul.  He  was  born  in  Baintree,  Vermont,  in  1815.  Soon  after 
his  arrival  in  St.  Paul,  he  leased  the  building  on  the  corner 
of  Third  and  Jackson  streets,  the  history  of  which  from  that 
date  to  the  present  time  is  a  part  of  the  history  of  St  Paul, 
namely,  the  Merchants'  Hotel. 

In  August,  1846,  one  Leonard  H.  Laroche  had  built  a  cabin 
of  tamarack  logs  on  a  tract  of  ground  he  bad  bought  of  Henry 
Holland  for  f  165,  the  description  of  which,  in  his  deed,  would 
in  these  days  be  questioned  by  a  "title  lawyer,"  but  at  that 
time  the  deed  was  sufBcient  to  determine  and  secure  the  rights 



of  the  parties  intereHted.  The  tract  of  land  web  deBcribed  as 
'^onnded  on  the  front  and  back  by  Henry  Jackson'a  land,  and 
on  the  sides  by  McLeod  and  Desmarais."  This  location  is 
known  to  be  a  part  of  the  land  on  which  the  Merchants'  Hotel 
now  stands.  In  the  early  part  of  the  year  1847,  Bimeon  P. 
Folsom  bought  this  property  from  Laroche,  and  made  some 
imprOTements  on  the  building  and  kept  it  as  a  tavern  till  about 
the  10th  day  of  November  In  the  same  year,  when  he  leased 
the  same  to  Mr.  Bass  for  a  hotel  at  a  rental  of  |10  per  month. 
Additional  improvementa  were  made,  ao  that  it  became  in 
1848  a  good  two-story  log  building,  to  which  was  given  the 
name  "St.  Paul  House."  It  was  thereafter  conducted  by  Mr. 
Bass  as  a  hotel  till  the  spring  of  1852,  when  be  retired  from 
it,  having  for  two  years  kept  the  postoffice  in  it.  He  was  ap- 
pointed poetmaater  of  St.  Paul,  Jnly  5th,  1849,  and  held  the 
<dBce  till  March  18th,  1853;  when  he  was  succeeded  by  William 
H.  Forbee. 

From  he  time  when  he  left  the  Merchants'  Hotel,  in  the 
spring  of  1862,  till  his  death,  Mr.  BaM  was  engaged  in  active 
bnsineae  in  St  Paul,  and  became  prominent  in  every  movement 
and  enterprise  that  pertained  to  the  growth  and  improvement 
of  the  city.  He  died  in  the  month  of  May,  1889,  and  hie  re- 
mains were  laid  in  final  rest  in  Oakland  cemetery,  Mrs.  Bass, 
his  estimable  wife,  still  aurvives,  a  joy  and  blessing  to  their 
children,  and,  as  she  always  has  done,  gladdens  the  eyes  and 
hearta  of  her  numerous  friends  with  her  presence. 


was  bom  in  Montreal,  Canada,  November  13th,  1815.  He 
came  to  Mendota  in  the  summer  of  1837,  and  for  ten  years  was 
clei*  for  Gen.  H.  H.  Sibley,  who  at  that  time  had  chai^  of  the 
business  of  the  American  Fnr  Company  at  that  place. 

In  1847  Mr.  Forbes  came  to  St  Paul,  and  took  charge  of  the 
business  of  that  company  here  under  the  name  of  "The  St.  Paul 
Outfit;"  and  from  that  time  he  continued  his  residence  here 
till  his  death.  He  was  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  original 
surveyed  plat,  now  known  as  "St  Paul  proper."  Upon  the 
oi^anization  of  the  Territory,  he  was  elected  to  the  I^slature 
from  St.  Paul  as  a  member  of  the  Territorial  Council;  and  he 



qaently  reelected,  being  a  member  of  four  succegnve 
In  1852,  daring  the  third  Beeaion,  he  was  elected  by 
itea  president  of  the  conncil. 

rch  18th,  1853,  Mr.  Forbes  was  appointed  postmaster 
1  as  snccesBor  of  J.  W.  Bass.  During  the  same  yeac 
!  associated  with  N.  W.  Kittson  and  engaged  in  the 
d  fur  trade  of  the  Northwest,  and  for  several  years 
large  bosinesa,  which  was  terminated  in  1862  by  the 
tbreak  of  that  year. 

d  prominent  positlona  in  the  military  service  of  the 
atea  daring  the  campaign  against  the  Bioax  Indians 
rar  of  the  Bebellion.  He  was  the  provost  marshal 
litary  trial  of  the  three  hundred  Sionx  Indiana  who 
enmed  to  death.  He  was  also  a  commissary  of  aab- 
1  the  Tolnnteer  service,  appointed  by  President  Lin- 
rank  of  captain ;  in  1861  he  was  chief  commissary 
trict  of  Northern  Misaouri;  and  snbseqaently  he  wfui 
s  chief  quartermaster  in  Cleneral  Fremont's  depart- 
tt  his  valuable  services,  he  was  brevetted  a  major  in 
:eer  service, 

iibes  at  one  time  was  the  aaditor  of  Bamaey  county, 
other  civil  otBces  to  which  he  was  wdl  fitted;  and 
I  his  duties  in  whatever  position  he  was  placed  with 
d  fidelity,  without  ever  a  word  of  crlticlBm  or  sns- 
liiB  discredit. 

ed  July  20th,  ISTC,  deeply  lamented  by  numerous 
ad  his  body  was  entombed  in  the  Oathollo  cemetery 
il  in  the  presence  of  many  prominent  citizens. 


tive  of  PennaylvaDia,  and  came  to  St.  Paul  in  1846. 
nown  by  the  "Old  Settlers"  of  that  day  as  "McBoal," 

from  his  true  name  being  James  McClellan  Boat  A 
t  street  in  St  Paul  is  named  from  him,  McBoal  street. 

conapicuous  character  in  the  early  days  of  the  terrl- 
od  hearted  and  genial  fellow,  a  friend  to  all  he  knew, 

being  sometimes  even  liberal  to  a  fault.  He  was 
I  1849  from  St.  Paul  as  a  member  of  the  Territorial 
or  two  years.    He  was  appointed  by  Governor  Ram- 



■ey  aB  Adjutant  General  of  the  Territory,  and  held  that  posi- 
tion tlU  hie  BacceBBor  was  appointed  in  1853  by  Governor  Gor- 
man. He  died  In  1862,  after  a  long  and  severe  illness,  at  Men- 
dota,  where  bis  remaioB  were  buried. 


was  a  native  of  the  state  of  New  York  ajid  came  to  St.  Pan! 
Jnly  IBth,  1847.  He  was  a  graduate  of  the  Albany  Medical 
College,  and  upon  his  arrival  in  St  Fanl  immediately  entered 
npoL  his  profesflion,  being  the  first  regular  practicing  physi- 
cian that  located  here.  FrevlonB  to  that  time  the  settlers  had 
depended  upon  the  surgeons  at  Fort  Snelling.  for  medical  or 
surgical  aid. 

Dr.  Dewey  was  elected  from  St.  Paul  a  member  of  the  House 
of  Representatives  of  the  first  Territorial  Legislature.  In  1848 
he  became  associated  with  Oharles  Cavalier  (now  a  resident  of 
Pembina,  North  Dakota)  in  basiness,  and  they  estabhshed  the 
first  drug  store  in  St  Paul.  He  died  April  1st,  1891,  and  his 
remains  were  buried  in  Oakland  cemetery. 

It  is  not  my  purpose  to  limit  this  article  only  to  the  lives  of 
those  who  were  in  St.  Paul  in  1847,  but  to  include  some  of  the 
more  prominent  persons  of  those  days  who  were  members  of 
the  first  Territorial  Leg^lature,  which  commenced  Its  session 
September  3rd,  1849,  and  who  were  residents  of  other  parts  of 
tiie  Territory  in  1847,  whose  names  and  lives  have  become  a 
part  of  our  state  history. 

The  legislature  was  composed  of  the  Conncil,  having  nine 
members,  and  the  House  of  Kepresentatives,  having  eighteen 
members.  All  the  members  of  the  first  Council  are  dead;  and 
only  four  are  now  living  who  were  members  of  the  House  of 


was  bom  October  17th,  1825,  in  Boone  county,  Missouri.  In 
September,  1847,  he  went  to  St  Anthony  Falls  (now  the  east 
part  of  Minneapolis),  staked  out  a  claim,  and  cut  the  logs  for  a 
cabin.  From  the  want  of  a  team  to  haul  the  logs  he  was 
obliged  to  defer  the  building  of  his  cabin  till  the  next  year. 
In  the  spring  of  1849  he  became  permanently  located  there, 
and  was  elected  from  that  district  as  a  member  of  the  House 



he  flret  Territorial  Leglglature.  He  died  at  the  age  of 
Dtf  years  January  8th,  1896,  at  Pasadena,  California;  and 
remaiDB  now  repose  in  the  beaatifol  groDoda  of  Oakland 
etery.  The  record  of  his  life  in  Minnesota  is  a  part  of  onr 
itorial  and  State  history.  Whatever  may  have  be^i  his 
tion,  as  governor  of  the  state,  as  a  member  of  the  legisla- 
,  or  as  a  general  in  the  army  of  the  Union,  he  gave  honor  to 
Qesota,  and  won  the  lasting  gratitude  of  her  people. 


bom  in  Vermont,  May  6th,  1822.  He  was  a  trader  with 
Winuelmgo  Indians  in  1844  near  Fort  Atldnson,  Iowa,  and 
548  accompanied  them  on  their  removal  to  Long  Prairie  In 

state;  and  at  the  same  time  he  opened  a  trading  house  in 
Paul.  He  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Teri^torial  Council 
849,  from  the  district  which  included  Long  Prairie,  and 

chosen  Its  president    He  was  also  a  member  of  the  Conn- 
A  the  second  session  of  the  Legislature  in  1851. 
ii  1858  Mr.  Olmsted  made  St.  Paul  his  permanent  residence, 

in  the  spring  of  1864  was  elected  the  first  mayor,  ander 
charter  that  incorporated  the  City  of  St  Paul.  In  1856  he 
ived  the  Democratic  nomination  for  delegate  in  Congress, 

was  defeated  1^  Hon.  H.  M.  Bice.  For  several  years  Ills 
1th  became  impaired;  and  February  2nd,  1861,  he  died  at 
home  of  his  par«its  in  Franklin  county,  Vermont.  He  was 
ular  and  much  esteemed  in  pnblic  life  during  his  residence 
linnesota;  and  the  coanty  of  Olmsted,  among  the  most 
rishing  in  our  state,  will  ever  be  a  monnment  to  his  mem- 


bom  in  Skaneateles,  Onondaga  county.  New  York,  Jann- 
r  22nd,  1819.  He  was  admitted  to  the  practice  of  law  in 
acuse,  N.  Y.;  and  came  to  Stillwater,  May  17th,  1847.  He 
1  not  only  the  first  practicing  attorney  in  Minnesota,  but 
I  the  first  practicing  attorney  in  the  entire  country  north- 
t  of  Prairie  dn  Chien.  His  life  in  Minnesota  has  become  a 
t  of  its  history.  He  was  prominent  in  the  councils  of  onr 
Qtry  in  both  bouses  of  our  national  Congress,  and  in  the 
slatures  of  Minnesota.  In  1849,  he  was  a  member  of  the 
t  Territorial  Legislature.    In  1858,  he  was  one  of  the  com- 



misBioDers  to  compile  tbe  statutes  of  the  state  of  Mintieeota. 
Id  1859,  he  was  elected  United  States  senator;  in  1868,  was 
elected  repreeentative  in  Congress;  and  In  the  years  1874  to 
1877,  was  state  senator  from  Blae  Earth  coanty.  He  died  at 
Wells,  in  this  state,  Febmar;  ith,  1894.  Mr.  Wilkinson  as  a 
lawyer  was  an  earnest  and  forcible  advocate.  During  the  war 
of  the  Rebellion  he  was  in  the  United  States  Senate,  and  won 
a  national  repatatioD  in  his  eloquent  appeals  to  the  peoide  to 
maintain  the  unity  and  integri^  of  the  goremment. 


waa  bom  in  Madison  county,  New  York,  February  2nd,  1809. 
He  came  to  Fort  Snelling  in  1837,  and  for  more  than  ten  years 
waa  engaged  in  varions  capacities  as  clerk  and  manager  of 
business  enterprises;  and  in  1848  he  located  at  Grow  Wing,  to 
take  charge  of  the  trading  establishment  of  Bomp  and  Oakes. 
It  was  in  November  of  this  year  that  I  first  made  his  acquaint- 
ance, on  the  occasion  of  the  annual  payment  to  the  Chippewa 
Indians  at  Crow  Wing.  He  was  elected  a  member  of  the  House 
of  the  first  Territorial  Legislature.  In  the  fall  of  1849  he  lo- 
cated at  Sank  Rapids,  and  started  the  first  farm  in  that  part  of 
the  state  northwest  of  Rum  river.  In  whatever  position  he 
occupied,  be  was  a  courteous  and  genial  man,  and  by  bis  integ- 
rity and  Christian  character  he  wpn  the  respect  and  love  of 
those  who  were  fortunate  to  know  him.  He  died  June  13th, 


was  born  in  Otsego  county,  New  York,  November  16th,  1811. 
He  spent  bis  boyhood  and  youthful  days  in  bis  native  county, 
and  received  there  an  academic  education  and  devoted  several 
years  to  teaching.  He  came  to  Stillwater  in  1848,  and  was 
elected  from  the  Stillwater  district  in  1849  to  the  House  of  the 
first  Territorial  Legislature.  All  "Old  Settlers"  will  remember 
him  as  a  regular  attendant  of  our  annual  meetings,  and  a 
worthy  representative  from  tbe  St.  Croix  valley.  He  died  at 
Stillwater  in  April,  1897. 


was  bom  in  Farmington,  New  Hampshire,  in  1813.  His  an- 
cestors were  among  those  sterling  and  rugged  settlers  of  the 
Granite  State  in  the  last  century.    His  father  was  a  soldier 



of  the  war  of  1812.  In  1840  be  came  t»  the  Bt  Croix  Taller 
and  located  at  St.  Croix  Falls.  In  1844  he  removed  to  Cottage 
Grove,  and  opened  a  farm,  where  he  made  hia  fatnre  regidence 
till  his  death.  In  1846  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Wiacon- 
Bin  territorial  legislature.  The  district  he  represented  was 
the  entire  coantry  north  and  west  of  a  line  from  a  point  on 
lake  Pepin  to  lake  Saperior,  As  an  evidence  of  his  energy,  I 
refer  to  the  fact  that  for  his  attendance  in  the  Leglslatore  at 
Madison  in  the  session  of  1847  he  traveled  on  foot  from  bis 
home  In  Cottage  Grove  as  far  as  Prairie  du  Chien. 

He  was  a  member  of  the  first  Territorial  LegiBlatnre  of  Min- 
nesota and  was  elected  speaker  of  the  Hoase  at  its  session  in 
September,  1849.  He  was  appointed  marshal  of  the  Territory 
by  President  Fillmore  in  1851.  It  was  at  this  time  that  I  came 
to  know  him  intimately,  becanse  our  positions  aa  officers  of  the 
the  federal  government  brought  us  together  very  frequently. 
I  knew  him  aa  a  faithful  officer,  of  strong  intellect,  persistence 
in  hia  convictions,  and  a  pore  character.  He  died  at  hia  family 
reaidence  in  Cottage  Grove  on  the  10th  day  of  July,  1884. 


was  bom  in  Kennebec  connty,  Maine,  in  1810.  He  came  to 
the  St  Croix  vaUey  in  1839,  and  located  at  St.  Croix  Falls;  and 
Bubsequently,  like  Mr.  Furber,  started  a  farm  at  Cottage  Grove. 
He  represented  that  district  in  the  first  Legislature  in  1849, 
and  afterward  represented  Washington  county  in  1855  and 
1856.  He  was  elected  apeaker  of  the  House  at  the  session  of 
1855,  and  was  a  member  of  the  Constitutional  Convention  of 

He  was  a  man  of  a  strong  will  and  purpose  in  hia  convlc- 
tiona  and  action.  He  was  an  active  partisan  of  the  Demo- 
cratio  party  in  our  Territorial  daya,  a  real  "wheel  horse"  of  the 
Democratic  chariot.  He  died  at  his  home  in  Cottage  Grove, 
March  6tb,  1874. 


Wda  bom  in  Sheldon,  Vermont  He  came  into  the  Territory 
June  26th,  1848,  from  Maquoketa,  Iowa,  and  located  at  Sauk 
Bapids  as  attorney  at  law,  and  was  elected  from  that  district 
to  the  first  Legislature.  Upon  the  organization  of  the  Terri- 
tory, he  was  appointed  Attorney  General  by  Governor  Ramsey, 



vMch  office  he  held  till  hlB  Bnccessor  was  appointed  May  16tb> 
1863,  by  Governor  Gtorman.  He  was  secretary  of  the  Gonsti- 
tational  Convention  in  1867. 


was  born  in  WaeUn^on,  Connecticat.  He  came  as  a  mission- 
ary among  the  IndiaoB  in  1834,  and  located  at  lake  CaUiOQn  in 
Hennepin  connty.  He  represented  the  district  weet  of  the  Mia- 
Miselppi  river  in  the  flrBt  Territorial  Legialatare.  Hia  life  in 
Uinnesota  is  a  part  of  its  history  and  of  the  Ohristian  Church 
with  which  he  was  associated.  His  labors  for  the  welfare  of 
the  Indians  for  whom  he  was  devoting  hia  life  were  aelf-sacri- 
flcing.  He  had  a  strong  Intellectnal  mind,  a  kind  and  tender 

In  speaking  of  his  death,  The  Pioneer  of  January  21st, 
1876,  said :  'If  ever  there  was  a  tme  man  and  a  faithful  and 
earnest  Christian  on  the  face  of  the  earth,  that  man  was  did- 
eon  H.  Pond." 

It  gives  me  pleasure,  on  thia  occasion  of  the  meeting  of  the 
'^Id  Settlers"  to  bear  thia  tribute  to  his  memory;  and  I  donbt 
not  that  onr  aasodate,  Governor  Bamsey,  who  knew  him  well, 
will  heartily  unite  with  me  in  this  expression  of  commeuda- 
dation  and  remembrance. 


was  bom  in  Willington,  Connecticut,  April  17th,  1817.  He 
came  to  the  fit  Croix  valley  in  1843,  and  for  many  years  re- 
aided  at  Marine  Mills  in  Washington  county.  Hq  was  the 
member  of  the  Council  from  that  district  in  the  first  Territorial 
Zj^islature  in  1849,  and  also  of  tie  second  session  in  1851. 

Mr.  Loomia  had  a  genial  and  generous  nature.  So  one 
knew  him  but  to  respect  him.  No  worthy  appeal  made  to  him 
for  aid  was  turned  away  «npty-handed.  He  enlisted  as  a 
soldier  in  the  war  of  the  Rebellion,  and  was  commisaioueiS 
lieutenant  of  Company  F  of  the  Second  Regiment  of  Minne- 
sota Volunteera  in  July,  1861;  and  in  March,  1863,  he  was 
commissioned  captain  of  the  same  company. 

He  died  February  24th,  1897,  at  the  Soldiers'  Home  near 
Fort  Sndling,  having  passed  the  last  few  y«ara  of  his  life  an 
Invalid  and  a  worthy  subject  of  that  institution.  Hia  remains 
have  their  final  resting  place,  where  many  of  hia  old  friends 



and  aBBodates  hare  been  laid  before  blm,  io  the  beaatltnl  Fair- 
view  cemetery  at  BtUlwat^. 

Time  will  not  permit  me  to  extend  tliia  notice  to  speak 
particnlarly  of  other  members  of  the  First  Legislature  who  are 
oombered  among  the  departed,  of  whom  indeed  I  coald  speak 
in  words  of  commendation,  and  with  whom  I  was  acqoainted. 
I  will  name  them: 

Samael  Bnikleo,  of  Stillwater  and  Marine  HUIa ; 

John  Bollins,  of  St  Anthony  Falls; 

William  R.  Starges,  of  Sank  Bapids  and  Little  Falls;  and 

Martin  McLeod,  of  Traverse  des  Sioux; 
who  were  members  of  the  ConncO. 

James  Wells,  of  Lake  Pepin  and  vicini^; 

William  Dogas,  of  Little  Canada,  Bamsey  county; 

Allan  Morrison,  of  Crow  Wing; 

Thomas  A.  Holmes,  of  Long  Prairie;  and 

Alexis  Bailey,  of  Mendota  and  Wabasha; 
who  were  members  of  the  Honse  of  BepreseatatiTes. 

I  cannot  omit  to  mention  the  living.  There  are  only  foar 
'^Id  Settlers"  living  who  were  members  of  the  E^rat  Legiala- 
tare.    Two  of  tlum  were  residents  of  St.  Paul  in  1847. 


still  livee,  an  honor  to  Us  name  as  one  of  the  original  legisla- 
tors that  gave  political  life  to  our  state  and  city.  At  an  earlier 
day,  on  Snnd^,  July  25th,  1847,  he  made  his  name  memorable 
and  became  historical  by  being  an  assistant  in  oi^anlzing  the 
first  Sunday  School  in  St.  Paul.  On  that  occasion  he  was  as- 
sociated with  our  ^teemed  "Old  Settler," 


who  also  is  still  a  living  witness  of  th&  sterling  qualities  that 
possessed  the  souls  of  onr  worthy  pioneers.  These  two  gallant 
young  men,  with  kindly  feelings  and  worthy  motives,  tendered 
their  Bervicea  to  Miss  Harriet  E.  Bishop  (who  a  few  days  pre- 
vious had  arrived  in  St  Paul)  to  assist  her  in  starting  a  Sun- 
day School,  to  give  religious  Instruction  to  the  children  of  this 
embryonic  city.  On  this  occasion,  there  were  seven  children 
gathered  in  a  small  log  cabin  that  Miss  Bishop  had  secured. 



lliere  was  a  mixtare  of  races  among  these  seven  children ;  some 
<pf  them  conM  only  nnderatand  English,  while  otbere  coald 
onl7  talk  or  nnderetand  French,  and  still  others  were  limited 
to  the  Sioox  language.  As  Miss  Bishop  needed  no  assistance 
In  ^Ting  instractlon  in  E:DgliBh,  it  fell  to  the  lot  of  onr  two 
friends  to  act  as  interpreters  and  to  give  instruction  and  read 
the  catechism  to  the  French  and  Sionx  chUdren. 

The  name  of  Benjamin  W,  Branson  is  historic  of  what  St 
Fanl  was  in  1847.  The  records  of  onr  county  and  dty  bear 
witnesi  that  he  at  that  time  lived  in  the  wilderness,  bat  witii- 
ODt  a  change  of  resldrace  now  lives  In  a  city  of  over  150,000 

The  other  two  living  members  are 


who  was  elected  from  the  district  composed  of  Marine  Mills 
and  other  precincts  on  the  St.  Croix  river;  and 


from  the  Stillwater  district  Both  came  to  the  St  Croix  val- 
ley in  1842.  I  liave  no  intention  of  writing  an  ante-obltoaiy 
of  their  lives,  and  I  will  leave  it  for  eadi  of  them  to  tell  their 
own  experiences  as  lawmakers  of  tliis  commonwealth,  and  as 
defenders  of  the  flag  of  onr  country.  They  still  survive  aa 
i^tecimens  of  the  men  who  laid  the  foundations  of  oar  i«oe- 
peroas  State.  May  their  futnre  days  be  extended  through 
many  years,  joyful  and  happy  with  their  friends,  as  the  past 
fifty  years  have  been  to  each  of  them. 

An  incident  in  the  life  of  Mr.  Setzer  is  worthy  of  special 
notice,  for  which  the  citizens  of  St  Fanl  will  always  hold  him 
in  remembrance,  with  feelings  of  gratitude  on  account  of  his 
nnswerving  integrity  and  stability  of  cliaracter  as  the  friend 
of  this  city.  I  refer  to  the  closing  scenes  of  the  eighth  and 
last  Territorial  Legislature,  in  which  Mr.  Setzer  was  a  member 
of  the  Council. 

A  bill  for  the  removal  of  the  capital  from  St.  Faul  to  St. 
Feter  had  passed  both  bouses  of  the  Legislature,  and  was 
returned  to  the  Council,  where  it  liad  originated,  for  enrollment 
and  signature  of  (be  president  On  the  27th  day  of  February, 
1857,  the  original  bill  and  tlie  enrolled  copy  were  placed  in  the 
hands  of  Joseph  Rolette,  councilor  from  Fembina  county  and 



diairman  of  the  Enrollment  Committee,  to  compare  them.  On 
the  following  day,  Febrnary  28th,  Mr.  Rolette  was  not  in  his 
Beat  The  bill,  being  in  hia  poBBeaaion,  coald  not  be  reported. 
Feuding  a  resolation  ordering  another  member  of  the  enrolling 
committee  to  procure  another  enrolled  copy  and  report  the 
same,  npon  which  motion  the  previooB  qneBtion  was  ordered, 
Mr.  Setzer  moved  a  call  of  the  Conncil,  which  was  ordered,  and 
the  sergeant  at  arms  was  requested  to  report  Mr.  Bolette  in  his 
seat.  On  account  of  the  indisposition  of  John  B.  Briabin,  the 
president  of  the  Conncil,  Mr.  Setzer  was  called  to  the  chair, 
which  he  occupied  for  more  than  a  hundred  and  twenty  con- 
secntive  hoars.  The  Conncil  under  the  existing  apportionment 
comprised  fourteen  members,  Mr.  Bolette  being  tihe  only  ab- 
sent member,  Mr.  Betzer  presided  with  great  self-possession 
and  calm  dignity.  He  refused,  while  the  Conncil  was  under  a 
call,  to  accept,  a  sabstitnte  for  the  original  bill.  It  required 
two-thirds  of  the  members  to  suspend  the  call;  there  were 
Dine  votes  in  favor  of  suspending  the  call,  and  four  votes  in 
opposition.  Upon  this  voting,  President  Brisbin  decided  the 
call  not  suspended;  and  Acting  President  Setzer  would  not 
allow  the  Council  to  transact  any  business  pending  the  call. 
While  in  this  condition  the  limit  of  the  time  for  the  session  of 
the  Legislature  expired.  At  the  lionr  of  twelve  o'clock  mid- 
night, March  5th,  1857,  the  call  still  pending,  after  a  continn- 
ODB  session  of  five  days  and  nights,  Mr.  Brisbin,  the  president, 
resumed  the  chair  and  declared  the  Council  adjourned  sine  die. 

It  was  the  decisions  and  rulings  of  Mr.  Setzer,  while  presid- 
ing on  this  occasion,  which  prevented  the  removal  of  the  capi- 
tal of  Minnesota  from  8t.  Paol  to  St.  Peter.  Onr  fellow  asso- 
ciate, Mr.  John  D.  Ludden,  was  a  member  of  the  Territorial 
Council  at  this  session,  and  I  donbt  not  that  he  wUl  confirm 
what  I  have  here  said  of  Mr.  Setzer. 

The  members  of  the  First  Territorial  Legislatnre  were  tmly 
representative  men.  Among  the  number  were  farmers,  law- 
yers, merchants,  physicians,  clergymen,  manufacturers,  engi- 
neers, and  men  holding  confldentlal  and  fiduciary  positions 
with  commercial  and  manufacturing  companies.  Bnch  were 
the  men  who  on  Monday,  the  3rd  day  of  September,  1849,  met 
together  as  the  first  session  of  the  Minnesota  Legislature  at  the 
capitol,  then  known  as  the  "Central  House,"  a  hotel  located  on 



the  northeaBt  corner  of  Minnesota  and  Second  streets  in  this 
city,  being  a  two-stoiy  log  ballding  covered  with  roagh  siding. 
The  bnsinees  of  the  ho4el,  being  small,  did  not  interfere  with 
legislative  {woceedings.  Tbe  Secretar;  of  the  Territor;  had 
established  his  office  in  the  front  room  on  the  right  hand  of 
the  hall  at  the  main  entrance  of  the  bailding;  and  he  permit* 
ted  the  representatives  to  occnpy  it  as  their  "House"  for  the 
session.  The  members  of  the  Conncil  went  upstairs  into  a 
small  room  known  as  the  "lihtzry,"  which  was  the  "Ooandl 

Of  this  Legislature  and  its  location,  a  writer  in  the  Pioneer 
of  that  date  wrote:  "Both  honses  met  in  the  dining  hall,  where 
Bev.  E.  D.  Neill  prays  for  ds  all,  and  Gov.  Bamsey  delivers  a 
message  full  of  hope  and  farsighted  prophecy  to  comfort  ns, 
and  then  leaves  the  poor  devils  sitting  on  rough  board  benches 
and  chairs  after  dinner  to  work  out,  as  best  they  can,  the  old 
problem  of  self-government  throogh  the  appalling  labyrinths 
of  parliamentary  rales  and  tactics  that  vex  their  sonls."  Yet 
no  leglslatare  which  ever  set  in  Minnesota  was  made  of  better 
fltnfl  than  that  which  assembled  to  lay  the  comer  stone  of  this 
political  edifice. 

I  staoold  be  guilty  of  injustice  to  our  pioneer  history,  if  I 
did  not  mention  an  important  element  in  onr  development  and 
progress,  namely,  the  educational  factor  In  St  Paul,  which  had 
its  beginnings  in  1847.    It  was  July  16th,  1847,  when 


landed  at  Kaposia,  Little  Crow's  village,  with  the  helping  hand 
of  our  esteemed  and  gallant  associate,  Captain  Bussell  Blake- 
ley,  who  was  her  escort  and  assisted  her  to  walk  the  stage 
plank  from  the  deck  of  the  steamer  Argo,  safely  placing  her 
upon  the  soU  of  the  future  Minnesota.  She  was  met  with  the 
.  cordial  greeting  of  the  Bev.  Dr.  Williamson,  located  at  that 
point  as  a  missionary  among  the  Sioux  Indians.  Dr.  William- 
Boa,  foreseeing  the  importance  and  necessity  of  educational 
and  religions  instroction  of  the  people  in  St.  Paul,  had  solicited 
Governor  Slade,  of  Vermont,  to  secure  the  services  of  a  proper 
person  as  teacher;  and  throagh  the  influence  of  Mrs.  Harriet 
Beecher  Stowe  and  her  sister.  Miss  Catherine  Beecher,  the 
selection  of  Miss  Bishop  was  made,  to  be  located  at  St.  Paul  aa 
a  teacher  of  youth. 



She  was  an  ardent  member  of  the  Baptist  Chnrdi,  and  pos- 
sessed a  genuine  and  pure  missionarx  spirit  She  published 
a  book  in  1857,  called  "Floral  Home,  or  First  Years  of  Mlrrne- 
sota,"  in  which  she  relates  the  events  of  her  i^oneer  experi- 
ence. It  was  a  severe  mental  straggle  and  a  eacrlflce  for  her, 
a  young  and  inexperienced  lady,  to  leave  the  home  of  her  child* 
hood,  loving  friends  and  the  comforts  of  civilization,  for  the 
mde  habitation  of  a  distant  tmsettled  part  of  the  country,  al- 
most Barroanded  by  Indian  tribes.  She  yielded  to  her  sense 
of  the  call  of  dnty  and  the  opportnnity  of  doing  good. 

After  a  diort  stay  with  the  famUy  of  Dr.  Williamson,  in 
the  absence  of  other  mode  of  conveyance,  she  was  taken  into  a 
canoe,  of  the  kind  known  as  a  "dng-oot,"  paddled  by  two  stoot 
yoong  Sioox  sqaaws,  and  landed  in  St.  Paul  on  July  18th,  1847, 
her  fntare  home.  She  says,  in  her  Tloral  Home,"  of  the  oc- 
casion of  her  landing  in  St.  Paul:  "A  cheerless  prospect 
greeted  this  view.  A  few  log  hats  composed  the  town' — ^three 
families  the  American  popnlation.  With  one  of  these,  distant 
from  the  rest,  a  home  was  offered  me.  [It  was  the  dwelling  of 
J.  R  Irvine  and  family.]  Theirs  was  the  dwelling — the  only 
one  of  respectable  size — containing  three  rooms  and  an  attic." 

Miss  Bishop  immediately  arranged  tor  a  school  room.  It 
was  a  vacant  log  cabin,  on  the  northeasterly  comer  of  West 
Third  and  St.  Peter  streets,  which  had  previonsly  been  oc- 
copied  as  a  dwelling  by  Scott  Campbell.  On  July  25th,  1847, 
she  started  a  Sabbath  school,  with  seven  chUdren,  which  on 
the  third  Sunday  thereafter  was  increased  to  the  number  of 
twenty-five  children.  From  that  date,  fifty  years  ago,  till  the 
present  time,  this  school  has  continued  snccessfally,  in  growth 
and  influence;  and  it  is  now  known  as  the  Sunday  School  of 
the  First  Baptist  Church  of  this  city. 

During  the  following  winter  of  1847-'48,  Miss  Bishop  started 
the  project  of  having  a  public  building  for  the  purposes  of  her 
school,  to  be  used  also  for  church  purposes,  public  lectures, 
elections  and  other  public  gatherings, — the  size  to  be  25  by  39 
feet  She  organized,  among  the  ladies,  "The  St.  Paul  Circle 
of  Industry,"  of  which  Mrs.  Bass,  Mrs.  Jackson,  and  Mrs.  Ir- 
vine, were  members,  the  total  number  being  eight  ladies.  This 
was  the  first  "Woman's  Club"  organized  in  this  city.    The 



mone?  earned  with  the  needle  by  the  ladfee  of  thle  aocle^  made 
a  payment  on  the  bill  of  lumber  for  thle  pablic  bntlding,  which 
waa  finally  completed  and  occupied  in  Aagaat,  1818.  It  stood 
on  the  north  side  of  West  Third  street,  aboat  100  feet  westerly 
from  St.  Peter  street,  opposite  to  the  site  of  the  building  now 
occupied  by  the  West  Pnblishing  Company. 

In  1849  three  separate  schools  were  established  in  St  Paul, 
one  of  which  was  ander  the  care  of  Miss  Bishop.  Onr  mioda 
can  scarcely  comprehend  the  change  and  growth  of  onr  public 
■choolB,  contrasting  the  present  with  the  beginning  fifty  years 
ago.  Miss  Bishop  was  bom  in  Vergennes,  Vermont,  January 
l8t,  1817;  and  died  in  St  Paol,  Angnat  8th,  1883.  To  the  time 
of  her  death,  she  was  erer  active  and  energetic  in  educational 
and  Christian  work.  - 

In  commencing  this  reriew,  it  was  my  intention  to  notice 
briefiy  those  of  my  associate  ofBcers,  appointed  by  the  Presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  during  the  first  four  years  of  our 
Territorial  existence,  who  are  now  numbered  among  the  de- 
parted; but  I  forbear  with  only  the  mention  of  their  names: 

Charles  K.  Smith,  Secretary  of  the  Territory  from  June  1, 
1849,  to  October  23, 1851. 

Alexander  Wilkin,  Secretary  of  the  Territory  from  October 
23, 1851,  to  May  15,  1853. 

Aaron  Goodrich,  Chief  Justice,  from  June  1,  1849,  to  Ifo- 
vember  13, 1851. 

Jerome  Fuller,  Chief  Justice,  from  November  13,  1851,  to 
December  16, 1852. 

Henry  Z.  Hayner,  Chief  Justice,  from  December  16,  1852, 
to  AprU  7,  1853. 

David  Cooper,  Associate  Justice,  from  June  1,  1849,  to 
April  7, 1853. 

Bradley  B.  Meeker,  Aseociate  Justice,  from  June  1, 1849,  to 
April  7, 1853. 

Alexander  M.  Mitchell,  United  States  Marshal,  from  April, 
1849,  to  June,  1851. 

Henry  L.  Tilden,  United  States  Marshal,  from  Jane,  IKl, 
to  the  date  of  his  death,  January  19th,  1852,  when  he  waa  suc- 
ceeded by  Joseph  W.  Furber,  of  whom  I  have  spoken. 




I  cannot  conclade  these  reminiscences  of  the  past  without 
a  brief  nutice  of  the  living. 

Here  sits  with  ns  to-da;  oar  genial  friend  Simeon  P.  Fol- 
som,  who  came  to  Bt  Paal  in  July,  1847.  If  he  was  only  dead, 
I  coald  mention  many  good  things  of  him,  and  how  he  gave 
cheer  and  comfort  to  the  pioneer  soals  of  1847  and  1848.  As 
he  still  lives,  there  yet  remains  to  him  the  opportnni^  to  add 
to  his  record  a  name  that  future  generations  will  be  prond  to 

It  would  be  unpardonable,  if  I  failed  to  mention  the  name 
of  our  ever  entertaining  associate,  William  P.  Murray,  whose 
ingenuity  to  make  a  good  stoiy  from  nothing  is  uneurpassed 
by  any  "Old  Settler."  He  can  spin  longer  yams,  and  tell  you 
more  of  those  things  and  matters  of  which  he  has  knowle^e, 
as  well  as  of  others  which  he  knows  nothing  abont,  than  any 
other  mortal.  It  was  by  "the  skin  of  his  teeth"  that  he  became 
an  "Old  Settler."  If  the  lingering  days  of  December,  1849,  had 
been  made  shorter,  he  would  have  been  left  in  the  snowbanks 
between  the  Black  and  Chippewa  rivers  of  Wisconsin,  when  the 
snnlight  of  January  let,  1860,  broke  forth.  May  his  life  be 
prolonged  to  give  cheer,  joy,  and  happiness  to  all  "Old  Set- 
flers"  for  many  days  to  come,  as  he  has  done  in  di^s  gone  by. 

And  there  is  still  with  qs  onr  ancient  friend  of  the  St.  Crolz 
^illey,  John  D.  Ludden,  who  claims  the  year  1845  as  the  date 
of  his  birthright  to  the  name  of  '^Id  Settler."  His  life  in  Min- 
nesota Is  a  sanmiary  of  good  deeds  and  wise  coonsel  in  every 
movement  for  the  development  and  prosperity  of  Minnesota. 
He  gives  to-day  the  same  candid,  cantions,  and  deliberate  con- 
sideration to  every  measure  that  has  for  its  purpose  the  welfare 
of  the  state  and  its  citizens,  as  in  the  days  of  the  Territory, 
when  he  represented  the  interests  of  the  St.  Croix  valley  In 
many  sessions  of  its  Leglslatare. 

I  regret  that  Captain  BaBsell  Blakeley  is  not  with  us  to-day. 
Business  matters  require  his  presence  In  an  eastern  state.  His 
life  tor  more  tlian  fifty  years  has  been  identified  with  projects 
and  enterprises  sufficient  to  make  a  volume  of  pioneer  history. 
Even  now  in  his  age  of  more  than  fourscore  years  he  exhibits 
that  same  foresight  in  the  development  of  future  possibilities 



of  oar  cit?  at  in  fonuer  yearn.  For  twenty  years  after  the  o^ 
ganization  of  the  Territory,  he  w»s  inatrnmHital  in  briaglng 
thonsanda  upon  thoasandB  of  the  earty  citliienii  into  our  atate. 
Steamhoata,  Concord  coaches,  mud  wagooK,  and  other  veMclea; 
were  the  inBtramenta  employed  by  him  for  that  putpoBe.  At 
long  as  life  is  spared  to  him,  he  can  be  relied  npon  as  A  pradeitt 
and  sagacious  counsellor  in  erery  undertaking  and  measure 
that  will  promote  the  prosperity  of  oar  city  and  state. 

There  is  also  with  t»a  to-day  another  "Old  Settler"  who  nerer 
fails  to  join  us  in  our  annual  gathering;  I  ref«r  to  oar  geni^ 
and  efflci«it  secretary,  Angmrt  Ij;  Jjappentenr,  who  has  hetti  a 
resident  of  St  Paul  since  September  IBth,  1843.  IVom  that 
date  for  more  than  fort;  years  he  was  engaged  in  mercantile 
basins  in  this  city.  He  is  the  only  person  atfw  IMng  who  as 
mercbant  and  trader  did  business  in  Bt.  Pan!  prior  to  the  or- 
ganization of  the  Territory.  He  bnilt  tUft  flirBt  fraime  dwfelllng^ 
honse  in  St  Paul,  in  1847,  which  became  known  ta  after  years 
as  the  "Wild  Hunter"  safcxiin  oa  Jackson  street. 

From  the  beginning,  Mr.  Larpenteur  was  active  and  promi- 
nent in  settling  and  arranging  the  title  to  the  Iota  in  the  orfgl- 
inal  "Town  of  St.  Paul."  In  1847  St.  Paul  was  misorveyed 
govemment  land.  The  original  sarrey,  by  the  United  StatM 
government,  at  the  town  lines,  waa  made  in  October,  1847;  and 
in  the  following  month  of  November  the  sabdivisionS  were 
made.  The  original  platting  of  St.  Paal  was  made  daring  tb6 
aatamn  of  1847,  by  MesstB.  Ira  B.  Branson  and  Benjamin  W. 
Branson,  of  Prairie  dn  Chien ;  and  the  ownership  of  the  varifftfB 
lots  was  amicably  arranged  and  allotted  among  the  claimttnti^. 
At  the  goremment  saie  of  the  public  lands  at  St.  Oroir  Falls 
in  Aagnst,  1848,  it  was  mutaally  agreed  among  the'  clhittnaitii 
that  Mr.  H.  H.  Sibley  of  Meodota  should  make  the  purchase; 
and  sabaeqnently  Mr.  LarpeUtettr  was  selected  as  one  of  the 
three  trofltees  to  determine  the  just  claints  and  rightti  of  th^ 
claimanrts  to  the  various  l(>ts  in  the  town:  Mr.  Larpenteur 
was  ever  fahbfu!  to  the  tnistff  imposed  apon  htm;  and  wbs 
endeared  te  the' early  settiert  of  St  Paul  by  his  genew>slty  and 
good  fellowship  tffward  them.  Under  the  charter  opganiMtlosl 
of  the  "Town  of  Bt  Paul,"  in  1849,  Mr.  Larpentear  was  elected 
one  of  the  trustees,  and  for  several  years  thereafter  he  held 





official  positiong,  either  io  Bt.  Paol  or  Baniaey  coimty.  For 
several  years  past  he  has  not  been  engaged  in  any  active  bu8i> 
ness,  and  now  in  hie  advanced  age  lives  surrounded  with  the 
comforts  of  a  liome,  located  in  the  western  part  of  oar  city, 
where  lie  has  lived  for  more  than  forty  years  in  the  eojoymeDt 
of  the  aftecttons  of  a  beloved  wife  and  children. 

What  shall  I  say,  aye,  what  can  I  say  more  than  has  been 
said  for  the  last  for^-eight  years,  of  our  venerable  associate, 
Gh)vemor  Alexander  Bamsey,  who  proclaimed  existence  and 
life  in  the  framework  of  Minnesota  under  the  inspiration  and 
sign  manual  of  President  Zachary  Taylor  and  Secretary  Dan- 
iel Webster?  Associates,  look  upon  him  as  he  sits  with  us  to- 
day! Twenty  years  ago  he  made  a  pre-emption  claim  upon 
the  last  banquet  plate  of  the  Old  Settlers'  annual  gathering, 
and  lie  stands  ready  to-day  to  make  good  that  claim  against 
any  of  us.    Who  shall  venture  to  cQntest  it? 

As  for  your  humble  servant,  he  yields  to  none  in  high 
esteem  and  sincere  respect  for  the  '^Id  Settlera,"  and  in  hearfy 
greetings  to  our  Associates  of  the  St  Croix  valley.  He  still 
retains  the  youthful  feelings  of  1848,  when  he  first  trod  upon 
the  soil  of  this  state,  and  to-day  heartily  joins  with  yon  all 
in  commemorating  the  nativity  of  Minnesota. 

Thanks  are  due  to  our  esteemed  associate,  Qeorge  L. 
Becker,  who  has  tliis  day  furnished  each  of  us  a  memento  in 
which  are  enrolled  the  names  of  our  charter  members,  number- 
ing 102,  which  number  has  been  reduced  by  the  fell  destroyer 
until  now  only  twenty-one  of  those  original  members  remain 

As  I  sat  in  my  library  reading  yesterday  evening  my  wife 
brought  to  me  a  framed  photograph  takoi  ten  years  ago  to-day, 
Jane  1st,  1887,  from  tli«  steps  of  the  capitol  building.  That 
photograph  presents  forty-flve  "Old  Settlers"  In  a  group.  I 
looked  upon  those  familiar  faces  with  pleasure  as  well  as  in 
sorrow.  Of  that  number  twenty-two  do  not  and  cannot  meet 
with  na  to-day,  as  they  are  gathered  in  other  realms,  from 
whence  they  cannot  return;  yet  I  feel  that  they  are  with  as 
to-day  in  memory  dear.    Thus  fall  the  sere  and  yellow  leaves. 




In  1840,  Bishop  Loras  of  Prairie  do  Ghien,  being  deairous 
of  deTeloping  the  tpothe  of  Christiaiilty,  sent  the  Eev.  Laciaa 
Oflltier  as  a  missioiiarr  to  St.  Peter  and  Fort  Snelling,  situ- 
ated on  opposite  aides  of  the  mouth  of  the  Bt.  Peter  river, 
then  so  called.  He  found  a  nnmber  of  Catholic  families  lo- 
cated at  a  point  abont  six  miles  below  the  fort,  some  of  whom 
had  been  driven  off  the  Military  Beserve,  which  extended  then, 
according  to  military  anthority,  down  to  what  is  now  known 
as  the  "Seven  Comers."  He  at  once  called  the  good  people 
together  and  in  a  very  short  time  a  log  chapel  was  erected 
and  dedicated  to  their  patron.  Saint  Paul,  and  hence  the  name 
was  given  to  the  settlement,  and  from  that  day  attention  was 
drawn  to  its  locality.  Sabseqnently,  when  the  territorial  or- 
ganization took  place,  the  name  was  permanently  adopted. 

These  good  people  were  principally  old  French  voyagenra; 
some  of  them  had  been  in  the  employ  of  the  Hndson  Bay  Com- 
pany; and  others  of  them  were  employed  by  the  American 
Pnr  Company,  and  by  the  sutler  at  Port  Snelling,  who  did 
more  or  less  trading  with  the  Indians.  Whatever  they  re- 
quired had  to  be  obtained  either  from  the  American  Pur  Com- 
pany's store  at  St  Peter,  now  known  as  Mendota,  or  from 
the  sutler  at  Port  Snelling,  there  being  no  store  in  their 
midst,  unless  yon  would  so  call  a  few  barrels  of  whisky  and 
sundry  parcels  of  shot,  powder,  and  tobacco,  laid  away  in 
Peter  Parrant's  cellar  and  in  some  of  the  other  settlers'  cellars 
for  the  purpose  of  trading  for  a  few  furs  from  the  Indians. 

(  tbe  Executive  Council,  t>«<Mmber  U, 



Pairant  located  at  tbia  point  about  tbe  year  1838,  and  has 
been  reported  by  some  of  our  hietoriaoB  as  a  very  bad  char- 
acter, a  had  man;  but  Mr.  Larpentear  says:  "I  take  issae 
yiitti  them  on  that  point,  aa  I  knew  him  well;  he  was  no 
worse  than  any  of  the  pioneers  at  that  time,  and  if  his  only 
crime  was  selling  whisky  to  the  Indians,  they  all  did  it;  aJid 
the  American  Far  Company,  nnder  another  name,  sold  ten 
barrels  where  the  other  poor  fellows  sold  one." 

In  the  fall  of  1842,  Henry  JackBon,  a  yoang  merchant 
from  Galena,  was  attracted  to  this  point  and  came  ap  here 
with  a  general  stock  of  goods.  He  erected  a  log  cabin,  which 
served  as  both  a  dwelling  and  a  store,  on  what  is  now  the 
comer  of  Jackson  and  Bench  streets,  having  bought  of  Ben- 
jamin Jaxvis  about  two  acres  of  hie  cltum;  and  there  he  and 
his  wife  spent  the  winter,  beginning  what  may  be  called  the 
first  commercial  enterprise  In  the  place.  The  following 
spring,  in  1843,  William  Hartshorn  of  St.  Loais  made  a  trip 
ap  the  Mississippi  river  for  the  purpose  of  buying  fors.  The 
boat  landed  at  St.  Paul,  and  Mr.  Jackson  came  on  board  and 
took  passage  ap  to  Fort  Bnelling,  On  the  boat  Jackson  made 
the  acquaintance  of  Mr.  Hartsborn,  to  whom  he  sold  his  win- 
ter collection  of  furs.  At  the  same  time  the  two  entered  into 
a  co-partnership  that  was  the  beginning  of  the  firm  of  Jackson 
&  Hartshorn,  which  firm  existed  until  its  dissolution  in  1847. 

J.  W.  Simpson  opened  a  store  here  in  the  spring  of  1843, 
which  was  no  doubt  the  aecond  in  St.  Paul.  John  B.  Irvine, 
together. with  Mr.  Alexander  Meg^,  a  Frenchman,  also  opened 
a  store  in  1843,  with  a  general  assortment  of  goods.  Their 
place  of  hnBineas  was  near  the  site  of  the  Minnesota  Soap 
Company's  plant  on  Eagle  street. 

Capt  LouIb  Bobert  came  up  from  Prairie  du  Chien  in  the 
spring  of  1844  and  bought  the  old  cabin  occupied  by  Peter 
Parrant  in  1839  on  the  river  bank  at  the  foot  of  the  cooley,  a 
point  which  is  now  the  comer  of  Jackson  street  and  the  levee. 

This  year,  1844,  Mr.  Daniel  Hopkins  m<{ved  his  stock  of 
goods  up  from  Bed  Bock,  having  had  a  trading  post  there  for  a 
year  or  two  before.  He  bought  a  piece  of  ground  from  Henry 
Jackeon,  on  the  corner  of  Third  and  Jackson  streets,  and  upon 



It  bailt  a  commendable  frame  stpre,  wfaicli  was  probably  tbe 
Unit  one  of  the  kind  built  in  fit.  Pan}.  The  Fire  &  Manne 
Insnrance  Bnildlng  now  occupies  tbe  greater  part  of  tbe  spot 
on  which  the  Hopkins  store  stood. 

The  following  year,  1845,  Dr.  John  J.  Dewey  opened  the 
flret  drug  store,  jnst  below  Loais  Robert's  store,  and  in  the 
same  boilding  Charles  Cavalier  carried  on  the  harnesB  bnsi- 
DesB.  Later  on,  in  1848,  Caralier  sold  oat  his  harness  bneiness 
and  entered  into  partnership  with  Dewey,  forming  the  Arm 
of  Dew^  ft  CaTalier,  dmggista 

In  1847  tbe  firm  of  Hartehom  &  Jackson  disaolTed,  Jackson 
retaining  the  old  original  stand.  Harteiiom  moved  further  up 
town  and  occnpied  a  bnilding  formerly  bnilt  by  Sergeant 
Mortimer.  Its  location  was  on  the  spot  now  occupied  by  the 
City  Central  Police  Station,  on  Third  street,  near  Hill  street 
There  he  carried  on  his  bnsinees  of  general  merchandiBing 
and  Indian  trading  nntil  the  spring  of  1848,  when  he  sold  out 
and  was  sncceeded  by  the  firm  of  Freeman,  Larpentenr  &  Co., 
wbo  removed  the  stock  down  town  into  their  new  store,  on 
the  comer  of  the  levee  and  Jackson  street  This  firm  was 
■occeeded  by  John  Randall  &  Co.,  in  the  fall  of  1849. 

A.  L.  Larpentenr,  after  the  dissolution  of  Freeman,  Lar- 
penteur  &  Co.,  opened  his  store  on  the  comer  of  Third  and 
Jackson  streets  in  the  spring  of  1860.  About  the  same  time, 
a  yoong  man  came  to  St.  Paul  with  letters  of  introduction  to 
Gov.  Ramsey  and  others.  He  engaged  himself  as  a  clerk  to 
Mr.  Larpentenr,  became  a  member  of  his  family,  and  remained 
with  him  nntil  November,  when,  becoming  homesick,  he  left 
St  Paul  on  the  last  boat  and  returned  to  bis  home  in  Phila- 
delphia. That  young  man  was  Mr.  William  H.  Rbawn,  who 
subsequently  became  the  president  of  the  St  Paul  &  Duluth 
Railroad  Company,  and  is  now  president  of  the  Kational  Bank 
of  the  Republic,  Philadelphia. 

In  1837  the  American  Fur  Company  bad  a  trading  post 
at  St  Peter  in  charge  of  Henry  H.  Sibley.  William  H.  Forbes 
clerked  for  Sibley  until  1847,  when  the  Fur  Company  estab- 
lished a  branch  store  in  St  Paul,  which  was  known  as  the 
St  Paul  Outfit,  and  Forbes  was  placed  in  charge. 



In  1848  Nathan  M;rick  came  here  from  La  CroBse,  and 
engaged  in  general  mepchandiBing.  The  aame  year  A.  R 
French,  a  discharged  soldier  from  Fort  Snelling,  engaged  in 
the  saddler;  basiness,  and  the  Pioneer  in  its  basiness  notices 
Bnbseqnently  called  him  the  "Harness  Mantua-maker." 

In  June,  1849,  Levi  61oan  opened  quite  a  large  stock  of 
groceries  and  liquors  on  the  npper  part  of  Third  street  oppo- 
site to  the  American  House;  Hugh  McCann  sat  upon  the  bench 
as  a  cobbler;  Henry  W.  and  Charles  H.  Tracy  opened  on  the 
lower  part  of  Third  street  a  general  stock  of  merchandise;  and 
the  McCloud  Brothers  on  Bench  street,  near  Minnesota  street, 
opened  the  first  excluslTe  stockof  general  liardware  in  St.  Paul. 

In  October,  1849,  Pierre  Chouteau,  Henry  H.  Sibley,  Henry 
U.  Bice,  and  Sylranus  B.  Lowery,  previously  trading  under 
the  name  of  the  Sioux,  Winnebago  &  Chippeway  Outfit,  dia- 
Bolved  partnership.  Henry  H.  Bice  became  their  successor, 
and  removed  the  business  and  stock  to  Watab,  on  the  east 
side  of  the  Missisuppi  river  a  fevr  miles  above  Sauk  Bapids. 

The  following  mont^  the  Elfelt  Brothers  occupied  the 
building  that  had  been  vacated  by  the  Outfit  Company,  with 
a  general  stock  of  dry  goods,  clothing,  etc  The  building  was 
located  on  Eagle  street  at  the  comer  of  Spring  street,  near 
the  upper  levee. 

Bartlett  Presley  started  the  same  antnmn  with  a  small 
stock  of  pipes,  tobacco,  and  confectionery.  He  occupied  a  log 
cabin  on  Bobert  street,  near  Third  street  He  built  a  small 
stand  outside,  upon  which  he  displayed  his  wares,  and  from 
this  humble  beginning  he  built  up  a  large  and  flourishing 

This  enumeration  comprises  nearly  all  the  business  enter- 
prises of  our  city  up  to  January  Ist,  1860.  During  that  year, 
as  in  1849,  which  saw  the  organization  of  Minnesota  as  a  Ter- 
ritory, a  great  immigration  to  Minnesota  and  to  St.  Panl  took 
place.  Thenceforward  the  number  of  traders  and  lines  of 
business  rapidly  incrpased. 


DiBiimd, Google 

DiBiimd, Google 



After  the  admission  of  the  State  of  Wiscoiisin  into  the  Fed- 
eral Union,  that  part  of  the  Territory  of  that  name  oot«ide  of 
the  state  lines  was  left  in  an  ancertaln  political  condition. 
Was  it  Btill  the  Territory  of  Wisconsin  with  the  old  laws  yet 
in  force,  or  was  it  not?  The  general  opinion  prevailed  that 
this  section  was  still  onder  the  laws  passed  by  the  Territory 
of  Wisconsin,  and  that  the  governor  and  the  secretary  of  the 
Territory  were  still  occupying  the  same  positions  in  reference 
to  the  section  sliced  off.  It  was,  however,  thought  heat  that 
an  agent  be  sent  to  Washington  to  orge  the  creation  of  a  new 
Territory.  Prominent  citizens  from  different  sections  of  the 
oat^de  Territory  met  at  Stillwater  and  selected,  for  this  pur- 
pose, Mr.  Henry  H.  Sibley,  who  was  then  at  the  head  of  the 
American  Pur  Company.  No  politics  entered  into  this  se- 
lection; it  was  made  because  Mr.  Sibley  was  then  the  most 
eminent  and  influential  person  in  the  region.  He  proceeded 
to  Washington.  After  the  lapse  of  a  few  months,  an  act 
creating  the  new  Territory  was  passed  and  Mr.  Sibley  was  ad- 
mitted as  its  delegate,  nnder  what  might  be  called  a  "squat- 
ter" election.  President  Taylor  appointed  Alexander  Ramsey 
to  be  the  governor  of  the  new  Territory  of  Minnesota.  He 
arrived  in  St.  Paul  in  the  latter  part  of  May,  1849,  and  shortly 
thereafter  issued  his  otDcial  proclamation,  declaring  the  Ter- 
ritory organized,  and  provided  for  the  election  and  for  the 
meeting  of  a  legislaitnre. 

On  June  14,  1849,  Colonel  James  M.  Goodhue,  in  an  issue 
of  the  Pioneer,  the  first  newspaper  pnblished  within  the  limits 
of  the  new  territory,  urged  that  there  should  be  no  parties  in 

*Read  St  the  nonthly  meeting  ot  the  ExecuUve  Council,  February  14,  1(W& 



its  politics,  as  the  people  had  no  vote  in  national  matters  and 
had  no  power  to  command  anything,  while  on  the  contrary 
they  had  everything  to  ask  of  Congress.  "What  we  want, 
let  ns  ask  for;  'ask,  and  yon  shall  receive.'  Bat  to  hold  oot 
one  hand  to  secure  a  gift  and  the  other  to  strike,  is  the  con- 
duct of  a  madman." 

This  was  the  declaration  of  the  policy  which  was  to  be- 
come and  remain  the  dominant  one  in  the  new  Territory  for 
the  next  few  years.  Ooodhae  was  elected  pnblic  printer  by 
the  first  legislature. 

It  would  be  impossible,  among  Americans,  and  especially 
among  those  in  the  West,  to  be  eatisded  witii  one  political 
party;  the  elements  soon  began  to  work,  to  organize  an  oj^- 
sitioQ  party.  This  resulted  in  a  convention  held  October  20, 
1849,  in  which  a  platform  was  adopted,  according  to  its  own 
language,  embracing  the  principles  of  .Jefferson,  Madison, 
Monroe,  Jack«on,  and  Polk.  The  latter  had  already  almost 
snnk  into  forgetfulness,  but  the  memories  of  fat  gifts  of  pat- 
ronage stiil  lingered  in  the  minds  of  a  few  members  of  the 
convention.  Bice  does  not  appear  to  have  been  present  upon 
the  occasion  of  this  convention,  nor  Mr.  Sibley.  The  latter, 
however,  wrote  a  letter,  sffirming  his  faith  in  the  political 
principles  of  Jeffaw>n.  But  he  continued  to  cooperate  with 
those  citizens  who  thought  it  their  panunoant  duty  to  work 
together  to  advance  the  interests  of  the  Territory. 

The  national  administration,  and  the  majority  of  Congress, 
were  Whig;  but  the  elements  in  the  tMTitory  were  generally 
Democratic.  As  late  as  1861  theee  were  not  sniBcient  pnblic 
lands  in  Minnesota  to  supply  one  year's  immigration,  with  a 
quarter-section  to  each  head  of  a  family.  All  the  country 
west  of  the  Mississippi  was  Indian  land,  and  all  north  of  a 
line  drawn  east  and  west  through  and  about  the  locality  of 
Princeton.  The  most  important  of  all  pc^itical  movements 
was  the  one  to  make  a  treaty  with  the  Sioux,  to  obtain  a 
title  to  their  land  in  Minnesota.  Mr.  Sibley  had  such  com- 
manding influence  with  the  Sioux,  that  no  treaty  could  be 
made  without  his  aid.  Mr.  Bice  had  do  influence  whatever 
with  the  Sioux.  It  was  necessary  for  Oov.  Bamsey,  in  bring- 
ing about  a  treaty,  to  enter  into  a  political  movement  with 
Sibley,  which  be  proceeded  to  do.    The  influence  of  Mr.  Sibtey 



among  the  Democrats  !□  Oongrem,  and  of  Got.  Bamaey  wiiji 
the  National  Whig  administration,  resulted  in  tlte  ertinguiBk- 
noent  of  tbe  Sionr  title  to  all  of  their  land  within  the  pres«it 
limits  of  Mimtesota,  except  a  strip  of  land  lying  along  the 
Minnesota  river  below  Granite  Falls,  abont  t«i  miles  in  width 
and  stzt;  miles  long,  which  was  retained  as  an  Indian  reserra- 


There  wa«  bitter  opposition  to  this  treaty,  utd  many 
charges  of  fraud  were  made.  Bnt  the  opposition  came  from 
those  who  were  unable  to  manipnlate  the  treaty  in  their  own 
interests.  The  charges  prefwred  weve  iuTestigated  by  the 
United  States  Senate;  and  tiie  parties  censured  were  declared 
by  that  body  to  be  not  only  innocent,  bot  their  conduct  was 
declared  to  be  highly  meritorions  and  commendable.  The 
public  mind  in  Minnesota  settled  down  to  the  belief  tiiat  these 
chaises  were  brought  by  a  set  of  unscrupulous  men.who  were 
not  permitted  to  nuinipnlate  matters  for  tlieir  own  interests. 
13ieBe  treaties  redounded  more  to  the  interests  of  Minnesota, 
in  its  early  days,  than  all  other  measures  ooaaabined.  The 
prominence  of  Mr.  Bibley,  and  bis  powerful  aid,  rendered  him 
tbe  most  influential  man  among  the  Donocrats  in  the  Ter- 
ritory. The  Whigs  of  all  stripes  soon  were  of  the  (^ini<m 
that  Qov.  Bamsey  exhibited  the  greatest  wisdom  when  he 
fonned  the  coalition  with  the  Bibley  Democrats.  The  Whigs 
alone  could  not  have  made  the  treaties.  The  Whigs  and  the 
Bice  Democrats  could  not  baTe  made  the  tfeaties.  Only  the 
Whigs  and  the  Sibley  Donoorats  could  make  the  treaties,  and 
they  made  them. 

The  op[H)sition  to  the  Territorial  administration  organized 
and  repeatedly  elected  members  of  the  legislatare,  bnt  never 
a  majority.  The  laiger  number  of  Democrats  preferred  to  act 
with  the  majority  of  the  Whigs.  But  still  the  o^anizati<m 
of  forces  against  the  dominent  pow«r  went  on.  In  August, 
lfi60,  a  coalition  of  anti-Bibley  Democrats  and  Whigs  brought 
out  Colonel  Mitchell  as  candidate  against  Bibley  for  del^ate 
to  Congress.    IMs  election  resulted  strongly  in  faror  of  Sibley. 

A  very  bitter  feud  arose  between  the  members  of  the  Amer- 
ican Fur  Company  and  Mr.  Henry  M.  Bice,  who  had  formerly 
been  a  member  of  the  company.  The  Fur  Company  claimed 
tbht  Mr.  Bice  had  acquired  title  to  that  part  of  Bt  Paul  then 



known  as  the  upper  town,  holding  it  in  the  same  manner  as 
the  title  to  Kittson's  addition  and  other  inroperty  in  the  low« 
town  was  held,  Bimpl;  for  the  benefit  of  the  For  C<»npany. 
Mr.  Bice  haid  given  away  man;  lots  is  the  npp^  town  and 
had  sold  majiy,  and  he  was  the  man  above  all  oth«^  instra- 
mental  in  boilding  op  tliat  section.  Outside  of  tbe  members 
of  the  Far  Company,  he  was  admired  for  his  generosity  and 
public  spirit. 

To  recover  this  propM*ty,  a  salt  in  chancery  was  brought 
by  the  Fnr  Company  against  Mr.  Bice,  charging  him  with  all 
sorts  of  fraud.  The  feeling  of  bitterness  spread  from  the 
principals  to  iihar  adherents  throughout  the  Territwy,  ex- 
tending to  judges,  jurors  and  officers  of  the  conrt,  as  well  as 
to  the  legislature,  and  justice  was  but  little  regarded.  As 
an  instance  of  the  extravagance  of  official  conduct,  there  can 
be  found,  in  the  first  or  second  Minnesota  Supreme  Court  re- 
ports, a  foot-note,  by  the  official  reporter,  to  this  effect,  "It  Is 
but  justice  to  Mr.  Rice  to  say  that  he  denies  each  and  every 
one  of  the  charges  in  the  bilL"  Tbia,  I  think,  is  the  only  in- 
stance in  any  law  report  pablished  in  the  English  language, 
where  a  reporter  stepped  oat  of  his  official  line  to  defend 
parties  to  a  lawsuit.  The  majority  of  the  legislature  was 
"Fur,"  and  they  created  new  judicial  districts,  to  which  they 
banished  inimical  judges,  where  they  would  have  no  judicial 
functions  to  perform.       » 

Kangbt  came  of  this  suit,  and  with  its  disappearance,  and 
with  the  withdrawal  of  the  American  Fur  Company  froia  the 
Indian  trade,  the  political  influence  of  Mr.  Bice  ascended  rap- 
idly, while  that  of  Mr.  Sibley  declined.  At  the  next  delegate 
election,  Mr.  Bice  became  the  candidate  of  the  Democratic 
party,  and  was  elected  by  a  large  majority  over  Alexander 
Wilkin,  who  ran  as  an  indepraident  Whig.  Some  Whigs,  and 
nearly  all  the  Democrats,  supported  Mr.  Bice.  By  this  time 
it  became  apparent  that  the  political  elements  of  Minnesota 
were  Democratic.  After  this  accession  of  Mr.  Bice  to  power, 
be  became  and  continued  the  undoubted  leader  of  his  party 
for  edght  years. 

During  the  days  of  the  Territory,  there  was  never  any 
general  oi^anization  of  the  Whigs  as  a  party.  Some  of  them 
voted  with  the  Bice  Democrats,  bnt  the  greater  number  with 



the  Bibley  side.  '  However,  there  was  a  local  exception  to 
this.  At  Stillwatw  there  was  a  small  and  very  select  body 
of  Whigs,  who  pr^erred  to  act  apon  a  higher  plane  than  that 
chosen  by  either  of  the  other  parties.  These  Whigs  met  in 
convention,  and  nominated  a  strai^t  Whig  ticket.  They 
polled  flfty-two  votes  in  Stillwater,  and  elected  a  member  of 
the  House  of  Representatives.  This  member,  npon  arriving  at 
the  capitol,  kept  the  Honse  nearly  three  weeks  from  organiz- 
ing in  the  attempt  to  force  his  own  election  as  speaJcer.  This 
effort  cost  nearly  ten  tboosand  doltars.  Bat,  as  Uncle  Sam 
paid  the  bills,  it  did  not  excite  macta  indignation  on  the  score 
of  economy.  This  representative  then  lowered  his  aims  and 
compromised  npon  the  proposition  to  elect  his  friend  as  as- 
sistant clerk  of  the  honse.  The  total  fmits  of  this  effort  of 
the  select  Whig  party  was  the  election  of  a  dull  man  to  an 
inferior  office,  which  he  was  incompetent  to  fill.  Thas  «ided 
the  first  and  only  attempt  to  act  as  a  separate  party. 

During  the  next  fonr  years  the  Democrarts  had  everything 
their  own  way,  but  they  were  divided  into  factions.  A  prom< 
inent  man  among  them  was  David  Olmsted,  who  led,  during 
a  part  of  this  period,  the  anti-Rice  forcea.  After  the  ap- 
pointment of  Willis  A.  Gorman  as  territorial  governor,  he  also 
joined  the  anti-Bice  forces,  and  endeavored  to  baild  up  a  Dem- 
ocratic party  in  opposition  to  Mr.  Bice;  but  the  latter  pos- 
sessed too  many  frioids,  particularly  among  the  old  settlers, 
to  be  snpplanted  by  a  newcomer.  In  1854  the  passage  of  the 
Nebraska  bill,  and  the  actions  of  the  Democratic  administra- 
tion in  Kansas,  shocked  the  anti-slavery  sentiment  of  the 
North,  and  made  a  deep  impression  in  Minnesota.  Many  of 
the  Democrats  threw  off  allegiance  to  their  party,  while  others 
resolved  to  fight  the  slavery  propaganda  inside  of  party  lines. 

In  March,  1865,  a  few  people,  strongly  anti-slavery,  most  of 
them  former  Democrats,  met  at  St.  Anthony,  passed  strong 
resolutions  npon  the  slavery  question,  and  provided  for  a 
general  Territorial  convention,  to  be  held  at  St.  Paul  on  the 
25th  of  the  following  July.  At  the  meeting  in  St.  Anthony, 
the  name  Bepnblican  was  first  applied  to  a  party  within  the 
Territory.  This  name  was  adopted  by  the  July  convention, 
and  the  party  was  finally  launched  under  that  name.  The 
call  for  this  July  convention  was  signed  by  Alexander  Bamsey, 
William  R  Marshall,  and  about  twelve  others.    The  conven- 



tion  adopted  and  sent  forth  a.  Btnmg  set  ot  reeolirtitHUi.  It 
elected  a  central  committee  of  fifteen,  of  wbiidi  the  writer  was 
made  chairman,  and  was  thne  prorided  with  the  foil  machin- 
ery of  a  partj,  which  party  even  a  anrted  Democracy  oonld 
hardly  make  head  against  This  conTentioD  nominated  Wil- 
liam B.  Marsliall  aa  delegate  to  Congress.  On  the  same  day, 
Mr  Bice  was  nominated  as  the  Democratic  candidate  of  the 
National  Democracy.  Some  time  ^ter  this,  Mr.  Olmsted  was 
brought  out  as  the  anti-Nebraska  Democratic  candidate.  The 
Section  resolted  is  favor  of  Mr.  Bice,  who  received  a  hand- 
some plurality,  but  not  a  majority. 

The  meeting  at  St.  Anthony,  and  the  convention  at  St. 
Paul,  had  been  governed  by  a  set  of  men,  a  majority  of  whom 
were  very  radical  and  might  be  called  purists.  They  attempt- 
ed to  build  a  political  party  upon  the  lines  of  a  church  organ- 
ization. They  put  into  the  platform  a  Maine  Liquor  Law 
plank.  Perhaps  they  thought  that  this  plank  would  be  ac- 
ceptable to  a  majority  of  the  people;  for,  some  years  before, 
the  legislature  had  passed  a  Maine  liquor  law,  to  be  effective 
upon  the  ratification  by  the  people.  This  law  was  approved 
by  about  fifty-eight  per  cent  of  the  voters.  To  those  of  you 
who  have  been  familiar  with  St  Fanl  for  the  last  tw«ity-flve 
years,  it  will  seem  a  little  amusing  that  this  law  was  approved 
by  its  electors,  with  a  good  majority.  When  its  vote  was 
ascertained,  all  the  church  bells  of  the  city  rang  for  joy.  The 
Olmsted  Democrats  denounced  the  proslavery  ideas  of  the 
National  Democrats,  and  the  Maine  liquor  law  of  tbe  Bepub- 
licans.  Minnesota,  at  this  early  date,  had  acquired  a  lai^ 
German  population,  of  whom  90  per  cent,  at  least,  were  anti- 
slavery,  and  100  per  cent  against  the  Maine  liquor  law.  They 
voted  principally  for  Olmsted.  This  was  the  first  and  last 
move  ever  made  in  a  B^ublican  general  cenvention  f<«  a  gen- 
eral prohibitory  liquor  law  in  Minnesota. 

In  1854  and  1855,  a  matter  creating  quite  a  commotion  in 
politics  arose  out  of  a  grant  of  lands  made  by  Congress  to  aid 
in  the  building  of  railroads.  Immediately  upon  the  passage 
of  the  act,  the  word  "or"  or  "and,"  I  do  not  rem«nber  which, 
had  been  changed,  so  as  to  give  the  lands  to  a  then  existing 
railroad  company.  Congress,  in  its  indignation,  immediate]; 
repealed  the  act  Tbe  company  claimed  that  rights  vrere  at 
once  vested  in  the  grant,  which  placed  it  beyond  the  power  of 

Digitized  .yGOOgle 


n^ai  A  great  political  fight  followed  in  Minnesota,  con- 
fined sole!;  to  the  Democrats.  The  party  friends  of  the  rail' 
road  company,  headed  by  Mr.  Bice,  vwre  on  one  aide,  and  the 
friende  and  appointeea  of  General  Gonnun  on  the  other  side. 
The  latter  called  themaelTes  "anti-fraud  Dwnocrata."  Both 
pertieB  had  their  newspaper  oi^db;  and  a  Btranger,  reading 
them,  woDld  have  supposed  that  the  people  of  the  place  were 
nearly  all  bad.  In  a  year  or  two  thereafter,  the  United  States 
courts  decided  that  the  repealing  act  waa  valid,  and  that  no 
grant  existed.  This  removed  the  great  soarce  of  contention 
between  the  parties  in  the  Territorial  times.  A  stranger  then 
reading  the  newspapers  wonid  have  thought  that  the  people 
of  the  country  were  tolerably  good. 

The  rapid  growth  of  the  Bepablii-ans  united  the  diflt-rent 
factions  of  the  Donocratie  party,  and  from  then  on  till  after 
the  admission  of  the  state,  dnring  the  years  1866  to  1860,  a 
great  work  was  done  on  b^ialf  of  the  Bepablicans,  to  edncate 
the  voters  to  tSieir  way  of  thinking.  Nearly  all  the  B^ab- 
lican  speakers  of  national  reputation  were  brought  to  Minne- 
sota to  do  missionary  work.  Of  these,  I  can  recall  the  names 
of  Lyman  Trumbull,  Owen  Lovejoy,  John  P.  HaJe,  Zachajy 
Chandler,  Ban  Mace,  Galusha  A.  Grow,  Schuyler  Colfax,  Cari 
Schurz,  and  Frank  P.  Blair,  Jr.  Among  a  portion  of  the  people 
there  existed  an  opinion  that  the  Bepablicans  vfere  a  little 
puritanical  in  their  notions;  and  it  was  thought,  by  the  Cen- 
tral Committee,  that  Frank  P.  Blair,  Jr.,  could  do  them  a  great 
deal  of  good.  He  lived  in  St^  Loais,  and,  in  that  city,  had 
made  a  gallant  fight  in  behalf  of  the  anti-slavery  cause,  wiOt 
great  sacceea.  He  was  immensely  pop^lar  with  the  "boys." 
He  oame,  and  there  was  no  disaftpointment  in  the  result. 
Some  funny  incidnits  occurred  among  other  things.  In  an 
ambitious  city  in  the  Minnesota  valley,  there  was  a  coterie  of 
active  young  Democrats,  who  conspired  to  defeat  his  work  in 
their  locality.  Upon  his  arrival,  they  agreed  to  take  him  in 
charge,  and  two  or  three  of  their  number  were  to  show  him 
Democratic  attention.  Aft«  as  hour  or  two,  two  or  three 
m(ve  were  to  take  him  in  charge  and  continae  the  attention, 
and  80  on.  On  his  arrival,  th^  proceeded  to  carry  out  their 
plans.  At  the  time  appointed  for  the  Bepnblicas  meeting, 
Samson  appeared,  and  made  apowerfnl  anti-slavery  argument. 



The  Democratic  zealots  were  not  there.  These  Delilahs  had 
been  shorn  and  were  helpless.  They  had  forgotten  that  Blair 
belonged  to  one  of  the  oldest  Democratic  families  in  the  coon- 
try,  and  that  his  father  had  been  the  most  intimate  adviser  of 
General  Jackson.  Either  they  had  forgotten  this,  or,  if  not, 
they  had  not  yet  diecoTcred  the  law  of  heredity.  After  this, 
there  was  no  further  attempt  to  overcome  Blair  by  Demo- 
cratic weapons. 

Another  speafeer  who  exercised  great  influence  was  Carl 
Scburz.  This  distingaished  orator,  who  was  master  of  the 
English  as  well  as  of  the  German  language,  possessed  great 
clearness  of  ideas,  ezactneBS  of  expression,  and  sincerity  of 
manner,  and  made  a  most  profonnd  impression  upon  Ameri- 
cans as  well  as  upon  Germans. 

In  the  year  1857  commenced  the  great  campaign,  wherein 
the  stakes  were  many  times  larger  than  ever  before.  A  state 
constitDtion  was  to  be  made  and  adopted,  and  under  it  were 
to  be  elected  a  gorernor  and  state  officers,  two,  if  not  tliree, 
members  of  congress,  and  two  United  Btates  senators.  In 
view  of  these  great  prizes,  all  factions  in  either  party  came 
together,  and  the  battle  was  fought  with  united  forces  on  both 
sides.  In  the  first  election,  both  sides  claimed  the  election 
of  a  majority  of  their  own  faith,  as  delegates  to  the  cwistitn- 
tional  convention.  Upon  the  arrival  of  the  delegates  at  St. 
Paul,  an  effort  was  made  by  the  leaders  on  both  sides  to  agree 
npon  a  line  of  conduct  which  would  avoid  a  disgraceful  scene, 
and,  perhaps,  a  failure  to  make  a  constitation  at  all.  The 
parties  could  not  agree,  and  each  side  prepared  to  grab  first, 
and  as  much  as  they  coold,  or,  to  use  the  language  of  the  re- 
spective parties,  to  secure  their  rights. 

The  convention  was  to  meet  in  the  hall  of  the  House  of 
Representatives,  at  noon.  As  both  territorial  and  city  ad- 
ministrations were  Democratic,  it  was  feared,  on  the  part  of 
the  Republicans,  that  an  attempt  might  be  made  to  clear  tlie 
hall  of  Bepnblicans,  or  to  prevent,  by  the  aid  of  the  police,  the 
entrance  of  Republican  delegates  to  the  hall.  The  Repnb- 
licans  concluded  to  take  possession  of  the  hall  Hhe  evening 
before,  camp  there  all  night,  and  be  on  band  when  the  hour 
arrived.  This  they  did.  As  the  hour  approached,  the  Demo- 
cratic delegates  came  into  the  hall;  and  precisely  at  twelve 
o'clock.  Mr.  Chase,  Secretary  of  the  Territory,  and  Mr.  North. 



a  BepublicflD  delegate,  eprang  to  their  feet,  nominated  a  cbair-  • 
man,  and  declared  him  elected.  The  chairman  declared  elect- 
ed by  Mr.  Korth  got  possesBion  of  the  seat  first,  and  the  Be- 
pablicans  proceeded  to  organize  the  ooDveDtion. 

The  Democrats  withdrew,  and,  after  caDcuaing  awhile,  ap- 
peared at  the  ontside  of  the  door  of  the  hall  with  ez-Qovemor 
Gorman  at  their  head.  He,  after  looking  in,  tamed  to  his 
followers,  and  in  that  clear,  eonoroas  Toice  of  hie,  said,  "A 
mob  hafi  taken  poesession  of  the  HaJI  of  BepresentatiTes  and 
the  convention  will  proceed  to  the  Senate  Chamber  to  organ- 
ize," which  the  Democratic  wing  immediately  proceeded  to  do. 

Abont  one-third  of  the  time  occupied  by  the  convention 
in  its  entirety  was  devoted  by  orators  to  showing  posterity 
that  their  particnlar  convention  was  a  legal  one,  and  the  other 
a  false  one.  Hennepin  connty  was  entitled  to  eight  delegates, 
and  without  these,  the  Democratic  convention  could  in  no 
sense  claim  a  majority.  The  Bepablican  candidates  from  that 
county  and  received  the  regular  certificates  of  election  issued 
by  the  authority  provided  by  law,  for  that  purpose,  namely, 
the  re^ster  of  deeds.  The  Democrats  complained  that  he 
had  ignored  the  facts  and  bad  arbitrarily  and  unlawfully  is- 
sued  these  oertiflicates.  The  Democratic  governor  promptly 
removed  the  register.  The  people  renominated  him  for  the 
same  (^ce,  and  the  issue  was  plainly  made  up.  He  was  tri- 
umphantly elected  by  several  hundred  majority.  "Vox  popnli, 
vox  Dei,"  is  an  old  Democratic  maxim;  and,  tried  by  this  test, 
I  snbmit  to  you,  my  hearers,  did  the  D^nocrats  have  any 
claim  whatever  to  have  the  regular  constitutional  convention? 
As  I  do  not  believe  that  this  maxim  is  always  infallible,  I 
cannot  answer  the  query  myself. 

After  the  speakers  in  each  convention  had  exhausted  them-  ' 
selves  in  making  their  side  appear  right  to  those  present  and 
to  posterity,  they  proceeded  to  the  business  of  making  a  con- 
stitution; appropriate  committees  were  appointed,  and  com- 
mon sense  soon  began  to  prevail  among  the  better  men  of  both 
sides.  As  soon  as  an  article  was  drawn  and  discussed  by 
each  convention,  it  was  submitted  to  the  proper  committee 
of  the  opposite  wing;  and  so  on,  through  all  of  the  different 
subjects,  until  an  instrument  agreeing  in  all  respects,  includ- 
ing orthography  and  punctuation,  was  adopted  by  each  body. 



As  a  rule,  the  ablest  meax  of  ea«l»  party  belonged  to  one  or 
the  other  conventionB,  and  I  have  no  donbt  that  if  each  party 
had  acted  entirely  independent  of  the  other,  the  reeuit  would 
hare  been  practically  the  adoption  of  the  same  instrument. 
The  art  of  constitution-making  had  then  become  well  under- 
stood, and  all  constitutions  made  during  the  previoas  twenty 
years  contained  practically  the  same  principles;  although  it 
was  briieTed,  by  the  membera  of  each  party,  that  the  framing 
of  a  conatitntion  ander  the  guidance  of  their  side  would  re- 
dound much  tx>  the  advantage  of  their  party.  I  do  not  think 
it  would  have  made  any  diff»Mice,  except  in  the  matter  of 
apportionment  for  the  members  of  the  legislature.  The  party 
which  obtained  the  mastery  would  have  taken  good  care  that 
their  side  should  not  suffer  in  this  respect  The  constitutiwi 
formed  gave  universal  satisfaction  and  was  approved  by  the 

After  the  adjournment  of  the  constitutional  convention, 
each  party  met  in  convention  and  nominated  candidates  for 
the  differeut  state  offices,  and  also  for  three  members  of  con- 
gress. The  Democratic  ticket  was  beaded  by  the  name  of 
H.  H.  Sibley  for  governor,  and  the  B^ublican  by  Alexander 
Bameey.  After  an  exciting  campiUgn,  the  Democratic  ticket 
was  declared  elected,  and  Bibley  installed  as  governor  in  ac- 
cordance therewith.  The  Democrats  obtained  a  small  major- 
ity in  the  legislature,  and  elected  Henry  M.  Bice  and  General 
James  BhiddB  as  United  States  senators.  The  latter  was  a 
newcomer,  and  his  election  was  a  bitter  dose  to  many  of  the 
old  settlers  in  the  party. 

At  the  next  election,  in  1859,  the  Bepablicans  again  placed 
Alexander  Bamse;  at  the  head  of  their  ticket.  In  1857  the 
Democrats  had  the  control  of  the  election  machinery  and  of 
Hke  canvassing  board.  It  was  unanimously  believed  by  the 
Bepubllcans,  and  by  many  of  the  Democrats,  that  Oovemor 
Sibley  was  not  elected,  but  only  oonnted  in.  The  race  in  1857 
had  shown  that  ex-GovemOT  Bamsey  waa  a  very  popular  man 
among  the  masses,  running  several  hundred  votes  ahead  of 
the  balance  of  his  ticket.  The  idea  that  he  had  been  unjustly 
treated  in  1857  was  of  inunenae  adTantage  to  him  in  1859,  and 
to  the  balance  of  the  Bepnblican  ticket,  and  the  entire  Bepub- 
licsn  ticket  wa»  then  elected.  The  Bepnblican  party  was  thm 
entrenched  in  power  in  the  State  of  Minnesota,  and  they  have 

Digitized  .yGOOgle 


Dever  since  been  dislodged,  during  a  period  of  nearl;  forty 
years.  There  liave  been  but  two  cases  in  tlie  United  States 
where  the  Republican  party  has  shown  such  a  hold  apon  state 

Perhaps  no  portion  of  the  West  contained  a  body  of  men 
equal  in  ability  to  those  found  here  upon  the  organization  of 
the  Territory.  Most  of  them,  although  passing  the  greater 
portion  of  their  lives  in  the  wildernesB,  were  well  educated, 
and  intellectually  were  of  surpriaing  brightness.  It  was  a 
aingalar  fact  that  all  the  Indian  traders  were  Democrats;  not 
a  Whig,  as  far  as  I  knew,  was  among  them.  This  can  be  ac-  ' 
counted  for  by  the  fact  that  daring  their  residence  here  they 
were  under  a  national  Democratic  adminiatration,  with  the  ex- 
ception of  the  four  years  comprising  tbe  t«rm&  of  Presidents 
Taylor  and  Fillmore.  It  was  clearly  their  interest  to  be  on 
good  terms  with  the  administration  from  whom  they  received 
the  license  to  trade,  and  who  could  facilitate  or  hinder  their 
trade  with  the  Indiana.  I  think  that  it  was  their  realization 
of  these  facts  that  caused  the  traders,  under  the  Wliig  adminis- 
tration, to  keep  aloof  from  bnilding  op  and  maintaining  a 
strict  partisan  organization  of  their  own  liking;  and  which 
led  them  to  cooperate  cordially  with  those  who  claimed  to 
work  for  the  interests  of  the  Territory. 

There  was  something  peculiar  to  the  Indian  trade  which 
benumbed  the  fine  notions  of  honor  neceeeary  to  succobs  in 
commerce  between  white  men.  To  those  having  a  slight 
insight  into  the  trade,  it  would  seem  to  be  more  or  less  neces- 
sary that  the  commercial  consciaice  should  be  other  than  that 
existing  between  civilized  people.  It  was  a  singular  fact  that 
nearly  all  theee  traders  carried  th^r  Indian  conscience  into 
politics.  These  men  became  after  a  time  much  disliked  by 
the  mflBses  of  their  own  party,  and  were  styled  by  them  "Moc- 
casin DemocratH."  However,  they  were  the  brains  of  the 
party  and  pulled  it  through  sonte  very  tight  places,  through 
which  they  would  not  have  passed  without  their  aid.  The 
infloence  of  the  Moccasin  Democracy  mded  with  the  election 
of  Mr.  Lincoln.  It  had  supported  Breckenridge  as  against 
Douglas,  and  made  a  very  sorry  exhibit  of  strength.  Frmn 
that  time  it  disappeared  as  a  political  factor. 

The  press  exercised  a  greet  influence  in  politics,  a*  well  as 
in  the  development  of  the  material  interest!  vf  tbe  Territoiy. 

^f  .  D,s,t,zed.yGOOg[e 

178        imnvsasoTA  historical  socibtt  coix.rctions. 

I  cannot  clo«e  this  paper  without  some  mention  of  a  most 
remarkable  character,  Col.  James  M.  Goodhae,  who,  dnring 
his  short  life  in  Minneeota,  of  oboat  three  years,  exercised  a 
greater  influence  apon  the  political  life  and  material  develop- 
meat  of  Minnesota  than  all  the  other  newspaper  men  dnring 
that  period.  Bom  a  Yankee,  liberally  edacated,  he  came  west 
as  a  jonng  mao,  and  advanced  farther  west  to  Minnesota 
within  a  few  days  after  its  Territorial  eziBteoce  b^an.  With- 
oat  capital,  bat  with  a  hand-press  and  a  font  of  type,  he  com- 
menced to  publish  his  paper  in  a  wooden  shanty,  which  he 
with  his  own  hands  put  up.  He  acted  at  the  same  time  as 
editor,  typesetter,  devil,  and  newsboy.  Boon  a  large  portion 
of  the  people  of  Minnesota  read  hie  paper,  and  its  circulation 
extended  throughout  the  Western,  Middle,  and  Eastern  states. 
I  first  read  it  in  Missouri,  in  1860,  and  throngh  it  was  led  to 
come  to  Minnesota.  Goodhue  had  the  sarcasm  of  a  Jonins, 
and  the  wit  of  a  Prentiss.  As  a  specimen  of  the  former,  at 
the  conciasion  of  a  scathing  article  upon  some  of  the  Terri- 
torial officials,  he  said,  "The  gall  we  have  shown  is  very  honey 
compared  to  what  we  have  in  reserve  for  them."  As  a  speci- 
men of  his  wit,  with  the  sting  in  it,  in  speaking  of  a  federal 
officer  whose  influence  in  obtaining  bis  appointment  was  a 
mystery,  and  whose  busiuees  conduct  was  not  always  credit- 
able, and  who  in  the  free  and  easy  western  way  bad  borrowed 
a  small  boat  and  gone  down  the  river  in  the  night,  he  s^'s: 
"He  stole  trt(o  the  Territory,  he  stole  in  the  Territory,  and  he 
stole  out  of  the  Territory."  As  a  specimen  of  his  playful 
humor,  he  says:  "Our  citizens  were  treated  to  an  address  by 
our  distinguished  townsman,  the  Hon.  John  A.  Smith,  Esq., 
author  of  The  Black  Hawk  War,'  and  an  nnpublished  Novel 
of  Intense  Interest!"  Again,  upon  twins  appearing  in  his 
family,  he  says,  "Our  patrons  ought  now  to  take  two  papers." 
In  the  winter  season,  when  Minnesota  was  shnt  ofT  from  the 
world  and  without  mail  for  weeks,  he  published  a  most  inter- 
esting paper;  its  issue  was  looked  for  with  the  expectation 
of  something  racy,  and  the  readers  were  not  disappointed. 
His  paper  always  advocated  the  adoption  of  measures  neces- 
sarily attendant  apon  a  high  civilization.  He  wrote  three 
editorials  urging  the  necessity  of  securing  grounds  for  a  public 
cemetery,  but  he  died  before  this  wish  was  realized,  and  to-day 
no  man  knoweth  where  his  bones  lie. 

Digitized  .yGOOgle 


The  most  remarkable  man,  in  many  respects,  who  ever 
appeared  in  the  Northwest,  was  Joseph  B.  Brown.  Coniing 
aa  be  did,  at  the  age  (rf  foarteen,  a  drammer-boy  in  the  United 
States  Army,  he  remained  in  this  s^ectlon  for  nearly  sixty 
years.  H^  was  engaged  principally  in  the  Indian  trade.  I 
think  he  was  a  clerk  in  the  Wisconsin  Territorial  Legislature 
for  one  term.  Certain  it  was  that  as  Secretary  of  the  Minne- 
sota Conncil  dnring  its  first  and  second  sessions,  as  clerk  of 
the  Minnesota  House  at  its  fourth  session,  in  1853,  during 
the  next  two  years  as  a  member  of  the  Council,  arid  in  1857 
as  a  member  of  the  House,  he  was  one  of  the  most  influential 
men  in  the  Legislature.  He  drew  up  most  of  the  bills,  and 
often  told  the  presiding  ofiScer  how  to  rule.  This  he  did  in 
no  dictatorial  manner,  bat  because  nearly  all  of  the  members 
knew  nothing  about  legislation.  He  usually  attended  party 
conventions,  and,  although  often  weak  in  the  number  of  his 
followers,  be  woald  gather  in  a  good  portion  of  the  fmits  of 
the  convention.  He  had  a  most  infectious  laugh,  and  a  keen 
sense  of  humor,  and  v/SM  always  the  center  of  a  crowd.  Those 
people  who  had  been  prejudiced  against  him,  having  no  knowl- 
edge of  him  except  that  derived  from  newspaper  accounts,  and 
from  his  political  enemies,  after  being  a  few  moments  in  his 
presence,  were  satisfied  that  "Jo,  the  Juggler,"  was  not  so 
bad  a  man  after  all.  For  many  years  after  I  came  to  Minne- 
sota, knowing  but  little  of  him  through  peraonal  contact,  and 
a  good  deal  of  him  from  newspaper  accounts,  I  thought  him 
the  very  incarnation  of  deviltry.  During  the  years  of  1863 
and  1S64,  I  bad  a  good  deal  of  basiness  with  him,  and  was 
much  in  bis  society,  and  I  soon  learned  to  admire  him.  He, 
no  doubt,  had  been  the  best  abased  man  in  the  country.  He 
would  often  laugh  in  late  years  over  the  bad  things  that  bad 
been  said  of  him.  He  possessed  one  very  noble  attribute:  he 
entertained  no  hard  feeling  towards  those  who  had  reviled 
him.  He  had  a  good  heart,  and  would  put  himself  to  a  great 
deal  of  trouble  to  do  a  kindness,  even  to  those  who  bad 
traduced  him.  He  was  a  well-read  man,  and  wrote  and  spoke 
the  French  language  with  ease.  At  one  time  be  was  tihe 
editor  of  the  Pioneer,  the  organ  of  the  Democratic  party,  and 
filled  the  position  with  credit.  He  would  dash  o£F  rapidly 
pages  of  editori^  matter,  ready  for  the  type,   without  an 



erasure.  How  be,  as  well  as  Bome  other  of  the  earlier  traders 
acquired  their  learniiijr,  ia  a  mystery  to  me. 

The  most  promioeDt  and  ioflueotial  men  in  the  earlier 
politics,  who  overshadowed  all  others,  were  Ramsey,  Sibley, 
and  Bice,  and  I  think  they  stood  in  the  order  in  which  I  have 
named  them.  There  were  several  other  leading  men  who 
afterwards  gained  political  distinction,  bat  the  limit  of  this 
paper  prevents  my  describing  them. 

Mr.  Bice  had  to  make  bis  way  against  the  basinesa  power  of 
his  enemies,  and  he  succeeded  in  getting  to  the  top.  He  was 
a  man  of  fascinating  address  and  great  energy;  and  his  labor, 
while  in  Congress,  was  unflagging.  He  worked  for  the  people 
at  large,  as  well  as  for  individuals,  for  political  foes,  as  well 
as  friends,  and  no  official  from  Minnesota  has  been  bis  equal 
in  getting  work  done  for  his  constituents.  Many  Whigs  went 
over  to  the  Democratic  party  and  remained  there,  owing  to 
their  attachment  for  Mr.  Bice. 

Nearly  all  the  actors  in  the  events  I  have  described  are 
now  dead.  Before  their  departure,  all  bitterness  accrning 
from  political  strife  had  ceased  and  they  took  their  leave  in 
peace,  with  feelings  of  good  will  towards  all.  Pull-grown 
men  upon  the  stage  of  life,  like  boys  in  their  school  days,  say 
bad  things  at  times  about  each  other,  call  each  other  liars 
and  other  opprobrious  names,  and  have  their  fights  occasion- 
ally. Yet,  when  these  days  are  past,  such  matters  are  only 
touched  upon  as  subjects  of  merriment  and  joke. 

There  was  one  thing  about  the  early  pioneers  that  their 
descendants  should  be  proud  of,  namely,  that  no  disloyal 
Toice  was  ever  raised  against  the  Federal  Union.  Among  all 
the  factions  in  the  pariles  at  the  time  of  the  outbreak  of  the 
Civil  War,  the  number  of  disloyal  persons  could  be  counted 
on  the  fingers  of  one  hand.  The  contrast  in  this  respect  with 
some  of  the  neighboring  states  east  and  south  of  us  should 
be  remembered  by  us  and  those  who  come  after  as  with  great 
pride.  It  would  perhaps  be  a  good  thing  for  as  to  become 
worshipers  of  the  patriotic  manes  of  our  ancestors  and  of  the 
founders  of  this  state. 




Three  blocks  away  from  where  we  are  now  sitting,  on  the 
first  rise  of  the  blnff,  is  situated  Park  Place,  a  square  or  more 
fn  extent,  with  a  pleasant  little  park  in  the  center,  eununit 
avenue  bound*  it  on  the  north,  St  Peter  street  on  the  east. 
College  avenue  on  the  south,  and  Rice  street  on  the  west. 

Entering  this  park  from  St.  Peter  street,  you  will  discover 
on  the  south  side,  in  the  midst  of  a  row  of  neat  cottages,  a 
medium-sized  frame  building,  rather  antique  in  its  style  of 
architecture,  with  ita  gable  end  toward  the  street,  like  the 
old  Albany  houses  in  Knickerbocker  days.  This  modest  struc- 
ture, now  neglected  and  uninviting,  has  a  history,  and  that 
history  is  connected  with  early  days  of  St.  Paul.  This  little 
bouse  was  builded  by  the  founders  of  the  Episcopal  Church 
in  Minnesota,  and  vas  occupied  by  the  first  missionaries  of 
that  church  for  some  years.  This  was  in  1850,  when  St.  Paul 
was  a  small  village  of  one  thousand  inhabitants,  confined  to 
the  plateaus  below  the  site  of  Park  Place,  and  grouped  about 
the  upper  landing,  at  the  foot  of  what  is  now  Chestnut  street. 
Park  Place  then  was  in  a  very  real  way  the  edge  of  the  wilder- 
ness, which,  almost  unbroken,  extended  northward  into  the 
frozen  land  of  the  unknown. 

It  may  be  of  interest  to  many,  and  will  serve  the  intent  of 
this  paper,  if  I  briefly  sketch  the  bjstory  connected  with  the 

*R«U1  before  the  Society.  March  2S.  1B»8. 



parcliase  and  occupancy  of  this  tract  of  land  at  that  early 
day.  It  Ib  bo  closely  linked  with  the  history  of  St  Paul  and 
Minnesota,  that  it  shonld  not  be  overlooked  by  the  one  who, 
in  the  foture,  may  write  the  history  of  this  city  and  common- 

This  early  history  is  closely  linked  with  the  life  and  experi- 
ences of  a  very  remarkable  man,  tlie  Bev.  James  Lloyd  Breck. 
Let  ns  take  a  condensed  restrospect  of  his  career.  It  has 
within  it  a  combination  of  remarkable  qualities,  illnstrative 
of  the  character  of  the  men  who,  in  all  ages,  have  been  the 
pioneers  of  institutional  life,  both  in  the  aJCairs  of  Church 
and  Btate.  Man  is  always  the  central  fact  around  which,  and 
from  which,  springs  the  crystallization  of  all  organism  Id  the 
growth  and  development  of  the  race.  In  studying  man  we 
stndy  the  meaning  and  motive  of  every  organism,  and  become 
cognizant  of  the  substantial  purpose  which  underlies  all.  The 
more  mature  development  of  the  institution  may,  and  doubt- 
less will,  depart  widely  from  the  form  involved  in  the  person- 
ality of  its  founder,  but  the  energizing  force  generated  by  that 
founder  is  never  wholly  exhausted.  This  law  and  principle  are 
wonderfully  illustrated  in  the  work  of  this  early  missionary 
and  founder  of  ecclesiastical  institutions,  James  Lloyd  Breck. 
He  was  born  in  Philadelphia  in  1818,  graduated  from  the 
University  of  Penosylvania  in  1838,  and  from  the  General 
Theological  Seminary  of  the  Episcopal  Church  in  New  York 
in  1841. 

It  was  during  his  seminary  course  that  the  project  of  going 
into  the  wilderness  of  Wisconsin,  and  founding  there  an  asso- 
ciate mission,  almost  monastic  in  its  character,  first  entered 
his  mind  and  crystallized  into  a  purpose.  The  first  missionary 
bishop  of  the  Northwest,  Jackson  Kemper,  visited  the  sem- 
inary and  in  glowing  language,  and  with  high  enthusiasm, 
told  the  story  of  the  new  land  and  its  vast  possibilities  for 
devoted  missionary  endeavor.  His  words  sank  deep  into  the 
impressionable  heart  of  the  young  theological  student,  and  he, 
unhesitatingly,  offered  himself  to  Bishop  Kemper  for  thia 
work.    Two  others,  classmates,  Hobart  and  Adams,  threw  in 


utsaioNB  OF  fauk  place,  st.  paul.  183 

their  lot  with  him.  On  their  graduation  and  ordination  in 
the  early  aununer  of  1841  they  started  on  the  then  long  and 
fatiguing  journey  to  the  Northwest.  Wisconsin  then  was 
almost  a  wildernesa,  bot  the  tide  of  immigration  was  swelling 
and  flowing  over  its  prairies  and  into  its  forests.  Breck,  and 
his  co-laborers,  planted  their  standard  on  tiie  outward  edge 
of  this  outflow  by  a  cluster  of  beautiful  lakes  in  the  very  heart 
of  the  virgin  forest,  and  b^an  their  singularly  courageous  and 
self-denying  work,  which  lives  to-day  in  the  flourishing  Theo- 
l<^cal  Seminary  of  Nasbotah. 

Their  life  was  one  of  extreme  simplicity,  and  their  mis- 
sionary IatM>rs  most  primitive  in  their  character.  For  their 
daily  bread  they  relied  upon  the  continued  interest  of  eastern 
friends;  their  lives  were  fall  of  privation,  but  the  record,  as 
read  in  their  letters,  was  one  of  enthusiastic,  unconquerable 
Beal.  The  institntion  grew;  it  was  the  lona  of  the  west.  Mis- 
sionaries trained  therein  went  forth  with  the  advancing  iwpn- 
lation,  preaching  the  gospel  and  founding  churches. 

Years  went  on ;  this  school  of  the  prophets  became  a  perma^ 
nent  fact.  Breck  grew  impatient  of  this  circumscribed  life. 
His  soul  longed  for  the  freedom  of  a  new  missionary  fleld, 
where  the  seed  could  again  be  sown  in  virgin  soil.  Others 
now  could  carry  forward  the  work  he  had  founded  and  nur- 
tured. His  eyes  tamed  longingly  toward  the  west,  to  the 
border  of  the  upper  Mississippi,  to  the  Territory  of  Minnesota, 
jast  organized.  It  was  practically  an  unknown  land.  The 
white  man  bad  founded  a  few  small  settlementB  upon  its  ex- 
treme eastern  border,  but  its  va^t  interior  was  the  home  of 
the  Ojibway  and  the  Sioux.  The  voice  of  God  called  him  to 
go  in  and  possess  this  land  for  the  gospel  and  bia  church. 
Like  St  Paul,  he  was  "not  disobedient  unto  the  heavenly 
vision,"  but,  hearing,  obeyed. 

With  two  kindred  spirits,  Timothy  Wilcoxson  and  John  A. 
Merrick,  he  left  the  comfortable  environs  of  Nasho^h  and 
started  westward.  They  reached  the  Mississippi,  where  now 
stands  the  thriving  city  of  La  Crosse.    The  Rev.  Mr.  Wilcox- 



son  ID  a  letter  tells  the  ator?  of  their  ezperienceB  there  in  the 
following  werdB: 

We  spent  tlie  fonrdi  Sunday  after  Trlnltr,  Jnne  23d,  18G0.  it  Prat 
He  Lb.  Croise— then  b  hamlet'  of  fifteen  or  twenty  bouses.  We  held 
eerrlce  and  celebrated  the  Holy  Communion  In  the  morning,  on  n 
bluff  about  two  miles  back  of  the  landlnif.  In  the  afternoon  we  held 
a  BPrvice  by  the  river  side  at  the  house  of  a  German  named  Levy.  The 
nest  morning  we  paddled  a  canoe  over  the  rtrer,  some  distance  above 
Ia  Crosse,  and  there  Itept  tbe  Feast  of  St.  John  the  Baptist.  And 
there,  for  th'e  flret  time,  tbe  Aeeoclate  Mlsalon  for  Minnesota  stood  on 
the  soil  of  Minnesota.  A  rustic  cross  was  reared  beneath  a  large  and 
spreading  elm  tree;  and  the  stone  on  which  tbe  elements  of  the  Holy 
Sacrament  were  consecrated  was  the  same  tbin  slab  of  limestone  that 
the  day  before  served  as  an  altar  on  Altar  Bock,  back  of  La  Crosse 

Sach  a  scene  carries  ns  in  imagiQation  back  to  those  daye 
of  primitive  Ghriatianitj  when  the  groves  were  God's  temples 
and  the  bine  sky  the  canopy  of  their  altar.  The  picturesque 
simplicity  of  tbe  Uves  of  these  men  was  one  of  their  distin- 
^ishing  and  aniqae  characteristics. 

Leaving  La  Crosse,  they  came  on  northward  to  8t.  Faol, 
then  a  strai^ling  village  at  the  bead  of  navigation,  where 
they  were  to  found  their  permanent  center  of  missionary 
work.  This  was  forty-eight  years  ago.  Tbe  population  of  St. 
Paul  wa«,  even  then,  roost  cosmopolitan  in  its  make-up.  This 
was  the  distributing  point  for  the  whole  interior  and  the  point 
from  which  the  far  away  settler  in  Rupert's  Land  obtained  his 
supplies  and  carried  th«n  back  over  the  hundreds  of  miles 
of  prairie  in  bis  primitive  cart  to  his  home  on  the  border  of 
the  Red  river  of  the  Korth.  A  few  years  afterward,  the  Eng- 
lish traveller,  Ijaurcnce  Oliphant,  de8cril>ed  in  vivid,  if  not  in 
flattering  terms,  the  condition  of  life  then  existing  in  St.  Paul. 
He  wrote; 

Aa  tbe  Territory  ts  only  six  years  old,  all  here  are  strangers  and 
adventurers;  and  tbe  most  confused  Babel  of  languages  greets  our 
ears  as  we  stroll  along.  Of  course,  the  Anglo-Saxon  language,  In  Its 
varied  modifications  of  Yankee,  English.  Scotch,  and  Irish,  prevails; 


MiaBIONB  OF  PARK  Pt^CB,  ST.  PAUL.  199 

but  tbere  is  plenty  of  (cood  FrencH,  and  the  Toyageiir  palott,  Chippewa 
or  Slonx,  Oerman,  Datch,  and  Norw^an,  The  poseeasora  of  these 
dtreni  tongues  afe,  however,  all  yeTf  Industrious  and  prosperous,  and 
Bappy  In  the  antlcipatton  of  fortnne-maklng.  Joining  ourselres  to 
some  of  these,  we  may  enter  with  them  a  bowling- saloon,  as  these 
afford  great  opportunities  for  obserrlng  the  manners  and  customs  of 
the  iDhabltants.  The  ronghest  cbancters  from  all  parts  of  the  West, 
between  tbe  Hlsstsstppl  and  the  Pacific,  collect  here,  and  from  morn- 
ing till  ntght.  sbouts  of  hoarse  laughter,  extraordinary  and  compli- 
cated Imprecations,  the  shrlU  cries  of  tbR  boy  markers  calling  the 
game,  and  tbe  booming  of  the  heavy  bowls,  are  strangely  intermingled, 
and  you  come  out  stunned  with  noise  and  half  blinded  wltb  tobacco 
smoke.  Borne  of  these  men  were  settlers  from  Pembina  and  the  Red 
lUrer  settlements.  They  come  down  to  Traverse  des  SIouz  witb  a 
long  caravan  of  carts,,  horses,  and  osen.  These  they  leave  here,  and 
take  steamer  to  St.  Paul  for  a  hundred  miles  down  the  St.  Peter,  and 
lay  In  their  luxuries  of  civilization,  and  those  necessaries  of  life 
which  are  unprocurable  in  their  remote  settlement.  They  were  Just 
starting  for  their  return  Jonmey  when  we  were  at  St.  Paul,  and  did 
not  eziiect  to  arrive  at  Pembina  for  a  month  or  six  weeks.  •  •  •  • 
The  country  through  which  tbey  pass  abounds  in  bitfalo,  but  It  is  also 
Infested  with  hostile  Sloax,  who  have  lately  been  particularly  esrnest 
lu  Ibeir  quest  for  white  scalps,  and  they  are  consequently  compelled 
to  raise  a  breastwork  for  protection  at  the  camping-ground  every 
night.  In  winter,  the  Jonrney  is  made  witb  dog  teams  and  inow-Bboes. 
Tbe  popu^tloB  npoB  tbe  Red  river  is  made  up  of  half-breeds,  buffalo 
banters,  and  Scotch  farmers,  besides  a  few  Indian  traders. 

Into  this  strange  and  composite  life  and  humanity,  these 
three  men,  bearing  the  mesBage  ot  peace  and  good  will,  en- 
tered. Bnrely  there  was  need  for  tbeir  message,  and  abundant 
opportunity  at  their  very  doors  for  the  preaching  of  right- 
eoasnesB,  and  the  gospel  of  an  nnivereal  brothertiood  in  Jesus 

Changes  were  going  rapidly  forward  in  this  new  land.  A 
conunonwealtb  was  coining  to  the  birth.  Tbe  transition  from 
the  wilderness  to  tbe  cultivated  farm  and  tidy  home  was  tak- 
ikg  place. 

Predrika  Bremer,  who,  as  the  gnest  of  Governor  Ramsey 
im  1850,  spent  some  time  in  St.  Paul,  thus  graphically  described 
the  steps  in  this  transition: 



The  tteee  fall  before  the  axe,  a  little  log  house  Is  erected  on  the 
skirts  of  the  forest  and  banks  of  the  river;  a  woman  stands  In  tha 
door  with  a  little  cbubb7  child  in  her  arms.  The  husband  baa  dug  op 
the  eartb  around  the  house,  and  planted  maize;  beyond,  graze  a  cou[rie 
of  fat  cows,  and  some  sheep  In  the  free,  unenclosed  meadowlaod.  On 
the  shelf  1b  a  Bible,  a  hymn  book,  and  some  other  religions  book.  A. 
little  further  off  stands  a  somewhat  larger  log  house,  where  a  dozen 
or  two  of  children—the  half  wild  offspring  of  the  wilderness— are  as- 
sembled. This  is  the  school.  The  room  Is  poor,  without  furniture,  bat 
the  walls  are  covered  with  maps  of  all  parts  of  the  globe.  Anon  other 
houses  spring  up,  some  of  framed  timber,  some  of  stone;  they  l>ecome 
more  and  more  ornamental;  they  surround  themselves  with  fruit 
trees  and  flowers.  Tou  see  a  chapel  of  wood  arising  at  the  same  time 
with  the  wooden  houses;  but  when  the  stone  house  comes,  then  comes 
the  stone  church  and  the  State  House.  The  fields  around  are  covered 
with  barvests;  flocks  and  herds  Increase.  Motherly  women  Institnte 
Sunday  Schools  in  the  church,  and  assemble  the  little  children  to  In- 
struct them  In  Christianity,  and  establish  an  asylum  for  orphaned  lit- 
tle ones. 

The  scene  depicted  herein  is  a  trne  photograph  of  the 
evolving  condition  of  a  new  State,  and  baa  been  reproduced 
again  and  again  in  all  our  great,  new  West.  It  is  the  connter- 
balancing  picture  to  that  presented  by  the  English  traveller. 

Breck  and  bis  companionB,  npon  their  arrival,  pitched  a 
Sibley  tent  on  the  blnff  near  the  comer  of  what  is  now  Sum- 
mit avenue  and  St.  Peter  street,  in  which  the;  lived  until  the 
completion  of  a  small  house,  twelve  by  sixteen  feet  in  size. 
The  domestic  duties  of  this  little  home  were  performed  by 
some  one  or  mtwe  of  the  pari?  in  torn. 

A  youth,  tbe  present  Rev.  T.  J.  Holcombe.  of  New  York, 
who  was  tbe  original  student  of  the  Dioc^uin  Theological 
Seminary,  in  a  series  of  interesting  reminiscences  recently 
published,  gave  some  vivid  pen  pictures  of  the  experiences  of 
these  pioneer  missionaries.  He  wrote:  "From  the  first  all 
domestic  duties  were  looked  after  chiefly  by  Mr.  Wilcoxson 
and  myself.  He  did  the  cooking,  and  the  washing  fell  to  my 
lot,  as  I  was  tiie  only  experienced  hand.  I  bad  learned  the 
trade  at  Nashotah,  having  there  served  on  tbe  washing  com- 
mittee, with  other  diatingnished  men,  for  tbe  best  part  of.  a 



year.  Dr.  Breck  occasionall;  asaUted  at  the  wash  tub,  but 
be  coDld  not  iroD  a  collar  or  ebirt  to  Bare  bim." 

On  the  date  of  tbeir  arrival  in  8t  Paul,  the  Rev.  E.  O.  Gear, 
who  was  then  the  chaplain  at  Fort  Bnelling,  was  the  onlj 
clergyioan  of  the  Episcopal  Church  in  the  Territory.  Prior 
to  their  arriral  be  had  held  occasional  Bervices  in  the  town. 
The  Roman  Catholics  bad  some  time  before  erected  a  email 
chapel  dedicated  to  Bt.  Paul ;  and  Rev.  Edward  D.  Neill  (clarum 
et  Tenerabile  nomen)  had  also  bnilt  a  Presbyterian  church  on 
the  comer  of  Third  and  St.  Peter  streets.  The  Methodists 
the  year  preceding  had  completed  a  small  brick  chapel  on 
Market  street,  which  is  still  standing.  The  Baptists  bad  or- 
ganized, but  bad  not  completed  a  house  of  worship. 

Dr.  Breck,  with  a  wise  fai^sightedness,  recognized  the  ad- 
vantages of  Bt.  Panl's  location,  and  prophesied  its  futare,  and 
proceeded  to  secure  property  for  his  Church.  By  enlisting, 
through  correspondence,  the  interest  of  a  few  friends  in  the 
East,  he  succeeded  in  procuring  means  for  purchasing  a  site 
for  the  future  Christ  Church,  and  also  real  estate  as  a  fonndar 
tion  for  general  church  work  in  the  Territory.  The  first  pur- 
chase for  this  purpose  was  two  acres  of  land,  which  now  form 
the  easterly  part  of  Park  Place  Addition  to  Bt.  Paul.  This 
was  conveyed  by  YetalGuerinand  wife  to  James  Lloyd  Breck 
by  deed  dated  July  2nd,  1850,  for  a  consideration  of  $100. 
Very  soon  afterwards  another  parcbase  was  made  of  Yetal 
Goerin  of  one  acre  adjoining  the  first  purchase  on  the  west, 
for  a  consideration  of  f  50.  The  following  year  the  Rev.  Dr. 
Gear  purchased  for  $50,  and  gave  to  the  mission,  one  acre 
next  west  of  tbeir  former  purchase.  About  the  »arae  time 
Dr.  Breck  secured  from  John  R.  Irvine,  for  $100,  two  acres 
next  west  of  the  above.  These  six  acres  were  long  known  aa 
the  Episcopal  Mission  Gronnds,  but  were  later  platted  as 
Park  Place  Addition.  Afterward  Dr.  Breck  secured  of  Mr. 
Irvine  a  tot  facing  on  Bice  street  and  running  back  to  the 
line  of  property  already  secured. 

You  can  see  at  once  that  there  was  thus  secured  a  very 
valnable  foundation  in  real  estate  for  the  Church,  and  this  at 
almost  a  nominal  price.    For  some  time  it  was  occupied  solely 



by  the  ABBOciate  Mitreiou ;  bnt  afterward  some  of  the  ground 
was  leaded  and  a  hotel  erected  thereon,  known  as  the  Park 
Place,  which  was  destroyed  by  Are  in  1874.  Later  the  corpo- 
ration which  held  the  propertv-  donated  aa  ample  tract  in  its 
center  for  a  pnblic  park,  on  condition  that  the  city  wonld  im- 
prove, preserve,  and  adorn  it.  I  am  sorry  to  say  that  this  con- 
dition haa  not  been  satisfactorily  fulfilled.  In  1880  heavy  bm- 
eessments,  required  by  extensive  street  improvements,  made 
it  necessary  to  dispose  of  a  portion  of  this  land.  With  the 
money  accruing  from  these  'sales  a  certain  namber  of  the  re- 
maining lots  were  improved,  by  the  erection  of  dwelling 

The  income  from  this  property  is  used  for  the  support  of 
the  episcopate  in  the  Dioceee  of  Minnesota.  In  1890  a  net 
ineome  of  over  (4,000  per  year  was  realized,  but  the  falling  of 
rentals  of  late  years  has  reduced  this  aiuoant  more  than  one- 
half.  The  property,  as  the  most  casual  observer  can  see,  is 
well  and  pleasantly  located,  and  will,  in  time,  be  of  great  valae 
to  the  Episcopal  Chnrcb  in  the  state. 

It  is  a  fine  illuBtration  of  the  wisdom  of  securing  property 
in  the  earliest  days  of  a  city  or  village.  This  property,  which 
in  1850  cost  not  more  than  $500,  is  now  valued  at  $75,000.  It 
has  always  been  wisely  administered  by  a  board  called  the 
Minnesota  Church  Foundation,  which  has  numbered  among 
its  members  such  men  as  Bishop  Whipple,  General  Sibley, 
Col.  D.  A.  Robertson,  William  Dawson,  and  Harvey  OfQcer,  of 
St.  Paul;  Judge  Wilder,  of  Bed  Wing;  and  Judge  Atwater 
and  Henry  T.  Welles,  of  Minneapolis. 

,  To  return  to  our  pioneer  missionaries  and  their  life  under 
the  oaks  of  the  future  Park  Place.  We  have  already  given 
one  glimpse  of  that  primitive  household;  let  us  glance  again 
and  note  some  other  incidents  of  that  earlier  day.  Mr,  Hol- 
combe  was  the  only  student  of  that  theological  seminary,  but 
the  rules  and  regulations  were  the  same  as  if  there  had  been 
twenty.  The  household  retired  at  ten  o'clock  and  rose  at  five. 
As  Mr.  Holcombe  humorously  puts  it:  "The  first  roll  call 
was  made  from  the  region  of  Dr.  Breck's  comer,  and  waa 
answered  readily,  as  we  each  had  a  cot  in  the  same  Gothic 



roofed  chamber,  and  so  were  witbin  easy  hearing  distance. 
The  second  call  was  at  six  o'clock  to  momiag  prayer,  a  full 
aerrlce;  then  breakfast  according  to  Wilcoxson,  which,  be- 
caase  of  his  inexperience,  was  not  always  a  snccess.  The 
faculty  met  once  a  month,  or  as  the  exigencies  of  tie  occasion 
might  reqnire.  As  a  hen  scratches  as  diligently  for  one  chick 
as  for  ten,  so  one  stadent  will  sometimes  try  a  faculty  more 
than  a  fall  contingent." 

It  wa4  in  these  simple,  yet  potential  duties,  that  those 
early  missionaries  labored.  It  was  the  day  of  the  laying  of 
foondations,  and  they  were  caref al  to  lay  them  well ;  yet  the 
demands  of  petty  detail  is  no  wise  absorbed  their  attention 
or  time  to  the  exclusion  of  other  and  larger  work.  It  is  the 
mark  of  a  truly  great  mind  to  strike  a  true  balance  between 
near  and  remote  duties,  to  never  allow  the  view  of  the  hillock, 
at  his  own  door,  to  obscure  the  higher  and  vaster  mountain 
ranges  beyond. 

These  men  bad  come  to  this  new  land  to  plant  their  Church, 
to  spread  the  tidings  of  the  gospel  near  and  far,  to  minister 
to  the  few  scattered  over  the  prairies,  and  in  the  hamlets  of 
the  country  round.  Park  Place  and  its  little  mission  house  was 
virtually  a  point  of  depari:ure,  as  well  as  a  haven  of  refuge 
and  rest  on  the  return.  Here  they  planned  their  campaign, 
and  here  together  they  related  their  individual  experiences  on 
their  missionary  journeys,  and  took  sweet  counsel  one  with 

The  Episcopal  Church  in  Minnesota  was  bom  in  that  little 
Gothic  structure,  and  from  thence  it  has  spread  over  the  whole 
extent  of  the  state.  Like  the  early  missionaries  of  the  cross, 
th^  were  without  "purse  or  scrip,"  and  lived  with  extreme 
abstemiousness  and  simplicity.  The  Mission  was  unable  to 
ke^  a  horse,  much  less  to  support  one,  consequently  their 
journeys  were  all  made  on  foot  Cheerfully  and  uncomplain- 
ingly they  traversed  in  this  way  prairies  and  forest  lands. 
Missions  were  established  within  the  year  at  the  Falls  of  St. 
Anthony,  Stillwater,  Willow  Biver  (now  Hudson),  Prairie  La 
Crosse,  Cottage  Orove,  Marine  Mills,  and  Sank  Bapids.  With 
two  or  three  exceptions,  these  were  the  only  settlements  in 



the  Territory.  General  Sibley  and  Henry  M.  Rice  were  living 
at  Mendota,  and  there  waa  a  trading  post  at  Traverse  des 
Sioux  on  the  Minnesota  river,  near  the  present  site  of  St.  Peter. 

Pictnre  to  yoorselvee  these  men  of  God,  going  on  foot 
through  a  country,  virtually  a  wilderness,  to  Sank  Rapids, 
seventy  miles  to  the  north,  and  to  La  Crosse,  one  hundred  and 
twenty  miles  to  the  sonth.  Neither  summer's  heat  nor  win- 
ter's cold  and  storms  dismayed  them.  Dnty  called  and  they 
obeyed.  Bach  a  life  was  little  understood  by  the  men  of  that 
day,  who  had  come  to  this  new  land  simply  to  win  a  worldly 
future.  Some  at  first  scoffed,  but  soon  silent  admiration  and 
respect  prevailed.  Men  might  not  imitate  such  sublime  devo- 
tion and  self-sacriflce  for  spiritual  things,  but  they  conld  honor 
the  high  spirit  which  prompted  it  A  simple  incident  illus- 
trates the  devout  purpose  of  the  head  of  the  mission,  and  the 
consciousness  of  his  responsibility  to  others. 

On  his  way  to  one  of  the  stations  he  came  to  a  stream. 
There  was  no  bridge.  It  was  already  late  in  the  season,  and 
the  chill  of  the  autnmnaJ  air  warned  of  the  danger  of  fording 
the  stream  barefoot.  A  stage-coach,  by  chance,  was  passing 
that  way,  and  the  driver,  recognizing  the  clerical  dress,  kindly 
invited  the  traveller  to  ride.  The  passengers  pressed  him. 
To  their  surprise  he  declined  the  offer,  and,  removing  his 
boots  and  stockings,  be  waded  the  stream  and  pursued  his 
journey,  reaching  the  village  at  the  hour  appointed  for  service. 
Pew  could  understand  this.  Bnt  it  was  done  as  a  rule  of  daily 
life,  and  an  act  of  self-discipline,  a  relaxation  of  which  wonld 
have  tended  to  unfit  him  for  his  severe  manner  of  life. 

These  missionaries'  jonmeys  at  times  (to  quote  the  language 
of  our  diocesan  historian)  lay  through  the  wildest  woods  and 
over  the  bare  rolling  'prairies,  where  the  cabin  of  the  settler 
appeared  only  at  a  distance  of  ten  or  fifteen  miles.  The  mis- 
sionaries had  all  the  experiences  of  a  frontiersman  in  his  foot 
marches,  and  in  his  coarse  diet,  and  in  the  exposed  sleeping 
apartments.  The  journeys  on  foot  not  infrequently  extended 
into  late  hours  in  the  night,  and  through  parts  where  all  was 
solitary,  save  to  the  wild  beast,  which  at  any  moment  might  be 
roused  from  his  lair  to  the  great  discomfltnre  of  the  traveller. 


H18SI0K8  OP  PARK  PLACE,  ST,  PAUI*  191 

Tbe  bage  black  bear  and  tbe  wolverine  were  common  to  the 
forests  of  the  St.  Croix;  and  many  a  sharp  and  shrill  cry  of 
surprise  aroee  from  deep  dell  and  towering  tree  on  the  ap- 
proach of  hnman  footBteps.  At  times  the  way  was  lost,  and 
sometimes  not  fonnd  before  the  next  morning.  Two  mission- 
aries passed,  after  this  manner,  a  night  in  the  open  air,  and 
were  drenched  before  morning  by  the  falling  rain  of  a  thunder 
storm.  On  another  occasion  a  missionary,  lost  in  tbe  thickets, 
wandered  abont  in  fmitless  search  alt  the  day,  and  at  sun- 
setting  emerged  at  tbe  same  place  where  he  had  entered  early 
in  the  morning. 

Many  were  the  experiences  of  so  new  a  country.  In  the 
spring  and  summer,  streams  broad  and  deep  must  be  waded, 
in  the  winter  they  could  be  crossed  on  the  ice;  but  then  the 
snow  had  filled  up  tbe  trail,  and  tbe  missionary,  as  a  foot 
traveller,  was  subjected  to  continnons  plunges,  up  to  his  waist, 
in  the  snow  drifts,  which  he  must  contend  with  for  twelve 
miles  together,  after  his  morning  service,  in  order  to  meet  his 
night  appointment.  Again  the  settler  was  not  always  mind- 
ful as  he  ought  to  be  of  the  comfort  of  Christ's  minister,  who 
came  to  preach  the  word  and  break  the  Bread  of  Life,  and  be 
would  be  left  to  satisfy  his  hunger  from  the  scant  contents 
of  his  knapsack;  and  one  occasion  is  recalled  wherein  he  waa 
left  in  the  log  schoolhonse  to  pass  the  night  alone,  and  it  was 
a  cold  one,  and  the  hard  oaken  bench  was  his  bed.  But  then 
tbe  welcome  home  to  the  mission  house  on  the  bluff  in  St.  Paul 
made  him  forget  that  he  had  been  neglected.  Had  there  been 
no  brother  to  ring  out  the  merry  peal  from  the  bell,  from  its 
Datnral  turret  in  the  oak  tree,  it  would  have  been  a  cheerless 
return.  But  the  fellow  laborer  and  sufferer  was  there,  the 
enthusiastic  young  Divinity  student  was  there;  and  above  all 
it  waa  home,  and  within  that  home  was  sympathy,  love,  and 

6oon  after  their  arrival  and  settlement  on  the  Mission 
Qrounds,  they  took  steps  to  organize  a  parish  and  hold  a 
church  service  in  St.  Paul.  A  meeting  of  citizens  was  called, 
a  vestry  organized,  numbering,  among  its  seven  members,  our 
own  honored  and  respected  townsman  still  with  us,  Hon.  E.  B. 



Kelson.  Oroond  was  secured,  and  in  December,  1850,  Christ 
Cbarcb  was  opened  for  Divine  service.  It  was  a  modest  edi- 
flee,  measaring  20  by  10  feet,  with  a  turret  and  chancel,  and 
was  sitaated  on  Cedar  street  between  Third  and  Fourth  streets. 
Man;  of  oor  older  citizens  will  recall  it.  Therein  were  bap- 
tized their  children,  and  from  it  were  carried  their  dead.  Dr. 
Breck  became  its  first  rector,  to  be  succeeded  in  1863  b;  his 
associate,  Bev.  Timothy  Wilcozson.  Two  prominent  names  of 
clergymen  are  auoclated  with  this  Mother  Parish  of  the  Dio- 
cese of  Minnesota,  Bev.  Dr.  Van  lugen  and  Bev.  Dr.  McMas- 
ters.  It  has  also  had  connected  with  its  history  aooae  of  the 
most  honored  and  influential  citizens  of  our  city.  Churches 
were  erected  also  the  following  year  in  St.  Anthony  and  in 

The  first  visit  of  Jackson  Kemper,  the  missionary  bishop 
of  the  Northwest,  whose  home  was  at  Mashotah,  in  Wisconsin, 
is  thus  pleasantly  and  vividly  described  by  one  who  knew 

At  last  tbe  expected  6&j  dawned,  and,  ere  lbs  close,  the  Tenerable 
mlsalonary  bishop  was  welcomed  by  the  ringing  ol  the  mlssloD  bell. 
hung  In  the  bougha  of  an  aged  oak.  The  distant  whistle  of  the  steamer 
had  brought  nearly  the  whole  motley  population  to  the  levee.  Anon 
the  signal  Is  given,  a  moment  of  stUlneBS  follows,  the  engines  are  re- 
versed, the  boat  rises  and  falls,  there  U  a  mlogled  confusion  of  cllcklog 
and  splashing  and  hurrying,  and  she  moves  Into  her  mooring  under 
the  bnrden  of  boxes  and  bales,  the  hawser  Is  cast,  the  gang  plank  grates 
along  tbe  sand,  and  a  man  with  the  dress  and  mien  betokening  his 
commission  Is  met  by  one  whose  tall  form  and  priestly  appearance  dis- 
tinguish him  amid  tbe  careless  Jostling  crowd  on  the  shore.  Greetlnga 
follow  and  tbe  bishop  Is  escorted  to  the  mission  house,  where  due 
preparation  awaits  hlB  expected  arrival.  Wednesday  Is  the  day  noted 
in  the  diary  of  tbe  bishop,  a  July  dny,  when  the  days  are  at  their  brlght- 
esl,  ere  the  foliage  hae  been  blighted  by  heated  winds  over  acres  of 
upturned  loam. 

There  was  then  but  a  bridle  path,  or  the  wheels  of  an  occasional 
cart  had  merely  worn  away  the  turf,  where  now  four  streams  of  com- 
merce are  parted.  A  year  and  upwards  had  passed.  Tbe  well  kept  gar- 
den, the  enclosure,  the  walks,  and  the  grosBy  lawn,  were  silent  wit- 
nesses of  the  care  of  busy  hands.  Each  gable  seemed  expectant  of  some 
distinguished  visitant  Tbe  diamond-ahaped  windows  were  transparent, 
a«  was   meet  for  such  an  occasion.    The  cot   In  each   corner  of  the 



attfc,  the  floors,  the  anon-white  Unen,  the  utensUB  In  the  kitchen,  all 
bespoke  the  ranltlees  bousekeepliiK  of  the  brothers.  Morning  prayer 
Iiad.  been  aalil,  the  lltanj  bonr  had  alreaay  passed.  The  day  was  now 
drawing  to  Its  close.  In  the  Uttle  schoolroom  tbe  weary  lad  bad 
yawned  for  the  last  time  over  tbe  blurred  sentence.  Evening  prayer 
was  said;  the  blahop  gave  bis  absolution  to  the  kneeling  household, 
after  the  evening  bell,  the  Angelns  of   the   neighborhood;   and  .each 

At  the  "sweet  hoar  of  praise"  the  Holy  Eucharist  was  consecrated; 
It  was  Thursday,  tbe  day  then  and  long  afterwards  observed  by  an 
early  weekly  communion.  Later  came,  at  tbe  "third  hour,"  morning 
prayer;  then  each  member  of  the  household  went  forth  to  his  duty; 
and  as  the  shadows  lengthened  the  evening  prayer  shut  the  day.  Thus 
fonr  days  [tassed  with  tbelr  changing  seasons  of  duty  and  devotion. 
The  twentieth  of  July  was  Sunday,  the  ideal  Sunday  of  George  Herbert, 
a  day  full  of  interest  to  tbe  church  fold  In  tbe  consecration  of  tbelr 
first  bouse  of  prayer,  named  after  the  Master,  Christ  Church. 

This  is  almost  an  idyllic  picture,  but  it  is  a  faithful  por- 
traiture of  the  simple  sauctity  of  the  life  at  the  Mission,  and 
of  the  experiences  of  a  pioneer  bishop. 

The  Associate  Missiou  continued  until  1852,  when  it  was 
disBolved.  The  work  entered  upon  another  stage.  Parochial 
clergy  began  to  arrive.  The  work  of  the  embryo  theological 
school  was  merged  into  that  of  the  older  institution  at  Nasho- 
tab,  and  the  members  of  the  mission  entered  upon  other  work. 
Bev.  J.  A.  Merrick,  for  reasons  of  health,  sought  a  milder 
climate;  and  Bev.  Mr.  Wilcoxsou,  as  above  stated,  became  the 
rector  of  Christ  Church.  Breck,  the  leading  spirit  and  head, 
with  that  ever  venturesome  and  apostolic  spirit,  which  was 
his  marked  characteristic,  turned  his  face  northward,  pene- 
trated tbe  wilderness  two  hundred  miles,  and  began,  at  GuJl 
lake,  a  mission  among  the  Ojibways. 

It  falls  not  within  tbe  scope  of  this  paper  to  follow  in  detail 
the  careers  of  these  courageous  souls.  We  may  note,  how- 
ever, that  the  Bev.  Mr.  Wilcoxson,  after  two  years'  successful 
charge  of  Christ  Church,  resigning  his  care,  threw  himself 
with  ardor  into  the  more  congenial  work  of  the  itinerant  mis- 
sionary, and  for  years  gave  himself  unreservedly  to  it,  during 
which  time  he  was  the  rector  of  8t  Luke's  Church,  Hastings; 
until  at  last,  broken  in  health  by  the  hardship  and  exposures. 



he  retired  to  his  native  state  of  Connecticat,  where  he  entered 
into  the  rest  of  Paradise  in  1884.  His  widow,  full  of  years, 
loved  and  honored  by  all  who  are  privileged  to  know  her, 
abides  with  ns  stitt,  and  tetls,  with  never  flagging  interest  to 
listeners,  the  fascinating  story  of  these  early  pioneer  times, 
when  "all  the  world  was  young." 

The  story  of  the  experiences  of  James  Lloyd  Breck,  after 
leaving  St.  Paul,  is  fnll  of  romance  and  pathos,  of  devoted 
labors  and  never  waning  zeal,  of  high  purpose  and  wise  foun- 
dation laying,  which  have  made  his  name  the  synonym  of  the 
ideal  missionary  to  the  whole  American  Chnrcb. 

Building  by  the  shining  water  of  Gull  lake  a  little  chapel, 
which  he  called  St.  Columba,  after  the  pioneer  missionary  of 
Scotland  and  northern  Britain,  be  gathered  around  him  a  band 
of  Christian  Indians,  who  looked  up  to  him  as  a  father  and  a 
heavenly  gnide.  Soon  turning  this  work  over  to  other  hands, 
his  restless  energy  carried  bim  still  farther  into  the  northern 
wilderness,  and  again  he  became  the  founder  and  head  of  a 
mission  among  the  Ojibways  on  Leech  lake.  Great  success 
attended  him.  The  little  church  was  filled  with  worshippers, 
children  of  the  forest  gathered  in  his  school,  the  seed  was 
planted,  it  was  taking  root  and  promising  a  bountiful  return, 
when  disaster  fell  upon  him  and  the  mission. 

Crazed  by  the  "Are  water,"  which  in  those  lawless  days 
the  white  man  dealt  out  unstintingly  to  the  Indian,  the 
heathen  Indians,  of  the  Pillager  band,  drove  this  man  of  peace 
and  of  God  away  from  their  midst,  destroyed  the  mission 
buildings,  and  frightened  into  silence  and  seclusion  the  few 
faithful  natives  who  had  declared  themselves  Christians.  It 
was  not  until  seventeen  years  afterward  that  this  work  was 
revived,  when  it  was  found  that  many  had  retained  their  faith, 
and  ever  prayed  for  the  return  of  the  messenger  of  the  Prince 
of  Peace. 

■Undismayed,  recognizing  in  this  trying  dispensation  the 
leading  of  God's  hands  into  other  fields  of  wMk,  he  went 
southward  to  Faribauit  Here  he  laid  the  foundation  of  the 
noble  educational  work  upon  which  Bishop  Whipple  has  so 
wisely  and  successfully  builded. 

Digitized  .yGOOgle 


After  nine  years  of  remarkable  work,  the  voice  of  God 
seemed  ooce  more  to  call  him  to  again  lay  fonndationB.  Leav- 
ing Faribault,  be  croBsed  the  continent  in  1867,  and  at  Benicia 
in  California,  at  the  head  of  another  Associate  Misuon,  mod-  . 
elled  after  the  one  with  which  he  began  in  St.  Paul  in  1850, 
he  laid  the  foandations  of  a  college  and  theological  seminary. 
Here  on  the  outermost  border  of  his  native  land,  by  the 
shores  of  the  great  western  sea,  worn  ont  by  cares  and  labors, 
be  passed  into  a  well  won  rest  in  the  bosom  of  Ood. 

Last  October,  I  stood  underneath  the  oaiu,  and  by  the 
crystal  lakes  of  sylvan  Nashotab,  and  with  bowed  head,  wit- 
nessed the  reinterment  of  all  that  was  mortal  of  this  saint  and 
confessor  of  the  nineteenth  centnry,  this  apostolic  missionary, 
this  true  soldier  of  the  cross,  James  Lloyd  Breck.  The  story 
of  his  life  is  forever  inwrought,  not  only  into  the  history  of 
the  Protestant  Episcopal  Church  in  the  Northwest,  but  into 
the  history  of  its  civic  life  aa  well,  for  he  was  always  the 
harbinger  of  civilization  and  the  promoter  of  its  truest  weat. 

I  have  thought  it  best  to  give  In  ontline  the  stoiy  of  this 
unique  life  as  a  ranall  contribution  to  the  history  of  this  State, 
which,  throngh  this  noble  society,  is  striving  to  enshrine  and 
perpetuate  the  lives  of  its  heroes  and  founders. 

I  have  endeavored  to  bring  before  you  the  beginnings  of 
the  Episcopal  Church  in  Minnesota,  with  the  setting  in  which 
these  beginnings  were  framed,  and  with  some  of  the  flgnres 
standing  oot  more  prominently  in  that  picture. 

Up  to  the  year  1850  the  Church  had  never  before  entered 
a  Territory  so  young  and  so  completely  a  wilderness  as  waa 
this,  in  the  literal  sense  of  the  word.  There  were  only  three 
villages  throughont  an  area  greater  than  New  York  and  all 
New  England.  The  number  of  communicants  was  fifteen,  of 
whom  six  belonged  in  8t  Paul.  Only  a  narrow  strip  of  land, 
eighteen  miles  wide  and  one  hundred  and  fifty  in  length,  had 
yet  been  ceded  by  the  red  man  to  the  United  States.  The 
missionaries,  when  they  pitched  their  tents  on  the  high  bluffs 
of  Bt.  Paul,  conld  look  beyond  the  Mississippi  river  and  see  the 
aborigines  in  their  wigwams  and  wild  attire.  The  country 
was  a  fairy  land,  but  nature  could  tell  of  dark  deeds  of  vio- 



]ence,  and  ae  late  as  1850  Stillwater  witnessed  a  scalp  dance. 
There  was  wisdom  in  entering  the  land  thus  early.  The  Epis- 
copal Church  has  reaped  the  benefits  of  this  policy,  in  the 
after  history  of  the  Diocese  of  Minnesota.  The  chnrch  ia 
relatively  stronger  here  than  in  any  of  the  other  states  in  the 
whole  Mississippi  valley.  While  she  has  not  become,  by  any 
means,  the  largest  in  numbers  of  any  of  the  Christian  bodies, 
owing  largely  to  a  population  natarally  unsympathetic  with 
her  methods  of  worsliip,  yet  I  think  I  may  confidently  affirm 
that  she  has  won  a  first  place  tu  the  respect  and  confidence  of 
the  people  of  the  state.  The  men  who  laid  her  fonndations 
were  men  of  large  heart,  catholic  spirit,  and  far  reaching  tI^od. 
The  intense  earnestness  and  sincerity  of  these  men  left  npon 
the  population,  who  believed  in  reality  and  not  in  shams  or 
show,  a  lasting  and  honorable  impression.  For  nearly  half  a 
century  she  has  stood  for  the  Vincentian  formala,  '^n  essen- 
tials unity,  in  unessentials  liberty,  in  all  things  charity." 

But  it  is  not  my  province  to-night  to  laud  the  Episcopal 
Church.  Its  history  is  not  concealed.  It  speaks  for  itself. 
It  has  been  my  simple  privilege  to  be  a  "relator  temporis  acti." 
The  providence  of  God  watched  over  the  wort  of  its  early 
founders,  and  will,  I  trust,  still  continue  its  beneficent  mission. 
We  are  refreshed  by  quaJBng  the  sparkling  water  in  the  clear 
fountain  at  the  soarce  of  the  stream.  May  I  venture'to  hope 
that  in  a  measure  at  least  we  have  been  so  refreshed  to-night. 




Ladies  and  Gentlemen:  I  bare  always  supposed  that  tbe 
t^timate  proTince  of  a  historical  society  is  to  record  and 
preserve  past  and  current  history;  and,  so  believing,  I  feel  as 
if  I  were  perpetrating  a  wrong  in  offering  to  yon  this  evening 
the  collection  of  anecdotes,  Jokes,  and  frivoloos  sayings  and 
doings  that  I  have  strung  together  in  this  paper.  My  only  ex- 
cuse is,  that  it  was  not  originally  prepared  for  this  digni&ed 
body,  but  for  the  amusement  of  a  much  lighter  audience,  and 
that  it  does  contain  some  matters  relating  to  onr  early  days, 
although  of  a  character  that  can  hardly  be  brought  under 
tbe  designation  of  history.  I  never  made  any  pretense  to  be- 
ing a  historian;  but  much  is  expected  of  a  western  man,  and 
he  'm  never  justified  in  declining  to  do  anything  that  tbe  emer- 
gencies of  tbe  situation  demand  of  bim.  To  give  you  an  illus- 
tration of  what  appalling  straits  he  is  sometimes  driven  to: 
Once,  in  tbe  very  early  dawn  of  civilization  on  our  frontier,  I 
had  the  hardihood  to  get  up  a  thanksgiving  celebration,  the 
principal  part  of  tbe  programme  being  a  sermon  from  a  neigh- 
boring missionary.  For  some  reason,  he  failed  to  put  in  an 
appearance,  and  1  was  compelled  to  do  the  preaching  myself. 
As  my  audience  was  easily  imposed  upon  in  the  article  of 
sermons,  I  succeeded  quite  creditably. 


I  thought  at  first  of  chatting  about  the  early  days  of  St. 
Paul,  and  relating  some  of  the  many  anecdotes  which  exist 
about  our  pioneer  residents;  but,  on  reflection,  recalling  what 

•Read  before  tbe  Society.  April  25,  1S68. 



my  old  friend,  Joe  Rolette,  once  said,  "If  these  old  settlers  ever 
collide  witb  me,  I'll  write  a  book,"  I  deemed  it  delicate  gronnd 
to  tread  upon,  althongli  extremely  fertile  in  fnn  and  amosing 
incidents,  as  we  had  a  most  cnrions  agglomeration  of  interest^ 
ing  characters  here  in  the  early  times.  I  may,  however,  men- 
tion some  without  treading  on  any  one's  toes. 

There  was  a  Scotch  gentleman  here,  whom  1  knew  very 
well,  who  seemed  to  have  plenty  of  means  to  gratify  all  bis 
whims.  He  had  the  reputation  of  having  once  been  a  minister 
of  the  gospel, — what  he  was  doing  here  no  one  seemed  to 
know  definitely, — and,  as  was  asnal  in  those  days,  no  one 
cared  very  mnch.  After  living  here  some  time  he  conceived 
the  idea  of  going  over  to  the  Pacific  conntry  by  way  of  British 
Colnmbia;  his  objective  point  may  have  been  the  Fraser  river 
gold  diggings,  but  I  forget.  He  fitted  out  a  party,  and  when 
in  the  wilds  of  the  north  conntry  he  became  frozen  in  and  waa 
compelled  to  spend  a  long  winter  in  camp;  provisions  soon 
gave  out  and  the  party  were  compelled  to  eat  their  pack 
animals  for  support  My  friend  selected  a  fat  young  mule  for 
his  especial  eating,  and  allowed  no  one  to  share  it  with  him. 
In  the  course  of  the  winter  he  consumed  the  whole  animal. 
He  preserved  one  of  its  dainty  hoofs,  and  when  he  got  back 
to  civilization  be  had  it  beautifully  polished  and  a  silver  shoe 
put  on  it,  and  always  at  his  meals  he  placed  it  by  the  side  of 
his  plate.  People  thought  it  was  a  salt  cellar,  or  some  article 
of  table  furniture,  but  when  asked  by  some  one  what  part  it 
played  in  his  menu,  he  would  relate  his  adventnre  and  say, 
that  he  had  eaten  bo  many  awfully  bad  dinners  out  of  that 
mule  that  he  always  kept  its  hoof  near  by  to  remind  him  of 
them  so  that  his  present  dinners  might  be  improved  by  con- 

He  was  very  fond  of  sherry,  and  could  not  get  just  what 
he  wanted  here,  so  he  sent  to  London  and  imported  an  im- 
mense hogshead  of  the  best  he  conld  purchase.  He  decanted 
it  into  large  demijohns,  and  placed  them  all  around  his  room. 
He  then  went  to  bed  and  never  left  it  until  we  carried  him  oat 
feet  foremost.  I  did  my  best  to  avert  this  calamity,  but  my 
powers  of  absorption  were  too  limited  to  get  away  with  the 
sherry  in  time. 

The  original  population  of  all  this  conntry  was  of  course 
the  Indians.    The  next  people  to  arrive  were  the  whites,  who 



were  either  traders  or  Boldiers,  and  in  referring  to  the  inhab- 
itants th^  were  always  designated  either  as  white  men  or 
Indians.  At  quite  an  early  period  an  oflQcer  of  the  arm;  from 
the  SoQth  was  stationed  at  Mackinac,  or  some  other  north- 
western post,  and  brought  with  him  two  black  servants, 
George  and  Jack  Bonga.  When  he  was  ordered  away,  these  ■ 
two  men  remained  behind  and  took  service  in  the  American 
Par  Company  as  voyagears.  They  married  into  the  Chippewa 
tribe,  and  George  became  quite  a  prominent  trader  and  a  man 
of  wealth  and  consequence.  I  was  his  gnest  for  two  weeks 
at  Leech  lake  just  forty-two  years  ago,  when  I  made  a  canoe 
voyage  to  the  source  of  the  Mississippi  He  was  a  thorough 
gentleman  in  both  feeling  and  deportment,  and  was  very 
anxions  to  contribute  to  my  pleasure  daring  my  stay  with 
him.  He  loved  to  dwell  npon  the  grandeur  of  the  chief  factors 
of  the  old  Fur  Company,  and,  to  show  me  how  royally  they 
travelled,  he  got  op  an  excursion  on  the  lake,  in  a  splendid 
birch  bark  canoe,  manned  by  twelve  men  who  paddled  to  the 
music  of  a  French  Canadian  boat  song,  led  by  himself.  George 
was  very  popular  with  the  whites,  and  loved  to  relate  to  the 
newcomers  his  adventures.  He  was  about  the  blackest  man 
I  ever  saw,  so  black  that  his  skin  fairly  glistened,  but  was, 
excepting  his  brother  Jack,  the  only  black  person  in  the  coun- 
try. Never  having  heard  of  any  distinction  between  the  peo- 
ple bnt  that  of  Indians  and  white  men,  he  would  frequently 
paralyze  his  bearers  when  reminiscing  by  saying,  "Gentlemen, 
I  assure  yoa  that  John  Banfll  and  myself  were  the  first  two 
white  men  that  ever  came  into  this  country." 


I  am  rather  inclined  to  think  that  in  the  early  days  we  had 
a  good  deal  more  fun  than  we  do  now,  but  perhaps  our  pleas- 
ures were  not  curbed  with  the  same  bit  as  they  are  at  present. 
The  early  settlers  brought  out  with  them  the  old  fashioned 
way  of  celebrating  New  Tear's  day,  and  when  that  event  oc- 
curred, the  whole  town  was  alive  with  sport.  Everybody 
kept  open  boose  and  expected  everyt>ody  else  to  call  and  see 
them.  No  vehicle  that  could  carry  a  party  was  allowed  to 
remain  idle,  and  from  morning  until  late  in  the  night  the  entire 
male  population  was  on  the  move.  The  principal  houses  were 
those  of  the  Bamseys,  the  Gormans,  the  Borups,  the  Oakeses, 



the  WarreoB,  the  Cozes,  the  Bobertsons,  and  the  Bicefl.  Tlie 
Beverend  Dr.  Andrew  Bell  Paterson,  rector  of  St  Paul's 
Church,  lived  oot  where  Hamm's  brewery  now  stands.  Mrs. 
Goodhne,  widow  of  MinueBota's  first  editor,  lived  on  the  west 
side,  aboot  opposite  the  foot  of  Jackson  street,  and  there  were 
many  others  well  worthy  of  mention  who  now  escape  me.  We 
also  had  Fort  Snelling,  with  its  Old  School  Army  olBcers, 
famons  for  their  coartesy  and  hospitality,  and  the  delightfal 
honsehold  of  Franklin  Steele,  the  sutler;  and  there  was  Henry 
H.  Sibley,  at  Mendota,  to  whom  the  finest  amenities  of  life 
were  a  creed:  all  of  whom  assisted  on  New  Year's  day.  There 
was  great  strife  among  the  eotertainers  as  to  who  shonld  have 
the  most  elaborate  spread,  and  the  most  brilliant  and  attract- 
ive array  of  yonng  ladies  to  greet  the  gnests.  A  register  of 
the  callers  was  always  kept,  and  great  was  the  victory  of  the 
hostess  who  recorded  the  greatest  nomber. 

My  first  New  Year's  day  in  St  Paul  wa«  in  Janoary,  1854, 
forty-four  years  ago;  it  was  my  entr^  to  St.  Paol  society. 
Foor  of  us,  all  young  frisky  fellows,  started  oot  together  with 
a  good  team  and  made  one  hundred  and  fifty  calls  by  mid- 
night. The  party  was  composed  of  Mr.  Henry  L.  Moss,  Horace 
B,  Bigelow,  who  was  my  old  partner,  Mr.  Charles  H.  Mix, 
and  myself.  Whether  we  drank  at  every  fountain  that  gnshed 
for  us  on  that  day,  I  will  leave  to  the  imagination,  after  say- 
ing that  only  the  most  delightful  impressions  of  the  event 
linger  in  my  memory.  The  custom  died  out  only  a  dozen 
years  ago. 

While  speaking  of  New  Tear's  day,  I  must  not  forget  my 
first  New  Year's  day  among  the  Indians.  It  was  in  1857.  The 
Sioux  know  the  day  and  celebrate  it.  How  they  discovered 
It  1  am  unable  to  say,  but  probably  they  learned  it  from  the 
French  missionaries.  They  call  it  "Kissing  day."  I  was  the 
United  States  Agent  for  the  Sioux,  aud  was  detained  up  at 
the  Yellow  Medicine  river  for  some  reason,  1  forget  what  I 
was  informed  that  it  would  be  expected  of  me  to  give  all  the 
women  who  happened  to  be  about  the  Agency  a  present.  So 
I  had  several  barrels  of  gingerbread  baked,  and  purchased 
many  bolts  of  calico,  which  I  had  cut  up  into  dress  pieces, 
ready  for  delivery.  About  ten  in  the  forenoon  the  squaws  be- 
gan to  assemble  near  the  Agency,  and  I  seated  myself  in 
the  main  room  to  await  events.    At  first  tbey  were  shy  (I  was 



not  the  griszl;  old  fellow  then  that  I  am  now).  Boon  an  old 
v?a-kon-ka  came  sidling  ap  like  a  crab,  and  gaye  me  a  kiSB; 
then  came  another,  and  another,  nntil,  yonng  and  old,  I  bad 
kissed  and  been  kissed  by  forty-eight  sqnaws.  I  kept  an  ex- 
act tally,  especially  of  the  yonng  and  pretly  ones.  They  all 
got  their  gingerbread  and  dresees,  and  went  away  very  h^py; 
whether  their  joy  rested  wholly  on  the  cakes  and  calico,  I 
never  was  exactly  satisfied  in  my  own  mind.  So  yon  see  the 
civilised  and  the  savage  do  not  differ  very  much  in  their  meth- 
ods of  amneing  themselves.  It  is  a  serions  question  whether 
modern  innovations  will  be  an  improvement  over  the  past  in 
snch  matters. 


St.  Paul  from  its  earliest  settlement  was  a  social  phenom- 
enon. Onr  ideas  of  a  frontier  Mississippi  river  town  of  forty 
years  ago,  naturally  suggest  everything  but  culture,  refine- 
ment and  elegance;  yet  St  Paol  possessed  them  all  in  a  very 
marked  degree.  By  a  singularly  happy  combination  of  cir- 
cumstances, differing  absolutely  from  all  other  remote 
frontier  towns  that  I  know  of,  the  earliest  settlers,  who  gave 
the  place  its  social  tone  and  character,  were  cultivated  gentle- 
men and  ladies.  Dr.  Borup  was  a  Dane;  he  was  a  fine  musi- 
cian; he  had  a  charming  family;  he  erected  a  spacious  and, 
for  that  day,  elegant  mansion,  and  entertained  profnsely.  I 
have  attended  musical  soirees  at  his  house,  led  by  himself 
with  the  violin,  accompanied  by  two  grand  pianos  played  by 
members  of  bis  family. 

Mr.  William  Sitgreaves  Cox,  an  old  navy  officer,  was  a 
charming  gentleman,  at  the  head  of  one  of  the  most  interest- 
ing, cultivated  and  refined  families  it  was  ever  my  good  fortune 
to  become  acquainted  with.  One  of  his  daughters,  Miss  Hitty, 
was  so  accomplished  a  musician,  that  it  was  said  she  never 
played  anything  but  music  of  her  own  composition.  Another 
daughter,  Mrs.  Pope,  who  presided  in  bia  household,  used  to 
entertain  the  friends  of  the  family  at  grand  dinners  and  petita 
toupers,  that  would  have  made  the  habitues  of  Washington 
and  Newport  green  with  envy. 

Mr.  John  E.  Warren,  and  his  brilliant  and  beautiful  wife, 
maintained  an  establishment,  to  enjoy  the  privileges  of  which 
was  a  liberal  education,  and  a  joy  forever.     The  mere  recol- 



lection  of  her  faBcinating  coDTereation  and  sparkling  wit  is 
enough  to  make  an  old  fellow  yonag  again.  QOTemor  Bam- 
sej,  and  faiB  hoepitable  and  beantifnl  wife,  were  always  a  cen- 
ter of  social  enuDence,  as  were  also  Col.  Bobertson,  Judge 
Enunett,  and  tbeir  accomplished  wives.  I  merely  mention 
these  names  as  types  of  a  great  many  delightfnl  families  that 
adorned  oar  city  in  its  infancy,  and  impressed  upon  it  the  in- 
delible stamp  of  cosmopolitan  excellence. 

Besides  these  superior  domestic  nuclei,  we  had  a  host  of 
single  gentlemen,  young  and  old,  who  would  have  adorned  the 
society  of  any  city.  Of  course  we  were  not  lacking  in  the 
rongh  and  Ticioos  element,  bat  it  never  dominated  to  the  ex- 
tent of  giving  color  to  onr  society. 

There  is  one  circumstance  which  has  always  impressed  me 
with  the  idea  that  Minnesota,  and  especially  Bt  Paul,  the 
capital,  was  favored  with  an  exceptionally  intelligent  popu- 
lation in  its  infancy;  and  that  is,  that  at  the  very  first  seBsion 
of  the  Territorial  Legislatare,  in  1849,  provlBion  was  made  for 
the  establishment  of  a  Historical  Society,  an  inetitntion  which 
one  would  think  would  be  most  remote  from  the  thoughts  of 
a  border  people,  whose  interests  asually  center  in  peltries, 
ores,  and  lumber.  Tet  it  was  accomplished,  and  has  grown 
from  the  germ  then  planted  into  a  repository  of  historical 
knowledge  scarcely  equalled  west  of  the  Alleghanies,  which 
is  stored  away  in  a  library  of  nearly  sixty  thousand  volumes. 

Most  wratem  towns  spring  into  life  from  the  force  of 
especial  circumstances,  a  rich  deposit  of  gold,  silver,  or  coal, 
is  discovered;  extensive  forests  invite  the  lumbermen;  at 
once  a  rush  of  people  is  directed  to  the  spot,  and  a  town  is 
bnilt  It  has  no  antecedents  to  give  direction  to  its  social, 
moral  or  intellectual  character,  and  these  elements  must  re- 
flect the  attributes  of  its  first  inhabitantB.  Mining  towns  gen- 
erally exhibit  the  lowest  and  roughest  features;  gambling, 
drinking,  and  lawlessness  predominate.  Lumber  towns  rare- 
ly present  much  refinement.  While  men  engaged  in  that  pur- 
suit may  be  estimable  and  industrious  citizens,  you  would 
not,  except  in  rare  instances,  select  them  to  fill  the  chair  of 
esthetics  in  a  school  of  sociology. 
~  The  marked  difference  in  favor  of  St.  Paul,  in  my  judgment, 
arises  from  the  fact  that  it  had  antecedents;  that  its  first  pop- 



alation  was  Dot  assembled  at  the  call  of  any  particalar  enter- 
prise, and  was  therefore  not  tagged  with  any  special  trade- 
mark. It  converged  to  this  point  lai^ely  for  the  reason  that 
It  was  the  head  of  navigation  of  the  great  Mississippi,  thus 
offering  a  reasonable  prospect  of  a  commercial  city;  that  it 
had  an  ezceptionably  salabrions  climate;  and  that  its  first 
and  principal  settlers  had  previously  occupied  the  coantry 
and  had  been  educated  under  the  elevating  social  inflaencea 
of  the  great  far  companies,  whose  ofBcere  were  the  most  aris- 
tocratic and  commanding  men  to  be  found  in  any  country. 
They  were  most  exacting  in  their  demands  of  obedience,  re- 
spect, and  loyalty  from  all  their  subordinates;  and  they  ad- 
ministered Justice  in  return,  based  on  a  broad  intelligence  and 
tempered  with  generosity.  Snch  initial  infloences  could  not 
fail  to  make  themselves  felt  as  the  town  progressed  toward 
metropolitan  proportions,  and  they  are  still  visible.  This 
view  of  mine  may  be  without  substantial  foundation,  bat  there 
is  one  thing  I  know,  that  8t  Faal  possesses  certain  social 
attractions  which  invariably  Impel  people  who  have  to  leave 
the  place  with  a  desire  to  return,  no  matter  where  they  go.  I 
never  knew  an  officer  of  the  army,  who  had  been  stationed 
h^e,  that  did  not  want  to  remain,  and,  if  compelled  to  leave, 
did  not  wish  to  return,  and  such  seems  to  be  the  universal 
sentiment.  You  think  it  over,  and  if  yon  discover  a  better 
reason  for  the  social  superiority  of  St.  Paul  over  the  average 
western  town,  let  me  know  what  it  is. 

While  I  am  speaking  of  the  remarkable  caltnre  and  refine- 
ment of  fit  Paul  in  its  early  days,  I  ooght  to  mention  that  we 
had  a  namber  of  gentlemen  here  who  were  extraordinary  chess 
players  and  very  early  formed  a  chess  dab.  Judge  Palmer 
was  at  the  head  of  it.  He  was  a  second  Paul  Morphy  in  skill 
at  the  game.  He  coold  turn  his  back,  shut  his  eyes,  and  play 
three  or  foar  games  at  the  same  time  without  seeing  either 
the  board  or  the  men,  and  generally  win  tbem.  Ton  mast 
remember  that  chess  is  a  very  scientific  game,  and  is  not  in- 
dulged in  by  cowboys  or  frontiersmen  as  a  general  thing. 

Very  soon  after  St.  Paul  began  to  assume  city  proportions, 
a  little  town  down  the  river  by  the  name  of  Hastings  began 
to  appear  in  evidence.  I  don't  believe  many  of  yon  know 
the  origin  of  its  name.    It  was  called  after  Creneral  Henry 



Hastings  Sibley,  and  the  fact  that  he  was  its  chief  sponsor 
did  ntnch  to  attract  to  It  some  rer;  cnltivated  people,  inclnd- 
ing  Bome  good  chess  players,  among  whom  a  Maryland  gentle- 
man named  Allison  was  the  leader.  As  soon  as  acquaiotance- 
ahip  was  established  between  the  two  towns,  a  chess  clab  was 
formed  in  Hastings,  and  games  nsed  to  be  played  between  the 
two  places  by  mail,  each  move  b»Qg  folly  discnssed  by  the 
club  making  it,  over  a  good  champagne  sapper.  These  games 
sometimes  lasted  a  whole  winter,  as  mails  were  only  semi- 
occasimial.  It  is  a  rare  thing  to  find  towns  sitnate  on  the 
very  border  of  civilization,  amusing  themselves  in  such  au 
esthetic  manner. 


It  may  not  1>e  inappropriate  on  this  occasion  to  refer  to 
the  early  struggles  of  the  Episcopal  Chnrch  in  Minnesota.  As 
has  ever  been  the  case  in  the  Northwest,  the  French  Catholic 
missionaries  were  first  in  the  field.  They  labored  with  the 
Indians  for  long  years  with  their  accnstomed  fidelity  and  self- 
sacrifice,  and  I  have  no  donbt  did  as  mnch  good  as  missionaries 
nsoally  accomplish  among  savages.  From  their  somber  cos- 
tume the  Sioux  called  them  »he-na-»apa  (the  black  blankets). 

About  siity  years  ago,  the  American  Board  of  Foreign 
Uissions  sent  out  Protestant  misBionaries  of  the  Presbyterian 
faith,  who  selected  stations  at  Traverse  dee  Sioux,  Lac  qui 
Parle,  Lake  Wlnnibigoshish,  and  perhaps  other  points.  They 
labored  faithfully  among  the  Sioux  and  Chippewas  until  the 
outbreak  of  the  Sioux  in  1862,  which  practically  dispersed  the 
Sioux  and  Winnebagoes  and  drove  them  out  of  the  state. 
When  the  whites  began  to  inhabit  the  state  in  1846,  and  after- 
ward, of  course  they  were  accompanied  by  their  ministers  of 
all  denominations,  and  they  established  churches  In  all  the 
settlements;  but  the  Episcopalians  were  the  weakest  of  them 
all.  The  first  churcheB  of  that  denomination  were  establiehed 
in  St  Paul  and  St.  Anthony  in  the  early  fifties.  The  one  in 
St.  Paul  was  known  as  Christ  Church,  and  bad  a  very  small 
frame  structure  on  Cedar  street,  exactly  in  the  rear  of  the 
present  Olobe  Building,  and  on  the  spot  where  now  stands  the 
rear  part  of  H.  M.  Smyth's  printing  house.    The  church  boast- 



ed  a  steeple,  but  it  was  so  ridicaloHBly  sntall  that  the  irrever- 
ent dnbbed  the  whole  structure  "The  church  of  the  holy  tooth- 

MiBDesota  was  then  part  of  the  diocese  of  Wisconsin,  which 
was  presided  over  by  Bishop  Kemper,  the  missionary  bishop 
of  the  Northwest,  and  one  of  the  dearest  and  best  old  men 
it  was  ever  my  good  f  ortane  to  meet  He  used  to  make  occa- 
siona]  visits  ioto  Minnesota,  and  perform  the  fnnctions  of  his 
sacred  ofBce  wherever  they  were  needed.  His  services  were 
usually  held  in  the  shanty  of  some  settler,  and  the  people 
would  flock  to  see  and  hear  him  very  much  aa  they  woald  have 
attended  any  nnnsual  show.  Yon  must  remember  that  Epis- 
copalians were  not  an  emigrating  people,  and  are  generally 
the  denizens  of  cities,  so  that  his  vestments  were  a  very  nn- 
□Boal  Bight  on  the  border. 

The  first  time  I  heard  him  he  preached  in  the  unfinished 
kitchen  of  Captain  Bodd's  shack  in  Bt  Peter,  and  his  audience 
was  squatted  on  the  floor.  I  remember  distinctly  having  ptit 
on  my  Sunday  moccasins,  all  ornamented  with  bead  and  quill 
work,  for  the  important  occasion. 

The  real  pioneers  of  the  missionary  work  of  the  Episcopal 
church  in  Minnesota  were  Rev.  James  Lloyd  Breck  and  Bev. 
Timothy  Wilcoxson.  They  preceded  all  the  others.  Mr. 
Breck  purchased  five  or  six  acres  of  land  at  the  head  of  Bt. 
Peter  street  and  established  a  mission  house,  which  was  oc- 
cupied for  a  long  time.  The  Park  Place  Hotel  afterward 
stood  on  this  ground,  and  I  believe  the  land  still  belongs  to 
the  Diocese  of  Minnesota. 

Mr.  Breck  was  a  very  enthusiastic  man  in  his  church  work. 
He  was  young  and  physically  capable  of  much  endurance.  It 
was  a  common  thing  for  him  to  have  an  engagement  to  preach 
in  a  certain  place  on  one  day,  and  in  another  thirty  or  forty 
miles  distant  on  the  next,  and  he  always  made  the  journeys 
on  foot  His  pedestrian  feats  became  well  known  among  the 
old  settlers.  The  first  time  I  made  a  visit  to  the  East,  after 
my  settlement  up  in  the  valley  of  the  Minnesota,  was  in  1866 
or  1857.  I  was  'driving  across  the  twenty-mile  prairie  just 
above  Fort  Bnelling  on  my  way  down  tbe  river,  when  I  saw 
in  the  distance  a  long-legged  apparition  streaking  it  along  in 
my  direction,  swinging  a  handbag  and  making  apparently  about 



eight  mjlea  an  hoar.  In  the  loom  of  the  prairie  it  resembled 
very  much  a  large  Bandblll  crane,  Tchich  we  ased  to  enconnter 
frequently  on  onr  joameys  in  those  dajs,  but  when  we  met  it 
turoed  ont  to  be  the  Reverend  Mr.  Breck  on  hia  way  to  Bliako- 
pee  to  preach  the  next  day.  We  always  stopped  and  had  a 
chat  with  all  passers-by  on  the  road.  Knowing  the  habits  of 
the  parson  as  well  as  I  did,  I  of  coarse  thoaght  nothing  of  it. 

When  I  got  home  in  the  East,  I  was  invited  to  attend  a 
missionary  meeting  in  Utica  by  a  clerical  friend  of  mine,  who 
wanted  me  to  tell  the  people  there  something  about  the  charch 
in  the  Northwest.  I  went,  and  the  first  basiness  that  came 
before  the  meeting  was  a  collection  to  raise  a  fund  to  purchase 
a  horse  and  baggy  for  Mr,  Breck.  The  mover  of  the  scheme 
spoke  of  hie  wonderfal  feats  of  pedestrianism,  and  insisted 
that  he  shoald  be  rewarded  bj  being  presented  with  better 
means  of  transportation.  That  was  my  opportonity:  I  told 
my  story  of  how  1  had  met  him  within  a  few  days  on  the  lonely 
prairie,  which  1  extended  from  twenty  miles  to  about  a  hun- 
dred and  twenty,  and  how  footing  it  across  a  continent  was 
a  mere  pleasant  recreation  for  him;  in  fact  I  allowed  my  then 
fruitful  imagination  full  swing,  with  the  satisfactory  result 
of  swelling  the  donation  to  a  sam  that  would  have  easily 
bought  bim  a  coach  and  four,  and  I  have  never  repented  the 
well  intended  exaggeration.  Mr.  Breck  never  went  on  foot 

The  estimation  in  which  the  memory  of  Mr.  Breck  is  held 
at  the  present  time  in  the  chnreb,  may  be  measured  by  the 
fact  that  there  prevailed  a  fierce  controversy  as  to  whether 
California  or  Wisconsin,  where  he  was  earlier  a  pioneer  mis- 
sionary, should  be  the  repository  of  his  remains. 

Doctor  Van  Ingen  and  Dr.  Paterson  arrived  in  the  fifties; 
the  former  came  first,  and  the  latter  aboat  18S7.  Abont  this 
time  the  question  was  mooted  of  erecting  Minnesota  into  a 
separate  diocese,  and  it  was  accomplished.  Then  came  the  ex- 
citing consideration  of  who  should  be  the  bishop.  Naturally 
Doctors  Van  Ingen  and  Paterson  were  the  prominent  candi- 
dates. The  convention  was  held  in  St.  Paul  in  lS5d,  and  after 
many  ineffectual  ballots  had  been  taken  it  seemed  impossible 
to  elect  either  of  these  two  gentlemen.  At  every  ballot  a  vote 
was  cast  for  Henry  B.  Whipple  of  Chicago.    No  one  knew 



who  he  was,  except  that  he  waa  the  rector  of  a  ehnrch  in  that 
city.  When  it  became  a  certainty  that  the  vote  conld  not  be 
concentrated  on  either  Van  Ingen  or  FaterBon,  the  f  rienda  of 
these  candidates  began  to  inquire  abont  the  "dark  horse," 
and  the  glowing  account  of  him  giren  by  his  friend  settled 
the  matter  in  his  favor  and  he  was  chosen. 

I  have  known  Bishop  Whipple  for  forty-five  years.  1 
knew  him  in  Borne,  New  York,  before  be  went  to  Chicago,  and 
have  loved  and  revered  him  during  all  those  long  years.  It 
would  be  a  waste  of  words  for  me  to  attempt  a  portrayal  of 
hia  -many  virtues  and  perfect  equipment  for  the  duties  of  a 
frontier  biahop;  in  all  such  accomplishments  he  was  unaar- 
pasaed.  He  aaaumed  hia  office,  and  the  church  began  to  grow 
and  expand  with  marvelous  atrides  nntil  it  has  filled  the  land. 
He  has  spread  the  fame  of  Minnesota  over  the  mother  coun- 
try of  England,  nntil  his  name,  and  that  of  his  state,  have 
become  household  words  in  the  churches  of  that  land.  I  have 
no  heetitation  in  saying  that  to-day  he  is  the  most  popular 
and  best  beloved  man  in  all  the  state  of  Minnesota. 

I  can  tell  yon  an  amnaing  anecdote  about  him  that  proves 
my  aaaertion.  Mai\y  years  ago  there  lived  in  the  town  of  Le 
Sueur  a  man,  a  great  friend  of  mine,  by  the  name  of  Bill  Smith. 
Bill  was  an  uncompromising  Democrat  like  myself,  and  had  the 
reputation  of  being  a  pretty  blunt  and  rough  aort  of  a  fellow; 
at  the  same  time  he  waa  one  of  the  best  citizens  in  the  Min- 
nesota valley.  He  lived  next  door  to  a  brick  edifice  osed  aa 
a  church  by  the  Preabyteriana,  with  only  a  picket  fence  be- 
tween them.  The  people  attending  the  church  were  in  the 
habit  of  bitching  their  horaea  to  his  fence,  and  during  services 
the  horaes  would  nibble  the  heads  off  of  his  pickets.  Bill 
gave  strict  orders  to  his  son  to  cut  the  halters  of  any  teams 
that  should  be  hitched  to  the  fence.  Bishop  Whipple  had 
some  work  in  the  town,  and  the  Preabyteriana  kindly  allowed 
him  to  use  their  church.  Not  knowing  of  the  decree  that 
had  been  promulgated  by  the  infuriated  Smith,  the  driver 
hitched  the  Biahop'a  team  to  the  prohibited  fence.  The  boy 
came  in  and  said,  "Dad,  some  of  them  church  fellows  have 
hitched  to  our  fenca"  "Go  and  cut  their  bridles,"  said  Smith. 
"If  s  Bishop  Whipple's  team,"  said  the  boy.  "Oh,"  said  Smith, 
"that* s  another  matter,  Bishop  Whipple  is  the  only  man  in 



tills  Btate  who  can  bitcb  bia  team  to  my  fence,  and  if  be 
wants  to  he  can  stable  tbem  in  my  parlor." 

The  Bishop  is  pecnliarly  bappy  in  attaching  all  kinds  of 
people  to  him,  good  and  bad,  high  and  low.  I  remember  when 
the  Indian  War  broke  oat,  in  1862, 1  bronght  oat  of  New  Ulm 
abont  eighty  badly  woanded  men,  and  distribated  tbent  be- 
tween Mankato  and  St  Peter,  tnming  all  tbe  botela  and  pablic 
buildings  into  hospitals  for  their  convenience.  A  few  days 
after  their  arrival,  the  bishop  appeared  at  St.  Peter  ynBolicit- 
ed.  He  broagbt  with  bim  his  dressing  gown  and  slippers, 
and  a  case  of  surgical  instruments,  and  camped  down  among 
as,  where  he  remained  for  weeks,  assisting  the  wounded  and 
praying  with  the  dying.  That  is  the  kind  of  work  that  endears 
a  man  to  the  peopla 

Tou  all  know  that  the  Bishop  has  always  been  a  great 
friend  of  tbe  Indians.  He  believes  that  tbe  Christian  Indians, 
as  he  calls  those  who  have  shown  some  signs  of  recognition  of 
the  faith,  performed  a  great  many  friendly  acts  towards  the 
whites  at  the  time  of  the  massacre  of  1862,  and  be  loves  to 
tell  of  it.  When  we  all  went  np  to  dedicate  tbe  Birch  Coulie 
Monument,  Governor  Marshall  made  a  speech  to  prove  that 
the  inscription  on  the  monoment  was  all  wrong.  Then  I  fol- 
lowed, and,  for  complimenting  the  men  who  held  the  Indians 
off  at  the  Birch  Coulie  flght,  I  dwelt  on  the  splendid  fighting 
qualities  of  tbe  Sioux.  Then  the  Bishop  gave  me  a  nadge  and 
s^d,  "I  would  give  ten  dollars  for  a  five-minote  talk."  I  told 
the  presiding  officer  to  call  upon  him,  and  he  exhausted  his 
time  by  saying  all  tbe  good  things  he  knew  aboat  tbe  Indians. 
-  Then  an  irate  party  who  came  to  hear  the  Indiana  denounced 
as  murderers,  red  devils,  and  everything  that  was  bad,  rose  and 
said,  "We  came  here  to  dedicate  a  monument  that  commem- 
orates one  of  the  most  barbarous  and  savage  massacres  of  our 
people  that  was  ever  perpetrated,  and  what  have  we  bad?  an 
attack  upon  tbe  monument,  and  two  glowing  eulogiea  of  the 
savage  murderers."  Tbe  bishop  and  1  had  a  good  laugh  over 
the  predicament  we  had  got  the  ceremonies  into. 

Speaking  of  the  church:  Shortly  after  Dr.  Van  Ingen 
came  to  St.  Paul,  I  came  down,  in  1856,  to  the  legislature  as 
a  representative  from  the  Indian  country.  One  of  the  first 
things  we  had  to  do  was  to  elect  a  chaplain.    I  was  not  ac- 



qoainted  with  any  of  he  candidates,  and  Dr.  Yan  Ingen  was 
nominated.  His  name  was  proDonnced  nearly  like  "Indian," 
by  the  member  who  made  the  nomination.  I  had  on  mocca- 
sins, and  on  hearing  the  name,  I  said,  "Ingen,  Ingen,  that's 
my  man,"  and  we  elected  him.  A  very  prominent  yooog 
lawyer  in  St  Panl  is  named  (or  him,  John  Van  Ingen  Dodd, 
whose  mother  was  a  prominent  chnrcli  woman. 


I  have  not  said  anything  abont  the  politics  of  the  early 
days  of  Minnesota,  and  the  reason  is  that  there  was  very 
little  going  on  that  was  worthy  of  the  name  until  the  first 
state  election,  which  occarred  on  the  13th  day  of  October, 
1857.  Prior  to  that,  politics  was  either  personal,  Indian,  or 

The  first  attempt  at  politics  in  Minnesota  occnrred  in  Wis-  ' 
coDsin,  if  I  may  nse  a  paradox.  That  state  was  admitted  into 
the  Union  in  1848,  leaving  all  the  territory  west  of  the  St. 
Croix  wlthoot  any  government.  Onr  people  called  a  con- 
vention at  Stillwater,  and  settled  the  affairs  of  the  prospective 
new  territory  to  be  created  out  of  the  discarded  part  of  Wis- 
consin. They  assigned  the  capitol  to  St.  Paal,  the  university 
to  St  Anthony,  the  penitentiary  to  Stillwater,  and  the  dele- 
gate in  Congress  to  Mendota,  then  called  St.  Peter's.  Henry 
H.  Sibley  was  dnly  chosen  delegate  from  Wisconsin,  and  the 
act  organizing  the  territory  of  Minnesota  was  passed  by  Con- 
gress on  the  3rd  of  March,  1819. 

Nothing  occurred  in  the  politics  of  the  territory  particular- 
ly worthy  of  mention  in  a  paper  like  this,  except,  perhaps, 
that  the  legislature  once,  in  a  spasm  of  frontier  virtoe,  passed 
a  prohibitory  liqnor  law,  which  was  in  a  counter  spasm  speed- 
ily declared  unconstitutional  by  the  courts;  but  when  the  first 
state  election  was  held,  in  which  we  were  to  elect  members 
of  Congress  and  a  legislature  that  was  to  choose  United  States 
senators,  things  took  a  more  national  aspect,  and  politics 
really  b^an.  The  Democrats  had  always  been  in  power  in 
the  territory,  and  of  course  desired  to  bold  that  dominant 
position;  but  the  Republican  party,  having  been  born  three 
years  before,  had  grown  to  considerable  proportions.  The 
whole  state  organization  was  to  be  elected,  from  the  governor  ■ 
down;  so  the  fight  became  quite  interesting. 




With  this  introdnction,  1  will  relate  ao  episode  whicli  oc- 
curred a  week  or  so  after  the  flret  state  election  closed.  Yon 
most  know  that  Pembina  had,  from  the  earliest  days  of  the 
territory,  been  an  election  district,  and  being  so  remote  from 
the  seat  of  goTemment,  the  election  there  was  held  before  the 
time  fixed  in  other  parts  of  the  Territory  to  enable  it  to  get 
its  election  returns  to  the  Territorial  Aaditor  in  St.  Panl. 
This  circomfftance  gave  rise  to  the  saying  that  Pembina  al- 
ways waited,  in  making  its  retnms,  to  find  ont  how  many 
votes  were  necessary  to  carry  the  election  for  the  Democrats, 
and  then  sent  in  the  needed  nnmber.  Of  course,  this  was  a 
Bepnbliean  slander,  but  it  was  generally  believed,  as  Pembina 
was  then  a  terra  incognita  to  everybody  but  Joe  Bolette,  Nor- 
man W.  Kittson,  and  a  few  others  who  had  Indian  interests 
in  that  region.  When  all  the  votes  bat  those  of  Pembina 
were  in,  it  looked  as  if  the  result  of  the  election  was  qaite 
close,  and  all  eyes  were  on  Pembina.  It  was  supposed  that 
Joe  Bolette  would  be  the  bearer  of  the  returns,  and  great  in- 
terest was  manifested  by  the  Democrats  lest  Bolette  should 
fall  by  the  wayside  and  the  retams  be  lost,  as  we  all  knew 
that  Joe  waB  very  eusceptlble  to  the  allurements  and  tempta- 
tions of  civilization  when  within  its  influence. 

While  this  important  matter  was  in  suspense,  a  man  in 
the  Indian  trade  by  the  name  of  Uadison  Sweetser  came  to  me 
about  two  o'clock  one  night,  or  rather  morning,  and  told  me 
that  Nat  Tyson,  who  was  a  merchant  in  8t.  Paul  and  an  en- 
thasiastic  Republican,  had  just  started  for  the  north  with  a 
fast  team  and  an  outfit  that  looked  as  if  he  contemplated  a 
long  journey,  and  hie  belief  was  that  he  meant  to  capture 
Bolette  and  the  Pembina  returns.  I  felt  that  sach  might  be 
the  case,  and  we  immediately  began  to  devise  ways  and  means 
to  circumvent  him.  We  hastened  to  the  house  of  Henry  M. 
Bice,  who  knew  every  trader  and  half-breed  between  here  and 
Pembina,  and  laid  our  suspicions  before  him.  He  diagnosed 
the  case  in  an  instant,  and  sent  us  to  Norman  W.  Kittson, 
who  lived  in  a  stone  house  well  up  on  Jackson  street,  with  in- 
structions to  him  to  send  a  mounted  courier  after  Tyson,  who 
was  to  pass  him  on  the  road  and  either  find  Bolette  or  Major 
Clitherall,  who  was  an  Alabama  man  and  one  of  the  United 



States  land  ofBcera  in  the  neighborhood  of  Crow  Wingr,  being, 
of  coorae,  a  reliable  Democrat,  and  was  to  deliver  a  letter  to  the 
one  be  flrat  found,  patting  him  on  gaard  against  the  eapposed 
enemj.  I  prepared  the  letter  and  Kittson  in  a  few  moments 
had  enmmoued  a  reliable  Chippewa  half-breed,  mounted  him 
on  a  flne  horse,  fnlly  explained  his  mission,  and  impressed 
npon  htm  that  be  was  to  reach  Clitherall  or  Rolette  ahead  of 
Tyson  if  he  bad  to  kill  a  dozen  horses  in  so  doing.  There  was 
nothing  a  flne,  active,  yonng  half-breed  enjoyed  so  mnch  as 
an  adventare  of  this  kind;  a  ride  of  fonr  hundred  miles  had 
no  terrors  for  him,  and  to  serve  his  employer  faithfully,  no 
matter  what  the  daty  or  danger  imposed,  was  bis  delight. 
When  he  was  ready  to  start,  Kittson  Rave  him  a  send-off  In 
aboat  the  following  words:  "Fa,  va  vite,  et  ne  t'arrite  pa» 
mime  pour  sauver  la  wie"  (Go,  go  quick,  and  don't  stop  even  to 
save  your  life);  and,  giving  his  horse  a  vigorous  slap,  he  was 
off  like  the  wind. 

The  resalt  was  that  he  passed  Tyson  before  he  had  gone 
twenty  miles,  found  Clitherall  a  day  and  a  half  before  Tyson 
reached  Crow  Wing,  if  he  ever  did  get  there,  and  delivered 
his  letter.  The  major  immediately  started  to  find  Rolette, 
which  he  sacceeded  in  doing,  took  the  returns,  put  them  in 
a  belt  aronnd  bis  person,  and,  having  relieved  Joe  of  all  his 
responsibility,  left  him  to  his  own  devices,  which  meant  paint- 
ing all  the  towns  red  that  he  visited  on  his  way. 

The  tone  of  the  letter  was  so  argent  and  exciting  that  the 
major  did  not  know  but  that  half  the  Republicans  in  St.  Paul 
might  be  lying  in  wait  to  capture  him;  so  be  did  not  enter 
town  directly  on  bis  arrival,  but  went  to  Fort  Snelling,  left 
the  returns  with  an  army  officer,  and  then  proceeded  to  St 
Paal.  When  we  explained  to  him  that  no  one  but  Rice, 
Sweetser,  Kittson,  and  myself,  knew  anything  about  the  mat- 
ter, he  was  relieved,  but  still  cautions.  He  waited  a  few  days 
and  then  proposed  to  a  lady  to  take  a  ride  with  him  to  Fort 
Snelling.  When  they  started  home  again,  he  gave  her  a  bun- 
dle and  asked  her  to  take  care  of  it  while  he  drove,  which  sbe 
nnsaspectingly  did;  and  that  is  the  way  the  Pembina  returns 
of  Minnesota's  first  state  election  reached  the  proper  custodian 
at  the  Capitol.  It  is  needless  to  say  how  many  votes  they 
represented,  bnt  only  to  announce  that  the  election  went 



MTiethep  Tyson  had  any  idea  of  doing  what  we  suspected 
biiii  of,  1  never  diBcovered,  bat  if  he  did,  he  had  a  long  ride 
for  nothing;  and  as  our  Bcheme  was  bo  sacceBsfal,  I  am  will- 
ing to  acqait  him  of  the  charge. 


la  looking  over  the  map  of  Minnesota,  and  the  Northwest 
generally,  a  thoaghtfnl  obeerver  can  read  between  the  lines 
a  good  many  things  of  interest  not  visible  on  the  exterior. 
For  iDStance,  the  nationality  and  religion  of  the  first  comers 
can  easily  be  determined  by  the  names  of  the  rivers  and  cities. 
All  over  Minnesota  and  what  we  generally  call  the  Northwest 
is  written  the  fact  that  the  first  innovation  made  upon  the 
Indian  was  by  the  Frenchman,  and  the  Catholic  Frenchman. 
We  here  find  St.  Paul,  St  Anthony,  St  Croix,  which  suggest 
the  religion.  Then  we  find  Lac  qui  Parle,  Traverse  des  Sioux, 
Trempealeau,  Pomme  de  Terre,  and  other  French  names,  in- 
dicating the  nationality.  Borne  of  the  French  namea  are 
original  with  them,  and  some  are  literal  translations  of  the 
Indian  namea  into  French.  For  instance,  take  the  name  of 
Lac  qui  Parle,  meaning  the  lake  which  speaks,  or  the  talking 
lake.  It  got  its  name  from  the  fact  that  it  emits  a  constant 
sound  of  murmuring  or  gurgling,  which  naturally  attracted 
the  Sioux,  and  they  named  it  M'  Day-ea,  or  the  Talking  lake, 
which  the  French  literally  translated  into  Lac  qni  Parle,  it 
was  a  very  early  post  for  the  French  traders,  and  has  main- 
tained the  French  name  very  much  in  its  purity,  the  reason 
for  which  I  attribute  to  the  difficulty  of  corrupting  it,  the 
words  being  too  simple  to  be  distorted  into  anything  else. 

The  same  may  be  said  of  Traverse  des  Sioux,  the  crossing 
of  the  Sioux,  the  Indian  name  of  which  1  have  forgotten,  but 
the  words  are  so  simple  that  it  would  be  difficult  to  pronounce 
them  incorrectly,  except  the  "des"  which  is  frequently  called 
"dess,"  as  the  name  of  the  tribe  of  Indians  called  the  Nez 
Percys,  or  Pierced  Koses,  is  frequently  pronounced  "Ness 

When  we  cross  over  to  the  Pacific  coast  we  find  the  un- 
mistakable handwriting  of  the  Catholic  Spaniard.  Here  we 
have  San  Francisco,  San  Jos^,  Santa  Barbara,  Santa  Cruz, 
San  Diego,  and,  farther  east,  the  river  named  Bio  Grande  del 



Norte,  which  separatee  as  from  Mexico,  all  of  which  bespeak 
the  Bpaniard  aud  the  Catholic.  In  Mexico  we  find,  besides 
many  Spanish  names,  the  onpronoanceable  names  of  the 
Aztecs,  prOTing  their  previons  occnpancy  of  the  country. 

How  long  these  landmiai^s  of  the  nativity  and  religion  of 
the  early  settlers  will  remain  is  doabtfal.  Borne  of  them, 
like  San  Francisco,  will  endare  as  long  as  the  country  lasts 
and  is  inhabited  by  civilized  people,  for  reasons  quite  appar- 
ent. Bat  it  most  be  kept  in  mind  that  they  are  nut  only  rap- 
idly disappearing,  bat  that  many  of  them  have  been  twisted 
out  of  all  possible  recognition  by  the  immigration  which  suc- 
ceeded the  French  and  the  Spanish.  With  all  our  love  and 
admiration  of  the  American  pioneer,  we  must  admit  that  he 
conld  not  as  a  general  thing  t>e  called  a  man  of  calture,  and 
especially  was  he  not  a  lingnist.  In  ninety-nine  cases  out  of 
every  hnndred  he  conld  not  speak  his  own  language  without 
disturbing  Lindley  Murray  in  his  cofBn.  So  these  French  and 
Spanish  names  stood  a  very  poor  chance  of  being  perpetuated 
in  their  purity  through  his  agency. 

I  will  now  give  yon  some  instances  of  the  utter  annihilation 
of  such  names  in  our  own  state.  There  is  a  river  in  the  sonth- 
em  portion  of  Minnesota  which  was  in  the  early  days  of  In- 
dian trade  navigable  for  Mackinac  boats  and  canoes,  and 
was  much  used.  The  navigation,  however,  was  difficult  and 
embarrassing,  which,  gave  it  the  name,  by  the  French  voy- 
ageur,  of  "La  Riviere  des  embarras,"  or  the  difficult  river. 
Now  the  voyagenr  was  Dsnally  a  half-breed  Indian;  or,  if  a 
pure  Frenchman,  he  spoke  the  Sionz  language,  which  has 
many  guttural  sounds,  and  it  tinctured  his  French.  He  usu- 
ally spoke  very  rapidly,  and  made  all  the  short  cuts  he  conld 
to  the  end  he  desired.  When  speaking  of  this  river  he  always 
called  it  "Des  embarras,"  which,  spoken  quickly  with  a  gut- 
tural intonation,  gave  the  American  settler  the  word  "Zum- 
bro,"  and  thus  we  have  on  our  maps  a  Znmbro  river  and  a 
town  of  Zumbrota. 

Quite  as  curious  and  equally  as  effective  an  instance  for 
the  destruction  of  a  name  I  will  relate  in  connection  with  lake 
Superior.  Most  of  yon  will  remember  the  curious  sandy  beach 
formation  at  Duluth  called  Minnesota  point.  It  is  a  long 
finger  of  land  projected  from  the  Minnesota  shore  toward  the 
Wisconsin  side,  a  distance  of  some  six  miles,  to  the  natural 



ontlet  of  the  St.  Louis  river  into  the  lake.  It  is  composed 
entirely  of  pebbles  and  saod  thrown  up  from  the  bottom  of 
the  lake  and  held  in  place  by  the  carrent  of  the  St  Lonis  river 
meeting  the  wash  of  the  lake,  and  presents  a  very  corioos 
and  interestiog  snbject  for  the  scientist.  Now,  ont  in  the 
lake  somewhere,  similar  influences  threw  up  a  small  island 
of  the  same  material,  which  was  in  an  early  day  quite  danger- 
ons  to  navigation.  The  French  word  for  a  pebble  of  this 
character  is  "galet"  So  the  French  called  this  island  "Isle 
anz  Qalets,"  or  the  Island  of  pebbles.  lo  the  early  days  of 
lake  navigation  the  sailors  and  pilots  were  principally  Cana- 
dian Frenchmen,  and  in  speaking  this  name  of  the  island 
qnickly  it  was  caught  by  the  American  as  "Skillegallee,"  and 
it  has  actually  so  passed  into  the  United  States  charts. 

There  is  a  town  in  Wisconsin  on  the  Mississippi  river  called 
"Trempealeau."  It  derives  its  name  from  a  conical  bluff 
near  the  present  site  of  the  town,  which  in  very  high  water 
is  surrounded  by  the  river  and  becomes  an  island.  The  French 
called  it  "La  Montague  qui  trempe  a  I'eaa"  (the  moontain 
which  soaks  in  the  water).  The  name  of  the  town  is  wonder- 
fully well  preserved,  very  much  better  than  in  most  cases; 
but  I  venture  the  assertion  that  not  an  inhabitant  of  it  knows 
the  origin  of  its  name,  unless  he  is  a  Frenchman. 

I  must  relate  a  little  circumstance  connected  with  this 
town  that  occurred  a  good  many  years  ago  in  the  days  of  river 
travel.  I  was  coming  up  the  river  on  a  steamboat,  and,  as 
the  day  was  fine,  I  was  sitting  on  the  hurricane  deck.  The 
boats  were  full  of  tourists  in  those  days,  all  anzions  for  in- 
formation.  The  proprietors  of  the  tovni  had  put  up  a  lai^ 
sign  to  attract  attention,  with  one  word,  "T^rempealeau."  A 
lady  asked  the  captain  in  my  presence  what  that  meant  and 
where  it  came  from.  He  looked  wise  and  said,  "Madam,  it  is 
Winnebago."  She  was  perfectly  satisfied,  and  I  did  not  cor- 
rect the  information,  which  she  probably  recorded  in  her 
diary  and  communicated  to  her  eastern  friends.  I  have  not 
as  yet  seen  it  in  any  authentic  history,  but  will  be  not  at  all 
surprised  to  find  it  there  some  day. 

To  give  you  a  further  idea  of  the  knowledge  of  the  river 
captains  in  those  days,  I  will  relate  a  little  incident  which 
occurred  on  the  upper  Missouri  once  when  I  was  ascending 
that  stream  in  a  boat  called  the  "Twilight"    On  the  jackstafl 



of  tbis  boat  was  a  flag  bearing  the  sign  of  a  crescent  moon, 
tritb  a  star  perched  on  one  of  its  horns.  It  was  pretty  and 
attracted  my  attention.  An  opportunity  occurred  one  night 
which  opened  the  way  to  my  asking  the  captain  the  meaning 
of  his  legend.  It  was  the  carioos  coincidence  of  exactly  the 
same  sign  appearing  in  the  heaTens.  I  sDppose  it  was  the 
preparaition  for  the  occaltation  of  Venas;  at  any  rate,  the  signs 
were  identical.  I  called  the  captain's  attention  to  it,  and 
asked  him  what  his  flag  Mgnifled.  He  carefally  scanned  the 
hearens,  studied  the  flag,  and  solemnly  annonQced:  "It  is 
a  sign  of  rain."  If,  nnder  sncb  educational  inflaences,  any- 
thing of  the  past  remains,  it  wit]  be  a  miracle. 

The  gentlemen  who  laid  out  the  town  of  Minneiska,  down 
the  river  in  this  state,  wrote  to  me  for  the  name  of  "White 
Water"  in  Bionx,  as  they  wished  to  name  the  town  after  the 
White  Water  riTer,  which  empties  into  the  Mississippi  river 
in  that  neighborhood.  I  wrote  the  name  '^inne-ska,"  white 
water.  They  mulled  over  it,  and  concluded  that  if  ever  a  rail- 
road went  through  the  town  the  brakemen  could  not  manage 
that  name  Bnccessfnlly,  and  called  it  by  the  more  euphonious 
name,  of  Minneiska,  which  means  nothing  at  all. 

Then  there  is  Mankato,  which  is  a  corruption  of  "Ma-ka-to,** 
or  Blue  Earth. 


I  passed  several  years  among  the  Sionz  Indians  of  this 
country,  and  was  at  one  time  United  States  Indian  agent  for 
them;  so  I  naturally  picked  up  some  of  their  language,  and 
learned  their  ways  and  customs. . 

An  aboriginal  people  like  these  savages  have  very  few- 
wants,  and  consequently  their  language  is  very  meager  in  its 
means  of  expression.  Therefore,  when  new  obects  were  pre- 
sented to  them,  in  order  to  talk  about  them  among  themselves 
they  had  to  find  names  for  them,  and  such  names  would,  in 
the  nature  of  things,  be  descriptive.  When  they  first  saw  a 
white  man  he  was  a  Frenchman.  They  called  him  "Wa-she- 
cha,"  or  the  white  man.  The  next  appearance  of  the  white 
man  was  the  American  soldier.  The  officers  always  carried 
a  sword.  The  Indian  had  never  seen  so  long  a  knife,  and  he 
called  the  American  "Isan-tanka,"  or  the  long  knife.    After- 



ward  came  the  German.  His  language  fell  harshly  on  the 
Indian  ear,  and  thej  called  him  "Ea-shee-Bha,"  or  the  bad 

Perhaps/  one  of  the  most  illnBtrative  cases  of  naming  a 
person  or  thing  b;  description  ie  found  in  the  name  they  gave 
me.  When  I  first  went  into  the  Indian  country,  abont  forty- 
four  years  ago,  I  found  a  yoong  Scotsman  by  the  name  of 
Garrie,  and  camped  with  him.  The  Indians  called  him  "Chnn- 
ba-tokacha-wa-pa-ba,"  or  the  man  who  wears  the  wolfskin 
cap.  They  gradoally  began  to  call  me  "the  tall  American," 
or  "Isan-tanka-hanB-ka."  When  I  was  not  recognized  by 
that  name,  they  would  say  "Isan-tanba-hanska-ark-ho,"  which 
means  "the  tall  American  who  combs  his  hair  back;"  and  if 
that  failed  to  indicate  my  personality,  they  would  say,  "Isan- 
tanka-hanska-ark-bo,  tepee  Cbnnka-tokacha-wa-pa-ha,"  whi,cb 
means,  "the  tall  American  who  combs  his  hair  back,  who  lives 
with  the  man  who  wears  the  wolfskin  cap."  That  became  my 
name,  but  was  usually  shortened  to  "Ark-ho,"  he  who  combs 
his  hair  back;  and  when  I  became  their  agent,  it  was  changed 
to  "Ah-tay,"  or  fathw. 

You  have  heard,  no  doobt,  that  the  thoughts  of  the  wild 
Indian  sometimes  run  in  a  poetical  vein.  This  is  true,  and  I 
will  give  you  an  instance  of  it  which  is  in  line  with  the  idea 
I  am  presenting  of  the  resort  to  description  for  naming  per- 
sons and  things.  Of  course,  a  Sioux  Indian  in  his  natural 
state  never  saw  a  domestic  rooster  or  chicken  cock.  When 
immigration  began  to  crow^  them  this  splendid  bird  made  his 
appearance.  They  observed  his  noble  carriage,  his  beautiful 
plumage,  and  bis  deAant  air;  bat  none  of  these  characteristics 
afforded  ground  for  a  name.  Tbey  then  discovered  that  he 
had  the  peculiarity  of  crowing  before  the  dawn  each  morning, 
and  they  gave  him  his  name  from  this  circumstance.  They 
called  him  "An-pay-ho-to-na,"  or  "the  voice  of  the  morning," 
which  may  be  rendered,  "He  speaks  in  the  morning."  I,  how- 
ever, prefer  the  former  as  containing  a  really  poetic  expres- 

Many  such  cases  can  be  recalled.  I  will  give  yon  another 
that  contains  both  the  poetic  and  descriptive  idea.  Of  course, 
before  the  advent  of  the  whites,  an  Indian  never  saw  the  re- 
flection of  his  face  in  anything  bat  the  surface  of  a  lake  or 
stream.    When  he  was  presented  with  a  looking-glass  he  was 



amazed  to  see  the  same  pbenomenon  repeated.  He  called  it 
"Minne  odesBa,"  or  "It  lookn  like  water."  I  know  that  this 
name  for  a  looking-glass  is  not  the  one  given  in  the  Dakota 
Dictionary.  It  is  there  called  "Ih-di-yom-da-sin ;"  bat  I 
learned  it,  as  1  have  gjTen  it,  in  the  camps,  and  it  fttmck  me 
as  very  pretty,  bo  I  propose  to  stick  to  my  original  version, 
the  dictionary  to  the  contrary  notwithstanding.  In  fact  I  am 
a  good  deal  like  a  big  Missouri  friend  I  had  out  in  the  Sierra 
Kevada  moantalns,  by  the  name  of  Jim  Gatewood.  He  nsed 
to  write  his  letters  in  my  office,  and  frequently  asked  me  how 
to  spell  a  word.  I  finally  said,  "Jim,  why  don't  yon  look  in 
the  dictionary?"  {There  was  a  big  Webster  on  the  table.) 
"Wal,  Judge,"  he  replied,  "I  never  got  the  hang  of  them  bloody 
dictionaries."  We  see  in  these  things  a  certain  anstudied 
tinge  of  natural  poetry. 

^lien  the  steamboat  appeared  among  them  with  its  fiery 
fnmaces  and  huge  stacks,  puffing  out  volumes  of  black  smoke 
and  sparks,  they  were  amazed  and  called  it  by  the  only  name 
that  would  naturally  occur  to  them,  "pata-wata,"  or  fire  canoe. 

The  next  phenomenon  that  came  along  was  the  railroad 
cars,  propelled  by  fire  as  the  steamboat  was;  and  what  do 
you  think  they  called  them?  "The  fire  canoe  that  goes  over 
the  mountain."  As  there  were  no  railroads  when  I  lived 
among  the  Indians,  I  cannot  give  yon  the  Sioux  for  it  except 
as  I  have  since  learned  it,  THa-ma-nee."    "Ma-nee"  is  to  walk. 

There  was  a  Virginia  friend  of  mine  who,  on  his  first  see- 
ing an  express  train  go  whizzing  by,  gave  it  a  name  equally 
descriptive.    He  called  it  "Hell  in  harness." 

You  have  often  seen  the  docks  of  wild  geese  as  they  fiy 
over  our  state  in  their  annual  migrations  from  the  south  to  the 
north  and  back  again,  and  heard  them  squawk:  the  sound 
they  make  is  expressed  by  the  word  "ma-ga,"  and  the  Sioux 
calls  the  wild  goose  "ma-ga,"  in  exact  imitation  of  his  cry. 
An  Indian  will  hide  himself  and  call  "ma-ga,  ma-ga,"  as  a 
flock  is  passing,  and  deceive  them  into  believing  one  of  their 
number  is  in  distress,  and  by  this  means  turn  the  whole  flock 
and  get  a  shot  at  them. 

There  is  another  point  to  which  I  would  like  to  draw  your 
attention.  Among  the  Sioux,  the  dog  seems  to  be  the  generic 
type  or  standard  for  almost  all  animals.    They  call  a  dog 



"chaoka,"  a  wolf  "chnnka-toka-cha,"  or  the  other  dog,  which 
is  very  appropriate,  as  the  two  animals  very  much  reiemble 
each  other.  The  horse  is  called  "wakon-chnnka,"  or  the  spirit 
dog;  the  panther  or  cougar,  "enemu-chanka,"  or  the  cat  dog, 
a  cat  being  called  "enema."  This  may  extend  to  other  animate, 
bnt  I  am  fast  forgetting  my  Sioox  andjcannot  give  more  in- 


The  most  interesting  ceremony  I  remember  having  seen 
among  the  Sioox,  was  a  trial  to  determine  Hie  fair  fame  of  a 
young  woman.  The  manner  in  which  is  was  condncted,  and 
the  apparently  correct  decision  arrived  at,  although  the  meth- 
od of  ppocedore  was  the  very  opposite  of  anything  ever  seen 
in  a  civilized  coart,  was  very  impressive,  and  deeply  interest- 
ing. I  will  endeavor  to  give  yoo  an  idea  of  it  The  name  of 
the  ceremony  is  "the  maiden  feast,"  and  it  takes  place  under 
the  following  circumstances. 

Whenever  any  gossip  or  scandal  abont  any  maiden  in  the 
band  gains  circulation,  and  reaches  the  ears  of  her  mother, 
the  latter  commands  her  danghter  to  give  a  maiden  feaat  to 
vindicate  her  character.  The  girl  then  snmmons  all  the  maid- 
ens in  the  band  to  her  feast  at  a  certain  time,  which  is  an- 
nounced through  the  band.  When  the  hour  arrives  all  the 
girls  appear  on  the  prairie;  they  all  have  a  red  spot  painted 
with  Vermillion  on  each  cheek.  A  targe,  round  stone  painted 
red  is  placed  on  the  prairie,  with  a  long  knife  stuck  in  the 
ground  in  front  of  it  and  close  to  it.  The  girls  then  form 
a  semicircle  in  front  of  the  stone  and  knife,  and  each  one 
separately  comes  forward  and  touches  the  stone  with  her 
right  hand,  then  falls  back  about  twenty-flve  feet  and  sits 
down  on  the  grass.  The  hostess,  having  taken  her  place  with 
the  rest,  then  retires  and  returns  with  a  dish  for  each  of  her 
guests,  on  which  is  a  small  quantity  of  rice,  and  a  knife  or 
spoon  to  eat  it  with.  After  they  are  all  helped,  she  takes  her 
place  In  the  circle,  and  they  all  begin  slowly  and  in  an  un- 
concerned way  to  eat,  not  looking  away  from  their  dishes. 
The  object  of  this  is  a  challenge  to  any  man  in  the  band  to 
publicly  make  any  charge  he  may  have  against  any  of  the 
girls;  the  touching  the  stone  is  regarded  as  a  very  sacred  and 
solemn  oath  that  the  accused  will  tell  the  truth. 



While  these  preliminar;  arrangementa  are  being  made,  all 
the  reat  of  the  band,  men,  women,  and  children,  have  assem- 
bled, and  every  one  awaits  to  see  if  an;  charge  will  be  made. 
The  manner  of  making  an  accnaation,  is  for  the  part;  maMog 
it  to  step  np  in  front  of  the  girl,  seize  her  b;  the  hand  and  pall 
her  to  her  feet.  If  nothing  transpires  before  the  rice  is  eaten, 
the  giver  of  the  feast  is  vindicated,  her  character  restored, 
and  her  mother  aatiafled;  then  the  feast  is  broken  np  and  the 
actors  disperse. 

I  cannot  conve;  the  Idea  of  the  making  of  a  chai^,  and 
the  trial  of  its  truth  or  falaity,  better  than  to  relate  what  I 
witnessed  on  one  of  these  occasions.  When  the  circle  was 
formed,  a  young  back  stepped  boldl;  in  front  of  a  very  pretty 
girl  of  about  sixteen  or  eighteen  years,  and  rooghty  jerked 
her  to  her  feet,  and  charged  her  with  some  indiscretion.  The 
spectators  watched  the  countenances  of  both  parties  with  the 
closest  scmtiny.  The  face  of  the  accused  became  a  study. 
She  seemed  paralyzed  with  indignation,  and  looked  her  ac- 
cuser boldly  in  the  eye  with  an  expression  of  injured  innocence 
so  intense  and  agonizing  as  to  prevent  utterance.  The  two 
stood  glaring  upon  each  other  in  silence  for  a  short  time, 
when  the  man  displayed  symptoms  of  nerrousuess,  which  im- 
mediately attracted  the  audience,  and  they  began  crying  out 
to  the  girl,  "Swear!  Swear!"  This  seemed  to  give  her  cour- 
age, and,  wrenching  herself  forcibly  from  her  accuser,  she 
strode  with  a  queenly  air  to  the  stone  and  almost  em- 
braced it  This  together  with  an  apparent  weakening  of  the 
man,  seemed  to  convince  the  people  of  her  innocence,  and  they 
began  to  jeer  and  howl  at  him  until  he  commenced  to  back  - 
from  his  position,  when  abont  fifty  men  and  boys  closed  in  on 
him,  and  he  fied  like  a  scared  antelope,  with  the  crowd  at  his 
heels,  hurling  sticks  and  stones  at  him  until  he  disappeared 
from  sight  I  never  was  more  satisfied  with  the  correctness 
of  a  decision  in  all  my  experience. 


In  speaking  of  the  origin  of  names  of  natural  objects  in  our 
state,  one  of  the  most  interesting  is  "Itasca,"  which  is  the 
name  of  the  lake  now  known  to  be  the  true  .source  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi river.  Most  people  think  it  ia  an  Indian  word,  but 
sQch  is  not  the  case.  It  is  a  coined  word,  and  was  made  under 
the  following  circumstances, 



It  has  alway B  been  an  object  of  iotereBt  to  know  where  this 
great  river  has  its  Boarce.  More  than  fifty  years  ago,  when 
Qen.  Lewis  Cass  waa  governor  of  Michigan,  hia  territory  in- 
cluded all  that  is  now  Minneaota,  and  he  made  a  voyage  of  dis- 
covery to  find  the  soorce  of  the  river.  He  ascended  in  birch 
canoes  nntil  he  reached  the  large  lake  now  known  as  Casa 
lake,  and  not  finding  any  inlet  he  decided  it  to  be  the  soarce, 
and  did  not  pnrsne  hia  investigatioDB  farther.  This  lake  was 
from  that  time  called  Case  lake,  and  was  supposed  to  be  the 
head  of  the  river,  fiome  years  afterward  Mr.  Schoolcraft  un- 
dertook the  aame  exploration,  and,  finding  a  considerable  inlet 
to  Caas  lake,  he  advanced  to  ita  Bonrces,  and  found  a  email 
lake  which  he  was  convinced  was  the  trne  head,  which  our 
hiBtorical  society  has  since  absolutely  verified.  Schoolcraft 
was  not  a  man  of  mnch  edacatioo,  and  knew  little  Latin  and 
leBS  Greek.  He  wanted  a  name  for  hia  lake  that  wonld  be 
agreeable  to  the  ear  and  appropriate  to  the  sabject.  He  bad 
■with  him  a  gentleman,  who  recently  died  in  Stillwater,  Bev. 
William  T.  Bontwell,  whom  he  consnited  on  the  important 
anbject  of  naming  his  new-found  lake.  This  person  took  two 
Latin  words,  "veritaa,"  truth,  and  "caput,"  the  head,  which 
Schoolcraft  cat  down,  to  retain  only  the  last  two  syllables  of 
"veritaa,"  making  "Itaa,"  and  the  first  syllable  of  "caput," 
making  "ca."  He  then  joined  them  and  made  the  beautiful 
word  "Itaaca"  or  the  true  head.  A  more  skillfal  or  beautiful 
feat  in  a  literary  point  of  view  was  never  achieved. 

You  will  find  thia  name  accounted  for  erroneonsly  in  some 
of  the  editions  of  Webeter's  Dictionary.  He  says  it  is  taken 
from  two  Indian  words,  "la"  and  "totosha,"  meaning,  I  have 
found  the  breast  of  the  woman,  or  the  sonrce  of  life.  This  is 
entirely  anfonnded,  as  the  words  can  not  be  tortured  into  mak- 
ing the  word  Itasca;  and  we  know  without  a  doubt  that  the 
explanation  I  give  is  absolutely  correct.  Some  one  fooled 
Webster.  It  Ib  true  that  the  words  he  quotes  are  strictly  good 
Chippewa,  and  mean  what  he  says  they  do,  "la,"  I  have  found, 
and  "to-to-sha,"  the  female  breast;  but  they  are  utterly  for- 
eign to  the  name  "Itasca," 

Another  illastration  of  the  descriptive  nomenclature  of  the 
Bioux  is  found  in  the  name  they  give  a  piano,  "chan-da-wa-ki- 
ya-pee,"  which  means  an  instrument  made  of  wood  that  talks 




It  OGcaro  to  me  that  we  have  an  illoBtration  of  the  fact 
that  original  names  are  fast  passing  away  in  our  own  state 
and  city.  We  have  a  coanty  of  Wabasha,  a  cit;  of  Wabasha, 
and  in  St.  Paal  a  Wabasha  street  All  these  names  come 
from  an  Indian  chief  whom  I  knew  ybtj  well  and  highly  re- 
spected. He  was  a  chief  of  the  "Wak-pay-kn-ties,"  or  leaf- 
shooters,  and  his  name  was  "Wa-pa-aha,"  not  Wf^asha. 
"Wapa"  means  a  leaf,  a  staff,  and  a  bear's  head;  "eha"  means 
red.  fio  his  name  meant  either  Red  Leaf,  Bed  Staff,  or  Bed 
Bear's  Head.  We  always  thonght  it  meant  the  Bed  Leaf. 
This  corrnption  between  Wabasha  and  Wapaeha  is  not  of  so 
much  importance;  bat  it  Is  well,  while  we  can,  to  get  things 
right.  It  amounts  to  about  as  much  as  TfaomiMion  widi  a  "p," 
or  Thomson  withont  a  "p." 

Another  instance  exists  right  in  oar  own  midst.  Bobert 
street  was  named  after  Lonis  Bobert,  pronounced  "Bobear,"  a 
prominent  Frenchman  among  the  old  settlers,  and  nntil  quite 
recently  was  always  given  the  French  pronunciation  "Bobear," 
but  tlie  newcomers  all  call  it  Bobert  street.  I  was  in  a  street- 
car the  other  day  and  told  the  condnctor  to  put  me  off  at  "Bo- 
bear" street  He  promptly  informed  me  that  I  was  on  the 
wrong  ear.  It  will  not  be  long  before  the  correct  name  will 
be  forgotten. 


A  singular  thing  among  the  Bioaz  Indians  was  their  faith 
in  their  medical  mysteries.  There  is  a  guild  among  them 
called  medicine  men.  They  work  wonders  with  the  sick  and 
afBlcted.  I  have  known  men  sick  with  rhenmatism  to  be 
cured  by  the  medicine  men  rattling  gourds  full  of  beans  over 
their  prostrate  forms,  and  chanting  in  a  manner  calculated 
to  kill  the  sick  and  destroy  the  nerves  of  the  well.  I  have  had 
them  bring  to  me  the  evidence  of  their  success  in  various  ways. 
One  man  was  sick  nnto  death  with  rhenmatism.  The  medi- 
cine men  worked  over  him  for  several  days  and  finally  pro- 
duced an  old-fashioned  flint-style  gunlock,  which  they  ex- 
tracted from  his  afflicted  back.  They  showed  me  tihis  in  tri- 
umph. 1  read  on  it  "Harper's  Ferry"  in  very  plain  English. 
I  have  had  them  show  me  live  frogs  and  snakes  which  they 
had  taken  out  of  their  patients. 



Now,  it  is  easy  to  understand  how  the  medicine  man  can 
■  hnmboghia  patienta.  We  see  this  every  day  in  ciTiIised  life. 
Bat  how  the  medicine  man  can  be  hombngged  in  the  same 
way  it  is  'difflcult  to  nnderstand.  But  sacb  is  undoabtedly 
the  case.  When  an  old  friend  of  mine,  named  Bhakopee,  who 
•was  a  medicine  man,  became  sick  at  the  Redwood  Agency,  I 
sent  my  doctor  down  to  see  him.  I  was  then  represented  by 
Dr.  Daniels,  now  one  of  the  most  prominent  physicians  in  the 
state,  living  at  St.  Peter.  He  reported  that  he  was  sick  with 
typhoid  fever,  and  that  all  he  needed  was  good  nursing,  good 
food,  and  rest.  I  had  the  facilities  for  all  these  conditions, 
and  sent  an  ambulance  to  bring  him  to  my  agency.  But  he 
positively  refused,  and  bad  the  medicine  men  drum  and  rattle 
beans  over  him  tintil  he  died.  Now,  this  has  always  been  to 
me  a  problem;  do  these  savages  actually  believe  in  their  medi- 
cine, and  that  they  get  gnnlocks,  snakes,  frogs  and  such  things 
out  of  their  patients?  or  would  they  rather  die  under  the  same 
treatment  than  confess  their  frauds  by  accepting  civilized 
methods?  I  confess  that  I  have  never  been  able  to  solve  the 
problem,  and  when  my  old  friend  Bhakopee  stock  to  the  bar- 
baric treatment  unto  death,  I  rather  inclined  to  the  opinion 
that  they  were  really  in  earnest  It  is  an  interesting  question, 
and,  having  given  the  facts,  1  turn  the  psychological  part  of  it 
over  to  the  thinkers. 

Now,  ladies  and  gentlemen,  I  have  given  yon  a  general 
melange  of  everything,  which  contains  very  little  of  anything; 
and  if  I  have  amused,  interested,  or  instructed  you,  in  any  de- 
gree, I  am  well  repaid. 





Colnmbas  discovered  the  frin^a  and  borders  of  the  great 
western  world  on  his  first  and  second  voyages.  He  left  it  to 
be  explored  and  occupied  by  the  rivals  of  many  different  na- 
tions. The  Froich,  the  English,  and  the  Spanish,  sent  oat 
many  adventurers  and  explorers,  the  prows  of  whose  vessels 
were  turned  ever  westward.  Nicollet,  Marqnette,  and  La 
Salle;  the  Cabots,  Froblsher,  and  Orate;  Ponce  de  Leon,  Bal- 
boa, and  De  Soto,  all  won  lanrels  and  enduring  fame  for  them- 
selves from  the  discoveries  and  explorations  made  on  this 
continent.  The  French,  naturally  a  race  of  explorers,  in  whom 
discovery  speedily  develops  into  a  passion,  were  among  the 
foremost  to  penetrate  far  into  the  interior  of  the  new  world. 
They  came  either  as  explorers  and  discoverers  in  search  of 
adventure,  as  leaders  of  expeditions,  and  as  traders  and  sol- 
diers, or  as  missionaries  with  Bible  and  Crucifix,  carrying  the 
gospel  of  Cross  and  Church  to  the  fiercest  savage  tribes  in  the 
remote  wilderness.  They  passed  westward  by  the  natural 
chain  of  communication,  consisting  of  rivers  and  the  line  of 
great  lakes,  until  they  pierced  the  very  center  of  the  continent 
itself,  and  established  wherever  they  went  trading  posts  and 
mission  stations.  These  afterwards  developed  into  the  namer- 
ooa  towns  and  cities  which  still  bear  the  names  of  the  early 
French  explorers.  They  pushed  their  enterprises  throughout 
the  entire  valley  of  the  Mississippi  and  traversed  the  remotest 
regions  of  the  Northwest  With  unwearied  feet  they  stayed 
not  until  they  had  ntade  good  their  claims  of  discovery  by 
actual  possession,  and  then  rested  not  from  their  labors  notil 

*RBad  at  the  montbl?  meeting  ot  the  Executive  Council,  April  11.  1898. 



they  had  erected  the  cross  of  conqaest  beside  every  lake  and 
watercoDFse  throngbout  tbe  heart  of  the  continent. 

We  natnrally  divide  th«  first  pioneers  into  two  classes: 
The  first  were  commissioned  by  king  or  emperor,  and  with 
sword  in  their  hand  they  poshed  their  discoveries  farther  and 
farther  toward  tbe  setting  son,  in  the  hope  of  winning  em- 
pires for  their  sovereigns,  and  the  wealth  of  nnclaimed  Eldo- 
rados  for  tbemselves.  The  second  were  pioas  and  devout  mis- 
sionaries,  with  letters  patent  from  pope  or  bishop,  who,  with- 
out hope  of  earthly  gain,  but  inspired  with  a  lofty  zeal  and 
ardent  faith,  kept  step  with  the  more  worldly  conquerors  and 
under  tbe  banner  of  the  cross  expected  to  gain  for  themselves 
and  their  converts  eternal  felicity  beyond  the  grave.  These 
devout  and  zealous  men  were  usually  attached  to  the  com- 
pany and  subservient  to  the  will  and  orders  of  tbe  leader  of 
the  exploring  party.  It  was  to  this  class  that  Father  Loais 
Hennepin,  the  chief  character  of  this  sketch,  belonged. 

La  Salie  was  the  most  noted  French  explorer  that  ever 
traversed  tbe  valley  of  the  Mississippi.  He  b^an  bis  great 
western  voyage  of  discovery  on  the  7th  day  of  August,  1679. 
Among  those  who  accompanied  him  on  that  memorable  expe- 
dition was  Lonis  Hennepin,  a  Franciscan  priest  of  the  Recol- 
lect order.  By  the  middle  of  January,  1680,  La  Salle  bad  con- 
ducted bis  exploration  to  the  banks  of  the  Illinois  river.  Near 
lake  Peoria  he  commienced  tbe  erection  of  Fort  Cr6vecoeur. 
It  is  not  within  the  purview  of  this  paper  to  relate  the  adven- 
tures, discoveries  and  wondrous  achievements  of  this  redoubt- 
able Frenchman.  His  biography  is  filled  with  accounts  of 
Incredible  hardships  and  superhuman  efforts.  Tbe  story  of 
his  life  shows  him,  though  battled,  a  conqueror,  and  though 
defeated,  yet  winning  enduring  and  lasting  fame.  In  estimat- 
ing his  character,  Francis  Parkman  says:  "Never,  under  tbe 
impenetrable  mail  of  paladin  or  crusader,  beat  a  beart  of 
more  interpid  mettle  than  within  the  stoic  panoply  that  armed 
the  breast  of  I<a  Salle.  To  estimate  aright  the  marvels  of  bis 
patient  fortitude,  one  must  follow  on  bis  track  through  the 
vast  scene  of  his  interminable  journeyings,  tbose  thousands  of 
weary  miles  of  forest,  marsh,  and  river,  wbere,  again  and 
again,  !n  the  bitterness  of  baffled  striving,  the  untiring  pil- 
grim pushed  onward  towards  the  goal  which  be  was  never  to 



attain.  America  owes  him  an  endorinf;  memor;;  for  in  this 
mescaline  flgnre,  cast  in  iron,  she  sees  the  heroic  pioneer  who 
guided  her  to  the  possession  of  her  richest  heritage,"* 


In  Febrnar;,  1680,  La  Salle  selected  Michel  Accau,  Antoine 
Augnel,  known  also  as  Du  Gay.f  and  Father  Hennepin,  for  the 
arduous  and  dangerous  nndertaking  of  exploring  the  unknown 
regions  of  the  upper  Miaeissippi.  Accau,  becanse  of  his 
knowledge  of  the  Sionz  language  and  customs,  was  chosen 
as  the  leader  of  the'ezpedition,  bat  Father  Hennepin,  as  its  his- 
torian, takes  most  of  the  credit  both  of  the  leadership  and  dis- 
cover; to  liimsett.  Daring  and  ambitious  of  the  title  of  a  dis- 
coverer, he  was  not  unwilling  to  go  upon  the  expedition,  al- 
thongb  he  is  said  to  have  desired  some  delk;  on  account  of  a 
sore  month. 

Their  canoe  was  poshed  fronn  the  sandy  shore  of  the  Illi- 
nois river  on  the  last  day  of  February,  1680.  Besides  the  trav- 
ellers, it  contained  a  generous  snppl;  of  tobacco,  knives,  beads, 
awls,  and  other  goods,  to  a  considerable  value,  supplied  at  La 
fialle's  cost  Referring  to  this  act  of  generosity,  Hennepin 
says  in  the  first  edition  of  his  work,  although  it  is  omitted  in 
all  subsequent  editions,  that  La  Salle  was  liberal  enough  to 
his  friends.  The  friar  bade  adien  to  Ia  Salle  and  his  com- 
panions, while  his  venerable  colleague,  Bibonrde,  gave  him 
his  parting  benediction,  saying,  as  be  spread  his  hands  over 
the  head  of  the  reverend  traveller,  "Be  of  good  courage  and  let 
your  heart  be  comforted." 

The  travellers  were  detained  at  the  mouth  of  the  Illinois 
for  some  time  on  account  of  the  ice  floating  in  the  Mississippi. 
As  soon  as  opportunity  offered,  the  three  travellers  turned 
their  canoe  northward  and  plied  their  paddles  against  the  cur- 
rent of  the  Mississippi,  We  are  informed  that  during  their 
voyage  they  were  exemplary  in  their  devotions.  Hennepin 
tells  us  that  they  said  their  prayers  at  morning  and  night 
and  the  augelus  at  noon,  invoking  St.  Anthony  of  Padua  that 

■La  Balla  and  the  Dlaooreiy  of  the  Oreu  Wert,  v.  407. 

tin  the  EpelUn;  of  tbeoe  nam«i  I  have  followed  Piukman.  Ttaer  are  also 
■pelled  Ulchaol  Accault  or  Ako,  «nd  Ausuelle.  tbe  latter  being  mare  oom- 
nonU'  called  "tbe  Flcard  Du  Oay"  (or  du  Quay). 



he  woald  protect  them  from  the  perils  Burronnding  their  way; 
and  Hennepin,  not  without  reason,  prayed  that  it  might  be  the 
good  fortune  of  the  company  to  meet  the  warlike  Sionx  by  day 
rather  tlian  by  night.  They  proceeded  nnmolested  nntil  they 
reached  the  region  about  the  month  of  the  Wiaconsin.  At 
tliia  iK>int  the  petitions  of  Hennepin  were  realized,  and  he 
tells  as  of  their  capture  in  the  following  language: 

Our  pmyerfl  were  heard  wben,  on  the  llth  of  April,  1680,  at  two 
O'clock  In  the  afternoon,  we  auddenlj  perceived  thlrtf-three  bark 
canoes,  maimed  hy  a  hundred  and  twenly  Indiana,  coming  dowD  with 
extraordinary  speed,  to  make  war  on  the  Mlamls,  lallnolB,  and  Maroha. 
These  Indiana  sarronnded  ns,  and,  while  at  a  distance,  discharged 
some  arrows  at  ns;  but  as  tiiey  approached  our  canoe  the  old  men 
seeing  ns  with  the  calnmet  of  peace  In  onr  hands,  prevented  the  young 
men  from  killing  us.  These  bmtal  men,  leaping  from  their  canoes, 
■ome  on  land,  others  Into  the  water,  with  frightful  cries  and  yells, 
approached  ns,  and  as  we  made  no  resistance,  being  only  three 
against  so  great  a  nnmber,  one  of  them  wrenched  onr  calumet  from 
our  bands,  while  our  canoe  and  theirs  were  made  fast  to  the  shore. 
We  first  presented  them  a  piece  of  Petnn  or  French  tobacco,  better  for 
smoking  than  theirs,  and  the  eldest  amwg  them  nttered  these  words, 
"Mlamlba.  Mlamlha."  As  we  did  not  understand  their  language,  we 
took  a  little  BUdk,  and  by  signs  which  we  made  on  the  sand,  showed 
them  that  thdr  enemies,  the  Mlamis,  whom  they  scnight,  had  fled 
across  the  river  Colbert  to  Join  the  IsUnols;  when  then  they  saw 
themselves  discovered  and  nnable  to  surprise  their  enemies,  three  or 
four  old  men  laying  their  hands  on  my  head,  wept  In  &  lugubrious 
twie,  and  I  with  a  wretched  bandk^vhlef  I  bed  1^  wiped  away  their 
tears.  These  savages  would  not  smoke  onr  peace-calomet.  They  made 
ns  cross  the  river  witb  great  cries,  wblch  all  shouted  together,  with 
tears  in  their  eyes;  they  made  ns  paddle  before  them,  and  we  heard 
yells  capable  of  striking  the  most  resolute  with  terror.  After  landing 
our  canoe  and  our  goods,  some  part  of  which  they  had  already  stolen, 
we  made  a  fire  to  boll  onr  kettle;  we  gave  them  two  large  wild  turkeys 
tfiat  we  bad  killed.  These  savages  bavlng  called  their  assembly  to  de- 
liberate on  what  they  were  to  do  wltb  ns,  the  two  head  chiefs  of  the 
party  approaching,  showed  ns,  by  signs,  that  the  warriors  wished  to 
tomahawk  ns.  This  compelled  me  to  go  to  the  war  chiefs  with  one  of 
my  men,  leaving  the  other  by  our  property,  and  throw  Into  their  midst 
six  axes,  fifteen  knives,  and  six  fathom  of  our  black  tobacco.  Then 
bowing  down  my  bead,  I  showed  tbem,  witb  an  axe,  that  tbey  might 
tomahawk  ns,  If  they  thought  proper.  This  present  appeased  several 
Individuals  among  them,  who  gave  us  some  beaver  to  eat,  putting  tbe 
three  first  morsels  In  our  mouth  according  to  the  custom  of  tbe  coun- 
try, and  blowing  on  the  meat  which  was  too  hot.  before  putting  their 



baik  dlali  before  ns,  to  l«t  ns  eat  as  we  liked.  We  spent  the  nlgbt  In 
anxletr,  becanee,  before  retiring  at  night,  they  bad  returned  <mt  peace 

On  the  Dineteeoth  day  of  the  jonmej  of  the  three  traTellera 
the  Indians  landed  their  prieonere  in  a  bay  aboat  five  leagues 
below  the  PalU  of  St.  Anthony.  The  worthy  father  had  a  severe 
experience  and  foretaste  of  the  oppression  in  store  for  him 
daring  the  jonmey.  Upon  opening  his  breviary,  when  he  be- 
gan to  mutter  his  morning  devotions,  the  Indians  gathered 
sbont  him  with  faces  which  showed  their  superstitions  terror. 
They  gave  him  to  anderetand  that  his  book  was  a.  bad  spirit, 
wiOi  which  he  was  to  hold  no  more  converse.  In  their  igno- 
rance, they  believed  that  he  wan  invoking  a  charm  for  their 
destraction.  Accao  and  Da  Oay,  realizing  the  danger  that 
was  imminent,  begged  the  friar  to  dispense  with  hift  devotions, 
fearing  that  they  all  might  be  tomahawked  by  the  Indians. 
The  good  father,  however,  asserts  that  his  sense  of  religions 
obligation  rose  superior  to  his  fears,  and  he  resolved  to  say  his 
prayers  at  all  hazards,  althongh  he  asked  pardon  of  his  two 
friends  for  in  this  way  imperilling  their  lives.  In  this  emer- 
gency, however,  as  in  most  of  the  difficolties  which  beset  his 
waj,  he  found  a  device  by  which  he  conld  at  once  fnlflll  his 
religions  duties,  withont  im5)erilling  his  lite  or  the  lives  of 
his  friends.  He  says  that  he  placed  the  breviary  open  npon 
bis  knees  and  sang  the  service  in  loud  and  cheerful  tones. 
This  seems  to  have  had  a  salutary  effect  upon  the  warriors,  as 
it  had  no  savor  of  sorcery,  and  they  now  imagined  that  the 
book  was  instracting  the  good  father  to  sing  for  their  amuse- 
ment. Accordingly,  they  conceived  a  favorable  idea  of  both 
the  priest  and  the  method  of  his  devotions. 

One  of  the  chiefs,  named  Aqaipagaetin,  who  had  lost  a 
son  in  the  war  with  the  Miamis,  being  angry  that  the  war 
party  had  not  proceeded  with  their  expedition,  so  that  he 
might  avenge  himself  for  the  loss  of  his  son,  waa  particularly 
hostile  and  enraged  toward  the  captives.  Several  times  dar- 
ing their  captivity  this  warlike  chief  was  on  the  point  of  toma- 
hawking the  prisoners.  It  may  be  somewhat  of  a  qnestion 
whether  or  not  he  was  as  desirous  of  their  scalps  as  he  waa 
of  their  property,  for  he  seemed  on  each  outbreak  of  his  anger 



to  be  appeased  b;  gifts.  The  old  cbief  had  a  pecnliar  metbod 
of  appropriatiag  their  property,  which,  according  to  Indian 
custom,  was  in  their  antntored  state  "dae  process  of  law."  He 
convejed  with  him  the  bones  of  a  deceased  relative,  which  he 
was  carrTing  home  wrapped  in  namerons  skins  prepared  with 
smoke  after  the  Indian  fashion,  decorated  with  feathers  and 
qaills.  Placing  these  relics  in  the  midst  of  his  warriors,  he 
wonld  call  on  all  present  to  smoke  to  their  honor.  After  the 
smoking  ceremony  was  over,  Hennepin  was  required  to  ap- 
pease the  departed  spirit  with  the  more  substantial  tribate  of 
cloth,  beads,  tobacco,  and  hatchets,  which  were  laid  apon  the 
bnndle  of  bones.  The  offerings  of  the  friar  were  then,  in  the 
name  of  the  deceased,  distributed  among  the  warriors  present. 
The  three  captives  were  distributed,  and  each  was  given 
to  the  head  of  a  family  in  place  of  their  children  who  had  been 
killed  in  war.  The  Indiana  then  seized  all  their  property  and 
broke  their  canoe,  probably  fearing  that  the  white  men  might 
return  to  their  enemies.  The  band  of  Indians  then  commenced 
a  march  overland  to  the  lake  of  the  lesati  (Mille  Lacs).  Hen- 
nepin tells  us  that  they  were  forced  to  march  from  daybreak 
until  two  hours  after  nightfall  and  to  swim  over  many  rivers. 
The  braves  carried  the  two  other  Frenchmen  on  their  shoul- 
ders in  fording  these  streams,  because  they  could  not  swim; 
but  he  was  compelled  to  swim  these  rivers,  which  he  says 
were  often  full  of  sharp  ice,  and  he  adds  that  his  legs  were 
bloody  from  being  cut  by  the  ice  of  shallower  water  which  he 
forded,  and  that  on  leaving  the  water  he  could  hardly  stand 
on  account  of  the  cold.  He  also  says  that  they  partook  ol 
food  only  once  in  twenty-four  hours,  and  that  then  the  bar- 
barians gave  them  grudgingly  only  some  pieces  of  meat. 
There  is  not  much  doubt  that  the  historian  of  this  expedition 
is  correct  when  he  states  that  the  Indians  marched  with  great 
speed,  and  that  it  was  very  difficult  for  Europeans  to  keep  up 
with  them.  In  order  to  hasten  the  footsteps  of  the  white  men, 
the  Indians  often  set  fire  to  the  grass  where  they  were  passing, 
BO  that  they  bad  to  advance  or  be  burned.  They  at  length 
arrived  at  the  village  of  the  Issati,  near  Mille  Lacs,  the  source 
of  the  Ram  river,  named  by  Hennepin  the  St.  Francis.  The 
reception  they  met  on  their  approach  is  best  told  in  the  words 
of  Hennepin  himself: 



After  fire  dayB'  march  b?  land,  suSerli^  hunger,  tblrst  and  ontrsses, 
marching  all  i&j  long  without  rest,  fording  lakes  and  rtvera,  we 
descried  a  number  of  women  and  children  coming  to  meet  our  little 
army.  All  the  elders  of  this  nation  assembled  on  our  account,  and  as 
we  saw  cabins,  and  bandies  of  straw  hanging  from  the  posts  of  tbem, 
to  which  these  savages  bind  those  whom  they  take  as  slaves,  and 
bom  them;  and  seeing  that  they  made  tbe  Plcard  da  Qsj  sing,  as  be 
held  and  shook  a  gonrd  mil  of  little  round  pebbles,  and  seeing  bis  hair 
and  face  were  filled  wltb  paint  of  different  colors,  and  a  tuft  of  white 
feathers  attached  to  his  bead  bj  the  Indians,  we  not  onreasonablr 
thought  that  they  wished  to  kill  us,  as  fhey  performed  man;  cere- 
monies, usually  practiced  when  they  Intend  to    bum  their  enemies. 

During  his  stay  among  the  Bionx,  HennepiD  Tvas  asBigned 
to  the  protectioQ  of  his  ancient  enemy,  Aqaipagaetin,  who, 
Beemlngl;  to  atone  for  hie  harsh  treatment  of  the  bol;  father, 
immediatel;  adopted  biin  as  liiB  son.  The  three  companiona 
were  separated,  and  Hennepin  was  ocmdacted  to  the  lodge 
of  his  adopted  father,  near  the  shore  of  Mille  Lacs,  Here 
Hennepin  was  received  cordially  and  placed  on  a  bear  skin 
before  the  fire,  while  to  relieve  bis  fatigue  be  was  anointed 
by  a  small  boy  with  the  fat  of  a  wildcat,  which  was  supposed 
to  be  a  Bpeciflc  for  all  lameness  of  limb  on  account  of  the 
agilit;  of  that  animal.  The  chief  displayed  to  Hennepin  bis 
six  or  seven  wives,  who  were  bidden  to  regard  him  as  tbeir 

The  Indians,  seeing  bim  so  weak  that  he  could  hardly 
stand,  either  on  account  of  fatigoe  or  some  malady,  erected 
for  him  a  sweating  cabin,  where  tbe^  gave  bimi  a  steam  bath 
three  times  a  week,  from  which  he  declares  that  be  received 
much  benefit.' 

The  Indiana  regarded  Hennepin  as  endowed  with  powers 
of  magic,  and  they  stood  in  awe  of  his  pocket  compass,  as  well 
aa  of  "an  iron  pot  with  three  lion  feet,"  which  they  wonld  not 
touch  with  uncovered  hands.  Hennepin  tells  ns  that  he 
passed  bis  time  in  varions  occupations  about  the  camp;  in 
tonsuring  the  heads  of  the  Indian  children,  and  in  bleeding 
oertfUn  persons  affected  with  astluna,  as  well  as  dosing  others 
with  orrietan,  a  druK  held  in  high  regard  in  that  day,  of  which 

■Tliese  baths  are  sfven  In  a  small  hut,  covered  closely  with  buffalo  skins, 
bitci  which  tb«  patient  and  Ua  friends  enter,  carefully  closlitg;  everr  aper- 
ture. A  pll*  of  heated  •lonea  la  placed  In  the  middle,  and  water  la  poured 
upon  ttiem,  ralalns  a  dense  vapor.  In  186S  they  were  still  In  use  amonr  tba 
aionx  and  some  other  tribes. 



he  bad  a  good  tapplj.  Hia  religions  efforts  with  the  Indiana 
seein  to  have  proved  anavailiog,  as  he  says  he  conid  gain  noth- 
ing over  them  in  the  VBy  ot  their  salvation,  on  accoant  ot 
their  natoral  stupidity. 

While  there  was  not  mach  love  lost  between  Hennepin  and 
bis  Indian  father,  there  seems  to  have  been  a  strong  attach- 
ment between  Oaasicoad^,  the  principal  chief  of  the  Sioax  in 
that  region,  and  the  three  Frenchmen.  He  asserted  that  he 
was  angry  that  they  had  been  robbed,  which  he  had  been  nn- 
able  to  prevent.  He  told  Homepin's  adopted  father  and  the 
other  Issati  warriors  in  conncil  that  they  were  like  a  pack  of 
cars  who  seize  a  piece  of  meat  and  mn  away  with  it 

One  thing  which  caused  the  Indians  to  regard  Father  Rea- 
nepin  as  different  from  bis  two  companions  was  the  fact  of  his 
being  able  to  write.  In  order  to  learn  the  language,  he  asked 
the  names  of  many  objects,  and  then  reduced  the  spoken  wordt 
to  writing.  This  afforded  great  amuB«nent  to  the  Indians. 
He  says  they  often  put  questions  to  him,  but  as  he  bad  to  look 
at  bis  paper  in  order  to  answer  them  they  said  to  one  another: 
"When  we  ask  F^re  liouis,  he  does  not  answer  ns;  but  as 
soon  as  be  has  looked  at  what  is  white  [for  they  have  no  word 
to  say  paper],  he  answers  ns,  and  tells  us  his  thongbts.  That 
white  thing,"  they  said,  "must  be  a  spirit  wliich  tells  P^re 
Lonis  all  we  say." 

During  the  captivity  of  Hennepin  he  was  enabled  to  settle 
a  geographical  question  of  considerable  importance.  It  was 
supposed  that  the  Mississippi  river  emptied  into  the  Gulf  ot 
California  and  that  the  great  ocean  lay  not  far  west  of  tiiat 
river.  On  the  maps  of  that  day  the  northwest  passage  was 
laid  down  as  through  the  straits  of  Anian,  which  were 
supposed  to  be  not  far  from  the  sonrce  ot  the  Mississippi. 
Hennepin  learned  from  Indians  who  came  to  the  village  and 
who  stated  that  they  had  come  from  the  west  fifteen  hundred 
miles,  a  journey  which  occupied  foar  months,  that  they  bad 
seen  no  sea  nor  any  great  body  of  water.  They  described  the 
country  to  the  far  northwest  with  general  accuracy,  sayii^ 
that  it  contained  no  large  bodies  of  water,  but  that  it  had  many 
rivers  and  that  there  were  few  forests  in  that  region.  Hen> 
nepitt  decided,  from  these  statements,  that  the  straits  of 
Anian,  as  shown  upon  the  maps  at  that  time,  had  no  existence; 
He  also  supposed  that  the  route  to  the  Pacific  was  through 



the  rivers  mentioned  by  these  Indiana    Witii  reference  to 
hia  oonclnaionB  on  the  sabject,  he  Bays: 

All  tliese  clrcnmstaoces  make  It  appear  tbat  there  U  no  sncta  place 
as  tbe  BtraltB  of  Anlan,  as  we  uBDallf  see  them  set  down  oa  the 
mapa.  And  whatever  efforts  bare  been  made  for  manr  ream  past  by 
the  Kntftali  and  Dutch,  to  And  out  a  passage  to  the  Froeen  Sea,  they 
have  not  yet  been  able  to  effect  It  Bat  by  the  help  of  mj  dlscorar, 
and  the  assistance  of  God,  I  donbt  not  bnt  a  passage  ma?  still  be 
found,  and  that  an  ea,Bj  one  too.  For  example,  we  may  be  transported 
Into  tbe  Pacific  Sea,  br  rivers  which  are  large  and  capable  of  carrying 
great  vessels,  and  from  thence  It  Is  very  ea^  to  go  to  China  and 
Japan,  without  crosstnc  the  equinoctial  line,  and,  In  all  probability, 
Japan  Is  on  the  same  coatlnent  as  America. 

The  Indians  had  promised  Hennepin,  when  be  cconplained 
of  hunger,  that  the  tribes  should  go  on  a  buffalo  boot  and 
there  would  then  be  plenty  of  food.  At  length  tbe  time  for 
departure  came,  and  each  band  was  assigned  to  its  special 
hunting  ground.  Fearing  to  accompany  his  Indian  father, 
lest  he  might  take  revenge  for  tbe  berating  of  Onasicoad^, 
Hennepin  declared  that  he  expected  a  party  of  French  ex- 
plorers to  meet  him  at  the  mouth  of  tbe  Wisconsin  river,  who 
woatd  bring  a  supply  of  goods  for  the  Indians  and  safflcient 
food.  He  declares  in  bis  narraitive  that  La  Salle  had,  in  fact, 
promised  to  send  traders  to  that  place.  This  assertion  may 
have  had  some  truth  in  it,  but  whether  it  was  true  or  not,  it 
served  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  made. 

At  Iragtb  tbe  Indians  set  out,  numbering  about  two  bnn- 
dred  and  fifty  warriors,  with  their  wives  and  children.  Unr- 
ing  tbe  time  of  their  captivity  the  three  Frenchmen  had  occa- 
sionally seen  each  other,  and  all  were  included  in  the  hunting 
party.  They  descended  the  Bum  river,  called  by  ,Hennepin 
the  St.  Francis,  which  forms  the  outlet  of  Mille  Jjacs.  Henne- 
pin was  refused  passage  in  the  canoe  paddled  by  Du  Gay  and 
Accan.  The  latter  would  not  listen  to  tbe  friar's  appeal  to  be 
taken  oo  board,  bnt  shonted  to  him  that  he  had  paddled  him 
long  enough  already.  He  was  afterwards  taken  in,  however, 
by  two  Indians  who  took  pity  on  him  and  brought  him  on  his 
Journey.  The  party  encamped  at  the  mouth  of  the  Bunu  river, 
near  where  Dayton,  Minnesota,  is  now  situated. 

Hennepin  wa^  desirous  of  leaving  the  Indian  camp  and 
anxious  to  set  out  for  the  Wisconsin  river  to  meet  tbe  party 



of  white  men,  who,  be  alleged,  were  to  arrire  at  that  plac& 
His  friend,  the  great  chief  Onasicoad^,  who  had  heretofore 
befriended  him,  made  it  possible  for  him  to  be  granted  'this 
privilege.  Dn  Qblj  also  was  permitted  to  acc<HnpaD;  him, 
bot  Accao  preferred  life  with  the  Indiana  to  travelling  with 
Hennepin.  The  two  adventiirers  were  given  a  small  birch 
canoe  and  an  earthen  pot,  and,  armed  with  a  gnn  and  knife 
and  a  robe  of  beaver  skin,  the;  set  oat  on  their  jonniey.  De- 
scending the  Mississippi,  they  soon  arrived  at  the  Falls  of  St 
Anthony.  The  following  account  is  given  of  the  falls  and  of 
what  the  travellers  found  there  on  their  downward  journey: 

The  navlsaUon  la  Interrupted  by  a  cataract  which  I  called  the 
Palls  of  St.  Aothony  of  Padna,  In  gratitude  tor.  Ilie  favors  dmw  me 
by  the  Almlshty  throuKfa  the  InterceaBlou  of  that  great  aalnt,  wh<»n 
we  had  chosen  patron  and  protector  of  all  our  enterprlees.  This  cat- 
aract IB  forty  or  BttJ  feet  high,  divided  In  the  middle  of  Its  faU  by  a 
rocky  Island  of  pyramidal  form.  The  high  mountains  which  skirt  the 
river  Colbert  laat  only  as  far  as  the  river  Oulscoosln,  about  one  hun- 
dred and  twenty  leagues;  at  this  place  It  begins  to  flow  from  the  west 
and  northwest  without  our  having  been  able  to  leam  from  the  Indians, 
who  have  ascended  It  very  far,  the  spot  where  this  river  rises.  They 
merely  told  us,  that  twenty  or  thirty  leagues  above,  there  Is  a  second 
fall,  at  the  foot  of  which  are  some  villages  of  the  prairie  people,  called 
Thlnthonha,  who  live  there  a  paK  of  the  year.  Eight  leagues  above 
St.  Anthony  of  Padua's  falls,  on  the  right,  yon  find  the  river  of  the 
IseaU  or  NsdouBSlOD,  with  a  very  narrow  mouUtt,  which  you  can 
ascend  to  the  north  for  about  seventy  leagues  to  Lake  Buade  <a  [the 
Lake]  of  the  Issatl  where  It  rises 

....  As  we  were  making  the  portage  of  our  canoe  at  the 
Palls  of  St.  Anthony  of  Padua,  we  perceived  fire  or  six  of  our  Indians 
who  had  taken  the  start;  one  of  whom  had  climbed  on  oak  opposite  the 
great  fall  where  he  was  weeping  bitterly,  wltb  a  well  drened  beaver 
robe,  whitened  loelde  and  trimmed  with  porcupine  qnllls,  which  this 
savage  wae  oEFerlng  as  a  sacrifice  to  the  falls,  which  is  In  itself  admir- 
able and  frightful.  I  beard  him  while  shedding  copious  tears  say, 
addressing  this  great  cataract:  "Thou  who  art  a  spirit,  grant  that  the 
men  of  our  nation  may  pass  here  quietly  without  accident,  that  we 
may  kill  buffalo  In  abundance,  conquer  our  enemies,  and  bring  slaves 
here,  some  of  whom  we  wlH  put  to  death  befiH^  thee;  the  Messenecqa 
[so  they  call  the  tribe  named  by  the  French  Outouagamis]  have  killed 
our  kindred,  grant  that  we  may  avenge  them."  In  fact,  after  the  heat 
(Jf  the  buffalo  hunt,  they  Invaded  their  enemies'  country,  killed  some, 
and  brought  others  as  slaves.  If  they  succeed  a  single  time,  even  after 
repeated  failures,  they  adhere  to  their  superstition.  This  robe  offered 
in  sacrifice  served  one  of  our  Frenchmen,  who  took  it  as  we  returned. 



Aboat  three  weeks  after  Heimepin  flrst  saw  the  FallB  of 
St.  Anthony,  as  here  narrated,  he  met  Dnloth,  who  was  on  hia 
way  to  release  these  Frenchmen  from  their  captivity.  Henne- 
pin writes  of  this  aa  foUowB: 

On  the  2Stb  of  July,  IGSO,  as  we  were  ascendlog  the  river  Colbert, 
after  the  buflaJo  bant,  to  the  Indian  TlltageB,  we  met  tbe  Slenr  de 
Lntb,  wbo  came  to  the  NadouBsiotis,  with  five  French  Boldlers;  tbe^ 
Joined  aB  about  two  hundred  and  twenl?  leagues  distant  from  the 
country  t>t  the  Indians  who  bad  taken  us;  as  we  had  some  knowledge 
of  their  language,  they  begged  us  to  accompany  them  to  the  Tillies 
of  those  tribes,  which  I  did  readily,  knowing  that  these  Frenchmen 
had  not  approached  the  sacraments  for  two  years.  The  Sieur  de  Lntb, 
,  who  acted  as  captain,  seeing  me  tired  of  tonsuring  the  children,  and 
Needli^  asthmatic  old  men  to  get  a  mouthful  of  meat,  told  the  In- 
dians that  I  was  his  elder  brother,  so  that,  having  my  sulwlstence 
secured,  I  labored  only  for  the  salTation  of  these  Indians.    .... 

Toward  the  end  of  September,  having  no  Implements  to  begin  an 
establishment  we  resolved  to  tell  these  people,  that  for  their  benefit 
we  would  have  to  return  to  the  French  settlements.  The  great  chief 
of  the  Issatl  or  NadouesBloaE  consented,  and  traced  In  pencil,  on  a 
paper  I  gave  him,  Hie  route  wo  were  to  take  for  four  hundred  leagues 
of  the  way.  With  this  chart,  we  set  out,  eight  Frenchmen,  in  two 
canoes,  and  descended  the  rivers  St,  Francis  and  Colbert. 

Thence  the  adventarers  made  their  way  to  Canada,  and 
sabseqnently  Hennepin  arrived  in  France.  In  1683  he  pub- 
lislied  in  Paris  the  first  account  of  his  American  travels  and 
captivity  under  the  title  "Description  of  Lonisiana."  There 
were  afterward  miany  editions  and  translations  of  this  book 
printed.  As  many  as  twenty-eight  different  editions  and  pnb- 
lications  bear  bis  name. 

Father  Hennepin  and  his  fellow  Toyagenrs  were  the  first 
white  men  whose  eyes  had  rested  on  the  waters  of  the  Missis- 
ripid  as  they  foamed  and  tossed  over  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony. 

Where  those  Frenchmen  more  than  two  centnries  ago 
stood,  beholding  in  the  clear  sanlight  the  glistening  spr^  of 
the  Father  of  Waters,  now  stand  the  great  flouring  mills  of 
Minneapolis,  grinding  the  golden  grain  from  the  vast  prairies 
of  the  BioQZ.  The  sound  of  this  machinery  sarpasses  ttie  roar 
of  the  primitive  cataract,  while  the  clear  air  of  that  earlier 
day  is  filled  with  smoke  of  modem  locomotive  and  blazing 
furnace.  Acrom  that  same  stream  over  which  Hennepin  and 
Aagnel  paddled  their  frail  canoe,  the  steel  and  granite  hlgh- 


234        HimmsoTA  historical  society  collections. 

ways  ot  cfHmnerce  rear  th^r  arching  coIdhuib.  Henn^in's 
name  is  linked  indissolably  with  hia  discoTery  as  every  foot 
of  soil  for  many  miles  in  every  direction  fn»n  the  Falls  of  St. 
Anthony  is  handed  down  from  generation  to  generatioa 
through  the  records  of  the  county  which  bears  his  name. 


It  is  proper  In  this  conneetitHi  to  look  for  a  tnoment  at  the 
history  and  character  of  the  discoverer.  He  was  the  first 
Enropean  to  see  and  name  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony;  the  first 
to  explore  the  Mississippi  above  the  month  of  tlie  Wisconsin; 
and  the  first  to  pnblish  an  account  of  his  jonmeys  and  discov- 
eries in  Europe.  The  facts  concerning  the  early  life  of  Hen- 
nepin are  meager. 

He  was  bom  in  Hainaat,  a  province  of  Belgl^^l^  in  the  town 
of  Ath.  Daring  bis  early  years  he  wished  to  visit  foreign 
countries  in  search  of  adventure.  In  order  to  gain  the  object 
ot  his  ambition  he  became  a  priest,  as  this  was  the  sorest  road, 
in  that  age,  to  distinction.  He  became  a  member  of  the  Recol- 
lect order  of  the  Franciscans.  He  seems  to  have  be«i  chap- 
lain, in  an  early  part  of  his  career,  at  a  hospital  in  Flanders, 
and  was  sabseqoently  present  at  the  battle  of  Seneffe  in  1674. 
Two  years  later  he  received  an  order  from  his  superior  to  em- 
bark for  Canada,  With  this  he  gladly  complied,  as  he  hoped 
to  be  able  in  the  new  world  to  carry  out  his  long  cherished 
plan  of  discovery  and  exploration.  He  spent  two  years  in  the 
neighborhood  of  Quebec  and  Kingston  in  Tai-ions  undertaking 
and  adventures,  on  one  of  which  he  penetrated  as  far  among 
the  Iroquois  of  New  York  as  Albany.  In  the  year  1678  he 
was  sent  to  join  the  expedition  of  La  Salle,  then  about  to  em- 
bark on  a  voyage  of  discovery  to  the  great  lakes  of  the  North- 
west   His  subsequent  care^  has  already  been  traced. 

Considerable  discassion  and  speculation  has  arisen  as  to 
the  authenticity  and  veracity  of  the  accounts  be  gave  of  hia 
discoveries  and  explorations.  In  1683,  three  years  after  his 
discovery  of  the  Falls,  he  pabllshed  in  Paris  bis  "Description 
of  Lonisiana."  Subsequently  many  ediUons  of  this  original  . 
work  appeared.  The  many  changes  and  variations  in  ibem 
subsequent  accounts  have  given  rise  to  grave  doubts  as  to 



Hennepin's  veracity.  His  first  book  was  published  during  the 
lifetime  of  La  Salle,  hie  superior  officer  on  the  expedition 
about  which  he  was  writing. 

Let  us  examine  the  evidence  in  the  statements  of  his  con- 
temporaries,  and  of  those  who  lived  at  the  time  of  the  publica- 
tion  ot  the  various  edititms.  Ia  Salle,  in  a  letter  written  Au- 
gust 22, 1682,  probably  to  the  Abb^  Bemon,  about  the  time  ot 
H^inefdn's  return  to  France,  says: 

I  bave  deemed  It  seaqonable  to  e1v«  7on  a  narrative  ot  the  ad- 
ventures of  tbia  canoe,  because  I  bare  no  doubt  It  will  be  spoken  of, 
and  If  yon  desire  to  confer  witli  Father  Loals  Hennepin,  Recollect, 
wbo  has  goae  back  to  France,  It  la  necessary  to  know  blm  somewhat 
for  he  will  not  fail  to  exaggerate  everything;  It  Is  bis  character;  and 
to  myaelf,  he  has  written  me,  as  fhongh  he  had  been  all  ready  to  be 
bnned,  although  be  was  not  even  In  danger;  but  be  believes  that  It  Is 
honorable  for  btm  to  act  In  tbis  war,  and  be  speaks  more  la  keeping 
With  what  be  wisbes  than  what  he  knows. 

The  researches  of  John  Gilmary  Shea  inform  us  that  Father 
Le  Glercq,  in  1691,  referred  to  Hennepin  and  his  first  work  in 
terms  of  praise;  but  tliat  De  Michel,  the  editor  of  Joutel  in 
1713,  said: 

Father  Hennepin,  a  Fleming,  of  the  same  order  ot  Recollects.  ^lo 
seems  to  know  the  country  well,  and  wbo  took  part  tn  great  discov- 
eries; although  the  truth  of  his  B«1atioaB  Is  very  much  contested. 
He  Is  the  one  who  went  northward  towards  the  source  of  the  Hlssldi^ 
wblcdi  he  caUed  Mecbaslpl,  and  wbo  printed  at  Paris  a  Relation  ot 
th'e  countries  around  that  river  under  the  name  of  Louisiana.  He 
should  have  stopped  there  and  not  gone  on,  as  be  did  In  Holland,  to 
Issue  another  edition  much  enlarged,  and  perhaps  not  so  true,  wbldt 
he  dedicated  to  wnilam  111,  Pnnce  ot  Orange,  then  King  of  Great 
Britain,  a  design  as  odd  as  It  was  ridlcnlons  In  a  religions,  not  to  say  . 
worse.  For  after  great  long  eulogies  whldi  he  makes  in  his  dedlcatloB 
of  this  Protestant  prince,  be  begs  and  conjnres  him  to  think  of  these 
vast  unknown  countries,  to  ctmquer  them,  send  colonies:,  there,  and 
obtain  for  the  Indians  the  knowledge  ot  the  tme  God  and  of  bis 
worship,  and  to  cause  tbe  gospel  to  be  preached.  This  good  religions 
whom  many,  on  account  ot  his  extravagance,  falsely  believed  to  have 
become  an  apostate,  had  no  thought  of  such  a  thing.  So  he  scandalised 
the  Catholics  and  set  tUe  Huguenots  laughing.  For  would  these  en- 
emies of  the  Roman  church  pay  Recollects  to  go  to  Canada  to  preach 
Pinery  as  they  called  It?  Or  wonlcl  they  carry  any  religion  but  their 
own?   And  Father  Hennepin,  can  he  In  that  case  offer  ai^  excuse? 



As  a  resDlt  of  Hennepin's  dedication  and  declaraitionB  in 
tluB  edition  published  In  Utrecht  in  1697,  the  BritiBb  were  in- 
doced  to  send  some  vessels  to  ent^  and  explore  the  Mlsms- 
sippi.  The  governor  of  Canada,  Callieres,  writing  to  the  min- 
ister Pontchartrain,  Hay  12th,  1699,  said:  "I  hare  learoed 
that  th^  are  preparing  ressels  in  England  and  Holland,  to 
take  possesBlon  of  Lonisiana,  upon  the  BelatUm  of  P^re  Loois 
Hennepin,  a  Becollect,  who  has  made  a  book  of  it,  dedicated 
to  King  William."* 

That  this  action  of  Hennepin's  actnally  took  place  seema 
to  be  incontrOTertible,  from  the  fact  that  when  the  good  friar 
wished  to  return  to  America,  Lonis  XIV  sent  the  following 
despatch  to  Callieres,  then  governor  of  Canada: 

His  majeatr  baa  been  Informed  tbat  Father  Henaepla,  a.  Dutch 
Franciscan,  vbo  has  formerij  been  in  Canada,  la  deatrons  of  returning 
tblther.  Ab  tila  majeetj  Is  not  satiafled  with  the  condnct  of  the  friar, 
It  la  his  pleaaure.  If  be  return  thither,  tbat  they  arrest  him  and  send 
blm  to  the  Intendant  of  Bocfaefort. 

Still  later  Father  Charlevoix  said  of  Hennepin's  writings: 

AU  these  woilta  are  written  In  a  declamatory  style,  which  offends 
by  Its  tnriddlty  and  shocks  by  the  liberties  which  the  antlior  takes 
and  his  unbecoming  InrectlTes.  As  for  the  anbatance  of  mattera 
Father  Hennepin  thought  be  might  take  a  trareler'a  license,  hence 
be  Is  mncb  decried  la  Canada,  those  who  had  accompanied  him  taavinc 
often  protested  tbat  he  was  anytlUng  but  veritable  In  his  histories. 

In  recent  years  there  have  been  apolt^ets  of  the  Franciscan 
priest  who  claim  that  hie  statements  are  both  trathfal  and 
accurate.  Kotable  among  these  are  John  Oilmary  Shea  and 
Archbishop  Ireland.  In  1880  Mr.  Bhea  pablished  a  transla- 
tion into  English  of  Hennepin's  "Discovery  of  Loaisiana," 
from  which  several  of  the  citations  in  this  paper  are  copied. 
In  his  preface  to  tbat  work  he  says: 

Donbta  thrown  ap<Hi  Hennepin  by  the  evident  falsity  of  a  later 
work  bearing  bis  name,  have  led  to  a  general  charge  of  falsehood 
mnUnst  him.  In  Justice  to  him,  It  must  be  admitted  that  there  are 
gronnds  for  believing  that  hia  ootea  were  adapted  by  an  nnacrapnloua 
editor,  and  the  second  book  altered  even  alter  it  was  printed. 

The  claim  is  made  that  Hennepin's  narrative  iB  tmthfnl, 
and  that  the  inconsistencies  and  differences  between  the  first 

•Bmfth'i  HUtory  of  Wlaconsln,  vol.  I,  p.  MS. 

>y  Google 


and  subsequent  editions  of  Mb  work  are  caased  by  unauthor- 
ized interpolatioDS  by  the  editor.  Bhea,  after  dwelling  at 
length  on  the  Tariona  phases  of  this  question,  says : 

To  sum  ap  all,  the  case  Btauda  ttma:  "The  DeBcrlptlon  of  l/oulslana," 
by  Father  Hennepin,  1b  clearly  no  pla^arlsm  from  La  Salle's  acconnt, 
and  OD  the  contrary  the  bo  called  LtL  Salle  Relation  Is  an  anooymoiiB 
undated  plaKlartsm  from  Hennepin's  book,  aoQ  moroorer  the  Descrip- 
tion of  Louisiana  Is  sustained  toy  contemporary  evidence  and  by  the 
tf^K^crspby  of  the  country,  and  our  knowledge  of  the  lajiguage  and 
manuers  of  the  Sioux.  It  shows  ranlty  In  Its  author,  but  no  falsifica- 
tion.   So  far  as  It  goes,  It  presents  Hennepin  as  trutbfat  and  accurate. 

A  later  work  shows  a  suppression  after  printing.  Introduction  of 
new  and  untrue  matter,  and  the  erldent  band  of  an  IgmKant  editor. 
For  this  book  as  finally  published,  Hennepin  cannot  be  held  responsi- 
ble, nor  can  be  Justly  be  stigmatized  as  mendacious  by  reaBon  of  Its 
false  assertions. 

The  third  book  Is  evidently  by  the  same  editor  aa  the  second,  and 
the  defence  which  It  puts  forward  In  Hennepin's  name  cannot  alter 
the  facts,  or  make  the  original  author  responsible. 

In  Tlew  of  all  this.  It  seems  that  now  at  least  the  case  of  Hennepin 
should  be  beard  with  more  Impartiality;  and  we  call  for  a  rehearing  In 
the  Tlew  of  documents  now  accessible,  under  the  conviction  that  our 
earlier  Judgments  were  too  basty. 

Shea,  in  his  "Discovery  and  Exploration  of  the  Missis- 
sippi," published  in  1852,  was  a  severe  critic  of  Hennepin.  His 
explanation  of  the  new  view  taken  in  1880  does  not  seem  to 
me  snfflcient. 

Archbishop  Ireland  follows  the  same  line  of  reasoning 
as  Shea,  and  contends  for  the  general  truthfulness  of  Henne- 
pin's books.  In  an  address  before  this  society  at  the  "Henne- 
pin Bi-Centennary,"  in  1880,  he  said: 

Hennepin's  book  had  made  much  noise  in  France.  Utrecht  was  a 
great  Uterary  center.  It  Is  very  easy  to  suppose,  then,  basing  our  verdict 
upon  the  facts  wblch  I  have  put  before  yon,  that  the  second  volume, 
the  one  published  at  Utrecht,  was  made  up,  and  pabllsbed,  not  by 
Hennepin,  but  by  some  stranger,  some  man  who  had  adopted  the 
principal  part  of  the  Paris  edition,  adding  on  certain  notations,  which 
be  got  from  Le  Clercq's  "Establishment  of  Christianity"  in  tbe  new 
world,  to  bring  It  up,  so  to  speak,  to  date.  • 

With  reference  to  the  interpolations  about  the  discovery 
and  exploration  of  the  lower  Mississippi,  tbe  same  author  said 
further  in  this  address: 

•Hlnnesota  Hlatorlcal  Society  Collections,  vol.  VI,  p.  TO. 

>y  Co  Ogle 


The  very  m&tter  af  these  ten  pages  shows  that  th^  were  Inter- 
polated. Tli«  iMiges  tell  ns  that  Hennepiu  vas  at  the  montii  of  the 
Arkansas  on  the  24th  of  April,  and  yet,  In  the  following  pages^  he  Is 
said  to  have  beea  captured,  near  the  WtsctHisln,  on  the  24th  dajr  of 
April,  the  date  according  to  the  Parte  editlML  Besides,  In  these  ten 
pages  It  Is  stated  that  Baster  Snndar  occurred  on  the  23rd  of  March. 
Now,  Hennepin  could  never  have  made  sach  aa  error.  In  lOSO,  Easter 
Sunday  occurred  on  the  first  of  April,  and  tt  Is  so  stated  In  Hennepin's 
first  Tolntne.  These  are  verjr  s^tnlflcant  facts,  which  cannot  be  over- 
looked, and  when  we  take  them  all  Into  conalderatloii;,  together  wiUi 
the  general  ^pearance  of  thla  second  volume,  when  we  remember  him 
as  the  scholar  and  close  observer  which  the  Pails  volume  shows  blm 
to  tiave  been,  wlien  we  remember  the  habits  of  literary  j^racjr  that 
were  then  common  In  Europe  have  we  not  solid  foundations  for  saying 
that  It  cannot  be  proven  that  Father  Louis  Hennepin  wrote  and  pub- 
lished, himself,  the  second  volume'/  This  Utrecht  volume  Is  tbe  one 
upon  wbicb  all  the  accusations  against  him  have  been  based,  and  once 
take  away  from  It  Hennepin's  name,  there  Is  no  ground  whatever  to 

Let  OB  examine,  on  tbe  otber  hand,  some  of  the  critical 
estiioateB  of  Francis  Parkman,  an  American  historian,  who 
has,  more  carefully  than  any  other  man,  examined  all  the  evi- 
dence on  this  vexed  question.    He  says: 

Hennepin's  first  book  was  published  soon  after  his  return  from  his 
travels,  and  while  La  Salle  was  etin  alive.  In  It.  he  relates  the  accom- 
plishment of  the  Instructions  given  him,  without  the  smallest  Intima- 
tion that  he  did  more.  Fourteen  years  after,  wben  La  Salle  was  dead, 
be  published  another  edition  of  his  travels,  In  which  he  advanced  a 
new  and  surprising  pretension.  ReaAws  connected  with  his  personal 
safety,  he  declares,  before  compelled  blm  to  remain  silent;  but  a  time  at 
length  has  come  wben  tbe  truth  must  be  revealed.  And  be  proceeds 
to  affirm  that,  before  ascending  the  Mississippi,  be,  with  bis  two  men, 
explored  Its  whole  course  from  the  Illinois  to  the  sea,  thus  anticipating 
the  discovery  which  forms  the  crowning  laurel  of  La  Salle. 

"1  am  resolved,"  be  says,  "to  make  known  here  to  the  whole  world 
the  mystoy  of  this  disoov^y,  which  I  have  hitherto  concealed,  tbat  I 
might  not  offend  the  Sleur  de  la  Salle,  who  wished  to  keep  all  the 
glory  and  all  the  knowledge  of  It  to  himself.  It  is  for  this  that  be 
sacrificed  many  persons  whose  lives  he  exposed,  to  prevent  them  from 
maklug  known  what  they  had  seen,  and  thereby  crossing  his  secret 
plaDS.    .    .    ." 

'  He  then  proceeds  to  recount,  at  length,  the  particulars  of  his  alleged 
exploration.    The  stoiy  was  distrusted  from  the  first.*    Why  had  he 

*8ee  the  preface  of  ttia  Spaiilsh  translation  by  Dan  Sebastian  Famandes 
da  Medrano.  IflM,  and  also  the  letter  of  Oravler,  dated  ITOl,  In  Shea's 
Xarly  Votata  on  Ike  iHitUtippi.  Barcla.  Chaflevoli,  Kalro,  and  other  early 
WTltere,  put  a  low  value  on  Hennepin's  veracity. 



not  toll]  It  before!  An  excess  of  modest;,  &  tack  of  self-assertion,  w  a 
too  senaltlTe  leluctance  to  wonnd  the  susceptlUUtles  of  otbets,  bad 
nerer  been  fonnd  among  bis  foibles.  Tet  some,  perhaps,  mlgbt  bare 
believed  blm,  had  he  not,  In  the  first  edition  of  his  book,  gratnltoaslr 
sad  distinctly  declared  that  he  did  not  niak«  ttie  rojage  hi  qneatloii. 
"We  had  some  designs,"  be  says,  "of  going  down  the  river  Otdbert 
[MlsrisslppI]  aa  far  as  Its  mouth;  bnt  the  tribes  that  took  ns  prison- 
ers gave  ns  no  time  to  navigate  this  river  both  np  and  down." 

....  Six  y^rs  before  Hennepin  published  his  pretended  dis- 
covery, Us  brother  friar,  Father  OhrCtlen  Le  Clercq,  published  an 
account  of  the  Recollect  missions  among  the  Indians,  under  the  title  of 
"BttabllSBement  de  la  FoL"  This  book  was  suppressed  by  the  French 
government;  but  a  few  copies  fortunately  survived.  One  of  these  is 
now  before  me.  It  contains  the  Journal  of  Father  Zenobe  Membrfi, 
on  bis  descent  of  the  Mississippi  In  lesi,  In  company  with  La  Salle. 
The  slightest  comparison  of  bis  narrative  with  tbat  of  Hennepin  Is 
snfllcIeDt  to  shew  that  the  latter  framed  his  own  story  out  of  Int^dents 
and  descriptions  fnmlsbed  by  his  brother  missionary,  often  using  his 
very  words,  and  sometimes  c<vylng  entire  pages,  with  do  other  altera- 
tions than  Bucb  as  were  necessary  to  make  himself.  Instead  of  La 
Salle  and  his  companions,  the  hero  of  the  exploit  The  records  of 
Uterary  piracy  may  be  searched  In  vain  for  an  act  of  depredation  more 
recklessly  Impudent 

JuBtin  Winsor  says  that  some  time  after  Hennepin  pnb- 
liehed  his  first  book,  according  to  hia  own  Btory,  he  incnrred 
the  displeaBure  of  the  Provincial  of  his  Order,  and  that  he 
was  BO  pnrsned  by  his  saperior  that  in  the  end  he  threw  him- 
self on  the  favor  of  William  III,  of  England,  whom  be  had 
met  at  the  Hagne.  This  was  doubtlesa  the  reason  of  his  dedi- 
cating his  later  book  to  the  English  king.  The  same  antbor 
goes  on  to  say  that  on  both  of  the  maps  published  with  this 
edition  (1697)  the  MlsaiBBippi  river  Ib  marked  as  continuing 
to  the  Onlf.  This  change  was  made  to  explain  an  interpola- 
tion in  the  text  taken  from  Membr^s  journal  of  La  Salle's  de- 
scent of  the  UissisBippi.  , 

The  explanation  made  by  the  apologists  of  Hennepin  that 
the  literary  piracy  was  committed,  not  by  Hennepin,  but  by 
"some  Btranger"  or  ignorant  editor,  is  weak  and  unsatisfac- 
tory. At  no  time  subsequent  to  the  publication  of  the  sup- 
posed spurious  editions  did  Hennepin  ever  disavow  the  au- 
thorship of  the  book,  or  that  part  of  it  containing  his  pre- 
tended discovery  of  the  lower  MisBissippi.  He  could  not  but 
have  known  of  these  fabrications,  because  these  books  were 



'widely  published  and  diBtribnted  to  Enrope  long  prior  to  his 
death.  He  has  left  on  record  no  word  of  denial  as  to  their 
authenticity  and-  correctness.  While  he  may  not  hare  been 
able  to  stop  the  pablication  of  pirated  and  false  editions  of 
his  works,  the  least  he  could  be  expected  to  do  was  to  leave 
on  record  his  formal  protest  against  the  onwarraoted  use  of 
his  name  in  pablishing  to  the  world  pretended  discOTeries 
which  he  ncTer  made 

On  the  other  hand,  when  these  later  and  interpolated  edi- 
tiona  appeared,  and  when  doubts  had  arisen  at  that  time  as 
to  the  gennineness  and  Teracity  of  the  narrative,  Henn^in, 
addressing  the  reader,  says:  "I  here  protest  to  you,  bef<»e 
God,  that  my  narrative  is  faithfal  and  sincere,  and  that  yon 
may  believe  everything  related  in  it."  This  testimony  from 
liiB  own  pen  is  certainly  convincing.  When  yon  couple  this 
with  the  fact  that  the  French  authorities  had  received  orders 
for  his  arrest  as  soon  aa  he  should  reappear  in  Canada,  which 
orders  were  based  on  the  dedication  of  one  of  his  subsequent 
interpolated  books  to  the  king  of  England,  and  the  facts  grow- 
ing out  of  an  English  alliance,  we  are  forced  to  the  conclusion 
that  in  all  the  editions  subsequent  to  the  first,  Hennepin  was, 
as  Parkman  calls  him,  "the  most  impudent  of  liars;"  and  that 
these  adapted  narratives  are,  to  use  again  the  same  historian's 
words,  "a  rare  monument  of  brazen  mendacity."*  While  I  be- 
lieve that  the  account  contained  In  the  first  book  published  by 
Hennepin  in  1683  Is,  in  the  main,  truthful  and  accurate,  bar- 
ring his  boasting  and  vainglorious  statements,  I  am  at  the 
same  time  forced  to  concur  in  the  conclnsion  of  Edward  D. 
Keill,  a  form^  secretary  of  this  society,  that  "nothing  has 
been  discovered  to  change  the  verdict  of  two  centuries;  that 
Louis  Hennepin,  Recollect  Franciscan,  was  deficient  in  Chris- 
tian manhood." 

■La  Salle  (wd  tb»  Discovery  of  the  Qreat  'West,  p.  138. 



'riUiy  /x^,i/:>  tite^  ■ 

DiBiimd, Google 

TO  THE  YEAR  1870.* 


When  we  take  into  account,  in  thi»  rapid);  advancing  age, 
the  man;  years,  and  I  may  Bay  centuries,  Bince  the  vast  wealth 
and  resources  afforded  to  man  by  the  great  lake  Superior  and 
the  country  surroondiog  it  became  known,  their  settlement 
and  developfment  seem  surprisingly  Blow. 

While  trading  posts,  missionary  stations,  and  other  small 
settlements,  had  been  made  within  the  boundaries  of  north- 
eastern Minnesota  at  different  dates,  from  the  lirst  advent  of 
.  the  white  man  in  1659,  yet  the  first  effort  as  to  settlement  of 
any  part  of  that  region,  by  the  building  of  towns  and  cities, 
was  not  made  until  about  the  year  1864;  after  a  lapse  of  near- 
ly two  hundred  years,  since  the  visit  of  the  intrepid  explorers, 
Groseilliers  and  Radisson,  who  are  said  to  have  been  the  first 
white  men  to  visit  Minnesota. 


Next  in  line  of  those  early  worthies,  we  have  that  noble 
and  intrepid  soldier  and  leader,  Daniel  Greyselon  Du  Lhut,  a 
native  of  France  and  a  prominent  and  influential  man.  That 
name  (Du  Luth,  as  it  is  better  spelled  in  English)  is  destined 
to  exist  as  long  as  the  city  which  bears  it  as  its  name  shall 
continue  as  the  great  commercial  gateway  of  Minnesota  and 
the  Northwest. 

'PrMCDted  >nd  read  Id  part  at  tbe  monthlr  meetlnc  of  tba  Bzecutlve 
Council.  May  9,  1898.  This  paper.  In  a  somewhat  more  extended  form,  was 
later  cublbrbed  by  tbe  Duluth  Newa  Tribune,  as  a  series  of  articles  becliH 
Idng  June  12  and  ending  August  21,  1898;  and  tbese  were  united  and  pub- 
llahed  from  the  Mae  type,  as  a.  pamphlet,  In  NoTember.  1888,  under  the 
auspices  of  the  Dulutb  Historical  and  Sctentlflc  AssoclaUon. 



Borne  promiDent  merchants  ot  Quebec  and  Montreal,  with 
the  support  of  the  governor  of  Canada,  formed  a  company  in 
1678,  and  organized  an  expedition  for  the  purpose  of  cmi- 
tinning  the  trade  among  the  Indians  in  New  France  which 
had  already  been  opened  by  Groseilliers  and  others  in  the 
preceding  twenty  years,  but  which  for  a  time  had  been  in- 
terrupted. Du  Luth,  being  a  prominent  man  and  an  officer 
of  the  governor's  guards,  was  chosen  as  leader  of  the  expedi- 
tion. An  ordinance  or  law  promi^ated  by  the  governor  of 
Canada  then  existed  against  trading  with  the  Sioux;  "the 
king's  subjects  were  forbidden  to  go  into  the  remote  forests 
tbere  to  trade  with  the  Indians."  This  ordinance  was  issued, 
donbtless,  for  the  reason  of  the  dangers  to  which  the  traders 
and  missionaries  would  be  exposed  in  consequence  of  the 
bloody  strife  that  existed  between  some  bands  of  the  Sioux 
and  the  Ojibways  of  the  country  bordering  the  lake.  How- 
ever, the  temptation  was  bo  great  to  procure  the  furs,  not- 
withstanding the  law  and  the  hostility  of  the  Indians,  that  the 
governor  general,  who  was  probably  an  interested  party  In 
the  scheme,  winked  at  the  contraband  trade.  It  is  probable, 
also,  that  among  the  Indians  there  was  some  hostility  to  the 
trade,  for  it  is  related  that  Randin  visited  the  extremity  of 
lake  Superior  and  distributed  presents  to  them  in  the  name  of 
Frontenac,  the  governor,  to  secnre  their  favor  and  to  open  a 
way  for  Du  Luth  and  his  party  to  trade  with  them. 

Dn  Luth  started  on  his  mission  with  a  party  of  seventeen 
Frenchmen  and  three  Indians,  on  the  Ist  of  September,  1678. 
In  the  spring  of  1679,  after  wintering  with  his  party  in  the 
woods  about  nine  miles  from  the  Sault  Ste  Marie,  he  wrote 
to  Frontenac  that  he  would  remain  in  the  Sioux  country  until 
further  orders,  and  that,  when  peace  was  concluded,  he 
would  set  op  the  king's  arms,  lest  the  English  and  other 
Europeans  who  settled  toward  California  should  take  pos- 
session of  the  country. 

There  has  been  so  much  written  relating  to  Du  Luth  that 
I  will  forbear  giving  an  extended  account  of  his  life  and 
services.  Suffice  it  to  say  that  he  was  a  leader  of  men,  a  man 
of  unblemished  moral  character  and  undaunted  courage,  a 
hater  of  the  whisky  traffic  among  the  Indians,  a  resolute  and 
true  soldier,  and  a  fearless  supporter  and  vindicator  of  law 
and  order. 



It  iB  believed  by  many  that  Du  Lath  estaUi&hed  the  flrst 
trading  post  at  the  head  of  lake  Superior,  but  the  writer  cau 
find  no  definite  record  of  the  fact.  There  can  be  no  doubt 
but  that  he  visited  and  traded  with  the  Indiana  at  Fond  du  Lac, 
and  that  he  also  traveled  over  the  canoe  route  and  portages 
between  Fond  da  Lac  and  Sandy  lake. 


Jean  Baptiste  Cadotte,  a  man  of  influence  and  possessed 
of  a  liberal  education,  in  the  year  1792  was  employed  by  the 
Northwest  Fur  Company,  and  was  in  charge  of  the  Fond  du 
Lac  post  The  country  tributary  to  this  post  comprised  the 
sources  of  the  Mississippi,  St.  Croix  and  Chippewa  rivers.  Thn 
depot  or  post  was  then  located  about  three  miles  above  the  en- 
try of  the  St.  Louis  river,  on  the  Wlsconsiii  shore  of  Superior 
bay,  where  that  part  of  the  present  city  of  Superior  known 
as  Roy's  Addition  is  ^tuated.  This  post  or  fort  was  a  col- 
lecting point.  It  was  surrounded  with  strong  cedar  pickets 
driven  Into  the  ground,  the  burnt  ends  of  many  of  which  re- 
mained projecting  fnnn  tbe  earth  in  1856,  and  were  many 
times  seen  by  the  writer.  The  Fond  da  Lac  of  those  early 
times  was  known,  in*  translation  to  English,  as  the  Head  of 
the  Lake. 

Several  of  the  buildings  of  the  Fond  da  Lac  trading  post, 
as  it  was  later  occupied  by  the  American  Pur  Company,  on 
the  northern  side  of  the  St.  Louis  river,  in  Minnesota,  were 
yet  in  existence  and  in  a  good  state  of  preservation  in  1865, 
and  for  many  years  thereafter. 

In  1854  and  1866,  when  tbe  great  rush  came  for  the  con- 
trol or  a  share  in  the  site  of  the  future  great  city  at  tbe  head 
of  the  lake.  Fond  du  Lac  was  the  only  place  baving  a  name 
as  a  town  or  village.  It  was  looked  upon  by  the  early  pioneers 
of  St.  Paul  as  a  place  of  much  importance,  as  the  lake  port 
for  Minuesoto.  Our  old  pioneer,  Oen.  William  O.  Le  Due,  now 
of  Hastings,  Minn.,  in  his  Minnesota  Year  Book  for  1861,  pub- 
lished at  St.  Paul,  thus  mentions  it:  "Fond  du  Lac  is  a  very 
old  settlement  on  the  St.  Louis  river,  twenty-two  miles  from 
its  entrance  Into  lake  Superior.  Fond  du  La^  is  destined  to 
be  a  place  of  great  importance,  its  situation  making  it  the 
lake  port  of  Minnesota.    Steamboats  and  vessels  find  no  dif- 



floalty  in  ascending  the  St  Loais  to  Fond  da  Lac."  Hie  gen- 
eral's prophecy  is  now  Terifled,  as  it  is  a  part  of  ttie  city  of  Du- 


On  the  6th  day  of  Augnst,  1826,  Oct.  Lewis  Cass  and  T. ' 
L.  McKinuey,  commissioners  appointed  by  the  United  States 
gOTernment,  met  with  the  Ojibway  Indians  at  Fond  dn  Lac, 
Minn.,  and  concinded  the  first  formal  treaty  with  these  In- 
dians. It  is  reiated  that  a  few  days  earlier,  on  the  28th  of 
Jniy,  1826,  the  commissioners  approached  this  trading  post 
in  their  barges,  with  flying  coiors  and  mnsic,  and  then,  for  the 
first  time,  the  Ojibways  of  that  region  heard  the  tnne  "Hail, 
Colnmbia."  The  principal  effect  of  that  treaty  was  to  give 
the  United  States  the  right  to  explore  for  and  carry  away  any 
metals  or  minerals  tliat  might  be  fonnd  along  the  conntry 
bordering  the  lake. 

In  August,  1847,  by  a  treaty  concluded  at  Fond  dn  Lac,  by 
J.  A.  Yerplanck  and  Henry  M.  Bice,  as  the  commissioners  on 
the  part  of  the  United  States,  all  of  the  land  west  and  south- 
w^t  from  the  head  of  the  lake  was  ceded  to  the  United 
States.  And  in  September,  1854,  by  the  treaty  made  at  La 
Pointe,  Wis.,  the  remainder  of  the  country  along  the  nortli 
shore  of  the  lake  and  the  northern  boundary  of  the  state  was 


Here  I  desire  to  refer  to  some  legislation  in  the  early  days 
of  the  Territory  of  Minnesota,  relating  to  the  formatiim  of 
counties  in  the  northern  part  of  our  state.  Itasca  county, 
established  by  an  act  of  the  first  territorial  legislature,  ap- 
proved October  27,  1849,  embraced  that  part  of  Minnesota 
bordering  on  lake  Superior  and  reaching  west  to  the  upper 
Mississippi  river  and  the  Lake  of  the  Woods.  It  was  quite 
large  enough  for  a  good-sized  state  From  this  area  were 
subsequently  carved  out  three  whole  counties,  St.  Louis,  lAke, 
and  Cook,  and  parts  of  Aitkin  and  Beltrami,  leaving  the 
county  of  Itasca  yet  large  enough  to  make  several  fair-sized 

St.  Iiouis  county  was  established  by  acts  of  the  territorial 
legislature  which  were  ai^roved  March  8, 18S5,  and  March  1, 



1856.  It  takes  its  name  (pom  the  St.  Louis  river,  the  largest 
SDteriDg  lake  Superior,  whicli  flows  through  this  county.  It 
had  a  population  of  only  406  in  the  year  18C0,  and  4,561  In 
1870;  but  in  1895,  according  to  the  state  censua,  its  population 
was  78,575.  This  county  comprises  an  area  of  6,61L75  square 
miles,  being  the  lai^est  one  of  the  eighty-two  counties  of  this 

An  earlier  county  that  had  included  this  area,  named  Su- 
perior county,  establi^ed  by  the  territorial  legislature  on 
PebBuary  20th,  1855,  was  imperfectly  defined.  Its  name  was 
changed  to  Bt.  Louis  by  the  acts  of  1855  and  1866. 


On  October  20th,  1849,  the  territorial  legislature  memo- 
rialized Congress  for  the  constructiou  of  a  road  from  Point 
Douglas,  at  the  mouth  of  the  St  Croix,  by  way  of  Cottage 
Grove,  Stillwater,  and  Marine  Mills,  passing  near  the  falls  of 
the  St.  Croix,  and  crosaing  Snake  river  near  Pokegama  lake, 
and  thence  continuing  on  the  most  practicable  route  to  the 
falls  of  the  St.  Louis  river.  On  November  Ist,  1849,  the  ter- 
ritorial legislature  memorialized  Congress,  "That  the  con- 
venience and  interest  of  the  people  of  the  Territory  would 
clearly  justify  the  establishment  of  a  mail  route  from  the 
Falls  of  St.  Croix  by  way  of  Pokegama  to  Fond  du  Lac,  the 
head  of  lake  Superior."  The  memorial  further  represented 
that  the  distance  from  the  falls  of  the  St  Crotx  to  Fond  du 
Lac  was  but  a  little  more  than  a  hundred  miles,  that  the 
country  was  being  rapidly  settled  along  the  first  half  of  the 
route,  and  that  a  large  settlement  already  existed  at  Fond 
do  Lac,  where  the  inhabitants  were  destitute  of  mail  facilities. 

In  1854,  through  the  efforts  of  our  del^ate  in  Congress, 
Hon.  Henry  M.  Bice,  an  appropriation  of  money  was  obtained 
from  Congress  for  constructing  the  proposed  road,  and  the 
mail  route  was  also  established.  Unfortunately,  however,  the 
point  designated  in  the  memorials  as  the  northern  end  of  both 
the  road  and  mail  route  was  cheated  out  of  any  direct  benefit, 
because  when  opened  and  used  they  euded  eight  or  ten  miles 
from  Fond  du  Lac,  the  intended  terminus  of  both.  The  peo- 
I^e  interested  in  Superior  City,  Wi&  (then  to  he  the  great  city 
of  destiny  at  the  head  of  Lake  Superior),  concluded  that  it  was 

DiQitized^yGOOgle   ■ 


the  Fond  du  Lac  mentioned  in  the  memorials.  It  may  be  that 
they  were  then  debating  upon  the  propriety  of  naming  the 
embryo  c(ty  Fond  dn  I>ac,  as  a  compliment  to  the  old  trading 
post  which  fifty  years  before  had  been  removed  from  Wiscou- 
sin  to  the  head  of  aaTigation  on  the  ^.  Louis  river  where  it 
became  Fond  da  I-ac,  Minnesota.  However  this  was,  the 
Superior  people,  who  were  at  this  tiiDie  largely  made  np  of 
St  Paal  hustlers,  decided  that  they  wonld  not  lose  the  ter- 
tnJDua  of  this  road  and  mail  route;  so  in  January,  1864,  they 
organiwd  a  force  of  choppers  and  set  them  at  work  in  cutting 
out  a  winter  road  on  the  proposed  line  from  Superior  to  what 
was  then  known  as  Chase's  camp,  oo  the  St.  Croii  ri^er,  a 
distance  of  about  fifty  or  sixty  miles.  This  road  was  then 
blazoned  on  maps  as  the  "Military  Road"  from  Point  Douglas 
to  Superior.  At  the  session  of  Congress  in  that  year  an  ap- 
propriation of  120,000  was  granted  for  opening  this  road,  and 
subsequently  other  appropriations  were  granted  by  Congress 
for  completing  it.  ITirougb  the  controlling  influence  at 
Washington  and  St.  Paul  of  those  interested  In  Superior,  that 
town  maintained  its  supremacy  as  the  coming  great  ci^y  for 
about  twelve  years,  untU,  in  1866,  Minnesota  woke  np  to  her 
great  interest  at  the  bead  of  lake  Superior  and  active  steps 
were  taken  for  the  construction  of  the  Lake  Superior  and  Miss- 
issippi railroad  to  Duluth. 


A  biographic  sketch  of  Bev.  Edmund  F.  Ely,  the  pionew 
teacher  and  missionary  at  Fond  du  Lac,  wboiu  I  knew  well 
during  twenty  years,  has  been  written  for  ine  by  his  son, 
Henry  S.  Ely,  of  Duluth,  as  follows:  "Edmund  Franklin  Ely 
was  bom  at  Wilbraham,  Mass.,  August  3rd,  1809,  and  died  in 
Santa  Rosa,  California,  August  29th,  1882.  He  made  profession 
of  religion  in  Rome,  N.  Y.,  in  1827.  In  1828  be  commenced 
study  with  a  view  of  the  gospel  ministry.  Dependent  upon 
his  own  efforts  for  the  means  of  defraying  his  necessary  ex- 
penses, he  devoted  part  of  bis  time  to  teaching 

In  1832  the  American  Board  of  Foreign  Missicms  established 
mission  stations  on  late  Superior,  and  Mr.  Ely,  whose  health 
at  that  time  was  poor,  accepted  their  invitation  to  go  to  that 
country  as  an  assistant  teacher.     He  was  subsequently  np- 


maiORT  OF  DULUTH  TO  THE  TEAR  1670.  247 

poioted  teacher  and  catechist,  expecting  ti>  return  in  two 
years  to  resume  hia  atudies,  but  the  way  never  opened  for  his 
return.  He  left  Albany,  N.  Y.,  July  5th,  1833.  On  reaching 
Mackinaw,  be  found  that  the  miseionariea  who  had  preceded 
him  had  departed  with  a  company  of  Indian  traders.  He  was 
forwarded  by  Henry  B.  Bchoolcraft,  then  the  Indian  agent, 
and  in  three  daya  overtook  the  boats  on  lalce  Superior.  At 
that  time  there  were  no  veasels  on  that  lake.  Mr.  Ely  was 
assigned  to  the  branch  of  the  misBion  among  the  Ojibways  of 
the  upper  Misaiasippi,  under  the  directon  of  Rev.  William  T. 
Boutwell,  and  proceeded  to  Sandy  lake,  where,  after  a  short 
time,  he  was  left  by  Mr.  Bootwell,  with  the  joint  duties  of 
misaionary  and  teacher  reatlng  upon  bim.  In  the  summw  of 
1S34  the  Bclraol  was  removed  from  Sandy  lake  to  Fond  du 
Lac,  a  village  on  the  St.  Louis  river  at  the  head  of  navigation, 
where  a  school  house  had  t>een  built  by  Mr.  Ely.  In  183S  a 
reinforcement  of  teachers  waa  sent  by  the  miaaion  board. 
One  of  them,  Miaa  Catherine  Gonlais,  soon  became  the  wife  of 
Mr.  My.  Here  they  labored  until  May,  1839,  when  they  re- 
moved to  Pokegama.  .  .  .  .  In  a  letter  written  by  Mr. 
Ely  in  1881,  he  says:  'When  I  first  entered  the  mlBaion  work 
at  lake  Superior,  that  portion  of  the  country  waa  included  in 
the  Territory  of  Michigan.  After  Michigan  was  admitted  as 
a  state,  the  Territory  of  Wisconsin  was  organised,  Minne- 
sota at  that  time  being  Indian  territory.  The  first  party  of 
white  men  I  saw  were  lumbermen  engaged  in  their  bnainoas 

on  the  watera  of  the  St  Croix,  in  the  year  1838 

The  Indian  titles  to  lands  about  tbe  head  of  lake  Superior 
were  not  extinguiahed  till  1854.  At  that  time  we  had  left 
the  mission  and  removed  to  St.  Paul,  but,  being  thoroughly 
conversant  with  the  country,  I  went  to  lake  Superior,  took 
up  lands  where  the  town  of  Superior  waa  located,  and  assisted 
in  surveying  and  laying  out  the  town.  In  1855  the  Indian 
title  was  extinguished  on  the  Minnesota  side  ot  the  harbor, 
and  I  went  over  there  and  laid  out  the  town  of  Oneota  as  a 
commercial  site,  built  a  steam  mill  and  docks,  and  held  the 
position  of  postmaster  for  six  years,  also  that  of  notary  pub- 
lic under  the  governor  of  tbe  Territory.  The  financial  reverses 
of  1857  rendered  our  property  valueless,  and  in  1862  we  re- 
turned to  St  PauL' " 


248  minnssotA  historicai.  socibtt  coLLEcnoNa 

Fond  du  Lac,  now  a  part  of  the  City  of  Dulutb,  was  the 
only  mjeaion  statiOD  established  io  that  part  of  Minneaota 
bordering  lake  Superior.  Besides  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ely,  other 
missiouaries  and  teaebers  were  located  there.  In  the  year 
1840  the  Methodist  denomiDation  gent  missionaries  and  teach- 
ers among  the  Ojibwaya  of  the  lake  region  and  northern  Min- 
nesota. In  1841  Geoi^e  Copway,  an  Ojibway,  his  wife,  who 
was  a  white  woman,  her  sister,  and  James  Simpson,  were  en- 
gaged in  the  mission  work  at  Fond  du  Lac.  It  would  seem 
that  soon  after  this,  for  some  canse  many  of  the  Indians  must 
have  left  Fond  da  Lac,  as  we  learn  that  in>  1849  Rev.  J.  W. 
Holt  and  his  wife,  the  last  missionaries  we  see  any  mention  of 
at  Fond  du  Lac,  had  only  twenty-eight  scholars  enrolled  in 
their  school,  with  an  average  attendance  of  only  fifteen. 

The  first  marriage  we  learn  of  as  having  been  performed 
in  accordance  with  the  Christian  and  civilized  form,  and  as 
taking  place  at  Fond  da  Lac,  within  what  is  at  present  the 
city  of  Doluth,  was  that  of  Bev.  W.  T.  Bontwell  (one  of  those 
early  missionaries)  to  Hester  Crooks,  on  the  11th  day  of  Sep- 
tember, 1834.  Hester  Crooks  was  the  daughter  of  Ramsay 
Crooks,  a  prominent  fur  trader,  and  an  Indian  mother.  Miss 
Crooks  had  been  a  teacher  at  the  mission  station  at  Yellow 
Lake,  Wisconsin,  and  probably  was  a  graduate  of  the  mission 
boarding  school  at  Mackinaw. 


Before  Duluth  was  platted  or  had  occasion  for  a  name,  on 
the  first  Tuesday  in  October,  1855,  there  was  held  the  first 
election  in  St  Louis  county.  The  election  was  for  a  delegate 
to  represent  the  Territory  in  Congress. 

The  election  for  all  Minnesota  at  the  head  of  the  lake  was 
held  in  the  log  house  or  "claim  shan^,"  as  such  buildings 
were  commonly  called,  owned  by  George  E.  Nettleton  as  a 
trading  house  or  post,  situated  on  the  main  land  near  the  base 
of  Minnesota  point,  about  400  feet  from  the  shore  of  the  lake, 
and  about  150  feet  east  of  First  avenue  east  in  the  present 
city  of  Duluth.  The  house  was  one-story,  about  fourteen  by 
eighteen  feet,  and  seven  feet  high  at  the  sides;  it  had  a  scooped 
log  roof,  one  door  and  one  window.    This  1(^  house  was  built 



by  Mr.  Nettleton  before  the  treaty  with  the  Ojlbway  Indiana 
at  La  Pointe  in  Beptember,  1851. 

On  the  morning  of  the  day  of  the  election,  the  writer, 
living,  like  the  majority  at  that  time,  in  Snperior,  but  claim- 
ing a  residence  on  their  land  claims  in  Mlonesota,  left  Oneota, 
now  a  part  of  Duluth,  in  a  row-boat,  in  company  with  eight 
or  nine  other  votere,  for  the  voting  place,  a  distance  of  about 
foar  miles  by  land  or  Beven  by  water.  There  was  then  not 
even  a  trail  by  land  between  Oneota  and  Nettleton's  claim, 
wliere  now  tlie  electric  street  car  makes  the  run  in  fifteen  min- 
ntes.  Had  we  then  taken  the  land  route,  the  density  of  the  for- 
est, the  crossing  of  streams,  and  the  climbing  of  rocky  ridges 
would  have  compelled  us,  even  if  we  reached  the  polling  place 
In  time  to  vote,  to  camp  out  over  night  before  our  return. 
None  of  the  party  were  then  acquainted  with  the  extent  and 
iotricaciefl  of  the  marsh  which  skirted  the  base  ot  Minnesota 
point  and  the  head  of  Snperior  bay;  so  we  concluded  to  land 
on  Minnesota  point  at  the  old  Indian  burying  place,  about  three 
mUes  from  the  voting  place.  There  we  left  our  boat  and 
walked  up  along  the  lake  shore  to  the  place  where  we  exercised 
the  sovereign  right  of  the  American  citizen. 

On  arriving  at  Nettleton's  "claim  shanty,"  we  found  a 
cosmopolitan  congregation,  made  up  principally,  however,  of 
Yankees,  Buckeyes,  Kentuckians,  Wolverines,  Badgers,  etc., 
not  forgetting  Canadians,  French,  Irish,  Dutch,  and  Bcandi- 
navianB,  with  a  fair  representation  of  the  Ojibways,  minus  the 
blanket,  but  bedecked  with  coat  and  pants,  as  an  evidence  ot 
their  qualification  to  vote.  My  recollection  is  that  105  votes 
were  polled,  96  for  Henry  M.  Rice,  the  Democratic  candidate, 
and  9  for  William  B.  Marshall,  the  opposition  or  Republican 
candidate.  From  that  election  may  be  dated  the  birth  of  the 
Republican  party  in  the  state. 

At  that  time,  from  Superior,  Wia,  radiated  nearly  all  of 
the  squatters  upon  nnsnrveyed  lands,  in  both  Minnesota  and 
Wisconsin.  The  people  in  Snperior  at  that  time  and  for  some 
years  after,  took  more  interest  in  elections  and  political  mat- 
ters in  Minnesota  than  they  did  in  their  own  state.  Snperior 
was  then  the  political  headquarters  for  figuring  and  laying 
out  plans  for  an  election  to  an  oflice  from  northeastern  Min- 




Reuben  B.  CarltoD,  after  whom  Carlton  coanty  was  named, 
was  the  flrat  fanner  and  blacksmith  sent  among  the  Indians 
of  Minnesota.  He  came  to  Fond  du  Lac  about  the  year  194,9. 
After  the  adoption  of  the  state  constitution  in  August, 
1S57,  at  the  election  for  members  of  the  state  legislature 
in  October  following,  Mr.  Carlton  was  elected  to  the 
first  state  senate,  and  John  8.  Watrous  to  the  first  bouse  of 
representatives.  Mr.  Caritoo  was  part  owner  of  the  towusite 
of  Fond  dn  Lac,  and  was  one  of  the  first  trustees  of  that  town 
under  the  act  ef  its  incorporaticm  in  1857.  The  other  trustees 
were  Alexander  Paul,  now  deceased;  D.  George  Morrison,  then 
and  now  living  at  Superior,  Wis.;  J.  B.  Culver,  then  living  at 
Dulnth;  and  EVancia  Boussain,  living  at  Fond  du  Lac.  Mr. 
Carlton  owned  about  eighty  acres  on  the  St.  Louis  river,  ad- 
joining Fond  du  Lac,  on  which  he  resided  until  his  death,  De- 
cember 6th,  1863. 

Mr.  Watrous  came  to  the  head  of  the  lake  f  rtnu  Ashtabula 
county,  Ohio,  with  George  E.  and  William  Nettleton.  He 
was  then  young,  and  a  man  of  more  than  ordinary  attainments 
and  force  of  character.  Although  a  new  member,  he  was 
elected  as  speaker  of  the  first  house  <rf  r^reaentatives.  He 
was  appointed  register  c^  the  United  States  land  office  at 
Buchanan,  St.  Louis  county,  in  March,  1859,  and  held  that 
office  until  January,  1860.  He  then  returned  to  Ohio.  He 
died  in  California  in  1897. 

In  the  next  session  of  the  state  legislature,  in  1860,  St 
Louis,  Lake,  and  Carlton  counties,  constituting  the  Twenty- 
sixth  legislative  district,  were  represented  by  Thomas  Clark 
as  senator,  and  William  Nettleton  as  representative.  Mr. 
Clark  was  a  civil  engineer.  He  came  from  Tc4edo  to  Superior, 
Wis.,  in  1854,  and  was  employed  by  the  Superior  Townsite 
Company  to  survey  and  plat  that  city.  It  was  customary  in 
those  days  with  the  residents  of  Superior  to  live  in  Minnesota 
on  a  claim  or  townsite.  Like  other  inhabitants  of  that  city  in 
those  days,  Mr.  Clark  became  interested  in  the  location  of  cities 
and  towns  in  Minnesota,  and  therefore  concluded  that  he  ought 
also  to  have  all  the  benefit  of  an  actual  resident  In  1857  he  be- 
came interested  in  the  location  of  Beaver  Bay,  in  Lake  county, 


H18TOHY  OF  DtlLtJTH  TO  THE  YEAR  1870.  251 

which  W88,  in  May  of  that  year,  incorporated  by  special  act  of 
the  territorial  legislatnre,  by  designating  the  location  only  as 
"the  territory  as  sorveyed  by  Thomas  Clark"  in  Lake  county. 
"When  elected  in  1859,  he  claimed  Beaver  Bay  as'  his  residence. 
Mr.  Clark  died  in  Superior  some  years  ago.  He  was  a  good 
and  npright  citizen  and  a  faithful  representative  of  Minnesota 
In  the  l^slatare. 

William  Nettleton,  who  a  few  years  ago  was  an  honored 
citizen  of  Bt.  Panl,  but  is  now  a  resident  of  Spokane  Falls, 
Wash.,  and  hie  brother  Oeoi^e  E.  Nettleton,  now  deceased, 
came  to  Superior,  Wis.,  in  the  winter  of  18B3-'54,  with  the  St 
Paul  colony,  which  was  composed  in  part  of  'Son.  B.  R.  Xel- 
Bon,  D.  A.  J.  Baker,  Col.  D.  A.  Bobertson,  B.  W.  Bninson,  R.  F. 
Slaughter,  and  others.  The  Nettletons  took  part  in  the  set- 
tlement of  Superior,  and  in  1855,  with  Col.  J.  B.  Culver,  were 
carrying  on  a  lar^  grocery,  provlEdon,  and  general  «npply 
store  there.  In  18S8  William  Nettletou  became  an  actual 
resident  of  Dniutb,  or  at  least  of  that  part  of  it  then  known 
as  his  preemption  claim.  He  was  the  Qrst  person  to  file  a 
preemption  statement  in  the  TJnited  States  land  office  at 
Buchanan.  He  proved  up  his  claim  and  obtained  title  on 
August  10th,  1858,  to  the  southwest  quarter  of  the  southeast 
quarter  of  section  22,  and  the  northeast  quarter  of  the  north- 
west quarter  and  the  northwest  quarter  of  the  northeast  quar- 
ter of  section  27,  all  in  township  60,  range  14,  now  a  part  of 
the  First  division  of  Ehiluth.  In  the  winter  of  1853-'54,  George 
E.  Nettleton  obtained  from  the  Indian  Department  of  the  gov- 
ernment a  trader's  license,  under  which  he  acquired  title  to 
lots  2  and  3  and  the  southeast  quarter  of  the  northwest  quar- 
ter and  the  southeast  qoarter  of  the  southwest  quarter  of 
section  27,  township  50,  range  14,  being  the  remainder  of  that 
part  of  Dulnth  known  as  the  First  Division. 

When  the  crash  came  and  the  bottom  fell  out  of  the  first 
"boom"  in  Superior,  in  1867,  George  E.  Ifettleton  left  and 
returned  to  Ohio,  where  he  resided  until  his  death  a  few 
years  ago. 

William  Nettleton,  vrith  his  family,  continued  an  honored 
resident  of  Duluth,  aiding  materially  In  Its  growth  and  de- 
relopmeut,  until  about  the  year  1878,  when  they  removed  to 
St.  Paul. 



At  the  session  of  the  legislatare  in  1860,  of  which  Messrs. 
Clark  and  Kettleton  were  members,  a  new  apportionment 
was  made,  reducing  the  nnmber  of  memhers  from  thirty-seven 
in  the  senate  and  sixty-nine  in  the  honae,  to  twentj-one  in  the 
senate  and  forty-two  in  the  house.  In  this  change,  St.  Louis, 
Lake,  and  Carlton  connties  were  put  in  the  Third  district, 
with  sixteen  other  connties  of  northern  Minnesota.  These 
counties  comprised,  in  area,  almost  half  of  the  state,  and  were 
entitled  to  only  one  senator  and  three  representatives.  This 
was  a  pevere  blow  to  the  future  prospects,  as  far  as  legisla- 
tive aid  and  assistance  was  concerned,  of  northeastern  Min- 
nesota. The  lake  counties,  being  comparatively  without 
votes,  remained  without  a  member  of  the  legislature  for  ten 
years,  and  they  had  to  pay  for  a  substitute  member  if  they 
desired  any  legislation.  During  these  ten  years  the  counties 
of  Steams,  Crow  Wing,  and  Morrison,  having  the  most  votes, 
controlled  and  monopolized  the  election  of  all  the  membera 
of  the  l^slature  from  the  district.  In  1871  they  permitted 
the  lake  connties  to  have  one  representative  in  the  house. 
In  Kovember,  1870,  Luke  Marvin  of  Duluth  was  elected  a 
member  of  the  house,  and  took  Us  seat  on  January  3rd,  1871. 
At  this  session  of  the  legislature,  northefutem  Minnesota  was 
more  fittingly  recognized.  A  new  apportionment  was  adopted, 
enlarging  the  membership  of  both  houses,  to  forty-one  in  the 
senate  and  one  hundred  and  six  in  the  house.  Bt.  Louis, 
Lake,  Carlton,  Itasca,  and  Cass  counties  constituted  the  Twen- 
^-ninth  district,  entitling  them  to  one  senator  and  one  rep- 

Luke  Marvin,  now  deceased,  with  whose  name  I  will  con- 
clode  my  reference  to  members  of  the  legislature  as  such,  was 
bom  in  Leicestershire,  England,  in  1820.  He  came  to  the 
United  States  in  1842.  He  removed  from  Cincinnati  to  St. 
Paul  in  1850,  where  he  engaged  for  about  eleven  years  in  the 
boot  and  shoe  business,  both  wholesale  and  retail.  He  was 
for  a  tenn  or  two,  a  member  of  the  common  council  of  that 
city,  and  part  of  the  time  president  of  that  body.  In  1861 
he  was  appointed  by  President  Lincoln  as  register  of  the 
United  States  land  office  at  Portiand  (Duluth),  and  moved  to 
Duluth  with  his  family  in  1861.  He  served  as  register  for 
eight  yearsj  he  also,  during  most  of  that  time,  held  the  office 



of  coanty  aaditor  for  the  county  of  St.  LouIb.  On  becOToing 
a  reBident  of  Daluth  he  at  oace  took  an  actlTe  part  in  the 
adrancement  of  the  interests  of  Dulath  and  St.  Louis  county. 
Having  a  laige  acquaintance  with  leading  men  in  St.  Paul  and 
other  parts  of  the  state,  he  soon  became  quite  efBcient  and  in> 
fluential  in  promoting  the  location  and  the  active  construction 
of  the  Lake  Superior  and  Miaaissippi  railroad  from  St.  Paul 
to  Duluth.  In  the  year  1855,  when  a  resident  of  St.  Paul, 
he,  in  connection  with  E.  F.  Ely,  before  referred  to,  aod  H. 
W.  Wheeler,  also  one  of  the  early  pioneers  of  Minnesota,  and 
now  and  from  that  time  a  resident  of  the  present  city  of  Du- 
luth,  became  interested  in  the  location,  settlement  and  devel- 
opment of  the  townsite  of  Oneota,  which  in  those  early  days 
vied  with  Dnluth  as  the  "city  of  destiny"  at  the  head  of  the 
lake  in  Minnesota.  Mr.  Marvin  died  an  honored  resident  of 
Dnluth  on  April  10th,  1880,  leaving  Mrs.  Marvin  and  seven 
children,  five  sons  and  two  daughters. 

Mr.  Wheeler  was  the  flrat  who,  as  engineer  and  superin- 
tendent, erected  and  operated  a  sawmill  at  the  head  of  the 
lake.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Wheeler  are  two  of  the  very  oldest  and 
most  respected  residents  of  the  city  and  county  now  left 


"Clifton,  Superior  County,  Minnesota  Territory,"  as  it  is 
named  by  the  record  of  its  plat  Ln  the  otBce  of  the  register  of 
deeds  of  St.  Louis  county,  was  platted  by  J.  S.  Watrous  on 
October  31st,  1866.  The  survey  was  made  by  Richard  Belf  in 
October,  1855.  It  was  the  first  townsite  platted  of  land  in 
6t  Lonis  county.  It  was  located  on  the  north  shore  of  lake 
Superior  about  nine  or  ten  miles  from  Dulath.  The  plat  of 
the  townsite  showed  two  long  parallel  piers  or  breakwaters 
extending  for  hundreds  of  feet  into  the  lake,  indicating  a 
commodious  harbor;  but  it  was  all  on  paper;  the  name  was 
the  only  existence  that  Clifton  ever  had. 

Early  in  the  winter  of  1855-'56,  steps  were  taken  for  the 
platting  of  Dulath  by  George  E.  and  William  Nettleton,  J.  B. 
Culver,  and  Orrin  W.  Kice,  all  of  whom  then  lived  in  Superior, 
and  Bobert  E.  Jefferson,  who  resided  as  a  squatter  on  the 
land  covered  by  the  plat  of  Upper  and  Lower  Duluth,  on 
Minnesota  point    This  point,  a  beach  formed  by  the  lake,  is 



qaite  narrow,  and  over  six  miles  long,  forming  a  natural  break- 
water wliicli  protects  the  harbor  of  Doluth  and  Superior  from 
the  waters  of  the  great  lake.  Through  this  beach,  near  its 
junction  with  the  north  shore,  in  1870,  the  canal,  as  an  en- 
trance to  the  harbor,  -warn  cut 

In  February,  1856,  these  gentlemen  were  canvassing  anx- 
iously among  some  of  the  learned  citizens  of  Buperior  for  a 
suitable  name  for  their  embryo  city  of  destiny.  Rev.  Joseph 
Q.  Wilson  of  Lc^ansport,  Ind.,  then  sojourning  at  Superior  as  a 
home  missionary,  under  the  home  mis^os  board  of  the  New 
School  Presbyterian  Ohurch,  was  appealed  to,  to  suggest  a 
name  for  the  future  ci^.  Mr.  Wilson,  who  that  winter  lived 
with  the  writer  and  his  famUy,  informed  me  that  be  was 
promised  two  lots  by  the  proprietors  in  the  new  town,  in  case 
he  would  suggest  an  appropriate  name  which  they  would  ac- 
cept. He  asked  for  any  old  books  in  my  possession,  which 
might  mention  the  name  of  some  early  mlsidonary  or  noted 
explorer  in  the  lake  Superior  country,  but  I  had  then  but  a 
few  books  and  not  of  the  kind  required.  Mr.  Wilson  set  about 
bis  task  to  earn  the  reward  of  the  deed  of  the  two  lots  is 
the  great  city.  He  visited  the  homes  of  citizens  that  he  ex- 
pected might  be  possessed  of  a  library,  and  in  his  search  found 
among  some  old  books  belonging  to  Cteoi^  E.  ^Nettleton,  an 
old  English  translation  of  the  writings  of  the  French  Jesuits, 
relating  to  themselves  and  the  earty  explorers  and  fur  traders 
of  the  Korthwest.  In  this  he  ran  across  the  name  of  Da 
Lnth,  along  with  others  of  those  early  traders  and  mission- 
aries who  visited  the  head  of  the  lake  in  the  remote  past. 
With  other  names,  that  of  Du  Lath  was  presented  by  Mr. 
Wilson  to  the  proprietors  at  their  meeting  one  evening  in  the 
home  of  Qeorge  E.  Nettletou,  and  after  discussion  of  the 
relative  merits  of  the  several  names  submitted,  the  name  Du 
Luth  was  selected. 

Mr.  Wilson  wrote  an  article  giving  a  brief  account  of  Du 
Luth,  and  his  history,  noting  the  fact  that  he  was  one  of 
the  earliest  explorers  who  visited  Minnesota  and  the  head  of 
take  Superior.  That  article  was  published  in  the  Superior 
Chronicle,  the  first  newspaper  published  at  Superior,  Wis. 
l%ere  was  no  public  celebration  or  demonstration  on  Minne- 
sota point  or  anywhere  else  in  honor  of  the  adoption  of  the 


HiaTORT  OF  DUIiUTH  TO  THB  TEAM  18Ta  2&ti 

name,  as  some  Duluth  people  have  claimed.  There  was  little 
or  DO  thought  at  that  time  that  Dulnth  would  ever  attain  to 
the  world-wide  fame  and  rank  which  it  now  haa.  Superior 
was  then  generally  regarded  as  the  future  great  city  to  be 
at  the  head  of  the  lake.  Even  Oneota  then  outranked  Duluth 
and  claimed  to  be  the  Minnesota  city  of  destiny  on  the  lake. 

In  November,  1857,  the  writer  abandoned  Sup<;rior  and 
located  at  Oneota,  where  he  built  a  house  and  remained  until 
December,  1865,  when  he  moved  to  Duluth  and  occupied  the 
JetCersoD  house  (plate  IV),  without  let  or  hindrance.  All  the 
houses  then  in  Dulnth  were  unoocnpied,  and  had  been  so  for 
three  years,  allowing  the  writer  a  perfect  freedom  of  selection. 
The  name  Duluth,  in  1865,  was  all  that  was  left  to  the  town 
on  the  point,  and  even  that,  with  the  post  office,  had  been 
appropriated  by  Portland. 

In  May,  1857,  Duluth  as  then  platted  was  incorporated 
as  a  town,  by  an  act  of  the  territorial  legislature.  William 
Nettleton,  Joshna  B.  Culver,  Robert  E.  Jeffersoo,  Orrin  W, 
Bice,  and  William  Ord,  were  constituted  as  a  board  of  trastees, 
and  designated  as  the  town  council  of  Dnluth,  Od  March 
Ist,  1858,  the  townsite,  as  platted,  was  entered  at  the  United 
Btates  land  office  at  Buchanan,  by  these  trustees,  under  the 
act  of  Congress  relating  to  the  entry  of  townsites  on  govern- 
ment land. 

In  1855  three  other  townsites  were  platted  within  tlie  area 
of  the  present  city  of  Duluth,  and  in  1857  they  were  incor- 
porated and  boards  of  trustees  appointed.  These  towns  were 
Portland,  Oneota,  and  Fond  duLac.  James  D.  Ray,  Clinton 
Markell,  Daniel  Shaw,  N.  B.  Bobbins,  John  L  Poet,  Joseph 
Gregory,  and  Albert  McAdams,  composed  the  town  council 
of  Portland. 

Lewis  H.  Merritt,  president,  Wm.  E.  Wright,  recorder,  and 
P.  A.  Buckingham,  J.  R.  Carey,  aad  Dwight  Abbott,  trustees, 
were  the  first  town  council  of  Oneota.  Their  first  meeting 
was  held  on  July  6th,  1859. 

In  October  of  that  year  there  was  a  town  election  by 
which  Rev.  James  Peet  (Methodist),  E.  F.  Ely,  Nels  larson,  F. 
A.  Buckingham,  and  J.  B.  Carey,  were  elected  trustees.  These 
were  the  trustees  that  entered  the  townsite  at  the  United 
States  land  office  and  made  a  distribution  of  lots  to  the  k- 



Bpective  owDers.  Oneota  was  the  only  one  of  the  foar  towns 
that  held  an  election  for  ot&cen  under  their  act  of  incorpora- 
tion of  which  there  is  any  record.  The  writer  is  in  posaeaBion ' 
of  the  original  record  of  the  proceedingB  of  the  meetings  ot 
that  body  np  to  At^gt  17th,  1861,  at  which  time  it  practically 
ceased  to  exist  F.  A.  Backingham  and  the  writer  are  the 
only  sarvirors  of  either  the  first  or  second  council.  Mr.  Bnck- 
ingham  held  and  proved  np  on  a  i»reemption  claim  embracing 
the  northeast  quarter  of  section  33,  township  50,  range  14, 
now  a  part  of  Dalnth  proper.  Second  division.  His  claim 
shanty  was  located  at  Twelfth  avenue  west  and  Superior 
street.     Mr.  Bncbingbam  is  now  a  resident  of  Illinois. 

I  have  before  referred  to  the  names  of  the  persons  who 
composed  the  town  council  of  Fond  dn  Lac.  These  several 
bodies,  under  the  congressional  townsite  law  of  1844,  "proved 
up"  their  townsite  claims  (to  use  a  common  phrase)  at  the 
United  States  land  office,  and  paid  for  the  land  embraced  in 
their  several  plats. 

Olinton  Markell  and  the  writer  are  the  only  representatives 
of  the  membership  of  any  of  those  town  councils  now  resi- 
dents of  Duluth.  Mr.  Markell,  in  1856,  then  a  resident  of 
Superior,  became  interested  m  one  of  the  proprietors  of  Port- 
land. He  aided  materially  in  the  early  development  of  the 
town.  He  assisted  in  the  location  and  construction  of  the 
Lake  Baperior  and  Missisdppi  railroad  to  Duluth,  and  came 
to  live  in  Duluth  in  1869.  Two  years  afterward  he  was 
elected  and  served  a  term  as  mayor  of  the  city,  and  is  yet 
one  of  its  active  and  public  spirited  citizens. 

Duluth,  though  narrow  and  point-ed  in  its  infancy,  was 
possessed  in  a  large  degree  of  the  power  of  absorption.  It 
has  swallowed  up  and  is  now  in  the  process  of  assimilating 
six  separate  towns  that  had  at  one  time  municipal  organiza- 
tion, first,  Portland  in  1870,  then  Lakeside  in  1893,  West  Du- 
luth and  Oneota  in  1894,  and  Ifew  Duluth  and  Fond  du  Lac 
in  1895.  There  is  now  no  more  territory  for  Duluth  to  take 
in  on  the  Minnesota  side  of  the  harbor,  without  climbing  the 
bills,  which  she  is  rapidly  doing.  She  has  followed  out  ber 
first  start  in  extending  in  length  rather  than  in  width;  bo 
now  there  is  nothing  more  for  her  to  do  but  to  cross  the  bay 
to  a  dead  level,  and  broaden  out  in  the  middle  by  taking  in  all 





Buii.T  ST  Robert  E,  Jefferboh. 

DiBiimd, Google 


tiie  Soperiora,  on  a©  other  aide.  Wotild  it  not  be  a  union  that 
wonld  be  a  benefit  for  both  cities,  Should  the  future  decree 
ita  accompliEAimeiit? 


Col.  Joshua  B.  QuItw,  as  ao  early  resident  of  Duluth,  de- 
serves  more  than  a  passing  notice.  He  was  bom  in  Delaware 
county,  Kew  York,  September  12th,  1829.  He  came  to  Min- 
nesota in  1848,  and  was  engaged  in  the  Indian  trade  on  the 
npper  Mississippi  until  1865,  when  he  removed  to  Superior, 
Wisconsin.  He  remained  there  until  1857,  when  he  remored 
to  Doluth  as  one  of  its  proprietors.  He  waa  that  year  ap- 
pointed the  first  postmaster  of  Dnlnth,  and  held  this  office 
in  his  residence  on  the  point  He  was  also  appointed  by  the 
governor  ttie  first  clerk  of  the  district  court.  In  December, 
1859,  after  the  TTnited  States  land  office,  in  May  of  that  year, 
was  removed  from  Buchanan  to  Portland,  he  was  appointed 
raster  of  that  office,  which  position  he  held  until  the  ap- 
pointment of  Luke  Marvin  in  May,  1861.  On  the  breaking 
out  of  the  war  of  the  rel)ellion,  Mr.  Culver  removed  to  Miclii- 
gan,  where  he  helped  to  oi^anize  the  Thirteenth  Michigan 
regiment  of  volunteer  infantry,  with  which  he  went  as  ad- 
jutant, and  soon  succeeded  to  its  command  as  coloni-i.  He 
served  with  his  regiment  through  the  war  with  the  highest 
honors,  being  in  the  latter  part  of  the  war  brigade  command- 
er under  Generals  Bnell,  Bosecrans,  and  Thomas.  After  the 
close  of  the  war,  in  1868,  he  returned  to  Duluth.  In  March, 
1869,  he  waa  appointed  by  the  board  of  connt;)r  commissioners 
the  first  county  superintendent  of  schools.  At  Duluth's  first 
city  election,  on  April  4th,  1870,  he  was  elected  its  first  mayor, 
and  continued  as  one  of  its  most  honored  and  leading  citizens 
until  his  death  on  July  17th,  1883. 

Robert  Emmet  Jefferson,  whose  squatter's  claim  on  Min- 
nesota point  received  the  talismanic  name  "Duluth,"  also  de- 
serves mention.  Mr.  Jefferson  in  1855,  then  a  young  man, 
not  yet  twenty-one  years  old,  left  his  parental  home  near  St. 
Anthony  Falls,  Minn.,  for  the  head  of  lake  Superior,  hoping, 
doubtless,  that  he  might  "get  in  on  the  ground  fioor"  in  the 
rush  to  own  aH  or  a  part  of  the  great  prospective  ci^.  He  it 
was  that  built  the  first  frame  house  in  Duluth,  which  was 
known  for  many  years  as  the  Jefferson  house.    It  was  intended 



as  a  hotel  or  boarding  honee,  and  la  yet  in  existence,  as  shown 
in  Plate'  IV.  In  it  was  held  the  first  aesfdon  of  the  district 
conrt  of  8t  Loais  county.  In  1869  the  bouse  was  pordiaaed 
by  Dr.  Thomas  Foster,  who  had  the  year  before  removed  from 
St.  Paul  to  Duluth.  The  house  was  known  for  some  years 
after  as  the  "Poater  htrase."  It  Is  yet  where  it  was  first  built, 
on  the  lake  side  of  Lake  avenue  south,  about  600  feet  north 
of  the  canal.  Mr.  Jefferson,  in  the  sale  of  hiB  cJaim  to  the 
parties  who  platted  it  as  "Upper  and  Lower  Duluth,"  received 
some  money,  besides  some  interest  in  the  townsite.  He  was 
married  in  1859.  In  August,  1861,  after  the  breaking  ont  of 
Ibe  civil  war  he  left  Doluth,  witii  his  wife  aud  baby  girl,  for 
his  old  home  in  St  Anthony  Falls,  going  back  by  way  of  the 
Grand  Portage  of  the  Fond  du  Lac,  up  the  St.  Louis  and 
East  Savanna  rivers,  down  the  West  Savamia  and  Prtdrie 
rivers  into  Sandy  lake,  and  down  the  MisBiseipiri  to  St.  An- 
thony. B^ore  starting  on  their  trip,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Jefferson 
and  baby  stopped  with  the  writer  at  Oneota  while  preparing 
for  the  journey.  It  was  conddered  by  all  that  it  would 
be  an  extremely  tedious  and  dangerous  one  for  Mrs.  Jefferson 
and  the  baby;  yet  there  did  not  seem  to  be  any  other  way  for 
them  to  get  ont  of  the  conutry.  In  fliat  year,  although  there 
were  not  many  people  at  the  head  of  the  lake,  those  who  re- 
mained had  very  little  left  after  the  panic  and  bursting  of  the 
boom  in  1857.  There  was  no  money  in  the  country,  nor  any 
employment  that  would  afford  a  living.  It  was  one  of  those 
'^sh  and  potato"  years,  when  the  people  had  to  resort,  in 
part  at  least,  to  the  Indian  style  of  living.  Mr.  Jefler8<»i  was 
without  money,  and  therefore  could  not  go  around  by  the  lake 
route,  nor  could  he  pay  |35  fare  by  stage  by  way  of  the  mili- 
tary road  to  St.  Paul.  He  was  not  as  well  prepared  for  the 
trip  as  Dn  Luth  was  two  hundred  years  before.  Yet  he  con- 
olnded  to  undertake  it.  After  a  long  and  perilous  journey, 
he  safely  reached  his  old  home.  On  his  arrival  he  found 
that  his  two  younger  brothers,  Bofus  H.  and  Kruest  R.  Jef- 
ferson, had  left  home  and  enlisted  in  the  First  Minnesota  regi- 
ment to  fight  for  the  Union. 

Many  citizens  of  Minnesota  and  all  the  people  of  Duluth 
are  doubtless  familiar  witli  at  least  some  of  the  history  of 
Ernest  R.  Jefferson.     He  was  eighteen  years  of  age  when  he 



altered  the  arm;,  and  he  went  with  the  regimeot  until  the 
greatest  battle  of  th«  civil  war,  at  Oett^Bburg,  where  be  lost 
a  leg.  He  came  to  reside  in  Dnlath  in  1869,  and  tias  bo  con- 
tinued np  to  the  present  day.  He  la  now  a  member  ot  the 
citr  conncil,  and  has  tield  other  city  and  county  offices  at  dif- 
ferent times. 

Soon  after  retoming  to  his  old  home,  Bobert  E.  Jefferson 
also  enlisted  in  the  Union  army,  was  taken  t<ck,  and  died  in 
the  service  daring  the  early  part  of  the  war.  Not  long  after 
the  death  of  her  hosband,  Mrs.  Jefferson  also  died,  leaving 
tiie  little  girl,  Harriet  A.,  who  was  bom  in  Jnne,  1860,  in  the 
JeBenon  house  in  Duloth,  being  doubtless  tiie  first  white  child 
bom  in  the  old  town  of  Dulnth.  Most  probably  also  were 
she  and  her  mother,  the  first  and  only  white  females,  who 
made  the  372-mile  trip  over  the  "Le  Due"  route,  from  St. 
Anthony  to  Lake  Superior.  She  is  now  Mrs.  L.  A.  Pinkham 
of  Lake  View,  near  Tacoma,  Wash.  I  may  say  here,  lest  I 
may  be  called  to  account  about  the  priority  of  Wrth  in  the 
present  city  of  Duluth,  that  Miss  Jefferson  was  not  the  first 
bom  in  the  territory  now  composing  the  city  of  Duluth;  the 
writer's  oldest  daughter,  Ida,  now  Mrs.  C  T.  Oreenfleld  of 
Aubom,  Cal.,  was  bom  at  Oneota  on  Novonber  20th,  1867, 
and  there  may  be  othetra  at  Oneota  or  in  other  parts  of  tbe 
ci^  whose  biriilia  antedate  Miss  Jeflerson's. 

James  D.  B^,  one  of  the  proprietors  and  incorporators  of 
of  the  town  of  Portland,  came  from  Ohio  to  Snperior,  Wis.,  in 
1856,  where  he  resided  for  three  years.  He  then  returned  to 
Ohio,  where  he  remained  until  the  year  1866,  at  which  lime 
he  came  back  to  Poriland  to  live.  On  taking  up  his  residence 
in  Duluth,  Mr.  Bay  became  one  of  its  most  prominent  and 
sealous  citizens  in  promoting  and  developing  its  resources. 
He  was  ever  generous  and-  public-spirited.  He  died  at  his 
home  in  Duluth,  at  the  age  of  seventy-three  years,  on  the 
27th  day  of  April,  1894,  mourned  by  all  who  knew  him. 

George  B.  Stuntz  came  to  the  head  of  the  lake  in  the  year 
1852,  and  during  that  year  he  surveyed  and  definitely  located 
a  portion  of  the  northeastern  boundary  line  between  Minne- 
sota and  Wisconsin,  starting  from  the  head  of  navigation  on 
the  St  Louis  river  at  Fond  du  Lac,  and  mnning  soui^  to  the 
St.  Croix  river.     He  was  bwn  December  11th,  1820,  in  Albion, 



Erie  conntT',  PemiBylTaDia;  was  bronght  Tip  on  a  small  farm  to 
tiie  age  of  Dineteen years,  rec^vinga  common-Bchool  education; 
and  at  twen^  years  continued  Ms  stodies  by  attending  G-rand 
Blver  Institnte  in  Ohio,  wliere  he  took  a  two  years'  coarse  In 
mathematicB,  cSiemiBtry,  engineering  and  anrrejlng.  Before 
coming  to  tbe  head  of  the  lake,  Mr.  Stantz  had  been  engaged 
as  a  depnty  United  StatM  snrreyor  in  surveying  land  in  Wis- 
condn.  He  has  probably  surveyed  more  goyemment  land 
than  any  oth»  nvtn  now  living,  as  he  has  been  engaged  in 
that  bnsinees  for  more  tlian  fifty  years.  His  sarveyB  have 
covered  principally  the  previously  unknown  parts  of  north- 
eastern Minnesota  and  Wisconsin.  From  important  and  val- 
uable informati4Hi  voluntarily  supplied  by  bim,  many  have  be- 
come rich,  while  he,  withal,  in  his  old  age,  is  poor,  and  wdl 
deserves  a  pension  from  the<  government  He  platted  many 
townBites,  yet  I  know  of  none  that  he  ever  owned  or  in  which 
he  was  largely  Interested.  He  has  been  a  continual  resident 
of  8t.  Louis  county  since  1853,  at  that  time  locating  at  the 
lower  end  of  Minnesota  point,  where  he  built  a  dock  and 
warehouse,  and  where  in  1855-'56  he  carried  on  a  forwarding 
and  commlBsioD  business  under  the  name  of  Q.  R  Stantz  & 
Oo.  In  those  years,  Stuntz's  dodk  on  Minnesota  point  was  the 
only  landing  place  from  steamboat  and  sail  vessels  for  pas- 
sengers and  freight  destined  for  Superior,  Wis.,  to  wtiich 
place  they  were  shipped  across  the  bay  in  Mackinaw  boats. 
Mr.  Stuntz  came  to  live  permanently  in  Duluth  in  1869,  where 
he  has  since  resided.  He  has  hdd  the  otBce  of  county  sur- 
veyor for  several  terms. 


History  and  experience  would  seem  to  indicate  that,  when- 
ever a  new  and  unexplored  region  of  country,  or  a  point  of 
natural  commercial  advantages  where  exists  any  hope  of 
wealth  or  gain  is  brought  to  the  knowledge  of  the  American 
people,  nothing  can  prevent  in  sncb  country  or  location  a 
boom, — a  boom  in  population,  a  boom  in  wealth  and  values, 
and  in  fact  a  boom  in  everything  but  in  food,  raiment,  and 
good  morals.  It  was  so  at  the  head  of  the  lake  from  1854  to 
1867.  In  the  winter  of  1855-'B6  food  was  short.  It  was  too 
soon  for  a  crop  of  potatoes,  and  the  people  lacked  knowledge 


BIflTORT  OF  DULUTH  TO  THE  TEAR  1870.  281 

and  experience  in  the  art  of  eatcbing  flsh  and  living  on  them. 
Toward  spring  in  1S66,  flour  broaght  as  high  a  price  as  fifty 
cents  per  pound  at  retail,  bat  that  figure  was  paid  onl;  for 
the  contents  of  a  few  sacks  that  were  packed  on  men's  backs 
from  "Chase's  lumber  camp,"  on  the  St  Croix  river,  a  dis- 
tance of  about  sixty  miles.  Other  food  supplies  were  scarce 
and  high  in  price,  in  proportion  to  flour.  In  the  fall  of  1857, 
the  bottom,  yes,  and  the  top  also,  fell  oat  of  all  the  booms 
at  Superior  and  at  all  other  points  at  the  head  of  the  lake. 
Tliree-fourths  of  the  people  left  the  country,  by  every  means  of 
e^t  that  were  then  available.  Some,  with  gun  and  padc, 
"shot  their  way  out."  Some  who  had  families,  and  who  were 
withont  means  to  pay  their  passage  on  boats,  were  taken  oat 
free  by  the  graierous  and  charitable  captains  of  the  few  steam- 
boats that  in  those  days  visited  the  head  of  the  lake.  Sound 
money,  or  any  money,  was  then  very  valuable;  a  corner  lot  in 
Dulath  was  not  worth  a  pair  of  boots.  In  October  of  1857 
the  writer,  then  doing  business  in  Superior,  rt^fused  to  trade 
two  pairs  of  boots  with  Orrin  W.  Bice  for  two  lots  in  the 
now  famous  city  of  Dulnth.  The  writer  believed  that,  in  view 
of  the  approaching  winter,  the  two  pairs  of  boots  were  a  better 
asset  than  the  two  lots. 

For  about  eight  or  ten  years  after  this,  the  people  that 
were  left  had  to  live  by  barter,  by  adopting  more  of  the  In- 
dian mode  of  making  a  living.  They  did  not  despise  captur- 
ing the  beaver,  the  mink  and  the  muskrat,  and  they  traded 
their  furs  for  flour,  pork,  and  other  necessaries,  which  they 
were  able  to  get  in  exchange  from  the  few  merchants  and 
traders  that  were  left  in  Superior.  There  were  no  stores 
{hen  in  Dalath  or  anywhere  else  on  the  north  shore.  The 
settlers  on  the  north  shore  in  lAinnesota  were  compelled  to  go 
to  Superior  by  boat  in  the  summer  and  on  the  ice  in  winter 
for  everything  in  the  line  of  clothing  and  provisions,  with  the 
exception  of  what  they  could  produce  or  capture  at  home. 

One  of  the  first  deaths  at  Dulutfa  that  I  can  now  recall  to 
mind  was  the  drowning,  in  1859,  of  a  young  man  by  the  name 
of  Welter,  who  lived  with  his  widowed,  mother  and  brother 
upon  a  preSmption  claim  near  Oneota.  About  the  12th  of 
Ifovember,  after  St  Louis  bay  bad  frozen  over,  the  ice  being 
yet  quite  frail,  young  Welter  was  compelled  to  cross  the  bay 



In  the  morning  to  go  to  Bnperior  for  Bomething  which  the  fam- 
ily  needed  at  hMne.  On  Ms  retorn  toward  evening  he  broke 
through  the  tliln  ice.  Hib  hody  was  recovered  within  two 
hours,  by  use  of  a  boat,  and  efforts  were  made  to  bring  him 
back,  to  conecionenesa  and  life,  bat  without  avail. 


In  tlie  winter  of  185e-'57  a  small  sawmill  was  erected  at 
Duluth  by, the  townsite  proprietors.  It  was  situated  where 
the  canal  is  cat  tlirougb  the  point.  The  mill  was  not  a  pay- 
ing enterprise,  and  after  mnning  it  a  year  or  two  it  was 

Oneota,  with  its  immediate  neighborhood,  was  from  the 
start,  in  186B  to  1869,  the  latest  settlement  on  the  north 
shore  in  Minnesota.  In  1865,  Wheeler,  Ely,  and  their  asso- 
oiates,  built  a  good  and  fair-sized  steam  sawmill,  adding  to  it 
In  1866-'57  a  planer  and  lath  and  shingle  attachments.  A 
mile  above  Oneota,  in  1857,  at  what  was  then  known  as  Uil- 
ford,  another  good  steam  sawmill  was  built  by  Henry  G. 
Ford,  of  Philadelphid,  Pa.,  now  deceased,  who  held  a  preemp- 
tion claim  of  eighty  acres  at  that  point  This  tract  was  sub- 
sequently platted  as  the  Fourth  division  of  West  Duluth.  In 
a  year  or  two,  to  this  mill  was  added  a  grist  mill  attachment, 
where  the  settlers  who  were  industrious  enough  to  raise  any 
wheat  or  other  grain  had  it  ground.  These  two  mills  were 
kept  in  operation  intermittently  in  sawing  the  pine  on  lands  in 
the  immediate  vicinity  until  about  the  year  1866,  when  they 
ceased  running  because  of  the  total  lack  of  any  demand  or 
market  for  lumber.  Mr.  Ford  left  the  country  and  returned 
to  Philadelphia  about  the  year  1860.  The  Milford  mill  soon 
became  a  wreck,  and  it  was  finally  destroyed  by  Are  in  1868. 
The  mill  at  Oneota  remained  silent  until  about  the  year  1868, 
when  it  came  into  the  hands  of  R  S.  Monger,  then  of  St.  Paul, 
who  removed  to  Duloth  in  1869,  and  in  1870  the  mill  was 
destroyed  by  fire. 

From  the  year  1857  op  to  the  year  1870  the  suridns  pro- 
duct of  those  two  mills,  and  also  salted  fish,  a  few  droves  of 
cattle  driven  through  in  the  summer  firom  the  r^ion  of  the 
Mississippi  to  Superior,  and  what  was  left  of  the  products  of 
the  fur  trade,  comprised  the  articles  of  export  from  the  head 



of  lake  Soperior.  I  have  oo  meanB  of  ascertaining  tbe  anoaal 
Tolume  of  those  exports.  The  two  sawmills  were  ot  a  very 
moderate  capacitf.  Each  wonld  cut  no  more  than  20,000  to 
30,000  feet  oi  a  mixed  claas  of  lumber  during  a  day  ot  ten 
boars,  while  running  steadily;  and,  considering  delays  from 
Tarious  causes,  in  a  month  the  daily  average  wonld  doubtless 
not  exceed  more  than  half  that  amount  When  running  stead- 
ily  each  mijl  em^doyed  from  six  to  ten  men. 


I  am  indebted  to  James  Bardon,  of  Buperior,  Wis.,  and  to 
Capt.  J.  J.  Hibbard,  one  of  the  early  pioneers  of  St.  Louis 
county  and  the  city  of  Duluth,  and  yet  an  honored  resident, 
and  also  to  Henry  W.  Wheeler,  of  Dnluth,  of  whom  mention 
has  already  been  made,  each  of  whom  navigated  lake  Superior, 
for  much  of  the  information  relating  to  early  sailing  vessels 
prior  to  1870.  The  first  schooner  brought  from  the  lower 
lakes  across  the  portage  at  Sault  Bte.  Marie,  was  the  Algon- 
quin. I  am  unable  to  leam  at  what  date  she  was  hnragtit  across. 
When  she  became  known  to  the  people  at  tbe  head  of  the 
lake,  in  1856,  she  was  owned  and  commanded  by  a  captain 
named  DavidscaL  She  ssiled  on  lake  Superior  for  a  number 
of  years.  In  November,  1867,  she  was  chartered  at  Superior, 
Wia,  by  Captain  Hibbard,  to  carry  supplies  to  Burlington 
bay  on  the  north  shore,  where  he  and  his  brother  were  about 
to  erect  a  small  sawmill.  On  her  return  to  Buperior  she  was 
laid  up  for  the  winter.  The  next  season  she  was  not  again 
fitted  out,  but  lay  anchored  in  the  bay,  being  unfit  for  further 
service.  In  the  fall  of  1858  she  was  towed  to  the  shore  on  the 
easterly  side  of  Quebec  pier  at  Superior,  where  she  quietly 
rested  until  a  fire  that  destroyed  a  part  of  the  pier  consumed 
the  upper  part  of  her  bull.  Some  years  ago  the  remains  of  the 
bull  were  removed  from  their  watery  and  muddy  bed,  and 
some  of  its  timbers  were  utilized  in  the  shape  of  canes,  which 
were  presented  to  many  of  the  old  settlers  at  tbe  bead  of  the 
lake;  and,  to  meet  a  future  demand  in  that  line,  I  am  told  that 
an  adequate  supiriy  of  her  remains  is  yet  preserved  at  Superior. 

The  next  boat  owned  at  the  head  of  the  l«ke  was  tbe  small 
propeller  Seneca,  belonging  to  Thomas  G.  Barnes  of  Superior. 



She  ran  across  the  ba^B  and  to  Food  du  Lac  until  1861,  when 
Bhe  was  taken  to  A^land. 

The  next  was  a  scow  schooner  named  Neptune,  hailing 
from  some  port  on  the  lower  lakes.  She  waa  owned 
by  her  captain.  In  1860  she  wa«  «igaged  in  the  lomber 
trade,  mnning  from  Oneota  and  Milford  to  Portage  Lake  and 
Marqnette.  On  her  first  trip  out  in  that  year,  freighted  with 
a  load  of  dry  Inmber  from  the  Milford  mill,  Btarting  down 
the  lake,  ihe  was  met  by  a  northeaster  and  driven  back,  and 
in  attempting  to  make  the  entry  she  ran  ashore  on  the  lower 
end  of  Minnesota  point,  llie  captain  and  crew  were  all 
saved.  The  captain  hired  some  men  at  8operior  and  set 
them  to  work  to  pomp  her  out  and  try  and  get  her  off  the 
sand.  After  working  at  her  for  some  time,  tiie  men  reported 
to  the  captain  tttat  she  had  large  fish  in  her  hold,  whereupon 
he  sold  the  wreck  to  R.  Q.  Gobum  of  Superior,  who,  the  next 
day  went  with  some  men,  and  before  noon  had  her  ofF  the 
sand  and  inedde  the  bay.  She  was  unloaded,  hauled  out  on 
the  point  and  thoroughly  repaired,  and  waa  continued  in 
Qse  in  the  lumber  trade  from  Oneota  and  Milford  to  points  on 
the  south  shore.  In  1865  she  was  wretied  near  Eagle  river, 
while  under  command  of  Captain  Matthews. 

Mr.  Cobum,  with  H.  M.  Peyton,  now  a  prominent  and 
wealthy  resident  of  Duluth  and  president  of  the  American 
Exchange  bank  of  Duluth,  and  E.  Ingalls,  now  deceased,  pur- 
chased at  Oswego,  on  lake  Ontario,  another  and  larger  schoon- 
er, named  Pierrepont.  Boon  after  her  advent  to  the  head  of 
the  lake  on  Octot>er  22nd,  ISS^,  she,  also,  was  driven  a^ore 
on  the  lower  end  of  Minnesota  point  by  a  terrific  northeaster. 
She  was  driven  within  a  hundred  feet  of  the  bay  shore  on  the 
inside  of  the  point,  but  fortunatdy  no  lives  were  lost.  While 
in  that  condition  a  number  of  attempts  were  made  to  get  her 
off.  Mr.  Peyton  began  to  get  diaoonraged  as  to  the  prospec- 
tive value  of  his  venture,  and  sold  out  his  interest  to  Cobum 
and  Ingalls.  Then,  in  turn,  Ingalls  also  became  discouraged, 
and  sold  ont  his  interest  to  H.  W.  Wheeler  of  Oneota,  on 
Kovember  Ist,  1865.  Here  was  the  first  interstate  ownership 
of  a  vessel  between  Superior  and  Dnluth.  Every  effort  was 
made  to  get  her  off.  A  channel  was  dug  from  the  bay  to  the 
vessel,  when  at  that  time  operations  for  that  year  ceased. 


BISTORT  OF  DULUTH  TO  THE  T£UR  1870.  265 

Here  I  quote  a  paragraph  from  the  Superior  Gazette  of  Dec- 
ember 16th,  1865.  "The  Bchooner  Pierrepont  was  moved  to- 
wards the  channel  on  Monda;  laat,  some  titirty-flve  or  fort; 
feet,  but  the  recent  cold  snap  has  caused  the  ice  to  form  eo 
rapidly  that  It  is  more  than  probable  eke  will  remain  where  she 
now  is  till  spring." 

In  the  nest  spring  renewed  efForta  were  made  by  Cobum 
and  Wheeler,  and,  after  widenimg  and  de^)eiiing  the  t^iannel, 
the  schooner  was  pulled  into  the  bay.  In  the  sabsequent 
improvement  of  the  entry  by_the  United  States,  it  cost  thou- 
sands ot  doliars  to  fill  op  that  canal.  The  Pierreptmt  con- 
tinned  in  the  lumber  trade  until  1868,  wh^i  she  was  sold  to 
Samne)  Vaughn  of  Bayfield,  Wia 

In  1864  OP  1866,  a  schooner  from  Toledo,  owned  and  com- 
manded by  Jerry  Simpson,  now  a  membw  of  Congress  from 
Kansas,  and  known  as  "Sockless  Simpson,"  made  several  trips 
to  Oneota  and  Milford  for  lumber.  The  schooner  Ford  of 
Ontonagon,  owned  by  Capt  John  Parker,  made  some  trips 
to  those  places  after  lumber.  In  1868  R.  Q.  Cobom  chartered 
a  tug  called  the  Agate,  of  Ontonagon,  and  used  her  in  towing 
scows  with  stone  from  Fond  du  Lac  for  the  government  piers 
at  the  entry.  She  was  commanded  by  Capt.  Alfred  Uerritt. 
Tins  tog  is  yet  in  commission  at  Doluth,  and  is  known  as  the 
John  H,  JeSrey.  In  the  same  year  the  Stillmanwit  plied  as 
a  ferry  and  eionrsion  boat  between  Superior,  Duluth,  Oneota, 
and  Fond  do  laa  In  1869,  Mr.  Willard  ot  Ontonagon  brought 
to  the  head  of  the  lake  a  side-whe^  steam  ferry  boat  named 
Kasota.  She  plied  between  Superior  and  Dnlath,  with  Capt. 
George  D.  Greenfield  as  master,  and  his  brother,  Charles  T. 
Greenfield,  as  eoglueer.  The  same  year  the  small  side-wheel 
steamer  Geo.  S.  Froet,  owned  by  D.  Schntte  of  Superior,  was 
nm  as  a  ferry  and  ezccrsion  boat  between  Superiw,  Duluth, 
Oneota,  and  Fond  du  Lac.  The  same  year  the  small  steam 
yacht  John  Keyes  made  her  appearance.  She  was  purchased 
by  the  Lake  Superior  and  Mississippi  railroad  company,  which 
was  then  constmctii^  its  road,  and  was  used  in  its  service  on 
the  bays  and  rivers,  with  Capt.  George  Sherwood,  then  and 
now  of  Duluth,  as  master.  In  the  same  year  the  tug  Ame- 
thyst, owned  by  H.  W.  Wheeler  and  B.  G.  Cobum,  was  put  in 
service  in  the  harbor. 



The  Hteamere  plying  on  lake  Superior,  up  as  far  ae  the 
head  of  the  lake,  before  1870,  aa  nearly  as  the  writer  can  aa- 
certam  through  the  kindness  of  Capt.  George  D.  Gre«ifleld 
of  Leadville,  Colo.,  a  former  resident  of  Dulntfa,  who  was  also 
one  of  the  early  neTigators  on  lake  Superior  forty-fire  yean 
ago,  were  the  side-wheel  steamer  India  Poline,  and,  later,  the 
schooner-rigged  propeller  Independence,  the  iwopeller  Napo- 
leon, the  side-wheel  steamer  Sam  Wead,  the  propdler  Monti- 
cello,  the  propeller  Manhattan,  and  the  side-wheel  steamer 
Baltimore,  all  on  the  lake  before  the  c<«npletion  of  the  Sa^t 
Ste.  Ifarie  canal.  It  took  the  last-named  boat  six  days  to 
bring  the  writer  and  his  wife  from  the  Sanlt  and  land  th^n 
OD  Stnntz's  dock  on  June  2nd,  1865.  Then,  after  the  Sanlt 
canal  was  opened  tn  July,  1855,  the  steamers  Superior,  Lady 
Elgin,  North  Star,  Keweenaw,  Planet,  and  City  of  Cleveland, 
made  regular  trips  from  Chicago  and  other  lower  lake  ports 
to  Superior  during  seasons  of  navigation.  The  year  1869  was 
marked  by  an  increajse  in  the  nnmber  of  steamboats.  Amoi^ 
them  were  the  Norman,  Atlantic,  Northern  light,  Sandnsky, 
Cuyahoga,  City  of  Madison,  R  O.  Coburn,  and  Ontonagon. 


After  the  close  of  the  war  of  the  rebellion,  the  people  of 
the  state  again  awoke  to  the  great  importance  of  the  constmc- 
tioD  of  railroads.  Land  grants  from  Congress  had  been  ob- 
tained (or  the  building  of  railroads  through  different  sections 
of  the  state,  one  of  which  was  from  St  Paul  to  the  head  of  lake 
Superior;  and  in  1861  a  charter  had  been  granted  to  the  Lake 
Superior  and  Mississippi  railroad  company. 

In  1865,  through  the  influence  and  efforts  of  Gen.  William 
li.  Banning,  James  Smith,  Jr„  John  M.  Gilman,  and  William 
Branch,  all  of  St.  Paul,  wealthy  men  in  Philadelphia  were 
induced  to  become  interested  in  this  enterprise,  and  active 
steps  were  taken  in  the  survey  and  location  of  a  route  from 
St.  Paul  to  lake  Superior.  A  land  company  was  organized, 
known  as  the  Western  Land  Association  of  Minnesota,  com- 
posed of  the  promoters  of  the  railroad  enterprise.  Valuable 
lands  were  purchased  by  the  company,  at  and  around  Dulnt^ 
and  other  points  along  the  route,  at  low  prices,  which  became 
largely  enhanced  in  value  after  the  completion  of  the  railroad. 



In  1867  work  was  commencetl  at  tlie  St.  Paal  end  of  thia 
railroad,  and  at  Dolnth  in  1869,  and  the  last  spike  was  driven 
in  an  all-rail  oannection  betweoi  St.  Paid  and  Dulnth  on  the 
afternoon  of  Aagnst  1st,  1870. 

About  six  years  later  the  road  went  into  tbe  hands  of  a 
receiver,  and  in  the  reorganization  a  new  company  was  formed 
and  the  name  of  the  road  changed  to  the  St.  Paul  and  Dnlnth 
railroad.  Soon  after  the  completion  at  the  Lake  Superior  and 
Mississippi  railroad,  a  section  of  the  Northern  Pacific  railroad 
was  completed  from  Braioerd  to  a  junction  with  the  Lake 
SoperioT  and  Missiseippi  railroad  at  Northern  Pacific  Jnnc- 
tion,  now  Carlton,  The  Northern  Pacific  railroad  company, 
having  purchased  a  half  interest  in  the  line  of  the  Lake  Supe- 
rior and  MissisHlppi  from  there  to  Duloth,  made  this  city  its 
terminus  on  lake  Superior. 


The  first  postoifice  in  St.  Louia  county  wa»  eetabliahed  at 
Oneota  on  June  17th,  1866,  with  E.  F.  Ely  as  postmaster.  The 
first  quarterly  account  current,  dated  S^tember  30th,  1856, 
amounted  to  f2.46.  During  fifteen  years  of  the  existence  of 
the  postoifice  at  Oneota,  the  highest  qoarterly  accoujit  was 
130.39,  on  March  31st,  1860.  Tbe  writer  has  the  original 
record,  and  in  it  are  the  names  of  the  persons  who  in  1856 
to  1861  were  snbscribers  to  papers  and  periodicals  that  were 
received  and  distributed  at  the  Oneota  postofHce. 

Before  tbe  advent  of  a  rtdiroad,  the  mail  facilitieB  enjoyed 
by  the  settlements  on  the  north  shore  were  not  of  tlie  beat. 
For  the  first  two  years,  1855  and  1856,  settlers  were  wholly 
dependent  on  Superior,  Wis.,  and  the  maila  received  there  were 
few  and  far  between.  In  1855  a  monthly  mail  service  was 
allowed  by  the  government  from  Taylor's  Falls  to  Superior, 
a  distance  of  about  125  milea.  The  route  was  through  the 
forest  wildemesB  on  a  blind  trail.  The  mall  was  carried  by 
packing  it  in  Indian  fashion  on  the  backa  of  the  carriers.  I 
remember  that  in  the  fall  of  1865  one  of  the  carriers  on  the 
route  got  lost  in  the  woods  and  wandered  ftir  a  number  of  days 
exhausted  and  almost  famished,  before  be  reached  an  outlet 
to  civilization. 



In  the  summer  «aeh  a  mail  service  was  ppacHcally  worth- 
less. The  mails  reeelTed  at  Superior  by  steamboats  from  the 
lower  lahe  ports,  although  irregular,  were  our  main  depend- 
ence. Superior,  Wis.,  waB  the  terminus  for  all  passHiger  bnM- 
nees  at  the  head  of  the  lake  from  1855  to  1869,  nearing  the 
time  of  the  completion  of  the  Late  Superior  and  Mississippi 
railroad,  when  docka,  were  built  at  Duluth- 

After  the  work  on  the  goTemmeat  road  to  Soperior  was  so 
far  advanced  as  to  make  it  passable,  a  stage  was  put  on  from 
St.  Paul  to  Superior.  On  January  1st,  1857,  a  contract  was 
let  by  the  government  to  Charles  Kingsbury  and  William 
Kimball  for  carrying  a  we^ly  mail  to  Superior  and  a  semi- 
monthly mail  from  Twin  Lakes,  in  Carlton  ooimty,  to  Du- 
luth,  stopping  and  supplying  the  postofBces  at  Fond  du  Lac 
and  Oneota.  At  the  same  time  a  contract  was  let  for  a 
monthly  mail  from  Superior  to  Beaver  Bay,  Lake  county. 

On  the  first  of  January,  1858,  the  service  from  Twin  Lakes 
to  Duluth  was  increased  to  a  weekly  service.  In  1863  Supe- 
rior obtained  a  tri- weekly  service,  and  in  1865  the  Twin  Lakes 
route  to  Dniutb  was  abandoned,  and  in  its  place  a  semi- 
weekly  service  was  established  from  Superior  to  Duluth,  and 
weekly  service  from  Duluth  to  Fond  da  Lac,  supplying  the 
Oneota  postofBce. 

I  desire  here  to  give  what  Mr.  Sidney  Luce  says  as  to  the 
first  postofBce  and  the  eariy  postmastera  of  Duluth.  He  Is 
yet  in  the  land  of  the  living,  at  KingBville,  Ohio,  on  the  farm 
where  he  was  bom,  his  age  being  now  past  seventy  years.  In 
June,  1857,  he  came  to  Duluth,  or  rather  to  Portland,  in  which 
towusite  he  was  part  owner.  He  built  the  first  dock  and  ware- 
house on  the  lake  shore,  outside  of  the  point,  near  the  lake 
end  of  Third  avenue  east.  The  warehouse  was  built  up  from 
the  westerly  end  of  the  dock,  extending  up  two  stories,  about 
to  a  level  with  the  top  of  the  lake  bank.  Then,  partly  on  the 
bank  and  extending  out  over  the  warehouse,  he  erected^  his 
two-story  dwelling  house,  where  he  lived  for  about  eleven 
years,  when  the  premises  were  sold  to  the  Lake  Superior  and 
Mlssisaippi  railroad  company.  In  the  front  of  the  dwrfling 
house  was  a  lat^e  room  devoted  to  the  public  use,  which  for 
many  yeare  was  used  as  the  Duluth  postofflce.  United  States 


HI8T0RX  or  DULUTH  TO  THB  TEAR  187a  269 

land  office,  register  of  deeds  office,  and  the  count;  auditor's 
and  connt?  treasurer's  offices.  Mr.  Luce  wrote,  under  date  of 
March  26, 1897,  Id  reply  to  inquiries  for  information  to  be  used 
in  this  paper; 

The  Mendohlps  I  formed  In  Dnlatb  seem  very  dear  to  me  at  tbla 
distant  day,  and  I  ball  and  greet  tbem  all  with  pleBenre,  renewlog  tbe 
scenes  of  Hie  actlTe  and  beat  part  of  my  life.  It  Is  now  over  twenty- 
three  rears  since  I  left  Dnlnth  with  my  family Uy  rec- 

olIectl<»i  Is  that  tbe  poetofflce  at  Dnlnth  was  established  In  18&7,  with 
J.  B.  CnlTer  as  postmaster,  and  waa  hept  in  the  balldlag  north  of  the 
canal,  occnpled  by  fforace  Saxton  for  some  years.  Cnlrer  held  tbe 
«^ce  until  be  was  appointed  register  of  tbe  land  office.  He  then  re- 
sljcned  and  I  was  appointed,  my  commlselMi  bearing  date  October  1. 
isao.  I  held  the  office  nntu  after  my  appointment  as  receiver  at  tbe 
land  office  In  May,  1S61.  I  recommended  B.  B.  Jefferson  as  my  anc- 
cessoF,  and  the  papers  were  sent  on  for  execution;  but  In  the  mean- 
time he  enlisted  In  tbe  army  and  did  not  qnalify,  and  I  kept  on  acting 
aa  postmaster  for  some  time  afterward,  when  Inqnlrles  were  made  by 
the  postofflce  department  wby  Jefferson  bad  not  qoallfled.  I  reported 
tbe  facta  In  the  case  and  recommended  the  appointment  of  Ollbert  Pal- 
coner,  viho  was  dnly  appointed  and  qualified,  bnt  tbe  entire  manage- 
ment and  control  of  the  office  was  left  with  me,  and  I  continued  to  act 
for  him  for  some  fears,  I  cannot  say  Just  how  long,  probably  to  some 
time  in  1868,  Ur.  Lake  Uarvin  acting  for  him  a  while  before  tbe  ap- 
pointment of  BIchard  Uarrin  as  postmaster.  There  aerer  was  any 
postoffice  called  Portland.  Tbe  land  office,  when  It  was  removed  from 
Buchanan,  waa  called  tbe  Portland  land  office,  bnt  the  postofflce  always 
was  Dnlnth.  Tbe  change  in  the  name  of  the  land  office,  from  Portland 
to  Dulntb,  waa  made  on  my  application. 

The  present  city  of  Duluth  is  probably  the  only  city  in  the 
United  States  (unlese  we  should  except  Greater  New  York) 
that  is  entitled  to  the  distinction  of  having  bad  at  one  time 
a  "star  route"  mail  seryice  between  two  of  its  parts.  In  the 
year  1866,  tbe  writer  waa  a  Boccessful  bidder  for  a  weekly 
mail  service  between  Duluth  and  Fond  do  Lac.  The  bid  waa 
at  the  rate  of  two  dollars  a  trip,  a  distance  of  about  fifteen 
miles  one  way,  or  thirty  miles  for  the  round  trip. 

There  was  no  road  nor  even  a  good  trail  between  Duluth, 
Oneota,  and  Food  du  Id£,  except  what  nature  made,  the  St. 
Louis  river  in  the  summer  and  the  ioe  on  it  in  the  winter. 
The  bidder,  after  his  eight  years'  experience  in  navigating  the 
land  and  water  of  St  Louis  county,  legging  in  the  woods, 



working  in  the  sawmill,  farming,  and  performing  the  dntiea 
and  enjOTing  all  the  emolnments  and  honors  of  probate  judge. 
United  States  commissioaer,  and  postmaster,  all  at  the  same 
time,  deemed  himBelf  well  equipped  with  neceeearj  qaalifica- 
tions  for  a  mail  carrier. 

In  addition  to  the  writer's  official  qnaliflcationB,  he  was 
equipped  with  that  whicli  was  rastl;  more  necessarf,  a  boat 
for  summer  and  his  lai^e  Newfoimdland  dog,  "Duff,"  for  win- 
ter travel.  Not  many  dogs  mentioned  in  history  deserve  more 
coDunendation  than  Dnff.  I>nring  the  winters,  when  not 
carrying  mail,  he  was  employed  in  liaaling  wood  from  that 
part  of  the  present  city  of  Duluth  between  First  and  Second 
avenues  west  and  Superior  and  Second  streets  to  tbe  writer's 
home  on  the  point  in  Doluth  where  he  then  lived,  or  in  bring- 
ing supplies  from  Superior,  or  taking  his  master  or  mistress 
to  visit  a  neiglibor.  He  would  carry  the  writer's  children 
across  the  ice  on  the  lake  about  a  mile  to  school  in  Portland. 
He  often  made  the  trip  on  the  ice  from  Fond  du  Lac,  stopping 
at  Oneota,  to  Duluth,  with  his  master  and  the  mail  hag  in 
the  sled,  in  less  than  two  hours.  DufE  toiled  thus  faitlifnlly 
for  ten  years.  It  is  hoped  that  the  writer  may  be  pardoned  for 
taking  up  so  much  space  in  m^itioning  this  early  Duluth  mail 

It  would  seem  incredible  that  for  fifteen  years,  within  the 
present  city  of  Duluth,  the  United  States  mail  had  to  be  car- 
ried on  a  trail,  by  packer  and  dog  train,  yet  such  is  the  fact. 
From  1855  to  1870,  the  mail  was  carried  in  that  way  t>etween 
Duluth,  Oneota,  Fond  du  Lac,  and  Twin  Lakes.  The  writer 
can  certify,  from  actual  experience,  that  tihe  mail  carriers  of 
those  d^s  were  compelled  to  face  and  undergo  extreme  dan- 
gers and  hardships. 


During  the  past  ten  or  fifteen  years  the  extreme  cold  and 
rigor  of  our  winters  have  materially  modified.  In  the  early 
days,  forty  years  ago,  the  cold  of  our  winters  was  steady,  dry, 
and  uniform.  Moccasins  could  be  worn  without  having  wet 
feet,  from  the  middle  of  November  to  the  first  of  April.  It 
was  almost  the  rule  to  see  ice  on  the  lake  until  the  first  of 
June.     The  writer  knew  of  two  men  getting  off  a  steamboat 



that  had  been  atack  Id  the  ice  for  several  days,  on  the  9th  of 
Jnne,  almost  forty  years  ago,  and  waltdng  to  shore  oa  the 
broken  ice  a  distance  of  six  or  ei^t  miles.  Our  winters  are 
now  maoh  milder  than  in  the  early  days.  We  are  not  now  sur- 
prised to  see  all  13ie  sdow  disappear  in  midwinter  and  to  have 
it  rain.  Such  extremes  would  have  been  sarprising  thirty  or 
forty  years  ago. 


The  writer  ie  able  to  give  the  names  of  only  a  few  of  the 
sixteen  patriotic  volunteers  of  St  LouiB  county,  who,  during 
the  civil  war,  without  hope  of  reward,  except  the  consdoas 
pride  of  the  performance  of  a  patriotic  duty,  responded  to 
their  "country's  call. 

Besides  CoL  J.  B.  Culver,  before  referred  to  in  this  paper, 
who  waa  one  of  the  sixteen,  I  remember  six  others.  Two  of 
them  are  yet  residents  of  Dulnth,  Freeman  Keen  and  John  O. 
Rakowski.  Mr.  Keen  was  bom  in  Oxford  county,  Maine,  on 
November  2(>th,  1831.  He  came  to  the  head  of  lake  Superior 
in  April,  1854,  and  in  the  fall  of  that  year  settled  at  Oneota. 
At  the  first  call  for  76,000  men  by  President  Lincoln,  he  took  a 
steamboat  for  Detroit,  and  at  once  enlisted  in  the  First  Mich- 
igan Battery.  He  zealously  followed  the  fortnnes  of  that  bat- 
tei7  through  three  long  years  of  hard  fighting,  taking  part  in 
all  the  battles,  which  were  many,  in  which  it  was  engaged. 
In  the  fall  of  1864,  Mr.  Keen  retnmed  to  Oneota,  where  he  has 
since  lived. 

John  O.  Rakowski  was  bom  March  24th,  1824,  at  KSnigs- 
berg,  East  Prussia,  Glermany.  He  came  to  the  United  States 
in  1865;  and  came  to  St.  Loais  county  in  September  of  that 
year.  In  1861  he  enlisted  in  Washington,  D.  C,  in  the  Eighth 
New  York  r^ment  of  volunteer  infantry,  and  served  with  it 
for  three  months.  Then  he  enlisted  in  the  Elghtii  Ohio  volun- 
teer infantry.  He  took  part  in  many  battles,  from  the  first 
battle  of  Bull  Run  to  the  siege  of  Petersburg.  After  the  close 
of  the  war  he  returned,  in  1865,  to  his  preemption  claim  just 
west  of  Rice's  point,  now  in  the  Second  division  of  Dulnth. 

Jalins  Oogam,  a  German,  whose  history  or  military  rec^ 
ord  the  writer  is  unable  to  give,  enlisted  in  a  Michigan  regiment 
in  1861.  He  lived  near  Oneota,  back  on  the  hill  on  his  pre- 
emption claim,  of  which  he  made  final  proof  and  obtained  his 



title  before  leaving  to  enlist.    He  is  now  an  honored  citizen  of 
Wetmore,  Alger  connty,  Michigan. 

Robert  P.  Miller,  ajfter  whom  Miller's  creek  was  named 
(which  mns  through  a  part  of  the  elty  of  Dulnth),  enlisted  in 
the  Fourth  Minnesota  regiment  in  December,  1861.  William 
0.  Bailey,  who  rerided  on  his  homestead  adjoining  Oneota,wlth 
bis  wife  and  a  large  family  of  children,  enlisted  In  the  FlfUi 
Minnesota  in  1862.  A  part  of  his  homestead  is  known  now 
as  Hazelwood  addition  to  Oneota.  The  only  other  8t  LodIb 
Tolnnteer,  whose  name  I  can  recall,  was  Alonzo  Wilson,  who 
was  enrolled  in  November,  1861,  in  Brackett's  cavalry  bat- 
talion of  Minnesota. 


The  townsite  of  Bnohanan,  St.  Lonis  connty,  named  after 
James  Bachanan,  then  candidate  for  the  presidency  of  the 
United  States,  was  platted  in  October,  1856,  by  William  G. 
Cowell.  The  survey  and  platting  were  done  by  Christian  Wie- 
land,  then  one  of  the  best  civil  engineers  at  the  head  of  the 
lake.  It  was  located  on  Ifhe  shore  of  lake  Superior,  southwest- 
ward  from  the  mouth  of  Knife  river.  lake  many  other  paper 
towns  on  the  north  shore,  it  never  amounted  to  anything. 
Cowell  never  obtained  title  to  the  land  embraced  in  the  town- 
site.  It  was  a  wilderness  while  the  land  office  was  located 
there,  and  it  became  stUl  more  so  after  the  removal  of  that  of- 
fice to  Portland.  The  land  embraced  in  the  townsite  was 
afterward  entered  by  pnrohase  from  the  United  States. 

In  1857,  the  United  States  land  office  was  located  at  Bu- 
chanan. In  May,  1859,  it  was  remored  to  Portland,  but  un- 
fortunately there  was  no  suitable  buildii^  that  conld  be 
obtained  in  Portland  for  office  room,  so  a  small  story  and  a 
half  frame  building  waa  erected  by  William  Nettleton  and  J. 
B.  Culver  on  the  Kettleton  claim,  nearly  on  the  site  of  the  old 
first  election  tog  shanty.  The  land  office  was  kept  there  until 
the  appointment  of  Marvin  and  Lnce  as  register  and  receiver 
in  May,  1861.  Then  the  lamd  office  was  removed  into  the  gen- 
eral office  room,  in  Mr.  Luce's  residence  in  P<»tland,  where  it 
was  kept  for  eight  years,  until  the  appointment  of  Ansel 
Smith  and  William  H.  Feller  as  officers.  The  old  building, 
after  the  land  office  was  removed,  was  occnpied  as  a  resi- 


mSTORT  OF  DDLUTH  TO  THE  TEAR  18T0.  273 

dence  for  a  short  time  in  1861  by  Judge  John  Dnmphy,  who 
was  the  register  of  deeds  of  St.  Louis  county  in  1859.     He  also  , 
held  the  office  of  judge  of  probate  for  some  years  thereafter, 
and  is  yet  an  honored  resident  of  DuIutlL 

It  was  io  that  old  land  offlce  building  that  the  first  public 
school  for  the  Duluth  School  District  No.  5  was  kept  in  18G2. 
The  same  building  was  also  used,  in  the  years  1866  to  1868,  as 
the  headquarters  of  Mr.  Mayhew,  Prof.  H.  H.  Eames,  and 
others,  upon  their  return  from  their  explorations  of  the  north 
shore  of  lake  Superior  and  the  Vermilion  lake  country.  That 
old  building  is  also  entitled  to  still  greater  fame.  It  was  in 
it  that  Masonry  in  Duluth  had  its  birth,  when,  on  the  evening 
of  the  10th  of  April,  1869,  the  Palestine  Lodge  No.  79,  A.  F.  and 
A.  M.,  held  its  first  meeting.  The  years  since  that  time  have 
witnessed  the  healthy  and  steady  growth  of  Masonry  in  Du- 
luth, springing  up,  as  it  were,  "from  the  little  acorn  to  the 
mighty  oak." 

In  1870  the  old  building  was  moved  down  from  its  historic 
site  to  Superior  street  about  seventy-five  feet  east  of  the  cor- 
ner of  First  avenue  east.  It  was  enlarged  and  for  a  time  it 
was  occupied  by  Frank  McWhorter  as  a  froit  stand,  and  was 
afterward  destroyed  by  fire. 


After  Rev,  W.  T.  Boutwell's  sermon  at  the  Fond  dn  Lac 
trading  post  in  1832,  the  next  preaching  that  we  have  any  ac- 
count of  was  a  sermon  delivered  at  Oneota  by  Rev.  J.  Q.  Wil- 
son, then  of  Superior,  in  the  month  of  October,  1855,  in  the 
log  boarding  house.  In  1856,  a  frame  building  was  erected 
between  First  and  Second  streets  and  a  little  east  of  Fond  du 
Lac  avenue",  according  to  the  plat  of  Oneota,  by  the  pro- 
prietors of  that  townsite  for  public  use  as  a  schoolhouse  and 
a  place  for  the  ministers  of  all  denominations  to  preach  the 
gospel  to  the  inhabitants  of  Oneota  and  neighboring  settlers. 
A  bell  for  this  building  waa  donated  by  B.  W.  Raymond,  a 
wealthy  merchant  of  Chicago,  Rev.  James  Peet,  a  Methodist 
minister,  came  to  Oneota  in  1867,  and  remained  until  1861, 
preaching  there  and  at  other  points,  including  Superior.  After 
Mr.  Peet  left.  Rev.  James  Pngh,  of  the  same  denomination, 
came  and  preached  there  for  a  year  or  two.     After  Mr.  Pugh 



left,  mlttisterial  preaching  was  quite  limited  at  all  points  on 
the  north  shore  tmtil  1869. 

The  first  sermon  in  Dnlnth  was  preached  by  Rev.  John  M. 
Barnett,  a  Presbyterian  minister  of  Superior,  on  a  Sunday 
afternoon  in  July,  1856,  His  congregation  was  not  very  lai^e. 
The  writer  was  one  of  the  number,  having  accompanied  him 
in  a  flat-bottomed  *iff  from  Superior.  His  pulpit  was  at  the 
head  of  a  table  in  the  dining  room  of  the  sawmill  boarding 
house,  kept  then  by  Mr.  iN'ewell  Ryder  and  his  fiimily,  which 
hon£e  waa  afterward  owned  and  occupied  as  a  residence  by 
the  writer.     It  was  some  years  ago  destroyed  by  fire. 

There  were  no  church  organizations  eatabliahed  in  Duluth 
or  in  St.  Louis  county  prior  to  1869.  The  early  settlers  of  St. 
Ijoui^,  Oarlton,  and  Lake  counties  were  a  law-abiding  and 
Christian  people.  They  lived  for  fifteen  years  without  chnrch- 
es,  but  not  without  preaching,  without  doctors  and  lawyers, 
but  not  without  medicine  and  law. 

The  churches  established  in  Duluth  in  1870,  with  their 
seating  capacity,  are  reported  are  follows:  The  Methodist 
church,  seating  iOO;  the  Presbyterian,  400;  the  Baptist,  300; 
the  Congr^ational,  300;  the  Episcopal,  300;  and  the  Roman 
Catholic,  200. 

On  the  first  day  of  June,  1869,  the  first  Presbyterian  church 
of  Duluth  was  organized  by  the  Rev.  W.  B.  Higgins,  now  de- 
ceased, who  was  the  Presbyterian  minister  at  Superior.  Mr. 
Higgins  had  then  for  about  three  years  also  preached  and  min- 
istered to  the  people  of  Duluth.  The  writer  is  in  possession 
of  a  copy  of  a  diary  kept  by  Mr.  Higgins,  which  was  kindly 
furnished  by  his  son,  Alvin  M.  Higgins,  now  one  of  the  lead- 
ing attorneys  of  Terre  Haute,  Ind.  To  an  old  timer  this  diary 
is  intensely  interesting  reading.  In  it  Mr.  Higgins  makes 
mention  of  many  trips  on  Sunday  afternoons,  both  in  summer 
and  winter,  across  the  bay  to  Duluth  to  preaoh  and  minister 
to  its  people. 


The  first  meeting  of  the  board  of  county  commissioners  of 
St  Louis  county  was  held  on  January  4th,  1858,  at  the  oflBce 
of  R.  H.  Barrett,  then  acting  as  register  of  deeds,  at  Stuntz's 
warehouse  at  the  lower  end  of  Minnesota  point.  There  is  no 
record  that  the  board  had  a  clerk.    Without  transacting  any 


mSTOHT  OP  DULUTH  TO  THE  TEAR  1870.  27B 

boaineBS,  tlie  board  adjoamed  to  meet  at  Duluth  on  the  19tL. 
At  this  meeting  in  Daluth  (no  meeting  place  named)  a  petition 
was  presented  for  the  formation  of  a  school  district  for  Oneota 
and  Ticinity.  Six  school  districts  were  created  at  that  meet- 
ing. No.  1  was  for  Fond  da  Lac  and  vicinity;  No.  2  was  for 
that  part  of  the  country  where  New  Duluth  now  is;  No.  3  was 
for  the  neighborhood  of  Spirit  lake;  No.  i  was  for  Oneota  and 
vicinity;  No.  5  for  Duluth  and  Portland  and  vicinity;  and  No. 
6  for  the  lower  half  of  Minnesota  point. 

The  early  pioneers  did  not  neglect  the  future  of  the  rising 
generation.  Scboolhouses  and  teachers  came  before  churches, 
and  as  soon  as  the  preacher.  After  the  missioaary  schools 
taught  at  Pond  dn  Lao  by  Mr.  Ely  in  1835,  and  by  Rev.  J,  W. 
Holt  and  wife  in  1849,  before  referred  to,  the  next  was  a  school 
taoght  by  Miss  N.  C.  Bamett,  a  sister  of  Hev.  J.  M.  Bamett 
of  Superior,  Wis.,  in  the  summer  of  1856  at  Oneota,  where, 
every  year  since  that  date,  a  school  has  been  taught.  The 
next  school  was  one  taught  for  a  short  time  in  the  summer 
of  1861  by  a  Miss  Clark,  a  daughter  of  David  Clark,  who  then 
lived  in  the  Culver  house  in  Duluth  on  Minnesota  point.  Dar- 
ing 1862  and  1863,  a  pnblic  school  for  the  Fifth  district  was 
taught  in  thie  vacant  United  States  land  office  building  on 
"Nettieton's  claim."  Next  was  a  school  in  a  small  bnilding 
in  Portland,  situated  abottt  where  the  Ray  block  stands,  east 
of  Fourth  avenne  east  and  Superior  street,  Dulnth.  Then  in 
1S66  a  larger  building  was  erected  in  the  block  between  l%ird 
and  Fourth  avenues  east  on  the  lower  side  of  East  First  street, 
also  in  Portland,  where  a  school  was  regularly  kept  until  after 
the  new  birth  of  the  city  of  Duluth  in  1870.  This  building  was 
also  used  until  1870  for  religious  services  and  public  meetings. 

The  first  enrollment  of  children  between  the  ages  of  four 
and  twenty-one  years,  reported  to  the  county  commissioners, 
was  from  the  school  trustees  of  Oneota  school  district  on  Jan- 
uary 3rd,  1859.  The  number  reported  was  thirty-eight  chil- 
dren. In  1860  a  similar  report  was  made  of  forty-nine  children. 

The  first  report  from  the  Duluth  school  district  was  on 
January  28th,  1861,  but  thIe  commissioners'  record  does  not 
give  the  number. 

The  total  enrollment  of  children  of  school  age  in  St.  Louis 
county  in  the  year  1865  was  87,  being  49  boys  and  38  girls. 



On  February  12tli,  1861,  the  school  funds  apportioned  to 
Oneota  and  Duluth  school  districts,  in  the  hands  of  the  county 
treasurer,  were  f 75.40  for  the  Oneota  district,  and  f37.70  for 
the  Doluth  district.  Those  old  days  were  the  da^s  of  small 
things.  Contrast  the  receipts  and  distmrsements  of  the  Inde- 
pendent school  district  of  Duluth,  which  now  embraces  the 
territory  of  those  first  six  school  districts,  as  shown  by  its 
treasurer,  for  the  year  1897,  namely,  total  receipts  in  the  gen- 
eral fund,  including  teachers'  wages,  f348,250.73 ;  besides  the 
building  fuud,  |28,85€.09,  and  the  sinking  fund,  (107,043.32. 
The  number  of  pupils  enrolled  in  1897  was  9,613;  and  the  total 
Talue  of  school  buildings  and  furniture,  |1,800,700. 


From  the  year  1855  to  the  year  1862  the  fact  of  any  loca- 
tion of  the  county  seat  of  St.  Louis  county  was  a  disputed 
question.  There  was  no  law  locating  it,  nor  any  existing  rec- 
ord that  it  had  ever  been  located  by  the  board  of  county  com- 
missioners, that  body  having  been  empowered  to  do  so  by  the 
law.  It  was  contended  by  the  Dnluth  people  that  it  was 
located  on  Nettleton's  claim,  on  the  main  shore  at  the  base  of 
Minnesota  point,  by  the  board  of  county  commissioners,  bat 
no  record  of  such  fact  was  ever  found.  If  any  such  action  was 
ever  taken,  it  may  have  been  by  the  board  of  county  commis- 
sioners of  Superior  county,  of  whose  acts,  if  they  ever  held  a 
meeting,  no  record  was  preserved. 

For  a  number  of  years,  persons  who  were  fortunate  or 
unfortunate  enough  to  be  elected  to  any  county  office  were 
not  questioned  as  to  their  right  to  hold  their  office  at  their 
homes,  wherever  they  lived.  For  two  years  a  majority  of  the 
county  offices  were  held  at  Oneota.  For  four  years  the  clerk 
of  the  district  court  held  bis  office  at  his  home  at  Fond  du  Lac. 
The  county  commissioners  were  a  rambling  body  in  their 
places  of  meeting. 

After  the  year  1862,  it  was  generally  conceded  that  Duluth 
was  the  county  seat.  Now,  even  if  Dulnth's  undisputed  pos- 
session of  the  county  seat  for  thirty-six  years  should  be  ques- 
tioned, there  is  no  point  at  the  bead  of  the  lake  that  can  raise 
an  objection,  because  she  has  spread  the  county  seat  over 
twenty-flve  miles,  embracing  all  the  towns,  from  Clifton,  in 


H19T0RT  OF  DULUTH  TO  THE  YEAR  1B70.  277 

the  old  county  of  Superior,  to  the  "Grand  Portage  of  the  Fond 
du  Lac,"  the  head  of  navigation  on  the  St  Louia  rirer. 


The  first  connty  auditor  of  St  Louis  county,  Mr.  Edwin  H. 
Brown,  was  elected  in  October,  1858,  receiTlng  only  one  rote, 
and  that  vote  was  hia  own.  On  November  Ist,  1858,  he  ap- 
peared before  the  connty  board  of  supervisors,  then  In  eession 
at  the  house  of  E.  C.  Martin  in  Portland,  and  was  recognized 
as  the  clerb  of  the  board.  He  was,  at  that  meeting,  required 
to  ^ve  an  ofSclal  bond  in  the  sum  of  (1,000.  He  held  the 
otSce  for  fourteen  months  and  received  only  f32.20  for  his 
services.  The  first  yearly  salary  fixed  by  the  county  board  for 
the  county  auditor  was  on  July  13th,  1861,  at  (200. 

On  January  14th,  1861,  the  board  of  county  commissioners, 
in  session  as  a  board  of  equalization,  equalized  real  estate 
values  for  taxation  as  follows:  "The  land  on  the  shore  of 
the  lake  and  bays  of  St.  Ixinis  and  Superior  and  their  imme- 
diate vicinity"  was  fixed  at  |3  an  acre,  and  "land  farther 
back"  at  (2  an  acre,  and  townsite  lots  were  left  as  the  assessors 
valued  them,  at  |1.25  a  lot.  In  September,  1862,  the  same 
board  fixed  the  values  of  the  same  classeB  of  laud  at  f2  and 
(1.25  an  acre,  respectively,  and  fixed  the  values  of  all  platted 
lots  in  the  towns  of  Duluth,  Rice's  Point,  Oneota,  and  Fond 
du  Lac,  at  ?1  a  lot. 

In  the  year  1860  the  total  valuation  of  personal  property 
in  St.  Louis  county  was  |9,620;  in  1861  it  was  (4,726;  in  1862, 
(5,000;  in  1863,  not  reported;  and  in  1864,  (2,179.  The  total 
real  estate  values  for  1860  were  (96,836.76;  and  for  1864, 

In  the  year  1870  the  population  of  St.  Lonjs  county  was 
4,561,  of  which  number  Duluth  had  3,131.  Carlton  county  had 
286  inhabitants;  and  Lake  county,  135.  In  the  same  year  the 
total  valuation  of  real  and  personal  property  in  St  Louis 
county  was  (220,693;  the  total  taxes  levied,  (7,955;  and  the 
total  debt,  (5,212. 

The  first  deed  recorded  in  the  office  of  the  register  of  deeds 
of  St.  Lonis  county  was  a  quitclaim  deed  from  Eion  H.  Bacon 
to  Edmund  F.  Ely,  for  the  townsite  of  Oneota.  It  was  re- 
corded on  June  6th,  1856,  and  the  consideration  was  (1,500. 



The  record  of  the  first  couple  married  in  Duluth  is  typical 
of  the  union  of  Duluth  and  Portland:  "Bj  Rev.  J.  M.  Barrett 
{(rf  Superior.  Wis.),  on  April  12th,  lS-'9,  William  Epler,  a  resi- 
dent of  Portland,  and  Jennie  A,  Woodman,  resident  of  Du- 
luth," in  the  presence  of  J.  B.  Culver  and  E.  C.  Martin. 

The  first  issue  of  a  newspaper  published  at  Duluth  was 
the  Dulutli  Minnesotian,  April  24th,  18Q9,  with  Dr.  Thomas 
Foster  as  editor.  He  came-to  Duluth  the  year  before  frtHn 
St  Paul,  where  he  had  for  some  years  edited  thie  St.  Paul 
Uinnesotian.  The  office  of  publication  of  the  Duluth  Minne- 
sotian  was  an  old  building  on  the  westerly  side  of  Lake  ave- 
nue, about  a  block  north  of  where  the  canal  now  is.  The  pa- 
per Boon  passed  from  the  doctor's  control,  and  in  a  few  years 
it  ceased  to  exist. 

The  remarkable  growth  of  Duluth  dates  from  its  first  city 
charter,  granted  by  an  act  of  the  stale  legislature,  approved 
March  flth,  1870. 

At  the  first  city  election,  held  on  April  4th,  1870,  there 
were  448  votes  polled,  of  which  Col,  J.  B.  Culver,  Democrat, 
had  241,  and  John  C.  Hunter,  Bepublican,  had  20S,  for  mayor, 
with  two  scattering  votes.  George  C,  Stone  was  elected  as 
the  first  city  treasurer;  Orlando  Luce  as  the  first  city  comp- 
troller; and  Henry  Silby  as  the  first  city  justice.  AH  the 
other  officers  were  appointed  by  the  mayor  and  city  council. 

This  paper  has  extended  far  beyond  the  limit  at  first  de- 
signed by  the  writer,  when  he  undertook  the  task.  It  records 
portions  of  the  early  history  of  Dulath  and  northeastern  Min- 
nesota which  may  be  of  interest  to  coming  generations. 

For  the  time  since  the  birth  of  the  new  city  of  Duluth  in 
1870,  the  writer  hopes  that  some  one  of  the  many  of  its  resi- 
dents who  have  lived  in  the  city  from  that  date,  having  better 
qualifications  for  the  work  than  he,  will  write  the  history 
of  its  struggles  during  its  first  ten  years,  and  of  its  steady 
and  substantial  growth  since  1880  to  the  present  time. 




The  act  creating  Redwood  county  was  passed  by  tlie  eea- 
sion  of  the  legislature  of  1862,  and  a  second  act  changing  and 
defining  its  boundaries  and  providing  for  its  civil  organization 
was  passed  in  1865.  This  area  had  previously  formed  a  part 
of  Brown  county,  and  earlier  of  Blue  Earth  county.  The 
boundaries  of  Redwood  county,  as  established  by  these  acts, 
reached  to  the  west  line  of  the  state  and  northwest  to  Big 
Stone  lake.  At  later  dates,  the  counties  of  Lyon,  Lincoln, 
Yellow  Medicine,  and  Lac  qui  Parle,  have  been  formed  from 
the  territory  originally  included  in  this  county.  Its  present 
area,  which  it  has  had  since  1871,  comprises  nearly  twenty- 
five  townships  of  the  government  surveys,  including  five  frag- 
mental  townships  on  the  northeast  adjoining  the  Minnesota 

In  the  organization  of  moat  counties  in  the  state,  the  fact 
of  prior  ownership  and  occupation  by  Indian  tribes  is  taken 
for  granted;  but  in  the  case  of  Redwood  county,  because  a 
part  of  its  territory  had  already  been  occupied  by  farms  with 
houses,  plowed  lands  in  crop,  and  a  fairly  developed  agricul- 
tural industry,  it  is  necessary  to  revert  to  previous  conditions 
in  order  to  have  a  full  understanding  of  its  history. 

In  the  years  1856  to  1858  the  United  States  government, 
under  the  influence  of  those  who  believed  that  the  Indian 
should  be  given  the  opportunity  to  become  a  citizen,  and  that 
the  true  policy  for  the  management  of  the  wards  of  the  nation 
was  through  their  adoption  of  habits  of  industry  which  should 

•Head  at  the  monthly  meetlne  ot  the  Executive  Council,  Hay  9,  ISEtS. 



lead  to  self-support  and  independence,  inaugurated  the  policy 
of  building  bouses,  breaking  up  land,  and  fumisbing  teams, 
impIemeDts,  and  sucb  other  Buppliea  as  were  necessary  to  en- 
able the  Indian  to  have  a  fixed  home  and  adopt  the  habits  of 
civilization.  Among  the  reservations  set  apart  for  this  pur- 
pose was  the  Sioaz  Indian  reservation  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Minnesota  river,  a  strip  of  an  average  width  of  ten  mites  and 
extending  from  a  short  distance  above  New  Ulm  to  Big  Stone 

There  were  over  6,000  Indians  on  the  reservation  at  the 
time  of  the  outbreak  in  1862,  known  as  the  "Annuity  Sioux  In- 
dians," divided  between  the  upper  agencies^at  Lac  qui  Parle 
and  Tellow  Medicine  and  the  Lower  Sioux  Agency  in  what  is 
now  the  town  of  Sherman  in  Redwood  county.  There  was  a 
superintendent  at  each  agency,  and  a  thorough  system  of 
farming  had  been  establiBbed  prior  to  the  outbreak,  which 
gave  promise  at  an  early  day  to  make  the  Indian  both  self-re- 
specting and  independent.  At  the  Lower  Agency  the  govern- 
ment buildings,  with  the  trading  posts  of  Messrs.  Robert, 
Forbes,  Jind  Mjriok,  formed  quiie  a  village.  In  that  vicinity 
about  800  acres  of  land  had  been  broken  up,  comfortable  brick 
booses  had  been  built,  and  altogether  the  outlook  was  promis- 
ing for  the  success  of  the  effort  to  lift  the  red  man  to  a  higher 
plane  of  existence.  "The  hopes  of  the  philanthropist  and  Chris- 
tian beat  high.  They  believed  the  day  was  not  far  distant 
when  it  could  be  said  that  the  Sioux  Indian  as  a  race  not  only 
could  be  civilized,  but  there  were  whole  tribes  who  were  civil- 
ized, and  had  abandoned  the  chase  and  the  war  path  for  the 
cultivation  of  the  soil  and  the  arts  of  peace;  and  that  the  jug- 
gleries and  sorceries  of  tbe  medicine  man  had  been  abandoned 
for  the  milder  teaching  of  the  missionaries  of  the  cross."  How 
their  high  hopes  were  blasted  by  tbe  uprising  and  massacre 
of  1862  it  is  not  tbe  purpose  of  this  paper  to  recite,  as  the 
subject  is  only  introduced  to  show  that,  previous  to  its  settle- 
ment by  the  white  man.  Redwood  county  has  a  history  of  set- 
tlement and  cultivation  as  well  as  of  rapine,  plunder  and 

Redwood  county  took  its  name  from  Redwood  river,  which 
rises  in  Lincoln  and  Pipestone  counties  and  flows  easterly 
across  this  county  into  the  Minnesota,  below  Redwood  Falls. 



There  is  a  frontage  of  about  twenty-seven  miles  on  the  Minne- 
sota river.  Along  tbis  river,  at  tbe  time  of  the  first  settle- 
ment, there  were  considerable  tracts  of  timber,  which,  with  a 
few  other  tracts  on  the  Cottonwood  river  and  some  small 
groves,  furnished  the  wood  and  lumber  supplies  for  the  pio- 
neers. The  remaining  portion  of  the  land  was  a  gently  undu- 
lating prairie,  with  a  deep  soil  of  black  loann  underlain  by  clay. 
For  general  farming  purposes,  it  may  be  classed  as  equal  to 
any  in  tbe  state.  There  were  at  the  first  a  great  many  sloughs 
and  a  number  of  what  were  considered  permanent  lakes;  but 
cultivation  of  the  adjoining  lands  and  change  of  the  seasons 
have  made  meadows  of  the  greater  number  of  the  sloughs, 
and  it  can  now  be  seen  that  within  a  few  years  not  a  perma- 
nent lake  of  any  size  will  remain.  The  first  requirement  of 
the  new  settler  was  timber  and  water,  and  so  we  find  that  tbe 
Minnesota  river  formed  a  natural  bane  for  the  settlement  of 
the  valley;  for,  though  the  open  prairie  lands  were  more  easily 
brought  under  cultivation,  the  first  settlers,  practically  help- 
less for  want  of  transportation,  kept  near  to  timber,  which 
was  necessary  both  for  fuel  and  building  purposes. 

The  first  settlers  in  Bedwood  county  were  Col.  Samuel  Mc- 
Phaii,  O.  C.  Martin,  John  B.  Thompson,  T.  W.  Caster,  Orrin 
Fletcher,  and  John  W.  Dunlap,  who  arrived  at  the  Falls  of  the 
Redwood  on  May  2nd,  18C1.  It  is  to  be  noted  that  notwith- 
standing the  punishment  and  forcible  expulsion  of  the  hostile 
Indians,  enough  remained  skulking  in  the  woods  and  about 
the  county  to  keep  the  whites  in  a  constant  state  of  alarm. 
We  find  that  these  first  settlers  at  once  on  their  arrival  began 
tbe  erection  of  temporary  sleeping  quarters  built  of  logs  and 
banked  up  with  sods;  that  this  was  followed  by  a  block  bonse 
16  by  24  feet  in  area  and  high  enough  to  give  sleeping  quarters 
opstairB;  and  that  afterward  a  stockade  150  by  200  feet  was 
built,  inside  of  which  three  or  four  other  bouses  were  built 
from  time  to  time  to  accommodate  the  newcomers.  All  had  the 
feeling  that  it  was  unsafe  to  risk  living  on  the  claims  which 
they  took  in  the  vicinity  a  little  later.  Col.  McPhail  says  in 
a  letter:  'TMay  16th  our  post  was  reinforced  by  the  arrival 
of  Capt  Ed.  Post  and  Frank  Kennedy.  They  took  claims  on 
the  west  side,  known  as  the  Cook  place.  They  planted  pota- 
toes, com,  and  melons.    This  was  the  only  planting  done  that 



season  in  the  colony.  Messrs.  Post  and  Kennedy  assisted  in 
building  tbe  stockade,  bat  did  not  remain  permanently." 

The  record  shows  the  name  of  John  S.  O.  Homier  as  the 
next  arrival,  and  soon  David  Watson  came  in  and  bailt  a  small 
house  inside  the  stockade.  Jacob  Tippery  and  George  Spang- 
ler  also  arrived  about  this  time. 

There  is  evidence,  in  Col.  McPhail's  letters,  that  the  few 
Indians  still  remaining  in  the  vicinity  kept  the  little  colony 
constantly  on  the  alert  during  the  whole  of  this  first  snmmer. 
On  May  24th  to  Col,  Pfaender,  in  command  at  Port  Ridgely, 
he  eaye:  "There  are  in  this  vicinity  six  or  eight  straggling 
Indians.  If  yon  could  send  up  ten  or  twelve  cavalry  for  a 
few  days,  with  our  aid  1  feel  confident  we  could  capture  them." 
On  June  2nd  he  wrote  to  Gen.  Sibley:  "We  are  and  have  been 
greatly  annoyed  by  small  bands  of  prowling  Indians.  We 
would  respectfully  ask,  if  not  inconsistent  with  the  public 
service,  that  you  grant  us  a  small  detachment  of  troops." 
Again,  under  date  of  June  14th,  to  the  adjutant  general,  Oscar 
Malmros,  he  says :  "Send  me  to  Fort  Hidgely  twenty  Spring- 
field rifles;  also,  1,000  round  ball  cartridges.  Should  we  use 
these  cartridges,  we  will  pay  for  them  with  scalps,  that  is,  if 
the  bounty  of  ?200  still  holds  good;  if  not,  then  charge  them 
to  the  good  of  the  service."  The  authorities  responded  to  the 
appeals  by  sending  guns  and  ammunition  on  July  2Sth,  and, 
on  December  12th,  a  squad  of  twelve  ex-rebels  for  guard  doty. 
In  the  early  fall  the  settlers  were  reinforced  by  the  arrival 
of  A.  W,  Webster,  J.  W.  Harkness,  and  Birney  Flynn, 

On  July  12th  the  little  community  began  to  feel  the  want 
of  a  postofflce  and  petitioned  tbe  postmaster  general,  setting 
forth  that  they  were  twenty-two  miles  from  the  nearest  oflBce 
and  praying  that  an  office  be  established  at  Redwood  Falls, 
which  petition  was  granted  in  the  fall,  John  R.  Thompson 
being  appointed  postmaster. 

The  presidential  election  of  1864  was  approaching  and 
the  hardy  pioneers,  not  desiring  to  be  disfranchised,  petitioned 
Governor  Miller  for  the  establishment  of  an  election  district, 
in  pursuance  of  which  the  governor  set  off  the  whole  county, 
as  it  was  afterward  organized,  including  the  present  county 
with  Lyon,  Lincoln,  Yellow  Medicine,  and  Lac  qui  Parle  coun- 
ties, as  such  district.    The  election  of  1864  was  held  at  the 



bonae  of  John  8.  Q.  Honner  ioBide  the  stockade;  the  election 
board  being  0.  C.  Martin,  T.  W.  Caater,  and  Ed  McCormick. 
In  reference  to  the  election  Col.  McPbail  says:  "We  caat 
sixty-fire  rotes,  alt  straight  Republican;  no  intimidatioD,  no 
bnlldozing."  The  United  States  government  had  the  lands  in 
the  county  surveyed  during  the  summer  and  fall  of  1864,  and 
that  fact  nmy  explain  where  a  part  of  the  sixty-five  votes 
came  from,  as  the  roster  does  not  show  that  number  of  perma- 
nent settlers. 

Col.  McPbail  and  T.  W.  Caster  took  the  claims  on  which 
the  original  town  of  Redwood  Falls  was  located,  and  later 
McFhail  bought  out  Caster  and  had  the  village  platted  into 
four  hundred  lots  which  were  sold  in  shares  of  twenty  lots 
each  at  flOO  a  share.  Among  the  other  settlers  who  entered 
claims  in  this  vicinity,  0.  C.  Martin  and  Edmund  Fosgate 
located  about  two  and  a  half  miles  southwest  of  the  village, 
and  John  S.  Q.  Honner  two  miles  north,  all  on  the  Redwood 
river.  The  land,  having  been  surveyed,  was  appraispd  by 
commissioners  in  the  fall  of  1864,  who  valned  the  most  of  it  at 
fi^  per  acre;  though  some  special  tracts  and  timber  lands, 
with  those  on  which  Improvements  had  been  made,  were  rated 
from  $2.50  to  $5  per  acre. 

The  first  permanent  officers  of  the  co.nnty  were  elected  in 
November,  1865.  O.  C.  Martin,  chairman,  Hugh  Cnrrie,  and 
John  Winters,  were  commissioners;  Edward  March  was  au- 
ditor; L.  M.  Baker,  register  of  deeds;  Jacob  Tippery,  treas- 
urer; Samuel  McPbail,  clerk  of  court  and  county  attorney; 
and  Norman  Webster,  sheriff.  The  county  seat  was  estab- 
lished at  Redwood  Palls,  at  the  same  election.  As  noted 
above.  Gov.  Miller  bad  set  off  what  now  comprises  five  conn- 
ties  aa  an  election  district,  which  surely  could  not  interfere 
with  the  right  of  the  voter;  bnt  attention  is  called  to  a  pecul- 
iar feature  of  this  early  arrangement,  granting  to  all  votcra 
living  in  unorganized  townships  the  right  to  vote  in  the  village 
of  Redwood  Falls,  which  right  continued  as  late  as  1882. 

The  first  term  of  court  held  in  the  county  was  at  Redwood 
Falls  over  the  store  building  of  Louis  Robert,  beginning  June 
l8th,  1867,  for  the  trial  of  what  are  known  as  the  New  Ulm 
murder  cases.  The  trial  had  been  removed  from  Brown  county 
because  the  presiding  judge,  Hon.  Horace  Austin,  found  pnblio 



aentiment  too  mrach  prejudiced  to  admit  of  a  fair  trial  at  New 
Ulm.  Tbe  attorneys  in  the  case  were  Col.  Colvill,  attorney 
general,  Samuel  McPhail,  connty  attorney,  and  S.  A.  Bnell,  for 
the  prosecution;  and  Judge  C.  E.  Flandran,  of  Bt.  Paul,  C.  T. 
Clothier,  Francis  Baaaen,  and  John  McDorman,  of  New  Ulm, 
for  tbe  defense.  The  defendants  were  charged  with  taking 
two  men,  who  had  assaulted  a  barkeeper,  to  tbe  Minnesota 
river  and  drowning  them  by  patting  them  under  the  ice.  The 
ti'ial  resulted  in  an  acquittal. 

Col.  McPhail  generously  donated  a  block  of  ground  for 
county  purposes,  on  which  the  first  court  house,  twenty-eight 
feet  square,  with  a  court  room  upstairs,  was  built  in  1874.  At 
that  time  it  was  the  most  commodious  and  pretentious  build- 
ing in  the  connty.  To  this  modest  beginning  an  addition  of 
the  same  size  was  made  in  1881,  which  provided  convenient 
quarters  for  the  transaction  of  public  business  until  1891, 
when  the  present  very  complete  court  house  of  brick  was 
erected  at  a  cost  of  $35,000.  The  county  has  also  a  jail  build- 
ing which  cost  $16,000.  Previous  to  the  building  of  the  first 
court  house  the  public  offices  were  kept  mostly  at  private 
houses,  and  terms  of  court  were  held  in  different  hulls. 

Miss  Julia  A.  Williams  taught  a  private  school  in  the 
stockade  in  1864;  but  the  educational  history  of  the  county 
opened  with  the  organization  of  school  district  No.  1  at  Red- 
wood Falls  in  April,  1866,  with  Edward  March,  county  auditor, 
who  had  also  been  appointed  superintendent  of  schools,  as 
teacher.  There  were  in  1878  only  thirty-tjiree  organized  school 
districts.  In  1886,  when  the  number  of  school  districts  had 
increased  to  sixty-seven,  a  thorough  attempt  was  made  to 
systematize  the  work  aud  improve  the  teaching  force  of  the 
county,  among  which  there  was  hardly  a  first  grade  teacher  in 
the  rural  districts,  and  more  holding  third  than  second  grade 
certificates.  In  Redwood  Falls,  Independent  District  No.  1  now 
has  a  thoroughly  graded  and  high  school  system,  with  twelve 
teachers,  a  library  of  1,000  volumes,  necessary  apparatus  for 
the  illustration  of  the  sciences,  and  an  enrollment  of  500 
pupils.  The  connty  now  has  seven  graded  schools  with  one  or 
more  departments,  and  d3  school  districts,  with  103  school 
buildings,  nearly  all  of  which  are  comfortable  and  well  fur- 



At  the  present  time  over  4,000  popiU  are  enrolled;  and 
126  teachers,  of  whom  forty  hold  flrst  grade  certificates  or 
normal  school  diplomas,  are  employed.  Only  seven  third 
grade  licenses  are  in  force.  Sixty  districtB  are  supplied  with 
libraries,  ranging  in  Taloe  from  |60  to  $100.  Ninety  per  cent 
of  the  districts  supply  text  books  to  pupils  free  of  charge.  S. 
J.  Hace,  the  present  very  efficient  snperintendent,  has  held  the 
office  since  1886. 

To  a  new  settlement,  after  shelter  and  the  myeans  of  sub- 
sistence are  provided,  the  question  of  transportation  is  of  the 
highest  importance.  At  the  beginning  the  only  means  of  com- 
mnnication  between  the  little  colony  and  St.  Paal,  the  general 
market  and  base  of  supplies,  was  the  Minnesota  rivei',  which 
even  at  Mankato  was  too  uncertain  to  afford  satisfactory  busi- 
ness facilities  with  the  outside  world.  At  New  Ulm,  the  next 
place  of  importance  up  the  river,  boats  were  only  expected 
to  run  for  a  month  or  two  in  the  spring,  and  possibly  a  month 
in  the  fall.  Yet  the  energetic  settlers  at  Redwood  determined 
to  do  the  best  they  could  to  induce  steamboat  owners  to  risk 
a  trip  to  their  growing  settlement,  forty  miles  beyond  New 
TJIm.  Prom  18§5  to  1876  it  was  nearly  always  possible  for 
small  stern-wheel  boats  to  make  a  trip  or  two  to  Redwood  in 
the  spring;  and  during  one  season  the  stage  of  water  permit- 
ted Gen.  M.  D.  Flower  to  reach  there  several  times  with  his 
boat,  the  Osceola.  The  Pionper  was  chartered  by  D.  L.  Big- 
ham  in  the  spring  of  1869,  loaded  with  lumber  at  St.  Paul,  and 
made  a  successful  trip. 

In  1875  a  large  warehouse  was  built  at  the  landing  on  the 
Minnesota,  called  Riverside,  by  a  company,  for  the  purpose 
of  providing  storage,  and  to  give  an  outlet  by  the  river  for 
the  wheat  crop,  of  which  60,000  bushels  were  brought  and 
stored  during  the  next  fall  and  winter.  In  the  spring  of  1876 
two  side-wheel  steamboats  arrived  at  Riverside,  laden  with 
lumber,  and  took  out  the  wheat  in  store  and  a  large  amount 
from  Redwood  and  private  parties.  To  warehouse  men,  and 
to  Daniels  &  Son,  who  had  opened  a  general  store  and  built 
a  hotel,  the  transportation  scheme  seemed  solved,  but  it  proved 
only  a  case  of  whistling  before  getting  out  of  the  woods.  In 
a  few  days  it  was  learned  that  the  boats  were  stranded  on  a 
sandbar  at  the  mouth  of  the  Blue  Earth  river,  and  the  parties 



who  shipped  the  wheat  were  called  on  to  furnish  sacks  and 
men  to  transfer  the  grain  to  the  railroad.  This  practically  pnt 
an  end  to  the  Riverside  and  steamboat  transportatioii  scheme. 
The  warehouse  and  hotel  were  removed  to  Redwood  Falls  and 
used  in  building  an  elevator  and  hotel  there. 

Capt.  Leroy  Newton  made  a  further  effort  to  utilize  the 
river.  He  took  a  large  barge  and  rigged  a  wheel  at  the  stem, 
which  was  propelled  by  an  ordinary  eight-horse  thresher  pow- 
er. This,  however,  proved  unsuccessful;  though  it  was  of 
some  help  to  reach  New  Ulm,  which  was  the  end  of  his  run. 

The  first  newspaper  published  was  the  Redwood  Falls 
Mail,  in  September,  1869,  by  V,  C.  Seward,  which  was  bonght 
by  William  B,  Herriott  in  May,  1873.  The  name  was  changed 
at  the  same  time  to  the  Redwood  Gazette,  and  it  is  now  is- 
sued under  this  name  by  Aiken  &  Schmahl,  proprietors. 

The  Winona  &  St.  I'eter  railway  was  built  to  Lamberton 
and  through  the  southern  part  of  Redwood  county  in  1873;  its 
branch,  the  Minnesota  Valley  railway,  running  from  Sleepy 
Eye  to  Redwood  Falls,  was  completed  in  August,  1878;  and 
the  Minneapolis  &  St.  I^uls  railway  company  built  its  line  to 
North  Redwood  in  1885. 

The  Redwood  County  Agricultural  Society  was  ot^anized 
in  1873,  and  held  its  flrst  fair  that  fall.  There  was  hardly 
any  progress  made  until  1882,  when  it  was  reorgani7*d,  issued 
stock  to  the  amount  of  $500,  and  bought  forty  acres  of  land, 
on  which  it  has  gradually  built  comfortable  buildings.  It 
has  a  good  half  mile  track  and  a  grand  stand.  The  policy 
of  the  managemicnt  has  been  conservative,  and  there  has  been 
a  little  profit  nearly  every  year. 

The  laud  office  of  the  Redwood  Falls  land  district  was 
established  in  July,  1872,  with  Col.  B.  F.  Smith,  register,  and 
Major  W.  H.  Kelley,  receiver.  These  officers  were  succeeded 
by  Capt.  W.  P.  Dunnington  and  W.  B.  Herriott.  The  oflSce 
was  removed  to  Marshall  some  years  ago. 

The  first  banking  business,  opened  as  a  private  bank  in 
November,  1871,  by  W.  P.  Dickenson,  has  since  been  incor- 
porated under  the  state  laws  as  the  Bank  of  Redwood  Palls, 
with  a  capital  of  f25,000.  The  first  store,  except  one  opened 
by  Louis  Robert  in  the  stockade,  was  opened  by  H.  Benke  &, 



Brother,  in  July,  1865,  ander  the  management  of  A.  Northrnp. 
The  first  hotel,  the  Exchange,  -was  bnilt  by  Janues  McMillan 
and  opened  in  1865,  on  the  lots  now  occnpied  by  the  county 

The  first  physician  to  locate  in  the  county  was  Br.  D.  L. 
Hitchcock,  who  came  with  his  family  in  1865.  Col.  Bamnel 
McPhail  was  the  first  attorney. 

The  first  grain  elevator  was  erected  in  1878,  with  a  capacity 
of  100,000  bushels.  The  first  blacksmith  shop  was  opened  by 
John  Thomas,  in  the  spring  of  1865.  W,  P.  Tenney  opened  a 
barber  shop  in  1870,  and  has  continued  the  business  to  this 

The  first  birth  was  of  Henry  Thompson,  to  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J. 
B.  Thomipson,  in  February,  1865;  and  the  first  death  was  of 
Willie  Honner,  son  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  J.  8.  Q.  Honner,  on  April 
12th,  1865.  The  first  religious  services  were  held  by  a  Baptist 
clergyman  in  August,  1865,  at  the  house  of  J.  S.  G.  Honner. 
"The  first  marriage  ceremony  was  performed  by  O.  C.  Martin, 
justjce  of  the  peace,  between  George  Coffee  and  Amanda  Cole. 
It  took  place  under  the  falls,  where  the  parties  chose  it  should 
be  solemnized." 

The  government  built  a  saw  mill  at  the  falls  of  the  Bed- 
wood  in  1856,  for  the  purpose  of  supplying  lumber  for  houses 
to  he  built  for  the  Indians.  The  raceway  was  blasted  out  of 
granite  forming  the  ledge  of  the  falls.  E.  G.  Pomroy,  now 
living  in  the  town  of  Underwood,  assisted  in  building  the  mill. 
During  the  outbreak,  or  later,  it  was  entirely  dismantled,  and 
all  the  machinery  was  carried  away,  presumably  not  by  the 
Sioux.  The  building,  however,  remained,  and  it  was  refitted 
and  put  in  order  in  1865  by  McPhail,  Martin  and  Thompson, 
who  there  sawed  the  lumber  for  all  the  frame  buildings  erected 
in  the  vicinity.  This  was,  at  the  time,  the  most  important, 
and,  if  the  report  of  a  charge  of  $16  a  thousand  for  sawing  be 
true,  the  most  profitable  industry  above  New  Ulm.  Another 
saw  mill  was  built  by  Ener  and  Andrew  Biram  in  1869,  on 
the  Bedwood  about  half  a  mile  above  the  coufinence  with  the 
Minnesota,  which,  with  an  abundance  of  native  timber  near 
at  hand  and  a  constantly  increasing  demand,  as  in  the  case 
of  the  mill  at  the  falls,  proved  both  a  necessary  and  profitable 



The  first  grist  mill  in  the  county,  now  called  the  Redwood 
Roller  MillB,  was  built  in  1868  by  Park  Worden  and  8.  J.  F. 
Ruter,  just  above  the  falls  of  the  Redwood,  with  two  mo  of 
stone  and  room  for  two  ran  additional.  This  mill  has  since 
been  changed  to  the  roller  syBtem,  has  been  supplied  with 
modem  facilities  and  appliances,  and  has  a  capacity  of  seven- 
ty-five barrels  of  flour  a  day.  The  present  owner  is  A.  C. 

A.  M,  Cook  and  Sons  built  the  Delhi  Mill,  with  three  run 
of  stone,  in  1869,  higher  up  on  the  river,  at  its  crossing  hy 
the  old  territorial  road.  This  mill  was  owned  later  by  W.  E. 
Baker  and  James  McMillan,  and  later  still  by  O.  W.  McMillan 
&  Co.    It  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1895. 

Bridge  building  was  inaugurated  in  the  county  by  the  leg- 
islature of  1871,  which  passed  an  act  appropriating  $5,000  for 
the  construction  of  a  Howe  truss  bridge  across  the  Redwood 
river  at  the  dalles.  This  bridge  was  entirely  of  wood.  The 
bill  was  introduced  by  Hon.  J.  8.  Q.  Honner,  representative, 
and  was  passed  only  after  a  hard  fight.  The  amount  was  the 
first  considerable  sum  appropriated  from  the  internal  improve- 
ment fund  created  by  the  five  per  cent,  given  to  the  state  in 
sales  of  government  lands.  The  bridge  was  replaced  some 
years  ago  by  an  iron  combination  structure  on  a  more  modem 

The  early  settlement  of  the  county  was  greatly  retarded  by 
the  withdrawal  from  the  operation  of  the  homestead  law  of 
a  large  body  of  land  for  a  railroad  bonus,  equal  to  half  of  the 
area  in  most  townships;  by  the  location  of  considerable  tracts 
of  the  University  and  Internal  Improvement  grants  within  its 
limits;  and  by  the  sale  of  a  large  part  of  the  reservation  to 

A  second  cause  of  discouragement  and  delay  was  the  visit 
of  the  grasshoppers,  lasting  from  1874  to  1877,  during  which 
time  very  little  was  harvested.  The  eggs  were  laid  in  the 
prairie  each  year,  and  they  hatched  out  just  in  time  for  the 
young  hoppers  to  move  into  the  wheat  fields  when  the  tender 
blades  were  two  or  three  inches  high,  and  to  eat  them  off  so 
close  to  the  ground  that  it  gave  the  appearance  of  a  fire  hav- 
ing passed  over  the  fields.  If  anything  had  escaped  their 
ravages,  later  in  the  season,  on  some  fair  day,  a  fieecy  cloud 



might  be  seen  between  the  observer  and  the  sun,  which  woaid 
prove  to  be  an  invading  host  of  these  marauders  aeeliing  some- 
thing to  devour.  Verily,  the  grasshopper  was  a  bnrden  dar- 
ing those  disastroQs  years!  The  farmers  lost  conrage  and  in 
manj  cases  were  driven  away  altogether  from  the  places  where 
they  had  hoped  to  make  their  homes.  Many  others  were  com- 
pelled to  leave  their  claims  temporarily  to  procure  means  of 
subsistence  for  thanselves  and  their  families.  The  state  did 
what  it  could  to  famish  seed  grain  on  two  or  three  occasions, 
and  donations  from,  the  older  connties  relieved  the  situation 
in  a  slight  degree;  but,  in  any  view,  it  was  a  most  trying 
experience  to  the  hardy  and  industrious  pioneer  families,  who, 
at  the  best,  conM  only  maintain  the  position  they  had  taken 
on  the  frontier  by  hard  work  and  self-denial. 

Kaolin  is  found  in  lai^  qoantities  on  the  left  bank  of  the 
Redwood  river  within  the  limits  of  the  city  of  Bedwood  Falls, 
samples  of  which  bave  been  tested  and  r^wrted  to  be  of  good  , 
qaality;  but  thus  tar  no  effort  has  been  made  to  work  or  pre- 
pare it  for  market,  and  it  is  as  yet  an  undeveloped  resource. 

A.  low  grade  of  lignite  is  found  at  three  or  four  places  in 
the  bluff  along  the  Minnesota  river,  and  an  excavation  in  its 
larger  bed  is  known  as  the  Peabody  mine.  An  effort  was 
made  about  Ave  years  ago,  in  1893,  to  develop  this  deposit,  the 
view  of  the  interested  parties  being  that  the  indications  were 
that  a  good  quality  of  bituminous  coal  would  be  found  by  open- 
ing the  seam  to  a  considerable  depth.  After  spending  much 
money,  it  was  discovered  that,  though  the  product  would 
burn,  it  bad  no  commercial  value,  and  further  effort  was 

There  are  extensive  granite  ledges  within  the  borders  of 
the  county,  along  the  Minnesota  river,  in  two  of  which,  at 
North  Bedwood  and  again  at  a  point  north  of  Belview,  quar- 
ries have  been  opened  and  worked  to  quite  an  extent,  enough, 
at  the  least,  to  demonstrate  that  the  product  is  of  a  high  qual- 
ity, and  that  it  is  only  necessary  for  a  demand  to  spring  up  to 
make  these  quarries,  as  well  as  others  not  yet  opened,  a  per- 
manent and  profitable  industry. 

The  county  has  been  fortunate  in  its  financial  policy  and 
has  always  kept  faith  with  its  freditors.  Notwithstanding  its 
early  disability  to  levy  taxes  equally,  by  reason  of  a  very  lareie 



portion  of  its  laud  being  Doo-tasable,  and  in  «pite  of  the 
grasshopper  raid,  which  made  it  impoasible  for  settlem  to  paj, 
the  neceBsary  expeoaea  were  always  met  withoat  incurring 
debt  It  is  doe  to  the  different  boards  of  county  commiBsioa- 
era  and  officers  who  have  beei).  in  control  from'  time  to  time, 
to  say  that  the  mftnagement  of  connty  affairs  has  been  pru- 
dent, fonainees-like  and  conBerrative;  and  to  these  oficers,  in 
a  large  degree,  is  dae  the  high  credit  and  financial  stauding 
ot  the  county.  The  pcesest  indebtednoM  of  the  county  Is 
$45,000  in  eonnty  bonds  drawing  interest  at  five  per  cent, 
issued  for  a  part  of  |60,000  given  to  the  Minnesota  Valley  rail- 
way company  in  1S78,  and  the  balance  for  county  hoildings. 
The  county  prc^rty  consists  of  a  court  houae  erected  at  a 
cost  of  $35,000;  a  jail  costtng  fl6,000;  and  the  county  poor 
farm,  $5,000.  This  doea  not  take  account  of  delinquent  ta:iee. 
The  valuation  of  the  aasessment  of  1897  was  $d,842-,15S.  The 
number  of  acres  in  crops  last  year  was  1£7,1U);  add  to  this 
some  200,000  acres  of  pasture,  and  we  find  that  the  fanoers 
have  utilized  two-thirds  of  the  657,000  acres  of  land  contained 
in  the  county. 

This  paper  has  been  written  with  the  pnrpose  of  taMng  Dp 
the  stibjecta  of  the  organization  of  towns  and  villagea,  the 
history  of  religions  bodies  and  secret  orders,  and  the  general 
development  of  the  agricaltoral  and  other  iodostrieB  of  the 
county,  at  a  future  time. 


DiBiimd, Google 

DiBiimd, Google 



Mr.  President,  Members  of  the  Historical  Society,  and  Citi- 
zens of  Minnesota:  It  is  witb  great  pleasnre  that  I  appear  be- 
fore the  Minnesota  BUstorical  Society  in  response  to  an  invita- 
tion extended  froni  yonr  Committee  on  Lectures.  From  the 
time  of  the  formation  of  this  society  in  1849,  I  hare  known  of 
its  progress,  snccess,  and  noble  aims.  The  wisdom  and  fore- 
sight of  its  foaoders  have  been  happily  iUnstrated  year  by 
year  in  the  interest  manifested  by  our  people,  in  the  valuable 
library  accnmalated,  free  to  all,  and*  in  the  published  remi- 
niscences of  the  history  of  MinneBota,  from  the  days  of  tradi- 
tions among  the  Indians  to  the  present  time  May  the  Minne^ 
sota  Historical  Society  continue  in  its  nsefulness  and  i«OB- 

The  invitation  of  your  committee  ^pressed  the  desire  for 
an  article  on  the  History  of  Lambering  in  the  St  Croix  Val- 
ley. It  appeared  quite  an  undertaking,  involving  considerable 
research  and  covering  sixty  years  of  the  rise  and  progress  ot 
an  important  industry.  In  entering  npou  this  history,  I  fonnd 
many  of  the  records  obliterated  and  most  of  the  early  mill 
operators  and  owners  dead;  but  witb  the  kind  assistance  of 
interested  friends  I  have  been  able  to  collect  and  com^iile  the 
statistics,  approximately  correct,  of  the  annual  ont  and  mann- 
factors  of  pine  timber  in.  the  St.  Croix  valley  from  tlie  begin- 
ning to  the  present  yewr. 

In  gathering  these  statiBtics  I  have  followed  the  cousea 
of  the  rivers  and  railwar  lijaes  where  the'  mllla  are-  tdtoated, 

■Ab  Addraaa  at  tbe  Annual  UbMIiw  of  ttia  Iflnnwota  BhMrt^J  SMIMn 



inBtead  of  referring  to  the  varionB  mills  in  the  chronologic  or- 
der of  their  being  bnilt;  yet  their  datea  are  given  ae  far  as 
the;  coQld  be  ascertained  with  the  help  of  friends  and  from 
id;  own  memoranda.  In  arranging  the  data,  I  have  inter- 
spersed incidents  of  the  early  settlement,  with  nnmerons  short 
biographic  sketches.  I  bare  also  had  occasion  to  make  refer- 
ence to  the  fifteen  different  tribes,  nationalities,  and  territorial 
and  state  goTemmentB,  as  fitr  as  they  can  be  traced  back, 
which  have  had  control  or  jorisdiction  over  the  St  Croix  val- 
ley, to-wit; 

1.  SloHX  Indians.  9.  lUiDols  TeTTltory. 

2.  OJibvray  Indiana.  10.  MlchlgaD  Territory. 
8.  Uorernment  of  France.  11.  State  of  Mlcblgau. 

4.  OoTemment  of  England.  12.  WUcodMd  Territory. 

5.  Vlrgluta.  L^  SUte  of  Wisconsin. 

6.  United  States.  14.  Minnesota  Territory. 
T.  Ohio  Territory.  15,  State  of  Minnesota. 
8.  Indiana  Territory. 

In  1680,  Buluth,  who  discovered  and  floated  down  the  St. 
Croix  river,  was  the  flrat  man  to  see  this  Valley,  of  whom  we 
have  any  account.  He.was  a  native  of  Lyons,  France,  and 
was  an  adventurer  for  wealth  and  fame.  After  more  than 
two  centories  have  passed  away,  hia  name  is  honored,  at  the 
southweBt  end  of  lake  fiaperior,  by  a  great  and  growing  city. 

The  Bt  Croix  river  derived  its  name  from  a  man  by  the 
name  of  St  Croix,  who  was  bnried  at  the  month  of  St.  Croix 
lake  in  the  seventeenth  century. 

In  1833,  the  American  Board  of  Foreign  Missiona  estab- 
lished a  miBsion  on  Yellow  river,  an  eastern  tributary  of  the 
St  Croix,  ander  the  saperviBion  of  Eev,  Frederick  Ayer,  who 
in  1857  was  a  member  of  the  Minnesota  Constitutional  Con- 
vention from  Morrison  county.  It  was  in  this  mission  that  the 
first  school  was  opened  in  the  valley  by  Miss  Hester  Crooks, 
later  Mrs.  W.  T.  Bontwell,  now  deceased.  Her  father  was 
Bamsay  Crooks,  president  of  the  American  Far  Company, 
This  miBsion  was  removed  to  Pofaegama,  Pine  county,  in  1836. 

In  1837,  treatiea  were  made  by  onr  government  with  the 
Ojibway  (Chippewa)  and  Sioux  Indians,  which  opened  the  St 
Croix  valley  to  white  immigration,  an  opportunity  that  was 
soon  improved.    Oov.  Henry  Dodge  of  Wisconsin  and  Qen.  W. 



R.  Smith  negotiated  with  the  Ojibways  at  Fort  Snelling,  while 
the  Sioaz  treat;  was  made  at  Washington.    These  treaties    ' 
were  ratified  b;  Congress  in  1838. 


For  the  following  accoant  of  the  earliest  settlement  and 
the  first  catting  of  lumber  on  the  St.  Croix  I  am  indebted  to 
Mr.  Franklin  Steele,  who  was  the  first  pioneer  to  come  to  the 
Valley  with  the  intention  of  making  permanent  improvements. 
He  wrote: 

I  came  to  tbe  Northwest  In  1837,  a  yoting  tnan,  healthy  aad  ambl' 
tloas.  to  dare  the  perils  of  an  almost  anexiriored  region.  Inhabited  bj 
aarageB.  I  eoaght  Fort  Snelllnff  (which  was  at  that  time  an  active 
United  States  fort)  aa  a  point  from  which  to  atart  In  September,  1S3T, 
Immedilately  after  the  treatj  was  made  ceding  the  SL  Crodi  YaUe?  to 
the  govemment,  accompanied  by  Dr.  Fitch,  of  Bloomlngton,  Iowa,  I 
atarted  from  Fort  Snetllng  In  a  bark  canoe,  accompanied  by  a  scow 
loaded  with  tools,  siin>lle8,  and  laborers.  We  descended  the  Mlaalartppl 
rlrer  to  tbe  mouth  of  the  Bt  Croix,  and  thence  aaceiided  tbe  St  Ciolx 
to  the  Dalles.  We  clambered  over  the  roi^s  to  the  falls,  where  we 
made  two  land  clalibs,  covering  the  falls  on  tbe  eaat  side  and  the  ap- 
proach In  tbe  Dalles.  We  bnllt  a  log  cabin  at  the  falls,  where  the  upper 
copper-bearing  trap  range  crosaes  the  river,  and  where  the  old  mill 
was  afterward  erected.  A  second  log  honse  we  built  In  the  Dalles  at 
tbe  head  of  navlgaUon.  While  we  were  building,  four  other  parties 
arrived  to  make  claims  to  the  water  poiVer.  I  found  the  veritable. Joe 
Brown  on  the  west  ride  cutting  timber  and  trading  with  tbe  Indians, 
where  now  stands  the  town  of  Taylor'a  Falls,  These  were  the  flrtt 
pine  logs  cut  In  the  Vall^,  and  they  were  used  mostly  in  building  a 

In  FcbmaiT,  1838,  I  made  a  trip  from  Port  Snelling  to  Snake  river 
via  St.  Croix  Falla,  where  I  had  a  craw  of  men  cutting  logs.  While 
I  was  there,  Feshlck,  an  Indian  chief,  said:  "We  have  no  mcKiey  for 
<mt  land,  loga  cannot  go."  He  further  said  Miat  he  could  not  control 
his  young  men,  and  would  not  be  re^mnstble  for  tnelr  aicts.  The  treaty 
was  ratified,  however.  Id  time  for  the  logs  to  be  moved. 

Tbe  following  spring  we  descmded  the  MlesiaBlppI  Hver  In  bark 
canoes  to  Prairie  du  Ghlen,  and  went  thence  by  steamw  to  St  Louis. 
There  a  copartnership  was  formed,  composed  of  Fitch  of  Hnscatlne, 
Iowa,  Llbby  ot  Alton,  Illinois,  Hungerford  and  Uvlngstaue  of  St 
Louis,  Missouri,  Hill  and  Holcombe  of  Qnlncy,  IIUdoIk,  and  myself. 
We  chartered  the  steamer  Palmyra,  loaded  her  with  materials  for 
building  a  saw  mill,  and  took  with  us  thlrty-slx  laborers.  Plans  tor 
procedure,  rules,  and  by-laws,  were  adopted  dnriug  tiie  Joamey  on  the 
steamer:  our  company  was  named  tbe  St.  Croix  Falls  Lumbering  Com- 



The  steamer  Palmyra  wa«  the  first  boat  te  ply  the  watera 
of  the  St  Croix  lake  aod  river.  On  her  first  trip  into  the 
Dalles  Bbe  had  an  interesting  encoanter  with  the  Ojibwaj  In- 
dians. As  she  steamed  ap  between  the  high  rocks,  her  shrill 
whistle  and  piifflng  engine  attracted  the  Indians,  who  flocked 
in  great  Dumbere  to  the  river  to  see  the  "scota  chennng"  (fire- 
boat).  Some  of  the  more  daring  ones  Tentnred  to  the  high 
rocks  overtowering  the  boat,  as  she  lay  in  the  eddy  opposite 
Angle  Bock.  Their  curiosity  knew  no  boaods.  They  whooped 
and  danced  antil  their  frenzied  spirits  became  excited  to  snch 
a  degree  that  they  began  to  roll  rocks  from  the  high  pinnacle 
down  upon  the  boat  At  once  the  captain  ordered  the  engi- 
neer to  let  the  Bteam  escape,  while  the  whistle  screamed  with 
broken  notes,  the  bell  keeping  time.  The  shrill  belching  forth 
of  the  steam  was  terrific.  The  Indians  sprang  away  with  a. 
bonnd,  with  fearful  yelling,  tambling  over  the  cragged  rocks, 
leaving  blankets  and  utensils  behind  in  th^r  fright,  and  fled 
into  the  woods  in  snch  terror  that  not  an  Indian  reappeared. 
This  was  the  beginning  of  steamboating  and  settlement  by  the 
whites  in  the  St  Croii  valley. 

The  St  Croix  Falls  Lumbering  Company,  with  its  boat  load 
of  men  and  materials,  bnilt  a  mill  and  dam,  at  a  cost  of  about 
f20,0(K),  above  the  Dalles  at  the  rapids.  The  company  passed 
throngh  many  changes.  Tbe  inexperience  of  the  managers  in 
the  lombering  business  with  its  necessary  expenditures,  the 
long  distance  from  labor  and  supplies,  which  had  to  be 
freighted  from  St  Louis,  and  the  heavy  early  outlays  with  no 
profits  or  dividends,  caused  several  of  the  partners  to  with- 
draw, notwithstanding  the  local  advantages  for  lumbering,  a 
splendid  water  power,  abundance  of  timbw,  and  a  healthy 
climate.  Hovrever,  the  company  continued  operations  for 
years,  with  William  Holcombe  as  agent 

Captain  Holcombe  was  the  first  lieutenant  governor  of 
Minnesota.  He  took  a  deep  interest  in  the  settlement  of  the  St. 
Croix  valley.  In  1846  be  was  a  member  of  the  first  constita- 
tional  convention  in  Wisconsin,  In  which  he  worked  hard  for 
the  change  of  the  boundary  from  the  St.  Croix  river  to  a  line 
farth^  east;  he  succeeded  in  making  the  change,  and  was 
elected  on  the  boundary  issue,  which  was  a  political  question; 
but  the  constitution  was  defeated  by  the  people.    St.  Paul 



favored  the  St.  Croii  boondary,  for  she  was  f carfol  that,  if  the 
Hue  was  estabHshed  farther  east,  Hudson  wonld  be  her  rival 
to  become  the  fatnre  capital  ot  the  new  teiritory  destined  to 
be  formed  northwest  of  Wisconsin.  Lieat.  Qot.  Holcombe 
was  also  a  member  of  the  Democratic  wing  of  the  Minnesota 
eonstitntional  convention,  and  was  United  States  receiver  of 
the  land  office  for  four  years.  His  name  trill  long  be  remem- 
bered in  the  Valley.     He  died  in  1870. 

The  other  members  of  the  old  company  did  not  become 
residents  of  the  St  Croii  valley,  with  the  exception  of  William 
S.  Hnngerford.  Every  member  of  this  old  company  has  passed 
away  from  all  that  is  mortal. 

Mr.  Hungerford  became  a  permanent  residmt  of  the  Val- 
ley when  the  government  offered  for  sale  the  land  embracing 
the  water  power.  He  preempted  the  subdivision  on  which 
the  old  mill  stood,  and  obtained  the  title  from  the  government 
in  1861.  He  was  arrested  for  perjury  in  obtaining  the  title, 
and  waa  carried  to  Madison  in  bdnda.  This  act  created  liti- 
gation which  continued  for  over  twenty  years.  Mr.  Hnnger- 
ford was  acquitted. 

Hon.  John  McEasick,  of  Stillwater,  was  also  connected  with 
the  St.  Croix  Lumbering  Company  as  an  agent  in  1810,  during 
the  first  operations.  The  entire  output  of  this  bull  was  about 
50,000,000  feet 


Hon.  James  Fisher,  of  Prairie  da  Chien,  a  member  of  the 
Wisconsin  territorial  council  in  1845,  representing  Crawford 
county,  which  covered  the  area  between  the  St  Croix  and  Mis- 
sifisippi  rivers,  introduced  a  men»orial  to  Congress,  to  create 
another  territory  from  the  northwest  part  of  Wisconsin,  to  be 
called  Superior.  The  mefliorial  was  referred  to  the  Commit- 
tee on  Territories,  where  it  still  sleeps. 

Hod.  Caleb  Cashing,  of  Massachusetts,  in  1846,  purchased 
an  interest  in  the  St  Croix  Palls  property  and  formed  a  stock 
company.  He  firmly  believed  in  the  fatnre  formation  of  this 
new  territory  with  boundaries  similar  to  those  proposed  in  the 
Fisher  memorial;  he  thought  that,  with  his  almost  unlimited 
sway  in  Congress,  this  result  could  be  accomplished  and  St 
Croix  Falls  be  designated  as  the  capital.    But  about  this  time 



Mr.  CaBhiDg  wae  commdBsioned  by  the  goTemment  and  en- 
tered the  Mexican  war.  He  was  Bubsequentlj  sent  as  minister 
to  China.  These  and  other  important  duties  called  away  hiB 
personal  attention  from  the  Bt.  Croix  property,  bo  that,  the 
new  territory  and  capital  as  designed  sleep  with  the  Fisher 
memorial.  The  water  power  of  this  property  has  remained 
nnimprored  to  the  present  time.  It  belongs  to  the  estate  of 
the  late  Isaac  Staples.  The  falls  are  created  by  the  water 
falling  over  imperishable  adamantine  rock. 

George  W.  Brownell,  of  St.  Croix  Falls,  was  delegate  from 
this  district,  in  1847,  to  the  second  Wisconsin  coDstitntional 
convention.  He  had  been  elected  on  the  issue  of  establishing 
the  bonndary  from  Mt  Trempealeau  to  Lake  Boperior,  which 
woald  place  the  Bt  Croix  valley  and  the  two  great  cities  since 
built  at  the  west  end  of  Lake  Soperior  under  one  state  govern- 
ment. But  the  edict  bad  gone  forth  that  Wisconsin  must  be 
admitted  into  the  Union,  in  order  that  her  Whig  rote  (which 
was  sure)  migbt  be  cast  for  Qen.  Zachary  Taylor  for  president, 
and  that  therefore  her  Morgan  L.  Martin  bonndary  mnst  not 
be  tampered  with.  Thus  was  sacrificed,  in  a  considerable  de- 
gree, the  future  welfare  of  a  district  capable  of  sustaining 
halt  a  million  or  more  ot  people,  by  placing  them  nnder  a  gor- 
ernment  not  their  first  choice.  The  Wisconsin'  part  of  this 
tract  of  country  is  adjacent  to  Minnesota,  and  its  financial 
interests  are  blended  with  those  of  our  state;  thus  time  ex- 
poses some  of  our  indiscreet  national  and  state-building 


The  first  operators  in  the  pine  districts  of  Wisconsin  and 
Minnesota  were  pioneers,  who  ventured  into  this  new  and  un- 
explored country  for  the  purpose  of  cutting  timber  for  a  liveli- 
hood, not  with  the  spirit  of  speculation.  They  opened  the 
country  for  settlement  and  cultivation,  as  the  vanguard  of 
civilization,  creating  a  value  for  the  government  domain. 

The  government  subsequently  sent  timber  agents  to  inves- 
tigate and  report,  regarding  the  cutting  of  timber  on  these 
uncared-for  lands.  It  wae  generally  conceded  to  be  a  benefit 
to  the  government;    it  being  occupancy  nnder  aji  endowed 



right,  as  citizens  inheritiiig  an  intereet  in  the  government.  In 
man;  instaaces  where  the  gOTernment  demanded  payment,  the 
demand  waa  promptly  met  by  pDrchaaing  the  dennded  lands, 
or  by  paying  a  fair  compeosation  for  the  timber  cnt 


There  is  abundant  evidence  that  eztenslve  pine  forests 
once  existed  where  now  there  are  la^ie  pine  barrens.  The 
gradations-  from  the  thrifty  pine  to  barren  plains  is  clearly 
seen.  Fires  were  the  main  canse,  which  annually  swept  over 
large  tracts  of  land,  stripping  them  of  the  timber  by  mdllions 
of  feet,  a  destruction  vast  and  incalcnlable. 

The  physical  featares  of  the  conntry  have  also  undergone 
a  change  due  to  decrease  of  the  rainfall.  While  the  towering 
pines  have  fallen  by  the  forest  Ares  or  by  decay  or  the  wood* 
man's  ax,  many  of  the  lakes  have  receded,  and  tall  grasses 
wave  and  willows  grow  where  once  the  "b^o"  sported  in  the 
clear  bine  waters.  "The  san  drew  the  waters  up  into  the 
heavens,"  said  the  Indians;  bnt  the  old  shores  may  still  be 
traced,  by  the  freshwater  ^ells  that  are  crushed  by  the  foot 
of  the  explorer,  and  by  the  ineffaceable  mark  of  water  breaking 
upon  the  beach  and  nndermining  the  rocky  ledges. 


Ifextto  St.  Croix  Falls,  Marine  contains  the  earliest  settie- 
ment  Lewis  Jndd  and  David  Hone  were  deputized  by  a  com- 
pany of  men  residing  in  Marine,  Illinois,  to  visit  the  North- 
west and  examine  the  region  recently  secured  by  treaty  from 
the  Ojibways,  and  to  return  the  same  year  and  report  upon  its 
advantages  of  climate,  soil,  and  other  resources.  They  were 
authorized  also  to  locate  a  claim  for  future  settlement,  if  they 
found  one  entirely  suitable.  They  embarked  on  the  steamer 
Ariel  at  St.  Louis,  September  10th,  1838,  and  in  twenty-five 
days  reached  the  head  of  lake  St  Croix,  whence  they  proceeded 
in  a  flatboat  propelled  by  poles  up  the  St.  Croix  as  far  as  the 
falls,  and  thence  to  the  month  of  Kettle  river.  Beturning  by 
birch  canoes,  they  stopped  at  the  present  site  of  the  village  of 
Marine;  and  thence  went  onward  to  Marine,  Illinois,  where 
they  arrived  November  10th,  and  reported  favorably  on  the 
location  chosen. 



During  the  following  winter  a  verbal  agreement  was  made 
by  thirteen  pei'sone,  ali  of  Marine,  IlliooiB,  to  start  in  the 
spring  and  bnild  a  sawmill  on  the  distant  St.  Croix.  On  April 
27th,  thiB  company  left  St.  Louis  on  the  gteamer  Payette  for 
the  new  settlement,  which  tbey  reached  on  the  13tfa  of  May. 
The  Payette  was  chartered  expressly  for  this  voyage.  They 
took  with  them  mill  machinery,  farming  tools,  hoQsebold 
goods,  three  yoke  of  oxen,  and  cows. 

The  memb^«  of  the  party  were  Lewis,  Oeorge,  and  Albert 
Jndd,  Orange  Walker,  David  Hone,  William  B.  Dibble,  Dr. 
Laclns  Oreen,  Asa  Parker,  Joseph  Oottrell,  and  Hiram  Berkey. 
When  they  landed  they  found  JevMniali  Bnssetl  and  Levi  W. 
Stratton  in  possession  of  tiie  claim,  tbey  having  taken  posses- 
sion dnring  tbe  preceding  winter.  These  men  denmnded  and 
received  three  bnndred  dollars  for  relinqnisbing  the  claim  to 
its  rightful  owners. 

Tbe  colonlBtB  set  to  woric  immediately  to  bnild  a  log  cabin 
as  a  tanporary  rtielter,  which  being  completed,  they  com- 
menced tbe  mill,  and  worked  with  snch  energy  that  it  was 
flnisbed  in  nioefty  days.  The  first  wheel  osed  was  a  flutter- 
wheel,  which,  not  proving  satisfactoty,  was  replaced  by  an 
overshot  wheel  with  buckets. 

Orange  Walker  was  the  first  clerk  and  chieftain  of  the 
concern,  and  when  ahytbii^  was  wanted  a  call  of  the  company 
would  be  made,  and  the  members  assembled.  No  article  of 
agreement  existed.  Only  one  book  was  kept  for  a  series  of 
years, — a  nntqne  affair,  no  donbt.  Tbe  first  installment  was 
|200;  tbe  second,  f75;  tbe  third,  |50.  All  were  within  the 
first  two  years,  after  which  the  company  became  self-sustain- 
ing. !No  partner  forfeited  his  stock.  The  name  of  this  com- 
pany was  the  Marine  Lumber  Company,  which,  in  1850,  was 
changed  to  the  Judd  &  Walker  Company,  Tbe  property 
changed  bands  several  times  after  this;  and  Orange  Walker 
was  tbe  sole  owner  in  1863,  when  tbe  mill  was  burned  at  a  loss 
of  f6,000.  This  mill,  the  first  that  manufactured  lumber  in 
the  8t  Croix  valley,  was  operated  fifty  years.  Beginning  work 
in  183d  and  continuing  until  1889,  its  gross  cut  was  197,000,000 
feet    All  tbe  thirteen  original  owners  have  passed  from  earth. 

The  first  jury  trial  ever  held  in  tbe  Valley  was  at  Marine 
in  1840,  with  Joseph  B.  Brown  as  justice,  Philander  Prescott, 



plaintiff,  and  C.  D.  Foote,  defendant  The  accnsation  was  for 
jumping  a  land  claim,  at  Prescott  Dnring  the  trial  tke  court 
adjonmed  to  allow  the  jory  to  visit  the  claim  and  obtain  the 
facts  in  the  case.  Tbe  jar;  failed  to  agree,  bat  the  caac  was 
c<nnpromised  by  Pr«cott  allowing  Foote  eighty  aerea  of  the 

In  the  early  BO's  a  mill  was  bnilt  at  Vaaa,  a  village  three 
miles  above  Marine.  It  ran  only  a  short  time,  cnttlng  i^b«at 
3,000,000  feet 


The  first  land  claim  at  Osceola,  covering  ihe  beaatifnl  cas- 
cade, was  made  May  let,  1844,  by  Milton  V.  Nobles  and  L.  X. 
I^rker.  The  claim  was  made  tor  mill  purposes,  and  a  com- 
pany was  formed  consisting  of  M.  V.  and  W.  H.  Koblee,  Wil- 
liam Kent  W.  O.  Mahoney,  Anson  Northnp,  and  Lewis 
Walker.  The  mill  began  operations  in  1B4&,  using  a  fifty-foot 
flutter  wheel,  which  made  the  mill  a  conspicnons  object  on  the 
river.  It  has  long  since  been  dismantled,  after  changing 
hands  a  nnmber  of  times.  The  approximate  cut  of  lumber  was 
35,000,000  feet  The  original  proprietors,  with  the  exception 
of  William  Kent,  fu%  dead.  Captain  Kent  has  been  a  popular 
steamboat  man  for  a  nnmber  ot  years. 

In  the  SU^a  a  small  mill  was  bnilt  abore  Osceola,  which  wat 
soon  afterward  moved  away;  cut,  abont  3,000,000  feet 

Col.  William  H.  Nobles,  who  invested  in  the  Osceola  milt 
in  1844,  was  appointed,  in  1857,  to  locate  and  mark  a  road  from 
8t  Paul  to  the  Missouri  river,  and  thence  across  the  Bocky 
monntaina  Under  a  military  escort  be  established  what  is 
known  as  Nobles  Pass  across  the  Rockies,  his  rente  being 
marked  by  earth  mounds.  He  came  to  the  St  Croix  Valley  in 
1644.  He  was  a  member  of  the  fifth  Minnesota  state  legisla- 
tare>  and  a  county  in  this  state  bears  his  name. 


Joseph  Benshaw  Brown,  one  of  the  best  known  men  of  the 
early  days  of  Minneeota,  came  with  the  troops  who  bailt  Fort 
Bnelling,  a  dmmmer  boy  in  the  army,  in  1819,  at  the  age  of 
fourteen.  After  the  expiration  of  his  term  of  enlistment,  Qray 
CaoDd  was  his  first  home,  where  Crawford  county  authorities 



commieeioned  him  a  jostlce  of  the  peace,  as  also  David  Hone 
of  Point  Doaglas,  in  1839;  the^-being  the  first  peraons  to  hold 
civil  offlce  in  what  is  now  Minnesota.  I  can  give  hot  a  brief 
Blietch  of  his  hiator;,  for  which  I  am  personally  indebted  to 
bim.  He  was  elected,  in  ISiO,  representative  in  the  Wisconsin 
territorial  legislatnre  from  Crawford  connty,  having  songht 
the  position  expressly  for  the  purpose  of  creating  8t  Croix 
county,  in  which  he  was  snccessf  al.  On  retaming  home,  the 
organization  was  perfected  with  the  aid  of  the  people. 

The  first  connty  commissioDers'  meeting  of  Bt.  Croix 
county,  Wisconsin,  now  in  Minnesota,  was  held  October  5th, 
1S40,  at  Dabotah,  now  a  part  of  Stillwater.  Hazen  Mooers 
and  Samael  Bnrkleo  appeared  and  qualified  as  commissioners; 
J.  B.  Brown  was  clerk;  H.  Mooers  was  elected  chairman;  and 
the  bonds  of  the  officers  were  approved- 

In  conformity  to  a  vote  of  the  inhabitants  of  8t  Croix 
county,  at  an  election  held  August  3rd,  the  county  was  an> 
thorized  by  a  law  of  Wisconsin  Territory,  entitled  An  Act  to 
Organize  the  County  of  St.  Croix,  which  was  approved  Janu- 
ary 9th,  1840.  This  vote  located  the  seat  of  the  county  at  the 
head  of  lake  Bt  Croix,  on  a  tract  of  land  occupied  by  Joseph 
B.  Brown,  boonded  on  the  east  by  lake  St,  Croix,  and  on  the 
north  by  Pine  creek.  Also  in  conformity  to  this  law,  the 
board  of  commissioners  by  deed  transferred  all  the  right  and 
title  of  the  land  to  Jos^h  B.  Brown,  he  having  paid  to  the 
treasurer  of  the  county  $800.  The  Board  contracted  with  Mr. 
Brown  to  build  a  court  boaee,  jail,  and  county  ofiQces,  to  be 
used  four  years;  and  they  purchased  half  an  acre  of  land  to  be 
selected  by  the  county  commiHsioners,  in  the  central  part  of 
the  town,  to  be  surveyed  by  the  connty  surveyor. 

The  county  seat  having  been  located  at  Dakotah,  the  or- 
ganization provided  for  a  district  court,  which  Judge  Irwin 
of  Oreen  Bay  was  ordered  to  bold  in  June,  1840.  He  ascended 
the  Fox  river  and  descended  the  Wisconsin  in  a  skiff,  came 
thence  by  steamer  to  Fort  Snelling,  and  from  Fort  Bnelling 
went  to  Dakotah  on  foot,  with  a  pilot  for  a  guide.  On  arriv- 
ing at  Dakotah  he  found  the  sheriff,  bnt  no  jurors  or  docket. 
He  stopped  at  Hotel  Brown,  slept  on  deer  skins,  and  ate 
St  Croix  fish,  seasoned  with  salt  which  he  had  brought  in  bis 
pocket  On  his  return  he  succeeded  in  effecting  the  disorgani- 
sation of  the  conrt    Phineaa  Lawrence,  the  sheriff,  on  serving 



the  flpst  and  only  papers,  while  acting  as  eheriff,  approached 
the  party,  holding  the  docnment  to  view,  and  exclaimed,  "I, 
Phineas  Lawrence,  high  sheriff  of  St.  Croix  connty,  in  the  name 
of  the  United  States  of  America  and  the  immortal  God,  com- 
mand yoQ  to  sarrender." 

The  first  term  of  district  coort  held  in  St  Croix  county, 
Wisconsin,  convened  at  Stillwater,  June  iBt,  1847.  The  ees- 
sion  lasted  one  week.  The  jarora  were  fonnd  in  a  circuit  of 
one  hundred  miles.  Hon.  Charles  Dunn,  of  Mineral  Point,  pre- 
sided, with  Joseph  R  Brown  as  clerk  of  court,  M.  8.  Wilkin- 
son, prosecuting  attorney,  and  W.  R  C.  Polsom,  sheriff.  The 
next  term  of  court  was  held  by  Judge  Aaron  Goodrich,  a  Min- 
nesota territorial  appointee,  in  August,  1849,  under  the  Wis- 
oonsin  territorial  laws,  two  months  after  the  proclamation  of 
Gov.  Alexander  Eamsey  was  issned,  establishing  the  Territory 
of  Minnesota. 

In  1847,  while  serring  as  sheriff,  I  obtained  copies  of  the 
list«  of  both  grand  and  petit  juries  of  the  June  term  of  court, 
which  I  have  in  my  possession,  together  with  the  original  log 
scale  bills,  in  the  handwriting  of  the  scalers,  Gov.  William 
Holcombe  and  Hon.  Joseph  Bowron.  These  are  supposed  to 
be 'the  first  log  scale  bills  made  in  Minnesota.  I  also  have  the 
copies  of  the  poll  lists  of  several  of  the  first  elections  held  in 
the  St  Croix  valley,  containing  the  names  of  the  candidates; 
and  also  the  sheriff  bills  of  the  trial,  and  conveyance  to  Fort 
Snelling,  of  the  two  Indians,  Wind  and  Ne-she-keH>genia,  who 
were  tried  for  murder  in  the  Jone  term  of  court  in  1847.  That 
was  the  first  murder  trial  in  what  is  now  Minnesota.  The  In- 
dians were  acquitted  on  the  ground  that  the  deed  was  conv 
mitted  in  a  drunken  brawl,  in  which  they  killed  a  whisky 


In  the  spring  of  1843,  Jacob  Fisher  made  a  claim  on  nnsur- 
veyed  land,  where  a  part  of  the  city  of  Stillwater  now  stands. 
Afterwards,  this  clajm  was  purchased  from  Mr.  Fisher  by  John 
McKusick,  Elam  Greely,  Eliaa  McKean,  and  Calvin  F.  Leach, 
who  erected  the  first  sawmill  on  lake  St.  Croix.  April  Ist, 
1844,  the  mdll  began  work,  with  the  motive  power  from  the 
waier  run  from  a  small  lake  near  by.     It  continiipd  opprationn 



until  aboat  1862,  having  cot,  during  its  ezifltsDce,  27,000,000 

John  McKoaick,  the  only  BarviTlng  partner,  promiu«3it 
aokong  the  pioneerB,  came  to  the  Valley  in  1810.  He  has  filled 
many  positions  of  trust,  being  state  senator  from  1863  to  186& 
He  is  a  generous,  pofolic-spirited  man. 

Ellas  McKeau,  a  native  of  Penasylvaaia,  and  an  active  jad 
friendly  man,  came  to  the  Valley  in  1841  and  to  BtUIwater  in 
1843,  retiring  to  his  farm  in  1860. 

Calvin  F.  Leach  was  a  quiet,  pleasant  basiness  man.  He 
died  in  St  Louis. 

Elam  Greeiy,  native  of  New  Hampshire,  came  to  the  Valley 
in  1840.  He  was  the  first  postmaster  of  Stillwater,  and  was  a 
member  of  the  third  and  fourth  Minnesota  territorial  councila. 
He  was  identified  with  the  prosperity  of  Stillwater  ontil  bis 
death,  which  occnrred  suddenly  away  from  home. 

The  year  1848  brought  many  changea  to  the  Valley.  Wis- 
consin was  admitted  into  the  Union,  with  the  St  Croix  as  her 
northwestern  boundary,  severing  her  connectiMi  with  the  Wis- 
consin territory  weat  of  the  St  Croii  river.  In  Stillwater, 
August  4th,  was  held  the  first  public  meeting  vhece  were  laid 
the  foundations  of  the  future  Territory  and  great  State  of  Min- 
nesota. James  H.  Tweedy,  delegate  in  Congress  f  KKUr  the  ter- 
ritory, resigned  and  the  people  elected  Henry  H.  Sibley  as 
their  delegate,  who  was  accredited  with  his  seat  Mr,  Sibley 
introduced  and  obtained  the  passage  of  a  bill  for  the  orgaaiza- 
tion  of  Minnesota  Territory,  March  3rd,  184d>.  Mr.  Sibley  was, 
at  the  time,  a  citizen  of  Iowa  Territory. 

Morton  S.  Wilkinson,  who  came  to  Stillwater  in  1847,  was 
the  first  practicing  lawyer  northwest  of  Prairie  du  Chiea,  and 
was  a  member  of  the  first  Minnesota  territorial  legislature  iu 
1849.  His  history  is  well  known,  and  it  will  not  avail  to  intro- 
duce it  here. 

The  second  mill  built  at  Stillwater  was  by  Sawyer  &,Hea- 
ton,  in  1852,  which  was  afterward  burned  at  a  loss  of  $5,000. 
It  was  transferred  to  Isaac  Staples.  The  cut  of  this  mill  was 
about  150,000,000  feet 

Is  1854,  Schulenbarg,  Boechler  &  Co.,  c^  St  Xx>uis,  erected 
a  mill  in  Dakotab,  now  a  part  of  Stillwater.  Louis  Hospes,  In 
1856,  became  an  owner  and  operated  the  mill  until  it  burned 



in  1877.  It  was  afterward  rebuilt,  bat  it  burned  again  in  1892, 
at  a  lofla  of  1188,000.  The  mill  is  now  the  property  of  Staples, 
Atlee  &  Ca,  who  have  built  the  third  mill.  The  gross  amount 
cut  by  these  mills  has  been  735,600,000  feet. 

Mr.  Hospes  served  as  president  of  the  First  National  Bank 
of  Stiliwa^r  for  twenty  years.  His  active,  energetic  business 
methods  had  good  influence  in  Stillwater. 

The  firm  of  Hersey,  Staples  &  Hall,  eastern  vt^italists, 
built  a  mill  in  the  south  part  of  Stillwater  in  1854,  which 
passed  through  several  ownerahips,  with  different  firm  names. 
Hersey  &  B^aa  are  the  present  owners,  and  it  is  known  as  the 
Atwood  mill.  The  amount  cnt  by  this  mill,  in  forty-four  years, 
is  756,000,000  feet    Its  loss  by  fire  has  been  15,000. 

Isaac  Staples,  a  native  of  Maine,  came  to  Stillwater  ip 
1853,  as  the  agent  foe  Hersey,  Staples  ^  Hall,  who  made  large 
investments  in  pine  lajads,  carrying  on  an  extensive  business. 
After  a  number  of  years  of  successful  business,  the  property 
passed  into  the  hands  of  Isaac  Staples,  a  man  of  vigor,  health, 
unlimited  ambition,  good  Judgment,  and  money  sufBcient  to 
insure  success  in  busings.  He  did  much  to  advQiioe  the  in- 
terest of  Stillwater.  He  died  in  3^8,  aged  ^ight^-two  ye^rs. 
The  nnqiber  of  owners  in  the  Hersey,  Staples  $  Hall  null, 
from  the  time  of  its  erection  to  the  iH«sent,  is  too  numerous 
to  teter  to.  Tbf>se  living  are  among  tbe  botiaess  men  of  Still- 
water and  elsewhere. 

In  1860,  a  mill  was  built  near  the  State  Prison;  it  cnt 
3,000,000  feet. 

McKasick,  Anderson  4b  Co.,  In  1809,  erected  a  mill  <^poaite 
to  etillwat^.  Id  Honlton,  Wisconsin.  The  firm  was  composed 
<xf  James  Anderstoi,  William  McKusiok,  John  Qt.  TSeltmn,  asd 
Alexander  Johnson.  During  tbe  year  1888  tbe  capacity  ot  tite 
mill  was  nearly  doubled.  The  present  firm  is  known  as  the 
East  ffide  Lnmba?  Company,  composed  of  David  Bronaon,  E. 
A.  FolBom,  Robert  Slaiagfater,  John  O.  Nelson,  Alex.  Johnson, 
and  J.  D.  Bronson.  The  cat  of  this  mill  has  been  600,000,000 
feet  All  tbe  different  proprietors  who  have  been  connected 
with  this  mill  are  so  well  known  in  the  Valley  as  men  possess- 
ing true  and  rdiable  character  and  business  habits,  tbat  it 
will  not  be  necesaary  to  give  individual  notes. 



In  1884,  The  Hersbey  Lumber  Company,  composed  of  Ben- 
jamin Hershey  and  otbers,  bnilt  a  mill  at  Oak  Park  Village, 
Stillwater.  Tbe  gross  amoant  cat  by  this  mill  ap  to  1899,  has 
i>een  170,000,000  feet;  its  loss  by  fire,  f 2,500. 

R  W.  TQrnboll,  In  1886,  built  a  miU  in  Oak  Park  at  a  coat 
of  {70,000.  The  groBS  cat  of  this  mill  has  been  275,000,000 

In  1862,  the  first  mill  was  built  in  South  Stillwater,  by  a 
-company  composed  of  Socrates  Kelson,  Darid  B:  Loomis,  and 
Daniel  Meara.  The  gross  cut  by  this  mill  has  been  30,000,000 

Socrates  Kelson  came  from  Massachusetts  to  Stillwater  in 
1814,  where  he  opened  tbe  first  store.  He  was  territorial  andi- 
tor  in  1863,  and  waa  state  senator  in  the  second  iegislatare. 
He  donated  to  Washington  county  tbe  block  of  land  on  which 
the  court  honae  stands.  He  was  free  and  generous  of  disposi- 
tioD  in  all  the  relations  of  life. 

The  snccessiwB  to  the  8.  Kelson  Lomber  Co.  -were  Torinns 
&  Co.,  who  rebuilt  the  mill  in  1873,  at  a  cost  of  {160,000,  and 
assumed  the  name  St  Croix  Lumber  Co.  This  mill  became 
the  head  of  various  mannfaetories,  with  Louis  Torinus  and 
William  Chalmers  as  operating  members  of  the  firm.  In  1876, 
it  sustained  a  loss  by  fire  to  the  amount  of  {76,000,  uninsured. 
The  present  operators  of  this  mill  are  William  Chalmers,  O.  S. 
Welchance,  and  Louts  Torinns.  Its  cut,  to  1899,  has  been 
660,000,000  feet 

Louis  TorinuB,  an  active  business  man,  was  a  Bnssian.  He 
came  to  America  in  1854,  and  to  Stillwater  in  1866.  William 
Chalmers,  the  present  mana^r  of  the  firm,  came  to  tbe  Val- 
ley in  1864  from  Canada.  He  Is  president  of  the  firm.  Ur. 
Torinns  is  vice  president,  and  Hr.  Welchance  Is  secretary  and 

In  1881,  D.  C.  Oaslin  and  L.  B.  Castle  built  a  mill  in  South 
Stillwater,  which  they  operated  for  three  years,  cutting  18,- 
000,000  feet  In  1884,  this  mill  was  rebuilt,  at  a  mat  of  S70,- 
000,  by  the  South  Stillwater  Lumber  Co.,  the  firm  consistint; 
of  Smith  Ellison,  David  Tozer,  A.  T.  Jenks,  E.  W.  Durant,  and 
H.  J.  Wheeler.  Since  that  time  the  mill  has  passed  through 
many  changes.  The  cut  of  this  mill  to  1899  has  bepo  200.000. 
000  feet. 



David  Tozer,  one  o(  the  ppoprietors,  came  from  New  Brnns- 
wick  to  the  Valle;  in  1856.  He  is  an  actire,  caations,  and 
honorable  man.  Mr.  Jenks,  one  of  Stillwater'B  prompt  busi- 
ness men,  came  to  the  Valley  in  1855.  Bmith  Eltison,  of  Illi- 
nois birth,  came  to  the  Valley  in  1844.  He  was  a  member  of 
the  eighth  Minnesota  legislature,  and  is  ikkw  a  trustworthy 
citizen  of  Taylor's  Falls.  Edward  W.  Dnrant,  born  in  Boz- 
bary,  Mass.,  in  1839,  came  to  Stillwater  in  1848.  He  repre- 
sented Washington  connQ'  in  the  fifteenth,  seventeenth,  and 
twenty-fourth  legislatnres;  he  has  served  as  mayor  of  BtiU- 
water  often,  and  has  filled  many  responsible  positions  with 


In  1857,  Osgood  &  Andrews  bnilt  a  mill  in  Lakeland,  which 
was  soon  after  disiuaiitled.    Its  gross  cut  was  10,000,000  feet. 

In  Lakeland  in  1848,  Moses  Ferin  and  Ballard  &  Reynolds 
each  built  a  mill.  The  cut  of  these  mills  was  11,000,000  feet 
Lakeland  was  first  settled  by  French  refugees  from  Fort  Snell- 
ing  reservation  in  1838. 

Steams,  Watson  &  Ca  erected  a  mill  in  Lakeland  at  a  cost 
of  f45,000.  This  null  changed  hands  many  times,  finally  pass- 
ing to  C.  N.  Nelson,  who  enlarged  it  at  a  cost  of  f50,000.  It 
is  now  dismantled.  Gross  amount  cut  by  this  mill,  150,000,- 
000  feet 

In  1886,  Fall  &  McCoy  built  a  mill  in  Lakeland,  which  cut 
about  155,000,000  feet;  present  proprietor,  R,  H.  MoOoy. 

In  1854,  a  mill  was  built  at  St  Mary's;  cnt,  3,000,000  feet. 

Lowry  &  Co.  built  a  mill  in  Afton,  in  1850;  Qetchell  &  Co., 
in  1861,  built  a  mill,  which  was  afterward  bumed,  loss,  f3,000. 
In  1856,  Tbonuas  &  Sons  rebuilt  the  I^owry  mill.  Gross  cot  of 
these  mills,  15,000,000  feet. 

Lemuel  BoUes,  in  1846,  built  a  flouring  mill  on  Boltes  creek 
in  Afton,  St.  Croix  county,  and  ground  the  first  wheat  raised 
north  of  Prairie  du  Chien.  The  wheat  was  raised  by  Joseph 
Haskell  and  Andrew  Mackey,  at  Afton. 

At  Point  Douglas,  which  was  located  and  named  by  Let'i 
Hertzell  and  Oscar  Burns  in  1839,  Woodruff  &  Sons  built  a 
mill  in  1851;  but  it  was  afterward  reipoTed  to  Prescott.  Cut 
of  this  mill,  3,000,000  feet.    A.  J.  Short  bnilt  a  ndll  in  1858, 



which  was  burned  at  a  loss  of  |6,000.    The  cut  of  this  mUl 
was  about  20,000,000  feet. 

David  Hone,  one  of  the  original  proprietors  of  the  Harlne 
mill,  says  that  he  bnilt  the  first  frame  house  in  Minnesota,  at 
Point  Douglas,  in  1843. 


Philander  Prescott  came  to  Fort  Bnelling  in  1819,  and,  in 
conjunction  with  army  ofBcers,  made  a  land  claim  where  the 
city  of  Prescott  now  etands,  on  the  Wisoonsin  side  of  the 
mouth  of  the  St  Croix.  He  subsequently  became  sole  owner, 
residiDg  there  and  at  Fort  Snelling  alternately,  until  he  was 
killed  by  the  Sioux  Indians  in  1862. 

In  1866,  mills  were,  built  at  Prescott  by  Silverthom  &  Dud- 
ley, Lowry  &  Co.,  and  Todd  &  Honter.  Cnt  of  these  mills, 
45,000,000  feet;  loss  of  mills  by  fire,  flO,000. 


The  first  mill  that  was  built  on  the  Apple  river,  an  eastern 
tributary  of  the  St.  Oroix,  was  by  Aaron  M.  Chase,  at  the  out- 
let of  Balsam  lake,  eight  miles  east  of  Bt  Croix  Falls,  in  1850. 
He  had  neither  oxen  nor  horaea,  but  be  yoked  himself  with  an- 
other man  and  hauled  the  timber  for  the  mill,  which  has 
changed  owners  many  times.  It  has  cut  about  15,000,000  feet 
Mr.  Chase  has  a  varied  history;  prior  to  mill  building,  he  was 
on  the  Mississippi  river  running  towboats  for  eighly^  miles 
above  Bt  Anthony  Falls.  There  have  been  two  mills  on  Bal- 
sam creek;  gross  cut,  12,000,000  feet. 

An  Indian  entered  one  of  the  homes  at  Balsam  Lake 
and  denuanded  of  the  woman  within,  Mr&  Edward  Worth, 
who  was  alone,  admittance  to  the  cellar,  believing  that  there 
was  whisky  there.  The  wMuan  was  plucky  and  sternly  re- 
fused him  admittance.  He  attempted  to  raise  the  trap-door 
and  force  an  entrance,  but  as  he  was  passing  down  the  stairs 
the  woman  shut  the  door  upon  his  legs  and  jumped  on  it,  hold- 
ing him  until  assistance  came. 

Bamoel  Harriman,  a  native  of  Maine,  came  to  the  Valley 
in  1855,  and  was  the  founder  of  Somerset  village  on  the  Apple 
river,  where  he  built  and  owned  a  sawmill.  We  first  learn  of 
him,  in  1845,  in  California,  mining  and  lumbering.  He  en- 
listed  in  the  army  in  1862,  June  10th,  in  Company  A  of  the 



Thirtieth  WiscouBin  Begiment  In  1864,  he  waa  commia- 
gioned  colonel  of  the  Thirty-serenth  WisconsiB,  being  after- 
ward conunisBioned  a  general.  He  was  a  brave  soldier,  and  a 
genial,  kind-hearted  gentlemaa  He  was  fond  of  a  joke,  even 
at  his  own  expense.  He  informed  the  writer  of  tliis  sketch 
that  when  be  was  mastered  oat  of  the  service,  he  was  ad- 
dressed as  Gen«al  at  Washington;  on  his  way  borne,  he  was 
sainted  as  Colonel;  when  nearing  Wisconsin,  he  was  bailed 
as  Major;  in  Wisconsin,  as  Captain;  but  when  he  met  the 
boys,  they  greeted  him  with  "Hello,  Sam."  He  died  in  1897 
at  Hot  Bprings,  Arkansas. 

In  1848-49,  James  Parinton,  as  the  agent  for  a  Boston  comr 
pany,  built  a  mill  and  dam  at  the  mooth  of  Willow  river  in 
North  Hudson,  at  a  cost  of  about  f  26,000.  Both  mill  and  dam 
were  burned  in  1862;  loss,  %15fiQQ.  The  gross  cat  of  the  mill 
was  about  SS.OOO.OOO  feet 

In  1856,  J.  W.  Peers  built  a  mill  in  Hudson,  which  passed 
through  many  ownerships,  being  rebuilt  in  1883  by  H.  A.  Tay- 
lor, C.  B.  Coon,  M.  Herrick,  and  others,  at  a  cost  of  |45,000. 
In  1889,  the  company  was  organized  into  the  Hudson  fiawmill 
Company.  Gross  cut  during  the  first  thirty-three  years,  198,- 
000,000  feet;  during  the  last  nine  years,  108,000,000;  total, 
306,000,000.  This  mill  had  a  loss  by  fire,  in  1873,  of  {10,000. 
In  1899,  it  is  a  stock  company  with  a  capital  of  {55,000,  com- 
posed of  O.  K.  and  J.  T.  Ingram,  of  Eau  Claire,  Wis,  0.  L. 
Chamberlain,  of  Minneapolis,  Minn.,  A.  E.  Richard,  of  MasoQ, 
Wis.,  and  G.  P.  De  Long,  of  Hudson,  Wis.  There  were  four 
mills  in  Hudson,  built  in  the  do's  and  60's;  their  cut  was  about 
20,000,000  feet 

Horace  A.  Taylor  came  to  the  Valley  in  1850,  from  Norfolk, 
Kew  Jersey;  a  man  of  enterprise  and  energy,  quick  perception, 
and  ready  wit  In  1881,  he  was  appointed  by  President  Gar- 
field as  consul  at  Marseilles,  France. 

In  1852,  Joseph  Bo*ron  built  a  mill  above  Willow  Biver 
Falls;  cut,  6,000,000  feet  At  the  same  place,  in  1868,  Charles 
Buckhart  boilt  a  mill ;  cut,  10,000,000  feet 

The  Lord  Brothers,  in  1872,  boilt  a  mill  in  Glenmonnt, 
Wis.,  which  changed  hands  a  number  of  times,  being  remod- 
eled by  Pennington  &  Harper;  gross  cut,  175,000,000  feet. 
Mills  on  the  Kinnikinic  have  cut  3,000,000  feet. 



Joseph  Bowron  came  to  the  Valley  in  ISiL  He  vob  a 
Btrong  advocate  for  the  St.  Croix  boundary,  and  was  a  candi- 
date for  both  Wisconsin  constltationat  conventioDB,  but  was 
defeated.  He  contested  snccessfally  the  seat  of  William  B. 
Marshall,  a  citizen  of  Bt.  Croix  Falls,  Wis.,  who  had  received 
the  certificate  of  election  as  representative  to  the  first  aessiou 
of  the  Wisconsin  legislatare;  bot  Bowron  defeated  Marshall 
by  the  legislature  rejecting  the  vote  west  of  the  St.  Croii  lake 
and  river. 

At  New  Richmond,  Wis.,  in  1857,  D.  C.  Foster  and  Silaa 
Staples  built  a  mill  which  was  operated  by  water  power;  cut, 
abont  15,000,000  feet 

In  1884,  William  Johnson,  Jasaea  Johnson,  John  C.  Glover, 
and  Jacobson  &  Sons,  bnilt  a  mill  on  Willow  river,  at  a  cost  of 
f75,000.  The  gross  cut  of  this  mill,  np  to  1899,  has  been  180,- 
000,000  feeL  William  Johnson  gave  me  mnch  information 
aboat  this  and  other  mills.  He  has  been  a  resident  of  tlie 
Valley  for  over  forty  years. 

8,  A.  Jewett  built  a  mill  on  the  Willow  river  six  miles 
above  Ifew  Bichmond,  in  1862;  cat,  15,000,000  feet. 

The  Glenwood  mill,  built  in  1884  on  the  Wisconsin  Central 
ridlroad,  has  cat  35,000,000  feet  The  Boardman  mill,  on  Wil- 
low river,  has  cut  5,000,000  feet. 

In  1888,  a  mill  was  built  at  Amery,  on  the  Apple  river,  by 
I.  E.  Schneider.  It  was  burnt  in  1893  at  a  loss  of  flO,000, 
and  was  rebuilt  by  the  present  owner,  John  E.  Gloverj  cut, 
about  73,000,000  feet  A  mill  was  built  by  Harriman  &  Sta- 
ples on  Apple  river;  cut,  6,000,000  feet  The  €tar  Prairie  mil] 
has  cut  5,000,000  feet;  the  Somerset  mill,  5,000,000  feet;  and 
the  LitUe  Falls  mill,  3,000,000  feet. 

Charles  Buckhart,  in  1874,  built  a  mill  at  Black  Brook, 
Wis.,  cut,  15,000,000  feet  He  also  built  a  mill  at  Marsh  Lake 
station;  cut,  25,000,000  feet 

Israel  Graves,  in  1875,  built  a  mill  at  Clear  Lake,  which 
has  changed  hands  many  times,  being  rebuilt  by  John  E. 
Glover  in  1880;  gross  cut,  25,000,000  feet;  loss  by  fire,  flO.OOO. 

The  Jewett  mill,  three  miles  from  Clear  Lake,  has  cut  80,- 
000,000  feet 

P.  B.  Lacy  &  Johnson  bnilt  a  mill  at  Pineville  in  1880;  cut, 
abont  40,000,000  feet;  loss  by  fire,  on  the  mill  and  railroad 
timber,  flO.OOO. 



A  letter  from  F.  S.  Catlin  Btates  that  a  mill  was  located  at 
Clayton  in  1875;  and  that  it  cat  ont  in  1889,  having  cut  abont 
110,000,000  feet  The  mill  was  bnilt  and  operated  b;  Htnnbiril 

MII/LS  ON  THE  C,  8T.  P.,  M.  AITO  O.  RAltWAT. 

The  following  milla  were  located  on  the  Chicago,  St  Paul, 
MiBiieapolis  and  Omaha  railway: 

The  Turtle  Lake  mill,  built  in  1878  by  8.  Blchai^son,  cut 
40,000,000  feet;  a  mill  built  by  John  W.  Perley  in  1879  cut 
66,000,000  feet;  and  the  fipragae  mill,  bailt  in  1883,  cat  40,- 
000,000  feet  B.  Cort>ett  boilt  a  mill  at  Comatock  in  1884;  cat, 
4,000,000  feet  Three  mills  at  Comberland,  in  the  80*6,  cat 
100,000,000  feet  on  the  8t  Croix  waters;  loss  by  fire,  flSO.OOO. 
The  Barroaett  mill,  boilt  in  1880,  was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1894 
at  a  loss  of  |275,000;  inflarance,  (135,000.  The  cut  of  this 
mill  was  150,000,000  feet,  its  6t  Croix  cat  being  126,000,000. 
Other  mills  on  the  Omaha  railway  cot  16,000,000  feet 

John  W.  Perley,  of  Maine  birth,  came  to  the  .Valley  in  1854. 
By  his  kindness  I  have  been  able  to  gather  much  Information 
abont  the  mills  on  the  Omaha  ndlway. 

The  Shell  Lake  Lomber  Company  was  organized  in  1880, 
nnder  Iowa  laws,  and  was  composed  of  G.  Lamb  and  Daniel 
Joice,  of  Clinton,  Iowa,  David  Norton  &  Co.,  of  Winona,  Minn., 
Weyerbaenser  &  Co.,  of  Bock  Island,  111.,  and  others.  They 
have  a  capital  stock  of  (500,000;  have  sixty-three  tenement 
hoQses;  and  employ  two  hundred  and  fifty  men.  This  com- 
pany's mill  cot,  ap  to  1899,  is  460,000,000  feet;  from  land  drain- 
ing to  the  St  Croix,  225,000,000  feet  I  am  indebted  to  W.  E. 
Bourne,  the  present  manager  of  this  mill  and  former  manager 
of  the  Barronett  mill,  toe  the  information  concerning  the  Shell 
Lake  and  Barronett  mills.  These  two  mUls  cut  their  timber 
on  the  dividing  ridge  between  the  St  Croix  and  Chippewa 

At  Hayward,  situated  on  the  Namekagan  river,  in  Sawyer 
county,  Wis.,  the  Iforth  Wisconsin  Lumber  Company  was  or- 
ganized October  28th,  1881,  with  a  capital  of  |450,000,  in  six 
equal  interests,  namiely:  W.  H.  Laird,  M.  O.  Norton,  and  J.  L. 
Norton,  of  Winona,  Minn.;  P.  Weyerhaeuser,  of  St.  Panl, 
Minn.;  B.  L.  McCormack,  of  Waseca,  Minn.;  and  A.  J.  Hay- 



ward,  of  Chippewa  Falls,  Wis.  The  mill  began  opnatiODB 
Jane  4th,  1883,  and  hae  continned  for  sixteen  aeasons;  total 
cut,  ap  to  1899,  510,000,000  feet  In  a  letter  froiu  B.  L.  Mv- 
Cormack,  rice  president  of  the  Wiscwisin  Historical  Society, 
he  says:  "If  any  other  datai  are  desired,  I  will  be  at  yoor 
eervice;  for  I  fally  appreciate  the  fact  that  the  vast  wealth  of 
the  timber  country  will  in  a  few  years  live  only  in  the  history 
yon  and  others  may  write."  Mr.  McConnack  was  formerly  a 
resident  of  Minnesota,  being  state  senator  from  Waseca  county 
in  1881.  He  is  a  man  of  quiet  demeanor,  attentive  to  duties, 
with  good  business  qaaliflcations. 


,  In  the  early  Wb  a  mill  was  bnilt  by  the  Manch  Brothers 
at  Chengwatana.  It  was  operated  by  water  power,  and  much 
of  the  lamber  was  floated  down  the  St.  Croix  river;  gross  cat, 
4,000,000  feet 

James  S.  Person  boilt  the  first  mill  at  Pine  City  in  1871. 
It  has  passed  through  many  hands,  and  has  sustained  two 
losses  by  fire,  fb  the  amoant  of  |75,000.  The  gross  cnt  of  this 
win  has  been  about  33,000,000  feet  Hiram  Brackett  erected 
a  mill  in  the  70'b;  cat,  about  7,000,000  feet  Webber  &  Bor- 
der afterward  bnilt  a  mail,  which  cat  about  5,000,000  feet.  H. 
J.  Bath  also  bnilt  a  mUl,  which  cat  2,000,000  feet  Several 
small  mills  in  the  vicinity  of  Pine  City,  not  inclodiug  portable 
mills,  cat  about  11,000,000  feet  These  mills  were  all  located 
In  Pine  county. 

Two  mUls  were  builfi  at  Bush  aty;  cut,  about  5,000,000 
feet;  loss  by  Are,  fS.OOO.  The  Martin  mill,  at  Bashseba,  cot 
about  3,000,000  feet  Lee's  mill,  at  Bash  lake,  out  aboat  3,000.- 
000  feet    The  Sunrise  City  mill  cut  about  2,000,000  feet 

Daring  the  70's  and  BO'S  five  mills  were  erected  at  Bock 
Creek;  their  cat  was  about  41,000,000  feet;  loss  by  fire,  two 
mills,  |d,G0O. 

Tbe  Mis^on  Creek  mdll,  first  operated  by  Hnnter  &  Taylor, 
was  burned  twice,  with  losses  of  about  $32,000.  Its  gross  cut 
was  about  170,000,000  feet  Its  last  proiudetors  were  Capt 
John  Martin,  Philip  Biley,  and  Frank  C.  and  John  L.  Laird. 

D.  C.  Oranf  s  mill,  near  Hinckley,  built  in  1873,  cut  about 
2,000,000  feet 



The  Hiiick]«;  mill,  first  ovned  b;  William  H.  Grant,  cnt 
70,000,000  feet  It  was'  rebuilt  and  cut,  in  five  and  a  half 
years,  140,000,000  feet  Subsequently,  in  seven  years,  it  cut 
70,000,000  feet.    It  was  burned  in  1894,  at  a  loss  of  ?35,000. 

William  H.  Grant,  the  foander  of  the  Hinckley  mill,  is  a 
man  of  worthy  amibition,  very  alert,  and  a  practical  evei^day 

The  founders  of  these  many  manafaotnring  establish- 
ments, on  the  Bt  Panl  &  Duluth  and  Eastern  railroads,  are  an 
indefatigable  class  of  men.  We  hare  not  space  to  give  a 
sketch  of  these  mAny  useful  citizenB. 

To  Fred  A.  Hodge  I  am  greatly  indebted  for  valuable  data 
regarding  the  Mission  Creek,  Hinckley,  and  other  mills.  He 
gladly  left  his  business  to  give  me  the  information  needed. 
Ur.  Hodge  came  to  the  state  early  in  the  TO'b,  and  has  always 
been  interested  in  the  lumbering  business.  He  ie  a  genial 
man,  worthy  and  public  spirited,  and  has  aeeyed  four  years  in 
the  state  senate. 

The  Brown  and  Bobie  mill,  at  Miller  station,  cnt  about 
2,000,000  feet;  loss  by  fire,  |3,000.  D.  M.  Finlayson's  mill  cut 
about  76,000,000  feet  The  Pine  Biver  mill,  owned  by  Wynutn 
X.  FolBom,  cut  about  15,000,000  feet 

The  Butledge  mill,  located  on  Kettle  river  and  owned  by 
Weyerhaeuser,  Saantry  &.  Eutledge,  was  built  in  1886;  gross 
cnt  in  twelve  years,  216,000,000  feet 

The  two  mills  at  Moose  lake  have  been  owned  by  McAr- 
thur  ft  Co.,  Foz  &  Wisdom,  and  others;  cut,  about  140,000,000 
feet;  loss  by  fire,  fSO.OOO. 

Two  nulls  at  Bamnm  have  cut  about  180,000,000  feet;  loss 
by  Are,  15,000. 

Three  mills  at  Mattawa  have  cut  about  80,000,000  feet 

Two  mills  at  Qronndhouee  and  Bice  liake  have  cnt  about 
3,000,000  feet 

The  Atwood  Lumber  Co.,  successors  to  Fox,  Wisdom  ft  Co., 
consisting  of  George  H.  Atwood,  William  Sauntry,  and  Wey- 
erhaeuser ft  Dinkman,  bnilt  a  mill  in  1894,  on  section  2,  town- 
ship 44,  range  20.  The  gross  cut  of  this  mill,  to  1899,  has  been 
160,000,000  feet  Mr.  Atwood  is  a  genial,  intelligent  man.  Be  is 
a  native  of  Maine  and  came  to  the  Valley  in  1883.  Mr.  Saun- 
try is  a  native  of  New  BrunBvrick;  he  came  to  the  Valley  in 



1864.  He  has  shown  MmseK  to  be  a  practical  lambermaiL 
Weyerhaeuser  and  Diukman  are  of  Oerman  descent  and  are 
good  substantial  men. 

The  following  mills  are  on  the  Eastern  railway :  The  Baad- 
Btone  mill  haa  cut  abont  6,000,000  feet;  and  the  Mora  mill 
abont  2,000,000  feet  The  Partridge  mills,  three  in  namber, 
owned  by  Kerrick  &  Co.  and  others,  have  cat  25,000,000  feet; 
and  the  Nickerson  mill,  127,000,000  feet. 


Passing  beyond  the  boandary  of  the  St  Croii  basin,  I  have 
gathered  some  information  of  the  history  of  lumbering  in 
northeastern  Minnesota,  at  the  west  end  of  lake  Superior  and 
on  the  fit  Lonis  river,  which  is  here  briefly  stated,  for  the  pnf* 
pose  of  giving  somewhat  completely  the  records  of  this  great 
industry  thronghont  the  east  part  of  our  state. 

The  savrmills  of  West  Daluth,  up  to  the  year  1886,  inclu- 
sive, had  mannfaotnred  160,000,000  feet  of  lumber;  and  th^ 
product  to  the  present  time  is  probably  abont  1,000,000,000 

At  Thomson,  a  mill  was  built  in  1873  by  A.  M.  Milter,  and 
was  (iterated  many  years;  its  gross  cut  was  at  least  10,000,090 
feet  Another  mill,  six  miles  northwest  of  Thomson,  owned 
by  A.  K.  Lovejoy,  cut  5,000,000  feet  or  more.  Both  these  mills 
are  now  dismantled. 

Carlton  has  bad  fonr  sawmills  on  the  same  site,  the  first 
being  built  in  1870.  -  Their  total  product  is  estimated  as  400.- 
000,000  feet    The  present  mill  is  owned  by  J.  M.  Paine. 

The  first  mdll  in  Cloqnet,  at  the  bead  of  the  rt^ids  and 
falls  of  the  St  Louis  river,  was  bnilt  in  1878  by  Charles  D. 
Harwood.  It  was  rebuilt  in  1883  by  the  Knife  Falls  Lumber 
Onnpany.  In  1880  two  other  steam  sawmills  were  built  here 
byC.  N.Nelson  ft  Co.;  and  a  water  power  mill  by  James 
Paine,  McNair  ft  Co.  Other  mills  have  been  built  later.  The 
aggregate  lumber  product  of  Cloquet  to  the  present  time  is  es- 
timated to  be  at  least  1,000,000,000  feet  equalling  or  exceed- 
ing that  of  Daluth. 

Much  lumber  has  been  sawn  also  at  various  localities  on 
the  Mesabi  and  Vermilion  iron  ranges,  including  aboat  176,- 
000,000  feet  at  Tower  and  Ely  and  in  tlieir  vicinity. 




In  18T2,  Daniel  P.  Smith  bnilt  a  mill  at  01am  River  Falls, 
Wis.,  which  waa  burned  in  1887  at  a  loss  of  f3,000;  cnt,  2,000,- 
000  feet  He  also  bailt  a  mill  at  Batternnt  Lake;  cut,  abont 
2,000,000  feet  Mr.  Smith  is  a  plain,  frank  man.  He  has  filled 
many  positions  with  ability  and  faithfulnesa.  He  came  to  the 
Valley  in  the  early  fifties. 

In  the  winter  of  1848,  an  Indian  trader  came  to  my  log- 
ging camp  near  Clam  Falls,  with  a  packer  and  two  kegs  of 
whisky.  Twen^  Indians  soon  arrived,  gaadily  painted  and 
feathered.  They  demanded  the  whisky,  bnt  were  refnsed,  as  I 
woald  not  allow  drinking  at  my  camp.  They  were  abont  to 
seize  the  kegs,  when  I  ordered  two  of  my  mien  to  carry  the 
whisky  ont  of  camp;  and  as  soon  as  they  had  done  so,  I  bnrst 
both  k^H  with  an  axe,  letting  the  whisky  mingle  with  the 
snow.  The  Indians  licked  op  the  snow,  and  then  sarronnded 
me,  hooting  and  dancing  in  a  circle,  calling  me  "Ogema, 
Ogema,"  meaning  brave.  I  gave  them  something  to  eat,  and 
they  left  for  their  wigwams  ten  miles  away. 

Bnmett  county  was  named  in  honor  of  a  genial,  kind- 
hearted  and  talented  lawyer,  Thomas  P.  Bnrnett  of  Prairie  do 
Ghien.  He  was  a  Kentnckian  by  birth,  and  was  a  prominent 
man  in  the  northwestern  counties  of  Wlscoosin  during  the 
SO's,  40*8,  and  60's.  Orantflburg,  the  county  seat  of  Bnmett 
county,  was  founded  in  1865,  by  Hon.  Canute  Anderson,  who 
built  a  mill  in  the  Wood  river  valley.  Several  other  mills 
were  also  erected.  The  total  cut  of  these  mills  is  estimated 
at  25,000,000  feet 

'Mr.  Anderson  waa  the  first  postmaster  in  Burnett  county. 
In  1878  he  represented  his  dislsrict  in  the  Wisconsin  l^sla- 
tnrft,  and  it  was  mostly  through  his  efforts  that  the  Orantsburg 
branch  of  the  St.  Paul  &  Dnlath  railroad  was  bnilt.  His 
home  was  a  resort  and  intelligence  office  for  the  settlers, 
strangers  in  a  new  land;  he  assisted  many  a  poor  and  needy 
famaly.    He  was  accidentally  and  instantly  killed  in  1886. 

Bobidean,  a  mixed-blood  Indian,  murdered  Jack  Drake  at 
Wood  Lake,  Burnett  county.  Having  been  arrested  and 
placed  in  confinement  at  St  Croix  Falls,  he  jumped  with  one 
bound  about  fifty  feet  from  a  second  story  window,  passed 



over  the  watcbmaD'a  head  and  made  for  the  woods,  making 
good  his  escape.  Within  a  few  days  afterward  he  mardered 
Alex  Livingstone;  bnt  he  was  never  arrested.  Drake  and 
LiTingstone  w«re  whisky  Tenders. 

At  Wood  Lake,  Bamett  county,  Wisconain,  Hred  in  1874 
an  aged  and  blind  Indian  woman  who  calculated  her  pilgrim- 
age on  earth  by  moons.  All  traces  of  her  traditional  beaoty 
as  an  Indian  maid^i  had  long  since  departed.  Shriveled,  de- 
crepit, bent,  she  was  the  impersonation  of  all  that  is  nnlovely 
and  repulsive  in  old  ag&  Taciturn  and  sullen,  ber  mind  le- 
thargic and  dall,  she  seemed  but  little  more  than  half  alive, 
and  could  not  be  easily  aroused  to  the  comprehension  of  pass- 
ing events,  or  to  the  recognition  of  those  aronnd  her.  She 
must  have  been  very  old.  When  aroused  to  consciousness, 
which  was  but  seldom,  she  would  talk  of  things  long  past.  A 
light  would  come  into  her  sightless  eyes,  as  she  recounted  the 
traditions  or  described  the  manners  and  cnatoms  of  her  peo- 
ple, speaking  with  evident  pride  of  their  ancient  power  and 
prowess  when  her  people  planted  their  tepees  on  the  shores  of 
the  "shining  big  sea  water"  (lake  Superior)  and  drove  their 
enemies,  the  Dakotas,  before  them.  Her  people  wore  blankets 
made  from  the  skins  of  the  moose,  elk,  and  buffalo,  with  caps 
from  skins  of  otter  and  beaver.  There  was  then  an  abundance 
of  "kego"  (flsh)  and  "washkish"  (deer).  There  were  no  pale- 
faces then  in  all  the  land  to  drive  them  from  their  tepees  and 
take  their  hunting  grounds.  Of  course  they  had  seen  occa- 
sional whites,  hunters,  trappers,  and  missieoaries;  but  the 
formidable  movements  of  the  now  dominant  race  had  not 
fairly  conuneneed.  Counting  the  years  of  her  life  on  her  fin- 
gers, so  many  moons  representing  a  year,  she  must  have  nnran 
bered  a  score  beyond  a  century;  and  she  had  consequently 
witnessed,  before  her  eyes  were  dimmed,  the  complete  spolia- 
tion of  her  people's  ancestral  domain. 


The  Inter-State  Park,  which  covera  the  wonderful  rock 
formations  on  the  Minnesota  side  of  the  St  Croix  river,  and 
which  has  been  tastefully  improved, 'with  the  limited  means 
in  hand,  by  the  superintendent,  George  H.  Hazzard,  waa  es- 
tablished in  1895.    Wisconsin  and  Minnesota  share  equally  in 



this  grand  apbearal  of  trap  rocks,  which  foirm  the  Dalles. 
They  are  oQqnestionably  the  most  interesting  volcanic  erup- 
tione  east  of  the  Rocky  moantains.  The  testiinony  of  thou- 
sands verifies  this  statement  Miss  Fredrika  Bremer,  the  well 
known  Swedish  novelist,  an  inteHigent  traveller,  visited  the 
Dalles  in  1849  and  pronounced  them,  in  the  hearing  of  the 
writer,  "One  of  God's  beauteoos  spots  of  earth." 

Adjacent  to  the  Dalles  are  the  ancient  battlefields  of  the 
SioQx  and  Ojibway  Indians.  The  rocks  and  hills  of  the  8t 
Croix  Valley,  from  tl»e  source  of  the  river  to  its  mouth,  have 
often  been  stained  with  Indian  blood.  Your  worthy  presi- 
dent, in  one  of  his  addresses  before  this  6ocie^,  pronounced 
the  tract  between  the  St  Crotz  and  Mississippi  rivers  a  Gol- 
gotha, a  place  of  skulls.  Bat  now,  with  the  exception  of  a 
few  Indians  about  the  head  of  the  river,  all  have  departed; 
some  have  gone  to  homes  in  the  west,  bat  most  of  them  to  an 
unknown  land. 

In  18&7  a  mill  was  built  in  Taylor's  Falls  by  Kingman  & 
Qnrley.  It  was  removed  in  1880;  its  cut  was  about  22,000,000 
feet  The  Clark  Brothers  built  a  mill  in  the  60*8,  but  it  waa 
soon  afterward  removed;  cat,  about  6,000,000  feet 

Ansel  Smith  erected  a  mill  at  Fraoconia  in  1852,  which 
passed  throagh  many  hands.  The  original  owner  died  in  Du- 
luth.  This  mill  was  burned  in  1889  at  a  loss  of  |3,000.  Its 
cut  was  about  20,000,000  feet 

In  1847  the  St  Croix  Falls  precinct  covered  both  sides  of 
the  St  Croix  river.  Jerry  Boss,  living  on  the  other  side  of  the 
river  from  Taylor's  Falls,  was  elected  justice  of  the  peace. 
One  day  a  gentleman  called  on  Jerry  and  found  him  delivering 
a  chai^  to  a  jury  of  twelve  men  in  a  basswood  grove.  Twelve 
jurors,  good  steadfast  men,  were  marked  lifelike  on  twelve 
basswood  trees.  Jerry  Boss  said  to  his  visitor,  "If  you  are 
the  defendant  in  this  case,  you  are  too  late;  the  case  is  de- 
cided, and  the  jury  discharged." 

In  1851,  a  Mr.  Pbilbrook,  from  Hudson,  came  to  Bt  Crotz 
Falls  to  get  married.  Ifot  finding  anyone  authorized  to  per- 
form the  ceremony,  he  cast  loose  a  raft  of  lumber  from  the 
Wisconsin  shore,  and  Eon.  Ansel  Smith  of  St  Croix  precinct 
Washington  county,  united  them  in  marriage.   Another  party. 



Of  Taylor's  PaJlB,  deeiring  matrimony,  crosaed  the  St  Croix 
OD  the  ice  and  climbed  to  tbe  bigheet  pinnacle  of  trap  rock, 
and  were  there  prononnced  man  and  wife  by  a  Wisconsin 


In  1816-17,  Martin  Mower,  David  B.  Loomis,  Joseph  Brew- 
ster,  and  W.  H.  C.  Folsom,  bnilt  the  Areola  mdll  on  a  land 
claim  owned  by  W.  H.  C.  Folsom.  It  began  operations  in  May, 
1847.  Martin  Mower  afterward  became  the  sole  owner  and 
erected  another  mill  in  1862.  This  property  ia  owned,  in  1899, 
by  the  heirs  of  John  E.  Mower.  The  probable  cut  of  the  two 
mills  ftas  been  16,000,000  feet  W.  H.  C.  Folsom  is  the  only 
sarriTing  member  of  the  firm. 

Martin  and  John  E.  Mower  came  to  the  Valley  in  1810, 
where  they  were  prominent  bnsiness  men,  Martin  Mower  being 
one  of  the  fonnders  of  the  St  Croix  Boom  Company.  He  bnilt 
a  large  block  in  Stillwater.  John  E.  Mower  represented  the 
connties  of  Washington,  Chisago,  and  Fine,  in  the  fifth  and 
Birth  territorial  conncils,  and  again  in  the  seventeenth  state 
I^islatore;  The  Minnesota  territorial  leglslatare  affixed  his 
name  to  a  coanty. 

David  B.  Xioomis  was  a  well  known  man,  being  a  member 
of  the  territorial  conncil  for  four  years,  from  1861  to  1856,  and 
president  of  the  conncU  one  session.  He  entered  the  anny  in 
1861  as  a  lieatenant  in  Comipany  F,  Second  Minnesota;  was 
promoted  aa  a  captain;  and  served  three  and  a  half  years. 
Iq  1873  he  repreBcnted  Washington  coanty  in  the  legislatare. 


The  Nevers  dam  was  bnilt  in  1891,  ten  miles  above  St 
Croix  Falls,  at  a  cost  of  |180,000.  The  length  of  the  dam  is 
1,000  feet;  it  has  a  flowage  of  ten  miles,  and  a  possible  head  of 
seventeen  feet  The  purpose  of  this  dam  is  to  hold  the  an- 
nual cot  of  logs,  and  to  supply  the  water,  held  in  the  extensive 
reservoir,  for  driving  the  logs  to  the  St  Croix  boom.  The  in- 
tention was  to  aid  navigation  and  not  to  impede  it  Litiga- 
tion Is  the  resalt  of  the  building  of  the  dam.  Before  the  daM 
was  built,  navigation  was  impeded  by  the  millions  of  logs  flll- 



ing  the  river  anaaally  above  tbe  boom;  bat  the  holding  of  the 
water  above  the  dam  leaves  the  river,  daring  mach  of  the  year, 
withoat  its  naaal  natoral  flow.  Tbe  incorporators  of  the  dam 
are  Saantry,  Weyerhaeuaer,  McClnre,  Tozer,  the  Ma]oy  broth- 
era,  and  othera. 


The  8t.  Croix  Boom  Company  was  organized  in  1867,  with 
a  capital  stock  of  |25,000.  The  incorporators  were  Orange 
Waiker  an'd  George  B.  Jadd  of  Marine;  John  McKosick,  Soc- 
rates Ifelson,  and  Levi  B.  Charchill,  of  Stillwater;  Daniel 
Mean  and  William  Kent,  of  Osceola;  and  W.  H.  C.  Folaom, 
of  Taylor's  Falls.  Tbe  boom  was  bailt  near  Osceola.  In  1866 
the  company  was  reorganized  by  Martin  Mower,  W.  H.  G.  Fol- 
som,  Isaac  Staples,  C.  Carli,  and  Samael  Baj-kleo,  with  a  capi* 
tal  stock  of  150,000.    Tbe  boom  was  removed  to  Stillwater. 

Mncb  litigation  ensued  from  the  blockading  of  the  river 
and  impeding  navigation,  which  caused  damages  in  one  season 
to  tbe  estimated  amount  of  |146,62S.  Controversies  arose  as 
to  tbe  jarisdictlon  of  tbe  St.  Croiz  river;  it  is  tbe  state  boand- 
ary,  and  hence  both  states  claimed  concurrent  power. 

The  officers  of  the  Boom  Company  receive  a  fair  salary,  and 
are  competent  to  attend  to  the  multitude  of  log  marks,  [t 
may  not  be  amiss  to  explain  briefly  tbe  system  of  log  marks. 
It  is  a  language  in  itself.  There  are  over  two  thousand  marks 
recorded,  in  distinct  and  different  characters.  Every  owner 
must  have  his  mark  recorded  or  lose  his  logs.  A  law  has  been 
passed  protecting  the  ownership  of  recorded  marks. 

In  1843,  a  rise  of  water  in  the  St.  Croix  river  broke  tbe  log 
boom  at  S:t.  Croix  Falls,  and  about  400,000  feet  of  logs  floated 
down  to  St.  Croix  lake.  Thence  they  were  rafted  down  the 
river  by  John  B.  Page,  and  were  sold  to  Thomas  West  of  St. 
Louis,  Mo.  This  was  tbe  first  raft  of  logs  rnn  from  the  St 
Uroix  river  to  the  lower  markets.  Rafts  of  sawn  lumber  were 
ran  earlier,  from  tbe  Marine  mill  in  1839,  and  from  the  St. 
Croix  Falls  mill  in  1842.  A  part  of  the  first  lumber  sawn  at 
Stillwater,  in  1844,  was  also  rafted  south.  Daring  recent 
years,  on  an  average,  over  three  hundred  and  twenty  rafts  of 
logs  and  lumber  are  annually  floated  out  of  lake  St.  Croix  to 
southern  markets. 


318        MINNESOTA  HisToiacxi.  auLiwn  casj^mcrmam. 


That  this  paper  may  inclade  mentioii  of  the  beginningB  of 
the  lamber  iodoBtry  at  other  places  in  this  state  soath  of  the 
St  Croix  valley,  I  have  obtained  the  following  notes  of  saw- 
Dxilla  in  Bt.  Paal,  Hastings,  Bed  Wing,  and  elsewhere  soath- 
ward  to  Winona.  The  Bed  Wing  mills  have  depended  mainly, 
and  those  farther  soath  in  a  considerable  degree,  on  the  St. 
Croix  lambermen  for  their  supplies  of  logs. 

In  St  Paul  a  sawmill  was  bailt  in  the  early  SO's  by  John  S. 
Prince,  on  the  bank  of  the  MlBBiBsippi  river  a  short  distance 
east  of  the  site  of  the  Union  railway  depot  After  cntting 
about  a  million  feet  of  lumber,  it  was  sold  to  William  G.  Le 
Dnc  and  was  removed  by  him  to  Hastings. 

Other  sawmills  in  and  near  St  Paul  during  the  fifteen 
years  following  1860  were  as  follows:  In  1851,  John  R.  Irvine 
built  a  sawmill  on  the  upper  levee,  near  the  foot  of  Eagle 
street,  which  continued  in  operation  until  1868,  sawing  about 
1,000,000  feet  of  lumber  yearly.  About  the  year  1856,  J.  B. 
Holmes  erected  a  small  sawmill  near  the  spot  where  the 
Union  depot  now  stands.  William  L.  Ames  built  a  mill  near 
the  foot  of  Dayton's  bluff,  which  commenced  operations  about 
the  year  1856  and  continued  four  years,  sawing  about  1,260,000 
feet  of  lumber  each  year,  until  it  was  torn  down  in  1860. 
About  600  feet  below  the  Ames  mail,  the  Sanford  mill  was 
erected  in  1866,  which  continued  in  operation  three  years, 
sawing,  like  the  last,  about  1,260,000  feet  each  year.  In  the 
same  year,  1866,  Stuart,  Cobb  A  Company  erected  a  mill  on 
the  upper  levee,  500  or  600  yards  above  the  Irvine  mill,  and 
nearly  opposite  Sherman  street  This  mdll  continued  in  operas 
tion  four  years,  sawing  about  2,000,000  feet  per  annum.  It 
was  destroyed  by  fire  in  1860.  During  the  year  1867,  Henry 
P.  Upham  and  Col.  Chauncey  W.  Griggs  operated  the  old  Ful- 
ler sawmill,  which  stood  near  the  upper  levee,  on  the  ground 
now  occupied  by  the  Minnesota  Soap  Company,  sawing  1,000,* 
000  feet  of  lumber.  In  1^8,  Mr.  Upham  bought  a  small  mill 
that  had  been  built  on  the  west  side  of  the  Mississippi  river, 
juat  below  where  the  Wabasha  street  bridge  now  stands;  and 
he  and  Freeman  James  operated  this  mill  about  six  years, 
sawing,  each  year,  about  1,000,000  feet  of  lumber.    At  Pig's 



Eye,  William  DaviB  and  Joe  Deioo  operated  a  sawmill  from 
1861  to  18^. 

Another  Bawmill  wa«  bailt  Id  Bt  Panl  about  the  year  1870 
by  LouIb  Krieger  and  John  M.  Keller,  on  Phalen  creek  jast 
above  the  St  Panl  and  Dolnth  railroad  depot.  It  t^erated 
three  years  and  manofactared  aboat  three  million  feet  of  lum- 
ber, oaing  loga  bronght  by  this  railroad  from  tdvmahipB  36, 
37,  and  38,  in  range  21,  which  inclnde  Harris,  Bneh  Gil?,  and 
Eock  Creek  stations. 

The  pioneer  lumberman  of  Hastings  was  William  Q.  Le 
Due,  who  in  1856  bnilt  a  sawmill  beside  the  Mlasiasippi  river 
at  the  weat  edge  of  the  city,  where  now  stands  the  great  mill 
■of  Libbey  &  Thompson.  He  purchased  his  first  mill  machin- 
-ery  in  Ohio,  but  it  proved  a  failure  and  was  replaced  by  the 
machinery  from  Prince's  mill  in  St.  Panl.  This  mill  mana- 
factnred  about  6,000,000  feet  of  lumber. 

In  the  antumn  of  the  same  year  1856  another  mill  was 
liailt  in  HastingB,  by  Phelps,  Qraham,  and  Koapp.  It  was 
-situated  on  the  sloagb  at  the  east  end  of  the  ci^.  After  oper- 
ating three  years,  it  was  sold  to  A.  J.  Bhort,  who  removed  it 
"to  Point  Douglas. 

A  sawmill  that  was  bailt  by  Ballard  &  Post  in  1853  at 
Wacoata,  a  few  miles  east  of  Bed  Wing,  appears  to  have  been 
the  first  west  of  the  Mississippi  in  this  state,  excepting  the 
«mall  mill  tliat  supplied  lumber  for  the  construction  of  Fort 
Snelling.  The  Wacouta  mill  operated  five  years,  and  sawed 
about  5,000,000  feet  of  lumber. 

The  first  mill  at  Bed  Wing  was  built  in  1856  by  Pettibone  & 
Knapp.  This  mill,  after  sawing  about  6,000,000  feet,  was  sold 
in  1861  to  Cogel  &  Betcher,  by  whom  it  was  rebnilt  Their 
-product  during  the  years  1861  to  1875  was  at  least  70,000,000 
feet  In  1875  this  property  passed  to  the  ownership  of 
■Charles  Betcher,  who  estimates  his  production  of  lumber  from 
that  date  until  now  to  be  180,000,000  feet  or  more. 

In  1867,  Orannis,  Daniels  &  Company  built  another  saw- 
mill  at  Bed  Wing,  which  continued  in  operation  thirty-two 
^ears,  under  successive  owners,  being  finally  burned.  Its 
.gross  cut  is  estimated  as  at  least  130,000,000  feet 



A  third  mill,  bnilt  here  also  In  1857,  by  a  Boston  capitalist 
named  Drew,  sawed  only  half  a  million  feet,  when  ita  work 
ceased  on  acconnt  of  the  fioancial  panic  of  that  year.  This 
mill  building,  removed  a  short  distance,  is  now  in  nse  aa  the 
railway  freight  house. 

In  1860  and  later,  sawmills  have  been  operated  at  Fronte- 
nac  and  Central  Point,  their  product  being  probably  aboot 
10,000,000  feet. 

At  Read's  Umding,  in  the  antamn  of  1851,  William  B. 
Marshall,  Joseph  M.  Marshall,  and  X.  P.  Langford,  erected  a 
mill  which  cut  abont  1,200,000  feet  of  Inmber.  Then  the  prop- 
erty was  sold,  in  the  sammer  of  1869,  to  Knapp,  Tainter  and 
Wilson,  lambermen  of  Menomonie,  Wisconsin,  who  entailed 
the  mill  and  continued  to  operate  it  several  years,  until  it  was 
destroyed  by  Are. 

In  Winona  the  first  sawmill  was  one  of  small  capacity, 
built  by  Highlands  &  Wyckoff  in  the  fall  of  1865.  It  was 
homed  five  years  afterwajd.  The  next  sawmill  was  erected 
in  1867  by  Laird,  Norton  ft  Company,  who  continue  still  in 
basiaesa  Their  mill  was  rebuilt  in  1879;  and  it  was  de- 
stroyed by  fire,  and  was  rebsilt  again  on  a  very  large  scale,  in 
1886.  The  third  mill  waa  built  in  1868  by  the  Youmans  Broth- 
ers, and  was  rebuilt  in  1881,  being  now  one  of  the  largest  and 
best  equipped  sawmills  in  this  state.  With  these,  since  1881, 
tliis  city  has  had  the  lai^  mill  of  the  Winona  Lumber  Cmu- 
pany;  and,  since  1882,  that  of  the  Empire  Lumber  Company. 

The  prodoction  of  Inmber  in  Winona,  according  to  esti- 
mates supplied  to  me  by  Hon.  Thomas  Simpson  and  Mr.  W.  H. 
Laird,  has  been  approximately  as  follows:  During  the  years 
1858  to  1868,  inclusive,  abont  160,000,000  feet;  in  the  next  ten 
years,  326,000,000  feet;  in  the  next  decade,  1,150,000,000  feet; 
and  in  the  last  ten  years,  1889  to  1898,  incluBive,  about  1,400,- 
000,000  feet  The  total  for  these  forty-one  years  has  been  thus 
about  3,036,000,000  feet  of  sawn  lumber;  to  which  should  be 
added  a  large  value  of  laths  and  shingles. 

During  the  years  1858  to  1870  the  logs  used  in  sawing  at 
Winona  came  largely  from  the  St.  Croii  river  and  its  tribn- 
taries.    Since  1870  they  have  mostly  come  from  the  Chippewa 



river  of  Wieconsin.  In  1871  tbe  Beef  Slongli,  branching  from 
the  Chippewa  near  its  month  and  continuing  beside  the  Missie- 
Bippi  almost  to  Winona,  began  to  be  osed  for  running  tbe 
Chippewa  logs  and  making  them  into  rafts,  under  the  control 
of  the  MisBisBippi  Birer  Logging  Company,  which  includes  the 
owners  of  the  Winona  mills.  Bat  within  the  last  five  yearB  a 
portion  of  the  Winona  supply  of  logs  has  been  again  derived 
from  the  8t  Croix  valley. 


During  the  period  of  sixty  years  of  lumbering  in  the  St. 
Croix  valley  one  hundred  and  thirty-three  mills  have  been 
erected,  for  the  mannfactnre  almost  ezcluBively  of  pine  tim- 
ber. Of  this  number  of  mills  only  twenty-seven  are  running 
in  1899.  So  few  mills  now  are  doing  the  work,  with  an  in- 
creased product  of  millions  of  lumber  annually,  which  is  dne 
to  the  late  improvements  in  machinery.  Mills  now  cutting 
from  ten  to  forty-five  millions  per  season  are  doing  what  in 
former  years  would  have  required  the  running  of  ten  or  fifteen 
mills,  to  maDUfact,are  the  same  amount  In  the  same  time. 

In  the  following  tabulated  statiBtlcs  the  logs^oted  as  cut 
prior  to  the  boom  output  in  1861  are  reported  beyond  in  the 
manufacturers'  table,  excepting  56,000,000  feet  rafted  to  St. 

The  earliest  statistics  are  from  persons  operating,  and  the 
later  from  record  books.  I  give  the  figures  in  round  numbers, 
Tbe  table  includes  logs  cut  and  floated  down  the  St  Croix 
river  and  its  tributaries. 

AmotMt  0/  Logt  out  fn>M  ISST  ta  1898. 

Xear.  Feet  Tear.  Feet 

1SS7-SS 300,000  IMS 14,000,000 

700,000  1846 25,000,000 

1.500.000  18*7 26,000,000 

2,500,000  1S4S 87,000,000 

8,000,000  1840 50,000,000 

8,500,000  18M> 75,000,000 

The  following  flgnrea  give  the  boom  output  from  1861  to 



Year.  Feet 

1851 107,000,000 

1852 110,000,000 

1853 120,000,000 

1854 186,000,000 

1855 180,000.000 

1856 185,000^000 

1857 140,000,000 

1868 142,000,000 

1859 146,000,000 

1860 180,000,000 

1861 140,000,000 

1862 176,000,000 

1863 150,000,000 

1864 140,000,000 

1866 13ft000.000 

1806 145.000,000 

1867 128.000,000 

1868 145,000,000 

1869 160,000,000 

1870 166,000,000 

1871 170,000,000 

1872 181,000,000 

1873 160,00ft000 

1874 120,000,000 

Tear.  re«t 

1875 121,380,720 

1876 152,520,000 

1877 140,540.800 

1878 182,786,870 

1879 201,763,500 

ISSO 201,440,000 

1881 231,OOOJS0O 

1882 273,810,400 

1883 271,272300 

1884 274,380,600 

1885 226,540,800 

1SS6 101,464,500 

1887 270,060.100 

ISSS 866,486.300 

1889 262,385,980 

1800 462,360,880 

1801 315.180,700 

1892 436,899.770 

1893 859.4«8,720 

1894 281,470,400 

1895 353.062,860 

1896 S21,764JS80 

1897 811.615,170 

1898 344.728.217 

BecapitutatUm  of  Logt  tmi  Baton  Litmber. 


Log  oatpnt  from  the  boom,  1861  to  1898 9,895.303,207 

From  WllloTr  river,  Wisconsin 100,000,000 

Logs  rafted  bWore  1851 66.000,000 

Total  of  logs  from  tbe  St.  Croix  and  tributaries,  board 

This  amoant  does  not  include  the  logs  sawn  into  lumber 
at  mills  on  the  railroadB,  which  are  placed  in  tbe  following 
statistics  of  lum'ber  manufactured  on  the  8t.  Croix  and  within 
its  drainage  area. 


Abore  the  boom 347,000,000 

Below  the  boom 3.352,000.000 

On  tbe  St.  Paul  &  Duluth  raUroad 1.397,000,000 

On  the  C,  St  P.,  M.  &  OmaJia  railway 1,960,000.000 

On  the  Bastera  Minnesota  railway 158,000,000 

On  Apple  river  and  Balsam  creek 117,000,000 

On  Clam  and  Wood  rivera 27,000,000 

Total  ot  sawn  lumber T.868,000,000 



A  considerable  part  of  this  amount  waa  cnt  on  adjacent 
areas  drained  by  branches  of  the  Chippewa  river.  From  this 
and  the  foregoing  tables,  we  obtain  the  total  amonnt  of  pine 
timber  cut  in  the  St.  Croix  basin,  approximately,  14,054,000,- 
000  feet  The  Talue  of  this  timber,  for  the  St.  Croix  basin, 
before  it  was  cnt,  called  its  stnmpage  valne,  may  be  estimated 
at  f3  per  thonsand,  amounting  to  (42,162,000. 

Co(A  of  Labor  in  Lumbering,  18S7  to  1898. 

The  amount  paid  for  labor  in  lumbering  in  the  St.  Croix 
valley  has  been  approximately  as  follows: 

Honofactaring  T,35&,000,000  feet  of  lumber $17,661,600 

CuttlDg,  drlTlns.  booina«e  and  rafting  of  6,695,000,000  teet 

of  logs,  Bawn  farther  south 3,347,500 

Boom  labor  on  10,060.303,000  feet 5,018.800 

Uanufacturlng  shingles,  laths,  and  pickets 1,000,000 

I>abor  on  Nevers  dam 100,000 

MiBuella neons  labor,  as  building  mills 1,100,000 

Total  cost  of  labor J28,227,900 

The  disbursement  of  this  vast  sum  has  been  largely  to  the 
surrounding  states,  much  of  the  wages,  as  of  the  lumber,  being 
taken  from  the  Valley  to  build  the  farm  houses,  towns,  and 
cities  of  our  great  prairie  region.  Many  a  young  man,  in  cen* 
tral  and  western  Minnesota,  and  the  Dakotaa,  received  his 
first  money  for  labor  performed  at  the  boom,  in  the  mills,  or 
in  the  pineries,  which  laid  the  foundations  for  many  happy, 
prosperous  homes. 

The  wages  paid  in  states  farther  south  for  mannfacturlDg 
the  lumber  of  logs  run  from  the  St.  Croix  valley  to  southern 
markets  is  estimated  as  about  |10,O0O,0OO. 

Lo8»B9  hy  Fire«. 

The  losses  by  fires  destroying  mills  and  lumber  in  the  Val- 
ley, not  including  losses  of  standing  pine  timber  burned,  have 
been  approximately  as  follows: 

On  tbe  St.  Croix  lake  and  river $334,000 

On  the  C.  St  P.,  M.  &  Omaha  railway 620.000 

On  the  St  Paul  &  Duluth  railroad  and  Its  branches 185,000 

Total $1,139,000 


:bota  historical  society  collections. 

of  tbe  amount  of  timber  standing  in  tbe  Valle; 
ectoral.  Some  of  the  large  firms  place  their 
tions  at  five  to  ten  years.  Bat  tbe  history  of 
in  pine-growing  coantries,  in  many  instances, 
his  timber  may  be  reproduced,  growing  anew, 
inal  growth  has  been  removed,  if  fires  are  kept 
s  growth  of  protected  timber  is  equivalent  to  a 
on  the  investment.  Oar  forests  should  be  pre- 
atected  against  fires  and  hunters,  even  if  a  pen- 
>d.  With  proper  precautions,  billions  of  valua- 
r  conld  thns  be  saved;  and  the  same  is  true  also 
equally  valuable  hardwood  timber. 

'awford  county  was  organized  under  the  admin* 
3V.  Lewis  Cass  of  Michigan  Territory;  and  that 
embraced  within  its  bounds  what  are  now  the 
i,  Minnesota,  the  Dakotas,  and  the  western  part 
Judge  James  D.  Doty,  at  the  age  of  twenty- 
ild  the  first  district  court,  in  1824,  at  Prairie  da 
inty  seat  Under  the  jurisdiction  of  Crawford 
lis,  criminals  were  transferred  from  the  upper 
Hey  to  Prairie  dn  Chien  for  trial.  The  writer 
settled  in  Crawford  county  in  1837,  sixty-two 
have  since  continuously  resided  in  what  was  old 
ity,  and  during  the  last  forty-nine  years  at  Tay- 
'he  boundary  lines  have  been  changed  a  number 
ng  me,  in  1899,  in  the  State  of  Minnesota. 




„d, Google 



Personal  Karration. 

My  earliegt  home  memories  and  first  experience  of  toil 
were  associated  with  the  pine,  woods  of  Maine,  where  I  was 
bom,  in  Leeds  township,  June  8th,  1820.  Up  to  the  age  of 
fifteen  years  I  attended  school  and  worked  on  my  rattler's 
farm,  which  he  had  parchased  in  Milo  township,  then  part  of 
the  great  forest  region  of  Maine.  Our  work  consisted  largely 
is  cutting  down  the  timber  and  burning  it  to  clear  the  farm, 
a  few  acres  being  thus  added  each  year  to  the  tract  nnder 
cnltiration  and  pasturage. 

In  the  year  1839,  responding  to  the  call  of  Goremor  Pair- 
field,  I  enlisted,  with  the  state  militia  company  of  which  I  was 
a  member,  and  served  eight  months  in  the  campaign  for  de- 
fense of  the  rights  of  Maine  and  of  the  United  States  in  the 
establishment  of  the  boandar?  between  northern  Maine  and 

During  much  of  the  time  for  the  next  fire  years  I  was 
engaged  with  lumbermen  in  cutting  logs  and  driving  them 
down  tributaries  of  the  Penobscot  river,  and  also  worked 
during  parts  of  these  years  in  sawmills. 

In  the  antnmn  of  1844, 1  set  my  face  toward  the  west,  tak- 
ing passage,  September  1st,  in  the  steamer  Bangor,  to  Boston, 
thence  going  by  railway  to  Albany,  and  by  canal  to  Buffalo. 
The  canal  passage  across  the  state  of  New  York  took  seven 

•Read  a.t  the  monthly  meetltiK  of  the  Executive  Council.  Har  S,  ISM. 



Tbence  the  trip  to  Chicago  was  b;  the  steamer  Kile,  and 
we  encountered  a  very  severe  storm  on  Lake  Huron.  Beach- 
ing Chicago,  I  was  disappointed  in  the  appearance  of  that  far 
advertised  city.  Lots  close  west  of  the  river  could  be  pur- 
chased for  two  hundred  dollars. 

After  a  few  days'  stay  in  Chicago,  I  went  on  by  stage  to 
Bdvidere,  Illinois,  near  which  place  my  elder  brother  George, 
who  had  come  west  earlier,  was  farming.  His  children  were 
sick  with  the  ague.  According  to  my  wish,  he  sold  his  prop- 
erty in  Bdvidere,  and  we  together  moved  onward  to  a  healthier 
location  near  Freeport,  in  northwestern  niinois,  where  he  took 
a  farming  claim  of  government  land. 

During  the  following  winter  I  explored  the  Galena  mining 
region,  and  in  the  spring  of  1845  went  to  the  Wisconsin 
pineries.  Two  years  of  hard  work  in  lumbering  and  sawing 
followed,  with  good  investments  of  money  partly  brought  from 
Maine  and  partly  earned  during  these  years.  The  spring  and 
summer  of  the  next  year,  1847,  found  me  rafting  lumber  down 
the  Wisconsin  river  and  thence  down  the  Miasiasippi,  selling 
it  in  Dubuque,  Galena,  Quincy,  and  Bt.  Loais.  As  lumber 
bonght  in  northern  Wisconsin,  rafted,  and  sold  in  these  grow- 
ing towns  and  cities  along  the  Mississippi,  brought  lai^e  prof- 
its, I  decided  to  return  in  the  fall  to  the  pineries  and  continue 
in  this  business. 


While  I  was.  resting  for  a  part  of  the  summer  of  1847,  in 
St.  Louis,  after  the  sale  of  my  lumber,  the  heat  became  so 
intense  that  I  decided  to  leave  for  my  voyage  up  the  river. 
Just  then  Capt.  John  Atchison,  with  his  steamer  Lynx,  arrived 
from  New  Orleans,  carrying  a  cargo  of  government  supplies 
"  for  Fort  Snelling,  and  having  on  board  a  pleasure  party  for 
the  same  destination.  I  secured  a  stateroom  and  joined  the 
party.  They  were  all  southerners  excepting  myself,  a  jolly 
crowd  of  ladies  and  gentlemen.  The  captain  of  the  boat  sup- 
plied a  brass  band  that  played  and  entertained  us  all  digr,  and 
then  furnished  string  music  to  dance  by  in  the  evening.  Thus 
the  whole  trip  was  spent  in  pleasure,  and  the  time  passed 
rapidly  nntil  we  arrived  at  Fort  Snelling. 


DiBiimd, Google 


„d, Google 


There  Mr.  Franklin  Steele  awaited  the  arrival  of  the  party 
with  carriages  to  conrej  as  across  tlie  waving  prairie  to  St. 
ADtfaony  falls.  I  rode  with  Mr.  Steele  in  a  two-wheeled  cart, 
and  he  entertained  me  by  describing  his  claim  at  the  falls, 
and  the  improvementa  contemplated  for  the  following  antnmn. 
At  the  end  of  oar  ride,  he  pointed  ont  the  site  of  the  dam  and 
the  sawmill  he  intended  to  build,  while  the  steward  of  tfce 
boat  was  preparing  dinner  for  the  party  on  the  grass,  between 
the  spring  and  the  old  gristmill. 

When  all  the  carriages  had  arrived,  every  one  was  anxious 
to  secure  the  best  view  of  this  magnificent  body  of  water  as 
it  plunged  and  seethed  over  the  roclts  on  its  long  jonmey  to 
the  Qnlf  of  Mexico.  Thousands  of  people  had  gazed  on  this 
grand  spectacle,  bat  no  man  with  capital  as  yet  had  attempted 
to  utilize  this  wonderful  natural  water  power.  The  bell  rang 
for  dinner,  and  the  party  gathered  to  the  feaat.  There  were 
luxuries  prepared  by  the  steward,  and  delicacies  prepared  by 
the  ladies  and  distributed  by  their  own  handa.  There  were 
good  wines  in  abundance,  which  made  the  crowd  merry,  and 
two  hours  were  spent  in  feasting  and  drinking.  But  cloads 
were  gathering  and  indicated  a  shower  very  soon,  and  that 
the  party  would  get  a  drenching  before  they  could  reach  the 
boat.  The  horses  were  urged  on,  and  the  party  reached  Min- 
nehaha falls  aa  the  rain  began  to  pour  down.  Those  in  open 
carriages  found  shelter  under  the  shaving  rock,  where  they 
were  secure  until  the  storm  passed  over,  when  all  returned 
to  the  steamer.  The  captain  had  invited  the  ofBcers  and 
their  wives  from  the  fort  to  join  in  the  dance  in  the  evening, 
and  all  had  a  good  time. 

I  rode  back  to  the  steamer  with  Mr.  Steele,  and  we  dis- 
cussed more  thoroughly  his  claim  at  the  Falls  of  St.  Anthony, 
and  the  improvements  he  wished  to  make  on  it.  He  wanted 
me  to  examine  the  claim,  and,  as  soon  as  he  should  hear  favor- 
ably from  Hon.  Caleb  Gushing  and  other  eastern  capitalists 
forming  a  company  for  the  manufacture  of  lumber  at  the 
falls,  he  wanted  me  to  explore  the  upper  Mississippi  for  pine. 
When  the  danoe  was  over,  I  bade  the  company  good-night  and 
the  excursion  party  adieu,  and  had  my  baggage  put  ashore 
and  removed  to  the  hotel  kept  by  Philander  Prescott,  where 
I  tarried  until  T  started  on  my  exploring  trip. 



In  the  morning  the  steamer  was  gone,  when  Mr.  Stede 
and  I  crossed  the  ferry  at  the  fort  and  went  np  the  east  nd« 
of  the  Mississippi  to  the  falls.  ErerTthing  was  just  as  nature 
had  nmde  it,  and  the  scenery  of  the  islands  and  river  blofls 
was  indeed  beantiful.  Civilized  man  had  seen  it,  bat  had  left 
no  evidence  that  it  had  ever  been  visited  before.  The  falls 
loolied  abandoned.  No  new  improvements  could  be  seen  any- 
where. A  few  weather-beaten  buildings  mariied  the  slt^s  of 
MitmeapoUs,  St.  Paul  and  StiUwater.  At  St.  Orolx  Falls  a 
mill  and  hotel  had  been  recently  bnilt,  and  these  were  the 
only  new  improvements  or  new  buildings  in  the  whole  country. 

Benjamin  Cheever,  Cushing's  agent,  came  from  St.  Croix 
Falls  to  Fort  Snelling  to  finish  up  the  agreement  for  the  im- 
provements to  be  made  on  the  Franklin  Steele  water-power 
claim  at  St.  Anthony  falls.  Cashing  had  written  to  Mr. 
Cheever  what  he  would  do,  and  that,  if  Mr.  Steele  was  satis- 
fied, the  writings  should  be  drawn  up.  The  conversation  took 
place  in  Mr.  Steele's  front  parlor,  and  the  argument  lasted  all 
day.  I  was  also  present  The  contention  was  that  the  claim 
was  not  adequate  security  for  the  capital  necessary  for  the 
improvements,  as  it  was  on  ananrveyed  land,  and  it  was  settled 
in  the  following  manner. 

Franklin  Steele,  of  Fort  Snelling,  Wisconsin  Territory,  anrl 
Caleb  Cushing,  Robert  Rantoal,  and  their  associates,  of  Mas- 
sachnsetts,  entered  into  an  agreement  to  make  the  improve- 
ments for  the  manufacture  of  pine  timber  at  the  Falls  of  St. 
Anthony,  on  the  Steele  claim  on  nnsurveyed  government  land. 
It  was  agreed,  between  the  capitalists  and  Mr.  Steele,  that, 
beforethe  advancing  of  capital,  the  Misaissippl  river  and  its 
branches  above  the  falls  should  be  explored  by  me,  and  that 
a  written  report  should  be  made  by  me  of  the  estimated 
amount  of  pine  found,  and  of  the  navigation  of  the  river  and 
Its  tributaries.  On  the  receipt  of  my  repeat.  Cashing  and 
Company  were  to  decide  on  the  amount  of  capital  they  would 
invest  in  the  improvement  for  lumber  manufacturing  on  Mr. 
Steele's  claim. 

Soon  after  this  agreement  was  made,  Benjamin  Cheever 
returned  east,  and  within  a  year  he  died.  His  brother,  Wil- 
liam A.  Cheever,  was  one  of  the  pioneers  of  St.  Anthony,  set- 
tling there  in  the  same  year,  1847. 




It  was  near  the  end  of  aammer  when  the  ontflt  was  In 
readineaa  for  my  exploring  voyage.  On  the  flret  da;  of  Sep- 
tember, 1847,  there  were  seen,  by  Pierre  Bottineau  and  othera, 
three  men,  bia  younger  brother,  Severre  Bottineau,  Cbarle^ 
Mahock,  and  myaelf ,  paddling  in  a  bark  canoe  np  the  eaat  shore 
at  the  Miaaisaippi  river  above  St.  Anthony  falla.  When  op- 
poelte  what  is  now  called  Boom  laland,  we  were  bailed  by 
Pierre  from  the  shore,  saying,  "'How  far  do  yon  expect  to 
travel  in  that  canoe  at  this  low  stage  of  water?  The  bottom 
will  be  out  of  the  canoe  in  less  than  a  week."  We  answered, 
"To  Mille  Lacs,  the  sonrce  of  Rom  river;"  and  the  canoe  and 
party  moved  on  np  the  MisBissippi.  This  little  exploring 
party's  report,  the  money  conseqaeiitly  supplied  from  the  east, 
and  Franklin  Steele's  perseverance  and  unlimited  will,  made 
it  possible  to  make  the  improvements  on  unsnrveyed  govern- 
ment land.  My  written  report:  secured  the  capital  from  Caleb 
Gushing  and  bis  associates;  and  his  influence  in  Congress  se- 
cured the  survey  of  the  government  land  adjoining  the  falls 
and  including  this  claim.  The  discovery  by  the  exploring 
party  of  the  almost  inexhaustible  pine  timber  above  the  falls 
of  St.  Anthony,  heralded  throughout  all  the  states  and  Can- 
ada, brought  immigration  from  every  state,  and  changed  this 
part  of  the  territory  from  barbarism  to  civilization. 

When  the  exploring  party  went  up  the  Mississippi  river, 
half  of  the  present  state  of  Wisconsin  was  the  bunting  ground 
of  the  OJibway  Indians,  three-fourths  of  what  is  now  Minne* 
sota  was  owned  by  fiie  same  people,  and  all  the  area  of  the 
Dakotas  was  owned  by  the  Sioux  Indians.  Since  1847  four 
states  have  been  carved  out  of  that  territory  and  admitted  to 
the  TTnion. 

Betumlng  to  the  exploring  party  in  the  canoe,  we  find 
them  camped  at  the  month  of  Bum  river,  with  the  timber 
crew  that  came  up  the  road.  This  crew  of  twenty  men  or 
more  were  to  advance  with  the  exploring  party  until  the  first 
pine  was  discovered;  and  then  they  were  immediately  to  pro- 
ceed to  hew  and  bank  timber  until  the  return  of  that  party. 
They  pushed  on  the  second  day  to  the  head  of  the  rapids, 
about  fifteen  miles.    The  canoe  bad  to  be  carried  a  part  of  the 



distance,  the  water  being  too  aballow  to  float  it.  We  camped 
on  the  bank  of  the  river  the  second  night,  with  the  timber 
crew,  and  the  third  night  in  a  tract  of  scrub  pine,  known  aft- 
erward as  the  Dutchman's  grove,  about  three  milee  northwest 
of  the  present  town  of  Cambridge.  The  timber  crew  I  located 

Our  partj  in  the  canoe  started  on  up  the  river  to  explore 
it  all  the  wa;  to  Ullle  Lacs  and  see  what  could  be  found.  The 
bottomland  was  wide;  the  growth  of  timber  was  thick,  but 
wholly  of  deciduous  species,  with  no  pine;  and  the  river  was 
crooked.  The  mosquito,  the  gnat,  and  the  moose-fly,  met  and 
opposed  us.  They  were  flrat  in  the  flght.  The  battle  com- 
menced early  each  morning  and  lasted  all  day.  It  was  a 
bravely  contested  battle;  for  ten  days  the  blood  flowed  freely. 
The  enemy  contested  every  foot  of  ground.  The  flght  on  our 
side  was  tor  civilization;  on  theirs  for  barbarism.  When 
night  came  we  crawled  under  the  mosquito  bar  that  was  set 
up,  where  all  was  protected  and  secure  for  sleep.  But  the 
men  were  discouraged  with  the  prolonged  struggle  each  day, 
and  said  that  it  would  be  better  to  return  and  wait  until  later 
in  the  autnmn,  and  that  if  we  continued  I  would  be  dead  in 
leas  than  a  week;  but  in  the  morning  the  canoe  was  moving 
on  up  the  river. 

The  third  day  from  where  we  left  the  timber  crew,  I  saw 
on  the  west  shore  a  tributary  which  I  wished  to  explore.  We 
had  passed  over  sixty  miles  of  the  meandering  river  course 
above  the  timber  camp,  and  had  carried  the  canoe  for  miles 
over  jame  in  the  river  made  by  trunks  of  trees  that  had  been 
washed  and  torn  out  of  the  bank  and  had  floated  down  and 
filled  the  river.  Up  to  this  time  no  tracts  of  pine  forest  had 
been  discovered.  On  tbe  following  morning  after  coming  to 
this  tributary,  I  8tari:ed  to  explore  it  for  pine.  On  each  side, 
all  the  country  was  covered  with  pine  and  hardwood  for 
miles  away  from  tbe  stream,  as  far  as  it  was  navigable.  It 
was  called  the  West  branch  of  Bum  river.  At  its  mouth  is 
now  located  the  town  of  Princeton.  'Hiis  branch  was  well 
timbered  for  more  than  twenty-flve  miles,  as  also  were  all  its 
tributaries.  The  pine  on  each  side  was  from  three  to  six  miles 
wide.  Its  amount  could  hardly  be  estimated  until  the  land 
sbonld  be  surveyed  into  townships  and  sections. 



We  returned  to  the  canoe  and  pushed  on  up  the  main  river, 
ontil,  about  dark,  we  came  to  a  small  stream  where  we  camped. 
The  next  day  I  explored  this  stream  to  its  source,  eight  miles 
or  moi'e.  There  was  pine  on  both  shores.  There  was  also 
pine  on  each  side  of  the  main  river.  I  made  it  a  practice  to 
climb  a  tall  tree  every  six  mUes  when  exploring,  and  to  lock 
from  its  top  across  the  woods  which  reached  far  away  in  every 

A  large  tributary,  the  most  northern  entering  from  the 
west,  which  was  afterward  called  Bradbury  brook,  had  the 
finest  pine  I  had  seen.  IMs  brook,  in  its  sonth  and  north 
forks,  was  navigable  for  Ic^  driving,  with  pine  on  both  ahorea. 

The  pine  on  the  main  river  reached  from  the  shore,  on  each 
side,  as  far  as  the  eye  could  see  from  the  top  of  the  highest 
tree,  along  all  its  extent  of  fifty  miles  or  more  from  the  month 
of  the  West  branch  to  Mille  Lacs.  I  had  seen  far  more  pine 
than  the  company  expected  to  find. 

Billions  of  feet  of  pine  that  grew  upon  the  shores  of  Bum 
river  and  its  tributaries  belonged  to  the  red  man  in  1847, 
but  has  since  been  cut  and  removed  by  the  civilized  paleface, 
whose  capital  and  influence  in  Congress  obtained  from  the 
Indian  the  title  and  possession  of  this  land  and  its  timber. 
When  once  stripped  of  the  pine  forest  which  was  its  wealth, 
the  land,  formerly  the  hunting  ground  of  the  Indians,  ought 
to  revert  to  its  original  owners,  as  the  inheritance  given  them 
by  the  Great  Spirit.  A  large  part  of  it  Is  worthless  for  agri- 
culture, but  was  a  source  of  sustenance  to  the  red  man. 
Abnndance  of  game,  and  thousands  of  bushels  of  wild  rice, 
together  with  the  sugar  made  from  the  sap  of  the  maple  trees 
which  are  found  in  abundance,  supplied  to  the  simple  Ojibway 
an  ea^  living.  The  annuities  which  our  government  now  al- 
lows them  do  not  repay  half  of  what  they  relinquished  in  giv- 
ing up  their  lands  to  the  settler  and  the  lumberman. 

When  the  exploring  crew  came  to  the  Rice  lakes,  eight 
miles  from  Mille  Lacs,  the  squaws  had  tied  the  rice  tt^ether 
for  threshing,  and  therefore  the  canoe  conid  not  pass  through 
and  had  to  be  taken  to  the  shore.  We  walked  to  Uille  Lacs, 
which  we  found  to  be  a  very  large  body  of  water,  too  broad 
for  one  standing  on  the  shore  to  see  the  land  on  Its  farthest 
side.    Here  we  found  a  band  of  Indians  and  an  old  chief,  sec- 



ond  in  aathoii^  to  HoIe-in-the-Day.  They  had  planted  small 
gardeoH,  and  seemed  like  half-ciriiised  people.  We  were 
treated  as  braves  and  given  plenty  of  game,  com,  and  potatoes. 

On  the  shores  of  the  Biee  lakes,  which  we  had  passed,  many 
lodiaos  were  encamp^.  In  the  lakes,  for  more  than  six  miles, 
they  were  gathering  the  wild  rice.  I  had  never  seen  that  arti- 
cle of  food  before,  and  desired  to  know  how  it  was  harvested 
and  prepared  for  food.  When  the  rice  is  ready  for  gathering, 
it  is  made  into  bnndles  by  drawing  two  w  three  straws  aroond 
a  bunch  and  tying  them.  They  make  lines  or  rows  of  these 
bancbes  across  the  lake;  and  each  family  has  from  two  to  five 
rows.  Each  has  a  canoe  with  a  blanket  spread  in  the  bottom 
to  hold  the  rice.  The  canoe  is  ron  between  two  rows  by  two 
sqoaws,  and  they  poll  the  tops  of  the  bonches  of  rice  over  the 
side  of  the  canoe  and  poaod  them  with  a  stick.  In  this  simple 
way  they  secure  large  quantities  of  this  nutritions  grain. 
After  it  has  been  winnowed,  it  is  prepared  for  packing  by 
heating  it  in  camp  kettles  over  a  Are  until  it  Is  parched.  The 
grain  then  is  pat  Into  packages  for  storage,  and  It  will  keep 
for  years.  The  packages,  which  the  Ojibways  call  moknks, 
are  made  of  birdi  bark,  and  are  pitched  like  a  canoe.  They 
hold  from  a  half  bnsfael  to  one  bushel,  and  are  stored  away 
In  the  ground  (or  winter,  being  covered  with  leaves  and  old 

Fifty-four  years  have  passed  since  I  flrst  dealt  witii  the 
Indians.  In  all  my  experience,  they  have  been  found  more 
true  and  honorable  than  most  of  the  white  men  with  whom 
they  have  come  in  contact  (m  the  frontier. 

In  our  return  from  this  exploration  we  saw  sagar  maple 
woods,  where  the  Indians  of  MlHe  Lacs  and  Bum  river  make 
a.  part  of  their  yearly  supply  of  sugar.  I  have  since  seen  their 
sugar  camps  in  the  spring  in  full  operation.  They  use  the 
birch  bark  for  vessels  to  hold  the  sap,  and  it  is  boiled  in  their 
iron  camp  kettles.  The  hot  syrup  is  strained  throagh  a  blan- 
ket, and  on  cooling  it  granulates  and  makes  finely  flavored 

I  smoked  the  pipe  of  peace  with  the  Mille  Lacs  chief;  and, 
in  compliance  with  my  request,  he  sent  one  of  his  braves  with 
me  to  receive  presents  where  we  had  left  the  canoe.  I  fonnd 
everything  in  readiness  to  return  to  the  timber  camp,  which 


DiBiimd, Google 


„d, Google 


we  reached  in  a  few  days.  We  were  badly  dieflgnred  by  the 
mosqaitoes  and  flies,  and  oar  necka  were  raw  in  places.  Look- 
ing in  the  gla»^  one  wonld  have  been  disgusted  with  his  ap- 
pearance; hot  I  was  overjoyed  with  what  I  had  discorered. 
I  had  found  far  more  pine  timber  than  could  rea^cmably  be 
expected,  and  the  exploration  had  been  made  In  less  than  one 
month's  time. 

I  made  out  my  report  and  dispatched  a  man  to  the  tort 
to  Mr.  Steele,  telling  him  that  I  had  seen  pine  that  seventy 
mills  could  not  cut  in  as  many  years,  although  I  had  seen  but 
a  small  part  of  it.  This  report  went  east,  and  an  answer  was 
returned  before  my  arrival  at  the  fort,  as  I  remained  with  the 
lumbering  crew  for  driving  their  logs  down  to  St.  Anthony 
falls.  Belying  on  my  report,  Gushing,  Bantonl  and  Company 
supplied  to  Mr.  Steele  |10,000  as  their  part  of  the  investment 
here  in  constructiDg  the  dam,  building  a  sawmill,  and  begin- 
ning the  manufacture  of  lumber. 


The  logging  crew  had  everything  In  order  for  the  drive. 
The  water  was  low,  and  at  the  beginning  the  flies  and  mos- 
quitoes were  still  abnndant.  We  made  slow  progress,  occu- 
pying nearly  four  weeks  in  reaching  the  Mississippi  river.  It 
was  then  the  first  of  November;  cold  weath«  had  come,  and 
a  storm  was  In  the  clouds.  We  bad  only  a  temporary  boom 
at  the  mouth  of  the  river  to  bold  the  timber,  and  the  rope  I 
had  ordered  to  hold  the  boom  bad  not  arrived.  The  men  were 
worn  out,  having  been  wading  in  the  cold  water  for  more 
than  a  week.  I  had  left  a  man  to  watcb  the  progress  of  the 
storm,  and  to  wake  the  crew  if  there  should  be  any  change. 
The  snow  was  falling  fast,  and  it  was  frozen  on  the  timber  in 
the  river  by  the  cold  wind  from  the  north.  At  midnight  a  cry 
came  to  tiie  crew  that  the  boom  had  broken  and  all  the  timber 
had  gone  into  the  MiBsisslppi.  On  reaching  the  mouth  of  the 
river,  I  sanr  at  a  glance  that  all  was  gone,  and  that  the  main 
river  was  being  covered  with  ice  and  snow. 

Caleb  D,  Dorr  and  John  McDonald  had  been  sent  up  to 
Swan  river,  after  I  left  on  the  exploring  trip,  to  get  out  a  few 
pieces  of  large  timber  that  I  could  not  get  on  Rum  river;  and 
they  had  ran  this  timber  down  the  Misalasippi  and  landed  their 
raft,  and  were  camping  with  my  crew  the  night  when  the 



boom  gave  way.  That  same  ereniDg  Mr.  Dorr  and  myself  bad 
talked  over  the  bnaiDese,  as  both  were  engaged  b;  the  same 
party,  and  we  were  congratulating  each  other  on  having  done 
more  than  was  expected  of  us.  The  following  moming  all  oar 
bright  prospects  had  been  swept  down  the  river.  On  account 
of  this  disaster  I  must  go  back  and  take  a  new  start,  if  the 
new  improvements  were  to  go  forward.  There  was  no  means 
of  transportation,  except  that  which  nature  had  giT«i  as,  so 
we  made  the  journey  to  St.  Anthony  on  foot. 

When  I  arrived  at  the  falls,  I  entered  the  mess  honse  which 
had  been  bailt  for  the  men  who  were  to  work  on  the  dam  and 
mill,  and  Mr.  Dorr  introduced  me  to  Ard  Godfrey,  the  mill- 
wright. It  was  evening,  and  after  eating  I  asked  for  a  place 
to  sleep;  and  when  I  said  good  night  to  Mr.  Godfrey,  I  asked 
to  see  him  before  I  should  go  to  the  fort  in  the  morning  to 
meet  Mr.  Steele.  I  was  up  eariy  and  found  Mr,  Godfrey  ready. 
I  asked  whether  there  was  a  boat  to  convey  us  to  the  island. 
The  boat  was  there,  and  very  soon  we  landed  on  the  island, 
since  named  for  Hennepin,  which  divides  the  falls  Into  two 
parts.  I  was  anxious,  on  account  of  the  loss  of  our  logs,  and 
said:  "Mr.  Godfrey,  why  not  cat  the  hardwood  timber  here 
for  the  dam?  I  have  built  several  dams  In  Maine  oat  of 
poorer  timber  than  this.  It  will  cost  less,  and  will  make  a 
better  job.  The  plank  can  be  had  at  St.  Croix  Falls  to  make 
it  tight,  and  the  dam  can  be  ballt  this  winter.  Should  you 
wait  for  pine  timber,  it  will  delay  the  improvements  one  year 
longer.  It  appears  to  me  that  the  dam  ought  to  be  bailt  just 
above  the  cataract,  and  be  no  more  than  five  feet  high,  so  that 
the  waste  water  will  go  over  it,"  This  idea  of  putting  the 
dam  at  the  head  of  the  waterfall  was  new  to  him,  and  he 
said  that  he  would  not  build  the  mill  if  my  plan  was  decided 
on,  but  that  he  could  use  the  trees  on  the  island  for  the  dam. 

I  found  Mr.  Steele  getting  ready  to  visit  the  falls,  and  told . 
him  what  had  happened,  and  that  no  one  was  to  blame  for 
what  the  elements  had  done,  Mr.  Steele  said  he  saw  the  tim- 
ber floating  past  the  fort  and  knew  that  all  was  gone,  and 
that  the  improvements  would  have  to  be  delayed  at  least  one 
year,  besides  a  loss  of  two  thousand  dollars,  and  the  expense 
of  paying  the  millwright  while  waiting  unemployed.  But  I 
BiUd  to  him:    "Why  delay  building  the  dam  and  order  hewed 



pine  for  ita  comtnictiOD,  when  trees  enongh  to  build  tw<i  sucli 
dama  are  within  a  stone's  throw  and  will  cost  only  the  work 
of  cutting  them  7"  It  was  on  government  laud,  and  the  ronnd 
hardwood  timber  was  equally  as  good  as  the  hewed  pine.  Mr. 
Steele  remarked  that  the  plana  of  the  dam  and  mill  were  fixed 
by  the  millwright  The  construction  oi  the  dam  was  changed 
from  aqnare  to  round  timber,  and  the  trees  for  this  use  were 
cnt  on  Hennepin  ialand. 


It  was  needful  next  to  proTJde  the  pine  logs  for  the  first 
year's  sawing.  They  could  not  be  taken  out  of  Bum  rirer 
until  the  stream  waa  cleared  of  its  driftwood.  It  was  eri- 
-  dently  better  to  go  up  the  Mississippi  river;  and  for  advice 
in  this  undertaking  Mr.  Steele  and  I  went  to  St.  Paul  to  see 
Mr.  Henry  M.  Bice.  We  found  Mr.  Bice  preparing  to  send 
goods  to  hie  trading  post  at  the  month  of  the  Crow  Wing 
river.  He  said  that  he  could  buy  the  pine  of  Hole-in-the-Day, 
and  would  assist  us  all  he  could.  The  chief,  he  said,  was  a 
young  man  of  twenty  years  and  poor,  and  that  a  few  presents 
woald  satisfy  him. 

We  decided,  after  the  interview,  to  log  somewhere  up  the 
Mississippi,  bnt  no  one  knew  where  the  pine  was  located. 
This  I  had  to  find,  and  then  to  make  the  beat  bargain  I  could 
with  the  chief  for  the  standing  pine. 

The  whole  outfit  for  logging  had  to  come  from  St.  Croir 
Falls  or  Stillwater,  With  the  best  arrangements  that  could 
be  made,  it  would  be  December  before  the  logging  party  could 
start,  and  then  we  must  travel  more  than  a  hundred  and  fifty 
miles  with  oxen,  for  horses  could  not  be  obtained.  The  road 
through  the  timber  must  be  cut,  and  supplies  for  the  men  and 
teams  must  be  taken  along,  as  the  roada  could  not  be  kept 
open  during  the  winter  for  that  long  diatance.  All  must  be 
ready  to  start  in  less  than  three  weeks.  Everything  had  to 
be  hunted  up  and  got  together,  as  the  teams,  sleds,  etc.  I 
proposed  that,  before  going  back,  we  should  look  for  teams, 
the  most  essential  part  of  our  logging  outfit.  Mr.  Steele  hired 
a  conveyance,  and  we  started  on  the  road  to  Stillwater,  All 
the  farms  were  in  the  area  extending  from  St.  Paul  and  Still- 
water south  to  Point  Douglas.  Within  two  days  we  visited- 
them,  and  had  secured  all  the  teams  needed  for  logging,  a 



few  sleds  for  the  supplies,  and  Bereral  men.  In  less  than  two 
weeks  we  had  the  outfit  completed  for  fhe  winter's  work  of 

It  was  the  first  of  December  when  we  started,  and  snow 
was  on  the  ground.  The  procession  consisted  of  teams  of  two 
or  four  oxen,  and  horses,  mules,  and  ponies,  with  supplies  to 
feed  the  men  and  teams  until  spring.  Oar  iutentioQ  was  to 
stop  at  night  wherever  we  coald  find  water  for  our  teams. 
About  ten  days  after  we  left  St.  Anthony  falls,  we  made  a 
temporary  camp  at  the  month  of  the  Nokasipi^  river,  opposite 
to  where  Fort  Ripley  was  afterward  built. 

I  left  the  teams  and  men  at  this  camp  and  went  forward 
on  a  pony  to  the  Grow  Vfiug  river,  where  Mr.  lUce  had  his 
trading  post.  I  found  him  there,  and  he  told  me  that  I  could 
make  a  bargain  with  the  chief,  to  whom  he  bad  spoken  about 
cutting  pine  logs  on  his  land,  but  that  he  had  not  ascertained 
where  they  should  be  cut  or  at  what  price. 

I  also  sought  an  interview  with  Mr.  Allan  Morrison,  who 
had  lived  at  Crow  Wing  as  a  trader  many  years.  His  wife 
was  a  half-breed  Ojibway,  and  he  was  Hole-ln-the-Day's  ad- 
viser. Mr.  Steele,  being  acquainted  with  Mr.  Morrison,  had 
given  me  a  letter  to  him  when  I  started.  He  looked  the  letter 
over,  and  then  said,  '^on  can  take  your  meals  with  us,  and  I 
will  do  what  I  can  with  the  chief,  to  help  Mr.  Steele."  I  told 
him  that  my  teams,  with  thirty  men,  would  be  there  the  next 
day,  and  that  I  desired  to  have  a  talk  with  the  chief  at  once, 
because  I  had  to  locate  the  logging  party  after  finding  wh«*e 
the  timber  was. 

Mr.  Morrison  sent  for  Hole-in-the-Day,  and  it  was  decided 
that  the  talk  should  take  place  at  Mr.  Bice's  store  the  next 
morning.  Mr.  Morrison  spoke  of  presents.  I  had  not  pro- 
vided any,  but  told  him  that  he  conid  offer  a  pony  and  sMne 
blankets,  to  be  given  when  I  was  located,  if  the  price  for  the 
pine  was  reasonable. 

The  chief  came  the  next  morning,  and  Mr.  Morrison  was 
the  interpreter.  I  told  him  that  the  great  Ogema  at  the  falls 
of  St.  Anthony  wanted  to  buy  some  pine  trees  to  build  a  mill 
and  to  make  improvements,  and  that  I  had  come  a  long  dis- 
tance to  see  him  about  it.  He  said  he  had  vast  pine  woods 
farther  up  toward  Leech  lake.    I  inquired  whether  he  wonid 



Bell  me  the  pine  close  west  of  the  Misaissippi  about  foar  miles 
below  Crow  Wing  river,  and  asked  the  price  per  tree  for  what 
I  coald  cat  and  haul.  Mr.  Morrison  and  the  chief  had  a  talk 
together,  and  then  the  chief  said  that  he  wanted  five  pairs  of 
blankets,  some  calico,  and  broadcloth;  that  the  price  of  the 
pine  trees  would  be  fifty  cents  for  each  tree  hauled  to  the  river; 
and  that  he  wished  the  additional  present  ot  a  pony  the  next 
spring.  This  seemed  an  exrabitant  price,  but  I  told  him  that 
when  I  found  the  pine  and  saw  how  large  the  trees  were,  I 
would  give  him  an  ooswer,  and  that  I  wanted  the  privilege  of 
exploring  without  being  molested.  This  was  agreed  upon, 
and  we  parted  to  meet  again  at  the  end  of  a  week. 

Examining  the  pine  timber  below  the  month  of  the  Crow 
Wing  river,  and  finding  a  plenty  for  the  winter's  hauling 
within  one  mile  from  the  Mississippi,  I  selected  a  place  to 
build  the  camp,  and,  then  went  to  get  the  teams  and  men  and 
to  set  them  at  work  building  the  camp  and  stables.  The  next 
day  we  all  were  on  the  ground  and  l)ega^  the  work  for  our 
winter's  logging. 

Then  I  returned  to  Crow  Wing  to  cloBe  the  bargain  for 
the  timber.  I  met  Mr.  Bice  and  Mr.  Morrison  and  told  them 
that  the  timber  was  small  and  not  very  good,  and  that  fifty 
cents  a  tree  was  all  I  could  pay  for  the  privilege  of  removing 
it.  I  would  let  Hole-in-the-Bay  have  what  he  wanted  for  pres- 
ents, but  the  amount  they  cost  me  should  be  deducted  from 
what  was  due  to  him  in  the  spring.  I  would  advance  the  . 
goods,  and  he  could  get  them  from  Mr.  Bice  when  he  wanted 
them.  The  chiefs  father,  the  older  Hole-in-the-Day,  had  been 
killed  less  than  a  year  before,  and  all  the  old  chief  left  had 
been  used  in  lamentation.  About  five  hundred  Indians  were 
camping  on  the  island  at  the  mouth,  of  the  Crow  Wing  river, 
and  they  had  bat  little  to  eat  or  to  wear.  Morrison  sent  *f or 
tlie  chief,  and  in  less  than  an  hour  my  proposition  was  ac- 
cepted. Some  provisions  of  food  were  added  to  what  was  to 
be  advanced  in  payment.  It  was  agreed  that  Mr.  Morrison 
should  draw  up  the  writings  for  the  chief  of  the  Ojibway  na- 
tion, who  therein  guaranteed  that  none  of  his  people  should 
eamp  within  one  mile  of  oar  camp,  or  should  commit  any  dep- 
redations or  prevent  in  any  way  my  removing  the  pine  from 
the  land. 



After  the  papers  were  signed,  I  returned  to  my  camp,  well 
pleased  witb  what  I  had  accomplished.  I  sent  the  sopply 
teams  home,  and  wrote  to  Mr.  Steele  what  I  had  done.  'Hie 
camp  went  op  with  a  rush,  and  in  ten  days  the  teams  were 
hauling  logs.  We  had  a  good  winter  for  the  business  and  pat 
in  one  and  a  half  million  feet  of  logs,  besides  timber  for  a  mile 
and  a  half  of  boom. 

We  bad  Tei7  little  trouble  with  the  Indians  daring  the  win- 
ter. On  one  occasion  an  Indian  put  up  his  tepee  in  the  night 
within  a  stone's  throw  of  the  camp.  The  next  morning,  when 
the  teamster  was  hitching  up  his  team,  the  Indian  said,  "If 
yon  don't  give  me  some  meat,  I  will  kill  an  ox  and  get  some." 
I  told  yoong  Bottinean,  who  was  interpFeter,  to  command  him 
to  leave,  and  to  threaten,  if  he  refused,  that  we  would  have 
his  scalp.  Bottineau  took  the  cook's  poker  and  struck  him 
jnst  as  he  was  about  to  fire.  He  knocked  the  Indian  down, 
and  the  gun  flew  out  of  his  hands.  The  sqoaw  came  to  his 
rescue,  but  the  whole  crew  by  this  time  were  ont  of  the  camp 
and  ready  to  take  a  part  in  the  row.  I  requested  Bottineau 
to  bold  the  Indian,  but  not  to  hurt  him,  and  to  tell  the  squaw 
to  pack  up  and  leave  at  once.  She  left  with  her  papoose  in 
double  quick  time.  I  reported  the  Indian's  conduct  to  the 
chief,  and  we  had  no  more  trouble. 

Near  the  end  of  the  winter,  some  braves,  numbering  about 
twenty,  had  been  out  on  the  warpath  for  the  purpose  of  pun- 
ishing the  Sioux.  They  had  kiUed  an  old  squaw,  and  returned 
with  her  scalp.  They  came  into  our  camp  about  midnight, 
and  commenced  dancing  around  the  camp-fire.  The  crew, 
awakened  by  their  howling  noise,  were  alarmed,  and  each  se- 
cured some  weapon  to  defend  himself.  When  the  Indiana  saw 
that  we  were  all  armed,  they  stopped  their  racket.  Bottinean 
asked  tiiem  what  they  wanted.  They  said  that  they  were  hun- 
giy,  and  he  told  them  to  sit  down  and  the  cook  would  feed 
them.  After  eating,  they  left  for  Crow  Wing,  without  making 
any  further  disturbance.  We  had  no  other  difflcnltlM  with 
the  Indians  during  the  winter. 


Late  in  February,  Mr.  Bice  had  arranged  to  visit  his  trad- 
ing posts  on  Leech  lake  and  other  lakes  at  the  sources  of  the 
HieslsBippi.     I  wished  to  finish  my  explorations  before  March, 



and  therefoi-e  I  arranged  to  accompany  him.  I  had  reoeired 
very  important  information  from  Mr.  Morrison,  who  knew  the 
lakes  and  rivers,  and  had  Been  the  pine  growing  upon  their 
shores.  But  I  wanted  to  expl<we  the  cosnti?  myself,  and  to 
estimate  its  amount  of  pine  timber.  We  started  on  snow- 
shoes,  and  had  two  peckers  to  cany  the  snpi^ies  and  the  lug- 
gage for  camping.  I  found  pine  in  abundance  on  the  trail, 
and  at  every  trading  post  gathered  all  the  informatioQ  the 
traders  could  give  me.  I  to<A  notes  of  the  locatloQ  of  pine 
woods  ou  the  lakes  and  on  the  main  river  and  its  tributaries. 

All  this  information  led  me  to  believe,  and  to  report  to 
Caleb  Gushing,  that  the  pine  on  the  upper  waters  of  the  Mis- 
i^B^ppi  would  last  for  several  generaticms  to  come.  As  more 
than  fifty  years  have  since  passed,  this  prediction  is  being 
proved  true. 

The  exploration  that  I  had  engaged  to  do  for  Stede  and 
Cnshing  was  thus  completed  shortly  bef (Hre  the  end  of  our  wofi 
of  cutting  lo^.  On  the  first  of  March  I  broke  camp,  and  with 
part  of  the  crew  started  for  Bt.  Anthony,  leaving  the  remain- 
der of  tiie  crew  to  prepare  for  the  drive. 


1  found  that  the  dam  at  St.  Anthony  falls  was  flnlrfied, 
with  the  exception  of  planking.  Mr.  Godfrey  had  pushed  the 
work,  intending  to  have  the  dam  closed  in  before  the  rise  of 
the  water  from  the  snow  melting  in  the  spring.  There  were 
otiier  improvements  and  many  newcomers. 

Proceeding  to  Fort  Snelling,  I  found  Mr.  Steele  severely 
Ql  at  this  time  of  my  return,  early  in  March,  1848;  and  in 
bosineBs  for  him  and  myself  I  went  onward'to  Dubnqae  and 
Galena.  For  Mr.  Steele  I  visited  Galena  bankers,  previously 
known  to  me,  by  wfa<HD  he  received  two  remittances  of  f5,000 
each  from  Gushing  and  Company,  their  investment  for  lum- 
ber manafacturing  at  St.  Anthony. 

When  I  came  back,  early  in  June,  many  other  newcomers 
had  arrived  in  St.  Anthony,  with  their  families,  to  make  this 
place  their  home.  Xew  houses  were  being  buUt  on  the  comer 
lots,  and  the  town  had  put  on  a  domestic  appearance.  Snm- 
ner  W.  Fernham  was  making  arrangements  for  his  people,  who 
arrived  that  fall.  There  was  a  continued  and  large  immigra- 
tion until  winter. 



Among  the  inunigTaQta  were  Luther  Patch  and  his  fam- 
Uj.  His  eldest  daughter,  Marian,  was  married  to  Boswell  P. 
BuBseli,  October  3d,  1818.  This  was  the  first  wedding  in  St 
Anthony,  and  I  had  the  honor  of  being  present.  They  bad 
.  done  considerable  fishing  on  a  laige  rock  below  the  falls,  which 
was  a  veiy  romantic  place  to  talk  over  matters  in  which  the 
two  were  most  interested.  The  decision  the;  made  that  an- 
tnmn  was  for  a  life  together,  which  has  proven  one  of  peace 
and  happiness.  Hie;  and  their  children  have  been  a  blessing 
to  all  with  whom  tb^  have  been  associated. 

The  first  sawmill  that  the  company  built  began  to  saw 
lumber  September  Ist,  1848,  just  one  year  from  the  time  when 
the  exploring  party  in  the  little  canoe  started  up  the  Missis- 
sippi to  estimate  its  supply  of  pine.  Following  that  explora- 
tion, the  town  was  surreyed  and  lots  were  placed  on  sale.  The 
real  estate  office  and  tiie  lumber  office  were  together.  Later 
in  the  autumn  a  gang  sawmill  and  two  shingle  mills  were  to 
be  erected,  to  be  ready  for  business  In  the  spring  of  1849. 

Snnmer  W.  Famham  ran  the  first  sawmill  during  that 
aatmnn,  until  he  took  charge  of  one  of  my  logging  parties  in 
the  winter.  As  soon  as  the  mill  started,  it  was  run  night  and 
day  in  order  to  supply  enough  lumber  for  the  houses  of  im- 
m^anta,  who  were  pouring  in  from  the  whole  country.  THiere 
was  life  put  Into  every  enterprise.  The  houses  had  to  be 
built  of  green  lumber;  and  all  merchandise  came  from  St. 
Paul,  or  from  the  store  of  Franklin  Steele  at  the  fort.  Dry 
lumber  was  hauled  from  Stillwater  to  finish  the  bnildings. 
Both  common  and  skilled  laborers  were  scarce,  as  the  mill 
company  employed  all  they  could  .possibly  work  on  their  im- 
proTcments.  Before  Qovemor  Ramsey  proclaimed  the  organ- 
ization of  the  Territory  of  Minnesota,  June  Ist,  1849,  a  busy 
town  had  grown  up,  called  St,  Anthony,  built  mostly  by  New 
England  immigrants,  and  presenting  the  appearance  of  a  thriv- 
ing New  England  village. 

When  river  navigation  opened  in  1849,  on  the  first  boats, 
immigration  came  in  small  armies.  Every  boat  was  full  of 
passengers.  The  sawmills  were  all  running  to  supply  lumber 
to  build  houses  for  the  newcomers,  and  this  was  continued 
through  all  the  year,  as  long  as  navigation  lasted.  About 
half  of  the  immigrants  stopped  at  6t.  Paul.  Both  towns 
doubled  in  houses  and  families. 


DiBiimd, Google 


„d, Google 


In  the  same  year,  1849,  I  built  a  store  at  St.  Anthony,  and 
pat  in  a  general  stock  of  goods;  and  Ansoo  Korthup  com- 
menced to  baild  the  St.  Charles  hotel,  which  he  finished  the 
next  year.  In  1848  be  had  bailt  the  American  Hoose  In  St. 
Fanl.  He  was  one  of  the  most  enteriK-iBiDg  and  generous  men 
that  I  ever  knew,  always  accommodatlog  and  hospitable.  He 
tmilt  the  first  hotels  for  transient  people  both  in  St.  Paul  and 
&t.  Anthony.  It  took  money  to  make  these  improTements, 
and  he  always  had  the  money  or  knew  where  he  conld  procure 
It  to  carry  on  the  work. 


The  firm  of  Bomp  and  Oakes,  in  St.  Paul,  furnished  sup- 
plies to  many  of  the  early  lumbermen,  and  took  logs  in  pay- 
ment. In  1866  they  ran  many  rafts  of  logs  to  St.  Lonis.  As 
surveyor  general  that  year,  I  scaled  over  six  million  feet  of 
logs  for  them,  ^eir  store  in  St.  Paul  was  a  brandi  of  the 
immense  bosinese  of  Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.,  and  Co.,  of  St.  Louis. 

John  S.  Prince,  of  St.  Paul,  also  supplied  outfits  for  lum- 
bering, and  in  payment  received  logs  for  sawing  In  his  mill, 
which  was  dtuated  just  below  the  steamboat  landing.  He 
was  the  first  to  manufacture  lumber  In  St.  Paul. 

Merchants  of  that  city  sold  supplies  to  logging  companies; 
but  scarcely  any  St.  Paul  men  engaged  in  lumbering  tn  the 
woods,  and  only  a  few  were  lumber  manufacturers.  Most  of 
the  lumber  used  for  buildings  in  St.  Paul  came  from  the  St. 
Anthony  mill  company. 

Nearly  all  the  money  that  came  into  the  country  consisted 
of  government  annuities  paid  to  the  Indians.  It  passed  into 
the  hands  of  the  Indian  traders,  who  had  it  all  promised  be- 
fore the  government  made  the  payment.  My  store,  built  and 
stocked  with  goods  in  1849,  was  the  largest  then  in  St.  An- 
thony, and  I  had  no  Indian  trade  to  pay  for  the  goods  sold.  I 
had  to  take  logs  as  payment  and  ran  them  to  the  lower  mar- 
kets, as  did  Bomp  and  Oakes,  to  get  money  to  purchase  goods. 
It  required  one  year  to  get  cash  returns  for  goods  after  they 
were  delivered,  and  sometimes  two  years. 


Having  made  a  contract  with  Cashing  and  Steele,  In  the 
autumn  of  1848,  to  stock  all  tlipip  mills  with  logs  for  two  vears. 



I  went  up  Rum  river  to  explore  the  second  time.  On  a  trib- 
otary  which  enters  this  river  from  the  northeast  about  four 
miles  north  of  the  present  town  of  Cambridge,  I  found  a  small 
lake  and  good  white  pine  on  ever;  side.  This  was  afterward 
called  Lower  Stanchfield  brook.  I  logged  there  two  yean, 
which  was  the  first  lumbering  upon  a  large  scale  on  Bum  river. 

A  part  of  the  lumber  for  building  Fort  knelling,  however, 
had  been  cut  on  the  same  lake;  tor  we  found  on  its  shore  the 
remains  of  an  old  lo^^ifing  camp  that  had  been  there  man; 
years.  In  its  vicinity  pine  trees  had  been  cut  and  taken  awaj, 
and  the  stumps  had  partially  decayed.  Legging  had  also  beeaa 
done  at  the  same  early  date  in  the  Dutchman's  grove,  where 
my  party  in  the  autumn  of  X817  got  the  Ic^s  designed  for 
building  the  St.  Anthony  dam.  This  grove  was  on  the  south- 
west side  of  the  river,  about  midway  between  the  Lower  and 
Upper  Stanchfleld  brooks,  which  come  from  the  opposite  side. 

I  built  two  camps  for  the  winter  of  1848,  and  then  returned 
to  8t.  Anthony  to  hire  men  and  to  secure  teams  and  supplies. 
Sumner  W.  Farnham  was  the  foreman  trf  one  camp,  as  pre- 
viously noted;  and  one  of  my  brothers,  Samuel  Stanchfield, 
was  foreman  for  the  other.  The  two  camps  put  in  two  and 
a  half  million  feet  of  logs  that  winter.  Some  of  the  men  In 
camp  were  from  Maine,  including  Sumner  W.  and  SUas  U. 
Famham,  Charles  W.  Stimpson,  and  others  whose  names  I 
have  forgotten.  My  brother  Samuel  was  in  later  years  one  of 
the  prominent  lumbermen  of  8L  Anthony,  having  in  1856  pur-. 
chased  my  store  and  logging  business. 

In  1849  I  put  in  the  logs  of  my  contract  for  the  mill  com- 
pany mostly  on  the'  Upper  Stanchfield  brook.  Joseph  B. 
Brown  put  in  logs  on  the  same  stream,  over  one  million  feet. 
The  two  drives  in  the  spring  of  1850  went  down  the  river  to- 

During  the  year  1850,  the  jams  and  rafts  of  driftwood  in 
the  upper  part  of  the  course  of  Bum  rivra-  were  cleared  out  by 
8.  W.  Farnham  and  C.  W.  Stimpson,  making  the  river  nar- 
Igable  for  logs  from  its  source.  The  West  branch  was  cleared 
afterward,  within  the  same  year. 

Logs  were  cut  on  both  branches  and  on  their  tributaries 
in  1850,  and  over  six  million  feet  were  driven  to  St.  Anthony, 
and  were  there  sawed  by  the  mill  company.     Other  logs  went 



below  to  the  St.  Paul  boom,  for  markets  fartlier  down  the 
river.  The  St.  Anthony  mills  had  two  ganga'and  three  single 
sawB  ronning  this  year,  besides  two  shingle  mills.  The  earli- 
est settlement  of  the  part  of  Minneapolis  that  first  bore  this 
name,  on  the  west  side  of  the  river,  was  in  this  year  1850. 

During  the  next  winter  I  cat  about  two  million  feet  of  logs. 
There  were  eight  parties,  nnder  different  proprietors,  engaged 
in  lumbering  on  the  upper  Mississippi  that  winter;  and  alto- 
gether abont  8,800,000  feet  of  logs  were  driven  the  next  spring 
to  St.  Anthony  and  Minneapolis.  These  logs  were  mannfac- 
tared  by  the  mill  ccnnpany,  and  the  lumber  was  mostly  sold 
in  these  rival  towns  and  in  St.  Paul  for  building.  The  im- 
migration in  1851  was  nearly  twice  as  large  as  the  year  before. 

In  the  winter  of  1851-62  my  lumbering  parties  cut,  for 
driving  the  next  spring,  three  million  feet  of  logs;  and  the 
total  product  of  l<^i;s  that  season  from  the  Rum  river  pineries, 
driven  to  St.  Anthony  by  all  the  lumbermen,  was  over  eleven 
millions.  A  part  of  this  amount  went  over  the  falls  and  was 
rafted  at  the  St.  Paul  boom,  going  to  the  lower  markets. 

In  1853  the  logs  driven  from  Rum  river  and  its  West 
branch  amounted  to  over  23,000,000  feet.  In  1854  the  product 
was  nearly  33,000,000  feet;  and  the  next  year  it  exceeded 
thirty-six  million.  More  than  half  the  logs  cut  in  the  winter 
of  1855- '56  went  over  the  St.  Anthony  falls,  on  account  of  the 
breaking  of  the  boom  above  the  falls  in  the  spring  of  1856. 
5te  logs  were  scattered  down  the  river,  some  going  into  the 
"Cave  boom"  above  St.  Paul,  some  into  "Pig's  Eye  slongh," 
and  others  into  the  head  of  Lake  Pepin.  About  twenty  mil- 
lion feet  of  these  runaway  Ic^  were  collected,  rafted,  and 
sold  in  the  southern  markets. 

In  1866,  I  was  appointed  surveyor  general  of  logs  f6r  the 
second  district,  comprising  Mmneapolis  and  the  upper  Mis- 
sissippi; and  under  the  law  I  was  forbidden  to  cut  or  manu- 
facture lumber  during  my  term  of  offlce.  From  1856  to  1869, 
there  were  many  improvements  iu  lumber  manufacturing,  and 
more  mills  were  added  to  those  previously  running.  There 
was  a  steady  increase  in  the  yeariy  cut  and  drive  of  logs  until 
1857,  when  they  exceeded  forty-four  million  feet.  Up  to  that 
date,  nearly  all  the  logging  was  on  the  Rum  river  and  its 




A  later  part  of  this  paper  gives  the  BtatiBtics  o*  the  logs 
cut  in  all  the  region  drained  by  the  Mississippi  above  Minne- 
apolis, for  each  year  from  1848  to  1899,  yielding  aggr^ate 
wealth  of  seventy-five  million  dollara  The  gold  received  for 
the  mannfactured  lamber  contributed  in  a  very  large  degree 
to  the  agricultural  and  commercial  development  of  Minnesota 
and  the  two  Dakotas.  The  farmers,  who  had  at  first  sup- 
plied only  the  lumbermen  with  grain  and  flour,  soon  found, 
by  steamboats  and  railways,  more  distant  markets  for  their 
surplus  grain,  which  made  their  farming  profitable.  This 
brought  a  great  agricbltural  immigration.  Its  first  start  was 
mainly  on  account  of  needs  of  the  lumbermen  for  provisiona 
to  feed  their  teams  and  themselves  in  the  pine  woods,  in  log 
driving,  and  in  lumber  manufacturing. 

The  first  great  gold  mine  of  the  Northwest  was  its  pine 
timber,  which  was  taken  from  the  red  man  almost  without 
compensation.  From  the  upper  Mississippi  region,  above  the 
falls  of  St  Antbony,  it  has  yielded  twelve  billion  feet  of  lum- 
ber, having  a  value,  at  the  places  where  it  waa  sawn,  of  not 
less  than  f7S,OO0,O0O.  This  great  lamber  industry,  more  than 
all  our  other  resources,  built  up  the  cities  and  towns  on  the 
upper  Mississippi  and  its  tributaries,  at  these  falls  and  north- 


Two  or  three  incidents  may  be  related  to  ^ow  some  of 
the  dangers  and  hardships  of  pioneer  exploration  and  lum- 
bering fifty  years  ago.  In  an  exploring  trip  on  the  Bum  river, 
I  had  spent  three  weeks  alone,  running  lines  and  estimating 
timber  for  entries  at  the  government  land  otBce.  When  re- 
turning, at  a  point  near  the  Mississippi  above  Anoka,  I  was 
surrounded  by  a  band  of  Ojibways,  led  by  HoIe-in-the-Day. 
The  first  I  saw  of  them,  they  were  in  a  curved  line,  like  the 
shape  of  a  new  moon,  rnnning  toward  me.  In  a  minute  I  was 
surrounded  by  more  than  a  hundred  threatening  redskins  with 
their  faces  painted  for  war.  But  as  soon  as  Hole-in-the-Day 
made  himself  known,  I  had  uo  fear  of  them,  because  I  had  had 
friendly  business  relations  with  him,  as  before  narrated.  We 
shook  hands,  and  I  opened  my  pack,  which  had  very  little 



in  it.  The  chief  said  that  he  was  on  the  hunt  for  Sioux,  bat 
had  seen  none.  We  parted  as  friends;  he  went  for  game,  and 
I  continued  on  tay  journey  home. 

At  another  time,  I  wa»  again  returning  home  from  ex- 
ploriog  alone,  and  it  had  been  raining  all  day.  When  it  began 
to  grow  darfc,  I  looked  for  my  matches  to  build  a  Are,  and 
found  them  so  damp  that  they  would  not  light.  Wolyes  were 
howling  in  the  distance,  and  I  knew  that  something  must  be 
done  before  long,  as  they  seemed  to  be  coming  nearer  all  the 
time.  I  looked  aroond  for  a  tall  tree,  and,  finding  one  that  . 
I  thought  would  serve,  I  took  my  pack  and  ax  and  climbed 
up  nearly  to  ita  top.  The  wolves  soon  began  to  come  aroond 
the  foot  of  the  tree.  It  had  grown  colder,  and  the  rain  froze 
to  form  ice  on  the  limbs,  making  them  very  slippery.  I  ar- 
ranged' the  limbfl  so  that  I  could  sit  as  comfortable  as  poB- 
wble  under  the  circumstances,  and  wrapped  my  blankets 
aronnd  me,  which  gave  some  jwotection  from  the  cold.  The 
wolves  howled  and  foaght  with  each  other  around  the  foot 
of  the  tree  all  night;  but  I  felt  safe,  knowing  tiat  the  tree 
was  so  lai^  they  could  not  gnaw  it  with  their  teeth.  At  the 
approach  of  morning  they  scattered,  and  as  soon  as  it  was 
light  I  climbed  down  and  started  on  again  toward  St.  An- 

In  the  winter  of  1850,  one  of  my  lumber  camps  was  burned, 
together  with  my  supplies,  and  I  had  to  hasten  to  St.  Anthony 
and  the  fort  for  more  snpplies.  During  my  return  to  the 
camp,  walking  forward  alone  in  advance  of  the  team,  I  was 
met  in  the  thick  brush  by  a  pack  of  wolves.  The  road  was 
narrow  and  crooked,  and  they  filled  it  completely.  I  yelled 
at  them  and  lifted  my  ax  high  in  the  air,  going  toward  them. 
They  began  to  scatter  into  the  brush,  and  soon  left  plenty  of 
room  for  me  to  pas-*  between  them  unmolested;  and  they 
looked  at  me  until  a  turn  m  the  road  screened  me  from  tieir 
view.  Had  I  taken  the  opposite  direction  and  tomed  to  es- 
cape, they  would  probably  have  made  a  meal  of  me  before 
the  team  would  have  reached  me,  as  It  was  a  mile  back.  I 
hurried  forward  at  a  double  quick  pace  until  I  reached  the 
river,  a  mile  ahead,  where  we  camped  for  the  night.  The 
wolves  howled  around  as  all  night,  but  were  shy  of  the  fire 
and  the  teams. 




My  apprenticesiiip  for  lumbering  was  in  my  native  state, 
Maine,  during  the  years  1837  to  lS4i.  Most  of  our  Minnesota 
lumbermen,  and  many  settlers  in  our  pine  region,  came  from 
that  state,  and  are  therefore  often  called  "Mainites."  The 
methods  of  lumbering  in  the  Maine  woods  in  1830  to  1850  were 
transferred  to  Wisconsin  and  Minnesota. 

The  logging  party  built  their  camp  early  in  the  fall,  and 
then  cut  the  main  li^ging  roads,  which  had  to  be  straight, 
twelve  or  more  feet  wide,  smooth,  and  level.  ^Vhole  trees, 
trimmed  of  their  branches,  were  hauled,  the  bark  being  re- 
moved from  the  under  side  so  that  it  would  slip  easily  on 
lie  snow.  One  end  of  the  tree  trunk  was  loaded  on  a  bob- 
sled, the  other  part  being  draped  along.  In  this  way  the 
tree  was  taken  to  the  landing  on  the  shore  of  the  lake  or 
'river,  where  it  was  rolled  off  the  sled  and  the  sawyers  cut 
it  Into  logs,  cutting  a  mark  of  ownership  on  the  side  of  each 
log.  The  logs  were  then  ready  for  the  drivers,  in  the  spring, 
to  roll  them  into  the  water. 

The  old  camp,  as  it  used  to  be  built  in  Maine  and  at  the 
beginning  of  lumbering  in  Minnesota,  was  simple  but  very 
handy.  Two  large  trees,  of  the  full  length  of  the  camp,  were 
procured  and  placed  about  twenty  feet  apart,  and  two  base 
logs  were  cut  for  the  ends.  Each  end  was  run  up  to  a  peak 
like  the  gable  of  a  house,  but  each  side  slanted  up  as  a  roof, 
from  the  long  base  tree  at  the  ground,  to  the  ridge-pole.  This 
roof,  constructed  with  level  stringers,  was  shingled.  A  chim- 
ney, measuring  about  four  by  six  feet,  formed  of  round  poles 
and  calked,  was  built  in  the  middle  of  the  roof,  and  the  Are 
was  directly  underneath  it  in  the  middle  of  the  room.  Six 
stones  were  arranged,  three  at  one  end  and  three  at  the 
other,  as  the  fire-place,  on  which  the  logs,  about  eight  feet 
long,  were  laid  and  burned.  Between  the  two  rows  of  stones 
tt  hole  was  dug,  and  when  filled  with  live  coals  it  was  a  fine 
oven  for  cooking  meat  or  for  baking  beans  or  bread.  Benches 
of  hewn  planks  were  built  beside  the  fire,  and  thence  ex- 
tended the  entire  length  of  the  camp.  The  places  for  sleeping 
were  back  of  the  benches,  being  next  to  the  wall,  and  the  bed 
consisted  of  fir  boughs  laid  on  the  ground,  A.  pole  faatened 
horizontally  in  the  chimney  sened  as  a  crane  to  hang  the 



kettles  on  (op  cooking.  A  cellar  was  dug  near  the  front  of 
the  camp;  and  a  table  vas  made  at  the  rear  end,  opposite 
the  door.  Tbis  describes  the  arerage  lumber  camp  of  the 
Minnesota  pineries  during  the  early  years,  from  1847  to  18fi6. 

The  modern  logging  outfit  is  different.  Two  bob-fileds  are 
placed  one  behind  the  other,  and  are  fastened  by  two  chains 
crossed  in  the  center.  With  a  tackle  and  fall,  logs  are  rolled 
up  and  loaded  on  these  sleds,  sometimes  to  the  height  of  ten 
feet.  Horses  or  oxen  are  used  on  the  tackle,  and  a  load  takes 
from  four  to  ten  thousand  feet  of  logs. 

It  is  made  possible  to  draw  these  very  heavy  loads  by 
icing  the  rats  of  the  logging  roads.  At  the  beginning  of  the 
logging  season,  and  occasionally  afterward,  whenever  snow- 
storms or  continued  wearing  make  it  needful,  water  tanks 
Ml  runners  are  drawn  along  the  roads,  supplying  a  small 
stream  at  each  side.  The  resulting  narrow  courses  of  Ice  bear 
up  the  sleds  under  the  itreat  weight. 

The  manner  of  felling  the  trees  also  shows  an  important 
change  from  the  old  methods.  Instead  of  chopping  them 
down  with  axes,  as  was  formerly  done,  they  are  sawed  off  at 
the  stamp. 

Temporary  lumbering  camps  of  tiie  present  time,  for  use 
during  one  or  two  winters,  are  warmly  bailt  log-housea  with 
perpendicular  sides,  well  supplied  with  windows,  and  are  In 
many  other  respects  better  than  when  I  began  logging  on 
the  MisBissippi  and  Bum  rivers.  The  more  permanent  camps 
have  partitions  dividing  them  into  a  kitchen,  dining-room, 
and  sitting-room,  on  the  main  floor,  with  bedrooms  upstairs. 
I^e  sitting-room  is  heated  by  a  large  stove,  and  the  kitchen 
has  the  best  and  largest  modem  cooking  range.  In  a  single 
camp  fifty  choppers  and  teamsters  may  be  comfortably  lodged. 
They  eat  breakfast  and  supper  at  the  camp,  going  to  their 
work,  often  two  miles  away,  before  light  in  the  short  days 
of  winter,  and  returning  after  dark.  They  are  provided  with 
abundant  and  well  prepared  food,  for  which  their  hard  manual 
labor  gives  a  keen  appetite. 


The  pioneer  lumbermen  of  the  upper  Mississippi  I'egiou, 
who  were  engaged  in  our  (rreat  logging  and  lumber  manu- 



factaring  industries  before  the  Civil  war,  are  named  in  the . 
following  list,  with  dates  of  their  coming  to  St.  Anthony  or 
Minneapolis.  It  will  be  remembered  that  these  two  towns 
or  flitiea,  on  opposite  sides  of  the  Mlssis^ppi,  were  not  nnited 
under  the  latter  name  nntil  the  year  1872.  The  dates  given  for 
Arms  and  companies  indicate  the  year  of  beginning  of  their 
work  in  lumbering.  A  few  residents  of  St.  Paul,  as  Bonip 
and  Oakes,  and  John  S.  Prince,  having  basiness  interests  in 
St  Anthony-  and  Minneapolis,  are  also  incladed,  with  the 
earliest  years  of  acconnts  of  their  logs  in  the  snrveyor's  rec- 

With  nearly  all  whose  names  appear  in  tliis  list,  I  was 
pereonaily  acqaainted.  Only  very  few  of  them  are  left  with 
me  to  the  present  time.  They  well  performed  their  work  as 
founders  of  Minnesota  and  of  its  largest  city. 

The  list  is  compiled  fr<nn  the  records  of  the  surveyor  gen- 
«al'8  office.  It  comprises  more  than  a  hundred  names  of 
individuals  and  firms.  They  are  arranged  in  the  cfarooologio 
order  of  their  coming  to  live  at  Miaaeapolis,  or,  in  connection 
with  firms  and  companies,  of  their  first  engaging  In  bn^ess 
here.  In  some  instances  a  residence  of  a  few  years  In  Min- 
neapolis preceded  the  appearance  of  the  name  in  the  surveyor's 
records.  Franklin  Stee}e  and  Boswell  P.  Bussell  had  lived  a 
long  time  previously  within  the  limits  of  the  presait  state 
of  Minnesota,  having  come  respectively  Id  1837  and  1839  to 
Fort  Snelllng. 

Each  proprietor  or  firm  used  a  special  mark  to  designate 
their  logs  for  separate  accounts  and  payments,  when  the  1<^ 
of  many  difler^it  owners  were  mixed  together  in  the  tMmmB 
and  drawn  out  for  sawing,  or  when  they  were  rafted  together 
for  sale  to  southern  manufacturers. 


Caleb  D.  Dorr.  FrankUn  Steele,  Caleb  CtubloK.  and 

Ard  Godftej.  Co. 

Roswel!  P.  BnaBell. 
Daniel  Stancbfield. 

Joseph  R  Brown. 
CUlaa  M.  Farnbam. 
flnrnmer  W.  FHTnham. 


Lumbering  on  thb  upper  mississipfl 

B«Qben  Besn. 
RufDs  FaruhHin. 
Isaac  Gil  Patrick. 
Saha  JackiiiH. 
Isaac  B.  IiaDe. 
Bilas  Lane. 

James  A.  Lennou. 
John  G.  LeQDon. 
Jamee  McMuUeo. 
John  W.  Noitli. 
Anson  Nortbnp. 
Joseph  P.  Wilson. 

Joel   B.   Bassett. 
HeiU7  Cbambera. 
ThomaB  Chambers. 
Cbarlee  Chate. 

Richard  Chnte. 
Gordon  Jackins. 
William  Jackins. 

John  Berry. 
Mark  T.  Berij. 
John  T.  BlalBdell. 
Bobert  Blaiadeli. 
George  A.  Camp. 
Dan  8.  Daj. 

J.  W.  Day. 
Joseph  Day. 
Leonard  Day. 
Jopeph  Llbbey. 
Marshall  and  Co. 
Benjamin  Bouie. 

William  Hanson. 

F.  O.  Mayo  and  Brothers. 

Frank  Bolllna. 

Henry  T.  Welles. 

A.  M.  Fridley. 
McKende  and  Estes. 
D.  W.  Marr. 

r.  C.  Barrows. 
Borap  and  Cakes. 
Camp  and  Reynolds. 
Chapman  and  Co. 
John  Dudley. 
Fambam  and  Stimpson. 
Gray  and  Libbey. 
Jackson  and  Blalsdell. 
Jewett  and  ChaBe. 
James  A.  Lovejoy. 
Stephen  Lovejoy. 
Mcintosh  and  Estes. 

McKnigbt  and  Kinc 
John  Martin. 
Clinton  Morrison. 
DotIIhb  MorrUon. 
DaTld  Nichols. 
John  S.  PltlBbary. 
StancbQeld  and  Brown. 
Daniel  Stimpson. 
Tonrtelotta  and  Co, 
George  Warren  and  Co. 
Welles  snd  Co. 



Amea.  HoTrell  and  Co. 
Ames  and  Hoft. 
JobD  Batifil. 
Daniel  Baesett. 
.  Cathcart  and  Co. 
Joelab  H.  Chase. 
L.  P.  Chase. 
Robert  Christie. 
Farabam  and  Co. 
Gray  and  Leigbton. 
JTobD  O.  Hove. 
James  McCann. 

Richard  J.  Mendeoball.