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BOSTON 
PUBLIC 
LIBRARY 




Counseling 

Girls 

Toward 

New 
Perspectives 



A Report of the 
MIDDLE ATLANTIC REGIONAL PILOT CONFERENCE 

held in 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

December 2-4, 1965 



Counseling Girls Toward New Perspectives 

A Report of the 

MIDDLE ATLANTIC REGIONAL 
PILOT CONFERENCE 

held in 

Philadelphia, Pa. 

December 2^1, 1965 



Cosponsored by 

Women's Bureau 

U.S. Department of Labor 

Office of Education 
U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 

U.S. Department of Labor 
W. Willard Wirtz, Secretary 

Women's Bureau 
Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director 



. 677 



U.S. Government Printing Office : 1966 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, D.C., 20402 - Price 35 cents 



FOREWORD AND ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The Middle Atlantic Regional Pilot Conference held in Phila- 
delphia, Pa., December 2-4, 1965, added many insights and facets 
to the study of the new demands that the changing roles of women 
make on the activities of guidance counselors. This meeting and 
its predecessor — the first pilot conference, held in Chicago in 
February 1965 — grew out of a statement in American Women, 
the report of the President's Commission on the Status of Women. 
The report stated that guidance and counseling services are 
strategic elements in the educational process, and that such 
services need strengthening and implementation to better serve 
the needs of girls in this time of changing aspirations and 
opportunities. 

Representatives from Delaware, the District of Columbia, 
Maryland, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, and West Vir- 
ginia attended the conference ; from each of these areas, a selected 
group of school counselors, State employment service counselors, 
and counselor educators were invited. Representatives of the 
commissions on the status of women in the six States also were 
asked to attend. In addition, representatives of national organiza- 
tions such as the American Personnel and Guidance Association, 
National Council of Administrative Women in Education, Camp 
Fire Girls, Girl Scouts, the 4-H Clubs, General Federation of 
Women's Clubs, and B'nai B'rith participated. 

Delegates also came from the U.S. Civil Service Commission; 
the Bureau of Employment Security and the Office of Manpower, 
Automation and Training (now called the Office of Manpower 
Policy, Evaluation and Research), U.S. Department of Labor; as 
well as from the agencies that sponsored the conference: the 
Women's Bureau, U.S. Department of Labor and the Guidance 
and Counseling Branch, Office of Education, U.S. Department of 
Health, Education, and Welfare. 



The Women's Bureau and the Office of Education wish to thank 
the Office of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research for its 
continued interest and assistance and for the financial support 
which made the conference and the publication of this report 
possible. We should also like to express our gratitude to Dr. 
Virginia L. Senders, Associate Director of the New England Board 
of Higher Education, and Dr. Daniel W. Fullmer, Professor of 
Psychology in the Oregon State System of Higher Education, 
whose provocative and penetrating addresses contributed to the 
quality and stimulation of the conference. We also want to thank 
those who served as chairmen of the workshop groups and to 
acknowledge our debt to the workshop recorders who prepared 
comprehensive reports of the discussions that took place. Without 
the organizational and administrative assistance of Miss Rose 
Terlin, Chief, Economic Status and Opportunities Division, 
Women's Bureau, and Dr. Bettina Weary, Specialist, Guidance and 
Counseling Program Branch, Office of Education, the conference 
could not have proceeded as it did. 

The organization of this second pilot conference and the ideas 
it considered paralleled the plan and scope of the first pilot 
conference, held in Chicago, which was attended by representatives 
of seven Midwestern States. However, the two conferences did 
not duplicate each other. Since each added new perspectives to 
the discussion of a common topic, we suggest that those interested 
in the ^problems of guiding women and girls also read the first 
report 1 which details the manner in which both conferences 
were organized. 

This conference report was prepared under a contract with the 
Office of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research, U.S. Depart- 
ment of Labor, under the authority of Title I of the Manpower 
Development and Training Act of 1962, as amended. Researchers 
undertaking such projects under Government sponsorship are 
encouraged to express freely their professional judgment. There- 
fore, points of view or opinions stated in this document do not 
necessarily represent the official position or policy of the 
Department of Labor. 

It is most encouraging to be able to report that those who 
participated in the Philadelphia conference agreed that the experi- 
ence deepened their understanding of the problems of counseling 
girls in the 1960's. Many expressed their intent to organize similar 



1 New Approaches to Counseling Girls in the 1960's, a Report of the Midwest Regional Pilot 
Conference, may be obtained from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. 20402. 30 cents. Single copies available from the Women's Bureau, U.S. 
Department of Labor, Washington, D.C. 20210. 

iv 



meetings or seminars at the State and local level and thus further 
spread the ideas they helped formulate in Philadelphia. Such a 
result, of which evidence is already in hand, fulfills one of the 
major objectives of the conference. 



Mary Dublin Keyserling 
Director, Women's Bureau 



Frank L. Sievers 

Director, Guidance and Counseling 

Program Branch, Office of Education 



CONTENTS 

Page 

OPENING SESSION 1 

Welcoming Remarks 1 

Miss Helen Faust, Director of the Division of Pupil Personnel and 
Counseling, Philadelphia Public Schools. 

Changing Realities in Women's Lives 2 

Mrs. Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director of the Women's Bureau, 
U.S. Department of Labor. 

Discussion 11 

MORNING SESSION 12 

Male-Order Female — the Symbol and the Substance 12 

Dr. Daniel W. Fullmer, Professor of Psychology, Oregon State Sys- 
tem of Education. 

What Sets the Limits to a Woman's Growth ? 25 

Dr. Virginia L. Senders, Associate Director, New England Board of 
Higher Education. 

Discussion 35 

DINNER SESSION 38 

The Contribution of State Commissions to the Guidance and Counsel- 
ing Profession 38 

Delaware — Mrs. Rosella Humes 38 

Maryland — Dr. Selma F. Lippeatt 41 

New Jersey — (List of members of Committee on Education and 

Counseling) 44 

New York— Miss Guinn Hall 44 

Pennsylvania — Mrs. J. Russell Meyers 47 

West Virginia — Mrs. John Scott 50 

CLOSING SESSION 53 

Workshop Reports 53 

Synthesis of State Workshop Reports 54 

Broad Implications Suggested by the Questions 54 

Consideration of the Specific Questions 57 

Effect of Parental Influence 57 

Effect of the Curriculum 59 

Effect of Teachers' Attitudes 60 

The Feminine Role 62 

Integration of Responsibilities 62 

Problem of Economic Need 62 

Restrictions on Career Choices 64 

Counselor's Effect on Career Choices of Girls 65 



Vll 



Page 

Report of the Counselor-Educators' Workshop 66 

Responses to Specific Questions 67 

Organization of the Workshops 73 

Appendixes 75 

A. Conference Program 76 

B. Questions for Workshop Groups 79 

C. Conference Participants 82 



VIII 



OPENING SESSION 

Welcoming Remarks 

Miss Helen Faust, Director of the Division of Pupil Personnel 
and Counseling in the Philadelphia Public Schools, presided at the 
opening session of the conference. She welcomed the conference 
to Philadelphia and expressed appreciation to the Women's Bureau 
and the Office of Education for providing an opportunity for 
guidance counselors in the Middle Atlantic Region to meet together. 

Miss Faust noted that career opportunities for girls in the 
1960's are far more challenging than they have been in other 
decades. She was aware also, she said, that many conference 
participants were women who had successfully combined profes- 
sional careers with their roles as wives and mothers, and that it 
is imperative for a much larger number of girls to become actively 
interested in career possibilities. In every conceivable way, the 
exciting opportunities that lie ahead must be communicated 
to them. 

The speaker of the evening, whom Miss Faust introduced next, 
was Mrs. Mary Dublin Keyserling. 



Changing Realities in Women's Lives 

Mary Dublin Keyserling* 
Director, Women's Bureau 
U.S. Department of Labor 

May I extend to each of you here this evening the warmest of 
welcomes on behalf of the Women's Bureau of the Department of 
Labor and the Office of Education of the Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, which have jointly sponsored this meet- 
ing. This is the second in a series of conferences called to bring 
together outstanding men and women concerned with the guidance 
and counseling of girls and women to discuss some of the ways in 
which we may contribute more effectively to one of the most 
challenging tasks of our time — the larger realization of the 
potentials of women in our society. 

We acknowledge with deep appreciation the grant from the 
Office of Manpower Policy, Evaluation and Research, which made 
possible both the first regional pilot conference held last February 
in Chicago, in which delegates from seven States participated, 
and this Middle Atlantic Regional Pilot Conference. 

Let me say, by way of general orientation, that these confer- 
ences found their origin in a recommendation of the President's 
Commission on the Status of Women. The Commission, in its 
report American Women, had underscored the vital importance 
of counseling as a fundamental and inseparable part of education 
in a democracy. The report urged the quantitative expansion 
and qualitative improvement of guidance and counseling services. 
It recommended that "public and private agencies should join in 
strengthening counseling resources." 

The Commission's interest in improving and expanding the 
guidance and counseling of girls was a natural corollary of its 
underlying philosophy, expressed in the opening paragraphs of 
its report: "Respect for the worth and dignity of every individual 



♦Prior to her appointment in 1964 as Director of the Women's Bureau, Mrs. Keyserling was 
for 10 years the Associate Director of the Conference on Economic Progress. From 1941 to 1953 
she had held a number of high-level economic posts in the Federal Government. Earlier she had 
been General Secretary of the National Consumers League, and taught economics at Sarah 
Lawrence College. She is the author of many economic studies and articles. 



and conviction that every American should have a chance to 
achieve the best of which he — or she — is capable are basic to the 
meaning of both freedom and equality in this democracy." 

This concept has never, I believe, been more strongly manifested 
than it is today in the many intensive efforts at national, State, 
and local levels to assure the fullest possible use of our resources in 
order that the promises of our democracy may be realized by all 
our people. 

The very basic purpose of our educational system is to find, 
develop, and nurture taient wherever it may be, to enrich the lives 
of individuals, and to help maximize their contribution to society. 

Are we doing this as fully as we should in the education of our 
girls ? This question was implicit in many phases of the Commis- 
sion's inquiry. Are we doing all we ought, asked the Commission, 
to challenge old and outworn stereotypes about so-called "women's 
interests" and "women's roles?" These stereotypes, if accepted by 
girls and women, often result in their making choices that are 
not true to their inner selves. Are we bringing to our girls as 
fully as we should a helpfully realistic picture of their possible 
future lives, without which they cannot perceive the complete 
range of alternatives, make careful preparation for wise choices, 
or find and develop their aptitudes to the full ? 

Because of the prevailing, wide, and very significant differences 
in the life patterns of women, as contrasted with those of men, 
the President's Commission on the Status of Women challenged 
us to regard the counseling of girls and women as a "specialized 
form of the counseling profession." The Commission was not, 
I believe, suggesting that we have specialists who counsel only 
girls, but that all counselors develop a greater awareness of girls' 
special needs. The Commission pointed out that roles held up to 
girls from infancy deflect talents into narrow channels. Those 
who counsel girls should have the requisite knowledge and concern 
if they are to be able to encourage and develop broader ranges of 
aptitudes and lift the aspirations of the girls they reach. 

How effectively we counsel girls and women is a major deter- 
minant of the extent to which the great national resource that 
is our womanpower will be used wisely and well. 

President Johnson has emphasized on many occasions his deter- 
mination that our national policies be directed to giving the fullest 
scope to women's talents and skills in every aspect of national life. 
He announced very soon after taking office his determination to 
enlist women in our country's service. "My aim," he said, "in 
picking out more women to serve in this Administration is to 
underline our profound belief that we can waste no talent, we can 



frustrate no creative power, we can neglect no skill in our search 
for an open and just and challenging society." 

During the period from January 1, 1964, to September 30, 
1965, the President appointed 120 women to top jobs. According 
to the latest report from the 26 largest Federal agencies, an addi- 
tional 889 women were appointed in the top grades 12 through 
18 and about 2,698 promotions were made at these levels during 
this time. 

As a result of a Presidential directive, both hirings and promo- 
tions are made by all Federal agencies on the basis of merit and 
qualification alone, regardless of sex. The Interdepartmental Com- 
mittee on the Status of Women, headed by the Secretary of Labor, 
gives continuing leadership with respect to ways in which the 
skills of women can be more fully utilized. 

Other Federal action reflects our determination as a Nation to 
lower the barriers that still impede women's economic advance. 
Examples are the Equal Pay Act of 1963 and the inclusion in the 
Civil Rights Act of 1964 of a prohibition of discrimination in 
employment based on sex. The States are moving rapidly to pro- 
vide similar assurances within their intrastate jurisdictions. The 
statutes of 30 States now require equal pay for equal work. Ten 
States and the District of Columbia have acted to prohibit sex 
discrimination in employment, and many more will follow. 

At the present time, 45 State commissions on the status of 
women are carrying forward the work so well started by the 
President's Commission. The position of women in our society 
will benefit immeasurably in consequence. Society will gain as 
more opportunities become available for women to give their best 
not only as paid workers but as volunteers providing innumerable 
essential services. The widest range of institutions — our schools, 
above all — are being stimulated to reexamine attitudes and prac- 
tices that they may be geared to new realities, that they may be 
flexible and responsive to the needs of the future. 

It is this same sense of need for reappraisal of where we are 
and for analysis of what may lie ahead that brings us together to 
benefit from each other's experience, to pool ideas, and to explore 
possible and promising new directions. 

As a basis for some of our later discussions I have been asked 
to sketch recent trends in women's widening economic roles and to 
say a few words about anticipated trends. I covered some of this 
ground in considerable detail at the Chicago conference, a report 
of which has been distributed to each of you. 2 I will therefore be 
brief and not review the details of the picture. 



2 See footnote on page iv. 

4 



For the many reasons of which we are all aware, women have 
moved rapidly into the labor force during the course of the past 
quarter of a century. Twice as many are in gainful employment 
as before World War II. 

Twenty-seven million women are in jobs or are actively looking 
for them. They comprise 36 percent of the Nation's work force. 

The likelihood that our younger women — those under 35 — will 
be working at some time during their lives has altered very little 
since the prewar years. It is the women who have married, borne 
their children, and seen them well launched in school whose life 
patterns have changed dramatically. Between 1940 and 1965 the 
number of women aged 35 to 44 in the labor force more than 
doubled; the number aged 45 to 54 more than tripled; and the 
number aged 55 to 64 increased more than 3!/2-fold. 

Before the war, only one in four women aged 45 to 54 was in 
the labor force. Today about half of all women in this age group 
are at work, and it is at this age a woman is most likely to be in 
gainful employment. 

In indicating what has happened, let me make clear we are not 
saying that women should work or shouldn't. In a democratic 
society this reflects the decision of the individual. I was going to 
say this reflects the "choice" of the individual but this would not 
be an entirely appropriate word when one realizes how large a 
proportion of women work not so much as a matter of "choice" 
but as a matter of compelling need. 

Nearly six million of our working women are single ; they work, 
in the main, to support themselves. Another five million who are 
widowed, separated, or divorced work to provide for themselves 
and their families. Of the married women who work and whose 
husbands — as the Census says — are present, about a fourth had 
husbands whose incomes last year were less than $3,000. Their 
need for employment was urgent. Approximately another fourth 
had husbands whose incomes were between $3,000 and $5,000 
a year, still substantially below the amount commonly regarded 
as essential for a modest but adequate level of living. Somewhat 
more than a fourth of the working wives had husbands earning 
between $5,000 and $7,000. The desire to own the family home, 
to educate children, and to acquire some of the niceties of life 
made additions to family income seem imperative. Only a few more 
than one million working wives — or only about 1 in 22 of all 
women in the labor force — had husbands with incomes of $10,000 
or more a year. Many of these women are counted among our 
doctors, lawyers, scientists, and others whose contribution is 
essential to the functioning of our society. 



With each passing year, the percentage of women in the labor 
force has been increasing. This trend is expected to continue. 
Between 1964 and 1970, our Labor Department projections tell 
us almost half of the people to be added to the labor force may- 
be women. This assumes a 17-percent increase in the number of 
women workers, as contrasted with a 9-percent increase in the 
number of men workers. 

I believe that when our experts estimate that, by 1980, 60 
percent of all women aged 45 to 54 will be in the labor force, 
they may be excessively conservative. I would hazard a guess 
that we will see that percentage recorded in the employment 
statistics considerably earlier than that year. 

I say this — that, in general, in the years ahead a substantially 
larger proportion of the labor force will be women than at 
present — for many reasons. 

I believe that as a Nation we are firmly committed to the achieve- 
ment of the high levels of production and employment that our 
knowledge and resources make possible and that our needs make 
urgent and desirable for a long time to come. We are pledged 
by the Employment Act of 1946 to do battle against unemploy- 
ment as a conquerable ailment in the body economic. We have 
been making impressive headway. We have been reducing unem- 
ployment for some time at the rate of 40,000 a month, and it is 
now down to the lowest levels in the past 8 years. 

Unemployment among adult men is now down very close to 
frictional levels. 3 Ninety-eight of every hundred married men 
who are available for work have jobs. Unemployment remains 
unduly high, however, among young people and nonwhite adults 
who are handicapped by inadequate skills and education. We are 
now involved in a two-pronged effort to create more jobs they 
can enter and to expand training opportunities to fit them more 
adequately for the present-day world of work. I am not minimiz- 
ing the length of the road still to be traveled, but I am expressing 
confidence that because we have the requisite knowledge, 
resolution, and concern we will move down that road very rapidly. 
Already we have labor shortages, some acute. We have an 
insufficient number of teachers, nurses, doctors, and other health 
specialists, social workers, and scientists, among many others. 
But the need for manpower, and even more especially of woman- 



3 A certain amount of unemployment is inherent in the operations of a free and dynamic 
labor market and is very hard to reduce. This "frictional" unemployment is caused by youngsters 
looking for part-time work or their first full-time jobs, women reentering the labor force in 
search of work, or people who have quit one job and are looking for another. 



power, will not be concentrated only in the areas of these higher 
level skills. 

Increasingly our people are coming to realize the terrible price 
we pay for the poverty that still afflicts a fifth of the Nation. Can 
we not predict with some confidence that we shall tackle this 
problem with added determination? And as we do — we will see 
many more schools built, for more schools are urgently needed. 
We will see more slums cleared, for slums are not consistent with 
the kind of human development to which we aspire. We will 
find ways to provide improved social security and public assistance 
benefits to the elderly who cannot be returned to the economic 
stream and so many of whom suffer from acute income inadequacy. 
Many of our States now seem eager to lift minimum wage levels 
above existing rates, which in numerous areas condemn full-time 
wage earners to levels of income within the poverty range. The 
likelihood of improvement of the Federal wage and hour law 
seems high. 

Such actions, in combination, would create additional purchas- 
ing power and turn the wheels of industry faster. It would create 
additional demands for labor at every level of competence. If 
we do these things — or only move a little more vigorously in these 
general directions — our society will soon have to look to every 
possible labor reserve. Mature women, especially, with real and 
potential skills, will find even greater inducements than they now 
find to enter the labor force. 

Many suggest that automation is a powerful countervailing 
factor. Yes, this is so, but perhaps to a smaller degree than we 
were first inclined to think. All we mean by automation is the 
application of technology to enable us to do more of the world's 
work in less time and at lower cost. In view of the fantastic 
amount of work to be done, technological advance should be looked 
upon not as a threat, but as a blessing, enabling us to produce 
with increasing effectiveness the vast amount of goods and services 
that our people still need and want and will continue to need 
and want for a long time to come. 

Last year about 814 million of our families had incomes of 
less than $3,000. Another 8 million had incomes between $3,000 
and $5,000. The goods and services needed to bring this large 
segment of our population closer to what we would like to regard 
as the American way of life would require a very substantial 
increase in total output. And as for the longer range outlook, 
has it been your experience that when a family with an income of 
$5,000 has been called upon to adjust to a $7,500 level of living, 
or even $10,000, this has been a very difficult process? 



All I am saying is that demand is very likely to remain high 
for many years ahead. There are vast jobs still to do, and those 
who wish to contribute of their minds and hands will have plenty 
to keep them busy. They will be needed. Our society will in 
all likelihood look, to a greater rather than a lesser degree, to 
women as an increasingly invaluable resource. In a world that 
will put even greater stress on democratic and human values, 
that will put increasing emphasis not just on employment but on 
creative opportunities for people to work in jobs that they can 
do best — in jobs that they enjoy — women can anticipate far larger 
economic roles than they presently play. And I do believe that 
such a world will be the world of the future. 

It is true that there are some conflicting trends ahead as far as 
the employment of women is concerned. As incomes rise it would 
seem quite likely that fewer mothers of young children will seek 
employment. This is borne out by the fact that mothers of children 
under 6 years of age, with husbands with incomes of less than 
$3,000 a year, are now more than twice as likely to work as 
mothers of young children in families where the husbands' incomes 
are $10,000 or more. 

Other factors enter into the decisions of mature women to 
seek employment. Rising demand for their services is one such 
factor. Another is educational attainment. The higher the educa- 
tional achievement of women, the more likely they are to work. 

In 1964, 53 percent of women 18 years of age and over with 
4 years of college were in the labor force ; the figure was 72 percent 
for those with 5 or more years of higher education. In sharp con- 
trast, 45 percent of those who had completed only high school and 
only 31 percent of those who had not gone beyond the eighth 
grade, regardless of age, held jobs or were actively seeking them. 

At middle age, differences were far sharper. Among women 
45 to 54 years old, 86 percent of those who had had 5 or more years 
of higher education were in the labor force. Among those with 
4 years of college, 61 percent were in the labor force ; so too were 
55 percent of high school graduates, as compared with only 44 
percent of those in this age group who had completed only 
grammar school. 

The years ahead will see higher levels of education achieved 
by all people — men and women alike. More training and skill will 
lead the larger proportion of women who acquire them to want to 
benefit from their use. And it would be a serious loss to society 
were this investment wasted. 

True, the interest on the investment can be reaped in terms 
of richer family life and in terms of enlarged participation on the 

8 



part of women in volunteer service, in politics, and in other civic 
leadership roles. No one, of course, can predict with any certainty 
what choices women will make. My own guess is that as the 
privilege of choice widens, increasing numbers of women will be 
active as volunteers in the years when their children are young, 
when most would prefer that their schedule of activity outside 
the home be part time and flexible. But in a world in which 
employment levels are likely to be high, and as their children's 
dependence upon them diminishes, even greater numbers will, 
I believe, want the satisfactions that come with job responsibility, 
not to mention the income that follows. 

I would suggest that it is the vocational counselor's responsibility 
to help young women appreciate the satisfactions that are derived 
not only from job participation but from helping others in the 
myriad tasks which may not be compensated monetarily but which 
so often have immense compensations of the heart. This is part 
of the world's work too. 

Whatever may be the patterns of the future, we can say with 
confidence to the girls in the here-and-now that the chances are 
very large that there will be jobs in their futures and for increas- 
ingly long periods of their lives. Again let me stress that this 
is not to say to them, regardless of their circumstances, that 
women in general ought to work. It is to say to them that they 
should be more fully aware than many are today that large num- 
bers of women work because they have to do so. Large numbers 
of women work because they elect to do so. The majority must 
be prepared for intelligent job choice before marriage. An even 
larger proportion should be prepared to anticipate entry or reentry 
into the labor force in their later years. 

Marriage and childrearing is so important and so valid a goal — 
for virtually all women, the most important objective of life — that 
many have difficulty, when they are teenagers, in anticipating the 
long span of a lifetime. And the lifespan will continue to grow 
longer. More and more energy will be released from home-related 
tasks as housekeeping continues to grow easier. 

Women increasingly will seek ways to make their middle and 
later years more useful and meaningful, more closely related 
to the world around them. 

If these are the facts of life, how do we make them more realistic 
to the youngsters with whom we are in touch? This is 
the challenge. 

Some new challenges that face counselors apply to their rela- 
tionship with boys as well as girls. Both need up-to-date informa- 
tion about the rapidly changing contours of the job world and 



about training opportunities. We must prepare boys and girls 
alike to be willing to assume larger responsibilities, not only in 
their personal lives but in society. But there are many special 
considerations that are involved when we counsel girls. 

How can we prepare them more effectively to anticipate, plan 
for, and cope with the discontinuity that will be part of the lives 
of a large proportion of women ? How can we help them to antici- 
pate ways in which the impact of discontinuity can be minimized ? 
How can we help young women to anticipate and plan for the 
"continuing" education so many of them will seek in order to 
upgrade and refresh skills or to acquire new ones? 

Do we need to recognize that, in consequence of many prevailing 
social lags, a large number of young women tend to undervalue 
their ability, to lack confidence, to assume it is futile to set aspira- 
tions high, or to assume that the pursuit and achievement of 
career excellence is a stumbling block to personal fulfillment? 

Above all, how can we increase the awareness of girls of the 
wonderful and countless ways there are to serve, to be useful, 
to help get the big jobs of the world done? to recognize that to be 
effective they must gain greater technical competence, and that 
longer periods of training will be essential? to appreciate that 
nothing is more satisfying than to feel needed and useful ; to feel 
you are giving of your best? 

Do we need to do more to bring to our schools able women, who 
have combined happy family lives with accomplishment in jobs, 
in service roles, in the arts, in politics, and in other positions of 
community leadership? Feminine women, if you will. There isn't 
a town in America where there aren't many splendid role models. 

Do we need to do more to change the attitudes of parents toward 
the education of their daughters? Too many parents see the son 
worthy of the investment but lack perspective on the equal 
importance of maximizing opportunities for their daughters. 

What of the attitudes of the boys toward the future of their 
sisters and their wives-to-be? Can we do better in helping to 
improve boys' preparation for the fuller types of partnership in 
marriage that the new trends in our society will require? 

And finally, should not counselors remind themselves even more 
frequently than they do now that they have one of the most reward- 
ing of jobs? What could be a more challenging opportunity than 
to have the responsibility of bringing to our young people the 
picture of the day-to-day world they may expect to enter? Of 
communicating to them a zest for life, a sense of the great goals 
to be won, a sense that the world has need of them at their 
very best? 

10 



We live at a wonderful time when many previously insoluble 
problems have come closer to solution. Poverty can be made an 
anachronism. The Great Society can be attained. In all the impor- 
tant tasks that lie ahead of us, of this we can be sure — women 
will play increasingly important roles. The questions we must 
answer relate to how they can play them more satisfactorily for 
themselves, for their families, and for society. 

Discussion 

Mrs. Keyserling's address provoked wide-ranging discussion 
which touched on several important issues. The discontinuity in 
women's employment due to their leaving the labor force to raise 
families partially accounts for their increased concentration in 
relatively less skilled job areas when they seek reemployment in 
their middle years. She suggested that there is need to do more 
to encourage the development on a larger scale of part-time job 
opportunities for women during the period when they still have 
considerable homemaker responsibilities. Part-time employment 
would enable them to retain skills they will later want to use in 
full-time jobs. Employers are challenged to find ways to make 
more effective use of talent available only on a part-time basis to 
meet rising needs for many types of skills. 

A counselor raised the question of women's own attitudes toward 
themselves and wondered about the practical problems of raising 
women's sights from the traditional stereotypes. Counselors 
should be mindful that marriage is a valid objective for a young 
girl and must concern themselves with more than the vocational 
aspects of a woman's role. Men and women alike play many 
roles during a lifetime, and girls should learn to expect more out 
of life than activities that just fill their time. Volunteer service 
and paid employment were both cited as possibilities for satisfy- 
ing a woman's interest in developing her abilities in a manner 
that contributes to society. 

Several questions were posed and left for individual con- 
sideration : 

What is the loss to society resulting from its failure to make 
use of women's talents to the full? If a woman has the capacity 
to do a more difficult job, is it wasteful for her to do a less difficult 
one? How can counselors keep themselves adequately informed 
of rapid changes in labor market developments in order to be 
able to guide their students most effectively? 

Many ideas stimulated by Mrs. Keyserling's address were heard 
during workshop discussions and are included in the synthesis of 
workshop reports on page 54. 

11 



MORNING SESSION 

Mrs. Mary Dublin Keyserling presided at the Thursday morn- 
ing session. In the course of the morning she introduced Dr. 
Bettina Weary, Specialist, Occupational and Career Guidance 
Section, Office of Education, U.S. Department of Health, Education, 
and Welfare, who represented the Office of Education at the 
conference. 

The two speakers who addressed the conference at this session 
were Dr. Daniel W. Fullmer and Dr. Virginia L. Senders. Their 
speeches follow. 

Male-Order Female — The Symbol and the Substance 

Dr. Daniel W. Fullmer* 

Professor of Psychology 

Oregon State System of Higher Education 

A girl learns she is neither wholly equal to nor wholly opposite 
from the male. Time will teach her this much. At the moment 
she realizes this, a girl becomes a woman. She may yet succeed 
as a female, if she learns the secret of the gods — how the female 
role is to complement the male role. Counselors should teach both 
boys and girls the secret of complementary roles; how two can 
be a team, and compete with the environment instead of competing 
with each other. Because there is confusion about feminine- 
masculine roles, our girls do not learn when or where it is 
appropriate for them to be equal and/or feminine. 

Ashley Montagu wrote in 1953, and I quote, "The behavior of 
women in our culture has largely been in response to the behavior 
of males toward them." 1 Anyone who is going to counsel girls in 



♦Dr. Fullmer started his career as an an elementary school teacher. He later taught in a 
junior high school and became a guidance counselor in a senior high school. He has served as 
Assistant Dean and Professor of Psychology, General Extension Division, Portland Center, 
Oregon State System of Higher Education and as Professor of Psychology and Director of 
Development and Evaluation, Division of Continuing Education, in the same State system. 
In 1962-63 he served as consultant to the Office of Education, U.S. Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, and in 1963 was awarded the Nancy Wimmer Award of the American 
Personnel and Guidance Association. He is the author of several books and many articles. 
1 Montagu, Ashley, The Natural Superiority of Women, New York, Macmillan Company, 1953. 

12 



the mid-1960's in the United States of America should have to 
pass a basic social literacy test. A basic social literacy test should 
take us beyond our own social class. We must somehow under- 
stand what it is like to be a member of another social class and 
what it is like to have a system of values that is different from 
that which is common in what we usually call the middle class — 
and what I prefer to call "the participating class." A social literacy 
test would be a way of determining whether counselors of girls 
in the 1960's understand the assumptions they make almost as 
automatically as though they were inborn and natural phenomena. 

An example of a "quickie" social literary test is one we can 
take right now: Arrange the following six values in the order 
of priority you think the average American would use: (1) class, 
(2) country, (3) family, (4) God, (5) humanity, and (6) self. 
You have probably arranged them like this: Self, family, class, 
country, God, humanity, if you are something like the typical 
American. Now each of you will have to judge whether or not 
you arranged them according to the way you really see these values. 

I would like you to experiment with something that Edward 
T. Hall points out in his book, The Silent Language, 2 in discussing 
the nonverbal or unverbalized meanings that we share as basic 
cultural learnings. For this one, all you have to do is move 
physically closer to the person near you — to within two or three 
inches — but do not whisper or say anything. 

What happened? The response was either immediately evident 
and your neighbor expressed his anxiety, or he was particularly 
well controlled and therefore did not need to verbally express his 
biological response. He reacted, because in every culture physical 
distance has a meaning that is built into each individual who has 
grown up in that culture. 

These are simple examples of basic literacy tests of the social 
system, the socialization processes, and what the culture teaches. 

The forces that molded our mothers are the same ones that 
mold the majority of women today, namely, peer groups. The 
socialization processes of our culture have not changed. The edi- 
tors of Harper's Magazine, in the foreword to the October 1962 
issue said: ". . . beneath the eye shadow, the black leotard, or 
the wig — the American woman today is not very different from 
her mother or grandmother. She is equally attached to the classic 
feminine values — sexual attractiveness, motherly devotion, and 
the nurturing role in home and community affairs. She is no great 
figure in public life or the professions. And like most men, she 



2 Hall, Edward T., The Silent Language, New York, Premier Books (paper), 1959. 

13 



is repelled by the slogans of old-fashioned feminism." 3 Bruno 
Bettelheim, in an article in the same issue pointed out the absurd- 
ities of giving girls the same educational experiences as are given 
to boys, and I quote, ". . . an education clearly designed to prepare 
boys for a life of competition and independent responsibility." 4 
I do not agree with Bettelheim in this respect, by the way. 

Boys go to school and understand the intent of their education. 
The culture is clear. They must become educated to achieve success 
in their mature, workaday life. There seems to be some question 
whether a girl should undergo the same education as a boy. She 
may need it if she is a failure in getting the right man in the 
marriage market. 

But something I think is important is that the culture equates 
sameness in education with equal opportunity for education. 
There is some question in my mind whether it is, in fact, possible 
for a girl to get the same education as a boy. I am also aware that 
we are concerned here with ways in which we can get a girl to 
accept the concept of a dual role in her life, including having both 
a home and a career. 

In counseling a girl in the mid-1960's, the counselor must some- 
how take cognizance of the attitudes reflected in such comments 
as the following: "The adult world leads her to think that the 
'active woman' is necessarily an unfeminine and sexually inade- 
quate woman, something which is patently untrue." 5 With rare 
exceptions, a girl in an American school today is exposed to experi- 
ences in her education that lead her to become competent to com- 
pete with a man but not to experiences that would help her to 
become capable of complementing him. Complementary roles 
mean male plus female equals human being. 

The culture subscribes to and contributes to the perpetuation 
of a second order of attitudes toward women that bears directly 
upon the dual-role dilemma of a career in home and office. 

(1) A girls needs to marry while she is young and attractive. 
She needs to get married while she is still exposed to a selection 
of eligible males. (This subject is expanded on in a recent 
Newsweek article.) 6 

(2) Because of this, a girl is almost certain to interrupt her 
education — become a dropout — sometime after she completes 12th 
grade, if not before. If you ask a girl, she will tell you that she 
will, at some later date, reestablish herself and complete her educa- 



3 "The American Female," Harper's Magazine, (Special Supplement) October 1962. 

* Bettelheim, Bruno, "Growing Up Female." Harper's Magazine, October 1962. 

6 See footnote 4. 

a "Cities and the Single Girl," Newsweek, November IB, 1965. 

14 



tion. This is a popular myth. If she does return to school as a 
35- or 40-year-old woman she will find that higher education, 
especially, is designed for kids and adolescents. All the regulations 
are especially devised for them. 

(3) An unpopular alternative is a decision to complete her 
education and gain a professional career and perhaps miss the 
marriage market — at least, for the immediate future. 

The above attitudes are representative of the condition imposed 
upon women by the culture characterized by the phrase "feminine 
but unequal." 

Bettelheim, in The New Republic, states that the emancipation 
of women is largely still to come. 7 He thinks that nowadays males 
and females find much of their self fulfillment in experiences that 
represent free choice and that these opportunities for free choice 
result from our advanced technological and scientific condition. 
By contrast, consider the lack of free choice that hampers women 
in the rest of the world who live under more primitive 
technological conditions. 

The career aspect of a girl's multiple roles suggests that we 
should take cognizance of one of the most significant things I 
found in my research on this subject — namely, Bettelheim's ideas 
about work and how it is organized. Bettelheim thinks that most 
work is organized to ignore the element of sex. The education 
that leads to professions and other areas of work does not permit 
a woman to believe that she is more of a woman because she is 
getting an education. A boy, on the other hand, may be helped 
to feel that he is becoming a man as a result of his education. 
These are the attitudes which seem to persist and which define 
the situation in which American girls are being counseled in 
the 1960's. 

I would like to describe two major situations that I think define 
fairly accurately the conditions that the culture presents to girls 
in the 1960's. 

Situation 1. The most significant generalization I can make at 
this point is the following: We are so locked into our culture 
that most of what we do to alter what happens to girls is nullified 
by the life style for girls that is supported by the social system. 
Peer groups represent and maintain the social norms through the 
socialization processes maintained by the culture. I read recently 
in a newspaper that three out of four high school graduates — 
and these were boys — changed their career goals within 1 year 
after graduating from high school. Vocational guidance for girls 
at the high school level may be equally tentative. 



7 "Women: Emancipation Is Still To Come," The New Republic, November 7, 1964. 

15 



Situation 2. Opinion molders, commercial forces, religious 
influences, schools, and family all bring to bear upon the individual 
girl certain patterns of pressure that produce what is uniquely a 
versatile American female. A girl, as she becomes a woman, is 
capable of managing large measures of ambiguity, deferred 
gratification, and multiple-role functions. A young girl may mas- 
ter the skills and knowledge necessary to exhibit tender loving 
care in a mothering role or manage a highly formal social reception 
as a very feminine hostess. These may all be done in the course 
of a single day, and we men continue to expect more. 

It is reasonable for us to expect all of these very desirable female 
images to be achieved by most girls when everything in the 
culture that is supposed to make its influence felt upon the girl's 
development actually works. But when these molders of our cul- 
ture — the inculcators and the educators and the counselors — fail, 
we all lose. We then get an apathetic incubator-type woman on 
relief, or worse, one like the female Hell's Angels of California. 

Counseling girls in the 1960's will be considered successful only 
if it preserves what is now necessary and desirable in the image 
of American womanhood, that is, the mother and the home. 
Beyond that, counseling must provide the Nation with access to 
the potential womanpower that would be made available through 
career development. It is not an easy task. However, we now 
possess the knowledge and the skills and the financial basis for 
doing it. 

Few counselors in the schools are capable of doing the job we 
need to do. Precedents are laughed at by today's young people. 
Therefore, most of our traditional models of womanhood are unac- 
ceptable to today's youth. Youth have better models in their peer 
groups than adults provide in women counselors as role models in 
the schools. Counselors of girls must supply what the social system 
omits in the socialization of the female. Almost all socialization 
takes place within groups — family or peer groups, work groups, 
or other reference groups. Therefore, group counseling, or coun- 
seling by the use of groups, is a solid and basic way to proceed. 

Because girls are usually taught and counseled separately from 
boys, in keeping with the culture's socialization procedures, it 
becomes imperative for the counselor to reach girls and boys 
together in groups. We do not want to stop teaching girls to be 
competitive with boys in those areas where equality is an essential, 
such as in school subjects. We do want to teach girls how to com- 
plement boys in areas where girls want to be feminine. Groups 
provide the only approach through which boys and girls can learn 
together the skills and attitudes of complementary behavior. 

16 



We need to stop playing games aimed at changing our social 
system and redouble our efforts to make the social system work 
for more and more of our boys and girls. 

How can we make a system that is not working work, with- 
out changing it? At least two dimensions of this system are of 
significance to us at this conference. One includes the changes 
brought on by women's evolution to a status as free as and equal 
to men's. The second dimension in our favor is that the network 
of influences now potent in our society can make the American 
female as versatile as we hope she will be. But there are too 
many girls whose development is not significantly touched by these 
influences — girls in the lower economic classes and in minority 
groups. They, therefore, cannot develop the concept of dual role 
which we imply when we discuss the versatile American female. 
Many of these girls end up as Hell's Angels and do not learn how 
to be either versatile or feminine. 

Here are the resources that we have to work with in the 
United States. 

1. Government. Local, State, and National government agencies 
all concern themselves with helping people become and remain 
productive. Until recently, most efforts were economic rather 
than personal-social in method. A National Guidance Foundation, 
sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor and the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Health, Education, and Welfare, could be started for 
about one hundred million dollars a year. The purpose of this 
foundation would be to create a national peer group for adoles- 
cents. I was past 30 years of age before I had a peer group of 
national scope consisting of professional colleagues. This could 
be possible for 15-, 16-, and 17-year-old youngsters, if it were 
encouraged on a broad scale. Some limited efforts in this direction 
are made now. Some youngsters, like the one who spends the sum- 
mer in Appalachia teaching a family the ABC's, come home with a 
new peer-group orientation and new contacts that make a 
difference in their lives. 

2. The schools. Counselors and teachers in the schools are a 
potential resource to youth. The schools are especially helpful 
when all of the conditions are just in the right balance. However, 
the neighborhood school is always a reflection of the neighbor- 
hood. Poor neighborhoods have poor schools and good neigh- 
borhoods have good schools, with the same principle applying to 
everything in between. 

3. The churches. Churches and church people are looking out 
for youth, too. When the church does a good job, youth profit 
and prosper, but sometimes the benevolence fund gets more serious 

17 



attention than do the "disadvantaged" youth within the church and 
its community. Many young people do not see the church as 
relevant to tomorrow's world. 

4. Public, private, and parochial organizations. The General 
Federation of Women's Clubs, PTA, Girl Scouts, Camp Fire Girls, 
YMCA, YWCA, Boy Scouts, B'nai B'rith, and 4-H Clubs all have 
youth programs — but usually too few young people participate in 
these programs. These agencies represent a potential resource 
for young people who participate. 

5. Money. Persistent policies reflect the continued presence of 
"economic man." We still behave as though we believe that money 
can buy us out of our present condition. Quality cannot be bought. 
It must be created. 

6. Time. Time is truly a fourth dimension. Give me time with 
another human being and his behavior will be modified. No man 
can match the influence of a woman in childrearing. Women have 
time with children — therefore they hold the keys to our culture 
and to our survival. Why do we think, even for a moment, that 
we can place such a trust in the hands of undereducated women? 
Once you educate a woman, she will never let her child grow up 
in ignorance. 

Time is the key to quality. Money, with time, puts the pos- 
sibility of quality and quantity within our reach. Whether or not 
we achieve it is, indeed, another matter. 

7. Knowledge and skill. The knowledge and skill to produce a 
versatile, productive, and creative adult is within our grasp. The 
hope of mankind is always in the next generation. Sorry, we have 
had our chance. I, for one, have a parent's pride in our new- 
generation Americans. 

They are not encumbered, as we are, by all the things we 
know that aren't true. By and large, the young American has 
played our game while he learned his own. This is not true for 
the members of the "Other America." The poor and their culture 
are not participating. They are not going anywhere, and they are 
not doing anything. 

I might add here a notion that I think is very crucial in America 
today. We professionals have been playing with the word "motiva- 
tion" for years. We have been treating it as an antecedent. 
Motivation is not an antecedent; it is a consequence. I am moti- 
vated because of experiences I have had; I am not motivated to 
have experiences. 

A lot of the little girls that we worry about in our culture go 
out and spend the summer teaching the alphabet to families in 
poverty areas — Appalachia or Kentucky. How many of us have 

18 



been there? I haven't been, but I have seen the change in a 
youngster who does this. She is more mature than I am. She 
gains a national peer group. She knows somebody somewhere 
else. She knows people who represent something different from 
what she already knows in her social class. 

8. Youth. We all recognize that young people are our greatest 
single resource. Adults know next to nothing about using youth 
as a possible resource. 

The best example I can find to illustrate this point is to take a 
look at us at this conference today. Like our youths, we never 
have to go very far for our models. We have met here to consider 
what to do for youth. There are no young people here. Therefore 
we either do not know how, or we choose not to work with youth. 

9. Employment service. A youth wants a job because it leads 
to economic independence and status. A job and a car go together 
to create what youth and adults recognize as a fully accredited 
person. In order to afford a car, a youth must have a job that is 
at least productive enough to provide him the income he needs to 
support himself and his enterprise. I wish the employment service 
could help youth with this vital problem. 

10. Urban renewal. I am speaking here not of physical urban 
renewal, but of the kind that knocks down old outdated ideas and 
attitudes and creates a new kind of urban renewal in the backyards 
of our minds. 

We might, I suggest, become part of the solution, instead of 
part of the problem. 

In summarizing this notion, I would say we have many resources. 
Some people use them, and they win. Some people do not use 
them, and they lose. 

Somebody in this great Nation is going to have to choose whether 
all girls and boys get access to knowledge, skills, and experience 
sufficient to create a participating role for each of them in our 
Great Society. 

What are the possibilities for counseling girls in the 1960's? 

Take them where the action is. 

Our society can no longer ignore the need to be involved. Physical 
involvement is essential. 

Young people have fantastic amounts of uncommitted time (not 
leisure). Education is a leisure-time and a leisure-class activity. 
I remind you that we must make education work! Work, a job 
for youth, is going to school. We should pay youth to go to school. 
This is not original with me, but I do support it. I do exhort 
everyone to consider its relevance in this day and time. 

19 



Another possibility is to utilize the transportation industry as 
a part of our solution to the problem of giving youth access to 
expanding numbers of role models in our culture. Many young- 
sters — and most girls — are extremely limited in terms of the access 
they have to a wide range of potential role models. They have 
many models for a career of mothering but not very many for a 
work career. 

Our technological and scientific advantages are most dramat- 
ically expressed in our transportation system. Why not use travel 
as a means to expose girls to role models beyond the domestic 
ones? I am lobbying for two things here. First, provide scholar- 
ships for everyone capable of achieving an education at least 
through the baccalaureate. Second, provide wider exposure to 
potentially relevant role models by utilizing intrastate and inter- 
state travel, conferences, seminars, exchanges of student and staff 
in high school and college, and the like. The methods by which 
adults keep current — in-service conferences, short courses, and 
hearing from outside resource persons — should not be limited to 
adults. We should let the youngsters have access to procedures 
we ourselves have found most useful. 

The National Guidance Foundation I suggested could activate 
such a program, and all the controls necessary to keep it from 
exploiting our boys and girls could be built in. The experiences 
and exposures made available would combat the self-depreciating 
attitude found among women because of their apparent subordina- 
tion to men. I am sure in our kind of culture a woman who does 
not work at least during part of her life is not fully educated. 
Girls have less access to the culture than boys do. I am merely 
proposing that we arrange to give girls more access to the culture 
so they can develop as much as their potential would lead us to 
expect. Sex in our culture is more than biology. The socialization 
practices for boys and girls reflect this. They show us a great deal 
about how we discriminate against women. 

Anyone who professes to counsel girls in the 1960's must under- 
stand that he will probably have to face difficult decisions. The 
question each of us should ask and answer for ourselves is whether 
we want to become intellectual termites — chewing away at the 
foundation of our social system — or whether we want to make it 
work. Is our automated society a human society moving toward 
the specialization of the anthill? (Indeed, mountains may be made 
from such molehills.) 

I don't agree with the prophets of doom. I work with a wide 
cross-section of American society, and I have yet to discover any 
consistently negative or hopeless attitude toward the future among 

20 



our youngsters or their teachers. There is considerable concern 
about how one learns to become a part of the team that carries 
on the total process of our society. If a woman wants meaning in 
her lifework, she must understand the total process and her place 
in the total scheme. Values must help bring her to an evaluation 
of her contribution to the general welfare. The criteria by which 
she judges her participation dictate her level of meaning and her 
sense of value as a person. 

Donald N. Michael 8 says we do not use the data and methods 
that exist in meeting and making our decisions. We insist on using 
our personal ways of evaluating the world. How many of us are 
still doing that today? 

The U.S. Department of Labor, the Office of Education and 
other agencies of the U.S. Department of Health, Education, and 
Welfare have been guilty, as each of us has, of using data judg- 
ments often to the exclusion of qualitative judgments. This has 
brought us to the untenable position of making no decision on 
what the future should be like, because such a decision is not a 
data decision but a qualitative decision. Nowhere is this more 
apparent than in the guidance of girls. Girls are treated as 
surplus people. They are considered unimportant to the main- 
stream of American life. 

Michael points out that many of the conditions are independent 
of the youth developers. Some of these are the economy, techno- 
logical developments, organized efficiency, urban trends, peace 
and war, marriage, sex, and the family. 

The family will accelerate its transformation and become the 
most important peer-group learning arena available to our youth. 

The family in America is far from its final stage of develop- 
ment. Much of the Negro population is still trying to establish a 
family pattern. Much of the participating class — the middle 
class — has a stable family pattern. Others among the middle class 
practice a kind of serial monogamy. I would remind this group 
only that the sex practices among adults form the common model 
for our youth. 

In addition to its biological functions, sex takes on a meaning 
beyond procreation. Many adults and youth use it to seek a close 
personal relationship as a security anchor in an otherwise 
stress-filled way of life. 

The experiences I have had working with families during the 
past 4 years have led me to classify families like this : 



8 Michael, Donald N., The Next Generation, New York, Random House, 1965. 

21 



Type 1 : This family "works." It produces the best examples 
of strong, healthy youth in our culture. Such a family uses groups 
for learning and teaching and socialization. 

Type 2: This family, so-called, represents only a procreation 
process. It produces the most vulnerable individuals in our cul- 
ture, because there is no group form that is maintained within 
the family, with the possible exception of a sibling peer group. 

When we are successful in transforming a Type 2 family into 
a Type 1 family, the vulnerable individuals usually become strong, 
healthy youth. But, of course, we often do not succeed in the 
remedial and corrective sphere. This is particularly true if we 
work only with the youngster in isolation from parents and other 
significant persons, and we commonly do this in school. 

If we could, for a moment, subscribe to the principle that a person 
is the product of the influences experienced from birth, we would 
get a quick look at something important in our culture. Our cul- 
ture itself is an accumulation of wisdom, facts, knowledge, and 
skills, sorted out over a period of time and retained for survival 
value. What we have been saying is that the culture influences 
the development of a woman because of some accumulated 
"wisdom" about how the female should fit into the scheme of 
things. We are also saying that conditions are different now and 
that we would like this evolution to speed up, and the conditions 
prescribed by the culture to be changed. 

Obviously, if we want girls to grow up differently from the way 
today's women grew up, then we will have to present girls with 
new sources of systematic influence. 

The only model available to us in this culture, aside from the 
female model we have been using, is the male model. 

I believe that youngsters have already sensed this changing 
facade and that they are already moving closer together. Boys 
and girls are becoming more alike culturally and are achieving 
closer personal relationships than adults heretofore have achieved. 
We also know that the more education a woman gets, the more 
she becomes like a man with an education. An educated man 
relates differently to a woman than an uneducated man does. The 
educated man is aware of other levels of relating to the female, 
besides sex. This is not true of the uneducated man. He may have 
only two models, the mother and the sexual model, as examples of 
relating to a woman. 

We are doing a good job today in the socialization of girls. We 
have achieved a balance of success among the socializing agencies 
and forces. When we fail, we usually fail because we abstain. 

22 



That is, we limit our sphere of influence to our own class structure 
and we fail to transgress to the "Other American." 

Girls themselves will have to make this change happen if it is 
to be achieved. The cultural encapsulation that you and I repre- 
sent will probably not allow us to do it. We are part of the 
problem. 

Girls will have gained equal rights when their behavior estab- 
lishes the fact in your mind and mine. Dissent was the route to 
women's suffrage and it will be the route to equality for girls. 
For examples, read the current literature about girls in the grad- 
uate school at the University of California at Berkeley or about 
women in careers. 

We need to move this thinking down to the 15-year-olds. We 
should do more than groom a girl for a future aesthetic or 
biological role. 

If I can shock you here by what I say, think how vulnerable 
our social system is at a time when we depend upon youth devel- 
opers to give youth the experiences necessary to prepare them 
for the Great Society. 

Group procedures afford a way of creating conditions in which 
learning can take place. A girl needs a safe and controlled environ- 
ment in order to learn by direct experience. Otherwise, she may 
be exploited. However, our social system actually works and it 
can be learned very quickly under perfectly safe conditions with 
the leadership of adults who know how and are not afraid to 
work with youth. A group can create a unique social system of 
its own and indeed each group does. A series of groups or peer 
groups or training groups can provide a wide range of experiences 
for today's youth. We must let girls and boys learn together so 
that they will master the means and methods of complementing 
each other in their competition with the environment. 

The team or group approach to work in modern technological 
society makes it imperative that we look again at how we provide 
avenues to personal meaning through work groups, and socializa- 
tion through group learning in teams, peers, family, and 
friendships. 

The role of women in American Society toward faces a review. 

Traditions take on the role of containment. It perpetuates the 
idea that woman's place is in the home, raising children, being a 
homemaker. The only trouble is that mothers must be well edu- 
cated to do a good job of rearing children. Education is a con- 
tinuing process in modern times, and work experience is an 
essential part of anyone's educational development. School, 

23 



through traditional development periods, has now extended to 
lifelong learning. The appropriate form of learning at a given 
time may involve productive labor in a world at work. 

Women are the key to the productive and creative social order. 
Apparently, men are unable to achieve great societies by 
themselves. 

Women must participate with men to learn what is necessary 
to do the job that we expect and society demands. 

A cybernated society may leave you in the dark, black out your 
avenues to personal meaning, or barricade your intersections with 
other people. It may further the alienation imposed by an open 
social system, which is closed to all uneducated, socially illiterate, 
or functionally illiterate individuals. 

The educated person participates in the social system in pro- 
ductive ways leading to enrichment of personal meaning. 

Every other person actively participating in our wonderful 
social system adds a bit to me. 

Every other person lost in a meaningless abyss puts another 
wrinkle in my withering soul. 



24 



What Sets the Limits to a Woman's Growth? 

Dr. Virginia L. Senders* 

Associate Director 

New England Board of Higher Education 

The subtitle of my talk is "Four Children." I am going to 
compare boys and girls and how they grow. It will not surprise 
you to learn that two of these four children are boys and two are 
girls. To the first pair of youngsters I have given the names of 
Andrew and Andrea. I picked those names because they both 
begin with "A." That is to help you remember that Andrew and 
Andrea are both achieving sorts of people. They are exceptionally 
bright children, and both are interested in science. Let's consider 
Andrew first. 

For Andrew, the way has thus far been relatively easy, and it 
will continue to be easy as he grows up. He is encouraged by his 
parents to compete — athletically, intellectually, and in attempting 
to acquire a mastery over nature. The toys and books that come 
into his house encourage both his need for achievement and his 
interest in secrets of nature. Baseball bats and microscope sets 
both contribute to his development. Role models abound in the 
biographies that he reads, in the world about him, in the news- 
papers, and on television. His teachers recognize and encourage 
his interests and abilities and assure him that there are no limits 
to what he can accomplish. He is asked by grownups the inevitable 
question, "What are you going to be when you grow up?", and 
when he says, "a chemist," the grownups nod approvingly. His 
parents are setting aside money for his college education and are 
considering only first-class institutions for him. Being human, 
he occasionally turns in a sloppy piece of schoolwork, and when 
he does his teachers take a serious and dim view of it, pointing 
out to him the need for excellence in all the work that he produces. 

*Dr. Senders was the founder and first director of the Minnesota Plan for Continuing 
Education for Women. Previously she had been professor of psychology at Antioch College. 
She served as a member of the Education Committee of the President's Commission on the Status 
of Women. In 1965 Dr. Senders was given the Women of Conscience Award of the National 
Council of Women. 

25 



In high school he takes a series of stiff mathematics and science 
courses, as well as a wide variety of courses in other subjects. 

Life in college is as demanding and stimulating as life in high 
school was, and he receives all the support, encouragement, and 
rigorous discipline that he will need to make him a first-class 
scientist. Fellowships and research assistantships are available 
for this excellent student in graduate school. His military service 
is postponed until after he has obtained his advanced degree, so 
that if he does go into the Armed Forces, it is with a commission, 
and carrying on professional work in his own field. He marries a 
sweet girl, who is intelligent and approves of his work even though 
she doesn't understand it. Mr. and Mrs. Andrew become the 
parents of several children who see very little of their father 
because he spends most of his time in the laboratory, but Mrs. 
Andrew carries on all the household activities with efficiency and 
grace. Andrew is an achieving man, and the world is his oyster. 

Andrea is really like Andrew in many ways. Like him she is 
an intelligent youngster, also interested in science and competitive 
by nature. How she got to be that way we will leave unanswered 
at this time. For whatever reason, Andrea is the kind of girl who 
is going to make something very important of herself someday. 
Her path is not as smooth as Andrew's. Take the matter of toys 
for example. Her parents, like Andrew's, give her science toys 
among others, but the aunts and uncles give her dolls, and little 
bottles of perfume, or clothes. She has discovered a biography of 
Marie Curie in the library and decided to model herself after that 
scientist, but other role models are hard to find. The mass media 
hardly help. On television, for example, the role of the woman 
seems most of the time to be that of question-poser to the wise and 
knowing male. There are admirable women on TV, but most oi 
them are in such acceptably feminine pursuits as elementary school 
teaching or nursing. No TV serial glamorizes the role of the female 
research chemist. 

When Andrea reaches high school and adolescence, she becomes 
normally interested in boys, but finds to her sorrow that no boys 
are interested in her. She competes, and she very often wins in 
the competition, and few boys are strong enough to take it and 
like it. So she is forced back into her role as scholar and deviant. 
A feeling of alienation, latent in childhood, begins to be more 
pronounced in her adolescent years. 

Andrea is sufficiently outstanding in her academic abilities that 
when she chooses her high school courses, nobody tries to dis- 
courage her from taking the math and science that she will need 
later. It is accepted by teachers, counselors, and parents alike 

26 



that Andrea will go on to college and should prepare for it from 
the beginning. In this, as in many other ways, Andrea is deviant, 
and in this respect her deviancy works for her benefit. She is 
fortunate, too, in that her parents have been saving for her educa- 
tion and want her to go to the school that will give her the best 
possible preparation for a future career. (Other adults have not 
always been so understanding. When she tells them that she wants 
to be a chemist, she is often met with indulgent smiles and the 
comment, "That's nice, but first of all you want to be a wife 
and mother, don't you, dear?") She is accepted at the college of 
her choice and receives scholarship assistance. Again, she is 
unusual in this respect. Colleges often turn down brighter girls 
for less bright boys in order to maintain the sex ratio they have 
set up as desirable. And much less scholarship money is available 
for women than for men. 

In college Andrea faces new problems. She goes to a coeduca- 
tional institution, and all the faculty members in the fields of 
greatest interest to her are men. Some of them take her aspira- 
tions seriously ; some do not. She is beginning to feel some doubts 
at this time about her future roles. She has met a man — a man 
with an ego strong enough not to be threatened by her ability, or 
by her drive and determination, and she is feminine enough to 
want to marry and eventually to have children. But how will this 
affect her career? There are few who can give her guidance in 
this matter. Should she complete her college degree now or drop 
cut of school for marriage? She decides to finish. But what about 
graduate school ? Her career must be secondary to her husband's, 
and she wonders if perhaps she had better plan to work rather 
than study while he is getting his advanced degree. 

Since this started out as a success story we will continue it as 
one. Andrea manages to marry and continue some graduate study. 
After her first baby is born, she drops out of school but keeps up 
her reading and active professional interests. The happy climax 
comes when, in her middle thirties, with two children in school 
and good household help to take care of them after school hours, 
she returns to graduate school, receives a fellowship, completes 
her advanced degree, and belatedly starts her career in chemistry. 

We have made Andrea's story a success story, but you can see 
that it is not a success achieved without effort. Andrew's way 
was smooth and easy ; Andrea's hard, and much of the time, counter 
to the pressures of society. We hypothesized in Andrea a person 
of exceptional ability, determination, and ambition. A less driven 
girl, a less able girl, a less healthy or less ambitious girl, a girl 
with a less understanding family or husband would have found 

27 



some of the hurdles too high to leap. Let us quickly run down 
the list of obstacles in the path of the woman who could achieve : 

1. Little girls are taught not to compete with boys. 

2. Toys for little girls emphasize feminine and domestic pur- 
suits, whereas toys for little boys emphasize adventure, challenge, 
and achievement. 

3. Portrayals of women in a mass media often denigrate the 
role of women. Men achieve; women support. 

4. The expressed career aspirations of little girls are not taken 
seriously. Girls are guided into stereotyped feminine pursuits. 
Worse, they are guided into course choices that prevent them 
from making a later change to fields more appropriate and ful- 
filling for them. Mathematics and science are too often missing 
from their curricula. Dilettantism is encouraged. 

5. Career choices are made at the same time that sex-role iden- 
tity is being established. Hence a reluctance arises to undertake a 
career that threatens the feminine image. 

6. Women's higher education has, in the past, been modeled in 
content and schedule after men's education, and hence is not 
appropriate to the different life schedules of women. Only recently 
have we begun to recognize the need for a different temporal 
pattern to suit the different demands of women's lives. 

7. Outright discrimination still persists. Coeducational schools 
have quotas for women, and less bright men are still accepted, 
in many instances, in preference to brighter women. Less scholar- 
ship help is available for women. 

8. The work world, as well as the educational world, is geared 
to men's schedules and men's needs. Part-time professional work 
is seldom available. 

9. Women's careers are almost always secondary to their hus- 
band's careers, and opportunities for personal and professional 
advancement must give way to the demands of husband and family. 

10. A million small factors, each insignificant by itself, accumu- 
late to convince a girl that the world does not expect of her the 
maximum achievement of which she is potentially capable. 

These factors militate against equal achievement and equal 
competition by women in fields conventionally preempted by men. 
They violate the principle of access as stated by Max Lerner: 
Men are not equal, of course. I recall an evening I 
had with some journalists and professors in Warsaw. 
The chairman of the evening said, "Mr. Lerner, you have 
written a big book on American civilization. We haven't 
read it. But could you sum up in a single word what is the 
essence of American civilization?" I thought very 

28 



rapidly. What is America? Is it freedom? Equality? 
Democracy? Tolerance? Decency? Suddenly I heard 
myself say, "Access." The chairman laughed. "We have 
heard of American success," he said, "but we hadn't 
heard of American access." I said, "We have a Declara- 
tion of Independence which says that all men are born 
free and equal. I hope we are born free and will remain 
free. But we are not born equal. We are born very 
unequal, with unequal abilities and potentials. Every 
employer knows it, every army commander, teacher, 
parent. But we also have the notion that there ought to 
be equal access to equal opportunities, so that every one 
of these unequally born youngsters gets the chance to 
develop his unequal abilities to the full." 

. . . One may see the whole current struggle over civil 
rights as part of the revolution of access. It has not 
only its objective phases, in the struggle for equal legal 
rights in the Southern states, and the even more impor- 
tant struggle for equal de facto rights in the rest of the 
nation : it also has its subjective phases, in the sense of 
the image that whites and Negroes have of each other and 
of themselves. Thus in our elementary curricula we 
have not only the problem of remedial reading but the 
problem also of remedial self-image for the children of 
groups that have lived in the context of social inferiority 
for generations. This does not mean giving them a crutch 
to lean on. It means building a floor below which their 
position in the society cannot fall. The rest will be up 
to them as individuals. A welfare society will not solve 
the problems of the individual life. It will only attempt 
to make sure that no person has to face those problems 
under a crippling social disadvantage, that the doors of 
opportunity, which are open to some, are not slammed 
shut in the face of others. Democracy does not mean 
equal abilities: it means only that each shall have an 
equal chance at a chance. 1 
Much of what Lerner has to say about civil rights could also 
be said about the rights of women to grow, to develop, to achieve 
in a world shaped by men. Women have been discriminated 
against, and the discrimination has been both de jure and de facto. 
Both kinds of discrimination are hard to root out, but we are 
making good progress on the former. As you all know, sex got 

1 Lerner, Max. "The Revolutionary Frame of Our Time," The College and the Student, 
Am»rician Council on Education, Washington, D.C., 1966. 

29 



into the Civil Rights Act accidently, but it is there. Enforcement 
will take time, but at least there is now a law to enforce. Congress- 
woman Edith Green, in speaking to the annual meeting of the 
College Entrance Examination Board, has suggested that colleges 
which discriminate again women (that is to say, have quotas 
limiting the number of women) should be investigated before 
they are permitted to receive Federal funds. The equal pay law 
is at least on the books. 

There are still problems, but for the most part it is not the 
official, legal hurdles that keep some women from becoming all 
that they have the ability to become. It is rather the covert, 
unrecognized forms of discrimination. It is the dumb housewives 
on the TV commercials, it is the embroidery sets for little girls 
and construction sets for little boys. It is the parents who say 
that if only one child in the family can have a higher education, 
that one should be the boy. It is the counselors who tell the 
girls not to take mathematics because it is hard and they won't 
need it anyway. These subtle or not-so-subtle influences start 
very early and continue throughout adult life. They have the 
effect, in fact, of closing the doors that have been, at high cost, 
opened by law. These are influences that each and every one of 
you can help to change, and I hope that you will. I hope you will 
help to assure the access of every individual to every opportunity 
and every right (including the right to be taken seriously) that 
she should have. 

So much, then, for my first two children. I have called the 
other pair of children Jill and Jimmy. "A" stood for achieve- 
ment, but the "J" does not stand for anything. You will see why 
that is, when you hear more about Jill and Jimmy. Let's consider 
Jill first. 

Jill is the kind of little girl that delights her parents and her 
teachers. She is pretty, sweet, feminine, intelligent, and a good 
student. She is a nice child, too, and mothers love to have her 
visit them because she is so good at playing with and taking care 
of their younger children. She takes her schoolwork seriously 
and carries out meticulously all the work that is assigned to her. 
She is good but not great in art and music, and is beginning to 
develop a real love for poetry. In high school she discusses career 
plans with a counselor, and is told that because she is intelligent 
and able she should plan to go to college. She should also, she is 
told, prepare for a vocation. Because she likes young children 
and is good with them, she might perhaps become an elementary 
school teacher. Jill looks at the women teachers about her, sees 
that many are married, and accepts the idea with some pleasure. 

30 



Her parents hope that she will go to the State university nearest 
her home, and she is accepted and decides to attend and major 
in elementary education. She is a good citizen, a popular girl, 
and an above-average student. 

Somewhat to her parents' distress, however, she drops out of 
school at the end of her sophomore year to marry. The young 
couple cannot manage tuition and expenses for both of them, so 
she accepts a low-skilled job to help her husband to complete his 
studies. Since she has no real plans to work she is not bothered by 
the fact that she has neither finished school nor developed special 
vocational skills. Work is a temporary stopgap for her, and she 
relinquishes it gladly when the first baby arrives. Baby care is 
a pleasure and, although she occasionally feels caged and frus- 
trated, for the most part she derives great satisfaction from 
watching her children growing up. In her community she is a 
dependable, contributing worker, and in the time that she is not 
taking care of her own children or working to make a better 
community for somebody else's children, she enjoys the opportunity 
to listen to good music, to read, and to try her hand at pottery- 
making. Jill is everything that a woman is expected to be in our 
society. And the world is her oyster. 

The world is not Jimmy's oyster. Jimmy is very much like Jill 
in very many ways. He is a sensitive child with musical talent 
(but not genius), a real feeling for the aesthetics of visual form, 
sympathetic and empathic beyond his years, kind and helpful to 
young children. He dislikes team sports, is not competitive either 
physically or intellectually. His teachers love him, but worry a 
little bit about whether he is going to develop into a "regular 
guy." And to Jimmy, the question, "What are you going to be 
when you grow up?" has become a perpetual agony. He used 
to say "a father," and the grownups roared. He tried saying 
"a poet" and was met by embarrassed silence. He looks at his 
teachers and thinks that he might like to do what they are doing. 
But since they are all women he senses that he had better not say 
that he wants to be a teacher. (Later, he will learn that it is 
socially acceptable for him to aspire to be a high school teacher, 
a college teacher, or even an elementary school principal, or perhaps 
a gym teacher. So far, he has not made these fine distinctions.) 

Because Jimmy is sensitive, he is aware that he is different 
from many of his male classmates, and he feels alienated. They 
have accepted the conventional masculine stereotypes, as appar- 
ently have all the grownups in the world, and he feels, without 
explicitly verbalizing it, that there must be something a little 
wrong with a boy who wants to do certain things but doesn't 

31 



terribly want to be anything in particular. And life gets no easier 
for Jimmy as he gets older. His play activities, his lack of com- 
petitive spirit, all earn him the taunt of "sissy" from the boys and 
girls alike. When he turns on the television set he encounters 
skindivers and astronauts, scientists and athletes, all achievers. 

College, for Jim, ranges from ecstasy to agony. He loves his 
English literature, art, history, and music appreciation courses, 
but he is no Wordsworth, nor is he a great artist or musician. 
His interest in people and real feeling for them take him into 
psychology, where he is taught to speak of the "human organism" 
and he studies the influences of the ascending reticular formation 
and the effects of variable interval reinforcement. One professor 
studies personality with an intuitive approach, but students and 
professors alike speak of him as a "slushhead." All the while, 
Jim's parents and counselors keep asking the same old awful 
question: "What are you going to be?" Jim still doesn't know, 
but his love for children seems to be taking him toward elementary 
education. Professors in the college of education think that Jim is 
wonderful, but he is one of very few men in the program and deeply 
feels his isolation. Furthermore, Jim is no homosexual, and his 
relations with girls are suffering because his choice of curriculum 
and vocation does little to establish his qualifications as a real man. 

Perhaps surprisingly, Jim does manage to graduate from college 
with adequate grades. (His lack of competitive spirit has kept 
him from striving for grades in courses that he considers trivial 
or dull.) Hardly has he grasped his diploma and signed up with 
the placement bureau when the letter from Uncle Sam greets 
him, and Jim is drafted. 

No continuity here. No opportunity to cater to the sensitivities 
of his soul. Physically, philosophically, and emotionally, Jim's 
Army years are years of torture. Where is the unbroken career 
line that is supposed to characterize men's lives? 

When Jim gets out of the Army he goes to graduate school for 
a year and acquires a master's degree. He marries, then moves 
into a somewhat underpaid job as an elementary school teacher. 
He very much enjoys the work, and he likes the fact that his 
schedule leaves him some free time to be with his own children. 
Reluctantly, however, he recognizes that to meet his full financial 
responsibility to his family, he had better prepare to move into 
administration, where he can earn a higher salary. By the time 
he is in his middle thirties, Jim is a moderately happy man who 
enjoys his work but wishes he didn't have to devote so much time 
to administration. He enjoys the many recreational activities that 
he shares with his school-age children and his wife. He is aware 

32 



that his parents are somewhat disappointed in his lack of 
accomplishsment, but considers that he has met his own goals. 

I presume you recognize what I have done here. I've taken 
every one of the factors that militated against achievement by 
women in fields preempted by men and turned it inside out to 
show how it can militate against the comfortable, natural devel- 
opment of men in fields conventionally preempted by women, 
including homemaking and parenthood. The Jimmys of the world, 
who would like to be moral, sensitive, humane and noncompetitive, 
are forced into ill-fitting "masculine" molds just as surely as the 
Andreas are forced into confining "feminine" ones. We hear 
more about the Andreas than we do about the Jimmys. That is 
not accidental. Women who are concerned about women's lives, 
women who write books, give lectures, call and attend conferences 
on women, are more likely to be Andreas than Jills. Jill doesn't 
need a champion yet because her way is the conventional, feminine 
way. (The Jills of the world may need a champion before too 
many years have passed if all the Andreas have their way.) 

But the story is not yet complete. We took leave of Jill as a 
happy suburban matron in her middle thirties. A few years later 
her children have reached college age. And while her husband is 
moderately successful, he is not making enough money to pay the 
tuition for all of the several sons and daughters that he and Jill 
have produced. Suddenly and quite unexpectedly, Jill finds herself 
with an emptying nest and a need for more money to pass through 
the family coffers on its way to the college treasuries. Nothing 
in her past life has prepared her to meet this occasion. She has 
learned dilettantism, not commitment. She has learned to follow, 
not to lead. She has learned to retreat from competition when 
the competition is tough. She has learned a variety of interests 
and minor skills rather than excellence and specialization. In 
many ways she is still a child unprepared to fa.ce the world's 
demands for an adult. 

Jill may be lucky. With the help of a counselor, she may be 
able to find a new role for herself that is worth working hard to 
prepare for. She may start career preparation, use long wasted 
talents, and become very good at something that she likes very 
much. With luck, it may even be a fairly remunerative something. 
Or she may be forced by necessity simply to take a job. 

Now I submit to you that Jill did not have the right not to 
grow. I submit that Jill has an obligation to society that she 
cannot morally deny. A society in which all the members con- 
sumed more goods and services than they contributed would not 
long remain viable. And each who is able must contribute more 

33 



than he consumes, because there are others who can never con- 
tribute and many who are temporarily taking more than they 
are giving. Consider that, with the prolongation of formal educa- 
tion into the late teens for most and the late twenties for some, 
a very large and increasing portion of the population is necessarily 
consuming more than it is producing. The mentally retarded will 
always do so. For greater or lesser periods, the physically handi- 
capped or the sick, the emotionally disturbed, the poor, the unem- 
ployed, the socially dislocated, the delinquents, and the criminals — 
all of these put a drain on society's resources. And most of us 
can expect to grow very old some day and very dependent. Of the 
healthy, able-bodied, mature citizens who are left, some are not 
very bright, and some have not very much energy, and some have 
no particular special abilities. They can do routine work, they 
can pay as they go, they can manage their own homes and keep 
their children out of trouble, but they have no surplus contribu- 
tion for society's treasury. To maintain a viable society those who 
have the ability to pay more than their own way by producing 
excess goods or services, paid or unpaid, have a responsibility to 
do so. Natural superiority has its obligations. These obligations 
are not met by making a happy home and producing healthy 
children to consume more goods and services. 

This social responsibility used to be enforced by the Puritan 
ethic; today it is often enforced by more immediate economic 
necessity. Most women who work for pay, work for the pay. They 
work because they need the money: to survive, to make more 
comfortable homes, to pay for their children's music lessons or 
college educations. As Mrs. Keyserling has told you, most women 
can expect to be gainfully employed for about 25 years. 

That being the case, every woman should prepare to spend a 
large part of her adult life at a paid job, just as she expects to 
spend a large part of it at home raising children. Whether she 
will be a shoe clerk or a pediatrician depends in part upon her 
and in part upon you as counselors. We have reason to believe 
that if she has the makings of a pediatrician in her, she will be 
an unhappy shoe clerk. We know that the more education a woman 
has, the more likely she is to be in the labor force. (If she has 
5 years or more of higher education and is between the ages of 
45 and 54, the chances are 86 out of 100 that she holds a paid 
job.) This is true even though the wives of rich husbands are, 
in general, less likely to work than the wives of poorer husbands, 
and women with much education are more likely than are less 
educated women to marry men who become rich. These figures 
suggest that educated women work, in part, because they like to. 

34 



Knowing, as you do, that women will work, must work, you can 
help them foresee this part of their lives and, through education, 
make it maximally productive for society and maximally satisfying 
for them as individuals. 

Now I am sure the Women's Bureau brought me here to tell 
you to urge women to achieve their maximal potentials, but I am 
not sure you should do that. This is where we come to the hardest 
questions of all. Andrea's achievement was made harder because 
she was a woman. Jimmy was forced, uncomfortably, into a kind 
of achievement because he was a man. To which did we do a 
greater injustice? Or is Jill perhaps the greatest sufferer of all? 
Must we put a floor under achievement? 

The principle of social responsibility — of putting back in at 
least as much as you have taken out and as much more as you 
are able and willing — seems to impose a minimum to the growth 
that we have a right to expect of every normal citizen. Does society 
have the right to impose ceilings on achievement? The principle 
of access states clearly that nobody's growth should be inhibited 
simply because the somebody happens to be female. What is 
society's responsibility to the individual and the individual's obliga- 
tion to society? And should we not be moving toward a world 
in which violet seeds are nurtured into full flower as violets, and 
acorns, whether male or female, into oaks ? 

Discussion 

.Discussion following Dr. Fullmer's and Dr. Sender's speeches 
included comments, questions, and answers that are important in 
both a specific and philosophic sense. 

A member of the audience suggested that much of the work 
offered to youth is boring and wondered how this fits in with the 
idea that the world of work is part of education and introduces 
youth to culture. Dr. Fullmer agreed that much of what we require 
of youngsters is boring; it is designed to fill uncommitted time as 
opposed to filling leisure time. Education, he said, is a leisure- 
time activity. In his view it should be looked upon as work, and 
youngsters should be paid to go to school — a procedure that would 
help make education real. One reason education may be boring, 
he added, is that an individual doesn't see a relationship between 
what she does in school and what she wants out of life. Many 
things people have to do are boring, but necessary. Mature people 
do them; immature people fuss about doing them. 

Another question — this one directed to Dr. Senders — commented 
on the fact that most women marry, and that the American popula- 

35 



tion is increasingly mobile. What implications does this mobility 
have for a woman who is career-oriented and married to an achiev- 
ing husband? Does, or should, her activities influence where and 
when the family is going to move? What can a counselor tell a 
girl about the difficulties of meeting such a situation? Dr. Senders 
recognized the problem as a real one and offered a suggestion. 
Too much vocational counseling, she noted, is done at a time when 
marriage plans have not become settled; it would be helpful to 
provide opportunities for joint vocational counseling of men and 
women. We should abandon the assumption that once a woman 
marries, her career development ends. Marital counseling com- 
bined with vocational counseling would enable a man and woman 
to take a new look at their joint life and plan for joint careers 
and mutual development. Dr. Senders noted, however, a complete 
partnership is not possible. Most frequently, a wife's career will 
have to take second place when a move is contemplated. But joint 
planning would attempt to make sure that second place does not 
mean no place at all. 

The relative dominance given to a husband's or wife's activities 
at the time a move is contemplated may depend on the age and 
stage of the family. Roles may be more interchangeable when 
children are grown. Some families have experimented with a 
complete reversal of the breadwinning role and have found that, 
although the arrangement is satisfactory for themselves, difficulties 
occur in their relations with the outside world. 

A member of the audience commented that some women are 
prevented from developing their abilities through activities out- 
side the home because of the absence of child-care facilities. 

Dr. Senders suggested that disadvantaged women are not the 
only ones whose growth is limited by the lack of such care. Money 
is not always the key to availability of child-care arrangements; 
lack of trained personnel and the failure to recognize the need 
are also factors. 

Better child-care facilities were seen as part of the answer to 
many women's problems, but Dr. Senders also suggested that if 
they had had some opportunity for personal growth and develop- 
ment earlier, many women might not have had as many children 
as they did. 

Some women, in fact, continue to have children because they 
believe there is nothing else interesting that they are able to do. 

Another member of the audience wondered whether women are 
apathetic about working toward promotion and advancement, even 
when they are employed. She felt that women seem to seek employ- 
ment just for the money they earn, and take little interest in what 

36 



they do. Can motivation be legislated, she asked. Dr. Senders com- 
mented that women tend to be pushed into easy chairs and told 
to sit down ; they need to be pushed into something more demand- 
ing — less momentarily satisfying, perhaps — but eventually more 
fulfilling. 

If a woman is doing a creative job of homemaking and child- 
rearing, another participant asked, isn't it better to let her do this 
without pushing or prodding her to do something else? Mrs. 
Keyserling noted that there are no stereotypes into which anyone 
should be fitted, and the most we can hope for is that every girl 
be aware of the full range of the choices open to her. 

A question was raised about a possible change in the pattern of 
family life. A participant wanted to know if the stress placed on 
having women contribute to society was going to establish new 
family patterns, either immediately after the family is formed or 
after the mother reaches 45. Dr. Fullmer noted that many family 
patterns exist that we have not yet had time to test. He has had 
enough experience, he said, to respect the fact that there is more 
than one good pattern for family life. What is done in all of the 
successful patterns that produce strong, healthy individuals is 
pretty much the same in principle. 

The session closed with these thought-provoking questions : Does 
the value of an individual depend on his achievement? What does 
this achievement idea do to the concept that an individual has 
value just because he exists? Should we not have had philosophers 
or theologians present to speak on this point? 



37 



DINNER SESSION 

THE CONTRIBUTION OF STATE COMMISSIONS TO 
THE GUIDANCE AND COUNSELING PROFESSION 

Mrs. Mary N. Hilton, Deputy Director of the Women's Bureau, 
presided at the Dinner Session on Friday evening, at which the 
activities of the State commissions on the status of women in the 
area of education and counseling were discussed. 

Mrs. Hilton recalled that the report of the President's Commis- 
sion on the Status of Women pointed out that "too many plans 
recommended to young women reaching maturity are only partially 
suited to the second half of the 20th century." She noted that 
the State commissions, through the work of their committees on 
education and counseling, were attempting to bring reality to bear 
on the choices and opportunities offered to young women. She 
urged each participant to get in touch with the commission in his 
own State, and to take advantage of the leadership and support it 
is prepared to offer. 

Reports were heard from five of the States represented at the 
conference: Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, and 
West Virginia. The New Jersey commission was in the process 
of writing its report and was unable to send a representative to 
the meeting. A commission has not been appointed in the District 
of Columbia. 

Delaware 

Mrs. Rosella Humes, chairman of the Delaware Governor's Com- 
mission, based her remarks on her commission's report. 

One thing our commission became aware of at the start of its 
investigation was the importance of making guidance services 
available to girls at the beginning of their educational experiences. 
It is evident to us that we must begin at the elementary school 
level to make girls aware of their special abilities. We should set 
aside the idea that there are some professions and jobs for which 
women are unsuited. We must persuade girls to stay in school. 

38 



They need an education, whether they are interested in a career 
in business, in a profession, in industry, or in homemaking. 

Educators in some parts of our State see a need for guidance 
specialists at the elementary school level. In other areas there is 
more pressing need for social workers and psychologists who can 
assist with the problems faced by many children who come from 
low-income families or families in which parents are illiterate. 

In these situations classroom teachers are the important link 
between the children and the special guidance facilities. But in 
many areas our teachers have so many responsibilities that they 
can do little in regard to their guidance functions. This is the 
weakest area in our chain of guidance services. 

Our guidance personnel are carrying loads far too heavy to 
permit them to have a personal knowledge of the children they are 
trying to help. Today I heard one guidance counselor say she was 
serving 900 pupils ; another, 550. It seems to me virtually impos- 
sible for a counselor working at full capacity to know and to 
evaluate an individual child when her caseload is this heavy, 
except perhaps for the occasional child who forcibly, by reason of 
outstanding ability or the apparent lack of any ability, gets 
special treatment. 

There is some lack of formalized guidance and counseling service 
for mature women in the State who may want advice toward 
self -improvement or toward the completion of high school require- 
ments. It is possible that many women who wish to better them- 
selves don't know how to go about it, or are hesitant because of 
past failures, regardless of present abilities. The situation may 
be complicated by this lack of formal education or by their embar- 
rassment or insecurity about admitting their needs. Good counsel- 
ing brings to light the potential these women possess and guides 
them to educational programs to meet their needs. 

Counseling should be made available in a manner which will 
induce women to overcome their hesitancy in seeking it. It should 
be provided by an appropriate State agency, whether it be the 
employment security commission or the educational system. 

Our committee suggested that trained volunteers be used to 
relieve guidance counselors of many of their routine tasks so that 
they would be freer to counsel children. 

Volunteers have worked with our public education system on 
other matters. For instance, the Great Books Committee has 
assisted the public education system. Branches of the American 
Association of University Women (AAUW) have cooperated with 
guidance counselors in junior and senior high schools in presenting 

39 



programs to motivate girls and boys to continue their formal 
education. 

The Wilmington Branch of the AAUW sponsored a program to 
prepare college graduates for work as substitutes in schools. 
Members of the National Council of Jewish Women in our State 
teach classes in arts and crafts, remedial reading, and homemaking 
and serve as library assistants in our school for delinquent girls. 
The Canterbury Garden Club deserves special recognition for its 
work in this same school. Women volunteers have been teaching 
in community settlement houses. Our committee acknowledges 
the work that is now being done by these women volunteers. We 
feel there is a potential for use of the talents, the abilities, and 
the experiences of well-trained women in meeting the shortage of 
guidance counselors by relieving those we have of many of their 
routine tasks. We strongly recommended also that consideration 
be given to removing guidance counselors and reading specialists 
from the unit system by providing direct appropriations for 
such personnel. 

Let me explain that in our schools, State support is allocated on 
a basis of units. Guidance counselors, remedial reading teachers, 
and speech therapists come under the unit system. This means 
that if a school hires a guidance counselor it must hire one less 
teacher and therefore distribute the teaching load so that each 
teacher teaches more children. If a school district is large enough, 
it may use some of its administrative units for guidance counselors 
or remedial reading instructors. Or a school district may obtain 
funds for counselors through local taxation. (Those of you who 
have anything to do with referendums know that it is very, very 
hard to get a person who doesn't have a child or a grandchild in 
school to vote tax funds for school purposes.) 

Our commission distributed some 900 copies of our report to 
State officials, legislators, women's organizations, Governors of the 
other 49 States, chairmen of all State commissions that were then 
in existence, researchers in women's affairs, and others. 

We are continuing our study, however, and lobbying for legis- 
lation that will put our recommendations into action. We offer 
our help to any interested groups — schools and guidance classes 
included. We are trying to stimulate press notices and articles 
in magazines and newspapers discussing the many kinds of jobs 
women do. And we are trying to encourage individual women 
to realize that in all probability they will, at some time in their 
lives, be seeking gainful employment, and that they should educate 
themselves academically or vocationally against that day. 

40 



DELAWARE GOVERNOR'S COMMISSION ON 
THE STATUS OF WOMEN 

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 

Miss Bessie B. Collins, Chairman Hon. Henry T. Price, Vice Chairman 

Dean of Women State Senator 

114 Hullihen Hall North Main Street 

University of Delaware Smyrna, Del. 19977 
Newark, Del. 19711 

Mrs. Dolores T. Harvey, Vice Chairman 

President 

American Association of 

University Women 
1303 Grayson Road 
Welshire 
Wilmington, Del. 19803 



Maryland 

Dr. Selma F. Lippeatt, 1 chairman of the committee on education 
and counseling of the Maryland Status of Women Commission, 
reported for that State in the absence of Mrs, Paul Wolman, 
commission chairman. 

The Maryland commission was appointed by Governor Millard 
Tawes late in the summer of 1965, and in December was in the 
beginning phases of its work. Dr. Lippeatt discussed the organiza- 
tion of the commission and some of its plans. 

Following the pattern of the President's Commission to some 
extent, the 17 members of the Maryland commission are divided 
into five committees — one of which is the committee on education 
and counseling. 

The committee on education and counseling has 5 subcommittees, 
each of which is composed of some 5 or 10 people. We know that 
our 5 subcommittees overlap and that common threads interrelate 
the work of all of them. One subcommittee is working in the area 
of adult and continuing education. 

Another is working in the area of elementary, secondary, and 
vocational education. The third committee covers higher educa- 
tion. The subcommittee on counseling and guidance services is 
chaired by Miss Ferguson, who is here at this conference. The 
last subcommittee deals with emerging employment patterns and 
opportunities, and their implications for training and education. 



1 Dr. Lippeatt is former Dean of the College of Home Economics, University of Maryland. 

41 



These subcommittees are really serving as fact-finding bodies 
and were asked to present a description of the status of their 
respective areas. The facts they come up with will serve as the 
basis of a statewide conference to be called early in the spring. 
We hope this can be called a Governor's Conference on Education 
and Counseling for Women in Maryland, and we hope to involve 
some 150 or 175 people and to use the subcommittee reports as a 
basis for workshop sessions. 

The recommendations that come from these workshop sessions 
will have far greater meaning than any the total commission or 
the committee on education and counseling might suggest. 

After this background, let us look at the contributions the 
Maryland commission may make to the area with which this con- 
ference is concerned. We are a little skeptical about projecting 
too far into the future. However, there are three groups of con- 
tributions that relate to counseling and guidance of women that 
we can look forward to realistically. 

First, we can contribute to the public's awareness of the fact 
that women in our society are involved in multiple roles. We can 
easily identify for the public certain of the issues and problems 
involved in contemporary trends — much as we have been doing 
here in this conference. This process helps us clarify our own 
beliefs. As we clarify our beliefs we begin to examine practices 
in a somewhat different light. Therefore we think that increasing 
the awareness of many groups of people may lead to improvements. 

Second, we can serve areas that need action. The biggest such 
area is the one in which talent and ability are matched to employ- 
ment opportunities. I never cease to be amazed at how often 
women accept positions that are not related in any way to their 
capabilities. In this area we also think that we can serve as an 
appraisal force to maximize the human power or woman power 
in the State. 

The third contribution we think we can make is the support 
we can offer public and private agencies and groups involved in 
a variety of action programs. We are aware as a commission of 
the many fine things going on in our State and we are proud of 
the progress that has been made, but we are sure that there are 
times when additional support can make action come a little faster. 

In order to encourage the interest of many people in the work 
of the commission, we are thinking about establishing a reviewing 
panel made up of representatives of key organizations in the State. 
This panel may cover all the committees — not just the education 
and counseling committee — and I think it is important to approach 

42 



organizations and have them in a key role. All these activities 
will be expected to conclude with a report, although we don't yet 
know whether it will be an interim or final report. But hopefully 
we will be preparing a report early in the summer and be ready 
for our presentation to the Governor before his term in office 
expires next winter. 

MARYLAND STATUS OF WOMEN COMMISSION 

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND COUNSELING 



Committee Members: 
Dr. Selma F. Lippeatt 
7207 Windsor Lane 
West Hyattsville, Md. 20783 

Mrs. Emerson C. Walden 
2329 Harlem Avenue 
Baltimore, Md. 21216 

Subcommittee Chairmen: 

Adult and Continuing Education 

Dr. Geneva Flickinger 

State Department of Education 

State Office Building 

301 West Preston Street 

Baltimore, Md. 21201 

Elementary, Secondary, and 
Vocational Education 

Miss Evelyn Miller, Cochairman 
State Department of Education 
State Office Building 
301 West Preston Street 
Baltimore, Md. 21201 

Miss Julia W. Watkins, Cochairman 
Supervisor of Home Economics 

Education 
Montgomery County Public Schools 
850 North Washington Street 
Rockville, Md. 20850 



Miss Audrey M. Stewart 
State College 
500 South Boulevard 
Salisbury, Md. 21801 



Higher Education 
Dr. Helen Clarke 
Dean of Women 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Md. 20742 



Counseling Services 

Miss Annabelle E. Ferguson 

State Department of Education 

State Office Building 

301 West Preston Street 

Baltimore, Md. 21201 



Emerging Employment Patterns 
with Implications for Education 
and Training 

Mrs. Benjamin Brown 

State Employment Service 

Baltimore, Md. 21201 



43 



New Jersey 

The New Jersey Governor's Commission on the Status of 
Women was in the process of writing its report and unfortunately 
was unable to send a representative to the meeting. 

NEW JERSEY GOVERNOR'S COMMISSION ON 
THE STATUS OF WOMEN 

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION AND COUNSELING 



Mrs. Mary O'Connor, Chairman 
1 DeWitt Road 
Elizabeth, N.J. 07208 

Dean Ruth Adams 

Douglass College 

New Brunswick, N.J. 08903 

Sister Hildegarde Marie 

President 

St. Elizabeth's College 

Convent Station, N.J. 07961 

Mrs. Vera McMillon 
52 Custer Avenue 
Newark, N.J. 07112 



Mrs. Peggy Kerney McNeil 
President 
Trenton Times 
Trenton, N.J. 08605 

Consultants : 



Dr. Charles R. Kelley 
Division of Economic Opportunity 
Labor and Industry Building 
Trenton, N.J. 08625 

Miss Julia Read 
Guidance Director 
St. Elizabeth's College 
Convent Station, N.J. 07961 



New York 

Miss Guinn Hall, deputy commissioner in charge of women's 
programs of the New York State Department of Commerce, 
presented the New York report. She brought greetings from Mrs. 
Oswald B. Lord, who had served as Chairman of the Committee 
on the Education and Employment of Women. 1 

New York Women, the report published by the committee on 
education and employment of women at the end of 1964, contains 
21 recommendations for meeting the education and employment 
needs of girls and women in New York State. We hope that com- 
munities and local organizations will assume some of the leadership 
in meeting these needs, not leaving all of the responsibility 
to government. 

Some of the areas are ones in which the State Employment 
Service, the State Education Department, State University, and 
State Commerce Woman's Program have been working intensely 



1 This committee was the equivalent of State commissions on the status of women in 
other States. 



44 



for many years. In 1962 our Women's Program sponsored a 
symposium on job horizons for women ; the State Guidance Asso- 
ciation has also conducted several special meetings on counseling 
girls and women. We have found that, where the education and 
employment of girls and women are concerned, a major need exists 
for better coordination and better communication. There is a 
great deal being done by many community and governmental 
organizations in our State to help girls and women find their 
proper places in the labor force. But so often the people who 
need the information most are not aware it exists. And many 
professional groups are not informed on the activities of other 
related groups. 

As a result of the recommendations in the committee report, 
several programs have been developed. Of great interest, we feel 
is a pilot project which is being launched jointly by our State 
Commerce Woman's Program and the State University 2-year 
colleges to provide vocational information at community levels 
to women seeking careers. To date each school has developed its 
own curriculum as seemed most suitable to the area. One instituted 
a job orientation course similar to those held at Barnard, Hofstra, 
and New York University, which have attracted mainly college 
women. The community college course, however, has brought in 
women of all educational backgrounds, many without any college 
training. Adult education in the State is also developing programs 
to make job orientation courses available through evening classes 
in the high schools, and counseling of adults is available in many 
high schools. 

The State Education Department is meeting several of the com- 
mittees' recommendations immediately, and has several others 
under study. Educational television is being expanded with an 
appropriation of over $1,500,000 for 1965-66 and $2,500,000 addi- 
tional expected for 1966-67. Twenty-five thousand dollars in 
Federal funds is being used to develop a home study program at 
the high school and college levels, and a $5,000,000 program for 
expansion of State supported programs at the prekindergarten 
level is being proposed for legislative action in 1966-67. A teaching 
unit for secondary school American history classes will be avail- 
able next year on the changing roles of women through the 18th, 
19th, and 20th centuries. Under study are an all-State educa- 
tional conference, a fellowship and scholarship aid program for 
part-time women students, a pilot community guidance center, 
and a teachers reserve for inactive teachers. 

45 



Two of the recommendations in the committee's report, which 
Governor Rockefeller called to the attention of the State legis- 
lature in his annual message, were enacted by the legislature 
and approved in June. One prohibits discrimination against 
women in employment and union membership, and the other 
broadens the State's present guarantee of equal pay for equal 
work, regardless of sex, to conform to the Federal Equal Pay Act. 

Another interesting outgrowth was the establishment by a local 
utility company of a management training course for college girls. 
This was instituted at the end of last year with the recogni- 
tion that there would probably be a 100-percent turnover in 3 years 
as the girls left to be married. However, the real goal in mind for 
these trainees was that they rejoin the staff after their children 
are raised, for the employers noted that former employees return- 
ing to the company are their best workers. Some 65 girls were 
enrolled in the first course, and the second group are being hired 
because the first are doing so well in their job assignments. I am 
sure this has implications for other industries. 

For those of you who are not familiar with our Woman's 
Program, we are a Division of the New York State Department 
of Commerce. We have been in existence for 20 years and have 
served over one million women, advising them on establishing 
businesses of their own when the urge or need developed, offering 
consumer education, and acquainting girls and women with the 
many career choices that await them and the education and train- 
ing needed to enter the world of work. We have a large mailing 
list of guidance counselors and teachers of home economics. 

We don't work in a vacuum. We have the advisory services of 
two very knowledgeable and hardworking groups — an interdepart- 
mental committee of women in 19 State bureaus whose work relates 
to ours ; and the New York Woman's Council comprised of some 
50 executive women in professional, business, and educational fields 
throughout the State. 

Basically, our concern in New York State is to communicate 
to counselors, parents, teachers, girls, employers, and professions 
that girls should be given early and sound preparation to meet 
their entire future. We advise their acquiring a "package" of 
basic talents — a good education, skills in raising a family and 
managing a home, several marketable skills to meet their unknown 
job future with greatest flexibility, a sound knowledge and interest 
in assuming responsibilities, and the arts of adapting to new 
ideas and learning to think. This, we feel, will best prepare girls 
for a future that may include raising a family but will surely 
at some time also include work (paid or unpaid) outside the 

46 



home. What that work will be, no one today can truly say. We 
do know, however, that tomorrow's world will be even more con- 
cerned than is today's with the population explosion, poverty 
amidst plenty, disadvantaged youth, solutions for peace, explora- 
tion and existence in space, retirement and geriatrics— all fields 
in which the properly educated and trained girl and woman can 
and must contribute a great deal. 

NEW YORK COMMITTEE ON THE EDUCATION 
AND EMPLOYMENT OF WOMEN 

SUBCOMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 



Dr. Paul L. Ward, Chairman 

President 

Sarah Lawrence College 

Bronxville, N.Y. 10708 

Mrs. Charles Bassett 

Director 

20th Century Group of Buffalo 

278 Depew Avenue 

Buffalo, N.Y. 14214 

Dr. Sarah Gibson Blanding 
President Emeritus 
Vassar College 
Poughkeepsie, N.Y. 12601 

Mrs. Orvill E. Dryfoos 
Director of Special Activities 
New York Times 
1010 Fifth Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10036 



Mr. Lewis G. Harriman, Jr. 
Vice President 
Manufacturers and Traders 

Trust Company 
284 Main Street 
Buffalo, N.Y. 14202 

The Reverend Mother Eleanor M. 

O 'Byrne 
President 
Manhattanville College of the Sacred 

Heart 
Purchase, N.Y. 10577 

Mrs. Charles S. Whitman, Jr. 
Bryn Mawr Regional 

Scholarship Committee 
70 East 96th Street 
New York, N.Y. 10029 



Pennsylvania 

Mrs. J. Russell Meyers, chairman of the Pennsylvania Governor's 
Commission on the Status of Women, reported for that State. 

Increased emphasis on vocational guidance and counseling is 
necessary as a means of maximizing educational opportunities for 
women. This should begin at the earliest possible stage of formal 
education and should continue from the elementary level through 
the secondary schools and at the colleges and universities. Young 
girls and young women must be told early and often just what 
society has to offer them and what they can offer society; con- 
tinually they need to learn the extent to which remaining barriers 
are being reduced and eliminated. 



47 



There is a clear need to provide guidance and counseling services 
for women in various stages and at all levels of educational 
achievement. In addition to those professions for which college, 
graduate, and professional degrees are expected, our society is 
rapidly developing employment opportunities for human services 
in the merchandising distribution and technical areas, some of 
which have been staffed traditionally by women; in others there 
are no sex barriers. One of the tasks we face in Pennsylvania 
is to direct the dropouts and those not qualified for college to these 
fields in greater numbers. 

First, counselors themselves should have full knowledge of 
society's needs which will enable them to interpret these needs 
adequately to potential students. Second, government and institu- 
tions must increase the number of post-high-school training pro- 
grams that can lead women to both gainful employment and a 
satisfying existence. For the most part such programs are now 
lacking in our society. 

Another group that requires improved and expanded guidance 
and counseling services consists of women who have completed 
the task of raising a family and in their middle years want to 
pick up the threads of their formal education looking toward a 
delayed career or a fuller intellectual life. 

Implied here is the importance of continuing education beyond 
the traditional formal pattern. It is nonsense to say that once a 
woman marries and raises a family her intellectual growth must 
be retarded or, in the extreme, must cease. On the other hand, 
since intellectual growth requires a stimulus, our increasingly 
complex society has a growing need to provide opportunities for 
continuing education. 

With the particular responsibilities women must assume in the 
family, they need more education than is currently given them in 
common schools and beyond. The education they need relates to 
being a consumer, a wife, a mother, and a guide. In later life 
the education they need relates to the problems they have as 
widows who must handle finances for the first time, live on a 
reduced income, or face life with no income at all. We hope that 
some means can be found to revitalize education in family living, 
especially for those in greatest need. 

The commission sees a paradox in the fact that just at a time 
when we and many other people are urging women to raise their 
sights and to aspire to great accomplishments, the means for train- 
ing are, as a result of competition, becoming more difficult to 
to attain. On the one hand, we think talented young women need 
to be encouraged to go on with their training. On the other hand, 

48 



we think that women have a responsibility to establish their 
seriousness of purpose and willingness to follow through when 
opportunities are available. Teachers and administrators can help 
by viewing their women students as individuals and not making 
categorical judgments about "women." 

As we struggle to break through into that bright time when 
every child is welcomed into the society of mankind to be cherished 
and developed to his fullest potential throughout his life, we will 
surely define special roles that only women can play. We believe 
that education will play a large part in attaining that future. 

PENNSYLVANIA GOVERNOR'S COMMISSION ON 
THE STATUS OF WOMEN 

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 



Dr. Gordon C. Godbey, Chairman 
Assistant Dean for Continuing 

Education 
277 Chambers Building 
University Park, Pa. 16802 

Subcommittee on Vocational 

Guidance : 
Miss Helen Faust, Chairman 
Assistant Director 
Division of Pupil Personnel and 

Counseling 
Philadelphia Board of Public 

Education 
Parkway at 21st Street 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 

Mrs. Hulda Beckley 

341 Susquehanna Avenue 

Lock Haven, Pa. 17745 

Miss Helen L. Corey 

Drexel Hill Junior High School 

State Road and Pennsylvania 

Avenue 
Drexel Hill, Pa. 19026 

Mrs. Nancy S. Glenn 
285 North Maple Avenue 
Lansdowne, Pa. 19050 



Mrs. John J. Parkhurst, Consultant 
36 Reynolds Avenue 
Kingston, Pa. 18704 



Rev. Walter J. Handren, S.J. 
St. Joseph's College 
54th and City Line 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19131 

Dr. George Hoffman 
Acting Superintendent 
Department of Public Instruction 
Education Building, Room 300 
Harrisburg, Pa. 17126 

Mrs. Audrey R. Kelley 
River House Apts. 816 
2311 North Front Street 
Harrisburg, Pa. 17110 

Mrs. Thomas F. Shirk 
238 North Charlotte Street 
Lancaster, Pa. 17603 



49 



West Virginia 

Mrs. John Scott, chairman of the Governor's Commission on 
the Status of Women in West Virginia, reported for that State 
and indicated that her commission's report has had wide distribu- 
tion and influence. The following excerpts are taken from the 
section of the report that deals with education. 

There are, by recent estimate, nearly 670,000 women aged 14 
and over in West Virginia. More than 160,000 are employed. 
In 1963, the State's institutions of higher education enrolled 12,423 
women students. The potential for diversified educational 
programing is tremendous. 

The woman of today, as in past years, has a traditional respon- 
sibility toward self, family, and community. While preserving 
this responsibility, she must also recognize that she can and should 
bring her fullest potential into being through the development and 
use of her total capability. The utilization of the total capabilities 
of West Virginia women is only partially realized, as evidenced 
by the 9.5 medial years of school completed by women 14 years 
of age and over. 

An investment in education by both the individual and the State 
can lead to the solution of personal, social, and technological 
problems. The complexity and needs of today's society are but 
indications of the complexities and needs that will characterize 
and challenge tomorrow's society. 

Motivation manifests itself in the desire of the human organism 
to change existing situations, real or imagined. While much of a 
woman's drive for change stems from a desire to enhance the 
possibilities of her personal fulfillment, there is evidence to indicate 
a sublimation of this drive in favor of a transferral of benefit to 
the family group. 

The incentives that motivate women to enter the labor force, 
or to change their educational status are extremely individual 
and are limited only by the span of the imagination but can, never- 
theless, be classified in the following broad areas: 

A. She hopes to find emotional and psychological fulfillment. 

B. She hopes to expand and improve her knowledge and skills 
as a woman, wife, mother, or homemaker. 

C. She hopes to attain a certain level of educational achieve- 
ment. 

D. She hopes to participate in community affairs either in terms 
of entry or movement to a more responsible level. 

E. She hopes to expand and improve her skills and knowledge 
as they relate to her present or future employment. 

50 



F. She hopes to improve the fiscal condition of her family, 
either immediately or over an extended period of time. 

G. She is required by personal or family necessity to enter the 
labor force for either a limited or extended time. 

The woman in tomorrow's society will be called upon to con- 
tribute her capabilities and talents to assure the continuation of 
our democratic society. Full utilization of such a potential will 
require a psychological and physical reconstruction of a major 
portion of the existing educational opportunities for women. While 
the traditional role of the woman — that of mother and home- 
maker — should be strengthened, every opportunity for social and 
vocational enhancement should enable her to complete or redirect 
her education. 

Among the many recommendations the commission made to 
insure to women the kinds of education they need, it singled out 
these that broadly refer to counseling and guidance : 

Women should have opportunities : To explore, through selected 
experiences, those vocational opportunities that are available ; and 
to develop understandings basic to desirable family living. 

Mature women should have opportunities to permit them to 
continue their education. These may be created by: 

Setting up part-time study programs that permit completion 
within reasonable time limits. 

Broadening the guidance services available to the individual, 
especially in the area of individual analysis. 

Providing comprehensive educational programs that prepare 
women to work in occupations that utilize their mental, physical, 
and social aptitudes. 

Permitting all qualified students to become eligible for scholar- 
ship and loan programs. The course of study or the time spent 
in the program — whether part time or full time — should not be the 
basis for determining student financial support. 

Among the commission's recommendations for immediate imple- 
mentation were the following: 

Utilizing the techniques of the mass media to create an aware- 
ness of existing opportunities. Capturing the imagination and 
developing motivation in the individual who often has had negative 
experiences in education will require the development of new 
techniques and standards. 

Providing a strengthened and comprehensive guidance, counsel- 
ing, and testing service. The complexities of educational opportu- 
nity, vocational change, and self-understanding are in constant 
flux. The educator and the employer must be aware of the aspira- 
tions, interests, capabilities, and past achievements of the indi- 

51 



vidual. Intelligent choice, for whatever purpose, should be based 
on a structured analysis of the individual. 

Identifying the resources of the community that presently and 
potentially utilize the product of the educational program. Oppor- 
tunities exist but go unfilled because of deficiencies in communica- 
tion between the person capable of performing a service and the 
person requiring that service. 

Developing local educational programs dealing with the care of 
children, family relations, mental health, home management, 
nutrition, and general consumer information. 

WEST VIRGINIA GOVERNOR'S COMMISSION ON 
THE STATUS OF WOMEN 

COMMITTEE ON EDUCATION 



Mrs. Anagene P. Bartram, Chairman 
Member, West Virginia Board of Education 
Kenova, W. Va. 25530 

Hon. Rex M. Smith 

State Superintendent of Schools 

Charleston, W. Va. 25305 



Hon. Ethel Crandall 

Member, West Virginia House of 

Delegates 
Gauley Bridge, W. Va. 25085 



Hon. Mae Belcher 

Member, West Virginia House of 

Delegates 
Pineville, W. Va. 24874 



Ernest J. Nesius, Ph.D. 
Dean, College of Agriculture, 

Forestry, and Home Economics 
West Virginia University 
Morgantown, W. Va. 26506 



52 



CLOSING SESSION 

WORKSHOP REPORTS 

On Friday afternoon, conference participants divided into eight 
workshop groups. 

With one exception, the workshop groups were organized along 
State lines. Each of the seven State groups included school coun- 
selors, State employment service counselors, representatives of 
the Commission on the Status of Women, and members of national 
organizations. The eighth group was made up of counselor- 
educators. A chairman and recorder had been appointed for each 
group. (Their names will be found on page 73.) 

Each of the workshop groups considered the same fundamental 
questions that had been discussed at the first pilot conference held 
in Chicago in February 1965. These eight questions, suggested 
by the organizers of the conference, covered in breadth and in 
depth the influence exerted by the home, the school, and the com- 
munity on the aspirations and attainments of girls. The questions 
are set forth in full in Appendix B. Briefly they are concerned 
with the following: 

1. The extent to which and the ways in which parental expecta- 
tions influence and circumscribe girls' preferences and choices 
in career decisions. 

2. The extent to which curriculum offerings, recruitment pro- 
grams, and occupational roles are creating sex differences in 
educational and vocational decisions. 

3. The extent to which teachers' expectations, both conscious 
and otherwise, may influence and reinforce the inherited assigna- 
tion of the cultural milieu. 

4. The extent to which girls' perception of boys' concepts of 
the feminine role affects choice of girls' vocation. 

5. The extent to which boys and girls are being prepared to 
understand that the responsibilities within the home and activities 
outside the home are not conflicting and can be integrated. 

Note: This synthesis of workshop reports was prepared by Francis Balgley Kaplan. 

53 



6. The extent to which girls are cognizant of the fact that it 
will be necessary for a large proportion of them to contribute to 
the earnings of their families. 

7. The extent to which girls are being encouraged to examine 
the possibility of careers in fields not traditionally considered 
women's occupations but possible for qualified women. 

8. The extent to which counselors' attitudes toward the feminine 
role are influencing the counseling process and the career devel- 
opment of girls. 

At a meeting held on the eve of the workshop sessions, the 
chairmen were invited to organize their meetings in any way 
they thought would elicit the most meaningful exchange of infor- 
mation. The reports submitted by recorders indicated that some 
chairmen organized discussions so as to consider each of the 
eight questions in depth. Others led their groups to consider the 
broad implications of the questions, and answered them specifically 
only indirectly. Discussion of specific questions will be found 
later in this synthesis of workshop reports. The groups' 
consideration of the broader implications are dealt with first. 

Synthesis of State Workshop Reports 
Broad Implications Suggested by the Questions 

Participants recognized that before the obstacles implied in 
the questions could be overcome, society would have to change its 
attitudes not only about the role of women in society but also 
about the role of sex in occupational choice. They recognized, also, 
that insofar as a counselor's activities should promote a climate 
in which women are free to make choices without being hindered 
by preconceived opinions, and insofar as such a climate may lead 
to changed patterns of behavior, counselors are already helping 
to bring about changes in the organization of society. The groups 
emphasized, however, that before a point of view or rationale can 
be developed about whether these current trends are right or 
wrong, or good or bad, additional information must be collected. 
Research projects must be set up to provide the facts needed to 
overcome prevalent myths and prejudices about women. To do 
this, society needs the thinking of experts in many intellectual 
disciplines. Participants suggested that philosophers, theologians, 
educators, students of the behavioral sciences, and students of 
the changing needs of business and industry should become 
involved and participate in a continuous exchange of views to help 
answer questions such as these which bear on the ultimate struc- 
ture of society: How strong is the desire on the part of women 

54 



to enter what traditionally have been men's occupations ? To what 
extent do women wish to yield the traditional feminine role? Would 
an alteration in the balance of traditional masculine and feminine 
activities have a beneficial or adverse effect on society? 

In the meantime, however, each individual, regardless of sex, 
must be assured the right of access to as wide a variety of occupa- 
tions as our society can use. If women continue to work — and 
the trend indicates that the number and percentage of women 
who enter the labor force will increase rather than diminish — it 
is essential that women have opportunities to enter areas where 
they can find the greatest sense of accomplishment and satisfaction. 

Whether a woman's desire to work arises from her own internal 
need or from the external pressure of necessity is not material. 
The degree to which her work will encourage her to develop her 
fullest potential and make a contribution to society depends upon 
how much freedom she has to make a real choice of occupation. 

That work itself fills different functions for different people 
was also recognized. Some individuals — men as well as women — 
achieve a large share of their personal satisfaction from their 
occupations. Others work chiefly for money and find their personal 
satisfaction in the nonwork areas of life. Participants agreed that 
it was not a counselor's function to pressure an individual toward 
any one point of view or mode of action. The counselor's role is to 
clarify the available alternatives and to help an individual choose 
freely which possible course of action she will adopt. 

How successfully counselors can fill this assignment depends 
to a large extent on two factors. First, are counselors able to 
recognize and rid themselves of their own preconceived notions 
about appropriate life patterns for girls? Counselors may seem 
to say the right words, but what bias do they reveal in unspoken 
ways — in actions, or in manner, or by the very fact that they 
fail to say or do anything? And second, can they organize guid- 
ance teams involving as many members of the community as are 
related to the guidance task? "Success depends on getting many 
people involved," said one report. Teachers, school principals, 
curriculum planners, employment service counselors, employers, 
and members of community organizations were nominated for 
inclusion on the team. 

Participants recognized the value of a conference as a tech- 
nique for changing counselors' attitudes and opening their eyes to 
reality. In keeping with their premise that many groups need to 
be involved in the counseling process, they proposed that future 
conferences be opened to several other groups of specialists whose 
influence and action are urgently needed. The workshops sug- 

55 



gested that future conferences should include representatives of 
the mass media, curriculum planners, textbook writers and pub- 
lishers, employers, and youth themselves, in addition to the 
theologians and philosophers already suggested. These groups 
should be included for two reasons: They need to become aware 
of the realities of the changing life patterns of women, and they 
need to become involved in the counseling process, to which they 
have a large contribution to make. 

Running through all workshop reports were references to the 
power of the mass media, to the denigrating effect of the unrealistic 
image of contemporary American women generally presented by 
TV, radio, and advertising; and to the help that will be forth- 
coming once these media present more realistic reflections of 
women's lives. 

Workshop reports also commented about the great value that 
would accrue to guidance teams if textbooks included brief com- 
ments about the practical or vocational value of the material they 
present. Such comments would doubtless spark classroom dis- 
cussion of occupations and the world's work and would indirectly 
stimulate related learning. 

Curriculum planners, who control and direct the flow of knowl- 
edge, should be included in conferences because they are often 
slow to relinquish cliches about the kinds of education suitable 
for women. Sometimes their decision prevents girls from prepar- 
ing for employment that is available to them in the community. 
School curriculums do not always keep pace with changes in the 
world of work. In the community itself, employers are sometimes 
the last obstacle standing between a girl and the untraditional 
job for which she is equipped. Exposure of all these groups to 
the stimulating and thoughtful discussions at a conference would 
improve chances of creating attitude changes that are desired 
and needed. 

In assessing the impact of the special problems of counseling 
girls on the general counseling program, workshop reports agreed 
that guidance programs start too late, and do not take advantage 
of the elementary school years when family ties with the school 
are closer than they ever are again. The sooner counselors start 
to work with parents, the greater will be their ability to free 
children from limitations that may grow out of their families' 
background and life patterns. The elementary school curriculum 
should allow for broad educational and vocational experiences. 
Work, whether in the home or outside it, should be made a com- 
fortable topic of conversation, and contributing to society should 
be recognized as a part of life. Although participants wanted 

56 



guidance and counseling services to be available at the elementary 
school level, they did not see that period as a time for specific 
vocational counseling. During the elementary school years, they 
thought, girls' eyes and minds should be opened to the variety of 
activities that fill women's lives, and the attitudes and values they 
develop should allow them to accept a wide range of alternatives. 
Despite the complexities and the enormity of their task, coun- 
selors recognized that their actions made them answerable for 
girls' long-range attitudes toward seeking help in making deci- 
sions all through the course of their multifaceted lives. "The image 
of good counseling developed for each girl by the school counselor," 
said one report, "will enable her to seek developmental counseling 
as she needs it at any stage in her life, be it adolescence, middle 
age, or old age." This is a challenging, if sobering, responsibility. 

Consideration of the Specific Questions 

The following is a synthesis of workshop discussions and sug- 
gestions relating specifically to the eight questions that are noted 
on pages 53-54, and are stated in detail in Appendix B. 

Effect of Parental Influence 

Neither counselors nor teachers can successfully guide students 
without the understanding and cooperation of parents. Parental 
expectations do and should influence the way their daughters 
plan their lives. However, parents' expectations for their chil- 
dren may be either too high or too low as a result of their own 
educational attainment or aspiration, or socioeconomic back- 
ground. Parents vary also in their ability to help develop their 
daughters' expectations and aspirations or to implement them 
once they are formed. 

So many values are learned within the family unit, including 
the importance assigned to self-development and achievement, 
that counselors often must educate parents in order to counsel girls. 

The relationship between counselor and parents will be most 
mutually rewarding if it begins under nonthreatening conditions, 
before a child meets or becomes a problem. Counselors must 
reach parents soon enough, and present them the kinds of infor- 
mation they need to overcome the bias born of their limitations 
or background. Are counselors flexible enough to meet parents 
at the times they are available ; creative enough to overcome their 
reticence, apathy, or even hostility ; courageous enough to attempt 
to change their views? 

Exchange of information between parents and counselors should 

57 



begin at the lowest educational level — the preschool level is none 
too soon — and should be carried on through elementary, junior, 
and senior high school. 

Since parents are not always free to meet counselors during 
school hours, counselors' schedules should be flexible enough to 
allow them to meet parents during evenings or weekends, with 
compensatory time off. Nor should meetings be limited to the 
physical locale of the school. A student's home may be the best 
place to meet on occasion, or another community center may be 
appropriate for some contacts. 

Just as there is variety in the backgrounds and understanding 
of the families with whom the counselors must work, so there 
must be variety in the techniques used, the information presented, 
the advice given, and the approaches made to parents. No blue- 
print can be envisaged, but counselors' ingenuity and imagination 
will be tested as they seek approaches that are apt, information 
that is relevant, and timing that is effective in dealing with the 
wide variety of students who need their help. At some times it 
may seem best to talk to parents by themselves ; at others, to talk 
to parents with the student present. Family group guidance ses- 
sions, in which several sets of parents and children meet together 
with a counselor, often have proved worthwhile. 

Just as the techniques of guidance and counseling are varied, 
so is the subject matter to be covered. The job title "counselor" 
covers men and women who are involved in a multitude of different 
functions related to young people and adults. In whatever fashion 
counselors deal with girls and their parents, however, they should 
place special emphasis on fostering a philosophy that will reduce 
a girl's conflict about her own choice of role. Myths concerning 
the feminine image should be held up to the light of reality. Facts 
about the ever-widening educational and vocational horizons open 
to women should be cited and examples of women who have suc- 
ceeded in new and different fields presented. Counselors needn't — 
and indeed shouldn't — take the entire burden of this prodigious 
task on themselves. A team of people — teachers, curriculum 
makers, the principal, and other specialists in community agencies 
and neighborhood groups should be enlisted to meet with parents 
and with students. 

The timing of important and effective moments in counseling 
can only be roughly predicted. The earlier in the child's educa- 
tional experience his parents are involved, the better. The Head 
Start program obtained excellent results by involving parents from 
the beginning. The mass media bombarded parents with infor- 
mation about the advantages the program would bring them and 

58 



their children ; parents responded by requesting that their children 
be included ; and teachers were rewarded with encouraging changes 
in parental attitudes and the children's development. 

Another important moment in counseling and guidance comes 
when a student selects her high school course of study. Discussion 
with parents and students should insure that each student selects 
a program that reflects and recognizes her own interests and 
potential and not her parents' interests and inclinations. An open 
house for freshmen and an assembly program for both parents 
and students have often been used with good results at 
this juncture. 

It is the underaspiring youngster who often presents a counselor 
with the greatest opportunity for rewarding work. Some research 
has shown that families in the lower socioeconomic level tend to 
leave the job of developing a child's interests and aspirations 
to the school. Not only do parents in this group have little personal 
experience on which they can rely to encourage their own chil- 
dren; they sometimes require the counselor's help in learning to 
communicate with their children. All the skill and art at a 
counselor's command are needed to meet this challenge. 

Effect of the Curriculum 

It is futile to talk about widening girls' horizons or to propose 
that they enter untraditional fields of activity while the schools 
they attend often preserve rigid and traditional concepts of what 
is permissible for a girl to study. A school that limits mechanical 
courses to boys is of no help to a girl whose aptitude sparks her 
interest in engineering. A school that stresses the preparation of 
college-bound students is frustrating at best to a student whose 
potential or interests precludes a higher education. Courses of 
study to meet the requirements of children of all intellectual levels 
and aspirations and all aptitudes and limitations must be avail- 
able. Within those courses of study, individual programs should 
be designed in accordance with a student's particular needs and 
interests and without regard to sex. 

If the Space Age has created an aura of greater acceptability 
for girls in fields that formerly were closed to them, is this change 
reflected in the courses they are encouraged and allowed to study 
in school? Hasn't the time come to restudy curriculum offerings 
in the light of the interests and activities of both girls and boys 
in today's world ? Isn't it time for counselors to involve curriculum 
planners in a process designed to make education support women's 
expectations, needs, and potentials more realistically? 

59 



School counselors, whose relations with government, business, 
and community agencies make them aware of changes in occupa- 
tions and job opportunities, need to relay to curriculum planners 
information which can be used to develop new learning experiences 
for boys and girls alike in accordance with their interests and 
abilities. Counselors also should urge curriculum planners to 
allow students of either sex to enter classes which have previously 
been reserved for one or the other. Some schools have already 
dropped the barriers which kept girls out of courses in graphic 
arts, drafting, and physics. In some schools boys are now invited 
to participate in home economics classes. But these trends need 
to be extended and strengthened. At the same time, it should be 
recognized that girls usually won't enter untraditional fields with- 
out being assured of social approval. Extra effort to provide this 
by arranging for press or TV coverage when girls break through 
traditional barriers will bring important dividends. 

Finding new ways to involve the school with the community 
is potentially valuable. Courses with vocational implications can 
be made infinitely more meaningful when related work experience 
can be arranged with local employers. Other contacts with com- 
munity employers should be planned to expose students to the 
realities of vocational opportunities. 

Underlying many of the difficulties counselors have in making 
vocational guidance effective is the fact that so many young 
people cannot see beyond today, and are blind to the long-range 
implications of what they do or don't do. Since teenagers find 
it extremely difficult to heed the advice of adults, it may be useful 
to plan workshops and conferences at which youth slightly older 
than those being counseled answer questions and discuss the work 
or education programs to which they are committed. 

Effect of Teachers' Attitudes 

Classroom teachers have almost as much influence on students' 
attitudes toward education and work as their parents do. As 
has been mentioned in the discussion of Question I, less advantaged 
parents often leave completely to teachers the development of 
their children's attitudes toward education and self-development. 
With no conscious effort, teachers transmit values, attitudes, and 
biases. At a more purposeful level, they complete the chain of 
communication between counselor and student in supporting and 
complementing the formal vocational guidance program. 

For a long time, educational theory has paid lip service to 
"individual differences," but educators have only begun to demon- 

60 



strate a real appreciation of what must be done to insure "the 
recognition of the individual." Hopefully, as educators come closer 
to this fuller recognition of the potential of each student and take 
the action it demands, they will increasingly accept the social 
changes which make it necessary for girls to reconsider and 
redefine their educational and vocational goals, preferences, 
and decisions. 

Some implementation of teacher training is needed to help 
teachers fulfill their guidance roles. Though it is admittedly dif- 
ficult for an individual who has reached the college level to change 
attitudes, teachers nevertheless can be helped to recognize what 
their own biases and values are, and to appreciate how these 
compare with the values of the families from which their students 
come. Teacher-training institutions should provide courses dealing 
with counseling and guidance for all teacher trainees. Once 
teachers are on the job, this process should continue. They should 
meet with counselors on official time to explore all the facets of 
their responsibilities that bear on the overall counseling and guid- 
ance program. At these meetings, counselors should keep teachers 
current about the changing roles of women, expanding vocational 
opportunities, and changing patterns in education and employ- 
ment. Counselors should also encourage teachers to be conscious 
of their own influence on students' values and attitudes and to 
try to keep them unbiased and flexible in relation to the life 
patterns girls envision. Many teaching aids are at counselors' 
disposal to help do this job — pamphlets, film strips, tapes, and 
longplaying records. 

More unusual activities also help teachers improve their back- 
ground in vocational information. Teacher exchange programs, 
in which teachers shift from one cultural milieu to another, help 
orient them to new attitudes and new values. A teacher who 
supplements his income by taking a summer job in another field 
of work or one who takes extended leave to work in another 
occupation also broadens his appreciation of the world of work. 

During his everyday classroom activities, a teacher should make 
an effort to point out the vocational implications of the subject 
matter under discussion. Gaining an understanding of the rela- 
tionship between job and subject not only expands a student's 
knowledge of the world of work, but adds reality to his class- 
room experience. In order to add this dimension to their classroom 
instruction, teachers need to know more about current trends in 
the availability of jobs and the widening vocational opportunities 
open to girls. Similarly, the writers of textbooks need to include 

61 



more information that would link knowledge gained in school 
with information needed in the performance of a job. Textbooks 
written with an emphasis on this aspect of learning would be 
stimulating and valuable in relating education to the world at large. 

The Feminine Role 
Integration of Responsibilities 
Problem of Economic Need 

The workshop groups apparently found it difficult to sort out 
the strands of their ideas about the feminine role, integration of 
responsibilities, and the problem of economic need. Discussion 
of each one of these three questions was interwoven with discussion 
of the other two. For this reason, these three questions are 
treated together. 

Until now we frequently failed to make adequate use of the 
insights that research and psychology have given us about the 
importance of the peer group. At a time when a girl is making 
decisions about educational and vocational goals, her peers exert 
considerable influence. Later it is in cooperation with an individual 
member of her peer group — her husband — that a woman finally 
constructs her life pattern. Whether she will be "just a house- 
wife" or will combine her homemaking tasks with other activities 
that contribute to the community will largely be the result of the 
interaction of her husband's attitudes and her own self-concept. 
The strength and substance of a man's attitudes about what a 
woman should do is often related to his education, to his socio- 
economic background, and to his mother's example, among other 
things. Whatever their origin, male attitudes have led some girls 
to denigrate their talents and limit their aspirations. Other girls, 
endowed with talents considered typically masculine, hide them 
completely so that a male may retain an image of his superiority. 
Neither course would seem justified in today's world. 

Somewhere in the school program, boys and girls together must 
become acquainted with the fact that masculine and feminine 
roles should be complementary in order to make family life satis- 
factory and happy. In terms of their own futures they need to 
accept the fact that 8 out of 10 girls will have to work for pay 
at some time in their lives. The American Dream — the standard 
of living expected and desired by most American families — makes 
it necessary for many married women to add to the family income 
without yielding their family responsibilities. Far from being 
the sheltered — or limited — sex, women in our society may be called 
upon to perform a wider variety of tasks than men. In any case, 

62 



neither boys nor girls will be able to cope with the many real 
and challenging problems they will face unless they develop the 
skills to do so. To educators falls the task of preparing them to 
accommodate to the changes in life patterns that inevitably 
will occur. 

Since girls seem to need the approval of their peer group before 
embarking on new patterns of behavior, a primary step to be 
taken in encouraging them to prepare for multifaceted roles is to 
identify the attitudes of their peers — their male peers in particular. 
It probably will be necessary to attempt to modify these attitudes 
once they are identified. 

In this process personal relationships are probably more effec- 
tive and meaningful than objective models. Group guidance 
sessions in which both boys and girls participate and which allow 
them to discuss topics such as feminine roles and responsibilities 
often produce penetrating, thoughtful exchanges of view which 
lead individuals to reevaluate and reshape their opinions. There is 
still room, however, for counselors to develop creative new skills 
and techniques in group dynamics which will help boys be more 
objective about their attitudes towards girls' roles and, therefore, 
help girls be more realistic in regard to their own goals. 

Awareness of the complementary nature of the male and female 
roles can be increased by offering coeducational classes in family 
relations in which child care, home management, consumer educa- 
tion, budgeting, and similar questions are discussed. In addition, 
young people of both sexes need realistic health programs which 
include factual information on such questions as nutrition, sex 
education, smoking, alcoholism, and drug addiction. 

But it is not only in relation to family life that young people 
lack information. Girls in particular need to develop a more real- 
istic attitude toward work. They would profit by observing men 
and women at work in all kinds of jobs — in business establish- 
ments, industrial plants, radio and TV stations, restaurants and 
hotels, offices, hospitals, schools, shops and department stores, 
government agencies. Such visits, followed by discussions about 
the jobs that girls found desirable would lead to consideration 
of the kind of education that is prerequisite. 

Another means of stimulating an expansion of information 
about job realities may be found in the "Futures" clubs. Member- 
ship in these clubs acquaints young people with the details of 
careers in various fields and lends them the strength of their 
peers' approbation. Among these clubs are the Future Business 
Leaders of America, Future Teachers of America, Future Nurses 
of America, Future Secretaries Association, Distributive Educa- 

63 



tion Clubs of America, and Vocational Industrial Clubs of America. 
Further development of this idea might encourage girls to think 
about the less traditional occupations. 

Against the day when the need to make a vocational decision 
may seem more pressing, both boys and girls should be informed 
about the community resources that can be useful to them. One 
group suggested that at the time of a student's final contact with 
school guidance counselors — whether he leaves school as a graduate 
or a dropout — he should be provided with a wallet-sized card giv- 
ing referral or resource information that will be useful whenever 
it is needed. The card should include the names and addresses of 
employment agencies, training facilities, employment counselors, 
and other related services. 

Restrictions on Career Choices 

Not only tradition and prejudice keep women away from "male" 
occupations; a variety of other reasons are also involved. Some- 
times women avoid a profession because the training period is 
too long, or because the training is considered too costly for a 
girl, or because they choose not to work as hard as the profession 
demands, or because their parents' attitudes discourage them. 

In periods of labor shortages, of course, women have been 
invited to participate in occupations and professions normally con- 
sidered masculine; the needs of the Nation always supersede 
prejudice and tradition But when men again become available 
in sufficient numbers, women have always been displaced. Women 
will be able to remain in some occupations only when society 
approves those fields of work as appropriate for women. 

The activities of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commis- 
sion, set up to enforce Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 
are expected to overcome many of the barriers raised against 
women in some fields of employment. Title VII prohibits dis- 
crimination on the basis of sex in hiring, training, and promotion. 
Through a program of action that begins with education and 
persuasion and ends with enforced compliance, the Commission 
expects to eliminate much of the bias that now limits women's 
occupational choice. In the meantime, extra effort is needed to 
keep women informed about available jobs in unusual occupations. 

The fact that many colleges and universities follow differential 
admissions policies for men and women contributes to the atti- 
tudes society holds about the ability of girls to compete in certain 
occupational areas. If institutions of higher education do not 
think that women are worthy of being trained for some profes- 

64 



sions, why should society look to women as accomplished prac- 
titioners in these fields? 

One group suggested than an education bill for women similar 
to the GI Bill would assist women in obtaining the advanced educa- 
tion they need to enter some of the professions now considered 
masculine. Failing such a subsidy, increased opportunities for 
loans would help in somewhat the same way. 

Counselor's Effect on Career Choices of Girls 

The counselor is the coordinator of a team of specialists ; coun- 
seling students is only part of his job. Through his intervention, 
students should be exposed to the influence of all the people in 
the community who can help them plan their lives with a minimum 
of preconceived notions about what they should do. To fill such 
a strategic position, counselors themselves must be free of bias. 
Before they begin to understand the attitudes of others regarding 
the feminine role, they need to study their own attitudes. Do 
counselors talk about the concept of multiple roles in women's 
life patterns, and then deny their words by their actions? Do 
counselors talk about women's pioneering in new fields and then 
recommend study programs that lead only to traditional careers? 
Do counselors urge girls to take courses that traditionally are 
open only to boys and then do nothing about having these classes 
opened to girls? 

Conferences such as this one seem to encourage counselors to 
assess their own ideas and evaluate their attitudes. Similar meet- 
ings should be held at State and community levels. Regular in- 
service programs for counselors should update their information 
and knowledge about community needs and vocational trends. 
In-service education should also help them evaluate their counsel- 
ing practices with girls. It was felt that male counselors may 
find it more difficult to counsel girls than women counselors do. 
Their own traditional attitudes may conflict with the ideas and 
practices they want to develop. For this reason it was felt that 
larger numbers of men should be invited to conferences and 
included in special projects. 

Counselors can build a meaningful relationship with their stu- 
dents only if their pupil load is reasonable and the same boys 
and girls are assigned to them over a relatively long period of 
time. It is important for boys and girls to be counseled together 
in groups to help them explore mutual problems and develop an 
awareness and appreciation of the other's viewpoint. 

65 



Counselors' ability to be useful will be enhanced if they can 
develop an accepting attitude with young people and if they search 
for better ways to help them. Young people have great potential 
that will be diminished if counselors underestimate it. It is equally 
important for counselors to realize that their task is not to pro- 
vide all the answers. Counselors make their greatest contribution 
when they make all possibilities clear to the students and help 
them to find and follow their own patterns of growth. 

Report of the Counselor-Educators' Workshop 

Counselors, teachers, parents, boys, and girls, all need to develop 
greater awareness of the reality that women — married or single; 
young, middle-aged, or older — are and increasingly will be engaged 
in constructive activity outside the home. The feminine role is a 
many-faceted one. A great many girls must include paid employ- 
ment among their responsibilities. Built into the multiplicity of 
roles they assume is conflict — conflict created by outdated stereo- 
types, by society's expectations, by family attitudes, and by the 
necessity for determining priorities. Which role is the predomi- 
nant role? Young men are rarely in conflict about whether or 
not to work, about the sex-type appropriateness of their job choice, 
about having a family, about their work's interfering with their 
responsibility to home and children. By contrast with boys, girls 
have unique counseling needs, and counselors need to be prepared 
to help young women fulfill their feminine role and to make 
vocational plans. 

Many adolescent girls are marriage-oriented rather than voca- 
tion-oriented, consider work as a temporary necessity, and see 
little need for long-term planning. The counselor's role is not to 
determine what goals girls should pursue, not is it to guide them 
into the occupations in which society feels they will make the 
greatest contribution. The counselor's role is to insure that girls — 
all girls — have the freedom to choose. Since choice implies under- 
standing of alternatives, students should become aware of the 
changing role of women and of changing employment patterns 
and of the implications of these changes for their planning. The 
counselor, therefore, must be knowledgeable about change as it 
affects students; must exercise leadership in helping teachers, 
parents, and students to understand the realities that change 
brings about, and must intervene so that meaningful experiences 



Note: The report of the counselor-educators' workshop was prepared by Dr. Genevieve H. 
Loughran, Associate Professor of Guidance and School Counseling-, Hunter College, New York 
City. 

66 



are built into the education of girls. Counselor education must 
not only prepare counselor trainees for this responsibility but 
should also stimulate continuous education for all counselors by 
providing seminars, workshops, and other activities for graduates 
of their own programs and for counselors in local schools. Coun- 
selor-educators should go out where the action is and assist in 
in-service training in schools. On this much, counselor-educators 
were agreed. When we discussed implementation, we wandered 
into interesting pathways. 

Responses to Specific Questions 

We started our discussion with question 4 — the effect of "the 
feminine role" — giving the previous questions only passing atten- 
tion because we thought they had been given most of the attention 
at the Chicago conference — or perhaps this was our expression 
of freedom. We agreed in general, with the recommendations 
made in Chicago ; we did add a few comments to the discussion of 
question 1 — the effect of parental influence. 

Question 4: How well are counselors prepared to assist girls 
in the area of the feminine role? How much of counseling really 
involves an exploration of marriage and its meaning, or a discus- 
sion of an individual's multiple roles, or participation in group 
counseling? There was agreement that although some counselors 
are well prepared and many others are not, information is avail- 
able and counselors have access to it. Since so many girls are 
marriage-oriented, how can counselors meet them in the area of 
their perceived need unless we have more adequate preparation? 
Should the counselor have a consultative role as a member of the 
educational team, or should it be a more dynamic role ? There was 
agreement that counselors must overcome the appalling ignorance 
in the schools, to counteract misinformation, to make girls aware 
of the overall pattern of their responsibility. Many guidance pro- 
grams do not consider all facets of reality and these oversights 
should be corrected. For example, the attitudes of teachers, 
administrators, and counselors usually penalize girls who marry 
while they are still in school thus creating more conflict for 
all students. 

Preparing girls to undertake multiple roles is a responsibility 
of the total school program and of the entire community. The 
counselor must get out of his office to stimulate teachers and the 
community to provide effective preparation. Counselor-educators 
in turn need to prepare counselors for this responsibility. 

67 



In this connection we had considerable discussion of the effect 
domestic workers have on children who are left in their charge by 
mothers who work outside their homes. Mentally and educationally 
retarded babysitters become responsible for language develop- 
ment, for inculcating attitudes, and for other fundamental habits. 
It was suggested that if a mother must work while her child 
is young, she should rearrange the child's sleeping schedule so 
that he is awake while she is at home and asleep for part of the 
time the babysitter is in charge. It was agreed that it is not the 
amount of time a mother spends with her child that is important, 
but the quality of the mother-child relationship. The use of grand- 
mothers, aunts, and cousins for child care functions in an extended 
family is not without value and should be looked into, if possible. 

Question 6: While the term "satisfactory standard of living" 
has many different meanings, it is apparent that the standard 
desired by a large number of families requires a great majority 
of married women to work. Young women have not yet accepted 
this in relation to themselves. There is need for much greater, 
more widespread, and more dramatic dissemination of the facts, 
so that they become generally known. Boys accept the necessity 
for incorporating military service into their life plans; it took 
education and tremendous mass media campaigns to accomplish 
this. Similar methods may need to be employed with girls — 
methods geared to educate parents as well as their daughters. 

The influences that cause boys and girls to plan come from 
their environment — home, community, and school. Therefore, 
counselors should be certain that home, community, and school 
are not only well aware of the facts but have incorporated the 
facts into their thinking. The problem in this regard is not one 
of dissemination but of absorption. Creativity is needed to solve it. 

Teachers' attitudes in particular are readily perceived by chil- 
dren. Counselors therefore should organize workshops to bring 
teachers up to date on the role of women. Counselors should expose 
girls to women who can help them develop realistic attitudes 
about planning for future employment. Married teachers, women 
engaged in public service, and married graduates who have 
returned to the labor force are good role models in this respect. 

Many girls are oriented only to the here-and-now. Schools 
should offer girls a vastly increased number and variety of experi- 
ences in which they can develop expectations and have them 
satisfied. The length of time that elapses between planning and 
gratification should be increased constantly, so that girls can 
develop optimism about the future. Since this lack of realistic 
planning is characteristic of groups of girls, individual counseling 

68 



may not be effective. Well-conducted group programs — peer group 
discussions in which students are not talked at, but are involved — 
are essential. Counselor-educators have an obligation to prepare 
counselors for this responsibility more adequately. Group guidance 
is not just anyone's job. 

Counselors should be prepared to make better use of peer group 
influences. We discussed the use of teams of students from upper 
grades and upper schools to assist boys and girls in exploring 
their attitudes about future employment. Research on the scho- 
lastic achievement of peer-to-peer counselors indicates that such 
use of students should be carefully explored. 

Counselors should learn to use the skills of subprofessionals to 
enrich the guidance program. 

Question 7: We discussed the fact that so many women in 
Europe are employed in medicine, law, industry, and other pro- 
fessional fields. We attributed this partly to necessity — Europe 
lost so much of its manpower in the two World Wars. Pressure 
caused women to try new roles. It is true, however, that in this 
country most professional fields are now open to women, and 
many are recruiting women. Counselors should be sure that women 
understand that they have the right to prepare for these fields. 
In discussing why so few women enter professional occupations 
in this country, we found that we knew more reasons why they 
don't than ways of persuading them that they should. These are 
some of the reasons they don't enter "male" fields : 
Occupational stereotypes 
Unwillingness to compete in a man's world 
Low aspirations 
Expectations of parents 

Lack of information about the numbers of women who are 
already in a particular field 

High cost of training coupled with girls' unwillingness to borrow 
from loan funds and perhaps burden a future husband with debts 
Negative attitudes to installment-plan payments for education 
Self -concepts that influence the perception of the world of work 
Premature, and too specific, occupational planning (This is 
encouraged in some schools by the practice of entering occupa- 
tional choice on the cumulative record so that counselors can 
report they have helped X percent of their students to develop a 
vocational plan.) 

Realization that marriage and children will interrupt training 
Lack of knowledge about opportunities for women in the non- 
traditional technical fields 

69 



Occupational information that includes illustrations only 
of males 

Facts — and myths — concerning the pressures on women in 
some jobs. 

The degree to which some nonparticipating members of society 
are alienated may account for their resistance to occupational 
information. "I couldn't possibly do that," expresses their true 
belief; some of them value incompetence. In addition, vocational 
guidance begins too late. Girls have little opportunity to digest 
facts,to make the numerous small decisions required, and to explore 
further. Society, including the school, offers them too little 
experience in making conscious choices. 

The process of broadening occupational horizons must begin 
early and never cease. This demands the cooperation of teachers. 
Counselors need to be prepared to help them get over their stereo- 
typed ideas and to enlist their aid in planning ways to help students 
add to their information about the world of work. 

We suggest these ways of encouraging girls to consider different 
occupational fields: 

Prepare and show films on unusual occupations 

Take students on field trips to observe interesting occupations 

Use taped interviews and videotapes 

Invite professional organizations, such as the Society of Women 
Engineers or the Women's Commercial Overseas Pilots Associa- 
tion, to present recruiting materials — not only for specific planning 
but to open vistas. 

Counselors have influenced some large companies to include 
biracial illustrations in their recruiting literature; why can't they 
influence them to change the sexual stereotype? Counselors have 
attitudes, too. Witness the dearth of feminine leadership in the 
American Personnel and Guidance Association (APGA). 

We discussed the difficulty of getting accurate and up-to-date 
information, but some optimism was voiced about current research 
on the use of information retrieval systems. We noted that the 
way printed information is filed may discourage exploration, and 
that librarians are inadequately used to help collect, process, and 
distribute materials. We commented on the use of tape recordings 
to instruct students about the use of materials. We agreed that 
counselors should provide experiences in which students can be 
successful, can assume roles, can think about themselves in the 
roles, and can gain insights about themselves. We do not motivate 
by talking at students, or by giving them occupational information 
to read; we need to provide girls with meaningful experiences 

70 



related to the occupational world so they can absorb information 
and ideas. 

Counselor-educators need to stimulate research and experi- 
mentation on creative approaches to the preparation and use of 
occupational information for girls on all levels of the occupational 
hierarchy. 

Counselors and teachers need experience in the labor force. 
Part-time and summer exchanges between State employment 
service counselors and school counselors might be interesting 
experiences. 

Question 8: We recognized that counselors unconsciously 
express their attitudes by selective listening, by verbal and non- 
verbal communication, by the exposure they provide for a coun- 
selee. We discussed how we could help counselors-in-training 
understand their own attitudes and the impact these attitudes 
have on counselees. We believe that placing counselors-in-training 
in real or contrived situations under supervision may help with 
this problem. But we wondered how effective we are in really 
changing attitudes. 

There was agreement that it is important for male counselor- 
trainees to counsel girls during the practicum. Counselor-trainees 
need experience under supervision with counselees of all ages, 
including adults. 

Question 1 : What has to be done to change parental attitudes 
should be started early. Group work with parents can change 
some parental expectations through broader understanding of the 
facts. To influence parents, counselors must have access to them. 
When some or all parents feel isolated from the school, it may be 
necessary to organize a community education campaign to reach 
them. The counselor should be the leader, feeding information, 
identifying, organizing, and utilizing other community resources — 
churches, service clubs, youth groups, and the like. Counselors 
must feed needed information to them. We were quite concerned 
with the fact that counselors rarely reach out to the social institu- 
tions in the community for help. The clergy have taken the initia- 
tive in asking counselors to assist them with vocational guidance 
for church members, but the reverse is rarely true. The influence 
that churches may exercise on the mass media should also 
be considered. 

We asked ourselves these questions: 

To what extent do counselor-educators help counselors bring 
their knowledge to bear on getting community resources to work 
on common problems of children? (The answer was not reassur- 

71 



ing.) Do counselors need specific training for the consultative 
role that involves social intervention? 

Counselors are on the firing line. They can recognize problems 
and estimate the extent to which concerted action is required. But 
counselors cannot be all things to all men — or women. Therefore, 
they need to be able to recognize and mobilize community resources. 

Conclusion 

A counselor's job does not always put him in a direct one-to-one 
relationship with students; it must involve him in other school 
and community groups. A counselor cannot work in the isolation 
of his office, he must get out of his cubicle. To make this possible 
we may have to change the way we train counselors and we may 
have to use guidance personnel differently once they are on the 
job. Counselor-educators have an obligation to prepare counselors 
who are equipped to function as leaders of a community team. 



72 



Organization of the Workshops 



STATE 
Delaware 

District of Columbia 
Maryland 
New Jersey 
New York 
Pennsylvania 
West Virginia 



CHAIRMAN 
Mrs. Marion B. Miller 
Mrs. Theresa C. Alexander 
Miss Annabelle Ferguson 
Dr. Charles J. Tabler 
Miss Elizabeth Ewell 
Mr. Arthur L. Glenn 
Mr. Paul Brannon 



RECORDER 
Dr. Margaret Seitz 
Mrs. Mildred Reynolds 
Mrs. Ann Koehler 
Mrs. Eleanor Martin 
Miss Helen Bickel 
Mr. Draper E. Reed 
Miss Adelyne Kline 



Counselor-Educators Dr. C. Winfield Scott 



Dr. Genevieve H. Loughran 



73 



APPENDIXES 



75 



Appendix A 

CONFERENCE PROGRAM 

December 2, 1966 

P.M. 

5:30-7:30 Registration 

7:30 Opening Session 

Presiding: 
Miss Helen Faust, Director, 
Division of Pupil Personnel and Counseling, 
Philadelphia Public Schools 

Address: "Changing Realities in Women's Lives," 
Mary Dublin Keyserling, Director 
Women's Bureau 
U.S. Department of Labor 

Discussion 

December 3, 1966 

A.M. 

9:00-12 Morning Session 

Presiding: Mary Dublin Keyserling 



76 



Address: "Male-Order Females — The Symbol and 
the Substance," 

Dr. Daniel W. Fullmer, Professor of Psychology 
Oregon State System of Higher Education 

Discussion 

Coffee Break 

Address: "What Sets the Limits to a Woman's 
Growth?" 

Dr. Virginia L. Senders, Associate Director 
New England Board of Higher Education 

Discussion 



P.M. 

12 Noon Lunch 

1:00-5:00 Workshop Sessions 

6:30 Conference Dinner 



Presiding: 

Mrs. Mary N. Hilton, Deputy Director 

Women's Bureau, 

U.S. Department of Labor 

Theme: "The Contribution of State Commissions 
to the Guidance and Counseling Profession." 

Reports from the State Commissions in the Middle 
Atlantic States 

Discussion 



77 



December 4, 1966 

A.M. 

9:00-12:15 Closing Session 

Presiding: Mary Dublin Keyserling 

Report of Workshop Sessions 

Discussion of Workshop Reports 

P.M. 

12:15 Ad j ournment 



78 



Appendix B 



QUESTIONS FOR WORKSHOP GROUPS 

1. Parental expectations influence the educational/vocational 
decisions, career development, and life planning of girls in ways 
that may circumscribe girls' preferences and decisions. What 
such instances of parental influence working have you observed? 
What might the guidance counselor do to help parents recognize 
the limitations that their expectations may place on their daugh- 
ters' opportunities for full adult developments? 

Social class, socioeconomic level, ethnic group membership, and 
the mass media help determine parental expectations for their 
daughters. All of these factors must be taken into account in iden- 
tifying the kinds of expectations and in planning ways in which 
to modify such expectations. 

2. Curriculum offerings and the extent to which these are dif- 
ferentially made available to boys and girls create sex differences 
in educational/vocational development and decisions. Can you 
identify, in school systems familiar to you, sex differences in 
curriculum offerings or patterns of recruitment to various courses 
and programs that tend to increase sex differences in educational/ 
vocational patterns? How do you think these might be modified 
to broaden the area of educational/vocational choice of girls? 

3. The expectations of teachers may influence and constrict the 
educational/vocational preferences, plans, and decisions of girls, 
even when teachers themselves may not be consciously attempting 
to exert such influence. In what specifics have you observed this 
process taking place? Through what means do you think teachers 
could be helped to modify those expectations which tend to constrict 
girls' educational/vocational preferences, plans, and decisions? 

Here again, social class, socioeconomic level, ethnic group mem- 
bership, as well as academic proficiency of the student are factors 
that, combined with sex, tend to influence teachers' expectations. 

79 



These should be taken into consideration in developing your 
answers. 

4. Some research indicates that girls limit their educational/ 
vocational aspirations to accord with what they believe to be the 
attitude of boys toward the feminine role, although there may be 
significant differences among girls in this respect by social class 
and socioeconomic level. What specific observations of your own 
suggest that this may be the case? What specific programs might 
be developed within guidance services in schools to help girls — 
and boys as well — communicate more freely and thoughtfully on 
the subject of feminine responsibilities and contributions to 
adulthood ? 

5. Although women's responsibilities have changed and will 
continue to change in pattern, content, and scope, women will con- 
tinue to perform and fulfill the nurturing functions, and in most 
cases, assume primary responsibility for managing the home. In 
what ways, specifically, can counselors — both in schools and in the 
employment service — help girls to plan for the integration of their 
domestic responsibilities into the total pattern of their responsi- 
bilities and help boys to understand the wisdom of so doing? 

6. Unquestionably the major proportion of women now in the 
labor force need, for themselves and their families, the money 
they earn. In your opinion, what proportion of the girls now in 
your school system will have to earn money for a good proportion 
(at least half) of their adult lives, if their families are to have 
what Americans call a satisfactory standard of living? Do you 
believe that most of these girls are aware of this fact and are 
making educational/vocational decisions that indicate they are 
planning realistically for it? If not, what are some specific means 
by which you believe counselors could help such girls to be more 
aware of and better plan for future employment, especially 
after marriage? 

7. The vast majority of women in the labor force are concen- 
trated in a few traditional "women's" occupations. At the same 
time there is a shortage of workers in many of the less traditional 
occupations for women. What are some occupations at all levels 
of the occupational hierarchy that are not now usually entered by 
women but are possible for qualified women ? Why are women not 
now entering these occupations? What are the specific ways in 
which counselors can make known to girls the possibilities and 
requirements for employment in these fields? 

80 



8. The attitudes of counselors toward the feminine role, and 
their assumptions about it, obviously, will influence the life plans 
and career development of girls. Can you report specific instances 
in which such attitudes and assumptions on the part of counselors 
have operated to bring the educational/vocational aspirations or 
choices of girls in line with their capacities? By what means do 
you think the attitudes and assumptions of the counselors that 
operate upon girls negatively could be modified? 



81 



Appendix C 



CONFERENCE PARTICIPANTS 



STATE DIRECTORS OF GUID- 
ANCE AND COUNSELING 
Mrs. Theresa C. Alexander 
Supervising- Director 
Guidance and Placement Department 
Wormley Administration, Annex 6 
Prospect Street between 33rd and 
34th Streets, Washington, D.C. 
20007 

Mr. Paul Brannon 
State Supervisor 
Guidance and Counseling 
NDEA, State Depai'tment of 

Education 
Charleston, W. Va. 25305 

Miss Elizabeth Ewell, Associate 
Bureau of Guidance 
State Department of Education 
Albany, N.Y. 12201 

Miss Annabelle Ferguson 

State Director of Guidance Services 

Maryland State Department of 

Education 
State Office Building 
301 West Preston Street 
Baltimore, Md. 21201 



Mr. Arthur L. Glenn 

Acting Director 

Guidance and Testing 

Department of Public Instruction 

Box 911 

Harrisburg, Pa. 17126 

Mrs. Marian B. Miller, Supervisor 
State Department of Public 

Instruction 
Group Testing Programs 
Box 697 
Dover, Del. 19901 

Mr. Charles J. Tabler 

Consultant in Guidance and Testing 

Secondary Office 

Division of Curriculum and 

Instruction 
New Jersey Department of 

Education 
225 West State Street 
Trenton, N.J. 08608 



82 



SCHOOL GUIDANCE 

COUNSELORS 
Delaware 
Mr. Jack Carney 
Wilmington Public Schools 
1400 Washington Street 
Wilmington, Del. 19801 

Mrs. Margaret Clinch 
Springer Junior High 
2220 Shipley Road 
Wilmington, Del. 19803 

Mrs. Anne Howard 

George Read Jr. High School 

Basin Road 

New Castle, Del. 19720 

Mr. Maren McDowell 

William Henry Comprehensive High 

School 
Carver Road 
Dover, Del. 19901 

Mr. Francis McPherson 
Katie Handy Jr. High 
Seaford, Del. 19973 

Mr. William Shaw 
Claymont High School 
Green Street 
Claymont, Del. 19801 

Patrick H. Walker 

De La Warr High School 

New Castle, Del. 19721 

District of Columbia 

Mrs. Phyllis Beckwith 

Eastern Senior High 

17th and East Capitol Streets, N.E. 

Washington, D.C. 20003 

Miss Katharine S. Bliss 

Paul Junior High School 

8th and Oglethorpe Streets, N.W. 

Washington, D.C. 20011 

Mrs. Elizabeth Good 
Cardozo Senior High School 
13th and Clifton Streets, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20009 

Mrs. Edna Groves 
Burdick Vocational High School 
13th and Allison Streets, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20011 



Mrs. Louise Johnson 
Western Senior High School 
35th and R Streets, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20007 

Mrs. Mildred Reynolds 
Bunker Hill Elementary School 
14th and Michigan Avenue, N.E. 
Washington, D.C. 20018 

Mrs. Mary D. Robinson 
Davis Elementary School 
44th Place and H Street, S.E. 
Washington, D.C. 20019 

Mrs. Louis Williamson 
Evans Jr. High School 
5600 East Capitol Street, N.E. 
Washington, D.C. 20019 

Maryland 

Mrs. Jeannette K. Byler 
North Hagerstown High School 
Hagerstown, Md. 21740 

Miss Eileen Flood 
Montgomery Blair Senior High 
13608 Grenoble Drive 
Rockville, Md. 20853 

Mrs. Ellen Flood 
Dunbar High School 
3220 Yosemite Avenue 
Baltimore, Md. 20215 

Mrs. Ann Koehler 
Linthicum Elementary School 
Linthicum, Md. 21090 

Mrs. Judy Makolin 

Francis Scott Key High School 

Rural Delivery 1 

Union Bridge, Md. 21791 

Miss Rebecca Smith 
Elkton Senior High School 
Elkton, Md. 21921 

Miss Jean Terry 

Dunbarton Junior High School 

Baltimore, Md. 21212 

Mr. Lewis Walker 
John Hanson High School 
5660 Oxon Hill Road 
Oxon Hill, Md. 20021 



83 



New Jersey 
Mrs. Mildred Jacques 
Director of Guidance 
Linwood Junior High School 
North Brunswick Township, N.J. 
08902 

Mrs. Eleanor Martin 
Director of Guidance 
Brick Township High School 
Brick Town, N.J. 08723 

Mr. Lee Reese 
Hackettstown High School 
Hackettstown, N.J. 07840 

Mrs. Phyllis Rogers 
Plainfield High School 
Plainfield, N.J. 07060 

Mrs. Lucille Russell 
Barringer High School 
790 Parker Street 
Newark, N.J. 07104 

Mrs. Helen Sallitt 

Edison Township Senior High School 

Edison Township, N.J. 08817 

Mr. Hubert Strayhorn 
Director of Guidance 
Hightstown High School 
Hightstown, N.J. 08520 

Mr. Roy Wager 

Director of Guidance 

John F. Kennedy High School 

Willingboro, N.J. 08046 

New York 

Miss Helen Bickel 

1719 New Scotland Road 

Slingerlands, N.Y. 12159 

Miss Mary Dougherty 
LaFayette High School 
370 LaFayette Avenue 
Buffalo, N.Y. 14213 

Mr. Douglas Fredlick 
Bayshore High School 
Bayshore, N.Y. 11706 

Dr. Mary C. Hudson 
Seaford High School 
Seaford, N.Y. 11783 



Mrs. Joan Kipp 
Midwood High School 
Bedford Ave. and Glenwood Road 
Brooklyn, N.Y. 11209 

Miss Norma Overton 
Vandermullen High School 
Port Jefferson, N.Y. 11777 

Miss Marie Reynolds 
Johnson City High School 
Johnson City, N.Y. 13790 

Mrs. Elizabeth Tamsett 

South New Berlin Central School 

South New Berlin, N.Y. 13843 

Pennsylvania 
Mr. Wade Bender 
Director of Guidance 
Central York School District 
275 East Seventh Street 
York, Pa. 17404 

Mr. Charles Kramer 

Oley Valley Area School District 

Oley, Pa. 19547 

Mr. Draper E. Reed 
Director of Guidance 
College Area Schools 
114 West Foster Avenue 
State College, Pa. 16801 

Mrs. Majory C. Richardson 
Director of Guidance 
General McLane Joint School 

District 
Box 785 
Edinboro, Pa. 16412 

Mrs. Rose Levin Smith 

Associate Director for Placement 

Pupil Services 

Board of Education 

341 South Bellefield Road 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 15213 

Mr. W. Donald Vaughan, Director 
Pupil Personnel Service 
Centennial Joint School District 
State and Newton Roads 
Johnsville, Pa. 18975 

Mrs. Jane Washburn 

Moss Side Elementary School 

Monroeville, Pa. 15146 



84 



Dr. Helen R. Wills 
Hazleton Area Joint School District 
Green and Larrel Streets 
Hazleton, Pa. 18201 

West Virginia 

Mrs. Evelyn Black 

East Fairmont High School 

Fairmont, W. Va. 26554 

Miss Billie Davis 

Dunbar Junior High School 

Dunbar, W. Va. 25064 

Mrs. Marguerite Kellar 
Buckhannon-Upshur High School 
Buckhannon, W. Va. 26201 

Mr. Donald Mickey 
Guidance Director 
Jefferson County Schools 
Charles Town, W. Va. 25414 

Mr. Phillip Reed 
Guidance Director 
Ohio County Schools 
2130 Chapline Street 
Wheeling, W. Va. 26003 

Mrs. Margaret Swann 
Marshall Lab High School 
Huntington, W. Va. 25701 

Miss Mary Lou Taylor 
Central Junior High School 
Bluefield, W. Va. 24701 

Mrs. Lucille Wharton 
Parkersburg High School 
Parkersburg, W. Va. 26101 

COUNSELOR-EDUCATORS 
Dr. Margaret Bott 
Counselor-Assistant Professor 
Counseling Center, Shoemaker 

Building 
University of Maryland 
College Park, Md. 20740 

Dr. Edward V. Daubner 
Associate Professor of Education 
Graduate Division and Evening 

College 
4501 North Charles Street 
Loyola College 
Baltimore, Md. 21210 



Dr. Clark F. Hess 
Professor of Education 
Department of Education 
Marshall University 
Huntington, W. Va. 25701 

Dr. Genevieve H. Loughran 

Associate Professor 

Graduate Program 

Guidance and School Counseling 

695 Park Avenue 

Hunter College 

New York, N. Y. 10021 

Dr. C. Winfield Scott 
Chairman, Department of Educa- 
tional Psychology 
Graduate School of Education 
Rutgers, The State University 
New Brunswick, N.J. 08903 

Dr. Mona B. Shevlin 
Instructor in Education 
Catholic University of America 
Washington, D.C. 20017 

Dr. William V. Wagner 
Acting Coordinator of Guidance 
Division of Clinical Studies 
West Virginia University 
Morgantown, W. Va. 26506 

Dr. John E. Worthen 

Assistant Professor of Education 

and Director of the Counseling and 

Testing Office 
University of Delaware 
216 Hullihen Hall 
Newark, Del. 19711 

STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICE 

COUNSELORS 
Delaware 

Mr. William Henning 
Employment Security Commission 
North Race Street 
Georgetown, Del. 19947 

Dr. Margaret J. Seitz 

State Supervisor of Counseling 

Employment Security Commission 

801 West Street 

Wilmington, Del. 19801 



85 



District of Columbia 
Mrs. Ruth E. Bandy 
U.S. Employment Service for the 

District of Columbia 
555 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20201 

Miss Hazel B. Hansen 

U.S. Employment Service for the 

District of Columbia 
555 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20201 

Mrs. Jessye C. Harshaw 

U.S. Employment Service for the 

District of Columbia 
555 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20201 

Mrs. Evelyn M. Herald 

U.S. Employment Service for the 

District of Columbia 
555 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20201 

Maryland 

Mrs. Eunice Johnson 

Department of Employment Security 

1100 North Eutaw Street 

Baltimore, Md. 21201 

Miss Susan Linde 

Department of Employment Security 

Youth Opportunity Center 

1727 North Charles Street 

Baltimore, Md. 21201 

Mrs. Lois Quinn 

Department of Employment Security 

Youth Opportunity Center 

1727 North Charles Street 

Baltimore, Md. 21201 

Mrs. Louise Thompson 
State Supex-visor of Counseling 
Department of Employment Security 
1100 North Eutaw Street 
Baltimore, Md. 21201 

New Jersey 

Mrs. Florence Bustamente 

Supervisor of Employment and 

Selective Placement Counseling 

Services 
Division of Employment Security 
28 West State Street 
Trenton, N.J. 08625 



Mrs. Arra P. Goode 
Supervisor of Counseling 
Division of Employment Security 
Youth Opportunity Center 
1 Clinton 
Newark, N.J. 07114 

Mr. Andrew Smythe 

State Counselor 

Division of Employment Security 

22 Washington Street 

Bridgeton, N.J. 08302 

Mr. Rowland Wargo 
Division of Employment Security 
28 West State Street 
Trenton, N.J. 08625 

New York 

Mrs. Kathleen Dolson 

Employment Counseling Consultant 

Division of Employment 

370 Seventh Avenue 

New York, N.Y. 10001 

Mrs. Carolyn Greet 
State Counseling Consultant 
Division of Employment 
370 Seventh Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10001 

Miss Dorothy Miro 
Youth Opportunity Center 
150-14 Jamaica Avenue 
Jamaica, N.Y. 11432 

Miss Janet I. Pinner 
Division of Employment 
Director of Special Placement 

Service 
370 Seventh Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 11432 

Pennsylvania 

Miss Buena Elias 

Bureau of Employment Security 

7th and Forster Street 

Harrisburg, Pa. 17121 

Miss Kathryn Keep 

Bureau of Employment Security 

144 West 7th Street 

Erie, Pa. 16501 



86 



Mrs. Rella Wax 

Bureau of Employment Security 
7th and Forster Street 
Harrisburg, Pa. 17121 

West Virginia 

Miss Ethel Fryer 

State Supervisor of Counseling 

Department of Employment Security 

State Office Building 

California and Washington Streets 

Charleston, W. Va. 25305 

Mrs. Adelyne Kline 

Department of Employment Security 

22 10th Street 

Wheeling, W. Va. 26001 

Mrs. Elizabeth Von Bakonyi 
Department of Employment Security 
734 Fourth Avenue 
Huntington, W. Va. 25701 

STATE COMMISSIONS ON THE 
STATUS OF WOMEN 

Mrs. Rosella T. Humes, Chairman 
Delaware Governor's Commission on 

the Status of Women 
200 East Center Street, P.O. Box 56 
Harrington, Del. 19952 

Dr. Selma Lippeatt, Chairman 

Education Committee 

Maryland Governor's Commission on 

the Status of Women 
7207 Windsor Lane 
College Heights Estate 
West Hyattsville, Md. 20782 

Miss Guinn Hall, Deputy 

Commissioner 
Department of Commerce 
230 Park Avenue 
New York, N.Y. 10017 

Mrs. Virginia K. Henderson, 

Chairman 
Education Committee 
Pennsylvania Governor's Commission 

on the Status of Women 
Continuing Education for Women 
University of Pennsylvania 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19105 



Mrs. John Scott, Chairman 
West Virginia Governor's Commis- 
sion on the Status of Women 
202 Woods Avenue 
Oak Hill, W. Va. 25901 

Mrs. Anagene P. Bartram, Chairman 

Education Committee 

West Virginia Governor's Commis- 
sion on the Status of Women 

Member, West Virginia Board of 
Education 

Kenova, W. Va. 25530 

NATIONAL ORGANIZATIONS 

Miss Lois Clark 

Executive Secretary 

National Council of Administrative 

Women in Education 
National Education Association 
1201 Sixteenth Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20036 

Miss Helen Faust 

American Personnel and Guidance 

Association 
Philadelphia Public Schools 
Director, Division of Pupil Personnel 

and Counseling 
21st Street and Parkway 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19103 

Mr. Leon L. Lerner, Executive 

Director 
B'nai B'rith Vocational Service of 

Baltimore 
4033 West Rogers Avenue 
Baltimore, Md. 21215 

Miss Carole McConnell 
Girl Scouts of the U.S.A. 
1725 Eye Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20006 

Miss Corinne Moller, Director 
Services to Councils 
Division of Field Services 
Camp Fire Girls, Inc. 
65 Worth Street 
New York, N.Y. 11360 



87 



Miss Eleanor Wilson 

Program Leader 

4-H Clubs 

Federal Extension Service 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Washington, D.C. 20250 

Mrs. Virginia Yahraes 
General Federation of Women's 

Clubs 
2318 Coles Boulevard 
Norristown, Pa. 19401 

FEDERAL AGENCIES 

Miss Marguerite Gilmore, Chief 

Field Division 

Women's Bureau 

U.S. Department of Labor 

Washington, D.C. 20210 

Mrs. Marie C. Hansom 
Conference Secretary 
Women's Bureau 
U.S. Department of Labor 
Washington, D.C. 20210 

Mrs. Janice Hedges 

Labor Economist 

Employment Opportunities Branch 

Women's Bureau 

U.S. Department of Labor 

Washington, D.C. 20210 

Mrs. Mary N. Hilton 
Deputy Director 
Women's Bureau 
U.S. Department of Labor 
Washington, D.C. 20210 

Mrs. Mary Dublin Keyserling 
Director, Women's Bureau 
U.S. Department of Labor 
Washington, D.C. 20210 

Mr. Frank W. Lynch 

Youth Employment Program 

Adviser 
New York Regional Office 
Bureau of Employment Security 
U.S. Department of Labor 
New York, NY. 10001 

Miss Dianne McKaig 
Regional Director 
Women's Bureau 
U.S. Department of Labor 
Atlanta, Ga. 30334 

88 



Miss Theresa Nyzio 
Information Officer 
U.S. Department of Labor 
Philadelphia, Pa. 19106 

Miss Dorothy M. Pendergast 

Regional Director 

Women's Bureau 

U.S. Department of Labor 

18 Oliver Street 

Boston, Mass. 02110 

Mr. Stephen P. Ryder 

Regional Director 

U.S. Civil Service Commission 

Customhouse 

Second and Chestnut Streets 

Philadelphia, Pa. 19106 

Miss Bella Schwartz 

Labor Economist 

Division of Manpower Requirements 
and Resources 

Office of Manpower Policy, Evalua- 
tion and Research 

U.S. Department of Labor 

1730 M Street, N.W., Room 501 

Washington, D.C. 20210 

Mrs. Shirley Shetula, Secretary 
Women's Bureau 
U.S. Department of Labor 
Washington, D.C. 20210 

Mrs. Berta K. Tant 
Employment Service Adviser 
Bureau of Employment Security 
U.S. Department of Labor 
1730 M Street, N.W. 
Washington, D.C. 20210 

Miss Rose Terlin, Chief 

Economic Status and Opportunities 

Division 
Women's Bureau 
U.S. Department of Labor 
Washington, D.C. 20210 

Dr. Bettina Weary 

Specialist, Career Development 

Office of Education 

Occupational and Career Guidance 
Section 

U.S. Department of Health, Educa- 
tion, and Welfare 

Washington, D.C. 20202 



* U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1966 — O 218-634